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Full text of "Apple packing and storage houses : layout and design"

Historic, archived document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific l<nowledge, policies, or practices. 




APPLE PACKING 

and 

STORAGE HOUSES 

Layout 

and 
Design 




O 




/\AENL of A,GRICULTURE^¥ Agricultural AAarketing Service, 
U. S. DEP^^^ ^ Transportation and facilities Research Division^ 



1 



SUMAAARY 



Adoption of improved methods and equipment in 
apple packing and storage houses often requires that 
new facilities be constructed, or that old plants be 
remodeled. This report presents guides for the 
layout and design of apple packing and storage 
houses. These .guides are developed around the 
use of newer and more efficient methods and 
equipment. 

The layouts provide for a direct flow of the fruit 
from the storage room, through packing opera- 
tions, and back to the storage room or to the ship- 
ping area, as well as optimum storage conditions. 
Layouts are developed for three packing rooms and 
three storage rooms. All are based on the use of 
lift trucks for handling boxes of fruit. 

The first packing room layout is based on a pack- 
ing line for exact sizing (dividing apples in 12 to 16 
sizes) and packing fruit in standard wooden boxes. 
The second is based on a packing Hne for group 
sizing (dividing apples into 5 or 6 sizes) and packing 



fruit in trays in fiberboard boxes. The third pack- 
ing room incorporates both types of packing line. 

The storage-room layouts are for capacities of 
25,000, 50,000, and 100,000 standard wooden boxes. 
Boxes of fruit are handled on 40- by 48-inch pallets 
in the two larger rooms, and in 36- by 40-inch unit 
loads, without pallets, in the smaller room. The 
layouts could be converted for handling and storage 
of apples in pallet boxes. 

Designs are developed for three packing and stor- 
age houses. The first is based on layouts of the 
exact sizing line and the 50,000-box storage; the 
second, on the group sizing line and the 100,000-box 
storage; and the third, on the double packing line 
and a layout for a 200,000-box storage. The plants 
are designed to minimize construction costs. Esti- 
mated costs are $156,000, $220,000^ and $395,000 
for the three plants, based on building costs for the 
Yakima, Wash. area. 



PREFACE 



This report applies previous research on improved 
methods, equipment, and facilities to apple packing 
and storage house layout and design. This study is 
part of a broad program of continuing research to in- 
crease the efficiency of physical handling of farm 
commodities during marketing, to hold down costs. 

The research on which this report is based was 
conducted by the Fruit Industries Research 
Foundation, Inc. (now known as Food Industries 
Research and Engineering), under a research 
contract with the United States Department of 
Agriculture. 

Frank Alberti, professional engineer, associated 
with The Fund Insurance Companies, Seattle, 
Wash., cooperated in the preparation of the section 
on "Modern Design, Materials, and Building 
Techniques Can Reduce Fire Losses.'* 

Use of brand names in this report does not con- 
stitute endorsement of the product named or imply 
discrimination against other products. 

Complete plans and specifications for the designs 
presented in this report are avaiilable for review or 
purchase. Copies may be reviewed during office 
hours at the following locations: 

Transportation and Facilities Research Divi- 
sion Field Office 
Post Office Annex Building, P.O. Box 99 
Wenatchee, Wash. 

Attn: Glenn O. Patchen, Mechanical 
Engineer 



Maine State Department of Agriculture 
State House Building 
Augusta, Maine 

Attn: George H. Chick, Deputy Com- 
missioner 



Appalachian Apple Service, Inc. 
Martinsburg, W. Va. 

Attn: Carroll R. Miller, Secretary- Manager 



Agricultural Experiment Station 
Michigan State University 
East Lansing, Mich. 

Attn; Dr. Arthur E. Mitchell, Professor of 
Horticulture 



Transportation and Facilities Research Division 
Agricultural Marketing Service 
U.S. Department of Agricidture 
Federal Center Building 
HyattsviUe, Md. 20781 

Missouri State Horticultural Society 
Whitten Hall, University of Missouri 
Columbia, Mo. 

Attn: Dr. W. R. Martin, Jr., Secretary 

Sets of the plans and specifications, which include 
eight blueprints, may be purchased from: 



2 



Cooper-Trent Blueprint and Microfilm Corpo- 
ration 

2701 Wilson Boulevard 

Arlington, Va. Attn: Walter Boyden 

Prices, which include postage to any point in the 
continental United States are: 50,000-box -$4.50 
per set; 100,000-box-$4.50 per set; 200,000- 
box -$7.00 per set. 

Related reports previously issued that are of 
general interest to the apple industry are: 

Cooling Apples in Pallet Boxes. U.S. Dept. 
Agr. Mktg. Res. Rpt. No. 532. August 1962. 

An Automatic Pallet-Box Filler for Apples. 
U.S. Dept. Agr. Mktg. Res. Rpt. No. 550. 
November 1962. 



Air Door for Cold Storage Houses. 
Dept. Agr. AMS-458. December 1961. 



U.S. 



Packing Apples in the Northeast. U.S. 
Dept. Agr. Mktg. Res. Rpt. No. 543. October 
1962. 

Heat Leakage Through Floors, Walls, and 
Ceihngs of Apple Storages. U.S. Dept. 
Agr. Mktg. Res. Rpt. No. 315. October 1959. 

Coohng Apples, and Pears in Storage Rooms. 
U.S. Dept. Agr. Mktg. Res. Rpt. No. 474. 
September 1961. 

Apple Handhng and Packing in the Appa- 
lachian Area. U.S. Dept. Agr. Mktg. Res. 
Rpt. No. 476. June 1961. 

An Experimental Packing Line for Mcintosh 
Apples. An Interim Report. In cooperation 
with N.Y. State Dept. Agr., and Markets, Divi- 
sion of Markets, and Maine Agr. Expt. Sta., 
Dept. of Agr. Econ. U.S. Dept. Agr. AMS- 
330. August 1959. 

The Effect of Apple Handfing Methods on Stor- 
age Space Utihzation. U.S. Dept. Agr. Mktg. 
Res. Rpt. No. 130. July 1956. 

Storage and Cooling Capacity in Apple Stor- 
ages in the -Wenatchee-Okanogan, Washington 
District. U.S. Dept. Agr. AMS-196. July 
1957. 

Controlled-Atmosphere Storage of Starking 
Dehcious Apples in the Pacific Northwest. 
U.S. Dept. Agr. AMS-178. March 1957. 



Washington, D.C. 



January 1964 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Summary 2 

Background of study 3 

Operation of apple packing and stor- 
age houses ; 3 

Importance of proper layout and 

design 3 

Scope and purpose of study 4 

Factors affecting plant layout 4 

Packing room layouts 4 

A packing room layout for exact 

sizing 5 

A packing room layout for group 

sizing 9 

Two-li ne packing room layout — exact 

and group sizing 12 

Storage room layouts 14 

Storage pattern |4 

Air circulation 14 

Storage-room dimensions 14 

Lighting 15 

Receiving and shipping areas 16 

Future expansion 16 

A 25,000-box storage 17 

50,000- and 100,000-box storage rooms... 17 

Packing and storage house designs 17 

General discussion of construction... 17 

Features of designs for three plants 18 

Construction cost estimates 25 

Modern design, materials, and building 

techniques can reduce fire losses 26 

Fire-resistant materials properly in- 
stalled cost no more 26 

Water requirements on site 26 

Sprinkler systems 26 

Lower premiums cut operating costs 26 

Bibhography 27 

Appendix 27 

Workers required lo operate packing 

lines 27 

Packing and storage house designs 27 

Estimated electrical load for the plants... 28 

Insulation requirements 29 

Economic analyses of wall and ceiling 

insulation -^■^ 

Typical refrigeration load calculation... 36 
Determining performance of refrigera- 
tion systems when receiving Bartlett 

pears 

Heating 

Construction cost estimates for three 

packing and storage houses 42 

Fire insurance for apple packing and 

storage houses 42 



Apple Packing and Storage Houses 1^ layout Ar 



J- by Joseph F.^ERRICK, Jry marketing research analyst, and G. F.^AINSBURV. agricultural engineery' Transportation and Facilities 
Research Division, AgricuJtural Marketing Service, and Earl W|Carlsen and D L0YD^1unter| Fruit Industries Research Foundation,^ 
Yakima, Wash. 



BACKGROUND OF STUDY 



Extensive research by the U.S. Department of 
Agricuhure in the Pacific Northwest apple produc- 
ing areas has resulted in improved methods and 
equipment for handhng, packing, and storing apples. 
These improvements reduce both labor require- 
ments and fruit loss from bruises, stem punctures, 
decay, and mechanical injuries. Although these 
improvements have been adopted in many apple 
packing and storage houses throughout the coun- 
try, operators of older plants find they must exten- 
sively remodel their plants, or build new ones, if they 
wish to use the new methods and equipment. 

In addition to plants that are built as replace- 
ments, construction of new apple packing and stor- 
age houses throughout the United States is increas- 
ing. Economic trends in the industry indicate that 
more new plants will be built in the next few years. 
Much of this new construction is not being de- 
signed for the improved equipment and methods. 
Because of the need for guides and standards in 
planning and constructing apple packing and storage 
houses, this report describes efficient layouts and 
designs that would minimize the cost of construction. 



Operation of Apple Packing and 
Storage Houses 

The general method of operation of apple packing 
and storage houses in the Pacific Northwest was 
used as a basis for development of the layouts and 
designs in this report. 



'Resigned from the Agricultural Marketing Service. 

^Now known as Food Industries Research and Engineering. 

688-765 0-63-2 



In that area, all of the newer plants receive fruit 
either by forkhft or clamp-lift trucks. As fruit is 
received from the orchard, it is most frequently 
moved directly into refrigerated storage rooms for 
coohng before it is packed. It is good practice to 
remove the field heat from fruit as soon as possible 
after it is picked, or much of its storage Hfe may be 
lost. 

Depending on a firm's marketing practices or pro- 
duction schedule, fruit may be packed and sliipped 
as orders are received, or all the fruit may be packed 
at the same time and returned to storage for later 
shipment. Fruit that is packed for immediate ship- 
ment is loaded on refrigerated rail cars or highway 
trucks. 

In packing, fruit is dumped from field boxes at the 
head of the packing fine, washed, sorted into grades, 
sized, and packed. The boxes of packed fruit are 
labeled and sorted by lot, grade, and size. The two 
or three grades depend upon the degree of coloring 
and the amount of bruises, stem punctures, blem- 
ishes, and other visible defects. 

Two methods are used in sizing fruit. In the 
first, "exact" sizing, fruit may be separated into 16 
or more sizes. Exact sizes are by count of the 
apples required to fill the standard wooden box 
(12 by 20 by liy2 inches); those most frequently 
used are: 48, 56, 64, 72, 80, 88, 100, 113, 125, 138, 
150, 163, 175, 198, 216, and 232. The purpose of 
exact sizing is to assure uniformity in the pack and, 
though it is not often recognized, to avoid or mini- 
mize bruising. 

Recently, packers have used "group" sizing; in 
this method, the fruit is separated into 5 or 6 sizes. 
With the advent of consumer packaging, all of the 



X 



smaller salable sizes (163 and below; also called the 
"5-tier") are usually bagged as one size. A few of 
the smaller sizes are still packed individually, 
mostly for export. In group sizing, with the smaller 
sizes bagged, the remaining fruit is packed out as 
sizes 150, 125, 100, 80, and 64. 

Two types of sizing equipment are used; the 
first type sizes the fruit according to approximate 
weight, and the second, according to approximate 
dimension. The weight sizer may be used for 
either exact or group sizing. The newer dimension 
sizer, with higher capacity than the weight-type, is 
used for group sizing. 

Apples that are sized exactly usually are indi- 
vidually wrapped in oiled paper and packed in 
standard wooden boxes (standard wrap-and-pack). 
A firm using this method of sizing and packing 
generally packs all the fruit at once and returns it 
to storage. This type of pack holds well in storage. 

Apples that are group-sized are usually placed on 
cardboard trays in layers in fiberboard boxes; semi- 
automatic machines may be used to fill the trays. 
Apples packed this way usually are shipped as 
soon as they are packed. 

Importance of Proper Layout and Design 

In recent years, costly mistakes have been made 
in the design and construction of commercial apple 
packing and storage houses. For example, the 
storage room in one new plant was constructed with 
the main aisle 1 foot too narrow for forklift truck 
operation. Because of this mistake, space for one 
row of pallets was lost. In another instance, a 
storage room had about 10 percent less storage 
capacity than a room of equal size, but different 
dimensions. 

Many packing rooms lack adequate space for 
storing suppHes near the packing hne. This causes 



extra handling. Other common mistakes, that cost 
plant operators money or reduce fruit quality, are 
improper spacing of fruit in storage for good air 
circulation, and lack of an adequate air circulation 
pattern. 

An operator who plans to build or add to his pres- 
ent facihties often follows what has been done in the 
past in his area, without considering new methods 
of packing, handling, and construction which are 
more economical and efficient. In many cases, 
owners do not give the necessary thought to building 
size and height required for the methods of receiv- 
ing, handhng, and storing to be used. It is not un- 
usual to find an owner wishing his building were 
just 2 feet longer or 1 foot higher. 

Careful planning of the layout and design of a 
plant may be the wisest investment a plant manager 
can make. In any event, the approach to any de- 
sign and layout problem should not be influenced by 
the exterior shell of the building. The handhng 
methods, operating procedures, refrigeration sys- 
tems, and other features should be definitely de- 
cided upon before the completion of the plans and 
drawings for the building are undertaken. The 
equipment selected, its arrangement or layout, and 
the flow of work through a plant determine the rela- 
tive efficiency at which the plant operates. Proper 
layout and work flow keep the number of workers 
required to a minimum, make it easier to supervise 
the workers, and facihtate the movement of fruit 
into, through, and out of the packing and storage 
house. 

Layout and work flow are the two most impor- 
tant factors affecting design. Efficient design can 
reduce construction costs and ehminate the neces- 
sity for subsequent expensive alterations, by 
making provision in advance for expansion. 

3 



Scope and Purpose of the Study 

The layouts and designs presented in this report 
are intended to serve as guides for the planning and 
construction of apple packing and storage houses of 
various sizes throughout the country. 

Layouts are developed for: Three packing rooms, 
using different methods of sizing and packing 
apples, or having a different packing capacity; and 
three storage houses, with capacities of 25,000, 
50,000, and 100,000 standard wooden boxes. The 
first packing room layout is for a single packing 
line for exact sizing, the second is for a single hne for 
group sizing, and the third is for a double line — one 
for exact sizing and the other for group sizing. The 
equipment in each packing line was selected to pro- 
vide the most efficient and economical overall 
operation. 

Designs, construction details, and cost estimates 
are developed for three complete apple packing and 
storage houses. These houses are designed around 
the following layouts: 

• The exact sizing line and the 50,000-box 
storage. 

• The group sizing line and the 100,000-box 
storage. 

• The double hne and an additional layout for 
a 200,000-box storage. 

All plants are single-story buildings, designed for 
hft truck operations. 

It is assumed that the standard wooden box is 
used for handling and storing fruit, and that both 
fiberboard and standard wooden boxes are used as 
shipping containers. Boxes are handled on 40- by 



48-inch pallets, except in the 25,000-box storage, 
where a 36- by 40-inch unit load without pallets is 
used. 

Complete plans and specifications for these 
plants are not . included with this report, but are 
available for review or purchase, as stated in the 
Preface. 

The building codes, economic requirements, 
industry conditions, and wind and snow loads in the 
area of Yakima, Washington, were used as a basis 
in developing the designs. Most of the construc- 
tion designs can be used as basic guides in all 
apple-producing areas, but the data should be care- 
fully apphed to meet local conditions. 

Operators considering constructing new plants, 
modifying or rebuilding their existing facihties, or 
changing their handling and packing equipment, 
can weigh the data in this report and select the ele- 
ments that apply best to their operations. 

New developments in apple packing and storage 
are taking place, and others may occur, that should 
be considered before remodehng or construction 
plans are made. Pallet boxes, for example, are 
being rapidly adopted for handling and storage. 
There is no standard pallet box in general use, 
however, and the standard wooden box is still used 
in many plants. The layouts and designs presented 
here may be converted to the use of pallet boxes. 
See the Bibliography, page 27, for reports deahng 
with handling and storage of apples in pallet boxes. 

Operators should obtain qualified engineering 
advice when planning remodehng or new construc- 
tion. Such advice may be available through State 
Agricultural Experiment Stations, State Depart- 
ments of Agriculture, or private engineering firms, 
that are experienced with the problems that arise 
in handhng, storing, and packing fruit. 



FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT LAYOUT 



Marketing and storage practices have a most 
important influence on plant layout. If an operator 
decides to pack apples out as they are received 
from the orchard, relatively less storage space and 
more packing hne capacity — meaning more or 
different types of equipment — would be needed. 
Or, a smaller packing Une capacity and larger stor- 
age facihties would be required if the plant followed 
the pohcy of moving all fruit into storage for holding 
and later packing at a slower pace, as market re- 
quirements dictate. Or, again, they may prefer to 
pack their apples out in selected types of packs 
which efficiently utiUze certain types of equipment. 
Thus, the choice of equipment and layout are often 
prescribed by the decisions of management about 
storing and packing the fruit. 
4 



There are dynamic changes occurring in market- 
ing which affect plant layout. For instance, the 
development of self-service merchandising has 
brought about a need for new types of packages 
that can dehver fruit with fewer bruises to the con- 
sumer. The tray-pack shipping container and 
consumer packages of many types, which fill this 
need, are, in increased demand. The packing room 
layout must be versatile, so that management can 
easily switch from one type of package to another. 
Additional area for supphes is required, space 
requirements for segregating may be altered, and 
other features of the plant layout are influenced by 
the newer merchandising trends. 

Group sizing is a relatively new development in 
the marketing of apples. It is preferred by super- 



markets or large-volume retail stores, who find it 
simpler to handle fewer sizes of apples. These 
stores report that they are better able to meet the 
demands of the consumer with fewer sizes. Group 
sizing permits use of less complicated sizing equip- 
ment, and makes it more practical to use return-flow 
belts for packing, instead of rotating tubs. 

In a similar way, plant layout is affected by the 
site on which the building is to be placed, including 



topography of the land and the amount of space 
available. The building may have to be located 
near rail sidings or roads that limit one or more of 
its dimensions. Also, even if old buildings are 
abandoned and new ones built, there nearly always 
is some equipment from the old plant that can be 
effectively used in the new one. 

All these conditions and requirements will influ- 
ence the plant layout. 



PACKING ROOM LAYOUTS 



Layouts are developed for three separate pack- 
ing rooms. The first is for a single packing line 
doing exact sizing, the second is for a single line 
doing group sizing, and the third is for a double hne, 
one doing exact sizing and the other, group sizing. 
All layouts include space for general offices, a shop, 
lunch and rest rooms, and storage of supplies. 

The equipment and method of operation of each 
hne is selected to provide the most efficient overall 
operation at the lowest cost, based on the type of 
pack desired. All fines provide for some flexibihty 
in the type of pack used. 

Basic features, principles, and assumptions are: 

1. AH layouts are designed for handling both 
loose and packed boxes of fruit by forklift trucks 
and pallets (fig. 1). 

2. All layouts provide for possible future expan- 
sion of the packing line and room. 

3. Most of the loose fruh is received and moved 
directly to refrigerated storage rooms and later to 
the packing line. 

4. The stacking patterns, aisles, equipment, work 
stations, and doors are arranged to provide the most 
direct flow of fruit from refrigerated storage rooms 
through the packing room and back to storage with a 
minimum of out-of-hne and return hauls. 

5. Space is provided between work areas, where 
necessary, for supplies, such as at the dumping 
station and at the segregating area. This permits 
continuous work, with little influence on the rate 
at which different workers are able to perform their 
respective jobs. 

6. Work areas are separated so that there is fittle 
possibility of one worker interfering with another. 
Workers from one area wifl seldom find it necessary 
to go through other work areas. 

7. The packing lines are arranged to provide a 
straight-line flow, to: Facilitate production; avoid 
changing direction of travel of the fruit on the con- 
veyors: and minimize the distance fruit drops as it 
moves from one piece of equipment to another. 




BN-14773-X 

Figure 1. - Placing a 48-box pallet load of loose fruil in storage. 



8. Space for rest rooms is based on the total 
number of employees, to satisfy building code 
requirements. 

9. The commonly accepted amount of office space 
is provided for the office and management person- 
nel, and the foreman nr other supervisory personnel. 



A Packing Room Layout for Exact Sizing 

This layout is for a single packing hne for exact 
sizing and manual packing of apples from rotating 
tubs (fig. 2). 

The layout is primarily for firms that sell hand- 
wrapped fruit packed in standard wooden boxes. 
Such firms usually pack in advance of sales and 
hold the packed fruit in cold storage, instead of 
catering to the day-to-day demands of the market. 



Tray packs may also be packed from the rotating 
tubs, however, and the layout provides for both 
packing methods. Consumer-size apples are ac- 
cumulated on a return-flow belt, and automatically 
filled into bags or boxes. 

The packing hne can be used with either a large 
or a small storage. Average capacity of the line, 
operated by 39 workers, is 420 boxes of loose 
apples per hour. Maximum capacity is 600 boxes 
per hour. 

The hne is designed for sorting apples into two 
grades, but it may easily be switched to three. 



Equipment Required 

The items hsted are well-known in the apple 
industry. Certain terms, which may be unfamihar 



to the general reader, are described in a following 
section, ''Description of Operations." The princi- 
pal items of equipment in the layout of the packing 
hne to do exact sizing are: 

Stack-breaker with 10 feet of floor chain conveyor 
for moving stacks of boxes into it. 

An automatic drum-type dumper. 

A 25-foot gravity conveyor and gravity curved 
section, for moving empty boxes from the dumping 
station to the empty-box area. 

A 3-foot section of 48-inch-wide belt conveyor, 
serving as a dumping apron. 

A 2-foot leaf ehminator. This is a short section 
of roller conveyor that leaves can fall through. 

A 3-foot chain, or wire screen, ehminator to re- 
move "juicer" apples. They fall to a power belt 
conveyor, which extends, at a right angle, 3 feet 
to an automatic box-filler. 



A 5-foot length of gravity conveyor and an auto- 
matic box-filler for fiUing juicer apples into boxes. 

A washer with wash, fresh water rinse, and drying 
sections. 

A 10-foot float-roll sorting table. 

A 55-foot belt conveyor for moving cull fruit from 
the sorting table. 

A cull lowering device for fiUing cuU apples into 
large pallet boxes or tote bins. 

Conveyors of varibus lengths above the sorting 
table for conveying apples to each section of the 
weight sizer. 

A 3-foot chain, or wire screen, eliminator for 
taking out bagging size apples of the major grade 
with a belt conveyor, extends 3 feet to a return- 
flow belt accumulating station for bagging fruit. % 




Figure 2. — Layout of a single-line packing room for exact sizing. 



5 



A 12-foot return-flow belt table for bagging apples. 

An automatic box filler, for filling bagging size 
apples into fiberboard or wooden boxes. 

Two bagging machines, with a 10-foot belt con- 
veyor for moving bagged apples from the bagging 
machines to a packing stand or station. 

A 10-foot roller conveyor, for moving containers 
of bagged apples to the segregating area. 

Four double sections of weight sizers, each having 
10 tub sections on both sides, with singulators, feed- 
on belts, and drives. 

A 232-foot packed box accumulator conveyor, 
with powered chain, two 90° powpr curves, and one 
180° power curve. 

One scale for check-weighing packed boxes. 

A 90-foot roller conveyor, for accumulating boxes 
in front of the lidder and at the segregating area. 

One power lidding machine. 

A 15*/^-foot belt conveyor, for moving boxes from 
the lidder to the segregating conveyor. 

A powered overhead box-carrying conveyor (392 
feet) installed around the packing hue, from the 
empty-box handling area past the fiberboard box 
makeup area. 

One post stitcher for assembling fiberboard ship- 
ping containers. (This item is optional.) 

Description of Layout 

The packing room layout for the exact-sizing 
packing Une is shown in figure 2. This single- 



hne layout is designed for high-capacity operation; 
the sizer is used only for the larger fruit. The 
smaller consumer-packaging-type apples are taken 
out of the main run of fruit by a screen eliminator 
after passing over the sorting table and before going 
into the sizer. Capacity is further increased by 
the addition of an extra sizer section, making four 
sections instead of the usual three. 

The packing hne is atone side of the room, leav- 
ing space for segregating and an aisle for materials 
handhng operations, so that they do not interfere 
with packing. By using the doors in the front and 
back of the packing room, the forkhft truck can 
serve any necessary point in the room. There is 
ample aisle space for the hft trucks, and an ade- 
quate area for storage of supplies, empty boxes, 
culls, and loose fruit. 

The office space is relatively small, because httle 
sales work is done at the packing plant. The offices 
are largely for bookkeeping and personnel work. 

Description of Operations 

The essential operations in this exact-sizing pack- 
ing hne perhaps will be more understandable if the 
reader refers to the three-dimensional layout in 
figure 3. Many phases or parts of these operations 
described in this section are common to other types 
of packing lines included in this report; therefore, 
this description will serve as background for later 
discussion of other packing hues. 




6 



Figure 3. — Model of a packing line designed for exact sizing. 



Supplying Line With Loose Fruit. -Boxes of 
loose fruit are brought from the receiving area, or 
storage, in 48-box pallet loads (40 by 48 inches) by 
forklift truck. The loads are set on the floor against 
a platform which is the same height as the thickness 
of the pallet. One worker, with a two-wheel clamp 
handtruck, picks up six-high stacks of boxes from 
the pallets, and places them on a short length of 
floor chain conveyor which moves the stacks into a 
machine known as a "stack-breaker." The stack- 
breaker hfts all but the bottom box in a stack from 
the conveyor. While the top boxes are raised, the 
bottom box moves away on the floor chain conveyor, 
and the upper part of the stack then is set down. 
Tliis continues until all of the boxes in a stack have 
been "destacked." The boxes move from the 
stack-breaker on a conveyor one at a time to the 
dumper. 

Dumping. — The automatic drum-type dumper 
picks up a box of unpacked fruit and holds the box 
against a rotating drum that has a series of V-belts 
embedded in its surface. As the drum rotates, the 
box is puUed around with the drum until it is in- 
verted. As the box reaches the top of the drum its 
contents, the fruit, rests on the V-belts. Two V- 
belts near the ends of the box pick the box up, off 
the fruit, while the rest of the V-belts move the fruit 
ahead to a short section of belt conveyor, or "dump- 
ing apron." The empty boxes are deposited on a 
gravity roller conveyor, which moves them to an 
accumulating point. 

Empty Box Handling. — When the empty boxes 
reach the accumulation point, a worker places them 
on the overhead monorail box conveyor, or nests 
three boxes into the space of two and stacks them 
onto pallets. 

When clean, new, standard boxes are used, the 
worker places a portion of them on the overhead 
monorail box conveyor supplying the packers and 
the remainder onto pallets. Field boxes and lugs, 
or old boxes, always are placed on pallets. If the 
packing hne is turning out tray-pack cartons only, 
all boxes are placed on pallets; old and new boxes 
are usually separated. Pallet loads of empty boxes 
are moved by forkhft truck (fig. 4) to the loading 
platform for return to the orchard, or are placed in 
storage rooms, or piled outdoors until the next 
season. 

Leaf Eliminating. —The fruit moves off the 
dumping apron onto a short section of slatted con- 
veyor which has sufficient space between the flights 
to permit leaves, small twigs, and other debris to 
drop through. The fruit is carried by the flights to 
the next piece of equipment. Accumulated leaves 
are removed every day or so. 



Eliminating Small Juicer Apples. - An 
eliminator removes small juicer apples — sizes that 
are not accepted by consumers. Most of this fruit 
is sound and wholesome; it is usually sold to a proc- 
essor for making juice. The ehminator is a small 
section of chain or wire-mesh conveyor. Small 
apples drop through the screen onto a conveyor 
belt which moves them at right angles to the packing 
hne to a place where they are filled into boxes by 
an automatic box-filler. A worker stacks the fiUed 
boxes on pallets, so that they can be moved by 
forkhft truck to cold storage, or another location. 

Washing. -The rest of the fruit rolls into a 
washer, where it is carried by an endless conveyor 
of rollers, suspended by chains at either side. 
The fruit first goes through a washing solution, 
which usuaUy contains a detergent, and, at times, 
a mold preventive or inhibitor. Some plants also 
use an oil in the wash water to produce a shine and 
help in drying. After washing, the fruit moves 
through a fresh water rinse, and then througli a 
dryer, where excess surface water is removed from 
the fruit before it moves onto the sorting table. 
A series of rotating brushes may be used at this 
point to shine the fruit. 

Sorting. — Sorting can be done in a heated en- 
closure or room built around the sorting table to 
help keep the workers warm. Because sorters do 
not move about as much as the other workers in the 
plant, they need a higher temperature in which to 
work. This enclosure is optional for management; 
building code requirements can be met by heating 
the entire building to the temperature specified for 
sorting. 

As the fruit moves forward on the sorting table, 
workers separate the apples into various grades 
(fig. 5). Usually, one grade predominates in a 
given lot of fruit being packed at any one time, and 
is called the major grade; all other grades are 
termed minor. The minor grades of fruit are lifted 
by the workers and placed on a conveyor belt where 
it moves directly to a section of the sizer. The 
major grade of fruit remains on the sorting table and 
is conveyed forward, automatically running off 
onto behs which carry the fruit to the sections of 
the sizer that are being used for the major grade. 

Handling Cull Apples. — CuU apples are picked 
out of the lot by the sorters and placed on a conveyor 
beh over the sorting table. They move to the head 
of the sorting table, out at a right angle to the pack- 
ing Une, and back along the washer where they 
accumulate. Here a feed device lowers the culls 
into large paUet boxes. As the pallet box is filled, 
the feed device retracts to the top of the box. A 
worker, using a forkhft truck, removes the filled 



BN-14785-X 

Figure 4. — Pallet load of 72 empty boxes (a third box is nested inside of each two boxes) being transported by a forkHft truck. 



box, and replaces it with an empty one, as needed. 
This is usually done during a nonoperating period. 

Another method of handhng cull apples is to 
pl)ace them in chutes on the side of the table. The 
culls drop onto a belt conveyor under the sorting 
table, and are carried to the cull bin by a special 
section of belt conveyor that raises them to the top of 
the bin and drops them in. Although cull chutes 
are more efficient than the other method, and are 
becoming increasingly popular, they bruise more 
fruit. The decision to use chutes might be affected 
by the anticipated volume of culls and on how the 
cull fruit is to be used. 

Handling Bagging Apples. — As the major 
grade of apples leaves the sorting table, it rolls 
across another wire screen or mesh ehminator 
which permits selected sizes of apples to drop 
through onto a conveyor belt. These bagging-size 
apples move onto a return-flow table which keeps 
an accumulated supply in position for either auto- 
matic box filling or bagging. 



When bagging-size apples are not being bagged, 
tbey can be automatically accumulated in boxes by 
an automatic box filler and returned to cold storage 
for later packing or for sale as a loose pack. A 
broader range of sizes can be handled by regulating 
or changing the size of the eliminator screen. 

When bagging operations are carried on simul- 
taneously with sizing, the fruit moves from the 
sizer ehminator, to the return-flow table, and then to 
the bagging machines. The workers there bag the 
apples, close the bags, and place them on a short 
length of conveyor. The conveyor raises the bags to 
a stand, where another worker puts them into a 
fiberboard master shipping container. The master 
containers are glued or stapled shut, and moved on a 
short length of gravity roller conveyor to the seg- 
regator, who stacks them into pallet loads in the 
segregating area. When the flow of bagging apples 
is small, the bagging macliine operators may place 
the bagged fruit directly into the master containers; 
labor cost for one worker is saved. 




BN-14790-X 

Figure 5. -Float-roll sorting table used to separate apples into 

grades. 



Sizing. — Individual fruits are fed into each half- 
section of the weight sizer by a smaU bell leading to a 
singulator timing device, which prevents more than 
one piece of fruit from faUing into a carrier cup on 
the sizer. 

In the sizer, each apple is conveyed on a carrier 
cup over a track that is breached by , steel blades 
attached to spring balance scales. When the 
weight of an apple overbalances the scale, the car- 
rier cup tips the apple into a rotary-tub packing 
station. There is a separate tub packing station for 
each sizing scale. 

Packing. — Packing is done at individual stations. 
A packer places an empty standard box on a pack- 
ing stand, and moves the stand into position next 
to one of the rotating tubs along the sizer. The 
packer puts the appropriate liner in the box; selec- 
tion depends upon the grade of fruit. Apples are 
removed from the rotating tubs one at a time, wrap- 
ped, and packed in the box. When the box is full, 
the worker roUs the stand over to the packed-box 
conveyor at the side of the aisle and puts the box on 
the conveyor. 



The packing operation is similar for tray packs. 
An empty box is placed on the packing stand, the 
worker places a tray in the bottom and then places 
the apples one at a time into the tray, places another 
tray in the box, and repeats until all four or five 
trays are filled. The fruits may or may not be 
wrapped as they are placed into the trays. When 
all layers of trays have been filled, the worker rolls 
the stand to the conveyor and puis the box onto the 
conveyor. 

In both cases, before releasing the box, the worker 
will mark her designated packer number on one or 
both ends of the box. 

Supplying Containers to Packers. -Empty 
boxes are moved to packers on an overhead mono- 
rail conveyor that circulates completely around the 
packing fine, over the packing station, and past a 
fiberboard box makeup station. At the box make- 
up station, fiberboard boxes are placed on the con- 
veyor, or, if the plant uses field lugs, wooden boxes 
are made up here and put on the conveyor. More 
commonly, when fruit is packed in standard boxes, 
loose fruit is moved to the packing line in new pack- 
ing boxes. These boxes will be placed on the over- 
head monorail conveyor by the worker and go to 
the packing stations. 

Conveying Packed Boxes. -The packers place 
packed boxes of fruit on the powered conveyor; the 
boxes move along one side of the packing line under 
the sizing equipment near the sorting table, and 
back along the other side of the line. This permits 
all packed boxes to be taken to the lidding area on 
one conveyor. In addition, the packed boxes on 
the conveyor are all in the proper position when they 
get to the box lidder, regardless of which side of 
the packing line they come from. Should the num- 
ber of boxes become too great or the lidder be held 
up for a time, the conveyor is designed to let the 
chain sUp under the boxes, allowing them to 
accumulate (fig. 6). 

Powered curved sections of the conveyor move 
packed boxes around turns and liave proved to be 
a desirable addition to the handfing equipment 
(fig. 7). 

Quite often it is necessary for workers to cross 
over the packed box conveyors, so stepovers, illus- 
trated in figure 7, are provided in the layout. 

Check-Weighing. — Set in the conveyor fine is a 
scale for check-weighing packed boxes or con- 
tainers of fruit. The check-weighing is required 
quite frequently when switching from one lot of 
fruit to another, or when changing varieties. Nor- 
mally, check-weighing is done only periodically to be 
sure that the minimum weights required by law are 
met. 



BN-14796-X 

Figure 6. - Conveyor for moving packed boxes of fruit to the lidding or closing machine, showing how boxes rest on the powered chain. 



Stamping. — A section of gravity roller allows 
boxes to stop temporarily before going on to the 
lidding machine. A worker stamps the proper 
grade, variety, and size on the container. Stamping 
is nearly always done before lidding the container, 
so that the worker can see which size of fruit is in 
the box. 

Lidding. — Wooden boxes are hdded by machine; 
the conveyor moves boxes directly into it. The 
roller conveyor just ahead of the lidder not only 
serves as a stamping area, but accumulates boxes 
before they go into the lidder. This accumulating 
space is necessary to even the workload, and avoid 
interruption if the hdder should momentarily jam. 
To hd a box, a worker places a hd in the machine 
and as the box moves into the machine, the worker 
presses a foot pedal. The hd comes down on the 
box and is nailed to it. On most packs the worker 
places a pad on top of the fruit in the box to protect 
the fruit from the pressure of the hd. 

Labeling and Tallying. - Labels are usually 
placed on boxes after they have been hdded: how- 
ever, labehng can be performed before lidding. 
The worker is at a stand with a glue applicating 
machine, through which the labels are rolled to 



receive a coating of glue. The label is pressed 
against the end of the box and smoothed into place 
with a sponge. Another worker tallies the grade 
and size of the fruit and the number of the packer 
who packed the box. When the packing line runs 
at small capacity, both operations can be done by 
one worker, but at average capacity one worker 
would be required for each job. 

Segregating. -The conveyor at the discharge 
end of the lidder raises the boxes and gives them 
momentum so that they will move forward on a 
gravity conveyor. Here they accumulate and are 
hfted by the segregator, a worker who stacks boxes 
on pallets, according to grade and size of the fruit. 
The roller conveyor helps even the workload, be- 
cause several boxes arrive at one time. As each 
pallet load is completed, the lift-truck operator 
moves the load to cold storage or to a loading area. 

Number of Workers Required 

The number of workers needed to operate the 
packing line depends mainly on the rate at which 
loose fruit is supplied to the hne. The maximum 
capacity of this line is 600 boxes per hour. As- 
suming, however, that the hne is operated at the 



8 



BN-14797-X 

Figure 7. — Powered curved section of conveyor. Note stepover which allows workers to cross over the packed-box conveyor. 



rate used in an average plant — 420 boxes per hour — 
39 workers would be required (table 6, appendix). 
This number includes the supervisor, 18 packers, 
8 sorters, and 12 other workers. If the fruit is of 
larger sizes, two fewer packers could he used, be- 
cause large fruit takes less time to pack. If the 
major grade of apples are the smaller sizes, 18 
packers w(»uld have difficulty keeping up with the 
rest of the line. 

One lift truck operator is required to supply the 
hne, handle culls and empty boxes, and transfer 
packed fruit from the segregating area. If long 
transporting distances are necessary for perform- 
ing the work, this worker might often have more 
work than he can handle. At those times, he would 
require help from one of the other forklift truck 
operators in the plant. On the other hand, this 
worker may have time to help receive or load out 
when the hne is running slow and transport distances 
are short. 

One worker is needed to hand-truck fruit from 
the pallets onto the floor chain conveyor that feeds 
the dumper. He would work productively for about 
three-fourths of the time. Similarly, an()ther 
worker, who places empty boxes on the monorail 



conveyor or pallets, and tends the small fruit elimi- 
nator, would work at less than full capacity. A 
practical arrangement is for one, or both, of these 
workers to change jobs periodically with the segre- 
gator, who must work at capacity on a tiring job. 

With an average packoul of fruit over the exact 
sizing line, it is estimated that eight sorters could 
handle the volume. When the lots are of high 
quality, sorters would not be working to full 
capacity. When the lots are of poor quality, the 
workers would sometimes have to work harder 
than usual. 

Three workers would be used for bagging. Two 
workers operate the bagging machine, filhng the 
bags and closing them; the third worker would 
pack the filled and closed bags into shipping con- 
tainers. In a below-normal rate of operation, the 
two workers bagging fruit might also place the bags 
in the containers; the third worker would not be 
needed. 

One worker each would be needed for the jobs 
of stamping, lidding, labeling, and tallying boxes. 
The workers who label and tally would not need to 
work at full capacity. When fruit is running to 
the smaller sizes, the rate of boxes leaving the pack- 



SUPPLY STORAGE AREA 



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12 5 10 



Figure 8. — Layout of a single-line packing room for group sizing. 



ing line is relatively reduced; then, all of these 
workers might be working below capacity. 

Segregating is done by one worker, but it might be 
necessary for the segregator to work above normal 
effort, at times, in order to handle the full volume 
coming off the packing line. Under these circum- 
stances it would be desirable to have this worker 
periodically change assignments as described 
above. 

One general worker is needed to furnish supplies 
to the packing hne, and handle other general duties. 
When the work is sufficiently organized, this worker 
then might not operate at full capacity. 

A Packing Room Layout for Group Sizing 

This layout is for group sizing and low-cost 
mechanical packing of apples from return-flow belt 
tables (fig. 8). 

The layout is designed primarily for operators 
who pack on order and move the fruit directly onto 



carriers, rather than back into storage. It is as- 
sumed that most fruit is packed in trays in fiber- 
board boxes by semiautomatic packing machines. 
Consumer-size apples are automatically filled into 
bags or boxes. 

This line may also be used to turn out the stand- 
ard wrap-and-pack manually, or other types of pack- 
ages as the market demands. Automatic box fillers 
could be used to fill loose fruit into cartons or boxes 
for sale or return to storage. Bagging machines 
could also be used along the packing table. 

Average capacity of the line, using the semiauto- 
matic packing machines and a total of 27 workers, 
is over 420 boxes of loose fruit dumped per hour. 
Maximum capacity is 600 boxes per hour. 

This hne is designed for sorting apples into two 
grades only, and would require additional equip- 
ment for packing three grades. 



Equipment Required 

In this layout the weight sizer is used for group 
sizing, with the units placed side by side. The 
dimension sizer may also be used for group sizing, 
but the weight sizer was selected for this layout to 
show how presently owned equipment can be used 
in a newer type of packing operation. Many opera- 
tors now have weight sizers. The dimension sizer 
is shown in the layout for the double packing line. 

Other principal items of equipment are the same 
as those in the exact sizing fine as far as the elimi- 
nator at the end of the sorting table. There is 
one difference in this part of the hne: Culls are con- 
veyed a shorter distance. From the ehminator for 
bagging-size apples on, the packing line differs 
greatly from that previously described. The items 
of equipment are: 

Stack-breaker, with a 10-foot floor-chain con- 
veyor for moving stacks of boxes into the stack- 
breaker. 



An automatic drum-type dumper. 

A 25-foot gravity conveyor and gravity curved 
section, for moving empty boxes from the 
dumping station to the empty box area. 

A 3-foot section of 48-inch wide belt conveyor on 
which dumped fruit is released; it serves as a^ 
dumping apron. 

A 2-foot leaf eliminator fike that in the exact 
sizing line. 

A 3-foot chain or wire-screen eliminator for elimi- 
nating juicer apples with a power beh conveyor 
extending 3 feet to an automatic box-filler. 

An automatic box-filler for filling juicer apples 
into boxes and a 5-foot gravity conveyor. 

A washer with wash, fresh rinse, and drying 
sections. 

A 12-foot float-roll sorting table. 




BN-148( 



Figure 9. — Model of a packing line for group sizing. 



A 24-foot belt conveyor for moving cull apples 

from the sorting table. 
A cull lowering device for filling cull apples into 

large paUet boxes or tote bins. 

Narrow belt conveyors of various lengths above 
the sorting table and beyond the eliminator, 
for conveying apples to each section of the 
sizer. 

A 3-foot chain, or wire-screen, ehminator for 
removing bag^ng size apples of the major 
grade, and a power belt conveyor that extends 
3 feet to a return-flow belt packing table. 

Four double-sections of weight sizers. 
Five 10-fool cross belts running under three 
double sections of sizing equipment. 

Two return-flow-belt packing tables, with two 20- 
inch wide belts. One table is 40 feet long; 
the other, 96 feet. 

Ten semiautomatic packing machines with tray 
racks and conveyor connections to the main 
packing tables. 

One automatic box-filler, with the necessary 
lengths of gravity conveyor, for holding suppHes 
of boxes. 

Two bagging machines, with a 10-foot belt con- 
veyor for moving bagged apples from the 
bagging machine to the packing stand or sta- 
tion, and a 6-foot gravity conveyor to convey 
the boxes to the main conveyor. 



A 220-foot power chain conveyor with drives, 
motors, and right-angle transfers for conveying 
packed boxes to the case sealer and the lidding 
areas. A 97-foot gravity roller conveyor and a 
16-foot power belt conveyor for accumulating 
boxes before lidding. 

One scale for weighing boxes of fruit. 

One power lidder. 

One case sealer with a compression unit. 

A 200-foot overhead conveyor for conveying empty 
boxes to the packing stations. 

Two optional items of equipment might also be 
included. Fourteen gang adjustors for tying 
together the spring adjustments on sizing 
scales; all positions can be adjusted simul- 
taneously from one position. Two or more 
mechanical box transfers for lowering the 
packages of larger apples of the two different 
grades that will be packed by hand onto the 
main conveyor. 

Description of Layout 

The packing room layout for a group-sizing pack- 
ing line is shown in figure 8. This fine can operate^ 
at high capacity, without workers in one area inter- 
fering with those in another. The layout features 
are essentially the same as those in the exact sizing 
line. The packing hue proper is essentifdly in a 
straight fine. 



10 



In the group sizing layout, the segregating area is 
moved to one side of the room, and an aisle for 
industrial Hft trucks runs between the packing line 
and the segregating area. This makes handling 
supplies convenient, and minimizes the transporta- 
tion distance from the segregating area to the out- 
side door. It is desirable in a mechanical packing 
operation to provide space for storing fiberboard box 
supplies behind the workers. The layout arrange- 
ment provides this space. 

The packing fine is designed for packing two 
grades. The major grade is packed on return-flow 
conveyor tables at either side of the sizing machine. 
About 40 feet of one of the return-flow bell conveyor 
tables would be used to pack the minor grade. 

In this packing hne arrangement, as with the 
previous one, only a small amount of office space is 
needed. In fact, less office space may be required 
because a smaller crew is used when mechanical 
packing is done. 

Description of Operations 

The essential operations of this packing line may 
be visualized by referring to figure 9. Many opera- 
tions are the same as those of the exact-sizing pack- 
ing line: Supplying the hne with loose fruit; dump- 



ing; empty box handling; leaf ehminating; eliminat- 
ing juicer apples; washing; and sorting. Operations 
which are not the same are discussed below. 

Handling Cull Apples. — The method of han- 
dUng cull apples with the group sizing line is the 
same as for the exact sizing hne, except that culls 
are conveyed a shorter distance to the pallet box. 
The return-flow bagging table in the exact sizing line 
is no longer needed, and there is room for the cull 
bin nearer the sorting table. 

Handling Bagging Apples. — Bagging apples are 
conveyed from the eliminator at the end of the sort- 
ing table onto the end of the return-flow belt packing 
table. A box-filler, or bagging units, handles the 
fruit. It is similar to that described for the exact 
sizing hne, with one variation — after the bagged 
apples are placed in the master container, they roll 
by gravity conveyor onto the main packed-box con- 
veyor under the sorting tables. The boxes of 
bagged apples move through the case sealer to the 
segregating area, where they can be conveniently 
handled with all other packed containers. 

Sizing. — While sizing in this packing room lay- 
out is done by exact-weight machines, the sections 
of weight sizers are arranged side by side, and are 
used for group sizing (fig. 10), except for a sizer for 
the minor grade. Only a part of the weighing posi- 





FlGURE 10. — Sections of weight-type sizers arranged side by side for mechanical group-size packing. 



tions on each section of the sizer is used. Belts, 
at right angles to the sizer, convey the apples of 
each size group to return-flow-beU packing tables 
on both sides of the sizer. Alternate belts move 
the fruit to the right and the left of the sizer. If 
the volume of fruit of a particular size going to one 
position should become too great, the amount of 
space devoted to that size group on the return-flow- 
belt packing table can be increased by changing 
the position of the shunt. The layout is designed 
so that a peak size and a nonpeak size will usually 
adjoin each other on the packing table. Since 
this research was completed, improved machinery 
has been developed. Converters of older facilities 
may need the equipment described; constructors 
of new plants should determine the equipment best 
suited to their operation. 

Packing. — This operation is semiautomatic 
(mechanical). Figure 11 shows one packing ma- 
chine with a rack on either side for a supply of 
trays. These machines are so located that if there 
is a shift in the peak of size groups, an appropriate 



shift can be made in the machines by moving a 
shunt on the return-flow-belt table. 

In using the semiautomatic packing machine, 
the operator removes a fiberboard box from the over- 
head monorail conveyor, or, more often, makes it 
up from a stack of coUapsed cartons behind her. 
She folds the carton and places it into position in the 
machine, puts a tray in the rack provided for it, 
fills the tray and straightens the fruit, then releases 
the tray into the box. The box contains 4 or 5 
trays. She ejects the box by pressing a foot- 
operated pedal (fig. 12). The fiUed box then rolls 
onto the main conveyor, underneath the return- 
flow belt conveyor packing table, and moves on to 
the lidding and case sealing areas. 

A manual wrap-and-pack operation can be carried 
on at this packing table by using packing stands with 
the operators packing directly from the return-flow 
belt table (fig. 13). The boxes could be placed on 
the main conveyor under the return-flow bells by 
roller box transfer (fig. 14), which gently lowers 
boxes from packing-stand height to the low conveyor. 




BN-14804-X 



Figure 11. — A semiautomatic (mechanical) tray packing station. 



6B8-765 0-63— 3 



Conveying Packed Boxes. — In this layout, all 
packed boxes are conveyed under the return-flow 
belt packing tables by a chain conveyor (fig. 15), 
which takes the boxes or cartons directly to the lid- 
ding and case seahng area. 

Stamping, Lidding, and Tallying. — This work 
varies with the type of carton or container. If full 
telescope boxes are used, a worker folds the tops 
up and places them on fiUed boxes, ready for the 
case sealer. If regular slotted cartons (RSC) are 
used, the lidding operation is eliminated because the 
top is part of the filled box. 

If telescope fiberboard containers are used, 
stamping and tallying could very well be combined 
with hdding by prestamping stacks of tops for 
various sizes, then folding and placing the proper 
top of each container of apples. Precounting the 
tops would record what was packed. If packers 
are paid by the hour, it would not be necessary to 
record each packer's work, and the rest of the task 
of tallying could be ehminated. 

Another alternative for stamping and tallying 



would be to place automatic stamping devices and 
counters on the mechanical box fillers, so that the 
containers would automatically be stamped and 
counted (fig. 16), Stamping could be combined with 
packing, by putting an automatic roller stamper at 
each packing station. 

StiU another method of stamping, used with 
mechanical packing of RSC cartons, is to prestamp 
the stacks of flats. 

Tallying also could be done by one other method: 
Counting the number of pallet loads of each size 
and grade of fruit that is packed and stacked at 
the segregating area during the tally period. 

Labeling. — When mechanical packing is done, 
it is the general practice to use preprinted con- 
tainers. The printing includes the brand name, 
so labeling is not necessary. 

Segregating. — Segregating packed fruit at the 
group size packing fine is essentially the same as 
at the exact size packing line except that fewer 
separations are needed with the smaller number of 
size categories. However, if both wood boxes and 




BN-14806-X 

Figure 12. -The fiUed box is ejected by depressing the pedal, which permits ihe packed box to roU onto the conveyor. 

11 




BN-14807-X 

Figure 13. — Worker packing fruit in the standard box (wrap 
and pack) from a return-flow belt conveyor. 



fiberboard containers are packed at the same time, 
there may be a lot of necessary separations, unless 
the two types of containers are used for different 
grades. 



Number of Workers Required 

The main feature of the group sizing packing 
hne is the use of mechanical packing equipment. 
This reduces the number of workers required in 
the plant, and simplifies some operating problems. 
It is estimated that 27 workers, including the super- 
visor, are needed in the packing room to perform 
packing and associated operations (table 6, appen- 
dix). Of these workers, only eight are packers. 
Even though the packing crew is small, it is able to 
handle fruit at a rate of more than 420 loose boxes 
an hour. The maximum capacity of the hne is 
estimated to be 600 loose boxes per hour, hke the 
exact sizing line, because both hues use the same 



amount of sizing equipment. Fast and well trained 
workers using semiautomatic packing equipment 
have been known to pack at twice the average of 
40 boxes per hour. 

The number of other workers in the plant is the 
same as for the exact sizing hne. Bagging also re- 
quires three workers, unless the volume of bagging 
fruit is low enought to permit these workers to place 
bags in the master containers. Then, the bagging 
crew could be reduced by one worker. 

One worker is needed to stamp containers. If 
the fiberboard flats are prestamped, part of the time 
of this worker could be used to assist in other opera- 
tions. Fiberboard containers are closed auto- 
matically by a case sealer. No worker is required, 
other than for occasional maintenance. If full 
telescope boxes are used, the time of one worker 
will be needed to place the outer telescope lid over 
the box. This worker could also stamp. 

One worker is needed for tallying the boxes; this 
can be combined with other operations, by tallying 
boxes after they have been placed on the pallets, or 
by attaching counters to the mechanical packing 
machines. 

Because fiberboard containers usually are printed 
with the label on the ends, no labeler is required. 

The work of segregating and providing supplies 
.for the packing line is essentially the same as for 
the exact sizing line, and requires two workers. 

Two-Line Packing Room Layout — Exact and 
Group Sizing 

This layout is developed around two packing 
hues — one for exact sizing and manual packing, 
and the other for group sizing and mechanical 
packing. 

The two-line layout provides both flexibihty in 
type of pack and packing capacity for a large volume 
of fruit. The layout is designed primarily for opera- 
tors of large plants who store loose fruit and pack 
out a large total volume during the marketing sea- 
son, and for operators of medium-size plants who 
do not store loose fruit, but pack as rapidly as fruit 
is received. 

The exact sizing line is specifically designed to 
turn out the standard wrap-and-pack, but may also 
be used for manual packing of tray packs. The 
group sizing hne is specifically designed for semi- 
automatic packing of the tray pack, but it can readily 
be adapted to manual packing of the standard wrap- 
and-pack or other types of pack, if this is what the 
market demands. Both fines use baggir^g machines 
for consumer-size apples. 



12 



BN-14808-X 

Figure 14. -A roUer transfer used lo lower and move boxes from packing stand to conveyor under packing table. 



Total capacity of the lines, when the exact sizing 
fine is turning out the standard wrap-and-pack and 
the group sizing line, the tray pack, is 920 boxes of 
loose fruit per hour. Total labor requirements for 
this capacity are 68 or 69 workers. Maximum 
capacity of the fines is 1,300 boxes per hour. 

The dimension sizer, which is of greater capacity 
than commonly used weight sizers, is used in the 
group sizing fine in this layout for the major grade of 
fruit, which accounts for the increased capacity of 
the combined fines. 

Both packing lines are designed for sorting apples 
into two grades. The exact sizing line may easily 
be converted to sort three grades by installing a belt- 
conveyor for the third grade over the sorting table, 
to defiver this fruit to one or more sections of the 
sizer. 

Equipment Required 

The equipment used for the exact sizing line in 
this layout is the same as that described earfier, 
except that the overhead monorail conveyor is about 



50 feet shorter. Its overall length is approximately 
285 feet. 

The main difference in equipment between the 
group sizing line in this layout and the single fine 
layout is in the use of the dimension sizer. The 
equipment up to the discharge end of the sorting 
table is the same. The dumper and dumper-feed 
chains, however, are at right angles to the packing 
fine in this layout. 

The efiminator for bagging apples is not required 
at the end of the sorting table, because the dimen- 
sion sizer also serves as the eliminator. 

Items of equipment that are the same as for the 
single fine layout are: 

Ten semiautomatic apple packing machines, with 
connecting conveyors and transfers; 

One automatic box filler for bagging size apples; 

Two bagging machines, with approximately 10 
feet of chain and belt conveyor to carry the 
bagged apples to a packing stand; and 

One case sealer with compression unit and scale 
for weighing packed containers. 





BN-14809-X 



Figure 15. - Packed cartons of apples being elevated to working level by chain conveyor from under the return-flow bell packing table. 

From here the cartons move to the case sealing area. 



Additional items of equipment are: 

Two return-flow-belt packing tables, consisting of 
two 20-inch-wide belts, one table 80 feet long 
and another 60 feet long. 
One 187-foot chain conveyor, running under- 
neath the return-flow-belt packing tables, and 
connecting with other conveyors to move fruit 
to the segregating area. Part of the same con- 
veyor system also consists of 8 feet of belt con- 
veyor, for raising boxes from the low conveyor 
to the regular conveyor level, and 60 feet of 
roller conveyor for accumulating apples at the 
segregating area. 

A 52-foot distributing belt, used to distribute 
apples from the sizer to the return-flow-beh 
packing table for bagging apples. 

One 14-foot dimension sizer, 4 feet wide, with 
take-away beUs for five group sizes (fig. 17). 

One section of weight sizer for sizing the second 
grade of fruit, with approximately 50 feet of 
double-wing feed beh to convey the apples from 
the sorting table to the sizer. 



Description of Layout 

Figures 18 and 19 show the details of the layout. 
A main aisle for industrial lift trucks is between the 
two packing hnes. This aisle serves both segregat- 
ing areas, to conserve space. The mechanical 
packing hne is the shorter of the two and is arranged 
with the dumping area at a right angle to the pack- 
ing hne, to shorten it further. This permits the 
hft trucks to have access to the ends of both hnes 
without crossing any work areas. 

In this layout, the work space and the doors are so 
arranged that the main supply area is best located 
near the ends of both hnes; here it does not interfere 
with work areas or aisles. Additional space is pro- 
vided around the mechanical packing line for sup- 
plies; this space is necessary because the fiber- 
board containers used with this hne are rather 
bulky. Supphes are conveniently at hand and yet 
do not interfere with production. 

Office and rest room facilities are somewhat larger 
than those in the previous layouts, to accommodate 
a larger crew and greater volume of business. 




TRIPPING 
LEVER — 



FOOT 



STA MPS, COUNTS, 
AND ALLOWS 
CARTONS TO ROLL 
DOWN CONVEYOR. - 




MECHANICAL 
PACKER 




PACKED 



CARTON 



[>. FArJC V to 



CONVEYOR 
RFLT 



Figure 16. — An automatic stamper and counter used with a mechanical packing machine. 



Description of Operations 

With this two-hne packing room layout, the opera- 
tions are identical with those for the exact sizing hne 
and group sizing line; each of the two hnes is a com- 
plete packing unit in itself (fig. 18). There is, how- 
ever, a possible variation in operations for bagging- 
size fruit. 

Perhaps the best operation would be to bag fruit 
from both hnes at the bagging table of one hne. 
Bagging sizes from the other line would be accumu- 
lated in loose boxes and transported by hft truck to 
this table. Combining the operations might make it 
possible to reduce the bagging crew by one or two 
workers. Whether this method is used depends on 
the rate with which the bagging sizes accumulate 
from a particular lot of apples, and whether or not 
the bagging sizes can be pooled into one lot. 

Number of Workers Required , 

The average output of the two lines would be 920 
boxes, with 420 boxes packed in the exact sizing hne 
and 500 on the group sizin-^ line. The maximum 



output would be 1,300 boxes -600 with the exact, 
and 700 with the group sizing hne. Approximately 
68 workers are required to achieve these outputs 
(Appendix, table 6). These workers would be 
assigned as follows: 37 to the exact line, 28 to the 
group sizing line, and 3 would divide their time be- 
tween the two hnes. 

Moving pallet loads of loose fruit, culls, empty 
boxes, and bagged fruit would require two workers, 
using hft trucks. Hand-trucking stacks of boxes 
from the pallets to the start of the lines would 
require two workers. Stacking empty boxes and 
placing boxes on the overhead monorail conveyor 
would also require two workers. 

There is a difference in the number of sorters 
required, compared with the two single lines 
discussed previously. Each of these hnes re- 
quired eight sorters. The group sizing line in this 
layout is operated with a dimension sizer which 
can handle a greater volume. To supply fruit for 
this greater volume, it is necessary to have two 
additional sorters, making a total of 18 sorters for 
the two lines. 



13 



Figure 17. — A high-volume 12-foot dimension sizer with 4 take-away belts. 



BN-i48io~X 



Because of the increased volume moving over 
the group sizing line, one additional packer is 
needed. This means 9 workers on mechanical 
packing and 18 on wrap-packing. 

With some methods of operation, the number of 
workers bagging fruit would be the same as on 
the two lines separately — six workers. During 
slow periods, the workers could place the bags 
directly in the master containers, rather than using 
an additional worker. Then four workers are 
needed. Accumulating the loose fruit in boxes 
on the one hne, and bagging it on the other hne can 
also reduce the number of bagging workers from 
six to four. 



Stamping containers, hdding and closing packed 
containers, tallying, labeling, and segregating are 
the same as for the two separate hues. Eight 
workers are required, unless some of the variations 
in tallying and stamping boxes discussed under 
the single line for group sizing are used. 

Combining the two hues in one room allows one 
supervisor and one man supplying the packing 
lines to serve both lines. An additional worker is 
required for maintenance to relieve the super- 
visor of some of this work. (In the single-line 
layouts, the supervisor might do some mainte- 
nance work, and may be helped by the worker 
handling supplies.) 



14 




BN-I4811-X 



Figure 18. — Model of equipment for a two-line packing room — one line for exact sizing and the other for group sizing. 



STORAGE ROOM LAYOUTS 



Layouts are developed for three cold-storage 
rooms of the following standard-box capacity: 
25,000, 50,000, and 100,000. 

All storages are of one-story design to facilitate 
hft truck handling of fruit. The layouts are planned 
to provide proper air circulation for the stored fruit 
and to minimize space requirements and construc- 
tion costs. 

The storages are designed for completely auto- 
matic refrigeration systems. Outside areas for 
receiving and shipping fruit are paved. Parts of 
these areas are covered to provide both protection 
from the weather for handhng operations and stor- 
age for empty boxes or other supphes. 

The two larger storages are designed around 48- 
by 40-inch pallet loads of 48 unpacked boxes of 
apples, and the small storage, around 36- by 40- 
inch loads of 36 unpacked boxes of apples without 
pallets. 

Storage Pattern 

In the two larger storages, pallet loads are stacked 
three-high; each pallet load is six boxes high. The 
unit loads in the smaller storage are six boxes high, 
and are stacked two loads high. 



Each storage has only one main aisle. Cross 
aisles take up valuable storage space and are un- 
necessary when hft trucks are used. 

The pallets or unit loads are stored in single rows, 
facing the center aisle, with a 6-inch space between 
each row. An 8-inch space is left along the side 
waUs and a 9-inch space at the back wall. These 
spaces are provided to permit proper air circula- 
tion, facilitate handling operations, and prevent 
damage to the walls and insulation. 

Air Circulation 

Refrigeration units are installed over the center 
aisle (fig. 20). Air circulates from the center of the 
rooms outward to the walls, down through and be- 
tween the rows of fruit, and back up through the 
center of the room. 

Storage-Room Dimensions 

The dimensions of the rooms are designed to keep 
the rows of stored fruit as short as possible for con- 
venience of checking fruit quality and removing 
specified lots, and to use roof trusses of a standard 
length to keep costs low. Short pallet rows are 




TOR A E 



I Z 9 10 



Figure 19. — Layout of a high-volume two-line packing room for exact and group sizing. 



15 




BN-14«12-X 



Figure 20. — Refrigeration units in the truss area of the storage 
room. Lights mounted on the trusses down the center aisle 
are directed to shine parallel to the rows of pallets. 



preferable for storing fruit from a number of growers 
or for many small lots of apples of different variety 
and grade. 

In the two larger storages, the clear height under 
the trusses is 21 feet, to allow ample space for circu- 
lation and to position and remove the top load. 

Normally, pallets holding packed fruit will be 
stacked 5 boxes high, so that a clear height of 20 feet 
under the trusses would be adequate. These stor- 
ages are designed to accommodate 6-box-high pallet 
loads, to provide ample space during peak produc- 
tion years. The extra space is worth a great deal 
compared to the small cost of extra construction. 

The main aisle is a minimum of 12 feet wide. 
Doorways at each end of the aisle are a minimum 
of 8 feet wide and 10 feet high, to accommodate 
industrial lift trucks.^ 

Lighting 

Lighting of the storage rooms provides suffi- 
cient illumination for handhng operations without 
increasing refrigeration requirements. 



^Doorways of cold-storage rooms are usually equipped with 
batten or bumper doors, as described on page 20. Air doors, 
which are becoming increasingly popular, might be substituted 
for the batten doors. 

16 



The hghts are instaUed over the center of the 
main aisle and are directed outward to the back 
walls so that they illuminate the length of the stor- 
age row (fig. 20). This type of installation is less 
expensive than placing lights all over the room. 
The switches are arranged so that hghts need be 
turned on only in the section of the storage being 
used. 

Lighting is also provided for the outside receiv- 
ing and shipping areas. These areas may be 
used at night, and some hghts may also be left on 
all night for security. 

Receiving and Shipping Areas 

Truck loading areas or aprons are of ample size, 
to enable several highway trucks to unload at one 
time, with space between them to permit forklift 
trucks to operate on either side. A minimum of 15 
feet is allowed between trucks. 

Unloading areas are paved and properly sloped 
for adequate drainage. Paved areas should be 
smooth and permit fast forklift truck operation. 
During the winter, unpaved unloading areas would 
soon be a mass of mire, and interfere with unloading 
operations. 

If possible, it is recommended that the fruit 
unloading area be put on the east side of the build- 
ing, away from the prevaihng wind. This will 
provide some shelter against strong winds. 

The covered areas have been designed 19 feet, 3 
inches high, to permit stacking pallet loads 3 high. 
A minimum of posts and columns is used to allow 
freedom of fruit handling with a minimum of inter- 
ference. 

Another feature, common to all of these storage- 
room layouts, is that they are planned for quick 
receiving and shipping. The receiving period is 
usually the busiest time of the year, so the layouts 
are made as efficient as possible by locating the 
covered receiving areas near the cold-storage 
rooms. 

Future Expansion 

One of the more important considerations in 
designing a storage, and one that is frequently over- 
looked, is providing for future expansion. It is 
difficult to generahze plans for expansion because 
so much depends upon the proximity of roads and 
railroads, and topography of the particular site. In 
the layouts discussed here, provisions for expansion 
have been made on the assumption that the topog- 
raphy is rather uniform. The direction of expansion 
is determined almost entirely on the basis of the 
efficiency of fruit handhng in relation to the location 
of the packing hne and the rail siding. 




-1 40' 




□pan □□□□□□□ 



COLO STORAGE ROOM 

40"X36" STACKS 
36 BOXES PER STACK- 
2 STACKS HIGH 
25.920 BOXES TOTAL 



° <)- AISLE SPACE 



6. 

FLOOD LIGHTS - 



STEEL COLUMN 



a 



ei'-o" 




<^ FRUIT RECEIVING < 



■> TRUCK SHIPPING ^ 



TRUCK AREA 



CONCRETE RECEIVING 
APRON 

SAME LEVEL AS STORAGE ROOM FLOOR 



- FLOOD LIGHTS 



c 



FRUIT RECEIVING 



FUTURE COLO STORAGE EXPANSION AREA 



■ 20-0" 



L. 



AIR FLOW 

^ - 



STACKEO FRUIT 



FIN. FLOOR UNE 



REFRIGERATION 
BLOWER UNfTS 



'FINISHED CEILING LINE 



Tit , 



1' 



SECTION A-A 



SCALE OF FEET 

Lb.. . f — "^rz 



15 20 



Figure 21. — Layout of a 25,000-box-capacity refrigerated storage room. 



A 25,000-Box Storage 
General Characteristics 

The cold-storage nunn designed ior the 25,000-h))x 
plant is shown in figure 21. It actually holds 25,920 
loose boxes of fruit. This type of storage is suit- 
able for the small ranch or farm operated by a 
grower with his family, and several full-time employ- 
ees. Extra help is hired during the packing season. 
Although this type of storage seldom would l)e 
expanded, provision is made in the layout for an 
expansion to double its capacity. 

The usual practice, in storages of this type in the 
Pacific Northwest, is that all the fruit is moved 
directly into storage; packing is done after the 
harvest season. 

It is assumed that all fruit is loaded onto highway 
trucks for shipment to market. These plants are 
usually not located near or on railroad sidings. 
Occasionally packed fruit is hauled to a railroad 
siding where it is loaded, but more frequently load- 
ing is directly onto a highway truck. All shipping 
is usually completed, and the storage emptied, 
before spring orchard activities start. 

A completely automatic refrigeration system is 
recommended. The calculated refrigeration load is 
16.5 tons. This is based on a daily average fruit and 
outside temperature of 65° F., a roof temperature of 
75° F., a daily average inside temperature of 32° 
F., a loading period of 12 to 13 days, and an average 
receiving rate of 2,000 field boxes per day. 



Description of Operation 

Handling operations of a 25,000-box storage are 
based on the use of a 36-box-capacity clamp truck. 
This is a lilt truck that can be conveniently used for 
receiving fruit from orchard trailers. These trailers 
will probably be used, because the plant is located in 
or near the orchard. The clamp-truck operator can 
build unit loads, 3 boxes high — the way they are 
received — to 6 boxes high, for storage. 

Two methods of unloading and moving to storage 
are possible. The hft-truck operator may build the 
loads 6-high on the orchard trailer, lift them off the 
trailer and place the loads on the apron so that the 
trailer can return to the orchard. After the trailer 
has gone, the lift-truck operator moves the unit 
loads into storage, placing dunnage, or stabilizing 
strips, usually 1-inch by 4-inch material, between 

. the unit loads to stabilize the upper load. 

The alternative practice is f<»r the lift-truck opera- 
tor to build the unit load 6-high on the trailer, lift the 

Jyload and move it directly into cold-storage without 
setting it down on the apron. This method requires 



less lift-truck operating time, but ties up the trailers 
a little longer. 

As fruit is moved into cold storage, it is placed in 
rows at right angles to the aisle with a space for air 
circulation between each row of unit loads. 

When fruit is removed from cold storage and 
taken to the packing fine, the lift-truck operator 
transports loads of apples from the storage room. 
He stacks several loads in the dumping area, 
where packing room workers dump the fruit onto 
the packing line. As frequently as is necessary, 
the lift-truck operator picks up a unit load of packed, 
segregated fruit and places it in storage or takes it 
to the loading area. At other times, he will remove 
empty boxes, or boxes of culls or juicer apples. 

50,000- and 100,000-Box Storage Roortis 
General Characteristics 

The important layout features of the 50,000- and 
100,000-box cold-storage rooms are so similar that 
they are presented together. Both are designed 
for operation by a large grower or a central packer. 

When full, the 50,000-box ro(»m accommodates 
51,840 unpacked boxes stacked in 48-box unit loads 
on pallets, 3 pallet loads to the stack. The 100,000- 
box room accommodates 100,800 boxes. It is 
assumed that both plants pack some of their fruit 
as it is received, but most of it is moved into cold 
storage for packing later. Both pack fruit late 
into the season. 

The two rooms are laid out to receive fruit at one 
end of the building and to load out to railroad cars 
at the other, reducing congestion in the handling 
operations. The layouts of these two storage 
rooms are shown in figures 22 and 23. 

Description of Operation 

During the receiving season, most fruit that is 
packed is loaded out directly; only part of it goes 
back to cold storage. Later in the season, after the 
receiving period is over, the loose fruit is moved out 
of storage to the packing room, packed, segregated, 
and returned to cold storage. Only part ot the pack- 
ing line output is loaded out directly from the pack- 
ing room. Most frequently, loads of packed fruit 
are blocked out in the storage room or in the covered 
area on the outside, and from there moved onto 
railroad cars or highway transport trucks. 

The pallet loads of fruit are stored in rows at right 
angles to the aisle. The unit loads on the aisle in 
each row can be marked to indicate the lot or the 
grower to whom the fruit belongs. Occasionally, 
fruit in one of the rows might be of two different lots, 



or belong to two different growers. This could 
entail extra handling of the unit loads in moving 
them from cold storage or getting them ready for 
shipment. The cost for the extra handling is quite 
small, however, since it requires only a small amount 
of time with a forkHft truck. 



The forklift truck operations are carried on rela- 
tively efficiently, combining hauling of loose fruit 
from storage with transporting the empty boxes, 
culls, juicer fruit, and packed fruit out of the pack- 
ing ntom. Seldom will the forklift truck be moving 
about empty. 



PACKING AND STORAGE HOUSE 
DESIGNS 



Once an efficient layout has been developed, a 
building can be designed to fit the operating pattern. 
Using 5 of the layouts already discussed, and a lay- 
out developed for a 200,000-box storage, three apple 
packing and storage houses were designed. The 
first incorporates the exact sizing line and the 
50,000-box storage; the second incorporates the 
group sizing line and the 100,000-box storage; and 
the third incorporates the double packing line and a 
200,000-box storage. Each of the designs includes 
plans for future expansion of the storage. Flow dia- 
grams for the three plants are shown in figures 24, 
25, and 26. 

Detailed plans and specifications were developed 
for each plant and supplement this section of the 
report. The plans and specifications are available 
for inspection or purchase as listed in the Preface. 

General Discussion of Construction 

There are many possible construction materials 
for apple packing and storage houses. Some plants 
are constructed completely of wood, bricks, or 
blocks: others have steel frames and roofs. Some 
plants are built of reinforced concrete. Still other 
plants include a combination of these types of 
construction. 

The cost of a building varies greatly, depending 
upon the materials selected. For example, an 
office in a plant could have the outside walls faced 
with brick and the inside walls fully plastered, or 
concrete block walls painted on the inside. Other 
examples of how building costs could vary include: 
The use of copper flashing and gutters instead of 
galvanized iron: and radiant heating installed in the 
floor of the packing room, instead of portable 
heaters. 

Other factors that are not directly controUable 
may affect costs. For instance, it may be neces- 
sary to use a great deal of fill on the building site; 
or the soil may be such that extra large biotings are 
required. Examples such as these and ()thers can 
add 20 to 50 percent to the construction cost of a 
packing and storage house. 



Generally, plant managers can obtain several 
cost estimates which will permit alternative choices 
of quality, materials, and other items included in the 
facility, which in turn influence costs. These 
choices can be made as plans progress, if an archi- 
tect or engineer has heen selected to work with the 
owner in developing the plans. 

Another factor that should be considered is 
providing for future expansion. Often, because of 
budget limitations, only a portion of the c<»mplete 
unit can be built. The future building program 
should be planned from the beginning, to avoid 
unnecessary costs when additions are made. 

Complete and detailed plans and specifications, 
which are part of the contract documents, allow for 
competitive bidding among contractors, and pro- 
vide precise and concise understanding between 
contractor and owner. These documents give the 
plant manager detailed inlormation of what he is 
to receive for money spent, and also show (he con- 
tractor what is desired by the owner. Plans and 
specifications help hold additions and plan changes 
during construction to a minimum. Whenever 
final construction costs far exceed initial estimates, 
these two factors are usually the causes. F'or the 
contractor, plans showing detail and dimensions 
eliminate guessing, errors, and loss of time, and 
minimize risks, all of which must be reflected in the 
contractor's bid. 

Local conditions also influence cost. For 
example, concrete blocks or gravel fill in one area 
may be considerably cheaper than in a neighboring 
community. Because gravel is generally available 
in the Yakima area, reinforced concrete construc- 
tion is desirable there. 

Local ordinances sometimes permit variation in 
the structures. For example, within city limits of 
Yakima, ordinances require steel columns to be 
encased in concrete, and all steel members in the 
building completely covered. The same building 
could be huilt in an outlying area, with nearly the 
same structural strength, but at a substantially 
lower cost. 



17 



FUTURE DOOR 



< ^H*IL SHIPPING 
PAVED AREA 



PACKING 



2Q''0'- 



FUTURE COLD STORAGE EXPANSION AREA 



ROOM 



72-0" 



□□□□onmaDnnna 

It 



-ALLOW e" 
SPACING 



33'- 0* 



ALLOW 2' 

SPACING - 



COLO STORAGE ROOM 

40"X48" PALLETS 
IB BOXES PER PALLET 
3 PALLETS HIGH 
51,640 BOXES TOTAL 



MN.ELEC P 



ICOMp I 
MACH.RM. 



COMP. 



-0- 



DEFR. TNK. 




-l2'-0" 



6'XIO'REF OOOR 




> TRUCK SHIPPING j > 



<^ FRUIT receivi ng"^ 



FLOODLIGHTS 



TRUCK ABEA 
ASPHALT PAVING 
SAME LEVEL AS STORAGE 



FRUIT RECEIVING <f 



SCALE OF FEET 



10 19 20 



Figure 22. — Layout of a 50,000-box-capacity refrigerated storage room. 



Features of Designs for Three Plants 

All three plants are on ground level and. are 
designed for lift truck operations. The shapes of 
the buildings, the materials from which they are 
constructed, and the other features have been 
decided upon after careful consideration of costs of 
construction, insurance, and maintenance and 
operating problems. 

Site Selection. — Sites for the three packing 
and storage houses siiould be selected with the 
following points in mind: 

• Access to a rail siding; 

• Access to a highway; 

• Availability of such utilities as electricity, 
fuel, telephone lines, water, and sewer; 

• Adequate area to allow for parking, loading 
and unloading, and future expansion; and 

• A site as level as possible to minimize the 
cost of excavations, retaining walls, and 
steep driveways. 

Foundation. — A concrete ringwall extends 
around the perimeter of the building; it has footing 
pads for concrete pilasters, which support the roof. 
All foundation walls and footings are reinforced 
with steel, to insure proper tie and bond, and to pre- 
vent undue shrinkage or settling. Foundation bases 
are a minimum of 3 feet below the finished grade 
around the building, to prevent heaving or settling 
from frost. 

This type of construction is rodent- and termite- 
proof, and is not subject to rot or to deterioration 
from the weather. The floor is a 5y2-inch rein- 
forced-concrete slab, thick enough to withstand 
heavy trucking and stacking loads. ^ Under all con- 
crete floors, except in the covered area, a 6-inch 
gravel fill is provided, to prevent moisture and 
dampness from entering the floor slab by capillary 
action. The gravel also tends to distribute the 
loads over small soft spots that may occur after 
excavation and backfilling. Wire mesh acts as 
reinforcing steel in all concrete floors, to prevent 
cracking and failure of concrete over soft spots or 
voids. 

In an attempt to save money, asphah has been 
used for floors in buildings instead of concrete, but 
it has not proved satisfactory. Asphalt tends to 
compress or "run" under heavy use. The small 
tires on forklift trucks that continually carry heavy 



^Thickness delermined from Portland Cement Associatittn 
publication "Concrete Floors on Ground for Industrial and Oilier 
Heavy Uses." 6 pp.. illus. 1951. 



loads over the same route intensify the problem, and 
the result is constant maintenance. Asphalt's 
rough surface is hard to clean and maintain. 

Wood floors have also been used, but do not with- 
stand the heavy traffic of forklift trucks. The cost 
of wood to take the same loading as on grade con- 
crete is unreasonably high. 

Walls of the Plants Are of Precast Con- 
crete.— Mobile cranes can raise sections of walls, 
which are precast at the site, into position. This 
ehminates double-form wall construction and 
greatly reduces the cost of concrete walls. Wall 
sections are poured at ground level, where steel and 
concrete placement is simplified, and the slabs may 
be easily troweled and finished, to eliminate voids, 
gravel pockets, and the like, which so often occur in 
walls formed in place {figs. 27 and 28). 

The walls are essentially nonload bearing, ex- 
cept (hat they must be adequately reinforced to 
withstand hoisting into place and wind loads. They 
must also be braced in position until the permanent 
concrete pilasters are poured. 

There are many methods of tilting or raising tlie 
wall sections. Some contractors prefer to pour an 
entire wall section, usually 20 by 20 feet, and raise 
the entire slab. Others have developed a technique 
where lighter hoisting equipment is used. In this 
method the panels are made 5 or 6 by 20 feet and 
placed one on top of the other until the desired 
height is reached. 

Pilasters. — The pilasters and footings are de- 
signed to permit future expansion and to carry the 
increased loads of this expansion. In addition, 
they are designed to carry the entire weight of the 
roof and snow and wind loads. 

Forms for making concrete pilasters are usually 
made of wood. Concrete is poured into them after 
the wall sections are set in place. These pilasters 
fill the voids between the wall sections and also tie 
them together into a solid reinforced wall. The 
pilasters are reinforced to tie them down to the foot- 
ing. This makes a strong wall, capable of with- 
standing high winds and mild earthquakes. 

Roofs. — Different types of roofs are specified 
for the packing and storage rooms. 

The storage-room roof consists of bowstring wood 
trusses, wood joists, and roof decking, with adequate 
bracing, bridging, and blocking. The roof area is 
then covered with a bonded, 20-year, built-up felt 
paper and tar roof. 

Because wood is more widely available in the 
northwest, wood was chosen for the roof trusses 
instead of steel. Insurance rates for wood are con- 
siderably less expensive than for steel. Roof main- 
tenance and repair are comparable. 




Figure 23. — Layout of a 100.000-box-capacity refrigerated storage room. 



688-765 4 




I-iGURE 24- — Fruit flow diagram for apple packing and storage house of 50,000-box capacity. 



The space between trusses is spanned by 2- by 
12-incb joists. The spacing of the joists is governed 
by the span and the loading. For a total load of 
approximately 60 pounds per square foot, the joists 
are spaced 12 inches on centers.-'' The joists are 
covered with shiplap, which is laid diagonally to give 
extra support and bracing. 

Two different systems were evaluated for span- 
ning the distance between the trusses. One system 
was using the 2- by 12-inch joists, which was se- 
lected, and the second system made use of 10- by 12- 
inch purlins on 8-foot centers. The purlin system 
was 15 to 20 percent more expensive, mainly be- 
cause of the end bays in the room; the 2- by 12-inch 
joists were merely "jackknifed" down to the wall. 
Purhns required extra furring, sheathing, and 
insulation. 

Cold-storage and packing-room roofs are designed 
for a hve load of 30 p.s.f. (pounds per square foot) 
plus 15 p.s.f. wind load, a total Hve load of 45 p.s.f. 
for the Yakima area. Live loads should be deter- 
mined for local conditions. 

Open-web steel roof joists were selected for the 
packing-room roof. Steel joists were selected in- 
stead of wood trusses, because steel lends itself 
to longer spans and takes less room than wood 
trusses. In this case, for the span required, the 
overall height of the packing room was l<»wered by 
using steel, which still allowed the same head room 
inside and resulted in lower wall construction and 
better healing conditions. 

Anitther advantage to these steel joists in the 
packing roctm is the ease with which electrical con- 
duit and water piping may be installed. The open 
joists permit placing the piping laterally or longi- 
tudinally without cutting and patching or twisting 
around wood members. Costs for wood and steel 
were very nearly the same, but steel saved about 2 
percent. 

The solid tongue-and-groove roof decking speci- 
fied not only provides a strong roof deck, but also 
gives a finished appearance to the ceiling inside the 
room. This saves the cost of plywood or other wood 
joist covering. 

The roofing specified is bonded, 20-year- 
guaranteed roof.** It consists of built-up layers of 
tar and felt paper and has an excellent service 
record. While it requires some maintenance, it is 
the most economical and is as widely accepted as 
any type of roof application. 

Refrigeration doors. — Insulated refrigeration 
doors are provided. Doors are of sufficient height 



^Determined from "West Coast Lumberman's Associated 
Structural Data and Design Tables for Douglas Fir." 312 pp., 
illus. Rev. 1961. 

^Some roofing companies do not bond bowstring truss roofs. 



20 



to clear the mast of the forkhft truck as it passes 
through the opening. 

Bumper doors that swing in or out (or air doors)^ 
are usually installed inside all refrigeration doors 
because the large refrigeration door is left open dur- 
ing many operations. These swinging doors are 
self-closing and can easily be opened by bumping 
them with the forklift truck. This permits easy 
access in and out of the room and also prevents 
undue loss of refrigeration. Several types of 
bumper doors are available. 

Parapet Walls. — Parapet walls stop fire from 
spreading from one section of the building to an- 
other; they separate different portions of the build- 
ing. In the area studied, they are required to 
extend a minimum of 2 feet above the roof. Sepa- 
rating the cold storage room from the other parts of 
the building (covered areas and packing room), 
lowers insurance rates. A discussion of insurance 
is in the appendix. 

Covered Areas. — Covered area roofs are con- 
structed with open web steel irame joists. This 
provides a maximum of headroom with a minimum 
of depth for the span required. In this case, much 
lower fire insurance rates are obtained by using 
steel instead of wood construction. The floors of 
the covered areas are concrete, for lift truck 
operations. 

Office and Machine Rooms. — Concrete block 
was chosen instead of wood or tilt-up precast con- 
crete construction for the office and machine room 
waUs because: 

• The cost of concrete-block walls is about the 
same as for wood; 

• Concrete-block waUs require less mainte- 
nance than wood; 

• The large size of the tilt-up panels and the 
need for several openings for windows and 
doors made concrete block construction 
more practical; and 

• Because of the small area of these rooms, 
and the concrete parapet wall ol the packing 
room, a wooden roof on the two rooms is 
allowable without insurance penalty. 

Lunchrooms and Restrooms. — As is general 
practice in fruit packinghouses, a lunchroom for 
employees is provided. Restrooms are provided 
for both men and women. 



^ An air docir recently developed is reported in U.S. Dept. Agr. 
AMS^58, Air Door for Cold Storage Houses, 196L Air doors 
eliminate many of the hazards and drawbacks of other doors by 
giving the operator of the forkbft truck an unobstructed view of 
both sides of the doorway. 



r 



J 



STORAGE TO 
RAIL SHIPPING 



SHOP 



BOX MAKE-UP 
AREA 



BOXES TO PACKING j 
LINE ON MON OgiaiL J {_ 



^ <r(> <TT> 



WEIG 



TYPE 



DUMPING DE-STACKfNG 



SIZING 



^ <U^ ^ 

MECHANICAL 



PACKED BOX 
ACCUMULATOR CHAIN 



CARTON 
LIDDING 



PACKING 




BAGGING 



BOX 

FILLER 



CULL BIN 
TO STORAGE OR 
TRUCK SHIPPING 



CuSTI^YVt^ i » LOOSE FRU.T 
I 1 PALLETS 

I—*- TO STORAGE OR TRUCKS 
EMPTIES TO 
TRUCKS OR 
BOX STORAGE 



STAMPING 
WEIGHING 



BOX LIDDING 



LABEL TALLY 



PACKED BOX PALLETS 



GLUEING 



Vr\/ \/ \7 \/ \/ \Zv \7^/C/' 



SEGREGATING AREA 



COLO 



STORAGE 



ROOM 



MACHINE 
ROOM 



PACKING LINE TO STORAGE 
LOOSE FRUIT TO PACKING LINE 
LOOSE FRUIT TO STORAGE 



SCALE OF FEET 

HHH -t=^=:j 

5 10 15 20 



> 



Figure 25. — Fruit flow diagram for apple packing and storage house of 100,000-box capacity. 



RAILROAD SPUR 




STOHAGE TO 
RAIL SHIPPING 



STORAGE TO 
HAIL SHIPPING 



r 



PACKING LINE 
TO STORAGE 



COLO 



STORAGE 



ROOM 



LOOSE FRUIT 
TO STORAGE 



STORAGE TO 
TRUCK SHIPPING 



COLD 



LOOSE FRUIT TO 
PACKING LINE 



STORAGE TO 
TRUCK SHIPPING 




FRUIT 
RECEIVING 



SCALE OF FEET 
5 10 15 20 



TRUCK AREA 



FRUIT 
RECEIVING 



FRUIT TO PACKING LINES 



OFFICE 



OFFICE 



OFFICE 



i 



If T 



LUNCH 



MEN 



WOMEN 



SHOP 



Figure 26. — Fruil flow diagram for apple packing and storage house of 200,000-box capacity. 



Plumbing. — The plumbing fixtures and sewage 
disposal system specified are those commonly used 
and are to be installed in accordance with local 
ordinances and acceptable standards of the trade. 
A septic tank and sewage disposal field is provided 
because city or community sewage disposal was 
not assumed to be available at the site. 

City water service was assumed to be available at 
the property line, so a 2-inch pipe connection is 
provided to service the refrigeration units and other 
equipment and fixtures. 

Employee Parking. -Off-highway parking is 
planned for employees. This keeps parked cars of 
employees away from the fruit handling operations 
and permits an easy flow of truck traffic to and from 
the storage and packinghouse. 

The parking area is graveled becausfe it will not 
have to bear heavy traffic loads and forkUft truck 
operations. Gravel parking lots have been satis- 
factory where used only for passenger cars. As- 
phalt or concrete surfaces are better; however, 
management generally does not feel justified in 
spending the extra amount for this seasonal use. 

Electrical Equipment. -The main control 
panels in the engine rooms are designed to provide 
for increased power requirements to take care of 
additional small fractional horsepower motors for 
the packing line equipment, and future expansion 
of the refrigeration system. Subservice panels are 
located at several points in the packing rooms for 
easy access to lighting and motor control. The elec- 
trical system compHes with all local and State codes, 
as well as the National Electric Code. All wiring 
is in conduit. 

In the cold-storage room, lights are installed 
over the center aisle. In this location there is little 
chance for damage or breakage by being struck with 
the extended masts of industrial forklift trucks. 
FloodUghts are located to illuminate certain areas of 
the cold storage, which permits selective lighting 
of the areas as needed. This saves electricity and 
refrigeration. The estimated electric load for the 
three sizes of plants is in the appendix. A sum- 
mary of these loads is in table 1. 

Intercommunication System. — Where opera- 
tions are as diversified and scattered as in an apple 
packing and storage house, an intercommunication 
system is needed. The system specified is one 
which has proved successful in new plants in the 
Pacific northwest. Essentially, it is a system of 
telephones and unit broadcasters, strategically 
located around the packing and handling area. 
Calls are announced over the broadcaster; private 
conversations can be carried on over telephones. 



Figure 27.— Form for wall section in foreground, showing reinforcing steel in place. 



BN-i4an-x 



Insulation. — Insulation for the cold-storage 
rooms was selected to meet minimum refrigeration 
requirements. Installation methods that best fit 
into the structural pattern of the building are speci- 
fied. Insulation requirements are discussed in the 
appendix. 



Table 1 . — Estimated electrical load for three 
storage and packinghouses * 



Power demand ilem 


Storage capacity 


50.000-boxes 


lOO.OOO-bcixes 


ZOO.OOO-boxes 


Refrigeration 

Lighting 


Amperes 

123 
65 
71 


Amperes 
241 
65 
19 


Amperes 

458 
127 
134 


Total 


259 


385 


719 


Amperage to be provided at 
the main circuit breaker... ... 


400 


400 


800 



For additional detail, see appendix. 



Refrigeration. — The refrigerating equipment 
for each plant was selected to handle the loads 
shown in table 2. A fist of equipment is in the speci- 
fications for each plant. Load calculations for the 
100,000-box storage are in the appendix. 

Because palletized handling is assumed for all 
storages, receiving should be very rapid during the 
peak of the harvest season. Therefore, the calcu- 
lations have been made for a short loading period. 
A general discussion of refrigeration requirements 
and the types of equipment selected for the plants is 
given here. 

Interim Storage for Pears. — Although these 
plants are designed primarily as apple storages, 
some operators may also want to use them for Bart- 
letl pears during the pear season. The receiving 
capacity of each plant, when handling Bartlett 
pears, was determined by a calculation similar to 
that made in the section, "Determining Perform- 
ance of Refrigeration Systems When Receiving Bart- 
lett Pears," in the appendix, p. 36. 

Bartlett pears are received in mid- August, 
during the hottest part of the season, and impose a 



Figure 28. — A poured waU section being troweled. 



DN-14818-X 



Table 2. —Factors considered in determining 
refrigeration loads for 3 refrigerated storage 
plants 



Factor 


Uml 


Storage capacity 


50.000 
bones 


100,000 
boxes 


200.000 
boxes 


Average of daily out- 


T 


65 


65 


65 


side temperature 










and initial fruit 










temperature. 






75 


75 


Average daily roof 


T 


75 


temperature. 








32 


Average daily inside 


T 


32 


32 


temperature. 










Loading period..- 


Number of 


14-15 


14-15 


14-15 




days. 








Average daily receiv- 


Field 


3,500 


7,000 


14, 000 


ing rate of apples. 


boxes. 






101 


Total refrigeration 


Tons of 


27 


52 


load. 


refrigera- 










tion. 









heavier load on the refrigeration ?quipment than 
apples. In all cases, it was found that the allowable 
pear receiving rate was about 50 percent of the apple 



receiving rate. This means that, in a normal 15- 
day receiving period, about half of the space in 
the storage could be filled with Bartlett pears. It 
is not generally advisable to fill more than half of 
the storage space with pears because in normal.crop 
years, the last of the Bartletts do not move out of 
storage until the end of October or the first part of 
November. If too much storage space is occupied 
by pears, it may not be available for apples when 
needed. Unless the storage must be planned for an 
unusually large tonnage of pears, the arrangement 
presented here, primarily designed for apples, 
will probably be satisfactory for pear storage. 

Ammonia as a REFRiGERANT.-Ammonia was 
selected for these installations for several reasons. 
Under fluctuating loads, such as occur in apple 
storages, ammonia equipment presents fewer 
problems than other equipment in properly feeding 
the evaporators, maintaining proper oil levels in the 
various compressor crankcases is much simpler. 
With the large number of evaporators planned, the 
full-flooded feeding of the refrigerant to the evapora- 
tors that is customary with ammonia is much su- 
perior to other feeding methods. Personnel 
familiar with the operation, maintenance, and 
repair of ammonia equipment of the size involved 



23 



are apparently more generally available in the area. 
There may be circumstances where these advan- 
tages will be overshadowed by other considera- 
tions (one will be discussed under heating), but 
for most storages of the sizes planned here, use of 
ammonia equipment seems sound practice. 

Selection of Evaporators. — A number of 
overhead cooling, or refrigeration, units with pro- 
peller fans are hung in the truss. spaces above the 
aisles. One pair of units, back to back, draws 
air from the aisles, blows it to the side walls, down 
the walls, and back to the aisles through the 
fruit. There is considerable aspiration of room air 
into the cold air stream from the units before the air 
starts its passage through the fruit stacks. In this 
way, the total quantity of air in motion is very 
large and the change in temperature in passing 
through the fruit is quite small. Resistance through 
the unit is low, and there is no duct resistance. It 
is therefore possible to economically circulate 
much larger quantities of air through the room 
than with large cooling units distributing air through 
ducts. The horsepower per c.f.m. (cubic feet per 
minute) of air circulated with this system is about 
one-half that needed with the large unit and duct 
combination. It is possible to obtain very large 
evaporator surfaces, because the design of these 
cooling units is standardized. The units are mass- 
produced at relatively low cost. 

The proposed units have from 250 to 300 square 
feet of fin and tube surface per T.R. (ton of re- 
frigeration). The quantity of air ciculated through 
the units is about 1,500 c.f.m. per T.R. 

A similar arrangement of coohng units has been 
installed in a number of apple storages in recent 
years, and has provided very satisfactory service. 

In the two larger storages, the cooling units are 
arranged in more than one zone for flexibihty of 
control and ease of defrosting. In the smaller 
storage, the units are fed, controlled, and defrosted 
in a single zone. Each zone is provided with hquid 
ammonia and suction headers connected to a suit- 
able suction trap, so that gravity-fed full-flooded 
operation of all evaporating surface is assured 
under all the various load conditions that may be 
encountered. In each zone, a single float controller 
maintains the desired hquid level in the trap, 
headers, and evaporators. A proper oil* trap and 
drain connection at the bottom of the hquid drop 
leg of the suction trap has been specified to guard 
against oil clogging the evaporators. 

The proposed suction traps are of ample size to 
guard against hquid slopover after shutdown during 
the low-capacity season, when this problem is 
critical. The specification also calls for the suction 
piping and valves on the outlet of the trap, arranged 

24 



so that any liquid condensing in the suction line 
during the defrost period will drain back into the 
suction trap. This is important in these systems. 

Where high-speed multicylinder compressors are 
used, a vertical suction trap should be used in the 
machine room to ehminate occasional hquid slop- 
over from the evaporators. The trap contains a 
subcooHng coil through which warm liquid passes in 
going from the receiver to the evaporators. Heat 
from this source is adequate to evaporate mild 
intermittent slopovers that may normally be en- 
countered with the system. 

Selection of Condensers.— Evaporative con- 
densers have been selected for these storages 
because a good reHable supply of condensing water 
is not available from wells without going to a depth 
of more than 300 feet at many places in the area 
studied. There are some locations where an 
adequate supply of water is available from com- 
paratively shallow wells. However, these wells 
often fluctuate substantially in level from one 
season of the year to another, and require fairly 
expensive deep-well pumps to cope with the change 
in water level. Capacity has been specified for 
design conditions of 65° F. wet-bulb air to the con- 
denser, and 90° F. condensing temperature. 

Because the maximum refrigeration capacity of 
the system is rarely used for more than 6 weeks 
during a season, two-speed fan motors have been 
specified for the evaporative condensers on the two 
larger storages. During periods of full capacity, 
fans are operated at fuU speed. As soon as the load 
drops to about 75 percent, the fans can be operated 
at low speed and use only about one-third of full 
power. Because low-speed operation is used for the 
greater part of the year, the power saving will be 
substantial. 

Operation of either evaporative condensers or 
cooling towers in the winter months requires special 
consideration. A warm-water defrost system per- 
mits a very favorable arrangement to meet cold 
weather conditions. The water that is sprayed 
over the coils of the evaporative condenser drains 
from the bottom of the condenser tank to the 
defrost tank in the machine room. When outside 
temperatures are near or below freezing, the con- 
denser fan does not operate. Because the load at 
this time of year is about 25 percent of full capacity, 
the condenser will have sufficient capacity with the 
water only being circulated over the coils. Ex- 
perience has shown that with the temperature 
outside below 32° F., the condensing temperatures 
obtained by operating only the water circulation 
pump without the fan are very similar to those 
obtained by running the fan only and leaving the 
coil dry. Because the pump needs less power, its 



use is preferred. This system can operate without 
danger of freezing during the off"-cycle, because the 
piping is arranged so that all water drains back 
into the defrost tank in the machine room when 
shutdown occurs. This system allows heating of 
the defrost water without any water heater in the 
discharge line from the compressors. 

Selection of Compressors. - Multiple com- 
pressors have been specified for all layouts. The 
smaller compressors in each of the smaller proposed 
plants has between 25 and 33 percent of the total 
capacity. This means that the larger machine will 
have about twice the capacity of the smaller 
machine, so the two machines will have three 
capacity steps between minimum and full load — a 
very flexible arrangement. In the largest storage, 
even greater flexibihty is provided by using three 
compressors; the smallest has a capacity of about 15 
percent of full load. 

Selection of Controls.— The control system 
includes appropriate devices to: Protect the equip- 
ment against certain malfunctions; maintain the 
room temperatures at certain preset temperatures; 
select the proper increments of compressor capacity 
as required by the load; automatically operate the 
evaporative condenser fans; and automatically 
defrost the cooling units in the various zones. 

The safety controls include: High- and low- 
pressure safety switches to protect the system 
against excessive pressures or against operation on 
a vacuum; jacket water fine thermostats to assure 
that compressors will not operate when jacket cool- 
ing water is unavailable; jacket water-hne magnetic 
valves to admit water to jackets only when com- 
pressor is in operation; and oil-pressure safety 
switches on all pressure-lubricated compressors. 

Recording temperature controllers are recom- 
mended in each room, so that the plant operator can 
see any deviation from normal temperature that 
may occur during the periods he is not actively 
attending to the plant. Because these are auto- 
matic systems, one mechanic probably will be 
responsible for the refrigeration plant operation and 
maintenance, as well as assisting in maintenance of 
packing fine and handhng equipment. During the 
receiving season, these duties leave httle time for 
observing how the refrigeration system is actually 
operating; a recording controller aids in this task. 

The controller for each room opens the magnetic 
hquid fine and magnetic suction fine valves and 
starts the lead compressor when the temperature 
rises above the control point and refrigeration is 
required, and closes the valves and stops the lead 
compressor when refrigeration is no longer required. 
An additional switch, upon a shght rise in room 
temperature, starts a second compressor. As the 



temperature falls, this compressor stops; the lead 
compressor runs until the lower control point is 
reached. In storages having more than one room, 
the controllers in either room can start both the 
lead and second compressor as required. A 
manual selector switch in the compressor room 
allows the plant attendant to use either machine as 
the lead compressor. In the large storage, that has 
three compressors, either the largest or the smallest 
compressor may be used as the lead machine. 
When the small machine leads, only one of the two 
larger machines is used as a follower. When the 
large machine leads, the two smaller compressors 
follow as one machine. 

Relays are specified for proper isolation of 
circuits and to operate the various evaporative 
condenser fans and pumps whenever a compressor 
is in operation. Cooling unit fans operate con- 
tinuously except during the defrost periods. 

Defrosting the Evaporators. -Defrosting for 
each zone is controlled by a timeclock. During 
the early part of the season, defrosting four times a 
day is normal, but after the storage has been filled, 
defrosting once a day is sufficient. To compensate 
for operating time lost during defrosting the pro- 
posed plant capacity has been selected to handle 
the design load by operating 22 hours of the day. • 

When the clock starts defrosting a particular 
zone, the fans stop, and the magnetic valves on both 
suction and liquid lines close. The defrost pump 
for the particular zone circulates water from the 
defrost tank in the compressor room to the water 
distributing devices in the cooling units. The warm 
water passes down over the cooling surface, melts 
the frost on the fins and tubes, and drops into the 
collecting pan which forms the bottom of each unit. 
After a 10-minute defrosting period, the clock stops 
the defrost pump; there is a 2-minute period for 
water to drip off the coil before the timing mecha- 
nism places the zone in operation again. All 
defrost water and drain lines are sloped to drain 
back to the defrost tank, so that there will be no 
water left in the fines, either in the cold-storage 
room or in the exposed fines outside the building. 

The water piping allows city water to pass through 
the compressor jackets to the defrost tank, and 
make up for losses from the evaporative condenser. 
This water provides a constant overflow to dilute 
the build-up of salts in the water caused by evap- 
oration. 

Four defrosting zones in the large storage mini- 
mize the problem of distributing the defrost water 
among the several units, and also allow for the 
possibihty that some storages might have four 
rooms, rather than two. In this case, partitions 
between the two zones in each room, a temperature 



controller for each zone, and modifications to the 
control wiring would be needed. 

All defrost and ammonia piping is above the 
aisles in the cold-storage room; lateral pipes are on 
the outside of the building, to avoid interference 
with stacking in the storage rooms. 

Pipe Covering. — Low-pressure ammonia pip- 
ing and suction traps inside the cold-storage 
rooms are covered with light-duty pipe covering to 
protect them from frosting during the operating 
period, and dripping water on the floor during the 
defrost period. Ammonia suction hnes outside 
the storage room are to be covered with standard 
pipe covering to minimize heat pickup from unre- 
frigerated spaces, and also to cut down on the super- 
heat in the suction gas coming to the compressors. 

The defrost water and drain lines are not insul- 
ated. Investigation shows that the amount of heat 
required to warm the pipe to the defrost-water 
temperature at each defrost cycle is greater than the 
heat loss to the surrounding atmosphere during 
each cycle. Insulation would not minimize the 
heat required to warm the pipe to the defrost water 
temperature, but would probably increase the heat 
requirement by increasing the mass of cold material. 
This is the greatest source of heat loss in cold 
weather. 

Estimated Refrigeration Costs. — Refrig- 
eration installation costs were estimated from 
typical bid prices of newly installed systems in 
the area, and their capacity, and determining the 
cost per ton of refrigeration. This factor was then 
applied to tonnages specified for these storages to 
determine their cost. Costs vary as size of the plant 
varies: refrigeration for the largest plants would 
cost approximately $600/T.R., and for the smaller 
plants, $700/T.R. The estimated installed cost of 
refrigerating machinery, controls, piping, and de- 
frost system for the various plants is shown in 
table 3. 



Table 3. — Estimated installed cost of refrigerating 
machinery, controls, piping, and defrost systems 
for three refrigerated storage plants for apples and 
pears 



Storage capacity 



Item 


50.000 
boxes 


100.000 
boxes 


200,000 
boxes 




Dollars 


Dollars 


Doll an 


Cost/T.R 


667 


633 


600 


Cost of equipment installed... 


18, 000 


33, 000 


60, 600 



Heating 

Suitable heating must be provided for the office, 
lunchroom, restrooms, shop, and packing room. 
With the increased trend toward packing to order, 
it is normal for packing operations to continue 
through the coldest winter weather. 

Typical load calculations for the heating of the 
packing room during outside temperatures of —5° F. 
are given in the appendix. Although there are 
three ventilating fans in the packing room, only one 
5,000-c.f.m. fan will be operated during the cold 
weather, to carry away fumes of the fungicide used 
in the apple washer. The heat-load calculations 
are based on heating the packing room to 60° F., 
because most of the occupants are performing physi- 
cal labor. Some additional heat will be needed in 
the sorting area, because sorting does not demand 
as much physical exertion. 

In the section, "Economic Analyses of Wall and 
Ceihng Insulation'' (appendix), an estimate is 
made of the total operating time for the packing 
room, and the estimated normal number of degree- 
days for the packing room heating derived from that 
estimate. These same figures will be used in con- 
sidering some of the economic aspects involved in 
selecting heating equipment. 

Typical calculations for the office heating load 
are in the appendix, in "Heating, Load Calcula- 
tions, Office." The heating for this space is the 
normal 70° F. inside temperature. Table 4 gives 
heating loads for packing room and office for each of 
the three plants. 

Table ^. — Assumed winter heating loads for pack- 
ing rooms and offices of three plants 



Storage capacity 



Item 










50.000 


100.000 


200.000 




boxes 


boxes 


boxes 




B.l.u.lbr. 


B.I.U.Ihr. 


B.I.U.Ihr. 


690, 400 


675. 600 


990, 400 


Office 


■ 42. 000 


47, 180 


65. 090 


Total 


690. 400 


722, 780 


1,055,490 



' Office heating load occurs only when packing room is un- 
heated, so these loads are not cumulative. 



Selection of a Fuel. -Natural gas is avail- 
able in the area. The average cost to a packing- 
house or similar consumer is $0.10 per 100,000 
B.t.u. input. With 80 percent as a normal effi- 
ciency for gas heating equipment, the cost of 
heat delivered is $0,125 per 100,000 B.t.u. Average 



oil cost in the area is $0,165 per gallon. With a fuel 
value of 140,000 B.t.u. /gal. and 70-percent effi- 
ciency for the heating equipment, the average cost 
per 100,000 B.t.u. dehvered is $0,168. Thus, the 
cost of gas is about 75 percent of the cost of oil. 
The first cost of the gas-fired apparatus also is less, 
so natural gas is cheaper. For areas not serviced 
by natural gas, there is a possibility of using LPG 
(liquified petroleum gas). The fuel cost is higher 
with this fuel than with oil, but the heating equip- 
ment is cheaper. Also, LPG is used in many 
plants as fuel for lift trucks, so storage facilities 
are then needed for the gas at the plant. Before a 
choice of fuel can be made, a detailed study must 
be made of heating equipment costs; some appor- 
tionment of cost of fuel-storage facihties must be 
charged off against handhng. 

Selection of Heating Units. -To heat the 
packing room, multiple, overhead, propeller-fan 
convection heating units were selected. They are 
dispersed in a manner to supply heat to the points 
where greatest need exists and to create satisfactory 
circulation in the area. The largest available sizes 
of this unit were selected, to minimize piping and 
vent connections. Each self-contained unit has 
its own controls, burner, and air circulation. No 
ducts are needed with this system. 

To heat offices, restrooms, and shops, gas-fired 
wall heaters were chosen. They are reasonably 
priced, compared to other types of heaters, occupy a 
minimum of space, allow individual control of tem- 



peratures to suit the occupants, and require no 
ducts. The vents are standard shop-built com- 
ponents, making these items also quite economical. 

An analysis of the use of rejected heal from the 
refrigeration system for heating the office and pack- 
ing room is in the appendix. 



Construction Cost Estimates 

Estimates of the cost of constructing three 
packing and storage houses of 50,000-, 100,000-, and 
200,000-hox capacity are summarized in table 5. 
Details are given in the appendix, table 13. The 
estimates are based upon the actual construction 
costs, indexes of materials, and labor costs in the 
Yakima area as of January 1, 1961. 

These costs are estimates and are not guaranteed 
to be actual construction costs. Prices of materials, 
labor, and the availabiUty of the contractor vary 
widely over short periods of time. The location of 
the building site, the nearness of labor sources, and 
choice of materials will also influence costs. 

Equivalent construction costs of the plants vary 
from $1.96 to $3.01 per box from the largest to the 
smallest plant. In -the small plant, the packing 
room and office construction costs are relatively 
the most expensive part of the plant. In the larger 
plants, the construction costs of the refrigerated 
storage rooms comprise the largest item of expense. 



Table 5. —Estimated construction costs of three packing and storage houses 



llem 


50,000-box houfif 


100,000'1k.x housL- 


200.000-liox liuUHu 


Tciial cosr ' 


Coil pl.T 
llXtSl- Inn ' 


Tittal cusi ' 


Coal per 
loose box ^ 


Trilill iMSl ' 


Ciial per 
loose box ' 


Packing room and office 

Healing, plumbing, and electrical equipment 


Dollars 
46.720 

22, 470 
56. 0.W 
16.270 
9, 360 
5,550 


Dollan 
0. 90 
.43 
1.08 

.31 
. 18 

. 11 


Dollars 
78, 230 

39, 720 
58. 9.30 
21,620 
14,200 
7, 000 


Dollars 
0. 78 
.39 

.58 
.22 
. 14 
.07 


Dollars 
144,070 

72, 920 
105. 720 
27. 1'K) 
27, 850 
17,500 


Dollars 
0.71 
.36 
.52 

. 14 
. 14 
.09 


Lot and site preparations 


Total 


156, 400 


3.01 


219,700 


2. 18 


395. 200 


1.96 







' Based on index of construction costs in the Yakima, Wash., area, Jan. 1, 1961. 
^ 5I.840-loose-box capacity, 

100,800-loose-box capacity. 
■* 201,600-loose-box capacity. 



25 



MODERN DESIGN, MATERIALS, AND BUILDING TECHNIQUES 

CAN REDUCE FIRE LOSSES 



In one recent year, in the State of Washington 
alone, 11 apple warehouses burned; this estimated 
property loss was over $3 million. Unfortunately, 
little can be done to hundreds of older warehouses 
that are counterparts of the buildings destroyed or 
damaged. Even with added fire-protection de- 
vices, careful operation, and a realization that 
plant watchmen are as necessary as cashiers in a 
supermarket, old and obsolete warehouses remain 
an industry problem. 

Old mistakes in construction should not be re- 
peated; a fresh look should be taken at the new con- 
struction techniques. The designs in this report 
can incorporate the safety equipment discussed 
below {appendix table 15). 

The way a plant is designed determines not only 
its efficiency, but also its fire insurance rate, its 
resistance to a fire, and even its probabihty of having 
a fire. The plant layout that requires storage of 
empty boxes next to the building, or that has open 
wooden platforms makes it easy to start a fire 
with a careless match. Such plants have proven 
easy marks for arsonists. 

Almost all plants require some shop welding work. 
The lack of a proper area for such work, with in- 
combustible floors and walls, invites a fire started 
by a welding torch. 

Insurance companies know that more obsolete 
plants burn down than do modern plants. It is 
only a matter of time before the high fire losses of 
apple warehouses will be paid for solely by owners 
of obsolete plants. Regardless of how high the 
total fire insurance bill is, the apportionment of 
premiums is based on the location and operational, 
structural, and fire-protective features of the in- 
dividual warehouse. The operator who plans 
construction with safety features pays only a frac- 
tion of the average premium. 

Fire-Resistant Materials Properly Installed 
Cost No More 

Regardless of the premium rates, the plant de- 
sign should be as fireproof as possible, within 
reasonable cost. Normally, it costs httle more, if 
any, to build with Underwriters' Laboratories 
(UL) approved materials. These materials have 
known resistance to fire, and usually provide a 
large bonus in reduced insurance premiums. 
26 



Some examples are: UL-approved masonry 
blocks for exterior walls and partitions are no more 
expensive than frame construction, and they pro- 
vide 4-hour fire resistance. Furthermore, the 
pumice block, readily available in the Pacific 
Northwest, has unusually good insulation quahties 
that are desirable in cold-storage construction. 
Incombustible insulation can usually be obtained 
as reasonably as the combustible type. Natural 
flues in walls and ceilings can be eliminated by 
attaching the insulation directly to the roof deck 
and walls. Such construction eliminates combus- 
tible studs and often eliminates combustible interior 
finish. Proper location and design of heaters and 
chimneys, machinery and boiler rooms, adequate 
electrical circuits, and incombustible storage facili- 
ties for supphes all aid in fire prevention and the 
cost is only foresight in planning construction. 

Fire-Resistant Wood. -The wood roof deck 
and supporting trusses, normally vulnerable to 
fire, can be impregnated with a tested and ap- 
proved fire retardant that renders them incombus- 
tible. The treatment was only recently made 
available in the Washington State area. When the 
treated wood meets the specified UL require- 
ments, it has an insurance rate equal to unprotected 
steel. The process, at some Pacific coast plants, 
costs approximately $90 per 1,000 board feet. It 
will reduce annual insurance premiums when used 
in the 100,000-box apple warehouse design located in 
Class 9 (unprotected) areas,« by $2,000 and for the 
same warehouse in a Class 3 town, such as Yakima, 
by approximately $300. It is important that the 
processed wood have a UL label, showing that the 
treatment is by impregnation, and that it has 
endured a 30-minute test with a flame-spread rating 
not over the equivalent of 25, and that there has 
been no evidence' of significant progressive com- 
bustion. 

Incombustible Insulation, -Premium sav- 
ings are possible when incombustible insulation 
(see appendix) is used throughout, and is attached 
directly to the roof deck and walls. UL-approved 
insulation properiy applied, results in a $300 annual 
saving for the basic 100,000-box warehouse in unpro- 
tected areas, and a saving of approximately $50 per 
year in a Class 3 town. 



"Classification is based on availability of adequate fire 
protection. 



Water Requirements on Site 

The major factor in selecting the plant site, from a 
fire-prevention standpoint, is proximity to adequate 
water supphes. For economies in insurance rates 
and water supphes, it is desirable to locate the 
warehouse near a good fire department. Adequate 
water supphes also facilitate the installation of 
fire hydrants and sprinkler systems, which are 
important factors in insurance rates. A secondary 
consideration is the nearness of other plants and 
operations; clear spaces should be maintained be- 
tween buildings. The clear-space requirements 
will vary with the size and height of the buildings 
and the type of occupancy. 

Sprinkler Systems 

The most eflftcient single mechanical device for 
industrial fire extinguishing is the automatic 
sprinkler system, yet it is seldom found in apple 
warehouses. This often reflects lack of foresight; 
the owner discovers, after the building is con- 
structed, that the installation of a sprinkler system 
would then be relatively expensive. Two major 
considerations in the design stage are that there 
must be an adequate water supply and adequate 
overhead space. Sprinkler systems can generally 
be installed at current costs for less than 35c per 
square foot of the building area. In the basic 
100,000-box capacity apple storage and packing- 
house for example, the actual cost estimate for a 
sprinkler system is approximately $12,000, or about 
12c cost per loose box of warehouse storage capacity. 

Sprinkler installation companies usually arrange 
terms under which the actual rate savings will pay 
for the sprinkler system in a few years. The 
economic importance of sprinklers is shown by a 
premium saving of almost $5,000 a year for Class 9 
unprotected locations, when sprinklers are included 
in the apple warehouse design. This assumes an 
adequate water supply for the sprinkling system of 
1,100 gallons per minute at a pressure of 70 to 100 
p.s.i. (pounds per square inch) and 3,000 g.p.m. 
{gallons per minute) at 60 p.s.i. for the hydrant 
system. For Class 3 protected locations the actual 
dollar savings are less but the premium is reduced 
some 50 to 70 percent. 



Other fire-protection devices are hand fire 
extinguishers (one is needed for each 2,500 square 
feet) and watch-clock stations that require the 
watchman to follow a predetermined path through 
the plant. 

Lower Premiums Cut Operating Costs 

Research was conducted on fire-insurance rates 
for various locations and construction alternatives 
for the 100,000-hox plant, based on rates estimated 
by the Washington Surveying and Rating Bureau 
(see appendix, p. 42) which serves all fire-insurance 
companies in the State of Washington. The results 
indicate several direct ways to save on premiums. 
Aside from lower premiums and their effect on 
profits, the major benefit is that the business is much 
less likely to be permanently interrupted or lives 
lost because of a disastrous fire. 

By choosing a site for the basic 100,000-box 
warehouse (see appendix, p. 42) in an area with 
ample water source, clear surrounding spaces, and 
an efficient fire department such as a Class 3 city, 
versus a site in an unprotected Class 9 area, a 
premium savings of $3,800 per year, or 4c per box 
of apples, can be realized. 

Wall Construction. — By using reinforced 
concrete walls or UL-approved masonry block walls, 
instead of wooden wall construction, an owner of a 
basic 100,000-box warehouse almost anywhere in 
Washington State would save $2,000 a year on 
insurance premiums. 

Miscellaneous Factors. - Other factors 
affect rate and premium in a substantial manner. 
For example, the elimination of ammonium nitrate 
fertihzer storage in the apple storage or packing 
rooms could eliminate a penalty of $1,500 per year. 

Have Plans Reviewed. -In summaiion, several 
premium-saving features have been presented. 
However, every prospective owner should have his 
specific plans reviewed by a fire-protection engineer 
who knows the insurance rating rules of his State. 
The items discussed above are only a guide, even 
for the State of Washington. Engineering service 
of the required type is often available through 
architects' and engineers' oflices, insurance agents' 
and brokers' ofliices, and fire-insurance companies. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



fl) The American Society of- Heating and (7) 
Ventilating Engineers. 

1960. heating, ventilating, and air 
conditioning guide. Ed. 38, 
1,264 pp., illus. New York. (8) 

(2) The American Society of Refrigerating 
Engineers. 

1957. ASRE DATA BOOK (DESIGN). Ed 
10, 1,009 pp., illus. New York. 

(3) Carlsen, Earl W., Duerden, Raoul S., (9) 
Hunter, D Loyd, and Herrick, Joseph 

F., Jr. 

1955. innovations in apple handling 
methods and equipment. 
U.S. Dept. Agr. Mktg. Res. (10) 
Rpt. No. 68, 89 pp., illus. 

(4) , Duerden, Raoul S., Hunter, D 

Loyd, and Herrick, Joseph F., Jr. 

1953. APPLE HANDLING METHODS AND 

EQUIPMENT IN PACIFIC NORTH- (11) 
WEST PACKING AND STORAGE 

HOUSES. U.S. Dept. Agr. Mktg. 
Res. Rpt. No. 49, 302 pp., illus. 

(5) , Duerden, Raoul S., Hunter, D 

Loyd, and Sainsbury, G. F. (12) 

1954. methods and costs of loading 

apples in the orchard in 
the pacific northwest. u.s. 

Dept. Agr. Mktg. Res. Rpt. No. 
55, 22 pp., illus. 

(6) , and Herrick, Joseph F., Jr. (13) 

1955. AUTOMATIC BOX FILLER. U.S. 

Dept. Agr. Mktg. Activities 
18(6): 3-6, illus. 



Herrick, Joseph F., Jr. 

1955. float roll sorting table. u.s. 

Dept. Agr. Mktg. Activities: 

18(5): 6-8, illus. 
, McBiRNEY, Stanley W., and Carl- 
sen, Earl W. 
1958. handling and storage of apples 

IN pallet boxes. U.S. Dept. 

Agr. AMS-236, 41 pp., iUus. 
Hunter, D Loyd and Herrick, Joseph 
F., Jr. 

1955. cutting costs in apple packing. 

U.S. Dept. Agr. Mktg. Activities 

18(3): 3-6, illus. 
Meyer, Charles H. 

1958. apple sorting methods and 

equipment. U.S. Dept. Agr. 

Mktg. Res. Rpt. No. 230, 24 pp., 

illus. 



1958. comparative costs of handling 

apples at packing and storage 
plants. U.S. Dept. Agr. Mktg. 
Res. Rpt. No. 215, 75 pp., illus. 
Sainsbury, G. F. 

1959. heat leakage through floors, 

walls, and ceilings of apple 
STORAGES. U.S. Dept. Agr. 
Mkig. Res. Rpt. No. 315, 65 
pp., illus. 



1953. 



roof INSULATING METHODS. Refrig. 
Engin. 61(3): 286-290, 330. 



APPENDIX 



Workers Required to Operate Packing Lines 

A time study analysis was made on the number of workers 
needed to operate the packing lines in the 50,000-. '00.000-. and 
200,000-box-capacity apple packing and storage houses. The 
results of the analysis are in table 6. The figures are given by 
worker assignment. 



Packing and Storage House Designs 

Figure 29 is the site plan for the 50,000-hox packing and storage 
house. It shows the location of the important features of the 



layout of cold storage and the packing room. Elevations are 
shown in figure 30 for this same plant. A scale model was 
constructed of this plant and figure 31 gives two views of this 
mode!. 

The site plan for the 100,000-box capacity packing and storage 
houses is shown in figure 32. Figure 33 shows the elevations for 
this plant. 

Figure 34 is the site plan for the 200.000-box-capaciIy apple 
packing and storage house. It shows two storage rooms, each 
with a capacity of 100.000 boxes. The packing room accomo- 
dates two packing lines — one for exact sizing and one for group 
sizing. Figure 35 shows the elevations for this plant. Figure 
36 gives two views of a scale model of the 200,000-box-capacity 
plant. 



BUILT-UP ROOF 
\ 1X8 wa DECK {DIACJ 
2X12 -IZ'O.C, JOISTS 



r 5'CLEARANCE 
FOR PNSULftTION 



ROOF VENTILATOR 



r- BUILT-UP ROOF 
. ON 2X6 TSG DECK 



I ■ . rii STEELPLATE ENO 

Wv -^A ,, — — '==' J CONNECTION AND 

'l.VV\/\/ 32,L,IZ LONGSPAN STEEL Jp^STS 'X^V/j^ j ^UTT PLATE 

Jiij 

l/fl" Pltv/D FACE 



-2X6-l6"aC. JOISTs'iii 



AT" 



-LL 



ALL ROOMS 



2'HlGlD INSUL PAD 
AROUND PERiM OF 
N,_ COLO ROOM 2' WIDE 



BOWSTRINO TRUSSES 
DESIGNED BY FABRICATOR 
AND SUBMITTED TO OWNER 
FOR APPROVAL 




f STMMETfllCAL 
2000* ADDITIONAL D.L 



□ 



□ . 



.. FLAPPER DOORS 



1^ 5I/2"C0NCR FLOOR 
ON 6" GRAVEL FILL 



SECTION X-X 

SCALE OF FEET 



(V.' 



Jr 



10 19 20 



EMPLOYEE PARKING AREA 
ROLLED GRAVEL -2* MIN 



r-4"X2'-0' CONCH, 
DISTR AND CLEAN- 
OUT BOX 



, , MAKE ABSORPTION TEsVs 

, DRY ' TO DETERMINE SIZE REo'q. 

1 WELL , FILL WITH 1- GRAVEL, COVSR 

^ I TOP 10' WITH FINES 

V X 





PACKING AREA 



• 20-0* • 



O ASPHALT PAVING 
"« _ SLOPE 



• I2"40" 



72'- 0" 



-53'-B'- 



L-i-i DISTR BOX 
O SEPTIC TANK 



COLO STORAGE AREA 



COVERED 
AREA 



DRAIN FIELD 
mo' 4" TILE 



77^ 



2" WATER SUPPLY LINE 



RECEIVING 
AREA 



ASPHALT 
PAVINO 



SLOPE 



^- — -ao'-o" 



FUTURE EXPANSION AREA 



SITE PLAN 

SCALE OF FEET 



9 10 20 30 40 30 



SLOPE 



lO >- 



FiCUHE 29. —Site plan for the 50,000-box-capacily apple packing and storage house. 



27 




EAST ELEVATION 



4X6 CONT. GUTTER -7 



BUILT-UP ROOF ON 
2X6 laC DECKING 




POURED CONOR, 
h PILASTERS • 



-3"D.S. 



10' OVERHEAD 
DOOR 



CONCR. TILT-UP 
WALL PANELS 




CONCR CORBELS FOR 
FUT EXPANSION 



POURED CONCR 
— PILASTERS - 



SLOPE ROOF 1/2 -r 



LADDER — 



CONCR. 
BLOCK - 



CONDENSER 
PLATFORM 



10' OVERHEAD 
DOOR 



oDanoo 



CONOR. BLOCK PANEL 
FOR FUTURE DOOR 



SOUTH ELEVATION 




SCALE OF FEET 



10 15 ZQ 



WEST ELEVATION 



Figure 30. — Elevations for the 50.000-bux-capacity apple packing and storage house. 



Table 6~Numbers of workers required to operate three packing 
lines with different types and amounts of equipment 



Operation 



Move unit loads of loose fruit, 
culls, empty boxes, and packed 
fruit by forklift truck 

Move loose fruit from pallet lo floor 
chain conveyor by handlruck 

Stack empty boxes on pallets, put 
boxes on monorail conveyor, and 
handle extra small fruit from 
eliminator 

Sort 



Pack: 

Manual wrapping and packing. 

Mechanical tray packing 

Bag. 



Stamp and weigh packed boxes. 

Lid packed containers 

Tally 

Label 

Segregate 

Supply packing material 

Supervise 

Maintenance 



Workora required on — 



One line 
lo do 
exact 
sizing ' 



1 
1 

1 

8 
18 

3 



All operations. 



39 



One line 
to do 
group 
sizing; ' 



27 



Double 
line lo do 
bolh exact 
and group 

ailing * 



68 



'The average capacity of the packing lines is 420 boxes per 
hour: the maximum capacity is 600 boxes per hour. 

^The average capacity of the double packing line is 920 boxes 
per hour; the maximum capacity is 1,300 boxes per hour. 



Estimated Electrical Load for the Plants 

The estimated electrical loads for the three plants are given 
in the following tabulations: 

50,000-Box Plant 



Horsepower 

Motors: 
Three-phase, 230-V: 

Compressor 25 

Compressor 10 

Evaporator condenser 3 

Circulator pump 1 

Defrost pump 3 

Total 42 

Single-phase, 230-V: 

8 blower units 8 

4 unit heaters 1 

3 ventilators 1 

Total ~i0' 

Motors for packing room equip- 
ment 25 



fCalts 



Amperes 



95 



37 
56 



28 



Lighting: 


Horsepower Walts 


Amperes 


Cold-storage floods (22 x 150- 




w.) 


3,300 




RT M rf{if>fli,ra I^O v 9(10 n/ ^ 


I, 40U 




racKing room iignis [Zv x zuu- 






w.) 


5,400 




Office (3 X 160-w.) 


480 




Office (3 X 100-w.) 


300 




Total 


11,880 


56 


Additional packing room lighting 


3. 300 


15 


Total electrical load 




' 259 



' Provide a 400-ampere main breaker. 

• 100,000-Box Plant 

Horsepower Waits 

Motors: 

Three-phase, 230-v.: 

Compressor 50. 

Compressor 20. 

2 defrost pumps (3 hp. each)... 6. 

Evaporalor condenser..... 7. 5 

Circulator pump 1. 5 

Total 85 

Single-phase, 230 v. motors: 

14 blower units 14 

4 unit heaters 1 

3 ventilators 1 

Total 16 

Motors for packing room equip- 
ment 25 

Lighting: Horsepower Walls 

Cold-storage floods (22 x 150- 

w.) 3,300 

RLM. (3 X 100-w.) 300 

RLM. (12 X 200-w.) 2,400 

Packing room lights (33 x 200- 

w.) ^ 6. 600 

Office (8 X 160-w.) 1,280 

Office (1 X 200-w.) 200 

Total 14,080 

Additional packing room Ughting... 3,300 
Total electrical load 



Amperes 



192 



58 
56 

Amperes 



64 

15 
' 385 



' Provide a 400-ampere main breaker. 

200,000'Box Plant 

Motors: Horsepower 

Three-phase, 230-v.: 

Compressor 60 

Compressor 50 

Compressor 20 

4 defrost pumps (3 hp. each)... 12 
2 circulator pumps (IV^ hp. 

each 3 

2 evaporator condensers (7^^ 

hp. each) 15 



Watts 



Amperes 



Motors — Continued Horsepower 

Single-phase, 230-v. motors: 

28 blower units 28 

5 unit heaters 1. 25 

5 ventilators 1. 75 

Total ^ 31 

Motors for packing room equip- 
ment 50 

Lighting: 

Cold-storage floods (44 x 150- 

wj 

RLM. {3 X !00-w.) 

RLM. (18 X 200-w.) 

Packing room Ughts (52 x 200- 

w.) 

Office (8 X 160-w.) 

Office (3 X 200-w.) 

Total 

Additional packing room hghting... 

Total electrical load 

' Provide a 800-ampere main breaker. 



Walls 



Amperei 



112 
113 



6,600 
300 
3.600 

10. 400 
1.280 
600 

22, 780 
6, 600 



104 
30 
' 719 



Insulation Requirements 
Storage Room 

Vapor Barrier. —The vapor barrier is on the outer surface of 
the insulation; the inner surface is vented, because, during most 
of the operating season, the vapor pressure inside is lower than 
the average vapor pressure of the outside air. In the Yakima 
re^on, the average outdoor vapor pressure for December and 
February is about the same as that inside a building. In Janu- 
ary, the average outside vapor pressure is 3.3 mm. Hg, and the 
indoor vapor pressure is 3.8 mm. Hg, or a pressure difference of 
0.5 mm. For September and June, the warmest months in 
wluch it is likely that the storage will operate, the outside vapor 
pressure averages 7 and 7.3 mm. Hg. giving a difference of 3.2 
and 3.5 mm. between outdoor and indoor vapor pressures. 

Roof Insulation. — In storages with the bowstring truss roof, 
the general practice has been to apply the insulation either to 
the roof-deck itself or between the joists of the roof structure. 
Although this construction method subjects the insulation to 
higher outside surface temperatures from direct solar load, this 
can be alleviated by using heavier insulation. The cost of extra 
insulation is offset by ehmination of ceiUng structure costs within 
the building, and by making the truss space available for the re- 
frigeration system and air circulation. 

Tests show that, at an average daily outside temperature of 65° 
F., the average mof surface temperature wiU be about 75° F. 
when insulation is applied to the roof deck.^ When insulation 
is placed beneath a well-ventilated attic space, the top surface 
of the insulation will average about 68° F. With 32° F. inside 
temperature in each case, the temperature difference through the 
insulation will be about 20 percent greater in the case of the in- 
sulation applied to the roof deck. If 4 inches of corkboard, 
installed beneath a well-vented attic space, is taken as standard 
insulation for cooler service, the roof deck should be insulated 
with 5 inches of corkboard. to restrict heat flow to the same as that 
of standard. Because 5 inches of corkboard produces a U value 
(overall heat transmittance) of 0.056 B.t.u./sq.ft./hr./°F. Td. 
(temperature difference), this value is specified as representing 
maximum transmittance allowable for the various ceiling in- 
sulations considered. 



Total 



160 



360 



^See Bibliography, reference 13. 




BN-14981 (above) BN-14982 (below) 

Figure 31.-Scale models of the 50,000-box-capacity apple packing and storage house. 



29 



BUILT-UP ROOF 
1X8 WD. OECK(OlAGONAL) 
2X12 I2'0C, JOISTS 



BUILT-UP ROOF ON 
2X6 TaC DECKING 



'f~'1|'r \A A AT/' 32 LB LONGSPAH STEEL j'o isTS A7\7 f 



shjpI 
/A' pwd 



IM'ID PIPE RAIL 
□ 



EH 



r- S'CLEARANCE FOR 
/ INSULATION 




' BLOWER UNITS 



26 GA GALV ROOF- 
CORRUGATEO 
2 l/2")( 2 l/2*£ 
PURLINS 




STEEL PLATE END 
CONNECTION AND 
BUTT PLATE 



BOWSTRING TRUSSES 
DESIGNED BY FABRICATOR 
AND SUBMITTED TO OWNER 
FOR APPROVAL 



ICft-20-- 
CONT FIELD WELD 
TO C COL. 

9*C-I3-4 



■CATWALK 
, <i SYMMETRICAL 

200o'additional d l. 



4*WF-[0 
BEAMS - 



2* RIGID INSUL PAD AROUND 
PERIM. COLD ROOM ■ 2' W/DE 



□ 



□ 



SECTION X-X 

SCALE OF FEET 

H H H -V 1 I 

S 10 15 20 




5 1/2* CONOR FLOOR 
ON 6* GRAVEL FILL 



I90'-0' 



NOTES 

l-EMPLOYEE PARKING; ROLLED GRAVEL, 

2" MINIMUM DEPTH. 
2-DRT WELL; MAKE ABSORPTION TESTS 
TO DETERMINE SIZE REQUIRED. FILL WITH 
3" GRAVEL, COVER TOP 10' WITH FINES. 



EMPLOYEE PARKING 
SEE NOTE I 



I DRY \ 
1 WELL 



CLEANOUT BOX ['-j 



/ 

^EE N0TE2 



PACKING 



AREA 




COVERED 
AREA 



COLO STORAGE AREA 



l37'-0" 



COVERED 
AREA 



■- 33'-4" 



■I6'-0'H 



SEPTIC TANK 
DISTR.BOX 



: leo' 

I DRAIN 
i FIELD 



2° WATER SUPPLY LINE 



RECEIVING AREA 



ASPHALT PAVING 
SLOPE 



-T5'-0" 



FUTURE EXPANSION AREA 



SITE PLAN 

SCALE OF FEET 



9 10 20 30 40 30 




SLOPE 
FIN. GRADE 



4'X4'X 3/B'X I'-CT 
CLIP ANGLES 
2- 3/4" BOLTS -HI 
SPIDER INSERTS 
IN TILT-UP WALL 




CONDENSER PLATFORM 



2"-6' — 



2'-G*- 



- 2X6 DECK SPACED 1/4' 
APART ON 2X4 NAILERS 



SI-13 



2X8-16' O.C. 



UNFIN.CEILING 



-1X4 6RAQN0 



4X6 LEDGERS 3/4" BOLTS 3" O.C- 
USE SPIDER INSERTS IN TILT -UP 
WALLS 



■ 12'- 0* 



FACE OF 6* CONCR. 
TILT-UP WALL 



51/Z' 



DOOR 
HEAD 



b 9 * ^ 



SJ 126 W JOISTS 
SLOPE ROOF l/2'-l' 



BUILT-UP ROOF 
ON IXe DECKING 



-0.1. COPING ON 
2X8 NAILER 



CONCR BLOCK 
BONO BMS. 2- 
l/Z* REINF CONT 
BETWEEN COL'S, 



— 8'CONCR. BLOCK 
WALLS 

WELD 3"X3"XI/4- 
STIFFENER TO C 
COL'S EVERY 2ND 
COURSE 

3"X5"X3/8*£ ANCHOR 
CLIPS-2- 3/4'BOLTS 
IN FDN. FOR C COL'S 



-6" 



2-1/2' REINF 



TYPICAL WALL SECTION 
MACHINE RM. 

SCALE OF FEET 



CONTINUE HANDRAIL 
AROUND 2 SIDES OF 
PLATFORM 



2X12 STRINGER 



EXTENSION 
LADDER. ROPE, 
PULLEYS BY 
OWNER 




BOTTOM CHORD 
OF TRUSS 



ELEVATION 

CATWALK DETAILS 

SCALE OF FEET 



a 10 



SECTION 



This additional insulation costs about S0.20 per sq. ft. In 
addition, there is approximately 8 percent more area to be cov- 
ered, and the cost for each sq. ft. is about (80.80-1-0.20) x 8 
percent = S0.08, for a total extra cost ot $0.28 per sq. ft. A 
ceihng Id provide an attic and support the insulation would use 
2.5 board feet of lumber per sq. fi., so the extra cost of insulation 
on the roof-deck is offset by the material cost alone in the ceiling. 
When labor to install the ceihng is added to the costs, il is esti- 
mated that the savings achieved by using roof insulation will 
amount to between 80.25 and 80.30 per sq. ft. of horizontal area. 

Table 7 is presented to compare a number of insulation treat- 
ments that have been used successfully on roof-decks or in the 
roof structure of apple storages. Costs per sq. ft, of roof were 
obtained from responsible contractors. U values were either 
calculated from pubhshed data in the ASRE Data Book or taken 
from tests of similarly insulated structures.'" 

From the comparisons given in table 7, it is apparent that the 
rigid insulation apphed to the deck is considerably more ex- 
pensive. Five inches of this material would probably have been 
close enough to the maximum overall transmittance required 
(0.050). (The cost, however, would still have been between 
80.90 and 81.) The various other insulators which are installed 
between the joists are not greatly different in cost per square 
foot, and the 12-inch fill of fiber glass was selected because of the 
lower U value obtained with this material. 

To use this information: Assume that the recommended in- 
sulating procedure is the 12-inch fiber glass fill, held in place 
with a sheet of 0.006-inch-lhick aluminum foil, and is available 
at S0.46 per sq. ft. at the construction site, The U value is 
0.0237 B.t.u,/sq,ft./hr./°F.Td. This is to be compared whh some 
other insulating procedure which, for the purpose of this example, 
will be assumed to be of equal durability but (he cost at the site 
of the proposed construction is 80.35 per sq. ft. and the U value 
is 0.04 B.t.u./sq.ft./hr./T.Td. 



Table 7 -- Installation cost and overall heat transmittance 
{U value) of 4 types of ceiling insulation 



DeBcription or inaulaiion 



12-inch fiber glass insulating wool be- 
tween joists with 0.006-inch aluminum 
sheet on bottom of joists 

Rigid insulation on top of deck, 6-inch 
fiber glass roof deck (3 layers of 2 
inches) with 15-lb, felt slip sheet 

6-inches P.F.-612 semirigid fiber glass 
insulation between joists with 0.006- 
inch aluminum sheet on bottom of 
joists 

2 layers of prefabricated aluminum foil 
insulation having a total of 6 sheets of 
aluminum, between joists. Joists 
sealed on bottom with %-inch plywood.. 



Infltoilalion 
cosl per 
sq. ft. 



Dotlari 



0.46 



1. 17 



.49 



.48 



U value 



B.l.u.hq. 
ft.lkr.r F.Td. 



0. 0237 



.0425 



.0405 



■.039 



Determined by field tests. 



Figure 32.-Site plan for the 100,000-box-capacity apple packing and storage house. 



'"See Bibhography, references 2 and 12. 



The annual cost differential for a U of 0.0237 is S12.10 and for a 
U of 0.04, $20.50. The difference between the two is 88.40. 
which is the annual difference in fixed and operating costs per 
1,000 sq. ft. between the two insulations being considered. The 
insulation cost difference between the two methods is 1,000 x 
(0.46— 0.35>=$110. The annual fixed charge on this investment, 
consisting of 5 percent depreciation, 2.5 percent amortized 
interest, and 2 percent for insurance and taxes, or 9.5 percent of 
8110, equals $10.45 per year per 1,000 sq. ft. In this case, the 
extra equipment and operating costs encountered with the sub- 
stitute insulation would be $2.05 per 1,000 sq. ft. less than the 
fixed costs on the heavier ceiling insulation and there would be 
an overall saving in using the hypothetical substitute. 

In addition to showing the method of comparing the various 
insulations that may be considered for an application, this 
example serves to show that insulation types 3 and 4 in table 7 
would have to be available at about $0.36 per sq. ft., in order to 
be considered equal to the insulation selected. 

The slight differences in annual costs for several of the insula- 
tion materials that are similar in performance show the need for 
careful evaluation of the durability of material selected. To 
obtain firsthand information on the performance of the material 
selected for the storages in this report, tests of in-place heat 
transmittance and examinations of the condition of the insulating 
material were made at an apple storage plant. The roof was 
insulated with 12 inches of fiber glass between joists. The tests 
were made al the end of the second season's operations. 

Heal flow and temperature differences through the insulation 
were measured with a Gier and Dunkle heal flow meter, thermo- 
couples, and a recording potentiometer. The data were analyzed 
by methods described in an earlier work." The observed value 
closely approximated the value calculated from the ASRE Data 
Book.'^ Duplicate samples of the insulation were withdrawn 
from three places in the roof, and moisture determinations were 
made. The insulation was exceptionally dry; all samples con- 
tained less than 0.3 percent moisture. 

Because of the dryness of the insulation and its ability to 
restrict heat flow after two seasons' use, it seems reasonable to 
conclude that its characteristics and method of installation are 
adequate. More expensive insulation is unnecessary for the 
usual intermittent apple storage operations. 

Wall Insulation. — The minimum requirement for wall in- 
sulation was set at a U value of 0.07, which is the equivalent of 4 
inches of corkboard and is considered standard for 30° F. 

Table 8 shows the wall insulations that were considered, the 
installed cost (determined by responsible contractors who had 
used the material), and the U values, as determined either by 
calculation or by test. 

The built-up wall with reflective spaces and a mineral wool 
bat was finally selected because it combined low initial cost and 
good heat transmittance. Slight changes in contractor's pricing 
could change the selection to either insulation 1 or 5 (table 8) 
because these three cost about the same. Evaluation of the 
differences in prices and performance can be made as described 
in the discussion on roof insulation. 

A heal flow test was made on the walls in a building whose 
construction was very nearly the same as that selected in this 
report. The U value for the wall was 0.034, compared with a 
calculated value of 0.038. 



" See Bibliography, reference 13. 
'^See Bibliography, reference 2. 



CONTINUE TOP CHORD OF SMOfiT 
JOISTS 2'-0" FOfl OVERHANG.^ 



PILASTERS POURED 
WITH COLUMNS 




EAST ELEVATION 



SLOPE l/2'-l' 



G.I SCUPPER 
3" SO. D S. T- 



□oapQD 

CCD DC 



-PILASTER CORBELS 
FOR PUT EXPANSIOM 



CONCH WALL 
PANELS 



-PILASTERS- 



r 

ii 

I 

ii 



SLOPE l/E*' t'_ 



4 



COND. 
PLATF'M, 



B 



a 



a 



r 



TAPER WOOD FACIA 



WARP CDNCR. 
TO DOOR 



SOUTH ELEVATION 




SCALE OF FEET 



O 9 10 IS 20 



WEST ELEVATION 



Figure 33.-Elevaiions for the 1 00, 000-box- capacity apple packing and storage house. 




Figure 34.-Site plan for the 200,000-box-capacity apple storage and packing house. 

32 



Table ^.—Installation cost and overall heat transniittances 
(U values) of 5 types of wall insulation 



Descnplion of insulation 



4-inch P.F.612 semirigid fiber glass in- 
sulation between studs, including 
studding and outside vapor barrier 
and inside finish of ^-inch fiber 
glass roof deck material 

4-inch fiber glass rigid AE (asphalt- 
enclnsed) board insulation (no in- 
terior finish) applied in: 

Two 2-inch layers 

One 4-incFi layer 

4-inch rigid foam-type insulation (no 
interior finish) applied in: 

Two 2-inch layers 

One 4-inch layer 

Built-up wall with 2 reflective spaces, 
one 4-inch mineral wool bat and Vz- 
inch fiber glass roof decking for in- 
terior finish 

Two layers of prefabricated aluminum 
foil insulation having a total of 4 sheets 
of aluminum, arranged between studs, 
inside finish of plywood 

' Determined by field tests. 



In»tallaiiun 
cosi per 
?iq. ft 



0. 56 



.74 
.64 



1.04 
.96 



. 50 



.52 



U value 



fi-lh 



l.u.liq. 
r.rF.Td. 



0. 0574 



0642 
0642 



0596 
0596 



0424 



0489 



with perimeter insulation only. It was calculated that the 
benefits obtained from the pumice and concrete would not 
justify an investment of more than $0.13 per sq. ft. The cost of 
such a fill is several times this amount. 

At the storage plant with the pumice-concrete fill a recently 
added rocim had loose pumice rolled in place to form a 12'inch 
fill, for S0.35 per sq. ft. This material is somewhat superior to 
the pumice-concrete. Heat flow rate measured in midwinter 
was 1.4 B.t.u./sq.fi./hr. for the rolled pumice insulation and 
averaged 1.9 B.t.u./sq.ft./hr. for two locations on the floor with 
pumice-concrete fill. During midwinter, a floor insulated with 3 
inclies of corkboard, situated on similar soil and with comparable 
drainage, showed a heat flow rale of 0.62 B.t.u./sq.ft./hr. The 12 
inches of pumice do not seem to resist the heat flow nearly as 
well as the 3 inches of corkboard. Had the rolled pumice fill 
resisted heal nearly as well as the corkboard, its use would seem 
justified, because its cost is slightly less than that for cork treat- 
ment. 

From these comparisons, inorganic fill materials do not seem 
promising for insulating floors of intermittently operated apple 
storage rooms. Perimeter insulation only is specified because it 
is assumed that ground water level is never within 12 feet of the 
floor level. Storages without floor insulation should he cooled 
well before harvest so that the heat may be removed from the 
earth beneath the floor. 

For sites where the ground water level is within a few iVi-l of 
the suiface for any considerable period of time, insulation lie- 
neaih all of the floor surface with 3 to 4 inches of boardform in- 
sulation, preferably of the type with closed cellular structure 
that is impervious to m<iisiure, is recommended. 



V 

Floor Insulation.— The selection of floor insulation is more 
complex than wall and roof insulation. The extent to which a 
floor should be insulated in this type of storage depends largely 
upon the site. If ground water level is near the floor surface — 
within 10 feet for a substantial part of the season — some insula- 
tion should be placed beneath the concrete wearing floor. If the 
water level is lower than this, it is difficult to justify the cost of 
floor insulation, because dry ground is a iairly effective insulator. 

As a minimum, however, when the floor is not insulated, llie 
wall insulation should extend down below the floor onto the foot- 
ings so that the concrete floor does not touch the outside wall. 
Where this precaution has not been taken, heat transmission 
rates at the wall have been observed during warm weather that 
are five or six times greater than at a distance of 5 feet from the 
wall. In the storage design in this report, the breaker strip of 
insulation is brought back under the floor rather than continuing 
down the footing; a perimeter ribbon of insulated floor is thus 
provided. If the insulation is extended down to the footings, 
the perimeter strip showing reduced heat flow is much narrower. 
The most economical width of the floor ribbon was not 
determined. 

A study, during the operating season, in two storages having 
only perimeter insulation indicates that the total fixed cost of 
added refrigeration equipment, because of additional heat 
leakage from the uninsulated floor, would justify spending 40 to 
50 cents per sq. ft. to insulate the floor with the equivalent of 3 
inches of boardform insulation. The cost of a subfloor to support 
the insulation, however, plus the cost of the insulation, would 
range between $1 and SI. 25 per sq. ft. It therefore seems best 
to limit floor insulation to the perimeter in locations where 
ground water level is more than 12 feet below the floor surface. 

In addition to perimeter insulation, various types of inorganic 
fill materials, with sufficient compressive strength to be used 
beneath the floor were considered. Floor heat flow data from one 
storage built with a 9-inch layer of pumice and concrete beneath 
the concrete wearing floor was compared with that in storages 



Packing Room 

Because of the growing tendency toward packing to order 
during the winter months, heat loss in packing rooms was studied 
to see if wall and ceiling insulation is necessary. 

The first step was to select a representative packing schedule 
and determine the number of degree-days that would be involved 
in heating during such a season. This step and the calculations 
leading from there to fixed and operating cost differentials are in 
the section on Economic Analyses of Wall and Ceiling Insulation. 
Data in that section give these dilTerenlials lor overall heat Irans- 
mittance ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 B.t.u./sq.ft./hr./°F.Td. The 
method of applying this information is essentially the same as that 
given earlier for similar data in the study of economic thickness 
of insulation for the storage walls and roof. Also shown in this 
section are the calculations determining the selection of wall 
insulation and the calculations showing why roof insulation was 
not recommended. 

In order to make the wall insulation as simple as possible, a 
boardform insulation was selected that had a vapor barrier 
already appfied to the warm side. In the packing room the vapor 
movement would always be-from inside to outside: therefore, the 
insulation selected must either have a vapor barrier applied to 
the inside face, or must itself constitute a vapor barrier. 

In addition to the economic reasons for insulating the packing 
room walls, there are also physical considerations. When the 
packing room is maintained at 60° F. and the outside temperature 
is —5° F., an uninsulated concrete wall would have a surface 
temperature of about 29° F. Besides large radiation transfers 
from the room occupants to this cold surface, the wall would 
frost whenever room humidity rose above 30 percent. At 
slightly higher outside temperature, and with room humidities 
of 35 to 40 percent, the walls would sweat. 

The uninsulated ceiling will have a surface temperature of 
about 48° F., at a 60° F. room and —5° F. outside temperature. 
Sweating will not occur until the humidity in the room rises to 65 
percent. Because a considerable amount of dry outside air 



is brought into the packing room by the apple washer ventila- 
tion system, it is not likeiy that the humidity in the packing 
room will approach 65 percent. 



Office 

Insulation for walls and ceiling of llie office was found to be 
justified, as shown in the section below. Because the' office is 
occupied throughout the heating season, and higher temperatures 
are maintained there, insulation will obviously pr<ividc an even 
greater return per square foot uf exposed area than in llie packing 
nil mi. 

Moreover, cliilling by radial i<m to cold, uninsulated walls when 
outside temperatures are low would be more noticeable, because 
office workers are not as active as packing room wurkers. 

Economic Analyses of Wall and Ceiling 

Insulation 

Cold Storage 

Calculations for this economic analysis are based on the 
following assuniptitms: 

Average outside air temperature during operating perind, 

September through May, is 45° F. 
Average roof temperature is 55° F. for season. 
Average wall temperature is 45° F. for season. 
Length of season is 9 months (270 days, or 6,600 hoursl. 
Roof temperature is 75° F. 
Wall temperature is 65° F. 

Refrigeration equipment cost is estimated al $600/'!'. R. 
Annual fixed charges on refrigeration equipment are 15 percent 

of initial cost of the equipment. 
Average power required per T.R. equals 1 kilowatt (kw.). 
Average power cosi is 1.5c per kw.-hr. 

Total annual fixed charges on insulation are 9.5 percent of 
installed cost. 

Ceiliinc — Heal leakage influences refrigeration capacity 
required and, consequently, refrigeration investment. 

Change in refrigeration capacity required by a change in ceiling 
insulation iransmittance, U. per 1,000 sq. It. of surface is deter- 
mined by: 

(75-32)xl,000xdU _7 c^q jut r 

Change in annual fixed charges on refrigeration equipment 
provided to meet required capacity as determined by a change in 
ceiling insulation transmittance is: 3.58 dUxS600xO. 15=8322.00 
dU (per 1.000 sq. ft.) 

Change in <iperaling cost influenced by change in ceiling 
insulation transmittance is calculated as follows: 

Average season's lieat leakage per 1.000 sq. ft. is: 

(55-32)xl,000x6.600xU in B.t.u 's 

Change in season's heat leakage per 1,000 sq. ft. with change 
■ in U is 151,800,000 dU B.t.u. hr., or in terms of ton hours: 



151,800.000 dU _,o ,cn jii 
-2J0O ^^'^^^ "^^^ 



Change in operating cost with change in U is: 12,650 dU X 1 
J>kw./T.R. xSO.015 kw.-hr. -$189.80 dU. Total of changes in 

fixed charges and operation costs per year per 1.000 sq. ft. 

required bv a change in ceiling insulation transmittance equals 
■ 851 1.80 dU'. 

Change in annual fixed charges, change in annual operating 
charges, and total of these two vs. change in U for U values from 
0.01 to 0.1 are given in figure 37. 



BUILT-UP ROOFING 

ON SX6 TSG DECKING- 



-HOOF VENTIL6TQR 

flK6 CONT G.I. lOTTER 



CORR SHT METAL ROOF DECKING 
ON STEEL FRAME -, 



■ 0.1, SCUPPERS 8 DOWNSPOUTS 



-CONT REGLETaG.! FLASHING 



6"C0NC, TILT-UP WALL PANEL . 
POURED PILASTERS- 
SEE DETAILS 



-3- 0,S, 



WWVAA ffA A /\/\/\ /-V ff ,-A- 



— 6"K 6> l^5 
STEEL COL'S. 




J2 



-SJ 167 W STEEl 
JOISTS - 5'-0' 
0.C, 



6-CONC. TILT -UP WALL PANELS 
POURED PILASTERS- SEE DETAILS 



-.1. 



Y F 



WEST ELEVATION 




e'-0"FLOOR LINE 
TO PLATE- 




FINISH FLOOR LINE 



EAST ELEVATION 



FOR STEEL LAOOEfi- WELD 3/4' I O.PIPE 
RUNGS 12'OC TO l-\/A'iO PIPE STANOAROS- 
ANCHOR LADDER TO WALL 



Sli)PE , 
J/ifPEH-L 



BEBQffi 

□OQC 3 
□OC E _] 

ac J 



THESE SECTIONS POURED 

WITH PILASTERS- 3/4'CHAWFER 



CONC CORBELS 
SEE DETAILS 



(J^EMOVADLE FLAPPER STORM 000R3- 
0- SEE SCHEDULE 




-BOND BEAM 



SOUTH ELEVATION 




SCALE OF FEET 

[fill!- -I 



20 



BLOWER UNITS 
SEE REFRIQ DETAIL 



CATWALK 



^ SYMETHICAL 



■ I l/1'I.O PIPE HAIL 
SEE PLAN 



C3 ^ Z' RIGID INSUL PAO AROUND 

PERIMETER OF COLO ROOMS - 
Z'WIOE 

SECTION X-X 



5 l/a'CONC FLOOR OH 
6* GRAVEL FILL 



Figure 35.-Elevations for the 200.000-box-capacity appie packing and storage house. 



33 



BN-14980 

Figure 36.-Scale model of the 200.000 



These total cost differentials arising from a change in U value 
may be balanced against the change in annual fixed charges per 
1,000 sq. ft. of the insulating material, taken at 9.5 percent of 
installed cost of the materia), to determine which insulating pro- 
cedure offers the lowest overall cost. 

Wai.I,. — The sanif general approach is used Ut determine total 
cost differentials arising from a change in U value of the wall 
insulation: however, the actual differentials determined are not 
the same as for the ceiling because the outside design and outside 
average season temperature are different. 

Change in refrigeration capacity required by a change in wall 
insulation transmitiance, U, per 1,000 sq. ft. of surface is deter- 
mined by the formula: 



(65-32)xl,000xdU 
12.000 



= 2.75dUT.R. 



Change in annual fixed charges on refrigeration equipment 
provided to meet required capacity as determined by a change in 
U is: 2.75 dU x $600.00 X 0.15 = $247.50 dU (per 1,000 sq. ft.) 
Change in operating costs influenced by change in U: 

(45-32) X 1,000 X 6,600 x $0,015 dU 

i2m ^ 

Total changes in fixed and operating costs per 1,000 sq. ft. 
required by a change in wall insulation transmittance equals 
$354.70 dU. 

34 



Figure 37 gives the fixed charges for U values varying from 
0.01 to 0.1. 

The foregoing analysis should be applied tmly to those insula- 
tion procedures deemed to have adequate performance for the 
duty involved and to remain efficient throughout the period set 
up for depreciation of the material. 

Packing Room 

Calculations for this economic analysis are based on the follow- 
ing assumptions: 

Average inside temperature is 60° F. and outside temperature 

is -S-* F. 

Gas lieatinti equipment cost is I'stimaled at $400 per 100,000 

B.t.u./hr. output. 
Annual fixed charges on heating equipment are 15 percent of 

initial cost of the equipment. 
Fuel cost is $0.10 per therm (100.000 B.t.u, input). 
Heating equipment efficiency is 80 percent. 
Total annual fixed charges on insulation are 9.5 percent of 

installed cost. 

Degree-days during packing room operating season equal 1,667. 

The number of degree-days estimated for the packing room 
operating season involved a number of assumptions and the final 
figure was derived as follows: 



BN-14979 



box-capacity apple packing and storage house. 



For a 60" F. inside temperature, the fuel consumption is esti- 
mated from the number of degree-days, using 55° F. outside 
temperature as a base. The data in the section "Use of Re- 
jected Heat from the Refrigeration System," were used to 
determine degree-days below the base. Experience shows 
annual degree-days are apportioned as shown below. 



Month 

Sept. 
Oct.. 
Nov.. 
Dec. 
Jan... 
Feb.. 
Mar.. 



Degree-day^ 
at 55' F. 

10 

.... 160 

.... 4S3 

... 739 

.... 841 

.... 566 

.... 326 



Packing room 
ope rales- 
Entire month. 

Entire month. 

2 weeks 

2 weeks 

2% weeks 

2 weeks 

2 weeks 



Degree-days during 
operating period 

10 

160 

.... 225 

.... 334 

.... 508 

283 

147 



Sept. to Mar ''^^"^ 

Heat leakage influences the heating equipment capacity 
required, and consequently, healing equipment investment. 

Change in annual fixed charges on heating equipment pro- 
vided to meet required capacity as determined by a change in U 
is as follows: 

(6Q-5)X1.00QX$40QX0.15 dU .ggn (,,er 1,000 sq. ft. of surface) 
100,000 



Change in operating costs influenced by a change in U value is 
as follows: 

The seasonal heat leakage, in B.t.u.'s per 1,000 sq. ft., for a 
change in U is: l,667x24xl.OOOxdU=4X),000.000 dU. 
Change in operating cost per 1,000 sq. ft. of surface is: 

40,000.000 dUx$0.10 _,.» 

lob.oooxo.s 

Total change in fixed charges and operating costs per year per 
1,000 sq. ft. surface caused by a change in U=$89 dU. 

These values are shown in figure 38. The same curves are 
used for both walls and ceiUngs in this analysis, because it is not 
customary to allow for solar load on roofs in estimating winter 
healing loads. 

WALt.. — With fiber glass roof deck insulation applied to walls 
the following U values are obtained: 

Uninsulated waHs=0.79 B.t.u./hr./sq. ft./" F. Td. 
Wall with I" insulation=0.207 B.t.u./hr./sq. ft./" F. Td. 
Wall with \W insulaiinn=O.I52 B.i.u./hr./sq. ft./" F. Td. 
Wall with 2" insulation=0.ll7 B.t.u./hr./sq. It./" F. Td. 
Difference in U between uninsulated wall and insulated wail 
with: 

1" insulation =0.79 -0.207 = 0.583 B.t.u./hr./sq.ft./°F. Td. 
l'/i"insulation=0.79-0.152 = 0.638 B.t.u./hr./sq.ft./T. Td. 
2" insulation =0.79 -0.119 = 0.671 B.t.u./hr./sq.ft./"F. Td. 



EFFECTS OF HEAT TRANSMITTANCE CHANGES ON 
COSTS OF REFRIGERATING STORED APPLES 

Influence of "U" Values for Ceilings and Walls of Storages 
on Fixed and Operating Charges 

CHARGES PER 1,000 SO. FT ~ 

OF SURFACE (DOLLARS) 




— CEfLING AND ROOFS - FIXED AND OPERATING CHARGES 
WALLS - FIXED AND OPERATING CHARGES 
CEILING AND ROOFS - OP ERATING CHARGES 

X > WALLS - FIXED CHARGES 

CEILING AND ROOFS - OPERATING CHARGES 

OPERATING CHARGES 



0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 



"U"-THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE 
( B.t.u./SO. FT./HR./°F. Td. ) 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



NEG. AMS 129-61 ( 11) AGRICULTURAL MARK E TING SERVICE 



Figure 37 



Difference in fixed and operating costs of insulated and unin- 
sulated walls per year per 1,000 sq. ft.: 

r'insulalion vs. uninsulated wall = 0.583 X $89.00 = $51.90 
1^" insulation vs. uninsulated wall = 0.638 x $89.00 = $56.80 
2" insulation vs. uninsulated wall-0.671 X $89.00- $59.70 

Insulation cost (including installation) is assumed to be $0.30/ 
sq. ft. for 1" material; $0.36/sq. fl. for IW material; $0.42/sq. 
ft. for 2" material. 

Annual fixed charges on insulating are assumed to be 9.5 
percent. 

First cost, annual fixed charges and net savings per year per 
1,000 sq. ft. of surface with the various insulating treatments are 
as follows: 



Treatment First Cost 

1" insulation $300. 00 

IW insulation $360.00 

2" insulation $420. 00 



Annual Fixed Cost Net Savings 

$28.50 $23.40 

$34.20 822.60 

$39.90 $19.80 



One inch of insulation will provide the maximum net annual 
saving, and its use is therefore recommended. The material 
selected has a moisture-proof facing to form a vapor barrier. 
This inside face is sufficiently hard and smooth that the only 
protection required is a bumper bar in the areas where forklift 
trucks operate. 



Ceiling or Roof. —The use of ^z' and 1" foam-type insulation 
in the roof will be analyzed. The U values are: 
Uninsulated roof = 0.32 B.i.u./hr./sq. ft./T. Td. 
V^" foam-type insulation added = 0.195 B.t.u./hr./sq. ft/T. Td. 
1" foam-type insulation added = 0.140 B.t.u./hr./sq. ft./T. Td. 

Adding Vi' Adding I' 
foam-type foam-type 
insulation iruu/ation 

dU in B.i.u./hr/sq. ft./T. Td 0. 125 0. 18 

Annual fixed and operating cost dif- 

ferential/l,000-sq. ft $11. 13 $16.00 

First cost of insulation/1,000 sq. ft 235. 00 320. 00 

Annual fixed cost on insulation 22. 30 30. 40 

Because the annual fixed charges on the insulation are greater 
than the annual fixed and operating savings due to the insulation, 
its use cannot be justified. 

Two other ceiling treatments, using reflective insulation, were 
considered. The first consisted of a single layer of aluminum 
foil on kraft paper, both sides reflective. The second treatment 
consisted of one layer of prefabricated aluminum foil insulation 
having three sheets of aluminum with paper separators between 
sheets. This assembly would be applied to 2 x 4 spacers 
attached to the under side of the roof deck. 

Making allowance for penetration of the insulation by the steel 
of thf roof joists, a U factor of 0.193 was calculated for the first 



EFFECTS OF HEAT TRANSMITTANCE ON COSTS OF 
APPLE PACKING ROOMS AND OFFICES 

influence of "U" Values for Ceilings and V/alls on 
Fixed and Operating Equipment Charges 

CHARGES PER 1,000 SQ. FT. 

OF SURFACE {DOLLARS^ 



150 



100 



- n- 



OFFICE - FIXED AND OPERATING CHARGES 
OFFICE - OPERATING CHARGES 

PACKING ROOM-FIXED AND OPERATING CHARGES 
PACKING ROOM-OPERATING CHARGES 
OFFICE-FIXED CHARGES 
PACKING ROOM-FIXED CHARGES 



0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 .1.0 

■'U"-THEPMAL TRANSMITTANCE 
( B.f.u./SO. FT./HR./°F. Td.) 

NEG. 130-tfl (II) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SEKVICE 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



Figure 38 



treatment and a U of 0.086 for the second. Cost of the first 
treatment was estimated at SI 10 per 1,000 sq. ft. and for the 
second, S210 per 1,000 sq. ft. 

A study of the justification of these insulating treatments is 
tabulated below. 

Adding l-layer Adding 1-layer 

refUclive material assembly refiectiir material 

dU 0. 32-0. 193=0. 127 0. 32-0. 086=0. 234 

Annua] fixed and oper- 
ating cost differen- 

tial/l,0O0sq.ft S11.30 S20. 80 

First cost of insula- 
tion 110.00 210.00 

Annual fixed cost of 

insulation 10.45 20.00 

Net annual savings/ 

1,000 sq. ft 0.85 0.80 

The costs of these treatments were so close to the break-even 
point that it did not seem worthwhile to recommend either. 
Either treatment could be installed after construction. If it is 
found ihat the operating season is actually much longer than 
estimated in these calculations, or that the cost of installing the 
material is less than estimated, an insulated ceibng could be 
justified. 



Office 

Calculations for this analysis are based on the following 
assumptions: 

Equipment selection is based on 70° F. inside temperature 

and —5" F. outside temperature. 
Gas heating equipment cost is estimated on the basis of $400 

per 100,000 B.(.u./hr. output. 
Total annual fixed charges on heating equipment are 15 percent 

of the initial cost of the equipment. 
Fuel cost is 80.10 per therm (100,000 B.t.u. input). 
Heating equipment efficiency is 80 perc<'ni. 
Degree-days per year equal 5,585. '-^ 

This analysis is based on office occupancy throughout the 
healing season, which would be normal; the number of degree- 
days in the office operatiim-5,585-contrasts with the number 
for the packing room operation— 1.667. 

The change in heating equipment annual fixed charges as 
influenced by a change in (J value is as follows: 

(70-5) X 1,000 XS400X 0.15 dU 

d fixed charges- 



■ = $45 dU 



"See Bibliography, reference 1. 



35 



The change in operating custs per 1^000 sq, fl. (if surface 
varies with change in U values as follows: 

d operating costs=^Sa^^^^§2^^^^^^8]67.50 dU 

Total of the changes in fixed charges and operating costs per 
year per 1,000 sq. ft. of surface caused by a change in U=8212.50 
dU. 

These values are shown in figure 38. 

WALt.. — The possibility of using 1", \W and 2" thicknesses of 
foam-type insulation (K=0.25) was considered. This material 
will take an interior plaster coating. Material cost is S0.17/sq. 
ft. in 1" thickness; g0.255/sq. ft. in \W thickness; and 80.34/sq. 
ft. in 2" thickness. Labor to install was estimated to be S0.15/sq. 
fl.; two coats of plaster, S0.28/sq. ft. U for uninsulated wall is 
0.79 B.i.u./hr./sq. ft./" F. Td. 



Insula- 
tion 

thickness V value 

1" 0. 19 

IW 0. 1.38 

2" 0. 108 



Total 

dU from unin- annual 
sulalrti wall ri>ti diff* 

0.60 $126.50 
0.652 137.50 
0. 682 144. 00 



charges on Anniinl net 

insulation' savings' 

$57. 00 S69. 50 

65.10 72.40 

73. 20 70. 80 



*Per 1.000 square feet. 

The \W insulation provides the greatest net annual savings 
and an acceptable degree of insulation. 

Ceiling. -For the ceiling, 6" of fiber-glass blowing wool, 
placed between the joists, is recommended. Uninsulated ceiling 
has U value of 0.32; insulated ceiling has a value of 0.04. The 
dU occasioned by the treatment is therefore 0.28 (0..32 - 0.04). 
The cost of this treatment will be about $0.24 per sq. ft. Total 
annual cost differential is S59..50 per 1.000 sq. ft. Fixed charges 
on the insulation amount to S22.80 per 1,000 sq. ft., leavinj; a net 
saving per year of $36.70 per 1,000 sq. ft. to justify the use of this 
insulation. 



Typical Refrigeration Load Calculation 

The calculation to determine the refrigeration load for the 
100,000-box storage is typical for all of the storages, and the as- 
sumptions are given in detail below. 

Interior dimensions, 135 x 98 x 21 fl. high under the trusses. 
Outside measurement of storage room -137 x 100 fl. 
Floor area, about 14,000 sq. ft. 
Ceihng insulated for U = 0.0237. 
Walls insulated for 11 = 0.043. 

Uninsulated floor has a heat flow of 4 B.t.u./sq. ft./hr. during 

the receiving period. 
7,000 field boxes per day are received. 

Allow 8 percent extra area on roof, because width actually is 
an arc of a circle having a chord of 100 ft. and rise of about 
12 ft. 

Heal leakage from conduction: 

Ceihng=14.000xl.08x0.0237x(75-32)X24. ^'zitoOO 

Walls=480x21xO.043x(65-32)X24 344' 000 

FIoor= 14,000X4X24 000 

Total heat leakage from conduction 2,058,000 

Heal due to infiltration: 

Lights, equipment and men working (75 percent of 

total heat leakage from conduction) 1, .544, 000 

Fan motor heal equivalent •l>^2^|5x24, 1,070.000 

Total fixed loads 4,692 000 



Receiving load: 

Cooling apples = 7.000x0.9x34x(65-32) 7.066,000 

Cooling boxes and paiJets = 7.000x0.5x7x(65-32) 807 000 

Respiratory hea. of fru„ 7,0°0x34x9,000 i.o^^.'qqq 

Total daily load 13,637.000 

Refrigeration capacity (T.R.) required, based on handling 
load with 22 hours of operating time per day: 

13,637,00Q _., , 
12,000X22"^^ *' ' 



For this storage, 52 T.R. capacity is recommended. 
Similar calculations can be made for the 50,000-box and 
200,000-box capacity plants. 



Determining Performance of Refrigeration 
Systems When Receiving Bartlett Pears 

Because many apple storages are used to cool and store pears 
before apples are harvested, it is important to know if the 
storage can cool pears and hold them for shipment or sale. The 
average daily outside temperature and initial fruit temperature is 
assumed to be 85° F., and the average daily roof temperature is 
assumed to be 95° F. The capacity required is to receive and 
cool a Ion of pears from BS"* F. to 30° F. 

B.t.u. 

Cooling fruit -2,000x0.9x{85-30) 99, 000 

Cooling boxes & pallets=50x7x0.5x(85-30) 9, 610 

Respiratory heat = 18,000 B.t.u./ton of fruit 18, 000 

Total (per ton of fruil) 126,610 

Calculate fixed loads encountered during the warmer receiving 
season, deduct these from system capacity, and calculate how 
many tons of pears per day the remaining capacity will handle. 

Heat leakage: 

Ceiling=14,000xl.08x0.237x(95-30)x24 ^S^g^'oOO 

Walls=480x21x0.043x(85~30)x24 572, 000 

Floor= 14,000X4X24 1.344.000 

Total heal leakage by conduction 2,475,000 

Heat due lo infiliratitm: 

Lights, equipment and men working (75 percent of 

total heal leakage by conduction) 1, 856, 000 

Fan motor heat equivalent; 
14x2,545x24 

^ 1,070,000 

Total fixed loads 5,401,000 

System capacity on 22 hr. basis=52xl2,000x22 13.730 000 

Less fixed load 5.401*000 

Available lor cooling pears 8, 329, 000 

This will handle ^{26^^ -65.8 tons of pears per day, or 3,290 

lugs per day. In a normal i5-day seascm, the plant could receive 
and cool 49,350 lugs which would fill about 50 percent of the 
avadable space in ihe storage. 



36 



Heating 

Load Calculations 

Packing Room. — Calculations for the heating of the packing 
room for the 100,000-hox plant are given below. Except for 
allowing for different size and arrangement, the calculations are 
similar for the other two packing rooms. Assumptions are: 

The room is 60 x 190 x 17 ft. under the roof deck. 

149 ft. of wall adjoins cold storage and compressor rooms. 

60 ft. of the front wall length is office partition, but the upper 

7 fl. are exposed to the outside. 
The packing room volume is 193.800 cu, ft. 
Inside design temperature, 60° F. 
Outside design temperature, —5° F. 
Storage temperature, 30° F. 
Ground temperature, 52° F. 
U for storage room wall = 0.0424 
U for ground = 0.10 

U for outside packing room wall with 1-in. insulalion = 0.19 
U for uninsulated packing room roof=0.32 
U for 2-8 X 10 ft. doors = 0.69 

Ventilation —one 5.000-c.f.m. fan is used in cold weather to vent 
lumes from washer. 

Heal leakage by conduction: 

H.i.u,/hr 

Ceiling=60xl90x0.32x(60--5) 237.000 

Storage room wall= 17x149X0. 424x(60— 30) 3,220 

Floor = 60x 190x0. Ix(60-52) 9. 100 

DoorH = 2x8x l(|xO.69X(60 fi| 7, 180 

Outside walls: 

= 17x291=4.950 sq. ft. 

= 7x60 = 420 sq. ft. 
Less doors = 2x8xlO= -160 sq. ft. 

5,210x0.19X(60--5) 64,400 

Total conductitm loss 320,900 

, 5,000x60x0.24x160 5) 

Ventilation = 354,700 

Total healing load 675,600 

Office. —These calculations show the healing load for the 
office, rest rooms, and shop space in the 100,000-box plant, 
and are typical of the calculations for all of the storages. As- 
sumptions are listed below: 

Office and other service space 60 x 16 x 10 ft. high. 
Office volume is 9,600 cu. ft. 
One wall adjoins packing room. 
Inside temperature, 70° F. 
Oui^-ide lempcralure, — 5°F- 

Packing room temperature during nonoperating periods, 

40° F. 

Ground temperature, 52° F. 
U for parlition = 0.30. 

U for outside walls — with I-in, insulation =0. 19. 
U for 156 sq. ft. of office windows = 1.13. 
U for insulated office cei!ing = 0.0395. 

Heat leakage by conduction: 

B.iM.lnr 

Windows= 156X1.13X170 5t 13.200 

Outside walls = [(10x92)- 156]x0.19x(70- -5) 10, 900 

Inside walls = 10x60x0.3x(70-40) 5.400 

Ceiling = 60xl6x0.0395X(70--5} 2.850 

Floor = 60X 1 6x0. 1 X( 70- 52) 1.730 

Total conduction loss 34,080 



Ventilation load based on one air change per hour: 
_ 9.600xO. 24X(70 5) 

1X2 13. 100 

Total healing load .j,7_ 



Use of Rejected Heat from Refrigeration System 

In connection with the heating requirements for packing rooms 
and offices, a study was made of the possibilities of using heal 
rejected from the refrigeration system for this purpose. 

Because the 200,000-box plant has the most favorable relation- 
ship between the size of the storage and the size of ilie packing 
room, the study was made for this plant, The available rejected 
heat in the 50.000-bax storage and the 100,000-box insiallation is 
' roughly 25 percent and 50 percent, respectively, of ihe amount 
available for the 200.000-box plant. At the same time, the 
heating requirement is about 70 percent of that of the large plant. 
So, it does not appear that the use of heat from the storage rooms 
is practical in these smaller plants. 

The amount of heat available from cooling the storage in the 
200,000-box plant in the winter was calculated for outside 
conditions of —5° F.. the normal outside design temperature for 
Yakima, Wash.; for +12.5° F., which is the coldest average 
monthly temperature recorded for January: and for 27.7° F., 
which is the normal average monthly temperature for January. 
When outside temperatures are lower than normal storage 
temperature, heat is lost to the outside through the ceifing, 
outside walls, and air leakage. The floors and wall between the 
storage and packing rooms conduct heat. Also contributing to 
the heat gain is the heal from fan motors, lights, men and equip- 
ment working, and respiratory heat from the frujt in storage. In 
making the calculation for January, which is the critical month of 
the year for heating, it has been assumed that the storage will be 
Iwo-tbirds full of fruit. A number of midwinter heat flow 
observations from uninsulated floors indicate that 1.25 B.t.u./sq. 
ft./hr. is average heat leakage through floors for this lime of the 
year. 

The heat available from storage has been plotted on figure 39. 
showing how this quantity varies with outside temperature. 
Also shown is the relationship between total heat requirement of 
the office and packing room, and outside temperature. These 
curves show that the heat from the storage rooms is not adequate 
to handle ihe office and packing room needs below a 46° F. 
outside temperature. 

Reflective insulation for the ceiling of the packing room would 
just pay for itself by off-setting the cost of heat lost. Because 
savings are so Uttle above the break-even point, it is not recom- 
mended where gas heating is to be used. However, when the 
use of heat from the storage is planned, insulation on the ceiling is 
recommended because it reduces the load on the packing room lo 
the point where heat from the storage can be used a greater 
portion of the time. 

Because the saving in fuel consumption with gas will just 
justify the insulation investment, a comparison will be made with 
use of heat from the refrigeration system for a packing room with 
an insulated ceiling. 

Figure 39 shows the heat requirement for the packing room, 
with a ceiling insulated with a three-layer assembly of reflective 
material, that gives an overall ceiUng U value of 0.086 B.i.u./sq. 
ft./hr./° F. Td. Also shown is the combined requirement of the 
office and packing room after insulation of the ceiling. In addi- 
tion, there is plotted the combined beat requirement of the office 
and packing room when the ventilation fan is not operating, 
which would be the case at night. Because the ventilating fan 
operates only 8 hours a day, the average operating period load 
has been calculated and is shown as condition 3 on figure 39. 
Finally, the heat requirement for the office piDs (he heat required 
to maintain the packing room at 40° F. without the ventilation fan 



HEAT LOADS AND HEAT AVAILABLE FROM REFRIGERATED 
SYSTEMS UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS 



HEAT LOADS 1,000 B.t u.'s PER HOUR 



1,100 - 



Office and packing room load 



x^"*"")* Packing room load 
— — — — Total fieat from cold storage 
o — o Net heat from cold storage 
Office load only 



CONDITION "I— PACKING POOM CEILING UNINSULATED, VENTILATING 

FAN ON. PACKING ROOM TEMPERATURE 60° F . 
CONDITION m— PACKING ROOM CEILING INSULATED. VENTILATING 

FAN ON, PACKING ROOM TEMPERATURE 60°F. 
CONDITION BS— PACKING ROOM CEILING INSULATED. VENTILATING 

FAN ON 1 '3 OF TIME AND OFF 2/3 OF TIME. 

PACKING ROOM TEMP ER ATUR E 60°F . 
CONDITION 14— PACKING ROOM CEILING INSULATED. VENTILATING 

FAN OFF. PACKING ROOM TEMPERATURE 60°F. 
CONDITION 'S—PACKING ROOM CEILING INSULATED. VENTILATING 

FAN OFF, PACKING ROOM TEMPERATURE 40°F. 




OUTSIDE TEMPERATURE (°F.l 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



NEG. AMS 1 3 1-61 ( I 1 } AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE 



Figure 39 



in operation is shown. This last line represents the heating re- 
quirements for the plant when the packing room is not in 
operation. 

The curves show that the heat from the refrigeration system is 
adequate to handle the office and daytime packing room load 
down to an outside temperature of 40° F., to handle the average 
operating period load down to 35° F., to handle the office and 
nighttime packing room load down to 26.5° F., and to handle the 
office and nonoperating packing room load down to 7.5° F. The 
heat available is adequate to handle the office load at all times. 

There are several possibilities for making the best use of the 
heat from the storage and these possibilities shall be designated 
as Systems A, B, and C. 

System A discharges the heat from the refrigeration system to 
the packing room only, through an air-cooled condenser coil, and 
would allow the elimination of one gas healer. The other healers 
would be used during periods when maximum heal was re(|uired. 

Although this system is quite simple, one very major change 
from the system originally specified is required. Ammonia 
refrigerant in a condensing coil that discharges air into a space 
where a number of people are at work creates a serious hazard. 
This can be avoided by the use of a Freon-12 refrigerating 
system. 

System B uses the heat from the cold storage to heal the 
office and as much of the packing room as possible, with supple- 
mental packing room heating by fewer gas heaters. System B 
would use panels heated by pipes in the floor and in the partition 
wall between packing room and offices. A comparison was 
made for performance and installation costs when the pipes 
carry either the refrigerant condensing directly in the pipes, or 
water which has been passed through a shell and lube condenser, 
to transfer the heat from the condensing refrigerant to the water, 
which eventually conveys the heat to the panels. The panels 
are adequate for all heating in the offices. In the packing room 
the panels are located beneath the packing and sorting stations 
only. 

System C is similar to system B, except that supplemental 
heat is secured by operating idle portions of the refrigeration 
system on a reverse-cycle or heat-pump system. All heat will be 
discharged through the heating panels. 

When supplemental heat is required, the smallest compressor 
is all that is needed to refrigerate the storage. The two larger 
compressors and the evaporative condensers will be idle. They 
can be used as a heat pump lo pick up heat at a low temperature 
level from the outside air and discharge this heat at a high 
temperature level inside lo provide the required supplemental 
heat in the packing room. It was found that at an outdoor 
temperature of —5° F., there is sufficient capacity for the average 
24-hour needs in the packing room. Since a floor-panel system 
has a large heat storage capacity, it seems reasonable to balance 
the system capacity against the average 24-hour period of 8 
hours operation with the ventilating fan on, and 16 hours with it 
off. 

When the outside temperature is +10° F. or lower, the system 
will operate on compound compression using the middle-size 
compressor as the second-stage machine, which will handle the 
discharge from the first, or low-stage, machine or machines. 
This compressor will also handle the refrigeration of the storage, 
because the interstage pressure will be very close to the suction 
pressure required for the storage rooms. Above 20° F. outside 
temperature, the low-stage machine can be cut off", and the heal 
pump system operated on simple compression. A condensing 
coil in the defrost water tank will heat the defrost water. 

As in system B, a comparison was made for the performance 
and installation costs when the pipes in the heating panels carry 
either the refrigerant condensing directly or water that has been 
heated in a shell and tube condenser (i.e., an indirect system). 

In systems B and C. where direct condensing is used, ammonia 
has been retained as the refrigerant because, with the refrigerant 



carried in full-weight iron pipe encased in concrete, the leakage 
hazard was sfight. and the safety hazards were similar to those 
encountered with a direct-expansion ice-skating rink. A 
number of such rinks have been built. 

To investigate ihe economic feasibiUty of these systems, an 
analysis was made of the cost of heating the packing room and 
office with gas. The packing room healing cost was based on 
actual days of operation, p. 34; office healing cost was based 
on the full season (September to March). These costs were 
then compared with the cost of healing with heal rejected from 
ihe refrigeration system, supplemental gas heal for systems A and 
B, and for supplemental lieat from the heal pump for systenj C. 

Under systems A and B, the refrigeration equipment operates 
at somewhat higher condensing temperature than when operated 
as a straight refrigeration system, and requires more horse- 
power per ton of refrigeration. The cost of the heat derived from 
the refrigeration of the storage has been calculated by charging 
the extra power requirement against the healing operation. 
Using 80° F. condensing temperature as a normal average winter 
condensing temperature, operating at 96" F. condensing tempera- 
ture for the direct condensing systems involves an increase of 
0.24 brake horsepower (b. hp.) per T. R. Operating at 105° F. 
condensing temperature for the indirect systems necessitates an 
increase of 0.35 b. hp./T.R. In addition, the indirect system must 
bear the cost of operating pumps to circulate the heat transfer 
medium. 

To estimate the cost of supplemental heal for systems A and B. 
and to estimate the cost of producing heal from the heal pump 
with system C, it was necessary lo use some weather data that is 
not available from the Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning 
Guide (see Bibliography, reference 1). Fortunately, weather 
data for more than a 40-year period is available for Yakima. 
To minimize theVjabor of developing this data, a record for the 
given month was selected that most nearly approximated the 
average temperature and number of degree-days for thai month. 
Records for typical months from September through March were 
analyzed. The temperature scale was divided into 5-degree 
increments from -10° to 65° F, The average temperature for 
each day during the month was calculated as the average of ihe 
maximum and the minimum and the number of days with average 
temperature in each 5 degree division of the temperature scale 
was noted for each month. From this, the percentage of time in a 
given division of the temperature scale was calculated. Also 
the number of degree days below any required temperature base 
could be calculated. This latter information was used in deter- 
mining the amount of supplemental gas heal required for systems 
A and B. 

For system C the equipment balance points for output, heat 
requirements, and power requirements were determined for 
outside temperatures al -5°, 10°, and 20° F. and the cost of heal 
per 100,000 B.t.u. was determined at each point. These values 
were plotted on figure 40 to form a curve that showed a cost thai 
decreased as outside temperatures increased until a minimum 
was reached at the point where heat from the storage was ade- 
quate to handle the load. At temperatures above this point, the 
cost of heat produced was constant. 

From this curve, the average cost of heal was determined for 
each temperature increment that had been used in the weather 
analysis. This cost was muhiplied by the percentage of time 
in the increment and the sum of these products for each month 
yielded an average cost of heat for a particular month. 

This type of analysis was appUed to both the direct and in- 
direct condensing systems and the values are plotted on figure 
41. Also shown on this figure are costs for a direct condensing 
system during December, January, and February when the 
weather is colder than average. The January values are for the 
coldest month on record in this locaUly. These calculations 
are for January 1950, February 1950, and December 1951. 



37 



COST OF HEAT FOR SYSTEM C 

With Indirect and Direct Condensing Systems and 
Outside Temperature Range from -10" to 40° F. 



COST PER 100,000 B.l.u. 
OF OUTPUT (DOLLARS) 



20 



15 



10 



.05 








-10 



10 



20 



30 



40 



50 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



OUTSIDE TEMPERATURE-°F. 

NEG. AMS 127-61 ( 11 ) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE 



Figure 40 



These values indicate just how severely the cost of producing 
the required heat would be affected by "unusual" weather, but 
for the purposes of this analysis the figures from the normal 
months are used. 

The heating cost per season was determined as shown in the 
calculations below by using the average cost of heat for a given 
normal month from figure 41 and the number of degree-days for 
the month. 

The difference between the heating cost for the season with 
gas and for heating with the various other systems has been cal- 
culated. This difference has been divided by 15 percent to 
determine investment that may be justified by Ihe annual saving 
of operational costs. This percentage has been used previously 
to represent the total of fixed costs on refrigeration and heating 
equipment. The cost of gas heating equipment eUminated by 
each system has been added to the investment, justified by 
savings, to give the total investment allowable for each system, 
and these total figures are shown in table 9. Included in the table 
are the figures for the design arrangement where natural gas is 
the fuel, and figures for installations remote from gas service 
where LPG would be used. 

Table 10 estimates the cost of installing the major items of 
additional equipment required for each of the various systems. 



A comparison of the equipment estimates in table 10 with 
the amounts justifiable in table 9 shows that when natural 
gas is available the indirect condensing system connot be justi- 
fied, the direct system using the heat pump for supplemental 
heat cannot be justified, and the investments and benefits for 
systems A and B are only a Uttle better than break even. When 
LPG is used, system C will break even on a direct condensing 
system, but is not justified on an indirect system: systems A 
and B offer substantial savings. 

The annual net savings, over and above fixed charges, are 
calculated in table 11 for the circumstances where there will be 
a net saving. From this tabulation it appears that where LPG 
is the fuel, direct condensing, with system B is the best selec- 
tion. It offers the greatest annual return on the net investment. 

The comparison between the direct and indirect versions of 
system B is also of interest. The indirect system requires more 
equipment and has a higher operating cost, because of the 
higher condensing temperature required for its operation. 
Although the first handicap is the more serious, both cut the net 
annual savings to a quarter of that of the direct condensing ar- 
rangement of system B. When natural gas is available, it does 
not appear that even the saving available with system B operat- 
ing on direct condensing is sufficient to recommend its use in 
the standard plant layout. 



38 



AVERAGE COST OF HEAT FOR EACH MONTH OF 
HEATING SEASON WITH SYSTEM C 



COST PER 100,000 B.t.u. 
OF OUTPUT ( DOLLARS ) 



.10 



08 - 



06 



04 



02 



Direct condensing system- 
extreme weattier conditions 



Indirect system 
normal weather 




Direct condensing system 
normal weather 



SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR 



U. S, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



NEG. AMS 128-6 I (11) AGRICULTURAL MARK ETING SERVICE 



Figure 41 



Calculations determining the feasibiUty of using heat rejected 
from the cold storage in the 200.000-box plant are based on; 
Storage rooms — 2 each with inside measurement 135 x 98 

X 21 ft. under trusses and outside measurement of 199 

X 136 ft. 
Floor area=28,000 sq. ft. 

Cubic content beneath trusses=570,000 cu. ft. 
Ceihng insulated for U=0.0237 
Walls insulated for U=0.043 

Floor uninsulated having heat flow 1.25 B.t.u./sq. ft./hr. 

during January 
Figure 8 percent extra area on roof 
Figure storage % full during January 

Figure fruit respiring at the rate of 660 B.t.u. /day/ton of fruit 
Figure annual fixed charges on refrigeration equipment=15 
percent 

Figure average power cost at S0.015/kw.-hr. — subject to 14 
percent discount for months when maximum plant demand is 
over 100 hp. 

Figure natural gas cost at $0.10/therm (100,000 B.t.u. input) 
Average seasonal efficiency of gas heating apparatus 80 
percent 

Cost of heat per 100,000 B.t.u. output=g0.125 



Figure oil cost at 80.165/gal.; 140,000 B.t.u./gal. 

Average seasonal efficiency of oil healing apparatus 70 
percent 

Cost of heat per 100,000 B.t.u. output=$0.I68 
Figure LPG at 80.18/gal.; 92,.S00 B.t.u./gal. 

Average seasonal efficiency of heating apparatus 80 
percent 

Cost of heat per 100,000 B.t.u. ouIput=S0.243 
Heating load design conditions as set forth earlier in the ap- 
pendix in the section, "Economic Analyses of Wall and Ceil- 
ing Insulation in Packing Room and Office Space." 
Size of packing room 99 x 220 x 17 ft, under roof deck. 
Size of office 99 x 16 x 10 ft. under roof. 

Packing room ventilation fan capacity 6,000 c.f.m. — operated 
during working hours only in winter. 

During non-working hours figure infiltration at rate of 200 
cu. ft./hr./ft. of crack around a total of 92 ft. perimeter 
for 3 doors= 18.400 c.f./hr. 
Calculations to determine heat available under winter design 
conditions with outside temperature to —5° F., outside design 
condition; to +12.5° F., lowest average January temperature on 
record; and to 27.7° F., average January temperature are given in 
the tabulation below: 



Table 9.— Investment that can be justified to heat packing room 
and offices in winter ivith heat rejected by refrigeration system 
and from reverse cycle operation of idle refrigeration equipment 
for the 200,000-box storage 



System 



A — Heating packing room only 
by using air cooled condenser 
lo reject heat from storage 

B — Heating office and a portion 
of packing room by panel 
healing to reject heat from 
storage only and other part of 
heat in packing room sup- 
plied by gas heaters 

C — Heating office and packing 
room by panel heating to re- 
ject heat from storage and 
heat from reverse cycle oper- 
ation of refrigeration equip- 
ment normally idle in winter. 
No supplemental gas heat 
required 



Dircci condensing 
(96° condenoer 
tpmpcraturcl 



Nat. Raa 



Dollars 



2.520 



4, 540 



5.640 



L.P, (laB 



Dollars 



4,490 



7. 350 



8, 670 



Indireci heating 
1105° cmdenser 
leniperature) 



Nal. gUH 



Dollars 



4, 100 



4, 733 



L.P. gas 



Dollars 



6.900 



7,767 



Table 10.— Estimated cost of additional equipment required for 
heating packing room and offices of a 200,000-box capacity 
apple storage and packinghouse with heat rejected from the 
refrigeration system 



System 



A — Air cooled condenser 

Fan connections and controls. 

Total 

B— 7100-1" piping @ 50c per ft.. 

Controls , 

Condenser 

Circulating pump 



Total 

C— 12500'-!" piping @ 50c per ft 

Defrost water heating coil... 

Controls D. X. gas cooled and alteration 

to evaporative condensers 

Condenser 

Circulating pump 

Total 



' N. R. means '"Not Required" 



Direct 
condensing 


Indirect 
heating 


Dollars 
2.000 
500 


Dollars 






2, 500 
3,550 
750 
'IN. K. 

N. R. 


3. 550 
750 

1, oOO 
200 


4, 300 
6, 250 
150 


6. 100 
6,250 
150 


2,000 
N. R. 
N. R. 


2.000 
4. 000 

350 


8,400 


12. 750 



Table 11. —Annual savings from use of heat rejected from refrigeration system 



System 


Fuel compared 


Net investment 


Costs 


Cos heal 
cost 


Net 
annual 
savings 


Fixed ' 


Operating 


Tola] 




LPG 


Dollars 

2,500-800 = 1,700 
4,300-2.100=2,200 
4,300-2,100=2.200 
6,100-2,100 = 4.000 
8,400-3,440 = 4,960 


Dollars 

255 
330 
330 
600 
744 


Dollars 

384 
150 
116 
216 
152 


Dollars 

639 
480 
446 
816 
896 


Dollars 
937 
937 

482 
937 
937 


Dollars 

298 
457 

56 
121 

41 


B (direct) 


LPG 


B (direct) 

B (indirect) 


Natural gas 

LPG 


C (direct) 


LPG , 







' Assumed to be 15 percent of net investment. 





Heat 


available per day 


al- 




-5° P. 


12.5' P. 


27.7° F. 


Heal loss and gain from 


B.t.u. 


B.IM. 


B.t.u, 


conduction: 








Ceiling=199xl36xi.08 








x0.0237x24x(to-30)... 


-584.000 


-292,000 


-38.250 


Outside walls=2lx520 








xo.043x24X(i„-.Hl)... 


-394, 500 


- 197, 250 


-25,900 


Part walls=2lxl50 








X0.043x24x(60-30) 


97. 500 


97,500 


97. 500 


Floor=199Xl36xL25 








X24 


812.500 


812,500 


812,500 


Total transmission 


-68.500 


420, 750 


845, 850 


Air leakage 








570,000x0.24x(io-30) 
12.4 


-386, 000 


-193.000 


-25, 400 


Lights=l, 400x8x3.415 


38. 200 


38, 200 


38, 200 


Trucks working=4 hr.xlO 








hp.x2545 


101,800 


101,800 


101.800 


Fan motor load 








28x2545X24 
0.8 


2.015,000 


2,015, 000 


2.015,000 



Heat available per day al~ 

-ST. 12.5°F. 27.7'?. 

Respiration of fruit ^ ' " ^ 

200,000x0.67X35x660 

" 2000 1.480.000 1,480,000 1,480,000 

Net heat available from 

evapnraiors — (at 96° F. 
compressor temperature 
and 25° F. evaporator 
temperature. 236 B.l.u./ 
min./ton is rejecled at 

condenser) 3.180,-500 3,862.750 4,455,450 

Add 18 percent for heat of 

compressor 573,000 695.000 802.000 

Total heat available per 

day 3,753.500 4,557.750 5,257,450 

.\verage heat available per 

hour 156, 500 190, 000 219, 000 

Calculate heat required for defrosting— heat four tank loads 

per day from 40° to 55°=4x224 cu. ft. X62.4 (55-40}=839,000 
B.t.u./day 



On average hourly basis=35,000 B.t.u./hr. 
Deduci ihis Irntn values calculated for heal rejected from cold 
sloragc refrigeration system and plot as net heal available 
from ctild storage (fig. 39). 

At -5° F. outside; net heat =156.500-35.000=121.500 
B.t.u./hr. 

At 12..5° outside; net heal =190,000-35.000=155.000 
B.i.u./hr. 

At 27.7° oulsidc: net heal =219.000-35.000=184.000 
B.t.u./hr. 

Calculaliiin ol heal required by packing room willi and willinul 
venlilaling Ian in operation for oulside tenipcraliircs of 
-5° and +25° F. is: 



I Irat mjulrrd |ii>r hour iil — 



Heal required per hour al — 



-.S° K. 



+25° K. 



B.IM. 

Cnnduclion losses: 

Criling=99x22tix0.32x(6ll- to) 453. 500 

Floor=yyx220x0.lX(60-52l 17.500 

.Storage rnciin wails= 17x1.50X0.043 

X(60-30) 3.200 

Out-'ide wall: 
17x389-6610 
7x 99= 693 



7303X0.19x(60-to) 



90, 200 



It.l.U. 

244. 000 
17. .500 

3, 200 



48. 600 



Tntai heat loss by conducti(m 564.400 313.300 

Inhltration during non-working hrs. 

18.400x0.24X(60-io) 
=— ^ 2 1 , 700 1 1 . 700 

Total load during nonworking 

hrs 586.100 325.000 

Infiliration when ventilating fan is op- 

.■ 6.000x60x0.24x(60-to) „„„ 
eratmg= j^-^ 426, OUO 229, OUO 

Total load with ventilating fan 

operating 990. 400 542. 300 

Average daily load with ventilating fan 

operating 8 hours-off 16 hours 720. 600 397, .500 

If ceiling is insulated with 3 layers of reflective material hi 
attain U=0.086, then the above calculated loads are revised as 
follows: 



Hi'al ri'ijiiired per hnur al — 



-5° y. 



+25° F, 



B.l.u. B.l.u. 

Deduct from above calculations: 

Ceiling loss =99X220X160- to)X{0.32 

-0.086) -332.000 -178.500 

Revisi'd total heat loss without venti- 
lator fan 2.54.100 146,500 

Revised total heat loss including ven- 
tilation 658,400 363,800 

Revised average daily heat loss with 
fan operating 8 hours — off 16 

hours 389,000 218.900 

Calculate heat requirement for packing room when it is not in 
use and is maintained at 40° F. and ventilating fan is off, for to 
=-5° and to =+25° F. 



-5° F. 



+25' p. 



B.l.u. B.l.u. 

Conduction losses: 

Ceiling=99x220x(l.086x(40- to) 84, 400 28, 100 

Kloor=99x220x0.lX(40-52) -26. 100 -26. 100 

.Sinrage room walls 17x150x0.043 

XI40-30) 1.100 1.100 

Oulside walls=7303x0.19x(40-to) 62.400 20,800 

Total conduciion loss 121,800 23.900 

. lH,4l)0x0.24X{40-to) 

Inhltration= p^-^ 15. 100 5.000 

Tola! heal loss 1.36.900 28,900 

Calculation of office h<'ating load when oulside temperature 
drops to —5° I". 25° F. and 60° F. 



Ili-nl ri-i|uired piT huur ol — 



-5* F. 25' F. 60° P. 



Conduciion losses: B.i.u Bin. H.i u 

Ci-iling-16xU'JXO.0.395x(7O- to) 4, 700 2, 820 630 

Floor=^ 16X99X0. 1 x( 70-52) 1 , 600 1 . 600 1 . 600 

\Vindow8=mxl.l3x(70-to) 14,740 8.850 1.970 
Outside walls=10xl31= 
1310 
-174 

1 136X0. 13Bx{70- to) 1,^, 350 7. 060 1 . 570 

Inside walls=10X99X0.3X(70-40) 8,900 8.900 

Total transmission 43,490 29.230 5,770 

Ventilation (I air change per hr.) 
I5.840x0.24x(70-to) 

^ 132"^ 21.600 12,9.50 2.880 

Toial heal requirement 65.090 42.180 8,650 

On figure 39 are plotted five conditions: Heat available from 
the storage vs. outside temperature; the heat requirement of tlie 
packing room without ceihng insulation and with ventilation fan 
in operation vs. outside temperature; the heat requirement of the 
packing room with ceiling insulation with and without the venti- 
lating fan in operation vs. oulside lemperMure; average heat load 
of the packing room when ventilating fan is on one-third of the 
time and off two-thirds of the lime vs. outside temperature; and 
the heat requirement of the packing room maintained at 40° F. 
without the ventilating fan in operation vs. outside temperature. 
Also plotted IB the heal requirement of the office vs, outside 
temperature, and to each of the foregoing curves for packing room 
heal requirement, the office heal requirement was added and 
plotted as total heal requirement vs. oulside temperature. 

Total heat available from storage balances the combined 
office and packing room load al 46° F. oulside temperature, when 
the packing room ceiling is uninsulated and the ventilating fan is 
in operation (condition 1 in fig. 39). This balance point drops to 
40° F. when the packing room ceihng is insulated {condition 2 
in fig. 39). Because both of these loads would occur only in the 
daytime {the load is considerably reduced at night), the defrost 
water would be heated at night, when extra heat is available. 

When panel healing is used, a large amount of heat is stored in 
the panels; so the balancing of the weighted average of the night 
and daytime loads against the net heat available from the system 
is reasonable. The net heat available and the total office and 
packing room load for condition 3 balance at 35° F. outside 

39 



temperalure. When the packing room is not in operation, but 
IS held at 40'' F., the net heat available to heat the office and 
majntain this condition in the packing room balances the load at 
7.5 F. (condition 5 in fig. 39). 

Cost Comparison With Natural GAS.-Base consumption 
oi heat in the packing room on the number of degree-days for the 
operating season is based on assumptions given in the <*ection 
"Economic Analyses of Wall and Ceiling Insulation." Weighted 
average of day and night design loads were used for figuring fuel 
consumption costs given below: 

Office heating cost was computed as follows: 

SO 10X0.0043X0.09375X5,585X65=5146 (f„rmula from Heating 
Ventilating, Air Conditioning Guide, Bibliography, reference 
1, apphed I.) design load of 65.000 B.t.u,/hr. and 5,.585 
degree-day season) 

Packing room heating during operating period was computed as 
lollows: 

389.000X24X1.667X0 10 

65X0.8X100,000 -'-^OO. 

Packing room heating during non<.perating period calculated on 
the basis of heal loss per degree Td. times the difference between 
40 and the average monthly temperature times the number of 
nonoperating days in the month. Months are November. 
December, January, and February. 

Td. for Nov.=40-39=1; Number <.f nonoperating days=16 

for Dcc.=40-3I.3=8.7: Number of nonoperating day';=17 
Td. forjan.=40^27.7=12.3: Number of nonoperating days=13 
Td. for Fei> =40-35.2=4.8: Number of nonoperating days=14 
Cost of heai= 

136,9aox24x[(l6xlwl7x8.7H-(13xl2.3WI4x4.8llx$ 0.10 

(40-5)X0.8X100.000 =®36. 
Total season's gas heating costs $146+5300+336=5482. 

With LPG the cost equals q^|^|x8482=S937 

Calculate cost of season's heat system A. which discharges 
heat from storage through an air cooled condenser in the packing 
room. The office is heated by gas. and gas heaters supply sup- 
plemental heat in the packing room. The air-cooled condenser 
capacity was selected to equal the balance point of the daytime 
packing room load and the total heat available from this system 
In figure 39, this capacity equals 240.000 B.t.u./hr oulout 

236X60'" ' ' '"^ evaporator. A condenser suitable 

for a n-ton system with 60° F. air and 96" condensing tempera- 
ture was selected and cost approximately 82,000 installed. 

The net heat available from the system balanced the average 
packing room operating load at 30' F.. and it balances the packing 
room nonoperating load at -2.5°. In figuring heating costs, it 
was assumed that all of the nonoperating period would be 
handled by the heat from the refrigeration system, and that heat- 
ing down to 30° in the operating period would be delivered by the 
refrigerating system. 

Cost of heat rejected from the refrigeration system is the extra 
power cost occasioned by operating at a higher condensing tem- 
perature than is normal for the winter operation. Use 80° C.T. 
(condenser temperature) as normal winter operation For direct 
condensing systems, use 96° C.T., and for indirect healing 
systems use 105° C.T. On the winter load the evaporators in the 
room will balance out the room load with approximately 30° room 
and 27^° E.I. (evaporator temperature). Determine the capac- 
ity, b. hp. and b. bp./T.R. for this smaU compressor at 27.5° E.T. 
and the various condensing temperatures specified above to 
estabbsh the extra b. hp./T.R. occasioned bv the higher con- 
densing temperatures. These are listed in the foUowing 
tabulation: 



Pi/ormat Heal by 

refrigeration direct Indirect 

syttem condensing heating 

Condenser temperature (C.T.) 80° F. 96° F. 105* F 

Tons of refrigeration (T.R.) 18. 9 17. 4 16. 8 

Ij'iP 15.5 18.45 19.6 

'^■I'P/'cn 0.82 1.06 1.17 

Added b. hp./T.R. due to higher 

^■^ 0. 24 0. 35 

Cost per 100,000 B.t.u. output with direct condensing is: 



100,000X0.24X0.746X80.015 
60X236X0.85 



=S0,022. 



Cost of season's heat with system "A" are: 

Gas heating of office as per previous calculations S146 

Supplemental gas heat in packing room for 129 days in 
operating season below 30° base 
_389.0aox24xl29x0.10 



65x0.8x100,000 

Heating by refrigeration system in operating period for 
1538 degree-days above 30° base 
_3 89.O00x24xl538XQ.O22 
65x100,000 

Heating by refrigeration during non-operating period 
136.900x24x[(16xI)+il7x8.7>+(13xl2.3hH14x4.8 )]xS0.022 
45x100,000 ' 



23 



49 



Total season's heal cost $224 

Annual savings in fuel cost=S482— 224 §258 

With LPG for supplemental heat: 
Cost of season's heating= 
_ (146+23)xS Q.243 

~0l25 ■-■ $329 

Refrigeration=49+6 55 

A 1 ^^^^ 
Annual savings compared with all LPG heat=S937-384 
=$553. 

This installation also will eliminate one large gas heater in 
packing room and save $800. 

Investment justified when natural gas is used 
258 

^Qj5+$800= 1 720+800=32520. 
Investment justified when LPG is used 
= 045 + 800= 3690 + 800 = $4490. 

Calculate the cost of a season's beat with system B, direct 
condensing, which discharges heat from the storage through 
panel heating coils in office and packing room floor and in a 
partition between office and packing room. Gas heaters supply 
supplemental heat to the packing room in extreme weather. 
Ihe net heat available from the system balances the average 
daily operating load down to 35° outside temperature for office 
and packing room, and balances office and nonoperating packing 
room load down to 7.5° outside temperature. Capacity of gas 
heaters for supplemental heating will equal approximately 
330.000 B.t.u./hr. Capacity required for all gas healing is 
660.000 B.t.u./hr. Savings in heater investment =$1,300 in 
packmg room and $800 in office -$2,100. 

Cost of heating office entirely by rejected heat from 
refrigeration: 

65.090x24x5585xsno:>-:) 

(75)xl00,000 826 

Heatmg by refrigeration for 1,484 degree days above 
35° base during operating season in packing room- 
389.000x24xU»4xg n n99 

65x100.000 $48 



40 



Heating by refrigeration during nonoperating period 

(from previous calculations)... g. 
Supplemental gas heating for 183 degree-days ' below 
J5 base during operating period- 
389.Q0Ox24xl83xan in 

65x0.8x100.000 $33 

Supplemental gas healing for the packing room during 
the nonoperating season estimated at 10 percent 
oi all gas heating for this portion of load .. (53 
Total season's cost with natural gas for supplemental 
heat 

If LPG is used for the supplemental heal, the gas'heat 
cost required =-^^4^3^^^^ 

^+S70 = $1M ^'"'"^ ^''^ ^upplementing = 880 

Annual savings in fuel cost compared with natural gas = $482 
SI 16 — $366. 

Annual saving in fuel compared with LPG = $937-$150 = S787 
Investment that can be justified when natural gas is available 

" 015" ' ^'f' = ®2,440 + $2, 100 = 34,540. 
Investment Hiat can be justified when LPG is to be used as a 

^"'''='aT5'^^2,100 = $5.2.50 + 82.100 = $7.350. 
To discharge the heat rejected by the refrigeration system 
approximately 920 ft. oi l-inch condensing coil in pariition walT 

f . , r'7 itj ^r:- '"^ P^'^'^"^ --"""^ fl-r for 

a total of 7.100 ft. of 1-incb pipe are required. 

To calculate the cost of a seWn's heat w,th System B- 
indirect heating, circulating warm" water through the pipes in 
the floor panels and heating the water by condensing the re- 
frigerant in a shell and tube condenser— select c.ndenser to 
balance total heat rejection at .35° F. outside temperature^ 

233,000 B.l.u./hr.=25^5^= ]6-i,.n condenser; 

select condenser for average water temperature of 96° F cir- 
culate 5 g.p.m./tnn. and 6° F. temperature range (or 80 g'p m 
of water on at 93°-nff at 99°); select condenser lor leaving ter- 
minal difference of 6° F.=105° C.T.; and size of 8 sq. ft./ton or 128 
sq. ft. 

Increased hp. above normal refrigeration system operating 
m winter-0.35 b. hp./ton; and also required is the operation of 
I'/i-hp. water circulating pump. 

Compressor operating cost per 100.000 B.l.u./oulput 
_ 100.000x0.35x0.746x0.015 

60x242x0.85 30.0317. 

Pump operating cost per 100.000 B.t.u./oulput 

_ 1.5x0.746 x0.015 

0.85X2.33 0.0085. 

Total cost per 100,000 B.i.u. output 0.0402. 

To obtain cost of season's heating with system B indirect 
L .- , r ^ 0.0402 

heating apply factor <pf jj^^^ 1.82 tu costs f..r portions of 

heat furnished by refrigeration system calculated for System 
"B" direct condensing: 

With natural gas lor supplemental heating season's heating 

cost = (380X 1 .82) + 336 = $182. 
^Vilh LP(. for supplemental healing season's beating cost 

= SUh + 370 = $216. 
Annual saving in tuel consumption compared with natural gas 

= $482.00 - 3182.00= 3300. 
Annual savings in fuel consumption compared with LPG 

= 3937.00-$216.00 = $72I. 

Investment that can be justified when natural cas is available- 
S300 

= + $2. 1 00 = $2,000 + $2. 1 00 = 34. 1 00. 



Investment thai can be justified when LPG is to be used as fuel: 
S721 

" OTS"^ = ^'^•^OO + $2,100 = 86.900. 

With system C, reverse-cycle operation of idle refrigerating 
equipment is used to obtain the required supplemental heat from 
Ihe outside air. Lvaporative condensers are used as dry coil 
evaporators lo pick up beat from outside air. Capacity of each 
unit ,s approximately 10 T.R. at 20° F. Td. between a,r and re- 
ngerant. Using compound compression arrangement with 
largest and smallest compressors on low-stage duty and middle- 
sue compressor to handle second stage duty, plus the load from 
the storages, under design condition of ^5° F. outside tem 
P<Tature. the e.|uipment balances out at -29" F evaporator 
icmperature will. 24.5 T.R. from the evaporators. With beat 
of compression, ihis amounts to 28.7 T.K. for the second .|aee 
c-mnpressor. Add .0 this 11 T.R. fmm the storage, at this 
< utside design eondilion. giving a total load of 39 7 T R for 
the second stage compressor. Balance point between low and 
high stages is approximately 20^ F. inlerme.liate temperature 

Heat rejected per hour fn)m second state = 39 7x236x60 - 
562.000 B.t.u./hr. 

From figure 39 the average houriy heat requiremeni for office 
and packmg room at - 5° outside temperature is 454,000 B I u /hr 
Ihe capacity is such that .35.000 B.t.u./hr. defrost heating re' 
quirement can be met and also allow 2 to 3 hours shutdown time 
lor delrosting reverse cycle evaporators. Two tanks of defrost 
water are used. Heating coil fed from discbarge hne for defrost 
water heating is used. 

At 10° outside temperature, operate the reverse cycle system 
on compound compression, but let storage operate independently 
on small compressor. Operate evaporative condenser fans at 
K.w speed. Let large compressor run at 50-percent capacity and 
balance evaporators at - 12° F. evaporator temperature to pick 
up \h l.K. which will r-(mstiiute a load of 18 T.R. on the sec- 
nnd slag,- machme. Lei second-stage compressor run at one- 
Ihird capacity at 30° F. intermediate temperature for its suction. 

Al 20 outside temperature, ;.p.-rate ihr reverse cycle system on 
simple compression; the middle-size compressor at one-third 
capacity will produce 9.5 ton at 7.5° E.T. where it balances the 
two evaporators. 

The heal produced by the system, the hp. and the various com- 
ponents, the power chargeable to the heating operation, and the 
cost per 100 000 B.l.u. output al the foregoing balance points are 
tabulated below. The condition for 35° F. outside temperature, 
where the heat from the refrigeration system is adequate for the 
heating duty, is also shown. 

Outside temperature..., -5° F. +10° F. +20° F +35''F 
Total heat from refrig- 
eration system — 

156, .500 186,000 204.000 2.3.3.000 

rieat Irom reverse 

cycle operation — 

.^^l"-/^'" 405.500 255,000 134.000 

1 'itai Ileal available — 

562,000 441.000 338.000 233.000 

Deduct heat to defrost 
storage room 
evaporators and 
reverse cycle 
evaporators — 

52,000 52.000 43,000 35.000 

[Net heat available for 

load -B.t.u./hr 510,000 389.000 295,000 198.000 

Calculated average 
houriy load — B.t.u./ 

454,000 357.000 292.000 197,000 

Hp. on auxiliaries for 

heating sysiem-h. p.. 15.0 5. Q 5.0 



Actual hp. on refrigera- 
tion system — hp 

Hp. on low stage 
compressor— hp 

Hp. on high stage 
compressor — hp 

Tota! hp 

Deduct hp. required 
for refrigeration at 
norma! operation 

Net hp. for heating — 
hp 

Cost per 100,000 B.t.u. 



1 


14.2 


16. 2 


18.4 


28.9 


14.0 . 






49. 7 


18.0 


14.5 




93.6 


51.2 


35. 7 


18.4 


9.0 


11.0 


13. 


14.3 


84.6 


40.2 


22. 7 


4. 1 


^80. 188 


^ 0. 117 


0. 101 


0. 027 



' Included in high-stage compressor hp. 

^For conditions of 10° F. and lower, figure 14-percent discount 
on power rate as total load will put power consumption into a 
difTereni discount l)rackcl. Cost per 100,000 B.t.u. output at 
—5* F. outside temperature. 



. 84.6xO.746XQ.015xO.86xl0Q,OQO 
0.85x510,000 



=S0.188. 



These values are plotted on figure 40 and, with the weather 
data on table 12, determine the average monthly cost of heat 
delivered with system C. Typical average monthly cost of heat 
calculation is given below for typical month {January 1951 in 
table 12). 



Average daily Irmperaiure 



Cost of Perrrnt of Produrl of 

lifal ' tttne ' col J & i 

5 to 10 30. 129 9. 7 SO. 0125 

10 to 15 0. 113 3.2 0.0036 

15 to 20 0. 105 3. 2 0. 0034 

20 to 25 0. 0875 6. 5 0. 0057 

25 lo 30 0. 0625 22. 6 0. 0141 

30 In 35 0. 038 32. 3 0. 0123 

35 to 40 0. 027 19. 4 0, 0052 

40 to 45 0. 027 3. 2 0.0009 

Average monthly cost/100.000 B.t.u 0. 0577 



' Taken from figure 40. 
^ Taken from table 12. 

Values similarly determined for other months are plotted in 
figure 41. 

The season's heating cost with system C, direct condensing, is 
given below. 

Packing room — operating period — use heating costs from 
figure 41 and number of operating degree-days assumed in sec- 
tion, "Economic Analyses of WaD and Ceiling Insulation." 

389,000x24x110+ 160)XS0.027 
Sept. & Oct. = 65X100.000 

389,000x24x225x80.0325 

= 65X100.000 ^' 

389.OOOX24X334XSO.0439 .„ ,^ 

= 65X100.000 

. 389.000X2 4X508XS 0-0577 

J""- = 65X100.000 ^^-^^ 

, 389.0Q0X24X283XS0.0388 ,^ 

•■^'^ ^ 65X100.000 ^^-^^ 

389,000x24xl47x$0.0273 
^^■''■= 65X100.000 ^ 

Total for operating season 102. 00 

For nonoperaling period practically entire load will be carried 
by heal fnun refrigeration system only — use same figures as for 
system B. 

= 6. 00 

Total packing room heating cost 108. 00 



Office heating cosi — figure months of Dec, Jan.. Feb., and 
Mar., at average cost of heat prevailing for each month. Figure 
rest of heating season at 80.027/100,000 B.t.u. since heat from 
storage is adequate for the requirement in other months. 



Dec.= 
Jan. — 
Feb.= 
Mar.= 



65.090x24x1050x0.0439 

75x100.000 
65.090x24x1125x0.0577 

75x100,000 
65,090x24x837x0.0388 



75x100.000 
65.090X24X624X0.0273 



(Oilier months — 



75x100.000 

1949 

65.090x24x(5585 - 3636)xO,027 



89. 60 
13. 50 
6. 50 
3. 40 

ILOO 



75X100,000 

Total office heat cost 44. 00 

Total packing room heating cost 108. 00 



Total season's healing cost 152. 00 

Annual savings compared to natural gas = 8482. 00 — 8152.00 = 
S330.O0. 

Annual savings compared to LPG = 8937.00 - 152.00= 8785.00 
Use of system C eliminates $2,640 from packing room heating 

investment and 8800 lor office. Total = 83.440. 

Investment that can be justified when natural gas is available: 

330 



0. 15 



+ 3.440 = 2.200 + 3,440 = 85,640. 



Investment that can be justified if LPG is to be used: 
785 



0. 1*5 



+ 3440 = 5230 + 3440 = $8670. 



To operate as outlined for system C requires the installation 
of a direct-expansion gas cooler between the low and high stage 
machines, a suction trap, float valve, connections and valves. 
The two evaporative condensers may be operated as evaporators 
when required. Also needed are a control system to actuate 
the proper portions of the machinery when supplemental heat is 
required, a water heating coil in the defrost tank, and condens- 
ing coils in the floors of the office and packing room totaling 72.500 
ft. of 1-inch pipe. 

For system C, indirect heating, a shell and tube condenser is 
installed to condense the refrigerant and heat the water circulated 
through the floor panels. The condenser selected for the system 
output at —5° F. outside temperature = 562,000 B.t.u./hr. which 
represents 39.5 tons input to second stage. Using 8 sq. ft. /ton 
will require approximately 320 sq. ft. of surface. Circulate 
5 g.p.m./ton-or 200 g.p.m. on at 93° F., off at 99" — leaving 
terminal difference of 6°, condensing temperature = 105°. 

A 5-hp. circulation pump was selected for 200 g.p.m. at 50 ft. 
head. 

Average monthly output costs are obtained in the same manner 
as with the direct condensing system. The amount of heat pro- 
duced at the various balance points is about the same as for the 
direct condensing system but the power inputs are high due to 
higher condensing temperature and more auxiUary power being 
required. 

In the tabulation below are listed heat outputs and require- 
ments, power requirements, and cost of heat production at 
various outside conditions for system C. indirect heating: 

Outside temperature- 

T -5 +10 +20 +35 

Total heat from re- 
frigeration system — 

B.t.u./hr 156,500 186,000 204.000 233,000 

Heat from reverse cycle 
operation- B.t.u./ 

hr 417,000 259,000 137,000 



T.^BLE Vl.- Analysis of ivealher data at Yakima, Wash., to determinv normal number of days and percentage of time in each month 
fji^nng packing season in average temperature brackets of 5 degrees progressing from ~10 to +70 



Nurmal months 



temperatures 


Sep 


t, 1951 


Oc 




Nov. 1950 


Dec. 1952 


Jan. 1951 


Feb. 1951 


Mar. 19-19 


Dm. i951 


Jan. 1950 


Feb. 1950 


-10 to -5 


Days 


Pft 




PrI 

ret. 


Days 


Pa. 


Days 


Pa. 


Days 


Pa. 


Day^ 


Pel. 


Day^ 


Pa. 


Days 


Pel. 


Days 
1 

3 
7 
6 
2 
5 
2 
3 
1 


Pa. 
3.2 
9.7 
22.6 
19.4 
6. 5 
16. 1 
6.5 
9.7 
3.2 


Days 
3 


Pel. 

10, 7 










































































5 to iO 


















3 
1 

1 

2 
7 

10 
6 
1 


9. 7 
3. 2 
3.2 
6.5 
22,6 
35. 7 
19.4 
3.2 


















10 to 15 






























1 
1 

4 
6 
10 

3 


3. 6 
3^6 
14.3 
21.4 
35.7 
10.7 


15 to 20 


















1 


3.6 






6 
13 
4 
3 
4 
I 


19.4 
42.0 
12.9 

9.7 
12.9 

3.2 


20 to 25 














2 
9 
8 
10 
2 


6.5 
29.0 
25.8 
32.3 

6.5 






95 In ■^n 










2 
8 

6 
10 
4 


6. 7 
26. 7 
20.0 
33.3 
13.3 


4 
10 
10 
1 
1 
1 


14.3 
.35.7 
35.7 
3.6 
3.6 
3.6 






30 to 35 










1 
2 
14 
13 
1 


3.2 
6.5 
45. 2 
42.0 
3.2 


35 to 40 










40io45 






4 
11 
11 
2 
1 
2 


12.9 
35.5 
35.5 
6.5 
3.2 
6.5 






45 to 50 


I 
1 

10 
9 
9 


3. 3 
3.3 
33.3 
30.0 
30.0 










50 to 55 






















55 to 60 


























60 to 65 


































65 to 70 




































































Recorded degree- 
days... 

Normal degree- 
days 

Recorded average 
temperature (°F).. 

Normal average 
temperature (°F).. 


125 
125 
61.6 
62.6 


432 
409 
51.2 
51.9 


774 
783 
38. 9 
39.0 


1.002 
1,049 
32.5 
31.3 


1, 127 
1. 151 
28.4 
27. 7 


838 
846 
34.9 

35.2 


658 

636 
43. 7 
44.5 


1. 194 
1.049 
26.3 
31.3 




1,625 
I. 151 
12.5 
27.7 




991 
846 
29.4 

35.2 



Total heal available — 

B.t.u./hr 573,500 445,000 341.000 233.000 

Deduct heal required to 
defrost storage room 
evaporators and re- 
verse cycle evapora- 

iors-B.t,u./hr 52.000 52.000 43,000 35.000 

Net heat available for 

load-B.t.u./hr 521,500 393,000 298,000 198.000 

Calculated average 

hourly load — B.t.u./ 

hr 454,000 357.000 292,000 197.000 

Hp. on auxiliaries for 
heating sys.tem — 

hp 20.0 10.0 10.0 5.0 

Actual hp. on refrigera- 
tion system— hp 15.1 16.6 19.0 

Hp. on low stage com- 
pressor-hp 28. 4 14. 4 

Hp. on high stage 

compressor- hp 55. 1 20. 7 15. 5 

Total hp 103.5 60.2 42. 1 24.0 

Deduct hp. required for 
refrigeration at nor- 
mal operation-hp.... 9.0 11,0 13.0 14.3 

Net hp. for heating- 
hp 94. 5 49. 2 29. 1 9. 7 

Cost per 100,000 B.t.u. 

produced 80. 205 80. 142 SO. 129 SO. 064 

These values are plotted on figure 40 and then in the same 

manner as used for system C for direct condensing; the average 

monthly cost of heat delivered by the system was determined and 

plotted on figure 41. 

Season's operating cost for indirect heating with system C 

was calculated by adjusting previously obtained monthly costs in 

proportion to cost of heat for the month for the two systems. 



Packing room operating period: 
0-064 

Sept. & Oci.=^^x6.60=815.60 

10=38.40 
^^''•=S'5.«0=30.70 



188.00 



Packing room nonoperaling period: 

=2^1x6.00=14.00 
Total packing room heating cost=$202.00 
Office heating cost: 

^-=^^^-^«=^^-^« 

Other months =^xll.00=26.30. 

Total office heating cost=886. 
Total season's cost of heating 8288. 



41 



Annual savings, compared to natural gas: 8482— 8288=$ 194. 
Annual savings, compared to LPG: 8937—8288=8649. 
Investment that can be justified when natural gas is available: 

;J^-3440= 1293+3440=84733. 
0.15 

Investment that can be justified if LPG is to be used: 
649 

^-3440=4327+3440=87767. 

Construction Cost Estimates for Three 
Packing and Storage Houses 

The estimated construction costs of the 50,000-, 100,000-, and 
200,000-box packing and storage houses are given in table 13. 
These costs include lot and site preparation, construction costs, 
and installation of heating, plumbing, electrical, and refrigera- 
tion equipment. These estimates are for the Yakima, Wash, 
area, and could be materially changed by individual require- 
ments and location. The cost of the land is not included. 
These estimated costs are based on the construction cost index 
for Yakima as of January 1, 1961. 

Fire Insurance for Apple Packing and Storage 

Houses 

Fire insurance rates for the 100,000-box apple packing and 
storage house are listed in table 14. There is little difference in 
rate for a building witli outside walls of certified hollow concrete 
blocks (8" thick or greater) or with walls of reinforced concrete 
(6" thick or greater). Minor rate differentials result when sub- 
stituting masonry walls of one type with masonry walls of another 



type; great differences may occur when combustible walls (i.e., 
frame) are substituted for masonry. Assumptions are: 

Apples in storage valued at 83.75 per box. 

Storage capacity equal to 100,000 standard boxes having a 
total value of $375,000. 

Length of storage period is assumed to be 6 months. 

Insurance on packing and storage house worth 8200.000; this 
represents 80 percent of insurable value. 

Rates are for State of Washington only; promulgated by Wash- 
ington Surveying and Rating Bureau and based on its review 
of drawings and specifications for a 100,000-box storage and 
packinghouse. Bureau rates are tentative only and for the 
facilities under assumed conditions only. 

The premium calculations were performed for the above con- 
ditions and following Washington State rules for rating the build- 
ing with 80-percent coinsurance clause and the contents at 100 
percent of value on a monthly reporting form basis. The fore- 
going allows 50 percent of values to be prorated and 50 percent 
to be short rated developing approximately 55 percent of the an- 
nual content premium for a 6-month storage period. Other 
monthly storage periods would not necessarily develop propor- 
tionate premium savings and would have to be calculated for 
each storage period. 

Fire insurance premiums based on the above assumptions are 
developed and presented in table 15 for class 3 and 9 locations 
and for different types of construction. 

Location, has a very significant influence on the size of pre- 
mium. The annual difference in premium for a 100,000-box plant 
is $5,600 minus 81,700 or 83.800 or approximately 4c per box 
saving by locating in a class 3 town as compared to a class 9 
unprotected town. 

Comparison of the figures for the frame construction plant 
and ihe basic (masonry) plant indicates that, in a class 3 town, 
saving with masonry construction is $3,900 minus $1,700 or $2,200 



Table \3. — Estimated construction costs for three different size apple storage and packing houses 



lli-m 



50.00O.|iux huuse 



100.000-bos house 



200,000-box house 



Lot and site preparation: 

Site grading 

Excavation and back fill 

Gravel fill 

Asphalt paving 

Rolled gravel (parking lot) 

Septic tank and drain field., 

Dry well 

2" water tap and meter 

Taxes, insurance, margin, etc., at 16 percent 

Packing mom: 

F(»undation, walls, pilasters, floor, roof construction, roof ventilators, in- 
sulation, millwork, and painting, plus taxes, insurance, margin, etc., at 16 

percent 

Office (floor cost included above) 

Walls, ceiUng, millwork. painting, and vents plus taxes, insurance, margin. 

etc., at 16 percent 

Cold-storage room: 

Foundation, walls, pilasters, floor, roof construction, insulation, painting, 

doors, and catwalk plus taxes, insurance, margin, etc., at 16 percent 

Machine room: 

Condenser platform, doors, machine mounts, painting, plus taxes, insurance. 

margin, etc., at 16 percent 

Covered area: 

Concrete floor, foundations, and steel work , 

Healing 

Plumbing 

Electrical 

Refrigeration 

Total 



Dollars 



150 
300 

700 
2.370 
600 
450 
50 
170 
760 



5,550 



53, 450 



2,580 



46, 720 



1,770 

9, 360 
6, 550 
1,900 
7,820 
20, 700 



Dollars 


Dalian 


150 


300 


350 


490- 


970 


1,2.50 


2.530 


8.620 


1.270 


3. 550 


550 


630 


50 


90 


170 


170 


960 


2,400 



7, 000 



51,490 



7.440 



78, 230 



1,770 

14, 200 
7,820 
2,070 
11,730 
37, 950 



- 17.500 

93, 420 
12, 300 
144. 070 

3. 230 

27, 850 
8,970 
2,530 
15,640 
69, 690 



156, 400 



219, 700 



395, 200 



42 



and m an unprotected town is 87,900 minus $5,600 or 82,300. 
The annual saving possible by using masonry construction in 
preference to frame construction is $2,000 in Washington tuwns. 

Use of an approved sprinkler system probably uflcrs ihe 
greatest possible annual monetary saving. For example savings 
in a class 3 town are 81,000 (81.700-8700) and in an unprotected 
area savings amount to 84.800 (85,600-8800). Using treated 
lumber roof construction in a class 3 town will save 8400(81.700- 
81,300) and in a class 9 area will save 82.000 (85.600-83.600). 

If incombustible insulation is applied directly to the rouf deck 



and walls, the savings at a class 3 location amount to 850(81.700- 
Si.650) and at a class 9 lucatiitn anmuni to 8340 (85.620-85,280). 

It should be understood that to realize the savings indicated 
above, additimial expenses may be incurred. Plant operators 
will need to make their own determinations as to whether the 
saving in piemiums justifies the expense. 

Plant iipt-rators contemplating constructing a new packing and 
storage house or remodeling older houses should consult with 
their insurance company representative and have him review ihe 
plans for modification and a resulting lower insurance rate. 



Table ^.-Tentative insurance rates for building and contents per $100 for WO.OOO-box capacity apple storage and packinghouse f( 

three risk categories, Washington State, I960 



or 



Roof type for building and nsk category ' 


Basic * 


B 


1 ^ 


B 2* 


B 3» 


B 4« 




BIdg. 


Conlcnls 


BIdg, 


Conlenis 


BIdg 


Coniftiis 


BIdg, 


ContcnlH 


BIdg. 


Conlcnls 


Building with combustible roof: 






















3d (80% rates) 


0. 264 
.555 
1.37 


0. 637 
.846 
1.47 


0. 264 
.555 
1.37 


0.637 
.846 
1.47 


0. 262 
.555 
1.36 


0. 637 
.846 
1.46 


0. 247 
.519 
1.28 


0. 628 
.819 
I.4I 


0. 255 
.537 
1.32 


0. 637 
.828 
1.44 


6th (80% rates) 




Building with incnmbustible roof: ^ 


3d (80% rales) 






. 174 
.328 
.919 


.573 
.683 
1. 10 


. 159 

.229 
.883 


.564 
. 701 
1.07 


. 144 

. 269 
.837 


. 555 
.646 
1.04 


. 152 
.286 
.865 


.564 
.655 
1.06 


6th (80% rates) 






9th (80% rates) 













' Risk category is based on availability of adequate fire protection. 

^ This is the plan of the 100,000-bux capacity plant as indicated in the text of this report. 



' The basic plan, except that combustible insulation is used in roof space and combustible insulation is used in walls and partitions. 
*The basic plan, except that incombustible insulation is used on roof deck and there is to be no roof space below roof deck and 
combustible insulation is used in walls and/or partili<ms. 

■^The basic plan, except that incombustible insulation is used on roof deck and there is to be no roof spare below roof deck and 
incombustible insulation is used in walls and/or partitions. 

^The basic plan, except that incombustible insulation is used on roof deck and there is to be no roof space below the roof deck and 
combustible insulation board is^used in walls and/or partitions with no interior sheathing or air space. 

^ Roof is of wholly incombustible construction. Incombustible as referred to herein is a rouf deck of unprotected metal suppurled 
by unprotected metal girders, beams, trusses, etc., and either masonry or unprotected metal vertical supports. In addition, the term 
incombustible includes a roof deck and all supporting members ti{ Hre-retardani impregnated wood. 



Table IS. — Comparison of lenf alive annual pn-nuums fur fire insurance for a 100,000-box capacity apple packing and storage house 

located in Washington Slate by the type of construction and class of protection ' 







Building ' 


Commit ' 


Told 


Type iif (■•■n-^iruciinn and class <<t jirnic rlinn ' 


Town 


















premium 






Rule' 


Premium 


Hate' 


Premium 








Dollar-. 


Dollars 


Dollars 


Diillars 


Dollars 


Basic (masonry): 




0, 264 


528 


0. 573 


1. 180 


1.708 






1.37 


2. 740 


1.40 


2.880 


5, 620 


Frame: 




.946 


1.880 


1.05 


2. 160 


3.940 






1.97 


3, 940 


1.90 


3, 950 


7,890 


Basic with sprinkler: 




. 160 


320 


. 190 


390 


710 




Unprotected 


. 190 


380 


. 216 


425 


805 


Basic with treated lumber roof structure: 




. 144 


288 


.500 


1.030 


1.318 




Unprotected 


.837 


1,674 


.970 


2,000 


3. 674 


Basic with incombustible insulation applied di- 














rectly to roof deck and walls: 




.247 


495 


.565 


1. 160 


1,655 






1.28 


2, .560 


1.34 


2, 720 


5,280 



'The rate^ and premiums shown here are tentative and are given for comparison purposes only. They are applicable to the sp 
building under consideration and are not necessarily the rates and premium which would be charged lor any other building. Pre 
from data supplied by the Washington Surveying and Rating Bureau. ■ , m n 

Yakima and other fire-protecled towns are rated as class No. 3. unprotected areas are rated as class No. 9. 

'Building valued at 8200.000. 

* Contents value based on 55 percent annual content. 
"' Rales are per 8100 value. 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRIHTIHG OFFICE 1963 OL— 668-765 



V 



The marketing research in 
this report is part of a broad, 
continuing program of USDA's 
Agricultural Marketing Service 
to bring marketing services to 
farmers, industry, and consum- 
ers. The seal shown below is 
the symbol of the 50th year of 
organized marketing service. 
In 1913, the first marketing 
agency, the Office of Markets, 
was established in USDA. It 
was the predecessor of the Agri- 
cultural Marketing Service. 

This report is one of a group 
that has helped to improve the 
marketing of apples. It sum- 
marizes research that will help 
bring reasonable returns to the 
producer, help hold down mar- 
keting costs, and give the con- 
sumer a product with less decay 
and fewer bruises. 

In the last decade alone, the 
Agricultural Marketing Service 
has been instrumental in de- 
veloping mechanized and auto- 
mated equipment for packing 
and sizing, a new type of bag- 
ging chute, cull chutes, a high 
piler for boxes, new packing sta- 
tions, mechanical handling of 
fruit boxes with forklift trucks, 
a loose box filler, and the re- 
cently developed and patented 
automatic pallet-box filler. 
Continued research is planned.