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The text of Oehler 
Annotated, with an Introduction, by 


Professor of Latin in the University of Cambridge 
Fellovv and President of St John's College 

With a translation by 

Regius Professor of Humanity in the University of Aberdeen 
Late Scholar of Gonville and Caius CoUege 

Cambridge : \ \ 

at the University Press 


THE late Professor John E. B. Mayor, during his tenure of 
the professorship of Latin at Cambridge, frequently lectured 
on the Apology of Tertullian in the Divinity Schools. About 
the year 1892 he wrote out his notes in a copy of Oehler's 
earlier edition (Halle, 1849), that had been interleaved with 
sheets of paper about twice the size of the pages of the book 
itself . These notes were added to from time to time down to 
the year 1907, if not later, and they formed the matter of his 
lectures. Already in 1893 he began to publish them in The 
Journal of Philology, but the publication never went beyond 
the end of the fifth chapter. 

After his death on December 1, 1910, his executors considered 
the advisability of publishing the whole of the notes, and 
honoured me with the request to edit them for publication. 
I had heard the lectures throughout two or more terms of m}' 
undergraduate period at Cambridge, and had been profoundly 
influenced by them. I therefore felt it binding on me to 
suspend my own work and perform this act of fietas. 

The executors first arranged with Mr E. S. Payne of CUfton, 
Bristol, for a copy of the notes as a basis for the proposed 
publication. Though the Professor's hand^mting is beautifully 
clear, it is at the same time so microscopic that this was no 
light task to perform. Mr Payne also verified many of the 
references, and appended a number of useful remarks on the 
notes themselves. 

It may be at once admitted that only the Professor himself. 
or some one equally learned, could edit these notes in a satis- 
factory manner. I am fully conscious of my own unfitness 
for the task, which has been very heavy. I have felt it necessary 
to compare Mr Payne's copy with the original MS, in which 
work I received valued help from the friend of thirty years, 
Mr James Taylor of the Aberdeen Centre for the Training of 
Teachers ; but this is only part of what was required. I have 
had to put the notes in correct sequence, to reduce to order 
the somewhat chaotic state of the references and quotations 
within the notes themselves, to supply references never filled 


in, and to cut out references or quotations given twice in the 
same note. I have brought the references to the works of 
Tertullian that have appeared in the Vienna edition, into 
conformity with that edition, as the Professor himself would 
have wished. In the few cases where references have in some 
way baflfled me, I have placed a point of interrogation within 
brackets as a danger signal. It is not often that I have added 
anything of my own. When this has been done, I felt sure 
that Prof. Mayor himself would have made the addition prior 
to publication. Such additions are enclosed within square 
brackets, and the editor's initials are appended. 

The notes were not intended by their author to constitute 
a complete commentary, but rather to form a useful supplement 
to those already published, such as Havercamp's and Oehler's. 
They provide, however, so vast a body of illustration, both 
of the subject-matter and of the language of the Apology, that 
not only are they to be regarded as a commentary, but as by 
far the best commentary ever published. Nevertheless, as 
Tertullian is the most diflficult of all Latin prose writers, and 
the notes are not of a type intended for schoolboys, it has 
been deemed advisable to add an English translation of the 
text. This translation has had the inestimable advantage of 
thorough revision by the veteran brother of the commentator, 
Emeritus-Professor Joseph B. Mayor, of King's College, London, 
who has spared no pains to make the whole book as perfect as 

The Provost of King's, Dr M. R. James, has given kind 
help in cases of extreme diflSculty. I am also indebted to my 
assistant, Mr Robert Weir, formerly of Pembroke College, 
Oxford, for help in the reading of the proofs and the verifi- 
cation of references. Nor must I forget the extreme care of 
the press readers. 

Prof. Mayor's introduction, with the notes on chapters I 
to V, has been reprinted from The Journal qf Philology by kind 
permission of the editors. I have ventured to add a biblio- 
graphy of the chief works on Tertullian, which have appeared 
since that article was published. I have also compiled the index. 


The Untversity, 

22ncl November, 1916. 



Pbeface V — vi 

Addenda et Corrigenda viii 

Intkoduction ix — xx 

Text 2—146 

Translation 3 — 147 

NoTES ON Readings 148 

Notes 149—486 

Index 487—496 


line 24. 


., 7. 


„ 30. 


„ 43. 


,, 4. 


,, 8. 


„ 18, 


„ 12. 


„ 18. 


,, 6. 


„ 12. 


page 13, line 24. For 'It is' read ' Is it,' and add ' ? ' at end of sentence. 
Read 'damnandi.' 

For 'the emperor' read ' a gcncral.' , 

For 'in' read 'on.' 
Omit ' covdd have.' 
For 'their divine character is preserved' read •thc divine 

is kcjit in reserve.' 
For 'equanimity' read •endurance.' 
For ' commentators ' read 'garblers.' 
A fuU stop should be placed after '2,' and 'Hav.' separated 

from it. 
Mr R. Weir lias found the refcrence to be xi 13. 
The reference to 'John 16, 13' should be added, and 

cf. C. H. Turner in Journ. Theol. Stud. xiv (1912-13), 

p. 563. His article ' TertuUianea. I,' pp. 556-564, 

was accidentally omitted from the Bibliography. 
The reference is wrong. 
After'13'add '§1.' 
Add another example of jyascua (sing.), Gen. 47, 4 (in 

Lyons Heptateuch). 
For 'vn' read '7.' 
Before '163' add '97.' 
The passage of Prudentius Peristeph. intended is x 919-920. 

The ' Vincent.' intended is perhaps Vincent of Beauvais. 
Omit 'n.' 

There should be a space between 'Plin.' and 'inscr.' 
For'7 §7' read'4§8.' For'7 §3' read'13§13.' 
Delete ' ? ' 

For ' ORA ' read ' oec' 

Add '[add Aug. Serm. 393, Ps.-Aug. Serm. 261, § 3. A. S.].' 
'lexx.' etc. refer to scrvpvlositas, line 16. 
For'22' read '23.' 


„ o. 


„ 19. 


„ 24. 


„ 35. 


„ 21. 


„ 1. 


„ 5. 


„ 38. 


„ 10. 


„ 13. 


„ 29. 


„ 8. 


„ 28f. 


„ 27. 


In my Bibliographical Clue to Latin Literature (Cambr. 

1875, pp. 163—6) I collected the titles of the principal editions 
of Tertullian, and of works or essays published in illustration 
of him and his writings. I now add: 

J. P. Condamin, De Q. S. F. Tertulliano, uexatae religionis 
patrono, et praecipuo a-pud Latinos Christianae linguae artifice. 
Bar-le-Duc 1877. 8vo. 

Q. S. F. T. libellus de spectaculis. Ad cod. Agobardinum 
denuo collatum recensuit, adnotationes criticas nouas addidit 
Ern. Klussmann. Lips. 1877. Large 8vo. 

id. Adnotationes crit. ad Tert. de spect. in Gymnasium 
lenense ipsis Non. Oct. anni 1876 bonis litteris dedicandum 
pientissimis notis prosequuntur Director et Collegae Gymnasii 
Rudolphopolitani. Rudolphopoli, Froebel. (Reviewed by H. 
Ronsch in Liter. Centralblatt, 31 March 1877.) 

Is. Pelet, Essai sur Tapologetique de Tertullien. Strasb. 
1868. 8vo. Keim, Die Zeit des T. apol. in his Aus dem 
Urchristenthum i (Zlirich 1878) 174—8. In the Zeitschr. f. 
oest. Gymn. 1869, pp. 348—368 W. Hartel reviewed Eberfs 
dissertation on Tertullian's relation to Minucius Felix. 

The same Hartel in his Patristische Studien i (Wien, 
Tempsky, 1890, pp. 58. 8vo) wrote: ZuTert. despect. de idol. 

Dr Ernst Noeldechen, who in 1890 published : Tert. darge- 
stellt von E. N. Gotha, Perthes. 8vo, pp. viii 496 : also wrote 
in Brieger's Zeitschr. f. Kirchengeschichte XT, on Tert. de cor., 
and many other essays on this father in other periodicals. 

Dr Aug. Oxe, Prolegomena de carmine aduersus Marcionitas. 
Leipz. Fock. 1888. 8vo, pp. 51. Cf. Ztschr. f. wiss. Theol. 

1876, pp. 113—120, 154—158. 

R. A. Lipsius, Die Quellen der altesten Ketzergeschichte, 
Leipz. 1875, pp. 64—83. 



G, R. Hauschild, Die Grundsatze und Mittel der Sprach- 
bildung bei TertulUan. Leipz. 1876. 4to. Thesame: Tertul- 
lians Psychologie und Erkenntnisstheorie. Frankf. 1880. 4to. 

P. Schwenk, Uber die Zeit des Minucius Felix (Jahrbb. f. 
prot. Theol. 1883 n. 2). 

Fr. Wilhelm, De Minucii Felicis Octauio et Tertulliani 
apologetico. Bresl. Philol. Abhandl. 1887. 

The first part of the Vienna edition of TertuUian, prepared 
by Reifferscheid, appeared, completed by Wissowa, in 1890, but 
it does not contain the Apology; however it is so far helpful 
that it gives an instalment of cognate pieces, spect., idoL, ad 
nat., test. an. 

[The third part of the Vienna edition of Tertullian, edited 
by Emil Kroymann, appeared in 1906, It contains pat., 
carn. resurr., adu. Hermog., adu. Val., adu. omn. haer., adu. 
Prax., adu. Marc. (see Eb. Nestle in Philologus, lxvii (1908). 
477—479). The second and fourth parts, to be edited by E. 
Kroymann and H. Hoppe, are as yet (1916) unpublished. A.S.] 

See Engelmann, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Classicorum. 8th 
ed. by E. Preuss. ii 1882, pp. 663—666, and Teuffel-Schwabe, 
Gesch. d. rom. Lit.^ § 373. 

[J. Schmidt, Ein Beitrag zur Chronologie der Schriften 
Tertullian's und der Proconsuln von Afrika (Rheinisches 
Museum, xlvi (1891), 77—98). 

A. Harnack, Die griechische Uebersetzung des Apologeticus 
Tertullian's (Texte und Untersuchungen, viii 4), Leipzig, 1892. 

M. Klussmann, Excerpta Tertullianea in Isidori Hispalensis 
Etymologiis, Hamburg, 1892. 

A. Harnack, Ceschichte der altchristl. Lit. bis Eusebius, i, 
Leipzig, 1893, 667—687, ii (2), Leipzig, 1904, 256—296. 

E. Noeldechen, Tertullians Gegen die Juden, auf Einheit, 
Echtheit und Entstehung gepriift (Texte und Untersuchungen, 
XII 2), Leipzig, 1894. 

M. Schanz, Die Abfassungszeit des Octavius des Minucius 
Felix (Rheinisches Museum, l (1895), 114—136). 

H, Gomperz, Tertullianea, Vienna, 1895. 

E. Norden, De Minucii Felicis aetate et genere dicendi, 
Greifswald, 1897. 


K. HoU, Tertullian als Schriftsteller (Preussische Jahrbiicher, 
Lxxxvm (1897), 262—278). 

E. Kroymann, Die TertuUianiiberlieferung in Italien (Sit- 
zungsberichte d. kaiserl, Akad. in Wien, cxxxviii (3), 1898). 

P. Monceaux, Chronologie des oeuvres de Tertullien (Revue 
de Philologie, xxii (1898), 77—92). 

E. Kroyniann, Kritische Yorarbeiten fur den 3. und 4. Band 
der neuen Tertullian-Ausgabe (Sitzungsberichte d. kais. Akad. 
in Wien, cxliii (6), 1901). 

A.Ehrhard, Die altchristJiche Literatur und ihre Erforschung, 
V. 1884—1900, Freiburg, 1901. 

F. Kotek, Anklange an Ciceros De Natura Deorum bei 
Minucius FeHx und Tertullian, Vienna, 1901. 

P. Monceaux, Histoire litteraire de TAfrique chretienne, 
1, TertuUien et les Origines, Paris, 1901. 

H. Waitz, Die pseudotertullianische Gedicht adv. Marcionem, 
Darmstadt, 1901. 

C. Callewaert, Le Codex Fuldensis, le meilleui- ms. de 
ri\.pologeticum de Tertullien (Revue d'Histoire et de Litterature 
Religieuses, vii (1902), 322—353). 

H. Hoppe, Syntax und Stil des Tertullian, Leipzig, 1903. 

0. Bardenhewer, Geschichte der altkirchhchen Literatur, 
n, Freiburg i. B. 1903, 332—394. 

S. Turmel, Tertullien (La Pensee Chretienne), Paris, 1904. 

M. Schanz, Geschichte der romischen Literatur, 3. Teil, 
2 Aufl. Munich, 1905, 280-351. 

A. d'Ales. La Theologie de Tertullien. Paris, 1905. 

A. Engelbrecht, Neue lexikalische und semasiologische 
Beitrage aus TertuUian (Wiener Studien, xxviii (1906), 142 — 

G. Rauschen, Tertulliani Apologetici Recensio Nova, Bonn, 
1906 (ed. alt. 1912). 

A. Souter, A Tenth-Century Fragment of Tertullian's 
Apology (Journal of Theological Studies, viii (1906 — 1907), 

H. Goelzer, Le Style de Tertullien (Journal des Savants 
(1907), 202—211). 

R. Heinze, TertuUians Apologeticum, Leipzig, 1910. 


P. Henen, Index verborum quae Tertulliani apologetico 
continentur, Louvain aud Paris, 1910 (from Musee Belge, vols. 
XIII, XIV, xv). 

J. P. Waltzing, L'Apologetique de Tertullien...Traduction 
litterale suivie d'un commentaire historique, Louvain, 191 P. 

A. Bill, Zur Erklarung und Textkritik des 1. Buchs Ter- 
tullians Adv. Marc. (Texte und T^ntersuchungen, xxxviii, 2), 
Leipzig, 1911. 

J. P. Waltzing, Les trois principaiix MSS de TApologetique 
de Tertullien (Musee Belge, xvi (1912), 181—241). 

H. Schrors, Zur Textgeschichte und Erklarung von Ter- 
tullians Apologetikum (Texte und Untersuchungen, xl, 4), 
Leipzig, 1914. 

E. Lofstedt. Tertullian's Apologeticum textkritisch unter- 
sucht, Lund and Leipzig, 1915. 

J. Moffatt, The Theology of Tertullian (intended for publi- 
cation in 1916). 

See K. Klussmann, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Classicorum et 
Graecorum et Latinorum, ii (2). I^eipzig, 1913, 280 — 287, and 
Teuffel, Gesch. d. rom. Lit.^. Leipz. 1913, § 373. A. S.] 

To scholars whose reading is confined to the handful of 
writers, barely filling a single shelf, which are counted as Latin 
classics, T would venture to offer a few reasons for following 
Scaliger, Casaubon, Gataker, Bentley, Wasse, Haupt, Bernays, 
in widening their ken to the entire range of Latin authors, of 
whatever creed or profession, down to the contemporaries of 
Bede and Alcuin. Even such a self-taught giant as Madvig 
often shews pitiable weakness from the limits to which he 
restricted himself^. 

When a Greek or Roman philosopher or rhetorician became 
a Christian {fiiint, non nascuntuf Christiani), he did not at once 
forget all the learning of the past. A very large part of what 

1 Has a large bib!iography"on pp. 336 — 356. 

- At the Leyden tercentenary Madvig told me that he had read no Greek 
or Latin theological author but Josephus, and that only for information 
respecting ancient warfare. He was however a dihgent student of the New 
Testament, as may be seen by his copy in the Cambridge Divinity Library. 


we know of ancient religion, a very large number of perfectly 
classical words, have been preserved to us only by the fathers^. 
Look at the fragments of Seneca, collect the fragments of 
Varro, and you will see that it is not safe to say to Christian 
authors: non licet esse uos. I have found abundant evidence 
in patristic Greek and Latin for many words known to the 
lexicons only by citations in glossaries. Ronsch, Paucker. 
Georges, supply students of Romance languages with hundreds 
of words hitherto unregistered, the parents of a numerous 
Italian, Spanish, French progeny. 

Again, many of the chief classics, as Pindar and Thucydides, 
are very difficult^, or (as tragic choruses) very corrupt. Many of 
the fathers write very simply, and might serve admirably for 
the neglected discipline of the ear; even as Cicero and the 
younger Pliny pursued their studies by the aid of readers. It 
is certain that an entire volume of either Chrysostom (Dio — to 
name a heathen — or John) could be read carefully in shorter 
time than is spent on the study of the few hundred lines of the 
Agamemnon. And the path through the former would be all 
luminous, through the latter dark with corruptions and conjec- 
tures and despairing interpretations. Many of the best scholars, 
as in England Pearson, John Davies, Wasse (much of whose 
work remains in manuscript), Routh, Kaye, F. Field, Chr. 
Wordsworth, Lightfoot, have devoted their best energies to the 
elucidation of the fathers. As a rule patristic and biblical texts 
are preserved in earlier manuscripts than those of heathen 
classics ; so that palaeographers must necessarily sit at the feet 
of divines. 

For the order of study, I would say : Leave to the infallible 
oracles of monthly magazines sweeping hypotheses, no whit less 
hazardous than those of Father Hardouin. First become 
thoroughly familiar with the ancients themselves, before you 

1 In the Joumal of Classical and Sacred Philology n (Cambr. 1855) 82 
I shewed that hic esto (also hic sum) the correlative of the istic sum ('I am 
with you,' i.e. 'I am attending') of Cicero and Terence, is to be gleaned from 

- This remark was once made to me by Mr Bywater. Hc said: "onc 
could read a very large part of such a writer as Plutarch, \n the time that is 
occupied on the small volume of Thucydides." 


listen to guesses about them It is characteristic of the sobriety 
of Englishmen, that our scholars, as Lardner, Routh, Kaye, 
Clinton, Lightfoot, have followed in the modest steps of Tille- 
mont, content to collect evidence for the reader's information, 
not without a guiding clue. 

A once popular book, of solid but unobtrusive learning, now 
forgotten^, by an accomplished Cambridge scholar (Biography 
of the Early Church. By R. W. Evans. 2nd ed. London 1859. 
2 vols. sm. 8vo), if read with the authorities cited in the notes, 
will form an excellent introduction to patristic study. Listen to 
this character of Tertullian's apology (i 336 — 8) : 

Its power is far superior to that of any former defence. TertuUian 
not only surpassed his predecessors in information and talent, but 
was peculiarly fitted by temper to treat such a subject. No one 
could express in such forcible language the indignant sense of in- 
justice, or represent its detail in a more lively manner. None could 
press his arguments so closely, and few had so learned an acquaintance 
with heathenism, and could expose its follies with more bitter sarcasm 
(Apol, 42), or whip its wickedness with a heavier lash (Apol. 35). 
The subject too, while it gave free scope to the range of his argu- 
mentative powers, neither allured him, nor compelled him to sophis- 
tical subtilties. The free and elastic vigour of a mind that had still 
half its strength in reserve pervades the composition ; and if we put 
the mere mechanism of style out of the question, and consider the 
copiousness, the variety, the interest of the matter, the skilfulness 
of selection of topics, and the powerful grasp with which they are 
handled, together with the greatness of the occasion, it will not be 
too much to say, that it is the noblest oration among all which 
antiquity has left us....In what a state of mind do we rise up from 
it! Its brilliant pictures are giowing before our eyes, its deep tone 
of declamation is sounding in our ears, its imploring, its condemning, 
its expostulating accents have touched our feelings to the quick.... 
Heaven and hell have been moved, and have entered into a mortal 
struggle, of which we are now enjoying the fruits, in a victory which 
has decided the fate of mankind for all eternity. What literary 
gew-gaws do the finest orations of Cicero and Demosthenes appear 

^ Dr Thompson once lamented to me the change of taste for the worse: 
"When you wanted to make a present to a young lady, that was the kind of 
book to give: but now they take no interest in such things." 


after this ! How do we put them away as childisli things, and feel 
ashamed that we should set such value on the vituperative filth 
which is poured forth upon Aeschines and Antony, political rivals 
on the narrow stage of a corner of this little world. 

I believe that of those who have really grappled with 
Tertullian's difficulties, few will challenge this verdict of a 
most competent judge. 

I can conceive few more valuable aids to classical scholar- 
ship than a digest, not on the plan of the Dutch uariorum 
editors, nor yet on the scissors-and-paste plan of Dindorf, of 
all that is permanently valuable in commentaries and miscel- 
laneous remarks on the Christian apologists, say to 500 a.d. 
The work should appear by itself, and would have a permanent 
value, whatever manuscripts might spring to light. Critics and 
commentators should be read in order of time and each allowed 
credit for his contributions — I would not ruthlessly clip away 
even the biographical confidences with whicb old scholars en- 
livened their learning — ; no quotation should be repeated, but 
the entire composite note should be fused into unity, references 
being reduced to one uniform pattern. Each special subject, as 
the calumny about Thyestean feasts, should be exhausted in 
some one note, and cross references given. The editor would 
be in excellent company for some years, and would learn some- 
thing of the meaning of catholic communion, as he forgathered 
with the Spanish Jesuit La Cerda, the French jurists Didier 
Herauld (Heraldus) and Nic. Rigault, with Le Nourry and Tille- 
mont and Ceillier, Mosheim and Semler, Oehler and Ebert, 
Kaye and Blunti and Pusey^, Neander and Oehler {sic) and 
Bohringer and Noldechen^. Perhaps no two men ever more 
thoroughly mastered every detail in the field of the early apolo- 

1 Right Use of the Early Fathers. Here p. 432 Lightfoot might have 
found, cited from Theoph. ad Autol. 1 1 f., a far more apt parallel to Philem. 11, 
than that which he cites from c. 12 of the same book. 

^ Notes (ascribed by Kaye to Dodgson) on Dodgson's excellent translation 
in the Library of the Fathers. It is interesting to learn that the citations 
in these notes were verified by one who left us, J. B. Morris. 

^ On this latest raonograph see Liidemann in Theol. Jahresber. hrsg. v. R. A. 
Lipsius, X, 1891, pp. 128 — 9. Lipsius, alas, is no more, but this annual, of 
unrivalled excellence, is continued by his Jena colleagues. 


gists than Le Nouriy (whose Apparatus, Par. 1715, is reprinted 
in Migne and in Oehler) and Christian Kortholt (15 Jan. 
163|_31 March 1694), whose 'Paganus obtrectator' (Kiel 
1698 4to, 2nd ed. Lubeck.1703 4to), comment. on lust. M., 
Athenag., Theophil., Tatian (ibid. 1675 fol. 'profundae erudi- 
tionis,' says Walch) ; 'de persecutionibus ecclesiae primaeuae' 
(Kiel 1689 4to) and other works (see the Bodleian catalogue 
and Joecher) are in my judgement still necessary to the student. 
If Mr Carstens, in a slight article in the Allg. deutsche Bio- 
graphie xvi (Leipz. 1882) 726 says that K.'s books "have been 
long overtaken by the advance of science and have no longer 
any importance," I comfort myself by the remembrance that 
this Biography is weakest in the lives and works of scholars. 
I should like to cross-examine Mr Carstens on Kortholt. 
Of works on the other apologists that of Semisch on Justin 
and Keim's Celsus, are, so far as I know, the most helpful. 

Beside printed sources, my ideal editor should inquire for 
manuscripts^ My mouth watered when I read Blimfs casual 

1 [May I again call attention to the fact that there is a tenth-century MS 
of chapters 38, 39 and part of 40 of the Apologeticus in the Kantons-Bibhothek 
at Ziirich (Rheinau xcv), which is closely related to the lost Fulda MS (Journal 
of Theological Sludies, vin (1906—1907), pp. 297—300)? This fact has been 
overlooked by Rauschen and others. Also, why has it been left to me to point 
out that the MS containing "TertuUiani Quaedam," alluded to by Oehler, 
vol. I, p. xxi, after Montfaucon Bibl. bibl. tom. i, p. 1134, as in the catalogue 
of the Ubrary of St Germain-des-Pres, and doubtless identical with the MS of 
the Apologeticus at Petrograd, also alluded to by Oehler (p. xii), is still as a 
matter of fact at Petrograd (Q. v. 1, No. 40), having been brought there by 
Peter Dubrowsky ? It is of the ninth century, is probably the oldest existing 
MS of the Apologeticus, and is mentioned in K. Gillerfs catalogue, printed in 
the Neues Archiv, v (1880), 241—265, 597—617, vi (1881), 497—512, and 
described (with a photograph of one page) in A. Staerk, Les Manuscrits Latins 
du V^ au XIII'' Siecle conserves a la Bibliotheque Imperiaie de Saint-Petersbourg 
(2 tomes, St Petersbourg, 1910), Tome i, p. 130, Tome n, planche 57. Further, 
Ivroymann, the new Vienna editor of TertuUian, is entirely ignorant of the 
Luxemburg MS of TertuUian, no. 75 (saec. xv ex.), though it appears to have 
lieen used by Semler, and a catalogue of the Luxemburg coUection was pubhshed 
in 1894. The MS contains carn. Chr., carn. resurr., cor. mU., mart., paenit., 
uirg. uel., hab. mul., cult. fem., ad ux. i and n, de fug. in pers., Scap., exh. 
cast., monog., paU., pat. Dei {sic), adu. Prax., adu. Val., adu. Marc, adu. lud., 
adu. omn. haer., praescr. her., adu. Hermog. The contents thus bear a striking 
resemblance to those of certain ItaUan MSS, e.g.Vat.Urb.64 (saec. xv), described 
Iiy Kroymaim in the first article mentioned on p. xi, pp. 4, 5. A. S.] 


remark that Rigault's glossary is couvenient for annotation. 
This book and Blunt's manuscript lectures on the early fathers 
should certainly be secured for the university which he adorned. 
The Germans are no doubt the most active workers in the 
patristic vineyard; but how few of them are scholars like 
Burton or Blunt, Kaye or Field ! 


Of existing glossaries to TertulHan, those of Rigault, 
Semler (also in Migne) and (the best) Oehler, all are necessary. 
[The language of Tertullian, so far as comprised in the twa 
already published volumes of the Vienna edition, has been 
completely recorded on slips for the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae. 
A complete index to the Apologeticus has been made by Henen : 
see the additions to the Bibliography. A. S.] General lexicons 
of independent value are Faber^ (best ed. by Leichius, Francof . 
1749, fol.), a favorite with Dr Westcott; Rob. Stephens (ed. 
Gesner, 4 vols. 1749; the ed. of Ant. Birr, Basil. 1740, fol. 
4 vols., has inedited notes of Henry Stephens) ; Forcellini, 
two editions of which are still incomplete, that by De Vit 
(lexicon and glossary and a large part of the valuable 'Ono- 
masticon' have appeared), and that by Corradini (incorporating 
Klotz) ; Scheller (3rd ed. Leipz. 1804 — 5, 5 vols. 8vo ; I have 
Madvig's copy), translated, withoutthe instructive and pathetic 
preface, by Riddle for the Oxford Press (fol.) ; Klotz ; (Freund's 
book, which has supplied the basis of ninety-nine hundredths 
of the lexicons sold in England for many years, is, after the 
letter C, a most careless compilation from Forcellini) ; and, 
fuUest of all in vocabulary, and necessary as a supplement 
even to Forcellini, Georges. [This honour now belongs to 
Nouveau Dictionnaire Latin-Frangais...'pa,i E. Benoist et H. 
Goelzer, Paris 1893, for the whole alphabet, to the 8th edition 
of Georges by his son H. Georges, Hannover and Leipzig, 
1912 — 1916, for three quarters, and to the Thesaurus Linguae 
Latinae, Leipzig, 1900 fi., for A — Dimico, F — Familia. A. S.] 

^ Of Faber, Gesner, Forcellini, Scheller, I said something in the Journal 
of Classical and Sacred Philology n (Cambr. 1855), 277—290. 


Of the adaptations of Freund I have for many years employed 
two copies of Riddle-White, and (of late) two copies of Lewis- 
Short, as a basis for annotations; but yoimg scholars, who 
use a lexicon not so much to add to or correct its statements, 
as to learn the usage of the language, ought to employ Gesner 
or ForceUini or Scheller habitually. For a poition of the 
alphabet (from D — K) by far the completest storehouse is the 
"Thesaurus der klassischen Latinitat,' begun by Georges, and 
continued from D onwards by Gustav Miihlmann (Leipz. 

Any of the old Latin-English lexicons, from Cooper to the 
complete editions of Ainsworth, give far more racy, homespun 
English for the Latin words, than the books which now com- 
mand the market. Lewis-Short has an improved orthography 
and some additions from Georges and various commentaries ; 
also a few articles (e.g. cum conj. and prep., sui, suus) are care- 
fiilly and independently executed ; but in some points the 
changes from Riddle-White are for the worse. 

In the ' Bibliographical Clue to Latin Literature ' I recorded 
under each author the then aids (indexes cet.) to the study of 
his language; it is well to remember that the 'Delphin' 
classics (Valpy's reprint is very accurate, and adds many useful 
commentaries to the original quartos) and also Lemaire's supply 
complete indexes to many authors. Merguet is about half way 
through the Herculean task of a concordance to Cicero ; he 
and others have brought out three rival lexicons to Caesar: 
Teubner's press is engaged on lexicons to Livy and Tacitus^. 
In Teubner's 'bibUotheca' some authors, chiefiy technical, as 
Cassius FeUx, lulius Valerius cet., are furnished with indexes. 
The Berhn 'Monumenta Germaniae historica' and the Vienna 
library of the fathers have indeed indexes, but in many cases 
by no means exhaustive ; e.g. not Reiiferscheid, but Forcellini, 
informs us that the rare word bacula (dim. of baca) occurs 
thrice in Arnobius. Of late years the French have returned to 
the field in which they reigned supreme in the 16th and 17th 

1 [Fugner's Lexicon Limanum aclvanced no farther than B, but Gerber 
and Greefs Lexicon Taciteum is complete. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae 
liave been done by Lessing, and other authors by others. A. S.] 


centuries. Thus: Henri Goelzer, 'Etude lexicographique et 
grammaticale de la Latinite de Saint Jerome' (Paris, Hachette, 
1884), and (a perfect model in its way) Max Bonnet, ' Le Latin 
de Gregoire de Tours' (ibid. 1890). The Archiv fiir lat. 
Lexikographie, pubhshed since 1884 by Teubner, has, thanks to 
the self-sacrifice of the pubHsher and the editor Ed. Wolfflin, 
done a great work in surveying the whole field of Latin letters, 
and training readers to gather in the whole mass of Latin words. 
There too may be seen reviews of all new books and articles 
bearing on the subject. 

There is yet an opening for two lexicons, of moderate 
compass, but of great value to critics, lexicographers and 

(A) We possess two lexicons of terminations in Greek, but, 
to my knowledge, none in Latin. [The want was supplied in 
1904 by 0. Gradenwitz, Later uli Vocum Latinarum: Voces 
Latinas et a fronte et a tergo ordinandas curauit (Leipzig). A. S.] 
I refer to: (I) 'Henrici Hoogeveen, opus postumum exhibens 
dictionarium analogicum linguae graecae' (Cambr. typis acad. 
1800. 4to), a book recommended by the late Dr Thompson ; 
and (II) ' Etymologisches Worterbuch der griechischen Sprache 
zur Uebersicht der Wortbildung nach den Endsylben geordnet 
von Dr Wilhelm Pape' (Berl. 1836, 8vo). 

(B) Faber and Gesner frequently record under one word 
other words with which it is liable to be confounded by scribes ; 
they also cite lexicographical collections in commentaries and 
joumals. Whoever has traced with attention the course of 
lexicography knows that almost every word well treated by any 
lexicon owes its good fortune to some exhaustive note of N. 
Heins, or J. F. Gronov, or Bentley cet. The indexes to such 
books as Drakenborch's Livy and Duker's Florus will shew how 
the thing should be done. To go down the whole course of 
classical learning, from such treasuries as Gruter's 'Fax 
Artium,' to the 'aduersaria' of Madvig and the 'lectiones' of 
Cobet, would be the making of any young scholar. 

The most useful commentary, on the whole, is OehIer's. 
Herauld also and Rigault should be read, and Dr Pusey. La 
Cerda is copious in parallels. Pamelius takes a polemical 



rather than a literary interest in his author, but his index of 
things is the completest of all ; Rigault also and Oehler are 
good. Kaye, Ebert (literary history) and Bohringer will well 
repay the labour of perusal. 

My notes are not exhaustive, but are intended chiefly as a 
supplement to earlier commentaries. May they prove that there 
is much in Tert. of interest to any student, though no more of 
a technical theologian than was Jakob Bernays. 



1. Si non licet uobis, Romani imperii antistites, in aperto 
et edito, in ipso fere uertice ciuitatis praesidentibus ad iudi- 
candum palam dispicere et coram examinare quid sit liquido in -p 
causa Christianorum, si ad hanc solam speciem auctoritas 
uestra de iustitiae diligentia in publico aut timet aut erubescit 5 
inquirere, si denique, quod proxime accidit, domesticis iudiciis 
nimis operata infestatio sectae huius obstruit defensioni, liceat 
ueritati uel occulta uia tacitarum litterarum ad aures uestras 
peruenire. Nihil de causa sua deprecatur, C£uia nec de con- 
dicione miratur. Scit se peregrinam in terris agere, inter lo 
extraneos facile inimicos inuenire, ceterum genus, sedem, 
spem, gratiam, dignitatem in caehs habere. Unum gestit 
interdum, ne ignorata damnetur. Quid ?iic deperit legibus in 
suo regno dominantibus, si audiatur? An hoc magis gloriabitur 
potestas eorum, quo etiam auditam damnabunt ueritatem? 15 
Ceterum inauditara si damnent, praeter inuidiam iniquitatis 
etiam suspicionem merebuntur alicuius conscientiae, nolentes 
audire quod auditum damnare non possint. Hanc itaque 
primam causam apud uos collocamus iniquitatis odii erga 
nomen Christianorum. Quam iniquitatem idem titulus et 20 _ 
onerat et reuincit qui uidetur excusare, ignorantia scilicet. 
Quid enim iniquius, quam ut oderint homines quod ignorant, 
etiam si res meretur odium? Tunc etenim meretur, cum 
cognoscitur an mereatur. Vacante autem meriti notitia, unde 

I 9 - 1 '-^^ 


Chap. I. If it is not permitted even to you, who are the 
lovernors of the Roman Empire, seated on a lofty and con- 
ipicuous tribunal, which I might almost call the very summit of 
)ur state ; if , I say, even you may not openly investigate and 
udge in the presence of both parties, what are the real facts in 
}he case of the Christians ; if in this instance alone your authority 
s either afraid or ashamed to make pubUc inquiry with regard 
}o the scrupulous observance of justice; if, finally, as has 
■ecently happened, the persecution of this sect, having been 
:oo much exercised in trials connected with households, has 
Dlocked up the way to defence — , then let the truth be permitted 
;o reach your ears, if only by the hidden path of silent hterature. 
^he asks no mercy in her case, because she does not feel any 
surprise either as to her circumstances. She knows that her 
Dart is that of a foreigner upon earth, that amongst ahens she 
jasily finds enemies, while she has her race, her home, hope, ^ 
^velcome and honour in heaven. One thing only does she 
jagerly desire in the meantime, namely that she be not con- 
iemned without being known. What loss is herein inflicted on 
bhe laws, which are absolute masters in their own realm, if she 
5hould be heard ? Or will this make them boast all the more of 
bheir power, in that they condemn the truth even when they 
tiave heard it? Further, if they should condemn it unheard, 
besides the odium attached to unfair deahng, they will also earn 
fche suspicion of a certain compHcity, by their refusal to hear 
tvhat, if heard, they could not condemn. This then is the first 
proof that we lay before you of the injustice of your hatred 
fcowards the name of Christian. This unfairness is at once 
exaggerated and refuted by the same plea that seems to excuse 
it, namely ignorance. For what could be more unfair than that 
men should hate that of which they know nothing, even if the 
fact deserve this hatred? For then only does the fact deserve 
hatred, when it is already ascertained whether it deserves it. 
In default of the knowledge of its deserts, whence can the justice 



odii iustitia defenditur, quae non de euentu, sed de conscientia 
probanda est? Cum ergo propterea oderunt homines, quia 
ignorant quale sit quod oderunt, cur non liceat eiusmodi illud 
esse, quod non debeant odisse? Ita utrumque ex alterutro 
redarguimus, et ignorare illos, dum oderunt, et iniuste odisse, 5 
dum ignorant. Testimonium ignorantiae est, quae iniquitatem 
dum excusat, condemnat, cum onines qui retro oderant, quia 
ignorabant quale sit quod oderant, simul desinunt ignorare, 
cessant et odisse. Ex his fiunt Christiani, utique de conperto, 
et incipiunt odisse quod fuerant, et profiteri quod oderant, et 10 
sunt tanti quanti et denotamur. Obsessam uociferantur 
ciuitatem ; in agris, in castellis, in insulis Christianos ; omnem 
sexum, aetatem, condicionem, etiam dignitatem transgredi ad 
hoc nomen quasi detrimento maerent, nec tamen hoc modo ad 
aestimationem alicuius latentis boni promouent animos. Non 15 
hcet rectius suspicari, non libet propius experiri. Hic tantum 
curiositas humana torpescit. Amant ignorare, cum alii gau- 
deant cognouisse. Quanto magis hos Anacharsis denotasset 
inprudentes de prudentibus iudicantes quam inmusicos de 
musicis ! Malunt nescire, quia iam oderunt. Adeo quod 20 
nesciant praeiudicant id esse quod, si sciant, odisse non poterant, 
quando, si nullum odii debitum deprehendatur, optimum 
utique sit desinere iniuste odisse, si uero de merito constet, non 
modo nihil odii detrahatur, sed amplius adquiratur ad per- 
seuerantiam, etiam iustitiae ipsius auctoritate. &ed non ideo, 25 
inquit, bonum, quia multos conuertit: quanti enim ad malum 
performantur ? quanti transfugae in peruersum? Quis negat? 
tamen quod uere malum est, ne ipsi quidem, quos rapit, 
defendere pro bono audent. Omne malum aut timore aut 
pudore natura perfudit. Denique malefici gestiunt latere, 30 
deuitant apparere, trepidant deprehensi, negant accusati, ne 
torti quidem facile aut semper confitentur, certe damnati 
maerent. Dinumerant in semetipsos mentis malae impetus. 


of hatred be defended, seeing that it is to be tested not by the 
verdict passed but by a good conscience ? When therefore men 
hate because they do not know the character of what they hate, 
what is to hinder the thing hated from being of the sort they 
ought not to hate ? So we refute either position from the other, 
showing that in hating they do not know, and that in not 
knowing, their hatred is unjust. It is an evidence of the 
ignorance, which, while it is made the excuse, is really the 
condemnation of injustice, when all who hated in the past, 
because they did not know the character of that which they 
hated, cease to hate as soon as they cease to be ignorant. It 
is from this class that Christians are produced, of course from 
conviction, and begin to hate what they had been, and to pro- 
fess what they hated, and are indeed as numerous as we who 
are branded with that name. They cry aloud that the state 
is besieged : that (even) in the country-districts, in the (walled) 
villages, in the islands, you will find Christians. They mourn 
as for a loss that all, without distinctionof sex, age, circumstances, • 
or even position, are deserting to this name. And yet even in 
this very way they do not carry on their minds to the appraise- 
ment of some good hidden therein ; they do not care^ to form 
a truer conjecture upon a closer inquiry, they have no pleasure 
in trying it at closer quarters. In this sphere alone is human 
curiosity apathetic; they dehght to be ignorant, while others 
rejoice to have learned. How much more severely would 
Anacharsis have condemned these men, as specimens of the 
unwise judging the wise, than as the unmusical judging the 
musical ! They had rather be ignorant, because they already 
hate; such a strong suspicion have they that what they are 
ignorant of is that which, if they knew it, they could not hate ; 
since, if no duty to hate were discovered, it would of course be 
best to cease to hate unjustly, but if there were no doubt as to 
desert, not only would there be no withdrawal of hatred, but 
persistence would gain greater force, even through the sanction 
of justice itself. ' But it is not therefore good,' they say, ' because 
it makes many converts : for how many are fashioned for evil ! 
how many deserters are there to what is wrong ? ' Who denies 
it? Yet what is truly evil, even those who are in its clutches 
do not dare to defend as good. Nature has stamped on every 
evil thing the character either of fear or of shame. Accordingly 
evil-doers are eager to hide, they shrink from showing themselves, 
they tremble when caught, deny their guilt when charged, and 
even when tortured do not readily or always confess. To 
be sure when condemned they mourn, and they either sum up 
1 Residing libet (J. B, M.). 


uel fato uel astris imputant; nolunt enim suum esse, quia 
malum agnoscunt. Christianus uero quid simile? Neminem 
pudet, neminem paenitet, nisi plane retro non fuisse. Si 
denotatur, gloriatur; si accusatur, non defendit; interrogatus 
uel ultro confitetur, damnatus gratias agit. Quid hoc mali est, 5 
quod naturalia mali non habet, timorem, pudorem, tergiuersa- 
tionem, paenitentiam, deplorationem ? Quid? hoc malum est, 
cuius reus gaudet ? cuius accusatio uotum est et poena felicitas ? 
Non potes dementiam dicere, qui reuinceris ignorare. 

2. Si certum est denique nos nocentissimos esse, cur a 10 
uobis ipsis aliter tractamur quam pares nostri, id est ceteri 
nocentes, cum eiusdem noxae eadem tractatio deberet inter- 
uenire? Quodcunque dieimur, cum alii dicuntur, et proprio 
ore et mercenaria aduocatione utuntur ad innocentiae suae 

— commendationem. Respondendi, altercandi facultas patet, 15 
quando nec liceat indefensos et inauditos omnino damnari. 
Sed Christianis solis nihil permittitur loqui quod causam purget, 
quod ueritatem defendat, quod iudicem non faciat iniustum, 
sed illud solum expectatur quod odio publico necessarium est, 
confessio nominis, non examinatio criminis : quando, si de 20 
aliquo nocente cognoscatis, non statim confesso eo nomen — 
homicidae uel sacrilegi uel incesti uel publici hostis, ut de 
nostris elogiis loquar, contenti sitis ad pronuntiandum, nisi et 
consequentia exigatis, qualitatem facti, numerum, locum, 
modum, tempus, conscios, socios. De nobis nihil tale, cum 25 
aeque extorqueri oporteret quod cum falso iactatur, quot 

^ quisque iam infanticidia degustasset, quot incesta contenebras- 
set, qui coci, qui canes adfuissent. quanta illius praesidis 
gloria, si eruisset aliquem, qui centum iam infantes comedisset ! 
Atquin inuenimus inquisitionem quoque in nos prohibitara. 30 
Plinius enim Secundus cum prouinciam regeret, damnatis 


against themselves, or ascribe to their destiny or their star the 
outbursts of an evil mind. For they are unwilling to acknow- 
ledge as their own what they recognise to be bad. But the 
Christian does nothing of the kind. No (Christian) feels shame, ' 
or regret, except of course that he was so late in becoming 
one. If he is defamed, he rejoices; if he is prosecuted, he does' 
not defend himself ; if he is questioned, he at once conf esses, ' 
if he is condemned, he returns thanks. What evil can there be 
in this which has none of the characters of evil, either fear, 
or shame, prevarication, regret, or despair ? What ? is there evil 
in that, which causes pleasure to the person accused of it, 
whose prosecution is his dearest wnsh, and who finds his 
happiness in his punishment? Yovi cannot call it madness, 
since you are proved to know nothing about it. 

Chap. II. Again, supposing it to be true that we are 
criminals of deepest dye, why are we treated differently by 
you from our fellows, I mean all other criminals, since the same 
guilt ought to meet mth the same treatment? When others 
are called by whatever name is applied to us, they employ both 
their own voices and the services of a paid pleader to set forth 
their innocence. They have every opportunity of answering 
and cross-questioning, since it is not even legal that persons 
should be condemned entirely undefended and unheard. But 
the Christians alone are not permitted to say anything to clear 
themselves of the charge, to uphold the truth, to prevent in- 
justice in the judge. The one thing looked for is that which 
is demanded by the popular hatred, the confession of the name, 
not the weighing of a charge. Whereas, if you were inquiring 
into the case of some criminal, you would not be satisfied to f 
give a verdict, immediately on his confession of the crime of 
homicide or sacrilege or incest or treason, to speak of the charges 
levelled against us, unless you also demanded an account of the 
accessory facts, the character of the act, the frequency of its 
repetition, the place, the manner, the time, who were privy to/ 
it, who were accompHces in it. In our case no such procedure 
is followed, although there was an equal necessity to sift by 
investigation the false charges that are bandied about, how 
many slaughtered babes each had already tasted, how many 
times he had committed incest in the dark, what cooks, what 
dogs had been present (on the occasion). Oh what fame would 
that governor have acquired, if he had ferreted out some one, 
who had already eaten up a hundred infants ! But we find 
that in our case even such inquiry is forbidden. For PHnius 
Secundus, when he was in command of a province, after con- 


quibusdam Christianis, quibusdam gradu pulsis, ipsa tameii 
multitudine perturbatus, quid de cetero ageret, consuluit tunc 
Traianum imperatorem, adlegans praeter obstinationem non 
sacrificandi nihil aliud se de sacramentis eorum conperisse v 
quam coetus antelucanos ad canendum Christo et deo, et ad 5 
confoederandam disciplinam, homicidium, adulterium, fraudem, 
perfidiam et cetera scelera prohibentes. Tunc Traianus rescrip- 
sit hoc genus inquirendos quidem non esse, oblatos uero puniri 
oportere. sententiam necessitate confusam ! Negat in- 
quirendos ut innocentes, et mandat puniendos ut nocentes. 10 
Parcit et saeuit, dissimulat et animaduertit. Quid temetipsam, 
censura, circumuenis ? Si damnas, cur non et inquiris ? si non 
inquiris, cur non et absoluis? Latronibus uestigandis per 
uniuersas prouincias militaris statio sortitur. In reos maiestatis 
et publicos hostes omnis homo miles est; ad socios, ad conscios 15 
usque inquisitio extenditur. Solum Christianum inquiri' non 
licet, offerri licet, quasi aliud esset actura inquisitio quam 
oblationem. Damnatis itaque oblatum quem nemo uoluit 
requisitum, qui, puto, iam non ideo meruit poenam, quia 
nocens est, sed quia non requirendus inuentus est. Itaque nec 20 
in illo ex forma malorum iudicandorum agitis erga nos, quod 
ceteris negantibus tormenta adhibetis ad confitendum, solis 
Christianis ad negandum, cum, si malum esset, nos quidem 
negaremus, uos uera confiteri tormentis compelleretis. Neque 
enim ideo non putaretis requirenda quaestionibus scelera, 25 
quia certi essetis admitti ea ex nominis confessione, qui hodie de 
confesso homicida, scientes homicidium quid sit, nihilominus 
ordinem extorquetis admissi. Quo peruersius, cum prae- 
sumatis de sceleribus nostris ex nominis confessione, cogitis 
tormentis de confessione decedere, ut negantes nomen pariter 30 


demning some Christians, and having dislodged others from the 
stand they had taken iip\ was nevertheless greatly troubled 
by their very nurabers, and then consulted the Emperor Trajan , 
as to what he should do in future, stating that, apart from the | ^ 
obstinate refusal to sacrifice, he had found out nothing else -^'^'' 
about their mysteries, save meetings before dawn to sing to 
Christ and to^ God, and to estabhsh one common rule of life, ' ^ 
forbidding murder, adultery, fraud, treachery and other crimes. Ih h 
Then Trajan rephed that such people were not indeed to be 
sought out, but that if they were brought before the court they 
ought to be punished. self-contradictory verdict which says 
they are not to be sought out, because they are innocent, and 
yet orders them to be punished as criminals ; which spares while 
it rages, which shuts the eye to crime and yet chastises it. Why, 
O judgment, dost thou cheat thyself? If thou condemnest, 
why dost thou not also denounce ? If thou dost not denounce, 
why not also acquit ? For the tracking of brigands the soldiers 
on outpost duty cast iots throughout all the provinces. Against 
those charged with treason and the enemies of the state, every 
man is a soldier. The investigation is made wide enough to 
take in accomphces and others who are privy to it. The 
Christian alone may not be sought out, but he may be brought 
into court, as if searching out had any other object than 
prosecution ! You condemn therefore, when prosecuted, one 
whom no one desired to be sought out, one, I suppose, who 
already deserved punishment, not because he was guilty, 
but because, though not to be inquired after, he was found. 
Thus not in that matter either do you act towards us 
according to the rule for trying malefactors : namely that to 
others you apply torture when they deny, to make them con- 
fess, to Christians alone you apply it to make them deny. And 
yet, if rt were a crime (with which we were charged), we indeed 
should deny our guilt, but you by tortures would compel us to 
confess it. Nor indeed could you think that crimes were not to 
be investigated by questionings, on the ground that you were 
assured by the confession of the name that they had been com- 
mitted. For even to-day, though you know what murder is, 
you nevertheless extort from a confessed murderer the w^hole 
train of circumstances touching the act. Wherefore it is with 
the greater perverseness that when you make up your minds 
beforehand about our crimes from the confession of the name, 
you seek to compel us by tortures to go back from our confession, 
with the result that in denying the name we at the same time 

1 See G. A. T. Davies in Journ. Theol. Stud. (April) 1913. 

2 So the MSS, but surely ut 'as to' should be read (cf. Plin. etc). 


utique negemus et scelera, de quibus ex confessione nominis 
praesumpseratis. Sed, opinor, non uultis nos perire, quos 
pessimos creditis. Sic enim soletis dicere homicidae Nega, 

\ laniari iubere sacrilegum, si confiteri perseuerauerit. Si non 
ita agitis circa nos nocentes, ergo nos innocentissimos iudicatis, 5 
I cum quasi innocentissimos non uultis in ea confessione per- 
seuerare, quam necessitate, non iustitia damnandam a uobis 
sciatis. Vociferatur homo : Christianus sum. Quod est dicit; 
tu uis audire quod non est. Veritatis extorquendae praesides 
de nobis soHs mendacium elaboratis audire. Hoc sum, inquit, 10 
quod quaeris an sim. Quid me torques in peruersum? Con- 
fiteor, et torques: quid faceres, si negarem? Plane aliis 
negantibus non facile fidem accommodatis : nobis, si negaueri- 
mus, statim creditis. Suspecta sit uobis ista peruersitas, ne 
qua uis lateat in occulto, quae uos aduersus formam, aduersus 15 
naturam iudicandi, contra ipsas quoque leges ministret. Nisi 

K fallor enim, leges malos erui iubent, non abscondi, confessos 
damnari praescribunt, non absolui. Hoc senatusconsulta, hoc 
principum mandata definiunt. Hoc imperium, cuius ministri 
estis, ciuilis, non tyrannica dominatio est. Apud tyrannos 20 
enim tormenta etiam pro poena adhibebantur : apud uos soli 
quaestioni temperatur. Vestram illis seruate legem usque ad 
confessionem necessariam, et iam si confessione praeueniantur, 
uacabunt : sententia opus est: debito poenae nocens expun- 

L gendus est, non eximendus. Denique nemo illum gestit 25 
absoluere. Non licet hoc uelle, ideo nec cogitur quisquam 
negare. Christianum hominem omnium scelerum reum, 
deorum, imperatorum, legum, morum, naturae totius inimicum 
existimas, et cogis negare, ut absoluas quem non poteris 
absoluere nisi negauerit. Praeuaricaris in leges. Vis ergo 30 
neget se nocentem, ut eum facias innocentem, et quidem 

+ inuitum iam, nec de praeterito reum. Unde ista peruersitas, 
ut etiam illud non recogitetis, sponte confesso magis credendum 


of coiirse deny the crimes also, about which you presumed us 
guilty from the confession of the name. But, methinks, you 
do not wish us to perish, though you beheve us to be the worst 
of men. For is it your wont to say to a murderer, ' Deny the 
fact?' or to order a sacrilegious person to be torn with scourges, 
if he continue to confess? If you do not act so in the case of us 
criminals, you must judge us to be entirely innocent, when you 
will not have us as innocent persons to persevere in such a 
confession, as you know has to be condemned by you of neces- 
sity and not from justice. A man cries out : ' I am a Christian.' 
He tells what he is ; you wish to hear what he is not. Though 
presiding to extract the truth, from us alone you strive to hear 
falsehood. ' I am,' he says, ' that which you ask whether I am : 
why do you torture me to make me give a wrong answer ? You 
reward my confession with torture ; what would you have done, 
if I had denied?' It is quite evident that, when others'deny, 
you do not readily credit them : while, if we deny, you immedi- 
ately believe our assertion. You ought to suspect this perversity, 
lest some power lurk in secret that makes tools of you against 
all rule, against the nature of judicial trial, even against the 
laws themselves. For unless I am mistalcen, the laws order 
that malefactors should be rooted out, not concealed ; they lay 
down that those who confess should be condemned, not ac- 
quitted. This is ordained by decrees of the senate, by the edicts 
of emperors. The government whose servants you are is the 
rule of a fellow-citizen, not of a tyrant. For with tyrants 
tortures were employed also as punishment ; with you they are 
kept within bounds for the sole purpose of inquiry. Retain for 
them your law up to the point of necessary confession. And 
if (tortures) are anticipated by confession, they will be super- 
fluous. A verdict is needed : the guilty man must be struck ofE 
the roll of the accused by the punishment which is his due, and 
not saved from punishment. No one, in short, cares to acquit 
him ; it is not allowable to wish this : consequently no guilty man 
is compelled to deny his guilt. But a Christian man you beheve 
to be guilty of all crimes, an enemy of gods, emperors, laws, 
morals, the whole teaching of nature, and yet you compel him 
to deny, in order that you may acquit one whom you will not 
be able to acquit unless from his deniaL You are guilty of 
unfair deahng against the laws. You wish him therefore to 
deny his guilt, that you may make him out to be innocent, and 
that too unwilhng as he now is, and no longer arraigned for the 
past. Whence comes this perversity, that you should fail to 
reflect even on this fact, that more credence should be given to 
one who voluntarilv confesses than to one who denies under com- 


esse qiuim per iiiin neganti? uel ne compulsus negare non ex 
fide negarit et absolutus ibidem post tribunal de uestra rideat 
aemiilatione iterum Christianus ? Cum igitur in omnibus nos 
aliter disponitis quam ceteros nocentes, ad unum contendendo, 
ut de eo nomine excludamur (excludimur enim si faciamus 5 
quae faciunt non Christiani), intellegere potestis non scelus 
aH(iuod in causa esse, sed nomen, quod quaedam ratio aemulae 
operationis insequitur, hoc primum agens, ut homines nohnt 
scire pro certo quod se nescire pro certo sciunt. Ideo et credunt 
de nobis quae non probantur, et nolunt inquiri, ne probentur 10 
non esse quae mahmt credidisse, ut nomen ilhus aemulae --f 
rationis inimicum praesumptis, non probatis criminibus de 
sua sola confessione damnetur. Ideo torquemur confitentes et 
punimur perseuerantes et absoluimur negantes, quia nominis . 
proehum est. Denique quid de tabeha recitatis illum Chris- 15 
tianum? Cur non et homicidam? Si homicida Christianus, 
cur non et incestus uel quodcunque ahud esse nos creditis ? In 
nobis sohs pudet aut piget ipsis nominibus scelerum pro- 
nuntiare? Christianus si nulhus criminis nomine reus est, 
ualde incestura, si sohus nominis, crimen est. 20 

3. Quid? quod ita plerique clausis ocuhs in odium eius 
inpingunt, ut bonum ahcui testimonium ferentes admisceant 
nominis exprobrationem. Bonus uir Gaius Seius, tantum quod 
Christianus. Item ahus : Ego miror Lucium Titium sapientem 
uirum repente factum Christianum. Nemo retractat, ne ideo 25 
bonus Gaius et prudens Lucius, quia Christianus, aut ideo Christi- 
anus, quia prudens et bonus. Laudant quae sciunt, uituperant 
quae ignorant, et id quod sciunt eo quod ignorant inrumpunt, 
cum sit iustius occulta de manifestis praeiudicare quam mani- 
festa de occultis praedamnare. Ahi, quos retro ante hoc 30 
nomen uagos, uiles, improbos nouerant, ex ipso denotant quod 
laudant. Caecitate odii in suffragium inpingunt : Quae muher ! 


piilsion? or whether one who has been forced to deny should 
not have denied sincerely, and after acquittal on the spot, 
leaving the court, should once more claim to be a Christian, 
and laugh at your vain eff ort to prove him other ? Since there- 
fore in every way you treat us differently from all other criminals, 
by aiming at thls one thing, that we may be shut out from that 
name, for we are shut out if we do things which Christians do 
not do, you can understand that there is no crime in question, 
but just the name, which is harassed by the scheming of a kind 
of rival agency, its first aim being that men should be unwilhng 
to know for certain that of which they certainly know them- 
selves to be ignorant. Consequently they not only beheve what 
is not proved with regard to us, but they are unwilUng that 
inquiry should be made, lest those things should be proved not 
to be, which they had rather should be beheved to be, so that 
the hostile name of that rival agency should be condemned 
merely by its own confession, on the presumption, not the proof 
of crime. Accordingly we are tortured when we confess, and/ 
punished when we persist, and acquitted if we deny, just/ 
because it is a battle about a name. Finally, you also readi 
out from the charge-sheet that a man is a Christian. Why not* 
also style him a murderer ? If a Christian is a murderer, why 
not also one guilty of incest or any other crime you beheve us 
to be guilty of ? It is in our case only that you are ashamed or 
reluctant to give a verdict on the mere names of the crimes^. 
If a Christian is guilty of no specific crime, it is a very guilty 
sort of crime, if one of the name only ! 

Chap. III. Again, many people are so blinded with pre- 
judice that even when they are bearing ^^dtness to a man's 
excellence, they mingle with it a taunt against the name of 
Christian. 'So-and-so is a good fellow, were it not that he is 
a Christian.' So another says 'I marvel that a philosopher hke 
So-and-so should have so suddenly turned Christian.' No one 
reflects whether the fact that So-and-so is good or wise is due to 
his Christianity, or the fact that So-and-so is a Christian results 
from his being wise and good. They praise what they know, 
and blame what they do not know, and that which they know 
they spoil because they are really ignorant of it. Surely 
it were a juster course to prejudge things hidden from things 
evident, than to precondemn the evident from the hidden. 
Others characterize in their very praises those they formerly 
knew, before they received the name of Christian, as vagabonds, 
worthless and wicked. Through their bhnd hatred they become 
^ J. B. M. conjecture8 scelera. 


quam lasciua, quam festiua! Quis iuuenis! quam lasciuus, 
quam amasius! Facti sunt Christiani ! Ita nomen emenda- 
tioni imputatur. Nonnulli etiam de utilitatibus suis cum 
odio isto paciscuntur, contenti iniuria, dum ne domi habeant 
quod oderunt. Uxorem iam pudicam maritus iam non zelo- 5 
typus, filium iam subiectura pater retro patiens abdicauit, 
seruum iam fidelem dominus olim mitis ab oculis relegauit ; ut 
quisque lioc nomine emendatur, ofEendit. Tanti non est bonum 
quanti odium Christianorum. Nunc igitur, si nominis odium 
, est, quis nominum reatus? Quae accusatio uocabulorum, to 
nisi si aut barbarum sonat aliqua uox nominis, aut infaustum 
aut maledicum aut inpudicum? Christianus uero, quantum 
interpretatio est, de unctione deducitur. Sed et cum perperam y 
Chrestianus pronuntiatur a uobis (nam nec nominis- certa est 
notitia penes uos), de suauitate uel benignitate conpositum est. 15 
Oditur itaque in hominibus innocuis etiam nomen innocuum. 
At enim secta oditur in nomine utique sui auctoris. Quid / 
noui, si aliqua disciplina de magistro cognomentum sectatoribus ^^ 
suis inducit ? Nonne philosophi de auctoribus suis nuncupantur 
Platonici, Epicurei, Pythagorici? etiam a locis conuenticulorum 20 
et stationum suarum Stoici, Academici? aeque medici ab 
Erasistrato et grammatici ab Aristarcho, coci etiam ab Apicio ? 
nec tamen quemquam ofiendit prof essio nominis cum institutione 
transmissa ab institutore. Plane, si qui probauit malam sectam 
et ita malum et auctorem, is probabit et nomen maluni dignum 25 
odio de reatu sectae et auctoris, ideoque ante odium nominis 
conpetebat prius de auctore sectam recognoscere uel auctorem 
de secta. At nunc utriusque inquisitione et agnitione neglecta 
nomen detinetur, nomen expugnatur, et ignotam sectam, 
ignotum et auctorem uox sola praedamnat, quia nominantur, 30 
non quia reuincuntur. a 

4. Atque adeo quasi praefatus haec ad sugillandam odii 
erga nos publici iniquitatem, iam de causa innocentiae consistam, 


vehement supporters. ' What a fine woman ! How merry, 
how debonair!' 'What a fine fellow, what a sport, what a 
gallant!' They have become Christians. Thus is the name 
appUed to their reformation. Some even make a bargain mth 
this hatred at the cost of their interests, ready to put up with 
harm, provided that what they hate is not mixed up with their 
home-hfe. A husband now no longer jealous has turned out of 
doors his now chaste wife : a father, patient in the past, has 
disinherited his now obedient son : a once forgiving master has 
banished from his sight a now faithful servant. In each case 
the reform ef?ected by the name of Christian is the ground of 
oifence. Goodness is not of such account as hatred of the 
Ohristians. Now therefore if it is a name that is hated what 
charge can there be against a name, what prosecution of words, 
unless it be that a particular utterance of a word has a barbarous 
or ill-omened or a scurrilous or immodest sound? The name 
Christian indeed, so far as its meaning is concerned, is derived 
from 'anointing.' And even when it is wrongly pronounced 
' Chreestian' by you — for neither is there any real knowledge 
of the name among you — it is made up from sweetness or kind- 
ness. And thus even an innocent name gets hated in the case of 
innocent men. But indeed there can be no doubt that the sect 
is hated in the name of its Founder. What novelty is there in 
a school of thought bringing on its followers a name taken from 
its teacher ? Are not philosophers named after their founders, 
e.g. Platonists, Epicureans, Pythagoreans ? or even from their 
places of meeting and their stations, as Stoics or Academics? 
so too physicians from Erasistratus, and grammarians from 
Aristarchus, and even cooks from Apicius? And yet the pro- 
fession of a name, handed down with the institution from the 
founder himself , causes no offence. To be sure, if any one should 
prove a sect to be evil, and thus the originator also to be evil, 
he will prove the name to be hkewise evil, worthy of hatred 
from the guilt attaching to the sect and its founder. Hence, 
before hating the name, it were fitting first to convict the sect 
from the character of the founder. or the founder from the 
character of the sect. But, as matters are, though the in- 
vestigation and examination of both are neglected, the name is 
laid hold of, the name is made the object of attack, and a mere 
word prejudges a sect and its founder (though both are equally 
unknown) simply because they bear a name, not because they 
are convicted of guilt. 

Chap. IV. Having then made this sort of preface by way of 
hammering into men's heads the unfairness of the popular hatred 


nec tantum refutabo quae nobis obiciuntur, sed etiam in ipsos 
retorquebo qui obiciunt, ut ex hoc quoque sciant homines in 
Christianis non esse quae in se nesciunt esse, simul uti erubescant 
accusantes non dico pessimi optimos, sed iam, ut uolunt, 
conpares suos. Respondebimus ad singula quae in occulto 5 
admittere dicimur, quae illos palani admittentes inuenimus, in 
quibus scelesti, in quibus uani, in quibus damnandig', in quibus 
inridendi deputamur. Sed quoniam, cum ad omnia occurrit 
ueritas nostra, postremo legum obstruitur auctoritas aduersus 
eam, ut aut nihil dicatur retractandum esse post leges aut ingratis 10 
necessitas obsequii praeferatur ueritati, de legibus prius concur- 
rani uobiscum ut cum tutoribus legum. lam primum cum dure 
definitis dicendo : Non licet esse uos ! et hoc sine ullo retractatu 
l/ humaniore praescribitis, uim profitemini et iniquam ex arce 

dominationem, si ideo negatis licere, quia uultis, non quia debuit 15 
^ non licere. Quodsi, quia non debet, ideo non uultis licere, sine 
dubio id non debet licere quod male fit, et utique hoc ipso 
praeiudicatur licere quod bene fit. Si bonum inuenero esse 
quod lex tua prohibuit, nonne ex illo praeiudicio prohibere me 
non potest quod, si malum esset, iure prohiberet? Si lex tua 20 
errauit, puto, ab homine concepta est; neque enim de caelo 
ruit. Miramini hominem aut errare potuisse in lege condenda 
aut resipuisse in reprobanda? Non enini et ipsius Lycurgi 
leges a Lacedaemoniis emendatae tantum auctori suo doloris 
incusserunt, ut in secessu inedia de semetipso iudicarit? 25 
Nonne et uos cotidie experimentis inluminantibus tenebras 
antiquitatis totam illam ueterem et squalentem siluam legum 
nouis principalium rescriptorum et edictorum securibus truncatis 
et caeditis ? Nonne uanissimas Papias leges, quae ante liberos 
^ suscipi cogunt quam luliae matrimonium contrahi, post tantae 30 
auctoritatis senectutem heri Seuerus, constantissimus principum, 
exclusit? Sed et iudicatos in partes secari a creditoribus leges 


towards us, I will now join issue as to the question of innocence, 
and wili not only rebut the charges against us, but will even 
cause them to recoil on the very men who make them ; that from 
this also men may know that Christians are free from those 
failings, of the existence of which in themselves their critics are 
unconscious ; and that they may at the same time blush, while 
they accuse us — I do not say the worst accusing the best, but 
rather (as they themselves would have it) ordinary persons 
accusing their fellows. We will meet each of the secret scandals 
laid to our charge by appeahng to the same acts committed 
openly, acts in which we are held to show ourselves wicked, 
empty-headed, worthy of condemnation and of ridicule. But 
since when the truth of our cause meets you at every turn, the 
authority of the laws is at last set up against it, so that either 
it is said that nothing is to be reconsidered after the laws have 
decided, or the necessity of obedience is unwnlhngly preferred to 
truth, it is upon the laws that I will first join issue with you, as 
their guardians. In the first place then, when you harshly lay 
down the law by your phrase 'Your existence is forbidden,' 
and enjoin this without any gentler reservation, you make no 
secret of violence and tyranny as belonging to your stronghold, 
if you deny us the right to exist because such is your will, not 
because it was fitting that we should be outlawed. If however 
you wish this not to be allowed because it is not right, no doubt 
an evil action ought not to be allowed ; and of course this very 
fact involves a previous judgment that a good action is legal. 
If I shall find something to be good, which your law has for- 
bidden, is it not, by this previous determination, disabled from 
forbidding me that which, if it were evil, it would justly forbid? 
If your law has made a mistake, I suppose it is because it was 
framed by a man, for it certainly did not fall from heaven. 
Do you wonder either that a man should have made a mistake 
in framing a law, or should have come to his senses again when 
he finds in it matter for emendation ? Did not even the improve- 
ments made by the Spartans in the laws of Lycurgus himself 
cause him such pain that he determined to resign office and 
starve himself to death? Do not even you too, as daily ex- 
perience throws hght upon the darkness of antiquity, lop and 
cut down all the \^ald growth of that ancient forest of statutes 
with the new axes of imperial rescripts and edicts? Did not 
Severus, that most determined of emperors, as it were but 
yesterday, abrogate the ridiculous Papian laws, which enforced 
the bringing up of children before the Juhan laws enforced the 
contracting of marriage, — laws whose antiquity gave them such 
high authority ? Nay there were even laws authorizing that those 


/ erant, consensu tamen publico crudelitas postea erasa est, in 
pudoris notam capitis poena conuersa est. Bonorum adhibita 
proscriptio suffundere maluit hominis sanguinem quam 
effundere. Quot adhuc uobis repurgandae latent leges, quas 
neque annorum numerus neque conditorum dignitas commendat, 5 
sed aequitas sola? et ideo cum iniquae recognoscuntur, merito 
damnantur, Ucet damnent. Quomodo iniquas dicimus ? Immo, 
si nomen puniunt, etiam stultas: si uero facta, cur de solo 
nomine puniunt facta, quae in aliis de admisso, non de nomine 
probata defendunt ? Incestus sum, cur non requirunt ? Infanti- 10 
cidia cur non extorquent? In deos, in Caesares ahquid com- 
mitto, cur non audior qui habeo quo purger? Nulla lex uetat 
discuti quod prohibet admitti, quia neque iudex iuste ulciscitur, 
nisi cognoscat admissum esse quod non Hcet, neque ciuis 
fidehter legi obsequitur ignorans quale sit quod ulciscitur lex. 15 
Nulla lex sibi soli • conscientiam iustitiae suae debet, sed eis a 
quibus obsequium expectat. Ceterum suspecta lex est quae 
probari se non uult, inproba autem, si non probata dominetur. 

5. Ut de origine aliquid retractemus eiusmodi legum, 
uetus erat decretum, ne qui deus ab imperatore consecraretur 20 
nisi a senatu probatus. Scit M. Aemilius de deo suo Alburno. 
Facit et hoc ad causam nostram, quod apud uos de humano 
arbitratu diuinitas pensitatur. Nisi homini deus placuerit, 
deus non erit ; homo iam deo propitius esse debebit. Tiberius 
ergo, cuius tempore nomen Christianum in saeculum introiuit, 25 
adnuntiata sibi ex Syria Palaestina, quae ilhc ueritatem ipsius 
diuinitatis reuelauerant, detulit ad senatum cum praerogatiua 
suffragii sui. Senatus, quia non ipse probauerat, respuit, 
Caesar in sententia mansit, comminatus periculum accusatoribus 
Christianorum. Consulite commentarios uestros, illic reperietis 30 
primum Neronem in hanc sectam cum maxime Romae orientem 


sentenced under them should be cut in pieces by their creditors, 
yet was this cruelty afterwards blotted out by pubUc consent, 
the punishment of death being converted into a mark of dis- 
grace. By the resort to a pubhc sale of property they preferred 
to raise the blush of shame rather than to shed blood. How 
many laws still he hidden for you to purify, laws which neither 
antiquity nor the dignity of their framers, but only their fairness 
(if such there be) commends? and therefore when they are 
recognised to be unfair, though condemning, they are deservedly 
condemned. But how do we call them unfair? Nay, if they 
punish the mere name, we call them foohsh also. If however 
it is deeds that they punish, why, in our case, do they punish 
deeds on the ground merely of the name, which in other cases 
they maintain must be proved by the act and not from the name 
given to the accused ? I am guilty of incest : why do they not 
inquire into it? of infanticide, why do they not extort a con- 
fession ? I commit some ofience against the gods or the Caesars ; 
why am I not heard, when I am able to clear myself ? No law 
forbids the investigation of that which is prohibited, because 
neither can any judge rightly exact punishment unless he 
knows that an illegal off ence has been committed ; nor can any 
citizen loyally obey the law, if ignorant of the nature of that 
which is punished by the law. The law is not only bound to 
satisfy itself as to its own intrinsic justice; it must also satisfy 
those from whom it looks for obedience. A law excites suspicion 
if it is not wilUng to be tested, and it is wicked if, after being 
disapproved, it claims despotic power. ^y 

Chap. V. And now to treat somewhat more fully of the 
origin of laws of this kind, there was an old decree that no 
god should be consecrated by the emperor without the approval 
of the senate. M. Aemihus learnt this in the case of his god 
Alburnus. This, too, makes in our favour, because among you 
divinity is weighed out by human caprice. Unless a god shall 
have been acceptable to man, he shall not be a god : man must 
now be propitious to a god. Accordingly Tiberius, in whose 
time the Christian name first made its appearance in the world, 
laid before the senate tidings from Syria Palaestina which had 
revealed to him the truth of the divinity there manifested, and 
supported the motion by his own vote to begin with. The 
senate rejected it because it had not itself given its approval. 
Caesar held to his own opinion and threatened danger to the 
accusers of the Christians. Consult your records : you will there 
find that Nero was the first emperor who wreaked his fury in 
the blood of Christians, when our religion was just springing 



Caesariano gladio ferocisse. Sed tali dedicatore damnationis 
nostrae etiam gloriamur. Qui enim scit illum, intellegere potest 
non nisi grande aliquod bonum a Nerone damnatum. Temp- 
tauerat et Domitianus, portio Neronis de crudelitate, sed qua 
et homo, facile coeptum repressit, restitutis etiam quos rele- 5 
gauerat. Tales semper nobis insecutores, iniusti, impii, turpes, 
quos et ipsi damnare consuestis, a quibus damnatos restituere 
soliti estis. Ceterum de tot exinde principibus ad hodiernum 
diuinum humanumque sapientibus edite aliquem debellatorem 
Christianorum ! At nos e contrario edimus protectorem, si 10 
litterae M. Aurelii grauissimi imperatoris requirantur, quibus 
illam Germanicam sitim Christianorum forte militum pre- 
cationibus impetrato imbri discussam contestatur. Sicut non 
palam ab eiusmodi hominibus poenam dimouit, ita alio modo 
palam dispersit, adiecta etiam accusatoribus damnatione, et 15 
quidem tetriore. Quales ergo leges istae quas aduersus nos soli 
exercent impii, iniusti, turpes, truces, uani, dementes? quas 
Traianus ex parte frustratus est uetando inquiri Christianos, 
quas nullus Hadrianus, quamquam omnium curiositatum 
explorator, nullus Vespasianus, quamquam ludaeorum debel- 20 
lator, nullus Pius, nullus Verus inpressit. Facilius utique 
pessimi ab optimis quibusque, ut ab aemulis, quam a suis sociis 
eradicandi iudicarentur. 

6. Nunc religiosissimi legum et paternorum institutorum 
protectores et ultores respondeant uelim de sua fide et honore 25 
et obsequio erga maiorum consulta, si a nullo desciuerunt, si 
in nullo exorbitauerunt, si non necessaria et aptissima quaeque 
disciplinae oblitterauerunt. Quonam illae leges abierunt sump- 
tum et ambitionem comprimentes ? quae centum aera non 
amplius in coenam subscribi iubebant nec ampHus quam unam 30 
inferri galHnam, et eam non saginatam, quae patricium, quod 
decem pondo argenti habuisset, pro magno ambitionis titulo 


up in Rome. But we even glory in being first dedicated to 
destruction by such a monster. For whoever know^s him can 
iinderstand that it could only have been something of supreme 
excellence that could have called forth the condemnation of 
Nero. Domitian too had tried the same experiment as Nero, 
with a large share of Nero^s cruelty, but inasmuch as he retained 
something of humanity also, he was easily able to change his 
course, even restoring those whom he had banished. Such have 
always been our persecutors, unjust, impious and treacherous, 
whom even ye yourselves have been wont to condemn and to 
reinstate those vvho were condemned by them. But out of so 
many emperors who reigned from that time to the present, men 
versed in knowledge, human and divine, show us one who set 
himself to destroy the Christians. We on the other hand can 
show you a protector, if the letters of the honoured emperor 
M. Aurehus be searched, in which he testifies that the famous 
drought in Germany was put a stop to by the rain which fell 
in answer to the prayers of the Christians who happened to be 
in his army. Thus, although he did not openly abohsh punish- 
ment incurred by such men, yet in another way he openly 
neutrahzed it, adding also a condemnation, and indeed a more 
shocking one, for their prosecutors. Of what sort then are 
these laws, which are put into force against us by the impious, 
the unjust, the base, the cruel, the foohsh, the mad, and by 
them alone ? Laws which Trajan made less effective by for- 
bidding Christians to be sought out; to which no Hadrian, 
although an investigator of all curiosities, no Vespasian, 
although conqueror of the Jews, no Pius, no Verus ever set 
his mark. Certainly the worst of men would be more readily 
sentenced to death by all the best, as their enemies, than by 
their own accomphces. ^ 

Chap. VI. Now I should hke these scrupulous champions 
and avengers of laws and ancestral institutions to answer wath 
regard to their own loyalty, respect and obedience towards the 
decrees of their ancestors, whether they have abandoned none, 
whether they have transgressed in none, whether they have 
not abohshed what were the necessary and most appropriate 
elements of their rule of hfe. What has become of those laws 
which checked extravagance and ostentation? those which 
ordered that not more than a hundred pence should be allowed 
for a dinner, that not more than one fowl and that not specially 
fattened should be served, which removed a patrician from the 
senate, because he had ten pounds weight of wrought silver, 
on the ground that this was a notable proof of ostentation, 


senatu submouebant, quae theatra stuprandis rnoribus orientia 
statim destruebant, quae dignitatum et honestorum natalium 
insignia non temere nec inpune usurpari sinebant ? Video enim 
et centenarias coenas a centenis iam sestertiis dicendas, et in 
lances (parum est si senatorum et non libertinorum uel adhuc 5 
flagra rumpentium) argentaria metalla producta. Video et 
theatra nec singula satis esse nec nuda; nam ne uel hieme 
uoluptas inpudica frigeret, primi Lacedaemonii penulam ludis 
excogitauerunt. Video et inter matronas atque prostibulas 
nullum de habitu discrimen relictum. Circa feminas quidem 10 
etiam illa maiorum instituta ceciderunt quae modestiae, quae 
sobrietati patrocinabantur, cum aurum nulla norat praeter 
unico digito quem sponsus obpignorasset pronubo anulo, cum ^/ 
mulieres usque adeo uino abstinerentur, ut matronam ob 
resignatos cellae uinariae loculos sui inedia necarint, sub Romulo 15 
uero quae uinum attigerat, inpune a Metennio marito trucidata 

/ sit. Idcirco et oscula propinquis offerre etiam necessitas erat, 
ut spiritu iudicarentur. Ubi est illa felicitas matrimoniorum 
de moribus uticjue prosperata, qua per annos ferme sexcentos 
ab urbe condita nulla repudium domus scripsit ? At nunc in 20 
feminis prae auro nullum leue est membrum, prae uino nullum 
liberum est oscuhim, repudium uero iam et uotum est, quasi 
matrimonii fructus. Etiam circa ipsos deos uestros quae 

/■ prospecte decreuerant patres uestri, idem uos obsequentissimi 
rescidistis. Liberum Patrem cum mysteriis suis consules 25 
senatus auctoritate non modo urbe, sed uniuersa Italia ehmina- 
uerunt. Serapidem et Isidem et Arpocratem cum suo cvno- 
cephalo CapitoHo prohibitos inferri, id est curia deorum pulsos, 
Piso et Gabinius consules non utique Christiani euersis etiam 
aris eorum abdicauerunt, turpium et otiosarum superstitionum 30 
uitia cohibentes. His uos restitutis summam maiestatem 
contuhstis. Ubi religio, ubi ueneratio maioribus debita a 
uobis? Habitu, uictu, instructu, sensu, ipso denique sermone 


which proceeded at once to destroy theatres as they rose for the 
corruption of morals, which did not allow the badges of oihce 
or noble birth to be employed hghtly or with impunity? (I ask 
these questions) for I see dinners, which can only be called 
centuries from the 100,000 sesterces they cost, and whole mines 
of silver worked out into plates, a small thing if they were the 
property of senators only and not of freedmen or of those who 
are still Uable to be flogged. I see too that one theatre, or a 
theatre open to the sky, is not enough for each town; for 
doubtless it was to prevent their immodest pleasure from being 
too cold in winter, that the Spartans first invented their 
cloak for the sports. I see too that there is no difference left 
between the dress of matrons and that of prostitutes. Indeed 
Avith regard to women even those customs of our ancestors have 
fallen into disuse, which protected modesty and sobriety, in an 
age when no woman knew aught of gold save on the one finger 
which the bridegroom had claimed for himself with the wedding 
ring, and when w^omen abstained from wine to such a degree, 
that her relatives put a matron to death by starvation for 
breaking open the bins of the wine-cellar. Under Eomulus 
indeed one who had touched wine was put to death with im- 
punity by her husband Metennius. For the same reason they 
were also even obhged to offer kisses to their kinsfolk, that they 
might be judged by their breath. Where is now that happiness 
of married hfe so successful in point of morals at any rate, the 
result of which was that for about six hundred years after the 
foundation of Rome a writing of divorce was unknown? But 
now in the case of women every part of the body is weighted 
with gold, no kiss is free ojving^to wine, and divorce is now 
the object of prayer, as the natural fruit of marriage. Even 
with regard to your gods themselves the wise decrees of your 
ancestors with their apphcation to the future have been re- 
scinded by you, the very people who plume yourselves on 
your obedience to them. The consuls on the authority of 
the senate banished Father Bacchus with his mysteries not 
only from the capital but from the whole of Italy. Serapis 
and Isis and Harpocrates with their dog-headed attendant 
were forbidden the Capitol, in other words were expelled 
from the parhament of the gods, their altars overturned and 
themselves banished by the consuls Piso and Gabinius, who 
were assuredly no Christians, with a view to check the vices 
arising from their base and idle superstitions. But these you 
have restored, and conferred on them the highest dignity. AVhere 
is your religion. where the respect you owe to your ancestors? 
In dress, in food, in household arrangements, in feehng, even in 


proauis 'renuntiastis. Laudatis semper antiquitatem, et noue 
de die uiuitis. Per quod ostenditur, dum a bonis maiorum 
institutis deceditis, ea uos retinere et custodire quae non 
debuistis, cum quae debuistis non custodistis. Ipsum adhuc 
quod uidemini fidelissime tueri a patribus traditum, in 5 
quo principaliter reos transgressionis Christianos destinastis, 
studium dico deorura colendorum, de quo maxime errauit 
antiquitas, Hcet Serapidi iam Eomano aras restruxeritis, licet 
Baccho iam Italico furias uestras immoletis, suo loco ostendam 
proinde despici et neglegi et destrui a uobis aduersus maiorum 10 
auctoritatem. Nunc enim ad illam occultorum facinorum 
infamiam respondebo, ut uiam mihi ad manifestiora purgem. , 

7. Dicimur sceleratissimi de sacramento infanticidii et 
pabulo inde, et post conuiuium incesto, quod euersores luminum 
canes, lenones scilicet tenebrarum, libidinum impiarum in uere- 15 
cundiam procurent. Dicimur tamen semper, nec uos quod 
tam diu dicimur eruere curatis. Ergo aut eruite, si creditis, 
aut nolite credere, qui non eruistis. De uestra uobis dissimu- 
latione praescribitur non esse quod nec ipsi audetis eruere. 
Longe aliud munus carnifici in Christianos imperatis, non ut 20 
dicant quae faciunt, sed ut negent quod sunt. Census istius 
disciplinae, ut iam edidimus, a Tiberio est. Cum odio sui 
coepit ueritas. Simul atque apparuit, inimica est. Tot hostes 
eius quot extranei, et quidem proprie ex aemulatione ludaei, 
ex concussione milites, ex natura ipsi etiam domestici nostri. 25 
Cotidie obsidemur, cotidie prodimur, in ipsis plurimum coetibus 
et congregationibus nostris opprimimur. Quis umquam taliter 
uagienti infanti superuenit? Quis cruenta, ut inuenerat, 
Cyclopum et Sirenum ora iudici reseruauit? Quis uel in 
uxoribus aliqua inmunda uestigia deprehendit? Quis talia 30 
facinora cum inuenisset, celauit aut uendidit ipsos trahens 


language itself you have abandoned your ancestors. You are 
always praising old times, but you change your position from 
day to day. By this it is shown that, in departing from the 
good customs of your ancestors, you retain and preserve those 
which you ought not, while you have not preserved those which 
you ought. Even the very thing that you still seem most faith- 
fully to guard, as handed down by your ancestors, that in which 
most of all you have marked the Christians as guilty of trans- 
gression, I mean zeal in the worship of the gods, (concerning 
which early ages made the greatest mistakes,) although you have 
built up again the altars to Serapis, now become a Roman, 
although you present the frantic orgies of your worship to 
Bacchus, now an Itahan, I will show in the proper place that 
these are ahke looked down upon and shghted and undermined 
by you against the authority of your ancestors. But now I will 
reply to that evil reputation for secret crimes, to clear my way 
for the more open ones. 

Chap. YII. We are called abominable from the sacrament 
of infanticide and the feeding thereon, as well as the incestuous 
intercourse, following the banquet, because the dogs, that over- 
turn the lamps, (our pimps forsooth of the darkness) bring 
about the shamelessness engendered by our impious lusts. 
Yet we are but called so on each occasion, and you take no pains 
to bring to Hght what we have been so long charged with. There- 
fore either prove the fact, if you beUeve it, or refuse to beheve it, 
you who have not proved it. For your want of straightforward- 
ness a preUminary objection is raised against you, that that 
cannot be true which not even you yourselves dare to search out, 
It is quite a different duty that you lay upon the executioner 
against the Christians, namely, not that they should say of what 
they are guilty, but that they should deny what they are. The 
beginning of this teaching, as I have already stated, dates from 
Tiberius. Truth from the first was accompanied by hatred of 
herself: from her first appearance she is an enemy. She has 
as many enemies as there are strangers to her, the Jews indeed 
quite speciaUy so from jealousy, the soldiers from their violence, 
and even the very members of our households from natural ill- 
feeUng. We are daily besieged, we are daily betrayed, even 
in our very meetings and assembUes we are frequently surprised. 
Who ever came upon an infant waiUng under such circumstances? 
Who ever kept for the judge the bloodstained faces of Cyclopes 
and Sirens just as he had found them? Who detected even on 
our wives any trace of impurity ? Who when he had discovered 
such crimes, concealed them or sold his concealment of them, 


homines? Si semper latemus, quando proditum est quod 
admittimus? immo a quibus prodi potuit? Ab ipsis enim reis 
non utique, cum uel ex forma omnibus mysteriis silentii fides 
debeatur. Samothracia et Eleusinia reticentur, quanto magis 
taha quae prodita interim etiam humanam animaduersionem 5 
prouocabunt, dum diuina seruatur? Si ergo non ipsi prodi- 
tores sui, sequitur ut extranei. Et unde extraneis notitia, 
cum semper etiam piae initiationes arceant profanos et arbitris >/ " 
caueant? Nisi si impii minus metuunt. Natura famae omnibus 
nota est. Vestrum est: Fama malum cjua non aliud uekjcius 10 
ullum. Cur ftialum fama? quia uelox? quia index? an quia 
plurimum mendax? quae ne tunc quidem, cum aliquid ueri 
. adfert, sine mendacii uitio est, detrahens, adiciens, demutans 
/ de ueritate. Quid? quod ea illi condicio est, ut non nisi cum 
mentitur perseueret et tamdiu uiuit cjuamdiu non probat, 15 
siquidem, ubi probauit, cessat esse et quasi ofiicio nuntiandi 
functa rem tradit, et exinde res tenetur, res nominatur. Nec 
quisquam dicit uerbi gratia, Hoc Romae aiunt factum, aut, 
Fama est illum prouinciam sortitum, sed, Sortitus est ille pro- 
uinciam, et, Hoc factum est Romae. Fama, nomen incerti^ 20 
locum non habet ubi certum est. An uero famae credat nisi 
inconsideratus ? Quia sapiens non credit incerto. Omnium 
est aestimare, quantacunque illa ambitione diffusa sit, quanta- 
cunque asseueratione constructa, quod ab uno aliquando 
principe exorta sit necesse est. Exinde in traduces linguarum 25 
et aurium serpit, et ita modici seminis uitium cetera rumoris 
obscurat, ut nemo recogitet, ne primum illud os mendacium 
seminauerit, quod saepe fit aut ingenio aemulationis aut arbitrio 
suspicionis aut non noua sed ingenita quibusdam mentiendi 
V uoluptate. Bene autem quod omnia tempus reuelat, testibus 30 
etiam uestris prouerbiis atque sententiis, ex dispositione naturae, 
quae ita ordinauit, ut nihil diu lateat, etiam quod fama non 


with the veiy offenders in his grasp ? If we are ahvays in hiding, 
when was the crime we commit betrayed ? nay rather, by whom 
could it be betrayed ? Assuredly not by the accused themselves, 
since even according to rule all mysteries are bound to be loyally 
concealed. Silence is preserved with regard to the mysteries of 
Samothrace and Eleusis ; how much more with regard to such 
as if betrayed will sometimes even call forth human punishment, 
while their divine character is preserved ! unless therefore they 
are themselves their own betrayers, it follows that the betrayers 
must be outsiders. And, if so, whence do the outsiders obtain 
the knowledge, since even rehgious initiations always exclude 
the profane and take precautions against the presence of eye- 
witnesses, unless it be that the impious are bolder than others? 
The nature of rumour is known to all. One of your (own) 
writers says: 'Rumour, than which no other evil is swifter.' 
Why is rumour an evil? because it is swift? because it gives 
information? or is it because it is very often lying? Even 
when it brings some truth with it, it is not exempt from- 
the flaw of falsehood, as it takes away from, adds to, and 
alters the truth. What are we to say of the fact that its 
character is such that it does not persist without lying and 
it Uves only as long as it cannot prove its truth ; since when it 
has proved it, it ceases to exist and as though it had done its 
work of reporting hands down the matter, and thereafter it is 
held to be fact, and is so called. Nor does anyone for example 
remark : ' They say this has happened at Eome,' or ' The rumour 
is that he has obtained the province (by lot),' but 'He has 
obtained the province,' and: — 'This has happened at Rome.' 
Rumour, a name belonging to uncertainty, has no place where 
certainty exists. Would anyone indeed, unless he were devoid 
of sense, beheve rumour? A wise man does not trust what is 
uncertain. Anyone can judge that, however great may be the 
extent to which the story is spread, however great the confidence 
with which it has been built up, still it must have sprung at 
some time or other from a single root. From that it creeps 
into the branches of tongues and ears. And a fault in the 
little seed is so concealed by the shield^ of rumour, that no one 
refiects whether that first mouth may not have sown the lie, 
a thing that often happens either through the inventiveness of 
jealousy or the humour of suspicion or the pleasure in lying, 
which is not new but inborn in some people. It is a good thing 
that time reveals everything, as even your proverbs and maxims 
testify, by the arrangement of nature, which has so ordered it 
that nothing is concealed for long, even that which rumour has 
^ Reading caetra with Schrors. 


distulit. Merito igitur fama tamdiu conscia sola est scelerum 
Christianoium. Hanc indicem aduersus nos profertis, quae 
quod aliquando iactauit tantoque spatio in opinionem corro- 
borauit usque adhuc probare non ualuit, ut fidem naturae 
ipsius appelletn aduersus eos qui talia credenda esse prae- 5 
sumunt. J 

8. Ecce proponimus horum facinorum mercedem. Vitam 
aeternam repromittunt. Credite interim. De hoc enim quaero, 
an et qui credideris tanti habeas ad eam tali conscientia per- 
uenire. Veni, demerge ferrum in infantem nullius inimicum, 10 
nuHius reum, omnium filium, uel, si alterius ofhcium est, tu 
modo adsiste morienti homini antequam uixit, fugientem 
animam nouam expecta, excipe rudem sanguinem, eo panem 
tuura satia, uescere libenter. Interea discumbens dinumera 
loca, ubi mater, ubi soror; nota dihgenter, ut, cum tenebrae 15 
ceciderint caninae, non erres. Piaculum enim admiseris nisi^ 
incestum feceris. Talia initiatus et consignatus uiuis in aeuum. 
Cupio respondeas, si tanti aeternitas. Aut si non, ideo nec 
credenda. Etiamsi credideris, nego te uelle; etiamsi uolueris, 
nego te posse. Cur ergo alii possint, si uos non potestis? cur 20 
non possitis, si alii possunt? Alia nos, opinor, natura; Cyno- 
paene aut Sciapodes? Alii ordines dentium, alii ad incestam 
libidinem nerui? Qui ista credis de homine, potes et facere. 
Homo es et ipse, quod et Christianus. Qui non potes facere, 
non debes credere. Homo est enim et Christianus et quod et 25 
tu. Sed ignorantibus subicitur et inponitur. Nihil enim tale 
de Christianis asseuerari sciebant obseruandum utique sibi et 
omni uigilantia inuestigandum. Atquin uolentibus initiari 
moris est, opinor, prius patrem illum sacrorum adire, quae 
praeparanda sint describere. Tum ille : Infans tibi necessarius 30 
adhuc tener, qui nesciat mortem, qui sub cultro tuo rideat; 
item panis, quo sanguinis uirulentiam colligas; praeterea 


not spread abroad. Justly therefore, has rumour and rumour 
alone had for so long any knowledge of the crimes of the Chris- 
tians. This is the informer you produce against us, one which 
as yet has not been able to prove what it has so long thrown 
out and what in so long a period of time it has strengthened 
into a settled opinion. But now to appeal to the credit o£ 
nature herself against those who dare to assume that such 
stories are to be beheved. 

Chap. VIII. Lo, I set before you the reward of such crimes ; 
they promise everlasting Hfe. BeUeve it for the moment, 
About this I ask whether even you who have beheved think 
it worth while to attain it at the price of such a (guilty) 
conscience. Come, plunge the sword into an infant who is 
no one's enemy, guilty of no crime, the child of all : or if 
such bloodshed is another's duty, do you merely stand by a 
human being dying before he has really lived ; wait for the flight 
of the new hf e ; catch the scarce-f ormed blood ; with it soak your 
bread, and enjoy your meal. Meantime, as you recHne, count 
the places and mark where your mother, where your sister is; 
make a careful note, so that when the dogs have put out the 
hghts, you may not make a mistake. For you will be guilty 
of sin if you fail to commit incest. Thus initiated and sealed, 
you hve for ever. Please tell me, whether eternity is worth 
such a price ; if it is not so, it ought not to be beheved to be so. 
Even if you beheved it, I deny that you wished it ; even if you 
wished it, I deny that you could do it. Why then should others 
be capable of doing what you cannot do? why could not you 
do it if others can? We, I suppose, are of another nature — 
monstrosities with heads of dogs or with feet so large as to shade 
us; with teeth differently arranged, and with organs different 
from other men, for the gratification of incestuous lust ! You 
who beheve such things about a fellow man can also do th^em 
yourself. You too are a human being, as the Christian is too. 
You who are incapable of the deeds, ought not to beheve them 
possible. For the Christian also is a human being as you are. 
But perhaps the ignorant alone are tricked and decoyed into our 
leligion: for they knew that no such statement was made 
about the Christians : but they must assuredly look to the matter 
and study it with all care. And yet, it is the custom, I fancy, 
for those who wish to be initiated, first to approach the father 
of the rites, and to write down what has to be prepared. Then 
he says : ' You have need of a httle chikl, still soft, with no 
knowledge of death, who will smile under your knife; also 
bread, in which to gather the blood sauce ; further, candlesticks 


candelabra et liicernae et canes aliqui et offulae, quae illos 
ad euersionem luminum extendant: ante omnia cum matre 
et sorore tua uenire debebis. Quid, si noluerint uel nullae 
f uerint ? quid denique singulares Christiani ? Non erit, opinor, 
legitimus Christianus nisi frater aut filius. Quid nunc, et si 5 
ista omnia ignaris praeparantur ? Certe postea cognoscunt et 
sustinent et ignoscunt, Timent plecti, si proclament, qui 
defendi merebuntur, qui etiam ultro perire malint quam sub 
taH conscientia uiuere. Age nunc timeant, cur etiam per- 
seuerant? Sequitur enim, ne ultra uelis id te esse quod, si lo 
prius scisses, non fuisses. 

9. Haec quo magis refutauerim, a uobis fieri ostendam 
partim in aperto, partim in occulto, per quod forsitan et de 
nobis credidistis. Infantes penes Africam Saturno immola- 
bantur palam usque ad proconsulatum Tiberii, qui eosdem 15 
sacerdotes in eisdem arboribus templi sui obumbratricibus 
scelerum aotiuis crucibus exposuit, teste militia patriae nostrae, 
quae id ipsum munus illi proconsuli functa est. Sed et nunc 
in occulto perseueratur hoc sacrum facinus. Non soli uos con- 
temnunt Christiani, nec ullum scelus in perpetuum eradicatur 20 
aut mores suos aliqui deus mutat. Cum propriis filiis Saturnus 
non pepercit, extraneis utique non parcendo perseuerabat, quos 
quidem ipsi parentes sui offerebant et libentes respondebant et ^ ' 
infantibus blandiebantur, ne lacrimantes immolarentur. JEt 
tamen multum homicidio parricidium difi:ert. Maior aetas apud 25 
Gallos Mercurio prosecatur. Remitto fabulas Tauricas theatris 
suis. Ecce in illa religiosissima urbe Aeneadarum piorum est 
lupiter quidam quem hidis suis humano sanguine prohiunt. 
Sed bestiarii, inquitis. Hoc, opinor, minus quam hominis? 
An hoc turpius, quod mah hominis? certe tamen de homicidio 30 
funditur. louem Christianum et solum patris fiHum de 
crudeHtate! Sed quoniam de infanticidio nihil interest sacro 
an arbitrio perpetretur, licet parricidium homicidio intersit, 



and lamps and some dogs and little morsels of meat, to make 
them strain and overturn the lamps; above all you will have 
to conie with your mother and sister. What if they refuse or if 
you have none ? What in a word are soHtary Christians to do ? 
Every lawful Christian w411 be, I suppose, either a brother or 
a son. What now, even if all these things are prepared for those 
who know nothing about them? At any rate they learn it 
later, and endure it and pardon it! You will say they fear 
punishment, though, if they declared the facts, they would 
deserve every protection, and though they would rather suffer 
death than live with such a consciousness of guilt! Suppose, 
however, that they are still afraid, why do they still continue 
to be Christians ? For it follows that you no longer wish to be 
that which you would never have become if you had known 

Chap. IX. To refute these charges more efiectively, I will 
show that these crimes are perpetrated by you both in public 
and in secret, which is perhaps the reason that you have come to 
believe them about us also. Babes were sacrificed publicly to 
Saturn in Africa till the proconsulate of Tiberius, who exposed 
the same priests on the same trees that overshadow the crimes 
of their temple, on dedicated crosses, as is attested by the 
soldiery of my father^, which performed that very lervice for 
that proconsul. But even now this accursed crime is in secret 
kept up. It is not the Christians only who despise you; nor 
is any crime rooted out once for all, nor does any god change 
his character. Since Saturn did not spare his own children, 
of course he stuck to his habit of not sparing those of other 
people, whom indeed their own parents offered of themselves, 
being pleased to answer the call, and fondled the infants, lest 
they should weep when being sacrificed. And yet a parenfs 
murder of his child is far worse than simple homicide. Among 
the Gauls adults are sacrificed to Mercury. I leave the fables 
about the Taurians to the theatres to which they belong. Lo, 
in that deeply religious city of the pious descendants of Aeneas 
there is a certain Jupiter whom at his own games they drench 
with human blood. ' But,' say you, ' only that of a criminal con- 
demned to the beasts.' This, I suppose, is of less value than that 
of a human being. Or is this the viler, because it is that of an 
evil man ? At any rate it is the blood of homicide that is shed. 
What a Christian is Jupiter, the only son of his father in point 
of cruelty ! But since, in a case of infanticide, it matters not 
whether it is carried out as a sacred rite or out of mere caprice 
^ Reading palris nostri. 



conuertar ad populiim. Quot uultis ex his circumstantibus 
et in Christianorum sanguinem hiantibus, ex ipsis etiam uobis 
iustissimis et seuerissimis in nos praesidibus apud conscientias 
pulsem, qui natos sibi liberos enecent? Siquidem et de genere 
necis differt, utique crudelius in aqua spiritum extorquetis aut 5 
frigori et fami et canibus exponitis. Ferro enim mori aetas 
quoque maior optauerit. Nobis uero semel homicidio inter- 
dicto etiam conceptum utero, dum adhuc s.anguis in hominem 
delibatur, dissoluere non licet. Homicidii festinatio est pro- 
hibere nasci, nec refert natam quis eripiat animam an nascentem i» 
disturbet. Homo est et qui est futurus; etiam fructus omnis 
iam in semine est. De sanguinis pabulo et eiusmodi tragicis 
ferculis legite, necubi relatum sit (est apud Herodotum, opinor), 
defusum brachiis sanguinem ex alterutro degustatum nationes 
quasdam foederi conparasse. Nescio quid et sub Catilina 15 
degustatum est. Aiunt et apud quosdam gentiles Scytharum 
defunctum quemque a suis comedi. Longe excurro. Hodie 
istic Bellonae sacratussanguis de femore proscisso in palmulam 
exceptus et esui datus signat. Item illi qui munere in arena 
noxiorum iugulatorum sanguinem recentem de iugulo decur- 20 
rentem exceptum auida siti comitiali morbo medentes auferunt, 
ubi sunt? item ilh qui de arena ferinis obsoniis coenant, qui de 
apro, qui de ceruo petunt? Aper ille quem cruentauit, con- 
luctando detersit. Ceruus ille in gladiatoris sanguine iacuit. 
Ipsorum ursorum aluei appetuntur cruditantes adhuc de uis- 25 
ceribus humanis. Ructatur proinde ab homine caro pasta de 
homine. Haec qui editis, quantum abestis a conuiuiis Christian- 
orum? Minus autem et illi faciunt qui libidine fera humanis 
membris inhiant, quia uiuos uorant? minus humano sanguine 
ad spurcitiam consecrantur, quia futurum sanguinem lambunt ? 30 
Non edunt infantes plane, sed magis puberes. ^Erubescat error 


(although it does matter whether it is child-murder or homicide) 
I will appeal to the people. How many of those standing around 
and panting for the blood of the Christians, aye even of your- 
selves, magistrates most just and severe against us, should I prick 
in their consciences, for putting to death the children born to 
them ? Since there is a difference also in the manner of the 
death, it is assuredly more cruel to sufEocate them by drowning 
or to expose them to cold and starvation and the dogs; for 
even an older person would prefer to die by the sword. But 
to us, to whom homicide has been once for all forbidden, it is 
not permitted to break up even what has been conceived in the 
womb, while as yet the blood is being drawn (from the parent 
body) for a human Hfe. Prevention of birth is premature murder, 
and it makes no difference whether it is a hfe already born that 
one snatches away, or a hfe in the act of being born that one 
destroys ; that which is to be a human-being is also human ; 
the whole fruit is already actually present in the seed. With 
regard to banquets of blood and such hke tragic dishes, you may 
read whether it is not somewhere stated (it is in Herodotus, 
I think) that certain tribes had arranged the tasting of blood 
drawn from the arms of both sides to signify ratification of a 
treaty. Something ofthe same kind was tasted also under 
Catihne. They say that among certain tribesmen of the 
Scythians also each dead person becomes food for his own 
relations. But I am wandering too far. On this very day, 
in this very country, blood from a wounded thigh, caught in 
a pahii of the hand and given to her worshippers to drink, 
marks the votariesi of Bellona. Again, what of those who, by 
way of heahng epilepsy, at the gladiatorial show, drain ^th 
eager thirst the blood of slaughtered criminals, while it is still 
fresh and flowing down from the throat? Or what of those, 
who dine on bits of wild-beast from the arena, who seek a shce 
of boar or stag ? That boar in the struggle wiped off the blood 
from him whom he had first stained with gore; that stag 
wallowed in a gladiator's blood. The paunches of the very 
bears are eagerly sought, w^hile they are yet gorged with un- 
digested human flesh; thus flesh that has been f^d on man is 
forthwith vomited by man. You that eat such things, how far 
removed you are from the feasts of the Christians! But are 
those others less guilty, who with savage lust gloat over human 
bodies, because they devour them ahve ? are they any the less 
dedicated to filth by human blood, because they hck up what 
is about to become blood? they do not absolutely eat infants, 
but rather those that are grown up. Your crimes ought to 
^ Reading sacralos. 


uester Christianis, qui ne animalium quidem sanguinem in 
epulis esculentis habemus, qui propterea suffocatis quoque et 
morticinis abstinemus, ne quo modo sanguine contaminemur 
uel intra uiscera sepulto. Denique inter temptamenta Chris- 
tianorum botulos etiam cruore distensos admouetis, certissimi 5 
scilicet inlicitum esse penes illos per quod exorbitare eos uultis. 
Porro quale est, ut quos sanguinem pecoris horrere confiditis, 
humano inhiare credatis, nisi forte suauiorem eum experti? 
Quem quidem et ipsum proinde examinatorem Christianorum 
adhiberi oportebat ut foculum, ut acerram. Proinde enim lo 
probarentur sanguinem humanum adpetendo queuiatlmodum 
sacrificium respuendo, alioquin negandi si non gustassent, 
quemadmodum si immolassent, et utique non deesset uobis in 
auditione custodiarum et damnatione sanguis humanus. /Proinde 
incesti qui magis quam quos ipse lupiter docuit? Persas cum 15 
suis matribus misceri Ctesias refert. Sed et Macedones suspecti, 
quia, cum primum Oedipum tragoediam audissent, ridentes 
incesti dolorem, "HXavve, dicebant, ei? rt]v /jLTjrepa. lam nunc 
recogitate quantum liceat erroribus ad incesta miscenda, 
suppeditante materias passiuitate luxuriae. Imprimis filios 20 
exponitis suscipiendos ab aliqua praetereunte misericordia 
extranea, uel adoptandos melioribus parentibus emancipatis. 
Alienati generis necesse est quandoque memoriam dissipari, et 
simul error inpegerit, exinde iam tradux proficiet incesti serpente 
genere cum scelere. Tunc deinde quocunque in loco, domi, 25 
peregre, trans freta comes est libido, cuius ubique saltus facile 
possunt alicubi ignaris filios pangere uel ex ahqua seminis 
portione, ut ita sparsum genus per commercia humana concurrat 
in memorias suas, neque eas caecus incesti sanguinis agnoscat. 
Nos ab isto euentu diUgentissima et fidelissima castitas sepsit, 30 
quantumque ab stupris et ab omni post matrimonium excessu, 
tantum et ab incesti casu tuti sumus. Quidam multo securiores 
totam uim huius erroris uirgine continentia depellunt, senes 


blush before us Christians, who do not reckon the blood even of 
animals among articles of food, who abstain even from things 
strangled and from such as die of themselves, lest we should in 
any way be polluted even by blood which is buried within the 
body. Again, among the trials of the Christians you offer them 
sausages actually filled with blood, being of course perfectly 
aware that the means you wish to employ to get them 
to abandon their principles is in their eyes impermissible. 
Further, how absurd it is for you to beheve that they, who 
you are assured, abhor the blood of beasts, are panting for the 
blood of man, unless perchance you have found the former more 
palatable ! Indeed this thirst for blood, Uke the httle altar 
and the incense-box, should have been itself apphed as a means 
of testing the Christians. For they would then be distinguished 
by their desire for human blood, in the same way as by their 
refusal to sacrifice; being otherwise deserving of rejection, if 
they had refused to taste, just as if they had sacrificed. And 
you would at any rate have had no lack of human blood at 
the hearing and condemnation of prisoners. Again, who are 
more incestuous than those whom Jupiter himself has taught? 
Ctesias records that the Persians have sexual intercourse wdth 
their own mothers. The Macedonians, too, are suspect, because 
on 'first hearing the tragedy of Oedipus, they ridiculed his grief 
at the incest of which he had been guilty, saying: II montait 
sa mere. And now reflect what an opening is left to mistakes 
to bring about incestuous unions, for which the wide range of 
profligacy supphes opportunity. In the first place there is 
your exposure of your children, to be brought up by some 
passing stranger out of pity, and your surrender of them to be 
adopted by parents better than yourselves. The memory of 
a progeny thus cast of5 must some time or other be lost, and 
when once the error has rooted itself, the transmission of the 
incest will proceed farther and farther, as the family grows 
gradually with the crime. In the second place, everywhere, at 
home, abroad, across the seas, lust is in attendance, whose 
promiscuous impulses can easily beget children to you unawares 
in some place or other, even from however small a portion of 
the seed, so that a family, which has thus become scattered, 
may through the varied intercourse of men meet its own past, 
and may yet fail to recognise in it the mixtures of incestuous 
blood. We on the contrary are guarded from this result by 
a scrupulously faithful chastity, and we are as safe from the 
chance of incest as we are from debauchery and every excess 
in wedded hfe. Some are even much safer, as they withstand 
all possibility of this mistake by virgin continence, old men in 



pueri. Haec in iiobis esse si consideraretis, proinde in Christ- 
ianis non esse perspiceretis. Idem oculi renmitiassent utrum- 
que. Sed caecitatis duae species facile concurrunt, ut qui non 
uident quae sunt, uidere uideantur quae non sunt. Sic per 
omnia ostendam. Nunc de manifestioribus dicam. 5 

10. Deos, inquitis, non colitis, et pro imperatoribus sacri- 
ficia non penditis. Sequitur ut eadem- ratione pro aliis non 
sacriticemus, quia nec pro nobis ipsis, semel deos non colendo. 
Itaque sacrilegii et maiestatis rei conuenimur. Summa haec 
causa, immo tota est, et utique digna cognosci, si non prae- lo 
sumptio aut iniquitas iudicet, altera quae desperat, altera quae 
recusat ueritatem. Deos uestros colere desinimus ex quo illos 
non esse cognoscimus. Hoc igitur exigere debetis, uti pro- 
bemus non esse illos deos, et idcirco non colendos, quia tunc 
demum coli debuissent, si dei fuissent. Tunc et Christiani 15 
puniendi, si quos non colerent, quia putarent non esse, constaret 
illos deos esse. Sed nobis, inquitis, dei sunt. Appellamus et 
prouocamus a uobis ad conscientiam uestram : illa nos iudicet, 
illa nos damnet, si poterit negare omnes istos deos uestros 
J homines fuisse. Si et ipsa inficias ierit, de suis antiquitatum 20 
instrumentis reuincetur, de quibus eos didicit, testimonium 
perhibentibus ad hodiernum et ciuitatibus in quibus nati sunt, 
et regionibus in quibus aliquid operati uestigia reliquerunt, in 
quibus etiam sepulti demonstrantur. Nunc ergo per singulos 
decurram, tot ac tantos, nouos, ueteres, barbaros, Graecos, 25 
Romanos, peregrinos, captiuos, adoptiuos, proprios, communes, 
masculos, feminas, rusticos, urbanos, nauticos, militares ? 
Otiosum est etiam titulos persequi, ut colligam in conpendium, 
et hoc non quo cognoscatis, sed recognoscatis. Certe enim 
oblitos agitis. Ante Saturnum deus penes uos nemo est, ab 30 
illo census totius uel potioris et notioris diuinitatis. Itaque 
quod de origine constiterit, id et de posteritate conueniet. 
Saturnum itaque, si quantum litterae docent, neque Diodorus 



years, children in innocence. If you considered such to be the 
case among yourselves, you would in consequence see clearly 
that it was not the case among the Christians. The same eyes 
would have reported both aUke. But the two kinds of bhnd- 
ness easily combine: those who do not see what really is, 
naturally think they see what is not. I will show this to be 
the case throughout. Now I will speak about more open sins. 

Chap. X. You accuse us of refusing to worship the gods, 
and to spend money on sacrificing for the emperors. It follows 
that we refuse to sacrifice for others on the same principle that 
we refuse even to sacrifice for ourselves, viz. by refusing once 
for all to worship the gods. Consequently we are charged with 
sacrilege and treason. This is the main point in the case, nay it 
is the whole case, and certainly worthy of investigation, if neither 
prejudice nor unfairness is to be the judge, the one despairing 
of the truth, the other objecting to it. We cease to worship 
your gods, from the moment we learn that they are no gods. 
This therefore is what you ought to demand, that we should 
prove that they are no gods, and therefore not to be worshipped, 
because then only would it have been our duty to worship them, 
if they had been gods. Then too the Christians would have 
deserved punishment, if it were certain that those whom they 
did not worship, because they thought they had no existence, 
were gods after all. ' But to us,' you say, ' they are gods.' We 
make apphcation and appeal from you to your conscience ; let 
that judge us, let that condemn us, if it is able to deny that all 
these gods of yours were human beings. If conscience shall 
itself contest this, it will be refuted from its own documents of 
ancient times, froni which it has learned of them, for they give 
evidence preserved to our day both of the communities in which 
they were born and of the districts in which they did some work 
of which they have left traces, and in which they are shown 
actually to have been buried. Now shall I run over them one by 
one, so many and so great as they are, new, old, barbarian, Greek, 
E,oman, strangers, captives, adopted, individual, common, male, 
female, country, city, naval, military? It needs leisure even 
to follow out their titles, even to sum up all in brief, not that you 
may learn but that you may be reminded of them : for certainly 
you play the part of those that have forgotten. Previous to 
Saturn there is no god among you, from him dates the origin of 
all deity or at least of the more powerful and better known 
divinity. Therefore what is estabhshed with regard to the 
origin, will be vahd also with regard to the later time. With 
regard to Saturn therefore, if we make appeal to what we can 


Graecus aiit Thallus neque Cassius Seuerus aut Comelius Nepos 
neque ullus commentator eiusmodi antiquitatum aliud quam 
hominem promulgauerunt, si quantum rerum argumenta, 
nusquam inuenio fideliora quam apud ipsam Italiam, in qua 
Saturnus post multas expeditiones postque Attica hospitia 5 
consedit, exceptus a lano, uel lane, ut Salii uolunt. Mons ^ 
quem incoluerat, Saturnius dictus, ciuitas quam depalauerat, / 
Saturnia usque nunc est, tota denique Italia post Oenotriam 
Saturnia cognominabatur. Ab ipso primum tabulae et imagine 
signatus nummus, et inde aerario praesidet. Tamen si homo 10 
Saturnus, utique ex homine, et quia ab homine, non utique de 
caelo et terra. Sed cuius parentes ignoti erant, facile fuit 
eorum filium dici quorum et omnes possumus uideri. Quis 
enim non caelum ac terram matrem ac patrem uenerationis et 
honoris gratia appellet? uel ex consuetudine humana, qua ignoti 15 
uel ex inopinato adparentes de caelo superuenisse dicuntur. 
Proinde Saturno repentino ubique caelitem contigit dici ; nam 
et terrae filios uulgus uocat quorum genus incertum est. Taceo 
quod ita rudes adhuc homines agebant, ut cuiuslibet noui uiri 
adspectu quasi diuino commouerentur, cum hodie iam politi 20 
quos ante paucos dies luctu publico mortuos sint confessi, in 
deos consecrent. Satis iam de Saturno, licet paucis. Etiam 
louem ostendemus tam hominem quam ex homine, et deinceps 
totum generis examen tam mortale quam seminis sui par. 

11. Et quoniam sicut illos homines fuisse non audetis 25 
negare, ita post mortem deos factos instituistis adseuerare, 
causas quae hoc exegerint retractemus. Inprimis quidem 
necesse est concedatis esse aliquem sublimiorem deum et 
mancipem quendam diuinitatis, qui ex hominibus deos fecerit. 
Nam neque sibi illi sumere potuissent diuinitatem, quam non 30 
habebant, nec alius praestare eam non habentibus nisi qui 
proprie possidebat. Ceterum si nemo esset qui deos faceret, 
frustra praesumitis deos factos auferendo factorem. Certe 


learn from literature, neitlier the Greek Diodorus nor Thallus 
nor Cassius Severus nor Cornelius Nepos, nor any other recorder 
of such ancient beliefs, has proclaimed him anything but a man; 
if to proofs from facts, I find nowhere more rehable proofs than 
in Italy itself, in which Saturn after many expeditions and after 
a residence in Attica took up his abode, having been welcomed 
by Janus, or Janes, as the Sahi prefer to call him. The moun- 
tain which he had inhabited was called Saturnian, the city, the 
bounds of which he had marked out with stakes, is even to this 
day Saturnia, finally the whole of Italy was named Saturnian, 
in succession to the name Oenotria. With him it was that 
accounts began and the impress of a human figure upon a coin, 
and thus it is that he presides over the treasury. But if Saturn 
was a man, he was of course sprung from a man, and because 
he was sprung from a man, it follows that he did not come from 
heaven or earth. But when a man's parents were unknown, it 
was easy to call him a son of those whose sons we also can all 
of us be considered; for who would not call heaven and earth 
father and mother respectively out of reverence and respect? 
even in accordance with human custom, by which unknown 
persons or those who appear unexpectedly are said to have 
come upon us from heaven. Thus it is that Saturn who appeared 
suddenly happened everywhere to be called divine ; indeed the 
common people call those also 'sons of earth' whose origin is 
uncertain. I say nothing of the fact that till then men were 
so unsophisticated, that they were stirred by the appearance 
of any new man, as if it were divine, since to-day men who are 
already cultivated deify those who a few days before they 
confessed by a pubhc funeral were dead. Enough now about 
Saturn, though in few words. We will show that even Jupiter 
was himself as much man as he was sprung from man, and that 
in succession the whole swarm of his descendants were as mortal 
as they were Hke the seed from which they sprang. 

Chap. XI. And since you have estabHshed the custom of 
maintaining that they were deified after death, in spite of the 
fact that you dare not deny them to have been men, let us 
review the causes that have led to this result. In the first 
place of course, you must admit that there is some superior 
god, a sort of proprietor of deity, who has made gods out of 
men. For neither could they have taken to themselves a 
deity which they did not possess, nor could anyone else have 
ofiered it to those who did not possess it unless he possessed it 
in his own right. If there was no one to make them gods, it is 
in vain that you assume their deification to have taken place, 


quidem si ipsi se facere potuissent, nunquam homines fuissent, 
possidentes scilicet condicionis melioris potestatem. Igitur si 
est qui faciat deos, reuertor ad causas examinandas faciendorum 
ex hominibus deorum, nec ullas inuenio, nisi si ministeria et 
auxilia officiis diuinis desiderauit ille magnus deus. Primo 5 
indignum est, ut alicuius opera indigeret, et quidem mortui, 
cum dignius ab initio deum aliquem fecisset qui mortui erat 
operam desideraturus. Sed nec operae locum uideo. Totum 
enim hoc mundi corpus siue innatum et infectum secundum 
Pythagoram, siue natum factumue secundum Platonem, semel 10 
utique in ista constructione dispositum et instructum et ordi- 
natum cum omni rationis gubernaculo inuentum est. Imper- 
fectum non potuit esse quod perfecit omnia. Nihil Saturnum 
et Saturniam gentem expectabat. Vani erunt homines, nisi 
certi sint a primordio et pluuias de caelo ruisse et sidera radiasse 1 5 
et lumina floruisse et tonitrua mugisse et ipsum louem quae 
in manu eius inponitis fulmina timuisse, item omnem frugem 
ante Liberum et Cererem et Mineruam, immo ante illum aliquem 
principem hominem de terra exuberasse, quia nihil continendo 
et sustinendo homini prospectum post hominem potuit inferri. 20 
Denique inuenisse dicuntur necessaria ista uitae, non instituisse. 
Quod autem inuenitur, fuit, et quod fuit, non eiiis deputabitur 
qui inuenit, sed eius qui instituit; erat enim antequam in- 
A ueniretur. Ceterum si propterea Liber deus quod uitem demon- 
strauit, male cum Lucullo actum est, qui primus cerasia ex 25 
Ponto ItaUae promulgauit, quod non est propterea consecratus 
ut frugis nouae auctor, qui ostensor. Quamobrem si ab initio 
et instructa et certis exercendorum officiorum suorum rationibus 
dispensata uniuersitas constitit, uacat ex hac parte causa 
adlegendae humanitatis in diuinitatem, quia quas illis stationes 30 
et potestates distribuistis, tam fuerunt ab initio quam et fuissent 
etiamsi deos istos non creassetis. Sed conuertimini ad causam 
aliam, respondentes conlationem diuinitatis meritorum re- 
munerandorum fuisse rationem. Et hinc conceditis, opinor, 
illum deum deificum iustitia praecellere, qui non temere nec 35 


while you deny the maker. Of course if they had been able to 
make themselves gods, they would never have been men, 
possessing as they did the command of a higher state. There- 
fore, if there is anyone who makes gods, I return to my 
examination of the causes for making gods out of men, and 
I can find none, unless it be that that great god desired servants . 
and helpers in discharge of his divine duties. But to begin with 
it is unworthy of him that he should need the service of anyone, 
especially of a dead man, since, if he were hkely to need the 
service of a dead person, it would have been a worthier course to 
have made some god from the first. But I see no room for 
such aid either. For the whole body of the world, whether 
unborn or unmade, as Pythagoras beheved, or born and made, 
as Plato believed, was surely found to have been once for all 
arranged and equipped and ordered in its present structure 
entirely under the guidance of reason. That could not be 
imperfect which has perfected all things. Nothing was waiting 
for Saturn and Saturn's race. Men will show themselves fools 
if they are not convinced that, from the beginning, rains fell 
from heaven, stars twinkled, the greater hghts have shown their 
power, thunders have roared, and Jove himself has feared the 
thunderbolts which you place in his hand ; moreover every sort 
of crop sprang forth in abundance from the soil before the days 
of Bacchus and Ceres and Minerva, nay even before that first 
man, if there were such, because nothing devised for the pre- 
servation and support of man could be introduced later than his 
own appearance. Lastly, the gods are said to have discovered, c 
not to have originated, these necessaries of life. That how^ever 
which is discovered, existed, and that which existed will not be 
counted as his who discovered it, but as his who originated it ; 
for it existed before it was found. But ii^ Bacchus is a god 
because he pointed out the vine, Lucullus, who first made 
cherries from Pontus known to Italy, has been unfairly treated, 
in that he was not for that reason deified, as the originator 
of a new kind of fruit, because he pointed it out. Wherefore, 
if the universe has existed from the beginning, both equipped 
and furnished with definite plans for carrying out its functions, 
this reason for promoting humanity to divinity falls to the 
ground, because the positions and powers that you have divided 
amongst them existed as much from the beginning, as they 
would also have existed, even if you had not appointed these 
gods of yours. But you turn to another reason, and reply that 
divinity was conferred upon them by way of rewarding their 
deserts. And hence you grant, I suppose, that that god- 
making deity excels in justice, since he apportioned so great 


indigne nec prodige tantum praemium dispensarit. Vol» 
iffitur merita recensere, an eiusmodi sint, ut illos in caelum 
extulerint et non potius in imum tartarum merserint, quem 
carcerem poenarum infernarum cum uultis adfirmatis. Illuc 
enim abstrudi solent impii quique in parentes et incesti in 5 
sorores et maritarum adulteri et uirginum raptores et puerorum 
contaminatores et qiii saeuiunt et qui occidunt et qui furantur 
et qui decipiunt et qiiicunque similes sunt alicuius dei uestri, 
quem neminem integrum a crimine aut uitio probare poteritis, 
nisi hominem negaueritis. Atquin ut illos homines fuisse non 10 
possitis negare, etiam istae notae accedunt quae nec deos postea 
factos credi permittunt. Si enim uos talibus puniendis prae- 
sidetis, si conmercium, colloquium, conuictum malorum et 
turpium probi quique respuitis, horum autem pares deus ille 
maiestatis suae consortio adsciuit, quid ergo damnatis quorum 15 
collegas adoratis? Suggillatio est in caelo uestra iustitia. 
Deos facite criminosissimos quosque, ut placeatis deis uestris. 
Illorum est honor consecratio coaequalium. Sed ut omittam 
huius indignitatis retractatum, probi et integri et boni fuerint. 
Quot tamen' potiores uiros apud inferos reliquistis ! ahquem de 20 
sapientia Socratem, de iustitia Aristiden, de mihtia Themisto- 
clem, de subhmitate Alexandrum, de fehcitate Polycraten, de 
copia Croesum, de eloquentia Demosthenen. Quis ex ilhs deis 
uestris grauior et sapientior Catone,iustior et mihtarior Scipione? 
quis subhmior Pompeio, fehcior Sylla, copiosior Crasso, elo- 25 
quentior Tuhio? Quanto dignius istos deos ihe adsumendos 
expectasset, praescius utique potiorum? Properauit, opinor, 
et caelum semel clusit, et nunc utique mehoribus apud inferos 
musitantibus erubescit. 

12. Cesso iam de isto, ut qui sciam me ex ipsa ueritate 30 
demonstraturum quid non sint, cum ostendero quid sint. 
Quantum igitur de deis uestris, nomina solummodo uideo 
quorundam ueterum mortuorum et fabulas audio et sacra de 
fabuhs recognosco : quantum autem de simulacris ipsis, nihil 
ahud reprehendo quam materias sorores esse uasculorum 35 


a reward neither rashly nor unworthily nor wastefully. I wish 
therefore to review their merits, to see whether they are of such 
a kind as to warrant their elevation to heaven, and not rather 
their abasement to the lowest hell, which, when you please, you 
affirm to be a prison of infernal punishment. For it is there 
that are wont to be thrust away all that were undutiful to 
parents, guilty of incest towards sisters, adulterers of wives, 
abductors of maidens, polluters of boys, and those who rage, 
kill, steal, deceive, and whoever are hke some god of your 
own, not one of whom you will be able to prove free from taint of 
crime or fault, unless you deny his humanity. But, to make it 
impossible for you to deny that they were men, there are also 
these characteristics which do not allow the belief that they 
became gods afterwards either. For if you sit in judgment 
for the punishment of such, if all the good among you reject 
the intercourse, the conversation, the company, of the evil and 
the base, and yet that great god has admitted their fellows 
into a partnership in his own majesty — why then do you 
condemn those whose fellows you worship? Your justice 
impHes chastisement in heaven. To please your gods you 
must convert your worst criminals into gods ! The deification 
of their equals is a compliment to them. But to omit further 
consideration of this disgrace, suppose they were honest and 
pure and good ; yet how many better men have you left in the 
lower world ! a Socrates distinguished for wisdom, an Aristides 
foi- justice, a Themistocles for generalship, an Alexander for 
glory, a Polycrates for good fortune, a Croesus for wealth, a 
Demosthenes for eloquence. Which of those gods of yours is 
worthier and wiser than Cato, a juster man or a better soldier 
than Scipio, who more eminent than Pompey, more fortunate 
than Sulla, wealthier than Crassus, more eloquent than Cicero ? 
How much more worthily would he have waited to adopt these 
as gods, especially as he had foreknowledge of these better ones 
to come ! He was in a hurry, I suppose, and closed the doors 
of heaven once for all, and is doubtless blushing now when he 
hears the complaints of better men grumbhng in the lower 

Chap. XII. I say no more now about this point, knowing 
that the truth itself will enable me to prove to you what they 
are not, when I have shown you what they are. With regard 
then to your gods, I see only the names of certain dead men of 
old time, about whom I hear tales, and I recognise sacred rites 
derived from the tales. With regard, however, to the images 
themselves, I have no fault to find except that the materials 



instrumentorumque communium uel ex isdem uasculis et 
instrumentis quasi fatum consecratione mutantes licentia 
artis transfigurante, et quidem contumeliosissime et in ipso 
opere sacrilege, ut reuera nobis maxime, qui propter ipsos deos 
plectimur, solatium poenarum esse possit quod eadem et ipsi 5 
patiuntur ut fiant. Crucibus et stipitibus inponitis Christianos. 
Quod simulacrum non prius argilla deformat cruci et stipiti 
superstructa ? in patibulo primum corpus dei uestri dedicatur. 
Ungulis deraditis latera Christianorum. At in deos uestros 
per omnia membra ualidius incumbunt asciae et runcinae et 10 
scobinae. Ceruices ponimus. Ante plumbum et glutinum et 
gomphos sine capite sunt dei uestri. Ad bestias impellimur. 
Certe quas Libero et Cybele et Caelesti applicatis. Ignibus 
urimur. Hoc et illi a prima quidem massa. In metalla 
damnamur. Inde censentur dei uestri. In insulis relegamur. 15 
Solet et in insula aliqui deus uester aut nasci aut mori. Si per 
haec constat diuinitas aliqua, ergo qui puniuntur, consecrantur, 
et numina erunt dicenda supplicia. Sed plane non sentiunt 
has iniurias et contumelias fabricationis suae dei uestri, sicut 
nec obsequia. impiae uoces, o sacrilega conuicia ! Infren- 20 
dite, inspumate ! Idem estis qui Senecam aliquem pluribus et 
amarioribus de uestra superstitione perorantem reprehendistis. 
Igitur si statuas et imagines frigidas mortuorum suorum 
similHmas non adoramus, quas milui et mures et araneae 
intellegunt, nonne laudem magis quam poenam merebatur 25 
repudium agniti erroris? Possumus enim uideri laedere eos 
quos certi sumus omnino non esse? Quod non est, nihil ab 
ullo patitur, quia non est. 

13. Sed nobis dei sunt, inquis. Et quomodo uos e con- 
trario impii et sacrilegi et inreligiosi erga deos uestros depre- 30 
hendimini, qui, quos praesumitis esse, neglegitis, quos timetis, 
destruitis, quos etiam uindicatis, inluditis? Recognoscite si 
mentior. Primo quidem, cum alii ahos colitis, utique quos 


are sisters to ordinary vessels and tools, or are made from the 
same vessels and tools, changing their destiny as it were by 
dedieation, the wantonness of art transforming them, and that 
too in the most insulting way involving a sacrilege in the work 
itself. Thus it may be in truth a solace especially to us who are 
punished on account of the gods themselves, a solace, I say, 
in our punishment, that they themselves also go through the 
same experience for their making. You place the Christians 
on crosses and stakes : what image is not first moulded in soft 
clay laid on a cross and a stake ? it is on a gibbet that the body 
of your god is consecrated first of all. You tear the sides of 
the Christians with claws, but upon your gods axes and planes 
and files are more vigorously applied all over their bodies. 
We lay down our necks : your gods are without a head until 
lead and glue and nails have been applied. We are cast out 
to wild-beasts, to the very beasts which form the train of 
Bacchus and Cybele and the Carthaginian goddess of Heaven. 
We are cast into the fire : so also are they, while the ore from 
which they are taken is refined. We are condemned to the 
mines and quarries : it is from thence your gods get their origin. 
We are banished to islands : in an island also it is usual for some 
god of yours either to be born or to die. If any divinity is thus 
confirmed, then those who are punished are deified, and punish- 
ments will have to be spoken of as tokens of divinity. But 
clearly your gods do not feel these injuries and insults involved 
in their formation, as neither do they feel the homage they 
receive. Oh the impious words, the sacrilegious abuse ! gnash 
your teeth at them, and f oam with rage ! You are the sanie 
people who blamed Seneca when with more bitterness and at 
greater length he argued against your superstition. Conse- 
quently, if we do not worship cold statues and figures, which 
have a strong Hkeness to the dead they represent, images of 
which kites and mice and spiders have a correct idea, did not 
the renouncing of a discovered error deserve praise rather than 
punishment? For can we be thought to inflict injury on those 
who, we f eel sure, do not exist at all ? That which does not 
exist, can suffer nothing from any one, because it has no 

Chap. XIII. 'But to us they are gods,' you say. If that 
be so, how is it that you on the contrary are found impious, 
sacrilegious, and irrehgious towards your gods ? you who neglect 
those whose existence you take for granted, who destroy those 
whom you fear, who mock even those whom you avenge? 
Consider if my statement is false. In the first place, when 


non colitis, offenditis. Praelatio alterius sine alterius contumelia 
non potest procedere, quia nec electio sine reprobatione. lam 
ergo contemnitis quos reprobatis, quos reprobando offendere 
non timetis. Nam, ut supra praestrinximus, status dei cuiusque 
in senatus aestimatione pendebat. Deus non erat quem homo 5 
consultus noluisset et nolendo damnasset. Domesticos deos, 
quos Lares dicitis, domestica potestate tractatis pignerando, 
uenditando, demutando aliquando in caccabulum de Saturno, 
aliquando in trullam de Minerua, ut quisque contritus atque 
contusus est, dum diu colitur, ut quisque dominus sanctiorem 10 
expertus est domesticam necessitatem. Publicos aeque publico 
iure foedatis, quos in hastario uectigales habetis. Sic Capi- 
toHum, sic olitorium forum petitur ; sub eadem uoce praeconis, 
sub eadem hasta, sub eadem adnotatione quaestoris diuinitas 
addicta conducitur. Sed enim agri tributo onusti uiliores, 15 
hominum capita stipendio censa ignobihora (nam hae sunt 
notae captiuitatis), dei uero qui magis tributarii, magis sancti, 
immo qui magis sancti, magis tributarii. Maiestas quaestuaria 
efficitur. Circuit cauponas religio mendicans. Exigitis mer- 
cedem pro solo templi, pro aditu sacri. Non licet deos gratis 20 
nosse; uenales sunt. Quid omnino ad honorandos eos facitis 
quod non etiam mortuis uestris conferatis? Aedes proinde, 
aras proinde. Idem habitus et insignia in statuis. Ut aetas. 
ut ars, ut negotium mortui fuit, ita deus est. Quo differt 
ab epulo louis sihcernium ? a simpulo obba ? ab haruspice 25 
polKnctor? Nam et haruspex mortuis apparet. Sed digne 
imperatoribus defunctis honorem diuinitatis dicatis, quibus et 
uiuentibus eum addicitis. Accepto ferent dei uestri, immo 
^ratulabuntur, quod pares eis fiant domini sui. Sed cum 
Larentinam publicum scortum, uehm saltim Laidem aut 30 
Phrynen, inter lunones et Cereres et Dianas adoretis, cum 
Simonem Magum statua et inscriptione Sancti Dei inaugu- 
ratis, cum de paedagogiis aulicis nescio quem synodi deum 


some of you are worshipping one god; some another, of course 
jovi slight the feeUngs of those whom you do not worship: 
preference of one is impossible without insult to another, since 
one cannot even choose without imphed blame. It follows 
therefore that you hghtly esteem those of whom you disapprove, 
and whom you do not fear to offend by your disapproval. For, 
as I hinted above, the position of each god depended on the 
opinion of the senate. He was no god, whom a man, when 
consulted, had dechned to deify, and by his refusal had con- 
demned. Your household gods, whom you call Lares, you deal 
with according to your household rights, pledging, advertising, 
changing them, sometimes from a Saturn into a cooking-pot, 
sometimes from a Minerva into a ladle, as each god happens to 
be worn and damaged with long adoration, as each master has 
found a more sacred deity in his domestic need. Your pubhc 
gods you profane equally by pubhc authority, while you keep 
them as sources of revenue in the auction-catalogue. Thus the 
Capitol, thus the vegetable market is attended by the bidders ; 
under the same voice of the crier, under the same spear, under 
the same entry made by the quaestor, divinity is knocked down 
to the highest bidder. But indeed lands charged with tribute 
are cheaper, and persons rated at a tax are less noble (for these 
are the marks of serfdom) : but the gods who bring in more 
tribute are more holy, or rather those who are more holy, bring 
in more tribute. Their majesty is made a matter of profit. 
Rehgion goes begging about the taverns. You demand pay- 
ment for the ground on which a temple stands, for permission 
to approach the sacred place; you cannot be acquainted with 
the gods for nothing, they have their price. What do you do 
at all to honour them, which you do not also bestow^ on your 
dead? Both ahke have their temples and altars. The dress 
is the same, the ornaments on their dress the same. The 
god corresponds in age, skill, and business to the dead man. 
What difference is there between a funeral feast and a banquet 
to Jupiter ? between a sacrificial and a f uneral chahce ? an under- 
taker and a soothsayer? for a soothsayer also attends upon 
the dead. But you worthily confer the honour of divinity on 
emperors when dead, since even in their hfetime you assign it 
to them. Your gods will give you credit for it, nay rather they 
will thank you for making their masters equal to them. But 
when you worship Larentina, a common whore — would it were 
at least a Lais or a Phryne — , among the Junos and the Cereses 
and the Dianas, when you hallow the name of Simon Magus 
with the statue and inscription of a holy god, when you make 
some court page a member of the college of gods ; although the 


facitis, licet non nobiliores dei ueteres, tamen contumeliam a 
uobis deputabunt hoc et aliis licuisse quod solis antiquitas 

14. Volo et ritus uestros recensere : non dico quales sitis 
in sacrificando, cum enecta et tabidosa et scabiosa quaeque 5 
mactatis, cum de opimis et integris superuacua quaeque 
truncatis, capitula et ungulas, quae domi quoque pueris uel 
canibus destinassetis, cum de decima Herculis nec tertiam 
partem in aram eius inponitis (laudabo magis sapientiam, quod 
de perdito aliquid eripitis), sed conuersus ad litteras uestras, 10 
quibus informamini ad prudentiam et liberalia officia, quanta 
inuenio ludibria ! deos inter se propter Troianos et Achiuos ut 
gladiatorum paria congressos depugnasse, Venerem humana 
sagitta sauciatam, quod filium suum Aenean paene interfectum 
ab eodem Diomede rapere uellet, Martem tredecim mensibus 15 
in uinculis paene consumptum, louem, ne eandem uim a ceteris 
caelitibus experiretur, opera cuiusdam monstri liberatum, et 
nunc flentem Sarpedonis casum, nunc foede subantem in 
sororem sub commemoratione non ita dilectarum iampridem 
amicarum. Exinde quis non poeta ex auctoritate principis 20 
sui dedecorator inuenitur deorum? Hic Apollinem Admeto 
regi pascendis pecoribus addicit, ille Neptuni structorias operas 
Laomedonti locat. Est et ille de lyricis (Pindarum dico) qui 
Aescolapium canit auaritiae merito, quia medicinam nocenter 
exercebat, fulmine iudicatum. Malus luppiter, si fulmen illius 25 
est, impius in nepotem, inuidus in artificem. Haec neque uera 
prodi neque falsa confingi apud religiosissimos oportebat. Nec 
tragici quidem aut comici parcunt, ut non aerumnas uel errores 
domus alicuius dei praefentur. Taceo de philosophis, Socrate 
contentus, qui in contumefiam deorum quercum et hircum et 30 
canem deierabat. Sed propterea damnatus est Socrates, quia 


old gods are no nobler, yet they will consider it an insult paid 
to them from you, that this privilege, which antiquity con- 
ferred on them alone, has been allowed to others also. 

Chap. XIV. I am unwining^ to go further and review your 
sacred rites. I do not say what is your method in sacrificing, 
which leads you to slaughter every worn-out, putrefying and 
mangy creature, to cut off all the useless parts from the prime and 
sound beasts, the httle heads and the hoofs, which even at home 
you would have set apart for slaves or dogs, your placing on 
Hercules' altar of not even a third part of the tithe that is due 
to him. I will rather praise your wisdom in rescuing something 
of what is in danger of being lost. But when I turn to your 
hterature, whence you derive instruction in practical wisdom, 
and the duties of gentlemen, what ridiculous situations do I 
find ! gods engaged hke pairs of gladiators and fighting des- 
perately together on account of the Trojans and the Achaeans, 
Venus wounded by an arrow from a human hand, because she 
wished to snatch her son Aeneas, when almost killed, from the 
same Diomede (who had wounded herself ) ; Mars reduced almost 
to a shadow by thirteen months in chains, Jupiter rescued by 
the agency of some monster from meeting the same violence at 
the hands of the other divinities, and at one time weeping the 
misfortune of Sarpedon, at another burning with shameful lust 
for his sister, and telHng her the while of the mistresses in the 
long past, none of them so much loved as she. Since that time 
what poet may not be found calumniating the gods, on the 
authority of the chief of his craft ? One makes over Apollo to 
king Admetus to feed his flocks, another lets out Neptune's 
services in building to Laomedon. There is also the great lyric 
poet (I mean Pindar), who sings that Aesculapius was deservedly 
punished with a thunderbolt by reason of his greed, which made 
him practise the heahng art injuriously. Jupiter is evil, if 
the thunderbolt is his, devoid of natural feehng for his grandson, 
and jealous of the skilled practitioner. Such stories ought 
never to have been revealed if true; if false, ought never to 
have been invented, among really rehgious people. Nor do the 
writers of tragedies or comedies refrain from pubhshing in their 
prologues the sorrows or wanderings of the family of sonie god. 
I say nothing of the philosophers, being quite content with 
Socrates, who, in mockery of the gods, swore by the oak and 
the goat and the dog. But (say you) Socrates was condemned 
for that very reason, because he tried to do away with the gods. 

1 Reading Nolo. 


deos destruebat. Plane olim, id est semper, ueritas odio est. 
Tamen cum paenitentia sententiae Athenienses et criminatores 
Socratis postea afflixerint et imaginem eius auream in templo 
collocarint, rescissa damnatio testimonium Socrati reddidit. 
Sed et Diogenes nescio quid in Herculem ludit, et Romanus 5 
Cvnicus Varro trecentos loues, siue lupitros dicendos, sine 
capitibus introducit. 

15. Cetera lasciuiae ingenia etiam uoluptatibus uestris per 
deorum dedecus operantur. Dispicite Lentulorum et Hostili- 
orum uenustates, utrum mimos an deos uestros in iocis et lo 
strophis rideatis; moechum Anubin, et masculum Lunam, et 
Dianam flaofellatam, et louis mortui testamentum recitatum, 
et tres Hercules famelicos inrisos. Sed et histrionum htterae 
omnem foeditatem eorum designant. Luget Sol filium de caelo 
iactatum laetantibus uobis, et Cybele pastorum ' suspirat 15 
fastidiosum non erubescentibus uobis, et sustinetis louis elogia 
cantari, et lunonem, Venerem, Mineruam a pastore iudicari. 
Ipsum quod imago dei uestri ignominiosum caput et famosum 
uestit, quod corpus inpurum et ad istam artem eifeminatione 
productum Mineruam aliquam uel Herculem repraesentat, 20 
nonne uiolatur maiestas et diuinitas constupratur laudantibus 
uobis? Plane religiosiores estis in cauea, ubi super sanguinem 
humanum, super inquinamenta poenarum proinde saltant dei 
uestri argumenta et historias noxiis ministrantes, nisi quod et 
ipsos deos uestros saepe noxii induunt. Vidimus aliquando 25 
castratum Attin. illum deum ex Pessinunte, et qui uiuus 
ardebat, Herculem induerat. Risimus et inter ludicras meri- 
dianorum crudelitates Mercurium mortuos cauterio examinan- 
tem, uidimus et louis fratrem gladiatorum cadauera cum malleo 
deducentem, Singula ista quaeque adhuc inuestigare quis 30 
posset? Si honorem inquietant diuinitatis, si maiestatis 
uestigia obsoletant, de contemptu utique censentur tam eorum 
qui eiusmodi factitant quam eorum quibus factitant. Sed 


Plainly ! because the truth has long, or rather always, been an 
object of hatred. Nevertheless, when the Athenians, from 
remorse for the sentence they had passed, not only afterwards 
punished the prosecutors of Socrates but also placed a golden 
statue of him in a temple, the reversal of the condemnation 
gave a new testimony to Socrates. But Diogenes too made 
some witticism at Hercules' expense, and the Roman Cynic, 
Varro, introduces a whole host of headless Joves (or Jupiters 
as they ought perhaps to be called). 

Chap. XV. The rest of your hcentious wits also work for 
your pleasures through the dishonour of the gods. Examine 
the farces of the Lentuh and Hostihi, and consider whether it is 
the buffoons or your gods whose jokes and tricks you are laughing 
at; such subjects as an adulterous Anubis, a mascuhne Moon, 
Diana scourged, the will of the deceased Jupiter read aloud, 
and three starving Herculeses held up to ridicule. Moreover 
the writings of the playwrights also give form to all their 
filthiness. The Sun-god mourns his son cast from heaven, while 
you rejoice, and Cybele sighs for her disdainful shepherd, while 
you are no whit ashamed, and you can endure to listen to the 
song which tells the sins of Jupiter, and the trial of Juno, 
Venus and Minerva by the shepherd. What of the fact that 
a mask representing a god of yours covers the head of a branded 
and notorious person, that an unclean body prolonged for this 
accomphshment by emasculation represents a Minerva or a 
Hercules — is not their majesty outraged and their divinity 
prostituted, while you applaud ? You are clearly more rehgious 
in the amphitheatre, where your gods in hke manner dance on 
human blood, on the marks of punishments undergone, pro- 
viding plots and narratives for criminals, save and except that 
criminals often put on the character of your gods themselves 
also. We have sometimes witnessed the mutilation of Attis, 
the famous god of Pessinus, and a man who was burning ahve 
had personated Hercules. We have laughed too amidst the 
sportive atrocities of the midday combatants, at Mercury testing 
apparent deaths with a branding-iron ; we have hkewise seen 
Jupiter's brother dragging down the corpses of gladiators with 
a hammer in his hand (to finish those who were not quite dead). 
But who could even inquire into these absurdities one by one? 
If they disquiet the honour of the gods, if they obhterate all 
traces of divinity, surely they take their rise in the contempt 
both of those who practise such things and of those for whom 
they practise them. But those you will say are mere shows. 



ludicra ista sint. Ceterum si adiciam, quae non minus con- 
scientiae omnium recognoscent, in templis adulteria conponi, 
inter aras lenocinia tractari, in ipsis plerumque aedituorum et 
sacerdotum tabernaculis sub isdem uittis et apicibus et purpuris 
thure flagrante libidinem expungi, nescio, ne plus de uobis dei 5 
uestri quam de Christianis querantur. Certe sacrilegi de uestris 
semper adprehenduntur. Christiani enim templa nec interdiu 
norunt; spoliarent forsitan ea et ipsi, si et ipsi ea adorarent. 
Quid ergo colunt qui talia non colunt? lam quidem intellegi 
subiacet ueritatis esse cultores qui mendacii non sint, nec errare lo 
amplius in eo in quo errasse se recognoscendo cessauerunt. 
Hoc prius capite et omnem hinc sacramenti nostri ordinem 
haurite, repercussis ante tamen opinionibus falsis. 

16. Nam et, ut quidam, somniastis caput asininum esse 
deum nostrum. Hanc Cornelius Tacitus suspicionem eiusmodi 15 
dei inseruit. Is enim in quinta historiarum suarum bellum 
ludaicum exorsus ab origine gentis etiam de ipsa tam origine 
quam de nomine et religione gentis quae uoluit argumentatus 
ludaeos refert Aegypto expeditos siue, ut putauit, extorres 
uastis Arabiae in locis aquarum egentissimis, cum siti macera- 20 
rentur, onagris, qui forte de pastu potum petituri aestimabantur, 
indicibus fontis usos ob eam gratiam consimilis bestiae super- 
ficiem consecrasse. Atque ita inde praesumptum opinor nos 
quoque ut ludaicae religionis propinquos eidem simulacro 
initiari. At enim idem Cornelius Tacitus, sane ille mendaciorum 25 
loquacissimus, in eadem historia refert Gneum Pompeium, cum 
Hierusalem cepisset proptereaque templum adisset speculandis 
ludaicae religionis arcanis, nullum illic reperisse simulacrum. 
Et utique, si id colebatur quod aliqua efligie repraesentabatur, 
nusquam magis quam in sacrario suo exhiberetur, eo magis, 30 
quia nec uerebatur extraneos arbitros, quamquam uana cultura. 
Solis enim sacerdotibus adire licitum; etiam conspectus 
ceterorum uelo oppanso interdicebatur. Vos tamen non 


If however I were to add — what will be equally admitted by 
the conscienees of all — that adulteries are arranged in the 
temples, that panders ply their trade among the altars, that often 
in the very rooms of sacristans and priests, iinder the same fillets 
and sacred caps and purple vestments, lust is satisfied while the 
incense is burning, I know not whether your gods may not find 
more reason to complain about you than about the Christians. 
Certainly those guilty of sacrilege are always of your number. 
For the Christians do not know the temples even by day. 
Perhaps they might also rob them themselves, if they them- 
selves also did reverence to them. What then do they worship 
who do not worship such things ? Already indeed it is easy 
to be understood that those are worshippers of the truth who 
are not worshippers of a he, and that they no longer err in a 
matter in which the recognition of previous error taught them 
to give it up. Grasp this fact first, and thence gather the 
whole order of our mystery, first however rejecting certain 
false notions. i4 

Chap. XVI. For you, too, hke some others, have dreamed 
that an ass's head is the object of our worship. The fancy of 
such a deity was put into their minds by CorneUus Tacitus, who in 
the fifth of his Histories, having begun his account of the Jewish 
War with an account of the origin of the race, and having also 
discussed at his pleasure aUke the origin itself and the name and 
religion of the race, records that the Jews, having been freed 
or, as he thought, exiled from Egypt, when they were weakened 
through thirst in the deserts of Arabia, where water was very 
scarce, employed some wild asses to guide them to a spring, 
thinking that they would probably be seeking water after food, 
and on that account consecrated the form of a similar animal. 
And hence I think it was presumed that we, too, being thus alUed 
to the Jewish reUgion were taught to do reverence to the same 
image. But indeed it is the same CorneUus Tacitus, truly the 
most inventive of romancers, who in the same history records 
that Gnaeus Pompeius, after capturing Jerusalem and thus 
going to the temple to investigate the secrets of the Jewish 
reUgion, found no image therein. And to be sure, if the 
object of worship was represented by some figure, this would 
have been most appropriately shown in its own shrine, the 
rather that the worship, however vain, had no fear of strangers 
to witness it ; only the priests were aUowed to approach, while 
the gaze of the rest was forbidden by a curtain spread out over 
it. And yet you wiU not deny that you pay divine honours to 


negabitis et iumenta omnia et totos cantherios cum sua Epona 
coli a uobis. Hoc forsitan inprobamur, quod inter cultores 
omnium pecudum bestiarUmque asinarii tantum sumus. Sed 
et qui crucis nos religiosos putat, consecraneus erit noster. 
Cum lignum aliquod propitiatur, uiderit habitus, cum materiae 5 
qualitas eadem sit, uiderit forma, dum id ipsum dei corpus 
sit. Et tamen quanto distinguitur a crucis stipite Pallas 
Attica, et Ceres Pharia, quae sine efhgie rudi palo et informi 
ligno prostant? Pars crucis est omne robur quod erecta 
statione defigitur. Nos, si forte, integrum et totum deum 10 
colimus. Diximus originem deorum uestrorum a plastis de 
cruce induci. Sed et Victorias adoratis, cum in tropaeis cruces 
intestina sint tropaeorum. Religio Romanorum tota castrensis 
signa ueneratur, signa iurat, signa omnibus deis praeponit. 
Omnes illi imaginum suggestus in signis monilia crucum sunt; 15 
siphara illa uexillorum et cantabrorum stolae crucum sunt. 
Laudo diligentiam. Noluistis incultas et nudas cruces con- 
secrare. Alii plane humanius et uerisimilius solem credunt 
deum nostrum. Ad Persas, si forte, deputabimur, licet solem 
non in Hnteo depictum adoremus, habentes ipsum ubique in 20 
suo clypeo. Denique inde suspicio quod innotuerit nos ad 
orientis regionem precari. Sed et plerique uestrum adfectatione 
aliquando et caelestia adorandi ad solis ortum labia uibratis. 
Aeque si diem solis laetitiae indulgemus, aha longe ratione quam 
religione solis secundo loco ab eis sumus qui diem Saturni otio 25 
et uictui decernunt exorbitantes et ipsi a ludaico more, quem 
ignorant. Sed noua iam dei nostri in ista proxime ciuitate 
editio publicata est, ex quo quidam frustrandis bestiis mer- 
cenarius noxius picturam proposuit cum eiusmodi inscriptione : 
deuschkistianorumONOKOIHTHS. Is erat auribus asininis, 30 
altero pede ungulatus, librum gestans et togatus. Risimus et 
nomen et formam. Sed illi debebant adorare statim biforme 
numen, quia et canino et leonino capite commixtos, et de 
capro et de ariete cornutos, et a lumbis hircos, et a cruribus 


all beasts of burden, as well as to asses, heads and bodies both, 
along with their own goddess Epona. Perhaps our fault consists 
in the fact that amongst the worshippers of cattle and beasts 
of all kinds we worship the ass alone. 

But he too who thinks that we adore the cross will be our 
fellow-worshipper. When some piece of wood is propitiated, no 
matter for the fashion as long as the quahty of the material is 
the same, no matter for the form as long as the god is bodily 
in the image. And yet what a great difference there is between 
the upright of a cross and the Athenian Pallas or the Egyptian 
Ceres, who stand forth formless, a rough stake, a shapeless bit 
of wood ! Every piece of wood that is fixed in the ground in 
an erect position is part of a cross ; we, perhaps, worship an 
unmutilated and complete god. I have said that the sculptors 
of your gods make a beginning with a cross : but you also 
worship Victories, although, in trophies, crosses form the 
inside part. The whole religion of the Roman camp consists 
in worshipping the standards, in swearing by the standards, and 
in setting the standards above all the gods. All those rows of 
images on the standards are but as necklaces of crosses ; those 
pennons on the ensigns and banners are the robes of crosses. 
I commend your scrupulous attitude : you would not dedicate 
crosses that were bare and undraped. Others, certainly with 
greater semblance of nature and of truth, beUeve the sun to 
be our god. If so, we shall perhaps be classed with the Persians, 
altfiough we do not worship a r6presentation of the sun on a 
Hnen cloth, since everywhere we have the sun himself within 
his own hemisphere. Lastly the suspicion arises from the 
knowledge that we turn to the east in prayer. But many of 
you too with an affectation of sometimes worshipping heavenly 
bodies move your hps towards the rising sun. Likewise if we 
give rein to joy on Sundays, in a far different way from sun 
worship, we are only second to those who devote Saturday 
(Sabbath) to idleness and feasting, and who also deviate from 
the Jewish custom of which they are ignorant. But recently in 
this city, what is really a new representation of our god has 
been made pubhc, since a certain criminal, hired to trick the 
wild beasts, exhibited a picture with an inscription to the 
following effect: 'The Christian God, the Offspring of an Ass.' 
He had asses' ears, one foot hoofed, was dressed in the toga and 
carried a book. We laughed both at the name and the figure. 
But they were bound to worship at once a two-formed divinity, 
because they have welcomed, as gods, creatures with heads both 
of dog and of hon, with the horns of a goat and a ram, others 
with goats' bodies from the loins downwards, and hke serpents 


serpentes, et planta uel tergo alites deos receperunt. Haec ex 
abundanti, ne quid rumoris inrepercussum quasi de conscientia 
praeterissemus. Quae omiiia conuersi iam ad demonstrationem 
religionis nostrae repurgauimus. 

17. Quod colimus, deus unus est, qui totam molem istani 5 
cum omni instrumento elementorum, corporum, spirituum 
uerbo quo iussit, ratione qua disposuit, uirtute qua potuit, 
de nihilo expressit, in ornamentum maiestatis suae, unde et 
Graeci nomen mundo Koajxov accommodauerunt. Inuisibilis 
est, etsi uideatur; incomprebensibilis, etsi per gratiam reprae- lo 
sentetur; inaestimabilis, etsi humanis sensibus aestimetur. 
Ideo uerus et tantus est. Ceterum quod uideri communiter, 
quod comprehendi, quod aestimari potest, minus est et oculis 
quibus occupatur, et manibus quibus contaminatur, et sensibus 
quibus inuenitur : quod uero inmensum est, soli sibi notum est. 15 
Hoc quod est, deum aestimari facit, dum aestimari non capit. 
Ita eum uis magnitudinis et notum hominibus obicit et ignotum. 
Et haec est summa delicti nolentium recognoscere quem igno- 
rare non possunt. Vultis ex operibus ipsius tot ac talibus, 
quibus continemur, quibus sustinemur, quibus oblectamur, 20 
etiam quibus exterremur, uultis ex animae ipsius testimonio 
conprobemus? Quae licet carcere corporis pressa, licet in- 
stitutionibus prauis circumscripta, Hcet libidinibus et con- 
cupiscentiis euigorata, licet falsis deis exancillata, cum tamen 
resipiscit, ut ex crapula, ut ex somno, ut ex aliqua ualitudine, 25 
et sanitatem suam patitur, deum nominat, hoc solo, quia 
proprie uerus hic unus. Deus bonus et magnus, et Quod deus 
dederit omnium uox est. ludicem quoque contestatur illum 
Deus uidet, et Deo commendo, et Deus mihi reddet. testi- 
moniam animae naturaliter Christianae ! Denique pronuntians 30 
haec non ad CapitoHum, sed ad caelum respicit. Nouit enim 
sedem dei uiui ab illo, et inde descendit. 


from the legs, and with wings on the foot or the baek. I have 
stated these methods more fully, to avoid passing over, as it 
were purposely, any rumour without rebutting it. All these 
false opinions we have now cleared away and proceed to turn^ 
to the proof of our rehgion. 

Chap. XVII. The object of our worship is one God, who 
through the word by which he commanded (that they should 
exist), the reason by which he arranged them, the power by 
which he could (carry out his will), fashioned out of nothing all 
this mass wdth all its apparatus of elements, bodies and spirits, 
for an ornament to his own greatness, whence it is that the 
Greeks also have apphed the name Koafio^i (ornament) to the 
Tiniverse. He is imdsible, though he may be seen; incompre- 
hensible, though he is represented to men through his grace ; 
inestimable, though he can be estimated through the human 
senses ; therefore is he the true and the mighty God. What is 
capable, however, of being generally seen, of being grasped, of 
being valued, is less both than the eyes by which it is caught, 
than the hands by which it is touched, and the thoughts by 
which it is discovered ; but that which is immeasurable is known 
only to itself. This is what makes God valued, while yet he 
is incapable of valuation. Thus it is that the power of his 
greatness presents hini as both known and unknown to men. 
And this is the substance of their offence, that they refuse to 
recognise him of whom they cannot be ignorant. Do you wish 
that we should prove this from his own works, so many and of 
such a character, by which we are restrained, upheld, dehghted; 
nay even by which we are terrified, or should we prove it even 
from the evidence of the soul itself ? Although weighed down 
by the prison of the body, though confined by evil customs, 
though emasculated by lusts and passions, though enslaved to 
false gods, yet, when it recovers its senses, as after surfeit, as 
after sleep, as after some illness, when it becomes conscious of its 
own health, it names God, for the sole reason that he alone is 
by nature the true God. ' Good God,' 'Great God ' and ' Which 
may God grant ' are expressions used by alL That he is also a 
judge is attested by the words: 'God sees,' 'I commend to 
God,' and 'God will recompense me.' evidence of the 
natural Christianity of the soul! For when uttering these 
words it looks not to the Capitol, but to the sky. It knows 
indeed the place of abode of the hving God ; from him and 
from there^ it descended. 

^ Conuersuri, the certain emendation of J. B. M. for conutrsi of MSS. 
^ -A stop at uiui. 


18. Sed quo plenius et inpressius tam ipsum quam dis- 
positiones eiiis et uoluntates adiremus, adiecit instrumentum 
litteraturae, si qui uelit de deo inquirere, et inquisito inuenire, 
et inuento credere, et credito deseruire. Viros enim iustitiae 
innocentia dignos deum nosse et ostendere a primordio in 5 
saeculum emisit spiritu diuino inundatos, quo praedicarent 
deum unicum esse, qui uniuersa condiderit, qui hominem de 
humo struxerit (his enim est uerus Prometheus, qui saeculum 
certis temporum dispositionibus et exitibus ordinauit), exinde 
quae signa maiestatis suae iudicantis ediderit per imbres, per 10 
ignes, quas demerendo sibi disciplinas determinauerit, quae 
ignoratis et desertis et obseruatis his praemia destinarit, ut 
qui producto aeuo isto iudicaturus sit suos cultores in uitae 
aeternae retributionem, profanos in ignem aeque perpetem et 
iugem, suscitatis omnibus ab initio defunctis et reformatis et 15 
recensitis ad utriusque meriti dispunctionem. Haec et nos 
risimus aliquando. De uestris sumus. Fiunt, non nascuntur 
Christiani. Quos diximus praedicatores, prophetae de officio 
praefandi uocantur. Voces eorum itemque uirtutes, quas ad 
fidem diuinitatis edebant, in thesauris litterarum manent, nec 20 
istae latent. Ptolemaeorum eruditissimus, quem Philadelphum 
supernominant, et omnis litteraturae sagacissimus, cum studio 
bibliothecarum Pisistratum, opinor, aemularetur, inter cetera 
memoriarum, quibus aut uetustas aut curiositas aliqua ad 
famam patrocinabatur, ex suggestu Demetri Phalerei gram- 25 
maticorum tunc probatissimi, cui praefecturam mandauerat, 
libros a ludaeis quoque postulauit, proprias atque uernaculas 
litteras, quas soli habebant. Ex ipsis enim et ad ipsos semper 
prophetae perorauerant, scilicet ad domesticam dei gentem ex 
patrum gratia. Hebraei retro qui nunc ludaei. Igitur et 30 
litterae Hebraeae et eloquium. Sed ne notitia uacaret, hoc 
quoque a ludaeis Ptolemaeo subscriptum est septuaginta et 
duobus interpretibus indultis, quos Menedemus quoque philoso- 


Chap. XVIII. But that we might more fuUy and more 
seriously approaeh to himself as well as to his arrangements 
and purposes, he added a literary document, in case any 
one should wish to inquire about God, and having inquired to 
find him, and having found him to beheve on hini, and having 
beheved to serve him. For from the beginning he hath sent 
into the world men overflowing with the divine spirit, and worthy 
by their justice and innocence to know God and to make him 
known, in order that they might preach him as the only god 
who founded the universe, and formed man from the soil, — for 
this is the true Prometheus, who ordered the world by fixed 
arrangements and endings of seasons, — who afterwards pro- 
claimed signs of his majesty in judgment by water and fire, 
who laid down statutes for the gaining of his favour ; who has 
appointed rewards for those that know not, those that neglect, 
and those that keep his laws ; in order that when this world 
shall have come to an end^ he may adjudge his worshippers to 
the reward of eternal hfe, and the irrehgious to a fire no less con- 
tinuous and lasting, having raised all those that have died from 
the beginning and given them a new form and called to an 
account for the recompense of each man's deserts. We too 
once laughed at this : we sprang from your ranks ; Christians 
are made Christians, and not born such. Those whom we have 
called preachers are named prophets from their office of fore- 
telhng. Their words and hkewise their wonderful deeds, which 
they performed to produce behef in the Godhead, remain in the 
storehouses of hterature, nor are these now hidden. Ptolemy, 
surnamed Philadelphus, a most learned king with a keen 
appreciation of all hterature, in his zeal for hbraries, in which, 
I suppose, he rivalled Pisistratus, amongst other historical 
monuments, which were rendered famous either by antiquity 
or curiosity of some kind, at the instance of Demetrius 
of Phalerum, the most approved grammarian of the time, to 
whom he had entrusted the chief care of the matter, asked 
books from the Jews also, writings pecuhar to themselves 
and in their own language. For the prophets were always 
taken from among themselves and had always addressed 
themselves as being a people belonging to God in accordance 
w4th the favour shown to their fathers. Hebrews was the name 
formerly given to those now called Jews. Consequently both 
their hterature and language are Hebrew. But that there 
might be no deficiency of knowledge, this also was granted by 
the Jews to Ptolemy, seventy-two translators being allowed, 
whom Menedemus also, the philosopher, a champion of (divine) 
^ Read prodacto with J. E. B. M. 


phus, prouidentiae uindex, de sententiae communione suspexit. 
Adfirmauit liaec uobis etiam Aristaeus. Ita in Graecum stilum 
exaperta monumenta reliquit. Hodie apud Serapeum Ptolemaei 
bibliothecae cum ipsis Hebraicis litteris exhibentur. Sed et 
ludaei palam lectitant. Vectigalis libertas ; uulgo aditur 5 
sabbatis omnibus. Qui audierit, inueniet deum; qui etiam 
studuerit intellegere, cogetur et credere. 

19. Primam instrumentis istis auctoritatem summa anti- 
quitas uindicat. Apud uos quoque religionis est instar, fidem 
de temporibus adserere. [Auctoritatem litteris praestat anti- 10 
quitas summa. Primus enim prophetes Moyses, qui mundi 
conditionem et generis humani pullulationem et mox ultricem 
iniquitatis ilHus aeui uim cataclysmi de praeterito exorsus est, 
per uaticinationem usque ad suam aetatem et deinceps per res 
suas futurorum imagines edidit, penes quem et temporum ordo 15 
digestus ab initio supputationem saeculi praestitit. Superior 
inuenitur annis circiter trecentis quam ille antiquissimus penes 
uos Danaus in Argos transuenisset, Troiano denique proelio ad 
mille annos ante est, unde et ipso Saturno. Secundum enim 
historiam Thalli, qua relatum est bellum Assyriorum et Satur- 20 
num Titanorum regem cum loue dimicasse, ostenditur bellum 
cccxx et duobus annis Iliacum exitum antecessisse. Per hunc 
Moysen etiam illa lex propria ludaeis a deo missa est. Deinceps 
multa et aUi prophetae uetustiores litteris uestris. Nam et qui 
ultimo cecinit, aut aliquantulo praecucurrit aut certe concurrit 25 
aetate sapientiae auctoribus, etiam latoribus legis. Cyri enim 
et Darii regno fuit Zacharias, quo in tempore Thales, physicorum 
princeps, sciscitanti Croeso nihil certum de diuinitate respondit, 
turbatus scilicet uocibus prophetarum. Solon eidem regi finem 
longae uitae intuendum praedicauit non ahter quam prophetae. 30 
Adeo respici potest tam iura uestra quam studia de lege deque 
diuina doctrina concepisse. Quod prius est, hoc sit semen 


providence, admired, in consequence of their commimity of 
view (on this subject). Aristaeus also has declared this to you. 
So he (Ptolemy) left these records behind, made accessible in 
the Greek idiom. To this very day the hbraries of Ptolemy 
are shown in the Serapeum with the Hebrew literature itself. 
But the Jews too read it pubhcly : this hberty they have on 
payment of a tax, and there is common access to them every 
Sabbath. He who hstens will find God: he also who is at 
pains to understand will be compelled to believe also. 

Chap. XIX. The first authority is claimed for these sacred 
books by their extreme antiquity. Among you also the claiming 
of behef on the score of time amounts to a rehgion. [Authority 
is given to hterature by extreme age. For the prophet Moses, 
who began from the past his account of the creation of the world 
and the growth of the human race and afterwards the power of 
the flood which avenged the unrighteousness of that age, was 
the first to proclaim by prophecy down to his own time, and 
then through his own exploits, representations of the things to 
be, (was the first) also in whom a chronological order arranged 
from the beginning has given us a calculation of time. He is 
found to be about three hundred years earher than the date 
at which Danaus, the most ancient (hero) known to you, crossed 
to Argos, he is found to be about a thousand years earher than 
the Trojan war, which means that he is as much earher than 
Saturn himself. For according to Thallus' history, in which it 
is recorded that Bel^, king of the Assyrians, and Saturn, king 
of the Titans, fought with Jupiter, it can be shown that Bel 
antedated the destruction of Troy by three hundred and twenty- 
two years. It was through this Moses also that the Jews 
received from God that law^ pecuhar to themselves. After his 
time in succession much was recorded by other prophets also 
who are older than your records ; for even he who prophesied 
last either preceded somewhat or was at least contemporaneous 
with your philosophers, and even with your lawgivers. For in 
the reigns of Cyrus and Darius hved Zechariah, at which time 
Thales, the earhest of the natural philosophers, stirred no doubt 
by the words of the prophets,"could give no definite answer 
about the Godhead to the questions of Croesus. To the same 
king Solon declared, in much the same words as the prophets, 
that he must look to the end of a long hfe. So clearly can it 
be seen from a backward glance that he (Solon) derived both 
your laws and your philosophy from the Jewish law and the 
divine teaching. What comes first must of necessity be the 

* ^ Reading Belum. 


necesse est. Inde quaedam nobiscum uel prope nos habetis. 
De sophia amor eius philosophia uocitatus est, de prophetia 
afPectatio eius poeticam uaticinationem deputauit. Gloriae 
homines si quid inuenerant, ut proprium facerent, adultera- 
uerunt. Etiam fructibus a semine degenerare contigit. Multis 5 
adhuc de uetustate modis consisterem diuinarum litterarum, si 
non maior auctoritas illis ad fidem de ueritatis suae uiribus 
quam de aetatis annalibus suppetisset. Quid enim potentius 
patrocinabitur testimonio earum, nisi dispunctio cotidiana 
saeculi totius, cum dispositiones regnorum, cum casus urbium, 10 
cum exitus gentium, cum status temporum ita omnibus re- 
spondent, quemadmodum ante milia annorum praenuntiaban- 
tur? Unde et spes nostra, quam ridetis, animatur, et fiducia, 
quam praesumptionem uocatis, corroboratur. Idonea est enim 
recognitio praeteritorum ad disponendam fiduciam futurorum. 15 
Eadem uoces praedicauerunt utramque partem, eadem litterae 
notauerunt. Unum est tempus apud illas quod apud nos 
separari uidetur. Ita omnia quae supersunt improbata, p-o- 
hata sunt nobis, quia cum illis quae probata sunt tunc futuris 
praedicabantur. Habetis, quod sciam, et uos Sibyllam, 20 
quatinus appellatio ista uerae uatis dei ueri passim super 
ceteros qui uaticinari uidebantur usurpata est. Sunt uestrae 
Sibyllae nomen de ueritate mentitae, quemadmodum et dei 
uestri.] Omnes itaque substantias omnesque materias, origines, 
ordines, uenas ueterani cuiusque stili uestri, gentes etiam 25 
plerasque et urbes insignes historiarum et canas memoriarum, 
ipsas denique efiigies litterarum, indices custodesque rerum et 
(puto adhuc minus dicimus) ipsos inquam deos uestros, ipsa 
templa et oracula et sacra unius interim prophetae scrinium 
saeculis uincit, in quo uidetur thesaurus collocatus totius ludaici 3° 
sacramenti et inde iam nostri. Si quem audistis interim 
Moysen, Argiuo Inacho pariter aetate est. Quadringentis 
paene annis (nam et septem minus) Danaum, et ipsum apud 
uos uetustissimum, praeuenit, mille circiter cladem Priami 


seed. Hence it is that you have certain tenets either in common 
with us or like ours. It is from sophia (wisdom) that the love 
of it has got the name 'philosophy,' and from prophecy that 
the imitation of it has borrowed the divination of the poets. 
If men found anything that was glorious, they corrupted it to 
make it their own. Even fruits have degenerated from the 
quahty of the seed. In many further ways I might join issue 
on the antiquity of the sacred writings, were it not that they 
derive a greater weight of credibihty from the strength of their 
truth than from the records of their age. For what will support 
its evidence more powerfully than the daily testing of a whole 
age, when the arrangements of kingdoms, the fall of cities, the 
destruction of nations, the situations at particular times, corre- 
spond exactly to the prophecies about them made thousands of 
years before? Hence our hope, at which you laugh, receives 
fresh hfe, and our confidence, which you call assurance, is 
strengthened. For it is natural that an examination of the past 
should lead us to put confidence in the future. The same^ 
words prophesied both past and future, the same writings have 
signified them. Time, which among us seems to be divided into 
parts, is but one in those writings. Consequently all that remains 
unverified is already for us verified, because it was prophesied 
along with those events which were then in the future and have 
(since) been verified. You also have, if I am not mistaken, a 
Sibyl. I mention her because this name of the true prophetess 
of the true God has been everywhere used beyond all others, 
who seemed to have the gift of prophecy, as^ your Sibyls have 
falsely employed the name instead of the true one, even as your 
gods also have done.] All beings therefore and all materials, 
beginnings, arrangements, channels of each ancient writing of 
yours, hkewise very many races and cities distinguished in 
history and hoary in records, further the very forms of the 
letters, the indicators and guardians of facts, and — I beheve 
that as yet I have been putting it too feebly — your very gods 
I say, the very temples and oracles and sacred rites, are some- 
times centuries antedated by one prophet's book, in which the 
treasure of the whole Jewish rehgion, and hence of ours also, 
seems to have been placed. If meantime you have heard of 
some Moses, he is as old as the Argive Inachus : by almost four 
hundred years — actually seven less — he precedes Danaus who 
is himself too the oldest among you, and he is about a thousand 

^ Reading euedem. 

* Reading sicut. [Others read habemus nos and sciunt, whieh seem to make 
better sense, especially if we read sciant <^autem> or sed before sicut. "Butlet 
your Sibyls know that they have taken a false name from the true one." ,T. B. M.] 


antecedit, possem etiam dicere quingentis amplius et Homerum, 
habens quos sequar. Ceteri quoque prophetae etsi Moysi 
postumant, extremissimi tamen eorum non retrosiores repre- 
henduntur primoribus uestris sapientibus et legiferis et historicis ? 
Haec quibus ordinibus probari possint non tam difficile est nobis 5 
exponere quam enorme, nec arduum, sed interim longum. 
Multis instrumentis cum digitorum supputariis gesticulis 
adsidendum est, reseranda antiquissimarum etiam gentium 
archiua, Aegyptiorum, Chaldaeorum, Phoenicum, aduocandi 
municipes eorum per quos notitia subministrata est, aliqui ic 
Manethon Aegyptius et Berosus Chaldaeus, sed et Hieromus 
Phoenix, Tyri rex, sectatores quoque ipsorum Mendesius 
Ptolemaeus et Menander Ephesius et Demetrius Phalereus et rex 
luba et Apion et Thallus et si quis istos aut probat aut reuincit, 
ludaeus losephus, antiquitatum ludaicarum uernaculus uindex, 15 
Graecorum etiam censuales conferendi, ut quae quando sint 
gesta aut concatenationes temporum aperiantur, per quae 
luceant annalium numeri; peregrinandum est in historias et 
litteras orbis. Et tamen quasi partem iam probationis in- 
tulimus, cum per quae probari possint aspersimus. Verum ac 
difTerre praestat, uel ne minus persequamur festinando uel 
diutius euagemur persequendo. 

20. Plus iam offerimus pro ista dilatione maiestatem scrip- 
turarum, si non uetustate diuinas probamus, si dubitatur 
antiquitas. Nec hoc tardius aut aliunde discendum. Coram 25 
sunt quae docebunt, mundus et saeculum et exitus. Quicquid 
agitur, praenuntiabatur ; quicquid uidetur, audiebatur. Quod 
terrae uorant urbes, quod insulas maria fraudant, quod externa 
atque interna bella dilaniant, quod regnis regna conpulsant, 
quod fames et lues et locales quaeque clades et frequentiae 30 
plerumque mortium uastant, quod humiles sublimitate, 
sublimes humilitate mutantur, quod iustitia rarescit, iniquitas 
increbrescit, bonarum omnium disciplinarum cura torpescit, 
quod etiam officia temporum et elementorum munia exorbitant. 


years earlier than the overthrow of Priam; I might also add 
'and Homer too' bymore than 500years,seeing I have authorities 
for this statement. With regard to the other prophets also, 
although they are later than Moses, are not the very latest of 
them nevertheless found to be earher than your earliest philo- 
sophers, legislators and historians? By what successions these 
statements can be proved it is not so much a difficult as it is 
an immense task for us to set forth, nor is it really difficult, but 
at this stage it would take too long. We should have to settle 
ourselves down to many documents with calculating movements 
of the fingers, we should have to unlock the archives even of 
the most ancient peoples, the Egyptians, the Chaldaeans, the 
Phoenicians. We should have to call in fellow-citizens of those 
by whom this knowledge has been supphed, some Egyptian 
Manetho and some Chaldean Berosus, but also Hiram the 
Phoenician, king of Tyre; their successors also, Ptolemy of 
Mendes and Menander of Ephesus and Demetrius of Phalerum 
and King Juba and Apion and Thallus, and either to confirm 
or refute these, the Jew Josephus, the native champion of 
Jewish antiquities. The census-books of the Greeks must also 
be compared, that what things were done at what time or the 
sequence of events may be made known, so as to throw hght 
on the chronology of historical events ; we must make excursions 
into the histories and Hterature of the world. And yet we have 
already brought forward about half of our proof, when we have 
given a sprinkhng of the means by which they can be proved. 
But it is better to postpone (our proof), lest we should either 
accomphsh less in our haste or digress too far in our treatment. 

Chap. XX. In place of this deferred proof I now ofEer you 
something more, the majesty of the Scriptures, if we cannot 
prove them to be divine because of their age, if their age is 
questionable. Nor is this to be learnt slowly or from some other 
source ; your instructors are before your eyes ; the world and 
the age and the course of history. Whatsoever is taking place, 
was prophesied; whatsoever is now seen, was heard of: the 
swallowing up of cities by the earth, the encroachment on islands 
by the sea, the slaughters caused by foreign and domestic wars, 
the clash of kingdoms upon kingdoms, the devastation produced 
by famine and pestilence, and all local disasters and the great 
frequency of deaths ; the humble are exalted and the lofty 
abased; the growing infrequency of justice, the growing fre- 
quency of injustice, the decay of the care for all noble iessons, 
the deviations in the functions of the seasons and the duties 
of the elements, the disturbance in the shape of natural objects 


quod et monstris et portentis naturalium forma turbatur, 
prouidenter scripta sunt. Dum patimur, leguntur; dum 
recognoscimus, probantur. Idoneum, opinor, testimonium 
diuinitatis ueritas diuinationis. Hinc igitur apud nos futu- 
rorum quoque fides tuta est, iam scilicet probatorum, quia cum 5 
illis, quae cotidie probantur, praedicebantur. Eaedem uoces 
sonant, eaedem litterae notant, idem spiritus pulsat, unum 
tempus est diuinationi futura praefanti. Apud homines, si 
forte, distinguitur, dum expungitur, dum ex futuro praesens, 
dehinc ex praesenti praeteritum deputatur. Quid delin- lo 
quimus, oro uos, futura quoque credentes, qui iam didicimus 
illi per duos gradus credere? 

21. Sed cjuoniam edidimus antiquissimis ludaeorum in- 
strumentis sectam istam esse suffultam quam aliquanto 
nouellam, ut Tiberiani temporis, plerique sciunt, profitentibus 15 
nobis quoque, fortassean hoc nomine de statu eius retractetur, 
quasi sub umbraculo insignissimae religionis, certe licitae, 
aliquid propriae praesumptionis abscondat, uel quia praeter 
aetatem neque de uictus exceptionibus neque de solemnitatibus 
dierum neque de ipso signaculo corporis neque de consortio 20 
nominis cum ludaeis agimus, quod utique oporteret si eidem deo 
manciparemur ? Sed et uulgus iam scit Christum ut hominum 
aliquem, qualem ludaei iudicauerunt, quo facilius quis nos 
hominis cultores existimauerit. Verum neque de Christo 
erubescimus, cum sub nomine eius deputari et damnari iuuat, 25 
neque de deo aliter praesumimus. Necesse est igitur pauca de 
Christo ut deo. Dudum ludaeis erat apud deum gratia ubi et 
insignis iustitia et fides originalium auctorum; unde illis et 
generis magnitudo et regni sublimitas floruit et tanta felicitas, 
ut de dei uocibus, quibus edocebantur, de promerendo deo et 30 
non offendendo praemonerentur. Sed quanta dehquerint, 
fiducia patrum inflati ad decHnandum, deriuantes a disciplina 
in profanum modum, etsi ipsi non confiterentur, probaret exitus 
hodiernus ipsorum. Dispersi, palabundi, et soli et caeli sui 


both by prodigies and by portents, (all) are written (down) with 
f oresight. While we experience them, they are being read ; 
while we examine them, they are being proved true. The truth 
of prophecy is, I think, a reUable evidence of divinity. There- 
fore it is thus that amongst us the behef also in future events 
is safe, being already of course proved true, because they were 
prophesied along with those things that are daily verified ; the 
same words sound, the same letters mark them, the same spirit 
impels them, time is an unity to prophecy when foretelhng the 
future. Among men perhaps it is marked oi? into periods, 
while it is being completed, w^hile the present is calculated from 
the future, then the past from the present. What is our sin, 
I pray you, in beUeving the future also, as we have already 
learned through two stages to beheve it ? 

Chap. XXI. But since we have stated that this sect is 
supported by most ancient Jewish documents, though very 
many know on our own declaration also that it is comparatively 
new, belonging as it does to the time of Tiberius, perchance 
on this ground a further inquiry may be made into its nature, 
viz. that it conceals some of its own arrogance under the shadow 
of a most famous religion, or one that is at any rate permitted 
by law, or because in addition to the question of its age we have 
no relation with the Jews either with regard to distinctions of 
meats, or the sanctity of special days or the distinctive bodily 
mark itself or the sharing of the name with them, which would 
of course be our duty if we were the property of the same god. 
Even the common people now know Christ as a human being, 
such as the Jews judged him (to be), so that it is easier for any 
one to beUeve that we are worshippers of a man. But we are 
neither ashamed of Christ, seeing that we rejoice to be reckoned 
as his servants and condemned with him, nor is our idea of God 
diiferent from that of the Jews. We must therefore say some- 
thing about Christ as God. The Jews had long enjoyed favour 
with God, for among them the justice and loyalty of their 
ancestors at the beginning were remarkable ;" whence the 
greatness of their race and the glory of their kingdom flourished 
and so great happiness, that from the words of God, by which 
they were taught, they were warned beforehand as to the 
gaining of his favour and the avoidance of his displeasure. 
But how greatly they transgressed, being pufEed up by con- 
fidence in their fathers to leave the true path, and profanely 
turning aside from their training ! Even if they themselves did 
not admit the fact, their ruinous situation to-day would prove 
it. Scattered in all directions, straggUng, exiles from their own 


extorres uagantur per orbem sine homine, sine deo rege, quibus 
nec aduenarum iure terram patriam saltim uestigio salutare 
conceditur. Cum haec illis sanctae uoces praeminarentur, 
eadem semper omnes ingerebant fore uti sub extimis curriculis 
saeculi ex omni iam gente et populo et loco cultores sibi ad- 5 
legeret deus multo fideliores in quos gratiam transferret, 
pleniorem quidem ob disciplinae auctioris capacitatem. Venit 
igitur qui ad reformandam et inluminandam eam uenturus a 
deo praenuntiabatur, Christus ille filius dei. Huius igitur 
gratiae disciplinaeque arbiter et magister, inluminator atque 10 
deductor generis humani filius dei adnuntiabatur : non quidem 
ita genitus, ut erubescat in filii nomine aut de patris semine. 
Non de sororis incesto nec de stupro filiae aut coniugis ahenae 
deum patrem passus est squamatum aut cornutum aut plu- 
matum, amatorem in auro conuersum Danaidis. louis ista sunt 15 
numina uestra. Ceterum dei filius nullam de impudicitia habet 
matrem ; etiam quam uidetur habere, non nupserat. Sed prius 
substantiam edisseram, et ita natiuitatis qualitas intellegetur. 
lam ediximus deum uniuersitatem hanc mundi uerbo et ratione 
et uirtute molitum. Apud uestros quoque sapientes AOFON, 20 
id est sermonem atque rationem, constat artificem uideri 
uniuersitatis. Hunc enim Zeno determinat factitatorem, qui 
cuncta in dispositione formauerit; eundem et fatum uocari et 
deum et animum louis et necessitatem omnium rerum. Haec 
Cleanthes in spiritum congerit, quem permeatorem uniuersitatis 25 
adfirmat. Et nos autem sermoni atque rationi itemque uirtuti, 
per quae omnia molitum deum ediximus, propriam substantiam 
spiritum inscribimus, cui et sermo insit pronuntianti et ratio 
adsit disponenti et uirtus praesit perficienti. Hunc ex deo 
prolatum didicimus et prolatione generatum et idcirco filium 30 
dei et deum dictum ex unitate substantiae. Nam et deus 
spiritus. Et cum radius ex sole porrigitur, portio ex summa; 
sed sol erit in radio, quia solis est radius nec separatur sub- 
stantia sed extenditur. Ita de spiritu spiritus et de deo deus 
ut lumen de lumine accensum. Manet integra et indefecta 35 
materiae matrix, etsi plures inde traduces quaHtatis mutueris: 



soil and sky, they wander over the world without either man or 

God for their king; they are not allowed even as strangers to 
greet the land of their fathers even to the extent of stepping on 
it. While holy voices threatened them with this beforehand, at 
the same time all were continually urging, that in the last stages 
of time God would then choose for himself from every race, 
community and region worshippers much more faithful to whom 
to transfer his favour, which would be actually fuller by reason 
of the capacity of a more developed teaching. He came there- 
fore, that being, Christ, the Son of God, who it was foretold 
would come from God to reform and illuminate the world. 
The Son of God therefore was announced as ruler and master 
of this grace and dispensation, the enhghtener and the leader 
of the human race, not indeed born under such circumstances, 
that he should blush at the name of son or at his father's seed ; 
it was not through incestuous connexion with a sister nor through 
the debauching of a daughter or of another's wife that he got 
a god for father, a lover scaly or horned or feathered or changed 
into a shower of gold, hke Danae's. These shameful deeds of 
Jupiter are the gods you worship. But the Son of God has his 
mother as the result of no unchastity ; even she, whom he seems 
to have (for mother), had not married. But I will first explain 
his nature, and thus the character of his birth will be understood. 
\Ve have ah-eady proclaimed that God constructed this totality 
of the universe by word and reason and power. Among your 
philosophers also it is a settled behef that Logos, which means 
word and reason, is the fashioner of the universe. For Zeno 
lays it down that this maker, who fashioned everything in order, 
is the same that is called also fate and god and the mind of 
Jupiter and the inevitableness of all things. These Cleanthes 
combines in the Spirit, which he maintains pervades the 
universe. And we also ascribe Spirit as its true essence to 
word and reason and hkewise to power, by which we have pro- 
claimed thatGodhas constructed everything,in which are present 
both word when declaring and reason when arranging and power 
when accomphshing. We have learnt that this Spirit came 
forth from God and by this forth-coming is begotten and has 
therefore been called Son of God, and God from unity of 
nature. For Spirit is also God. Also, when a ray is projected 
from the sun, it is a part of the whole ; but the sun will be in 
the ray, because the ray belongs to the sun and is not separated 
from it by nature but stretches out from it. Spirit comes from 
Spirit and God from God as hght is kindled from hght. The 
parent-stem remains whole and unlessened in substance, even 
if you borrow a number of offshoots of its character from it : 


ita et quod de deo profectum est, deus est et dei filius et unus 
ambo. Ita et de spiritu spiritus et de deo deus modulo alternum 
numerum, gradu non statu fecit, et a matrice non recessit sed 
excessit. Iste igitur dei radius, ut retro semper praedicabatur, 
delapsus in uirginem quandam et in utero eius caro figuratus 5 
nascitur homo deo mixtus. Caro spiritu instructa nutritur, 
adolescit, adfatur, docet, operatur et Christus est. Kecipite 
interim hanc fabulam, similis est uestris, dum ostendimus 
quomodo Christus probetur et qui penes uos eiusmodi fabulas 
aemulas ad destructionem ueritatis istiusmodi praeministra- 10 
uerint. Sciebant et ludaei uenturum esse Christum, sciHcet 
quibus prophetae loquebantur. Nam et nunc aduentum eius 
expectant, nec alia magis inter nos et illos conpulsatio est 
quam quod iam uenisse non credunt. Duobus enim aduentibus 
eius significatis, primo, qui iam expunctus est in humilitate 15 
conditionis humanae, secundo, qui concludendo saeculo imminet 
in subhmitate diuinitatis exertae, primum non intellegendo 
secundum, quem manifestius praedicatum sperant, unum 
existimauerunt. Ne enim intellegerent pristinum, credituri, si 
intellexissent, et consecuturi salutem, si credidissent, meritum 20 
fuit delictum eorum. Ipsi legunt ita scriptum mulctatos se 
sapientia et intellegentia et oculorum et aurium fruge. Quem 
igitur hominem solummodo praesumpserant de humihtate, 
sequebatur uti magum aestimarent de potestate, cum ille 
uerbo daemonia de hominibus excuteret, caecos reluminaret, 25 
leprosos purgaret, paralyticos restringeret, mortuos denique 
uerbo redderet uitae, elementa ipsa famularet compescens pro- 
cellas et freta ingrediens, ostendens se esse uerbum dei, id est 
AOrON, illud primordiale, primogenitum, uirtute et ratione 
comitatum et spiritu fultum, eundem qui uerbo omnia et 30 
faceret et fecisset. Ad doctrinam uero eius, qua reuincebantur 
magistri primoresque ludaeorum, ita exasperabantur, maxime 
quod ingens ad eum multitudo deflecteret, ut postremo oblatum 


so also that which has come forth froni God, is God and the 
Son of God. and both are one. So the Spirit that comes from 
Spirit and the God that comes from God brought about the 
number two, as regards the measuie (of the possession of 
being), in grade not in unchangeable condition, and it did 
not separate from the source, but came out from it. This 
ray, therefore, of God, as was always foretold^ in the past, 
coming down into a certain virgin and being formed into flesh 
in her womb, is born man mixed with God. The flesh having 
been informed with breath is nourished, grows up, speaks, 
teaches, works, and is Christ. Meantime accept this story, 
which is hke your own, while I show how he is proved to be 
Christ and who they are among you who have previously 
suppHed hostile tales of that kind to destroy a truth of this 
kind. The Jews too knew that Christ was to come, seeing that 
it was to them that the prophets used to speak. For even now 
they are looking out for his arrival, nor is there any greater 
cause of disagreement between us and them than the fact that 
they do not beheve that he has already come. For as two 
advents of his have been indicated, the first, which has already 
been fulfilled (in every predicted detail), in the humiUty of his 
human creation, the second, which precedes the end of the world, 
in the loftiness of the manifested Godhead, they by misunder- 
standing the first, have thought the second, which (having been 
more clearly prophesied^) they expect, to be the only one. It 
was the desert of their transgression that they should not under- 
stand the original advent, for if they had understood, they would 
have beUeved, and if they had beheved they would have attained 
safety. They themselves read it thus written, that they have 
lost their wisdom and understanding and the use of their eyes 
and ears. It followed therefore that he whom they had assumed 
to be merely man because of his humihty, they regarded as a 
magician from his power, when by a word he cast out demons 
from men, restored hght to the bhnd, cleansed the lepers, 
braced up the paralytic again, and even by a word restored 
the dead to hfe, ruled the elements themselves, quelhng storms 
and walking upon seas, showing that he was the word of God 
(that is the Logos), that original, first-born word, attended 
by power and reason and supported by spirit, the selfsame 
who was both making and had made everything by a word. 
At his teaching, however, by which the teachers and leading 
men among the Jews were refuted, they were so angered, 
especially because a vast crowd was turning aside to him, 
that in the end they prosecuted him, and by the violence of 

^ Read praedicebatur. - Read praedictiim. 


Pontio Pilato, Syriam tunc ex parte Romana procuranti, 
uiolentia suffragiorum iii crucem lesum dedi sibi extorserint. 
Praedixerat et ipse ita facturos ; parum si non et prophetae 
retro. Et tamen suffixus multa mortis illius propria ostendit 
insignia. Nam spiritum cum uerbo sponte dimisit, praeuento 5 
carnificis officio. Eodem momento dies medium orbem sig- 
nante sole subducta est. Deliquium utique putauerunt qui 
id quoque super Christo praedicatum non scierunt. Et tamen 
eum mundi casum relatum in arcanis uestris habetis. Tunc 
ludaei detractum et sepulchro conditum magna etiam militari 10 
manu custodiae dihgentia circumsederunt, ne, quia praedixerat 
tertia die resurrecturum se a morte, discipuli furto amoliti 
cadauer fallerent suspectos. Sed ecce tertia die concussa 
repente terra, et mole reuoluta quae obstruxerat sepulchrum, et 
custodia pauore disiecta, nullis apparentibus discipulis nihil in 15 
sepulchro repertum est praeterquam exuuiae sepulti. Nihilo- 
minus tamen primores, quorum intererat et scelus diuulgare 
et populum uectigalem et famularem sibi a fide reuocare, 
subreptum a discipuHs iactitauerunt. Nam nec ille se in 
uulgus eduxit, ne impii errore liberarentur, ut et fides, non 20 
mediocri praemio destinata, difficultate constaret. Cum dis- 
cipulis autem quibusdam apud Galilaeam, ludaeae regionem, 
ad quadraginta dies egit docens eos quae docerent. Dehinc 
ordinatis eis ad officium praedicandi per orbem circumfusa 
nube in caelum est receptus, multo uerius quam apud uos 25 
adseuerare de Romulo ProcuH solent. Ea omnia super Christo 
Pilatus, et ipse iam pro sua conscientia Christianus, Caesari 
tunc Tiberio nuntiauit. Sed et Caesares credidissent super 
Christo, si aut Caesares non essent necessarii saeculo, aut si 
et Christiani potuissent esse Caesares. Discipuli quoque 30 
diffusi per orbem ex praecepto magistri dei paruerunt, qui 
et ipsi a ludaeis insequentibus multa perpessi utique pro 
fiducia ueritatis libenter Romae postremo per Neronis saeuitiam 


their partisanship forcibly obtained from Pontius Pilate, who 
at that time was governing Syria on behalf of the Romans, 
Jesiis' surrender for crucifixion. He himself also had foretold 
that they would do so; a small thing, if the prophets had 
not also foretold it earher. And further, on being crucified he 
displayed many signs pecuHar to that death. For he released 
his spirit of his own accord with a word, anticipating the duty 
of the executioner. At the same moment dayhght was withr 
drawn, though the sun was then marking the middle of his 
course. Those who did not know that this also had been 
prophesiedi with regard to Christ, thought that it was an ecHpse ; 
and yet you have that overshadowing of the sky recorded in 
your secret records. Then the Jews took him down, laid him in 
a tomb, and further surrounded it with a large band of soldiers, 
to guard it carefully, lest his disciples might remove the corpse 
by stealth, because he had foretold that on the third day he 
would rise again from death, and thus escape those who suspected 
them. But lo, on the third day there was a sudden earthquake 
and the massive stone which had blocked the entrance to the 
tomb was rolled back; the guard dispersed in panic, though 
no disciples appeared, and nothing was found in the tomb 
except the grave clothes. Nevertheless, the rulers, whose 
interest it was both to spread a wicked tale and to recall from 
the faith their tributaries and dependents, spread abroad the 
report that he had been stolen by his disciples. For neither 
did he show himself to the crowd, lest the irrehgious might be 
freed from their mistake, and also in order that belief, which is 
destined to receive no httle reward, should be strengthened by 
difficulty. However with certain disciples he Hved in Gahlee, 
a district of Judea, for forty days, teaching them what they 
were to teach. Then, having ordained them to the duty of 
preaching throughout the world, he was taken up to heaven in 
a cloud, much more truly than people like Proculus are wont 
to assert among you about Romulus. All these things with 
reference to Christ, Pilate, who himself also in his own con- 
science was now a Christian, reported to the then emperor 
Tiberius. But even the emperors would have believed on 
Christ, if either emperors had not been necessary to the world 
or if it had been possible for Christians too to be emperors. 
His disciples also scattered throughout the world in accordance 
with the order of their teacher God. They themselves too 
having gladly sufEered much at the hands of persecuting Jews, 
of course for their confidence in the truth, at last through the 
cruelty of Nero sowed the seed of Christian martyrdom at Rome. 
^ Read praedictum. 


sanguinem Christianura seminauerunt. Sed monstrabimus 
uobis idoneos testes Cliristi ipsos illos quos adoratis. Multum 
est si eos adhibeam ut credatis Christianis propter quos non 
creditis Christianis. Interim hic est ordo nostrae institutionis, 
hunc edidimus et sectae et nominis censum cum suo auctore. 5 
Nemo iam infamiam incutiat, nemo aliud existimet, quia nec 
fas est ulli de sua religione mentiri. Ex eo enim quod aliud 
a se coli dicit quam colit, negat quod colit, et culturam et 
honorem in alterum transfert, et transferendo iam non colit 
quod negauit. Dicimus, et palam dicimus, et uobis torquentibus 10 
lacerati et cruenti uociferamur: Deum coiimus per Christum. 
Illum hominem putate, per eum et in eo se cognosci et coli deus 
uult. Ut ludaeis respondeamus, et ipsi dominum per hominem 
Moysen colere didicerunt: ut Graecis occurram, Orpheus 
Pieriae, Musaeus Athenis, Melampus Argis, Trophonius Boeotiae 15 
initiationibus homines obligauerunt : ut ad uos quoque domina- 
tores gentium adspiciam, homo fuit Pompilius Nama, qui 
Romanos operosissimis superstitionibus onerauit. Licuerit et 
Christo commentari diuinitatem, rem propriam, non qua rupices 
et adhuc feros homines multitudini tot numinum demerendorum 20 
attonitos efficiendo ad humanitatem temperaret, quod Numa, 
sed qui iam expolitos et ipsa urbanitate deceptos in agnitionem 
ueritatis ocularet. Quaerite igitur si uera est ista diuinitas 
Christi. Si ea est qua cognita ad bonum quis reformatur, 
sequitur ut falsae renuntietur, conperta inprimis illa omni 25 
ratione quae delitiscens sub nominibus et imaginibus mor- 
tuorum quibusdam signis et miraculis et oraculis fidem 
diuinitatis operatur. 

22. Atque adeo dicimus esse substantias quasdam spiri- 
tales. Nec nouum nomen est. Sciunt daemones philosophi. 30 
Socrate ipso ad daemonii arbitrium exspectante. Quidni ? cum 
et ipsi daemonium a pueritia adhaesisse dicatur, dehortatorium 
plane a bono. Omnes sciunt poetae; etiam uulgus indoctum 
in usum maledicti frequentat. Nam et Satanan, principem 
huius mali generis, proinde de propria conscientia animae eadem 35 


But we will show you that the very persons whom you worship 
are reUable witnesses of Christ. It is a great point, if, to niake 
you beheve the Christians, I can employ those on whose account 
you now disbeheve them. Meantime this is the order of our 
teaching, this the beginning both of our sect and name together 
with that of its founder. Let no one now charge us with 
dishonour, let no one beheve any other thing than this, because 
it is not permitted to any one to tell hes about his own rehgion. 
For from the moment that a man says anything is worshipped 
by him other than what he worships, he denies what he worships, 
and transfers both worship and honour to another, and by 
transferring he now no longer worships that which he denied. 
We affirm and affirm openly and, torn and bleeding, as we are, 
under your torture, we cry aloud, 'We worship God through 
Christ.' Suppose him to be a man: it is through him and in 
him that God desires himself to be known and worshipped. But 
to reply to the Jews, they themselves too were taught to worship. 
the Lord through the man Moses : and to meet the objections 
of the Greeks, Orpheus at Pieria, Musaeus at Athens, Melampus 
at Argos, Trophonius in Boeotia bound men by initiations : to 
turn my attention to you also, the rulers of the nations, Numa 
Pompihus, who loaded the Romans with most irksome super- 
stitions, was a man. Let it be allowed to Christ to imagine 
divinity to be his own possession, not as a mere name by which 
he was to tone down to a true humanity a barbarous herd, by 
making them awe-struck at the crowd of so many divine powers 
that had to be appeased, as Numa did, but so as to open to the 
recognition of the truth the eyes of men already refined and 
deceived by their very refinement. Seek then and see whether 
this divinity of Christ be true. If it is that on the learning 
of which any one is reformed and becomes good, it follows that 
the unreal (divinity) must be given up, as all that method in 
particular has been found out, which hiding itself under names 
and representations of dead persons does by certain signs and 
wonders and oracles work behef in its own divinity. 

Chap. XXII. And further we say that there are certain 
spiritual substances ; nor is the name unusual. The philosophers 
are famihar with daemons, since Socrates himself waited on the 
will of a daemon. Why not? A daemon is said to have 
actually attached itself to him since boyhood, evidently to 
dissuade him from good. All the poets know them, even the 
untaught rabble makes constant use of them for cursing; for 
they utter even the name of Satan, the chief of this evil class, 
as it were from the sou]'s innate knowledge, with the same 


execramenti uoce pronuntiat. Angelos quoque etiam Plato non 
negauit. Utriusque nominis testes esse uel magi adsunt. Sed 
quomodo de angelis quibusdam sua sponte corruptis corruptior 
gens daemonum euaserit, damnata a deo cum generis auctoribus 
et cum eo quem diximus principe, apud litteras sanctas ordo 5 
cognoscitur. Nunc de operatione eorum satis erit exponere. 
Operatio eorum est hominis euersio. Sic malitia spiritalis a 
primordio auspicata est in hominis exitium. Itaque corporibus 
quidem et ualitudines infligunt et aliquos casus acerbos, animae 
uero repentinos et extraordinarios per uim excessus. Suppetit 10 
illis ad utramque substantiam hominis adeundam subtilitas et 
tenuitas sua. Multum spiritalibus uiribus licet, ut inuisibiles 
et insensibiles in effectu potius quam in actu suo appareant, si 
poma, si fruges nescio quod aurae latens uitium in flore prae- 
cipitat, in germine exanimat, in pubertate conuulnerat, ac si 15 
caeca ratione temptatus aer pestilentes haustus suos offundit. 
Eadem igitur obscuritate contagionis adspiratio daemonum et 
angelorum mentis quoque corruptelas agit furoribus et amentiis 
foedis aut saeuis libidinibus cum erroribus uariis, quorum iste 
potissimus quo deos istos captis et circumscriptis hominum 20 
mentibus commendat, ut et sibi pabula propria nidoris et 
sanguinis procuret simulacris imaginibus oblata. Et quae illi 
accuratior pascua est, quam ut hominem e cogitatu uerae 
diuinitatis auertat praestigiis falsis? Quas et ipsas quomodo 
operetur expediam. Omnis spiritus ales est. Hoc angeli et 25 
daemones. Igitur momento ubique sunt ; totus orbis illis locus 
unus est ; quid ubi geratur tam facile sciunt quam adnuntiant. 
Velocitas diuinitas creditur, quia substantia ignoratur. Sic et 
auctores interdum uideri uolunt eorum quae adnuntiant. Et 
sunt plane malorum nonnunquam, bonorum tamen nunquam. 30 
Dispositiones etiam dei et tunc prophetis contionantibus excer- 
punt et nunc lectionibus resonantibus carpunt. Ita et hinc 
sumentes quasdam temporum sortes aemulantur diuinitatem, 
dum furantur diuinationem. In oraculis autem quo ingenio 
ambiguitates temperent in euentus sciunt Croesi, sciunt Pyrrhi. 35 


word of cursing. Plato also did not deny the existence of 
angels : even the magi are ready to bear witness to both names 
(i.e. spirits and angels). Nay we learn in sacred hterature the 
story how, from certain angels polluted of their own free-will, 
a yet more polluted race of spirits arose, condemned by God 
along with. the f ounders of their stock and along with him whom 
we have called the chief. Now it will be enough to explain 
the course of their work. Their business is the destruction of 
man ; thus did the wickedness of spirits begin at the beginning 
of things with a view to the ruin of man. Therefore while it 
is true that they inflict on bodies both diseases and some severe 
accidents, they also inflict on the soul sudden and strange 
aberrations of violent madness. Their wonderful subtilty and 
fineness of texture give them access to both parts of man. 
Spiritual agencies have great power, so that being invisible and 
intangible^ they show themselves rather in their eiiect than in 
their action; if fruit, if ground-crops are through some secret 
fault in the atmosphere nipt in the bud, killed in the seed, 
seriously damaged when ripe, and if the air attacked in some 
hidden way exhales its pestilential draughts. Then by the same 
obscure contagion the breathing of daemons and of angels (upon 
us) works corruptions of the mind also, in attacks of raving 
madness and disgraceful paroxysms of folly or cruel lusts 
attended by various errors, of which the most signal is this by 
which it recommends these gods to the enthralled and deluded 
minds of men, that it may obtain for itself also proper diets of 
fumes and blood, ofEered to statues and images. And what 
more exquisite pasture could it have than by its deceptive 
legerdemain to turn away man from thinking on true divinity? 
How it works these very tricks I will explain. Every spirit is 
winged. So are angels and daemons. Consequently in a moment 
they are everywhere, to them the whole wprld is one place; 
what is being done in any place it is as easy for them to know as 
to report. Their swiftness is beheved to betoken divinity, be- 
cause their substance is unknown. Thus they sometimes wish 
to be regarded as the authors also of what they report; and 
they certainly are so at times in the case of evil, but never of 
good things. Even the counsels of God they in the old days 
picked up from the words of the prophets, and in these days 
they gather them from the lessons of Scripture they hear. So it 
is that gleaning from them certain responses with regard to dates 
they enviously ape the divinity, while they steal the oracles of 
God. In the sphere of oracles, moreover, people Hke Croesus and 
Pyrrhus know with what ingenuity they adapt ambiguities to 
^ The reference is to all the senses other than sight. 


Ceterum testudinem deGoqui cum carnibus pecudis Pythius eo 
modo renuntiauit quo supra diximus; momento apud Lydiam 
fuerat. Habent de incolatu aeris et de uicinia siderum et de 
commercio nubium caelestes sapere paraturas, ut et pluuias, 
quas iam sentiunt, repromittant. Benefici plane et circa curas 5 
ualitudinum. Laedunt enim primo, dehinc remedia praecipiunt 
ad miraculum noua siue contraria, post quae desinunt laedere, et 
curasse creduntur. Quid ergo de ceteris ingeniis uel etiam uiri- 
bus fallaciae spiritalis edisseram? phantasmata Castorum, et 
aquam cribro gestatam, et nauem cingulo promotam, et barbam 10 
tactu inrufatam, ut numina lapides crederentur, ut deus uerus 
non quaereretur? 

23. Porro, si et magi phantasmata edunt et iam defunc- 
torum infamant animas, si pueros in eloquium oraculi elidunt, 
si multa miracula circulatoriis praestigiis ludunt, si et somnia 15 
immittunt habentes semel inuitatorum angelorum et daemonum 
adsistentem sibi potestatem, per quos et caprae et mensae 
diuinare consuerunt, quanto magis ea potestas de suo arbitrio 
et pro suo negotio studeat totis uiribus operari quod alienae 
praestat negotiationi ! Aut si eadem et angeli et daemones 20 
operantur quae et dei uestri, ubi est ergo praecellentia diuinitatis, 
quam utique superiorem omni potestate credendum est? Non 
ergo dignius praesumetur ipsos esse qui se deos faciant, cum 
eadem edant quae faciant deos credi, quam pares angelis et 
daemonibus deos esse? Locorum dif?erentia distinguitur, 25 
opinor, ut a templis deos existimetis quos alibi deos non dicitis ; 
ut aliter dementire uideatur qui sacras turres peruolat, aliter 
qui tecta uiciniae transilit, et alia uis pronuntietur in eo qui 
genitalia uel lacertos, alia qui sibi gulam prosecat. Compar 
exitus furoris et una ratio est instigationis. Sed hactenus 30 


events. But it was in the way we have inentioned above that 
the Pythian Apollo reported the boiHng of a tortoise with the 
iiesh of a sheep ; a moment had taken him to Lydia. From the 
fact that they inhabit the air and from the neighbourhood of 
the stars and from their deahngs with the clouds they are able 
to have knowledge of the preparations in heaven, so that they 
can even promise rains which they already feel. They are also 
clear]y sorcerers^ in their treatments of disease. For they first 
injure, and then prescribe remedies to excite wonder, whether 
simply new or absolutely opposed to the usual practices, after 
which they cease to injure, and are (thus) believed to have 
effected a cure. Why then should I speak of other subtilties 
or even powers of spiritual deception ? the appearances of the 
Castors, and the water borne in a sieve, and the ship propelled 
by a girdle, and the beard made red at a touch, — so that stones 
might be beUeved to be divinities, and the true God should not 
be sought after ? 

Chap. XXIIL Moreover, if magicians also call forth 
apparitions and dishonour the souls of those already dead, if 
they put children to death to get an oracular utterance, if they 
perform many wonders with mountebank trickery, if they also 
let loose dreams, having to stand by them the power of angels 
and spirits once for all invited, through whom both goats and 
tables have been wont to give oracles, how much more w^ould 
that power of its own initiative and on behalf of its own business 
exert itself with all its strength to carry out the same work, 
which it perf orms to serve the business of another ! Or if both 
angels and daemons work the same things as your gods also 
work, where then lies the preeminence of divinity, which must 
of course be beheved to be superior to every (other) power? 
Wil) it not then be more fitting to assume that it is the persons 
themselves who make themselves gods, since they display the 
same actions which produce beUef in divinity, than to imagine 
that the gods are merely on a level with angels and daemons ? 
A distinction is made, I suppose, according to the difEerence of 
locahties, so that from their temples you judge those to be gods, 
whom in other places you do not call gods ; so that one who 
flies through sacred towers is considered to sufEer from one kind 
of madness, while one who leaps over the houses in the neigh- 
bourhood is considered to suffer from another, and one power 
is declared to exist in him who cuts off his organs of generation 
or his arms, and another in him who cuts ofE his tongue. The 
result of the madness is ahke in both cases and there is one 
^ Reading Venefici. (For the confusion, cf. Aug. serm. 1G3 § 2.) 


uerba ; iam liinc demonstratio rei ipsius, qua ostendemus unam 
esse utriusque nominis qualitatem. Edatur hic aliqui ibidem 
sub tribunalibus uestris quem daemone agi constet. lussus a 
quolibet Christiano loqui spiritus ille tam se daemonem confite- 
bitur de uero quam alibi dominum de falso. . Aeque producatur 5 
aliquis ex his qui de deo pati existimantur, qui aris inhalantes 
numen de nidore concipiunt, qui ructando curantur, qui anhe- 
lando praefantur. Ista ipsa Virgo Caelestis pluuiarum pollici- 
tatrix, ipse iste Aesculapius medicinarum demonstrator, aliam 
diem morituris Socordio et Tenatio et Asclepiodoto summini- 10 
straturi, nisi se daemones confessi fuerint Christiano mentiri non 
audentes, ibidem illius Christiani procacissimi sanguinem 
fundite! Quid isto opere manifestius? Quid hac probatione 
fideHus? Simplicitas ueritatis in medio est. Virtus illi sua 
adsistit; nihil suspicari licebit. Magia aut aliqua eiusmodi 15 
fallacia fieri dicitis? Non dicetis, si oculi uestri et aures 
permiserint uobis. Quid autem inici potest aduersus id quod 
ostenditur nuda sinceritate? Si altera parte uere dei sunt, cur 
sese daemonia mentiuntur? An ut nobis obsequantur? lam 
ergo subiecta est Christianis diuinitas uestra, nec diuinitas 20 
deputanda est quae subdita est homini et, si quid ad dedecus 
facit, aemulis suis. Si altera parte daemones sunt uel angeli, 
cur se alibi pro deis agere respondent? Nam sicut illi qui dei 
habentur daemones se dicere noluissent, si uere dei essent, 
scilicet ne se de maiestate deponerent, ita et isti, quos directo 25 
daemonas nostis, non auderent alibi pro deis agere, si ahqui 
omnino dei essent, quorum nominibus utuntur. Vererentur 
enim abuti maiestate superiore sine dubio et timendorum. 
Adeo nulla est diuinitas ista quam tenetis, quia, si esset, neque 
a daemoniis adfectaretur in confessione neque a deis negaretur. 30 
Cum ergo utraque pars concurrit in confessionem deos esse 
negans, agnoscite unum genus esse, id est daemonas, uerum 
utrobique. lam deos quaerite. Quos enim praesumpseratis, 
daemonas esse cognoscitis. Eadem uero opera nostra ab 


method only of incitement. But enough of words ; from this 
point onward there must be a presentation of the thing itself, 
by which we shall show that the nature of gods and daemons 
is one. Let any one be produced in this very place under your 
tribunals, who it is well known is under the infiuence of a 
daemon ; that spirit, if ordered by any Christian to speak, will 
as readily confess itself a daemon, because it is true, as elsewhere 
a god because it is untrue. Let someone hkewise be brought 
forward from among those who are thought to be under the 
influence of a god, men who by breathing on altars acquire 
a divine power from the odour of the sacrifice, who are cured 
by exhahng, and force an utterance as they pant. This very 
Maiden of the Heavens, the promiser of rains, this very Aescu- 
lapius, the discoverer of cures, the ministers of another day to 
Socordius, Tenatius and Asclepiodotus, men doomed to die — 
unless they confess themselves daemons, not daring to he to 
a Christian, forthwith shed the blood of that most insolent 
Christian ! What could be more evident than a fact Hke this ? 
what more trustworthy than this demonstration ? The sim- 
phcity of truth is for ail eyes to see, its own excellence supports 
it, suspicion is impossible. Do you say this result comes from 
magic or some deception of that kind? You will not say it, 
(even) if your eyes and ears allow you. But what can be in- 
sinuated against that which is set f orth in its naked simphcity ? 
If, on the one hand, they are truly gods, why do they say falsely 
that they are daemons ? is it that they may please us ? If so, 
then your divinity is already subject to Christians, and that is 
not to be considered divinity which is subject to a man, and 
(if aught can add to the disgrace) to its actual foes. If on the 
other hand they are daemons or angels, why do they answer 
that they play the part of gods elsewhere? For, just as those 
who are considered gods would have refused to call themselves 
daemons, if they had been truly gods, of course lest they should 
depose themselves from their high dignity, so also these whom 
you know at once to be daemons, would not dare elsewhere to 
pose as gods, if those gods whose names they usurp were gods of 
any sort at all, since they would be afraid to misuse those higher 
dignities which, without doubt, they would also have to dread. 
Therefore this divinity which you hold fast is non-existent : 
for, if it existed, it would neither be claimed by spirits in con- 
fession, nor denied by gods. Since then both sides agree to our 
admission, denying that the gods exist, you must recognise that 
there is one class only, viz. daemons, but that it is on both sides. 
You must now seek for fresh gods, since those you had assumed 
to exist, you learn are daemons. But by this same aid from us, 


eisdem deis uestris non tantum hoc detegentibus quod neque 
ipsi dei sint neque ulli alii, etiam illud in continenti cognoscitis, 
qui sit uere deus, et an ille et an unicus quem Christiani pro- 
fitemur, et an ita credendus colendusque, ut fides, ut disciplina 
disposita est Christianorum. Dicent ibidem : Et quis ille 5 
Christus cum sua fabula? si homo communis conditionis? si 
magus? si post mortem de sepulchro a discipulis subreptus? 
si nunc denique penes inferos? si non in caelis potius, et inde 
uenturus cum totius mundi motu, cum orbis horrore, cum 
planctu omnium, sed non Christianorum, ut dei uirtus et dei 10 
spiritus et sermo et sapientia et ratio et dei fihus ? Quodcunque 
ridetis, rideant et illi uobiscum; negent Christum omnem ab 
aeuo animam restituto corpore iudicaturum, dicant hoc pro 
tribunali, si forte, Minoem et Rhadamanthum secundum con- 
sensum Platonis et poetarum hoc esse sortitos; suae saltim 15 
ignominiae et damnationis notam refutent. Renuntiant se 
immundos spiritus esse, quod uel ex pabuHs eorum, sanguine 
et fumo et putidis rogis pecorum, et impuratissimis linguis 
ipsorum uatum intellegi debuit: renuant ob mahtiam prae- 
damnatos se in eundem iudicii diem cum omnibus cultoribus 20 
et operationibus suis. Atquin omnis haec nostra in illos 
dominatio et potestas de nominatione Christi ualet et de com- 
memoratione eorum quae sibi a deo per arbitrum Christum 
imminentia exspectant. Christum timentes in deo et deum in 
Christo subiciuntur seruis dei et Christi. Ita de contactu 25 
deque affiatu nostro, contemplatione et repraesentatione ignis 
ilHus correpti etiam de corporibus nostro imperio excedunt 
inuiti et dolentes et uobis praesentibus erubescentes. Credite 
illis, cum uerum de se loquuntur, qui mentientibus creditis. 
Nemo ad suum dedecus mentitur, quin potius ad honorem. 30 
Magis fides proxima est aduersus semetipsos confitentes quam 
pro semetipsis negantes. Haec denique testimonia deorum 
uestrorum Christianos facere consuerunt; quam plurimum illis 
credendo in Christo domino credimus. Ipsi litterarum nos- 
trarum fidem accendunt, ipsi spei nostrae fidentiam aedificant. 35 
Colitis illos, quod sciam, etiam de sanguine Christianorum. 


from these same gods of yours, who reveal not only this, that 
neither they themselves nor any others are gods, you immedi- 
ately learn this also, namely who is truly God, and whether it 
is he and he alone whom we Christians profess to beheve, and 
whether he ought to be beUeved and worshipped as the belief 
and teaching of the Christians is laid down. They will say at 
the same time : ' And who is that Christ with his story ? was he 
a man of ordinary condition ? was he a magician ? was he after 
death stolen from the tomb by his disciples ? Is he now at last 
among the shades below? ' Is he not rather in the heavens, and 
to come thence with a movement of the whole universe, with 
trembhng of the world, with mourning of all (but not of the 
Christians), as the power of God and the breath and word and 
wisdom and reason of God, and the Son of God ? Whatsoever 
you laugh at, let them also (i.e. the daemons) laugh at it with 
you; let them deny that Christ will judge every soul that has 
been since the beginning of time, each having its body restored 
to it. Let them say that instead of this tribunal a Minos perhaps 
and a Rhadamanthus, according to the agreement of Plato and 
the poets, were allotted to this duty; let them at least 
repudiate the' stigma of their own disgrace and condemnation. 
They report that they are unclean spirits, a fact which ought 
to have been understood even from their diet, blood and smoke 
and the putrid sacrifices of cattle, and the polhited tongues of the 
soothsayers themselves. Let them deny that on account of their 
wickedness they were fore-ordained to the same day of judgment 
with all their worshippers and agencies. Yet all this rule and 
power of ours over them derives its strength from the naming 
of Christ, and from the mention of those things which they look 
for as impending over them from God, through Christ the Judge. 
Fearing Christ in God and God in Christ, they are subject to the 
servants of God and Christ. Thus from our touch and from our 
breath being carried away by the thought and vision of that fire, 
they even leave the bodies of men at our order, unwilhng and 
discomfited and ashamed at your presence. Beheve them when 
they speak the truth about themselves, ye who beheve them 
when they lie. No one hes to bring disgrace, but rather to 
bring honour upon himself. Credence is more readily given to 
those who confess against themselves than to those who deny 
in defence of themselves. Further these testimonies from your 
own gods have been wont to make Christians ; because, the more 
we beheve them, the more we beheve in Christ as Lord. They 
themselves excite behef in our scriptures, they themselves build 
up trust in our hope. To the best of my belief, you even pro- 
pitiate them with the blood of Christians. They would therefore 



Nollent itaque uos tam fructuosos, tam officiosos sibi amittere, 
uel ne a uobis quandoque a Christianis fugentur, si illis sub 
Christiano, uolente uobis ueritatem probare, mentiri liceret. 

24. Omnis ista confessio illorum qua se deos negant esse 
quaque non alium deum respondent praeter unum, cui nos 5 
mancipamur, satis idonea est ad depellendum crimen laesae 
maxime Romanae religionis. Si enim non sunt dei pro certo, 
nec religio pro certo est: si religio non est, quia nec dei pro 
certo, nec nos pro certo rei sumus laesae religionis. At e con- 
trario in uos exprobratio resultauit, qui mendacium colentes 10 
ueram religionem ueri dei non modo neglegendo, quin insuper 
expugnando, in uerum committitis crimen uerae inreligiositatis. 
Nunc ut constaret illos deos esse, nonne conceditis de aestima- 
tione communi aliquem esse sublimiorem et potentiorem, uelut 
principem mundi perfectae potentiae et maiestatis? Nam et 15 
sic plerique disponunt diuinitatem, ut imperium summae 
dominationis esse penes unum, officia eius penes multos uelint, 
ut Plato louem magnum in caelo comitatum exercitu describit 
deorum pariter et daemonum. Itaque oportere et procurantes 
et praefectos et praesides pariter suspici. Et tamen quod 20 
facinus admittit qui magis ad Caesarem promerendum et 
operam et spem suam transfert nec appellationem dei ita ut 
imperatoris in aliquo principe confitetur, cum capitale esse 
iudicetur alium praeter Caesarem et dicere et audire? Colat 
alius deum, alius louem, alius ad caelum manus supplices tendat, 25 
alius ad aram Fidei, alius, si hoc putatis, nubes numeret orans, 
alius lacunaria, alius suam animam deo suo uoueat, alius hirci. 
Videte enim ne et hoc ad inreligiositatis elogium concurrat, 
adimere libertatem religionis et interdicere optionem diuinitatis, 
ut non liceat mihi colere quem uelim, sed cogar colere quem 30 
nolim. Nemo se ab inuito coli uolet, ne homo quidem. Atque 
adeo et Aegyptiis permissa est tam uanae superstitionis potestas 


be imwilling to lose those who are so profitable and so dutiful 
to them as you are, if only that they might not be driven away 
from you one day by the Christians, if it were in their power 
to speak falsely in the presence of a Christian who wished to 
prove the truth to you. 

Chap. XXIV. All this confession of theirs, by which they 
deny that they are gods and by which they answer that there 
is no other God but one, whose servants we are, is sufficient to 
refute the charge of signal violation of the Roman rehgion. 
For if there are assuredly no gods, then assuredly there is no 
rehgion either; and if there is no rehgion, because assuredly 
there are no gods either, assuredly neither can we be charged 
with violation of rehgion. On the contrary the reproach has 
recoiled on yourselves, who, worshipping a he, commit the crime 
of real irrehgion against the truth, not only by neglecting the true 
worship of the true God, but by attacking it also. Now, even 
though it were allowed that those gods exist, do you not coincide 
with the general opinion that there is one higher and more 
powerful, a sort of head of the universe of absolute power and 
sovereignty? For very many also distribute the divine power 
in such a way as to wish the rule of the highest lordship to be in 
the hands of one, while his functions are in the hands of many, as 
Plato describes the great Jupiter in heaven, attended by a host 
ahke of gods and of daemons, and held it thus to be right that 
the procurators and prefects and governors (in general) should 
be alike respected^. And yet what crime is committed by him 
who apphes both his exertions and his hope rather to the 
winning of favour with Caesar, and does not allow the name 
God, just as he would not allow the name Emperor in the case 
of any leadmg man, since it is judged a capital offence both to 
use and to hsten to the use of the name for any one but Caesar? 
Let one worship God, another Jupiter; let one hold out supphant 
hands to the sky, another to the altar of Fides; let one, if such 
is your opinion, count the clouds while he prays, another the 
panels of the ceihng; let one dedicate to his God his own hfe, 
another the hfe of a goat. Beware, too, lest this also should 
be combined with the charge of irrehgion, the taking away of 
the hberty of worship and the forbidding of the choice of a god, 
so that I should be prevented from worshipping him whoni I will, 
but should be compelled to worship (another) against my will. 
No being, not even a man, will desire to be worshipped by an 
unwilling person ; and yet even the Egyptians were allowed 
the power of such a foohsh superstition, for the deification of 
^ Joiuing to previous sentence, as grammar requires. 


auibus et bestiis consecrandis et capite damnandis qui aliqueni 
huiusmodi deum occiderit. Unicuique etiam prouinciae et 
ciuitati suus deus est, ut Syriae Astartes, ut Arabiae Dusares, 
ut Noricis Belenus, ut Africae Caelestis, ut Mauritaniae reguli 
sui, Romanas, ut opinor, prouincias edidi, nec tamen Romanos 5 
deos earum, quia Romae non magis coluntur quam qui per 
ipsam quoque Italiam municipali consecratione censentur: 
Casiniensium Deluentinus, Narniensium Visidianus, Ascula- 
norum Ancharia, Volsiniensium Nortia, Ocriculanorum Valentia, 
Sutrinorum Hostia ; Faliscorum in honorem Patris Curis et 10 
accepit cognomen luno. Sed nos soli arcemur a religionis 
proprietate. Laedimus Romanos nec Romani habemur qui 
non Romanorum deum colimus. Bene quod omnium deus 
est, cuius uelimus aut nolimus omnes sumus. Sed apud uos 
quoduis colere ius est praeter deum uerum, ([uasi non hic 15 
magis omnium sit deus cuius omnes sumus. 

25. Satis quidem mihi uideor probasse de falsa et uera 
diuinitate, cum demonstraui quemadmodum probatio consistat, 
non modo disputationibus, nec argumentationibus, sed ipsorum 
etiam testimoniis quos deos creditis, ut nihil iam ad hanc 20 
causam sit retractandum. Quoniam tamen Romani nominis 
proprie mentio occurrit, non omittam congressionem, quam 
prouocat illa praesumptio dicentium Romanos pro merito 
religiositatis diligentissimae in tantum sublimitatis elatos, ut 
orbem occuparint, et adeo deos esse, ut praeter ceteros floreant 25 
qui illis officium praeter ceteros faciant. SciHcet ista merces 
a Romanis deis pro gratia expensa est. Sterculus et Mutunus 
et Larentina prouexit imperium. Peregrinos enim deos non 
putem extraneae genti magis fautum uoluisse quam suae, et 
patrium solum, in quo nati, adulti, nobilitati sepultique sunt, 30 
transfretanis dedisse. Viderit Cybele, si urbem Romanam ut 
memoriam Troiani generis adamauit, uernaculi sui scilicet 
aduersus Achiuorum arma protecti, si ad ultores transire 
prospexit, quos sciebat Graeciam Phrygiae debellatricem sub- 
acturos. Itaque maiestatis suae in urbem conlatae grande 35 
documentum nostra etiam aetate proposuit, cum Marco Aurelio 


birds and beasts, and the condemnation to death of any one 
who had killed a god of this sort. Each province also and 
city-state has its own god, as Syria has Astartes, as Arabia 
Dusares, as the Norici have Belenus, as Africa has Caelestis, 
Mauretania its own chieftains. It is a hst of Ronian provinces 
that I have given, I think, and yet their gods are not Roman, 
because they are not more worshipped at Rome than those who 
throughout Italy itself also are ranked as gods from municipal 
consecration : Deluentinus of Casinum, Visidianus of Narnia, 
Ancharia of Asculum, Nortia of Volsinii, Valentia of Ocricu- 
lum, Hostia of Sutrium, Juno of the Fahsci, who also received 
the surname (Curritis) in honour of Father Curis. But we 
alone are debarred from a rehgion of our own. We offend the 
Romans and are not considered Romans because we do not 
worship the god of the Romans. It is well that there is a God 
of all, to whom wiWj nilly we all belong. But among yoii it 
is lawful to worship anything except the true God, as if He to 
whom we all belong were not rather the God of all. 

Chap. XXV. I think I have now given sufhcient proof 
about true and false divinity, since I have shown how the proof 
holds together, not only by discussions or reasonings, but also 
by the evidence of those very beings whom you beheve to be 
gods, so that nothing now needs to be revised for the present 
purpose. Since, however, a special reference has been made to 
the Roman name, I will not pass over the controversy, provoked 
by the prejudiced assertion that the Romans owing to their 
scrupulous piety have been raised to such a height of glory, 
as to have gained dominion over the world, and to have proved 
the existence of their gods by the fact that those flourish beyond 
all others who beyond all others are mindful of their duty to 
them. This reward was paid, forsooth, by the Roman gods 
in gratitude. The extension of the empire was due to 
Sterculus and Mutunus and Larentina ! For I could not 
suppose that foreign gods wished more favour shown to a 
foreign race than to their own, and gave the land of their 
fathers, in which they were born, grew up, were ennobled and 
were buried, to those from across the sea. Let Cybele see to it, 
if she learned to love the city of Rome as the memorial of the 
Trojan race, her own native race forsooth, which she had 
guarded against the arms of the Greeks, if she had the fore- 
thought to desert to the avengers, who, she knew. would subdue 
Greece, the vancjuisher of Phrygia. Therefore even in our tiine 
she has exhibited a signal proof of honour conferred on Rome, 
when on the removal of Marcus Aurehus from the conduct of 


apud Sirmium reipublicae exempto die sexto decimo Kalen- 
darum Aprilium archigallus ille sanctissimus die nono Kalen- 
darum earundem, quo sanguinem inpurum lacertos quoque 
castrando libabat, pro salute imperatoris Marci iam intercepti 
solita aeque imperia mandauit. nuntios tardos ! o somni- 5 
culosa diplomata ! quorum uitio excessum imperatoris non 
ante Cybele cognouit, ne deam talem riderent Christiani. Sed 
non statim et lupiter Cretam suam Romanis fascibus concuti 
sineret, oblitus antrum illud Idaeum et aera Corybantia et 
iocundissimum illic nutricis suae odorem. Nonne omni Capi- 10 
tolio tumulum illum suum praeposuisset, ut ea potius orbi 
terrae praecelleret quae cineres louis texit? Vellet luno 
Punicam urbem posthabita Samo dilectam ab Aeneadarum 
gente deleri? Quod sciam 

hic illius arma, 15 

Hic currus fuit, hoc regnum dea gentibus esse, 
Si qua fata sinant, iam tum tenditque fouetque. 
Misera illa coniunx louis et soror aduersus fata non ualuit! 

Fato stat lupiter ipse. 20 

Nec tantum tamen honoris fatis Romani dicauerunt dedentibus 
sibi Carthaginem aduersus destinatum uotumque lunonis quan- 
tum prostitutissimae lupae Larentinae. Plures deos uestros 
regnasse certum est. Igitur si conferendi imperii tenent potes- 
tatem, cum ipsi regnarent, a quibus acceperant eam gratiam? 25 
Quem coluerat Saturnus et lupiter? Aliquem, opinor, Ster- 
culum. Sed postea Romani cum indigenis suis, etiam si qui 
non regnauerunt? Tamen regnabantur ab aliis nondum 
cultoribus suis, ut qui nondum dei habebantur. Ergo aliorum 
est regnum dare, quia regnabatur multo ante quam isti dei 30 
inciderentur. Sed quam uanum est fastigium Romani nomiuis 
rehgiositatis meritis deputare, cum post imperium siue adhuc 
regnum religio profecerit. Age iam, rebus religio profecerit? 
Nam etsi a Numa concepta est curiositas superstitiosa, nondum 
tamen aut simulacris aut templis res diuina apud Romanos 35 
constabat. Frugi religio et pauperes ritus et nulla CapitoHa 



public affairs, by death, at Sirmiiim on the seventeenth of March, 
that niost holy high-priest (of Cybele) on the twenty-fourth of 
that same March, on which he made a Ubation of impure blood, 
mutilating his arms also, none the less issued the usual orders 
for the safety of the emperor Marcus, though his Hfe was already 
ended. Oh slothful messengers ! Oh sleepy despatches ! whose 
fault it was that Cybele had no earUer news of the emperor's 
demise, so as to prevent the ridicule of such a goddess by the 
Christians. But even Jupiter would not immediately have 
allowed his own Crete to be upset by the Koman .fasces, for- 
getting the Idaean cave and the Corybantic cymbals and the 
pleasing odour of his, nurse there. Would he not have preferred 
his own grave there to any Capitol, so that the land which 
covered the ashes of Jupiter should rather rule over the world ? 
AVould Juno have wished that the Carthaginian city, ' which she 
loved next to Samos,' should be destroyed by the race of the 
sons of Aeneas (above all others) ? To the best of my knowledge : 

'Here stood her chariot: here, if Heav'n were kind, 
The seat of awful empire she design'd.' 

The unhappy wife and sister of Jupiter could not prevail against 
the fates ! It is evident ' Jupiter himself depends on destiny.' 
Yet the Romans have not offered so much honour to the fates 
which gave up Carthage to them against the will and prayer 
of Juno, as they have to the common whore Larentina. It is 
certain that a number of your gods were kings. Therefore, if 
they have the power of conferring rule, from whom had they 
received it, when they themselves reigned? Whom had Saturn 
and Jupiter worshipped? Some Stercukis, I suppose. But 
what did the Romans do later with their native gods, even 
if some did not reign ? Yet the country was ruled by others, 
not yet their worshippers, seeing they were not yet regarded 
as gods. Consequently it is the prerogative of others to confer 
a kingdom, because kingly rule existed much earher than these 
gods had their names engraved. But how fooUsh it is to 
attribute the glory of the Roman name to the deserts of piety, 
when your rehgion has developed since the time of the Empire 
or even since the time of the kingdom ! Come now, has the 
growth of the state led to the advance of piety? No; for 
although Numa first formulated superstitious curiosity, never- 
tbeless it was not tiU later that the divine element among 
thc- Romans consisted either of images or of temples ; piety 
waa frugal and the ceremonies were inexpensive, and there was 
no Capitol striving to reach the sky, but only improvised 
altars made of turf, and vessels which were stiU of common 


certantia ad caelum, sed temeraria de cespite altaria, et uasa 
adhuc Samia, et nidor ex illis, et deus ipse nusquam. Nondum 
enim tunc ingenia Graecorum atque Tuscorum fingendis simu- 
lacris urbem inundauerant. Ergo non ante religiosi Romani 
quam magni, ideoque non ob hoc magni, quia rehgiosi. Atquin 5 
quomodo ob rehgionem magni, quibus magnitudo de inreligiosi- 
tate prouenit? Ni fallor enim, omne regnum uel imperium 
bellis quaeritur et uictoriis propagatur. Porro bella et uictoriae 
captis et euersis plurimum urbibus constant. Id negotium sine 
deorum iniuria non est. Eaedem strages moenium et tem- 10 
plorum, pares caedes ciuium et sacerdotum, nec dissimiles 
rapinae sacrarum diuitiarum et profanarum. Tot igitur 
sacrilegia Romanorum quot tropaea, tot de deis quot de 
gentibus triumphi, tot manubiae quot manent adhuc simulacra 
captiuorum deorum. Et ab hostibus ergo suis sustinent adorari 15 
et illis imperium sine fine decernunt quorum magis iniurias 
quam adolationes remunerasse debuerant. Sed qui nihil 
sentiunt tam impune laeduntur quam frustra coluntur. Certe 
non potest fidei conuenire, ut rehgionis meritis excreuisse 
uideantur qui, ut suggessimus, religionem aut laedendo creuerunt 20 
aut crescendo laeserunt. Etiam illi quorum regna conflata sunt 
in imperii Komani summam, cum ea amitterent, sine religionibus 
non fuerunt. 

26. Videte igitur, ne ille regna dispenset cuius est et orbis 
qui regnatur et homo ipse qui regnat, ne ille uices dominationum 25 
ipsis temporibus in saeculo ordinarit qui ante omne tempus fuit 
et saeculum corpus temporum fecit, ne ille ciuitates extollat aut 
deprimat sub quo fuit sine ciuitatibus ahquando gens hominum. 
Quid erratis? prior est quibusdam deis suis siluestris Koma, 
ante regnauit quam tantum ambitum Capitolii extrueret. 30 
Regnauerant et Babylonii ante Pontifices, et Medi ante Quin- 
decimuiros, et Aegyptii ante Salios, et Assyrii ante Lupercos, 
et Amazones ante Virffines Vestales. Postremo si Komanae 


pottery, and the sacrificial odour from them, and the god him- 
self — nowhere to be seen. For at that time the talents of 
the Greeks and Etruscans had not yet flooded the capital to 
execute commissions for statues. Consequently the Romans 
were not rehgious before they were great, and therefore their 
religion was not the cause of their greatness. Further, how 
can it be on account of rehgion that they are great, seeing it 
was the want of rehgion which made them great? For unless 
I am mistaken, every kingdom or empire is gained by wars and 
extended by victories. Again, wars and victories are generally 
at the cost of the capture and destruction of cities. That 
business cannot be carried out without harm to gods. Walls 
and temples are involved in common ruin, citizens and priests 
are ahke slaughtered, and there is no difference in the plundering 
of sacred and profane wealth. -Therefore the sacrilegious acts 
of the Romans are as many in number as their trophies ; they 
have triumphed as often over gods as over nations, their spoils 
in war are no more numerous than the images of captive gods 
that still remain. They therefore endure to be worshipped 
even by their enemies, and thfey decree an empire without end 
to those whose injuries, rather than their acts of worship^, they 
should have repaid. But those who are without feehng, it is 
as harmless to injure, as it is idle to worship. Certainly it is 
beyond belief, that those should have progressed on account of 
their rehgious merits, who, as we have hinted, have either grown 
by injury done to rehgion or have inflicted injury on rehgion 
by their growth. Even those whose kingdoms have been com- 
bined to make up the sum of the Roman Empire, were not with- 
out rehgions at the time when they lost their kingdoms. 

Chap. XXVI. See therefore, whether it is not he who 
regulates kingdoms, whose is both the world that is ruled, and 
the man himself that rules ; whether it is not he that fixed the 
alternations of power at their actual dates in the world's history, 
who was before all time and made the history of the world the 
embodiment of time and seasons ; whether it is not he who 
raises or crushes states, under whom the race of men existed at 
one time without states. Why are you led astray? Rome in 
her rude state is older than certain of its gods, it ruled before it 
raised such a wide circuit as the CapitoL The Babylonians too 
had reigned before the pontiffs, and the Medes before the 
Quindecimviri, and the Egyptians before the Sahi, the Assyrians 
before the Luperci, the Amazons before the Vestal Virgins, 
Finally, if it is the rehgious rites of Rome that confer kingdoms, 
^ Spell conectly adulationes. 


religiones regna praestant, nunquam retro ludaea regnasset 
despectrix communium istarum diuinitatum, cuius et deum 
uictimis et templum donis et gentem foederibus aliquamdiu 
Romani honorastis, numquam dominaturi eius, si deo non 
deliquisset ultimo in Christum. 5 

27. Satis haec aduersus intentationem laesae diuinitatis, 
quo non uideamur laedere eam quam ostendimus non esse.- 
Igitur prouocati ad sacrificandum obstruimus gradum pro fide 
conscientiae nostrae, qua certi sumus ad quos ista perueniant 
officia sub imaginum prostitutione et humanorum nominum lo 
consecratione. Sed quidam dementiam existimant, quod, cum 
possimus et sacrificare in praesenti et inlaesi abire manente 
apud animum proposito, obstinationem saluti praeferamus. 
Datis scilicet consilium, quo uobis abutamur; sed agnoscimus, 
unde talia suggerantur, quis totum hoc agitet, et quomodo 15 
nunc astutia suadendi nunc duritia saeuiendi ad constantiam 
nostram deiciendam operetur. Ille scilicet spiritus daemoniacae 
et angelicae paraturae, qui noster ob diuortium aemulus et ob 
dei gratiam inuidus de mentibus uestris aduersus nos proeliatur 
occulta inspiratione modulatis et subornatis ad omnem quam 20 
in primordio exorsi sumus et iudicandi peruersitatem et saeuiendi 
iniquitatem. Nam licet subiecta sit nobis tota uis daemonum 
et eiusmodi spirituum, ut nequam tamen et serui metu non- 
nunquam contumaciam miscent, et laedere gestiunt quos alias 
uerentur. Odium enim etiam timor spirat. Praeterquam et 25 
desperata condicio eorum ex praedamnatione solatium reputat 
fruendae interim malignitatis de poenae mora. Et tamen 
adprehensi subiguntur et condicioni suae succidunt, et quos de 
longinquo oppugnant, de proximo obsecrant. Itaque cum uice 
rebellantium ergastulorum siue carcerum uel metallorum uel 30 
hoc genus poenalis seruitutis erumpunt aduersus nos, in quorum 
potestate sunt, certi et inpares se esse et hoc magis perditos, 
ingratis resistimus ut aequales et repugnamus perseuerantes in 
eo quod oppugnant et illos nunquam magis detriumphamus 
quam cum pro fidei obstinatione damnamur. 35 


Judea would never have reigned in tlie past, since she disdained 
all these ordinary divinities ; and yet ye Romans for some time 
honoured her God with victims, her temple with gifts and her 
people with treaties, nor would you ever have ruled over her, if 
she had not sinned against God and finally against Christ also. 

Chap. XXVII. This meets the charge of injury to your 
gods, since we cannot be supposed to injure that which we 
have shown to be non-existent. Therefore when we are 
challenged to sacrifice, we make a stand against it on the 
strength of our conscience, whereby we are assured who those 
are to whom these services extend under the profanation of 
images and the deification of human names. But some think 
it madness that, when we might both sacrifice at the time and 
depart uninjured, while retaining our own private opinions, we 
should prefer stubbornness to safety. Forsooth you are giving 
us advice how to take advantage of you ; but we recognise the 
source of such hints, who it is that prompts all this, and how 
at one time by cunning advice, at another by harsh cruelty, 
he is working towards the overthrow of our firmness. Assuredly 
that spirit of daemonic^ and angehc nature, which, being our 
enemy on account of its separation (from God) and being 
jealous on account of the favour of God (shown to us), wars 
against us from the fortress of your minds, which by a secret 
influence are regulated and equipped for all that perversity of 
judgment and unfairness of cruelty which we began to describe 
at the outset. For although all the power of daemons and spirits 
of that kind is subject to us, yet hke worthless people and slaves 
they sometimes mingle obstinacy with fear, and are eagef to 
injure those, of whom at another time they are afraid : for even 
fear breathes hatred. Furthermore their hopeless state, arising 
from the fact of their being foredoomed, gleans from the delay 
of punishment the solace of enjoying their evil disposition during 
the meantime. And yet when they are seized they are subdued 
and yield to their f ate, and those whom they attack af ar off , they 
supphcate when they are nigh. Therefore w^hen, hke rebeUious 
slaves, confined in barracoons or prisons or mines or quarries 
or suffering any other penal servitude of this kind, they break 
out against us in whose power they are, knowing fuU well both 
that they are ill-matched and that they are thus all the more 
undone, we resist them against our will as equals and attack 
them in return, continuing in that which they attack, and we 
never triumph over them more than when we are condemned for 
the persistence of our behef. 

^ Read daemonicae, probably the only form kno^vn to Tertullian. 


28. Quoniam aiitem facile iniquum uideretur liberos 
homines inuitos urgeri ad sacrificandum (nam et alias diuinae 
rei faciundae libens animus indicitur), certe ineptum existi- 
maretur, si quis ab alio cogeretur ad honorem deorum, quos 
ultro sui causa placare deberet, ne prae manu esset iure libertatis 5 
dicere : Nolo mihi louem propitium ; tu quis es ? Me conueniat 
lanus iratus ex qua uelit fronte ; quid tibi mecum est ? Formati 
estis ab isdem utique spiritibus, uti nos pro salute imperatoris 
sacrificare cogatis, et inposita est tam uobis necessitas cogendi 
quam nobis obligatio periclitandi. Ventum est igitur ad lo 
secundum titulum laesae augustioris maiestatis, siquidem 
maiore formidine et callidiore timiditate Caesarem obseruatis 
quam ipsum de Olympo louem. Et merito, si sciatis. Quis 
enim ex uiuentibus quilibet non mortuo potior? Sed nec hoc 
uos ratione facitis potius quam respectu praesentaneae potes- 15 
tatis : adeo et in isto inreligiosi erga deos uestros deprehendemini, 
cum plus timoris humano dominio dicatis. Citius denique apud 
uos per omnes deos quam per unum genium Caesaris peieratur. 

29. Constet igitur prius, si isti, quibus sacrificatur, salutem 
imperatoribus uel cuilibet homini inpertire possunt, et ita nos 20 
cri\nini maiestatis addicite, si angeli aut daemones substantia 
pessimi spiritus beneficium ahquod operantur, si perditi con- 
seruant, si damnati liberant, si denique, quod in conscientia 
uestra est, mortui uiuos tuentur. Nam utique suas primo 
statuas et imagines et aedes tuerentur, quae, ut opinor, Caesarum 25 
milites excubiis salua praestant. Puto avitem, eae ipsae materiae 
de metallis Caesarum ueniunt, et tota templa de nutu Caesaris 
constant. Multi denique dei habuerunt Caesarem iratum. 
Facit ad causam, si et propitium, cum illis aliquid liberalitatis 
aut priuilegii confert. Ita qui sunt in Caesaris potestate, cuius 30 
et toti sunt, quomodo habebunt salutem Caesaris in potestate, 
ut eam praestare posse uideantur, quam facilius ipsi a Caesare 
consequantur? Ideo ergo committimus in maiestatem impera- 


Chap. XXVIII. Since however it might easily seem unjust 
that free men should be forced against their will to perform 
sacrifice (for at other times also a wilHng mind is enjoined for 
the performance of religious duty), it would assuredly be thought 
absurd, if any one were compelled by another to pay respect to 
gods, whom he was bound to appease for his own sake without 
any urging, lest it might at once be open to hini to say by the 
right of freedom : ' I do not want Jupiter to be propitious to 
me ; who are you ? ' ' Let Janus meet me with angry looks f rom 
any face he likes ; what business have you with me ? ' You were 
framed of course by the same spirits to compel us to sacrifice for 
the safety of the emperor, and the necessity for coercion was 
as much imposed on you as the obhgation of incurring danger 
by refusal was imposed on us. We have come then to the 
second charge, that of injury done to a more sacred majesty, 
since you worship the Caesar with greater dread and more 
calculating fear than you do Olympian Jove himself. And 
deservedly, if you only knew. For who among the Hving is 
not better than any dead man you like? But even this is not 
done by you from reason, so much as from regard to authority 
which acts on the spur of the monient ; to such a degree in this 
niatter also will you be found irrehgious towards your gods, in 
showing more dread of human power. Finally among you a 
man will sooner commit perjury by all the gods than by the 
one genius of Caesar. 

Chap. XXIX. First then let it be agreed, whether these to 
whom sacrifice is offered can confer safety on the emperors or 
on any other man, and then charge us with treason, if angels 
or daemons, in essence most depraved, work any benefit, if the 
lost save, if those that are condemned acquit, if finally, the 
dead (such as ye know your gods to be) are guardians of the 
Hving. If so, they would first at all events guard their own 
statues and images and temples, which I believe the soldiers of 
the Caesars keep safe by night pickets. I think moreover 
that the very materials of these come from the mines of the 
Caesars, and that the erection of whole temples depends on 
the will of the Caesar. Further, many gods have experienced 
the wrath of Caesar. It supports my case, if they have also 
found him propitious, when he confers upon theni some free 
gift or privilege. How then can they, who are in the power of 
the Caesar, and who entirely belong to him, have the safety of 
the Caesar in their power, so as to appear able to grant that 
(safety), which they themselves would more easily gain from 
the Caesar? Therefore it is that we oftend against the majesty 


toris, qnia illos non subicimus rebus suis, quia non ludimus de 
officio salutis ipsorum qui eam non putamus in manibus esse 
plumbatis. Sed uos inreligiosi, qui eam quaeritis ubi non est, 
petitis a quibus dari non potest, praeterito eo in cuius est potes- 
tate. Insuper eos debellatis qui eam sciunt petere, qui etiam 5 
possunt impetrare, dum sciunt petere. 

30. Nos enim pro salute imperatorum deum inuocamus 
aeternum, deum uerum, deum uiuum, quem et ipsi imperatores 
propitium sibi praeter ceteros malunt. Sciunt quis illis dederit 
imperium, sciunt, qua homines, quis et animam, sentiunt eum 10 
esse deum solum in cuius solius potestate sunt, a quo sint 
secundi, post quem primi, ante omnes et super omnes deos. 
Quidni ? cum super omnes homines, qui utique uiuunt et mortuis 
antistant. Recogitant quousque uires imperii sui ualeant, et 
ita deum intellegunt ; aduersus quem ualere non possunt, per 15 
eum ualere se cognoscunt. Caelum denique debellet imperator, 
caelum captiuum triumpho suo inuehat, caelo mittat excubias, 
caelo uectigalia imponat. Non potest. Ideo magnus est quia 
caelo minor est. IlHus enim est ipse cuius et caelum est et 
omnis creatura. Inde est imperator unde et homo antequam 20 
imperator, inde potestas illi unde et spiritus. Illuc suspicientes 
Christiani manibus expansis, quia innocuis, capite nudo, quia 
non erubescimus, denique sine monitore, quia de pectore oramus, 
precantes sumus semper pro omnibus imperatoribus. Vitam 
illis prolixam, imperium ^ecurum, domum tutam, exercitus 25 
fortes, senatum fidelem, populum probum, orbem quietum, 
quaecunque hominis et Caesaris uota sunt, haec ab aho orare 
non possum quam a quo me scio consecuturum, quoniam et 
ipse est qui solus praestat et ego sum cui impetrare debetur, 
famulus eius, qui eum solus obseruo, qui propter discipHnam 30 
eius occidor, qui ei offero opimam et maiorem hostiam quam 
ipse mandauit, orationem de carne pudica, de anima innocenti, 
de spiritu sancto profectam, non grana thuris unius assis, 
Arabicae arboris lacrimas, nec duas meri guttas, nec sanguinem 
reprobi bouis mori optantis, et post omnia inquinamenta etiam 35 


of tlie emperors, because we do not subject them to their owii 
creatures, because we do not make sport of the duty of (praying 
for) their safety, since we do not think that it Hes in hands 
soldered with lead. But you are the irrehgious people, who seek 
it where it is not, ask it of those who cannot give it, passing 
over him in whose power it is. Furthermore you persecute 
those who know how to ask it, who can also obtain it, since 
they know how to ask. 

Chap. XXX. For we invoke on behalf of the safety of the 
emperors a God who is everlasting, a God who is real, a God 
who is Hving, whom even the emperors themselves prefer should 
be propitious to them beyond all others. They know who gave 
them empire, they know, as human beings, who gave them hfe 
also, they feel that he is the only God, in whose power alone 
they are, to whom they are second, after whom they are first, 
before all and above all gods. Why not ? since they are above 
all men, who of course are ahve and take precedence of the dead. 
They reflect how far the strength of their empire extends, and 
thus they understand God ; they recognise that they are strong 
through him, against whom they have no strength. Let the 
emperor then subdue heaven, let him lead heaven captive in 
his triumph, let him set his watch, let him impose his 
tribute on heaven. He cannot; he is great for the reason 
that he is only less than heaven. For he himself belongs to 
Him whose are both heaven and all created things. He derives 
his position of emperor from the same source from which 
he derived his humanity before he became emperor. He gets 
his power from the source from which he gets his breath. 
Thither the Christians look up, with hands spread out because 
innocent, with head uncovered, because we are not ashamed, 
finally without a prompter, because we pray from the heart. 
We pray always for all the emperors, that they may have a long 
Hfe, a safe rule, a family free from danger, courageous armies, 
a faithful senate, loyal subjects, a peaceful world, all that a man 
and a Caesar pray for. These things I cannot pray for from 
any one else than from him from whom I know I shall get them, 
since he himself alone can give them, and I am he to whom the 
obtaining is due, his slave, who alone worship him, who on 
account of his teaching am put to death, who offer him a rich 
and greater victim than he himself commanded, prayer arising 
from a pure body, from an innocent soul, from the Holy Spirit, 
not grains of incense costing a penny, the tears of an Arabian 
tree, nor two drops of unmixed wine, nor the blood of an un- 
sound ox,anxious for death,and after all these stains a conscience 


conscientiam spurcam : ut mirer, cum hostiae probantur penes 
uos a uitiosissimis sacerdotibus, cum cuiuis praecordia potius 
uictimarum quam ipsorum sacrificantium examinantur. Sic 
itaque nos ad deum expansos ungulae fodiant, cruces suspendant, 
ignes lambant, gladii guttura detruncent, bestiae insiliant : 5 
paratus est ad omne supplicium ipse habitus orantis Christiani. 
Hoc agite, boni praesides, extorquete animam deo supplicantem 
pro imperatore. Hoc erit crimen, ubi ueritas dei et deuotio est. 

31. Adolati nunc sunius imjoeratori et mentiti uota quae 
diximus, ad euadendam scilicet uim. Plane proficit ista fallacia. ib 
Admittitis nos enim probare quodcunque defendimus. Qui ergo 
putaueris nihil nos de salute Caesarum curare, inspice dei uoces, 
litteras nostras, quas neque ipsi supprimimus et plerique casus 
ad extraneos transferunt. Scitote ex illis praeceptum esse nobis 
ad redundantiam benignitatis etiam pro inimicis deum orare et 15 
persecutoribus nostris bona precari. Qui magis inimici et per- 
secutores Christianorum quam de quorum maiestate conuenimur 
in crimen? Sed etiam nominatim atque manifeste, Orate, 
inquit, pro regibus et pro principibus et potestatibus, ut omnia 
tranquilla sint uobis. Cum enim concutitur imperium, concussis 20 
etiam ceteris membris eius utique et nos, licet extranei a turbis 
aestimemur, in aliquo loco casus inuenimur. 

32. Est et alia maior necessitas nobis orandi pro impera- 
toribus, etiam pro omni statu imperii rebusque Romanis, qui 
uim maximam uniuerso orbi imminentem ipsamque clausulam 25 
saeculi acerbitates horrendas comminantem Romani imperii 
commeatu scimus retardari. Itaque nolumus experiri, et dum 
precamur difEerri, Romanae diuturnitati fauemus. Sed et 
iuramus, sicut non per genios Caesarum, ita per salutem eorum, 
quae est augustior omnibus geniis. Nescitis genios daemonas 30 
dici et inde diminutiua uoce daemonia? Nos iudicium dei 
suspicimus in imperatoribus, qui gentibus illos praefecit. Id in 
eis scimus esse quod deus uoluit, ideoque et saluum uolumus 
esse quod deus uoluit et pro magno id iuramento habemus. 

APOLOGETICVS 30, 31, 32 99 

also that is foul ; so that I wonder, when the victims are tested 
among you by vicious priests, when any one judges the hearts 
rather of the victims than of the sacrificers themselves. There- 
fore let hooks thus dig into us while our hands are spread out to 
God, let crosses suspend us, let fires play about us, let swords 
behead us, let wild-beasts leap upon us ; the very attitude of 
the praying Christian is ready for every kind of capital punish- 
ment. This is your duty, ye excellent governors, wrench out 
a soul that is praying to God for the emperor. The crime will 
be found there, where is the truth of a God and piety to him. 

Chap. XXXI. Now they tell us that we have fawned upon 
the emperor and uttered lying prayers, of course with the 
view of escaping violence. Clearly this deception is to our 
benefit ; for you allow that we make good whatever point we 
defend. You therefore who have thought that we care nothing 
for the safety of the Caesars, look into our Scripture, the oracles 
of God, which we ourselves do not conceal and many accidents 
bring into the hands of strangers. Know from these that we 
are taught to the point of superfluity of kindness even to pray 
God for our enemies and to entreat benefits for our perse- 
cutors. Who are to a greater extent enemies and persecutors 
of the Christians than those about whose majesty we are 
arraigned? But even by name and clearly: 'Pray,' says (the 
scripture), ' for kings and for chiefs and for powers, that all 
things may be at peace for you.' For when the empire is 
shattered, and when the other parts of it also are shattered, 
we too of course, although the crowd considers us foreigners, 
are involved in some quarter of the disaster. 

Chap. XXXII. There is also another greater necessity for 
us to pray for emperors, even for the whole state of the Empire 
and the fortunes of Rome, since we know that the great force 
which is threatening the whole world and the end itself of world- 
history which threatens terrible aSlictions is being kept back 
by the respite granted to the Roman empire. Therefore we 
are unwilhng to experience this, and while we pray for its post- 
ponement we are favouring the long continuance of Rome. But 
we also swear, though not by the genii of the Caesars, yet by 
their safety, which is more divine than any genii. Do you not 
know that genii is a name for daemones and for daemonia, a 
diminutive word derived from it? We look up to the judgment 
of God in the emperors, for He set them over the races of the 
world. We know that that is in them which God willed, and 
so we wish that also to be safe which God willed, and we consider 



Ceterum daemonas, id est genios, adiurare consueuimus, ut 
illos de hominibus exigamus, non deierare, ut eis honorem 
diuinitatis conferamus. 

33. Sed quid ego amplius de religione atque pietate 
Christiana in imperatore ? quem necesse est suspiciamus ut 5 
eum quem dominus noster elegit, ut merito dixerim : Noster 
est magis Caesar, a nostro deo constitutus. Itaque ut meo 
plus ego illi operor in salutem, siquidem non solum ab eo postulo 
eam qui potest praestare, aut quod talis postulo qui merear 
impetrare, sed etiam quod temperans maiestatem Caesaris infra 10 
deum magis illum commendo deo, cui soli subicio. Subicio 
autem cui non adaequo. Non enim deum imperatorem dicam, 
uel quia mentiri nescio, uel quia illum deridere non audeo, uel 
qiiia nec ipse se deum uolet dici. Si homo sit, interest homini 
deo cedere. Satis habeat appellari imperator. Grande et hoc 15 
nomen est, quod a deo traditur. Negat illum imperatorem qui 
deum dicit; nisi homo sit non est imperator. Hominem se 
esse etiam triumphans in illo sublimissimo curru admonetur. 
Suggeritur enim ei a tergo : Respice post te ! Hominem te 
memento ! Et utique hoc magis gaudet tanta se gloria corus- 20 
care, ut illi admonitio condicionis suae sit necessaria. Minor 
erat, si tunc deus diceretur, quia non uere diceretur. Maior 
est qui reuocatur, ne se deum existimet. 

34. Augustus, imperii formator, ne dominum quidem dici 
se uolebat; et hoc enim dei est cognomen. Dicam plane 25 
imperatorem dominum, sed more communi, sed quando non 
cogor, ut dominum dei uice dicam. Ceterum liber sum illi. 
Dominus enim meus unus est, deus omnipotens aeternus, idem 
qui et ipsius. Qui pater patriae est, quomodo dominus est? 
Sed et gratius est nomen pietatis quam potestatis. Etiam 30 
familiae magis patres quam domini uocantur. Tanto abest ut 
imperator deus debeat dici, quod non potest credi non modo 

APOLOGETICVS 32, 33, 34 101 

that to be a great oath. But demons, that is genii, we have 
been accustpmed to adjure, in order to drive them out of men, 
not to swear by them, in order to confer the honour of divinity 
upon them. 

Chap. XXXIII. But why should I say more about the 
rehgious attitude and the loyalty of the Christians towards the 
emperor? We are bound to look up to him as the one whom 
our Lord has chosen. I should be justified in saying : the 
Caesar is more ours (than yours), as having been appointed by 
our God. Accordingly, as he is mine, I work more for his safety, 
since I not only ask it from Him who is able. to grant it, or 
because I who ask it am such an one as deserves to obtain it, 
but also because by lowering the greatness of the Caesar as 
compared with that of God, I commend him the more to God, 
to whom alone I subject him. But I subject him to Him, to 
whom I do not make him equal. For I will not call the emperor 
God, whether it is because I am unable to Ue, or whether I do 
not dare to mock him, or because he himself will not even wish 
to be called God. If he be a man, it is man's interest to yield 
to God ; let him be content to be styled emperor. This also is 
a great name, bestowed upon him by God. He who calls the 
Caesar God, denies him to be what he is, an emperor ; unless 
he be a man, he is not emperor. That he is a man he is reminded 
even when he is riding in his triumphal chariot. For a hint 
comes to him from the rear : ' Look behind you ! Remember 
that you are a man ! ' And surely he is all the more carried away 
by the thought of his resplendent glory, that a reminder of his 
lot is necessary to him. He were smaller (than he is), if he 
were then called God, because he would not be truly so called. 
He who is recalled to himself lest he should think himself 
God, is the greater. 

Chap. XXXIV. Augustus, the creator of the empire, 
refused even to be called Lord: for this too is a surname of 
God. Of course I shall call the emperor lord, but with the 
usual spelUng, and only when I am not forced to call him Lord 
with a capital, in place of God. But I am free so far as he is 
concerned ; for I have but one Master, the almighty and eternal 
God, the same who is also his God. How can he who is father 
of his native city be its lord? Moreover, the name which 
suggests aifectionate • care is more pleasing than that which 
suggests authority. Even of a household men are called fathers 
rather than lords. So far is it from being a right of the emperor 
to be called God, which is incredible [except] by a flattery that 


turpissima sed et perniciosa adolatione. Tamquam si habens 
imperatorem alterum appelles, nonne maximam et inexorabilem 
offensam contrahes eius quem habuisti, etiam ipsi timendam 
quem appellasti? Esto religiosus in deum, qui uis illum pro- 
pitium imperatori. Desine alium deum credere atque ita et 5 
hunc deum dicere cui deo opus est. Si non de mendacio 
erubescit adulatio eiusmodi hominem deum appellans, timeat 
saltim de infausto. Maledictum est ante apotheosin deum 
Caesarem nuncupari. 

35. Propterea igitur publici hostes Christiani, quia impera- 10 
toribus neque uanos neque mentientes neque temerarios honores 
dicant, quia uerae religionis homines etiam sollemnia eorum 
conscientia potius quam lasciuia celebrant. Grande uidelicet 
officium focos et toros in publicum edncere, uicatim epulari, 
ciuitatem tabernae habitu abolefacere, uino lutum cogere, 15 
cateruatim cursitare ad iniurias, ad inpudentias, ad libidinis 
inlecebras. Sicine exprimitur publicum gaudium per dedecus 
pubhcum? Haecine solemnes dies principum decent, quae alios 
dies non decent? Qui obseruant disciplinam de Caesaris 
respectu, hi eam propter Caesarem deserunt, et malorum 20 
morum licentia pietas erit, occasio luxuriae religio deputabitur? 
nos merito damnandos ! Cur enim uota et gaudia Caesarum 
casti et sobrii et probi expungimus? cur die laeto non laureis 
postes obumbramus nec lucernis diem infringimus? Honesta 
res est solemnitate publica exigente induere domui tuae habitum 25 
alicuius noui lupanaris. Vehm tamen in hac quoque religione 
secundae maiestatis, de qua in secundum sacrilegium conuenimur 
Christiani non celebrando uobiscum solemnia Caesarum quo 
more celebrari nec modestia nec uerecundia nec pudicitia per- 
mittunt, sed occasio uoluptatis magis quam digna ratio per- 30 
suasit, fidem et ueritatem uestram demonstrare, ne forte et 
isthic deteriores Christianis deprehendantur qui nos nolunt 
Romanos haberi, sed ut hostes principum Romanorum. Ipsos 

APOLOGETICVS 34, 35 103 

is not merely base but baneful. It is just as if having an 
emperor, you Avere to ca]] anotlier [by tlie same title] ; wi]l you 
not bring upon you the great and implacable hatred of the 
existing emperor, a hatred to be dreaded even by him to whom 
you have given the title? Be ioyal towards God, you who 
wish Him to be propitious to the emperor. Cease to believe 
in another god, and so to describe him as a god, who has 
need of God. If such a flattery, calling a man a god, is not 
ashamed of the falsehood, iet it at least be afraid of the ill-luck 
of so doing. It is the opposite of a blessing to call the Caesar 
god before his deification. 

Chap. XXXV. On these grounds then the Christians are 
regarded as public enemies, because they do not offer to the 
emperors either useless or lying or ill-advised honours, because 
men of true religion celebrate even their regular festivals 
conscientiously rather than wantonly. It is forsooth an im- 
portant duty, to bring out hearths and couches into the public 
street, to feast parish by parish, to efface the city under the 
guise of a tavern, to produce mud by wine^, to run about in 
crowds for the committal of outrages, insults and incitements 
to lust. Is it thus that pubHc joy is expressed by pubHc 
disgrace? Does such behaviour become the festal days of 
emperors, which befits not other days ? Shall those who observe 
order out of regard to Caesar, abandon it on account of Caesar, 
and shall loyalty grant a licence for immorality, and religion 
give occasion to indulgence? Verily we deserve to be con- 
demned ! For why do we, chaste, sober and lionest people, 
fulfil the vows and joys of the Caesars? Why on the festal 
day do we not cover over our door-posts witli bay gar]ands 
or vioiate the day with lamps? Is it an honourabie practice, 
when a pubiic festival demands, to clothe your house with 
the garb of some new brothel ? I should hi^e however to show 
your faithfulness and truth in the matter of this cult aiso 
of a second majesty, with reference to which we Christians 
are arraigned on a second charge of sacriiege, because we do 
not celebrate in your company the annual festivais of the 
Caesars in a manner in which neither sense of fitness nor 
modesty nor chastity ailows them to be celebrated, but which 
the opportunity of pleasure rather than any worthy reason has 
prompted, lest perchance here too those who are unwilling that 
we should be considered Romans, but only as enemies of the 
Roman emperors, should be found worse than the Christians. 
I appeal to the citizens of Rome themselves, to the native 

^ J. B. M. reading uinum luto, ' thicken your mud with wine.' 


Quirites, ipsam uernaculam septem collium plebem conuenio, 
an alicui Caesari suo parcat illa lingua Romana? Testis est 
Tiberis, et scholae bestiarum. lam si pectoribus ad translucen- 
dum quandam specularem materiam natura obduxisset, cuius 
non praecordia insculpta apparent noui ac noui Caesaris scenam 5 
oongiario diuidundo praesidentis ? Etiam illa hora qua ad- 
clamant : 

De nostris annis augeat tibi lupiter annos ! 

Haec Christianus tam enuntiare non nouit quam de nouo 
Caesare optare. Sed uulgus, inquis. Ut uulgus, tamen lo 
Romani, nec ulli magis depostulatores Christianorum quam 
uulgus. Plane ceteri ordines pro auctoritate reHgiosi ex fide. 
Nihil hosticum de ipso senatu, de equite, de castris, de palatiis 
ipsis spirat. LTnde Cassii et Nigri et Albini? unde qui inter 
duas laurus obsident Caesarem? unde qui faucibus eius ex- 15 
primendis palaestricam exercent? unde qui armati palatium 
inrumpunt, omnibus tot Sigeriis atque Partheniis audaciores? 
De Romanis, nisi fallor, id est de non Christianis. Atque adeo 
omnes illi sub ipsa usque impietatis eruptione et sacra faciebant 
pro salute imperatoris et genium eius deierabant, alii foris alii 20 
intus, et utique pubHcorum hostium nomen Christianis dabant. 
Sed et qui nunc scelestarum partium socii aut plausores cotidie 
reuelantur, post uindemiam parricidarum racematio superstes, 
quam recentissimis et ramosissimis laureis postes praestruebant, 
quam elatissimis et clarissimis lucernis uestibula nebulabant, 25 
quam cultissimis et superbissimis toris forum sibi diuidebant, 
non ut gaudia pubHca celebrarent, sed ut uota propria iam 
ediscerent in aHena soHemnitate et exemplum atque imaginem 
spei suae inavigurarent, nomen principis in corde mutantes. 
Eadem officia dependunt et qui astrologos et aruspices et 30 
augures et magos de Caesarum capite consultant, quas artes 
ut ab angeHs desertoribus proditas et a deo interdictas ne suis 
quidera causis adhibent Christiani. Cui autem opus est per- 


populace of the seven hills, I charge you to say whether that 
Roman tongue spares any Caesar belonging to it^. Witness 
not the Tiber only but the training-schools of wild beasts as well. 
Again, if nature had drawn over our breasts some transparent 
substance through which the Ught could pass, who is there 
whose heart would not appear to be engraved with the Hkeness 
of one new Caesar after another, presiding over the distribution 
of a dole? Even at that hour at which they shout: 
*May Jupiter add j^ears to thine from ours ! ' 

These words the Christian is just as unable to utter as he is to 
pray for this in the case of a new Caesar. But it is the mob, you 
say. Though it is the mob, yet they are Romans, and none 
demand the Christians for punishment more eagerly than the 
mob. No doubt the other classes of society, in proportion 
to their authority, are rehgious from conviction ; nothing 
hostile breathes from the senate itself, from the knights, from 
the army, from the palace itself. Whence come the Cassii and 
the Nigri and the Albini? Whence those who besiege Caesar 
between the two bay-trees? Whence those who practise gym- 
nastic exercises in order to strangle him? Whence those who 
rush armed into the palace, more reckless than all the number of 
the Sigerii and Parthenii ? AU come from among the Romans, if 
I am not mistaken, that is, from among the pagans. And yet all 
these traitors up to the actual outbreak of disloyalty were both 
sacrificing for the safety of the emperor and swearing by his 
genius, some out of doors, others within, and of course they 
were giving the name of pubUc enemies to the Christians. 
But even those who are now daily revealed as the accompHces 
or abettors of criminal factions, the gleanings that still remain 
after the vintage of parricides, how they decked out their doors 
with the freshest and most luxuriant bay-trees, how they 
darkened their porches with the tallest and brightest lamps, 
with what elegant and splendid couches did they divide up the 
market-place among themselves, not that they might celebrate 
the joy of the people, but that they might now learn 
private prayers in a ceremony connected with another and 
might install both a copy and a picture of their hope, while 
changing mentally the name of the emperor! These same 
dutiful services are paid also by those who consult astrologers 
and soothsayers and augurs and magicians about the hves of 
the Caesars, which arts, as having been introduced by the 
apostate angels and forbidden by God, the Christians never 
employ even for their own concerns. Moreover, who needs to 

1 not?. 


scrutari super Caesaris salute, nisi a quo aliquid aduersus illam 
cogitatur uel optatur, aut post illam speratur et sustinetur? 
Non enim ea mente de caris consulitur qua de dominis. Aliter 
curiosa est sollicitudo sanguinis, aliter seruitutis. 

36. Si haec ita sunt, ut hostes deprehendantur qui Romani 5 
uocabantur, cur nos, qui hostes existimamur, Romani negamur ? 
Non possumus et Romani non esse et hostes esse, cum hostes 
reperiantur qui Romani habebantur. Adeo pietas et rehgio et 
fides imperatoribus debita non in huiusmodi officiis consistit 
quibus et hostilitas magis ad uelamentum sui potest fungi, sed 10 
in his moribus quibus diuinitas imperat tam uere quam circa 
on^nes necesse habent exhiberi. Neque enim haec opera bonae 
mentis solis imperatoribus debentur a nobis. Nullum bonum 
sub exceptione personarum administramus, quia nobis prae- 
stamus, qui non ab homine aut laudis aut praemii expensum 15 
captamus, sed a deo exactore et remuneratore indifferentis 
benignitatis. Idem sumus imperatoribus qui et uicinis nostris. 
Male enim uelle, male facere, male dicere, male cogitare de 
quoquam ex aequo uetamur. Quodcunque non Ucet in impera- 
torem, id nec in quemquam : c^uod in neminem, eo forsitan 20 
magis nec in ipsum qui per deum tantus est. 

37. Si inimicos, ut supra diximus, iubemur diligere, quem 
habemus odisse? Item si laesi uicem referre prohibemur, ne 
de facto pares simus, quem possumus laedere? Nam de isto 
ipsi recognoscite. Quotiens enim in Christianos desaeuitis, 25 
partim animis propriis, partim legibus obsequentes? Quotiens 
etiam praeteritis uobis suo iure nos inimicum uulgus inuadit 
lapidibus et incendiis? Ipsis BacchanaHum furiis nec mortuis 
parcunt Christianis, quin illos de requie sepulturae, de asylo 
quodam mortis, iam ahos, iam nec totos auellant, dissecent, 30 
distrahant, Quid tamen de tam conspiratis umquam denotatis, 

APOLOGETICVS 35, 36, 37 107 

inquire into the safety of Caesar, except he who meditates or 
desires something against it, or who hopes and waits for some- 
thing to follow after? For one does not consult about friends 
with the same feeling as about masters. The solicitude of 
kinship is of a different nature from that of servitude. 

Chap. XXXVI. Jf this is so, that those are found out to be 
enemies who were called Romans, why are we, who are but 
thpught to be enemies, denied to be Romans? We cannot be 
at the same time non-Romans and enemies, since those who were 
considered Romans are found to be enemies. The fact is that 
the loyalty and worship and faith that are due to the emperors 
do not consist in services such as even enmity can perform 
rather as a cloak to itself, but in those habits, which are as 
truly demanded by the godhead as they must be shown 
towards mankind in general. For indeed it is not to the 
emperors alone that such services of good will are due from us. 
No benefit that we accompHsh pays any regard to special 
individuals, because it is to ourselves that we perform it, and 
we do not snatch at payment from a man either of praise or 
of reward, but from God, who exacts and rewards impartial 
kindness. We are the same to the emperors as we are to our 
neighbours. For we are forbidden to wish evil, to do evil, to 
say evil, to think evil, about any one without distinction. 
Whatso ever is not permitted against the emperor, neither is 
it permitted against any one ; and what is permitted against 
no one, is perhaps all the more forbidden against him whom 
Grod has made so great. 

Chap. XXXVII. If we_are ordered, as we said above, to 
love our enemies, whom have wo loft to hate? Likewise, if when 
in]ured we are forbidden to retaUate, lest by our action we should 
put ourselves on the level of our enemy, whom can we injure ? 
For consider this matter yourselves. How often do you rage 
fiercely against the Christians in obedience partly to your 
own feehngs, partly to the laws? How often also, passing 
you over, does the hostile rabble of its own right attack us 
with stones and fires? With the very rage of Bacchanals, 
they do not spare Christians even when they are dead, nay from 
the rest of the tomb, from the sort of refuge that death afiords, 
they would drag them away, cut them up, tear them to pieces, 
when they are already decomposed, when already not even 
entire. Yet what instance did you ever note^ of our retaliation 

^ Reading (lenotastis. 


de tam animatis ad mortem usque pro iiiiuria repensatum, 
quando uel una nox pauculis faculis largiter ultionis posset 
operaii, si maluni' malo dispungi penes nos liceret? Sed absit 
ut aut igni humano uindicetur diuina secta aut doleat pati in 
quo probatur. Si enim et hostes exertos, non tantum uindices 5 
occultos agere uellemus, deesset nobis uis numerorum et 
copiarum? Plures nimirum Mauri et Marcomanni ipsique 
Parthi, uel quantaecunque unius tamen loci et suorum finium 
gentes quam totius orbis. Hesterni sumus, et uestra omnia 
impleuimus, urbes, insulas, castella, municipia, conciliabula, 10 
castra ipsa, tribus, decurias, palatium, senatum, forum ; sola 
uobis reliquimus templa. Cui bello non idonei, non prompti 
fuissemus, etiam inpares copiis, qui tam libenter trucidamur, 
si non apud istam disciplinam magis occidi liceret quam occidere ? 
Potuimus et inermes nec rebelles, sed tantummodo discordes 15 
solius diuortii inuidia aduersus uos dimicasse. Si enim tanta 
uis hominum in aliquem orbis remoti sinum abrupissemus a 
uobis, suffudisset utique dominationem uestram tot qualium- 
cumque ciuium amissio, immo etiam et ipsa destitutione 
punisset. Procul dubio expauissetis ad solitudinem uestram, 20 
ad silentium rerum et stuporem quendam quasi mortui orbis. 
Quaesissetis quibus imperaretis. Plures hostes c[uam ciues uobis 
remansissent. Nunc enim pauciores hostes habetis prae multi- 
tudine Christianorum, paene omnium ciuitatium paene omnes 
ciues Christianos habendo. Sed hostes maluistis uocare generis 25 
humani potius quam erroris humani. Quis autem uos ab illis 
occultis et usquequaque uastantibus mentes et ualitudines 
uestras hostibus raperet, a daemoniorum incursibus dico, quae 
de uobis sine praemio, sine mercede depellimus? Suffecisset 
hoc solum nostrae ultioni, quod uacua exinde possessio inmundis 30 
spiritibus pateret. Porro nec tanti praesidii conpensationem 
cogitantes non modo non molestum uobis genus, uerum etiam 


iipon You for jnjuries inflicted on us who are so united and so 
stout-hearted even to death, when even a single night with 
a few Uttle torches could effect abundant vengeance, if it were 
allowable amongst us to wipe out wrong with wrong? But 
a truce to the thought that a sect actuated by the spirit of 
God should either be avenged by the torch of man or should 
shrink from suffering that by which it is tested. For if we 
wished to play the part also of declared enemies, and not merely 
that of secret avengers, should we lack the force of numbers 
and of troops ? The Moors and the Marcomani and the Parthians 
themselves, or any races of whatsoever size, which are Hmited 
nevertheless to one place and to their own territory, are I suppose 
more numerous than we are whose region is coextensive with 
the whole world ! We are but of yesterday, yet we have filled \ 
all that is yours, cities, islands, fortified towns, country towns, 
centres of meeting, even camps, tribes, classes of pubhc atten- 
dants, the palace, the senate, the forum ; we have left you only 
your temples. For what war should we not have been fitted 
and ready, even if we had been unequal in forces, we, who are 
so wilhng to be butchered, if it had not been more permissible 
according to this teaching of ours to be slain than to slay? We 
could also, unarmed, and not rebelhous but merely disagreeing, 
have fought against you, using only the weapon of the ill-will 
which our separation creates. For if such a mass of men as 
we are had broken ofE from you and gone to some distant corner 
of the world, the loss of so many citizens, of whatever sort, 
would assuredly have shamed your rule, nay rather would have 
punished it even by the very fact of its desertion. Without 
doubt you would have been panic-stricken at your sohtude, 
at the silence of business and the death-hke stupefaction of 
the world; you would have had to seek subjects to rule over. 
More enemies would have remained to you than subjects. Now 
as a matter of fact you have fewer enemies, in consequence of 
the multitude of the Christians, owing to the fact that nearly 
all the citizens you have in nearly all the cities are Christian. 
But you have chosen to call them enemies of the human race 
rather than of human error. Moreover, who would have 
snatched you from those secret enemies that everywhere play 
havoc with your minds and health ? I mean from the incursions 
of spirits, which we drive from you, without reward and without 
price. This alone would have been sufficient for our vengeance, 
that an empty tenement was then left open to unclean spirits. 
Further, without even a thought of the compensation required 
for so great a protection, you have preferred to consider as 
enemies a class which is not only harmless to you, but even 


necessarium hostes iudicare maluistis, quia sumus plane, non 
generis humani tamen, sed potius erroris. 

38. Proinde nec paulo lenius inter licitas factiones sectam 
istam deputari oportebat, a qua nihil tale committitur quale de 
inlicitis factionibus timeri solet? Msi fallor enim, prohiben- 5 
darum factionum causa de prouidentia constat modestiae 
publicae, ne ciuitas in partes scinderetur, quae res facile comitia, 
concilia, curias, contiones, spectacula etiam aemuhs studiorum 
conpulsationibus inquietaret, cum iam et in quaestu habere 
coepissent uenalem et mercenariam homines uiolentiae suae 10 
operam. At enim nobis ab omni gloriae et dignitatis ardore 
frigentibus nulla est necessitas coetus, nec ulla magis res aliena 
quam publica. Unam omnium rempublicam agnoscimus, mun- 
dum. Aeque spectaculis uestris in tantum renuntiamus in 
quantum originibus eorum, quas scimus de superstitione con- 15 
ceptas, cum et ipsis rebus, de quibus transiguntur, praetersumus. 
Nihil est nobis dictu, uisu, auditu cum insania circi, cum 
inpudicitia theatri, cum atrocitate arenae, cum xysti uanitate. 
Quo uos offendimus, si alias praesumimus uoluptates? Si 
oblectari nouisse nolumus, nostra iniuria est, si forte, non 20 
uestra. Sed reprobamus quae placent uobis. Nec uos nostra 
delectant. Sed licuit Epicureis aliquam decernere uoluptatis 
ueritatem, id est animi aequitatem, et ampla negotia Chris- 

39. Edam iam nunc ego ipse negotia Christianae factionis, 25 
ut qui mala refutauerim, bona ostendam. Corpus sumus de 
conscientia religionis et disciplinae unitate et spei foedere. 
Coimus in coetum et congregationem, ut ad deum quasi manu 
facta precationibus ambiamus orantes. Haec uis deo grata 
est. Oramus etiam pro imperatoribus, pro ministris eorum et 30 
potestatibus, pro statu saeculi, pro rerum quiete, pro mora 
finis. Coimus ad litterarum diuinarum commemorationem, si 
quid praesentium temporum qualitas aut praemonere cogit 
aut recognoscere. Certe fidem sanctis uocibus pascimus, spem 

APOLOGETICVS 37, 38, 39 111 

necessary, people that palpably are enemies, yet not indeed 
of the human race, but rather of error. 

Chap. XXXVIII. Furthermore was not a somewhat gentler 
attitude also more fitting, namely the enrolment of this sect 
among the legal associations, seeing it commits no such crime 
as is wont to be feared from illegal associations ? For unless 
I am mistaken, the reason for preventing associations derives 
its force from forethought as to pubhc order, lest the state should 
be spht up into factions. This result would easily disturb the 
elections, the assemblies, the senates, pubHc meetings, even the 
shows, by the rival clash of partisanship, since even already 
men had begun to regard their deeds of violence as for sale 
and hire, and a means of earning a liveHhood. But to us who 
are dead to all the zeal for fame and position, there is no need 
ior meeting together, nor is there anything more foreign to us 
than affairs of state. We recognise the world as one common- 
wealth belonging to all. Your shows likewise we shun just 
as much as their beginnings, which we know arise from super- 
stition, since we pass by even the events themselves which are 
their occasion. We have nothing to say, or see or hear, in 
connexion with the madness of the circus, the immodesty of 
the theatre, the ferocity of the arena, the vain-glory of the 
gymnasium. In what do we offend you, if we prefer diiierent 
pleasures? If we refuse to be taught how to enjoy pleasure, 
it is our loss, perhaps, not yours. But we reject what pleases 
you, nor do our pleasures delight you. But the Epicureans 
were permitted to maintain some reahty of pleasure, that is 
calm of mind, and for the Christian's pleasure there are great 

Chap. XXXIX. I will now at once proclaim t he actu al^ 
occupati ons of the Christian association, in order tEat I wTio' 
rejected the idea that they were evil may show that they are 
good. We are a corporation with a common knowledge of 
rehgion, a common rule of hfe, and an union of hope. We 
come together for meeting and assembly, in order that having 
formed a band as it were to come before God we may encompass 
him with prayers. This violence is pleasing to God. We pray 
also for the emperors, for their ministers and those in authority, 
for the state of the world, for general quiet, for the postponement 
of the end. We meet to call one another to remembrance of 
the Scripture, if the aspect of affairs requires us either to be 
f orewarned or to be reminded of anything. In any case we feed 
^ ipsa, J. B. M. ipse cett. 


erigimiis, fiduciam figimus, disciplinam praeceptorum niliilo- 
minus inculcationibus densamus; ibidem etiam exhortationes, 
castigationes et censura diuina. Nam et iudicatur magno cum 
pondere, ut apud certos de dei conspectu, summumque futuri 
iudicii praeiudicium est, si quis ita deliquerit, ut a communi- 5 
catione orationis et conuentus et omnis sancti commercii 
relegetur. Praesident probati quique seniores, honorem istum 
non pretio, sed testimonio adepti. Neque enim pretio ulla res 
dei constat. Etiam si quod arcae genus est, non de honoraria 
summa quasi redemptae religionis congregatur. Modicam 10 
unusquisque stipem menstrua die, uel cum uelit, et si modo 
uelit, et si modo possit, apponit; nam nemo compellitur, sed 
sponte confert. Haec quasi deposita pietatis sunt. Nam inde 
non epulis nec potaculis nec ingratiis uoratrinis dispensatur, sed 
egenis alendis humandisque et pueris ac puellis re ac parentibus 15 
destitutis, iamque domesticis senibus, item naufragis, et si qui 
in metalHs, et si qui in insulis uel in custodiis, dumtaxat ex 
causa dei sectae, alumni confessionis suae fiunt. Sed eiusmodi 
uel maxime dilectionis operatio notam nobis inurit penes 
quosdam. Vide, inquiunt, ut inuicem se diligant; ipsi enim 20 
inuicem oderunt : et ut pro alterutro mori sint parati ; ipsi 
enim ad occidendum alterutrum paratiores erunt. Sed et quod 
fratres nos uocamus, non alias, opinor, insaniuiit quam quod 
apud ipsos omne sanguinis nomen de affectione simulatum est. 
Fratres autem etiam uestri sumus, iure naturae matris unius, 25. 
etsi uos parum homines, quia mali fratres. At quanto dignius 
fratres et dicuntur et habentur qui unum patrem deum agno- 
uerunt, qui unum spiritum biberint sanctitatis, qui de uno utero 
ignorantiae eiusdem ad unam lucem expauerint ueritatis. Sed 
eo fortasse minus legitimi existimamur, quia nuUa de nostra 30 
fraternitate tragoedia exclamat, uel quia ex substantia familiari 
fratres sumus, quae penes uos fere dirimit fraternitatem. Itaque 
qui animo animaque miscemur, nihil de rei communicatione 
dubitamus. Omnia indiscreta sunt apud nos praeter uxores. 
In isto loco consortium soluimus in quo solo ceteri homines 35 
consortium exercent, qui non amicorum solummodo matrimonia 


our belief on holy words, we raise oiir hope, we strengthen our 
confidence, we clinch the teaching none the less by driving 
home precepts. There too are pronounced exhortations, correc- 
tions and godly judgments. For our judgment too is dehvered 
with great weight, as among those who are sure that they are 
acting under the eye of God, and there is the greatest anticipa- 
tion of the future judgment, if any one has so sinned, as to be 
banished from the communion of prayer and assembly and all 
holy fellowship. We are governed by the most approved elders, 
who have obtained this offi.ce not by purchase, but on testimony ; 
for indeed nothing of God is obtainable by money. Even if 
we have a kind of treasury, this is not filled up from a sense of 
obhgation, as of a hired rehgion. Each niember adds a small 
suni once a month, or when he pleases, and only if he is wilhng 
and able ; for no one is forced, but each contributes of his own 
free will. These are the deposits as it were made by devotion. 
For that sum is disbursed not on banquets nor drinking bouts 
nor unwillingly on eating-houses, but on the supporting and 
burying of the poor, and on boys and girls deprived of property 
and parents, and on aged servants of the house, also on ship- 
wrecked persons, and any, who are in the mines or on islands 
or in prisons, provided it be for the cause of God's religion, 
who thus become pensioners of their confession. But the 
working of that kind of love most of all brands us with a mark 
of blame in the eyes of some. 'See,' they say, 'how they love 
one another ' ; for they themselves hate one another ; ' and how 
they are ready to die for one another'; for they wi]] be more 
ready to kill one another. But also they rage at us for calhng 
one another brethren, for no other reason, I suppose, than 
because among themselves every name indicating blood relation- 
ship is assumed from aft^ection. But we are also your brothers, 
by right of nature, the one mother, although you are httle 
deserving of the name men, because you are e\i\ brothers. But , 
how much more worthily are those both called and considered 
brethren who have recognised one Father, namely God, who have/ 
imbibed one spirit of hohness, who from one womb of the samev 
ignorance have quaked before one hght of truth ! But we are 
perhaps regarded as less legitimate for the reason that no 
tragedy proclaims aloud our brotherhness, or because we are 
brothers as the result of household possessions, which among 
you generally break up the relationship of brothers. And so 
we, who are united in heart and soul, have no hesitation about 
sharing a thing. Among us all things are common except wives. 
In this matter alone we dissolve partnership, in which alone 
all other men practise partnership, who not only use the wives 


usurpant, sed et sua amicis patientissime subministrant ; ex 
illa, credo, maiorum et sapientissimorum disciplina, Graeci 
Socratis et Romani Catonis, qui uxores suas amicis communi- 
cauerunt, quas in matrimonium duxerant liberorum causa et 
alibi creandorum, nescio quidem an inuitas. Quid enim de 5 
castitate curarent, quam mariti tam facile donauerant? 
sapientiae Atticae, o Romanae grauitatis exempbim : lenones 
pliilosophus et censor ! Quid ergo mirum, si tanta caritas con- 
uiolatur? Nam et coenulas nostras praeterquam sceleris 
infames ut prodigas quoque suggillatis. De nobis scilicet lo 
Diogenis dictum est: Megarenses obsonant quasi crastina die 
morituri, aedificant uero quasi numquam morituri. Sed 
stipulam quis in alieno oculo facilius perspicit c[uam in suo 
trabem. Tot tribubus et curiis et decuriis ructantibus acescit 
aer : Saliis coenaturis creditor erit necessarius : Herculauarum 15 
decimarum et polluctorum sumptus tabularii supputabunt: 
Apaturiis, Dionysiis, mysteriis Atticis cocorum dilectus indicitur : 
ad fumum coenae Sarapiacae sparteoli excitabuntur. De solo 
triclinio Christianorum retractatur. Coena nostra de nomine 
rationem sui ostendit. Id uocatur quod dilectio penes Graecos. 20 
Quantiscumque sumptibus constet, lucrum est pietatis nomine 
facere sumptum, siquidem inopes quosque refrigerio isto 
iuuamus, non qua penes uos parasiti adfectant ad gloriam 
famulandae libertatis sub auctoramento uentris inter con- 
tumelias saginandi, sed qua penes deum maior est contemplatio 25 
mediocrium. Si honesta causa est conuiuii, reliquum ordinem 
disciplinae de causa aestimate. Quod sit de religionis officio, 
nihil uilitatis, nihil inmodestiae admittit. Non prius discum- 
bitur quam oratio ad deum praegustetur. Editur quantum 
esurientes capiunt, bibitur quantum pudicis utile est. Ita 30 
saturantur, ut qui meminerint etiam per noctem adorandum 
deum sibi esse; ita fabulantur, ut qui sciant dominum audire. 
Post aquam manualem et lumina, ut quisque de scripturis 
sanctis uel de proprio ingenio potest, prouocatur in medium deo 
canere ; hinc probatur quomodo biberit. Aeque oratio con- 35 
uiuium dirimit. Inde disceditur non in cateruas caesionum 
nec in classes discursationum nec in eruptiones lasciuiarum. 


of friends, but also most patiently supply their own to their 
friends, in accordance, I believe, with the well-known teaching 
of ancient sages and phihjsophers, the Greek Socrates and the 
Roman Cato, who shared their wives with friends, those wives 
whom they had married, perhaps with their consent, to bear 
children in other households also. For what care could they 
have for chastity, which their husbands had given away so 
hghtly ! What an example of Athenian philosophy, of Roman 
seriousness! A philosopher and a censor both acting the part 
of procurers ! What wonder is it then that so great alf ection is 
outraged ! For you also revile our httle dinners as extravagant 
also in addition to being disgraced by crime. It was about us of 
course that Diogenes uttered his saying: 'The Megarians buy 
food as if they were to die to-morrow, but they build as if they 
were never to die ! ' But one sees a mote more easily in another's 
eye than a beam in one's own. The air becomes sour with so 
many tribes, parishes and guilds belching. The Sahi will need 
a money-lender when they are to dine : the public accountants 
will sum up the expenditure of the tithes and offerings to 
Hercules ; at the Apaturia, the Dionysia, and the Attic mysteries 
a levy of cooks is proclaimed, at the smoke of a Sarapis banquet 
the firenien will be aroused. It is only the dining-room of the 
Christians that is objected to. Our dinner shows its significance 
by its name : it is called by the name which amongst the Greeks 
means affection. Whatsoever be its cost, it is a gain to incur 
expense in the name of rehgion, since by this refreshment we 
help those who are in need, not in the way that among you 
parasites eagerly strive for the glory of enslaving their freedom at 
the price of a belly that has to be filled amid insults ; but in the 
way that with God greater regard is paid to them of low degree. 
If the purpose of our entertainment is honourable, form your 
estimate of the remainder of our rule from its motive. As it is 
concerned with our rehgious duty, it allows nothing base, 
nothing disorderly. We do not rechne until we have first 
partaken of prayer to God ; only so much is eaten as to satisfy 
hunger ; only as much is drunk as becomes the chaste. Appetite 
is satisfied so far as is consistent with the remembrance that 
they have to worship God even in the night ; they talk as those 
who know that the Master is listening. After the bringing in of 
water for washing the hands, and hghts, each is invited to sing 
pubhcly to God as he is able from his knowledge of holy scripture 
or from his own mind ; thus it can be tested how he has drunk. 
In hke manner prayer closes the feast. The meeting then 
breaks up, not into riotous bands for assaulting the innocent, 
nor into disturbances in the streets, nor for outbursts of 


sed ad eandem curam modestiae et pudicitiae, ut qui non tam 
coenam coenauerint quam disciplinam. Haec coitio Christia- 
norum merito sane inlicita, si inlicitis par, merito damnanda, 
si quis de ea queritur eo titulo quo de factionibus querela est. 
In cuius perniciem aliquando conuenimus? Hoc sumus con- 5 
gregati quod et dispersi, hoc uniuersi quod et singuli, neminem 
laedentes, neminem contristantes. Cum probi, cum boni 
coeunt, cum pii, cum casti congregantur, non est factio dicenda, 
sed curia. 

40. At e contrario illis nomen factionis accommodandum lo 
est qui in odium bonorum et proborum conspirant, qui aduersum 
sanguinem innocentium conclamant, praetexentes sane ad odii 
defensionem illam quoque uanitatem, quod existiment omnis 
publicae cladis, omnis popularis incommodi Christianos esse in 
causam. Si Tiberis ascendit in moenia, si Nilus non ascendit 15 
in arua, si caelum stetit, si terra mouit, si fames, si lues, statim 
Christianos ad leonem ! adclamatur. Tantos ad unum ? Oro 
uos, ante Tiberium, id est ante Christi aduentum, quantae clades 
orbem et urbes ceciderunt? Legimus Hieran, Anaphen et 
Delon et Rhodon et Co insulas multis cum milibus hominum 20 
pessum abisse. Memorat et Plato maiorem Asiae uel Africae 
terram Atlantico mari ereptam. Sed et mare Corinthium 
terrae motus ebibit, et uis undarum Lucaniam abscisam in 
Siciliae nomen relegauit. Haec utique non sine iniuria in- 
colentium accidere potuerunt. Ubi uero tunc, non dicam 25 
deorum uestrorum contemptores Christiani, sed ipsi dei uestri, 
cum totum orbem cataclysmus aboleuit, uel, ut Plato putauit, 
campestre solummodo? Posteriores enim illos clade diluuii 
contestantur ipsae urbes in quibus nati mortuique sunt, etiam 
quas condiderunt ; neque enim ahas hodiernum manerent nisi 30 
et ipsae posthumae cladis ilhus. Nondum ludaeum ab Aegypto 
examen Palaestina susceperat nec iam illic Christianae sectae 
origo consederat, cum regiones adfines eius Sodoma et Gomorra 
igneus imber exussit. Olet adhuc incendio terra, et si qua 

APOLOGETICVS 39, 40 117 

lasciviousness, but to the same care for orderliness and modesty, 
as those who have fed, not so much on meats as on instruction 
in righteousness. This meeting together of Christians would 
have been deservedly illegal, I admit, if it were the same as 
the illegal, deservedly to be condemned, if any one complains of 
it with the same accusation as is made about clubs. For whose 
ruin have we ever met? We are the same when gathered 
together as we are when scattered, we are as a body what we 
are also as individuals, injuring no one, paining no one. When 
worthy, when good men come together, when the pious and 
pure are gathered together, it is to be called not a club, but a 
council chamber. 

Chap. XL. But on the contrary the name of faction is to 
be apphed to those who conspire to foment hatred against good 
and worthy persons, who cry aloud against the blood of the 
innocent, pretending forsooth in defence of their hatred that 
foolish excuse besides, that the Christians are to blame for 
every pubUc disaster, every misfortune that happens to the 
people. If the Tiber rises to the walls, if the Nile does not 
rise to the fields, if the sky is rainless, if there is an earthquake, 
a famine, a plague, immediately the cry arises, 'The Christians 
to the lion ! ' What ! so many to one (lion) ? I pray you tell 
me : before the time of Tiberius, that is, before the coming 
of Christ, how many disasters smote the world or particular 
cities? We read that Hiera, Anaphe and Delos and Ehodes 
and Ophiusa^ were ruined with many thousands of persons. 
Plato also mentions that a land greater than Asia or Africa 
was snatched away by the Atlantic Ocean. But an earth- 
quake also drained the Corinthian sea, and the force of the 
waves cut off Lucania and banished it to bear the name of 
Sicily. These things of course could not happen without harm 
to the inhabitants. But where were at that time, I will not 
say, the Christians who think nothing of your gods, but your 
gods themselves, when a flood overwhelmed the whole world, or, 
as Plato supposed, only the plains? For, that your gods are 
later than the catastrophe of the flood, is attested by the very 
cities in which they were born and died, or even which they 
f ounded ; for otherwise they would not have remained to-day, 
if they had not been later than that disaster. Palestine had not 
yet received its Jewish swarm from Egypt, nor yet had the 
beginning of the Christian sect settled there, when a shower of 
fire burnt up the neighbouring regions of Sodom and Gomorrha. 

/ Reading Ophmsam for Co insulas. 


illic arborum poma, conantur oculis tenus, ceterum contacta 
cinerescunt. Sed nec Tuscia iam tunc atque Campania de 
Christianis querebantur, cum Vulsinios de caelo, Pompeios de 
suo monte perfudit ignis. Nemo adhuc Romae deum uerum 
adorabat cum Hannibal apud Cannas per Romanos anulos 5 
caedes suas modio metiebatur. Omnes dei uestri ab omnibus 
colebantur, cum ipsum Capitolium Senones occupauerant. Et 
bene quod, si quid aduersi urbibus accidit, eaedem clades 
templorum quae et moenium fuerunt, ut iam hoc reuincam non 
ab eis euenire, quia et ipsis euenit. Semper humana gens male 10 
de deo meruit. Primo quidem ut inofhciosa eius, quem cum 
intellegeret ex parte, non requisiuit, sed et alios insuper sibi 
commentata quos coleret; dehinc quod non inquirendo inno- 
centiae magistrum et nocentiae iudicem et exactorem omnibus 
uitiis et criminibus inoleuit. Ceterum si requisisset, seciue- 15 
batur, ut cognosceret requisitum et recognitum obseruaret et 
obseruatum propitium magis experiretur quam iratum. Eundem 
igitur nunc quoque scire debet iratum quem et retro semper, 
priusquam Christiani nominarentur. Cuius bonis utebatur ante 
editis quam sibi deos fingeret, cur non ab eo etiam mala intellegat 20 
euenire cuius bona esse non sensit? Illius rea est cuius et 
ingrata. Et tamen si pristinas clades comparemus, leuiora 
nunc accidunt, ex quo Christianos a deo orbis accepit. Ex 
eo enim et innocentia saeculi iniquitates temperauit et depre- 
catores dei esse coeperunt. Denique cum ab imbribus aestiua 25 
hiberna suspendunt et annus in cura est, uos quidem cotidie 
pasti statimque pransuri, bahieis et cauponiis et lupanaribus 
operantibus, aquilicia loui immolatis, nudipedaha populo 
denuntiatis, caelum apud Capitolium quaeritis, nubila de 
laquearibus exspectatis, auersi ab ipso et deo et caelo : nos 30 
uero ieiuniis aridi et omni continentia expressi, ab omui uitae 
fruge dilati, in sacco et cinere uolutantes inuidia caelum tun- 

AP0L0GETICV8 40 119 

The land still sniells of fire, and if any tree bears fruit tliere, 
it can only be looked at, but when touched it turns to ashes. 
But neither did Tuscany nor Campania even in those days com- 
plain about the Christians when fire from heaven fiooded 
Vulsinii, and fire from its own mountain Pompeii. No one 
as yet worshipped the true God at Rome, when Hannibal by 
means of the Roman rings measured by bushel the extent of 
the slaughter he had inflicted at Cannae. All your gods were 
worshipped by all, when the Senones had seized the Capitol 
itself . And fortunately an}^ misfortune that happened to cities 
involved temples in the sanie disasters as the city walls, which 
enables me now to prove that such disasters do not come from 
the gods, because they come upon themselves also. The human 
race has always deserved ill of God : in the first place indeed 
as neglecting its duty towards him, whom though it understood 
partly, it did not search out, but also devised for itself other 
deities besides to worship ; in the second place because, by not 
seeking out the teacher of uprightness and judge and avenger 
of guilt, it has grown in all vices and crimes. But if it had 
sought him out, it would have followed that, when it had 
sought him, it might learn to know him, and when it recognised 
him it might worship him, and when it had worshipped him 
it might find him by experience to be propitious rather than 
wrathful. Therefore we ought now also to know that the same 
god is angry, as always in the past also, before Christians 
received their name. Seeing that it enjoyed his blessings, which 
were displayed before it fashioned gods for itself, why should 
it not understand that evils also come from him, to whom it 
was not conscious that the blessings belonged ? It is guilty of 
that towards which it is also ungrateful. And yet if we were 
to compare the disasters of old, those of the present day are 
sUghter, since God gave the Christians as his gift to the world. 
For from that time uprightness has moderated the injustices 
oFThe world and likewise men have begun to be intercessors 
withGpd. For example, when summer weather keeps the 
winter from rains, and the crops are a subject of anxiety, you 
to be sure, feeding daily and yet immediately ready to resume 
your meals, while the baths, the taverns and the brothels are 
busy, sacrifice ofEerings to Jupiter for rain, order the people 
to go for a season with bare feet, seek the heaven at the 
Capitol, and watch for clouds from its panelled roofs, turning 
away both from God himself and from heaven itself. But 
we, parched with fastings and pinched with every sort of self- 
restraint, separated from all bread necessary to life, wallowing 
in sackcloth and ashes, importune heaven with reproach, we 


dimus, deum tangimus, et cum misericordiam extorserimus, 
lupiter honoratur. 

41. Vos igitur inportuni rebus humanis, uos rei publicorum 
incommodorum inlices semper, apud quos deus spernitur, 
statuae adorantur. Etenim credibilius haberi debet eum irasci 5 
qui neglegatur quam qui coluntur, aut nae illi iniquissimi, si 
propter Christianos etiam cultores suos laedunt, quos separare 
deberent a meritis Christianorum. Hoc, inquitis, et in deum 
uestrum repercutere est, si quod et ipse patiatur, propter 
profanos etiam suos cultores laedi. Admittite prius disposi- 10 
tiones eius, et non retorquebitis. Qui enim semel aeternum 
iudicium destinauit post saeculi finem, non praecipitat dis- 
cretionem, quae est condicio iudicii, ante saeculi finem. Aequalis 
est interim super omne hominum genus et indulgens et increpans. 
Communia uoluit esse et commoda profanis et incommoda suis, 15 
ut pari consortio omnes et lenitatem eius et seueritatem ex- 
periremur. Quia haec ita didicimus apud ipsum, dihgimus 
lenitatem, metuimus seueritatem, uos contra utramque de- 
spicitis : et sequitur ut omnes saeculi plagae nobis, si forte, in 
admonitionem, uobis in castigationem a deo obueniant. Atquin 20 
nos nullo modo laedimur; inprimis quia nihil nostra refert in 
hoc aeuo nisi de eo quam celeriter excedere, dehinc, quia si 
quid aduersi infligitur, uestris meritis deputatur. Sed etsi aliqua 
nos quoque praestringunt ut uobis cohaerentes, laetamur magis 
recognitione diuinarum praedicationum, confirmantium scilicet 25 
fiduciam et fidem spei nostrae. Sin uero ab eis quos colitis 
omnia uobis mala eueniunt nostri causa, quid colere perse- 
ueratis tam ingratos, tam iniustos, qui magis uos in dolore 
Christianorum iuuare et adserere debuerant, quos separare 
deberent a meritis Christianorum ? 30 

42. Sed alio quoque iniuriarum titulo postulamur, et in- 
fructuosi in negotiis dicimur. Quo pacto homines uobiscum 
degentes, eiusdem uictus, habitus, instructus, eiusdem ad 
uitam necessitatis ? Neque enim Brachmanae aut Indorum 

APOLOGETICVS 40, 41, 42 121 

touch the heart of God, and when we have wrested mercy 
(from Him), Jupiter gets the hononr. 

Chap. XLI. You therefore are dangerous to human affairs, 
you are to blame for pubhc misfortunes, drawing them always 
upon us, since you despise God and worship statues. For surely 
it is more Hkely that one who is neglected should get angry 
rather than those who are worshipped. Otherwise they are 
indeed most unfair, if on account of the Christians they injure 
their own worshippers also, whom they ought to keep unaffected 
by the deserts of the Christians. 'This,' you say, 'is to retort 
on your own god also, if he himself allows his own worshippers 
also to be injured on account of the profane.' Learn first his 
plans, and you will not then retort. For He who has once for 
all ordained an everlasting judgment after the end of the world, 
does not hasten the separation, which is a circumstance of the 
judgment, before the end of the world. Meanwhile he deals 
impartially with the whole human race, both as indulging and 
reproving ; he wished that good and evil should be shared ahke 
by his own servants and by the wicked, so that, by an equal 
partnership, all might have experience both of his gentleness 
and of his sternness. Because we have thus learnt these things 
in his own company, we love his gentleness and we fear his 
sternness, while you on the contrary despise both ; and it 
follows that all the plagues of the world come from God on us, 
it may be, for warning, but on you for punishment. And yet we 
are not really injured at all, in the first place because we have 
no concern in this hfe except to depart from it as speedily as 
possible, in the second place because, if any misf ortune is brought 
upon us, it is attributed to your deserts. But even if some 
troubles touch us also as being connected with you, we rejoice 
more in the recognition of the divine prophecies, which of 
course strengthen the assurance and confidence of our hope. 
But if it be the case that all these evils come upon you on our 
account from those whom you worship, why do you continue 
to worship beings so ungrateful and so unjust, whose duty it 
was rather to help and defend you in the suffering coming from 
the Christians, since it was their duty to keep you apart froni 
the deserts of the Christians? 

Chap. XLII. But we are arraigned also on a different 
charge of injuries infiicted, and we are said to be unprofitable 
in business matters. How can this be true of men who hve 
with you, who enjoy the same food, have the same manner of 
hfe, and dress, the same requirements for hfe? For we are 


gynmosophistae sumus, siluicolae et exules uitae. Meminimus 
gratiam debere nos deo, domino, creatori : nullum fructum 
operum eius repudiamus: plane temperamus, ne ultra modum 
aut perperam utamur. Itaque non sine foro, non sine macello, 
non sine balneis, tabernis, officinis, stabulis, nundinis uestris 5 
ceterisque commerciis cohabitamus in hoc saeculo. Nauigamus 
et nos uobiscum et militamus et rusticamur et mercatus proinde 
miscemus, artes, opera nostra publicamus usui uestro. Quomodo 
infructuosi uidemur negotiis uestris, cum quibus et de (juibus 
uiuimus, non scio. Sed si caerimonias tuas non frequento, 10 
attamen et illa die homo suiii. Non lauor diluculo Saturnalibus, 
ne et noctera et diera perdam, attamen lauor honesta hora et 
salubri, quae mihi et calorem et sanguinem seruet; rigere et 
pallere post lauacrum mortuus possum. Non in publico 
Liberahbus discumbo, quod bestiariis supremam coenantibus 15 
mos est, attamen ubi de copiis tuis coeno. Non emo capiti 
coronam. Quid tua interest, emptis nihilominus floribus 
quomodo utar ? Puto gratius esse liberis et solutis et undique 
uagis. Sed etsi in coronam coactis, nos coronam naribus 
nouimus ; uiderint qui per capillum odorantur. SpectacuHs 20 
non conuenimus; quae tamen apud illos coetus uenditantur 
si desiderauero, liberius de propriis locis sumam. Thura plane 
non emimus. Si Arabiae queruntur, sciant Sabaei pluris et 
carioris suas merces Christianis sepeliendis profligari quam deis 
fumigandis. Certe, inquitis, tempk)rum uectigaha cotidie 25 
decoquunt : stipes quotusquisque iam iactat ? Non enim 
sufficimus et hominibus et deis uestris mendicantibus openi 
ferre, nec putamus aliis quam petentibus inpertiendum. 
Denique porrigat manum lupiter et accipiat, cum interim 
plus nostra misericordia insumit uicatim quam uestra religio 30 
templatim. Sed cetera uectigalia gratias Christianis agent ex 
fide dependentibus debitum, qua alieno fraudando abstinemus, 
ut, si ineatur quantum uectigalibus pereat fraude et mendacio 


neither Brahmins nor Indian gymnosophists. dwellers in the 
forests, and exiles from ordinary Hfe. We remember the gratitude 
we owe to God our Lord and Creator; we reject no fruit of his 
works ; though it is true we refrain from the excessive or wrong 
use of them. Consequently we cannot dwell together in the 
world, without the market-place, without the shambles, without 
your baths, shops, factories, taverns, fairs and other places of 
resort. We also sail with you and serve in the army and we 
till the ground and engage in trade as you do, we join our 
crafts, we lend our services to the pubhc for your profit. How 
we can seem unprofitable to your business affairs, when we live 
with you and by you, I do not know. But if I do not frequent 
your rites, nevertheless even on your hohday I am a human 
being. I do not bathe at dawn on the days of the Saturnalia, 
lest i should lose both night and day ; nevertheless I bathe at a 
proper and healthful hour, which will keep me warm and ruddy ; 
I can be stiff and sallow enough after my last bath when 
dead. I do not rechne at table in pubhc at the Liberaha. as is 
the custom of those who contend with the beasts when par- 
taking of the last meal of their hves; yet I dine anywhere^ on 
your supphes. I do not buy a garland for my head. What 
difference does it make to you, how I employ flowers which are 
none the less purchased? I think they are more pleasing when 
free and unbound and traihng everywhere. But even if we 
have them combined into a garland, we know a garland by the 
nose ; ^et those who have perfumed locks see to it. We do 
not meet together at the pubhc shows : if nevertheless I want 
what is advertised at those meetings, I will take them more 
freely from their own places. We absolutely refrain from buying 
incense ; if the Arabias complain, let the Sabaeans know that 
their wares are used in greater quantity and at greater cost 
for the burial of Christians than for the fumigating of gods. 
'Exactly,' you say, 'the revenues of the temples are daily 
faihng ; how few people now cast in pieces of money ! ' Yes, 
for we are not able to bring help both to men and to your gods 
when they beg, nor do we think that we ought to share with 
others than those who ask. So, let Jupiter himself hold out 
his hand and receive his share, while meantime our pity spends 
more street by street than your rehgion does temple by temple. 
But your other revenues will give thanks to the Christians, who 
pay down what they owe, in accordance with the behef by which 
we abstain from appropriating what is another's, so that, if the 
question is raised how much is lost to the revenues through the 
dishonesty and lying of your returns, a calculation can easily 

* uhiubi. 


iiestrarum professionum, facile ratio haberi possit, unius speciei 
querela conpensata pro commodo ceterarum rationum. 

43. Plane coniitebor, quinam, si forte, uere de sterilitate 
( 'hristianorura conqueri possint. Primi erunt lenones, per- 
ductores, aquarioli, tum sicarii, uenenarii, magi, item aruspices, 5 
arioh, mathematici. His infructuosos esse magnus est fructus. 
Et tamen quodcunque dispendium est rei uestrae per hanc 
sectam, cum aliquo praesidio conpensari potest. Quanti 
habetis, non dico qui iam de uobis daemonia excutiant, non 
dico iam qui pro uobis quoque uero deo preces sternant, quia 10 
forte non creditis, sed a quibus nihil timere possitis? 

'^ 44. At enim illud detrimentum reipublicae tani grande 
(|uam uerum nemo circumspicit, illam iniuriam ciuitatis nulkis 
expendit, cum tot iusti impendimur, cum tot innocentes ero- 
gamur. Vestros enim iam contestamur actus, qui cotidie 15 
iudicandis custodiis praesidetis, qui sententiis elogia dispungitis. 
Tot a uobis nocentes uariis criminum elogiis recensentur : quis 
illic sicarius, quis manticularius, quis sacrilegus aut corruptor 
aut lauantium praedo, quis ex illis etiam Christianus adscribitur ? 
aut cum Christiani suo titulo offeruntur, quis ex illis etiam talis 20 
quales tot nocentes? De uestris semper aestuat carcer, de 
uestris semper metalla suspirant, de uestris semper bestiae 
saginantur, de uestris semper munerarii noxiorum greges 
pascunt. Nemo illic Christianus, nisi plane tantum Chris- 
tianus, aut si et aliud, iam non Christianus. ^ 25 

45. Nos ergo soli innocentes. Quid mirum, si necesse est? 
Enimuero necesse est. Innocentiam a deo edocti et perfecte 
eam nouimus, ut a perfecto magistro reuelatam, et fideliter 
custodimus, ut ab incontemptibili dispectore mandatam. Vobis 
autem humana aestimatio innocentiam tradidit, humana item 30 
dominatio imperauit; inde nec plenae nec adeo timendae estis 


be made, as a complaint of one sort is balanced by the gain 
coming from all other calciilations. 

Chap. XLIII. I will readily confess what sort of people can 
perhaps truly complain of the unprofitableness of the Christians. 
First will come the procurers, the pimps, the bulHes, then the 
assassins, the poisoners, the magicians ; likewise the diviners, 
the soothsayers, the astrologers. To be unprofitable to these 
is great profit. And yet whatsoever loss there is to your 
property through this sect, can be balanced by some protection 
afforded by them. At what price do you value, I do not say, 
those who have the power to drive out evil spirits from you 
now — I do not now say those who offer their prayers for you 
also before the true God, because perhaps you do not beheve 
in Him, but those from whom you have nothing to fear? 

Chap. XLIV. But indeed there is a loss to the state, as 
great as it is real, to which no one pays any regard, an injury 
to the state of which no one takes account, when in our persons 
so many just men are wasted, so many innocent men are 
squandered away. For we now appeal to your records of pro- 
ceedings, ye who daily preside over the trials of prisoners, who 
by passing sentences erase the charges out of the calendar. So 
many guilty persons are examined by you on various charges : 
what assassin there, what cutpurse, what sacrilegious person 
or debaucher or thief of the baths, is there among them who 
is also described as a Christian? Or, when Christians are pro- 
secuted on their specific charge (i.e. the charge of Christianity), 
w^ho among them is also such as so many criminals are? It 
is with your own people that the prisons are always steaming, 
your own people who make the mines re-echo to fheir sighs, the 
wild beasts are always stuffed with the same, and from among 
them too the givers of shows always find herds of criminals to 
feed. No one there is a Christian, unless he is nothing but a 
Christian; or, if he be also anything else, he is already no 
longer a Christian. 

Chap. XLV. We alone therefore are free from guilt. What 
wonder, if it is inevitable ? For indeed it is inevitable. Taught 
innocence by God, we both know it perfectly, seeing it has been 
revealed by a perfect teacher, and guard it faithfully, as com- 
mitted to us by an observer who cannot be shghted. But to 
you man's judgment has handed down uprightness, man's 
tyranny, too, has commanded it : thence it is that you belong 
to a discipline which is neither complete nor really to be feared 


discipliuae ad innocentiae ueritatem. Tanta est prudentia 
liominis ad demonstrandum bonum quanta auctoritas ad 
exigendum ; tam illa falli facilis quam ista contemni. Atque 
adeo quid plenius, dicere : Non occides, an docere : Ne irascaris 
quiclem ? Quid perfectius, prohibere adulterium, an etiam ab 5 
oculorum solitaria concupiscentia arcere? Quid eruditius, de 
maleficio, an et de maliloquio interdicere? Quid instructius, 
iniuriam non permittere, an nec uicem iniuriae sinere? Dum 
tamen sciatis ipsas leges quoque uestras quae uidentur ad 
innocentiam pergere de diuina lege, ut anticjuiore forma, lo 
mutuatas. Diximus iam de Moysi aetate. Sed quanta 
auctoritas legum humanarum, cum illas et euadere homini 
contingat et plerumque in admissis dehtiscenti, et ahcj[uando 
contemnere ex uohmtate uel necessitate dehnquenti? Recogi- 
tate ea etiam pro breuitate supphcii cuiushbet, non tamen 15 
ultra mortem remansuri. Sic et Epicurus omnem cruciatum 
doloremcjue depretiat, modicum quidem contemptibilem pro- 
nuntiando, magnum uero non diuturnum. Enimuero nos cjui 
sub deo omnium speculatore dispungimur, quique aeternam ab 
eo poenam prouidemus merito, soli innocentiae occurrimus, et ao 
pro scientiae plenitudine et pro latebrarum difficultate et pro 
magnitudine cruciatus non diuturni, uerum sempiterni, eum 
timentes quem timere debebit et ipse cpii timentes iudicat, 
deum, non proconsulem timentes. 

46. Constitimus, ut opinor, aduersus omnium criminum 25 
intentationem, quae Christianorum sanguinem fiagitat. Osten- 
dimus totum statum nostrum, et quibus modis probare possimus 
ita esse sicut ostendimus, ex fide scihcet et antiquitate diuinarum 
htterarum, item ex confessione spirituahum potestatum. Qui 
nos reuincere audebit, non arte uerborum, sed eadem forma qua 30 
probationem constituimus, de ueritate? Sed dum unicuique 
manifestatur ueritas nostra, interim increduhtas, dum de bono 
sectae huius obducitur, quod usui iam et de commercio innotuit, 
non utic[ue diuinum negotium existimat, sed magis philosophiae 
genus. Eadem, inquit, et philosophi monent atque profitentur, 35 

A?OLO(}ETTCVS 45, 46 127 

in view of the reality of innocence. A man's knowledge for 
the pointing out of what is really good, is just as great as his 
authority for exacting it : the former is just as easily deceived 
as the latter is shghted. And further which is the more com- 
prehensive, to say: 'Thou shalt do no murder,' or to teach: 
' Do not even become angry ' ? What is more absolute, to forbid 
adultery, or even to bar man from the soHtary desire of the 
eyes? 'Which shows a deeper experience, the prohibition from 
evil-doing, or the further prohibition from evil-speaking? 
Which shows better instruction, not to permit injury, or not 
even to allow retahation for injury? Provided, however, you 
know that your very laws also, which seem to tend in the direc- 
tion of uprightness, have borrowed their form from the divine 
law as the older pattern. We have spoken already about the 
age of Moses. But how little is the authority of human laws, 
since a man has a chance both to escape them, and very often 
to He hid in his crimes, and sometimes to set them at nought, 
sinning involuntarily^ or of necessity ? Reflect also on them in 
view of the shortness of any punishment, which will not in any 
case last beyond death. So also Epicurus makes hght of all 
torture and pain, by declaring indeed that if shght it is con- 
temptible, while if great it will not last long. In very truth 
we who are examined before God who searches all, we who look 
forward to everlasting punishment from Him as our due, are 
the only ones who attain uprightness, both in view of the 
fullness of knowledge and in view of the difficulty of con- 
cealment and in view of the greatness of the torture, which 
is not lasting only but everlasting, fearing Him, whom even he 
himself who judges the fearful will have to fear, that is, fearing 
God, not the pro-consuh 

Chap. XLVI. We have maintained our ground, I think, 
against the denunciation of all charges, which clamours for the 
blood of the Christians. We have shown our whole position, 
and in what ways we can prove it to be such as we have shown, 
by the trustworthiness, of course, and the antiquity of our 
sacred writings, and also from the confession of spiritual powers. 
Who will dare to refute us, not by skill in words, but by the same 
method, by which we estabhshed our proof, namely on the ground 
of truth ? But while our trutli is displayed to every man, mean- 
time unbelief, confounded as it is by the goodness of this sect, 
which has now become known to experience, as well as from 
intercourse with it, does not of course regard it as a divine 
c^uestion, but rather as a kind of philosophy. Philosophers also, 

^ inuoluntule. 


innocentiam, iustitiam, patientiam, sobiietatem, pudicitiam. 
Cur ergo quibus comparamur de disciplina, non proinde illis 
adaequamur ad licentiam impunitatemque disciplinae ? uel cur 
et illi, ut pares nostri, non urgentur ad officia quae nos non 
obeuntes periclitamur ? Quis enim philosophum sacrificare 5 
aut deierare aut lucernas meridie uanas proferre conpellit? 
Quinimmo et deos uestros palam destruunt et superstitiones 
uestras commentariis quoque accusant laudantibus uobis. 
Plerique etiam in principes latrant sustinentibus uobis, et 
facilius statuis et salariis remunerantur quam ad bestias pro- 10 
nuntiantur. Sed merito. Philosophi enim non Christiani 
cognominantur. Nomen hoc philosophorum daemonia non 
fugat. Quidni? cum secundum deos philosophi daemonas 
deputent. Socratis uox est : Si daemonium permittat. Idem 
et cum aliquid de ueritate sapiebat deos negans, Aesculapio 15 
tamen gallinaceum prosecari iam in fine iubebat, credo ob 
honorem patris eius, quia Socratem Apollo sapientissimum 
omnium cecinit. Apollinem inconsideratum ! Sapientiae 
testimonium reddidit ei uiro qui negabat deos esse. In quantum 
odium flagrat ueritas, in tantum qui eam ex fide praestat off endit ; 20 
qui autem adulterat et adfectat, hoc niaxime nomine gratiam 
pangit apud insectatores ueritatis. Quam inlusores et corrup- 
tores inimice philosophi adfectant ueritatem et adfectando 
corrumpunt, ut qui gloriam captant, Christiani et necessario 
appetunt et integre praestant, ut qui saluti suae curant. Adeo 25 
neque de scientia neque de disciplina, ut putatis, aequamur. 
Quid enim Thales ille princeps physicorum sciscitanti Croeso 
de diuinitate certum renuntiauit, commeatus deliberandi saepe 
frustratus? Deum quilibet opifex Christianus et inuenit et 
ostendit et exinde totum quod in deuni quaeritur re quoque 30 
adsignat ; licet Plato adfirmet factitatorem uniuersitatis neque 
inueniri facilem et inuentum enarrari in omnes difficilem. 
Ceterum si de pudicitia prouocemus, lego partem sententiae 
Atticae, in Socratem corruptorem adolescentium pronuntiatum. 


they say, give the same advice and make the same professions, 
nprightness, iustice, endurance, sobriety, chastity. Why then 
are we not similarly made equal to them in the freedom and 
impunity accorded to our teaching, if we are compared with 
them in teaching? Or why are they also as our equals not 
forced to perform duties, the non-performance of which by us 
results in our trial? For who forces a philosopher to sacrifice, 
or to swear, or to expose useless lamps at midday ? Nay rather, 
they both openly demohsh your gods and they even blame your 
superstitions in their writings, and you praise them for it. Very 
many of them even bark at the emperors, while you submit to 
it, and they are more readily rewarded with statues and salaries 
than sentenced to the wild-beasts. And deservedly; for they 
are surnamed philosophers not Christians. This name philo- 
sophers does not put daemons to flight. Why should it be 
otherwise, since philosophers consider that daemons come next 
after the gods? It is a saying of Socrates: 'If the daemon 
permit.' He also, when he showed something of true wisdom 
in denying the gods, yet just at the close of his Kfe ordered 
a cock to be sacrificed to Aesculapius, I believe out of respect to 
his father, because Apollo declared Socrates the wisest of men. 
Oh ill-advised Apollo! He gave a testimonial for wisdom to 
that man who denied the existence of the gods. With what- 
soever vehemence truth is hated^, in that degree does he ofiend 
who sets it forth as the result of his belief; he however who 
adulterates, while pretending love for it, gains favour most of all 
on this account among the persecutors of the truth. Philosophers 
ai?ect the truth by mockery and corruption with hostile intent, 
and by imitation corrupt it Uke those who snatch at praise, 
Christians both seek after the truth of necessity and display 
it in its purity, like those who care for their own salvation. 
So neither in knowledge nor in morahty are we on a level, as 
you suppose. For what certainty was there in the reply which 
Thales, the first of natural philosophers, made to Croesus when 
he questioned him with regard to divinity, although he had 
often employed to no purpose the extension of time allowed him 
for dehberation? But any Christian labourer both finds and 
sets forth God and then ascribes to him in deed all that is sought 
for in God, although Plato asserts that the maker of the universe 
is not easily found and when found is with difficulty explained 
to the multitude. Moreover if we make our appeal on the 
point of chastity, I read that a part of the Athenian sentence 
was pronounced^ against Socrates as a corrupter of youth. 

^ Read odio. 2 pronuntiatam. 


Sexum nec femineum mutat Christianus. Noui et Phrynen 
meretricem Diogenis supra recumbentis ardori subantem, audio 
et quendam Speusippum de Platonis schola in adulterio perisse. 
Christianus uxori suae soli masculus nascitur. Democritus 
excaecando semetipsum, quod mulieres sine concupiscentia 5 
aspicere non posset et doleret si non esset potitus, incontinentiam 
emendatione profitetur. At Christianus saluis oculis feminas 
non uidet; animo aduersus libidinem caecus est. Si de pro- 
bitate defendam, ecce lutulentis pedibus Diogenes superbos 
Platonis toros alia superbia deculcat: Christianus nec in lo 
pauperem superbit. Si de modestia certem, ecce Pythagoras 
apud Thurios, Zenon apud Prienenses tyrannidem adfectant : 
Christianus uero nec aedilitatem. Si de aequanimitate con- 
grediar, Lycurgus apocarteresin optauit, quod leges eius Lacones 
emendassent: Christianus etiam damnatus gratias agit. Si de 15 
fide conparem, Anaxagoras depositum hostibus denegauit : 
Christianus et extra fidelis uocatur. Si de simplicitate con- 
sistam, Aristoteles familiarem suum Hermian turpiter loco 
excedere fecit: Christianus nec inimicum suum laedit. Idem 
Aristoteles tam turpiter Alexandro regendo potius adolatur, 20 
quam Plato a Dionysio uentris gratia uenditatur. Aristippus 
in purpura sub magna grauitatis superficie nepotatur, et 
Hippias dum ciuitati insidias disponit, occiditur. Hoc pro suis 
omni atrocitate dissipatis nemo unquam temptauit Christianus. 
Sed dicet aliquis etiam de nostris excedere quosdam a regula 25 
disciplinae. Desinunt tamen Christiani haberi penes nos, 
philosophi uero illi cum talibus factis in nomine et honore 
sapientiae perseuerant. Adeo quid simile philosophus et 
Christianus? Graeciae discipulus et caeli? famae negotiator 
et uitae ? uerborum et factorum operator, et rerum aedificator 30 
et destructor ? amicus et inimicus erroris ? ueritatis interpolator 
et integrator et expressor, et furator eius et custos ? 

47. Antiquior omnibus ueritas, nisi fallor, et hoc mihi 

APOLOGETICVS 46, 47 131 

Nor does the Christian change the female sex [i.e. the 
natural use of the woman]. I know the harlot Phryne 
ministered to the lustful embraces of Diogenes. I am in- 
formed too that a certain Speusippus of Plato's school died 
in the act of adultery. A Christian remembers his sex when 
thinking of his wife alone. Democritus, by bhnding himself 
because he could not look on women without lust and was 
pained if he did not possess them, declares his incontinency 
by his attempted cure. But the Christian, though he preserve 
his sight, sees no women, because he is bhnded against lust 
in his heart. If I w^ere to defend him on the score of 
humiUty, behold Diogenes with muddy feet tramples down 
the proud couches of Plato with a pride of his own ; a 
Christian shows no arrogance even towards the poor. If I were 
to contend on the score of moderation, behold Pythagoras at 
Thurii, and Zeno at Priene, both aim at a tyranny, but the 
Christian does not even aspire to a magistracy in a country- 
town. If I were to meet you on the ground of equanimity, 
Lycurgus chose death by starvation, because the Spartans 
altered his laws ; a Christian even when condemned gives thanks. 
If I draw a comparison in loyalty, Anaxagoras denied a deposit 
made by the enemy; a Christian even among strangers is 
«alled faithful. If I were to take my stand on sincerity, 
Aristotle disgracefully ousted his intimate friend Hermias : a 
Christian does not injure even his enemy. The same Aristotle 
by ruUng Alexander so disgracefully, rather fawns upon him, 
as Plato is praised by Dionysius for gluttony. Aristippus 
Hves the hfe of a profligate in purple under a great appearance 
of gravity, and Hippias is killed while planning treachery 
against the state. No Christian ever attempted this revenge 
for his ow^n friends though scattered abroad with all possible 
cruelty. But it will be said that some even from amongst our 
own people deviate from the rule of disciphne; they then 
cease to be regarded as Christians among us, whereas those 
philosophers in spite of such deeds continue in the name and 
respect accorded to wisdom. Further, what hkeness is there 
between the philosopher and the Christian, the disciple of 
Greece and the disciple of heaven, the trader in reputation 
and the trader in salvation, the doer of words and the worker of ' 
deeds, the builder up and the destroyer of things, the friend 
and the enemy of error, the corrupter and the restorer and 
exponent of truth, its thief and its guardian? 

Chap. XLVII. Truth is older than everything else, if I mis- 



proficit antiquitas praestructa diuinae litteraturae, quo facile 
credatur thesaurum eam fuisse posteriori cuique sapientiae. 
Et si non onus iam uoluminis temperarem, excurrerem in hanc 
quoque probationem. Quis poetarum, quis sophistarum, qui 
non omnino de prophetarum fonte potauerit ? Inde igitur 5 
philosophi sitim ingenii sui rigauerunt, ut quae de nostris 
habent, ea nos conparent illis. Inde, opinor, et a quibusdam 
philosophia quoque eiecta est, a Thebaeis dico, et a Spartiatis 
et Argiuis, dum ad nostra conantur, et homines gloriae, ut 
diximus, et eloquentiae solius libidinosi, si quid in sanctis 10 
scripturis offenderunt digestis, ex proprio instituto curiositatis 
ad propria opera uerterunt, neque satis credentes diuina esse, 
quo minus interpolarent, neque satis intellegentes, ut adhuc 
tunc subnubila, etiam ipsis ludaeis obumbrata, quorum propria 
uidebantur. Nam et si qua simplicitas erat ueritatis, eo magis 15 
scrupulositas humana fidem aspernata mutabat, per quod in 
incertum miscuerunt etiam quod inuenerant certum. Inuentum 
enim solummodo deum non ut inuenerant disputauerunt, ut 
et de qualitate et de natura eius et de sede disceptent. Alii 
incorporalem adseuerant, ahi corporalem, ut tam Platonici 20 
quam Stoici; alii ex atomis, alii ex numeris, qua Epicurus et 
Pythagoras, alius ex igni, qua Heraclito uisum est : et Platonici 
quidem curantem rerum, contra Epicurei otiosum et inexer- 
citum, et ut ita dixerim, neminem humanis rebus; positum 
uero extra mundum Stoici, qui figuli modo extrinsecus torqueat 25 
molem hanc ; intra mundum Platonici, qui gubernatoris exemplo 
intra id maneat quod regat. Sic et de ipso mundo natus 
innatusue sit, decessurus mansurusue sit, uariant. Sic et de 
animae statu, quam alii diuinam et aeternam, alii dissolubilem 
contendunt, ut quis sensit, ita et intulit aut reformaiiit. Nec 30 
mirum, si uetus instrumentum ingenia philosophorum interuer- 


take not, and the antiquity of the divine literature already 
estabhshed is so far helpful to my argument in that it makes 
it credible that this was the storehouse for all later wisdom. 
And if I were not now reducing the size of this book, I might 
run on to prove this also. AVhat poet, what philosopher is 
there, who has not drunk at all from the fountain of the 
prophets? It is from thence therefore that the philosophers 
have watered the thirst of their genius, that what they have 
taken from our writings may put us on a level with them. 
Thence, too, I fancy, philosophy was even banished by 
certain peoples, as by the Thebans, the Spartans and the 
Argives. While they are striving to imitate our doctrines, 
being both greedy as men with a lust, as we have said, of 
fame and of eloquence only, anything they took offence at 
in the holy scriptures, such is their inquisitiveness, they 
have at once rewritten it to suit their own fancy, neither ^ 
sufficiently beheving their divine character, which would 
prevent them from garbhng them, nor yet sufficiently under- 
standing them, as being even then somewhat obscure, and 
darkened even to the Jews themselves, whose property they 
were beheved to be. For even when the truth was in simple 
form, all the more did that caviUing spirit of man, dis- 
daining behef, begin to falter, and thus they confounded in 
uncertainty even that which they had found certain. For 
having found only that there was a God, they disputed about 
him not as they found him revealed, but as to his character, 
his nature and abode. Some aver that he is incorporeal, 
others corporeal, as the Platonists and Stoics respectively ; 
some think him to consist of atoms, others of numbers, as was 
thought by Epicurus and Pythagoras (respectively), others of 
fire, as Herachtus thought: and the Platonists indeed (believe 
him) to take care of the world, but the Epicureans on the 
contrary hold him to be inactive and unemployed, and, if 
I may say so, non-existent as far as human aflliairs are concerned, 
while the Stoics beheve him to be situated outside the world, 
where, hke a potter, he makes this mass to revolve from wdthout, 
but the Platonists that he was inside the universe, and that 
he remains inside that which he directs hke a steersman. In 
the same way they differ also about the universe itself, as to 
whether it was created or uncreated, whether it will die or last 
for ever; so also about the condition of the soul, which some 
maintain is divine and eternal, and others perishable, as each 
thought, so he either introduced a new opinion or modified an 
old one. Nor can any wonder that the ingenuity of philosophers 


terunt. Ex horum semine etiam nostram hanc nouitiolani 
paraturam uiri quidam suis opinionibus ad philosophicas 
sententias adulterauerunt et de una uia obliquos multos et 
inexplicabiles tramites sciderunt. Quod ideo suggesserim, ne 
cui nota uarietas sectae huius in hoc quoque nos philosophis 5 
adaequare uideatur et ex uarietate defensionum iudicet ueri- 
tatem. Expedite autem praescribimus adulteris nostris illam 
esse regulam ueritatis quae ueniat a Christo transmissa per 
comites ipsius, quibus aliquanto posteriores diuersi isti com- 
mentatores probabuntur. Omnia aduersus ueritatem de ipsa 10 
ueritate constructa sunt, operantibus aemulationem istam 
spiritibus erroris. Ab his adulteria huiusmodi salutaris dis- 
cipHnae subornata, ab his quaedam etiam fabulae inmissae 
quae de similitudine fidem infirmarent ueritatis uel eam sibi 
potius euincerent, ut quis ideo non putet Christianis credendum 15 
quia nec poetis nec philosophis, uel ideo magis poetis et philo- 
sophis existimet credendum quia non Christianis. Itaque 
ridemur praedicantes deum iudicaturum. Sic enim et poetae 
et philosophi tribunal apud inferos ponunt. Et gehennam si 
comminemur, quae est ignis arcani subterraneam ad poenam 20 
thesaurus, proinde decachinnamur. Sic enim et Pyriphlegethon 
apud mortuos amnis est. Et si paradisum nominemus, locum 
diuinae amoenitatis recipiendis sanctorum spiritibus destinatum, 
maceria quadam igneae illius zonae a notitia orbis communis 
segregatum, Elysii campi fidem occupauerunt. Unde haec, oro 25 
uos, philosophis aut poetis tam consimilia ? Nonnisi de nostris 
sacramentis. Si de nostris sacramentis, ut de prioribus, ergo 
fideliora sunt nostra magisque credenda, quorum imagines 
quoque fidem inueniunt. Si de suis sensibus, iam ergo sacra- 
menta nostra imagines posteriorum habebuntur, quod rerum 30 
forma non sustinet. Nunquam enim corpus umbra aut 
ueritatem imago praecedit. 

48. Age iam, si qui philosophus adfirmet, ut ait Laberius 
de sententia Pythagorae, hominem fieri ex mulo, colubram ex 

APOLOGETICVS 47, 48 135 

has perverted the Old Testament. Certain men from their 
stock have by their opinions falsified even this more modern 
Testament of ours after the views of philosophers, and from 
the one way have caused many obhque and intricate paths to 
diverge. I should hke to make this remark, lest any one should 
think that the notorious variety in our sect should seeni to 
put us on an equahty with the philosophers in this respect 
also, and condemn truth out of the variety of defences^. We, 
however, at once lay down to the corrupters of our faith 
that the rule of the truth is that which comes from Christ, 
passed on through his followers, somewhat later than whoni 
these different commentators will be proved to have existed. 
Everything against the truth is built up from the tiuth itself^ 
this rivalry being due to the spirits of error. By them the 
corruptions of this sort of wholesome teaching are instigated, 
by these even certain fables have been let loose, such as by 
their hkeness should weaken behef in the truth or win it rather 
for themselves, leading a man to suppose that he must not 
beheve the Christians for the reason that he must not beheve 
either poets or philosophers, or should think that he must put 
more behef in poets and philosophers because he can put none 
in Christians. Thus we are laughed at when we preach that 
God wiJl judge. For so do both poets and philosophers place 
a tribunal in the world below. And if we were to threaten 
a hell, which is a storehouse of secret fire for subterranean 
punishment, we are similarly laughed to scorn. For so also 
is Pyriphlegethon a river among the dead. And if we were 
to name paradise, a place of celestial dehght appointed to 
receive the spirits of the saints, separated from the knowledge 
of the common world by a sort of wall consisting of that fiery 
zone, if so, the Elysian fields have already anticipated the behef . 
Whence comes it, I pray you, that these things are so hke the 
. poets or philosophers ? Only from our mysteries ; if from our 
mysteries, then, as being taken from the earher, ours are more 
reliable and more to. be beheved, whose copies even find credence ; 
if from their own inventions, our mysteries will then be regarded 
as copies of the later, which is not borne out by the plan of 
things; for never does the shadow precede (in time) the body 
or the copy the reahty. 

Chap. XLVIII. Come now, if any philosopher were to 
assert,asLaberius doeswith regard to the doctrine of Pythagoras, 

^ But with defectionem uindicet uerilatis ' should claim that the truth has 
failed. ' 


muliere, et in eani opinionem omnia argumenta eloquii uirtute 
distorserit, nonne consensum mouebit et fidem infiget etiam ab 
animalibus abstinendi propterea? Persuasum quis habeat, 
ne forte bubulam de aliquo proauo suo obsonet? At enim 
Christianus si de homine hominem ipsumque de Gaio Gaium 5 
reducem repromittat, lapidibus magis, nec saltim coetibus a 
populo exigetur. Si quaecunque ratio praeest animarum 
humanarum reciprocandarum in corpora, cur non in eandem 
substantiam redeant, cum hoc sit restitui, id esse quod fuerat? 
lam non ipsae sunt quae fuerant, quia non potuerunt esse quod 10 
non erant, nisi desinant esse quod fuerant. Multis etiam locis ex 
otio opus erit, si uelimus ad hanc parteni lasciuire, quis in quam 
bestiam reformari uideretur. Sed de nostra magis defensione, 
qui proponimus multo utique dignius credi hominem ex honiine 
rediturum, quemKbet pro quolibet, dum hominem, ut eadem 15 
qualitas animae in eandem restauraretur conditionem, etsi non 
effigiem. Certe quia ratio restitutionis destinatio iudicii est, 
necessario idem ipse qui fuerat exhibebitur, ut boni seu contrarii 
meriti iudicium a deo referat. Ideoque repraesentabuntur et 
corpora, quia neque pati quicquam potest anima sola sine materia 20 
stabiH, id est carne, et quod omnino de iudicio dei pati debent 
animae, non sine carne meruerunt intra quam omnia egerunt. 
Sed quomodo, inquis, dissoluta materia exhiberi potest? Con- 
sidera temetipsum, o homo, et fidem rei inuenies. Becogita 
quid fueris antequam esses. Utique nihil. Meminisses enim, 25 
si quid fuisses. Qui ergo nihil fueras priusquam esses, idem 
nihil factus cum esse desieris, cur non possis rursus esse de 
nihilo eiusdem ipsius auctoris uoluntate qui te uoluit esse de 
nihilo ? Quid noui tibi eueniet ? Qui non eras, f actus es ; cum 
terum non eris, fies. Redde si potes rationem qua factus es, 30 


that a man is made out of what was once a mule, and the snake 
out of what was once a woman, and should by force of eloquence 
have twisted all arguments to support that opinion, will he not 
gain assent and estabUsh behef in abstaining even from animal 
food for that reason? Would any one be fully persuaded to 
abstain, lest perchance in buying beef he should be purchasing 
a bit of some ancestor of his ? But indeed, if a Christian were 
to promise that man would be made again from man and that 
very Gaius would be reproduced from Gaius, the people will 
rather insist on stoning him, and will not even come to hear 
him. If there.rules any method for the reincarnation of soiils, 
why should they not return into the same nature, since resto- 
ration means this, to be that which it had been? Now they 
are not the very souls that they had been, because they have 
not been able to be that which they were not, unless they were 
to cease to be that which they had been. There will be need also 
for many topics treated in a leisurely way, if we would be playful 
in this direction, for instance, what kind of beast any particular 
person might appear Kkely to be changed into. But we are more 
concerned with our defence ; we lay it down that it is of course 
a much more worthy belief that man should be refashioned 
from man, given person for any given person, as long as it be 
a human being, so that the same kind of soul may be reinstated 
into the same rank, even if it be not into the same outward 
form. Assuredly, because the reason of restoration is what is 
appointed by judgment, of necessity the very same man, who 
had existed before, will be brought before the judgment seat, 
that he may receive from God the verdict on his good or evil 
deserts. Hence the bodies also will be again presented, both 
because the soul alone apart from material substance, that is 
the flesh, cannot suifer anything, and because whatsoever souls 
are doomed to sufier from the judgment of God, they have not 
deserved it apart from that flesh, within which they did every- 
thing. 'But how,' you say, 'can matter that has suffered 
dissolution be made to appear ? ' Consider thyself , man, 
and thou wilt find it not incredible. Reflect what thou wert, 
before thou hadst a being: assuredly naught; for if thou 
hadst been aught thou wouldst remember it. Thou therefore 
who wast nothing before thou wert, and who also becamest 
nothing, when thou didst cease to be, why couldst thou not 
be brought again to life from nothingness by the will of the 
very same Author, who willed that thou shouldest be from 
naught? What novelty will happen to thee? Thou who wert 
not, camest into being : when a second time thou shalt not be, 


et tunc require qua fies. Et tamen facilius utique fies quod 
fuisti aliquando, quia aeque non difficile factus es quod nun- 
quam fuisti aliquando. Dubitabitur, credo, de dei uiribus, qui 
tantum corpus hoc mundi de eo quod non fuerat non minus 
quam de morte uacationis et inanitatis inposuit, animatum 5 
spiritu omnium animarum animatore, signatum et ipsum 
humanae resurrectionis exemplum in testimonium uobis. Lux 
cotidie interfecta resplendet et tenebrae pari uice decedendo 
succedunt, sidera defuncta uiuescunt, tempora ubi finiuntur 
incipiunt, fructus consummantur et redeunt, certe semina non 10 
nisi corrupta et dissoluta fecundius surgunt, omnia pereundo 
seruantur, omnia de interitu reformantur. Tu homo, tantum 
nomen, si intellegas te uel de titulo Pythiae discens, dominus 
omnium morientium et resurgentium, ad hoc morieris, ut 
pereas? Ubicumque resolutus fueris, quaecunque te materia 15 
destruxerit, hauserit, aboleuerit, in nihilum prodegerit, reddet 
te. Eius est nihilum ipsum cuius et totum. Ergo, inquitis, 
semper moriendum erit et semper resurgendum ? Si ita rerum 
dominus destinasset, ingratis experireris conditionis tuae legem. 
At nunc non aliter destinauit quam praedicauit. Quae ratio 20 
uniuersitatem ex diiiersitate conposuit, ut omnia aemulis sub- 
stantiis sub unitate co.nstarent ex uacuo et solido, ex animali 
et inanimali, ex conprehensibili et inconprehensibili, ex luce 
et tenebris, ex ipsa uita et morte : eadem aeuum quoque ita 
destinata et distincta condicione conseruit, ut prima haec pars, 25 
ab exordio rerum quam incolimus, temporali aetate ad finem 
defluat, sequens uero, quam expectamus, in infinitam aeterni- 
tatem propagetur. Cum ergo finis et limes, medius qui interhiat, 
adfuerit, ut etiam ipsius mundi species transferatur aeque 
temporalis, quae illi dispositioni aeternitatis aulaei uice oppansa 30 
est, tunc restituetur omne humanum genus ad expungendum 
quod in isto aeuo boni seu mali meruit, et exinde pendendum 


thou shalt come into being. Give, if thou canst, a reason 
why thou wast created, and then ask how thou wilt come to 
be. And yet thou wilt of course more easily become what 
thou at one time wast, because with equal ease thou becamest 
what thou wast never at any time. There will be doubt felt, 
I beheve, about the strength of God, who planted (in the void) 
this so great body of the universe froni that which had never 
been, as well as from the death of emptiness and void, animated 
by the spirit which gives hfe to all souls, itself also stamped by 
the example of human resurrection for evidence to you. Light, 
though daily destroyed, shines again, and the shades of night 
in hke manner departing come up in its place, stars die and 
come to Hfe again, the seasons when they are ending are begin- 
ning, fruits are brought to perfection and again return; as- 
suredly seeds, unless they decay and fall to pieces, do not spring 
up in rich fruitfulness, all things are preserved by perishing, all 
things are formed again from death. Thou, man, a name of 
such might, if thou wouldst understand thyself, learning even 
from the inscription of the Pythian priestess, thou who art lord 
of all that die and rise again, wilt thou die to this end, so as to 
perish f or ever ? Into whatever substance thou shalt have been 
resolved, whatsoever material has destroyed thee, swallowed 
thee up, effaced thee, wasted thee to nothing, it will give thee 
back (to hfe). Xothingness itself belongs to him to whom the 
whole also belongs. 'Therefore,' you say, 'one must always 
be dying and always rising again.' If the Lord of the world 
had so appointed, it would have been against your will that 
you would experience that law of your creation. But as 
matters are, he has appointed it exactly as he declared. That 
same Reason which constructed the universe out of diversity, 
so that all things should consist of rival substances under the 
bond of unity, as of empty and soHd, of animate and inanimate, 
of things tangible and intangible, of hght and darkness, of hfe 
itself and death, the same Reason has also so disposed the 
whole course of existence as to make time consist of two parts 
so determined and distinct, that this first part in which we dwell 
should fiow down in an age of time from the beginning of things 
to the end, but that the second part which we await should be 
extended to an endless eternity. When therefore the end and 
mid boundary, which yawns between, has come, so that even 
the fashion of the universe itself has passed away, which is 
equally a matter of time, spread like a curtain in front of that 
system of eternity, then will the whole human race be restored 
to settle what of good or evil it has earned in this hfe, and there- 


in immensam aeternitatis perpetuitatem. Ideoque nec mors 
iam, nec rursus ac rursus resurrectio, sed erimus idem qui 
nunc, nec alii post, dei quidem cultores apud deum semper, 
superinduti substantia propria aeternitatis : profani uero, et 
qui non integre ad deum, in poena aeque iugis ignis, habentes 5 
ex ipsa natura eius diuinam scilicet subministrationem in- 
corruptibilitatis. Nouerunt et pbilosopM diuersitatem arcani 
et publici ignis. Ita longe alius est qui usui humano, alius 
qui iudicio dei apparet, siue de caelo fulmina stringens, siue 
de terra per uertices montium eructans ; non enim absumit 10 
quod exurit, sed dum erogat, reparat. Adeo manent montes 
semper ardentes, et qui de caelo tangitur, saluus est, ut nullo 
iam igni decinerescat. Et hoc erit testimonium ignis aeterni, 
hoc exemplum iugis iudicii poenam nutrientis. Montes uruntur 
et durant. Quid nocentes et dei hostes? 15 

49. Hae sunt quae in nobis solis praesumptiones uocantur, 
in philosophis et poetis sumniae scientiae et insignia ingenia. 
Illi prudentes, nos inepti; illi honorandi, nos inridendi, immo 
eo amplius et puniendi. Falsa nunc sint quae tuentur et 
merito praesumptio, attamen necessaria ; inepta, attamen 20 
utilia; siquidem mehores fieri coguntur qui eis credunt, metu 
aeterni supplicii et spe aeterni refrigerii. Itaque non expedit 
falsa dici nec inepta haberi quae expedit uera praesumi. Nullo 
titulo damnari licet omnino quae prosunt. In uobis itaque 
praesumptio est haec ipsa quae damnat utiha. Proinde nec 25 
inepta esse possunt ; certe etsi falsa et inepta, nulH tamen noxia. 
Nam et multis aliis simiha quibus nullas poenas inrogatis, uanis 
et fabulosis, inaccusatis et inpunitis, ut innoxiis. Sed in 
eiusmodi enim, si utique, inrisui iudicandum est, non gladiis 
et ignibus et crucibus et bestiis, de qua iniqaitate saeuitiae non 30 
modo caecum hoc uulgus exsultat et insultat, sed et quidam 

APOLOGETICVS 48, 49 141 

after to pay it down through an endless eternity. And there- 
fore it is neither death at once, nor a recurring resurrection, but 
we shall be the same as now, nor djfferent afterwards; wor- 
shippers of God indeed and ever with God, clothed upon with 
the special uature of eternity; but the profane and those who 
are not perfect before God, in the punishment of an equally 
lasting fire, having from its very nature a supply, divine of 
course, of imperishable quaHty. The philosophers also know 
the difTerence between a secret and a common fire. Thus that 
which is for human use is far diiferent from that which ministers 
to the judgment of God, whether it draws down thunderbolts 
from heaven, or belches fire from the earth through the 
mountain craters; for it consumes not what it burns, but 
renews even while it destroys. Thus the mountains endure 
though always burning, and he who is stricken with fire from 
heaven is safe from being reduced to ashes by any other fire. 
And this will be a witness of eternal fire, this an example of 
everlasting judgment, continually feeding its own punishment : 
the mountains are burned and yet endure. What shall we say 
of the guilty and of the enemies of God ? 

Chap. XLIX. These are the things which in us alone are 
called vain assumptions, but in the philosophers and poets are 
instances of tlie highest knowledge and of extraordinary abihty. 
They are wise, we are fooHsh; they are worthy of honour, we 
of ridicule, nay more than that, of punishment too. Let the 
opinions we hold be false and deserving of the name of prejudice, 
but yet they are necessary; let them be foohsh, but yet they 
are advantageous, since those who beheve them are constrained 
to become better men, from fear of everlasting punishment and 
hope of everlasting refreshment. Therefore it is inexpedient 
that those things should be called false, or regarded as foohsh, 
which it is expedient should be presumed to be true ; on no 
ground whatever ought that to be condemned which is bene- 
ficiah It is in you therefore that we find this very prejudice 
which condemns the useful. Hence our behef cannot be foohsh, 
and, assuredly, even if it were false and foohsh, it is nevertheless 
injurious to no one; for it is hke many other things on which 
you inflict no penalties, unreal and fictitious things, which are not 
prosecuted nor punished, as being harmless ; but indeed against 
such errors judgment ought to be pronounced,if at all,byridicule, 
not by swords and fires and crosses and wild-beasts ; in which 
unjust cruelty not only this blind rabble exults and insults, but 
certain of your own selves also, who aim at popularity with the 


uestrum, quibus fauor uulgi de iniquitate captatur, gloriantur. 
Quasi non totum quod in nos potestis nostrum sit arbitrium. 
Certe, si uelim, Christianus sum. Tunc ergo me damnabis, si 
damnari uelim; cum uero quod in me potes, nisi uelim, non 
potes, iam meae uoluntatis est quod potes, non tuae potestatis. 5 
Proinde et uulgus uane de nostra uexatione gaudet. Proinde 
enim nostrum est gaudium, quod sibi uindicat, qui malumus 
damnari quam a deo excidere : contra illi, qui nos oderunt, 
dolere, non gaudere debebant, consecutis nobis quod elegimus. 

50. Ergo, inquitis, cur querimini quod uos insequamur, si 10 
pati uultis, cum diligere debeatis per quos patimini quod uultis ? 
Plane uolumus pati, uerum eo moTe, quo et bellum miles. Nemo 
quidem libens patitur, cum et trepidare et periclitari sit necesse. 
Tamen et proeliatur omnibus uiribus, et uincens in proelio gaudet 
qui de proelio querebatur, quia et gloriam consequitur et prae- 15 
dam. Proelium est nobis quod prouocamur ad tribunalia, ut illic 
sub discrimine capitis pro ueritate certemus. Victoria est autem 
pro quo certaueris obtinere. Ea uictoria habet et gloriam 
placendi deo et praedam uiuendi in aeternum. Sed obducimur. 
Certe cum obtinuimus. Ergo uicimus, cum occidimur, denique 20 
euadimus, cum obducimur. Licet nunc sarmenticios et semaxios 
appelletis, quia ad stipitem dimidii axis reuincti sarmentorum 
ambitu exurimur. Hic est habitus uictoriae nostrae, haec 
pahnata uestis, tah curru triumphamus. Merito itaque uictis 
non placemus ; propterea enim desperati et perditi existimamur. 25 
Sed haec desperatio et perditio penes uos in causa gloriae et 
famae uexillum uirtutis extollunt. Mucius dexteram suam 
libens in ara reHquit : o sublimitas animi ! Empedocles totum 
sese Catanensium Aetnaeis incendiis donauit : o uigor mentis ! 
Aliqua Carthaginis conditrix rogo se secundum matrimonium 30 
dedit : o praeconium castitatis ! Regulus, ne unus pro multis 
hostibus uiueret, toto corpore cruces patitur: o uirum fortem 

APOLOGETICVS 49, 50 143 

mob through injustice, make a boast of it. As if all the power 
you have over us were not of our own free choice ! Surely it 
is only if I will it to be so, that I am a Christian ; you will 
therefore condemn me, only if I will to be condemned; since 
the power you have over me, you do not possess unless I will 
it, your power therefore belongs to my will, not to your own 
authority. So also the mob vainly rejoices at the way in which 
we are tormented; for in the same way the joy is ours, which 
they claim for themselves, as we prefer to be condemned rather 
than to fall away from God : while, on the contrary, those that 
hate us ought to mourn, not to rejoice, because we have attained 
that which we have chosen. 

Chap. L. 'So,' you say, 'why do you complain that we 
persecute you, if you wish to sufEer, since you ought to love 
those by whose means you sufEer what you wish ? ' Certainly 
we wish to suffer, but in the way in which a soldier also suffers 
war. Nobody indeed wilUngly sufEers, since both panic and 
danger are inevitably to be faced; and yet the man who com- 
plained about battle fights wdth all his strength and rejoices 
when he conquers in battle, because he attains both glory and 
booty. Our battle is that we are summoned before tribunals, 
to fight there for the truth at the risk of our Uves. But to 
obtain that for which one has struggled is a victory, a victory 
that carries with it both the glory, of pleasing God, and the 
.spoil, which is eternal Hfe. But, you will say, w^e are convicted ; 
yes, but it is after we have won the day; therefore we have 
conquered, when we are killed. Thus we escape, when we are 
convicted. You may call us now 'faggoted' and ' axle-men,' 
because bound to a stake the length of half an axle we are 
burned by the faggots surrounding us. This is the garb of our 
victory, this our garment decked w^ith palm-leaves, such is the 
chariot in which we triumph. Naturally therefore we do not 
please those whom we conquered; for that is the reason why 
we are regarded as desperate and reckless men. But this despe- 
ration and recklessness in your midst exalts the standard of 
virtue in the cause of glory and renown. Mucius gladly left his 
right hand on the altar ; ' Oh lof tiness of spirit ! ' Empedocles 
fresly gave his whole body to Etna's fires at the instance of the 
people of Catana : ' Oh what strength of mind ! ' We read of 
some foundress or other of Carthage who sacrificed her second 
marriage to the funeral-pyre : ' Oh noble encomium of chastity ! ' 
Regulus, lest his own single life should be spared in exchange 
f or so many enemies, suffers tortures all over his body : ' What 


et in captiuitate uictorem ! Anaxarchus, cum in exitum 
tisanae pilo contunderetur : Tunde, tunde, aiebat, Anaxarchi 
follem, Anaxarchum enim non tundis: o philosophi magna- 
nimitatem, C|ui de tali exitu suo etiam iocabatur ! Omitto eos 
qui cum gladio proprio uel alio genere mortis mitiore de laude 5 
pepigerunt. Ecce enim et tormentorum certamina coronantur 
a uobis. Attica meretrix carnifice iani fatigato postremo 
linguam suam comesam in faciem tyranni saeuientis exspuit, 
ut exspueret et uocem, ne coniuratos confiteri posset, si etiam 
uicta uoluisset. Zeno Eleates consultus a Dionysio, quidnam 10 
philosophia praestaret, cum respondisset contemptum mortis, in- 
passibilis flagellis tyranni obiectus sententiam suam ad mortem 
usque signabat. Certe Laconum flagella sub oculis etiam 
hortantium propinquorum acerbata tantum honorem tolerantiae 
domui conferunt quantum sanguinis fuderint. gloriam 15 
licitam, quia humanam, cui nec praesumptio perdita nec 
persuasio desperata reputatur in contemptu mortis et atroci- 
tatis omnimodae, cui tantum pro patria, pro imperio, pro 
amicitia pati permissum est quantum pro deo non licet! Et 
tamen illis omnibus et statuas defunditis, et imagines inscribitis, 20 
et titulos inciditis in aeternitatem. Quantum de monumentis 
potestis scilicet, praestatis et ipsi quodammodo mortuis resur- 
rectionem. Hanc qui ueram a deo sperat, si pro deo patiatur, 
insanus est. Sed hoc agite, boni praesides, meliores multo apud 
populum si illis Christianos immolaueritis, cruciate, torquete, 25 
damnate, atterite nos : probatio est enim innocentiae nostrae 
iniquitas uestra. Ideo nos haec pati deus patitur. Nam et 
proxime ad lenonem damnando Christianam potius quam ad 
leonem confessi estis labem pudicitiae apud nos atrociorem 
omni poena et omni morte reputari. Nec quicquam tamen 30 
proficit exquisitior quaeque crudelitas uestra; inlecebra est 
magis sectae. Plures efficimur quotiens metimur a uobis; 
semen est sanguis Christianorum. Multi apud uos ad toleran- 


a brave man, what a conqueror even in captivity ! ' Anax- 
archus, when he was being pommelled to death with a barley 
pestle, kept saying : ' Pound, pound away : for it is the bodily 
coating of Anaxarchus, not Anaxarchus himself, that you are 
pounding!' 'Oh the great-souled philosopher, who could 
actually joke about such a death as his!' I leave out 
those who bargained for fame with their own swords or some 
other railder form of death. For, lo, even rivalries of tortures 
are crowned by you. An Athenian harlot who had already 
wearied out the executioner, at last bit through her tongue and 
spat it out into the face of the cruel tyrant, that she might 
spit out her own voice also, to prevent her from being able to 
confess the names of the conspirators, even in case she might 
give in and desire to do so. Zeno of Elea, being consulted by 
Dionysius as to what was the benefit of philosophy, when he 
had rephed: 'Contempt of death,' without showing feehng be 
was thereupon exposed to the scourges of the tyrant and con- 
tinued to seal his opinion even up to the point of death. 
Assuredly the scourges of the Spartans, embittered, as they 
were, under the eyes even of cheering relatives, confer upon 
the family a reputation for endurance, in proportion to the 
blood they have shed. Here is a glory hcensed because human, 
to which neither reckless prejudice nor desperate persuasion 
is ascribed in despising death and every sort of cruelty, to 
which it is allowed to endure more for one's city, for the 
empire, and for friendship, than it is allowed to endure for 
God! And yet for all these you cast statues and write inscrip- 
tions and engrave titles to last for ever; certainly you your- 
selves also, in so far as you can, in a certain sense confer resurrec- 
tion on the dead by means of your monuments ; while he who 
hopes for a real resurrection from God, if he suflter for God, is 
thought insane. But go on thus, ye excellent governors, and 
you will be all the more popular with the mob if you sacrifice 
Christians to their wishes : crucify, torture, condemn, annihilate 
us: your injustice is a proof of our innocence. It is for that 
reason that God allows us to suffer these things. For quite 
recently by condemning a Christian woman to the lust of man 
rather than to a hou, you confessed that the stain upon chastity 
is reckoned more heinous among us than any punishment and 
any death. Nor yet doth your cruelty, though each act be 
more exquisite than the last, profit you ; it is rather an attrac- 
tion to our sect. We spring up in greater numbers the more we • 
are mown down by you : the blood of the Christians is the seed 
of a nevv Hfe. Many among yourselves exhort men to the 

M. T. 10 


tiam doloris et mortis hortautur, ut Cicero in Tusculanis, ut 
Seneca in Fortuitis, ut Diogenes, ut Pyrrhon, ut Callinicus. 
Nec tamen tantos inueniunt uerba discipulos quantos Chris- 
tiani factis docendo. Illa ipsa obstinatio, quam exprobratis, 
magistra est. Quis enim non contemplatione eius concutitur 5 
ad requirendum quid intus in re sit? quis non, ubi requisiuit, 
accedit? ubi accessit, pati exoptat, ut totam dei gratiam 
redimat, ut omnem ueniam ab eo compensatione sanguinis 
sui expediat? Omnia enim huic operi delicta donantur. Inde 
est, quod ibidem sententiis uestris gratias agimus. Ut est 10 
aemulatio diuinae rei et humanae, cum damnamur a uobis, 
a deo absoluimur. 


endurance of pain and death, as Cicero in the Tusculans, Seneca 
in his book on Chances, Diogenes, Pyrrho and Calhnicus. But 
yet words do not find so many disciples as the Christians do by 
their teaching by deeds. That very obstinacy, with which you 
upbraid us, is a lesson. For who is there that is not stirred up 
by the consideration of it to ask what there is within it? Who 
does not join us when he has asked? who when he has joined 
us, does not eagerly desire to suffer, that he may buy back the 
whole favour of God, that he may procure all indulgence from 
him by the payment of his own blood ? For all sins are forgiven 
to this action. Hence it is that in the same place we give 
thanks to your judgments. As there is an enmity between what 
is of God and what is of man, when we are condemned by you, 
we are acquitted by God. 


In the following places Prof. Mayor appears to have preferred to read 
differently from Oehler : — 

p. 2 1. 7 obstruit] add. uiam 
p. 8 1. 5 et pr.] ut 
p. 12 1. 7 esse in causa(?) 
1. 19 om. nomine 
1. 20 ualde] nomen ualde 
om. , after nominis 
p. 16 1. 11 concurram] consistam 
p. 24 1. 15 inuerecundiam as one 

p. 28 1. 32 iurulentiam (?) 
p. 36 1. 7 imi^enditis 

1. 8 qua(?) 
p. 44 1. 15 insulas (?) 

1. 22 repreh.] either non re- 
preh. or depreh. (1) 
p. 46 1. 4 perstrinxinms 
p. 48 1. 3 Nolo 
p. 50 1. 14 pastorem (?) 
p. 56 1. 4 rei)urgabimus (?) 
p. 58 1. 13 prodacto 
p. 60 1. 2 Aristeas (?) 

1.3 ex aperto 

p. 68 1. 26 autem] etiam 

p. 70 1. 2 alterum 

1. 3 numero 

p. 74 1. 24 reformetur(?) 

1. 25 falsa (?) 

post renunt. hab. quae- 
uis aha contraria 
comperta (?) 
p. 76 1. 23 e]a(?) 

p. 86 1. 3 Astarte 

p. 86 
p. 92 

p. 94 

1. 12 
1. 6 
1. 23 

1. 28 
1. 14 

p. 106 1. 7 

p. 108 1. 3 
p. 114 1. 37 
\x 116 1. 15 

1. 23 

1. 30 
p. 118 1. 1 
p. 120 1. 24 
p. 122 1. 16 
p. 124 1. 14 

p. 126 1. 14 

1. 26 
p. 128 1. 9 


132 1. 
134 1. 18 
136 1. 16 
138 1. 19 
p. 140 1. 19 

1. 20 



quia (?) 


metui (?) 

conditioni (?) 


tuo add. after mor- 

non esse et hostes 
esse] esse et hostes 
non esse 
denotastis (?) 
penes nos dispungi (?) 
nec his\ neque his 
hod.] in hod. 
perstringunt (?) 

expendimur (??) 
oblatrant (?) 
om. scripturis 
ridemur] et ridemur 
condicionem ( ?) 
condicionis (?) 



The foUowing are the inore difficult abbreviations employed : — 

aex. = ante exitum 
a. f. = ante finem 
a. m. = ante medium 
DH. = Dionysius of Halicarnassus 
DL. = Diogenes Laertius 
DS. = Diodorus Siculus 
f., fin.=in tine 
h. c.=in hoc capitulo 
h. 1. = in hoc loco 
Lasaulx = E. v. Lasaulx, Studien des classischeu Alterthums 
(Regenshurg, 1854) 
m. = in medio 
omn. = omnia (the whole context) 
p. m. = post medium 
ppr. =post prohoemium 
pr. = in prohoemio 
Tzschirner = Tzschirner, Geschichte der Apologetik (Leipzig, 1805) 

< > sometimes enclose an explanatory word 
1 Consult also the Introduction. 

Cap. I 

p. 2 1. 1 ROMANI IMPERII ANTISTITES called praesides c. 9. 
30 f. 50. 

p. 2 1. 7 SECTAE HVIVS c. 21 pr. n. 

Diognet. 5 § 5 TrarpiSa^i oLKOvaiv ISia'?, aXk" co? TrdpoLKOi' 5 
fjLere-^^ovcrL Trdvrcov 0)9 TroXlraL kol 7rdv6 vTro/xevovaLV o)? ^evoi' 
rrdaa ^evrj 7rarpL<i eariv avroiv Kal irdcra Trarpl^i ^evrj. ... § 9 
errl yf]<; SLarpi/Sovaiv, aXA.' ev ovpavco rroXLrevovraL. Cf. Llght- 
foot on Clem. Rom. ep. pr. 

p. 2 1. 10 AGERE c. 10 m. p. 36 1. 30 certe enim oblitos 10 

p. 2 1. 16 INAVDITAM SI DAMNENT ad nat. I 20 p. 93 
2 Wiss. emendate nosmetipsos prius, iit Christianos puniatis, nisi 
quod emendaueritis, non punietis, immo eritis Christiani; immo 
si fueritis Christiani, eritis emendati. discite quid in nobis 15 
accusetis, et non accusabitis... 1. 8 damnate ueritatem, sed 
inspectam si potestis, et probate errorem, sed repertum si putatis. 
quodsi praescribitur uobis errorem amare et odisse ueritatem, cur 
quod amutis et odistis non noueritis? Minuc. 27 § 8 sic <dae- 
mones> occupant animos et obstruunt pectora, ut antenos incipiant 20 
homines odisse quam nosse, ne cognitos aut imitari possint aut 
damnare non possint. Lact. v 1 § 5 quia student damnare tam- 
quam nocentes quos utique sciunt innocentes, consture de ipsa 
innocentia nolunt : quasi uero maior iniquitas sit probatam inno- 
centiam damnasse quam inauditam. § 6 sed, ut dixi, 25 
uerentur, ne, si audierint, damnare non possint. Acts 25 16. 


22. 24 9. Mark 13 13. Luke 6 22. 21 12, 17. lo. 15 21. 

Acts 5 41. 9 14—16, 21. 1 Pet 4 14—16. Cf Lightfoot on 30 
Ign. Eph. 3 pr. (' the Xame,' absohite). Renan L'Eglise 

152 TERTVLLIANI [p. 2 1. 18— 

Chretienne 369 n. 2 and 3. Kortholt Paganus obtrectator pp, 
711 — 720 'de inuiso ipsomet Christianorum nomine.' lustin. 
apol. 2 2 p. 42" seq. "Ptolemaeusaccused and condemned solely 
as a Christian. Lucius, another Christian, asked : ti? ?; alria ; 
5 rou fxrjTe jjioi-^^ov ^rjTe Tropvov fxrJTe ai'8po(f)6vov /x^/re XcoTroSvrrjv 
/u,r}Te apTraya /xr^Te ttTrXw? ahiKrnjid Ti ■wpd^avTa iXey^^^ofxevov, 
ov6/u,aTO'i Se ^picrTiavov Trpocrfovv/jiiav o/MoXoyovvra tov dvdpco- 
TTov TovTov eKoXdao} ; Your judgement, Urbicus, ill befits the 
emj)eror Pius, or the emperor's son the Philosopher, or the sacred 

lo senate." Urbicus replied : " You too seem to me to be one of 
them." " Certainly." He was sentenced and returned thanks. 
Tert. scorp. 10 p. 523 1. 15 Oehler ipsmn nominis odium. 
ibid. p. 524 1. 10 et odium nominis hio erit, et persecutio hic 
erumpit. 11 p. 526 1. 4 from foot odio hahemur ab omnibus 

15 hominibus nominis causa, quomodo scriptum est. 

5 fin. rrjv aiTiav t?/9 e)(^dpa<i elirelv ol /JiiaovvTe<i ovk e^^^ovaiv. 
IX 2 1. 24 VACANTE...MERITI NOTiTiA c. 11 p. 40 1. 29 

20 uacat ex hac parte causa. c. 18 p. 58 1. 30 sed ne notitia 

TATEM DVM EXCVSAT, CONDEMNAT cet. ad nat. I 1 pr. p. 59 
Wiss. testimonium ignorantiae uestrae quae iniquita- 

25 tem dum defendit, reuincit, in promptu est, quod omnes 
qui uobiscum retro ignorabant et uobiscum oderant, 
simul eis contigit scire, desinunt odisse quia desinunt 
ignorare, immo fiunt et ipsi quod oderant et incipiunt 
odisse quod fuerant. 


p. 108. ad nat. i 1 p. 98 1. 8 seq. Blunt Right Use 275, 
277, 279. Kaye 85 seq. Vales. on Eus. h. e. iv 17. Lucian. 
Antioch. in Rufin. interpr. Eus. h. e. ix 6 (=Routh Reliq. sacr. 
iv^ p. 6 1. 26) pars paene mundi iam maior huic ueritati adstipu- 
.35 latur ; urbes integrae, aut si in his aliquid susijectum uidetur, 
contestatur de his etiam. agrestis manus, ignara figmenti. Eus. 
p. e. I 1 § 6 p. 3^^ universality of the call, 3 § 10 p. 8^ § 15 p. 9i^ 
universality of the preaching, through all lands. 

p. 4 1. 33] APOLOGETICVS 1 153 

p. 4 1. 13 DIGNITATEM not only the lowborn and ignorant 
became Christians Bhmt Right Use ser. 2 lect. 2 pp. 294 — 317. 
Renan, TAntechrist 3 (Pomponia Graecina). Orig. c. Cels. iii 9 
p. 117 pr. vvv fiev ovv rd^a, ore Sta to irXrjdo^i twv irpoaep- 
XOfjLevcov Tw \6y(p koX TfKovcnoL Kai Ttve^ tmv ev d^t,a>p,acn Kat 5 
yvvaia xa d^pd Kal evyevr} diroSexovTai tou? dwo tov \oyov, 
To\/u.7)aei T<9 Xeyeiv 3(a to So^dpiov TrpotcrTaadal Tiva<i t»}? KaTa 
^piaTiavov<i SiSao-zcaXta?. III 12 p. m. ovto) toIvvv, eVei aefivov 
Ti €(f)nvr} Tol^ dv6p(i)7T0i<i \pLaTcavLa/jL6<i, ov /jlovov, cb? KeXcro? 
oieTac, TOL^i dvhpairohoiheaTepoL^, aWa KaL TroWot? TOiV irap 10 
"EW7]aL <pi\o\6ya)v, dvayKaLO)^ vTreaTi/aav, ov TrdvTO)'? 8ia 
aT('iaeL<; Kal to (f)LX6veLKov, aipeaei<i, dWd Sid to aTrovoa^eiv 
avvievaL Td ^piaTiavia/xov Kal tcov (piXoXoycov irXeLOva^. Ci. C. 
44 — 71. VII 54 f. (of the words of Jesus) Swdfiei XeA.e;^^at 
6eia, p^e^pL Stvpo €7riaTpe(})0VTa<i ov t(i>v aTrXovaTepcov TLva<; 15 
/jl6uov, dWd Kal 7roWov<i toov avveTO)Tepo)v. Rufin. h. e. V 21. 

p. 4 1. 17 AMANT IGNORARE ignorance of. Crescens lustin. 
apol. II 3. Demand for enquiry id. apol. i 3. 


mart. 1 p. 3 nec tantus ego sum, ut uos alloquar. uerumtamen 20 
et gladiatores perfectissimos non tantum magistri et praepositi 
sui, sed etiam idiotae et superuacui quique adhortantur de longin- 
quo, ut saepe de ipso populo dictata suggesta profuerint. 

p. 4 1. 20 MALVNT NESCIRE cet. ad nat. i 1 p. 59 1. 15 Wiss. 
JVIinuc. 27 § 8 (of demons) sic occupant animos et obstruunt 25 
pectora, ut ante nos incipiant homines odisse quani nosse, ne 
cognitos aut imitari possint aut damnare non possint. 


CONVERTIT cet. to the end of c. 1. cf. ad nat. i 1 p. 59 1. 20 — 
(iO 1. 16. 30 

INQVIT 'they say.' c. 31 p. 98 1. 19. luu. iil 153 n. (pp. 
198, 373). XIV 153 n. Arnob. i 3, 34. iii 6. Biinemann on 
Lact. de ira Dei 19 § 7. 

IMPETVS, VEL FATO VEL ASTRis IMPVTANT " either they tell up 35 
against themselves the outbursts of an evil mind, or (if they 
excuse themselves) they make their destiny or their star re- 

154 TERTVLLIANI [p. 6 1. 1— 

p. 6 1. 1 IMPVTANT de paenit. 6 a. m. p. 6o4 1. 6 quis enim 
seruus, postquam libertate mutatus est, furta sua et fugas sihi 
imputat? cf. on the stars as a scapegoat lul. Fiim. 
math. I 1 in Heraldus. 
5 p. 6 1. 2 CHRISTIANVS VERO QVID SIMILE ? C. 2 pr. qiiod- 

cumque dicimur. ibid. p. 6 1. 25 de nohis nihil tale. c. 8 p. 28 
1. 24 homo es et ipse, quod et Christianus...homo est enim et 
Ghristianus et quod et tu. 


lo NON FVISSE Minuc. 28 § 2 maluni autem adeo non esse, ut 
Christianus reus nec eruhesceret nec timeret, et unum solum- 
modo, quod non ante fuerit, paeniteret. 

p. 6 1. 4 SI ACCVSATVR, NON DEFENDIT Lact. V 20 § 10 
ideo cum tam nefanda perpetimur, ne uerbo quidevi reluctamur, 

15 sed Deo remittimus ultionem. 

p. 6 1. 5 DAMNATVS GRATIAS AGIT C. 46 p. m. p. 130 1. 15 
Christianus etiam damnatus gratias agit. 50 f (note) 
p. 146 1. 9 inde est quod ibidem sententiis uestris gratias 
agimus. ut est aemulatio diuinae rei et hunianae, cuni dam- 

20 namur a uobis, a Deo absoluimur. 1 Cor. 4 12. lustin. apol. ii 
2 f p. 43^' Lucius, defending Ptolemaeus, and confessing himself 
a Christian, is ordered for execution : 6 8e Kal ■)(^dpiv elBevat 
a>fx,o\oyet, Trovijpwv SeaTrorcov tmv toiovt(ov diTrjWd-^dai ji- 
vaxTKwv Kal irpo'; tov iraTepa Kal ^aaiXea twv ovpavwv iropev- 

25 eadai, Kal aX\o<; 8e TptVo? eTreXOoiv KoXacrdrjvai TrpoaeTi/jLijOy]. 
Aug. serm. 309 4 (reply of Cyprian to the sentence of death) 
Deo gratias ! Le Blant les actes des martyrs 237 — 8. 

Cap. II 

C£ c. 46 'whyhave we not the same impunityas philosophers?' 
30 QVOD CAVSAM PVRGET lulitta, w^nning her case against one 
who had embezzled the greater part of her estate, was by him 
denounced as a Christian. Refusing to sacrifice, she was con- 
demned to the stake (Basil. hom. de diuersis v in mart. lulittam, 
n 33^—430- 


p. 6 1. 21] APOLOGETICVS 1, 2 155 

MiNis cet. lustin apol. i 4 pr. p. 54'^ — 55'' 6vo/j,aTo<i fiei' ovv 
irpocrwvvfxia ovre dyadov ovre KaKov Kpiverai avev tmv vTroTrnr- 
TOvaSiv T6) ovofiaTi Trpd^ewv eirei, oaov ye eK tov Kary^jopov- 
/xevov 7]fX(bv 6vo/xaro<;, ■^^prjcTToraroi v7rap)(Ofxev. a\X eirei ov 5 
rovro ZiKaiov rjyovfieOa, Bca ro ovofia, edv KaKol €Xey)(^(i)fie0a, 
alrelv d(f)iecr6at, rrdXiv, el fMrjBev Sid re ri]v ■npoaTjyopiav rov 
6v6fiaT0<i Kal hid rrjv TroXireiav evpicrKOfieda dhiKovvTe^, vfierepov 
dycovidaai eart fir) d8tKd)<i KoXd^ovTe<i roi/? fir] eXey^ofievov<i rfj 
StKt] KoXaatv 6(j)Xrjar]re. e^ 6v6paTo<; ydp i) e7ratvo<; i] K6Xaat<i lo 
ovK dv evX6yco<i yevotro, i)v fiy'] rt evdperov i] (f)avXov ot epycov 
dTToSeiKvvaOai hvvrjrat. Kal ydp TOv<i Karrjyopovfievov^ e(f)' 
vfio)v 7rdvra<i irplv eXey)(drjvai ov rtpo^pelre, i(f) r']fLd)V Se rb 
dvopa fo)9 eXey^^ov Xaft/3dvere, KaiTrep, oaov ye e/c rov 6v6fiaro<f, 
roij<; Karr]yopovvra^ ftdXXov KoXd^etv o(j)eiXere. \piartavoi 15 
ydp elvat KarrjyopovfteOa' ro Se ^^prjarov fJttaelaOat ov StKatov. 
Kal rrdXiv edv pev rt^ rd)v Karr]yopovfu,evo)v €^apvo<; yevrjrat rf] 
<f)Q)vri fxi] eivat (f)7]aa<;, d^iere avrov ft)? firjhev eXey^^eiv e^^^ovre^ 
dfxaprdvovra, edv 8e rt? 6fioXoyr]ar] elvat, Sta rr]v opoXoyiav ko- 
Xd^ere' Seov kuI tov tov 6fioXoyovvTo<i ^iov evdvvetv Kal rov rov 20 
apvovfievov, 07r&)9 Bid rcov Trpd^ecov o7roto<i ianv eKaaro<; (f>at- 
vrjrat. Athenag. 2 p. 3''*^ Kal ydp ov Trpo? T17? vfierepa^i htKato- 
avvr]<i rov<i fiev dXXov<;, alrictv Xa/3dvTa<i dhtKrjparoiv, fir] ^rporepov 
rj iXey^^jdrfvat KoXd^eadat, e^' r]fi(Jov 8e fiei^ov ta^vetv ro ovofxa 
rwv eVl rfj SiKj] iXey-^^ft^v, ovk et 'qhiKrjae rt Kptvofxevo<; rwv 25 
hiKal^6vr(in> imt^rjrovvro^v, dXX' et? ro ovofia &)? et? dZiKrffia 
evv^pi^6vT(ov. ovSev Se ovofia e'<^' eavrov Kal Sd avrov oijre 
rrovripov ovre ^^prjarov voiJ.l^erai, Sid Se Td<; v7roK€ifj,eva<i avroi<i 
rj 7rovr]pd<; rj dyaOd<i 7rpd^et<i i) (f>Xavpa i) dyada SoKet. 

27 pr. p. 164*^ 7T(u<i ydp ovic dro7rov rov fiev Xr]arr]v 8td ro 
i7rtKarr]yopovfievov ovofia fjtr] KoXd^etv, ^rpiv dv TaXr]Oe<i i^r 
dKpt/Seia KarafiavOdvetv, i)fxd<i Se 7rpoXi]pfiart Xoioopta<; dve^e- 
rdaro) fjtefjttaTjKevat ; Lact. V 1 | 2 a6 hoc < the pagan reader > 35 
tamen si fieri potest humanitatis iure postulamus, ut non prius 
damnet quam uniuersa cogaouerit. nam si sacrilegis et prodi- 
torihus et ueneficis potestas defendendi sui datur nec praedaninari 

156 TERTVLLIANI [p. 6 1. 21- 

quemquam incognita causa licet, non iniuste lietere uidemur, ut si 
quis erit ille qui inciderit in haec, si leget, perlegat, si audiet, 
sententiain differat iii extremum. 

p. 6 1. 22 PVBLTCI HOSTis cf. below in this chapter p. 8 1, 14 

5 in reos maiestatis et publicos hostes omnis homo miles est. 

c. 35 pr. p. 102 1. 10 propterea igitur publici hostes Christiani, 

qnia imperatorihus neqae uanos neque vientientes neque tenierarios 

honores dicant. 

p. 6 1. 23 ELOGiis 24 m. p. 84 1. 28. de cor. 5 f. Oehler. 
lo Neumann der rom. Staat u. d. allg. Kirche l (Leipz. 1890) 33 n. 1. 

p. 6 1. 27 INFANTICIDIA...INCESTA MinUC. 28 § 2 6^ 710S 

enini idem fecimus et eadem uohiscuni quondam adhuc caeci et 
hehetes sentiehamus, quasi Ghristiani monstra colerent, infantes 
uorarent, conuiuia incesta miscerent; nec intellegehamus 

i^fahulas istas semper uentilari et numquam uel inuestigari uel 
prohari, nec tanto tempore aliquem exsistere qui proderet, non 
tantum facti ueniam, uerum etiam indicii gratiam.consecuturum. 
lustin. apol. i 26 p. 70^^*= (cf Otto n. 14 on c. 10 f p. 58"^), speaking 
of Gnostics (cf Otto n. 30) el 8e Kal ra Bvcr^rjfia eKelva fivdo- 

2o Xoyovfieva epya TrpdrTovcn, Xv^viWi fiev avaTpoTrrjv Kat ra<i 
avehrjv fiL^ei,^ Kal ctvO pwTreicov aapKcov ^opci^, ov ytvco- 
cTKOfiev. cf c. 29 pr. p. 71*^' i] (iveSrjv fil^i'?. Tat. 25 fin. 
p. 16o'^ irap' 7]fxiv ovK eartv civd pcoirocf^ayia. 32 p. 167 ra 
Be rrj<i daeXyeia^ iroppco Kex<^pto-'^a,i. Athenag. 3 pr. p. 4*" 

25 rpia eTTtcprjfii^ovatv i]fiiv eyK\r]ixara, dOeorrjra, ^vecrreta 
SeiTTva, OtStTToSetouv fii^et<i (cf Otto n. 1). 31 pr. p. 34*^ 
(Otto n. 1). Theophil. ad Autol. speaks of cannibalism iil 3 
p. 118'\ 4 p. 119'' (Otto n. 4). 5 p. 119-^— 120*^. 8 p. 122^ 
15 p. 126^1; of incest 3 p. 118^. 4 p. 119^ 6 p. 120=^-^^ 8 p. 

30 122°. 15 p. 126^; retorting the charges on gods and philo- 
sophers. In the persecution at Lugudunum some heathen 
slaves, from fear of torture (Eus. h. e. V 1 § 14), Kare->^evaavro 
rffLwv ^veareia hetirva Kal O tSt7roSeiov<i fii^et<i. Bybhas, 
who had denied the faith, recovered her constancy on the rack, 

35 asking (ibid. |§ 25 26) ttwi? av iratSia cpdyotev oi rotovrot, ol<i 
fi7]8e dXoycov ^mcov alfia 4>ayelv e^ov ; A.D. 311, under Maximin 
(Eus. h. e. IX 5 § 2), the commandant of the garrison at 
Damascus compelled prostitutes to confess that they had once 

p. 8 1. 9] APOLOGETICVS 2 157 

been Christians, avretSetei^ re avTol<; ddefiiTovpjLa';, iv 
avToc<; T€ T0t9 KvpLaKol<; irpdTTeLV avTov<i tcl dKoXaaTa. Origen 
c. Cels. VI 27 f. 40 pr. traces these calumnies to the Jews ; in 
his day most even of the heathen refused to credit them. cf 
Lightfoot Ignatius l pp. 52 53. On the chastity of Christians 5 
cf Tert. c. 38 f p. 110 1. 18. 39 p. 112 1. 34. 

p. 6 1. 31 PLiNivs cf Eus. h. e. iii 33. My Bibliographical 
Clue to Latin Literature pp. 146 — 7 gives the literature on 
Plin. ep. 96 — 97 up to 1875. Add Renan les evangiles 469 — 
484 and in Journ. des Sav. 1876 p. 725 seq. Keim Rom und la 
das Christenthum Berlin 1881 512 — 8 and ind. s. v. Plinius. 
Boissier Les Chretiens devant la legislation rom. (Rev. d. Deux 
Mondes 13 Apr. 1876), and on the authenticity of Pliii^^'s letter 
and the earliest persecutions id. in Rev. Archeol. 1876 Febr. 
and June. J. Variot, Les Lettres de Pline le jeune, correspond- 15 
ance avec Trajan relativement aux Chretiens de Pont et de 
Bith^oiie (Rev. des Questions Historiques, July 1878, pp. 80— 
153) and id. De Plinio iuniore et imperatore Traiano apud 
Christianos et de Christianis apud Plinium iuniorem et im- 
peratorem Traianum. Par. 1878. 8vo. Arnold Studien zur 20 
Geschichte der Plinianischen Christenverfolgung. 1877. My 
notes in Classical Review IV (1890) 121 — 3. Lightfoot Ignatius 
I pp. 50—56 ; pp. 57 — 62 comment on Tert. h. 1. and Eus. For 
other works of Overbeck, Aube, Allard, see Holzmann and 
Zopfifel, Lex. f Theologie-, Braunschweig, 1888, s.v. Christen- 25 
verfolgungen. See esp. K. J. Neumann der rom. Staat u. die 
allg. Kirche bis auf Diocletian i (Leipzig 1890) 17—33. [W. M. 
Ramsay Church in the Roman Empire (London 1893) chap. x ; 
E. G. Hardy Studies in Roman History (London 1906) chap. 
VI, A.S.] 30 

p. 8 1. 3 OBSTINATIONEM c. 50 f. p. 146 1. 4 illa ipsa 
obstinatio, quam exprohratis, magistra est. 

Use 348. Mommsen, Strafr. 313 3. Harnack Gesch. d. altchr. 
Lit. (1893) I 866. Hadrian ep. ad Minucium Fundanum A.D. 35 
125 according to Clinton, or A.D. 126 (Haenel corpus legum, 
Lips. 1857, pp. 86 87), the substance of which is given by 
Oros. VII 13 § 2 praecepit per epistulam ad Minmium Fundanum 

158 TERTVLLIANI [p. 8 1. 9— 

proconside Asiae datuin,ut nemini liceret Christianos sine obiectu 
criniinis avt probatione damnare. On the question of authen- 
ticity see Otto on lustin. apol. i 69 p. 99*^ n. 1. Lightfoot 
Ignatius i^ 442, 460 — 4. 522 where he (after Rigault) finds an 
5 allusion to Hadrian's rescript to Fundanus in the mandatum of 
Tertull. ad Scap. 4 (p. 547 1. 1) Padens etiam missum ad se 
Christianum in elogio concussione eius intellecta dimisit, scisso 
eodem elogio, sine accusatore negans se auditurum hominem 
secundum mandatum. Melito apol. to Marcus Aurelius (Eus. 

lo h. e. IV 26 § 10) says of Antoninus Pius 6 8e iraTijp aov...ral^ 
TToXeaL irepl rov /j,7)8ev ve(OTepi^€ti> irepl rjfioov eypa^jrev (cf. 
Lightfoot 1. c. p. 443). Athenag. 3 p. 4'^ (to Marcus Aurelius 
and Conftmodus) Kal tou /nrjSev tovtcov dSi,Kelv vfiel^s /J,dpTvpe>;, 
KeXevovTe^; jJir} /JirjvveLV Trpa v/xwv Xoittov i^eTaaLv TTOii/cTaadai 

15 ^iov, 8oy/j.dT(ov, tt)? Trpo? vfid<i Kal rov u/jerepov oIkov Kal rr/v 
^aaiXeiav airovhr/^i Kal viraKor/';. Under Commodus (Eus. h. e. 
V 21 § 3) the accuser of Apollonius had his legs broken by 
sentence of Perennius. 

p. 8 1. 13 LATRONIBVS cet. Dio Lxxvi 10. Mommsen 

20 Strafrecht 312 1, 307 2. 

p. 8 1. 15 SOCIOS cet. Mommsen rom. Strafrecht 91 2, 98 


25 p. 546 1. 4 quid enim amplius tihi mandatur, qaam nocentes 
confessos damnare, negantes autem ad tormenta reuoc- 
are ? uidetis ergo, quomodo ipsi uos contra mandata faciatis, 
ut confessos negare cogatis. adeo confitemini innocentes 
esse nos, quos damnare statim ex confessione non uultis. Cypr. 

30 ad Demetrian. 13 pr. (p. 360 16) quin potius elege tibi alterum 
de duobus : Christianum esse aut est crimen aut non est. si 
crimen est, quid non interficis confitentem ? si crimen 
non est, quid persequeris innocentem? torqueri enim 
debui, si negarem. si poenam tuam metuens id quod prius 

35 fueram et quod deos tuos non colueram mendacio fallente celarem, 
tunc torquendus fuissem, tunc ad confessionem criminis cum 
ui doloris adigendus, sicut in quaestionibus ceteris 
torquentur rei qui se negant crimine quo accusantur 

p. 10 1. 8] APOLOGETICVS 2 159 

teneri, iit facinoris ueritas quae indice uoce non promitur dolore 
corporis exprimatur. nunc uero cuin sponte confitear et 
clameni et crebris et repetitis identidem uocibus 
Christianum me esse contester, quid tormenta ad- 
moues confitenti, et deos tuos non in ahditis et secretis locis 5 
sed palam, sed publice, sed in foro ipso magistratibus et prae- 
sidibus audientibus destruenti l Ambr. de Cain et Abel li 9 § 27 
in iudiciis saecularibus impositi eculeo torquentur negantes, et 
quaedam tangit iudicem miseratio conjitentis . . .mitigat iudicem 
pudor reorum, excitat autem pertinacia denegantium. 10 

p. 22 1. 10 circa feminas quidem etiam illa maiorum instituta 
ceciderunt. ibid. p. 22 1. 23 etiam circa ipsos deos uestros quae 
prospecte decreuerant patres uestri. Often in Quintil., the two 
Plinys, Tac, Suet. Burman on Quintil. decl. i § 7 quid circa 15 
te pecunia potest? 4 § 7 afectus circa liberos. Drager hist. 
Synt. I 576. 

p. m. p. 74 1. 10 dicimus, et palam dicimus, et uobis torquen- 
tibus lacerati et cruenti uociferamur. Deum colimus per 20 
■Ghristum. cle corona mil. 1 p. 416 1. 2 statim tribunus 'cur' 
inquit ' tam ditiersus habitus ? ' negauit ille sibi cum ceteris 
licere. causas expustulatus ' Christianus sum ' respondit. 
Scorpiace c. 9 the latter half (e.g. p. 164 I. 17 Wiss. qui se 
Christia.num confitetur, Christi se esse testatur). passio Perpetuae 25 
6 (p. 70 1. 16 Robinson) Hilarianus <procurator> 'Christiana 
es?' inquit. et ego respondi 'Christiana sum.' acta mart. 
Scillit. p. 114 1. 11—23 ed. Robinson. lustin. apol. ii 2 p. 42"^*^. 
43''. acta lustini c. 3 f. 4 (the whole). 5 f axravTfof; Se Kal 
01 XoiTTol /jbdpTVpe^ eiirov' ' iroieL o 6e\eL<i. 7)fiel<; yap l^piaTL- 30 
avoi eapev Kal elBa}Xoi<; ov dvoixevJ Theophil. ad Autol. I 1 
p. 69'^ eVt he (f)T]<i jxe ^pLaTiavov o)? KaKov Tovvo^ia (f)opovvTa, 
iyco fiev ovv 6/jLo\o<yb) elvaL ^pLcn Lav6<i, Kal (fjopco t6 6€0(f)LXe<; 
<)vo/jLa TovTo iXTTL^cov eiixpr}(TTo<i elvaL tm dea>. So the Gallic 
martyrs Eus. h. e. v 1 § 19 (Blandina). § 20 (Sanctus) Trpo? 35 
irdvTa Ta eTrepcoTco/xeva (nreKpLvaTo Tr} 'P(o/j,aLKr} (pcovfj 'Xpicr- 
TLav6<; elfxL.' § 26 (Byblias). viii 3 § 3 (under Diocletian) 
.dWo<i XptcTTtafo? elvai eKeKpd^yei, tj] tov atoTr/pLov npocr- 

160 TERTVLLIANI [p. 10 1. 8— 

pr]/xaT()<i ofxoXoyla Xa/xTTpvvo/nero^i. Eus. niart. Pal. 3 § 3. acta 
Felicis (ad calc. Optati, ed. Du Pin, Par. 1702) p. 147 col. 1 med. 
cui Anuliims proconsul dixit ' quod tibi nomen estV Felix 
episcopus dixit 'Christianus sum.' Anulinus proconsid dixit 
5 ' non te de uocabulo quaesiui professionis, sed percunctatus 
sum quo nomine nuncuperis.' Felix episcopus dixit ' sicut tibi 
iam dixi, hoc nuvc et iterum dico, quia Christianus sum et 
episcopus.' Cf. acta Saturnini cet. c. 4 seq. (ibid. p. 151 col. 
2 f. seq.) often, acta Eupli (p. 438 Ruinart). Lucifer Calar. 

lo moriendum esse pro Dei filio 2 (p. 287 12 Hartel) cernimus 
una hac uoce religiosa 'Christianus sum, nolo esse ut tu es, 
Constantius, apostata' omne crimen tu inquis 'negate 
uos Christianos.' Victor Vitens. iii § 50 (= v 14) infantulo 
clamante ut poterat : 'Christianus sum, Christianus 

15 sum, per sanctum Stephanum Christianus sum.' Rufin. h. e. 
VII 12 p. 415. VIII 3 p. 467. 

28 § 3 nos < i.e. while yet heathens > tamen cum sacrilegos 

20 aliquos et incestos, parricidas etiam defendendos et tuendos 
suscipiebamus, hos nec audiendos in totum putabamus, nonnmn- 
quam etiam miserantes eorum crudelius saeuiebamus, ut tor- 
queremus confitentes ad negandum, uidelicet ne j)eriVe??i, 
exercentes in his peruersam quaestionem non quae uerum 

25 erueret, sed quae mendacium cogeret. Justin cited on 
p. 6 1. 19. 

p. 10 1. 14 NE QVA VIS LATEAT IN OCCVLTO the Evil Spirit 
infr. p. 12 1. 7 quaedani ratio aemulae operationis. c£ c. 22. 
27 p. 92 1. 17 ille scilicet spiritus daemoniacae et angelicae 

30 jjaraturae, qui noster ob diuortium aemulus et ob Dei gratiam 
inuidus de mentibus uestris aduersus nos proeliatur occulta 
inspiratione modidatis. c. 32. lustin. apol. i 5. 


35 elementa ipsa famularet. de carne Christi 12 (ii p. 447 1. ult.) 
sine qua notitia sui nulla anima se ministrare potuisset. The 
usual sense of ministro (uiros, tiires animumque cet.) may hold 
here : ' without self-knowledge no soul could have rendered its 

p. 10 1. 27] APOLOGETICVS 2 161 

services ' ; and in the toxt : ' this mysterious power makes tools 
of you, lends your services.' 


NON EXIMENDVS eximere (cf. exemption) is the office of mercy, 
expungere of justice (the full satisfaction of all claims). c. 15 f. 5 
lihidinem. c. 20 f (of time). c. 21 p. 70 1, 15 of the first 
advent 'iam expunctus est ' (fulfilled in every predicted detail). 
c. 35 p. 102 1. 22 (with Oehler's note) cur enim iiota et gaudia 
Caesarum casti et sohrii et prohi expungimus? cf. c. 44 pr. 
qui sententiis elogia dispungitis (clear off the police sheet by 10 
sentencing the accused to their several punishments). de orat. 
9 pr. (p. 187 1. 1 Wiss.) quot simul expunguntur official de 
corona mil. 1 pr. (l p. 416, with Oehler's note) liheralitas 
praestantissiniorum imperatorum expungebatur in castris. 
de an. 35 pr. (p. 360 1. 9 Wiss.). 55 pr. (p. 387 1. 25) Christo in 15 
corde terrae triduum mortis legimus expunctum. adu. Marc. 

11 20 f. p. 363 1. 24 Kr. suum populum in tempore expeditionis 
< of the Exodus > aliquo solacio tacitae compensationis ex- 
punxit. III. 5 (p. 382 1. 6 Kr.) et diuinationi propheticae magis 
faiuiliare est id quod prospiciat, dum prospicit, iam uisiim atque 20 
ita iam expunctum, id est omni modo futurum, demonstrare. 

12 (p. 395 1. 24 Kr.). 17 (p. 405 six lines from end of ch.). 
20 pr. (p. 410 1. 12 Kr.). 23 pr. (p. 417 1. 3 Kr.). 24 am. 
(p. 419 1. 28 Kr). iv 16 (p. 471 1. 22 Kr.) coepit expungi quod 
dictum est per Osee. 20 a.m. (p. 484 1. 16 Kr.) nam cum trans- 25 
fretat, psalmus expungitur (cf. c. 40 p. 559 1. 11 Kr.)...CM?/i. 

undas freti discutit, Ahacuc adimpletur. 22 p.m. (p. 495 
1. 20 Kr.). 29 a.m. (p. 520 1. 23 Kr.) ut qitod supra distuli 
expunxerim. 34 p.m. (p. 537 1. 12 Kr.) donec consummatio 
rerum resurrectionem omnium plenitudine mercedis expungat. 30 
39 prope f. (p. 558 1. 3) si qiiae a Creatore sunt, merito susti- 
nehant elementa domini sui ordinem expungi, si quae a Deo 
optimo, nescio an sustineat caelum et terra perfici quae aemulus 
statuit. V 7 f. (p. 596 1. 22). 


c. 37 (p. 108 1. 9) hesterni sumus et uestra oninia inipleuimus. 
luu. VII 124 n. XIII 91 n. Holden on Minuc. 12 § 2. 24 § 2. 

M. T. 11 

162 TERTVLLIANI [p. 12 1. 7— 

apol. I 5 pr. (p. 55'') ri Brj rovr av elrj ; e<^' rjfjiwv, viriaxvov- 
5 fievcov firjSev dSiKelv /J.r)8€ ra adea ravra So^d^etv, ov Kpicrei^ 
e^era^ere, dXX' aXojo) TraOet Kal /j.aariyi, Baifiovcov (pavXwv 
e^eXavvofievoi, aKpirco^; KoXd^ere fir] ippovri^ovre';. Tert. apol. 
c. 5 (p. 20 1. 6) tales semper nohis insecutores. 21 (p. 72 
1. 32) a ludaeis insequentibus multa perpessi. c. 5U pr. 
lo (p. 142) ' ergo ' inquitis ' cur querimini quod uos insequamur ? ' 
In Tert. de an. 20 Deus dominus is opposed to diabolus 


15 Cels. II 13 (p. 68) Christians alone punished for opinions. 
Epicureans overthrow providence, Peripatetics deny the efficacy 
of prayer, and are unmolested. It may be said that Samaritans 
are persecuted for religion. No, the Sicarii are put to death 
for practising circumcision, a rite allowed to Jews alone. Kai 

2o oiiK eariv aKOvaai ScKaarov TrvvOavofxevov, el Kara rrjvSe rrjv 
vo/ji.i^o/jievr]v 6eoae(3eLav o -.iKapio'; aywvi^ofxevo^; ISlovv, fxera- 
defievo^ fiev aTroXvdijaeraL, i/x/ievwv 8e ri/v eVt davdro) aira)/- 
dr/aerai. dXXd <ydp dpKet Sef^delaa rj Treptrofir] 7rpo<; dvaipeaiv 
rov 7re7Tov66ro<i avrr/v. Tert. Scorpiace 11 pr. ipsi denique 

25 praesides cuni cohortantur negationi: ' serua animam tuam,' 
dicunt, et ' noli animani tuam perdere.' 


3 16. 4 14. 



pat. 2 ingratissimas nationes, ludihria artium et opera nianuum 
suarum adorantes, nonien cum familia ipsius <Dei> perse- 
quentes. Athenag. 1 p. 2^ vfilv Se («-at fir] TrapaKpova^r/ie 
35 ft)? OL TToXXdl e^ H/coj}?) ro ovofxa ri d7re^6dverai ; ov yap rd 
ovofxaja fiiaov<i d^ta, dXXa ro ahtKr//Ma hLKr]<; Kal rL/j.wpLa<i. 
ibid.° eVi fiovcp ovofiart irpoaiToXefiovvroiv r/filv roiv rroWwv. 
cf. c. 2. Arnob. 11 1 pr. quid causae est quod tam grauihus 

p. 14 1. 3] APOLOGETICVS 2, 3 163 

insectamini Christum bellis, iiel quas eius continetis offensas, td 
ad eius nominis mentionem rabidorum pectorum efferuescatis 
ardoribus? With Tert. c. 2 — 4 cf. lustin. apol. i 4. 

Cap. III 


CEANT NOMiNis EXPROBRATioNEM innocence of Christians c. 45 5 
pr. lustin. apol. i 14 15. Lact. Ili 26. ep. ad Diognet. c. 5 6. 
Semisch Justin. Ii 191 seq. Neander l (1)'- 428 seq. 

p. 12 1. 23 GAIVS SEIVS...LVCIVM TITIVM luu. IV L3 n. 

CHRISTIANVS on 716 {= fir}) see Oehler on c. 2 p. 121 n. x. lo 
adu. Marc. v 16 (p. 631 1. 6 Kr.) secundum uero Marcionem nescio 
ne sit Christus creatoris. Ronsch Itala u. Vulgata 400. Gesta 
apud Zenophilum (Routh reliq. sacr. iv^ 325 1. 4 and 7) quaere 
ne plus haheatis...quaere, ne plus haheat. Aug. de peccato 
originali 17 § 18 quis enim scit, ne forte det illis Deus paeni- 15 
tentiam ? Aug. c. D. I 28 pr. (i 44 14 Dombart) interrugate 
fideliter animas uestras, ne forte de isto integritatis...bono uos 
infiatius extulistis. Irenaeus v 30 3 ut ex mvltis colligamus ne 
forte Titan uocet^ir. Hermes XXV 124 1. 2 interrogari ne. 
Greg. dial. iii 37 (p. 361'''' Ben.) aspexit ne. Victor Vitens. iii 20 
§ 50 (=v 14) cogitauit impietas Ariana a parentibus ^^("'i^iulos 
filios separare, ne posset per pietatis affectum etiam uirtutem 
prosternere genitorum. 

p. 12 1. 31 EX IPSO DKNOTANT QVOD LAVDANT quam lasciua! 
quam festiua ! quam amasius ! meant as praise by the heathen, 2^ 
sound in Christian ears as a reproach. 

p. 14 1. 2 FACTi SVNT CHRISTIANI de cult. fem. ir 11 f. 
(l 731) grandis blasphemia est, ex qua dicatur : ' ex quo facta 
est Christiana pauperius incedit' 

p. 14 1. 2 ITA NOMEN EMENDATIONI IMPVTATVR 'thus reform 30 

is taxed with the name.' Those who are no longer giddy, are 
charged with the name of Christian as a crime. 


isTO paCISCVNTVR they sacrifice their interests to this hatred, 
make a bargain with this hatred at the cost of their interests. 35 


164 TERTVLLIANI [p. 14 1. 3— 

c. 50 p. 144 1. 4 omitto eos qui cum gladio p7'oprio uel alio genere 
mortis mitiore de laude pepigerunt. 

ZELOTYPVs..,ABDlCAViT ad nat. I 4 p. 64 1. 24 Wiss. scio maritum 
5 unum atque alium, anxium retro de uxoris suae morihus, qui ne 
mures quidem in cuhiculum inrepentes sine gemitu suspicionis 
sustinehat, comperta causa nouae sedulitatis et inusitatae captiui- 
tatis omnem uxori patientiam ohtulisse\ negasse <se> zelo- 
typum, maluisse <se> lupae quam Christianae maritum: ipsi 

lo suam licuit in peruersum demutare naturam, mulieri Jion 
permisit in melius reformari. cf. ad uxor. II 7. See the story 
of a reformed wife denounced as a Christian by her husband 
(lustin. apol. il 2 p. 4P seq.). cf. what follows here and ad nat. 
about the son abdicated (the rhetoricians passim. Quintil. 

15 VII 4 §§ 26 27) and the slave sent on the land. Bhmt Right 
Use 376—7. Kaye 130—1. 


ocvLis RELEGAVIT de idolol. 17 pr. (p. 50 1. 10 Wiss.) ceterum 
quid facient serui uel liberti fideles, item ofiiciales sacrifican- 

20 tihus dominis uel 2Mt7'onis vel praesidibus suis adhaerentes? sed 
si merum quis sacrificanti tradiderit, immo si uerho quoque 
aliquo sacrificio necessario adiuuerit, minister hahehitur idolola- 
triae. cf. Bhmt Right Use 378. Slaves sent into the country 
as a punishment luu. viii 180 n. Journal of Philology XX 279 

25 280. Petron. 69 sic me saluum habeatis, ut ego sic soleham 
ipsumam meam dehattuere, ut etiam dominus suspicaretur ; et 
ideo me in uilicationem relegauit. 


NOMINVM REATVS ? cet. cf. n. on p. 6 1. 19 and 21. lustin. 

30 apol. I 7 f. (p. 56®) oOev iruvroii' twv KarayjeWofxevcov vfitv raf 
7rpa^ei<; KpiveaOai d^iovfxev, iva 6 ekeyy^Oei^i ft)? ahiKO^ KoXd^rjrai, 
(iWa pirj («9 ^piariavo<i' ^av hi Ti9 dveXejKra (paivrjrai, a7ro- 
\ii]rai fo)9 X/jtcrTmj'09 ovSev dSiKcbv. Athenag. 2 (p. 3'^) ro rotvvv 
irpa a7ravra<i 'iaov Kal r)fjiei<i d^L0vp.ev, /Jir) ort X.pi(Triavol 

35 ^eyo/jieda fxtaeiadai Kal KoXd^eaBai (rl 'ydp rj/ ro ovofia 
Trpo<; KaKiav reXei;) aWd Kptveadat e^' ortov dv Kal evdvvrj 

1 Oebler strangely: 'omnem u. p. o.] h. e. repudium scripsisse.' Eather, 
'offered to wink at every infidehty.' 

p. 14 1. 13] APOLOGETICVS 3 165 

Tt9, Kai i) d(f)i€a6aL (iTroXvofxevov^ tt]^ KaTTjyopLa^; ?) Ko\(i^eadai 
Tovi (tXiaKO/xevov^i irovripov';, fir) tTTt t(v ovofMaTi {ovSel^ yap 
x^piaTiavo<; Trovijpoi;, ec /i?; vTroKplveTat tov Xoyoi'), eirl 8e to) 
dSiKr/fjiaTi. Iren. I 24 § 6 /?e jjati quidem 'propter nomen possunt. 
Tert. de idol. 14 totus circus scelestis suffragiis nullo merito 5 
nomen lacessit. 


MALEDICVM AVT IMPVDICVM ? Quintil. X 1 § 9 n. omnibus fere 
uerbis praeter pauca, quae sunt jmrum uerecunda, in oratione lo 
locus est. XI 1 § 60 esse in uerbis quod deceat aut turpe sit 
nemini dubium est. Liu. xxviii 28 § 4 Atrium Vmbrum semi- 
lixam, nominis etiam abominandi ducem. cf. Lips. on Tac. 
h. IV 53. Lobeck on Soph. Ai. 430. Yalckenaer on Eur. Phoen. 
639. Elmsley on Eur. Ba. 508. Stanley on Aesch. Ag. 690. 15 
Victorius uar. lect. xxxvi 24. Columna on Enn. Androm. 
p. 240 ed. ult. Spalding on Quintil. v 10 § 31. Aristot. rhet. 
II 23 § 20 p. 1440 b 18 seq. with Cope's n. nomen omen. 


DE VNCTIONE DEDVCITVR adu. Marc. IV 14 f. (p. 463 1. 2 Kr.) 20 
nomen Ghristianorum, utique a Christo deductum. Theophil. ad 
Autol. I 12 pr. (p. 77'' with Otto n. 1) irepl 8e tov KaTayeXdv 
/jLOu, KaXovvTu /xe XpiaTiavov, ovk olSa^i o \eyei<;. irpoiTov /lev 
OTL To )(^pLaTov r/8v Kal ev)(pr)aTOv xal (iKaTayeXaaTov eaTLV. 
ibid. fin. TOLyapovv r//iel<i tovtov e7veKev KaXov/ieda X.piaTiavol 25 
OTi ■xpto/xeda eXaLov deov. lustin. apol. I 12 p. 60^^. II 6 p. 44*^. 
dial. 63 p. 287^ 64 pr. p. 287^-. 117 p. 345^ Lact. iv 7 §§ 6 7. 
Pearson on the Creed (Cambr. 1882) 175 seq. 


the evidence is collected by Pearson on the Creed art. 2 (Cambr. 30 
1882 pp. 151—2). See lustin. apol. i 4 p. 54*^. 55^ 46 p. 83^ 
Theophil. ad Autol. i 1 p. ^^*". Clem. Al. str. ii § 18 p. 438 P. 
Lact. IV 7 § 4 nam Christus non proprium nomen est, sed nuncu- 
patio potestatis et regni: sic enim Tudaei reges suos appeUabant. 
I 5 sed exponenda huius nominis ratio est propter ignorantium 35 
errorem, qui eum immutata littera Ghrestum solent dicere. See 
Blinemann there. [Add inscriptions edited by J. G. C. Anderson 
in Studies in the History and Art of the Eastern Provinces of 

166 TERTVLLIANI [p. 14 L 13— 

the Roman Empire (Aberdeen 1906) pp. 215 ff. Selections 
from the Greek Papyri by G. Milligan (Cambr. 1910) p. 113. 
A.S.] It is very doubtful whether the impulsor Chrestus (Suet. 
Claud. 25) can denote Christ. See Herm. Schiller Gesch. d. 
5 rom. Kaiserzeit i 447 n. 6. 

p. 14 1. 16 and 17 oditvr Neue Formenlehre iii^ 643, Georges 
Lexikon der lat. Wortformen. Harters ind. to Lucifer Calar. 
coniugatio p. 356 col. 2. Ronsch Itala u. Vulgata 283. 




THAGORici? lustin. dial. 2 p. 218''— 219*^. 35 p. 253^'— 254^ 
Clem. Al. str. vii § 108 p. 900 P. Epiphan. haer. xlviii 14. 
p. 14 1. 22 coci ETiAM AB APicio luu. IV 23 n. pp. 221, 396. 
15 Tert. de pall. 5 f (i p. 954) taceo Nerones et Apicios et Rufos. 
Friedlander Sittengeschichte 11® 622 — 629 shows that artists, 
dancers, athletes cet, assumed the names of famous predecessors. 


20 impunity of philosophers see c. 48 49. lustin. apol. i 4 fin. p. 55^ 
26 f. p. 70^^ irdvTe'^ 01 diro rovrcov <gnostics> 6p/xd)/jL€i'0(, (09 
€(f)7}/jb€v, ^piaTiavol KoXovvrat, hv rporrov Kal 01 ov Kocvu)vovvr€<; 
TMV avTcov Soy/JidTcov ev TO6? cf)i\oao(poc<i ro iTriKaXov/jbevov ovo/ia 
T?}? (f)tXo(TOCJ)ia'i KOLVov ^'^(^ovaLv. el he Kal ra 8va(f)r]/Ma eKeiva 

25 fjLvOoXoyov/jLeva epya TrpdTrovaL, \v)(via<i /j.ev dvarpoTrr/v Kal ra<i 
dveSr/v /JLi^ei^ Kal dvOpcoTrelcov aapKcov ^opd'?, ov jLVcoaKO/iev' 
dXX' OTL /ir/ SLCOKOvraL fir/Se ^ovevovraL v(f> v/jLcov, k&v Sid rd 
Soy/iara, eTrLard/jieOa. Orig. c. Cels. II 13 p. 68 hLa ttolov ydp 
86y/ia Tcov iv dvdpc£iiroL<i yeyevr//ievcov KoXd^ovraL Kal dXXoL, ort 

30 opcov ra dae^r/ r/ rd yjrevSr/ rcov hoyp,('iTcov Karr/yopov /leva , eSo^e 
Kat rovro ae/ivvveiv S^a rov irpoXeyeLv hr/Oev rrepl avrov ; k.t.X. 
Philosophy does not in fact lack martyrs and confessors, an 
Anaxagoras, a Socrates, a Musonius, ancl had much to fear from 
the Roman government and from the mob Luc. Alex. 45 6 8e 

35 AXe^avSpo-; dyavaKrr/aat; eirl rco iXty^co Kal pnj (f)ep(ov rov ovei- 
Bov<i rr/v dXrjdeiav eKeXeve Toi/? 7rap6vTa<; Xidoi^i /SdXXeLv avrov 
r/ Ka\ avrov; evay€L<; kaeadaL Kal KTTLKOvpeiovi KXr/Oi/aeaOaL. 
46 f eheL yr/v rrpo 7179 eXavveadai &)<? dae/3)) Kal dOeov Kal 

p. 16 1. 13] APOLOGETICVS 3, 4 167 

'ETTiKovpeioi', i^irep yjv i) /jLeyiarT] XoiSopia. 47 Alexander burnt 
publicly the Kvpiat So^ai of Epicurus, and flung the ashes into 
the sea. cf. 25. 43. 44. His proclamation (c. 38) ' et xi? aO€o<i 
>) Xpiariavo^ i) ^ETriKOvpeio^ i]K6i KaT(i(7K07ro<; rcZv opyicov, (pev- 
yero), oi 8e irKnevovTe^ r(v Sec^ reXeicrdcoaav tu^t? tt} (lyadrj.' 5 
Kal 6 ixev ip/elTO Xeyoyv ' e^co XpiaTiavov^,' TO 8e 7rXr)6o<i inrav 
eTreipdeyyeTo ' e^w 'EmKovpeiov^.' 


cf. lustin. apol. i 4. 11 2 p. 42° seq. 10 

Cap. IV 

join issue.' exx. in Dirksen manuale under consistere n. 2 
' iudicio congredi, actione experiri/ and in Brisson de uerborum 
significationibus. Read below (p. 16 1. 11) with Rigault and 
cod. Fuld. cle legibus priiis consistam <concurram Oehler> 15 
uohiscum ut cum tutorihus legum. fragm. Fuld. c. 19 p. 62 1. 5. 
c. 46 pr. p. 126 1. 25 constitimus, ut opinor, aduersus omnium 
criminum intentationem. ibid. p. 130 1. 17. Oehler on de idol. 
13 pr, p. 87 1. ult. Quintil. decl. 252 p. 30 1. 1 ut diceret, qua 
alia lege cum illo consistere potuerim. other exx. in Ritter's 20 

p. 16 1. 4 NON Dico PESSiMi OPTIMOS de idol. 14 f. (p. 47 
1. 6 Wiss.) si quid et carni indulgendum est, hahes, non dicam 
tuos dies tantum, sed et plures. de fuga in pers. 10 (p. 479 1. 6 up) 
illum, non dico in mari et in terra, uerum in utero etiam 25 
hestiae inuenio. 

p. 16 1. 8 INRIDENDI 18 p. 08 1. 15 haec et nos risimus 

p. 16 1. 9 LEGVM OBSTRVITVR AVCTORITAS 37 pr. p. 106 1. 25 

quotiens enini in Ghristianos desaeuitis, partim animis propriis, ^o 
partim lcgibus ohsequentes ? Blunt Right Use p. 341. 

p. 16 1. 13 NON LiCET EssE vos Minuc. 8 § 3 homines... 
deploratae illicitae ac desperatae factionis grassari in deos 
non ingemescendum est? uit. Alex. Seu. 22 ludaeis priiiilegia 
reseruauit, Christianos esse passus est. Judaism was tole- 35 

168 TERTVLLIANI [p. 16 1. 13— 

rated infr. c. 21 pr. p. 66 1. 17 insignissimae religionis, certe 
licitae. Blunt Right Use 84.5. Sulpic. Seu. chron. ii 29 3 ^^ost 
etiam datis legibus religio uetabatur, palamque edictis propositis 
Christianum esse non licebat. 
5 p. 16 1. 14 INIQVAM EX ARCE DOMINATIONEM luu. X 307 n. 

Luc. VIII 490. Plut. Timol. 22 1. DS. xvi 70. The new ed. 
of Dict. Ant. does not notice the political importance of the arx, 
though arx and esp. oVpoTroXt? very frequently denote the 
stronghold of tyranny, or, metaphorically, of tyrannical passions. 
lo lustin. XXI 5 2. Flor. i 1 5. 

p. 16 1. 20 SI LEX TVA ERRAVIT Orig. C. Cels. I 1 p. 5 irap' 
aKrjdela BLKa^ovarj oi vo^xol twv edvoov, oi irepl ciyaXfJidrcov Kai 
rrji; ddeov TroXvdeoTrjTO';, v6p.oi elcrl ^kvOwv Kal et tl ^kvOwv 
dae^ecTTepov. ovk aXoyov ovv avv6ijKa<; irapa Ta vevofiLafieva 

15 TToielv, Td<; vTrep dXrjOeia';. Many passages to the same effect 
in K.* J. Neumann, der rom. Staat und die allg. Kirche bis auf 
Diocletian, i (Leipz. 1890) 234. 

p. 16 1. 21 NEQVE ENIM DE CAELO RVIT luu. XI 27 n. Muret. 
uar. lect. Xiii 7. Dorville on Chariton p. 133. Vulpi and 

2o Wunderlich on Tibull. i 3 90. Wetstein on lo. 3 13 and Acts 
19 35. esp. Otto die Sprich\vorter...der Romer (Leipz. 1890) 62. 
Add Liu. xxii 29 3 se acies repente, uelut caelo demissa, ad 
auxilium ostendit. Plin. xxvi § 13 f. (of the physician As- 
clepiades) uniuersum prope humanuni genus circuniegit in se non 

25 alio modo quam si caelo demissus aduenisset. Ammian. xxii 
2 4 effundebatur aetas oninis et sexus tamquam demissum 
aliquem uisura de caelo. Lact. i 11 55 (citing Minuc. 21 § 7). 
lo. Sarisb. policrat. vii 12 (col. 662*" Migne). Heraclides said of 
Empedocles that he fell from the moon (DL. viii § 72). Lexx. 

30 under SioTrer?;?. Lydus de ostentis 7. 

p. 16 1. 27 SQVALENTEM SILVAM LEGVM praescr. haer. 37 
m. pudic. 17 (i 254 3 Wiss.\ exhort. cast. 6. 

p. 16 1. 29 PAPIAS LEGES see Rigault. Evidence in Haenel 
corpus legum (Leipzig 1857) pp. 24 — 29. Lact. i 16 10 non 

35 inlepide Seneca in libris moralis philosophiae ' quid ergo est ' 
inquit ' quare apud poetas salacissimus luppiter desierit liberos 
tollere? iLtrum sexagenarius factus est et illi lex Papia fibulam 
iniposuit .? ' 

p. 16 1. 32] APOLOGETICVS 4 169 

p. 16 1. 30 IVLIAE Rein das Privatrecht der Romer (1858) 
461—468. Tert. de monogain. 16 (i 786 1. 18) aliud est, si et 
apud GJiristinn legibusluliis agi crednnt, et existhiiant caelihes 
et orbos ex testamento Dei solidum non posse capere. Prud. perist. 
X 201 — 5 sed, credo, magni linien aniplectar louis : j qui si citetur 5 
legihus uestris reus, \ laqueis minacis implicatus luliae, | luat 
seuerani uinctus et Scantiniani \ te cognitore dignus zVe in 
carcerem. cf. Rein in Pauly Real-Encyclopadie iv 979 — 981, 

p. 16 1. 31 SEVERVS on the persecutions under S. see 
Blunt church of the first three centuries 298 — 305. Tert. ad 10 
Scap. 4 (p. 547 1. 3 up) ipse etiam Seuerus, pater Antonini, 
Ghristianorum menior fuit. nam et Proculum Ghristianum,. . .qui 
eum per oleum aliquando curauerat, requisiuit et in palatio suo 
habuit usque ad mortem eius; quem et clarissimas feminas et 
clarissimos uiros Seuerus, sciens huius sectae esse, non modo 15 
non luesit, uerum et testinionio exornauit et pojmlo furenti in nos 
palam restitit. Spartian. Seuer. 17 § 1 ludaeos fieri siih graiii 
poena uetuit. ideni etiam de Ghristianis sanxit. Clinton Fasti 
Rornani a.d. 202. Haenel corpus leguni A.D. 202 and 204. 
Eus. h. e. VI 2 §§2 3. Aube Les Chretiens dans Terapire romain 20 
de la fin des Antonins 1881, Gorres in the Jahrblicher fiir prot. 
Theologie (1878), and Reville, La religion a Rome sous les 
Severes (1886) are critical ; Wieseler, Die Christenverfolgungen 
der Caesaren bis zum 3. Jahrh. (1878) and AUard Histoire des 
persecutions pendant les deux premiers siecles (1885) and Hist. 25 
d. p. pendant la premiere moitie du lir siecle (1886) are con- 


ERASA EST Bhint Right Use 645: " Matt. 24 51 ' The lord of^o 
that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, 
and in an hour that he is not aware of, and shall cut him 
asunder,' Siy^^orofxyjaei avrov. The term hi-x^oro^Tqaet, as applied 
to the servant who had forfeited his trust, and abused his 
master's property in his absence, finds an illustration in Ter- 35 
tullian, who speaks of an obsolete Roman law, by which the 
bankrupt debtor was condemned to be cut asunder by his 
creditors." See leg. xii tabul. n. 3 (Bruns-Mommsen Fontes 

170 TERTVLLIANI [p. 16 1. 32— 

iuris Romani antiqui, Freib. in Br. 1S87, p. 20 n. 6, who quotes 
Gell. XX 1 §§ 48—52. Quintil. iii 6 § 84 in XII tab. debitoris 
corpus inter creditores diuidi licuit, and commends Niebuhr for 
interpreting the law literally, not, as John Taylor, of honorum 
5 sectio). 

p. 18 1. 4 Blunt Right Use p. 341. 

Heraldus, La Cerda, Oehler, take defendunt as = ulciscuntur. 

lo Havercamp, reading probanda, takes it thus ' maintain that 
they ought to be established by evidence of their commission, 
not by the name borne by the accused.' That defendo can = id- 
ciscor, is certain. See adu. Marc. i 26 (5 exx.). Brisson and 
Dirksen. Ronsch in Zeitschr. f. wiss. Theol. xvi 267 — 270 and 

15 in das Buch der Jubilaen (Leipz. 1874) 144. Hildebrand gl. 
Par. p. 293 153 DEFENSVS uindicatus, idtus. vulg. ludith 1 12 
quod defendei^et = eKSiKrja-etv LXX. Rom. 12 19 defendentes = 
iKSiKovvre^. Wopkens on lustin. xxvili 2 4. defensa Deut. 32 
35 in Tert. adu. Marc. 11 18 = iKSlKijai'; (wrongly translated 

20 ' defence ' in Riddle-White and Lewis-Short). cf corp. gloss. 
II (Leipz. 1888) 289 1. 28 iK8tKriaL<; defensio . . .ultio cet. iv 479 
1. 69 defensio eKhLKia. 

Here, however, the opposition puniunt. . .defendunt pleads for 
the usual sense of the word. Else one verb puniunt would have 

25 sufficed : ' in our case they punish on the ground of the bare 
name acts, which in others they punish ' cet. More forcible by 
far is the antithesis ; ' in us they punish on the score of our 
mere name, what in others they uphold, even when proved by 
evidence of the fact, not by the name given to the accused.' 

30 He speaks below e g. of tolerated abortion and lechery (cf c. 9). 

p. 18 1. 10 CVR NON REQViRVNT? lustin. apol. I 3 pr. p. 

54^^ aX)C 'iva /jLt) aXoyov (pcovr]v Kal To\/xr]pdv ho^jj tl^ Tavra 

elvai, d^LOVfiev tu KaTrjyopovfieva avT<?v i^eTa^eadai, Kal, idv 

ovT(o<i e^^^^ovTa dTroSecKvvojvTaL, KoXd^eadaL co<; irpeirov iaTiv 

35 d\6vTa<i KoXd^eLv el Se /j-rjSev e-^ot TCi iXejx^Li',ov)(^ vTrayopeveL 
6 dXrjdr}^ \6yo(; Sid (j)7]fit]v irovi/pdv dvaLTLOv<i dvd pdyrrov^i (ISiKelv, 
p.dXXov 8e eavTOix;, ol ou KpiaeL aWci Tradei Ta TTpayp.aTa 
i^dyeiv d^LovTe. Athenag, 2 pr. (p. 3^^) Kal el fiev rt? yfxd<i 

p. 18 I. 23] APOLOGETICVS 4, 5 171 

iXiy-^eii^ €)(^€L >) /xiKpov i) /Jiel^ov d8iK0ui'Ta<;, KoXal^eadai ou 
TrapatTOV/xeda, nWa Kal iJTii; inKpoTaTri koi avj]\€r]<i TifiMpia 
i/Tre^eti' d^iov/jiev. 

p. 18 1. 11 IN DEOS.,.ALIQVID COMMITTO C. 22 — 28. 

p. 18 1. 11 IX CAESARES C. 29—39. 5 

Cap. V 

p. 46 1. 4 nam, ut supra praeiitrinximus, status dei cuiusque 
in senatus aestimatione pendebat. deus non erat quem 
homo consultus noluisset et nolendo damnasset. Marquardt rom. lo 
Staatsverw. iii^ 275 "The consecratio iviperatoris is to be under- 
stood like consecraiio dei or natalis dei, as the day of the 
establishment of the worship. Cic. n. d. ii § 62 hunc dico 
Liberum Semela natum, non euni, quem nostri maiores . . .cum 
Cerere et Lihera consecrauerunt. de leg. ii § 28." ibid. 466 15 
"only those emperors were consecrated, for whom their suc- 
cessors procured a special decree of the senate. Oros. vii 4 6. 
Prud. c. Symm. i 223—5. 245—250. CIL ix 2628 genio deiuei 
lulii, quem senatus populusque Romanorum deorum in 
numerum rettulit. Athan. c. gent. 9 f. (i 20'^ seq. Migne) ov 20 
TToWw TrpoTepov, i) Ta^^a Kal /xe^pt vvv rj Poofiaccov cri/'y/cA.7/T0<? 
Tov<i TTcoTTOTe avTMv i^ upyn)^; dp^avTa<; ;8acriA.ea9, rj TravTa^, r/ 
ov^ av avTol /SovXwvTaL Kai Kpivcoai, Soy/J.aTi^ovatv iv ueot<; 
etvat Kal 6 pr/a Kevead at Oeovs ypdcfiova f ot<i /xev yap 
uTre-^d dvovTat , TovTov<i &)9 TroXe/j.iov; Ty-jv <^vaiv o/jioXoyovai Kat 25 
dvdpd>7rov<; ovo/id^ovaiv ov<i Be KaTa0u/iiou<; ^'^(ouat^TOUTOU^ ot 
dvhpayaOiav Opr/aKeveaOat irpoaTdTTovatv, wairep iir e^ovaia<; 
e^oi^re? t6 Oeoirotelv, avrol dvdpwrrot Tvy)(dvovTe<i Kai eivat 
dvrjTol fMT] dpvoufxevoi, k.t.X. More in Eckhel D.N. vrii 249." 
Mommsen Staatsr. ii- 732 — 7. See the exhaustive treatise of 30 
the Abbe E. Beurlier Le culte imperial, son histoire et son 
organisation depuis Auguste jusqua Justinien. Par. 1891. 


Minuc. 23 § 13 ecce plumbatur construitur erigitur: nec adhuc 35 

172 TERTVLLIANI [p. 18 1. 23— 

deus est : ecce ornatur consecratur oratur: tunc postremo deus 
est, cum homo illum uoluit et dedicauit. 

p. 18 1. 24 HOMO lAM DEO PROPITIVS ESSE DEBEBIT C. 29 p. 94 
1. 27 tota templa de nutu Caesaris constant. multi denique dei 
5 habuerunt Caesarem iratum. facit ad cansam, si et propitium 
cu7n illis aliquid liberalitatis aut priuilegii confert. 


IN SAECVLVM INTROIVIT 7 p. 24 1. 21 census istius disciplinae, 
ut iam edidimus, a Tiberio est. 21 pr. p. 66 1. 14 sectam istam... 

lo aliquanto nouellam, ut Tiberiani temporis, plerique sciunt. 
40 pr. p. 116 1. 18 ante Tiberiuni, id est ante Christi aduentum. 
Pearson Exposition of the Creed art. II Cambr. 1882, p. 195 
" Tertullian seems to make it <the Christian name> as ancient 
as the reign of Tiberius...But I conceive indeed he speaks not 

15 of the name, but of the religion...However the name of Chris- 
tian is not so ancient as Tiberius, nor, as I think, of Gaius. 
Some ancient author in Suidas (in Na^apaio^ and in Xpi(TTiai'Oi) 
assures us, that it was first named in the reign of Claudius, 
when St Peter had ordained Euodius bishop of Antioch...And 

20 lohannes Antiochenus (i.e. Malalas, chronogr. p. 247 Bonn)... 
tells us that Euodius. . .was the author of the name." cf. Lipsius, 
Ueber den Ursprung und den altesten Gebrauch des Chris- 
tennamens, Jena 1873. 

ibid. NOMEN CHRISTIANVM Arn. I 19 f. Christianum nomen 

25 odisse. ibid c. 2 p. 4 3 postquam esse nomen in terris Chnstianae 
religionis occepit. Aug. c. D. i 15 multo minus nomen crimi- 
nandum est Christianum. 



p. 72 1. 26 ea omnia super Christo Pilatus, et ipse iam pro sua 
conscientia Christianus, Caesari tunc TibeiHo nuntiauit. sed et 
35 Caesares credidissent super Christo, si aut Caesares non essent 
necessarii saeculo, aut si et Christiani potuissent esse Caesares. 
Eus. h. e. II 2 cites Tertull. and Chrys. hom. 26 in 2 Cor. (x 
624*^) repeats the tale. Tillemont (mem. eccl. i, Par. 1693, 

p. 18 1. 26] APOLOGETICVS 5 173 

151 — 3) collects other patristic witnesses to the legend. Add 
anon. post Dionem (v 232 Dind.) ort Tt/3e'/oio«f avrjyyeWev 
eirl rr)v avjK^rjTOv, ojare rov ^picTrov r pL<i KaiheKarov 
deov elvat' r) Se (TvyKXr^ro^ ovk (nreBi^aro, ware Kai riva 
aareievoiJbevov elirelv' ort rpisKaiSeKarov ovk he-)(^ea6e,Kai iTpoiro^i 5 
epx^rai. This writer wrote after Sozomen (i.e. after 439 a.d. 
Gorres in Jahrbb. 1875 212—9). The Clementines (hom. i 
6 seq. recogn. i 6 seq.) represent the fame of Christ as having 
reached Rome in autumn, He having come before the world in 
the spring of the same year\ Melito, in a famous passage (Eus. 10 
h. e. IV 26 § 7 = Otto apol ix 412. 434 — 5) says that 'our 
philosophy ' took its rise under Augustus, aiaiov ayadov for the 
empire. eKrore yap et? fieya Kal \afi7rp6v ro rwv Vu)[xaicov 
rjv^rjOrj Kpdro<;, ov av 8id8oxo<i evKraio<i yeyovd<i re Kai earj 
ixera rov 7rai86<;, (f^vXdaaoJV rr]<; /SacriXeta? rrjv avvTpo(f>ov Kal 15 
avvap^afxevrjv Avyovar(p (f)L\oao(f)iav, r]v Kal 01 irpoyovoL aov 
Trpo^ rai<i dX\aL<; dprfaKeiaL^i eTLfirjaav. See Winer Realworterb. 
Pilatus ad fin. Keim in Schenkel Bibel-Lexikon under Tiberius 
(v 535) and in Rom und das Christenthum (Berlin 1881, pp. 
167—171). No Grotius (on Matt. 24 11), no Pearson lect. iv 20 
14 15 in acta apost. (minor Theol. works, 1844, l 352 — 8) also 
concio II ad clerum (ibid. ii 15 — 28), Fabricius (salutaris lux 
evangelii, Hamburg 1731, pp. 221 — 2), Mosheim (De rebus 
Christianorum ante Constantinum, Hehnst. 1753, pp. 92 93), 
Lardner, Testimonies of ancient Heathen c. 2 § 1 (Works, 1829, 25 
VI 604 — 620), but upholders of tradition, as Dr Pusey (n. ad loc.) 
and Canon Churton (on Pearson l.c. ii 23 — 24, where he re- 
bukes Kaye's scepticism), or uncritical readers, like Lasaulx, 
now support Tertullian. Tanaquil Faber, Basnage, Dupin, 
Gibbon, were wiser in their day ; so too Bishop Kaye (102 — 5). 30 
See Lipsius ' Gospels, apocryphal ' in DCB ii 708 — 9 (Tert. and 
lustin. apol. I 35 p. 76*", 48 p. 84° imply the existence of a 
document drawn up in the form of official acta praesidialia). 
Rather they assume that the Roman archives contained an 
official report sent by PiUxtus to Tiberius. The extant forgery 35 
was founded on these notices of the early fathers and not con- 

^ Orig. c. Cels. ii 30 speaks of the pax Ilomana under Augustus as favorable 
to the diffusion of the Gospel over the world. 

174 TERTVLLIANI [p. 18 1. 26— 

versely (Lightfotit Ignatius i^ 55). cf. Kaye 103. 110. The 
character of Tiberius disproves the statement in the text (Suet. 
Tib. 69 circa deos ac religiones nefjlegentior, quippe addictus 
mathematicae plenusque persuasionis cuncta fato agi). Far from 
5 encouraging foreign rites(ibid. 36), externas caeremonias, Aegyp- 
tios ludaicosque ritus compescuit. Seneca's father seized the 
pretence of this persecution to wean the young Pythagorean 
from a bloodless diet (Sen. ep. 108 § 22) in Tiberii Caesaris 
principatuni iuuentae tempus inciderat. alienigena tuni sacra 

lo mouehantur, sed inter argumenta superstitionis ponebatur quo- 
rumdani animalium abstinentia. putre itaque meo rogante, qui 
non calumniam timebat, sed pliilosophiam oderat, ad prUtinain 
consuetudinem redii. Suppose that Pilate would have endorsed 
the biblical account of the trial and the Passion ; is it not 

15 certam that he would not have reported facts so injurious to 
his character for justice ? Lardner says (p. 611) "when he wrote 
to Tiberius, he <Pilate> would be very naturally led to say 
something of our Lord's wonderful resurrection and ascension, 
with which he could not possibly be unacquainted." We rather 

20 infer from the Bible (Matt. 28 14) that the governor was kept 
in ignorance of the resurrection. The Gospel of Peter supports 
indeed Lardners surmise. For writers of legends had no feeling 
for the tragic irony of history. The greatest event of human 
story passed unnoticed by the rulers of earth, ' not with obser- 

25 vation ' or pomp. If we would know how provincial governors 
reported executions of Christians to head quarters, we need but 
turn to Plin. ep. x 96 § 3 perseuerantes duci iussi. 

124 1. 15 uestros enim iam contestamur actus. c. 19 p. 04 1. 8 

30 reseranda antiquissimarum etiam gentium archiua. Scorpiace 15 
p. 178 1. 11 uitas Caesarum legimus: orientem fidem Romae 
primus Nero cruentauit. See the evidence in Clinton 
Fasti Romani A.D. 64 and 65. Eus. h. e. 11 25 § 4 quotes our 


FEROCISSE on the Neronian persecution see ind. general to 
Renans seven volumes, ' persecutions ' p. 213. Lightfoot ' St 

p. 20 1. 3] APOLOGETICVS 5 175 

Paul in Rome' (Philippians, 1 — 28). ind. 'Nero' to Clem. (both 
vohimes) and (on this passage) Ignatius l 23. Herm. Schiller 
Nero 424 — 439. comment. Mommsen 41 — 47 and Gesch. der 
rom. Kaiserzeit i 859. 445 — 450. Keim, Aus dem Urchristen- 
thum (1878), Arnold, Die neronische Christenverfolgung (1888). 5 
Lact. m. p. 2 § 6 (of Nero) primus omnium persecutus 
Dei seruos Petrum cruci adfixit et Paulum interfecit. 

Mommsen, rom. Geschichte v 520 seq., denies that the apo- 
cal^-pse pictures the Neronian persecution. The martyrs in the 
apocalypse suffer, not for burning Rome, but for refusing to 10 
worship the Caesars. He accordingly dates the prophecy, with 
Irenaeus, under Domitian. 

p. 18 1. 31 CVM MAXIME this expression was perfectly well 
explained by scholars until Hand, Tursellinus lii 599 — 603, 
following Priscian, took it as a particle of degree, rather than of 15 
time. As here, with a participle, spect. 10 (i p. 12 1. 7 Wiss.) 
Nam saepe censores nascentia cum maxime theatra destrue- 
hant moribus consulentes. Sen. ep. 95 § 14 fuit sine duhio, ut 
dicitis, uetus illa sapientia cum maxime nascens (at the very 
moment of its birth) rudis. Tac. ann. iv 27 coeptantem cum 20 
maxime seditionem disiecit. cf. Tert. bapt. 1. spect. 1. paen. 6. 

p. 20 1. 1 TALi df:dicatore DAMNATioNis NOSTRAE paenit. 
2 pr. semet ipso paenitentiam dedicauit. 

p. 20 1. 2 QVl ENIM SCIT ILLVM scio (savoir) for noui (con- 
naitre), and conversely, in late Latin. Ronsch Itala u. Vulgata 25 
380. Sil. VI 168 scire nemus pacemque loci explorare lihehat. 
Commodian. apol. 46. 172. 576. Lamprid. Alex. 45 § 3 omnes 
amhtdahant, ne dispositionein Romanorum harhari scirent. 
Hier. ep. 130 12 pr. imitare sponsum tuum, esto auiae matrique 
suhiecta. nullum uirorum, et maxime iuuenum, nisi cum illis, 30 
uideas. nullum scias, quem illae nesciant. id. uit. Hilarion. 
42 i. plerisque asser^entihus scire se quidem Hilarionem et uere 
illum esse famulum Dei, sed uhi esset ignorare. Apul. herb. 6 1. 
75. Paulin. uita Ambros. 30 sed cum in conuiuio a regihus 
gentis suae interrogaretur, utrum sciret Ambrosium, et respon- 35 
disset nosse se uirum. (In Sil. and Lamprid. scire—cognuscere, 
a use found by Madvig in Cic. and Liv}-.) 


176 TERTVLLIANI [p. 20 1. 3— 

DE CRVDELiTATE cited by Eus. h. e. iii 20 § 7. Cf. luii. iv 38 n. 
caluo serairet Roma Neroni. Eus. h. e. Ill 17 itoWtjv ye iu,7]v 
€l<i 7roXXov<; €7ri86i^d/xevo<i o AofieTi,avb<; (o/noTriTa. ..reXevrcov 
T)7<? l^ ipwvoq deoe^x^d p La<; re Kai Oeofjia^^^^ia^ hidho-^^^ov 
5 eavrov KaTeary^aaro. Sevrepo<i Srjra rov Ka6' r^ixwv dve- 
KLvet hiayy fiov, KaLrrep rov 7rarpb<i avrov OveaTrao-iavov firjSev 
Kad' TjfiMV droTTOv €7rivo^aavro<;. Melito ibid. IV 26 § 9 /j-ovol 
rrdvrwv dvaTreLcrdevTe^i vtto tlvwv ^aaKnvayv dvdpcorroiv rbv Ka6' 
rjfid<; ev SLa^oXf/ Karaarrjaai Xoyov r/di>^T]aav ^epwv Kai Ao- 

lo fi€riav6<i, d(f>' wv Kal ro rP/<; avKO(^avrLa<; dX6y(p avvr/OeicL Tvepl 
rov<; TOLovrov<; pvrjvaL avfi/3e^i]Ke yfrevSo^;. On the persecution 
under Domitian see Lightfoot, Clement l- and ii- indd. ' Domi- 
tian.' Herm. Schiller, Geschichte der rom. Kaiserzeit i 576 — 9. 
Keim, Rom. u. d. Christenthum, ind. 'Domitian.' Renan, index 

15 general, 'Domitien.' 

p. 20 1. 4 DE CRVDELITATE c. 9 p. 30 1. 31 louem Chris- 
tianum et solum patris Jilium de crudelitate! 

p. 20 ibid. QVA et homo c. 30 pr. p. 96 1. 9 sciunt quis 
illis dederit imperium, sciunt, qua homines, quis et animani. 


QVOS RELEGAVERAT Lightfoot, Clement, I- 41 n. 3 "Tert. speaks 
as if Domitian himself had recalled the exiles. This father 
must, I imagine, have had in his mind the story which Hege- 
sippus tells (Eus. h. e. iii 19), how Domitian was so impressed 

25 with the poverty and simplicity of the grandsons of Jude that 
he not only set them free, but also 'by an injunction stopped 
the persecution of the Church.' But this is inconsistent with 
the representations of all other writers, both heathen and 
Christian, who ascribe the restitution of Domitian's victims to 

30 his successor Nerva." 


XATOS RESTITVERE SOLITI ESTis see Lact. mort. pers. Eus. uit. 
Const. II 24 §§ 1 2. 26 § 2. 54. orat. Constantini ad sanctorum 
35 coetum (ad calc. Eus. uit. Const.) c. 24 (of the miserable ends of 
Decius, Valerian and Aurelian). INSKCVTORES add to lexx. lul. 
Val. II c. 15 fin. Ennod. p. 3 1. 1 (Lewis-Short omits the refer- 
ence to Prud., given by Riddle-White). 

p. 20 1. 11] APOLOGETICVS 5 177 

p. 20 1. 11 M. AVRELii Bluiit Church in the first three 
centuries 284 — 294. Under him Justin, Melito, Athenagoras, 
Theophilus, Tatian, Miltiades, all wrote apologies. Keim, Rom 
u. d. Christenthum, ind. under ' Markus Aurelius.' Lightfoot 
Ignatius l^ 460 seq. ' The Church and the Empire under Ha- 5 
drian, Pius and Marcus' (cf. ind. ' Marcus Aurelius'). Renan, 
index general 'Marc-Aurele ' p. 169. Herm. Schiller Kaiserzeit 

I 682 6. Melito in Eus. h. e. iv 26 § 5 gives a gloomy picture 
of the Church under Aurelius: t6 yap ovSeTrcoTroTe <yev6/ji€vov, 
vvv hiwKeTai to tmv deoae^wv yevo<;, KaivoL^; e\avv6fievov S07- 10 
fjbaai KaTu Trjv ^Aalav. 01 yip dvaiSel^ avKO(f)dvTai Kal tcov 
(iWoTpiwv epaaTal, Trjv eK tmv BLaTay/j-dTOJv e-x^ovTe^i d(popfn]v, 
<pavep(b(; XjjaTevovai vvKT(op Kal fxed^ rip.epav hLapird^ovTes tov^ 
/xTjBev dBLKovvTa<;. See the martyrdoms of the faithful in Lugu- 
dunum (Eus. h. e. v 1). cf lustin. Apol il 2. Clinton, Fasti 15 
Romani A.D. 177 col. 4. Neumann Der rom. Staat u. d. allg. 
Kirche i (1890) 28—39. 

a spurious letter is printed by Otto at the end of lustin. apol. 

II (i^ 246 — 252), and (with the evidence for the miracle of the 20 
thundering legion) in Lightfoot (Ignatius i' 469 — 476). Haenel, 
Corpus legum 120 — 1 and add. 271. Clinton, Fasti Rom. 
append. pp. 22—26. Otto, Corpus Apolog. ix (1872) 486—491 
(on a fragment of Apollinaris in Eus. h. e. V 5 § 4). Lightfoot 
(pp. 473 — 4) "The simple fact that M. Aurelius wrote to the 25 
Senate is mentioned, as we have seen (lxxi 10 | 5 Kal ttj 
yepova-L(i eireaTeLXev) by Dion. The emperor could hardly have 
done otherwise. Tertullian hazards the assertion that in this 
letter mention was made of the prayers of the Christians. 
Accordingly he claims M. Aurelius as a protector of the Chris- 30 
tians. But the very language in which he asserts his claim 
shows that he had no direct and personal knowledge of any such 
letter; ' silittev&eM.. A.\xre\\i...requirantur.' Here he assumes 
that if sought among the archives the letter would be found. 
Just in the same way he elsewhere (apol. 21) refers his heathen 35 
readers to the official reports which Pilate sent to Tiberius after 
the trial of Christ. He did ndt doubt that both documents 
would be found in the archives. Yet this hazard of Tertullian 

M. T. 12 

178 TERTVLLIANI [p. 20 1. 11— 

is apparently the sole foundation on which later statements are 
built." Eus. h. e. V 5 § 5 fxnpTVi Se tovtcov yevoiT av a^io- 
^pe(W9 o TepTvWiavo^...^ 6 ypdcf^et 8' ovv Koi avTO<i Xe^toi/ 
Map/cou Tov (TvveTcoTciTov /3aortX,ea)9 eTriaToXd^ elaeTi vvv (f^epe- 
5 crOat K.T.X. Keim Rom u. d. Christenthum, 632 — 4. 

TVR c. 40 f. p! 118 1. 25 denique cum ab imhrihus aestiua hiherna 
suspendunt,...uos quddem...aqualicia loui immolatis ; nos 

lo uero ieiuniis aridi et omni continentia expressi, ah omni uitae 
fruge dilati, in sacco et uolutantes inuidia caelum tundimus, 
Deum tangimus, et cum misericordiam extorserimus, luppiter 
honoratur. ad Scap. 4 (p. 548 1. penult.) Marcus quoque Aure- 
lius in Germanica expeditione Christianorum militum 

15 orationibus ad Deum factis imbres in siti illa impetra- 
uit. quando non geniculationihus et ieiunationihus nostris etiam 
siccitates sunt depulsae: tunc et populus acclamans Deo deoruni, 
qui solus potens, in louis nomine Deonostro testimonium reddidit. 
de orat. 29 pr. (p. 199 1. 9 Wiss.) ceterum quanto amplius operatur 

20 oratio Ghristiana! (1. 17) nimc uero oratio iustitiae omnem iram 
Dei auertit, pro inimicis excuhat, pro persequentihus supplicat. 
mirum si aquas caelestes extorquere nouit, quae potuit et ignes im- 
petrare? See Clinton, F. R., a.d. 174. Kaye x, xi, 99 seq. Blunt, 
First three centuries, 294 — 6. Mosheim, Comment. rerum 

25 christianarum ante Const. 247 — 252. Martigny, Dict. des ant. 
chret. (1877) p. 418. Keim, Rom u. d. Christenthum, 628— 
634. Kraus, Real-Encycl. d. christl. Alterthiimer, under Legio 
fulminatrix. Lardner, Credibility pt li ch. 15 (Works, 1829, Vil 
176 — 198). He shows that the King who defended the miracle 

30 against Moyle was not (as Mosheim thought) Peter King, lord- 
chancellor. Classical Review 1895, p. 141 b. E. Petersen Blitz- 
und Regenwunder an der Marcus-Saule, Rhein. Mus. L (1895) 
pp. 453 ff. [Mommsen, Gesammelte Schriften, Bd iv pp. 498 ff. 
A. S.] 



Blunt Right Use 346. Eus. h. e. v 5 § 6 tovtov <M. Aurelius> 

p. 20 1. 20] APOLOGETICVS 5 179 

8e (pTjat <Tert.> kuI davarov (iTreiXrjaat rot? Karr^yopecv ij/jlwv 
eTTLX^ipovcnv. To this refers v 21 § 3 dX>C 6 fxev SelXaio^i <the 
accuser of Apollonius> irapa Kaipov rrjv 8ik7]v elaeXdcov, otl /xrj 
^rjv i^ov rjv Kara ^aa iXikov opov rov^ rdov roiwvhe /jLr]vvrd<i, 
avriKa Kardyvvrac rd aKeXrj, YlepevvLOv SiKaarov roLavrrjv Kar 5 
avTov yjrPicfiov diTeveyKavTo<;. cf. K. J. Neumann, der rom. Staat 
u. d. allg. Kirche i (1890) 81. Celsus (in Orig. viii 69, p. 213 
Lomm.) implies that under Aurelius inquisitio was made: vfidjv 
8e Kav TrXavdrai rt? eri Xavddvcdv, dXXd ^rjrelrat 7rp6<; Oavdrov 
SiKrjv. Athenag. i p. l''^ you (Aurelius and Commodus) by 10 
your prudence secure profound peace to the empire. We 
Christians alone are shut out from your providence, avyxoipetre 
8e /j.r]Bev dhtKovvra<;...eXavvea6at Kal ^epeadat Kal SicaKeadat. 

p. 20 1. 18 TRAIAXVS c. 2 p. 6 1. 31 n. Keim Rom u. d. Chris- 
tenthum, 512 — 541. Lightfoot, Tgnatius, indd. to both volumes, 15 
Blunt Right Use 340—5. 

p. 20 1. 19 HADRIAXVS Melito in Eus. h. e. iv 26 § 10 per- 
secutions, instigated (§ 9) by Nero and Domitian, repressed by 
Hadrian and Antoninus. Lightfoot Ignatius i' 442 (cf. ind. 
' Hadrian ') " only one recorded martyrdom under Hadrian is 20 
absolutely certain...the death of the Roman bishop Telespho- 
rus " (Iren. iii 3 4). Renan vi 5 6. 31 seq. The apologies of 
Quadratus and Aristides (this last newly discovered), of Apelles 
and Aristo appeared in this reign. 

p. 20 ibid. OMNiVM cvriositatvm explorator lulian. 25 
Caes. 31 1*^*^ after Trajan enters dvrjp aol3ap6^ rd re uXXa Kal 87} 
Kal fxovatKrjv epya^o/xevo^, et'? re rov ovpavov acf^opcov TToXXaKi^ 
Kal TroXviTpay /Jbovwv rd diroppr/ra. DCass. LXIX 5 § 1 (cf 
Suid. ' Khptav6<i) finwvro /xev Sr/ . . avroii Kal t6 irdvv dKpLJ3e<; 
Kal To Treptepyov Kal r6 iToXvir pay /jlov. 11 § 3 rd re ydp 30 
ciXXa irepLepyoraro^i WSpiavo^, oyairep eLirov, eyevero, Kal 
/iavreiat<i /xayyaveian; re TravToSaTraU e^/a/jro. Spartian. Hadr. 
11 § 4 e^ erat curiosus non solum donius suae sed etiani ami- 
corum, ita ut per frumentanos occulta omnia escploraret. Re- 
member his restless travels, e.g. to the statue of Memnon, and 2,^ 
his proficiency in many arts. Renan vi 4, 9 seq., 23, 37 n. 3, 
40. His relation to Christianity id. ind. general p. 4 col. 1. 

p. 20 1. 20 VESPASIANVS Eus. h. e. iii 17 f. see in Light- 


180 TERTVLLIANI [p. 20 1. 20— 

foot, Ignatius, i^ 15 16 the evidence of Hilary and Sulpicius 
Seuerus for persecutions under Vespasian and Titus. 

p. 20 1. 20 DEBELLATOR above p. 20 1. 9 : also cited from 
Verg. and Stat. and vulg. (one ex. each). Add Claud. iv cons. 
5 Hon. 28. Hier. in cant. tr. 2 col. 528. 

p. 20 1. 21 Pivs Keim, Rora u. d. Christenthum, 570 — 6. 
Lightfoot, Ignatius, i ind. p. 493 " The reign of Antoninus Pius, 
which has been regarded as a period of unbroken peace for the 
Church, is found to be stained with the blood of not a few 
lo martyrs." ibid. 629 — 695 he dates the martyrdom of Polycarp 
A.D. 155. Renan, ind. gen^ral 14 col. 1. 

p. 20 1. 21 VERVS no special persecutions are attributed 
to him. 

Cap. VI 

p. 20 1. 24 RELiGiosissiMi c. 9 p. 30 1. 27 in illa religio- 
15 sissima urhe Aeneadarum. 

p. 20 1. 25 PROTECTORES c. 4 p. 16 1. 11 de legihus prius 
concurram uohiscum ut cum tutorihus legum. 

p. 20 11. 25 — 27 RESPONDEANT...SI...EXORBITAVERVNT ou 
si = num and indic. in or. obl. see c. 21 p. 74 1. 23 n., Oehler on 
20 ad Mart. 2 (i p. 7 8). 

p. 20 1. 27 IN NVLLO = wM^^a in re cor, 10. idol. 11 m. in 
nullo necessarius esse deheo alii. Rufin. h. e. I 1 p. 14. vi 31 
p. 388. IX 8 p. 522 f. X 11. los. ant. 11 9 p. 50 a.m. 49 m. 11 12 
p. 55. II 13 p. 56 m. & p.m. bis. 
25 EXORBITAVERVNT infr. 9 p. 34 1. 6. 16 p. m. n. ad nat. i 13. 
II 2. exhort. cast. 5 f. scorp. 3 f. Isid. off. iii 39 (lexx. cite 
Lact. Aug. Sid.). 

p. 20 1. 28 OBLITTERAVERVNT monog. 3 p. m. ad ux. 11 3. 
I 6 pr. Att, Cic. Catull. Liu. Tac. Suet. 
30 p. 20 1. 28 SVMPTVM Arn. 11 67 Jiam si midaj^e sententiam cidpa 
est ulla uel crimen et a ueterihus institutis in alias res nouas 
uoluntatesque migrare, criminatio ista et uos spectat, qui totiens 
uitam consuetudinemque mutastis, qui in mores alios atque alios 
ritus priorum condemnatione transistis...leges 
35 cohihendis censorias sumptihus ? in penetralihus et culinis per- 
petuos fouetis focos. 

p. 22 1. 6] APOLOGETICVS 5, 6 181 

p. 20 1. 29 CEXTVM AERA Saluian. gub, 1 § 10 fin. 

p. 20 1. 30 SVBSCRIHI 18 sed ne notitia uacaret, hoc quoque 
a ludaeis Ptolemaeo subscriptum est. uirg. uel. 10 ce7^ti sunius 
Spiritum sanctum magis mascidis tale aliquid subscribere 
potuisse, si feminis subsciipsisset. idol. 18 festis diebus et 5 
aliis extraordinariis sollenmitatibus, quas interdma lascimae 
interdum timiditati nostrae subscribimus. 

p. 20 1. 31 SAGINATAM pall. 5 f. praecidam gulani...qua Aufi- 
dius Lurco primus sagina corpora uitiauit et coactis alimentis in 
adulterinum prouexit saporem. Mart. Xlll 62 pascitur et dulci lo 
cet. inscr. auium fartor. auiarius altiliarius (Orelli 286G). 
fartores Colum. viii 7 1. curator gallinarius Varro lli 9 7. lex 
Fannia B.c. 161. Plin. ad Trai. 50 (71) § 139 galUnas saginare 
Deliaci coepere, unde pestis exorta opimas aues et suopte corpore 
unctas deuorandi. hoc primum antiquis cenarum interdictis 15 
exceptuni inuenio iani lege C. Fanni cos. XI annis ante tertium 
Punicum belluni, ne quid uolucre poneretur praeter unam galli- 
nam quae non esset altilis, quod deinde caput translatuni per 
omnes leges ambulauit. i.e. C. Fannius Strabo [Pauly-Wissowa 
Bd VI 1994 A. S.]. cf. Rein in Pauly s.u. 'sumptus.' 20 

p. 20 l. 32 DECEM PONDO Plut. Sull. 1 pr. 

p. 22 1. 1 THEATRA...DESTRVEBANT spect. 10 theatrum 
piroprie sacrarium Veneris est. hoc denique modo id genus 
operis in saeculo eu.asit. nam saepe censores nascentia cum 
maxime theatra destruebant, moribus consulentes, qnorum scihcet 25 
periculum ingens de lasciuia prouidebant, ut iam hic ethnicis in 
testimonium cedat sententia ipsorum nobiscum faciens et nobis in 
exaggerationem disciplinae etiam humanae praerogatiua. Oros. 
IV 21 4. Y. M. II 4 2. Plin. h. n. xvii 25 § 244. Dio LVII 11. 
Tiberius banished actors. Marquardt ill- 530 n. 6. 30 

p. 22 1. 2 DiGNiTATVM Herald digress. i 6 p. 203 — 4. 

p. 22 1. 3 Gell. II 24 § 2—15. Macrob. iii 17. 'sumptuariae 
leges' dict. ant. 

p. 22 1. 5 PARVM EST Si idol. 7 m. p. sit si ab aliis mani- 
bus accipiant quod contaminent. patient. 3 m. parmn hoc, si non 35 
etiam proditorem suum secum habuit. 

p. 22 1. 6 FLAGRA RVMPENTivM luu. 6 479 YvieAX.hic frangit 
ferulas; 8 247 nodosam p>osthac frangebat uertice uitem n. (and 

182 TERTVLLIANI [p. 22 1. 6— 

in Journ. Phil. XX 289 f.) of a parasite. Sid. ep. iii 13 § 5 
uesicarum ruptor fractorque ferularum. 

p. 22 1, 9 PROSTIBVLAS Hier. ep. 84 § 7 (i b2^^) gl. Par, 
p. 251 n. 492. Ambr. in ps. 118 s. 1 § 12. fr. Plaut 
5 p. 22 1. 10 cmcA c. 2 p. 10 1. 5. 

p. 22 1. 13 OBPIGNORASSET 1 ex. each (not this) from Ter. 
Cic. Sen. Mart. in lexx. 

ANVLO de idolol. 16 cii^ca ojjicia v£ro priuatarum et com- 
munium sollemnitatum, ut togae purae, ut sponsalium,. . .nullum 

lo putem periculum obseruari de flatu idololatriae, quae inter- 
uenit....eas mundas esse opinor per semetipsas, quia neque 
uestitus uirilis neque alicuius idoli honore descendit, 
Bingham xxii 3 5. Selden uxor hebr. 2 14 & 2o. Bailey 
Rituale Anglo-Cath, p. 316 (citing Clem. Al. paed. iii c. 11 § 57 

15 p. 287 1. 26). 

p. 22 1. 15 CELLAE viNARiAE Vitr. Phn, Apul. (add Met. ix 
34) Plin. XIV I 89 non licebat id feminis Romae bibere. imienimus 
inter exempla Egnati Metenni uxorem, quod uinum bibisset e 
dolio, interfectam fusti a marito, eumque caedis a Roimdo abso- 

2o lutum. Fabius Pictor in annalibus suis scripsit matronam, quod 
loculos in quibus erant claues cellae uinariae resignauisset, a suis 
inedia mori coactam. Arn. ii 67 f. (Ehnenh. p. 102. Hildebr. 
p. 234) matres familias uestrae in atriis operantur domorum 
industrias testiftcantes suas? potionibus abstinent uini? adfi- 

25 nihus et propinquis osculari eas ius est, ut sobrias comprobent 
atque abstemias se esse ? Migne xvii 437^ [Study of Ambro- 
siaster p. 30; Ps.-Aug. Quaest, Vet. et Nou. Test, 115 § 26. 
A. S,] 

p, 22 1, 16 METENNio Mommsen Strafrecht 19 1 (no ex- 

30 ample of the exercise of this right except aetiological legends) 
" Den Egnatius Mecennius, welcher seine Frau wegen uner- 
laubten Weintrinkens mit einem Knittel erschlagen hat, spricht 
Konig Romulus frei (V. M. vi 3 9. Plin. l.c, Tert, Seru. 
Aen. I 737. verallgemeinert Dion. Hal. 11 25. Polyb, vi ll'' 4 

35(540, 4 Hultsch; 496, 33 Bekker; ed. Btittner-Wobst vol, 11 
p, 253)). Diese Erzahlung soll wohl die urspriinglich dem 
Ehemann zustehende Gewalt iiber Leben und Tod der Ehefrau 
erlautern. Wegen eines ahnlichen Vergehens wird eine Frau 

p. 22 1. 26] APOLOGETICVS 6 183 

von den Ihrigen {sui) zuni Hungertod verurtheilt. Fabius in 
Plin. ].c." So Fatua in Lact. i 22. 

p. 22 1. 17 oscvLA Arn. ii 67 fin. (among obsolete fashions) 
cited above. Gell. x 23. Athen. x 13. Plut.qu.Rom. 6. Plin. 
XIV § 90 Cafo ideo propinquos feminis oscnlum dare vt scirent 5 
an temetum olerent. hoc tnm nomen uino erat, unde et temulentia 
appellata. Cn. Domitius iudex pronuntiauit mulierem uideri 
plus uini hibisse quam ualetudinis causa uiro insciente, et dote 

p. 22 1. 19 SEXCENTOS Hier. Mag. misc. 2 15. Marquardt 10 
Privatleb. i 69 n. 2. 

p. 22 1. 20 SCRIPSIT properly misit. Marquardt Privatleb. I 
76 n. 1. 

p. 22 1. 21 PRA£ AVRO cet. cult. fem. I 9 f. Plin. xxxiii 
§§ 39 — 40 ideni enim tu, Brute, midierum pedibus aurum ges- 15 
tatum tacuisti et nos sceleris arguimus illum qui primus auro 
dignitatem yer anulos fecit ! habeant in lacertis iam quidem et 
uiri, quod ex Dardanis uenit — itaque et Dardanium uocahatur . . . , 
haheant feniinae in armHlis digitisque totis, collo, aurihus, spi7'is; 
discurrant catenae circa latera et in secreto margaritarum sacculi 20 
e collo dominarum uureo pendeant, ut in somno quoque unionum 
conscientia adsit ; etiamne pedihus induetur atque inter stolam 
plehemque hunc medium feminarum equestrem ordinem faciet? 
Arn. II 67 f. cited above. 

p. 22 1. 22 VOTVM i.e. nuptiae. ad nat. II 11 lin. Apul. fior. 25 
I 4 p. 18 togam parari uoto et funeri. met. iv 26 p. 293 uotis 
nuptialihus pacto iugali destinatus. dig. Testament. ludicr. 
M. Grunnii Corocottae sorori meae Quirinae, cuius in uotum 
interesse non potui. Sen. ben. Ill 16 exeunt matrimonii causa, 
nubunt repudii. 30 

p. 22 1. 23 ciRCA 2 p. 10 1. 5. 

p. 22 1. 25 LiBERVM B.c. 186. ad nat. i 10 p. 75 28 seq. Wiss. 
where also Serapis, Isis, cet. Aug. C. D. viii 9. xviii 13 p.m. 
Firmicus de errore prof. rel. Q%Q cet. Preller rom. Myth. 716. 
Marquardt iii^ 42 n. 2. Bayle oeuvres iii 368. 35 

p. 22 1. 26 ELIMINAVERVNT ad nat. ii 7 (p. 107 13 Wiss.) 
criminatores deoi^um poetas eliminari Plato censuit. l 10 (p. 75 
28 Wiss.) certe Liherum patrem cum socru sua consides senatus 

184 TERTVLLIANI [p. 22 1. 26— 

auctoHtate non urhe solum modo, uermn tota Italia elimina- 
uerunt. Sid. ep. 1 2. Liu. xxxix 16 8. 

p. 22 1. 27 SERAPIDEM cet. ad nat. 1 10 (cited next page). Cic. 

n. d. III § 47. Minuc. 21 § 5 despice sis Isidis ad hirundinem, 

5 sistrum et adsparsis memhris inanem tui Serapidis siue Osiridis 

tumulum. § 7 Isis perditum filium cum Cynocephalo suo et caluis 

sncerdotihiis luget, plangit, inquirit § 8 haec tamen Aegyptia 

quondam, nunc et sacra Romana sunt. Preller rona. Mythol. 
727 seq. (= II 378 seq.). Marquardt iii- 78 n. 1 and 6. 79 n. 9. 
10 77 n. 6. cf. n. 5 and n. 4. Renan les apotres 342 n. 1. Isis 
worshipped by Caracalla (Spart. who says that Commodus carried 
an Anubis) cf. Lampr. Al. Seu. 26 § 8 (Isis and Serapis). 

p. 22 1. 27 CYNOCEPHALO scorp. 1 p. 146 11 Wiss. Cypr. ad 
Demetrian. 12 crocodili et cynocephali et Uipides et serpentes 
15 coluntur, et Deus solus in terris aut non colitur aut non impune 
colitur. Aug. C. D. ii 14. iii 12. [Ps.-Aug. Quaest. Vet. et 
Nou. Test. 114 § 11 A.S.] Drexler in Roscher 'Hermanubis' 
col. 2314. 

p. 22 1. 28 CAPiTOLio Marquardt iii- 41 n. 7 called de spect. 

20 12 (p. 15 11 Wiss.) omnium daemonum templum. Arnob. 11. 

73 quid 1 uos Aegyptiaca numina, quibus Serapis atque Isis est 

nomen, non post Pisonem et Gabinium consules in numerum 

uestrorum rettidistis deorum^ 

p. 22 1. 29 GABiNivs B.c. 58. ad nat. i 10 p 76 5 Wiss. 

25 sed tamen et Gabinius consul Kalendis lanuariis, cum uix 

hostias probaret prae popidarium coetu, quia nihil de Serape 

et Iside constituisset, potiorem habuit senatus censuram quam 

impetum uulgi, et aras institui prohibuit. 

p. 22 1. 32 ad nat. i 10 p. 74 22 Wiss. de reliqua uero con- 
30 uersationis humanae dispositione p>alam subiacet, quanta a ma- 
ioribus mutaueritis, cultu habitu apparatu ipsoque uictu ipsoque 

p. 22 1. 33 INSTRVCTV one ex. marked air. elp. in LS (from 

Cic.) add 41 pr. de an. 19 pr. Apul. met. XI 30. Seru. Aen. 

35 V 402. Paulin Nol. ep. 3 3. Dirksen raanuale. Symm. ep. 

5 11. 20 § 2. Gen. 12 37 ap. Aug. quaest. in Exod. 47 

[= aTToaKevr]. A. S.]. 

p. 24 1. 1 RENVNTIASTIS 38 n. 

p. 24 ]. 13J APOLOGETICVS 6, 7 185 

p. 24 1. 1 ad nat. i 10 p. 74 20 Wiss. de legihus quidem 
iam supra dictum est, quod eas nouis de die consultis constitutis- 
que obruistis. 

NOVE Plaut. Cornific. (once). Sen. rhet. Gell. [add Iren. lat. 
quater, Nouat. Vincent. A. S.]. 5 

p. 24 1. 6 PRiNCiPALiTER in this sense scorp. 2 f. Sol.'dig. 
Marc. Emp. p. 349 17. Paulin. Nol. ep. 24 8. 

TRANSGRESSloxis cult. fem. II 5 p. m. cor. 11 bis. ad nat. i 
10 a. m. p. 75 3 Wiss. Aug. Ambr. [also Cypr. Ambst. Hier, 
Rufin. etc. A. S.]. lo 

p. 24 1. 8 lAM ROMANO Luc. IX 158 euoluam busto numen 
iam gentihus Isim. Of Serapis, Horus in Macr. I 7 § 15 nidlum 
itaque Aegypti oppidum intra muros suos aut Saturni aut 
Serapis famnn recepit. § 16 horum alterum uix aegreque a 
uobis admissum audio. 15 

p. 24 1. 8 RESTRVXERiTis ad nat. I 10 p. 76 2 Wiss. ceterum 
Serapem et Isidem et Arpocraten et Anubem prohibitos Capitolio 
Varro commemorat, eorumque aras a senatu deiectas non nisi 
per uim popidarium restructas. Seru. Aen. viii 698 Varr-o de- 
dignatur Alexandrinos deos Romae coli. Suid. e^yKareaKrjy^av' 20 
To, Tcov AlyvTTTicov KaTo. TCL iv ^ A\e^av8p€La TToXet iyKareaKTjylre 
Kal rfi 'Voj fxrj- Ovdppwv. restruere only cited from Tert. (one 
other reference). [I have found it once in Iren. lat. A.S.] 

p. 24 1. 12 MANIFESTIORA 9 fin, 

Cap. VII 

p. 24 1. 13 DiciMVR cet. 1 Pet. 2 11—12. 3 16. 4 4. Robert 25 
Turner M.A, fell. S. Joh. Cambr. vic. S. Pet. Colchester. The 
calumnies upon the primitive Christians accounted for. Or, an 
enquiry into the grounds, and causes of the charge of incest, 
infanticide, atheism, ono-latria, or ass-worship, sedition, cet. 
laid against the Christians, in the three first centuries. Lond. 30 
Bonwicke 1727. 8. Kaye 403. lustin. apol. 11 2 courage of 
Christians disproves the charge of lust. Some heathen slaves 
of Christians, fearing torture, and instigated by the soldiers 
(Eus. h. e. V 1 § 14) KareyjrevaavTO TJfiwv ^veareia helrrva Kai 
OlSnroSeiov^ fiL^ei^;. cf. lustin. apol. II 12 13. I 10 23 27. 35 

186 TERTVLLIANI [p. 24 1. 13— 

Hier. ep. 41. 4 pr. Bonwetsch Montan. 40. Epiph. and 
Philastr. probably do not follow Tert., as this reproach is nowhere 
else found in contemporary literature. Tert. ieiun. 13 seems 
not to know of it (but see Praedest. haer. 26). These reproaches 

5 long obsolete. Tert. cult. fem. ii 4. lustin.c. Tryph. 10 pr. p. 227^ 

Carjtocrates Clem. Al. strom. Iil 2 §§ o — 8 p. 511 P. Eus. h. e. 

IV 7 §§9 — 11 [Tat. 25 fin.]. Aug. haer. 7. Praedestinat. haer. 48 

14. Philastr. haer. 21 49. Thdt [ix 33 p. 128, 40(?) A. S.]. 

p. 24 1. 13 SACRAMENTO Kaye 336 — 7. On these charges 

lo see Semisch lustin. d. Mart. ii 100 seq. Athenag. suppl. 31 3 
rpia i7n^7]fiL^ovaiv rj/jilv e<yK\r]ixaTa, (l) adeoTTjra, (ll) ^vecrreia 
SetTTva, (iil) OtStTToSe/of? fii^€i<;. He handles l c. 4 — 30. iii 
c. 32—34. II c. 35—6. lustin. dial. 10. apol. i 26 fin. (of philo- 
sophers) el 8e Kal ra SvcT(f)r)/xa eKeiva /ivdo\o<yov /leva kpya 

15 Trpdrrovcri, Xv^^viafi fjuev dvarpoirrjv Kai ra<i dveBrjv /xt^et?, /cat 
dvdpcoTTelcov aapKMV /3opd<;, ov jivQiaKo/u,ev. Tatian 25 f. av- 
dpo)7ro(f)ajiav. 32 daeXyeiav. Theophil. III 15 dhiac^opw^; ^r]v Kal 
av/x(j)vpeada(, ral^ d6e/iiroL<i /li^eaiv. ib. aapKOiv (iv6pu)7rei(i>v 
ec^d-rrreadaL. Minuc. 9 and 31. Eus. h. e. IV 7 § 11 says that 

20 the real enormities of the Carpocratians were ascribed to all 
Christians. See impr. Christiani Kortholti de uita et moribus, 
Christianis primaeuis per gentilium malitiam afiictis liber 
Kilonii 1683. 4to. c. 9 pp. 94—151. Clem. Al. str. iii p. 430 
says of the disciples of Prodicus ro Karaiaxvvov avrwv rr/v 

25 TTopviKrjv ravrr/v htKaLoavvr/v eKTrohoiv Trotr/aa/ievovi ^w? rfj 
rov \v)(yov irepLrpoTrf/ /jLiyvva6aL (Gnostics Epiphan. 26). 
These charges, originated by Jews (ad nat. l 14), nearly 
obsolete. Orig. Cels. vi 27 f 40. Baur Gesch. der drei ersten 
Jahrh.- 374 n. 2. 375 n. 1 (same reports in cent. 4 against the 

30 Euchites (Psellus de operat. daemonum ed. Boissonade Norim- 
bergae. 1838 p. 8)). Philastr. haer. 57. Kortholt Pag. Obtr. 99. 
546 sq. lo. Bona rer. liturg. i c. 4. Lardner 11 337 — 8. Incest 
and infanticide Salu. gub. iv § 85 ap. La Cerda. Bingham XV 
7 10. Philastr. haer. 29 (59) de Carpocratianis. cf Bingham 

35 XXII 1 § 3. 

INFANTICIDII ad nat. i 7 p. 68 11 Wiss. Cynics allowed can- 
nibalism. DL. vi 73. Epiphanius cet. make same charge against 
Montanists. Isid. Pelus. ep. l 242 r/ Movravov /3\aa(f)r]/iia 

p. 24 1. 19] APOLOGETICVS 7 187 

7raiSoKToviat.<;, ^ioix^^cti^f Te Kal el8(oXo\aTpeLai<; avvTldeTai. 
Cyrill. Hier. cat. 16 8 o MovTavo^; 6 a6\iwTaT0<; Kal irdcrr]'; 
dKadapaLa<i Kal daeXjeia'; 7re7rXr]p(ofievo<i cet. Rufin. h. e. V 
16. 18. VII p. 188. 

p. 24 1. 15 CANES 8 discumbens dinumera loca, ubi mater, 5 
libi sor^or; nota diligenter, ut, cum tenebrae ceciderint caninae, 
non erres. piaculum enini adniiseris, nisi incestuni feceris. 
(Cf. the appeal of Marie Antoinette to all mothers) 8 lower 
clown candelabra et lucernae, et canes aliqui et offulae, quae 
illos ad euersionem luminum extendant : ante omnia cum matre 10 
et sorore tua uenire debebis. omn. ad nat. i 2 p. 61 20 Wiss. 
Minuc. 9 § 6 illic post midtas epidas, ubi conuiuium caluit et 
incestae libidinis, ebrietatis feruor exarsit, canis qui candelabro 
nexus est, iactu offulae extra spatium lineae, qua uinctus est, ad 
impetum et saltum prouocatur : sic euerso et extincto conscio 15 
lumine, impudentibus tenebris nexus infandae cupiditatis inuol- 
uuntur per incertum sortis: et si non omnes opera, conscientia 
tamen pariter incesti ; quoniam uoto uniuersorum appetitur, 
quicquid accidere potest in actu singulorum. cf. Rufin. h. e. IX 0, 
and on the darkness h. e. XI 25. lustin c. Tryph. 10 p. 227^ 20 

TENEBRARVM pudic. 22 p. 271 17 Wiss. uiolantur uiri ac 
feminae in tenebris jilane ex usu libidinum notis, ad nat. I 16 pr. 
uentum est ad horam lucernarum et caninum ministerium et 
ingenia tenebrarum. quo in loco metuo ne cedam. quid enim 
tale in uobis detinebo ? uerum iam laudate consilium incesti 25 
uerecundi, quod adulteram noctem commenti sumus, ne aut lucem 
aut ueramnoctem contaniinaremus,quod etiam luminibus terrenis 
parcendum eodstimauimus. 

p. 24 1. 15 INVERECVNDIAM paen. 6 ^. praesumptio inuerecun- 
diae portio est. 3° 

p. 24 1. 17 ERVERE ad nat. I 16 fin. cf. apol. 2 n. Oehler. 

p. 24 1. 19 PRAESCRIBITVR ad nat. I 3 p. 62 21 \Y iss. prae- 
scribitur enim uobis non posse crimina obicere, quae neque 
institidum dirigit neque probatio adsignat neque sententia 
enumerat. II 1 p. 93 20 Wiss. si tantam peruersitatem una 35 
praescriptione discuti liceret, in expedito esset nuntiatio, cum 
onines istos deos ab hominibus institutos. adu. Herm. 1 pr. 
solemus haereticis compendii gratia de posteritate praescribere. 

188 TERTVLLIANI [p. 24 L 19— 

Dirksen's manuale ' praescribere/ ' praescriptio.' Ruclorff rom. 
Eechtsgesch. ii 117 — 120. Cod. viii 36 de exceptionibus seu 
praescriptionibus. Gesner on Quintil. vii 5 § 2. 
p. 24 1. 21 NEGENT Cypr. ad Demetr. c. 13. 
5 CENSVS Oehler on de cor. 13 f. (p. 452 n. u.). adu. Hermog. 4 
pr. quis enim alius Dei census, quam aeternitas ? Blunt Right 
Use 377—8. 

p. 24 1. 22 DisciPLiNAE 2 39 etc. 

TiBERio c. 21 pr. p. 66 1. 15. c. 5 p. 18 1. 24 n. 

lo ODio 14 p. 50 1. 1 plane olim, id est semper, ueritas odio est. 
infr. 46 in quantum odio flagrat ueritas, in tantuni qui eam ex 
fide praestat offendit. Ter. Andr. I 1 41 (=68) ohsequium 
amicos, ueritas odium ^iarit, where Lindenbr. cites Lact. v 9 6. 
Sulp. Seu. Aug. etc. Otto Sprichworter 368 (omits Tertullian). 

15 Orig. c. Cels. vi 27 f. some would not even speak to the 

p. 24 1. 24 IVDAEI lustin. c. Tryphon. 17 (p. 234« cf. c. 108 
p. 335°) after the resurrection the Jews, far from repenting, 
av8pa<; €kX€ktou<; cnro 'lepovcraXrjfj, eKXe^dfMevoi totc e^e7reyu.'\|raTe 

20 et? TTacrav ttjv jrjv XeyovTe'; aipeaiv ddeov ^picrTtavMV 7re(f)r}ve- 
vac, KaTaXeyovTeii Te TavTa uirep Ka6' rj/xcov 01 dyvoorjvTe^ r)fid<i 
7rdvTe<i Xejovaiv. The Jews (Bingham Xlll 5 4) cursed Chris- 
tians in their synagogues. lust. c. Tr. 16 f. p. 234*" with 
Otto's n. 

25 p. 24 1. 25 CONCVSSIONE blackmail Cod. Theod. viii 10. xi 7 
§ 1. concussura militum mart. Perpet. iil p. 64 13. fuga in 
pers. 12 prope f , iniles me uel delator uel inimicus concutit, nihil 
Caesari exigens, immo contra faciens, cum Christiannm legihus 
humanis reum, mercede dimittit. ib. 13 pr. (wrongly assigned 

30 to ad Scap. by LS) sed et omni petenti me daho in causa 
eleemosynae, non in concussurae...traditorem aut persecutorem 
aut concussorem. ib. 12 a. m. tu autem j^ro eo pacisceris cum 
delatore uel milite uel furuncido aliquo praeside, suh tunica et 
sinu, quod aiunt, ut furtiuo, quem coram toto mundo Christus 

35 emit, immo et manumisit...Quid enim dicit ille concussor? da 
mihi pecuniam, certe ne eum tradat. ad Scap. 5 p. m. Scorp. 
10 ra. Verb, Rufin. h. e. vii 26 p. 441 f Blunt Right 
Use p. 645 cl. Luke 3 14 fx,7]8eva SiaaeiarjTe. Grot. (de 

p. 24 1. 27] APOLOGETICVS 7 189 

concussione of dig. = Trepl hiaaeKrixtov of Basilica and Egyptian 

DOMESTici ad nat. 1 7 p. 68 28 sq. Wiss. domesticoram curio- 
sitas furata est per rimulas et cauernas. quid? ciun domestici 
eros uohis proderent 1 Athenag. suppl. 35 cited below. Oehler 5 
319 ' seruus.' Blunt Right XJse 377—8. 

p. 24 1. 27 OPPRIMIMVR cet. Bingham xx 2 8 fin. Eus. V 1 
§ 14 (martyrs of Lyons and Vienne) avveXafx^dvovTo Se kuI 
idviKoi Ttfe? oLKeTac tmv T)/j,€Tep(i}v, eVet Brjfioo-ia eKeXevaev o 
7]ye/jiu>v cival^rjTeladat irdvTa^ rjfid^i' ol kuI KaT evehpav tov 10 
^aTavd, (f)O^T]d€VT€<; Ta9 ^aadvov; a? toi"? dylovi ej^XeiTov 
Trda-^ovTa^, tmv (TTpaTicoTMv eirl tovto irapopiJioiivTwv avToix; 
KaTeyfrevaavTo tj/jlmv (^veaTeia SeLirva Kal OlSLTrooeiov^ /xL^ei^i 
Kal oaa fi^Te XaXelv /jLt']Te voelv de/iL<i r]/ilv, dWa /irjSe TriaTeveiv, 
€L TL TOLOVTO 7rd)7roT€ TTapd dvdpdiTTOLS iyeveTO. § 15 TOVTcov 15 
Be (f)7]/i.LadevT(ov irdvTei dTreOijpKodr/aav et? r)fid<i, ooaTe Kal ei 
TLrei To TrpoTepov ht OLKeioTrjTa e/i€Tpia^ov, t6t€ /i€ydX(o<; 
€)(^a\€7raivov Kal BieTrpLOVTo Kad' r}/i(ov. Athenag. 35 tl^ ovv 
ev (f)povci}v eliroL toiovtov<; 6vTa<i rj/id<; dvhpo^6vov<; eivaL ; ov 
ydp iaTL TrdaaadaL Kped)v dvdp(07riK(ov /jli/ TrpoTepov a7rOKT€Lvaai 20 
TLva. To 7rp6Tepov ovv yjrevS^/ievoL, to SevTepov Kav /lev tl<; 
avTov<; epr/TaL ei ecopdKaatv d \eyovaLv, ovSel^; o{jt(o<; aTrrjpv- 
6pLaapevo<; (o<; el^relv Ihelv. koltol Kal SovXol elaiv i]/uv, tol^ 
/lev Kal 7rX€Lov<; tol'; 8e e\dTTov<;, ov<i ovk kaTt Xadelv. a\Xd 
Kal TovTcov ov8el<i Kad' )]/jL(bv Ta Tr]\LKavTa ovSe KaTe^^evaaTo. 25 
ovi ydp laaaLv ovK Ihelv kuv §t/catco? ^ovevo/ievov vTro/ievovTai, 
TOVTcov TL<i dv KaTeiTTOL 7] dvSpo(f)oviav rj (ivdpco^ro^opiav ; lustin. 
apol. II 12 says that slaves and children and women, under 
torture, confessed these crimes. ad nat. I 7 p. 69 18 Wiss. quis 
umquam tamen semeso cadaueri superuenit ? ([uis in cruentato 30 
pane jiestigia dentium deprehendit? quis tenebris repentino 
tumine inruptis inmunda aliqua, ne dixerim incesta, indicia 
recognouit? \. 16 seq. quod sciam, et conuersatio notior facta 
est; scitis et dies conuentuum nostrorum; itaque et obsidemur et 

opprimimur, et in ipsis arcanis congregationihus detinemur 35 

22 23 cited below. Minuc. 9 § 5 with the reply 28 §§ 2 5. 
c. 30. 

p. 24 1. 27 flf. Minuc. 28 § 2 Christians, while yet heathen, 

190 TERTYLLIANI [p. 24 1. 27— 

accepted these calumnies, " quasi Christiani monstra colerent, 
infantes uorarent, conuiuia incesta miscerent, nec intellegehamus 
ah his fahulas istas semper uentilari et numqitam uel inuestigari 
uel prohari." 

5 p. 24 1. 29 CYCLOPVM Plin. vii § 9. 

p. 24 1. 31 CELAVIT cet. ad nat. i 7 p. 69 22 Wiss. si praemio 
impetramus, ne tales in puhlicum extrahamur, quare et oppri- 
mi^nur? possumus et omnino non extrahi; quis enim proditiotiem 
criminis alicuius sine crimine ipso aut uendit aut redimit ? La 

lo Cerda cites Salu. i [Timoth.] ad eccl. § 42 peccata uendere and 
Luc. Hermot. 81 MvyjcraaOac ro TrXTj/jifjLeXrj/xa. 

p. 26 1. 3 siLENTii ad nat. i 7 (p. 68 22 sq. Wiss.). adu. 
Val. 3. Apul. met. Iil 15 sacris plurihus initiatus 'profecto nosti 
sanctam silentii fidem. 20 rei tantae fidem silentiumque trihue. 

15 XI 21 quis...tuto possint magna religionis committi silentia. 
Basil de spir. sancto 27 ol ra Trepl Ta<; iKKXr)(TLa<i i^ dp^^r/^i 
Siad€cr/jio6eTr]aavT€'i aTroaToXoL KaL Trarepe? iv tm K€Kpv/jL/jLev(p 
Kal d(f)de<yKT(p to ae/xvov tol^ /uLvaTT/pLoa i(f)v\aaaov. ovSe yap 
6X(0<i /jLvaTt/pLov To et? Tr/v Sr/fxcoST] Kal eiKaiav aKor/v eK(popov. 

20 Lact. VII 26 §§ 8 — 10. v 19 § 19 nam fere uulgus, cui simplex 
incom^uptumque iudicium est, si mysteria illa cognoscat in me- 
moriauL mortuorum constituta, damnahit, aliudque uerius quod 
colat quaeret. hinc (Aen. lll 112) fida silentia sacris insti- 
tata sunt ah hominihus callidis ut nesciat populus quid colat. 

25 Celsus (Orig. i 7) complained ' Kpvcf^cov to Boypa.' Denied by 
Origen- Incarnation, Crucifixion, Resurrection, Judgement, are 
everywhere known. Esoteric doctrine e.g. of Pythagoras kul 
iravTa he tcl iravTay^ov /ivaTi/pia KaTa Tr/v 'KWdha kojl ty/v 
(3(ip/3apov Kpi(f)La ovTa ov SLa^ef3\r/TaL. cf. lul. Firm. math. 

30 vii praef apud Hau. Bingham X 5 3. 

p. 26 1. 4 ELEVSINIA omn. adu. Val. 1 (ap. Hau.). Hor. c. Iil 
2 25 seq. Apul. apol. 13 f. p. 418 Oud. Aesch. S. c. Th. 593 seq. 
Antiphon de caede Herod. 82 seq. (Jebb Att. Or. i 42 — 3). 
[Lys.] 6 § 19. Ou. a. a. 11 601 — 2 quis Cereris ritus audet 

35 uulgare profanis? magnaque Threicia sacra r^eperta Samo? 
cf Sozom. VI 25. Lucian Alex. 38. DG iv 14 § 3. Paus. v 17 
§ 3. Apollod. II 5. Philostr. Apoll. iv 18. Orig. Cels. iii 59. 
p. 26 1. 7 EXTRANEis 46 Anaxagoras depositum hospitihus 

p. 26 ]. 25] APOLOGETICVS 7 191 

denegaiiit, Christianus etiam extra (in the outer, heathen world) 
fidelis uocatur. 

p. 26 1. 8 PIAE ad nat. i 7 p. 68 25 Wiss. proves this (not 
t/?ipiae) to be the true reading : oro uos, extraneis iinde notitia, 
cum etiam iusta et licita m,i/steria omnem arbitrum extraneum 5 
caueant ^ 

INITIATIONES LS onlv one ex. (Suet.). 

ARCEANT PROFANOS Hor. c. III 1 1 odi profanum uulgus et 

p. 26 1. 9 Nisi si 3 med. 11 ppr. lo 

p. 26 1. 10 ad nat. i 7 p. 67 6 Wiss. Symm. ep. iii 45 1 
uera res est famam esse velocem. [Pelag. in 1 Thess. 1, 8. A. S.] 

p. 26 1. 12 Ou. fasti iv 311 conscia mens recti famae mendacia 

p. 26 1. 13 Ou. m. xii 56 — 8 e quibus hi uacuas iniplent 15 
sermonibus aures, hi nar^rata ferunt alio, mensuraque ficti crescit 
et auditis aliquid nouus adicit auctor. 

p. 26 1. 14 EA iLLi coNDicio cet. cf. ad nat. i 7 p. 67 10 W^iss. 

NON Nisi cet. Minuc. 28 § 7 nec tamen mirum, cum hominum 
fama, quae semper insparsis mendaciis alitur, ostensa ueritate 20 
consumitur : sic est negotium daemonum : ab ijjsis enim rumor 
falsus et seritur et fouetur. On rumours against Christians 
Athenag. 2, cited on p. 28 1. 1. 

p. 26 1. 17 ET EXINDE cet. cf ad nat. i 7 p. 67 13 Wiss. 

p. 26 1. 18 VERBi GRAT[A bapt. 11 p. 211 11 Wiss. ad nat. 25 
i 2 p. 61 1 Wiss. 7 pr. Paulin. NoL ep. 39 7. Cic. fin. v § 30 
(exempli gr. otF. iii | 50). 

p. 26 1. 21 AN VERO cet. cf ad nat. i 7 p. 67 17 Wiss. 

p. 26 1. 23 AMBiTio circuit = ad nat. i 7 p. 67 19 Wiss. 
Oehler on idol. 1 pr. p. 67. 30 

p. 26 l. 24 ASSEVERATIONE paen. 4 f ad nat. 11 4 p. m. 

p. 26 1. 25 NECESSE EST with subj. Cic. Lucr. Lact. 

EXINDE cet. cf ad nat. i 7 p. 67 20 Wiss. 

TRADVCES praescr. haer. 32 proinde utique et ceterae (ecclesiae) 
exhibent, quos ab apostolis in episcopatum constitutos apostolici 35 
seminis traduces habeant. ad nat. I 4 pr. mali nominis. 12 
p. 83 1. 2 Wiss. 16 p. 87 1. 21 Wiss. tot compagines generis, tot 
inde traduces ad incestum. 

192 TERTVLLIANI [p. 26 1. 27— 

p. 26 1. 27 RECOGITET NE. 2 non recogitetis . . .ne negarit. 
15 p. 52 1. 3. 26 pr. ad nat. i 4 p. 64 1. 17 Wiss. neinini sub- 
uenit, ne ideo bonus quis et prudens, quia Christianus. ib. 10 pr. 
considerate ne. ib. f. nescio ne. Arnob. I 10 f. Hild. unde tibi 
5 est scire, ne. 58 pr. %(.ide ne. Aug. in ps. 21 enarr. 2 24 m. 
ps. 33 enarr. 2 9. ps. 64 4 f. ps. 70 serm. 2 9 a. m. (direct ib. 3 
pr. 10 pr.) ps. 80 2 pr. ep. 96 2 pr. 147 17. 199 16 pr. 222 2 f. 
Eucher. p. 170 23. (Not in ind. Arn.) 

p. 26 1. 28 INGENIO inventiveness, inspiration, device. Oehler 
lo on de eorona 8 p. 436 n. g. 

p. 26 1. 29 Lucian Philopseudes 2 rj ttov KaravevorjKaq ijSr} 
Tiva^ ToiovTovi, ot? e/jb(f)VTO<; epco? ovTO<i ecrt 7r/30<f to ylrevBo<i ; 
p. 26 1. 30 BENE cet. cf. ad nat. i 7 p. 67 25 Wiss. 
BENE...QVOD c. 40 p. 118 1. 8. c. 24 f. p. 86 1. 13. de ieiun. 
15 13 p. 291 27 Wiss. idol. 5 f. Oehler. 15. 23. Aug. ep. 36 8. 
Ouid. a. a. Ii 605 — 6 o be^ie quod frustra captatis arbore pomis, 
garrulus in media Tantaliis aret aqua. Hieron. adu. Rufin. ii 24. 
Quintil. decl. 335 p. 690 Burm. melius q. luu. 2 139. Paulin. 
Nol. c. 24 15. ep. 32 2. Apul. met. iii 25. vi 8 f. x 14 f. 
2o OMNIA TEMPVS REVELAT Gell. XII H § 7 (in Oehler) and 
Erasm. Otto Sprichworter 343. Matt. 10 26. Mark 4 22. 

p. 26 1. 32 FAMA Athenag. suppl. 2 pr. Otto ad 1. el 8e i^expt' 
6v6/xaTO<; 7] KaTrjyopia (et? <yovv Trjv crijfiepov rjjnepav a irepl 
rjfMcov \o<yo7roiov(7iv rj KOivr) Kal aKptTO<; twv avdpcoircov (firjfjcr} 
25 Kal ovSel<i aSiKoov \pi(TTiavo<i e\r]Xe<yKTai). lustin. apol. I 23 
fin. (where Otto compares ib. 10 26 54) of demons ov Tpoirov 
Kal Ta Kaff' rjfjudov \e<y6fieva Svacfyrffia Kal aae^fj €p<ya evyjpyrjcrav, 
U)V ovhel^ fi(ipTV<i ovBe aTroSet^t? eVrt. 

p. 28 1. 1 DiSTVLiT Apul. met. v 10 populis tam beatum eius 
30 differamus praeconium. 

SOL A innocence of Christians c. 44. Cannibalism of Scythians 

Strabo xi 8 6 p. 513, and Indians (Megasthenes ib. xv 1 56 

p. 710), and Irish iv 5 4 p. 201 (also incest). loseph. c. Apion. 

II 7 the Jews fattened a Greek yearly for sacrifice ; one such 

35 victim found by Antiochus in the temple. 

p. 28 1. 2 HANC INDICEM cet. cf ad nat. i 7 p. 67 27 Wiss, 
p. 28 1. 3 CORROBORAVIT (Cic.) bapt. 18 £ de cor. 3 pr. ad 
nat. II 1. uirg. uel. 1 consuetudo, initium ab aliqua ignorantia uel 

p. 28 1. 10] APOLOGETICVS 7, 8 193 

simpliciUite sortitur, in usum per successionem corrohoratur et 
ita adue7'sus ueritatem uindicatur. 

p. 28 1. 4 VSQVE ADHVC Plaut. Ter. Btinem. on Lact. iii 8 30. 

PROBARE Nox VALVIT ad Scap. 4 f. (p. 549. 8) quod aliud 
negotiuni patitur Ghristianus, nisi suae sectae, quam incestam, 5 
quam crudelem tanto tempore nemo probauit. 

FIDEM NATVRAE iPSivs infr. p. 28 1. 20. lustin. c. Tiyph. 
10 p. 227'' jjLT] Kai v/j,el<i ireTTtcrTevKaTe irepl i)fj,(iov, otl Srj 
earOiOfiev avOpcoTTOvi Kal /xeTa ttjv elXaTTivrjv d7roa^evvvvTe<; 
Tov<i Xv^^vov^i ddiarfMOi<; fii^ecnv ejKvXiOfxeda, ?) avTo tovto 10 
KaTaytyvcoaKeTe rj/jidov fiovov, otl toioutol^ Trpoae^^^^ofiev \6yoi<i 
Kai ovK dXrjOel, &)? oiecrde, TTiaTevoixev So^rj ; tovto eaTiv o 
davfjidKofjbev, e(f)rj 6 Tpv(f)(jov, Trepl 8e wv 01 iroWol Xeyovaiv, 
ov TTiaTevaai d^iov TToppo) ydp Ke^^^^diprjKe tj}? dv6p(i)7rivr]<; 
(f)vae(0'i. cf. on these charges Justin apol. i 26 n. 29 Otto. 15 
Minuc. SO § 1 nemo hoc potest credere, nisi qui potest audere. 
Quintil. IV 2 52 credibilis auteni erit narratio ante omnia, si 
prius considuerinius nostrum animuni, ne quid naturae dicamus 

Cap. VIII 

p. 28 1. 7 ECCE cet. c£ ad nat. i 7 p. 70 19 Wiss. Charges 20 
unknown to Cypr. ad Deraetrianum, Arn. Lact. In the reign of 
Maximin a Roman commander at Damascus (Eus. h. e. IX 5 § 2) 
seized certain abandoned women and by threat of torture forced 
them to confess, as he dictated, &>? S?) eXrjadv TTOTe XpiaTiaval 
avveihelev re avToU ddep.iTovpyia<i (c£ n. on c. 2 p. 156 1. 36). 25 

p. 28 1. 8 INTERIM 21 p. 70 7 recipite interim hanc fahulam, 
dum ostendimus. Orig. c. Cels. vi 27 f. 

p. 28 1. 10 VENI cet. cf ad nat. i 7 p. 70 25 Wiss. Saluian. 
IV § 85 denique quam praue ac nefarie pagani semper de sacris 
dominicis opinati sint, docent persecutorum immanium cruen- 30 
tissimae (luaestiones, (pii in sacrificiis christianis nihil aliud 
quam impura (luaedam fieri atque ahorninanda credebant. si- 
quideni etiam initia ipsa nostrae religionis non nisi a duobus 
maonme facinorihus oriri arbitrabantur, primum scilicet homi- 
cidio, deinde, quod homicidio est grauius, incestu, nec homicidio 35 
M. T. 13 

194 TERTVLLIANI [p. 28 L 10— 

solum et incestu, sed et quod sceleratius quiddam est incestu 
ipso et homicidio, incestu viatrum sacrosanctarum et homicidio 
innocentium paruulorum, quos non occidi tantum a Christianis, 
sed, quod magis ahominandum est, etiam uorari existimabant : 
5 et haec promerenda^n uitam aeternam, quasi uero, 
etiamsi posset his i^ebus accipi, tanti esset ad eam per scelera 
tam immania peruenire. 

p. 28 1. 13 RVDEM Minuc. 80 § 1 illum iam uelim conuenire, 

qui initiari nos dicit aut credit de caede infantis et sanguine. 

lo putas posse fieri, iit tam molle, tam paruulum corpus fata 

uulnerum capiat ? ut quisquam illum rudem sanguinem nouelli 

et uixdum hominis fundat caedat exhauriat? 

p. 28 1. 14 INTEREA cet. cf. ad nat. i 7 p. 71 3 Wiss. 

p. 28 1. 17 TALIA INITIATYS aclu. Marc. iv 11 p. 450 1. 14 Kr. 
15 aliam scilicet et contrariam initiatos diuinitatem. 21 p. 491 1. 7 
Kr. nec pannis iam sepulturae inuolucrum initiatus. 

CONSIGNATVS Scorp. 4 f. miUtem sacramento : later ' to con- 
firm.' Bingham xii 2 § 4 n. 86. 3 § 4 n. 17. 

p. 28 1. 18 CVPIO RESPONDEAS cet. cf. ad nat. i 7 p. 71 7 
2o Wiss. 

si c. 6 pr. note. 

p. 28 1. 21 ALIA cet. cf. ad nat. i 7 £ 

Philostr. Apoll. iii 45 ff. a beast with man's head, of the size 
of a iion, shooting from its tail thorn-like hairs, a cubit in length. 
25 larchas, who described these, denied the existence of aKiaTroSe^. 
crKLd7roBa<i Se dvOpooTTOVi, rj /jiaKpoK€<pa\,ov<; i) OTTOcra -.Kv\aKO<; 
^vyypacpal irepl tovtwv aBovaiv, ovTe aWoae ttol ^LOTeveiv Trj<; 
yi]<i ovTe firjv iv 'Iz/Sot9. Plin. VII § 23 (from Megasthenes) in 
multis . . .montihus genus hominum capitihus caninis ferarum 
30 pellibus uelari, pro uoce latratum edere, unguihus armatum 
uenatu et aucupio uesci...Ctesias scrihit...hominuni genus qui 
Monocoli uocarentur singulis crurihus, mirae pernicitatis ad 
saltum, eosdem Sciapodas uocari, quod in maiori aestu humi 
iacentes resupini ximhra se jiedum ^irotegant. 
35 p. 28 1. 23 NERVi ad nat. i 7 f luu. 10 206 n. Burm. anth. 
II pp. 533— 54 L priap. 68 23. Acron in Hor. s. 1 2 118. Suid. 
s.v. "D.piyevT]'; p. 1281 14 Bernh. Epiphan. haer. LXIV 111 (l 
527 a). 

p. 30 1. 14] APOLOGETICVS 8, 9 195 

QVi ISTA cet. Minuc. 30 § 1 cited on p. 193 1. 16. 

p. 28 1. 24 QVOD 2 p. 10 1. 8 quod est dicit, tu uis audire quod 
non est. ib. p. 6 1. 13 quodcumque dicimur. 35 de Romanis id 
est. Am. II 26 quid esset Deus uerus iam addiscerent suspicari. 

p. 28 1. 26 SVBICITVR of the cuckoo foisting its eggs on other 5 
birds Plin. x § 26 the fledgling afterwards called subditus. 
(cf. luu. 4 103.) 

p. 28 1. 28 ATQVIN Oehler on fug. in pers. 6 p. 473 n. k. 
Hand Tursell. i 213 seq. 

p. 28 1. 31 NESCIAT Saluian. iv § 69 legem et deum. § 70 lo 
praeceptum domini. 

p. 28 1. 32 IVRVLENTIAM saine v. 1. in Jerome [ep. 108 31 § 2. 
A. S.] adu. louin. i 18. 

p. 30 1. 1 CANDELABRA cet. cf. ad nat. I 16. 

p. 30 1. 2 EXTENDANT ad uxor. I 3 quod si apostolo aus- 15 
cultanius, obliti posteriorum, extendamur in priora. adu. Val. 
9 p. 187 1. 17 Kr. et uincitur difficultate et extenditur adfectione. 
Aug. contra Faustum xiii 18 fin. libros prop^heticos et apostolicos 
legimus alterutris uocibus sibi concinentes ; et ea concinentia, 
tamquam caelesti tuba, et a torpore mortalis uitae nos excitantes, 20 
et ad palmam supernae uocatiunis extendentes. 

p. 30 1. 7 SVSTINENT c. 25 p. 90 1. 15 n. ad uxor. Ii 5 quater. 

p. 30 1. 10 SEQVITVR NE = ut non Saluian ind. p. 346 after 
ita, sic, hoc, in hoc. 

Cap. IX 

Jupiter and Apollo, when the Pelasgians in dearth vowed 25 
a tenth of their fruits, afflicted them with plagues because they 
omitted to sacrifice ^^ of their offspring D. H. I 23 seq. Porphyr. 
in Eus. p. e. IV 16 many exx. of human sacrifice : see also Eus. 
de laud. Constantini 13 §§ 6 Hein., and 7. 

p. 30 1. 14 INFANTES luu. 6 fin. n. [unpubl. A. S.]. Fried- 30 
lander iii 767 n. 5. Marquardt iii" 74 n. 2. 

PENES local, Africian. Sittl die lokale Verschiedenheiten d. 
lat. Sprache 136. de pall. 3 j^j. Latium. Claud. Mam. ep. 2 ad 
Sap. p. 205 2 E. penes Galliam nostram professionis tuae par 
unus et solus es. A.L.L. xiii 364 — 5. 35 


196 TERTVLLIANI [p. 30 L 14— 

SATVRNO luu. 15 116 n. Macr. i 7 31. Winer Realwort. 
' Molech.' Schenkel Bibellex. ' Saturn.' 

p. 30 1. 14 ff. Friedlander iiP 509. Oros. iv 6 §§ 3—6. Plato 
Minos 315""^ r^ijuv ixev ov v6/jLo<; iarlv av6p(t)7rov<; dveiv aXX' 
5 avocTiov, K.ap')(rjh6vL0i Se dvovaiv, &)? oaiov ov Kal v6/jLCfiov 
avToi<;, Kal ravra evioi avrojv Kal rov<; avrwv vleU rw K^povo), 
ft)? io-ax; Kal av aKr]Koa<;. Arnob. II 68. D. H. I 38. D. S. XX 
14. Voss. theol. gent. 2 5. Porphyrius in Eus. p. e. iv 16 
p. 155^ Varro in Aug. C. D. vii 19 (cf. ib. c. 26) deinde ideo 

lo dicit a quibusdam pueros ei \^Saturno^ solitos immolari, sicut a 
Poenis, et a quibusdam etiam maiores, sicut a Gallis, quia 
omnium seminwn optimum est genus humanum. Hier. in Esai. 
1. 13 c. 46 (iv 544^°) Bel, quem Graeci Belum, Latini Satuimum 
uocant, cuius tanta fuit apud ueteres religio ut ei non soluni 

15 humanas hostias captiuorum ignobiliumque mortalium, sed et 
suos liberos immolarent. Grotius on Deut. 18 10. Lact. i 21 
13 from Pescennius Festus. Sil. iv 767 flagrantibus aris. . .paruos 
imponere natos. Bayle oeuvres iii 46. Plut. de superstit. 13. 
pr. p. 171. D. S. XIII 86 § 3. xx 14 § 4. Orig. c. Cels. v 27 

20 p. m. Ka\ TTco? ovj^ oaiov irapaXveiv vo/jiov^ rov<; (pep" elirelv 
Tvapa Tavpoi<i irepl rov lepela rovi ^evov<; Trpoadyeadac Tjj 
AprifMiSt, 7] irapa Ai^vwv riai irepl rov Karadveiv ra reKva 
TM Kpovcp. lustin. XIX 1 aex. Porph. de abst. 11 54—57. 
TIBERII proconsul shortly before (?). 

25 p. 30 1. 17 MILITIA. cf leuis armatura, peregrinitas, ciuitas, 

PATRIAE NOSTRAE Carthage : de pall. 1 Scorpiace 6 7 f res. 
carn. 42. Kaye 6 n. 3. 9 10. 

p. 30 1. 18 FVNCTA EST c. dat. ad nat. 11 10 m. Dirksen 

30 manuale. 

p. 30 1. 21 PROPRiis FILIIS ad nat. ii 7 p. m. cur Saturno 
alieni liberi immolantur, si ille suis pepercit? Lact. I 13 § 2 
from ' Ennius ' in historia sacra. v 10 § 15 quomodo aut paren- 
tibus parcent, qui expulsorem patris sui louem [cohmt]? aut 

35 natis ex se infantibus, qui Saturnum ? 5 §§ 9 10. Among the 
immoral legends of the poeticum deorum genus Scaevola (see 
n. on c. 16 p. 54 1. 31 below) named Saturnum liberos deuorare, 
Aug. Ciu. D. IV 27 (I 180 17). Greg. Naz. or. 4 115 (i 141*^) 

p. 30 1. 23] APOLOGETICVS 9 197 

Macr. S. i 8 10. Stallbaum on Plat. Euthyphr. 5 e seq. 
omn. D. H. II 19 (cited by Thdt gr. atf. cur. Iil § 47 p. 45 22) 
ovTe ydp Ovpavb^i eKTejjbvoixevo^ vtto twv eavTOV 7raL8u)V irapa 
'Po}ualoc<; XeyeTai, ovTe K.p6vo<; d(pavi^(ov Td<i eavTov yovwi, 
(f)6/3ai T?}? e^ avTOiv eTridearea)^;, ovt€ Zev^ KaTaXvrjov Trjv Kpovov 5 
Svvaa-Teiav. On Saturn, Thdt. gr. aff. cur. III § 36 and 38 who 
quotes Plato rep. 377 e seq. Athan. uit, Ant. 75 Kpovov (f)vyr]v 
Kal TeKvwv KaTaTT^aeLf Kal TraTpoKTovia^;, 

p. 30 1. 23 PARENTES lustin. apol. 11 12 (p. 234 n. 12 Otto). 
Aristid. c. 9 pr. Human sacrifices G. J. Voss idol. i 35 and b. ii. 10 
Orig. de princ. ii 9 § 5 (xxi 222 L.), Lact. i 21 1 at Salamis in 
Cyprus, abolished by Hadrian. Victims willing infi\ 28 pr, diui- 
nae rei faciendae libens animus indicitur. Chrys. in s. Romanum 
raart, 3 (ll 621'') exet^; avTOKeXevaTOv lepelov, tL tov Secr/jbdoTrjv 
Tavpov dvavevovTa au/x7roSi!^ei<; ; Sen, Oed. 334 — 7 haec 'propere 15 
admoue, \ et sparge salsa colla taurorum mola. \ placidone uultu 
sacra et admotas manus \ patiuntur? Lasaulx 271 n. 258 — 9. 

PARENTES...GALLOS...TAVRICAS Scorpiac. 7 fin. sed enim 
Scytharum Dianam aut GaUoruni Mercurium aut Afrorum 
Saturnum hominuni uictima placari apud saeculuni licuit, et 20 
Latio ad hodiernum loui media in urhe humanus sanguis in- 
gustatur; nec quisquam retractat aut non rationem p)raesumit 
aliquam aut inaestimahileni dei sui uoluntatem. si noster quo- 
que deus propriae hostiae nomine martyria sihi depostulasset, 
quis illi exprohrasset funestam religionem et lugid)res ritus et 25 
aram rogum et p)oUinctorem sacerdotem, et non heatum amplius 
7'eputasset, quem deus comedisset? Lact. i 21 § 3. lustin, apol. 
II 12 Ti? ydp (f)iXri8ovo<; rj dKpaTr]<; Kal dvdpwTrivcuv aapKcbv 
/Bopdv dyadov ijyov/xevo^; ZvvaiTO dv OdvaTov daTrd^eaOaL ;... 
Tivo<; ydp "^dpiv ov)(l Kal TavTa Brj/xoaLci d}/Jio\oyov/iev dyadd 30 
KaX (f)i\oao(j)iav Oeiav avTd nTreheiKvv^ev, (f)daK0VTe<; Kpovov 
/lev /LvaTn/pLa TeXelv ev T(p av8po(f>oveLV, Kal ev tm at/iaTo^i 
i/xTriirXaaBat, 6)<; XeyeTat, T(\ laa tco rrap v/itv Ti/ico/Mevcp 
€lBco\(p [lupp. Lat.], (t) ov /xovov dXoycov i^(p(i)v al/xara irpoapaL- 
verai, dXXd Kal dvOpfoireia, hid tov irap v/xlv eTriari/ioT('iTov 35 
Ka\ evyeveardTov dv8po<; t)]v Trpoa^^^yaiv tov tmv (povev6evTco}> 
aX/xaTO'; TroLov/ievoc ; Minuc, 30 § 3 ubi Holden, et haec utique 
de deorum uestrorum disciplina descendunt. nam Saturnus 

198 TERTVLLIANI [p. 30 1. 23- 

jilios suos non exposuit, sed uorauit. merito ei in nonnullis 
Africae partibus a parentibus in/antes immolabantur , blanditiis 
et oscido comprimente uagitum, ne fiebilis hostia immoletur. 
§ 4 Tauris etiam Ponticis et Aegyptio Busiridi ritusfuit hospites 
5 immolare : et Mercurio Gallos humanas uel inhumanas uictimas 
caedere. Romani Graecum et Graecam, Gallum et Gallam, 
sacrificia uiuentes obruere: hodieque ab ipsis Latiaris luppiter 
homicidio colitur et, quod Saturni filio dignum est, mali et noxii 
hominis sanguine saginatur. On offerings of children to Saturn 

lo Lact. I 21 §§ 9—15. Lasaulx Studien p. 250 n. 109 cf. 107—8. 

251 n. 113. 253 n. 130, Allard les dernieres persecutions 218. 

LIBENTES ad Scap. 2 cum et hostiae ab animo libenti expostu- 

lentur respondebant appeared when called, so resj). ad tenipus, 

ad dieni etc. Gronov. obs. Ii 4 p. 122 — 4 Fr. On the pro- 

15 pitiatory use of blood Lasaulx Stud. 237. Plin. xxx | 12 
DCLVii (= B.C. 97) demum anno urbis Gn. Cornelio Lentulo 
P. Licinio Crasso coss. senatus consultum factum est, ne homo 
immolaretur, palamque fit, in tempus illud sacra prodigiosa 
celebrata. § 13 Druids suppressed in Gaul by Tiberius, still 

20 rampant in Britain. 7iec satis aestimari potest quantum Ro- 
manis debeatur qui sustulere monstra in quibus hominem occidere 
religiosissimum erat, niandi uero etiam saluberrimum. Suet. 
Claud. 25. 

p. 30 1. 25 MAIOR AETAS cf. p. 30 11. 6—7. 

25 p. 30 1. 26 MERCVRio Scorp. 7 fin. Lact. i 21 § 3 Galli Esum 
atque Teutatem humano cruore placabant. Caes. b. G. IV 16. 
Cic. p. Font. § 81. D. H. I 38. Solin. 21. Plut. de supers. 
13 pr. p. 171. Tac. Gerra. 10. Luc. Bell. Ciu. i 444 et quibus 
immitis placatur sanguine diro | Teutates, horrensque feris 

30 altaribus Esus. ib. iii 399. So the Germans sacrificed the army 
of Varus. Tac. an. I 61 lucis propinquis barbarae arae, apud 
quas tribunos ac prHmorum ordinum centuriones mactauerant. 
ib. XIII 57 uictores [Hei^munduri] diuersam aciem [C/iattos] 
Marti ac Mercurio sacrauere, quo uoto equi, uiri, cuncta uicta 

35 occidioni dantur. Details D. S. v 30. Dio Lxxiii 6. Tac. 
XIV 30. Abolished by the Romans Mela iii 2 3. Plin. (cited 


p. 30 1. 28] APOLOGETICVS 9 199 

TAVRICAS luu. 15 116 n. Greg. Naz. or. 39 4> f. (i 67 9^ 
Tavpcov ^evoKToviai. Athenag. 26 rj fiev iv Tavpot<; ["A/aTe/Ltt?] 
(f)ovevei Toj)? ^evovi. Lact. I 21 § 2 erat lex apiid Tauros 
inhumanani et ferani gentem, ut Dianae hospites immolarentur, 
et id sacrijicium multis temporibus celebratum est. [Sen.] Oct. 5 
978 seq. urbe est nostra mitior Aidis \ et Taurorum barbara 
tellus. I hospitis illic caede litatur | numen superum: ciuis 
gaudet \ Roma cruore. Lucian deor. dial. 16 1 (Hera to Leto) 
01 Se aol TratSe? >; fiev avrwv dppeviKi] irepa rov p,erpvov Kai 
opetoi;, Kal ro reXevralov e<? ri^v ^KvOlav drreXOovcra 7r<ivre<i 10 
laaaiv oia eadlei ^evoKrovovaa Kat, /j,ifj.ov/Mevr} roix; ^Kv6a<i avrov<; 
dvdpcoirocfjdyov^: 6vra<;. ibid. 23 1. lup. trag. 44. Toxaris 2 
Amm. XXII 8 §§ 34—36. Lasaulx 252 n. 124. 

THEATRIS svis cf. c. 15 p. 50 1. 33. 

p. 30 ]. 27 RELiGiosissiMA c. 6 pr. ad nat. ii 17 p. 132 15 
1. 6 Wiss. seruant urbem Romanam, qui suas perdiderunt, si 
hoc religiositas Romana meruit [cf. Ps.-Aug. Quaest. 115 § 16 
urbe Roma...sacratissima. A. S.]. Kaye 48. 

AENEADARVM ad nat. II 17 p. 131 4 Wiss.... posthabita Samo 
dilectam et utique Aeneadarum ignibus adoleri. 20 

p. 30 1. 28 IVPPITER cet. Scorp. 7 fin. Lasaulx Studien 
p. 249 n. 100. 248 n. 86. 251 n. 113. Fullest account in 
[Cypr.] de spect. 5 Minuc. 22 § 6 ipse luppiter uester...cum 
Latiaris [dicitur'] cruore perfunditur. ib. 30 § 4. Tatian 29 
raiira ovv IScvv en Se Kal pLvcrrripi(i)v fieraXa^oiv Koi rd<; 25 
TTapd Trdai dprjaKeia^; SoKLfxdaa^; Siu dtfXvBpiwv Kal dvSpoyvvcov 
crvviarafieva';, evpd)v 8e rrapd p,ev 'Pcofiaioi^; rov Kar avrov^ 
Aaricipiov Ala \vdpoi<; dvdpcoTToyv Kal roi<; cnro rdov clvhpo- 
Kraatdiv atfiaai rep7r6fj,evov,...KaT efiavrov 'yevofievo^ e^J]rovv 
0T(p rpo-TTO) TtiXtide<; e^evpelv Bvvcofiat. The only heathen witness 30 
is Porphyr. de abst. II 56 dX)C erc Kal vvv Ti<; dyvoel Karci rt)v 
fieyaXrjv rroXiv Trj rov Aariapiov Ato? eoprfj a(f>a^6fjievov dv- 
dpcoTTov ; See the corresp. of Sir R. Peel and T. B. Macaulay 
with Ld Stanhope. S. Miscellanies Lond. 1863 pp. 128 — 144. 
Prud. c. Symm. i 379. Preller rom. Mythol. 191 (=1^ 215)35 
assumes that a criminal condemned to death (bestiarius) was 
executed at the Latian festival in Rome. Marquardt iii^ 297 
n. 4. lustin. apol. 11 12 p. 234 n. 14 Otto. Theophil. iii 8, and 

200 TERTVLLIANI [p. 30 L 28— 

Saturn Lact. v 6 6 and 7. i 21 3. luu. 15 116 n. Eus. laud 
Const. 13 16. Human Offerings Zahn Forschungen v 188. 
J. Reville, die Religion in Rom unter den Severen (Leipz. 1888) 
p. 99 n. 1 127 n. 4. J. Geffcken Zwei Apologeten (1907) p. 66. 
5 p. 30 1. 31 DE CRVDELITATE 5 m. Domitianus, portio Ne- 
ronis de crudelitate, sed qua et homo. Saturn against Uranus, 
luppiter against Saturn Orig. c. Cels. i 17. 

p. 30 1. 32 Philostr. ApoII. iv 8 ascribes cannibalism to 
witches. Socr. Ili 2 §§ 2, 5 men sacrificed to Mithras. 

lo p. 32 I. 3 PRAESIDIBVS infra 30 f. spect. 30 p. 28 I. 23 Wiss. 
praesides persecutores dominici nominis saeuiorihus quam ipsi 
jiammis saeuierunt instdtantes contra Christianos liquescentes. 
de idol. 23 p. 56 1. 12 Wiss. Kaye 48. Blunt Right Use 335. 
[O. Hirschfeld, Die Kaiserlichen Verwaltungsbeamten bis auf 

15 Diocletian (2 Aufl.) pp. 385 ff. A. S.] 

p. 32 I. 5 EXTORQVETis 30 f extorquete animam deo suppli- 
cantem pro imperatore. 

p. 32 1. 6 CANIBVS Ou. her. 11 83 — 4 iamque dari jmruum 
canihusque auihusque nepotem iusserat in solis destituique locis. 

2o Ter. Hecyra. 

EXPONlTis cet. ad nat. I 15 Herald pp. 206 — 8 and 64 — 65. 
Orig. c. Cels. viii § 55 f. Minuc. 30 § 2 uos enim uideo procreatos 
filios nunc feris et auihus exponere, nunc adstrangulatos misero 
mortis genere elidere: sunt quae in ipsis uiscerihus medicaminihus 

25 epotis originem futuri honiinis exstinguant et pa7'ricidium fa- 
ciant ante quam pariant. et haec utiqiie de deorum uestrorum 
disciplina descendunt. nam Saturnus filios suos non exposuit, 
sed uorauit. cf. 31 § 3. conc. Ancyr. c. 21. Athenag. suppl. 
35 fin. Kal ol ra? Tol<i d/ji0Xoi6ptSiOL<i -^^pwjjbeva^; dvZpoc^ovelv 

30 re Kal \6jov v(f>e^€iv rr}? e^afi^Xooaeci}'? tgj Oeo) ^afxev, Kard 
TTolov dvSpo(f)Ovovfjiev Xoyov ; ov jnp rov avrov i'o/j,i^eiv /xev 
Kal To Kard jaarpo^ t,(pov elvac Kal 8id tovto /jceXeiv tw OecZ, 
Kal TrapeXr/XvOoTa et? tov j3iov (poveveiv, Kal /xi/ eKTiOevai /lev 
ro yevv7/0ev, &)? tcov eKTiOevrcov reKvoKTOvovvrcov, TrdXiv 8e ro 

35 Tpa(f)ev avaipelv dXX ecr/iev Trdvra iravra^ov o/LOioi Kal laoi, 
8ov\evovTe<; tw Xoyo) Kal ovk dp')(^ovTe<; avrov. ep. ad Diogn. 5 
p. 497*^ (of Christians) ov piTrrovai rd <yevv(i/xeva. lustin. 
apol. I 27 pr. i]/iel<; Se, "va /xr/Seva SidiKco/jLev /M7/8e dae8ci}/iev. 

p. 32 1. 8] APOLOGETICVS 9 201 

eKTLOevat koI tu yevvcofieva Trovrjpaiv elvac SeSiSdyfieOa 29 pr. 
Lact. VI 20 § 21 quid illi, quos falsa pietas cogit exponere? 
num possunt innocentes existimaH, qui uiscera sua in prae- 
dam canihus ohiciunt, et quantum in ipsis est, crudelius necant, 
quam si strnngulassent?- v 9 § 15 (Biinemann). Ambros. 5 
hexaem. v | 58 feminae nostri generis, ditiores sunt, 
lactare fastidiunt. pauperiores uero ahiciunt paruulos et ex- 
ponunt et depreheMSos abnegant. ipsae quoque diuites, ne per 
phires suum patrimonium diuidatur, in utero proprios necant 
fetus et parricidalihus sucis in ipso genitali aluo pignora sui 10 
uentris exstinguunt, priusque aufertur uita, quam tradatur. 
Ael. u. h. II 7. Plin. ep. Trai. 65 66. Visio Paiili c. 40 
(pp. 32 33 James apocrypha anecd. 1893). Lact. VI 20 18—25. 
Ambr. (ed. Vindob.) I 184 18 187 6 seq. Barn. ep. 19 § 5 n. 
Constit. apost. vii 3 [add Ambst. in Rom. 12 8. A.S.]. Lips. ep. 15 
ad Belg. cent. 1 ep. 85. Lasaulx Studien pp. 454 455. Gerhardt 
Noodt, lulius Paulus siue de partus expositione et nece apud 
ueteres. Sagittarius, disp. de expositione infantum, and on 
lustin. I 4 § 7. Bernays gesamm. Abhandl. I 243. Lindenbr. 
on Ter. Andr. 4 4 30. Becker Gallus 11=^ 61. Kraus in R. 20 
Worterb. s.v. ' Findekinder.' Marquardt-Mau Privatalterthiimer 
p. 3 n. 1 (cf. toUit) 82 n. 4 83. Rein Criminah\ 441 seq. 
Dollinger Heidenthum 716 — 7. Bingham xi 4 § 18. 

p. 32 L 8 CONCEPTVM VTERO exhort. cast. 12 quid ergo 
facies, si nouam uxorem de tua conscientia impleuer-is? dissoluas 25 
medicaminihus conceptum? puto nohis non magis licere nascentem 
necare, quam natum. Harnack Medicinisches aus der altesten 
Kirchengeschichte (Texte und Untersuchungen viii 4) 146 n. 3 
cites Didache 2 2. Barn. 19 5. h. 1. Minuc. Lc. Athenag. Lc. 
Clem. AL paed. 11 10 § 96. cf. Soran. de mulierum affectibus 1. 30 
Sen. Hehi. 16 § 3 f. Scribon. epist. 3 pr. luu. 6 592—609. 
BasiL ep. 188 c. 4 n. 2. Philo in Eus. p. e viii. 7 § 7 /zt; 
yovrjv avhpwv eKrefivovTe^, /j,i] yuvaiKOJV (iTOKioi<i Kal aWac<; 
/jir}xaval<; d/xlBXovv. los. c. Ap. II 16 in Eus. p. e. vill 8 § 35 
TeKva Tpe4>eiv airavTa 'iTpoaeTa^e, Kai yvvai^lv aTreiTre fir]T' 35 
afx^Xovv To (TTrapev fii]Te hiac^BeLpeiv, (iW' ?]v (^aveirf, tckvo- 
KTovo^ (*iv elr) -yjrvxip^ (Kpavi^ovaa Kal ro yevo^ eXaTTOvaa. 
Bingham xvi lU 4. 

202 TERTVLLIANI [p. 32 1. 11— 

p. 32 1. 11 HOMO EST cet. luu. 6 596 — 7 quae steriles facit 
adque homines in uentre necandos conducit. clig. XXX 2 9 § 1 
partus nonduni editus homo non recte fuisse dicitur. ib. XLVIII 
19 39. Hefele Beitrage zur Kirchengesch. ii 380 — 1. Routh 

5 reliq. IV 125 (can. 1) 225-6. Mart. ix 41 10 istud quod digitis, 
Pontice, perdis, homo est. Hier. ep. 22 13 aliae uero sterilitatem 
praebibunt et necdum sati hominis homicidium faciunt. non- 
nullae, cum se senserint concepisse de scelet^e, aborti uenena medi- 
tantur, et frequenter etiam ipsae commortuae trium criminum 

lo reae ad inferos perducuntur, homicidae sui, Christi adidterae, 
necdum nati filii parricidae. 

p. 32 1. 13 NECVBi Riddle-White, p. 1261 c. Lewis-Short 
' nec-ne alicubi.' adu. Prax. 1. cf. c. 3 p. 12 1. 25. 

HERODOTVM iii 8 Arabs. iv 70 Scythians. i 74 Medes 

15 and Lydians. Armenians Tac. an. Xll 47. Luc. Toxaris 

p. 32 1. 15 CATILINA (cf. Winer Real-Worterb. 'Bund') so 
the Vitellii and Bruti Plut. Publicola 4 § 1. Sall. Catil. 22 1. 
Flor. II 12 4. Mela 11 1 § 12 (Asiacae). Athen. 45 f. (Carmani). 

20 Minuc. 30 § 5 ipsum credo [louem] docuisse sanguinis foedere 
coniurare Catilinani, et Bellonam sacrum suum haustu humani 
cruoris imbuere et comitialern morbum hominis sanguine, id est 
morbo grauiore, sanare. So Diogenes taught (D. L. vi 73. Theo- 
phil. III 5) and the Stoics (Theophil. 1. c. D. L. vii 121. Men. 

25 188. Sext. Emp. Pyrrh. hyp. III 24). Lamprid. Comm. 9 
Bellonae seruientes iiere exsecare bracchium praecepit studio 

p. 32 1. 16 AIVNT cet. allowed by Diogenes. Theophil. iii 4. 
Petron. 141 (quoted below). Tert. Adu. Marc. i 10 f. Hdt. i 

30 216 of the Massagetae. iii 99 of the Padaei. Theophil. iii 5. 
Thyestes, Harpagus, barbarians. Athenag. Resurr. Carn. 4 fin. 
p. 44^°. Euseb. Praep. Eu. i 4 § 6 p. ll''" mt^S' avOpwTro^opelv 
%Kvda<i hta Tov Kal /x6')(pi<i avrcov iXdovra rov ^piarov \6yov 
.../jirjSe adpKa^i veKpwv roiv (fiiXrdrcov Kara ro TraXatov e^o? 

35 doivaadat,. The natives of Pontus. cf. § 7 p. ll'^. Orig. 
contra Cels. V 27 pr. 34 p. 254. 36 p. 256. Tert. de Pall. 4. 
luu. 4 124 n. Lact. i 21 §§ 16, 17. vlO § 15 quomodo enim 
sanguine abstinebunt qui colunt cruentos deos, Martem atque 

p. 32 1. 22] APOLOGETICVS 9 203 

Bellonam? Indian cannibals. .Orig. contra Cels. vi 80. Hier, 
adu. loiiin. ii 7 (il 335*^) Massagetae and Derbices. Euseb. 
Praep. Eu. i 4 p. ll^ Plin. iv § 88. vi § 53. vii §§ 9, 11, 12. 
Strabo 231, 198. Solin. 15. Preller-Jordan rom. Myth. ii 386 
n. 3. Marquardt iii- 76 n. 9. Lasaulx 254 138. 5 

SCYTHARVM Lucian Deor. Dial. 16 1. De Luctu 21 to 8e 
(iTTo Tovrov SieXofievoc Kura edvrj ra<; ra(f)a^ o fxev ' ^Wriv 
€Kavaev,...6 Se l.Kvdr}'; KareaOUi. Petron. 141 apud quasdam 
gentes scimus adhuc legem seruari, ut a propinquis suis con- 
sumantur defuncti, adeo quideni, ut obiurgentur aegri frequenter, lo 
quod carnem suam faciant peiorem. his admoneo amicos meos, 
ne recusent quae iuheo, sed quibus animis deuouerint spiritum 
meum, eisdem etiani corpus consumant. Just before : omnes 
qui in testamento meo legata habent, praeter libertos meos hac 
condicione percipient, quae dedi, si corpus meum in partes 15 
conciderint et astante jjopulo comederint. Lucian Toxaris 8 f. 
(of Sc.) Kareadiovai tou? 7raTepa<i d7ro6av6vra<i. Orig. Princ. 
11 9 5 apud Scythas, apud quos parricidium quasi ex lege 
geritur. Strabo 513 of the Massagetae (Burnes Travels l 189 
Turcomans sacrifice aged prisoners). Thdt. IX c. 35 p. 129, 20 
10 seq. Prudent. contra Symm. 11 294. Wesseling on Herodot. 
I 216. III 38. 

p. 32 1. 18 cf c. 23 p. 78 1. 29. 

p, 32 1. 21 Plin. h. n. xxviii § 4 sanguinem quoque gladia- 
torum bibunt, ut uiuentibus poculis comitiales [morbi], quod 25 
spectare facientes in eadem harena feras quoque horror est. at, 
hercule, illi ex homine ipso sorbere ejficacissimum putant calidum 
spirantemque et uiuam ipsam animam ex osculo uulnerum, cum 
plagis omnino neferarum quidem admoueri ora mos sit humanus. 
§ 43 sanguine ipsius hominis ex quacumque parte emisso ejffica- 30 
cissime anginam inlini tradunt Orpheus et Archelaus, item ora 
comitiali morbo conlapsorum, exsurgere enini protinus. cf. xxvi 
§ 8 cure of elephantiasis in Egj^pt, Blunt Right Use 359. 
Lasaulx 237 n. 27. 

p. 32 1. 22 QVi DE HARENA Minuc. 30 § 6 non dissimiles et 35 
qui de harenaferas deuorant illitas et infectas cruore uel membris 
hominis et uiscere saginatas. Athenag. 4 questions raised about 
fish birds, and beasts which have preyed on men and been 

204 TERTVLLIANI [p. 32 1. 22— 

eaten by men, and so the same particles have formed part of 
two human bodies. 

p. 32 1. 23 APER Ael. N.A. x 16 pr. 97 u? kuI tmv 18l(ov 
r€KV(ov vTTo T?;? \aiijiapyLa<; d(peiBo}<; e^et, Kal fievroL Kal 

5 dvdpcoTTOV adofiari, evrv^^ovaa ovk dTre^x^erai, dX}C eadleL. 

p. 32 1. 25 CRVDITANTES De leiun. 16 pr. uhi sepultus est 
populus carnis auidissimus usque ad choleram ortygometras 
cruditando. Add to lexx. Scorp. 5 p. m. (of Adam) edit inlicitum 
et transgressione saturatus in mortem -auit. [See Thes. A.S.] 

10 p. 32 h 26 RVCTATVR Manil. v. 463 ructantemqiie patreni 
natos (of Thyestes). luu. 4 31. 

p. 32 1. 29 INHIANT Cic. Catil. iii § 19 Roniulus lactens 
uherihus lupinis inhians. c£ luu. 10 238. Epiphan. Haer. 26. 
HVMANO. So Athenag. Leg. 34 speaking of unnatural lust : 

15 " like fish, which devour one another, the stronger chasing the 
weaker. Kal rovro eari crapKwv drrreadaL dvOpoitrLKOiv." 

p. 32 1. 31 ERVBESCAT...CHRISTIANIS 11 f Testim. Anim. i 
p. 136 1. 1 Wiss. uel tihi eruhescant. Aug. c. lulian. iv 14 
unusquisque sihi uel alteri eruhuerunt. 

20 p. 34 1. 1 NE ANIMALIVM cet. Euseb. Hist. Eccl. v 1 § 26 
Byblias, who had recanted, when tortured (at Lyon or Vienne) 
to confess infenticides, recovered her rank as martyr, crying on 
the rack : ' Trft;? av TraLhla (pdyoLev ol roLovroL, ol^ /jirjSe aXoywv 
^(po)v alfxa (f)ayeiv i^ov ; ' so the martyr Attalus, when roasted 

25 alive, ib. § 52, cried ' ISoiJ rovro ecmv dvOpoDrrov; eaOleLv, o 
TroLelre v/iieL<;' rjfMeii; Se ovre dvdp(i)7rov<; eaOiOfiev, ovO' erepov 
rL irov-qpbv Trpdrrofiev.' Minuc. 30 § 7 nohis homicidium nec 
uidere fas nec audire, tantumque ah humano sanguine cauenius, 
ut nec edulium pecorum in cihis sanguinem nouerimus. Routh 

30 Rel. I 304. 343. Beveridge on Canon. Apost. 63 p. 470'^ 
Cotel.-Clericus. Jer. Taylor ix 356. 

p. 34 1. 2 De leiunio adu. Psych. 1 p. 275 1. 2 Wiss. arguunt 
nos quod. . .xerophagias ohseruemus, siccantes cihum ah omni carne 
et omni iurulentia (s. above). Kaye 146 (De Monogam. 5 De 

35 Pudic. 12). Irenaeus Fr. 15 p. 343 Ben. i p. 832 St. (from 
Oecumen. on 1 Pet. c. 3 p. 498) transl. by Blunt Right Use of 
the Early Fathers 40. Slaves of catechumens on the rack 
confessed that the holy communion was the body and blood of 

p. 34 1. 15] APOLOGETICVS 9 205 

Christ. The martyr Blandina ansvvered : " how could Ave endure 
to do such an act ; we who, in the practice of our Christian 
discipline, abstain even frora permitted food ? " Orig. contra 
Cels. VIII 30 (cf. n. in Loram. xx 147—8) c. 31. Clem. AI. 
Paedag. III § 25 (p. 276 P.) ovSe jap dLyelv alfxa Tol<i dv6pu>7roi<i 5 
Oe/JbC<i, 0I9 ro aa)/xa ovSkv d\\' i) adp^ ecTTiv aljxaTi <yeo)p'yov- 
fxevT). Calmet on Acts 15 20. Councils. Aug. contr. Faust. 
XXXII 13 f. obsolete in his day, the few who observed the 
restriction mocked by the rest. Clem. Recogn. i 30. Cotelier 
on Const. Apost. vi 12 n. 27. 10 

p. 34 1. 3 MORTiciNis Varr. 

p. 34 1. 5 BOTVLOS Arnob. 11 42. Aristoph. Equit. 208 eW 
a't/jiaT07ro!)TT]<; ecrd^ 6t dXXd'i -)(^oi) SpaKcov. 

CERTissiMi c. inf. 12 f. 11 p. 40 1. 15. 

p. 34 1. 6 EXORBiTARE c. 6 pr. n. [16 (p. 54 1. 24) n. A.S.] 15 

p. 34 1. 8 De Spectac. 19 p. 20 1. 14 Wiss. si tales sumus, 
quales dicimur, delectemur sanguine huniano. Human blood 
a cure for epilepsy, Cels. Iii 23. 

p. 34 1. 10 FOCVLVM (Plaut. in lexx. 5) luu. 3 262 n. Sen. 
Ep. QQ § 51. 20 

ACERRAM adu. Marcion. i 27 p. m. Amob. 11 76 'perquiramus 
et nos contra, cur et uos, cum tantos et tam innumeros colatis 
deos, cumque. . .acerras omnes turis plenas conjiciatis altaribus, 
cur non inmunes agitis tot discriminibus et procellis, quibus cotidie 
uos agunt exitiabiles multiplicesque fortunae f 25 

p. 34 1. 14 CVSTODIARVM prisoners in custody. 44 n. p. 124 
1. 16. Orat. 24. Sen. Ep. 70 § 23. Sueton. Calig. 27 Ner. 31 
(sing.). Seru. Aen. xi 184. dig. XLViii 3 10. 

p. 34 1. 15 iNCESTi cf. c. 21 p. 68 1. 31. 

INCESTI...PERSAS Minuc. 31 § 2 haec enim potius de uestris 30 
gentibus nata sunt. ius est apud Persas misceri cum matribus 
...memoriae et tragoediae uestrae incestis gloria)ttur, quas 
uos libenter et legitis et auditis. sic et deos colitis incestos, 
cum matre, cum filia, cum sorore coniunctos. Holden ib. Incest 
of luppiter with Rhea and Proserpine. Athenag. Suppl. 20 35 
p. 20* cf. 32 p. 36^ 34. Plin. Hist. Nat. 11 c. 7 § 17 matrimonia 
quidem inter deos credi tantoque aeuo ex his neminem nasci et 
alios esse grandaeuos semperque canos alios iuuenes atque pueros, 

206 TERTVLLIANI [p. 34 1. 15— 

atricolores, aligeros, claudos, ouo editos et alternis diehus uiuentes 
vwrientesque ^)Me?-//Hn?i prope deliramentorum est ; sed super 
omnem infipudentiam adulteria inter ipsos fingi, mox iurgia et 
odia, atque etiam furtorum esse et scelerum nuniina. Xeno- 
5 phanes. [See on p. 38 1. 21 A. S.] luppiter and Proserpina 
Orig. contr. Cels. i 25. 48. Arnob. v 21. Tatian 8 p. 148^ 10, 
and luno. Theophil. Iil 3. 8. Clem. Alex. Strom. ili § 11, Protr. Ii 
§§15 and 16 p. 13 P. Euseb. Praep. Eu. I 4. 6 p. 11'' &>? fn^Keri 
lle/3<ra9 p.i)rpo'yaixeiv rov^ avrai (to3 crcorrjpi) /ji,a6rjrevdevra<i. 

lo Lasaulx Studien 424 n. 219, 220. Chrys. Hom. 7 in 2 Cor. 

(X 489"=). De Virgin. 8 (i 274''). Clem. Hom. iv 12. 15. 18. 24, 

VI 18. Bardesanes in Euseb. Praep. Eu. vi 10 § 16 p. 275 

(cf. Basil. Ep. 258 4, III 395^ Athenag. 12. Aristid. 9 8. 85). 

IVPPITER c. 11 p. 42 1. 8 n. ad nat. II 13 (after Saturn 

15 and Ops). Lucian De Sacrif. 5 eyr]/jie Se TroXXaf fiev Kal 
aXXa<i, v(Trnrt]v Se...rr]v dSeXcf^Tjv Kara rovi Uepawv rovro Kal 
'Aa(Tvpi(i)v vc/jLov;. Xen. Mem. IV 4 § 20 sq. Luc. viii 409. 
Euseb. Laud. Const. 16 p. 251, 33 fteikel. Theocr. Id. xvii 
131 — 134 defends the incest of Ptolemy II by the example of 

20 Zeus, see Bouche-Leclercq Hist. des Lagides i (Par. 1903) 163 
n. 2. Ruinart Acta Mart. p. 357 quod Apollo sororem suam 
Dianam ante aram in Delo uiolauerit. Lactant. Diu. Inst. i 
17 § 8. Ambr. De Virginibus iii 2. Theoph. i 9 p. 13°. 
Stallbaum on Plat. Euthyphr. p. 5*^. Clem. Alex. Paedag. i 7 

25 § 55 p. 131. Stromat. Iii § 11 p. 515. Tatian c. 28 p. 164. 
Jeremy Taylor ix 374—5 Eden. Clem. Recogn. ix 25, 27, 29. 
Hom. 19, 19. Orig. contr. Cels. v 27, vi 80. Bingham xvi 

PERSAS ad nat. i 16 p. 86 1. 15 Wiss. plane Persae, Ctesias 

30 edit, tam scientes quam non horrentes cum matrihiis lihere 
faciunt. sed et Macedones id quod prohauerunt p)ulam sesefacti- 
tare, siquidem, cum primum scaenojn eorum Oedipus intrauit 
trucidatus oculos, risu ac derisu exceperunt. tragoedus consterna- 
tus retracta persona, Numquid, ait, domini, displicui iiohis? 

35 responderunt Macedones : Immo tu quidem pidchre, at scriptor 
uanissimus si finxit, aut Oedipus dementissimus si ita fecit : 
atque exinde alter ad alterum, rjXavve, dicehat, eh rrjv /narepa. 
Lasaulx 424 — 5. Sen. Lud. 8 § 2. Philo De Spec. Leg. 3 pr. et 

p. 34 1. 21] APOLOGETICVS 9 207 

med. (1 301 — 2 M.). lulian. p. 9'= (with sisters). [Ps.-Aug. Quaest. 
Vet. et Nou. Test. no. 115 § 19. A. S.] Thdt. Gr. aff. cur. iii 
§§ 37, 96, 97. d86\(f>ofj,i^ia, Basil. Ep. 217 can. 65 75. Euseb. 
Praep. Eu. vi 10 46. Bingham xxii 1 4. Greg. Nyss. c. fat. 
(Migne P. G. XLV col. 170 a). Agath. ii 24 pr. 5 

p. 34 1. 17 TRAGOEDiAM Lactant. Diu. Inst. vi 20 §§ 23, 28. 

p. 34 1. 19 ad nat. i 16 p. 87 1. 7 Wiss. respicite igiticr 
luxuria inter errores et uentos fluctuante, si desunt populi, quos 
ad hoc sceleins incursent lata uada et aspera erroris. in primis 
cum infantes uestros alienae misericordiae exponitis aut in lo 
adoptionem melioribus parentihus, obliuiscimini quanta materia 
incesti sumministratur, quanta occasio casibus apentur? Aug. 
Ep. 23 (98) ad Bonifat. (ii 266'^) aliquando etiam quos crudeliter 
parentes exposuerunt nutriendos a quibuslibet, nonnumquam a 
sacris uirginibus colliguntur et ab eis offeruntur ad baptismum. 15 

p. 34 1. 20 PASSIVITATE promiscuousness, roving nature. 
De Cor. Milit. 8 p. m. huiusmodi quaestioni sic ubique respondeo, 
admittens quidem. utensilium communionem, sed prouocans eam 
ad rationalium et irrationalium distinctionem, quia passiuitas 
fallit obumbrans corruptelavi conditionis. Adu. Hermog. 41 20 
p. 170 1. 22 Kr. haec inquies non est, haec turbulentia et pas- 
siuitas non est, sed moderatio et modestia et iustitia motationis 
neutram in partem inclinantis. Saki. Vil § 16 immo, quantum 
ad passiuitatem libidinis pertinet, quis non coniugem in numerum 
ancillarum redegit ? § 18 atque illi, de quibus haec scripta 25 
legimus, et minore fortasse crimine et minore, ut reor, numero 
criminum ac ^K^mMita^e pecca.bant. Oehlers ind. PASSivvs 
(PANDO) ad nat. ii 1 f De Monogam. 6 pr. ad Vxor. I 2 f. 
Conc. Carth. 1 c. 7. 

Apul. Metam. ix p. 202, vi 10. cf n. from Tert. ad nat. 30 
I 16 f. (Journ. Phil. xx 279) a kidnapped boy sold in Asia and 
finally brought to the Roman market and bought by his own 
father. Socr. H. E. i 18 § 7 wives common property. Exposing 
children cause of incest, infr. 39 p. 112 1. 24 n. lustin. Apol. l 
c. 27 p. 70^ c. 29 pr. p. 71'^ Minuc. 30 § 2. 31 § 3. Rein 35 
Criminalr. 441 sq. Dollinger Heidenthum u. Judenth. 716 — 7. 

p. 34 1. 21 MiSERicoRDiA Paullus in dig. xxv 3 4 necare 
uidetur non tantum is qui partum praefocat, sed et is qui abicit 

208 TERTVLLIANI [p. 34 1. 21— 

et qui alimonia denegat et qui publicis locis misericordiae causa 
exponit, quam ipse non hahet. Cod. viii 52 2. Exposition Aug. 
De Nuptiis et Concupiscentia i c. 15 § 17 (x 619 Gaume). 
D.S. (ll 231) approves Spartan infanticide, which was a capital 
5 crime at Thebes. Ael. Var, Hist. ii 7. Gibbons guess that the 
church was largely recruited from foundlings has no support in 
antiquity (Blunt Right Use 332—7). Lact. Diu. Inst. vi 20 
§1 21 — 3 quid illi quos falsa pietas corjit exponere ? num possunt 
innocentes existimari qui uiscera sua in praedam canibus obiciunt 

lo et quantum in ipsis est crudelius necant quam si strangidassent ? 
§ 22 quis dubitet quin inipius sit qui alienae misericordiae 
locum tribuit? qui, etiamsi contingat ei quod uoluit, ut alatur, 
addixit certe sanguinem suum uel ad seruituteni uel ad lupanar ? 
§ 23 quae autem possint uel soleant accidere in utroque sexu per 

15 errorem, quis non intellegit, quis ignorat ? quod uel unius 
Oedipodis declarat exeniplum duplici scelere confusum. tam 
igitur nefarium est exponere quam necare. Clem. Alex. Paedag. 
III c. 3 § 21 f. (p. 265 P.) oKX ovhe cruvtdaip ol TaXaiTrcopoi, 0)9 
t6 d8r]\oi' T?}? (Jvvovdia^ TroWa? epjd^eTaL TpajwSla^;. Trai.Sl 

20 TTopvevaavTi kuI fia-^XcoaaL^; dvyaTpdaiv dyvoyjaavTe^ 7roWaK-i<; 
/uLiyvvvTaL 7raTepe<i, ov fiefjivrj/jLevoL twv eKTeOevTcov TraLBicov, kuI 
dvhpa<i SeiKvvaL Toij^ yeyevvrj K6Ta<i dKpaaLa<i e^ovaia. Aug. 
c. duas epist. Pelagianorum ii § 11 plangit baptizata mater non 
baptizattom proprium ; et ab impudica expositum, baptizandum 

25 casta fetum colligit alienum. cf. §§ 14 pr. — 16. Basil Ep. 217 
can. 52. Epist. ad Diognet. 5 jd. 497^. Athenag. Suppl. 35 fin. 
p. 34 1. 24 ERROR Lact. Diu. Inst. vi 20 § 23. 
p. 34 1. 26 LIBIDO Saluian. vii c. 16—22 (§§ 65—100) con- 
trasts the levvdness of the Africans with the chastity of their 

30 Vandal conquerors. 

SALTVS ad nat. i 16 p. 87 1. 15 Wiss. 

p. 34 1. 27 IGNARIS, cet. Minuc. 31 § 3 nierito igitur incestum 
penes uos saepe deprehenditur, semper admittitur ; etiam nesci- 
entes miseri potestis in illicita ruere, dum Venerem promisce 

35 spargitis, duni passim liberos seritis, dum etiam donii natos 
alienae misericordiae frequenter exponitis, necesse est in uestros 
recurrere, in filios inerrare. § 4 sic incesti fabulani nectitis, 
etiam cum conscientiam non habetis. lustin. Apol. i 27 Kal twv 

p. 34 1. 32] APOLOGETICVS 9 209 

TovTOL<i ')(^p(Ofiev(ov Ti? TTpo? rf] cWe(p Kal dae/Bel Kal (iKparel 
fii^ei, el Tv^x^oi, reKV(p rj avyyevel rj dBe\(f)(p /jiiyvvrat. cf. Clem. 
Alex. Paedag. iii 3 § 21 p. 265. Bingham xvi 10 11. 

FiLios = liberos. acl nat. i 16 p. 87 1. 16 Wiss. ii 12 p. 117 
1. 22 Wiss. De Exhort. Castit. 13 masculorurti filiorum. James 5 
on 4 Ezra p. L. Aiig. Ep. 127 9 f. Hier. Migne P.L. xxiii 968^ 
cum hodieque Romae omnes filii uocentur infantes. los. Antiq. 
II 13 p. 57 p. m. bis (ed. 1524). Archiv f. lat. Lex. vii 77—80. 
84. 90. 92 — 94. reKva vfiSiv 1 Cor. vii 14 is filii uestri in Tert. 
ad Vxor. ii 2. 10 

p. 34 1. 30 NOS cet. c. 39. 46. ad Vxor. i 6. De Cultu Fem. 
II 9. Athenag. Suppl. 33 yvvalKa fiev eAracrTO? rj/nwv rjv rjydyero 
Kara rov<i v(ji' rjfiwv reOeifMevov; v6fLov<i vofit^cov, Kal ravrrjv 
/u.e;^pt ToO 7raiBo7roL^(Taadai...rjfMLv fierpov emOvfiia^i rj TraiBo- 
rroua. lustin. Apol. I 29 aXV r) rrjv dpxv^ ^*^* eyafxovfiev el 15 
fi-)] eVl TTalBojv dvarpo(f)7] r) Trapatrovfievot rb yrjfiaaOaL reXeov 
eveyKparevofLeda. A Christian youth, in order to refute the 
charges of promiscuous intercourse, applied to Felix, governor 
of Alexandria, for a medical licence for his mutilation. It was 
refused, but he remained unmarried. Minuc. 31 § 5 a^ nos 20 
■pudorem non facie sed mente praestamus, unius matrimonii 
uinculo lihenter inhaeremus, cupiditatem procreandi aut unam 
scinius aut nuUani. Socrates I 13 § 3 married priests' cohabi- 
tation forbidden. § 4 allowed by Paphnutius. §§ 5, 6 priests' 
marriage forbidden. iv 23 (Ammon). V 22 § 50. Athenag. 33 25 
p. 37^ evpoL^ 8' iav TToXXou? rwv Trap rffuv kcll dvSpa<; Kal 
yvvaLKa';, KarayrjpdaKovra^ dydfiovi eXmhi rov fjbdWov avve- 
aeadat rw deo). Euseb. Laud. const. 17. Orig. contra Cels. 
I 26. VII 48 pr. Spencer on Orig. contra Cels. p. 21 1. 55 
(annot. p. 21 ab). Theophil. iii 15. Eus. D.E. i 9 §§ 14, 15, 21. 30 

p. 34 1. 32 QVIDAM cet. ad Vx. i 6 quot enim sunt qui statim 
a lauacro carnem suam obsignant? De Cultu Fem. 11 9 non 
enim et multi itafaciunt et se spadonatui [cf Socr. H. E. ii 26 1 9] 
obsignant propter regnum Dei? lustin. Apol. i 15 p. 62*^ after 
citing Matt. 19 12 : Kal ttoWol Tt^e? Kal TvoWal e^rjKovromaL 35 
Kal e^hofirjKOvrovraL 01 e/c iraiScov efxaOyfrevdriaav ra> \pLar(io, 
d(f>dopoL 8iafu,€vovaL' Kal eiixoiJ.aL Kard rrdv yevo<i dvdpdiTrcov 
roLovrov<; hel^aL. Pitra Spicil. Solesm. i 323. Athenag. Suppl. 
M. T. 14 

210 TERTVLLIANI [p. 34 1. 32— 

33 (quoted above). Minuc. 31 § 6 casto sermone, corpore castiore, 
jylerique inniolati corporis uirginitate perpetiia fruuntur potius 
quani gloriantur. tantum denique abest incesti cupido, ut non- 
nullis ruhori sit etiam pudica coniunctio. Harnack Texte viii 4 
5 (Medicinisches u.s.w.) p. 63 n. 3. A heresy in Eustathius bp of 
Sebastia in Armenia to forbid marriage, Socr. Hist. Eccl. ii 43 
§ 3. Herzog-Hauck Real Encykl. xiii 215. 

p. 34 1. 33 SENES Adu. Val. 5 p. 182 1. 13 Kr. Proculus 
noster uirginis senectae...dignitas. Schwegler Montanismus i 
10 28 quotes Orig. l.c. 

p. 36 1. 4 viDERE VIDEANTVR Bentl. on Hor. Carm. ii 1. 21. 
cf. dixisse dicitur Cic. Verr. iv § 73. 

p. 36 1. 5 MANIFESTIORIBVS cf. C. 6 f. 

Cap. X 

p. 36 1. 6 DEOS NON COLITIS. Of the fathers Athenag. 4 — 30 

15 treats most fully the charge of atheism. cf. Arnob. I 28 sq. 
Clem. Al. Strom. vii 1 § 4 Hort-Mayor's n. Plin. Ep. ad Trai. 
96 § 5 qui negabant esse se Christianos autfuisse, ciim praeeunte 
me deos appellarent et imagini tuae, quam propter hoc iusseram 
cum simulacris numinum afferri, ture ac uino supplicarent, 

20 praeterea male dicer-ent Christo, quorum nihil posse cogi dicuntur 
qui sunt re uera Christiani, dimittendos esse pidaui. § 6 some 
informed against said that they had been Christians and were 
so no more. omnes et imaginem tuam deorumque simulacra 
uenerati sunt et Christo male dixenmt. Socr. Hist. Eccl. iii 22 

25 § 1 pr. Julian gave soldiers the ojDtion, 7) Oveiv i) airocTTpa- 
reveaOai. II 27 § 4. I 36 § 3 (of Asterius) lepooavvij^i ixkv 
rjo-ToxV'^^ ^'■^ '^o iTTiTeOuKevai Kara tov hiwyfxov. III 13 § 2. 
15 § 5. 20 §§ 1—3. IV 1 § 9. 28 §§ 2 3. vii 25 §§ 18 19. i 6 § 37. 
Arnob. i 29 pr. ergone impiae religionis sumus apud uos i^ei, et 

30 quod caput rerum et columen uenerahilibus adimus obsequiis, ut 
conuicio utamur uestro, infausti et athei nuncupamur ? Iii 28 
quantumlibet nos inipios, irreligiosos uocetis et atheos, numquam 
fidemfacietis esse amorum deos,€Sse bellorum,esse qui discordias 
conserant v 30 iam dudum me fateor reputantem mecum in 

35 animo rerum huiuscemodi monstra solitum esse mirari, audere 

p. 36 1. 9] APOLOGETICVS 9, 10 211 

uos dicere qiiemquam ex is atheum irreligiosum S((crilegum qui 
deos esse omnino aut negent aut dubitent, aut qui eos homines 
fuisse contendant et potestatis alicuius et meriti causa deorum in 
numerum relatos, cum si uerum Jiat atque habeatur examen, 
nidlos quam uos magis huiusmodi par sit appellationibus nuncu- 5 
pari, qui suh specie cultionis plus in eos ingeratis maledictionum 
et criminum, quam si aperte hoc facere confessis maledictionibus 
coimbibissetis. VI 27 Minuc. c. 8. lust. Apol. i 6 pr. 56^ evOev 
Be Kol ddeoi, Ke/cXj]/j,€da. kuI ofioXoyovfiev roiv tolovtoov Kokov- 
jievoov Oeo)v adeoi elvac. Euseb. Hist. Eccl. IV 15 (mart\Tdom of 10 
Polycarp) § 19 (the proconsul) ""OfMoaov ttjv KaiVapo? tvxv^^, 
peTavorjaov, elirov Alpe tol"? dOeovi." 6 8e TloXvKap7ro<i 
e/jL/3pi6et tw TTpoacoiroi et? irdvTa tov ox^ov tov ev tm aTaSloi 
efu-/3Xeyp~a<;, eTTt(Teicra<; uvtols ttjv ^elpa, cTTevd^a^ re Kal dva- 
^keyjra^i ei? tov ovpavov, elTrev, Alpe tov<; dOeov^;. The crowd 15 
had cried, § 6, AZpe tol/? ddeov<i' ^rfTeiado} YVoXvKapiro^i. cf. IV 
13 § 3. 

SACRIFICIA Acta Mart. lustini c. 1 wcrTe avTov<i dvay- 
Kd^eadat aTrevSetv Tot<f paTatot<i elhd>\ot<i. c. 5 'PoucrTitfo^ 
eiTapx^o<i elTTe' To Xotirov e\do)fiev et<? t6 TrpoKeifievov kuI 20 
KaTerrelyov Trpdyfia. avve\66vTe<i ovv ofjtodvfiahov 6vaaTe Toi<i 
^eots^.-.Justin refused and so the other martyrs said TToiet 6 
^eXci?. rjfj,et<i yctp X.piaTiai'ot eafiev, Kal €t8(6\ot<i ov 6vofM€v. 
'PoucTTi/co? eTTap-^^o^i d7re(f)7]vaTo \€yu)v' 0't fjtr] /3uv\rj6evT€<; 
6vaat Tot<i 6eot^ Kal el^at tcu tov avTOKpdTopo<; irpoaTdypaTt 25 
fiaaTty(i)6evTe<i aTrap^^^/Twcrai/. 

p. 86 1. 7 IMPENDITLS Idol. 6 p. 36 1. 5 Wiss, nec anima 
pecudis impensa, sed anima tua. 

p. 36 1. 8 QVIA : qua Ashton. 

p. 36 1. 9 SACRILEGII 2 pr. nomen homicidae uel sacrilegi 30 
uel publici hostis {ut de nostris elogiis loquar). ib. med. sic enim 
soletis . . .laniari iubere sacrilegum, si confiteri perseuerauerit. 
ad Scap. 2 tamen nos, quos sacrilegos existimatis, nec in furto 
umquam deprehendistis, nedum in sacrilegio. omnes autem 
qui tentpla despoliant et per deos iurant et eosdent colunt, et 35 
Ghristiani non sunt et sacrilegi tamen deprehenduntur. Rufin. 
Hist. Eccl. IV 15 § 18. de Polycarpo (Hav.). 

CONVENIMVR 31 f. n. ad nat. I 17 p. 89 1. 12 Wiss. uani- 


212 TERTVLLIANI [p. 36 1. 9— 

tatis sacrilegia conueniam. Liebenam rom. Vereinswesen 270. 
Friedlander iii® 631 n. 10 cites Renan Les Evangiles 401 — 3. 

p. 36 1. 10 TOTA de Idol. 1 pr. principale crimen generis 
liumani, summus saeculi reatus, tota causa iudicii idololatr^ia. 
5 p. 36 1. 11 DESPERAT the Academic scepticism e.g. in the 
speech of Caecilius in Minuc. 

p. 36 1. 12 Tzschirner 325. lustin. Apol. i 6 ofiokoyou/jLeu 
TO)v ToiovTOiv ovofia^o/jievcov decov dOeoi eivai. 
p. 36 1. 13 NON ESSE cf. c. 12 f. 

lo p. 36 1. 17 SED NOBis c. 13 pr. sed nobis dei sunt, inquitis. 

p. 36 11. 19—20 Infr. cap. 11 pr. 40. Idol. 15 p. 47 1. 15 
Wiss. si hominis causa est, recogitemus omnem idololatrian 
in hominis causam esse. recogitenius omnem idololatrian in 
homines esse culturam, cum ipsos deos nationum homines retro 

15 fuisse etiam apud suos constet. Cic. Nat. Deor. iii c. 19 nostri 
quidem publicani, cum essent agri in Boeotia deorum immor- 
talium excepti lege censoria, negabant immortales esse ullos, qui 
aliquando homines fuissent. Lact. Diu. Inst. i 15 cites Cic. 
Cons. ' non dubitauit dicere deos, qui publice colerentur, homines 

20 fuisse...cum uero (inquit) et mai^es et feminas coniplures ex 
hominibus in deoruni numero esse uideamus.' Socr. Hist. Eccl. 
iii 23 f p. 204 205. Aug. Serm. 273 c. 3 4 (v 1106 b sq.). 
Bingham xiii 3 3 n. 56 sq. Kaye 206. Euhemeri Reliquiae 
coll. Geyza Nemethy (cir. 1891) good ed. Aug. Ciu. Dei iv 27. 

25 Athenag. Suppl. i p. 1"^ names Hektor, Agamemnon, Erechtheus, 
Agraulos etc. cf Minuc. 22 § 8 sq. of Saturn. Athenag. 28 
cites Herodot. 11 144 and Alexander the great in a letter to 
his mother as witnesses to the Egyptian priest's confession 
that the -gods had been men. Minuc. 21 § 4 Alexander ille 

30 magnus Macedo insigni uolumine ad matrem suam scripsit, 
metu suae potestatis proditum sibi de dis honiinibus a sacerdote 
secretum. cf Aug. and Plut. in Holden. Athenag. 30 cites the 
Sibyl. Aug. in Ps. 93 3 a. m. Theod. Gr. Afif. Cur. iii 42 sq. 
VIII 113 sq. 

35 p. 36 1. 21 TESTIMONIVM PERHIBENTIBVS Varr. Plin. ApuL 
Metam. 11 36 wos in hanc reni boni Quirites testimonium per- 
hibetote [and often later, A. S.]. 

p. 36 1. 22 NATi cet. Arnob. i 37 discetis, quibus singuli 

p. 36 1. 26] APOLOGETICYS 10 213 

patmbus, quihus matrihus fuerint procreati, qua innati regione, 
qua gente, quae fecerint egerint pertulerint actitarint. cf. 86. 
Tatian 21 •yevecnv av Xeyrjre Oewv, koI dvrjToxj^; auTov<i cnro- 
(pavelade. Athenag". 18 p. 18^ ouk e^ (^PX^l^' ^^ (paaiv, t)crav ot 
6eoi, oKfC oi>TO)i; yeyovev avTcov e/cacTTO? o)? yLvofieda r}/j,ei<i cet. 5 
lustin. Cohort. ad Gent. 2. Lact. Diu. Inst. v 19 §15. Infra 
c. 25 luppiter in Crete. 

p. 36 1. 24 SEPVLTI c, 12 in insulas relegamur? solet et in 
insulis aliqui deus uester aut nasci aut mori. ad nat. 11 7 p. 106 
1. 14 Wiss. sepulcris regum vestrorum caelum infamatis. ii 12 10 
pr. nam quot deos et quos utique producam? ...ueteres an et 
nouicios ? mares an et feminas ? . . .rusticos an et urbanos? ciues 
an et peregrinos? cet. Lact. Ira Dei 11 § 8 (Euhemerus and 
Ennius). Diu. Inst. i 11 §§ 33 34 (Ennius). 45 46 (Jove's tomb 
in Crete). 13 § 14. Epit. 13. Arnob. iv 29. v 31. Minuc. 21 § 1 15 
Holden. Plut. ii 680^ Euhemerus in DS. (Mullach Fragm. 
Philos. II 431 — 8). Aug. Ciu. Dei vii 26. Constantine Or. ad 
Sanct. Coet. 4 § 3 twi/ S' d(f)ddpT(ov eKeivwv Tdcjyov^i Te Kal 
6rjKa<i eTTiSecKvvovaiv auTol, KaTot.'^ofievou<i Te Ti/jLal<i adavdToi<i 
yepalpovaiv. Luc. luppiter Trag. 45. 20 

p. 36 1. 25 TOT AC TANTOS De Spect. 30 p. 28 1. 20 Wiss. 
quid admirer ? quid rideani ? ubi gaudeam, ubi exsidtem, tot 
spectans reges, qui in caeluni recepti nuntiahantur, cum loue ipso 
et ipsis suis testibiis in imis tenebris congemescentes ? ad nat. i 
10 p. 75 1. 16 Wiss. tot ac tanti. Ou. Trist. iii 1 77 — 8 di, precor, 25 
atque adeo {neque enim niihi turba roganda est) Caesar, ades uoto, 
maxinie diue, nieo. Aetna 62. Aug. Ciu. Dei iii 12 (Haverc). 
luu. 13 46 — 8 n. Bayle oeuvres iii 282 — 3. Lobeck Aglaoph. 
507—9. 626. Keim Rorn u. das Christenthum 226. Preller- 
Jordan rom. Myth. i-^ 137. Marquardt ili- 18 n. 10 and 11. 30 

p. 36 1. 26 CAPTivos infr. c. 25 p. 90 1. 15. Marquardt iii- 
34 n. 1—3. Kortholt Pag. Obtr. 88—9. Prud. c. Symm. 11 
18 sq. 347 — 361 (349 — 351) inter fumantes templorum armatu 
ruinas dextera uictoris simidacra hostilia cepit et captiua 
domum, uenerans ceu numina uexit. Arnob. Iii 38 f. Macr. S. 35 
III 9 § 2. 

PROPRIOS ad nat. 11 9 p. 111, 10 Wiss. nos uero hifariam 
Romanorum deos recognoscimus, communes et proprios, id est, 

214 TERTVLLIANI 10 [p. 36 1. 26— 

quos cum omnihus liahent et quos ipsi sunt commenti. Arnob. 

IV 4 quid enim Romcmi deos possident pecidiares, qid aliarum 
gentium noa sint, et quemadmodum poterunt di esse, si non 
omnihus quae uhlque sunt gentes aequahilitatem sui numinis 

5 exhihehunt ? cf. Marquardt iii^ 380 n. 2. 

p. 36 1. 27 MASCVL08 FEMINAS Arnob. III 6 (p. 115 27). 
Augustus (Dio LVI 3 § 1 pr.) commends married knights for 
imitating the divine example. 

p. 36 1. 28 OTiosvM EST cet. Minuc. 23 § 1 otiosum est ire 

lo per singulos et totam seriem generis istius explicare, cum in 

primis parentihus prohata mortalitas in ceteros ipso ordine 

successionis injluxerit. otiosum est also in Tac. Ann. xiii 3. 

Lact. Diu. Inst. ii 4 § 28. 

p. 36 1. 28 infra c. 24. ad nat. ii 12 p. 116 1. 15 Wiss. 
15 quanto diffusa res est, tanto suhstringenda nohis erit, et ideo, qui 
in ista specie unum tuemur propositum demonstrandi illos omnes 
homines fuisse (non quidem ut cognoscatis, nam quasi ohliti 
(ms -a) agitis). Local gods comm. on Aen. 11 351. v 95. Meurs. 
on Lycophr. 1473. 
20 p. 36 1. 29 COGNOSCATIS Sen. Med. 194 si iudicas, cognosce ; 
si regnas, iiihe. 

p. 36 1. 30 OBLiTOS AGiTis c. 1 p. 2 1. 10 c. 37 p. 108 1. 5 
hostes exsertos agere. Praescr. Haer. 13 iierhum...ex ea natum 
egisse lesum Christum. ad nat. ii 7 p. 107 1. 7 Wiss. quam 
25 incerti agitis circa conscientiae pudorem ! 

ANTE SATVRNVM cet. same as Miimc. Oct. 21 Halm = 22 

Oehler. Cf. Ebert 369 seq. Tert. ad nat. 11 12 p. 116 1. 19 

Wiss.... origineni generis illorum retractando. origo enim una 

totius posteritatis. ea origo deorum uestrorum Saturno, ut opinor, 

zo signatur. Arnob. ii 70. 71. 

p. 36 11. 33 ff. ad nat. ii 12 p. 119 1. 8 Wiss. exstat apud 
litteras uestras usquequaque Saturni census. legimus apud 
Cassium Seuermm, apud Cornelios Nepoteni et Tacitum (Hist. 

V 2 I 4), apud Graecos quoque Diodorum quiue alii antiquitatum 
35 canos collegerunt. 

p. 36 1. 33 DIODORVS [lust. M.] Coh. ad Geut. 9 p. 10 c. sq. 
25 f p. 24 c. 

p. 38 I. 1 THALLVS infra c. 19. Lact. Diu. Inst. 1 13 § 8, 23 § 2. 

p. 38 1. 9] APOLOGETICVS 10 215 

Theophil. iii 29. According to Africanus in Euseb. Praep. Eu. 
X 10 §§ 3 5 and Euseb, Chron. i p. 14 dealt with Syrian history 
from Troy to Olymp. 167. [lust. Mart.] Cohort.*ad Gent. c. 9 
p. lO^ Lardner Heathen Pr. ii c. 13 f. p. 122—3 vol. 7 ed. 
1829. Muller Fr. Hist. Gr. iii -517—9. 5 

CASSivs SEVERVS C. Milller Fr. Hist. iii 517 : may be 
C. Hemina or C. Longinus, Pauly-Wissowa ill 1744 — 9. Minuc. 
1. c. scit hoc Nepos et Gassius in historia et Thallus ac Diodorus 
hoc loquuntur. In cap. 46 we have Hippias the sophist iden- 
tified with the son of Pisistratus. Lact. Diu. Inst. I 13 § 8 lo 
omnes ergo non tantum poetae sed historiarum quoque et 
rerum antiquarum scriptores homineni fuisse consentiunt, qui 
res eius in Italia gestas memoriae prodiderunt, Graeci Diodo7'us 
et Thallus, Latini Nepos et Gassius et Varro. Thalhis again ib. 
23 § 2. Cf infra c. 19 p. 64 1. 14. About Saturn, ad nat 15 
II 12 (Tacitus for Thanus). Lact. Diu. Inst. i 11 § 50— 
15 § 2. 

p. 38 1. 2 COMMENTATOR Carn. Christi 22, euangelii (author) 
Carn. Res. 33, Adu. Marc. iv 2. c. Val. 34 f De Cor. Mil. 7. 
Anim. 46. [Rufin.] c. in Joel I 1. 20 

p. 38 1. 4 ad nat. ii 12 p. 119 1. 11 Wiss. nec fideliora 
uestigia eius quam in ipsa Italia signata sunt. nam post 
plurimas terras et Attica hospitia Italiae tiel, ut tunc uocahatur, 
Oenotriae consedit, exceptus ah lano siue lane, ut Salii uocant. 
mons, quem coluerat, Saturnius dictus, urhs, quam depalauerat, 25 
Saturnia usque nunc est. Arnob. IV 24. 

p. 38 1. 5 POST infr. p. 38 1. 8, Scorpiace 11 (p. 170 1. 22 Wiss.). 

p. 38 1. 7 DEPALAVERAT ad nat. 11 12 (above). Hermog. 
29 pr. Archiv f. Lat. Lex. viii 189. Hermas Simil. v 2 § 5 
uerum cum post aliquantum temporis dominus eiusdem rediens 30 
in uineam intrasset et uidisset decenter eam depalatam, Ke^^^a- 
paKwjxivov (cf. § 3 cum uineae palos iunxisset, [TeXecraf Ti)v 
^apdKcoaiv rov «/u-7reXttiz/o?]). CIL VIII 2728. 

p. 38 1. 8 POST p. 38 1. 5. 

p. 38 1. 9 SATURNIA Arnob. i 36 ciuitatis Saturniae Satur- 35 
nus auctor. Verg. Aen. vii 180, vm 357. Seru. on viii 318. 
Muncker on Fulg. i 2 p. 626 Stav. 

TABVLAE Minuc. 22 § 9 Saturnus Greta profugus...rudes 

216 TERTVLLIANI [p. 38 1. 9— 

illos homines et agrestes multa docuit, id Graeculus et politus, 
litteras imj^rimere, nummos signare, instrumenta conficere. 

p. 38 1. 10 SIGNATVS NVMMVs Macr. Sat. i 7 § 22 Jan. 

HOMO cf. Cic. in Lact. Diu. Inst. i 15 § 19 seq. Arnob. iv 29. 
5 Athenag. 28 p. 150. 29 p. 154 (examples 28—30). Sibyl in 
Otto IX 463—4. 

p. 38 1. 11 EX HOMINE cf. p. 38 1. 23. 

ad nat. II 12 p. 116 1. 21 Wiss. neque enim...nobis excidisse 
debet omneni patrem filiis antiquiorem, tain Saturnam loue 
lo quam Gaeluni Saturno: de Gaelo enim et Terra Saiurnus. 

DE CAELO (cf. 1. 16, C. 4, p. 16, 1. 21)...TERRAE FILIOS 

Minuc. 22 § 11 = 21 § 8 Halm (quoted by Lact. i 11 § 55) 
homo igitur utique qui fugit, honio utique qui latuit, et pater 
hominis et natus ex honiine, terrae enini et caeli filius, quod 

15 apud Italos esset ignotis imrentihus proditus, ut in hodiernum 
inopinato uisos caelo 7}iissos, ignohiles et ignotos terrae filios 
nominamus. Petr. 43 Fr. Cic. Ad Fam. Vil 9 § 3. Otto Sprichw. 
344. luu. 8 257 terrae parenti. 4 98 n. malim fraterculus 
esse gigantis. Ammian. xxii 2 4 taniquam demissum aliquem 

20 uisura de caelo. Paneg. 5 19 (146 11 B.) quem ut caelo de- 
lapsum intuehantur (Archiv f. lat. Lex. Vil 610 — 1, viii 25). 
Lact. Diu. Inst. iii 20 § 7. cf. i 11 § 55 Bii. v 8 § 2 quid uobis 
inanem iustitiam depingitis et optatis cadere de caelo, taniquam 
in aliquo simulacro figuratam. 

25 p. 38 1. 18 TACEO QVOD Val. Max. iv 4 9 taceo enini quod 
princeps ciuitatis filiam ei nuptum dedit. 

p. 38 1. 21. Heraldus quotes Aristot. Rhet. 11 23 § 26 
p, 1400^ 4 aWo<; <r67ro<s>, orav n ivavriov /j-eWr] irpdrrecrdaL 
rol<i TreTrpayfj^evofi, afia aKorrelv, oiov 'S,evo(j}dvT]'i 'KXedrai^ 

30 epcorwaiv el dvcoai rfj AeuKodea Kal dprjvcoariv i) /u.?), cruve/Sov- 
Xevev, el /xev 6eov v7roXa/Ji/3dvov(TLv, fir) dpr/velv, el 8' dvdpoiTrov, 
fiT] dveLv. Capitol. Aurel. 18 § 2 tantusque illius amor eo die... 
claruit, ut nemo illum plangendum censuerit, certis omnihus, 
quod ab dis commodatus ad deos redisset. On Drusilla's death 

35 A.D. 38, D. Cass. LIX 11 alriav re 7rdvre<? 6fX0LCi}<; ei-x^ov, eW^ 
rjadrjcrav eVt rLvt &)? \v7rovfievoL, eire Kal &)? ')(^aLpovre<; errpa^av 
ff ydp firj TrevdeLV avrrjv cix; dv6pco7rov r) 6pr)veLV (w? 6eov eveKU- 
Xovvro. Luc. VIII 833 et queni tu plangens hominem testaris 

p. 38 1. 29] APOLOGETICVS 10, 11 217 

Osirim. L'Abbe E. Beurlier Le Culte imperial, son histoire et 
son organisation depuis Auguste jusqu'a Justinien. Par. 1861. 
My notes on luu. 4 71 (with add. and ind. deus) dis aequa 
potestas. Theodoret Graec. Aff. Cur. iii § 33, p. 43 1. 15 
wrongly Nero, Domitian, Commodus. 5 

p. 38 1. 22 PAVCis Enn. Plaut. Ter. Afr. Cic. Sall. Verg. Hor. 
Liu. XLii 34 § 1. 

p. 38 1. 23 lOVEM Arnob. i 34 f. ii 70. 

HOMINEM EX HOMIXE (cf p. 38 1. 11) Athenag. 29 p. SS" of 
Hercules and Aesculapius : either they were gods and without lo 
needs 17 avOpcoTroi yeyovore^i Kal irovrjpol Si' apadiav i)aau Kai 
■X^pTjfiaTaiv iXdTTou<i. ,tI Set pe ttoWci \€jecv rj KdaTopo<; rj 
UoXvSevKovf; pvrjpovevovTa >) 'Apcpiupeco o'l, &>? etTrelv \6yip, %^e9 
Kai Trpoorjv dvdpcoTTOt e^ dvdpooTTcov yeyovoTe';, deol vopi^ovTac ; 
Lact. Diu. Inst. i 8 §§ 3 4. Euseb. Pr. Eu. iii 10 §§ 20 21. 15 

p. 38 1. 24 EXAMEN cf 40 p. 116 1. 32. 

PAR with genit. De Patient. 16 magnitudinis. Adu. Marcion. 
IV 1.5 p. 465 1. 7 Kr. creatoris. 

Cap. XI 

p. 38 1. 25 HOMINES ad nat. 11 13 pr. affirmando illos post 
mortem deosfactos, ut Varro et qui cum eo somniauerunt. Aug. 20 
de Ciu. Dei viii 26. vi 7 (i 258 19) nonne adtestati sunt Euhe- 
mero, qui omnes tales deos non fabidosa garruUtate, sed historica 
diligentia homines fuisse mortalesque conscripsit? Zahn For- 
schungen v 287 347. Arnob. iv 29 pr. Hild. Lact. Diu. Inst. i 
11 § 17. Muller Fr. Hist. cited on p. 40 1. 33. 25 

p. 38 1. 28 SVBLIMIOREM c. 24 a. m. nam ut constaret illos 
deos esse, nonne conceditis de aestimatione communi aliquem 
esse suhlimiorem et potentiorem, uelut principem mundi perfectae 
potentiae et maiestatis? 

p. 38 1. 29 MANCIPEM ad nat. i 9 pr. sub eodem mancipe erroris. 30 
ib. II 13 p. 121 1. 17 Wiss. ita nullus ddtur uobis renuendi locus 
esse mancipem quendam diuinitatis. De Idol. 1 f idolorum 
mancipes. Arnob. I 28 per quem, si sunt, esse et habere sub- 
stantiam sui numinis maiestatisque coeperunt: a quo ipsam 
deitatem (ut ita dicam) sortiti se esse sentiunt. Maxinius Tyr. 35 
Orat. 1. (11 or 17) p. 138 1. 3 ed. Hobein. 

218 TERTVLLIANI [p. 38 1. 30— 

p. 88 1. 30 DiviNiTATEM. cap. 22 f. p. 76 1. 33. 
p. 40 1. 4 Nisi si c. 7 p. 26 1. 9. 

p. 40 1. 6 VT ALICVIVS OPERA INDIGERET cf. avev8€7]<;. 

p. 40 1. 8 TOTVM cet. Arnob. i 30 Aj^ollo uohis pluit, Mer- 
5 curius uobis pluit, Aesculapius, Hercules aut Diana rationem 
imhrium tempestatumque finxerunt ? et hoc fieri qui potest, cum 
in mundo profiteamini eos natos certoque tempore sensum arri- 
puisse uitalem ? si enim temporis antiquitate mundus eos ante- 
uenit, et priusquam nati sunt, iani nouerat pluuias tempestatesque 

lo natura, nidlum serius nati pluendi ius habent, neque eis inserere 
rationihus se possunt, quas inuenerunt hic agi et maior^e ab 
auctore tractari. Theophil. II 4 p. 82°. lustin. c. Tryph. 5. 
Iren. Fr. 34 (i 845 St.). 

p. 40 1. 9 INNATVM : INNATVS and INFECTVS six exx. of each 

15 in Adu. Marc. i 15. For innatus especially c£ c. 47, p. 132, 
1. 28 n. 

INFECTVM arekea-Tov gl. Paulin. Nol. Ep. 24 § 4 pr. 
p. 40 1. 10 PYTHAGORAM Theophil. iii 7 p. l^l'' (cf ib.'') 
Yivdwyopa^ Bi, roaavra fio)^6i']aa<i Trepl deo)v Kal rrjv avw icdrui 

20 TTopeiav 7roir)o-d/xevo(;, ea^arov 6pit,ei (f)vaiv Kal avro/j,aria/Li6v 
eivai (^Tjaiv roiv iTavrwv' deovf dvdpdiTrcov firjBev (fipovri^eiv. 
So Theodoret Graec. Aff. Cur. vi § 13 p. 87 1. 18. P. taught 
necessity Lasaulx Studien p. 24 n. Theodoret Graec. Atf. Cur. 
IV p. 57 4 — 7 ro 7rdv...ov <yevi"t]r6v, dW' dtSiov (Xenophanes). 

25 Parmenides ib. 1. 24 ovXov fjiovvo<yeve<; re Kal drpeiJie<i 77S' d^yevr]- 
rov. Arnob. ii 56 mundum quidani ex sapientibus aestimant 
neque esse natum neque idlo esse in tempore perituruni; immor- 
talem nonnulli, quaniuis eum conscribant esse natum et genitum; 
tertiis uero collibitum dicere est, et esse natuni et genitum et ordi- 

30 naria necessitate periturum. Cic. Tusc. Disp. i § 70 haec igitur et 
alia innumerabilia cum cernimus, possmnusne dubitare qnin eis 
praesit aliquis uel ejfector, si haec nata sunt, ut Platoni uidetur, 
uel si semper fuerant, ut Aristoteli placet, moderator tanti operis 
et niuneris? 

35 p. 40 11. 13—21 omn. Arnob. i 30. 

p. 40 1. 15 CERTi RVISSE c. 9 p. 34 1. 5. c. 12 f 
p. 40 1. 16 FLORVissE De Patient. 2 qui florem lucis 
huius super iustos et iniustos aequaliter spargit. Adu. Marc. 

p. 40 1. 25] APOLOGETICVS 11 219 

1. c. Heraldus p. 68 and Digress. i 7 pp. 204 — 5 Trop<f)vpa<; 

p. 40 1. 17 Ad Scap. 2 nos unum cleum colimus, quem omnes 
naturaliter nostis, ad cuius fulgura, et tonitrua contremiscitis. 
Theophil. ad Autol. i 6 f . 5 

p. 40 1. 18 [Philo] Vita Contempl. 1 (il 472 M.) oh rlva^ 
(TvyKpiveiv ("l^tov twv iTrayyeWofjLevwv evcrejBeiav ; apa ye 
Tov<i ra (TToi-^^ela TifiMVTa^, yrjv vowp aepa Trvp ; ot? Kal 
e7ro}vvfxia<i edevTo eTepa<; €Tepoi, to jj,ev irvp W<^aLaTov 
irapa ttjv e^ayjriv oljxai KaXovvTe^, "Hpav Be tov depa, irapa lo 
To acpeadai Kal ixeTewpi^eadai irpo^ u-v/ro?, to he vhayp 
Yiocreihuiva, Taxa. ttov Sui to ttotov, ttjv 8e yi]V Atjfij^Tpav, 
irap^ oaov /jli]t?]p elvai SoKel ttuvtcov (f)VT(t)v re Kai ^cpcov. 
Palladis arbor, rami, Palladia silua, corona, -i latices. Pallas 
= the olive. Ou. Ars Am. ii 16 8 = oil. Haupt Opusc. ii 15 
168. Arnob. i 38 (Ehnenh. p. 35) si enim uos Liherum, 
quod usum reppererit uini, si quod panis, Cererem, Mi- 
neruam, quod oleae...diuorum rettulistis in censum. ib. Ii 60. 
Lact. Diu. Inst. i 18 § 1 Jioc loco refellendi sunt etiam ii qui 
deos ex hominibus esse factos non tantum fatentur, sed ut eos 20 
laudent, etiam gloriantur, aut uirtutis gratia id Herculem aut 
munerum ut Cererem et Liberum aut artium repertarum ut 
Aesculapium ac Mineruam. § 18. Clem. Alex. Protr. 2 § 26 
p. 22 P. 

p. 40 1. 21 ad nat. ii 16 pr. sed enim quidam fructus et 25 
necessaria uictui demonstrauerunt. quaeso uos, cum dicitis 
inuenisse illos, nonne confitemini prius fuisse quae inuenirentur ! 
Adu. Marc. i 11 p. 304 1. 13 Kr. quando etiam error orbis 
propterea deos praesumpserit, quos homines interdum confitetur, 
quoniam aliquid ah unoquoque prospectum uidetur utilitatibus 30 
et commodis uitae. De Idol. 15 pr. Lact. Diu. Inst. vii 14 
§§ 1 2. Kaye 207. 

p. 40 1. 25 MALE cet. ad nat. ii 16 cerasium Cn. Pompeius 
de Ponto <primus> Italiae prouolgauit. Hier. Ep. 31 3. Plin. 
Hist. Nat. XV § 102 cerasi ante uictoriam Mithridaticam L. 35 
Luculli non fuere in Italia, ad urbis annum DCLXXX. is primus 
uexit e Ponto, annisque cxx trans oceanum in Britanniam usque 

220 TERTVLLIANI [p. 40 1. 29— 

p. 40 1. 29 VACAT c. 1 p. 2 1. 24 n. De Patient. 9 cuni constet 
de resurrectione mortuorum, uncat dolor mortis, uacat et impa- 
tientia doloris. 

p. 40 1. 33 Hor. Carm. iii 3 9—18. Epist. ii 1 5 6. 
5 Marquardt lir^ 58 n. 5. Heraldus Digress. i 11 (pp. 210 — 2) 
e.g. Marius Senec. De Ira iii 18 § 1 (statues, frankincense and 
wine). Euseb. Praep. Eu. ii 2 53 p. 59'' (frora DS.) erepoi;? he 
Xeyovaiv eTTLyeiovi yeveaOai Beov^, 8tn 8e Tci? et? dvdpooTrovi 
evepyeaia<i ndavdrov TeTV^^TjKora'? TLpr)'^ re Ka\ 86^r]<;, olov 

lo H paKXea,- Aiovvaov, \\.piaTaiov, Kal tou? dWov<; Tov^i tovtoi<; 
ofioiov^. Cic. De Nat. Deor. i § 38 M., ii § 62 M. Philo Byblius 
(Miiller Fr. Hist. iii 564 n. 1 7 from Euseb. Praep. Eu. i 9 p. 32«^) 
ot TraXaiTaTOi tcov ^ap^dpcov, e^aipeTco^; Se ^oiviKe^ re Kal 
AiyvTTTiOi irap wv Kal ol Xonrol 7rapeXa/3ov dvOpwiroi, Oeovq 

15 ei'6/jii^ov /xeyiaTov^ tov^ tu irpo^ Trjv /3i(OTiKriv '^(^peiav evp6vTa<;, 
7] Koi KaTa Ti ev 7T0ii]aavTa<i Ta edvrj' evepyeTa^ Te tovtovs Kal 
'TToWdijv aiTiov<i ayaddov i]yov/x€VOi (w? 6eov<i TrpoaeKVVovv, Kal 
et? TO ')(pe(ov KaTaaTdvTa<; vaov<; KaTaaKevaad/xevoi, aTi]Xa<; Te 
KOi pd^Sov<; d(f)iepovv e^ 6v6/iaT0ii avTdov. Plut. Dio 46 § 1, 

20 Dio called God and Saviour. [Numerous similar exx. in 
Egyptian papyri, cf. ZNTW v [1904] 353 ff. A. S.] Lact. Diu. 
Inst. I 8 § 8. Theodoret Graec. Atfec. Cur. 11 § 97 p. 35 28, 
III 24 p. 42 8. 

p. 42 1. 3 (of the heathen emperors) Prudent. Contra 

25 Symm. i 25 — 27 heus male de populo meriti, male patrihus 
ipsis I hlanditi, quos praecipites in tartara mergi \ cuni loue 
siuerunt multa et cum j^lsbe deorum. Lact. Diu. Inst. vii 
14 § 3. 

p. 42 1. 4 cf. infr. c. 14. Verg. Aen. vi 608 seq. Phi- 

30 losophers owed to prophets their knowledge of hell. Theophil. 
i 14. Bayle reply to questions, oeuvres t. iv p. 322 seq. 
Ja. Windet De Vita functorum Statu ex Hebr. et Gr. com- 
paratis Sententiis Lond. 1677 s. 1. 

CVM vvLTis Friedlander iii^ 754 seq. 

35 p. 42 1. 5 iNCESTi iN SORORES cf. c. 9 p. 34 1. 15 n. 21 p. 68 
1. 13 like luppiter. Origen c. Cels. l 17 p. 14 fin. Hennecke 
Aristid. ind. avvovaia. Lucian Necyom. 11. In Egypt Paus. 
i 7 5 1 Frazer. 

p. 42 1. 20] APOLOGETICVS 11 221 

p. 42 1. 6 viRGiNVM lustin xxi 3 maidens devoted to prosti- 
tution to win favour from Venus. 

p. 42 1. 7 QVi FVRANTVR Sext. Emp. Hypot. iii 24 p. 181 Fabr. 
aWa KUL KXeTTTeiv /xev irap rjfxlv /J,ev ahiicov Kal Trapavo/xov 
iariv' ol 8e Kal KXeTTTiararov eh'ai Oeov XeyovTe'; tov '^pixrjv 5 
ovK ahiKov TOVTO vo/jLL^eadat ttolovo-l. 7rftJ9 yp av de6<i eirj 
KaKo^i : Lucian Prometh. 16 dWd KaKovpyol Tive<i, (f>rj'i, elvaL ev 
avToh Kal /lOL^evovaL kol iroXe/xovaL Kai d8eX(f)d<; ja/jLOvaL 
Kai TraTpaaiv eTri^ovXevovaL' irap' rj/ilv ydp 01;^ i. ttoWt) tovtwv 
n<p0ovLa ; 10 

p. 42 1. 8 DEi cf Friedlander S. G. iii^ 610. 661—3. Cic. 
De Nat. Deor. i § 42 M. Tatian 21. Aug. De Ciu. Dei 11 7. 
III 3. esp. Sen. Vita Beata 26 § 6. Aristides Apol. 19 cf 
Hennecke ind. irapdvo/xo';. Theophil. iii 3. Arnob. v 28 29. 
Bayle oeuvres iii 367. 15 

p. 42 1. 10 HOMINES Athenag. 26 01 8e TOL<i 7roWoL<i 
dpeaK0VTe<i 6eol kul Tal<i eiKoaiv eTrovopa^o/xevoL, co? eaTCv €k 
Tj}? KaT avTov^ laTopia^ eihevaL, dvOpwrroL 'ye^yovaaLv. Arnob. 
V 30. 

p. 42 1. 11 Euripid. Bellerophontes in Plut. Stoic. Repugn. 20 
p. 1049 el OeoL tl SpcoaLv ala^pov, ovk elaiv 6eoL{= Nauck frag.- 
292 A. S.] Lact. i 19 §§ 6, 7. 

p. 42 1. 14 HORVM PARES c. 10 £ Oehler. 

p. 42 1. 15 lustin. Apol. ii 14 f Theophil. iii 3 (Thyestean 
feasts and incest among gods). Prudent. Perist. X 201 — 5 sed, 25 
credo, magni limen amplectar louis: \ qui si citetur legihus 
uestris reus, | laqueis minacis implicatus Iidiae, \ luat seuerani 
uinctus et Scantiniam, | te cognitore dignus ire in carcerem. 
Theodoret Graec. Aflf. Cur. iii § 50 p. 45 41 seq. 

p. 42 1. 17 Cf Clem. Hom. iv 12 seq. 23—25. v 10—19. 30 
Arnob. v 8 (Havercamp). lulian. Caes. 334^ seq. reproaches 
M. Aurelius for deifying Faustina. Theodoret Graec. Aff. Cur. 
III 96. Aug. De Ciu. Dei iv 27 (i 180 11 D.) 26 f 

p. 42 1. 20 Diog. Laert. vi .*^9 (in Havercamp). 

ALIQVEM cf c. 19 p. 64 1. 10. 35 

DE p. 20 1. 4. omn. Aug. Ep. 91 4 et reuera Terentianus 
(Eun. m 5) ille adulescens, qui spectans tahulam pictam in 
pariete, tihi pictura inerat de adulterio regis deorum, lihidinem 

222 TERTVLLIANI [p. 42 1. 20— 

qmi rapiehatur, stimidis etiam tantae auctoritatis accendit, nidlo 
modo in illud f.agitium iiel concujyiscendo laheretur, uel jjerj^e- 
trando immergeretur, si Catonem maluisset imitari quam louem: 
sed quo pacto id faceret, cum in templis adorare cogeretur 
5 louem potius quam Gatonem? Verum haec ex comoedia, quibus 
impiorum luxus et sacrilega supierstitio conuinceretur, piroferre 
forsitan non dehemus. 

p. 42 1. 21 ARISTIDEN Themist. p. 114 6. Tert. ad nat. i 
19 a. m. id <judgement after death> uos Minoi et Rhada- 

lo mantho adscrihitis, iustiore interim Aristide recusato. Nep. 
Aristid. I §§ 2— 4. V. M. vi 5 e. 2. Macrob. Sat. vi (vn) 3 § 17. 
Pauly-Wissowa ii 880 — 885. Hermogenes irepl rwv a-rdcrewv 
c. 1 (III 7 1. 2, 3 Walz Rhett. cf. ind.) among d-n-iOava — olov el 
^oiKpdrrjv ri<i TrXdrroi Tropvo/SocrKOvvra ?') ^ Apiareihrjv aSi- 

15 Kovvra. Aug. Ep. 138 18 pr. quis autem uel risu dignuni non 
putet, quod Apollonium et Apuleium ceterosque magicarum 
artium peritissimos conferre Christo, 2(el etiam jJraefeJTe co- 
nantur ? quamquam toLerahilius ferendum sit, quando istos ei 
comparant jiotius quam deos suos : midto enim melior, quod 

■lofatendum est, Apollonius fuit, quam tot stuprorum auctor et 
perpetrator, quem louem nominant. ista, inquiunt, fahulosa 
sunt. adhuc ergo laudent rei jjublicae luxuriosam licentiosam 
planeque sacrilegam felicitatem, quae ista deorum probra con- 
finxit, quae non solum in fahulis audienda piosuit, uerum etiam 

25 in theatris spiectanda projjosuit ; ubi crimina ])lura essent quam 
numina, quae ipsi di sibi exhiheri habebant lihenter, qui in suos 
cultores uindicare dehuerunt, quod ea salteni uiderent p^atieuter. 
Aristides 6 SiKaio^; Aeschin. I 25. II 23. lll 181 cet. Chalcid, 
in Tim. Plat. c. 172. Andoc. iv 12. Isocr. viii 7. Plut. Aristid. 

30 3 § 6. 4 § 1. 6 §§ 1 2. 7 §§ 1 10. Diod. Sic. xi 47 2. Luc. Yer. 
Hist. II § 10. Calumn. 27. Apul. de mag. 18 eadem est enim 
paup)ertas in Aristide Socrate sapiens. v. 1. in Cic. 
de offic. III § 16. Amm. xxx 4 21. Ampel. 15 § 10 A. Dicaeos. 
Sen. de benef. iv 27 § 2 Aristides, cui iustitia nomen dedit, 

35 iniustus est? cf. Cons. ad Helu. 13 § 7. Cic. pro Sest. § 141. 
Greg. Naz. c. 10 346 (voL 11 p. 430). Liban. Ep. 506. Doxo- 
pater in Rhett. Gr. Walz II 269 16 seq, '^apaKrr^pi^eraL erepo^ 
aTTo StKaioavvris, wa-rrep ^ Apiareihrj^i. 

p. 42 1. 34] APOLOGETICVS 11, 12 223 

p. 42 1. 25 SVBLIMIOR cf. de sublimitate Alexandrum supr. 
Sall. Hist. Fr. iii 88 (p. 145 Maiireiib.) Pompeius a prima adide- 
scentia sermone fautorum similem fore se credens Alexandro 
regi, facta consultaque eius quidem aemulus erat. 

FELiciOR Plin. VII § 137 unus hominum ad hoc aeui Felicis 5 
sihi cognomen asseruit L. Sidla cet. cf. ii § 144. xviii § '32. 
XXII § 12. Sid. Ep. II 13 § 2. Plut. Sull. 34 ^ 3. He named 
his children Faustus and Fausta. Luc. II 221 — 2 hisne salus 
reruni Felix his Sulla uocari, his meruit tumuluni medio sibi 
tollere Campo t Hier. c. louin. i 48 (ii 316°) Lucii Sullae Felicis lo 
{si non habuisset uxorem) Metella coniux palam erat impudica. 

p. 42 1. 28 CLVSiT Arn. ii 66 p. 229 Hild. 

MELIORIBVS Aug. Ep. 138 § 18 (cited above). 

p. 42 1. 29 MVSSiTANTiBVS Plaut. Liu, Cypr. uulg. 

ERVBESCIT cf. c. 9 p. 32 1. 31. 15 

Cap. XII 

On idols see Lact. ii 2. Orig. c. Celsum l 5. 

p. 42 1. 33 MORTVORVM c. 40 p. 116 1. 29. Minuc. 23 § 6 
manifestum est homines illos fuisse, quos et natos legimus et 
mortuos scimus. 

p. 42 1. 34 SiMVLACRis images only emblems. Athenag 20 
Suppl. 18 in. Arnob. vi 17 ()( 14). Lact. 11 2. Celsus says 
that Christian wisdom is but a sorry thing, if it only teaches 
that wood, stone, bronze, polished by an artist is no true god. 
Theophil. ii 1 the artists will worship, when sold, their own 
handiwork. 25 

p. 42 1. 34— p. 44 1. 6. Ep. ad Diogn. 2 ov irplv rj raU 
TexraL<i tovtcov el^ Trjv fxopcj^Tjv tovtcov iKTViroidrjvai rjv eKaaTov 
avTcbv eKuaTo) elKci^eiv fj,eTa/jiop(f)ov/j,evov ; ov Ta vvv eK t?}^ avTrj<i 
v\ri<; bvTa aKevrj yevoiT av, el TV^^oi tmv avroiv Te)(^i'iTa)v, ofxoia 
T0i0VT0i<i ; ov ravra waXiv Ta vvv v(p^ vp.wv TrpoaKvvovixeva 2,0 
ovvaiT av vtto (ivOpooTroiv aKevt) 6/xoia yeveadai T0i<i \0t7r049 ; 
Prudent. Perist. x 296 — 300 non eruhescis, stulte pago dedite, \ 
te tanta semper perdidisse obsonia, \ quae dis ineptus ohtulisti 
talibus, I quos trulla,peluis, cantharus, sartagines \ fracta et liquata 
contulerunt uasculat luu. 10 64 n. Arnob. vi 14. [Philo] Vita 35 

224 TERTVLLIANI [p. 42 1. 34— 

Contempl. 1 (ll 472 M.) wv ra d8e\(f)a ixepr] Kal avyyevrj Xovrpo- 
(f)6poi yeyovaai fcal TroBoviTTTpa. Gregorius Palamas Migne P. G. 
CL (cent. 14) d8e\(f)d, (pacri, Kal op.6')(^poa Kal Trj<; avTrj<; Kepa- 
/jL€La<;. lustin. Apol. I 9 p. oT^ tl jap Bei elBocriv vfjuv \eyeiv, 
5 d Trjv vXrjv ol Te-^^viTat SiaTideaai ^eovTeq Kal T€/jivovTe<i kol 
^o)vevovTe<i Kal TV7rTovTe<; ; Kai e^ aTLfxcov 7roWdKi<; aKevwv 
oia Te^^^yrj^; to cr^^rjiJLa [xovov dWd^avTe<; Kal /j.op^o7roi7]aavTe<; 
Oeov<i eTTovo/jLd^ovaiv. Clem. Recogn. V 15. Commodian Instr. 
I 20 7 — 8 et deos audetis aeramine dicere fusos '? Solueretis eos 

10 magis in uascula uohis. 

p. 44 1. 1 EX ISDEM VASCVLIS infr. c. 13 in caccahidmn de 
Saturno, aliquando in trullam de Minerua. Minuc. 23 § 9 deus 
aureus uel argenteus de immundo uasculo saepius, ut factmn 
Aegyptio regi, conflatur, tunditur, malleis et incudihus figuratnr. 

15 Athenag. 26 p. 30^^ «'XA,' 77 /JLev vXr] -^/aXKo^; eaTiv. tl Sal '^aXKO^; 
BvvaTaL KaO' eavTov, ov fieTaiTOLi/aaL TrdXtv et? erepov a-^rjjjia 
e^eaTiv, &)<? tov iTohovLiTTrjpa 6 rrrapd tS> 'H/3oSot&) ^'KjxaaL<i 
[11 163], ridiculed for his low birth, he recast his golden foot- 
pan into an idol. cf J. Geffcken zwei Apologeten xxi. 

^o p. 44 1. 2 LICENTIA ARTis Prudent. Peristeph. x 266 — 270 
sed pulcra res est forma in aere scidptilis : | quid inprecahor 
ojjicinis Graeciae, | quae condiderunt gentihus stultis deos? \ 
forceps Myronis, malleus Polycliti \ natura uestrum est atque 
origo caelitum. 291 — 295 miror, quod ipsum non sacrastis 

25 Mentorem, \ nec templa et aras ipse Phidias hahet, \ fahri 
deorum uel parentes numinum: \ qui si caminis institissent 
segnius, \ non esset idlus Tuppiter confiatilis. 

p. 44 1. 3 ad Scap. 2 longum est, si retexa^nus, quihus aliis 
modis et derideantur et contemnantar omnes di ab ipsis cultorihus 

30 suis. Ep. ad Diognet. 2 v/j,eL<i ydp ol vvv vo/Mi^ovT€<i Kal ae/36- 
/levoL <TovTov<; 6eov<i>, ov ttoXii irXeov avTwv KaracfypovelTe ; 
ov TToXv /idXXov avToix; ^Xeua^ere Kal v^pi^eTe; Hennecke 
ind. Aristid. s.v. Sr)/iLovp>y6<;. 

p. 44 1. 6 ad Mart. 4 (gladius, crux, rahies hestiarum, ignis, 

35 tormenta). Sen. ad Marc. 20 § 3 uideo istic cruces non iinius 
quidem generis, sed aliter ah aliis fahricatas: capite quidem 
conuersos in terram suspendere, alii per ohscena stipitem egerunt, 
alii hracchia patibulo explicuerunt. Vit. Beat. 19 § 3 ac? 

p. U 1. 12] APOLOaETICVS 12 225 

supplicium tamen acti stipitibus singulis pendent. Ep. 14 
§ 5 adactuni per mediuni Jtondneni, qui per os eniergeret, 

p. 44 1. 9 VNGVLis c. 30 f. sic itaque nos ad Deum expansos 
ungulae fodiant, cruces suspendant. [cf. Ps.-Aug. quaest. V. et 5 
N.T. cxxvii 102 § 14 (p. 210 22 Souter) tortus huius niodi et 
exungulatus hoc uerum esse dicit quod sequitur. A. S,] 

p. 44 1. 10 RVNCINAE Minuc. 23 § 9 deus enim ligneus, rogi 
fortasse uel infelicis stipitis portio, suspenditur, caeditur, dolatur, 
runcinatur. Aristid. apol. 13. Orig. c. Cels. vi 14 Kciv Tiv€<i 10 
8e fMT} ravTa <f)aaiv eivai TOi'? deov^, dWa fxi^i^^ara decov d\r}- 
Otvoiv KdKeivo)v avfi^oXa' ovSev i/rruv Kal ovroi, iv ^avavawv 
X^P^i' '^'^ /jLt/jL7)/ji,ara rf]<i dei6rr/ro<i (f)avra^6/j,evoi elvai, d-Trai- 
Bevroi eiai Kal dvBpnTroSa Kal d/iiadei^i' ti)? T01/9 ea^drov^ roiv 
ev j/fiiv dirr/XXdx^ai ravrr/^; ri/s diraLBevaia^. Hier. in Esai. 15 
1. XII c. 44 12 (IV 527^ 528"^). 

p. 44 1. 11 ANTE acl nat. i 4 p. 64 1. 20 Wiss. quos retro ante 
hoc nonien uagos uiles iniprobos norant (cf. jMst Oehler on Scorp. 
11 p. 526). cf. Arnob. i 39 pr. Minuc. 33. 

PLVMBVM c. 29 f. non ludimus de officio salutis eorum 20 
[Caesaruni], qui eam non putamus in manibus esse plumbatis. 
Arnob. vi 16. Cic. K,ep. vi § 8 illa diuina uirtus non statuas 
plumbo inhaerentes nec ti^iumphos arescentibus laureis. . .desiderai. 
Basil. de legendis Libris Gentilium 5 (11 180^) oi dvBpidvre<; oi 
r(p /jLoXv^Bo) avvBehe/ievot. 25 

GLVTINVM Lucian lupp: Trag. 33 7rirrT/<i yovv dva-jTeTrKr/arat 
oar/fjtepat eK/iarro/xevoi, vtto rcov avSpiavT07roi(i)v...ervyx^vov 
ynp dprt x^XKovpjMV ijiro \ 7nrrovfj,evo<; arepvov re Kal fierd- 
(f)pevov. Prudent. c. Symrn. I 436 — 7 mollis si bractea gypsum \ 
texerat, infido rarescit glutine sensim. Lions of Rhea Lucian 30 
Deor. Dial. xii 1 2. 

p. 44 1. 12 GOMPHOS omn. Luc. Gallus 24 KdKeivwv jdp 
€Kaaro<i eKroOev /Mev Uoaeibwv r/ Zet"? eart TrdjKaXoi, eK xpvalov 
Kai eXe(f)avro<i avveipyaa/xevo<i, Kepavvov r/ darpaTrr/v r/ rpiatvav 
e^oov iv TT) Se^ta' f/v Be vTTOKvyjraii iSr/^i ra 7' evBov, oyjret ^^ 
fio)(\ov<i rtvas Kat yo/Kf^ov^; Kal ))\ov<i Bia/M7r(\^ Bta^re^repovr/- 
fjtevov^ Kal Kopfiov<i Kal a(f)r/va<i Kal Trirrav Kat 7rr/\6v Kal 
TToWr/v riva d/xop(f>iav VTTOiKovpovaav iu) ^eyetv fivwv 7r\f/6o<i 
M. T. 15 

226 TERTVLLIANI [p. 44 L 12— 

^7 jjLvyakoiv e ixiroXiTevo fxevov avToi<i ivioTe. Isaiah 41 7. Jerem. 

10 4. 

siNE CAPITE Hier. on Abacuc 1. ii c. 3 (vi 659'*® Vall.) 
si quando tyrannus obtruncatur, imagines quoque eius depo- 
5 nuntur et statuae, et uultu tantummodo commutato ablatoque 
cajnte, eius qui uicerit facies siiperponitur, ut manente corpore 
capitibusq^ie praecisis caput aliud commutetur, Suet. Tib. 58 
Casaub. statuae quidam Augusti caput dempserut, ut alterius 

lo p. 44 1. 13 CAELESTi cap. 23 p. 80 1. 8 luno Caelestis evoked 
and removed to Rome in the Third Punic War. Seru. Aen. xil 
841. Astarte Preller-Jordan il 406 — 7 riding on a lion in the 
coins of Septimius Seuerus and Caracalla, frequent in inscrijj- 
tions (Roscher). P. Faber Semestrium (Lugd. 1595) 1. Iii c. 2. 

15 Miinter Relig. der Carth.- 62, Saluian. de Gubernat. Dei viii 
§§ 9 seq. Ambr. Ep. 18 30. Vict. Viten. iii 49. 

p. 44 1. 14 IN METALLA DAMNAMVR infra c. 39 med. collec- 
tions for si qui in metallis, et si qui in insidis uel in custodiis. 
cf. 1. 27 f. p. 92 30. cult. fem. i 5 pr. Euseb. Hist. Eccl. viii 13 

2o § 5 copper mines of Phaeno in Palestine. ix 1 § 7. Vit. Const. 

11 32. 20 § 3. Rulin. h.e. x 4. cf de martyr. Palest. 5 § 2. 
7 §§ 2 3. 8 i 1 13. 9 § 1. 11 § 6. 13 §§ 1 2. W. Wattenbach 
Passio Sanctorum iv coronatorum in Max. Biidinger Unter- 
suchng. zur rom. Kaisergesch. iii Leipz. 1870 pp. 321 — 379. 

25 Andrewes, who used largely the old liturgies (Greek Devotions 
ed. Medd, p. 41) M.V7]a6TjTc, Kvpie,...TU)v ev /jLeTaWoc<;. Constit. 
Apost. VIII 10 VTrep toov ev fieTdWoi<; koI e^opiat<i Kal ^v\aKal<i 
Kal 8e<T/jL0i<; ovtcov 8in to 6i>op.a tov Kvpiov Serjdwfiev. Litany 
n. 29 and to shew thy pity upon all prisoners and captives. 

30 Liturgia Marci (Renaudot I 146) Torj'; ev (j^vXaKaU, ev fieTnWoi^i 
rj hiKaa r) KaTahiKaL<i rj ev etopLai<i i) TTLKpa SovXeia r) (f>6poi<i 
KaTe^ofJi-evov^; 7rnvTa<i eXerjaov, 7rnvTa<i eXevdepwaov. Cypr. Ep. 77 
(to Cypr.) c. 3 pr. (p. 835 1. 16) tenebras carceris inluminasti, mon- 
tes metalli in plana deduxisti. Ep. 76 c. 1 (p. 828 1. 4 seq.) an ego 

35 possim tacere et iiocem meam silentio premere, cum de carissimis 
meis tam nmlta et gloriosa cognoscam, quibus uos diuina dignatio 
honorauit, ut ex uobis pars iani martyrii sui consummatione 
praecesserit meritorum suorum coronam de Domino receptura, 

p. 44 I. 20] APOLOGETICVS 12 227 

pars adhuc in circerinn claustris siue in rnetaUis et uinculis 
deinoretur ? c. 2 (p. 829 1. 8) quid uero mirum si uasa aurea. 
et argentea in metallum id est auri et argenti domicilium dati 
estis? nisi quod nunc metallorum natura conuersa est locaque 
quae aurum et argentum dare ante consueuerant accipei^e coepe- 5 
runt. c. 6 (p. 832 1. 15) denique exemplum uestrum secuta 
multiplex plehis portio confessa est uobiscum pariter et jxii-iter 
coronata est, conexa uobis uinculo fortissimae caritatis et ^J7'«e- 
jjositis suis uec carcere nec metallis separata. Plin. XXXIII j)raef. 
et c. 1. Lucifer de S. Athanas. I 42 f (142 15 seq.) et quomodo 10 
dimisisti fractos in requiem quando uideas carceres metalla 
exsilia uix iam capere posse Christianorum numerum per te 
damnatorum ? Athanas. Vit. Antonii 46. Ant. ministered to 
confessors in mines and prisons. Brisson de Verb. Sign. 
"metalla." Athan. Hist. Arian. ad monach. 60 (i 300 Ben. 15 
= 766 A Migne). Plut. i 565'' compar. Niciae cum Crasso 1 § 1 
aXXo)? 7«p ovK av tl^ SoKi/j.da€i6 rrjv drro fxerdWwv ipyacriav, 
Tj<i ra irXeiara Trepaiverai 8id KaKOvpycov rj ^apfSdooiv evlcov 
Se^efievcov Kal (^Oeipofxevcov ev rorroL^ vTrovXoi^i Kal voaepoL<i. 

p. 44 1. 15 INDE CEXSENTVR, cet. c. 15 p. 50 1. 31. c. 29 20 
puto autem, hae ipsae materiae de metallis Caesarum ueniunt. 

p. 44 1. 16 INSVLA Crete infr. c. 25 p. 88 1. 8. Epiphan. 
Ancorat. 106 pr. p. 108*^. Martyr. Ign. 7 f. (also Venus at 
Paphos). Cic. de nat. deor. lll § 53. Ennius in historia sacra 
ap. Lact. diu. Inst. i 1] § 46. Sibylla (8 47—8) ib. § 47. Du 25 
Soul on Luc. Timon 6 fin. cf Philops. 3. Lucan viii 872. 
Callim. Hymn. lou. 8 — 9. Anthol. Graec. Ill 22. 

NASCi cf c. 10 p. 36 1. 22. 

p. 44 1. 18 NON SENTIVNT Minuc. 23 § 9 lapideus [deus'\ 
caeditur scalpitur et ab impurato homine leuigatur, nec sentit 30 
suae natiuitatis iniuriam, ita ut nec postea de uestra ueneratione 
culturam. Clem. Hom. x 7 8. Recogn. v 15. 

p. 44 1. 19 FABRiCATiONis Idol. 8 Y>r. idolor^im. Iren. ii 4 
§ 1. 10 § 4. 

p. 44 1. 20 INFRENDITE de Coron. Milit. 1 pr. denique 35 
singuli designare, et eludere eminus, infrendere cominus. Paulin. 
Petricord. Vit. Mart. 11 552. (Verg. and Stat. in lexx. partic. 
Neue II 429 -ere more common.) 


228 TERTVLLIANI [p. 44 1. 21— 

p. 44 1. 21 c. 46 p. 128 1. 7 of philosophers, quin immo et 
deos uestros palam destruunt et superstitiones uestras com- 
nientariis quoque accusant, laudantihus uohis. Seneca Fr. 30 — 
44 (iii 424 — 7 Haase) e.g. ap. Aiig. de ciu. Dei VI 10 (i 267 
5 13 — 18) sacros, inquit, inmortales, inuiolahiles in materia uilis- 
sima atque inmohili dedicant, hahitus illis hojninum ferarumque 
et piscium, quidam uero mixto sexu, diuersis corporihus induunt ; 
numina uocant, quae si spiritu accepto occurrerent, monstra 
haherentur. ap. Lact. i 16 § 10. 

lo ALIQVEM c. 50 a.m. aliqua Carthaginis conditrix. 

p. 44 1. 23 Melito (iri Otto Apolog. ix 413 fr. 2 = Chron. 
Pasch. p. 483 Dind.) oiik ia/iev Xldcov ovSe/xtav aia6r]atv €.yov- 
T(ov OepaTreurai' dWa JjLovov 6eov tov Trpb Trdvrcov kuI iirl 
TrdvTcov, Koi tov ^ptaTOv avTov 6vT0<i 6eov Xoyov irpo alwvcov, 

15 eajjtev 6pT]aKevTaL Tatian 4 § 2 7ra)<; Be ^iika Kal \L6ov<i 6eov<i 
d7ro(f)avov/jLat ; Melito (ex Syr. Apol. 3 in Otto ix 424) honiines, 
cum deuni quaererent, offenderunt in lapides et lignum. cf. 
Athenag. 17 (cf. 15) 7?} ravTa Kal \l6oi kol ijXri. Clem. Alex. 
Protrep. 4 § 56 ')(^pva6<i eart to dydXpid aov, ^vXov eaTL, X/^09 

20 eaTL, 77} eaTLv. Theophil. I 1. lustin. Apol. l 9. Dial. cum 
Tryph. 35. Ep. ad Diognet. 2. cf Melito c. 4 p. 425 and Otto's 
n. 114 (p. 463 5). Arnob. vi 14 16 17. Lact. 11 2 § 1. 
V 12 I 12 cum dis suis araneosis. Keim on Origen c. Cels. i § 5. 
VII § 62. III §§ 76 f 

25 p. 44 1. 24 MILVI cet. Clem. Hom. X 22. Minuc. 24 § 1 
quanto nerius de dis uestris animalia muta naturaliter iudicant ? 
mures hirundines niilui, non sentire eos sciunt, norunt inculcant 
insident ac, nisi ahigatis, in ipso dei uestri ore nidijicant. 
araneae uero faciem eius intexUnt et de ipso capite sua fila 

30 suspendunt, uos tergitis mundatis eraditis. Arnob. vi 1 6 non 
uidetis sub istorum simidacrorum caueis stelliones sorices hlat- 
tasque lucifugas nidamenta ponere atque hahitare, spurcitias huc 
omnes atque alia usibus accommodata conducere. . .nidulorum in 
mollitiem sollicite miserorum fomenta puUorum ? non in ore 

35 aliquando simula.cri ab araneis ordiri retia atque insidiosos 
casses quihus uolatus innectere stridularum possint inipudentium- 
que muscarum? non hirundines denique intra ipsos aediuni 
circumuolantes tholos iacularier stercoris lsplenas,l et modo 

p. 44 1. 32] APOLOGETICVS 12, 13 229 

ipsos Kultus, viodo numina ora depingere, barham oculos nasos 
aliasque omnes partes, in quascumque se detulerit deonerati pro- 
luuies podicis ? Lact. ii 4 §§ 1 — 3. v 12 §§ 12 13. Clem. Alex. 
Protrep. § 51 p. 45. § 52 p. 46 (aboiit Olympian Zeus, Serapis, 
cet.). Hor. S. I 8 37 — 8 mentior at si quid, merdis caput 5 
inquiner albis coruorum. Theodoret H. E. v 22 when Theo- 
philus bp Alexandria A.D. 390 hiid the axe to Serapis and 
struck off his head : /ive? dyeXrjSbv i^eSpafiov evhodev /xvoov 
'yap oIkt]tj']pcov tjv 6 AlyvJTTLfov 6e6<i. Baruch 6 20 — 22. Lucian 
Gallus 24 f. Aug. in Ps. 113 Serm. 2 c. 2 p.m. (iv 1798'^ 10 
Gaume). Lucian lupp. Trag. 8. 

p. 44 1. 25 INTELLEGVNT Idol. 21 pr. timiditatis est autem, 
cum te alius per deos suos obligat iuratione uel aliqua testifica- 
tione, et tu, ne intellegaris, quiescis. 

p. 44 ]. 27 CERTi c. infin. 9 p. 34 5 n. 15 

QVOD NON EST c. 10 p. 36 1. 13, ad nat. i 10 p. 75 1. 6 
Wiss. nisi quod perinde : nos enim contemptores deorum haberi 
nidla ratio est, quia nemo contemnit quod sciat omnino non esse. 
quod omnino est, id contemni potest, quod nihil est nihil patitur. 
St Paul 1 Cor. 8 4 an idol is nothing in the world. Athan. 20 
Contr. Gentes 47 (l 96^ Migne) o/ify? avOpwiroi 7rapd(f)pove<;, 
TrapajKwvia-dfxevoL ttjv tt/oo? tovtov jvwcriv Kai evceQeiav, Ta 
OVK ovTa Trpo tu)v ovtwv eT[p.7}aav' Kal avTt tov 6vTa)<i ovto^ 
HeoO To. ixrj ovTa edeoTroLrja-av. 

Cap. XIII 

p. 44 1. 29 NOBis DEi SVNT cf. c. 10 pr. p. 36 1. 17. 25 

E CONTRARIO Cic. Caes. Nep. Quintil. (also in -uni, per 
-um). Clem. recogn. ii 16 pr. 23 29. Iii 3 19. v 32 pr. vii 4 f. 
VIII 53. [And offcen in late authors (see Thes.) A. S.] 

p. 44 1. 30 IRRELIGIOSI c. 28 p, 94 L 16 adeo et in isto 
irreligiosi erga deos uestros deprehendemini. Exhort. Cast. 3. 30 
de orat. 12 fin. -itas Apol. 24 a. m. and med. [and 25 p. 90 1. 6 
A. S.]. 

p. 44 1. 32 DESTRVITIS c. 46 p. 128 1. 7 quin immo et deos 
uestros palam destruunt. 

si c. 6 pr. n. c. 8 p. 28 1. 18. 35 

230 TERTVLLIANI [p. 44 1. 33— 

p. 44 1. 33 seq. ad nat. i 10 p. 75 1. 12 Wiss. cum alii alios 
deos colitis, eos quos non colitis utique contemnitis ; praelatio 
alterius sine alterius contumelia non potest nec iilla electio non 
reprobatione componitur. qui de plurihus siiscipit aliquem, eum 
5 quem non suscipit despexit. ib. II 9 (cf. below) tum si certos 
hahebant, contenti esse debuerunt nec electos desiderare. in quo 
etiam inreligiosi deprehenduntur. si enim dei ut bulhi seli- 
fjuntur, qui non seliguntur, reprobi pronuntiantur. ad ux. i 3 f. 
non propterea appetenda sunt quaedam, quia nou iietantur, etsi 

lo quodam modo uetantur, cum alia illis praeferuntur : praelatio 
enim superiorum dissuasio est infimorum. See Aug. Ciu, 
Dei VII 1 qua in re non dico quod facetius ait Tertullianus 
(ad nat. II 9 cited above) fortasse quam uerius, si di seliguntur 
ut bulbi, utique ceteri reprohi iudicantur. non hoc dico : uideo 

15 enim etiam ex selectis seligi aliquos ad aliquid maius atque 
praestantius. sicut in militia, cum tirones electi fuerint, ex his 
quoque eliguntur ad opus aliquod maius armorum. Athenag. 
Suppl. 14 fin. p. 14^ av tolvvv 7]fi€i<i, otl fii] KOLVM<i eKeivoL<i 
deoae/SoviJLev, aae^MfJLev, Trdaac jxev TroXeLf TrdvTa 8e eOvrf 

20 dae^ovcrLV' ov jdp tov^ avToi)^ TrdvTe^ d^yovat 6eov^. Orig. 
contr. Cels. V 27. lustin. apol. I 24 irpoiTov jxev 6tl tu 6/jLOLa 
TOL^ 'EjXXTjaL XeyovTe^ /xovol /xLaov/jieOa ol ovo/ia tov \pLaToi>, 
Kal /iTjBev dBLK0VVTe<; &)? d/iapTcoXol dvaLpov/ieOa, dXXcov 
dWa^^oi) Kal BevBpa ae/So/xevcov Kal TTOTa/iov^ Kal /iv<i Kal 

25 alXovpov^ Kal KpoKoSeiXov^ Kal tmv dXoycov ^cpcav Ta iroWd 
Kal ov TOiv avTOiv inro rrdvTcov Ti/ia>/ievcov aW' dWcov 
aWa^ocre, coaT eivat aaej3eL<i aWi/XoL'? TrdvTa^ hLa to /ir/ 
Ta avTa aejBeLV. ^irep /lovov ijKaXelv rj/iLv e^^ere, otl /ir/ tov<; 
avTov<i vplv ae/3o/Mev deov-i. cf Havercarap esp. Lact. ii 16 

30 i IG 17. 

p. 46 1. 2 Kaye 324. 

p. 46 1. 4 SVPRA 5 pr. ad nat. i 10 p. 75 1. 24 Wiss. iLtique 
enim impiissimiLm, immo contumeliosissimum admissum est, in 
arbit7'io et lihidine sententiae hiLmanae locare honorem diuini- 

35 tatis, ut deus non sit, nisi cui esse 2i&i'niise7'it senatus. 

p. 46 1. 6 NOLVissET ad nat. i 10 p. 76 1. 14 Wiss. 
priuatos enim deos, quos Lares et Penates domestica conse- 
cratione perhibetis, domestica et licentia inculcatis. uenditando. 

p. 46 1. 12J APOLOGETICVS 13 231 

pignerando pro necessitate ac uoluntate. Minuc. 23 § 10 tunc 
postremo deus est, cum homo illum uoluit et dedicauit. Woodh, 
cites Apul. Metam. vir c. 7 f. uoluit esse Caesar Haemi latronis 
collegium, et confestim interiuit ; tantum potest nutus etiam 
magni principis. 5 

p, 46 1. 8 VENDITANDO Melito Apol. 10 (from Syr. p. 430 n. 
191 Otto) stulte, num id est deus quod emitur? omn. Theophil. II 
2 pr. p. SO''. 

CACCABVLVM cet. Arnob. vi 14. cf 13 simulacra ista quae 
uos terrent quaeque templis in omnihus jyrostrati atque hu- lo 
miles adoratis, ossa lapides aera sunt argentum aurum testa 
lignum sumptum ex arbore aut commixtum glutinum gypso, 
ex ornatihus fortasse meretriciis aut ex muliehri mundo came- 
linis ex ossibus, aut ex Iiidici animalis dente, ex caccahuHs 
ollulis ex candelahris et lucernis aut ex aliis ubsceniorihus 15 
uasculis congesta conflata in has species ducta sunt, atque in 
formas quas cernitis exierunt, fornacihus incocta figulinis, ex 
incudibus et malleis nata, grosis rasa, discohinata de limis serris 
•\-furfuraculisX asceis, secta dolata effossa terebrarum excauata 
uertigine, runcinarum leuigata de planis. lexx. KaKKa^rj. 20 
KaKKaSci. inscr. in Wochenschr. f kl. Phil. Oct. 24 1894 
p. 1188. Varro de ling. Lat. vi § 127 uas uhi coquehant cihum 
ah eo caccabum appellarunt. The primitive often in Marcel. 
Empir., Theod. Prisc, Pelagon. 

p. 46 1. 9 TRVLLAM Arnob. 11 23. Corp. Gl. iii 92 28. 25 

Arnob. vi 1.5 si aliquis ponat in medio collisos deonnn 
uultus, confracta atque imminuta simulacra iuheatque uos idem 
frustis hostias et fragminihus caedere, informihus massis sacra 
et munia impertire diuina: audire a uobis exposcimus, factu- 
rine istud sitis an contra quam imperahitur recusaturi? /or- 30 
tasse dicetis : qua causa ? quia nemo est in rebus humanis tam 
stolide caecus, qui argentum aes aurum gypsum ebur argillam 
deorum in numerum referat ipsaque per se dicat uim hahere 
atque obtinere diuinani. 

p. 46 1. 12 HASTARio lexx. cite only Tert. h. 1. and ad nat. i 35 
10 p. 76 1. 18 Wiss. sed aliquo solacio priuatorum et domesti- 
corum deorum querellae iuuantur, quod puhlicos turpius 
contumeliosiusque tractetis. iam primum, quos in hastarium 

232 TERTVLLIANI [p. 46 1. 12— 

regessistis, publicanis siibdi<dis>tis omni quinqnennio inter 
tiectigalia uestra 'proscriptos addicitis. sic Serapeum, sic 
Capitoliitm petitur, addicitur diuinitas, conducitur,. . .suh eadem 
uoce praeconis, eadeni exactione quaestoris. Aug. Ep. 96 § 2 
5 p. 515 1. 18 Goldb. de hastario emerat. 

p. 46 1. 12—18 cf. ad nat. i 10 p. 76 1. 23— p. 77 1. 2 Wiss. 
p. 46 1. 13 HOLITORIVM F. Becker Gallus iii^ 57. Dig. vii 1 
13 § 4. 

p. 46 1. 17 TRIBVTARTI Theophilus l 10 reXrj kuI elcr^opa^i 

lo Trapij^^et tq5 ^acTLkel avrr) re (the Mother of the Gods) Kai oi 
vtol avTr}<i. Melito apol. 4 (ex Syr. ix 425 Otto) etenim ah his 
prioribus eorum dis et uectigalia et trihuta penduntur Caesari, 
quipjje qui maior est eis. Clem. Hom. X 22. Blunt Right Use 
p. 254. 

15 p. 46 1. 18 MAIESTAS ad nat. I 10 p. 77 1. 2 Wiss. maiestas 

prostituitur .in quaestum, negotiatio religione proscrihitur, sanc- 

titas locationeni niendicat. exigitis... — sacri, j^ro stipibus, p)ro 

hostiis, uenditis totam diuinitatem. non licet eam gratis coli. 

p. 46 1. 19 RELIGIO MENDICAXS cf. c. 42, p. 122 1. 27. 

2o [Passages] "which animadvert upon the practices of religious 
mendicants among the heathen in a manner which would 
be most unsatisfactory to the friars of the Church of 
Rome." Blunfs Right Use 105-6. Marquardt iii- 211 n. 4. 
143 n. 4. Minuc. 24 § 3 mendicantes idcatim deos ducunt. 

25 Dion. Hal. ii 19. Cic. de legib. ii §§ 22 40. Ou. Fast. iv 350. 

p. 46 1. 21 VENALES Theophil. ii 2. Melito Apol. 10 (from 

Syr. Otto Apol. ix 431) stulte, num id est deus quod emitur? 

nuni id est deus quod egenum est? ...quomodo eniis eum sicut 

seruum, et colis eum sicut dominum? quomodo rogas eum vt 

30 det tihi ceu diues, et das ei ut jyauperi ? 

p. 46 1. 22 MORTVis cf De Cor. Milit. 10 qiiid tam dignum 
idolo, quam quod et mortuo ? nam et mortuorum est ita coronari. 
ad nat. I 10 p. 77 1. 10 Wiss. quid enim omnino . . .uestris ex 
aequo praebeatis ? exstruitis deis templa, aeque mortuis templa ; 

35 exstruitis aras deis, aeque moi^tuis aras ; easdem titulis sujjer- 
scribitis litteras, easdem statuis inducitis formas, ut cuique ars 
aut negotium aut aetas fuit: senex de Saturno, imherbis de 
Apolline, uirgo de Diana figuratur, et miles in Marte et in 

p. 46 1. 30] APOLOGETICVS 13 233 

Vvlcano faher ferri consecratur, Lact. II 4 | 9 quis usus est 
pretiosorum munerum nihil sentientibus ? an ille, qui mortuis 1 
pan enim ratione defunctorum corpora ocloribus ac pretiosis 
uestibus illita et conuoluta humi condunt, qua deos honorant. 
Preller-Jordan ii 95 n. 1. 5 

p. 46 1. 23 ARAS Suet. Nero 50 in eo [gentili Domitiorum] 
ononuniento solium porphyretici marmoris superstante Lunensi 
ara circumsaeptum est lapide Thasio. omn. Clem. Alex. Protrep. 
c. 3 4 p. 39 i/eft>9. . .rd^ov^i. Theodoret. Graec. Affect. Cur. viii 34 
Aristotle offered divine honours to his wife (cf. Cic. to Tullia). lo 

p. 46 1. 25 EPVLO lOViS Marquardt lll- 348 n. 4 (cf 348-9). 
Amob. VII 32. Liu. xxv 2 § 10. Yaler. Max. ii ] § 2. iv 2 § 3. 
Guther De Vet. lure Pontif iv 23. 

SIMPVLO : simpuuium Apul. Mag. 18 (il 488 Hild.) Sahu. ad 
Solin. p. 583. Muncker ad Fulgent. p. 781. Fest. p. 707 Lind. 15 

HARVSPICE De Spect. 10 p. 12 1. 2 Wiss. duobus inquina- 
tissimis arbitris funerum et sacrorum, dissignatore et haruspice. 
Bouche-Leclercq Divination iv 65 2. 

p. 46 1. 26 POLLINCTOR Scorpiac. 7 fin. si noster quoque deus 
propriae hostiae noniine martyria sibi depostulasset, quis illi 20 
exprobrasset funestam religionem et lugubres ritus et aram 
rogum et i^ollinctorem sacerdotem ? Spect. 10 has not the word. 
add to lexx. Seru. Aen. vi 218 f. ix 487 and h. 1., and s. v. 
pollingo Sen. De Vita Beata 7 § 2 £ 

p. 46 1. 27 Theodoret Graec. Aff. Cur. iii §§ 32 33 p. 43 25 
8 seq. wrongly says that Nero, Domitian, and Commodus were 

p. 46 1. 28 ACCEPTO FERRE {-um ferre or referre Cic. Caes. 
YLov.^^expensum). ad nat. l 7 p. 70 1. 12 Wiss. ceterum quani 
uanum est profanos scire quod nesciat sacerdos ! tacent igitur 30 
et accepto ferunt. PauHn. Nol. Ep. 11 9 pr. [Study of Ambrosi- 
aster p. 79, and Thes. i 321 82 ff. A. S.] 

p. 46 l. 30 LARENTINAM c. 25 bis p. 86 1. 28 p. 88 1. 23. 
Minuc. 25 § 9 sane et Acca Larentia et Flora meretrices [cf 
Ps.-Aug. Quaest. 114 § 9. A. S.] propudiosae inter morbos 35 
Romanorum et deos computavdae. Arnob. I 28 m. in ciui- 
tatibus maximis atque in j)otentioribus populis sacra publice 
fiunt scortis meritoriis quondam atque in iiolgarem libidinem 

234 TERTVLLIANI [p. 46 1. 30— 

prostitutis : nullus tumor indignationis in dis est. Lact. i 20 
§§ 1—5. Gell. VII (VI) 7 §§ 5—8. Macrob. Sat. i 10 § 11 sq. 
Plut. Qu. Rom. 35 p. 272—3. Romul. 4. 5. 7. Aug. De Ciu. 
Dei VI 7. Preller-Jordan ii 26 — 27 cet. Roscher ' Acca 
5 Larentia ' 5 seq. ' Hercules ' 2294 — 5. 

p. 46 1. 32 SIMONEM Kaye 542—3. lustin. Martyr Apol. i 26 
with Otto. 56. Iren. i 23 § 1. 

p. 46 1. 33 PAEDAGOGiis Oehler h. 1. ad nat. ii 7 p. 107 1. 2 
Wiss. p. 363 Oehler. n. h. 10 f. De Cor. Milit. 13 p. m. Adu. 

lo Marcion. I 18 f. lustin. Apol. I 27 pr. p. 70"' TrpcoTOv fiev, otl 
Tou? irdvTa^ ax^Sbv opcofiev eVt iropveia irpon'yovTa<i, ov /jlovov 
ra? Kopa^i aWa Kal TOi/? liprrevas;, Kal bv Tpoirov XeyovTat oi 
TraXaiol dyeXa^ /3ocov ?) alywv i) TrpojBdTwv Tpe(petv rj LTnroyv 
(f)op^dS(ov, ouTO)? vvv Kal iralha^i 6i9 to alcr^x^pw^ '^(^priaOai 

15 fiovov. cet. 29 f p. 72^ Athenag. (with Otto's note) (cf p. 90 
n. 7) 30 (vii 158 n. 16 Otto), 34. Tatian 28. Clem. Alex. 
Paedag. Iii 4 § 26 and Protrept. 4 p. 43. (Clem. Alex. (in 
Euseb. Praep. Eu. p. 70.)) Theophil. iii 8. Antinous called 
^€09 on some coins. Orig. contra Cels. iii 36. 37. 38. v 63. 

2o VIII 9. Hegesippus in Euseb. Hist. Eccl. iv 8 § 2. Athan. 
contra Gentes 9 (i 20° Migne). Pausan. viii 9. 7. Theodoret 
Graec. Aff. Cur. vni 28 p. 115. 31. HE iv 18 § 8. Epiphan. 
Ancorat. 106 f (il 109*^). Klebs Prosopographia imp. Rom. 
Berl. 1897 i 81—2. Pauly-VVissowa i 2439—41, where the 

25 many works of art depicting him are catalogued. Preller- 
Jordan II 450 — 1. 

NESCio QVEM Prudent. contr. Symm. i 271. 

Cap. XIV 

On this chapter cf J. Geffcken Zwei Christliche Apologeten 
(1907) xviii, xix. 
30 p. 48 1. 4 NOLO. So Havercamp, and Hartel Ztschr. f oest. 
Gymn. 1869 366. Minuc. 24 | 3 quorum ritus si percenseas, 
ridenda quam multa, multa etiam miseranda sunt. 

p. 48 L 5 ENECTA cet. c. 30 f n. non grana turis unius 

assis, duas meri guttas, nec sanguinem reprobi bouis mori 

35 optantis. luu. 10 270. 12 95 — 6 n. ind. s. u. sacrifice. Form 

p. 48 1. 10] APOLOGETICVS 13, 14 235 

enectus Cic. De Diuinat. ii § 78. Tert. ad nat. i 10 p. 78 1. 14 
Wiss. non dico...enecta et tahida quaeque viactatis, de opimis 
autem et integris superuacua esui capitula, et ungulas et plu- 
marum saetarumque praeuulsa, et si quid domi quoque abiecturi 
fuissetis. Lasaulx 275 n. 387. Arnob. i 89 ueternosis arboribus. 5 
Hermippos in Athen. 551 a (to Dionysos) 01 yap Trevo/xevot \ 
dvoTTripa croL dvovatv i/hri ^olBia, | A.eo)rpe^ihov Xeinorepa 
Kol QovfjbdvriBo<i. Aesop in Havercamp, a traveller vowed to 
Hermes the half of his windfalls : finding a bag full of dates 
and ahiionds, he gives to the god date-stones and ahnond shells. 10 
Lucian bis acc. 10 in Hav. n. 47. Levit. 22. 20 sq. Nevelet 
Malach. 1 8. 14. Clem. Alex. Sfcrom. vii c. 6 § 30 Pherecrates 
and Eubuhis. § 31 Menander and Hesiod. Herod. 11 88. Plut. 
Orac. Def 49 (ll 437^) Sel rb 6vcn/jbov rut re aay/jiarc Kal rrj 
^vyrj KaOapov elvac Kal dat,ve<; Kai a8ia(f>dopov. Verg. Aen. IV 15 
57 lectas de more hidentes. Ou. Metam. xv 13J uictima lahe 
carens et praestantissima forma. Polhix l 1 § 26. Aristot in 
Athen. 674 f Com. Er. Anon. Meineke iv 613 n. 41 from 
Clem. Alex. Strom. vil 34. Porphyr. Abst. Anim. il 58. 

TABIDOSA De Pudic. 14 m. 20 

p. 48 1. 8 DECIMA HERCVLIS c. 39 p. 114 1. 15. Marquardt iii 
146—7. Macrob. iii 6 § 11. 12 § 2. Pkit. Sull. 35 § 1. Crass. 
2 (vol. III p. 40 1. 4 ed. Sint.). Cic. de nat. Deor. iii 88. 

p. 48 1. 10 DE PERDITO Aristoph. Pkit. 1107—1145 Hav. 
The gods starving since Plutus recovered his sight ; Cario ate 25 
up even before Mercury's share ' because, on discovery, you did 
not share the flogging.' Lact. ii 4 § 15 his aurum et argentum 
consecrar.t, quae tam non habent qui accipiunt quam qui illa 
donarunt. cf the thefts of Dionysius §§ 16 — 19. Pubkl. Syr. 
604 mortuo munus qui mittit, nil dat illi, adimit sihi. 30 

LITTERAS cet. supra c. 10 and 11. ad nat. i 10 p. 79 1. 2 Wiss. 
adhuc meminimus Homeri. ille opinor est, qui diuinam maiesta- 
tem humana condicione tractauit, casihus et jMSsionibus humanis 
deos imbuens, qui de illis fauore diuersis gladiatoria quodammodo 
■paria composuit: Venerem sauciat sagitta humana, Marteni ^s 
tredecim mensihus in uinculis detinet fortasse periturum, eadem 
louem paene perpessum a caelitum plebe traducit aut lacrimas 
eius super Sarpedonem excutit aut luxuriantem cnu lunone 

236 TERTVLLIANI [p. 48 1. 10— 

foedissime inducit, commendato lihidinis desiderio per com- 
memorationem et enumerationem amicarum. Homerand Hesiod 
Thdrt. Gr. Afif. Cur. iii § 4. Minuc. 22 § 1 has fahulas et 
errores et ah imperitis parentihiis discimus et, quod est grauius, 
5 ipsis studiis et disciplinis elahoramus, carminihus ptraecipue 
poetarum, qui j)lvrimum quantum ueritati ipsi sua auctoritate 
nocuere. ^2 et Plato ideo praeclare Homerum illum inclitum 
laudatum et coronatum de ciuitate, quam in sermone instituehat, 
eiecit. § 3 hic enim praecipuus bello Troico deos uestros, etsi 
loludos facit, tamen in hominum rehus et actihus miscuit: hic 
eorum p>aria composuit, sauciauit Venerem, Martem uinxit, 
uulnerauit, fugauit. § 4 louem narrat a Briareo liheratum, ne 
a dis ceteris ligaretur, et Sarpedonem filium, quoniam morti non 
poterat eripere,cruentis imhrihus fieuisse et loro Veneris illectum 
15 fiagrantius, quarn in adulteras soleat, cum lunone uxore con- 
cumbere. Leland Christian Kevelation Pt l c. 4. Cyrill. adu. 
lul. I (VI 41 Aubert). Theophil. i 9. iii 8. Clem. Alex. Protr. 
11 § 32 seq. p. 27 P. seq. Cic. de nat. Deor. iii § 77 di poetici. i 
§ 61 n. 42. 43 n. Marquardt lil- 60 n. 2. 61 n. 3 and 4. 
20 Athenag. 21 n. 1 Otto. 22 pr. Aug. De Ciu. Dei i 3 pr. et nohis 
suscensent, cum de dis eorum talia dicimus, nec suscensent aucto- 
rihus suis, quos ut ediscerent, mercedem dederunt ; doctoresque 
ipsos insuper et salario publico et honorihus dignissimos hahue- 
runt. omn. Lucian Necyomantia 3 (what Menippus learnt from 
25 Homer and Hesiod). 

p. 48 1. 12 [lustin.] Cohort. ad Gr. 2 p. 3"^ 4=^ (II. xx 66—72). 
Lact. Diu. Inst. i 3 § 17. Cic. de nat. Deor. 11 § 70. Arnob. 
adu. Gent. iv 33 f. uulnerari, uexari, hella inter se gerere 
furialium memorantur ardore discriminum. Prudent. Peri- 
30 steph. X 211 — 3 quid inter aras dissidentum numinum \ putas 
agendum? Martis indignahitur \ offensa uirtus, si colatur 
Lemnius. Plato Rep. 378 d Oeofiaxia^- Clem. Al. protr. il 
36 — 37 pp. 31 32 (see next note). 

p. 48 1. 13 VENEREM Athenag. 21 p. 21^ Luc. lupp. Trag. 

35 40. Firm. Mat. 12 § 7 fuit enini et apud ueteres, licet nondum 

terram illuminasset domini nostri Christi ueneranda dignatio, 

in spernendis superstitionihus religiosa constantia. § 8 Dio- 

medes pudicus et sobrius Venerem uulnerat. Clem. Alex. 

p. 48 1. 18] APOLOGETICVS 14 237 

Protrep. 36 p. 31 P. Antisthenes would shoot Venus, if he 
inet her, as the corrupter of her sex (in Clem. Alex. Strom. Ii 
20 § 107 p. 485 P. and Theodoret Graec. Aff. Cur. iii § 53 
p. 46 18). 

p. 48 1. 14 SAVCIATAM Plut. Qu. Symp. ix 8 a question 5 
which hand was wounded. Verg. Aen. xi 277 makes Diomed 
say Veneris uiolaui uolnere dextram. [lustin.] Cohort. ad Gr. 2 
p. 3b (II. V 335—340). 

p. 48 1. 15 MARTEM II. V 382—7. Firm. Matern. 12 § 8 
Oti et Ephialtae decreto Mars belli potens temporali exsilio 10 
damnatus ferrea catenarum uincla sustinuit. Arnob. IV 25 
pr. quis [prodidit Marteni\ mensibus in Arcadia tribus et decem 
uinctum? non Melae fluminis filius. Clem. Alex. Protr. 29 
p. 25 P. 

p. 48 1. 17 MONSTRi lustin. Apol. i c. 27 fin. p. 69'' ovhe 15 
\v6rjvai, ^or)6eia<i rv^ovra Sta (deriSo<i vtto tov eKaTO^y-^^eipo^ 
iKeivov. [id.] Cohort. ad Graec. 2 p. 2^ II. i 399—406. Lucian 
lupp. Trag. 40. Deor. Dial. 21 2 Hav. Minuc. 23 § 4 cited on 
p. 48 1. 9. 

p. 48 1. 18 SARPEDOXis cf ad nat. i 10 p. 79 1. 9 Wiss. 20 
Constantine Or. ad Sanct. Coet. 10 § 2 (of poets) eladyovcn Se 
<Saifj,ova<i> Kal oSvpofxevov^ Ta^; rwv olKeiayv iraihwv a(f)ayn<i. 
Jortin Misc. Obs. (Lond. 1732) 11 7 — 10 with Lamb and 
Dav. Vict. V. 1. 34 24. Minuc. 22. Plato Rep. 433^ Auson. 
Epitaph. Sarped. Markland on Max. Tyr. 19 6. Cic. De 25 
Diuinat. 11 § 25 si enim nihil fit extra fatum, nihil leuari 
re diuina, potest. hoc sentit Homerus, cum querentem louem 
inducit, quod Sarpedonem filium a morte contra fatum eripere 
non posset. [lustin.] Cohort. ad Gentiles c. 2. p. 2** rovrov 
epwvra Kai (TyerXia^ovra Kal 6\o(f)vp6/J,evov Kal vtto twv 30 
dWcov 6ewv e7n^ov\€v6/i€vov ''Oix7]po<s elacvyei, Kai irore /nev 
(II. XVI 433 — 4) errl rov eavrov TraiSo? Xiyovra m fiot iyoiv, 
ore fxoi ^apirrjhova, cfiiXrarov (tvSpcvv, | /xoip^ inro Y\aTpoK\oio 
^levoiri(ihao ha/irjvaL. Athenag. 21 p. 21'\ Athan. Contr. 
Gentes 11 (l 26'' Migne). Firm. Matern. 12 8 Sarpedonem 35 
filium mortuum in Troia luppiter plangit et mercedem fabri- 
catorum murorum Neptunus a superbo rege non recipit: alterius 
regis Apollo greges pascit. Clem. Alex. Protr. § 55 p. 49 P. 

238 TERTVLLIANI [p. 48 L 18— 

Sarpedon and suhantem and Apollo and Neptune in los. Contr. 
Apion. II 34. 

SVBANTEM c. 46 (p. 130 1. 2). De Monogam. 15 p. m. (conj. 
in adii. Valent. 17). Lucr. Hor. Plin. Anthol. 712 15 R. Hier. 
5 Ep. [54 15, p. 481 1. 19 Hilberg. A. S.] 147 10 fin. [lustin.] 
Cohort. ad Gr. c. 2 p. 3^^ citing II. xiv 315—7. '9. '21. '23. 
'26 — 7. Athenag. 21 p. 21'' seq. Firm. err. 4 1 lunonem sane, 
ne et huic deesset incestum, louis uoliint ex sorore coniugem 
factam. Hild. on Arnob. iv 24 p. 376. 
lo p. 48 1. 19 SOROREM c. 11 p. 42 1. 6. Frazer Paus. i 7 1. 

COMMEMORATIOXE Ter. Cic. Sen. Ep. 79 § 15. 81 § 23. De 
Benef. il 11 § 1. Quintil. Tac. [many more in Thes. A. S.]. 

p. 48 1. 20 PRiNCiPis (see below p. 48 1. 27). ad nat. i 10 
p. 79 1. 11 Wiss. exinde quis non poetarum ex auctoritate 
15 pi^incipis sui in deos insolens aut uera prodendo aut falsa 
fingendo? ibid. p. 79 1. 19 Wiss. (of Socrates) nam etsi 
idcirco damnatus est, cum paenituerit Athenienses damnatioms, 
ut criminatores quoque impendei^int. ii 7 p. 107 1. 13 Wiss. 
criminatores deorum poetas eliminari Plato censuit, ip)siim 
20 Homerum sane coronatum ciuitate pellendum. Homer expelled 
by Plato, Theodoret Graec. Aff. Cur. 11 §§ 6 7. p. 22 1. 21. Orig. 
contr. Cels. IV 36 n. of Spencer. 

p. 48 1. 21 DEDECORATOR «TT. \ey. 

APOLLINEM cet. Minuc. 22 § 5 Apollo Admeto (cf Tatian 
25 21 p. 159*^) pecus jxiscit, Laomedonti uero muros Neptunus 
instituit nec mercedem operis infelix structor accipit. Arnob. 
IV 25 n. Varro in Aug. De Ciu. Dei VI 5 (mythical theology 
teaches ut di . . .seruierint homini). Aug. De Ciu. Dei xvili 13 
p. m. Apollo condemned to servitude for slaying the Cyclopes. 
30 Diodor. Sic. iv 71 § 3. 

ADMETO. Clem. Alex. Protr. § 35 p. 80 P. Lucian De Sacrif 
4 f lupp. Conf. 8. Arnob. iv 25 p. 379 Hild. Aug. De Ciu. 
Dei iii 2. 

p, 48 1. 22 STRVCTORIAS («TT. X67.) found in glosses. Loewe 
35 Prodrom. 399. cf. Minuc. 23 § 5 structor (cited above). 

p. 48 1. 23 LAOMEDONTI Hor. Carm. iii 3 21 22. Clem. 
Alex. Protr. 1. c. Lucian 11. cc. 

p. 48 1. 24 AESCVLAPIVM ad nat. 11 14 fin. Arnob. i 41 nonne 

p. 48 1. 27] APOLOGETICVS 14 239 

Aesculapium, inedicaminum repertorem, post poenas et supjMcia 
fulminis, custodem nuncupauistis et praesidem sanitatis uale- 
tudinis et salutis ? iv 24 (161 3) numquid [a nohis dicitur] 
cupidinis atque auaritiae causa, sicut canit Boeotius Pindarus, 
Aesculapium fulminis transfixum esse telo ? vii 44 p. 278 23. 5 
Diodor. Sicul. iv 71 p. 315. Muncker ad Hygin. f. 49 p. 113 
recalled Androgeos to life. Prop. ii 1 62. Lucian Dial. Deor. 13 1. 
lustin. Apol. c. 21 p. 67^ c. 22 p. 68^ c. 54 f. p. 90^ Dial. cum 
Tryph. c. 69. Theophil. iii 2. Apolog. Aristid. 10. Athenag. 29 
p. 33. (Pind. Pyth. 3 54 — 58. Cary. 'But lucre wisdoms self lo 
can captive hold. | E'en he was turn'd by sight of tempting 
gain, I (When in the hands appeard the glist'ning gold) | Frotn 
death to rescue one already ta'en. | And Jove in sooth, hurling 
with eager hand, | In either bosom did the breathing stay. | 
Fate follow'd quick his flaming levin-brand,' and Hesiod p. 263i5 
Gottling.) Tatian 8 p. 147*^ 21 p. 159«^. Orig. Contr. Cels. iii 22 
23 25. omn. Plat. Rep. iii c. 16 p. 408b. Apollodor. iii 10. 
Hygin. Astr. ii 14. Roscher Lex. Myth. i 619 30 seq. Minuc. 
21 § 16 Holden, Aesculapius, ut in deum surgat, fulminatur. 
Firm. Mat. 12 8 Aesculapius alibi fulminatur. Clem. Alex. 20 
Protr. § 30 p. 25 P. citing Pindar. Lact. Diu. Inst. i 19 § 3 
(cited below). Verg. Aen. vii 772 — 3 (cited below). Ambr. De 
Virginibus iii 2 § 7. Theodoret Graec. Aff. Cur. iii § 27 p. 42 
1. 26. viii §§ 19 — 23 p. 114. Pauly-Wissowa Asklepios col. 
1654. 25 

NOCENTER Colum. Cels. Nothing good from heathen gods, 
Bayle oeuvres iii 259. 

p. 48 1. 25 si FVLMEN iLLivs EST. cf Bouche-Leclercq 
Divination iv 35 cet. 


ad nat. i 10 p. 79 13 Wiss. 

p. 48 1. 27 RELioiosissiMOS c. 6 pr. infra c. 25 p. 86 1. 24 n. 
Sall. Cat. 12 § 3 n. nostH maiores religiosissimi mortales. 
Marquardt lll- 6 n. 4. Gieseler Church History (Engl.) I p. 25 

n. 1 (§ 11). 35 

Ad nat. I 10 p. 79 1. 13 Wiss. et tragici quidem aut comici 
pepercerunt, ut non aerumnas ac poenas dei praefarentur ? 
taceo de philosophis. . .denique et Socrates in contunieliani eorum 

240 TERTVLLIANI [p. 48 1. 27— 

quercum et canem et hircutn iurat. Aug. contr. Faust. xii 40 f. 
ea rident in theatris quae uenerantur in templis, in turpitudine 
nimium liheri, in superstitione nimium serui. Lact. Diu. Inst. I 
19 § 3 claniat summus poeta...ipsum...illum repertorem medi- 
5 cinae talis et artis ad Stygias undas fulmine detrusum, ut 
intellegamus quantum ualeat pater oninijiotens, qui etiam deos 
fulminihus exstinguat. § 4 sed homines ingeniosi hanc secum 
hahehant fortasse rationem : quia deus fulminari non potest, 
apparet non esse factum : immo uero quia factum est, apparet 

lo hominem fuisse, non deum. cf. Verg. Aen. vii 772 — 3 ipse 
repertorem medicinae talis et artis \ fulmine Phoebigenam 
Sti/gias detrusit in undas (cf 765 — 771). 

p. 48 1. 28 EREORES e.g. of Ceres, Clem. Alex. Protr. 
§ 12. p. 12 P. [lustin.] Or. ad Gentil. 2 p. 38^^. Minuc. 21 

i5§ 9. 

p. 48 1. 29 PRAEFENTVR c. 18 p. 58 1. 17 prophetae de officio 

p. 48 1. 30 IN CONTVMELIAM DEORVM )( in honorem. Liv. in 
lexx. Tac. Hist. v 4 in c. Hammonis. Plin. Pan. 11 in c. 

2o numinum. 

p. 48 1. 31 CANEM. vri rov Kvva. Theophil. iii 2 p. 117'^ 118=" 
Tt bi^eKrjaev . . .^(OKpdrriv ro ojjivveiv rov Kvva Kal rov XW^ '^^'' 
TT)v TrXaTavov ; Spanh. on Aristoph. Nub. 627. Lact. iii 20 § 15 
uerum idem per canem et ansereni deierahat. o hominem 

25 scurram (ut ait Zeno Epicureus) ineptum, perditum, desperatum, 
si cauillari uoluit religionem ; dementem, si hoc serio fecit, ut 
animal turpissimum pro deo haheret. § 16 quis iam super- 
stitiones Aegyptiorum audeat reprehendere, quas Socrates 
Athenis auctoritate confirmauit sua t Lasaulx Studien p. 201 

30 n. 119. Diog. Laert. vii § 32. platanus, Procop. Ep. 63 f. 
(p. 555 1 Hercher). Lucian Vit. Auct. 16 (dog and plane). 
Icaromenipp. 9 pr. (dogs and geese and planes) : same three in 
Philostr. Apoll. VI 19 6 : goat an Egyptian god Theodoret 
Graec. Aff. Cur. iii § 85 p. 51 36. Porphyr. De Abst. iii 16 f. 

35 Menage on Diog. Laert. 11 40. 

DEIERABAT Plaut. Ter. Varr, Prop. Amm. Tert. Apol. 32 f. 
35 p. m. De Idolol. 20 f. Paulin. Nol. c. 24 331 [more exx. 
in Thes. A. S.]. cf. peiero. 

p. 50 1. 3] APOLOGETICVS 14 241 

DA5INATVS ad nat. i 10 p. 79 1. 19 Wiss. (citecl on p. 48 1. 20). 
Ang. De Ciu. Dei viii 3. 

p. 50 1. 1 DEOS DESTRVEBAT (the word, c. 46 p. 128 1. 7) infr. 
c. 46 a. m. o Apollinem inconsideratum ! sapientiae testimonium 
reddidit ei uiro, qui negabat deos esse. in quantum odio 5 
fiagrat ueritas, in tantum qui eani ex fide praestat offendit. ad 
nat. II 7 (cited above on p. 48 1. 20). De Anima 1, p. 299 28 
Wiss. lustin. Apol. 11 10. I 5 ore Se So)/cpaT7;9 Xojo) akrjOel 
Kul i^eTa(TTiK(io<i TavTU et9 (pavepov eiretpaTO ^epeiv Kal dTrdyeiv 
t(JljV haifxovoiv Tou^ dvdpdiirov; Kal avTol [Thirlby avTov] 01 10 
8ai/j,ove<; Sid twv -y^atpSvTcov Trj KaKLCi dvBpooTrcov evijpyrjaav dx; 
iWeov Kal daejBr) dTTOKTelvat Xeyovre^i Kaiva el(T(fiepeLv avrov 
8aip.6via. Kal 6fjLOLco<; ecf rjfKSv ro avro evepyovatv. Cf. Xen. 
Mem. I 1 § 1. Theodoret Gr. Aff. Cur. vii § 47 p. 109 1. 50. 
Plat. Apol. 24^ Arnob. i 40 condemnation of Socrates. Sen. 15 
Ep. 104 § 28. Diog. Laert. 11 § 43. vi § 9. Wetstein on Acts 
17 18. Orig. contr. Cels. iv 67 p. 554, Hermann Gotter d. 
Alterthum 10 9. 

ODio EST Ter. Andr. 67 — 8 (cited by Cic. Lael. § 89, Quintil. 
VIII 5 § 4) namque hoc tempore \ ohsequium amicos, ueritas 20 
odiwn parit. Lact. i 1 § 7. v 9 § 6 Bii. 21 § 1. Epit. 64 17. 
Tert. Apol. c. 7 p. 24 1. 22 n. c. 46 p. 128 1. 20 n. (see last note). 
Magirus ueritas n. 34. Otto Sprichw. 368 n. 3. Lindenbrog 
on Ter. Andr. 1. c. (i 1 41). Socr. Hist. Eccl. vi praef. § 6 ro 
d\r]de<; TTLKp^v. Bias in Auson. xx 191. [Prosper] De Promiss. 25 
II 35. Commodian Instr. il 29 5 Respicite dictum, quod ueritas 
odia tollat. 

p. 50 1. 2 CRIMINATORES see ad nat. (2 exx. cited above). 
Sid/^o\o<; gl. 'very rare ' (LS.) (Plaut. 1, Tac. 1) cf. Lact. Diu. 
Inst. II 12 § 17. Epit. 27 § 6 10. lul. ap. Aug. c. Sec. Resp. 30 
luliani iii 168. Hier. vi 629. 721. Migne cvi 1300^ [more in 
Thes., to which add Aug. serra. (tom. V 94 f. ed. Bened.-Antv.) 
spec. 2, epist. 43, 19, uirg. 20 a.m. A. S.]. 

jx 50 1. 3 SOCRATIS cet. ad nat. i 10 p. 79 1. 20 Wiss. Diog. 
Laert. ii § 43 Menage, immediately after the death of S. the 35 
Athenians banished the other accusers and sentenced Meletus 
to death, closed gymnasia and palaestrae, set up a brazen 
statue, the work of Lysippus, to S. in the Pompeium. Aug. Ciu. 
M. T. 16 

242 TERTVLLIANI [p. 50 ]. 3— 

Dei VIII 3 p. m. Plut. ii 537^ 538^ (De Inuidia et Odio 6) 
vol. VIII p. 128 R. Orig. contr. Cels. i § 3 (p. 323) p. 5 1. .56 
with Spencer (pp. 8 f.). § 65 Aristotle withdrew to Chalcis, 
lest the Athenians should a second time sin against philosophy. 
5 Themist. Or. 20 p. 239«^. Wesseling on Diodor. Sicul. xiv 
p. 672 31. 

p. 50 1. 5 SED ET cet. ad nat. i 10 p. 79 1. 22 Wiss. sed et 
Diogenes nescio quid in Herculem lusit. 

p. 50 1. 6 TEECENTOS lOVES ad nat. i 10 p. 79 1. 23 Wiss. et 

lo Romani stili Diogenes Varro trecentos loues, seu luppiteres 
dicendum est, sine capitibus inducit. Theophil. i 10 7revaofA,aL 
Si aov Kciyco, w dvdpcdire, iroaoi Zr^j/e? evpiaKovTai ; Minuc. 22 
§ 6. Arnob. iv 17 £ nam esse Apollines quattuor aut tris loues 
numquam nobis facietis fidem, nec si testem ipsum citetis loueni 

15 ant Pythium constituatis auctorem. Sen. lud. 8 § 1. Marquardt 
iir^ 63 n. 4. 

Cap. XV 

p. 50 1. 8 INGENIA ad nat. i 10 p. 79 1. 25 Wiss. cetera... 
etiam uoluptates uestras per dedecus deorum administrant. 
dispicite apud uos Lentulorum et Hostiorum, sacrilegas uenus- 

20 tates, utrum mimos an deos uestros in strophis et iocis rideatis ; 
sed et histrionicas litteras magna cum uolicptate suscipitis, quae 
omnem foeditatem designant deorum. Cult. Fem. i 2 m. utrumne 
mulieres sine ^nateriis splendoris et sine ingeniis decoris placere 
non possent hominibus? pall. 1. Plin. Tac. Arnob. iv 2 ingeni- 

25 orum lasciuire luxu. vi 12 ut in deorum corporibus lasciuiae 
artificum luderent. Teaching of Homer and Hesiod, Lucian 
Menippus 3. 

p. 50 1. 9 DEOEVM gods on the stage, Arnob. iv 35 seq. 
LENTVLORVM ET HOSTILIORVM Teuffel-Schwabe*^ § 363 5. 

30 p. 50 1. 10 VENVSTATES Cic. Quintil. Symm. Ep. iii 39 
memoriam malorum ioci uenustate frangamus. Macrob. sat. il 
1 I 10 et iam primum animaduerto duos quos eloquentissimos 
antiqua aetas tidit, comicum Plautum et oixitorem Tullium, eos 
ambos etiam ad iocorum uenustatem ceteris praestitisse. Sen. 

35 Contr. II § 22 homo uenustissimus, qui mdlius umquam impu- 

p. 50 1. 11] APOLOGETICVS 14, 15 243 

nitam stultitiam transire passus est. ibid. x praef. § 2. suas. 2 
§ 12. Sen. Const. Sap. 17 § 3 Vatinium, hominem natum et ad 
risum et ad odium, scurram fuisse et uenustum et dicacem 
memoriae proditum est. 

MIMOS cet. Aug. De Ciu. Dei iv 26. Minuc. 37 § 12. Cypr. 5 
.ad Donat. 8 fin. p. 10. Arnob. iv 36 etiam mimis et scurrilibus 
ludicris sanctissimorum personae interponuntur deorum, et ut 
spectatoribus uacuis risus jiossit atque hilaritas excitari, iocu- 
laribus feriuntur cauiUationibus numina...quod si Jiaberet uos 
aliqua uestris pro religionibus indignatio, has potius litter^as uos 10 
exurere debuistis olim, libros istos demoliri, dissoluere theatra 
haec potius, in quibus infamiae numinum propudiosis cotidie 
publicantur infabulis. 35 (partly cited below). Prudent. Peri- 
steph. X 220 — 230 cur in theatris te uidente id plauditur? \ cygnus 
stuprator peccat inter pulpita, | saltat tonantem tauricornem 15 
ludius, I spectator horum pontifex summus sedes, j ridesque et 
ipse, nec negando diluis, \ cum fama tanti p)olluatur numinis. \ 
cur tu, sacrate, per cachinnos solueris, \ cum se maritum fingit 
Alcmenae deus, | meretrix Adonem uidneratum scaenica \ libi- 
dinoso plangit adfectu palam, \ nec te lupanar Gypridis sanctae 20 
mouet ? Cf. Lact. v 10 §§ 15 16, 20 § 12 at enini puniendi sunt, 
qui destruunt religiones. num peius nos destruimus, quam... 
idem ipsi, qui cum deos colere se dicant, tamen eos jyublice turpi- 
terque derident, de quibus etiam mimos agi cum risu et uoluptate 
patiuntur. Epit. 55 § 3. 63 § 6. Aug. Ciu. Dei iv 26 e.g. (i 179 25 
7 sq.) in illis certe ludis poetica numinum crimina f-equen- 
tantur, qui ludi cogentibus numinibus iussu senatus instaura- 
bantur. in illis ludis corruptorem pudicitiae louem turpissimi 
histriones cantabant agebant placebant. 

p. 50 1. 11 STROPHis De Spect. 29 Oehler. Adu. Marcion. 30 
III 10 med. De Anim. 28 p. 347 1. 32 Wiss. Petron. 60. Hier. 
Ep. 88 (p. bZI^) haereticorum -as. 133 2 (1027=^). Contr. 
Rufin. II 20 f. quasi mimum PJiilistionis uel Lentuli ac Marulli 
stropham eleganti sermone confictam. 

MASCVLVM LVXAM deus Lunus M?;y in Spartian Carac. 6 35 
§ 7. Preller-Jordan II 411 4: 'Auch der deus Lunus auf dem 
zu Boden gestreckten Stiere auf einem Votivrelief aus Koula 
in Phrygien bei Texier Asie Mineure l 51 52 ist eine dem 


244 TERTVLLIANI [p. 50 1. 11— 

Mithras verwandte Gestalt.' Worshipped in Phrygia and Meso- 
potamia. Amm. XXIII 3 § 2. Hdn. iv 18. On coins ; a man 
on foot or horseback, with a Phrygian cap and crescent. 
p. 50 1 13 HERCVLES Lact. I 21 § 33 ^ovdolvr]'? and 
5 ^ov(f)dyo<;. Greg. Naz. Or. 4 122 f. (l 140'^'^) eVt/fOTTTeTco 
ya(TTpi/jiapyiav 6 liovOoii>a<i. Cl. Al. Protr. § 76 p. 65, Potter. 
Em-. Alc. 771, 789—818. Spanh. on Callim. H. Dian. 160. 
Call. ib. 146. Philost. Apoll. v 23 a youth boasting that he 
could eat more, and drink more wine, than any one else, and 

lo being asked what he was the better for his gkittony, replied ro 
davfjbdi^ecrdai /u,e Kal diro^XeTreordav Kal ydp rov ' HpaKXea 
ia(jo<i dKovet,<i, &)<? Kal rd airia avrov 7raparr\i~iai(o<; roh d6XoL<; 
rjhero. Aristoph. Ranae 550 — 1, 504 — 512, 621 — 3. Lucian 
Amor. 4. Icaromenip. 27. 

15 FAMELICOS (the word, Plaut. Ter. Plin. luu. Apul. Bonif. 
p. 429 G.) Aristoph. Pax 741 and Schol. Vesp. 60. Athenaeus 
411^ — 412^, 656b. Aristippus to Antisthenes §4 (Socraticorum 
Epist. 9 in Hercher Epistolographi p. 617 £) Trefxyfro) Se aoc 
roiv OepfKov r(o<i fieydX(o<i re Kal \evKco<i, Iv e^^iJ^ fierd ro eVt- 

20 Sei^aaOai rciv 'HpaKXea to6<? 2'e'o(9 inrorpayelv. 

HISTRIONVM Lact. Diu. Inst. v 10 20. Prudent. Peristeph. 
X 221 — 5 cited above (Roman). Arnob. iv 35 Hild. sed 
poetis tantummodo licere noluistis indignas de dis fabulas. et 
Jiagitiosa ludihria comminisci ? quid pantomimi uestri, quid 

25 histriones, quid illa mimorum atque exoleti generis multi- 
tudo ? nonne ad usum quaestus sui ahutuntur dis uestris et 
lenocinia uolwptatmn ex iniuriis adtrahunt contumeliisque 
diuinis ? . . . et quod nefarium esset auditu, gentis illa genetrix 
Martiae, regnatoris et popidi procreatrix amans saltatur Venus 

30 et per adfectus omnes raeretriciae uilitatis impudica exprimitur 
imitatione hacchari. 36. Aug. De Ciu. Dei vii 26 quid sunt ad 
hoc malum Mercurii furta, Veneris lasciuia, stupra ac turpi- 
tudines ceterorum, quae proferremus de lihris, nisi cotidie 
cantarentur et saltarentur in theatris? Theophil. iii 15. Greg. 

35 Naz. Or. 4 120—2 (cf. above). 

p. 50 1. 14 LVGET SOL cet. ad nat. i 10 p. 80 1. 3 Wiss. 
luget Sol filium exstinctum laetantibus uobis. 


p. 50 1. 20] APOLOGETICVS 15 245 

Woodham compares c. 46 deos uestros j)alam destruunt... 
laudantihus uohis, plerique etiam in principes latrant susti- 
nentihus uohis. 

CYBELE cf. p. 50 1. 26 n. ad nat. i 10 p. 80 1. 4 Wiss. Cybela 
pastorem suspirat fastidiosum, non eruhescentibus uobis et susti- 5 
netis louis elogia modidari. Arnob. iv 35 saltatur et Magna 
sacris compta cum infulis Mater et contra decus aetatis illa 
Pessinuntia Dindymene in huhulci unius amplexum flagitiosa 
fingitur adpetitione gestire. v 42. omn. vii 33 p. 266 25. 
Obscene festival of Cybele at Carthage. Aug. De Ciu. Dei 10 

11 4. 5. VII 9. Zahn Forschungen V 176. Lucian Deor. Dial. 

12 1. Sidon. C. 23 281—8. Lact. Diu. Inst. i 17 § 7. 
SVSPIRAT : Hor. TibuU. 

p. 50 1. 16 svsTiNETis c. 25 p. 90 1. 15. 

lovis Arnob. iv 35 f. quin et ille in fahulis maxinius ipse 15 
regnator poli sine ulla nominis maiestatisque formidine adulte- 
rorum agere introducitur partes, atque ut fallere castitatem 
alienarum possit familias matrum, ora immutare pellacia et in 
species coniugum suhditiui corporis simidatione succedere. id. 
VII 33 p. 266. 22. 20 

p. 50 1. 18 ad nat. i 10 p. 80 1. 1 Wiss. constuprantur coram 
uobis maiestates in corpore impuro. famosum et diminidum 
caput imago cuiuslibet dei uestit. 

p. 50 1. 18 seq. Spectac. 10 p. 12 1. 25 Wiss. (with Oehlers 
note) quae priuata et propria sunt scaenae de gestu et corporis 25 
flexu mollitiae Veneris et Liberi immolant. Hor. Carm. i 15 
1, 2 pastor cum traheret per freta nauihus \ Idaeis Helenen, 
perfldus hospitam. 

IGNOMINIOSVM luu. 8. 188 n. 

p. 50 1. 19 EFFEMINATIONE Firmic. math. [vii 25 § 14, ref. 30 
in LS. wrong. A. S.] Hier. Seru. ad Aen. iv 216. On actors 
playing female parts luu. 3 93 — 99 ind. s. v. actors. 

p. 50 1. 20 ALIQVAM c. 50 a. m. aliqua Carthaginis conditrix. 

HERCVLEM cf. Arnob. IV 35 nec non et illa proles louis 
Sophoclis in Trachiniis Hercules pestiferi tegminis circumretitus 35 
indagine miserahiles edere inducitur heiulatus, uiolentia doloris 
frangi atque in ultijnam tabem difliuentium uiscerum maceratione 

246 TERTVLLIANI [p. 50 1. 20— 

REPRAESENTAT c. 16 p. 52 1. 27. Pliii. h. n. XXIII § 82 si 
uetusti non sit occasio, decoquitur ut uetustatem simulet. 

p. 50 1. 21 CONSTVPRATVR Idolol. 1. Cic. Liu. Suet. 
Hier. ore -atus Lamprid. Comm. i | 7. [See also Thes. 
5 A. S.] 

p. 50 1. 22 PLAXE cet. ad nat. i 10 p. 80 1. 5 Wiss. plane 

religiosiores estis in gladiatorum cauea, uhi super sanguinem 

humanum, super inquinamenta poenarum perinde saltant dei 

uestri argunienta et historias nocentibus erogandis, id in ipsis 

lo deis nocentes puniantur. 

CAVEA Plaut. Cic. Verg. Suet. Sen. e.g. Ep. 84 § 10. Sil. 
XVI 535 cauea daninante furorem. 472. Stat. Theb. i 423. 

V 340. VI 654. Valer. Flac. iv 228. Bahrens PLM. v 110 10. 
Aug. De Ciu. Dei i 31. Prudent. Peristeph. vi 62. Coripp. De 

15 Laudibus lustin, lii 253. Lact. v 20 § 13 qualis haec religio 

aut quanta maiestas putanda est, quae ado7\itur in templis, 

illuditur in theatris ? et qui haec fecerint, non poenas uiolati 

numinis pendunt, sed honorati etiam laudatique discedunt. 

p. 50 1. 23 INQVINAMENTA Vitr. (1). Gell. (1). Tert. De 

20 Carne Christi 20 f. De Spectac. 8. 10 f. 15 pr. Ambr. Off. 11 
§ 65. De Cain 11 § 2. Chromat. in Matt. tr. 3 § 6. [Add Aug. 
spec. 4. Ps.-Aug. serm. ter. A. S.] Picture of Leda Clem. Hom. 

VI 23. 

p. 50 1. 25 Noxii c£ Mart. x 25. viii 30 (both Scaevola). 

25 Spect. 7 (Laureohis). 8 (Daedahis). 21 (Orpheus). Friedlander 
11« 408—10. 

p. 50 1. 26 ATTIN ad nat. I 10 p. 80 1. 9 Wiss. uidimus saepe 
castratum Attin deum a Pessinunte, et qui uiuus cremabatur, 
Herculem induerat. risimus et meridiani ludi de deis lusum, 

30 quod Ditis pater, louis frater, gladiatorum exsequias cum malleo 
deducit, quo Mercurius, in caluitio pennatidus, in caduceo igni- 
tulus, corpora exanimata iam mortemue simulantia e cauterio 
probat. TheophiL i 9. iii 8. Minuc. 21 § 11 Holden, Keim 7 
n. 2. Aug. De Ciu. Dei vi 7 (i 260 3 D.). Arnob. v 6 7. 

35 Tatian 8 p. l^^''. Rationalised Porphyr. in Euseb. Praep. Eu. 
III 11 §§ 12 15 and in Aug. Ciu. Dei vii 25. Momnisen 
Strafrecht 927 n. 6. 

p. 50 1. 27 HERCVLEM Arnob. i 36 p. 54, Hild. vii 33 

p. 50 1. 33] APOLOGETICVS 15 247 

indignatio relanguescit Alcidae, si tragoedia Sophoclis, cui 
Trachiniae nomen est, Euripidis aut Hercules actitatur ? 

MERIDIANORVM Sen. Ep. 7 § 5 mayie leonihus et ursis homines, 
meridie spectatorihus suis obiciuntur. § 3 casu in meridianum 
spectaculum incidi, lusus exspectans et sales et aliquid laxamenti, 5 
quo hominum oculi ab humano cruore acquiescant contra est, 
quicquid ante pugnatum est, misericordia fuit. nunc omissis 
nugis mera homicidia sunt : nihil habent, quo tegantur : ad 
ictum totis corporibus expositi, numquam frustra manum mit- 
tunt cet. lo 

p. 50 1. 28 Blunt Right Use, 359. Marquardt m^ 564 n. 2. 
562 n. pr. 

p. 50 1. 31 INQVIETANT Sen. Ep. 2 § 1. 14 § 2. 27 § 6. De 
Tranquil. 2 § 1 cet. : see printed n. Tert. De Carn. Chr. 1 pr. 
qui fidem resurrectionis student inquietare. 15 

p. 50 1. 32 OBSOLETANT. One other passage of Tert. cited. 
Cf. [Nicet. de uigiliis § 3 p. 58, 19 ed. Burn. A. S.] paginam 
Greg. Turon. Mart. 11 3 p. 610 16. Gloss. Isidor. obsoletatus, 
pollutus, inquinatus, Gloss. Arabico-Lat. p. 708 Vulc. obsolito, 
obtero uel inquino. With the reading of Cod. Fuld. adsolant 20 
cf ad nat. i 10 p. 80 1. 14 Wiss. singida ista (as \\ere) . . .diui- 
nitatis, si maiestatis fastigium adsolant. ibid. p. 75 1. 27 
Wiss. with Oehlers note, saepe censores inconsulto populo adso- 
lauerunt. Gloss. in Mai Class. Auctor. vi 504 adsolitum {-at-) 
adlitum (-is-). 25 

CENSENTVR c. 12 p. 44 1. 15. infra c. 24 p.m. p. 86 1. 7. ad 
nat. i 10 p. 80 1. 16 Wiss. de contemptu tdique censentur quam 
[surely tam A. S.] eorum qui eiusmodi factitant quam eorum 
qui ista suscipiunt. Adu. Hermog. 39 p. 169 1. 9 Kr. si et 
materia eadem aeternitate censetur. Ad Vxor. i 6. De Cult. 30 
Fem. I 4 f . lustin. XI 11 | 9 hoc se patre censeri iuhet. Greg. 
Xaz. Or. 4 118 (i 143"'). [5 § 15, 2, p. 185, 1. 10 Eng. A. S.] 

p. 50 1. 33 EivsMODi c. 49. ad nat. 1. c. and i 5 p. 66 1. 4 
Wiss. et tamen eiusmodi neque congregantur neque jKirticipant 
nobiscum. Oehler p. 631 on Bapt. 12. De Idolol. 21 p. 55 1. 17 35 
Wiss. zn eiusmodi ridere. De Praescr. Haeret. 5 f. Hermas 
Simil. 1 (p. 70 17 Hilg.) diuitias uestras in eiusmodi consumite. 
Cypr. Ep. 2 § 1 (p. 468 4 H.). Studia Biblica iv 306. 

248 TERTVLLIANI [p. 52 1. 1— 

p. 52 1. 1 LUDICRA cf. c. 9 p. 30 1. 26. 

p. 52 1, 2 IN TEMPLis ADVLTERiA De pudic. 5 p. 227 1. 8 
Wiss. ego quidem idololatria saepissime moechiae occasionem 
suhninistro. sciunt luci mei et mei montes et uiuae aquae 
5 ipsaque in urbibus templa, quantum euertendae pudicitiae pro- 
cureni. Bayle oeuvres iii 368. Minuc. 25 § 12 iibi autem 
magis a sacerdotibus, quam inter aras et delubra conducuntur 
stupi^a, tractantur lenocinia, adidteria meditantur? frequentius 
demque in aedituorum cellidis, quam in ipsis lupanaribus, 

loflagrans libido defungitur. luu. 9 24 quo non prostat feniina 
templo ? See the story in los. Antiq. xviil 3 § 4 of the Egyp- 
tian priests who were crucified A.D. 19, their temple destroyed, 
and the image of Isis thrown into the Tiber. Herod. ii 64. 
Preller Rom. Myth. 728 cites Tibull. i 3 23 sq. Propert. ii 33. 

15 Ou. Amor. ii 2 25. 13 7. Ars Amat. i 77. iii 393. Trist. ii 297. 
Epp. ex Pont. i 1 51. luu. 6 488. Theodoret Hist. Eccl. v 22. 
Rufin. II 25. Jacobs Verm. Schr. iv 257. 

COMPOXI of assignation, Hor. Carm. i 9 19 — 20 lenesque suh 
noctem susurri composita repetantur hora. 

20 p. 52 1. 4 Prudent. Peristeph. ii 525 uittatus olim pontifex 
cf. Mart. Capella i § 10 Kopp. Sil. Ital. xiii 779. Greg. Xaz. 
Or. 4 114 (l 140*^) avroL tov<; kavrwv irpoehpov^ ypayjrdTaxTav. 
aXoupylq avToii^ Koa/xriaei Kal Taivia Kal crTe(f)dv(ov dvSo^ Kal 

25 APiciBVS Lexx. De Pall. 4 f. -p. d^n^^ 2mllium...su2}er...07nnes 
apices et tutidos sacerdos suggestas. Seru. ad Aen. viii 664. 
Gell. X 15 § 9. Festus p. 10 12 M. Dion. Halic. 11 70 (the 
Salii). Arnob. iv 35 sedent diales cum apicibus flamines. CIL. 

30 p. 52 1. 5 EXPVXGI c. 2 n. 20 f. 35 Oehler. De Anim. 35. 55. 
Adu. Marc. 11 20 f. iii 11 med. iv 34. v 21. Adu. lud. 11. 14. 
De Idolol. 1. 13. Scorpiac. 10 Oehler. De Pudic. 2 p.m. De 
Paenit. 3 p.m. adeo quod prohibetur administrare, satis pericu- 
lose animus sibi repraesentat et temere per uoluntatem — it 

35 effectum. [Rufin. i.e.] lulian.-Aecl. in Am. i (5 9). 

NE same words in ad nat. i 10 p. 80 1. 18 Wiss. nescio ne 
plus de uobis dei uestri quam de nobis querantur. On ne see 
c. 3 pr. n. Cf. Bayle oeuvres iii 296 — 7. 

p. 52 1. 14] APOLOGETICVS 15, 16 249 

p. 52 1. 6 SACRILEGI luu. ind. s.u. Lucian Peregrin. 24. 
Deor. Concil. 12. Icaromen. 17. Schmidt (?) 264. Keim Rom. 
und das Christenthum 222. Sen. Nat. Qu. Ii 42 § 1 impunitis 
sacrilegis. Chrys. XI 713*^ lustin. xxxii 3 §§ 9 — 11. Clem. 
Recogn. v 15. Hom. x 8. 5 , 

DE VESTRis c. 44 f. de nestris sernper aestuat carcer cet. 

p. 52 1. 7 ADPREHEXDVNTVR Plin. Ep. III 20 § 9. Iren. iii 
16 § 7 (dig. Gell.). 

p. 52 1. 8 SPOLIARENT Melito Apol. 10 (Otto ix 430 ex 
Syr.) num id est deus quod custodiendum est?...ecce enim, si 10 
hostes tui te deuincunt, etiam eum decorticant. Ep. ad Diognet. 2. 
lustin. Apol. I 9 d6e/j,i,Tov Kal t6 voelv rj Xeyeiv dvdp(i)7rov<; decov 
elvat (^vXaKU^. 

p. 52 1. 10 SVBIACET it is obvious. Polyb. vrroKeiTaL voelv 
Ashton. subiacens rnateria {vTroKeLfxevq tjXtjj) adu. Marc. I 15 15 
p. 310 1. 6 Kr. ad nat. i 10 p. 74 1. 22 Wiss. de reliqua uero 
conuersationis humanae dispositione palam suhiacet, quanta a 
maioribus mutaueritis. 

NEC...AMPLIVS nec iam a. Sil. Ital. viii 163. xvii 381 
haud a. XV 789. Cic. De Or. i | 54 non a. of time. 20 

p. 52 1. 12 SACRAMENTI Kaye 337. 

p. 52 1. 13 REPERCVSSIS 41 pr. Adu. Marc. 11 20 Oehler, 29. 
iv23a.m. Adu. Hermog. 12 p. m. De Idolol. 5. De Pudic. 2. 
7 pr. Oehler. Cf infra 16 £ irrepercussum. 

Cap. XVI 

p. 52 1. 14 CAPVT ASiNiNVM ad nat. i 11 pr. 14. Minuc. 9 § 4 25 
audioeos turpissimae pecudis caput asini consecratuminepta nescio 
qua persuasione uenerari: digna et nata religio talibus moribus. ib. 
28 § 8 inde est quod audire te dicis caput asini reni nobis esse diui- 
nam. quis tani stultus vt hoc colat ? quis stultior ut hoc coli credat ? 
los. contr. Ap. ii 9. E. Rosch in Stud. u. Krit. 1882 Heft 3. 30 
Ferd. Becker, Das Spottcrucifix der rom. Kaiserpalaste, Breslau 
1866 (cf Theol. Jahresber. 1867 p. 110). Ophite diagram in 
Orig. contr. Cels. vi 30 (Keim p. 88 n. 2). Keim Jesu von 
Nazara iii 81 n. 4. Tac. Hist. v 3 and 4. Diod. Sic. xxxiv 1 
(Phot. Bibl. c. 244) § 3 Antiochus Epiphanes elarfkOev et? tov 35 

250 TERTVLLIANI [p. 52 1. 14— 

cihvTov Tov deov crrjKov, ov vofii^ov elaievai fiovov tov lepea' 
evpcov 8e ev avTU) \lOivov aya\/xa av8p6<i /SaOvTTOiycovo'? KaOrj- 
fMevov eiT ovov fieTo, ^eipa<; ey^ov ^i/3\lov, tovto ^ev vireKajBe 
M&)i;cre&)9 elvai. Th. Hasaeus, Diatribe de Onolatria olim 
5 ludaeis et Christianis impacta. Lips. 1817. 4to. E. A. Schulz, 
De Ononychoto deo Christianis quondam afficto, in his Exer- 
citatt. Philol. fasc. 1. Berol. 1755. Miinter, Die Christin im 
heidn. Hause p. 15 sq. Augusti, Beitrage zur christl. Kunst- 
gesch. I 116 seq. (Kurz Handb. i (1853) 100 n. 2). Epiphan. 

lo Haer. i 26 Gnostics. Some gave to Sabaoth the form of an 
ass, some of a swine. Schilrer Gesch. d. jiid. Volkes ll- 550 seq. 
785. 111=* 104. On Apion Lightfoot in Smith i 128—130. 
Miiller Fr. Hist. Gr. iii 506 — 516. los. contr. Apion. ii 6 said 
that Jews worshipped the head of an ass. Suidas s.v. 'loivSa?. 

15 p. 52 1. 21 0XAGRI8 Varro Verg. Colum. Plin. Mart. Petron. 
38. Cels. II 18 p. 64 1. 20 D. Solin. 27. Hier. Vit. Hila- 
rion. 31. [Aug. gen. ad litt. iii. 11. A. S.] 

p. 52 1. 22 svPERFiciEM Chalcid. Tim. p. 46 a. 
p. 52 11. 23—29 ad nat. i 11 p. 81 11. 6—14 Wiss. 

2o p. 52 1. 24 Testim. Anim. 5 p. 141 1. 21 Wiss. diuinae scrip- 
turae, quae penes nos uel ludaeos sunt, in quorum oleastro insiti 
sumus. Cf Pusey p. 36 n. Z. 

p. 52 1. 25 TACiTVS...LOQVACissiMV,s ad nat. i 11 p. 81 1. 7 
Wiss. at enim — loquacissimus, ohlitus afirmationis suae in pos- 

25 terioribus refert Pompeium Magnum de ludaeis debellatis 
captisque Hierosolymis templum adisse et perscrutatum nihil 
simulacri repperisse. ubi ergo is deus fuerit l utique nusquam 
magis quam in templo tam memorabili, pvaesertini omnibus 
praeter< quam A.S. > sacerdotibus clauso, quo non uererentur 

30 extraneum. Sidon. c. xxiii 153 — 4 et qui pro ingenio Jluente 
nulli, I Gorneli Tacite, es tacendus ori. 11 192 qua pompa 
Tacitus nuniquam sine laude loquendus. 
p. 52 1. 26 POMPEIVM Tac. Hist. v 9, cf 5. 
p. 52 1. 28 from los. contr. Apion. ii 7 § 82 et cuni uarii casus 

35 nostram ciuitatem, sicut etiam aliorum, uexauerint, et < Antio- 
chus > Theos ac Pompeius Magnus ac Licinius Crassus et ad 
nouissimum Titus Caesar bello uincentes obtinuey^int templum, 
nihil huiusmodi illic inuenere. los. Ant. xiv 7 §§ 105 ff. B. 1. 1 8 

p. 54 1. 4] APOLOGETICVS 16 251 

§ 8 (179). Diodor. Sicul. XL 5 § 4. Tac. Hist. ii 78 est ludaeam 
inter Si/riunique Carmelus : ita montern uocant deunique. nec 
siniulucruni deo uut tenipluni — sic tradidere muiores — ; ura 
tantuni et reuerentia. ibid v 5. 9. L)io xxxvii 17 n. 

SIMVLACRVM ad nat. i 11 p. 81 1. 7 Wiss. luu. 14 97 n. nil 5 
l^rueter nuhes et cueli nunien adorunt. 

p. 52 1. 29 REPRAESENTABATVR C. 15 p. 50 1. 20. 

p. 52 1. 31 CVLTVRA (late in this sense) c. 21 dub. p. 74 
1. 8 n. ad nat. l 10 p. 75 1. 5 Wiss. deorma. 

p. 52 1. 32 soLis SACERDOTIBVS holy of holies Hebr. 9 lo 
6 and 7. So Lucian De Dea Syr. 31, of her temple. 

p. 52 1. 33 OPPAXSO c. 48 p. 1:38 1. 30. Gratt. cyneg. Prudent. 
(-sum n. s. Tert.). 

p. 54 1. 1 CANTHERios ad nat. i 14. Auson. Epist. 21 39. 
Arnob. v 11 f Plaut. Varr. (add Sat. 5 Bucheler). Lucil. Cic. 15 
de nat. Deor. iii § 11 Mayor (p. 69). Liu. Sen. Cato in Macrob. 
sat. III 14 § 9. Gallicis -is Hier. Ep. 27 § 3. in Jona c. 4. 
Ajjul. Metam. iii 27. IX 13 ter Kav6r]\io<;. 

CVM SVA EPONA Tert. ad nat. i 11 p. 81 1. 16 Wiss. cre- 
datur deus noster asinina aliqua persona : certe ner/ubitis uos 20 
eadeni habere nobiscuni? sune uos totos usinos colitis et cuni 
sua Epona et omnia iunienta et pecora et bestias, quae perinde 
cum suis praesepibus consecrutis. et hoc forsitan criniini datis, 
quod inter cultores omnium tantum asinarii sumus. Minuc. 29 
§ 8 nisi quod uos et totos asinos in stabulis cum uestra uel Eponch 25 
consecratis et eosdeni osinos cum Iside religiose deuorufis. luu. 
8 157 n. and Journ. Phil. xx 275—6. 

p. 54 1. 2 — 56, 3 ad nat. i 11 fin. 

p. 54 1. 4 CRVCis Kaye 432 — 3. On the fanciful discovery 
of the cross everyAvhere, cf Bhmt First Three Centuries 130, 30 
Right Use 103. 55. Adu. lud. 10 (cl. Kaye 442). lust. Mart. 
Apol. I 55. Minuc. Fel. 29 § 6 cruces etium nec colimus nec 

RELiGiosos Boissier La Relig. Rom. i 429 (inscr.) -i magnae 
Matris. On the worship of the cross La Cerda cites Ambr. 35 
Orat. Funebr. de Obitu Theodosii §§ 45. 46 habeat Helena 
quod legut, unde crucem Domini recognoscat. inuenit ergo titulum, 
regeni adorauit, non lignum utique, quiu hic gentilis est error. 

252 TERTVLLIANI [p. 54 1. 4— 

et uanitas imjnorum. sed adorauit illum qui pependit iu ligno, 
scriptus in titulo. Heathen gave out that Christians worshipped 
all crucified men. Orig. contra Cels. II 47 f. Tert. ad nat. I 
12 pr. sed et qui nos crucis antistites affi^rmat, consacerdos erit 
5 noster. ibid. c. 7 p. 68 1. 11 Wiss. tot cruces diuinitatem con- 
secutae. Pusey p. 37 n. C and append. B pp. 109—116. Pamel. 
Sinker in DCA. under ' cross.' Petron. 126 p. 777 B. Lact. iv 
26 § 29 Blinemann. Arnob. i 36 pr. vii 36. Ehnenhorst on 
Arnob. p. 31. Cyril contr. lul. 1. 6. Athan. Vit. Ant. 74. 75. 

lo CONSECRANEVS also in Capitolin. [See also Thes.] 

p. 54 1. 5 Tert. ad nat. l 12 pr. crucis qualitas signum est 
de ligno ; et eandem materiam colitis jmies uos cum effigie : 
quamquam sicut uestrum humana figura est, ita et nostrum sua 
propria. tiiderint nunc liniamenta, dum una sit qualitas; uiderit 

15 formn, dum ipsuni sit dei corpus. quodsi de hoc differentia in- 
tercedit, quanto distinguitur a crucis stipite Pallas Attica et 
Ceres Pharia, quae sine forma rudi palo et solo staticulo ligni 
informis repraesentatur ? pars crucis, et quidem maior, est 
omve robur cpiod derecta statione defigitur. (See n. on p. 54 

20 1. 9.) 

viDERiT 25 n. 42 n. Adu. Valentin. 9 a. m. De Testim. 
Anim. 1 pr. Adu. Hermog. 1. De Cor. Milit. 13 Oehler. 
De Pallio 6 uiderit nunc philosophia, quid prosit. De Paenit. 
2 p. m. uiderit ergo ingratia hominum, si etiam honis factis 

25 paenitentiam cogit. uiderit et gratia, si captatio eius ad bene- 
facienduni incitamento est, terrena, mortalis utraque. 3 p. m. 
Adu. Marcion. v 10 pr. De Anima 10 pr. uiderint artes et 
disciplinae, uiderint et haereses. De Spectac. 15 pr. crij oyjret, 
Matt. 27 4 (that's your look out). Cic. de nat. Deor. i § 17 n. 

30 III § 9 n. Lucian. Mort. Dial. 3 1 'A/i^tXo;^o9 /xev ovro^ ai> 
elSeiT] 6 TL avTW airoKpLTeov VTrep avTOv, e^yoi he r/pto^i el/xi. 
Contemplantes (Charon) 4 ukovo) Kal TavTa' el Se aXrjdri, crv 
av, '^p/juf], Kal OL TroLrjTal elBeiTjTe. Orig. contr. Cels. VIII 14 
avTQii av elhelr}. ib. 16 p. 388 f. eXcrovTaL. 

35 p. 54 1. 7 STIPITE Adu. ludaeos 10 p. 728 Oehler, nam et in 
antenna nauis, quae crucis pars est, hoc <i.e. cornua> extre- 
mitates huius uocantur, unicornis autem medius stipitis palus. 
PALLAS ATTICA Frazers Pausan. i 26 6 (11 340). 

p. 54 1. 14] APOLOGETICVS 16 253 

p. 54. 1. 8 Lucan iii 412 — 3 simulacraque maesta deorum \ 
arte carent caesisque exstant inforinia truncis. 415 — 6 non 
uulgatis sacrata figuris \ numina sic metuunt. 

p. 54 1. 9 CRVCis. Fanciful analogies in Adu. Marc. iii 18. 
Adu. lud. 10. Ad nat. i 12 p. 82 1. 2 Wiss. (see note on p. 54 5 
1. 5 ; then follows) sed nohis tota crux imputatur, cum antemna 
scilicet sua et cum illo sedilis excessu. hoc quidem uos incusa- 
biliores, qui mutilum et truncum dicastis lignum, quod alii plenum 
et strnctum consecrauerunt. 

p. 54 1. 10 si FORTE Munro on Lucr. v 719. Cic. De Oratore 10 
III § 47 Wilkins. infr. 1. 17 and c. 20 f. 23 p. m. 43 pr. Ad 
Mart. 1 f. 2. Adu. Marcion. iii 24, p. 421 1. 7 Kr. iv 10 bis. 
17 pr. V 10 pr. Adu. Hermog. 36 m. De Cor. Milit. 5, 

p. 54 1. 11 DixiMVS c. 12 pr. 15 

PLASTis Idolol. 3 a.m. Vell. Plin. 

p. 54 1. 12 CRVCE Tert. De Idolol. 12 p. 43 1. 14 Wiss. 
corpus..., quod in modum crucis est. 

viCTORiAS Tert. ad nat. i 12 p. 83 ]. 13 Wiss. con<structio>ne 
quo melius extollant, cruces erunt, intestina quodammodo tro- 20 
paeorum. itaque in Victoriis et cruces colit castrensis religio, si 
signa adorat, signa deierat, signa ipsi loui praefert. Minuc. 29 
§ 7 tropaea uestra uictricia non tantum simplicis crucis faciem, 
uerum et adfixi hominis imitantur. lustin. Apol. i c. 55 p. 90° 
ddXaacra /xev <yap ov refiveTat, rjv fir) tovto t6 TpoiraLOv, 25 
KaXetTac icniov, ev Trj vr]i awov fieivrj. Prudent. contr. Symm. 
i 486 — 8 Christus purpureum gemmanti textus in auro | signahat 
labarum, clipeorum insignia, Christus \ scripserat, ardehat sum- 
mis crux addita cristis. The labarum (Euseb. Vita Const. i 28 
§ 2) aravpov Tpoiraiov, e/c ^(Wtos' avvLaTd/xevov. Cf. 40 § 1. 3° 
Laus Const. 9 § 8. Hist. Eccl. ix 9 § 10. lustin. Apol. i 55 
p. 90''^ (cited on p. 54 1. 16). Heraldus cites los. Antiq. xv 11 
(8 §§ 1, 2) Herod built an amphitheatre at Jerusalem and set 
up trophies which gave great offence. He invited the leaders 
and asked Avhat they supposed them to be. They replied 35 
' images of men.' He ordered the trophies to be stript : iirLSeiK- 
vvaLv avToh ^yvjjbva tcl ^vka. Laughter and tranquillity, 

p. 54 1. 14 SIGNA VENERATVR Blunt Right Use 380. 253. 

254 TERTVLLIANI [p. 54 1. 14— 

Marquardt ii^ 438 n. 6—8. Tert. ad nat. i 12 (see last note). 
De Cor. Milit. 11 med. uexillum quoque portahit aemulum 
Christi ? Dionys. Halicar. VI 45 § 2 d(^icrTavTat twv virdrwv 
apTrdaavTef rd cr?;/txeta* Ti/u,i(OTaTa "ydp 'VcofiaLoi^; tuvt eTrt 
5 (TTpareLa^ Kal uxTTrep ISpvfxara decbv tepa vop.L^ovTai. los. De 
Bell. lud. VI 6 § 1 = (32). Claudian in Rufin. ii 366. Tac. Ann. 
I 39 illic <Plancus> signa et aquilam amplexus religione sese 
tutabatur, ac ni aquilifer Calpurnius uim. extremam arcuisset, 
rarum etiam inter hostes, legatus populi Romani Romanis in 

jto castris sanguine suo altaria deum commaculauisset. ii 17. Hist. 
III 10 f. conuersus ad signa et hellorum deos. Suet. Tib. 48 f. 
munera Syriacis legionihus, quod solae nullam Seiani imaginem 
inter signa coluissent. Calig. 14 f. (of Artabanus) transgressus 
Euphratem aquilas et signa Romana Gaesarumque imagines 

15 adorauit. Cf. Vitell. 2. Lasaulx 225 n. 97. 

IVRAT Liu. XXVI 48 § 12 (b. C. 210) stare hinc legionarios 
milites, hinc classicos, per omnes deos paratos iurare magis quae 
uelint quam quae sciant uera esse, et ohstringere periurio non se 
solum suumque caput, sed signa militaria et aquilas sacra- 

20 mentique religionem. Sen. Ep. 95 § 35. Tac. Ann. xv 16 
adicit iure inrando Paeti cautum apud signa. Cf. Caes. B. G. 
VII 2 § 2. 

OMNIBVS Dis c. 28 f. citius deni(pie apud uos p)er omnes deos, 
quam per unum genium Caesaris peieratur. 

25 p. 54 1. 15 SVGGESTVS Rigalt Gloss. Tert. Adu. Marcion. 11 
22 a. m. iii 2. iv 7 a. m. De Carne Christi 16 a. m. De Cor. 
Milit. 13 Oehler. Ad nat. I 12 f Gothofr. (an exact parallel 
throughout) sed ille imaginum suggestus et totius aiiri cultus 
monilia crucum sunt. De Bapt. 2 med. 3 pr. De Spectac. 

30 7. 12. 

p. 54 1. 16 siPARA Arnob. 11 18. Apul. met. i 8 (-ium) 
X 29 fin. Cf luu. 8 186. So = sails, Tert. Adu. Marcion. iii 18. 
Adu. lud. 10. lustin. Apol. I c. 55 f p. 90'^''^ Kal Ta Tvap vjxlv 
he \hy] ? A. S.] avixjSoXa ttjv tov a)(^)']fMaTO<; tovtov SvvajbLiv 

35 8t]\ol, Xejo) 5e Ta tcov ovi]^iW(ov Kal T(iov TpoTraLcov, 8l cov al 
re irpoaohoL vfxoov Travraxov jivovTaL, t^«? dp^^rj^i Kal Svvd/jLeojf; 
rd arjfiela ev tovtol<; 8eLKvvvTe<;, el kuI fir] voovvTe^ tovto 
TrpdjTeTe. Not known to Saglio. Hier. Ep. 107 (=7 ad Lae- 

p. 54 1. 22] APOLOGETICVS 16 255 

tam) 2 uexilla militum crucis insignia sunt. Tert. ad nat. I 
12 f. sic etiam <in canta>hns atque uexillis, quae non minore 
sanctitate militia custodit, siphara illa nestes crucum sunt. 
eruhescitis, opinor, incultas et nudas cruces colere. So the cross 
in birds. Tert. De Orat. 29 f. sed et aues mane exsurgoites 5 
eriguntur ad caeluni et alarum crucem pro manihus expandunt, 
et dicunt aliquid, quod oratio uideatur. 

CANTABRORVM Minuc. 29 § 7 uos plane, qui ligneos deos 
consecratis, cruces ligneas ut deorum uestrorum partes forsitan 
adoratis. nam et signa ipsa et cantahra et uexilla castrorum lo 
quid aliud quani inauratae cruces sunt et ornatae? Cf. canta- 

p. 54 1. 18 SOLEM ad nat. i 13 pr. alii ^jlcine humanius solem 
Ghristianum deum aestimant, quod innotuerit ad orientis partem 
facere nos precationem, uel die solis laetitiam curare. A prayer 15 
to Sol (lul. Firm. Matern. Math. i 4 § 9) in Lasaulx Studien 

p. 54 1. 19 PERSAS Brisson. De Regno Persarum 1. 2 pr. (op. 
min. 512 sq.). Kaye 116. 384. Orig. contr. Cels. vi 22. vii 65. 

si FORTE p. 54 1. 8 n. 20 

p. 54 1. 21 CLiPEO = sun's disk also in Ou. Of medallions 
also Tac. Suet. in lexx. Migne xc 128'' l^^'*. IRN. 5029. 

p. 54 1. 22 ORiENTis. Newman's Fleury iii 232 (bk 26 
c. 54 n. r.), Kaye 384, Marquardt iii^ 178 n. 7. [lustin.] Quaestt. 
ad Orthodoxos 118 (p. 470«^ 471^^^). Bingham ind. s. v. ' East.' 25 
Kortholt Paganus obtrectator 288 sq. Gass Zeitschr. fur hist. 
Th. (1842) 119 120. Kinnuel(?) Monum. Fidei Eccl. Or. 11 
p. 198. lac. Thomasius De Ritu ueterum Christianorum pre- 
candi uersus Orientem. Lips. 1670, 4to. Lactant. Diu. Instt. 
II 9 § 5 Btinemann oriens Deo accensetur, quia ipse luminis 30 
fons et iUustrator est rerum et quod oriri nos faciat ad uitam 
s&mpiternarn ; occidens auteni conturhatae illi prauaeque menti 
ascHhitur, quod lumen abscondat, quod tenehras semper inducat, 
et quod homines faciat occidere atque interire peccatis. Lord 
King Primitive Church II 18 22 (chiefly from Zech. 6 12 whose 35 
name is avaroXr]). In the renuntiation the baptised turned 
to the W., in confession to the E. lustin. c. Tryph. 106 p. 334 a. 
Gratian Decret. 5 223. Cyril in Bingham xiii 5 7 n. 59 60. 

256 TERTVLLIANI [p. 54 1. 22— 

Bingham xiii 8 15. Origen Hom. 5 in Num. (ii 284). De Orat. 
32 (xvii 289 n. — 291 n. with Ruaeus). La Cerda ad 1. omn. 
Clem. Alex. Strom. Vii 7 § 43 f. p. 856 f. P. Pacat. Paneg. 3 § 2 
(cf Barth in Arntz. p. 162 b) diuinis rehus operantes in eain 
5 caeli plagani ora conuertimus, a qua lucis exordium est. 
Plut. Numa 14 § 6 7r/oo9 eco rajv iepMv jSXeTrovTwv. Marcell. 
6 § 9. Lasaulx Studien 154 n. 95. loan. Damascen. De 
Fide Orthod. iv 13. Pusey h. 1. p. 38 n. k. Verg. Aen. xii 
172 Forbiger. viii 68 Forb. and Gossrau. Ou. Fast. iv 777. 

lo Philo De Vita Contemplatiua 3 (ii 475 M.) hU Be Ka6' eKaaTrjv 
rjfxepav elcodaaiv ev^^eaOai, Td<s re oyjrei^ Kal 6\ov to awfxa Trpo? 
Ti-jv eco aTdvTe<i. Constit. Apost. II 57 Cotelier. VII 28. 44. v 7 
(the Phoenix !). Tac. Hist. Iii 24 f Lucian Necyom. 7. Harnack 
on Herm. Vis. i 4 1 Funk ib. Basil. De Spir. Sancto 27 to Trpo? 

15 dvaTo\d<i TeTpd(f)dai Kard rrjv irpoaev^^^i^v, rrolov eSiSa^ev u/ia? 
ypdfxfia. Brisson. De Formulis l 61. Brouer De Vett. et 
Recentt. Adoratt. c. 20 (Poleni Suppl. Thes. 11 1003. Dict. 
Christ. Antiq. ' East.' Dict. Nat. Biog. ' Asplin, W"'. ' contro- 
versy 1722 — 40 between two Oxford men, Asplin and John 

20 Andrews. J. A. Fabricius Bibliogr. Antiquaria 3rd ed. Ham- 
burg, 1760, p. 361, c. xi 10 p. 506 sq. Aug. De Sermone 
Domini in Monte 11 5 § 18 cum ad orationem stamus, ad 
orientem conuertimur, unde caelum surgit. Sid. Ep. ii 10 § 4 
1. 5 — 7 aedes...ortum prospicit aequi^ioctialem. Mayor on Cic. 

25 De Nat. Deor. i § 79 p. 183. 

p. 54 1. 23 LABIA VIBRATIS. ad nat, l 13 pr. non plerique 
affectatione adorandi aliquando etiam caelestia ad solis initium 
lahia uihratis ? luu. 10 289 n. comm. on Petron. 85. Scriver 
on Mart. xii 90. Ouid Ars Amat. ii 827 nndta uoue sed cuncta 

30 palani. Mithra-worship, lul. Or. 4 et? rov /3aai\ea 7j\iov and 
ind. Hertlein "soL" 

p. 54 1. 24 DiEM soLis ad nat. i 13 pr. De leiun. 15 p, 293 
1. 13 Wiss. duas in anno hehdomadas xerophagiarum nec totaSy 
exceptis scilicet sabhatis et dominicis, offerimus deo. De Cor. 

35 Milit. 3 p. m. die dominico ieiuniuni nefas ducinrus. Philastr. 
Haer. 113 = 112. Binghamxx21. Friedlander i^ 389 2. lustin. 
Apol. I 67 ter. Const. Apost. 11 59. v 20. vii 23. viii 33. Cf. 
Theophil. 11 12 (vvhere Otto cites Grotius De Verit. Rel. Chr. i 

p. 54 1. 28] APOLOGETICVS 16 257 

§ 16 n. Selden De lure Natur. et Gent. iii 13 seq. 21. Philo 
Opp. II p. 137. Euseb. Praep. Euang. xiii 12, Aristobulus in 
Clem. Alex. Strom. v 1-i | 108 Trjv €/3B6/j,7)v iepav ov /jlovov oi 
'E^paioi uWa Kal oi''E\Xr]V€<i taaai). Cf. Schiirer Eng. tr. Il 2, 
p. 83. Barnab. 15 § 9 (with Harnack) ayo/xev ri-jv i)/jiepav Trjv 5 
oyBoTjv eh ev(f>poavvr]v. Kaye 388 n. 2. Brissonius ad 1. 5 
(Cod. Theod. xv 5) dominico, cle spectaculis (Opera minora ed. 
Trekell, Lugd. 1749, pp. 231 sq.). Auson. Idyll. (Eclog. n. 5) = 9 
p. 97 Peiper nomina quae septem uertentihus apta diehus annus 
hahet. Julius Charles Hare " On the Names of the Days of the 10 
Week" (Philolog. Mus. Cambr. 1832 pp. 1—73). Dio xxxvii 
18 n. 

p. 54 1. 25 DIEM SATVRNI ad nat. i 13 f. quare...qui solem et 
diem eius nohis ejprohratis, agnoscite uicinitatem ; non longe a 
Saturno et sahhatis uestris sumus. Aug. Consens. Euangel. i 30 15 
pr. alii dicunt, Saturnus est: credo propter sahhati sanctijica- 
tionem, quia isti eum diem Saturno trihuerunt. Selden De lure 
Nat. et Gent. iil 15 sq. 

p. 54 1. 26 EXORBITANTES ad nat. i 13 p. 84 1. 2 Wiss. quod 
quidem faciti3 exorhitantes et ipsi a uestris ad alienas religiones. 20 
ludaei enini festi sahbata et cena pura, et ludaici ritus liicer- 
naruni et ieiunia cum azymis et orationes litorales, quae utique 
aliena sunt a diis uestris. Friedlander iii^ 628 n. 1. luu. 14 96. 
The word exorhitare 6 n. 20. De Pallio 5. De Praescr. Haer. 
4 pr. fin. 44 f. De Pudic. 8 pr. De Virg. Vel. 8 pr. Adu. Marc. 25 
II 10. III 2 med. Cypr. Ep. 70 § 2. Lactant. Diu. Instt. 11 5 § 12. 
Aug. De Ciu. Dei ix 3. De Corrept. et Grat. 24. Iren. v 20 § 1. 
Koffmane i 96. [Add Sanday, N. T. S. Irenaei, Introd. A. S.] 

p. 54 1. 28 QVIDAM a Jew (ad nat, i 14 pr. : see below). No 
Jewish polemic of this age remaining, but on the Christian side 30 
lustin. c. Tryph., Tert. Adu. lud. (which Semler asserted to be a 
compilation from the books Adu. Marc.) ; Origen (e.g. contr. 
Cels. I 55 pr. p. 42) mentions debates which he held with Jews. 
The Jew in Celsus is a lay figure (Tzschirner 182 sq.). lustin. c, 
Tryph. 17 p. 235 the Jews the authors of libels against 35 
Christians. Tert. ad nat. i 14 p. 84 1. 16 Wiss. et credidit 
uulgus infami ludaeo. quid enim ? aliud genus seminari est 
infamiae nostrae. Orig. c. Cels. vi 27 p. 293 Jews charged 

M. T. 17 

258 TERTVLLIANI [p. 54 1. 28— 

Christians with incest in the dark and with cannibalism. 
Bar-Cochba lustin. Apol i 38. Dio Lxviii 18 § 1 (?), lxix 12 
slaughtered Christians. 

p. 54 1. 30 ovoKotTT]^ ad nat. i 11 f. 14 bis. Minuc. 9. 28. 
5 ASiNiNis Varr. Plin, Fulgent. Mythol. iii 9 aiires. Cass. Fel. 
40 p. 92 lac. Apul. Metam. viii 28 lactem. Renan Antechr. 
p. 40 n. 1. Celsus in Orig. vi 31 (p. 88 n. e Keim) 37 bis 
(6voKe^dXov<;). vii 40 p. 359 ovoeiBtj^; bis. ' Asinarii ' by Hatch 
in Dict. Chr. Antiq. Bernays (Die Gottesfitrchtigen bei Juvenal) 

lo Comm. philol. in honorem Mommseni Berl. 1877 563 — 9 inter- 
prets the Spottcrucifix of a proselyte. (luu. 14 101 n.) Empusa 
(Weizsacker in Roscher ii 1243) ovokcoXt] or 6v6aKe\i<i. His 
worshippers not Christians, but Ophites, Epiphan. Haer. xxvi 
12. Harnack Ueberlieferung u. s. w. i 167. 

15 p. 54 1. 31 VNGVLATVS Minuc. 22 § 5 (Martian. Capella). 

p. 54 1. 32 BiFORME Verg. Ou. Hor. Tac. Serenus c. 23 1 
Mliller. Firmicus Matern. math. vii 7 (Bas. 1551 p. 200 29) 
hiformes hermaphroditique [= ed. Teubn. ii 270 12 A. S.]. 

p. 54 1. 33 CANINO cet. Luc. lupp. Trag. 8 £ 9. Minuc. 28 

2o § 8 de capro enim et homine mixtos et leonum et canum uultus 
deos dedicatis. Ambros. Apolog. David alt. § 30 gentiles, qui 
deos suos (quoniam homines fuisse negare non ^^ossunt) humana 
specie uisos esse testantur, an rex eorum, queui illi suis dis 
omnihus anteponunt, prodigiales formas j^otuit pro amore sus- 

25 cipere? Aug. De Ciu. Dei iv 27 poeticum sane deoruni genus 
cur Scaeuola. respuat, eisdem litteris non tacetur : quia sic 
uidelicet deos deformant, ut nec honis hominihus comparentur, 
cum alium faciunt furari, alium adulterare ; sic item aliquid 
aliter, turpiter atque inepte dicere ac facere...Iouem ipsum 

30 conuerti in houem aut cygnum, ut cum aliqua concumhat. Otto 
on Athenag. 20 p. 20^ n. 21. 

LEONINO De Pall. 4. Arnob. vi 10, Hild. p. 502 and Orelli. 
Varr. Plin. dig. Vitruu. p. 82 26 Rose, capita. Sid. Ep. vii 14. 
Athanas. contra Gentes 9 m. (i 19'''' Migne) XoyiKa yap d\6- 

35 7049 eVt/it^ai^Te^ Kal dvofioia rfj cfivaei eyeipavTe<i, co? 0eov^ 
OprjaKevovaiv oloi etaiv 01 Trap Aiyv7rTioi<i KvvoKecjiaXoi Kal 
6<piOKe^a\oi Kal 6voKe(f)a\oi Kai o Trapa Ai/3vai KpiOKe<^a\o<i 
"Afjb/Jicov. Porphyr. De Abst. IV 9 elKaaTai ydp irap' avTol<i Ti<i 

p. 56 1. 5] APOLOGETICVS 16, 17 259 

/J^i^x^pi rpa^^rfkov avOpwiroethri^i, ro 8e TrpoacoTTOV opveov 7) 
\€ovTo<i, ■)) aWov Ttvo<i ^(pov K€KTTjp,evo'i...60ev Kal \ect)v w? 
Oe6<i dprjaKeveTai, Kal /xepo9 Tt r?;? AlyvTTTOv, KaXovac vop^ov, 
e-TTMvvfMov ex^t AeovT07ro\iTr]v. Orig. c. Cels. VII 40 p. 359 the 
Xecoi', or \eovTO€iBrj<; (bis), not Christians but Ophites. 5 

p. 54 1. 84 CAPRO Theodoret Graec. Affect. Curat. vii § 8 
13. 103 45 sq. 

CORXVTOS cap. 21 p. 68 1. 14. Fulgent. Mytholog. praef. 1 
p. 613 Stav. -us adulter (Jupiter with Europa). Hygin. astr. 
II 20 f bis. Hier. vi 322^ [Add exx. in Thes. A. S.] 10 

A Apul. Mag. c. 4 ab ore honestissimos. 

p. 56 1. 1 HAEC cet. Apul. Apol. c. 3 tamen uel mea causa 
refellenda uidear cuiquam, si quid praeterier^o, id 
agnouisse potius quam contempsisse. Cypr. Ad Demetrian. 2 
tacere ultra non oportet, ne iam non uerecundiae sed diffidentiae ^5 incipiat quod tacemus, et dum criminationes falsas contem- 
nimus refutare, uideamur crimen agnoscere. 

EX ABVNDANTi Oehler on Tert. Ad Scap. 2 p. 540 14 pr. 
Adu. Marc. iii 7 pr. iv 19 m. 38 p. 551 1. 1 Kr. v 4 pr. 9 pr. 
Adu. Prax. 15 m. De Cor. Milit. 7 pr. Ad Vxor. i 8. De Carne 20 
Chr. 2 f 25. Iren. iil 12 § 11. Sen. Benef i 11 | 5. Quintil. 
Archiv fiir lat. Lexik. vil 216 — 7. [See Thes.] e/c Treptoucrta? 
H. St. Thes. (= ex superfluo Iren. [ii xxiii i A. S.]. Hier. Ep. 84 
§ 11 f 89 f Adu. louin. i 28 pr. (?). Coram. in Amos vi 315^). 

p. 56 1. 2 IRREPERCVSSVM also in lul. in Aug. c. sec. resp. 25 
lul. II § 98. Cf supr. 15 f repercussis. 

p. 56 1. 4 REPVRGABIMVS the simple purgo (factum, crimen, 
se). Gell. X 19 § 3 peccatum suum...purgatum ihat. Cf ex- 

Cap. XVII 

Ch. 17—23. Cf De Praescrip. Haeret. 13. 30 

p. 56 1. 5 QVOD coLiMvs, DEvs vxvs EST Lucian Antioch. 
ap. Rufin. Euseb. Hist. Eccl. ix 6 in occulto non est quod nos 
Christiani quem colimus, Deus unus est. Bingham xiii 3 1. 
Hennecke Aristid. ind. p. 52 col. 2 (^eo? b). Harnack on Hermas 
Mandat. i § 1. 35 


260 TERTVLLIANI [p. 56 1. 5— 

1. 5 seq. c. 21 iaiti ediximus demn uiiiuersitatem hanc mundi 
uerbo et ratione et uirtute nos etiam sermoni atque 
rationi itemque uirtuti, per quae omnia molitum deum ediximuSy 
propriam substantiam spiritum inscribimus, cui et sermo insit 
5 pronuntianti et ratio adsit disponenti et uirtus praesit praeficienti. 
Minuc. 18 § 7 cum palam sit parentem omnium Deum nec 
principium habere nec terminum : qui natiuitatem omnibus 
praestet, sibi perpetuitatem ; qui ante munduni fuerit sibi ipse 
pro mundo ; qui uniuersa, quaecumque sunt, uerbo iubet, ratione 

lo dispensat, uiiiute consummat. hic nec uideri potest; uisu clarior 
est ; nec comprehendi. Tzschirner 325 seq. Christians no 
atheists because (lustin. Apol. i 16) they worship a Creator. 
Esp. Athenag. c. 4 p. 5 b God and matter distinct : the reign of 
law proves a providence. 

15 p. 56 1. 9 INVLSIBILIS cet. Athenag. 10 p. 10 b uopaTov,... 
aKaTa\,7}7rrov, ...a,)(^o)p7]Tov. Tatian 4 p. 6 c, d a6par6<i re kul 
dva(f)7']<i. The whole passage identical with Minuc. 18. 
Hennecke Aristid. ind. p. 53 col. 1 f. and 2 pr. [adu. Val. 7. 
Nouat. trin. 31 pr, A. S.]. 

20 p. 56 1. 10 iNCOxMPREHENSiBiLis Athanasian creed (Bailey 
Rituale Anglocath. 48 seq.). Iren. II 18 2. iv 19 2. [Niceta de 
symb. 2 A. S.] Aug. Serm. 384 de Trin. (v 1485 bis). 

p. 56 1. 11 INAESTIMABILIS Minuc. 18 § 8 nec aestimari 
[potest^, sensibus maior est, infinitus, imniensus, et soli sibi tantus 

25 quantus est notus : nobis uero ad intellectum pectus angustum est 
et ideo sic eum digne aestiniamus, duni inaestimabilem dicimus. 
[Study of Ambst. p. 111 A. S.] 

p. 56 1. 16 CAPIT= evhexerat Tert. De Idolol. 10. De Fuga 
in Persec. 1 p. m. Oehler. De Cultu Fem. I 2 p. m. haec non 

30 capit aestimare. De Carn. Res. 26 fin. Adu. Haer. 44 £ Adu. 
Marc. I 6 p. 298 1. 10 Kr. 11 9 p. 346 1. 7 Kr. iii 6 p. 385 1. 20 
Kr. 13 f= Adu. lud. 9 [references here wrong] iv 5 p. 431 1. 8 
Kr. Adu. Prax. 7 p. m. Bapt. 15. Ad nat. il 3 p. 98 1. 13 Wiss. 
De Monogam. 2 pr. 15 m. Vulg. Luc. 13 33. Ronsch Ital. 351. 

35 Gaudent. Tr. 9 (in Migne xx). Iren. ir28 4. iii 11 8. [cet. See 
N. T. S. Irenaei ehap. i. sect. C. A. S.] [See also Thes. p. 333. 

p. 56 1. 18 Adu. Marc. v 16 p. 630 1. 19 Kr. creatori autem 

p. 56 1. 22] APOLOGETICVS 17 261 

etiam. naturalis agnitio dehetiir,ex operibus intellegendo et exinde 
in plenioreni notitiam requirendo. illius est ergo etiam igno- 
rantes deum ptlsctere, queni non liceat ignorari. De Paenit. 5 
etiam ignorantes dominum nulla exceptio tueatur a poena {quia 
deum in aperto constitutum et uel ex ipsis caelestihus bonis 5 
comprehensibilem ignorare non licet), quanto cognituni despici 
penculosum est. Cf. De Anima 2. 6. Cypr. Idol. Van. 5 § 9 
haec est sunima delicti, nolle agnoscere quem ignorare non possis. 
Minuc. 17 § 3 nos, quihus...serm.o et ratio, per quae deum 
agnoscimus, sentimus, imitamur, ignorare nec fas nec licet 10 
ingerentem sese oculis nostris caelesteni claritatem. Lact. Diu. 
Instt. II 1 § 6 quam sibi ueniam sperare possint impietatis suae ? 
qui non agnoscunt cultum eius, quem prorsus ignorari ah homine 
fas non est. 

p. 56 1. 19 EX OPERIBVS Wetst. on Rom. i 20. Athenag. 15 
4 p. 5". Lact. Diii. Instt. i 2 § 5 from Cic. Nat. Deor. 11 § 4. 
Minuc. 17 § 4. C£ 18 § 11. Greg. Naz. Or. 28 c. 16. 28—80. 

p. 56 1. 21 ANiMAE.,.TESTiMONio Test. Anim. 2. ad Scap. 
2 pr. (cited on p. 56 1. 27). De Spectac. 2 p. 2 1. 22 Wiss. 
nemo negat, quia nemo ignorat, quod ultro natura suggerit, deum 20 
esse uniuersitatis conditorem. Atnob. Ii 3 da uerum iudicium, et 
haec omnia circunispiciens quae uidemus magis an sint di ceteri 
dubitahit quam in deo cunctahitur, quem esse omnes naturaliter 
scimus, siue cum exclamamus ' deus ' siue cum illum testem 
[deuni] constituimus improborum et quasi nos cernat faciem sub- 25 
leuamus ad caelura. Adu. Marc. I 10 p. 303 1. 6 Kr. denique 
niaior popularitas generis humani, ne nominis quidem Moysei 
compotes, neduni instrumenti, deum Moysei tamen norunt ; etiam 
tantam idololatria dominationem obumhrante,seorsum tanien illuni 
quasi proprio noniine ' deuni ' perhihent et ' deum deorum' et ' si 30 
deus dederit ' et ' quod deo placet ' et ' deo comviendo.' lustin. 
Apol. II 6 ^€09 Trpoaayopevfxa ovk ovo^d iarLv, dWa TrpajfMaTo^i 
8v(T€^r)y7]TOV 'e[X(pvTo<; Trj (^vaei toov dvOpcoTrcov 86^a (pr. 44*^). 
Christianity as old as creation, Aug. in Lasaulx Studien 85. 
Orig. contr. Cels. I § 4. 35 

p. 56 1. 22 CARCERE CORPORIS Cic. Paulin. NoL Ep. 32 6 v. 3 
libera coyyoreo mens carcere. Carm. Xl 57 solutus corporali 
carcere. Senec. Ben. iii 20 1 corpora ohnoxia sunt et adscnpta 

262 TERTVLLIANl [p. 56 1. 22— 

dominis : niens quidem siti iuris, qiiae adeo libera et uaga est, ut 
ne ab hoc quidem carcere, cui inclusa est, teneri queat. Prudent. 
Cath. 10 22. loseph. De Bell. lud. ii 8 11 pr. (Essenes) The 
world a prison, Tert. ad Mart. 2. 
5 p. 56 1. 24 EVIGORATA : pall. 4. 


p. 56 1. 25 RESiPisciT Ter. Afran. Cic. Liu. Prop. Plin. h. n. 
Tac. Suet. Apul. Metam. viii 31. Ambr. De Elia et ieiunio 
§45 f. (of Polemo) certe ille si resipuit a uino,fuit tamen seniper 

lo temulentus sacrilegio. Sid. Ep. ix 6 m. 

p. 56 1. 26 PATITVR De Spect. 15 p. 17 1. 9 Wiss. nemo ad 
uolicptatem uenit sine affectu, nemo affectum sine casibus suis 
patitur. De Anima 9 p. 310 1. 19 Wiss. est hodie soror apud 
nos reuelationum charismata sortita, quas in ecclesia inter 

15 dominica sollemnia per ecstasin in spiritu patitur. 

p. 56 1. 27 DEVS BONVS ad Scap. 2 pr. nos unum deum 
colimus, quem omnes naturaliter nostis, ad cuius fulgui^a et 
tonitrua contremiscitis, ad cuius beneficia gaudetis. De Carn. 
Resur. 3 pr. quaedam enim et natura nota sunt, ut immortalitas 

20 animae penes plures, ut deus noster penes omnes...utar et con- 
scientia populi contestantis deum deorum ; utar et reliquis 
communibus sensibus,qui deuni iudicem praedicant : ' deus uidet' 
et ' deo commendo.' De Anima 2 p. 300 1. 24 Wiss. sed et natura 
pleraque suggeruntur quasi ae publico sensu, quo animam deus 

25 dotare dignatus est. ib. 41 p. 368 1. 30 Wiss. sic et diuinitas 
animae in praesagia erumpit ex bono priore, et conscientia dei in 
testinionium prodit: ' deus bonus' et ' deus uidet,' et ' deo com- 
mendo.' Adu. Marc. I 10 fin. habet deus testimonia ; totum hoc 
quod sumus et in quo sunius. De Testim. Anim. 2 pr. dic testi- 

30 monium, si ita scis. nam te quoque palam et tota libertate, qua 
non licet nobis, donii ac foris audimus ita pronuntiare, ' quod 
deus dederit,' et ' si deus uoluerit.' . . .de natura quoque dei quem 
praedicamus, nec te latet: ' deus bonus,' ' deus benefacit,' tua uox 
est. De Cor. IVIilit. 6 pr. quaeris igitur dei legeni ? Jiabes com- 

35 inunem istam in publico nmndi, in naturalihus tabulis, ad quas 

et apostolus solet p^rouocare ipsum deum secundum naturam 

prius nouimus, sed deum appellantes deorum, bonum praesumentes 
et iudicem inuocantes. Pusey p. 40 n. Z. Kaye 164 — 170. 308. 

p. 56 1. 31] APOLOGETICVS 17 263 

Blunt Riofht Use 593. Minuc. 18 ^ 11 (luid quod omnium de 
isto Jiabeo conaensutn. audio uulgus, cuni ad caelum manus 
tendunt, niliil aliud quam Deum dicunt et Deus magnus est 
et Deus uerus est et si Deus dederit (rji> ^eo? Trapaayri 
Herodot. avv Oew Aristoph. Soph. [add ovic avev Ocmv tcvo^. 5 
A. S.]. iav ^eo? iee\r) Plat. Alcib. 1 ad fin. [1 Cor. 4 19, 
James 4 15. A. S.]. Xenoph. Cyrop. iv 2 § 13. Aristoph. 
Plut. 114). uul(/i iste naturalis sermo est an Christiani confi- 
tentis oratio ? Neander Antignost. and Ch. Hist. Arnob. ii 3 
(cited on p. 56 I. 21). Cypr. De Idol. Van. 5 § 8. 6. Lact. Diu. 10 
Instt. II 1 § 7 nam cum iurant et cum optant et cum gratias 
agunt, non louem aut deos inultos, sed deum nominant: adeo 
ipsa ueritas cogente natura etiani ab inuitis pectoribus erumpit. 

p. 56 1. 28 CONTESTATVR c. 44 p. 124 1. 15. 

p. oQ 1. 29 DEVS viDET De Testim. Anim. 2 p. 137 1. 8 Wiss. 15 
hinc ergo tibi, aninui, de conscientia suppetit domi ac foris, nullo 
irridente uel prohibente praedicare, ' deus uidet omnia' et ' deo 
commendo' et ' deus reddet' et ' deus inter nos iudicabit' tinde 
tibi hoc non Christianae? Plaut. Captiu. 310 Br. est profecto 
deus, qui quae nos gerinius auditque et uidet. Hier. in Malachi 20 
II 13 seq. (VI 967^* Ven. 1768) of the law written in the heart : 
haec...impellit etiani incredulos dicere Deus iudicet et Deus 
uideat. [Hier.] Breuiar. in Ps. xcv (vii (2) Ven. 1769 col. 
356 pr.) denique gentiles idola colunt, hoc est, lapides et ligna 
uenerantur : et si forte rixairi fecerint et si iuramentum aliquod 25 
inter illos uenerit, non dicunt ' lapides isti uident,' ' ligna uident ' ; 
sed ' deus uidet' et ' deus audit.' 

In the De Testim. Anim. 5 p. 141 1. 24 Wiss. cap. 19 of Apol. 
is cited (' ut loco suo edocuiinus.') [No reference in Wissowa. 
A. S.] Cf De Carne Chr. 12 p. m. plenius haec prosequitur 30 
libellus, queni scripsiinus de testimonio aniniae. Lasaulx 85 
n. 41. 

p. 56 1. 31 AD CAELVM infr. cap. 30 p. 96 1. 21. Arnob. ii 
3 a. m. qaasi nos cernat facieni subleuamus ad caeluni. Cic. De 
Nat. Deor. 11 § 4 Mayor. Lact. Diu. Instt. i 2 § 5. . 35 

264 TERTVLLTANI [p. 58 1. 1- 


p. 58 1. 1 iMPRESSivs De Carn. Chr. 20 a. m. hoc quidem 
impressnis, quod factum dicit, quam natum, shnplicius enim 
enuntiasset natuni. (Ib. 12 a. m. cited in lexx. some read 
pressius.) Oehler (p. 133^ on Apol. c. 5 f. inpressit) cites the 
5 positive from De Exhort. Cast. 3 pr. Adu. Marc. iii 8 p. 389 
1. 24 Kr. : cited in material sense frora Cael. Aurelian. 

p. 58 I. 2 INSTRVMENTVM c. 21 pr. p. 66 1. 13 n. c. 47 
p. 132 1. 31. c. 31 p. 98 1. 12 inspice dei uoces, litteras nostras, 
qiias neqiie ipsi supprimimus et plerique casus ad extraneos 

lo transferunt. 

p. 58 1. 5 A PRiMORDio antiquity. c. 19 pr. 46 f 47 pr. 
Character of the prophets, Orig. Contr. Cels. vii 18 p. 336. 
Philo Quis Rer. Diu. Her. 52 §§ 258 ff. (iii p. 59 Cohn and 
Wendland). Theophil. ii 9 p. 87'^ lustin. Dial. c. 7 p. 2^^^^. 

15 Semisch; Justin Martyr Book iv c. 3 Art. 3. 

p. 58 1. 6 IXVXDATOS Cypr. ad Donat. 5 quantuni illuc fidei 
capacis adferimvs, tantum gratiae inundantis haurimus. In- 
spiration, Tzschirner 103 sq. loseph. Contr. Apion. i 8. Philo 
De Monarchia i § 9 (i 222 M.). De Praemiis et Poenis cc. 9. 10 

2o§§55ff. (iip. 417'm.). [lustin.] Cohort. ad Gr. 8 p. 9^ Athenag. 
7 p. 8^ 9 p. 9*^ (Maximus). Clem. Al. Protrept. p. 53 Col. Cypr. 
testim. adu. lud. praef. p. 36 1. 22 H. calls the Bible diuinae 
plenitudinis fontes. Novatian De Trin. c. 29. Origen Philocal. 
c. 1 pp. 7 ff. Rob. proves inspiration from the divinity of Chrisfs 

25 teaching and the enthusiasm which we experience from Bible 

p. 58 1. 8 PROMETHEVS Adu. Marc. i 1 p. 291 1. 21 Ivr. 
uerus Prometheus deus omnijjotens. De Carn. Chr. 9 pr. ipsum 
certe corpus hoc nostrum, quod de limo fir/ulatum est, etiam ad 

sofahulas nationum ueritas transmisit, utriusque orirfinem elementi 
confitetur, carne terram, sanguine aquam. luu. 4 133 n. 14 35 n. 
Lasaulx Studien 332. 

p. 58 1. 10 IVDICANTIS Woodham compares Cypr. De Vnit. 
Eccl. 18 f in conspectu statim domini iudicantis extincti sunt. 

35 PER IMBRES PER IGNES 2 Pet. 2. 5 6. Cf luu. 11 63 n. 
Euseb. Praep. Eu. X 9 § 9 p. 484*^ 'yi^/verai, yap /xera KeKpoTra 

p. 58 1. 19] APOLOGETTCVS 18 265 

KaTo. AevKaXifova KaraK\va/j,o<i Kal ?; eVi ^aidovTO<i €K7rvpci)crL<;. 
Cf. § 21 p. 486^ 

p. 58 1. 13 PRODACTO 48 p. m. Hieron. vii 755°. Pacian. 
ep. I 15. 

De Anim. 33 fin. deus itaque iudicabit plenius, quia extremius, 5 
per sententiam aeternam tam supplicii quam refrigerii. 

p. 58 1. 15 REFORMATIS c. 48 p. 136 1. 12 quis in quam 
hestiam reformari uideretur. Prudent. Perist. VI 94 — 6 non 
est, credite, poena, quam uidetis, \ qiiae puncto tenui citata 
transit: \ nec uitam rapit illa sed reformat. Often in Apul. lo 

p. 58 1. 16 DISPVNCTIONEM infra c. 19. Fuld. p. 62 1. 8. • 
De Anima 33 p. 358 1. 9 Wiss. 

p. 58 1. 17 RisiMvs c. 19 Fuld. p. 62 1. 12 c. 47 £ p. 134 1. 17 
itaque et ridemur deum praedicantes iudicaturum. 

DE VESTRis cet. Minuc. 28 § 1 quam autem iniquum sit 15 
incognitis et inexploratis iudicare, quod facitis, nobis ipsis 
paenitentihus credite ; et nos enim idem fuimus et eadem uohis- 
cum quondam adhuc caeci et hehetes sentiehamus. Sen. De Ira 
II 10 § 6 non irascetur sapiens peccayitibus. quare? quia scit 
neminem nasci sapientem sed fieri. Kaye 11 n. 6 cites other 20 
proofs that T. was once a heathen. 

FIVNT as catechumens (audientes) De Paenit. 6. Cf Kaye 
240 sq. De Testim. An. 1 p. 135 1. 28 Wiss. non es, quod sciam, 
Christiana; fieri enim non nasci solet Christiana. [Ps. Aug. 
Quaest. 81. A. S.J Hier. Ep. 60 (= 3) 8 ah eo tempore censemur, 25 
ex quo in Christo renascimur. 107 (= 7) 1 fiunt non nascuntur 
Christiani. Aug. De Peccator. Meritis ill 9 § 17 if you say that 
of men cleansed from sin sinless children should be born, cur 
non adtenditis eo modo uobis posse dici, de Christianis parentibus 
Christianos nasci filios debuisse ? cur ergo eos Christianos fieri 30 
dehere censetis? 

p. 58 1. 18 PRAEDICATORES Adu. Valent. 5 fin. Adu. Marc. 
V 15 p 627 1. 12 Kr. Cypr. p. 791 23. Vulg. Sulp. Seu. 
[and in a host of other authors. I have 6 exx. from Aug. 
Cf Sanday N. T. S. Irenaei. A. S.] 35 

p. 58 1. 19 PRAEFANDI c. 14 p. 48 ]. 29. 

VIRTVTES lustin. Dial. c. Tryph. p. 225 Bid Ta? hvvdfxei<;, a? 
iirereXovv, TriareveaOai ZiKaiot rjaav, = miracles. Tert. Adu. 

266 TEETVLLIANI [p. 58 1. 19— 

Marc. II 27 p. 374 1. 5 Kr. miscente in semet ipso hominem et deum, 
in uirtutihus deuui, in pusiUitatibus homineru. iii 3 p. 379 1. 24 
Kr. 8 p. 389 1. 16 Kr. 16 p. 403 1. 15 Kr. angelum quidem eum dixit 
oh magnitudinem uirtutum, quas erat editurus. Lact. Diu. Instt. 
5 IV 3 § 17 Btinem. 15 § 6. vii 17 § 2. Eugipp. Ep. ad Paschasium 
,§§ 5. 6. Clem. Recogn. i 6. Aug. De Trin. i § 22. Iren. ii 32 
§ 5. V 17 § 2. Oros. vii 4 § 5. Hier. Didym. Spir. S. 9 44. 
Druthm. in Matth. c. 14 = Migne cvi 1323^ Koffmane i 

lo p. 58 1. 21 Ptolemy II Phil. (283—247 b.c). Cf. Schtirer ii 
697—701, esp. 698 n. 2 p. 704 Susemihl Gesch. der griech. Lit. 
in der Alexandrinerzeit l 138 — 9, ii 604 seq. On the zeal of 
Euergetes Susemihl ii 667. Ritschl Opusc. i 13 sq. Philarchus 
(Mliller Fragm. Hist. Gr. i 345 in Athen. 536®) calls the second 

15 Ptolemy TratSeia? €l riva koI aX\oi> Kal avTov eTrL/xeXrjdevTa. 
Strabo 789 f calls him (pLXLaTopciov. los. Antiq. praef § 3 evpov 
TOLvvv OTt HToXe/jLatcov fJLev 6 hevTepo<;, /jLuXiaTa Srj ^aaL\ev<i 
irepl TraiSeLav, Kal ^lJBXlwv avvaywjrjv airovZaaa'^ e^aipeT(i)<^ 

e(f)L\0TL/jL>]67] TOV t)/XeTepOV v6/JL0V Kal T7]V KaT aVTOV OLdTa^LV 

20 T?}? TToXiTeia^i ei? tt/v 'EA.X,aSa ^(ovr/v /leTa^aXelv cet. (Eleazar 
sent Pentateuch only). Euseb. Praep. Eu. viii 1 § 5 — c. 5, 
loseph. Contr. Apion. 11 4. Philo Vit. Mosis 11 5 — 7 (11 138 sq. 
M.). Aug. De Ciu. Dei xviii 42 43. 

p. 58 1. 22 SVPERNOMINO in this sense (3nly here ; ' to name 
25 after,' Aug. [rather Exod. 20 24 ap. Aug. A. S.] in Georges. 

LITTERATVRAE c. 47 pr. De Testim. Anim. 1 p. 135 1. 11 

Wiss. 5 p. 141, 1. 10 Wiss. De Idolol. 15 p. 48 1. 6 Wiss. Ad 

nat. I 10 p. 78 1. 22 Wiss. ii 2 p. 95 1. 20 Wiss. 12 p. 120 1. 11 

Wiss. Wolfflin in Rhein. Mus. 1882 p. 91. Paucker Supplem. 

30 Lex. I 455 — 6 (earlier : alphabet ; scholarship cet.). 

STVDIO Ritschl. I 19 n*. Strabo 608 f o 'yovv 'ApiaT0Te\7]<i 
Tr]v eavTov < ^i^\lo6j]K7]v > ®€0(f)pciaT(p Trapeh(i)K€v, ^vre/? KaL 
TT/t' cr^oX?;^ aTTeXLire, 7rp(OTO<;, cov l'a/iev, avvaycfyoov /3L^\La 
Kal SiSa^a? tou? ev Al-yinrTcp ^aai\ea<i avvTa^iv. 
35 p. 58 1. 23 BiBLiOTHECARVM Suscmihl I 337 n. 39 — 344. 

PISISTRATVM Ritschl Opusc. I 6 31 — 60 (die Sammlung der 
Homerischen Gedichte) 205 seq. 

p. 58 1. 24 MEMORIARVM c. 19 p. 62 1. 25. Minuc. 7 § 2. 

p. 58 1. 33] APOLOGETICVS 18 267 

16 § 6. 31 § 2. Cypr. ad Demetrian. 17 p. 863 8 ut memorias 
taceamits antiquas. Oudend. on Caes. Bel. Gal. i 13 f. 

p. 58 1. 25 SVGGESTV c. 33 f. suggeHtur enim ei a tergo. 

DEMETRi PHALEREI c. 19 p. 64 1. 13. Aristobul. in Euseb. 
Praep. Eu. XIII 12 § 1, Cf. § 2 ?} Se o\r] ep/xr]veia r(Zv Sta tov 5 
vofxou TrdvTcov eVt tov TrpoaayopevOevTO^i ^iXaSeXcjiov /3acrtA-e&)>>, 
aov 8e TTpoyovov, TrpoaeveyKa/jiii/ov fjbei^ova (^iXoTifjnav, ArjfiJ]- 
Tplov rov 'i>a\i]peo)<i Trpay/jbarevaa/jbivov ra irepl rovroiv. 
Ritschl Opusc. Phil. I 15. Cf. p. 5 f 28. 30 (foreign books 
translated c£ Susemihl l 344 n. 86). Susemihl i 138 6 n. 18 sq. lo 
Hier. Ep. 34 1 heatus Pamphilus martyr,...cum Demetrium 
Phalereum et Pisistratum in sacrae hihliothecae studio uellet 

p. 58 1. 27 VERNACVLAS c. 19 p. 64 1. 15 losephus antiquita- 
tum I udaicarum uernacidus uindex. 15 

p. 58 1. 28 O.T. [lustin.] Coh. 9 p. 9^ 35 p. 32^'. Uial. c. 
Tryph. 7 p. 224*1. Tatian 29 p. 165^ Athenag. 9 p. 9*» 10*1 
7 p. 8^ 24 p. 2r\ Theophil. 11 34 p. IIO^ 

p. 58 1. 30 RETRO Cic. Hor. inscr. Apol. c. 1 p. 4 1. 7. De 
Spect. 9 pr. Oehler. De Idolol. 3 pr. 15 p. 47 1. 18 Wiss. De 20 
Orat. 1 p. 180 1. 8 Wiss. Adu. Valentin. 7 bis (p. 184 1. 11 Kr. 
p. 185 1. 10 Kr.). Adu. Hermog. 23 p. 151 1. 23 Kr. 29 p. 158 
1. 9 Kr. 40 p. 170 1. 1 Kr. 44 p. 174 1. 4 Kr. Cf. retrosior c. 19 
p. 64 1. 3. 

HEBRAEI...IVDAEI Zahn Forschungen v 232. 25 

p. 58 1. 32 PTOLOMAEO Philad. and the library and the rivalry 
with Eumenes. Plin. Nat. Hist. xiii § 70 mox aemulatione 
circa hyhliothecas regum Ptolemaei et Eumenis, suhprimente 
chartas Ptoleniaeo idem Vain^o memhranas Pergami tradit 
repertas. Clinton Fast. Hell. iii 384 — 6. 30 

SVBSCRIPTVM c. 6 p. 20 1, 30. Tert. in lexx. 

SEPTVAGINTA. On the Lxx [lustin.] Cohort. ad Gr. 13 pp. 13 
14 had seen the cells in which the translators worked, and 
heard in Alexandria of their miraculous agreement. Apol. i 31 
p. 12'' he sent to Herod 1 Clem. Alex. Strom. i pp. 288 342 ed. 35 
Col. (Tzschirner 111—3). 

p. 58 1. 33 MENEDEMVS cir. 352 — 278 B.c. Diog. Laert. 11 
125 seq. Zeller ii^ (1) 237 sq. ' Was Jos. Ant. xii 2 § 12 und 

268 TERTVLLIANI [p. 58 1. 33— 

nach ihm Tert. Apol. 18 iiber Menedemiis und seinen Vor- 
sehungsglauben sagen, stammt aus dem Aristeasbuch (los. ii 
App. p. 121 Hav.) und ist natiirlich geschichtlich so werthlos, 
wie die ganze Aristeasfabel ' (Zeller iii (2)^ 267—270). 
5 p. 60 1. 1 SVSPEXIT c. 32. Minuc. 16 § 5. Plin. Ep. iii 3 
§ 1 n. Sen. Ep. 14 § 10 non viinus contemni quani susjjici nocet 
18 I 8. Ad Marc. 10 § 2. Ad Helu. 11 § 5 Nat. Qu. iv praef. 
§ 10 (cf § 11 mirari). I praef § 5. Hor. 

p. 60 1. 2 ARISTEAS. Aristeae ad Philocratem epistula cum 
lo ceteris de origine uersionis LXX interpretum testimoniis Ludo- 
uici Mendelssohn schedis usus edidit Paulus Wendland. Leipz. 
Teubner. 1900 pp. xxxii 229. 8vo. H. B. Swete, An Introduction 
to the O.T. in Greek. With an appendix containing the letter 
of Aristeas edited by H. St John Thackeray, pp. 499 — 574. 
15 Cambr. Univ. Press 1900 pp. xi 592 8vo. 7/6 (Theolog. Litera- 
turber. XX, 1901 pp. 78—80). lustin. Apol. i 38. Clem. Alex. 
Strom. I pp. 288 342. The letter of A. in loseph. Ant. ii 12 
and Euseb. Praep. Eu. Vlll 2 sq. pp. 350 sq. IX 1 — 37 p. 370 sq. 
(otficer of the bodyguard of Ptol. Philad.). Cf Mendelssohn 
2o in Rhein. Mus. xxx 631 — 2. First doubted by Lud. Vives on 
Aug. Ciu. Dei xvill 42. Even Ussher and Is. Voss upheld it, but 
Humphry Hody de bibliorum textibus originalibus uersionibus 
Gr. et Lat. uulgata libri iv (Oxf 1705 fol.) disproved it. See 
Selwyn in Dict. Bible s.v. Septuagint. Fritzsche in Herzog- 
25 Plitt Real-Encykl. i 280 sq. Susemihl Gesch. d. griech. Lit. 
in der Alexandrinerzeit ii (Teubner 1892) c. 38 die jtidisch- 
hellenistische Litt. 602—622. Schiirer ii^ 819—824 (Arist.) 
and 697 — 726 (Greek Bible). Harnack Gesch. der altchristk 
Lit. I (1893) 863. 
30 p. 60 1. 3 EX APERTO Sen. n. q. iii 30 § 5. iv praef § 5. Liu. 
SERAPEVM De Spectac. 8 p. 10 1. 18 Wiss. ad nat. 1 10 p. 76 
1. 23 Wiss. Surpassed only by the Roman Capitol, Ammian. 
xxil 16 §§ 12 — 13 in quo duo hyhliothecae fuerunt inaestimahiles: 
et loquitar mo7imnentorum neterum concinens fides septingenta 
35 uoluminum milia, Ptolomaeis regihus vigiliis intentis conjiosita, 
hello Alexandrino, duni diripitur ciuitas, siih dictatore Gaesare 
conflagrasse. Destroyed by order of Theodosius and a Christian 
temple reared on the site, Hier. Ep. 107 (7) § 2 iani Aegyptius 

p. 60 1. 8] APOLOGETICVS 18, 19 2G9 

Serapis factus est Christianus. On the two libraries Susemihl l 
335—344. Clinton Fasti Rom. a 389 390 (destroyed 390, for 
Ammian in that year speaks of it as still standing, loc. cit.). 

p. GO 1. 4 BYBLIOTHECAE Daremberg and Saglio s.v. Pauly- 
Wissowa Real-Encycl. ' Bibliotheken.' Smith Dict.-Ant. ind. 5 
Gell. and Scr. Hist. Aug. Vitruu. Plin. Ep. iii 7 § 8 n. p. 123. 
Marquardt Privatleben l 113. Still extant in Hebrew in 
Egypt, lustin. Apol. i 31 p. 72''. los. Antiq. xii 2 § 1 sq. 

p. 60 1. 5 LECTITANT [lustin.] Cohort. ad Gr. p. 14. Divine 
Providence, by making Jews the guardians of Scripture, frees 10 
us from the suspicion of interpolation. Cf Aug. in Ps. 40 14 
the Jews are our capsarii, so to say, studentibus nohis codices 

VECTiGALis De Fug. in Persec. 13 f nescio dolenduvi an 
eruhescendum sit, cum in matricihiis heneficiariorum et curio- 15 
sorum, inter tabernarios et lanios et fures balnearum et aleones 
et lenones, Christiani quoque uectigales continentur. ib. 12 prope 
fin. stipendiariae sectae. Ambr. Off. Iil § 134 non uectigalis 
amicitia est. Schtirer ii^ 207 n. 108. 109. iii' 75 n. 63. 94 n. 15. 

Cap. XIX 

p. 60 1. 8 IXSTRVMENTIS c. 18 pr. 21 pr. n. p. 66 I. 13 46 f. 20 
47 pr. De Pudic. 12 pr. de apostolico -0. De Monogam. 4 pr. 
euoluamus communia -a scripturarum pristinarum. 7 ad uetera 
transeamus -a legaliuni scripturarum (argument from antiquity 
4. 7). 

antiqvitas c. 46 pr. 47. ad nat. i 11 the heathen too have 25 
forsaken their fathers' ways. Rufin. Hist. Eccl. i 1 pr. and f 
Arnob. 11 66. 69. Ambr. in Ps. 118 s. 2 § 5. Otto de lustini 
scriptis et doctrina p. 105 seq. Theophil. ad Autol. 11 30. 
III 20 seq. Lact. Diu. Instt. i 23. ii 6 § 7. iv 5. Clem. Alex. 
Strom. I 15 § 72. 21 § 101. [lustin.] Coh. ad Gr. 9 p. 9, CoL— 13 30 
p. 14. Tzschirner 99 seq. lustin. Apol. i 57 Moses older than 
any Greek writer. Tatian c. 31 p. 166^^ sq. col. 36 — 41 p. 171 sq. 
Orig. contra Cels. i § 14, Keim 15. 26. iv 11 p. 167. This 
argument not in Minuc. or Arnob. See Arnob. i 57 does 
antiquity guard from error ; may not falsehoods have been 35 

270 TERTVLLIANI [p. 60 1. 8— 

circulated 10,000 years ago ? Do not things which happened 
in 011 r neighbourhood deserve more credit, are they not freer 
from fabulous admixture, than what is wrapt in the darkness 
of antiquity ? 72. ii 66. 71 religion to be judged by its intrinsic 
5 worth, not by its duration. c. 57 antiquity no safeguard against 
error, rather teems with fables. c. 66 better evidence for modern 
times. ibid. progress and growth is from lower to higher, from 
acorns to wheat, from skins to cloth. c. 69 — 70 everything, all 
sciences, your religion, has had a beginning. c. 72 non ergo 

lo quod sequimur, nouum est ; sed nos sero addidicimus, quidnam 
sequi oporteat et colere. Theophilus iii 1. 4. 16. 29 ov 7rp6a(f)aTo<; 
6 Xoyo^;, ib. 26. 28. This chapter is referred to in De Testim. 
Anira. 5 prope fin. cited on p. 274 1. 15. Euseb. Hist. Eccl. i c. 2 
c. 4 § 5 sq. c. 5 § 1. Tac. Hist. v 5 pr. hi ritus, quoquo modo 

15 inducti, antiquitate defenduntur. Theodoret Graec. Affect. Cur. 
II §§ 43 — 50 pp. 28 29 he calls Moses the ocean of theology, 
e^ ovTrep Trdvre^ TTOTafxoi Kai iraaa OdXaaaa. Prudent. Perist. 
X 411. 583. 613. 621. Confutation of the heathen argument 
from antiquity (Tzschirner 399) Minuc. 20 (Scylla, Chimaera, 

2oCentaurs). lustin. Apol. i 23 p. 68^ 44 p. 81^ 59 p. 92"^. 
Dial. c. Tryph. 7 p. 224«^. Clem. Alex. Strom. i § 72. § 101. 
Euseb. Praep. Eu. i 2 p. 5. 5 p. 16. X 9 p. 483 sq. Hist. Eccl. 
I 2 § 1. Cyril. adu. lul. i 1 (vi p. 739 14). Philastr. Haer. 
109. Greek philosoph}^ new [lustin.] Coh. ad Graec. 12 p. 12^ 

25 Euseb. Praep. Eu. x 14 p. 502 sq. 

p. 60 1. 12 CONDITIONEM c. 48 p. 138 1. 19 conditionis (qu. 
condicionis) tuae legem. De Spectac. 2 p. 4 1. 6 Wiss. quando 
haec sit tota ratio damnationis peruersa administratio conditionis 
a conditis. Adu. Hermog. 11 p. 138 1. 15 Kr. 25 p. 153 1. 21 Kr. 

30 De Cor. Mil. 6 bis. De Hab. Muliebr. (= De Cult. Fem. i 8 f ) 
dei conditio est et tus et meruni et ignis. Adu. Marc. iv 30 
pr. V 12 p. 617 1. 12 Kr. Iren. iii 11 § 1. iv 6 § 6. 7 § 4. 
19 § 2. 22 § 1. 24 § 1. 32 § 1. 33 § 2. 15. v 1 § 1. 12 § 2. 18 saepe. 
19 § 1. 22 § 2. 23 § 2 ter. 29 § 1. 32 § 1. 36 § 1. Thomae Thes. 

35 p. 48. Hieron. vii 548. 578 fin. 626 fin. sq. Phoebad. c. Arian. 
1 praef Oros. vii 20 p. 514 annus millesimus a conditione 
Romae. c£ vii 43 p. 586 fin. Hier. Ep. 140 2 and 3 and 6 
(col. lO^S''. lO^^^'^-^^). 

p. 60 1. 27] APOLOGETICVS 19 271 

PVLLVLATIONEM Riddle-White only Prise. add Cypr. p. 352 
16. Aug. contr. lulian. II 105. Hier. Orig. in Ezech. 11 5. 
[Rufin.] in Amos i (c. 4, v. 7 8). raetaph. Praedestinat. II 
(Migne liii 626^). 

p. 60 1. 18 CATACLYSMI c. 40 p. 116 1. 27 n. 5 

p. 60 1. 14 Iliad l 70 (Kalchas) o<? p rjSrj rd r iovra tu t 
ia-aofieva irpo t eovTa. Apollo in Ou. Metam. I 517 per me 
quod eritque fuitque estque patet. Proteus Verg. Georg. iv 392 
nouit namque omnia uates, quae sint, quae fuerint, quae mox 
uentura trahantur. Suid. s.u. rpcTrov^. Clem. Hom. II 6 § 12. lo 
III 11 § 12. VIII 10. Iren. iv 38 § 1 (of the Spirit) ah initio in 
uniuersis dispositionihus dei adfuit hominihus et futura annun- 
tiauit et praesentia ostendit et praeterita enarrat. 

p. 60 1. 16 SVPPVTATIONEM Paucker Add. Lex. Lat. i 104. 
Hier. Ep. 14 § 7. in eccl. (?) p. 395. in Tit. iii 9. Macrob. Sat. i 15 
16 § 42. Bonif. p. 319 m. Vulg. Sulp. Seu. Chron. i 29 9. 
Cassian. Coll. vii 3 (in Vitr. only a conj.). Aug. De Ciu. Dei 
xviii 36. [See N. T. S. Irenaei introd. A. S.] 

p. 60 1. 17 Joshua died in the reign of Danaus, Aug. De 
Ciu. Dei XVIII 11 fin. los. Contr. Apion. l 16 proves from 20 
Manetho (c. 14. 15) that the so-called shepherds, our ancestors, 
left Egypt and settled in this land 393 years beforg the arrival 
of Danaus at Argos : the Exodus about 1000 years'before the 
Trojan war. 

p. 60 1. 18 PROELio war. lustin. Vopisc. Frontin. in Georges. 25 
Aurel. Vict. Caes. 26 1. Hier. Quaest. Hebr. in Gen. 10 2. Am- 
pelius 14 5. Chronogr. 354. Momms. p. 644 11. 

p. 60 1. 20 THALLi Theophil. p. 139^ Lact. Diu. Instt. I 
22 § 2. 

p. 60 1. 25 ALIQVANTVLO Aurel. Victor Rufin. Hist. Mon. i 30 
col. 402<^ M. Clem. Recogn. praef. [See Thes. A. S.] 

p. 60 1. 26 LATORIBVS LEGis Cic. Macrob. sat. iii 17 § 13, 
legislator [Ps. Aug. Quaest. 115 § 1. A. S.]. Paulin. Nol. Ep. 23 
15. loseph. Ant. p. 2 (1524) quater. p. 3 pr. bis. i 23 p. m. p. 22. 
Clem. Recogn. i 21 f iii 61. x 47 f : on legislatio (Vulg. Rufin. 35 
Orig. Princ. iv 1 15 cet.) cf De Vit. 

p. 60 1. 27 THALES Plut. Phic. Phil. I 3 ea\rj<;...8oK€l 8e 6 
avTjp ovTo<i ap^ai ttj^ <f)i\oao(f>La<i. [lustin.] Coh. ad Gr. 3 

272 TERTVLLIANI [p. 60 1. 27— 

(p. 4^^) 6 irpwTO^ Tri<; cf)V(TiKf]<; <^L\oao^ia<; ap^a<i, Cic Nat. 
Deor. I § 25 IVi. Milesius, qid jyriiuus de talihus rebus quaesiuit. 

p. 60 1. 29 SOLON luu. 10 274—5. Lasaulx Studien p. 487 
n. 137. Magirus Polymnemon (?) s.v. beatus n. 5 — 7. [lustin.] 
5 Coh. ad Gr. 14 p. 15^ 

p. 62 1. 3 AFFECTATio c. 46 p. 128 1. 23 mimice ji^iil-osoj^thi 
affectant ueritatem et affectando corrumpant. 

c. 47 p. 132 1. 9 homines gloriae, ut diximus, et eloquentiae 
solius libidinosi, siquid in sanctis offenderunt digestis, exinde 
lo regestum pro instituto curiositatis ad propria uerterunt. De 
Anim. 1 p. 299 1. 10 Wiss. philosophus gloriae aninial. De 
leiun. 17 p. 297 1. 5 Wiss. merito homines solius animae et 
carnis spiritalia recusatis. De Bapt. 8 (of the dove) animal 
simplicitatis et innocentiae. l)e Fug. in Pers. 13 p. m. mani- 
15 monae hominibus. Apul. Apol. 523 (defended by Oud. ii p. 556). 
Plin. Hist. Nat. xxx 2, 6 § 18 Apion grammaticae artis 

p. 62 1. 5 from this point cf c. 20. 
p. 62 1. 6 CONSISTEREM c. 4 pr. {al. concurram) 46 pr. 
20 p. 62 1. 9 DispvNCTio c. 18 p. 58 1. 15 (cf. c. 44 p. 124 1. 16 n.). 
De Test. An. 4 pr. adfirmamus te manere post uitae dispunctio- 
neni. De Anim. 33 f. beiie philosophi docetis utiliter suadetis 
leuiora post mortem supplicia uel praeniia, cum, si quod iudicium 
animas manet, grauius debeat credi in dispunctione uitae, quani 
25 m administratione. Sen. Breu. Vit. 7 § 7 dispunge, inquani, et 
recense uitae tuae dies: uidetis paucos admodum et reiculos apud 
te resedisse. 

p. 62 1. 10 DISPOSITIONES c. 30 pr. sciunt quis illis dederit 
30 p. 62 1. 14 PRAESVMPTIONEM c. 49 pr. haec sunt quae in nobis 
solis praesumptiones uocantur. ihid.falsa. nunc sint quae tuemur, 
et merito praesumptiones, attamen necessaria. c. 25 pr. Adu. 
Marc. V 9 p. 601 1. 13 Kr. Adu. Valent. 4 p. 181 11. 3 and 18 Kr. 
De Anim. 32 pr. hic dimicemus necesse est aduersus portento- 
35 siorem praesumptionem. Hier. Ep. 108 26 a me ipso, id est a 
praesumptione, pessimo praecepto7'e. Aug. De Trin. 11 1. Arabr. 
Fid. Res. 27. Hexaem, v 32. Apul. Metam. ix 14 f. Clem. 
Recogn. i 15 pr. 

p. 62 1. 28] APOLOGETICVS 19 273 

IDONEA EST...FVTVRORVM c. 20 p. 66 1. 3. Aclu. Illd. 8 
prope pr. [lustin.] Coh. ad Gr. 37. 38 p. 87^ Procop. Bell. 
Goth. I 14. lustin. Apol. i 52 p. 87^ 33 p. 74«. Dial. c. Tryph. 
84 p. 810''. 

p. 62 1. 17 VNVM EST TEMPVS c. 20 p. 66 1. 7. 5 

p. 62 1. 20 siBYLLAM. Passages from Clem. Alex. in Le 
Nourry ap. Sprengerthes (?) iii 172 sq. e.g. p. 761 (Strom. vi 
§ 43 pr.). First cited (among Christians) by Hermas vis. ii 4 § 1 
(see Harnack pp. 24—5). Tert. ad nat. ii 12 p. 120 1. 10 Wiss. 
Blunt Early Fathers 60 — 63. Orig. contr. Cels. v 61 f. elTre Se lo 
TLi'a<; elvac kuI ^i/3vWiaTd<i' Ta^a TrapaKovcra^ TCvSiv ejKa- 
\ovvTOiv TOL<i olojjLevoi<; 7rpo(f}i]TLv lye^yovevat tijv ^L/3vX\.av Kai 
—L^vWiaTa<i T0L/9 ToiovTov<i KaXecrdvTcov. VII 53. 56. Keim 
p. 115 n. 4. Cf. n. xix 284 — 5 Lomm. Lact. Diu. Instt. i 6 
§1 7 £f. 15 I 15. IV 15 I 26 his testimoniis quidam reuicti solent 15 
eo confugere, ut aiant, non esse illa carmina Sihyllina, sed a 
nostris conjicta atque composita. [Numerous references in 
Brandt and Laubmann's index, pp. 348 f. A.S.] Aug. De Ciu. 
Dei XVIII 47 f. sed quaecumque aliorum proplietiae de dei per 
I. C. gratia proferuntur possunt |j»toW a Christianis esse con- 20 
fctae. ideo nihil est firmius ad conuincendos quoslibet alienos, 
si de hac re contenderint, nostrosque faciendos, si recte sapuerint, 
quanL ut diuimi praedicta de Christo ea proferantur, quae in 
ludaeorum codicihus scripta sunt. 23. Last ed. ed. lohannes 
Geffcken, Leipzig 1902. Schiirer 11- 790 fF. Klausen Aeneas u. die 25 
Penaten (1839) 203—312. Alexandre Orac. Sib. 1856 11 1—101. 
Lticke Einleitung in die Offenbarung 2 ed. pp. 81 sq. Opso- 
poeus (1599) 56 — 143. Susemihl Gesch. der griech. Litt. in d. 
Alexandrinerzeit 11 635 — 642. Lardner Credibility pt 2 c. 29 
n. 2 (II 333—346 ed. 1829). Semisch lust. Mart. i 224 30 
244. II 208. Coh. ad Gr. 37 p. 34^= sq.— 36^ 38 p. 36 37. 15 
p. 15^. Apol. I 20 p. 55. 14 p. 70. 

p. 62 1. 23 DEI VESTRI c. 29. 

p. 62 1. 26 MEMORIARVM c. 18 p. 58 1. 23. 

p. 62 1. 28 DEOS. Moses 604 years before the apotheosis 0^35 
Dionysos, which was 63 years before Herakles and the Argo- 
nauts ; from the rule in Argos to the apotheosis of Herakles 
and Asklepios 308 years ; from that to the apotheosis of 

M. T. 18 

274 TERTVLLIANI [p. 62 1. 28— 

Kastor and Polydeukes 53 years. (Clem. Alex. Strom. i 21 
§ 105 pp. 381—2 P.) 
p. 62 1. 29 c. 47. 
p. 62 1. 80 THESAVRVS' 47 pr. 
5 p. 62 1. 31 SACRAMENTI Kaye 337. 

NOSTRI [lustin.] Coh. ad Gr. 13 fin. p. 14'^^ 
p. 62 1. 32 MOYSEN c. 45 p. 126 1. 11. Moses earliest prophet. 
lustin. Apol. I 31 p. 73^ 32 p. 73^ 59 p. 92^ Coh. ad Gr. 
9 — 13 p. 9°. 10 p. ll^ the story of Otos and Ephialtes from the 

10 tower of Babel [lustin.] Coh. ad Gr. 28 p. 28^^ replied to by 
Julian ap. Cyr. 135^^^ age of M. set forth by heathen Cohort. 9. 
9^ lO'''^. Plato learnt M. in Egypt 20 p. 18*^ )( Julian 49^ Coh. 
c. 9 p. 9^ c. 11 p. ll^ c. 12 p. 12° sq. c. 35 p. 32'. c. 38 p. 36*^ 
)( Julian 253^ Plato again Coh. 25 p. 24^ 25 p. 23*^ sq. 27 

15 p. 25^ Tert. I)e Test. An. 5 p. 141 1. 21 Wiss. at enim cum 
diuinae scripturae, quae penes nos uel ludaeos sunt, in quorum. 
oleastro insiti smnus, multo saecularihus litteris, quarum uel 
modica tantum aetate aliqua, antecedant, id, loco suo (h. 1.) 
edocuimus ad fidem earum demonstrandam ; et si haec eloquia 

20 de litteris usvrpauit anima, utique de nostris credendum erit, 
non de uestris ; quia potiora sunt ad instruendam animam 
priora, quam postera, quae et i^Jsa a prioribus instrui sustine- 
bant, cet. Clem. Alex. Protrept. p. 50 Colon. 01 '^(^prfafiol 
OefxeXcovai rrjv aXrfOeiav. lustin. Martyr Apol. I 44 p. 81® 

25 n. 8 Otto. Coh. ad Gent. 8 (c. Tryph. 7 p. 224>'^ CoL), Tatian 
(29 p. 165^ Col.) and Theophilus (i 14 pr. p. 78 Col.) owed 
their conversion to the O.T. Cf. below c. 47 pr. adhuc 
enim mihi proficit antiquitas praestructa diuinae litteraturae, 
quo facile credatur thesaurum eam fiiisse posteriori cuique 

30 sapientiae. et si non onus iam uoluminis temperarem, etiam 
excurrerem in hanc quoque prohationem. quis poetarum, quis 
sophistarum, qui non de prophetarum fonte potauerit? inde 
igitur philosophi sitim ingenii sui rigauerunt ; nam quia quae- 
dam de nostris habent, ea propter nos comparant illis. Cf c. 46 fin. 

35 Celsus (i § 21 Keim) makes Moses borrow from Egypt. Tert. 

De Anim. 28 p. 346 1. 28 Wiss. Orig. contr. Cels. iv 11 ovk 

eireaTrfcre Trj M<wLi(re&)9 dp^^^atoTrjTi, laTopovfievov viro tlvwv 

EX\.r]viKwv crvyypacfiecov KaTO. tov(; ')(^p6vov<i 'ye^yovevai 'Ii^a^Of 

p. 64 1. 4] APOLOGETICVS 19 275 

ToO fi>opcoveco^. 12. 21. 36. vii 28. 30. 59. vi 7. 43, M. older than 
Pherecydes, Heraclitus, Homer, later than Job. Date of Moses 
Euseb. Praep. Eu. x 8 § 18 p. ^^^''(Greeks the borrowers). c. 9 
§ 1 p. 483^, many wrote of the antiquity of Moses and succeed- 
ing prophets. § 8 p. ^S^*". ib. § 10 484^*, Moses contemporary 5 
Avith Kekrops. § 9 p. 484^", after Kekrops the rape of Proser- 
pine and Europa, the birth of Apollo cet. c. 9 § 11. 12 Porphyry 
from Sanchoniathon, comments by Euseb. §§ 13 — 25 (§ 18 
Inachus 150 years later than Moses). Inachus, contemporary of 
Moses (Apion in lul. Africanus ap. Euseb. Praep. Eu. X 10 § 16 10 
p. 490''). Ptolemy, a priest of Mendes, agrees, Africanus ib. § 1 3 
p. 493'» and Tatian (38 [59] p. 171") ibid. § 18 p. 494^ Aug. 
Ciu. Dei xviii 3 (11 260 6 D.), Inachus contemporary with 
Isaac. ib. c. 37 tit. quod prophetica auctoritas omni origine 
gentilis philosophiae inueniatur antiquior. 15 

p. 62 1. 33 DANAVM p. 60 1. 17 n. 

p. 64 1. 2 Qvos SEQVAR Theopompus Fr. 221*^ (i 315 Mtiller) 
in Clem. Alex. Strom. i p. 389 (in his PhiHppica book 43) dates 
Homer 500 years after the Trojan war. Christianity as old as 
creation, Euseb. Hist. Eccl. i 4. Yit. Constant. ii 57. lustin. 20 
Apol. I 69. [cf n. on c. 17 p. 56 1. 21. A. S.] 

p. 64 11. 2 K Euseb. Praep. Eu. x 4 § 11 the latest Jewish 
prophets more than 600 years later than the Trojan war, and 
not less than 1500 years later than Moses. Orig. contr. Cels. 
VI 7 pr. Moses and the prophets before not Plato only, but 25 

p. 64 1. 3 POSTVMAXT only twice. 

EXTREMissiMi Neue-Wagener Formenlehre 11* 243 — 4 
earliest ex. postremissimus, C. Gracchus; commonest proxiniior 
Sen. cet. extremior Tert. De Anim. 33 p. 358 11. 10 — 11 Wiss. 30 
bis. Apul. Aug. Salu. injiniior. intimius. nouissintior Perpet. et 
Felicit. praef. 1. optimissimus. summior. 

RETROSIORES aTra^ elp. : in local sense posit. in Plin. and 
Apul. Neue-Wagener ii^ 748 (omits iusum). 

p. 64 1. 4 LEGiFERis Prudent. in lexx. Paulin. Nol. and 35 
Alcim. Auit. in Faber. Lact. Diu. Inst. iv 17 § 7 denuntiauit 
scilicet dominus per ipsum legiferum. Apul. Metam. x 33 quale 
autem et illud iudicium apud legiferos Athenienses, catos illos et 


276 TEETVLLIANI [p. 64 1. 4— 

omnis scientiae magistros ? g\. 6eaixo<^6po<i legifer. Solon, [lustin.] 
Coh. ad Gr. 14 p. 15^ 

p. 64 1. 7 DiGiTORVM cf. ' digit.' Cerda h. 1. Tert. De Idolol. 
9 fin. (of the numeri of astrologers) non potest regna caelorum 
5 sperare cuius digitus aut radius abutitur caelo. Plin. Ep. ii 20 
§ 3 quo die, qua hora nata esset, interrogauit. ubi audiit, com- 
ponit uultum, intendit oculos, mouet labra, agitat digitos, computat. 
luu. X 249 iam dextra computat annos. Sen. De Ira iii 83 § 3. 
Plut. II 78 F (Anacharsis) = Ath. p. 159. Lucian Timon (of 
lo Phitus) 13 p. 122 avv€cnraKQ)<i Toi/? SaKTv\ov<i Trpa to edo<i 
Twv avX\oyL(T/uLcov. Anthol. Palat. XI 289 4. Gow History of 
Greek Mathematics 6 7 9—12 13 24—27 39 40. 

p. 64 \. 9 AKCHIVA V. 1. in c. 21 p. 72 1. 9. Cf Rufin. Hist. 
Eccl. V 18 p. 292. I 15 p. 49. 
15 p. 64 1. 10 MVNiciPES later com- so conciuis. 

ALIQVI c. 11 f p. 42 1. 20 aliquem de sapientia Socraten. 
c. 50 p. 142 1. 30 n. aliqua Garthaginis conditrix. Cf Grotius 
De Yerit. Rel. Chr. iii 16 pp. 150—1. 

p. 64 1. 11 MANETHON Bockh M. und die Hundsternperiode 
20 in A. Schmidt Zeitschrift f Geschichtswiss. 11 385 sq. 592 sq. 
Berl. 184.5 (v in Works ? ). C. Mtiller Fr. Hist. Gr. 11 

511 — 616 and Syncelkis p. 16*^, =p. 29 ed. Bonn. 

BEROSVS Muller Fr. 11 495—510. Cf. A. v. Gutschmid Rhein. 
Mus. VIII 252 — 7. 
25 HIEROMVS correspondence between Suron [= Hiram] of 
Phoenicia and Solomon, about the building of the temple, 
Eupolemos in C. Muller Fr. iii 207 sq. fr. Euseb. Praep. Eu. 
IX 31—34. Clem. Alex. Strom. i 21 § 130. Chron. Pasch. i 
168 Dind. 2 Chron. 2 2—15. 1 Kings 5 15—25. Schurer 
30 II 732—4. Susemihl 11 648 — 51. los. Contr. Ap. i 17 corre- 
spondence between Solomon and Hieram still at Tyre. 

p. 64 1. 13 PTOLEMAEVS Schurer 11 780 : cited by Tatian 38. 
[lustin.] Cohort. ad Graecos 9 and Clem. Alex. Strom. i 21 § 101. 
Euseb. Praep. Eu. x 11 p. 493*^. 12 p. 497^: of Mendes, priest, 
35 author of a history of Egypt. 

MENANDER C. Muller Fragm. iv 445 — 7. Susemihl i 636 
' acts of Greek and barbarian kings.' 

DEMETRivs c. 18 p. 58 1. 24. C. Muller Fragm. ii 362—369. 

p. 64 1. 21] APOLOGETICVS 19 277 

Clinton Fast. Hell. iii 478 sq. losephus c. Ap. i 23 also cited 
Dem. Phaler. as speaking of the antiquity of the Jews. ' uerum 
nulliis dubito, quin Demetrius ille sit non Pkalereus, sed Demetrius 
is qui ludaeorum historiam scripsit, Ptolemaeo IV uel V 
coaeuus ' (Clem. Alex. Strom. i § 141 p. 403 P.). Clem. there 5 
cites Dem. iv tm irepl rwv iv rrj 'lofSata /BaaiXeoiv. A Jew 
Schiirer ii- 730 — 2. omn. Susemihl i 486 n. 145. 

p. 64 1. 14 IVBA C. Muller Fragm. Gr. iii 465—484. Clinton 
Fast. Hell. iii- 578 sq. Schtirer i 375—6 (ob. a.d. 23). Susemihl 
II 402 — 14 and ind, 10 

APION C. Muller III 506—516. Schiirer Ii^ 777—781. 
Lightfoot Dict. Chr. Biog. i 128—130. 

THALLVS c. 10 p. 38 1. 1. C. Miiller Fragm: lii in title 
only (between Hermogenes and Memnon), but does not occur 
p. 524 — 5; also before Memnon in title of book Vii p. 329, 15 
comes out of his place between Apion and Pamphila pp. 517 — 
519. Josephus does not name Thallus as a writer, but Antiq. 
xviii 6 § 4 a Samaritan freedman of Tiberius, who lent Agrippa 
100 myriads. 

p. 64 1. 15 VERNACVLVS c. 18 p. 58 1. 26 proprias atque 20 
uernaculas litteras. c. 25 p. 86 1. 31 uiderit Cyhele, si urbem 
Romanam ut memoriam Troiani generis adamauit, uernaculi 
sui scilicet. c. 35 p. 102 1. 33 ipsos Quirites, ipsam uernaculam 
septem collium plebem. Apul. Apol. 18 pr. paupertas olim 
j)hilosophiae uernacula. Hence Paula and Eustochium to Mar- 25 
cella (Hier. Ep. 46 = 17 c. 4 losephum, qui uernaculus scriptor 
est ludaeorum), so also Hier. (viii 649 ed, Ven. 1769), i.e. Euseb. 
Chron. A.D. 33 losephus etiam u. I. s. 

p. 64 ]. 16 CENSVALES Symm, Ep, iv 8 § 3 and Relat. 23 2. 
46 2 officium. CIL ii 4248 tabularii. Cod. Theod. xi 28 12, 30 
XIV 1 § 1. 9 § 1. [Seeck] in Pauly [-Wissowa iii 1911—1914. 
A.S.] Tert. Adu. Marc. iv 7 p. 435 1. 12 Kr, de censu denique 
Augusti, quem testem fidelissimum Dominicae natiuitatis Po- 
mana archiua custodiunt. 

p. 64 1. 17 CONCATENATIO Aug. Cael.-Aurel. Cassiod. [See 35 
also Thes, A. S.] 

p. 64 1. 21 DIFFERRE cf. c. 20 p. 64 1. 23, 

278 TERTVLLIANI [p. 64 1. 23— 

Cap. XX 
p. 64 1. 23 DiLATioxE cf. c. 19 p. 64 1. 21. 

p. 64 1. 24 VETVSTATE cf. c. 19. 
p. 64 1. 26 SAECVLVM c. 41. 

p. 64 1. 27 viDETVR De Spect. 25 (cf Ou. Ars Am. i 99 
5 spectatum cet.) nenio denique in spectaculo ineundo prius cogitat, 
nisi uideri et uidere. Cic. Acad. ii § 81 ^jisces illos qui neque 
uidentur a nobis. Sen. Nat. Quaest. i 5 § 11. Ep. 94 § 56. 

p. 64 1. 28 EXTERNA and interna not acc. as Oehler. On 
earthquakes cet. infr. c. 40 Hiera, Anaphe, Delos cet. De Pallio 
lo 2 (pp. 921—3 Oehler). 

p. 64 1. 29 DiLANiANT Hier. Ep. 57 13 inter muliercularum 
radios et textrina dilanior. 

COMPVLSO another ex. in Apul. uvvapaTTw. a-vvcodco gl. 
The subst. -atio infr. 21. 38. [See also Thes. A. S.] 
15 On the decline of Rome Woodham compares Tac. Hist. i 2, 
Sall. Cat. 2. 10, and generally Is. 40 4, Ezek. 5 17. 21 31. 
Matt. 24 6—7. 

p. 64 1. 30 LOCALES lexx. cite Tert. Amm. Charis. Cf. Tert. 
De Carn. Res. 21 p. 54 1. 14 Kr. Adu. Hermog. 41 bis. p. 171 
20 11. 14. 18 Kr. [Iren. see N. T. S. Irenaei Introd. A. S.] Firmilian 
in Cypr. p. 817 3. Aug. Ep. 120 § 10. Fulgent. c. Fabian. fr. 29 
[localia 'localities' Firm. Math. iii 8 s. 1 p. 68 11 Bas. 1551 
[now emended in ed. Kroll and Skutsch, 1897. A.S.].] Cassian 
Coll. iii 7 § 7. xviii 16 § 2 cet. Cass. Fel. 3 12. 10 14. 
25 63 8 cet. 

p. 64 1. 32 MVTANTVR De Paenit. 6 a. m. qms enim seriius, 
postquam lihertate mutatus est,furta sua et fugas sihi imputat? 
RARESCIT generally ' becomes rarified,' ' depopulated.' As 
here Lact. Diu. Instt. vil 15 § 8 ita iustitia rarescet, ita im- 
30 pietas et auaritia crehrescent. Clement. Recogn. iv 30 f. religio 
Dei . . .rarescere inter homines atque aboleri propemodum coepit 
(here LS. better than RW., from Georges). Paulin. Nol. c. 18 
407 noctis et extremae fuga rarescentihus astris. 

p. 64 1. 33 INCREBRESCO on increbesco Bucheler in Jahrbb. 
35 1873 113 sq. 

p. 66 1. 3] APOLOGETICVS 20 279 

p. 64 1. 34 OFFiciA TEMPORVM De Patientia 2 p. 2 1. 21 Kr. 
De Pall. 2 pr. quippe si mundus ex diuersis substantiis offi,ciisque 
constahit. [Ps.-Aug. Quaest. 28, 2, see my index. A.S.] uitae 
(functions) Apul. Metam. ii 29 Price (p. 129). spiritus ib. i 16. 
manus non iam pedes sunt, sed in erecta porriguntur officia 5 
[whence ?]. Hermes xxv 130 p. m. uentris. Theod. Prisc. 11 18 
§ 52 (p. 152 1. 22 ed. Rose) uentris officium inoffense procuraho. 
Ter. (1). Lucr. (1). 

MVNIA Cic. Caes. Bell. Gall. vi 18 § 3 cet. Sall. Liu. Tac. 
Apul. Metam. viii 7 ohiens . . .uiuentium -ia. Paulin. Nol. Ep. 10 
18 7 pr. muniis. 

EXORBITANT c. 6 pr. c. 9 p. 34 1. 6. c. 16 p. 54 1. 24. De 
Pall. 5. De Praescr. Haer. 4. De Pudic. 8 (not classical). 
Cf. orhita cidpae luu. 14 37. exorhitatio cited by Oehler De 
Idolol. 8 should be 14 p. 91 1. 1 Oehler (p. 45 1. 22 Wiss.). 15 

p. 66 1. 1 NATVRALIVM var. lect. 1 fin. naturalia mali. 
Adu. Marc. iv 1 p. 425 1. 24 Kr. -ia creatoris. i 22 (5 exx. 
e.g. naturalihus suis fungi p. 319 1. 13 Kr.). i 13 p. 307 1. 18 
Kr. ad interpretationem -ium refugit. Iren. iv 13 § 1 naturalia 
legis. 20 

p. 66 1. 2 PROVIDENTER (Cic. Sall. Plin. iun.) comparative 
De Fug. in Persec. 13 £ posit. Prudent. Peristeph. x 19. Lact. 
Diu. In. III 17 § 18. VI 15 § 2. De Ira 10 § 85. 

p. 66 1. 3 TESTIMONIVM...DIVINITATIS c. 22 fin. of demons : 
dispositiones etiam dei et tunc prophetis contionantihus exceperunt 25 
et nunc lectionihus resonantihus carpunt. ita et hinc sumentes 
quasdam temporum sortes aemulantur diuinitatem, dum fu- 
rantur diuinationem. Arnobius alone, of the early apologists, 
neglects the argument from prophecy. lustin. Apol. i c. 37 of 
prophecy : rjTrep jjbeyiarri Kal aXrjOecTTdTr} d7r68ei^i<; Kal vfilv, 30 
(o? vofxi(^ofj,ev, (f)av7]aerai. For Justin cf Tzschirner pp. 130 — 3, 
134 — 7. Cj^prian, Quod idola di non sint 7. Origen very often, 
e.g. contr. Cels. i c. 54 pp. 41 — 2. ii c. 28 p. 78. iii cc. 1 — 3 
pp. 112—3. c. 27 p. 127. So Theophilus 11 cc. 9. 10 p. 88. 
lustin. Dial. c. Tryph. 7 p. 224'\ Tatian c. 29 p. 165, Theo- 35 
philus I 14 (19) p. 78'^ owed their conversion to prophecy. 
Christian Sibyllines and Testam. Xii Patriarch. (Tzschirner 

280 TERTVLLIANI [p. 66 1. 4— 

p. 66 1. 4 DIVINATIONIS cf. De Anima 28 pr. midto antiquior 
Moyses etiam Satarno nongentis circiter annis,nedum pronepoti- 
bus eius, certe diuinior midto, qui decursus generis humani ah 
exordio mundi quoque jier singulas natiuitates nominatim tempo- 
5 ratimque digessit, satis prohans [prohatus Wiss. A.S.] diuinita- 
tem operis ex diuinatione uocis. Cf. Orig. contr. Cels. vi 10 
p. 281 f. t6 yap '^(apaKTTjpL^ov Trjv deoTtjTa t} wepi ^eSXovTwv 
icTTiv aTrayyeXia, ov KaT dvOpcoTrivrjv (pvaiv Xeyofievwv Kal Tat? 
€K/3dcreai Kpivo/jLevcov otl Oelov Trveufia rjv to TavTa aTrayyeWov. 

lo Semisch i 264 cites Plat. Men. c. 41. Cic. De Diuinat. i c. 52 sq. 
Sen. Suas. 4. los. Antiq. xi 1 § 1. xiii 10 § 7. xv 10 § 5. 
Clem. Alex. Strom. i § 181. Hil. De Trin. i 9. Lact. Diu. Instt. 
VII 8 § 10 uerum nohis diuinatione opus non est, quihus ueritatem 
diuinitas ipsa patefecit. 

15 p. 66 11. 4 — 6 Same argument in Barnab. Ep. i § 7 where 

Harnack cites lustin. Apol. i 52 p. 87^. Theophil. i 14 p. 78''. 

II 9 f 33 p. 109''. Iren. iv 33 § 1. Hippol. De Chr. et Antichr. 2. 

p. 66 1. 7 VNVM TEMP^s supr. c. 19 Fuld. p. 62 1. 16 n. Cypr, 

De Mortalit. 2 fiunt ecce quae dicta sunt et quando fiunt quae 

20 ante praedicta sunt, sequentur et quaecumque promissa sunt. 
lustin. Apol. I 52 p. 87^^ eTretSr) tolvvv to, yev6p,eva i]8r) irdvTa 
d7ro8eiKvv/j,ev Trplv 77 yeveaOai 7rpoKeKr]pv-)(^6ai Sia TOiv Trpocf))/- 
Twv, avdyKrj Kal irepl tmv 6p.0iw; 7rpo(f)y]TevdevTcov, /xeWovTcov 
Be yeveadai, TTiaTiv e^^^eiv 00? TrdvTO)^ yevr/aoixevcov. Orig. contr. 

25 Cels. IV 21 f • 

p. 66 1. 8 si FORTE Ad. Mart. 1 f. [cf above 16 m. n. A. S.]. 
p. 66 1. 9 EXPVNGITVR cc. 2. 15. 21 a. m. 35 Oehler. Adu. 
Marc. III 24 p. 419 1. 28 Kr. iv 34 p. 537 1. 14 Kr. v 7 p. 596 
1. 22 Kr. De Idolol. 1 pr. 13 p. 44 1. 26 Wiss. Scorpiac. 10 

30 Oehler (p. 169 1. 19 Wiss.). De Cor. Milit. 1 pr. Pers. 2 13 
proxinius expungam. schol. tractum a militihus, qui eapuncti 
dicuntur dum foras a militia emittuntur. Dirksen Manuale. 
p. 66 1. 10 DEPVTATVR ' is reckoned of future present, and 
then of present past.' 

35 p. 66 1. 11 ORO vos infra c. 47 f De Carn. Christ. 2 m. ex 
qua, oro te, auctoritate? 19 f oro uos, si dei spiritus non de 
uulua carnem participaturus descendit in uuluam, cur descendit 
in uuluam ? Cic. in lexx. 

p. 66 1. 15] APOLOGETICVS 20, 21 281 

Cap. XXI 

p. 66 1. 13 IVDAEORVM Tac. Ann. xv 44 Iiidaea origo eius 
mali. Keim on Orig. contr. Cels. i § 2 p. 4 n. 2. Orig. ii 4 — 6. 
Tac. Fr. Hist. [ed. C. D. Fisher, Oxon. 1910] ap. Sulpic. Seu. ii 
30 § 6 (Bernays Abhandlungen ii 174 — 5) lias superstitiones, 
licet contrarias sibi, isdem tamen auctoribus prqfectas. Chris- 5 
tianos ex ludaeis exstitisse. radice sublata stirpem facile 
perituram. Namat. i 389 calls the Jews radix stultitiae, i.e. 
(Barth, Bernays) Christianismi. 

iNSTRVMENTis c. 18 pr. Oehlcr 19 pr. De Pudic. 10 p. 240 
1. 12 Wiss. Adu. lud. 1 f. (p. 702 Oehler). Koffmane i 58. lo 
Ronsch N. T. Tertullians 47—49. Paucker Suppl. i 411. 
Moses and the prophets teachers of Christianity, [lustin.] Coh. 
ad Gr. 10 p. 15, 38 p. 35. Quaest. et Resp. 101 p. 482. Theo- 
philus (i 14 p. 346) and Tatian 29 30 (p. 267). lustin. Dial. 
c. Tryph. 7 p. 109. 15 

p. 66 1. 14 SECTAM infra p. 74 1. 5. c. 1 p. 2 1. 7. c. 40 
p. 116 1. 32 n. Ad nat. i 10 p. 76 1. 10 Wiss. Ad Scap. 1 pr. 
3 cet. Cf Lact. De Opific. 1 § 2 philosophi nostrae sectae quam 

p. 66 1. 15 NOVELLAM Ignat. Ep. ad Magnes. 9 /<aiv6rr]<;. 20 
esp. Ep. ad Diogn. 1, 2. Bingham vol. i p. 23 n. 18 (1855). 
Hennecke Aristides ind. Kaivo^. [Ambst. on 1 Cor. 1 26. A. S.] 
Aug. Ep. 102 qu. 2 de tempore Christianae religionis §§ 8 — 15. 

TiBERiANi c. 7 p. 24 1. 21 census istius disciplinae, ut iani 
edidimus, a Tiberio est. c. 5 p. 18 1. 24 Tiberius ergo, cuius 25 
tenijjore nomen Christianum in saectdum introiuit. c. 40 pr. 
p. 116 1. 18 ante Tiberiuni, id est ante Ghristi aduentum. infr. 
c. 37 p. 108 1. 9 hesterni. Ad nat. i 9 p. 73 1. 11 Wiss. ut supra 
edidimus, aetatis nostrae nondum anni trecenti.... c. 7 p. 68 
1. 2 W iss. 2ii'incipe Augusto nonien hoc ortum est...igitur aetati 30 
nostrae nondum anni CCL. De Monogam. 3 f. annis circiter CLX 
exinde productis. Adu. Marc. i 15 p. 309 1. 14 Kr. cet. 19 
p. 314 1. 8 Kr. 22 fin. iv 6 p. 432 1. 26 Kr. 7 pr. De Anim. 43 
(wrong). Adu. lud. 8 p. 719 Oehler (birth under Augustus 
p. 717). Celsus in Orig. i § 26 p. 10 n. 3 Keim. Tac. Ann. xv 35 
44. Euseb. Hist. Ecch i 2 § 1 fin. ravrr] Se ijSr} Kal t^? Xpc- 

282 TERTVLLIANI [p. 66 1. 15— 

ariav^v ap^^atorrjro'; ro TraXaiov o/jLov Kal OeoTrpeTre^; Tot? veav 
avT7]v Kal eKreroTnafievrjv, x^e^; Kal ov Trporepov (fiavetaav 
vTToXafi^dvovatv dva8et)(^d)jaerat. 4 |§ L 2. 4. Kortholt Paganus 
Obtrectator cc. 1 ancl 5 (Kiloni 1698 4to) and on lustin. pp. 31 
5 55^ Mark 1 27 rt'? ri SiSaxv rj Kaivr) avrrj ; Acts 17 19. 20. 
Sueton. Ner. 16 ajjiicti suppliciis Christiani, genus hominum 
superstitionis nouae ac maleficae. The inscr. doubted by los. 
Scaliger there is CIL. ii app. p. 25* n. 231. Prudent. Peristeph. 
X 583 — 4 tantus nouelli dogmatis regnat faror. \ hinc nempe 

lo uester Christus haud olim fuit. Christianity as old as the 
world, cf. Philastr. Haer. 110 (109). Prudent. Perist. vi 37—8 
nouellum commenti genus. X 401 — 413. 578 — 9. Minuc. 6 § 3 
quippe antiquitas caerimoniis atque fanis tantum sanctitatis 
trihuere consueuit quantum adstruxerit uetustatis, e.g. § 1. 

15 p. 66 1. 16 FORTASSE .A.N Acc. Varr. Gell. 

p. 66 1. 17 VMBRACVLO Aldhelm De Virginitate 8 furuo 
facessante ueteris instrumenti umbraculo et clara coruscaute 
eucmgelii gratia. 

LiciTAE c. 4 p. 16 1. 13. c. 18 fin. p. 60 1. 4. c. 38 init. n. 

20 Neander (where ?). Liebenam Rom. Vereinswesen 268. Blunt 
Right Use 345. Lamprid. Alex. Seu. 22 ludaeis priuilegia 
reseruauit. Renan Les Evang. 482 citing dig. xxvii 1 15 6. 
L 2 3 3. Plainly not after Severus' edict against proselytes to 
Judaism (199—201). Bonwetsch 10. 14. Spartian. Seu. 17 § 1. 

25 p. Q)Q 11. 19 — 22 Ep. ad Diognet. 4 dWd /j-rjv ro 76 irepX rdq 
^ptoaet^ ylroipoBee^;, Kal rrjv irepl rd ad/S^ara SeiatSai/jtovtav 
Kai rrjv r?}? Treptro/jtfj^; dXa^ovetav, Kal rrjv t?}? vr]areia<i Kal 
vov/ir)via<; elptovetav, KarayeXaara Kal ovBevo^ d^ia Xoyov ov 
vofit^Q) ae XPV^^'-'^ rrap' efxov fiadelv. lustin. c. Tryph. 20 

30 p. ^SI"" (=p. 71 n. 1 Otto). 10 p. 221'. 8 p. 226^ Cf. Tert. 
Adu. lud. 2 seq. where he urges that patriarchs were incircum- 
cisi and non sahhatizantes. 

p. 66 1. 19 EXCEPTiONiBvs Adu. Marc. v 5 p. 587 1. 20 Kr. 
quid tam contemptihile quam cihorum exceptio. De leiun. 2 

35 p. 276 1. 1 Wiss. xerophagias itero nouum adfectati officii nomen 
et proximum ethnicae superstitioni, quales castimoniae Apim 
Isideni et Magnam Matrem certorum eduliorum exceptione puri- 
ficant (where Hier. in Oehler's n. has ahstinentia). 

p. 66 1. 24] APOLOGETICVS 21 283 

p. 66 1. 20 siGNACVLO coRPORis Kaje 406. De Spectac. 
4 pr. ad principalem aucturitatem conuertar ipsius signaculi 
nostri. cuni aquam ingressi Christianam Jidem in legis suae 
uerha profitemur, renuntiasse nos diaholo et ponipae et angelis 
eius ore nostro contestamur. ib. 24 Jioc erit pompa diaholi, 5 
aduersus quem in signaculo fidei eieramus. . .ceterum sic nos 
eieramus et rescindimus signaculum rescindendo testationem eius ? 
Adu. lud. 3 dari enim hahehat circumcisio sed in signum, unde 
Israel in nouissimo tempore dignosci haheret, quando secundum 
sua merita in sanctam ciuitatem ingredi prohiheretur, cet De 10 
Pudic. 9 p. 237 1. 9 Wiss. anulum (in the parable of the 
Prodigal) signacidnm lauacri. lustin. Dial. c. Tryph. 16 p. 234^ 
r) yap airo ^\^paa[Jb Kara (rdpKa TrepiTOfxr] et? crr)ij.€iov iSodrj, 
iva rjTe wtto t(ov aXXwv idvoov Kal rjfMwv d(f)(opi(Tfievoi, Kal ua 
fjbOvoL -rrnOrjTe a vvv iv BiKr) TracrT^ere, Kal iva yevcovTat ai 'X^wpai 15 
vfiwv kprffioi Kai al TroXet? TrvpiKavaTOi Kal tou9 KapTrov<; 
evodiriov vfMwv KaTecrOico^nv dWoTpioi Kai yu-T^Set? i^ vfKiJv iin- 
^aivrf ei<i Trjv JepovcraXy^fx' ov ydp i^ dXXov Tivo<i yvoypi^eade 
irapa TOV<i dXXov<i dv6p(OTrov<;, rf diro ti)s iv aapKi v/j-cov 
TrepirofiTf^i. The Jew says ibid. 10 p. ^^T*" iKelvo Be (iTropovfxev 20 
paXiara eu vfj.ei<i evaej3elv Xeyovre<i Kal rcov dXXcov olofievoi 
8ia(f)epeiv, Kar ovSev avrcov (iiroXeiTreaOe ovSe SiaXXdaaere 
arro rcov iOvoov rov vfjLerepov ^iov, iv to5 firjre rd^ eopT(i<i pnfre 
Ta aalB^ara rripelv fii^re rifv Trepirofirjv ^'^(^eiv, Kal eri eV 
dvBpcoTTov aravpcoBevra eXTr/Sa? iroiovfievoi, ofioo<i eXTrH^ere 25 
rev^eadat ajaOov tivo<; rrapd tov Oeov pr) TToiovvre^i avrov rd<i 
ivToXd^;. 18 p. 235^ 19. 20 pp. 236^— 237^ 46 p. 265^ 92 
p. 319'» 320^^^ 137 p. S66\ Ep. ad Diognet. 4 p. 496*^^ The 
word signaculum Ambr. De Abrah. ii 11 ter. De Isaac iv 4 
§ 37. Hegesip. i 39 p. 76 41. Clem. Recogn. iii 11 f. Ennod. 30 
p. 421 8 H. Ronsch p. 38. Bailey Rituale Anglocath. 263—4. 
Iren. iv 30. [Also Ambst. Hier. Rufin. Aug. cet., very frequent. 
A. S.] 

p. 66 1. 22 sciT c. 5 Oehler's ind. supr. p. 20 1. 2 
Lact. III 29 § 15. Deuni vi 6 § 5. Clem. Recogn. vn 8. viii 9 35 
neque initium neque fineni. Hier. in Eccles. 11 col. 482. in 
Is. III c. 6 9. Ronsch Itala u. Vulgata 380. 

p. 66 1. 24 cf De Praescr. Haer. 7 uiderint qui Stuicuni 

284 TERTVLLIANI [p. 66 1. 24— 

et Platomcum et dialecticuin Christianisinum protulerunt. 
nohis curiositate opus non est post Christuni lesum nec in- 
quisitione post euangeliuni. cum credinius, nihil desideranms 
ultra credere. Jioc enini prius credimus, non esse quod tdtra 
5 credere debemus. Aug. in Ps. 141 9 usque adeo de cruce non 
eruhesco, ut non in occulto loco habeam cruceni Christi, sed in 
fronte portem. Matth. 8 38, Luke 9 26, Rom. 1 15. 

p. 66 1. 25 DEPVTAEi 'reckoned.' De Cult. Fem. i 2 pr. 
damnati in poenani mortis depntantur . . .angeli. 

10 ivvAT Neumann i 153 n. 8. infr. c. 50 n. p. 146 1. 10. 

p. 66 1. 28 Cypr. De Idol. Vanit. 6 § 1 ludaeis primum erat 
apud Deum gratia. sic olim iusti erant, sic maiores eorum 
religionihus obediehant. § 2 inde illis et regni suhlimitas floruit 
et generis magnitudo prouenit. 

15 ORiGiNALiVM AVCTORVM c. 18 pr. p. 58 1. 4. De Monogam. 7 
originales personae (from Adam to Moses). 

p. 66 1. 29 SVBLIMITAS c. 25 pr. p. 86 1. 24 of Romans. 
p. 66 1. 31 SED QVANTA cet. Cypr. De Idol. Vanit. 10 
quam fuerit illis profana uita, quae contracta sit uiolatae 

2o religionis offensa, ipsi quoque testantur, qui etsi uoce tacent, 
exitu confitentur. Wailing of the Jews on the day of the 
destruction of the Temple. Hier. in Sophon. i 15 (vi 692). 

p. 66 1. 33 ExiTVS Adu. lud. 13 p. 737 1. 10 sup. cf p. 738 f 
Schlieraann Clementinen 402 n. 64. 407 n. Philo Legat. Gai. 

25 § 32. Dio. Cass. lxv 7 § 2. Grot (?) p. 158. Cels. in Or. viii 69 
neither clod (/SwXo?) nor hearth remains to Jews. 

p. 66 1. 34 DISPERSI los. De Bell. lud. vii 3 § 3 ro jap 
'lovSaiwv yevo<; ttoXu fjiev Kara Trdaav rrjv oiKovfxevrjv irape- 
airapTai roi<i eTTi^x^copioi^i. Sibyll. III. 271 (B. C. 140) Tvaaa 

30 Se ^ala aeOev TrXt^pT;? Kal irnaa daXaaaa. Schlirer II- § 31 
' Das Judenthum in der Zerstreuung. die Proselyten,' p. 493 sq. 
Westcott 'Dispersion' in D. B. Tzschirner 303 sq. Kaye 151 
n. 2. Clem. Recogn. i 39 f Cyprian De Idol. Vanit. 10 dispersi 
et palabundi uagantur, soli et caeli sui profugi per hospitia aliena 

35 iactantur. lustin. Apol. I c. 47 p. d>^^ eipt^Tai Be Kal Trepl r»}? 
epr}/jL(oae(o<; avT7J<; Kal irepl tov fii] eiriTpaTn^aeaOai [xrjhiva 
avTMv oiKelv (Is. 1 7, Jer. 50 3, cf. 2 15).. .ort Se (f)vXua- 
aeTat u<^' v/xcov otto)? fn]8el<; ev avT]] 'yevi^Tai, Kal OcivaTo<; 

p. 68 1. 2] APOLOGETICVS 21 285 

Kara rov KaraXa/x^avofievov lovBalov elaiovro'? wpio-rai, 
aKpi^m eTTLaraaOe. Dial. c. Tiyph. 12 p. 229'' sq. c. 40 
p. 259^ c. 92 p. SIO"^. esp. c. 16 p. 234^ War with Bar Cochba 
132—135. Clinton Fasti. Hanel s. v. 131 (p. 87^ 88^). Aristo 
Pellaeus in Euseb. Hist. Eccl. iv 6 § 3 (and with comm. at 5 
end of Otto's Hermias (Apol. ix) pp. 356 — 9) cited below. 
infra c. 26 fin. Romani...numquam dominaturi eius < Iudeae>, 
si non ultimo deliquisset in Christum. Adu. lud. 10 f. 'post 
passionem enim Christi etiam captiuitas uobis et dispersio obuenit, 
praedicta per spiritum sanctum. cf. ib. 11. Orig. contr. Cels. I 10 
c. 47 pp. 35 36. II c. 8 p. 62. c. 34 med. iv c. 22 p. 174. viii 
c. 69. Prud. Apoth. 538 — 544. Scaliger Anim. Euseb. p. 216. 
Theodoret Graec. Affect. Cur. vi § 89 p. 101 54. xi §§ 70 71 p. 163 
23 sq. Aug. in Ps. 124 3 pr. De Ciu. Dei xviii 46. 

PALABVNDi Cypr. p. 27 14. 611 3 and v. 1. in 602 20 (also 15 
cited from Itiner. Alexandri). 

SOLI ET CAELI Adu. lud. 13 more (earlier) and later 
de longinquo eam oculis tantum uidere permissum est. Cypr. 
quod idola di non sint 10 (above). Auson. Ep. 52 (= 33 Peiper) 
orta salo, suscepta solo, patre edita caelo, \ Aeneadum genetrix, 20 
liic habito alma Venus. Tac. Hist. v 7 solo caeloqiie iuxta graui. 
Paulin. Nol. Carni. 15 82 ille solum caelo uertit. Symm. Ep. I 
47 1 non illius caeli aut soli illecebram retinax aduenarum lutos 
aequauerit. Conc. Trull. (quinisextum) can. 11 [Mansi xi 945 E. 
A. S.] /jLrjBeh roiv ev lepariKM rdyfiarL rj \a'LK6<; ra Trapa roiv 25 
^\ovhai(ov a^vfJLa eaOLeroo ?') roLovrov<; rrpoaoLKeiovaOa), Kal 
larpeias irap avroiv Xafx/Savercci, rj ev ^aXaveLM iravreXoi^ 
rovroL<; avXK.oveaO(o (penalty unfrocking, or for laity excommu- 
nication). Marcus first Gentile bp of Jerusalem. Sulpic. Seu. 
Chron. II 31. Cf Euseb. H. E. iv 5. 30 

p. 68 1. 2 Euseb. Hist. Eccl. iv 6 § 3 Aristo Pellaeus ro 
rrav eOvo<i ef eKeivov (after Bar Cochba's revolt) Kal rr}<: Trepl 
rd lepoaoXvfia 7^? eirL^aiveLv eipyeraL, voftov SoyfxarL Kal 
Biard^eaLV ' \8pLavov, &)? dv fiTfh e^ drroirrov Oeoipolev ro 
irarpwov e8a(f)o<i ejKeXevaafievov. Tert. Adu. lud. 13 pr. 35 
eadnde quod interdictunL est, ne in confinio ipsius regionis 
demoretur quisquam ludaeorum. Cf. Adu. Marc. iil 23 p. 418 
1. 22 Kr. Aug. in Ps. 68. Serm. 2 10 pr. consecuta est postea 

286 TERTVLLIANI [p. 68 1. 2— 

uindicta Domini ; expagnata est ciuitas, dehellati ludaei, occisa 
nescio quot hominum milia. nidlus illuc modo permittitur 
accedere ludaeorum ; ubi potuerunt adaersus Doininum clamare, 
ihi a Domino uon permittuntur Jiahitare. perdiderunt locum 
^furons sui: atgue utinam uel nunc agnoscant locum quietis 
suae!...nam loca illa omnia. et hominihus plena sunt et ludaeis 
inania. Schurer i^ 699 n. 146. Renan, Egl. Chret. 221. 
p. 68 1. 3 Theodoret Gr. Aff. Cur. xi § 69 p. 163 15 sq. 
PRAEMINARENTVR : the word Adu. Marc. V 19 p. 645 1. 22 
lo Kr., Apul. 

p. 68 1. 4 EADEM Adu. Marc. iv 5 p. 431, 1. 4 Kr. 
FORE VTI cet. Cypr. De Idolor. Vanit. 5 § 4 = c. 11 Hartel 
(p. 28 1. 1 seq. H.) nec non deus ante praedixerat fore ut 
uergente saeculo et mundi fine iam proximo ex onini gente et 
x^popido et loco cultores sibi allegeret deus nudto et fidei fortioris 
et melioris obsequii, qui indulgentiam de diuinis munerihus 
haurirent.... § 5 1. 5 cuius igitur gratiae disciplinaeque arbiter 
et magister sermo et filius dei mittitur, qui per prophetas omnes 
retro illuminator et deductor humani generis praedicahatur. 
2o hic est uirtus dei, hic ratio, hic sapientia eius et gloria. hic cet. 
EXTIMIS De Anim. 48 pr. sub extimis noctibus. Amm. XXIX 
5 48 usque diei extimum. 

p. 68 1. 5 Arnob. ii 12 Gospel in India, among the Seres, 
Persians, Medes, in every isle and province. 
25 ADLEGERET De Cam. Resur. 8 p. 36 11. 28 — 29 Kr. (but he 
reads alligatur, alligari). Adu. Marc. i 24 p. 323 1. 27 Kr. 
II 23 p. 366 1. 12 Kr. (bis). 24 p. 367 1. 16 Kr. 25 p. 370 
1. 27 Kr. (adlectio). 28 (bis). p. 371 11. 17—18 Kr. iv 9 p. 440 
1. 18 Kr. 11 pr. (4 exx.) v 1 p. 568 1. 27 Kr. Hier. ii 292^ 
30 and in sacerdotium Ep. 82 a (col. 518^). 

p. 68 1. 8 REFORMANDAM De Orat. 7 p. 186 1. 7 Wiss. ut 
legem in melius reformaret. Adu. Hermog. 43 p. 173 1. 10 Kr, 
in malo. Adu. lud. 2 p. 704 in hominis 
salutem. Aug. De Spir. et Litt. § 37 f. Clem. Recogn. v 13 
35 Mos ad ipsius imaginem. [Many exx. in my index to Ps.-Aug. 
Quaest. A. S.] 

p. 68 1. 9 Orig. contr. Cels. i 7 says that almost all the 
world was better acquainted with the birth, crucifixion, passion 

p. 68 1. 14] APOLOGETICVS 21 287 

of Christ than with the teaching of philosophers. So little is 
ours a Kpv(pcov Soy/xa. 

p. 68 1. 10 INLVMINATOR Adu. Marc. iv 2 fin. 7 p. 434 1. 17 
Kr. 17 f 25 p. 504 1. 23 Kr. 40 p. 560 1. 11 Kr. Adu. Valent. 
15 f. De Cor. Milit. 7 a. m. Cypr. p. 28 l. 7 (above). Vulg. 5 
Aug. Serra. 153 1 pr. 216 9. Contra Maximin. I 4 5 cet. 
(inluminatio Adu. Hermog. 15 p. 142 1. 25 Kr.). Paulin. Nol. Ep. 
23 34 pr. 

p. 68 1. 11 DEDVCTOR Adu. Prax. 30 fin. 2 pr. paracletum, 
deductorein scilicet omnis ueritatis. De Cor. Milit. 4. De Fug. 10 
in Persec. 1 (cf. 14) qui si forte imracletum non recipiendo, 
deductorem omnis ueritatis. Hil. Ambr. 

FiLivs DEI Zahn Forschungen v 310. 

NON ITA GENITVS Orig. contr. Cels. i 28. Clem. Alex. Protr. 
2 § 31 p. 27. Clem. Hom. v 12 sq. Recogn. x 22 sq. Aristaen. 15 
II 2 p. 630 Boiss. Aetna 88—90. 

p. 68 1. 13 soRORis INCESTO c. 9 p. 3 1. 15. 11 p. m. (p. 42) 
the heathen gods worthier of hell than lieaven. illuc enim 
abstrudi solent impii quique in parentes et in sorores incesti 
et maritarum adulteri et uirginum raptores et puerorum con- 20 
taminatores. Theodoret Graec. AfF. Cur. vii § 5 p. 103 14. § 8 
p. 103 43. Athan.-Euagr. Vit. Anton. 74. 75. 76 lihidinum 
principem louem. Maury Hist. d. Rel. de la Grece iii 320^. 
Porphyr. De Abstin. iii 16 p. 138 20 Nauck. Aug. Ep. 91 4 
and 5. lul. Firm. 12 § 2. Clem. Alex. Protrept. § 38. Ambr. 25 
Abr. I 9 § 84 vol. i 556 2 Schenkl. Athenag. 32 p. 36*^ (= 166 
Otto). Theophil. iii 3. Theodoret Graec. Aff. Cur. iii § 81 
p. 51 1 — 5, Ganymede, Leda, Danae. § 97 p. 53 46 sq. sister 
Hera, mother Rhea, daughter 4>eppe</>aTTa (Orph. 30 67) § 98 
p. 54 1 (cf. § 37 p. 43 I. 45). Epiphan. Ancorat. 105 p. 108'''' 30 
7iev<i...eKivovvev6 Traacov twv 'yvvaiKOiv dvijp yCveadai. rpdyo'? 
for Penelope, Danae, Leda, Ganymede, Pasiphae and Europa. 
Lucian lupp. Trag. 2. 

STVPRO FiLiAE Otto ou Tatian c. 8 (p. 148 a or Otto's p. 38 n. 
17). Arn. v 20 21. {filiae ' Proserpine ' Clem. Hom. V 14.) 35 

p. 68 I. 14 SQVAMATVM Arnob. v 21. Swan and eagle Tatian 
10. Sidon. Carm. 15 174—8. 23 281—8. 11 69 cygno loue nata 
89 — 90; also in Vulg. 1 Regg. 17 5 lorica. Cic. De Nat. Deor. 

288 TERTVLLIANI [p. 68 1. U— 

I § 42 M. Senec. De Vita Beata 26 § 7 sic uestras alucina- 
tiones fero, quemadmodurti luppiter 0. M. ineptias poetarum ; 
quorum alius illi alas imposuit, alius cornua, alius adulterum 
(cf. Sen. fr. 119) illum induxit. Stat. Silu. i 2 134—6 quod 
5 nisi me longis placasset luno querellis, falsus liuic pinnas et 
cornua sumeret aethrae rector, in hanc uero cecidisset luppiter 
auro. Lucian Charidem. 7 fin. Achilles Tatius ii 37. Max. 
Tyr. V 1 p. 84. Tert. De Carne Chr. 4 f et tamen apud illam 
< sapientiam saecularem > facilius creditur luppiter taurus 

lofactus aut cygnus, quam uere homo Christus penes Marcionem. 
Cypr. ad Donat. 8 f (p. 10, 18—23). Clem. Hom. v 13. 
Athanas. Contr. Gentes 15 f 11 p. m. (i 26=^^ Migne) 12 pr. 
Firmic. 12 §§ 2 and 4 (ap. La Cerda). 13. Prudent. Contr. 
Symm. i 59 — 78. Aug. De Ciu. Dei xviii 13 p. m. Fried- 

15 lander lii^ 661 — 3. 

CORNVTVM c. 16 f n. (p. 54 1. 32). Ad nat. I 14 fin. Adu. 
Marc. III 18 p. 406 1. 26 Kr. (= Adu. lud. 10 p. 728 Oehler). 
Europa and Leda Athenag. 22 f (p. 24"^). Arnob. V 21. vi 12 
(Hammon 13 pr.). Tatian 9 10. Athenag. 20 32. Clem. Alex. 

20 Protrept. § 16. 

PLVMATVM Aug. De Ciu. Dei iv 27 (i 180 16 D.), Cic. poet. 
Apul. Metam. 11 1 aues indidem -as. c. Sodoma 113 (Peiper's Cypr. 
Gall. Poet. p. 218) si quis plumat senio modulatior ales. Tatian 
19 n. (p. 149° or Otto's p. 44). ^ed?, elire /xoi, kvkvo^ ^lveTuc koX 

25 ri-}v aerov /mop^rjv avaXafJb&dvei Kal St' olvoxotav rov TavvfMi/Sov; 
Trj -Traihepaaria ae^ivvverai. Tert. De Spectac. 8 p. 9 1. 20 Wiss. 
oua honori Gastorum adscribunt, qui illos ouo editos credendo de 
cygno loue non eruhescunt. Aristid. Apol. 9 8 (Syr.). Lucian 
Deor. Dial. 4 pr. 20 6. Apollodor. iii 12 2. Prudent. Perist. x 

30 221 (Roman) cygnus stuprator. Arnob. iv 23. 26. Hild. p. 384. 
V 20 {taurus cf 35). 29. 44. Ehnenh. on Arnob. 1. c. p. 143. 
Greg. Naz. t. II c. 61 p. 142 Bill ravpo<;, kvkvo';, ;^/3ucrd9, 6(})i<;, 
iroai-i, dpKro^, diravra. Aug. De Ciu. Dei V 27. Hier. in lon. 
c. 2 p. ^O^''. Prudent. contr. Symm. I 77. Germ. Arat. Phaenom. 

35 Plin. N. 11 § 17. Ou. Fast. v 605—6. Octauia 203—7. 762— 
772. As an eagle with Aegina (Clem. Hom. v 13), as a vulture 
with Aetna (ib.), Lamia as a hoopoe (e7roi|r) (ib.), Phthia 
as a dove Aelian Var. Hist. I 15, Hera as a cuckoo, Pausan. 

p. 68 1. 22] APOLOGETICVS 21 289 

II 17 6. Schol. Theocr. xv 64. Aristoph. Birds 819 sq. Trypho 
(in lustin. Dial. 67 pr. p. 291^) ' the Christians speak as 
the Greeks in their myths, who represent Perseus as born of 
the virgin Danae, on whom lupiter descended in a shower 
of gold.' So lustin. himself (Apol. i 22 f p. 68 b) el 8e Kal dia 5 
irapdevov 'ye^^/evvrjaOai (^epofiev, Kotvov Kal rovro 7rpo9 rov 
Uepcrea e<JTw vfitv. Clem. Hom. V 13. Leda, Danae, Semele, 
Alcmene, Theodoret Graec. Aff. Cur. iii § 98. 

p. 68 1. 16 IMPVDICITIA Aug. Enchirid. 34 qualem de 
uirgine nasci oportebat, quem fides matris, non libido, con- 10 
ceperat. [Mr Payne adds De Trin. xiii 23.] 

p. 68 1. 19 EDixiMVS c. 17 pr. Kaye 517. 

p. 68 1. 21 RATiONEM c. 23 p. 82 1. 11. Adu. Prax. 5 
p. 233 1. 7 Kr. ante omnia enim deus erat soliis, ipse sibi et 
mundus et locus et omnia. solus autem,' quia nihil aliud 15 
extrinsecus praeter illum. ceteruni ne tunc quidem solus ; 
habebat enim secum, quam habebat in semet ipso, rationem, suam 
scilicet. rationalis enim deus, et 'tratio in ipsum prius, et ita ab 
ipso omnia, quae ratio sensiis ipsius est. hanc Graeci Xoyov 
dicunt, quo itocabulo etiam sermonem appellamus. ideoque iam 20 
in nsu est nostrorum per simplicitatem interpretationis sermonem 
dicere in primordio apud deum fuisse, cuni magis rationem 
competat antiquiorem haberi, qitia non sermonalis a principio, 
sit rationalis deus, etiam ante principium, et quia ipse quoque 
sermo ratione consistens, priorem eam ut substantiam suani 25 
ostendat. Kaye p. 500 n. 6. Harnack Gesch. d. altchr. Lit. 
(1893) I 877. On Tertullian's knowledge of Greek Kaye 61. 

ARTIFICEM of God Lact. Diu. Instt. 11 2 § 18. 17 § 9. Senec. 
Ep. 113 § 16 diuini artificis ingenium {8r]/u,iovpy6<i). Antisthenes 
in Lact. i 5. 30 

p. 68 1. 22 ZENO Pearson (Cambr. 1891) Zeno Fr. 44 
(pp. 92 93, where he gives Lact. iv 9 § 2 twice, not knowing 
that bk IV = De Vera Sapientia). infr. c. 46 pr. Christians and 
philosophers. Minuc. 19 § 10 Zeno et Chrysippus et Cleanthes 
sunt et ipsi multiformes, sed ad unitatem prouidentiae omnes 35 
reuolu.itntur...Zenon eiusdem < Cleanthis > magister niiiuralem 
legem atque diuinam et aethera interim interdumque rationem 
uult omnium esse principium ; idem interpretando lunonem 

M. T. 19 

290 TERTVLLIANI [p. 68 1. 22— 

aera, louem caelum, Neptunum mare, ignem esse Vulcanum 
et ceteros similiter uulgo deos elementa esse monstrando j^uh- 
licuni arguit grauiter et reuincit errorem. Cic. De Nat. Deor. 
I § 36. The \6yo^ known to Orpheus ([lustin.] Cohort. ad 
5 Gr. 15 p. 16 Col.). Orig. contra Cels. vi c. 8 p. 280 Plato in a 
letter to Hermeias and Koriskos speaks of the son of God. 

FACTITATOREM c. 46 p. 128 1. 31. Adu. Valent. 21 bis. Adu. 
Prax. 18 p. 260 1. 12 Kr. (cited from no other author). 
p. 68 1. 25 CLEANTHES Fr. 13 p. 245 Pearson. 

lo PERMEATOREM aTT, Xey. Cic. De Nat. Deor. I § 36 (of Zeno) 
aliis autem locis rationeni quandam per omnem naturam rerum 
pertinentem ui diuina esse affectam putant. Marc. Aurel. V 32 
o hia TTJ'; ovaiwi St7]K(ov X0709. Heraclit. in Plut. Moral. 885^^ 
cet. in Lasaulx Studien p. 78 n. 20. Athenag. 6 p. 7° (56) de 

15 Stoicis. 

p. 68 1. 26 viRTVTi Adu. lud. 9 prope fin. (p. 726 Oehler) 
duplici enim, nisi fallor, operatione distinctum eum legimus, 
praedicationis et uirtutis. Adu. Prax. 7 p. 236 1. 7 Kr. 30. Adu. 
Marc. I 19. iii 6 p. 384 1. 16 Kr. 16. iv 21 p. 489 1. 22 Kr. 

20 p. 68 1. 27 EDixiMVS c. 17 pr. Kaye 523 — 4. 

PROPRIAM SVBSTANTIAM Orig. in lo. p. 56 ISiav ovalav 
i.e. vTToa-Taacv. Ashton. Kaye 524 n. 9. 526 n. 6. Grot. on 
Mark 2 8. Hippol. c. Noet. 16 (i 242) quid est quod ex ipso 
genitum est, nisi Spiritus, id est Verhum 1 Celsus in Orig. 

25 VI 72 says : eireLTrep Trvevfid eaTtv diro tov Oeov 6 y/o? ev 
dvdpo3Triv(p yejov(t}<; aay/jLaTt, oyS' av avTO<i elrj d6dvaTo<; 6 tov 
deov 1/(09. Mosheim's Orig. contra Cels. j^. 712. On the 
Trinity Pamel. i p. 39° sq. n. 31. Lightfoot on [Clem.] 2 c. 9 
(li^ 230). Dorner i 205 S'[. Maximilla in Euseb. Hist. Eccl. v 

30 16 § 17 prjixd eL/xL Kal Trvev/xa Kal 8vva/j-L<?. Georgii in Studien 
der evang. Geistlichkeit Wlirtembergs 1838 72 sq. 107. 110. 
112. 116—7. Iren. v 1 § 2. lustin. Apol. i 33. [Cyprianic 
tract] De Montibus Sina et Sion 3 Sion...iti quo monte Spii-itus 
sanctus Filius Dei rex constitutus est. Cypr. Quod idola di non 

35 sint 11 carnem spiritus sanctus induitur; where in Migne is 
cited Herm. Sim. v 5 § 2. C. Taylor in Class. Rev. vii 201. 
R. Seeberg in Zahn Forschungen v 330 and 223. (Aristid. 2 6. 
Herm. Sim. ix 1 § 1.) 

p. 68 1. 32] APOLOGETICVS 21 291 

p. 68 1. 28 SPIRITVM c. 23 p. 82 1. 11. omn. De Orat. 1 bis. 
p. 180, 3. 12 Wiss. Adii. Marc. iii 16 spiritus creatoris qni est 
Christus. Pamelius i 33^^ n. 13. 2 [Clem.] 9, XpLaTo<;}v 
jiiev ro nrpMTov Trvev/xa. Otto on Athenag. Suppl. 10 p. 10'' 
(p. 46 n. 9). 5 

p. 68 1. 30 PROLATVM cet. Adu. Prax. 8 pr. Jioc si qui 
putauerit me proholen aliquam introducere, id est prolationem 
rei alterius ex altera, quod facit Valentinus, alium atque alium 
aeonem de aeone producens ; primo quidem dicam tibi: non ideo 
non utitur et ueritas uocahulo isto et re ac censu eius, quia et lo 
haeresis utitur ; immo haeresis potius ex ueritate accepit, quod 
•ad mendacium suum strueret. prolatus est sermo dei an non? 
hic mecum gradum fige. si prolatus est, cognosce proholen 
ueritatis et uiderit haeresis, si quid de ueritate vmitata est. 6 fin. 
nam iit primum deus uoluit ea quae cum Sophiae ratione et 15 
sermone disposuerat intra se, in suhstantias et species suas edere, 
ipsum primum protuUt sermonem hcdjentem in se indiuiduas 
suas rationem et sophiam, ut p)er ipsum fierent uniuersa, per 
quem erant cogitata atque disposita, immo etfacta iam, quantum 
in dei sensu. Adu. Valentin. 7 p. 18-5 1. 6 Kr. namque ihideni 20 
Nus simul accepit prolationis suae ojficium ; emittit et ipse ex 
semet ipso Sermonem et Vitam. Cf. 37 p. 211 1. 4 Kr. prolatio 
uocis Lact. Diu. Instt. iv 8 § 12. Aug. Gen. ad litt. iv § 39. 
Hilar. De Trin. iv 3. vi 5 cet. Rufin.-Orig. Princ. iv 1 28. 
Iren. ii 28 §§ 3 fin. 4 pr. 5. 6. 31 § 1. Hier.-Didym. Sp. S. 26. 25 
The term disapproved by Iren. 11 13 § 5. 28 §■ 6 (Baur i 172 
n. 12). Blunt Right Use 162—3. Kaye 496 seq. 

p. 68 1. 31 VNiTATE Adu. Prax. 2 p. 229 1. 26 Kr. quasi non 
sic quoque unus sit onmia, dum ex uno oninia, per suhstantiae 
scilicet unitatem. 30 

p. 68 1. 32 CVM RADivs EX SOLE cet. Adu. Prax. 8 p. 239 
1. 7 Kr. tertius enim est Spiritus a Deo et Filio, sicut...tertius a 
sole apex ex radio. 27 pr. undique enim ohducti distinctione patris 
et filii, quam manente coniunctione disponimus, ut solis et radii 
et fontis et fluuii. lustin. Dial. c. Tryph. 61 p. 284^° Otto 35 
ad 1. cf. 128 \oyov ydp rcva 7rpol3dWovr€<i, Xojov jevvco- 
/J.6V, ov Kar WTTorofii/v, a><i eKarrwdrjvat, rov ev Tjfilv Xoyov, 
Trpo^aWo/jievot. Kal owolov eVt 7rvp6<i opcofiev dXXo <yiv6fj,€vov, 


292 TERTVLLIANI [p. 68 1. 32— 

ovK i\aTTOV/j,ei'ov eKeivov e^ ov ?; ava-^i<^ yeyovev, aWa tov 
avTov fi.evovTO<i, Kal to i^ avTov dva(f)0ev Kal avTO ov (f^atveTai, 
ovK iXaTTcbaav iKelvo i^ ov (iv7](f>6rj. fiapTvptj^rei Se /jloi o X070? 
Trj<i ao(^ia<;, avTo<; (iJv ovTo<i 6eo<; (iTrd tov TraTpo^ tmv oXcov 
5 y€vv7]6el<i Kal Xoyo^ Kal ao(f)ia Kal Bvvafii^ Kal So^a tov yevvr/- 
aavTo<i vTrdpj^oiv. Cf. Lact. Diu. Instt. iv 29 §§ 4 5. Iren. ii 13 
disapproves these analogies. Tat. 5=8 (p. 146*'°) (oaTrep yctp 
diro fiid<i S(i8d<i dvdiTTeTaL ixev irvpd iroXXd, tt}»? Se TrpcoT?;? 
BaS6<i 8td T7]v e^ayfriv tmv ttoXXmv 8q8(ov ovk iXaTTOVTai to 

10 <^ft)<?, 0VT(o Kal 6 X0709 'Trpoe'X6(t>v i^ t?}? tov 7raTp6<; Bvvdfie(i)<; 
ovK dXoyov TreTTOiTfKe tov yeyevvr/KOTa. Kal ydp avro^i iyo) 
XaXo) Kal vfiei<i aKoveTe, Kal ov hi/Trov Sta t?}? fMeTa^aae(o<i tov 
\6yov Kev6<; 6 7rpoaofi.i\(av \6yov ytvofiat' Trpo/SaWofievo^; Se 
Trjv ifiavTOV (f)0)V7]v SiaKoafielv Trjv iv vpilv aKoafirfTov v\r]v 

15 7rpoT]pr]fiai. 

p. 68 1. 33 SEPARATVR Adu. Prax. 2 fin. numerum sine 
diuisione patiuntur. 8 p. 238 1. 17 ILw prolaUim dicimus filium 
a Patre sed non separatum. Tat. Apol. 8 ov Kar aTroKOTr^jv. 
lust. Dial. c. Trjph. 61 p. 284 c. 128 p. 358 Col. 

20 p. 68 1. 35 LVMEN DE LVMINE Suicer s. u. ^w?. Athenag. 
10 f. (p. 10 d) KaiTOi Kal avTo to ivepyovv TOi<; iK(f)covovaL 
7rpo(f)r]TiK(v<; dyiov Trvevfia aTToppoiav eivai (^afiev tuv 6eov, 
aTToppeov Kal i7rava(f>ep6fxevov co? (iKTtva r]\iov. Euseb. Caes. in 
a letter to his flock (appended to Athan. De Decr. Syn. Nic. 

25 and in Theodoret H. E. i 12 § 4) proposed at Nicaea the form 
we believe et? eva Kvptov ']r]aovv XptaT^v, tov tov 6eov \6yov, 
6eov iK 6eov, (fi6!)<i ck cfxoT^'?, ^(07]v iK ^(0)]<; cet. Epiphan. Haeres. 
LXii 1. LXix 7 (Arius ad Alex.). Paulin. Nol. Ep. 42 2 Deum 
ex Deo. 

30 INDEFECTA lexx. give De Pallio 3 and Apul. Cassiod. in 
Forcellini (not Bailey's ed.) and RW., but not in LS. or Georges 
or Mlihhn. or Faber. Faber and Mlihlmann have h. 1., Gesner F 
and G with ref. to Sahn. 

p. 68 1. 36 MATRix cet. Adu. Prax. 2 p. 229 1. 4 Kr. sermo 

35 ipsius qui ex ipso processerit cet. 8 fin. tertius est spiritus a 
deo et filio, sicut tertius a radice fructus ex frutice, et tertius 
a fonte riuus ex flumine, et tertius a sole apex ex radio, nihil 
tamen a matrice alienatur, a qua jjro^^rietates suas ducit. ita 

p. 70 1. 2] APOLOGETICVS 21 293 

trinitas per consertos et conexos gradus a patre decurrens, et 
monarchiae nihil ohstrepit et oikonomiae statum protegit. ibid. 
p. 238 1. 18 Kr. protulit deus sernionem, quemadniodum etiani 
Paracletus (in Montanus) docet, sicut radix fruticem, et fons 
fiuuiuni, et sol radiuni. nani et istae species probolae sunt earuni 5 
substantiarum, ex quibus prodeunt. nec dubitauerim fiUum dicere 
et radicis fruticem et fontis fiuuiuni et solis rudium, quia omnis 
origo parens est, et omne, quod ex origine profertur, progenies 
est. 13 fin. nam et radium solis seorsum solem uocabo ; solem 
autem noniinans, cuius est radius, non statim et radium solem 10 
appellaho. nam nec soles duos faciam, tamen et solem et radiuni 
eius tam duas res et duas species unius et indiuisae suhstantiae 
numeraho, quam deum et sermonem eius, quam patrem et filium. 
Kaye 504. 519 seq. 527. Baur Dreieinigkeit i 176. 

TRADVCES c. 7 fin. De Praescr. Haer. 82 m. seminis aposto- 15 
lici traduces. De Patient. 5 p. 7 1. 18 Kr. De Anima 9 p. 811 
1. 18 Wiss. De Test. An. 3 p. 138 1. 7 Wiss. De Carne Chr. 22 
sui. 20 p. m. neruum umbilicarem, quasi follicidi sui traduceni. 
Vinc. Vict. ap. Aug. De Nat. et Orig. An. i 17 [more exx. in 
index to Corp. Scr. Eccl. Lat. vol. lx A. S.] . De Pecc. Orig. 3 20 
§ 3. Hier. Adu. Ruf. 11 4 8. Caelest. Symb. 1. Mar. Mercator 
Subnot. 7 2. Rufin. xxi 626^^ Migne. [Ambst. frequently : see 
Study of Ambst. p. 145, Ps.-Aug. Quaest. p. 574 (index) : also 
Pelag. A. S.] 

p. 70 1. 2 MODVLO Adu. Prax. 9 p. 239 1. 19 Kr. necessi- 25 
tate autem hoc dico, cuni eundem patrem et filium et sjnritum 
contendunt, aduersus oikononiian monarchiae adidantes, non 
tamen diuersitate alium Filium a Patre, sed distributione, nec 
diuisione alium, sed distinctione, quia non sit ideni pater et 
filius uel modulo alius ab alio. 14 p. 250 1. 22 Kr. consequens 30 
erit, ut inuisihilem patrem intellegamus pro plenitudine maies- 
tatis, uisihilem uero Filium agnoscamus pr^o modulo deriuationis, 
sicut nec soleni nobis contemplari licet, quantum ad ipsam 
suhstantiae summam, quae est in caelis, radium autem eius 
toleramus oculis pro teniperatura j)ortionis, quae in terram inde 35 
j)orrigitur. Adu. Marc. iv 18 p. 478 1. 16 Kr. forma prophetici 
moduli (L. and S. omit the 3 passages from Tert. of which this 
and Prax. are in RW.) [Very often in Aug. A. S.] 

294 TERTVLLIANI [p. 70 1. 3— 

jj. 70 1. 3 NVMERO )( lustin. Dial. c. Tryph. 128 p. 358'^ apiefio) 
€rep6v TL. 62 p. 285°. 129 pr. p. 358^ ib. p. 359"^ 56 p. 276^ 
GRADV NON STATV Adu. Prax. 8 p. 239 1. 11 Kr. 19 fin. 
rationem reddimus, qua dei non duo dicantur nec domini, sed 
5 qua pater et filius duo, et hoc non ex separatione substantiae, sed 
ex dispositione, cum indiuiduum et inseparatum filium a patre 
pronuntiamus, nec statu, sed gradu alium, qui etsi deiis dicatur, 
quando nominatur singularis, non ideo duos deos faciat, sed 
unum, hoc ipso, quod et deus ex unitate patris uocari habeat. 

lo ib. 2 fin. quasi non sic quoque unus sit omnia, dum ex uno omnia, 
per substantiae scilicet unitatem, et nihilominus custodiatur 
oikonomiae sacramentum, quae unitatem in trinitatem disponit, 
tres dirigens, patrem et filium et spiritum, — tres autem non 
statu, sed gradu, nec substantia, sed forma, nec potestate, sed 

15 specie, — unius autem substantiae et unius status et unius potestatis, 
quia unus deus, ex quo et gradus isti et formae et species in 
nomine patris et filii et sjnritus sancti deputantur. 21 p. 264- 
1. 5 Kr. non eundem autem non quasi separatum, dispositione 
alium, non diuisione. [Cf. Ps.-Aug. Quaest. 122 § 26 A. S.] 

20 RECESSIT Aug. Ep. 187 ^ 6 et putamus nobis de omnipotentia 
Dei incredibile dici aliquid, cum dicitur Verbum Dei, per quod 
omnia facta sunt, sic desumpsisse corpus ex uirgine...ut a sinu 
Patris, id est a secreto, quo cum illo et in illo est, non recesserit. 
§ 10 f. homo quippe Deo accessit, non Deus a se recessit. 

25 p. 70 1. 4 PRAEDICABATVR c. 18 p. 58 1. 17 quos diximus 
praedicatores prophetae de ofiHcio praefandi uocantur. infr. 
p. 70 1. 18 manifestius praedicatum sperant. infr. p. 72 1. 8 id 
super Christo praedicatum non scierunt. De Fug. in Persec. 
6 a. m. atquin jjersecidiones eos passuros pro.edicabat et 

30 tolerandas docebat. 12 p. m. persecutiones praedicatas non 
praecaueret. Adu. lud. 13 pr. igitur quoniam filii Israel 
afiirmant, nos errare recipiendo Christum, qui iam uenit, prae- 
scribamus eis ex ipsis scripturis, iam uenisse Christuni, qui 
praedicabatur, quamuis ex temporibus Danielis praedicantis 

35 probauerimus, cet. Adu. Marc. iv 1 p. 423 1. 17 sq. Kr. Lact. 
Diu. Instt. IV 12 § 3 cites psalm of Solomon (not found there) 
[but it is, as we know now, in the ' Odes ' of Solomon 19 v. 6 
A. S.]. Is. VII 14. (Is. VII 10 seq. cited by Cypr. Test. ii 9.) 

p. 70 1. 12] APOLOGETICVS 21 295 

Here and Dc Carne Christi 5. 18, Adu. Prax. 27 no express 
mention of Christ's human soul (Ziegler Irenaeus 244 n. 1), but 
elsewhere, e.g. [adu. Prax. 30 A. S.]. 

p. 70 1. 5 DELAPSVS Cypr. De Idolor. Van. 11 hic in uirginem 
delabitur, carnem Spiritiis Sanctus iiiduitur, Deus cum homine 5 
niiscetur, hic Deus noster, hic Christus est. 

p. 70 1. 6 MIXTVS Pusey. Aug. Ep. 137 § 11 throughout, e.g. 
nam si anima in sua natura non fallatur, incorpoream se esse 
comprehendit : multo magis incorporeum est Verhum Dei, ac 
per hoc Verbi Dei et aniniae credibilior debuit esse permixtio, 10 
quam aniniae et corporis. 

p. 70 1. 8 INTERIM ' provisionally ' cf. 8 pr. 

SIMILIS EST VESTRIS Tatian 21 p. 159"'^ ov yap iMwpalvofxev, 
ai>Zpe<i "^Wr]ve<s, ovhe Xypov^ dTrayyeWo/jiev, deov ev nvOpw- 
TTov uop<f)^ yeyovevai KaTayyeWovre<i...hL6irep a7rol3\e-4^avTe<i i^ 
irpixi TCL oLKela (iTrofivijfMOvevfiaTa kclv co? o/iotft)? fivdoXo- 
yovvTa<; dirohe^aade. Orig. contr. Cels. I 37 (cl. Tert. Adu. 
Valent. 10. Spencer ad 1. c.) corapares the parthenogenesis 
of vultures, and the virgin mother of Plato. lustin. Apol. i 21 
Tcp 8e Tov Aoyov, 6 eaTt Trpoyrov yevvrjfia tov ©eoO, avev eTTi- 20 
fXL^la^ (f>dcrKeLv riixd<i yeyevvrjadaL 'Iriaovv \pLaT6v,...ou irapa 
Tov^ nrap' vfilv Xeyofievov<i vtov<; tu) AlI Katvov tl ^epofiev. 
cf. 54. 

p. 70 1. 9 QVi PENES vos cf c. 22. 47 p. 184 l. 10 omnia 
aduersus ueritatem de ipsa ueritate constructa sunt, operantibus 25 
aemmlationem istam spiritibus erroris. 

p. 70 1. 10 PRAEMINISTR.WERINT De Anim. 58 p. 394 1. 22 
Wiss. Adu. Marc. iv 14 p. 461 1. 15 Kr. v 6 p. 589 1. 10 Kr. 
18 p. 641 1. 14 Kr. Ad nat. i 7 p. 70 1. 11 Wiss. 11 3 p. 98 1. 8 
Wiss. Ad Vxor. i 2 f De Paenit. 2 m. De Bapt. 10 p. 209 1. 11 30 
Wiss. (Oehler ind.). Apul. Met. i 7. u 11. vi 15 f 26 (p. 325 
Price) vii 11. 

p. 70 1. 11 Adu. lud. 7 p. 713 5 uenturum enim Christum et 
ludaeos non refutare scimus, utpote qui in aduentum eius spem 
siLam porrigant. Cypr. De Idolor. Van. 12 sciebant et ludaei 55 
Christum esse uenturum, nam hic illis semper prophetis monen- 
tibus adnuntic(batur. Kaye 203. 

p. 70 1. 12 Adu. lud. 7 and 14. 

296 TERTVLLIANI [p. 70 1. 13— 

p. 70 1. 13 Tzschirner 184. Clem. Recogn. i 43 50 f. Hier. 
Prol. in lerem. c. 30 (v 282 ed. 1684). lustin. Dial. c. Tryph. 
c. 8 p. 226 the Messiah still to come. c. 32 p. 249 with victory, 
not on the cross. c. 49 p. 268 Elias has not yet come. Isaiah 7 
5 not a virgin, but a young woman shall conceive. (lustin. c. 
Tryph. c. 67 p. 291 cf. lustin. Apol. i 43.) Isaiah 52—53 (the 
sufferer) explained by a Jew, with vvhorn Origen (contr. Cels. I 
c. 55 p. 42) argued, of the Jewish nation. 
coNPVLSATio c. 38, cf. ooupidso c. 20. 

lo p. 70 1. 14 DVOBVS ADVENTiBVS. Adu. lud. 14 pr. Adu. 
Marc. lii 7 pr. duos dicimus Ghristi habitus a j^^^ojjhetis 
demonstratos totidem aduentus eius pi^aenotasse : imum in hu- 
militate, utique primum, cum tamquam ouis ad uictimam 
deduci habebat...quae ignobilitatis argumenta lyrimo aduentui 

15 competunt, sicut sublimitatis secundo. Orig. contr. Cels. I c. 56 
p. 43 1. 13 Spencer. 11 29 pr. Clem. Recogn. i 43. 49. 50 f 
Iren. iv 22 § 2. Cypr. De Idolor. Van. 12 sed significato duplici 
eius aduentu, uno qui exercitio et exemplo hominis fungeretur, 
altero qui deum fateretur, non intellegendo primum aduentum, 

20 quod in passione praecessit occultus, unum tantum credunt qui 
erit in p)otestate manifestus. quod autem hoc ludaeorum populus 
intellegere non potuit, delictorum meritum fait. sic erant 
sapientiae et intellegentiae caecitate multati, ut qui iiita indigni 
essent, haberent uitam ante oculos nec uiderent. lustin. Dial. c. 

25 Tryph. 8 p. 226'^ (above). 14 p. 232^^. Apol. i 52 p. 87^ (Otto's 
n. p. 139 n. 4). Lact. Diu. Instt. iv 16 § 13 non credebant 
filium Dei esse, ignorantes duos eius aduentus a prophetis esse 
praedictos, primum in humilitate carnis obscurum, secundum in 
fortitudine maiestatis manifestum. Tzschirner 295 sq. 

30 p. 70 1. 15 EXPVNCTVS [c. 2 n. A. S.] 15 p. 52 1. 3. 35 p. 102 
1. 23 n. 48 p. 138 1. 31. Adu. lud. 11 fin. post quem habebant 
expungi quae nuntiabantur. 12 fin. quae si per Christmn eue- 
niunt, non in alium erunt prophetata, quam per quem expuncta 
consideramus. Ad Martyr. 6. Scorpiac. 10 p. 169 1. 9 Wiss. 

35 Ad nat. i 7 p. 71 1. 7 Wiss. 

p. 70 1, 16 CONDITIONIS HVMANAE cf adu. lud. 14 (p. 741). 
p. 70 1. 17 EXSERTAE cf 37 a. m. p. 108 1. 5 hostes exsertos 
non tantum uindices occultos. Stat. Silu. v 2 39 bello. Ad 

p. 70 1. 24] APOLOGETICVS 21 297 

Vxor. II 1 exserte iuhet. Cypr. p. 398 16 H. exertum ac semi- 
nudum pectus, p. 420 11 exerte atque aperte. 

p. 70 1. 22 FRVGE c. 40 f. p. 271 1 Oehler a.h omni uitae 
fruge dilati. 

p. 70 1. 24 SEQVEBATVR VTI Senec. De Benef. vii 11 1. 5 
Cicero Orat. §§ 75. 191. 221. Cf restat, superest. [So with 
consequitur, consequens est, very frequently. A. S.] 

MAGVM c. 23 p. 82 1. 7 n. Adu. Marc. lii 6 p. 385 1. 24 Kr. 
planum in signis. Aug. Contr. Faust. xil 45 p. m. quia etsi 
attestabantur miracula, non defuissent {sicut adhuc nunc quidam 10 
mussitant) qui magicae potentiae cuncta illa trihuerent, nisi talis 
eorum cogitatio contestatione jjrophetica uinceretur. De Ciu. Dei 
XVIII 53. Cons. Euang. i c. 9 § 14 sq. (Christ wrote magic books). 
cf c. 14 § 22. Clem. Recogn. i 42 fin. 58. Euseb. Deraonstr. 
Euang. III c. 6. 7 § 3 (Oehler says falsely Praep. Euang. lli 8). 15 
Real Avizards Simon and Menander (Euseb. Hist. Eccl. iil 26), 
Saturninus and Basilides (iv 7).- Hippolytus Haer. Vli 1 — 28. 
Apul. [metam., apologia passim]. [Ign.] Philipp. 4. 5 Lightf 
vol. II pp. 777 13. 778 28. Epist. Pilati ad Claudium, Euangel. 
Nicodemi 2 A and B. Tischend. Euangel. Apocr. 2nd ed. pp. 216. 20 
223. 288—293 sexies. Tischend. Apocal. Apocr. p. 143. Apo- 
cryphal gospels (Proteuangelium lacobi, Euangelium Infantiae, 
Tzschirner 158 seq.) teem with miracles. (See below.) Arn. 
(Tzsch. 133—4) I 42. 48. 50—3. 11 11. 12 the chariot and 
fiery horses of Simon Magus dispersed by Peters breath. Demon- 25 
stration of spirit and of power, Orig. contr. Cels. I c. 2 p. 5. 
2 f ix^^V remains of miracles in his day. Moral distinction 
between miracles and magic (Tzschirner 152 — 3) i 39. 68. 
(Egyptian magic) 71. ii 9 f 14 f 16 p. 70 fin. 48 the prophets 
foretold miracles. 49—51. iii 1 fin. 8. 9. 23 fin. 24. 25. 27. 28. 30 
VI 42. VIII 47 f Jews converted by miracles rather than 
by the argument of unlearned apostles. Spencer annotat. 
on Orig. contr. Cels. pp. 6 and 7. Sueton. Nero 16 a^fjiicti 
suppliciis Christiani, genus liominum superstitionis prauae ac 
malefcae. 'lovSaiot<i crvfifiaxet et<? apvrjatv tov crravpov, 35 
"EWijatv et? avKocfyavTiav /jtayeia^^ [whence ? A. S.]. Cypr. De 
Idol. Van. c. 4. c. 13 itaque cum Christus lesus secundum a 
prophetis ante praedicta uerho et uocis imperio daemonia (cf 

298 TERTVLLIANI [p. 70 1. 24— 

Bingham l 2. 5) de homwibus excnteret, parali/ticos restriiigeret, 
leprosos purgaret, inluminaret caecos, clodis gressum daret. 
mortuos rursus animaret, cogeret sibi elementa famulari, seruire 
uentos, maria oboedire, inferos cedere, ludaei, qui illum credi- 
5 derant hominem tantum de humilitate carnis et corporis, existima- 
hant magum de licentia potestatis. Edm. Le Blant Recherches 
sur raccusation de magie dirigee contre les premiers chretiens, 
Nogent le Rotrou, 1869, 8vo. Kortholt 474 — 487 'de magia 
Christo huiusque cultoribus exprobrata.' Lact. Diu. Instt. ii 

lo 16. IV 13. 16. 15. 1. V 3 § 9 sq. 18. Marcellinus Augustino 
Ep. 136 (4) § 1 f. (il 598*^ Gaume) Apolloninm suum nobis et 
Apuleium aliosque magicae artis homines in medium proferant 
quorum maiora (than Christ's) contendunt exstitisse miracula. 
Cf. Tzschirner 44 45 (Matt. 9 34. 12 24. Luke 11 17). Eisen- 

15 mengers Entdecktes ludenthum 1 148 — 168 either an enchanter, 
who learnt magic in Egypt, or one who wrought miracles by 
the Schem Hamphorash, ' den erklarten Namen Jehovahs,' 
Tzschirner Gesch. Apol. 149 ff. lustin. Apol. i. 24 work by 
help of demons. 80. 34, c£ 73 Simon Magus. 11 6 (cf Matt. 9 

20 32 sq. 12 22 sq. with parallels) regards miracles rather as a 
fulfihnent of prophecy. Dial. c. Tryph. 69, p. 295. 6. Minuc. 
26 § 9. Quadratus (Euseb. Hist. Eccl. iv 3) appealed to Christ's 
miracles. Hippolytus (l 268 Fabr.) preserved by Theodoret, 
Eranistes, attaches weight to the evidence of miracles. 

25 p. 70 1. 25 VERBO Matt. 8 16. 

RELVMINARET De Carne Chr. 4 p. m., De Anima 34 p. 859 
1. 14 Wiss. 

p. 70 1. 26 LEPROSOS RW has Prudent. Sedul. add Tert. De 
Pudic. 20 p. 267 1. 8 Wiss. Adu. Marc. iv 9 p. 443 1. 20 Kr. 

30 Vulg. Hier. Ep. 121 1 (852''). In Eccl. 10 p. 472 cet. Greg. 
Turon. Hist. Francor. I 19. [I have 5 exx. from Ambst. and 5 
from Aug. A. S.] 

p. 70 1. 27 FAMVLARET c. 39 p. 114 1. 23 affectant ad gloriam 
famulandae libertatis. Cf Oehler on the present passage. 

35 p. 70 1. 29 \6yov. On T.'s knowledge of Greek Kaye 61. 
On the doctrine ib. 517 n. 1 519 n. 9. 

p. 70 1. 31 AD DOCTRINAM cet. hence Cypr. De Idol. Van. 
13 fin. hunc magistri eorum atque jjrimores, hoc est, quos et 

p. 72 1. 4] APOLOGETICVS 21 299 

doctrina ille et sapientia reuincehat, accensa ira et indignatione 
prouocati insecuti sunt et postremuni detentum Fontio Pilato, 
qui tunc ex parte Romana Syriani procuruhat, tradiderunt, 
cruceni eius et morteni suffragiis uiolentis ac pertinacibus 
fiagitantes. 5 

REViNCEBANTVR c. 1 p. 2 1. 21. De Testim. Anim. 1 pr. 
Oehler. De Virg. Veland. 1 pr. Lucr. iv 489 an confutabunt 
nares oculiue reuincent? 

p. 70 1. 32 PR1MORES...MVLTITVDO Lact. IV 16 § 5 ergo cuni 
magnus popidus ad eum uel oh iustitiam quam docebat, uel ob lo 
miracula quae faciehat, suhinde confiueret...tum primores ludae- 
oruni et sacerdotes ira stimulati, quod ab eo tamquam peccatores 
increpabantur et inuidia deprauati quod confiuente ad eum mul- 
titudine contenmi se ac deseri uidebant,. . xoierunt aduersus euni 
impiumque consilium de eo tollendo cruciandoque ceperunt. 15 

p. 72 1. 1 SYRIAM ludaeam. los. Antiq. xviii 3 § 1, 4 § 2 
Vitellius governor of Syria, yet Cypr. Quod Idola cet. 13 f. 
(quoted above) Pontio Pilato, qui tunc ex parte Romana Syriam 
])rocurahat. Lactant. Diu. Instt. iv 18 § 4 Pontio Pilato, qui 
tum legatus Syriam regebat. Epit. 40 (45) § 8 Pontius Pilatus, 20 
qui tuni legatus in Syriain iudicabat. (In a.d. 30 there was no 
acting legatus; hence none named in Luke 3 1.) Harnack 
Gesch. d. altchristl. Lit. (1893) i 865. 

p. 72 1. 3 praedixerat Cypr. De Idolor. Van. 14 hoc 
facturos et ipse praedixerat et prophetarum omnium testimo7iium 25 
sic ante praecesserat, oportere illum pati...Fidem itaque reruni 
cursus impleuit. nam^ et crucifixus praeuento carnificis ofiicio 
spiritum sponte dimisit, et die tertio rursus a mortuis sponte 
surrexit. lustin. Apol. I 14 had foretold the sufferings of his 
disciples. Orig. contr. Cels. i c. 62 p. 49 cites Matth. 9 37 30 
(great harvest, few reapers). ii c. 13 pp. 68 — 9 cites Matth. 10 
18 (ye shall be brought before kings and rulers). Matth. 24 14 
(gospel preached in all the world). Luke 21 20 (Jerusalera 

PARVM si c. 6 p. 134 1. 2 Oohler with n. g. De Fug. in is 
Pcrsec. 13 p. 489 1. 4 up. De Idolol. 7 p. 36 1. 17 Wiss. Lact. 
I 10 § 12. piarum est c. inf luu. 15 166 n. 

p. 72 1. 4 svFFixvs Lips. De Cruce i 3. Lact. Diu. Instt. iv 

300 TERTVLLIANI [p. 72 1. 4— 

26 § 32 suffixus itaque quia spiritum deposuerat, necessarium 
carnifices non jyiitauerunt ossa eius suffringere, sicnt nios eorum 
ferehat. Cypr. De Idol. Van. (= Quod idola di non sint), 
14, quoted above. Orig. contr. Cels. Ii 16 p. 71 koI Tcixa 
5 Sia TovTo (loan. 10 18) 7rpo\a/3o}v e^eX-ijXvdev ciTro tov o-co/iaTO?, 
'iva avTO Trjp^jcrr} Kal /xi] KaTaxOj) '^cl aKeXr], &>? to, tmv aw 
avTO) aravpwOevTwv XjjaTcov. III 32 p. 130 (loan. 10 18) Kat 
Kpd^a<; (f)wvfj /jieyuXr], (K^rjKe to irvevixa' irpoXa/Swv tou? eTTi 
TMV dveaKoXoTna/jLevcov hrjjjiiovs, v7roTe[xvovTa<i Ta aKeXrj tcvv 

lo aTavpovjxevoyv, Kal Scd tovO^ inroTe/jivovTa^, Xva fii] eirl TiXeov 
TipLCopiav Tiacoaiv. 

p, 72 1. 5 CVM VERBO: Btinem. on Lact. iv 15 § 22 cites 
sub uerho and uerhuni, in uerho and the coramon ciwi dicto. 
p. 72 1. 6 MEDIVM ORBEM Wetstein N. T. tom. i p. 539. 

15 Keim iii 438 n. 3. Speech of Lucian the martyr in Rufin. 
Hist. Eccl. IX 6 f. solem uohis ipsum horum produco testem: qui 
cum haec fieri per impios uideret in terris, lumen suum meridie 
ahscondit in caelo. requirite in annalihus uestris, inuenietis 
temporihus Pilati, Christo patiente, fugato sole interruptum 

20 tenehris diem (of course no astronomical eclipse (Sepp, Leben 
Christi i^ 298)). Clem. Recogn. i 41 cum pateretur, omnis ei 
compassus est mundus. Cf. 42. 

SIGNANTE Senec. Cons. ad Marc. 18 § 2 soleni cottidiano 
cursu diei noctisque spatia signantem. Cic. Tuscul. i 28 § 68 

25 lunam festorum signantem...dies. Manil. Astr. i 596 et per 

quinque notat signantes tenipora fines. [Cf Lucan li 645. A. S.] 

p. 72 1. 7 DELIQVIVM. Add to lexx. [even to Thes. A. S.] 

Ad Scap. 3 m. p. 544 1. 2 (Plin. Seru. Fest. [etc. see Thes. A. S.]) 

Acta Pilati in Thilo Cod. Apocr. N. T. (1832) I 809 ^kSto^ 

30 iyeveTO e<^' oXrjv t)]v otKOv/xevrjv, tov r]\iov Kpv^evT0<i TeXeiov 
Kal Tov TToXov aKOTeivov (})aivo/ievov r]/iepa<; ovar/^^. lul. Atri- 
canus in Syncellus (Routh Reliq. II 297—8 and nn. 477 — 480). 
No eclipse except at the time of new moon. Daille l 4 p. 26 sq. 
no eclipse. Cramers Cat. Matth. 27 45. [Dionys. Areopag.] 

35 Ep. 7 § 3 ad Polycarpum (i 1081« Migne) and 12 ad Apolloph. 
(opp. II 91). Cf Amos 8 9. Jer. 15 9. Rev. 6 12. Sib. i 372—5. 
VIII 232 (cf Aug. De Ciu. Dei xviii 23. Const. ad sanct. coet. 
2 18). Athan. Ep. ad Epictet. 10 fin. (ii 1068 A Migne) hid tovto 

p. 72 1. 8] APOLOGETICVS 21 301 

'yovv 6 /j,ev rj\io<;, opwv rov Sr]/j,iovp'ybi> eavTOu iv tm v^pL^op.ev(p 
crcopaTi diexop^evov, ra'i dKTiva<i avveareiXe Kal ecTKOTLae rrjv 
'yrjv. Suid. s.ii. Dionysius, 7) ro Beiov 7racr;^et rj ru> 7rdo-)(^ovrc 
o-fyu-Tracr^ei. Aug. De Ciu. Dei ili 3 (compares the eclipses at 
Romulus' death). Sun and moon as accessories of crucifixion 5 
from first cent. to renaissance. (Krause s. v. Sonne.) Oros. 
VII 3. Lardner (1829) vii 105—124 heathen pt 2 c. 13. Bayle. 
Chapman 1734 — 5. Clarke cited Phlegon in Boyle Lect. 1706 
p. 325, but afterwards omitted him, e.g. 8th ed. 1732 p.' 357. 

p. 72 1. 8 PRAEDICATVM c. 48 p. 138 1. 20. Adu. lud. 13 pr. lo 
(p. 736 1. 5) in this chap. twice. Adu. Marc. iv 10 a. m. bis, 
p. 445 11. 25, 27 Kr. 42 p. 564 1. 16 Kr. Cypr. Ep. 63 2, 7, 8 cet. 
Migne cvi 48^ Jahrbb. 1888 508—9. So -ator a prophet c. 18 p. 58 
1. 17. Cypr. De Bon. Patient. 16. Adu. lud. 10 f p. 730 ult. naryi 
quod in passione eius accidit, ut media dies tenehresceret, Amos 15 
propheta adnuntiat, dicens : et erit, inquit, in die illa, dicit 
Dominus, occidet sol media die, tenebrescet super terram dies ponam eum quasi luctum dilecti et eos qui cum illo 
quasi diem maeroris . . .et ut prophetiae implerentur, properauit 
dies uesperam facere, id est tenebras eficere, quae media die 20 
factae sunt. Lactant. iv 18 § 3 cites Amos 8 9, 10 and § 4 Jer. 
15 9 (from Cypr. Testim. il 23 (p. 91)) as the source of Matth. 27 
45. De leiun. 10 p. 287 1. 21 Wiss. itaque in eani usque Jioram 
celebranda pressura est, in qua a sexta contenebratus orbis de- 
functo doniino luguhre fecit ojficium, ut tunc et nos reuertaniur ad 25 
iucunditatem, cum et mundus recepit claritatem. Amos 1. c. cited 
also Aug. Ep. 199 § 34 = De Ciu. Dei iii 15. Breu. Rom. Oct. 9 
lect. IV Dionysius...cum adhuc in gentilitatis errore uersaretur, 
eo die quo Christus Dominus cruci ajfixus est, solem praeter 
naturam defecisse animaduertens, exclamasse traditur : ' aut 30 
Deus naturae patitur, aut mundi machina dissoluetur.' Whiston 
Testimony of Phlegon vindicated. Lond. 1732, with replies by 
A. A. Sykes (1733—4). Seru. ad Verg. Georg. i 465 ff. (solem 
quis dicerefalsum audeat ?...ille etiani exstincto miseratus Gaesare 
Romant cum caput obscura nitiduni ferrugine texit...insolitis z5 
tremuerunt motibus Alpes) constat occiso Caesare in senatu prid, 
Id. Mart. solis fuisse defectum ab hora sextu usque ad noctem. 
A whole year Plut. lul. Caes. 69 p. 741. Plin. 11 30 § 98. At 

302 TERTVLLIANI [p. 72 1. 8— 

the death of Aug., Dio lvi 29. Euang. Nicod. c. 11 p. 592 
Thilo, Pilate to the Jews : idecoptjaare ra 'yevofjbeva ; ol 8e elirov 
avTw' "EjK\ei'ylri'i 7)\lov yeyove Kara ro eloiOo^;. Pilate ih one 
Ms (cf. Theophyl. and in c. Euthym. Zig. 27, 45) replied not 
5 possible. PhJegon in C. Mtiller Fr. iil 606 n. 15 (^OXv/jLTridSe^ 
Tj XpovtKci). Orig. contr. Cels. Ii 33 fin. p. 80 (xviii 187 
Lomm.) 59 pr. p. 96. 14 p. 69 (Jesus a prophet), cites Phlegon, 
but Hom. 35 in Matt. he says that Phlegon's (SyncelL l 614 
Bonn) eclipse cannot be that meant in the gospel. (So Basnage 

lo Annal. a.d. 29 and 31 vol. i p. 249. Voss Harm. Euang. ii c. 10. 
Mosheim Orig. Cels. transl. p. 197 — 8.) Tzschirner 104 sq. 
114_5. Wetst. and [?] on Matt. 27 45 (cf. Joel 2 10). All the 
evidence collected by Clinton Fast. Rom. ii 279 — 280. 

p. 72 1. 9 RELATVM IN ARCANIS VESTRIS. In Adu. Marc. 

15 IV 7 p. 435 11. 12 ff. Kr. Tert. appeals to the census in the 
Roman archives. Kaye 148 — 150. For phrase cf. i?i acta 
referre. luu. 2 136 in litteras. Arnob. iv 14 in tahulas. Cic. 
often ' to enter, register.' 

p. 72 1. 13 svsPECTOS suspicious (Cat. Dist. iv 43 2 in lexx. 

20 nam timidis et suspectis aptissima, mors est). Apul. Metam. IX 
20. Tert. Adu. Marc. v 3 p. 575 1. 14 Kr. Adu. Valentin. 21 fin. 
Amm. XXIX 4 § 5. Bed. I 15 f. Baron. 601 20. Claud. 4 Cons. 
Hon. 278 neu dubie suspectus agas neu falsus amicis. With ne 
Greg. Turon. Hist. Francor. ix 3. With acc. Spart. Seu. 15 § 5. 

25 So {jTroTTTo^ Eur. to -ov Thuc. Ind. Oehler. 

p. 72 1. 16 sq. Tzschirner 46. Matth. 27 64. 28 12—15. lustin. 
Dial. c. Tryph. 108 § 2 p. 335. Eisenmengers Entdecktes 
ludenthum i 193 — 4. Toleddth leschu says, Judas stole the 
body and buried it in his garden. Rabbi Abraham Perizol in 

30 his book Maggen Abraham (against Christianity) says the 
disciples stole the body in the Sabbath night, while the Jews 
were busy with their meetings and with eating the Paschal 

p. 72 1. 20 NE Lact. Diu. Instt. iv 20 § 1 profectus ergo in 

35 Galilaeam {noiuit enim se ludaeis ostendere, ne adduceret eos ad 
paenitentiam atque impios resanaret), discipulis iterum congre- 
gatis scripturae sacrae litteras, id est prophetarum arcana 
patefecit. So, answering the question why Pythagoras and 

p. 72 1. 26] APOLOGETICVS 21 303 

Plato, who went in quest of religion to the Egyptians, Magi, 
and Persians, did not seek it among the Jews, he says (iv 2 § 5) 
sed auersos esse arbitror diuina 'prouidentia, ne scire possent 
ueritatem, quia nondumfas erat alienigenis hominibus religionem 
dei iien iustitiamque notescere. Celsus in Orig. ii 78 pr. makes 5 
the Jew ask : ' rj eVi Tovro) KaTrjXOev, Xv uTna-rr^aoiixev ;' irpo'; 
ov XeXe^erai, ovk eirl rovrw /xev rjXOev, 'Iv ep^ydcTr^rac rr)v 
dmariav ^lovBaioi^i' TTpoyiyvaxTKwv S avnjv eaofMevrjv TrpoeiTre. 

p, 72 1. 23 Cypr. De Idolor. Van. 7 § 5 ad dies quadraginta 
remoratus est, ut de eo ad praecepta uitalia instrui possent, et 10 
discerent quae docerent. 

p. 72 1. 24 Kaye 331 1. 215 n. 2. 

CIRCVMFVSA Cypr. De Idol. Van. 7 § 6 tunc in caelum 
circumfusa nube sublatus est. Lact. Diu. Instt. iv 21 § 1 
ordinato uero discipulis suis euangelio ac nominis sui praedi- 15 
catione circumfudit se repente nubes eumque in caeluni sustulit 
qiiadragesimo post passionem die. 

p. 72 1. 25 Tert. De Spectac. 30 p. 20 1. 20 Wiss. ubi 
gaudeam, ubi exsultem, tot spectans reges, qui in caelum recepti 
nuntiabantur, cum loue ipso et ipsis suis testibus in imis tenebris 20 
congemescentes? Sueton. Aug. 100 nec defuit uir praetorius, 
qui se ejjigiem cremati euntem in caelum uidisse iuraret. Cf. 
D. Cass. Lvi 46 § 2 (Numerius Atticus. Dio refers to Procuhis). 
Liuius Geminius, a senator, swore the same oath as a witness 
of Drusi]la's ascension (a.d. 38) Dio Lix 11 § 4. Sen, Apoco- 25 
locynt, 1 § 2 (DrusiUa). On the eagle in consecrations cf. 
Artemidor. ii 20. 

p. 72 1. 26 PROCVLI ad nat, 11 7 p. 106 1. 17 Wiss. inrideri 
peierantes. Aug, De Ciu, Dei iii 15 Haverc, Arnob, i 41. 
Lactant. i 15 § 32. So respecting the visible ascension 0^30 
emperors Tatian 10 p. 149*^. Minuc. 21 § 9 (= Cypr. Quod idola 
di non sint 4 p. 21 6) nisi forte post mortem deos fingitis et 
perierante Proculo deus Roniulus. Liu. 1 16. Plut. Romukis 28. 
lustin. Apol. I 21. Apol. 11 c. 14 p. 52. Tert. Adu. Marc. iv 7 
p. 434 1. 5 Kr. indignum denique, id Romulus quidem ascensus 35 
sui in caelum habuerit Proculum adfirmatorem. Schwegler l 
p. 520 1. 9. 531 1. 10 A.V. Pilatus c. 5 p. 18 1. 26 n. cited by 
lustin. Apol. I 35. 48 pp. 76 c. 84 c. On the Acts of Pilate, 

304 TERTVLLIANI [p. 72 1. 26— 

Cotelier on c. 8 n. 2 of Acta Martyr. Ignat. (vol. ii ed. 1698 
p. 162). Blasphemous acta Pilati cited a.d. 304 by the judge 
of Andronicus, c. 9 (Ruinart p. 485), perhaps by the judge of 
Theodotus, c. 23 (Ruinart 865), was distributed broadcast by 
5 order of Maximin a.d. 311, read aloud and placarded on walls 
and taught to children in schools (Euseb. Hist. Eccl. ix 5 § 1). 
Cf Allard Persecution de Diocletien ii 183 — 6. Tzschirner 
115 sq. lustin. Apol. i 45, 63. The gospels do not state that 
Pilate heard of the resurrection. The two Latin letters of 

lo Pilate to Tiberius (Fabric. Cod. N. T. Apocr. iii 456). From 
such sources the Euang. Nicodemi (ib. i 288) was compiled. 
Another version of Pilate's letter to Tiberius and one ^ of 
Tiberius to Pilate, from a Vienna MS, to be published by 
Birch among apocryphal writings of N. T. (Tzschirner 117 — 8). 

15 Aurel. Victor Epitome 16 § 14 ei quod de Romulo aegre cre- 
ditum est, onines pari sensu praesumpserunt, Marcum caelo 
receptum esse (on caelo rec. see Arntzen). Pearson Lect. in 
Acta Apost. III 4 (Minor Theological Works i 341 — 3). ad 
nat. I 10 m. (l 77 26 Wiss.) manifeste coram 2:)opulo non 

20 peieraret contemplator [caelit- or homin-]-zs in caelum recepti, 
nisi contemneret quos deieraret. In De Praescrip. Haer. 36 j^r. 
he refers to the aiithenticae litterae (autographs) preserved in 
the apostolic churches. Kaye 108. 

p. 72 1. 27 CAESARi TVNC TIBERIO c£ 2 p. 8 1. 2 tunc Traianum 

25 imperatorem. Adu. Prax. i p. 228 1. 6 Kr. tunc episcopum 
Romanum. Paulin. Vit. Ambr. 5. 8. 26. 31 bis, 34 bis (missis 
militihus tunc ah Stiliclione comite...quod iihi uidit tunc Stilicho 
comes). In Adu. lud. 9 (11 719 Oehler) T. gives the day, month, 
year of the crucifixion. All the notices from Tert. collected by 

30 Clinton Fast. Rom, a.d. 29 and Keim iii 480 — 2. Pilate cited 
by Greg. Turon. l 21. Cf Acta Andronici ap. Baron. Ann. 290 
n. 26. Harnack Die Ueberlieferung u. d. Bestand der altchristl. 
Lit. bis Euseb. Leipz. 1893 i 21 — 22 a saint in the Ethiopic 
calendar 25 June, the Copts make a raartyr of him. Cf. Leyrer 

35 Pilatus (Herzog-Plitt s.v. Pilatus). 

p. 72 1. 30 POTVISSENT Ignat. Ep. ad Smyrn. 6 rulers visible 
and invisible, if they believe not in the blood of Christ, await 
judgement. lustin, Dial. c. Tryph. 89 p. 258°** Kal 8ia rovro 

p. 74 1. 11] APOLOGETICVS 21 305 

BicTTd^ere 6fio\oy)](Tac otl outo? iaTtv 6 ^pi(TT6<;, o)? at ypa(})al 
airoheiKVvovaL Kal ra (f>aiv6fxeva Kal Ta yivo/xeva eVt tm ovofxaTi 
avTov, (va /i7) SicoKrjaOe viro tmv dp^^^^ovToov, ol ov TravaovTat 
aTTO T?}? ToO TTOvijpov Kttl Tfkdvov 7Tvev/JLaT0<;, Tov 6(f)e(0<i, evep- 
yei'a<i davaTovvTe<; Kal Bi(oKOVTe<i tov<; ro 6vo/j.a rov ^piarov 5 
o/xo\oyovvTa<;, eo)? 7rd\Lv irapf/ Kal Kara\var/ irdvra^i Kai ro 
Kar ii^iav eKaar^p irpoaveipir/. 

p. 72 1. 31 PER ORBEM omn. Adu. lud. 7 p. 713 Oehler, 
Britain, Spain, Gaul cet. p. 714 the only universal empire. 

p. 72 1. 32 ivDAEis on the Jews as the chief instigators of 10 
persecutions lustin. Dial. c. Tryph. 17 Otto p. 234®. 16 Otto 
p. 234^ Orig. Contr. Cels. vi 27 f. Tert. Scorp. 10 p. 168 
1. 12 Wiss. synagogas ludaeorum fontes persecutionum. Bingham 
vol. I (1855 Oxf.) p. 13. Zahn Forschungen v 170. 

p. 72 1. 33 NERONis c. 5 p. 18 ]. 31 n. Scorp. 15 p. 178 1. 11 15 
Wiss. uitas Caesarum legimns; orientem fideni Romae 'primus 
Nero craentauit cet. Prud. Symm. II 669 — 71 illius <Iouis> 
instinctu prinius Nero matre perempta sanguinem apostolicum 
hihit ac me strage pioruni polluit et proprium facinus mihi 
saeuus inussit. Lact. m. p. 2. Kaye 105 n. 8. 20 

p. 74 1. 1 SEMINAVERVNT 50 f. semen est sanguis Chris- 

p. 74 1. 2 MVLTVM EST Clcm. Recogn. i 45 multum est ire 
per singula. 

p. 74 1. 5 SECTAE h. c. pr. p. 66 1. 14. 25 

p. 74 1. 8 CVLTVRAM c. 16 p. 52 1. 29. Scorp. 2 f. (i 150 16 
Wiss.) ah omni factwra atque cultura idolorum cauere. Adu. 
Marc. I 5 p. 297 1. 5 Kr. uulg. Minuc. 23 § 12 Hahn. Lact. 
Diu. Instt. V 7 § 2. Epit. 23 § 1. Apul. Met. xi 22. Hier. Ep. 
78 mansio 1 f. (4716) peruersarum doctrinarum. Rufin. in Num. 30 
17 1. Cassian Inst. 11 5 cet. [More in Thes. A. S.] Firmic. 
Matern. Mathes. viii 26 1. 92 aeterna [but text doubtful, vol. 11 
p. 339 1. 14, ed. Kroll-Skutsch-Ziegler, Lips. 1913. A. S.]. Prud. 
Psychom. 28 — 9 ecce lacessentem conlatis uirihus audet \ prima 
ferire Fidem ueterum cultura deorum, cet. cet. [Ps.-Aug. 35 
A. S.] 

p. 74 1. 11 vociFERAMVR c. 2 p. 10 1. 8 uociferatur homo, 
Christianus sum. 

M. T. 20 

306 TERTVLLIANI [p. 74 1. 12— 

p. 74 1. 12 HOMINEM PVTATE argumentum ad hominem, as 

lustin. Apol. I 22 pr. ' The Son of God, called Jesus, may well 

enough be called the Son of God on account of his wisdom, 

even if he be but a mere man, for all writers call God the 

5 Father of gods and men' (Blunt Right Use 188 — 9). 

PER EVM cf. 1. 13 per hominem Moysen. 

p. 74 1. 14 Tert. De Anim. 2 p. 301 1. 7 Wiss. quia 'plerosqae 

auctores etiam deos existimauit antiquitas. 1. 11 ut Orpheum, ut 

Musaeum. ib. 46 p. 337 1. 10 nam et oraculis hoc genus stipatus 

10 est orhis, ut...Trophoni in Boeotia. Trophonius at Lebadea 
(Lucian Dial. Mort. 10 3). Bouche-Leclercq Hist. de la divin. 
dans 1'antiquite iii 321 — 332. Aemil. Paullus 167 B.c. (Liu. 
XLV 27 § 8) Lebadiae quoque templum louis Trophonii adit. 
ibi cum uidisset os specus, per quod oraculo utentes scisci- 

J5 tatuni deos descendunt. Welcker Gotterlehre iil 122 — 3 'der 
Nahrende.' Cic. De Nat. Deor. iii § 49 n. (p. 134) temple 

ORPHEVS [lustin.] Cohort. ad Graec. c. 36 37, and Musaeus, 
unknown to Homer. Ibycus, Simonides, and Pindar name 

2o Orpheus. Maury iil 300 — 337. Preller in Pauly. Bouche- 
Leclercq ii Musaeus 110 — 2 Orpheus 113 — 5. Both in Plato 
Republ. 364^ Busts of Christ and Orpheus, Abraham, Py- 
thagoras and Apollonius Tyaneus in the chapel of Alex. Seu. 
Vit. 29 2. 

25 p. 74 1. 15 MELAMPVS Bouche-Leclercq 11 13 — 19. 

TROPHONivs Plut. De Oracul. Defect. 5 p. 41 1'' Boeotia, 
once vocal with oracles, has now been spent, like springs, and 
in Lebadea alone can you still receive a response ; elsewhere 
there is deep silence — or desolation. id. De Genio Socrat. 21 

30 fin.— 23 (599^ sq.). Sulla 17 §§ 1 2. Max. Tyr. 14 § 2. Theodoret 
X § 3 p. 136 — 7 ev Ae^ahia /xer, Tpo(f)(ovLov. ib. § 46 all oracles 
dumb, T. among them. Plutarch and Dicaearchus on the or. 
lost. Philostrat. Vit. Apollon. viii 19. Pausan. ix 39 §§ 2 — 14 
(he himself consulted the oracle). Aristoph. Nub. 507 n. Tert. 

35 De Anim. 46 p. 377 1. 12 Wiss. (cited above) speaks of Tr. as 
still subsisting : he is the last author wdio names him. Dan. 
Clasenius [Theologia Gentilis ?] Hehiist. 1673 4to. Limburg- 
Brouwer vi 1—179. Dict. Ant. 11=* 291. Preller in Paulv. 

p. 74 1. 17] APOLOGETICVS 21 307 

Miiller Orchomenus 250 — 260. Wieseler Das Orakel des Tro- 
phonius 1848. 

p. 74 1. 16 INITIATIONIBVS c. 7 p. 26 ]. 8. LS cites 1 ex. 
Sueton. add h. 1. Adu. Marc. iv 33 p. 532 1. 6 Kr. Hier. in 
Anios III (9 1) (R.W. cites Apul.) add Hier. in Abacuc i (2 5 
15 sq.). 

DOMIXATORES Adu. lud. 6 f. Adu. Marc. iv 20 pr. My 
note on Cic. De Nat. Deor. II § 4 (p. 69 f.). Many exx. in 
Sen. add Clem. Recogn. v 8 f. vii 28 pr. Prud. Apoth. 448 
and 88. Lact. ii 14 § 2. Hermae Pastor i Vis. ii 2 cet. Aurel. lo 
Vict. Caes. 19 (Did. lulian.) § 1. Sedul. v 209. Sil. xi 151. 
Greg. Tur. Glor. Mart. prooem. Bonifat. p. 225. Chromat. Contio 

I f. (V 989^ Bibl. max. Patr.) [I have seven exx. from Aug. with 
'cet.' added. A.S.]. Cf. Verg. Aen. i 282 Romanos rernm 
dominos. 15 

p. 74 1. 17 c. 25 p. 88 1. 34 (cf. 1. 21) De Praescr. Haeret. 40 a.m. 
(11 38 Oehler) ceterum si Namae Pompilii superstitiones reuolua- 
mus, si sacerdotalia officia et insignia et privilegia, si sacrijicalia 
viinisteria et instrumenta et uasa ipsa sacrificiorum ac piacu- 
lorum et notorum curiositates consideremus, nonne manifeste 20 
diabolus morositatem illam ludaicae legis imitatus est ? Arnob. 

II 12 (after speaking of the spread of the gospel) ipsam denique 
apud dominam Romam, in qua cum homines essent Numae regis 
artibus atque antiquis superstitionibus occupati, non distulerunt 
tamen res patrias relinquere et ueritati coalescere Christianae 25 
(cf Elmenhorst ad loc). vii 26 religionibus artifex in commis- 
cendis Numa. iv 31 (cf. Cic. har. resp. § 23, a gi-aphic picture 
of the painful preciseness of Roman ritaal {simpuuia indicates 
Numa)). Lact. Diu. Instt. I 22 § 9 Fompilius apud Romanos 
iiistitntor ineptarum religionum fuit. Cic. De Republ. ii § 27 30 
sacrorum ipsorum diligentiam dijficilem, apparatum perfacilem 
esse uoluit. nam quae perdiscenda quueque obseruanda essent 
midta constituit, sed ea sine impensa. Liu. I 21 § 1 deoruni 
adsidua insidens cura, cum interesse rebns humanis caeleste 
numen uideretur, ea pietate omnium pectora imbuerat. Pkit. 35 
Coriol. 25. Preller-Jordan ind. s.u. Numa (e.g. ' the apocryphal 
books of Numa,' B.c. 181 (11 368—372) burnt (7 Gr. 7 Lat.), i^^ 
119_142). Marquardt iii- 6 n. 3, 18 n. 9. Cf. Schwegler i 541. 


308 TERTVLLIANI . [p. 74 1. 17— 

Ambrosch ub. d. Religionsbticher der Rom. (Bonii 1843) 27 — 8. 
Lasaulx Studien p. 135 n. 213. 

p. 74 1. 18 LICVERIT Adu. lud. 9 m. (ii 724 1. 5 Oehler) 
licuit ergo et Christo Dei in psalmis sine hellicis rebus ense 
5 sermonis JDei praecingi. 

p. 74 1. 19 RVPICES lexx. cite Liicil. Gell. and 3 other exx. 
from Tert. (Apul. rupico). Cf. stipes, lapis, saxuni in Otto 

p. 74 1. 21 NVMA c. 25 p. 88 1. 34 a Numa concepta est 

lo curiositas superstitiosa. De Praescr. Haer. 40 cited above. 

Cic. Republ. ii §| 26 27 (above) v | 3 illa diuturna pax Numae 

mater huic urbi iuris et religionis fuit. Tac. An. iii 26 Numa 

religionibus et diuino iure populum deuinxit. 

p. 74 1. 22 Arnob. Ii 65 ut enim di certi certas apud uos 

15 habent tutelas licentias potestates neque eorum ab aliquo id quod 

eius non sit potestatis ac licentiae postulatis, ita unius p>onti- 

Jicium Christi est dare animis salutem et spiritum perpetuitatis 


VRBANITATE DECEPTOS cf. c. 17 p. 56 1. 20 {anima) insti- 

2o tutionibus prauis circumscripta. esp. De Testim. Anim. 1 p. 135 

1. 4 Wiss. Liu. I 19 § 4 omnium primum rem ad multitudinem 

imperitam et illis saeculis rudem ejficacissimam deorum nietum 

iniciendum ratus est. 

p. 74 1. 23 OCVLARET Cypr. De Idolor. Vanit. 7 § 6 dis- 
25 cipidi... caecos et igriaros ad agnitionem ueritatis ocularent. 
Tert. De Paenit. 12 m. (l 664 Oehler) hirundo, si excaecauerit 
pullos, nouit illos oculare rursus de sua chelidonia. De Pudic. 
8 pr. (I 234 2 Wiss.) in uestibus purptura ocidandis. Adu. 
Marc. IV 36 p. 546 1. 25 Kr. Jidem. . .melius oculatam. [Ps.-Aug. 
30 Quaest. and in Matth. 2 exx. in my index, p. 562. A. S.] Vit. 
Cyprian. (p. XCII 1. 8 Hartel) nondum secunda natiuitas nouum 
hominem splendore toto diuinae lucis oculauerat. 

SI...EST c. 6 pr. n. infra c. 25 p. 86 1. 31 n. c. 42 p. 122 1. 8. 
Oehler on Ad Mart. 2 (both si in indir. interr. and indic. in 
35 or. obl.). Aug. Serm. 162 § 1 pr. nescio si. Bentley and Obbar 
on Hor. Ep. i 3 30. Cf i 7 39. Liu. iv 20 § 8. xxx 16 § 13. 
Early authors indic. Drager ii 460 seq., poets and late Latin 
474 sq. Petron. Apul, Gell. Hist.-Aug.-Scr. Lact. e.g. Diu. 

p. 74 1. 31J APOLOGETICVS 21, 22 309 

In. iv 16 § 9 Bunein. (from Wisdom ii 17) uideamus ergo si 
sermones illius ueri sunt. 

p. 74 1. 24 internal evidence c. 45. Cf. n. on p. 126 1. 20. 

REFORMATVR supra p. 68 1. 8. Infr. c. 48 pr. p. 136 
1. 13 (piis in quam bestiam reformari uideretur. Cypr. p. 448 5 

2 (sententiae episc. n. 29 f.). Orig. Contr. Cels. ili 42 f. t/ 
TT]\iKovTov '.^o"/c:X7;7rto9 t) Ai6vvao'i 7} Hpa/cX^? eipydaavTo ; 
Kal TLva^i e^ovaiv mroSei^ai /SeXTicoOevTa^i tu rjdii Kal KpetTTOVi 
yevo/jLevov<i aTro tmv Xoyrov Kal tov (3iov aiTOiv, Xva yevwvTat 
6eoi; Apul. Metam. XI 16 ad hominem. 10 

p. 74 1. 25 REXVNTiETVR c. 38 n. p. 110 1. 14. 

p. 74 1. 26 RATIONE c. 2 fin. nomen (Christiannm) quod 
quaedam ratio aemulae operationis insequitur . . .nomen illius 
aemulae rationis inimicuni (for OMNI Herald. inani or aemida). 

DELITESCENS Lact. Diu. Instt. n 16 § 19 sed illorum sunt 15 
isti lusus, qui sub nominibus mortuorum delitescentes, uiuentibus 
plagas tendunt. itaque siue illud periculum quod imminet uitari 
potest, uideri uolunt id placati auertisse ; siue non potest, id agunt, 
ut propter illorum contemptum accidisse uideatur. 

p. 74 1. 27 ORACVLis infr. c. 22. De Cult. Fem. i 2 pr. 20 

3 pr. Socr. iii 18. Clem. Alex. p. 1002 P. Bouche-Leclercq, 
Astrol. 606. 

Cap. XXII 

p. 74 1. 29 Kaye, 198, 200 seq. 

p. 74 1. 30 DAEMONES cc. 23. 27. 37. Ad Scap. 2. De 
Praescr. Haer. 40. Laot. ii 14 § 5. Euseb. Praep. Euang. iv 25 
17 §§ 5 6. V 4 § 1. Minuc. 26 § 9 eos spiritus daemonas esse 
poetae sciunt, philusophi disserunt, Socrates nouit, qui ad nutum 
et arbitrium adsidentis sibi daemonis uel declinahat negotia uel 

p. 74 1. 31 SOCRATE...A PUERITIA ADHAESLSSE Plat. A^XjI. 30 

p. 31'». Phaedr. p. 242. Tert. Apol. 46 p. 128 1. 14 Socratis 
vox est: ' si daemonium permittat.' De Anim. 39 p. 366 1. 29 
Wiss. sic igitur et Socraten inierum adhuc spiritus daemonicus 
inuenit. 1 p. 299 1. 23 Wiss. (Socrati) aiunt daemonium a puero 
adhaesisse. Lact. il 14 § 9 et Socrates esse circa se assiduum 35 
daemona loquebatur, qui sibi a puero adhaesisset, cuius arbitrio et 

310 TERTVLLIANI [p. 74 1. 31— 

niitu sua uita regeretur. Epit. 28 § 2. Minuc. 26 § 9 cited 
above. Orig. c. Cels. vi 8. Cypr. Quod idola di non sint 6 
(p. 23 15) hos et poetae daemonas norunt et Socrates instrui se 
et regi ad arhitrium daemonii praedicabat (the only reference 
5 in Cyprian to Socrates). Aug. De Ciu. Dei viii 14 speaking 
of Apul. De Deo Socr. [especially De Philosophia Libri, but 
see Teubner indexes to all works. A.S.]. C£ Plut. De Genio 
Socr. Max. Tyr. [Hobein's index, p. 507. A. S.]. 

AD ARBITRIVM Cic. pro Murena § 19 uixit ad alioruin ay^hi- 

lo trium, non ad suuni. Hor. Carm. iii 6 40 matris ad arhitrium 
recisos fustes, so iii 2 20. Suet. Tac. 

p. 74 1. 32 DEHORTATORIVM only ex. in lexx. add Hieronym. 
in Ezech. vii 10. -ator add to lexx. ; it occurs Aug. in Ps. 80 
11 cet. [Thes. has Donat. (1 ex.) Aug. (1 ex.). A.S.] 

15 p. 74 1. 33 POETAE Lact. 11 14 § 7 eos poetae et sciunt esse 
daemonas et loquuntur. Hesiodus ita tradit (Opera et Dies 
122 — 3) ol fjbkv Saifiovi'; eltri Ato? fMeydXov 8ia /3ovXa<i eadXoi, 
iTri-^Oovtoi, ^vXaKe^ dvrjTMV dvOpcairoiv (cf. Minuc. 26 § 9 (cited 
on 1. 80)). 

20 p. 74 1. 34 De Test. Anim. 3 p. 137 1. 23 Wiss. daemonium 
uocas hominem aut iiimiunditia aut malitia aut insolentia aut 
quacumque macida, quam nos daemoniis deputamus, ad necessi- 
tatem odii importunum. Satanan denique in omni uexatione et 
aspernatione et detestatione pronuntias, quem nos dicimns malitiae 

25 angelum, totius erroris artificem, where Rigault supposes that the 
interjection ' mahim ' (cf. mahis = mahgnus, the Evil one) is 
meant. Heathen gods demons Keil Opusc. Acad. ed. Goldhorn 
II 584 601 often in Orig. Contr. Cels. iii 2, who cited Psal. 95 5, 
the gods of the heathen haifiovia. 

30 p. 76 1. 1 EXSECRAMEXTi Vulg. and Adu. lud. in lexx. Add 
Aug. Haer. 46. [Add Num. 5, 21 ap. Aug. quaest. hept. iv 11, 
Deut. 7. 26 ap. Aug. ep. 47, 3. A.S.] 

PLATO cf., on demons, Tim. 40*^® cited by Athenag. 23. Lact. 
II 14 I 9 philosophi quoque de his dixerunt; nam Plato etiam 

35 naturas eorum in Syniposio exprimere conatus est. 

p. 76 ]. 3 DE ANGELis cet. Gen. vi 2. lustin. Apol. 11 5 
(see Pusey p. 54 n. c. Zahn Forschungen il 301 — 2) 01 8' 
dyyeXoi, irapajSdvre^i T7]v8e rrjv Ta^iv, yvvaLKWv fii^eaLV jjTrr']- 

p. 76 1. 17] APOLOGETICVS 22 311 

drjaav koX 7rat8a>i iriKvwaai', oi elaiv oi Xeyofxevot haifiove<i. 
Athenag. 24 — 5. Clem. Alex. Strom. v 1 § 10. Pseudo-Clem. 
Hom. VI 13. Lact. ii 14—15. Cf. loseph. Antiq. i 4. Tert. 
De Idolol. 9 p. 38 1. 10 Wiss. (Oehlers n. a p. 77) unum jwopono, 
angelos esse illos desertores Dei, amatores feminarum. Adii. 5 
Marc. V 18 fin. (p. 640 11. 20—21 Kr.). 

p. 76 1. 5 LITTERAS SANCTAS probably Enoch, which he 
cites De Cult. Fem. i 3 II 10. De Idolol. 4 p. 33 1. 22 Wiss. 15 
p. 48 1. 16 Wiss. : perh. however Gen. vi 2, Ashton. For Enoch 
cf. Orig. Contr. Cels. v 54 f. (Spencer's n. in Lommatzsch 269 10 

p. 76 1. 7 EVERSio Minuc. 26 § 8 ad solacinm calamitatis 
suae non desinunt perditi iam perdere et deprauati errorem 
prauitatis infundere et alienati a Deo inductis prauis reli- 
gionihus a Deo segregare. Lact. 11 14 § 11 solaciuni perditionis 15 
suae perdendis hominibus operantur. 16 §§ 9. 20, 17 § 10. 
Epit. 27 § 11. [Cf also Ps.-Aug. Quaest. 110 § 1, 127 \ 11, 
2 nov. 50. Gaud-Brix. serm. 18. Ambros. in psalm. cxviii i 
13. Leo Serm. 22, 1. A.S.] 

p. 76 1. 8 cf. de Spect. 22 fin. 20 

CORPORIBVS Minuc. 27 § 2 inrepentes etiani corporibus re- 
pente ut spiritus tenues morfto.s fingunt. Lact. ii 14 § 14 qui, 
quoniani sunt spiritus tenues et incomprehensibiles, insinuant se 
corporibus hominum et occulte in uisceribus operati ualetudinem 
uitiant, morbos citant. Id. Epit. 2 | 8. Cypr. Quod idola di non 25 
sint c. 7 (p. 24 H.). Tatian 31 f p. 70. Origen Contr. Cels. 
VIII 31. Clem. Hom. iv 4 (Simon at Tyre) ttoWoi/? Se yorjTa 
avrov i\6y)(^eiv Treipco/jLevovi BiaWci^a^i 7rpo9 eavrov evdvarepov 
TTpocfxiaec evco^^^^ia^ ISovv 6vaa<;, kuI eariciaa<i avrov<i, 8ia(})6poi<i 
voaoii; Trepce^aXev kuI Saipoaiv vire^aXev. Recogn. IV 19. 30 
lustin. Apol. I 5, 11 5 p. 44". [Cf Ps.-Aug. Quaest. 112 § 9 
p. 290 11. 22 ff. A.S.] 

p. 76 1. 11. Origen xx 301 L. 

p. 76 1. 17 EADEM cet. Athenag. 27 01 rrepl rrjv vXrjv 
Baifiove'i...ci7rar7}'\,oi Be civOpcoTrcov, 7rpoa\al36vre<i ra<i 'v|reu8o- 35 
oo^ov^i ravra<i ru)v ttoWwv rrj<i -v^li;)^?}? Kivt')aei<i, ^avraaia<i 
avroi<i co<i arro rcov ei8co\ci)v Kal clya^/jLcircov, iTTi^arevovTe<i 
avrctiv Toi<i vorj/jiaaiv, elapelv 7rape)(0vai' Kal oaa KaO' eavrrjv. 

312 TERTVLLIANI [p. 76 1. 17— 

cb? (iOdvaTO'? ovaa, \oyiKM<; Kivelrai "^vxv, V TrpofiT^vvovaa ra 
fxeWovra rj depaTrevovaa rd ivearrjKOTa, rovrcov rrjv ho^av 
Kapirovvrat ol BalfjLove<i. Euseb. Praep. Euang. V 2 | 1 eyyvOev 
ecjieSpoi KOi avvepyol rr}^ TrXdvrj^ Traprjaav, rol^ rtbv dvdpdrTrwv 

5 KaKol'^ 67revrpv(f)0)vre<i Kal rov<i rjXiOiov^ rdq \|/-L'^a<? ev^epd)^ 
dTTard)vre<i Kivrjaeal re ^odvwv, d Brj eVi ri/jbfj rwv Karoi-^OjJLevo^v 
dvSpdov 77/30? rd)v TraXaioov dcf^iepcorai Kal ral<i hid ^(prja/xd^v 
cf)avTaaLac<;. Minuc. 27 § 1 isti igitur impuri spiritus, daeinones, 
nt ostensum onar/is, a p>kilosophis et a Platone, sub statuis et 

lo imaginihus consecrati delitescunt et adjiatu suo auctoritatem 
quasi praesentis numinis consequuntur, dum inspirantur interim 
itatibus, dum fanis immorantur, dum nonnumquam extorum 
fibras animant, auium uolatus guhernant. 

p. 76 1. 21 c. 23. c. 35 p. 104 1. 32. Pusey n. e. p. 55. Ad 

15 Scap. 2 haec enim [odor et sanguis] daemoniorum pabula sunt. 
De Idolol. 6 p. 36 4 Wiss. Adu. Marc. v 5 f. p. 587 1. 16 Kr. 
{nidorosorum). lustin. Apol. I 5. ii 4 (5) of demons, ro dvOpd)- 
rreiov yevo^; eavroL<? i8ov\o)aav...rd 8e Sid SiSaT^»}? 6v/iiiro)v 
Kal dv/iLa/idrcov Kal a7rov8d)v, wv ivSeei<i yeyovaaL /lerd ro 

20 TrdOeaLv i7ri6v/MLd)v Zov\o)6r}vai. Cf Minuc. 27 § 3 Holden, 
memhra distorquent, ut ad cultum sui cogant, ut nidore altarium 
uel hostiis pecudum saginati remissis quae constrinxerant curasse 
uideantur. Clem. Alex. Protrept. 50 cites as the demons' own 
confession of gluttony \oL/3i]<; re Kviaari^; re, ri) ydp \d-)(^o/xev 

25 ryepa^ r/jieh. Euseb. Praep. Euang. V 2 § 1 ai/iaai re Ka\ 
\v6poL<; Kal Travroio)v ^ajo)V ad)/iaaL rrj re iK rdiv dva6vfj.ia)- 
/levcov Kal dTro rij<; 77)9 i^ar/iii^o/xevwv dvaSoaei j^aipovre^;, o'i re 
rovrwv dp-^ovre^^ depiOL rive<i vTrdpxovre^;, r) Kai Kara^^^ovioi 
hvvd/xeL<;, ijrel Kare/xadov rd dv6pd)7rLvov yevo<; Karco ttov rrepi 

30 v€Kpd)V dvZpcov 6eo7roitav l\va7rd)/xevov, 6vaLaL<; re Kal Kviaai<i 
ral<; Zr/ /xakiara avroL<; Ke^x^apLa/ievai^ Sta 7rdar/<; a7rovSrj<; 
iK7Tovov/xevdv. Origen XX p. 297 L. Id. Contr. Cels. iii 29. 37, 
p. 133. IV. 32. VI 6 p. 335 a. f 336 pr. vii 5 p. 334 fin. 35. 
56 f 64. VIII 18. 30. Athenag. c. 26 pr. (p. 29'' fin.). c. 27 

35 p. 30''. Tatian 12 p. 151*^. Oenomaus (temp. Hadr.) says to 
Apollo (Euseb. Praep. Euang. v 21 5 p. 213^^) ri he av KVLaid^; 
Luc. bis acc. 2 bis. Iliad iv 49. ix 458. Aristoph. Aues 187. 
193. 1514—24 cet. Ps. 40 8—11. 50 13. 51. 16, 17, ps.- 

p. 76 1. 31] APOLOGETICVS 22 313 

Aq.= 50 9—11. 1 Sam. 15 22. Is. 1 10—20. Jer. 6 20. Amos 
5 21—27 cet. Clem. Hom. vii 3. viii 20. ix 15. Theodoret 
Gr. Affect. Curat. V § 60 p. 47 1. 25. § 66 p. 48 20 sq. vii (of 
sacrifices) § 14 p. 104 29 sq. § 22 sq. p. 106 1 sq. (from O.T.). 
Denied by Aug. Contr. Faust. xx 22 m. (viii 547 a sq.) illi 5 
qiiippe superhi et impii spiritus, non nidore ac fumo, sicut non- 
nulli uaiii opinantur, sed hominum pascuniur errorihus : non sui 
corporis refectione, sed maleuoJa delectatione cuni quoquo modo 
decipiunt, uel aiToc/anti fastu siniulatae maiestatis cum diuinos 
sihi honores exhiheri gloriantur. Porphyr. De Abst. il 42 fin. 10 
p. 204 in Aug. C. D. 11 11 (i 419 19 D.), of evil demons, oinoi ol 
'y^aLpoire^ \oL/3i] re Kvicrar) re, 81 wv avTMV t6 irvevfJLaTLKov 
Kai (7co/jLaTiK(jv TTiaiveTai. ^fj ryap TovTo dT/j,oi<; Kal dvadvfj-idaeai, 
TTOiKiXwi; 8id Twv ttoiklXcov, Kal Svva/jLOVTai rai^i e/c twv ai/xd- 
Tcov Kal aapKMv Kpiaaai<i [dvaiai^; Euseb.] (cited by Euseb. 15 
Praep. Euang. iv 22 § 12). Cf. Porphyr. Epist. ad Anebon. 
in Euseb. Praep. Euang. v 10 § 2 p. l^^'^. Greg. Naz. Or. 38 
(l 614°= P.G. XXXVI 316*^) 6eov's...KviaaaL^ ^aipoi/Ta^. 

p. 76 l. 23 ACCVRATIOR more exquisite Cic. Brut. § 283 
accuratius et exquisitius dicendi genus. 20 

PASCVA {dir. Xey.) Ronsch p. 101 (but Ep. Barn. 16 has -ui 
[gen. sing.]), also in Arn. iun. in Ps. 78 etc. Aug. in Ps. 129 4. 
Cael. Aurel. tard. iv 3 § 55. [Add Aug. in lob, tom. iil p. 501 E 
of ed. Bened. Antv. A. S.] 

RECOGITATV Adu. Marc. IV 43 p. 066 1. 2 Kr. and in lexx. 25 

p. 76 1. 28 VELOCITA8 Athanas. (and Euagr.) Yit. Anton. 
31, 32. 

p. 76 1. 29 ET SVNT and indeed. Woodham cites Kritz Sall. 
lug. 80. Tac. Hist. i 72. 

p. 76 1. 30 PLANE...TAMEX c. 37 f hostes iudicare nialuistis: 30 
qui sunius plane, non generis liumani tanien, sed potius erroris. 

p. 76 1. 31 DisPOsiTiONES c. 41. Lact. Diu. Instt. ii 16 § 14 
cum dispositiones Dei praesentiant, quippe qui ministri eius 
fuerunt, interponunt se in his rehus, ut quaecumque a Deo iiel 
facta sunt uel fiunt, ipsi potissimuni facere aut fecisse uideantur: 35 
et quoties alicui populo uel urhi secundum Dei statutum honi 
quid impendet, illi se id facturos uel prodigiis uel sonDiiis 
nel oraculis pollicentur, si sihi tenipla, si honores, si sacri- 

314 TERTVLLIANI [p. 76 1. 31— 

Jicia tt'ibuantur. quihus datis, cuni illud accidej^it quod ne- 
cesse est, summam sihi puriunt uenerationem. Firmilian in 
Cypr. Ep. 75 10 (817 3 seq.) a prophetess, ita autem j^^^inci- 
palium daemoniorum impetu ferehatur ut per longuni tenipus 
5 sollicitaret et deciperet fraternitatem, adoiirahilia quaedam et 
portentosa perfciens utfacere se terrammouey^i polliceretur : non 
quod daemoni tanta esset potestas ut terranimouere aut elenientum 
concutere ui sua ualeret, sed quod nonnaniquam nequam spiritus 
praesciens et intellegens terrae motum futurum id se facturum 

lo esse simularet quod futurum uideret. Kaye 203. Lasaiilx 
Studien p. 134 n. 206. Harnack on Hermas Mand. 11 § 3. 
A familiar spirit revealed to Apollon. Tyan. the future. Eus. 
c. Hier. 35. 

EXCERPVNT Plin. ep. III 5, 10 n, 

15 p. 76 1. 33 SORTES luu. 1 82 n. pp. 129—130. 

AEMVLANTVR supra c. 2 f. iUius aemulae rationis. De leiun. 
16 p. 296 1. 11 Wiss. diaholus diuinorum aemulator. De Anim. 
20 p. 333 1. 8 Wiss. praesunt ; secundum nos quidem Deus domi- 
nus et diaholus aemulus. 

20 DIVINITATEM c. 11 pr. p. 38 1. 30, 


p. 76 1. 34 FVRANTVR c. 47 p. 134 1. 10 n. lustin. Apol. i 
c. 4 pp. 54*" 55. c. 54 p. 89*^ tovtwv ovv rwv irpo<^r]rLK(av 
Xoycov aKovaavre^; ol 8aLfiove<i Aiovvaov fxkv €<j)aaav yeyovevac 

25 vLov ToO Aio?, evperrjv he yeveaOaL apbrrekov irapehwKav. Clem, 
Alex. Strom. I c. 17 § 81 (4) p. 366 elr ovv Bvva/jLL<; ?) ayye\o<i 
/jLadcov Ti T?}? dXijdeia^ Kal /jLrj KarapLelva^i ev avrfj, ravra 
eveTTvevae Kal /cXex/ra? eSlSa^ev. VII c. 2 | 6 (4) p. 832 ovr6<i 
[0 KvpLO^^ earLV o 8iSov<i Kal roL^"KX\r)ai rrjv (fnXoaocpLav Sia 

30 ro)v v7roSeearepo)v dyyeXcov. V c. 1 § 10 (2) p. 650 the amorous 
angels of Gen. 6 communicated higher truths to the women 
their paramours. 

ORACVLis Minuc. 27 § 1 sortes regunt, oracula efficiunt 
falsis plurihus inuoluta. 26, Lactant, ii 7 § 7 seq. 14 § 6 seq. 

35 Tzschirner 401 — 3. Arnob. iv 11 — 12. Orig. Contra Cels. vii 
cc. 3—6 pp. 333—5. Bk x of Theodoret Graec. AfF. Cur. § 2 sq. 
p. 135 sq. is on true and false oracles (the demons inspire them). 
He cites Plut, 41 8*^ demons, but good ones. Myers Essay on 

p. 76 1. 35] APOLOGETICVS 22 315 

Oracles. lamblichus and Porphyiy ascribe them to Serapis 
and Hecate, Gods of Hell. Cf. Yan Dale 1 — 50. Euseb. Praep. 
Euang. III 17 p. 127. 

p. 76 1. 35 AMBiGViTATES Luc. lupp. Trag. 28. 31. Vit. 
Auct. 14. Theodoret Graec. Aff. Cur. x § 25 p. 139 1. 40. Clem. 5 
Hom. iii 24. Ammian. xxiii 5 §§ 8 9. Hier. iv 504a. Capella 
§ 9. Herodot. vii 111. Cic. De Diuinat. i § 116. 11 §§ 115—6 
(see below). Plut. 11 408—9 399. Arnob. iii 23 Hild. 

TEMPEREXT Lact. Diu. Instt. 11 14 § 6 sciunt illi quiclem 
fatura multa, sed iion onmia, quippe quihus penitus consilium 10 
Dei scire non licet, et ideo solent responsa in ambiguos exitus 
temperare. Semisch lustin Mart. Ii 381 seq. Luc. Dial. 
Mort. 3 1. Deor. Dial. 16 1 6 S' WttoWwv TrpoaTroieiTat /xeu 
irdvT elSevai,. ..Kal KaTacrrr}a-d/j.evo<; epyaaTijpia t?}? piavTLKrj^i 
...e^airaTa tov<; y^pwp-evovi avTw, Xo^d Kal eTTa/ji(f}OTepL^ovTa 15 
Trpo? eKaTepov t?"/? epcoT7]aeo)<; a7roKpLv6pLevo<i, co? aKLvSvvov eivaL 
To a(f)dXp.a. Plut. ed. ReLske Vii 569 sq. 609 i 

CROESI the stock ex. of ambiguity Aristot. Rhet. iii 5 
§4, Cope. Tert. ad nat. ii 17 p. 131 1. 16 Wiss. Theodoret 
Graec. Aff. Cur. X § 26 p. 139 47 (other oracles follow). Chalcid. 20 
inTim.c.l67. See Myers (op. cit.). Herodot. i 46— 56.91. Arnob. 
IV 24 nuniquid a nohis dicitur . . .Apollineni diteni factum eos ipsos 
reges quorum gazis fuerat locupletatus et donis, amhiguitate 
fefellisse responsi. Cic. De Diuinat, II §§ 115 116, Davies. Cf. 
I § 37. Neither mentioned by Plutarch. Both in Amm. XXIII 25 
5 9. esp. Lucian Alex. 48 f. Charon 11 12. lup. Conf 14 pr. 
lup. Trag. 20 pr. 30. 43, bis acc. 1. Lasaulx 312 313. Dio Chrys. 
X p. 149 [=11 671^' ed. Paris, 1834]. Nonnus Hist. 94 in Gr. 
Naz. aTrjXiT. Suid. KpoLao^; and Ao^ta?. 

PYRRHi Aug. De Ciu. Dei iii 17 § 2 (i p. 124 1. 34 ff. ed. 30 
Dombart'). Enn. in Cic. De Diuinat. ii § 116 Davies. Quintil. 
VII 9 § 6 (aniphiholia = amhiguitas). Minuc. 26 ^ 6 de Pyrrho 
Ennius Apollinis Pythii responsa conjinxit, cum iam Apollo 
uersus facere desisset : cuius tunc cautum illud et amhiguum 
defecit oraculum, cum et politiores homines et minus creduli esse 35 
coeperunt. Arnob. Iii 23 p. 127 26. iv 24 p. 161 5. 28 p. 164 
30. Euseb. Praep. Euang. v 20 21. ' Limburg-Brouwer vi 
76 sq. 

316 TERTVLLIANI [p. 78 1. 1— 

p. 78 1. 1. Max. Tyr. 19 (= 3) 3. Cf. 3 p. 362 (= 13 [19] 3a, 
p. 160 ed. Hobein) ro Se Oelov SoKel croi yivcoaKeiv Trdvra e^i)^, Kai 
ra KuXa Kat ra aicr^^pa, Kal ra rifxia Kal rn ari^a ; (f)eiSofxai rwv 
pr]/jLdr(ov Kal atSoj? fxe rov deov Gxei. aefxvov jdp ri ro irdvra 
5 ecSevac, Kal dpLdfxov •yfrd/xfxayv Kal OaXdrrrf^; fxerpa, Kal ^vvievai 
droTTov \e/3r]ro<i e^jrofievov ev \v8oL<i. Cf. 17 6 Davies, 11 (= 30) 
[=5 Hobein] 2 p. 190 [pp. 53 f. Hobein] (oracle cited) schol. 
Luc. III 272. See esp. the fragments of Oenomaus (MuHach 
Fr. Phil. II 359—385, preserved by Euseb. Praep. Eu. v 18 sq. 

10 VI 7), esp. Praep. Eu. v 20 § 8. 21 §§ 1—5 pp. 211^—213'^'. 
Ohliquoloquus Ao^m? Gloss. Philox. Cic. De Diuinat. Ii c. 56 
§ 140(?). Hier. in Esai. c. 41. Theodoret Graec. Aff. Cur. x- 
§ 25 sq. 

p. 78 1. 2 MOMEKTO cf p. 76 1. 26. 

15 p. 78 L 3 HABENT SAPERE 37 pr. n. 36 pr. n. Oehler on De 
Fug. in Persec. 12 p. 485 n. t. 

IXCOLATVS the word in Yarro ap. Tert. ad Nat. ii 5 p. 102 
1. 20 Wiss. 3 other exx. in Oeh]er's ind. add De Cor. Milit. 13. 
Arch. f. lat. Lexik. viii 239. Ps. 119 5 in Psalt. Yeron. and 

2o Aug. [cf Le Texte du Psautier Latin en Afrique, par P. Capelle, 
Rome, 1913, p. 107. A.S. and] Paulin. Nol. Ep. 13, c£ 28 4. 
Lexx. cite inscr. dig. Cod. Theodos. [Add Exod. 12 40 ap. Aug. 
quaest. hept. ii 47, Cyprian of Toulon in Migne P. L. LXVii 
1002 c. Hil. Ambr. Hier. A. S.] 

25 p. 78 1. 4 PARATVRAS Oehler ind. c. 47 p. 134 1. 2 n. c. 27 
p. 92 1. 18. Scorp. 10 p. 169 1. 2 Wiss. Adu. Yalentin. 26 
p. 202 1. 16 Kr. De leiun. 11 j). 289 1. 4 Wiss. De Monog. 
7 pr. Adu. Marc. i 11 p. 305 1. 22 Kr. iii 10 p. 393 1. 2 Kr. iv 
1 p. 422 1. 23 Kr. 3 p. 427 1. 15 Kr. 31 p. 526 1. 25 Kr. 

30 43 p. 565 1. 23. Pontius Yit. Cypr. 2 p. xcii 10 H. 11 p. cii 6 H. 
Oehler on De Spectac. 4 p. 6 1. 8 Wiss. De Cor. Milit. 1 a. m. 
De Yirg. Yeland. 12 f uulg. 

PLVVIAS c. 23 p. 80 1. 8 i.'ita ipsa im^go caelestis plfiuiarum 

35 p. 78 1. 5 PLANE ironical c. 35 p. m. 

p. 78 1. 6 LAEDVNT cet. Tatian 18 fin. Minuc. 27 § 3 
irrepentes etiam corporihus occidte, ut spiritus tenues, morhos 
fingunt, terrent mentes, memhra distorquent, id ad cultuin sui 

p. 78 1. 9] APOLOGETICVS 22 317 

cogant: ut nidore altariiini uel Jiostiis pecxdnm saginati, remissis 
quae constrinxerant, curasse uideantur. Lact. Diu. Instt. ii 14 § 13 
et scientes daemonas uenerantur, quasi terrestres deos et quasi 
depulsores malorum, quae ipsi faciunt et irrogant. 15 § 1 prod- 
esse enini eos putant, cum nocere desinunt, qui nihil aliud 5 
possunt quam nocere. Iren. ii 31 § 2 nec enini caecis possunt 
donare uisuin neque surdis audituni neque onines daemones 
effugare [he is speaking of magicians], praeter eos qui ab ipsis 
immittuntur, si tamen et hoc faciunt. Euseb. Praep. Eu. v 2 
§ 1 fin. BepaTrelai^i re aoijjiaTwv, a Bia t^? olKeia^ avTwv ivepyeia^ 10 
(i^avu)<i avTol Xvfxaivo/jbevoc, TraXiv oi avTol hui Tr]^ e^ avTutv 
dveaewi eXevdepou<i TraOcov rji^lecrav. Athenag. 23 to p,ev Srj 
Kara tottov^ Kal 7ro\et? Kal e6vi] •yivecrdai TLva<i eir 6v6/xaTL 
elSojXcov evepyeia^i ov8' ?}/iet9 dvTiXeyopuev' ov fiijv, ei co^eX?;- 
drjadv Tive<; Kal av ekvm^di-jaav erepoi, deov<; voovfMev tov<; e^' 15 
eKarepa evepyrjaavTa^i. Diog. Laert. VIII § 32 (Pythag.) elvai 
re irdvra rov depa 'y^v^diJv enTrXeoiv' Kal ravTa<; haifxovd^i re 
Kal /jpwa^ 6vofid^€cr6af Kal vrro tovtcov 7refi7rea6ac avdpcoTroa 
rovi r oveipovi Kal rci arffxela v6aov re Kal vyieLa^. Porphyr. 
De Abst. II 43(?). Clem. Hom. ix 16. 18. Cf. Tert. De Anim. 20 
9 p. 310 1. 23 Wiss. of the Montanist prophetess, medicinas 
desiderantib us s ubmittit. 

p. 78 1. 7 lo. Sarisbur. Policrat. vi 24 p. 623^^ (of presby- 
ters and cardinals) nocent saepius et in eo daemones imitantur, 
quod tunc prodesse putantur cum nocere desistunt. 25 


PROMOTAM Minuc. 7 § 3 testis mater Idaea, quae aduentu suo 
et probauit matronae castitatern et urbem metu hostili liberauit : 
testes equestrium fratrum in lacu, sicut ostenderant, statuae 
consecratae, qui anJielis spumantibus equis atque fumantibus de 30 
Ferse uictoriam eadem die qua fecerant nuntiauerunt. ib. 27 § 4 
de ipsis [daemonibus^ etiam illa quae paullo ante tibi dicta 
sunt...ut cum equis Castores uiderentur, ut cingulum matronae 
nauicula sequeretur. Lact. Diu. Inst. ll 7 § 9 Castor and Pollux 
at Iuturna's lake in the Latin war. § 10 in the Macedonian 35 
war. C£ Cic. De Nat. Deor. ii § 6 (both). Lact. 11 7 § 9. 
Val. Max. i 8 1 and 2? Flor. i 11. 11 12. Bayle oeuvres 
III 282. CASTORES Kiihner vol. 11 p. 50 n. 2. Cf. aBeXtpoL 

318 TERTVLLIANI [p. 78 1. 9— 

Amm. XIX 10 4. Minuc. 22 § 7. Plin. vii § 86. xxxv §§ 27. 

71. 93. Tac. Hist. ii 24. Apul Oros. vii 8 6. Capitolin. 

Maximin. 16 § 1. Auson. Grat. Act. ad fin. (cf. reges luu. xiii 

52 n. Quirinos XI 105 n.). Cypr. p. 19 10. Namatian i 155 
5 gemino...Gastore. domini = dominus and doniina Ou. Am. ii 

2 32. Arnob. quater. Pacat. 39 § 4 Castoras geminos. Itin. 

Alex. 90. Neue i^ 393 — 4. Nothing in Roby or Kennedy. 

Ruddiman-Stallb. ii 36 — 7. Quintil. ix 3 6o (of avve^evy- 

fievov) iungit autem et diuersos sexus, ut cum marem feminam- 
10 que filios dicimus. De Vit. Onom. [cf. Expositor for July, 1914, 

p. 95. Jan., 1915, pp. 94 K A.S.] 

p. 78 1. 10 AQVAM CRIBRO GE.STATAM Otto Sprichworter cri- 

hrnm n. 3 p. 98. Valer. Maxim. V]ii 1 absol. § 5. Plin. xxviii 2 

§ 12. Dionys. Halicarn. li 69 (uulg. AovKia). Liu. Epit. 20 (incesti 
15 damnata est). Acc. to Detlefsen in Plin. a.u.c. 619 (135 i:.c.), 

acc. to Livy in 2nd decad of 6th cent. Aug. De Ciu. Dei x 

16 § 2 (I 427 32 D.), by Tuccia, xxii 11 (11 586 11 D.). Sidon. 

Carm. 24, 41 — 3 qualis nec Phrygiae dicata Vestae, quae contra 

satis Albulam tumentem, duxit uirgineo rateni capillo. Claud. 
20 Laus Serenae 18 ducens Claudia uirgineo ciinctantent crine 

Cyhelen. (Aug. zona.) 

CINGVLO Lact. Diu. Instt. 11 7 § 12. 16 § 11. Sil. xvii. 

34 seq. Savaro on Sidon. Carm. 24, 42 43 p. 207 (cited 

above) B.C. 204 Claudia Quinta prob. granddaughter of Caecus 
25 (Cic. pro Cael. § 84 ^^^'ogenies Caeci). Cic. Har. Resp. § 27. 

Liu. XXIX 14. Plin. vii 35 § 120. App. Hannibal 56. Ou. 

Fast. IV 305 seq. Diodor. Sicul. xxxiv 33 § 2. Valer. Maxim. 

l 8 § 11 (wrongly called a Vestal by Aurel. Vict. III. 46 and 

Hdn (reference below) and Aug. de Ciu. Dei x 16, matrona 
30 in Cic. and Liu. Orelli Onom. Tull. 149. Herodian i 11 §§ 4 5. 

Claudian Laus Serenae 17 — 8 (cited above). C£ 28 — 30. De 

Vit. Onom. 11 p. 301 col. 2. Solin. i § 126. Arnob. vii 49. 

lulian. Or. 5 p. 159 seq. Hier. Adu. louin. i 41 (11 307''). 

barbam Sueton. Nero 1. 2. Plut. Aemil. Paul. 25. Corio- 
35 lan. 3. Dion. Halicarn. vi 13. [Cic. De Nat. Deor. ii c. 2 § 6 

(battle with Latins at Lake Regillus (b.C. 496) M.] Mart. viii 

52 3. 

p. 78 I. 11 IRRVFATAM De leiun. 17 p. 296 I. 22 Wiss. 

p. 78 1. 13] APOLOGETTCVS 22, 23 319 

(wrongly 16 in R.W.) si tihi lenticulam defruto inrufatam 
obtulero. Hier. Ep. 107 (al. 7) ad Laetam c. 5 pr. nec capillum 

LAPIDES infr. c. 41 pr. apud quos Deus spernitur, statuae 
adorantur. Arnob. vil 48 49, on the statue of the Magna 5 
Mater as an ally against Hannibal. 


p. 78 1. 13 MAGI c. 21 p. 70 1. 24, infra p. 82 1. 7. Oehler ad 
De Idolol. 9 p. 38 1. 16 Wiss. Minuc. 26 § 9 magi quoque non 
tantuni sciunt daemonas, sed etiam quidquid miraculi ludunt 
per daemonas faciuvt, illis adspirantibus et infundentibus prae- 10 
stigias edunt, uel quae non sunt uideri uel quae sunt non uideri. 
Lact. II 14 § 10 magoy^um quoque ars omnis ac potentia horum 
aspirationibus constat. a quibus inuocati uisus hominiim prae- 
stigiis occaecantibus fallunt, ut non uideant ea quae sunt, et 
uidere se putent illa quae non sunt. 16 § 4. vii 13 § 7 certis 15 
carniinibus cieri ab inferis animas ■et adesse et praebere se 
humanis oculis uidendas et loqui et futura praedicere. lustin. 
Apol. I 18 p. 65a 24. 34. 73. Clem. Recogn. 11. 13. i 5 (Hom. 
I 5 II 30). Herodian iv 12 8. Tzschirner 149 seq. Cyprian 
Quod idola di non sint c. 4. Elmenhorst on Arnob. I 43 p. 40 20 
41. Aug. Consens. Euang. i 8 — 10. 14. Geffcken Zwei Apolo- 
geten (1907) p. 240 n. 9. 

DEFVNCTOKVM Porphyr. in Euseb. Praep. Euang. v 10 § 3. 
Philostr. Vit. Apollon. Tyan. iv 16 evokes Achilles (Eus. c. 
Hierocl. 28 and 35 £), a girl iv 45 (Euseb. 35 f ). lustin. Apol. 25 
I 18 (and 8 ?). Bouche-Leclercq Divination i 97 n. 1. yjrvxajo)- 
ryelv. Stallbaum on Plat. Tim. 71 A, esp. Tert. de Anim. 57. 
Pauly 'Magia' pp. 1411 — 2. Winer Real-Worterb. and Schenkel 
Bibel-Lex. " Todtenbeschworung." Hor. Epod. 17 e.g. 79 possim 
crematos excitare mortuos. Sat. I 8 e.g. 28 — 9 cruor in fossani 30 
confusus, ut inde manes elicerent, animas responsa daturas. Tac. 
Ann. II 28 temptatus ut infernas animas carminibus eliceret. 
Lucan ^i 423—827. Stat. Theb. iv 406—645. Broukh. on 
Tibull. I 2 45—6. C^erda on Verg. Ecl. 8 98. Ou. Metam. vii 
206. Cf Grote Plato 11 202. 35 

320 TERTVLLIANI [p. 78 1. 14— 

p. 78 1. 14 PVEROS luu. 6 552. Hor. Epod. 5. 12 cet. 
Dollinger Heidenthum 660 sq. Bohringer [ed.- iii 194]. 

p. 78 1. 15 MIRACVLA Arnob. i 43 Herald. 

CiRCVLATORiis Quintil. in lexx. (uolubilitas and iactatio). 

5 Add Tert. De Idolol. 9 p. 39 1. 4 Wiss. Simon Magus iam iam 

fidelis, quoniam aliquid adhuc de circulatoria secta cogitaret. 

[See Thes. A.S.] Epiphan. haer. xxxiv. Arn. i 43. Lact. ii 14 

§ 12. Kaye 202 (8). 

SOMNIA Minuc. 27 § 3 somnos inquietant, where Holden 
lo cites Tatian c. 18. lustin. Apol. I c. 14. Thilo Cod. Apocr. Nou. 
Test. I 525. Lact. Diu. Instt. ii 14 § 14. 

p. 78 1. 17 CAPRAE Clem. Protrept. c. 2 § 11 p. 11 P. (in 
Euseb. Praep. Eu. H 3 § 5) crvveixiropoi rrjahe r)]<; yorjreLa^ alye'; 
ai eVt jJbavrLKrjv rjaKrnjievat Kat xopaKe^i dv6p(t}7roi<; xpa.v vtt' 
15 dvdpdoiroiv SiSaaKOfxevoi. 

MENSAE Sozom. VI 35, certain vvould-be philosophers, 
anxious to learn who would succeed Valens, made a wooden 
tripod of bay, which they consecrated with their customary 
invocations, so that the name of the future emjDeror was 
20 signified letter by letter, through the art of the tripod and 
divination. The order of letters tallied down to 8 with the 
name of Theodorus, a soldier of mark about court. He and 
they were put to death. Amm. xxix 1 29 (Maitland, False 
Worship 263 seq.), the letters were on the margin of the 
25 circular table. Maitland (op. cit. 226 seq.). Table-lifting among 
Jews cent. 17 (Harless, das Buch der agyptischen M^-sterien, 
Munchen 1858 pp. 107—8. 130—2). 

p. 78 1. 20 gods of the heathen, demons, 1 Chron. 16 26 ol 

6eol rwv edvoov elScoXa, and Ps. 95 5 oi 6eol ru>v idvwv Saifxovca, 

30 Conflated in lustin. Apol. I 41 p. 80^ 7rdvre<i oi 6eol rwv edvwv 

ethwXa BaL/novLiov elal (cf Otto p. 116 n. 4). Zahn Forschungen 

V 233. 

p. 78 1. 27 DEMENTIRE De Anim. 18 p. 329 1. 1 Wiss. 
Lact. Diu. Instt. vii 12 § 14. Biinem. on de Mortibus Persecu- 
35 torum VII 10. Lucr. Apul. [See also Thes. A. S.] 

TVRRES PERVOLAT luu. 3 78 n. Graeculus esuriens in 
caelum, iusseris, ibit. Schliemann, Clementinen 126. Lipsius, 
die Quellen der rom. Petrussage, Kiel 1872, pp. 164. 21. 42. 

p. 80 1. 3] APOLOGETICVS 23 321 

55 n. 1. 58—59. 77. 83 n. 1 and 2. 88. 89. 90 (cf. Matt. 4 5 and 6. 
Luke 4 9 and 10) 91. 92. 142. 157 f. 158. 160—1—2. Theodotus 
in Rufin. Hist. Eccl. v 16 p. 285. [Add Ambst. in Rom. 8, 38— 
9. A.S.] 

p. 78 1. 29 LACERTOS cf c. 9 p. 32 1. 18. Lact. Diu. Inst. i 5 
21 § 17. Sen. in Aug. De Ciu. Dei vi 10. 

p. 80 1. 3 power of exorcism. Matt. 7 22. Luke 10 17. 
Acts 3 6. Dionys. Alexandr. in Euseb. Hist. Eccl. vii 10 § 4 
(cf Heinichen ad 1. p. 334). Bingham lll 4. xvi 6. 3 f. 
Theodoret Graec. Afif. Cur. iii § 105 p. 55 26. Athanas. Vit. lo 
Ant. passim e.g. 78 f 80. Kaye 89—97. 389 seq. 399. 433. infr. 25 
pr. n. 27. 32. 37 p. 108 1. 29 n. Ad Scap. 2. De Spectac. 26 
p. 25 1. 23 Wiss. 29 p. 27 1. 22 Wiss. quae maior uoluptas... 
(juam mortis timor nullusl quod calcas deos nationum? quod 
daemonia expellis ? . . .hae uoluptates, haec spectacula Christian- 15 
orum sancta, perpetua, gratuita. Minuc. 27 § 6 haec omnia 
sciunt pleraque pars uestrum ipsos daemonas de semetipsis con- 
fiteri, quoties a nobis et tormentis uerhorum et orationis incendiis 
de corporihus exiguntur. Cypr. Ep. 75 10 sq. Ad Demetrian. 
15 si audire eos uelis et uidere, quando adiurantur a nobis, 20 
torquentur, spiritalibus flagris et uerhorum tornientis de ohsessis 
corporibus eiciuntur, quando heiulantes et gementes uoce humana 
etpotestate diuina flagella et uerhera sentientes uenturu^n iudicium 
confltentur. ueni et cognosce uera esse quae dicimus : et qiiia sic 
deos colere te dicis, uel ipsis crede quos colis. aut si uolaeris et 25 
tibi credere, de te ipso loquetur audiente te qui nunc tuum pectus 
ohsedit, qui nunc mentem tuam ignorantiae nocte caecauit. uidebis 
nos rogari ab eis quos tu rogas, timeri ah eis quos tu adoras: 
uidebis suh manu nostra stare uinctos et tremere captiuos quos tu 
S2ispicis et ueneraris ut dominos. certe uel sic con/undi in istis 30 
errorihus tuis poteris, quando conspexeris et audieris deos tuos 
quid sint interrogatione nostra statim prodere et praesentibus 
licet uobis praestigias illas et fallacias suas non posse celare. 
Quod idola di non sint 7 (25 3). Zeno De Resur. in Bibl. 
Max. Patr. iii 41 2^^= (= ed. Ballerini, Verona, 1739, p. 122), 35 
a very graphic description of exorcism — , id>i uentum fuerit 
ad diuini certandnis campum coeperintque sacri nominis telo 
pulsari...cum diuina adiuratione in eculeo spiritali et qui sint 
M. T. 21 

322 TERTVLLIANI [p, 80 1. 3— 

nolentes edicant et inuiti discedant. Paulin. Vit. Ambr. 14. 15. 

20. 21. 28. 33 fin. 43 spiritus immundus arreptam discerpere 

coepit, quo uiso non minimo timor-e repleti sumus et admiratione. 

multos etiam diehus illis imponente illo manus et imperante ab 
5 spiritihus immundis uidimvs esse purgatos. lustin. Apol. ii 6 

p. 45=*^ (n. 15 p. 216 Otto). Dial. 30 p. 247^= Otto, 85 p. 311^ 

Otto, 121 p. 350'\ Theophil. ii 8. Lact. Diu. Instt. ii 15 § 3 

Biinem. iv 27 (sign of cross) ii 17 § 11 v*21 §§ 4—6 22 § 23. 

Epit. 51 7. Clem. Recogn. iv 7 8 13 — 19 (on deraoniacs). 
lo Blunt Right Use sec. 2. c. 6 -wholly taken up with the question 

of exorcisms, healings, visions etc. which he allows against 

Kaye. Orig. Contr. Cels. I. 7 lht,a)rai, ro roiovrov irpdrrovaiv. 

Spencer on Orig. Contr. Cels. I c. 2 f. p. 5 1. 46 (p. 6 annot.) 

cf. 6. 22. 24. 25. 46 p. 34 f. ii 8 £ (miracles seen by Origen), 
15 lll 24 f vii 4 (even IhiwraL). 17 fin. (numbers recovered from 

the dominion of demons). 35 f 67. Allard les dernieres persec. 

50. Iren. ii 32 § 4 in Euseb. Hist. Eccl. v 7 § 4. Rufin. Hist. 

Eccl. X 4. 

p. 80 1. 7 NVMEN — CONCIPIVNT Dido Aen. iv 474 concepit 
20 fitrias. Ou. Metam. ii 640 mente uaticinos furores. Lucan i 

630 fata. [Closer still v 163 numen. A. S.] 

p. 80 1. 8 CAELESTis c. 12 p. 44 1. 13 c. 24 p. 86 1. 4 n. 
POLLICITATRIX c£ c. 22 p. 78 1. 4. 

p. 80 1. 9 DEMONSTRATOR Cic. lex. Colum. Tert. De Pat. 4 
25 p. 6 1. 4 Kr. ' very rare ' LS [more in Thes., to Avhich add two 

from Aug. in C.S.E.L. liii p. 373. A.S.]. Arnob. i 41 pr. 

Aesculapium medicaminum repertoreni. Rufin. Apol. Il 43 pr. 

tamquam si unius hominis membra diuulsa 7'ursus in eiusdem 

corporis soliditatem Aesculapii arte reficerentur. 
30 ALIAM = tt/^eravH. Spartian Ant. Pi. 12 § 45. Hadr. 17 § 7. 

Seuer. 7 § 4. Paucker Hist. Aug. pp. 66—7. luu. 7 114. 

Harnack (Texte viii 4) Medicinisches aus der altesten Kg. 55 

n. 1. 

p. 80 1. 10 Kellner in his Germ. transl, Kempten 1870, 
35 points out that these are names of medicines, Teucrum Scor- 

dium Linn. C£ Dierbach Flora Mythol. p. 213. Ascl. gift of 

A. panacea. Th. if not corrupted from mithridation cet. must 

be from 6dvaro<i. 

p. 82 1. 7J APOLOGETICVS 23 323 

p. 80 1. 22 FACIT c. 29 ad causam. 

AEMVLIS De Virg. Vel. 1. De Exhort. Cast. 13. De leiun. 
16 p. 296 1. 11 Wiss. Ad Vx. i 8. De Cor. Milit. 15. De 
Praescr. Haer. 40. De Pat. 16 p. 23 1. 21 Kr. 

p. 80 1. 25 DiRECTO Adu. Prax. 27 p. 281 1. 17 Kr. sed enim 5 
inuenimus illum directo et Deum et liominem expositum ( )( 
schemate Madvig Aduers. l 37). reuelatus directo Adu. Marc. 
I 26 p. 327 1. 3 kr. 11 14 p. 354 1. 19 Kr. iv 10 p. 448 1. 1 Kr. 

p. 80 1. 31 coxcvRRiT c. 24 m. 

p. 80 1. 34 DAEMOXAS cet. Harnack Medicinisches (Texte 10 
VIII 4) p. 116. Socr. Hist. Eccl. vii 8 § 19. iv 27 § 5. 

p. 82 1. 2 IX coxTiXENTi De Praescr. Haer. 5 pr, lustin. i 
9 § 16. V 3 § 7. 5 § 4. VI 7 § 10. xi 4 § 12. Ps.-Cypr. p. 61 7. 
62 6. 73 22. 265 14. Cypr. Ep. 80 § 1. [See also Thes. iv 710 
78A. S.] 15 

p. 82 1. 7 xMAGVS c. 23 pr. p. 78 1. 13. Aug. De Ciu. Dei 
xviii 53 (some acquitted Christ but festened witchcraft on 
Peter). ib. 54 confuted by Euseb. Demonstr. Eu. iii 2 § 78 
(called 'yorjra Kal irXdvov). c. 3 no TrXdvot;. c. 6 no 70779 cet. 
Arnob. l 43 (cf 53 p. 36 1. 12) occursurus forsitan rursus est 20 
cuni aliis multis calumniosis illis et puerilibus uocibus : magus 
fuit, clandestinis artibus omnia illa perfecit, Aegyptiorum ex 
adytis angelorum potentium nomina et remotas furatus est disci- 
plinas. Orig. Contr. Cels. I 6 p. 7 Karrjyopel 8' iv Toh €^)]<i Kai rov 
awrijpa, ft)? 'yoTjreia Svvrjdevro'; a eSo^e irapdSo^a 7re7roi7]Kevai. 25 
28 (p. 12 n. 3 Keim'). 38 p. 30. 46 p. 34fin. 68 p. 53. 11 48 pr. 
p. 87. Clem. Recogn. i 58 pr. et ecce quidam de scribis de medio 
populi exclamans ait: lesus uester signa et prodigia quae fecit, 
ut magus non itt pr^opheta fecit. lustin. Dial. c. Tryph. c. 69 f 
p. 269'' ol he Kai ravra 6p6)vre<; yLvojJbeva (^avraaiav ylveadai 30 
eXeyov Kal ydp /j.dyov elvaL avrov iroX/jLcov Xeyeiv Kal XaoirXd- 
vov. Apol. I c. 30 pr. p. 72^* oTrco^i 8e /jlt] rt? eiTrrj dvriridei^ 
rj/jLLv ri KwXveL Kal rov irap r/ Xeyo/xevov l^piarov, dvOpwTTov 
i^ dvdpdiTTcov ovra, fiayiKf} re^^^yr] a? Xeyojxev 8vva/JL€L<i TreTrotT]- 
KevaL Kal So^aL 5ta rovro vibv 6eov elvai ; Lact. Diu. Instt. V 3 35 
§ Id fecit mirabilia: magum putassemus, ut et uos nunc putatis 
et ludaei tunc putatierunt, si non illa ipsa facturum Christum 
prophetae omnes uno spiritu praedicassent. Cf ib. §§ 7 — 9 


324 TERTVLLIANI [p. 82 1. 7— 

(Apollonius Tyanaeus and Apuleius). Aug. Cons. Euangel. i 

11 § 17. 14 § 22. [Hier.] in Ps. 81 (vii ai3i3. 296 fin. ed. Ven. 

1769) and Aug. Ep. 136 (= 4) 1 f. (ii SgS*! Gaume). 138 (= 5) 

§ 18 pr. (II ^^S"*). 
5 p. 82 1. 11 SPIRITVS c. 21 p. 68 1. 28. Kaye p. 526 n. 6. 
RATIO supr. c. 21 p. 68 1. 28. Kaye p. 500 n. 5. 
p. 82 1. 13 PRO TRIBUNALI Cic. Liu. Suet. Vit. 9 pro tri- 

bunali iura reddenti. 13 exx. in Suet. 
p. 82 1. 14 si FORTE 16 m. n. 38 fin. 
lo MiNOEM — RHADAMANTHVMLact. Diu.Instt. IIl20§l7. VII 22 

§ 5. Cic. Tusc. I 41. lustin. Apol. i 8 p. 14. 

p. 82 1. 17 SANGVINE Athenag. Suppl. 27 oi irepl t7]v vXtjv 

Sai/jLove^;, Xi^x^voi irepl tw^ Kvicra^ Kal t6 touv lepeiwv alfia 6vTe<i. 

Porphyry in Euseb. Praep. Euang. iv 10 p. 147'^ (thence in 
15 Theodoret Graec. Aff. Cur. x § 15 p. 138 11) /x^ -x^prjvac (pdaKwv 

6eov<i vTToXafM^dveiv tov<; Tal'; Sid ^wcov dvalai^ '^aipovTa<i' 

elvai <ydp (f)i]ai irdvTcov aSiKOiTaTOv to ^(OodvTelv, Kal avocnov 

Kal fjbvaapov Kal ^\a/3ep6v, Kal Sid tovto /jirjSe deols '7rpoa(f)iXe'i. 

See more in Euseb. Praep. Eu. iv p. 166*^ (Theodoret Graec. Atf. 
20 Cur. X § 16 p. 138 22) sq. (Porphyry corrected Pythia's verses). 

I 25 p. 139 40 To Xo^bv of oracles. Lucian lup. Trag. 18. 22. 32. 
p. 82 1. 19 PRAEDAMNATOS 27 p. m. praedamnatione. 
p. 82 1. 22 Matt. 7 22. Infr. 37 f p. 108 1. 28 n. 43. Lact. 

Diu. Instt. V 21 § 4. Otto on lustin. Dial. c. Tryph. 85 p. 311 b. 
25 Arnob. i 43. 45. 46. 11 12 the chariot and fiery horses of Simon 

Magus vanished when Peter named the Name of Christ. The 

work of Middleton, A Free Inquiry cet. Lond. 1749. A Vin- 

dication of the Free Inquiry 1751. So Schrockh vi 881 — 2. 

Gibbon. Miinscher Handb. der Dogmengesch. i 165. Mtinter 
30 Handb. der altesten christl. Dogmengesch. i 136 — 8. Kaye 

433 n. 9. Spencer on Orig. c. Cels. p. 17 1. 14 (annot. p. 16 f. 

17 — 8) Demons and wizards impotent in presence of higher 

powers. Orig. c. Cels. i 60. 67 f. 68 magicians. v c. 45 p. 261 — 2 

virtue of the conjuration by the God of Abraham Isaac Jacob. 
35 Magicians rely on strange names of gods. vi 39 pr. 40, C. had 

seen in Christian hands barbarian books containing 8ai/ji6vo}v 

ovofxaTa Kal TepaTeia<;. 41, Christians unassailable by demons. 

Aug. Tr. 7 in loan, f iii 2 S4>4i° enchanters employed the name 

p. 84: 1. 14] APOLOGETICVS 23, 24 325 

of Christ. Prudent. Peristeph. [where ?]. Vincent. [where ?] 
pulsi e latebris corj^oy^um uirtute CliHsti et nomine. Apotheosis 
lustin. Apol. II 6. 8. Dial. 30. 

p. 82 11. 24 — 28 Biineniann on Lact. Diu. Instt. ii 15 § 3. 

p. 82 1. 26 AFFLATV On exsufflation see Bincrham x 2 8 5 
n. 72. Pusey h. 1. Julian in Hermes IX (1875) 257 ff. 1. 35 (new 
letter on the bp Pegasius). 

p. 82 1. 30 HONOREM Lact. Diu. Instt. ii 15 § 3 iustos 
autein, id est cultores Dei, metuunt, cuius nomine adiurati de 
corpoHhus excedunt, quorum uerbis tamquam flagris uerherati, lo 
non modo daemonas esse se confitentur, sed etiam nomina sua 
edunt, illa, quae in templis adorantur, quod j^^^t^wnque coram 
cultorihus suis faciunt, non utique in oj)prohrium religionis, sed 
honoris sui,quia nec Deo per quem adiurantur,nec iustis quorum 
uoce torquentur, mentiri possunt. itaque maximis saep>e ululati- 15 
hus editis uerherari se et ardere et iam ianique exire proclamant. 

p. 82 1. 36 QVOD sciAM infr. c. 25 p. 88 1. 14. ad nat. i 7 p. 69 
1. 16 Wiss. quod s. et con uersatio notior factaest. 8 fin. ubisaltem 
Aegyptii, et ipsi, q. s.,priuatae curiosaeque religionis. Ad Vxor. 
II 3 a. m. q. s. non sumus nostri, sed pretio empti. 20 

Cap. XXIV 

p. 84 1. 6 mancipamvr c. 21 pr. p. 66 1. 22 si eidem deo 
manciparemur. De Idolol. 1 fin. Iren. i 39 § 4 [more exx. in 
Study of Ambrosiaster p. 117. A.S.]. 

CRIMEN laesae cet. Celsus ed. Keim p. 1. 

p. 84 11. 7—9 PRO CERTO Ter. Ad. 478. Caes. B.G. vii 25 
5 § 6 pro certo esse proponendum. Cic. Sall. Liu. Quintil. Suet. 
Clem. Recogn. i (!4 pr. j). c. coniperinius quod. iii 9 j). c. nesci- 
erit. V. 35 f. 

p. 84 1. 10 Plut. mor. i. [De Superstitione, ed. Ber- 
nardakis, l 402 ff. ?] 3^ 

p. 84 1. 12 irreligiositatis Aug. De Cura pro Mortuis 
10 (VI 877*' Gaume). Iren. ii 14. 2 (Hil. and Salu. in loxx.). 
[add Aug. C. D. iv 12. A.S.] 

p. 84 1. 13 vt c. 35 p.m. 

p. 84 1. 14 svblimiorem c. 11 pr. in j)7-imis quidem necesse 35 

326 TERTVLLIANI [p. 84 1. 14— 

est concedatis esse aliquem suhlimiorem deum et mancipem 
quendam diuinitatis, qui e.x hominibus deos fecerit. Apul. Apol. 
c. 64 idem Maxiinus optime intellegit, ut de nomine etiam uobis 
respondeam, quisnani sit ille, non a me primo, sed a Platone 
jSaaikev<i nuncupatns,. . .totius rerum naturae causa et ratio, cet. 
Arnob. passim. 

p. 84 1. 17 PENES VNVM Keim's Celsiis p. 135. 
p. 84 1. 18 Plato Phaedr. 246^ 6 /j-ev Srj fxe^ya^ ip/efxiuv 
iv ovpavQ) Zevi, i\avvo)v ttttjvov apixa, irpoiro^ TropeveTai. 

lo SiaKoa/XMV iravTa Kal eTrc/jieXov/jievo^' tw 8' eTreTat, arpaTLO, 
dedov T€ Kal hai/jLOVoiv, Kara evSeKa p^eprj KeKocr/irj/ievt]. Ar- 
nob. III 30 f. nam quid de ipso dicemus loue, quem solem esse 
dictitauere sapientes, agitantem pinnatos currus, turba conse- 
quente diuorum? cf. 34 f. 

15 p. 84 1. 20 svspici c. 18 p. 58 1. 33. c. 32 iudicium Dei susjyi- 
cimus in imperatoribus. Arnob. vii 11 ejjiciturque ut uideatur 
magnus qiieni suspectio lyiinoris extulerit. 

p. 84 1. 27 LACVNARIA 40 £ caelum apud Gapitolium 
quaeritis, nuhila de laquearibus expectatis. 

20 HIRCI Lucian bis acc. 10. 

p. 84 1. 28 ELOGIVM c. 2 p. 6 1. 23. De Idolol. 1 p. 30 
1. 8 Wiss. De Cor. Milit. 5 f Oehler: the inscription on a 
statue ; a brief summary of the case against a prisoner (eligo, 
cf toga) ; brief, minutes, protocol ; charge on police-sheet. 

25 cf Neumann I 33 n. 1. Perizon. on Ael. Var. Hist. Xiv 43. 
Casaub. on Vulcat. Gall. Hist. Aug. i 470. 

CONCVRRAT C. 23 p.m. 

p. 84 1. 30 COLERE QVEM VELIM c. 28 init. ad Scap. 2 
pr. humani iuris et naturalis potestatis est unicuique quod puta- 

30 uerit colere nec alii obest aut prodest alterius religio. sed nec 
religionis est cogere religionem, quae sponte suscipi debeat, non 
ui ; cum et hostiae ab animo libenti expostidentur. ita etsi nos 
compuleritis ad sacrificandum, nihil praestabitis dis uestris ; ab 
inuitis enim sacrificia non desiderabunt, nisi si contentiosi sunt. 

35 Lact. Diu. Instt. v 19 § 23 nam si sanguine, si tormentis, si 
malo religionem defendere uelis, iam non defendetur illa, sed 
polluetur atque uiolabitur. nihil est enim tam ■uoluntarium 
quam religio, in qua si animus sacrificantis auersus est, iam sub- 

p. 86 1. 3J APOLOGETICVS 24 327 

lata, iam nulla est. ib. 20 §§ 5 — 11 lihet igitur ex eis quaerere, 
cui potissimum praestare se pntent cogendo inuitos ad sacrijicium. 
ipsisne quos cogunt ? at non est beneficium quod ingeritur recu- 
santi. sed consulendum est- etiani nolentibus, quando, quid sit 
bonum nesciunt. cur ergo tam crudeliter uexant, cruciant, debi- 5 
litant, si saluos uolunt? aut unde pietas tam impia, ut eos 
miseris modis aut perdant aut inutiles faciant, quibus uelint esse 
consultum ? an iiero dis praestant ? at non est sacrijicium, 
quod exprimitur inuito. nisi enim sponte atque ex animo fiat, 
ex.secratio est, cet. Id. Epit. 53 §§ 6 — 11. Themist. Or. 12 10 
ad louian. (p. 57 of Amberg edition, 1605) Kal toOto ^rjXayv 
Tov deov, 09 To fiev ^'^(eiv irpo^i evcre^eiav €TrtTr]8ei(0'i t/}9 
(^vcreco^ KOivov eTrotrjae tt}? avOpoiirivi]^' tov Tpoirov oe Ti]<; 
depaT7eia<i e^Pjyjre tt}? eV eKaaTO) ^ov\t']a-e(o<i. o ce Trpoaayayv 
(nuijKT^v (Ji(f)aipeiTai tt]v e^ovalav fjv 6 deof; avve-)((apr]ae. Bailey 15 
Rituale Anglocath. 259. 

p. 84 1. 32 AEGYPTiis ad nat. i 8 fin. uhi saltem Aegyptii, 
et ipsi, quod sciani, priuatae curiosaeque religionis. Minuc. 
28 § 9 nonne et Apim houem cum Aegyptiis adoratis et pascitis? 
nec eorum sacra damnatis instituta serpentihus crocodilis heluis 20 
ceteris et auihus et piscihas, quorum aliquem deum si quis 
occiderit, etiam capite punitur. Athenag. Suppl. 1 p. 2^ ot 
8e AijvTrTtoi Kal aiXovpov<i Kal KpoKo8eiXov<; Kai 6<^ef? Kai 
(laTTiha^s Kai Kvva<i 6eov<; vofxi^ovai. Kal TovTOi<; Trdaiv eiri- 
TpeiTtTe Kal v/Mei<i Kal oi vofxoi. Clem. Alex. Paedag. III 2 § 4, 25 
Arnob. i 28 p. 18 1. 28 templa faelibus, scarabaeis et buculis, 
suhlimibus sunt elata fastigiis: silent inrisae numinum potestates, 
uec liuore afiiciuntur idlo, <piod sihi comparatas animantium 
uilium conspiciunt sanctitates. Hennecke Aristid. ind. ^(va 
(p. 52a). Zahn Forschungen v 191 n. 1. 30 

p. 86 11. 3—4 Friedlander IIF 542. lustin. Apol. i c. 24 
p. 68*^^ Tatian 10. Orig. contr. Cels. v 27. Athenag. cc. 1 
princ. 14. cc. 12 — 15 pp. 13. 14 different nations have 
different gods ; are the Christians atheists, because they do not 
accept your gods ? Athanas. contr. Gentes c. 23 Kal oXox; 35 
eKdarrj TroXts' Kai koojjlt] toj)? eV 'yeiTovoov ovk elhvla 6eov<;, 
Toix; eavTr]<i TrpoKpivei Kal /xovov^; tovtov^ elvai vofii^ei neov<; 
... ibid. Kal 6\o)<; ttcivtcov T(iiiv ev elSdtiXoi'; /xavevToov edv(2v 

328 TERTVLLIANI [p. 86 1. 3— 

8id(f)op6(; iariv ?; ho^a kul y dprjCTKeia Kal ov ra aina irapa 
Tot? avrolf; evplaKerai. cf. luu. 15. 36 — 38 n. 

p. 86 1. 3 ASTARTE ad iiat. ii 8 p. 108 1. 12 Wiss, at enim 
cum illi qiioque, quos totus orhis communiter colit, excidant pro- 
5 bationi uerae diuinitatis, quanto magis isti quos ne ipsi quidem 
municipes sui norunt ? nam quae idonea auctoritas praecucurrit 
eiusmodi theologiae quam etiam fama destituit? quanti sunt qui 
norint uisu uel auditu Atargatim Syrorum, Gaelestem, Afrorum, 
Varsutinam Maurorum, Obodan et Dusareni Arabum [Euseb. 

lo Praep. Eu. i 7 (?) [surely an error for in Const. 13 or Theoph. 
II 12. A.S.]], Belenum Noricum, uel quos Varro ponit, Casi- 
niensium Deluentinum, Narniensimn Visidianum, Atinensium 
Numiternuni, Asculanorum Anchariam, -fet quam praeuerint, 
Vidsiniensiuni Nortiam, quorum ne nominum quidem dignitas 

15 humanis cognominibus distat .? satis rideo etiam deos decuriones 
cuiusque municipii, quibus honor intra muros suos determinatur. 
Cic. De Nat. Deor. III § 59 Mayor. Minuc. 6 § 1 inde adeo p)er 
uniuersa imperia prouincias oppida uidemus singidos sacrorum 
ritus gentiles hahere et deos colere municipes, ut Eleusinios Cere- 

20 7'em, Phrygas Matrem, Epidaurios Aesculapium, Chaldaeos 
Belum, Astarten Syros, Dianani Tauros, Gallos Mercurium, 
<nuniina> uniuersa Romanos. Winer Bibelworterb. 'Aschera' 
and 'Astarte.' Merx in Schenkel 'Aschera.' Schlottmann in 
Riehm (cuts) s.v. Astarte. Arnob. iv 4 peculiares deos. 

25 p. 86 1. 4 BELENVs ad nat. 11 8 (quoted above). Auson. 
bis (Commemor. Professor. Burdigalens. IV 9. X 24(16)). Greg. 
Turonens. Glor. Conf. 7. lul. Capitolin. in Maximin. 22 § 1 
(Apollo). Preller-Jordan Rom. Myth. i^ 312. 270 (old Celtic 
sun-god Beal, Grimm Deutsche Myth. 579 sqq.). Inscr. found 

30 at Aquileia, Venice, Tibur, Vienne, the village Belin (near 
Autun), the islands Grado and Corgle. Herodian viii 3. 8 
[Pauly-Wissowa s.v. A.S.]. Belis = Apollo, prophetic. CIL v 
ind. p. 1178. 

CAELESTis De-Vit, Onomast. [and now Thes. A.S.] Tanit. 

35 CIL VIII. ind. p. 1082. Corp. Inscr. Semit. I c. 13. Her temple 
destroyed at Carthage A.D. 421 by order of the emperor Con- 
stantius, [Prosper] Liber Promissionum et Praedictorum Dei 
III 38 § 5 (the author was present). Obscene rites, supr. c. 23 

p. 86 1. 11] APOLOGETICVS 24 329 

p. 80 1. 8 and Oehler's note, c. 12 p. 44 1. 13. ad nat. ii 8 
(quoted above). Aug. De Ciu. Dei ii 4. 26. Ambros. Ep. 
18. 30. Trebell. Pollio Trig. Tyr. 29. Victor Vitensis Hist. 
Persec. Vandal. i 3. Capitolin. Maximin 3. Pertin. 4 pr. Apul. 
Metam. vi 4 pr. Saluian. Gub. viii 9 — 13. Occurs in Rome, 5 
Dacia and elsewhere (inscr.). P. Faber Semestr. 1. iil (Col. 
Agr. 1611) p. 22 sq. Munter, Religion der Karthager- 62. 
Originally identical with Astarte. Evoked in the 3rd Punic 
war and brought to Rome (Seru. Aen. xil 841). Marquardt iii^ 
83 n. 3. Preller-Jordan Rom. Myth. ll^ 406—7. 10 

MAVRiTANiAE Minuc. 23 § 2 Iuha Mauris uolentihus deiis 
est et diui ceteri reges, qiii eonsecrantur, non ad fidem numinis 
sed ad honorem. emeritae potestatis. So Hiempsal CIL viii 8834 
lemsali L. Percenius L. f. Stel. Rogatus u. [s. l. a.]. Mommsen 
Rom. Gesch. v 622. 2. Lact. Diu. Instt. i 15 § 6 hac scilicet 15 
ratione Romani Caesares suos consecrauerunt et Mauri reges 
suos. cf. § 8 Mauri luham <coluerunt>. So the Aethiopians 
Diodor. Sicul. iii 9 § 1, and Persians Brisson c. 1. Cyprian 
Quod idola di non sint 2 f. Mauri uero manifeste reges 
colunt nec idlo uelamento hoc nomine ohtexunt. Isidor. Orig. 20 
VIII 11 § 1. 

p. 86 1. 7 MVNiciPALi Minuc. 6 § 2 (quoted above, on 
Astarte) deos municipes. 

CENSENTVR c. 15 p. m. p. 50 1. 31 n. note on local gods 
supr. c. 10 p. 36 1. 25 seq. 25 

p. 86 1. 11 IVNO Cupra whose worship after the conquest 
of Veii was transferred to Rome, Liu. v 21 — 22. xxvii 37 
(I. Curitis or Quiritis). Inscr. Orelli 1304. Henzen 5659 (from 
Tibur Orelli 1303). luno Curis in Paulus (Preller Rom. 
Mythol. 248). Jordan in Hermes viii 219 sq. [See Thes. s. u. 30 
Curritis. A.S.] 

NOS SOLI cf the end of the chapter. Tzschirner 305 sq. 
(lustin. Apol. I 32 cf 24). Athenag. c. 1 pp. 1—2 all Rome's 
subjects enjoy religious freedom, the Trojan, Lacedaemonian, 
Athenian ; even the Egyptian may adore his brute gods ; we 35 
alone are denied the exercise of our religion. lustin. Apol. I 
34. 35 Simon of Samaria, and his pupil Menander, who professed 
to be gods, are honoured by you. We alone are persecuted. 

330 TERTVLLIANI [p. 86 1. 11— 

So Tertullian c. 46 contrasts heathen tolerance of philosophy 
with the persecution of Christians. 

p. 86 1. 12 NEC ROMANI HABEMVR C. 36 pr. 

p. 86 1. 13 BENE QVOD c. 7 (p. 26 1. 30). 40 med. (p. 118 
5 1. 8 n.). De Idolol. 5 fin. Oehler. 23 p. 56 1. 21 Wiss. ad nat. 
I 7 p. 67 1. 25 Wiss. hene quod omnia tempus reuelat. 

p. 86 1. 14 VELIMV.S...NOLIMVS Lact. Diu. Instt. v 20 § 9 at 
nos contra non expetimus ut deuni nostruni, qui est omnium 
uelint nolint, colat aliquis inuitus. Paulin. Nol. Ep. 16. 5 
lo uelimus nolimus. Hier. Ep. 60. 14 [add Min.-Fel. Ambst. 
Aug. Ps.-Aug. A.S.]. Aemilian to Dionys. Alexandrin. : ' You 
may worship your own god as much as you will, if you will but 
worship our gods also/ Euseb. Hist. Eccl. vil 11, 

Cap. XXV 

p. 86 1. 20 TESTIMONIIS c. 46 pr. constitimus, ut opinor, 

15 aduersus omnium criminum intentationem, quae Christianorum 
sanguinem flagitat. ostendimus toturn statum nostruni et qmhus 
modis prohai^e possimus ita esse, sicut ostendinius, scihcet 
et antiquitate diuinarum litteraruni, item ex confessione spiri- 
taliuni potestatum. 37 f. n. quis autem iios ah illis occultis et 

20 usqiiequaque uastantibus nientes et ualetudines uestras hostibus 
raperet ? a daemonioruni incursibus dico, quae de uohis sine 
praemio, sine mercede depellimns. suflecisset hoc solum nostrae 
ultioni, quod uacua exinde possessio immundis spiritihus pateret. 
c. 23 passim e.g. edatur hic aliqui ibidem suh trihunalihus uestris, 

25 quem daemone agi constet. iussus a quolihet Ghristiano loqui 
spiritus ille, tam se daemonem confltehitur de uero, quam alihi 
deum de falso . . .quid isto opere manifestius, quid hac prohatione 
fidelius . . .credite illis cum uerum de se loquuntur, qui menti- 
entihus creditis . . .haec denique testimonia deorum uestroruin 

30 Christianos facere consuerunt, quia plurimum illis credendo in 
Christo domino credimus. ipsi litterarum nostrarum fldem ac- 
cendunt, ipsi spei nostrae fldentiam aediflcant. 
p. 86 1. 22 occvRRiT c. 24 f. 
CONGRESSIONEM Scorpiac. 4 p. 152 1. 29 Wiss. De Idolol. 

35 21 p. 54 1. 32 Wiss. certe quisquis ille est, aut amica aut inimica 

p. 86 1. 27] APOLOGETICVS 24, 25 331 

congressione adstringit. Adu. Valentin, 6 p. 183 1. 4 Kr. quam- 
quam aiitem distulerini congressionem, solam interim professus 
narrationem, sicnhi tamen indignitas meruerit suggillari, non erit 
delibationi transpunctoria (Kroyraann wrongly transfunctoria) 
expugnatio. congressionis lusionem [prelude, mock-fight] deputa, 5 
lector, ante pugnam. (Often in Justin of an engagement.) De 
Praescrip. Haer. 16 c. scripturarum i.e. de scripturis. Lact. 
Epit. 52 § 4 quia ratione congredi non queunt, uiolentia preniunt. 
Tert. Apol. 4 a.m. de legihus prius concurram uohiscum. 

p. 86 1. 23 supra c. 14 p. 48 1. 26 n. Posid. in Athen. lo 
p. 274. Polyb. VI 56 § 6. Hor. Carm. ili 6 5 dis te minorem 
quod geris imperas. Minuc. 25 § 1 a^ tamen ista ipsa superstitio 
Romanis dedit auxit fundauit imperium, cuni non tam uirtute 
quam religiune et pietate pollerent. ib. 6 § 3 sic imperium suum 
ultra solis uias et ipsius Oceani limites propagauit ; dum e.ver- 15 
ce7it in armis uirtutem religiosam, dum urhem muniunt sacrorum 
religionihus, castis uirginihus, multis honoribus ac nominibus 
sacerdotum. Cic. De Nat. Deor. ii § 8 n. Harusp. Resp. c. 19 
§ 79. Dionys. Halicarn. 11 18. 19. 66—73. Valer. Max. i 1 § 8. 
Marquardt lli^ 53 — 5. Sall. Catil. 12. Proof of heathen religion 20 
from the greatness of Rome, Tzschirner 399 seq. Cypr. Quod 
idola di non sint 3. Celsus (Orig. viii 69 p. 213 L.) points to 
the low estate of Jews and Christians. Aug. De Ciu. Dei iv, 
especially cc. 8. 9. 28. 29. 34. Symm. epist. X 3 § 9 (pro 
ara Victoriae) makes Rome say :—}iic cultus iu leges meas 25 
orhem redegit. Prudent. Contra Symm. ii passim. Oros. 
VI 1. 

PRAESVMPTio DiCENTiVM ' prejudiced assertion.' 

p. 86 1. 24 svBLiMiTATis c. 21 p. Qi^ 1. 29 (of Jews). 

p. 86 1. 27 STERCVLVS Marquardt iii- 17 n. 3. Mutunus 30 
15 n. 6. ad nat. ii 9 p. 112 1. 26 Wiss. quid Sterculinus meruit 
ad diuinitatem t si agros stercorihus iuuando diligens fuit, plus 
fimi Augias conferehat. 17 pr. p. 130 1. 3 Wiss. nohis superest 
adhuc illa Romanarum superstitionum praegrandis praesumptio 
. . .propterea scilicet Romanos totius orhis dominos atque arbitros 35 
factos fuisse, quod ofiiciis religionum meruerint dominare...ninii- 
rum Sterculus et Mjdunus et Larentina pr^oiiexit hoc imperium. 
Festus 154^ Prudent. Peristeph. 11 449 (Laurentii) lanum hi- 

332 TERTVLLIANI [p. 86 1. 27— 

frontem et Sterculum \ colit senatus : horreo \ tot monstra patrum 
dicere \ etfesta Saturni senis. 

p. 86 i. 28 LARENTINA c. 13 p. 46 1. 30, infra p. 88 1. 23. 

PROVEXiT Verg. Aen. vi 796 proferet imperium. 
5 PEREGRINOS c. 10 p. 36 1. 26 n. ad nat. ii 17 p. 130 1. 10 
Wiss. j:)e>'e^rf/?o.<? enim cet. 

p. 86 1. 31 TRANSFRETANIS uir. elp. 

VIDERIT c. 16 m. 42 n. De Test. Anim. 1 p. 135 1. 3 Wiss. 
iam igitur nihil nobis erit cum litteris et doctrina peruersae feli- 
lo citatis, cui in falso potius creditur quam in uero. uiderint si 
qui de unico et solo Deo pro7iu7itiauerunt. Adu. Hermog. 1 
p. 126 1. 16 Kr. sed uiderit persona, cum doctrina mihi quaestio 
est. Adii. Valentin. 9 p. 187 1. 7 Kr. ex illis duodecim Aeoni- 
bus, quos Ilomo et Ecclesia ediderant, mniisshna natu Aeon 
15 (uiderit soJoecismus, Sophia eiiim. nomen est). Gronou. ad Sen. 
De Prou. 3. 

VIDERIT si ADAMAVIT c. 6 pr. n. c. 21 p. 74 1. 23 n. 
OYBELE Bayle oeuvres iii 47. Adu. Marc. i 13 p. 307 1. 21 
Kr. Minuc. 24. Arnob. 11 73. vii 49. Liu. xxix 11 and 14. 
20 Lact. Diu. Instt. 11 7 § 12. Aug. De Ciu. Dei i 80. iii 12. 
Claudian De Raptu Proserpinae i 200 seq. Herodian l 11. 7. 
Zoega Bassirilievi Antichi (Rome, 1808) 188 f. Marquardt 
Rom. Staatsverwaltung iil 355 — 9. 

p. 86 1. 32 VERNACVLi c. 19 p. 64 1. 15 n. c. 35 ipsam 
25 uernaculam septem collium plebem. 

p. 86 1. 33 TRANSIRE PROSPEXIT had the forethought to 
cross over. 

p. 86 1. 34 DEBELLATRICEM Adu. lud. 9 p. 723 m. Oehler 

(= Adu. Marc. iii 13 p. 398 1. 21 Kr.) sic et Babylon apud loan- 

30 nem nostrum Romae urbis figura est, proinde et ynagnae et regno 

superbae et sanctorum debellatricis. Cassian Coll. xxii 3. Lact. 

in lexx. [see also Thes. A.S.]. 

p. 88 1. 1 Death of Marcus 17 Mar. 180 Clinton Fasti. 

p. 88 1. 2 ARCHIGALLVS De Carn. Resur. 16 p. 46 1. 7 Kr. 

35 et tamen calicem, non dico uenenarium, in quem mors aliqua 

ructarit, sed frictricis uel archigalli uel gladiatoris aut carni- 

ficis spiritu infectum, quaero, an niinus damnes, quam oscula 

ipsorum. Plin. inscr. Firmic. Matern. Math, iii 6 § 22 faciet 

p. 88 1. 9] APOLOGETICVS 25 333 

eunuchos, aut abscisos, archigallos aut hermafroditas. Prud. 
contr. Symm. II 863. 

p. 88 1. 3 SANGVINEM IMPVRVM Minuc. 24 § 6 quid? qui 
sanguine suo lihat et uulnerihus suis supplicat, non profanus 
melius esset, quani sic religiosus ? aut cui exta sunt obscena 
demessa, quomodo deuni uiolat, qui hoc modo placat ! The 24th 
March is dies sanguinis Marquardt iv 318=iii- 327 n. 2. 
Preller 737. esp. Prud. Peristeph. x 1061 sq. 'Allard Les der- 
nieres Persec. 196—7. Mart. xi 84. 3. Stat. Theb. x 170 
[Tert.] poem ad senatorem [a] Chr. religione ad idola conversum lo 
[best published in Corp. Scr. Eccl. Lat. vol. xxiii pp. 227 ff. 
A.S.] 19. 

LACERTOS La Cerda cites Sen. De Vita Beata 26 § 8 cum 
sistrum aliquis concutiens, ex imperio mentitur ; cuni aliquis 
seccmdi lacertos suos artifex bracchia atqiie umeros suspensa 15 
manu cruentat. id. Agameni. 687 tristis lacerat bracchia tecuni 
cet. Mart. xi 84 3 alba miniis saeuis lacerantur hracchia 
cultns, cum furit ad Phrygios enthea turba modos. Prudent. 
peristeph. x 1061 cultrum in lacertus exserit fanaticus, sectisque 
Matrem hracchiis placat deum. Apul. Metam. viii 27 sua quis- 20 
que hracchia dissicant. 

p. 88 1. 4 INTERCEPTI (iTrodavdiv gl. Colum. Quintil. Tac. 
Suet. (add Claud. 1. Nero 35 fin. Tib. 7). Ammian. Marcel. 

p. 88 1. 6 DIPLOMATA Cic. Suet. (add Nero 12). Sen. 
dig. Plin. ad Tra. 64. 120. 121. Capitolin. Pertin. 1 § 6. CIL 25 
VIII 1027. Daremberg and Saglio Dict. art. ' Cursus Publicus ' 
1647. 1652. 

EXCESSVM absol. cf. €^o8o<i. Also (with excedere, with which 
Cic. joins e uita or uita) in Tac. Suet. Cypr. Tert. ad Vxor. I 

I m. 30 

p. 88 1. 8 CRETAM SVAM supr. 12 p. 44 1. 16 Origen contr. 
Cels. III 43 (Keim p. 40 n. 1). Clem. Hom. v 23. Arnob. I 
34 fin. III 30. iv 14. Pacat. pan. 4. Prudent. contr. Symm. 

II 492. Chiud. 4 Cons. Hon. 134 Cretaque se iactat tenero rap- 
tata Tonanti. Euseb. Praep. Eu. iil 10 § 21 p. 107''. 35 

p. 88 1. 8 sq. = ad nat. II 17 p. 130 1. 13 Wiss. 13 p. 123 
1. 5 Wiss. 

p. 88 1. 9 ANTRVM Verg. Georg. iv 152 Dictaeo caeli 

334 TERTVLLIANI [p. 88 1. 9— 

regem pauere siih antro. Cic. De Nat. Deor. Ili 17 sq. 21. 
Clem. Alex. Protr. c. 2 p. 24 P. Lact. Diu. Instt. I H § 45. 
21 § 37 seq. 

AERA CORYBANTIA Lucr. II 633 sq. Acn. III 111. Ou. 
5 Fast. IV 207 sq. Arnob. iii 41. Hygin. Fabulae 139. 

p. 88 1. 10 NVTRicis Minuc. 21 § 10 et quae louis sacra 
sunt? nutrix capella est et auido patri suhtrahitur infans, ne 
uoretur : et Goryhantum cymhalis, ne pater audiat uagitus, tin- 
nitus eliditur. 
lo p. 88 1. 12 IVNO Prudent. contr. Symm. Ii 495 concessit 
et ipsa luno suos Phrygiis seruire nepotihus Afros, et quam suh- 
iectis doniinam Dea gentihus esse, si qua, fata sinant, iam tuni 
tenditque fouetque, iussit Romuleis addictani uiuere frenis. 
luu. 16 6 n. Lact. Diu. Instt. i 15 § 9 Athenae Mineruani, 
15 Samos lunonem. Apul. Metam. vi 4 (Flor. § 15 (?)) Magni 
louis germana et coniuga, siue tu Sami, quae sola partu uagi- 
tuque et alimonia tua gloriatur,...siue celsae Garthaginis. 
p. 88 1. 14 QVOD sciAM c. 23 fin. n. 
p. 88 1. 22 DESTINATVM Liu. Curt. Sen. Tac. Suet. 
20 p. 88 1. 23 LVPAE ad nat. i 4 p. 64 1. 29 Wiss. 11 10 
p. 113 1. 11 Wiss. Arnob. iv 3. Lact. i 20 § 1. Cic. Liu. luu. 
LARENTINAE c. 13 p. 46 1. 30. Lact. I 20 § 2. 
p. 88 1. 31 INCIDERENTVR c. 50 p. m. imagines inscrihitis 
et titulos inciditis in aeternitatem. 
25 p. 88 1. 32 RELiGiosiTATis ad nat. ii 17 p. 132 1. 6 Wiss. 
seruant urhem Rornam qui suas perdiderunt, si hoc religiositas 
Romana meruit. atqui non post summum imperium auctis iani 
rehus superstitio quaesita est? etsi a Numa sacra introducta 
sunt, nondum tamen aut simulacris aut templis res uestras di- 
30 uina frustrahant. frugi religio et paupertina superstitio ; altaria 
temeraria et uasa sordida et nidor paruus ex illis et deus ipse 

POST Scorpiace c. 11 p. 52j6 Oehler, Avith note d (=p. 170 
1. 22 Wiss.). 
35 p. 88 1, 34 NVMA c. 21 Pompilius Nunia, qui Romanos 
operosissimis superstitionihus onerauit. De Praescr. Haer. 40 
si Numae superstitiones reuoluamus, si sacerdotalia officia, in- 
signia et ^Jviuilegia, si sacrificalia ministeria et instrumenta et 

p. 90 1. 1] AP0L0GET1CV8 25 335 

uam ipsoruiu sacrificiovum, ac piaculorum et uotorum curiositates 
consideramus, vonne manifeste diaholus morositatem ludaicae 
legis itnitatus est? Cic. Rcp. ii c. li § 26. De Nat. Deor. iii 
§ 4o. Iim. 6 343 n. [unpublished A.S.l. Lasaulx Studien 
p. 135 n. 214. 211 n. 58. Schwegler i 541 n. 4. 5 

CONCEPTA c. 38 aeque spectaculis uestris in tantum renunti- 
amus, in quantum originihus eorum, quas scimus de superstitione 

CVRiosiTAS Aug. De Ciu. Dei vii 35 (i 319 2) in illa igitur 
hydromantia curiosissimus rex ille Romanus et sacra didicit, lo 
quae in lihris suis pontifices haherent, et eorum causas, quas 
praeter se neniinem scire uoluit. ' very rare ' (1 Cic. 2 Tert. 
1 Macrob.) LS. add ad nat. ii 2 p. 95 1. 20 Wiss. 4 fin. De. 
Cult. Fem. i 2. Ad Vxor. ii 5. De Idolol. 9 p. 38 1. 11 Wiss. 
De Praescr. Haer. 8 pr. 14 pr. Apul. Metam. i 12 fin. iii 14 pr, 15 
V 1.5. 19. 20 fin. 21. IX 13. xi 15. 22 fin. 23. [See Thes. for 
many more. A.S.] 

NONDVM...SIMVLACRIS De Idolol. 3 pr. idolum aliquamdiu 
retro non erat. priusquam huius monstri artifices ehullissent, 
sola templa et uacuae aedes erant, sicut in hodiernum quihusdam 20 
locis uetustatis uestigia permanent. tamen idololatria agehatur, 
non in isto nomine, sed in isto opere. nani et hodie extra templum 
et sine idolo agi potest. at uhi artifices statuarum et imaginum 
et omnis generis simulacro7'um diaholus saeculo intulit, rude illud 
negotiuni humanae calamitatis et nomen de idolis consecutum est 25 
et profectum. Plut. Numa 8. Varro in Aug. De Ciu. Dei iv 31. 
Ou. Fast. VI 295 — 8. More in Marquardt lll 5 n. 1. Lasaulx 
109 n. 40. 110 — 111. supra c. 16 no image in the Temple. 


pauper Mart. xi 5 2. Plin. xviii 2. 2 § 7 Numa instituit deos 30 
fruge colere et mola salsa supplicare. 
CAPITOLIA Arnob. i 34. 

p. 90 1. 1 TEMERARIA DE CAESPITE ALTARIA luu. 12 2 — 3 
festus promissa deis animalia caespes exptctat. Lucan ix 988 
erexit suhitas congestu caespitis aras. Apul. Metam. vil 10. 35 
^coyu-ou? avToaxeSiovi Dionys. Halicarn. and lamblich. in 

VASA Pers. II 59 — 60 aurum uasa Numae Saturniaque 

336 TERTVLLIANI [p. 90 1. I— 

impulit aera Vestalesqm urnas et Tascuvi Jictile nudat. 
Schwegler l 541. Plut. Num. 8 (his offerings) avaifiaKTOi 
Tjcrav al iroWai, ht a\(^irov Kal cnrovhrj^ Kal rwv evreXecr- 
rdrcov TTeiroi-qixevai. luu. 6 342 — 5 et qnis tunc hominum 
5 contemptor numinis? aut quis simjntuium ridere Numae 
nigrumque catinum et Vaticano fragiles de monte patellas ausus 
erat? 11 109. 116. Preller-Jordan i 129. 

p. 90 1. 3 TVSCORVM De Spectac. 5 p. 6 I. 25 Wiss. igitur 
in Etruria iuter ceteros ritus superstitionum suarum sp>ectacula 
lo quoque religionis nomine instituunt. inde Romani arcessitos 
artifices mutuantur, tenipus, enuntiationeni, ut ludi a Lydis 
uocarentur. Liu. v 1 § 6 (of the Etruscans) gens...ante omnes 
alias eo magis dedita religionibus, quod excelleret arte colendi 
eas. Plin. Hist. Nat. xxxiv c. 7 § 34 signa quoque Tuscanica 
15 per terras dispersa, guin in Etruria factitata shit non est 

p. 90 1. 5 OB Hoc not ante-Aug. Liu. Sen. Colum. Suet. 
Aug. 94. Dom. 17. gr. 3. 16 (also ob id, ea, haec, quae). 

p. 90 1. 6 iNRELiGiosiTATE [The word c. 24 p. 84 1. 12, n. 
2o 1. 28. A.S.] cf. Minuc. 25 impiatuni cet. lustin. Apol. i 12 
p. 59«'. Dial. c. Tryph. 14 p. 213". 

p. 90 1. 7 Ni FALLOR cet. ad nat. ii 17 p. 132 1. 16 Wiss. 
nisi fallor enini, omne regnuni iniperium bellis quaeritur, et 
bellis anipliatur. porro laeduntur uictoribus et dei urbis. nani 
25 eadem strages et nioeniuni et temploruni, pares caedes et ciuiuni 
et sacerdotuni, eaedeni rapinae profanorum et sacroruni. tot 
sacrilegia...triuniphi. manent et siniulacra captiua. infr. 40 
p. 118 1. 8. 

p. 90 1. 9. So Marcellus from Syracuse, Plut. Marcell. 21. 
30 Liu. XXV 40 §§ 1. 2. 

p. 90 1. 13 DE Dis so the verb often e.g. Apul. Metam. xi 15 
de sua fortuna, 

p. 90 1. 15 CAPTIVORVM 10 a. m. nunc ergo per singulos 
decurram tot et tantos, nouos ueteres, barbaros Graecos, Ronianos 
35 peregrinos, captiuos adoptiuos. 

SVSTINENT 8 fin. ce7'te postea cognoscunt et sustinent et 
ignoscunt. c. 15 p. 50 1. 16. 

p. 90 1. 16 IMPERIVM siNE FiNE Verg. Aen. i 278 — 9 

p. 92 1. 3] AP0L0GETICV8 25, 26 337 

luppiter to Venus of the Romans : his ego nec metas reriim nec 
tempora po7io, imperium sine Jine dedi. Archiv fiir iat. Lex. vil 
300 f. 

p. 90 1. 17 REMVNERASSE pass. c. 11 p. 40 1. 33. c. 46 p. 128 
1. 10 cf. De Cult. Fem. i 2 p. m. illud ipsum bonum feminarum 5 
naturalis decoris, ut causani mali, sic remunerauerunt. Paulin, 
Nol. ep. 23, 31. 26, 2. Plin. ep. Quintil. decl. Petron. Apul. 
dig. [I have exx. from Ambst. Aug. and Ps.-Aug. A.S.] 

QVi NiHiL SENTIVNT La Cerda cites Lact. Diu. Inst. 11 4 § 9. 
7 § 7 (/). VI 7 § 3(?) n. on luu. 13 119 statuamque Vagelli. 10 

p. 90 1. 24 sq. 1. 31 seq. ad nat. ii 17 p. 133 1. 8 Wiss. regnuni 
uniuersae nationes...hahuerunt, ut Assyrii ut Medi ut Persae ut 
Aeggptii...quaerite quis temporum uices ordinauit. idem regna 
dispensat. Minuc. 2.5 § 12 et tamen ante eos Deo dispensante 
diu regna tenuerunt Assyrii, Medi, Persae, Graeci etiam et 15 
Aeggptii, cum Pontijices et Aruales et Salios et Vestales et 
Augures non haberent. 

Cap. XXVI 

p. 90 1. 24 XE Hermas cod. Pal. uis. iii 10. 9 uidete, ergo, Jilii, 
neforte hae dissensiones uestrae deserant uitam uestram. 

p. 90 1. 25 REGXATVR So in Tac. : the poets have reg- 20 
natus, regnandus. 

p. 90 1. 26 SAECVLVM c. 32 clausulani saeculi. c. 41 finem 
saeculi. Lact. Epit. 70 § 14 cum certa et constituta diuinitus 
tempora compleri coeperint, interitum et consummationem rerum 
fieri necesse est, ut innouetur a Deo mundus — § 15 sed cum sint 25 
innumerabilia, quae de fine saeculi et conclusione temporum 
dicta sunt. 

p. 90 1. 29 siLVESTRis Verg. Aen. viii 346 ad Capitolia 
ducit aurea nunc, olim siluestribus horrida duniis. 

p. 92 1. 1 IVDAEA cet. same argument Minuc. 33 prius eos 30 
deseruisse comprehendes, quam esse desertos ; nec, id impie 
loqueris, cum Deo suo esse captos, sed a Deo ut disciplinae trans- 
fugas deditos. 

p. 92 1. 3 Schurer ir' 302. 

FOEDERIBVS los. Antiq. XIV 16 relates the foedus between 35 

M. T. 22 

338 TERTVLLIANI [p. 92 1. 3— 

the Jews and Romans, and c. 17 the decree of C. Caesar 
concerning the privileges, immunities and honours of the Jews 
(Woodham). cf. c. 21 p. 66 1. 34 sq. 

p. 92 1. 4 DOMIXATVRI Eivs : so regiiare, desinere, desistere 
5 c. gen. Graece. The gen. also De Cult. Fem. i 1. (scripture ap. 
De Pudicit. 17 p. 256 1. 29 Wiss.). Apul. Asclep. 39. Lact. 
Diu. Instt. IV 14 §3. Hermae Past. Ili 9. 23. Hieron. vi 194^ 
[Other exx. in Hier. Add Clem. Hil. Iren. lat. Priscill. Filast. 
Greg.-Illib. Aug. A.S.] 


lo p. 92 1. 6 INTENTATIONEM Here as 46 pr. u. 1. intentionem. 
De Cult. Fem. I 4 alteri ambitionis crimen intendimus, alteri 
^prostitutionis. Arnob. ii 66 quod nohis obiectare consuestis, 
ratione intenditur nulla. In Cic. int. actionem, litem, etc. In 
Cic. Cornif. Quintil. intentio )( depulsio. Lact. Epit. 45 | 7 

15 intentabant autem pro crimine id ipsum, quod se Dei Jilium 
diceret. On impiety see Arnob. i 29 pr. (Ehnenh. p. 20). 
p. 92 1. 7 xox ESSE 1 Cor. 8 4. 

p. 92 1. 8 OBSTRVIMVS GRADVxM c. 1 pr. uia7n. De Virgin. 
Vel. 15 £ temptationibus gradum. De Praescr. Haer. 15 iamc 

2o igitur potissimum gradum obstruimus, non admittendos eos. cf. 
De Carn. Resur. 48 p. 98 1. 20 Kr. Many other metaphorical 
uses of gradus (from the palaestra) cited by Oehler on Scorp. 
8 pr. 

p. 92 1. 11 CONSECRATIOXE De Cor. Milit. 10 pr. nam et 

25 mortuorum est ita coronari, uel quoniam et ipsi idola statim 
fiunt et hahitu et cultu consecrationis, quae apud 7ios secunda 
idololatria est. 

DEMENTIAM c. 50 propterea. . .desperati et perditi eayisti- 
mamur. De Spectac. 1 p. m. p. 1 1. 18 Wiss. simt qui existiment 

30 Christianos, expeditum morti genus, ad hanc obstinationem abdi- 
catione uoluptatium erudiri, quo facilius iiitam contemnant, 
amputatis quasi retinaculis eius. Lact. Diu. Instt. v 13 § 2 
stidtosque arbitrantur esse, qui cum liabeant in potestate, sup- 
plicia sua uitare, cruciari tamen et emori malunt. ibid. 18 

35 § 12 docui, ut opinor, cur populus noster ap)ud stultos stultus 

p. 92 1. 19] APOLOGETICVS 26, 27 339 

liabeata): nani cruciari atque interfici malle, quam tura trihm 
digiiis coniprehensa in focum iactare, tam ineptum uidetur, 
quam in pericido uitae alterius animam magis curare quam 
suarn. Plin. Ep. Tiai. 96. Arr. Epict. IV 7 elra viro /jbai'[a<; fjev 
hvvarai Tt9 oijrw Staredrjvai tt/jo? ravra (death, etc) Kai vtto 5 
edov^ fo)? ol YaXiXaloi, vtto Xoyov Se Kal «TroSet^e&j? ov8ei<i 
hvvarai. M. Aurel. XI 8 o'ia earlv rj -^vxh V eVot/xo?, eav ijBr] 
aTro\vdy)vaL Serj rov aoo/uiaro';, Kal i/roi a^eadi/vat 77 aKehaa-- 
Or/vaL i) av/jL/xelrai ; ro 8e eroi/xov rovro, 7va avro tSi/c?'}'» KpiaecD<i 
ep-^^r/raL, /li/ Kara yp-iXfjv -napdra^LV, ux; 01 \pLarLavoL, aWa 10 
X,eA.07to'/u.ei'&)9 Kal ae/xvw^i Kal coare Kal aXX.ov irelaaL arpayrpO(o<i. 
Minuc. 11 §§2 3. 87 § 4. Lact. Epit. 57 § 13 et si hominibus 
ineptnm uidetur ac stultum torqueri et mori malle quam libare 
dis et abire sine noxa. Euseb. Praep. Euang. viii 6 § 10. 

CVM possiMVS cet. c. 49 p. 142 1. 2 n. 15 

p. 92 1. 13 OBSTINATIONEM c. 50 f. n. lustin. Apol. ii 12 pr. 
Otto's n. Kaye 110 — 1. 

p. 92 1. 14 Scorpiac. 11 p. 170 1. 14 Wiss. ipsi denique 
praesides cum cohortantur negationi : ' serua animam tuam' 
dicunt, et ' noli aniuiam tuam perdere.' 20 

p. 92 1. 15 VNDE i.e. by demons c. 2 p. m. suspecta sit 
uobis ista peruersitas, ne qua uis lateat in occulto, quae uos 
aduersus fornuun, aduersus naturam iudicandi, contra ipsas 
quoque leges ministret. ibid. nomen quod quaedam ratio aemu- 
lae rationis insequitur...nomen illius aemulae rationis inimicum. 25 
Lact. Diu. Instt. ii 1 § 13 quanam istud ex causa fieri putemus? 
nisi esse aliquam peruersam potestatem,quae ueritatis sit semper 
inimica. ib. v 21 § 3. lustin. Apol. i 5 f. 10 f 44. ii 1. 5. 8. 
11. 12. Dial. c. Tryph. 39. Minuc. 28 pr. 

p. 92 1. 16 ASTVTIA SVADENDI Scorpiac. 11 pr. (cited above). 30 
Keim on Cels. I | 8 p. 6 n. 4. 

p. 92 1. 17 DEiciENDAM c. 2 p. 10 1. 14 (cited above) De 
Spectac. 29 f uis et pugilatus et luctatus? praesto sunt...adspice 
impudicitiam deiectam a castitate. In Cyprian deici ( )( stare) 
is used of the lapsed, who are laid low, receive a fall, from the 35 
devil. Cf ind. 

p. 92 1. 18 PARATVRAE make. c. 47 p. 134 1. 2 n. 
p. 92 1. 19 DE as from a stronghold. 

340 TERTVLLIANI [p. 92 L 21— 

p. 92 1. 21 IX PRIMORDIO c. 1. 2. 

p. 92 1. 22 SUBIECTA see below h. c. c. 37 p. 108 1. 29 n. 

De Cor. Milit. 11 a. m. et quos interdiu exorcismis fugauit, 

noctibus clefensahit, incumhens et requiescens super lonche, qua 

5 perfossuni est latus Ghristi. Harnack Medicinisches (Texte 

VIII 4) p. 120. 

p. 92 1. 23 METVi is not wrong, Ou. Col. Verg. Aen. 
VII 661. VIII 432. Liu. xxiii 4 § 7. xxiv 31 § 3 etc. Plin. 
Ep. VII 27 § 13. VIII 8 § 5. ad Trai. 61 (= 69) § 2. 
lo p. 92 1, 25 ODIVM cet. Minuc. 27 § 9 ideo inserti mentibus 
iniperitorum odium nostri serunt occulte per timorem: natu- 
rale est enim et odisse quem timeas et queni metueris infestare 
si possis. Cic. De Otf. Ii 7 § 23 quem metuunt, oderunt; quem 
quisque odit, perisse expetit. Persecution due to demons, lustin. 
15 Apol. I 5 p. 55''. 9 p. 57^^. 12 p. 59^ 44 p. 82«(?). ii c. 5 p. 44^ 
c. 8 p. 46*^. c. 11 p. 49^ 50^ Dial. c. Tryph. 39. Lact. Diu. 
Instt. V 21. 

p. 92 1. 26 PRAEDAMNATIONE cult. fem. II 4 pr. Apol. c. 23 p. m. 

p. 82 1. 19 renuant oh malitiam praedamnatos se in eundem 

2o iudicii dieni. Matt. 8 29. 2 Pet. 2 4 : verb also De leiun. 

15 pr. De Cult. Fem. i 2 f. De Idolol. 4 p. 33 1. 22 Wiss. 

Paulin. Nol. Ep. 18 7 f. 25 2 f 

p. 92 1. 28 svcciDVNT De Pudic. 1 p. 221 1. 15 Wiss. 
quotiens uolunt nuhunt, ne moechiae et fornicationi succidere 
25 cogantur. De Cor. Milit. 6 conditionem inuitam uanitati suc- 

DE LONGINQVO De Idolol. 12 p. 44 1. 1 Wiss. Scorpiac. 1 

p. 146 1. 14 Wiss. De Cor. Milit. 10 p. m. De Pat. 3 pr. 

Adu. Hermog. 44 fin. De Spectac. 2 (see below). Is. 33. 13 

30 bis in Adu. lud. 13. Adu. Marc. Iii 5 pr. Cassian Coll. xi 1. 

p. 92 1. 29 DE PROXiMO cet. De Spectac. c. 2 p. 2 1. 26 Wiss. 

de longinquo, non de ptroximo. c. 30 pr. Ad Vxor. i 8. ii 3. 

De Cult. Fem. 11 9. Apul. Metam. 11 4. 21 pr. xi 6. 23 f. 

Minuc. 27 § 9 Ghrisiianos de proximo fugitant, quos longe in 

35 coetihus per uos lacessehant. Harnack (Texte viii 4) p. 121. 

viCE c. 34 pr. n. dei uice. De Idolol. 12 p. 44 1. 1 Wiss. 
De Pat. 1 p. 1 1. 17 Kr. Sall. hist. iv Fr. 67 (but Maurenb. 
uicem). Cic. ad Attic. X 8 Sardanapalli uice (but Mliller 

p. 92 1. 35j APOLOGETICVS 27 341 

uiceni) in siio lectulo mori. Apul. Metam. i 12 uice Calypsonis. 

IV 6 iin. e.vigui tramitis uice. 

p. 92 1. 30 EKGASTVLORVM Adu. Mfirc. 11 2 p. 335 1. 24 Kr. 
in err/astulum terrae laborandae relegatus (the fallen Adam). 
Plin. Hist. Nat. xviii 3 § 21 fin. luu. 6. 151 pueros omnes, 5 
ergastula tota. 14. 24 n. quem mire ajficiunt inscripti, ergastula, 
carcer. Casaub. ad Hist. August. i 386 (ed. 1671). 

CARCERVM Ter. Lucil. 

METALLORVM c. 12 p. 44 1. 14. c. 29 p. 94 1. 27. c. 39 p. 112 
1. 17 n. c. 44 p. 124 1. 22. omn. De Cult. Fem. i 5 pr. aurum et lo 
argentum principes materiae cultus saecularis id sint necesse est, 
uude sunt, terra scilicet, plane gloriosior, quoniam in male- 
dictorum metallorum feralihus officinis jwenali opera deplorata 
nouieu terrae in igni reliquit, atque exinde de tormentis in orna- 
meuia, de suppliciis in delicias, de ignominiis in honores, metalU 15 
refuga mutatur. Dirksen Manuale s. u. metallicus subst. and 
metallum. In Egypt Diodor. Sicul. iii 12 with Wesseling. 

V 35 — 38 Spanish mines. Leading {lionorati) Manichaeans 
sentenced to the mines, Mos. et Rom. Leg. Collat. xv 3 § 7 
(others to be burnt or beheaded). Misery of miners, Chrysost. 20 
Hom. in Matt. pp. 464". 559^1 Ambr. 11 499 16. The fallen 
Adam (Tert. De Pall. 3 m. p. 928 Oehler) pellitus orbi, ut 
metallo, datur. Const. Apost. v 1 pr. Prayers for, Const. 
Apost. VIII 10 (i 1088 c Migne). Suet. Calig. 27, Caligula 
branded and sentenced to the beasts or the mines multos 25 
Iwnesti ordinis (a skive's punishment). Kern in Pauly vi 
1122-3 ' seruitus poenae.' Mommsen Strafrecht 947 2. 

p. 92 1. 31 Hoc GENVS De Orat. 27 hoc genus 
psalmos. Suet. Tit. 7 f Dbm. 4. Aug. 75. Claud. 34. gr. 
Cato Varro Cic. Lucr. Apul. Metam. ii 5 lapiUis et id genus 30 
friuolis. III 17. 

SERVITVTIS concr. as in Plaut. and Hor. 

p. 92 1. 32 De Orat. 1 p. 181 1. 11 Wiss. Dominum quem 
idtro suis prospicere certi sunius. 

p. 92 1. 34 DETRIVMPHAMVS Adu. Marc. I 2 [wrong refer- 35 
ence A.S.]. Cypr. de Spect. 10 diabolum illum, qui totum 
detriumphauerat mundum. Minuc. 25 § 7 [see also Thes. A. S.]. 

p. 92 1. 35 FIDEI OBSTINATIONE sententiae, Cic. animi, Sen. 

342 TERTVLLIANI [p. 92 1. 25— 

Tac. Hist. III 39 Blaeso super claritatem natalium et elegantiam 
moruni fidei ohstinatio fuit, a stubborn loyalty. plur. ad nat. 
1 17 pr. 19 pr. : sing., Apol. 50 f. n. ad nat. i 4 p. 64 1. 23 Wiss. 
18 pr. De Exhort. Cast. 13 m. 


5 p. 94 1. 1 cf. c. 24. 

p. 94 1. 2 INVITOS Ad Scap. 2 pr. ita etsi nos compideritis 
ad sacrificandiim, nihil 2i'>'((6stahitis dis uestris ; ab inuitis eniin 
sacrificia non desiderahunt, nisi si contentiosi sunt ; contentiosus 
auteni deus non est. Apol. 9 pr. cum propriis filiis Saturnus 

lo no7i jjepercit, extraneis utique non parcendo perseuerahat, quos 
quideni ipsi parentes sui ofierehant, et lihentes respondehant, et 
infantihus hkmdiebantur, ne lacrimantes immolarentur. 

AD SACRIFICANDVM Dispensation Euseb. Hist. Eccl. viii 
1 § 2 TOt)V KpaTovvTOiv al irepl rov^ rj/xeTepov^ Se^<ci)cre(<?, oh 

15 Kal Ta<i Twv edvwv evej^eipil^ov rjjefMOvia<;, rrj<i irepl rb Oveiv 
aycovLaf Kara TroWrjv, hv arreaw^ov irepX rij hoyfia, (piXiav 
avTov<i dTraWdTTOvre^. Cf. 2 | 5 rrdar} fjLrj-^^^avfj Ovetv i^avayfcd- 
^eadai. Conc. Illiber. c. 3 excommunication of flamens, qui 
non immolauerint, sed munus tantum dederint. Cf 4. 55. Lact. 

20 De Mort. Persec. 15 § 1 primam om^iium filiam Valeriam 
coniugemque Priscam sacrificio pollui coegit. § 4 iudices per 
omnia templa dispersi uniuersos ad sacrificia cogehant. § 5 ne 
cui temere ius diceretur, arae in secretariis ac pro trihunali 
positae, ut litigatores prius sacrificarent atque ita causas suas 

25 dice7'ent. Euseb. De Mart. Palaest. 2 § 1. 

p. 94 1. 5 PRAE MANV De Test. Anim. 4 f si de aliquo 
iani pridem defuncto tamquam de uiuo quis requirat, prae manu 
occurrit dicere : abiit iam et reuerti debet. Scorpiac. 10 p. 168 
1. 22 Wiss. Apul. Metam. vi 18 aes si forte prae manu non 

zo fuerit. Plaut. Ter. Gell. dig. 

p. 94 1. 6 De Idolol. 21 p. 55 1. 7 Wiss. scio quendam, cui 
Dominus ignoscat, cum illi in publico per litem dictum esset: 
luppiter tihi sit iratus, respondisse : " immo tibi." quid aliter 
fecisset ethnicus, qui loueni deum credidit ? 

35 p. 94 1. 7 QVA VELIT = utrauis. 

p. 94 1. 16] APOLOGETICVS 27, 28 343 

QVID TiBi MECVM EST my n, on Plin. ep. iii 9 § 27 p. 162 — 3. 
Tert. De Cor. Milit. 15 m. quid tibi cum fiore morituro ? Adu. 
Marc. I 25 p. 825 1. 19 Kr. quid illi cum Chy-isto, molesto 
et Indaeis per doctrinam et sibi per Iesum? quid illi cum 
Epicuro, nec sihi nec Christianis necessario ? ib. 11 p. 304 1. 1 5 
Kr. quid ergo illi cuni extraneis? 

p. 94 1. 10 AD SECVNDVM TITVLVM c. 10 pr. deos, inquitis, no)i 
colitis et pro itnperatoribus sacrificia non impenditis. sequitur 
ut eadem ratione pro aliis non sacrificemus, quia nec pro nobis 
ipsis, semel deos non colendo. itaque sacrilegii et maiestatis rei lo 
cunueniniur. infr. c. 32 Christians swore per salutem (but not 
per geniuni) imperatoris. ad Scap. 2. ad nat. i 17 pr. prima 
obstinatio est, quae secunda a deis religio constituitur Caesarianae 
maiestatis, quod inreligiosi dicamur in Gaesares, neque iniagines 
eoruni ture propitiando neque genios deierando hostes populi 15 
nuncupamur. Theophil. I 11 pr. roLyapovv fxaXXov Tifijjaco 
Tov /3aai\ea, ov TrpoaKvvwv avTO), dXX' ev^^^^o/jLevo^: virep avTOv 
(he had been speaking of idols). Bayle oeuvres lll 381. 

p. 94 1. 12 Minuc. Oct. 29 § 5 sic eoruni (principum et 
regum) numen uocant, ad imagines supplicant, genium, id est 20 
daemoneni eoruni implorant, et est eis tutius per louis geniuni 
peierare quam regis. 

OBSERVATis Verg. Georg. iv 210 — 2 praeterea regem non sic 
Aegyptos et ingens lydia nec populi Parthorum aut Medus 
Hi/daspes obseruant. Cic. 25 

p. 94 1. 13 ET MERiTO Adu. Marc. v 4 p. 582 1. 6 Kr. Adu. 
lud. 9. 

p. 94 1. 14 MORTVO POTIOR c. 29 pr. c. 30 pr. n. homines 
qui utique uiuunt et mortuis antistant. Chrys. De Sancto Babyla 
oper. I 664 — 5 cited in Bayle Babylas n. E. Eccles. 9 4 a living 30 
dog is better than a dead lion. Cypr. Ad Demetrian. 14. 

p. 94 1. 15 PRAESENTANEAE (cf. co7isecraneus 16. consentaneus 
classical) ad nat. i 7 p. 68 1. 23 Wiss. : generally with remedium 
Plin. and Marcel. Empir. p. 313 8. Sen. Suet., uenenum Plin. 
and Gell. Vii (vi) c. 4 § 1 [but Hosius reads praesentarium 35 
A. S.]. 

p. 94 1. 16 iRRELiGiosi Arnob. iv 30 pr. [cf c. 13 pr. n. A.S.]. 


344 TERTVLLIANI [p. 94 1. 17— 

p. 94 11. 17—18 Euseb. Hist. Eccl. iv 15 §§ 18. 19. 21 (to 
Polycarp, the proconsul) 6/J.oaov rrjv Kalaapcxi rvxv^- i 21 " If 
you vainly imagine that I shall swear by the fortune of Caesar, 
as pretending that you know not who I am, be assured once for 

5 all that I am a Christian." Apol. c. 16 p. m. religio Romatwrum 
tota castrensis signa ueneratur, signa iurut, signa oninibus dis 
praeponit. infr. c. 32 (p. 98 1. 29 n.) sed et iuranius, sicut non 
per genios Caesarum, ita per salnteni eoruni, quae est augustior 
omnibus geniis. c. 35 p. 104 1. 20. ad nat. i 17 p. 89 1. 16 Wiss. 

lo sed aliud opinor est non iurare per genium Caesaris. i 10 
p. 78 1. 6 Wiss. immo iam per deos deierandi periculum euanuit, 
potiore habita religione per Caesarem deierandi, quod et ipsum 
ad offuscationem pertinet deorum uestrorum ; facilius enim per 
Caesareni peierantes punirentur quam per idluni loueni. Ad 

15 Scap. 2 iidem ipsi, qui per genios eorum in pridie usque iura- 
uerant, qui pro salute eorum hostias et fecerant et uouerant, qui 
Christianos saepe damnauerant, hostes eorum sunt reperti. 
Melito Apol. 4 pr. (ex Syr. ix 425 Otto) ego uero dico quod 
etiam Sibylla de eis dixit, eos simulacra regum mortuorum 

20 adorare. atque hoc facile est intellectu ; nam ecce etiamnunc 
adorant simulacra Caesarum ac nmgis uenerantur quam illa 
priora. Philostr. Apoll. I 15 § 2 in a dearth in Pamphylia the 
mob rose against the governor and were about to burn him 
KaLToc TrpoaKetfjievov TOi<i ^aai\eLOt<; fivSpidaiv, ol KaL tov 

25 Aio? Tov ev 'OXu/iTTta ^o^epcoTepoi i^aav Tore Kal davXorepoi, 
Ti/SepLov y 6vTe<i. Minuc. 29 § 5 cited above. dig. Xll 2 13 § 6 
siquis iurauerit in re pecuniaria per genium principis, dare se 
non oportere, etpeierauerit,.. .imperator noster cum patre [Septim. 
Seu. et Antonin. Carac.] rescripsit fustibus euni castigatiim dimitti 

30 et ita ei superdici : TrpoTrerw^i /jLT] 6fivv€. — cod. iv 1 2 Imp. 
Alexander A. Felici iurisiurandi contempta religio satis Deum 
ultorem habet. 'periculum autern corporis uel maiestatis crimen 
secundum constitida diuorum parentum meorum, etsi per prin- 
cipis uenerationem quodam calore fuerit peieratum, inferri non 

35 placet. Cf On offences against diuus Augustus Suet. Tib. 58. 
On swearing by the genius Caesaris, Lightfoot on Martyr. 
Polycarpi 9 (ii 962—3). E. Beurlier, Le Culte imperial, son 
histoire et son organisation depuis Auguste jusqu'a Justinien. 

p. 94 1. 26] APOLOGETICVS 28, 29 345 

Paris 1891 (p, 156 n. 1:^), ' il est tres rare, dans les dedicaces 
faites a la fois a Auguste et a un autre dieu, fut-ce Jupiter, de 
voir le nom du prince au second rang' (but see Mommsen 
Staatsr. ii- 784 n. 4. cf p. 783). Orig. E.xhort. ad Mart. 7 
(XX 240— 1 L.). Lasaulx Studien d. klass. Alterthums (1854) 5 
p. 212 n. 27. Lightfoot Ignatius ii 7()2— 3. Acta Mart. Scillit. 
§ 1 (cf 2. 3). Rufin. Hist. Eccl. iv 15 j). 209 sq. Apul. ^letam. 
IX 41 (Hildebrand p. 867). 

Cap. XXIX 

p. 94 1. 22 PKRDITI coxsERVANT De Cult. Fem. i 2 Jiaec 
qua/ia sint, interim iam ex doctorum suorum qualitate et con- lo 
dicioiie pronuntiari potest, quod nihil ad integritatem peccatures, 
nihil ad castitatern adamatores, nikil ad tinioreni dei desertores 
spiritus aut monstrare potuerunt aut praestare. Cypr. De Llol. 
Van. 3 f [from Minuc. 26 § 7] spiritus insinceri et uagi...non 
desinunt pprditi perdere et deprauati errorem prauitatis in- 15 

p. 94 1. 24 vivos c. 30 pr. n. 

p. 94 1. 25 AEDES .struck by lightning Sen. Nat. Quaest. ii 
42 1. Lucr. II 1101—4. vi 416—9. Aristoph. Nub. 399 sq. 
Minuc. 5 § 9. Mart. iv 21. Diog. Laert. vi 74. Lucian lupp. 20 
Conf 17. Cic. De Diuinat. ii § 104 cet. : arson Arnob. vi 23. 

p. 94 1. 26 ExcvBiis Clem. Recogn. v 15. luu. 14 260 n. sq. 
ud uigileni ponendi Castora numnii, ex quo Mars Vltor galeani 
quoque perdidit et res non potuit seruare suas. De Cor. Milit. 
11 a. m, et excuhahit pro temj)lis, quihus renuntiauit?...quos 25 
interdiu exorcismis fugauit, noctibus defensahit. De Idolol. 11 
(Christians not to sell things used for idolatry) p. 42 1. 22 Wiss. 
qua constantia exorcizahit aluninos suos, quihus donium suani 
cellarium praestat? Arnob. vi 20 cur eos [deos] suh ualidissimis 
clauihus ivgentibusque suh claustris hahetis inclusos, ac ne forte 30 
fur aliquis aid nocturnus irrepat latro, aedituis niille protegitis 
atque excuhitorihus niille ? Cypr. ad Demetr. 14 quid praestare 
colentihus possunt qui se de non colentibiis uindicare non possimt ? 
nani si eo qui uindicatur pluris est ille qui uindicat, tu dis tuis 
onaior es. si ergo his quos colis maior es, non tu eos colere, sed 35 

346 TERTVLLIANI [p. 94 1. 26— 

ab illis coli debes. sic illos laesos ultio uestra defendit, quomodo 
et clausos ne pereant tiitela uestra custodit. pudeat te evs colere 
quos ipse defendis, pudeat tutelam de eis sperare quos tu tueris. 
Ambros. De Virginit. ii 5 §§ 36 — 7. Lact. Diu. Instt. ii 4 § 5. 
5 V 20 § 3. Aristid. Apol. 3. lustin. Apol. i 9 p. 58^ [Melito] 
Apol. 10. Ep. Diognet. 2 p. 495*". omn. Chrys. ii 547'' sq. 
Hennecke Aristid. ind. rrjpew. Mommsen Strafrecht 311 1. 

MATERlAE cet. c. 12 f. in metalla damnaniur. inde censentur 
di uestri. 27 (p. 92 1. 30 n.). 
lo p. 94 1. 28 IRATVM Bayle oeuvres iii 85. Sen. De Ira i 
20 § 8. 

p. 94 1. 29 FACIT c. 23 p. 80 1. 22. 

PROPITIVM 5 pr. facit et hoc ad causam nostram, quod apud 
uos de humano arbitratu diuinitas pensitatur. nisi homini deus 
15 placuerit, deus non erit ; homo iani deo propitius esse debebit. 
Ambr. ad Valentinian. adu. Symm. [= epist. 18 A. S.] | 8 uos 
pacem dis uestris ab imperatoribus obsecratis, nos ipsis inipera- 
toribus a Christo pacem rogamus. 

p. 96 1. 3 PLVMBATIS c. 12 p. 44 1. 11 ante plumbum et 
20 glutinum et gomphos sine capite sunt di uestri. c. 42 f denique 
porrigat manum luppiter et accipiat. 

Cap. XXX 

p. 96 1. 7 cf end of chapter. c. 19 Fuld. p. 62. c. 39 pr. 
oramus pro imperatoribus,- pro ministeriis eoruni ac 
potestatibus. Ad Scap. 2 m. Ghristianus nullius est hostis, nedum 

25 iniperatoris, quem sciens a deo suo constitui necesse eH ut et 
ipsum diligat et reuereatur et honoret et salicum uelit cum toto 
Romano imperio . . .itaque et sacrificamus pro salute imperato7'is, 
sed deo nostro et ipsius, sed quomodo praecepit deus, pura 
precc.ita nos magis oramus pro salute imperatoris, ab eo eam 

■3,0 postulantes, qui praestare potest. Cypr. ad Demetrian. 20 f, 
pro pace ac salute uestra propitiantes et placantes deum diebus 
ac noctibus. Arn. iv 36 f. heathen prayers for the state. 
Lasaulx Studien 152 n. 85. Mart. vii 59 in Hau. Chrys. xi 579^ 
Bingham xiii 10 5. Galerius a.d. 311 asked for the j^rayers of 

35 the Church and gave indulgence for Christians, on condition 

p. 96 1. 7] APOLOGETICVS 29, 30 347 

of prayin^f for the state. Lact. De Mort. Persec. 34 § 5 ande, 
luxta hanc indulgentiani nostrani, debebunt deuni suum orare 
pro salute nostra et rei publicae ac sua, ut undique uersum 
res publica praestetur incoluniis et securi uiuere in sedibus 
suis jMssint = Euseb. Hist. Eccl. viii 17 § 10. (Hanel Corp. Leg. 5 
p. 185.) Ruiin. Hist. Eccl. viii 19. ix 10 p. 539. iugiter atque 
instanter oramus [whence ? A.S.]. Athenag. c. 37 (concludes 
with a prayer for the Antonines. Cf. 1 Tim. 2 vv. 1 2. Prayer 
to be said by heathen soldiers on behalf of the emperor and his 
family, Euseb. Vit. Const. iv 20. Schlirer ll^ c. 1 304. Clem. 10 
Rom. Ep. I 61, edd. Harnack Patr. Apost. i (1)^ p. 103 sq. and 
Funk). 1 p. 2'^^ iifxeh 8e 01 XeyofJLevoi Xpicrriavol, otl ^i] Trpove- 
vor^aue Kai -t)^i(?n>, avy^^^wpelre 8e fxrjSev dScKovvrwi, dWd kul 
TTuvrcov, co? 7rpoioi>ro<: rov Xoyov Beix^iiaerai, evaejBearara 
oiaKeifxevov-; Kai StKaLorara Trpo^ re ro Oelov Kal rijv v/jLerepav 15 
^aaiXeiav, eXavveaOaL Ka\ (f)epeadai Kal Sift-KeadaL. Tatian 
4 pr. TTpoardrreL (popovq reXelv 6 l3aai\ev<; ; eroLpo<; Trape^^eiv. 
oovXevetv 6 heaTTorrji; Kal virrjpereiv ; ri)v SovXeiav yLvo^aKuiv. 
rov jxev <yap dvdpo)7rov dvOpwrrivuii; rifxijreov, (polBijTeov 8e fiorov 
rc)V Oeov ' oari<; dvdp(t}7rLvo<; ovk eariv 6par6<; 6(f)0a\poL<;, ov ^o 
Te-)(^i'r) 7r€pL\rj7rr6<;. rovrov fiovov dpveladaL Ke\ev6iuLevo<; ov 
Treiadrjaopai, reOvrf^opuL 6e fMaWov, iva fx>) yfrevarT]^ Kal 
d)(^dptaro<; (iTroSeLxdot). Theophil. I 11 roLjapovv pdWov 
rifiijao) rov ^aaL\ea, ov TrpooKvvdov ai'To3 dWd ev^^ofievo^^ 
VTrep avrov' 6e(v Be rw 6vT(o<i 6ea> Kal d\r)6eL 7TpoaKvv(ji), elSio^; 25 
brt /3ao L\ev<; utt' avrov yeyovev...T6v 8e I3aai\ea ripa evvowv 
avr(o, vTroraaaofjtevo^ aijT(p, ev-)(6pevo'^ virep avrov. lustin. 
Apol. I 14. 17 deov fitv fi6vov TrpoaKwovfiev, vplv he ^rpof ra 
aWa x^Lpovre^;, vTrrfperovfiev, iBaaiXet'? Kat dp~)(ovra<; dvdp(t)7r(ov 
Ofio\oyovire>; Kal evxofxevot fxerd rrj<; ^aaL\LKi]<i hvvdpeo)^ Kal 30 
aocxj^pova rov \oytafi6v e^^oi/ra? vfid<; evpe6i]vat. Euseb. Hist. 
Eccl. X 8 § 16. Vit. Const. iv § 4, 11 12 § 1 Licinius charges 
the bishops with praying for Constantine and not for him. 
Orig. contr. Cels. viii 70 p. 214. (Lomm. t. xx) 73 p. 220 
(L. t. XX) sqq. Concil. Chalced. act. 4 (Hefele 11 [Freib. 1856] 35 
p. 489 f.). Bailey Rituale Anglo-cath. 16. 20. 32—34. 174. 
Prudent. Peristeph. X 426 — 8. Cypriani Acta Procons. 1 (p. cx 
]. 18—20). 

348 TERTVLLIANI [p. 96 1. 10— 

p. 96 1. 10 QVA HOMINES c. 5 m. Domitiavus, portio Neronis 
de crudelitate, sed qua et homo, facile coeptum repressit. 

p. 96 1. 12 SECVNDi c. 33 temperans maiestatem Caesaris 
infra deum, mar/is illicm commendo deo, cui soli subicio. — sec. 
5 a quo. Hirt. Liu. Hor. lustin. xvui 4 § 5. xxxii 1 § 9. Tert. 
Adu. Prax. 5 fin. 7 fin. Ad Scap. 2 p. m. colimus ergo et impera- 
torem sic, quomodo et nohis licet et ipsi expedit, ut hominem a Beo 
secumlum et, quicquid est a Deo consecutum, solo Deo minorem. 
My Latin Heptateuch p. 207 1. 10. Barrow in C. Wordsworth 
10 Chr. Instt. IV 151. 

SVPER OMNES DEOS Ad Scap. 2 -p. m. hoc et ipse < imperator > 
tiolet. sic enim omnihus maior est, durn solo uero Deo minor 
est ; sic et ipsis dis maior est, dum et ipsi in p)otestate sunt eius. 
Veget. Epit. Rei Mil. II 5 iurant per Deum, et per Christum et 
15 per Spiritum sanctum, et per maiestatem imperatoris, quae 
secundum Deum r/eneri humano diligenda est et colenda. 

p. 96 1. 13 VIVVNT ET MORTVIS ANTISTANT C. 10. C. 29 pr. 
p. 94 1. 23 si denique, quod in conscientia uestra est, mortui 
uiuos tuentur. c. 28 fin, quis enim ex uiuentibus non quolihet 
2o mortuo tuo [om. ?] potior ? 

p. 96 1. 14 ANTISTANT De Virg. Veland. 10 p. m. non enim 
et continentia uirginitati antistat. De Fug. in Persec. 3 f. nos 
autem, puto, multis passerihus antistamus (cf. Matt. 10 31 in De 
Carn. Resur. 13 fin. 35 p. 77 1. 10 Kr.). Sil. ix 538. Gellius vi 
25 5 1. Amm. Apul. Metam. iv 8. Ennius Agam. fr. 11 (271 Trag. 
Vahlen) plehes in hoc regi antistat. Fronto p. 8 4. [See Thes. 

RECOGITANT Plaut. Cic. (1). Scn. Colum. Tert. Exhort. Cast. 
3 pr. 10 pr. 12 a. m. De Cor. Mil. 10 p. m. De Idolol. 11 pr. 
30 De Monog. 3 £ LS have ' Ad Max.' read ' Ad Vx. i 4 fin.' 
not " rare." 

p. 96 1. 17 CAPTIVVM as the models of cities, mountains, 
etc. Hor. epist. 11 1 193 captiua Corinthus. 

p. 96 1. 18 seq. supra c. 25. infr. c. 33 (cited on p. 96, 12) 

35 si homo sit, interest Jtominis deo cedere. Ad Scapul. 2 p. m. 

(cited above on p. 96, 12 and 7) non enim eget Deus, conditor 

uniuersitatis, odoris aut sanguinis alicuius. Hor. Carm. ili 6 5 

dis te minorem quorl geris, imperas. Plin. Panegyr. 2 | 4. 

p. 96 1. 22] APOLOGETICVS 30 349 

p. 96 1. 21 ILLVC svsPiciENTES Arnob. II 3 (supr. 17 fin.). 

p. 96 1. 22 MANIBVS EXPANSis raising hands. Ps. 119 48. 
Isai. 1 15. 1 Tim. 2 8 Price. James 4 8. Tert. Adu. Marc. 
1 28 p. 322 1. 22 Kr. ad alienum caelum alii deo expanditur. 
III 18 p. 407 1. 14 ff. Kr. of Moses. De Orat. 13 p. 188 1. 22 5 
Wiss. Cf. ad fin. cap. expansos . . .hahitum orantis Christiani. 
Kaye 383. 429 (from Adu. Marc. i 23 fin.). De Orat. 14 fin. 
nos uero non attollinius tantuni, sed etiam expandinius, et 
doniinicani passioneni modulantes et orantes confitemur Christo. 
29 fin. sed et aues mane exsurgentes eriguntur ad caelum, et 10 
alarum crucem pro manihus expandunt et dicunt aliquid quod 
oratio uideatur. De Baptismo 20 fin. cum de illo sanctissimo 
lauacro noui natalis ascenditis et primas nianus apud matrem 
cum fratrihus aperitis, petite de patre, petite de domino peculia 
gratiue. De Spectac. 25 p. 25 1. 16 Wiss. illas manus, quas 15 
ad deuni extuleris, postmodum laudando histrionem fatigarei 
Lasaulx 154 n. 97—99. Athanas. Vit. Ant. 54. Paulin. Vit. 
Ambr. 47 expansis manihus in modum crucis orauit. Clem. Alex. 
Strom. VII § 40 pr. p. 854 P. TavTr) < ttj ivStaOiTO) o/xiXta > Kal 
TrpoaavaTeivojxev tijv Ke^aXrjv Kal Td<i ■)(elpa'i eh ovpavbv 20 
aipoixe,'. K. F. Hermann Alterth. II- (1858) § 21 n. 10. 
Marquardt III- 178 n. 8. [Lucian] Philopatris 29 rj/xeh Se tov 
iv Wdtjvaa " AyvwaTov i^evpovTe^ Ka\ 7rpoaKvvi]aavTe<; ■^(^elpa'^ 
el<i ovpavov iKTeivavTe^; tovtw ev^^^apiaTrjao/jiev. Lucret. V 
1200 — 1 nec procwnLhere hunii prostratum et pandere palmas 25 
ante deuni deluhra. Prudent. Peristeph. vi 106 — 8 (hke the 
cross : so Maxim. Taur. hom. 2 de passione, Migne P. L. LVii 342'' 
343^ [Paulin. above and Aug, Serm. 342 § 1. 352 § 6. A.S.]). 
Aristot. De Mundo vi 31. Lact. De Mort. Persec. 46. Euseb. 
Vit. Const. IV 18. 19. H. E. viii 7 § 4. Athan. ep. ad Serapion. 30 
3 (l 270^) Ta9 re ■)(eipa<; iKTeiva<i Trpo? tov deov. Synes. ep. 11 
ad fin. Chrys. Xi 664^ Smith Dict. Chr. Ant. 'Prayer.' Acad. 
10 Febr. (1894) p. 125. Prof Kamsay Ch. in Roman Empire 421. 
Bingham xiii 8 § 10. Le Blant Les Actes des Martyres iii 
(1883) 100. 35 

CAPITE NVDO )( capite operto. Cypr. De Laps. 1 (p. 238 5) 
a.h impio sceleratoque uelaniine quo illic uelahantur sacrifican- 
tiuni cupita captiua, caput uestruni liberum munsit. uperto 

350 TERTVLLIANI [p. 96 I. 22— 

capite = Gvaeco ritu. Suet. Vitell. 2 idem iiiiri in adulando 
ingenii, primus C. Caesarem adorare vt deum instituit, cum 
reuersus ex Syria non aliter adire ausus esset qnam capite 
uelato. Marquardt iii- 176 n. 6. Plut. Qu. Roni. 10 p. 266' 
5 Wytt. Plaut. Amph. 5 1 44, capite operto. Bingham xiii 8 § 9. 
Kaye 384. 

p. 96 1. 23 SINE MONITORE Kaye 387 — 8 not like the 
heathen c. 35 de nostris annis tibi luppiter augeat annos. )( 
praeire uerha. King Primitive Church ii 33 — 42 no forms. 

lo Thuc. VI 32 prayers of the fleet before the Sicilian expedition 
vTTo K}]pvKo^. Marquardt iii- 178 — 9. Bingham xiil 5 5 (iv 
388). monitor sacrorum (Orelli 3142. 5670 = Wihnanns 1761. 
1758). Mommsen in Rh. Mus. xix (1864) 458 esp. Plin. xxviii 
§ 11. 

15 p. 96 1. 24 PRECANTES cet. c. 33. 39. Arnob. iv 36 f Cyril. 
Hierosol. Catech. 5 mystagog. c. 8 (Migne P. G. xxxiii 1116'^). 
Athenag. Suppl. 37 TLve^^ yap Kal SiKaiorepoi ouv Siovrai Tv^elv, 
rj OLTive<; irepl p.ev t?}? «PX'}'? r?}? v/MeTepa<i evxof^eda, iva 
7rai<: fxev Trapa iraTpo^ KaTa t6 SiKatoTaTov Siahe^^rjade Trjv 

20 fSaaLXeiav, av^rjv 3e Kal eTrihocrLv Kal y) apxv yp-f^v, TrdvTcov 
VTTOx^ipLOiv 'yLVo/jLevo)v, Xa/x/Sdvij ; tovto S' eaTL Kal 7rpo<; i-jp.wv, 
OTTO)? -)]pe/jLov Kai i]avxiov ^iov SidyoL/Mev [= 1 Tim. 2 2. A. S.], 
avTol 8e TrdvTa Ta KeKeKeva^ieva TrpoOv/jLoy^ vTrrjpeTol/iev. Tert. 
Ad Scap. 2 (cited on p. 96, 7). Prudent. Peristeph. x 417 — 

25 420 (partly cited below). Lightfoot Ignatius i 576. Euseb. Vit. 
Const. IV 45 § 2. Bailey Rituale Anglo-Cathol. 174 (Church 
militant prayer). Dionvs. Alex. epist. 1 p. 31 1. 4 ed. Feltoe, 
cited by Herald. in Orelli Arnob. ii 259. 1 Tim. 2 2 Grot. 
Pirke Avoth c. 3 § 2 p. 43 ed. Taylorl Ps. 15. Esdr. 6 10. 

30 loseph. VII 17. XII 17 cet. Ebnenhorst on Arnob. iv 36 f 
(p. 152) (bk IV f.). 

p. 96 1. 26 ORBEM QviETVM Prudent. Peristeph. 419 420 
atque subiugatis hostibus \ ductor cjuietum frenet orbem legibus 
(La Cerda). 

35 p. 96 1. 29 PRAESTAT cet. c. 33 non solum ab eo postulo eam 
[scdutem'] qui potest praestare, aut quod talis postulo qui merear 
impetrare. Lact. De Mort. Persec. 52 f. to a confessor : tu 
praecipue, Donate carissime, cpd a Deo mereris audiri, Dominum 

p. 96 1. 33] AP0L0GETICV8 30 351 

deprecare. Woodham. Ad Scap. 2 a, f. ita nos magis oramus 
pro salate imperatoris, ah eo eam postulantes, qui praestare 

p. m 11. 29— SO c. 33 p. 100 1. 8 cited above. c. 29 f. insuper 
eos debellatis, qui eam < saluteni iniperatorum > sciunt petere, $ 
qui etiam possunt impetrare, duni sciunt petere. c. 45 f. merito 
soli innocentiae occurrimus. 

p. 96 1. 31 OPIMAM Plin. viii § 183 liinc (of bulls) uictimae 
opimae et lautissima deorum pfacatio. maiores )( lactentes. 
Henzen Acta Fr. Arual. 143. lo 

p. 96 1. 32 the sacrt/ice of prayer 1 Sam. 15 22. Ps. 50 8—14. 
51 16—17. Prov. 21 3. Kaye 424. Lact. Diu. Instt. vi 25 
§ 11. Adu. lud. 5 ante fin. p. 710 1. ult. Oehler. De Orat. 27 
est optimum utique institutum omne quod praeponendo et liono- 
rando deo competit saturatam orationem uelut opimam hostiam 15 
admouere. 28 Itaec est enim Jtostia spiritalis quae ])ristina 
sacrijicia deleuit....nos sumus ueri adoratores et ueri sacerdotes, 
qui spiritu orantes spiritu sacrificamus orationem Itostiam dei 
p)ropriani et acceptahilent, quam scilicet requisiuit, qucim sihi 
prospexit. hanc de toto corde deuotam, fide pastam, ueritate 20 
curatam, innocentia integrani, castitate viundam agapen coro- 
natam cum pompa operum honortim inter psalmos et hymnos 
deducere ad dei altare dehemus, omnia nohis a deo impetraturam. 
De leiun. 10 fin. pinguiorem orationem deo immolat. De Idolol. 
6 fin. negas te quod facis colere ? sed illi non negant, quihus 25 
Jianc saginatiorem et auratiorem et maiorem hostiam caedis, 
salutem tuam. Ad Scap. 2 p. m. (cited on p. 96 1. 7 ; then 
after prece) non enim eget deus, conditor uniuersitatis, odoris 
aut sanguinis alicuius. haec enim daemoniorum pahula sunt. 
Iren. iv 14 § 3. Athenag. 13 (n. 7 Otto). lustin. Apol. i 9. 13. 30 
Ep. ad Diogn. 3. Minuc. 32 § 2 seq. 

p. 96 1. 33 THVRis 4 grains Luc. lupp. Trag. 15 p. 659 (11 356 
ed. Jacobitz )( De Mnesitheo). Tert. De Idolol. 11 p. 41 1. 20 
Wiss. Arnob. vi 3 pr. vii 27 sq. Prudent. Peristeph. iii 121 — . 
130, especially 121—5 Jtaec, rogo, quis lahor est fugere ? \ si 35 
modicum salis eniinulis \ turis et exiguum digitis \ tangere uirgo 
henigna uelis, \ poena grauis procul cfuerit. x 916 — 8 reponit 
aras ad tribunal denuo \ et tus et ignem uiuidum in carhonihus, \ 

352 TERTVLLIANI [p. 96 1. 33— 

taurina et exta uel suilla abdoiiiina. Portable altars, Daremberg 
and Saglio Dictionnaire s.v. ara p. 349 fig. 415. 416. Le Blant 
Les Actes des Martyrs p. 63 § 20 (Allard La Persecution de 
Diocletien, 1890 i 48 49). Petri episc. Alexandr. can. 5 (306 A.D.) 
5 in Routh Reliq. Sacr. iv 23 seq. Some offered incense by 
pagans. can. 14 others had their hands held (cf. Concil. Ancyr. 
A.D. 314 can. 3). Lact. Diu. Instt. v 18 § 12 docui, ut opinor, 
cur populus noster apud stultos stultus haheatur. nam cruciari 
atque interfici inalle quani tura trihus digitis co^nprehensa in 

lo focuiii iactare, tam ineptum uidetur, quam in per'iculo uitae 
alterius aniinam magis curare quam suarii. i 20 § 26 nec tameii 
desinunt ea colere quae fugiunt et oderunt: colunt eniin ture ac 
suminis digitis quae sensihus intimis Jiorrere dehuerunt. Hiero- 
nym. Ep. 14 § 5 non est tantum in eo seruitus idoli, si quis 

15 duohus digitulis tura conprehensa in hustum arae iaciat, aut 
haustum patera fundat meruni. 

VNIVS ASSIS c. 14 pr. n. Catull. 5. 3 Ellis. passer unius 
assis (Matt. 10 29 in Tert. De Fug. in Persec. 3 f. and De 
Exhort. Cast. 1 f.). Otto Sprichworter 39 (does not know 

20 Tert.). Plaut. Poen. 451 quiue ullum turis grainun sacrifi- 
cauerit. Ou. Fast. iv 410 turea grana. PHn. xii § 83 aesti- 
mentur postea, toto orhe singulis aunis tot funera, aceruatiinque 
congesta honori cadaueruni quae dis per singulas micas dantur. 
On offerings of tus Arnob. vii 26 — 28. 

25 p. 96 1. 34 ARABICAE De Cor. Milit. 10 a. m. si me odor 
alicuius loci offenderit, Arahiae aliquid incendo, sed non eodem 
ritu nec eodem hahitu nec eodem apparatu, quo agitur apud 
idola. Martian. Cap. | 215 with Kopp. Plin. Xli § 51 tura 
praeter Arabiam nullis, ac ne Arahiae quidem uniuersae. Verg. 

30 Georg. II 117 solis est turea uirga Sahaeis (Cerda there). 

LACRIMAS Verg. Colum. Plin. Marc.-Empir. p. 317 17 & 30. 
Theod. Prisc. I 4 m. i 19 m. & p. m. [I cannot verify the reff. 
in Theod. Prisc, but see Rose's index. A. S.] 

MERi Arnob. vii 26 pr. 32 pr. 29 pr. inerum turis est socium. 

i5 30 et quae grauior infligi contumelia dis potest, quam si eos 
credas accepto mero propitios fieri, aut honorem existimes 
hahitum his magnum, si modo uini exigui rores super uiuidam 
ieceris atque instillaueris prunam? Cf 31. Verg. Georg. iv 

p. 98 1. 4] APOLOGETICVS 30 353 

384 ter liquido ardentem perfndit nectare Vestam. Suet. Galb. 
18 (in Haverk.). 

p. 96 1. 35 REPROBi BOVis c. 14 pr. n. luu. 12 95 — 7 libet 
expectare, quis aegrani et claudentem oculos gallinam impendat 
amico tam sterili. reprobus d8nKifxo<;. dig. uulg. of bad money ; 5 
Leu. 22 20—22. Deut. 15 21. Mal. 1 8. Winer Reahvorterb. 
' Opfer.' lulian. Misopogon 361'' — 362'' he went to Daphne to the 
temple on a great feast, expecting processions and victims and 
libations and choirs in white raiment. The priest had brought 
a goose as his offering, the city nothing, though the temple was 10 
largely endowed. 

INQVINAMENTA 15 a. m. p. 50 1. 22. De Spectac. 8 p. 10 
1. 10 Wiss. 10 p. 13 1. 12 Wiss. 15 pr. De Carne Christi 20 f. 
De Cult. Fem. ii 7. Ad Vx. ii 2 p. m. 7. De Orat. 13 p. 189 
1. 4 Wiss. ad nat. i 10 p. 80 1. 7 Wiss. Ambr. Off. ii § 65. 15 
De Cain 11 § 2. Chromat. in Matt. 3 § 6 (Vitr. 1. Gell. 1). 
[I have a number of exx. from Aug. and Ps.-Aug. A. S.] 

p. 98 1. 1 CONSCIENTIAM SPVRCAM 1 Cor. 8 7. Tit. 1 15. 

Plin. VIII § 183 huic tantum animali < boui > omnium 
quibus procerior cauda non statim nato consummatae ut ceteris 20 
mensurae. crescit uni donec ad uestigia ima perueniat. quam- 
obrem uictimarum probatio in uitulo ut articulum suffraginis 
contingat. breuiore non litant. Cic. De Leg. Agr. il § 93 erant 
hostiae maiores in foro constitutae, quae ub his praetoribus de 
tribunali sicut a, nobis consulibus de consili sententia probatae 25 
ad praeconem et ad tibicinem immolabctntur. Lucian. Sacrif. 
12 they bring their victims, the husbandman the ox fi-om the 
plow, the shepherd a lamb, the goatherd a goat...aW' oX 76 
6vovTe<i . . .(TTecpavcoaavTe^; t6 ^mov, Kal ttoXv ye TrpoTepov e^eTu- 
croz^Tt?, el ivTe\e<; etrj, Xva fMrjSe tmv d^x^pijaToyv ti KaTaacpaTTwat, 30 
TrpoadyovaL tw ^w/jlw. Plut. De Defectu Orac. 49 p. 437. 

p. 98 1. 4 EXPANSOS pr. huius cap. Clem. Alex. Strom. II 
§ 125 p. 494 P. Zeno would rather see one Indian roasted 
alive than learn all demonstrations of endurance. rjixiv 8e 
a(f)6ovoL fjLapTvpwv TnjyaL daily, before our eyes, burnt, crucified, 35 

VNGVLAE c. 12 p. 44 1. 9. Tert. Scorpiac. 1 p. 146 1. 13 Wiss. 
De leiun. 12 p. 290 1. 24 Wiss. Cf Theodoret Graec. Affect. 

M. T. 23 

354 TERTVLLIANI [p. 98 1. 4— 

Cur. VIII § 9 XaiMirda-i. . .ovv^i. Juret on Paulin. Petricord. Vit. 
Mart. V 278. Cypr. p. 423 24. Prudent. Peristeph. iii 133. 
X 484. 557. XI 57. Aug. Conf. i § 15. [Ps.-Aug. Quaest. 102 14, 
p. 210, 22 A.S.] Hieronym. Ep. 1 § 3. Greg. Turon. Glor. 
5 Mart. § 105 f. (p. 56 1 1). Ruinart 384. Bolland 18 Aug. Acta 
Agapeti 11. 6vvxe<i Synes. Ep. 44 p. 185° (cf. below). 
FODIANT cf. Siopvcrao) Synes. Ep. 44 p. 185^ 
p. 98 1. 5 IGNE8...BESTIAE Polycarp's martyrdom Euseb. 
Hist. Eccl. IV 15 §§ 23 24 27—38. 
lo LAMBANT Verg. Hor. Sil. xiv 312. Dracont. (see index of 
Vollraers edition, 1905). Paulin. Nol. Ep. 28 2 f. 

GVTTVRA pl. Ou. 

DETRVNCENT Liu. Colum. Plin. Ou. Senec. De Ira m 17 § 3. 
Hieronym. Ep. 84 11 (sex lihrorum caput). Contra Ruf. i 7. 
15 III 5 [raany more in Thes. A. S.]. 

BESTIAE INSILIANT Suet. Ner. 29 in the skin of a wild beast 
N. sprung on nien and women bound to the stake. 

p. 98 1. 6 HABITVS ORANTis Euseb. Vit. Const. iv 15 in 

his coins ttjv avTO'; avTov eiKova coSe ypdcf^eadat SieTVTTOv, o)? 

20 avo} ^Xeireiv hoKelv dvaTeTa/j.ev(t)<; Trpo? 6e6v TpoTTOv €v-)(^o/xevov : 

in his palace, on statues, eo-Tcb? opOio^ ejpd(f)eTo, avw /xev eh 

ovpavov ifi^XeTTOiv, to) %etpe S' eKTeTa/xevo^; ev^^o/ievov a-^rj/xaTi. 

p. 98 1. 7 HOC AGITE c. 50 p. m. p. 144 1. 24. Adu. Marc. 
IV 7 p. 434 1. 26 Kr. ut dici solet, Ad qiiod uenimus, lioc age. 
25 luu. 7 20 n. 48 n. 

PRAESIDES 9 a. m. p. 32 1. 2 ex ipsis etiam uohis iustissimis 
et seuerissimis in nos praesidihus. oran. c. 50 p. ra. sed hoc 
agite, honi praesides cruciate torquete, dainnate atterite nos. 

EXTORQVETE 9 a. m. p. 32 1. 5 crudelius in aqua spiritum 
30 extorqiietis. Lact. Diu. Inst. v 1 a. m. dicatas deo mentes euisce- 
ratis corporibus extorquent. 


p. 98 1. 8 VERITAS Prudent. Peristeph. i 48 ueritas crimen 
putatur, uox Jidelis plectitur. 

Cap. XXXI 

35 p. 98 1. 9 ADVLATI cet. like irony De Cult. Fem. ii 8 pr. 
uidelicet nunc et uir et sexus aemulus feminas a suis depello. 

p. 98 1. 16] AP0L0GETICV8, 30, 31 355 

luu. 6 634 — 5 fingimus liaec altuvi satira sumente cothurnuiti 

p. 98 1. 12 DEI VOCES : on inspiration c. 18 pr. p. 58 1. 5. 

p. 98 1. 14 EXTRANEOS c. 7 p. 26 1. 7. Cf. extra 46 prope fin. 
De Cor. Milit. 4. De Exhort. Cast. 4. De Anini. 28 (wrong ?). 5 
Cf. Apol. 21 (inspiration of prophets). ol e^w. Kaye 143. 
Bhnit First Three Centuries 23 'it would appear, I think,.., 
that the scriptures themselves seldom fell into the hands of the 
heathen, except by accident.' In the persecution of Diocletian, 
cir. 303 A.D., Eusebius saw churches overthrown, ra<i he ivOiov<i 10 
Kal i€pa<i ypa(f)a<; Kara pie(Ta<; dyopa<i irvpl 7rapaStSo/x6va<i 
avTot<i eTretSofiev 6(t>6a\/jiot<;. [h. e. viii 2 § 1. A.S.] 

p. 98 11. 15—16 c. 37 pr. Aug. De Bono Perseuer. (x 855«) 
quando enim non oratum est in ecclesia pro infidelihus atque 
inimicis eius, ut crederent? Bingham xvi 2 17. Zahn For- 15 
schungen zur Gesch. des NTlichen Kanons v 226 — 7. Aristid. 
13 9 (J). 17 3. Didache 1 3. Const. Apost. viii 12 f Chrys. 

III 354". 

p. 98 1. 16 PERSECVTORIBVS De Orat. 29 p. 199 1. 17 Wiss. nunc 
uero oratio iustitiae omnem iram Dei auertit,pro inimicis excubat, 20 
pro persequentibus supplicat. (Litany ' enemies, persecutors, 
and slanderers.') Oros. vil 8 § 5. lustin. Dial. c. Tryph. 35 
p. 254'' Sto Kal virep v/jtcbv Kal vTrep roiv aWcov dirdvTdiv 
dvdpco7r(i)v rwv e\dpatv6vroiv rjfilv ev-^^^fJieda. ib. 96 p. 323' , 
324^ Apol. 1 57 p. ^l'^. 65 p. 97^' with Otto's n. 2. 14 p. 61''. 25 
Dionys. Alex. in Euseb. Hist. Eccl. VII 1 § 1 rov^ irepl rr}<i 
etp7]vr}<i avTOV Kal ri/i; vytela^i Trpeaj3evovra<i irpo^i rov deov 
rjXaaev (Gallus). Some cursed their enemies. Chrys. III 352''. 
353''. Bingham xv 3 21. 8 15. 

PRECARI c. 43 quanti hahetis,...non dico iam qui pro uobis 30 
(ptoque uero deo preces sternant. Ad Scap. 2 Christianus... 
neeesse est ut et ipsum < imperatorem > saluunt itelit cum toto 
Rfjmano imperio. Theophil. I 11 fin. quoted on p. 96 1. 7. iii. 14. 
lustin. Apol. I 17 Otto. Tatian 4 quoted on p. 98 11. 31 — 2. 
Athenag. 1 and 37. Prudent. Peristeph. x 417—420. Arnob. 35 

IV 36 f nam nostra quidem scripta cur ignibus meruerunt 
dari? cur immaniter conuenticula dirui, in quibus sumnius 
oratur deus, pax cunctis et uenia postulatur ma.gistratihus exer- 


366 TERTVLLIANI [p. 98 1. 16— 

citibus regibus faniiliaribus inimicis, adhuc uitain degetitibus 
et resolutis corponim uinctione, in quibus aliud auditur nihil 
nisi quod humanos faciat, idsi quod mites uerecundos pudicos 
castos, familiaris communicatores rei et cwm omnibus iiobis 
5 solidae germanitatis necessitudine copulatos '? 

p. 98 1. 17 CONVENIMVR 35 ante m. p. 102 1. 26 religione 

secundae maiestatis de qua in secundum sacrilegium conuenimur 

Christiani. c. 10 pr. Oehler maiestatis rei conuenimur. Adu. 

Marc. II 8 p. 345 1. 14 Kr. nec quem excusabilem sciret nomine 

lo imbecillitatis, eum deflnitione mortis conuenisset. 

p. 98 1. 19 INQVIT c. 1 prope f. sed non ideo, inquit, bonum, 
quia multos conuertit. Burm. on Phaedr. iii prol. 4. Cic. in 
Verr. v § 148. Brut. § 287. Att. xiv 12 § 2. luu. 3 153 n. 

PRO REGIBVS Chrys. X 440". 
15 POTESTATIBVS cf. Lightfoot, Ignatius i p. 576. 

p. 98 1. 20 CVM ENIM cet. c. 41 p. 120 1. 23 uliqua nos 
quoque perstringunt ut uobis cohaerentes. 

CONCVTITVR Pind. Pyth. 4 272 aelaat ttoXiv. Lucan i 5 
certatum totiens concussi uiribus orbis. Woodham. 


20 p. 98 1. 23 cet. from 2 Thess. 2 6 Karexcov. Dict. Bible 
3 app. p. Ixxv b. Ad Scap. 2 (quoted on p. 98 1. 16). De Carn. 
Resur. 24 £ (0 KaTe-^^wv) quis, nisi Romanus status, cuius ab- 
scessio in decem reges dispersa Antichristi superducet'? Apol. 
c. 39 (quoted below). Cf Blunt Right Use p. 192, n. 6 and 7. 

25 Aug. De Ciu. Dei xx 19. [Ambr.] ad Ep. 2 ad Thess. 2. 1—4 
non prius ueniet daminus, quam regni Romani defectio fiat et 
appareat Antichristus, qui interficiet sanctos, reddita Romanis 
libertate, sub suo tamen nomine. Lact. Diu. Instt. vii 25 etiam 
res ipsa declarat lapsum ruinamque rerum breui fore, nisi quod 

30 incolumi urbe Roma nthil istiusmodi uidetur esse metuendum. 
at uero cuni caput illud orbis occiderit et pv/jbrj esse coeperit, 
quod Sibyllae fore aiunt, quis dubitet uenisse iani finem rebus 
Romanis orbique terrarum ? illa, illa est ciuitas, quae adhuc 
sustentat omnia, precandusque nobis et adorandus est Deiis 

35 caeli, si tamen statuta eius et placita differri possunt, ne citius 

p. 98 1. 29] APOLOGETICVS, 31, 32 357 

quam putemus tyrannus ille ahominahilis ueniat, qui tantum 
facinus moliatur, et lumen illud effodiat, cuius interitn mundus 
ipse lapsurus est. He calculated ib. that the world had only 
200 years to run of its 6000. Kaye 348 (expectation of speedy 
second advent 347). Christians retard the judgement Ep. ad 5 
Diognet. 6 p. 498% lustin. Apol. 11 7 p. 4.5"^ Ottu (see below). 
The \vorld's decay Cypr. ad Demetrian. 3. Dio Lxxv 4. 
Lamprid. Diadumen. 1. Censorin. 17. 

ORANDi c. 39 pr. 1 Tim. 2 2. Theophil. iii 14. Euseb. 
Vit. Const. IV 45 § 2. Const. Apost. viii 12 p. m. 13. Cyril. 10 
Catech. 23. Mystag. 5 n. 6 al. 8 p. 327'\ Bhmt Right Use 
192. Kaye 20. Lightfoot Ignatius i 576. Bingham xv 3 15. 
Hennecke Aristides ind. ' evreu^is.' The priest of Isis prayed 
for the emperor Apul. Metam. xi 17. 

p. 98 1. 25 viM c. 2. 15 

CLAVSVLAM c, 39 p. 110 11. 31 — 2. De Idolol. 4 p. 34 1, 5 
Wiss. 9 p. 38 1. 6 Wiss. tus illud et myrram et aurum ideo infanti 
tunc domino ohtiderunt, quasi clausulam sacrificationis et gloriae 
saecularis, quam Christus erat adempturus. Scorpiac. 8 p. 161 
1. 4 Wiss. of Jo. Baptist, clausula legis et prophetarum. Ad Vxor. 20 
II 2. De Fug. in Persec. 6 p. m. Paulin. Nol. ep. 19. 4. 22. 3 f. 
p. 98 1. 27 COMMEATV respite. infr. c. 46 p. 128 1. 28 n. 
De Anim. 35 p. 360 1. 11 Wiss. ind. Cypr. Kaye 348. 

p. 98 1. 28 DIFFERRI lustin. Apol. II 7 oOev Kal iiri/jLevei 6 
Oeo<i TT)v avy^vcTtv Kal KaruXuaiv tou TravTO^ koct/xou /Mrj 25 
TToifjcrat,, Iva Kal 01 ^avXot, ayyeXoc Kal 8aL/jiove<i Kal avdpayTTOi 
/xTjKeTi ooai, Bia to a7rep/ia tcov \piaTiavcov, b yivftjaKei ev ttj 
(f)uaei OTi aiTiov eaTiv. eVet el /xr) touto 171^, ouk av oiihe vp.iv 
ravTa €Ti iroielv Kal evepyeiadai viro twv ^avXoiv 8ai/i6vcov 
SvvaTov fjv, dWa to irvp to t?}? Kpiaeco<; xaTeXOov avehrjv 30 
TTcivTa BceKpivev. MaximiHa (Epiphan. Haer. XLVili 2) /leT 
e/ik ovKeTi TrpocprJTi^i eaTai, aWci avvTeXeia. Cf. Tert. C 39 JDr. 
oramus pro mora finis. De Orat. 5 p. 184 1. 8 Wiss. 

p. 98 1. 29 IVRAMVS Keims Celsus p. 136 n. 4. Christians 
the soul of the world, Ep. ad Diognet. 6 § 1, Zahn Forschungen 35 
V 304 n. 2. 

SICVT...ITA Quintil. X 1 § 1 n. Plin. Ep. iii 8 § 2 n. 
LS I Ab. 

358 TERTVLLTANI [p. 98 1. 29— 

GENIOS oaths by the genius of the emperors Brisson De 
Formulis viii 2. supr. c. 28 p. 94 1. 18. Origen Contr. Cels. 
VIII 65 p. 206 sq. L. id Exhort. ad Martyrium 7 p. 240-2 (long 
note). 40 p. 290. Bingham xvi 7 § 7 and § 4 Scillitan martyrs. 
5 So Joseph per salutem Pharaonis vrj ttjv vyieLav ^apac!), Gen. 
42. L5. Tert. ad nat. I 17 p. 88 1. 25 Wiss. prima obstinatio est, 

qiiae secunda \ , ■ r religio constituitur Caesarianue niaies- 

tatis, quod inreligiosi dicamur in Caesares, neque imagines 

lo eorum ture propitiando neque genios deierando. hostes populi 

SALVTEM Beurlier Le Culte imperial (1891) 272-3. The 
military oath. {rvxn = genius. awrrjpia = salus.) Epictet. I 
14 I 14 aXk! 6eo<i evhov eVrt, Kai 6 v/j,€T€po<; Salfxoiv iari. Kal 

15 t/'? tovtol^ XP^'-^ cf)0)rb<i ei? ro ^Xeireiv ri 7roi€iT€ ; § 15 rovro) 
ru) Oeoj eheu Kal vfjba^ o/jivvecv opKor, olov 01 orrparLMTai r(Z 
K-aiaapL. dX)C eKelvoi /j.ev ri]v /jiLaOocf^opiav Xap.^dvovref; 
6/ivvovai irdvTwv rrponpirjaeiv rrjv rov Kaiaapo^; acorr/piav. 
Cod. II 4 41 qui nomina nostra placitis inserentes salutem prin- 

20 cipum confiy^mationem initarum iuraiierint esse jMctionam. 
lust. II 23 1. Mommsen Staatsr. ii^ 784 n. 3. 

p. 98 11. 31 — 32 Ad Scap. 2 circa maiestatem imperatoris 
infamamnr. Theophil. i 11 (quoted on p. 96 1. 7). Tatian 4 
rrpoardrrei (j^opov^; reXelv 6 /3aai\€v<i ; eroLp.o<; rrape-^eLV hov- 

25 \ev€Lv 6 SeaTroTi]^; Kal vrrrjperelv ; rrjv SovXeiav 'yivcoaKcov... 
rovrov [rov Oeov^ /jlovov dpvelaOai Ke\ev6/ievo<i ov TreLaOr^ao/iai, 
redvi/^o/iaL 8e /laXXov, iva /xr) -sfrevarr/^i Kal a^i^dpiaro<i drro- 
heixOdo. Athanas. Apol. 1 ad Constant. 14 (i, 1, 240*^) d^Lovv- 
rcov ev rf/ /lejdXr/ eKKXr/aia avveXOelv KaKel irdvra^i ev)(^€adai 

30 vTrep T7/<i ai/^ a(OTr/pia<i. Cf. 18 (242*^) ai yap yevo/ievai Trapa 
TrdvTcov rrepl rr/<i ar/<i acorT/pia<i €V)(al ovk epbTTohi^ovai rr/v rcov 
eyKaivLO)v Travi/yvpiv. Ambr. De Elia et leiun. 17 (62) biha- 
mus pro salute imperatorum. 

p. 100 1. 1 ADIVRARE exorcise c. 37 fin. p. 108 1. 28 n. 

35 Cypr. Ad Demetrian, 15 pr. si audire eos uelis et uidere, quando 
adiurantur a nobis, torquentur spiritalibus fiagris et uerbornm 
tormentis de obsessis corporibus eiciuntur, quando heiulantes et 
gementes uoce humana et potestate diuina fiagella et uerbera 

p. 100]. 9] APOLOGETICVS 32, 33 359 

sentientes uentiirum iudicium conjitentur. Quod Idola di non 
sint 7 hi tavien adiuraii per deuin uerum nobis statim cedunt et 
fatentur et de obsessis corporibus exire coguntur. Cf. ind. rcr. 
p. 388 a under exorcizare -ista and ind. uerb. p. 425 b -cidiare, 
-cisnius. -cista. Lact. Diu. Instt. Ii 15 § 3 iustos autem, id est 5 
cultores Dei, metuunt cuius nomine adiurati de corporibus ex- 
cedunt. quoruni uerbis, tamquam flagris uerberati, non modo 
daemonas esse se confitentur, sed etiam nomina sua edunt. 
V 21 § 4 hi {spiritus contaminati)...cuni corpora hominum occu- 
pant animasque diuexant, adiurantur ab his et nomine Dei ueri lo 
fugantnr. quo audito tremunt exclamant et uri se uerberarique 
testantur. Paulin. Natal. 4. Felicis = c. 15 108 — 110 primis 
lector seruiuit in annis : \ inde gradum sumpsit, cui munus uoce 
fideli I adiurare malos et sacris pellere uerbis. Bingham iii 4. 
dig. L 13 1 3 [= Ulpian] si incantauit, si inprecatus est, si, ut 15 
uulgari uerbo impostorum utar, si exorcizauit. Athan. Vit. 
Anton. 48. 62. 63. 64. 71. 78. 80. 

p. 100 1. 2 DEIERARE De Idolol. 20 fin. porro quid erit 
deieratio per eos quos eier^asti, quam praeuaricatio fidei cum 
idololatria ? quis enim, per quos deierat, non honorat ? (Cf. 20 
the 2 ch. 20 and 21 ib.) 


p. 100 1. 4 Bailey Ritual Anglocath. 162 — 3 (Prayers for 
Qu. in Communion Service). 

p. 100 1. 5 XECESSE c. 45 pr. n. 

p. 100 1. 6 Ad Scap. 2 (quoted on p. 98 1. 16). 25 

p. 100 1. 8 OPEROR IN SALVTEM Cypr. De Opere et Elee- 
mosynis 1 pr. multa et magna sunt . . .beneficia diuina quibus in 
salutem nostram Dei patris et CJiristi larga et copiosa clementia 
et operata sit et semper operetur. Lact. Diu. Instt. iv 17 § 1 
quod sabbatis non uacaret, operans in salutem liominum. Epit. 30 
47 § 3 dedit eis potestatem mirabilia faciendi, ut in salutem 
hominum tam factis quam uerbis operarentur. 

p. 100 1. 9 MEREAR c. 30 med. p. 96 1. 29 ipse est qui solus 
praestat et ego sum cui impetrare debetur. C£ Zahn For- 
schungen v 302. 35 

360 ' TERTVLLIANI [p. 100 1. 11 — 

p. 100 1. 11 CYI SOLI SVBICIO c. 30 pr. a quo sunt secundi, 
post quem primi. 

p. 100 1. 12 ad nat. I 17 fin. sed non dicimus deum impe- 
ratorem ; super hoc enim, quod uulgo aiunt, sannam facinius. 
5 immo qui deum Caesarem dicitis et deridetis, dicendo quod non 
est, et male dicitis, quia non mdt esse quod dicitis ; mauult enim 
niuere quani dens jieri. Scorp. 14 j). 177 1. 21 Wiss. condixerat 
scilicet Petrus regem quidem lionorandum, ut tamen tunc rex 
horioretur, cum suis rebus insistit, cum a diuinis honorihns 
lo longe est. Theoph. ad Aut. i c. 15 p. 76°: worship of emperors 
and kings Arnob. i 64 a. ra. Tatian 4 Otto. 

p. 100 1. 19 SVGGERITVR c. 18 p.m. p. 58 1. 24. 


p. 100 1. 24 Aug. is reformator imperii in Tert. De Anim. 
46 p. 376 1. 9 Wiss. formatores iniperii Ammian. Marcel. xviii 
15 6 § 6 XXVI 2 § 7. Sen. Colum. Quintil. Plin. epist. Pallad. 

DOMINVM luu. 4 96 n. On the Christians' refusal of the title.. 

to emperors Walch in Nou. Comm. Soc. Gott. ii 18. Sueton. 

Aug. 53 domini appellationem ut maledictum [cf. Tert. ad fin. c.] 

2o et opprobrium semper exhorruit. cuni spectante eo ludos pro- 

nuntiatum esset in mimo: o dominum aequum et bonum ! et 

uniuersi quasi de ipso dictuni exsultantes comprobassent, et 

statim manu nultuque indecoras adulationes repressit et inse- 

quenti die grauissimo corripuit edicto dominumque se posthac 

25 appellari ne a liheris quidem aut nepotibus suis, uel serio uel ioco, 

passus est. id. Tiber. 27 dominus appellatus a quodam denunti- 

auit, ne se amplius contumeliae causa nominaret. Gardthausen 

Augustus II 291 10. [Cf. G. Milligan, Selections from the 

^ Greek Papyri p. 49 n. 6, H. A. A. Kennedy in Expositor vii 7 

30 (1909), 297 f. A.S.] 

p. 100 1. 27 DEI viCE 27 fin. uice rebellantium ergastulorum 
[and n. A.S.]. Iren. 11 31 § 1, v 24 § 2. Gell. 11 6 § 9. Quintil. 
Plin. Tac. Sueton. 

LIBER SVM ILLI c. 13 pr. nohis dei sunt. 

p. 102 1. 12] APOLOGETICVS 33—35 361 

p. 100 1. 28 VNVS lustili. Aj3ol. I 17 debi^ fu.€v fiorov TrpoaKv- 
vovfiev, vfiiv Se 7rpo9 ra aWa •^^^aipovre^ VTrrjpeTovfiev. 

p. 100 1. 29 PATER PATRIAE IlUl. 8 244 11. 

p. 100 1. 31 Sen, ep. 47 § 14 ne illud quidem uidetis, quani 
omneni inuidiani maiores nostri dominis, omnem contumeliam 5 
seruis detraxerint? dominum patrem familiae appellauerunt : 
seruos, quod etiam in mimis adhuc durat, familiares. 

TAXTO ABEST VT De Cor. Milit. 14 pr. De Test. Anini. 
1 p. 135 1. 9 Wiss. De Fug. in Persec. 2 fin. (no ellipsis of 
magis) but abl. difFer. Adu. Marc. i 23 p. 321 1. 21 Kr. 10 

p. 102 1. 3 OFFENSAM Suet. 

p. 102 1. 8 MALEDiCTVM ad iiat. I 17 fin. quoted on p. 100 
1. 12. Miiiuc. 23 § 3 inuitis denique hoc nomen adscribitur ; 
optant in homine perseuerare, fieri se deos metuunt ; etsi iam 
senes, nolunt. Sueton. cited hoc cap. pr. Tac. An. XV 74 Cerealis 15 
Anicius proposed ut templum diuo Neroni quam maturrime 
pecunia publica poneretur. quod quidem ille decernebat tam- 
quam mortale fastigium egresso et uenerationem hominum merito, 
quod ad omina olini sui exitus uerteretur. Caracalla of his 
brother Geta (Spartian Antonin. Geta 2 § 8) sit diuus, dum 20 
non sit uiuus. 

Cap. XXXY 

p. 102 1. 10 PVBLICI HOSTES c. 2 p. 6 1. 22. p. 8 1. 14 in reos 
maiestatis et publicos hostes omnis homo miles est. Cf c. 35. 37 
ji. 108 1. 25 n. Ad Scap. 2, after the charge of impiety, sic et 
circa maiestatem imperatoris infamaniur, tanien numquam 25 
(below), 4 f. j-jro deo ^iiuo cremamur ; quod nec sacrilegi nec 
hostes publici nec tot maiesfatis rei pati solent. ad nat. I 7 
p. 68 1. 6 Wiss. hostis publicus, cf. c. 17. Sueton. Cal. 28. 
Prudent. Peristeph. X 423. Spartian Seu. 14 §§ 5, 9 de Plau- 
tiano. Mommsen Staatsr. iii 1026. 30 

p. 102 1. 12 SOLLEMNIA De Spectac. 6 p. 8 1. 8 Wiss. 
reliqui ludorum de natalibus et sollemnibus regum etpublicis pro- 
speritatibus et municipalibus fastis superstitionis causas habent. 
Ambr. De Obit. Valentin. 15 ferebatur prinio ludis circensibus 
delectari : sic istud abstersit, ut ne sollemnibus quidem pri^ici- 35 

362 TERTVLLIANI [p. 102 1. 12— 

pum natalibus uel imperialis honoris gratia circenses putaret 
esse celebrandos. 16 coepit ita frequentare ieiunium, ut plerum- 
que ipse impransus conuiuium sollemne suis comitibus exhiberet. 
Maxim. Serm. [Migne P.L. LVii 221^^ A.S.] inter Ambrosianos 
5 14 [in oldest editions, omitted in Bened. and Migne A.S.] pr. 
laetitia quanta sit quantusque concursus cum imperatoris mundi 
istius natalis celehxindus est, bene nostis cet. Plin. ad Trai. 
35 (44) sollemnia uota pro incolumitaie tua, qua publica salus 
continetur, et suscepimus, domine, pai-iter et soluimus, precati 

lo deos, ut uelint ea semper solui semperque signari. ibid. 102 
(103) diem quo in te tutela, generis huniani felicissima succes- 
sione trayislata est, debita religione celebrauimus, commendantes 
dis imperii tui auctoinbus et uota publica et gaudia. Tac. An. 
IV 70 § 1 Caesar sollemnia incipientis anni Kalendis lanuariis 

15 epistida precatus. On the stadium and the theatre cf. De 
Spectac. 18 and passim. 

p. 102 1. 14 FOCOS ad Mart. 2 (of a confessor in prison) non 
uides alienos deos, non imaginibus eurum incurris, non sollemnes 
nationum dies ipsa commixtione participas, non mdoribus spurcis 

20 uerberaris. 

IN PVBLICVM c. 42 p. 122 1. 14 non in publico Liberalibus 
discumbo. Tac. Ann. xv 37 pr. ipse, quo fidem adquireret nihil 
usquam perinde laetum sibi, publicis locis struere conuiuia 
totaque urbe quasi domo uti. loseph. De Bell. lud. vii 10. 

25 viCATiM Ad Vxor. II 4. Sisenn. Hor. Liu. Plin. Tac. Suet. 
e.g. Calig. 35. 

p. 102 1. 15 TABERNAE HABITV Mart. VIII 61 9 — 10 tonsor 
caupo coquus lanius sua limina ■seruant, nunc Roma est, nuper 
magna taherna fuit. 

30 ABOLEFACERE marked * by LS. De Cult. Fem. i 3 abole- 
factam [more in Thes. and Georges ed. 8. A.S.]. 

LVTVM Anth. Pal. XI 8 3 — 4 ^Mvri jjloi, et tl Oekei^i, '^(^cLpicraL' 
T€(f)pr}v Sk fieOvcTKdyv irrfKoi' Troiyjcrei^, kov)(^ 6 Oavoiv irierai. 
Cf. Phit. II 463 a olvov irrjXov Troielv. Toup Emend. Suid. ii 66. 

35 Casaub. Ath. 661. 

p. 102 1. 16 CATERVATIM cet. c. 39 p. 114 1. 36 inde disceditur 
non in cateruas caesionum neque in classes discursationum neque 
in eruptiones lasciuiarum. Apul. Metam. Ii 18 p. 39 1. 22 Helm, 

p. 102 1. 23] AP0L0GET1CV8 35 363 

nam uesana factio nobilissimorum iuuenum pacem publicam 
infestat; passim trucidatos per niedias plateas uidebis lacere. 
Philo Adu. Flacc. § 17 p. 537 M. of the OiaaoL at Alexandria. 
cf. luu. 3 278 ebrius ac petulans, qui nullum forte cecidit cet. 
The word in Sall. Lucr. Verg. Liu. Colum. Plin.: add Bell. Afr. 5 
32. Rufin. Hist. Eccl. ix 8 p. 520 pr. [but ed. Mommsen, 
p. 821 1. 20, apparently with all MSS, aceruatim. A.S.] Sidon. 
Ep. I 11 m. [more in Thes. A.S.]. 

CVRSITARE 'rare.' Ter. Cic. Hor. (2). Cornif Suct. (ter). 
add Apul. Metam. ix 33. Hieron^an. Apol. c. Rnfin. i 30 [see 10 
Thes. A.S.]. 

p. 102 1. 18 Ad Mart. 2 p. m. (cf p. 102 11. 28—9) cited on 
1. 14, then follows : no)i clamoribus spectaculorum, atrocitate uel 
furore iiel impudicitia celebmntium caederis. 

p. 102 1. 21 occASio LVXVRIAE De Idolol. 1 p. 31 1. 3 15 
Wiss. quae enim idololatriae sollemnitas sine ambitione cultus et 
ornatus ? iii illa lasciuiae et ebrietates, cum plurimum uictus et 
uentris et libidinis causa frequententur. 

p. 102 1. 23 EXPVNGERE In Forcell. ed. Germ. and LS 
e.ipung. efectum (which occurs in De Paenit. 3) is cited from 20 
this ch. See c. 2 p. m. n. and add Adu. lud. 11 fin. 12 fin. 13 p.m. 
14 p. m. bis. De Paenit. 3 fin. 9 fin. De Idolol. 1 pr. 13 p. 44 
1. 26 Wiss. 16 p. 50 1. 1 Wiss. {expunctio). Ad Mart. 6. 

LAVREis infr. h. c. De Cor. Milit. 13 f. (where more) at enim 
Christianus nec ianuam suam laureis infamabit, si norit quantos 25 
deos etiam ostiis diaholus affixerit. De Idolol. 15 p. 48 1. 18 
Wiss. autem < eorum, daemonum> sunt, qui in ostiis adorentur, 
ad eos et lucernae et laureae pertinebunt. idolo feceris, quicquid 
ostio feceris. hoc in loco ex auctoritate quoque Dei contestor, 
quia nec tutwm est subtraJiere, quodcunique uni fuerit ostensum 30 
utique omnium causa. scio fratrem per uisionem, eadem nocte 
castigatum grauiter, quod ianuam eius subito adnuntiatis gaudiis 
publicis serui coronassent. et tamen non ipse coronauerat aut 
praeceperat ; nam ante processerat, et regressus reprehenderat 
factum : adeo apud deum in huiusmodi etiam disciplina familiae 35 
nostrae aestimamur. luu. 6 79 ornentur postes et grandi ianua 
lauro. Sen. Thyest. 54 — 56 ornetur altum columen et lauro 
fores I laetae uirescant: dignus aduentu tuo \ splendescat ignis. 

364 TERTVLLIANI [p. 102 1. 23— 

Eurip. lon 103 — 105 irropOotaL Bd(f)vr}<i | o-recf^ealv 6' lepoh 
iaoSov^ <PoL^ov 1 KaOapa^ 9y']aofMev. D. Cass. LXIII 20 § 4 de 
Nerone e? to KaTnTwXiov dve/Br], xal iKelOev es^ to iraXaTLov, 
7rna7]<; fxev Tp^^i 7r6\e(o<i iaTe(j)avo)/xevr]<i Kal \vx^voKavTovar]<; Kal 
5 6v/j.L(oav<i- Stat. S. III 1 69 — 70 angustasque fores assuetaque 
tecta [irauati frondihus [this passage should be omitted as 
wrongly punctuated and misunderstood. A. S.]. Lucan. ii 354 
festa coronato non pendent limine serta, infulaque in geminos 
discurrit candida postes. Rutil. Namatian. i 425 exornent 
lo uirides communia gaudia rami. Tac. xv 17 in Hau. Plin. xvi 
c. 30 § 124 Hau. Hist. Apollon. Tyr. 49 et facta est laetitia 
omni ciuitati maxima, coronantur plateae. 

p. 102 1. 24 LVCERNis c. 46 p. 128 1. 6. De Idolol. 15 fin. 

accendant igitur cotidie lucernas, quibus lux nulla est ; affigant 

15 postibus lauros postmodum arsitras, quibus ignes imminent : 

illis competunt et testimonia tenebraruni et auspicia poenarum. 

tu lumen es mundi et arbor uirens semper. si templis renuntiasti, 

ne feceris templum ianuam tuam. Conc. Eliber. c. 34. 37 

(Bingham xvi 4 17 n. 84 sq.). Baron. a.d. 58 n. 2. Chrys. 

20 I 701^ (cf. Bingham xx 1 3 n. 18). luu. 10 65 n. 12 91—2 n. 

longos erexit ianua ramos et matutinis operatur festa lucernis. 

Mart. X. 6. Chrys. Hom. 20 ad Pop. [where ?] oTrep ovv ToTe 

eTTOLi/aaTe aT€^av(oaavTe<i Trjv (iyopdv Kal \vxvov<; di\ravTe<i 

Kal aTtl3dBa<i Trpo T(jcv epyaaTrjpmv avv6evTe<;. Herodian IV 

25 8 § 8 SaSovxi^at^i re Kal dvdewv (3o\aU eTL/j.o)u t6v /SaaL^ea. 

Euseb. Hist. Eccl. x 9 § 7 7)1/ Se (pojTo^ €/jL7r\ea irdvTa. Can. 

Apost. 70 el Ti9 XpiaTLav6<i e\aLov eireveyKr] ek lepd edvwv i/ 

eh avvayoi^yriv 'iovSalo^v iv Tai^i eopTaU avTwv i] \vxvov<i (iirTei, 

d(f>opi^eado}. loseph. De Bell. lud. vii 10. Dio (in Seuer.) 

30 LXXIV 1 § 4 dvdeai Kal Bd(f)vaL<i iaTe(f)dvo)TO. 

p. 102 1. 26 NOVi LVPANARLS De Idolol. 15 fin. si lupa- 
naribus renuntiasti, neindueris domi tuae faciem noui lupanaris. 
Ad Vxor. II 6 procedet de iunua laureata et lucernata, ut de nouo 
consistorio libidinum publicarum. De Cor. Milit. 13 fin. a sae- 
35 citlo coronantur et lupanaria et latrinae et jnstrinae. Apul. 
Metam. iv 26 domus tota lauris obsita, taedis lucida, strepebat 

p. 102 1. 27 c. 28 m. uentum est igitur ad secundum titu- 

p. 104 1. 8] APOLOGETICVS 35 365 

lum laesae auc/astions inaiestatis. ad nat. i 17 pr. qiioted on 
p. 98 1. 29. 

SACRILEGIVM Saluian. vii 12 § 55 latro aut sacrilegus, cum 
Jfamniis exuritur, cet. Vlp. ad 1. 6 D. ad 1. lul. de pecul. scio 
inultos ad bestias damnasse sacr^ilegos, nonnullos etiarn uiuos 5 
exussisse. Cf. Herald. 

CONVEXIMVR c. 31 p. 98 1. 17 n. 
p. 102 1. 28 SOLLEMNIA supr. p. 102 1. 12. 
p. 102 11. 32—3 Kaye 48. 

p. 104 1. 1 VERNACVLAM c. 19 p. 64 1. 15 n. Cf. 38 lo 
p. 110 1. 17 n. iiisania circi. (ad nat. I 17 cited below.) De 
Spectac. 16 fin. sed circo quid amarius, ubi ne 'principibus 
quidem aut ciuibus suis parcunt ? Tac. Hist. ii 88 et effusa plebs 
totis se castris miscuerat. incuriosos milites ueriiacula urbanitate 
quidam spoliauere abscisis furtiin balteis an accincti essent 15 
rogitantes. iii 32 mox tertiadecimanos ad exstruendum ainphi- 
theatrum relictos, ut sunt procacia urbanae plebis ingenia, petu- 
lantibus iurgiis illuserant. 

CONVENIO c. 28 me conueniat lanus iratus ex qua, uelit 
fronte. De Spectac. 16 f. cited above. ad nat. i 17 p. 89 20 
1. 12 Wiss. uanitatis sacrilegia coimeniam, et ipsius uernaculae 
geiitis inreuerentiam recognoscam, et festiuos libellos, quos 
statuae sciunt, et illa obliqua nonnumquam dicta a concilio 
atque maledicta, quae circi sonant. si non armis, saltim lingua 
semper rebelles estis. 25 

p. 104 1. 2 LiNGVA ROMANA Hau. cites Sueton. Ner. 89. 
Vesp. 19. 

p. 104 1. 3 TRANSLVCENDVM cet. Themist. Or. 14 (= 2) 
p. I^d^ SiaroLyerai ydp jjlol t6 arrjdo<; Kal ?; fcapSia /cal Siavye- 
arepa yiveTai. r) yjrv^rj Kal to. 6/u,fxaTa o^VTepa tj}? Btavoia^i. 30 

p. 104 1. 5 Novi AC Novi Adu. Marc. i 8 p. 300 1. 11 Kr. 
haec erit nouitas, quae etiam ethnicis deos peperit nouo semper 
ac nouo titulo consecrationis cuiusque. 

p. 104 1. 6 CONGIARIO Daremberg-Saglio s.u. 
p. 104 1. 8 Ambr. De Obit. Valent. 43 nec ego abnuo imma- 35 
tu7'a obisse aetate, quem nostrae uitae temporibus fulcire cupe- 
remus, ut cle nostris annis idueret, qui fungi non potuit suis. 
Acclamation of the fratres Aruales a.d. 213 de nostris annis 

366 TERTVLLIANI [p. 104 1. 8— 

augeat tihi luppiter annos (probably from Ou. Fast. i 613 
augeat imperiuni nostri ducis, augeat annos), repeated by fr. 
Aru. A. D. 218 (p. ccvii n. 36 cf. p. 108 Henz.) 9. Herm. Peter 
die Scriptt. Hist. Aug. Leipz. 1892 p. 221. Brisson De Formul. 
5 p. 719 ed. Francof. 1592. Ferrar. De Acclamat. ii 19 sq. 

p. 104 1. 10 VT though, as c. 24 pr. ut constaret illos deos 
esse, nonne conceditis? 

p. 104 1. 11 DEPOSTVLATORES Scorpiac. 8 p. 161 1. 28 
Wiss. Danielurii nullius praeter dei supplicem et idcirco a 

lo Chaldaeis delatum ac depostulatum. ib. 7 fin. «tt. elp. (Lewis- 
Short falsely ' cf. ib. 50 f.'). On the fierceness of the mob 
c. 50 p. m. sed hoc agite, boni praesides, nteliores mvlto apud 
populum, si illis Christianos ininiolaueritis. 

p. 104 1. 12 VULGVS infr. c. 37 pr. 49 i^n. proinde et uulgus 

15 uane de nostra uexatione gaudet. De Carn. Resur. '22 p. 56 
]. 9 Kr. quis inimicos Christi iam subiecit pedibus eius secundum 
Dauid, quasi uelocior patre, onini adhuc jiopularium coetu recla- 
mante: ' Christianos ad leonem' ? De Spectac. 27 pr. odisse 
debemus istos conuentus et coetus ethnicorum, uel quud illic nomen 

20 Dei blasphematur, illic in nos cotidiani leones expostulantur , 
inde persecutiones decernuntur, inde temptatiunes emittuntur. 
De Idolol. 14 p. 45 1. 20 Wiss. totus circus scelestis suffragiis 
■nullo merito nomen lacessit. De leiun. 10 p. 288 1. 21 Wiss. 
Ep. Smyrn. in Cotelier ii 193 sq. Euseb. Hist. Eccl. v 1. 

25 Cypr. Ep. 56 § 1 59 § 8. Polycarp. Mart. 10 § 2 irelaop rov 

PLANE sq. Kaye 111. 

p. 104 1. 14 Ad Scap. 2 sic et circa maiestatem impera- 
toris infamamur ; tamen numquam Albiniani, nec Nigriani uel 

30 Cassiani inueniri 'potueru.nt Christiani ; sed idem ipsi, qui per 
genios eorum in pridie usque iurauerunt, qui pro salute eoruni 
hostias et fecerant et uouerant, qui Christianos saepe damna- 
uerant, hostes eorum sunt reperti. ad nat. i 17 p. 89 1. 8 Wiss. 
nulla in prouinciis affectata maiestas. At the 4th council of 

35 Toledo c. 75 the whole clergy and people thrice exclaimed 
Quicumque a modo ex nobis uel cunctis Hispaniae populis 
qualibet meditatione uel studio sacramentum fidei suae, quod pro 
patriae salute gentisque Gothorum statu uel incolumitate regiae 

p. 104 1. 18] AP0L0GETICV8 35 367 

pote.statis pollicitus esi, uiolauerit aut regem nece attrectauerit 
aut potestate regni exuerit aut praesumptione tyrannica regni 
fastigium usurpauerit, anathema sit. Cf. Conc. Tolct. 6 c. 18. 
Neumann i 96 n. 3 seq. 289 4. 240 1. 

p. 104 1. 15 LAVRVS Herodian fj^eylcrTot*; KardaKtov 8a(f)i^rj- 5 
<ji6poi<i aXaeaiv. Lanipr. Comm. 17 §§ 1 — 2. Q. Aemilius 
Laetus praef. et Marcia concubina eius inierunt coniurationern 
ad occidendum eum. primumque ei uenenum dederunt; quod cum 
minus operaretur, per athletam, cum quo exerceri solehat, eiim 
strangularunt. AUard Persecution de Diocl^tien i 131. 10 

p. 104 1. 16 PALAESTRICAM De Spectac. 18 p. 20 1. 7 Wiss. 
et palaestrica diaholi negotium est. Quintil. 

PALATIVM Capitol. Pertin. 11 § 1 trecenti igitur de castris 
armati acl imperatorias aedes cuneo facto milites uenere. 
I 4 sed suhito glohus ille in Palatium peruenit neque aut 15 
arceri potuit aut imperatori nuntiari. § 6 superuenerunt Per- 
tinaci, cum ille aidicum famulicium ordinaret, ingressique 
porticus Palatii usque ad locum qui appellatur Sicilia et 
louis cenatio. | 8 uerum cum ad interiora prorumperent, Per- 
tinax ad eos processit eosque longa et graui oratione placauit. 20 
§ 9 sed cum Tausius quidam, unus e Tungris, in iram et in 
timoreni milites loquendo adduxisset, hastam in pectus Pertinacis 
obiecit. tunc ille precatus louem Vltorem toga cajjut operuit 
atque a ceteris confossus est. § 13 multi sane dicunt etiam 
cubicidum milites inrupisse atque illic circa lectum ftgi&ntem 25 
Pertinacem occidisse. Herodian 11 1 § 1 (?). 

p. 104 1. 17 siGERiis Sueton. Domit. 17 Stephanus Domi- 
tillae procurator . . . professus conspirationis indicium et ob 
hoc admissus legenti traditum a se libellum et attonito suffodit 
inguina. saucium ac repugnantem adorti Clodianus et Maxi- ^o 
mus Parthenii libertus et Saturius decurio cubiculariorum et 
quidam e gladiatorio ludo uulneribus septem contrucidarunt. 
Mart. IV 78 5 — 8 et sine te nullifas est prodire tribuno, nec caret 
officio consul uterque tuo ; et sacro deciens repietis Palatia cliuo 
Sigeriosque meros Partheniosque sonas. D. Cass. Lxvii 15. 35 
Zosim. I 7(?). 

p. 104 1. 18 DE ROMAXis c. 44 f. de uestris semper aestuat 

368 TERTVLLIANI [p. 104 1. 18— 

NON CHRisTiANis Oehler ori c. 2 p. 117 n. g. [= our p. 8 
11. 3—4.] 

ATQVE ADEO c. 4 pr. 22 pr. 24. 25. 
p. 104 1. 19 ERVPTioNE c. 39 f. p. 114 1. 37 n. 
5 p. 104 1. 20 GENIVM Ad Scap. 2 cited in note on p. 104 
1. 14. cf. c. 28 f p. 94 1. 18 n. 

p. 104 1. 22 PLAVSORES De Paenit. 10 m. Hor. Petron. 
Suet. Sid. ep. 4 25 promiserat ecclesiastica plausoribus suis 
praedae praedia fore. Kaye 49. 
lo p. 104 1. 23 PARRiciDARVM Tac. Ann. xv 73. Hist. i 85. 

RACEMATIO cnr. elp. Spartian Seu. 15 § 3 sed postea in 
Syriam redit, ita ut se pararet ac helluiii Parthis inferret. 
inter haec Pescennianas reliquias Plautiano auctore perseque- 
batur, ita ut nonnuUos etiani ex amicis suis quasi uitae suae 
15 insidiatores appeteret. id. Geta 4 Bassianus (Caracalla) en- 
couraged, Geta deprecated wholesale executions. 

p. 104 1. 24 RAMOSISSIMIS superl. also in Plin. hist. nat. 

PRAESTRVEBANT Adu. Marc. V 16 p. 632 1. 1 Kr. qui a 

primordio reruni naturani operihus heneficiis plagis praedica- 

20 tionibus testibus ad agnitioneni sui praestruxit. luu. 10. 65 n. 

p. 104 1. 25 NEBVLABANT : word nowhere else found. [An 

error. It occurs Aug. Serm. 164, 12, and Benoist-Goelzer 

cite Victor Vitensis. A. S.] 

p. 104 1. 29 Capitolini M. Antonin. Phil. 6 §§ 8 9 erat autein 
25 in suminis obsequiis patris Marcus, quaniuis non deessent qui 
aliqua aduersuin euni insusurrarent et prae ceteris Valerius 
Homullus, qui cuiii Lucillani niatreni Marci in uiridario 
uenerantem simulacrum Apollinis uidisset, insusurrauit 'illa 
nunc rogat ut diem tuum claudas et filius imperet.' quod omnino 
30 apud Pium nihil iialuit. 

p. 104 1. 30 ASTROLOGOS c. 43 p. 124 1. 6 Spartian Seu. 15 § 5 
midtos etiam, quasi Chaldaeos aut uates de sua salide consu- 
luissent, intereniit, praecipue suspectus unum queinque idoneuni 
imperio, cuin ipse paruulos adhuc filios haberet, idque dici ab 
35 his uel crederet uel audiret, qui sibi augurabantur imperium. 
Against Valens A.D. 371 Ammian. (in Hau.) xxix 2§ 27 (below). 
Tac. Ann. xii 52. xvi 30 cited by Oehler ad hn. cap. When 
legatus proconsulis Africae, Septimius Seuerus (Spart. 2 f ) cuni 

p. 104 1. 32] APOLOGETICVS 35 369 

sollicitus mathematicum consuluisset positaqiie hora ingentia 
uidisset astrologus dixit ei ' tuam, non alienam pone genituram.' 
cumque Seuerns iurasset suam esse, omnia ei dixit quae postea 
facta sunt. Cf. c. 4 f. ibid. pr. in Sicilia quasi de imperio uel 
wdes uel Chaldaeos consuluisset reus factus est, praefectis prae- 5 
torio,quibus audiendus datus fuerat, iam Conimodo in odio {-um 
vulg.) ueniente ahsolutus est, calumniatore in crucem acto. Cf. 
Spartian Geta 1. 2. 3. Paulus Sentent. v 21 3 qui de salute 
principis uel sunima re puhlica mathematicos hariolos haruspices 
uaticinatores considit, cum eo qui responderit, capite punitur. lo 
Firmic. Matern. Math. ii 30 § 4 ff. forbids such enquiries. 

p. 104 1. 32 AB ANGELis c. 21 f. 22. De Idolol. 9 pr. animad- 
uertimus inter artes etiam professiones quasdam ohnoxias idolo- 
latriae. de astrologis ne loquendum quidem est....non allego 
quod idola honoret, quorum nomina caelo inscripsit, quibus 15 
omnem dei potestatem addixit ; quod propterea homines non 
putant deum requirendum, praesumentes stellarum nos immuta- 
bili arhitrio agi : unum propono, angelos esse illos desertores dei, 
amatores feniinarum, proditores etiam huius curiositatis, jjrop- 
terea quoque damnatos a deo. diuina sententia usque a.d 20 
terram pertinax, cui etiam ignorantes testimonium redduntl 
expelluntur mathematici, sicut angeli eorum. urhs et Italia 
interdicitur mathematicis, sicut caelum angelis eorum. eadem 
poena est exitii (exilii Gel.) discipulis et magistris. De Cult. 
Fem. I 2 pr. of the angels who married the children of raen : 25 
cum et materias quasdam hene occultas et artes plerasque non 
hene reuelatas saeculo multo magis imperito prodidissent, si- incantationum idres prouulgauerant et omnem curio- 
sitateni usque ad stellarum interpretationem designauerant. 
ib. 3. II 10 he cites Enoch as the authority for these traditions. 3° 
Tatian 8 Sidypa/jL/jia jap avroh \roh avdpooTroL^] aarpoOeaia^i 
ava8eL^avTe<; [ol 8aL/jLov€<i], wairep ol tol<; Kv/3oL<i 7ral^ovTe<i, 
TTjv el/jLap/jLevrjv elar^ryy^aavTO Xlav cISlkov. Ammian. Marcel. 
XXIX 2 f § 27 (below) Lindenbr., constellationem principis col- 
ligere. Hermias pp. 213 — 4 c. Book of Enoch. Clem. Alex. 35 
p. 1002 P. Strom. i. p. 366 P. 368 sq. v 650. vi 822. vii 832. 
lustin. Apol. II 5 p. 44^ Aug. De Ciu. Dei v 7. Kaye 201. 
Bouche-Leclercq Astrol. p. 619 2. 

M. T. 24 

370 TERTVLLIANI [p. 104 1. 33— 

p. 104 1. 33 CHRiSTiANi La Cerda cites Conc. Tolet. 4 c. 29 
and 7 c. 18. 

PERSCRVTARI Tac. Ann. iii 22 sq. adiciehantur adulteria 
uenena quaesitumque per Chaldaeos in domum Caesaris. Herald. 

5 cites los. XVII 7. 

p. 106 1. 2 SVSTINETVR Minuc. 39 § 6 nec adnectimus arescentem 
coronam, sed a deo aeternis jiorihus uiuidam sustinenius. Holden 
ad 1. cites uulg. Tob. 5 9 sustine me (uirojjbeivov fjue), obsecro, 
donec et ipsa nuntiem patri meo. Acts 20 5 sustinuerunt 

lo (e/jievov) nos Troade. Add Iren. iv 20 § 6 pr. Ronsch Itala 
381 — 2. Oehler on De Fug. in Persec. 11 pr. p. 480. Ad 
Mart. 2 a. m. [Ps.-Aug. Quaest. 1 § 2 p. 14 1. 5. A. S.] 

p. 106 1. 3 CARIS Apul. Metam. ix 36 pr. suam suorumque 
carorum saluteni. 

15 p. 106 1. 4 soLLiciTVDO SANGViNis Tac. Ann. XVI 30 recens 
discrimini patris fdiam conectehat, quod pecuniam magis dilar- 
gita esset. acciderat sane -pietate Seruiliae (id enim nonien 
puellae fuit) quae caritate erga parentem, simul imprudentia 
aetatis, non tanien aliud consultauerat quam de incolumitate 

20 domus, et an placabilis Nero. Ammian. Marcel. xxix 2 § 27 
in chartis cuiusdam municipis clari genitura cuiusdam Valentis 
inuenta est, repellensque calumnias is, cuius intererat, cum ohiec- 
taretur ei quamohrem constellationem principis collegisset, patr^eni 
suum fuisse Valentem dudumque ohisse documentorum plena fide 

25 mo7istrare pollicitus, inexspectato ueritatis indicio laniatus, lacer 
trucidatus est. 


p. 106 1. 5 ROMANi c. 24 f. laedimus Romanos nec Romani 

hahemur, quia non Romanorum deum colimus: argument as c. 1 

med. cum ergo propterea oderint homines, quia ignorant quale 

30 sit quod oderunt, cur non liceat eiusmodi illud esse, quod non 

deheant odisse? 

p. 106 1. 10 HOSTILITAS LS has only one ex. (from Cassiod.), 

not in Mtihlmann, Scheller has only (the false) Seneca. It occurs 

Tert. De Pall. 2 fin. p. 925 eradicato omni aconito hostilitatis. 

35 Forc. and Georges and LS have Cassiod. Var. iv 50, RW. Paull. 

Pellaeus, Benoist-Goelzer Sid. ep. v 3. Add [Cypr.] 217 12. 

p. 106 1. 18] APOLOGETICVS 35, 36 371 

Ennod. 245 10 H. Seru. ad Aen. ix 438. Greg. Turon. Glor. 
Mart. I 57. 105 pr. (collective) [add Siric. ap. De-Vit and Ps.- 
Aug. Serm. 298, 1. A. S.]. 

p. 106 1. 12 NECESSE HABENT EXHI15ER1 cf. c. 33 pr. queiu 
[imperatorein] necesse est suspiciamus ut eum, queni dominus 5 
iioster elegerit. 37 pr. n. De Anini. 35 p. 360 1. 13 Wiss. 
totiens animam reuocari habere. Adu. Prax. 4 p. 232 1. 9 Kr. 
adeo autem manet [monarchia'] in suo statu, licet trinitas in- 
feratur, ut etiam restitui habeat patri a filio. Cf. ibid. 1. 19 
uidemus igitur non ohesse monarchiae [filium^, etsi hodie apud 10 
filium est, quia et in suo statu est apud filium, et cum suo statu 
restituetur patri a filio. De Paenit. 6 m. quidam autem sic 
opinantur, quasi deus necesse habeat praestare etiam indignis, 
quod spopondit. Lact. Diu. Instt. iv 30 ^2 et ipsum et legatos 
eius praediadsse, quod plurimae sectae et haereses haberent 15 
existere. Woodh. C£ the Romance futures. [Arch. f. lat. Lex. 
II 48—89. 157—202. A.S.] 

p. 106 1. 14 SVB Plin. ep. i 2 § 5 sub hac excep^tione ueniam 
postulare. Sueton. Caes. 78. 

p. 106 1. 16 EXACTORE Not in Cic. Below c. 40 p. m. 20 
( = avenger) nocentiae iudicem et exactorem. De Cult. Fem. 
II 4 omnis maritus castitatis -or est. 

REMVNERATORE De Paenit. 2 bis. Aug. uulg. CIL viii 7174. 
Paulin. Nol. ep. 13 23 f 23 31 [add Ps.-Aug. serm. ter A.S.]. 

p. 106 1. 18 Conc. Carth. 4 can. 10 (11 1200^) psalmista, id 25 
est cantor, potest absque scientia. episcopi, sola iussione presby- 
teri, ofiicium suscipere cantandi, dicente sibi presbytero: Vide ut, 
quod ore cantas, corde credas: et, quod corde credis, operibus 

MALE COGITARE cet. cf. contritio cordis, confessio oris, satis- 30 
factio operis. Cowell in Journ.of Phil.iii (1871) 215ff. on thought, 
word and deed. Athenag. 32 p. 36'' oU ovv fX7]8€v t6 irXeov 
k^eartv opav t) i<f) a eTrXaaev Tov^i o^daXjxov^ deo^, rj/xtv (f>co<; 
avTovi etvat, Kal ol<; to ISeiv j/Sew? fiot)(eia, ecf)' eVepa tcov 
6(fi6a\fxwv 'ye^ovoTwv, /Jte^^pt^i evvota<; Kpi6r]aofjtevoi<;, Trw? av 35 
ovtol dTrioTrjdeiev acoippovetv ; Minuc. 31 § 5 at nos pudorem 
non facie sed mente praestamus. Theophil. iii 13 pr. /cat Trepi 
aejxvoTrjTO^ ov fxovov hthdaKet rj/jtd^i 6 dyto<i Xoyoi; t6 /ii) d/jtapTd- 


372 TERTVLLIANI [p. 106 1. 18— 

veiv ep<yw, dWa koI /xe^pt? ivvoia<;. Orig. Contr. Cels. praef. 
§ 2 f. alleges the virtuous life of Christians as their best defence. 
p. 106 1. 19 EX AEQUO Oehler on ad Scap. 2 where he also 
cites ecc pari, ex diuerso, ex abundanti [and might have cited ex 
5facili. A.S.]. De Bapt. 17 bis p. 214 1. 29 Wiss. ad nat. i 10 
p. 77 1. 11 Wiss. Ad Vx. i 6 fin. 8. ii 8 fin. Sueton. Tib. 11. 
Schwarz on Plin. Panegyr. 83 § 6. Lucr. Liu. Ou. (saepe) Tac. 


p. 106 1. 22 De Orat. 29 p. 199 1. 17 Wiss. nunc uero oratio- 
iustitiae omnem iram dei auertit, pro inimicis excuhat, pro per- 

lo sequentibus supplicat. ad Scap. 1 pr. itaque hunc libelluni non 
nobis timentes misimus, sed uobis et omnibus inimicis nostris^ 
nedum amicis; ita enim disciplina iubemur diligere inimicos 
quoque, et orare pro eis qui nos pei^sequuntur, ut haec sit perfecta 
et propria bonitas nostra, non communis. Euseb. Hist. Eccl. ix 8 

15 §§ 13 — 15. Athenag. c. 10 pp. 11, 12 the Christians' love of j 
enemies and other virtues inconsistent with atheism. Theodoret 
Graec. Aifect. Cur. ix § 65 p. 133 1. 45 kuI ov fMovov toi;? cplXovi 
evep<yeTelv, dWd Kal tou? e^Opov^ eKeXevcrev ev iroLelv. Greg. 
Naz. Or. 38 = 25 c. 5 f. (l 607^^) Contr. Arian. •>7/i,et9 Se Kal rov<;-'' 

20 (fiovel^i, el firj (jjopriKOv eiTrelv, e^rjrrjadfieda KivSvvevovra<i (Hau.). 
SVPRA c. 31 p. 98 11. 15—16. 

p. 106 1. 23 HABEMVS ODISSE c. 22 prope fin. habent de incolatu 
aeris et de uicinia siderum et de commercio nubium caelestes 
sapere paraturas. 36 init. n. Oehler on De Fug. in Persec. 

25 12 p. 485 note t. Adu. lud. 13 a. m. cum...pati haberet. De 
Cult. Fem. I 1 etiam filius dei mori habuit. De Idolol. 5 p. 34 
1. 16 Wiss. uiuere. De Carn. Resur. 27 pr. hoc habeo dicere etc. 
Adu. Valent. 14 p. 193 1. 20 Kr. nec habens superuolare crucem. 
n. on Zumpt § 562. Cypr. 653 11. Ps. Cypr. 263 10: cf| 

30 ind. Valer. Flac. i 671 — 2 tollique uicissim pontus habet. Cic. 

Vlp. (dig. xlviii 5. 16 (15) § 3) laborare. Macer (dig. xlviii 19.. 

10 § 1) operari [and countless others, cf e.g. Hoppe Syntax u. 

Stil des Tert. pp. 43 ff., my Study of Ambrosiaster p. 109. A. S.]. 

p. 106 1. 26 LEGIBVS c. 4 p. 16 1. 9 postremo legumi 

35 obstruitur aiictoritas. c. 1, of truth, quid hinc deperit legibu» 

p. 108 1. 2] APOLOGETICVS 36, 37 373 

in suo regno domwantihus si undiatnr? Blunt Right Use 342. 
Kaye 111, 

p. 106 1. 27 VVLGVS c. 35 p. 104 1. 12 n. c. 49 fin. ad Scap. 
3 pr. suh Hilariano i^raeside, cum de areis sepulturaruni nostra- 
runi acclamassent : 'areae non sint.' See Heraldus from Euseb. 5 
IV 15 § 26. 

p. 106 1. 28 LAPiDiBVS ET iNCENDiis c. 48 p. 136 1. 6. Aen. 
I 150 ianique faces et saxa uolant. Tac. Ann. xiv 45 midti- 
tudine saxa acfaces minitante. Greg. Naz. in Epitaphio Basilii 
Or. 43 c. 57 § 4 (l 812**) ai SaSe? iv ■x^epaiv, ol \i6oL irpo^e- lo 
^\r]/jLevoL. La Cerda. luu. 15 63 — 5. Euseb. ep. eccl. Vienn. 
Hist. Eccl. V 1 § 7 XiOdiv ^oXd<;. 

BACCHANALIVM FVRiis Prochor. Vit. loann. (?) c. 39. 

p. 106 1. 29 REQVIE SEPVLTVRAE Apul. II 29 me in meam 
quietem permitte. (de lamiis, corpses disinterred for magical 15 
uses, as in Lucan.) [Quintil.] Decl. 15 § 5 facinus...tumulos 
husta scrutari et aniputatis cadauerihus ipsas in scelera ar- 
mare manus. Cassiodor. Var. vi 8 defunctorum quin etiam 
sacram quietem, aequahilia iura tuae conscientiae commiserunt. 
rvjx^wpvj^^oL. lul. Firm. Math. I 2 § 10 illum quiescentium 20 
securas aninias et iam Lethaei fluminis ohliuione purgatas 
Mercurius cogit nefariis carminihus excitare. Persecution of 
Maximin, Euseb. Hist. Eccl. viii (Herald.). [The passage is 
really Mart. Palaest. 9 § 10. A.S.] 

p. 108 1. 1 REPENSATVM De Idolol. 8 p. 37 1. 15 Wiss. 25 
minor merces frequentiore actu repensatur. Paulin. Nol. ep. 29 
9 illi uotiuiLS Samuel in plures partus repensatus est. Vell. Sen. 
Colum. Lact. [add Aug. c. Acad. 11 3 (but Aug. prefers rependo), 
Ps.-Aug. serm. ter. A.S.]. 

p. 108 1. 2 FACVLis Scorp. 6 p. 158 1. 7 Wiss. qui — is oleum 30 
non praeparassent. Cato Varro Cinc. ap. Gell. Plaut.uulg. Paulin. 
ep. 41 1. Hist. Apollon. regis Tyri26 fin. [I have 5 exx. from 
Aug., and one from Ps.-Aug. Serm. A. S.] Nero's fire. Lact. 
De Mort. Persec. 14 (cited by Woodham) sed Gaesar non con- 
tentus est edicti legihus. aliter Diocletia.num aggredi parat. 35 
nam ut illuni ad propositum crudelissime pe7'secutionis im- 
pelleret, occultis ministris palatio suhiecit incendium. et cum 
pars quaedam conflagrasset, Christiani arguehantur uelut hostes 



[p. 108 1. 2— 

publici, et cum ingenti inindia simul cnm jKilatio Christian- 
orum nomen ardebat. Christian loyalty lustin. Apol. i 11. 
12. 23. 

LARGITER VLTIONIS eKhiKr]aea><i aSrjv Ashton. Plaut. Rud. 
5 IV 4 144 illic inesse auri et argenti largiter. ib. v 2 28 largiter 
mercedis indipiscar. (The Plaut. in lexx.) Apul. De Magia 
28 largiter aquae. Petron. 71 uinearum largiter. 

p. 108 1. 3 DISPVXGI Oehler h. 1. ad nat. i 2 p. 61 1. 1 Wiss. 

non statim confesso eo nomen homicidae dispuncta causa est 

lo aut satiata cognitio. De Exhort. Cast. 2 a. m. quae uidt prae- 

cipit et accipit et aeternitatis mercede dispungit. Adu. Marc. ii 4 

p. 337, 1. 28 Kr. 23 p. 367 1. 1 Kr. De Monogam. 8 a. m. 

p. 108 1. 4 iGXi HVMAXO )( 48 p. 140 11. 8—9. 

SECTA c. 40 a. m. nec iani illic Christianae sectae origo con- 
15 sederat De Spectac. 2 p. 2 1. 19 Wiss. ad nat. i 4 pr. 6 p. 66 
1. 15 Wiss. 10 p. 76 1. 10 Wiss. saepe. Minuc. 40. Prudent. 
Contr. Symm. 11 93. 276. Apoth. praef. 2 1. Lact. De Opif. 
Dei 1 § 2 [see Bimemann's note. A. S.]. With diuinitas sectae of 
Fuld. cf c. 39 d. disciplinae. De Orat. 18 p. 191 1. 24 Wiss. 
20 De Cor. Milit. 1. Kaye 85 sq. 

p. 108 1. si ENIM cet. Cypr. Ad Demetrian. 17 pr. inde 
est enim quod nemo nostrum quando adprehenditur reluctatur 
nec se aduersus iniustam uiolentiam uestram quamuis nimius 
et copiosus noster popidus ulciscitur. 
25 EXSERTOS declared, downright, overt. De Baptismo 12 
p. 211. 14 Wiss. probatio exserta. 18 p. 216 1. 2 Wiss. 
manifestam et exsertam dignationem domini intercessisse. De 
Monogam. 3 prope fin. iam non oblique a nuptiis auocans, sed 
exserte. Adu. Marc. I 29 p. 331 1. 2 Kr. tunc denique coniugiuni 
30 exserte defendentes, cum inimice accusatur spurcitiae nomine in 
destructionem creatoris. Adu. Valent. p. 180 1. 14 Kr. qui talia 
neque facile producunt neque exserte defendunt. De Spectac. 
3 p. 4 1. 23 Wiss. jjlane nusquam iyiuenimus, quemadmodum 
aperte positum est: ' non occides'..., ita exserte definitum: 'non 
35 ibis in circum! Apul. Metam. 11 22 exsertis oculis. 30 pr. 
exsertam uigiliam. 

p. 108 1. 6 AGERE c£ c. 10 p. 36 1. 30. 

NVMERORVM Ammian. xx 4 § 7. Tac. Plin. ep. iii 8 §4 

p. 108 1. 9] APOLOGETiCVS 37 375 

n. pp. 134 — 5. Siiet. dig. Mommsen in Hermes xix (1884) 
219—231 [=Gesammelte Schriften, 6^'^'- Bcl, 103—115. A. S.], 
CIL X 1202. Capitolin. Max. Balb. 5 § 7. Greg. Dial. iv 
3.5 (p. 428) n. a. Coripp. lust. Iii 354, Dempster. Philolog. 
XLi 486 — 9. 493. Passio S. Hieronis (ed. Surius 7 Nov.) 5 
in numeros militwm ascriberent eos qui essent idonei. Sozom. 
Hist. Eccl. I 8 § 11 Tct 'Vcofjiaicov rdjfMara, d vvv dpL6fxov<; 

p. 108 1. 7 PLVRES cet. Kaye 49. 

MAVRi Adu. lud. 7 in Hau. 10 

p. 108 1. 8 PARTHI cf. Ra\vlinson's Great Monarchies. On 
the Parthians as rivals of Rome Tac. Ann. ii 2, xii 10 where 
Parthian ambassadors say : subueniendum sociis uiriam aemidis 
cedentibusque per reuerentiam. Luc. viii 252 — 351. Woodham. 
Cf Apocal. 21. 2 sq. In Adu. Marc. iii 24 p. 419 1. 27 Kr. 15 
'a recent expedition to the east, probably that of Severus 
against the Parthians.' Geffcken Zwei Apologeten 242 n. 

\i. 108 1. 9 HESTERNi cet. supr. c. 21 pr. p. Q^ 1. 15 n. 
adu. Prax. 2 p. 229 11. 16, 17 Kr. ad nat. i 8 p. 72 1. 19 Wiss. 
non ulla gens non ChHstiana. Adu. lud. 7 fin. Christi autem 20 
regnum et nomen ubique porrigitur, ubique creditur, ab omni- 
bus gentibus supra enumeratis (i.e. Babylonians, Parthians, 
Egyptians, India, Aethiopia, Alexander's empire, Asia, Germans, 
Moors, Britons, Roman empire) colitur, ubique regnat, ubique 
adoratur. Novelty, Orig. Contr. Cels. il 4. Arnob. i 55. 54 25 
(p. 51 Elmenhorst). Blunt 3 Cent. 201—2. Tert. ib. 203—5, 
cites Adu. Marc. iii 20 p. 410 1. 13 Kr. uniuersas nationes d.e 
uoragine erroris huniani exinde emergentes ad deum creatorem, 
ad deum ChiHstum...Christo, qui totum iam orbem euangelii 
sai Jide cepit. Blunt op. cit. 200 citmg lustin. Dial. c. 30 
Tryph. 91 p. 318'^ {iv Trda-i rot^ edvecri). c. 117 pr. (p. 344<=) 
eucharist over all the world. ib. f p. 345^^ in every nation 
Greek, Barbarian, nomads in wagons and homeless, herds- 
men in tents, prayers and thanksgivings in the name of 
Christ crucified. Origen in Blunt 208 — 211 and generally 35 
ch. 10 pp. 183—225. Clem. Alex. Protrept. § 110 pp. 85, 86. 
Orig. Contr. Cels. i 53. 62 p. 48 f 11 79. Iren. i 10 2 and 1. 
III 11 8. IV 36 2. Ep. ad Diognet. 1 ri 8^ iTore Kaivov rovro 

376 TERTVLLIANI [p. 108 ]. 9- 

yei'0<; rj iTnT7]8ev/xa elarf\.9ev et? rov /3lov vvv koX ov rrrpoTepov. 
Aug. ep. 197 § 4 (a.d. 419) of the 2nd coming of Christ : 
some may think that the conversion of the world may take 
place even in our lifetime. ib. 199 § 46 sunt enim apiid nos, 
5 hoc est in Africa, barbarae innumerabiles gentes, in qaibns 
nondum esse praedicatum euangelium, ex eis qui ducuntur inde 
captiui et Romanorum seruitiis iam miscentur, cotidie nobis 
addiscere in prompta est. j^^^^^gi tamen anni swit, ex quo quidam 
eorum rarissimi atque paucissinii, qui pacati Romanis finibus 

lo adhaerent, ita ut non habeant reges suos, sed super eos praefecti 
a Romano constituantur imperio, et illi ipsi eonim praefecti 
Ghristiani esse coeperunt. 

ET and yet c. 2 post med. p. 10 1. 27 Christkvnum hominem 
omnium scelerum reimi. . .existimas et cogis negare, ut absoluas. 

15 luu. 13 91 hic putat esse deos et peierat. 7 124 n. Verg. ecl. 
9 57. 

OMNiA IMPLEVIMVS c. 1 p. 4 1. 11 n, c. 50. Cf. ad Scap. 2. 5. 
De Fuga in Persec. 12 p. m. tanta cotidie aerario augendo 
prospiciuntur remedia censuum uectigalium collationum sti- 

2o pendiorum, nec umquam usque adhuc ex Christianis tale aliqaid 
prospectum est, sub aliqua redemptione capitis et sectae redi- 
gendis, cum tantae multitudinis nemini ignotae fructus ingens 
meti posset. Maximin (a.d. 313) rescript. § 1 ad calc. Euseb. 
Hist. Eccl. IX 9 § 1 crvvelhov cr^^ehov airavTa^i avdpouTrovi, KaTa- 

25 \ei(f)6eia7]<i Tr)<i twv decov Opr^crKeLa^i, tm edvei tmv ILpiaTiavwv 
eavTov<i avixfxeixiy^oTa^i. Lact. Diu. Instt. V 13 §| 1 — 5. Neu- 
mann i 20. 120. 121. Orig. Contr. Cels. i 26 p. 21. 27 p. 22. 
30 p. 24. 43 p. 33. 47 p. 35. 57 p. 44. 67 fin. ii 13. 30 p. 79. 42. 
III 24. V 62. VI 11. Christian officials, Zahn Forschungen v 300. 

3° Otto on lust. Apol. 1 1 pp. 4, 5. Lucian Alex. 2 fin. Minuc. 9 § 1 
ac iam, ut fecundius nequiora proueniunt, serpentibus in dies 
perditis moribus per uniuersum orbem sacraria ista teterrima 
impiae coitionis udolescunt. Epiphan. Haer. xxx 9 p. 133 and 
Petau. n. p. 158. Harnack on Hermas Sim. viii 3 § 2. Harnack 

35 Die Mission...des Christentums (1902) 360—376. Arnob. i 
55 si fdsa, ut dicitis, Idstoria illa rerum est, unde tam breui 
temjjore totus mundus ista religione completas est? aut in unam 
coire qui potuerunt mentem gentes regionibus dissitae, uentis 

p. 108 1. 11] APOLOGETICVS 37 377 

caeli conuexionihusqne dimotae? ii c. 5 p. 50 1. 18 c. 12. 
Friedlander iii' 646 n. 4. Ep. ad Diognet. 5 § 4 KaroLKovvT€<; 
he 7roA,ei? '^Xk-qviha^ re kuI /Sap/Sdpovi, co<; €KaaT0<; eKXijpcodij. 
6 § 2 ecriTapTai KaTa iravTwv tuiv tov acofMaTO^ fxeXrov i) '^'0')(i], 
Kol \pLaTiavol Kara Ta<i tov Koafiov 7roA,6t<?. Iren. III 1 § 1. 5 
Tzschirner 172—5. Clem. Alex. Protr. c. 8 p. 68. 

p. 108 1. 10 CASTELLA cet. c. 1 p. 4 1. 12 lex Rubria between 
49 and 42 (CIL i 205 tab. ii 3. 26. 53. 56. 58) o{ppido) m(uni- 
cipio) c(olonia) p^raefectura) u(ico) c(onciliahido) c(astello) 
t(erritorio)ue [= Bruns, Fontes luris Romani Antiqui^, pp. 98 ff. lo 
A. S.]. Frontinus De Controuersiis Agrorum p. 35 12 ager 
colonicus )( municipalis aut alicuius castelli aut conciliahuli. 
lul. Paulus Sentent. iv 6 2 testamenta in municipiis coloniis 
oppidis praefecturis (u.l. -a) castellis (u.l. -o) conciliahulis facta 
in foro uel hasilica. 15 

p. 108 1. 11 CASTRA c. 42 p. 122 1. 7. ad Scap. 4. Semisch 
lustin. (Eng.) I 39. Tarachus' (Ruinart 458) on his conversion 
retired from the army. Sulp. Seu. Chron. ii 33 2 Licinius, 
quia aduersum Gonstantinuni de imperio certauU, milites suos 
litare praeceperat: ahnuentes militia reiciehat. Conc. Nic. 20 
Can. 12. [C. H. Turner, Ecclesiae Occidentalis Monumenta 
I pp. 214 ff. A. S.] 40 raartyrs of the legio xii fulminata 
[R. Knopf, Ausgewahlte Marbyrerakten, 2 aufl. (Tiibingen, 
1913) pp. 101 ff. A. S.] (many fathers in Allard Persecution de 
Diocletien II 307). [Add the interesting epitaph of M. lulius 25 
Eugenius, discovered by W. M. Calder in 1908, andpublished, for 
example, in Ramsay, Luke the Physician, pp. 339 ff. A. S.] 

PALATIVM Iren. iv 49 (Grabe) quid autem et hi qui in 
regali aula sunt fideles? nonne ex eis, quae Gaesaris sunt, 
hahent utensilia, et his qui non hahent, unusquisque eorum secun- 30 
duni suam uirtutem praestat? Minuc. 8 § 4 c?e idtima faece 
collectis imperitiorihus et mulierihus credulis. 31 § 7 nec de 
xdtima statim plehe consistimus, si honores uestros et _/Ji;rjj»r«s 

SENATVM De Idolol. 19. De Cor. Milit. 11. Minuc. 31 35 
§ 7 (cited above). Cf Keims Celsus p. 11 n. 1. Orig. Contr. 
Cels. I 29. Ruinart 263 seq. Harnack Mission...des Christen- 
tums (1902), 388 — 395. We first meet a Christian senator in 

378 TERTVLLIANI [p. 108 1. 11— 

the midclle of century iv, Apollonius Euseb. Hist. Eccl. v 21 (who 
does not expressly call him so, as Jerome does in his catalogue). 
See Evans Biography of the Early Church i 270—284 e.g. 28:3 
'Even after Caesar had become the conscious servant of Christ, 
5 his senate, at the head-quarters of the old religion of the 
empire, followed him with scarcely half its numbers into the 
assembly of the church.' He refers to Lardners Credibility ix 
150 in proof that 200 years after the death of Apollonius, it is 
at least questionable whether a majority of the senate were 
lo Christians. The controversy of Symmachus with Ambrose and 
Prudentius shows the state of things long after. Lact. Diu. 
Instt. V 1 luiec in priviis causa est, cur apud sapientes et cloctos 
et principes huius saeculi scriptura sancta Jide careat, quod 
prophetae communi ac simplici sermone, ut ad popidum, sunt 
15 locuti (partly Woodham). Cf. 1 Cor. 1 27. 

p. 108 1. 12 TEMPLA Minuc. 10 § 2 cur nullas aras habent, 
templa mdla ? 32 § 1 putatis autem nos occultare quod colimus, 
si delubra et aras non habemus? Orig. Contr. Cels. viii 17 
p. 389 6 KeXo-o? (fiTjcrlv r]ixa<i /Sw/xou? «aX ajaX/jbara kuI veoi<; 
2o ISpvecrOaL (jievyeLv. Arnob. VI 1 — 8. Vopiscus Aurelian 20 
§ 5 in Christianorum ecclesia, non in templo deorum omnium. 
Neumann l 125 n. 3. Blunt Early Church ser. 2 lect. 1 pp. 
271—293. Plin. ep. Tr. 96. 

p. 108 1. 14 Hau. cites Sen. ad Helu. 13. Publil. Sjt. 

25 259. 422. Luc. 1 459 sq. Add Aug. ep. (127 =) 100 § 2 necessitate 

nobis impacta et indicta, ut etiam occidi ab eis eligamus, quam 

eos occidendos uestris iudiciis ingeramus. Lact. Diu. Instt. v 20 

defendenda est religio non occidendo, sed moriendo, non saeuitia, 

sed patientia. Plato Gorgias 469*^ eXoi/jLrjv av fxdWov dhLKeladaL 

30 ,•) doiKelv. 473^1 474^ 479^ 508^ 509". 527^ Ast on Plat. Rep. 

p.358%p.391^ Plato Crito 49^ cet. Gataker on Anton. viii 55. 

Adu. c. 5. Hierax in Stob. x 77. Plut. Phocion 32 § 5 p. 78'^^ 

comp. Ag. et Cleom. c. Ti. et C. Gracch. 4 § 2. Plut. ii 30^ 

Musonius in Stob. iii 19 § 16. 20 § 61. 40 § 9 fin. [= ed. Hense 

35 pp. 52, 126. A.S.]. Aristot. Rhet. i 7 § 22. Eth. v 15 p. 1138 a 

28. Socrates in Gell. xii 9 § 6. Sen. ep. 95 § 52. Xen. AnaK 

VII 6 § 21. Cic. Tusc. V § 56. Phil. xi § 9. Wolf on Liban. 

ep. 1188. Arnob. i 6 iniuriam perpeti quam irrogare esse 

p. 108 1. 22] APOLOGETICVS 37 379 

praestantius. ind. Chrj^s. s.u. iniuria. coinin. on Sall. Cat. 9 
§ 5. Lucian Phalaris prior 9. Max. Tyr. 18 (2) c. 7. Demo- 
crit. fr. 224 Mullach (Democrat. in Orelli n. 11) 6 dBi/cewv rov 
dSiKeofjLivov KaKo^ai/j,ov€crTepo<;. Boissonade Anecd. II 162 sq. 
Philo de losepho 4 fin. ii 44 M. 8 ii 47 M(0. Aristid. ii 5 
p. 65 sq. Jebb. Albinus in Fabric. Biblioth. Graec. lli c. 30 f. 
Antiphon or. 13 p. 84. Boeth. de Consol. Phil. IV prosa 4 f. 
Isidor.-Pelus. ep. lib. ii 257. Synesius ep. 67 fin. p. 215. 
Synes. epigr. 30 is the same as Liban. l.c. Kaye 85 seq. 
136 seq. 139 sq. 10 

p. 108 I. 17 ABRVPissEMVS Dc Pudic. 7 p. 232 1. 26 Wiss. 
ob tale quid extra gregem datus est uel et ipse forte ira, tum ore, 
aemulatione, quod denique saepe fit, dedignatione castigationis 
ahrupit. Adu. Valent. 4 p. 181 1. 1 Kr. de ecclesia authenticoe 
regulae ahrupit. Adu. Marc. v 1 j). 570 1. 24 Kr. So in Celsus 15 
(viii 61. 71. 75) the supposition of active hostility or with- 
drawal of Christians. 

p. 108 1. 18 SVFFVDISSET abashed. supr. c. 4 p. 18 1. 2 
honorum adhibita proscriptio suffundere mcduit hominis san- 
guineni quam effundere. Scorp. 10 a. m. p. 521 Oehler (= p. 166 20 
1. 17 Wiss.) Avith his n. 

p. 108 1. 19 DEsTiTVTio Cic. uulg. Tert. De Cor. Milit. 
2 a. m. d. ohseruationis [more in Thes.]. 

p. 108 I. 20 PROCVL DVBio 'very rare ' LS (1 Lucr. 1 Liu. 
1 Plin. Hist. Nat. duhio procul. 2 Lucr.) add Apul. Metam. 25 
IV 3. 25. Under procul LS give Quintil. 2. Liu. 1. Plin. 
Hist. Nat. 1. Sueton 1 duh. pr. Flor. 1. Lucr. 1. procul uero 
Colum. [Add also Rufinus often, Ambst. sornetimes, Aug. often; 
and many other authors. A. S.] 

EXPAVissETis AD c. 39 p. 112 1. 29. c. 1 pr. p. 2 11. 4 — 5 timet 30 
ad. Adu. Prax. 3 p. 230 1. 12 Kr. e^/j. (absol.). ad Mart. 3 a. m. 
ne corpora atque animi expauescant de unihra ad soleni. De 
Spectac. 17 p. 19 11. 9—10 Wiss. ad lucem. De Orat. 22 
p. 196 1. 14 Wiss. (= 17 fin.) uelandas ex ea die esse, qua 
ad primuni uiri corpus osculo et dextera expauerint. luu. 13 35 
223 n. hi sunt qui trepidant et ad oninia fulgura pallent. 

p. 108 1. 21 STVPOREM palsy. 

p. 108 1. 22 QVAE.SISSETIS See Woodham : also Lucan vi 

380 TERTVLLIANI [p. 108 1. 22— 

154. Burm. ad Ou. Metam. ii 239. Plin. ep. ii 1 § 7. vi 2§1. 
Hau. cf. Flor. Iil 21 § 25 uiuere aliquos debere, ut essent qidbus 
imperarent and Sall. in Seru. Aen. viii 557 [= hist. I 30 Maurenb. 
speciem captae urbis eficere. A. S.]. 
5 HOSTES e. 2 p. 10 1. 28. c. 32 publicorum hostium nomen 
Christianis dabant. 35 pr. publici hostes Christiani. Arnob. 
I 1 neque eniin negauerim ualidissimam esse accusationem 
istam, hostilibusque condignos odiis nos esse. Tac. Ann. XV 44 
multitudo ingens haud proinde in crimine incendii quani 

lo odio humani generis conuicti sunt, where Zeller (Zeitschr. f. 
wiss. Theol. 1891 356 — 367), recanting his former opinion 
(Vortrage ii 195), sees ixtcravOpcoirLa Menschenscheu rather than 

p. 108 1. 27 VSQVEQVAQVE Scorp. 15 pr. ad nat. i 18 fin. 

15 II 12 p. 119 1. 8 Wiss. De Monogam. 17 pr. Sidon. Ep. 11 
10 § 1. IX 3 § 7. 15 ver. 41. Aug. ep. 153 14 pr. 185 25. 
[Add Ps. 118, 8. 43 : probably as many as 100 instances in Aug. 

p. 108 1. 28 DAEMONIORVM c. 23 p. 82 1. 22 n. (last half), 

2o c. 25 pr. n., c. 27, c. 82 fin., c. 43 quanti habetis, non dico 
iam qui de uobis daemonia excutiant? lustin. Apol. II 6 f. 
(Otto p. 216 n. 15). cf Lact. Diu. Instt. iv 27 §§ 2—14. 
Tzschirner 175 sq. 

INCVRSIBVS De Anim. 57 p. 392 1. 5 Wiss. pluribus 

25 notuni est daemoniorum quoque opera et immaturas et atroces 
effici mortes, quas incursibus deputant : he goes on to speak of 
exorcisms. De Praescr. Haer. 15. Clem. Recogn. iv 14. 17, 
incursio daemonis. Chrysoh^g. Serm. 18, Migne P. L. Lii 
p. 248^ pelhmtur a nobis daemones. Lact. Diu. Instt. ii 15 § 6 

30 affirmat eos Hermes, qui cognouerint deum, non tantum ab in- 
cursibus daemonum tutos esse, uerum nefato quidem teneri. iv 27 
I 2 nam sicut ipse, cum inter homines ageret, uniuersos daemones 
ue7'bo fugabat hominumque mentes emotas et malis incursibus 
furiatas in sensus pristinos reponebat. ib. § 14 denique si con- 

35 stituatur in medio et is, quem constat incursum daemonis 
perpeti, et Delphici Apollinis uates, eodem modo dei nomen 
horrebunt, et tam celeriter excedet de uate suo Apollo, quam 
ex Jiomine spiritus ille daemonicus. Appeal to contemporary 

p. 110 1. 13] APOLOGETICVS 37, 38 381 

miracles: lustin. Dial. c. Tryph. p. 258. Iren. Ii 31. 32. v 6. 
Cypr. Quod Idola di non sint 7. ad Denietrian. 15. ad Donat. 
5 p. 8 1. 5 H. ut quis expiatus (Herald.). Minuc. 27. Arnob. 
I 46. Orig. Contr. Cels. i 2 f. p. 5. 46 p. 34 f. 67 f. p. 53. 
III 24 f. p. 124 (had himself seen many men cured of lunacy 5 
etc). 36 f exx. in Dodwell Diss. Cyprianica IV. Accepted by 
Mosheim, Comm. de rebus Christ. ante Const. p. 220, and 
Cramer in die Fortsetzung von Bossuet's Einleitung in die 
Geschichte der Welt i 432—3. 

p. 108 1. 29 SINE MERCEDE Iren. in Euseb. Hist. Eccl. v 10 
7 §§ 4 5 ap. Herald. (= Iren. 11 32 § 4). 

p. 108 1. 30 VACVA POSSESSio LS II D uacuus {possessio, 
bona cet.) also uacantia hona : undisputed, empty, swept and 
garnished. Milton P. L. XI 103 vacant possession. Kaye p. 89. 

p. 108 1. 31 COMPENSATIOXEM Cic. Gai. dig. ad nat. I 7 15 
p. 70 1. 17 Wiss. De Fuga in Persec. 11 in compensationem. 
[See Thes. A.S.] 

p. 110 1. 1 PLANE...TAMEN c. 22 p. m. p. 76 1. 28 sic et 
auctores interdum uideri uolunt eorum, quae adnuntiant: et sunt 
plane maloruvi nonnumquam, honorum tamen numquam. 20 


p. 110 1. 5 iNLiciTis FACTIONIBVS c. 21 init. Minuc. 8 § 3 
homines, inquam, deploratae, inlicitae ac desperatae factionis 
grassari in deos non ingemescenduni est? Orig. Contr. Cels. 
I 1 ct)9 (7vv9rjKa<; Kpvi38rjv irapa rci vevo/jLiafxeva iroLoviJikvoiV. 
Kaye 110. -5 

p. 110 1. 9 CONPVLSATIONIBVS c. 21 med. p. 70 1. 13 : a rare 
word. [See Thes. A. S.] 

IN QVAESTV esse Quintil. 

p. 110 11. 11—12 Cf c. 46 p. 130 1. 13 Christianus uero nec 
aedilitatem < affectat >. Kaye 342 — 3. Neumann i 1 24 9. 30- 

p. 110 1. 13 Minuc. 17 § 2 nec possis pulchre gerere rem 
ciuilem, nisi cognoueris hanc communem omnium mundi ciui- 
tatem. Lucian Hermotim. 22 — 24. Vit. Auct. 8. Plut. De 
Alex. fort. seu uirt. I 6 p. 329. In Philo the world is /u^eya- 
XoTToXi^, de Opificio Mundi | 4 fin. (i 4M.). De losepho 6 35 

382 TERTVLLIANI [p. 110 1. 13— 

pr. (ii 46 M.). Ep. ad Diogn. 5 p. 497^ /coo-yuoTroXtTr;? Diogenes 
in Diog. Laert. vi 63. 72. Philo quod omnis probus liber 20 
(I 468 M.). (de Antigenida) 445 M. Antonin. iv 4. x 15, Const. 
Apost. VII 39. Aristoph. Plut. 1151 7rarpl<; ydp eart irda 
5 fV av irpdrrr] ri<i ev. Epictet. III 24 § 66 (of Diog.) iTdaa yri 
TrarpU rjv eKeivw jjlovw, e^a'ipero<i S' ovBefiia. Deraocrit. fr. 
225 dvSpl ao(f)0) Trdaa jtj ^arij' '^/^fX^? ydp dyadrj<i irarpU 6 
^vjxrra^i K6a/jLo<i (Stob. Flor. XL 7). Sen. de Otio Sap. 4 § 1. 
ep. 28 § 4 n. [unpublished A. S.]. 48 § 3. 95 § 52. De Ira 

lo II 31 § 7. Clem. Alex. Strom. IV § 172 p. 642 P. 
p. 110 1. 14 Kaye 366—8 (De Spectac). 
RENVNTIAMVS cf c. 42 p. 122 1. 20 n. De Anima 35 p. 360 
1. 24 Wiss. tum si in diaholum transfertur aduersarii mentio, 
ex obseruatione comitante cum illo quoque moneris eam inire 

15 concordiam, quae deputetur ex fidei conuentione: pactus es 
enim renuntiare ipsi et pompae et angelis eius. conuenit inter 
Hos de isto. liaec erit amicitia obseruatione sponsionis, ne 
quid eius postea resumas ex his, quae eierasti, quae illi red- 
didisti, ne te ut fraudatorem, ut pacti transgressorem iudici deo 

20 obiciat. De Spectac. 1 p. 1 1. 19 Wiss. 2. 4 p. 6 1. 2 Wiss. 
cum aquam ingressi Christianam fidem in legis suae uerba 
profitemur, renuntiasse nos diabolo et pompae et angelis eius ore 
nostro contestamAir. quid erit summum atque praecipuum, in 
quo diabolus et pompae et angeli eius censeantur, quam idolo- 

25 latria?...igitur si ex idololatria umuersam spectaculorum para- 
turam constare constiterit, ijidubitate praeiudicatum erit etiam 
ad spectacida pertinere renuntiationis nostrae testimonium in 
lauacro, quae diabolo et pompae et angelis eius sint mancipata 
scilicet per idololatrian. 6 f (also renuntiatio). 13 pr. 24 p. 24 

30 1. 20 Wiss. hinc uel maxime intellegunt factum Christianum, de 
repudio spectacidorum. ad Mart. 2 non sollemnes nationum 
dies ipsa commixtione participas, non nidoi^ibus spurcis uer- 
beraris, non clamoribus spectaculorum, atrocitate uel furore uel 
impudicitia celebrantium caederis, non in, loca libidinum publica- 

2,5 rum ocidi tui impingunt. De Idolol. 6 pr. 15 f. bis. 24 fin. De 
Paenit. 5 m. 6 pr. De Cult. Fera. i 2 f. De Cor. Milit. 3 med. 
denique ut a baptismate ingrediar, ibidem, sed et aliquanto prius 
in ecclesia sub antistitis manu contestamur, nos renuntiare diabolo 

p. 110 1. 141 AP0L0GETICV8 38 383 

et pompae et angelis eius. Ambr. De Mysteriis 2 § 5 (li 326'') 
renuntiasti diabolo et operibus eius, mundo et luxuriae eius ac 
uoluptatibus. [Cf. De Sacr. i 2 § 5. A. S.] Coll. 3rd S. after 
Easter. omn. Saluian. vi § r31 — 33. Chrys. Hoin. in Coloss. 6 
c. 4 pr. (XI 369*^^^) opdre ovv /a^ tovto) oKw^ev fierd rb elTrelv 5 
dTrordao-ofiai ru) aarava. ib. p. 370^ (of baptism) elra 7va fir) 
rov 6(f)e(o<; aKovarj^i, eu^cco? SiSdaKet Xiyecv drrordaaoixai aot. 
Bailey Rituale Anglo-Cathol. 256—7. 26(S— 9. 282. Bingham 
bk XI c. 7 §§ 1 — 5. Const. Apost. vii 41 (or 42). Oresiesis 
Inst. Mon. (Bibl. Max. Patr. iv 96'^ mundo. 9-5^ saeculo). Lact. 10 
Diu. Instt. l 1 § 4 uniuersis uoluptatibus. Cypr. ep. 13 5 (508 
13 H.) saeculo renuntiaueramus cum baptizati sumus. De Habitu 
Virg. 7 (192 19) mundus..., cuius pompis et deliciis iam tum 
rennntiauinms, cum meliore transgressu ad deum uenimiis. 
cf. 6 (p. 191 23). De Lapsis 2 fin. (p. 238 21) saeculo. 8 (p 242 15 
24) diabolo et saecido. De Orat. Dominica 13 (p. 276 8) saecido. 
19 pr. (p. 281 3) qui saeculo renuntiaidmus et diuitias eius et 
ponipas fide gratiae spiritalis abiecinius. De Bono Patientiae 
12 f (p. 406 3) [cf also abrenuntio in Thes. A.S.]. Neumann i 
130 n. 9 sq. Minuc. 12 § 5. 37 § 11. Kaye 366 seq. Theophil. iii 20 
lo. Prudent. Contr. Symm. i 379 seq. Athenag. Suppl. 35 Tt? 
ovxi TOiv rrepl airovhrj'^ rds Bl ottXojv dywvia^i Kal Bid Oijpicov Kal 
jxdXiara ra^i v(fi v/m(ov dyo/j,eva<; e^et ; dXX. r)fj,ei<i TrXrjaiov 
elvai ro Ihelv rhv (fiovevofierov rov (nTOKrelvai vo/u.i^ovre<i dirrj- 
yopevaa/iev rd<i roiavra^ Oea^. ttw? ovv /jirjSe 6pcovre<;, Xva /ir/ 25 
eavroL<i dyo<i Kal /liaa/ia rrpoarpiy^ai/jbeda, (f)oveveiv 8vvd/x,e6a ; 
Lact. Diu. Instt. Vl 20 § 9 quae [spectacula publica] quoniam 
maxinia sunt irritamenta uitiorum et ad corrumpendos animos 
potentissime ualent, tollenda sunt nobis, quia non modo ad 
beatam uitani nihil conferunt, sed etiam nocent plurimum. § 27 30 
in scenis quoque nescio an sit corruptela uitiosior. nam et 
coniicae fabulae de stupris uirginum loquuntur aut amoribus 
meretricum et, quo niagis sunt eloquentes, qui fiagitia illa 
finxerunt, eo magis sententiaruni elegantia persuadent et facilius 
inJiaerent audientium menioriae uersus numerosi et ornati. § 28 35 
item tragicae historiae subiciunt oculis parricidia et incesta 
regum malorum et cothurnata scelera demonstrant. § 29 histri- 
■onum quoque impudicissimi niotus quid aliud nisi libidinem 

384 TERTVLLIANI [p. 110 1. 14— 

docent et instigant ? cet. § 33 uitanda ergo spectacula omnia 
non solum ne quid uitiorum pectorihus insideat, quae sedata 
et pacifica esse dehent, sed ne cuius nos uoluptatis consuetudo 
deleniat et a deo atqiie a honis operibus auertat. Cf. Epit. 63. 
5 On the word renuntiamus see also Blunt Ch. First 3 Cent. 
p. 39 n. 1. 104 n. 1. 105—6. supr. 6p. m. p. 24 1. 1. De Exhort. 
Castitatis 10 pr. carnalihus fructihis. Cypr. p. 426 8. 652. 11. 
Aug. Bapt. c. Donat. v 28 § 39. Symm. Pro Patre 6 fin. 8 fin. 
(ed. Seeck pp. 333—4). Saluian De Gubernat. Dei iii § 15 ter. 
lo Ronsch 380. Quintil. X 7 § 1 n. ciuilihus officiis. Sen. Plin. 
Suet. lustin. Apol. I 49 § 5 p. 85^ roU elScoXoo^; dTrerd^avTo. 

p. 110 1. 15 SVPERSTITIONE De Spect. 5 — 11. Lact. Diu. Instt. 

VI 20 § 34 na7n ludorum celehrationes deorum festa sunt, siqui- 

dem oh natales eorum uel templorum nouorum dedicationes sunt 

15 constituti. § 35 et primitus quidem uenationes, quae uocantur 

munera, Saturno attributae sunt, ludi autem scenici Libero, 

circenses uero Neptuno. paullatim tamen et ceteris dis idemjionos 

tribui coepit, singulique ludi numinibus eorum consecrati sunt, 

sicut Sisinnius Capito in libris spectaculorum docet. § 36 si 

2o quis igitur spectacidis interest, ad quae religionis gratia con- 

uenitur, discessit a Dei cultu et ad deos se contulit, quoruni 

natales et festa celebrauit. Epit. 63. [Cypr.] De Spect. 4 

quid scriptura interdixit? prohibuit enini spectari quod pro- 

hibet geri. omnia, inquam, ista spectaculorum genera damnauit, 

25 quando idololatriam sustulit ludorum omnium matreni, unde 

haec uanitatis et leuitatis monstra uenerunt. quod enim specta- 

culum sine idolo, quis ludus sine sacrificio, quod certamen non 

consecratum mortuo? Bingham xvi 4, 9 n. 43. 

CONCEPTAS c. 25 post med. p. 88 1. 34 nam etsi a Numa 
30 concepta est curiositas superstitiosa. 

p. 110 1. 16 PRAETERSVMVS aTT. elp. 

p. 110 1. 17 INSANIA De Spectac. 14. 16 pr. cum ergo furor 
interdicitur nobis, ah omni spectaculo aiferimur, etiam a circo, 
uhi proprie furor praesidet. adspice popidum ad id specta- 
35 culum iam cum furore uenientem. . .unius dementiae una uox est. 
cognosce dementiam de uanitate. Adu. Marc. i 27 p. 329 1. 4 Kr. 
quid non frequentas tam sollemnes uoluptates circi furentis et 
caueae saeuientis et scaenae lasciuientis ? Prud. Hamartigenia 

p. 110 1. 18] APOLOGETICVS 38 385 

361 — 2 nec equum uesania feruida circi auctoreni leuitatis 
habet rapidiue fragoris. Stat. Silu. iii 5, 14 certe lasciuia 
corde nulla nec aut rapidi niidcent te proelia circi aut intrat 
sensus clamosi turha theatri. [Add Aug. cat. rud. 16 § 25 plus 
aduersus se ipsos insanientes ipsi spectatores alter pro altero, 5 
quam illi quorum insaniam insani prouocant, sed insaniendo 
spectare desiderant. A. S.] Blunt Right Use 361. Marquardt 
III- 517 n. 2. 

p. 110 1. 18 INPVDICITIA THEATRi De Spectac. 18. 10 p. 12 
1. 7 Wiss. saepe censores nascentia cuni maxime theatra destrue- lo 
bant, moribus consulentes, quoruni scilicet periculum ingens de 
lasciuia prouideba.nt. Aug. ii De Symb. 2 § 1. Cypr. Ad 
Donat. 8. [Cypr.] De Spect. 3. 

ATROCITATE HARENAE De Spectac. 18, cited below. Salvian 
VI § 10 in spectaculis. . .priinum deliciarum genus est mori 15 
homines, impleri feraruni aluos humanis carnibus cum circum- 
stantium uoluptate et conspicientiuni laetitia: utque hoc fiat, 
orbis impendium est : adeuntur loca abdita, lustrantur inuii 
saltus, peragrantur siluae inexplicabiles et, ut deuorari possint 
homines, non licet naturam rerum habere aliquid secretum. 20 
Petron. 119 14 — 18 quaeritur in siluis auro fera et idtiuius 
Hanimon Afrorum excutitur, ne desit belua dente ad mortes 
pretiosa; fames premit aduena classes, tigris et aurata gradiens 
uectatur in aula, ut bibat humanum popido plaudente cruorem. 
Hieron. Vit.Hilarion. § 2 non circifuroribus, non harenae sanguine, 25 
non theatri luxuria delectabatur. Pelagius ep. ad Demetriad. 
Hier. xi 2 p. 17® (also in editions of Aug.) 14 ad consulatum 
eorum diuersae totius orbis prouinciae, ad quas domus uestrae 
potentia extenditur, peregrinas feras et ignota animalia transmi- 
serunt, quae crudelis harenae solum uel suo uel hominum sanguine 30 
cruentarent. Iren. I 6 § 3 Kal iirl Tracrav eopTdacfiov roiv iOvMV 
Tipyjnu et9 Ti/xrjv TOiv elh(i)\wv ytyvofMevrjv Trptorot auviacrtv, 009 
/X7;St T?}? Trapa 0eft> Kal dvdpco7rot<; fxe/jLiarj/xevr^q t/)? tcov 
drjpto/jLdxf^v K^oX p,ovop,a')(ia<; dvSpo(f)6vov 6ea<; dire-xjeaOat eviov^ 
avTwv. Cypr. ad Donat. 7. Neumann i 235 9 — 11. (Orig.). 35 
Chrys. Hom. 13 in 1 Cor. 4 (Hauerc). 

XYSTi xystici De Spectac. 30 p. 29 1. 9 Wiss. (Sueton. 
Galba 15) tunc xystici contemplandi, non in gymnasiis sed in 
M. T. 25 

386 TERTVLLIANI [p. 110 1. 18— 

igne...iaculati. ib. 18 p. 20 1. 3 Wiss. non probabis usquam 
uanos cursus et iaculatus et saltus uaniores; nusquam tibi 
uires aut iniuriosae aut uanae placebunt, sed nec cura facti- 
cii corporis, ut plasticam dei supergressa. et propter Graeciae 
5 otium altiles homines oderis. et palaestrica diaboli negotium est: 
primos homines diabolus elisit. ipse caestus colubrina uis est, 
tenax ad occupandum, tortuosa ad obligandum, liquida ad ela- 
bendum. Cyril. Hieros. catech. i 4 ap. Hau. 319 a. 

p. 110 1. 20 INIVRIA c. 40 p. 116 1. 24 haec utique non sine 

lo iniuria incolentium accidere potuerunt. c. 44 pr. illam iniuriam 
ciuitatis mdlus exj^endit, cum tot iu^ti impendimur. Otto on 
Iiistin. Apol. I c. 8 f. p. 57*^ el fxev ovv airiaTov rj ahvvarov 
TOVTo (firjaet Tt?, Trpo? r}/uid<i yBe r) TrXavrj eaTLv dW' ov 7rpo<i 
erepov, fie^pi<i ov epyo) ^r/hev dBoKovvTe^ eXey^o/jueda. 

15 Sl FORTE c. 16 med. p. 54 1. 8 n. nos, si forte, integrum et 
totum deum colimus. 20 f. 41. 43 pr. ad nat. I 15 p. 85 1. 23 
Wiss. De Pudic. 1 p. 222 1. 4 Wiss. De Paenit. 10. De Fug. 
in Persec. 2 p. m. De Cor. Milit. 5, Oehler p. 427 15 f 

p. 110 1. 21 SED REPROBAMVS cet. De Spectac. 28 pr. nostrae 

20 cenae, nostrae nuptiae nondum sunt, non possumus cum illis 
discumbere, quia nec illi nobiscum. 

p. 110 1. 22 EPicvREis De Spectac. 28 p. 27 1. 8 Wiss. deli- 
catus es, Ch7'istiane, si et in saeculo uoluptatem concupiscis, 
immo nimium stultus, si hoc existimas uoluptatem. philosophi 

25 quidam hoc nomen quieti et tranquillitati dederunt, in ea 
gaudent, in ea auocantur, in ea etiam gloriantur. tu mihi 
metas et scaenam et puluerem et harenam suspiras. Usener 
Epicurea p. 158 5. 


p. 110 1. 26 CORPVS Licin. in Lact. De Mort. Persec. 48 
30 quae omnia corpori Christianorum protinus per intercessionem 
tuaiyi ac sine mora tradi oportebit. et quoniam idem Christiani 
non ea loca tantum, ad quae conuenire consueuerimt, sed alia 
etiam habuisse noscuntur ad ius corporis eorum, id est ecclesi- 
arum non hominum singulorum, pertmentia, ea omnia lege qua 
35 superius comprehendimus, citra ullam prorsus ambiguitatem uel 

p. 110 1. 30] APOLOGETICVS 38, 39 387 

controuersiam isdem Christianis, id est corpori et comienticidis 
eorian, reddi quibus omnibus supradicto corpori 
Christianorum intercessionem tuam efficacissimam exhibere de- 
bebis. Cassian Inst. ll 5 p. 21 1. 24 Petsch. quinam modus 
cotidiano cultui per uniuersum frateyiiitatis corpus decerni 5 
deberet, tractaturi conueniunt. Arnob. i 16 corporis non 
nostri )( Christianos, 1 Cor. 10 12. Tzschirner [where ?j. 

p. 110 1. 28 MANV FACTA Ad Scap. 5 Arrius Antoninus in 
Asia cum persequeretur instanter, omnes illius ciuitatis Christiani 
ante tribunalia eius se nianu facta obtiderunt. Woodham cites 10 
Arnob. i 14 collatis precibus adoranius etc. Pont. Vit. Cypr. 16 
sic autem comitatui eius infinitus exercitus adhaerebat, quasi ad 
expugnandam mortem manu facta ueniretur. Liebenam Rom. 
Vereinswes. 271 n. 1. 

p. 110 1. 80 ORAMVS c. 30 — 33. Fragments of primitive 15 
liturgy Blunt First Three Centuries c. 2 e.g. p. 36. cf. De 
Orat. 22 [rather 23 ? A. S.]. Euseb. Vit. Const. iv 20. Athanas. 
Apol. ad Const. (i 1, 239^). Arnob, iv 36 nam nostra quidem 
scripta cur ignibus meruerunt dari? cur immaniter conuenti- 
cula dirui, in quibus summus oratur dens, pax cunctis et uenia 20 
postulatur magistratibus exercitibus regibus familiaribus mimi- 
cis, adhuc uitam degentibus et resolutis corporum uinctione, in 
quibus aliud auditur nihil nisi quod humanos faciat, nisi quod 
mites uerecundos pudicos castos familiaris coniviunicatores rei? 
Cyril. Hieros. Cat. 5 Myst. 8, Migne P. G. xxxiii p. 1116*^ 25 
TrapaKaXovfiev rov deov virep KOLvi)<i ro)v iKKXrjaicov elptjvrfi, 
virep rr}<i rov Koafiov ev(Tradeia<i, virep ^aatXewv, virep arpa- 
nwrtav Kal aviifid^^^^cov, virep ro)v iv da6eveiai<;, inrep royv 
KaraTTovovfjbevayv Koi dira^a7rX(o<; virep rrdvrcov ^orjOela-i oeo- 
fjievwv. Martyrium Sebastiani 23 § 85 p7-o salute tua semper 30 
Christum colui et pro statu orbis imperii Romani [^Romani orbis 
Migne P.L. xvii. A. S.] illum qui in caelis est semper adoraui. 
Dionys. Alex. in Euseb. Hist. Eccl. vii 1. Acta SS. Achatii 
(in Ruinart). ■ lustin. Apol. i c. 65 pr. p. 97° KOLvd'; evxd<i 
TTocrjao/xevoi virep re eavrcop Kal rov (fxonaaevroi; Kai aWojv 35 
Travraxoi) irdvrcxfv evrovcDi;. c. 14 p. 61° VTrep roiv e^OpMV 
evxo/Mevot. c. 17 p. 64'^ 66ev deov /jtev fjtovov TrpoaKvvovfxev, 
v/jilv 8e 7r/D09 rd dWa x^lpovre'=; vTrrjperov/Jiev, ^aaiXeU Kal 


388 TERTVLLIANI [p. 110L30— 

ap')(^ovTa<i avdpcoTroov 6/xo\oyouvT€<i Kal ev^ofJievoi pera Trj<i 
/3aaiXiKrj(; Bvvd/J,eco<; Kal aoocfipova tov XoyKTfMOV €')(^ovTa<i vfjbd<i 
evpedrivai. c. 79. 85—9. Dial. c. Tryph. c. 35 f. p. 254^*^ c. 96 f. 
p. S^S'^. Athenag. c. 37. Theophiliis iil 4. Tzschirner 307 sq. 
5 Bailey Rituale Anglo-Cath. 79. 80. 102. 174. Acta Cypriani 
p. 216 Ruinart. 

p. 110 1. 31 POTESTATIBVS luu. 10 100 D. Arnob. ii 32 

tyrannos dominos alias innumeras potestates. uulg. for i^ovaia. 

PRO RERVM QVIETE Kaye 20. Bailey Rituale Angl. 137 

lo (5th Sun. after Trin.). 98 prayer in war. Hennecke Aristid. 
ind. evTev^L^. 

PRO MORA FiNis c. 32 pr. quae nolumus experiri, ea dum 
precamur differri, Romanae diuturnitati fauemus. Kaye 348. 
Zahn V 304 n. 3. 

^5 p. 110 1. 32 lustin. Apol. i 23. 28. 67 Ka\ Trj tov i)\iov 
Xeyofievj) i)/jbepa iravTcov Kara TroA-ei? ^ a^ypov? /levovTwv eirl 
To avTo avveXevai<i yiveTai, Kal Ta ciTro/jiVTjfMovev/jbaTa twv 
airoaToXcov i/ Ta avyypd/ifxaTa tcov 7rpo(f>r}Twv dvayivcoaKeTat,, 
/jie)(pi<; ey)(copei. eWa iravaa/ievov tov dvayivcoaKovTO<i 6 

2o TrpoeaTcoii 8td \6yov Trjv vovOeaiav [cf. p. 112 1. 2 exhortationes. 
1 Tim. 4 13 TTpoaej^e tt/ dvayvcoaet, tt} TrapaKXi/aei, Trj 
SiBaaKaXia^ KOi 7rpoK\7/atv Trji tcov KaXcov tovtcov /li/itjaeco^ 
iroieiTat. Tert. De Praescr. Haer. 36, in the apostolical sees 
the apostles' writings are read. a reader ib. 41 f. Among 

25 Montanists Tert. De Anim. 9 p. 310 1. 24 Wiss. iain uero 
prout scripturae leguntur aut psalmi canuntur aut allocutiones 
proferuntur aut petitiones delegantur. Orig. Contr. Cels. Ill 50 
p. 142 r) Ti TovTOi<i irapair^i/a tov TrpciTTo/iev, oi Kat 8i dvayvcoa- 
fidTcov Kat Sid T(t}v et? avTa htrjyy^aecov 7rpoTpe7rovTe<i fiev eVt 

30 TT/v Tov %e6v Twv 6\cov evaejSetav. Bailey Rituale 6 — 8. 

p. 112 1. 3 CENSVRA DiviNA 1 Cor. 6 9ff. 1 Tim. 3 10. 
Bailey Rituale Anglo-Cath. 354 — 5 (commination). 

p. 112 1. 7 RELEGETVR Orig. Contr. Cels. iil c. 51 h>a tov<; fjtev 
Ta eTTipprjTa 7rpdTT0VTa<; d7roKco\vacoatv i/Ketv e^ri tov koiv6v 

35 avTcjov avWoyov. Cf. both indd. Cypr. abstinere. Kaye 342. 
PRAESiDENT Ad Vxor. I 7. De Monogam. 12. De Cor. 
Mil. 3. De Pudic. 14 p. 248 1. 21 Wiss. De ieiun. 17 p. 297 
1. 2 Wiss. Liebenam Rom. Vereinswes. 271 n. 5. Cypr. ep. 72 

p. 112 1. 11] APOLOGETICVS 39 389 

§ 1 fin. coepiscopos in Numidia praesidentes. id. De Ynitat. 
Eccl. 5 pr. quam unitateni tenere firniiter et uindicare debemus, 
maccime episcopi qiii in ecclesia praesidemus. Lucian Peregr. 11. 
cf. Keim's Celsus 148 n. lustin. Apol. i 67, 7rpoarraT7}<;. cf. 
Otto on lustin. Apol. l 66 p. 97*^ tm TrpoearcoTi tmv dBeXcfxiSv. 5 
cf. p. 98'\ Lord King Prim. Church p. 61 (citing Cave Primi- 
ti\'e Christianity pt. 3 c. 5 p. 379) says that Firmilian in Cypr. 
ep. 75 § 7 fin. is used to expound this place: quando omnis 
potestas et gratia in ecclesia constituta sit, ubi praesident 
maiores natu qui et baptizandi et manum imponendi et ordi- 10 
nandi possident potestatem : 'By these approved elders, bishops 
and presbyters must necessarily be understood.' Harnack on 
Hermas Vis. 11 4 | 3 {irpoi.crTdfx.evot. 7rpoeaTco<;. 7rpoaTdTr]<i. 
praesides. praepositi). 

SENIORES Kaye 208 seq. 220. 236. 334 seq. presbyteri = 15 
episcopi Ziegler's Irenaeus 141. 

HONOREM cet. De Praescr. Haer. 43 fin. promotio emerita. 

p. 112 1. 8 NON PRETio against simony Can. Apostol. 29 
with Beveridge p. 465 Cotel. 

TESTiMONio Bingham iv 3 4. 20 

p. 112 1. 9 ARCAE c£ Bhmt First Three Centuries 113—5. 
Beveridge on Can. Apostol. 3 p. 456 Cotel. lulian. ep. 49 
p. 429*^ ovBe dno^XeTTOfjbev, &)? fxdXiaTa ttjv ddeoTTjTa avv- 
Tjv^rjaev 7] irepl T0v<i ^evov^ (^Lkavdpcorria Kal ?; Trepl ra? 
T(Z0a9 Tcov veKpcbv TrpofxrjOeta Kal rj ireTrXaafievi] aefjivoTrjf; 25 
KaTa Tov jBiov (to Arsacius high priest of Galatia). Misopogon 
p. ^^S^* vvvl hh vficov eKaaTo^i eTriTpeirei fiev tij yvvaiKi rrdvTa 
eK(f)epeiv evhoOev el<i Tov<i VaXiXaiov^;, Kal Tpecjiovaai dTTo tcov 
Vfxerepwv eKelvai TOV<i 7revr]Ta<; 7roXv t?}? dOeoTrjTO^ epyd^ovTat 
Oavfia 7rpo<i tov<; to)v toiovtcov 8eofievov<i. Fragmentum 30 
Epistulae p. 305*"^. Gaius in dig. iii 4 1 1 (quoted in note on 
p. 112 1. 17). 


p. 112 1. 11 STIPEM De ieiun. 13 p. 872 1. 9. Iu.stin. Apol. 
I c. 67 p. 99^ 01 ev7ropovvTe<i he Kal ^ovXofxevoi KaTO, Trpoalpeaiv 35 
eKaaro<i ti-jv eavTOV o ^ovkerai hihcoai, Kal ro avWeyo/xevov 
7rapd T(p TrpoeaTCOTi aTTOTideTai, Kal avTO<i eTTiKovpel opcf^avol^ 
Te Kal •)(r]pai<i, Kal TOt? Sici voaov rj 8i dWrjv alnav \ei7ro/j,evoi<i, 

390 TERTVLLIANI [p. 112 1. 11— 

Kal Tot? €v SecTyLtot? oval Kol rols TrapeTriSrj/xoc^ ovai ^evoi^, Kal 
a7rA,co9 Trdat rot<; ev xpela ovat KyBefxcov ylverai. c. 14 p. 61*^ 
a e^o/jtev et? koivov (^epovre^ Kal iravrl Seofxevo) Koivcovovvr6<i. 
c. 67 pr. p. 98*^ koI ot €')(^ovTe<; Toi<i \ei7rofjtevoi<i 'ndatv eirt- 
5 Kovpov/jtev. c. 13 pr. p. 60'' toi<; Beofievot<; rrpoa^epetv. Dial. 
c. Tryph. c. 47 p. 266'' Kotvwvelv dTrdvnov. Cypr. De Opere 
et Eleemos. 15 locuples et diues dominicum celebrare te credis 
quae corhan omnino non 7'espicis, quae in dominicum sine 
sacrificio uenis, quae par^tem de sacrificio quod pauper obtulit 
lo sumis? Mosheim Dissert. ad Hist. Eccl. vol. ii (Alt. 1743) 
p. 36 seq. Uhlhorn Die christl. Liebesthatigkeit 1882 seq. 

3 vols. Blunt First Three Centuries 27—31 (N.T. and early 
Church). Cf. reXr) Rom. 13. 7. Heinrici Stud. u. Kr. 1881 
520 sq. 

15 MENSTEVA DIE Bingham V 4 2 and 3 salaries paid monthly : 
mensurna diuisio Cypr. ep. 34 4 (p. 571 2), 39 5 (p. 585 2). 
De Opere et Eleemos. 9 — 13. 15. Allard Les dernieres per- 
secutions (1887) 39 40. Henzen 6086 (=Dessau 7212 = CIL 
XIV 2112). omn. dig. xlvii 22. 3 1. Euseb. Hist. Eccl. vi 43 

20 I 11. Liebenam Vereinswesen pp. 40 41 172 320, 11. 

p. 112 1. 14 POTACVLIS elsewhere only De Cam. Resur. 

4 p. 30 1. 22 Kr. 

VORATRINIS in Amm. Cf. Liebenam 41. 262. 
DISPENSATVR cet. Cf. Cypr. ep. 72 § 5. 5 § 1 quantum ad 

25 sumptus suggerendos, siue illis qui gloriosa uoce dominum 
confessi in carcere sunt constituti, siue his qui pauperes et 
indigentes lahorant et tamen in domino perseuerant, j)eto nihil 
desit, cum sunimula omnis quae r^edacta est illic sit apud clericos 
distrihuta propter eiusmodi casus, ut haberent plur^es unde ad 

30 necessitates et pressuras singulorum operari possint. lustin. 
Apol. I 67 (cited on 1. 11). [Greek inscr. in Ramsay Luke 
the Physician p. 352. A. S.] Blunt Right Use 315. Charge 
against the presidents, De leiun. 13 p. 291 1. 28 Wiss. (avarice) 
17 p. 296 1. 18 ff. Wiss. (ghittony). 

35 p. 112 1. 15 HVMANDISQVE Ad Scap. 3 pr. (i 543 2) sub 
Hilariano praeside cum de areis sepulturarum nostrarum 
adclamassent : areae non sint! Cypr. ep. 8 § 3 siue uiduae 
siue thlibomeni qui se exhibere non possunt siue hi qui in 

p. 112 1. 16] APOLOGETICVS 39 391 

carceribus siint siue exclusi de sedibus suis utique habere debent 
qui eis ministrent : sed et catecundni adprehensi injirmitate 
decepti esse non debebunt, ut eis subueniatur. et quod maadmum 
est, corpora martyrum aut ceterorum si non sepeliantur, grande 
periculum imminet eis quibus incumbit hoc opus. ep. 12 § 1 5 
corporibus etiam omnium, qui etsi torti non sunt, in carcere 
tamert glorioso eocitu mortis excedunt, impet-tiatur et uigi- 
lantia et cura propensior. Bingham xxiii 3, 7. Neumann 
I 111 sq. 

PVERIS AC PVELLIS orphans taught a trade and supplied 10 
with tools (Const. Apost. IV 2), not, as Gibbon said, foundlings 
(Blunt 332 — 7). The childless to adopt orphans (Const. Apost. 
IV 1). Orphans, Zahn Forschungen zur Gesch. des NTlichen 
Kanons v 227. Harnack on Herm. Mand. viii 10 pp. 100 — 1. 
p. 112 1. 15 PARENTIBVS cf. Hennecke Aristides ind. ^?7pa. 15 
p. 112 1. 16 Ad Mart. 1 init. inter carnis alimenta, benedicti 
martyres designati, quae uobis et domina mater ecclesia de 
uberibus suis et singuli /ratres de opibus suis propriis in 
carcerem subministrant, capite aliquid et a nobis quod faciat 
ad spyiritum quoque educandum. ib. 2 ipsam interim con- 20 
uersationem saecidi et carceris comparemus, si non plus in 
carcere spiritus acqiiirit, quam caro amittit: inimo et quae 
iusta sunt caro non amittit per curam ecclesiae et agapen 
fratrum, et insuper quae semper utilia fidei, spiritus adipi- 
scitur. De leiun. 12 p. 2!)0 1. 27 Wiss. plane vestrum est 25 
iyi carcerihus popinas exhibere martyrihus incertis, ne con- 
suetudinem quaerant, ne taedeat uitae, ne noua abstinentme 
disciplina scandalizentur. Story of Pristinus who recanted 
on the first application of torture, having been gorged before 
with meat and wine. lulian. Misopogon 363* (cited on p. 112 3° 
1. 9). fragm. ep. p. 305^" (Hercher i 391 13 sq.) eVeiS^ 
jap ol/ avve^r] toli? 7rev7]Ta<i dfA.e\elcrdat Trapopwfievouf; xtto 
TOiv lepeoiv, 01 ^vaae^el'? TaXiXalot Karavoi^aavTe^; eTredevro 
Tavrr) Trj ^iXavdpwTriq, KnX ro x^ipiarov rwv epyoyv Sia rov 
BoKovvTo^ Toiv iTTiTTjBeu/jidTcov eKpaTvvav. ep. 49 p. 429' re- 35 
commended for imitation the cf^iXavOpo^Trla of Christians. 
Kaye 132. Neumann i 230 3 4. Christian hospitality 
Hennecke Aristides ind. |ei/09. Zahn Forschungen v 301. 

392 TERTVLLIANI [p. 112 1. 16— 

Const. Apost. V 1 pr. and (prisoners) i col. 829^ v 2. Matth. 
25 43 — 4. When Peregrinus Proteus was in prison (Lucian 
de Morte Peregr. 12, 13) the Christians endeavoured to 
procure his release ; when that failed, from early dawn widows 
5 and orphans might be seen waiting about the prison, oi iv 
reXei bribed the watch and spent the night with him. elra 
oelTTva TTOiKiXa elaeKo/biL^eTo Kal Xoyoi lepol avrwv eXeyovTO. 
13, crowds came from the cities of Asia with rich presents : 
ev ^pa-^^^el yap d(f)ei8ovai irdvTwv Their first lawgiver per- 

lo suaded them that they were all brethren. 

p. 112 1. 17 METALLIS c. 12 p. 44 1. 14 n. in metalla dam- 
namur. c. 27 p. 92 1. 30 n. Const. Apostol. iv 9. Euseb. 
Hist. Eccl. IX 1 § 10. De Mart. Palaest. 7 § 2 (Phaeno). 8 § 1 
(Thebais) § 13. 11 § 6 (Cilicia) Aug. Serm. 178 4 (v 850). 

15 Bingham XV 1, 2 n. 13 (v p. 221 col. 2). 

IN INSVLIS supra c. 12 p. 44 1. 15 n. iti insulas rele- 
gamur. c. 1 p. 4 1. 11 ohsessam uooiferantur ciuitatem, in 
agris, in castellis, in insulis Ghristianos. De Pudic. 22 p. 271 
1. 19 Wiss. luu. 1 73 n. Friedlander iii^ 631 n. 10. Mines, 

2o Dionys. in Euseb. Hist. Eccl. iv 23 ^ 10 to the Romans, e^ 
dpxv^ yo.p vfjuv eOo^ eaTi tovto, 7rdi'Ta<i fxev dSe\(f)ov'i 7roiKiXQ)<i 
evepyeTelv. Const. Apostol. VIII 9 ev jxeTdWoa Se dhe\^ol<i 
vTrdp^y^ovaiv eTn^^^^oprjyovvra^ 81 wv ireixireTe dp^yfjdev ecjyohicov. 
Hippolyt. Haer. ix 12 (in Sardinia). dig. XLViii 19 28 pr. 

25 proxima morti poena metalli coercitio. Neumann i 77 — 79. 
Cassian. coll. xviii 7 8. Rufin. Hist. Eccl. iv 23 p. 230. 

IN CVSTODIIS Ad Vxor. II 4 quis in carcerem ad osculanda 
uincula martyris reptare patietur '^ Ad Mart. i 2 (Hau.). 
Aug. Breuiculus Coll. cum Donat. iii 25 quidam etiam in 

30 eadem epistula facinerosi arguebantnr et fisci dehitores, qui 
occasione persecutionis uel care7-e uellent onerosa vmltis dehitis 
uita, uel purgare se putarent et quasi ahluere facinora sua, 
uel certe acquirere pecuniam et in custodia delicHs perfrui 
de ohsequio Ghristianorum. Cf Acta Saturnini in Baluze Misc. 

35 I" § 18 [=Migne P.L. viii 701^ A. S.]. Prisoners Zahn For- 
schungen v 228 (Aristid. Syi\ 15 8) 224. 227. Cyprian sent 
£800 (sestertia centum milia numorum) to the Numidian bishops 
for the redemption of Christian slaves, collected from his clergy 

p. 112 1. 23] APOLOGETICVS 39 393 

and laity (ep. 62 § 4). Euseb. Hist. Eccl. IX 10 = Rufin. Hist. 
Eccl. IX 10 p. 540. Care for prisoners Bingham xx(?) 2 3n. 
68 sq. Const. Apostol. iv 9. v 2. lustin. [Apol. i 67 § 5. (?) A. S.]. 
Business of deacons. cf Deutscher Merkur 1889 313. Acta 
Perpetuae 3. Lucian De Morte Peregrini 12. 13 (see p. 112 5 
1. 16 n.). 

p. 112 1. 19 NOTAM INVRIT De Cult. Fem. i 4 pr. nulla 
nunc muliehri pompae nota inusta sit. Lact. De Mort. Persec. 
3 etiam mortuo notam inureret (Woodham). Orig. Contr. Cels. 
III 30. 10 

p. 112 1. 20 VT INVICEM SE DiLiGANT Friedlander IIF 642 
n. 3. 643 n. 1. Minuc. 9 § 2 (cited below). 

p. 112 1. 21 Kaye 131. 

p. 112 1. 23 FRATRES ad Scap. 1 ita enim disciplina iube- 
mur diligere inimicos quoque et orare pro eis qui nos perse- 15 
quuntur, ut haec sit perfecta et propria bonitas nostra, non 
communis. amicos enim diligere omnium est, inimicos autem 
solorum Ghristianorum. Scorpiac. 1 p. 145 1. 16 Wiss. haeccine 
pati homines innocentes ? ut putes fratrem aut de melioribus 
ethnicum. De Yirgin. Velandis 2 cum quibus < psychicis > ^'^ 
communicamus ius pacis et nomen fraternitatis ; una nobis et 
illis fides, unus Deus, idem Christus, eadem spes, eadem lauacri 
sacramenta, semel dixei'im, una ecclesia sumus. luu. 5 135 n. 
cf Neumann i 140 n. 3 sq. 237 n. 1. 243 n. 8. Luc. Peregr. 
13^^. Aristid. ed. Hennecke ind. d8e\(f>6<;. Liebenam rom. 25 
Vereinswes. 273. Arnob. iv 36 fin. (germanitas). Arn. iun. 
in Ps. 133. Clem. Alex. Strom. 11 c. 9 § 41 p. 450 P. f/ ^al 
d8€X(f)ov<; Tous' Tft) avTw Xoyo) dvayei>v7]devTa<i Trpoaayopevo- 
jxev. Minuc. 9 § 2 jmssiin etiam inter eos quaedam libidinum 
religio miscetur ac se promisce appellant fratres et sorores, ut 30 
etiam non insolens stuprum intercessione sacri nominis fiat 
incestum. Athenag. Suppl. 11 p. 11*^ asks what philosophers 
oi)T(i) iKKeKaOapfievoi eicrl ra<i ■x/rup^a? w? dvrl tov ixicrelv Tov<i 
€'x^dpoi)<; dya-ndv, Kal dvTi rov, to fjieTpicoTaTov, KaK(a<i dyopeveiv 
Toi)? 7rpoKaTdp^avTa<; XoiSopia'; eijXoyeiv, Kal inrep twv eiri- 35 
^ov\€v6vT(ov el<; to ^rjv 7rpo(Tev-)(^eaOac ; ib. 12 p. 12"^ H'^XP'' 
ToaovTov he (pLXavOpcoTr^TaTOi ware fjirj jjlovov arepyeiv toi/? 
(})l\ov<;. 32 p. 36'. Cypr. ad Demetrian. 25. lustin. Apol. i 14 

394 TERTVLLIANI [p. 112 1. 23- 

p. 6P. 39 p. 78". 57 p. 91^ Dial. c. Tryph. 85 p. 254'\ 96 p. 328^ 
133 p. 363". Julian in a letter to the Galatian priest Arsacius, 
Sozomen Hist. Eccl. V 16 /jidXtara rrjv aOeorr^Ta (Tvvrjv^rjaev 
rj irepl rov<; ^evov<i <pi,\av6pco7ria. Hier. Adu. Heluid. 15 

5 affectu fratres dici, qui in duo scinditur, in spiritale et in com- 
mune. in spiritale, quia omnes Ghristiani fratres uocamur. 
Chrysost. Hom. 9 ad pop. roU af^eX^ot? dvajjbtxGei^i. Fulbert 
Carnot. Ep. 5 (1) Migne P. L. CXLI ]96^ pro aedificandis 
fratrihus adhuc infirmis. Albaspinaei Obseru. in Optat. De 

lo Schism. Donat. I 1 pr. clarissimi fratres. iv 2. Acta 
Saturnini etc. 14 in Optat. [ed. Dupin, Paris, 1702. A. S.] 
p. 154 col. 2 ad haec proconsul, ' vis ' inquit, ' ire cum Fortunatiano 
fratre tuo ? ' respondit, ' nolo, quia Christiana sum, et illi sunt 
fratres mei qui Dei praecepta custodiunt.' Lact. Diu. Instt. v 

15 15 § 2 nec alia causa est, cur nobis inuicem fxitrum nomen 
impertiamus, nisi quia pares esse nos credimus. ib. c. 6 § 12. 8 
§ 6. 22 § 7. VI 10 §§ 4—8. Epit. 65 § 3. [Euseb. Emisen.] 
Homil. 4. Gottfr. Arnold De fratrum appellatione. Buddei 
Sel. lur. Nat. et Gent. p. 753. 

20 p. 112 1. 27 Eph. 4 3 sq. Ep. Petr. ad lac. 1 2 p. 608 Cotel 
eh deo^, et9 v6p,o<i, jjtia eA,7rt9. 

p. 112 1. 29 AD VNAM LVCEM c. 37 p. 108 1. 20. ad Mart. 3 
sudore omnia constant, ne corpora atque animi eocpauescant de 
umhra ad solem. De Spectac. 17 p. 19 1. 8 Wiss. ipsae illae 

25 pudoris sui interemptrices de gestibus suis ad lucem et populum 
expauescentes, semel anno erubescant. Optat. I 8 nemo niiretur 
eos me appellare fratres, qui non possunt non esse fratres. est 
quidem nohis et illis spiritalis una natiuitas, sed diuersi sunt 
actus. Archiv f lat. Lexik. i 507 {eccp. also with super 

30 c. abl.). 

p. 112 1. 32 DIRIMIT Cassian Coll. xxiv 26 fratrum diri- 
mit caritatem contentiosa diuisio. Chrysolog. Serm. i (Migne 
P.L. Lii ISo'^) ceterum facidtaies unitatem scindunt, fraterni- 
tatem separant, cognationem spargunt, parentum perdunt et 

35 uiolant caritatem. Sen. ep. 88 § 11 quid mihi prodest scire 
agellum in partes diuidere, si nescio cum fratre diuidere ^ 

p. 112 1. 34 INDISCRETA cet. c. 9 p. 34 1. 30. Kaye 344. 
Ep. ad Diognet. 5 § 7 rpdrrel^av Kotvrjv irapariOevrat aXk ov 

p. 114 ]. 5] APOLOGETICVS 39 395 

KOLTTjv (so Maranus, Overbeck, Draseke). Chastity of Christians 
lustin. Apol. I 37 (general morality c. 17). 

p. 112 1. 35— p. 114 1. 1 De Patient. 16 p. 23 1. 23 Kr. the 
devil teaches his foUovvers patience, quae mariios dote uenales aut 
lenociniis negotiantes uxorum potestatibus suhicit. DeCult. Fem. 5 
1 1 1 , Cypr. De Habitu Virg. 4 etc. Chastity of Christians. Athenag. 
31_34 pp. 35—37. Minuc. 31 § 5 )( c. 2 supra p. 6 1. 27. In his 
tr. De leiunio 17 p. 296 1. 24 Wiss. sed maioris est agape, quia 
per hanc adulescentes tui cum sororibus dormiunt. appendices 
scilicet gulae lasciuia atque luxuriae )( cc. 7. 8 supr. cf Kaye lo 
403 — 4. Galen. (Arabice in Abulfeda Hist. anteislamitica ed. 
Fleischer p. 109) homines illi, qui Christiani uocantur, quod 
mortem contemnunt, id quidem omnes ante oculos hahemus ; 
item quod uerecundia quadam ducti ah usu rerum uenereariim 
ahhorrent. sunt enim inter eos et feminae et uiri qui per totam 15 
uitam a concuhitu ahstinuerint. Schwegler Montan. 127 sqq. 
Semisch lustin. i 198 sqq. Staudlin Sittenlehre lesu li 114 sqq. 
432 sqq. 

p. 114 1. 3 socRATis Clem. Recogn. x 5. Saluian. vii § 101 
uideamus ergo quas Socrates de pudicitia leges sanxerit et quas 20 
illi, de quihus loquimur. uxorem, inquit Socrates, propriam 
nullus haheat, matrimonia enim cunctis dehent esse communia. . . . 
§ 103 nec suffecit sapientissimo, ut quidam aiunt, philosopho 
docere hoc, nisi ipse fecisset ; uxorem enim suam alteri uiro 
tradidit, 'scilicet sicut etiam Romanus Cato, id est alius Italiae 25 
Socrates. ecce quae sunt et Romanae et Atticae sapientiae 
exempla : omnes penitus maritos, quantum in ipsis fuit, lenones 
uxorum suarum esse fecerunt. sed uicit tamen Socrates, qui de 
hac re et lihros condidit et memoriae haec pudenda mandauit. 
plus hahet unde gloriari sihi praeceptis suis possit, quantum ad 30 
doctrinam suam pertinet, lupanar fecit e mundo. 

CATONis Quintil. x 5 § 13 n. Elmenhorst on Arnob. i 64 
p. 58. Hier. c. louin. ii 36. Aug. c. lul. v § 46. So Agetus 
cedes his wife to Aristo, Herodot. vi 62. 

p. 114 1. 5 CREANDORVM Spartian Pesc. Nig. 6 § 6 rei uene- 35 
riae nisi ad creandos liheros prorsus ignarus. [Ambr.] in 1 Cor. 
7 5 si enim causa filiorum creandorum ducitur uxor, non nml- 
tum tempus concessum uidetur ad ipsum itsum. 

396 TERTVLLIANI [p. 114 1. 6— 

p. 114 1, 6 FACILE Hor. Sat. il 5 75 scortator erit : caue te 
roget, ultro Penelopen facilis potiori trade. 

p. 114 1. 7 LENONES cet. Minuc. 39 § 7 philosophorum 
supercilia conternnimus, quos corruptores et adulteros nouimus 
5 et tyrannos et semper aduersus sua uitia facundos. Lactant. 
Diu. Instt. III 15. IV 24. 

p. 114 1. 8 CONVIOLATVR Herm. Vis. i § 3 (p. 6 1 Hilg.). 
Prudent. Psychomach. 398. wepl ar. vi 56. 

p. 114 1. 11 MEGARENSES Hier. ep. 123. cf. 129, 4. Frazers 
lo Pausan. vol. ii p. 538. 

p. 114 1. 13 STIPVLAM ad nat. i 20 p. 92 1. 26 Wiss. auferte 

stipulam de oculo uestro, aut < trabem > de oculo uestro, ut 

stipulam de alieno extrahatis. Wetst. on Matth. 7 3 — 4. 

Plin. ep. VI 1 (?) [viii 22 § 1 might be cited. A. S.] ad Trai. 

15 117(?), dig. XXX. 122(?), xxxv 1, 73 (?). 

p. 114 1. 14 RVCTANTIBVS c. 9 p. m. 

ACESCIT Sidon. carm. 5 340 ganeaque perenni pressus 
acescentem stomachus non explicat aurani. 

p. 114 1. 15 SALIIS Marquardt III^ 232 n. pr. 
20 p. 114 1. 16 DECIMARVM c. 14 p. 48 1. 7. 

p. 114 1. 17 Preller-Jordan Rom. Myth. ii 383 n. 3. 
p. 114 1. 18 FVMVM Apul. Apol. 57 fin. est quidem Crassus iste 
summus heluo et omnis fumi non imperitus, sed profecto pro 
studio hihendi, quo solo censetur, facilius ad eum Alexandriam 
25 uini aura quam fumi perueniret. 

SPARTEOLi fireraen. Sen. ep. 64 § 1 maior fumus...ex 
lautorum culinis terrere uigiles solet. 

p. 114 1. 19 CENA NOSTRA Bingham xv 7, 8 and 10. Kaye 
pp. 403—4. De Orat. 28 p. 198 1. 30 Wiss. hanc [hostiam i.e. 
^o oratio7ie77i] agapen coronatam...deducere ad dei alta^^e dehei7ius. 
Aug. contr. Faust. xx 20 agapes nostrae pauperes pascunt siue 
frugibus, siue cai^nihus. Serm. 178 4 (v. 850 f.). Hier. [ad 
Eustoch.] epist. 22 § 32 cum ad agapen uocauerint, praeco con- 
ducitur. Vit. S. Ludgeri 32 i^mitat ad agapen ege^ites ac miseros. 
35 The word in ad Martyr. 2 Oehler. De Bapt. 9 p. 208 1. 23 Wiss. 
De leiun. 17 (cited in note on p. 112 1. 35 ff.). Cypr. p. 107 5. 
p. 112 14. Cassian Collat. xvi 14. xxiv 12. Warnefr. De Gest, 
Longobard. i c. 26 signat adesse dapes agapes, sed liuidus obstat. 

p. 114 1. 29] APOLOGETICVS 39 397 

Orig. cont. Cels. I § 1 p. 4 Kal ^ovXerai. hia^aXelv rr)v koXov- 
fievTjv dydTTTjv XpicTTcavcov. In Spanish caridad )( epavo^, 
collecta, coUecticia, sijmholica. Conc. Gangr. Can. 11 el ri<i 
Karacfipovoirj rcov eK Triareoj^ d'ydrra<i ttoiovvtwv Kal Sid rifirjv 
rov Yivpiov av^/KaXovvrwv rov<i d8eX(j)ov<i, Kal firj ideXot 5 
avjKocvcoveiv ral<; KXijaeat Scd ro e^evreXi^ecv ro 'ycvofievov, 
dvddefia eara> : si quis despicit eos, qui Jideliter agapas {id est 
conuiuia paicperihus) exhihent et propter honorem domini con- 
uocant fratres et noluerit communicare huiuscemodi uocationi- 
hus,...anathema sit. [Turner, Eccl. Occid. Monum. ii p. 196 fF. 10 
A. S.] Chrys. Hom. 27 in 1 Cor. pr. p. 240^ Cypr. Testim. 
III 3. Ducange s.v. agape, Renan Saint-Paul 226 sq. Marc- 
Aurele 519 n. 3. 

p. 114 1. 22 REFRiGERio infr. c. 49 p. 140 1. 22. Hieron. praef. 
§ 1 ad reg. S. Pachomii, speaking of Paula (ll 53'') multorum 15 
incisa illius morte refrigeria suspirarem. After death inscr 
(Kraus Realencyckl. des christl. Alterth. ii 684 sq.). 

p. 114 1. 23 PARASiTl Valerian Episc. Hom. 10, of parasites 
tweaked by the nose, having their seat drawn from under 
them etc, tanta est igitur lihido uiuendi, tct putent niiseri 20 
nicllum sine laetitia transire conuiuium, nisi in cihos uerterint 
aut icestimenta corporum aut ministeria poculorum. Names of 
parasites, Gnatho, Saturio, Artotrogus, peniculus (sweeping the 
table clean), curculio. Herald. Digress. i c. 21 (p. 237), cites 
De Patient. 16 p. 23 1. 20 Kr. nam ict in isto quoque domino 25 
diaholus aemiclaretur, quasi plane ex pari...docuit et suos 
patientiam p7'opriam, illam dico,...quae uentris operarios con- 
tumeliosis patrociniis suhiectione lihertatis gulae addicit. luu. 
5, 171 n. 

p. 114 1. 24 FAMVLANDAE c£ c. 21, p. 70 1. 27. 30 

p. 114 1. 26 ORDINEM De Exhort. Cast. 7. De Monogam. 11. 

p. 114 1. 28 viLiTATis Apul. Flor. i 7 3 morum. Amm. xiv 
6 § 2 (a disgraceful story). Woodh. 

p. 114 1. 29 & 35 ORATio grace before and after meat. Bas. 
ep. 2 6 (lll 74) ev^al irpo t^? rpo(f>rj<i, evj^^al fierd rpo(j}r]v. 35 
Hieron. (ad Eustoch.) epist. 22 § 35, 4 post hoc concilium soluitur 
et unaquaeqice decuria cum suo parente pergit ad mensas. . .§ 37, 1 
nec cibus a te sumatur nisi oratione praemissa etc. Lasaulx 

398 TERTVLLIANI [p. 114 1. 29- 

Studien 151 n. 67. Orig. Contr. Cels. viii 33 fin. Herald. on 
Amob. IV pp. 151 — 2. 

p. 114 1. 29 — 30 QVANTVM cet. Clem. Alex. Paedagog. ii 4. 
Vit. S. Postumii [Pachomii] [c. 6 = Migne P. L. LXXiii 432^ 
5 A. S.] panevi etiam suum ad mensuram accipiebat, et aquam 
ad mensuram bibebat ; numquam pleno uentre a mensa recessit. 
Ambr. (?) [probably De exc. fr. Satyri l § 56 non umquam 
accuratioribus epulis aut congestis ferculis delectatus est, nisi 
cum amicos rogaret : quantum naturae satis esset, non quantum 

lo uoluptati superesset, requirens. A. S.] 

p. 114 1. 31 Ad Vxor. Il 4 quis nocturnis conuocatiovibus, si 
ita oportuerit, a latere sno adimi libenter ferat ? Hieron. (ad 
Laetam) epist. 107 § 10, 1 sic comedat,. . .ut statim post cibum 
possit legere orare psallere. (Ad Furiam) epist. 54 § 11, 1 

15 quando comedis, cogita, quod statim tibi orandum, ilico legen- 
dum sit. (Ad Eustoch.) epist. 31 § 3, 3 ita tibi semper come- 
dendum est, ut cibum et oratio sequatur et lectio. Kaye p. 404 
n. 5. 

p. 114 1. 33 POST Scorpiace 11 (p. 170 1. 22 Wiss.) with 

2o Oehlers note. 

AQVAM De Orat. 13 quae ratio est, manibus quidem ablu- 
tis, spiritu uero sordente, orationem obire, quando et ipsis 
manibus spiritales munditiae sint necessariae ...? hae sunt 
uerae munditiae, non qiias plerique superstitiose curant, ad 

25 omnem orationem, etiam cum a lauacro totius corporis ueniunt, 
aquam sumentes. id cum scrupulosius percontarer et rationem 
requirerem, comperi commemorationem esse Pilatum manus 
abluisse in domini deditione. nos dominum adoramus, non dedi- 
mus, immo et aduersari debemus deditoris exemplo nec propterea 

30 manus abluere, nisi ob aliquod conuersationis humanae inquina- 
mentum conscientiae causa lauemus. In the panegyric on 
church-building addressed to Paulinus bp of Tyre (Euseb. 
Hist. Eccl. X 4 § 40) the atrium was surrounded with porches, 
lepwv 8' ivravBa KaOapaicov eTidei avfx^oXa, Kpjjva^ avTiKpv<; 

35 et9 TrpoacoTTOv e7ri<rKevd^(ov rov veoi, rroWw to) ■)(^evixari rov 
vd/u.aro'; rolf 7repi/3oXQ)v lepwv etrl ra eao) Trpolovat rrjv dirop- 
pv^iv 7rapexop'eva<;. called ^peap Socr. Hist. Eccl. II 38 (Migne 
P. G. Lxvii 3.S2^); cantharus Paulin. Nol. ep. 32 (ad Sulp. Seu.) 

p. 114 ]. 36] APOLOGETICVS 39 399 

§ 15 p. 290 1. 3 Hartel [see also his index. A. S.]. Chrys. Hom. 
73 in lo., t. viii (Paris, 1836) 3 p. 496 (= ^^S'^), complains of those 
who on entering the temple washed their hands only, not their 
hearts, and in Ps. 140, v (Paris, 1835) p. 520 ( = 431'*) urges men 
to cleanse the hands rather by alms, by love and charity to the 5 
needy: if you are loath to raise in prayer hands unwashed, how 
much more hands stained by sin. Praying with unwashed 
hands is not so offensive as praying with an impure mind. 
Custom (which led to holy water stoups) borrowed from the 
heathen, who retained it in Julian's time. Sozom. Hist. Eccl. 10 
VI 6 (Migne P. G. lxvii 1307°). Bahr Symbolik i 491. 

scRiPTVRis Ad Vxor. 11 6 quae dei 7nentio 1 quae Christi 
inuocatio ? ubi fomenta fidei de Scripturarum interlectione ? ubi 
spiritus refrigerium .? ubi diuina benedictio ? 

p. 114 1. 35 CANERE Cypr. ad Donat. 16 quoniam feriata t-S 
nunc quies ac tempus est otiosum, quidquid inclinante iam sole 
in uesperam dies superest, ducamus hunc diem laeti nec sit uel 
hora conuiuii gratiae caelestis immunis. sonet psalmos con- 
uiuium sobrium : ut tibi tenax memoria est, uox canora, ad- 
grede7'e hoc munus ex more. magis carissimos pascis, si sit nobis 20 
spiritalis auditio, prolectet aures religiosa mulcedo. Harnack 
Gesch. der altchristl. Lit. i 795. Medicinisches aus der altesten 
Kirchen-gesch. (Texte viii 4) 51 citing 1 Cor. 11 21. Eph. 
5 18. Acts 2. Apostol. Const. (in Texte 11 5 23). 

p. 114 1. 36 DiRiMiT Hier. (ad Eustoch.) epist. 22 § 37, 1 25 
non recedatur a mensa, nisi referantur gratiae d-eatori. Ambr. 
De Virg. iii 4 § 18 ce7'te sollenines orationes cum gratia7'um 
actione sunt deferendae, cum e somno surgim-us, cum prodimus, 
cum cibum ^Jaramus sumere, cum sumpservmus. Chrysost. Or. 
de Bapt. Christi [ll 375''] [jiera rrjv Tpdirel^av eirl ev-^^f^v 30 
Tpeirr). Clem. Alex. Paedag. ii 9 § 77 (1) p. 216 P. ytiera 
'^ap Trjv evw^^^iav evXoy^^aavre^ tov deov. ib. 10 § 96 (2) 
p. 228 P. ecTTrepa^i 8e dvaTravaaadai Kadrjxet /nerd ttjv eaTiaaiv 
Kal ixerd rrjv eVl TaU dirdXavaeatv ev^^aptartav. Maxim. 
Hom. 88 De non timendis hostibus carnalibus (P. L. LVii 456*'') 35 
a nobis exspectat qui nos pascit deus, ut pro praestitis ab eo 
escis illi gratias referamus, et saturati donis ipsius laudes dica- 
mus. Clem. Recogn. i 19 (P. G. i p. 1217'') post cibum cum 

400 TERTVLLIANI [p. 114 1. 36— 

laudem dedisset deo et gratias egisset. Cf. c. 35 pr. heathen 

CAESiONVM luii. 3 88 (?). Sueton. Aug. 45 spectauit aidem 
studiosissinie pugiles et maxime Latinos, non legitimos atque 
5 ordinarios modo, quos etiam committere cum Graecis solebat, 
sed et cateruarios oppidanos inter angustias uicorum pugnantes 
temere ac sine arte. Perhaps an allusion to gladiators. 
Nicol. Dam. ed. C. Miiller, Bragm. Hist. Graec. vol. iii 
p. 417 fr. 84. 
lo p. 114 1. 37 DISCVRSATIONVM Theodoret H. E. v 20 Ka\ ol 
Tov Alovv(7ov t« opyia TereXecrixevoi fxeTa twv alyiSwv eTpexov, 
Tov<; Kvva^ SiacTTroovTe^ koI ixefirjvoTe^i Kal ^aK^xevovTe^ Kat Ta 
dWa SpwvTd a ttjv tov SiSaa-KaXov iravTqyvpiv SrjXol. 

ERVPTIONES c. 35 p. m. p. 104 1. 19 ad nat. i 17 p. 89 1. 7 
15 Wiss. (sensu proprio, Caes. Cic. Plin. Sen.). 

LASCIVIARVM Conc. Laod. c. 54 oTi ov Sei iepaTiKov<i i) 
K\r)piK0V<i Tiva<i Oeoypeiv ev yd/xoi^i r) Sei7rvot<;, dWa Trpo tov 
ela-epxeo-dat Tov<i 6vixeXtKOV<i eyetpeadai avTOV<i Kal dva^^oypetv. 
Conc. Trull. c. 24. Hieron. Adu. Heluid. 20 m., of a dinner with 
2o its timbrels and pipes, harps and cymbals : ingrediuntur expositae 
lihidinum uictimae et tenuitate uestium nudae impudicis oculis 
inqeruntur. Clem. Alex. Paedag. II 7 KaOokov fiev ovv veoi fxev 
Kal veavLhe<i. Arnob. II 42. more in La Cerda. Poenitent. Rom. 
tit. 5 c. 2 remoueantur a conuiuio cuncta turpitudinum argu- 
25 menta. luu. 11 162 sq. 

p, 116 1. 2 coiTio Vlp. 1. 1 D. de olT. praef. urb. i 12 1 § 14. 

Diuus Seuerus rescripsit eos etiam, qui illicitum collegium coisse 

dicuntur, apud praefectum urhi accusandos. cf Keim on Orig. 

contr. Cels. i 1 pp. 3 4. Liebenam Rom. Vereinswesen 41. 

30 270—1. 

p. 116 1. 4 TITVLO c. 42 pr. 

p. 116 1. 5 Minuc. 31 § 7 nec fastidiosi sumus, si omnes 
unum honum sapimus, eadem congregati quiete qua singuli: 
nec in angulis garruli, si audire nos puhlice aut eruhescitis aut 
35 timetis )( ibid. 8 § 4 plehem profanae coniurationis instituunt, 
quae nocturnis congregationihus et ieiuniis sollemnihus et inhu- 
manis cibis non sacro quodam sed piaculo foederantur. Plin. 
ad Trai. 96 (97) § 7 adfirmahant...summam culpae suae,... 

p. 116 1. 10] APOLOGETICVS 39, 40 401 

quod essent soliti stato die ante lucem conuenire carmenque 
Christo quasi deo dicere secum inuicem. 

p. 116 1. 8 FACTio Sall. lug. 31 § 15 haec inter bonos 
amicitia, inter malos factio est. 

Cap. XL 

p. 116 1. 10 c. 40. cf. c. 20. Aug. in Ps. 80 § 1 med. 5 
(iv 1225^ Gaume) heathen's taunts : abundare pressuras 
temporibus Christianis...prouerbium : non pluit Deus, duc ad 
Christianos. De Ciuitat. Dei in. Oros. Arn. pr. Aug. ep. 5 
Ad Marcellinum [now epist. 138 § 16. A. S.] haec generalis 
conquestio calumniosa est etc. Oros. i 8 § 14. iv 6 §§ 34 — 42. lo 
23 § 10. VII 37 §§ 6—10. esp. the letter of Maximinus copied 
from a brazen pillar at Tyre (Euseb. Hist. Eccl. ix 7 §§ 2 — 14, 
cf note on 1. 14). Elmenhorst on Arnob. p. 2. §§ 3. 4 fin. 
Elmenhorst and Godefroy cite Nouell. Theodosii ii tit. 3 § 8 [1. 75 
Mommsen-Meyer], which turns the tables on Jews, Samaritans, 15 
heretics, Pagans (an diutius perferemus mutari tempoimm uices 
irata caeli temperie, quae paganorum exacerbata perfidia v.escit 
naturae libramenta seruare? unde enim uer solitam gratiam 
abiurauit . . .nisi qiLod ad inpietatis uindictam transit legis suae 
natura decretum?) Firmilian in Cypr. ep. 75 § 10, persecution 20 
consequent on earthquake. Cypr, Ad Demetrianum c, 2. 3. 
4. 5. Aug. Serm. 87 13 fin. nemo dicat : antea melior erat 
mundus quam modo: ex quo coepit iste medicus artem suam 
exercere, multa hic uidemus horrenda. omn. Aug. De Ciu. 
Dei II 2. 3 e.g. proverb quoted below on line 15. Arnob. i 25 
§ 1 postquam esse in mundo Christiana gens coepit, ter7'arum 
orbem perisse. Passio (Gr.) Porphyrii in Ehnenhorst p. 2. 
III § 36 audetis intendere, nostri nominis causa res humanas ab 
dis premi. iv § 24 nam nos quidem quid de illis < dis uestris > 
aliquando aut inconueniens sensimus aut conscriptionibus edi- 30 
dimus indecoris, ut in inuidiam iaciantur nostram labores 
generis humani et commoditates quibus uiuitur imminutae? 
Orig. in Matt. c. 24 v. 9 (iv 270 Lomm.) cum haec ergo con- 
tigerint mundo, consequens est quasi derelinquentibus hominibus 
deoru.m culturam, ut propter midtitudinem Christianorum dicant 35 
fieri bella et fames et pestilentias. frequenter enim famis causa 

M. T. 26 

402 TERTVLLIANI [p. 116 1. 10— 

Ghristianos culparunt gentes, et quicumque sapiebant quae gen- 
tiuni sunt ; sed et pestilentia7'um causas ad Christi ecclesiam 
rettulerunt. scimus auteni et apud nos terrae motum factum in 
locis quihusdam, et factas fuisse quasdam ruinas, ita ut qui 
5 erant impii extra fidem causam terrae motus dicereyit Christi- 
anos, propter quod et persecutiones passae sunt ecclesiae, et 
incensae sunt. non solum autem illi, sed et qui uidebantur 
prudentes, talia in publico dicerent, quia propter Christianos 
fiunt grauissimi terrae motus. Heinichen on Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 

lo IX 7 § 9. 

p. 116 1. 11 ODIVM Tac. Ann. XV 44 odio humani generis. 
Rufin. Hist. Eccl. ix c. 7. 

p 1161. 12 CONCLAMANT De Idolol. 14 p. 45 1. 18 Wiss. si de 
omni blasphemia dictum est, Vestra causa nomen meum blasphe- 

15 matur, perimus uniuersi, cum totus circus scelestis suffragiis 
nullo merito nomen lacessit. De Spectac. 27 pr. odisse debemus 
istos conuentus et coetus ethnicorum, uel quod illic noynen dei 
blaspheniatur, illic in nos cotidiani leones expostulantur, inde 
persecutiones decernuntur, inde temptationes emittuntur. The 

20 Christian retort, leg. Novell. Theodos. 11 1 3 p. 10 Rittershusius, 
paganorum exacerbata perfidia cause of all trouble [quoted 
more fuUy on 1. 10. A. S.]. 

p. 1161. 14 CLADIS ad nat. i 9 pr. uos recognoscendo miremini, 
in quantam stultitiam incidatis, qui omnis cladis publicae uel 

25 iniuriae nos causas esse uultis. Cypr. ad Demetrian. 2 cum 
dicas plurimos conqueri et quod bella crebrius surgant, quod lues, 

■ quodfames saeuiant, quodque imbres et pluuias serena longa sus- 
pendant nobis i^nputai-i, tacere idira non oportet. 3 dixisti per 
nos fieri et quod nobis debeant imputari omnia ista quibus nunc 

30 mundus quatitur et urguetur. 7. 10. Friedlander iii^ 610. In 
the time of Maximin the children in the schools had to learn 
by heart of Jesus and Pilate kol ra icf)' v^pet ir^aa-OevTa 
vTro/jivijfiaTa (Kuseh. Hist. Eccl. IX 7 § 1). Euseb. (l.c. §§2 — 15) 
transcribed from a pillar at Tyre a sort of lay-sermon of M.'s 

35 against the Christians : all convulsions of nature 8id rrjv 
oXeOpiov TrXdvrjv TT79 vTroKevov fjbaTatorrjrci ra>v d6e/j,iro)v 
eKelvwv dvOpcoTreov. Maximin. (Euseb. Hist. Eccl. ix 8 § 3) 
boasted that his devotion to idols and persecution of Christians 

p. 116 1. 15] APOLOGETICVS 40 403 

woulcl secure him from famine, plague, war, but all came upon 
him A.D. 311 (IX 8 §§ 1. 2. 4—15). Aug. De Ciu. Dei i— v, 
especially ii c. 2, worship of the gods not necessary for 
temporal, Vi — X nor for eternal happiness. Retract. ll 43 (cf. 
Fleury xxiii 7). in Ps. 136. 9. Oros. i prol. §§ 9 10. Melito 5 
(Euseb. Hist. Eccl. iv 26) retorts the charge. The Empire 
rose and grew with the church under Augustus. Orig. contr. 
Cels. III 15 p. 269 4. In Matt. tract. 28. 39 (iii 857). Arnob. 
I 1 and 8. iii 36. Blunt Right Use 360. Bayle oeuvres iii 
46. 52 (Liu.) 53 sq. Symm. ep. x 54(?) [34?] the Vestals a lo 
prop of the state; loss of Cannae owing to Juno's jealousy, Valer. 
Max. i 1 § 16. Lasaulx 34. 

IN CAVSA c. 2 prope f (p. 12 1. 6) intellegere potestis 
non scelus aliquod esse in causa, sed nomen. ad nat. i 3 p. 62 
\. 11 Wiss. nomen in causa est, quod quaedam occulta uis per 15 
iiestram ignoi^antiam oppugnat. ad Scap. 5 fin. quisque enim 
tantam tolerantiam spectans, ut aliquo scrupulo percussus ; 
et inquirere accenditur, quid sit in causa, et ubi cognouerit 
ueritatem, et ipse statim sequitur. luu. 14 105 sed pater in 
causa. Cic. Liu. Quintil. Plin. hist. nat. and Plin. ep. add Liu. 20 
XXXIV 56 §§ 9. 11. XL 26 § 5. Quintil. Decl. 12 cap. 24. Plin. 
ep. VI 1 § 2. 10 § 3. VII 5 § 1. ad Trai. 39 (48) § 1. 21 (32) fin. 
Arnob. I 3 p. 5 l.'^^^. [See Thes. A. S.] 

p. 116 1. 15 ad nat. i 9 p. 73 1. 6 Wiss. si Tiheris re~ 
dundauerit, si Nilus non redundauit, si caelum stetit, si terra 25 
mouit, ...tiua uastauit, si famis a_§iixit, statim omnium uox 
Christi.... Aug. De Ciu. Dei 11 3 memento me ista commemo- 
rantem adhuc contra imperitos agere, ex quorum imperitia illud 
quoque ortum est uulgare prouerbium : pluuia dejit, causa 
Christiani sunt. ill 17. 18. Tac. Ann. i 76 § 1 sq. on the rising 30 
of the Tiber the Sibylline books consulted. Hist. I 86 another 
inundation. Hor. carm. i 2 13 uidimus flauum Tiberim retortis 
cet. History of these floods, Friedlander i* c. 1 fin. pp. 27 — 29. 
luu. 15 123 inuidiam facerent nolenti surgere Nilo. lo. Bapt. 
Scortia S. I. Libri li De natura et incremento Nili. 35 

NiLVS Sozomen h. e. vii 20. Cf Rufin. h. e. ix 7 f Jortin 
Christian Religion 82-3 ; so by witchcraft Luc. VI 474 Nilum 
non extulit aestas. Symmachus in Ambr. epist. 18 § 19. 

2G— 2 

404 TERTVLLIANI [p. 116 1. 16— 

p. 116 1. 16 STETIT Same words in ad nat. i 9 pr. quoted 
on 1. 15. Arnob. I 45 stabant profluuia sanguinis (Woodh.). 
Prayers for rain, Cypr. Ad Demetrian. 7. 8. 

TERRA MOVIT Euseb. h. e. IX 7. IV 13 § 2 a-etafxcov. 
5 Earthquake A.D. 191. Hdn. i 14. mouit intrans. : ad nat. i 
9 pr. Sueton. Cl. 22. Gell. ii 28 lemma and § 2. iv 6 § 1 
(also §§ 1. 2 hastas Martias mouisse. ib. leinma). 

LVES Porph^rr. later (Theodoret Graec. Affect. Curat. xii 
fin. IV 1040) vvvl Be, (f)i]ai, 6av/j,d^ovcnv el roaoincov erSiv 

lo KaTeikrj^e v6cro<; rrjv rroX.LV, 'AaKXrjTrtov fjuev eirihriixLa'^ Kal 
Twv aXXo)!' 6eu)v ovKen ovar]^. Irjaov yap rifjLWfievov ovSe 
fjLid<; 8r]/j,oaia<; Ti9 ^ewv ft)0eXeta9 fja6ero. Popular outcries in 
the circus : usque quo genus tertium? Scorp. 10 p. 168 1. 15 
Wiss. De Pudic. 22 p. 271 1. 25 Wiss. puta in stipite iam leoni 

15 concesso. De Spectac. 27 pr. 

p. 116 1. ] 7 AD LEONEM c. 50 p. 144 1. 29. De Exhort. Cast. 
12 p. m. ne non sint qui acclament, ' Christianis leonem.' De 
Carn. Resur. 22 p. 56 1. 12 Kr. De Pat. 15 (?) 5 (?). Ad 
Scap. 3 fin. De Spectac. 21. 27 pr. quoted on p. 116 1. 12. 

2o Arnob. i 26 p. 17 1. 8. Polycarpi mart. 12. Rufin. Hist. Eccl. 
VIII 7. Kaye 119. 111. Prudent. Cathemer. 157(?). [3, 162 ? 
A. S.] Vit. Cypr. 7 cum et suffragiis saepe repetitis ad leonem 
postularetur. Cypr. ep. 59 § 6 totiens ad leonem petitus,...his 
ipsis etiam diebus, quibus has ad te litteras feci ob sacriflcia 

25 qucLe edicto proposito celebrare populus iubebatur clamore popu- 
larium ad leonem denuo postulatus in circo. Lamprid. Comm. 
18 § 15 te salue delatores ad leonem. Euseb. Hist. Eccl. iv 15 
I 27 ravra Xeyovre^; e-jretSocov Kal ■^pcorcov rbv daicip^^^rjv 
^iXiTrTrvv, iva eTrac^rj rcp UoXvKdpTTcp Xeovra' 6 Se e</)r; /jLT} 

30 elvai i^ov avrca, irreiSr} TrerrXrjpcoKei rd Kvvrjyiaia. Renan 
Les Evangiles 487. Hadrian ad calc. lustin. Apol. i p. 164 
n. 4 Otto. Shouts of spectators at games in Hist. Aug. Scr. 
cf. Ferrar De Vett. Acclam. et Plausu vii c. 18. Tatian 
22 p. 161^ called the pantomime KaraSiKa^o/jLevcov dcf^op/ir/v. 

35 Euseb. Hist. Eccl. v 1 § 47 (at Lugudunum) 6aoi /lev ovv 
iSoKovv TToXireiav 'Pco/iaicov ia^T/Kevat, rovrcov drrere/ive rd<i 
KecjiaXd';, rov<; Se X.ot7rou? eTrefirrev eh drjpla. VIII 7 § 1 
leopards, bears, boars, bulls. § 2 turning on the heathen. 

p. 116 1. 19] AP0L0GETICV8 40 405 

cf. §§ 3 4 5, a wild bull. Cf. Rufinus h. e. ix 6 pr. Spencer on 
Orig. Contr. Cels. iii c. 30 p. 129 l. 9. omn. Comm. on Matt. 39 
(IV 270 L., on Matt. 24 9). Aug. Contr. Faust. xxii 79 fin, 

TANTOS c. 1. c. 50 p. m. 

ORO cet. Amob. i 3 ' sed pestilentias,' inquiunt, ' et sicci- 5 
tates, bella, frugum inopiam, locustas, mures et grandines, 
resque alias noxias, quibus negotia incursantur humana, di 
nobis important iniuriis uestris atque offensionibus exasperati.' 
si in rebus perspicuis et mdlam desiderantibus defensionem non 
stoliditatis esset diutius immorari, ostenderem profecto replicatis lo 
prioribvs saeculis mala ista qtiae dicitis non esse incognita, non 
repentina. . .' penuria ,' inquit, \frugum et angustiae frumentariae 
artius nos habent.' antiqua enim et uetustissima saecula neces- 
sitatis istius aliquando fuerunt expertia ? . . .' difficiles pluuiae 
sata fabiunt emori et sterilitatem indicunt terris.' immunis 15 
enim antiquitas malis ab his fuit ? cum etiani jiumina cogno- 
uerimus ingentia limis inaruisse siccatis. 'pestilentiae contagia 
urunt genus humanum.' annalium scriptores j)crcurrite lingua- 
7'um diuersitatibus scripta, uniuersas discetis gentes saepenumero 
desolatas et uiduatas suis esse cultoribus...' terrarum ualidis- 20 
simis motibus tremefactae nutant usque ad periculum ciuitates.' 
quid? hiatibus maximis interceptas urbes cum gentibus superiora 
tempora non uiderunt?... c. 4 quando est hunianum genus 
aquarum diluuiis intereniptum ? non ante nos ? quando mun- 
dus incensus in fauillas et cineres dissolutus est ? non ante nos ? 25 
quamdo urbes amplissimae marinis coopertae sunt fluctibus ? 
non ante nos? Iil 40 feras. Jeremiah 44 15 — 19 (neglect of 
the queen of heaven). 

ORA vos cf oro te Cic. Liu. Sen. Tert. De Exhort. 
Cast. 8 pr. Ad Vxor. i 3 a. m. 4 f De Cor. Milit. 14 m. 30 
ad nat. I 7 p. 68 1. 25 Wiss. 11 4 p. 102 1. 2 Wiss. 

p. 116 1. 18 TiBERiVM c. 5 n. c. 21 pr. p. 66 1. 15 n. Adu. 
Marc. J 15 p. 309 1. 14 Kr. Adu. lud. 8. 

p. 116 1. 19 ORBEM ET VRBES earliest ex. Cic. Catil. i 9 
urbis atque adeo orbis. 35 

HIERAN cet. ad nat. i 9 p. 73 1. 15 Wiss. ubi tunc Christiani, 
cuni res Romana tot historias laborum suorum subministrauit ? 
ubi tunc Ghristiani, cum Hierennape [1. Hiera, Napea or 

406 TERTVLLIANI [p. 116 1. 19— 

Anaphe] et DeJphos [1. Delos] et Rhodos et Cea insidae mnltis 
cum milihus hominum pessum ierunt. Sibyll. iv 92 cf. AijXo^i 
dSr]\o<i. Ammian. XVII 7 § 13 fiunt autem terrarum motus 
modis quattuor : aut eiiim hrasmatiae sunt, qui humum more 

5 aestus imitus suscitantes, sursum propellunt inmanissimas moles, 
ut in Asia Delos emersit, et Hiera et Anapthe et Rhodus, Ofiusa 
et Pelagia priorihus saeculis dictitata...aut chasmatiae qui 
grandiore motu patefactis subito uoratrinis, terrarum partes 
ahsorbent, ut in Atlantico mari, Europaeo orhe spatiosior insula. 

lo Euseb. Chron. a. d. 7 in insula Co terrae motu plurima con- 
ciderunt. Plin. Hist. Nat. ii c. 8 § (?). 79 § 191. 88 § 203 sq. 
89 § 204. On earthquakes De Pallio 2 cum inter insidas nulla 
iam Delos. 

p. 116 1. 20 DELON Herodot. vi 98 % 1—2. Thucyd. ii 

15 8 § 3. Seneca Nat. Quaest. vi 26 3. Dittenberger Sylloge 
Inscr. Gr. i- 155. Bouche-Leclercq Divination 11 22 1. On 
Rhodes Oros. iv 13 § 13. 

p. 116 1. 21 PLATO Amm. xvii 7 § 13. ad nat. i 9 p. 73 
1. 19 Wiss. uel quam Plato memorat maiorem Asia aut Africa 

20 in Atlantico rnari mersam...cum terrae motu mare CoHnthium 
ereptum est ? cum totum orbem cataclysmus abolevit ? Plin. 
Hist. Nat. II 90 § 205 in totum (mare) ahstulit terras, primum 
omnium uhi Atlanticum mare est, si Platoni credimus, inmenso 
spatio. Arnob. I 5 pr ut ante milia annorum decem ab insula 

25 quae p)erhihetur Atlantica Neptuni, sicut Plato demonstrat, 
magna erumperet uis hominum et innumeras funditus deleret 
atque eucstingueret nationes,nos fuimus causa? De Pallio 2 a. m. 
a,eon in Atlantico Lihijam aut Asiam adaequans quaeritur nunc. 
[Aristot.] Mirab. Audition. § 103 etc. Diodor. Sicul. xviii 

30 5 § 2 sq. (?). 

MAIOREM ASIAE Drager i 494 (Apul. 5 exx.). Amm. xvi 
12 § (?). Passio Sanctorum iv coronatorum p. 333 n. 2. Ronsch 
435. Archiv f. lat. Lex. vii 117 — 129. (3lem. Recogn. i 60. 
66 f. II 10. 53. 54 bis. 55. 56. 57 pr. iii 58. 63. iv 15. v 19. 

35 Rufin. Hist. Mon. 9. in Cant. 11 p. 390 L. irepi dp^x^wv i 1 7. 
Dan. 13 4 uulg. Corippus lust. iv 30. Kopp on Capella 
§ 6 fin. p. 25. Hier. ep. 108 3. in Matt. 2. 11 11. Sidon. 
carm. 11 52 magnorum maior auorum (lexx. under prior). 

p. 116 1. 28] APOLOGETICVS 40 407 

[Stolz-Schmalz Lat. Gramm.^ p. 385, Souter Study of Ambro- 
siaster p. 117. A. S.] 

p. 116 1. 22 CORINTHIVM Plin. Hist. Nat. ii 92 § 206 
Helicen et Buram sinus Corinthius (abstulit), quarum in alto 
uestigia apparent. Oros. iii 3 § 1. 5 

p. 116 1. 23 vis VNDARVM cet. De Pallio 2 a. m. Italiae 
quondam latus Hadria Tyrrhenoque quassantihus medio tenus 
interceptum reliquias Siciliam facit, cum tota illa plaga discidii 
contentiosos aequorum coitus angustiis retorquens, nouum uitium 
maris induit, non exspuentis naufragia sed deuorantis. La lo 
Cerda on Aen. lli 414-9 (417-9 = ifeniY medio ui pontus et 
undis Hespenum Siculo latus abscidit, aruaque et urbes litore 
diductas angusto interluit aestu) ann. in Niceph. Constant. 
[which ?] Lasaulx Studien p. 31 n. 109. 108. Strabo i 3 10 
p. 82 Kr. VI 1 6 p. 410 Kr. Valer. Flac. i 589 cum flens Sicidos 15 
Oenotria fines \ perdei^et et mediis intrarent montibus undae. 

ABSCISSAM Strabo (cited above). Mela 11 7 § 115. Sall. 
Hist. Fr. IV 26* (Maurenb. p. 168). The word Hor. Carm. i 
3 21. Stat. Silu. iii 2 61. Valer. Flac. 11 615. Flor. 11 8 § 9. 

p. 116 1. 24 INIVRIA c. 38 £ p. 110 1. 20. c. 44 pr. ad 20 
nat. I 9 p. 73 1. 22 Wiss. tibi tunc, non dicani contemptores 
deorum Ghristiani, sed ipsi dei uestri, quos clade illa posteriores 
loca, oppida approbant, in quibus nati morati sepidti sunt, etiam 
quae condiderunt ? non alias enim superfuissent ad hodiernum 
nisi postuma cladis illius. 25 

p. 116 1. 25 NON DiCAM c. 4 pr. = ad nat. i 9 p. 73 1. 23 Wiss. 
Apol. c. 43 f. bis. 

p. 116 1. 26 DEORVM CONTEMPTORES contemptor diuom 
Mezentius Verg. Aen. vii 648. .superum Ou. ad nat. i 9 ter. 10 
p. 75 1. 6 Wiss. (i 9 cited above). Arnob. i 30. 30 

p. 116 1. 27 CATACLYSMVS ad nat. i 9 p. 73 1. 22 Wiss. 
II 12 p. 120 1. 15 Wiss. De Cult. Fem. i 3 ter. Ad Scap. 3 pr. 
Adu. Marc. iv 3 p. 428 1. 14 Kr. Adu. lud. 8 a. m. Cypr. 
append. 56 15 18 (Ad Nouatian. c. 4 fin. 5 pr.). Lact. Diu. 
Instt. II 10 §§ 10 11. id. De Ira 23 § 4. First in Varro. 35 

PLATO Legg. p. 677. Tert. De Pallio 2 a. m. cupientes 
Platoni probare etiam ardua fluitasse. 

p. 116 1. 28 CAMPESTRE in Tac. and Plin. Hist. Nat. plur. -ia. 

408 TERTVLLIANI [p. 116 1. 29— 

p. 116 1. 29 MORTvi c. 12 pr. p. 42 1. 33 n. Cf. c. 10. c. 11 pr. 
Arnob. i 37. iv 29 Hildebr. 

p. 116 1. 30 ALIAS = aliter Lewis and Short n. 5. De Idolol. 
1 p. 31 1. 10 Wiss. [See Thes. alias. iii. A. S.] 
5 IN HODIERNVM De Idolol. 3 pr. CIL viii 10570. ad hod. 
ad nat. i 9 p. 73 1. 26 Wiss. Scorp. 7 f. p. 160 1. 5 Wiss. 

p. 116 11. 30 — 1 c. 10 fin. etiam louem ostendemus tam homi- 
nem quam ex homine et deinceps totum generis examen tam 
mortale qnam seminis' sui par. 
lo p. 116 1. 31 POSTVMAE c. gen. ad nat. i 9 (a parallel ch.) 
p. 73 1. 26 Wiss. non alias enim superfuissent ad hodiernum, 
nisi postunia cladis illius. 

p. 116 1. 32 EXAMEN hence Lact. iv 10 § 14 postea uero 

cum in deserta quadam parte Syriae consedissent, amiserunt 

i^uetus nomen Hehraei : et quoniam princeps examinis eorum 

ludas erat, ludaei sunt appellati. supr. c. 10 fin. cf. Hor. ep. 

I 19 23 dux regit examen. 

SECTAE c. 21 pr. n. (p. 66 1. 14). ad nat. i 10 p. 76 1. 9 Wiss. 

habetis igitur in maioribus uestris, etsi non nomen, attamen 

20 sectam Christianam, quae deos neglegit. Minuc. 40 § 2. Prudent 

Contr. Syram. II 93. 96. Apoth. praef. ii 1. Lact. De Opif. 1 

p. 116 1. 34 IGNEVS IMBER Paulin. Nol. c. 23 221. Ruhn. 

Hist. Eccl. I 1 p. 13 populatione ignei imh^is. 

siQVA cet. Pseudo-Cypr. De Sodoma 134 — 8 semiperempta 

2 5 etiam siqua illic iugera laetas \ autumni conantur opes, 

facile optima sese \ prornittunt oculis pira persica et omnia 

niela, \ donec carpantur: nam protimis indice tacta \ soluitur in 

cinerem uacui fallacia pomi. Tac. Hist. v 7 haud procul inde 

campi quos ferunt olim vheres magnisque urhihus hahitatos fid- 

30 minum iactu arsisse, et manere uestigia terramque ipsam, specie 

torridam, uim frugiferam perdidisse. nam cuncta sponte edita 

aut manu sata, siiie herha tenus aut flore, seu solitam in speciem 

adoleuere, atra et ina.nia uelut in cinerem uanescunt. loseph. De 

Bell. lud. IV 8 § 4 ^rt? ea-rl TriKpa /jb6v...Kal a'yovos...'y6trvia 

35 Se 7] ^oSofjLiri^ civrfj, 'TrnXai /Jbev €v8aL/j,a>v yi) Kaprrwv re eveKa 

Ka\ rrj<i Kara iroXei^ irepLovala^i, vvv Se KeKavp-evTj rraaa' (f)acrl 

8e ft)? Sr aae^eiav olKr/ropcov Kepavvol<; KarecpXeyr]' kari yovv 

eri Xeiyfrava rov delov rrvpo^, Kal rrevre fiev rroXecov IheZv aKid^, 

p. 118 1. 10] AP0L0GETICV8 40 409 

€Ti 8e K(iv rol<; Kapirol^ (nrohiav dvwyevvw^eviiv, ol ^poav fiev 
€)(ovcn T0L<; eScoSt/io/? 6p,oiav 8pe-\p-afiev(ov Se ^epalv et? Kairvov 
dvaXvovTat Kal refppav. Prudent. Hamartigen. 725 sq. Tert. 
De Pallio 2 ui. aspice ad Palaestinam, qua lordanis amnis 
jiniuni arhiter: uastitas ingens et orba regio et frustra ager et 5 
urhes retro et populi frequentes...dehinc ut deus censor est, 
impietas ignium nieruit imbres : hactenus Sodoma, et nulla 
Gomorra, et cinis omnia, et propinquitas maris iuxta cum solo 
mortem bibit. Aug. De Ciu. Dei xxi 8 p. m. (ii^ .507 1 D.). 
Solin. 48. 10 

p. 118 1. 1 ocvLis TENVS Adu. Marc. i 24 p. 323 1. 22 
Kr. anima tenus. (Oehler ad loc. pp. 75 — 6.) 

p. 118 1. 2 CINERESCVNT Fulgent. Mytholog. Cael. Aurelian 
[see Thes. and add now Laber. (?) in inscr., Not. Scavi, 1912, 
p. 87. A. S.]. 15 

p. 118 1. 3 VVLSINIOS De Pallio 2 m. ex huiuscemodi nuhilo 
et Tuscia Vulsinios {^pristinos] deusta, quo magis de montibus 
suis Campania speret, erepta Pompeios. Gataker on Antonin. 
IV 48 ' many cities are entirely dead, so to speak, 
Helice and Pompeii and Herclanum and others innumerable!' 20 

p. 118 1. 4 cf. Ambr. ep. 18, 4 sq. Aug. C. D. 11 8. iii 
17. 31. 

p. 118 1. 6 MODIO Otto Sprichworter 225. Funck in Archiv 
f. lat. Lex. VIII 406. luu. 3 220 hic modium argenti. 10 
165 — 6 n. Aug. De Ciu. Dei iii 19. Oros. iv 16 § 5. Hor. 25 
Sat. I 1 95 diues, ut metiretur nummos. Comm. in hon. Momms. 
340. Hemst. on Luc. Dial. Mort. 12 2. 

p. 118 1. 7 SENONES luu. 8 234 n. Oros. 11 19 § 5. Aug. 
De Ciu. Dei 11 22 asks were the gods asleep. 

p. 118 1. 8 BENE QVOD c. 7 p. 26 1. 30 n. c. 24 p. 86 1. 13. 30 
Apul. Metam. iii 25. vi 8 f. x 14 iin. Paulin. Nol. Carm. 24 15. 
ep. 32 2. 

p. 118 11. 8 — 9 c. 25 f. p. 90 1. 8 hella et uictoriae captis et 
euersis plurimum urbihus constant. id negotium sine deorum 
iniuria non est. eaedem strages moenium et templorum, pares 35 
caedes ciuium et sacerdotum. 

p. 118 1. 10 iPSis EVENIT c. 25 p. 90 1. 10 cf 86 1. 30 Mart. 
(where ?). Lightning Arnob. iii 23 Vulcan. 

410 TERTVLLIANI [p. 118 1. 10— 

HVMANA GENS = (jenus so Cic. De Finib. v § 65. Hor. 
Carm. i 3 26. 

p. 118 1. 11 INOFFICIOSA c. gen. as reus and ingratus below. 

p. 118 1. 1*2 EX PARTE De Fug. in Persec. 3 pr. Cic. Liu. 
5 p. 118 1. 13 DEHINC c. 41 n. 

INNOCENTIAE MAGISTRVM c. 45 pr. mnocentiam a deo edocti 
et perfecte eam nouimus ut a perfecto magistro reuelatam et 
fideliter custodimus, ut ab incontemptibili dispectore mandatam. 

p. 118 1. 14 NOCENTIAE Adu. Marc. ii 13 p. 353 1. 14 Kr. 
lo quomodo innocentiae mercedem secter, si non et nocentiae spectem ? 
(no other ex. cited), no other known to me. 

EXACTOREM De Spectac. 2 p. 4 1. 4 Wiss. deus exactor 

innocentiae. Adu. Marc. ii 13 p. 353 1. 7 Kr. quis boni auctor, 

nisi qui et exactor? La Cerda cites Greg. Nyss. Or. Funebr. 

15 Placillae (Migne P. G. XLVl 888^^) rov BtrjveKr] (popoXoyov, 

rrjv yacrrepa Xeyo). 

p. 118 1. 15 SEQVEBATVR infr. c. 41 p. 120 1. 19 n. ad nat. i 
7 p. 68 1. 24 Wiss. 15 pr. 

p. 118 1. 19 c. 5 pr. Tiberius ergo, cuius tempore nomen 
2o Christianum in saeculum introiuit. 

p. 118 1. 22 INGRATA c. gen. Adu. Marc. ii 24 p. 24 1. 11 Kr. 
beneficii. ill 24 p. 422 1. 1 Kr. promissionis [cf. on p. 118 1. 11. 
A. S.]. 

ET TAMEN cet. Arnob. i 5 pr. quamquam ista quae dicitis 
25 bella religionis nostrae ob inuidiam commoueri, non sit difficile 
comprobare post auditum Christum in mundo non tantum non 
aucta, uerum etiam maiore de parte furiarum compressionibus 
imminuta. Aug. C. D. iii 20, of Saguntum. The worlds decay 
ascribed to the Christians. Lasaulx 34 n. 120. 
30 p. 118 1. 24 DEPRECATORES Caes. Cic. Liu. Tac. Cypr. ep. 
11 (al. 8) § 5 p. 499, 1. 18 H. [also ep. 55 § 18 p. 637 1. 7 H. 
See also Thes. A. S.]. 

p. 118 1. 25 Ashton quotes Sen. Quaest. Nat. iii 27 § 1 elisa 
aestate hiems pertiriax inmensam uim aquarum ruptis nubibus 
35 eicioi. Cf. Ambr. ep. 18 17. 

p. 118 1. 27 LVPANARIBVS Plaut. Catull. Quintil. luu. add 
Sen. Contr. i 2 §§ 1—4. 30 §§ 13 14. Valer. Maxim. ix 1 § 8. 
Sen. Nat. Quaest. i 16 6. Quintil. v 10 § 39. vii 3 §§ 9 10. 

p. 118 11. 30— 1] APOLOGETICVS 40 411 

Suet. Tiber. 58. Calig. 41. Apul. Metam. vii 9. 10. x 21. 
Rufin. Hist. Eccl. viii 12 p. 487 f. 

p. 118 1. 28 etc. c. 24 med. colat alius deiun, alius louem, 
alius ad caehim supplices manus tendat, alius ad aram Fidei, 
alius, si hoc putatis, nuhes numeret orans, alius lacunaria. 5 
Marquardt iii- 262 n. 3. 

AQViLiciA only h. 1. and Festus p. 2 M. [see Thes. 
and Lindsay, who spell aquaelicium. A.S.] : at Carthage c. 23 
p. 80 1. 8 ista ipsa Virgo Caelestis pluuiarum pollicitatrix. 
Hor. Carm. Saec. 31 32 nutriant fetus et aquae saluhres j et 10 
louis aurae. epist. il 1 132 — .5 castis cum pueris ignara puella, 
mariti \ disceret unde preces, uatem ni Musa dedisset ? \ poscit 
openi chorns et praesentia numina sentit; \ caelestes implorat 
aquas docta prece blandus. Frazer on Paus. I 32 2 (ii 426). 

NVDIPEDALIA I)e leiun. 16 p. 295 1. 24 Wiss. cited by 15 
Oehler. Hier. Suet. Aug. 100 f. Cas. primores discincti pedi- 
husque nudis. Petron. 44 nemo enim caelum caelum jJutat, nenio 
ieiunium seruat,nemo louem pilifacit,sed omnes opertis oculis hona 
sua computant. antea stolatae ihant nudis pedibus in cliuum, 
passis capillis, mentihus puris, et louem aquam exorahant. itaque 20 
statim urceatim plouebat: aut tunc aut numquam: et omnes redi- 
bant udi tamquam mures. luu. 6 159 — 160 ohseruant uhi festa 
mero pede sahhata reges et uetus indulget senibus clementia porcis. 
524 — 6 inde superhi totum regis agrum nuda ac tremehunda 
cruentis erepet genibus. loseph, Bell. lud. II 15 § 1 BepeiuKT] 25 
yvfivoTTov^; re Trpo tov /Sr/yLtaro? iKeTevae rbv *i>\u>poi'. lara- 
blich. Vit. Pythagor. 51. 85 dveiv ')(pr} dwTroSerov Kal Trpo? rd 
lepd Trpoatevai. inter symbola Pythag. nudis pedihus rem 
sacram facito et adorato. Zockler Gesch. d. Askese 92 sq. 
Clem. Alex. Strom. v 8 § 56. Knobel cet. on Exod. 3 5 (lustin. 30 
Apol. I 62 p. ^b^ attributes the heathen practice to an imitation 
of Moses). Ou. Metam. vii 182 of Medea, egreditur tectis 
uestes induta recinctas, nuda pedem, nudis umeris infusa capil- 
los. Fasti VI 397 huc pede matronam uidi descendere nudo. 
Flor. il3(=l7)§12 tdrgines simul ex sacerdotio Vestae nudo 35 
pede fugientia sacra comitantur. Cobet Collectan. 330. Preller 
Rom. Mythol. 173. 313. Lasaulx Studien 295 78. 

p. 118 11. 30—1 Cf. supr. 5 ad fin. ad Scap. 4. 

412 TERTVLLIANI [p. 118 1. 31— 

p. 118 1. 31 lEivNiis ARiDi De leiim. 1 p. 275 1. 1 Wiss. 
arguunt nos, quod ieiunia propria custodiamus, quod stationes 
plerumque in uesperam producamus, quod etiam xerophagias 
ohseruemus, siccantes cihum ah omni carne et omni iurulentia et 

5 uuidioribus quihusque pomis, nec quid uinositatis uel edamus uel 
potemus; lauacri quoque ahstinentiam, congruentem arido uictui. 
13 p. 291 I. 27 Wiss. hene autem, quod et episcopi uniuersae plehi 
mandare ieiunia adsolent, non dico de industria stipium conferen- 
darura, ut uestrae capturae est, sed interdum et ex aliqua 

lo sollicitudinis ecclesiasticae causa. itaque si et ex hominis edicto 
et in unum omnes Ta7r€ivo(f)p6vr)(TLv agitatis, quomodo in nobis 
ipsam quoque unitatem ieiunationum et xerophagiarum et statio- 
num denotatis? 15 p. 294 1. 7 Wiss. esca nos deo non com- 
mendat [= 1 Cor. 8. 8. A.S.] non ut de arida dictum putes, sed 

i^potius de uncta et accurata. ad Scap. 4 (p. 549, 1. 1) quando 
non geniculationihus et ieiunationibus nostris etiam siccitates 
sunt depulsae? Cypr. ep. 11 pr. § 1 admoneo...reUigiosam 
sollicitudinem uestram ut ad placandum atque exorandum deum 
non uoce sola sed et ieiuniis et lacrimis et omni genere depre- 

2o cationis ingemescamus. 60 § 5 hortamur...ut, quoniam. . .admo- 
nemur appropinquare iam certaminis et agonis nostri diem, 
ieiuniis uigiliis orationibus insistere cum omni plehe non desi- 
namus. Bailey Rituale Anglo-Cath. 75 — 6 (tempest), 89 (fruits 
of the earth), 94 (for rain), 96 — 7 (prayer in dearth). 

25 EXPRESSI ? shrunk, shrivelled, pinched. Greg. Naz. Or. 1 
in lulian. 7 (Migne P. G. xxxv 593^) opa^^ tou? ajSlov^ rovrovi 
Kal avearlov^ koI acrdpKov<; fMi/cpov Kal dvaL/u,ova^, Kal dew Kard 
rovro TrXrja-La^ovTa^i ; 

p. 118 ]. 32 IN SACCO ET CINERE De Paenitent. 11 pr. deuer- 

30 sari in asperitudine sacci. ib. 9 de ipso quoque hahitu atque 
uictu mandat sacco et cineri incubare, corpus sordihus ohscurare, 
animum maerorihus deicere. De Patient. 13 p. 20 1. 9 Kr. 
in primis adfiictatio carnis,...cum sordes cum angustia uictus 
domino lihat, contenta simplici pahulo puroque aquae potu, cum 

35 ieiunia coniungit, cum cineri et sacco inolescit. De leiun. 16 
p. 295 1. 26 Wiss. saccis nelati et cinere conspersi idolis suis 
inediam (inuidiam cod.) supplicem ohiciunt. Cedren. 'p. 300' of 
the emperor iv o-aKKfo kuI o-ttoSw. Ambr. [rather Niceta. A. S.] 

p. 120 1. 3] APOLOGETICVS 40, 41 413 

De Lapsu Virg. 8 § 35 totiim corpus inciana et i&ianiis niace- 
retur, cinere adspersuni et opertuni cilicio perliorrescat, quia 
male sibi de pulchritudine placuit. Maxim. Taurin. Hom. de 
Litaniis [= Migne, P. L. LVii 459^ A.S.]. Hier. epist. 77 
§ 4 (I p. 455''). Ruric. ep. 21 ut deponant saeculi hyrrum et 5 
sumant ecclesiae uestimentum, quod est cilicium, contritionis 
indicium. Greg. Naz. Or. 1 [= 2 § 59, Migne, P. G. xxxv ^e^''^ 
R. W.] iv aTToSfp Ka\ craKKOi^i Kal \iav Ta7reLvw<; KaTo. yr^^; eppifj,- 
f^evovs. Concil. Mogunt. can. 4. Heralcl. Digressionum 1. ii c. 4 
(ad calc. Apol. 275 sq.). Bingham xviii 2 § 2. Sidon. ep. v 14 lo 
Mamercus established rogations: erant quidem prius...oscita- 
hundae suppUcationes,...maxime aut imhres, aut serenitatem 
deprecaturae. Cyprian. Ad Demetrian. 20 p. 365 1. 23 H. et 
tamen pro arcendis hostihus et imhrihus impetrandis et uel 
auferendis uel temperandis aduersis rogamus semper et preces 15 
fundimus. Euseb. Hist. Eccl. V c. 28 § 12 evSvad/xevov aaKKuv 
Kai avooov KaraTraadfievov. 

ixviDiA De leiun. 16 p. 295 1. 25 Wiss. apud quasdam 
uero colonias praeterea annuo ritu (then as cited on 1. 32) 
cf. Oehler (from La Cerda). De Orat. 5 p. 184 1. 12 Wiss. 20 
clamant ad dominum inuidia animae martyrum sub altari. De 
Fug. in Persec. 10 f. siperire me uolet, ipse me perdat, dum me ego 
seruo illi. malo inuidiam eifacereper uoluntatem ipsius pereundo, 
quam hilem per meam euadendo. Stat. Silu. v 5 77 — 78 nonne 
horridus ipsos inuidia sujjeros iniustaque Tartara pulsem? 25 
Pseudo-Cypr. Sodom. 21 — 2 pidsahant caelum inuidia, conuhia 
mixta incestu parili. luu. 15 123 n. Heraldus cites Bvawirriaai 
deov from loseph. A. J. xii 4 (cf. Greg. Naz.). inuidiani facere: 
Oehler on Tert. De Orat. 5 (cited above). Adu. Marc. 11 9 fin. 
Herald. on Arnob. iv p. 180. [Mayor's own note on Plin. 30 
epist. III 4 § 7. A. S.] 

p. 120 1. 1 EXTORSERIMVS wrung. 

Cap. XLI 

p. 120 1. 3 vos Cyprian. Ad Deractrian. 5 non enim, sicut 
tua falsa querimonia et inperitia ueritatis ignara iactat et 
clamitat, ista accidunt, quod di uestri a nohis non colantur, sed 35 

414 TERTVLLIANI [p. 120 1. 3— 

quod a uobis non colatur deus . . .utique quando ea fiunt quae 
iram dei indignantis ostendunt non propter nos fiunt a quibus 
deus colitur, sed delictis et meritis uestris inrogantur, a quibus 
deus omnino nec quaeritur nec timetur. Arnob. i 2 ejficietur 
5 enim profecto rationum conseqventium copulatu, ut non impii 
nos magis sed illi ipsi reperiantur criminis istius rei, qui se 
numinum profitentur esse cultores atque inueteratis religionibus 
deditos. Lact. v 8 § 5 discite igitur (si quid uobis reliquae 
mentis est) homines ideo malos et iniustos esse, quia di coluntur, 

lo et ideo mala omnia rebus humanis cotidie ingrauescere, quia 
deus huius mundi effector et gubernator relictus est, quia 
susceptae sunt contra quam fas est, impiae religiones, postremo 
quia ne coli quidem uel a paucis deum sinitis. § 11 iiniuersa 
igitur mala, quibus humanum genus se ipsa conficit, iniustus 

15 atque impius deorum cultus induxit ; nec enim poterant retinere 
pietatem qui communem ovinium patrem deum tamquam pro- 
digi ac rebelles liberi abnegassent. cf, § 8. Maximin in 
Euseb. Hist. Eccl. ix 7 §§ 8 — 11 ascribes raisfortunes to the 
spread, prosperity to the downfall of Christianity. Euseb. c. 8 

20 confutes him. Aug. De Ciu. Dei v 22. Zeno Veronensis Sermo 
de lob (ed. Ballerini, Veron. 1739, p. 190) scidit uestimenta sua, 
non id deo inuidiam faceret cet. 

p. 120 1. 4 INLICES De Paenit. 9 conuersationem mise- 
ricordiae inlicem. Paulin. Nol. ep. 40 9. 41 2. carm. 24 719. 

25 25 119. Plaut. Apul. Prudent. 

p. 120 1. 5 Cf. 22 fin. p. 78 id numina lapides crederentur 
ut deus uerus non quaereretur. 

p. 120 1. 7 Arnob. 11 76. Aug. De Ciu. Dei i 29. 

p. 120 11. 8—10 Holden on Minuc. 12 §2. Otto on lustin. 

30 Apol. II 5 pr. Cels. in Orig. Viii 69. Arnob. ll 76 pr. Orelli. 
Euseb. Hist. Eccl. v 2 § 5. D. E. x 8. Clem. Alex. Strom. iv 
cc. 11. 12 pp. 599. 600 P. Lact. v 22. Gaudent. Praef ad 
Beneu. pp. 46. 47. 

p. 120 1. 9 REPERCVTERE c. 15 fin. De Idolol. 5 p. 34 

35 1. 16 Wiss. De Pudic. 7 p. 231 1. 5 Wiss. with Oehler's n. 
(Adu. Herrnog. 12 p. 139 1. 20 Kr. De Anim. 23 fin. in Hau.) 
Adu. Marc. i 9 pr. Plin. h. n. Quintil. 

p. 120 1. 11 RETORQVEBiTis (Apul. Metam. vii 20. lustin. 

p. 120 1. 24J APOLOGETICVS 41 415 

dig.) ad nat. i 14 p. 84 1. 21 Wiss. De Cor. Milit. 2 tin. male- 
dictum De Idolol. 21 p. 55 1. 10 Wiss. with cur ad nat. I 5 p. 65 
1. 26 f. Wiss. with inf. ib. i 10 p. 79 1. 21 Wiss. 

p. 120 1. 12 NON PRAECIPITAT Aug. (whero ?) God is patient, 
because eternal. Lact. De Ira Dei 20. Aug. De Ciu. Dei l 8. 5 
Lucan 11 106. v 795. vii 52, 353 in Havercamp. cf. Apul. 
Metam. ix 1 pr. consilium. 

DiscRETioNEM cf. Aug. De Ciu. Dei xviii 54. 

p. 120 1. 15 Arnob. i 22. iii 24. 

p. 120 1. 19 SEQVITVR VT c. 40 p. 118 1. 15 [n. A.S.]. lo 

si FORTE c, 38 fin. c. 43 pr. 

p. 120 1. 21 c£ Arnob. Ii 76. Kaye 133 sq. 

p. 120 1. 22 EXCEDERE De Spectac. 28 fin. non possumus 
uiuere sine uoluptate, qui mori cum uoluptate debemus. nam 
quod est aliud uotum nostrum, quam quod et apostoli, eocire de 15 
saeculo et recipi apud dominum? hic uoluptas, ubi et uotuni. 
De Orat. 5 p. 184 1. 5 Wiss. si ad dei uoluntatem et ad nostram 
suspensionem pertinet regni dominici repraesentatio, quomodo 
quidam pertractum quendam in saeculo postulant, cum regnum 
dei, qiiod ut adueniat oramus, ad consummationem saeculi 20 
tendat ? optamus maturius regnare et non diutius seruire. 
De Patient. 9 fin. cupio, inquit apostolus, recipi iam et esse cum 
domino [= Phil. 1. 23. A. S.]. quanto melius ostendit uotum ? 
Christianorum ergo uotum, si alios consecutos impatienter 
dolemus, ipsi consequi nolumus. De Idolol, 12 p. 43 1. 25 25 
Wiss. 24 p. 57 1. 21 Wiss. 

DEHINC so c. 40 p, 118 1. 13 primo...dehinc. So in Sall. 
Verg. Sen. Suet. 

p. 120 1. 24 LAETAMVR cet. supr. c. 31 fin. ctim enim concu- 
titur imperium,. . .utique et aliquo loco casus inuenimur. 30 
c. 20 quicquid agitur, praenuntiabatur cet. The same answer 
(fulfilment of prophecy) in Clem, Alex. Strom. iv 11 §§ 80 — 82. 
Woodham cites Cypr. De Mortal. 2 fiunt ecce quae dicta sunt 
et quando fiunt quae ante jjraedicta sunt sequentur et quae- 
cumque promissa sunt cet. Ad Demetrian, 4. cf the whole 35 

416 TERTVLLIANI [p. 120 1. 31— 

Cap. XLII 

p. 120 11. 31 ff. cf. supra c. 37 p. 108. 11. 28—29 n. Neander 
(where ?). Blunt First Three Centuries 149 priests and lawyers. 
150 soldiers. 150 teachers. 150-1 all who lived by the games 
(Apost. Const. VIII 32). 151-2 temples (architects, builders, 
5 artists). Blunt Right Use 257-8 (from Tert. De Idolol. 17 
p. 50 1. 14 Wiss. magistrates) 291-2. Zeller Ztschr. f wiss. 
Theol. 1891 356 — 367 interprets (correcting his Vortrage ii 
195) the Christians' odium humani generis (Tac. Ann. XV 44) 
/jbiaavOpwTTLa, also nicht ein zu Verbrechen geneigter 

lo Menschenhass, sondern weltfllichtiger Menschenscheu. omn. 
Ep. Ad Diognet. 5 1 sq. cited on p. 122 1. 1. Minuc. 8 § 4 
latehrosa et lucifuga natio, in publico muta, in angulis garrula. 
lustin. Apol. I 11 12. Orig. Contr. Cels. viii 73. 
TiTVLO c. 39 f. 44. 

15 p. 120 1. 32 Kaye 122. Suet. Dom. 15 (Flauius Clemens) 
contemptissimae inertiae. Philostrat. Vit. Apollon. v 33 p. 216. 
De Cult. Fem. ll 11 med. ac si necessitas amicitiarum ojfficio- 
rumque gentilium uos uocat, cur non uestris armis indutae 
procedatis ? tanto magis, quanto ad extraneas fidei ? ut sit 

2o inter dei ancillas et diaboli discrimen, ut exemplo sitis illis. 
Clem. Alex. Paedag. Ill § 78 f p. 299 P. e^ov Se aKpoacrdai fiev 
ao(bia<; delKrj^, aWa Kal 7ro\iTev(racrdai i^ov, dWa Kal ra ev 
Koafid), Koapi(o<i Kara Oeov ciTrdyeiv ov KeKcoXvrai. infructuosi 
lit. Colum. trop. infra hoc cap. et 43. Sen. rhet. Tac. Plin. ep. 

25 Hier. Adu. Heluid. i (ii 205). Paulin. Nol. ep. 10 2. 21 5 p. m. 
34 1. 43 4 f Philastr. Haer. 49. Rufin. Hist. Eccl. v 3 p. 259. 
Iren. iv 17 5.' 36 4. [Aug. very often. A. S.] Migne lii 496'^ 
497=^^ 703^ 704^ 710°. 719^ ^oO'^. 

p. 120 1. 33 INSTRVCTVS c. 6 p. 22 1. 33. De Anim. 19 

30 p. 330 1. 12 Wiss. (anima) quam dicimus cum omni instructu 
suo nasci. 32 p. 353 1. 27 Wiss. Exod. 12 37 ap. Aug. Qu. 
in Hept. 11 47 pr. [= dTroaKevi'). A. S.]. Oros. II 14 § 18. IV 6 
§ 24. V 4 § 3. 6 § 3. 14 § 1. Symm. ep. v 11. 20 (19) § 2. Ronsch 
p. 315 (once in Cic). Cassian. Inst. V 37 tit. de traditis 

35 nohis ah abbate Archibio cum instructu suo cellis. Apul. 
Metam. xi 30. Seru, Aen. v 402. Paulin. Nol. ep. 3. 3. 

p. 122 1. 1] APOLOGETICVS 42 417 

[ = Paul. Nol. ap. Aug. epist. 24 § 3. A. S.] Cf. De Idolol. 
13 p. 44 1. 12 Wiss. de hoc quidem prinio considam, au cum 
ipsis quoque nationibus communicare in huiusmodi seruus dei 
deheat, siue Jiabitu, siue uictu, uel quo alio genere laetitiae 
earum. 5 

p. 120 1. 34 No monks at this time. Kaye 356. 
BRACHMANAE Philostr. Vit. Apollon. III c. 10 ff. [Other 
references in the index to Phillimore's translation, vol. II 
(Oxford 1912) p. 285. A. S.] Eus. c. Hierocl. § 17 p. 443. 
Sid. ep. VIII 3 p. 489 Savaro. Aug. De Ciu. Dei iv 16. Tert. lo 
Adu. Marc. i 13 p. 307 1. 15 Kr. Theodoret Graec. Affect. 
Curat. I § 25 p. 8 1. 2. v § 58 p. 79 1. 40. xii § 44 p. 172 1. 15. 
Apul. flor. 15 p. 56. Plin. vi 64. Prud. Hamart. 403. Diod. 
Sic. XVII 102 fin. Strabo xvii p. 703 etc. Porphyr. De 
Abst. IV c. 17. V. M. (1 ex.). [add Ps.-Ambrose De Moribus 15 
Brachmanorum (Migne P. L. xvii 1167 — 1184) and exx. in 
Thes. s.v. Bragmani. A.S.] 

p. 122 1. 1 GYMNOSOPHiSTAE De Idolol. 14 p. 46 1. 10 Wiss. 
si non prohihet nos conuersari cum idololatris et adulteris et 
ceteris criminosis, dicens, Ceterum de mundo exiretis, non utique 20 
eas hahenas conuersationis immittit, ut, quoniam necesse est et 
conuiuere nos et commisceri cum peccatoribus, idem et com- 
peccare possimus. ubi est commercium uitae, quod apostolus 
concedit, ibi** peccare, quod nemo permittit. licet conuiuere 
cum ethnicis, commori non licet. conuiuamus cum omnibus, 25 
conlaetemur ex communione naturae, non superstitionis. pares 
anima sumus, non disciplina, compossessores mundi, non erroris. 
Clem. Alex. Strom. i c. 15 § 71 fin. iii 7 § 60 ovre Be 01 
jvfivocrocf^ia-Tal ovd^ ol Xeyofievoi ae/nvol yvvai^l ■x^pwvTat {ex- 
sules vitae). On the charge of unsociable seclusion Ep. ad 30 
Diogn. 5 pr. XpiaTtavol yap ovTe yfj ovTe <^o>vfj ovTe edeat 
BtaKeKpt/jLevot tmv Xotirwv elcrtv dvdpooirwv. ovTe jap ttov 
TToXet? I8ia<i KaTotKovatv oure StaXeKTfp Ttvl TraprjWajfxevTi 
")(pwvTat, ovTe ^lov Trapdarjpov acrKovcrtv ... KaTotKovvTe^ 8e 
TToXet? 'EWrjviSa^ re Kal ^ap^dpov<;, (o<; eKaaTO^ eKXrjpcodr], 35 
Kal ToU eyxwpiofi edecrtv dKo\ov6ovvTe<;, ev re ecrdrjTt Kai 
SiaiTT] Kal Tw \otird) /3i(p, davfiacrTrjv Kal o/xoXoyov/xevwi; 
TrapdSo^ov evheiKvvvTat tijv KaTdaTaatv Ti]<; eavTwv irdXi- 
M. T. 27 

418 TERTVLLIANI [p. 122 1. 1— 

rela^. 7raTpi8a<i oIkovctiv lhia<i, dW (w? irdpoiKOL. /Jbere^ovat 
TrdvTwv fo)9 TToXlrai Kai TrdvO^ v-irojxevovcnv co? ^eiof Trdaa 
^evrj traTpL^ iariv auTrtJy. ..eVt yi]<i SiarpL/SovaLV, aXX" iv 
ovpavw TroXirevovTaL' TreLdovTat rot? 6iptap.evoL^ vofioL^i, koI 
5 Tol^i ISLOL^i /3Loi<i vLKUiaL Tov<i vo/xovi. dyaTrwat 7rdvTa<i Kal inro 
TrdvTcov SLcoKOVTaL. Aiig. De Ciu. Dei XIX 19 says that converts 
make no change in non-essentials. 

EXSVLES ad nat. i 8 p. 71 h 23 Wiss. exsules uocis hurnanae. 
So Ou. in lex. exsul mentisque domusque. Publil. Syr. ciconia 

lo auis exsul hiemis. 

p. 122 1. 2 GRATIAM Bailey Rituale Anglo-Cath. 105-6 
(general thanksgiving). 

p. 122 1. 5 BALNEIS Clem. Alex. Paedag. iii 9 (Harnack 
Texte VIII 4 56). 

15 STABVLis Petron. Plin. ep, Mart. Suet. Vitell. 7. Apul. 
Metam. i 4 fin. 15 pr. 21 pr. x 1. 

p. 122 L 6 COHABITAMVS Hier. Aug. los. Ant. i 3 p. 4 p. m. 
(Bas. 1524). Conc. Carth. 3 c. 17. Rufin. Hist. Eccl. vii 26 
p. 444 [see Thes. A. S.]. 

20 p. 122 1. 7 MILITAMVS c. 37 p. 108 1. 11. 38. 46. Kaye 
344. Blunt Right Use 253-4. Yet he says De Idolol. 19 a« 
nunc de isto quaeritur, an fidelis ad militiam conuerti possit, 
et an militia ad fidem admitti, etiam caligata uel inferior 
quaeque, cui non sit necessitas immolationum uel capitalium 

25 iudiciorum, non conuenit sacramento diuino et humano, signo 
Christi et signo diaboli, castris lucis et castris tenehrxirum ; non 
potest una anima dtiobus deberi, deo et Caesari. Cf. De Cor. 
Milit. 11, where he draws a distinction between a Christian 
enlisting and a soldier converted. 11 fin. puto denique licere 

30 mUitia.m usque ad causam coronae. Lactant. v 17 §§ 12 13. 
VI 20 § 16 ita neque militare iusto licebit, cuius militia est ipsa 
iustitia. v 10 § 10 dicet hic aliquis ' quae ergo aut ubi aut 
qualis est pietas ? ' nimirum apud eos, qui bella nesciunt. 
Grotius De lure Belli et Pacis i 2 §§ 9 10. Cf. Acta Maxi- 

35 miliani (Ruinart p. 309 sq.) c. 1 mihi non licet militare, quia 
Cliristianus sum. Neumann i 115 n. 8. 127 n. 10. 241 n. 1. 
240. Orig. Contr. Cels. viii 73 p. 220 L. Constit. Apost. 
VIII 32 allowed soldiers to be baptized, provided they would 

p. 122 1. 15] APOLOGETICVS 42 419 

proinise to abstain from violence, from false accusation and to 
be content with their wages [Cf. Luke 3 14. A.S.] Tert. 
De Patient. 7 fin. p. 12, 1. 24 Kr Gentiles prefer gain to their 
soul, cum...ludo et castris sese locant. Euseb. (Hist. Eccl. viii 
4 § 3) thinks it matter for high commendation that Christian 5 
soldiers under Diocletian suffered themselves to be turned out 
of the army rather than renounce their religion, and represents 
their station as very honourable and very lucrative. Soldiers 
Zahn Forschungen v 300. Aug. Ep. 128 (?). 189 § 4 ff. De Ciu. 
Dei I 21. 26. Conc. Arelat. (a.d. 314) can. 3 (Hefele i^ Freib. 10 
1873 p. 206). Paulin. ep. 18 § 7 S. Martin retires from 

RVSTICAMVR Cic. Cohim. Sidon. 

p. 122 1. 8 QVOMODO...VIDEMVR, NON SCIO: indic. cf. c. 21 
p. 74 23n. 15 

p. 122 1. 11 De Cult. Fem. 11 11 pr. nam nec templa cir- 
cuitis nec spectacula postulatis nec festos dies gentilium nostis. 

DILVCVLO Plaut. Cic. Censorin. Fronto uulg. Suet. Vit. 15. 
Apul. Metam. iii 25 f. iv 21. 

p. 122 \. 18 RiGERE ET PALLERE stiff and pale with the 20 
bath in midwinter. Ennius Ann. frag. 111 (Baehrens) Tar- 
quinii corpus bona femina lauit et unxit. Greg. Hom. 39 (?), 
of his deceased sister, cumque corpus eius ex more mortuorum 
ad lauandum nudatum esset. Dial. Ili 17 quem ex more lotum 
et uestimentis indutum. Acts 9 37 of Tabitha. Pet. Damian. 25 
ep. 5. Nicet. Choniat. in Vit. Isaaci i 3. Greg. Turon. De 
•Gloria Confess. i 4 (La Cerda). Herald. Digress. i 27 p. 253. 
Bingham xxiii 3 3. 

p. 122 1. 15 LIBERALIBVS 17 March. De Idolol. 16 pr. togae 
purae. De Spectac. 5 p. 7 1. 5 Wiss. et cum promiscue ludi 3° 
Liheralia uocarentur, honorem Liheri patris manifeste sonahant. 
Lihero enim a rusticis pnmo fieha.nt oh heneficium quod ei 
adscrihunt demonstrati gratia uini. Aug. De Ciu. Dei vii 21. 
Valer. Max. v 4 § 4. App. B. C. iv 30. 

SVPREMAM CENANTIBVS Woodham cites [after La Cerda 35 
comm. on luu. 11 20 miscellanea ludi] Liu. xxvi 14. Tac. 
Ann. II 31, of Libo, ipsis quas in noaissimam uoluptatem 
adhihuerat epulis excruciatus, i.e. ultimam cenam. Herald. cites 


420 ' TERTVLLIANI [p. 122 1. 15— 

Apul. IV 13 gladiatores isti famosae manus, uemitores illi 
prohatae pernicitatis, alibi noxii perdita securitate suis epulis 
bestiarum saginas instruentes. Marquardt iii^ 561 n. 8. 

p. 122 1. 16 VBi VBi Ter. Eunuch. 295. 1042. Andr. 684. 
5 Attius 425. Publil. 154. [Sall.]. Inuect. in Cic. i § 1. Fronto 
p. 70 Naber. [Add Aug. ord. ii 19 p. m. conf. ix 11. x 34. 
A. S.] 

CAPiTl De Cor. Milit. 5 pr. liaec \jiatwxi\ prima praescribet 
coronam capiti non conuenire . . .utere itaque floribvs uisu et 

lo odoratu, quorum sensuum fructus est...tam contra naturam 
est florem capite sectari, quam cibum aure, quam sonum nare. 
cf. 7 on its connexion with idolatry. 

p. 122 1. 17 CORONAM cet. cor. mil. 2 neminem dico fidelium 
coronam capite nosse alias extra tempus temptationis eiusmodi. 

15 5, citedabove. De Spectac. 18 f. nullus tibi coronarum usus est. 
Minuc. 12 § 6 non floribus caput nectitis. 38 § 2. 39 §§ 8 — 4 
his enim [florihus^l et sparsis utirnur mollihus ac solutis et sertis 
colla complectimur. sane quod caput non coronamus, ignoscite, 
auram boni floris narihus ducere, non occipitio capillisue solemus 

20 haurire. Holden ib. cites Lucian. Nigrin. 32 ^riaro tmv 
(TT€(l)avov/xeva>v, otl firj taacn rov crT€(f)avov tov tottov et 'yap 
Toi, e(f>r), T^ Trvor} tcov icov re koI poScov ')(aipovaiv, viro Trj pivl 
fi(iXi.ara expv^ avrom arecfiecrOaL irap' avrrjv oi^ olov re tt]v ava- 
TTvoifv, %v &)? TTKelarov dveaTrcov t?;? r)Bovrj<;. Cypr. De Lapsis 2 

25 (p. 258 5 — 8). Conc. Illiber. c. 55. Clem. Alex. in Neumann 
l 114 n. 3 sq. e.g. Paedag. ii 8 § 72 p. 213 P. arecfidvcov Se rjfXLv 
/cai fivpaiv XPV^'''^ ^^'^ dvajKaia' i^oKeiXeL ydp etS' rj8ova<i Kal 
padvfxia';. eipjovrai tolvvv arecfxivcov oi rcp Xojco TraLoayco- 
yovfievoi. Kaye 362-6. Bingham XVI 4 8. xxiii 3 9. 

30 p. 122 1. 20 NOVIMVS De Paenitent. 9 pastum et potum pura 
nosse, non uentris scilicet, sed animae causa. 

VIDERINT c. 25 p. 86 1. 31 n. De Spectac. 15 pr. De 
Idolol. 7 fin. 11 p. 41 1. 20 Wiss. Adu. Prax. 1 p. 227 
1. 16 Kr. De Patient. 16 p. 24 1. 5 Kr. Minuc. 89 § 7. ind. 

35Cypr. Pseudo-Cypr. p. 294 (= Sodoma, CSEL xxiii p. 218) 
1. 112. 

sPECTACVLis cf c. 38 p. 110 1. 14 sq. De Spect. 24 p. 24 
1. 19 Wiss. atquin hinc uel maxime intellegunt factum 

p. 122 1. 24] APOLOGETICVS 42 421 

(Jhristianum, de repudio spectaculorum. cf. c. 1. 2. 19, Clem. 
Alex. Paedag. iii c. 11 §§ 76 77 p. 298. Minuc. 12 § .5. 87 § 11. 
Neumann i 130 n. 9. 

p. 122 1. 21 Blunt Right Use 3()1. 

p. 122 1. 22 Kaye 360-1 (trades forbidden to Christians in 5 
the De Idolol.). 

TVRA De Idolol. 11 p. 42 1. 21 Wiss. (cf. Neumann l 135) 
quo ore Gkristianus tnrarius, si per templa ty^ansihit, quo 
ore fumantes aras despuet et exsujjiabit, quihus ipse prospexit? 
De Cor. Milit. 10 m. et si me odor alicuius loci offen- 10 
derit, Arabiae aliquid incendo ; sed non eodem ritu nec 
eodem habitu nec eodem apparatu, quo agitur apud idola. 
Optat. III p. 59 (62) nidli dictum est ' aut tus pone aut basilicas 
dirue.' istae enini res solent martyria generare. Bingham 
XXIII 2 5 p. 123. Clem. Alex. Paedag. ili 8 el /nvpot^ Kal 15 
(TT€(f)nvoi<; ■)(pr](TTeov. Lactant. iv 3 § 9 (§ 8 if a philosopher 
is a priest, jjhilosophia inter sacra cessabit) : illa enim religio 
niuta est, non tantum quia mutorum est, sed quia ritus eius in 
manu et digitis est, non in corde aut lingua, sicut nostra, quae 
uera est. cf i 20 § 26. Ou. Met. l 248 quis sit laturus in ar^cLS 20 
tm^a ; cf. viii 277. 

p. 122 1. 24 CARIORIS )( Migne Lli 754 ' ad hoc solum uilius 
emitur ut carius distrahatur! So Cic. Suet. in lexx. and Apul. 
Metam. ix 10. Aug. De Trinit. xiii 3 uili uelle emere et caro 
uendere. [Add Conf. xi 2. Serm. 86 7. A. S.] Paulin. Nol. 25 
ep. 23 34 f. caro aestimauit. 

CHRiSTiANis SEPELiENDis De Idolol. 11 p. 41 1. 20 Wiss. 
uiderint, si eaedem merces, tura dico et ce