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BEING called^upon lo produce an edition of the Apology, 
I found myself embarrassed by the very abundance of 
material. For, unlike the Meno, the Apology had been 
amply edited in English. Indeed the only chance of 
imparting any distinctive character to a new edition 
seemed to lie in neglecting the labours of others and 
trusting to my own resources to produce such notes as 
a long experience in teaching suggested might be useful. 
This course appeared the more excusable as the edition 
asked for was required to be of a somewhat elementary 
character. Accordingly no commentator was consulted 
until my own notes were complete, Riddell only excepted, 
with whose views I was too familiar to be able to clear 
my mind of them, if I had wished to do so. It thus 
happens that a good deal of the common stock, especially 
in the way of illustrative references, has not been bor- 
rowed, but brought afresh. This, however, is a matter 
of very trifling importance to the reader, whose main 
concern is to find the matter at hand for his service. The 
other writers to whom I am bound to make acknowledge- 
ment for help here and there are Mr. Purves, who has 
included the whole of the Apology in his Selections from 
the Dialogues of Plato, the late Professor Wagner, and 
Mr. Louis Dyer, Assistant Professor in Harvard Uni- 
versity, whose lucid Appendix on the Athenian Courts, of 
Law has been of especial service. Mr. Adam's recent 
school edition, to which the present one must, to my 
regret, appear as a rival, I have never seen at all. It is 
perhaps superfluous to add that recourse has been had 
to such sources of information as Smith's Dictionary of 
Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, the works 
of Zeljer and the inexhaustible mine f learning contained 
in Grote's writings. 


Having acquitted myself of what may. be called for 
distinction public obligations, I now turn to more private 
and personal ones. My old friend and school-fellow, the 
Rev. Robert L, Clarke, Fellow and Librarian of Queen's 
College, has once more exercised his patient kindness in 
revising my notes. How shall I thank him for the time 
he has spent upon me, or for the truly Socratic irony 
with which he convinced me of erroi, while seeming to 
defer to my arguments in defence of it ' To Mr. Evelyn 
Abbott too, Fellow of Balhol College, I am indebted not 
only for the useful suggestions which his practical ex- 
perience of editing enabled him to make, but also for 
having placed at my disposal some valuable matter, of 
which I have availed myself as freely as it was given. The 
text followed has again been that of K, F. Hermann. 

Sept. i, 1887. 


IN preparing this second edition of the Apology I have 
had the advantage of consulting Mr. J. Adam's excejlent 
edition of the same classic in the Pitt Press Series, I am 
glad to find that our works need not be considered rivals, 
as his is intended for a higher class of readers than mine, 
The text in this edition has been brought into conformity, 
in all essentials, with that of Baiter, which is recognised by 
the University. 

July 30, 1890, 


THE world will always be the better for the Apology of Import- 
Socrates. It shows us philosophy tried before the bar of a anceofthe 
passing public opinion, condemned to drink the bitter juice po osy< 
of the hemlock, and j ustified before the ages. 1 1 is an appeal 
from prejudice to reason, from seeming to being, from time 
to eternity. How often, when passion has subsided, does 
the better mind of man reject what man deliberately does in 
the name of God and goodness ! As Anytus was leaving 
the court radiant with triumph, Socrates remarked, l How 
miserable is this man, who seems not to know that, whichever 
of us has done the better and the nobler for all time, he it is 
who is the winner ! ' 

It is to Plato's Apology that the world indirectly owes the 
deep and enduring influence of Stoicism. For it was the 
reading of this little work which stirred up Zeno from his far 
home in Cyprus, and brought him to Athens to study phi- 

The Apology is the natural introduction to the writings of It forms the 
Plato. Not only is it one of the simplest and easiest of his natural in- 
pieces, involving as it does no difficulties of argumentation, t the study 
but it has the further advantage of giving us a full-length O f Plato, 
portrait of Socrates, in which the whole man is set vividly 
before us. In the dialogues we have Socrates at work on his 
mission , but the Apology lets us into the secret of what that 
mission was, and reveals to us the spirit in which Socrates 
undertook it. We see there the earnest thirst for truth, the 
dissatisfaction with received and unreasoned opinion, the in- 
cessant converse with men of all classes, the obstinate ques- 
tioning of himself and others, the abnegation of all preten- 


sionb to knowledge, the dialectical methoo^ the negame 
result, the deep-seated pei suasion of a personal guidance by 
some unseen intelligence, the unfaltering faith m goodness ; 
nor are the lightei touches wanting the raillery, the mock- 
solemnity, the delicious irony, the perfect politeness, the 
serene good humour. 

Lost Socra- The ' Socraticas charts ' were far more extensive than the 
wMitera- rema i ns w hi c h have come down to us We cannot indeed 
quanel with time, which has preserved to us all Plato : but 
still a great loss has been sustained Of the innumerable 
works of Antisthenes 1 , which made Timon call him 'an all- 
producing babbler,' not one has been spared to us. He was 
placed by ancient critics in the foremost rank of the Socratics, 
on a level with Plato and Xenophon, Of Alexamenus of 
Teos nothing more is kno\vn than that his were the first- 
written of the Socratic dialogues 2 . Among the othei imme- 
diate disciples or friends of Socrates there were dialogues 
cuirent in antiquity under the names of Aeschines, Aristippus, 
Bryson, Cebes, Cnto, Eucleides, Glaucon, Phaedo, Simmias, 
and lastly of Simon the cobbler, to whose workshop Socrates 
used to lesort, and who took notes of his discourses 3 . Amid 
this abundant Socratic literature, all of which owed its birth 
to the one originative impulse, there must have been much 
which would have helped us to bridge over the gulf between 
the Socrates of Plato and the Socrates of Xenophon. Ae- 
schines in particular, owing to his lack of imagination, was 
supposed by some critics to have reflected more faithfully 
The three than anyone else the genuine mind of Socrates*. As it is, 

1 Diog, Laert. vi. 15-18. 2 Athen. 505 c 

& On Antisthen&sj see Diog. Laert. ii. 47; on Alexamenus, 
Athen. 505 c , on Aeschines, Diog. Laert, ii, 60, 61 ; on Aris- 
tippus, Athen. si. 118 d, Diog. Laert. ii. 83, 84, on Bryson, 
Athen* xi. 508 d, 509 c, with which cp. Xen, Conv. iv. 63 ; oa 
Cebes, one of whose three dialogues, the nfrcif, is still extant, Diog, 
Laert. n. 125; on Cnto, Diog. Laert. u, 121; on Eucleides, 
Diog. Laert. ii 64, 108; on Glaucon and Simmias, Diog. Laeit 
ii 124; on Simon the cobbler, Diog, Laert. u 122, 123, 
4 Aristeides Rhetor Qrat. xlvi, p. 295, Dmdorf. 


however, we are reduced to three contemporary sources of pictures of 
information in endeavouring to estimate the real personality i! > ocra | es > 
of Socrates namely, the picture drawn of him by Xenophon, ^^ Jf 
the picture drawn of him by Plato, and the picture drawn of Xenophon, 
him by Aristophanes, 

Widely different as these three pictures are, they have yet 
no unhkeness which is fatal to the genuineness of any, You J 
may always distort a countenance almost beyond the bounds Mt C j^Jj]y 
of recognition by merely depressing some of the features with- conflicting 
out at all exaggerating the rest. Xenophon, the man of action, 
brings out into full relief the practical side of the mind of 
Socrates; the theoretical is sketched only in faint outline, 
We have a hint given us here and there of a style of discourse, 
which the biographer, absorbed in admiration of the moral 
and social qualities of his hero, did not care to record at 
length To Plato, on the other hand, the thing of absorbing 
interest is the theoretical side of his master's mind, with 
which he has so interblended his own, that his veiy con- 
temporaries did not seek to distinguish between the two. 
Socrates and Plato are like the manied spirits seen by 
Swedenborg, who presented to the observer the appearance 
of one human being 

Even the caricature of Socrates drawn in the Clouds of 
Aristophanes does not contradict the ideas \\e derive of him 
from elsewhere. Only we have now shifted to the point of 
view of the enemy. Instead of marvelling at the severity 
and subtlety of the mind which must and will see what can 
be said on both sides of a question, before it incline to either, 
we condemn the Sophist, who is upsetting all established 
notions, and whose whole skill is to { make the worse appear 
the better reason.' From this it is an easy descent to repre- 
sent him as a person of more than doubtful morality, whose 
society is contaminating his contemporaries from Euripides 1 
downwards. Difficult as it is for us to realise that Socrates 
could ever have been a mark for righteous indignation, as we 
look back upon his figure, encircled with a halo through the 
vista^of years, we must yet remember that this third picture 
1 Frogs, 1491, 


of Socrates \\ as the popular one, and that m his o\\n lifetime 
he vas numbered among the disreputable* 1 , and labelled 
'dangerous. 5 
The So- As it is this third picture of Socrates which chiefly concerns 

T^r f the reai ^ ei ^ ^ e ^P ol Sy> we w1 ^ not dwe ^ ^ ere u P on the 
rabilia m " ot ^ er two * nor see k to a 4l u dge ^tween their respective 
claims to authenticity. Certainly the sententious person 
described by Xenophon in the Memorabilia, who too often 
leminds us painfully of Mr. Barlou, does not seem likely 
to have stirred men's minds by his discourses, as we know 
that the real Socrates actually did above all talkers before 
or after him, one only excepted. It may be, as an ingenious 
friend has put it to me, that Sociates 'talked up to Plato 
and down to Xenophon;' but more likely Socrates was 
the same throughout, and the mental eye of Plato and 
Xenophon saw in him what it brought the power to see. 
The Memorabilia indeed contains nothing but what is edify- 
ing, and some things that are striking ; but the mass of it is 
simply commonplace We may grant that what is common- 
place now was profound and original when it was first 
uttered, and that it is the triumph of truth to have become 
truism ; but this will not avail us much, for a good deal of 
what the Memoiabilia contains must, to adapt a vigorous 
phrase of Macaulay s, have been commonplace at the court 
of Chedorlaomer 

The So- The sketch of Socrates in his lighter moments drawn by 

crates of Xenophon in his Symposium approaches more nearly to 

pWs ^ ato ^ an an y tm ' n ' m tne Memorabilia. Xenophon's 

Symposi- touch lacks the delicacy of Plato's, which redeems some of 

ton. the features from coarseness : but we feel in reading the 

Symposium that we have essentially the same man before 

us as the Socrates of the Platonic dialogues. 

Personality How the personality of that man has stamped itself upon 

of Socrates, the world's memory ! We can picture him now to ourselves 

as familiarly as if he had moved among us but yesterday 

1 Channides says in the Symposium of Xenophon (Xen, Conv. 
32), oAXa ai Saw/xm*, or p\v irkovfftos fy, iAoiSfyow /t on 
ffwqv, vvv B' ! 

the robust fraipe, the frank ugliness, of \vhich his friends, 
if not himself, were vain, the Silenus-Iike features, the snub 
nose, the thick lips, the protruding eyes a regular beauty, 
as he himself declared, if beauty is to be measured by utility; 
for his eyes enabled him to see lound the comer, his nostrils 
were expanded to meet all odours, his nose had no useless 
bridge to interfere with seeing, his ja\\s were strong to bite, 
and his lips were soft to kiss 1 . We can fancy him starting 
from his humble home, shoeless and shirtless, as his manner 
was, except on some great occasion, when he wished to do 
honour to the banquet of a friend. He has nsen betimes in 
the morning, and enjoyed the plain fare which a slave might 
have grumbled at ; and nou he is off to the \\alks or to the 
gymnasia, secretly glad perhaps to be relieved for a time 
from the excellent practice which Xanthippe afforded him in 
learning to bear patiently the humours of mankind. Later 
on in the day, when the market is filling, he will be sure to 
be there , for wherever men congregate, theie Socrates finds 
the materials for study. He may unroll the volumes of an- 
tiquity at intervals with his disciples, seeking to cull from 
their pages some maxims which may be useful for life : but 
the real books of Socrates are ' the men in the city.' So 
devoted in fact is Socrates to this fascinating study of man, 
that he appears like a stranger beyond the city walls, and 
has to be enticed outside of them by Phaedrus with a book 
under his arm, like a donkey by a carrot. He might leave 
Athens on a religious mission, or at the call of duty, to serve 
with steady valour in the wars of his country ; but would 
never be tempted away by the promptings of inclination. 
For what need had Socrates to leave Athens, 4 the very 
prytaneum of wisdom, 5 to which all the most famous mis 
of the age were only too glad to come ? It was there that 
his life's work lay, which he believed had been appointed 
him by God 'both by oracles and dreams, and in every 
way in which any divine dispensation had ever appointed 
anything 1 to a man to do.' 

J Xen. Conv. \. 5-7. 


Hb life's And what was this life's \\ork? The queerest surety that 
work> uas e\er undei taken by mortal but then Socrates was the 
queerest of mortals, as friends and foes alike declared ; in 
fact half the secret of the mysterious charm which drew 
around Socrates a circle of devoted attendants, consisting of 
the keenest and brightest intellects of the age, lay in the fact 
that they had never seen or heard of anyone like him 1 . 
The work then to which Socrates conceived himself to be 
called was that of convincing all the glib talkers of the age 
the statesmen, sophists, rhetoricians, poets, diviners, rhap- 
sodes, and all the rest of them, that they really knew nothing 
of the things which they were talking about, For not one of 
them could define the art or science which he professed to 
practise or to teach ; and Socrates considered that all true 
Thephilo- knowledge must rest upon general definitions 2 . It was the 
sophical e ft- ort to a ppiy t hj s s j m pi e principle that led to the creation 
of his con* ^ ^ e science f lo ic ' And as the application was made 
versation exclusi\ ely to subjects connected with man, the SiaAem/% 
uhich Socrates so incessantly practised, contained in germ 
ethics, politics, logic and metaphysics, Thus we see how 
the discourses of Socrates were the prolific seed-bed out of 
tthich sprang all subsequent Greek philosophy. It is not, 
howexer, with the philosophical importance of Socrates' 
conversation that we aie here concerned, but with the 
Effect pro- practical effect produced by his fXey^os , or method of cross- 
duced by examination, upon the minds of his victims. That effect, 
evlmuia. ^ 1S scarce ty ^cessary to state, took the form of an 
rion extreme exasperation, in spite of the polished urbanity with 
which the operation was performed ; in spite also of the 
soothing profession, which invariably accompanied it, that 
Socrates was equally ignorant with his lespondent, and 
was availing himself of his valuable assistance in the search 
for knowledge. 

Socrates' The picture that \\e have endea\ cured to present of 
claim to in- Socrates' personality is not complete, until we have added 
sptration. ^ crowning feature of all the claim modestly but seriously 

1 Plat. Symp, 221 c, a Xen, Mem, iv. 6, 3. 


advanced by this strange being that he was directly inspired 
by God, From his boyhood Socrates had been conscious of 
a singular experience, which appeared to mark him off from 
the rest of mankind This was in an inner voice, which 
seemed to speak with him, and would check him suddenly 
when about to do or say something. To this voice Socrates 
yielded an unquestioning obedience, and was enabled by its 
aid to give wise advice to his friends with regard to the future 
advice which they never refused to follow without subse- 
quently regretting it l . 

Connected doubtless with this phenomenon were the His fits of 
strange fits of abstraction to which Socrates was liable at abstrac- 
the most unexpected moments. His friends, who were tlon * 
acquainted with this peculiarity, made a point of not allow- 
ing him to be disturbed when he was in this condition, On 
one occasion, at Potidaea, Socrates is related to have stood 
thus in meditation for twenty-four hours, to the amazement 
of his fellow-soldiers, some of whom camped out all night 
from curiosity to see how long the fit of abstraction would 
continue. At sunrise Socrates said his prayers to the sun, 
and went off about his business 2 , 

Such was the man who, up to the age of seventy, played His habit 
the part of a gadfly to the Athenians, settling dQwn upon of calling 
them morning, noon and night, pestering them with his everything 
awkward questions and bewildering them with his dialectic, { 
until all their ideas seemed to be turned upside down ; 
calling into question, always indirectly, and with the most 
provoking appearance of having reason upon his side, the 
value of their religion, the value of their morality, the value 
of their political institutions, the value of their professional 
employments and of their cherished aims in life -the value 
in short of everything except truth and goodness : for of the 
value of these things Socrates never doubted, nor allowed 
others to doubt, 

1 Xen. Mem. i, i, 4, iv. 3, 12, iv. 8, 5 ; Apol. Soc. 4, 13 ; 
Plato, Apol. 31 D, 40 B ; Theaet. 151 A ; Phaedrus 242 B, C ; Rep. 
496 C ; Theag. 1 28 D i 29 D 

1 Syiqp, I75B, 220 C, D. 


Human nature being uhat it is, \\t need not feel much 
aspeiation hur p r | sec j t ^ at the day of reckoning should have come at 

jast - J* 60 ? 16 m tekt have P ut u ? Wlth Socrates himself 1 ; 
but, unfortunately, his example had raised a host of imi- 
tatois. For the young men vho had leisure to attend him, 
and who naturally belonged in the mam to the upper classes, 
had begun to turn against their elders the weapons of nega- 
tive dialectic, which they had learnt to use during their 
intercourse with Socrates, This was the thing which brought 
public indignation to a climax. There was an outcry raised 
that the young men were being ruined, and that the person 
who was ruining them was Socrates. It needed now only 
that someone should take the initiative m attacking him, for 
all classes in the community had been annoyed and offended 
in turn. 

Anjtus, Prominent at this time (B.C. 399) among the leadeis of the 
restored democracy was Anytus, \\ho had fought and suf- 
fered in the cause of the people. We need not listen to the 
scandal of Scholiasts and of late Greek writers, by whom his 
character has been assailed. It is enough that by the con- 
fession of Plato, corroborated by the negative testimony of 
Xenophon, Anytus was a perfectly respectable person, and in 
fact a fairly favourable specimen of the democratic states- 
man. To this man Socrates had unfortunately given offence 
by saying that it ill became his position in the state to bring 
up his son to the family trade of a tanner. Anytus may 
have been animated to some extent by personal motives: 
but it is quite intelligible that he conceived himself to be 
acting on public grounds, and that he sincerely believed 
Socrates to be a very mischievous person. This conviction 
is not likely to have been diminished by the fact that the 
political leanings of Socrates were rather to the aristocratic 
side } as manifested by a theoretical admiration for the cus- 
toms and institutions of Sparta 2 . Besides which, Critias, the 
bloodthirsty inaugurator of the recent reign of terror at 
Athens, had at one time been prominent among the dis- 

1 Euttyphro, 3 C Cnto^E 


ciples of Socrates, and some of the odium which his memory 
excited no doubt lecoiled upon his former teacher. 

Though Anytus was the prime mover in the matter, he Meletus 
was not the ostensible prosecutor of Socrates, that part being and Lycon 
played by a young and comparatively obscure man, named 
Meletus, the son, as it would appear, of a well-known poet of 
the same name. A third person who took part in the prose- 
cution was Lycon, a rhetorician. Thus the three accusers 
were representative of the outraged feelings and harassed 
interests of different classes in the community Anytus 
taking up the quarrel of the manufacturers and politicians 
against Socrates, Lycon that of the rhetoricians, and Meletus 
that of the poets. 

But it is one thing to believe that a man's influence is 
mischievous in a community, and quite another to bring 
home to him a definite charge, which shall suffice to secure 
his condemnation. How then were his enemies to lay hold 
of Socrates, the spotless integrity of whose whole career did 
not seem to offer much handle to an accuser? The follow- 
ing considerations may help us partially to understand this 

Philosophy up to this period had run wholly m the groove State of 
of physical inquiry, and, strange to say, had been thoroughly philosophy 
mechanical and materialistic in its tendencies, seeking to ^L 
explain everything by evolution out of some material elements, 
We are apt to regard this as the final consummation of phi- 
losophy, but it was the first stage among the Greeks, which 
they outgiew with the advance of thought It was so sti iking 
a novelty to proclaim that mind was necessary to arrange 
these elements into the organic whole of the universe, that 
Aristotle tells us that Anaxagoras, or whoever preceded him in 
doing so, appeared like the only sober man among diunkards 1 . 
Nevertheless Anaxagoras himself, who had made his home 
at Athens, had been indicted for impiety, in declaring the g 0ras f or 
sun to be a material object, and had been obliged to take impiety, 
refuge at Lampsacus. Late writers tell us that Socrates had Relation o 

1 Metaphysics I 3, i(5, 


Socrates to been a pupil of Anaxagoras, and, after his condemnation, of 
Anaxa- fo s disciple Archelaus, with whom the Ionic school of phy- 
2 ms sical philosophy came to a close \ We seem to gather how- 
ever from Plato, that whatexer acquaintance Socrates may 
have had with the doctrines of Anaxagoras was derived from 
reading. He is made to say in the Phaedo that the delight 
with which he at first hailed the teaching of Anaxagoras 
gave way subsequently to intense disappointment, when he 
found him deserting final for physical causes, and proving 
untrue to his own grand principle. For Socrates imagined 
he had found m Anaxagoras a guide who would conduct 
him on a royal road to the knowledge of nature If the 
universe were really constructed by mind, must it not be 
constructed in the best manner possible ? And surely then 
the right method of studying nature was to seek to ascertain 
what was best and why. But Socrates found Anaxagoras, 
instead of pursuing this method, descanting, like the rest, 
upon air, fire and water, and in fact confounding the physical 
conditions with the real causes of phenomena 2 . Accord- 
ingly he abandoned Anaxagoras in disgust, and included 
him m his sweeping condemnation of the physicists gene- 
Inflnence rally as little better than madmen 3 . The discourses on 
of Socrates nature recorded in the Memorabilia 4 are entirely on the 
science 511 * lines mcilcate<1 * n the Phaedo. For Socrates did talk occa- 
sionally on nature as well as on man, and notwithstanding 
his disavowal of physical science, he has nevertheless power- 
fully influenced the uorld in this department no less than in 
ethics and in logic, though his influence has been in this 
case a retarding one. He was the parent of the teleological 
idea which maintained undisputed sway over men's minds 
until Bacon headed a reaction against it, and declared in 
favour of the pre-Socratics, who had contented themselves 
Thepopu- with the 'how 5 without the c why. J But the distinction be- 

1 Diog Laert. ii. 16, 19, 23, 45, x, 12 , Euseh, Praep. Evang. 
x, 15, 9, ed, Heimchen. 
3 Phaedo 97-99. 

3 Xen. Mem i. i, 11-13; iv. 7, 6. 
* Mem. i. 4 and iv, 13 ; cp Conv vii. 4. 


tween Socrates and the Ionic school, profound as it was in lar confu- 
reality, was too subtle for the men who condemned him, JJS^ im ^ 
The rough and ready syllogism of the popular judgment ran physicists 
thus rendered 

All who talk about nature are atheists, possible an 

Socrates talks about nature. indictment 

. . lor irren- 

.'. Socrates is an atheist, gi on> 

If, as was well known, Socrates claimed to hold communica- jjj s c j alm 
tion with some higher power, this only constituted an aggrava- to mspira 
tion of his offence H ere was a man who was ready to believe tion servec * 
m anything except what he was expected to believe in ! mvatetos 

A prosecution for heresy was no new thing at Athens, as Imposed 
we have seen already from the case of Anaxagoras So far offence. 
back as the year 431 B c a law had been carried by the Prosecu 
rhetor DlOpeithes VayyeX\f<r0ai rouj ra &?a M vo/ufowa? r) tion f r 
\6yovs TTfpi r&v fternpo-iW foSdo-Koi/ra? 1 . ereS J 

And so it came to pass that the man. who above all others 
in that age and country believed most profoundly in God was 
brought up before a public tribunal as an atheist. This was 
the first count in the indictment. 

The natural sequel to a charge of irrehgion is a charge Charge of 
of immorality. It was hopeless to fasten any such charge corrupting 
upon Socrates directly, for the blamelessness of his life was ^ y oun ' 
patent to everybody, and so it was represented that his 
society had a corrupting influence upon the young. This 
was the second count in the indictment. Such a charge was 
difficult to meet, while it gave ample room for the play of 
prejudice. The tyrants of the Oligarch)', who had reason to 
fear the influence of Socrates upon young and ardent 
spirits, had shown the way in this direction, in forbidding 
Socrates to converse with any man under thirty'. 

As the first count was one which might have been urged Socrates 
against any philosopher of the period, so the second was one JJfjjj^p 
which might have been urged against any of the Sophists, sicists on y 
a class of professional teachers who supplied the place of the one 

1 Plat. Peric. 169 D ; cp. Arist, Wasps 380. 
3 Xen. Mem. i. 2, 35. 


hand and university teachers among the Greeks, and from vhom, out- 
tk S- wardly at least, Socrates was only distinguished by the fact 

thither. l ^ at ^ e ^ not rece * ve P av * r nis serv i ces or lve regular 


Terms of Behold then Socrates arraigned on the double charge of 

the indict- irrehgion and immorality f The indictment, with that 

m abst dell htf ul simplicity which so favourably distinguishes Greek 

km. from English legal phraseology \ was worded thus : ' A&/c 

SoKpcm^j ovs ptv T) no\ts VO/JLL^L Stovs ov vopifav, erepa 8e KCLIVO, 

flatpj/ta t(T0epo)V dfiim fif Kal rov? veou? 5ca^)^etpa)j/. 

Technical As the offence with which Socrates was charged was not 
name for it against any individual, but against the state, the proper tech- 
nical term for the proceedings \\as ypa^jj, not &'*?/, though 
in a looser sense &'#/ was used for any legal case, and is in 
fact the term exclusively employed in this connection through- 
out the Apology of Xenophon. It \\as then a ypafy do-efrmy 
which was brought against Socrates, 

Prelhni- We can imagine the dismay of Xanthippe when one 
nary^pro- spring 2 morning Meletus called at the door accompanied 
ceedings ^ two w it nesse s (^rrlpes) to serve a summons upon 
summoned Socrates, citing him to appear before the King Archon, 
to appear This was the second of the nine archons, who represented 
before the fa priestly functions of the original patriarchal monarchy, 
chon r * an( ^ ^ jurisdiction over all cases touching religion. The 
*ApX<w fttHTihevs might have stopped proceedings, had he 
been so inclined. As he did not, the indictment was in due 
course posted up in some public place, and all the city knew 
The av6,~ that Socrates was to be tried for his life. The first proceed- 
j n g s were st ju k e f ore the King Archon, They were called 
the waKpivts 3 , and consisted in part in the registration under 
oath of the prosecutor's indictment and the defendant's plea 

1 Compaie for instance the will of An&totle, Theophrastus, or 
one of the later Peripatetics, preserved by Diogenes, with the will of 

2 The trial took pkce in the Attic month Munychion, corre- 
sponding to the latter part of April and the beginning of May. 

3 See a playful employment of the term in Xen Conv v. 2 


in answer to it, This was known as the ai/r^otr/a, or, more 
correctly, the Siayiotna, and the document itself, which con- 
tained the indictment and the plea in reply, was also called 
avTupoffla l . It is during this preliminary stage of proceed- 
ings that we find Socrates in the Euthyphro The dhiner 
of that name is surprised to find him quitting his usual 
haunts m the Lyceum, and resorting instead to the neigh- 
bourhood of the King's Porch. 

And now the final stage has been reached. The case is The Court, 
not tried before the high court of Areiopagus, but before an 
ordinary SiKaor/ipioy or Heliastic Court, consisting of the same 
mixed elements as the ewcXqo-ia Out of the six thousand 
annually elected fiiKaorm some fi\e hundred of his fellow - 
citizens are told off to try Socrates ; and within the limits of 
a single day the temerity of a city mob will dispose of the 
life of one of the noblest of mankind. It is true that each of 
them has sworn a solemn oath ^hat he will give an impaitial 
hearing to prosecutor and defendant, and will not let himself 
be influenced by considerations extraneous to the case 2 : but 
this will scarcely avail to supply him with an enlightened 
mind and a calm judgment. 

The time assigned for the trial is divided into three Division of 
lengths, which are measured by the KAcvj^Spo, or water-clock, the time 
The first of these lengths will be occupied by the speeches jjjgj fw 
of the prosecutors, the second by the defence of the accused 
and the pleadings of his advocates (a-wrjyopoi), if he has any. 
After the speeches have been listened to, as far as tumul- 
tuous interruptions will allow, the jurors will declare their 
vote by secret ballot, and if the perforated balls (ty'ifa) Method of 
exceed the solid ones, Socrates will be condemned. Then voting, 
the third length of time will be devoted to estimating the 
amount and kind of penalty that has been deserved \ For The case 
the proceedings fall under the head of 81*7 or aykv riwT 
which it is left to the court to fix the penalty, instead of its T 

1 Theaet. 172 E. 

8 Demosthenes against Timocrates, p. 748, 151. 

3 "0 n xp?! &w % Arorfwi, Apol 36 B; cp, Xen. COBV. v! & 



being fixed beforehand by law, as in a Si'wj an'/i^Tos, which 
required no assessment, Accordingly the prosecutor will 
speak again in fa\our of the penalty he has already named, 
and the convicted man will be allowed to plead for a diminu- 
tion of it, The jurors will then decide between them, and 
the legitimate proceedings of the trial will be over If the 
prisoner is allowed to address the couit further, it will be by 
an act of grace. 

Firstlength Meletus opens the case for the prosecution, advancing to 
of the day the raised platform (% Q ), from which the speakers ad- 
Speeches dressed the court He is followed by Lycon and Anytus, 

~ the latter of whom uses hs influence to impress upon the 

..... , 

minds of the jurors the danger of acquitting Socrates, now 

that proceedings have been allowed to be taken against him. 
For his acquittal would be such a triumph, and would give 
such an impetus to the fashion of imitating him, that the 
rising generation would be irretrievably ruined. 

Our knowledge does not enable us to discriminate be- 
tween the parts played by the various accusers, nor indeed 
to realise in any satisfactory manner on what lines the case 
for the prosecution was conducted. All that we can do is 
to put down a few points which we know to have been 
urged. We have seen already that there were two main 
counts in the indictment, 

First (0 Irreligion. 

Count. (2) Immoral influence. 

Charge of With regard to the first count Socrates professes himself 

irreligion. j n d ou bt as to whether the accusers meant that he did not 
believe in gods at all, or only that he believed in different 
gods from those which were recognised by the city. This 
is a doubt which we must be content to share. If the 
remark addressed to the jurors by Meletus, about Socrates 
saying that the sun was a stone and the moon earth, is not 
a mere invention of Plato's, we may suppose that to some 
extent a line was followed similar to the gross mis-repre- 
sentation of the Clouds, in which Socrates is represented as 
having dethroned Zeus, and made 'Vortex' reign in his 
stead. But the main stress of the indictment, as is evident 


from the terms of it, must have fallen rather upon the 
impiety of which Socrates was supposed to be guilty, in 
exalting his private and personal source of inspiration over 
the public worship of his country. He was declared to be 
a daring innovator in religion, who held the time-honoured 
gods in contempt l . 

He would be a bold man who would undertake to say Difficulty 
what Socrates really thought about Zeus and Hera, and the of deter ' 
rest of the recognised deities of Greece. On the one hand ^belief 6 
the great philosopher was what would now-a-days be con- of Socrates 
sidered a very superstitious person. To say nothing of his about reli- 
inward monitor, he was ready to act on the strength 
dreams, and had a robust faith in oracles, especially that 
of Delphi a faith which could even survive the shock con- 
sequent upon his being told that he was the wisest of men. 
On the other hand we find in Xenophon clear expressions 
of a belief m one Supreme Being, the author and controller 
of the whole universe 2 , which yet is held concurrently with 
a recognition of the many gods of Paganism, insomuch that 
monotheistic and polytheistic phraseology are mixed up in 
the same sentence. 

A passage in the Phaedrus is interesting as bearing upon 
this subject. In reply to a question put by Phaedrus, as to 
what he thought of the story of Boreas and Oreithyia, 
Socrates declares that it would be easy enough for him to 
say with the clever that the girl was blown over a cliff by 
a gust of wind. But then logical consistency would require 
a similar rationalisation of innumerable other legends. He 
really had not time for a task of such appalling magnitude, 
and preferred to acquiesce in the current acceptance of the 
myths as they stood. There were mysteries enough in his 
own being fully to occupy all his attention 3 . Where, how- 
ever, these myths ran counter to his notions of morality 
and it was seldom that they did not Socrates felt an ex- 

1 See Euthyphro, 3 B. 

2 '0 rbv $\ov riffpw 0vvra,TT(w re Kal avvixow, Mem. iv. 4, 13 j 
cp i. 4, 1 8. ** Phaedrus, 2 29 -230 A. 


treme repugnance to them. It is hinted in the Euthyphro ] 
that this fact may ha\e had something to do with his indict- 
ment for impiety. 

His prac- But whatever the opinions of Socrates may have been, 
tical con- t h e re is no doubt at all about his practice. Accepting the 
^h'the P rinci P le la ^ d dm;n b > T the Delphic oracle 2 , he thought it the 
religion of part of a good cituen to conform to the religion of his 
his conn- country, and was scrupulous m so doing both in public and 
^ private life, holding a low opinion of those who did other- 

wise* Everyone will remember his last words to Crito, 
charging him to sacrifice a cock to Aesculapius, 
Second Under the second count of the indictment it was urged 
Count that Socrates ridiculed the institutions of his country, de- 
Charge of clarmg that it was absurd to elect magistrates by lot, when 

infhienc n One wou ^ care to entrust m ' s hk at sea to a P^ ot w ^ ^ 
Special b een chosen by that method Such discourses, it was as- 
pomts serted, made the young men feel a contempt for the 
established constitution, and incited them to violence*. In 
proof of this pernicious influence it was pointed out how 
Critias and Alcibiades had been educated under Socrates 6 . 

Furthei it was maintained that Socrates inculcated dis- 
respect to parents and relations generally by pointing out 
that mere goodwill was useless without knowledge. One 
did not consult one's relations in case of sickness 01 of legal 
difficulties, but the doctor or lawyer. The effect of such 
teaching, it was declared, was to make the associates of 
Socrates look so entirely to him, that no one else had any 
influence with them 1 ' 1 . In the Apology of Xenophon this 
charge is specially ascribed to Meletus. 

The only other point which we know to have been 
urged against Socrates was that he inculcated depravity 
by means of garbled citations from the poets 7 that he 
quoted Hesiod's line 8 , 

1 Euthyphro, 6 A a Xen. Mem. i. 3, I ; iv. 3, 16. 

3 Mem. i. 3, i. * Mem. i, a, 9 ; cp ni 7, 6. 

5 Mem. i. 2, 12 ; cp. Plat. Apol. 33 B, 

6 Mem. i. 2, $ 49, 5 1, 52. , 7 Mem. i 2, 56, 58, 59. 
8 Works and Days, 309. 


"tyyov 8' oii&v ovtitios, afpyiij Se r uV<i5<w, 

and drew from it the lesson that a man ought to be a itavovp- 
709, or scamp who would do anything for gain ; again that he 
was fond of quoting Homer 1 to show the different treatment 
meted out by Ulysses to the chiefs and the common people, 
drawing therefrom the inference that it was desirable to mal- 
treat the humbler citizens This is plainly nothing but an 
appeal to the passions of the mob. Xenophon stops the 
quotation just short of the famous sentiment, 

OVK aya&vv vo\voipavir)' efs ttoipavos earce, 

of which Theophrastus says that it is the one line in Homer 
which 'the oligarchical man* is acquainted with, The 
political animus underlying so fnvolous a charge is made 
even more transparent by Xenophon's reply. Xenophon is 
rather hard put to it to prove Socrates a good citizen from a 
democratic point of view 2 . He finds proof of this in the fact 
that Socrates never charged anyone a fee for conversing with 

When the prosecutors had completed their indictment the 
first of the three lengths into which the juridical day was 
divided was at a close, 

The water is now turned on for the defendant and his Second 
advocates. We gather from a passing expression in Xeno- kngth * 
phon * that Socrates had friends who spoke in his favour, y ' 
but we know nothing of what they said . so that for us the 
second length is occupied solely by Socrates' own defence of 

This defence was really made impromptu : for Socrates Socrates* 
had twice been checked by his inward monitor when he defence 
endeavoured to prepare a reply beforehand *. The Apology "j^ Ja " 
of Plato, however, is marked by the same artistic grace which 
characterises all his work. It is elaborately constructed on Elaborate 

1 II ii. 188-192, 198-202. 

2 Aj//ioTta Kal <pi\av&p(airos t Mem. i. 2, 60. 

3 Apol Soc, 23, * Mem. iv. 8, 5 j Apol. Soc 4. 


construe- the forensic type, of which it is at once a parody and a criti- 
tion of cism, it is divided into three parts, of which the first only 
^ lat ^ s constitutes the defence proper. The second is the omn- 
Its di^ 7 * M} r counter-assessment of the penalty, and belongs to 
visions the third length of the juridical day. The third part consists 
of some last words addressed by the prisoner to the court 
after his conviction. It is not necessary here to enter into 
details with regard to the contents of these several parts. 
The reader will find a scheme of the speech prefixed to the 
text and a detailed analysis interwoven with it. Suffice it to 
say that the subdivisions of the defence are completely in 
Imitation accordance with rhetorical precedent. The citation of wit- 
of forensic nesses is also imitated 1 , a proceeding during which the 
orms ' water was stopped, and even the common rhetorical chal- 
lenge to opponents is reproduced, to bring forward witnesses, 
if they can, during the time allotted to the speaker 2 . In 
place of the usual impassioned peroration, Socrates substi- 
tutes a dignified refusal to throw himself in any way upon 
the meicy of his judges. 

Condem- When the pleadings in defence were concluded, the court 
nation of proceeded to give their verdict, and condemned Socrates by 
Socrates. ^ TOtes a g amst 220> Considering the long and deeply- 
rooted prejudice which existed against Socrates at Athens, 
we can well believe that many honest and ignorant men 
among the dicasts went home to their suppers that day with 
the comfortable assurance that they had conscientiously dis- 
charged their duty as good citizens. There is no doubt, 
however, but that to some extent the verdict was influenced 
by irritation at the unaccustomed tone adopted by the de- 
fendant, who addressed his judges, as Cicero says 8 , not as a 
suppliant or prisoner, but as a teacher or master, 
Third The third length of the day was begun by a speech on the 

length of part of the prosecution in advocacy of the death-penalty. Then 
tte day. s ocra t es rose to p re sent his estimate of the treatment he 
The deserved to suffer, which was support for the rest of his days 
" nt in the Prytaneum. If the judges had been annoyed before, 

1 19 D, 21 A, 52 E. B 34 A, 3 Cic. cle Oratore, i. 54. 


they were utterly exasperated now, and the death-penalty Ratifica- 
was confirmed by eighty additional votes 1 . tion of the 

After the informal delivery of a shoit address by the con- 
demned prisoner to the court nothing remained but for the 
officer of the Eleven to lead off Socrates to the adjacent 
pnson, where the dialogue of the Phaedo again takes him 
up. And so that crime was committed, which, owing to the 
lustre of its victim, has left a lasting stain upon the name of 
Athens the one city m all the Hellenic world which had 
most reason to pride itself upon its tolerance. 

It has been remarked that the Platonic Apology resembles Corn- 

in a certain respect the famous speech of Demosthenes on P arison 

the Crown, namely, that in both the formal answer to the tlie 

indictment is thrown into the middle, and extraneous Apology 
matters, which are more vital to the real issue, are brought ai *d the 
to the front, and again insisted upon at the close. We bm e !P eectl of 
the key to this treatment in the words put into Socrates' sthenes on 
mouth by Plato, that it is not Meletus or Anytus he has to the Crown, 
fear, but the prejudice and envy of the multitude 2 . Ac- Careless 
cordingly we find the actual indictment treated so carelessly treatment 

by Socrates that in his citation of it the order of the counts J e 
is reversed, and the charge of perverting the youth is dealt O f t h e 
with before the charge of irreligion. The latter accusation technical 
indeed is never really answered at all and rightly so, for if indictment. 
Socrates' life was not an answer to it, any other must have 
been felt to be idle and derogatory, 

Few will deny that the Platonic Apology is in every way How far 
worthy of the occasion and the man. How far it represents can Plato's 
the actual words of Socrates before his judges is a question jj^^p 
which it would be vam to argue a priori, by an appeal to the S1 d ere a 
general fitness of things. But the historical method can to historical* 
a certain extent be applied here. Reference has already The Apo- 
been made to the Apology of Xenophon a little work which ^ ot 
it is the fashion to set down as a forgery, because there is nop on ' 
scarcely anything in it which is not also contained in the 
Memorabilia : as if it were in any way improbable that a 

1 Diog Laert iu 42. 2 28 A. 


writer should cast the same mattei at different times into 
slightly different moulds, or that even a rejected sketch, sup- 
posing it to be such, by an author so highly esteemed as 
Xenophon should have been caiefully preseived. 
Xeno- Xenophon himself returned fiom the expedition which has 

phon's au- immortalised his name just too late to support his revered 

his version master On *" s tml ; but he denved hls information Wlth 

of Socrates 1 re gard to the closing scenes of Socrates 1 life from Hermo- 

speech, genes, the son of Hipponicus and brother of the wealthy 

Callias 1 , Hermogenes was an attached friend of Socrates, 

and is mentioned in the Phaedo as having been present at 

his death. 

Analysis To turn from Plato to Xenophon is indeed a fall ' The 
of Xeno- Socrates of the latter is so prosy and self-complacent that we 
Apoloin cannot wonder if he irntated his judges. The whole im- 
piession produced on the mind by the piece is diffeient from 
that with which one rises from Plato's Apology ; and yet, on 
examining into details, one is surprised to find what resem- 
blances it offers. The amount both of resemblance and 
difference will be manifest from a brief analysis of its 

The Apology of Xenophon then falls into the same three 
parts as that of Plato 

I. The Defence proper. 

II. The Counter-assessment 

III. The Last Words. 

I. The Defence proper, which grapples directly with the 
terms of the indictment, is sub-divided into two parts, in 
which the counts are taken in the accuser's order, dealing 

(1) with the charge of irreligion ; 

(2) with the charge of immorality. 

(i) The charge of downright irreligion is met by Socrates 
by an appeal to his habitual conformity with the public 
worship of his country ; and the secondary one of innovation 
in religious matters by his assimilating the 8ai[i6viov to divi- 
nation generally. Under this head Socrates takes occasion 

1 Mem, iv. 8, 4; Apol, Soc. i. 


to vaunt of his prophetic powers, as a proof of the favour in 
which he is held by the gods ; and then tells the story of 
Chaerephon consulting the oracle about him 3 . The reply of 
the oracle, as here given, is that there is no one more free, 
just or temperate than Socrates a claim which the defen- 
dant then proceeds to vindicate in detail by extolling his 
own vhtue under each head 

(2) The refutation of the second count takes the form of 
a dialogue with Meletus 2 . Socrates challenges his accuser 
to produce a single person who has been demoralised by his 
society" 3 . The special charge of inculcating disrespect to 
paients, which was prompted by jealousy of Socrates' in- 
fluence, is met by his claiming to be an expert on the subject 
of education, as much as a doctor was on medicine. 

II The Counter-assessment, it must be confessed, is like 
the famous chapter on snakes in Iceland. The proposal 
about the Prytaneum is absent, and we are told that Socrates 
neither suggested any diminution of the penalty himself nor 
allowed his friends to do so. It would seem, however, that 
he must have spoken a few words at this stage of the pro- 
ceedings, in order to explain the grounds of his refusal to 
take the usual course, which were that he considered it 
tantamount to pleading guilty. 

III. In the Last Words Socrates refers to perjury on the 
part of the witnesses against him, dwells on the wickedness 
of his accusers 4 , and denies that the case is proven against 
him. He has not attempted to dethrone Zeus and Hera, nor 
corrupted the young, but set them a wholesome example of 
plain living. He comforts himself by the case of Palame- 
des '*, and ends by declaring that all time will witness to his 

The Apology of Xenophon does not claim to be an ex- Xeno- 
haustive report of the defence of Socrates. Even at the phon's 
date of its composition what Socrates really said was matter 

1 Cp. Plat. ApoL ai. 4 Cp. Plat. Apol. 24-27. 

' Cp.Plat. Apol 33 034 C. 


does not for critical investigation. The author of it tells us that 

claim to be oi ^ Qrs i u( j wn tt e n on the same subject, and as all agreed 

Other* 1 "' 6 ' about the hl & h tone (w^WP' fl ) adopted by Socrates, he 

Apologies, presumes that this was characteristic of the real defence. 

Among these 'others' Plato may be included, as Xenophon 

and he seem to have entered into a tacit agreement to ignore 

one another 1 . 

The story is well known how the great orator Lysias pre- 
sented Socrates with a speech admirably adapted to con- 
ciliate the favour of his judges, which was admired by 
Socrates, but declined with thanks on the ground that it 
would be as inappropriate to him as fine shoes or cloaks 2 . 
On the other hand the sophist and rhetorician Polycrates, 
after the death of Socrates, composed an accusation against 
him, which \vas mistaken subsequently for tne real speech 
delivered at the trial 3 . 

Even after the generation which witnessed the trial of 
Socrates had passed away, echoes of the event still rang 
on the air, and men exercised their wits in composing his 
apology. Theodectes, the friend of Aristotle, and a famous 
orator and dramatic writer of his day, composed an apology 
of Socrates 4 ; as also did Demetrius Phalereus, the accom- 
plished disciple of Theophrastus 5 . 

Date of the To return now to Plato's Apology the date of its compo- 
Apology Slt j on 1S a q ues tion which we have no means of determining, 
nnnable ^ s to lts am " mties w ^ tn otner works of Plato, it presents 

T K a superficial resemblance to the Menexenus and a real 

Its affinities , . . ^ 

with other resemblance to the Gorgias. 

Platonic In the Menexenus, as in the Apology, Plato has given 
works. a specimen of what he might have done in the way of 

1 The name of Plato is only once mentioned by Xenophon, namely 
in Mem in 6, i ; that of Xenophon by Plato never. This silence 
was ascnbed by the ancients to jealousy. See on this subject Athen. 
xi 504 505 b , Diog Laert. i. 34 

2 Cic. de Oratore, i 54; Val Max vi. 4, Extern 2 ; Quint h. 15, 
30; xi i, ii ; Diog. Laert. n. 40 

J Quint, ii. 17, 4; iii. i, n , Diog Laert. ii. $ 38. 

1 Arist Rhet ii 23, 13, 5 Diog. Laert. ix. 37, 57. 


rhetoric, had he cared to desert his favourite dialectic. The The Apo* 
Apology reflects, while it exalts, the pleadings of the law- logy corn- 
courts; the Menexenus in like manner imitates the funeral ^ Menex- 
orations \\hich formed an impoitant feature m public life at enuSt 
Athens. But m the Menexenus \ve have a speech within 
a dialogue; \\hile m the Apology we have a dialogue within 
a speech. 

In the Gorgias we have the same sharp contrast drawn The Apo- 
between the world's way and the way of philosophy. The logy com- 
Gorgias contains the prophecy of which the Apology is the ^J[J^ ie 
fulfilment, In that dialogue Callicles, the man of the woild, Gorgias, 
warns Socrates with contemptuous good-nature, that if he 
persists in continuing into mature age the study of phi- 
losophy, which is becoming enough in youth, he will unfit 
himself for converse uith mankind, and, owing to his neglect 
of the rhetoric of the law-courts, will lay himself at the mcicy 
of the meanest accuser who may choose to bring against 
him a capital charge 1 . Socrates admits that this may very 
possibly be the case . but contends that it is quite a second- 
ary consideration, the first requisite for man's true welfare 
being to avoid committing injustice, the second only to 
escape suffering it. He contends that, in pursuing his 
appointed calling of philosophy, he is the only real politician 
of his time, since his words are not meant to gi\e men plea- 
sure, but to do them good. As this object necessarily 
involves his saying a great many disagreeable things, he 
is no more likely to fare well in a law-court than a doctor 
would be likely to come off triumphant, if tried before a jury 
of children, at the instance of the pastry-cook. 

If it be permissible to add one more suggestion to the Motive 
many conflicting views that have been held as to the main of the 
object of the Gorgias, we might say that in the following Gor S ias - 
words, more than in any other, we have an embodiment of 
Plato's motive in composing that dialogue & KoXaw^y 
prjToptKys cVSftfl TeXfUToJTjv e-ycoyf, fv 0i8 on pfdi'as ISois av ftf 
<j)fpovra TQV QavaTov ". 

1 Gorg, 486 A, B. 3 Gorg, 52* D, E. 


The Gorgias is an earnest defence of that uncompromising 
spirit which rendered it impossible for Socrates to conciliate 
his judge* at the expense of truth, which made him prefer 
'to die as Socrates than to live as Lysias, 3 uhich prompted 
him to forego the remainder of his life rather than sully the 
past, and, at the cost of a few short years of decaying facul- 
ties, to purchase a life which has triumphed over time. 




1. The Exordium, 17 A-18 A . , .31 

2. The Statement, 18 A- 19 A 32 

3. The Refutation, 19 A-28 A 34 

a Defence against vague popular prejudice, 19 A-24 B 34 

b. Defence against the specific indictment, 24 B-2S A 41 

4. The Digression A defence by Socrates of his life 

generally, 28 A-34 B 47 

5. The Peroration, 34 B-35 D 57 



a. Address to the condemning jurors, 38 C-39 E , 63 

b. Address to the acquitting jurors, 39 E-42 A , . 65 


p. 17. 

1. The Exordium, 17A-18A, 

Do not be misled by the assertion of my accusers that I am skilled 
m speech. On the contrary I must ask you to pardon the 
manner of my defence, which is due to inexperience. 

"0 n fiei/ fyieiVj Mp? 'Aftjwuoi, ireiroVflare M 
T&V e/zft>z> /carqyopcoy, OVK clba" yi) 5' oZv Kal CLVTQS -im 9 
avr&v oAtyou ejuaurov eTreAaflo/^ 1 ' oSro) TuSav&s eAeyoz>. 
Rai rot cU7)0e'$ ye, iy eiro? i/rrin, oiSei; ip^a<rt. jua- 

rotlro fo <S IXeyoz/ ij ^P 7 ? ^ ? ^vAajSelarflai, JUT) it* 
B e/joi) efaTrar^^re, a>s Set^ou OPTOJ Ae'yetz'. ro yap ju?) 
ai, on avma VT? eftov ^Aeyx^worrat Ipyw, 
8ai/ ftrjS' o^wo-rioiJy ^atvw/xat Se^os Aeyeiv, rouro ftot 
rwz/ drata i xvz/roTaTOi' etvat, eJ /*ij Spa 5izo^ 
Ka\ov<nv ojrot Aeyety TOI/ roA?/^ Acyoj/ra 1 eZ /xer yap 
roiiro Xtyovaiv, oftoAoyotV ^ lywye oi Kara TOVTQVS 
ivai p7?rcop. ovrot jub oSr ; coa-jrcp ^yi Aeyw, y n fj 
oiob aArj^es tp?JKa(nz;* vfXts 8' efiou aKova 
T?)V aAijfeaz/. ofi fieWot /na Af, 5 a08pe$ ' 
/fKoAAtTT)jjU^07;s ye Aoyovs } ^(nrcp ol rourffli;, p^fiaa-/ re 
C KaJ iro/ioffiP, oi8e KKO<rjbt7j/*>oi/y, aAA' d/corfn-eo-^e eZx?/ 
Aeyo'jLtera rots tfiru;(<Mnz> ovrffxoo-f iria-revw yap 8i'fcaia 
ftyat fe Aeyw, Kai jurist? vjotaii; Tpoo-8oKr;o-dr(i) aAAais' o^Se 
yap av ftyTiov Trp^oi, S #r8pe$, rjjSe nj 

33 APOLOGY, 1 7 or 8 B. 

niu 7T/\arrorn Ao'yovj e 

i, TOVTQ vn&v o^ai KOL ira- 
tav 8ta TOW avr&v Ao'yaw <kovjTe pov 
6t' aJyirep 4<*>0a Ae'ye^ K0 * e '^ ayo/)a 
Si', ti'a vjttwy TroAAot a/c/joa*nj KCU a\\ 

TJre Bopv^slv TOTJTOV aKa. lx t 

oy^ a#, et r&J OJ 

^JTOU ay \LQL, d tv 

i' olo-irfp ere^pa/n/irjz;, Kai 8?) xat 2n;z; 18 
rowro v^v Seo/xat Suator, a>s y' /uot 8o/c0j TO^ juh' rpo- 
TTOJ/ TT/J Aefecos eav* co-^j jitej/ yap x fa m ') 
av et>j* airo S< rouro cr/co7ret^ Kat ro?;ra) TO/; vow 
Xetz^, eZ 8^/cata Aeya) 17 M^?' BtKao-rov jutej; yap avTr} 

2. The Statement, 18A-19A. 


TJ&f re /7f(? /7uo classes of 'accusers^ those who have maligned me all 
my life, and those wo now mdict me. Both must be an- 
d) and the time tJ short : but let the Jaw be obeyed. 

ey o^ 5^/catos cijut a-no^oy/iaaada^ S 
irpo? ra TrpSra JJLQV [^euSij] Kar?jyop7jjLiem <cat 
TOW tfpearov? /car?;yopov?, lir^tra 6^ n-po? ra iJorrepa /cat 
TOUS vorrepouy. f/iou yap ?roA.Aol xaT?jyopoi yeyo'iwt B 
rpoy i5fias Kal TrdAat iro\Aa ^Si] CTT] mt cw&b dXTj^ey Ae- 
y& jutaAAoy </)Oj3o{Jjnat TOVJ a/^i "hvvrov, 
oz/ras Kat TO^TOU? fifii'otJs' d\A J 
S, ot v/ASv TOW wAAovs 
ZnsMv re &al Karyyopovv eftoi? juaA 


dArjfe, ws &m ns 2a>Kpan/s, o-o^os dw/p, ni re jue- 
Ta>pa (ftpovnffrqs ml ra vita y?j$ aitavra dj>e<fonjK<u$ *at 

C TCI/ $Tf6> Ao'y<n> Kpa'rrw Troecw. oi/roi, aVo'pes 3 A0??~ 
yaiot, ot Tavrrjv rrjv ^i?/* 7 ?^ KOTCunceWirams, o[ 5trot 
del pov KaTTtjyopoc ol yap cUovowes ?}yowrai rou^ raura 
^rovrras ovSe 5eoyy vofii&v* iTretra etaii; ourot ot /ca- 
r^yopot uoAAol mi TioXw j(poroy ?55>? Kanjyop^Korey, en 
6e xat ey rauri; rfj f)\LKtq Aeyo^res irpos v/zos, fa $ &v 
^^aTej iratSc? oyrcs, Irio 
rji/ KwqyopQVVTfs 
ouSero's. 5 8 Trayrwy aAoyc6ra7W, on 0^8^ ra 

D oto'y T awrwv eldcWt Kal direiv, TrA^v et riy 

vjuas avTtt&ov 3 ol be nal avrol 7re7ret<rf*eVot aAAovs 
^OVTCS, oSrot Trd^Tgs aTropwraTot t<rti?' ov5^ yap di r 
j3a<ra<rQaL olov T to-rlv avr&v cvTavQol oi6 J eAcyf at ovSepa, 
dAA' avdyKTj artxyus worTrep cr/cuzfi)(u> a i no\oyQVfjLfv6v re 
/cat eAey)(oz;ra /arjSez'oj airoKpivo^vov. d,^t<*)<rar o5y fcal 
vjuets, aJo'Trep cyi) Aeyw, Strrovs JAOU TOW KaTj;ydpous y- 
yoveWt, ^repous juci TOIJ apn KaT 
E 2e TOUS TraAai, ois eyw Aeyw, xal OITJ^TC 8eu> Trp 
irp&rov jbte a7roAo)/ijcra<T0at* Kal yap vjw 

KaTrjyopovvT(av s Kal TroAi) juaAAov 17 TI; 
ctey diroAoy^reoi; ST|, 5 
19 Kat ^irix et / )7 ? TC/a2; i>twv cfcAc^at r^ 
cv TroAA^ x/' '^ ^"X T > Twhyv fa O#TWS 
ftovKoi^v ply o^ Si; TOUTO O$TO> yevea^ai, t 
Kal ii\&v Kal e/jiofj xat irA&i/ TI /xe wo 
otjutat Se a^ro xXe-jroi' cu/aj, xal ov Ttdvv 
otoV eortz;. Ojutos rouro ftez> tra) o 
o'ju i?<toreov Kal dsoAoyijTeoi', 

34 APOLOGY, igA-E. 

3. The Refutation, 19A-28A, 
(a) Defence against vague popular prejudice. 
/ am m scientific atbiut. nor do I educate men for mcnejf, Happy 
he who for the sum of 20 or so fan impart the science of 

The charge 'Aj<aAd/3a)fr ovv < dp^ TIS 7; Kanjyopia ecrrtV, e 
popular ?s ^ fywj foa^oATJ ylyovcv, j} STJ K<U mard/aw Metros B 

oned. ^ e /Hwo TT> ypa^rV Tcn/rijy. ei>' ri 8^ 

ol Sm/SaAAorrey ; ^inrf/) ow KaTqyopav T?)Z> 

KpeiTTw TToiwyj Kal a\Aovs ravra 

TIS e<7rf TQ.VTO. yap ewpare Kat avroi C 
'Apiaro^drous Kco^wSt'ct, Saupdnj riya Ket irepi- 

Refutation fyXvapiav ^AuapoiJi/ra, v eyw ovSb ovre jnya ovre 
Tre'pi 7iata). Kat oi&x o>? dn^dfoz; 

, t rty Trepl ry roiotfrow oro^os ean* 
JLI^ 770)$ eyw w MeA^rou rotrauras 8uas tfwyoijui* dAAa 
yap jitoi TOVTWI/, & ai>8pes 'A^yatot, ouSev /Jierco-ri. /xdp- 
njpas 5' avToiiy i3|Ltwz; TOVS TroAAovs Trape'xofiat, xal dftS D 
u/^as aAA^Aows 8i8d<TKtz.' r KOI ^pdfety, O(TOI ejuou irw- 
7TOT dsTjKoaTf SiaAeyo^ifVoi; 1 iroAAoi 8 fyww ol rotovro^ 
eio-f 0pd{Tc ofo dAAijAoty, t irokorf i) o-jutiKpoz; ^ fteya 
7/KOVcre Tt? vfww e/iov wpi Tuy rotourw 5iaA6yo/*ez>ov 
Kal TOVTOU yrwtre^e on ToiatJr' ^Vri Kal raAAa Trepi 
^oi) ^ ol TroXAoi Ae'youow 
'AAAa yap oi/re TO^TWZ; oiitiv CPTWJ, 0^8^ y ? e? 

jrpdrrojaat, ov5e rai3To JAi^er. M xal 
The t ye fxoi Sowi KaAov ai/at, rf rts otb's r j 

APOLOGY, 19E-20C, 35 

avfyiwTOi;? <3<mp Fopyi'aj re a Atomics Kai OpdSiicoj 6 

Kcioj KOI *l7nrtas 6 'HAeios. Tovrwy yap fjcaoroy, 2> ai>- 

8pg9> [oto's T* ecrni'J iwu ij tKaomj^ To 

z'eov?, ofe Iffcrn T&V aurwr iroAtTwr irpoiKa 

<u> /SouXurrat, roi/rovs irct^oi/crt TQS ex^ti'wy fwvoucrtas 

Serat, e7rl Kat aXAoy anjp tart Oaptos 
r/V^o/xf]i? 7ri8^oGt'Ta" truj(o^ yap 
pl os rerA^e xwara ao^iora 
ol aAAoi, KaAAt^ TW 'IiriroytKOV rot/roy o5y 
avripOMV tarbv yap aW Svo vice KaAAi'a, ijv 6^ 
eyw, t ^tv o-ov rco vUe TroSAw $ fioVx^ eyerfo^iii', txo- 
jnef av auroiy TTt(rrarj]^ Aa/3u? xai fiio-^oSo-aff^at, os 

B aperjjr' ?]y 6 1 ay o^ros / rwv wnrtKwy ns ^ raii f 

eoro'r, nW avroir ez; i'u 
; ; Tts TTJJ roiaur^j dperfj?, TTJJ 
avtiptomvijs TC /cat TroAiriKTJs, iri<TT7}fi(oy ecmV ; oiftat ynp 
<re faKffflat, faa r^v T&V vti&v KT^C-W, em rty, ^v ey<a ? 
?/ ov ; ndw ye s ^ 6' os, Tts, ?)y 5' eycS, xai TroSairds, Kai 
iroVov 6i8dcrKi ; Euro's, !</], S ISouKpares, DciptO!?, TI^T 

GI oi;r<os c/A/ifASii' 5t8a(TKt. eyw 
ovy xal awoj eKaAAwdjLwjp T6 Kal ^jSpuyd^y 
Tdftj;y Tavra" dAX' ov yap cuiWafiot, S aV6pcs 'A 

*T^ ^oiy baveyott got your extraordinary reputation^ Socrates T 
If I am reported iuwtf, it u owmg to the respotue which 
Apollo gave to Cbaercpbw. 

&v ovv Tts ty&v fows* dAA 1 , S Sw-Socmtes 

, TO (Fov n fort TTpSy^tt ; ffo0ei> at SiajSoAat aot how he 

36 APOLOGY, 20C-3IA. 

came bv rai ytyovaffiv ; ou yap ov <ro ye 

tation, repU " P iTT <h(pM irpayjuarevoueW &w town? ^ Te 

20C-24 B. K a l Xo'yo? yyoi> [<?i ujj n Carres aAAoiov y ot iroAAof]' 

Ae'ye oSz; jj/uu;, n <mi>, foa ^ tyfws irepJ <rov avroa^- 

biafaixv. ram /xot 8oKe? Sixaia Xeyctr o A^ywi;, /cdyw D 

v/Lity Trei/ido'o/xai aTroSet^ai, n nor' eort Touro o tyol 

7ro6| TO re oyofia /cat riji> taj8oA?jr, axotferc 8?j. 

Kat Iffcos jub 6dfu) Tim^ fytiw iraifciy, ? fieWot tare, 

iravav vfiv rip aX^iav e/)w, eyi ya/), S &8pfs 'A^7/- 

z>atoi, U QV&V aAA' ^ 8ta (ro^wv nya roiJro ro 

Wfflm. mtav 8fj <ro(/)(ay ravTrp ; ^e 

irty^ <70^ia. TW ovn yap tivfovtw TVUTTIV Aval voids' 

OVTOI, 8c TG^ Sv, oi? apn eAeyo^, jueifw rti;a 5 Kar ' 

avtipuitov ffofyiav tro^oi Av, ?j OVK ?x w ri/ Ae'yw* oi yap E 

8f/ lywye vinty eTrto-Taftat, dAA' ocrns ^o-t ^rfScrai re 

/cat en-i ^tctjSoAjj T?/ f /xj Aey. /cat /uoi, S feBpes 'A^yatot, 

/x^ 5opv/3jj(rr|Tej |U)]5' eay 8dfw rt wjutz; jue'ya Aeyetz;' oi yap 

Declaration }}j,bv ip& TOV Adyo^, oz; av Aeyw, aAA s ft? dfidxpewi' fyuz> 

Pytluan rw Aeyoira a^o^w, rijs yap e/x^J, et 8?} riy etrrt (ro</)ia 

regard to K " ^ M^ rv P a ^ ffa/^fo/iai roy tfeoz; roy ci; AeA^ots. 

Socrates - Xatpe^avra yap itrre TTOV, ouroj i/fs re eratpos jv h wov, 21 

/cal vjuwy T<j! uA^et eratpdj re /cat W$vye T?]Z ^vyijy 

rayny// Kal jue0' ^wy /carjjA^e, /cai Zore 8?) olos ^ 

Xa;pe<fi5i>, Aj tr^oSpos c<j> S rt op/xijo-ete, KOI by irore at 

is AA<jMs eXfliy ero'AjbtW^ TOWO fxawewatr^at' Kaf, 

oTrep Afyoa, $ ^opvj8etre } S ai/opes* ^fpero yap 84 ef ris 

repoy eW. Kat roi/rcai' rapt 6 dScA^os ijuty airoi) 

APOLOGY, 31 B-D. 3? 

When I heard the oracle from Delphi, 1 proceeded to test its truth 
by comparing myself with others. First lined the politicians, 
and found that they were not aware of their own ignorance, 
whereas I Anew mine* 

B 2Ktya<r0c & v ezwa raura Ae'yo/ jxe'AA<u yap fyay Socrates 
liba&iVj o&v juot 77 BtajSoA?/ yeyopc. ravra yap y<Mnithbya 
<kowas Mvnovwv ovmd* ri TTGT* A y<i 6 0os, KCU n of SseU " 
7roT alviTTtrai ; ^ya) yap 5?^ ovre fieya ovre cr/jiiKpo^ wlthotherSt 

; ov yap 5^ou \^ev8Tat ye* ov yap 
a\ noXvv ^v ypwov 7)v6povt.\ ri Trore Aey, 
juoyty irarv feri ^r^o'tv avrou roiavr^v nva erpa- 

TTOV, eXeyfcoi' TO fiazreto^ KO! aTro^ai'&ji' The pohti- 
x/ )] ? ff j u on owro<Tt fjuoO (ro^wrepo's eaTt, era 6* fjtz* 
, Stao-KOTraiy ow TOVTOJ/ oz/o)uan yap ov8e^ Se'ojLtt 
7]^ 8e TIS r5f iroXiriKclii', Trpos oy 
t lira^oz/, S aySpcs 'A0r)i;atbt KG! 
avrai, !8o$ /tzot oilros 6 aqp toneiv $ cwai credos 
aAAotj re TroAAots avQpditois ml fiaAicrra eaimj>, etrat 8* 
oi/' /caTTfira hfip^v avrw 8fi/crwat> ort oioiro //> 
D ctmt (TOGO'S, j| 8' o& <yri)^^ ou^ rovrw re 
xat TroAAots Twy ^apoVrwj;, irpos tyavrbv 8* oSv 
; ort rovrou /x^ roi) avQp&irov cyai 

e yap //piwi' o-uSe 

?(8erai, dAA' ovro? /Ay ot^rai rt fiSerat owe 
j, cyw 8e, worep ouv OVK o!8a, oi'8e otopt* efotfca 
rovrov ye djLttKpw TIM avr<j> rovrw 

38 APOLOGY, 21E-32C. 

Ifiofc* Kal tvraWa KastiVw Kal uAAoi? 

fctf / examined the poets, and found that they could givt no 
intelligible account of their own productions. 

Mera Tavr' ovv fa] tyt&is jja, aiofco'fiez/os JMV 
! AuiroJ/jiem KCU BeStws on dinjx0aw&MM fytw & 
yai ro TOV 8tov Trcpl -jrXctorou 1:04- 
Iriov ouz; (ro7roiJyn Toy yjpWW 1 ^ ^ ^ V l ) ^ 
T(ri? n SoKowras eiSe'yai, xal v^ TOV KtW, S 

yap 'jrpo? i5ftSs rdA^iJ Xe'yetr ?} 22 
/A^ eyw faaQov n roiomov ot /xez; jiid\tffra e^ 
I5o|ay/jiot oAtyov few TOV TrAeiarou ey5cis etyai 
nark TOV 9eov, aAAot 8e $OKOVVT$ $av\6repoi 
repot trat ai/Spcs Trpos TO ^po^tjuw? ex elz;i 
T^I; M^ irAarqv Mftfat WOTT^P iroVov? Ttyas 
iVa //ot Kat d/'eAeyfcro? ?/ /xavreia ye'yoiro. /jtera yap TOI/J 
The poets. iroAtTiKOv? ?]a em TOVS iroiTjraj TOIIJ re TWJJ rpayui&tcw Kat 
/ecu TOV? aAAovs, ws ^iravfla r'B 


QVTQ ^aAa/xj3ay&ji' ow airwy 
/tdAtorra ircirpay/taT^O^at avrots, 8w;pwTcoz> Jy avroi)s rt 
Aeyotev, ^ ^jua n Kat /iaz/^dvotjwt irap flirw 
ofe ^f*i tTreu', az>8p$, TaA^^' o/wos 
CTTOS ya/> eiTrciy dAiyou avr&v faavres ol ^rapoVrey a^ 
j&'Anoz/ <Aeyof -uepi wz; avrol miroiiJKgo-ay, eyvwv ow 
icai irepl TW wrp&v eV oAtyw roOTo, on ou tro^t^ 

', dAAa </)tJfft Tiyl ^at &>0owidfoi>7es 5 
ot ^ojnttVftj sat OL xP^f-^Soi* Ka^ yap ofiroi 
Aeyoucrt fib -iroAAa xat *aAa, lo 
TQIQWOV ft fiot (/wiwjffap ira^os Kal ol wotijTa) 7 

APOLOGY, 22C-23 A. 39 

airr&v Bid ryv irofycriz; oiop&wv KCII 

raAAa o-o^wTarcoy etpai avQp&mv, & OVK ?]<rcu>. dirja ovv 
T<3 avr$ oid/x^os irepiycyoveWt, $jr*p xal 

to the artisans, They undoubtedly possessed great 
technical skill, but this only served to inspire a conceit of their 
own knowledge on subjects of the deepest importance. 

ovv hi rows \tipQTt)(va$ j/a* juavTw yap The 

fi^iv ovtiev 7Tt(rra/jiV0, ws eiroj ftTr^tz/, roiJrovs Se 

y' yfSciy on vp7]owfit iro\Xa Kat KoAa 
/ecu TOVTOV jLiez/ OUR f^^Wrji/, d\\ s TjinVrayro & fyoi> OIIK 
/cat ftou ra^ <ro(/)wTpot ij<rav. dX\', S a^8ps 
ov /xot ISofai; Ixew a/xapT7|/Aa, oirfp al ol 
at, Kat 01 dya^ot 5)j/xtoupyoi' 6ia TO TTJI; re^wji' 
KaXais efepyd^a^at IKOOTOS ijfftn; ai raXXa rd 
(ro^wraroy eli/ai, ai airaiv ai/rr; 
E T^V ffofyiav direKpUTrrei? 1 (uor* e/ji ejuauroz; avcpwav fmtp 
^ iroVepa 8eaijuwji> ay oiJrcoy 
0S wy njy ^KC&OI 

j OTtftot Ava-iTcAot wfffifp ex<> ex^tv. 

T^J<? inquiries have led to many enmities, and plunged me in 
poverty, as I have had no time to attend to 

'EK Taimjffi 8f) TTJS 6era<ra>s, 3> dvfipcs 
23 iroUal /i^v aTre'x^etat /iot yeyofacrt xat otat x a ^ 7r ^ raTm 

Kal Papfcaraif wtrre TroUds 8ia^oXd? a::' avrwi' yeyoz/^ inquiries. 
z;at, 6^o/Aa 6e TOWO Xe'ywftWj 0-0^05 tKai. otorrat ycip \*.t 
ot irapoures raOra avrbv etrat ao^oi', & ^if 
^Ac'yfca* ro Be K(vdvi;V6(, S ^6pcs, TO> oVrt o 

40 APOLOGY, 23A-D. 

etwu, /eat |y 

on q avQpvwiwi ao^ta dAt'yov TWOS a$a earl /ca 
KCU ^a&crai TOVT' ou Xeyau Toy S&jK 
$ rw fjLt&J oVojmari, fyte TrapciSeiyjua Trotoifyiei/os, wo-ireo &v 
^ ffeot on o^ro? vjLtwi/, 3 avQpuwoi, ffo</)^raTo's coriy, B 
oort? tSo-TTfp Swffpdr??? tyvuMv on o5eiw afto's ctrrt TTJ 
d\^^i'a ffpo? (700^, rai3r' oSy cya) jub frt /cat WP 
ftrw Kal Ipeww Kara TOV fleov, fcai rwr doruz; 
TW $PQV av nva Oiwjuat cofybv twac Kal fat&av 
$ SORT), rw deu) /3o?y^r tvfclKvvnai on OVK Itrn 
oj. KOI WTO TCVTTJS r^s d(r^o\tas o#re Ti rcoy TTJS 
ai' /not (T)(oA.7) ysyovtv a&ou \oyou ovre TW 
b wviq juvpia etfti 8ia r?)y TOIJ ^eot) 

Moreover the young men took dehgbt in hearing my cross-ex- 
amination of those who pretended to knowledge^ and began to 
Imitate me themselves. Hence their victims in a blind rage 
levelled at me the charges which are brought against all philo- 
sophers, these are the real grounds for the present prosecution. 

___ r __ ITpoj Se rotfroi? ot Woi uot itaKo\ovdovvT$, 

tion caused ,. , , 

by the H&kvrra axpty eortr, ot TCUV ffAoutnajrdnoj;, a^fi 

imiSun 611 Xupww faoioms eferafojueW rw wQp&mv, 
Socrates ' avToi iroAAaxts eft jutMOui'Tat, cif mxetpoiJo 

/cairetra, oijuat, tvpiwovn iroAA^y afytioviav 
ub cffie'rat n to6p&mv t Mrm 8e ^Atya ^ 

ipytfovrai, aAA J ovx avrots, xat Xtyowiv ws 
TAJ fort jutapcSraros xai bia<j>0tipi TOV? Wous* /cai eiret- 
Bar ns avrote epwra, o TI iroiiSz; /cat o u StSfio-Kwy, 
IXGUO-I jucv ov5b eke^, dAA' ayvoovnv, "va Se p/ 80- 
Vy ra * 

APOLOGY, 23D-24B. 41 

Xeipa rai/ra Ae'yotwv, on ra jiere'apa *ai ra wo yifo *at 
fleovs ^ voplfav, Kal rbv vjrra> \oyov /cpeirra) flwtv. ra 
yap akyOrj, } QVK av e0e'Aoiei> Ae'yeir, on /cara87j\ot 
yiyvovrai ffpotrmoi/juezw jub efte'wu, eiSo'res 6e 
fire ovv, otjuat, ^t\drtfioi owe? /cat <r$opoi icai 

E Kal ^uweray/AeVajy at m^arws Xeyoire? irepi ejitou, /x 
^e7r\^a(rii; I'juaiir ra Sra KOL iraAai xat o-^oSpais 5iaj3dA 
Ao^res. rourwz' Kat Me'A^r^s jLtot faetitro KOL 'Awroj Interests 
Kai Au'Kcoy, MeATyTos Wp rwv 7roi??rSy 
y Ai;vro$ Se v?rep rwi^ ^iovpy&v m TQV 

24 Awcaw 8e vfffp raip pTjropwi;' aJore, oirep ap- 
!Aeyoj>, Oavnafyiij! av et otos r' W|V yil> ^w^ 

iroAA^i; yfyoz;ytay. raSr* earn; w/iiy, S ay 
rdA^^iJ, /cal vfias oilrf jucyci owe crjMKpov 
fyw Ae'yw owS' vTroo-reiAajue^oy, xat roi oi8a ffx^So^ art 
roty aurots a7t)(9avo^ o Kal TeK^piov on oA?707j Aeya> 
B /cai ori avrr} f<rnv y faapoXy ^ tyy KOL ra atria ravra eort. 
Kai eajf re wJtf (av re aS^ts f?/r^(nyre rawra, ovrco? e 

(^) Defence against the specific indictment, 24B-28 A, 

// w otiu f/wf /o turn to Mdetus and bis indictment. He is 
guilty of trifling on a serious matter. 

Hept ]uep ovv &v d irpfirot juov Kanjyopot m- 
rriyopovv avrrj eoro) UayJ) aTroAoyi'a -ffpos ^juas* tfpo? 
Se Me'A?jrov ror dya^oi' re Kal $iAo'jroAii>, <S? 
rovs wrepous juiera ravra ireipdVojLUU 

yap 5?},, <wnrep erep^ roiJrwr orrfoz; Karjjyopwr, The 
av r^v rozJrop dfmftoo-iar. exet 5e ^o>s 53e m f ormu ]a te d. 
^trtv d6tetp roi;? re vtovs faafyQetpopra Kal (i) Perver- 

faovs ofa f} TTO'AW rofttfei o vopl&vTa, erepa 6e 5ai- youth. 

(s) Atheism 

43 APOLOGY, 24C-S5A, 

/xoW naiva, TO pa 5?) ly/cA^a roioCroV etm* rotfrov 

8 roi) eysAif/jiaTos z> l/caorop efera<T&)jLiei/, ^cri yap 

Its want of 5ij rovy yeW aStKai' juf faa^StipovTa. eyw 8e y, az>- 

senousness. ^ ^voloi, d&Jttfo <Jj|xl M&TJTOP, on ffirouSi} x a - 

piWtfr<ii, /5a8ia)s eis aywras Ka^iorray ay^^ous, irept 

ouSb roura) TTwirore tylXycw. w? 8e roSro OUTCOJ e 

You profess a care for the youth) MeletW) and say that Icorwpt 
them. Who then improves them ? * 'the jurors, audience, 
everyone? Then I (time corrupt them f But that is absurd. 

*H p(im<7i?. Rat juol SeiJpo, S McAijif, eiire' aAAo n jj Kepi 
' irote?, OTTOJS d)j jSAnoroi ot ^ecSrepot e<roz/Tai ; D 

(i) Charge "Eywye. y lt?t 5i) rw fi 

mgthe TTOigt; S^Aoy yap on oto-fla, juieAov y crot, 

rowi a /caT?/yopts' roy 8e 
etire xai pjwo'oj; avroty, r(s eorrti/, opaj, S MeA?jre, 
on ffiyas /cat OUK ex eis tiwiv 5 *ai rot ov/c a^fr^po'i/ (rot 
8oKet ctrat *cal tKaroi; re/c/njpioy ou 8^ eyw Aeyw, ort 
(rot ovSb (xn&riKev ; dAA* etW, S 3 ya^', TIJ avroiis 
ict; 01 WJDIOI. J AAA' od roOro ^pwrw, 
f, dAAa rts a^pa>7T09, oori? irpwroi; Kal cwro 
roCro 0186, row vopvs. Ourot, S 2(u/cpars, oi 5i*a- 
orrau Ocas Aeyets, w MeAqr* ; oi^ roi)s i^& 
otot re eitrt xai jSeAriW Troteti'; MdAtora. 
STrawes, rj d jub avrwv, oi 8' ov ; "Airavrcs. Ei5 ye 
j'?j r^z; "Hpav Aeyet?, xat -ffoAAJ/i; fyQoviav T&V w<j!>e- 
Aowwr. TI 8e 8^ ; ofl& ol a^cpoarai jSeArious TTOIOVO-W, 25 
*/ o^5; Kai ourot. Ti 8^ ot ]8ovAewat; Kat ol j 


rat. *AAA' upa, & MeAffre, /A?/ ot sv rfj eK/cA^crta, [ot 

6ta$#apourrt TOW? i/eajre'pous ; 17 
-jroioiW feaxres; K&fcctvot. flcWes apa, 
A0ijpauu xaAois Kayatfoi/y wotoiJ<ri irAT/ 
eyw oe /xoVo? biaffleipto. OVTV Aeyet?; Haw 
roSra Aeyw FIoAAv/ir y' e/xoi; Kareyi'^/cas 
/cat /xot airoKpt^at' -ij at irepl iinrous ovrw ciot 

B exew ot ^ey /SeXriovs tfotowres auroi/y TTOITCS 
^ot etyat, etj Se ri? o 6ta</>0eipct>2> ; 5 Toirttprfoy rovrov 
tav ets jtxeV rts 6 jBtXrtovs otos T J &r Tiowty TJ ^ctw oAt- 
yot, ot luTTiKoi' ol 8e TToAAot ^az^rep fwwtn K 
rat tffTrotj, bia<j)6eipovcrLv ; o^x ourws ?^ 1 J 2) 
Kat Trept tuTTcoy Kat Taiy aAAa>2/ airaxn-co^ f<5a)y; 
S^TTOU, a^ re cru KCU tf Awros ou ^T lay re 
iroAA^ yap ay rtj i6atfiorta et^ irept rois Wovs, 
juev jnoVos avrovs ^ta^etpet, ot 6' aAAot <t 

C dXAa yap, S Mc'A,i?rf, I/camff m6tKiV(7at ort 

^j art o^SeV (rot ptcfA&^xe Tifpt c5z> ^^ 

Again, am I so foolish, Meletus, as to wish to live among bad 
fellow-citizens ? No f The harm that 1 do must be mvdun- 
tary* And why bring me to trial for an involuntary act ? 

"En Se i#v eiire, S irpos Ato's, Me'Ayyre, TTO- 
repov corty otxeiv apttvov & itokfcats xpTjaroty 77 TTO- 
i;?jpots; w Vavj diroKptvat* oibtv yap Tot x^ 7 ^ 
epa>T&. ovx ol /*^ irovrjpol Rattov TI %pyaourat roiry 
at eyyuraVdi) eavm' o^ras, ol 5* dya#ot &ya&ov n; 
Elazw ye. "E<mz> oSi* ocrrts /SovAerat VTTO raw 

/xaAAoi' 5 w$eAetff#cu ; diroVptvai, w *y 

44 APOLOGY, 25D-26B, 

u yap 6 flojios Acikt mroKpiWOm, 100* oorts /3ov- 

cwrayei? StOpo & Jna^fotporra TOVS rcwrfpous *al iro- 
vqporepou? iroiovrra /co'ira r) a^oira ; c EKo'vra ywyf. 
Ti ^5ra } S M*Aijr ; Too-oi3roi/ ai/ tyov o-o^repos t 
njfAtKOvrov wros TTjAt/coffSe wy, oicrre (rv fiey ypa>Kas 
on oi ^ib KaKoi KttKoV n tpyafavrai dei rovs ftdAiora 
eauraiis ot 8^ dya^oi ayafloV eyw 8e 8^ 
dfta^as ?/K<t), o5flT KOI TofJr 1 dyuow, on, 
pov TrotTJtra) Twy (vvovTiaV) KU'8iWt;cr<o 
u Aa]3U' w' avrou, <Sor rovro TO Totrowop 
eKfii)^ TTOUB, 0)5 ^rjs or ; TaSra ey^ crot ov 
Mt'A^rf, ofytat 8e oiSe aAAoi' d^pwr*wz oi8eW aAA 26 
?) ou 8ia^5e(pa), q *t 8fa^ip(i>, aKtov, (Sore <ru y xar 

aAA 1 t5t^ Aaj3<fvra 6t8dflTK6ty KCU ^ovdereu;* S^Aoy yap 
ort, av jmd^a), iraiJffO^at o ye CIMW Jroiai, aii 8e fvyyci 1 - 
Iff&oa, jjutv fAOt xal 8t8d^at Ifyuyes at OWK ^eA^a-as, Seupo 
8e t<rdyts> ot ro/ios etrrh' turayew roi)s KoAdffews 8eo- 
s, aAA' 

* Tow are an atheist, Socrates, Ton say that the sun is a stone, 
and the moon earth.' At If everyone did not know that 
these are the doctrines of dnaxagoras, not mine! The accusa- 
tion is not onfy false, but self-contradictory. 

(a) Charge *A\\a yap, ctoSpes *A%aiot, TOITO ub SwAov w8n 

of tithcism 4 

met, fiortV, o *y& eAcyoz/j on MeA^ra> TOUTWP ovre fiya oUre B 

" 8A ' 

, TOV? vewrepovy ; 
on irara r^y ypa^ijr, f)V iypd^w, ^ovs 8t8d<ncoyra ^ 
, Irtpa 8< 8ai/iozaa Katvd; ov 

APOLOGY, 20B-27 A. 45 

ravra Ae'y^is 6Yt bibcurKtav o*ta$tfetpo> ; Haw 
<7<t)6bpa rafJra Ae'yw. Dpos ewrwv TOIVVV, S 
Tovrcoy roil* 0f 5r, <5^ wv 6 Ao'yos &rnV, ftae en 
C (TTfpov ml tyol KCU rots dj>8pd<n rovroto-t. eya> yap 

?, teal auro? apa vojutfa) u?at ^eous, 
ei/uu ro irapdirai; a^eo? ou6e ra^rp a6t/coS, ov 

ye ^ iroXt?, d\X' crepous, /tat TOUT* Itrnp o /JLOI 
ets, on Irepovs" ^ Tra^raTrao-t /xe ^9 ovre avrov 
5eovj rows T aXXous raura 5i5aorK6tv Tavra 
y TO irapaTra^ ou ^o/xtfets ^covs. *I2 ^au/Ame 
tva ri ravra Aeyetj ; ou5e r/Atoy ov^e (reA^iz;^^ 
apa vc^ifa 6eov$ e&at, wo-7ip ot aAAot avQptoiroi ; Ma 
At 5 , S aVop$ StKacrra^ |gri TOV jaey $Aio*> \iBov 
tyat, TT)I; 
S <J)i 

cwrous aTretpovy ypa^fjidr^v slvai) wore ov/c tS&ai oTt ra 
""A^afayo'pov j&jSAia roS KAa^bfiei'tov ycjutei Toura>j; row 
Ao'ycov ; Kat fi^ KCU ot yeot raura Trap' l/^oC [j,au$avova'iv i 
B & $&< 

laurov etva*, ^AAwj re Kat oi;r<os aro-jra ovra. dAA* S 
^rpos Aios, o^rwcr^ trot, SOKW otJScVa voiiifaiv Q&v 
Ou jieWot jma A^,ov5' oTrcoortoOy, 'ATTtaro's / ct, 
^al raGra fieyrot. CDS juol SoKets, crat/raJ. /xoi juei; yap 8o/cet 

TOS, Kal drcxvcas rijy ypa^y ratJnjp {5j3pt nvt teat 
27 Kai vtQTrjTi ypd^atr^at. eot/cc yap aJoTrep atvty^a fyvr\6iuri 
>, Spa yvooo-erat ScoKparqs 6 cro^o? 

al tvavrC f/xauro) Acyoz/roj, 17 ffairaT 
/col rois aAAovs TOVS doiJovras j oSroy yap 


ra tvavria Acycw ^ T OS avr<3 ei> rjj 

For Mfletus allow that I believe in &ujaowa. therefore I believe 
in foup,ofes ; and, if in Saipovts, then in fieoz, Thus Mehtus 
is convicted out of his ou ( n mouth. 

&?/, $) avbptfi poi <auttTat ravra 
tar <rv 6e fyuu; aTTOKjotrat, MeAijrc* vftts fie, cfarep B 
/car" 1 apx^J fyw irap^r^o 1 ^?^, peiivri<r6e pot, 
iSetr, fav ey TW etwflo'n rpo"^ TOIIS Xoyouj 

npaypaa? etrnt, cU'fywirous 5e 

} Kat pj aAAa Kat aXAa ^opt//3tra)' eor^* o<m$ 

ov z^o/jitCet tiiTrua e Trpa^/jtara ; ?) 
ras ^ii? ou i'0/xtfecj av\r)TiKa be Trpayjuara; ov< 
S aptorc ai/Spoiiv* c? /AJ] <rv ^8ovAi avoKptvacrBcu,, eyw aoi 
Aeya> Kat rois aAAois TOUTOKTI. aAAa ro 7rl rowrw ye 
aroxptrat" etr^' Sort? 6at/ioz;ia ^^z; z/o/u'fei irpay^aT C 
eu/at, fiaijuoms 6c ov rofit^et ; OVK IOTIJJ. 'ilj wz^o-as, 
ort /moyts aiteKptvto i/nb roura>t f t avayKa^ojbtefoy. QVKOVV 
Sacjuo'na yxez^ (^r/y pc Kai ro/A^eii' Kat dtSacrKctr, eir' o^ 
itatva tr 7ra\a4a* aAX' ovy Saiftouia y Z;O/IL{O> Kara TOJI 
<rou Xdyoi/5 Kai ravra xai BwojiioW c^ TT) dprtypa^. et 5e 
Kai Satfiouas SJJITOU 

odrcos x i 5 ^X t ^" T 
c7Tfi8i? ov/c airoKpiwt. roiis 

ovxt ;rot ^ous ye qyotfpwfla 17 ^eoiy TratSa? ; <$? ^ oi; ; 
Haw ye. OvKoOv efop daijuoyas ^yoOjuat, wy (?v ^y, et 
I&V QtoC nv& flaw ol 8afytovs s TQVT av dr\ o eyca 

APOLOGY 27D-28B. 47 

ei 6* au ol Satftoz-'es flewz; iratfc's elm voBoi tires 
>, $>v by 

tro trat, 
yap av aToiror ffrj, wo'Trep az f i rts tirxwv ftr 


yoiro cu ai. dXA', S Me\??tf , QVK 
(TV raura ci)\L ai:oTiGip(&iJLtvo$ fm& 

, 77 airop&v 6 n ey/caXoty eju 

z^ wj ov roi; avTov Ian Kal daifiowa ical 0ta 
t, /cat av roi) CLVTOV /.njre Satpioi^a? ^re (9<oii? ffljre 

4. The DigTession A defence by Socrates of his 

life generally, 28 A-34 B. 

T&J u enough m reply to Mefetus. It is not bij accusatm I bave 
to fear, but the force of popular prejudice* 

'AAAa yap, a>. aV 
xara r^z; MeA?}roB ypa^njr, ov 7roAA^5 fiot Sonet 

yia?, dAA* t/cara Kat raura* o 8c Kal ^ rots !/*- 
lAeyov, ort TroAAij juot d7T^ cta yfyovc Kal Tpo? 

tOT OTl ClAjJ#& OTt. 

e/u atpijo-ct, tdviiGp aipj, ow MtAijToy ov6e ' 
7; r&v TroAAwz.' f)ia/3oA?J re (cat $0<bo?. 
B ^AAovs /cat dya^ow? aV Spa? ^pr^W} ot^iot 8e feat 
oiSei? 8e 8f IVQV /XT) e^ juoi or^. 

But I may be asked 1 Is it not a disgrace^ Socrates, to have acted 
m such a way that you are m danger of death ? ' No. A man*s 
first object should not be to secure bis Itfe^ but to do b'u duty. 

v lor<i)s 5' ttv <&v flirot rts* etr 1 O-UK ato^^et, S Sw/cpa* 

48 APOLOGY, 28B-D. 

> ; eyob 6e rot;r&> a^ <5u 

on ou KaAws Ae'yeis, w Wpwire, L oiet 8euf Kivbvvov 
ToO f?ji' ?*/ retivdpat ay Spa OTOV n KO,\ 
/wp o^eXo? cmr, dAA J OUK ^KCIP 
OTOLV irparr?/, iror/)or StKaia ^ aSi/ca irpdrreij Kat d^ 

Ipya i] Ka/coiJ. <J>ai3Aot yap w TV ye trtS Aoyw 

Owv offoi 6V Tpot'a TaeXetTijicatT^, 01 TC a\\ot C 
Example of Kai o TJ/y ertfios v!oV, os To<;oijTov roO Kivfruvov /care- 
c " es< ' frapa ro aiffxpoy it iirojMU'at. wirre 7retS?j ctirei; 

?} ju?jn)p airw Trpo^vjuov^eVto "Exropa 
outra, ovrwcrt irajs, <Ls eyw/xat* a> irot, et 
) r<S Iratptj) TOI^ <foW Kai "E/cropa d 

i' airfca yap rot, ^ 
eroiftos' 6 raur' aKoi/tras roi; jaey ^ayarou Kai 
TOV Kivlvvov (oAiywp?/cre, /roAv 6 j^aAAoi; Setcras ro ^^ 
al TOi? ^t'\ot j ft?/ TinwpiiVj avr&a, 

ir aj(^os dpoup?js. juij 

avroy oi fypovnvuL QavaTOv KOI Kivbvvov', OI/TW yap exet, 
^yaiotj TIJ akyGsiq' w av n? eavrov rdfij [^] 
y j8e\TrTov c&at 5 far* apxovroy Tax^?j, 

QavaTQV ^TC aXAo fti]5ev irpo roi) 

I tow kept my post under earthly commanders , I twill keep it 
under the heawnfy, For*to dread death more than disloyalty 
is to assume a knowledge which five do not possess. So 
that if you 'were to offer me my life now on condition of my 
abandoning philosophy^ I would refuse with all respect* Nay t 
as long as 1 had any breath in my body, I would continue my 
mission to young and old* 

'Eyw oSi? faiva av &iv eip 

APOLOGY, aSE-agc, 49 

E fcuoi, 6i, ore y.iv /ue ot apxpVT6s eVarroj', ofe tyueis 
eiW0e ap%w you, KOL kv Uonbaia Kal fa 'A^iiro'Aft The cam- 
Kal hi ATjAio*, ToYe oft helvoi GTCLTTOV fytvov tiffTKp Socrates. 
KOL aAAos ns /cat wMvevov aitoQavflv, TOV Be 0eov 
rarroiroSj eta ey^j ^'^r/p re jcat vveXapo 
l/e Setz; $jz> Ka^ f^erdfovra fyavrov xal TOV$ 
ddvarov rj a\\o onoutf 
iiJoz; joteW iv etr/, at ws aAr]55s ror 3 
ai> jme Sucauu? eto-ayot rt? et? 8i/vaa t T?]p4oi', ort ou z/ojuttfa) 
^cois eirat curciO&v rfl juopreta xal SeSicos 9ava,TOV Kui 
ol6ttevo$ cro(j>bs et^at OVK 5r. ro yap rot Qdvarov 6e6teVat, 
w avfipes, ovfi^f aAAo eorb 57 ^oMii; 1 o-o^ov elvai $ ovra' 
boKflv yap eiSeW effrii; & OWK olSev. otBe ^cv yap ovSeis 
rov 0aiwoJ> ov8' et ruyxawt T az>0p<a7Ta> irtz^rwy /Af'yt- 
oroi' ov r&v ayaQ&v, 8e8^a(rt 8' as ei! et6dr? on jneyiarov 
B TWZ> KCtKWV OT^, /fal TOT/TO ffws ov/c ajuaflta erriz; avrr; rj 
faovcfoivros, ^ rou owor^at cftuwi a OVK oiSevj eyw 8e, 
sj rourw /cal IvravOq t<ra)s 8ia(/>epa> 
V) ml et 8?j r&> (ro^Tepo'j TOV (^atrjj; 

ua^oS? itepl r&v h "At8ou oi/ra) Kal 
TO 8e a8tKet^ at aTre^ciz/ T<J fieMovi, 
KOL Otu Kal avQpunr, on KCLKOV KOL alvftpov tvnv ot8a. 
irpo ovv T&V fcaKwy, &v oKa on Ka^a effttv, & JMJ ot8a et 
aya^a oVa Tvy\av&, ovSeWe (^o^o-ofiat ov8e favfypai' 
C wore ou8 ! el |ue yyv V/XCLJ a^Lere 'Amcj) amor^o p ai'Te9j 6? 

oIoV Te e;at TO 
u/ias us, e( Sta^eu^o^rjy, ?/5r] ay vjttoz/ ol 

cowpaTTjs 8t8dV/cet 
tj ^ ef jnot irpoy TauTa efootre* 
res, vw jwev *AwJr<p uw Tr^o-o'ibte^a, aAA' a$(fytv ae, em 

50 AfiOLOGl\ 29O30B, 

rovnu jueWoi, i(j> wre ju^en h ravrij rj fonfctt Siarpt- 
jto fiqSe (JHhowfatv lav 8 a\<|>$ eu TOIJTO npar 
OLTioOam' i oifc fie, fep roi>, 7*4 rouroi? a^ioi 

i> v/Lttr on eyw ^as ; ay^pcs 'A^rjvatot, atnra- 

sai ^tAw, iretVoftat <5e 

KOL laxrTTf/) ar e/xir^e'to KCU oto's re tij ov p/ iraucr 
The daily </)iAo<ro<^a)u /cat fyiu> napaK^AcuoVet'oy TC /cat fo 
tior^o?*" jbiez/os orw ay aft cvrvyflivQ vftwz;, A.ey&)V olaTiep ciw 
Socrates. # T t J) aptffre a^Spfii/, 'Abates &v, TToAea)? 
/cat rfSoK^Tar^s fe (ro<J)tay xai 

Se Kat a\??^eias Kai rijs B 

JSj oTTtos ws jSeXnan} ejrrat, ok erif/f Act ou8e <j>povrl~ 
feu ; Kal caf rts iSfLwz? ^lO'jSTjrr/ xal ^ij eTUjueAeidDai, 
OUK ^i)? d^^o-G) oiroy 01-8' aTretftt, ctAA' ^fro/wtt auroi; 
xat ferd<rw Kai Aeyf(), Kot eap jioi fi^ SOKTJ KfKr^at 
ort ro TrAeiorou afia Trcpi 
Trotaraij ra 5e favhorepa urep; irAei'ow, raSra 30 

p, orw ay cvTvyxaw } m^w, 
/cai aoruj /zoAAop 5e rots aa-TOis, oo-tp \wv 
yevi, TCLVTQ, yap K\tvfi 6 hos, fv tore, 
Kai fya> otoftat ouSeV mo vfie^ ftetfoz; aya^o? yevwQat h 
rff ^oAet ^ n)y W^ rw ^ vtrjpwiav, ovfcv yap aAAo 

ws dptW?j eoraij Aeywi? ort OVK CK yjn\\ia.Tv dp^ri) ytyv&aij 
dAA' If dpT^s OTM aTa Kc ^ AAa dyafla rots 

Kai ^St^ xal S^oo-ia. t fiev oSy raura 

US veoujj raSr' a> ? jSAajS^pd* ci $ ny jue 
aAAa A^'ytz; $ raura, oi8b Aeyei. irpos toura, 

APOLOGY, 30 IMS. 51 

<j>alriv av, 'Aftyyawi, fj 7ii0e<r0e 'Awro) 77 jwj, KCU 5 

d$ire TJ p) d^iere, <k e/xoi) QVK av TTOtTjcrozros aAAa, ou? ' 

C d jue'AAu) TroAAtms 

Hfar me patiently t Athenians ; for it will da you good, If you 
put me to death, you 'Will be injuring yourselves more than w } 
andfying in the face of Heaven. Tan <witt not easily fnd 
another to awake you from the slumber of self-complacency. 
Have I not sacrificed all in your service? 

M?) flo^vjSaTjj, ai>Spcs 'Atftypaun, aAV \\L\teivo.Ts jnot 
oly eSeijftyz; VJIQV, $ Sopv^fiv ty ot? av Ae'yo), dAX* 
aKovtiv KOI y(^p, GJS yc) oIjtAat, owfeff^s aKOuorTey, 
jueAAa) yap ow arra ^jmtv epeiv xai aAAa, e$ s ot? 
tffojs jSoijo-eo-^' dAAa ^?a//3j TroteiTe roi)To. ei> yap 
fore, eaz/ l/xe cmoKreivrjre TOIOVTOV owa, olov eyw 
Aeya), ov/c fye j^etfa) j3Ad\^er ^ vjia? awoTJs* Ifte fii; 
yap ov5b av jSAa^etey oiJre McAjjros oUre v Awo$* 

DovSe yap av Syratro* ov yap olofxat 
apetvm avbpl M xfipovos pXaKTeadat 
V.SVT ay 10-0)9 ^ ffeAdVetff ^ dn/jtcuffetey* dAAa ravra 
otJros to-cos oterat Kal aAAos n's ^ou jneydAa KaKa, eya> 
5' owe olfofiat, dAAa iroAv juaAAor Troielv a ovros iuz;t 
Troiet, ay8pa d5tKa>? efftxeipci/' diroKriyz/uyat. vvv oh*, 
S ay6ps 'A^raiot ; iroAAov Sew ^ya> vrrtp ejuavroiJ 
dffoAoyet<r0ai, wj rt? ay oloiTo, dAA' mp V/AWV, firj rt 
efajuapnjre upt rijy TOV ^ov 8oW 4/iw ejuou Karajjnj- 

E (JMraptvoi, ear yap ^e d^OKTC^^rc, ov p e a$ta)s aAAor 
rotouroi' ewpijcrere, drex^ws, et Kat y^Aotorfpo^ eZTretv, Simile of 

" 'v t V A /I (f </ 

V TJI iroMi vno TOV Qtov, w<r^ep tirffo) /- 
KOI yeiwaiw, VTTO jweye^ovs 8e KanSfifftepftJ 
/cat Seoju&to lyetpeo-fiat ^o ^WTTOJ nvos* otov 6^ juot 


APOLOGY, 30E-31C. 

ifis yetp<0!> m irefttoy teal oveMfav ha eita<nw 

-jravojLtoi rji> ^juepai' oAr^ nairtt^oi) irpotrKaBir 31 
M'. TOIOVTOS oSi> aAAos ov pqtiw fyui> yewjwai, 
s, dAA 5 eaz> fyol raffle, ^etVecrde juov rjaets 
* t(T(i)j ra^' &v axQo}MVots wo'Trep ol vvordE^ovre; eyet- 
Kpowavrts av fie, imtfo/i 

e, ira roz; XOITTOI; jSioz; 
3 ay, t JLW? rii;a oAAcw 6 0eoy vjniy 

vptiv. on 8' ^yco Tvy%avto k TotoiJroj, 
olos 55ffo ToO ^ou rg Tro'Aei 5e8o'cr^at, &0&8e iv Kara- 
jJo^o-aiT^' ov yap avfyurnvto eotKe TO e/xe TQV JAW ejnau- B 
rou aitavTbv ^eAijKVai /cai avfye<r6ai T&V 
r/Sij er^, TO 8e v^ 

^i apenjy, Kat et jne 
[rot] <kd rowioy d^reAavoy Kal JLHO-^O^ Xajw/Sazwy Ta 

Kal avrot", on ot fcanjyopot raAAa Ttavra 
OIITCO KarqyopowTgs TOUTO ye ou)( otot T 
dirai/aiox^jrat, T^a^o^m paprvpa, a>j eyw TroreO 
nz/a $ cTrpa^v /zt^oz; $ ^njcra. ticavip yap, ot/zat, 
eya> Trapexofzai TOV juapnjpa, aAi)^ is Alyw, TTJI; TTW. 


which has deterred me from a cwne which could wlyend 
in my destruction. 

av A U^cuv from ehu, <rt i? 

310-33 A. P^ W ov ToAjmw foajSa&w e^s TO 

po ^9ou\e&w r|J iroAet. w'rov 

4 jpcfr cfuu TroAAaKts a^KoaTe iroAAaxoi) Aeyoi/Tos, 

APOLOGY, 3ID-33B. 33 

D on pot 0eTo'i> n /cat Saijuo'woz/ yiymai [<)>a)wj], & 8ij The 

ai b rj ypa$) eTrt/cw/itoSiw; Me'Arjros eypfyaro' efiot 

8e TOUT' eVriz' CK iratS^s dpfdftewu, $v{\ ns 
?? 0701* ye'i>7jraij ate cnror/KTra )U6 rovrovj J ip 
jaeAAw Trpcirreti;, npOTpfati 8e oi/Trore' roOr 1 lorn/ o 
jnot cyawiovrai ra TroAtnxa rparrew;, /cat TrayxaAajs 
ye /xot 8oKt emwrtovo-^ai' eft yap tore, S auSpss 
'A0typauH, et cyw [TraAaij ire)(ip7/cra 7r/Darrtz' ra TTO- 
Atntd irpay/xaraj ffaAat az^ airoAcoA?/ KQI OUT' cb 
Eujuas <u<J)cA^Krj 0^8^ ovr' a> ejuavroV, /cat juoi /*?/ 
\tyovTi roXitjdr)' ov yap ecrrty oortj dv^p^- 

0-0)^(TfTat QVTC V^V OVT aAAo) TlATJ^l 

yaynovjucros xal SiaKwAvwv iroAAa aS 
82 Kai Trapawjua & rfi ^oAet y[yvca6ai } dAA' drayjcaibV 
fort roi/ Tfi oi/n naxofywov wrep TOV SIKOIOU, /cal d 
Xet dXtyov XP^Voz; <r<o^(T(rdat5 t'Suorevcip dAAa ft?; 

/f/6ifff I have acted m a public capacity, it has been at the risk of 
my life. I maintained the right in the teeth of the Demccrncy^ 
and again of the thirty tyrants. 

MydAa 6' eywye v/xu> Tft?jpia irapc^ojuiai TOV- 
TOJ^, ov Xo'yov9, dAA* 6 v/xets njuarej epya. axozJcraTe 
S?J JLIOV ra e/xot fvjjtj8ej3/KOTa, iz^' e^^re on 0^6' ai; 
ew u7Ti/cd^otjW ffapa TO tinaiov ficio-as toaror, ^ 

Be a/ia Kat aX ^ avoXoi^v. epw 5e v/ui Conduct o 
fiey /cat Si/cama, dA?;^ ^ ^ y&P> ^ the trial ^ 
B 'Adiji/atoi, aAA?jj/ ftez/ dpx^ ov8e/xiW Tr^^ore ?ipfa b the general 
TTJ iroXet, IjSouAevffa 6e' /cat Irvx^ ^M '' 

Tioj(is] vpVTavvov<ra> ^re fya$ rois 
rov? o^/c aveXontvov* roii? K r?j? 


54 APOLOGY, 32B-E. 

itaaiv v^iu !8ofe, roV ey& fufoos r&v 
rMr}V [v/jui>] Fr)kv 7T016U 1 TTapa TOUS venous [KCU evav- 
Tia tyi^wflfw^], /cat Iroifww &ra>i> fofoiwrfww jtie *al 
dffdyau r&v pqropwv, Kal fytwv KeAcvoVrav KG! jSo^z^- 
rp, ftera TOU yopou al roi) SiKttiOu wft?jz/ fcaAAoy jue C 
5ti' d(aictv5w6t/fiv /*60* v^oiy y&Mu $ Strata 

Refusal of jSowXcwojyieW, (jtofiitfevTa, bwpbv 0aj>aroy, Kai 

assist m the raSrfl fi^ )]r In 8?j/jioKpaTOVjLt6i'7?? r9 
^ 3Aiyopj(ia ey^tro, ot r/naKOi'Ttt av 

juti-'os Acorra roy SaAafjicrtoy, u>' dirotoot' ota 8?) 
xat aAAois Octroi woAAow wAAa Trpoaerarroi;, ]8ouAo- 
ftez^oi <as TrAetVroys drairATJirat atnoJi)' TOT? jieVroi ycb 
ov Ao'yu d\A' ^pya) av ^eSetfafiijr, on efiot 
jub jue'Afi, a ju^ aypOLKOTfpov rp dittw, ovtf 
row 5e j^tj2/ aSiKoi; fW]5 J di^oVtoy lpya{6(rd<u, 
8e ro 7rai /xeAei. jn yap tmw\ T\ apxy OVK 

pa ouoraj cwore aStKoV Tt epyauao-^ai, dAA ; 
y, ol j-ib Tcr 
Aeowa, cyw 

^ dpx?/ 5ia raxew^ KaTekvQy Kal TQIITQV vjuv 

CoW / /Jw survived to this age, if I bad attempted a public 
career ) acting as I should have dene on these principles $ 
For neither in public nor in private have I ever swerved 
from the rtgbt, nor connived at such conduct in others. I have 
never received pay for speaking nor selected my audience, and 
I cannot be held responsible for the conduct of those who may 
have chanced to listen to me, 

*Ap* QVV dV /Jie aUcrde roadSe frq Stay ei^'cr flat, et 

APOLOGY, 33E-33C. 55 

irpaTToz> TO, ^juocrm, Kal irparTav dftcos dy&po? dya- 
dov tpo7}dovv rots biKaiois /ecu, coff-zrep xMj T0 ^ ro ^ e P* 
TrAeiorou eTTOtovjttfjy ; iroAAou ye Set, a aySpe? 'A0J?- 
wuot. ovfe yap av aAAos avOpfatov ovfafc. dAA' eya> 

33 Sta irazros rov fitov br^oa-ia T, ct TTOV Tt errpafa, 
roioiJros (j^avov^ai, Kal Ibiq 6 OVTQS ovroy, 
9ra>7ror ^yx^oraj ov8e^ irapo ro StKatoz^ oiJre 
oure rourwy ovSc^^, o^? OL 8ia/3aAAoi>T ; $ /Jte ^affiv 
t. eye!) 6e 8t5d<r/ca\os jufe o8ez>o? 

et 6e ris /AOV Aeyoi/roy xat ra 
roi5 irparrowoj iTTt^v/iet a/coveir, are re^repo? 
'jrpeo-jSvrepos, ovtot Tr^Trore e^^o^o-a, ou8 

B M^ Aajut/Saz'wr 6taAeyojLiat, fA?/ Ka^amv 6' ov, 
6fJLOLO)s Kal TrAoujfy /cat Tre*i/7jrt 7rapexo e/xavroz> 
rai;, (cat eaz/ its jSotfAqrat diroKptvopii;os dxoTjeti/ wj/ ay 
A^'ya). /cat TOVTW eyaj etre ns XpTjffTQS ytyverat ctre 

et 5e rtV 

<j>r)cri Trap 3 fyov Trw^ore Ti jua#ti> ^ d/coucrat 2d^L o rt 
ju^ /cat ot a\Aot Trams, ev tore ort OVK dATjfl?? Ae'yei. 

w, 7 ccnfess, take pleasure in bearing me examine 
pretenders to ^wisdom : but thu with me is a divine mission. 
If lam the corntpter a/youth, why are not witnesses brought 
to prove it from among my circle of associates ? Why are the 
friends of those I have corrupted men of mature age and 
established character here to defend me ? 
*AAAa dta n 8?? Trore fier j ejmou xaipowi rtvey irohiiv 
ovw 8iarpi/3oms ; aKTy/cdar^ a> ai-Spes 'AOrjvalor 
vfuv T^U dA^etar ey& etirov, ort aKovovrcs 
^Ta(ojj,svois rots olo^vois /uf *vai <ro- 
is, ov<rt 8' oiJ- &m yap ov/c d??8&. ^/xoi Be TOVTO, 

56 APOLOGY, 330343, 

d>s ey<6 (fiyiM, TrponreraKrai wo rou 0eoi) 
Divine & fj,avTtv Kal ef ewirvlav xal noun rpoirw, wTr 

Socrates n/? iror * Ka ^ ^^ ^ l ' a ' zo ^ )a toOp&xy K 

e'rafe Trpamtzf. ravra, 'A^j/aiot, Kai aAij0?J edrt 
Kai ve\y/cra. e^ yap 81) tycoye rfiy r^ooj/ TOII? piei> 

poi yw6\Mvoi ly^w<ray on Woiy 
avrois eyw Ka/coi; TrcSffore' Tt ^^e^ouXeutra, wvt avroi/j 
ava^aivovras IIJLOV Kar?]yOjoetv /cat n^piia-Bai' d 8^ 
JUT) avrol ^e\o^ raw oi/ceiw^ nwi? rw^ ttcelmv, ira- 

/cat dSeA^ois /cat aXXovy row TrpoaTJ/coiras, 
fyoO rt /caKOv eireTroV^eo-ai/ avrfiy ot ot/cetot, 
The com- juf/xi^ffl9at /cal n/jia)ptcr5aL ffavrwff 8e TT& 

7ro ^^ ^woi;^ ofe eyi opcS, irp&rov fjt,ev Kptfa)!/ otf 
rotri, e/jioy yhim&Tys Kal Sr/jixo'n??, KpiTOj3ouAou 
iTretra Awavias 6 S^rTioy, A2tr\(vau 
In 'AvTt</>wz^ 6 K^^ta-ifk ovrcxrt'j 'fi 
aAXot TO^WJ/ ovroij cSy ot dfifX^ot ey ratmj rj 
^ yeyovao'i, Nt/co'ffTparos, 6 cofon'Soi;, dSeA.- 
t/>os eoSo'rov Kal o juev 0eo'8oroj rereA^rTjwz/, (SaTc 
OM &p e/ccWs ye avrov KarafariQeiq , /cat UdpaXos 
oSe, 6 Ajj/xo8o/cov, ov ^ 06ay?;s dSeA^os* oSe 8e 'ASet- 84 
jbiaz/ros, 6 'Ap&nwoj, ou dSeA^^s ovroo*t HAara)!/, Kal 
Ai'avro / 8a>poy, o5 'A^roAAofiwpos o8e afoAaw. Kal iAAov? 
iroAAovs lyci) ex ^M* y ftircty, <5y ni'a exp?z> juaAtora 
fib ti' rS lavrov Ao'yw TtapavftiffSai U^XfjTOv /jtaprvpa 1 
*t 8^ T<Jre ^TreA^ero, zniy Trapao^Vfla), ^yw irapaxwpW} 
/cat Aey^rWj t TI ex ct TotoOroz/. dAAa TOVTOV wav rpjj- 

y TO) 8tac/>^efpovrt, TW /ca/ca epyafo/A&o) roiy 
aMr, (09 <#>a(7t MeAvros /cat "Awoy. 

APOLOGY, 34B-E, 57 

yap ol bte^dapnevoi rfy av \6yov fyoiw j 
ol 8e dSw^aproi, irp<r/3vTepoi TJ&IJ (tofyey, ol 
fipoor^ojw, rfoa S\Aoz> ^ ovort Aoyov jSo^flowrey e/*ot 
dAA' 5 TW ppfloV re /cat 8i/catoy, on fyvfoaai MeA?Jr(j> 

5. The Peroration, 34B-35D, 

^f ^r/;/^j be inclined to judge me harshly 
because I have not brought forward my children, and ap- 
pealed to the court for mercy. Such appeals seem to me to be 
unworthy of a man, and still more unworthy of the State* 

EtJ> toj, S oz^pw & pin cyo) IXOI/A' av drroAo- Reason&for 
C yetffflcu, VK&OV hn raSro KCI aA\a tcrws TotaCra, raj(a f 
8 J az^ ny i/pav ayavanTritrtLev avaiwyvQtls eouroi), 
6 (ilv /cat A<irTa) TOUTOVI' TOV dywyos dywra dycowfo- (^ 

re al tKereua-f TOIIJ Stxaoras fira ^oAAwv not 
Sa/cpvcw, 9:G(8ia T avroiJ dya/Si/SacrajLi^i'os, tya o TI ^ 

^, xal aAAovs rciii' otKeiwy xat 0t\ojz,' 
ovs, ^ycb 6 ov5ey apa roww Trow^o-ctfj al raura 
z;, ws ar So^atfit, roy Hffxarov ttivfovov, rax' 
oSif Tts raiJra ewm!<ras a^aSecrrfpov av rpo? /ie <TX^J 
Kal opytd^eis awoi? rovrots fatro av ftcr' opy?)? rr/y 
D \|/?j<j>oi\ ct 5?j n? fytwr ovrws Ixct, OVK afi /xei/ yap 
lycoye' et 5' o&j metK5 ay /xot' BOKW wpos rovrop Acy^iv 
Ae'ytoi; on e^ot, w apitrrfj fitrt plv iroiJ Tives ai otKetot* /cat 
yap TOVTO avro ro TOV *0jut^poi>, ovS 1 eyw drro Spvos ov6' a7io 
irerp))? ir^uxa, oAA* e Wp^ir<r, wort Kat oixeiot ftot kt 
/cat vie??, w aySpe? 'A^raibi, rp ty, ^t? juey juteipaKioy ^87;^ 
Sta* oAA* OJUKBS oiS^V aurfi^ SeiJpo a/,'aj3ij3a<ra- 
8eij<rojULai V/AWV airo^^iVao-dau it 8?) ov 
E rafotov VOLTIVQ ; ok 0^081^6^0?, w 5^6pe 
ovS* vfta? drtfiafcar, dAA' t //6y ^appaAewy cyo> lxa> irpoy 

APOLOGY, 34 E-35C, 

tfj, tiAAos An'yo?, :rpos- 5* ow dofav Kal ejuioi KCU 
i uArj rjj irdAci cw /jot OOKI KaAw eim ^e 
ovSeif ffotciv Kai njAiicoVSc owa Kai rouro row 
tr* ofo dAfjfles 1 ftr' ovv ^ei38o$' aAA' ovy 
ye e<m ro 

etre oAAp gnrtovr uperj} roiouroi (aovrai, alff^pov av 
fir/' otot'(T7rp fyw TToAAciKts ewpafca rims, oray 

iy, ar w/neij airoiis /x>/ a7roKrij;i?r* ot 
ejuot 8oicoi?(Tfi' diff^w'jjv r?) ^roAet jreptaTrrftv,, aW av rtj;a 
Kai rajp $mv faokafiew w oi Bta^epoi'Tf s 'A6i}va&}if B 
cts d/>T?jj;, ofc avroi lauTwi' li rf rats appals Kai rat? 
oAAaij Ti^ais irpoKptVoycriy, trSroj yvraiKwy ovSez; 8ia</>- 
railra yap, S aropes 'Afywubi, oifre ^jLta? y \P^ 
rov? SoKOwras icai onoiiz' eu'ai, om\ av ^i? 
e7rirp/7TJ', dAAa rovro avro f 8'fcwflr^oi, 
on 7roAi fiaAAoi^ kaTafy^itwds rov ra eAettz/a raDra 
5pa/iara eitrdyoiTos Kai Karaye'Aaorov T^r iro'Air i 
ros ^ roi; yvvylw ayoi'ios. 

// H o/ r/^Af /or _yow /o /H te io appeals. It is your 
business to be just. If I tried to make you vote against your 
conscience^ I shwld deserve the name of atheist. 

(2) It is not Xwpls 8e rijs 6of}|Sj 

cwat 8el<r$ai row 8uaoroi5 oufi ScoVevoz; attofavytiV) 
dAAa 5t5ao > /cai' xoi iretSfetv. ou yap em royr^ xd^rat 
6 SiKaor^^, em TW KaTaxapf<?ff0ai rd Si'/cata, aAA' eTri 
TO> Kptt'giy roiJra' Kai o^w/ioxev ov ^apifitr^ai oty ay 
$ocg avr&), dAAa Swdcrctv /card TOVS pdj 
Xpi ovrf ^a? &(&# in 

APOLOGY, 35C-36B, 59 

ovSerepoi yap ay IH&V tvaepoitv, JATJ oSif 

itparmv, a \tf\Ts ^yofyiat KaXa &ai fwjre dueata fwjre 
D offw, aXXws re /*&nu wj Ai'a irdyrtoj xai d<rj8etas ^)v- 
yoz/ra iJiro M\?}TOV rourovf. tra^ws yap av 9 cl i 
^juas Kal T Settr^at jSta^o^v o/KUjuo/coras, 
SiSaar/coi/it ^ ^yt<rdat fyias irat, Kat drex^J diro- 
Aoyovjuem KaTTjyopoiV y ffiavroi) ws 0eoi)$ ov 
dA\a iroX\oG 8a oiJroos ex. etz; ' wjw'fw yap, & 
'A^vatoi, wj ovSet? rwj; ef/wv Karijyoptav, KOI ijuv 
tmrpbr feat rw 5w Kplvai wpl tyov 6Vjj ju^\Xct ffiot re 
apiara clvai Kal fyitz>. 

(The votes are given, and Socrates is condemned.) 


The majority against me is small. It is well for Meletus that he 
bad the support ofAnytus and Lycon, the he would have had 
to pay the foe. 

B To JJ.GV JUT) dyamidWj S Mpej 'A0qpau>t, htl roiJrw Smallness 
86 T(j) y^youort, on fxov KaTO/^iVaa^, aXAa T /AOI majonty 

TroAXa Ju]u|3aA\crat, fcal OVK d^eXirurrov /-tot yc'yow 

yeyoz^os roi/ro, dX\a iroXv /jwXXo^ ^av/xafw l/cawpwi; 

rob; ij/7J<a)i; roz; yeyoi'ora dpi^juoV. ov yap ^juqv lycaye 

oi^rw irap' 

oSr, ws efiot 8oK<3j feat 

vya, dXXa 

ye, ore, t ja^ avepria-av y Ai^uros Kat 
B yopijo-orres e^oSj K&J; S^Xe %tXlas 

T^ WfAffTOV 

6o APOLOGY, 368-37 A. 

The penalty is fatd at death. What alternative do I propose? If 
jusiKt were really to be done to me, I should be supported at 
the public evpftise, 

His pro- Ttjucrat 5' ovv p,oi o avyp toirow. eler eyw 8e 
he should by Tiros vfuv amnjMJffwjuat, & aVSpes 'A^ijyalo 
tainedfree n "fr of WSJ ovv, Ti agio's etjUi ffa0eiz> r) 

Prytaneum. ajUXj(Taff <5^irp ot ^oXAot, x/))jLiaTicrjtJtou re Ktti OIKOZ/O- 
/cat br^riyopmv m TQV aAAaw ap- 
al o-Tao-ea)^ rc3y cy rrj iro'tat yty^o- 
vroz' T<3 om fauiKfirrcpov ftvat 
% wore is ravr' idwro <T(5fGr5at, IvTavQa jub ov*c ?fa, C 
ol (\$tov fjiiyre vfxii? /z^Te ejzaimS 
, fft Se ro 184 waoroi/ 

r>t$tiv fj.ii TrpoVepoi; /ATJT rwy cavrou 

irpa' eaurou cirtftcAi|9eHj, OITOJS ws jSeA 
^powfiwraroj eo-otro, /nT/re rw^ ry Tro'Xeajy, irpiy 
vd\ea>9 TWP re aXXav oiJrw Kara TOI/ OUTOP 
rpoirop emfLeAcurdar rt awir ei/xt Sfto? ira^t Totouros i5^ ; 
ayatfoV r, S a^Spej 'A^i'awt, ct Set ye Kara r^y &(tw D 
rf; dA7^eta njuao'dtu* KOI ravra ye ayad&v TOiovro^, o it 
av irpeVot ejioi. n OUP Trpe'Tiet avdpt irew|n tiepyeT??, 
Seojuie'z'^ ayew <r^oA7jy em rjj wjLterepa irapaKeAewei ; OVK 
W o Tt /iSAAo^, S avbpts *A^yaiof, irpeVei ovra>y, ws 
ai-'Spa ev irpwai/etw fftrcurDai, iroAv ye 
*t ny i5p)i> WTTTB ? fwcopi'fit fevyet 
triZ'. o ^ef yap v^as Trotet ev8a^oi>a? 
[et^at], eyw ^e efoar /tai o fie^ rpo^^s oiSev 5etratj eyw E 
5e deo/tat. et ow 6i fie /cara TO 6icaioz' T?S 
j er irpurapeto) (nnjffecoy. 

APOLOGY^ yj k-b t 6l 

Do not think me insolent. But I cannot admit that lam deserving 
of rutl Now imprisonment and exile are certainly rvilj t 
whereas death may be a good. I will not therefore prefer 
either of the former. To go into exile would IK merely to invite 
elsewhere the jame treatment that I have met with here, 

"Itrcos oil) iijuv KOL ravrl Afyw irapaTrArjo-iW fioKto He will not 
f tf \ *% v \ n i i * / admit him- 

Aeyeti> oxnrep rcept rou OIKTOV /cat TIJS 

TO e OVK IOTIP, w 'Aflr/yaibtj rot- 
ovrw, dAAa roufefte juuUov. v/ircurfuu tyw wy etrai ^JJ 
juH]6&a o5tu> d^pwxro)^ aAAa y/xa? rouro 
oAtyoi; yap X/NMW aAA^Aoi? 8ietAeyf*^a* fe 
jbiai, t ^ iptv vojaoy, (Sonrep at aA\ots 
B ffepi ^a^arou /XT) jurfaz> ^epav jLtoyoi/ Kpimp, aAAa 
iroAAas, eire^o-^re &' roi; 8' ov pa8wv 
jLteyaAas 8ta]8oAas airoAueor^at. 
ixrjb&a dStKeii; iroAAoii dew ejuavroV ye afitic^ffeitf Kal Kar' 
e/xoi/roiJ tpetv avroy, ws aftos et/u TOU KOKOV xat n- 
ftfjffccrflai TOtourov rtz/os ejuaww, rt 25Va? ; j JUT) 
TOUTO, o5 MeAT/ros jaot Ti/Ltarat, o ^ijjut OUK 
ovr e aya^oz; ovr* ft KaKov corty; ayrl roirov 

eS ot5' ort Kaxwy oww, rovrou 
s ; iroVepov 6ecrjuioi> ; xal r^ jue Set ff r ev 

SouAevozn-ct TTJ del Ka^toTafieVr/ apxSt T0 ^ s ^ r " 
; aAAa xp^cww, Kal efieV^at &os az^ emcrco ; 
aAAa TOVTQV fxoi eo-rtz/, oirep w 6^ eAeyov' ov yap 
e<m fiot Xj^fwra, oTio^ei; ^n'o-fij. aAAa 87) <f)vyff u- 
yap ILV |uoi TO^TOV Ttju^uaiTC. iroAAij 

(Sore /MJ ^atr^at Aoyt^a^at, on v/ieis M 
- Atrat i*ov ov% oloi re tye'iwfle evey/ceti? ra? ejias 
D /3as Kal rovs Aoyovs, dAA* vpw jSapuifpai yeyoWt xai 


aAAot 8e apa aura? ot<rom pafiiwy, uoAAov y Set, <a 
KaAos ovi> cb ptot 6 /Si'os ffy e&Mvn r?;Ai- 

Wto C?r. S yap 08* on, oiroi ai> 
cA^w, Aeyowos e/^ou aK/Joaowat ol wot waTre 
KOW /ii^ roi/rouff aTTfAawa), ovrot fye avrol 

rok irpeo-jSvrepous' eai; 8e JUT) a^reAaww, otE 

' #<?//, CB ^ff /w/ 5-0 flwtfy ^ ^ J/Vf^ ?) No : that would be 
to disobey the divine command^ little as you may believe me 
*uben I say it. A money fat I haw no objection to, for that 
is no pvti Perhaps I could manage to pay you a mma of 
jtfaer. My frienJj here tell me to say thirty minae, and 
offer themselves as bail, 

*I<r)y oS^ av ns eiiror criywy 8e ical fiwyfav ayaw, 
S^Kpores, o^x olas r wu rjiuv ffeA^wi? ^y; TOVTL 
87; crn iravrcyy x a ^ 7r ^ raroy ^* ff ^ nz/a ? ^M^ y ^ y 
re ya/> Aey&> ort TW ^6> oxeiQtiv rour' eorl xai Sia 
rovr fovvarov yvvfrLav ayeiv, ov iretcretr^e jbtot <us eZ/)&)- 
vtwu&y ecu; r* av Aey ort *a! ruyxayet jyteyioroi; 38 
dya^ov ov av9p&iry roSro, K(ZOT?;S ^epa? irepi ape- 
r? roi/s Aoyovs mJieiij&u jcal rw^ aAAwr, ir^pi &v 
vftets e/tou axo^rt 6iaAeyofiz;ou xal tyavrbv /cai ^tA- 
Aovy ?ferabiros, 5 Se arefcraoros jSioy ov j8ia>Tos av- 
Tavra $ In ijrroy ir'(re(r^ /ioi Ae'yozm. ra 


t /*ei> yap // ft 

but is Sz; xp^arwv o<ra e/wAAotf exrw-c^' ou8ei/ yap az; e/3Aa- B 
pay a fine, ^* zniy fc' ov yap Iffru?, ct ft?/ apa ocroy ay eyo> 

APOLOGY, 38B-E, 63 

, rotroffrov 

apyvpiov' TCKTQVTOV 
e, S cu>5pes 'Alqwuot, KC* m which his 
Kptw *al Kpiroj3ouAo? *al 'AiroAAo'Swpos KeAevWi pt help him. 
TpiaKOvra pv&v nju^rcur^at, avrol 5 5 eyyvfi(r^f ttjuwjucu 
C oSi' roo-ovrou, cyyvTjrai 8' iifuv wovrai rov apyvplov ovroi 

(The penalty is fixed at death.) 


Little have you gained, Athenians \ and great will be your loss. I 
could not have lived long, but now you will have the credit 
of having killed me. No defence but that which I adopted 
would have been worthy of my self. 1 have nothing to regret. 
It is my accusers who are the real sufferers. 

Oil iroAAoS y $vwa ^povov, cfoflpes 'A^wnot, (a) Address 
e'fere /cat ctriW iiro rwz; /3ovAojLtf'z;a)i' rqv TIO\LV judges who 
09 Swupinj cnrtKToinxn, avbpa <n$6v f a r d h i s ot c ^ n . 
yap 5?j jue tro^o^ cuuu, t /cat JUT) ei/^ti, 01 demnation, 
v/ity dvad^cw. ofo 

v 9 ttoro roiJ awrojmaTov ^y Vftti; roflro 
opare yap 8^ TTJI; fjkutltur, on Troppw ^Sr; eort TOV ^tov, 
^arov Be yyi;$. A^yco 8e rouro ov irpos Trazras vjiw, 
D aAAa rcpos rows ejLtoi; icara\(rjj(f>to-afiei/ous Qavarov. Ae'ya> 
8e xal ro8e Trpos rovs ctvro^s rovrovy. ra)s fi otetrfoj 
S az;8pSj airopta Aoywi' eaAcojceVat Toiovrw^ o!s fe 
^juas eTreio-a, 6t <oju?)y 8etz; airaz/ra metf Kat Aeyem, 
wore aTro^uyfiz' rip bltajv* TroAAoi; ye 8ei. dAA* airop^a 
^ev eaAa)/ca, ov jueWot Ao'ycoi', aAAa ro'A^s Kai avai* 
/cat TOT) eSeAety Aeyeif T/JO? v/ias roiaiJra, of 
fSidr' 7/y d/to^etv, QprjvowTos re jtwu xal d8t;- 
Kat aAAa Tiotoijyros KOI Aeyoi;roj iroAAa /cai 

64 APOLOGY, 38 E-39 C, 

az/ofia 6/jioD, is eyw ^TJJU* ota 5)] Kat 
T&>2> oAA<0y aKoueu'. dAA' OVT* TOTS yrfi-qv Mv 
TO ttMvov Trpafat ouSep dVoUt/flepor, OVK vvv /xot 
ovrws diroXoy^cra^eVa), dAAa TroAv /zaAAoz; at- 

oi/rc yap y 5wcp ovr' kv iio\eii<p OUT* 6/16 oUr' a\Xoz; ou- 
OfiVa Set roOro \Miyavcu;Qa.i, O'TTCOS aTro^evferaf Tray 
^ayaror. Kat yap kv rats juaxaty TroAAa 
rat on TO y aTroteety & ns fKijtfyoi /cat oTrAa a^ety 
/cai e0' UcKwty rpairo/xeros r&Jz? SIWKOZ/TCOZ;* Kat SAAat 
al iroXXai etVty ey l/cocrTots TO?? Kiy8i;i;owj (Sore 
dcu'arov, eaz> ns ToApia iraz; Troteiv /cal Aeyetz/, 
aAAd ft)j ov roiSr' ?} x ^^ '^ ^ Wpey 'Afywuoi, ^avaro^ 
eK^uyet^, aAAa ^oAi xaAe^caTepo^ man/iptw darrov yap 
toarw &i. Ka2 m eya) jnev are j3pa6i)s &v /cat irpetr- B 
)3vnjj viro TOU /3pa5vTepov laAcwj ol 8* e/iol 
^r Sauoi Kal o^is oi;Tes WTO rov QarrovoS) rfjs 

, o^roi 8 s VTTO T?S 

*. xal ey< re T^ n^fian Ijup&tt /cat 

tas oiJra) Kai I8ei v\eiv, /cat oifiai avra 

for I am at the point when men are wont to prophesy. 
Ton witi suffer for my condemnation. Other v, whom I have 
held in eheck t will come forward to test your liva t and you 
will not be able to %ct rid of them. 

Apraphecy. To Sf SJ) jLtTa roi/ro r(0vfL& "ufa xp^ffjuwSTJcrat, 
w Kara^?j(/)t(rajLiz'ot JLIOU* /cat yap e?jut ^8?/ eyraufla, C 
fa to juaAtor 1 ayflpam XP 7 ? '^^^ ^ '^* Tay ^fAAcoffiv 
dffoflayetcrfiat. $1$ yap, S dVSpes, ot ejne dir 

APOLOGY, 39C-40 A. 65 

TQV TroAv yoXenwripav vy At" r) olai; cju di 

vvv yap TOUTO eipyd<racr oto'/xczw cmak\&s<rQai TOV 
8i8oVat eAeyxoz/ TOU jStou, TO 8 fyuz iroAi; tvavriov 
d7ro/3?j<rerai, ws ey<w <fj/^. TrAeiovs 1 eo-ozrat fytas ol 
eAe'yxoms, ov? wv eycb Kareixoy, vjitetj 5e OVK yvOAvG- 
aQe KOI ^aAeirwrepot women otrw vf&repoi etVi, Kat 
vjneis /xaXAoy dyavaKT^o-cre. ct yap o!e(r0e cbroKre&/om$ 
avQpQTrovs faur\J)ff&v TOV due&tfav nvh vydv on OVK 
dp^ws fijre, OVK op^w? Siaj/oettr^e* ou y&p w& a^nj 
^ aTroAAayi] ovre irdvu Sr^ar^ otJre KoA^, dAA' hcivr) KOI 

Kat paon?, JUT) roiis aAAous KoXofaiv, ctAA' eav- 
fetr oiroos eorat ws ft&Ttaros. raCra /ACI; 

TOIS Kara^^Kra/AeWty ^avTvffa^vos a^raA- 

acquitted me I would fain say a few words, ere 
I go hence. I infer that death is no evil t for the divine sign 
never came to hinder me throughout the whole course of the 

Tois 8e ctocN/^io-ajbLe'fois ^5ea>9 &v haXe^tifjv wep (t) Addres 

TOV yeyoi/oros rovrovl -ffp^aroSj h w ol apX OI;TW judges who 
ayovcrt Kat owaj ^pxo/xot ot IKQwra ps M had voted 
dAAci jnot, & aj>6pe? 3 vapajueij/aTe rotroCroi; acquittal, 
ydp KojAvet Sia/xu^oAoy^o-at rcpos 

'ws efforiz;. i/jittj; yap ws (/)tAois ofotv 
to rui;t juoi fi;jUj8/37]K^s T^ HOTC z/o*t, fyiol ydp, 
StKacTTat v/xas yap StKaaras KaAai^ dpflwy cly 
KaAoiT/y 6av}JiQ.(n6v n yeyovev. r\ yap fito^wtd /M 
jaarnK^ ^ TOU Satjaoi'iov di; jixez/ TW TtpotrQw xp6v<$ wavrl 
vavv nvKvr) d^t f/z; Kal ^dzn; ^TI^ (T/xtKpotj ^vavnov^^ 
et TI jLte'AAotjyii ^ (Jp^iSs vpAfav' wvl 8^ ^jUj8ej3]Kc juot, 
#7rp 6pare Kai a^o^, TUVT^, & ye 6?) o2i}0c^ fi^ TW al 

66 APOLOGY, 40A-D. 

tlvat. tyol 8 our 6 cfio'w efoflei' 
7 ro Toy 0ewi) oTjftetoy, ovre ?;z>iKa dW- B 
j3airoi; ewaufloi [cm ro SiKaor^ptoy]) OUT' ev TQ Ao'yw 
oifiajuor jie'AAom' u fpew* Kafroi ez> aAAots Ao'yois TTO\- 
\a\ov 8jj /xe eircVx* Aeyovra nerav' wvl Sc ovfiajitou 
r' i^ !/>y<p oi'fievt our' ev Aoy<p 
ai /uoi. rt ow atnov ctuai v7roAa|Uj3ai'ei ; iya> 
v/iu> epw' KLv5vnvct yap /xoi TO vfij3e/3?7/co$ roi;TO dya- 
^or yyowW, /cal OVK catf oirws ^ets dpflws viroAajit- 

p, oaot oidftcda KOKOZ> e&ai TO rc^j/avai. juieya C 
Tfi?ipioy Totfrov yeyoi/w ov yap l(rff OTTO)$ O^K 
j & juot TO ctco^os (r^lo^ ct ^ Ti e/xcAAor f yw 

A tfj'j //^rf w wwc/^ rwjo /o /;o^f that death is actually a good. 
for death ts either a dreamiest sleep, which u better than the 
average experiences of life, or else it is a migration to a place 
where tax shall be able to meet and converse wtfb the famous 
dead and what can be better than this ? 

'Ewo7J<ra)/ui> 8e KCU TjjSe, a>9 TroAA?) ^Am's 

Death dyo^oi; eroro foai. bvolv yap Qfacpov ccm TO 

either anni- 

hilation or J^at' r/ yap otoi' f|8^ fi^at jLt?;8' 

TOV Teflj^cmi, ^ Kara Ta Ayo/jiva 
ns Ttyxdret owo (cat /xTo(ioj<n$ T 
TOTTOV TOV h&lvfc ds a\\ov TQTTUV. KOLL 

ecrni;, dAA J olov fcos, 
ovap /X7]6cv op, davpaffLOV K 
clij 6 tfawiros. ^yw yap di; otjuai, et Ttya 
ftei'oi' Scot ravnjy r^y mTa, ev ^ OVTCO KaTe8ap 
/xr/8 J orap iSefo, Kal Tas dAAas wJxTas re KCU ^j 
ras TOV /&ov TOV lauTOU avnirapaBsura lavrri TTJ 

APOLOGY, 40D-41C. 67 

KOL VVK.TCLS ravr^ rijs VVKTQS /3ej8iWKfy h r<j> tavrov /Step, 
E otjuat ay JUT) on iSi^-nyy riya, dXAa Toy ju'yay /3a<ri\ea 
ay ^pety avroy ravras irpos ray aAAas 
d obv TOIOVTQV 6 Qavaws <m, KcpSos 
cywye Aeyw xal yap oiiblv ?rXf tooz; 6 Tras \povos <j>aiv&ai 
otJrw 5?) el^at r) jjiia vu^. et 8' av olov aTroS^o-at ^<TT' 
6 QavaTos wdlvfc et? aA.\ov ToVov, KOL fiXyOij forl ra 
Acyo/x;a, ws apa ect eZ<ri aTravres oi Tc^ewre?, TI 
juetfoi; aya^ov TOVTOV tirj av, S av5pes uca<rreu; c^yap 

41 TIJ a<put6fj.evo$ ek*Ai5ov, a7ra\\ayts rotJrw^ rwi; (JXUIKQV- The judges, 
* A * / \ v /i * / if ln the othei 

Td)i> oiKatTTwy u;at, vp?](rt rows aA-T/^ws Si/cajras, oZzr^p ;V orld. 

Kal Xeyo^rai exet Stxciffiir, MtWs T xal c Pa6a/juuJ0tJs Kal 
Ai'a/cos al Tpiirro'Xefios /cat aAAot ocroi TWZ; fipiQewv 
SIKGUOI fyevovTo ^ rw eai;Twy j8i<j), apa </)aiiX)7 ay 
etrj i) aTToo^pua ; av 'Opt^et tjvyytvlaQai /cat Mouo-ata) The poets. 
/cat 'How'So) /cal *OjLt?jp({) CTT! TTOOTO) & rt? 5efatr J 
av vftwy; cyo) /xb yap iroAAa/as f^Aw rc^ai/ai, ct 
raw' forty aXujQf)' fad Ijnotye Kat avr<3 ^awjuaor^ ay 
B ct?; 57 SiarptjSTj auro^t, oiro'rf eyriJ)(oijLit UaXa/jt^et Kat Pakmedes 

7<S TeAa/jwm Kat t ns aXAoj rcoy 

8ta Kptcrty aStKoi; rcflz^tt/;, ayrtirapa^aA.\oyTt ra 
fjiiauToiJ ira^ irpos ra e/cetWy, ws cya) otjuat, OVK ay 
a?]8s j, Kal 8^ TO jneytaroy, row 
Kat tpwv&vra, totnrep rovy crraiJ^a ^tayety, rts 
<ro(/os ^ort Kal T& oterat jbts'y, eort 8' oU. eTri TroVw 8* 
ay Tty, S Jy5pS 6tKaarai, Sefatro ^fTao-at roy em 
Tpotay dyayo'yra r^y TroXA?]y orpanay i] '08u(ro-& 
C Sun^oy, ^ oXAovs juvptous ay rts elffoi xat ay8pas Kat 
ols eKi SiaA^yfo-flai Kal ^uyetyat Kat efera- 

av &\ ev8at/;oytay. Triyray ov 
ye <(yKa oi 6K aTTOKreiVovfft' ra r yap 

68 APOLOGY, 41C-4J A. 

oi *KH T&V et'0a<5e, Kat ?/<5q TOV 
ye ra 

- w certain. No evil can happen to a good man in this 
world or the next. What has befallen me has not taken place 
without the divine sanction ; and I bear no ill-will against 
my accusei s. Only I bag of them to deal with my sons as 
faithfully as I haw dealt with them. And now iue part 
on our several ways which is the better, God only knows* 

'AAAa \at ujuay XP 7 ?* aySpes BtKaorat, 
avai. Tipos TOI> fcaroi', sal tv n roiJro 
aA?]0e?, on OIK erriv avtyl dya^w KCLKOV 
foiyn o^T TeAeunj^ayrt, ov8^ ajueAetrcu TJTTO 0c5i' ra 
TOUTOV irpay^ara' ov8e ra efia y{5^ aTro TOV awo- 
yeyovey, aAAa juoi SijAoV ari roSro, on ?/8r; 
Kat aT7?]AAdx^at irpayfidrwy /SeArioz' T)V /xot. 
Sta Toi)ro Kal ejiie o^8a^oi) aTr^Vpg^e TO o-^^eioj;, /cat 
cywye TOIS Kara^Tjt/jio-a/x&ots JUOD Kat rots Kar^yopots ov 
irayu x<^^ratz;tt>. atrot ov Tavnj rf/ fitawta Kare^r^^t- 
fovro juou Kat Kanjyopow, aAA^ oto/xei'ot jSXcbTety' TOUTO 
Last charge airots a^toy nfyfatrQcu. ro(roV8c /i^i/rot avraiy 
deranmg TOVS l>tts fiou, ffet5cil> ^jS^ffWO'tj Ttjix 
jurors, Ta {, r fl Ta {J ra AuTiowres, Airp cyw 

^fiiy boK&vLV y xptiiiawv ij aAAov TOV irporfpov 
^ apei% 5 /cat eav Sofcwtrt n etuat 
t uvrotSj <2(nrep eyw VJAU', (irt OVK 
5 ^1, Kal oto^Tai n tlvai QVTCS oiifavos afioi. KCU sav TaiJra 42 
Trotrf, flwaia Treffoir^; fyc!) Itrojuat v(J)' ^wv auro's T KOI 
oi wets, aAAa yap ?/8?] wpa aWvat, fjuol jbtb airoQavav- 













wirivOare \iir6] f Have been affected by.' itaax* w is in effect a 17 A 
passive verb, and is regularly constructed as such, See for instance 
33 D, 42 A The same is the case with tyXiwwW (see 39 B, u^' 
vjuov Qwarov $KT\V fyXtov) and with <jxv"(u (see 35 D, d<r0as 
Qfvyovra iiird M\IJTOU rouroviX 

vrr 1 avTwv] 'By reason of them/ 'under their influence.' For 
this use of vv6 cp Gorg. 525 A, nal Tram ffo\id IITTO ^fvSov? ; also 
Ion 535 E 

Almost' Cp, 22 B; Prot 361 C, fafyov iravra 

us ?iros itreiv] c To put it ronghh ' One of the many modes 
which Attic politeness prompted of apologizing for a strong assertion, 
Cp 22 B, D 

ttvtwv] ' In them ' Cp below, B, TOVTQ /wi eSof y &Mv 
ayawxwTorarov tlvai The construction dav/ifw TI Ttvo? is 
common m Plato, e, g Theaet, 161 B, b Oavfi&fa rov Irafpou (rot/. 

TOVTO Iv cp eXe-yov] The passage in v hich they said,' 

Setvov ovros Xiyftv] Cp what Xenophon sa^s (Mem 1, 2, 14^ 
nbout Socrates twisting everyone lound his finger in discussion 
Socrates, like Berkeley, had the reputation of being invincible in 

Xpfl In indirect quotations after on and ws, the tense of the 
direct discourse is always retained in the indirect. The mood also 
is always retained after primary, and may be letamed after historical 
tenses ; otherwise it is changed into the optative, so that we might 
here have \?efy- See Goodwin, Moods and Tenses, 69. It follows 
that the reading xp?^ which is supported by good MSS , is not the 
indirect equivalent of x/ty, but would imply a belief on the part of 
the speakers that the judges were not hkely to exercise due caution, 

ep-yw] 'In the most practical way* There is a suppressed B 
antithesis* of Xuy^, 

cl |Uv] Here we have an instance of the use of /iV without any 
contrasted clause following. Cp. 26 E; Meno 82 B, 89 C, We 
have it also m the often-recurnng phrase TT&VV fiiv ovv, for which see 
especially Xen Conv. IV. 56-60. 

A2 3 


ou Kara TOUTOVS etvai t|Tujp] ' That I am a far greater orator 
than they.' This is an instance of the figure meions or litotes^ 
which consists in saying less than is meant. It abounds in Plato, 
being chaiacteristic of the elpwe'ta of Socrates For the special use 
of Kara, in the sense of c on a level with,' cp Gorg. 512 B, juq <rot 
doftei (o fjLrjxatfoiroifai /tarti ruv butaviKuv flvcu 
r\ri$ otiSev aXr^?] ' Little or nothing that is true.' 
pel AC'] The accusative after adverbs of swearing is a use which 
it would not be easy to classify. Notice that vij is used in affirma- 
tive, but fid in negative oaths, except where vai precedes it 

^fijxacn re K<ii ovojiao-tv] ' Expressions and words ' The dis- 
tinction between these two terms is a somewhat fluctuating one In 
the Cratylus ( 399 A, B) we are told that Arf <pi\os is a >%a, but that 
the omission of one of the iotas and the suppression of the acute 
accent in the middle converts it into an fro/ia, AtyiXo;. In the 
strict grammatical sense ovopa. and PTHKL are the two parts of which 
a \6fos or proposition consists, ovopa, being noun and ftpa verb 
Plato gives as instances of frrfparo AeW, 2\a0os, iWos, and as 
instances of ^/laro j8o8ff, Tpe'^t, Ka6rifei The ^070? in 
its simplest form consists of the combination of one oi/ojua and one 
i}/ia, as avQptoiros jjavOavei Soph 262 A-C. 

C TfjBe rfj IjXucfy] ' To a man of my years ' The three demon- 
strative pronouns, o5e, oSros and iieeuro^ with theii derivatives corres- 
pond roughly to the three personal pronouns, /ze, ere, 4. Thus 
below, 1 8 C, it is ratfTTj TT} iyA.tKi'9, where the persons addressed 
are meant 

irapujwu] 'Crave indulgence.' -rrap'iea&ai has the meaning of 
' to beg to be let off.' Cp. Rep 341 C, oWiv <rov irapt'ejuat, ' I ask no 
quarter ' 

irl TOJV Tpairtjwv] * At the counters.' rpaircCa was specially 
used of the table of a money-dealer, and hence came to mean a 
bank and Tf>aire$Tijs a banker, as m the speech of Demosthenes 
against Phormio. Cp. Matt. x\i. 12 ; Mark xi 15 ; John n 15 r&s 
rpairifa rStf Ko\Kv&iffT$h>. The money-changer sitting at his table 
in the market-place is still a familiar sight in the smaller towns of 
the east of Europe. To discourse { at the counters in the market- 
place ' was not peculiar to Socrates. Hipp Mm. 368 B. 
I> p,-frr taujidgav te.r X ] This is epexegetical, i e. explanatory, of 
the TOVTO after 8lofuu ual itapi^ai. 

vfiv -yd irpfrrov] This, as the Scholiast remarks, has the force of 
an objection to the indictment, since Socrates' mode of life had 
escaped censure for so many years 

dvapj3i)Ka] * Presented myself before a court.' The M refers 

APOLOGY, .VOTES. l>j D~l% 8. 

to mounting the fli^a, or raised platform from which the speeches 
weie delivered. Cp 31 C, 35 I), 36 A, 40 B. Similarly with, 34 C, D As a rule accusers are said claayuv, defen- 
dants tMveu. Speakers are said avafiaiiKtv (to step up , Kara- 
faivw (to step down) 

tTt\ Yfyov&s lj38opfJKovTa] In the Cnto, 52 E, Socrates is made 
to talk of himself as being 70 years old According to the statement 
of Apollodorus, confirmed by Demetrius Fhalereub (Diog. Laert, II 
44) Socrates \vas bora in the 4th year of the 7;th Olympiad, and 
died in the first >ear of the 95th Olympiad. The date of the 
fust Olympiad being u c 776, this corresponds to B C. 468-399, 
which would make Socrates 69 at the time of his death. Another 
reading is ir\fiu l&BorfKovTa, which cannot be accepted, unless we 
place the birth of Socrates a few years earlier than is done by 

SCxoiov] As a piece of justice ' Riddell. 18 A 

avnj GperTi] apfrri is shown to be predicate by the omission of the 
article. The subject avrij is attracted into its gender 

Sucaio; dpi airoXoyT|a ao "^ ai '] ' It is nght that I should make my 
defence ' By a common Greek idiom that is expressed personally 
which, in Latin or English, would be expressed impersonally. In- 
stances abound, e g Crito 45 A ad in. , Gorg. 461 D, 521 A; 
Menex 237 D, Sucata enaivciffdai, 246 C, 5lmws tipi flirw, Demos- 
thenes against Anstocrates, p. 641, 64, Dmdorf) furnishes us \\ith 
a strong example, d , . . rjdiovs tacafa avovtravrts. We may com- 
pare the preference of the Greek for personal forms of expression in 
such phrases as -rvy^atito &v> Qaivoiuu &v t etc 

V<tf] The genitive is governed by the verbal notion contained in B 

Kal iriXai K T.X ] The not merely emphasizes the ffoAcw, of which 
iroAXd 77577 fry is epexegetical The words TroXAd 7^877 ITJ\ seem to come 
under the government of Xtyovrts as an accusative of duration of time, 

It was 24 years since the first representation of the Clouds of 
Aristophanes ^B.C. 423) 

TOVS a|i.4>l "Awrov] * Anyttis and his coadjutors ' This form of 
expression includes as the principal the person whose name is men- 
tioned. It is as old as Homer. See for instance 11. IV 252. Cp. 
Meno 99 B, of fyipi e/wm/cA.e'a, ' Themistocles and the like/ 
Anytns was by far the most important of the three accusers of 
Socrates. Hence the f Anytique reum' of Horace ^Sat II. iv. 31. 
See note on 23 E, "Awros 

jioAAov oiStv dATjSe's] k \Veie more busy in trying to pcisuade 
you and in accusing me.* The /wiUoj' implies that the greater 

APQLQG\\ AOTS. 1 8 B-D, 

urgenc) ot the former but of acui^rs wa a teason foi their being 
more formidable. In Hermann's edition the^e \void* are placed in 

rd }Tojpa] The accusative is governed by the verbal sub- 
stantive <ft>omffTjjs, So in Latin, Plaut. Aul 420, ' sed quid tibi nos 
tactiost?' Caesar, Bell. Gall I 5, 'domum reditioms.' 

For the subject-matter see notes on 19 B, C. 

ol yip O.KOVOVTCS IC.T X.] Here we have in an early stage the antag- 
onism between science and theology between the science which 
looks only at ph>sical causes and the theology which delights to 
trace the action of Deity in aberration from general law. 

oi5 0ovs vo|utv] 'Do not even believe in gods' So below 
24 B, 35 D ; Prot. 322 A, & avOpcovos . . . Cyav HQVQV 0<ov$ 
fro/wo-*, uith which cp. Menex 237 D This use of vopfav is very 
common, ifa&rfai is employed in a similar waj. See below 270, 
E, 35 D ; and cp. Eur Hec. 800, 

vopy 7Cip rovs Qtovs Tj-fovfttQa. 

tviot 5' viftiav ical p-etpaKta] This clause is thrown in parentheti- 
calh to conect the preceding one, 7rcu5y 6Wes. '\Vhenyou\vere 
childien though some of you may have been striplings * 

epT|jn]v] Supply SIKTJV, which is cognate to ftaryyopovvrcs epf}M 
bitcrj is a technical term for a suit which goes by default owing to the 
non appearance of one of the parties. 

o Sc irovTo)v dXoywTdTov] Riddell fills up tie construction thus 
& S iravTaw %<jTlv aXo^cuTaroi/, iffrl rovro K r X 
D irX^v et -ns] Like Latin nisi si quis. Ei T<S is : anyone who/ el 
n, 4 anything which/ etc 

Kopp8ioTroi6s] Notably Aiistophanes in the Clouds Eupolis 
also had ndiculed him as a beggarly gossip : 
Mtffw 5' tfiii real SajKpaTTjv, r&v ITTWX 

^Memeke vol. II, p. 553, Berlin, 1839). T ^ Connus of Ameipsias 
too, which was represented along with the Clouds, may have con- 
tained ridicule of Socrates ; for the chorus was of Phrontistae ( Athen. 
218 C ', and Connus, the son of Metiobius is represented as having 
taught Socrates music in his old age (Euthyd. 273 C, Menex 235 E). 
See Meinefce vol. I. p. 203. "We may add that Ameipsias certainly 
held up Socrates to ridicule in his play of the Tpipcov or Old Cloak 
;Diog Laert. II. 48} : 

2&twep<ms, dvSpwv /3&ncT' fallow, vo\\S>v 5e ^aT<u<5Ta6', fjs 
ttal fffr irpbs ^/ias, Kaprfpucfa T* c?. Uo8fv w croi -xKwva. ytvoiTo; 
rovrl rel K&I&V r&v cncvTOTtfUiv ar' evrjpetav ycyivyrai, 


01 Se Kal atiroi K.T.X.] A parenthetical clause corrective of the 
preceding, like the one noticed atxne, 18 C, foot 5' bp&v .r,A, 
Translate, * though some of them may have been convinced them- 
selves when they tried to convince others.' 

dAX' ava^Kti K.T X ] * But one has. absolutely to hght \nth shadows, 
as it were, in conducting his defence and cross-questioning/ 

Kol Y<ip fywis] ' For you also.' The mi has here its full force, E 
so that the expression is equivalent to *ai -yap xal. Cp. Meno 97 
E, Kal fap al 8oc K r.A. 

iroXv ndXXovl Supply tyovaart Kanflopovvruv. 

8iaj3oXTJv ' Calumny believed, i. e. prejudice ' Riddell. Cp, 28 19 A 
A, and 37 B. 

fXo-6at . XP^vw] 'To disabuse your minds in so short a 
time of this prejudice which you have had so long to acquire * The 
aorist OXT belongs to the class which is knoun as 'aorkt of first 
attainment/ like f&affi\t\.fff, 'he became king/ ij/jff, 'he began to 
reign ' We have the perfect (fffflKa in the same sense below, 20 D. 

ei TV ajicivov] Supply tirj. 

Kal o\) irdw K.r.X J * And am far from being deceived as to the 
nature of it.' Ou TTO.VV often practically has the meaning of ' not at 
all, 1 omnino ww, but this is arnved at by an ironical litotes, as its 
literal meaning is always non omnmo, *not quite/ 'not much/ 
' hardly/ etc. See the subject exhaustively discussed in Appendix, 
note C, to Cope's translation of the Gorgias ; see also Riddell, Digest 
139, and Thompson, Gorgias, note on 457 E. The passages cited 
by the last-mentioned writer in favour of taking ou vow as an un- 
qualified negation seem to lend themselves readily to the other inter- 
pretation, e.g, the passage quoted from Aristotle, Eth Nic. X. (5^. 
4, xupovres &TUQW <r<p6fya ov iraw Spuptv srcpov, * \\e are remiss 
in doing anything else/ The strongest of them is Laws 704 C, 
whereof irai/u is used in answer to a question, to convey an emphatic 
denial ; but even this is sufficiently accounted for by the inveterate 
flpaweta of the Attic diction. 

T<}> 6] \Ve may render this simply ' God/ There has been no 
reference to Apollo or any special deity 

MIXijTos] The son of Meletus and a member of the deme Pitthis B 
^Diog Laert. II 40). He is leferred to in the Euthyphro, 2 B, 
as a young and obscure man ; and is described as having long straight 
hair, not much beard, and a hooked nose. The Scholiast informs 
us that he was a bad tragic poet, and a Thracian by extraction. We 
learn from 23 E that he posed as the representative of the poets in 
the attack on Socrates. Six jears before this date, at the time when 
the Frogs was produced [B.C. 405), a poet named Meletus possessed 



notoriety enough to attract the attacks of Aristophanes. In that 
play Aeschylus is made to charge Euripides with imitating the ov<:oA<a 
of Mdetus v Frogs 1302, Dindorfl Meletus also, we are told, was 
mentioned by Aristophanes in the rctupTot, which is known to have 
been represented considerably earlier Unless Plato has greatly ex- 
aggerated the youth and obscurity of Meletus, we may suppose the 
poet referred to by Aristophanes to have been the father of Socrates' 
accuser This would account sufficiently for his taking up the 
quarrel of the poets One of the four men who arrested Leon of 
Salamis isee below 32 C , was named Meletus (Andocides, de 
Mysterns, 94' Diogenes Laertms (II, 43^, declares that when 
the Athenians repented of their treatment of Socrates, they condemned 
Meletus to death. Diodorus < XIV. 37 ad fnO goes so far as to say that 
the accusers were executed in a body But there is no valid evidence 
to show that this change of sentiment ever really occurred in the 
minds of the generation which condemned Socrates Had any un- 
toward fate befallen Anytus, it could not fail to have been mentioned 
in Xenophon's Apologia ^ 31), which was written after his death. 
The name ib -variously spelt M&T?TOS and Me'Xiros. This is part of 
that confusion known among scholars by the term ' itacism ' What- 
e\er may have been the case in ancient times, the vowels 77, t, v and 
diphthongs t, 01 have now all precisely the same sound in Greek, 
name!) that of the English long e. See Thompson's Gorgias, p So. 

8w'po\Xov ot 5ia{3dAAovTs] The fiilness of expression gives an 
air of deliberation, Riddell, Digest, 262, 3 Cp Cnto 48 A, 
t&crre trptarov p.w ravrri ovrc opQais ciffi)yei t tiffiflovttwos tf.rX 

dvrwuoo-Ldv] ' Affidavit ' Cp. 24 B, ryv rovrw dvTtapofftav 
There was much uncertainty among the Ancients themselves as to 
the proper meaning of this term. According to the Scholiast on this 
passage mrw^oata was used of the counter-oaths taken by the prose- 
cutoi and defendant at the beginning of a suit, the one swearing that 
a -wrong had been committed, the other that it had not He men- 
tions another view, that avT&poaia properly referred to the defendant's 
oath only, while 5i/no<ri was the name for the oath taken by the 
prosecutor The following is the result which Meier and Schomann 
have armed at from a thorough examination of the whole question 
iDer Attisehe Process, pp, 624, 625, edit of 1824") : : The prosecutor's 
oath, according to the grammarians, is properly called irpoupoata, 
that of the defendant dcrftj/uxrta, both together Suupoffta, Still the 
word dvTUfjioata. is often used for both (i. e. singly as well as together, 
as the examples selected show), and Stw/ioff/a denotes not merely 
both together, but often one of the two * It is plain that in the pre- 
sent passage &>r<u/40ffi'a is neither moie nor less than 'indictment,' 


the proper term for which is fyitKijiJut, which \\e ha\e in 24 C ad in. 
The word is explained by Plato himself in the Theaetetus, ip D, E : 

Vi &y iitrbs oi) 

Here we see that dpnu/uxrfa was understood by Plato to mean the 
written statement on oath of the points in dispute between two 

dva-yvwvai,] This \v ord, like welfare in Latin, oiten means to read 
out. Hence toayvfam}?, a tiained reader ;Cic. ad Att. I 12 ad fin, ; 
Corn. N T ep. Att i& 

SaJKpd-njs d6iKH K T.\.] This is a parody on the real indictment, 
which began with the same words, See 24 B ad fin This mock 
indictment shows us plainly the way in which Socrates 1 character 
was misconceived by his countrymen. He was regarded with suspi- 
cion as a physical philosopher with atheistical procliuties and as 
an unscrupulous sophist who subordinated truth to cleverness 

irepiepY<xfTcu] < Follows curious inquiries.' So Purves, who 
compares the use of the adjective in Acts xix. 19, iKavoi Sc TWV T& 
irepifpya irpaavT(av, The transition of thought from ph\ sical science 
to magic is very easy to the uneducated We have a parody on the 
'cunous inquiries' which were supposed to occupy the mind of 
Socrates in the philosopher's experiment to ascertain how many times 
the length of its own foot a flea could jump (Arist. Clouds 144-152) 

T^ 'Apioro^dvous KoijtwSLiji] The Clouds For searching into C 
things beneath the earth and things in heaven, seethe broad burlesque 
in 187-201, and for making the worse appear the better cause, see 
especially 1 12-18, and the dialogue between the two A^oi, 8S<5- 

irpu|>p6u.vov] Socrates is represented on the stage in a swing 
line 218): 

(pspe rts yap oCros oinrl rfjs KpeiMQpas dvrjp ; 

depopareiv] Socrates, when asked by Strepsiades what he is 
doing up in the basket, replies (Jine 225) . 
cUpojSaTW KCLI irepxppovS) rbv ^\LQV 
1 My feet are on the air, 

My thoughts are m the sun.' E. A. 

uv ey^ oufcc'v] Xenophon represents Socrates as having an 
aversion from physical speculations on the ground of their utter im- 
practicability and remoteness from human interests (Mem. 1. 1. 
11-15) On the limits of the profitable study of science as conceived 
of by Socrates see Mem. IV, ?. 2-8. 

ji-rj -mas IYM K.T.X.] ' I hope to goodness I may not be prosecuted 

APQtOCY, .VOT&S, 19 C-. 

b\ Mekttis npun so gra\e a, charge* It is not nectary to take 
Tctfauras of number, **tot. The use of the plural for the singular m 
the phrase St/eos favyciv is well borne out by a number of similai 
phiases vhich are collected by Liddell and Scott, sub voce IV. 3. 
The \\ ords are a mere passing gibe. * I had better mind what I'm 
saying, for there is no knowing for what Meletus may fall foul 
of me * 

aXXci "yap] <But indeed.' This idiom is of specially frequent 
occurrence m the Apology, perhaps because the diction is designedly 
colloquial. Cp. below D ad fin., 20 C ad in., 25 C ad m. , also 
Meno 92 C, 94 E The idiom is as old as Homer, and may always 
be explained by the theory of an ellipse of some kind after the a\Xd 
See 5 for instance, Od. X. 201, i~ 

ArXfltW 8 kiyfcus, $a\cp(tv Kara. Saxpv xtovrw 
d\V ov yap ns irpTJ^s tyiyvcro jivpopivoifft, 
\vhere Merry supplies the ellipse thus : * but [all m vain] for no 
good came by their weeping.' Slulleto, however, maintains, m his 
note to Thucjdides, Bk. I. ch. 25, that in this Use of yap we have a 
relic of an original meaning \truly,' " \enlj / parallel to that of the 
Latm nam and etwn. In that case \\t may compare dAAd yap with 
the use ct^dcmm in Virgil, Aen 1. 19 

*Progemem bed enim Troiano a sanguine duel 
D ^ <rnv] 'Is so,' i.e. as alleged. Cp. Acts xxv. u, c2 5e oiitiev 

tffnv &v oCrot Karyyopovcri pov 

E XP^jH^ irpctTToiAai] This implication pervades the Clouds, See 
especially line 98 

CVTOI SiSaffieovff', dpyvpiov fa TH StSy t 

That Socrates never taught for money is abundantly evident from 
the express testimony of his disciples. Cp. below 31 B, C, and see 
note on 3J A, oi5e x^ara i&v Xa/z)3avuv K.T\. Aristoxenus, 
however, a disciple of Aristotle, who wrote a life of Socrates, is 
quoted by Diogenes Laertius (II 20) as recording that Socrates 
from time to time collected voluntary contributions TiQivro. yovv, 
TW ^oAAojttevov wpjua Mpofaar etT 1 cLvaXwravra, ir&Xiv TiBivai, 
TiBevra evidently refers to some kind of subscription-box The 
invidious word, xWA iaT ''<' r a<y0ai, which precedes is probably due to 
Diogenes himself, who delights in a bit of scandal This story has 
been summarily rejected even by those who accept the general 
testimony of Aristoxenus as trustworthy ; but there is, after all, 
nothing improbable in the statement that Socrates allowed his 
friends to help him, nor anything inconsistent with the professions 
which are put into his mouth by his disaples. The reasons on 


which Socrates rested his violent antipath) to teaching \irtue tor 
money are (i ) that it was degrading, as the teacher made himself 
for the time being the blave of the man from whom he was expecting 
a fee , and (2) that it involved an absurdity, as, if moral benefit 
were really imparted, the person so improved would be anxious 
to display his gratitude On this subject cp. Xen. Mem. L 2. 
7 with Gorg. 520 E, where the following test is laid^down of 
such teaching being effectual, #<m teaXbv 5o*f rci aij^iov tlvai, 
S voirjcas ravnjv Tty rifpytaiav dy-r' cv Treifftrai. Human 
beings, even the most exalted, must live somehow. Socrates had 
no private property, and did not work for his Irving. We are there 
fore driven to the conclusion that he \vas supported by %oluntary 
contributions. See Xen. GEc. II. 8 

iKt] This use of I points to an ellipse before it. (Not that 1 
mean to disparage those who do undertake to educate people) since, 
etc 7r' 3 when used thus, may be rendered ' though.' 

Topvias] A celebrated rhetorician, a natii e of Leontium in Sicil> 
He was an elder contemporary of Socrates, but is said to have out- 
lived him (Quint III i. 9). \Ve are told that he attained to an 
enormous age. It is put by Cicero at 107. See De Senectute, ch. 5, 
where we are informed that his most celebrated pupil, Isocrates, died 
at the age of 99 

The dialogue of Plato which goes under the name of borgias 
begins with a discussion on the meaning and power of rhetoric, but 
ends with an earnest vindication of the life oi virtue against the 
corrupt political tendencies of the times 

IIpoSiKos] A native of the island of Ceos, and one of the most 
popular * teachers of virtue ' of his day. He is best known now as 
the original author of the charming allegory called the < Choice of 
Hercules/ which is preserved in Xenophon's Memorabilia (11. i^ 
21-34). This piece was an !im'5ts, or show-speech tfiry ^ 
teal irteiffTois m5'wurot, ibid. 21. Cp. Plato Crat 384 B, i> 
TttvTijKovrtipaxiMv ImSt&v, Gorg. 447 c 5 Hl PP- Ma > a8a B ' C ^' 
The Choice of Hercules shines out like a gem amid its somewhat 
dull surroundings ; one can feel the impress of a master-mind m the 
picturesqueness of its imagery ; but Xenophon modestly declares 
that it fell from the lips of the author in far more magnificent 
phraseology than that in which he has clothed it. Prodicus had 
a peculiarly deep voice, which rendered his utterance indistinct 
(Sucrfaoo*/ *o2 fafi ^ry^^s, Philostratus, Lives of the Sophists, 
p. 210). Cp. Prot. 316 A ad in. 

c linrtas] Another famous sophist and rhetorician, a native of 
Elis. He was employed on diplomatic missions to vanous states* 

APOLOGY, NOTES. 19 -20 A. 

and, in particular, to isparta <Hipp, Maj. 281 A, U}. This mixture 
of the professor and politician uos a characteristic common to the 
thr.e sophists here mentioned (Ibid 282 B, C). Hippias' specialty 
in science \\as astronomy ,Hipp Maj 285 C ad m. , Hipp. Mm. 
367 K ad fin Cp Trot 315 C He was also m the habit of 
lecturing on grammar and music (.Hipp Maj. 285 D ad in ; Hipp, 
Mm 368 D . Ilippias' memory was extraordinarily retentive. 
Plato makes him boast that he could remember tifty names on once 
hearing them ^Hipp Maj 285 E. Cp Philost , Lwcs of the Sophists, 
P. 210 ad m. He would seem to have invented some artificial 
sjstem of mnemonics (Hipp Mm 368 D, Xen Conv IV. 62). 
Hippias was considerably jounger than Gorgias (Hipp Maj 282 E). 
He ii treated with less respect by Plato than either Gorgias or 
Prodicus. \Ve are allowed to ee that the main feature of his 
character \\ as an overweening vanity. Yet he appears to have had 
a good deal to be vain of, and to have been, m fact, a sort of 
* admirable Cnchton * of his day. \Ve are told that he appeared on 
one occasion at Olympia with every article of his apparel and 
equipment his ring, seal, flesh-scraper, oil-Hask, shoes, cloak, 
tunic made b> his ovn hands, To crown all, he wore a girdle 
resembling the most costly Persian work which he had woven 
himself. Besides this he carried \\ith him his own works in prose 
and poetn epic, tragic, and dithyrambic (Hipp. Mm. 368 B-D). 
Among the prose works of Hippias we have mention of one called 
the Trojan Dialogue, evidently an &rft}f<?, like that of Prodicus 
The scheme appears to have been simple Nestor after the taking of 
Troy giving adnce to Neoptolemus how to show himself a good 
man ^Philost , Lives of the Sophists, p. 2 10) 

U2>v is tKaornv KT\] One of the chief causes which lent 
in\idiousness to the pretensions of the Sophists was this claim, that 
they, coming as strangers to a city, were better qualified to educate 
the >oung men than their own relations. See Prot 316 C, D; 
Hipp. Maj. 283 E. 

TOtflovcri] The subject rovrcav tKaaros is virtually plural, so that 
there is nothing very startling m this change of number Plato is 
everywhere colloquial, but nowhere more so than in the Apology, 
where it ii part of his dramatic purpose to contrast the simple speech 
of Socrates with the laboured oratory of the law-courts. If the 
words in brackets, olos r eariV, were retained, we would have a 
violent anacohthon, or change of construction, There is nothing 
corresponding to them in the Theages (127 E, 128 A), in which the 
w hole of this passage is reproduced. 
20 A fad] See note above on 19 E 


Notice that verbs of seeing, knowing, &c are 
constructed with, a participle. 

KaXX$ T$ IirirovLKou] Surnamed 'the wealthy/ His house 
was the largest and richest in Athens See Prot. 337 D, in which 
dialogue not only Protagoras himself is represpnted as being enter- 
tained by Calhas, but also Prodicus of Ceos, Hippias of Elis, and 
many others of less note (314 B, C. Cp Xen Conv, I 5" He 
had another house at the Peiraeus, which is the scene of Xenophon's 
Symposium. His mother married Pencles as her second husband, 
to whom she was already related by blood, and had by him two 
sons, Parnlus and Xanthippus (Prot 314 E, 315 A; Meno 94 B; 
Plut. Pericles i6^\ His brother Hermogenes is one of the inter- 
locutors in the Cratylus (384 A ad fin , 391 B^ Calhas seems 
especially to have imbibed the teaching of Protagoras (Crat 391 C ; 
Theaet 165 A ad in.). His passion for philosophy is referred to in 
many passages of Plato, e g Prot 335 D . s fl mif 'linroviieov, dci pw 
eyuye ffov rty $i\offo<Jwai> <rya/zcu but it does not seem to have 
produced any beneficial effect upon his character, as he is said to 
have been a spendthrift and a profligate His reputation, however, 
has suffered at the hands of his enemy Andocides 

dvTjpojiYjv] In Attic prose fifiowv is commonly used as the aorist 
of epuTcuo See, for instance, Prot 350 C, t 8e KOJ. ot QvppaXtoi 
avSpaoz, QVK rjpaTTi9r)v fl 'yap / r6re ffpou K r.\ 
8vo ul] See Andocides de Mysteriis, 126, 7 
dperf|v] Notice that adjectives can be followed by a cognate B 
accusative as well as verbs " Cp below D, Tttvryv tfrcu crowds, 
22 C, D ; Meno 93 B 

TT|S avOpumvYis T Kttl iroXtTiK-fis] l The virtue which makes a 
man and a citizen ' This was exactly what the Sophisms claimed to 
impart. See Prot. 318 E 

eiricrrfinuv] To Plato's mind there was an etymological con- 
nection between imarrjfjifav and cmararys 

KTT 4 crtv] ' Owing to your having sons/ ttrdojucu m the present 
means e to acquire,' K6K-njfjuu in the perfect ' to possess * The verbal 
substantive KTyffis has sometimes the one meaning and sometimes 
the other In Euthyd. 228 D, for instance, it distinctly means 
' acquisition,' 'H SI 7* <pi\ooo<pia KTTjcns emarfjuij^ So also Gorg 
478 C For the other meaning ' possession,' which it has here, cp. 
Rep I 331 B ; Anst. Eth. NIC. I (8 N 9, IV. (i) 7, 23. 

Ts, fy 8' Y" K T ^-3 Tne ra P ld succession of questions is meant 
to indicate the eagerness of the speaker. They are answered with a 
succinctness which might satisfy the most impatient, TXapios is in 
reply to vofairus. 


E\enus is referred to as a poet in Phaedo 60 D ; certain 
technicalities of rhetoric are ascribed to him in Phaedrns 267 A 
C |i}wXtts] ' Teaches so cheaplj ' From meaning ' harmonious,' 
or * well-proportioned,' s^fAifc came to mean * small.' Cp. Laws 
760 A, rp& & ra nfytffTO. If pa, StJo 5' y rd fffUKporepa, trpos 5e rcL 
epHeXeffTara eva ; Anst. Pol, VII. 6. 8, KfKrrjpfvot rw /te-ycfot TTO\IV 
fpvv fftfjLfktffTcpav, The change m the meaning of ippeXjs some- 
what resembles that of the Latin gjatihs, which m prose commonly 
means ' thin.' Cp also oftor and the German bilhg. 

*Ko,\Xwo\ti]v re Kol Y|ppuv6fMjv av] * Would have prided and 
plumed myself* 

4\X' oil -yap] 'But indeed I don't know them/ The ellipse 
theory would here require us to fill up thus dA\* (ofl tfaXAuvo/xat re 
Kal a($pvvopcu\ ov y&p ImVra/icu. See note on 19 C, dXXa yap 

TO o-ov TI <rn irpo-y(xa ,] 'How staudsthecase with you t* Cnto 53 D. 

[it fi-f| TI ?tipoTTs K T X.] These words simply repeat the clause 
above, ffov 7* ovSev K,T.\ They may nevertheless be genuine, as an 
emphatic tautology is common enough m Plato. Riddell registers 
it, under the title of k Binary Structure,' as one of the prominent 
features of his st)le. Digest, 204 

D 5 jifvTOt urrel For pevroi balancing /*&, in place of the usual 
Se, cp, 38 D fjifvroi really goes with t/w, S isr* being adverbial. 

ICTX^KO,] See note on 19 A, eeKfo6at . . xpwy 

iroiav St] cro4>iav Tatmjv ;] The words are drawn into the accusa- 
tive through the influence of the Si& preceding. Translate ' Of what 
kind then is this wisdom through which I have obtained it ' * Cp 
Gorg. 449 D, E, irepi \6yovs Hoiovs TOVTOVS; The same attraction 
may take place where there is no preposition pieceding, as in Gorg. 
462 E, livos Xfy? TQUTT/S. Here the word preceding is in the 

tjirtp] Supply TOiairr} larlv 

ravnjv etvoi <ro<t>6s] Cp. the words which follow, jue/fw nvd 
*rX., and see note on 20 B, rfjv Trpoaqtcovaav Aper^v 
E (j>Ticr] * Says I do * 0^1 is ' I assert/ ov <Jnjftl t ' I deny ' 

(w\ 0opvpt|<n]T] The aonst subjunctive forbids a particular act 
in Greek, like the perfect subjunctive in Latin. 

Hfy Xfyeiv] < To be saying something big.' Cp. Arist. Eth. 
NIC I. (4). 3, ffweiSo-m 8' lat/Tofs ayvouiv TOU? ^70 T* Kal vwip 
ai>Tois ktyovras 0wp&weiv The neyaXqyopta of Socrates was 
noticed by all who gave an account of his defence. See Xenophon, 
Apol. Soc. i, Cicero, De Oratore, ch. 54, says of him, *Ita in 
iudicio capitis pro se ipse dixit, ut non supplex aut reus, se^ magister 
ant domuras videretur esse iudicum.' 

APOLOGY, MOTES, 20 , 2 I A t 

ou -yap <(xSv Ipw TOV Xo^ov] The rule of Greek syntax that the 
subject has the article and the predicate not, extends to the case of a 
secondary and tertiary predicate. We have here two statements in 
a compressed form : 

(i) <pw \6yov 
(2^ 6 \6-{0$ OVK tpfa effTat. 
The same principle applies to the next clause also. 

dXX' els o|i6xp">v K T X.] ' But I shall refer it (rbv \6*t<n>) to a 
speaker whom yon may trust ' It is difficult to say whether v}iu> 
should be taken immediately with fydxpcwv or with the sentence 
generally as a dativus commodi after fooiffco. 

X<up<|KoVTa] Chaerephon, of the Sphettian deme, was one of the 
most devoted adherents of Socrates. He associated with him for 
the sake of mental and moral improvement, and is mentioned b) 
Xenophon as one who had brought no discredit on the teachings of 
his master (Mem I 2. 48). His disposition was impulsive and 
excitable < Charm 153 B). Chaerephon had a younger brother, 
Chaerecrates Memorabilia II. 2 contains an exhortation to Chaere- 
crates to conciliate Chaerephon, with \\hom he was at variance. 
Chaerephon figures in the Charmides and in the Gorgias, where we 
are told that he was a fnend of that eminent teacher (Gorg 447 B) 
In personal appearance Chaerephon was sickly, lean and dark- 
complexioned. This explains some of the uncomplimentary allusions 
of the Comic poets, who were peculiarly bitter in their attacks upon 
him, partly perhaps for political reasons, as he was evidently a warm 
partisan. Aristophanes in the Birds calls him an owl (line I2p6\ 
in the Wasps he compares him to a sallow woman (line 1413^ ; in 
the lost play of the Seasons he nicknamed him * the son of night.' 
To the same effect is the epithet nvgivos bestowed upon him by 
Eupolis in the Cities. His poverty, or, it may be, his asceticism, is 
jeered at in the Clouds, 103, 4 

Tots UXptWTClS, TOU? UVVffOdrjTOVS \7r 

oiv o KafcoSat/jiav ^UKparrjy ital X'/<0o)f 

Similarly Cratinus called him avxwpw teal Trlw/ra. Even the moral 
character of Chaerephon did not escape scatheless. Aristophanes 
called him a sycophant in one play and a thief in another, while 
Eupolis accused him of toadying Callias. On the \vhole, then, 
Chaerephon was pretty well known to the Athenians See the 
Scholiast on this passage. For other allusions to him in the Clouds 
see lines 144, 156, 504, 832, 1465. Chaerephon, we see, was already 
dead when Socrates was brought to trial. Philostratus (p 203) says 
that his health was affected by study. 
r^v <j>vyi|v Tovttiv] * The recent exile/ referring to the expulsion 21 A 


of the popular party from Athens in the time of the Thirty Tyrants, 
whose usurpation lasted from June 404 B c. to February 403. The 
restoration of the democracy was effected m the following year (B C. 
403-402), memorable m Athenian history under the title of the 
archonship of Eucleides. 

ws <nj>o8pos] ijv has to be supplied from the preceding clause. 
f How energetic in whatever he set to work at ' ' Cp. Charm. 153 B, 
are rta.1 juomd? &v. 

Sirep Xfyw] *As I say' Cp. 24 A ad m, 27 B ad in, 29 D 
ad in The request above, ^ dopvpfiffyTf, is repeated now in a more 
general form. 

dvetXev] The words of the oracle are recorded by the Scho- 

aotpbs 2o0o*A.7js, ao^Morepos Eipiitlfap' 
avtytav 5' fartamar Sfoufpirnp cro^wraroj. 

The second line only is quoted by Diogenes. Perhaps a 8^ has 
dropped out before the Efyuin'&p in the first 

6 aSeX<(>6s] Doubtless the Chaerecrates already referred to See 
note on 20 E, Xatpe^aJvra. 

j Q\} -yap WJLW aura] We see here that growing moral conception of 
the divine nature, which led to the re\olt of the philosophers against 

ovrov] *Into it,' i.e into the matter, This vague use of the 
pronoun is not uncommon. See Meno f 3 C, TI afa-6 <pj?<rt. 

jxavretov] This word here evidently means * the dnme utterance,' 
not the place of divination, which is a meaning it often beais. 

T$ xp^o 1 }^] f The oracle,' xpytffjLos is properly the answer given 
by an oracle, like pavreiov just above , but it is here personified out 
of reverence, to avoid the appearance of calling the god to account, 

OTI] Notice that on is used with the direct as well as with the 
oblique narration, unlike ' that ' in English, which is confined to the 

&{>T]cr0a] For the form cp faQa, yeiaOa, oTffOa. 

ovojxart -y&p] yap explains why the mere pronoun TOVTOV is used 
instead of the proper name * I say him, for/ etc. 

irpos ov '-yw o-KOTToiv K T.X ] * In whose case I had on inquiry 
some such expenence as this ' For the construction v&rxew npfc 
rtva cp, Gorg. 485 B, Jcai f-ytayf uft,ot6raroi> irdtfxw irpbs roiis 0tAo- 
ffo^ovvTaj o&cnrep trpbs rois fa\\i{opevov$ oj Tratfovras, 

Kal SiaXcY6p.Evos ainp] This is coordinate with tiiaffKoirwv at 
the beginning of the sentence 

So4 fioi] Here we have a violent anacoluthon, or, to put it 
frankly, a piece of bad grammar After the participle 

APOLOGY, NOTES. 31 (7-33 A. 

we should have expected some such conduction as the X 
on, which follows in D. Instead of which the participle is left to 
look after itself, thus forming a nominatiwts pendms, and the 
sentence is finished in the impersonal form. For similar instances 
of changed construction see Riddell, Digest of Idioms, 271. 

airnx&6|M]v] 'Got myself disliked.' Cp Philebus 58 C, ofol ftp D 
cLTrexQilfftt rop7i'a. This is an instance of what Riddell calls the 
semi-middle sense of the veib See Digest, 88. Cp. note on 35 C, 

Kiv8w\5ei] On the force of itu&wefa see L and S. sub voce, 4 b. 

KoXov Ka.Y<i0ov] This expression is generally used in the mas- 
culine, and implies the ne phis ultra of perfection, the man who is 
beautiful both without and within the finished result of yvpvaffTtfrij 
and lAovffucf]. For the neuter use cp Arist Eth. Nic. I. (8.) 9, ruv 
kv T> fti<o wKtav K&ffaiOw. 

alaOavofwvos JJL& K.T.\.] ' Perceiving indeed with pain and ap- E 

ITCOV ovv] This may be dependent on tofaci with flvai under- 
stood ; but it is more likely that we have here a sudden transition to 
the direct narration, ' So I must go/ etc. 

TOV xpT)o-|xov, rt \lyti] ' The meaning of the oracle.' The Greek 
idiom is well known by which the subject of the succeeding verb 
becomes the object of the preceding one. The sentence as we have 
it is much livelier than if the strict syntax were followed ffKoirovvn 
o'jTi \iyot o xp W<k- 

VT| TOV KWO] The Scholiast quotes Cratinus in the Cheirons 
o?s fy ftlfurros ofuos Sanutn \6y<p KVW, 
effcira xfy ^^s 5' ifftfow 

and tells us that such oaths as those by the dog, the goose, the plane- 
tiee (see Phaedrus 236 E ad in.), the ram, andso on, were resorted 
to for the avoidance of profanity. For the oath by the goose, see 
Aristophanes, Birds 521 

Aaprcw S' o/wuff' tn ml vvvl TOV xfiv' t 'orav ffcurarq n. 
It is probably only Plato's fun to identify 'the dog' with the 
Egyptian god Anubis (Gorg. 482 B, ft<i rbv v&va rbv Aiyvirriuv deov). 
It has been suggested that vq rbv xn va & & disguise for v?i rov Zfya, 
l&fi fofotausettd, morbleu and many other modern oaths. 

oXtyov 8tv K.T.X.] 'To be nearly (lit within a little of being) 22 A 
the most deficient.' The TOV belongs to eZVeu. The phrase is usually 
followed by a simple infinitive, whether it is used personally, as in 
30 D, 37 B, or impersonally, as in 35 D. 

KaToL TOV 0eov] Socrates regards the statement of the god as im- 
plying a command to prove its truth. 

B 17 


&<rrrf -JTOVOUS nvas TTOVOVVTOS] He compares his task of con- 
vincing mankind of their ignoiance to the labours of a Hercules. 
irorouvTos agiees with the /*ou implied in Ipfjv 

tva fiot K T X.] ' In order that I might have the divine declaration 
set quite above dispute ' Socrates, though puzzled by the oiacle, is 
anxious to vindicate the truth of the deity Riddell distinguishes 
between fxn'TcTov and jwtrreia, taking the former to signify the ex- 
pression and the latter the meaning, so that pavrfla stands to 
ftavrctov in the same iclation as the judgment to the proposition 
in logic. The pi positions of an oracle, as is well known, were 
peculiarly liable to equivocation and amphiboly, so that the ^avr^iov 
might differ seriously from the luwreia., as in the historical instances 
of Croesus and Pyrrhus. In its primary meaning navrtia signifies 
the process of divination, not, as here, the product Hermann 
emends the text by the conjecture K&V Injury*, which represents it 
as the object of Socrates to refute the oracle This does not seem 
consistent with the words above in 2 1 B, ov ycLp 8-fjirov if/evSerai ye' 
ov yap 0{fiis airy, while on the other hand it fits in better with the 
words which follow, As hrauda, lir' avTOfojjpca /cardA^o/iei/os fyavrov 
afiatieffTepov lVeuv ovra. In either case there is a slight difficulty, 
but complete consistency cannot be looked for in a dilemma be- 
t \veen piety and politeness 

TOVS T TWV TpaY<p8iwv K T.X 1 Cp. Hipp Min 368 C, ir/>d<? fe 
Tourots ffotij^ara e^an/ sKQeiv, ml ei"? KOI TpayySlcLs Kal SiQvpa 
also Xen Mem I 4 3, kirl $v roivw 'frrwv -noiTjaei "O 

B St6updji.pwv] When Plato is speaking technically, he confines 
5i0Tj/3ajui8es to a song relating to the birth of Bacchus, coordinating 
it with vfwoij Qp-ffvoi, muwves and vo/xoi as vanous species of ^'Sat, 
Laws yoo B. 

Kal TOIJS <2XXous] For a fuller list of species of poetry see Ion 
n34 C, ^ fJ-lv (ol6s re nottiv aXw>) SiOvpapfiovs, u fe (yfcwjj.ta, o S^ 
viropX'fifjia.'ra,, o S* eirrj, 6 B' td(Ji&ov? 

IIT* avTo4>(<apcp] ' Palpably ' Properly said of a thief ($&p, fur} 
caught in the very act (auro-). 

awotsl Dative of the agent. ireirpaYn.aTevo-flaL is passive. 

otirapovres] 'Who were pieseat' The participle is in the im- 
perfect tense 

Jfyvwv] See note on 25 B, tyvaitas, 

IvoAX-yop] f ln shoit,' The meaning is the same as that of Ivl 
kayy, which Hermann conjectured m place of it. Riddell compares 
Symp 217 A, i 


rivl Kttl lv0ouaidovT6s"] * Owing to a sort of instinct and C 
divine afflatus.' This theory of poetry as a foim of inspiration 
meets us everywhere m Plato, e. g Phaedrus 245 A ; Meno 99 D , 
Ion 533 D-534 E. 

The participle &v6ovaiaoims is here equivalent to a dative of 

ir<x0os . . irrov0oTs] Accusative of the internal object TTO.&OS 
irerrovQivai means ' to be in a certain state, 1 Cp. o n . , TreTiovfare, 
17 A, 

QO-06jM]v avTwv . . oio(ivwv] The genitive after a verb of 
perception , and the participle, instead of infinitive, as after verbs of 
seeing, knowing, etc. Cp 20 A 5 faifypovvTa. 

o-o^tuTciTW tvai] After oloptvuv, the case being preserved 

Kal evTciiOev] 'Fiom them too' Like inde and tenete in Latin, 
frTtv6ev is sometimes used of persons 

T$ ClllT$] Cp 21 D, ff]MKp> TlVl K.T \. 

TOVTOVS K.T.X.] See note on 21 E, rbv XW !^* Tt ' ^7 l ' D 

evp^jo-oijjLt] Future optative, which is found m oblique oration 
only. The direct statement would be o'Sa on tvpr}<rv, 

cxctv dji,iprqn,a] ' To be under a mistake/ ' make a mistake.' 
With iroMqTdi supply e?xov. 
TIIOTJ] ' Claimed * 

dir&pvimv] 'Threw into the shade.' The assumption of 
universal knowledge was a mistake which outweighed in importance 
the value of their specific skill in handicraft 

iroTfptt BcgaLjttjv av] 'Whether I would choose.' Literally B 
'would accept' (if the choice were offered). 

OVTWS t&o-trcp x X" V ] c To be as I am ' This is the meaning 
of Ix* ^h adveibs %x fiv xaXHas, K<LKU>S, etc But below *x (iV & 
IKCIVOI fyovaiv means ' to have what they have/ their knowledge and 
their ignorance. 

olw, xaXeirioTttTat] ' Of a kind that are the bitterest.' Supply 23 A 

ovojjia Se roOro K.T.\.] * And I am called by this name, that I 
am wise/ Riddell. Lit. ' I am called by name, this, &c.' We might 
have expected rb vai fit GQ$QV The nominative is due to the fact 
that Socrates is himself the subject. For a similar construction with 
the addition of the article cp. Symp. 173 D, ravrrjv r^v htavv^iav 
$\aBf$ rb pwtttbs KaXstaQcu. 
ot <irap6vTs] ' The bystanders ' 

& &v dXXov IgeX^^w] 'Wherein I have refuted another/ 
*EA*yx*' can take two accllsatlves : ( J ) of tbe person; (2^ of the 

B3 19 

TO & KtvBwewi] Perhaps it is best, with Riddell in his Digest, 
19 (though not in his text), to separate TO 8 by a comma from 
Kiv&wwsL. TO 5e introduces a counter-statement, and may be 
rendered 'whereas,' 'but m fact,' or quite literally, 'but for that 
matter.' For a similar use of T 5e cp. Meno 97 C, TO 22 apa KOI 
Sofa ft 6X77617$, * whereas after all there was also right opinion.' 
Other instances are Theaet, 157 B, 183 A, 207 B; Soph. 244 A ; 
Symp 198 D ; Prot. 344 E ; Rep 340 D, 443 C ; Laws 803 D. 

6 teos] This was probably intended to be understood of Apollo, 
and yet did not quite mean so in Plato's mind 

Kal o-iScv6s] An instance of the alternative use of *m ' Little 
or nothing ' 

ov Xfyeiv TOV ^wKpaTifl ' Not to mean the individual, Socrates ' 
B Jtyvwiccv] See note on 25 D, eTvw/tas 

av Tiva otwjjiat] * Anyone whom I may imagine ' Supply TOVTOJ/ 
before C'?'"* *l l/wwffl. a* is contracted from eav. The verbs of 
seeking, forca ftai ipevvS}, take a double accusative, one of the person 
and another of the thing, roOra. ravra = Sid ravra, as Mr. Adam 
takes it. Cp. Xen. Anab IV. I. 21 TO.VT l-yw jfcrTreuSov Kal 8td 

cv irevij jwpt^] ' In untold poverty ' pvptos denotes anything 
that is beyond counting ; /xiJptoy means definitely ten thousand. The 
use of fwpfo* for iroA;s is found several times in Plato Aristotle 
mentions it as a use of the specific for the general word, and so 
more suitable to poetry than prose. In English we use 'thousand* 
and 'thousands' to express an indefinitely large number; some- 
times 'millions.' The Romans did not get beyond six hundred, 

On the poverty of Socrates cp 31 C, 36 D, 38 B. In the last of 
these passages Socrates says that he thinks he could pay a fine 
of a mma (about 4^. By Xenoplion his whole property is estimated 
at 5 minae (Oecon. II. 3). It is recorded of Socrates that when he 
looked at the variety of goods for sale, he said to himself, ' How 
many things there are which I have no need of! * (Diog. Laert II, 
25). See also Rep 337 D ; Xen. Mem. I. 2. i. Oecon. XL 3. 
O ols jwiXwrTtt crxoX-q mv] To attend the lectures and discourses 
of the Sophists, among whom Socrates, despite his idiosyncrasies, 
must be reckoned, was the Greek equivalent to a university educa- 
tion among ourselves. 

ot T$V irXowittTdrcov] 'The sons of the wealthiest citizens' 
Supply ukfs from the vtoi preceding, or repeat vtoi itself, like 

'pinnirapi cultos iuvenes iuvenesque lanistae' (III. 158), 


i] \Vith TrcwoXovflo!vT<s. He means that these young 
men had not been formally committed to his charge by their parents, 
and that he was under no tutorial relations to them. Cp. Xen. 
Mem I. 2. 18 

dKouovTts egTaon.vwv] See note on 22 C, $o$6jti]v K.T X. 

tlr Trtx6ipovJcrLv] * And so try.' In the Republic, 539 B, Plato 
compares the delight of the young m argument to that of puppies in 
worrying the first thing the} meet He would reserve dialectic for 
men of mature yeais 

vmi0ev] 'As a consequence.' The odium reverted upon 
Socrates, as he was the originator of this unpleasant system of 

SwicpAnjs rts com] Ws is predicate 'Socrates is a most 
pestilent fellow.' Contrast with this the construction in 18 B, fo 
fffn T<S $(a/tpcLTr)$, where r<y goes with 5<u*pdr}?s and effn is the sub- 
stantive verb. 

irpoxetpa] A metaphor from a stone or other missile which is D 
leady to hand against some one \Ye have an excellent illustra- 
tion of the kind of thing referred to in the Symposium ofXenophou, 
m which the showman, irritated With Socrates, for engrossing the 
attention of the guests by his conxcrbation, calls him peTf&pw 
<ppovTtarfi$, and asks him how man) flea's paces he is off from him 
i Xen. Conv.VI. 6-8). 

on Tel pcrtapa] Supply 8ia$0cfp TOUS viovs Sif&ffieav from 
abo\e. The accusatnes ra ^ritapa wi TO. UTTV 7175 and also the 
infinitives vopifav and itoittv, which are coordinate with them, are 
governed by 5iSaa#cuv understood. 

arc . . OVTCS] * Seeing that they are.' Lit ' as being.' are 
is much the same in sense as w?, but is more exclusively used to give 

e In set array.' Riddell Perhaps. Mr Adam is 
right in understanding it as = Latin composite, 'm studied language.* 
There is another reading, wrTa/z*W, which would mean 'earnestly.' 

K Towtov] ' It is on this ground.' E 

M&TJTOS] See note on 19 B. 

"AvuTos] Anytus was a prominent leader of the popular party 
at Athens (Xen Hell II 3 | 42). His father, Anthemion, had 
made his fortune as a tanner 'see Meno 90 A, and Scholiast on 
Apology). Hence the propriety of his appearing in a double 
capacity as champion fntp TUV tiTjptwpyav Kui r&v voJuri- 

AvKttv'81 wcp TWV pTyrSpojv] The Scholiast informs us that 24 A 
Lycon was an Ionian by extraction, and belonged to the deme ot 


Tlioricns He is called a * demagogue ' by Diogenes Laertius, II 
38 ad tin, His poverty excited the ndicule of the comic poets 
Ciatinub and Aristophanes The moie serious charge of treason is 
brought against him in the Hostage ("Ouzos' of Metagenes, one of 
the dt'n qtwiitm towo/ufaa ptisca inroruM cst . 
. . teal AUKOJV (vrav$a irov 
. . . ir/JoSofe JUavvaierov apyvptov \ap&v 
(tyo/was a-yaXfia f&tisbv IjJutQptvetat 

\Ve are told that Eupolis in the Friends satmzed his wife 
Rhodia The Schol last identifies the accuser of Socrates with Lycon, 
the fathei of Autolycus, the youth in whose honoui the Symposium 
of Xenophon is represented as ha\ing been given , and adds that 
Lycon was satirized as a stranger in the play of Eupolis called 
The First Autolycus * This play is assigned to B c, 420, The 
identification of the two persons appears highly improbable on 
chronological and other grounds There is a Lycon mentioned m 
an uncomplimentary context by Aristophanes, Wasps 1301. 

OUTS }Xya OUT* o-fuicpov] The frequent recurrence of this phrase 
in the Apology is perhaps intentional Cp. 19 C, D , 21 B ; 26 B 
It may have been a tnck of speaking on the part of Socrates, 
which Plato has been careful to reproduce 

oxiS* tnroo-TtiXa^evos] 'TTroffT\X<u is used of lowering or furling 
a sail The metaphors of a nation give ns a clue to their habitual 
pursuits Those of the Athenians are mostly naval, legal, 01 

rots auTOis] ' Through the same things ' 
KCI OTI CUJTT) K r.X ] ' And that this is the meaning of the pre- 
judice against me, and these the causes of it ' 
B ani 60-ru K.T.\.] 'Let this be a sufficient defence before 
you* AVTTJ is attracted into the gender of the predicate diro- 
Ao-yw, being put for roCro, This is the prevailing construction m 

irpos 8< M&TJTOV] Euripides is instinct with the spirit of the 
law-courts. It is worth while to compare his Hecuba, lines 1 195, 6 
Kai /-to* T p(V ffbu 55e typoijjiiois $x fi 
JT/J&S rofSe 8" ?jw, xal Xo^ois d/ict^o^teu. 
Aapcojiev a ] ag does no more than repeat the a50u at the 
beginning of the sentence, 
ovrw|WMrtav] See note on 19 B 

^wKpa-nq ^o-lv dStKetv k/r.\ ] Xenophon, Mem I. i. i, gives 
us the indictment in the direct narration, without vouching for its 
literal accuracy, as he introduces it by roiaSf ns fy, 'ASucti 
tov? QV vonifa 

APOLOGY, tVOrjSS. 24 -25 A. 

SaiHovta tiir$4puv' d&K 8 ual rows vwvs hafyfaiptuv. In the 
Apologia Socratis 10, where it is repeated in the oblique narration, 
the wording is substantially the same Kfttyyoprjaav avrov oi uvri' 
Swot wf ofis ptv 17 7TuA*s vojuiei Qtovs ov VQntfa, ertpa 3i *atrd 
5at/xowa tl<r$ipoi wai TOUS vovs 5ia</>0<poi. Diogenes Laertms II. 
40") states on the authority of Favorinus, a \\ nter of the age of 
Hadnan, that the indictment \\as preserved in the Metroum He 
quotes it in exactly the same form in which it is given by Xenophon, 
except that civrffovfjLtvos is iibed instead of ei<r</>f/>wv The indict- 
ment is followed by the words W/ty/ia 9avaros. 

o-iroi5fj xapvrif6Tttv] An instance of oxymoron, or inten-C 
tional paradox For illustrations ot this figure of speech see 
Farrar's Greek Syntax, 315 C. Riddell renders it * is playing otf 
a jest under solemn forms.' 

KO.I jxoi ScOpo K.T X,] The imaginary heckling of Meletus which 
follows is in due form of law, being the </ta>Tf<ns, to which either 
party was bound to submit at the instance of the other See 25 D, 
anuitpivai, j 'yaQe' not yap y vupos 6\uet cntoicpivecrBai ; also 27 C, 
In Demobthenes, p 1131 ad fin. (Earcl ^.Ttyavov B, io\ a law ii 
quoted to the following effect : row avri&'ucoiv wavayKfs tluai 
atfOKpivaaSai oXX^Xois TO epo/Tw^ei'OV, juaprvpen/ 5 $, See Riddell, 
Introd p. xvni 

dXXo TL j\] A common interrogative formula in Plato, equivalent 
to the Latin nowne. To ask, * Do you do anything else than such 
and such a thing 9 ' is a roundabout way of indicating our belief 
that the person does the thing in question. On the same principle 
we insert a * not* in English, when we wish to suggest an affirmative 
answer * Do you not consider it of great importance, etc. * ' 

Ijxe cbdYcis] ty* appears to be under a double construction, D 
being predicate to TOV diagtfa'/wvra, while at the same time it is the 
direct object after tlaa-ffts. 'For having discovered their cor- 
rupter, as you assert, in me, } ou are bringing me up before them and 
accusing me.' 

iroXX-fjv dJ>0oviov] The number of judges was at least 500. E 

|ii\ ol 4v TJ) eKtcXiicrtfl] Let it be bome in mind that while ov25 A 
expects the answer Yes, w expects the answer No. 

Ka\ovs KayoGotis] See note on 21 D, 

HoXX'TJv y Ijiov KaTtyvoMcas Swruxw*] Translate, 'I am veiy 
unfortunate in your opinion J KaTafiyvwaitctv rivus means to form 
an estimate of somebody. It may be used of favourable or un- 
favourable judgments iadiffeiently. Cp Meno 76 C, *ot a/w l^ou 
"a<as Karfyvaucas, im dpi %TTWV ruv Ka\<av: Xen, Oec. II. I, ^ 
uav, 3 2ty/fpaT, laavtas TT\OVTW ; 



B irdvres uvtywtrou etvca] Supply SoKovfft from the impersonal 
tout! preceding Cp Meno 72 D, oAX^ plv dvfyfo flvat 

Towavrtov TOWTOV irav] These words should perhaps be con 
sidered subject to So* understood, and explained by the ffs ^v ns 
%vhich follows in apposition For a different view see Riddell, Dig 


o\> <{%] How entirely the ov coalesces with (pypi is plain from 
the fact that in any other case we should here require $ Cp. 
note on <jnj<ti, 20 E. 

C dpXetav] Socrates has throughout been playing on the name 
Meletus, Cp 24 C, D ; 26 B. For other instances of puns in 
Plato see Riddell, Digest 323. 

<L irpos Aios, M4XtjT] It looks as though the 8> really belonged 
to the vocative Me'Aqrf, and were separated only though that con- 
fusion of expression which is so common a feature in adjurations 
Similarly in Meno 71 D, & irpbs Qtwv, Uevoaf, rt $T}$ apr^v ctvat ; 
But this idea has to be abandoned when we find the same expression 
occurring where there is no vocative at all, as below 26 E, d\A' & 
irpus Aios, obrcoai <roi Sojtfi K.T \ Cp Rep 332 C, ? Ii irpos AJOS, yv 
S* l^w, ft ovv Tts avrw faro 

ev iroXtrats xp^on-ots ^ irovrjpois] The position of the adjectives 
throws a predicative roice upon them. Translate, 'Is it better to 
have the fellow-citizens among whom one dwells good or bad ' * 

Vdv] Nothing is reall) known as to the origin and meaning 
of this mysterious form of address, except that it is a formula of 
politeness. It is plural as well as singular. See Liddell and 
Scott, under erj/s and rav. 

D Kol yap 6 VOJJLOS KcXcvei a-TroKpivco-Oat] See note on tcai poi 
Sfvpo .T.X M 24 C. 

njXvKouTOtj ovros n)Xtie6<r8 wv] * Are you at your age so much 
wiser than I at mine ' ' The usual meaning of the pronouns (see 
note on rj}5e TT) $Ac*fy, 170 is here exactly reversed For TT}\tic6afa 
used by the speaker of himself see below 34 E, 37 D ; Crito 49 A 
ad fin.; Theaet. 177 C. and for rr)\iKovros used of another see 
Prot. 361 E ; Gorg. 466 A, 49 B ad fin In Cnto 43 B we have 
TjjAwouro? used both in the first and second person, or rather, without 
distinction of person. 

fyvwKas] The aorist Zyvcav m 22 B ad fin expresses an act; the 
perfect here expresses the state which is the result of that act. 
tyvcav is ' I recognised,' tyvoattas is * you are in the state of having 
recognised,' and so, 'you know.' Further on, 27 A, the rature 
yvwavrai may be rendered find out,' and so with the aonst in 33 D 
ad in. 

APOLOGY, NOTES. 25 -26 D, 

c At his hands ' KO.K!V n \afi(tv is virtually passive, E 
ovSeva] Supply ireiBeaQai e\a A 

Toiotfrwv Kal dicovcriwv] If the woids in brackets are genuine, the 
KO.L is explanatory of roiofccw. It may be omitted in translating 

edv [10.0(1)] 'If I am mstmcted.' Mavddvu is practically the 
passive of StSdffKCD, as iracrxa> of iroi&u, Ovrjffxu of KTfivo), x/uu 
of Tiftj/u, d<j>\Lffttai(u of tfaTaSwajJeu, ^eityu of Siciww, ciVieVat of 

T\ 8rj\ov 8i\ on] Supply <j>rjs / 8ta00c(py roiiy vton-ipavs. B 

v] For the simple genitive after Xtf-pos Stallbamn quotes Charm. 
156 A, 06 yap TI ffov dAfyos \6yos tariv 

rd irapdirav ov vojiijcts 0ovs] This was the impression which C 
the bulk of his contemporaries entertained of Socrates. It is con- 
veyed plainly enough in the Clouds, e, g. in the answer of Socrates 
to Strepsiades (247, 8) 

iroiovs 6fovs ojwct ffv ; vpGnov yd.p Seol 
fair v6jj.iffn J ofa eo-Tt, 

and in the epithet o M^Xios (line 831) which is bestowed upon him, 
with allusion of course to Diagoras, who was surnamed dfleo? (Cic, 
De Nat Deor I. chs i and 23). 

oxiSi tjXiov ov8 <re\Tivi]v] In the Symposium 120 D, Socrates is D 
recorded to have prayed to the Sun, etrttra fyxercuri&v irpoffevftpevos 
7$ i)\i<u. The Sun and Moon were regarded as divine beings by the 
Ancients, quite apart fiom their personification as Apollo and 
Artemis Helios m the Odyssey appears as a distinct person fiom 
Apollo (Od VIII. cp. 271 with 323). Among the definitions of the 
sun given in the"0/w, which follow the Letters in Hermann's Plato, 
aie these two (i) (yov dtoor, (2) ip^v^QV T pt-yiffrov 
MA At 1 ] Supply 'ou vofufa. See note on 17 B, 
TOV p.v TjXiov K.T.X ] See Diog. Laert II. 8, in his life of 
Anaxagoras, OSros eteye rbv TJ\IW fitipov flvat h&irvpov, Kal peify 

njv 8 creAfyrjv yijv] 'And the moon earth* 7?^ is piobably 
meant to explain the substance of which the moon was made. But 
it would be consistent with the tenets of Anaxagoras to translate, 
'and the moon an earth.' For Anaxagoras is recorded to have 
believed that rational animals were not confined to our woild, and 
that the moon contained dwelling-places as well as hills and valleys 
(Ritter and Preller 57 a; Diog Laert. II. 8). 

'Avalayopou] Anaxagoras of Clazomenae was born about B.C. 
500. He was a man of wealth and position in his own country, but 
he resigned his patrimony to his kinsmen, and set out for 
Athens at the age of 20, just at the time of the Persian invasion/ 



R c. 4^0 Here he spent the next 30 years of his life in the 
study of natural philosophy Among the most distinguished 
of his pupils were Pericles and Eunpides and Archelaus, the 
instructor of Socrates. His guesses at truth appear m some 
instances to have been \ery successful. Thus he maintained 
that the moon derived its light from the sun (Crat 409 B) Also 
he taught the eternity and indestructibility of matter, and declared 
* becoming ' and * perishing * to be merely other names for combina- 
tion and separation ^Ritter and Preller, 49"). But what readers his 
name of most importance in the history of philosophy was his de- 
claration that intelligence (voCs) was the cause of all motion and 
order in the universe. He was indicted by the Athenians for impiety 
on account of his opinion about the sun. Hereupon he retired to 
Lampsacus, where he ended his days in honour at the age of 72 
The accounts, however, of his tnal and death are very conflicting 
According to Hermippus of Smyrna (apitd Diog. Laert II. 13) 
he was pardoned by the Athenians on the personal intercession of 
Pericles, who declared himself to be his disciple, but committed 
suicide m disgust at the treatment to which he had been subjected. 
Anaxagoras was a man of lofty mind vuth a passionate zeal for 
penetrating the secrets of nature. When asked for what he had been 
born, he replied, ' To contemplate the sun and moon and heaven * 
The fi agments that remain of his writings contain Ionic forms bee his 
life in Diog Laert. II 6-15, and the fragments in Ritter and 

oiei CLVTOIJS direipovs] The force of the ovrta preceding is carried 
on to these v\ ords. 

WO-T ofa i8vai] The rule is that &are, when followed by the 
indicative, requires ou, when by the infinitive, ^ Thus, to use 
Shilleto's example, we should have, on the one hand, O$TOK a$pcw ?jv 
uuTe OVK !0oiJ\<To and, on the other, ovrus a$pcw yv ware /) 
QofataQat The difference between these two forms of expression is 
that the indicative puts the fact prominently forward, while the in- 
finithe rather regards the event as the natural outcome of its antece- 
dentmore briefly, the indicative expresses the real, the infinitive 
the logical consequence. Now when the infinitive is necessitated by 
the change from the direct to the oblique narration, this distinction 
would be lost, were the ou changed into ft*}. Hence when stress is 
meant to be laid upon the matter of fact, the ou of direct nariation 
is retained in the oblique Here the direct statement would have 
been OVTGJ? dirtipoi sitiLV, &are OVK laaai See Shilleto, Demosth De 
Fals Leg , Appendix B. 

tot *Ava|ay^po^ ^ipXCa] His principal work was a treatise on 

APOLOGY, NOTES. 2,6 -27 B, 

nature, which Diogenes Laertius ^11. 6) tells us was { written in an 
agreeable and elevated style.' 

ical 8^ KCU] c And, I suppose.' 

el irdvv iroXXov] 'At the most.' Cp. Alcib 123 C, oftoy p'w^E 
trfvr^KovTn, el itavv iro\\ov. Similarly eav irapirokv, Gorg. 5 n D. 

Spaxfjujs IK rrjs opxVrpas] Tin ee views have been held as to 
the meaning of this passage 

(1) That the orchestra of the theatre of Dionysus wab used for 
the sale of books, when performances were not going on, and that 
the works of Anaxagoras could occasionally be bought there for 
rather less than a drachma 

(2) That m return for the drachma which a theatre-goer might be 
supposed to pay, at the most, for a three days' performance, he was 
liable to be treated to the doctrines of Anaxagoias, so much had 
they become part of the common mental stock of Athens. Euripides 
was specially infected with the new learning See for instance 
Orestes 983 

(3) That vpxqaTpa heie means a part of the Agora used for public 
performances, and where books may be supposed to have been sold. 
In the Platonic glossary of Timaens the Sophist a second meaning is 
given for opxfiffrpa, thus TOTTOS firupavrjs eh irwrjyvptVj tvQa 'A/yio- 
St'ou Kal 'A.pi0Toyetrovo$ 6?ow, From Aristoph. Eccles, 681, 2, it 
appears that the statue of Harmodms was in the Agora 

This last view is perhaps the right one. That a work on philo- 
sophy could be bought for so low a price as a drachma (roughly = a 
franc) at Athens, is, as Mr. Adam points out, the less surprising 
when taken in conjunction with Plato's other statement (Gorg 51 1 D), 
that 2 drachmas would be a high price to pay for the transport of a 
man with all his goods and family from Pontus or Egypt to Athens. 

"Amoros .Kal ... <ravr$] Because, as Socrates is going to show, 
he was contradicting himself. ' You are undeserving of credit, Meletus, 
and that too indeed, as it seems to me, in your own eyes.' 

&nrcp aivt-ypa.] ' A kind ofnddle.' 27 A 

vvTi0&TL 8iairtpw[ilv<jo] This interlacing of pai ticiples is not un- 
common in Plato Cp. te\QuVTi . . . a/MiPopevw, 37 D, 

jio x a P tVTt f t ^ vOIJ ] F r the genitive of a nonn with participle 
after verbs of knowing, etc., see Riddell, Digest, 26, 

6 <n><|>o5 BT|] $17 shows that the epithet preceding is bestowed 
ironically. These finer touches have to be conveyed in English by 
the inflection of the voice. 

v TO suoSoTt tpo-mo] That is, by the use of the Socratic indue- B 
tion, \\ hich he now proceeds to apply. 

APOLOGY, XQT$, 27 /?-/). 

teal pij XAa Kal aXXa OoptiffciTu] And not be always raising 
some fresh disturbance.' 

TO m TOVTW Y] ' The next question at all events,' i. e. the ques- 
tion to which the induction had been intended to lead up, Cp. 
Gorg 512 E, TO Iffi Tovry aiwrrfov, unless that be merely adverbial, 
as Cope takes it f hereupon/ More usually the phrase is TO /ZCTCI 
ToDro Cp, Crat 391 B, Ovitovv TO /wra TOLTO XP% C 1 7 Te "' : ^ rot - 
355 A, 7& peril TOUTO ^oure : Cnto 49 E. 
C '&S wnjcras] * How kind of you ' 

%wo Tourwvl avayica6|ivos] See note on Kcu JUH SeC/w /CT.X. 
24 C. 

5uafi,6<na] See note on avrtoftoaia) 19 B. 

dvivypcKjtfi] Like avrca^toffla this term properly signifies the de- 
fendant'is plea, but its meaning has been extended so as> to cover the 
indictment Cp. note on dww^ocrtoj 19 B, 

Ti6t)}u -yip <re ojxoXoYoiivTa K.T.X ] The saying ' silence gives, 
consent ' seems to have had its origin as one of the rules of the game 
of dialectic Cp Aristotle, Sophist Elench 5. 13, fyoXojovm r 
pr) airoKpivtff&ai TO tpwupevov ; Cic, De Inv I, 54. 
J3 Saijxovas] On the nature and office of daemons, see a passage in 
the Symposium, 202 -203 A, They were regarded as something 
intermediate between God and man, oi yap irav TO tiatjAuvtov jweTafv 
eoTi Otov T Kal OVIJTQV the sources of all divination and prophecy, 
and the agents in the production of the supernatural generally The 
following is the definition of daemons given by Apulems, who pro- 
fessed himself a follower of Plato, ' genere animalia, ammo passiva, 
mente rationalia, corpore aena, tempore aetema ' (Quoted by St 
Augustine, De Cn Dei IX 8 ) By the Jews daemons were considered 
to be the spirits of the \vicked dead See Josephus, Bell Jud VII. 6. 
3 Hesiod, on the other hand, declared that they were the souls 
of the men of the golden age, \Vorks and Days, 120-3 
Gvraf Iirt5^ TOUTO 7^05 Karb yaia 
TOL ft<.v Sat'/xofes tiffl A: os n^aXov E:d 
icBKct, Iiri>(flovt0(j ^>vXaJ? Qvyrtav avQpvrtrtov 
In the Alcestis of Euripides 1002-4 we find the belief indicated that 
such ji transformation was possible, at least in the heroic ages 
avTa Tore vpov&w 
vvv 5' url fLOKaipa 
X<w/>*j & TOTW', v St 5o^s. 

<{>avaL] Epexegetical of aivirrw&au ical x&pwrtfaQat 
IK TVVWV dXXuv &v K T.X.] Translate ' by some other mothers, 
by whom, as you kno\v, they are declared to be ' It is tempting to 
take & Ttvoiv aM<wv &v with Riddell as equivalent to ! a\\(ov Stv 

APOLOGY, NOTES. 2"} D-1& C. 

Tivttiv, * by whatsoever other mothers :' but probably we bate nothing 
more here than the rather common omission of the preposition with 
the relative, when the antecedent ha*> already been used with the 
same preposition. E g. Xen Con\. IV. i, 47& *f&p ev T xf^ V( P 
$ i/juaii/ ojtovca. 

TOVS fjjjuovovs] Both sense and sound are improved by the omis- E 
sion of these words, which are very likely due to some unintelligent 

TT|V -ypa<|>Y]v luvrqv] These words again look like a marginal 
explanation of raSra, which has crept into the text. It seems harsh 
to take ravra as governed by aitortcipupwos. 

ws ov TOW aurov] Translate the whole sentence thus * But that 
you should persuade anyone who has the least grain of sense, that it 
is possible for the same person to believe in things pertaining to 
divine beings and gods, and yet, on the other hand, not to believe in 
divine beings or gods or heroes, is absolutely inconceivable.' The 
ov, as Riddell says is irrational, being simply a confused anticipation 
of the coming negative in ovSepia, 

If anyone thinks this explanation too bold, he can extract a 
meaning out of the words as they stand, while allowing ov its proper 
force { But that you should persuade anyone who has the least grain 
of sense, that it is possible for a man to believe in things pertaining to 
divine beings and at the same time not to believe in things pertain- 
ing to gods, and again for the same person not to believe in divine 
beings or gods or heroes, is absolutely inconceivable.' In this case 
the reasoning would run thus You admit that I believe in Bcu/wwa, 
yet you deny that I believe in QeTa, and, what is more absurd still, 
while admitting that I believe in Sat/^via, you deny that I believe in 
Saipoves or in any other kind of supernatural personal agent. 

'"What you have heard.' Cp. note on 17 C, T5 if 28 A 

See note on 19 C, 

woXXois Kai aXXovs K.T.X.] * Many other good men too ' 

ouBev 8t 5etv6v K r.X.] * Nor is there any fear of their stopping B 
short at me.' The subject to (Tr|? is d 17 above. This sentence is 
interesting, as it perhaps gives us the key to the common construction 
with oli jnj. Riddell quotes Phaedo 84 B, oiiftv Sww $ (jtofyVQ 
and Goig 520 D, ovftv favov avr /wfroT* dSim^i). But see note 
on 29 D, ow $ iravatofuu. 

STOW -n Kol trjuKpdv 6<J>eX6s <mv] * A man of any worth at all.* 
For other instances of this expletive use of ac see Riddell, Digest, 

ot re aXXoi teat] ' And above all/ C 



iropi] The root meaning of nopd is ' by the side of,' whence it 
casil} passes into the idea ut comparison. 

0cos ouora] The feminine form, 0d, H seldom used in classical 
Greek, except in poetry Sometimes however it is necessary for dis- 
tinction, as in S}tnp 219 C, /xa 0otv, juA Sea?, Contrast the begin- 
ning of Dcmosth. de Cor,, rots deois cvxofxu tract teal vaaais 

atmKO. -yap -rot K.T.\ ] Homer, Iliad XVIII 94-6 
TUP 5' ar 7rpo7r 9ins itara Sdxpv x^ovaa,. 
1 ilttffjuQpos &7 /(Of, Ttfos, ttfatat, cT fayoptvus 
avrixa -yap rot cffCira /#' "E/rropa iroT/to? TCW]UOS.' 
D avriKct, ^ai, T0vaiT]V, ic rA,] Iliad XVIII 98 
auTtfca rtfi'tn'iift', iirfl OVK dp* ffis\\ov kraipip 
KTdvopevar cnapwai K.T.X 

The speech of Acblles ^98-1 26), which begins as above, is a pacu- 
liarlj rambling one ; but Plato has sewed upon the gist of it 

Kopttvuriv] The word in Homer (II. XVIII. 104) is eruffiov 
Both Plato and Anstotle make slips occasionally m quoting Hornei 
from memorj. In some cases of course it is possible that their text 
ma> have differed from our a 

ffi TiY 1 } "*^ 08 ] ^ the 'n is genuine, the sentence begins as 
though the participle \\ere about to be balanced by some such 
clause as Kftevovros TOV apxcvros, and that then the construction is 
suddenly changed, probably from a latent consciousness that there 
vas borne inconsistency between the passruty of a soldier who is 
assigned a post and the active construction ecatruv TOT), 

T3Y<I ouv K T \.] The construction of this sentence is very re- 
markable Reduced to its simplest form it amounts to this ' Now 
it would be a strange thing tor me tu have done ^apodosis), if I were 
to desert the post which the God assigned me, for fear of death or 
anjthing else whatever (protasis) ' But the protasis is complicated 
by a contrast being drawn between the actual behaviour of Socrates 
to\\ardb his human commanders and his supposed behaviour towards 
his dmne commander. This contrast is managed by two clauses, 
of which the former has a pfr both in the protasis and the apodosis, 
which is answered by a S in the protasis and apodosis of the latter 
For a similar arrangement of particles cp. Meno 94 C, QIIKOVV S^Aov 
*,T.A and Gorg. 512 A, ci fUv ns ^aAots K r \ 
33 & Ho8a$] The Athenians were engaged in operations against 
Potidaea from 432 to the close of 430 B.C. In the Charmides (153 
A, B) Socrates is represented as returning from the camp at Potidaea 
just after a battle From the Symposium (320 E) we learn that 
Socrates s,rved the life of Alcibiades at Potidaea, and afterwards 
resigned the prize of valour in his favour, 

APOLOGY, NOTES. $8 -29 C. 

v 'Aft^urfXci] In 422 B.C. took place the battle at Amphipolis, 

in which both Brasidas and Cleon fell 

lirl AijXCw] After the disastrous defeat at Dehum in B.C 424 
Socrates and Laches retired from the field together. The look oi 
dogged determination on Socrates' face sened better than haste to 
protect him from the foe Alcibiades, who was on horseback, repaid 
his debt to Socrates and covered his retreat (Symp 221 A, B; 
Laches 181 B), 

<j>i.Xoo-ocJ>o\}vT<i f Siv |ftv] 4 The duty of passing m> life in 
the study of philosophy ' SeiV here might fairly be called a cognate 
accusative after TOTTOVTO?. It has a tendency to be u&ed somewhat 
superfluously. Cp. 35 C, diouT' fie . . . SetV. 

dimSuv] The participles are explanatory of oy wytf ju 0eoi/s etvai, 29 A 
' if I were disobedient,' etc Socrates still speaks as though the 
oiacle had directly enjoined the eccentric course of life which he 
pursued Cp note on KQ.TQ, ritv Qew t 22 A, and the words &rtb ad 
epevvu KO.T& rov Qf6v, 236 

SoKeiv (ro<f>ov lvai] ' Seeming to be wise,' Supply nva. For 
its omission cp, Meno 81 D, dra^jyo-^^ra 

Kal VTtt(i0a] * In this matter also/ i, e. with regard to the fear B 
of death. 

TOUTU 5v] Supply <f>a'n)v. 

on OVK <l8ws K T X ] * That, having no adequate knowledge about 
the other \vorld, I think also that I have not.' 

Jiv o!Sa] Attraction of the Relative is most common in Greek 
when the antecedent is in the genitive, as here, or in the dative, and 
the relative in the accusative, 

& ^ otStt] v Things of which I cannot know.' The pj is due 
to the hypothetical character of the sentence * If I am in doubt as 
4o the nature of a thing, I will not fear it more than what I know to 
be evil.' 

cl d-yaOo ovra TVYxavet] ' Whether they may not be good * 
This is a case in which English idiom requires a negative, while 
Greek does not. 

wore oSS* ji vvv] This sentence is one of extraoidmary length. 
The protasis is repeated three times in different shapes, first in the 
indicative, which marks an objeqtne contingency; (,r) el ^e >3v 
fyuftjtyferc, and then twice over in the optative, which marks a 
subjective contingency, oi a case contemplated as possible; (2} d. 
fiot irpus ravra that?* ; (3) el <$v ftf, fyrtp fiirov, eirf Tou'rois d^totre j 
the apodosis begins at dvoip &v vfiv in D and ends at ^poyn'fcis 
in E. 

'At all. 1 C 

^ .VOTES. 29 C^O C, 

fVnB'tJ urqX0ov] * Xo\v that I Ime been brought up/ Cp. note 
on 17 D, efrojSc'/tym and on i(\ A, cap fia$w. 

&v . . , 5wMJ)^apTjorovTai] fora? with the fut indie, see Riddell, 
Digest, 58. 

$' $r< jwjicfTi . . Starpiffciv] For the innnitne after the 
relative cp Xen Hell II. 3 n,alp&ivTt* 5t */>' WTC avwpoafxu. 
yufiotff, and see Uiddell, Digest, 79. 

D do-irdJopKu, |iv Kal 4A] *I am your \en humble servant 1 
Literally ' I embrace and kiss you/ Somewhat similar is the use 
of cratiw at $(Au in Prot, 335 D. 

imaojwu 5i (x&\Xov T$ 0$ -fj fyuv] Cp. Acts v 29, TtfiOcLpxw 
Sti 8<^aAAoi' ^ drfipwffots : also iv 19 Modern sentiment would 
incline u^ to render this simply ' God ' ; but probably it is meant 
for Apollo, 

oi (iir| iravora-jxttt] See note on 28 B, ofoev 5^ Swov K.T.\ 
Goodwin indeed Greek Grammar, 257) declares that the double 
negative has merely the force of emphasis, and that the subjunctive 
is a relic of the old usage ubich \\e find in Homer, in which it is 
equivalent to a future. 

Ov yap vto rt)iovs t'Sof dvepas, ou5e *5w/iz< (II, I. 262". 

XptjjwiTcuv jiev^ xprJ/wtTa are the lowest form of external goods, 
Sofa *at rtfirj the highest , $ptjvr)nis and oAiJtoa are internal goods 
which no one can take away or \\ ithhold. 
30 A vtwT'pcp] Da.tne of ad\antage. 

YYvr^pcoj This predicative use of the adverb makes it really an 
indeclinable adj&itive. 

B O^K xpTjuciTwv K.T X ] The conduciveness of virtue to material 
prosperity is incontestable as regards a community. The difficulty 
is. to persuade the individual that virtue is conducive to his personal 
welfare, \\Jiich, as> he conceives of it, is not always the case. The 
material adiantages of virtue are insisted on by Socrates in the 
Memorabilia. Sec for instance the conversation with Aribtippus (II. i) 
on the advantages of self-control. Cp, Anst. Pol. VIL i. 6 

TOW' Av rfij pXajfcpd] 'That, I grant you, would be mis- 
C IjijwivctT^ poi] ' Abide, pray * Ethic dative. 

rro] !N*eut. pi. of the indefinite pronoun ; to be distinguished 
from arm i arra), neut, pi. of &TTIS. 

o&c e'fU jie|w pXd^T K.T\,] *You will not be doing so 
much harm to me as to yourselves/ Another instance of the 
ineradicable *pcova of Attic diction, Cp. note on 19 A, w2 oi 
taw K.T A 

&vp\At|rwv] * Is not likely to hurt me/ Attic future. 


SvvaiTo] Singular , because ovre MlAi/ros ovrt 'AVVTQS is dis-D 

dcjUTov] ' Permitted by the divine law ' Latin fas, 

airoKTivi] Notice the Aeohc form of the aorist in thib and the 
two verbs which follow, 

d-niM&o-acv] This has been substituted on the authority of 
btobaeus for the common reading anfjaffew, 'Annafa properly 
means to treat as anjua, an/wo to make art/ios 

iroXti jiaXXov] Supply nfya. micfo otopm elvat 

iroXXoC Sew] The usual construction with jroXAou Mv is with the 
simple infinitive as here. Cp. below 35 D, 37 B; Meno 79 B, 
avrty ply iroAAov 5*?s dtrfiv o n &m, 92 A, iroAAou 7* tieovat 

dXX' direp d|jiwv] ' No, it is on your behalf ' Supply some word 
like Xc'^w from airoXoyeiaQai 

A Kal YXoL<STpov eiiretv] There is an ellipse of Scf or someE 
such word Cp Gorg. 486 C, ? TI Kai aypoutorcpov elpytrdai 

jxvwiros] From its proper meaning of 'gadfly, 1 which it has 
here, jwfe^ passed by a very intelligible transition to that of a ' spur/ 
which it bears in Theophrastus (Charact V (xxi") Tauchmtz), fv rots 
jivufyi es rrjV ayop&v ircptijareTv. 

irpoo-T0ne^vai] The active, of which, irpotntfip&ov preceding is 
the passive. See note on air /zafcu, 26 A. 

-irpo<rKa6t|;wv] ' Settling upon ' The metaphor of the gadfly is. 31 A 
still continued 

vyets 8* wrws Tetx**v] The ra^' av merely remforces fatas ' But 
you perhaps might be apt in a rage, 1 etc. 

KpcriWvres] ' With a tap * Hermann has substituted on hib own 
conjecture opovcravres, which \i ould mean having made a rush at me.' 

TV otittiwv] This refers to affairs which touched his family, as B 
distinguished from those which were purely personal Xanthippe 
had her grievances. 

&CTTOP irarepa K T.X.] In the accusative because of the tpi pre- 
ceding. ' As a father or an elder brother might.' 

TOtiTo -y K.T X.1 Could not carry their shamelessness to such a 
pitch as to adduce a witness.' The force of the sentence lies m the 
participial clause, See Riddell, Digest, 303, and cp. 31 D 

IKO.VOV . . . evA iraplxo|JLai TOV [idprvpa] See note on ov y&p Q 
tybv cpu fbv \oyov, 20 E, 

rr^v irsvCav] See note on 23 B, kv ittvlq fafpl^. 

dvapaCvuv"] See note on dvaftipr]Ka t 170. Riddell explains the 
word differently in this passage, taking it to refer to the Pnyx, ' as 
in the famous rrar 5 5^/*oj &v& ^o^jjro, Dem, de Cor. 169, p, 285.' 
C 33 


D 0t6v n Kal Btunoviov] See Introduction 

o 8i\ KCU K t.X 1 ' \Vhich m fact i* the tiling that Meletus \\ as 
poking fun at in his indictment, when he drew it up ' For the force 
of the participle see note on 31 B above, TOUTO 75 K r A. , and for the 
taut cp Euthyphro 3 B 

inic<wn<?Bwv] ^ e l laAe 5mfcWfio5eiV used in the Gorgias, 462 E, 
fjirj oirjrai ft( SiatfcujwojfofV TC< cauroO ImnJSet/jua 

Tovt'lorlv. apjdjjtvov], See Introduction, p. n. 

TOVT' Jfortv o JAOI tvavnovrai K r.X ] Cp Rep 496 C 

diroXiXtj] Notice the Attic forms of the pluperfect, diroAwAi; and 
tjj^\7}Ki) contracted from the old termination in -a So avforrjKrj m 
Prot 335 D 

32 A iBiumve.v dXXcl fxirj 8^|jiocnijLv] Verbs in -fy formed from 
nouns, whether substantrve or adjective, denote being in the state 
expressed by the noun 

T6K|Atipia irttpe'|o| K T X ] Here appears, in a refined form, the 
common roVos of rehearsing a man's past sen ices in his defence ' 

otfB' ov M] The separation of ovSe or prjde from tls rendeis the 
expression more emphatic. Cp Gorg 521 C, "Qs fiot SOKCIS, & 
2aw/xiT, viarevctv nytf ay ev TOI/TWV -rra&tlv 

{>iriKa0oinv] Cp. Soph El. 361 This form is considered by 
many authorities, including Liddell and Scott, to be a second aonst 
of UJW'AW, resembling &x*Qov lengthened from effxov Cp IStw/ca^es, 
Gorg 483 A. 

[Xi\ VTMIKUV S a|xa K T X ] The first a'^ia goes 'with virtiKtav, the 
second with ajroXo/^z/. 'And, lathei than yield, would be ready 
to perish on the spot ' Cp. Horn. Od. XL 371 ; Eur. Hel. 587. 

SiicaviKi] "I \vill tell 3011 a -\ulgar story and one which smacks 
of the law-courts, but which i& nevertheless true.' Cp. note on 
ttKpripia. mtp' ojmi K T \ above 

B oXXTjv p*v apxiqv] ' Though I ne\er held any office at all in the 
cit}, }et I was a member of council ' 

['AvTtoxis] This ttord ma} be a gloss, but ihere would be 
nothing surprising in the omission of the article with the proper 
name : cp lleno 70 B, oi rov ffov kraipov 'Apiarl-mov iro\trtu Aapi- 
crafoi, and Phaedo 57 A, rwv iroXtrwi' *Xta<T(W 

TOiis Se/ta trrpa-njYo^s] The circumstances attending this famous 
trial are related by Xenophon in his Hellenics (I chs 4-7) 
Alcibiades after his triumphant return to Athens in B. c. 407 soon 
lost the popularity which had led to his being appointed sole com- 
mander of the Athenian forces (cmavruv ^ytfjt^v avroKparwp} He 
was deposed, and in his place ten generals were appointed, namely, 



Conon, Diomedon, Leon, Penclcs, Erasinides, Aristocratcs, Arche- 
stratus, Protomachus, Thrasyllus, Aristogenes In the following 
year, B c 406, Conon, Leon, and Erasinides were besieged m 
Mitylene by the Spartan commander, Calhcratidas. Diomedon 
made an ineffectual attempt to relieve them with twelve ships, of 
which ten were instantly captured. Then the Athenians put to sea 
with all their forces, and came to the rescue with 120 ships. Their 
squadron lay at Arginusae, some islands off the coast of Lesbos, 
where Calhcratidas offered them battle, with a fleet of inferior 
numbers The result was a great victory for the Athenians, who 
captured about 70 of the enemy's ships, at a loss of 25 of their own. 
The Athenian commanders during this action were the following 
eight Anstocrates, Diomedon, Pericles, Erasinides, Protomachus, 
Thrasyllus, Lysias, Anstogenes Seven of these names are the same 
as before. Conon was still besieged in Mitylene by 50 vessels which 
had been left by Callicratidas under the charge of Eteomcus Leon, 
we may conjecture, had been captured in attempting to bring news 
of Conon's situation to Athens (see I, 6 21) Lysias may have 
been sent from Athens to supply his place Xenophon makes no 
further mention of Archestratus but we know that he died at 
Mitylene (Lysias, 'Atro\. AwpoS. p. 162 ; Bekker, \ol. I. p. 331% 
After the battle the Athenian commanders decided in council that 
47 vessels should be left under the command of Theramenes, 
Thrasybulus, and others, to pick up the survivors off twelve of their 
own ships, which had been water-logged by the enemy, while they 
themselves proceeded to attack the besieging force under Etconicus 
at Mitylene. A great storm which ensued prevented either of these 
operations from being earned out. 

The Athenians at home were not satisfied with the conduct of the 
commanders, and deposed them all except Conon, whos>e situation 
had exempted him from blame. Of the eight who were engaged in 
the battle, two Protomachus and Aristogenes did not return to 
Athens. The remaining six Pencles, Diomedon, Lysias, Ansto- 
crates, Thrasyllus, and Erasinides found themselves on their return 
the objects of popular odium, one of the foremost of their accusers 
being Theramenes, the very man whose duty it had been, according 
to their statement, to attend to the recovery of the missing sailors. 
Sentimental appeals were made to the passions of an excitable 
populace, and at last a senator named Callixenus was induced to 
propose that the generals should be tried in a body, and, if found 
guilty, should be put to death. Some of the prytanes refused at 
first to put this motion to the vote, as being illegal, but they were 
fnghtencd into compliance, with the single exception of Socrates. 
C 2 35 

APOLOGY, A OT$. 32 />'. 

Tlic opposition of Socrates, however, though dignified, was ulti- 
match useless. Sentence of death \va& parsed on the eight generals, 
and the s>i\ \\ho were present were executed, Menexenus 24$ C, D 
the strength of the popular sentiment with regard to this 
in histor) 

The bittle of Argmusae 

They were entitled each to a separate trial, and 
they had not been allowed a fair hearing (Xen, Hell I. 7 5, 
of arpnrrjyoi 8pa\iao$ ZKCLPTOS aTrtkoyrjaaro, ov -yap irpovTt$r} etyiai 
\oyos Kara rov vup&r* 

us v TK ferrcpqp XP VC ?1 It was not long before the Athenians 
repented of their precipitate action. Proceedings were taken against 
L'alhtenus and others who had been prominent in procuring the 
condemnation of the generals ; but they effected their escape during 
a tumult before they \\ere brought to trial. Calhxenus returned to 
Athens in B.C 403, when the people came back from the Piraeus, 
but he was univci sally detested, and died of starvation (Xen, Hell. 

I- 7 34 - 

fyavruoOijv [UJAIV] jjnjBev irowlv] ' Opposed your doing anything 
contrary to the laws.' The negative is due to the expression being 
proleptic. The tendency of the opposition was to make the people 
do nothing unlawful. The idiom of the French language is in these 
cases similar to that of the Greek : * J* empechais que vous ne fissiez 
rien centre les lois * 

This incident in the career of Socrates is referred to, with the usual 
delicate irony with which Plato invests his character, in. Gorgias 
473 E,*H nA,, OVK flfjii ran? voKiTitcibv, teal ireputrt j 
jrti57/ 77 <^>uA^ iTT/jyraveuCj KCLL 5ci /ze fvafiy 
/fat OVK ^wiffrafjtrjv eirityijifrifair. References to the same transaction 
will be found in Axiochus 368 D, E; Xen. Mem I i. x8 ; IV. 4. 
2. In both passages of the Memorabilia it is distinctly stated that 
Socrates was Ivummp on the occasion We learn from the passage 
in the Axiochus that the opponents of the generals earned their 
point next day by means of a packed committee, o 
KOI KoXXfeiw TJ? iffTtpaiq irpo&pws tymMrovs vQwres 
Twyvav TOW arSp&v axpirov Oavarov. 

[KCLV Ivavria ln|<j>wrdp.ifiv] These words are suspected of being 
a gloss. The way in which Socrates opposed the popular will 
was by refusing to put the question to the vote at all, which in his 
capacity of chairman (liriffraTijs} it lay with him to do Riddell 
accepts the words, and refers, them by a hyttewi ptoUron to 
Socrates voting in committee against the bill being laid before the 

APOLOGY, A'OTS. 32 -33 A, 

v8iKvwai. f Kal aTntyttv] ' To inform against me or have me 
summarily arrested.' waytiv m Baiter's text seems to be due to a 

<j>opi]06VTa Sea-fiov $ OAvarov] Callixenus threatened to have the C 
recalcitrant prytanes included in the same vote with the generals. 
Xen. Hell I. 7. 14. 

ciwStj Be oXvyapxU fyevtro] This was in H C, 404, a year which 
was known in Athenian history as f the anarchy.' Xen, Hell II 3. 

01 TpidKovraj The names of the Thirty may be read in Xen. 
Hell. II. 3, 2. The leading spirit among them was Critias. They 
were chosen by the people, under the auspices of Lysander, with the 
ostensible object of codifying the laws of Athens 

irfy-rrrov aurov] ' With four others.' The beautiful conciseness 
of this idiom has been imitated in the French language. See, for 
instance, Voltaire, Siecle de Lous XIV , ch. 12 : 'II echappe a peine 
lui quatneme ' 

TTJV 66Xov] The Dome or Rotunda, a building shaped like the 
Radcliffe, in which the Prytanes dmed, and the Scribes also (Demos- 
thenes, De Fals Leg p 419 ad fin.). It was near the council- 
chamber of the Five Hundred See Pausamas I. 5. I, rov 
&ov\tvTi}piov raw TTwratcoffitav irXrjaiov oAos karl KaXov^vrj^ Hal 
Bvovat re hravOa ol irpvravtis 

Notice that the gender of 66\os is feminine, like that of so many 
words of the second declension -which convey the idea of a cavity, 
e g x 7 ?^ 5 * KiQcoTos, raippos, 

Alovra TOV SaXojjiiviov] A man of reputation and capacity, who 
had been guilty of no crime Xen Hell, II. 3. 39. Cp. Mem. IV 

4 3- 

avairXfiom] ' To implicate.' Lit to infect. Cp. Phaedo 83 D, 
rov ffujtaros dvairXca; Ai Acham. 847, Swwv dvairX^ff^ 

aYpoucoTpov] ' Too clownish ' The opposite of dypoDcos is D 
affretos, whicli implies refinement and breeding. For the phrase 
6i /n) afpotKOTfpov fy tlveiv cp. Euthyd. 283 E. 

TOVTOU 8 T^ irdv p^Xi] c This, I say, is all my care.' Sc here 
lends emphasis to the TOUTOU. This use of fo' should be compared 
with its employment in the combination oi . . S. 

Sid TOX&V KttT\iS6n] They were deposed before the end of the E 
year and a body of ten men, one from each tribe, elected in their 
place. Xen. Hell II. 4. 23 

ftaOtj-rds] ' Xenophon in his Memorabilia speaks always of the 33 A 
companions of Sociates, not of his disciples' of <ruwvres OT, of 
awovfftaffTai (I. 6, i} of ow5iaT/#orm ol ffvyyt^pcvoioi 


APOLOGY, A r OTS, 33 A~D. 

. s (IV B. 2) 01 /0' eaurov 

(IV. 2. i ad fin.) 01 cmfo/tyrof I. 2 60). Anstippus also, m 
speaking to Plato, talked of Socrates as o Iraf/ros jfp&v. Anstot 
Rhetor II. 24,' Grote's History of Greece, vol VIII. p. 21 2, note 3, 
ed of 1884. \Ve may add to this list the term 6(ju\yrr)*, Mem 1. 2. 

HI a, 48. 

Y Se SiSdffKoXos KrX,] Cp. Xen Mem. I 2. 3, Kofroi 7* 


i e. rot) 

rd fyavrov irpdrrovTos] That is, carding out his divine mission. 
Cp. 28 E ; 29 D above ; 33 C below In the Gorgias Socrates is 
made to say that the soul which is most likely to please Rhada- 
maiithys is that which has inhabited the body 0t\oero</>ou TO, O.VTOV 
Tr/wfajTOf KOI ov troXv7rpo7fiovi7<ra>'Tos Iv T$ jfitai 

ov8 xpV a ' ra l" v XaH-P^vov K T.X.] On this subject see Xen. 
Mem. I. 2 5-7 and 60, ovSeva. iromoTe fjuaBuv T^? avvovaias 
lirpa^aro, d\\d irafftv atyOovots lirijpKCi TWV lavroG, also I 5 6 
Cp note on 19 E, XPW&T& itpaTTOftai 
B tpcoTav] ' To ask him questions ' 

ical <iv TIS K T X.] This is a soft way of saying, ' And I am ready 
to question him, if he chooses. 1 Riddell 

OUK &v BUCCUMS T^V aiTtav vift^oi^i] Among the followers of 
Socrates had been Critias and Alcibiades, about the two most 
unprincipled men of their time This point was urged against him 
on the trial. See Xen Mem. I. 2 12-18 

C tirav, on] With a comma at tlvov, on is explanatory of iraffav 
TTJV aMjdfiav, I told you the whole truth, how that they take 
pleasure/ etc. But with a colon at tfaw, 3 will mean * because/ 
and convey the answer to the question with which the sentence 
begins, ' It is because they take pleasure,' etc. Cp Euthyphro 3 B. 

jjiol 8e Totiro KT\.] The intense belief in his own divine 
mission, which is here so emphatically expressed, is one of the chief 
factors to be taken into account in estimating the character of 

&a jiolpa] ' Divine dispensation ' 
D yvwouv] * Had found out.' See note on tyvwica*, 25 D. 

dvopaivQvras] See note on}ica, 17 D 

nvAs") ^ ne construction of accusative and infinitive after xpqy is 
still continued. 

VTT' Ijioti] See note on tFetrAvOuTt biro, 1 7 A. 

jntptinv . <vTav6ot] An instance of compressed construction, 
or f on struct Jo pfaegnans, ' Are present hither ' ' Have come hither 
and are present here,' 



Kpirwv] The attachment of Cnto to Socrates is very touching. 
Crito was a wealthy man, apparently engaged in business (Euthyd. 
304 C), who was always ready to place his riches at the disposal of 
his friend (38 B ; Crito 45 B). It was Cnto who made anange- 
ments for Socrates* escape from prison, and who affectionately urged 
him to avail himself of them ; it was Cnto who received his last 
behest, and who closed his eyes in death (Phaedo 118 A). He was 
the author of a book containing seventeen dialognes on thoroughly 
Socratic subjects. The titles of them may be read in Diogenes 
LaertiusII. 121. According to this author Cnto had four sons, 
Cntobulus, Hennogenes, Epigenes, Ctesippus, who were all in- 
structed by Socrates. It would appear, however, from Euthyd 306 
D, that he had only two, Cntobulus and another who was con- 
siderably younger. This may be due to the supposed date of the 
dialogue. But more probably the statement of Diogenes is 
erroneous Hermogenes, Epigenes, and Ctesippus are present in 
the Phaedo (59 B) along with Cntobulus, which may have led 
to the error 

p.6s ?|XiKtu>TT]s] This renders improbable the statement given on E 
the authonty of Demetrius of By?antrum that Cnto took Socrates 
away from his trade and educated him, being struck with his ability 
(Diog. Laert. II 20 ad fin.) 

8i)n,6-n)s] Socrates belonged to the derne of Alopece 

KpiTopovXov] See note on KpiTow above. Also Phaedo 59 B. 
The conduct of Cntobulus is made the text of a sermon from 
Socrates in the Memorabilia, I 3 8-15 , cp II. 6 31, 32. 
His appearance as a boy is described in Euthyd 271 B He figures 
in the OEconomicus and in the Symposium of Xenophon He 
appears to have excited the animosity of Aeschmes the Socralic 

Awavias 6 2<j>^Tuos] Nothing is known of Lysamas, the father 
of Aeschines, beyond what we leam from this passage. He is to be 
distinguished from Lysamas, the father of Cephalus, Rep 330 B. 
We may set aside on the authority of Plato the statement to which 
Diogenes Laertius (II 60) inclines, that Aeschines was the son of 
Channus, a sausage-maker. 

AUrxlvov] Commonly known as 'Aeschines the Socratic' (Cic. 
De Inv I 31 ; Athen. V 220 a, XIII. 611 e). He was one of the 
most prominent among the immediate disciples of Socrates, and is 
mentioned in the Phaedo (59 B) as having been present at the death 
of his master. A collection of dialogues went under his name in 
antiquity, of which Diogenes (II, 60, 61) sets aside several as 
spurious. Scandal declared that the remainder were really the works 
of Socrates himself, which had been given to Aeschines by Xanthippe 


APOLOGY, .VOTES. 33 , 34 4. 

after the death, of the philosopher Athen. XIIL 611 e, tfo ot d^>J 
T<Jp 'ISo^evf'a ^a<7iV Cp Diog, Laert II 60, >\ hero the same thing 
is absertel uu the authority of Menedernus of Erctna), E^en his 
fnenc! Anbtippus i said to have exclaimed against him as a plagiarist 
\\hen he heard him ghe a public reading at Megara (Diog Laert. 
II, 6j ad tin. ', Aeschines aeems to ha\e been embarrassed all his 
life by poverty, possibh on account of an inclination to good living ; 
for Socrates recommended him ( to borrow from himself, by de- 
creasing hi* diet 7 v Diog. Laert. II. 62). After the death of 
Socrates he set up as a perfumer, bat became bankrupt The tirade 
oi Lysias the orator against him, a fragment of which has been 
preserved by Athenaeus ,XIII. 611 e-6i2 f; represents his conduct 
at this time a& mo&t degraded. Drhen to seek his fortune in Sicily, 
he was neglected by Plato, but welcomed by Anstippus, who 
introduced him at the court of Dion j sins, from \vhom he received 
piesents in return for his dialogues He is said to have stayed at 
Syracuse until the expulsion of the t}iant. On his return to Athens 
he did not venture to enter into rivalry with the schools of Plato 
and Aristippus, but ga\e lectures for pay, and composed speeches 
for the law-courts. In his style he chiefly imitated Gorgias of 
Lebntium There is an amusing instance ot inductive reasoning 
quoted ftom his works by Ciceio i^De Inv I. 31'-, m which Aspasia 
a Socrates, in petticoats, gucs a moral lesson to Xenophon and his 
\v ife. 

! Avn<|>wv Krj<|>unfiv$] To be distinguished from the Antiphon 
of the Parmenides (126 B), who was the son of Pjnlampes and half- 
brother to Plato ; also from Antiphon the Sophist, who figures in 
the Memorabilia I. 6, and who may be the same with Antiphon the 
Rhamnusian of Menexenus, 236 A. 

TSmv&ows] Epigenes is mentioned as present at the death of 
Socrates ^Phaedo 59 B v In the Memorabilia JIL 12' we find 
bocrates remonstrating with him on the neglect of bodily exercise 

4v Tavrrj rfr Starpip-Q 'yc^ovcwrt] ' Have been in this way of 
luing.' The \\ord came to be used later for ' a school ' 

NiKocrrpaTos] There is an actor of this name mentioned by 
Xenophon ^Conv. VI 3' ; but we have no reason to suppose that 
he is the same person. 

*wre . KaTaSctiBeiijl ' So that he at least could not bring any 
improper influence to bear upon him/ fectvos refers to Theodotus, 
avrov to Xicostratus. 

ITdpaXos] Distinguish this person from Paralus, the son of 
Pericles, for whom see Ale, 118 E ; Prot. 315 A; Meno 94 B. 
34 A AT}|AoSoKot>] In the Theages Demodocus is represented as 


bringing to Socrates his son Theages, who has an ambition to 
become crowds 

edyris] In Rep 496 B, C, Socrates speaks of * his friend 
Theages' being only prevented by ill-health from abandoning 
philosophy for politics He gives his name to the dialogue above 

*A8cijiavTos] This brother of Plato's appears both in the Par- 
menides (126 A) and in the Republic (see especially 362 D-36? E). 
The genius and virtue of himself and his brother Glaucon are extolled 
by Socrates, who quotes from an elegiac tribute of some admirer of 
Glaucon's (368 A) 

mwSes 'ApiffrSfvos, K\tivov OfTov yivos avSpos. 

IIXdTwv] There are only three passages in all the works of Plato 
in which he names himself, namely, the one before us, 38 B r and 
Phaedo 59 B, where it is mentioned that he was ill at the time of 
the death of Socrates. 

'AiroX\6Swpos] Of Phalerum (Symp. 172 A\ Mentioned in the 
Phaedo as having been specially affected by gnef during his last 
interview with Socrates (59 A ad fin , 117 D). He is the supposed 
narrator of the dialogue in the Symposium. His devotion to Socrates 
and to philosophy was that of a religious enthusiast, and procured 
him the surname of 'the madman' (Symp 172, 173). Xenophon 
speaks of him as ^mOvfJtijr^s p& iffxvp&s avrov (i.e. ^uKpcLrovs), 
aAAws 8* efyfcfr (Apol. Soc 28), 

Iv T$ lavrou Xo-yw] ' In his own time of speaking,' as measured 
by the K\fi//d$pa,oi water-clock. Cp. the expression of Demosthenes 
(De Cor. p 274), IF ry lp$ vSart The water was stopped while 
witnesses were speaking. 

eyci -iropaxwpw] Riddell quotes from Aeschines (In Ctes. p. 77^1 
the full expression, vapa.x<upS> aot rov ffifturot, ewr &v <?7rps. 

Tttxira ical . . TOtavra] OVTOS, being the demonstrative of the C 
second person, is appropriately used of what has gone before, and is 
now in possession of the hearer. Translate raura * what you have 
heard.' See note on r^Se TJ) ^Xt/ctf , 170 

el 6 [lev] * How that he ' 

ri\v i|rf}4av] Words of the second declension that denote earths, D 
stones, and the like are generally feminine Cp. note on rty 0oAoj>, 
32 C. 

OVK aw> phr yap] (I say * if) for, etc. 

Xcy* tv Xfyttv] Where similar words have to be used in the same 
sentence Plato always prefers to bring them together. We have a 
remarkable instance in C above, fyGnros aySavd aycwitfiiwos. See 
also note on 19 B, 

APOLOGY, NOTES. 34 -36 A. 

Od XIX. 163 

ou 7<J/> cnrd S/woff iffffi irahoHp&TOV otiS* &ri virpqs* 
tls jilv jwipdxiov KT.X.J Cp Phaedo 116 B, 5t5o 7(5/a awrS vfcfr 
fffUKpol %aav, fr SJ jnf-yar. The name of the eldest was Lamprocles 
(Xen. Mem II. 2. i). The two >oungestwere Sophromscus and 
Menexenus (Diog Laert. II. 26). 

B TTjXucovB*] See note on 25 D, T^WOUTOV uvros K,T X We may 
translate, if it be not over-refinement, 'At my time of life, and with 
the reputation jou know of 

Sut^pcw] This word is constantly used by the figure meiosis in 
the sense of ' to be superior ' 

B rate flXXais TI^CUS] * Other posts of distinction ' Like honorcs 
in Latin. 

rdl Xwd raCro Spdjaora] < These harrowing stage-effects ' 
C ir! TOUT(J>] ' For this purpose ' Cp ^euScraj KOI enl 8ia&o\.rj rp 

48ifr0cu] ' Lei yourselves be accustomed ' An instance of what 
Riddell calls the semi-middle sense of the verb See Digest 88 
Both passive and middle tenses are so used Cp Mono 91 C, 

, . 8e!v] ' Expect that I ought ' See note on 28 E, 
^tic Sew fair, and cp Gorg 512 C, irapa/taX&v ciri TO 
fetv fiyveffOai nr)X avo1TOi0 ^' 

D aXXws T< K.rA.l A violent tmesis The words fievrot vy Am are 
thrust into the middle of the phrase dAAas T iravrus teat See 
RiddelVs note. 

two] See note on TTfirovBare wry, 1 7 A 

Notice that vowel ^erbs take this Attic form of the 
optative in preference to the usual termination in -oipt 

T<J> 6] See note on 19 B. 

B TO jiev |i^ dYovaKT^tv] This substantival clause is the direct object 
after fv/ijSaUmu, just as we might have vn&a\\f<j6ai X^OTO, 
xftdria, etc. 
A Y-yov6 TO Y^OVOS TO-UTO] See note on 19 B, &/3aAAoy ot 

OVTO> irof ' oXiYOv] ' So close a thing/ nap flAfyov is treated as 
one expression, so that the OVTCU precedes. 

i Tp'dicovra |iovat K.T\] Riddell, following Heffter, takes 
the total number of Socrates' judges to have been 501. Then, 
accepting the statement of Diogenes Laertius (II. 41), that the 
majority against Socrates was 281, as representing the aggregate 
of condemning votes, he draws the conclusion that the minority 
in his favour must have consisted of 220. For 31 votes exactly, 


or 30 m round numbers, would thus suffice to turn the scale. 
It appears that a Heliastic court always consisted of one more 
than some multiple of 100, the odd man being thrown in to 
prevent an equality of votes. See Riddells Inttoduction, pp. 

d-iroTK^vY 1 ]] Notice the omission of the augment, for which cp. 
ws ev rf) 7/xwpfJ ytypavro t Xen. Mem. I. 2. 64 

TTttvrl SfjAov TovriS ^ K T.X.] A fallacy which is not intended to 
deceive, in other words, a jest Socrates playfully assumes that as 
there were three accusers, each of them ought to be credited with 
one-third of the votes. As these amounted altogether only to 281, 
Meletus could not claim a full hundred, which was the fifth part re- 
quired out of the total of 501. 

av^Tjorov] See note on foaQfaijiea, 17 ]), 

XiMas Spaxfxds] See the law quoted in Demosthenes against B 
Meidias, p 529, offoi 5' av ypatyowrai ypatfxLs tStas /card TW vupov, tdv 
rts JIT} 7rfA0fl fj ewefrtav pr) jueraAafl TO vtfnrrov ptpos rwv i 
dvoncdro) ^iA/as Spa^fjtdy r$ tyfji00i<p 

^avarov] Cp end of note on 24 

Ethic dathe 'And whereat would you have me set the 
counter-assessment * ' 

iraOelv TJ d-TTOTrcrai,] A reference to the terms of the law above 
quoted in the note on xiXias Spaxpas. See again Demosthenes 
against Meidias, p 529 OTOU 6' &v Karayvw rj fjKiicia, rt/mrcu irtpi 
OVTOV ra/wxp^tt, orov civ Soup d^tos (fvcu iraQetv y duortacu. ttaBttv 
means suffering in person, airorfiwu in pocket. The phrase passed 
into use m conversation See Xen. Conv V. S. 

o n jxa0(iv] The indirect form of the phrase, ri (jtaQ&v, which like 
TI voti&v may loosely be rendered * Wherefore ? ' But there is this 
original difference between the two, that ri ftae&v must have referred 
to reasoned and voluntary action, rl xaDujv to involuntary, f What 
ails you that ' " See Arist. Acham. 826 : 

ri 5^ paebv Qabets ovtv ^voAAiSoy, 

On what principle do you shine without a wick ? 

(The pun is untranslateable.) 

For the indirect form of the phrase, cp Enthyd. 283 E, ffoi tls 
ftetyaX-fiv, o ri paBvw /wv oi rtov akXtuv ftaTaiptvfai TOIOVTO irpaypa, 
and again 299 A, iro\b pcvroi, tyy, tiittaiorfpoi' rbv vperepov irarfpa 
nJTTTOi/w, o rt paff&v ao^ois vlets OVTOJJ tyvfftv The phrase appears 
to have passed so completely into a mere formula as to admit of 
being used even in the neuter plural. See Prot 353 D (where 
Hermann has altered the reading on his own conjecture into on 


Translate here, k Iti that, tor tthat*.oe\er reason, I allowed 
jm self no icst in the disposal of my life ' 

TWV fi\X<iv dpxv] Notice the idiomatic use of aX\tw All the 
things preuously mentioned do not come tinder the head of what 
follows oAAcw, as the word * other ' would imply in English. The 
force of oAX(w extends to all three genitives which follow Translate 
'and what not besides official posts and political clubs and the 
factions that go on in the city ' See Riddell's note and Digest, 46, 
and cp Meno 92 B. A good instance of the idiom in question is to 
be found in Gorg. 473 D, cvSaifiovityptvo? vitb TWV vo\ir&v /coi TOW 

C ivrvvQa] Put here for vrav9oi, as shown by the relative which 

eirl 5 TO Uiv vpY6Tetv] The use of the nominative between TO 
and its infinitive is quite usual Cp , for instance, Rep 526 B, Spas 
ets ye TO <jwTpoi ovrot afrriov yiywffOcu iravres 6iri$t86cffiv 

tvrav6a ^a] These words are part of the text and ha\e to be sup- 
plied mentally, if they are omitted. The whole passage from 
^TTjcro^ros down maybe rendered thus' Thinking myself in reality 
too honest a man to have recourse to these with safety, I accordingly 
did not have recourse thereto ; for, if I had, I should have been likely to 
have been no use either to you or to myself- but to going to each of 
you m private and conferring upon }ou the greatest benefit, as I 
maintain, to that I did have recourse ' 

wpo-rtpov . . irptv] irporepov is redundant when irpiv follows ; 
but the combination of the two is quite usual. 
D icoi vavri <y] { And that too,' representing waQtTv above. 

TOIOVTOV, o it] 'Of such a kind as would be suitable to me' 
The indefinite, instead of the simple, relative, imparts \agueness to 
the expression. 

o TI jioXXov irpirv . . . ovrws] Grammatical consistency 
would require either pa\Xov % or oftrow eta For a similar com- 
bination of the comparative with the demonstrative construction 
see Rep. 526 C, a 7* /i<i{iu irovov vapexei lutvQavovrt teal fif\CTtavTi t 
OVK &v fatifas ov5 iroXXd ctv cvpois us TOUTO See Riddell, Digest 

irpvravcto*] Every Greek city had a irpur^ftnv or town-hall, 
serving as a hearth and home to the corporate life of the community. 
It was here that state banquets were given, ambassadors entertained, 
and pensioners supported See Liddell and Scott, where abundant 
references are given. The town-hall at Athens, or part of it, was 
called 0oAo?. See note on 32 C, rty Qfaov. 

Riddell quotes Dem. de Fals, Leg. p 446 ad fin , rt 


Y) XOTMS* 36 

fatty $ {wwpiBi. ij fcuyibj ' \S ith a horse or pair or team ' 

Tpo<J>fjs o8v Sftrai] Because such a person uas prc.Munahl) 33 
rich. Cp. the phras>e oMa fairaTpfyos anil the piys xai Ac/utf/w? 
ifffforpo^os of Demosthenes (De Cor. p 331). 

TO 82 OUK ?<mv tc.rX] 'But that is not as jou imagine, 37 A 
Athemansj but rather ab I will tell jou ' TJ refers \agucly to the 
sentence preceding. Distinguish this from the use of TO 8 com- 
mented on under 24 A, TO 5e Kivtiwtiti. Foi the foicc ot the pro* 
nouns cp. note on 34 C, Toura ffai . . . rouzura 

8wAYn0a] Theaet. 158 C There appears to be no other 
perfect middle and pasbi\e of SiaXfyot besides this fonn. 

iv u oIS' on KOKWV OVTCOV] In unravelling this curious knot of B 
language we must bear in mind that on is sometimes used super- 
fluously after a verb of knowing which is followed bj a participial 
construction (e. g. Gorg. 481 D). It is manifest also that &v ih a 
partitive genithe. The original constniction then may be supposed 
to have been as follows foor/uu rt wtiv&v A S o78o Kaiea fora. 
Then the ordinary attraction of the relative supervened followed by 
a very uncommon attraction of the predicate. Cp. Soph. Oed. Col. 

334? " <? fl *P dxo? ' lfferSaf v & r $ t**> v< P- 

[rots lvSKtt] The Eleven, or tommibsioners of police at Athens, C 
One was appointed from each ol the ten tribes, and the odd man 
was their secretary. The brackets indicate the biispicion of a glo, 

8*8<r0ai] * To he in chains ' A law term. Cp. Dem. 539* 47. 

SiaTpijJas Koi TOWS XoyotJs] ' My way of living and talking.' Cp, 
Gorg 484 E, where the two words occur together again, though the 
meaning of the first is somewhat different. 

TqXitcwSe] Cp. 34 E, and see note on lyXitcovrov OVTOJ T.\., D 

35 D. 

oXXi]v f| dXXijs iroXw iroXws] The fulness of the expression 
imparts a beauty to it. 

!iX06vTv. . a|wi{3oi^] For the interlacing of participles cp. 
{wTtticvrt Stair ftptafjttvy, 27 A, 

K&V nv TOVTOUS K,f A ] Here xve have a dilemma, which i* of 
the bnd known as the complex constructive 

If I turn the young men off, they will turn me out; and if I do 
not turn them off, their parents will turn me out. 

Bat either I mnst^ura the young men off or not. 

.-. Either they will turn me out or their parents will 

fyttv] Ethic dative 'Pray, will you not be able?' X 

T$ 0$] See note on 19 A. 


APOLOGY, XOT& 3/ -3 C. 
cipwvuojv(p] Cp Kcp, 337 A, 01^17 VttiV? 17 tiudvia. 

38 A 65* dvf|TaoTros ptos K,T X.] The influence of the initial on 
extends, to this clause, 

ravra S<] The 8e here emphasizes the apodo&is, * This indeed ' 
Cp Gorg 502 B, t 5e n wyxdw* aijfa *cu w^cAa/zov, rovro S ATCU 
Xi xai fatrtu. vSee also note on 32 D, TOUTOU Se TO nav n&tt. 
Other instances, o* 8f in apodosi* arc Crito 446, 51 A, Phaedo 78 C, 
Sol),8iB, 113 E; Prot 313 A, 3^5 C 

rd 8! Notice hoA\ ra here retains* its original demonstrative force 
3 vwSf ] Supplj <jy Tifiaifxu Cp Symp. iSoC. 

poiiXor^ ftot TV|xi|oratj Aie \v illmg to asbess, it for me ' 

jivdv dpyvpbu) The sum of 100 drachmae =4 is. 3d of oui 
monev The following passage from Diogenes Laertius (II 41, 
42} mav be merely an echo of Plato. On the other hand it differ* 
enough from the Apology to raise a presumption of independent 
origin, Kai nn&pevaiv ttav SiKaaTwv, rl xpfy iro&ttv avrov rj oaroriffai, 
iretfTf Kal (iKoffiv tyy 5pa)(jm.s airoriffeiv, EujSouA/fy; filv 'yap ( 
t/tarov t5^oAo7$<rai. Qopuftijffaj'rMr 8c rSav StKaffr&v, "Evuea 
tir t rSiv epal faavfirpa-fpetivv -n/iw/jai TJJv <Kxr)v rys & 

. Kai ot &avarov avrov Karlyvwaav, vpoffOevrfs aAXa? ^ij^o 

Sc 58] The Jewish historian, Justus of Tibenas, has 
preserved or imented an anecdote how Plato, being a very young 
man at the time of Socrates' tnal, mounted the platform, and had 
got at* far as " Unaccustomed as I am to public speaking/ when he 
vsb shouted down by the jurors (,Diog. Laert II 4iX 

avrol 5' <yYva<rftaij A zeugma. Supply Qaffi from teetevovtri 
C oi iroXAoti y' v-Ka xpovov] These words are explained by the 
next sentence, i ovv it^f^Lvare oti,yov xpovov K r.\. Translate 
k It is no long time, men of Athens, on account of which ye will have 
the name and the blame at the hands of those who wish to upbraid 
the city/ etc. 

faro TWV pouAop*vttv] atria? <T is practically a passive verb 

Chronology is against the story that 
Euripides meant to reproach his countrymen on this ground in his 
Palamedes, where he wid 

T l fftavcTC T 

i&^tv] Dgfivtts tommodi. < Ye would ha^e had this happen.' 
iroppw . TOV ptov] Cp. TTuppto TJJS tyjucfas, Gorg. 484 C ; Xen. 
Mem. IV 8. i. 

APOLOGY, NOTES, 38 -39 . 

TOIITO] Notice how TOUTO here is used of what has gone before, 
while roSe below is used of what is coming. What a person is going 
to say can be known only to himself, so that 6'Sc, which is the pro- 
noun of the first person, is appropriate to express it. Cp note on 
TdVTGt Kai. , . TomOra, 34 B. 

H'vTot] nfvroi is not unfrequently used to balance /*& Cp D 
20 D, eu HGVTOI i'orre : Prot- 343 E, us apa, OVTCOV nviav rvv pev c&s 
aXrjBus afaQiav, rSiv & ayaQwv ptv, ov /wVroz d\i]$vs: and again 
351 A, were avp&cuvu robs }&v avfyciovs eappa\eovs thai, $ H&TOI 
Tou'y 7 6appa\eous avfytiovs vavras. See on this subject Riddell, 
Digest 162. 

0pT|vo(ivT6s T! ^jiov] Supply aitovctv* 'To hear me, I mean, 
weeping and walling ' 

mKa rod KtvSwov] i On account of the danger.' So above, E 
ov TToMou 7' tvfKa xpuvov. 

i8 . tKcivtos] e&Se, ' in the way I have done ;' cxe/var, * in the 
wry those others do ' See note on -njSe TQ %\ueiq, 17 C. 

rrav iroiwv] * By any and every means. 3 The phrase here contains 39 A 
the same idea as the word iravovpyos 

dXXd pq ou TOUT* j x a ^ eir ^ v ] Cp. Meno 94 B, dAXd fir) OVK jj 
foSajcTov. The easiest explanation of such expressions is to suppose 
an ellipse of some word like tpoQovpat or opa before the jfffj. 

Oa-TTov -y^p Oavarou 6t] That is, the soul is exposed to more 
chances of death than the body 

irpeo-pvnjs] Distinguish this from Trpecr/JevTiJs, an ambassador 3 

ty' fywv] See note on wirovOaTf into, 1 7 A. 

viro -rijs oXiiectas K r.X.] Sentenced by truth to the penalty of 
nee and injustice.* 

e&sv] ' It was destined.' 

TO 8c 8^ jxTcl TOVTO] * But next ' 

Xpi)o-|jup8o<riv] See Riddell's note on the subject of prophetic Q 
power at the point of death. With the references there given we 
may compare Jacob on his death-bed (Gen. xlvin. 19 and xlix) 
See also Phaedo 85 B. 

oiav] Agreeing with rtjMjpia.v understood, a kind of coguate 
accusative after ozwroVar*. 

TO 8c fyZv K T.X ] * But that will turn out to you far otherwise. 1 

irXeiovs Jo-ovroi K.T.X.] Grote sees in the fact that this prophecy 
was not fulfilled an argument for believing that in the Apology we 
have the real defence made by Socrates. But probably to Plato's 
mind it was fulfilled already in the rise of the various Socratic 

fow'p] Here equivalent to irtpi Cp. Xen. Mem. 1. 1 . 1 7 ; IV. 2 , 23. B 


APOLOGY, XOTES. 39 -40 D. 

ol cipxovTes] * The magistrates./ i e, here the Eleven, 

5iajiv0o\oYt]croi] Notice that $ia\lf?9(tt ib not here employed, 
perhaps because Plato is about to give the reins to his imagination 
in 41 A-C, For the difference between $60$ and A^yo? see Phaedo 
6 1 B, 6Vvoi}<r<L$ omdv iroayrfy Mot, efrrfp /AAot irotrjTfy e?vcu, voiwf 
ftoOam, dU' ov \fyovs Prot. 320 C, 324 D ; Gorg. 523 A. 
40 A <5 ovSpes Bucourroi] This formula was used once before (26 D), 
but there it was put into the mouth of Meletus Socrates reserves it 
for the judges who acquitted him Hitherto he has usually addressed 
hit, audience as & dvfyes 'AGijvatoi, more rarely as <a dvfyes (e. g. 22 B, 
29 A, 34 B, 35 B ad fin-, 39 E) or w 'Afyvcfoi simply (30 B, 33 C, 
37 A), 

SiKcurrds] ' Dispensers of justice ' 

irivu irl o-jjuKpots] ' Quite upon tnfling matters ' For an in- 
stance see Enthyd 272 E, where the supernatural sign checks Socrates 
when he ia about to rise from his seat 

For the position of traw cp Prot 338 E, iravv ftev OVK rfteXep, 
* was quite unwilling.' 

B ovre {jvCKa dvlpaivov] l Nor when I was coming up here before 
the court,' i. e. mounting the platform to present myself before the 
court. See note on 17 D, wajS^tfa,' and cp. Gorg 486 B, cfc rb 

p K.T.\ ] ' Perhaps this thing which has happened 
may have been a good thing for me, 1 Cp. Xen. Apologia Socratis 
5, ? H tfau/wiffT^ vofufa? el ai ry dc$ SOKCI 4/ie jScXriov e?vcu ^Si; 
Tf\tvTav; The key-note of that treatise lies in insistance on the fact 
that Socrates had made up his mind to die. Xenophon tells us that 
the Saift&viov hindered Socrates when he attempted to prepare a 
defence (Mem. IV. 8. 5 ; Apol. 4). 

C TcOvavtti] Not ( to die/ but ' to be dead/ Cp, Gorg, 493 A, 
tta vvv /fy r&Qvaptv See note on 25 D, eyvwrcas. 

n a-yaOov wpa|vv] ' To meet with some good fortune.' 

a^To] Refernng to rd TeOvwai . 

^ Y^P okv K.T\,] 'Either it is, as it were, that the dead man 
is nothing * 

TO T6irov TOU tvOevSe] This is a pregnant construction similar 
to such phrases as ol %K rtp voMoas tywyov. For a well-known 
instance cp Demosth. de Cor. p. 284 ad fin., TOW T' in TUV aitrprtav 
TUP Kara T^V d^opdv efctpyw. 

D IYW Y^P S-v fy""-] This is the beginning of the apodosis, which 
is resumed at ofyai av below, after the long protasis has intervened 
The av stokes the key-note of the sentence as being conditional, but 
does not become effective till bv evpttv in E 


APOLOGY, A-OTJSS. 40 E, 41 A. 

6 tras xpovos] c All time,' collectively. E 

Mivws re K.T.X.] Strictly these names ought to be in apposition 41 A 
to TOIIS a\r)6fa tintaaras, but they are attracted into the nominative 
through the influence of the relative clause which intervenes. For a 
similar instance see Meno 94 D, kfapeiv &v fans juAA/ avrov TOWS 
vl& oLfaQois iroifjfftiVi fj TUV tirixcapicav TIS f) rSiv f&ort', where *ns 
ought to be in apposition to the suppressed object after tfrvpeiv. In 
the Gorgias 523 E, 524 A, Minos, Rhadamanthys and Aeacus are 
mentioned as holding judgment on men after death Rhadamanthys 
has jurisdiction over the souls that come from Asia, Aeacus over 
those that come from Europe, while Minos holds a court of appeal, 
in case the other two are in any doubt Rhadamanthys is men- 
tioned m the Odyssey (IV 564) as living in Elysium Tuptolemus 
appears only here in a judicial capacity. 

'Op4>ei! . . Kal Movou(p] These two names occur together 
again in Prot 31 6 D ; Ion 536 B ; Rep, 364 E Plato calls Orpheus 
the son of Oeagrus (Symp 179 D\ and quotes familiarly from his 
poems (Crat 402 B , Phil 66 C , Laws 669 D) But he has not 
the most distant idea of his date, lumping him along with other 
early discoverers Daedalus, Palamedes, Marsyas, Olympus and 
Amphion as having lived some thousand or two thousand years ago 
(Laws 677 D). The legendary history of Orpheus was evidently 
known to Plato, as he makes Phaedrus m the Symposium (179 D) 
give a distorted version of it. The magic of his voice is referred 
to in Prot 315 A, and the sweetness of his hymns in Laws 829 E. 
In the vision of Er his soul is made to choose the life of a swan 
(Rep 620 A) The oracles of Mnsaeus are mentioned in Herod 
VIII. 96 They were arranged and edited by Onomacrittis, who 
was banished from Athens by Hipparchus for interpolating them 
(VII 6\ Plato speaks of a host of books passing in his time under 
the names of Orpheus and Musaeus, which he evidently does not 
regard as authentic (Rep 364 E i. At the same time he acknow- 
ledges a genuine Musaeus, and criticizes his conception of the 
future life as a degrading one (Rep. 363 C, D). Musaeus seems 
also to have written on cures for diseases '^Arist. Frogs 1033). The 
names of Orpheus and Musaeus were connected with mysteries, and 
were made much use of by a set of priestly pretenders (Prot 316 D ; 
Rep, 364 E), who declared these poets to be the offspring of the 
Moon and the Muses. But these followers of Orpheus (ot d^^i 
'Qp$ta} were not without their higher side. They practised 
vegetarianism, like the Pythagoreans i Laws 782 C), and are credited 
in the Cratylus <^oo Cl with the mysterious doctrine, with which 
Plato was so fascinated, that this life is death, and that the body is 
D 49 

APOLOGY. yOTES. 41 A~42 A. 

the gra\e or pn^on-hou^e of the soul, in which it suffers for its 
former sins cp Phaecio (u B ; Gorg 492 E, 493 A^ Aristophanes 
1 Frogs 1032, ^ sums up prett\ well \vhat we knn\v of Orpheus and 


Mouorafo? 8' <wV? re yoffoof rot 

lirl iroaxp <xv ns K T X ] k How much would not arry of you give *' 
Notice the repetition of the ar, on which cp note on 7ci> 70;^ av 
of/icu, 40 D. 

B IlttXafujSei.] See note on is ^itparrj airfKTovare, 38 C. Xeno- 
phon m his Apology makes Socrates cite the case of Palamedes, 
irapafwOeim 8* en pic ai IlaXa^^j a tfapair\rja'ws tyol TtXeuT^ffas 
'Apol. Sow. 36V 

OUK 5,v dr|8S ett]] These words merely repeat the apodosis which 
we had at starting, favpacrf) av eft? 17 Starpi^ auroOi It is an 
instance of binary structure See Riddell, Digest 207 

2t<n4ov] Mentioned here as a type of cunning. 
C I) o\\ovs jxuptous av TIS rot] The regular constraction is hroken 
off as if in impatience See Riddell, Digest, 257 

a(rf|x avov 6v8oi|jLovCas] ' An inconceivable happiness ' Lit, ' m- 
concenable in happiness' 

B O^K mv dvSpl otYaOw K r,X ] In this sentence Socrates reaches 
the subhmest height of Stoicism, tempered with religions faith and 

oi nravu xaAe'roivw] l T cannot say I am angry.' See note on 
ftal ov iraw X.T \,, 19 A 
42 A iirov9ws <ro|JLai] Cp KarecLy&s Iffrfti, Gorg 463 D 

u<j>* \nwv] See note on TreTrov^are tittA, 1 7 A. 

dXXa Yap] * But ^1 \\ ill say no more x for ' etc Translate, k P,ut 
enough it w now time to go away ' See however note on 19 C, 



Accusative after adverbs of swear- Choice of Hercules, 19 E, Hpo- 
ing, 17 B, fM Ata. 5 t/fos 

-govd by verbal substantive. Cognate accusative, 28 E, ^Xo^o. 

IS B, TO T ptTtUpa,. tyOVVTO. ftf fall' $V , ^) C, 

- of the internal object, 22 C, oiav 

i after adjectives, 20 B, c. r ,. , r 

Adverb used as predicate, 30 A, Colloquial language of the Apo- 

Irivrfpu. ^ logy, i9E,'0ou<ri 

Aeohc aorist, 30 D, ajror6tV , Comic poets who attacked So- 
Anacoluthon, 19 E, 0oucrt ; 21 C, crates, 18 D, *eu/w>fooiro5s, 

8ofc^o( ^ Compaiative and demonstrative 

Anarchy, The, 32 C, fattfy & construction combined, 36 D, 

oAfyapxfa o Ti ^aXXov irp^V^i , . . ourws 

Aonst ^of first attainment, 19 A, Compressed construction, 33 D, 

Aonst subjunctive forbidding a 
particular act, 20 E, ^ topvjSjJ- Dative of advantage, 30 A, 

v,' . f , P? J 3 ^j vf<'. 

Article, omission of with proper Demonstiative corresponding to 

name, 32 B, [*AJ>T{OX]. personal pronouns, 17 C, TjjSe 

Attic future, 30 C, fo j3A<ty* w ^ ^^ ; 2 g A, raura; 34 C ; 

optatue, 35 D, ftaTr^opoi^ ^ A; 38 C, TOUTO ; 38 E, $5f 

pluperfect, 31 D, aTroXwAq, m t t t | W eiVa,y. 

Attiaction, 18 A, OUTT; dpcnj ; 20 D, Dilemma, 37 D, KQV piv Tofcous. 

warty aofiay TG^TJ/J/; 24 B, Double accusative after verbs of 

avrry &TTW ; 37 B ; 41 A, Mfo<yj seeking, 2;, B, av nva ofw/wti 

of the Relative, 29 B, e&v ofta ; Drachma, value of, 38 B, nvw 
^7 ajtyvpiov, 

Augment, omission of, 36 A, dTro- 

Ethic dathe, 30 C, < 

Binary structure, 41 B, ofa av Expulsion of the democracy, 21 A, 

uijSc$ 6t?y T$ijr <bvyjiv Td^rnv, 

Cheapness of^ books at Athens, Fullness of expression, 19 B, 5- 

26 E, Spax/tTJs IK T?S opx^ffrpas jffaAAoi' 01 S(aj3dXXovr<s. 

r \ /) ii \ > T/\ 

/V JJ&A I O 

Goods, classification of, 2(j 1>, 

Homer as quoted bv PJato and 
Aristotle, 28 D s teoptwiffiv. 

Infinitive after lelative, 29 C, ty' 

Inteilacmg of participles, 27 A, 
) ', 37 D, 

Litotes, rj B, ov T<VTOU? 
rr.X ; 19 A, /rai ov ira?'v 

Meiosis, if B, o ^ari TOVTOUS 
K r.\, , 34 E $ia<j>fpeiv 

Negative in Greek, \vhere not in 

Knglish, 27 E, wy ov rov auroO , 

32 B, 7/vayTw57yv /CT.A, 
in English, v here not m Greek, 

-29 B, fl ayaOa, oi/ra Tvyx^*' 
Nominative betv een TO and infini- 

tive, $6C,%nl fie TO ^ (iitpyfTfiv 
Nominatniis pendens, 21 C } &>e 

Ovytnoron, 24 C, frirouSp %apiev 

Participial clause canying the force 
of the sentence, 31 B, TOVTO 7*. 

1'erfect expressiag a state, 25 D, 
tyvtunas , 40 C, TfQvavat. 

Personal construction in place of 
impersonal, 18 A, SIKCUOS *lfii. 

Poetry 3 species of, 22 B, ai TOUS 

a foim of inspiration, 22 C, 

Pregnant construction, 33 D, ira- 

pttOW , ivTtXV&Ql' f 40 C, TOU 

roirov rev tv9tvfa. 
Prophetic power at the point of 
death, 39 C, 

Puns in Plato, 25 C, d, 

Science and theology, conflict be- 
tween, 1 8 C, ot yap dffovovrcs. 

Semi-middle bens,- 1 of the verb, 
21 D } &viixMw> 35 C, 4#f- 

4 Silence gives consent,' 270, T^IJ/M 

Similar ^ords brought together, 
34 B, htyttv XeycuVj 36 A, 
yeyovc r& yeyovos rouro, 

Socrates, age of, 17 D, trtj yeyov&s 

burlesqued m the Clouds, 19 C 

on the stage general!}, 
18 IX 

denied that he \vas> a teacher, 
33 A, cy& 3e S<Sa<T/;a\o? 

his aveiMion fiom ptnsical 
science, 19 C, &v eyu ouSer 

his campaigns, 28 E. 

his deme, 33 E, S^OTT/S 

his disciples called 'com- 
panions,' 33 A, /coftprd? 

his inductive method, tf B, iv 
r<j> tloidort Tpoiro) 

his intense belief in his own 
dmne mission, 33 C, l/ioi Se 

his peya.Xrflopia on his tnal, 
20 E, peya \6ytii' 

his opposition dining the trial 
of the Ten Genesals, 32 B. 

his povertv, 23 B, *v irevia 


his sons, 34 D, ?? p1v fifipa- 


his tribe, 32 B, fAwoxiY). 

- indictment against him, 24 B, 

mMncible as a disputant, 17 A, 
8joO ovros Xeyeiv, 

misconceived by his count iv- 
men, 19 B, ^(OKparr^ &8itc(i. 

- - never demanded money, 33 A, 


Socrates, number ol his judges, 

36 A, d Tpiaitovra /town 
oracle relating to him, 21 A, 

regarded as an atheist, <i<5 C, TU 
irapairay ov vopifas foots. 

supported b) voluntary contribu- 
tions, 1 9 E, Y/JTjfWvra IT/JCTTO/ICU 

Sophists, the Greek equivalent foi 
a unuerbity education, 23 B, 

their claim, 20 B, TTJS d 

1Vlf J T ltd. 7rO\i-n/d]S. 

win disliked, 19 E, Iw 

Thirl), The, .U C, o* 
then <leposition, 

Subject of the succeeding verb tbed 
as, object of the preceding, 21 I 1 . 

bun and moon regarded ass di\ me 
beings*, 26 D, ov5 TJ\WV ou5e 

is, 35 D, 
'trial of the Ten Generals, ,p U, 

Verbs of peiceKiny constructed 
\vith a participle, 20 A <m8j;- 

\ irtual passives,, 17 A, wwvfart 
iffd; 26 A, ear /wfiw, 35 ^ ? 
$mJ ; 38 G, uiru ruiv 


Virtue, material advantages of, 
30 B ok (K 

Zeugma, 38 li, ttvriM 5' l 


and offTwew, 3: D, ^7 


d\Xd 70^, 19 C ; 42 A 

oAAo TI ?f, 24 C 

d'XXoj, idiomatic use of, 36 li, rvv 

Ti/wj5w and dr^ow, 30 D, a 


drra and drra, 3 ^ i 
avrt;, vague u^e of, Ji 1> 

s, 27 U. 
, 40 A, irdi'u 7rt 

uptii, idiomatfc use of, 18 B, rots 40 B, 

&&1 "Awrov 8. emphatic, 3^ D > TOUTOU^* TO 

dV, repetition of, 40 D, eyv yap av vox jp& ; 38 A, raura Sc 

o7^u ; 41 A, hi v6f V &v rts. StajSo^ = prejudice. 19^. ^ 

AT, with fut mdic , 29 C, fa Sia- SmT/w^, 33 E, <v ravrp 77 Sta- 

' vjffov^ai rptfy ; 37 C, Siarpi^as at TOVS 

iv, 17 D, dwzfc'jSqtfa. \07ous. 

rj/wvai, 19 B 8i(X7AWf 37 A. 

35 IQ B awT^wi/ai 5t5i/po/^pos, 22 xJ, ^ ^ 

* * r --- '*' in C, IK*I ir<yj *7w 


Jj 27 C. 
avra)(jioala t 19 B. 
dtfirdfo^at /tlv *al <fi\w, 29 U. 
are, 23 D, arc ... OVTCS 

IS - it \\as> destined, 39 B. 
el, superposition of, 29 B, 



ti vavv woXXoi/j ,26 1', 

ti'rjs, iS D, v\ijv cfrt? 

fifxwfia of Socrates, 17 R, ov Kara 
TOVTOVS Iwu /j^ra./) , 32 H, ijfar- 
Tiw^v; 37 E, (tpuvtvofiivq. 
~ of Attic diction, 19 A, ai at> 
?ravu , 30 C, ov <f utifse 

tt, 2O C 

, 2 2 B 

p TO? eatroG Au7w, 54 A 
at, in law, 32 K 
i, of, 37 C. 

, used of person*, 2J t , 


tyX 01 ' constr of, 23 A, a at- 

OJ/XW, 2 2 B 

im'= though, 19 E. 
iffwn^aiv, etymologicalh con- 
nected b> Plato \vith fittffrarrjs. 
20 B 

tpyo; 3 17 B. 
epTy/i?; 8^, iS C, epf)iJ.r]V 

ts, at lav , 24 C, oi }wt fcvpu 
force of termination, 32 A 

21 C 

22 D 

believe m, iS C, ou8 


T}pufijv t used as ior, of </wt>Tttw, 
20 A, 

Btia fJLOipa, 33 C. 
fajjtrov, 30 D. 
eos, feminine, 28 C. 
flelXos, ^ 32 C, 

icai, alternative u^e of 3 23 A, 

', expleti\e use of, 28 B, OTOU TI 
oJ ffpucplv o^iAos I<TT'. 

, 18 E, /tat -ya/7 

, :J I ) 
rtvus, 25 A, iwAXi;f 

, different; mean ings of, 20 JJ 
o7os, in grammar, 17 li, p^ 

/iti Aia, 17 B. 

ftavTcia and navTttov> 22 A, tVa //o: 


u', difterentmeaning-sof, -!i C 

fytlV, 20 E 

and iSe, duplication ot, 28 H, 

*E7W ow K T X 
Vroj, in place of 5e, 20 J>, & 

pevroi tffrc ; 38 D. 
i), hypothetical use of, 2y B, a 

/z^ oUa. 
O^o? and Xo7os, ^y li, 5ia/ii/5oXo- 

tos and ^IU/HOS, 23 li, ev irci/m 


^u<y^, 30 E 

v^, u&ed in oaths, 1 7 B. ua Am 
i'^ TW tfwa, 21 E 
vopifav = belie\ e in. 18 C, ou5e 
fleous vopifav, 

\ifov, 1 7 A. 

fr, 22 A 

in grammar, ^i 7 IJ, p 
TC ai foopafft 
upxf)<rrpa t 26 E, 

o, superfluoub use of, after a verb 
of knowing, which is followed 
by a participle, 37 B, &v cu olo 
art K.T.X. 

on, with the direct narration, 21 C 
ou and /wj, m questions, 25 A, fify ol 

ov jw5, 29 D, oil /) iravif 
ou mSvu, 19 A } wraS oi Traw ; 41 D, 
w irdvv xaX7 

-i, 26 E. 


ov 0jflwi, 20 K, iprjai ; 25 B, 
ouS' av tvi, 32 A 
ouScy faivbv /ii], 28 B. 
OUTC lAtya OUT fffJUKpuv, -24 A 

ira0V $ dir(mcrai, 36 15. 

irav iroiiav, 39 A. 

iram, position of, 40 A, iravv hi 


Trapa, of comparison, 28 C, 
Trapitfjuai, 170 

imp' oXiyov, 36 A, OUTW irop' faiyov 
iraffx*tv irp&s riva, 21 C, irp&s ov 

TrjXiKovTO* and r?;^/f(5cr5(f, 25 Dj 

34 E, Tij\tic6vfa. 
rty ipxfy, 29 C, 
ri jua^wV and rt ira&uv, 36 B, o T 

omission of, 29 A, 
<ro^>dv tlvai. 
ro 8e = whereas, 23 A, TJ Se 

ff/i7rros aurdy, 32 C 
TTfiirovfl^s eaopai, 42 A. 
u, 19 B 

vague demonstrative use of, 

37 A, TO ^e QVK <rnv. 
T& km rovTca 75, 27 B. 
TOTTOS, of rehearsing past sei vices, 

32 A, TM/nfcia :rapfo/tai 
17 C, CTTI Tan' 

oAAow S^aj, its constr , 30 D 
ir<5/>/)ftj TOU jStou, 38 C. 
TTpe<rpvTt)$ and ir/jeo-j3evn]s, 39 B, 
vpoffKadlfa, 31 A 
itporepav, redundant \vith ff/>tV, 

36 C. 

irpoxftpos, 23 D 
irpvravtiov, 36 D 

p;;^a, in grammai, iy B, ^Jjuatri 

rd, demonstrative, 38 A, rd Se. 
t, 40 C. 

vtreticaQoifU, 32 A. 
falp vtpi, 39 E. 
IITTO = by reason of, 17 A, iiir* aurwi/ 

UJTO<TTX\U, 24 A, Oll5* 

, 21 C 

S avSpes SI/KHTTCU, use of by Socrates, 

40 A. 

5 irpbs Atos, 25 C 
&y rros cfaftv, 1 7 A 
wore ou and cicrrc /ftj, 26 B, wf^e 

OVK cifcvat. 
ciij wvrjffas, 27 C. 

avsi/, 25 c. 


^ appended refers the reader to the notes,) 

Adeiraantus, 34 A, n 

Aeacus, 41 A, n 

Aeantodorus, 34 A 

AeschineSj the Socratic, 33 E, n. 

Ajax, the son of Telamon, 41 B. 

Ana\agora&, 26 D 

Anytus, iS B, n ; 23 E, ;; ; 25 B , 

19 C; 30 B, C; 31 A; 34 B; 

36 A. 

Antiphon, of Cephisus, 33 E, ;/ 
Apollodoius, 34 A, n ; 38 B, 
Ariston, 34 A. 
Anstophanes, 19 C. 
CalhaSj the son of Hipponicus, 20 

A, n 

Chaerephon, 20 E. #; 21 A, 
Crito,33D l ;38B, 
Cntobulus, 33 D, ; 38 B 
Demodocus, 34 A, n 
Epigenes, 33 E, n. 
Evenus, 20 B, n. 
Gorgias, 19 E, , 
Hector, 28 C. 
HippiasofEhs, 19 b,w 
Homer, 41 A. 
Leon, of Salamis, 32 C, ;/, D. 

Lycon, 23 E, 24 A, n 
Lysamas, the father of Aeschineb, 

33 E, 
Mdetus,i9B,,C; 23 E; 24 B- 

28 A; 30 C; 3iD, 34 A, B 

35 D; 36 A; 37 B, 
Minos, 41 A, 
Musaeus, 41 A, n. 
Nicobtratub, 33 E. 
Orpheus, 41 A, n 
Palamedes, 41 B 
Parahit,, the son of Demodocus, 

33 E. 

Patroclus, 28 C. 
Plato, 34 A; 386 
Prodicus, 19 E, n 
Rhadamanthys, 41 A, n. 
Sisyphus, 41 C 
Socrates, passim 
Theages, 34 A, n 
Theodotus, 33 E. 
Theozotides, 33 Bi 
Thetis, 28 C. 
Tnptolemus, 41 A, , 
Ulysses, 41 B. 



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