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THE APPLES OF NEW YORK, 



State of New York — Department of Agriculture 

THE 

APPLES OF NEW YORK 

VOLUME I 



BY 

S, A. BEACH 

Horticulturist 
ASSISTED BY 

N. O. BOOTH 

Assistant Horticulturist 
AND 

O. M. TAYLOR 

Foreman In Horticulture 



Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year 1903 

II 



^ LIBRARY 
NEW YORJC 
BOTANICAL 

GARDEN 

ALBANY 

J. B LYON COMPANY, PRINTERS 

igo5 



New York Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Geneva, N. Y.. Decewhcr it mm 



APPLES OF ^^W YORI^ 



ERRATA — VOL* I, 

Page 24. Under Rhode Island Greening group, " Norihwcstcrn Greening" 

should be omitted. 
25. Under Alexander group, " Bismark " should be " Bismarck. ' 
71, Under Different Types of Ben Davis, in the last paragraph 

omit Rutledge. 
76. Under Black Annette, second line, "iSS5" should be " 1S66." 
95. First line of text, under Carlough, (2) should be (3). ^ 

141. Under Golden Medal, fourth line, reference " U. S. B. P. I. 

bulletin 5^1:124" should be " U. S. B. P. I. bulletin 56:i2.>" 
1C8, Colored plate facing. Legend "Jacob Sweet" should be 

" Jacobs Sweet." 
196. McAfee, nrst line of second paragraph, insert (?)• between 

Indian and Wyandotte; Wyandotte (7)- should precede Zecke 

on p. 197. 
270, Colored plate facing. " Genet," in italic siiould be omitted. 
333. Under Sweet Russet all of the second line, including the words 

"Synonym" and "Summer Russet (i)," should be omitted. 
392. Twenty-sixth line, second column, " Bismark " should be 

" Bism.arck." 
403. " Pomme Grise," first colunin, fifteenth line, should be roman 

instead of italic. 
409. Eighth line from bottom of left column, " Winter Sweet Para- 
dise" should be roman capitals and small capitals instead 01 

italic. 



of the state. 



W. H. JORDAX, 

Director. 



New York Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Geneva, N. Y., December 31, 1903. 

To the Honorable Board of Control of the New York Agricultural 
Experiment Station: 

Gentlemen. — I have the honor to transmit herewith Part II of the 
Annual Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station 
for 1903, to be known as " The Apples of New York". The period 
of the collection of the data which form the subject-matter of this 
publication is coincident with the life of the Station, having been 
begun over twenty years ago by the late Professor Emmet S. Goff, 
who was the Station's first horticulturist. In 1891 this work passed 
into the hands of Professor Spencer A. Beach, who is now, fortu- 
nately, charged with the presentation to the public of the results of 
this long-continued and costly effort. In the collection and organiza- 
tion of the information contained in this volume. Professor Beach 
has had the valued assistance of Professors Wendell Paddock, 
Charles P. Close, Heinrich Hasselbring and Vinton A. Clark, who 
have been associated with him in the horticultural department of the 
Station. Professor Nathaniel O. Booth and ^Ir. Orrin ]\I. Taylor 
have not only assisted in the collection of original data, but they have 
rendered efficient service in the immediate preparation of the text. 
The publication of this volume, which is confined to the winter 
varieties of apples, to be followed by a second volume covering the 
early and fall varieties, is made possible by the generous action of the 
New York legislature of 1904, and should be regarded as an occasion 
of justifiable pride on the part of the state, the Station management 
and the individuals chiefly concerned in the work on its professional 
side. There is every reason to believe that these two volumes will 
take their place as a part of the standard literature of pomology, and 
will be useful and stimulating to one of the most important industries 
of the state. 

W. H. JORDAN, 

Director. 



PREFACE. 



This report on the apples of New York is the outgrowth of one 
of the lines of investigation which from the first has been a distinctive 
feature of the work carried on at this Experiment Station. During 
the period when this Station was being estabHshed there was an in- 
sistent popular demand that the testing of varieties of fruits and 
vegetables be made a prominent line of work here. A'ariety testing 
was accordingly undertaken at once w'ith great thoroughness, as is 
shown, in part, by the bulletins and reports published by the Station 
during the first decade of its existence. A collection of apple varie- 
ties was begun by Professor Gofif as early as 1883, and since that time 
it has been continually enlarged by annual additions. For many 
years it has been one of the most noteworthy collections of its kind in 
America. By 1900 it had come to include over seven hundred named 
varieties of apples and crabapples, besides a large number of unnamed 
seedlings. Professor Gofif resigned his position at this Station to 
become horticulturist in the University of Wiconsin in 1888, just 
as the first fruits of the varieties which were grafted into the 
orchards in 1883 were beginning to appear. He was succeeded here 
by tlie writer in the fall of 189 1. 

Very many of the varieties herein treated have been collected and 
grown in the Station orchards. Descriptive notes and other records 
of these varieties have been made year after year till a mass of first- 
hand information has accumulated which has been invaluable in the 
preparation of this report. We have also been favored with the 
cooperation of fruit growers from all parts of the state. Hundreds 
of them have assisted by giving information concerning the varieties 
of apples which are known in their respective localities, and in many 
cases have supplied samples of the fruit. The leading American and 
some European pomological works have been constantly referred to 
in verifying descriptions of varieties; various Experiment Station 
publications and horticultural reports and periodicals have also been 
freely consulted. 



viii Preface. 

For one who is interested in growing apples either for home use 
or for commercial purposes, or in supplying nursery trees for orchard 
planting, or in any of the industries accessory to that of apple-grow- 
ing, such as storing and marketing the fruit or manufacturing fruit 
products, it is at times a great advantage to have accessible for 
ready reference full descriptions of the different varieties of apples, 
each under the name which pomological authorities are accepting as 
correct, together with the list of synonyms by which the variety has 
been known. It is for the purpose of making such information more 
generally available that this report on the apples of New York has 
been prepared. This, the first volume of the report, treats of winter 
apples wdiich are in season with Hubbardston and Tompkins King 
or later. Earlier varieties are treated in the succeeding volume. 

The following considerations have generally governed the writer 
in determining what varieties should be noticed in this report. 

First, the comparative value of the variety for planting in any part 
of the state as determined by its record at this Station, by numerous 
systematic reports collected especially for this report from New York 
fruit groW'Crs and from men interested in buying and storing fruit in 
New York and elsewhere, by information published in books, cata- 
logues and periodical literature, and by extensive correspondence. 

Second, the probable value in this state of new or comparatively 
little known varieties. The opinions which the writer has expressed 
regarding their probable value are based upon the records which 
these varieties have made in other regions, their general resem- 
blance to other varieties which are better known in this state, and 
their parentage or origin. 

Third, many varieties have been noticed, not because they now are 
or promise to become valuable in New York, but rather because they 
are not or do not promise to become valuable here. It is quite as im- 
portant for the inexperienced prospective planter to know what 
varieties are unworthy as well as to know what ones are the most 
w^orthy of his care and attention. This is particularly true in the 
case of those varieties which are being urged upon New York fruit 
growers because they have succeeded elsewhere, but which have as 
yet been tried only in regions where the conditions are markedly 



Preface. ix 

different from those which obtain in New York. In such cases an 
especial effort has been made to give a conservative estimate of the 
known or probable value of these varieties to New York fruit 
growers. 

P\)urth, some varieties are noticed chiefly on account of their his- 
torical value. In a report like this it is appropriate to notice old 
varieties which are becoming obsolete, but which possibly are still in 
cultivation in this state. 

In each full discussion of a variety there is presented first the 
statement of those matters wdiich seem to be of general interest. 
With the more important apples this is given in long primer type, 
while the historical account and the technical descriptions of the tree 
and fruit are in brevier. With varieties of less importance the 
entire text is in brevier. 

In addition to the description of the variety, there has been given 
in many cases some estimate of its known or probable value in this 
state for either amateur or commercial purposes and the conditions 
which appear to be best adapted for its successful cultivation are 
sometimes indicated. In order to make the report more complete 
and thus add to its value as a book of reference many varieties of 
little importance, or of only local value, are herein described. Usually 
in such cases but brief comment is given. More extended notice is 
commonly given to the more important varieties, and manv of them 
are illustrated either by half-tone or colored photo-engravings made 
directly from the fruit itself instead of from drawings or paintings. 
In fact, the illustrations form a unique feature of the work because 
they have all been made from photographs, thus adding greatlv to 
the fidelity and value of the plates. With i)ut few exceptions the 
photographing has been done under the personal supervision of the 
author. 

In the immediate preparation of this report the writer has been 
assisted by Professor N. O. Booth and Mr. O. M. Taylor, whose con- 
stant fidelity and active interest in the undertaking it is a pleasure to 
thankfully acknowledge. The bibliographical work has. for the most 
part, been done by Professor Booth, to whom very much of the value 
of this feature of the report is due. Mr. Taylor has assisted in 



Preface. 

various ways, particularly in making technical descriptions of the 
fruits. John A. Maney. foreman of the orchards, has aided in pre- 
paring the technical descriptions of the trees. Assistance in making 
orchard observations and descriptive notes of varieties has been given 
in previous years by Wendell Paddock. 1893 to 1899; C. P. Close, 
1896 to 1899; Heinrich Hasselbring, 1900, and \'. A. Clark, 1902 to 
1904. 

The writer is embarrassed in undertaking to acknowledge pro- 
perly the many favors which he has received in carrying forward 
this work. These favors are so various and come from so many 
different sources that for lack of space the particular personal 
recognition which he desires to give cannot be made. Fellow 
workers among professional horticulturists, nurserymen, men inter- 
ested in buying and storing fruit, apple growers in all parts of the 
state and particularly members of the State Fruit Growers" Associa- 
tion and of the Western New York Horticultural Society, all have 
shown a spirit of cordial interest and cooperation which is gratefully 
recognized. Special acknowledgment is due to Professors L. H. 
Bailey and S. \\\ Fletcher of Cornell University for the loan of books 
and for the use of a collection of numerous references to Experiment 
Station publications. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Preface vii 

Index to Illustrations xiii 

Authorities Cited and Abbreviations Used xvii 

Botanical Classification i 

The Native Home of the Apple 3 

The Origin and Development of Apple Culture in New York 4 

The Adaptation of V^aricties to Particular Regions 18 

What Is a Variety ? ^o 

Description of Varieties 27 

Index to Technical Terms 389 

Index to Varieties 391 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Text Figures. 

PAGE. 

Fig. I. Indian Apple Tree Still Standing near the Geneva Experiment 

Station in 1904 5 

Fig. 2. Collection of Varieties of Wild Apples from a Hill Pasture at 

Chittenango 6 

Pig. 2a. The Old Tree Stands as a Reminder of the Days of the Stage 

Coach and the Paring-Bee 8 

Fig. 3. Longitudinal Cross Section of an Apple Showing Internal 

Characters 34 

Figs. 4, 5. Longitudinal Sections of the Wild Crabapple Showing Internal 

Characters 35 

Figs. 6, 7. Transverse Sections of the Wild Crabapple Showing Internal 

Characters 35 

Fig. 8. Transverse Section of an Apple Show ing a Closed A.xile 

Core 36 

Fig. 9. Transverse Section of an Apple Showing an Open Abaxile 

Core n 



II.M.F-ToNE Pl.VTES. 

FACING PAGE 

Aucuba 52 

Group of fruit-pickers in the I'.aldwin orchard of leister IMell, 15rock- 

port, Monroe county, N. \ 56 

Bottle Greening 86 

Bullock 90 

Canada Baldwin 92 

Canada Reinette 94 

Clayton 96 

Dickinson 106 

Doctor T08 

Dumelow T12 

Dutch Mignonne 114 

English Russet 120 

French Pippin 134 

Gideon Sweet 136 

Gilpin 138 

Golden Medal 140 

Golden Russet 294 

Lankf ord 186 

xiii 



xiv Index to Illustrations. 

Half-Tone Plates — Concluded. 

FACING PAGE 

Menagere 206 

Milden 210 

Milwaukee 212 

Moore Sweet 220 

Newman 224 

Northwestern Greening 234 

Oakland ( reduced size ) 234 

Occident 236 

Oel Austin 236 

Opalescent 242 

Red Russet 278 

Roxbury 294 

Schodack 300 

Smokehouse 312 

Stanard 314 

Stone 320 

Texas 336 

Vanho\' 350 

Wabash Red 352 

Wallace Howard 358 

Wandering Spy 360 

Willow 370 

Windsor ^72 

Color Plates. 
View in a Baldwin orchard in the Lake Ontario apple belt Frontispiece 

FACING I'AC.2 

Akin 40 

Arkansas 48 

Bailey Sweet 54 

Baldwin 58, 60 

Ben Davis 68 

Bethel 72 

Black Ben Davis 76 

Black Gilliflower 78 

Blue Pearmain 80 

Boiken 82 

Buckingham 88 

Collins 98 

Cooper ^Market 100 

Domine no 

English Russet 118 

Esopus Spitccnbnrg 122 

Ewalt 124 

Fallawater 126 

Gano 134 

Golden Russet 144 



Index to Illustrations. xv 

Color Plates — Continued. 

FACING PAGB 

Green Newtown 146, 148 

Green Sweet iS" 

Greenville 152 

Grimes I54 

Holland Winter 160 

Hubbardston 162 

Hyde King 166 

Jacobs Sweet 168 

Jewett Red 170 

Jonathan 17^ 

Lady 180 

Lady Sweet 184 

Lawver 190 

Lee Sweet (whole fruit ) 230 

Lee Sweet (section), see Volume II. 

Long Island Russet (ID I94 

Mann 200 

Melon 204 

Monmouth 216 

Nelson 222 

Newtown Spitzenburg 226 

Nickajack 228 

Northern Spy 2^,3, 232 

Olive- 238 

Ontario 240 

Paragon 246 

Peck Plcasau t 254 

Pennock 256 

Pewaukee 258 

Pomme Grise 264 

Ralls 270 

Rambo 274. 356 

Red Canada 276 

Reinette Pippin 280 

Rhode Island Greening 282 

Ridge 288 

Rome 290 

Roxbury ( 2 plates ) • • 292 

Salome 298 

Scott T,02 

Shackleford .^04 

Smith Cider 310 

Stark 316 

Stayman Winesap 318 

Streaked Pippin ;i22 

Sutton 324 

Swaar 326 

Sweet Winesap 334 



xvi Index to Illustrations. 

Color Plates — Concluded. 

FACING PAGE 

Titus Pippin 338 

Tolman Sweet 344 

Tompkins King 346 

Twenty-Ounce Pippin 348 

Wagener 354 

Walbridge 274. 356 

Washington Ro3'al 362 

Westfield Seek-No-Furthcr 364 

White Pearmain , 366 

White Pippin 368 

Willow 370 

Winesap 374 

Winter Banana 378 

Yellow Bellflower 382 

Yellow Newtown 148 

York Imperial 386 



AUTHORITIES CITED AND ABBREVIATIONS 

USED. 



In the following" list of the authorities which have been consulted 
in preparing this volume the date of i)uhlication cited is that of the 
copyright rather than that of the title page ; but where no date for 
the copyright has been found the date of the title page has been 
accepted as the date of publication. This has been done for histori- 
cal reasons, as it appears in most cases that the copyright date is 
a better index of the time when a liook was written than the date 
given on the title page. 

Works issued in series by institutions or by regular organizations, 
like bulletins and reports of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, bulletins and reports of experiment stations, reports of horti- 
cultural societies and state boards of horticulture and catalogues of 
nurserymen are not here listed. In referring to such works the 
citation in each case has been made sufficiently full for the easy 
identification of the publication. 

Albany Cultivator. See Cultivator. 

Amer. Agric. American Agriculturist. New York : 1842 to date. 

American Cultivator. 1838. 

American Farmer. Boston. 

Am. (or Amer.) Card. American Gardening. New York: 1892-1904. (Be- 
fore its union with Popular Gardening, in 1892, \vas known as American 
Garden. Both Popular Gardening and American Garden resulted from 
the union or absorption of many other horticultural periodicals.) 

Amer. Gard. Cal. American Gardener's Calendar. By Bernard M'Mahon. 
Philadelphia : 1806. 

Amer. Gard. IMag. American Gardener's Magazine. See Mag. Hort. 

Amer. Jour. Hort. and Florist's Companion. American Journal of Horticul- 
ture and Florist's Companion. Boston : 1867-1869. Continued as Tilton's 
Journal of Horticulture and Floral Magazine. 1869- 1871. 

An. Hort. Annals of Horticulture. See Bailey, L. H. 

An. de Pom. Beige. Annales de Pomologie Beige. See Bivort. 



xviii Authorities Cited and Abbrentatioxs Used. 

Bailey, L. H. Annals of Horticulture in North America. New York : 1889- 
1893. Volume for 1892 contains inventor}' of apples sold by nurserymen 
in North America in that year. 

Barry. The Fruit Garden. Bv P. Barry. New York: 1851. Revised edition 
1883. 

Berghuis. De Nederlandsche Boomgaard. S. Berghuis. Erste deel. Appels. 
Groningen : 1868. 

Biedenfeld. Handbuch aller bekannten Obstsorten. 1854. 

Bivort. An. de Pom. Beige. Annales de Pomologie, beige et etrangere. 
Bruxelles : 1853-1860. 

Boston Cultivator. See American Cultivator. 

Bredsted. Haandbog i danske Pomologie. Af H. C. Bredsted. 2 det Bind, 
^bler. Odense. 1893. 

Budd-Hansen. American Horticultural Manual. Part H. Systematic 
Pomology. By j. L. Budd, assisted by N. E. Hansen. Descriptions of 
Apples by Hansen. New York : 1903. 

Can. Hort. Canadian Horticulturist. Toronto : 1878 to date. 

Cat. Cong. Pom. France. Catalogue descriptif des fruits adoptes par le Con- 
gres pomologiques de France. 1867, 

Cat. Hort. Soc. London. A Catalogue of the Fruits Cultivated in the Gar- 
den of the Horticultural Society of London. London : 1826. 2d ed. 
1831 ; 3d ed. 1842. A supplement was published in 1853. 

Cole. The American Fruit Book. By S. W. Cole. Boston : 1849. 

Country Gentleman. Albany: 1853-1865. The Cultivator and Country Gentle- 
man. Albany: 1866-1897. The Country Gentleman, Albany: 1898 to date. 

Coxe. A View of the Cultivation of Fruit Trees. By William Coxe. Phila- 
delphia : 1817. 

Cultivator. Albany: 1834-1865. In 1866 united with the Country Gentleman. 

Diel. Versuch einer systematischen Beschreibung der Kernobstsorten. 
Aug. Fried. Ad. Diel. 1799-T825. 

Dittrich. Systematisches Handbuch der Obstkunde. Vol. IH. 

Dom. Encyc. Domestic Encyclopedia. Willichs. Edited by Mease. Phila- 
delphia : 1804. 

Downing. The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America. By A. J. Downing. 
1845. 2d ed., same text with colored plates, 1847. First revision by 
Charles Downing, 1857. Second revision, 1869. First appendix, 1872. 
Second appendix, 1876. Third appendix, 1881. 

Duhamel. Traite des Arbres Fruitiers. Par M. Duhamel du Monceau. 
Tome premier. Paris: 1768. 

Elliott. Elliott's Fruit Book ; or the American Fruit Growers' Guide. By 
F. R. Elliott. New York: 1854. Revised edition, 1859. 

Eneroth-Smirnoff. Handbok i svensk pomologi. Af Olof Eneroth and 
Alexandra Smirnoff. Vol. 2. Applen. Stockholm : 1896. 

Fessenden. The New American Gardener. By Thomas G. Fessenden. 
Boston : 1828. 

Fitz. The Southern Apple and Peach Culturist. James Fitz ; edited by J. W. 
Fitz. Richmond : 1872. 

Flotow. See 111. Handb. der Obstk. 



Authorities Citko and Abbreviations Used. xix 

Floy-Lindley. A Guide to the Orchard and Fruit Garden. By George Lind- 
ley ; edited by Jolui Liudley. American edilinn l)y Michael Floy. New- 
York: 1833. New edition with an appendix, ICS46. 

Forsyth. A Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit Trees. By 
William h'orsyth. London: 1802. Same with Introduction and Notes, by 
William Coljhett. Albany: 1803. Seventh edition (English) London: 
i8_'4. 

Garden. London : 1872 to date. 

Gard. and For. Garden and Forest. New York: 1S88-1897. 

Gardening. Chicago : 1893 to date. 

Gartenflora. Berlin : 1852 to date. 

Gaucher. Pomologie der I'raktischen Obstbaumzuchters. Von N. Gaucher. 
Stuttgart : 1894. 

Genesee Farmer. Edited by Luther Tucker. Rochester: 1831-1839. Then 
consolidated with Cultivator. Another periodical of same name was pub- 
lished in Rochester from 1845-1865. Also others of this name. 

Goodrich. The Nnrtliern Fruit Culturist, or Farmers' Guide. By Chauncey 
Goodrich. Burlington, Vt. : 1849. 

Gregg. A Handbook of Fruit Culture. By Thomas Gregg. New York : 

1857- 
Hofify. Hoffy's North American Pomologist. Edited by William D. Brinckle. 

Book No. L Philadelphia: i860. 
Hogg. The Fruit Manual. By Robert Hogg. Fifth edition. London : 1884. 
Hooper. Hooper's Western Fruit Book. By E. J. Hooper. Cincinnati : 1857. 
Horticulturist. The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste. 

Albany, etc. 1846-1875. I-'ounded by A. J. Downing. Other editors were 

Barry, Smith, Mead, Williams and the Woodwards. 
Hovey. The Fruits of America. 2 vols. C. M. Hovey. Boston: 1851. 
111. Handb. Obst. Illustrirtes Handbuch der Obstkunde. (Various authors). 

Stuttgart: 1858-1865. 
Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc. Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society. London : 

1846 to date. Vols. 1-9, 1846-55 bear the title of Journal of the Horti- 
cultural Society of London. 
Kenrick. The New American Orchardist. By William Kenrick. Boston : 

1832. Second edition revised, 1835. 
Knoop. Pomologia. Johann Hermann Knoop. Leeuwarden : 1758. 
Langley. Pomona : or the Fruit Garden Illustrated. By Batty Langley. 

London : 1729. 
Lauche. Deutsche Pomologie. W. La'iche. -Epfel. Vols. I and II. Berlin: 

1882- 1883. 
Le Verger. Par M. [A.] Mas. 5 vols, in 4. Paris : 1868-1873. 
Lero}-. Dictionnaire de Pomologie. Par Andre Leroy. Paris : 1873. Vols. 

3 and 4 devoted to the apple. 
Lindley. Guide to the Orchard and Kitchen Garden. By George Lindley. 

London: 1831. (See Floy-Lindley for American editions.) 
Lucas. See 111. Handb. Obst. 
Lucas, Ed. Vollstandiges Handbuch der Obstkultur. Von Ed. Lucas. 

Stuttgart: ist ed. iSSo; 2d ed. 1886; 3d ed. 1893. Third edition edited by 

Fr. Lucas. 
Lucas, Fr. Die Werthwollsten Tafelapfel und Tafelbirnen. Von Fr. Lucas. 

2 vols. Stuttgart: 1893-4. 



XX Authorities Cited and Abbreviations Used. 

Lyon. i\Iich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 1890. This catalogue has been quoted rather 

than the earlier ones because it represents more nearly the final opinion of 

Mr. Lyon on Michigan fruits. 
M'Mahon. Gard. Cal. See Amer. Gard. Gal. 
Mag. Hort. Magazine of Horticulture. Boston: 1837-1868. First published 

under name American Gardener's Magazine 1835-6. Edited by C. M. 

Hovey with P. B. Hovey, Jr., associate editor during 1835-6. 
Manning. Book of Fruits. By Robert Planning. Salem : 1838. Second edi- 
tion with title, New England Fruit Book. Revised by John M. Ives. 

Salem : 1844. 
Mas. See Le Verger. 
Nat. Nurseryman. National Nurseryman. Edited by R. T. Olcott and later 

by John Craig. Rochester : 1893 to date. 
Nat. Hist. N. Y. Natural History of New York. Part V. Agriculture. 

By Ebenezer Emmons. Vol. HI devoted to fruits. Albany: 1851. 
N. E. Farmer. New England Farmer. Boston : 1822. 
New Genesee Farmer. See Genesee Farmer. 
N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem. Memoirs of the Board of .\griculture of the State of 

New York. Vol. HI. Albany: 1826. Article and fruit list by Jonathan 

Buel. 
Oberdieck. See 111. Flandb. Obstk. 
Pom. Brit. See Pom. IMag. 
Pom. Heref. Pomona Herefordiensis. By Thomas A. Knight. London : 

1811. 
Pom. Mag. Pomological Magazine. 3 vols. London : 1S28-30. This work has 

also been published under the title Pomona Brittanica. 
Pomologie. See Gaucher. 

Prairie Farmer. Chicago: 1841. Several periodicals of this name. 
Regel. Russkaja Pomologija. E. Regel. St. Petersburg: 1868. 
Ronalds. Pyrus malus Brentfordiensis. By Hugh Ronalds. Figures by E. 

Ronalds. London: 1831. 
Rural N. Y. Rural New Yorker. Rochester and New York: 1850 to date. 
Syst. Handb. der Obstk. See Dittrich. 

Thacher. American Orchardist. Bj' James Thacher. Boston : 1822. 
Thomas. American Fruit Culturist. By John J. Thomas. Published at 

various places, ist ed. 1846; 21st ed. 1903. 
Todd. The Apple Culturist. By Sereno E. Todd. New York: 1871. 
Trans. Roy. Hort. Soc. Transactions of the Royal Horticultural Society. 

London: 1805-1848. 
Verger. See Le Verger. 
Warder. American Pomology. Apples. John A. Warder. New York : 

1867. 
Waring. The Fruit Growers' Handbook. By Wm. G. Waring. Boalsburg, 

Pa.: 1851. 
Western Fruit Grower. Edited by J. M. Irvine. St. Joseph : 1896 to date. 
Wickson. California Fruits. By Edward J. Wickson. San Francisco: 1889. 

2d ed. 1891. 
Willichs. See Dom. Encyc. 
Wilson. Economy of the Kitchen Garden, etc. By William Wilson. New 

York: 1828. 



THE APPLES OF NEW YORK, 



BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION. 

The apple is classed with a natural group of plants in which the 
fruit is more or less fleshy and contains seed cells enclosed by either 
bony or parchment-like carpels. Some botanists still hold to the 
older classification in which this group of plants is included in the 
great order Rosacccc under the suborder Poinccc, but there is a 
tendency among modern botanists to raise the group to the rank of 
an order under the name Poinacccc. In this suborder or order, 
whichever ir may be called, there are several genera. One includes 
the mountain ashes, one the Juneberries, one the hawthorns, one 
the quinces, and one the pears, apples and crabapples. This last 
genus botanists have called Pyriis. W^ithin this genus there are many 
species of apples and crabapples, most of which are native to the old 
world. Sargent, from whom the three following descriptions are 
largely derived, recognizes in the apples which are indigenous to 
North America the three species named below. ^ 

NATIVE WILD APPLES. 

1. Pyrus coronaria L., the fragrant crab, which is found in glades from 
Canada, Western New York and the shores of Lake Erie southward 
along the mountains to Alabama and westward to the Missouri valley 
and Texas. The flowers are large, showy, on slender pedicels, white or 
rose-colored and delightfully fragrant. Leaves ovate to triangular ovate 
and often three lobed. The fruit may reach a diameter of one and one- 
half inches. The calyx is persistent. The skin, which is green or be- 
comes yellowish, is waxy and has a peculiar aroma. The fruit ripens late, 
is sour and almost bitter but has long been valued for making preserves. 
No varieties of this species are cultivated for the fruit. 

In the prairie states this species runs into the variety iozvensis Wood, 
which some regard as a distinct species. There are known in cultivation 
hybrids between this and the common apple as we shall see later. The 
fruit of iozvensis sometimes reaches a diameter of two inches. 

2. Pyrus angustifolia Ait., the native crabapple of the southern states, 
is much like P. coronaria except that its leaves are not lobed but are 
lanceolate oblong and acute at the base. The flowers are white or rose- 
pink and very fragrant; calyx persistent; fruit about one inch in diameter, 
pale green or yellowish, ripens in winter and is then very fragrant but 

iSilva N. A., IV: 70-78. 



2 The Apples of New York. 

austere. The fruit is used for preserves but no variety of this species 
is cultivated for its fruit. The species is found from Southwestern 
Pennsylvania to Florida and west to Tennessee and Louisiana. 

3. Pyrus rivularis Doug., the Oregon crabapple, has rather small white 
flowers, and the calyx lobes become deciduous from the mature fruits. The 
fruit is about three-fourths of an inch long, oblong, yellowish or blushed, 
and ripens in autumn. It is used by the Indians. No variety of this 
species is cultivated for its fruit. This species ranges from Northern 
California northward along the coast to the Aleutian Islands. 

CULTIVATED HYBRIDS OF NATIVE APPLES. 

Craig and Humel describe four hybrids between the common apple and 
P. iozvcnsis, or other indigenous American crabapples, which hybrids are 
cultivated for their fruit in some locations in the Mississippi valley. 
These are Soulard, Howard (or Hamilton), Mercer (or Fluke) and Ken- 
tucky Mammoth (or Mathezvs). The fruits of these hybrids are fit only 
for culinary uses or for cider. They vary in size from medium to large 
for a crabapple, are green or yellowish and ripen in winter. These 
hybrids are valued chiefly where superior hardiness is a prime requisite 
in a A^ariety, but they are practically unknown and unsought in New York 
state because there are other kinds which are more valuable here. 

SPECIES INTRODUCED FROM THE OLD WORLD. 

Ornamentals. Several species of apples or crabapples which are 
indigenous to the old world are grown in this country for ornamental 
purposes only, as, for example, the flowering crabs and flowering apples 
from China and Japan. But we are now particularly concerned with 
those species which have been brought from the old world to be culti- 
vated here for their fruit, as shown in the common apple and common 
crabapple. 

The Common Apple. The apples which are grown here for their 
fruit mostly belong to the species which Linnseus called Mains. He 
placed it in the same genus as the pear and thus its botanical name became 
Pyrus mains L. Recently Britton has separated it from the pear genus 
on the ground that it has flesh free from grit cells. He makes its botani- 
cal class Mains mains (L.) Britton.2 This species is particularly character- 
ized by simple, soft leaves: flowers white or partly tinged with deep rose- 
pink, short-stemmed and borne in a simple umbel; fruit depressed at both 
ends; calyx persistent. The under side of the young leaves, the young 
twigs, the buds, calyx lobes and young fruits are commonly fuzzy. 

This species is very variable. Under cultivation it has developed 
innumerable varieties as will be noticed farther on. Some varieties 
which because their fruit is large are called apples doubtless are hybrids 
between this species and the one next described. 

The Common Crabapple. The crabapples which we cultivate for their 
fruit are for the most part hybrids between the apple P. mains, and the 
primitive Siberian crab, or berry crab, called by Linnseus Pyrus haccata. 

'Native Crabapples and Their Cultivated Varieties. la. Acad. Sci., VII: 123- 141. 1899. 
-Flora Nor. States and Can., II: 236. 



The Apples of New York. 3 

This species, baccate, in its pure forms is readily distinguished from the 
apple, P. mains. The calyx is eventually deciduous, instead of persistent. 
The leaves are firm, smooth, bright green and are borne on long, slender, 
hard leaf-stalks. The twigs are smooth and slender. The ripe fruit is 
brilliant in color, red or yellow, does not get mellow, varies from three- 
eighths to three-fourths of an inch in diameter and is borne on long 
slender stalks. The flowers are large and usually pure white. In some 
of the hybrids, as, for example, Martha and Currant, the calyx is on some 
fruits deciduous, or partly so, while on other fruits borne on the same 
tree the entire calyx may be persistent; also the fruit is large and it is 
clear that other characters which they show are derived wholly or in 
part from cither haccata on the one hand or from mains on the other.l 

It is well to remark that the name crabapple is not applied exclusively 
to the Siberian crabs and their hybrids but is popularly used to designate 
indiscriminately small apples whether of the mains species or of some 
other species, but the term Siberian crab is properly used to indicate the 
baccata species and its kin. 2 

THE NATIVE HOME OF THE APPLE. 

The orio^inal home of the apple, P. mains, is not definitely known. 
After examining the evidence carefully A. DeCandolle came to the 
conclusion that it is most indigenous to the region south of the 
Caucasus, from the Persian province Ghilan on the Caspian to 
Trebizond on the Black Sea, and that from prehistoric times it has 
existed in Europe, both wild and cultivated, over an area extending 
from the Caspian Sea to the xVtlantic Ocean, except in the extreme 
north.2 He cites it as being found wild in the mountains of North- 
west India, but not in Japan, Mongolia or Siberia. 

Alarlatt says,^ " The apple industry in Japan is of recent origin, 
sa}' within the last thirty or fort}- years. * * * The varieties 
are our varieties and have been imported from America with the 
exception of some few European sorts. * * * Prior to the 
introduction of this fruit from America it was unknown in Japan, 
the native apple of Japan being a crab, grown more for ornament 
than for fruit, and a very rare tree, unknown to most Japanese." 
From the reports of Marlatt and others it appears doubtful 
whether the Chinese knew this species until cultivated varieties 
of it were introduced among them from Europe and America. 

' See plate of Martha, in Vol. 11 of this report. 

-See also Prof. Budd's discussion of this subject in .\m. Hort. Man., I: i6o. 1902. 

sQr. Cult. Plants 233-236. 1885. 

* Yearbook, U. S. Dept. Agr. 1902: 161 et seq. 



4 Tpie Apples of New York. 

It appears that the native apple of X'orth China is quite different 
from our common apple, P. mains, but rather like what we call 
" crabapples."^ 

Evidently the Siberian crabapple, P. baccata, had its origin farther 
north and east than P. iiiahis. Bailey cites its habitat as Siberia 
to IManchuria and the Himalayan region.^ 

THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPLE CULTURE IN 

NEW YORK. 

The principal native fruits of New York, in addition to the wild 
crab already noticed, are the wild strawberries, red raspberries, 
black raspberries, dewberries, blackberries, elderberries, cranberries, 
high-bush cranberries, huckleberries, blueberries, the beach plum 
along the seacoast, the wild red or Canada plum of the St. Law- 
rence valley, the wild red or yellow plum of Central and Southern 
New York, the fox grape in eastern and southeastern parts of the 
state, the summer grape in the southern counties, and the river-bank 
or frost grape of general distribution. Improved varieties of the 
native grapes and of many of the small fruits are now extensively 
grown both for home use and for market, but so far as New York 
state is concerned this does not hold true for any of the orchard 
fruits. Some of the native plums are cultivated in the northern 
counties to a very limited extent, but, generally speaking. New York 
orchard fruits are all of old world species. 

Introduction of the Apple. In view of the primitive character 
of our native fruits, it was but natural that the Europeans when 
they began to form settlements on this continent should bring their 
favorite fruits with them from the old world. This they did. 
Some few brought trees or scions of choice varieties, but more fol- 
lowed the less expensive plan of bringing seeds of selected fruits 
to plant about their new homes in America, just as their descendants 
till recent times have continued to do when leaving the older settle- 
ments of the East to take up pioneer life along the frontier of 
civilization. 

^Marlatt I. c. Cf. Leroy Diet, de Pom., 3:5. 
^Cyc. Am. Hort. 111:1472. 



The Apples of New York. 5 

The introduction of the apple into New York along with other 
old world fruits was thus begun nearly three hundred years ago. 
In the following years, at one time or another, very many of the 
cultivated varieties of apples of Western Europe were brought here, 
and this importation has been kept up with each succeeding genera- 
tion till the present time. In the earliest settlements doubtless the 
varieties which were first brought into New York were mostly from 
Holland. Later some came from Germany, France and other con- 




FiG. I. Indian Apple Tree Stiij. Standing near the Geneva Kxtkrimknt 

Station in 1904. 



tinental countries, and many from the British Isles, either directly 
or through neighboring colonies. 

The Early Dissemination of the Apple. When once the apple 
was introduced its dissemination kept pace with the progress of the 
settlement of the country. In fact, it was carried by Indians, 
traders and white missionaries far into the wilderness beyond the 
outermost white settlements. Reports of General Sullivan's expedi- 
tion, in 1779, against the Cayugas and Senecas. in describing the 
Indian villages which were then destroyed, make frequent mention 



6 The Apples of New York. 

of peach and apple orchards that were found bending with fruit. 
\\'ithin sight of the Geneva Experiment Station are two very old 
Indian apple trees, the only ones in this vicinity now left out of many 
hundreds which the Indians were growing in the clearings about 
their town of Kanadesaga, which was located here. The illus- 
tration, Fig. I, shows the present appearance of one of the trees. 
Both bear winter fruit of medium size. The fruit of one is very 
good for cooking, that of the other is pleasant llavored, subacid 
and very good for eating. Neither has been propagated. These 
trees are interesting as types of the seedling apples which were 
most common around the homes of the early settlers, and also to 
some extent in the Indian villages. 




Fig. 2. Collection of Varieties of Wild Apples from a Hill Pasture at 

Chittenaxgo. 

The Apple now Grows Wild in New York. The apple now 
grows wild in various parts of New York state. It is notably 
abundant along fence rows and in hill pastures in some places in 
.Southern and Southeastern New York and on the Onondaga lime- 
stone formation in Onondaga and Aladison counties. Fig. 2 shows 
the fruit of several wild apples which were found in a hill pasture 
near Chittenango in ^Madison county. Some of these are superior 
to many of the named and cultivated sorts, being more attractive, 
larger and of better quality. 

The Siberian crab has not. to my knowledge, ever been found 
growing spontaneously either in New York or in any other part 
of this continent. 



The Apples of New York. 7 

Primitive Orchards. As the early settlements gradually ex- 
tended back from the Atlantic coast region the pioneers who over- 
spread the interior of New York, hewing farms out of the forests, 
planted around their new homes apple seeds brought from the older 
settlements or from Europe. It is commonly known that the culti- 
vated varieties of the apple seldom, if ever, reproduce true from 
seed. For example, seedlings of large apples may bear very small 
fruit, seedlings of red apples may bear green or yellow fruit, seed- 
lings of sour apples may bear sweet fruit. In fact, not often does 
the fruit of a seedling apple resemble the fruit of the parent closely 
enough to indicate its parentage clearly. The exceptions to this 
general statement will be considered later. It appears at first 
thought that it would be better for the fruit grower if the different 
kinds of apples came true from seed, as garden vegetables do. Then 
he could supply himself with as many trees of a kind as he liked by 
simply growing seedlings of that kind instead of propagating the 
variety by budding or grafting, as is now done. But from another 
point of view the great variability of the apple seedlings is a most 
valuable feature. It has made possible more rapid progress than 
could otherwise have been made in develop'ng varieties especially 
well adapted to succeed in the new world. Large numbers of Euro- 
pean apples have been tried in America, but the great majority have 
failed to maintain themselves alongside of American varieties, and 
soon have been discarded from American orchards and nurseries. 
But among the innumerable seedlings of infinite variety which have 
been grown on this continent during the last three hundred vears 
certain ones have been found from time to time that succeed better 
in this country than those kinds do which have been brought in 
from Europe. So also in the region west of the Great Lakes the 
varieties which are succeeding best are selections from seedlings 
which have been originated in that region. This is in accordance 
with what appears to be a general rule, that the varieties originating 
in any section, probably because they have been selected on account 
of their capacity to fit the conditions, gradually supersede those 
brought in from outside. This holds true with regard to dififerent 
sections of this country, and. as v/e shall see later, even of different 
regions within New York state. 



8 



The Apples of New York. 



The fruit from tlie seedling trees would now be called " natural " 
or " seedling " fruit in distinction from grafted fruit ; in the early 
days, however, and even within the last half century, the fruit of 
these seedling apples was also called " common " fruit, a designation 
which might have arisen because of the abundance of such trees at 
that time. Such apples were then used chiefly for feeding to stock 
and for cider-making, being on that account often called cider apples. 
The surplus, if there were any, was usually allowed to rot because 
there was no profitable way of disposing of it. 



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i'li;. 2a. '1 HE Old Tree Stands as a RE>tTXDEK of the Days of the Stage- 

COACH AND THE ParING-BeE. 

In many parts of Xew York, especially in the eastern two-thirds 
of the state, there are still seen portions of the primitive seedling- 
orchards varying in age from fifty to one hundred vears, or possibly 
more. The old trees, having outlived their companions, stand as 
silent reminders of the days of the stage-coach, the hand-loom, the 
spinning-wheel, and the paring-bee, and of the time when the farmer 
generally considered his winter supplies incomplete unless there 
were several barrels of cider stored in the cellar. 



The Apples of New York. 9 

Mixed Orchards. It is pretty certain tliat grafted fruit was 
known in the earhest orchards to a hniited extent only. In an 
appencHx to Cobhett's American edition of Forsyth's Fruit Trees, 
pubHshed in Albany, 1803, there is a communication from a member 
of the State Agricultural Society, Peter W. Yates, in which he 
remarks concerning the practice of grafting and budding (inocu- 
lating) in America : 

" The practice of grafting and inoculating in America is but of 
modern date. It was introduced by Mr. Prince, a native of New 
York, who erected a nursery in its neighborhood about forty years 
ago. But since the late American revolution others have been insti- 
tuted in this and some other parts of the United States. Mr. 
Livingston has lately established one, not far from the city of New 
York, which can vie with some of the most celebrated ones in 
Europe. May he, and others who have undertaken that useful 
branch of business, meet with encouragement and success." 

Although his idea that grafting and budding were introduced in 
America by Mr. Prince is based upon a misapprehension of the 
facts, Mr. Yates' statements are of interest because they tend to 
show that prior to the Revolutionary war the planting of orchards 
with grafted trees from the nursery was not common in the vicinity 
of Albany, one of the oldest settlements in the state. But there is 
reliable evidence that grafting was practiced to some extent by 
American colonists long before the establishment of the Prince 
nurseries at Flushing, Long Island. Taylor^ says : " Certain it is 
that in 1647 the apple is recorded as grafted upon wild stocks in 
Virginia; while in 1686 William Fitzhugh, in describing his own 
plantation, mentions ' a large orchard of about 2,500 apple trees, 
most grafted, well fenced with a locust fence.' By the close of the 
seventeenth century there were few plantations in \^irginia without 
orchards of apple, peach, pear, plum, apricot and quince. * * ■)= 
Frequent importations of seeds, scions and grafted trees, together 
with propagation of those already noticed, both by seeds and grafts, 
brought the orchards of New England up to such point that Dudley, 
in 1726, stated in a paper in the Philosophical Transactions, ' our 

HJ. S. Dept. Ag. Yearbook, 1897:308. 



lo The Apples of New York. 

apples are without doubt as good as those of England, and much 
fairer to look to, and so are the pears, but we have not got all the 
sorts. * * * Our people of late years have run so much upon 
orchards that in a village near Boston, consisting of about forty 
families, they made near ten thousand barrels (of cider).' 

" Perhaps the earliest recorded grafted tree brought from Europe 
(that of Governor Endicott is stated to have been a seedling) was 
the Summer Bonchretien, planted by Governor Stuyvesant, in 
1647, i" New Amsterdam. It is said to have been brought from 
Holland, and its trunk remained standing on the corner of Third 
avenue and Thirteenth street. New York city, until 1866, when 
it was broken down by a dray. Many of the earliest introduc- 
tions of named varieties of the pear, including White Doyenne, 
St. Germain, Brown Beurre, Virgouleuse, etc., were made by the 
French Huguenots, who settled about Boston and New York 
shortly after the revocation of the Edict of N'antes in 1685." 

It was at Flushing, Long Island, in one of these Huguenot settle- 
ments, that the Prince nurseries above referred to were established, 
about 1730. Near here the famous Newtown Pippin originated. 

While grafted fruit was certainly known in some orchards of the 
early settlers and sometimes an entire orchard was planted with 
grafted nursery trees, yet, taking the state as a whole, in the earlier 
days more often the orchards were of seedling trees, with only 
a portion of them top-worked to improved kinds, and so the 
ordinary farm orchard was made up partly of " common " or of 
" cider " apples and partly of grafted fruit. A great diversity of 
varieties of grafted fruit was usually included in this class of 
orchards, because the object was to furnish the home with fruit 
from the first of the season through the autumn, winter and the 
spring, and even till early summer. Transportation facilities being 
crude, there was little encouragement for shipping apples to distant 
markets. When the farmer went to town he would often take with 
him a few bushels of apples, to offer in trade for articles which he 
wished to purchase. The other ways of disposing of surplus apples 
were in the manufacture of cider, boiled cider, and vinegar, or in 
drying the fruit. For the latter operation the kitchen stove was 



The Apples of New York. U 

usually surrounded with festoons of quartered fruit which had been 
patiently strung- on tow strings, or the prepared fruit was spread on 
racks above or on papers beneath the stove. 

Commercial Orchards. The development of domestic and for- 
eign commerce in apples and apple products, such as dried apples, 
cider, apple brandy and vinegar, naturally first assumed importance 
in New York in the vicinity of New York city because this was the 
metropolis and a seaport. Speaking of the beginning of the foreign 
trade of this country in fruits Taylor remarks ■} " Trade in this 
fruit with the West Indies probably developed early in the eighteenth 
century, though we have no record of shipments till 1741, when it 
is stated apples were exported from New England to the West Indies 
in considerable abundance. No transatlantic shipment has be:^n 
disclosed earlier than that of a package of Newtown Pippins of the 
crop of 1758 sent to Benjamin Franklin while in London. The 
sight and taste of these brought to John Bartram, of Philadelphia, an 
order for grafts of the variety from Franklin's friend Collinson, 
who said of the fruit he ate : ' What comes from you are delicious 
fruit- — if our sun will ripen them to such perfection.' Subsequently 
a considerable trade must have resulted, for in 1773 it was stated by 
the younger Collinson, that while the English apple crop had failed 
that year, American apples had been found an admirable substitute, 
some of the merchants having imported great quantities of them. 
* * * Statistics on the subject are lacking until 1821, when the 
total export of fruit included in the treasury statement consisted of 
68,443 bushels of apples, valued at $39,966." 

It was not till after the first quarter of the nineteenth century had 
passed that commercial apple culture began to be developed in New 
York to any considerable extent above the southern part of the 
Hudson valley. 

According to Mr. W. D. Barns of Middlehope, the planting of com- 
mercial apple orchards did not receive much attention in Ulster county- 
till 1820 to 1825, although Robert Pell of Esopus had about 20 acres of 
bearing Newtown Pippin trees from which he exported fruit as early as 
from 1825 to 1830. Along the Hudson where the fruit could be easily 
transported to New York city by boat the trade included a large number 
of summer and fall apples as well as winter varieties. They were shipped, 

'1. c, 31 1. 



12 The Apples of New York. 

says I\Ir. Barns, in straw-head barrels. Some were contracted for by- 
dealers in New York and some were sold by the captain of the steamboat 
that carried them to the city. The prices were $i to $1.50 per barrel, 
barrel returned. Among the favorite early kinds were Summer Pippin 
(also called Sour Bough, Champlain and Nyack Pippin), Spice Sweet and 
Jersey Sweet. 

IVIr. P. C. Reynolds of Rochester removed in 1836 from the northeast 
part of Dutchess county to northern Ontario county near Palmyra. He 
states that in 1830 on their Dutchess county farm were two orchards. 
The older was planted about 1775 and contained nothing but "natural" 
or seedling trees. In the younger orchard about 5 per cent were grafted 
trees. Among the seedlings were some excellent apples. The grafted 
varieties were Yellow Harvest, Bough Sweet, Fall Pippin, Westfield Seck- 
No-Fiirther, Black Gilliflower, Rhode Island Greening and Esopus Spitzen- 
burg. The Baldwin was not known there. That portion of the fruit not 
used by the family was either fed to farm animals or made into cider. 
There were some large orchards in the neighborhood inside of which no 
animals were permitted. The fruit of these trees was used for making 
cider brandj^ otherwise called " apple-jack." In that form it became an 
article of commerce. 

This is an interesting account and typical of the orchard condi- 
tions in that part of the state in the first quarter of the last century. 
The view which Mr. Reynolds gives of apple orcharding in northern 
Ontario county in 1836 is equally interesting because it is typical 
of the apple orcharding of that time in what is now an important 
apple-growing region of New York. 

He says their farm in Ontario county in 1836 had two orchards with 
about 10 per cent of the trees bearing grafted fruit. A few more varieties 
were grafted in but no Baldwins. No apples were sold from these 
orchards till 1843 when some commission men from Palmyra bought the 
grafted fruit for a New York firm paying about 75 cents per barrel for 
the fruit, finding the barrels. The fruit was shipped by the Erie Canal. 
In 1848 he began to graft the seedling trees in one orchard to varieties 
that were being recommended by Barry, Thomas and Downing and in- 
cluded Northern Spy, Baldwin, Detroit Red, Gravenstein, Porter, Peck 
Pleasant and a number of other sorts. 

Development of Nurseries. Concerning the Prince nursery 

above mentioned, L. B. Prince says ■} 

" The nursery, which was perhaps the first large commercial one in 
America, was established about 1730 by Robert Prince. The Huguenots 
who settled at New Rochelle and on the north shore of Long Island 
brought with them a varietj^ of French fruits, and the interest thus created 
in horticulture resulted in the establishment of this first nursery. For a 
number of years attention was confined chiefly to the fruit trees with 
which to stock the new country, and it was only when more settled con- 

'Cyc. Am. Hort., Bailey, III: 1435. 



The Apples of New York. 13 

ditions came that the culture of ornamental trees and shrubs was intro- 
duced. * * * The catalogues from 1815 to 1850 ranked among the 
standard horticultural jniblications of the country. * * * The cata- 
logue of 1845 which enumerates only the best varieties, contains 350 vari- 
ties of apples." 

At about the middle of the last centtiry the nursery trade began 
to be more active. Instead of planting seedling orchards, it became 
a common practice to plant orchards with grafted trees from the 
nurseries. Large nurseries became more nttmerous, especially in 
the interior of the state, where Rochester, Geneva, Dansville and 
some other places became quite important centers of the nursery 
trade. 

Development of Commercial Orchards. As transportation facil- 
ities gradually im])roved by the opening of canals and railways the 
farmers in many interior localities found that thev cotild send their 
fruit to other than local markets and receive profitable returns. 
Accordingly commercial orcharding began to attract attention, espe- 
cially in regions which were found to be naturally favorable to the 
production of good apples. From 1850 to i860 the number of com- 
mercial orchards which were planted increased rapidly, particularly 
in Western New York, and continued to increase thereafter till 
commercial apple orcharding assumed the important place which it 
now holds in the horticultural interests of the state. 

With the development of the commercial apple interests the losses 
from the depredations of the codlin moth and other insects, also from 
the apple scab and other fungotis diseases, became relatively more 
important. Commonly the causes of the losses which were stis- 
tained were not very well understood, and in those cases that were 
understood there appeared no practical remedy. Because of these 
and other difficulties which faced them some orchardists eventually 
became so discouraged at the outlook that in the decade from 1880 
to 1890 they began to cut down their commercial apple orchards. 
The practical use in the apple orchard of paris green and other 
arsenical poisons against the codlin moth, the canker worm and 
other leaf-eating insects originated for the most part in Western 
New York in the decade from 1870 to 1880.^ The use of fungicidal 

'Lodeman, Spraying of Plants: 61-64. 
Hooker, C. M. Spraying Apple Orchards. Proc. 49 An. Meet. W. N. Y. Hort. Socy., 
Rochester, 1904: 131. 



14 The Apples of New York. 

sprays was introduced in the decade from 1885 to 1895. The 
demonstration that by combined treatment with fungicides and 
insecticides some of the most destructive enemies of the apple might 
be profitably kept under control put the business of growing apples 
upon a more stable basis than ever before. In the decade from 
1890 to 1900 notable improvements in the methods of orchard man- 
agement in matters of tillage and cover crops came into vogue 
among progressive commercial orchardists. During the same period 
the facilities for holding apples both in common storage and in cold 
storage were greatly increased.^ The export trade developed more 
extensively, giving steadier markets for the better grades of fresh 
fruit and also of evaporated apples.- and the business of canning 
apples assumed considerable importance. 

' Powell in the Yearbook of U. S. Dept. of Agric. 1903: 228 gives statistics furnished by 
the International Apple Shippers' Association showing the number of barrels held in cold 
storage in the United States about December 1 of each year since 1898: 

Apples in storage about December i of each year from 1898 to 1903. 



Barrels. 

1898 800,000 

1899 1,518,750 

1900 1,226,900 



Barrels. 

1901 1,771,200 

1902 2,978,050 

1903 2,348,540 



* The annual export of apples and dried apples from the United States for the years 
1891 to 1903 inclusive is shown in the following table: 

Year. 



1893 

1894 

189s 

1896 

1897 1,503 



Apples. 


Dried 


Apples. 


Barrels. 


\'alue. 


Pounds. 


\'alue. 


135.207 


$476,897 


6,973,168 


$409,605 


938,743 


2,407,956 


26,042,063 


1,288,102 


408,014 


1,097,967 


7,966,819 


482,085 


78,580 


242,617 


2,846,645 


168,054 


818,711 


1,954,318 


7,085,946 


461,214 


360,002 


930,289 


26,691,963 


1,340,507 


,503,981 


2,371,143 


30,775,401 


1.340,159 


605,390 


1,684,717 


31,031,254 


1,897,725 


380,022 


1,210,459 


19,305,739 


1,245,733 


526,636 


1,444.655 


34,964,010 


2.247,851 


883,673 


2,058,964 


28,309,023 


1,510,581 


459,719 


1,628,886 


15,664,468 


1,190,593 


,656,129 


4,381,801 


39,646,297 


2,378,635 



1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1903 1,656,129 

In that section of the Lake Ontario apple belt which is included in Wayne county prob- 
ably a larger proportion of the apple crop has been made into dried apples than in any 
other section of the state. Wayne county contains 9 townships. Its total area is 624 
square miles. On some farms the entire product of the orchard is put through the evapo- 
rator, none of the fruit being sold green. In one township, Sodus, there were in 1896 
about 400 evaporators. In 1896 Wayne county marketed about 5,000,000 bushels of green 
apples. In that year about 1500 carloads of evaporated apples were shipped out of the 
county, representing about 5,250,000 bushels of green apples. Mr. E. S. Johnson of 
Wolcott who supplied the above information also stated that Wolcott for the decade ending 
in 1896 received an average of $250,000 per annum for its output of evaporated apples. 
This fruit came from within a radius of 6 to 10 miles of the railroad station. The 
average price to growers for the same period was estimated at 6i cents to 7 cents 
per pound. The prices were sometimes as low as from 3 to 3J cents and sometimes 
reached as high as 12 cents to 13 cents. 



The Apples of New York. 15 

On the whole the industry of growing apples rests now on a more 
stable and satisfactory basis than at any previous period in its 
history. 

Lists 1845-1903. The ](S45 catalogue of the Prince nursery, as 
noted above, which claimed to enumerate only the best varieties, 
contains 350 varieties of the apple. At that time the Baldwin was but 
little known in New York state, although in the vicinity of Boston 
it was already highly esteemicd as a market apple.^ In 1845 A. J. 
Downing made the first attempt to list all of the varieties of apples 
known in cultivation in America in his work entitled " The Fruits 
and Fruit-trees of America." This was revised the second time by 
his brother Charles Downing in i86g. Bailey finds that in these 
two lists there are 1.856 varieties named, of which the origin of 
172 is not known, 585 are of foreign origin, and 1,099 are American 
varieties.- 

Tnylor reports^ that the 1852 list of the American Pomological Society 
consists of 32 varieties, all but one of which, White Seek-No-Further, are still 
propagated by nurserymen. The list is here given. 

" Fruits Worthy of General Cultivation " : American Summer Pearmain 
(Summer Pearmain), Baldwin, Bullock's Pippin, Danvers Winter Sweet, 
Early Harvest, Early Strawberry, Fall Pippin, Fameuse, Gravenstein, Hub- 
bardston Nonsuch, Large Yellow Bough (Sweet Bough), Lady Apple, Porter, 
Red Astrachan, Rhode Lsland Greening, Roxbury Russet, Summer Rose, 
Swaar, Vandervere (Newtown Spitzenburg), White Seek-No-Further, Wine 
Apple or Hays, Winesap — (twenty-two varieties). "For Particular Locali- 
ties " : Canada Red, Esopus Spitzenburg, Newtown Pippin, Northern Spy, 
Yellow Belle Fleur — (five varieties). " New Varieties Which Promise 
Well": Autumn Bough, LLawley, Melon, Mother, Northern Spy (repeated), 
Smoke-house^(six varieties). Total 32 varieties. 

Additions to this list made from 1852 to 1891 brought the number of names 
up to 435 of which " 22 were synonyms of others so that but 413 presumably 
distinct varieties " had then been listed. Many of these had been rejected 
so that the list of 1891 contained " 339 names, of which at least two are recog- 
nized synonyms." 

This Society's list for 1901 consists of 296 names. 

Li 1883 Barry made a descriptive list,-* the main object of which was 
" to bring to the notice of cultivators the best varieties, those which ample 
experience has proved to be really valuable, or which upon a partial trial 
give strong indications of becoming so." The list includes 29 summer 
apples, 32 fall apples, 102 winter apples, and 21 crabapples. 

'Thaclier Amer. Orcli., Boston, 1822: 121. 

Kenrick New Amer. Orch., Boston, 1832: 41. 

Manning, Book of Fruits, Salem, 1838: 59. 
-An. Hort., 1892: 230. 
*Ani. Pom. Soc. 1895: 192. 
^Barry's Fruit Garden: 331-361. 
Vol. I — 2 



i6 The Apples of New York. 

The first edition of Thomas' Fruit Culturist was written in 1844, and 
subsequently much enlarged through several revised editions. l The lists 
of apples published in the twenty-first edition, 1903, include 954 varieties. 

The number of named varieties of the apple now runs into the thou- 
sands. Gregory2 states that about 1,200 varieties of apples were planted 
in an orchard of the University of Illinois in 1869. BaileyS asserts that 
the varieties of apple trees on sale in the United States in any one year 
are not far from 1000 kinds. His inventory of the apples sold by nursery- 
men in 1892 includes 8/8 entries.* 

The Old-time Grafted Fruit. As has already been noticed, some of 
the European settlers brought with them, or afterwards imported, scions 
or trees of the apples cultivated in Europe. A few nurseries were estab- 
lished at an early day in which these European kinds were propagated. 
Gradually American varieties found their way into grafted orchards and 
into nurseries and gained the preeminence v,fliicli as a class they con- 
tinue to hold. Among the varieties originating on Long Island or in the 
Hudson valley, or brought into the state from New England or New 
Jersey, which were being grafted into the farm orchards in the older 
settled parts of the state a century or more ago were Green Newtown, 
Yellow Newtown (the two being often referred to indiscriminately as 
the Newtown Pippin), Swaar, Esopus Spitzenburg, Fall Pippin, Bough 
Sweet (also called Large Yellow Bough), Yellow Bellflower, Westfield 
Seek-No-Further, Rhode Island Greening, Tolman Sweet, Pumpkin 
Sweet (often called Pound Sweet), and Roxbury Russet. Besides some 
of these, the Fameuse or Snow was also grown in the Champlain and St. 
Lawrence valleys, having been introduced from Canada. 

Warder^ states that grafts taken from the orchard of Israel Putnam, 
of wolf-killing memory, in Pomfret, Conn., were set in an apple nursery 
at Marietta, Ohio, by W. Rufus Putnam in 1796, and most of the early 
orchards of that region were planted from this nursery. He cites the 
following authentic list of the varieties propagated as given in the Ohio 
Cultivator, Aug. i, 1846: 



1. Putnam Russet (Roxbury). 

2. .Seek-No-Further (Westfield). 

3. Early Chandler. 

4. Gilliflower. 

S- Pound Royal (Lowell). 

6. Natural (a seedling). 

7. Rhode Island Greening. 

8. Yellow Greening. 

9. Golden Pippin. 

10. Long Island Pippin. 

11. Tallman Sweeting. 



12. Striped -Sweeting. 

13. Honey Greening. 

14. Kent Pippin. 

15. Cooper. 

16. Striped Gilliflower. 

17. Black Gilliflower. 

18. Prolific Beauty. 

19. Queening (Summer Queen?). 

20. English Pearmain. 

21. Green Pippin. 

22. Spitzenburg (Esopus?). 



In 1806 Bernard M'Mahon published at Philadelphia in his American 
Gardener's Calendar a list of apples recommended for planting which, in 
addition to some of the varieties named above, includes Early Harvest, 
Early Red Margaret. Vandevere, Newark Pippin, Priestly, Holland Pippin 

' Preface to Nineteenth Edition. 

2 Rep. Univ. 111., 1870: 44. 

3Cyc. Am. Hort., I: 78. 

*An. Hort., 1892: 253. 

^Am. Pom. Apples: 25. • 



The Apples of New York. 17 

and Quince. Bailey has republished tlic complete list,i thus making it 
more widely accessible, together with the list of one hundred selected 
kinds published by William Coxe in 1817 in his work on Fruit Trees, the 
two lists of the Downings, 1845 and 1S69, and a survey by himself of the 
contemporary varieties in 1892. 

Coxe states2 that his list includes "a selection of one hundred kinds 
of the most estimable apples cultivated in our country" with "a corre- 
sponding engraving of each kind." Besides some of the kinds mentioned 
above, Coxe describes among others the Maiden Blush, Siberian Crab, 
Domine, Rambo, Pomme d'Api or Lady Apple, Doctor, Long Island 
Russet, Ribston Pippin, Newtown Spitzenburg, Roman Stem, Pennock, 
Winesap and Gilpin. 

Varieties now in the Lead. In 1896 the writer, assisted by 
Prof. C. P. Close, made an inquiry as to what varieties were then 
grown most extensively throughout the state and their relative 
hardiness. 3 During the present year, 1904, many inquiries have 
been made also among the fruit growers of the state concerning the 
varieties of apples that are being grown, as to their relative im- 
portance and characteristics. From these and other data it appears 
that Baldwin ranks preeminently above any other kind of apple in 
importance in the commercial orchards of the state. Probably more 
Baldwin apples are put upon the market than all other kinds in the 
state put together. Rhode Island Greening ranks next in im- 
portance. It is doubtless speaking within bounds to say that these 
two varieties supply at least two-thirds of the apples grown for 
market in New York. Next in general importance comes Northern 
Spy. The relative rank of other varieties is not so readily deter- 
mined, btit in the following list those of more general importance 
precede those of less importance, although it may be not in exact 
order. Among other important kinds, besides the three just named, 
are Tompkins King, Roxbury, Golden Russet, Hubbardston, Esopus 
Spitzenburg, lilack Gilliflower, Ben Davis, Tolman Sweet, Twenty 
Ounce, Pumpkin Sweet, Swaar, Westfield Seek-No-Further, 
Fameuse, Fall Pippin, Yellow Bellflower, Yellow Newtown, Green 
Newtown, Jonathan, Red Astrachan, Oldenburg, Maiden Blush, 
Wealthy, Mcintosh, Gravenstein, Alexander, Early Harvest, Yellow 
Transparent, St. Lawrence and Blue Pearmain. 

'Annals of Hort. 1892: 209. 

'Coxe on Fruit Trees: 100. 181 7. 

•Ann. Rep. Geneva Exp. Sta. 1896: 408-418. 



i8 The Apples of New York. 

THE ADAPTATION OF VARIETIES TO PARTICULAE REGIONS. 

It is worthy of notice that the apples in the above Hst which are 
of dominant importance in the present day commercial orchards of 
New York are of New York and New England origin. Baldwin, 
Roxbury and Hubbardston come from Massachusetts ; Rhode Island 
Greening and Tolman Sweet from Rhode Island ; Twenty Ounce, 
Pumpkin Sweet and Westfield Seek-No-Further are from Connecti- 
cut. Northern Spy originated in Ontario county. New York, from 
seed brought by settlers from Connecticut. Fall Pippin is probably 
from Eastern New York. Tompkins King, though it is said to have 
originated in New Jersey, was first brought to notice in Central New 
York. Esopus Spitzenburg, Jonathan and Swaar originated in the 
Hudson valley; Green Newtown Pippin and Yellow Newtown 
Pippin on Long Island ; Early Harvest in Central New York ; Yellow 
Bellflower and Maiden Blush in New Jersey ; Fameuse, Mcintosh 
and St. Lawrence in Canada ; Red Astrachan, Alexander, Oldenburg 
and Gravenstein in Russia or Germany ; Blue Pearmain, Black Gilli- 
flower and Golden Russet are of uncertain origin. 

Only one of the list, the Ben Davis, comes from south of Mason 

and Dixon's line, and this one succeeds better in the South and 

Southwest than it does in New York. While the Newtown Pippin, 

under the name of Albemarle Pippin, has become a very important 

commercial variety in some portions of the South, yet, a case like 

this is rather exceptional. As a rule northern varieties have not 

succeeded well in the South or Southwest, nor do southern varieties 

appear prominently among the commercial varieties of the northern 

states or Canada. 

York Imperial, which is an important commercial apple in southern 
orchards from Virginia westward to Arkansas, does not develop properly 
in either size or quality even in the best apple districts of Central and 
Western New York. It does better in Southeastern New York but is 
not at all adapted to the Lake Champlain region nor to the St. Lawrence 
valley. Other kinds, too, which are commonly cultivated in the south 
and southwest as, for example, Buckingham, Grimes, Huntsman, Kinnard, 
Kittageskee, Lankford, Yopp's Favorite, Missouri Pippin, Nickajack, 
Ralls Genet, Willow Twig and even varieties which have gained prom- 
inence in New Jersey, Pennsylvania and other regions of that latitude 
as, for example, Fallawater, Lawver, Alinkler, Rambo, Roman Stem, 
Smith Cider, Vandevere and York Imperial, have none of them become 
leading kinds in New York. The Fameuse and St. Lawrence which have 



The Apples of New York. 19 

been introduced from Canada grow to perfection along Lake Cliamplain 
and the St. Lawrence but do not succeed so well in either the central 
or the southern parts of the state. Blue Pearmain, Bethel, Jewett Red 
and other kinds which succeed well in Northern New England and in 
northern counties of New York do not usually develop as good quality 
nor as high color when grown in the central and southern parts of the 
state. 

This general law as to the adaptability of varieties to regions having 
about the same latitude as that in which they have originated is verified 
in the experience of apple growers in other portions of the continent. 
In the fruit districts of Washington, for example, where the length of 
the growing season more nearly approximates that of New York and 
New England the apples which are gaining prominence in the commercial 
orchards, barring local seedlings, are Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening, 
Esopus Spitzenburg, Yellow Bellflower and other kinds which are taken 
from the lists of the New York and New England apples. jNIoreover in 
the upland orchards of that state York Imperial cannot be brought up 
to its best ciuality, while in the valleys good York Imperials are grown, 
as well as other kinds which require for their proper development a 
climate milder and a season longer than that of Central New York. 
Wealthy in Southern New York becomes a September apple but at 
Ottawa, Canada, it may often keep well into the winter. The Baldwin, 
which in New York is a standard winter variety, becomes a fall apple 
in Virginia and Arkansas. It thus appears that each variety has its own 
peculiar requirements as to length of season and amount of heat needed 
to bring it to its best development. Those varieties which, like Ben 
Davis, Grimes Golden and York Imperial require a warmer and longer 
season for their proper development than do such apples as Baldwin, 
Rhode Island Greening and Tompkins King, can never become standard 
sorts in Central and Western New York, by reason of climatic limitations. 

But the adaptability of a variety to a particular region is not altogether 
a matter of latitude, or length of season, nor prevailing temperature 
during the growing season. The general character of the soil, the pre- 
vailing climatic conditions during the blooming season, and other condi- 
tions peculiar to the local environment also enter into the question. 
Probably there is no region of New York where better Esopus Spitzen- 
burgs are grown than in the Schoharie valley; or better Newtown 
Pippins than in certain locations on the north shore of Long Island and 
in the Hudson valley; or better Fameuse than along the St. Lawrence 
river and Lake Champlain, yet there are other locations having corre- 
sponding latitude and altitude where these kinds do not succeed as well 
as they do in the regions named. Just what are the peculiar local condi- 
tions favorable or unfavorable to a particular variety cannot all be defi- 
nitely stated, but it is beyond question that some localities do afford 
peculiar advantages for certain varieties and also that some other local- 
ities are not particularly favorable or are even unfavorable to these 
varieties, aside from the factors of the length and warmth of the season. 
Since these peculiar favorable or unfavorable conditions are not all defi- 
nitely known it is unwise to plant any variety extensively till it has been 
first tested and proved satisfactory either in that region or in an appar- 
ently similar region. 



20 The Apples of New York. 

WHAT IS A VARIETY? 

It will lead to a clearer understanding of the question as to 
what a horticultural variety is, if we consider how such varieties 
originate and how they are perpetuated. With respect to the 
manner of their origination horticultural varieties fall into two 
general classes: (a) those which arise by sexual reproduction, that 
is to say, from seed; (b) those which arise by asexual reproduction, 
that is to say, from some vegetative portion of the parent plant. 

The ways of perpetuating varieties likewise fall into two gen- 
eral divisions : 

(a) Sexual Propagation, which is propagation by seed. 

(b) Asexual propagation, which is propagation by dividing the 
plant, as by taking from it cuttings, buds, scions, etc. 

Some plants which have originated from seed are propagated 
asexvially and vice versa some which have originated asexually 
are propagated from seed. Some varieties may be propagated 
either sexually or asexually as suits the convenience. 

Reproduction by Seed. 

The normal blossom of the apple species is perfect. In it both sexes 
are represented. In the case of a seed developed from a self-fertilized 
blossom the seed-bearing parent, which is the mother, is also at the same 
time the male parent. But when the apple seed arises from a cross- 
fertilized blossom the seed-bearing parent represents the female line of 
ancestry only, while the male line is represented by that apple tree which 
produced the pollen by which the cross-fertilization was effected. Under 
natural conditions cross-fertilization is a common occurrence among 
apple blossoms. Multitudes of insect visitors to the flowers carry the 
pollen from one flower to another. Accordingly, if one should plant the 
seeds of a particular variety, as Wagener for example, without having 
protected the Wagener blossoms from the visits of insects, he would be 
uncertain whether or not the seedling thus produced were a pure seed- 
ling of Wagener. If the blossom from which it developed happened to 
be cross-fertilized by means of pollen from another variety then the 
seedling would be a cross between the Wagener and that variety which 
bote the pollen. Since under natural conditions intercrossing occurs 
abundantly among apple varieties it is not to be wondered at that our 
cominon apples are mongrels and almost never reproduce the varieties 
true from seed. But among a few races, or groups, of apples there is a 
very marked tendency to reproduce the variety somewhat closely from 
seed as in the Aport group which includes Alexander and Wolf River 
and in the Fameuse group which includes Mcintosh, Louise and many 



The Apples of Xew York. 21 

local scc'llings of the Snow class, such as are particularly abundant along 
the St. Lawrence valley. 

Nearly all of the cultivated varieties of apples have arisen from seed 
of unknown parcntay^e. In a few cases the seed-bearing parent of a 
variety is known or is probably apparent from the evident similarity of 
the seedling to its supposed parent. Thus Fameuse is credited with being 
the parent of Louise which resembles it in many ways, and Ben Davis is 
thought to be the parent of Gano. In very rare instances both parents 
of a variety are on record. Thus Ontario is a cross of Northern Spy and 
Wagener. 

Hybrids. 

Seed Hybrids. Those varieties which originate from the cross-fertili- 
zation of distinct varieties or races may be called hybrids or more specifi- 
cally seed hybrids to distinguish them from the graft hybrids noticed 
below. Thus have originated very many of the cultivated varieties of 
garden vegetables. When the new variety that has originated from seed 
is a kind of plant that is propagated by asexual methods such as budding, 
grafting and layering, it is an easy matter to perpetuate it by working 
it upon some other stock, just as Baldwin and other apples, for example, 
are propagated in nurseries by either budding or grafting them upon 
seedling stocks, or in the orchard by top-working them upon the orchard 
trees. But if the new cross or hybrid is a kind of plant that commonly 
is propagated by seed only, as most garden vegetables are, then it is 
necessary to " fix " the variety before it may safely be disseminated as a 
new sort. With the first attempt to propagate a new variety from seed 
there are usually found among the plants soine which are more or less 
unlike the first, or original, seedling. These must be cast out if the new 
variety is ever to become so fixed that it will come true from seed. The 
process of casting out such plants is well known among seedsmen. By 
them it is called " rogueing." The " rogueing " must be continued faith- 
fullj'. generation after generation, till the variety appears to be sufficiently 
fixed to permit of its being safely disseminated. It may be necessary to 
continue the " rogueing " indefinitely in order to hold the variety up to 
its typical standard. 

Graft Hybrids. Hybrids may originate ase.xually, as when the grafting 
or budding of one sort upon another produces a new variety unlike either 
of the original ones represented in the union. A variety thus originated 
is called a graft hybrid. Graft hybrids are exceedingly rare but well 
authenticated cases are on record. ^ 

Sports. 

Occasionally new varieties or new strains of a variety originate as 
sports from the parent variety. Sports are sometimes called " freaks." 
They may be classed according to their origin into bud sports and seed 
sports. 

Seed Sports. Among varieties that are propagated by seed there is 
sometimes found a decidedly peculiar plant, unlike the typical plants of 
the variety, which may prove to be a true seed sport and be capable of 

' naniel, L., Compt. Rend., Acad. Sci., Paris, ii8: 992-955. 1894. Congres. Lyons Soc. 
Keg. \it., 11: .^62-365. 190J. 



22 The Apples of New York. 

reproducing itself by seed. Thus dwarf lima beans have originated from 
pole lima beans, and dwarf sweet peas from tall-growing varieties. Vari- 
ous other instances of this kind might be cited. If it should seem desir- 
able to perpetuate such a sport by seed it is quite probable that it would 
be necessary to fix the type before introducing it as a new variety. 

Bud Sports. Bud sports are well known. They correspond to seed 
sports in that they appear suddenly. They usually show permanent char- 
acters when propagated, entitling the sport to be called a new variety. 
Moreover, these characters may be transmitted, to a greater or less 
extent, through the seed produced by such a sport. Numerous instances 
in which varieties have originated as bud sports are found among orna- 
mental plants and they are not unknown among orchard fruits. 

Selected Str.\ins. 

In the case of a sport a variation from the ordinary type arises sud- 
denly. In other cases as great variations have been developed gradually 
by selecting individuals for breeding purposes which showed a tendency 
to vary in some particular way which it was desirable to perpetuate and 
intensify. Selected strains may be developed either sexually or asexually. 
Many well-known strains of garden vegetables have been originated by 
gradual selection under propagation by seed. So also under asexual 
propagation distinct strains have in some cases originated through u 
gradual process of selection of the propagating wood, or whatever other 
material is used in propagating the variety. This latter process corre- 
sponds to the development of strains by seed selection. B}^ it varieties 
of the pear which in the original seedling tree were armed with sharp 
thorny spurs have been changed so that it may be truly said that the 
thorns have been bred away. In a like manner thorns have been bred 
away from certain cultivated varieties of the orange. Galloway,! who 
has given much attention to the growing of violets, states that " left to 
itself the tendency of the violet is to retrograde. By proper selection and 
right cultural methods the jneld may be raised from fifty flowers to one 
hundred flowers per season in three years." 

From all that has been said it appears that new varieties may be pro- 
duced sexually in seed hybrids, asexually in graft hybrids; sexually in 
seed sports, asexually in bud sports; sexually in selected seed strains, and 
asexually in selected bud strains. 

V.A.RIATIONS Due to Environment. 

It is important to discriminate between those variations that are in- 
herent in the plant and capable of being propagated, as in those cases 
which have been just considered, and variations which are due to the 
peculiar influences of local environment and which are not transmitted 
under propagation. 

Many of the dififerences that different orchard trees show in habits of 
growth and productiveness; in the size, color and quality of the fruit 
produced; in resistance to disease, and in other ways, may be satisfac- 
torily accounted for on the ground of differences of environment. For 



^Violet Culture: 1 09-11 6. 



The Apj'lks ok Xi-:\v York. 



23 



example, certain apples are known to develop peculiarly different char- 
acters when grown in different regions, as has already been noticed. 
This occurs regardless of where the plants of the particular variety in 
question were obtained. The fruit of Yellow Bellflower as grown in 
Washington is more elongated and more angular than that from New 
York; Grimes grown in the Missouri valley is a larger, better colored 
and better flavored fruit than Grimes grown in New York; Fameuse de- 
velops deeper and more brilliant red color in the valley of the St. Law- 
rence than it does in the valley of the Genesee; Roxbury is more russeted 
when grown in Southeastern Ohio than when grown in New England.l 
These differences hold true with so many individual trees and in so many 
different orchards in the regions named that they are not satisfactorily 
accounted for on the assumption that they are due to variations in the 
buds or scions from which the stock was propagated. They must be 
attributed to peculiar local differences in environment. There are many 
other differences among orchard varieties in habit of tree, color of fruit 
and in other particulars, which are known to be due to differences in 
environment, because they are not transmitted by propagation. 

Varieties are Plastic Yet Distinct. 

In view of what has been said above as to the pecttliar influence 
of environment upon both tree and fruit it is clear that a variety 
must not be re.^arded as unchangeable. It is not always and every- 
where the same. It is plastic. Some are more plastic than others. 
On the other hand a variety must hold certain peculiar distinguishing 
characteristics otherwise it is not entitled to be called a variety. 
Under propagation it must transmit its individuality to such an 
extent that the different plants thus produced may all bear the same 
name without confusion. 

Apple Varieties Grouped. 

The named varieties of apples together with the unnamed 
seedlings, as has been already noticed, exhibit infinite variations 
among themselves in the form, size, color, flavor and season of 
the fruit, in the characters of foliage, bark and buds, and in the 
habit of growth of the tree. In fact they vary so greatly that 
they almost defy any attempt to classify them into groups. But 
when large numbers of varieties are taken into consideration with 
the idea of studying their resemblances it is sometimes found that 
a few more or less definite groups may be formed in which the 



* Warder Am. Pom.: 492, 



24 



The Apples of New York. 



members of each group are on the whole more hke each other than 
they are hke the varieties outside of that group.^ 

For example, Baldwin is more like Esopns Spitzenburg than it is like 
either Rhode Island Greening or I'^all Pippin or Ben Davis or Winesap. 
In fact Baldwin and Esopus Spitzenburg might be taken for the nucleus 
of a group of apples characterized by certain similarities of the fruits in 
their form; in the color, dots and other markings, texture and aroma of 
their skin; also in the flesh as to its texture, flavor, color and quality. In 
this group would be included Jonathan, Mother, Red Canada, Esopus 
Spitzenburg, Baldwin. Tufts, Olympia, Arctic and some others. These 
varieties certainly show decided differences when compared with each other 
but when contrasted with other groups it is seen that after all they exhibit 
general resemblances among themselves. Since the Baldwin is the best known 
of the varieties named in this group and is intermediate in character between 
the other members it may well be taken as the type and its name be given 
to the group. 

In like manner other groups might be formed. In many cases there 
is doubt as to what varieties should be grouped together but in other 
cases the indications are clear and convincing. A few groups are pre- 
sented below by way of illustration of this idea. These groups are given 
tentatively because they are evidently incomplete and, moreover, further 
study would probably lead to modifications of them. 

Northern Spy group. 



Fall Pippin group. 
Fall Pippin, 

Holland Pippin (of early autumn), 
Lowell, 
York Pippm, 
French Pippin, 
Hawley. 

Rhode Island Greening group. 
Section A. Holland Pippin (winter), 
Bottle Greening. 
Northwestern Greening, 
Rhode Island Greening. 

Section B. Green Newtown, 
Yellow Newtown, 
Occident, 
Newman, 
White Pippin, 
Peck Pleasant. 

Winesap group. 
Winesap, 
Arkansas Black, 

Arkansas ( Mammoth Blacktwig), 
Paragon. 



Northern Spy, 
Wagener, 
Melon, 
Ontario. 



Blue Pearmain group. 
Section A. Blue Pearmain, 
Oel Austin, 
Bethel, 

Scarlet Beauty, 
Stone. 

Section B. Mabie Sweet, 
Monroe Sweet, 
Gideon Sweet, 
Victoria Sweet. 



Ralls Genet group. 
Ralls, 
Salome, 
Ingram. 



^Cf. Hansen, Am. Hort. Man., II: 26. 



The Afples of New York. 



25 



Fameusc groupX 
Fameuse (Snow), 
Canada Baldwin, 
Louise, Princess, 
Mcintosh, 
Scarlet Pippin, 
Shiawassee. 

Alexander or Apart group. 
Alexander, 
Wolf River, 

Grand Duke Constantine, 
Bismark, 
Various other Russian kinds. 



Wealthy group, 
Wealthy, 
Peter, 
Also several Wealthy seedlings 

from Minnesota and adjoining 

states. 



Duchess of Oldenburg group. 
Oldenburg, 
Late Duchess, 
Gladstone, 
Pewaukee, 
Milwaukee, 
Various other Russian kinds. 



Groups of Russian Apples. During- the la.st 75 years hundreds 
of varieties of apples commonly classed as Russian have been 
brought into the United States. These Russian types of apples 
have now become established over wide areas in this country. 
But little of value in the way of winter fruit has as yet been 
derived from them, but some of the summer and fall kinds are 
imquestionably desirable additions to the lists of hardy apples 
for America. As early as 1832 Kenrick, in a select list of foreign 
varieties which he considered worthy of trial in the United States, 
includes "two highly celebrated Russian apples," one the Duchess 
of Oldenburg, the other Emperor Alexander or Alexander or 
Aporta." 

In a list "deserving of trial in Nova Scotia and Canada" he also includes 
the Astrachan or White Astrachan, the Borovitsky (Oldenburg) and the 
Red Astrachan. 3 It appears that about two years after this Alexander, 
Tetofsky, Oldenburg and Red Astrachan were imported by the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society from the London (F.ngland) Horticultural 
Society.'* One of the best concise accounts of the introduction and 
present status of these Russian apples is that given by Professor Craig 
in the Cyclopedia of American Horticulture. ^ After observing that the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture imported about 300 varieties from Russia 
in 1870, he remarks that the Iowa Agricultural College made some im- 
portations between 1875 and 1880 and following the trip of Prof. J. L. 
Budd of that institution with Charles Gibb of Canada to Russia in 1882, 
this college made further large importations of Russian apples and other 
fruits. After calling attention to the fact that it is difficult to say which 

iSee Waiigli, P.ull. S.^ Vt. Sta., 1900. 
^New Amer. Orch. : 61. 
^New Amer. Orch.: 87. 
*C;raig, J., in Cyc. Am. Ilort., J II: 1404. 



26 The Apples of New York. 

are Russian and which German, Polish or Swedish apples,i Professor 
Craig discusses the characteristic types of these fruits. He recognizes 
the Red Astrachan as a type of a small group of Russian apples. Besides 
this and the Anis type which he supposes is derived from it, " having 
trees upright, spreading or vase-shaped; leaves medium, veins reddish;" 
he cites four other types. 

1. Hibernal tj'pe: trees vigorous growers, with open spreading tops and 
very large leathery leaves. 

2. Oldenburg type: moderate growers, with round-topped heads; leaves 
of medium size. 

3. Longfield type: slow growers; branches horizontal or pendulous; 
leaves whitish and woolly underneath. 

4. Transparent and Tetofsky type: trees pyramidal; bark yellow with 
numerous spurs; leaves large, light green. 

'On the pomological use of the term "Russian apple," see also W. A. Taylor's views as 
published by Waugh, Vt. Expt. Sta. Bui. 61, 1897: 24. 



The Apples of New York. 27 

DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 

This volume of the report on The Apples of New York treats 
of varieties which are in season with Tompkins King and Hub- 
bardston and all which ripen later. A subsequent volume is planned 
in which those varieties which come in season earlier than Tompkins 
King and Hubbardston are to be considered. 

Those portions of the descriptive text which are supposed to be 

of most general or popular interest appear in long primer type, 

while that which is of less interest to the ordinary reader is given 

in brevier. 

Names and References. 

In the following descriptions, that name which the present 

waiter accepts as the correct one is given first. In this matter 

the decision of the American Pomological Society and its 

rules of nomenclature are, with rare exceptions, accepted as 

authoritative.^ 

^The revised code of pomological nomenclature adopted by the American Pomological 
Society is here given in full. See Proc. Am. Pom. Soc, 1903: 40. 

Priority. 

Rule i.- — No two varieties of the same kind of fruit shall bear the same name. The name 
first published for a variety shall be the accepted and recognized name, except in cases 
where it has been applied in violation of this code. 

A. — The term "kind" as herein used shall be understood to apply to those general classes 
of fruits that are grouped together in common usage without regard to their exact botanical 
relationship; as, apple, cherry, grape, peach, plum, raspberry, etc. 

B. — The paramount right of the originator, discoverer, or introducer of a new variety to 
name it, within the limitations of this code, is recognized and emphasized. 

C. — Where a variety name through long usage has become thoroughly established in 
American eiomological literature for two or more varieties, it should not be displaced or 
radically modified for either sort, except in cases where a well-known synonym can be 
advanced to the position of leading name. The several varieties bearing identical names 
should be distinguislied by adding the name of the author who first described each sort, or 
by adding some other suitable distinguishing term that will insure their identity in cata- 
logues or discussions. 

L). — Existing American names of varieties which conflict with earlier published foreign 
names of the same, or other varieties, but which have become thoroughly established 
through long usage shall not be displaced. 

Form of N.\mes. 

Rule 2. — The name of a variety of fruit shall consist of a single word. 

A. — No variety shall be named unless distinctly superior to existing varieties in some 
important characteristic nor until it has been determined to perpetuate it by bud propagation. 

B. — In selecting names for varieties the following points should be emphasized: distincS 
iveness, simplicity, ease of pronunciation and spelling, indication of origin or parentage. 

C. — The spelling and pronunciation of a varietal name derived from a personal or geo- 
graphical name should be governed by the rules that control the spelling and the pronuncia- 
tion of the name from which it was derived. 

D. — A variety imported from a foreign country should retain its foreign name subject 



28 The Apples of New York. 

Descriptions. 
The present status of the variety, its general adaptability to 
different regions and its fitness for market or other uses are 
given briefly together with other observations of popular char- 
acter. This is followed by historical observations and finally by the 
tccJiiiical descriptions of the tree and fruit. 

Technical Description. In the treatment of varieties which are given 
on the following pages the descriptions vary much as to their complete- 
ness. Sometimes a description has been made short because the variety- 
is comparatively unimportant in New York; in other cases it is short 
because the present writer lacks the information necessary to make it 
more complete. 

In a full technical description the tree, its twigs, bark, buds and leaves 
are first noticed as well as its degree of hardiness and productiveness, its 
adaptability to locations and the cultural methods suited to its require- 
ments it these have not been given previously. The fruit, as developed 
under New York conditions, is then described in detail. The suitability 
of the fruit for home or market or for other special uses is also con- 
sidered. 

Descriptions not Exact. The reader should bear in mind that these 
descriptions cannot be made so as to fit exactly every specimen of the 

only to such modification as is necessary to conform it to this code or to render it intelli- 
gible in English. 

E. The name of a person should not be applied to a variety during his life without his 

expressed consent. The name of a deceased horticulturist should not he so applied except 
through formal action by some competent horticultural body, preferably that with which he 
was most closely connected. 

F. — The use of such general terms as seedling, hybrid, pippin, pearmain, beurre, rare- 
ripe, damson, etc., is not admissible. 

G. — The use of a possessive noun as a name is not admissible. 

H. — The use of a number either singly or attached to a word should be considered only 
as temporary expedient while tlie variety is undergoing preliminary test. 

I. — In applying the various provisions of this rule to an existing varietal name that has 
through long usage become firmly imbedded in American pomological literature no change 
shall be made which shall involve loss of identity. 

Rule 3. — In the full and formal citation of a variety name, the name of the author v.'ho 
first published it shall also be given. 

Publication. 

Rule 4. — Publication consists (i) in the distribution of a printed description of the 
variety named, giving the distinguishing characters of the fruit, tree, etc., or (2) in the 
publication of a new name for a variety that is properly described elsewliere; such publica- 
tion to be made in any book, bulletin, report, trade catalogue, or periodical, providing the 
issue bears the date of its publication and is generally distributed among nurserymen, fruit 
growers and horticulturists; or (3) in certain cases the general recognition of a name for a 
propagated variety in a community for a number of years shall constitute publication of 
that name. 

A. — In determining the name of a variety to which two or more names have been given 
in the same publication, that which stands first shall have precedence. 

Revision. 
Rule 5. — No properly published variety name shall be changed for any reason except 
conflict with this code, nor shall another variety be substituted for that originally described 
thereunder. 



The Apples of New York. 29 

variety which may be found. Different fruits of the same varietj' may 
vary considerably when grown under differing conditions. Some varie- 
ties exhibit more irregularities in this way than others do. For example, 
Northern Spy fruit grown on the topmost branches fully exposed to 
light and air may be finely colored and highly flavored while on the same 
tree overshadowed branches may bear fruit poorly colored and decidedly 
inferior in flavor and quality. Innumerable examples of this kind might 
be cited to show that the individual fruits of the same variety may vary 
noticeably in size, form, color and quality on the same tree even during 
the same season, and often the general character of the crop differs 
noticeably in different seasons. Variations are also found in fruit from 
trees of different ages or under dift'erent conditions of growth or from 
different localities as has been previously stated. 1 It should be noticed 
that normally developed fruits of the same variety may differ not only 
in the characters above mentioned but also in such features as the calyx 
(eye) being open or closed; the basin wrinkled or smooth, deep or 
shallow; the stem long or short, thick or slender, and in other characters 
of this kind. For example, Baldwin usually has a short thick stem but the 
smaller fruits of this variety often have long slender stems. 

This tendency of different fruits to vary more or less must be recog- 
nized if the reader wishes to use technical descriptions of fruits in the 
most satisfactory and helpful manner. " Of what use then are these 
exact descriptions?" some may ask. They are of much value if rightly 
comprehended. While fruits of the same variety may vary in the ways 
above indicated j^et by examining a considerable number of specimens it 
will often be found that although it may be impossible to identify the 
variety from descriptions by any single character yet it may be identified 
by the combination of characters which it exhibits. Thomas aptly re- 
marks2 " Controlling circumstances will produce changes in all fruits and 
descriptions are not founded on extreme exceptions but on average char- 
acteristics." 

Describing the Tree. In the following descriptions when the habit 
of growth of the tree is referred to the writer has in inind trees of bear- 
ing age unless otherwise specified. The descriptions of the bark are 
made from young twigs of a season's growth. 

Top. In describing the top the terms used, which are largely self- 
explanatory, designate gradations from strong, z'cry vigorous, moderately 
vigorous or medium, to rather slozv or iveak growth. The form of the head 
is usually described in the terms used by Downing ;3 upriglit spreading as 
in Baldwin, see frontispiece, zi'idc spreading as in Rhode Island G."eening, 
round-headed as in Earl}' Harvest, or upright as in Red June Carolina, 
Tetofsky or Benoni. The top is sometimes noticeably close or dense as in 
Fameuse and other varieties, or it may be open as in Haas, Lady, Gilpin and 
Canada Reinette. 

Twigs. The new growth may be slender as in Rome and Cooper 
Market or tliick and stout as in Sutton. The twigs are said to be lo)ig- 
jointed when the ititernocles, or the spaces from one bud to the next, are 
long; they are called short-jointed when the internodes are short. 

' Page 22. 

-.Xmer. l-ruit Cult., 1897:248. 

^Fruits and Fruit-trees, 1872: 71. 



30 The Apples of N'ew York. 

The color of the bark after the leaves have fallen from the twigs of the 
current season's growth may assist in identifying the variety, together 
with appearance of its epidermis, or scarf-skin, the number and shape of the 
Icnticels, or corky dots which are found on the twigs, and the amount of fuzz, 
or pubescence, present. 

Buds. The more sharply pointed buds are called acute ; the more blunt 
ones are obtuse. If they are flattened unusually close to the twig they are 
called oppressed; if not close to the twig they are called free. 

Leaves. The leaves vary much in size and form according to the con- 
dition of growth of the wood which bears them. The descriptions do not 
refer to the smaller leaves found on the slow growing spurs but to the 
leaves which are borne upon the free growing twigs. 

Describing the Fruit. 

External Characters. In making a technical description of the fruit 
of any variety of the apple it is convenient to note first the external 
characters as seen in the size, form, stem, cavity, calyx, basin, skin and 
color; next observe the internal characters as seen in calyx-tube, core, 
carpels, seed, flesh; then state the uses for which the fruit is adapted, its 
season, general appearance and general desirability. The principal tech- 
nical terms used in making such a description will now be given. 

The stem end is called the base of the apple and the end in which the 
calyx or the eye is located is called the apex. The diameter passing from 
the stem through the eye is the vertical or a.vial diameter; at right angles 
to this is the transverse or equatorial diameter. 

Size. In considering the size it is well to hold the Siberian crabapples 
in a class apart from the common apples. In popular usage in this 
country crabapples of the size of Martha and Hyslop are called large, but 
as compared with common apples they are small. 

The gradations in size are expressed by the terms very large, large, above 
medium, medium, below medium, small, very small. 

Uniform signifies that the variety commonly makes a comparatively 
uniform grade so far as size of fruit is concerned. 

Form. Concerning the importance of form as a taxonomic character 
Van Dieman well says,l " Certain characteristics of fruit are more con- 
stant than others. * * * To my mind, considering all classes of fruit, 
there is no one character so fixed as the form. * * * It is true of the 
immature as well as of the fully developed specimens. * * * A Che- 
nango the size of a marble is not the shape of a Rambo. * * * Indeed 
it would not be hard to tell the difference between such marked varieties 
even before the petals had expanded." 

In order that the following remarks concerning the form of the apple 
may be more clearly understood the reader is referred to particular varie- 
ties which illustrate the points mentioned. Plates showing each variety 
thus cited accompany the description of that variety in the following 
pages. 

In examining the form of an apple let the fruit be held opposite the 
eye so that it may be observed from a point perpendicular to the axia 
diameter. As seen thus it may appear round; flattened or oblate; conical; 

' Identification of varieties. Rep. Am. Pom. ?oc., 1887:34. 



The Apples of New York. 31 

somewhat egg-shaped or ovate; oblong; or it may be intermediate between 
some of these forms. Then let the fruit be turned at right angles to its 
former position so as to bring cither the base or the apex into full view. 
From this point the outline of the fruit may appear round, or nearly so, 
when it is called regular; or its sides may be compressed, elliptical; or, if 
the fruit he somewhat ribbed, angular or ribbed. 

Round, globular, globose are terms which signify that the apple approaches 
spherical shape. See Tompkins King, Tolman, Hyde King. In McAIahon 
the fruit is roundish inclined to conical; in Fallawater it is roundish 
conical or a little oblate. Rhode Island Greening and French Pippin are 
roundish oblate. 

Oblate signifies that the apple is flattened as in Canada Reinette, Doctor, 
Lady and Menagere. The meaning of such terms as oblate conic and 
roundish oblate is apparent. 

Conical is a term applied when the apple narrows noticeably toward 
the apex. See Bullock, Red Canada. Westfield Scck-N o-Ftirther and White 
Pearmain. The Black Gilliflower is oblong conic. Occident and Opalescent 
are roundish conic. 

Ovate. When the fruit is contracted toward both base and apex it may 
be ovate, that is, somewhat egg-shaped. Bullock sometimes is this way 
as also are Dickinson, Magog, Gel, and Stone. 

Oblong. When the axial diameter appears long the form may be called 
oblong. If it narrows toward the apex it becomes oblong conic as in 
Yellow Bellflower, or oblong inclined to conic as in Gilpin. 

Truncate. When the fruit appears as though it were cut squarely 
across, or in other words is abruptly flattened at the end, it may be 
called truncate. See Gilpin, Grimes and Jonathan. 

Oblique. The form is said to be oblique when the axis slants obliquely 
as in Yellow Newtown and York Imperial. This form is sometimes 
called lopsided but that term is more properly applied to indicate the 
form next mentioned. 

Sides unequal or lopsided are terms applied when the fruit under normal 
conditions has one side noticeably larger and better developed than the 
other, as in ^lihvaukee, Reinette Pippin, Sutton and slightly in Westfield 
Seek-Xo-Furtlier. 

Symmetrical. When the sides are equally developed the fruit is 
symmetrical. 

Regular. When a section through the equatorial diameter shows a 
nearly circular outline the apple is called regular. 

Irregular is the term used if such outline be elliptical or angular. See 
Figs. 6 and 7. 

Sides compressed or elliptical are terms also applied when the outline is 
somewhat flattened instead of round. See Roxbury. 

Angular denotes that the sides are more or less ribbed or scalloped. 
See Figs. 6 and 7. 

Uniform as applied to shape is a term which signifies that the different 
fruits of the variety show comparatively little variation in form, as, for 
example. Black Gilliflower and Wealthy. Other varieties like Canada 
Reinette and Roxbury characteristically show considerable variation in 
this respect. 



32. The Apples of New York. 

Stem. The character of the stem is of some taxonomic importance 
notwithstanding that it may vary much in different fruits of the same 
variety. It may be generally long and slender as in Dutch Alignonne, Rambo, 
Rome and Westfield Scek-No-Furthcr; or short and thick as in Canada 
Reinette, Fallawater, Sutton and York Imperial; or fleshy as in Peck Pleasant. 
or clubbed \vhen enlarged at the end. 

In general it does not seem to be affected by the environment of the 
tree as much as other fruit characters and thus it is somewhat a means 
of recognition with fruit that has so changed, owing to a change of loca- 
tion, that it is otherwise unrecognizable. Unfortunately there are com- 
paratively few varieties which show a stem so characteristic that the 
fruit may be recognized by this character alone. 

Lipped is a term which signifies that the flesh forms a protuberance or 
lip under which the stem is inserted as often is seen in Pewaukee and Peck 
Pleasant and sometimes in Sutton and Esopus Spitzenburg. 

Cavity. The depression around the stem is technically called the 
cavity. See Fig. 3a. If it meets the stem at a very sharp angle as in 
Clayton, McMahon and Magog it is termed acuminate: if the angle is wide 
as in Rome, Doctor, Tolman and White Pearmain it is called obtuse; if 
intermediate between the two it is called acute as in Green Sweet, Lady 
Sweet and Red Canada. In Jonathan and Gilpin it varies from acute to 
acuminate. The cavity may be ivide as in Northern Spy, Tompkins King 
and York Imperial, or narrozv as in Black Gilliflower or medium as in 
Ribston and Tolman. It may be deep as in Jonathan, Northern Spy and 
York Imperial; medium in depth as in Baldwin or shallozv as in Pewaukee. 

Calyx, The lobes of the outer green covering of the flower bud are 
called calyx lobes These persist in the common apple and when the 
fruit is ripe may still be found in what is commonly called the " blow- 
end " of the apple. See Fig. 3b. They fall away, or are deciduous, in 
the pure Siberian crab species. In some of the hybrid Siberian crabs the 
calyx is partly deciduous. 1 

The calyx in the mature fruit is open in some varieties, closed in others 
and partly open in others. In some cases, as for example, in Blenheim 
the segments of the caly.x are noticeably separated at the base. The lobes may 
be flat and convergent ; when upright and the tips inclined towards the axis 
they may be called connivent; when turned backwards they may be called 
rcfle.ved or divergent. Very often the different fruits of a variety show con- 
siderable variations with respect to the various features above mentioned. 

Basin. The depression in which the calyx is set is technically called 
the basin of the apple. See Fig. 3b. It may be shallozv, medium in depth 
or deep; narrozv, medium in width or zvide. A basin with sides which show 
a sudden slope as in Jonathan and Gilpin is termed abrupt, but if, as in 
Black Gilliflower, Fishkill and Lady, the slope is gradual it is termed 
obtuse. The basin may be nearly round when it is called symmetrical or 
it may have the sides compressed. If the sides are smooth it is called 
regular. When depressed lines extend up the sides as in Winesap, some 
call it ridged, ribbed or angular, others term it furrozved. When the furrows 
are less distinct as in Baldwin, it may be called zvavy. If zvrinkled, plaited 
or folded about the calyx lobes as in Yellow Bellflower and Black Gilli- 

ipage 3. 



The Apples of New York. 33 

flower it is often called corrugated. Peculiar fleshy protuberances about 
the base of the calyx lobes are sometimes technically called iiiaininifunii. 
These are decidedly marked in some Siberian crabapples. 

Skin. Moth the color of the fruit and the character of the surface of 
the skin, as to its being rough or smooth or even russeted, vary more or 
less with the varying conditions under which the fruit is grown. 

The surface of the skin in some varieties as Mcintosh and Northern 
Spy is covered with a delicate whitish bloom which is easily rubbed off. 
In other cases the skin is zi'axy or oily as in Lowell (Tallozv Pippin), Titus, 
and to some extent in Sutton and Tompkins King. This character which 
is determined by the sense of touch must not be confused with that de- 
noted by the term ivaxcn which refers only to the appearance of fruit 
that looks bright, smooth and clear like wax. The surface may be some- 
what rough on account of minute capillary russet netted veins as often in 
Tolman and Hubbardston, or by russet dots, or by both; or it may have 
more or less of an unbroken russet surface as in various russet apples. 

Russet Skin. Sometimes this character is quite variable as in the case 
of Roxbury which under some conditions becomes nearly or quite sinooth. 
Sometimes the russet is thin as in Bullock; on other varieties it may be 
dense or heavy. Very often the cavity is somewhat russeted when the 
surface of the rest of the apple is smooth, as in Pumpkin Sweet. The 
russet in the cavity may be nearly unbroken or it maj'- spread out in 
broken rays when it is sometimes spoken of as radiating or stellate. 

Dots. The dots are sometimes rough to the touch; in some varieties 
they may be sunken or depressed; again they are visible under the epidermis. 
In the latter case they may well be called submerged. If they approach a 
star form they may be called stellate. If they are surrounded by a halo of 
a paler or brighter color they may be called areolar. They are in some cases 
decidedly conspicuous as in Westfield, Blue Pearmain and Red Canada or 
inconspicuous in others. They may vary from large to very small even on 
the same fruit ; often they are scattering toward the base of the apple, and 
often smaller and numerous towards its apex. In certain varieties some of 
the dots are elongated. With Red Canada, Baldwin and Esopus Spitzenburg 
elongated dots are often seen on the base of the fruit along lines radiating 
from the cavity. 

Suture. Sometimes suture lines extend from the base towards or to 
the apex as is often seen in Tolman. 

Pubescence. In some varieties there is a noticeable amount of fuzz or 
pubescence on and about the calyx. 

Color. The fruit may be striped with one or more shades of red. If 
it is not striped it may he called self-colored. A fruit may have a bronzed 
or blushed cheek and still be classed as self-colored in distinction from 
striped apples. It has already been remarked that the amount of color 
will vary on fruits of the same variety in different locations and in differ- 
ent seasons. In some cases trees of certain varieties have been known 
to bear a crop one season with no trace of red appearing on any of the 
fruit and in following seasons show a noticeable blush or red stripe on 
the fruit. When the overlying color is broken it may be designated by 
the term mottled or by any other suitable expression. The shorter stripes 
are often spoken of as splashes. The term blush in distinction from 



34 



The Apples of New York. 



mottled, striped or splashed, indicates that the surface is overspread with 
a red tint that is not much broken. 

The scarf-skin sometimes gives a characteristic appearance to the fruit. 
It extends outward from the base in whitish lines or stripes readily dis- 
tinguished in contrast with the green or yellow color in the Pumpkin 
Sweet (Pound Sweet of Western New York), the Green Newtown and 
certain other varieties; or it may give a dull or clouded appearance to a 
red skin as in Sweet Winesap (called Henrick or Hendrick Sweet in 
Western New York) and Black Gilliflower. 

Internal Characters. When the apple is cut in longitudinal section, 
as shown in Fig. 3, the internal characters disclosed are very often of 
great assistance in identifying the variety. 

Core Lines. That part of the flesh of the apple which immediately 
surrounds the seed cavities, and strictly speaking, constitutes a part of 



f 





Fig. 3. Longitudinal Cross Section of an Apple Showing the Cavity 
a, Basin h, Calyx Lobes c, Conical Calyx Tube d, Abaxile Open Core 
with Broadly Elliptical Mucronate Carpels e, c, and a Portion of the 
Core Lines /, f. 



the core is delimited by visible core lines. Fig. 3f. In the native Ameri- 
can species, F. coronaria and P. iozvcnsis, the separation along the core 
lines between the core and the outer main flesh of the apple is so com- 
plete that by exercising proper care the core may be taken out so as to 
leave a clearly defined globular cavity within the apple. See Figs. 4 to 7. 
While in the case of the common apple this natural division of the core 
from the outer flesh of the fruit is not so complete as it is in the native 
wild apples referred to, nevertheless such division does exist, as may 
often be seen in a cross-section of an apple when the flesh of the core 
proper shows a somewhat different shade of color than does the outer 



The Api'Les of New Yokk. 



35 



flesh. This difference is more clearly shown in the fresh fruit than in a 
photo-engraving. It is seen in the case of Jones seedling, Fig. 8, as 
well as in the sections of Ralls Cicnct, Westficld Scck-No-Furthcr and other 
fruits which are shown in the accompanying text. 

Bundles of fibres or veins called Hhrovascular bundles enter the fruit 
through the stem. Some of them pass directly through the core along 






Wild Crabapples, P. coronaria, L. Shown in Longitudinal Section, Figs. 

4 AND 5, AND IN TrAN.SVER.SE SECTION, FiGS. 6 AND J. ThE CoRE LiNES ShARPLY 

Delimit the Core from the Flesh, Figs. 4 and 6. When the Core, as 
Outlined ev the Core Lines, is Removed a Rather Globular Cavity is 
Made as Shown in Figs. 5 and 7. Fig. 5 Shows Plainly a Longitudinal 
Section of the Cylindrical Calyx Tube which Extends from the Core 
to the Calyx. In Fig. 7 the Core Cavity is Seen from a Point Perpen- 
dicular TO the Limb of the Calyx Tube Thus Showing the Stamens 
from Beneath as They Close the View into the Calyx Tube. 

the inner edges of the seed cavities and continue on into the outer parts 
of the pistils. See plates of Mcintosh and Canada Baldwin. Between 
the seed cavities and the base of the stem other lines of fibrovascular 
bundles lead off from the stem, inclose a portion of the flesh varying in 
different varieties from turbinate, as in Canada Reinette, to nearly glob- 
ular in form, as in Admirable, and terminate principally in that part of 



36 



The Apples of New York. 



the calyx tube where the stamens are inserted, though sometimes appar- 
ently below the insertion of the stamens. See plates of Ribston and 
Sharpe. The iibrovascular bundles which niaj^ be most easily followed 
in tracing the core lines are normally ten in number, as shown in Figs. 
8 and 9. They occur one opposite each outer angle and alternately one 
opposite each inner angle of the seed cells. Consequently a longitudinal 
section through either the outer or the inner angle of a seed cell brings 
out the core line most clearly. 

Clasping core lines is a term which indicates that the core lines appear to 
join the calyx tube along the side somewhat above the base of tbe tube, 
as shown in the plates of Admirable, Ribston and Green Sweet. 




Fig. 8. Transverse Section of Jones Showing a Closed Core Which is 

AXILE AND HAS SYMMETRICAL CeLLS. ThE DaRK DoTS ShOW CrOSS SECTIONS 

OF THE Principal Fibrovascular Bundles of the Core Lines. 



Core lines meeting is the term used when the core lines appear to join the 
calyx tube at or near its base, as seen in the plates of Bullock and York 
Imperial. 

The point at which the core lines meet the calj^x tube does not vary 
materially in the same variety although different descriptions of it may vary 
when in the same variety some of the apples show a funnel-form extension 
of the calyx tube towards the core and others do not, as stated below in 
discussing the calyx tube. 

In some cases before the fibrovascular bundle reaches the caly.x tube 
it sends ofif a distinct branch to the calyx lobes as seen in the plates of 
Fallawater, Green Sweet and Newman. 

Calyx tube. The hollow just under the calyx lobes is called the calyx 
tube, Fig. 3, d. This may be cone-shaped, as in Dickinson and Salome, or 
when it is extended below in a nearly cylindrical narrow tube it is funnel- 
form, as in English Russet. If instead of assuming either of these forms 



TiiK Ai'i'LKs OF New York. 



37 



it is C()nii)ar;itivcly Ijroad and rouiulfl toward tlu- base it may be called 
iini-shat'cd. When the calyx tube is funncl-foriii its broad upper portion is 
called the liiiih; the narrow part extending from the limb towards the core 
may be called the cylinder. 

In some cases as in Northern Spy and Red Canada the tube may vary 
in the same variety, being cone-shaped in some fruits and funnel-form in 
others, thus making the core line appear to vary in the character of its 
meeting or clasping the calyx tube. Such variation is due to the fact 
that in some fruits and not in others the base of the styles below the 




Fig. 9. Transverse Section of Thompson Showing an Open Core Which 
IS Abaxile. The Cells are Symmetrical, or Nearly so, and Wide Open. 
The Dark Dots Show Cross-sections of the Principal Fibrovascular 
Bundles of the Core Lines. 



limb of the calyx tube develops into a fleshy tissue which fills that part 
of the tube. 

Pistil Point. In some varieties the fleshy base of the styles forms a pistil 
point which projects into the calyx tube in a way that is characteristic, 
and of some taxonomic value. An example of this kind is found in Gano. 

Stamens. Hogg studied critically the taxonomic value of the position 
of the stamens, or the remnants of them,l in the calyx tube 2 and finally 
made this character the basis of the primary classes in his analytical key 
of the apples of Great Britain. He recognizes thus the three following 
divisions among apples. 

A. Marginal Stamens. In this class the stamens are inserted near the 
outer margin of the calyx tube. 

>The remnants of the stamens appear in the ripe fruit as withered thread-like organs on 
the side of the calyx tube. 

= Fruit Manual, London, 1884 :xi to x.xxix. 



38 The Apples oe New York. 

B. Median Stamens. In this class the stamens are located about the middle 
of the calyx tube. 

C. Basal Stamens. In this class the stamens are found near the base of 
the calyx tube. 

Core. In describing the core its location in the fruit is noticed, also 
its size and the character of the carpels and of the seeds. 

Core Sessile. The core is sometimes very close to the stem. It may then 
be called sessile. 

Core Median. If the core, as usually is the case, is located at about the 
center of the apple, it is median. 

Core Distant. When the core is comparatively /ar from the stem it is 
called distant. 

Carpels. The parchment-like walls of the seed cells are called carpels. 
Fig. 3e. Since they vary in form somewhat as leaves do the terms used 
in describing leaves may be well applied to them. In noting the form of 
the carpels the stem of the fruit, which corresponds to the petiole of 
the leaf, should be held towards the observer. The two sides of the seed 
cell correspond to the two halves of a leaf, with the axis of the fruit 
representing the midrib of the leaf. Froin this point of view it will be 
noticed that the carpels of some fruits approximate a roundish form; 
others a heart-shaped or cordate form; others a reversed cordate or ob- 
cordate form; others are so broad as to be well termed elliptical, while 
others are so narrow that they may be called oblong or elongated; or they 
may be either ovate or obovate. If the outer edge at the tip is indented 
it may be termed emarginate ; if long and slender-pointed it may be called 
tnncronate. Fig. 3. 

Hogg, in the classification of apples above referred to,l also notes the 
following characters of carpels: When the walls extend to the axis, best 
seen in a cross-section of the fruit, as in Fig. 8, the cells are symmetrical 
and are termed axile, whether they are open or closed. When the walls 
are distant from the axis, as in Mcintosh and English Russet, and the cells 
are unsymmetrical, they are called abaxilc. Fig. g. 

Open Core. The core is called open when the cells are open, or slit, as 
shown in Figs. 3 and 9. 

Closed Core. When the cells are closed the term closed core is applied. 
See Jonathan, Red Canada and Fig. 8. 

The inner surface of the carpels may be either smooth, or, as in Tomp- 
kins King, may have a soft whitish outgrowth. In this case the carpels 
may be described as tufted.^ 

Seeds. The number of seeds to each seed cell varies with different varieties. 
Two is the usual number. Sometimes no seeds develop. In rare cases there 
are three or more seeds in a cell. The numljer. size, shape and color of the 
seeds are all worthj' of notice in a technical description of the apple. The 
seeds like the carpels may be tufted. When the seed has a long sharp point 
it is termed acuminate ; if rather blunt, it is obtuse; if intermediate between 
acuminate and obtuse, it is acute. 

Flesh. In a description of the flesh its color is noticed ; also the firmness 
and grain of its tc.rturc; its juiciness; the acidity and aroma that are found 
in its flavor, and lastly its general rating on all of the above points combined. 

'Fruit Manual, London, 1884:xiii. 

= The " Wollstreifen" of Soraner. See Handb. Planzenkrankheiten, zweite .^uflage, 1: 
295- 1886. 



The Apples of New York. 



39 



Color. The color of the flesh is called white in such apples as Mcintosh 
and Fameuse. In Jonathan, Baldwin and Rhode Island Greening it is 
somewhat tinged with yellow. In Fallawater, Rambo and Green Sweet 
it is greenish-white. In some varieties it may be streaked or clouded 
with red, as it sometimes is in Wealthy and Mcintosh. Occasionally 
seedling apples are seen in which the whole flesh is remarkably tinged 
with red, but such varieties have not found their way into cultivation, 
at least not to any considerable extent. 

The flesh of apples of the same variety is liable to show some varia- 
tions under different conditions of growth. This is especially noticeable 
in varieties adapted to the South when they are grown in northern lati- 
tudes where the season is not long enough to bring them up to their 
highest standard. Thus when Winesap and other southern varieties are 
grown in Western New York they may have a decidedly greenish tinge 
to the flesh, whereas if properly developed, the flesh would be tinged 
with yellow: or those fruits of such a varietv which have the most favor- 
able locations on the tree may develop a yellowish flesh while others less 
favorably located come to the close of the season with the flesh still 
greenish. In passing upon the color of the flesh, therefore, it is important 
to have properly developed specimens under examination. With such 
specimens the color of the flesh will be found pretty constant and char- 
acteristic of the variety. 

Texture niid Fhivor. The terms commonly used in describing the tex- 
ture and flavor are firm, hard, tender, tough, crisp, breaking, dry, juicy, sour, 
subacid, snwct. sprightly, aromatic, astringent. Various intermediate modifi- 
cations of easily recognized significance are also used. 

General Rati):g. The gradations in the general rating on all points 
combined are expressed by the terms poor or inferior, fair, good, z'ery good, 
best. One who is unaccustomed to the technical significance of these 
words should observe that the word good here signifies a class of apples 
of medium quality only. Above it are the higher classes z'cry good and 
best. The quality varies somewhat in a variety so that it is often necessary 
to use more than one term to indicate its proper rating. Thus Baldwin 
rates good to very good, and Red Canada from good to best. The quality 
of the fruit corresponds in a general way with the development of the 
color of both its skin and its flesh. It has already been observed in 
speaking of the color of the flesh that under certain conditions it is not 
normally developed. W'hen the color of either the skin or the flesh is 
not properly developed, there is a corresponding lack of development of 
the quality of the fruit. This statement may be easily verified, as already 
noticed, by testing highly colored Northern Spy apples in comparison 
with poorly colored fruit of the same variety. It will be found that the 
poorly colored fruit, even though it may have been produced on the same 
tree as that which bore the highly colored fruit, is decidedly inferior in 
quality. 

Use. The uses for which the fruit is particularly suitable is indicated 
by customary terms. Market signifies that it is suitable for general 
market. Local market indicates either that it does not stand handling well 
enough or is not appreciated for general market uses but is acceptable 
for local trade. Dessert or table signifies that the fresh fruit is desirable 



40 The Apples of New York. 

for serving at the table. Culinary, cooking or kitchen are Lerms used to 
indicate that the fruit is suitable for either general or special culinary- 
uses. 

Season. The term season is used to indicate the period during which 
the variety is in good condition for use. This varies with the same 
variety in different latitudes. Even in the same location the fruit may 
ripen later and keep later in some years than in others. Unless other- 
wise stated the season of winter apples as here given refers to the fruit 
kept in ordinary fruit houses or in cellars. In cold storage the season 
may be prolonged several weeks beyond its natural limit. The reader 
should bear in mind that the manner of handling fruit before it goes into 
storage has an important influence upon the length of the period during 
which it will keep in good condition.l 

1 Beach and Clark, Bull. N. Y. Exp. Sta., 248:92. 1904. 



Tiiii Ai'i'LES OF Xi:w York. 41 



AKIN. 

References, i. P.ailcy, .In. llorf., i892:j3_i. 2. Rielil, .tin. Pom. Soc. 
Rpt., 1897:137. 3. Taylor. (J. S. Dcpt. .-igr. Yr. Bk., 1903:268. col. />/. 4. 
///. State Ilort. Soc. Rpt., 1890. 

Synonyms. 1 .-Ikin Rcil, .Ikin SccdUni^. Akin's Sccdlini:. .likiii's Red. .-liken, 
Akcn — not "Aiken's Winter " of Downing whicli is a crab of Minnesota origin. 
(3). Akin's Red. (4). 

\\'hcii the Akin is well developed it is a beautiful, dark red, winter 
apple of pretty good quality. It appears to be specially adapted for 
fancy trade and for dessert use. Although it has not been svififi- 
ciently tested to determine its value for cultivation in New York, 
it promises to be hardy, healthy and reliably productive. It seems 
to be best suited to more southern localities, but it has usually devel- 
oped well at Geneva, although in occasional seasons its fruit has not 
attained good color here. With ordinary care the fruit does not 
average much above medium size. In ordinary storage it keeps well 
till midwinter and in cold storage till March or later. It is suffi- 
ciently promising to be worthy of testing for commercial purposes. 

Historical. Taylor gives an excellent account of the origin of the Akin (3) 
from which it appears that the original tree was grown from seed brought 
from Tennessee and planted in 1831 near Lawrenceville, 111., on the farm 
now owned by W. J. Akin. It was first propagated for sale in 1868. Mr. 
Akin exhibited it in December, 1S90, at the Cairo meeting of the Illinois State 
Horticultural Society, where it was awarded first premium both as a " Seed- 
ling " and a " New Variety good enough to be recommended." Taylor says 
(3), "It has now been fruited in several states, and is one of the most promis- 
ing of the recently introduced sorts for the apple growers who desire a variety 
well adapted to the needs of the fancy trade in the larger cities. It succeeds 
well in the Middle West and in the winter apple districts of the Allegheny 
^Mountain region, and is worthy of thorough test on rich, warm soils in the 
northern apple districts from New York westward." 

Tree. 

Tree upright, becoming somewhat spreading, dense, medium in size, moder- 
ately vigorous. Branches long, moderately stout. Tivigs long, straight, 
stocky, with thick tips ; internodes short to medium in length. Bark olive- 
green varying to dull purplish-brown, largely covered with a gray pubescence 
that becomes thicker and heavier towards the tips. Lcnticels numerous, con- 
spicuous, oblong or roundish, raised. Buds medium size, obtuse, broad ap- 
pressed, quite pubescent. Leaves large, broad. 

' Numbers in parentheses designate authors or publications cited in the preceding list. 
This plan is followed with all of the formal descriptions given in this report. 



42 The Apples of New York. 

Fruit. 

Fruit usually medium or above, sometimes large. Form oblate to roundish 
oblate, often irregular, slightly ribbed, sides sometimes unequal. Fairly uni- 
form in size and shape. Stem medium to long, slender. Cavity obtuse, 
broad, rather shallow to deep, often distinctly furrowed, not often russeted. 
Calyx small to medium, usually closed. Basin medium in width and depth, 
usually somewhat abrupt, somewhat furrowed and corrugated. 

Skin tough, smooth, rather attractive yellow, blushed and striped with 
bright deep red; in well colored specimens almost completely red. Dots small, 
whitish or with russet point, sometimes conspicuous in contrast with the dark 
red skin. Prevailing effect attractive bright red with contrasting clear yellow 
or greenish-yellow. 

Calyx tube conical, sometimes approaching funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core aba.xile, medium, open or partly closed ; core lines meeting. Carpels 
elliptical or approaching roundish obcordate, slightly emarginate. Seeds 
moderately dark brown, long, rather narrow, acute, numerous. 

Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, rather crisp, moderately coarse, 
moderately tender, very juicy, sprightly subacid, aromatic, good to very good 
for dessert. 

Season January to June. 

(I) ALLINGTON, 

This is a late winter apple of medium size, yellow with a bronze blush, 
subacid. It was originated by S. .'\. Ailing of Homer, Minnesota. As a seed- 
ling it was awarded first premium by the Minnesota Horticultural Society in 
1901.I We have received no reports of its being grown in New York State. 

(II) ALLINGTOR 

References, i. Bunyard, Jour. Royal Ilort. Soc., 21:356. 1898. 2. Jour. 
Royal Hort. Soc., 27:217. 1903. fig. 
Synonym. Allington Pippin (i, 2). 

This is a new English variety which was awarded a first class certificate 
by the Ro3'al Horticultural Society in 1894. (i) Although it is of good size 
and of good quality it is not attractive enough in color to make it a promising 
commercial variety for New York. It has not been tested here sufficiently to 
show how well it is adapted to New York conditions. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous. Form spreading, rather open. Tzvigs long to below medium, 
irregular, crooked, rather slender; internodes above medium to below medium 
in length. Bark rather dull brownish-red and dull green; on older wood 
rather light green. I^enticels scattering, large, roundish, sometimes raised. 
Buds large, roundish, rather obtuse, appressed, pubescent. Leaves somewhat 
narrow. 

As grown at the Geneva Station it comes into bearing young and gives 
promise of being quite productive. 

^Hansen, S. D., Expt. Sta. Bui. 76: 22. 1902. 



The Apples of New York. 43 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform in size. Form roundish, often some- 
what inclined to oblong conic varying to slightly oblate, sides unequal, some- 
times slightly ribbed, rather uniform in shape. Stem medium to long. Cavity 
rather obtuse to acute or slightly acuminate, rather shallow to moderately 
deep, moderately narrow, usually russeted, sometimes prominently lipped. 
Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open ; lobes very long, acuminate, 
reflexed. Basin rather obtuse, moderately wide, medium to shallow, often 
slightly corrugated, nearly symmetrical. 

Skin thick, smooth, greenish-yellow almost entirely overspread with some- 
what dull red, indistinctly striped and mottled with carmine, sprinkled with 
gray dots ; occasionally rather large russet dots and flecks are seen. Not 
particularly attractive in color. 

Calyx tube rather large, rather short and wide to sometimes long, funnel- 
form with short truncate cylinder and tieshy projection of pistil point into its 
base. 

Core medium or below, open or partly closed, nearly axile ; core lines meet- 
ing or when the tube is funnel-form, clasping the cylinder of the tube. 
Carpels roundish ovate to pointed ovate, deeply emarginate. Seeds below 
medium, very numerous, dark, short, obtuse to acute, plump. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately coarse, rather crisp, tender, rather 
firm, very juicy, briskly subacid to nearly acid, pleasantly aromatic, rich in 
flavor, good in quality. 

Season November to midwinter. 

Uses. Acceptable for dessert. Particularly suitable for culinary use. 

ALLISON. 

References, i. U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1895:19. 2. Watts, Tenn. Sta. Bui, 9:6. 
1896. fig. 3. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1897:35. 
Synonym. Jones Seedling (i, 2, 3). 

This is a variety of Tennessee origin. Watts (2) calls it a valuable winter 
apple for Tennessee. Although it has not been tested here sufficiently to 
show its adaptability to New York conditions, so far as it has been tested it 
does not promise to be as valuable as it is in more southern latitudes. 

Tree. 

Tree rather vigorous, productive ; branches long and slender. Form up- 
right spreading, rather dense. Tn'igs long, slightly curved, medium stout; 
internodes below medium to short. Bark bright reddish-brown varying to 
reddish -green with light scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lenticels numerous, small, 
roundish. Buds medium size, broad, obtuse, pubescent. Leaves medium in 
size, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to above. Form oblate, rather strongly ribbed, sides unequal, 
rather uniform. Stem short to medium. Cavity wide, rather shallow, irreg- 
ular, sometimes russeted. Calyx below medium to large, closed or somewhat 
open. Basin moderately deep or rather shallow, moderately wide, slightly 
wrinkled. Skin rather thick, greenish, sometimes faintly blushed and splashed 



44 The Apples of New York. 

with rather dull unattractive red, heavily splashed with large and small russet 
patches. Dots usuall}' russet, rather large, scattering. General appearance 
not attractive. 

Core rather small to above medium ; closed or very slightly open. Seeds 
medium, rather broad. 

Flesh greenish-white, firm, rather fine-grained, slightly crisp, not tender, 
moderately juicy, mild subacid, or nearly sweet. As grown at this Station 
it is not more than fair in flavor and quality. 

Season late winter. 

AMASSIA. 

References, i. Hogg, 1884:6. 2. Bailey, An. Horf., 1892:234. 3. Beach 
and Close, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:269. i8g6. 

Hogg (i) speaks of Amassia as a very beautiful and ornamental apple and 
states that it is tiic apple most generally grown in Asia Minor on the shores 
of the Mediterranean. When fruited here under favorable conditions Amassia 
is attractive in form and color, having .1 bright red blush. It has a pleasant, 
sweet or nearly sweet flavor and is very good in quality for dessert use. Under 
less favorable conditions it is not uniformly well colored and is apt to fall 
below medium size. These characteristics together with the fact that the 
variety would be classed among the sweet apples, make it doubtful whether 
it will ever be grown in this state to any considerable extent in commercial 
orchaids. 

Tree. 

Tree is a moderately vigorous or slow grower. Form upright spreading. 
Twigs vary from short to rather long, straight or nearly so ; moderately stout ; 
internodes medium to long. Bark dull dark reddish-brown with light streaks 
of scarf-skin ; slightly pubescent. Lenticcls scattering, rather inconspicuous, 
oblong or roundish in shape, medium size. Buds medium in size, broad, 
obtuse, rather prominent, pubescent, almost free. Leaves moderately long and 
narrow. 

Fruit. 

Fruit usually mcdimn or below, sometimes nearly large. Form ovate or 
roundish conic, slightly ribbed ; sides sometimes compressed ; fairly uniform 
in shape and size. Stem medium to long, rather slender. Cavity acute to 
acuminate, narrow, medium to rather deep, often compressed, smooth or 
partly russeted. Calyx small to very small, usually closed. Basin small, 
varying from obtuse and very shallow to moderately deep and abrupt ; often 
furrowed and corrugated. 

Skin smooth, somewhat waxy ; clear pale yellow or greenish, in well colored 
specimens largely covered with a bright deep blush, and somewhat striped 
with carmine. Dots whitish, small but rather conspicuous. Although the 
apple is somewhat striped, the general effect when it is well colored is that of 
a solid deep blush, which in contrast with the pale green or yellow gives a 
decidedly attractive appearance. 

Calyx tube funnel-form, moderately wide and deep, with pistil point pro- 
jecting into its base. Stamens median or nearly marginal. 

Core medium to small, abaxile, closed or sometimes slightly open ; core 
lines clasping. Carpels roundish ovate to oblong ovate, emarginate. Seeds 
few, medium to small, plump, obtuse, light brown. 



The Apples of New York. 45 

Flesh nearly white, firm, moderately fine-grained, rather crisp, tender, juicy, 
with pleasing aroma, mild subacid, becoming sweet or nearly so ; good to 
very good. 

Season December to March or April. 

AMERICAN BEAUTY, 

References, i. Downing, 1857:115. 2. Warder, 1867:711. 3. Downing, 
1872:75. 4. Barry, 1883:341. 5. Thomas, 1903:689. 

SYNONYMS. Beauty of America (4). Sterling Beauty (i, 3, 4, 5). 

So far as we can learn the American Beauty is not now grown in New- 
York. It is not listed in Bailey's inventory of apples offered by nurserymen 
in North America in 1892.1 It is an old variety which originated in Sterling, 
IMass. Downing describes it as a large red apple, mildly subacid, aromatic, 
very good in quality. In season from December to April. 

AMERICAN BLUSH, 

The Hubbardston has long been known in some portion of Seneca and 
Tompkins counties under the name American Blush, and has been dissemi- 
nated from there under that name. It is not surprising that the Hubbardston 
has been disseminated under other names because it shows such remarkable 
variations with changes in environment. Whether the variations which have 
appeared are all due to differences in environment or whether distinct strains 
of the Hubbardston have arisen under cultivation has not been definitely de- 
termined. Some fruit growers are very positive in the opinion that American 
Blush is different from the Hubbardston. If this be true and if these differ- 
ences are maintained under propagation it should be regarded as a distinct 
strain of the Hubbardston. 

AMERICAN PIPPIR 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:147. 2. Downing, 1845:98. 3. Thomas, 1849: 
163. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. X. V., 3:74. 185 1. 5. Hooper, 1857:42. 6. 
Elliott, 1859:184. 7. Warder. 1867:420. 8. Downing, 1872:77. 9. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Sac. Rpt., 1890:288. 10. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:234. 11. Thomas, 
1903:689. 

Synonyms. Grindstone (5). Grindstone (3, 7, 8, 9, 10). Stone (8). 

The American Pippin is an old variety. Coxe gives it a very high reputa- 
tion both for cider and for keeping late (i). Lyon says of it (9) "keeps a 
year, cooks well, but otherwise scarcely eatable." 

Coxe describes the tree as very open, remarkably spreading with hanging 
crooked shoots. 

The fruit is medium, regular, oblate, " without any hollow at the ends " 
(Coxe) ; calyx small, open; skin dull red, shaded and streaked with dull green, 
the surface being rough, sometimes with slight russet markings, thickly 
sprinkled with gray or coarse russet dots; core wide, irregular, closed; seeds 
numerous, plump, brown ; flesh white or yellowish, hard, rather coarse, 
moderately juicy, mild subacid. Variously rated by pomologists from poor 
to good in quality. 

•An. Hort., 1892:234. 



46 The Apples of New York. 

There is a variety grown under the name of American Pippin in Northern 
New York and Canada which is valued on account of its hardiness and late 
keeping qualities. IMacouni describes the fruit of this variety as large, round- 
ish ; greenish-yellow with pink or orange blush ; dots not prominent ; basin 
rather deep ; calyx large, open ; cavity deep ; flesh yellow, subacid, good. 

I have not determined whether this is identical with the American Pippin 
of Coxe but it does not appear to be that variety. 

AMOS. 

References, i. ///. Sta. BuL, 45:313, 326. 1896. 2. Powell and Fulton, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bill., 48:36. 1903. 3. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. BuL, 248:111. 
1904. 

Synonyms. J.-\ckson (i). Amos Jackson (i, 2, 3). 

This variety was received for testing at the Geneva Experim-ent Station 
from Benjamin Buckman of Farmingdale, Illinois. It is supposed to be of 
southern origin. The tree is moderately productive. The fruit is of mediu n 
size, attractive deep yellow, subacid, fair to good. Season November to 
March. It is not recommended for cultivation in New York. 

Fruit. 

Fruit averages below medium. Foiiii roundish oblate, almost truncate, 
usually symmetrical ; uniform in form and size. Stem long to very long, 
slender, sometimes bracted, often reflexed in a characteristic way to one side. 
Cavity acute, shallow to moderately deep, moderately wide, usually russeted, 
often lipped. Calyx large, open ; lobes long and reflexed. Basin obtuse, 
shallow or moderately deep, broad, sometimes corrugated. 

Skin yellow, often with blush, not striped, sprinkled with scattering russet 
dots. Prevailing effect attractive yellow. 

Calyx tube short, cone-shaped, with tendency to funnel-form. Stamens 
median to basal. 

Core sessile, turbinate, axile, small to medium, closed or slightly open. 
Carpels elliptical, inclined to obcordate, emarginate, mucronate. 

Flesh nearly white, hard, rather coarse, breaking, moderately juicy, sprightly 
subacid, fair to good in quality. 

Season November to March. 

ANDREWS. 

References, i. Beach and Close, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:270. 1896. 2. 
Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. BuL, 248:111. 1904. 3. Not listed by Bailey in 
An. Hort., 1892:234. 

Synonyms. Andrews Winter (i). Andrezvs Winter (2). 

Fruit small to medium, not very attractive in form or color and therefore 
not desirable for market. It is not recommended for planting in New York 
state. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous. Form upright spreading, rather dense ; branches rather 
small and crooked. Tii'igs medium size, curved, stout ; internodes medium 

'Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Cul. 37:42. 1901. 



The Apples of New York. 47 

to nitlicr long. Bark clear brownish-red mingled with olive-green, partly 
covered with streaked scarf-skin; quite pubescent. Lcnticcls numerous, 
medium to below, oblong. Buds medium size, plump, acute, appressed, 
pubescent. Leaves medium size, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit small. Form roundish conic to oblong conic, often unsymmetrical ; 
sides often compressed. Stem short, thick, often obliquely inserted. Cavity 
acute, moderately shallow to rather deep, furrowed or compressed, sometimes 
lipped, usually smooth. Calyx small, closed. Basin abrupt, medium in width 
and depth, distinctly furrowed. 

Skin tough, somewhat waxy, dull yellowish-green partly overlaid with a 
dull, rather dark red having narrow, indistinct, carmine stripes. Dots numer- 
ous, pale, rather conspicuous. 

Calyx tube narrow, elongated, cone-shape or funnel-form. Stamens median 
to marginal. 

Core abaxile. closed or partly open ; core lines clasping. Carpels decidedly 
concave, broadly ovate, slightly emarginate, distinctly tufted. Seeds medium 
to large, rather narrow, long, acute, somewhat tufted. 

Flesh greenish-white, firm, moderately fine, somewhat crisp, moderately 
juicy, mild subacid, fair to good. 

Season March to June. 

ARKANSAS* 

References, i. Van Dem.an, Ant. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1891:123. 2. Babcock, 
Amer. Card., 1891:118. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234, 244. 4. Babcock, Am. 
Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:190. 5. Amer. Card., 1895:419. 6. Stinson, Ark. Sta. 
Bui, 43:103. 1896. 7. Amer. Card., 1896:29, 65, 146, 152, 210, 306. 8. Watts, 
Tenn. Sta. Bui., 9:24. 1896. Hg. g. U. S. Pom. Bui, 6:9. 1897. 10. Stinson, 
Ark. Sta. Bui, 495, 7. 189S. Hgs. of trees and fruit. 11. Powell, Del Sta. 
Bui, 38:19. i8g8. fig. 12. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui, 60:124. 1899. 13. N. C. 
Bd. of Agr. Apple Bui, 1900:9. 14. Alwood. Va. Sta. Bui, 130:127. 1901. 
15. Stinson, Mo. State Fruit Sta. Bui, 3:26. 1902. 16. Budd-Hansen, 1903:39. 
fig. 17. Thomas, 1903:322, 690, 708. 

Synonyms. Arkansaw (4, 10, 12). Arkansazv (16). Mammoth Black 
Twig (6). ^f am moth Black Tzvig (9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16). Paragon 
(erroneously) (i). Arkansas Black and Arkansas Black Tzcig (17) but 
erroneously. 

The Arkansas is a late keeping winter apple, rather large, of 

good red color, and good quality. It is not a desirable variety for 

growing in New York state because it is not sufficiently productive 

and because in this northern latitude the seasons are not always 

favorable to the proper development of its fruit. It keeps later 

than the Baldwin but it is inferior to that variety in productiveness 

and also in the color and quality of its fruit. 
Vol. I — 3 



48 The Apples of New York. 

During tlie last quarter century Arkansas has been quite exten- 
sively planted in the South and Southwest, but even as grown in 
these regions, the variety has not been satisfactory in commercial 
orchards because it is a shy bearer. 

Arkansas and Paragon resemble each other so closely that at one 
time many regarded these two varieties as identical, and, in conse- 
quence, the stock of the two kinds became badly mixed in nurseries 
and orchards. 

Arkansas Black is decidedly distinct from Arkansas both in tree 
and fruit. Sometimes these two varieties have been erroneously 
listed as identical (17). This mistake doubtless arose because of the 
similarity of the two names, rather than from any marked resem- 
blance between the varieties. 

Historical. Arkansas was grown from seed (4, 10) planted about 1833 
near Rhea Mills, Arkansas, where the original tree still stands. It bears a 
marked resemblance to the Winesap of which it is said to be a seedling (4). 
Nurserymen began to propagate it about 1868. In succeeding years it became 
pretty generally disseminated in Arkansas and surrounding states. 

As previously stated, this variety has been confused with the Paragon, an 
apple of Tennessee origin which it much resembles. It is now conceded that 
Paragon and Arkansas are two distinct varieties (4, 7, 8, 9, 10). 

Tree. 

Tree rather large, vigorous ; branches large, crooked, stout. Form upright 
spreading, rather open. Ti^'igs medium to long, sometimes drooping, some- 
what curved, thicl: ; internodes short. Bark very dark brownish-red with 
some dull olive-green, thickly mottled with thin gray scarf-skin ; somewhat 
pubescent toward the tips. Eventually it becomes almost black. Lenticcls 
scattering, rather conspicuous, mostly roundish, medium or sometimes small, 
often slightly raised. Buds somewhat pubescent; towards the tip and base 
of the twig they are appressed and often obtuse, but on the intermediate 
portion they stand out prominently and are large, broad, plump, acute, free. 
Foliage rather dense ; leaves medium to large, often broad. 

The mature young twigs of Arkansas much resemble those of Paragon but 
they are somewhat darker and stockier. The mature Paragon twigs have 
comparatively more of a reddish-brown tinge. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to medium, pretty uniform in size. Form roundish inclined to 
conic, sometimes slightly oblate, broadly ribbed, pretty uniform in shape. 
Steju long to almost short, rather stout. Cavity acute, rather wide, medium 
in depth, green, often much russeted. sometimes indistinctly furrowed. Calyx 
small to medium, usually closed. Basin rather abrupt, rather wide, moderately 
deep, broadly furrowed or wavy. 




CO 

< 

CO 

2 
< 

< 



The Apples of New York. 49 

Ski)i nearly smooth, dull green, often becoming good deep yellow, largely 
overspread with a didl deep red, obscurely striped with darker red. Doti 
generally small, russet, inconspicuous; sometimes medium and whitish. 

Calyx tnhr medium, conical, sometimes funnel-form. Stamens median to 
nearly basal. 

Core usually axile, usually closed ; core lines slightly clasping. Carpels 
broadly ovate, deeply emarginate. tufted ; not always well developed. Seeds 
few and variable, not always well developed; if plump they are long, rather 
narrow, acute, tufted. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, very firm, moderately fine-grained, rather tender, 
moderately juicy, subacid, crisp, good. 

Season December to May. 

ARKANSAS BEAUTY. 

References, i. Stinson, Ark. Sta. BiiL, 60:124. 1899. 2. Bailey, An. 
Horl., 1892:234. 3. Budd-Hansen, 1903:40. 4. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. 
P. I. Bui, 48:36. 1903. 

The Arkansas Beauty is a variety of Arkansas origin. Stinson (i) says 
that it is grown to some extent in a few sections of that state but has not 
proven valuable. A.s grown in this latitude the fruit does not always attain 
good color or good quality. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous ; branches long, stout, crooked. Form wide spreading with 
a rather open top. Tzvigs rather long, moderately stout, often crooked ; inter- 
nodes usually short. Bark olive-green with reddish-brown markings, dull, 
mottled thickly with scarf-skin; somewhat pubescent. Leitticels rather scatter- 
ing, roundish or somewhat oblong, medium size to rather small. Btids large 
to medium, plump, rather obtuse, pubescent. Leaves rather long and narrow. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium. Form roundish inclined to conic. Stem long to 
medium, rather slender. Cavity small, acute, deep, broad, nearly symmetrical, 
slightly furrowed. Calyx medium., closed or partly open, pubescent. Basin 
small, medium in depth and width, rather abrupt, somewhat furrowed. 

Skin tough, smooth, rather glossy, pale green or yellow, blushed with pinkish- 
red, and marked with rather faint stripes of carmine. 

Calyx tube long, funnel-shaped. 

Core open. Carpels much concave, broadly roundish, emarginate inclined 
to obcordate, tufted. Seeds numerous, dark, medium or below, rather wide, 
plump, obtuse. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, rather fine, moderately crisp, tender, 
juicy, mild subacid, good. 

ARKANSAS BLACK. 

Referenxes. I. Van Deman, U. S. Agr. Rpt.. 1886:268. eol. pi. & fig. 2. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 3. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui. 43:103. 1896. 4. lb. 
Bui, 49:7. 1898. 5. lb. Bui, 60:126. 1899. 6. Kan. Sta. Bui. 106:51. 1902. 
7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:40. 8. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. L Bui, 48:36. 
1903. 9. Thomas, 1897:272. fig. lb., 1903:322, 690, 708. 



50 The Apples of New York. 

Synonyms. Arkansas Black Tzi'ig (9). Maiiniioth Black Tivig (9) but 
erroneously. 

The Arkansas Black is one of the most beautiful of apples. It is 
a good keeper and commands a good price in market. The color 
is a lively red deepening on the exposed side to purplish-red or 
nearly black. The tree is unproductive and not desirable for 
general planting. 

Arkansas Black is distinct from the Arkansas or Maiiin.oth 
Blacktwig. 

Historical. According to Stinson (4) the Arkansas Black originated in 
Benton county, Arkansas, and bore its first fruit about 1870. The first descrip- 
tion of it which I find, is that given by Van Deman (i) in 1886. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branches long, slender. Form upright spreading, 
rather open. Tivigs short, stout ; internodes short. Bark dark reddish-brown, 
mottled with scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenlicels scattering, small to below 
medium, round. Buds large, broad, acute, appressed, pubescent. Leaves 
medium in size. 

Fruit. 

Fruit as grown here is medium or below, rarely large, pretty uniform in 
size and shape. Form nearly round. Stem medium. Cacity acute, rather 
small, sometimes lipped, not deep, partly russeted. Calyx rather small, closed. 
Basin obtuse, very shallow, slightly furrowed, faintly corrugated. 

Skin smooth, somewhat waxy ; yellow covered with a lively red deepening 
to purplish-red or almost black on the exposed side. Dots small, inconspicu- 
ous. Prevailing effect bright very dark red. 

Calyx tube conical, approaching funnel-form. Stantens marginal. 

Core medium to small, abaxile, closed or partly open; core lines clasping. 
Carpels concave, roundish, emarginate. Seeds plump, rather short, obtuse, 
moderately dark brown. 

Flesh decidedly tinged with yellow, very firrn, rather fine-grained, crisp, 
moderately juicy, sprightly subacid, good to very good. 

Season December to April or later. In cold storage (7) it keeps well 
through the storage season. 

ARNOLD. 

References, i. Downing, 1876: app. 43. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 
3. Thomas, 1897:626. 4. Mich. Sta. Bui, 177:48. 1899. 5. lb. Bui, 187:85. 
1901. 6. lb. Bui., 194:62. 1901. 7. lb. Bui., 205:43. 1903. 8. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:40. 

Synonyms. Arnold's Be.auty (i, 3). Arnold's Beauty (8). 

The Arnold was raised from seed produced by pollinating 
Northern Spy with pollen from Wagener and Esopus Spitzenberg 
by Charles Arnold, Paris, Ontario (i). Fulton reports (4, 5, 6) 



The Apples of New York. 51 

that " it is too light in color and almost too tender for market, 
promising- for home use." Tree vigorous and productive. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium in size. Form oblate, slightly ribbed. Stem medium, slender. 
Cavity broad, deep, usually slightly russeted. Calyx small, closed. Basin 
deep, slightly corrugated. Skin yellowish-white, netted russet, sometimes with 
a little bright red. Prevailing effect light yellow. Calyx tube funnel-shape. 
Core small. Flesh yellowish, firm, mild subacid, juicy, slightly aromatic, very 
good. 

Season November to March. 

ARTHUR. 

References, i. Hansen, ^S". D. Sta. Bui, 76:26. 1902. fig. 2. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903:41. 

The Arthur originated as a chance seedling in Northern Iowa where hardi- 
ness of tree is a prime consideration and where it is reported to have endured 
for many years better than any other variety except the Oldenburg.l It is 
not desirable for planting in New York. 

Tree. 

Tree is a moderate or rather slow grower with stocky branches and droop- 
ing branchlets, forming an upright roundish head. Tzvigs short, stout ; inter- 
nodes medium. Bark dark reddish-brown covered with li^ht scarf-skin ; 
somewhat pubescent. Lenticels scattering, brownish, small to medium, slightly 
elongated, raised. Buds small, deeply inserted in the bark, obtuse, pubescent. 
Lear'cs medium si:^e, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit usually below medium. Form oblong narrowing towards the stem, 
varying to roundish obovate ; hardly symmetrical ; sometimes slightly ribbed. 
Stem medium to long, slender, often bracted. Cavity acuminate, deep, rather 
narrow, thinly russeted. Calyx small, closed or nearly so ; lobes reflexed. 
Basin rather abrupt, moderately deep, moderately wide, usually smooth. 

Skin rather pale dull yellowish-green, thinly washed with dull red and 
faintly striped with carmine splashes. Dots numerous, dull russet, incon- 
spicuous. Prcvaili)ig effect striped. 

Calyx tube narrow, funnel-shaped. Stamens medium to marginal. 

Core medium, abaxile, slightly open to wide open, sometimes with four cells 
instead of five ; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish to obcordate, decidedly 
concave. Seeds thick, rather short to medium. 

Flesh tinged with j'ellow, moderately firm, somewhat coarse, not tender, 
juicy, subacid, somewhat aromatic, fair to good in flavor and quality. 

Season October to January. 

Uses. Suitable for culinary purposes. It is not desirable for market be- 
cause it is not particularly attractive in form, size or color, it is not a good 
keeper and it is inferior to standard varieties in quality. 

•Patten, C. G., Charles City, la., Cat. 1892. 



52 The Apples of New York. 

AUCUBA. 

References, i. Leroy, 1873:301. Hg. 2. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:586. 
1892. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 4. Thomas, 1903:689. 5. Powell and 
Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:36. 1903. 6. Beach and Clark, A^. Y. Sta. Bui., 
248:111. 1904. 

Synonyms. Acuba-leaved Reinette (4). Acuba-leaf Reinette (2). 
Feuilles D"Aucuba(i). Aucub.efolia (3). Reinette a fcuillc d'Acuba {2). 

The Aucuba is a moderately attractive apple of medium size and 
pretty good quality. The tree is hardy, healthy and bears regularly 
and abundantly. It is in season from October to January. The 
variety is not recommended for general planting because the fruit is 
second rate in size, appearance and quality. 

Historical, l.eroy ( i ) states that Aucuba was described as early as 1839 
in Jar din fruitier p. 216, but that its origin is still unknown. In New York 
state it has been disseminated but sparingly and is not commonly known. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branches moderately long and stout. Form 
rather open, upright spreading. Tzcigs long, slightly curved, moderately 
slender ; internodes below medium to short. Bark dark reddish-brown with 
light scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels numerous, small, round. Buds medium, 
rather long, acute, pubescent, often free. Leaves large and broad. 

Aucuba begins bearing rather young and usually bears annual crops. There 
is some tendency for the fruit to drop before the crop is ready to be gathered. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to above, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
inclined to conic, sometimes a little oblate, sides occasionally unequal. Stem 
usually long and slender. Cavity acuminate, sometimes acute, deep, moder- 
ately narrow to rather broad, nearly symmetrical, seldom russeted. Calyx 
small, closed or partly open ; lobes long, acuminate. Basin usually narrow 
and shallow, sometimes moderately wide and moderately deep, obtuse to rather 
abrupt, often somewhat furrowed and corrugated. 

Skin smooth, waxen yellow, rather pale but bright, often nearly covered 
with bright pinkish-red indistinctly marked with narrow carmine stripes. In 
well colored fruit the red rather predominates over the yellow. Dots very 
inconspicuous, gray or russet. General appearance is rather attractive. 

Calyx tube either rather short, narrow, cone-shaped, with core lines nearly 
meeting, or narrowly funnel-form, in which case the core lines clasp the 
cylinder of the calyx tube. Stamens median. 

Core medium to small, axile, partly open or sometimes closed. 

Carpels smooth, slightly emarginate, roundish cordate, sometimes distinctly 
narrowing toward the apex. Seeds numerous, small to medium, narrow, acute 
or acuminate. 

Flesh whitish with yellow tinge, firm, breaking, fine, tender, juicy, sprightly 
subacid, with distinct aroma, good to very good. 

Season October to January; some of the fruit may keep till spring but it 
is apt to deteriorate in flavor and quality after midwinter. 



The Apples of New York. 53 

BABBITT. 

References, i. Gano, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1889:130. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:234. 3. U. S. Agr. R[>f., 1893:286. 4. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bid., 169:180. 
1899. 5. Fulton, lb., 194:62. igoi. 6. Tliomas, 1903:322 7. Budd-Hansen, 

1903:41- 

Synonym. Western Balda'in (3, 6, 7). 

Babbitt is a very handsome large apple, red and striped, of about 
the same season as the Tompkins King. It is excellent for cooking 
but too sour for dessert. It is hardy, healthy and very vigorous. 
In Western New York, so far as tested, it appears to be productive, 
comes into bearing rather young, and bears heavy biennial crops. 
In fact some report that the fruit sets so abundantly that it is apt 
to be rather small unless attention be given to pruning and thinning. 
Further testing is required to determine its merits for this region. 
It has been found very productive in Michigan (5), and is reported 
as generally productive in the central states (3). In Eastern New 
York, although it blooms abundantly, it has been found to be a shy 
bearer. On this account and because the fruit is very acid, it is not 
there considered worthy of cultivation. 

Historical. Babbitt originated from seed of Baldwin about 1845 with C. W. 
Babbitt of Woodford county, Illinois (3). 

Tree. 
Tree vigorous to very vigorous. Form roundish spreading, rather open ; 
branches stout, often crooked, tough, with strong joints which hold heavy 
loads without splitting. Tzvigs moderately long, rather stocky, varying from 
curved to nearly straight ; internodes very short. Bark bright olive-green 
with dull reddish-brown markings, thickly mottled with scarf-skin ; quite 
pubescent. Lenticels irregularly scattering, medium to small, usually roundish 
or somewhat elongated. Buds medium to large, broad, obtuse, pubescent. 
Leaves medium to large, rather broad, dark green, with thick texture. 

Fruit. 

Fruit somewhat resembles Wagener in form, being large, roundish oblate, 
slightly angular and somewhat irregular. Ston short. Cavity obtuse to acute, 
moderately shallow, medium to broad, slightly russeted. Calyx nearly closed. 
Basin somewhat abrupt, moderately deep, somewhat furrowed, slightly corru- 
gated. 

Skin bright pale yellow with mottled red cheek, striped with bright carmine. 
When well grown the fruit has good size, bright attractive color and fine 
general appearance. 

Calyx tube conical approaching funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core rather small, axile, closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels broad, roundish, 
nearly truncate. Seeds dark brown, medium or below, 



54 The Apples of New York. 

Flesh \vhitish, tinged with yeUow, moderately fine-grained, moderately 
crisp, juicy, sprightly subacid or sour; too sour for dessert, excellent for 
cooking. 

Season. It is in season about with Tompkins King but sometimes keeps 
well till late spring, and is then especially desirable for cooking because it 
retains well its sprightly subacid flavor. 

BAILEY SWEET. 

Refere.nxes. I. Thomas. 1849:159. 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:59. 
1851. 3. Downing, 1857:116. 4. Elliott, 1858:121. 5, Warder, 1867:633. fig. 
6. Downing, 1872:84. 7. Barry, 1883:342. 8. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890:288. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 10. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 1901:287. 
II. Fulton, ^Hch. Sta. Bid., 187:85. 1901. 12. Hansen, 5. D. Sta. Bid., ^Q■.27. 
1902. 13. Thomas, 1903:319. 14. Budd-Hansen. 1903:42. Hg. 15. Beach and 
Clark, A'. 1'. Sta. Bui, 248:111. 1904. 16. Cole, 123. 17. Hooper, 12. 

Synonyms. Bailey's Golden Sweet (t6). B.mley Sweet (i, 4, 5, 12, 13, 
17). Bailey Szvect (8, 10). Bailey's Sweet (2, 3, 7, 16). Bailey's Sweet 
(9). Edgerly Szceet (i. 4, 13). Edgerly's Szi'eet (3, 6). Howard's Szvcet 
(3, 6). Patcrson's Su'eet (3, 6). Patterson Szveet (13). Patterson's Szveet 
(I, 2). 

This is a very beautiful red apple, distinctly sweet and of very 
good quality. It is in season from October to Jantiary or sometimes 
later. It is not a very good keeper. In some localities the fruit is 
apt to be rather scabby and knotty, and unless it is well sprayed 
the percentage of unmarketable and low-grade fruit runs rather 
high. The tree is reliably productive but it does not excel either 
in vigor, health or hardiness. It is not recommended for cultivation. 

Historical. Bailey Sweet was introduced under this name from Perry, 
Wyoming county. New York, more than 60 years ago (i). Whether it orig- 
inated there or was an old variety brought in from the East is uncertain (3). 
Although it has long been known and widely disseminated, there is no section 
of the state where it is grown in large quantities. 

Tree. 

Tree upright, somewhat spreading, rather open, not dense ; branches moder- 
ately stout or slender. TzAgs rather slender, nearly straight ; internodes 
medium to short. Bark rather dark brownish-red marked with thin gray 
scarf-skin; sparing!y pubescent. Lcnticels numerous, medium to below, usually 
oblong, conspicuous, somewhat raised. Buds medium to large, broad, acute 
to somewhat obtuse, appressed ; somewhat pubescent. Leaves often rather 
broad and large ; foliage not dense. 

In the nursery the development of the root system is rather light or weak. 
In the orchard the tree makes a rather slow or moderately vigorous growth 
and does not become large. It is a reliable cropper with a tendency to annual 
bearing. The fruit hangs well to the tree. 



The Apples of New York. 55 

Fruit. 

Fruit sometimes as large as Baldwin or larger and averages above medium. 
Form roundish to roundish conic, or somewhat oblate, ribbed obscurely if at 
all, rather symmetrical, sides somewhat elliptical ; pretty uniform in size and 
shape. Stem short to medium, rather slender to thick. Cavity acute, usually 
rather deep, somewhat furrowed, sometimes with sides compressed or lipped, 
often partly covered with a thin golden-brown russet. Calyx closed or some- 
times partly open, small to medium with short obtuse to acute lobes. Basin 
somewhat shallow to very shallow, medium to narrow, obtuse to rather abrupt, 
often slightly furrowed or slightly corrugated, with a tendency to develop 
mammiform protuberances. 

S'ki)i rather ttnder, nearly smooth, clear bright yellow largely covered with 
deep red, mottled or obscurely striped with darker red. Often irregularly 
netted markings and dots of whitish or russet-gray contrast conspicuously 
with the red surface. Whitish scarf-skin sometimes radiates from the cavity. 
Prevailing effect attractive bright red. 

Calyx tube funnel-shape, medium length with a rather wide limb. Stamens 
median. 

Core axile, medium in size, closed; core lines clasping. Carpels elliptic to 
roundish cordate, emarginate. Seeds medium to rather large, long, acute. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, moderately crisp, rather 
tender, moderately juicy to juicy, decidedly sweet, agreeable in flavor, very 
good in quality. 

Season October to January or later. 

BAKER. 

References, i. Horticulturist. 15:92. i860. 2. Downing, 1872:84. 3. 
Thomas, 1885:502. 4. Not listed by Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 5. Taylor, 
Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:193. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:43. 7. Powell and 
Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:37. 1903. 

Synonym. Scott (2). 

This is a red apple of good size, pretty uniform in size and shape and of 
fairly good quality. It is not so good a keeper as Baldwin and is inferior 
to it in quality and hardly equal to it in color. The tree is hardy, healthy, 
vigorous and reliably productive with a tendency to biennial bearing. There 
is a considerable loss from the dropping of the fruit. Although it has been 
known in cultivation for more than a century (i), it appears to have practically 
passed out of the lists offered by the nurserymen in North America (4) and 
evidently is nearly obsolete. 

Historical. It is stated that the original tree was in full bearing in its native 
place, Richfield, Ct., during the Revolutionary War. Forty years ago it was 
but little known outside the vicinity of its origin (i). 

Tree. 

Tree large, vigorous, productive ; branches stout, crooked. Form upright 
spreading, open. Twigs below medium to long, erect, slightly curved, stout, 
blunt at the tips ; internodes medium. Bark rather clear olive-green partly 
covered with dark brownish-red, with light streaked scarf-skin ; quite pubescent. 



56 The Apples of New York. 

Lenticels scattering, roundish, medium sized, raised. Buds prominent, large, 
broad, plump, obtuse, pubescent, free or nearly so. Leaves large, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to sometimes large ; pretty uniform in size and shape. 
Foi-in roundish to roundish conic, sometimes slightly oblate, generally sym- 
metrical. Stem medium to short, rather thick. Cax'ity acuminate, rather 
shallow to moderately deep, broad, often with radiating russet, sometimes 
lipped. Calyx large, usually open, sometimes closed ; lobes often reflexed, 
acute to obtuse. Basin abrupt, moderately deep, moderately wide to wide, 
somewhat furrowed. 

Skin yellow or greenish-yellow, largely overlaid or mottled with red and 
striped and splashed with carmine, but not conspicuously so. Dots numerous, 
russet, mingled with some broken lines or flecks of russet, yet the skin is 
rather smooth. Prevailing effect when highly colored is bright red, otherwise 
yellowish. 

Calyx tube wide, conical sometimes with short funnel tube extension. 
Stajuens median to basal. 

Core comparatively small, axile, closed or sometimes open ; core lines slightly 
clasping. Carpels flat, elongated ovate approaching cordate, tufted. Seeds 
medium, moderately wide, moderately long, acute, tufted, medium brown. 

Flesh whitish or tinged with yellow, moderately firm, moderately coarse, 
breaking, moderately tender, rather juicy, mild subacid becoming somewhat 
sweet, agreeable in fla\or, good or nearly good in quality. 

Season October to February. 

Baker's Eastern Pippin Apple is a distinct variety of Canadian origin. l 

BALDWIN, 

References, i. Thacher, 1822:121. 2. Cat. Hort. Soc. London. 1831. 
3. Kenrick, 1833:41. 4. Mag. Hart., 1:360. 1835. 5, Manning, 1838:59. 6. 
Dittrich, 3:53. 7. Downing, 1845:98. fig. 1847. col. pi. 8. French, Horticul- 
turist. 1:315. 1846. 9. Thomas, 1849:163. 10. Cole, 1849:128. 11. Emmons, 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:75. 1851. fig. 12. Hovey, i:ii. 1852. fig. and col. pi. 13. 
Bivort, An. de Pom. Beige. 1855:147. 14. Hooper, 1857:14. 15. Elliott, 1858: 
66. fig. 16. Flotow, ///. Handb. Obstk.. i.:.\2y. 1859. 17. i\Ias, Le I'erger, 
5:163. col. pi. 18. Warder, 1867:42. fig. 19. Downing, 1872:85. fig. 20. 
Leroy, 1873:89. fig. 21. Barry, 1883:342. 22. Hogg, 1884:13. 23. Wickson, 
1891:245. 24. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 25. Woolverton, Ont. Fruit 
Sias. Rpt., 1895:7. fig. 26. Taylor, U. S. Div. Pom. Bui, 7:350. 1897. 27. 
Amer. Card.. 1899:546. 28. Eneroth-Smirnofif. 1901:261. 29. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:4.3- fig- 30- Thomas, 1903:323. fig. 31. Fr. Lucas, 187. 

Synonyms. Baldwin Rosenapfel (31). Baldwin's Rother Pippin (6). 
Calville Butter (18). Felch (7, 18, 19). Late Baldzcin (12, 18). Pecker (i, 
7, 18, 19). Red Baldzi'in Pippin (18). Steele's Red Winter (7, 12, 18, 19). 
Woodpecker (7, iS, 19, 21). 

The Baldwin is a bright red winter apple, above medium in 
size or large, and very good in quality when grown under favor- 

' Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 8:20. 1877. 
















14 




''i* 



GROUP OF FRUIT PICKERS IN THE BALDWIN ORCHARD OF FOSTER 
UDELL, BROCKPORT, MONROE COUNTY, N. Y. 



The Appi.f.s of Xf,w York. 



57 



able conditions. It stands handling- well because of its firm 
texture and thick skin. It is a favorite market variety because 
of its desirable season, good size, attractive red color and good 
quality. 

The Baldwin is preeminently the leading variety in the com- 
mercial orchards in Xew York, New England, certain regions in 
Southern Canada, in the southern peninsula of Michigan and on 
the clay soils of Xorthern Ohio. In many localities in Northern 
Xew York it is apt to winter-kill, especially in the higher alti- 
tudes. For the same reason it also fails in portions of Michigan 
and west of the Great Lakes. In the South and Southwest it is 
not desirable because it there becomes a fall apple and also be- 
cause it does not attain as good quality as it does in the Baldwin 
belt. From Colorado to Washington it is more or less grown in 
many localities. 

Not only is the Baldwin a standard fruit in American markets 
but it is one of the leading apples used for export trade. It is 
one of the principal varieties handled in cold storage. The apples 
of this variet}- which are unsuitable for barrelling supply a large 
part of the evaporator stock in X>w York state, and are also used 
to some extent by canneries. 

The tree is a strong grower, long-lived and vigorous. The 
accompanying \iew illustrates the vigorous development of 
mature Baldwin trees, as also does the frontispiece. It is some- 
what slow in reaching bearing maturity, but wdien mature it 
bears very abundantl}'. In fact, one of the faults of this variety 
is its habit of producing an overload of fruit biennially and bear- 
ing little or none on alternate years. On rather light, sandy or 
gravelly soils the fruit is apt to have a better color, or at least to 
color earlier in the season, than it does wdien grown on heavy 
clay lands. Some hold that fruit from the lighter or more grav- 
elly soils ripens earlier and consequently scalds earlier in storage 
than do the duller colored Baldwins grown on heavier soils. The 
Baldwin is grown successfully on various soils and under various 
climatic conditions. Besides the other good points of the Bald- 
win which have been noticed above, it has the advantage of vield- 



58 The Apples of New York. 

ing a pretty uniform grade of fruit with a low percentage of culls, 
when kept free from injurious insects and fungous diseases. 

The Baldwin foliage and fruit are often much injured by the 
apple scab fungus. It has often been remarked that the preven- 
tion of fungus diseases and of the attacks of insects, by proper 
spraying, not only increases the yield of marketable fruit but 
improves the quality as well. The Bahhvin Spot is the name 
given to brown flecks in the flesh of Baldwin apples. This is 
not caused by either insects or fungi. It is a physiological defect 
which is more apt to appear in overgrown than in medium-sized 
fruit. No remedy is known.^ 

Historical. Soon after 1740 the Baldwin came up as a chance seedHng on 
the farm of Mr. John Ball, Wilmington, near Lowell, Mass., and for about 
40 years thereafter its cultivation was confined to that immediate neighbor- 
hood. The farm eventually came into the possession of a Mr. Butters, who 
gave the name Woodpecker to the apple because the tree was frequented by 
woodpeckers. The apple was long known locally as the Woodpecker or 
Pecker. It was also called the Butters. 2 Deacon Samuel Thompson, a sur- 
veyor of Woburn, brought it to the attention of Col. Baldwin of the same 
town, by whom it was propagated and more widely introduced in Eastern 
Massachusetts as early as 1784. From Col. Baldwin's interest in the variety 
it came to be called the Baldwin.3 

In 1817 the original tree was still alive but it perished between 1817 and 
1832.4 A monument to the Baldwin apple now marks the location. 

Coxe in his work on fruits in 1817 makes no mention of the Baldwin. 
Thacher's American Orchardist, published in Boston in 1832, gives it very 
brief but favorable mention. Floy in his American edition of Lindley, Guide 
to the Orchard, New York, 1833, does not mention it, but in the appendix to 
the 1846 edition he describes the Baldwin and states that "in the Eastern States 
(New England) it is well known, highly esteemed, and extensively cultivated." 
Kenrick's Neiv American Orchardist, Boston, 1833, says, "No apple in the 
vicinity of Boston is so popular as this, at the present day. It is raised in 
large quantities for the market * * * and is recommended for extensive 
cultivation." 

Hovey in 1852 published an extended description of Baldwin with colored 
plate (12). He remarks, "The Baldwin is the most popular apple of New 
England, and is cultivated to a much greater extent than any other variety. 
Several large and fine orchards are to be found in the vicinity of Boston, some 
of which produce about one thousand barrels of fruit every bearing year. For 
exportation it is much sought after; and the large number of fifteen hundred 
barrels have been sent to the East Indies in one season." 



Uones, L. R. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 12: 159-164. 1899. 

'French, B. V. Downing Hort., 1:315. 1846. 

*Mass. Ploughman, cited in Mich. Hort., 1:335. 

*Amer. Gard. Mag. 1885:360. New Eng. Homestead, 1885:228. 





BALDWIN 



The Apples of New Vori^. 59 

Prior to 1850 the Baldwin was but little known in New York state. After 
that date, with the extension of the planting of commercial orchards, it came 
rapidly into popularity and gained the supremacy among the commercial apples 
of New York which it still holds. 

Tree. 

Tree large, very vigorous; branches large, strong. Form upright spread- 
ing, eventually becoming rather round and somewhat dense. Tzvigs long, 
straight, or somewhat crooked, moderately stout ; internodes medium to 
long. Bark dark brownish-red mingled with olive-green and faintly 
marked with thin scarf-skin; somewhat pubescent. Lcnticcls numerous, 
conspicuous, raised, usually oblong, sometimes large. Buds medium to 
large, broad or roundish, acute, pubescent, free or nearly so. Leaves often 
broad and large to very large ; foliage rather dense. 

Fruit. 

Fruit sometimes large to very large; usually above medium; pretty 
uniform in size. Fonn roundish inclined to conic, varying to roundish 
oblong; often faintly ribbed or somewhat irregular; symmetrical; fairly 
uniform in shape. Stem usually medium, to long. Cavity acute, medium 
to rather deep, rather broad, often somewhat furrowed, sometimes com- 
pressed, sometimes lipped, often russeted, with outspreading rays of russet 
or deep green. Calyx small to rather large ; closed or somewhat open ; 
lobes long, acute to acuminate. Basin abrupt, narrow to moderately wide ; 
often distinctly furrowed; slightly corrugated. 

Skin tough, smooth, light yellow or greenish, blushed and mottled with 
bright red, indistinctly striped with deep carmine. Flecks of russet, or even 
broken russet lines, may occasionally be seen on the base of the fruit. Dots 
gray or whitish, depressed, small and numerous toward the basin, more scatter- 
ing, conspicuous, large, irregular, or elongated towards the cavity. Prevailing 
effect is bright red. 

Calyx tube conical, rather short and wide with projection of fleshy pistil 
point into its base. Stamens basal. 

Core medium or below, nearly axile, closed or partly open ; core lines 
meeting. Carpels roundish ovate, emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds 
variable, often abortive; when normally developed they are large, long, 
acute, and dark brown. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, rather tender, juicy to 
very juicy, agreeably subacid, sprightly, somewhat aromatic, good to very 
good. 

Season November to March or April in common storage; to May or 
later in cold storage.! 

Uses. Well adapted for general market, dessert and culinary uses. 

Other Baldwin Types. 

Besides the general type of the Baldwin apple above described, mention 
should be made of the following: 

Russet Baldwins. Cases have been reported where the Baldwin has 
sported and developed fruit with russet skin. Since these apples appear 

1 Peach and Clark. N. Y. Sta. Bui. 248:iii-ii2. 1904. 



6o The Apples of New York. 

to show no advantage over the smooth-skinned Baldwins, thej^ are seldom 
propagated. 

Gray Baldwin, Blue Baldwin, Black Baldwin and Dark Baldwin are indefi- 
nite terms sometimes applied to what appears to be a distinct type of the 
Baldwin. Scattering trees of it are occasionally found mingled in 
orchards with Baldwins of the ordinary type. The Dark Baldwin as com- 
pared with the common tj^pe has fruit that is slower in maturing on the 
tree, and keeps longer. The flesh has more of a greenish tinge and is 
firmer. The skin also shows dull green where the common type is 
yellow, and the red is dull and darker than the red of the common Bald- 
win. So far as we know the Dark Baldwin is not being intentionally 
propagated. 

In speaking of the Dark Baldwin as a distinct type the fact is here 
recognized that the ordinary Baldwin when grown on sandy or gravelly 
soil generally gives brighter colored fruit than when grown on heavy clay 
soil. But the above-mentioned occurrence of a type called Dark Baldwin, 
mingled as it sometimes is in orchards with Baldwins of the common 
type, does not seem to be satisfactorily accounted for by attributing its 
apearance to a difference in soil. It is more probable that a distinct 
strain has arisen and been disseminated unwittingly in place of the 
common type. 

Olympia is a sport of the Baldwin which differs from the type in having 
larger and better colored fruit. It is described under " Olympia." 

BANANA SWEET, 

Referen'Ces. I. Rural N. Y., 1885:278. fig. 2. Hexamer, Am. Pom. Soc. 
Rpt., 1895:69. 

This is a sweet winter apple, attractive in appearance. Color greenish-yellow, 
highly colored .specimens are blushed. Season January to March in New 
Jersey. So far as we know it has not been fruited in New York. This should 
not be confused with the Winter Banana introduced by Greening Brothers of 
Monroe, Michigan, in 1890, which is not a sweet apple. 

Historical. Banana originated as a chance seedling with C. E. Blackwell, 

Titusville, X. J,, about 186;. 

Tree. 

Tree spreading, upright, vigorous, rather dense. Tivigs rather slender; 

internodes short. Bark reddish-brown. Buds not prominent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large. Form roundish conical, sometimes one-sided. Stem medium 
to large, long, slender. Cavity rather small, moderately deep, often with out- 
spreading, irregularly broken, russet patches. Calyx rather small, closed. 
Basin small to medium, somewhat irregularly corrugated, rather deep. 

Skin greenish-yellow with a pale blush on the exposed side. Dots minute, 
scattering. Prevailing effect yellow. 

Calyx tube conical, approaching funnel-form. 

Core medium size, axile. Carpels roundish. Seeds medium size, obtuse. 

Flesh white, fine-grained, tender, juicy, sweet, good. 

Season, January to March or April. 





BALDWIN 



The ArPLES of New York. 6i 

BAPTIST. 

References, i. Downing, 1876: app. 44. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 
3. U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1895:20. 4. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1897:36. 

As fruited at the Geneva Experiment Station, Baptist lacks distinctive char- 
acter both in appearance and quality. In early winter its prevailing effect is 
dull dark red overspreading a dull greenish background, but it holds its color 
well until very late in the season and eventually the yellow tones become 
brighter making the fruit rather attractive. It is not recommended for culti- 
vation in New York. 

Historical. Baptist originated at Clinton, Kentucky (i), and was received 

for testing at the Geneva Experiment Station from W. M. Samuels of that 

place. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous ; branches rather stout. Form roundish, spreading, dense. 
T'a'igs rather long to below medium, somewhat curved, moderately thick ; 
internodes medium to short. Bark rather dull, dark reddish-brown ; some- 
what pubescent. Lcnticcls numerous, very irregular in size, shape and dis- 
tribution, generally small, slightly elongated, and very thickly set, but some 
are large and narrow. Buds medium or below, often rather prominent, gen- 
erally acute, very pubescent and free. Leaves moderately broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or below; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form oblate 
to roundish, truncate at base, sides sometimes unequal, often obscurely ribbed. 
Stem short to medium, thick. Cavity obtuse, moderately shallow to rather 
deep, broad, sometimes russeted, greenish, occasionally lipped. Calyx closed 
or sometimes slightly open, medium, or below, pubescent. Basin rather shallow 
to moderately deep, wide, rather abrupt, somewhat furrowed and corrugated. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, green or yellowish blushed with red, deepening 
to very dark red in the sun, indistinctly marked with narrow deep crimson 
stripes. Dots conspicuous, small, pale yellow or russet. Prevailing effect 
very dark red. 

Calyx tube long, conic to funnel-shaped. Stamens median to basal. 

Core medium to small, closed or partly open, axile or nearly so, very broadly 
turbinate; core lines clasp the cylinder. Carpels elliptic or inclined to obcor- 
date, emarginate. Seeds few, about medium size, rather wide, obtuse, some- 
what tufted. 

Flesh yellowish, very firm, somewhat coarse, not crisp, moderately tender, 
not very juicy, mild subacid, eventually becoming nearly sweet, hardly good. 

Season at Geneva, January to June, in Kentucky, December to February. 

BARBEL. 

References, i. Gibb, la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883. 2. Budd, la. Agr. College 
Bui, 1885:18. 3. Beach and Close, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 1896:275-276. Hg. 4. 
Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. BuL, 248:112. 1904. 

Synonyms. Dept. No. 467 (2). Sugar Barbel (4). SrG.\R Barbel (3). 

This is an attractive, dark red, winter apple of no special value in this region 
(3). It ranks good for dessert but only fair to good for culinary uses. 



62 The Apples of New York. 

Historical. It was imported from Russia by the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture under No. 467 about 1870 (2). Stock was received for testing at this 
Station from Dr. T. H. Hoskins, Newport, Vt., 1888. 

Tree. 
Tree vigorous, spreading, rather open. Tzcigs long to medium, rather 
slender to moderately stout: internodes short to medium. Bark dark 
brownish-red mottled with light scarf-skin. Lenticels numerous, small to 
medium, round or somewhat elongated ; pubescent. Buds medium in size, 
plump, broad, obtuse to acute, appressed ; pubescent. Leaves large, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large. Form oblate to oblate conic, slightly ribbed, pretty 
symmetrical. Ston short to medium, often thick. Cavity acute to acuminate, 
deep, rather wide, with outspreading russet rays. Calyx rather large, broad, 
open or partly closed. Basin broad, rather abrupt, moderately deep, corru- 
gated. 

Skin dull yellow, overspread with dark red, sparingly marked with yellowish 
dots and russet flecks. Prevailing effect good, dark red. 

Calyx tube funnel-form with long cylinder. Stamens median. Core axile, 
closed. Seed medium size to rather large, tufted, obtuse. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, rather coarse, firm, crisp, moderately juicy, moder- 
ately subacid, eventually becoming sweet or nearly so, slightly aromatic, good. 

Season October to February or later. 

BARRINGER, 

References, i. Hexamer, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1899:89. 2. Hexamer, 
Amer. Agric, 62:569. Dec. 3, 1898. figs. 3. Fancier's Reviezv and Fruit 
Grower, Chatham, N. Y., Nov., 1899:5 4. Johnson, Amer. Agric, 75:79. 
1905. figs. 5. Beach, IVest. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1901 -.76. 

SYN0NyM.s. Pride OF THE Hudson ( I, 2, 4). Pride of Hudson (s). Coon 
(locally). 

This variety has been known for many years in Clermont, Colum- 
bia county, where a few trees of it were in their prime fifty years 
ago. j\Ir. Jacob Barringer of Germantown, X. Y., was the first to 
propagate it from these old trees (i, 4). Columbia county fruit 
growers report that it is worthy of a place in the commercial 
orchard, the tree very thrifty, long-lived and productive, the fruit 
good in size, showy and of excellent quality. At the American 
Institute in New York in 1898 the fruit was exhibited under the 
name Pride of the Hudson, but in 1899 this name was changed to 

Barringer. 

Tree. 
Tree vigorous ; branches long and moderately stout. Form upright spread- 
ing, rather open. Tzvigs long, slightly curved, with thick tips ; internodes 
short. Bark reddish-brown, with light streaks of scarf-skin ; pubescent. 



The Apples of New York. 63 

Lenticcls numerous, small, roundish. Buds of medium size, broad, obtuse, 
free, pubescent. Leaves medium, broad. 

Fruit. 

Friiil above medium to large. Form roundish conical, slightly ribbed, some- 
times flattened. Slcni long. Cavity acute to acuminate, moderately deep, 
rather i)road, somewhat furrowed and partly russeted, often lipped. 

Skin bright red handsomely striped with dark red and slightly dotted, un- 
usually attractive (4). Calyx tube cone-shaped. Core rather large. Core 
lines clasping. Flesh white, tinged with yellow, very fine, juicy, mild subacid, 
very good. 

Season ordinarily early winter but it may keep till spring (l, 4). 

BARRY, 

Reference, i. EUwanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y., Catalogue, 1895. 

Resembles the Greening type of apples in color and in the acidity 
of the flesh. 

The Barry originated abovit 1880, in the nurseries of EUwanger & 
Barry, Rochester, N. Y., and has been recently introduced by that 
firm after having been thoroughly tested by them. It has their 
recommendation as a novelty of sterling merit, and one which they 
believe will prove valuable for commercial orchards (i). 

Tree. 
Tree a good grower ; well branched with long upright branches. Form up- 
right, becoming spreading and somewhat open. Tzvigs curved and often 
crooked, long, medium, stout ; internodes long. Bark rather light olive-green 
shading to reddish-brown and overlaid with thin gray scarf-skin ; quite pubes- 
cent. Lenticels scattering, usually small, round, slightly raised. Buds large, 
broad, obtuse, appressed, pubescent. Leaves large or very large, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium, sometimes large. Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, 
obscurely ribbed, somewhat irregular. Stem medium. Cavity acute, deep, 
rather broad, usually with some thin greenish russet, broadly furrowed. 
Calyx small to medium, closed ; lobes acute. Basin abrupt, rather shallow to 
rather deep, narrow to moderately wide, with narrow furrows and wrinkled. 

Skin tough, smooth, clear pale yellow or greenish with faint shade of red 
on the exposed cheek. Dots numerous, minute, pale, submerged, and a few 
show a brown or russet point. Prevailing effect green or greenish yellow. 

Calyx tube medium size, conical or funnel-shaped. Stamens marginal. 

Core medium to rather large, abaxile, open; core lines clasping. Carpels 
elliptical, much concave, emarginate, tufted. Seeds numerous, medium, obtuse, 
medium to dark brown. 

Flesh firm, moderately fine to fine, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, sprightly, 
good. 

Season. Late. 



64 The Apples of New York. 

BATULLEN. 

References, i. Lucas, ///. Handh. dcr Obstk., 4:559. 1864. 2. Leroy, 
1873:92. fig. 3. Budd, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 8:49. 1881-2. 4. Budd, la. 
Sta. Bui, 19:542. 1892. 5. Gaucher, Pomologie, iSg/^. col. pi 6. Fulton, ilf/c/i. 
Sta. Bui, 187:85. 1901. 7. Hansen, .S". D. Sta. Bui, 76:28. 1902. 8. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903:44. 

Synonym. Poiinne de Transylvania (2). 

An attractive yellow apple sometimes blushed, desirable for market and 
culinary uses and acceptable for dessert. If productive enough it is doubtless 
worthy of a place in the commercial orchards. As tested at the Geneva Station 
it has not yet proved very productive. It has made a similar record at the 
Michigan Station. 

Origin, Transylvania (i, 2). 

Tree. 

Tree a poor grower in the nursery (4), moderately vigorous; branches 
short, moderately stout. Form upright spreading or roundish, dense. Twigs 
long to medium in length, nearly straight, medium stout ; internodes rather 
short. Bark dark reddish-brown, mottled with scarf-skin ; slightly pubescent. 
Lenticcls numerous, small, generally roundish, raised. Buds medium or below 
medium in size, narrow, acute, appressed, rather pubescent. Leaves large, 
broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or above; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
to slightly roundish conic, sometimes a little inclined to oblong, rather regular. 
Stern medium to short, rather slender. Cavity acuminate, moderately broad 
to rather narrow, wavy, bright green with whitish spots, sometimes russeted. 
Calyx small, closed. Basin abrupt, moderately deep, rather narrow, some- 
times furrowed and wrinkled, sides sometimes compressed. 

Skin smooth, clear, bright, almost waxen yellow, often with no shade of red 
but sometimes having a distinct blush. Dots small and inconspicuous, usually 
submerged. Prevailing effect attractive yellow. 

Calyx tube long, rather narrow, conical or approaching funnel-form. 
Stamens median. 

Core small to medium, axile, closed or open ; core lines clasping. Carpels 
roundish, sometimes unsymmetrical, emarginate. Seeds small to medium, 
plump, obtuse to acute, dark. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, rather tender, juicy, 
subacid, aromatic, sprightly, very good. 

Season November to March. 

BAXTER. 

References, i. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assn., 1881:92. 2. lb., 1882:83. 3. Bridge, 
Can. Hort., 1884:59. 4. Woolverton, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1889:155. 5. Nicol, 
Ont. Fr. Gr. Assn., 1891:89. 6. J't. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:287. 1901. 

Synonyms. Baxter's Red (3). La Rue (3). Red Pound (3). 

A large red apple decidedly attractive in appearance. Some see 
in it a resemblance to Tompkins King, but there is more evidence 



The Apples oe New York. 65 

of a relationship with the Blue Pearmain group of apples. This 
is seen in the form and color of the fruit, the bloom, the areolar 
dots and the character of the flesh. It does not rank high in quality. 
In the St. Lawrence valley it is said to be a strong grower, hardy, 
productive and not subject to the scab. It is there regarded as a 
desirable apple to grow for commercial purposes. At Geneva it 
has proved vigorous and productive, but because it is inferior in 
quality to other varieties of its season, such as Tompkins King, 
Mcintosh and Hubbardston, it is doubtful whether Baxter is worthy 
of a place in the commercial orchards of Western and Southern 
New York. 

Origin. It was known near Brockville, Canada, one hundred years or more 
ago. It gradually found its way into nurseries and within the last twenty- 
five years has been quite extensively propagated (3). 

Tree. 
Tree productive, very vigorous ; branches long, medium stout. Form up- 
right spreading, open. Tzvigs medium to long, straight, rather stout, thick at 
the tips ; internodes medium to long. Bark clear brownish-red streaked with 
olive-green; pubescent. Lcnticcls rather numerous, conspicuous, small, some- 
times large, round, raised. Buds moderately prominent, imbedded in the bark, 
acute, appressed. Leaves large, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to very large. Form roundish to conic flattened at the base or 
varying to somewhat oblong, often faintly ribbed, somewhat irregular, sides 
often unequal and also often compressed ; axis sometimes oblique. Stem 
usually short. Cavity large, deep, acute, broad, usually partly russeted, often 
somewhat furrowed. Calyx small to above medium, sometimes closed or 
partly open. Basin often oblique, moderately shallow to rather deep, rather 
narrow to wide, obtuse to moderately abrupt, slightly furrowed, corrugated, 
sometimes compressed. 

Skin thick, tough, slightly roughened by russet dots ; pale yellow or whitish 
largely mottled and blushed with rather bright red often deepening to purplish 
shades characteristic of the Blue Pearmain group, distinctly splashed and 
striped with purplish-red. Dots numerous, conspicuous, areolar, whitish or 
with russet point. A bluish bloom gives the skin a rather dull appearance but 
when polished it is bright and glossy. Highly colored specimens show but 
little of the yellow ground color. Prevailing effect attractive red or striped 
red. 

Calyx tube large, elongated, cone-shape or funnel-form. Stamens medium 
to marginal. 

Core medium, usually abaxile, open ; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. 
Carpels roundish varying to elongated ovate, slightly emarginate, tufted. 
Seeds numerous, below medium, rather wide, plump, obtuse, tufted, dark 
brown. 



66 The Apples of New York. 

Flesh yellowish, sometimes stained with red, firm, breaking, rather coarse, 
tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, slightly aromatic, fair to good. 

Season November to January'. 

Baxter's Pearmain of Downing, p. 89 and of Hogg, p. 16 is distinct from 
Baxter above described. 

BEACH, 

References, i. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui., 49:9. 1898. £g. 2. lb., 60:126. 
1899. 3. Aiji. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:15. 4. N. C. State Bd. Agr. Bid., 1900:9. 
5. Waugh, ]'t. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:287. 1901. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:44. 7. 
Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:37. 1903. 

Synonyms. Apple of Commerce (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). Lady Pippin (i). 
Richardson's Red (i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7). 

A red Arkansas apple, which as yet has been but little tested either in New 
York or adjacent states. In New York ordinarily the season is not long 
enough for the proper development of apples of the group to which the Beach 
belongs. For this reason that variety can hardly be expected to prove valu- 
able here. Waugh reports that, as grown in Vermont, it appears to be superior 
in all respects to Ben Davis, and is really good in quality (5). It is a very 
late keeper. 

Historical. Stinson reports that this variety has been grown to a consider- 
able extent in Benton and Washington counties, Arkansas, under the names 
Lady Pippin and Richardson's Red. It has also been introduced under the 
name Apple of Commerce (i). He has found the variety productive and a 
good keeper, but because it is only fair in quality he advises against the plant- 
ing of it in Arkansas (2). 

Tree. 

Tree rather large, vigorous, productive, comes into bearing rather young, 
and has a tendency to produce moderate crops annually; branches somewhat 
stocky. Form round, dense. Tzcigs moderately stout, with long internodes, 
somewhat crooked. Bark nearly smooth, clear, bright light reddish-brown, 
becoming dull dark brown approaching black, thinly mottled with scarf-skin, 
somewhat pubescent. Lenticels rather numerous, conspicuous, usually round- 
ish, above medium to very large, raised slightly or not at all. Buds small to 
medium, deep set, obtuse, pubescent. Leaves large, long, often broad ; petioles 
red at base ; foliage rather dense. 

Fruit. 

Fruit as grown in this region appears not to ripen properly. It is about 
medium in size and pretty uniform in size and shape. Form usually roundish, 
slightly obovate, or sometimes somewhat oblate, regular, symmetrical. Stem 
medium, rather slender. Cavity acute to acuminate, deep to medium depth, 
moderately wide, green or with outspreading russet, symmetrical. Calyx 
medium, closed. Basin rather shallow to moderately deep, obtuse to rather 
abrupt, moderately wide, furrowed, corrugated, often with some mammiform 
protuberances. 

Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, bright yellow, shaded and mottled with 
red and striped with dark carmine. Dots inconspicuous, small, gray or whitish. 
Prevailing effect red or red striped, decidedly attractive. 

Calyx tube rather narrow, deep, conical or funnel-form, with fleshy prO' 
jection of pistil point into its base. Stamens median to marginal. 



The Apples of New yoRK. dy 

Core axile, medium to ratlier large, closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels 
broadly ovate, emarginate. Seeds large, rather narrow, long, acute. 

Flesh somewhat tinged with yellow, very firm, moderately coarse, not very 
juicy, subacid, fair to nearly good in quality. 

Season very late ; it is one of the latest keeping varieties. 

BELLE ET BONNE, 

References, i. Downing, 1857:118. 2. Downing, 1872:91. 3, Hogg, (?) 
1884:18. 4. Thomas, 1885:242. 5. Mich. Hart. Sac. Kept., 1890:288. 6. 111. 
Sta. Bui, 45:314. 1896. 7. Thomas. 1903:337- 

Synonyms. BcUyhand O (3). RoUand (?) (3). Tenon Hills (i, 2). 
Winter Belle Bonne (?) (3)- 

This old Connecticut variety (i, 2) is found occasionally in Southeastern 
New York. The fruit is large, handsome, smooth, uniform in size and of 
about the same season as Hubbardston. It is rather too mild in flavor to be 
desirable for general purposes. Although an old variety it has never become 
a standard kind in the markets of this state. In hardiness, health and lon- 
gevity it ranks about with Baldwin. The trees are moderately productive, 
usually bearing biennially. They are a little slow about coming into bearing. 
It is not recommended for planting in New York. 

Downing regards it as probably identical with the Belle Bonne of Hogg 
(i, 2, 3) which was first described by Parkinson in 1629. It is quite distinct 
from Billy Bond. 

Tree. 

Tree large, vigorous. Form roundish, spreading. Tivigs rather long, stout, 
somewhat pubescent. Bark dull reddish-brown. 

Fruit. 
Fruit large to very large. Form roundish oblate. Stem short. Cavity 
wide, deep, thinly russeted. Calyx closed. Basin medium in width and depth. 
Skin deep yellow or greenish. Dots small. Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, 
rather coarse, juicy, mild subacid, good. Season, early winter. 

BELMONT, 

References, i. Downing, 1845:142. 2. Thomas, 1849:177. 3. Cole, 1849: 
120. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:80. 185 1. 2 tigs, and col. pi. No. 76. 
5. Hooper, 1857:16. 6. Downing, 1857:74. 7. Elliott, 1858:69. ;?g. 8. Warder, 
1867:529. fig. 9. Chamberlain. Country Gentleman, 1885:1054. 10. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 11. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 12. Barry, 
1896:342. 13. Waugh, ]'t. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:288. 1901. 14. Thomas, 1903: 
337- fig- 15- Bndd-Hansen, 1903:45. 

Synonyms. Belmont Late (4). Belmont (i). Gate (i, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12). 
Gait (13). Golden Pippin of some (6, 7). Kelley White (6, 7). Mamma 
Beam (6, 7). Mamma Bean (8). Waxen Apple (i, 4). Waxen of some 
(6, 7). ^Vhite (6). White Apple (7). 

Fruit waxen, yellow with beautiful bright blush ; excellent either for dessert 
or cooking. It makes a fine appearance on the tree but appears somewhat 
dull in the barrel or package, It is handled satisfactorily in local markets 



68 The Apples of New York. 

but it is not a good shipper. Because of its tender skin and delicate color 
it shows bruises readilj^, so that with ordinary methods of handling it is apt 
to be damaged in appearance. It has not always kept well. When the trees 
are overloaded, a good deal of the fruit is either too small for market or grades 
second class in size. For these reasons and because there are other commer- 
cial sorts larger in tree and in fruit, more reliable croppers and less subject 
to scab, Belmont, although it is known in various parts of the state, is grown 
to a limited extent only in New York commercial orchards. The tree is gen- 
erally hardy except in the more elevated or more northern portions of the state. 
In trying locations it is sometimes injured by sunscald or canker. It usually 
bears biennially and yields good to heavy crops. The fruit hangs well to 
the tree. 

Historical. Downing at first regarded Belmont as identical with Waxen 

of Coxe (i), but in the first revised edition this error is corrected with the 

statement that the variety originated in the garden of a Mrs. Beam, near 

Strasburgh, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, from whence it was taken to 

Belmont county, Ohio, where it became very popular and received the name 

of Belmont. 

Tree. 

Tree medium size, usually moderately vigorous, in some places rather 

dwarfish but on rich soils and in favorable locations it becomes large. Form 

upright spreading. Tivigs medium in length or rather short, rather slender. 

Bark light reddish-brown or olive-green becoming rather dark ; partly covered 

with gray pubescence. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or above, sometimes large; fairly uniform in size and shape. 
Form varies from rounded oblong to oblate conic but is usually roundish, some- 
what broadly and indistinctly ribbed, somewhat irregular. Stem medium to 
short, often slender. Cavity rather large, acute to acuminate, rather deep, 
moderately broad, wavy, irregular, usually with thin brown russet, sometimes 
lipped. Calyx rath.er small, usually closed. Basin rather shallow to deep, 
moderately abrupt to abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, waxen, clear bright yellow with bright orange- 
red blush. Dots whitish with minute russet point, often submerged, on the 
blushed portion becoming red areolar. Prevailing color yellow, not striped. 

Calyx tube long, elongated cone-shape or funnel-form. Stamens marginal. 

Core medium to rather large, axile, sometimes closed ; core lines clasping. 
Carpels roundish, pointed cordate, tufted. Seeds rather long, acute, tufted. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, moderately 
juicy, mild subacid, very good. 

Season October to February. 

Uses. Cooking, dessert and local market. 

BEN DAVIS. 

Referexces. I. Downing, 1857:119. fig. 2. Elliott, 1859:124. 3. Adair, 
Horticulturist, 15:226. i860. 2 figs. 4. Downing, Horticulturist, 16:40. 1861. 
5. Am.. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 6. Warder, 1867:585. fig. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Rpt., 1869:40. 8. Downing, 1872:93. fig. 9. Leroy, 1873:126. i^"'. 10. Barry, 
1883:343. II. Thomas, 1885:230. 12. Lyon, Mich. Hart. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 





y 




BEN DAVIS 



The Apples of New York. 69 

13. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 14. Woolvcrton, Out. Fr. Gr. Assn., 26:170. 
1894. 15. Woolverton, Out. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 3:4. 1896. fig. 16. Watts, 
Tcnn. Sta. Bui, 1896:7. 17. Anu-r. Card., 18:746. 1897. 18. Waugh, Vt. 
Sta. Bui., 61:30. 1897. 19. Taylor, U. S. Dir. Pom. Bid., 7:351. 1898. 20. 
Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Slas. An. Rft., 6:36. 1899. 21. Waugh, Gardening, 
7:278. 1899. 22. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bui., 130:130. 1901. fig. of tree. 23. 
Waugh, J't. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:288. 1901. 24. Hansen, 5". D. Sta. BuL, 76:29. 
1902. fig. 25. Stinson, Mo. State Fruit Sta. BuL, 3:24. 1902. 26. Ont. Fr. Gr. 
Assn. An. Rpt., 34:108. 1902. 27. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. /. Bui, 
48:38. 1903. 28. Budd-Hansen, 1903:45. fig. 29. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. 
BuL, 248:112. 1904. 

Synonyms. Baltimore Pippin (8, 9). Baltimore Red (8, 9). Baltimore 
Red Streak (8,9). Carolina Red Streak (8,9, 11). Fiinkhoiiser (8). I\cn- 
tucky Pippin (8). Kentucky Streak (11). New York Pippin (3, 4, 5). 
Nezi' York Pippin (6, 8, 8, 9, 10. 11). Pepin de New-York (9). Red Pippin 
(8). J'ictoria Pippin (8, 9). Victoria Red (S, 11). 

The Ben Davis reigns over a mncli greater extent of country than 
does the Baldwin. It is unquestionably the leading commercial sort 
and the most popular apple grown south of the Baldwin region. 
Generally speaking, it is the most important variety known in the 
apple districts of the vast territory which stretches from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific between parallels 32 and 42. It is preeminently suc- 
cessful in the \ irginias, Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois, Missouri, 
Arkansas and portions of adjoining states. 

In the more elevated and more northern portions of New York 
it is not usually regarded with favor, but in Southeastern New York 
the planting of it for commercial purposes has extended until, in 
many sections, it now ranks in importance next to Baldwin and 
Rhode Island Greening. It is grown to a considerable extent in 
various other parts of the state, but in many cases less successfully 
because too often the seasons are less favorable to the best develop- 
ment of the fruit. Some find it acceptable for home use after the 
Baldwin season has closed, but here it is generally regarded as not 
good enough in quality for home use. It is often criticised dis- 
paragingly on the point of quality. When grown in the South or 
Southwest, at its best it is but of second rate quality, and 
unquestionably in most portions of New York state the seasons are 
usually too short to mature the variety properly. When grown in 
the South, the period when it is at its best is comparatively short. 
As fruited in New York, it ripens later and keeps later than when 



yo The Apples of New York. 

grown farther south. It often keeps here in ordinary storage till 

May, and in cold storage till June, or often till July. In the Ben 

Davis belt the fruit becomes large and handsomely colored, but in 

many portions of New York state it does not range much above 

medium in size and color. The fruit is thick-skinned, does not 

show bruises easily, and presents a good appearance in the package 

after being handled and shipped in the ordinary way. 

Nurserymen like it because of its free-growing habit and the ease 

and rapidity with which trees of marketable size can be grown. In 

the orchard the tree is very hardy, healthy and vigorous. Although 

it does not appear to be as long-lived as Baldwin, it comes into 

bearing at an early age, and usually bears annually and abundantly. 

Often it makes a good growth, even while bearing good crops. The 

top is rather dense, and in pruning, particularly in the case of young 

trees, especial care should be taken to keep it open and spreading 

so as to give the best possible opportunity for the fruit to color well. 

Its habit of blossoming late in the spring is an advantage in some 

regions because the weather is then more apt to be favorable during 

the pollinating period, and the result is that Ben Davis in such cases 

often bears good crops, when with other varieties there is more or 

less of a crop failure. 

Historical. The origin of this apple will probably never be definitely known. 
It has been variously credited to Tennessee (i6, 19), Kentucky (i), and Virginia 
(7, 16, 19). It is supposed to have originated about the beginning of the last 
century. This view is supported by the fact that before the Civil War it had 
spread throughout the states just mentioned, and following the routes of 
migration had been carried into Southern Indiana, Illinois and pretty gener- 
ally disseminated throughout Alissouri and Arkansas. Downing does not 
mention it in his first edition, but it is described in the first revision (i) of 
his book on The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America. Warder (6) refers to 
it as a comparatively new sort in Ohio and the Northwest but common in the 
South and Southwest. During the last quarter century it has been dissemi- 
nated extensively through all the apple-growing portions of the United States. 

Tree. 
Tree medium in size, rather rank-growing, especially when young, forming 
coarse stronj,- wood which seldom breaks under heavy crops ; branches strong, 
with numerous rather short laterals and spurs, often inclined to bend or droop. 
Form upright becoming roundish, and in old trees rather spreading. Tiings 
long or very long, straight or slightly curved, moderately stout ; internodes 
long. Bark bright, rather dark brownish-red, continuously mottled with fine, 
thin scarf- skm, pubescent. Lenticels scattering, round, sometimes oblong, 



The Apples of New York. Jl 

raised, of a clear straw color, moderately conspicuous. Buds medium to large 

or broad, obtuse, appressed, sunken in the bark, very sparingly pubescent. 

Leaves large, long, rather broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit usually above medium to large. Form roundish, varying from some- 
what conic to somewhat oblong, broad, rounded at the base, often somewhat 
elliptical or slightly irregular, sides sometimes unequal ; pretty uniform in 
shape and in size. Stem medium to long, rather slender. Cavity acute, 
moderately deep to deep, of medium width, nearly symmetrical, often partly 
russeted or with outspreading rays of thin greenish russet. Calyx medium, 
closed or sometimes partly open ; lobes rather short, of medium width, acute. 
Basin abrupt, medium in width and depth, varying to shallow and narrow 
and rather obtuse, sometimes furrowed, usually oblique. 

Skill tough, waxy, bright, smooth, usually glossy, clear yellow or greenish, 
mottled and washed with bright red, striped and splashed with bright dark 
carmine. Dots inconspicuous, small, scattering, light, whitish or brown. Pre- 
vailing effect bright deep red or red striped. 

Calyx tube varies from short and cone-shaped to rather wide and funnel- 
form with rather long cylinder and frequently with fleshy projection of pistil 
point into its base. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core medium, axile, closed or partly open; core lines clasping when the tube 
is funnel-form, meeting or slightly clasping when it is cone-shaped. Carpels 
rather Hat, roundish or inclined to obovate, very emarginate, mucronate. Seeds 
large, long, irregular, rather wide, plump, acute, dark brown. 

Flesh Vv'hitish, slightly tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, not very 
crisp, somewhat aromatic, juicy, mildly subacid, good. 

Season January to June. 

Different Tytes of Bex D.wis. 

Some assert that it is possible to recognize as many as four distinct types 
or strains of Ben Davis. So far as we know none of these tj'pes, if such 
exist, is being kept separate under propagation. It is certain that Ben Davis 
shows great variations in fruit in different parts of the country, in some 
cases so much so that those unfamiliar with it would not recognize fruit of it 
from different regions as being of the same variety. 

Various seedlings of Ben Davis which have been introduced into cultivation 
show more or less resemblance to the parent and to each other. In the case 
of Gano and Black Ben Davis a notable controversy has arisen among nurser}-- 
men and fruit growers as to whether these are distinct varieties or identical. 
The Gano is known to some extent in New York. It resembles its parent 
Ben Davis very closely in the nursery, but it is unmistakably distinct from 
it in fruit. So far as we have tested it, it seems to be better adapted to New 
York conditions than is the Ben Davis. 

Rutledge, Arkansas Belle, Etris and Eicke also belong in the Ben Davis 
group. 

BENTLEY. 

References, i. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:100. 1851. fig. 2. Downing, 
1857:121. 3. Elliott, 1858:122. 4. Warder, 1867:558. 5. Thomas, 1885:227. 
6. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:47. 

Synonyms. Bentley Sweet (4). Bentley's Sweet (i, 2, 3, 5). 



72 The Apples of New York. 

Tree hardy, varies from moderately productive to very productive and 
comes into bearing rather young. The fruit is very sweet and keeps very late 
but is not attractive in color and ranks second rate in size and quality. It is 
not recommended for planting. 

Historical. It is supposed to have originated in Virginia. It is but little 

known in New York. 

Tree. 

Tree medium size, spreading, a rather slow grower. 

Fruit. 

Fruit variable, sometimes above medium to large, averages below medium. 
Form roundish to oblong, often inclined to conic, sometimes irregular and 
obscurely ribbed, sides often unequal ; fairly uniform in shape. Stem short 
to medium. Cavity deep, wide, often slightly furrowed or compressed, some- 
times with greenish russet rays. Calyx large, closed or partly open. Basin 
abrupt, often oblique, moderately wide, moderately deep, often furrowed and 
somewhat w-rinkled. 

Skin smooth, rather clear pale yellow, mottled with red and striped with 
bright carmine. Dots numerous, conspicuous, dark brown. Prevailing color 
thin striped red. 

Calyx tube rather large, sometimes long and funnel-shaped with core lines 
clasping, but sometimes short with core lines meeting. Stamens medium to 
marginal. 

Core medium to small, axile, closed or partly open. Carpels roundish to 
obovate, emarginate. Seeds large, rather wide, plump, obtuse, black. 

Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, firm, rather fine, moderately juicy, 
sweet, crisp, good. 

Season. December to May or June. 

BERGEN. 

References, i. Downing, 1876:44 of app. 

But little known in New York. Originated on the farm of Jessie Griswold, 
Bergen, N. Y. Fruit medium sized, partly red, mild subacid, good either for 
dessert or culinary use (i). 

BESS POOL. 

References, i. Downing, 1872:95. 2. Hogg, 1884:21. 
Synonym. Best Pool (i). 

An old English apple but little known in this country. Above medium size ; 
clear yellow, washed and striped with red ; attractive in appearance. Flesh 
white, juicy, subacid. Season November to March. Not a reliable cropper. 
Esteemed in England both for culinary and dessert uses (2). 

BETHEL. 

References, i. Hoskins, U. S. Agr. Rpt., 1886:274. 2. Hoskins, Rural 
N. y., 47:249. 1888. ngs. 3. Bailey, An. Hort.. 1892:235. 4. An. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1899:15. 5. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Kept., 14:288. 1901. 6. Munson, Me. 
Sta. Bui, 82:83. 1902. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:48. 





BETHEL 



The Apples of New York. 73 

This shows its kinship to the IHuc Pearmain in the quahty, tex- 
ture, form, conspicuous dots and color of its fruit. Sometimes it 
has a rather dull appearance, but it may attain a bright and 
attractive, though dark red, color. The quality is fairly good. It 
will not bear rough handling, and is suitable rather for local markets 
than for shipping long distances. The tree shows a rather weak 
development of roots in the nursery, but in the orchard becomes 
moderately vigorous and generally quite productive. It has proved 
very hardy in Northern New York, and is recommended for planting 
for home use and local markets in that section and in the more 
elevated regions of the state, where varieties of the grade of hardi- 
ness of Baldwin are apt to show winter injury. In such localities 
some prefer to grow it on warm soil or sod, to favor the development 
of better color. It is locally profitable. It is healthy, long-lived 
and a reliable cropper, usually comes into bearing rather young and 
bears annually. There is apt to be considerable loss from dropping 
of the fruit. 

Some have thought that it is identical with an apple grown in 
Northern New York under the name Stone. The two varieties, as 
we have received them, are certainly distinct, but both belong to 
the Blue Pearmain group. 

Historical. It originated in Bethel, Vermont (i). During the last twenty- 
five years it has become scattered throughout Northern New York, Northern 
New England and portions of Canada. 

Tree. 
Tree medium to rather large, moderately vigorous or vigorous. Form 
round, spreading. T'Zi'igs spreading, below medium in length, usually curved, 
somewhat slender; internodes medium. Bar'n brownish-red, exceptionally 
mingled with olive-green, blotched with gray; sparingly pubescent. Lenticels 
not very conspicuous, moderately abundant, rather small, roundish. Buds 
rather small, obtuse, appressed, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large. Form roundish, slightly conic, somewhat angular or irregularly 
elliptical. Stem short, rather slender. Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, 
rather broad, rather symmetrical, with red russet often outspreading. Calyx 
pubescent, medium to rather large, partly open or closed ; lobes rather narrow, 
acute. Basi)i rather shallow to moderately deep, moderately wide, slightly 
furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skill thick, tough, smooth; good deep yellow, washed and mottled with red 
and striped with purplish carmine, becoming very dark red in highly colored 



74 The Apples of New YorK. 

specimens. Dots numerous, conspicuous, russet or light, many small, many 
large and areolar. Prevailing effect somewhat striped. 

Calyx tube very large, wide, somewhat funnel-shaped with a short cylinder. 
Stamens median to basal. 

Core large, somewhat abaxile, open or sometimes closed ; core lines some- 
what clasping. Carpels broad, roundish ovate, emarginate, tufted. Seeds 
large, rather wide, long, acute to acuminate, tufted, medium brown. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, coarse, crisp, moderately tender, moderately juicy, 
mild subacid, fair to good. 

Season November to midwinter or possibly March.. 

Uses. Baking, dessert and local market. 

BETHLEHEMITE. 

References, i. Elliott, 1858:69. fig. 2. Warder, 1867:423. fig. 3. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:6. 4. Downing, 1872:96. tig. 5. Thomas, 1885:231. 
Synonym. Bethlemite (2, 4). 

This is an apple of the Newtown Spitzenburg type but it is inferior to 
that variety in size and color and is not better in quality. When well grown 
it ranks good to very good for either dessert or culinary uses, but it does not 
always develop good quality. It is not recommended for planting in New 
York. 

Origin. It was first brought to notice in Bethlehem, Ohio ( i ) from which 
town it takes its name. Its origin is obscure. It is but little known in New 
York state. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading, somewhat open. Tzvigs 
short, stout ; internodes short. Bark olive-green, mingled with dark red, 
covered with light scarf-skin, very pubescent. Lenticels numerous, large, 
oblong, raised, conspicuous. Buds large, bread, obtuse, appressed, pubescent. 
Leaves large, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or below, rarely above medium size. Form oblate to roundish 
conic, often obscurely ribbed, sides sometimes unequal ; fairly uniform in 
shape and size. Stem medium to rather long, rather thick. Cavity acute to 
acuminate, wide, deep, often symmetrical, sometimes appressed or lipped and 
covered with thin greenish, outspreading russet. Calyx rather large, closed 
or partly open ; lobes often separated at the base, often erect, wide, long, acute, 
conspicuous. Basin rather shallow to moderately deep, moderately wide, some- 
what abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skill rather smooth, pale yellow or greenish, washed, mottled and striped 
with red. Color rather dull and unattractive. Dots distinct, large to very 
small, gray or russet and near the basin very numerous and often submerged. 

Calyx tube wide, large, cone-shaped, or approaching funnel-form. Stamens 
median to basal. 

Core small, somewhat abaxile ; cells usually symmetrical and partly open ; 
core lines meeting. Carpels short, concave, sometimes slightly tufted, wide 
Seeds short, plump, obtuse, dark reddish-brown, sometimes tufted, numerous. 

Flesh whitish with slight green or yellow tinge, firm, fine-grained, tender, 
crisp, juicy, mild subacid, aromatic, good to very good. 

Seasoti November to March. 



The Apples of New York. 75 

BILLY BOND. 

References, i. Downing, 1872:90. 2. Thomas, 1885:503. 3. Not listed 
by Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 

Synonyms. Belle Bonde (i). Belle Bonne (2). Billy Bond (i, 2). 

Fruit rather attractive, being mottled, shaded and splashed with 
red over a yellow background. It is quite uniform in size and 
shape. It is desirable for cooking and evaporating, but is not much 
esteemed for dessert because it ranks but second rate in quality. 
In Wayne county it is regarded by many as a profitable commercial 
variety. It comes into bearing young and is a reliable cropper with 
a marked tendency to bear annually. The tree is a good grower, 
both in orchard and nursery. 

Historical. Downing mentions a report that this apple had its origin in 
France in 1790, but in Wayne county where it was first brought to notice, it 
is claimed by some that it originated in the town of Lyons with a man whose 
name, Billy Bond, became attached to the variety. After it was disseminated 
this name evidently became confused with that of Belle et Bonne or Belle 
Bonne a very different apple, and so it came to be called variously Belle Bonde, 
the name which Downing accepted as correct (i), Belle Bonne, which Thomas 
sanctioned (2), Belle Bend, Billy Bend, etc. It has been grown to a limited 
extent in Wayne county, and scattering trees of it are occasionally found in 
other parts of Western New York. Bailey does not list it in his inventory 
of North American Apples in 1892 (3). It has never received much attention 
from nurserymen nor has it gained a prominent place in commercial orchards. 

Tree. 
Tree large, rather vigorous. Form upright or somewhat spreading. Tivigs 
medium in length, rather erect, thick. Bark reddish-brown mingled with 
olive-green; internodes short, pubescent. Lcnticcls numerous to medium size, 
usually roundish, conspicuous. Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, 
slightly pubescent. P'oliage moderately dense ; leaves medium to large, often 
broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit usually above medium to rather large. Form roundish inclined to 
oblong, or sometimes to conic, somewhat elliptical or irregular; sides some- 
times unequal, often broadly or obscurely ribbed, axis often oblique. Stem 
medium to rather long, rather slender. Cavity acute, deep, moderately wide, 
compressed or furrowed, often partly russeted or with outspreading rays of 
thin russet, sometimes lipped. Caly.v small to medium, closed or partly open. 
Basin often oblique, moderately wide, rather abrupt, indistinctly furrowed, 
varying from rather shallow to moderately deep. 

Skin smooth, somewhat waxy, bright yellow, mottled and shaded with red, 
splashed with lively deep purplish-red. Dots whitish, or russet, rather numer- 
ous. Prevailing effect striped red, attractive. 

Calyx tube long, rather narrow, funnel-form. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core medium to rather small, axile, closed or partly open ; core lines clasp- 
VoL. I — 4 



yd The Apples of New York. 

ing the cylinder of the calyx tube. Carpels roundish to roundish ovate, slightly 
emarginate. Seeds rather broad, acute to obtuse, light brown, medium size, 
plump. 

Flesh nearly white, with slight yellow tinge, sometimes stained with red, 
firm, moderately coarse-grained, rather tender, rather crisp, juicy, with a 
peculiar rather pleasant but not high flavor, subacid, becoming mild subacid 
when fully ripe, good. 

Season October to January. The fruit is sometimes kept till March but 
after midwinter it deteriorates in quality and color. 

BLACK ANNETTE. 

References, i. Hansen, 5". D. Sta. Bui, 76:30. 1902. 

A variety which in 1886 was introduced under this name from Marietta, 
O., into Northern Iowa has proved very hardy there. Because of its hardiness 
it is considered worthy of attention in the Northwest (i). Its season extends 
into the spring. Possibly it is distinct from the Black Annette formerly 
grown in some parts of New York, which is a late fall apple. 

BLACK BEN DAVIS. 

References, i. Amer. Card., 23:403. 1902. 2. Van Deman, Rural N. F., 
61:717. 1902. 3. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 62:500. 1903. 4. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:50. 5. Ark. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1904. 6. Nat. Nurseryman. 12:18, 19. 1904. 
7. Wickson, Western Fruit Crozver, 1904:124. 

This is a variety of the Ben Davis type, very brilliant in color 
and decidedly attractive in appearance. In size and color it is inter- 
mediate between Jonathan and Ben Davis. It is sometimes obscurely 
striped, but more often it shows a solid, deep red color somewhat 
like that of the Jonathan. As grown in this state it is but little 
better than Ben Davis in quality. It appears to be as good a keeper 
as Ben Davis. It has not yet been sufficiently tested in New York 
state to demonstrate whether or not it will be valuable in this region, 
but it appears sufficiently promising for commercial purposes to 
merit attention in those parts of the state where Ben Davis succeeds 
best. 

Historical. It is said to have originated about 1880 on the farm of M. Black 
in Washington county, Arkansas (5, 7). It has been claimed by some that 
it is identical with Gano. It certainly resembles Gano very closely, but the 
preponderance of evidence seems to favor the opinion that these two varieties 
are of distinct origin (7). 

Tree. 

Young trees are upright and vigorous, becoming somewhat spreading, rather 
dense ; branches moderately stout, curved. Does not resemble Ben Davis so 
closely in tree as Gano does, being more upright and having less willow-like 





BLACK BEN DAVIS 



The Apples oe New York. "]"] 

lateral twigs. Txvigs medium in length, straight, stout ; intcrnodes medium. 

Bark dark hrown, tinged with olive-green, mottled with scarf-skin ; pubescent. 

As grown here is darker than Gano. Lcnticcls scattering, large, round, raised, 

conspicuous. Bxids large, broad, obtuse, appressed, set deep in bark, pubescent. 

Leaves medium, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to above, sometimes large, averaging marketable size. Form 
roundish ovate to roundish conic, pretty regular. Stem medium to rather 
long and slender. Cavity acute, moderately deep to deep, of medium width, 
nearly symmetrical, usually with some greenish or orange-red russet which 
often spreads beyond the cavity in broken rays. Calyx rather large, usually 
open or partly so; lobes rather broad, obtuse. Basin often somewhat oblique, 
rather shallow and obtuse to moderately deep and abrupt, often slightly fur- 
rowed and somewhat wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, somewhat glossy, brilliant red almost completely 
overspreading a clear pale yellow ground color, becoming dark purplish-red 
on the exposed cheek. Dots numerous, very small, red or gray, sometimes 
with russet point. Prevailing effect brilliant red, often with some contrasting 
clear pale yellow. 

Calyx tube varies from short cone-shape to somewhat funnel-form, with 
fleshy pistil point projecting into the base. Staniens median to marginal. 

Core medium to rather small, axile or nearly so, closed; core lines clasping 
the funnel cylinder, or when the calyx tube is cone-shaped, nearly meeting. 
Carpels roundish, elongated, emarginate. Seeds rather long, obtuse to acute, 
dark brown. 

Flesh whitish, firm, somewhat coarse, moderately crisp, not tender, moder- 
ately juicy, mild subacid, a little aromatic, good in quality. 

Season January to April or May. 

BLACK GILLIFLOWER. 

References, i. Manning, Mag. Hort., 7:49. 1841. 2. Mag. Hort., 13:106. 
1847. 3. Thomas, 1849:164. 4. Cole, 1849:126. 5. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 16:64, 
198. 1850. Hg. 6. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:61. 1851. col. pi. & fig. 7. 
Downing, 1857:208. 8. Hooper, 1857:18, 76. 9. Elliott, 1858:167. 10. Warder, 
1867:662. fig. II. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 12. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892:235. 13. Waugh, J't. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:289. 1901. 14. Powell 
and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui. 48:38. 1903. 15. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. 
Bui, 248:113. 1904. 

Synonyms. Black Gilliflozcer (5). Black Spit:: (13). Gillifiozcer (14, 15). 
Red Gilliflower (i, 5). 

A dessert apple which is very distinct in color, form and flavor. 
The color is yellowish or greenish, sometimes almost completelv 
covered with red, which in highly colored specimens becomes dull 
purplish and very dark, as recognized in the name " Black " Gilli- 
flower. The color of the fruit is often much darker than it appears 
in the accompanying plate. The flesh at its best is but moderately 



78 The Apples of New York. 

juicy and soon becomes dry. but it has a peculiar aroma which is 
pleasing to many. It is not sour enough to be very vahiable for 
cooking, but it is sometimes used for baking. It is fast becoming 
obsolete in most parts of the state, but in some sections the planting 
of it in commercial orchards is being extended because it is found 
profitable to grow it in limited quantities for southern markets. On 
good soil the tree is a good, vigorous grower and a reliable cropper. 
The apples grow fair and smooth and there is little loss from 
unmarketable fruit. 

Historical. Black Gilliflower is supposed to be an American variety. It 
was brought into the central and western portions of the state more than a 
hundred )-ears ago by the early settlers. It is evident that it was known in 
Connecticut as early as the latter part of the eighteenth century (2).! Manning 
(i) mentions it in 1841 under the name Red Gilliflower and Hovey (5) de- 
scribed it in 1850 under the same name, giving Black Gilliflower as a synonym. 
It has generally been known under the simple name Gilliflower, which name 
usually appears in the market quotations of this variety. 

Tree. 

Tree large, moderately vigorous. Form rather upright spreading with 
moderately open top. Tzi'igs long, slender, pubescent ; internodes short to 
medium. Bark dark olive-green and reddish-brown with thin graj^ scarf-skin. 
Lenticels rather numerous, small to medium, roundish or elongated, raised. 
Buds medium, obtuse or acute, quite pubescent, appressed. Leaves rather 
long, medium to above medium in size. 

B'ruit. 

Fruit medium to large, seldom very large ; very uniform in size and shape. 
Form long ovate to oblong conic, somewhat ribbed; axis sometimes a little 
oblique. Stem medium to long, moderately thick. Cavity usually acuminate, 
rather wide, moderately deep to deep, sometimes lipped but usually symmetrical 
with red russet or greenish outspreading rays. Calyx medium or below, 
closed. Basin often oblique, usually very shallow and obtuse, varying some- 
times to moderately deep and abrupt, furrowed and much wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, nearly smooth ; yellow or greenish-j'ellow, striped or 
mostly covered with red, deepening to dark purplish-red or almost black, 
obscurely striped with darker crimson, and with streaks of bluish-gray scarf- 
skin, especially toward the cavity, giving almost the effect of a dull bloom. 
Dots numerous, gray, rather small, not conspicuous, somewhat rough. Pre- 
vailing effect in highly colored specimens dull dark purplish. 

Calyx tube large, wide, cone-shape or funnel-form. Stamens median or 
above. 

Core large, decidedly axile. closed; core lines somewhat clasping. Carpels 
very long ovate, tapering both ways, emarginate, much tufted. Seeds often 

•Cited from Bateman, Ohio Cultivator, Aug. i, 1846. Warder gives same citation, 
1847:25. 





BLACK GILLIFLOWER 



The Apples of New York. 79 

abortive ; when well developed they are above medium, acute to acuminate, 
somewhat tufted. 

Flesh whitish or slightly tinged with yellow, firm, rather tender, rather 
coarse, moderately juicy eventually becoming dry, mild subacid, rich, peculiarly 
aromatic, good for dessert and special markets. 

Season October to January or February. 

BLACK JERSEY. 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:139. Hg. 2. Thacher, 1822:121. 3. Downing, 
1845:99. 4. Hurticultttrist, 4:470. 1849. 5. Thomas, 1851:63. 6. Hooper, 
1857:18. 7. Elliott, 1858:123. 8. Warder, 1867:653. fig. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1873. ID. ///. Sta. Bill., 45:327. 1896. 11. Budd-Hansen, 1903:49. 

Synonyms. Black Apple (i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7). Black American (7). Dodge's 
Black (7). Jersey Black (4, 10). Warder (8) describes a Jersey Black 
which he believes is not the Black Apple of Coxe and Downing. Jersey 
Black (7). 

Fruit medium, dark red, almost black. A pleasant flavored, dessert apple. 

Origin. There are several varieties which have been disseminated under 
the name Black Apple and more or less confusion exists with regard to their 
correct names. Black Jersey is generally believed to be identical with the 
Black Apple described and disseminated by Coxe (i), although Warder differs 
from this view (8). It is an old variety now practically obsolete. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous, productive, with slender branches eventually be- 
coming drooping. Tzvigs rather slender to rather stout, rather pubescent, 
clear olive-green mingled with red, irregularly overlaid with grayish scarf- 
skin; internodes long. Lenticcls conspicuous, numerous, raised, mostly below 
medium, elongated. Buds medium, not very prominent, broadly acute to 
obtuse, adhering and slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium. Form roundish, somewhat irregular; sides somewhat un- 
equal ; pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem variable, sometimes knobbed, 
often inserted under a lip. Cavity irregular, moderately deep to deep, acute. 
Calyx rather small, closed or partly open. Basin rather wide, somewhat 
abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled, shallow. 

Skin very dark red, almost black, shading to a wine red over yellow, and 
somewhat streaked in the lighter portions ; sometimes it shows a whitish 
bloom ; attractive. Dots many, whitish or light, rather large, showing through 
the red skin. 

Calyx tube conical. 

Core medium or above, usually axile, closed or somewhat open ; core lines 
clasping. Carpels elongated ovate to obcordate, concave, slightly tufted. 
Seeds acute, plump, dark. 

Flesh yellowish- white often tinged with red, juicy, crisp, a little coarse, sub- 
acid becoming mildly sweet, aromatic, agreeable in flavor but not high in 
quality. 

Season November to January or February. 



8o Tpie Apples of Xew York. 

BLUE PEARMAIN. 

References, i. Kenrick. 1833:42. 2. Manning. 1838:55. 3. Manning, 
Mag. Hort., 6:172. 1840. 4. Downing, 1845:122. 5. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 
1:361. 1846. 6. Cole, 1849:120. 7. Thomas, 1849:164. 8. Emmons, Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 3:69. 1851. col. pi. No. 54. 9. Hooper, 1857:19. 10. Elliott, 
1858:122. II. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 12. Barry, 1883:343. 13. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt.. 1890:288, 14. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 15. Waugh, 
J't. Sta. An. Rpt.. 14:289. 1901. 16. Can. Hort.. 25:49. 1902. 17, Bndd- 
Hansen, 1903:52. ^.£[. 18. Beach and Clark, .Y. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:113. 1904. 

Synonym. Prolific Beauty fi8) incorrectly. 

Occasional trees are found in the oldest home orchards of the 

state. It is rarely planted now. In some localities it bears well, 

but more often it is not a reliable cropper. It is apt to have a pretty 

high percentage of unmarketable fruit. The fruit is of mild flavor 

and does not rank high in quality. The skin is thick. When well 

colored it is beautiful, though not brilliant, being overcast with a 

flull bluish bloom. In common storage it does not keep late, and 

by January it often becomes shriveled (18). It is not a good market 

fruit and is not recommended for commercial planting. 

Historical. This is an old variety of uncertain origin but it is supposed 
to be an American variety (13). On account of its hardiness it has often been 
planted in the home orchards of the more elevated regions of New York and 
New England during the last 75 years. Probably it has been in cultivation 
for a century or more. Kenrick (i) mentions it as common in the vicinity 
of Boston in the early part of the 19th century. 

Tree. 
Tree becomes moderately large to large, moderately vigorous or on rich soil 
sometimes vigorous. Form spreading. In the nursery it is a slow, stiff 
grower (5). Twigs below medium, rather stout, nearly straight, rather blunt 
at tips, with large terminal buds ; internodes medium to long. Bark very dark, 
being of a dull brownish-red ; scarf-skin varies from thin to rather heavy ; 
quite pubescent. Lenticels inconspicuous, scattering, below medium, roundish, 
raised. Buds above medium, moderately projecting, roundish, slightly pubes- 
cent, free. Leaves broad, coarsely serrated. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to very large; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish or inclined to oblate, sometimes a little inclined to conic, irregular, 
often obscurely ribbed, sometimes distinctly furrowed from the cavity nearly 
to the basin. Stem medium length to rather short, rather thick. Cavity 
moderately deep, obscurely furrowed, usually covered with orange-russet or 
greenish-russet. Caly.i- partly open ; lobes acute. Basin medium in depth and 
width, with concentric gray or russet lines, obscurely furrowed. 

Skin a little rough ; yellow, washed and mottled with red, often deepening 
on one side to nearly solid red, splashed and striped with deep purplish-car- 





BLUE PEARMAIN 



The Apples of New York. 8i 

mine and overspread with an abundant blue bloom from which the variety 
takes its name. Dots numerous, small, pale, mingled with others which are 
conspicuous, very large, gray with russet center and often also mingled with 
irregular lines or flecks of dull green or russet. The large dots are character- 
istic of this variety as also of other varieties of the Blue Pearmain group. 
Calyx tube elongated conical approaching funnel-form. Stanicns basal to 

median. 

Core rather large, nearly axile, closed or somewhat open ; core lines clasping 
or, with modified calyx tube, nearly meeting. Carpels broad, elongated or 
roundish, slightly tufted. Seeds medium or rather long, acuminate, rather 
light brown. 

Flesh yellowish, moderately firm, rather coarse, moderately juicy, mild sub- 
acid, decidedl}' and agreeably aromatic, good. 

Season. Comes into season in October. It may keep till March but often 
begins to shrivel after January. 

Use. Home and local market. 

BOGDANOFF GLASS, 

References, i. Budd, la. Agr. Coll. Bui, 1885:39. 2. Lyon, U. S. Dk\ 
Pom. Bui, 2:40. 1888. 3. Hoskins, Rural N. ¥., 49:742. 1890. figs. 4. Budd, 
la. .Igr. Coll. Bui, 1892:5. 5. Budd, la. Sta. Bui, 19:539. 1892. 6. Ibid. 
31:332. 1895. 7- Hansen. 5. D. Sta. Bui, 76:33. 1902. 8. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:53- fig- 9- Can. Hart., 26:12. 1903. 

Synonyms. Bogdanoff (3. 7, 8. 9). Bogd.\noff's Glass (2). Sklanka 
(6). Sklanka Bogdanoff (4, 5). Steklianka Bogdanoff (i, 2). 

A green or yellow apple sometimes with a faint blush, desirable 
in size and attractive in appearance, but not ranking high in 
quality. On account of its hardiness it may have some value in the 
northern portions of the apple belt. 

Professor Budd attached the name Bogdanoff to several varieties 

which he obtained from the Bogdanoff estates in Russia. The 

name Sklanka is used in Russia as a class name. The adoption of 

either name alone is open to objection. We prefer, therefore, to 

follow Lyon (2) in assigning to this variety the name Bogdanoff 

Glass. 

Historieal. Imported from Russia for the Iowa Agricultural College by 
Prof. J. L. Budd about 25 years ago and disseminated by him from that 
institution. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branches long, curved and moderately stout. 
Form upright spreading and rather open. Tzvigs medium to long, moderately 
thick ; internodes pretty long. Bark clear dark reddish-brown or nearly black, 
scarcely pubescent but with noticeable scarf-skin. Lenticcls numerous, medium 
in size to small, elongated, raised. Buds large to medium, broad, plump, 
obtuse, slightly pubescent, free. Scales often parted. Leaves large, broad. 



S^ The Apples of New York. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large; uniform in size and shape. Form roundish conic sometimes 
approaching roundish oblate, obscurely ribbed, usually symmetrical, some- 
times elliptical or irregular. Stem short, thick, often swollen at the base, 
sometimes knobbed. Cavity acuminate, moderately shallow to deep, rather 
broad, somewhat furrowed or compressed, often somewhat russeted, with 
narrow broken outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium, usually closed ; lobes 
acute to acuminate. Basin variable ; often abrupt, medium in width and depth, 
somewhat furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, waxy, somewhat glossy, green becoming bright 
pale yellow, occasionally with faint bronze blush. Dots numerous, inconspicu- 
ous, mostly submerged, white or green. 

Calyx tube rather large, long, cone-shape or funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core medium or below, axile, closed or partly open ; cells often unsymmet- 
rical ; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels smooth, very broadly 
obovate, somewhat emarginate. Seeds moderately light reddish-brown, smooth, 
above medium, wide, plump, obtuse to acute. 

Flesh nearly white, rather firm, moderately fine, crisp, moderately tender, 
juicy, brisk subacid, fair to possibly good. 

Season November to February. 

BOIKEN, 

References, i. Oberdieck, ///. Handb. der Obstk., 1:212. 1859. 2. Berg- 
huis, 1868: col. pi. No. 80. 3. Leroy, 1873:144. 4. Lauche, i: col. pi. No. 5. 
1882. 5. Budd, la. Sta. Bui, 19:542. 1892. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 
7. Bredsted, 1893:205. 8. Bronson, IV. N. Y. Hort. Soc, 1893:113. 9. Troop, 
Ind. Sta. Bui, 53:124. 1894. 10. Buckman, Rural N. Y., 54:806. 1895. 11. 
Willard, Rural N. F., 55:751. 1896. 12. Thomas, 1897:288. £g. 13. Rural 
N. F., 57:285. 1898. 14. la. Sta. Bui, 41:70, 85. 1899. 15. Rural N. F., 
60:342. 1901. 16. Eneroth- Smirnoff, 1901:274. 17. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 
76:33. 1902. 18. IMunson, Me. Sta. Bid., 82:89. 1902. 19. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:53. 20. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:113. 1904. 

Synonyms. Boiken Apfel (2, 4). Boikex.\pple (16). 

This is a very attractive, bright yellow apple, usually with a beau- 
tiful blush. It is justly regarded as one of the most valuable of the 
recent introductions for growing in commercial orchards, on account 
of the vigor and health of the foliage, hardiness and productiveness 
of the tree, and the desirable size, attractive appearance and fairly 
good quality of the fruit. Its flavor is a rather brisk subacid. It is 
hardly rich enough in quality or mild enough in flavor to excel 
as a dessert fruit, but it is desirable for ctilinary use and for market. 
It appears to be better adapted than Rhode Island Greening for 
storage (20). It makes very light colored evaporated stock. The 
tree comes into bearing rather young and is a good, reliable cropper. 





^■^ 




BOIKEN 



The Apples of New York. 83 

The foliage is remarkably healthy and the fruit is pretty resistant 
to the scab. 

Historical. This is a German variety which has long been known under 
cultivation in Prussia (i, 2). It is said to have been named after a former 
dike warden (4). It has been quite extensively disseminated in this country 
within the last decade, having been introduced some years earlier (8). In 
New York commercial orchards the plantings of it are now being gradually 
extended. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branches short, stout and crooked. Form some- 
what spreading, rather dense. Tzvigs medium in length or rather long, curved, 
pretty stout, especially at the tips ; internodes short to medium. Bark brown- 
ish-red, streaked and conspicuously blotched with grayish scarf-skin ; pubescent. 
Lenticels scattering, rather conspicuous, moderately abundant, irregular in 
shape and size, often large, oblong, sometimes roundish. Buds large or above 
medium size, broad, rather plump, obtuse to nearly acute, projecting, free, 
pubescent. Leaves large, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to very large ; fairly uniform in shape but rather uneven 
in size. Form somewhat oblate, being broad at the base, conical, often some- 
what ribbed, pretty symmetrical. Stem long to medium. Cavity obtuse to 
acute, very broad, furrowed, sometimes compressed, partly colored with thin 
brownish-russet. Calyx large, closed or somewhat open; lobes acute. Basin 
sometimes oblique, moderately wide to rather narrow, abrupt, moderately deep, 
furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin tough, smooth, waxy, clear bright pale yellow, often with sharply con- 
trasting brilliant pinkish-red blush. Dots numerous, rather small, often red 
areolar, with whitish or russet cente^r, not very conspicuous, often submerged. 
Prevailing effect yellow relieved more or less by pinkish-red, not striped. The 
fruit is decidedly attractive in appearance for a yellow apple. 

Calyx tube large, funnel-form, or approaching cone-shape, often extending 
to the core. Stamens median. 

Core rather large, open or partly so, abaxile ; cells usually symmetrical ; 
core lines clasping. Carpels decidedly concave, very broad, elliptical, slightly 
emarginate, tufted. Seeds medium, plump, obtuse to acute, dark. 

Flesh white, firm, crisp, tender, fine-grained, very juicy, sprightly, brisk 
subacid, not high in quality, good. 

Season November to February or March. In cold storage its season extends 
to Jklay or later (20). 

BORSDORF, 

References, i, Ronalds, 1831:26. 2. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831. 3. 
Kenrick, 1833:72. 4. Downing, 1845:99. 5. Thomas, 1849:178. 6. Emmons, 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., y.72. 1851. 7. Elliott. 1858:167. 8. Berghuis. 1868: col. pi. 
No. 7:^. 9. Downing, 1872:103. 10. Lcroy, 1873:150. 11. Montreal Hort. 
Soc, 7:156. 1881. 12. Hogg, 1884:26. 13. Hoskins, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1886: 
279. 14. Hoskins, Garden and Forest, 3:516. 1890. 15. Budd, la. Sta. Bui, 
19:541. 1892. 16. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:2,35. 17. Bredsted, 1893:301. 18. 
///. Sta. Bui., 45:315- 1896. 19. ]\Iunson, Me. Sta. An. Rept., 12:73. 1896. 



84 The Apples of New York. 

20. Can. Hort., 20:412. 1897. 21. Eneroth- Smirnoff, 1901:173. 22. Munson, 
Me. Sia. An. Rpt., 18:83, 86. 1902 (also Bui. 82). 23. Powell and Fulton, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bill., 48:38. 1903. 24. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui, 248: 
113. 1904. 

Synonyms. Borsdorf (6). Borsdorfer (3, 8, 14, 21). Borsdorfer (12). 
Borsdorff (7). Borsdorff (5). Borsdorffer (2). Borsdorffer (i, 6, 7, 
18). Borsdorffer (5). Edelborsdorfer (8). King George the Third (7). 
King George the Third (i). Queen's (7). 

A German variety, wliich is valued in many parts of Europe as 
a dessert fruit of first quality. The tree is very hardy and very 
productive. Although it was introduced into this country many 
years ago, it has not won recognition either in the home orchards 
or in commercial orchards. It is not recommended for planting in 
New York state because it is less desirable here than other well- 
known varieties. 

Historical. Hogg states (12) that, " It is believed to have originated either 
at a village of Misnia, called Borsdorf or at a place of the same name near 
Leipsic. According to Forsyth it was such a favorite with Queen Charlotte 
that she had a considerable quantity of them annually imported from Germany 
for her own private use. It is one of the earliest recorded varieties of the 
continental authors, but does not seem to have been known in this country 
before the close of the last century. It was first grown in the Brompton Park 
Nursery in 1785. It is mentioned by Cordus, in 1561, as being cultivated in 
Misnia, which circumstance has no doubt given rise to the synonym ' Reinette 

de Misnie.' " 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branches long, rather slender, with numerous 
small laterals. Form roundish, dense. Tzvigs short, straight, slender ; inter- 
nodes short. Bark dull reddish-brown, quite pubescent. Lenticels incon- 
spicuous, scattering, very small, oblong. Buds small, narrow, acute, free, quite 
pubescent. Leaves medium in size, rather broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium to small. Form oblate, somewhat ribbed, sides slightly 
unequal, pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem long to very long, slender, 
often inclined obliquely. Cavity moderately shallow to rather deep, wide, 
obtuse, often a little furrowed and somewhat russeted. Calyx rather large, 
usually partly open. Basin usually rather shallow, wide, and obtuse, some- 
what ridged and slightly wrinkled. 

Skin yellov.-, partly washed with rather dull light scarlet and often marked 
with streaks of russet and inconspicuous capillary netted russet lines. Dots 
scattering, often large and irregular, gray or russet. 

Calyx tube short, wide, cone-shape or urn-shape, with a fleshy projection 
of the pistil into its base. Stamens marginal to median. 

Core medium to rather small, axile. closed or nearly so; core lines meeting. 
Carpels broad, narrowing sharply towards the apex, nearly truncate at base. 



The Apples of New York. 85 

slightly emarginate. Seeds numerous, medium to small, plump, acute, com- 
pactly filling the cells. 

Flesh whitish, tinged slightly with yellow, rather coarse, moderately crisp, 
rather tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, becoming nearly sweet, aromatic. 

Season November to February. 

BOSTON RUSSET. 

This name is one of the old synonyms for Roxbury Russet but in the vicinity 
of Albion it has been applied to another variety which, so far as we can dis- 
cover, has not been described in any publication. The fruit is roundish conic, 
regular, with medium cavity and basin. Skin pale yellowish-green, irregularly 
overspread with thin russet. Dots numerous, small. Flesh tinged slightly 
with yellow, moderately tender, mild subacid, not more than good in quality. 
Not considered desirable for commercial purposes. 

BOTTLE GREENING. 

References, i. Auier. Jour. Hurt, and Florists' Companion, 1:357. 1866-67. 
2. Downing, 1872:103. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 4. Lyon, Mich. Sta. 
Bid., 152:220. 1898. 5. Ibid.. 169:179. 1899. 6. Lyon. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890:290. 7. Waugh, I't. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:290. 1901. 

Mtich esteemed by a few growers because tbe tree is healthy, 
hardy and productive, and the fruit is excellent for culinary use 
and good for dessert. It is rather attractive in color for an apple 
of the Greening class. Because of its tender skin and light color 
it shows the least bruise plainly. For this reason it requires very 
careful handling. It is even more apt to scald in storage than 
Rhode Island Greening. Most growers and btiyers find it unsatis- 
factory as a commercial apple. It is said to sticceed particularly 
well on sandy or gravelly loam, usually bearing annually. The 
fruit usually hangs well to the tree. 

Historical. It originated as a chance seedling on a farm on the dividing 
line of New York and Vermont where the original tree was still standing 
about a half century ago. Its name is derived from the fact that workmen 
found the hollow in this old tree a convenient place for the "bottle" (i). It 
is still handled by nurserymen (3) but is not being much planted in this state. 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous ; branches moderately long, stout, 
crooked, with yellowish bark. Form rather round and open. Tz\.'igs medium 
in length, straight, rather stout ; internodes short to medium. Bark olive-green 
mingled with reddish-brown, pubescent and covered with thin scarf-skin. 
I.enticels scattering, very small to medium, round, inconspicuous. Buds large 
to medium, broad, acute, appressed, heavily pubescent. Leaves medium, broad. 



86 The Apples of New York. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large. Form roundish oblate to ovate, inclined to conic, 
pretty regular, sometimes obscurely ribbed, fairly symmetrical, sides some- 
times unequal. Stem rather short. Cavity acuminate, moderately deep, rather 
broad, sometimes lipped, sometimes indistinctly furrowed or compressed. 
Calyx rather large, closed or somewhat open. Basin abrupt, medium in depth, 
rather narrow to moderately wide, often slightly furrowed, sometimes 
wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, grass-green, or yellowish, thinly washed or often 
deeply blushed with dull pinkish-crimson, not striped. Dots few, usually sub- 
merged, pale and inconspicuous ; a few scattering ones are russet. Prevailing 
color green but more blushed than Rhode Island Greening. 

Calyx tube rather large, conical. Stamens median. 

Core rather small, somewhat abaxile ; cells often closed towards apex and 
open at base ; core lines slightly clasping. Carpels broad, roundish to obcor- 
date. Seeds medium, acute. 

Flesh nearly white, moderately firm, very tender, very juicy, peculiarly 
aromatic, pleasant subacid, good to very good. 

Season October to March or later. Commercial season October to January. 

BOUCKEN. 

Known locally for many years in the vicinity of Buffalo. We have not seen 
this variety. The following statement concerning it is furnished by C. D. 
Zimmerman, Buffalo, N. Y. : "Resembles Maiden Blush very much in size 
and color; keeps till June; flavor good; an enormous bearer. Often a large 
apple is borne at the extreme end of the branch." 

BOYS DELIGHT, 

An excellent dessert apple in season from October to midwinter. It is 
not equal to either Fameuse or Mcintosh in appearance and is apparently 
desirable only for the home orchard. Fruit medium or below, pale greenish- 
yellow, partly overlaid with a light shade of " Fameuse " red. Flesh white, 
of Fameuse character but more nearly sweet. It originated from Fameuse 
seed with S. P. Morse, Lowville, Ontario. 

BRISTOL, 

The variety known in Western Connecticut and in Eastern New York by 
this name appears to be identical with Red Canada. 

BROWNLEES. 

References, i. Downing, 1872:108. 2. Mas, Le Verger, 4:93. col. pi. 3. 
Hogg, 1884:33. 4. Bailey, An. Hart., 1892:235. 5. Beach and Clark, A''. Y. 
Sta. Bui., 248:113. 1904. 

Synonyms. Brownlees' Russet (i, 4). Brownlees's Russet (3). Brown- 
lees' Russet (s). Brownlees' Seedling Russet (i). Reinette Grise Brown- 
lees' (2). Reinette Grise Brownlees' (i). 





BOTTLE GREENING 



The Apples of New York. 87 

PVuit excellent in quality, desirable in size, and of good appear- 
ance for a russet apple, hut not sufticiently productive here to make 
it profitahle for commercial plantint^". 

Historical. An English variety introduced by Mr. William Brownlees, a 
nurseryman at Hemel, Hempsted, Herts, about the year 1848 (3). It appears 
on the lists of some nurserymen but is but little known in New York and is 
not being planted here to any considerable extent. 

Tree. 
Tree vigorous, moderately productive. Form upright. Twigs numerous, 
rather short or sometimes long, generally slender, straight or slightly curved 
at base ; internodes long. Bark smooth, cle.ar reddish-brown somewhat shaded 
with olive-green and dull brownish-red, often overlaid with heavy scarf-skin ; 
quite pubescent. Lcitticcls inconspicuous, not raised, moderately numerous, 
of medium size or small, roundish or elongated. Buds medium, more or less 
projecting, obtuse, somewhat pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large; fairly uniform in size, rather variable in shape. 
Form oblate, often oblique, sometimes ribbed, irregular often bulging or with 
sides compressed, flattened at the base, rounded toward the basin. Stem 
usually short and thick, often swollen. Ca^'ity large, variable in form, usually 
acute, deep, broad, furrowed, sometimes compressed or lipped. Calyx small, 
closed. Basin usually rather small, shallow, abrupt to obtuse, often some- 
what furrowed and finely wrinkled. 

Skill rather tender, entirely covered with russet or sometimes with patches 
of smooth yellow. Dots often conspicuous, scattering, pale gray or whitish. 

Calyx tube small, varying from funnel-shape to conical. Stamens median 
to marginal. 

Core nearly axile ; cells symmetrical, closed or slightly open; core lines 
clasping. Carpels rather flat, rather pointed ovate, broad and almost trun- 
cate at the base, mucronate, somewhat tufted. 

Seeds often abortive, rather dark reddish-brown, rather small to above 
medium, narrow to rather wide, plump, acute to acuminate, somewhat tufted. 

Flesh more or less tinged with yellow, moderately firm, fine, moderately 
crisp, juicy, sprightly, with a rich subacid aromatic flavor which is found only 
in some russet apples, very good quality. 

Season October to January or later (3, 5). 

BROWN SWEET. 

Known locally in Oswego county. The following statement concerning it 
is furnished by D. D. Stone of Oswego: "Tree healthy, and a good but not 
a rampant grower. In alternate years it bears heavily, 3'ielding smooth fruit 
of large size which is excellent for baking or boiling. It withers or shrivels 
quickly in a dry cellar." 

Fruit. 

Fruit large. Form ovate to oblong conic, often narrowing sharply towards 
the apex, more or less ribbed and irregular. Stem medium. Cavity medium 
to large, acute to acuminate, usually deep and somewhat russeted. Calyx 



88 The Apples of New York. 

closed or open, medium to small; lobes acuminate. Basin often oblique, 
shallow to moderately deep, rather narrow, abrupt, somewhat furrowed and 
wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, green or yellow, sometimes with a red cheek, 
and often much russeted. 

Calyx tube small to medium, conical. Stamens median to basal. 

Coi-e large, axile to usually decidedly abaxile ; cells often unsymmetrical, 
open ; core lines meeting to slightly clasping. Carpels roundish obovate, some- 
what tufted. Seeds medium or below, medium brown, plump, obtuse to acute. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, fine, rather tender becoming tough when shriveled, 
juicy, very sweet, good to very good. 

Season September to midwinter. 

BUCKINGHAM. 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:147. fig. 2. Downing, 1845:144. 3. Van Buren, 
Mag. Hort., 23:256. 1857. 4. Elliott, 1858:180. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1858. 
6. Mag. Hort., 27:98, 152. 1861. 7. Warder, 1867:537. Hg. 8. Downing, 
1872:109. 9. Leroy, 1873:87. 10. Barry, 1883:343. 11. Thomas, 1885:217. 
12. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 13. Wickson, 1891:246. 14. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:236. 15. Massey, A^. C. Sta. Bui, 92:42. 1893. 16. 
Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 53:278. 1894. 17. Stinson, Ark. Sta. An. Rpt., 1894:45. 
18. Beach, .V. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:579. 1894. 19. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. 
Rpt., 1895:195. 20. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:38. 1903. 21. 
Budd-Hansen, 1903:57. Hg. 22. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:113. 
1904. 

Synonyms. Bachelor (9). Bachelor (8, 11). Batchellor (9). Blackburn 
(8). Blackburn, erroneously (7). Buckingham (9). Byer's (8). Bycr's 
Red iy, 8). Eouinetely (3). Equinetely (8, 10, 11, 13, 17). Fall Queen 
(7, 8, 10, 15, 17, 21). Fall Queen of Kentucky (11, 16). Frankfort Queen 
(8). Henshaw (7,8). Kentucky Queen (8,9, 11. 17). King (8,9). Ladies' 
Favorite of Tenn. (8). Lexington Queen (8). Merit (8, 9). Ne Plus Ultra 
(8, 9). Ox-Eye of some in Kentucky (8). Queen (8, 9, 17). Red Gloria 
Mundi of some (8, 9). Red Horse (8, 17). Sol Carter (3, 8). Winter 
Queen (i, 2, 4). Winter Queen (8, 9, 17, 18). Winter Queen of Kentucky, 
incorrectly (8). Winter Queening (2, 4). 

This variety has long" been favorably known in the southern 
states. WheiT well grown it is decidedly attractive in appearance, 
but, as grown here, it is not especially attractive and not desirable. 
This location is too far north for the variety to develop its best color 
and quality. While it occasionally gives heavy crops, we find it an 
irregular bearer and often unproductive. 

Historical Origin unknown (8), by some said to have come originally 
from Louisa county, Va. (7), by others, from North Carolina (3). It has 
long been known from Southern New Jersey southward through Virginia and 
westward through the Ohio valley. 






BUCKINGHAM 



The Apples of New York. 89 

Tree. 
Tree a moderate grower. Twigs short, rather slender, rather crooked con- 
sidering the length ; internodes short. Bark smooth, clear light reddish-brown 
mingled with olive-green, not pubescent. Lcnticcls rather scattering, below 
medium, generally elongated, raised. Buds medium or below, rather promi- 
nent, rather acute, slightly pubescent, lightly attached to the bark. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large. Form oblate to roundish oblate, somewhat irregular, usually 
broadly and obscurely ribbed ; sides sometimes unequal. Stem rather stout, 
short to medium. Cavity large, acute to acuminate, wide, deep, usually with 
heavy outspreading russet. Calyx medium to large, closed or open. Basin 
large, abrupt, wide, moderately deep, obscurely furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, pale yellow or pale green washed and mottled with red, 
striped and blushed with bright carmine. Dots numerous, small, light or 
russet, mingled with others which are large, gray and areolar. Prevailing 
effect in well colored specimens, beautiful red striped. 

Calyx tube medium, varying from conical to funnel-form. Stamens median 
or approaching basal. 

Core below medium to small, varying from decidedly abaxile to nearly 
axile ; cells usually symmetrical and open or sometimes closed ; core lines 
clasping. Carpels much concave, elliptical to roundish, emarginate, usually 
smooth. Seeds rather dark, medium to rather large, plump, wide and obtuse. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately firm, moderately coarse, rather tender, 
crisp, juicy with distinct aroma, mild subacid, fair to good. 

Season November to April (20, 22). 

BULLOCK, 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:125. 2. Thacher, 1822:122. 3. Buel, N. Y. 
State Bd. of Agr. Memoirs, 3:476. Cat. No. 34. 1826. 4. Cat. Hort. Soc. 
London, 1831:35. 5. Kenrick, 1833:33. 6. Manning, 1838:54. 7. Dittrich, 
Syst. Handb. der Obstk., 1:504. 1839. 8. Downing, 1845:131. 1847. col. pi 
9. Thomas, 1849:178. fig. 10. Mag. Hort., 15:250. 1849. 11. Emmons, Nat. 
Hist. N. v., 3:94. 1851. fig., col. pi. No. 52. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 
13. Mag. Hort., 19:126. 1853. 14. Biedenfeld, 1854:223. 15. Mag. Hort., 
21:300, 398. 1855. 16. Hooper, 1857:11, 20. 17. Elliott, 1858:71. fig. 18. 
Flotow, ///. Handb. der Obstk., 1:337. 1859. 19. Warder, 1867:521. 20. Regel, 
1:440. 1868. 21. Mas, Le Verger, 4:33. col. pi. 22. Lauche, i: col. pi. No. 73. 
1882. 23. Barry, 1883:341. 24. Hogg, 1884:7. 25. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1890:288. 25. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:236. 27. Munson, Me. Sta. An. 
Rpt., 1893:132. 28. Out. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 2:32. 1895. 29. N. C. Bd. 
of Agr. Bui., igoo-.G. 30. Waugh, 11. Sta. An. Rpt., 1/^:286. 1901. 31. Macoun, 
Can. Dept. Agr. Bui, 37:42. 1901. 32. Budd-Hansen, 1903:57. fig. 

Synonyms. American Golden Russet (9, 16, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 
28, 30, 31). American Golden Russet (17, 27, 29, 2,2)- Bullock (30). Bul- 
lock's Pepping (18, 22). Bullock's Pippin (8). Bullock's Pippin (i, 2, 
9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, 21). Fall IVinesap (17), erroneously. Golden Russet 
(5, 6). Golden Russet (8, 9, 17). Golden Russet, American (8). Little 
Pearmain (17). Pippin Bullok (7, 14). Sheepnose (i). Sheepnose (8, 
9, 17). Sheep's Nose (4). Sheep's Snout (2). 



90 The Apples of New York. 

Early in the last century Coxe described this as one of the finest 
apples in New Jersey in autumn and early winter (i). In 1826 
Buel characterized it as "tender, juicy and high flavored; among 
the best fruit for table " (3). A. J. Downing called it " one of the 
most delicious and tender apples " (8). Thomas remarks that it is 
too small to become popular (9). 

The fruit is below medium size, light yellow, marbled with thin 
russet. I^desh yellowish, very tender, with a mild, rich, spicy, 
slightly subacid flavor. It is still grown to a limited extent in some 
portions of the state, particularly in the Hudson and Champlain 
valleys. It may be recommended for the home orchard, but it has 
not been found profitable as a commercial sort. Some have found 
that it succeeds best on sandy or gravelly soil. Some nurserymen 
have reported that when grown on clay soil the bark of the trees 
is apt to split at the collar, and for this reason they prefer not to 
grow the trees in the nursery on their own trunks. 

Historical. Originated in Burlington county, New Jersey, more than a 
century ago ( i ). It has been favorably known in the West and the South (19) 
and as far north as Ontario and Quebec (31). In New England and the West 
it has been known as Golden Russet (5, 6, 8). To distinguish it from the 
English Golden Russet, Downing called it American Golden Russet (8). There 
are so many Golden Russets we prefer to follow the Catalogue of the Ameri- 
can Pomological .Society (12) and Hovey (10) and retain Coxe's name 
Bullock, believing this will be less liable to lead to confusion. 

Tree. 
Tree not large but a fairly strong grower. Form upright or roundish. 
Tivigs short to medium, moderately stout, rather blunt at tip, nearly straight; 
internodes medium. Bark dull brownish-red or olive-green with a grayish 
hue due to the rather heavy scarf-skin ; slightly pubescent. Lenticels only 
moderately numerous, inconspicuous, raised, below medium, elongated. Buds 
small to medium, moderately projecting, acute, sparingly pubescent, free. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium. Form roundish conic to ovate, pretty regular in out- 
line, uniform. Stejii long, slender. Cavity acuminate to acute, moderately 
deep to deep, rather narrow, funnel-shape or compressed. Calyx rather small, 
closed. Basin small, often oblique, rather shallow, narrow, wrinkled, not 
ridged. 

SIciii attractive, pale yellow or greenish-yellow, more or less overspread and 
splashed with thin russet. Dots numerous, small, obscure, russet. General 
appearance attractive. 

Core medium to rather large, axile, slightly open; core lines nearly meeting. 
Carpels roundish. Seeds rather large, plump. 




o 
o 

_l 
_l 

D 

m 



Ti!K Apples of New York. 91 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, fine, crisp, very tender, juicy with 
an agreeable rich, aromatic, mild subacid flavor; very good to best. 
Season October to January. 

CABASHEA (WINTER). 

The variety recognized by Downing, Lyon, Woolverton and some other 
pomologists as Cabashea, so far as we can learn, is not known to New York 
fruit growers and fruit dealers under that name but by them is commonly 
called Twenty Ounce Pippin. It is in season with Tompkins King and a little 
later. Sometimes it is called King. The variety which is generally called 
Cabashea in Western New York is a large, flat apple somewhat marked with 
dull red. It comes in season about with the true Twenty Ounce but is not 
so good a keeper. 

We prefer to follow Thomas, Warder and Emmons in retaining the name 
Cabashea for the fall apple above mentioned and in recognizing Twenty Ounce 
Pippin as the correct name for the later variety. The Twenty Ounce Pippin 
should not be confused with the true Twenty Ounce nor with the Tompkins 
King. 

For more extended notice of these varieties the reader is referred to 
Cabashea (fall) in the succeeding volume and to Twenty Ounce Pippin 
in this volume. 

CAMPFIELD» 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:149. Hg. 2. Thacher, 1822:122. 3. Floy- 
Lindley, 1833:88. 4. Downing, 1845:144. 5. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:64. 
1851. fig. 6. Downing, 1857:226. 7. Elliott, 1858:126. 8. Warder, 1867:382. 
fig. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:6. 10. Barry, 1883:336. 11. Rural N. V., 
49:251. 1890. 

Synonyms. Canfield (it). Nezcark Stveeting (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10). 
Sweet Maiden's Blush (6). 

An old variety recommended by Coxe (i) for cider. Dow-ning (6) calls 
it good for baking and stock feeding. Warder (8), who gives a very good 
description of the variety, ranks it poor in quality. The tree is very hardy, 
healthy, a biennial bearer. It is apt to overbear causing the fruit to be small. 
It has the merit of being a good keeper but as there is not much demand for 
fruit of this character it is fast becoming obsolete. 

Historical. Originated in Eastern New Jersey and named after a family 

by the name of Campfield (i). 

Tree. 

Tree large, very vigorous. Form spreading. Tivigs long, rather slender, 

light colored. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large ; uniform in size. Form roundish oblate to roundish 
ovate or roundish conic. Stem below medium. Cavity acute, rather narrow, 
deep, regular. Calyx closed or somewhat open. Basin somewhat abrupt, 
shallow to moderately deep, narrow, slightly wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, yellow, blushed and striped with red. Dots small, white or 
russet. 

Calyx tube long funnel-form. 



92 The Apples of New York. 

Core closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels broad, emarginate, somewhat 
tufted. Seeds numerous, short, plump, dark. 

Flesh whitish, slightlj- tinged with yellow, firm, rather dry, tender, moder- 
ately fine, not crisp, decidedly sweet, good. 

Season November to July. 

CANADA BALDWIN, 

References, i. Montreal Hort. Soe. An. Rpt., 2:28. 1876. 2. lb., 4:120. 
1878. 3. Amer. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:6. 4. Downing, 1881:79. app. 5. 
Thomas, 1885:505. 6. Can. Hort., 12:337. 1889. 7. lb., 15:337. 1892. 8. 
Rural N. F., 52:51. 1893. 9. Munson, J/r. 5"fa. .4 «. 7?/) f., 1893:132. 10. Amer. 
Card., 15:288. 1894. II. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:193. 12. Lyon, 
Mich. Sta. Bui, 169:179. 1899. 13. Waugh, I't. Sta. Bui, 83:90. 1900. 14. 
Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Biil, 37:43. 1901. 15. Rural N. Y., 61:800. 1902. 
16. Stone and Wellington, Rural N. Y., 62:36. 1903. 17. Budd-Hansen, 1903: 
59. 18. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:114. 1904. 

The name is an unfortunate selection, since this variety does not 
resemble Baldwin, but belongs in the Fameuse group. It yields 
moderately heavy crops, and under favorable conditions tends to 
become an annual bearer. It is a better keeper than Fameuse, but 
is less attractive; yet highly colored specimens are beautiful and 
attractive. It is not recommended for planting, except in those 
regions where a hardy variety of the Fameuse type is desired to 
extend the Fameuse season. 

Historical. " Said to have originated from seed of Pomme de Fer on the 
farm of Alexis Dery, St. Hilaire, Que. It was given its name by N. C. Fisk, 
Abbotsford, Que., who propagated it in 1855." (14). 

Tree. 
Tree in the nursery is a moderate grower, with good hard wood and strong 
deep roots. In the orchard it is a moderate grower, upright, becoming rather 
open and spreading with age ; branches long, moderately stout. Tzvigs medium 
to short, somewhat curved, moderately stout ; internodes short to above 
medium in length. Bark dull dark brown, tinged with reddish-brown, mingled 
with olive-green, and lightly streaked with gray scarf-skin ; slightly pubescent 
near tips. Lenticeis rather numerous, medium to small, roundish or oblong, 
raised. Buds of medium size, plump, acute, free, quite pubescent. Leaves 
medium in size, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit averages below medium. Form roundish inclined to conic, or some- 
times slightly oblate, obscurely ribbed, usually symmetrical, regular, sides some- 
times unequal ; pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem pubescent, sometimes 
long, moderately slender and bracted, but more often short and thick. Cavity 
rather large, acute to somewhat obtuse, moderately deep to deep, moderately 
broad, smooth or partly covered with thin greenish russet, often slightly 
furrowed or compressed ; pubescent near base of stem. Calyx closed or partly 




Q 

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< 

m 
< 

Q 

< 

z 
< 
o 



The Apples of New York. 93 

open, pubescent; lobes often long and acuminate, reflexed. Basin shallow to 
moderately deep, medium in width, obtuse or somewhat abrupt, often furrowed 
or compressed, irregularly wrinkled, often with a tendency to mammiform 
protuberances. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, pale yellow or greenish, mottled an.d blushed with 
bright red, splashed and striped with purplish-carmine, conspicuously marked 
with areolar dots and covered with a thin whitish bloom which makes the 
fruit somewhat dull in color. Dots large, numerous, whitish, areolar with 
russet or gray center. Prevailing effect in highly colored specimens beautiful 
and attractive, the color being a deep dark red, but as grown in Western New 
York the color effect is that of pale yellow striped with red. The skin takes 
a brilliant polish. 

Calyx tube generally tends toward funnel-shape but is sometimes conical. 
Stamens marginal to median. 

Core medium or above, closed or partly open; core lines clasping; often part 
of the cells are not well developed because of abortive seeds. Carpels smooth, 
ovate to roundish, or obovate, slightly emarginate, mucronate. Seeds medium 
to large, plump, acute, numerous, rather narrow, long, smooth or sometimes 
slightly tufted, variable in color. 

Flesh white, often tinged with red, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, moderately 
tender, juicy, mild subacid, sometimes slightly astringent, with a Fameuse-like 
aroma, pleasant, good or possibly very good in quality. 

Season November to January but often some portion of the fruit may keep 
till April. 

Use similar to Fameuse, suitable for dessert. Cooks quickly but the color 
and texture of the cooked fruit are not good. 

CANADA REINETTE, 

References, i. Duhamel, 2:299. 1/68. 2. Andrieux, Catalogue raisonnee 
des meilleures sortcs d'arbres fruitiers, 1771:56. 3. Diel, 1:133. i799- 4- lb., 
1800:64. 5. lb., 9:81. 1807. 6. lb., 10:86. 1S09. 7. Lindley, 1841:40. 8. Cat. 
Ilort. Sac. London, 1831:30. 9. Ronalds, 1831:21. fig. 10. Kenrick, 1833:73. 
II. Font. Mag. 2:77. 1841. col. pi. 12. Mag. Hort., 7:44. 1841. 13. Downing, 
1845:129. 14. Cole, 1849:134. 15. Thomas, 1849:178. 16. Emmons, Nat. 
Hist. N. v., 3:82. 1851. 17. Biedenfeld, 1854:193. 18. Elliott, 1858:72. fig. 
19. lb., 1859:69. 20. Lucas, 1:119. 21. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1802. 22. 
Warder, 1867:479. fig. 23. Regel, 1868:470. 24. Mas, Le I'erger, 4:31. 25. 
Leroy, 1873:637. 26. Lauche, 1882:260. col. pi. 27. Barry. 1883:344. 28. 
Hogg, 1884:191. 29. Cat. Cong. Pom. France, 1887:329. 30. Lyon, Mich. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 31. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:236. 32. Can. Flort., 
16:17, 115. 1893. 33. Bredsted, 1893:86. 34. Gaucher, Pomologic. 1894: col. 
pi. No. 15. 35. Taft, Mich. Sta. Bui, 105:108. 1894. 36. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 
1901:231. 27. Budd-Hansen, 1903:59. fig. 38. Powell and 'Fulton. U. S. B. 
P. /. BuL, 48:39. 1903. 39. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:114. 1904. 

SvNONVMS. Canada Pip.pin (18). Canadian Reinette (7, 10, 11, 12, 32). 
Canadian Reinette (13, 15, 18). Canadisk Reinet (33). Canada Reinette 
(18, 28). De Bretagne (13, 18). Die PL\arlemer Reinette (4). Die Weib- 
erreinette (3). German Green (18). Grosse Reinette D'Angleterre (i). 
Grosse Reinette d'Anglctcrrc (10, 13, 18). Jannarea (13, 18). Kanada- 



94 The Apples of New York. 

REXETT (36). Kaxada Reixette (34). Mela Januera (lo;. Pariser Rambour 
Reinette (6, 20, 26). Pariser Rambour Reinet (^iz)- Pariser Rambour- 
RENETT (36). Poinmc dc Caen (13, 18). Portugal (10, 13, 18, 28). Reinette 
De Canada (9, 28). Renette Grosse De Angleterre (17). Reinette 
MoNSTREUSE De Canada (2). Reinette Du Canada (8,24,25,29). Reinette 
Von Canada (23). Reinette du Canada (10, 15, 18). Reinette Grosse du 
Canada (10, 13, 18). Reinette du Canada Blanche (10, 13, 18). Reinette du 
Canada a'Cortes (13, 18). Reinette Canada (27). Reinette de Caen (10). 
Reinette de Canada a Cotes (10). St. Helena Russet (28). Wahr Reinette 
(13, 18). Wesse Antillische Winterreinette (5). White Pippin (18). 
Yellow Neivtown Pippin (18), erroneously. 

An irregular bearer, in some years very productive, but more 
often only moderately productive or unproductive. It appears to 
be much esteemed in Europe, where it has been grown under 
numerous synonyms. It is not much in demand in America becau.se 
it is easily excelled by other varieties, both for home use and for 
market. 

Historical. Origin unknown. It was listed in France as the Canada 
Reinette at least as early as 1771 (2). 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branches long, stout, crooked. Form spreading 
and drooping. Tzuigs medium to long, straight, rather stout ; internodes 
medium or below. Bark dull brown, tinged with dark olive-green, irregularly 
mottled with scarf-skin; very pubescent. Lcnticcls rather numerous, con- 
spicuous, large, roundish to oblong, raised. Buds large, broad, plump, obtuse, 
appressed, rather deeply set, pubescent. Leaves large, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit variable in size, averages above medium and is frequently very large. 
Form oblate or roundish, inclined to conic, often irregular, broadly angular, 
sometimes with furrows extending from base to apex ; not uniform in shape. 
Stem short. Cavity rather acute, moderately broad, wavy, sometimes russeted. 
Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open. Basin abrupt, usually rather 
deep, moderately wide, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin yellow, sometimes with decided blush but not striped, marked more 
or less with dots, P.ecks or irregular patches of russet. 

Calyx tube medium, rather wide, cone-shaped. Stamens median or ap- 
proaching basal. 

Co7-e medium or below, abaxile to nearly axile, open or partly open ; core 
lines meeting. Carpels roundish inclined to obovate, somewhat tufted. Seeds 
few, large, long, tufted, dark. 

Flesh has a decided yellow tinge and is firm, moderately tender, coarse, 
breaking, not crisp, juicy, subacid, very good. 

Season. Early winter till March or April or perhaps later (39)- Late in 
the season the fruit begins to lose in flavor although it may apparently be still 
in good condition. 




/ 



/ 



•i h^' 




CtKHtK\ir\ REINETTE 



The Apples oe New York. 95 

CANNON PE ARM A IN. 

References, i. Emmons, .Va/. Uisl. N. }'., 3:ioj. 1851. fig. 2. Downing, 
1857:126. 3, Elliott, 1858:126. 4. .-Ini. Pom. Soc. Cat., i860. 5. Mag. Hort., 
27:99. 1861. 6. Warder, 1867:676. fig. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.. 1871:38. 8. 
Barry, 1883:344. 9. Bailey, An. Hort.. 1892:236. 10. Ala. S'ta. Bui., 47:7. 
1893. II. Powell and Fulton. U. S. B. P. I. Bill, 48:39. 1903. 

Synonym. Cannon Pearmain (8). 

Valued in the South as a long keeping apple of fairly good quality. Not 
adapted to New York conditions. 

Historical. Originated in Virginia or North Carolina (2, 3, 6, 7). 

Tree. 
Tree healthy, vigorous, spreading. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to nearly large, ovate varying to roundish, regular, symmet- 
rical ; pretty uniform. Skin greenish-yellow, mottled and washed with bright 
red faintly striped with carmine. Dots yellowish, often areolar with russet 
point. Core medium, a.xile, closed; core lines somewhat clasping. Flesh 
tinged with yellow, very firm, somewhat coarse, crisp, juicy, aromatic, subacid, 
good. 

Season January to April. 

CARLOUGH. 

References, i. Fulton, yPich. Sta. BiiL, 177:49. 1899. 2. Farrand, lb., 
205:44. 1903. 3. Budd-Hansen, 1903:60. 4. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. 
I. Bui, 48:39. 1903. 

Said to have originated in New York (2) but it is practically unknown in 
this state. It is being grown to a limited extent in some portions of the West 
and South. Its general appearance is good for a green apple. 

Tree. 
Tree vigorous. Form roundish spreading. Tzt^'igs reddish-brown. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to very large. Form roundish conic to oblong conic, 
often truncate at base ; axis oblique. Stem short and slender. Cavity acute 
to nearly acuminate, very deep, moderately broad, russeted, often somewhat 
furrowed or compressed. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open. 
Basin small to medium, medium in depth and width, abrupt, slightly furrowed. 

Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, glossy, rather pale greenish-yellow, often 
with faint brownish-pink blush. Dots russet or submerged and whitish. 

Calyx tube medium in width and length, conical or funnel-shape. 

Core axile, closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels large, obovate, much tufted. 
Seeds dark, large, rather narrow, long, acute, tufted. 

Flesh whitish, somewhat coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, agreeable, mild subacid, 
sprightly, good. 

Season November to April. 



96 The Apples of New York. 

CARPENTIN. 

References, i. Downing, 1872:120. 2. Leroy, 1873:205. fig. 3. Hogg, 
1884:190. 

Synonyms. Carnation Apple. C.\rpentin Reinette (i). Dcr Carpentin 
(i). Klein Graiic Reinette (i). Petite-Reinette Grise (2). Reinette 
Carpentin (3). Reinette Carpentin (2). 

A little dessert fruit of about the size of the Lady apple, with 
red-russet skin and highly aromatic flavor. The following descrip- 
tion is made from fruit furnished by C. D. Zimmerman, Buffalo, 
N. Y., who states that the variety has been marketed locally under 

the name Carnation apple. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous, with long, slender shoots (3). 

Fruit. 

Fruit small to very small ; uniform in size and shape. Form roundish conic 
to somewhat oblate, regular and symmetrical ; occasionally sides unequal. 
Stem very long, slender. Cavity large, acute to acuminate, deep, broad, 
symmetrical, often with concentric broken russet lines. Calyx small, closed ; 
lobes short, broad, nearly obtuse. Basin abrupt, shallow to moderately deep, 
narrow to moderately wide, nearly smooth or sometimes very lightly furrowed, 
symmetrical, marked with concentric broken lines of russet. 

Skin thick, rather tough, dull yellow or with bright red blush, partly smooth 
but more or less netted or covered with cinnamon-russet. Dots scattering, 
gray. 

Calyx tube small, short, narrow to rather wide, conical or funnel-shape. 
Stamens nearly basal. 

Core axile, medium, often closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. 
Carpels elliptic to round or broadly obovate, emarginate. Seeds dark, medium 
to below, moderately wide, rather short, obtuse to broadly acute. 

Flesh nearly white, sometimes with reddish tinge next the skin, very firm, 
fine, crisp, tender, very juicy, acid until fully ripe when it becomes subacid, 
brisk, strongly aromatic, with high flavor and very good quality. 

Season December to April (3). 

CAYWOOD. 

References, i. Downing, 1857:128. 2. Thomas, 1885:506. 

A long keeping, medium-sized, flat apple ; color, bright yellow with tinge of 
red on the cheek. Flesh firm, mild flavored. The variety originated in Ulster 
county (i). It is now- practically obsolete. 

CLAYTON. 

References, i. Warder, 1867:512. fig. 2. Downing, 1872:128. 3. lb., 
1872:6 of app. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:36, 134. 5. Bailey, An. Hart., 
1892:236. 6. Mich. Sta. Bui. 105:108. 1894. 7. Thomas, 1897:632. 8. Lyon, 
Mich. Sta. Bui, 169:180. 1S99. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:64. 






CLAYTON 



The Apples of New York. 9^ 

Tree hardy, a good grower and fairly productive. Fruit of good 
size, good quality and fairly good, red color, but not brilliant 
enough to be especially attractive. As grown at the Geneva Station 
it has come into bearing young and been very productive. Accord- 
ing to L. A. Goodman, it is being planted in the Ozark region of 
Southwestern Missouri, especially where a late keeping fruit is 
desired for export trade. It originated in Indiana (i, 4). 

Tree. 
Tree vigorous ; branches long, moderately stout. Form upright spreading, 
open. Tzvigs medium in length, curved, generally stout; internodes short to 
medium. Bark brown or reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, partly 
mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels vary from moderately numer- 
ous to scattering, medium to large, roundish or oval, raised, conspicuous. 
Buds medium to large, broad, obtuse, free, somewhat pubescent. Leaves 
large, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large. Form roundish oblate to roundish inclined 
to conic. Stem medium, often obliquely set under a very prominent, fleshy 
lip. Cavity acute to sometimes obtuse, rather deep, broad, sometimes symmet- 
rical but often furrowed, usually with conspicuous outspreading russet. 
Calyx small to medium, partly open or closed. Basin abrupt, medium in width 
and depth, usually symmetrical, often wrinkled. 

Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, yellow blushed and mottled with a dark, 
usually rather dull red, with splashes and stripes of carmine, often marked 
with grayish scarf-skin near the cavity. Well colored specimens are nearly 
covered with red. Dots medium, pale or russet, scattering. 

Calyx tube rather long, narrow, funnel-shape. Stamens marginal. 

Core abaxile, medium ; cells usually unsymmetrical, open ; core lines clasp- 
ing. Carpels much concave, elliptical, emarginate. Seeds numerous, dark, 
medium or below, plump, roundish, obtuse. 

Flesh tinged with greenish-yellow, firm, rather coarse, crisp, neither tender 
nor very juicy, mild subacid, good for either cooking or market. 

Season January to May or June. 

COFFELT. 

References, i. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:236. 2. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui, 
60:127. 1899. 3. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:39. 1903. 
Synonym. Coffelt Beauty (3). 

As grown at this Station the fruit is too small to be valuable for 
an apple of the Ben Davis class, to which this apparently belongs. 
Like Ben Davis, it is quite liable to be roughened by sprav. It is a 
little superior to Ben Davis for eating. Some nursery catalogues 

state that it is a seedling of Ben Davis. 

Vol.. I — =; 



98 The Apples of New York. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branches long, slender and drooping. Form 
somewhat spreading, rather dense. Tz^'igs medium in length, curved, slender ; 
internodes long. Bark brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; pubescent. 
Lenticeh numerous, small, oblong. Buds small, acute, deeply set in the bark, 
appressed, pubescent. Leaves medium, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or above : pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
oblate. Stem variable. Cavity acute, deep, rather broad, slightly furrowed, 
often with outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium to large, closed or partly 
open. Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, medium to rather wide, dis- 
tinctly abrupt, often somewhat furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin nearly smooth, yellow overlaid with bright, dark red and with distinct 
narrow stripes of carmine. Color decidedly attractive. Dots variable, small 
to rather large, often russet. 

Calyx tube funnel-shape. Stamens medium to nearly marginal. 

Core medium to rather small, a.xile : cells usually symmetrical, closed; core 
lines clasping. Carpels rather concave, broadly roundish, deeply emarginate 
approaching broad obcordate, usually smooth. Seeds numerous, medium to 
rather large, rather wide, obtuse, dark. 

Flesh whitish, firm, rather fine, rather tender, moderately juicy, subacid 
becoming mild subacid, rather sprightly, slightly aromatic, not high in flavor, 
good. 

Season January to May. 

COGSWELL, 

References, i. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 15:252. 1849. iig. 2. Hovey, 2:31. 
1851. col. pi. 3. Cabot. Mag. Hart., 17:69. 1851. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 
5. Clift, Mag. Hort., 22:76. 1856. 6. Downing. 1857:75. iig. 7. Elliott, 1858: 
469. 8. Downing. Mag. Hort., 27:59. 1861. 9. Warder. 1867:589. 10. Down- 
ing, 1872:130. fig. II. Barry, 1883:344. 12. Thomas, 1885:232. 13. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 14. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 15. Lyon, 
Mich. Sta. Bui, 169:179. 1899. 16. Budd-Hansen, 1903:65. fig. 17. Beach 
and Clark, A'. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:115. 1904. 

Synonyms. Coc;gesweu, (9). Coggswell (3). Cogswell Pearmain (2, 6, 
10). Cogszi'dl's Pearmain (7). Not identical with Ohio Nonpareil (8). 

Tree hardy and rather vigorous, but not reUably productive, 
although sometimes it bears heavy crops. Fruit about medium size, 
yellowish-green more or less overlaid with red ; in well colored 
specimens, nearly covered with red. It is not equal to standard 
varieties of its season in quality and general appearance. Not 
recommended for planting. 

Historical Introduced into cultivation in Connecticut about one hundred 
years ago (5). It has been widely disseminated but in no section of the 
country has it come to occupy a prominent position as a commercial variety. 





COLLINS 



The Apples of New York. 



Trke. 



99 



Tree siiiall, moderately vigorous. Tunn rather open, wide-spreading and 
drooping, li^'igs short to medinni in leugtli, ratlier slender, a little crooked; 
internodes medium to short. Bark reddish-brown tinged with olive-green, 
rather heavily streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent near tips. Lenticels rather 
numerous, medium to large, oblong or roundish, sometimes raised. Buds 
medium in size, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent. Leaves large, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to above; rather uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
conic, occasionally slightly oblate conic, rather symmetrical. Ste)n short, 
moderately thick. Caz'ity acuminate to acute, medium in width and depth, 
heavily russeted, sometimes lipped. Calyx medium to rather small, usually 
slightly open. Basin nearly obtuse, shallow to medium in depth, medium in 
width to rather narrow, smooth or slightly wrinkled. 

Skin yellow mottled or covered with red, marked with narrow splashes and 
stripes of carmine. Dots very numerous, russet, small, prominent. Prevail- 
ing effect striped red ; rather attractive. 

Calyx tube medium in size, funnel-shape. Stamens medium to marginal. 

Core medium, axile or nearly so, slightly open ; core lines meeting or nearly 
so. Carpels nearly round, emarginate. Seeds numerous, medium size, plump, 
nearly obtuse. 

Flesh tin.ged with yellow or greenish, very firm, moderately fine, moderately 
tender, juicy, mild subacid, slightly aromatic, fair to good. 

Season December to March. 

COLLINS. 

Reference.s. I. U. S. Pom. Rpt.. 1895:21. 2. Thomas. 1897:468. 3. Van 
Deman, Amer. Card.. 19:823. 1898. 4. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui. 49:10. 1898. 
5. lb.. 60:127. 1899. 6. Brackett, Amer. Card., 22:190. 1901. 7. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:65. 

Synonyms. Champion (3, 4, 5, 6, 7). Champion Red (3, 4, 5, 6). Collins' 
Red (3, 4, 5, 6). Coss Champion (6). Coss's Champion (4, 5). 

An Arkansas variety of recent introduction. It has not vet been 
sufficiently tested in New York to determine whether it is desirable 
for planting in this region. As fruited here it is of go(xl size and 
form but decidedly inferior to Baldwin in color and quality, in these 
respects ranking even below Rome (Beauty) and sometimes below 
Ben Davis and Cooper Market. When well grown the color is 
attractive, being yellow, contrasting sharply with the bright red with 
which it is more or less overspread and sometimes nearly covered. 
In many cases the cavity shows some resemblance to that of Rome. 
The tree is a good grower, hardy, and has the reputation of being 
very productive. Evidently it requires a longer season than Bald- 



lOO The Apples of New York. 

win to bring it to perfect development, but it may prove profitable 
in those sections of the state where Ben Davis does well. 

Historical. Originated about 1865 near Fayetteville, Arkansas (i, 4, 6). 
It has been much planted in the Southwest and is there especially valued on 
account of the productiveness of the tree and the excellent keeping quality of 
the fruit. 

Tree. 

Tree large, tall, very vigorous ; branches long, moderately thick, crooked. 
Form rather upright and dense, eventually becoming more open and out- 
spreading. Tii'igs moderately long, rather slender, pubescent ; fruit often 
borne on the ends of the twigs ; internodes medium to long. Bark very bright 
dark reddish-brown, somewhat mottled with thin, gray scarf-skin. Lenticels 
numerous, conspicuous, usually small but sometimes large, roundish or oblong, 
not raised. Buds medium to large, rather flat, appressed, somewhat acute 
or tending to obtuse, quite pubescent. Foliage rather dense ; leaves medium 
to large, rather long. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large or above medium. Form globular or a little oblate inclined to 
conic, pretty symmetrical. Stem above medium to short. Cavity acute, some- 
times acuminate, medium to rather broad, symmetrical or obscurely furrowed, 
smooth or with radiating russet rays. Calyx medium to rather small, partly 
open or sometimes closed ; lobes slightly separated at the base, short, obtuse. 
Basin round, moderately shallow to rather deep, somewhat abrupt to rather 
obtuse, symmetrical or somewhat furrowed. 

Skin thick, tough, slightly waxy, and partly covered with a faint bloom. 
Highly colored specimens are bright dark red, sparingly and indistinctly 
striped with purplish-carmine and occasionally showing contrasting clear 
yellow ground color. Less highly colored specimens are yellow, more or less 
washed and striped with red. Dots inconspicuous, small, russet or pale gray. 
Sometimes a suture line extends from cavity to basin. 

Calyx tube small, varying from long, narrow funnel-shape to short, approach- 
ing conic. Stamens median or below. 

Core medium to rather small, abaxile ; cells symmetrical, closed or some- 
what open ; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels much concave, ellip- 
tical to obcordate, somewhat tufted and deeply emarginate. Seeds dark, large, 
rather narrow to moderately wide, long, rather flat, acute. 

Flesh nearly white, very firm, rather coarse, crisp, moderately tender, mod- 
erately juicy, rather sprightly subacid, slightly aromatic, fair to good. 

Season January to June. 

COOPER MARKET. 

References, i. Mease, JVillichs Dom. Encyc., 1804. (cited by 15). 2. 
M'Mahon, Amer. Card. Cal, 1806. (cited by 13). 3. Coxe, 1817:137. Hg. 4. 
Horticulturist, 9:291. 1854. col. pi. 5. Downing, 1857:130. 6. Mag. Hort., 
25:53. 1859. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 8. Warder, 1867:513. 9. Barry, 
1883:344. ID. Thomas, 1885:232. 11. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 
12. Wickson, 1891:247. 13. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 14. Can. Hort., 16: 
33. 1893. 15. Ragan, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1901:49. 16. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. 






COOPER MARKET 



The Apples of New York. ioi 

Rpt., 14:291. 1901. 17. Budd-Hansen, 1903:67. 18. Thomas, 1903:325. 19. 
Beach and Clark, A^. )'. Stu. Bui., 248:115. 1904. 

Synonym.s. Cooper's I\I.\rket (4, 5, 8, 9, 12, 13). Cooper's Market (10, 
18). Cooper's Red (10). Cooper's Red incorrectly (18). Cooper's 
Redling (6). Cooper's Rcdliit,^ (5, 8, 10). Etozvah, incorrectly (18). Red- 
ling (i, 2, 3). Redling (9). 

Attractive in color and form but not of high quality, often some- 
what deficient in size. Especially esteemed for its keeping- qualities 
and for holding a bright color late in the season. Grown to a lim- 
ited extent in commercial orchards. Desirable for supplying the 
general trade after the Baldwin season has closed. It may be held 
very late in common storage. It improves in color in the package 
when held in common storage, but does not show as great improve- 
ment of this kind in cold storage (19). 

The tree is hardy, one of the most reliable croppers, and not slow 
in coming into bearing. In fact, it bears such heavy crops that it 
requires more than ordinary attention in pruning to make the fruit 
uniformly of marketable size. The fruit hangs to the tree remark- 
ably well. 

Evidently the fact that Cooper's Red is a synonym for Etowah 
has led some to confuse that variety with Cooper Market (18). 
The two are quite distinct. 

Historical. This is now believed to be of Pennsylvania origin and identical 
with the Redling of Coxe and others (i, 2, 3, 15). 

Tree. 
Tree moderately vigorous to vigorous ; lateral branches long, slender and 
rather drooping. Form upright. Tzvigs below medium to above, rather 
slender, nearly straight; internodes short to medium. Bark dull, dark brown- 
ish-red with considerable olive-green in some specimens, uniformly overlaid 
with a moderately heavy scarf-skin, heavily pubescent. Lcnticcls moderately 
conspicuous, slightly raised, numerous, usually large but varying to small, 
roundish or elliptical. Buds small, almost sunk in the bark, obtuse, rather 
pubescent. Scales sometimes divided. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or below, sometimes nearly large. Form roundish ovate 
varying to roundish conic, flattened at the base and often narrowing sharply 
towards the apex, pretty symmetrical. Stem medium to long, slender. Cavity 
acute to acuminate, deep, rather narrow, sometimes slightly furrowed, often 
russeted. Calyx small, closed, pubescent. Basin small, often oblique, shallow, 
narrow, obtuse to abrupt, somewhat furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin tough, smooth, glossy, greenish-yellow, mottled and blushed with red. 
conspicuously splashed and striped with bright carmine and partly covered 



I02 The Apples of New York. 

with a light bloom. Dots whitish or with russet point, numerous and small 
towards the cavity, scattering, large and often irregular towards the basin. 
Ill fall the color is rather dull but in ordinary storage it improves noticeably 
as the season advances, becoming bright red with a yellowish-green back- 
ground. 

Calyx tube small, short, cone-shape. Stamens median to nearly marginal. 

Core distant, truncate, abaxile, medium ; cells closed or open ; often part of 
them are unsymmetrical ; core lines slightly clasping. Carpels roundish, 
slightly emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds numerous, dark, medium to 
short, plump, acute. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, very firm, a little coarse, moderately 
tender, juicy, brisk subacid, fair to good. Although not of high quality it is 
fairly good when compared with other very late keeping varieties. 

Season January to June. 

CROTTS. 

References, i. Powell and Fulton. U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:39. 1903. 2. 
Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:116. 1904. 

As grown here the general appearance of the fruit is not attractive. The 
prevailing color at first is grass-green w^ith faint and dull shades of red. Later 
the green changes, becoming pale or whitish by spring or early summer. The 
tree is a good grower and commonly bears well in alternate years. The fruit 
does not appear desirable for any use and the variety is not recommended 
even for testing. 

Historical. Said to be a seedling of Rambo. Received here for testing from 
J. J. Measner, Hutchinson, Kansas. 

Tree. 
Tree vigorous, upright spreading, rather dense. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large. Form usually roundish oblong, sometimes roundish 
oblate or slightly ovate, sometimes irregular, sides often unequal ; uniform in 
size and shape. Stem short. Cavity deep, acuminate, usually russeted ; often 
russet rays extend out from cavity. Calyx often large, closed. Basin shallow 
to rather deep, abrupt, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin grass-green or at length becoming whitish, faintly mottled and striped 
with red. Dots scattering, gray or russet, but whitish and numerous towards 
the calyx. 

Core small : core lines nearly meeting. Carpels roundish, tufted. Seeds 
broad, obtuse, tufted, dark brown. 

Flesh greenish-white, rather coarse, tender, juicy, with a peculiar aroma, 
very mild subacid, fair to good. 

Season variable ; may extend to June in conmion storage but it often scalds 
badly as early as March or April Ci, 2). 

CROWNS. 

Fruit of the class of the fall Holland Pippin and Fall Pippin. Uniformly 
large, green or yellowish, often a little blushed with bright red, too acid for 
dessert but excellent for cooking and evaporating. It makes very white stock 



The Apples of New York. 103 

when evaporated. It is not a good keeper, is apt to scald in storage, and is 
not in favor with apple buyers. The tree is very vigorous and reliably pro- 
ductive, bearing regularly and abundantly. 

This variety appears to be distinct from the Crown which Hovey describes 
as a large red apple. 1 

Historical. It was formerly planted to a limited extent in portions of West- 
ern New York but it is now becoming obsolete. In some localities it is known 
under the name Royal Crown. 

Tree. 

Tree large, vigorous. Form roundish spreading. It is a good grower in 
the nursery. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large. Form conical to roundish, sometimes obscurely ribbed, often 
somew hat irregular, symmetrical ; pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem 
short to medium, slender. Cavity acuminate, rather deep, broad, smooth, green 
with whitish dots or sometimes russeted, gently furrowed, sometimes lipped. 
Calyx open or sometimes closed, medium; lobes leafy, long, acute. Basin 
medium to shallow, rather narrow, moderately abrupt, a little furrowed. 

Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth, bright green changing to pale yellow, 
with faint blush which in highly colored specimens becomes clear, bright 
pinkish-red. Dots numerous, conspicuous, russet, often red areolar on the 
exposed cheek. Prevailing effect green or yellow. 

Calyx tube rather long, moderately wide, truncate conical or somewhat 
funnel-shape. Stamens basal to median. 

Core axile, medium to rather large, closed or partly open; core lines meeting; 
cells pretty symmetrical. Carpels thin, roundish to somewhat ovate, emargi- 
nate, somewhat tufted. Seeds large, long, acute, somewhat tufted, light brown. 

Flesh whitish, lightly tinged with yellow, rather coarse, crisp, moderately 
tender, juicy, too sprightly subacid for eating, good. 

Season November to January or February. 

Use, cooking, evaporating. 

DANVERS .^Vf^.^'^T: 

References, i. Kenrick, 1833:4,^ 2. Mag. Hort.. i:i54- i835- 3- Man- 
ning, 1838:60. 4. Downing, 1845:108. 5. Thomas, 1849:161. 6. Emmons, 
Nat. Hist. X. v., 3:86. 1851. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 8. Elliott, 1858:74. 
9. Mag. Hort.. 26:101. i860. 10. Warder. 1867:550. 11. Barry, 1883:344. 12. 
Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt.. 1890:290. 13. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 :j37. 14. 
Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt.. 1893:132. 15. Budd-Hansen, 1903:69. 

Synonyms. D.\nvers Sweet (12). Danvers Winter (14). D.\nvers 
Winter Sweet (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13)- Eppes' Sz'.'eet ( i, 2). Epse's 
Szveet (4. 8). 

Tree a g-ood grower and very productive. P>uit is of good 

marketable size and very good in quality, but rather dull green and 

not particularly attractive in color. It is no longer recommended 

for planting. 

'Mag. Hort., 10:2io. 1844. 



104 The Apples of New York. 

Historical. About 75 years ago this was being recommended by Kenrick 
(i) and Manning (3) as a profitable market apple, very productive and 
worthy of extensive cultivation. Danvers Sweet was included in the Ameri- 
can Pomological Society's first list of varieties worthy of being recommended 
(6). In New York state it is now nearly obsolete. It originated at Danvers, 
Mass., where the original tree was still standing in 1832 (i). 

Tree. 
Tree a rapid grower. Tzcigs dark brown with grayish scarf-skin, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to sometimes large; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish inclined to conic, sometimes a little oblate. Stem short to medium, 
pubescent, knobby. Cavity rather large, acute to acuminate, rather deep, 
broad, sometimes partly russeted, often distinctly furrowed. Calyx small to 
medium, usually closed; lobes pubescent, sometimes separated at the base. 
Basin varies from large and wide to rather small and narrow, moderately 
abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth, grass-green somewhat shaded with 
yellow, sometimes with faint bronze blush. Dots conspicuous, manj' sub- 
merged and whitish, others areolar with russet center. 

Calyx tube funnel-shape with rather narrow limb. Stamens median or 
above. 

Core axile, medium ; cells symmetrical, closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels 
rather flat, roundish to roundish obovate, slightly emarginate. mucronate, 
smooth. Seeds dark, medium or below, narrow, acute to obtuse. 

Flesh greenish with decided yellow tinge, breaking, moderately fine, very 
tender, rather juicy, very sweet, good to very good. 

Season November to April. 

DEACON JONES. 

References, i. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:40. 1903. 2. 
Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui. 248:116. 1904. 

Fruit showy and of good marketable size, averaging" larger than 
Baldwin. When well colored it is handsome, the yellow ground 
color being mostly overlaid with good red, relieved with dots of a 
contrasting color. The tree is a fine grower in the nursery and 
" delivers " well. In the orchard it is thrifty, comes into bearing 
young, is almost an annual bearer and very productive. The fruit 
hangs well to the tree. There is little waste from drops and culls. 
The flesh is rather coarse ; the flavor is mild and the quality is not 
high, but probably it would generally be rated superior to Ben Davis 
for dessert. It has a tough skin and firm texture, and stands hand- 
ling well. In ordinary storage its season for home use extends from 



The Apples of New York. 105 

November to March. So far as tested in cold stora^t^e, the commer- 
cial limit for barrel stock appears to be March first, but the fruit 
has kept free from scald and rot till May (i). It is not good 
enough in quality to be recommended for home use, but it may 
possibly be of value as a commercial variety. 

Historical. Originated in Pennsylvania as a chance seedling. Received 
here in 1892 for testing from J. S. Ford, Pittsford, N. Y., by whom it is being 
introduced. The form of the fruit and the character of the core indicate that 
this variety may be a seedling of the Yellow Bellflower. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branchlets willowy, long, slender, drooping. 
Form dense, upright spreading. Tz^'igs long, nearly straight, moderately stout, 
with large terminal buds ; internodes long to below medium. Bark clear 
brownish-red, lightly streaked with scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lenticels numer- 
ous, generally medium in size, roundish or oval, raised, conspicuous. Buds 
small to medium, projecting, obtuse to somewhat acute, appressed, quite pubes- 
cent, deeply set in bark. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to very large ; pretty uniform in size, somewhat variable in 
shape. Form roundish conic varying to oblong conic, ribbed ; axis sometimes 
oblique. Stem short. Cavity obtuse to acute or sometimes slightly acuminate, 
shallow to moderately deep, usually smooth, often prominently lipped. Calyx 
small to above medium, closed or partly open, often leafy ; lobes sometimes 
separated at the base. Basin shallow to moderately deep, usually rather narrow, 
distinctly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth or slightly rough, waxen yellow, mottled and 
blushed with red and with irregular dashes of carmine, in highly colored 
specimens being almost completely covered with an attractive deep red. It 
is covered with a whitish bloom which gives the fruit a somewhat dull appear- 
ance. Dots conspicuous, mingled small and large, whitish, many areolar with 
russet point; numerous toward the eye. 

Calyx tube variable in size, urn-shape to conic. Stamens median or below. 

Core abaxile ; cells symmetrical, wide open, very large ; core lines nearly 
meetmg. Seeds numerous, medium to small, rather dark brown, plump, 
obtuse, somewhat irregular. Carpels much tufted, emarginate, mucronate, 
elongated and rather broadly ovate. 

Flesh whitish, somewhat tinged with yellow, rather firm, coarse, somewhat 
crisp, tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, slightly aromatic, not high 
in quality, fair to possibly good. 

Season November to March or later (i, 2). 

DEMOCRAT. 

References, i. Warder, 1867:505. 2. Downing, 1872:143, 144. fig. 3. 
Thomas, 1885:508. 

Synonym. Varick (2). 



106 The Apples of New York. 

An early winter apple of medium size, j-ellow, blushed and striped with red, 
handsome and of very good quality, formerly grown to some extent in Western 
New York (2. 3), but now practically obsolete. We have not been able to 
determine whether the variety given bj^ Warder under this name ( i ) is identi- 
cal with the Democrat described by Downing and Thomas. 

DICKINSON. 

Refere.n'CES. I. Pa. Dcpt. Agr., Rpt. Hort. Assn., 1884:49. col. pi. 2. 
Chase, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:25. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 4. 
Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 12:600. 1893. 5. Richman, Utah Sta. Bid., 45:15. 
1896. 6. Beach, Western N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt.. 1896:52. 7. Powell and 
Fulton, U. S. B. P. /. Bui.. 48:40. 1903. 8. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. BuL, 
248:116. 1904. 

SvNONYM. DiCKEXSOX (5, /), but incorrcctly. 

Tree not a good grower, but very productive. Fruit resembles 

Yellow Bellflawer in shape, but the color is red. It is of good size 

and attractive enough in appearance to make a good market apple, 

but it is not above second rate in quality. 

Historical. Grown from seed of the Yellow Bellflower by Sarah Dickinson, 
Westchester, Pennsylvania (i, 2). 

Tree. 

Tree not large, not very vigorous ; branches short, stout, crooked. Form 
roundish, spreading, rather dense. Tzvigs small to medium, crooked, moder- 
ately stout ; internodes short to above medium. Bark clear, light olive-green 
tinged with reddish-brown, streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. 
Lcnticcls rather inconspicuous, rather numerous, small or below medium, 
usually roundish, not raised. Buds medium in size or below, broad, plump, 
obtuse, free or nearly so, pubescent. Leaves medium in size, moderately 
broad. 

Fruit. 

Friiit medium to large, somewhat variable in size. Form oblong-conic, 
sometimes compressed or broadly angular ; sides sometimes unequal. Stem 
medium to long. Cavity moderately broad, moderately deep, acute to acumi- 
nate, symmetrical or sometimes compressed, usually smooth. Calyx medium, 
closed or sometim.es open. Basin shallow to moderately deep and abrupt, 
often oblique, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, light yellow or green, blushed and mottled with bright red, 
striped with darker red, sprinkled with inconspicuous, small, green and whitish 
dots. Prevailing effect red with well-colored fruit. 

Calyx tithe funnel-form. Stamens median to basal. 

Core large, abaxile : cells not always symmetrical, usually open; core lines 
usually somewhat clasping. Carpels roundish oblong. Seeds numerous, 
medium or above, plump, obtuse. 

Flesh yellowish, juicy to very juicy, moderately hne-grained, slightly aro- 
matic, subacid, moderately firm, tender, fair to good. 

Season November to April. 



The Apples of New York. 107 

DISHAROON. 

References, i. Downing, 1857:135- 2. Elliott, 18597.3. 3- Warder, 1867: 
717. 4. Leroy, 1873:200. fig. 5. Am. Pout. Soc. Cat., 1873. 6. Barry, 1883: 
344. 7. Thomas, 1885:223. 8. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 

A yellowish-green apple, rather large, subacid with an aromatic flavor some- 
what like that of the Green Newtown. It is a southern apple which is but 
little known in this region. It is not recommended for planting in New York 
state. 

DOCTOR, 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:119. fig. 2. Wilson, 1828:136. 3. Cat. Hort. 
Soc. London, 1831. 4. Downing, 1845:107. 5. Thomas, 1849:147. 6. Emmons, 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:62. 1851. 7. Hooper, 1857:29. 8. Elliott, 1858:130. 9. 
Warder, 1867:717. 10. Livingston, Auicr. Card., 21:204. 1900. 11. ^Nlunson, 
Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:89. 1902. 12. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bill, 
48:40. 1903. 13. Beach and Clark. N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:115. 1904. 

Synonyms. Coon (13). Coon Red (13)- Dewit Apple (i). De Witt 
(3, 4. 5, 8)- Doctor Dewitt (9). Neivby (12). Red Doctor (4, 8). 

Fruit attractive because of its g-ood color, desirable size and uni- 
formity in size and shape. In texture, flavor and general quality 
it is inferior to Baldwin. It is of value chiefly for market, although 
acceptable for either dessert or culinary uses. The tree is vigoroivs, 
or moderately so, and has the reputation of being generally a re^ilar 
and abundant bearer. It is not slow in coming into bearing. Not 
recommended for planting in New York. 

Historical An old variety which originated at Germantown, Pa. Named 
in honor of a physician who brought it into notice (i, 4)- It has been grown 
to a considerable extent in Pennsylvania, Ohio and other portions of the 
Central West, but it has gained only slight recognition in New York. It has 
been reintroduced in Indiana under the name Newby. It has also been dis- 
seminated under the name Coon Red, or Coon. 

Tree. 
Tree moderately vigorous. Form very open and spreading. Tzi'igs long to 
medium, straight, moderately stout ; internodes medium or above. Bark clear 
reddish-brown with some olive-green, streaked with scarf-skin, but slightly 
pubescent. Lcnticcls scattering, medium or below medium size, roundish or 
oblong, raised. Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so. 
somewhat pubescent. Leaves medium size, broad. 

Fruit. 
Fruit medium to large ; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form oblate, 
symmetrical, angular. Stem short or medium. Cavity acute, deep, wavy, not 
russeted, sometimes lipped. Calyx large, somewhat open ; lobes long, acute. 
Basin variable, somewhat obtuse to abrupt, often wide, deep, ridged and 
wrinkled. 



io8 The Apples of New York. 

Skin smooth, waxen yellow, overspread with a bright light red blush, in- 
distinctly marked with narrow carmine splashes. Dots green or grayish. 
Prevailing effect attractive red and yellow. 

Calyx tube rather large, rather short urn-shape to truncate funnel-form. 
Stamens basal to above median. 

Core medium to small, abaxile : cells usually symmetrical, open or some- 
times closed : core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels smooth, 
broadly elliptical, quite concave. Seeds medium in size, wide, obtuse. 

Flesh a little tinged with yellow-, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, rather 
tender, juicy, mild subacid, slightly aromatic, good to nearly very good. 

Season December to April or later. 

DOCTOR WALKER 

References, i. Downing. 1881:83. app. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 
3. Thomas, 1897:633. 
Synonym. Litsey fi). 

As grown here the fruit is only moderately attractive, being dull 
in color and scarcely medium in size. The tree does not come into 
bearing very early, but is quite productive, and the fruit keeps very 
late. It is not recommended for planting in Xew York. 

Historical. A seedling of Ralls which originated on the farm of John 
Litsey near Springfield, Ky.. in which locality it is said to be superior to its 
parent, being hard\-, productive and blooming late in the season (i). 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous or moderately vigorous ; branches short, moderately stout. 
Form upright spreading and rather open. Twigs below medium or short, 
straight, rather stout with large terminal buds ; internodes below medium or 
short. Bark clear dark olive-green somewhat tinged with reddish-brown, 
little or no scarf-skin, decidedly pubescent. Lenticels numerous, medium to 
small, roundish to oblong, not raised. Buds often large, broad, plump, obtuse, 
free, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or below. Form roundish inclined to conic, sometimes 
roundish oblate. Stem short to medium. Cavity acute to acuminate, rather 
deep, moderately broad, somewhat furrowed, sometimes russeted. Calyx 
medium to large, closed or partly open ; lobes often leafy, long, acuminate. 
Basin abrupt, medium in width and depth, somewhat furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin tough, smooth, somewhat glossy, pale green or yellowish, deeply 
blushed or mottled with purplish-red, with distinct narrow dull carmine stripes. 
Dots numerous, conspicuous, pale yellow or grayish. 

Calyx tube cone-shape. 

Core medium to small, closed or partly open ; core lines meeting or slightly 
clasping. Carpels roundish inclined to obcordate. emarginate. slightly tufted. 
Seeds medium or above, dark, wide, obtuse, slightly tufted. 



The Apples of New York. 109 

Flesh wliitisli, linn, rallur line, crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid, becoming 
nearly sweet, somewhat aromatic, good. 
Season January to May. 

DOMINE. 

Referencks. I. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831. 2. Downing, 1845:107. 3. 
Kirkland, //ar/u-!(//»m/, 2:545. 1847- 4- Thomas, 1849:165,173. 5. Humrick- 
house, Mag. Hort., 15:27. 1849. fig. 6. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:470. 1850. 
7. Emmons, Xat. Hist. .V. }'., 3:68. 1851. fig. 8. Hooper, 1857:96. 9. Elliott, 
1858:130, 161. 10. ./;;/. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 11. Warder, 1867:430. fig. 12. 
Downing, 1872:147. fig. 13 L!arry, 1883:345. 14. Lyon, .]Hch. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., i89o:-'90. 15. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 16. Rural X. V., 54:744. 
1895. 17. ///. Sta. Bui, 45:319. 1896. 18. Richman, Utah Sta. Bui, 45:16. 
1806. 19. Waugh, !'t Sta. An. Rj-'f.. 14:292. 1901. 20. Budd-Hansen, 1903: 
70. fig. 21. Beach and Clark, .V. V. Sta. Bui, 248:117. 1904. 

Synonyms. Cheat (12). Cling Tight (12). Domini (6). Dominie (4, 
10, 16, 17, iS, 19). English Beauty of Pa. (12). English Rambo of some 
(12). English Red Streak ( 12, 13, 21). English Jl'iiiter Red Streak of some 
(9). Hflgan (9, 12). Holland Pippin, incorrectly (19). Ramboulrette (3). 
Striped R. /. Greening (9, 12). Well Apple (9). Wells (4, 7, 8, 9). Wells 

(12. 21). WlLI.I.\MS0N (7). 

A striped apple of the Rambo class which much resembles Rambo 
in appearance. \Miile it does not rank as high in quality it is a 
much better keeper, its season extending" till March; commercial 
limit, I'ebruary. When well grown it is large and of good color, but 
too often the fruit sets so abundantly that it does not average much 
above medium size. In western New York, although in some 
seasons it is very productive, it is not as reliable a bearer as are 
some of the kinds which outrank it in the commercial orchards, and 
often the color is not well developed. It has ])een more extensively 
planted along the Hudson than in any other part of the state, but it 
is not now grown so much there as it was formerly. It is chiefly 
valued for dessert, being generally considered inferior for culinary 
uses, except possibly for baking. 

It is evidently not identical with the Domine described by Coxe.^ 

Historical. Origin uncertain. Supposed to be a native of this country (11, 
12). Elliott states that it probably came originally from Maryland (9). 

Tree. 

Tree is vigorous to moderately vigorous, " with long, stout, spreading 
branches which are very liable to be broken by the heavy crops of fruit " (14). 

•Fruit Trees, 1817: 115. 



no The Apples of New York. 

Form upright spreading " with a straggling, open head and bearing its fruit 
crowded along the smaller branches" (ii). Tivigs above medium to long, 
moderately stout ; internodes long. Bark smooth, clear reddish-brown, some- 
times with a slight undertone of yellowish-green uniformly overlaid with a 
thin scarf-skin, rather pubescent. Lcnticcls rather inconspicuous, raised, mod- 
erately numerous, above medium, generally roundish. Buds above medium, 
roundish to acute, free or nearly so, quite pubescent. Leaves long, drooping 
and characteristically twisted. 

Fruit. 

Fruit usually about medium in size, sometimes large or very large. Form 
usually oblate, sometimes inclined to oblong and distinctly flattened at the base, 
sides often somewhat unequal, ribbed. Stem medium to long, slender at the 
base. Cavity obtuse, wide, deep, often distinctly furrowed, usually with out- 
spreading brown russet rays. Calyx below medium to large, closed or slightly 
open ; lobes long, acute. Basin pubescent, rather shallow to moderately deep, 
wide or compressed, abrupt, usually distinctly furrowed. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, bright, whitish-yellow or green mottled and 
splashed with deep pinkish-red, striped with bright carmine and overlaid with 
thin whitish bloom. Dots pale or yellow, numerous toward the basin, but 
toward the cavity they are scattering, large, often irregular and with russet 
center. 

Calyx tube funnel-shape with a wide limb and short truncate cylinder. 
Stame)is median to marginal. 

Core small, somewhat abaxile ; cells usually symmetrical, closed or partly 
open ; core lines nearly meeting or clasping. Carpels broadly elliptical, slightly 
emarginate. Seeds numerous, large, plump, moderately narrow, long, acute, 
dark. 

Flesh whitish or tinged with light yellow, very firm, breaking, somewhat 
coarse, tender, juicy, mild subacid with a peculiar aromatic flavor, good to 
very good. 

Season November to March. 

DOUBLE ROSE, 

The tree is exceedingly productive and comes into bearing young. The fruit 
is beautiful, being almost wholly overspread with a bright deep red but it is 
too small to be valuable for ordinary market uses and it does not rank high 
enough in quality to be classed with fruit suitable for fancy trade. It is not 
recommended for planting in New York. 

Received from Jaroslav Niemetz, Winnitza, Podolia, Russia, in 1898, for 
testing at this Station. 

Fruit. 

Fruit small, roundish or oblong conic. Stem long to medium, set in a deep, 
rather wide, russeted cavity. Calyx closed or partly open. Basin abrupt, 
moderately deep. Skin smooth yellow overspread with light red sometimes 
deepening to dark red. Core medium, nearly closed. Flesh tinged with yellow, 
moderately coarse, mild subacid, fair to possibly good. 

Season November to February. 





DOMINE 



The Applks of New York. hi 

DU BOIS. 

Reference, i. Heiges, U. S. Pom. RpL, 1894:19. 

A red-striped winter apple described by Heiges (i) in 1894 from specimens 
received from Cohmihia county, N. Y., as above medium size, oblate, yellow 
wasbed witb mixed red and striped witb crimson; flesh yellowish-white, 
stained with red, mild subacid, good. Mr. F. P. Studley, who furnished 
Heiges with the fruit from which the above description was made repoi ts 
further concerning this variety that it originated as a chance seedling in the 
town of Claverack, and that it is a very showy apple of the Blue Pearmain 
type although the fruit is not so large as that of Blue Pearmain. It ap- 
parently would stand shipping well for the skin is tough and the fruit is firm. 
It is a very late keeper sometimes being kept till July. The tree is very hardy, 
a good grower, forming a round compact head. It is productive in alternate 
years. 

DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE, 

References, i. Downing, 1872:150. 2. Hogg, 1884:65. 3. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892:237. 4. A^. Y. Sta. Rpt., 1892:588, 592. 5. Bunyard, Jour. R. H. 
S., 21:356. 1898. 6. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sfa. Bui. 248:117. 1904. 

A yellow apple, partly russeted, medium in size, desirable either 
for dessert or culinary use. The tree does not come into bearing 
very young, but when mature is quite productive. The fruit is apt 
to drop badly. It cannot he recommended as superior to other well- 
known varieties of its class. 

Historical. Originated in Engftnd and introduced to commerce there about 
1875 (s)- ^t is there esteemed as an excellent dessert apple and a good keeper 
(2). It is but little known in New York. 

Tree. 
Tree large, vigorous. Form spreading. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to small. Form oblate to roundish conic, sometimes obscurely 
ribbed ; pretty uniform in shape and size. Stem very short to medium, some- 
times swollen. Cavity rather narrow to moderately broad, shallow to moder- 
ately deep, acute, often nearly acuminate, often lipped, usually covered with 
green russet. Calyx rather large, flat, partly open. Basin variable, usually 
shallow and obtuse, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, partly smooth, dull yellow, often with a faint orange or 
bronze blush, more or less covered with russet, roughened with large russet 
dots. Dots gray or russet, conspicuous. Prevailing effect greenish-yellow 
mingled with russet. 

Calyx tube small, short, rather wide, conical or urn-shape. .Stamens 
marginal. 

Core axile or nearly so, medium in size: cells usually symmetrical, closed; 
core lines meeting or clasping. Carpels roundish to somewhat oblong, slightly 



112 The Apples of New York. 

emarginate, mucronate, sometimes slightly tufted. Seeds rather light brown, 
medium to small, wide, plump, obtuse. 

Flesh yellowish or tinged with green, moderately juicy, moderately crisp, 
firm, somewhat coarse, with a pleasant subacid flavor characteristic of certain 
russet apples, good to very good. 

Season December to April or later. 

DUMELOW, 

References, i. Lindley, 1831:81. 2. Ronalds, 1831:37. Hg. 3. Cat. Hort. 
Soc. , London, 1831. 4. Diel, 27:55. 1832. 5. Kenrick, 1833:101. 6. Floy-Lindley, 
1833:32. 7. Thomas, 1849:165. 8. Rivers, Horticulturist. 4:40. 1849. 9. 
Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:85. 1851. 10. Downing, 1857:212. 11. Elliott, 
1858:1^9. 12. Lucas, E., ///. Handb. der Obstk., 1:187. 1859. 13. Warder, 
1867:717. 14. Leroy, 1873:864. figs. 15. Hogg, 1884:65. 16. Bredsted, 1893: 
274. 17. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 18. ///. Sta. Bui, 45:320. 1896. 19. 
Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:480. 20. Beach and Clark, A''. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:117. 
1904. 

Synonyms. Duke of Wellington (2, 5). Diiinelozv's Crab (6, 10, 11, 
14, 15). Diinielow's Pippin (14). Dumelow's Seedling (i, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 
II, 15, 16). Dumelow's Seedling (5, 14, 17, 18). Normanton Wonder (3, 14, 
15). Sutton Beauty (14), but erroneously. Wellington (12, 14, 16, 19, 20). 
Wellington (6, 10, 11, 15). Wellington's Reinette (4). 

Fruit of good marketable size, rather attractive for a yellow 
apple, and a good keeper (15, 20). It is excellent for culinary 
use. but too acid to be agreeable for dessert. The tree is a very 
strong grower and quite productive in"* alternate years. Possibly it 
is worthy of growing to a limited extent for market, but it is inferior 
to good red apples like Baldwin and Sutton both in appearance and 
for dessert uses. In England it is esteemed as one of the most 
valuable culinary apples (15). 

Historical. I^rst exhibited to the Royal Horticultural Society, London, in 
1820 under the name Wellington, but prior to that it had been extensively 
cultivated under the name of Dumelow's Crab, taking its name from the 
farmer with whom it originated (15). 

Tree. 

Tree very vigorous. Form upright becoming rather round with spreading 
and somewhat drooping branches. Tivigs medium or rather long, nearly 
straight, somewhat stocky, somewhat pubescent ; internodes medium or above. 
Bark rather clear light brownish-red over olive-green with slight scarf-skin. 
Lenticels characteristically conspicuous, very numerous, medium to very large, 
usually elongated, raised. Buds large to below medium, plump, rather acute, 
somewhat appressed, decidedly pubescent. Leaves medium to large, long and 
rather broad. Petioles red at base. 




o 

_l 

D 
Q 



The Apples of New York. 113 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish, somewhat oblate, sometimes obscurely ribbed. Stem medium to 
rather short. Cavity rather narrow, acute to acuminate, moderately shallow 
to deep, symmetrical, sonietimes russeted. Calyx large, open ; lobes separated 
at the base. Basin variable, obtuse to abrupt, shallow to moderately deep, 
irregularly furrowed and somewhat wrinkled. 

Skin tough, rather pale bright yellow, sometimes blushed with light red 
and striped with thin carmine. Dots often submerged, dark gray or with 
russet point. Prci-ailing color yellow. 

Calyx tube conical or funnel-form with broad limb and short truncate 
cylinder. Stamens basal. 

Core below medium to rather small, usually more or less aba.xile ; cells 
not always symmetrical, partly closed particularly toward the apex, or open ; 
core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels roundish cordate, emargi- 
nate. Seeds small to medium, wide, plump, acute to obtuse, dark. 

Flesh whitish with slight yellow tinge, firm, crisp, moderately fine, tender, 
very juicy, brisk subacid, slightly aromatic, good for cooking. 

Season November to March or .A.pril. 

DUNCAN, 

References, i. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831. 2. Downing, 1872:151. 3. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 4. Beach and Clark, A^. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:117. 
1904. 

-A.n apple of the Newtown Spitzenburg class which closely resembles that 
variety in the appearance and quality of its fruit. When well developed it is 
rather attractive in color and very good in quality for dessert use. It is an 
excellent keeper, but as grown at this Station it averages too small for a good 
comm.ercial apple. The tree comes into bearing young and is almost an 
annual bearer, but yields heavier crops in alternate years. It is not recom- 
mended for planting in New York. 

Historical. Received for testing here from B. Buckman, Farmingdale, 111. 
It has been disseminated to some extent in portions of the Ohio valley (3). 
We have not determined whether or not it is identical with the English 
variety of this name (i, 2). 

Tree. 

Tree small, moderately vigorous ; branches short, stout, crooked ; laterals 
willowy and small, slender. Form upright spreading to roundish, dense. 
Tzings short to above medium, rather slender, straight, moderately stout; 
internodes short. Bark dull reddish-brown, mingled with olive-green, with 
thin coat of scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small, round, 
not raised. Buds small, plump, obtuse, appressed, deeply set in bark; some- 
v;hat pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium or small, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish, pretty symmetrical, sides sometimes unequal. Stem medium. Cavity 
acuminate to acute, symmetrical, moderately deep^ sometimes furrowed, rarely 



114 The Apples of New York. 

russeted. Calyx closed or partly open; lobes long, acute. Basin obtuse, 
shallow, irregularly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin green or pale yellow, striped with carmine over a thin dull blush and 
conspicuously marked with large, irregular, whitish dots. Often the color is 
not well developed and not particularly attractive. 

Calyx tube short to long, moderately wide, cone-shape or somewhat funnel- 
form. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core medium, axile or somewhat abaxile ; core lines meeting or clasping; 
cells sometimes unsymmetrical, closed or partly open. Carpels broad, roundish, 
smooth, emarginate. Seeds medium or below, broad, dark, acute to obtuse. 

Flesh whitish, with yellow tinge, moderately firm, fine-grained, tender, crisp, 
very juicy, agreeable mild subacid mingled with sweet, good to very good 
when well grown. 

Season January to May. 

DUTCH MIGNONNE, 

References, i. Diel, 4:140. 1801. 2. Ronalds, 1831:51. 3. Cat. Hort. 
Soc. London, 1831:30. 4. Floy-Lindley, 1833:33- 5- Dittrich, 1839:429. 6. 
Lindley, Pom. Mag., 1839:84. col. pi. 7. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:72. 
1851. 8. Bivort, An. de Pomol. Beige, 1853:83. 9. Elliott, 1858:74. 10. 
Lucas, Ed., ///. Handb. der Obstk., 1:163. 1859. 11. Berghuis, 1868: col. pi. 
No. II. 12. Kegel, 1868:466. 13. Downing, 1872:151, 331. lb., 1876:3. app. 
14. Leroy, 1873:64.1. 2 Hgs. 15. Lauche, 1:257. 1882. 16. Hogg, 1884:66. 17. 
Cat. Cong. Pom. France, 1887:322. 18. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:238, 248. 19. 
Bredsted, 1893:182. 20. Beach and Clo.se, -V. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:275. 1896. 
2 figs. 21. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:195. 22. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. 
Bill, 248:114. 1904. 

Synonyms. Caux (22). Christ's Golden Rcinette (16). Copmanlhorpe 
Crab (13, 14, 16). DuiTSCH Mignonne (8). Dutch Mignome (7). Dutch 
Mignonne (14). Dutch Minion (2). Grosse Casseler Reinette (10, 12, 
15). Grosser Casselar Reinette (13). Grosse Oder Doppelte Casseler 
Reinette (i, 5). Palernosfer Apple (4, 13- 14)- Pomme de Laak (4, 13. 14). 
Reinette de Caux (3, 14, 17, 20). Reinette de Caux (16, 22). Reinette 
D'OR (11). Reinette Doree (2). Reinette Dorce (4, 13). Stettin Pippin 
(13, 14, 16). Stor Casseler Reinet (19). Stor Kasselrenett (21). 

Tree vigorous and very productive on alternate years. Fruit 

medium or above, not very attractive in color but excellent for 

cooking, good for dessert and a good keeper. It is recommended 

for the home orchard, but because the color of the fruit lacks decided 

character it is not a good commercial variety, except for canning 

or evaporating. 

Historical. This apple has been known in Holland for more than a century. 
It was introduced from that country into England about 1771 (4, I4)- 
Although it was brought into New York state many years ago and has been 
imported at various times both under the name Dutch Mignonne and that of 
Reinette de Caux it has not won favorable recognition among commercial 



The Apples of New York. 115 

orchardists and has nowhere been planted to any considerable extent. Leroy 
(14) states that Grosse Reinette de Cassel and Reinette Doree are distinct 
from this variety although they have been listed by some as identical. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form rather wide-spreading, inclined to droop, 
pretty dense ; branches short, stout, curved. Tzi'igs medium in length, nearly 
straight, moderately stout to rather slender ; internodes medium or above. 
Bark clear reddish-brown, mostly overlaid or mottled with rather heavy scarf- 
skin, pubescent near tips. Lenticcls moderately numerous, small to medium, 
round or somewhat oblong, sometimes raised. Buds moderately prominent, 
medium in size, plump, acute, free, somewhat pubescent. Leaves medium in 
size, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium, pretty uniform in size. Form roundish oblate to 
roundish, sometimes inclined to conic, often somewhat elliptical and broadly 
ribbed. Stem often characteristically long and slender and obliquely inserted. 
Cavity acute, moderately deep to deep, rather broad, often with outspreading 
russet rays and faint lines and flecks of dull grayish scarf-skin, furrowed or 
sometimes compressed, occasionally lipped. Calyx small to medium, closed 
or open. Basin usually rather shallow, moderately narrow to rather w^ide, 
often somewhat furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin yellow with thin orange blush, in highly colored specimens deepening 
to orange-red, mottled and sparingly splashed or striped with carmine. Dots 
numerous, whitish or russet, often areolar. Prevailing effect dull orange- 
yellow partly covered w ith thin dull red ; not particularly attractive. 

Calyx tube rather large, long, conical or sometimes approaching urn-shape. 
Stamens marginal. 

Core axile, medium to small, closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly 
roundish, rather flat, slightly emarginate. Seeds few, often some are abortive, 
rather long, irregular, flat, obtuse or somewhat acute. 

Flesh tinged with yellow-, firm, nearly fine, crisp, rather tender, juicy, sub- 
acid, sprightly, good for dessert, excellent for cooking. 

Season somewhat variable ; often extending till May. Commercial limit 
usually March (20, 22). 

DUZENBURY, 

Reference, i. Downing, 1872:152. 

A medium sized, late winter apple, described by Downing (i) as greenish 
overspread with dull red, very mild subacid, almost sweet, very good in quality. 
It originated at Phillipstown, Putnam county, N. Y. It appears to be but little 
know-n outside of the locality where it originated. 

EDWARDS» 

References, i. Downing, 1872:159. 2. Beach and Close, A'. V. Sta. Rpt., 
15:271. 1896. 3. Massey, .V. C. 5"/fl. i?;r/.. 149:317. 1898. 4. Powell and Fulton, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:.io. 1903. 5. Beach and Clark, X. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:118. 
1904. 

Synonym. Edzvards Favorite (2). 



ii6 The Apples of New York. 

Fruit good in quality and one of the latest keepers, but as grown here it 
barely reaches medium size at its best and often is small, and the color is 
usually rather dull. It is not well adapted for growing as far north as New 
York state. 

Historical. Edwards is said to have originated in Chatham county, N. C, 
as a seedling of the Hall. 

Tree. 

Tree not vigorous, small, stunted. Form flat, open, spreading and inclined 
to droop. Tzi'igs short to medium, straight, slender; internodes medium. 
Bark olive-green tinged with brownish-red, mottled with scarf-skin ; only 
pubescent near the tips. Lenticels conspicuous, numerous, medium to large, 
roundish, raised. Buds medium in size, broad, plump, acute, free, not 
pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or below, uniform in size and shape. Form oblate to roundish 
oblate inclined to conic, often slightly ribbed. Stem long, slender. Cavity 
obtuse to acute, medium, sometimes russeted. Calyx small, closed. Basin 
variable, rather shallow to moderately deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, 
often abrupt, nearly smooth. 

Skin smooth, thick, tough, yellowish-green, blushed with dull brownish-red, 
faintly striped with carmine, in highly colored specimens becoming deep, 
bright red. Dots large and small, pale and russet. Prevailing effect rather 
dull green, blushed with dull dark red. 

Calyx tube cone-shape or somewhat funnel-form. Stamens median to 
marginal. 

Core below medium, abaxile ; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, partly open ; 
core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels rather flat, roundish obovate 
to roundish obcordate. Seeds few. dark, medium to large, plump, acute ; 
often some are abortive. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, rather coarse, tender, breaking, moderately 
juicy, somewhat astringent, sprightly subacid, aromatic, good. 

Season February to May or later ; sometimes keeps through the summer. 

EISER. 

References, i. Diel, Kernobstsorten, 5:175. 1802. (cited by 3). 2, Ober- 
dieck, ///. Handb. dcr Obst., 4:353. 1865. (cited by 3). 3. Leroy, 1873:285. 
fig. 4. Lauche, i: col. pi. No. 10. 1882. 5. Eneroth-Smirnofif, 1901:170. fv. 
Kan. Sta. Bui, 106:54. 1902. 

Synonyms. Arsapple (5). Eiser Rouge (3). Durable Trois ans (3^. 
Red Eisen (6). Rother Eiser (2). Rother Eiser (3). Rother Eisei*.- 
APFEL (4). Rouge Rayee (i, 3). 

Fruit very attractive, of good size, very beautiful color and good 
quality ; suitable for general uses. It has a tough skin which does 
not readily show bruises. It stands shipping well and is an excel- 
lent keeper, being much sitperior to Baldwin in this respect. At the 
Kansas Station it has not been a good cropper (6), but Leroy states 



The Apples of New York. 117 

that it is satisfactorily productive (3). As tested at this Station 
the tree is a good grower and ahnost an annual bearer, but only 
moderately productive. There is comparatively little loss from 
drops and culls. It has not been tried here long enough to justify 
an unqualified recommendation, but it shows merit enough to make 
it worthy of further testing. 

Historical. A German variety which has been in cultivation more than a 
century (i, 2, 3). Our stock came from Prof. Budd who imported the variety 
from Austria for the Iowa Agricultural college, in 1884 and 1885. 

Tree. 
Tree moderately vigorous ; branches long, moderately stout. Form upright 
spreading, or roundish, open. Tzvigs long, moderately stout, nearly straight ; 
internodes long. Bark olive-brown, tinged with red, streaked with grayish 
scarf-skin ; heavily pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small, round, raised. Buds 
large, broad, obtuse, free, pubescent. Foliage dense, dark green. 

Fruit. 

Frjiit medium to nearly large. Form conical, broad at the base, often 
elliptical, sides unequal, somewhat ribbed. Stem short and thick to long and 
rather slender. Cavity very large to large, acute, deep, broad, sometimes 
symmetrical, often compressed or furrowed, with outspreading green russet. 
Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open ; lobes acute to acuminate. 
Basin often oblique, irregular, rather shallow to moderately deep, narrow, 
abrupt, roughly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, slightly waxy, yellow mottled with orange-red 
and almost covered with bright pinkish-red, sometimes deepening to purplish, 
inconspicuously striped with deep carmine, covered with a thin whitish bloom. 
Dots conspicuous, numerous toward the eye, larger, more irregular and more 
scattering towards the cavity, grayish-white or yellow, sometimes russel 
areolar. Prevailing effect attractive bright red. 

Calyx tube long, funnel-shape or approaching conical. Stamens median to 
basal. 

Core medium or above with hollow cylinder, nearly axile : cells symmetrical, 
closed or partly open ; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels roundish 
or elongated, not emarginate or but slightly so, tufted. Seeds medium to 
above, rather wide, long, somewhat acute, tufted, often somewhat abortive. 

Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, very firm, moderately fine, crisp, 
breaking, moderately juicy, mild subacid, good. 

Season January to June or later. 

ELLSWORTH. 

Reference, i. Downing, 1872:160. 

Described by Downing as medium in size, yellow netted with russet. Flesh 
tender, juicy, rich, sprightly subacid, very good to best in quality. In season 
from January to March. Origin. Columbia county. 

We have not seen this variety. 



ii8 The Apples of New York. 

ENGLISH RUSSET. 

References, i. Downing, 1845:132. iig. 2. Thomas, 1849:180, 190. Hg. 3. 
Phoenix, Horticulturist, 1850:470. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:99. 1851. 
Hg. 5. Elliott, 1858:98. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 7. Downing, 1872: 
162. Hg. 8, Downing, C, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:36. 9. Barry, 1883:345. 
10. Bailey, An. Hart., 1892:238. 11. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:132. 12. 
Budd-Hansen, 1903:75. 13. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:118. 1904. 

Synonyms, English Russet (5). Poughkeepsie Russet (5). Pough- 
keepsie Russet (2, 7, 9, 11). JV infer Russet (3, 5). 

A greenish-yellow russet of medium size or rather small, pretty 
uniform in size, not especially attractive in color nor high in qualit}-, 
but one of the best keeping apples known. In ordinary cellar 
storage it has often been kept till the next crop has ripened. Late 
in the season it is apt to shrivel some. Fruit-dealers report that the 
fruit from Southern and Southwestern New York is larger and has 
poorer keeping quality, while that from Northern and Western New 
York is smaller and keeps better. 

Within recent years it has been in good demand for export trade, 
bringing relatively better prices in Europe than in America. It is 
not very good for cooking, but has the reputation of making excep- 
tionally good cider. It is acceptable for dessert following the season 
of Esopus Spif.':ciibiirg and Baldwin. The fruit hangs well to the 
tree, but there is apt to be considerable loss because a relatively large 
percentage of the apples are too small for market. Where insects 
are not controlled the fruit is often knotty. The trees commonly 
bear biennially and only moderately, heavy crops being rare. 

English Russet and Golden Russet Compared. 
It may be distinguished from the Golden Russet, which is also 
called by some English Golden Russet, by its straight-growing habit, 
with erect shoots forming an upright or round top. The Golden 
Russet trees are more vigorous, spreading, irregular and bushy. 
The English Russet twigs of one season's growth have more of a 
clear reddish-brown color, and the lenticels, being comparatively dull 
in color and only moderately numerous, are not very conspicuous, 
although they are sometimes large, while the Golden Russet twigs 
when highly colored are darker brown, varying towards olive-green 
where the color is less strongly developed. They are finely mottled 




\- 

UJ 
CO 
CO 

r> 
cc 

X 

CO 

_J 

z 
u 



The Apples of New York. • 119 

with grayish scarf-skin, and the roundish lenticels, although they are 
usually small, are numerous and conspicuous, having a clear, pale 
color. On the bark of the second season's growth the lenticels are 
elongated transversely, still nunierous and decidedly conspicuous. 
In the English Russet the tenxlency of the fruit to become narrow 
towards the eye is more marked than in the Golden Russet, and its 
calyx is more often open, with the lobes reflexed. The Golden 
Russet basin is often the wider and markedly saucer-shaped, with 
the calyx set in a narrow, green or yellowish circle which contrasts 
shari)ly with the surrounding russet. The stem of the Golden 
Russet is usually the shorter and stouter, while that f)f the English 
Russet often has a brownish-red streak not found on the other. 
The cavity of the Golden Russet is somewhat larger and wider. Imt 
on the average is hardly as deep as that of the English Russet. It is 
often marked with grayish dots, while that of the English Russet 
is not. The skin of the Golden Russet varies from a dull greenish 
russet to golden russet ; and when grown under favorable conditions 
sometimes has a bronze blush, but it does not take a polish. The 
skin of the English Russet shows no sign of a blush, but it is some- 
what the smoother, paler and brighter in color, and takes a good 
polish. The flesh of the Golden Russet is richer in flavor, more 
tender, and of higher quality than that of the English Russet; its 
seeds have a more marked red tinge ; its core is more distinctly 
abaxile ; its cells are more often unsymmetrical ; its carpels are more 
concave and its seeds are broader, more irregular in form and 
size, less acute and more distinctly tufted. 

Historical. Although this has long been extensively grown under the name 
English Russet it has not been identified with any European variety and Us 
origin is unknown. It is much grown in Westchester and Putnam counties 
and is found in old orchards throughout the State. It is distinct from the 
English Russet of Warder.l also from that described by Burrill and AlcCluer^ 
as the " English Russet of England." 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size to rather large, moderately vigorous to vigorous. 
Form upright. Tzi'igs erect, medium or above medium in length, moderately 
stout to rather slender, often with large terminal bud ; internodes short. Bark 
rather dark clear brownish-red or, on the shaded side, brownish-green, covered 



^Amcr. Pom. 1867:625. 'III. Sta. Bui., 46:320. 1896. 



120 The Apples of New York. 

sparingly with gray scarf-skin ; somewhat pubescent. Lenticels moderately 
abundant, not particularly conspicuous but rather dull colored, often roundish, 
sometimes large. Buds often short, plump, obtuse to acute, moderately pubes- 
cent, rather deeply set in the bark, free. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to rather small ; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish, more or less inclined to conic, pretty regular and symmetrical, 
sometimes faintly ribbed, occasionally sides unequal. Stem moderately thick 
to rather slender, medium in length to short, often streaked on one side with 
brownish-red, usually not exserted. Cavity acute to somewhat acuminate, 
rather narrow to medium in width, moderately deep to deep, symmetrical or 
slighth' compressed, occasionally lipped, furrowed obscurely if at all. Calyx 
small to medium, usually open, sometimes closed ; segments often long, acute 
and reflexed. Basin rather abrupt, moderately deep, n>oderately wide to rather 
narrow, symmetrical. 

Skin tough, takes a good polish, varies from pale green to yellow more 
or less covered with russet, the base often being entirely russeted. Highly 
colored specimens become clear golden russet but have no perceptible shade 
of red. Dots inconspicuous, round or irregular, dark russet. 

Calyx tube rather narrow, cone-shape, sometimes funnel-form. Stamens 
basal to median. 

Core rather small, abaxile ; cells pretty symmetrical, open, sometimes closed ; 
core lines usually meeting, but with a funnel-form calyx tube they are clasp- 
ing. Carpels rather flat, roundish to broadly ovate, slightly tufted, but 
slightly emarginate if at all. Seeds numerous, medium in size, plump, rather 
narrow, acute to acuminate, rather light brown, sometimes slightly tufted. 

Flesh yellowish-white, firm, rather crisp, moderately tender, fine-grained, 
not very juicy, somewhat aromatic, pleasant, rather mild subacid, good. 

Season January to ]May or later. 

ESOPUS SPITZENBURG. 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:127. 2. Thacher, 1822:137. 3. AT. Y. Ed. of 
Agr. Mem., 1826:477. 4. Wilson, 1828:136. 5. Cat. Hort. Sac. London, 1831 : 
368. 6. Kenrick, 1832:40. 7. Floy-Lindley, 1833:45. 8. Downing. 1845:138. 
9. Thomas, 1849:171, 172. fig. 10. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 16:62. 1850. fig. 11. 
Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3: col. pi. No. 23. 1851. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 
1852. 13. Elliott, 1858:76. fig. 14. Bivort, An. Pom. de Beige, 1859:75. 15. 
Flotow, ///. Handb. der Obstk., 1:525. 1859. 16. Warder, 1867:539, fig. 17. 
Mas, Le Verger, 4:141. col. pi. 18. Leroy, 3:54. 1873. 19. Barry, 1883:345. 
20. Hogg, 1884:73. 21. Wickson. 1889:247. 22. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890:290. 23. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 24. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. 
An. Rpt., 3:14. 1896. fig. 25. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:452. 26. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:76. fig. 27. Massey, N. C. Sta. Bui, 182:20. 1903. 28. Powell and 
Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:40. 1903. 29. Beach and Clark, A^. Y. Sta. 
Bui, 248:118. 1904. 

Synonyms. tEsopus Spitzemberg (7). ^sopus Spitzembcrg (8, 10, 18). 
.(Esopus Spitzenberg (6). ^sopus Spitsenberg (20). j^sopus Spitsenburg 
(8). vEsopus Spitzenburgh (18). ^sopus Spitzenhurgh (lo). Esopus 




Vol. I — 6 



The Apples of New York. 121 

(28). Esopus Spitzemberc (i). Esoits Spitzenp.ew; (3, 10, 16,21). Esopus 
Spitzenburg (13, 22, 23). lisopus Stitzcnbiirg (28). Esopus Spitzenburgh 
(11, ig, 20). Esopus Spitzenburgh (24). Spitszenburgh (2). Spitzenberg 
(4). Spitzenburg (29). Spitzenburgh (24). Spitzenburgh, Esopus (8, 9). 
True Spitzenburgh (8, 18. 20). 

The Esopus Spitzenburg, commonly known as the Spitzenburg, is 
the standard of excellence for apples of the Baldwin class, to which 
it naturally belongs. When well grown it is handsomely colored 
and unexcelled in flavor and quality. It is a choice dessert fruit 
and also one of the best apples known either for canning or for 
general culinary vises. It is well adapted for handling in cold 
storage, ships well, has long had a well-established reputation in 
market, always sells well, is well suited for marketing in boxes or 
fancy packages and often brings fancy prices. It is in season 
between Rhode Island Greening and Baldwin. It is quite variable 
in keeping quality in dififerent seasons and in different localities (29). 
The fruit is quite s-usceptible to the attacks of the scab fungus, as 
also are the blossoms and the foliage. It is often injured by the 
apple-canker, and therefore it is advisable to graft or bud it upon 
a healthier variety. Special attention needs to be given to protecting 
both the tree and the fruit from the diseases just mentioned.^ As 
on-e means for accomplishing this result and also for the purpose of 
increasing the yield of high-grade fruit, it is wise to prune regularly 
but moderately, and to give the trees enough room in the orchard 
so that they do not crowd each other, thus permitting free movement 
of air and access of ample light around and among all of the 
branches. Especial care should be taken to favor a free and vigor- 
ous growth of the tree by keeping the soil highly fertile, well sup- 
plied with humus, well drained and yet well supplied with moisture 
throughout the growing season. 

Under favorable conditions Esopus Spitacnhurg bears pretty regu- 
larly, but it is commonly rated as being, on the average, a rather 
moderate cropper. For this reason and because of its susceptibility 
to the diseases above mentioned it is not largely planted in com- 
mercial orchards, being found less profitable than Baldwin. Rhode 

' Descriptions of these diseases and approved methods of dealing with them are set forth 
in bulletins of this Station 163:i899, ITOiigoo, 186:1900, 243:i903, and in the Station's 
corresponding annual reports. 



122 The Apples of New York. 

Island Greening and certain other standard commercial sorts. The 
fruit develops good color and quality in most of the apple-growing' 
regions of the State but it does particularly well in favorable locali- 
ties in Schoharie and Greene counties and along Lake Champlain. 

Historical. Originated at Esopiis, Ulster county. We find no authentic 
account of the dale of its origin but it is scattered throughout the Slate in 
the oldest orchards and was well known in cultivation in this and adjoining 
states more than a century ago. It is known in cultivation in Europe, and is 
one of the recognized commercial varieties in certain apple-growing districts 
of the Rocky Mountain region, Washington and Oregon. 

Tree. 

Tree in the nursery makes a rather slow root development, and in the 
orchard is a moderately slow grower; the lateral branches are rather slender 
and eventually somewhat drooping. Form rather open and spreading, moder- 
ately upright. Tzi'igs rather long and slender. Bark dark, rather clear, red- 
dish-brown, and dark green, finely mottled with thin gray scarf-skin; but 
slightly pubescent if at all. Lenticels medium size or below, numerous, irreg- 
ular, elongated, conspicuous. Buds medium size, appressed, obtuse, pubescent. 
Leaves inclined to be narrow ; foliage not dense. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium to large; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form 
rather broad and flat at the base, varying from oblong rounding towards the 
cavity to roundish ovate or to roundish inclined to conic; somewhat irregular 
and obscurely ribbed. Stem medium. Cavity acute or somewhat acuminate, 
deep, wide, red or yellow or with outspreading rays of thin yellowish-russet. 
Calyx medium to smalk closed or somewhat open. Basin not large, often 
oblique at brim, abrupt, moderately narrow, shallow to medium in depth, some- 
times compressed, usually furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin tough, sometimes waxy, slightly roughened by the russet dots, deep 
rich yellow often almost completely covered with bright red inconspicuously 
striped with darker red, in the sun deepening to a very dark, almost purplish 
blush, marked with pale yellow and russet dots which are small and numerous 
toward the basin, but are apt to be larger and much elongated toward the 
cavity. 

Calyx tube not very large, often elongated, cone-shape. Stamens below 
medium to above. 

Core medium to rather large, abaxile ; cells often unsymmetrical and open 
but sometimes closed ; core lines slightly clasping. Carpels large, roundish 
ovate, mucronate, tufted. Seeds large, long, wide, acute, dark shaded with 
light brown. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine, crisp, rather tender, juicy, 
aromatic, sprightly subacid, very good to best. 

Season November to February or later. In cold storage may be held till 
June. 





ESOPUS SPITZENBURG 



The Apples of New York. 123 

ETOWAH. 

References, i. Downing, 1876:51. app. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881. 3. 
Bailey, An. Horl., 1892:238. 4. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:118. 
1904. 

Synonym. Cooper's Red (3). Cooper's Red (i). 

This is a variety of Georgia origin which is regarded with favor in some 
parts of the South (i, 2, 3). So far as we know it is not being grown in 
New York. The variety described under the name Etowah in Bulletin 248 
of this Station is not true to name. 

ETRIS. 

References, i. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Btil., 49:11. 1898. 2. lb.. 60:128. 1899. 
3. Budd-Hansen, 1903:77. 

The variety which has been propagated under this name in Arkansas may 
be a new variety but it appears to be identical with Gano (i, 2). 

EVENING PARTY. 

References, i. Brinckle, Horticulturist, 10:539. 1855. col. pi. 2. Downing, 
1857:77. fig. 3. Elliott, 1859:137. 4. Warder, 1867:433. tig. 5. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1873. 6. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt.. 1881:310. 7. Thomas, 1885:233. 
8. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 9. Buckman, Rural N. Y., 54:806. 189^. 10. 
Budd-Hansen, 1903:78. fig. 

A pleasant flavored dessert fruit which is in season at Christmas. Some 
find the tree unproductive but others report that it is a biennial bearer pro- 
ducing so abundantly that the fruit is small if it is not thinned and the tree 
well pruned. When highly colored it is decidedly attractive but often it does 
not color well and usually is below medium in size. It is not recommended 
for commercial planting. 

Historical. Origin, Berks county, Pa. (4). It has been known in cultiva- 
tion for fifty years but it is but little grown in New York and its cultivation 
is not being extended. 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous. For}n roundish with long 
spreading branches. Tzvigs dark reddish-brown, slender to rather stout, 
curved at base; internodes long to very long. Bark generally dull brownish- 
red with a rather strong undertone of olive-green in places ; scarf-skin uni 
form, moderately light. Lenticels inconspicuous, raised, numerous, above 
medium to rather small, roundish. Buds medium size, moderately obtuse, 
quite pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to rather small. Form oblate to roundish, pretty sym- 
metrical, uniform. Stem short, medium in thickness, seldom exserted. 
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, moderately broad, usually smooth, occasion- 
ally with outspreading russet rays, symmetrical. Calyx medium to large. 



124 The Apples of New York. 

open or partly closed; lobes long, acuminate, somewhat separated at the base. 
Basin abrupt, moderately deep to deep, moderately wide, slightly wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thin, rather tough, smooth, glossy, greenish or pale yellow 
mottled and blushed with red and indistinctly and sparingly striped with 
carmine becoming a dark, almost purplish, red in the sun ; the deep red color 
is apt to overspread the basin while the yellow ground color is conspicuous 
around the cavity. Dots large, pale, mingled with many that are small, whitish 
and submerged or with minute russet point. 

Calyx tube short, broad, conical. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core medium to small, somewhat abaxile to axile ; cells usually pretty sym- 
metrical, partly open ; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels roundish 
to elliptical, slightly tufted. Seeds medium in size, moderately wide, plump, 
obtuse to acute. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately firm, fine, rather crisp, tender, very 
juicy, mild subacid mingled w'ith sweet, somewhat aromatic, very good to best. 

Season December and January. 

EWALT» 

References, i. Downing, 1857:141. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 3. 
Warder, 1867:640. 4. Downing, 1872:166. 5. Thomas, 1885:509. 6. Pa.Hort. 
Assoc. Rpt., 1885:25. 7. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 8. Powell and Fulton, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bid., 48:40. 1903. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:78. 10. Beach and 
Clark, A^ Y. Sta. Bid., 248:118. 1904. 

Synonym. Bullocks Pippin of some (4). 

Fruit of good marketable size and attractive, having a clear yellow skin 
usually somewhat blushed with bright red. It is not a first-class dessert 
apple, being rather too acid and not high in qualit}% but it is good for culinary 
use. The tree occasionally bears good crops but commonly it is a moderate 
or rather shy bearer. 

Historical. Origin, Bedford county, Pa. (3, 4). Although it has been 
known in cultivation for many years it has not gained recognition as a com- 
mercial variety. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous; branches long, moderately stout, curved. Form upright 
spreading, round, rather dense. Tivigs medium or above, straight, stout; 
internodes medium to long. Bark clear dark brownish-red or tinged with 
olive-green, heavily pubescent ; scarf-skin rather thin or none. Lenticels con- 
spicuous, rather numerous, small to medium, oblong, or roundish, not raised. 
Buds small to medium, flat, obtuse, free, imbedded in the bark, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large. Form varies from roundish conic to roundish oblate, some- 
times irregularly elliptical with sides unequal or compressed, usually pretty 
symmetrical. Stem short to medium, rather slender. Cavity not large, acute 
to acuminate, deep, rather narrow to broad, sometimes partly russeted with 
narrow broken outspreading russet rays, often furrowed or compressed. 
Calyx usually large and leafy, sometimes rather small, closed or partly open; 





EWALT 



The Apples of New York. 125 

lobes long, acute. Basin not large, sometimes oblique, rather shallow to mod- 
erately deep, rather narrow, abrupt, often somewhat furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin tough, waxy, but not glossy, clear yellow usually with a thin brownish 
blush which sometimes deepens to bright red with a slight tendency to become 
striped, often marked with suture lines extending from cavity toward the 
basin. Dots numerous, small, inconspicuous, whitish or with minute russet 
point, usually submerged. 

Calyx tube cone-shape to funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core abaxile. medium or below ; cells often unsymmetrical, closed or open ; 
core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels variable, roundish to roundish 
ovate or obovate. Seeds numerous, medium to large, rather long, moderately 
wide, obtuse to acute. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately fine, crisp, rather tender, 
juicy, brisk subacid, slightly aromatic, good. 

Season November to April. Commercial limit February or March (10). 

FALIX» 

Reference, i. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:119. 1904. 

Fruit of medium size with tender flesh, sprightly mild subacid, good but 
not excellent in quality. In form and also in the ground color and striping 
it reminds one of the St. Lawrence, being oblate conic and dull green or light 
yellow mottled and striped with light and dark red. It is less attractive than 
St. Lawrence. Season November to April. Received for testing here from 
Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, Ills. It does not excel as a dessert fruit 
and is not attractive enough to be a good market apple. It is not recom- 
mended even for trial. 

FALLA WATER 

References, i. Downing, 1845:109. 2. Horticulturist, 2:482, 570. 1848. 
3. Thomas, 1849:180. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:44. 185 1. col. pi. 5. 
James, Horticulturist. 8:247. 1853. 6. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 22:556. 1856. fig. 
7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1856. 8. Elliott, 1858:79. fig. 9. Norris, Horticul- 
turist, 15:183. i860. 10. Warder, 1867:495. fig. 11. Downing, 1872:167. 12. 
Barry, 1883:345. 13. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 14. Wickson, 
1891:248. 15, Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238, 251. 16. Dempsey, Ont. Fr. Stas. 
An. Rpt., 1:24. 1894. 17. A''. C. Bd. of Agr. Bui, 1900:10. col. pi. 18. Waugh, 
Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:293. 1901. 19. Budd-Hansen, 1903:78. fig. 20. Beach 
and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:119. 1904. 

Synonvms. Faldzcaldcr (6). Fallazvater (2, 5, 8). Fall dc IValdes (9). 
Fallenwalder (5, 8). Fallenzi'alder (6). Fornwalder (5). Green Moun- 
tain Pippin (6,8, 11). Mountain Pippin (8, 11). Pim's Beauty of the JVest 
(8). Pine's Beauty of the West (6). Pound (2, 11). Tulpahocken (6, 8). 
Tulpehocken (2). Tulpehocken (10, 11, 12, 14, 18, 19, 20). IVinter Blush 
(II). 

Fruit large or very large, globtilar. attractive in size and form, 
but as grown in Western Xew York it is often rather dull in color. 
The accompanying colored plate was made from a highly colored 



126 The Apples of New York. 

specimen grown in the Hudson valley. In favorable localities on 
Long- Island it colors well and develops better quality than it com- 
monly does north of Orange county. The flesh is coarse and at best 
but second rate in quality. It is well known in market, and is often 
handled at satisfactory prices in domestic and also in export trade. 
The tree is usually a good, regular bearer, producing biennially 
or in some localities almost annually. Sometimes the larger branches 
break under their load of fruit. The fruit being large, there is apt 
to be a considerable loss from dropping, but considering its size it 
generally hangs to the tree pretty well. It is variable in season, 
ranking as a keeper sometimes with Hubbardston and sometimes 
with Rhode Island Greening. Although it has long been dissemi- 
nated throughout New York, it has not generally been regarded with 
favor by New York orchardists, except possibly in some parts of 
Long Island. 

Historical. Origin Bucks county, Pennsylvania. Hovey referred to it in 
1856 as having been known and cultivated for many years under the name 
Fallawater (6). Warder in 1867 remarked that it was then a great favorite 
in Pennsylvania and " extensively cultivated through the West." 

Tree. 

Tree makes a moderately light root growth in the nursery. In the orchard 
it becomes large and vigorous. Form upright to roundish. Tivigs medium 
in length to short, moderately stout, thick at the tips, erect ; internodes 
medium. Bark smooth, bright brownish-red mingled with olive-green, finely 
mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lcnticels moderately conspicuous, 
rather abundant, medium in size, usually roundish. Buds medium or above, 
roundish, obtuse, sparingly pubescent, free. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to very large. Fortii globular, sometimes a little oblate, usually 
symmetrical, sometimes slightly irregular, and faintly ribbed, but it is pretty 
uniform in size and shape. Stem very short. Cavity distinctly acuminate, 
deep, rather narrow to broad, usually somewhat furrowed. Calyx medium to 
large, closed or partly open ; lobes variable. Basin shallow to moderately 
deep, moderatelj' abrupt to abrupt, often nearly symmetrical, sometimes dis- 
tinctly furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin tough, smooth, a little waxy, often dull grass-green with dull blush, 
but highly colored specimens eventually become distinctly yellow and largely 
blushed with bright deep pinkish-red, often considerably streaked witli thin 
grayish scarf-skin. Dots conspicuous, whitish, often large areolar with russet 
point. 





FALLAWATER 



The Apples of New York. 127 

Calyx tube wide, rather short, cone-shape or approaching funnel-form. 
Stamens basal to median. 

Core decidedly aha.xile to nearly axile, medium to large, cells unsymmetrical, 
open or closed; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels distinctly 
tufted, long, narrowly ovate, mucronate, but slightly emarginate if at all. 
Seeds often arc very few, long, narrow, acute to acuminate, tufted. 

Flesh tinged with yellow or green, firm, coarse, crisp, moderately tender, 
juicy, subacid to mildly sweet, without distinct or high flavor, quality good or 
nearly so. 

Season November to March or April, being quite variable in different locali- 
ties and in different seasons. On Long Island it is commonly in season in 
October and out of season in January. 

Use. Desirable only for cooking and market. 

FAMILY. 

References, i. Warder, 1867:515. 2. Downing, 1872:172. fig. 3. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1873. 4. Barry, 1883:333. 5. Thomas, 1885:509. 6. Baile.v, An. 
Hort., 1892:239. 7. Clayton, Ala. Sta. Bui, 47:8. 1893. 8. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:83. 

Synonyms. McCi.ouds Family (i). JMcLouds family (2, 4). 

As grown at this Station the Family does not agree closely with the descrip- 
tions of this variety given by various pomologists (2, 4, 5, 8), particularly in 
regard to its season of ripening. Nevertheless we believe that we have the 
variety true to name. We have traced our stock back to W. M. Samuels, 
Clinton, Kentucky, a careful nurseryman. In Georgia, where it originated. 
Family is a summer apple and according to some nursery catalogue descrip- 
tions "keeps ripening for six weeks." In Central Illinois it is in season in 
September. Here at Geneva some of the fruit may keep through the winter 
although its season would best be descrilied as extending from October to 
January. It is not a desirable variety for planting in New York. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous, with short, moderately stout branches ; does not come into 
bearing young but is an annual bearer and a moderately good cropper. There 
is a considerable loss from the dropping of the fruit. Form upright spread- 
ing, rather dense. Tivigs short, straight, moderately stout ; internodes below 
medium to short. Bark olive-green, tinged with red, covered with a light 
coat of grayish scarf-skin, quite pubescent near tips. Lcnticcls not clear in 
color, inconspicuous, scattering, medium in size, roundish. Buds medium, flat, 
obtuse, very pubescent, deeply set in bark. 

Fruit. 

Fruit small to medium. Form roundish ovate to roundish conic, faintly 
ribbed, rather symmetrical, sides often unequal ; pretty uniform in shape and 
size. Stem long to medium, usually rather slender. Cavity acute to acumi- 
nate, medium in depth to deep, narrow, usually symmetrical, sometimes lipped, 
often smooth but sometimes overspread with russet. Calyx medium, usually 



128 The Apples of New York. 

slightly open ; lobes rather long and reflexed. Basin shallow to very shallow, 
narrow, abrupt, narrowly furrowed. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, mottled and washed with red over a rather pale 
yellow ground, shading to deep dark red in the sun, marked with many 
narrow and broken stripes of dull purplish-carmine, sprinkled with rather 
conspicuous pale yellowish or russet dots and overspread with whitish bloom. 

Calyx tube long, rather wide, funnel- form or conical, often extending to 
the core. Siainens median to nearly basal. 

Co}'e abaxile, large ; cells usually symmetrical and wide open ; core lines 
somewhat clasping. Carpels rather concave, round to broadly elliptical. 
Seeds numerous, medium to rather large, acute to obtuse, plump. 

Flesh yellowish sometimes tinged with red near the skin, firm, rather crisp, 
fine-grained, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid becoming mild, pleasant in flavor, 
good. 

FARRIS. 

References, i. Churchill, X. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 8:355. 1889. 2. Beach, 
N. v. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:259. 1895. 3. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui, 248: 
120. 1904. 

Fruit resembles Rambo somewhat. As grown at this Station its quality is 
good but not as high as it is rated in Kentucky where it was first introduced 
into cultivation. The tree does not come into bearing very young. It is 
usually moderately productive and sometimes very productive, but it is too 
unattractive in color and too small to be desirable for commercial purposes. 

Historical. Farris was introduced by a Mr. Reeves of Allen county, Ken- 
tucky, and afterwards brought more prominently into notice by W. M. 
Samuels, Clinton, Ky. It was granted first premium as the best fall apple 
at a fruit exhibition in St. Louis in 1876. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous, rather small, with short stout branches. Form 
spreading, flat, open. Tzcigs medium in length to rather short, straight, mod- 
erately stout ; internodes short. Bark clear, reddish-brown, with some olive- 
green and streaked with gray scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticcls clear 
in color, scattering, small, or very small, generally round, not raised. Buds 
deeply set in bark, medium in size, flat, obtuse or acute, appressed, slightly 
pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or below. Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, faintly 
ribbed. Stem rather stout. Cavity acute, sometimes nearly obtuse, shallow to 
moderately deep, narrow, sometimes lipped, sometimes slightly russeted. Calyx 
often flat, small to above medium, closed or partly open. Basin shallow to 
moderately deep, narrow to moderately wide, often somewhat furrowed and 
wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, waxy, somewhat glossy, yellow, largely overspread with rather 
dull, deep red, in highly colored specimens becoming purplish, sometimes 
obscurely striped with purplish-carmine Dots yellowish, sometimes with 
russet point, numerous, small to large, often conspicuous. 



The Apples of New York. 129 

Calyx tube usually rather narrow and cone-shape, sometimes funnel-shape. 
Stamens median to basal. 

Core axile, medium, closed; core lines meeting or clasping. Carpels roundish 
or roundish obcordate, tufted. Seeds large to below medium, narrow, long, 
acuminate to acute, tufted, often some are abortive. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, rather coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, pleasant 
subacid, good. 

Season variable, usually extending from December to March or April, some- 
times later. 

FERDINAND. 

References, i. Summer, Horticulturist. 4:275. 1S49. /ig. 2. Elliott, 1858: 
^33- 3- Warder, 1867:533. 4. Downing, 1872:175. 5. Leroy, 1873:300. 6. 
Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 7- Thomas, 1885:510. 8. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. 
Rpt., 1895:193. 

Fruit of good form and size and rather attractive in color for a yellow 
apple. It is a fine dessert fruit and a good keeper. As grown at this Station 
it is rather slow in coming into bearing and at best is only moderately pro- 
ductive but it bears some fruit nearly every year. It is not recommended for 
commercial planting. Because it is excellent in quality and a good keeper it 
may be worthy of a place in the home orchards in the lower Hudson valley 
and on Long Island. 

Historical. Ferdinand originated with ]\Ir. Adam Minnick near Pomaria, 
S. C. It bore its first fruit in 1848. In that locality it is a late autumn 
variety. In 1873 it was given a place in the American Pomological Society's 
Catalogue of recommended apples but was dropped from that list in 1899. 

Tree. 

Tree a strong upright grower in the nursery. In the orchard at this Station 
it is a rather slow .grower with short, moderately stout branches. Form 
spreading and open, flat at the top. Tz^.-igs upright, small to medium, straight, 
stout ; internodes vary from long to short. Bark olive-green tinged with 
brownish-red, in part mottled with scarf-skin, somewhat pubescent near tips. 
Lenticels scattering, medium to large, oblong to roundish, raised. Buds 
medium to large, broad, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to nearly large. Fortii flattened at the base, roundish 
conic to oblate conic, often somewhat ribbed, somewhat irregular. Stem short, 
often with a fleshy protuberance. Cavity acute, moderately shallow to rather 
deep, rather narrow, often obscurely furrowed or compressed, often overspread 
with russet, sometimes lipped. Calyx above medium to small, partly open or 
closed ; lobes acuminate. Basin often oblique, usually narrow and shallow but 
varies to moderatelj' wide and deep. 

Skin rather thin, moderately tender, deep yellow or greenish with an orange 
blush which sometimes deepens to red. sometimes partly covered with russet. 
Dots numerous, sometimes whitish, but usually rough russet, variable in size 
and irregular in form. Prevailing effect greenish-yellow. 



130 The Apples of New York. 

Calyx tube wide, cone-shape or sometimes rather funnel-form. Stamens 
median. 

Core small to above medium, abaxile; cells fairly symmetrical, closed or 
somewhat open; core lines meeting or clasping. Carpels roundish, emarginate, 
slightly tufted. Seeds numerous, above medium to below, flat, obtuse, dark. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, rather fine, crisp, tender, moderately juicy, 
aromatic with a rich agreeable flavor similar to that of some russet apples, 
sprightly becoming mild subacid, good to very good. 

Season December to May. 

FERRIS. 

References. i. Elliott, 1854:170. 2. Downing, 1857:165. 3. Warder, 
1867:517. 4. Downing, 1872:175. 5. Thomas, 1885:220. 

Synonyms. Ferris (2, 5). Long Island Seek-No-Further (2, 3, 5). 
Rhode Island Seek-No-Further (5). ll^estchester Seek-No-Further (2, 3, 5). 

A large, red striped apple, formerly grown in Westchester county, and there 
considered profitable for market (4). The tree is described as vigorous and 
an annual bearer, producing alternately light and heavy crops (3, 4). Its 
season extends from October to December or later (i, 2, 5). The variety is 
not now listed by nurserymen, but another variety of the same name which 
originated in Delaware is still ofl'ered in some southern nurseries. 1 Neither of 
these varieties is recommended for growing in New York. 

FLORENCE* 

Reference, i. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui, 60:129. 1899. 

As grown at this Station from stock received from ]\I. Butterfield, Lee 
Summit, Missouri, the fruit is of the Ben Davis type, strongly resembling 
Gano, very attractive in size and appearance and a good keeper. As compared 
with Gano it is more angular, and more conspicuously striped with purplish- 
carmine ; the basin is more often oblique ; and the pistils do not persist in 
the form of a fleshy projection into the base of the calyx tube. As tested at 
this Station it is a moderately vigorous grower, comes into bearing young, 
bears annually and is only moderately productive, but it has been grown here 
under rather unfavorable conditions. Stinson (i) observes that it is in season 
with Jonathan, but we find it keeps much better than Jonathan. It has not 
been tested here sufiicientlv to indicate whether or not it promises to be a 
valuable variety in New York. Should it prove to be sufficiently productive 
it may prove valuable in those portions of the state where Ben Davis does 
well. 

Historical. Originated in Benton county. Ark. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branches short, rather slender. Form roundish, 
upright, rather dense. T^i'igs rather short, straight, slender ; internodes rather 
short to medium. Bark bright, rather dark brownish-red ; scarf-skin hardly 
noticeable ; pubescence scarce or none. Lenticels not numerous, clear and 

'Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:239. Ragan. U. S. B. P. J. Bui., 66:109. 1905. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1875:8. 



The Apples of New York. 131 

bright in color, small, rourdish to elongated. Buds medium, rather flat, acute 
to obtuse, pubescent, free, appressed, point often deflected. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium, sometimes large. Form roundish ovate to roundish conic, 
flattened at the base, irregular, often broadly ribbed or angular, sides unequal, 
sometimes compressed; pretty uniform in size but somewhat variable in shape. 
Stem medium. Cavity acute or obtuse, deep, wide, often furrowed, sometimes 
lipped, seldom symmetrical, usually with outspreading rays of yellow russet. 
Calyx medium to small, partly open or sometimes closed ; lobes rather narrow, 
acuminate. Basin very abrupt, usually deep, moderately narrow to moderately 
broad, often somewhat furrowed, sometimes compressed, usually oblique. 

Skin tough, smooth, clear, pale or whitish-yellow, washed and blushed with 
a bright deep pinkish-red, in well colored specimens becoming solid red, 
mottled and striped with purplish-carmine, overspread with a thin bluish 
bloom which gives it a slightly dull appearance, but when polished the pre- 
vailing effect is glossy bright red. Dots whitish, scattering. 

Calyx tube large, cone-shaoe. 

Core rather small, closed or slightly open ; core lines meeting or slightly 
clasping. Carpels concave, roundish inclined to obcordate. Seeds few, below 
medium to above, rather dark, irregular, obtuse or sometimes acute. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, rather firm, crisp, not very tender, moderately 
fine-grained, juicy, subacid, aromatic, pleasant, good to very good. 

Season December to May. 

FLORY, 

References, i. Downing, 1872:179. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:239. 3. 
Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205:42. 1903. 4. Beach and Clark, iV. Y. Sta. Bui, 
248:120. 1904. 

Synonyms. Fi.ory Rellflower (3). Flory's Bellflozver (i). Sheep 
Shire (i). 

An attractive deep yellow apple of good size and good quality. The tree 
does not come into bearing very early and is but moderately productive. It 
is not recommended for planting in New York. 

Historical. Origin, Montgomery county, Ohio. 

Tree. 

Tree rather vigorous. Form upright spreading. Tzcigs below medium to 
above, rather slender, irregularly curved, very slightly pubescent ; internodes 
short to nearly long. Bark dull brownish-red, mostly overlaid with thick 
scarf-skin. Lcnticels very numerous, raised, not very conspicuous, medium, 
narrow, elongated. Buds medium, slightly acute, lightly attached or partly 
free from the bark. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or above. Form ovate to roundish conic, often faintly ribbed, 
pretty symmetrical. Stem medium in length, rather slender. Cavity acumi- 
nate, variable in depth, rather narrow, pretty symmetrical, sometimes lipped. 
Basin medium in width, moderately deep to shallow, abrupt, somewhat fur- 
rowed. Calyx closed or partly open ; lobes rather narrow and acute. 



132 The Apples of New York. 

Skin tough, beautiful clear yellow, becoming deeper yellow as the ripening 
season advances, roughened with capillary netted russet lines and russet dots. 

Calyx tube not large, conical to elongated funnel-form, sometimes meeting 
the core. Stamens median or below. 

Core medium to very large, abaxile ; cells fairly symmetrical, partly open to 
wide open; core lines meeting when the calyx tube is conical, clasping when it 
is funnel-form. Carpels long, ovate. Seeds very numerous, often irregular 
in form, small to rather large, rather wide, obtuse, dark brown. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, hard, moderately coarse, juicy, agreeably subacid, good 
in flavor and quality. 

Season October and November in Southern Ohio (i); in Western New 
York it extends to February, and often some portion of the fruit may be kept 
till spring (4). 

FLUSHING SPITZENBURG. 

References. i. Thacher, 1822:137. 2. Kenrick, 1832:44. 3. Downing, 
1845:139. 4. Thomas, 1849:173. 5. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:71. 1851. 
6. Elliott, 1858:133. ftg. 7. Warder, 1867:515. 8. Downing, 1881:11. app. 
index. 9. Hogg, 1884:78. 10. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Sac. Rpt., 1890:292. 11. 
Bailey, An. Hart., 1892:239. 12. Budd-Hansen, 1903:85. 

Synonyms. Black Spitzenherg (8). Flushing (10). Flushing Spitzen- 
BERG (2, 6, 7). Flushing Spitzeneurgh (i, 3, 4, 5, 9). 

Fruit of good color but not very good in quality. There is considerable 
loss from the dropping of the fruit before it is fully mature. The tree gen- 
erally has the reputation of being a shy bearer. 

Historical. This variety probably originated in America. Although it has 
long been known in cultivation (i, 2) it is not regarded favorably by com- 
mercial orchardists and is now seldom planted. 

Tree. 

Tree large, vigorous. Form round-headed or spreading. Twigs stout, red- 
dish-brown, quite distinct from the small yellowish gray shoots of Esopus 
Spitzenburg with which, on account of the similarity of the names, this variety 
has sometimes been confounded. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to nearly large. Form roundish conic or sometimes oblate 
conic, obscurely ribbed, pretty symmetrical. Stem short to medium. Cavity 
acuminate, moderately deep to deep, narrow to rather broad, smooth and red 
or greenish, sometimes more or less overspread with greenish or red russet. 
Calyx medium to rather small, closed or partly open ; lobes broad, obtuse. 
Basin varying from narrow and shallow to medium in width and depth, obtuse 
to abrupt, sometimes somewhat furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin tough, yellow or greenish overspread with orange-red, becoming a 
bright deep red on the exposed side, coated with a light bloom. Dots con- 
spicuous, whitish, scattered over the base but very numerous around the basin. 

Calyx tube long, funnel-form, extending to the core. Stamens median. 

Core distant, abaxile with a wide hollow cylinder at the center, varying to 
nearly axile ; cells pretty symmetrical, partly open or closed ; core lines clasping 



The Apples of New York. 133 

the funnel cylinder. Carpels roundish, wide, mucronate, slightly emarginate, 
somewhat tufted. Seeds dark, medium to large, wide, plump, acute to obtuse, 
sometimes tufted. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, sometimes streaked with red, firm, moder- 
ately coarse, crisp, not very tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, not high 
in flavor, good in quality. 

Season October to February. 

FOREST, 

References, i. Downing, 1872:180. 2. Goff, JVis. Sta. Rpt., 1896:212. 

Synonym. Red Codliii (i). 

Fruit above medium, yellow mostly overspread with faint crimson ; aromatic, 
mild subacid, toward the last becoming sweet or nearly so. Tree an upright 
grower, an annual bearer, very hardy and very productive. In season from 
December to March (i, 2). 

Historical. This is supposed to be a chance seedling from Oneida county, 
N. Y., which originated about a half century ago. We do not find that it has 
been grown in New York to any considerable extent, but it appears to have 
gained a favorable record in Southeastern Wisconsin (2). 

FRAKER, 

References, i. Brackett, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:157. 2. Kansas Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1886:70. 

Synonym. Fr.\ker's Seedling (2). 

As grown at this Station the fruit is medium to large and when well colored 
has an attractive deep red blush, but too often it does not develop proper 
color in this climate. The tree has not come into bearing very early and thus 
far has been but moderately productive. The fruit is of mild, pleasant flavor 
and keeps well into the spring. It does not equal the standard commercial 
varieties of this region either in general appearance or in quality and is not 
recommended for planting in New York. 

Historical. Originated near Garnet, Anderson county, Kansas. Described 
in the report of the Kansas Horticultural Society for 1886 as promising for 
commercial purposes (2). 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branches rather short and moderately stout. 
Form upright spreading with open top. Tzvigs medium in length, stout, blunt 
at the tips ; internodes medium or below. Bark bright brownish-red tinged 
with olive-green, streaked with gray scarf-skin; heavily pubescent. Lenticels 
numerous, medium, oblong, raised, conspicuous. Buds medium, plump, broad, 
obtuse, free, pubescent. 

P^ruit. 

Fruit above medium to large ; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish conic or sometimes roundish oblate, nearly truncate at the base, 
often obscurely ribbed, rather symmetrical. Stem medium to rather short. 
Cavity acute, deep, rather broad, often distinctly furrowed. Calyx medium to 
large, somewhat open or closed. Basin often oblique, shallow, narrow to 
rather wide, obtuse to rather abrupt, furrowed, wrinkled. 



134 The Apples of New York. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, yellow with orange-red blush, in highly colored 
specimens deepening to a bright deep red mottled and striped with dull 
carmine. Dots pale or russet, not conspicuous. 

Calyx tube long, narrow, funnel-form, often extending to the core. Stamens 
median. 

Core somewhat abaxile, medium or below; cells often unsymmetrical, closed 
or partly open; core lines clasping. Car/^els broadly roundish to obcordate, 
somewhat emarginate, mucronate. Seeds numerous, medium or above, plump, 
obtuse, rather light brown. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, moderateh^ coarse, rather crisp, rather tender, juicy, 
mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, slightly aromatic, good. 

Season December to April. 

FRENCH PIPPIN. 

The name French Pippin has been applied to several varieties of the Fall 
Pippin group. These vary in season from autumn till late spring or early 
summer and are characterized by rather large, roundish or oblong fruit which 
at first is green but later assumes more or less of a yellowish tone. It is some- 
times slightly blushed and has yellowish subacid flesh. 

An apple of this class is described on a following page as the Lehigh Green- 
ing, the name under which it has been disseminated within recent years from 
.\llentown, Pennsylvania. Some believe that the Lehigh Greening is identical 
with an old variety grown in portions of Southeastern Pennsylvania under 
the name French Pippin. 

An apple which is grown in some parts of New York under the name 
French Pippin is described below. It is a very late keeper being in season 
from January to ^lay or June. The fruit is large, brightly colored and at- 
tractive for a yellow apple. It bears a very close resemblance to Lehigh 
Greening and possibly is identical with it. Comparisons of the fruit from 
various localities have been made but as 3'et we have been unable to decide 
whether or not these two are identical. We have not determined definitely 
whether the variety described below is the French Pippin of Southeastern 
Pennsylvania above mentioned, nor whether it is the variety referred to by 
Warderl and Downing2 as the French Pippin of Pennsylvania. 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size to rather large, moderately vigorous, a biennial or 
in some cases an annual bearer, a reliable cropper and productive. Form up- 
right, somewhat spreading. Tzi'igs medium in length ; erect, moderately 
stout ; bark rather dark. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to very large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
to roundish oblate, faintly ribbed, pretty regular, sides sometimes slightly 
unequal. Ste>n short, moderately thick. Cavity acute to acuminate, moder- 
ately deep to deep, narrow to rather wide, thinly russeted, sometimes com- 
pressed or lipped. Calyx medium in size, somewhat open ; lobes acuminate. 

^Warder, 1867:719. 
^Downing, 1857: 144. 





GANO 





FRENCH PIPPIN 



The Apples of New York. 135 

Basin abrupt, sliallow to moderately deep, medium in width to rather wide, 
smooth or gently furrowed and slightly wrinkled. 

Skin tough, thin, smooth, bright pale yellow or greenish-yellow with numer- 
ous, conspicuous russet or green dots, often with thin brownish blush. 

Calyx tube long, funnel-form, sometimes approaching cone-shape, with very 
wide limb. Stanicns median. 

Core rather small, slightly abaxile ; cells fairly symmetrical, closed or partly 
open ; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish, slightly emarginate. Seeds 
broad, obtuse. 

Flesh nearly as yellow as that of Fall Pippin, firm, rather fine-grained, 
tender, crisp, juicy, sprightly with an agreeable subacid flavor, good to very 
good in quality. 

Season January to May or June. 

GANO, 

References, i. Am. Pom. Sac. Rpt., 1885:156. 2. Am. Pom. Sac. Cat., 
1889:6. 3. Stayman, Am. Card., 11:272. 1890. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:239. 
5. Van Deman, Am. Card., 20:81. 1899. 6. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 43:187, 270, 
271. 1900. 7. Caston, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 8:40. 1901. 8. Va. Sta. Bid., 
130:132. 1901. iig. of free. 9. ]\Iacoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Bui, 37:43, 44. 1901. 
10. Stinson. Mo. Fr. Sta. Bid, 3:24. 1902. 11. Kan. Sta. Bui, 106:53. 1902. 
12. Budd-Hansen. 1903:86. fig. 13. Thomas, 1903:326. 14. Powell and 
Fulton, U. S. B. P. L Bui, 48:42. 1903. 15. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. 
Bui, 248:121. 1904. 16. Wickson, Western Fruit Grozver, 1904:124. 17. 
Ragan, U. S. B. P. L Bui, 56:116. 1905. 

Synonyms. Black Ben Davis {17). Jacks Red (5). Ocark (13). Payton 
(17). Reagan (13). Red Ben Davis (17). 

This is a variety of the Ben Davis type. In the nursery the tree 
resembles Ben Davis very closely. As grown in Western New 
York the fruit is more highly colored but on the average is some- 
what smaller than that of Tien Davis. It is less striped in appear- 
ance and more of a solid, deep red color, often with a contrasting 
spot of clear yellow where it has been closely covered by a leaf or 
twig. In this respect and in its deep, abrupt basin it suggests 
Jonathan, as at times it also does by its brilliant, deep red or purplish 
color. It is very attractive in appearance, stands handling well and 
is a good keeper. In quality it is perhaps a little superior to Ben 
Davis. The tree comes into bearing young and is an excellent 
cropper, bearing regularly and abundantly. It has not been tested 
very many years in New York, but it appears to be adapted to aboitt 
the same region as Ben Davis. 

Historical Origin obscure. Brought to notice in Missouri about twenty- 
five years ago and disseminated under the name Gano (i, 5, 6). It is sup- 
posed by some that the original stock came from Kentucky (5). Some 



136 The Apples of New York. 

believe that Gano is the same as Black Ben Davis. It certainly resembles 
Black Ben Davis very closely but the preponderance of evidence at present 
seems to favor the opinion that it is of distinct origin (16). 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branches long, moderately stout and inclined to 
droop; laterals willowy, short, slender. Funii like that of Ben Davis, upright 
spreading becoming somewhat drooping", rather dense. Tzvigs short to rather 
long, slightly curved, markedly geniculate, moderately stout ; internodes short 
to rather long. Bark bright brownish-red mingled with olive-green, lightly 
overcast with mottled and streaked gray scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lenticels not 
conspicuous, scattering, medium, round to ovate or often elongated, slightly 
raised. Buds small to medium with prominent shoulder, plump, obtuse, ap- 
pressed, decidedly pubescent, deeply set in bark. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to sometimes large. Form roundish conic, usually regular, 
symmetrical ; uniform in size and shape. Stem medium to long and slender. 
Cavity acute, deep, rather broad, symmetrical, sometimes slightly furrowed 
or compressed, usually with radiating green russet or red russet. Calyx 
medium or above, closed or partly open ; pubescent ; lobes rather broad, acute 
to acuminate. Basin abrupt, moderately narrow to rather wide, often deep. 

Skin smooth, waxy, clear light yellow, mottled and blushed with bright 
light pinkish-red often deepening to a purplish-red, more or less obscurely 
striped. Dots numerous, small, inconspicuous. Prevailing color fine red. 

Calyx tube short, cone-shape with fleshy pistil point projecting into its 
base, or sometimes elongated funnel-form. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core below medium to large, somewhat abaxile with a comparatively rather 
wide hollow cylinder at the axis ; cells closed, or partly open, usually sym- 
metrical but often not uniformly developed ; core lines meeting when the calyx 
tube is cone-shape but clasping the funnel cylinder when it is funnel-form. 
Carpels broadly roundish or elongated, slightly tufted, emarginate. Seeds 
numerous, broad, obtuse, large, dark, sometimes tufted. 

Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, firm, moderately tender, rather 
coarse, moderately crisp, juicy, mild subacid, good or nearly good in quality. 

Season about the same as that of Ben Davis, extending from December to 
May in Western New York. Commercial limit in common storage March, 
in cold storage April. 

GENEVA PIPPIN, 

References. i. Downing, 1857:111. 2. lb., 1872:189. £g. 3. Thomas, 
1885:250. 

Synonym. Winter Pippin of Geneva (i, 3). JVinter Pippin of Geneva 
(2). 

Resembles Fall Pippin in tree and fruit but a much better keeper, being in 
season from January to May. Found growing in the garden of Mrs. Crit- 
tenden, Geneva, many years ago (i). Evidently it is no longer listed by 
nurserymeni and so far as we can discover has become obsolete. 

iNot listed by Bailey in An. Hort., 1892:239. 



The Apples of New York. \yj 

GIDEON SWEET. 

References, i. Farrand, Midi. Sta. Bui., 205:42. 1903. 2. Beach and 
Clark, .V. }'. S'ta. Bui., 248:121. 1904. 

Received for testing at this Station in 1888 from Peter M. Gideon, 
Excelsior, Minn. It is clearly of the Blue Pearmain class. This is 
shown by the form and colors of the fruit, the characteristic large 
dots, the blue bloom, the color, texture and quality of the flesh, and 
the tendency of the fruit to shrivel when held too long in storage. 

It has been fruited at the Geneva Station for several years, and 
appears to be worthy of planting for trial where a sweet apple of 
the Blue Pearmain type is desired. It colors well, is quite attractive 
in appearance, desirable in size, good in quality, and a good keeper. 
The flesh is yellowish, juicy, aromatic, mild subacid mingled with 
sweet, eventually becoming sweet ; good to very good. It is in 
season from November to April. The tree is vigorous, wide- 
spreading or roundish, almost an annual bearer, alternating lighter 
with heavier crops. On the average it is satisfactorily productive. 

The fruit resembles that of Bethel very closely, but we have not 
yet been able to determine definitely whether or not the two are 
identical, not having had the privilege of comparing them when 
grown under similar conditions. Bethel from Northern New York 
and Northern New England, as compared with fruit of Gideon 
Sweet from the orchard at this Station, shows no constant dififer- 
ences from Gideon Sweet in the form of the fruit or in the charac- 
teristics of either the cavity or the basin, but the skin is redder and 
the flesh is sometimes tinged with red while the Gideon Sweet has a 
yellower skin, its flesh is not tinged with red, is sweeter and better in 
quality and the core is more widely abaxile. In both the Gideon 
Sweet and the Bethel the stem is characteristically curved to one side. 

Tree. 
Tree vigorous : branches short, moderately stout, crooked. Form roundish 
to wide-spreading, rather dense. Tzvigs short to below medium length, 
straight, rather slender to moderately stout; quite pubescent towards the tips; 
internodes short to medium. Bark clear reddish-brown over olive-green, very 
lightly coated with gray scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Leiiticels moderately 
numerous, scattering, small, roundish or elongated ; the elongated ones are 
raised. Buds small to medium, broad, obtuse, appressed, quite pubescent, 
deeply set in bark. 



138 The Apples of New York. 

Fruit. 

Frt{it above medium to large. Form roundish sometimes inclined to conic, 
often slightly oblate, elliptical or broadly and obscurely ribbed; sides some- 
times unequal, uniform in size and shape. Stem medium to rather long, 
curved towards one side. Cavity moderately broad to broad, acuminate or 
acute, deep, indistinctly furrowed, often with greenish or red russet spreading 
out upon the base of the fruit. Calyx small or medium, closed or slightly 
open ; lobes long, acuminate or acute. Basin shallow to moderately deep, 
broad, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin tough, nearly smooth at base except wdiere the russet spreads out 
from the cavity but somewhat rough towards the apex, attractive deep yellow 
or greenish mottled and blushed with orange-red sometimes deepening to a 
purplish hue, irregularly splashed and striped with deep carmine and over- 
spread with a thin bloom which produces a rather dull effect. When polished 
the colors become clear yellow and bright dark red and carmine. Dots con- 
spicuous, yellow or russet, small and very numerous toward the calyx, mcvre 
scattering, larger, irregular and more often grayish areolar toward the base. 

Calyx tube rather large, broad, conical or sometimes inclined to funnel- 
form. Stamens median to basal. 

Core irregular, aba.xile, medium to large; cells often unsymmetrical, open 
or partly closed; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels roundish 
or inclined to cordate, slightly tufted. Seeds below medium to large, light 
brown, rather narrow, acute, tufted. 

Flesh yellowish, moderately firm, crisp, somewhat coarse, juicy, aromatic, 
mild subacid mingled with sweet eventually becoming sweet, good to very 
good. 

Season November to .'Xpril. 

GILLIFLOWER, 

The old variety which is correctly known among pomologists as the Black 
Gilliflower is commonly known to fruit growers by the simple name Gilli- 
flower. For an account of this variety the reader is referred to Black Gilli- 
flower. 

The Cornish Gilliflower is a very old Fnglish variety quite distinct from 
the Black Gilliflower. It was formerly somewhat grown but it is now practi- 
cally obsolete in New York. 

GILPIN. 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:155. fig. 2, Thacher, 1822:122. 3. Wilson, 
1828:136. 4. Kenrick, 1832:42. 5. Downing, 1845:144. 6. Thomas, 1849:164, 
189. fig. 7. Cole, 1849:135. 8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y ., 3:66. 1851. 9. 
Hooper, 1857:39. 10. Elliott, 1858:135. 11. Am.. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 12, 
Warder, 1807:559. fig. 13. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., i8go:2g2. 14. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:239. 15. Budd-Hansen, 1903:89. 16. Powell and Fulton, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 48:42. 1903. 17. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248: 
121. 1904. 

Synonvm.s. Carthouse (i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8). Carlhousc (5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 
15, 16). Gilpin (6). Little Red Romanife (12, 15, 17). Red Romanitc of 
Ohio (6). Romanitc (7). Romanitc of the West (9, 10). 



The Apples oe New York. 139 

As grown in New York Gilpin is not a good commercial variety 
because it is rather small and does not rank high in quality. Its color 
is rather dark red over a clear yellow background. In ordinary 
cellar storage it usually keeps till June or later and is then accept- 
able for dessert and very good for certain culinary uses, particularly 
for boiling. It makes excellent cider. The tree is hardy, healthy, 
moderately productive and a biennial bearer. The fruit hangs firmly 
to the tree till loosened by the frost. 

Historical. " This apple is said to have been brought from Virginia. It 
obtained its name from a family in the Delaware state" (i). "It was culti- 
vated and distributed by Coxe and has found its way into the orchards and 
into favor all over the country on account of its productiveness and early 
bearing" (12). 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous or slow growing. Form round, open, spreading 
with rather short and somewhat drooping laterals. Twigs short, slender, 
straight ; internodes medium. Bark rather dull reddish-brown overlaid with 
thin to rather thick scarf-skin ; somewhat pubescent. Lcnticels moderately 
numerous, small, elongated, raised, of clear color, conspicuous. Buds rather 
small, prominent, heavilj' pubescent, adhering. Foliage not very dense, some- 
what curled. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to rather small ; uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish to ovate truncate, sometimes nearly cylindrical, often obscurely 
ribbed, symmetrical or sides slightly unequal, sometimes oblique. Stem short. 
Cavity acute to acuminate, sometimes shallow but usually deep, rather broad, 
obscurely furrowed or compressed, sometimes lipped, often partly russeted. 
Calyx large, open, rarely closed ; lobes leafy, reflexed, long, acute or acuminate, 
sometimes separated at base. Basin often oblique, usually deep, wide, abrupt 
and prominently furrowed but sometimes rather shallow and moderately 
narrow or compressed, often distinctly wrinkled. 

Skin tough, smooth, rather glossy, greenish-yellow becoming clear deep 
yellow, with brownish-red cheek often deepening to an attractive clear dark 
red. Prevailing effect dark red mingled with good yellow. 

Calyx tube wide varying from short truncate funnel-shape to urn-shape. 
Stamens basal. 

Core axile, below medium to above ; cells pretty symmetrical, usually closed 
or sometimes partly open; core lines meeting or sometimes slighth' clasping. 
Carpels round to ovate, narrowing towards apex, mucronate, slightly emargi- 
nate. Seeds numerous, dark brown, large to medium or below, plump, acute, 
slightly tufted. 

Flesh yellowish, very firm, rather coarse, at first hard but becoming some- 
what crisp and tender as the season advances, moderately juicy, nearly sweet 
or mild subacid, pleasant, good. 

Season February to June. 



140 The Apples of New York. 

GIVENS, 

Rf.ferexces. I. Stinson. Ark. Sta. BuL, 49:12. 1898. fig. 2. lb., 60:129. 
1899. 
Synonym. Arkansas Baptist (2). 

A late keeping red winter apple fully equal to Ben Davis in quality. At 
the Geneva Station it has come into bearing very young and so far as tested 
has been quite productive. The tree is a moderate grower. In the nursery 
it is a poor grower being " crooked and willowy something after the style 
of the Willow Twig."i It may be worthy of testing for commercial purposes 
in regions where Ben Davis succeeds. 

Historical. Originated on the farm of Mr. Givens, Benton county, Ark. 
Noticed by Professor Stinson in 1898 as one of the promising new Arkansas 
seedlings (i). 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branches rather long, moderately stout. Form 
upright spreading, rather open. Tz>.'igs long, straight, stout; internodes 
medium. Bark dark reddish-brown, streaked lightly with grayish scarf-skin; 
pubescent. Lenticels scattering, large, oval, raised. Buds medium, broad, 
obtuse, appressed, pubescent, deeply set in bark. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to rather small. Form oblate or truncate to roundish 
conic, ribbed broadly and faintly if at all, sides often slightly unequal. Stem 
long to very long. Cavity somewhat furrowed, wide, deep, acute, with green 
or thin russet outspreading rays. Calyx large to very large, closed or partly 
open ; lobes leafy, long, wide, acute. Basin moderately deep to deep, medium 
in width to wide, somewhat obtuse to very abrupt, Avrinkled, symmetrical. 

Sktn tough, smooth, yellow or greenish nearly covered with dark red 
inconspicuously mottled and striped with deeper red. Sometimes a suture 
extends from cavity to basin. Dots small, whitish or with russet points, in- 
conspicuous. Prevailing effect red. 

Calyx tube funnel-form, often meeting the cylinder of the core. Stamens 
median or below. 

Core medium to large, slightly abaxile with a rather wide hollow cylinder 
in the axis; cells somewhat unsymmetrical, closed or slightly open; core lines 
clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels broadly roundish. Seeds numerous, 
medium to large, wide, dark, obtuse. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, rather fine-grained, not very crisp 
nor very tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, good. 

Season January to May or June. 

GLENLOCH. 

Reference, i. Watts. Tcnn. Sta. Bui, 1:12. 1896. fig. 

Fruit large, closely resembling York Imperial. Tree very productive. A 
variety of Tennessee origin which probably is not well adapted for growing 
in New York except possibly in the southeastern part of the state (i). 

^Letter Stark Bros., Louisiana, Mo. 



The Apples of New York. 141 

GOLDEN MEDAL. 

References, i. Goff, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:90. 1888. 2. Beach, N. Y. 
Sta. All. Rpt., 15:280. 1896. 3. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. BuL, 48:42. 
1903. 4. Beach and Clark, A^. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:121. 1904. 5. Ragan, U. S. B. 
P. I. Bui, 56:124. 1905. 

Synonym. Gold Medal (3, 5). 

Fruit attractive for a green or yellow apple and a remarkably good keeper. 
The tree comes into bearing moderately early, is an annual bearer, bears 
regularly and is satisfactorily productive. It is worthy of planting for trial 
where a late keeping sweet apple is desired (4V 

Historical Received here for testing from J. R. and A. Murdock, Pitts- 
burg. Pa., 1888. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous. Form upright. Tzvigs short to medium, of average thick- 
ness, bowed and irregular; rather pubescent. Bark brownish-red overlaid 
w'ith rather thin scarf-skin ; internodes medium. Lenticcls inconspicuous, 
rather scattering, small, round. Buds medium, roundish, pubescent, adhering 
to bark. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large. Form roundish to roundish oblate, somewhat 
ribbed. Stem rather short. Cavity acute, deep, rather broad, usually dis- 
tinctly furrowed, sometimes compressed, sometimes slightly russeted. Calyx 
small, sometimes medium, usually closed. Basin often somewhat oblique, 
round, shallow and narrow varying to rather wide and moderately deep, 
usually rather abrupt, obscurely furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, attractive pale yellow marbled with green, or 
greenish, sometimes faintly blushed. Dots numerous, conspicuous, whitish or 
sometimes with russet point. 

Calyx tube funnel-shape. 

Core rather large ; cells open or partly closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels 
roundish obcordate, somewhat tufted. Seeds numerous, large to very large, 
wide, obtuse, somewhat tufted, dark. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, slightly astringent, firm, moderately fine, some- 
what crisp, tender, moderately juicy, sweet, fair to good. 

Season December to May or June. 

GOLDEN PIPPIN, 

References, i. Forsyth, 1803:52. 2. Co.xe, 1817:138. fig. 3. Thacher, 
1822:125. 4- N- Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:477. 5. Floy-Lindley, 1833:12. 6. 
Mag. Hort., 1:265. 1835. 7. Downing, 1845:112. fig. 8. Thomas, 1849:181, 
189. fig. 9, Cole, 1849:128. ID. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y ., 3:82. 1851. 11. 
Hooper. 1857:41. 12. Elliott, 1858:171. 13. Warder, 1867:720. 14. Leroy, 
1873:510. 15. Hogg, 1884:91. 16. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:240. 

Synonym-s. D'Or d'Angleterre (14). English Golden Pippin (8). Eng- 
lish Golden Pippin (7. 12. 14). Old Golden Pippin (7. 12. 14). Pepin d'Or 
(5. 7). 

A rather small, smooth, white or yellowish apple with a shade of red 
towards the base. In season from November to March. In England it has 



142 The Apples of New York. 

long been esteemed as a verj^ valnable dessert and culinary apple (7, 14, 15) • 
It does not succeed well here (7). There are many varieties of the English 
Golden Pippin, the fruit of which differs but little from that of the old 
variety but the trees are more vigorous (7). None of these appear to have 
gained favorable recognition in this country. Floy says, " The English Golden 
Pippin grows with delicate small shoots and is not calculated for an orchard; 
but if properly managed it makes a beautiful espalier tree and is an abundant 
bearer. * * =*= Xhe apple is not much known in this country; the kind 
called here Golden Pippin is a very different fruit" (5). 

The Golden Pippins of New York and New England are fall apples. For 
an account of them the reader is referred to the succeeding volume. 

GOLDEN RED. 

References, i. Downing, 1872:195. 2. Conn. Bd. Agr., 1889:356. 

A variety formerly grown on Long Island but now apparently obsolete. 
Downing describes it as medium or below, yellow nearly overspread with red, 
subacid. Season December and January. Fruit liable to rot on the tree (l). 

GOLDEN REINETTE. 

References, i. Forsyth, 1803:51. 2. Coxe, 1817:152. fi.g. 3. Thacher, 
1822:125. 4. Floy-Lindley, 1833:37. 5. Pom. Mag., 2:69. 1841. col. pi. 6. 
Downing, 1845:129. 7. Thomas, 1849:167. 8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. ¥., 
3:63. 1851. 9. Warder, 1867:720. 10. Leroy, 1873:591. fig. 11. Hogg, 
1884:92. 

Synonyms. English Pippin (4, 5, 6, 10, 11). Gol:;en Reinette, of all Eng- 
lish writers on Gardening. Hort. Soc. Fruit Cat. No. 905 (5). Golden 
Rennet (i, 2, 3). Kirkc's Golden Rcincttc (6, 11). Princesse Noble (id). 
Yellozv German Rcincttc (4, 5, 6, 10, 11). 

An excellent dessert apple but rather small. In season from October to 
midwinter. It has long been highly esteemed in England (4, 5, 11) but is 
little known in New York. 

The Russian varieties which have been imported under the name Golden 
Reinette ripen in autumn. They will be considered in Volume II. 

Tree. 

Tree rather slow growing, below medium in size, spreading, bears annually 
and is productive. The fruit hangs well to the tree. 

Fruit. 

Fruit small. Form roundish, somewhat oblate ; pretty uniform in size and 
shape. Stem medium in length, moderately thick. Cavity regular, deep 
Calyx large, open. Basin broad, shallow. 

Skin usually smooth with a few minute, triangular, russet spots ; greenish- 
yellow on the shaded side but golden-yellow in the sun, with a dull blush 
lightly streaked with brighter red. 

Calyx tube funnel-shape. Stamens marginal. 

Core axile. Carpels obovate. 

Flesh yellow, juicy, crisp, brisk, rich, subacid, excellent (5, 6, 11). 



The Apples of New York. 143 

GOLDEN RUSSET* 

References, i. Downing, 1845:132. 2. Thomas, 1849:179. 3. Emmons, 
Nat. Hist. N. ¥., 3:96. 1851. 4. Elliott, 1858:131. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 
1862. 6. Warder, 1867:624. 7. Thompson, Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871:30-34. 
8. Waring, lb., 1871:41. 9. Downing, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:36. 10. 
Downing, 1876:196, 54 app. 11. Barry, 1883:346. 12. Lyon, Mich. Hart. Soc. 
Rpt., 1890:292. 13. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238, 240. 14. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:90. 15. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bill., 48:42. 1903. 16. Beach 
and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:122. 1904. 

Synonyms. English Golden (6). English Golden (10). English 
Golden Russet (i, 2, 4, 13). English Golden Russet (10, 14). Golden 
Russet of N. Y. (3, 5, 10). Golden Russet of N. V. (2, 4). Golden 
Russet of Western N. Y. (10, 11). Russet Golden (6, 10). 

Among tlie russets which are grown in Central and Western New 
York the Golden Russet ranks second only to Roxbury in com- 
mercial importance. In .other portions of the state it has been less 
extensively planted. In recent years the season of good red winter 
apples has been extended by means of cold storage with the result 
that long keeping russet apples are less profitable than they were 
former!}-. This is undoubtedly one reason why Golden Russet is 
now grown less extensively than it formerly was. It is an excellent 
storage variety, sells well in the general market and is particularly 
in demand for shipment to Northwestern and Southern markets and 
for export. The fruit is not large but is pretty smooth and uniform. 
When grown in favorable locations and properly treated for the 
control of injurious insects and diseases there is comparatively little 
loss from culls. The fruit hangs well to the tree till loosened by 
frost. It is borne on the ends of the branches making it hard to pick. 
This habit and the smallness of the fruit make the picking and pack- 
ing comparatively expensive. 

The fruit is particularly desirable for home use during the spring 
months before small fruits ripen, being then excellent for dessert and 
culinary uses. It makes good evaporated stock and is excellent for 
cider and stock food. The tree is hardy. In favorable locations it 
is a reliable cropper, bearing regularly after it reaches maturity. It 
is usually classed as a biennial bearer, but in some cases it is nearly 
an annual bearer. 

The notable points of distinction between this variety and the 
English Russet are set forth in the description of English Russet. 

Vol. I — 7 



144 The Apples of New York. 

Thompson compares these two varieties with each other and with 
the Roxbury Russet in an excellent article presented to the Michigan 
Horticultural Society in 1870 (7). 

Historical. Downing calls this identical with the old English variety 
described by Ronalds and Lindley as Golden Russet (9). It has sometimes 
been catalogued under the name English Golden Russet and has been con- 
fused with the English Russet, a distinct variety. It has also been called 
Golden Russet of New York or of Western New York in distinction from 
the Golden Russet of INIassachusetts, or Hunt Russet, and from the various 
other apples which have been disseminated under the name Golden Russet. 

Tree. 

Tree varies from medium to large and from moderately vigorous to vigor- 
ous ; branches long, moderately stout, with rather long, slender laterals which 
after bearing heavily become rather drooping, but the young growth is more 
upright. Form upright roundish becoming rather spreading, rather dense. 
Tii^'igs erect, rather slender to moderately stout, often with large, blunt terminal 
bud ; internodes short. Bark on the younger branches smooth, yellowish or 
olive ; on the new growth olive-green or rather dull reddish-brown lightly 
mottled with grayish scarf-skin; pubescent toward the tips. Lenticels con- 
spicuous, becoming more so on the two-year-old wood, of a clear pale color, 
quite numerous, seldom large, usually below medium, roundish, sometimes 
raised. " It is distinguished among other russets by its peculiar, light colored, 
speckled shoots" (10). Buds medium in size or below, deeply set, free, 
obtuse, pubescent. 

It develops but a moderately strong root system in the nursery. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium to above. Form roundish, varying from a little oblate 
to somewhat conic, sometimes rather elliptical, sometimes obscurely angular, 
usually smooth; uniform in shape and size. Stem short to very short, rather 
stout, not often exserted. Cavity wide to medium, medium in depth to rather 
deep, somewhat acuminate to acute, usually not furrowed, often deep green 
with numerous paler green or grayish dots. Calyx usually rather large to 
medium, closed or sometimes partly open ; lobes long, rather acute, often 
reflexed, sometimes separated at the base. Basin sometimes oblique or irreg- 
ular, often saucer-shaped, round, rather abrupt, rather shallow to moderately 
deep, sometimes plaited or slightly ribbed. 

Skin thick, moderately tender, sometimes only partly covered with patches 
and flecks of russet but more often almost entirely covered with green or 
yellowish russet, in highly colored specimens becoming golden russet with 
bronze cheek. Dots grayish or russet, rather inconspicuous on the smooth skin 
but on the russet skin often clear pale gray and conspicuously scattered over 
the base. Often decidedly attractive for a russet apple. 

Calyx tube rather short, wide, conical or sometimes funnel-form. Stamens 
basal or nearly so. 

Core medium to below, distinctly abaxile, or, at least, having a rather wide 
hollow cylinder for the axis; cells often unsymmetrical, usually open; core 



The Apples of New York. 145 

lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels broadly ovate, elongated, sometimes 
tufted, but slightly emarginate if at all. Seeds rather light brown with 
decided red tone, medium to small, plump, obtuse to acute, sometimes tufted. 

Flesh yellowish, rather fine-grained, moderately crisp, tender, juicy, rich, 
agreeably subacid, aromatic, very good. 

Season December to April or later. 

GRANITE BEAUTY. 

References, i. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 26:65, 149. i860, fig. 2. Mead, Horti- 
culturist. 18:83. 1863. fig. 3. Lothrop, Mag. Hort., 32:362. 1866. 4. Warder, 
1867:720. 5. Downing, 1872:199. 6. Am. Pom. Sac. Cat., 1873. 7. Barry, 
1883:346. 8. Thomas, 1885:233. 9. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:132. 10. 
Hoskins, Amer. Card.. 15:299. 1894. 

Synonyms. Aunt Dorcas (5). Clothes-yard Apple (5). Grandmother's 
Apple (5). 

Fruit about the size of Baldwin, yellow mostly overspread with red, mild 
subacid, good to very good in quality. In season from November to Feb- 
ruary. Tree hardy and a good bearer. 

Historical. A local variety brought to notice in t86o by Z. Breed, Weare, 
N. H. (i). In some portions of New England it is still much esteemed, both 
for home use and for market (9), but it is little known in New York. 

GREAT BARBE. 

Fruit uniform, symmetrical, red and yellow, of good size, attractive, but 
ranking only fair to good in quality. Season midwinter. The tree comes into 
bearing early, is vigorous and apparently productive. So far as tested at this 
Station it does not appear to be worthy of introduction into New York. 

Historical. A Russian variety received here for testing in 1898 from 
J. Niemet.z, Podolia, Russia. 

GREENING. 

The apple commonly known by the name Greening among New York fruit 
growers and fruit dealers is the Rhode Island Greening to which the reader 
is referred for an account of this variety. The name Greening has also been 
used to some extent as a class name for certain types of green or yellowish- 
green winter apples and it enters into the names of several well recognized 
pomological varieties prominent among which are Bottle Greening. North- 
western Greening and Patten, or Patten Greening. 

GREEN NEWTOWN AND YELLOW NEWTOWN. 

References, i. Forsyth, 1803:53. 2. Coxe, 1817:142, 143. figs. 3. Thacher, 
1822:125. 4. A'. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:477. 5- Wilson, 1828:136. 6. 
Ronalds. 1831:33. 7. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:22. 8. Kenrick, 1832:45, 
55. 9. Floy-Lindley, 1833:37, 40. 10. Downing, 1845:118, 119. fig. 11. Bar- 
rett. Horticulturist. 3:2_|0. 1S48. 12. Cole. 1849:133. fig. 13. Thomas. 1849: 
172. 177. 182, 187. fig. 14. Emmons, Xat. Hist. N. V., 3:83. 1851. col. pis. 



146 The Apples of New York. 

Nos. 23 and 53. 15. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 16. Mag. Hort., 19:171. 1853. 
17. Hooper, 1857:64, 102. 18. Elliott, 1858:93. 118, 120. £gs. 19. Oberdieck, 
///. Handb. der Obstk., 4:99. 20. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 21. Warder, 
1867:637, 649, 711, 720. Hg. 22. Kegel, 1868:463, 464. 23. Downing, 1872: 
201. fig. 24. Leroy, 1873:486, 871. Hgs. 25. Barry, 1883:350, 358. 26. Hogg, 
1884:155, 252. 27. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292, 300. 28. Wickson, 
1891:249. 29. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:240, 253. 30. Massey, Rural N. Y., 
51:462. 1892. 31. Hicks, lb., 53:205. 1894. 32. Taylor, U. S. Pom. Bui., 7: 
358. 1898. 33. Ahvood, ]'a. Sta. Bui. 130:126. 140. 1901. tigs, of trees. 34. 
Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901 :392. 35. Budd-Hansen, 1903:94, 211. Hgs. 36. Powell 
and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:43. 62. 1903. 37. Beach and Clark, A'. Y. 
Sta. Bui, 248:123, 152. 1904. 38. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:23, 55, 129, 
2-10, 346. T905. 

Nomenclature. Albemarle (21, 38). Albet)iarle (36, 38). Albemarle 
Pippin (13, 18, 33). Albemarle Pippin (30, 3^, 35, i7, 38). American Neiv- 
tozvn Pippin (9, 10. 18, 23, 24, 26, 38). Back Creek (38). Brooke Pippin 
(38). Brooke Pippin (20). Brookes Pippin (16, 21). Brooke's Pippin 
( ? 23, 38). Green Newton Pippin (2, 3, 4). Green Newtown {27, 35, 
36, 37). Green Newtown Pippin (8, 14, 17, 21, 23, 28, 29, probably incor- 
rectly 9). Green Nezvtown Pippin (10, 13, 18, 24, 25, 26, 37, 38). Green 
Winter Pippin (10. 18, 23, 24, 26. 38). Hunt's Fine Green Pippin (23, 38). 
Hunt's Green Xezciozcn Pippin (? 23. 38). Large Xezvtozcn Pippin (24, 38). 
Large Yellow Newton Pippin (2). Large Yellozv Nezvton Pippin (26). 
Large Yellozv Nezvtozvn Pippin (8, 26, 38). Mountain Pippin (38). Neu- 
stadt's gelber Pepping (19). Newton's Pippin (22). Newton Yellow 
Pippin (34'>. Newtown Pippin (i, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 23, 24, 
25, 26, 30, 31). Xez^'toz^ni Pippin (36, 37, 38). Nezv York Greening (38). 
New York Pippin (38). Peiersburgh Pippin (10, 18, 23, 24, 26, 38). Pippin 
(13). Reineite de Nczv-York (24). Virginia Pippin (38). Yellow New- 
ton's Pippin {22^. Yellow Newtown (21, 27, 32, 35, 36, 37). Yellow 
Newtown Pippin (4, 7, 8, 10, 13. 14. 17, 18, 20, 25, 26, 28, 29). Yellozv 
Nezvtozvn Pippin (24. 36. 38). Yopp's Favorite (24). but incorrectly. 

The Green Newtown and the Yellow Newtown are here discussed 
together because they are so much alike that it is highly probable that 
one is but a sport or strain of the other. At this t'ime it is impossible 
to determine which of the two was the original Xewtown Pippin. 
It is now believed that Albemarle is Yellow Newtown and Brooke 
Pippin is possibly identical with Green Newtown. In pomological 
literature the name Newtown Pippin has often been used in such a 
wav that it is uncertain whether the writer had in mind the Yellow 
Newtown or the Green Newtown, and the correct synonymy cannot 
be accurately determined in all cases. On this account, the names 
as given by the different writers are stated in the above nomen- 
clatural list without indicating whether or not they are used cor- 
rectly except in the case of Leroy (24). Both the Green Newtown 






GREEN NEWTOWN 



The Apples of New York. 147 

and the Yellow Newtown differ markedly in size, color and quality 
in different locations and their successful cultivation is probably 
more limited by local conditions than is the case with any other 
standard commercial variety grown in this state. They are success- 
fully and extensively grown in certain localities in the Hudson valley 
and along" the north shore of Long Island, but usually neither of 
them is regarded as desirable for commercial planting west of the 
Hudson valley. 

Under favorable conditions the trees come into bearing young and 
are reliable croppers yielding good crops biennially or sometimes 
oftener. The fruit hangs well to the tree. It is quite susceptible to 
the scab and requires thorough treatment to hold this disease in check 
particularly when grown on heavy clay soils. Unless grown on fer- 
tile soils and under good cultivation with insect pests and fungous 
diseases kept well under control there is often a comparatively high 
percentage of ill-shaped, uneven and low-grade fruit. Under favor- 
able conditions the fruit grows large or sometimes very large and 
is fairl}- uniform in size although somewhat variable in form and 
coloring. It has a long established reputation in Europe and com- 
mands the best prices paid there for American apples. It is firm, 
keeps very late and ships well. The crop is largely exported. In 
ordinary storage its commercial season is February to March ; in cold 
storage March to May. The fruit is of the highest quality for des- 
sert and excellent for culinary uses. Cider made from it is very 
clear and of high quality, and in the early days large quantities of 
the fruit were used for this purpose. 

Historical. The excellent historical account of the Yellow 
Newtown and the Green Newtown given by Taylor (32) is 
reproduced here : 

The " Newtown Pippin " was the first American apple which attracted atten- 
tion in Europe. After the receipt of specimens by Franklin while in London 
in 1759. and the subsequent sending of grafts to Collinson by John Bartram, 
numerous attempts were made to grow the variety in England. As early as 
1768 it was cultivated in the Brompton Park nursery under the name " New- 
town Pippin of New York."l 

It is probable that the large apple exports of 1773 included considerable 
quantities of the Newtown, for it was at that time quite generally distributed 
through the apple-growing districts of the Atlantic slope. Thomas Jefiferson 
recorded in his " Garden Book " that in March, 1773, grafts of " Newtown 

iHogg, The Apple and Its Varieties, 1859:143. 



148 The Apples of New York. 

Pippin,'' received from Mordecai Debnam, at Sandy Point, were " ingrafted 
by P. Morton," and in March, 1778, he noted that the grafted trees were 
planted out at Monticello. 

Prior to 1803 Forsyth said of the variety in England,! " The New-Town 
Pippin is a fine apple in good season, but seldom ripens with us. It is held 
in great esteem in America." McMahon,2 in 1806 included Newtown Pippin 
in his select list of " Long-keeping apples " and also in a list of " Cyder 
apples." 

Previous to 1817 we have no record that more than one type of the New- 
town v,as recognized, but Coxe,3 whose work appeared in that year, described 
as distinct varieties the " Large Yellow Newtown Pippin " and the " Green 
Newtown Pippin," characterizing the latter as " a variety of the preceding 
kind." Since the time of Coxe the two types have been recognized as distinct 
by our leading American pomologists, though fruit growers are by no means 
unanimous on this point. 

The original seedling tree of Newtown Pippin is alleged to have stood 
near a swamp on the estate of Gershom Moore, in Newtown, Long Island, 
until about 1805, when it died from excessive cutting of cions and exhaustion. 
Its origin is credited to the early part of the eighteenth century. It is not 
clear at this time whether the original tree was of the "green" or the "yellow" 
type, nor has any record of a distinct origin of the two been discovered. 

The Yellow Newtown has for many years been considered the better apple 
for exportation, however, and in commercial orchards has alnx)st superseded 
the Green Newtown on account of its larger size, brighter color, and better 
keeping quality. 

Both sorts are exceedingly variable and susceptible to the influence of soil, 
climate, elevation above sea level, etc. They are successfully grown in but 
few portions of the apple-producing area of the United States at the present 
time, the principal localities being the lower portion of the Hudson River 
valley in New York, the Piedmont and mountain regions of Virginia and 
North Carolina, and portions of California, Oregon and Washington. 

Though first grown in commercial orchards in New York, New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania, the excellent quality of the fruit from " some of the Patow- 
mack counties of Virginia " was noted as early as the time of Coxe. 4 

In Albemarle county, Va.. where it reached a high degree of perfection, it 
became known as the "Albemarle Pippin" at an early day, and was for many 
years considered a distinct variety, of local origin, and was so propagated. 

An export trade in the fruit from Albemarle county was inaugurated under 
favorable auspices by a happy circumstance which occurred in the first year 
of the reign of Queen Victoria. The account below5 is kindly furnished by 
Mr. Samuel B. Woods, president of the Virginia Horticultural Society. 

^Cobbett, A Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit Trees. Edition with 
American Notes, 1803 :s8. 

^McMahon, B., The American Gardener's Calendar, 1806:585. 

"Coxe, 1817:142, 143. 

■•Coxe, 18l7:i43. 

'Letter April 30, 1898. The true history of the matter is that in the first year of 
Queen Victoria's reign Andrew Stevenson, whose home was on a mountain side in 
Albemarle, was minister to the Court of St. James. He had Albemarle Pippins sent 
over for his own use and presented the Queen with several barrels. She was delighted 
with the perfect flavor and excellence of the fruit, and, as a graceful acknowledgment of 
the courtesy of Mr. Stevenson, removed from Albemarle Pippins a small tax which then 




YELLOW NEWTOWN 




YELLOW NEWTOWN 




> 




GREEN NEWTOWN 



The Apples of New York. 149 

The identity of Albemarle and Yellow Newtown seems to have been re- 
corded first by the late Franklin Davis in a letter from Staunton, Va., which 
was published in the Horticulturist in 1857.1 Since that time most pomolo- 
gists have accepted their identity, ascribing the slight variations which are 
observable to local soil or climatic conditions. But in the absence of an 
authentic record of the introduction of Yellow Newtown to Albemarle county, 
many orchardists in the Piedmont and mountain regions have continued to 
believe the Albemarle a distinct variety of local origin. Recent investigation 
by Alessrs. H. L. Lyman and Samuel B. Woods,2 prominent citizens and fruit 
growers of Charlottesville, Va., have resulted in an apparent clearing up of 
the historical uncertainty and establishing a clear conn'^ction between the 
supposed original Albemarle tree and the older variety. 

Green Newtown. 
Tree. 

Tree a rather slow grower ar moderately vigorous, of medium size or some- 
times becoming large. Laterals shorter, twisted, spreading and drooping 
more than those of the Yellow Newtown. Form spreading or roundish, 
rather dense. Twigs medium in length and thickness, pubescent near tips ; 
internodes medium to rather long. Bark clear dark brownish-red, lightly 
streaked with scarf-skin. Lnificcis quite numerous, medium or below, some- 
what elongated, raised, rather conspicuous. Buds medium, broad, plump, 
obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to very large, pretty uniform in size but rather variable in 
form and coloring. Form usually roundish oblate and more o-r less angular. 
As grown in Southeastern New York it often has an oblique axis and is some- 
times decidedly elliptical, but in Western New York the tendency of the fruit 

existed for the benefit of the Crown on all imported apples. From this time the Albe- 
marle Pippin has grown steadily in favor in the English markets. It is not unusual to 
see them selling in the wholesale markets at Liverpool for two or three times the price 
other American apples are bringing. A neighbor last fall sold his entire crop for $io per 
barrel, and Mr. Whately, an English gentleman who recently returned from abroad, told 
me that he saw Albemarle Pippins retailing at 36 cents a pound. 

^Horticulturist, 7:288. 1857. 

'Letter of April 30, 1898. As far back as 1765 there was a tree noted for its fine fruit 
standing in a mountain hollow on what is now Mr. William Sutherland's land, in the 
North Garden neighborhood. How this tree came here no one knows, but tradition has 
it tliat it was a seedling, and from its stock came all Albemarle Pippins. 

The other account, and the most authentic one, is that which fixes the earliest intro- 
duction at the time of Braddock's defeat. Dr. Thomas Walker, of Castle Hill, Albemarle 
county, was the commissary officer of the Virginia troops with Braddock, and after the 
disastrous defeat, when the remnant of the troops went into winter quarters in Phila- 
delphia, he returned home, carrying in his saddle-bags cuttings of apple trees. These were 
grafted at Castle Hill and became the famous Albemarle Pippin. 

These two accounts I find connected in this rather curious way. The land on which 
the tree in the North Garden neighborhood stood was entered in the land office in 1741 in 
the name of Mildred Meriwether, in whose lifetime parts of the tract were improved. 
Mildred Meriwether was the stepdaughter of Dr. Thomas Walker, and what is more 
natural than that the old tree on her land, supposed to be a seedling, was one of the 
Walker grafts? There is little doubt that the first appearance of the Albemarle Pippin 
was at Castle Hill from the grafts brought home from Pennsylvania by Dr. Walker after 
Braddock's defeat in 1735- 



150 The Apples of New York. 

to grow with an oblique axis is less marked and the fruit is less often ellip- 
tical and more nearly symmetrical. Stem medium or short. Cavity deep, 
acuminate to acute, broad or compressed, often sending out rays of russet. 
Calyx rather small to medium, closed or nearly so ; lobes rather small, acute. 
Basin medium in width and depth, furrowed and often somewhat wrinkled. 

Skin rather tough, smooth or slightly roughened with brownish-russet dots, 
grass-green at fruit harvest but sometimes pretty yellow later, and often 
showing some brownish or brownish-pink color, especially near the base. 
White submerged dots are especially numerous toward the eye and whitish 
scarf-skin stripes extend over the base. 

Calyx tube long, funnel-shape to nearly conical. Stamens median to basal. 

Core small to medium, somewhat abaxile ; cells fairly symmetrical, closed 
or nearly so ; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish or roundish 
obcordate, emarginate, tufted. Seeds tufted, medium or above, dark, narrow, 
acuminate. 

Flesh yellowish or tinged with green according to the color of the fruit, 
firm, crisp, tender, moderately fine-grained, juic\', sprightly, with a fine aro- 
matic subacid flavor, best. 

Season February to May. 

Yellow Newtown. 
Tree. 

Tree more vigorous and more erect than that of Green Newtow-n the 
branches growing more freely, the laterals showing less tendency to droop 
and the twigs averaging somewhat longer than is the case with the Green 
Newtown, otherwise we find that the tw^o varieties, as Downing says (10) 
" grow alike." 

Fruit. 

The technical description of the fruit of the Green Newtown applies well 
to the Yellow Newtown in all points excepting the color of the fruit and 
the color and flavor of the flesh. At fruit harvest the Yellow Newtown is 
distinguishable from the Green Newtown because both the yellow and the 
pink tones are more highly developed. When they are fully mature the more 
highly colored apples are bright yellow often with distinct pinkish blush, 
especially about the base. Less highly colored fruit is greenish-yellow shaded 
more or less with duller brownish-pink through which narrow streaks of the 
ground color often appear, combining with the streaks of whitish scarf-skin 
to give a somewhat striped efi'ect. In general appearance it is decidedly more 
attractive than the Green Newtown, and its flesh is apt to be more distinctly 
tinged with yellow^, milder, less sprightly and more highly aromatic. 

GREEN SWEET, 

References, i. Manning, 1838:63. 2. Manning, Mag. Hart., 7:45. 1841. 
3. Thomas, 1849:162. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. F., 3:90. 1851. 5. Horti- 
culturist, 9:192. 1854. 6. Hooper, 1857:45. 7. Downing, 1857:81. 8. Elliott, 
1858:83. fig. 9. Mag. Hort., 27:152. 1861. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 
II. Warder, 1867:385. 12. Barry. 1883:347. 13- Bailey, An. Hart.. 1892:240. 
14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:95. 15. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48: 
42. 1903. 



The Apples of New York. 151 

Synonyms. Green Szvcct (6). Green Sweeting (5). Green Sweeting 
(4). Honey Greening (6). Honey Greening (7, 8, 11, 12). 

A desirable late keeping apple excellent for either dessert or 
culinary- use. It holds its flavor and remains crisp, brittle and juicy 
till spring-. Often it is kept in common cellar storage till April or 
]\Iay. It is undoubtedly one of the best late keeping sweet apples in 
cultivation in this state. It is grown with profit for selling in local 
markets wherever it is well known, but it does not sell so readily in 
the general market because it is not large and not well known and 
because the trade demands chiefly red. subacid apples. The tree is 
a good reliable cropper, bears biennially and yields so abundantly 
that the fruit commonly averages below medium or rather small, but 
it is perfect, smooth, bright, regular and uniform in size and shape 
with little loss from drops and culls. The apples are easily picked 
because the habit of the tree is upright and rather compact and it 
usually bears its fruit close to the branches or on short laterals or 
spurs. Green Sweet may be set more closely in the orchard than 
either Ijaldwin or Rhode Island Greening because it does not grow 
so large as either of these varieties and is decidedly more upright in 
habit. 

The Sweet Greening of Thacheri or Green Sweeting of Kenrick- 
is said to be distinct from this variety. 

A fall apple has been introduced from Russia under the name 
Green Sweet. This will be noticed in the succeeding volume. 

Historieal. An old variety of uncertain origin. It was already well known 
and much cultivated in Northeastern Massachusetts in the first half of the 
last century (i). It has long been highly esteemed in Central and Western 
New York (3, 4, 5. 9)- 

Tree. 

Tree medium or sometimes large, vigorous or moderately vigorous ; branches 
moderately stout ; young branches dark green. Form erect or roundish, rather 
compact. Tti-igs short, straight, stout ; internodes short. Bark very dark 
brown, mingled with reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin : pubes- 
cent near tips. Lentieels numerous, medium, oblong, slightly raised, rather 
conspicuous. Buds large, plump, broad, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or often below medium, sometimes large. Form ovate to 
roundish inclined to conic, sometimes obscurely ribbed ; pretty regular and 

'Thacher, 1822:i38. 
= Kenrick, 1832:46. 



152 The Apples of New York. 

uniform in size. Stan medium to rather long, slender to moderately thick. 
Cavity somewhat furrowed, deep, acuminate, moderately broad, smooth or 
with some radiating russet rays. Calyx medium to rather large, closed or 
somewhat open ; lobes rather leafy, long, acute. Basin variable, usually 
medium in width and depth, abrupt, slightly wrinkled and more or less 
obscurely furrowed. 

Skin grass-green eventually becoming pretty yellow with a thin brownish- 
red blush in highly colored specimens. Dots green or with fine russet point, 
often submerged and whitish. Prevailing color green. 

Calyx tithe wide, cone-shape. Stamens median. 

Core rather large, abaxile, open ; core lines somewhat clasping or nearly 
meeting. Carpels roundish ovate. Seeds numerous, medium or below, rather 
narrow, acute. 

Flesh greenish- white, tender, fine-grained, juicy, very sweet, good. 

Season December to April or May. 

GREENVILLE. 

References, i. Beach. A'. ]'. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:587. 1894. 2. Buechly, 
E. ]\I., Greenville, Ohio, Cat.. 1895. f^S- 3- -'liner. Card., 17:162. 1896. fig. 4. 
Can. Hort., 19:86. 1896. fig. 5. Beach. .Y. V. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:280. 1896. 6. 
lb., JJ'estcrn X. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt.. 1900:35. 7. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. 
P. I. Bui, 48:43. 1903. 8. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205:42. 1903. Q. Beach 
and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:123. 1904. 

Svxony:,!. Downixg Winter ]\Iaiden Blush (i, 2, 3, 4). Downing 
JVinter Maiden Blush (5. 6, 7, 9V 

Fruit attractive on account of its desirable size and clear bright 
color. The skin is tough and withstands rough handling pretty well 
for a yellow apple. Suitable for general market and culinary pur- 
poses but it does not excel in quality. The tree is satisfactorily pro- 
ductive, being usually an annual bearer alternating light with heavier 
crops. 

Historical. Originated from seed of Maiden Blush in 1874 hy Jason Down- 
ing. Darke county, Ohio. E. ;M. Buechly, Greenville, Ohio, introduced it 
under the name Downing's Winter Maiden Blush but afterwards changed the 
name to Greenville. It has not yet become generally disseminated in New- 
York. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous, upright becoming rather spreading. Tzvigs below medium, 
rather slender to moderately stout, nearly straight ; internodes medium or 
below. Bark clear reddish-brown or olive-green, somewhat pubescent. Lenti- 
cels rather conspicuous, moderately numerous, small to medium, usually elon- 
gated, raised. Buds below medium, generally roundish, slightly pubescent, 
acute, appressed. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to medium. Form roundish oblate to roundish oblong, usually 
symmetrical but sometimes slightly irregular or obscurely ribbed, uniform 
in shape. Stem short. Ca^'ity acute to acuminate, rather deep, moderately 



\ 




\ 




GREENVILLE 



The Apples of New York. 153 

wide, symmetrical or nearly so, sometimes slightly furrowed, sometimes lipped, 
often a little russeted Calyx medium, closed or somewhat open ; lobes often 
long, acuminate. Basin shallow, to moderately deep, usually furrowed and 
wrinkled. 

Skin tough, waxen, clear pale yellow with handsome red or pinkish blush, 
in appearance somewhat resembling the Maiden Blush. 

Calyx tube rather narrow, funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core medium, abaxile ; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping. 
Carpels broadly roundish. Seeds medium or above, rather light brown, rather 
narrow, acute. 

Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, firm, crisp, moderately fine, 
moderately tender, juicy, pleasant, mild subacid, sometimes a little astringent, 
good. 

Season November to February, sometimes extending into April. Com- 
mercial limit January or, in cold storage, February. 

GREYHOUSE, 

Referexces. I. Coxe, 1817:154. fig. 2. Elliott, 1854:174. 3. Downing, 
1857:214. 4. Warder, 1867:720, 722. 5. Downing, 1872:204, 270. 6. Down- 
ing, Jm. Pom. Soe. Rpf., 1875:68. 7. Downing, 1876:57 app. 8. Lyon, Mich. 
Hart. Soe. Rpt., 1890:294. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241. 10. Burrill and 
McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:323, 326. 1896. 11. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. 
Bui, 248:131. 1904. 12. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:131. 1905. 

SvxoNYMS. Big Romanife (incorrectly 6, 7, 11, of some 12). Black Jack 
(6, 7, 12). Black Pcuv.ock (6, 7. 12). Black Vandervere (7, 12). Black 
Vandez'cre (6). Fillikeii (6). Gerinan Spif::enberg (6, 7, 12). Grayhouse 
(12). Gray Roinanite (6, 12). Hard Red (7, 12). Hoop (12). Hoopes 
(4, 9). Hoopes (5, 6, 7, 12). Ploopes' Pearmain (6. 7, 12). Hoops (10). 
Hoops (12). Hopsey (5, 6, 7, 12). Hopson (6, 7. 12). House (i). Key- 
stone (6, 7, 12). topside (6, 7, 12). Lop-sided Pearmain (5. 12). Lopsidc 
Pearmain (6). May. erroneously (5, 6, 12). May Apple (2). AI.w Seek- 
No-Farther (7, II). May Seek-No-Further (2, 6). May Seek-No- 
Further (12). May Seek-No-Furfher (8). Pilliken (5, 12). Red Everlast- 
ing (6, 7, 12). Roinanite (8, incorrectly 6 and 12). 

Fruit medium in size, dull colored, green and red; skin thick; flesh dry, 
coarse, subacid; not suitable for dessert and valued only as a long keeper (i, 

2, S, 8). Season February to May (5, 11). Tree vigorous, spreading; not 
a reliable bearer. 

Historical. Greyhouse probably originated either in New Jersey (5) or 
Pennsylvania (4). It has been grown under various names in different parts 
of the country and there has been much uncertainty with regard to its 
synonymy. May Seek-No-Farther and Hoops are now considered identical 
with Grayhouse (12). It is still offered by some nurserymen (9), but it is 
not now generally cultivated (11 V 

GRIMES. 

References, i. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 22:131. 1856. 2. Downing, 1857:149. 

3. Hooper, 1857:42. 4. Hanford. Horticulturist. 18:206. 1863. fig. 5. Warder, 
1867:670. fig. 6. Grimes, Horticulturist, 24:51. 1869. 7. Am. Pom. Soe. Cat., 



154 The Apples of New York. 

1869. 8. Barry, 1883:347. 9. Thomas, 1885:245. 10. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1890:292. II. Wickson, 1891:247. 12. Bailey, ^n. Hort., 1892:240. 13. 
Amer. Gard., 19:131. 1898. fig. 14. Brackett, lb., 22:191. 1901. 15. Ahvood, 
Va. Sta. Bill, 130:133. 1901. 16. Stinson, Mo. Fr. Sta. Bid., 3:25. 1902. 17. 
Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 76:55. 1902. fig. 18. Budd-Hansen, 1903:95. fig. 
19. Powell and Fulton. U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 48:43. 1903. 20. Beach and Clark, 
N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:123. 1904. 

Synonyms. Grimes' Golden (5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18). 
Grimes Golden (ig. 20). Grimes Golden Pippin { i. 2, 3. 4, 9, 11, 12). 

Fruit beautiful rich golden-yellow, attractive in form and excellent 
either for dessert or culinary use. It can hardly be called a standard 
market variety but in some markets it sells well. It is not a good 
keeper and is apt to scald in storage. It is in season about with 
Hubbardston. The tree is a biennial or sometimes an annual bearer 
and a good cropper. Favorable reports on it have been received 
from certain localities in Xew York but generally as grown in this 
state it does not develop in size, color or quality as well as it does 
in more southern latitudes, and there is a high percentage of loss 
from drops and culls. Some few X"ew York fruit growers consider 
it a fairly profitable variety but generally it is regarded less favorably 
and it has failed to become a standard apple either in the home 
orchards or in the commercial orchards of the State. The indica- 
tions are that it will never be grown in Xew York to any consider- 
able extent. 

Historical. Originated in West Virginia. Fruit from the original tree 
was sold to the New Orleans traders as long ago as 1804 (6). It has become 
generally disseminated throughout the Ben Davis regions of the South, West 
and Southwest, where it is often planted for home use and is highly esteerrred 
as a dessert apple, but it is not grown extensively in many localities in the 
commercial orchards. It has long been known in scattering localities in New 
York and old trees of it are found in some orchards but it has not been gen- 
erally planted. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branches short, stout, curved, crooked. Form 
upright spreading or roundish, inclined to droop; rather dense. Ticigs short 
to long, straight, moderately stout ; internodes short. Bark dull brownish, 
rather lightly mottled with scarf-skin ; pubescent in spots and at tips. Lenti- 
eels scattering, small to large, roundish or oblong, not raised, rather incon- 
spicuous. Buds medium, broad, obtuse to acute, free, varying from slightly 
pubescent to quite pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large. Form roundish oblong, often flattened at the ends, 
sometimes inclined to conic, pretty regular, sometimes obscurely ribbed, some- 



The Apples of New York. 155 

times oblique, symmetrical, uniform; sides often unequal. Stem short to 
medium. Cai'ity broad, deep, acute to acuminate, often russeted. Calyx 
rather large, closed ; lolies long, reflexed, often separated at base. Basin 
abrupt, deep or moderately deep, rather wide, somewhat furrowed. 

Skin tough, somewhat rough, clear deep yellow with scattering pale yellow 
or russet dots. 

Cah'x tube yellow, very broad at the top, conical, deep. Stamens basal. 

Core medium to rather small, somewhat abaxile ; cells usually pretty sym- 
metrical, closed or somewhat open ; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. 
Carfrls roundish, emarginate, concave. Seeds numerous, medium or below, 
somewhat tufted, plump, acute to obtuse. 

Flesh yellow, very firm, tender, crisp, moderately coarse, moderately juicy, 
subacid, rich, aromatic, sprightly, very good to best. 

Season November to January or February. Commercial limit, December 
or January. 

HARGROVE. 

References, i. Amer. Agric., 1891:701. fig. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892: 
240. 3. Berckmans, Cat., 1892. 4. U. S. Pom. Rpt.. 1895:24. 5. Thomas, 
1897:638. 6. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1897:38. 

A yellow apple of mild tlavor and good quality. Received for testing at 
this Station from P. J. Berckmans, Augusta, Ga. It does not appear to be 
worthy of trial in New York state. The fruit is pale yellow, sometimes 
blushed, averages below medium size, is mild in flavor and good in quality. 
Its season here extends from November to March but in the southern states 
it is classed as an autumn variety. 

Fruit. 

Fruit small to nearly medium. Form roundish conic, sometimes roundish 
oblate; pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem medium to rather short and 
thick. Caznty obtuse, shallow to moderately deep, sometimes symmetrical 
but often compressed or furrowed or lipped, often russeted. Calyx medium, 
open or sometimes partly closed ; lobes broad, reflexed. Basin shallow or 
moderately shallow, furrowed, often wrinkled. 

Skin tough, somewhat waxen, glossy, bright yellow, sometimes with bright 
blush. Dots small to large, often irregular, russet. 

Calyx tube urn-shape. 

Core medium or below, closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly round- 
ish, emarginate, tufted. Seeds long, acuminate, tufted. 

Flesh a little yellowish, firm, rather crisp, moderately fine-grained, juicy, 
mild subacid mingled with sweet, slightly aromatic, good. 

HAYWOOD. 

References, i. Berckmans. Cat.. 1892. 2. Bailey, An. Hort.. 1892:241. 

Synonym. Queen of Hayn'ood (i). 

A southern apple received from P. J. Berckmans, Augusta. Ga., 1892, for 
testing here. The fruit is dull red. striped over yellow background, hardly 
medium in size, not very attractive, mild subacid, and only fair in quality. 
Not desirable for planting in New York. 



156 The Apples of New York. 

HAZEN. 

A yellow or greenish apple of good size, mild flavor, nearly sweet, good 
or nearly good in quality. The tree comes into bearing young, is a rather 
strong grower and so far as tested here is productive. It is not recommended 
for planting in New York. 

Historical. Hazen was originated by J. Erwin Lord, Pompanoosuc, Vt., 
who says that it was produced by crossing some fine cultivated variety, record 
of name now lost, upon an unnamed seedling red winter apple. 

Tree. 

Tzcigs very short, slender, straight or nearly so; internodes medium. Bark 
slightly dull reddish, somewhat pubescent. Lcnticels not very conspicuous, 
small to nearly medium, generally quite elongated. Buds rather small, prom- 
inent, fleshy, acute, moderately pubescent, slightly adhering to the bark. 

Fruit. 

Fntit medium or above, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish in- 
clined to conic, varying to somewhat oblate, symmetrical. Stem medium to 
long, rather slender. Cavity obtuse to acute, medium in depth and width, 
usually symmetrical, sometimes russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed or 
partly open. Basin often oblique, shallow, moderately wide, obtuse, slightly 
furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skill yellow, marbled with green. Dots small, numerous, greenish and 
russet. 

Calyx tube rather small, short, usually cone-shape, sometimes varying to 
funnel-form. 

Core medium, varying to rather large, open ; core lines usually meeting. 
Carpels broadly roundish, mucronate. Seeds numerous, small to medium, 
rather narrow, acute, moderately light brown. 

Flesh yellowish, rather coarse, somewhat crisp, not tender, moderately juicy, 
sweet or nearly so, slightly aromatic, fair to good. 

Season December to April. 

HENNIKER. 

References, i. Downing, 1876:54 app. 2. Hogg, 1884:126. 3. Garten- 
flora, 39:265. 1890. col. pi. 4. Bailey, An. Horf., 1892:243. 5. Beach, N. Y. 
Sta. An. Rpt., 11:593. 1892. 6. Jour. Royal Hort. Sac. 1898:356. 7. Powell 
and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:44. 1903. 8. Beach and Clark. .V. Y. Sta. 
Bui, 248:124. 1904. 

Syxoxym. L.\dv Hexxiker (i, 2, 4, 5, 6). 

Fruit of good size and excellent quality btit not attractive enough 
in form and color to rank as a first-class commercial variety. The 
tree is a strong grower. It does not come into bearing very young 
but is quite productive in alternate years. There is apt to be con- 
siderable loss from the dropping of the fruit. It is not recommended 
for planting in New York. 



The Apples of New York. 157 

Historical. Originated between 1840 and 1850 in Suffolk, England (2). 
Awarded first-class certiticate by tbe Royal Horticultural Society in 1873 (6). 
It has not been disseminated nuicli in tbis country and is but little known in 
New York. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous ; branches short, moderately stout, curved, crooked. Form 
roundish or spreading, rather dense. Txcigs long to short, stout ; internodes 
medium or below. Bark dark brown tinged with red or partly olive-green, 
distinctly mottled with gray scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lcnticcls rather 
numerous, scattering, medium to small, roundish, raised, moderately con- 
spicuous. Buds medium, rather prominent, broad, plump, obtuse to acute, 
free, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to very large, fairly uniform in size. Form oblate 
to roundish, rather obscurely ribbed, often elliptical, not very uniform in 
shape. Stem short to medium, moderately thick. Cavity acuminate or some- 
what acute, deep, wide, gently furrowed, often covered with outspreading 
russet. Calyx medium to rather large ; lobes partly open, broad, acute. Basin 
moderately deep to rather shallow, medium to rather wide, somewhat furrowed 
and wrinkled. 

Skin rather tough, decidedly roughened with capillary netted russet lines 
and rather large russet dots, and sometimes with broken patches of russet; 
color rather deep yellow, blushed and mottled with red and sparingly striped 
with carmine. Prevailing effect rather dull red somewhat mingled with 
yellow. 

Calyx tube rather long, funnel-shape. Stamens median or below. 

Core medium to small, axile; cells unsymmetrical, often seedless, irreg- 
ularly developed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels broadly 
roundish or approaching obcordate, emarginate, tufted. Seeds few, medium 
or above, obtuse to acute, tufted. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately coarse, somewhat crisp, rather tender, 
juicy, rich, brisk subacid with something of the flavor characteristic of certain 
russets, becoming rather mild late in the season ; good to very good in quality. 
Excellent for cooking but at first rather too briskly acid to be desirable for 
a dessert apple. 

Season November to March or April. 

HEREFORDSHIRE. 

Referenxes. I. Hogg, 1884:106. 2. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890: 
292. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:^41. 

Synonym. Herefordshire Beefing (i, 3). 

A dark red subacid apple adapted for kitchen use. As fruited at the Geneva 
Station it is rather attractive but falls below standard commercial varieties 
in size, quality and appearance. The tree comes into bearing early and is 
productive. It does not appear to be worthy of trial in New York state. 

Historical. Known in Herefordshire for more than one hundred years (i). 
It is but little known in New York. 



158 The Apples of New York. 

Tree. 

Tree not a very good grower ; branches short, slender ; laterals willowy and 
slender. Form roundish or spreading, very dense. Tivigs below medium to 
very short, straight, slender, somewhat pubescent ; internodes short. Bark 
clear brownish-red with some olive-green, lightly mottled with scart-skin. 
Lenticels moderately numerous, scattering, small to medium, elongated, slightly 
raised. Biids below medium to small, broad, very obtuse, appressed, deeply 
set in the bark, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium in size but with a full crop it varies from below medium to 
small. Form usually roundish oblate, sometimes oblate conic, symmetrical ; 
uniform in size and shape. Stem short and thick. Cavity obtuse, broad, 
deep, often russeted, usually symmetrical, sometimes furrowed. Calyx 
medium to rather large, usually open ; tips of lobes divergent. Basiti varies 
from shallow to moderately deep, rather wide, slightly wrinkled, ridged. 

Skin thin, tough, clear greenish-yellow largely blushed with rather bright 
dark red, sometimes almost covered with red. Dots medium in size, numerous, 
usually russet, sometimes submerged. Prevailing effect red with more or 
less contrasting yellow. 

Calyx tithe very short, rather wide, broadly conical, sometimes approaching 
funnel-form. Sta)nens median or slightly marginal. 

Core large, abaxile ; cells symmetrical, open ; core lines clasping. Carpels 
usually elliptical sometimes broadly obovate, emarginate, sometimes a little 
tufted. Seeds small, rather short, plump, broadly acute, rather light colored. 

Flesh yellowish, moderately firm and tender, moderately fine, juicy, aro- 
matic, brisk subacid, fair to good in flavor and quality. 

Season October to January or February. 

HIESTER. 

References, i. Downing, 1872:215. 2. Boyer, Pa. Fr. Gr. Soc. Rpt., 1881: 
34. 3. ///. Sta. Bui, 45:324- 1896. 

Synonyms. Baer (i). H caster (i). Hcistcr (i). Michel Miller (2). 
Miller (i). Sfehly (i). 

A pleasant subacid apple in season here during winter, but where it origi- 
nated it is classed as a late fall and early winter variety. Tree vigorous and 
productive (i). It is considered a desirable apple in some parts of Pennsyl- 
vania (2). Not recommended for planting in New York. 

Historical. Origin, Reading, Berks county. Pa. (i). But little known in 
New York. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium. Form roundish oblate, sometimes faintly ribbed. Stem very 
short and slender. Cavity acute, rather broad and deep. Calyx small, partly 
open. Basin rather abrupt to somewhat obtuse, broad, deep, slightly wrinkled. 

Skin pale yellow mottled with thin bright red on shady side and washed 
with deeper red and narrowly streaked with deep carmine in the sun. Dots 
gray or russet, conspicuous about the cavity. 

Calyx tube rather small, cone-shape, approaching funnel-form. Stamens 
median. 



The Apples of New York. 159 

Core small, somewhat abaxile ; cells open or partly open ; core lines meeting 
or clasping. Carpels broadly roundish. Seeds medium or below, rather 
narrow, short, plump. 

Flesh yellowish-white, crisp, moderately juicy, rather tender, mild subacid 
to somewhat sweet, fair to good in flavor and quality. 

HIGHLAND BEAUTY, 

References, i. Manning. Mass. Hurt. Soc. Rpt., 1881:232. 2. Downing, 
1881:88 app. fig. 3. Dempsey, Out. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 2:32. 1895. 

A seedling of the Lady exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society in 1881 as a new variety. " In size it surpasses its parent but not in 
quality" (t). The fruit is of the Lady type. Skin clear, smooth yellow or 
almost waxen white, blushed with brilliant carmine. Flesh white, crisp, 
tender, juicy, mild subacid, very good. 

Season January to March (i, 2, 3). It does not appear to be known in 
cultivation to any considerable extent. 

HOLLAND WINTER, 

References, i. Langley, Pomona. ^T2,<^. (cited by 3). 2. Knoop, Pomol., 
1758. (.cited by 3). 3. Forsyth, 1824:107. 4. Hogg, 1884:110. 5. Powell and 
Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bill., 48:44, par. 2. 1903. 6. Beach and Clark, A^ Y. 
Sta. Bui. 248:124. 1904. 

The variety here described as Holland Winter was received for 
testing at this Station from Western Pennsylvania under the name of 
Holland Pippin. United States Pomologist Heiges identified it for 
us as the Holland Pippin of Hogg, Langley and IMiller. and stated 
that it is the variety which is generally grown in Pennsylvania under 
the name of Holland Pippin, We have not yet been able to confirm 
with certainty the identification made by Heiges. 

Forsyth's complete description of the Holland Pippin of Lang- 
ley (3) is here given. 

" This is a middle-sized apple, of a flattish shape. Its colour 
is yellow, in some places inclining to green, with sometimes a 
little red towards the sun. This is a pretty good apple, and 
keeps till the middle of April." 

The following is Hogg's description (4). 

" Fruit large, three inches wide, and tw^o inches and a half 
high; roundish and flattened with ribs on the sides. Skin, 
greenish-yellow, with a slight tinge of pale brown where ex- 
posed to the sun, and strewed with large green dots. Eye, 



i6o The Apples of New York. 

small and closed, set in a round, narrow, and plaited basin. 
Stalk, very short, imbedded in a wide and deep cavity. Flesh, 
yellowish-white, firm, tender, juicy, sweet, and briskly acid. 

"A valuable apple of first-rate quality for culinary purposes; 
it is in use from November to [March. The tree is a strong 
grower, vigorous, healthy, and a good bearer." 

This variety is surely distinct from the one described by 
Downing^ and commonly grown in the Hudson valley and to 
some extent in other portions of the state under the name of 
Holland Pippin. The Holland Pippin of Downing begins to 
ripen somewhat earlier than the Fall Pippin, while the variety 
here described keeps till spring. Since both of these varieties 
are known in cultivation in this country under the name of Holland 
Pippin it is well to distinguish between the two by calling the late 
keeping one Holland Winter. 

It is a green apple of the Reinette Pippin class, not equal to 
Rhode Island Greening in flavor or quality for dessert or culinary 
uses liut it is a better keeper and less liable to scald. It 
is attractive for a green apple in both size and color. The tree is a 
strong grower, healthy and productive, and usually is an annual 
bearer alternating heavy with rather light crops. It appears to be 
of sufficient value to be worthy of planting for trial as a commercial 
variety where a late keeping apple of this type is desired. 

Historical If this is in fact the Holland Pippin of Langley and Miller it is 
an old variety " native of the Holland district of Lincolnshire, hence its 
name" (4). 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous ; branches long, moderately stout. Form spreading or 
roundish, rather open. Twigs moderately long, straight, stout; internodes 
short to medium. Bark clear reddish-brown with some olive-green, streaked 
lightly with scarf-skin, heavily pubescent near the tips. Lenticels numerous, 
small, roundish, sometimes raised, rather conspicuous. Buds large to above 
medium, broad, obtuse, free near the old wood but quite appressed near the 
tips ; heavily pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large. Form roundish conic, symmetrical, regular or 
sometimes faintly ribbed. Stem medium or short and rather thick. Cavity 
acute or approaching acuminate, rather large and slightly furrowed, occas- 

' Downing, 1872:219. 




^i|M^ 





HOLLAND WINTER 



The Applks of Ni-:w York. i6i 

ionally with thin outsprcacHng russet rays. Calyx small to medium, closed 
or partly open. Ihisiii shallow, occasionally moderately deep and abrupt, 
somewhat furrowed, wrinkled. 

Ski)i tough, slightly wa.xy, smooth, pale green or whitish often with a faint, 
dull blush. Dots numerous, rather large, conspicuous, submerged, whitish, 
mingled with a few tine russet points. 

Calyx tube long, narrow, funnel-shape. Stamens median or below. 

Core medium or below, somewhat abaxile; cells pretty symmetrical, open 
or partly closed; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish to somewhat elliptical, 
broad, slightly tufted. Seeds rather short, plump, obtuse. 

Flesh nearly white, firm, rather crisp, moderately fine-grained, juicy, sub- 
acid with mild, pleasing aroma, good. 

Season December to May. 

HOLMES SWEET, 

Reference, i. Downing, 1872:220. 

Described by Downing as a medium sized yellow apple with red cheek. 
Flesh tender, sweet, mingled with subacid. Season November to February. 
Origin, Niagara county, N. Y. (i). Now practically obsolete. 

Not the Holmes of Thacher. 

HUBBARDSTON, 

Referexce.s. I. Kenrick, 1832:47. 2. Manning, 1838:62. 3. Mag. Hort., 
7:45. 184 1. 4. Downing, 1845:113. 5. Mag. Hort., I4:545- 1848. Hg. 6. lb., 
15:63. 1849. 7. Thomas, 1849:166, 167. Hg. 8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
3:65. 185 1, eol. pis. 51 and 74. 9. Hovey, 1:67. 1852. cul. pi., fig. 10. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 11. Hooper, 1857:46. 12. Oberdieck, ///. Handb. der 
Obsik., 8:137. 13. Warder, 1867:600. fig. 14. Mag. Hort., 34:27. 1868. 15. 
Leroy, 1873:497. fig. 16. Barry, 1883:347. 17. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890:292. 18. Wickson, 1891:244. 19. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241. 20. 
Green, Rural N. Y ., 57:802. 1S98. 21. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:363. 22. 
Budd-Hansen, 1903:100. fig. 23. Can. Hort.. 26:89. I9C3. fig. 24. Powell 
and Fulton, U. S. B. P. L Bui, 48:44. 1903. 25. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. 
Sta. Bid., 248:125. 1904. 

Synonyms. American Blush (20). American Blush (25). American 
Nonpareille (15). Hubbardston (18). Hui?b.\rd.ston Nonsuch (i, 2, 3, 5, 
6, 7, 8, 9, II, 13, 14, 16, 19, 21, 22). Hubbardston Nonsuch (15, 23, 24, 25). 
Jolin May (15). Nonpareille de Hubbardston (15). Nonsuch (18). 
Nonesuch (24, 25). Orleans (25). Sondergleichen von Hubbardston 
(12). J 'an rieet. 

Hubbardston is an excellent variety for commercial planting" and 
deserves to be better known among" Xew York fruit g'rowers. It 
varies remarkably under different conditions of soil and climate not 
only in vig"or of tree but in certain fruit characters also, such as size, 
color, degree of smoothness or russeting of the skin and in the quality 



i62 The Apples of New York. 

and flavor of the flesh. The fact that it has come to have various 
local names in different parts of the state is doubtless partly due to 
this variability. It is now generally conceded that American Blush, 
A'an Meet and Orleans are identical with Hubbardston, or at the 
most are but selected strains of that variety. In many parts of the 
state Hubbardston is one of the most profitable varieties of its 
season, ripening as it does between the perishable early autumn 
•varieties and the late ripening winter apples. It has generally sus- 
tained the reputation of coming into bearing at an early age and 
yielding heavy crops as often as every other year and in many places 
it is almost an annual bearer. It is apt to be productive to a fault, 
and for this reason should receive extra attention to keep the soil 
fertile and the foliage well protected from insects and diseases. 
When grown upon its own trunk the body is sometimes injured by 
severe winters. The tree also is somewhat susceptible to attacks of 
the apple canker. For these reasons it is doubtless best for one who 
wishes to grow Hubbardston to plant some hardier and more vig- 
orous variety such as the Northern Spy, and the following year top- 
work the trees to Hubbardston. Under favorable conditions the tree 
is a vigorous grower and the fruit is fair, smooth, uniform, of good 
size and pretty good color. The quality is excellent for dessert but 
less satisfactory for culinary use except very early in the season 
before the fruit loses acidity. 

Its commercial limit in cellar storage does not extend much later 
than December. It is a very uncertain keeper and in cold storage 
should go out in late fall or early winter although sometimes it has 
been held in good condition till spring. Fruit of this variety grown 
in Central and \\'estern New York usually is somewhat smaller and 
keeps better than that grown in the lower Hudson valley. It appears 
that its keeping quality is correlated to some extent with the size of 
the fruit. If there is only a medium crop on the tree and the fruit 
is large it goes down quicker than if the crop is heavier and the 
individual fruits smaller and firmer. Fruit of good color also has 
good keeping quality, other things being equal, but poorly colored 
fruit soon deteriorates in flavor and quality (25). When the trees 
are allowed to become greatly overloaded, as they often do where 





HUBBARDSTON 



The Apples of New York. 163 

llie ap])k'^ arc not thinned, there is apt to he a considerahle portion 
of undersized and jjoorly colored fruit. Tliere is also sonic loss 
from the early droi)])ini^ of the fruit particularly where picking is too 
long- delayed, liuhhardston reaches edihle maturity in October and 
holds its flavor well till December or January, but after that time its 
quality usually deteriorates rapidly. It may often be kept in edible 
condition through the winter even in cellar storage but seldom with 
prime flavor. 

Historical. Hubbardston is a native fruit which had its origin in Hubbards- 
ton, Massachusetts, As early as 1832 Kenrick referred to it as one of the 
most desirable varieties known in cultivation in Eastern Massachusetts (i). 
Although it has long been widely disseminated in New York there are many 
localities where it is yet unknown and many others where it has been intro- 
duced within recent years. The planting of it for commercial purposes is 
gradually increasing. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous, sometimes large, but if it is allowed to overbear and is not 
properly fed it is more often moderately vigorous and of medium size. Form 
erect to roundish, somewhat spreading, rather dense. Tzvigs medium or 
rather long, spreading or erect, moderately stout, somewhat crooked, pubescent ; 
internodes below medium to short. Bark dull olive-green with tinge of 
reddish-brown and mottled with thin gray scarf-skin. Lenticels scattering, 
conspicuous, medium to small, round or oblong, raised, becoming laterally 
compressed on the older bark. Buds medium, broad, obtuse, appressed, pubes- 
cent. Leaves medium to rather small., rather narrow and inclined to become 
incurved. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large, sometimes very large. Form roundish ovate 
or slightly oblong to roundish inclined to conic, characteristically rounded 
toward the cavity, usually symmetrical, often obscurely ribbed. The crop 
is usually pretty uniform in size and shape but there is considerable variability 
in the fruit with crops of different seasons and different localities. Stem 
short to very short. Cavity rather deep, acute, symmetrical, sometimes 
slightly furrowed, usually russeted. Calyx small to large, open to nearly 
closed ; when large the lobes are usually reflexed and separated at the base 
exposing the yellowish calyx tube. Basin moderately narrow to rather wide, 
shallow and somewhat obtuse to moderately deep and abrupt, distinctly fur- 
rowed, often marked with concentric flecks of russet in and about the basin. 

Skin sometimes quite smooth but more often roughened with dots, flecks 
and fine veins of russet and sometimes covered with faint bloom. Color 
yellow or greenish blushed and mottled with red which varies from dull 
brownish to clear bright red, and is more or less marked with deep carmine. 
Dots pale or russet, often large and irregular, especially conspicuous on the 
red portions of the fruit. Prevailing effeet in highly colored specimens 
attractive red, mingled with more or less of yellow. 



164 The Apples of New York. 

Calyx tube medium in length, broad, cone-shape. Stamens median. 

Core medium or rather small, more or less abaxile ; cells usually pretty 
symmetrical, closed or partly open ; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. 
Carpels broadly roundish, slightly emarginate. tufted. Seeds numerous, 
medium to rather small, rather short, plump, acute, light brown. 

Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, moderately firm, breaking, rather 
fine-grained, tender, moderately crisp, juicy, aromatic, rich, at first sprightly 
but becoming mild subacid mingled with sweet, very good to best. 

Season October to January. 

HUNT RUSSET. 

References. 1. Hovey, Mag. Hart., 19:126. 1853. 2. lb., 21:300. 1855. 3. 
Downing, 1857:143, 187. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 5. Warder, 1867:720, 
722. 6. Downing, 1872:196. 7. Downing, C, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:36. 
8. Downing, 1876:53 app. 9. Thomas, 1885:240, 513. 10. Lyon, Mich. Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. II. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241. 12. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:101. 

Synonyms. American Golden Russet of Nezv England (8). Bullock (i, 
2, but incorrectly). Fay's Russet (3). Fay's Russet (8). Golden Russet 
(not of N. Y.) (8). Golden Russet of Mass. (4, 5, 6). Golden Russet 
of Mass. (8). Golden Russet of Nezv England (8). Mass. Golden Russet 
(8). Nezv England Russet (8). Nezv England Golden Russet (8). Russet 
Pearmain (3, 9). Russet Pearmain (8). 

Fruit niedium size, golden russet with broken patches of smooth 
bright red on the cheek. It is quite attractive for a russet apple, 
excellent in quality and a good keeper. Tree moderately vigorous 
and productive. It is no longer considered profitable and is not 
being planted in commercial orchards. 

Historical. The following description of the fruit was made from apples 
grown upon the old Hunt farm. Concord, Mass. Mr. Wm. H. Hunt, to 
whom we are indebted for these apples, states that the variety originated at 
least 150 years ago, and adds that it was once considered a profitable market 
apple but is so no longer. Downing (8) refers to it as an old favorite which 
is said to have originated in the latter part of the seventeenth century, and 
which has been widely disseminated under different names. In New England 
it has by some been called Golden Russet and American Golden Russet. 
Hovey identified it as Bullock but incorrectly (i, 2, 7). 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous, upright spreading. Tzvigs clear light reddish- 
brown, slightly grayish (6). 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or below, uniform. Form a little oblate to distinctly conical, 
often elliptical, pretty uniform in shape. Stem short to medium, slender. 
Cavity large, acute or approaching acuminate, deep, broad, sometimes furrowed 
and compressed. Calyx medium, partly open or sometimes closed ; lobes 



The Apples of New York. 165 

medium in length, broad, obtuse. Basin moderately deep to shallow, moder- 
ately narrow to rather wide, abrupt, slightly furrowed. 

Skin thick, rather tender, golden russet or with red russet cheek. Patches 
of smooth skin breaking through the russet vary from yellow to bright deep 
red. Dots numerous, gray or russet. 

Calyx tube often long, funnel-shape. Stamens basal. 

Core small, axile ; cells symmetrical, closed ; core lines clasping the funnel 
cylinder. Carpels roundish to elliptical, slightly emarginate. Seeds dark, 
medium in size, plump, usually obtuse. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, rather fine, tender, juicy, subacid, sprightly 
becoming mild, not sweet as some have stated, very good to best. 

Season January to April or later. 

HUNTSMAN, 

References, i. Downing, 1872:14 app. fig. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875: 
10. 3. Thomas, 1885:513. 4. U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1887:631. fig. 5. Mo. Sta. 
Bui, 6:7. 1889. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241. 7. Stinson, Mo. Fr. Sta. 
Bui, 3:26. 1902. 8. Kan. Sta. Bui, 106:53. 1902. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:103. 
fig. 10. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:44. 1903. 11. Beach and 
Clark, A''. Y. Sta. Bid., 248:126. 1904. 

Synonym. Huntsman's Favorite (i, 2, 3, 5, 6). Huntsman's Favorite 
(7, 8, 10). 

The Huntsman apple, or as it is more ^o^enerally known by the 
growers, the Huntsman Favorite, is a western variety, it having" been 
grown in Missouri and Eastern Kansas for about fifty years. In 
that section it is quite highly prized on account of its high quality 
and the good bearing habits of the tree. It is not looked upon with 
special favor by the connnercial growers of the West because of its 
susceptibility there to bitter rot. sunburn and apple scab. The tree 
is not an early bearer but after it does begin to fruit is a regular 
bearer and quite prolific. The fruit is pretty uniformly large or 
very large, somewhat irregular in form, deep yellow usually some- 
what blushed and very attractive. In sections where it is known it 
is in special demand among apple buyers for the fancy trade. 

Historical. This variety originated on the farm of John Huntsman, Fay- 
ette. Mo. (i). and up to within very recent years its cultivation seems to have 
been confined to the Middle West. So far as we can learn it has not been 
tested to any considerable extent in the East. It is practically unknown in 
New York. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous ; branches long, slender. Form upright varying to roundish 
or spreading, rather open. Tzvigs above medium, long, straight, slender ; in- 
lernodes very short. Bark dark reddish-brown, heavily mottled with sc^rf- 



i66 The Apples of New York. 

skin, heavily pubescent. Lenticcls numerous, medium to very small, round, 
not raised. Buds small to nearly medium, broad, obtuse, free near old wood 
but quite appressed towards the tips, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large, usually large. Form roundish oblate, slightly 
conical, somewhat irregular, obscurely angular. Stem short, rather thick. 
Cavity acute to slightly obtuse, deep, broad, sometimes russeted, frequently 
furrowed, sometimes compressed. Calyx small, closed ; lobes short, narrow, 
acute. Basin very abrupt, medium in depth to deep, moderately narrow to 
narrow, usually deeply furrowed. 

Skin rather thick, somewhat tender, deep yellow or greenish, often with an 
orange-red blush which sometimes deepens to a distinct red. Dots small, 
inconspicuous, pale, submerged, numerous. 

Calyx tube usually extends to the core, cylindrical to slightly funnel-form 
with broad cylinder. Stamens marginal. 

Core medium to small, abaxile ; cells often somewhat unsymmetrical, open ; 
core lines clasping. Carpels elliptical to very broadly ovate, deeply emarginate, 
sometimes slightly tufted. Seeds frequently irregular in shape, moderately 
dark brown, rather wide and long, usually plump, obtuse. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately coarse, not very crisp, 
tender, juicy, mildly subacid with a distinct pleasantly aromatic flavor, good 
to very good. 

Season December to April. 

HYDE KING. 

References, i. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241. 3. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. 
Rpt; 13:592. 1894. 3. lb., 14:265. 1895. 4. lb., 15:284. 1896. 5. Beach, W. 
N. Y. Hort. Sac. Rpt., 1900:37. 6. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 
48:60. 1903. 7. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:114. 1904. 

Synonyms. Chase (7), but incorrectly. Hyde's King (of the West) 
(i). Western Beauty (2, 3, 4, 5, 6), but incorrectly. 

Hyde King appears to be one of the most valuable of the newer 
varieties of apples which have been tested at this Station. The fruit 
is large or very large, pretty uniform, smooth, glossy, pale green or 
yellow, often a little shaded with red. It is quite attractive for a 
green apple. AltliDUgh not high-flavored it is good in quality, suit- 
able for culinary use and evidently desirable for general market pur- 
poses being a good keeper. So far as tested here the tree is vigorous, 
and almost an annual bearer. It is not a very heavy cropper but 
the fruit is very uniformly large with a low percentage of culls. 

Tree. 
Tree vigorous. Twigs medium to long, stout ; internodes short. Bark dull 
brown tmged with olive-green, somewhat streaked with scarf-skin ; pubescent. 









HYDE KING 



The Apples of Xew York. 167 

Lenticels quite numerous, medium to below, round, raised. Buds medium, 
plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to very large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form nearly 
globular varying to slightly oblate or somewhat conic, often obscurely ribbed, 
sometimes with sides unequal but usually pretty symmetrical. Stem short, 
stout. Cavity acute to obtuse, moderately deep to deep, broad, usually smooth 
and bright green with contrasting large white dots, sometimes partly russeted. 
Calyx medium to large, closed or somewhat open ; lobes short, obtuse. Basin 
moderately deep, rather narrow, sometimes becoming broad, somewhat fur- 
rowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, glossy, light green shading to pale or whitish 
yellow, often with a thin blush and sometimes faintly striped with darker red 
and marked towards the cavity with broken stripes of whitish scarf-skin. 
Dots numerous, sometimes with a russet point, usually large about the cavity. 

Calyx tube usually short, cone-shape, sometimes approaching funnel-form. 
Stamens median to basal 

Core medium to rather large, somewhat abaxile ; cells open or partly closed ; 
core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels smooth, concave, roundish 
or very broadly elliptical. Seeds above medium, wide, obtuse to acute. 

Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, firm, rather coarse, breaking, 
rather tender, juicy, mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, good but not of high 
flavor. 

Season December to April or May. Commercial limit in ordinary storage 
February or March; in cold storage. May (7). 

INGRAM, 

Rf.ferencks. I. Horticulturist. 23:201. 1868 (cited by 5). 2. Downing, 
1872:229. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241. 4. Rural N. Y., 56:345. 1897. 5. 
Taylor, U. S. Dept. Agr. Yr. Bk., 1901:382. col. pi 6. Stinson, Mo. Fr. Sta. 
Bill, 3:22. 1902. Ug. 7. Thomas, 1903:328. 8. Budd-Hansen, 1903:103. 9. 
Powell and Fulton. U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:45. 1903. 

Synonyms. Ingrahain (5). Ingr.am Seedling (i). Ingram Seedling 
(S. 7). 

This variety has attracted attention in the Southwest within recent 
years on account of its excellent keeping- qualities (4, 5, 6, 9). It is 
said to be exceptionally promising for the Ozark region (6) where it 
is being largely planted for commercial purposes. Like the Ralls it 
blooms late in the season and the older trees are apt to bear rather 
small fruit unless the fruit is thinned. The fruit is of the Ralls 
type but averages larger and is more highly colored, being nearly 
red. In quality it ranks about with York Imperial. In flavor it 
is much like Ralls but less juicy. It has not yet been sufficiently 
tested in New York to determine whether it is a desirable apple 



i68 The Applks of Xew York. 

for this state but since it is so much like its parent, Ralls, it 
probably is not so well adapted for this region as it is for more 
southern localities. 

Historical. Originated with Martin Ingram near Springfield, Mo., from 
seed of the Ralls (Geniton) between 1844 and 1855 (5, 6). 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous, with long, moderately stout branches. Form upright or 
roundish, rather dense. Tzvigs medium to long, straight, rather stout; inter- 
nodes medium or below. Bark olive-green partly covered with clear brownish- 
red, lightly mottled with scarf-skin. Lenticeh numerous, large, generally 
round, raised, verj' conspicuous. Buds medium, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, 
pubescent, deeply set in the bark. 

Fruit. 

Fruit usually about medium, sometimes large. Form roundish conic, to 
roundish oblate, symmetrical. Stem rather short, varying from thick and 
swollen to moderately slender. Cai'ity acuminate, varying from medium in 
depth and width to deep and broad, sometimes partly russeted, obscurely 
furrowed. Calyx large, open. Basin pretty regular, moderately deep, medium 
in width to rather narrow, moderately abrupt. 

Skin rather thick and tough, smooth, bright greenish-yellow or pale yellow, 
washed, mottled and striped with two shades of red and clouded wath whitish 
scarf-skin over the base. Highly colored specimens are nearly overspread 
with rather dark red. Dots numerous, whitish or areolar with russet center, 
rather conspicuous. 

Calyx tube conical or somewhat funnel-form. Stamois basal. 

Core medium to rather small, axile ; cells symmetrical, closed or nearly so ; 
core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels roundish, tufted. Seeds 
medium in size, rather wide, acute, tufted. 

Flesh somewhat tinged with yellow, firm and hard but becoming crisp and 
tender, juicy, very mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, good to very good. 

Season February to June or later. 



JACKSON* 



References, i. Smith. Horticulturist. 11:286. 1856. 2. Brinckle. lb., 12: 
520. 1857. ^g- 3- Downing, 1857:156. 4. Warder, 1867:723. 5. Thomas, 

1885:514- 

Synonym. Jackson Seedling (i). 

A greenish-yellow apple of medium size, not particularly attractive. In 
season from October to February. Not recommended for planting in New 
York. 

Historical. Origin, Bucks county, Pa. (i, 2, 3). Although it has long 
been known in Pennsylvania it has not been disseminated to any considerable 
extent in this state. 





JACOB SWEET 



The Apples oe New York. 169 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous ; branches moderately long, stout, crooked. Form roundish 
or spreading, rather dense. Tivigs long, curved, stout; internodes medium. 
Bark dark brown lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent near the tips. 
Lcnticels numerous, small, round, not raised. Buds deeply set in bark, of 
medium size, broad, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Pntit medium, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish to roundish 
oblate, symmetrical. Stem medium to rather long, slender. Cavity usually 
acuminate, deep, narrow to rather broad, often heavily russeted and with out- 
spreading irregular rays. Calyx medium in size, closed or sometimes open ; 
lobes long, rather narrow, acute. Basin abrupt, medium in depth to deep, 
moderately wide, slightly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thick, tender, greenish-yellow with many dark green 
blotches and gray dots, a very few faint red stripes scarcely perceptible, and 
on the exposed side a warm mottled brown blush, containing numerous white 
dots with a central gray speck in each (2). 

Calyx tube large, long, conical to funnel-form, extending nearly to core. 
Stamens marginal to median. 

Core medium in size, abaxile ; cells unsymmetrical, wide open ; core lines 
clasping. Carpels smooth, nearly cordate to broadly ovate. Seeds numerous, 
dark brown, medium in size, plump, obtuse. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, fine, crisp, very tender, juicy, very mild 
subacid mingled with sweet, good. 

JACOBS SWEET* 

References, i. Manning, Mass. Horf. Soe. Rft., 1880:235. 2. lb.. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:28. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:242. 4. Beach, .V. Y. 
Sta. An. Rpt., 14:253. 1895. 5- lb., West. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1896:52. 6. 
Manning, ./»/. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1899:185. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:105. 8. 
Rural N. Y., 62:771. 1903. fig. g. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 
48:45. 1903. 10. Beach and Clark, A'. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:126. 1904. 

Synonyms. Jacobs (4, 5, 9). J.\cob's Sweet (i, 2, 3). Jacobs Szi-ect 
(9). J.\cob's Winter Sweet (3). Jacobs' Winter Szveet (4). 

A large showy apple, green or yellowish often with bright blush. 
In form, color and texture it somewhat resembles Bough Sweet. It 
is one of the best sweet apples of its season for baking. The fruit is 
very tender and liable to crack and spot. It rots on the tree and also 
in storage. It is an unreliable keeper and rather variable in season 
but commonly is in season about with Pumpkin Sweet or Tompkins 
King. Its commercial limit varies from October to December or 
later in cellar storage and from January to ]\ larch in cold storage 
(9, 10). The tree is not a very satisfactory grower in the nursery 



170 The Apples of New York. 

but in the orchard it is vigorous, comes into bearing moderately 
young- and is ahiiost an annual bearer often yielding rather heavy 
crops. It is recommended for the home orchard but not for general 
commercial planting. 

Historical. Originated by Charles Sumner Jacobs, Medford. Massachusetts, 
about i860 (i, 2). It has been but sparingly disseminated in New York state. 

Tree. 

Tree medium to large, vigorous. Form spreading. Tzi'igs short to rather 
long, rather stout, straight or slightly curved ; internodes medium to short. 
Bark clear light brownish-red with some olive-green, lightly mottled with 
scarf-skin; rather pubescent. L.eiiticcls rather inconspicuous, rather scatter- 
ing, small, elongated, sometimes raised. Buds lightly attached to the bark 
or free, medium or below, ver\' prominent, fleshy, broad, obtuse, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large or very large. Form roundish often inclined 
to conic, sometimes slightly oblate, pretty symmetrical. Stem medium to 
short. Cavity rather wide, moderately deep to deep, acute or approaching 
acuminate, sometimes slightly furrowed or compressed, seldom russeted. 
Calyx medium, closed or partlj' open. Basin often abrupt, usually round, 
medium in width and depth. 

Ski>i tough, somewhat waxen, rather glossy, clear yellow or greenish, often 
with a bright blush. Dots obscure, whitish or russet. 

Calyx tube cone-shape or somewhat funnel-form. Stamens median to basal. 

Core rather large, somewhat abaxile ; cells pretty symmetrical, open or partly 
closed; core lines slightly clasping. Carpels large, roundish to broadly 
obovate. Seeds numerous, medium, acute. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, moderately firm, moderately coarse, very 
tender, crisp, iuicy, slightly aromatic, very sweet, good. 

Season October to March or April. 

JEWETT RED. 

References. 1. Hovey, Mag. Hart., 8:250. 1842. 2. Thomas, 1849:149. 

3. Cole, 1849:112. 4. Mag. Hort., 21:569. 1855. %. 5. Downing, 1857:157. 
6. Elliott, 1858:140. Hg. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 8. Warder, 1867:723. 
9. Barry, 1883:347. 10. Hoskins, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1886:274. "• Lyon. M/c/i. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 12. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:133. 13. Waugh, 
Ft. Sta. Bui, 61:30. 1897. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:106. 15. Beach and Clark, 
N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:126. 1904. 

Synonyms. Jewett's Fine Red (5, 8, 9, 10, 14). Jezvett's Fine Red (2, 

4, 6, 12, 15). Jewett's Red (2, 3, 4, 6, 7, ir, 15). Nodhead (3, 4, 5, 6, 
9, 12, 13, 14, 15). 

An early winter apple of medium size and of beautiful dark red 
color overspread with blue bloom. It is highly esteemed as a dessert 
fruit in portions of New England, particularly in ]\Iaine and New 



\ 



4 




The Apples (jf Xkw York. 171 

Hampshire where it is grown to some extent commercially. It is of 

the I'lue Pearmain type and one of the best of that group in quality. 

As fruited at this Station it does not develop as high color nor 

as good (|uality as it does in the region where it originated. The 

tree comes into bearing rather young but is a slow grower and 

only moderately productive. As compared with standard varieties 

like Baldwin and Rhode Island Greening, it evidently requires extra 

attention in ])runing, spraying, fertilizing and tilling in order to 

secure a good average grade of fruit. 

Historical. Origin, Hollis, N. H. (4). It has been known in certain local 
markets in New England for fifty years or more, but has not yet been grown 
to any considerable extent in Xew York. 

Tree. 

Tree makes a very unsatisfactory growth in the nursery and for that reason 
does best when top-worked on some thriftier stock. In the orchard it is a 
rather slow grower and hardly attains medium size ; branches rather short 
and stout with comparatively few laterals and numerous spurs. Form spread- 
ing or roundish, somewhat open. Tzcigs very short to moderately long, nearly 
straight, rather stout; internodes short. Bark dull dark brownish-green vary- 
ing to brownish-red mottled and streaked with light scarf-skin, slightly pubes- 
cent. Lenticels rather scattering, small to medium, roundish, not raised, 
rather dull in color. Buds rather short, small, plump, obtuse, free, slightly 
pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to less than medium size, pretty uniform in size and 
shape. Fori\i roundish oblate, sides unequal, obscurely ribbed, often some- 
what irregular. Stem short. Cavity variable, acute to acuminate, shallow 
to medium in depth, moderately wide, furrowed obscurely if at all, green or 
russeted, sometimes lipped. Calyx small to medium, open or partly closed; 
lobes broad, short, obtuse. Basin shallow to medium in depth, moderately 
wide, obtuse, obscurely furrowed and slightly wrinkled. 

Skin rather thin, tough, nearly smooth, dark red over yellow background, 
often deepening to purplish-red and obscurely marked with broken stripes 
and splashes of carmine. Dots numerous, often conspicuous, pale yellow or 
whitish. Characteristic bluish-white scarf-skin often more or less overspreads 
the base. Prevailing effect very attractive, deep red. 

Calyx tube moderately narrow, funnel-form or approaching cone-shape. 
Stamens median. 

Core axile or nearly so ; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, closed or some- 
times open; core lines clasping. Carpels oval, elongated, emarginate. Seeds 
numerous, clear reddish-brown, below medium or rather small. 

Flesh yellowish, moderately fine, tender, juicy, pleasantly aromatic, mild 
subacid or nearly sweet, good to very good. 

Season October to February (15). 



172 The Apples of New York. 

JONATHAN, 

References, i. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:476, Cat. No. 39. 2. 
Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831. 3. Kenrick, 1832:47. 4. Downing, 1845:113. 
5. Thomas, 1849:167, 189. Hg. 6. Cole, 1849:123. 7. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 16: 
60. 1850. fig. 8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. X. i'.. 3:60. 1851. col. pi. No. 25. 9. 
Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1856. 10. Hooper, 1857:48. 11. Reynolds, Horticul- 
turist. 12:51. 1857. 12. Dewey, lb., 12:198. 1857. 13. Elliott, 1858:86. £g. 
14. Warder, 1867:679. tig. 15. Barry, 1883:348. 16. Hogg, 1884:119. 17. 
Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 18. Meelian, Can. Hort., 14:75. 1891. 
Hg. 19. Wickson, 1891:246. 20. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:242. 21. Stinson, 
Ark. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:46. 1894. 22. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui., 118:60. 1895. 23. 
lb., 143:200, 202. 1897. 24. Powell, Del Sta. Bui, 38:18. 1898. 25. Van 
Deman, Rural N. Y., 59:22-]. 1900. 26. Kan. Sta. Bui, 106:53. 1902. 27. 
Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:61. 1902. 28. Budd-Hansen, 1903:106. fig. 29. 
Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:45. 1903. 30. Beach and Clark, 
A''. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:127. 1904. 

Synonyms. Esopus Spitze.xberg (New) (i). John.^than (21). Jona- 
than ill). King Philip (4, 7, 10, 11, 13). Philip Rick (ii). Philip Rick 
(4> 7, 13)- Ulster Seedling (i). Wine (erroneously 10, 13). ]]^incsap 
(erroneously 10, 13). 

This is a fruit of the Esopus Spifzcnhitrg class. It is very beauti- 
ful, of a brilliaut red color, highly flavored and of excellent quality 
for either dessert or culinary use. It excels its parent in hardiness, 
productiveness, health and vigor and is adapted to a wider range of 
territory, but the fruit is not so large nor does it keep as well as that 
of Esopus Spitzoihurg. in Xew York state it does fairly well in 
favorable localities if grown on rich soil and given careful attention 
but even under such circumstances it does not usually attain as good 
size as it does in certain portions of the valleys of the Ohio, Missis- 
sippi and Missouri and in the irrigated districts in the mountain 
regions farther west. In some localities in these regions it ranks next 
to Ben Davis in commercial importance. As grown in this state it is 
ordinarily rather small with a comparatively high percentage of un- 
even and irregular fruit, and is not at all adapted to the general 
trade. At its best it is one of the most desirable varieties for the 
fancy trade at the holiday season. Its season is about the same as 
that of Tompkins King. It may be kept through the winter but 
when held in ordinary storage later than January dark spots are 
liable to develop in the skin and seriously injure the appearance of 
the fruit. Handled in this wav its commercial limit is December or 



The Apples of New York. 173 

early January. In cold storage its commercial limit varies from Jan- 
uary to March or sometimes later (30). 

As grown in New York the tree is hut a moderate grower and for 
this reason it is well to top-work it upon some stock that is more 
vigorous such as Northern Spy. Baldwin or Rhode Island Greening. 
It does not grow much above medium size and may be planted more 
closely than Baldwin. Particular attention should be given to keepv- 
ing the soil fertile, well supplied with humus and well tilled, and the 
trees should be thoroughly protected from injurious insects and 
fungus-diseases. Under favorable conditions the tree is a reliable 
cropper bearing good crops biennially or in some cases almost an- 
nually. It comes into bearing rather young. Usually the fruit 
hangs pretty well to the tree. It is not recommended for general 
commercial planting in New York but in some places under good 
management it has proved a profitable variety. 

Historical. The first published account which we find of the Jonathan is 
that given by Judge J. Buel, of Albany, in 1826, in an article on " Observa- 
tions on the utility of a Descriptive Catalogue of Garden and Orchard Fruit," 
addressed to the members of the New York Horticultural Society, in which 
he presents "A Descriptive Catalogue of some of the most valuable apples 
propagated in the nurseries of this state.'' In this catalogue the Jonathan 
is listed as the Esopus Spitzenberg (New) with the synonym Ulster Seedling 
(i). In 1829 Judge Buel sent specimens of the fruit to the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society with the statement that it was " An Esopus Seedling 
and sometimes called the New Spitzenberg." It originated on the farm of 
Mr. Philip Rick of Woodstock, Ulster county. New York (7). According 
to Downing the original tree was still alive in 1845. It was at first dissemi- 
nated under various names, all of which were soon superseded by the name 
Jonathan which was assigned to it by Judge Buel in honor of Jonathan Has- 
brouck by whom his attention was first called to the variety. It has been 
widely disseminated throughout the apple-growing regions of New York but 
in none of them is it grown extensivelj'. It is extensively planted in regions 
farther west and south where, as above stated, it is recognized in many local- 
ities as one of the leading commercial varieties. 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size, a moderately vigorous or rather slow grower. Form 
roundish or spreading, somewhat drooping, rather dense. Tivigs medium in 
length, nearly straight, rather slender ; internodes short. Bark dark brownish- 
red mingled with dark green, and heavily coated with scarf-skin ; pubescent. 
Lenticels usually very scattering, sometimes moderately numerous, small to 
medium or sometimes large, roundish to oblong, not raised. Buds medium, 
plump, rather narrow, acute to obtuse, free, pubescent. Leaves medium or 
below, rather narrow. 



174 The Apples of New York. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to rather small, rarely large. Form roundish conic to 
roundish ovate, often somewhat truncate, regular; pretty uniform in shape and 
size. Stem medium to long, rather slender. Cai'ity acute to acuminate, deep 
to very deep, wide, symmetrical, sometimes slightly furrowed. Calyx small, 
closed. Basin deep to very deep, very abrupt, wide to moderately narrow. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, pale bright yellow overlaid with lively red, striped 
with carmine. When well colored the fruit is almost completely covered with 
red which deepens to purplish on the sunny side and often shows a beautiful 
contrasting bit of clear pale yellow about the cavity where a twig or leaf lay 
in contact with the skin. Less highly colored fruit has more of a striped 
appearance particularly toward the basin. Dots minute, usually inconspicu- 
ous. Prevailing effect attractive lively deep red. 

Calyx tube rather small, funnel-shape or sometimes conical. Stamens basal 
to median. 

Core medium or below, axile or nearly so; cells symmetrical but often not 
uniformly developed, usually closed, sometimes open; core lines clasp the 
funnel cj-linder. Carpels rather concave, roundish to roundish cordate, emargi- 
nate, smooth. Seeds rather large, long, acute to acuminate, dark, numerous. 

Flesh whitish or somewhat yellow, sometimes with tinge of red, firm, mod- 
erately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, very aromatic, sprightly subacid, very good 
to best. 

Season November to January or later. 

JONATHAN BULER. 

References, i. Beach, N. Y. Sia. An. Rpt., 14:253. 1895. a. ///. Sta. Bui, 
45:309, 328. 1896. 3. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:38. 1903. 
4. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:127. 1904. 

Synonyms. Buler (3). Buler (4). Jonathan of Buler (2). Jonathan 
of Buler (3). 

Fruit of good size and decidedly attractive being predominantly of 
a bright red color. It is hardly good enough in quality to take first 
rank as a commercial variety and it is excelled by others for dessert 
and culinary purposes. It probably is not worthy of planting for 
trial in New York. Tree comes into bearing rather young and is 
an annual bearer. Sometimes it yields heavy crops but usually it is 
a moderate cropper. There is considerable amount of fruit lost by 
dropping. 

Historical. Origin uncertain. Tested at the Illinois Experiment Station 
and reported in 1896 as worthy of further trial. We have no knowledge of 
its being grown anywhere in New York except at this Station. 

Tree. 
Tree moderately vigorous ; branches long, moderately stout. Form upright 
spreading or roundish, dense. Ttvigs medium to short, straight, rather stout 
with large terminal buds; internodes medium. Bark brown tinged with red, 



The Apples of New York. 175 

mottled with scarf-skin, rather pubescent. Lcnticcls quite numerous, medium 
or below, oval or elongated, slightly raised. Buds medium to large, broad, 
plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit rather large to medium. Form oblate, fairly symmetrical, broadly 
and obscurely ribbed, sometimes a little onesided. Stem very short. Cavity 
acute to acuminate, broad, deep, with radiating red stripes, sometimes thinly 
russeted. Calyx small to rather large, closed or partly open ; lobes often erect. 
Basin usually abrupt, moderately wide to wide, rather deep, sometimes com- 
pressed, somewhat furrowed and slightly wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, waxen, glossy, whitish-yellow or green largely overspread 
with bright red being blushed and mottled with light red striped and splashed 
with deep carmine. Dots whitish or russet, small. 

Calyx tube long, meeting the core, varying from slender and funnel-form 
to wide cone-shape. Stamens basal. 

Core small to medium, abaxile ; cells often symmetrical and closed, some- 
times open and unsymmetrical ; core lines somewhat clasping. Carpels broadly 
roundish to elliptical and almost truncate. Seeds short, wide, plump, obtuse, 
dark. 

Flesh white, often streaked or stained with red, firm, tender, very crisp, 
moderately coarse, very juicy, mild subacid with a peculiar aroma which is 
not altogether pleasing, fair to almost good in quality. 

Season November to April but in common storage it is apt to scald after 
January. 

KANSAS GREENING. 

References, i. Beach, A". Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:261. 1895. 2. lb., 15:281. 
1896. 3. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:127. 1904. 

Fruit unattractive, medium to rather small, roundish to roundish conic, 
grass-green with a dull brownish-red cheek ; mild subacid, not high in quality 
but a good keeper. The tree is not a good grower and does not come into 
bearing very young. It yields moderate crops biennially. Not worthy of 
planting in New York. 

KANSAS KEEPER. 

References, i. Stayman, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1877:44. 2. Powell and 
Fulton, U. S. B. P. L Bui, 48:46. 1903. 3. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 
248:127. 1904. 

Synonym. Kans.\s (2). 

Kansas Keeper as grown in Western New York is usually less highly 
colored than when grown in more southern localities and often is below good 
marketable size and rather dull and unattractive in color. It is a very late 
keeper. The tree comes into bearing moderately young, and bears annually, 
yielding moderate crops. 

Historical. Origin unknown (i). We have not had the opportunity of 
deciding whether it is identical with Keeper.l 

't/. S. Pom. Rpt., 1895:27. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.. 1897:39. Ragan, U. S. B. 
P. I. Bui., 5e:i6i, 162. 1905. 

Vol. I —8 



176 The Apples of New York. 

Iree. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright. Tzvigs short to nearly long, 
rather slender, generally straight; internodes medium. Bark dull reddish or 
brownish-red, quite uniformly overlaid with a moderately heavy scarf-skin, 
somewhat pubescent. Lent ic els inconspicuous, generally scattering, but on 
some twigs numerous, small, elongated or roundish. Buds small, acute, some- 
what pubescent, lightly attached to the bark or nearly free. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large, sometim.es averaging below medium; pretty uniform 
in size and shape. Form roundish or inclined to conic or somewhat oblate, 
often obscurely ribbed and with sides unequal. Stem rather short. Cavity 
acuminate, deep, broad to rather narrow, symmetrical, often with outspreading 
russet rays. Calyx small to medium, closed, varying to large and open. 
Basin often oblique, very abrupt, rather narrow, often somewhat furrowed. 

Skin smooth, pale yellow or greenish, thinly overspread with orange-red 
or pinkish-red, becoming clear red on exposed cheek, abundantly striped with 
bright carmine, mottled with thin gray scarf-skin towards the cavity. Dots 
whitish, often conspicuous, sometimes with russet point. Prevailing effect 
in highly colored specimens striped red. bright and attractive. 

Calyx tube long, funnel-form with wide limb. Stamens median to basal. 

Core somewhat abaxile, rather small; cells closed or partly open; core lines 
clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels broad at base, narrow at apex, emarginate, 
tufted. Seeds dark, medium in size, moderately wide, somewhat acute, tufted. 

Flesh whitish, firm, somewhat coarse, moderately crisp, rather tender, juicy, 
sprightly subacid, fair to good. 

Season December to June. 

KING. 

Tompkins King, more often called King of Tompkins County, 
is usual!}- known among fruit growers and fruit dealers as King. 
For an account of this variety the reader is referred to Tompkins 
King. 

Twenty Ounce Pippin has also been known to a limited extent 
locally as King, but it is a very dififerent variety from Tompkins King. 

KINNAIRD. 

Referexces. I. Downing. 1872:18 app. fig. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875. 
3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:242. 4. Watts, Tenn. Sta. Bui., 1:15. 1896. fig. 5. 
Wright, Am. Card., 17:33. 1896. 6. Thomas, 1897:291. 7. Ragan, U. S. Pom. 
Bui, 8:18. 1899. 8. Kan. Sta. Bui, 106:53. 1902. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:110. 
fig. 10. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205:45. 1903. 11. Bruner, .V. C. Sta. Bui, 
182:25. 1903. 

Synonyms. Kinnaird's Choice Ci, 8). Kinnaird's Choice (4, 6). Kin- 
NAiRDS Favorite (2). Kinnard (7, 9). Kinnard's Choice (9). 

This is a dark red winter apple of the Winesap class. Wlien well grown 
it is of good size, very good quality and attractive in appearance. The tree 



The Apples of New York. 177 

comes into bearing rather young and yields moderate crops biennially. The 
fruit hangs well to the tree but is not very uniform in grade and does not 
produce as large a percentage of marketable fruit as either Baldwin or Rhode 
Island Greening. It is in season about with Baldwin. It is a variety of 
Tennessee origin which is highly esteemed in some sections of that state and 
in other portions of the Middle West (4). So far as tested in New York it 
does not appear to be adapted to regions as far north as this. 

Historical. Origin Franklin, Williamson county, Tennessee. It is practi- 
cally unknown in New York. 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size, a moderately vigorous grower ; branchlets rather 
slender. Form rather spreading or roundish, irregular, not dense. I'zi'igs 
medium to rather long, moderately slender, often irregularly crooked. Bark 
brownish-red or some portions olive-green, somewhat pubescent; scarf-skin 
thin, not conspicuous. Lenticels rather numerous, irregular in size, not often 
large, usually very small, dull, elongated. Buds considerably sunk in the 
bark, rather broad, obtuse, appressed, quite pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large. Form oblate inclined to conic, flat at the base, 
rather obscurely ribbed, nearly regular, sides sometimes unequal. Stem not 
exserted, short, rather thick. Cavity very wide, deep, acute, sometimes 
russeted. Calyx small, closed or partly open. Basin moderately wide, deep, 
abrupt, gently furrowed, often somewhat oblique. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, yellow, mottled and blushed with 
red, in the sun becoming a lively deep red shading to purplish-red. Dots 
numerous, small, whitish, becoming somewhat elongated towards the cavity. 
Prevailing effect good dark red. 

Calyx tube conical and moderately short varying to almost cylindrical and 
deep, sometimes extending to the core. Stamens nearly marginal. 

Core small, axile ; cells symmetrical, closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels 
obcordate, emarginate, noticeably concave, tufted. Seeds rather short, wide, 
plump. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, crisp, moderately fine or a little coarse, agreeably 
subacid, somewhat aroniatic, good to very good. 

KIRKLAND, 

References, i. Downing, 1881:92 app. 2. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui, 143:200. 
1897. 

A fruit of the type of the Yellow Bellflower but with less acidity, valued 
locally in Central and Eastern New York because it is productive, a good late 
keeper, fairly acceptable for dessert and good for culinary use. When well 
grown it is often partly suffused with a lively reddish-pink and late in the 
spring the ground color becomes a clear rich yellow, giving it a very attractive 
appearance for a yellow apple. The tree is a vigorous grower and a reliable 
cropper. The fruit often keeps in ordinary storage till May or June. It is 
doubtless worthy of more attention from fruit growers in the localities to 
which it is well adapted. 



178 The Apples of New York. 

Historical. Originated in Oneida countJ^ New York, and named after 
Domine Kirkland, a missionary to the Oneida Indians. It is but little known 
outside of the Mohawk valley. 

Tree. 

Tree dwarfish to medium in size, a moderately vigorous grower. Form 
roundish or spreading. Twigs medium to long, erect or spreading, moderately 
stout. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large. Form broadly ovate or slightly oblong vary- 
ing to roundish conical, ribbed, somewhat irregular, fairly symmetrical ; sides 
sometimes unequal. Stem short, slender to moderately stout, not exserted. 
Cavity moderately narrow to rather wide, deep, acuminate, often partly 
russeted and sometimes with outspreading russet rays. Calyx small to 
medium, closed. Basin small to medium, shallow to moderately deep, narrow 
to moderately wide, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, clear pale yellow with a thin blush which 
in highly colored specimens deepens to reddish-pink. Dots whitish areolar 
with brownish russet center or whitish and submerged. 

Calyx tube rather wide, elongated conical or approaching funnel-form and 
extending to the core. Stamens basal to nearly median. 

Core decidedly abaxile ; cells fairly symmetrical, usually nide open ; core 
lines meeting. Carpels mucronate, much concave, broadly roundish to ellipti- 
cal. Seeds numerous, short, rather small to medium, rather wide, plump, 
obtuse. 

Flesh somewhat tinged with yellow, firm, rather hard, moderately coarse, 
not very juicy, crisp, subacid, good. 

KITTAGESKEE» 

References, i. Warder, 1867724. 2. Downing, 1872:242. 3. Fitz, 187a: 
178. 4. Leroy, 1873:416. figs. 5. Thomas, 1885:515. 6, Bailey, An. Horf., 
1892:242. 7. Clayton, Ala. Sta. Bui, 47:6. 1893. 8. Beach and Clark, N. Y. 
Sta. Bui., 248:128. 1904. 

Synonym. Kettagesk.v (3). 

Fruit too small to be valuable for general market purposes, but 
its quality is excellent and it is attractive in appearance, being of 
uniform size, symmetrical form and bright yellow color. It is 
desirable for dessert use, especially because it retains its texture, 
flavor, quality and color remarkably well till very late in the season. 
The tree comes into bearing rather young, is an annual bearer or 
nearly so, yielding from moderate to heavy crops. The fruit hangs 
well to the tree. In the South it has the reputation of being vig- 
orous, very prolific and almost free from blight. It is recommended 
for growing on dwarf stock in that region (3). It is reported as 
ripening in September in Alabama (7). Leroy (4) gives its season 



The Applks of New York. 179 

in France as December to April. Here at Geneva its season extends 
to May or June. It is worthy of planting" in those cases where a 
choice late keeping dessert apple is desired for home use. 

Historical. Probably originated with the Cherokee Indians in Western 
North Carolina. Introduced into Georgia about 1851. It was sent to France 
in i860 from the Berckmans Nurseries of Augusta, Georgia, and since 
that time has been continuously propagated there. It is there regarded as a 
fruit of first rjuality and the tree is very productive (4). It is grown to a 
limited extent in the South but is practically unknown in New York. 

Tree. 

Tree a moderately vigorous or rather slow grower with rather slender 
branchlets. Form spreading, somewhat open. Tzvigs medium to rather short ; 
internodes rather short. Bark olive-green with some brownish-red, some- 
what pubescent. Lcnticels dull, rather conspicuous, moderately numerous, 
small, roundish, somewhat raised. Buds rather long, narrow, flat, appressed, 
rather acute, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fridt small to sometimes medium, uniform in size and shape. Form varies 
from roundish ovate or roundish conic to slightly oblate, regular, pretty 
symmetrical, often obscurely ribbed. Ste})i usually long and rather slender. 
Cavity moderately shallow to rather deep, narrow to rather wide, obtuse to 
acute; usually it is at least partly russeted and often it has outspreading russet 
rays. Calyx small to medium, usually closed ; lobes acute to acuminate, re- 
flexed. Basin usually very shallow, obtuse, wrinkled and often gently 
furrowed. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, clear yellow often shaded with a bronze blush. 
Dots small, russet or submerged and whitish. 

Calyx tube cone-shape, sometimes approaching funnel-form. Stamens 
median to marginal. 

Core medium to rather small, somewhat abaxile ; cells fairly symmetrical, 
usually somewhat open; core lines somewhat clasping to meeting. Carpels 
very broad and pointed with truncate base varying to broad pointed ovate. 
Seeds numerous, dark, medium or below, rather narrow, plump, acute. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, very tender, crisp, rather fine-grained, perfumed and 
aromatic, sprightly, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, very good for dessert. 

Season December to May or June (8). 

LACKER* 

References, i. Watts, Horticulturist. 1:482, 483. 1847. 2. Thomas, 1849: 
168. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:101. 1851. fig. 4. Elliott, 1854:142, 5. 
Downing, 1857:163. 6. Hooper, 1857:53. 7. Warder, 1867:443. 

Synonyms. Lacker (2, 4). Lacquier (i). Laquier (2, 3, 6). Laquier 
(4, 5). Lecker (4). 

A red-striped winter apple evidently of the Rambo class. Fifty years ago 
in some sections of Western New York it was held to be one of the most 



i8o The Apples of New York. 

desirable apples for that region (i, 2), but it has made little headway as a 
commercial variety and is gradually passing out of cultivation. It keeps 
rather better than Baldwin but is less attractive in appearance having a rather 
dull red color as it comes from the tree. It has been valued because of its 
fine dessert quality particularly in the spring but as it has a rather mild flavor 
it is less highly esteemed for culinary use. The tree is somewhat subject to 
canker. It bears biennially or in some cases almost annually and yields good 
crops. The fruit hangs well to the tree. 

Historical. Disseminated from Lancaster, Pa. (4), and formerly planted 
to some extent in some portions of New York and the ^liddle West (i, 2, 
3, 4, 6, 7). Occasionally very old trees of the variety are found still growing 
in New York in old orchards, but we have no knowledge of its being planted 
within recent years. 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size, a moderately vigorous grower. Form erect. Twigs 
medium in length, rather stout, rather thick at tips, straight or nearly so ; 
internodes short. Bark dull reddish-brown, uniformly overlaid with a thin 
scarf-skin; heavily pubescent. Lcnticcls scattering, conspicuous, below medium 
in size, round, somewhat raised. Buds medium, moderately projecting, 
roundish, adhering, very pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large. Form varies from oblate to roundish, often tend- 
ing to elliptical and somewhat ribbed; sides usually a little unequal; fairly 
uniform in shape and size. Stem short, not exserted. Cavity somewhat fur- 
rowed, sometimes compressed, narrow to moderately wide, rather deep, acumi- 
nate, green or russet, often lipped. Calyx closed or partly open; lobes pubes- 
cent. Basin somewhat variable, usually obtuse but sometimes rather abrupt, 
medium in width and depth, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, light yellow or greenish nearly covered with red, 
mottled and striped with crimson and conspicuously marked with grayish 
areolar dots which are mingled with smaller, whitish or russet dots. Pre- 
vailing color striped red, sometimes clear and bright but more often dulled 
by a waxy coating of bluish bloom. 

Calyx tube inclined to funnel-form. Sta)nens median. 

Core medium to rather small, somewhat abaxile ; cells usually pretty sym- 
metrical, closed or partly open ; core lines somewhat clasping. Carpels 
broadly roundish, emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds tufted, medium or 
below, obtuse to acute, plump, numerous. 

Flesh white or nearly so, firm, tender, crisp, juicy, mild subacid, agreeably 
aromatic, good to very good for dessert, less desirable for culinary uses. 

Season December to May. 

LADY. 

References, i. Duhamel, 1768:309. 2. Knoop, 1771:68. 3. Forsyth, 1803: 
49. 4. Coxe, 1817:117. fig. 5. Thacher, 1822:129. 6. Ronalds, 1831:63. 7. 
Cat. Hort. Sac. London, 1831. 8. Kenrick, 1832:47. 9. Floy-Lindley, 1833: 
87. ID. Manning, 1838:59. 11. Downing, 1845:115. fig. 12. Cole, 1849:130. 
13. Thomas, 1849:181, 189. fig. 14. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:89. 1851. 



The Aptles of New York. i8i 

col. pi No. 47. 15. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 16. Elliott, 1854:87. 17. 
Hovey, Mag. Hort., 20:29. i'^54- 18. Hooper, 1857:52. 19. Lucas, 1859:557. 
20. Warder, 1867:411. 21. Fitz. 1872:166. 22. Downing, 1872:244. 23. 
Leroy, 1873:65. fig. 24. Barry, 1883:348. 25. Hogg. 1884:8. 26. Lyon, Jl/j'c/t. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 27. Wickson, 1891:248. 28. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:243. 29. Bred.sted, 2:210. 1893. 30. Woolverton, Out. Fr. Stas. An. 
Rpt., 3:10. 1896. figs. 31. Budd-Hansen, 1903:111. fig. 32. Beach and Clark, 
N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:128. 1904. 

Synonyms. Almindelig (29). Api (i, 23, 25, 29, 30). Api (11, 16, 18, 
22,2,1). Api eller (29). Api Fin (23). Api Ordinaire {2^)). Api Petit (11, 
12, 20, 22, 25). Api Rose {22,). Api Rouge (25). Apy Rouge (22). Car- 
dinale {22). Christmas Apple {22). Gros Api Rouge (ri, 16, 22). Kleiner 
Api (19). Lady Apple (5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16. 17, 18, 21, 22, 24). Lady 
Apple (4, 10, 22, 25). Lille Api (29). Long Bois (22). Petit Api (6, 7). 
Petit Api (16, 18). Petit Apis (22). Petit Api Rose (22). Petit Api Rouge 
(11, 16, 22, 23. 25). PoMME d'Api (2, 3). Pomme d'Api (8, 9, 13, 16, 21, 
25). Pomme d'Api Rouge (11, 16, 22). Pomme d'Apis (4). Pomme Rose 
(11, 16, 18, 22). Pomone d'Apis (5). 

A strikingly beautiful little apple especially suitable for decorative 
use and for dessert. In Xew York it is grown to a limited extent 
only and in restricted localities. It is in some cases grown with 
profit and often sells at very high prices. It does fairly well on any 
good apple soil, but a warm, gravelly or sandy loam seems to suit 
it best, developing to a marked degree the characteristically beauti- 
ful color and delicate high flavor of this variety, upon which its value 
chiefly depends. The upright habit of the limbs, together with the 
smallness of the apples, makes the picking of the fruit unusually 
expensive. The branches are full of short spurs upon which the 
fruit is borne in clusters. The fruit hangs well to the tree. The 
tree is but a moderate grower and does not come into bearing young, 
but in favorable locations, after it reaches maturity, it is a reliable 
cropper, bearing heavy crops biennially or in rare instances nearly 
annually. In order to grow Lady most successfully, particular pains 
must be taken to protect it from the attacks of insects and fungi, 
particularly from the apple scab fungus, by which it is often seriously 
damaged. When well grown, the crop is pretty uniform in size and 
shape and satisfactory in color and quality. It does not always color 
properly, and is then of little value for anything but cider, being 
too small either for general market purposes or for culinary use. 
Properly handled, it may be held in cold storage till summer, but 
there is little demand for it after the holidav season, and as it keeos 



i82 The Apples of New York. 

well enough in ordinary storage till midwinter there is but little 
occasion for holding it in cold storage. 

Historical. According to Leroy, who gives an excellent historical account 
of this variety, the Lady apple, or as it is there known, Api, has been in 
cultivation in France for at least three hundred years. It has been sparingly 
disseminated throughout this country from the Atlantic to the Pacific. It has 
long been recognized in the New York market as one of the most desirable 
apples for fancy trade at the holiday season. 

Tree. 

Tree at first moderately vigorous, eventually becomes a rather slow grower; 
size medium or somewhat dwarfish ; branches erect, rather slender. Form 
rather dense, erect. Tivigs long and slender, or on old trees rather short; 
internodes short. Bark bright brown approaching black, partly overlaid with 
thin scarf-skin, slightly pubescent towards the tips. Lenticels numerous, con- 
spicuous, round or sometimes elongated, usually medium to small, sometimes 
large. Btids usually large, rather narrow, acute to acuminate, plump, quite 
pubescent, free. Leaves not large, rather narrow. 

Fruit. 

Fruit small to very small, uniform in size and shape. Form usually oblate 
but varies to roundish inclined to conic, often obscurely ribbed, symmetrical. 
Stem medium, slender. Cafiiy pretty large and wide, obtuse to acute, moder- 
ately shallow to deep, gently furrowed, sometimes thinly russeted. Calyx 
small, closed; lobes small, acute. Basin rather wide, shallow to moderately 
deep, obtuse, narrowly ridged and wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, glossy with a deep red blush which 
is often irregular and sharply outlined against the clear pale yellow or whitish 
ground color. Dots whitish or with russet point, inconspicuous. Prevailing 
effect beautiful bright red and yellow. 

Calyx tube conical or somewhat funnel-form with short truncate cylinder. 
Stamens marginal. 

Core small, axile ; cells symmetrical, closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels 
smooth, roundish or inclined to elliptical, emarginate, mucronate. Seeds 
plump, widCj obtuse, completely filling the cells. 

Flesh white, firm, fine-grained, crisp, rather tender, juicy, pleasantly aro- 
matic, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, good to very good "for dessert. 

Season December to J\Iay. 

Other Varieties of the Lady Group. 

The Lady often produces seedlings which have a general similarity to the 
parent. Some of these have found their^way into cultivation but up to the 
present time none of them has superseded the Lady. 

Downing (22) mentions besides the Lady four other varieties of the Lady 
group, namely: the Black L.\dy Apple (.A.pi Noir), the St,\r L.\dy Apple 
(Api fitoile), the Large Lady Apple (Api Gros), and the Rose-Colored 
Lady Apple (Api Gros Pomme de Rose). Of these the Large Lady apple 
appears to be the only one which has been disseminated to any considerable 



The Apples of New York. 183 

extent in this state. It is seldom or never intentionally planted by the fruit 
grower hut sometimes it has been cultivated by mistake in place of the true 
Lady. It is easily distinguished from the true Lady because the bark of the 
twigs is not so nearly black, the fruit is more nearly round, has a very shallow 
basin and is a little larger and less highly colored than the Lady. It is an 
undesirable variety. 

Sccdli)igs. Fruits of different seedlings of the Lady have from time to 
time been received at this Station. None of these has been sufficiently tested 
as yet to show whether it is worthy of being introduced into general cultiva- 
tion. One of the most remarkable lot of Lady seedlings which has come to 
our attention is that originated by Le Grand M. Smith of Nyack, N. Y., a 
brief notice of which was published in 1895.1 Some of these may be as 
desirable as the Lady. 

Helen is an apple of the Lady class much larger than Lady and fully as 
attractive in color. The flesh is very white, crisp, juicy and of mild agree- 
able flavor. It is grown by R. N. Lewis of Red Hook, Dutchess county, 
N. Y., who reports that the tree is productive and that the fruit keeps late 
and brings good prices. 

Highland Be.^uty, another Lady seedling, is described on a previous 
page. 

LADY FINGER 

References. i. Coxe. 1817:146. fig. 2. Thacher, 1822:129. 3- Elliott, 
1854:173. 4. Hooper, 1857:52. 5. Warder, 1867:724. 6. Downing, 1869:245, 
329. 7. lb., 1876:55 app. 8. Hogg, 1884:127. g. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 
10. Thomas, 1897:642. 

Several different varieties of apples are known in cultivation under the 
name Lady Finger but none of these is grown to any considerable extent in 
New York. 

Coxe ( I ) describes Lady Finger or Long Pippin as a variety of very delicate 
growth with small limbs, fruit remarkably long, skin greenish-yellow, season 
early winter. 

Thacher's (2) description of Lady Finger is that it " is a long, taoering 
fruit, of a beautiful yellow and red color. It is well flavored, keeps till June. 
The tree bears abundantly." 

Elliott (3) describes Lady Finger, synonym Sheepnose, "as medium, oblong, 
pale yellow, often blushed. Flesh firm, watery. Season November, Decem- 
ber." 

Hooper (4) recognizes Lady Finger as a synonym of Kaighn, but erron- 
eously, according to Downing, who gives Red Winter Pearmain as the correct 
name for this variety. 

Warder (5) gives Red Lady Finger as a synonym of Red Winter Pearmain 
and Lady Finger Pippin as a synonym of Red Winter Pippin. 

Downing (6, 7) recognizes the varieties described under the name Lady 
Finger by Hogg, Coxe, and Elliott as mentioned above and adds the descrip- 
tion of still another variety which he received under this name from Mary- 
land, the fruit of which is roundish conical, yellowish, shaded with deep 
crimson, subacid, good to very good ; season August. He also gives Lady 

'Rural N. v., 54; 106. 1895. 



184 The Apples of New York. 

Finger as an erroneous sj'nonyni for Kaighn and Red Lady Finger as a 
synonym for Red Winter Pearmain. 

Hogg (8) describes a red cider apple under the name Lady's Finger of 
Hereford and a greenish-yellow culinary apple in season from November to 
March under the name Lady's Finger of Lancaster. He also gives Lady's 
Finger of Kent as a synonym for Smart's Prince Arthur, and Lady's Finger 
as a synonym for White Paradise. 

Thomas (10) gives Lady Finger as a synonym of White Paradise. 

LADY SWEET. 

References, i. Downing. 1845:136. fig. 2. Cole, 1849:132. fig. 3. Down- 
ing, Horticulturist, 3:578. 1849. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:75. 1851. 5. 
Hovey, 2:87. 1851. col. pi. and Hg. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 7. Elliott, 
1854:88. 8. Hovey, Mag. Hart., 21:566. 1855. Hg. 9. Hooper, 1857:52. 10. 
Warder, 1867:561. fig. 11. Fitz, 1872:166. 12. Downing, 1872:246. fig. 13. 
Barry, 1883:348. 14. Thomas, 1885:227. fig. 15. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890:294. 16. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 17. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 
205:42. 1903. 18. Budd-Hansen, 1903:112. 19. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. 
P. I. Bui, 48:46. 1903. 20. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:128. 1904. 

Synonyms. Ladies Sweet (ii). Ladies Sweeting (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 
8, 9, 10, 14). Lady's Sweet (12, 13). Lady's Szveeting (20). Pommeroy 
(12, 20). Roa Yon (12). 

This is one of the most desirable of the sweet apples for com- 
mercial planting. When well grown, the fruit is of good size, fine 
red color and excellent quality and keeps very late. It has an estab- 
lished reputation in market and is well known to fruit growers in 
many parts of the state, and often under the synonym Pommeroy. 
Doubtless it would be grown more extensively were it not for the 
fact that at present the market demand for sweet apples is quite 
limited. It ships well, stores well and usually sells well. It is also 
a good variety for the home orchard because the tree comes into 
bearing young, is a regular bearer, yields heavy crops, and the fruit 
is attractive in color and excellent either for dessert or for culinary 
uses. When grown as far north as Lake Ontario its season for 
home use extends from late autumn to late spring. Generally the 
tree is not a remarkably strong grower and is but moderately long- 
lived. In some locations it is not quite hardy, and sometimes it is 
injured by bark-bursting. These deficiencies are in part overcome 
by top-working the variety upon some hardier and more vigorous 
sort. The variety is somewhat susceptible to the attacks of the 
scab fungus and requires thorough treatment to protect it from this 
disease. It is a reliable cropper, bearing biennially, or in some cases 





LADY SWEET 



The Apple? of New York. 185 

almost annually, and the fruit hangs well to the tree. When it over- 
bears, as it often does, there is apt to be a considerable portion of 
undersized and poorly colored fruit. This difficulty may be rem- 
edied in part by pruning so as to restrict the amount of bearing 
wood and permit free access of light and air to all parts of the tree. 

Historical. This variety originated in the vicinity of Newburg where it 
established an excellent local reputation. It was first introduced into more 
general cultivation by the Downing Nurseries of that place (i, 3, 5). It is 
now propagated in the North Atlantic States, the Middle West and the Pacific 
region (16). 

Tree. 

Tree in the nursery is a slim, slow grower with tender foliage and soft 
wood and should be top-worked. In the orchard under favorable conditions 
it becomes moderately vigorous or in some cases a rather strong grower. 
Form rather upright becoming roundish and somewhat spreading. Ticigs 
medium to rather short, slender; internodes medium to short. Bark dull 
olive-green or reddish-brown with thin scarf-skin; pubescent particularly 
toward the tips. Lenticels rather inconspicuous, scattering, very small, elon- 
gated or roundish, raised. Buds medium to small, obtuse, closely appressed, 
slightly pubescent ; ends often swollen so that the bud sets on an eminence. 
Leaves rather narrow, medium to small, ovate. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to medium, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
conic, often approaching oblong conic, irregularly elliptical, often ribbed, 
nearly symmetrical. Stem short to very short. Cavity acute or approaching 
acuminate, deep, usually rather narrow, sometimes wide, gently furrowed, 
often partly russeted, sometimes lipped. Calyx small, closed, pubescent. 
Basin small, narrow, rather shallow to moderately deep, abrupt, furrowed. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, yellow or greenish, in highly colored specimens 
almost entirely overspread with bright red splashed with carmine. It is 
mottled and striped with whitish scarf-skin about the cavity. Dots rather 
conspicuous, small to rather large, pale areolar with russet point or sub- 
merged, numerous toward the basin. 

Calyx tube conical varying to funnel-shape. Stamens basal to median. 

Core small to above medium, axile to somewhat abaxile ; cells not uniformly 
developed, closed ; core lines meeting or somew-hat clasping. Carpels broad, 
roundish to roundish ovate, mucronate, sometimes slightly emarginate. some- 
what tufted. Seeds dark, large, rather narrow, long, acute, slightly tufted, 
often abortive 

Flesh whitish or with slight yellow tinge, rather firm, moderately fine, crisp, 
tender, juicy, sweet with a distinct and pleasant aroma, very good to best. 

Season November to April or May ; in cold storage to May or June. 

LANDON, 

References, i. Warder, 1867724. 2. Downing, 1872:248. 3. Thomas, 
1885:515. 4. Macomber, Am. Card., 11:141. 1890. 



1 86 The Apples of New York. 

Fruit attractive in color, of good marketable size and a good keeper. On 
account of its mild flavor it is better suited for dessert than for culinary use. 
The record which it has made at this Station confirms the statement of 
Macomber (4) that it is a rather shy bearer. 

Historical. Brought to notice by Buel Landon, South Hero, Vermont, about 
forty years ago {i, 2, 4). It appears to be but little known outside of that 
locality. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous or rather slow-growing; branches slender. Form 
spreading, dense, dwarfish with rather flat top. Tzvigs short to medium, 
nearly straight but somewhat geniculate, moderately slender; internodes short 
to medium. Bark clear light brown mingled with red, irregularly marked 
and mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels conspicuous, small 
to rather large, roundish or elongated, raised. Buds medium or below, plump, 
roundish, obtuse, free or nearly so, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large, averaging above medium, pretty uniform in size and 
shape. Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, sometimes obscurely ribbed. 
Stem short. Cavity large, acute, moderately deep to deep, slightly furrowed, 
sometimes slightly russeted. Calyx small to medium, partly open or some- 
times closed. Basin shallow to moderately shallow, rather obtuse, somewhat 
furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, nearly smooth, yellow mostly washed and mottled with 
red and distinctly striped with carmine, often becoming deep crimson or 
purplish on the side exposed to the sun. Dots conspicuous, whitish, large 
and irregular, especially about the cavity, or areolar with russet point. 

Calyx tube elongated funnel-shape, constricted just below the limb and 
often extending to the core. Stamens median. 

Core medium or above, abaxile ; cells open or partly open; core lines clasp- 
ing. Carpels broad at the base approaching truncate, rounding toward apex, 
slightly emarginate. Seeds medium or above, rather wide, fiat, obtuse. 

Flesh j-ellowish, sometimes tinged with red next the skin, firm, a little 
coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, aromatic, mild subacid becoming nearly 
sweet late in season, good to verj^ good. 

Season December to May. 

LANKFORD. 

References, i. Downing. 1881:92 app. 2. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 
1891:390. 3. Bailey, An. Hart., 1892:243. 4. Van Deman, Am. Pom. Soc. 
Rpt., 1895:72. 5. Rural X. Y., 55:1, 122, 195. 1896. fig. 6. Stinson, Ark. Sta. 
Bui, 43:103. 1896. 7. Powell, Del. Sta. Bui., 38:19. 1898. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1899:18. 9. Ahvood, Va. Sta. Bui, 130:133. 1901. £g. 10. Powell and 
Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 48:47. 1903. 11. Budd-Hansen, 1903:113. 12, 
Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. But.. 248:128. 1904. 

Synonyms. L.^ngford (5). Langford (5, 12). Lankford's Seedling 
(6). Vickers (i. 12). 

Lankford. as fruited at this Station, is a dull red apple of good size and 
fairly good quality. It is easily excelled by the standard varieties. It is in 



The Apples of New York. 187 

season from December to May but scalds badly after midwinter (10, 12). 
The tree makes a tall, slim growth in the nursery. In the orchard it is a 
strong grower and comes into bearing rather young, but although it occasion- 
ally bears a full crop it has not proved a reliable cropper at this Station. 
Although in some parts of the South fruit growers regard it with favor it 
does not appear to be well adapted to regions as far north as New York and 
is not recommended for planting in this state. 

Historical. It originated as a chance seedling at Lankford, Kent county, 
Maryland, about forty years ago (i. 4, 5, 9). 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous with long, slender branches. Form at first upright but be- 
coming roundish or much spreading, rather dense. Tzvigs medium in length, 
rather straight except that they are geniculate, moderately stout; terminal 
buds large ; internodes medium to short. Bark dark brownish-red with some 
olive-green, partly mottled with thin scarf-skin ; pubescent toward the tip. 
Lenticels conspicuous where the bark is brightly colored, quite numerous, 
below medium to above, often elongated, raised. Buds medium in size, broad, 
flat, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit usually medium or below, sometimes large. Form roundish oblate 
to oblong truncate, ribbed but faintly if at all ; sides sometimes unequal ; axis 
sometimes oblique ; pretty uniform in shape and size. Stem medium to rather 
long, sometimes very long. Cai'ity acute to acuminate, deep, broad to medium 
in width, nearly symmetrical, usually green, sometimes partly russeted. Calyx 
below medium to large, closed or partly open ; lobes usually reflexed. Basin 
moderately deep and wide, varying sometimes to shallow and narrow, rather 
abrupt, sometimes wrinkled. 

Skin tough, smooth, somewhat waxy, not glossy, grass-green becoming 
yellowish, washed and striped with red. In highly colored specimens deep, 
dull red covers nearly the entire surface. Dots whitish or with russet point, 
numerous and small toward the basin, elongated, large and scattering 'toward 
the cavity. 

Calyx tube long, cone-shape or somewhat funnel-form. Stamens below 
median. 

Core medium or below, axile or nearly so ; cells pretty symmetrical, closed 
or partly open ; core lines clasping. Carpels much concave, broadly roundish 
or approaching roundish obcordate, mucronate, slightly emarginate, somewhat 
tufted. Seeds medium in size, rather wide, obtuse to acute, dark ; often some 
are abortive. 

Flesh tinged with yellow or greenish, firm, moderately fine, crisp, nearly 
tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, fair to good. 

Season December to May. 

LANSINGBURG, 

References, i. Hooper, 1857:53. 2. Warder, 1867:540. 3. Downing, 1869: 
249. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875:10. 5. Thomas, 1885:515. 6, Bailey, An. 



i88 The Apples of New York. 

Hort., 1892:243. 7. Van Deman, i^i/ra/A^. F., 58:382. 1899. 8. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:113. 9. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:173. 1905. 

Synonyms. Lansinburg (i). Lansingburgh (2,3). Lansingburgh (g). 
Lansingburg Pippin (9). Red Rock. Rock Apple (9). 

A late-keeping apple which is grown to some extent in the Middle West 
(6). Warder speaks of it as an old variety common in Cincinnati and along 
the Ohio river. Suitable only for culinary use and for market. Color 
greenish becoming rich yellow with a striped appearance and blushed with 
carmine. It is coarse in texture, sweetish in flavor and not good in quality 
(i, 2, 7). It is sometimes called Rock or Red Rock in New York. 

Historical. An old variety which appears to have been first brought to 
notice in Ohio (i, 2). It is but little known in New York and is not recom- 
mended for planting in this state. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous or moderately vigorous. Form upright, " brushy and thorny, 
looking like a wilding" (2). Twigs medium or below, rather stout, nearly 
straight ; internodes short. Bark dull brownish-red overlaid with thick scarf- 
skin, giving a grayish-brown efifect, slightly pubescent. Lenticels rather 
numerous but not conspicuous, small to medium, the larger ones roundish. 
Buds medium, acute, somewhat pubescent, appressed. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or above. Form roundish oblate sometimes a little inclined 
to conic, obscurely ribbed, nearly symmetrical, often sides unequal, pretty uni- 
form in shape. Stem medium to short. Cavity acute, deep, broad, sym- 
metrical or slightly furrowed, or sometimes compressed, russeted. Calyx 
medium, open ; lobes short, broad, obtuse. Basin shallow to medium in depth, 
medium to wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thick, very tough, slightly rough, rather dulled with faint bloom, yellow 
or greenish deeply blushed or mottled with red, striped and splashed with 
dark carmine. Dots often areolar, green or yellow with gray or russet center, 
rather conspicuous Prevailing effect red or striped red. 

Calyx tube long, cone-shape or funnel-form with wide limb. 

Core medium to small, closed ; core lines somewhat clasping. Carpels 
round approaching round cordate, emarginate, mucronate, slightly tufted. 
Seeds rather large, wide, flat, obtuse, slightly tufted. 

Flesh tinged with green or yellow, very firm, rather coarse, breaking, moder- 
ately tender, rather dry, mild subacid, becoming somewhat sweet, fair to good. 

Season December to May or June. 

LA VICTOIRE* 

References, i. Craig, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1896:126. 2. Macoun, Quebec 
Pom. Sac, 1899:20. 3. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bui, 83:91. 1900. 4. Macoun, Can. 
Dept. Agr. Bui, 37:44. 1901. 

Synonym. La Victoria Seedling (1). 

A handsome apple of the Fameuse group, probably a seedling of the 
Fameuse, but a better keeper. On account of its season and hardiness it may 



The Apples of New York. 189 

be desirable for planting in the northern and more elevated regions of the 
state. 

Historical. Originated near (irenville, Quebec. The first published descrip- 
tion of it of which we tind any record is that given by Macoun in 1899 (2). 
It is as yet practically unknown in New York. 

Tree. 
Tree hardy and a strong, moderately spreading grower, but so far as tested 
has not proved very productive (4). 

Fruit. 

Fruit as described by IMacoun (4) and Waugh (3) is above medium size 
to large. Form strongly oblate, slightly conic, smooth and regular. Stem 
short and stout. Cavity of medium depth, medium in width to wide, slightly 
russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed or open. Basi>i abrupt, medium 
in depth to deep, wide, regular, almost smooth. 

Skin tough, greenish-yellow washed and striped and nearly covered with 
light crimson red, the whole overspread with bloom. Dots fairly numerous, 
conspicuous, whitish or gray. 

Core small to rather large, closed. 

Flesh firm, white streaked with red, rather coarse, moderately juicy, aro- 
matic, mild subacid, with a pleasant flavor and aroma distinctly like that of 
the Mcintosh, quality good. 

Season winter. 

LAWYER. 

References, i. Prairie Farmer, 1868. (cited by 19). 2. Warder, ///. Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1868:95-97. 3. Am. Pom. Sac. Cat., 1871:8. 4. Downing, 1872: 
251. 5. Fitz, 1872:121, 143. 6. Thomas. 1885:516. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 
1887:92. 8. Mo. Sta. Bui, 6:7. 1889. 9. Wickson, 1891:246. 10. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892:243. II. Beach, Paddock and Close, A^. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:272. 
1896. 12. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui, 43:103. 1896. 13. Mass. Hatch Sta. Bui., 
44:4. 1897. 14. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1899:78. 15. Alwood, J'a. 
Sta. Bui, 130:135. 1901. 16. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. L Bui. 48:47. 
1903. 17. Budd-Hansen, 1903:114. 18. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 
248:129. 1904. 19. Ragan, U. S. B. P. L Bui, 56:176. 1905. 

Synonyms. Black Spy. Dclaivare Red Winter (11, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19). 
Del.\w.\re Winter (7). Dclai^'arc JVinter (11, 13). 

An attractive bright red apple, pretty uniform in size and shape. 
It is very firm, ships well and keeps late. It does not rank high in 
quality and is less suitable for dessert than for market and culinary 
uses. As grown in this state often a considerable portion of the 
fruit grades below medium size and lacks proper development in 
quahty and color. It is better adapted to more southern latitudes. 
In some places the tree is not a good cropper, but usually it comes 
into bearing rather early and is a reliable biennial bearer, often yield- 
ing very heavy crops. The fruit and foliage are quite subject to 



igo The Apples of New York. 

the attacks of the apple scab fungus, but this may be readily con- 
trolled by proper treatment. This variety is seldom regarded favor- 
ably for commercial planting by Xew York fruit growers, and the 
quality is not high enough to give it a place among the varieties 
recommended for the home orchard. 

Historical. Origin uncertain. " Introduced by Geo. S. Park, of Parkville, 
Mo., and said to have been found in an old Indian orchard in Kansas" (i, 
4). Reintroduced from Delaware under the name Delaware Winter (7). It 
has also been disseminated in some portions of New York under the name 
Black Spy. During the last forty years it has been pretty thoroughly dissemi- 
nated throughout the country. 

Tree. 

Tree medium or above, vigorous or moderately vigorous ; branches long, 
moderately stout, curved. Form roundish or somewhat flat, spreading, rather 
dense. Tzvigs short to rather long, curved, moderately stout; internodes 
medium to rather long. Bark dark brownish-red mingled with olive-green, 
mottled with rather heavy scarf-skin, slightly pubescent near the tips. Lenti- 
cels dull, inconspicuous, rather scattering, medium to large, elongated, raised. 
Buds large to medium, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or above ; as fruited here it usually averages no more than 
medium and often a considerable portion of the crop runs below medium. 
Form roundish or somewhat oblate, ribbed but slightly if at all, regular and 
symmetrical. Stem variable, often long and slender. Cavity acute or ap- 
proaching acuminate, deep, rather large and broad, often compressed or dis- 
tinctly furrowed, usualU^ more or less russeted and often w'ith outspreading 
russet rays. Calyx rather small, closed or partly open, often leafy; lobes 
sometimes separated at the base. Basin usually rather wide, flat and obtuse, 
sometimes moderately deep and moderately abrupt, gently furrowed, some- 
times wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thin, tough, sometimes a little wa.xy, smooth, occasionally 
showing some of the yellow ground color but usually completely covered with 
solid bright red which about the base deepens to purplish and is often mottled 
and streaked with dull grayish scarf-skin. Toward the apex it has a character- 
istic lighter and brighter red tone. Dots whitish or russet, small and numer- 
ous about the basin, larger and scattering toward the cavity. 

Calyx tube rather long, narrow at top, funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core abaxile, medium or above ; cells pretty symmetrical, open or partly 
closed : core lines clasping. Carpels somewhat concave, roundish to broadly 
obcordate, but slightly emarginate if at all, somewhat tufted. Seeds dark, 
medium to rather large, wide, obtuse, somewhat tufted. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow or greenish, rather hard, somewhat break- 
ing, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, rather brisk subacid, somewhat aro- 
matic, not highly flavored, fair to good in quality. 

Season January to Alay or June. Commercial limit March or possibly 
April. 





LAWYER 



» The Apples of New York. 191 

LEE SWEET. 

Lee Sweet is a haiulsome deep red apple of good size, acceptable 
for dessert but especially valuable for market and culinary uses. It 
is desirable for the home orchard and appears to be worthy of con- 
sideration for commercial planting where a sweet apple is desired. 
The fruit is illustrated on the color plate with Northern Spy, and a 
section of it is shown on the color plate with McLellan. 

The tree does not come into bearing very young, but when mature 
is a reliable cropper, yielding moderately heavy crops biennially. 
The fruit hangs fairly well to the tree and is pretty uniform in size 
and quality, having about as high a percentage of marketable fruit 
as the Baldwin. It is somewhat subject to scab, but this may be 
readily controlled by proper treatment. It stores well and, if perfect, 
keeps well. In ordinary storage it is in season from January to 
April. 

Historical. An old variety of uncertain origin known to some in the vicinity 
of Geneva under the name of Lee Sweet because it was formerly grown on 
the White Springs farm then known as the Lee farm. It is here described 
under its local name because we have been unable to identify it with any other 
variety. 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous. Form erect. Tivigs medium 
in length to rather short, pretty straight, rather slender ; internodes short to 
medium. Bark olive-green overcast with brownish-red, overlaid witii thin 
scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels moderately numerous, raised, gen- 
erally elongated, small. Buds small, roundish, pubescent, nearly free from 
bark. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to nearly large, fairly uniform in shape and size. Form 
roundish conic to oblong conic, often somewhat angular or elliptical ; sides 
sometimes unequal. Stem medium to short. Cavity acuminate, deep, moder- 
ately wide, sometimes lipped or furrowed, russeted, often with outspreading 
russet rays. Calyx rather large, open ; lobes long, acuminate, reflexed, often 
separated at the base. Basin medium to rather small, usually abrupt, usually 
medium in depth and width, sometimes a little furrowed. 

Skill tough, glossy bright red striped with purplish-carmine over a yellow 
background and sometimes marked with grayish scarf-skin about the base. 
Highly colored specimens are nearly or quite covered with red but where the 
color is less strongly developed it has a striped appearance. Dots usually 
whitish, rather numerous, small, occasionally rather large and dark russet. 

Calyx tube conical or funnel-form. Statnens median or below. 



192 The Apples of New York. 

Core medium to small, abaxile; cells pretty sjanmetrical, open or closed; 
core lines clasping. Carju^ls much concave, roundish ovate, mucronate, tufted. 
Seeds short, broad, plump, obtuse. 

Flesh nearly white, slightly tinged with yellow, firm, somewhat coarse, not 
very juicy, sweet, good. 

LEHIGH GREENING. 

References, i. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1891:390. 2. Butz, Penn. 
Sta. An. Rpt., 1892:107. fig. 3. Van Deman, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:72. 
4. Am. Pom. .Soc. Cat., 1899:18. 5. Johnson, Rural N. Y., 62:19, 370. 1903. 
Hgs. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:115. 

An attractive apple of the French Pippin type, of good size and 

an excellent keeper. It was mentioned on page 134 as possibly 

identical with French Pippin. Further comparison leads us to 

believe that it is distinct. It is desirable rather for market and 

culinary uses than for dessert. 

Historical. It has been grown in Lehigh county, Pennsylvania, for about 
sixty years ( 5 ) . 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branches rather stout and crooked. Form wide- 
spreading, open. Tii'igs medium to long, irregularly curved, stout to rather 
slender; internodes short to above medium. Bark clear dark reddish-brown 
mingled with olive-green, slightly mottled with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. 
Lenticcls scattering, rather conspicuous, medium in size, round or slightly 
elongated, raised but slightly if at all. Buds set deeply in the bark, above 
medium to rather small, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, quite pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
oblate to roundish conic, ribbed but faintly if at all ; sides sometimes unequal. 
Stem medium to long, moderately slender. Cavity acute to acuminate, medium 
in depth to deep, narrow to moderately wide, sometimes lipped, more or less 
russeted and often with outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium in size, 
somewhat open ; lobes medium to long, rather narrow, acuminate, often some- 
what separated at the base. Basin usually rather large, abrupt, moderately 
deep to rather shallow, moderately wide, gentlj'^ furrowed. 

Skin dark green in the fall but eventually becoming waxen yellow, occasion- 
ally with a thin blush of bright red. Dots numerous, submerged or pale 
areolar with russet point. 

Calyx tube rather long and wide, broadly funnel-shape. Stamens median 
to basal. 

Core medium to small, usually abaxile ; cells symmetrical, wide open ; core 
lines slightly clasping. Carpels pointed ovate to broadly cordate, tufted. 
Seeds numerous, medium in size, rather dark brown, somewhat elongated, 
plump, acute to acuminate. 

Flesh yellowish-white, firm, moderately fine or a little coarse, rather crisp, 
tender, juicy, sprightly, mild subacid, aromatic, good or sometimes very good. 

Season January to May. 



The Apples of New York. 193 

LILLY OF KENT, 

References, i. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., iSgi.-.igo. 2. Wright, Am. 
Card., 17:34. 1896. 3. Powell, Del. Sta. Bui, 38:19. 1898. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1899:18. 5. Ragan, U. S. Pom. BuL, 8:18. 1899. 6. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:115. 

Synonym. Lfly of Kent (2, 3). 

Fruit large, globular, green or yellowish-green, subacid, good in quality 
and a very late keeper. This is a variety of recent introduction (i). It has 
not yet been sufficiently tested in New York to determine whether or not 
it is a desirable variety for this region. It originated in Delaware and is 
being planted to considerable extent in some portions of that state (3). 

LIMBERTWIG, 

Reference.';, i. Kenrick, 1832:59. 2. Thomas, 1849:168. 3. Phoenix, 
Horticulturist. 4:471. 1850. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. V., 3:67. 1851. 5. 
Elliott, 1854:143. 6. Robey, Horticulturist. 11:89. 1856. 7. Downing, 1857: 
164. 8. Hooper, 1857:54. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., i860. 10. Warder, 1867: 
516. -fig. II. Fitz, 1872:143, 149. 12. Leroy, 1873:420. tig. 13. Barry, 1883: 
348. 14. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 15. Wickson, 1891:248. 16, 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 17. Clayton, Ala. Sta. Bui, 6,T.']. 1893. 18. 
Stinson, Ark. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:47. 1894. i9- ^^l- Sta. BuL, 45:329. 1896. 20. 
Rural N. )'., 62:822. 1903. tig. 21. Budd-Hansen, 1903:115. 22. Bruner, .V. 
C. Sta. BuL. 182:25. 1903. figs. 23. Farrand, Mich. Sta. BuL. 205:45. 1903. 
24. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. L BuL, 48:47. 1903. 25. Beach and Clark, 
N. Y. Sta. BuL, 248:129. 1904. 

Synonyms, .fames River (2, 5, 7). Lambertwig (12). Limber Twig 
(l, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2T,). Red Limbertivig (22). 

There are several different apples which are known locally under the name 
Limbertwig. Willow Twig is sometimes incorrectly called Limbertwig, as 
has been noted by some writers (5, 14). 

There is an apple grown in Northern New York, probably of local origin, 
which is there known under the name of Limbertwig. This fruit is of the 
Blue Pearmain class and resembles Bethel in form and color but the flesh 
is coarser and has more acidity. Tt is a good keeper. 

In some portions of Western New York the Twenty Ounce is called Limber- 
twig. 

The variety described below as the small or red Limbertwig appears to be 
practically unknown among New York fruit growers except in some localities 
in the southeastern portions of the state. That described as the large or 
green Limbertwig, so far as we know, is not grown in New York. 

In some of the references above cited the writers appear to have clearly in 
mind the red Limbertwig (4, 7, 10, 14, 21); in other cases they evidently 
describe the green Limbertwig (2, 5) ; occasionally both are mentioned (3, 
8, 19), but in most instances it is not clear which variety is referred to. 

LIMBERTWIG (Sma// or red). 

Fruit attractive in appearance, of good deep red color, pretty uniform in 
size, well adapted for storage, ships well and keeps late, but the quality is 



194 The Apples of New York. 

only fair to good. The tree is thrifty and an excellent cropper and the fruit 
hangs well to the tree despite high winds (8, lo, 20) ; laterals slender becom- 
ing drooping with heavy crops. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to below ; uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
to slightly oblate conic, ribbed but slightly if at all, symmetrical and regular. 
Stem medium in length and thickness, usually not exserted. Cavity acumi- 
nate, deep, rather broad to moderately narrow, sometimes partly russeted, 
smooth or gently furrowed. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; 
lobes short, broad, flat or sometimes recurved. Basin small, moderately 
narrow, varying from shallow and obtuse to moderately deep and somewhat 
abrupt, often a little furrowed. 

Skin slightly roughened with numerous and rather conspicuous russet dots, 
yellow largely covered with red, deepening in the sun to dark purplish-red, 
sparingly and obscurely striped with dull carmine, sometimes marked with 
broken irregular russet veins. Prevailing effect attractive dark red. 

Calyx tube cone-shape to elongated funnel-form. Stamens median or above. 

Core sessile, abaxile or nearly so. rather small to medium ; cells not uni- 
formly developed, pretty symmetrical, closed or slightly open ; core lines clasp- 
ing. Carpels concave, elliptical, deeply emarginate, much tufted. Seeds 
numerous, elongated, medium to small, plump, obtuse to acute, much tufted, 
clinging to the carpels. 

Flesh yellowish, hard, moderately fine, not very crisp, juicy, aromatic, sub- 
acid, good. 

Season January to March or April ; in cold storage February to May or 
later. 

LIMBERTWIG (La7^o-e or ^reen). 

As compared with the variety last described the fruit of the large or green 
Limbertwig is much the larger but it does not keep as well. It is decidedly 
less attractive being dull green partly overspread with dull brownish-red, 
marked over the base with whitish scarf-skin and sometimes with a few 
irregular patches or streaks of russet. Dots coarse, conspicuous, usually 
areolar with russet point. 

Cavity large, acute or approaching acuminate, wide, deep, somewhat fur- 
rowed. Calyx tube cone-shape to somewhat funnel-form. Stamens median. 
Core medium to rather large, axile ; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines 
meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels smooth or nearly so, elliptical to 
broadly obcordate, deeply emarginate. Seeds rather large to medium, rather 
wide, obtuse, smooth or nearly so, free. Flesh subacid, coarser and more 
juicy than the other and much inferior in flavor and quality. 

(I) LONG ISLAND RUSSET. 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:123. fig. 2. Robey, Horticulturist, 11:89. 1856. 
3. Elliott, 1858:173. 4. Warder, 1867:725. 5. Downing, 1869:255. 6. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875:10. 7. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 8. Hicks, Rural 
A^ v., 53:205. 1894. 9- Thomas, 1897:643. 

Synonym. English Russet (8). 



The Appi.ks of Xf.w York. 195 

This variety was formerly much grown on Long Island and in 
Westchester county, where it was considered profitable and particu- 
larly valued for cider (i, 8). It is now nearly obsolete. Coxe 
describes it as " Small. ''' '•' * rather oblong, diminishing towards 
the crown, which is very hollow ; the stalk is a full inch in length, 
planted very deep — the flesh is dry and sweet ; makes a very sweet, 
sirupy cider, which when fined is much admired — the skin is a yellow 
russet, clouded with l)lack spots — this apple keeps well." Elliott 
gives its season as December to March (3). Downing (5) gives 
the season as October to February. " Flesh yellowish, tough, rather 
dry, almost sweet." Warder (4) classes it with the subacid apples. 
Hicks (8) says " it is a long keeper, sometimes keeping till apples 
come again." Its general appearance is attractive for a russet. 

(II) LONG ISLAND RUSSET. 

From various parts of Long Island and from one locality in 

Michigan we have received under the name Long Island Russet the 

variety which is described below and illustrated in the accompanying 

color plate. This fruit has also come to us from the Hudson valley. 

It is evident that it does not correspond with the description by 

Coxe cited above. We have been unable to identify it with any 

named variety. So far as we can learn this variety is no longer 

being planted and is fast becoming obsolete, being represented now 

only by old trees. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to small, sometimes nearly large. Form roundish to some- 
what oblong, narrowing toward the basin, sometimes approaching truncate 
cylindrical, often with an oblique axis, irregular; not very uniform in si^e 
and shape. Stem short to medium, moderately slender. Cai'ity large, acute, 
usually deep, broad, green or russeted. sometimes furrowed. Calyx closed or 
partly open ; lobes rather narrow, acute. Basin often oblique, of medium 
depth, rather narrow to moderately wide, rather abrupt, a little furrowed and 
wrinkled. 

Ski)i tough, more or less covered with golden russet but usualK with some 
patches of smooth bright yellow or green, irregularly marked with indistinct 
grayish scarf-skin. Dots inconspicuous, scattering, gray or russet. Prevail- 
ing effect is usually golden russet. 

Calyx tube conical to funnel-shape, with a wide limb and narrow cylinder. 
Stamens basal to nearly median. 

Core rather small, sometimes medium, abaxile or sometimes axile; cells 
often unsymmetrical, closed or open ; core lines meeting or somewhat clasp- 



196 The Apples of New York. 

ing. Carpels smooth or nearly so, broadly roundish to angular-ovate, wide 
at the middle and tapering toward the base and apex, but slightly emarginate 
if at all, sometimes slightly tufted. Seeds numerous, dark brown, medium in 
size, moderately narrow, plump, obtuse to acute, sometimes tufted. 

Flesh tinged with a decided deep yellow, firm, at first rather crisp or hard, 
but often becoming tough, moderately fine, sprightly subacid, juicy, very good. 

Season November to midwinter or later. 

LONG STEM OF PENNSYLVANIA, 

Referenxes. I. Brinckle, Mag. Hort., 19:169. 1853. 2. Downing, 1857:86. 
3. Warder. 1867:725. 4. Thomas. 1885:236. 

A Pennsylvania apple described by Dr. Brinckle in 1853 as a new variety 
(i). It is but seldom found in New York and is not recommended for plant- 
ing in this state. 

Other varieties which have been cultivated under the name of Long Stem 
will be noticed in Volume II. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium in size. Form roundish inclined to cylindrical, ribbed 
but faintly if at all. Stcjii long to very long, slender, bracted. Cai'ity medium 
to rather small, acuminate, rather narrow to moderately wide, usuallj' smooth. 
Calyx medium to rather large ; lobes often leafy, elongated, obtuse. Basin 
shallow to verj' shallow, narrow, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, pale yellow or greenish, nearly covered with thin red and 
faintl}^ marked with narrow stripes of carmine. Dots numerous, gray or 
russet. 

Calyx tube funnel-form approaching cylindrical, with pistil point extending 
into the base. Sta)nens median or above. 

Core large, abaxile ; cells symmetrical, open ; core lines clasp the funnel 
cylinder. Carpels smooth, much concave, elongated approaching oval, slightly 
emarginate. Seeds very numerous, below medium to rather large, obtuse to 
acute, variable, plump, moderately wide. 

Flesh tinged with j'ellow or greenish, firm, crisp, rather tender, juicy to 
very juicy, moderately fine-grained, sprightly subacid, good to very good. 

Season November to February. 

McAFEE. 

References, i. Elliott. 1854:158. 2. Downing. 1857:170. 3. Downing, 
Horticulturist, 16:42. 1S61. 4. Warder, 1867:601, 725. 5. Howslej-, Am. 
Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871:76. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871. 7. Downing, 1872: 
260, 363, 21 app. fig. 8. Fitz, 1872:143. g. Barry, 1883:349. 10. Thomas, 
1885:517. II. Lyon. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 12. Bailey. An. Hort., 
1892:244. 13. Beach, fF. -V. Y. Hort. Soc. An. Rpt., 41:76. 1901. 14. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903:119. 15. Bruner. .V. C. Sta. Bill, 182:27. 1903. 

Synonym.s. Gray Apple (7). Gray's Keeper (5). Indian JFyandotte 
(7). Large Striped Pearmain (4). Large Striped Pearmain (i. 5, 6, 7). 
Large Striped Winter Pearmain (3). Large Striped Winter Pearmain 
(7, g'). McAfee (7). McAfee Red (14). McAfee's Nonesuch (8). 
McAfee's Nonesuch (5). McAfee's Nonsuch (2, 7, 9, 10). McAfees 



The Apples of New York. 197 

Red is, 7)- McAffee (4). McAffee's Nonesuch (6). Missouri Superior 
(S, 7, 13)- Nezv Missouri (5). Nonsuch (7). Park (5). Parks Keeper 
(5, 7, 13)- Snorter (i, 7). Stevenson Pippin (13)- Stinc (15). Storr's 
Wine (5). Striped Pearmain (i). Striped Sweet Pippin (7). Striped 
Winter Pearmain (7). Valandingham (5). White Croxn (5). Winter 
Pearmain (5). ]]'inter Pippin of some (7). Zcckc (5). 

This is an old variety well known in portions of the South and of the 
J.Iiddle West. As grown in Western New York it is a reliable bearer giving 
moderately heavy crops, the fruit hangs well to the tree, develops good color 
and is a late keeper but its quality is not very satisfactory. It is not recom- 
mended for planting in this state. 

Historical. An old variety which originated near Harrodsburg, Kentucky. 
At first it was called Nonesuch but afterwards became widely known under 
the name McAfee's Nonsuch. Dr. Howsley gives an extended account of its 
origin and of its dissemination under various synonyins (5). 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form roundish, 
somewhat spreading. Tzvigs medium in length, rather slender with dark 
bark ; slightly pubescent towards the tips ; young twigs smooth, dark, reddish- 
brown. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large. Form roundish oblate, regular. Ston short to 
long. Cavity large, wide, acute, rather deep, gently furrowed, often with 
thin outspreading russet. Calyx small, closed. Basin shallow, usually rather 
narrow, sometimes broad, sometimes compressed, wrinkled and gently 
furrowed. 

Skin rather thin, smooth, yellow faintly washed with red and splashed and 
striped with carmine, often marked over the base with thin, grayish, mottled 
or streaked scarf-skin and sometimes with fine, irregularly broken russet lines. 
Dots minute, indented, gray or whitish mingled with some that are larger, 
areolar. Prevailing effect striped red. 

Calyx tube funnel-form, sometimes elongated and constricted at the base 
of the limb, enlarging somewhat below and extending to the core. Sta)nens 
median to basal. 

Core medium in size, decidedly abaxile, roundish ; cells pretty symmetrical, 
open ; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels rather concave, tufted, 
very broadly obovate or approaching obcordate, narrowing towards the stem. 
Seeds numerous, large, long, rather wide, obtuse, dark. 

Flesh yellowish, somewhat coarse, somewhat breaking, tender, juicy, mild 
subacid approaching sweet, good to very good. 

Season October to February. 

McKINLEY* 

Reference.s. I. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 2. Warder, 1867:606. fig. 3. 
Downing, 1872:261. 4. Thomas, 1885:517. 5. Bailey, An. Horl., 1892:244. 
6. Ragan, U. S. B. P. L Bui, 56:188. 1905. 

Synonym. Mackinlay (i). MacKinlay (6). 



198 The xAlpples of New York. 

A dessert apple of pretty good size but the color is not very good and the 
fruit does not keep late. As grown at this Station the tree has come into 
bearing rather young but it has not been tested here long enough to deter- 
mine its productiveness. It is not recommended for planting in this state. 

It originated in Indiana (6) and is propagated to a limited extent in por- 
tions of the Middle West (5). It is practically unknown in New York. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large, roundish oblate. Stem short to medium, slender. 
Cavity rather narrow, deep, thickly russeted. Calyx large, closed or varying 
to wide open ; lobes small. Basin broad, rather abrupt, shallow to moderately 
deep, slightly furrowed. Skin dull yellow indistinctly blushed and striped 
with dull red, sprinkled with large areolar dots. Core medium, closed ; core 
lines meeting. Flesh yellowish, rather fine-grained, moderately juicy, subacid, 
good. 

Season December and January. 

McKINNEY, 

References, i. Downing, 1876:56 app. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1873. 
(cited by 3). 3. Ragan. U. S. B. P. I. BuL, 56:188. 1905. 

Fruit yellow with a shade of brownish-red in the sun, of good size and 
mild subacid flavor; in season from January to April (i). Originated in 
Crawford, Ulster county. Evidently unknown outside the locality of its 
origin. 

MAGENTA* 

Reference, i. Leroy, 1873:447. fig. 

This is a variety which was brought to notice in France in 1861. 
It has been but Httle grown as yet in New York state, at least not 
under this name. It appears to be identical with Canada Reinette. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large. Form oblate conic, broadly angular, irreg- 
ular. Stem short to very short, moderately thick, not exserted. Cavity large, 
moderately deep to deep, rather broad, acute or approaching acuminate, usu- 
ally with outspreading russet. Calyx medium, closed or partly open. Basin 
often irregular, rather abrupt, medium in width and depth, compressed or 
furrowed. 

Skin yellow or greenish with a bronze blush and roughened with very large 
stellar or irregular russet dots or patches. 

Calyx tube conical or somewhat funnel-form. Staniens median or below. 

Core somewhat abaxile, below medium to rather small ; cells usually sym- 
metrical, closed or partly open ; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish ovate, 
emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds medium or above, moderately wide, 
plump, obtuse, somewhat tufted. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, 
rich agreeable subacid, good to very good. 

Season November to March. 



The Apples of New York. 199 

MALA CARLE» 

References, i. Kenrick, 1832:79. 2. Floy-Lindley, 1833:39. 3. Manning, 
1838:61. 4. Downing, 1845:116. 5. Thomas, 1849:182. 6. Cole, 1849:116. 
7. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. V., 3:82. 1851. 8. Elliott. 1854:140. ii<^. 9. Hooper, 
1857:56. 10. Warder, 1867:725. 11. Fitz, 1872:168. 12. Hogg, 1884:144. 13. 
Am. Pom. Sac. Cat., 1889:10. 14. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 

Synonyms. Charles Al>plc (i, 2, 4, 8). Malc.\rle (2). Malcarle (i). 
Mai Carle (7). M.\le Carlk (4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11). Male Carle (6, 12). 
M.^RLE Carle (7). Mela Carla (i, 3, 12). Mela Carlo (2, 4, 5, 8, 9). 
Mela de Carlo (8). Mela di Carlo (4). Poiinne de Charles (4, 5, 8). 
Pomme Finale (i, 4, 8). 

A very beautiful delicate skinned apple with white, tender, perfumed flesh. 
It is well adapted to certain regions of the South (u ) Imt it does not succeed 
as far north as New York (4). 

Historical. This is an old variety of Italian origin. Lindley says of it: 
" The Malcarle is a native of the territory of Finale, in Liguria. It is an 
important article of trade in the whole Genoese territory, and of exportation 
to Nice, Marseilles, Barcelona and Cadiz. The climate of the Italian terri- 
tory is so entirely different from that of England, that we cannot expect the 
delicate Malcarle should succeed here, unless trained against a south or south- 
east wall, and in a warm and kind soil. Its great beauty in the dessert renders 
it an interesting object of cultivation" (2). 



MALINDA. 

References, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1877:46. 2. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. 
Rpt., 1891:390. 3. Craig, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1896:132. 4. Macoun, Can. 
Hort., 22:396. 1899. 5. Hansen, S. D. Sta. BuL, 76:73. 1902. fig. 6. Munson, 
Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:84. 1902. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:122. fig. 8. Ragan, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:190. 1905. 

Synonym. Melinda (8). 

This variety is as yet untested in New York. It originated in Orange 
county, Vt., and was introduced into Minnesota about i860. The tree does 
not come into bearing young. It has done well in Iowa and Minnesota when 
top- worked on the very hardy Hibernal apple or on the Virginia crab stock 
(5). The fruit ranks only fair in quality. The variety does not appear 
worthy of testing for New York except possibly in those regions of the state 
where hardiness is a prime requisite. 

Tree (5). 

Tree a slender, straggling grower in the nursery. Tzvigs medium, rathei 
slender, comparatively blunt at the tips, nearly straight ; internodes short to 
medium. Bark dull brownish-red, uniformly overlaid with thin scarf-skin, 
slightly pubescent. Lenticcls rather inconspicuous, rather few, medium or 
below, elongated or roundish, not raised. Buds rather small, hardly moder- 
ately projecting, somewhat pubescent, free from bark or slightly adhering. 



200 The Apples of New York. 

Fruit (5). 

Fruit above medium to large. Form sharply conical, somewhat angular and 
ribbed. StCDi short, stout. Cavity acute, medium, regular, with stellate 
russet. Calyx closed. Basin abrupt, narrow, deep, wavy, wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, rich yellow with dull red blush. Dots minute, distinct, numer- 
ous, white. 

Calyx tube conical. Stamens median. 

Core closed ; core lines meeting. 

Flesh yellowish-white, firm, juic}^, very mild subacid with sweet after-taste, 
fair. 

Season late winter. 

MANCHESTER. 

References, i. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. L Bui, 48:48. 1903. 2. 
Beach and Clark, A^. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:131. 1904. 

This variety shows that it is of the Esopus Spitzenbiirg type by the size and 
form of the fruit and also by the texture and quality of the flesh. It is much 
inferior to the Esopus Spitzenburg in color and is not as good in quality. 
The flesh is liable to have brown discolorations commonly known as the 
" Baldwin spot." The fruit is often above medium or large but is not very 
uniform either in size or shape. The color is quite variable and lacks char- 
acter, being yellow or dull green partly overspread with red. It is not suffi- 
ciently attractive in form and color for a good market fruit. The tree is not 
very slow in coming into bearing and is a reliable cropper. Not recom- 
mended for planting in New York. 

Historical. Received here for testing from J. D. Adams, Mapleton, Cayuga 
county, N. Y., in 1890. We have not learned where or when the variety 
originated. It is sparingly cultivated in a few localities in Western New York 
but does not appear to be known in other portions of the state. 

Tree. 
Tree rather small, only moderately vigorous ; lateral branches willowy, 
slender. Form roundish or spreading, dense. Tzvigs below medium to short, 
rather slender, nearly straight ; internodes medium. Bark clear reddish-brown 
with a light coat of streaked scarf-skin, slightly pubescent near the tips. 
Lenticels quite numerous, very small, roundish to oblong, sometimes slightly 
raised. Buds medium to small, plump, roundish, obtuse to acute, appressed, 
pubescent, deeply set in bark. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large. Form roundish to oblong, inclined to conic, 
somewhat angular or elliptical, usually pretty symmetrical. Stem medium to 
long. Cavity broad, deep, varying from somewhat obtuse to acuminate, often 
obscurely furrowed, usually russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed. Basin 
usually small, often oblique, varying from very shallow and obtuse to moder- 
ately deep and abrupt, often irregular, usually distinctly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin slightly rough, dull grass-green varying to a rather deep yellow, thinly 
blushed with red and sparingly and obscurely striped with dull carmine. 
Frevailing color yellow. Dots rather numerous, small to medium, pale or 
russet, often irregular, often submerged. 





MANN 



The Apples of New York. 201 

Calyx tube narrow above, long, approaching cylindrical. Stamens marginal 
to median. 

Core medium to large, varying from decidedly abaxile to nearly axile ; cells 
often closed but sometimes unsymmetrical and wide open ; core lines clasping. 
Carpels broadly ovate to roundish, mucronate, emarginate, distinctly tufted. 
Seeds above medium to rather small, plump, obtuse to acute. 

Flesh yellowish, moderately crisp, firm, moderately fine-grained, rather 
tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, good to very good. 

Season December to April or May. 

MANN. 

References, i. Downing, 1872:21 app. fig. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1877: 
10. 3. Moody, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:124. 4. Barry, 1883:349. 5. Aloody, 
Am. Pom. Sue. Rpt., 1885:27. 6. Thomas. 1885:517. 7. Can. Hort., 11:113. 
1888. 8. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892: 
244. ID. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 5:18. 1898. figs. 11. lb., 6:35. 
1899. 12, Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Bid., 37:44. 1901. 13. Munson, Me. Sta. 
Bill, 82:95. 1902. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:123. 15. Powell and Fulton, U. S. 
B. P. L Bill., /[S:4S. 1903. 16. Beach and Clark, .V. F. .S"/a. 5»/., 248:131. 1904. 

Synonym. Dciltz (3). 

A hard, green, late-keeping" apple used by the trade to some 
extent as a substitute for Rhode Island Greening late in the 
season when it often brings good prices. It is decidedly in- 
ferior to Rhode Island Greening in quality and does not always 
have a good clear green color, being sometimes streaked more 
or less with a network of russet. Its great merits are the pro- 
ductiveness of the tree and the smoothness, uniformity and 
superior keeping and shipping qualities of the fruit. The tree 
is superior to Rhode Island Greening and Baldwin in hardiness 
(5, 8) and usually is a reliable cropper, yielding good to heavy 
crops biennially or in some localities almost annually. It is a 
little slow about coming into bearing. In many cases the crops 
are so heavy that the percentage of loss in undersized fruit is rather 
high and the trees are damaged by the breaking of the limbs. 

Historical. Originated as a chance seedling in the orchard of Judge Mooney 
of Granby, Oswego county, N. Y. (i), where it was formerly called the 
Deiltz. It was introduced into Niagara county by Dr. Mann, and on the 
suggestion of Elisha Moody of Lockport the Western New York Horticul- 
tural Society named the apple Mann (3). It is not grown extensively in any 
portion of the state but it is still being planted to a limited extent by com- 
mercial growers. 

Tree. 

Tree medium to large, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form at first 
decidedly upright and rather dense but after bearing heavy crops becomes 



202 The Apples of New York. 

decidedly spreading with the laterals inclined to droop. Twigs medium to 
long, nearly straight, rather slender to moderately stout; internodes short. 
Bark more or less dark dull brown overspread with grayish-green and streaked 
with gray scarf-skin, slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels numerous, dull, 
not very conspicuous, above medium to below, roundish, slightly raised. Buds 
medium to rather short, plump, obtuse, appressed, pubescent, deeply set in 
bark. 



Fntit medium to large. Form roundish, somewhat inclined to oblate, sym- 
metrical, usually pretty regular, sometimes faintly ribbed; pretty uniform in 
size and shape. Stoji short to medium, usually not exserted. Cavity acumi- 
nate, rather narrow to moderately wide, deep, usually russeted, and often 
with outspreading broken russet, somewhat furrowed. Calyx small to medium, 
closed or partly open ; lobes medium in length, acute. Basin somewhat abrupt, 
rather narrow to moderately wide, usually pretty symmetrical, furrowed and 
wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, at first deep green, often partly overspread 
with a brownish-red blush tinged with shade of olive-green but late in the 
season it develops a pronounced yellow color. Dots numerous, large, con- 
spicuous, areolar, whitish with russet center. 

Calyx tube moderately wide, cone-shape. Stamens below median to basal. 

Core below medium to small, usually axile or nearly so; cells pretty sym- 
metrical, usually closed, sometimes open ; core lines meeting or slightly clasp- 
ing. Carpels smooth, broad, narrowing towards the base and apex or ap- 
proaching truncate at the base, but slightly emarginate if at all. Seeds numer- 
ous, medium or above, wide, obtuse to acute, dark. 

Flesh yellowish, moderately coarse, moderately juicy, at first very hard and 
firm but later becoming moderately tender and somewhat crisp, subacid, fair 
to good. 

Season. Commercial limit March or April in ordinary storage and May in 
cold storage (i6). 

MARIGOLD* 

References, i. Bailey, An. Horf., 1892:244. 2. Powell and Fulton, U. S. 
B. P. I. Bill, 48:49. 1903. 3. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:131. 1904. 

Doubtful Referenxes. 4. Knight, Pomona Herefordiensis, 1811. (cited by 
6). 5. Kenrick, 1832:48. 6. Floy-Lindley, 1833:80. 7. Downing, 1869:294. 
8. Hogg, 1884:164. 

Doubtful Svnoxvms. Isle of Wight Orange (6. 7). Isle of Wight Pippin 
(6, 8). Marigold Pippin (7). Marygold (6). Or.\xge Pippin (6, 7, 8). 

A good dessert variety of desirable size and rather attractive appearance 
for a yellowish apple but it does not excel standard varieties of its season in 
color, size or quality. The tree does not come into bearing very young. It 
is an annual or nearl}' annual bearer and yields moderate crops. As grown 
at this Station the commercial limit of Marigold appears to be November or 
December in ordinary storage, although some portion of the fruit may be 
kept till June. The fruit held in cold storage till May has been found still 
hard, free from decay and but slightly scalded (2, 3). 



The Apples of New York. 203 

Historical. Origin uncertain. It has long been known in the vicinity of 
Oyster Bay, Long Island. For upwards of a century it has been considered 
a desirable winter apple for that region,! and it has been propagated for years 
by the Westbury Nurseries. It is known to a limited extent in various locali- 
ties in Southeastern New York and in Connecticut, but appears to be gradually 
going out of cultivation. 

We have not had the opportunity of determining whether or not this Mari- 
gold of Long Island is identical either with the Marigold described by 
Kenrick (5) or with the Orange Pippin (6, 7, 8) which has Marigold as a 
synonym. The fruit corresponds pretty closely with Hogg's description of 
Orange Pippin except as to its quality and season. 

The Marigold of Leroy2 is evidently distinct from the Long Island Marigold. 
Downing recognizes it under the name Creed Marigold 3 under which name 
Hogg described it in 1859, stating that it originated in Kent from seed of 
the Scarlet Nonpareil. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright, somewhat spreading, rather open. 
Twigs rather short, slightly curved, moderately stout ; internodes medium to 
short. Bark brown, tinged with clear reddish-brown, mottled with scarf-skin, 
pubescent. Lcnticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, slightly raised, 
oblong or roundish, medium to small. Buds medium to small, broad, plump, 
obtuse to acute, but slightly pubescent if at all, usually free. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium to nearly large, pretty uniform in size and shape. 
Forui roundish, often a little oblate and inclined to conic, quite regular, 
usually symmetrical ; sides sometimes unequal. Stem rather slender. Cavity 
acute, deep, broad, symmetrical or somewhat furrowed, usually with greenish 
russet which often spreads beyond the cavity. Calyx small to medium, closed 
or partly open. Basin abrupt, shallow to moderately deep, rather narrow, 
sometimes obscurely furrowed, slightly wrinkled. 

Skin nearly smooth, at first green but becoming good yellow with an orange 
blush which in highly colored specimens deepens to red and is somewhat 
mottled and splashed with bright carmine. Dots often submerged and yellow ; 
others are large, irregular, russet and mingled with flecks of russet. 

Calyx tube rather wide, deep, cone-shape or approaching funnel-form. 
Stamens median to marginal. 

Core rather small, axile or nearly so ; cells usually symmetrical, closed or 
partly open ; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels smooth, elliptical 
or approaching obcordate, emarginate. Seeds few, often abortive, medium or 
below, wide, obtuse. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, a little coarse, rather tender, juicy, subacid, somewhat 
aromatic ; good for dessert but rather too mild for most culinary uses. 

Season variable but usually extends from November to April or May ; com- 
mercial limit December or January in ordinary storage and about May first 
in cold storage (3). 

'Letter of Isaac Hicks, 1899. 
"Leroy, 1873:457. 
^Downing, 1869: 137. 



204 The Apples of New York. 

MASON ORANGE, 

References, i. Stayman, il/o. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:75. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1883:12. 3. lb., Rpt., 1883:135, 136. 4. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:83. 
5. Stayman, Rural N. Y., 43:83. 1884. Hg. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 

7. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bid., 129:39, 42. 1896. 8. Thomas, 1897:644. 9. Dickens 
and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bid., 106:54. 1903. 10. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui., 205: 
45. 1903. II. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bid., 56:41, 193. 1905. 

Synonyms. Bellcflozvcr Improved (11). Mason Orange (10). Mason's 
Improved (11). Mason's Orange (2, 3, 6, 8, 9). 

A seedling of the Yellow Bellflower (5) which originated in Kansas (i, 3). 
Resembles its parent in its fruit which is medium to large, yellow with red 
cheek, of excellent quality, rather tender for market but valuable for home 
use. Season November to February (4, 10). It has not been tested suffi- 
ciently in New York to determine its value for this region. 

MASTER 

References. 1. Horticulturist, 1866. (cited by 4). 2. Downing, 1869:268. 
3. Thomas, 1885:517. 4. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:193. 1905. 
Synonym. Masten's Seedling (3). Mastens Seedling (2, 4). 

A greenish-yellow winter apple of medium size or below, crisp, subacid, and 
of good quality (2, 3). Originated at Pleasant Valley, Dutchess county, 
N. Y. (2). It was brought to notice as a new variety about forty years ago 
(i, 2, 3), but appears to have remained practically unknown outside of the 
locality where it originated. 

MELON. 

References, i. Ellwanger and Barry, Albany Cultivator, 2:56. 1845. 2. 
lb., Boston Cultivator, Mch., 1845. (cited by 4, 13). 3. Watts, Mag. Hort., 
13:104. 1847. 4. Hovey, lb., 13:537. 1847. tig. 5. lb., 14:12. 1848. 6. 
Downing, Horticidturist, 2:356. 1848. Hg. 7. Thomas, 1849:151. 8. N. Y. 
Agr. Soc. Rpt., 1848:283, 284. fig. 9. Cole, 1849:124. fig. 10. Emmons, Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 3:76. 1851. col. pi. and fig. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 12. 
Elliott, 1854:89. fig. 13. Horticulturist, 9:397. 1854. col. pi. 14. Downing, 
1857:87. 15. Warder, 1867:488. fig. 16. Leroy, 1873:503. fig. 17. Barry, 
1883:349. 18. Hogg, 1884:145. 19. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 
20. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 21. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc, 1898: 
356. 22. Budd-Hansen, 1903:126. fig. 23. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. 
Bui., 48:49. 1903. 24. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bid., 248:132. 1904. 

Synonyms. Melon (8, 20). Melon Apple (18). Melon de Norton (16). 
Melon Norton (22). Norton Watermelon (16). Norton's Melon (i, 2, 
5, 8, id). Norton's Melon (4, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 23, 24). Watermelon (4, 6, 7, 

8, 9, 12). 

When it is properly developed the Melon is one of the best 
dessert apples of its season, being crisp, tender and delicious. It 
is especially adapted for local market, fancy trade and dessert 
use. Ordinarily it is in season in Western New York from 






MELON 



The Apples of New York. 205 

October to midwinter. If kept later than January in ordinary- 
storage it soon loses in flavor and quality (24). Some fruit 
growers find it i)rofitable but more often it has proved an un- 
satisfactory variety in the commercial orchard. Under favorable 
conditions the fruit develops good size and good color and is 
smooth and decidedly attractive, but in many cases there is a 
rather high percentage of loss from undersized, poorly colored 
or otherwise imperfect fruit. Tn portions of Eastern New York 
it is reported as being especially susceptible to the attacks of the 
apple maggot or railroad worm, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh, In 
some localities the foliage and fruit are both quite subject to the 
attacks of the apple-scab fungus and the tree is apt to be injured 
by canker on the limbs and on the body. The tree appears to 
be fully as hardy and productive as Tompkins King or perhaps 
more so, and after it attains mature bearing age it is often 
reliably productive, yielding good crops biennially or in some 
cases annually. It is an unsatisfactory grower in the nursery 
and makes but a moderately vigorous growth in the orchard, 
particularly when grown on its own body. On this account it 
is advisable to top-work Melon upon some stock that is healthier 
and more vigorous, such as Golden Russet, Roxbury, Northern Spy, 
Baldwin or Rhode Island Grccniiii^. The tree naturally develops a 
rather dense top and particular care is required in pruning to keep 
it sufficiently open. 

Historical. IMelon originated in East Bloomfield, Ontario county, in the 
old seedling orchard of Heman Chapin. This orchard was planted about 
1800I with seedling trees grown from seed brought to East Bloomfield from 
Connecticut (3, 4, 6, 13). Melon was introduced to the trade by Ellwanger 
and Barry about 18-15 (i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 13). It has been pretty widely disseminated 
but in no portion of the state is it grown extensively. It is now seldom offered 
by nurserymen (20) and seldom planted. 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous. Form upright, somewhat spread- 
ing or roundish. Twigs medium to long, erect or spreading, slender to mod- 
erately stout. Bark reddish-brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin, pubescent. 
Lenticels numerous, usually small, round. Buds medium, plump, acute, some- 
what pubescent. Leaves rather large, often rather broad. 

^Letters, H. G. Chapin and Cliarles Chapin, 1905. 

Vol. I — 9 



2o6 The Apples of New York. 

Fruit. 

Fruit somewhat variable in size, usually above medium to large. Form 
roundish conic, sometimes inclined to oblate conic, often more or less elliptical 
and obscurely ribbed, usually symmetrical. Stem short to medium, slender. 
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, narrow to moderately wide, often russeted 
and sometimes with outspreading russet rays. Calyx small to above medium, 
closed or partly open ; segments narrow, acuminate. Basin rather small, 
shallow to moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, rather abrupt, often 
somewhat furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin pretty smooth, pale yellow or greenish-yellow and when well colored 
nearly overspread with rather light, bright red striped and splashed with 
carmine. Dots small, pale yellow or russet, not conspicuous. Prevailing 
effect red mingled with yellow. 

Calyx tube rather small, cone-shape varying to short funnel-form with 
fleshy pistil point projecting into the base. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core medium to small, axile ; cells symmetrical, closed ; core lines clasping. 
Carpels broadly roundish or elliptical, sometimes slightly tufted, but slightly 
emarginate if at all. Seeds below medium to rather large, plump, moderately 
wide, often irregular or angular, verj'^ dark brown, sometimes tufted. 

Flesh white slightly tinged with yellow, moderately firm, rather fine-grained, 
crisp, very tender, juicy, sprightly, somewhat aromatic, pleasantly subacid, 
very good. 

MENAGERE, 

References, i. Manning, 1838:56 2. Manning, Mag. Hort., 7:46. 1841. 
3. Downing, 1845:117. 4. Thomas, 1849:157. 5. Elliott, 1854:174. 6. Hooper, 
1857:59. 7. Warder, 1867:726. 8. Downing, 1869:273. 9. Leroy, 1873:435. 
10. Barry, 1883:340. 11. Hogg, 1884:146. 12. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. 
Sac, 1898:356. 13. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 58:278. 1899. 14. Beach and 
Clark, iV. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:132. 1904. 15. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 56:196. 
1905- 

Synonyms. Capp Manunoth (13). Combcrmere Apple (11). Dame de 
Menage (9). Femme de Menage (9). Flanders Pippin (11). Gros Rambour 
d'Hiver (9). Haus MUtterchen (9). Livre (9). Menage (15). Menagere 
(9). Menagerie (5, 15). Mere de Menage (8, 11, 12). Mere de Menage 
(9, 15). Pfund (9). Teller (9). 

A very large apple suitable only for exhibition purposes. It is undesirable 
either for dessert or culinary use, being coarse-grained and only fair in quality. 
The tree is slow about coming into bearing, usually bears some fruit every 
year but is unproductive and the fruit drops badly. 

Historical. This is an old German variety which is known in England 
under the name Mere de Menage (9, 11, 12). The name Menagere is recog- 
nized by certain English and French pomologists only as a synonym, but the 
variety has been described by so many American writers under this name 
that it is now best to recognize it as the American name, particularly since 
German, French and English pomologists are not agreed upon any one name 
for the variety. It is but little grown in this country. 





MENAGERE 



The Apples of New York. 207 

Tree. 

Tree a moderate grower. Fonn upright. Tzuigs very short to below 
medium in length, very slender to medium in thickness, sometimes somewhat 
bowed and geniculate ; internodes long or in the more slender limbs very long. 
Bark dull brownish-red with an undertone of olive-green in some specimens, 
uniformly overlaid with a thick scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lcnticels incon- 
spicuous, only moderately numerous, medium, the larger ones roundish ellip- 
tical, the smaller, narrow. Buds medium in size, moderately projecting, rather 
fleshy, acute, not pubescent, slightly adhering to bark or free. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to very large. Fonn oblate to oblate conic, pretty regular or 
somewhat ribbed ; sides often unequal. Ste;n very short. Cavity acute, 
shallow to rather deep, moderately broad and marked with outspreading 
patches and flecks of russet. Calyx medium, closed or partly open ; lobes 
long and reflexed. Basin somewhat abrupt, rather narrow, moderately deep, 
often irregular. 

Skin pale yellow with faint blush on the exposed side. Dots scattering, 
light brown. 

Calyx tube rather narrow, funnel-form, extending to the core. Stamens 
basal. 

Core small, axile ; cells symmetrical, closed ; core lines clasping the funnel 
cylinder. 

Flesh white, coarse-grained, moderately juicy, subacid, fair in flavor and 
quality. 

Season October to January; under favorable conditions some portion of 
the fruit may be kept till spring. 

MERRILL. 

Reference, i. Downing, 1869:273. 

Synonyms. Merrill's (i). Merrill's Apple (i). 

Originated in Smyrna, Chenango county, N. Y. A medium sized, yellow 
apple with bright red cheek ; flesh subacid, spicy, good ; season December to 
March (i). This appears to be unknown outside of the place of its origin. 

MIDDLE. 

References, i. Downing. 1857:172. 2. Warder, 1867:507. fi.g. 
Synonym. Mittlc (i). 

This fruit belongs in the same group as the Green Newtown 
and White Pippin but is less attractive than either. It is at 
first green and hard, but later in the season becomes crisp and 
rather tender. It is valued locally because it is an excellent 
dessert apple and a good keeper. The tree is an upright grower 
and sometimes bears heavy crops. 



2o8 The Apples of New York. 

Historical. The original tree was a chance seedling that grew on the land 
of Peter Bellinger in the village of Herkimer or rather on the line fence divid- 
ing two of the original tracts of land granted by the Crown in 1725, and being 
a tree that neither party could claim it was called the Middle apple tree.l 
Charles Downing included a description of it in his first revision of Fruits 
and Fruit Trees of America in 1857 d)- Warder (2) reports that it was 
introduced into Ohio by John Ludlow of Springfield in 1854 and propagated at 
the Oakland nurseries. In New York it remains practically unknown to fruit 
growers outside the A'icinity of its origin. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to nearh' large, rather uniform. Form varies from elongated 
ovate or oblong conic to roundish conic, often elliptical or somewhat angular; 
axis often somewhat oblique. Stem medium in length, rather slender. Cavity 
acute to acuminate, usually moderately deep, narrow to moderately broad 
often compressed or lipped and often with outspreading russet. Calyx medium 
to rather large, open. Basin often oblique, usually obtuse, shallow to medium 
in depth, medium in width to narrow, slightly furrowed or wrinkled, some- 
times compressed. 

Skin rather thin, moderately tender, somewhat rough, at first green but 
later becoming more or less marbled or shaded with yellow, sometimes lightly 
mottled with red or having red dots ; often roughened at the base with broken 
russet. Dots numerous, russet. 

Calyx tube small, conical or somewhat funnel-form with truncate cylinder. 
Stamens median. 

Core medium to rather large, axile ; cells symmetrical, closed or sometimes 
partly open ; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels thin, tender, 
deeply emarginate, roundish or varying to elongated ovate, much tufted. Seeds 
numerous, small to medium, rather narrow, acute. 

Flesh yellowish, breaking, rather fine, crisp, juicy, rather sprightly subacid, 
somewhat aromatic, very good. 

Season December to February or March ; often some portion of the fruit 
may be kept till late spring. 

MILAM» 

References, i. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:470. 1850. 2. Kennicott, lb., 
7:431. 1852. 3. Elliott, 1854:174. 4. Robey, Horticulturist, 11:89. 1856. 5. 
Downing, 1857:217. 6. Hooper, 1857:60. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 8. 
Warder, 1867:503. fig. 9. Downing, 1869:275. 10. Fitz, 1872:158. 11. Barry, 
1883:349. 12. Thomas, 1885:236. 13. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 
14. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 15. Budd-Hansen, 1903:127. 

Synonyms. Blair (6, 8, 9). Harrigan (i, 3, 5, 9). Thomas (9). Winter 
Pearmain of some (i, 3, 5, 9). 

A medium sized dessert apple which has something of the appearance of a 
highly colored Ralls. In season from November to March. The tree is 
thrifty and in favorable localities becomes productive when it is mature. 
Thousands of trees of this variety have been propagated from sprouts for it 
sprouts readily from the roots (i, 8). 

^Letter, Will E. Kay, 1901. 



The Apples of New York. 2og 

Historical. Origin uncertain. Warder refers to it as " a little Southern 
favorite" (8). It was formerly quite popular in some portions of the Middle 
West where it is !^till propagated by nurserymen although it is not now planted 
as much as it was formerly (14). It has never been grown much in New 
York state and remains practically unknown among New York fruit growers. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous, with long, slender, curved branches. Form up- 
right spreading or roundish, rather dense. Tzvigs above medium to long, 
slightly curved, rather slender ; internodes long to medium. Bark dark 
brownish-red mingled with olive-green and streaked with grayish scarf-skin ; 
heavily pubescent toward the tips. Lenticels quite numerous, small to rather 
large, roundish or elongated, slightly raised. Buds small to medium, broad, 
plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, free, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit small to medium. Form roundish conic or short ovate, regular, not 
ribbed. Stem pubescent, medium to long, moderately slender. Cavity acute, 
moderately deep, moderately wide, smooth and green or partly covered with 
thin brownish russet. Calyx pubescent, medium in size, closed. Basin below 
medium in size, somewhat abrupt, moderately shallow, rather narrow to 
medium in width, gently furrowed. 

Skin moderately thin, rather tender, smooth, dull yellow or greenish marbled 
and striped with dull red, in highly colored specimens deepening to crimson 
in the sun. Dots numerous, conspicuous, gray, often areolar with russet 
point. 

Calyx tube conical to somewhat funnel-form with sliort truncate cylinder. 
Stamens basal. 

Core rather small, axile or nearly so ; cells symmetrical, closed. Carpels 
elongated, obovate, mucronate, but slightly emarginate if at all, slightly tufted. 
Seeds medium or above, plump, acute, slightly tufted. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, a little coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, mild 
pleasant subacid, good. 

Season November to January or later. 

MILDER 

References, i. Am. Pom. Sac. Cat., 1873. 2. Downing, 1876:58 app. Hg. 
3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 4. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:133. 5. lb., 
1896:71. 6. Thomas, 1897:645. 7. Beach, IV. N. V. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:36. 
8. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:89. 1902. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:127. 10. 
Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bid., 48:49. 1903. 11. Beach and Clark, 
A''. Y. Sta. Bui. 248:132. 1904. 

Synonym. Milding (3, 5, 7, 8, 9). Milding (2, 4, 6, 10, 11). 

When well grown Milden is an apple of desirable size, good 
appearance and pretty good quality. The skin is smooth and 
glossy and the color is predominantly bright red over an attrac- 



2IO The Apples of New York. 

tive pale yellow or whitish background. It is highly esteemed in 

portions of New England (5, 8), and is there being planted to some 

extent both for home use and commercial purposes. Tt is an 

excellent nursery tree and a good grower in the orchard. It is 

hardy, healthy, comes into bearing quite young and is a reliable 

cropper, yielding good crops biennially. There is some loss from 

drops, but the fruit averages pretty uniform in size with a rather 

low percentage of culls. So far as tested in this state it appears 

to be pretty reliable and satisfactory in color and quality and 

suitable for general market purposes and culinary use. It is 

evidently worthy of testing as a commercial variety, particularly 

in the more elevated and northern portions of the state. In the 

southeastern part of the state it would probably be classed as a 

late autumn variety, but as grown at this Station it becomes an 

early winter or midwinter variety (n). 

Historical. Mil den is a variety of comparatively recent introduction. It 
originated at Alton, New Hampshire (2). 

Tree. 
Tree large, vigorous. Form upright becoming roundish, rather dense. 
Tzi'igs below medium I0 short, straight, moderately stout; internodes short 
to long. Bark very dark olive-green somewhat tinged with reddish-brown 
streaked with scarf-skin: pubescent. Leniiccls quite numerous, small to 
medium, roundish, slightly raised. Buds prominent, below medium to large, 
broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit rather large ; fairly uniform in size and shape. Form oblate, some;- 
times inclined to conic, pretty regular, often faintly ribbed; sides sometimes 
unequal. Stem short to medium, pubescent. Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, 
rather wide, symmetrical or somewhat furrowed, often russeted and with out- 
spreading russet rays. Calyx large, pubescent; lobes long, acuminate, closed 
or partly open. Basin obtuse to somewhat abrupt, usually rather shallow, 
moderately wide, often compressed or furrowed. 

Skin waxy, rather thin, tough. Well-colored specimens are beautifully 
mottled with bright red and striped and splashed with bright carmine over 
a pale yellow background. Sometimes the red deepens to a solid blush. Dots 
inconspicuous, few, gray or russet. 

Calyx tube rather large, long, cone-shape or somewhat funnel-form, meeting 
the core. Stamens median. 

Core distant, medium or below, abaxile ; cells pretty symmetrical, usually 
open; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish to elongated ovate, acuminate, 
slightly emarginate, tufted. Seeds variable in size and shape, often about 
medium size, moderately narrow, obtuse to acute; o't-en some are abortive. 





MILDEN 



The Apples of New York. 211 

Flesh whitisli tinged with yellow, firm, crisp, breaking, moderately coarse, 
very juicy, subacid, good. 

Season Novembei to January or February; it may remain apparently sound 
till spring but after midwinter it deteriorates in texture and flavor. 

MILWAUKEE. 

References, i. Macoun, Can. Dcpt. Agr. Rpt., 1899:77. 2. lb., Can. Hort., 
23:452. IQOO. 3. Hansen, S. D. Sta. BuL, 76:74. 1902. 4. Farrand, Mich. Sta. 
SiJ, 205:45. 1903. 5. Krwin, Am. Pom. Soc. Rft., igo3:2S2. 6. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:128. fig. 7. A^ational Nurseryman, March, 1905:52. 

Milwaukee is a winter fruit of the Oldenburg" group, of good 
size and when highly colored fairly attractive in appearance, 
being clear yellow marked with bright red somewhat after the 
manner of Oldenburg. It is too briskly acid for a good dessert 
apple, but rather is suitable for culinary use and for market. It 
would be more desirable for market if it had more red color. It 
is in season from October to January. Some portion of the fruit 
may keep till February or March, but in ordinary storage there 
is a rather high percentage of loss after early winter. The fruit 
which remains till spring retains well its acidity and quality. 
The tree is very hardy, health3% a pretty good grower and a good 
cropper. It comes into bearing young and is almost an annual 
bearer. It appears to be worthy of testing in the northern and 
more elevated regions of the state where hardiness is a prime 
requisite. 

Historical. Originated with George Jeffry, Milwaukee, Wis., from seed of 
Oldenburg (i, 3, 5, 6). 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branches long, slender, crooked. Form open, 
upright, becoming rather spreading with laterals inclined to droop. Tzvigs 
medium to long, varying from irregularly curved to straight, moderately 
stout ; internodes generally long. Bark dark reddish-brown approaching black, 
streaked with grayish scarf-skin, quite pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, 
small to medium, roundish or elongated, not raised. Buds medium or below, 
plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, free or slightly appressed, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

pyuit usually rather large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form distinctly 
oblate, regular or obscurely ribbed ; sides often unequal. Stem pubescent, 
short. Cavity rather large, acute to acuminate, deep, broad, furrowed, russeted 
and with outspreading brown russet rays. Calyx pubescent, large, leafy, 
usually partly open, sometimes closed; lobes wide, long, acute. Basin large, 
often oblique, deep, wide, abrupt to somewhat obtuse, furrowed, wrinkled. 



212 The Apples of New York. 

Skin thin, tough, smootli, glossy, pale yellow or whitish more or less blushed 
with red which in highly colored specimens deepens to a lively pinkish-red, 
conspicuously mottled and striped with rose-carmine. Dots numerous, small, 
whitish, often submerged, occasionally russet. 

Calyx tube urn-shape to somewhat funnel-form with short cylinder and wide 
limb. Staniois median. 

Core distant, a little abaxile, usually small ; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, 
closed or slightly open; core lines clasping. Carpels elliptical to roundish 
obcordate, mucronate, but slightly emarginate if at all. Seeds few, often 
abortive, medium to short, wide, flat, obtuse. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, somewhat coarse, crisp, very tender, 
very juicy, sprightly, brisk subacid, fair to good. 

MINISTER, 

References, i. Manning, 1838:62. 2. Downing, 1845:116. 3. Ives, Mag. 
Hort., 14:264. 1848. 4. Thomas, 1849:169. 5. Cole, 1849:124. 6. Emmons, 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:61. 1851. 7. Hovey, 2:95. 1851. fig. and col. pi. 8. Elliott, 
1854:147. 9. A)!i. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. lo- Hooper, 1857:61. 11. Warder, 
1867:695. 12. Fitz, 1872:145. 13. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 
14. Alunson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:133. 15. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895: 
193. 16. Rurrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:332. 1896. 

Synonyms. Minister (7). Minister Apple (7). 

Fruit similar to Yellow Bellflower in form, pale waxen yellow splashed and 
striped with bright pale crimson (i, 7, 11). In Middle New England it is in 
season from November to February or later (i, 5, 7, 14), and is there still 
regarded with favor in many localities on account of its productiveness and 
good quality. " In Ohio it becomes an autumn apple and is used only for 
cooking when we have plenty of others that are preferred" (n). When 
carelessly handled it rots from bruising or ripens prematurely while too acid, 
but when properly ripened it loses its brisk acidity and develops excellent 
quality (5). The tree is healthy, moderately vigorous, a rather early bearer 
and a regular and abundant cropper (2, 5, 7, 11, 13). It is said to succeed 
best on good sandy loam (5, 12). 

The following account of the tree and fruit is taken from descriptions given 
by various writers (i, 2, 5, 7, it, 13). 

Historical. Originated on the farm of David Saunders near Rowley, Massa- 
chusetts. Introduced bv Robert INIamiing of Salem, Massachusetts, more than 
a half century ago (i^ 7). It has failed to win favorable recognition in New 
York and is not recommended for planting in this state. 

Tree. 
Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright while young but becoming round- 
headed as it matures. T'z^'igs slender, upright; internodes short. Bark dark 
reddish-chestnut. Lenticels numerous, gray. Buds small, short, ovate, flat- 
tened with prominent shoulders. Leaves medium in size, ovate, acute. 

Fruit. 
Fruit large to medium. Forni roundish ovate to oblong conic, ribbed, irreg- 
ular, flattened at the base. Stem curved to one side, short to long, slender. 





MILWAUKEE 



The Appi.f.s of New York. 213 

Caz'ify rather small, acute, shallow to rather deep, rather narrow, irregular, 
sometimes russeted. Calyx small, closed ; lobes short and twisted. Basin 
rather small, moderately shallow, narrow, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, waxen, pale yellow or greenish-yellow irregularly splashed and 
striped with bright red particularly over the base. Dots minute. 

Core rather large; cells partly open. Seeds small, plump, obovate. 

Flesh yellowish-white, crisp, very tender, breaking, juicy, at first briskly 
subacid but when properly ripened agreeable in flavor and quality. 

MINKLER, 

References, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 2. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1865:51. 
3. Warder, 1867:44.4. fig. 4. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1859:36. 5. Downing, 1869: 
276. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:128. 7. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1875:411. 8. 
Downing, 1876:59 app. 9. Downing, 1876:11 index, app. 10. Thomas, 1885:518. 
II. Am. Pom. Sec. Cat., 1889:10. 12. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 13. Lyon. 
Midi. Sta. Bui, 143:200, 202. 1S97. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:129. 15. Farrand, 
Mich. Sta. Bill., 205:45. 1903. 16. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 
48:49. 1903. 17. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:132. 1904. 18. Ragan, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bill, 56:53, 181, 199, 205. 1905. 

Synonvm.s. Brandyivine (18, ?5). Logan's Northern Pippin (4, 9, 18). 
IMuMPER Vandevere (6, 8). Mumper Vandevere (i8). 

The Minkler was brought to notice in Illinois something over forty 
years ago. Its cultivation is confined almost wholly to that and adjoining 
states. Like many other varieties of the Middle West it is popular because 
the tree is a strong grower and a good and regular cropper rather than on 
account of the quality of its fruit. In appearance the fruit is very good and 
dealers do not hesitate to take it in reasonable quantities in spite of the fact 
that it is only fairly good in quality and sometimes scalds badly in storage. 
It is not a promising variety for New York fruit growers, competing as it 
does with the Baldwin and other good winter apples. 

Historical. The history of this variety is confused with that of several 
similar, or as some have thought possibly identical, varieties. The ]\Iinkler, 
as such, was first exhibited before the Illinois Horticultural Society something 
over forty years ago by Mr. S. G. M inkier. Having lost its name he exhibited 
it for identification. As it was not recognized by any one the Society named 
it Minkler, pending further investigation (5). Warder (3) in 1867 states that 
it very closely resembles Buchanan and Brandywine and adds that Alinkler and 
Buchanan have " an entirely distinct origin," but there is no evidence that this 
is the case. In 1S69 Galusua stated that he found Minkler cultivated in some 
localities in Illinois unde*- ihe name Logan Northern Pippin and Dunlap found 
it identical with Brandywine (4) a decision which is approved by some other 
pomologists. The origin of Brandywine is also unknown (5, 18). Ragan 
makes IMinkler identical with Mumper Vandevere (18) which according to 
Downing (8) originated on the farm of John Mumper near Dillsbury, Pa. 

Minkler is not grown to any considerable extent in New York. 

Tree. 
Tree large, very vigorous ; branches large, strong, forming a very broad 
angle with the trunk and having a characteristically irregular, zigzag manner 



214 "^^^ Apples of New York. 

of growth. Form very spreading, frequently becoming drooping in old trees. 
Twigs short to long, moderately stout to moderately slender ; internodes about 
medium, unequal in length. Bark dull brownish-red or reddish, irregularly 
overlaid with thin to thick scarf-skin, rather pubescent. Lenticels scattering, 
moderately conspicuous, raised, medium to small, roundish. Buds medium, 
moderately projecting, acute or roundish, pubescent, appressed or slightly 
adhering. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to above, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish inclined 
to oblate conic, rather regular. Stem medium to short, rather slender. Cavity 
acute or slightly acuminate, deep, medium in width, greenish or brown, faintly 
russeted. Calyx small to above medium, closed or slightly open; lobes 
medium in length, broad, acute, usually not separated at the base. Basin 
shallow to medium in depth, wide, obtuse, smooth or slightly wrinkled. 

Skin thin, slightly tough, smooth, rather glossy, greenish-yellow changing 
to pale yellow, almost entirely overspread with rather light pinkish-red 
obscurely striped and splashed with dark dull carmine. Dots small to medium, 
yellow, grayish or russet, moderately conspicuous. Prevailing effect rather 
light red. 

Calyx tube moderately short, rather wide, funnel-form with broad limb and 
narrow cylinder. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core medium to rather large, axile ; cells closed or partly open; core lines 
meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels roundish, usually deeply emarginate, 
tufted. Seeds dark brown, rather large and wide, long, plump or sometimes 
flat, acute, sometimes tufted. 

Flesh strongly tinged with yellow or greenish, very firm, a little coarse, not 
very crisp, rather juicy, mild subacid, slightly aromatic, fairly good. 

Season in common storage November to April ; in cold storage till May. 

MISSING LINK* 

References, i. ///. Hort. Sac. Rpt., 1897:161. 2. Jenkins, Mo. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 45:66. 1902. 3. Shank, Missing Link Nur. Circ, 1903. 4. Erwin, Am. 
Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1903:253. 5. Van Deman, Rural N. ¥., 62:369. 1903. fig- 6. 
Buckman, lb., 62:418. 1903. 7. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:199. 1905. 

A variety of the Willow type recently introduced by ]\Iessrs. Shank, Clayton, 
Illinois (3). Some believe that it is identical with Willow (4, 7), but a com- 
parison of its fruit with that of Willow leads us to endorse the opinion of 
Van Deman (5) and Buckman (6) that it is a distinct variety. The fruit 
is of good size, similar in form and appearance to Willow but less highly 
colored and dififerent in texture and flavor becoming eventually distinctly 
sweet. It is undoubtedly a long keeper. As might be expected of an apple 
of this class it does not rank high in quality. 

Fruit. 
Fruit large. Form roundish, nearly symmetrical, regular ; sides somewhat 
unequal. Stem medium. Cavity acuminate, moderately broad, deep, some- 
what russeted. Calyx large, partly open. Basin slightly oblique, medium in 
depth to deep, moderately wide, abrupt, ridged, wrinkled. 



The Apples of New York. il^ 

Skin smooth, glossy, light greenish-yellow or yellow, thinly mottled and 
striped with red on the exposed cheek. Dots small, fine, mingled with others 
that are large, conspicuous, irregular and brownish-russet. Prevailing effect 
green or yellowish. 

Core below medium or even small; cells closed; core lines nearly meeting. 
Carpels obcordate, tufted. Seeds few, large, dark, flat, tufted. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, coarse, tough yet somewhat crisp, moderately juicy, 
mildly subacid but eventually becoming sweet, fair in quality. 

MISSOURI PIPPIN. 

References, i. Warder, 1867:656. 2. Downing, 1872:23 app. 3. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1881:1 J. 4. Brackett, A}n. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:145. 5. Barry, 
1883:349. 6. Thomas, 1885:518. 7. Coleman, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:28. 
8. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 9. Wright, Am. Card., 17:33. 1896. 10. 
Powell, Del. Sta. Bui, 38:19. 1898. 11. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1901: 
97. 12. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui, 106:54. 1902. 13. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:130. fig. 14. Bruner, A". C. Sta. Bui, 182:27. 1903. 15. Powell and Ful- 
ton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:49. 1903. 16. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 
248:132. 1904. 

Synonyms. Missouri (15). Missouri Keeper (i). Missouri Keeper 
(2, 3, 4, 5). Missouri Orange (4). Missouri Pippin (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
ID, II, 12, 14). Missouri Pippin (15). 

This is one of the well-known market apples of the Middle 
West. As grown in that region the tree is short-lived, and in 
the Mississippi valley in orchards more than twenty years old 
it is seldom profitable, but it comes into bearing at an early age 
and is a reliable and heavy cropper. The fruit is of good color 
but only second rate in quality, and on old trees is inclined to 
be rather too small for market. It is regarded with favor by fruit 
dealers because of its attractive appearance and good keeping 
quality. There has been some complaint of its scalding in 
storage (16), but this fault does not appear to be serious enough 
to afifect materially its popularity. So far as we have been able 
to discover it is not grown in New York. It is quite doubtful 
whether its fruit would commonly develop here to good market- 
able size even if grown in the southeastern part of New York, 
where the climatic and soil conditions are more favorable to 
varieties of this class than they are in the more northern and 
western portions of the state. 

Historical The Missouri Pippin is supposed to have originated on the 
farm of Brinkley Hornsby, Kingsville, Johnson county, Missouri, from seed 
planted about 1840 (2, 4, 7). Shortly after the Civil War it began to be 



2i6 The Apples of New York. 

disseminated outside of the locality of its origin and its cultivation spread 
with such rapidity that in a very few years it was being extensively planted 
in Missouri, Kansas, Illinois and adjacent states. The good degree of hardi- 
ness and vigor which it possesses, the ease with which it is propagated in the 
nursery, and particularly its habit of bearing early and abundantly were the 
qualities which recommended it to the fruit growers of that region. During 
the early years of fruit production in the prairie sections of that country this 
variety was more often seen than any other. As the trees became older it 
was found that they were inclined to overbear with a result that frequently a 
large percentage of the fruit failed to attain good marketable size. Then 
Missouri Pippin began to wane in popularity and to-day it is used chiefly as 
a filler for planting between the rows of permanent trees. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous with long, slender, curved branches, characteristic 
on account of its numerous, slender tuigs and general crab-like appearance. 
Form upright becoming roundish or spreading. Twigs moderately long, 
straight, slender ; internodes short. Bark dark brown, mottled with heavy 
scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels scattering, medium, oval to oblong, raised. 
Buds deeply set, small, plump, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium in size. Form roundish, somewhat inclined to conic. Stem 
medium in length, rather slender. Cavity acute to nearly acuminate, moder- 
ately wide, rather deep, faintly russeted. Calyx medium in size, closed or 
nearly so; lobes moderately long, rather narrow. Basin medium to deep, 
rather wide, abrupt, usually somewhat wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, rather glossy, thinly coated with grayish bloom; 
color pale greenish or yellow overspread with bright red striped with purplish 
red. Highly colored specimens are almost of a solid red color. Dots con- 
spicuous, russet, or rather large, pale gray. 

Calyx tube funnel-form with wide limb, sometimes broadly conical. Stamens 
median. 

Core small, axile, or nearly so ; cells symmetrical, slightly open ; core lines 
clasping. Carpels smooth, roundish elliptical to slightly obovate, sometimes 
emarginate. Seeds medium to rather small, moderately long and wide, slightly 
obtuse, dark brown. 

Flesh tinged somewhat with yellow, firm, medium to rather fine-grained, not 
very tender, not very juicy, briskly subacid, fair to good in quality. 

Season in common storage October to January; i.n cold storage January to 
April. 

MONMOUTH* 

References, i. Mag. Hort., 14:141. 1848. 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
3:74. 1851. col. pi. No. 57. 3. Barry, Horticulturist, 8:341- 1853. 4. Elliott, 
1854:92. fig. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 6. Downing, 1857:88. 7. Hooper, 
1857:61. 8. Warder, 1867:577. fig. Q. Barry, 1883:349- 10. Thomas, 1885: 
245. II. Wickson, 1889:246. 12. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 13. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 14. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:49. 



/ 





MONMOUTH 



The Apples of New York. 217 

1903. 15. Budd-Hansen, 1903:131. fig. 16. Beach and Clark, A^. Y. Sta. But., 
248:133. 1904. 

Synonyms. Monmouth Pippin (i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13). Mon- 
moutli Pippin (16). Red Cheek (4, 8). Red Cheeked Pippin (10). Red 
Cheek Pippin (4, 7, 11, 12, 15). 

An apple of the Rhode Island Greening class, not equal to that 
variety in quality but more attractive in color, being often dis- 
tinctly blushed with a lively pinkish-red. As grown at this 
Station r'ts keeping quality varies much in different years. Some- 
times it may be held in good condition through the winter or 
into the spring, but more often its commercial limit in ordinary 
storage hardly extends beyond November. When stored in good 
condition its season in cold storage may extend till June (14, 16). 
In ordinary storage the percentage of loss often becomes high 
early in the winter, but sometimes not before March. It appears 
to be much less subject to scald than Rhode Island Greening. It 
it a good apple for the home orchard. It is not recommended 
for general commercial planting, but probably in favorable 
localities it v/ould prove a profitable variety. The tree appears 
to be hardy and long-lived. It comes into bearing moderately 
young and is a reliable cropper, bearing good crops biennially 
or almost annually, but under ordinary cultivation it is hardly 
as vigorous as could be desired. The fruit of marketable grades 
is smooth and attractive in appearance, but there may be a con- 
siderable loss in low-grade fruit. 

Historical. IMonmouth is a native of Monmouth county, N. J. (4). It has 
long been known in cultivation and is found in scattering localities from the 
Middle West to the Atlantic, but in none of them is it grown extensively. It 
is still offered by nurserymen (13) and is planted to a limited extent. 

Tree. 

Tree of medium size, moderately vigorous ; branches short, stout, crooked. 
Form roundish spreading, somewhat open. Tivigs short to medium, straight, 
moderately stout or rather slender ; internodes short to medium. Bark dark 
reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, 
heavily pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small to medium, oblong, slightly 
raised. Buds small to medium, obtuse to acute, appressed, very deeply set in 
the barkj somewhat pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large. Form oblate to roundish, somewhat inclined 
to conic, flattened at the base, somewhat irregular, often obscurely ribbed ; 
sides often unequal. Stem short to medium, rather thick. Caz'ity moderately 



2i8 The Apples of New York. 

large, acute to sometimes acuminate, deep, rather broad, somewhat furrowed 
or compressed, smooth or russeted, sometimes with outspreading russet rays. 
Calyx large, leafy, pubescent, open or partly closed ; lobes often reflexed and 
separated at the base. Basin large, rather wide and deep, abrupt, often dis- 
tinctly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth toward the base, the upper half often 
roughened with russet dots or with capillary russet lines which become con- 
centric toward the calyx, lively green marbled with yellow or becoming pale 
yellow as the season advances faintly shaded with red or in highly colored 
specimens blushed with lively pinkish-red. Dofs variable, rather numerous, 
usually greenish and areolar with brown russet point, often elongated about 
the cavity. 

Calyx tube large, wide, conical or urn-shape with fleshy pistil point pro- 
jecting into the base. Sta)nens median to basal. 

Core rather small, slightly abaxile with hollow cylinder in the axis ; cells 
usually symmetrical and closed; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. 
Carpels roundish or inclined to roundish obcordate, mucronate, slightly tufted. 

Seeds few, long, somewhat aCute, somewhat tufted. 

Flesh decidedly tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, somewhat crisp, 
tender, juicy, brisk subacid but becoming mild, aromatic, good to very good. 



MOON» 

References, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.. 1877:39. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892: 
244. 3. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:133. 1904. 

Fruit of good size, good quality and fairly attractive for a greenish-yellow 
apple. In the South it ripens its fruit in succession through the summer but 
as fruited at this Station it is in season from November to April or later. In 
ordinary storage there is a pretty high percentage of loss in autumn with a 
low rate of loss through midwinter. On the whole, as grown in this region 
it appears to be unsatisfactory for handling in common storage, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that a considerable portion of the fruit may be kept in good 
condition till February or later. The tree is not a strong grower but it comes 
into bearing young, is a reliable cropper and almost an annual bearer alternat- 
ing light with heavier crops. It does not appear to excel standard sorts of its 
season for any purpose and is not recommended for planting in New York. 

Historical. Moon originated as a chance seedling on the farm of Mr. I. W. 
Moon, Monroe, Walton county, Ga. It bore its first fruit in 1873 (i). It 
appears to be practically unknown among New York fruit growers. 

Tree. 

Tree rather small with rather short, stout branches. Form roundish up- 
right, open. Tzi'igs below medium to short, somewhat curved, slender ; inter- 
nodes medium. Bark olive-green tinged with reddish-brown and streaked 
with gray scarf-skin, slightly pubescent near the tips. Lenticels quite numer- 
ous, medium to small, roundish, slightly raised. Buds medium to small, plump, 
obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 



The Apples of New York. 219 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form rather oblate 
not quite regular, being eitlier somewhat elliptical or obscurely ribbed. Stem 
short to medium, rather slender. Cavity acute varying to acuminate, moder- 
ately deep to rather shallow, rather broad, nearly symmetrical, usually smooth, 
sometimes partly russeted. Calyx small to medium, usually partly open ; lobes 
often slender and acuminate, reflexed. Basin obtuse to abrupt, shallow to 
moderately deep, wide, obscurely furrowed or wrinkled. 

Skill tough, smooth, wa.xy ; the color is somewhat similar to that of a highly 
colored Rhode Island Greening being green mingled with yellow often with a 
shade of brownish-red deepening sometimes to a distinct red. Dots small, 
inconspicuous, often pale and submerged, sometimes russet. 

Calyx tube cone-shape or approaching funnel-form with wide limb. Stamens 
median or below. 

Core medium to rather small, axile or nearly so; cells usually fairly sym- 
metrical, closed or partly open ; core lines clasping. Carpels much concave, 
rather short, elliptical to obcordate, slightly emarginate, mucronate. Seeds 
numerous, medium or above, wide, obtuse. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, crisp, moderately fine, rather tender, juicy, 
slightly aromatic, mild subacid becoming sweet, good. 

MOORE SWEET. 

Reference.s. 1. Neiv England Farmer, 1829. (cited by 17). 2. Cole, 1849 
131. 3. Emmons. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:91. 1851. 4. Elliott, 1854:159. 5 
Downing, 1857:218. 6. Hooper, 1857:61. 7. Warder, 1867:396. fig. 8- Fitz 
1872:175. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 10. Barry, 1883:349. 11. Thomas 
1885:518. 12. Eailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 13. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta 
Bui, 45:333. 1896. 14. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:49. 1903 
15. Budd-Hansen, 1903:132. 16. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:133 
1904. 17. Ragan, U. S. B. P. L Bill., 56:202. 1905. 

Synonyms. Black Szveet (7, 17). Josie Moore (17). Kelley's Stveet {17). 
Moore's Late Sweet (2, 3). Moore's Late Sweet (17). Moore's Shanty 
(17). Moore's Sweet (8, 10, 12). Moore's Szveet (17). Moore's Sweeting 
(i, 7, 11). Moore's Szveeting (4, 17). Moor's Sweeting (6). Polhemtis 
(17). Pound Szveet (of some West 4 and 6, of some 17). Red Sweet Pippin 
(5, 7, 10, 13, 17, of Indiana 4 and 6). Red Winter Szveet of some (17). 
Sweet Pippin (4). Szveet Pippin (6, 17). 

Fruit fairly uniform, of pretty good size and rather dull red 
color; general appearance moderately attractive. In some por- 
tions of the state it has been valued particidarly because it is an 
excellent keeper and acceptable in quality for culinary use. It 
is in season from November to May or June. As grown at this 
Station its commercial limit in ordinary storage is April (16). 
The tree comes into bearing rather young. It is usually a good 
cropper, producing rather heavy crops biennially, or in some 
cases almost annuallv. 



220 The Apples of New York. 

Historical. Originated with J. B. Moore, Concord, Massachusetts. Cole 
in 1849, speaks of it as a new variety (2) but it had been brought to notice 
at least twenty years previously (i). It is not grown extensively in any 
locality and is now seldom planted in this state but it is still occasionally 
offered by nurserymen (12). 

Tree. 

Tree medium to large, moderately vigorous ; branches short, stout, crooked. 
Form open, upright, becoming roundish and somewhat spreading. Tzvigs 
short, straight or somewhat geniculate, rather stout with large terminal buds ; 
internodes medium to short. Bark olive-green tinged with reddish-brown, 
streaked with gray scarf-skin ; pubescent near tips. Lenticcls inconspicuous, 
scattering, small, roundish. Buds prominent, large to below medium, broad, 
plump, free, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish, varying 
from oblate to somewhat conic, sometimes regular and symmetrical but more 
often somewhat elliptical or ribbed and with sides slightly unequal. Stem 
short, usually not exserted. Cavity medium to rather large, acuminate, mod- 
erately narrow to rather wide, deep, somewhat furrowed, usually russeted and 
with outspreading russet rays. Calyx rather small, usually closed ; lobes acute, 
erect or somewhat reflexed. Basin rather small, abrupt, narrow to moderately 
wide, medium in depth, slightly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin smooth or nearly so, rather pale in color being yellow or greenish 
largely overspread with a red or pinkish-red blush and dulled by grayish scarf- 
skin which often produces the effect of faint stripes over the base although 
the red is not striped. Dots pale russet, scattering. Prevailing etfect red. 

Calyx tube rather small, conical to funnel-form. Stamens below median 
to basal. 

Core rather small, axile or nearly so ; cells symmetrical, not uniform, closed 
or sometimes open ; core lines meeting or clasping. Carpels roundish to ellip- 
tical, mucronate, emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds few, medium or above, 
wide, obtuse, somewhat tufted. 

Flesh tinged with yellow or green, moderately firm, moderately fine-grained, 
tender, rather dry, sweet, good. 

MOVER. 

References, i. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:170. 1894. 2. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. 
Bui, 56:205. 1905. 
Synonym. Mover Prize (i). Moyer Prize (2). 

A chance seedling received in 1894 from Moyer and Cook, Laketon, Indiana, 
for testing at this Station. It is a rather large apple of the Yellow Bellflower 
group, yellow often somewhat blushed with red, hardly equal to the Yellow 
Bellflower in general appearance, but it appears to stand handling fully as well 
if not better. The flesh is moderately coarse, crisp, very juicy, mildly subacid 
eventually becoming sweet or nearly so, good to very good in flavor and 
quality. As tested here it has come into bearing young and is productive. 
It is not superior to other varieties of its season for either dessert or culinary 
uses and tbe fact that it is a yellow apple makes it of doubtful value for the 
commercial orchard. 





MOORE SWEET 



The Apples of New York. 22i 

NELSON. 

References, i. Am. Jour, of Hort., 2:16. 1867. 2. Downing, 1872:284. 3. 
///. Hort. Sac. Rpt., 1879. 4. Beach, N. V. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:590. 1894. 5- 
lb., 14:262. 1895. 6. lb., 15:282. 1896. 7. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui 
248:133. 1904. 

Synonym. Nelson Sweet (3, 4, 6). 

A good sweet apple of medium size, green with dull blush, in 
season from February to June. Its commercial limit here in 
common storage is /\pril or May. The tree is a good grower 
and a reliable cropper. It comes into bearing rather young and 
is almost an annual bearer, yielding moderate to rather heavy 
crops. It is a good variety for the home orchard where a very 
late-keeping sweet apple is desired, but it is not considered 
valuable commercially because it is sweet, not large and not 
very attractive in appearance. 

Historical. Nelson was first brought to notice in Illinois but its origin is 
uncertain. It was first exhibited before the Illinois Horticultural Society at 
its Champaign meeting, December, 1866 (i). Received in 1889 from Benjamin 
Buckman, Farmingdale, Illinois, for testing here. It appears to be practically 
unknown in New York. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous to moderately vigorous. Form open, spreading and rather 
flat. Twigs short to rather long, rather slender to stout with large terminal 
buds, nearly straight but geniculate ; internodes medium to rather long. Bark 
clear reddish-brown tinged with olive-green, partly streaked with thin scarf- 
skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, small to medium, round 
or oval, usually not raised. Buds rather small to large, broad, plump, obtuse, 
free, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to above, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish to 
roundish-ovate, sometimes inclined to oblong, pretty regular but sometimes 
inclined to elliptical and often somewhat ribbed. Stem below medium to 
above, rather slender, pubescent. Cavity rather small, usually narrow, moder- 
ately deep, acuminate, partly russeted, sometimes lipped. Calyx rather small 
to medium, usually closed, pubescent; lobes reflexed, long, acute. Basin 
shallow to moderately deep, often narrow, obtuse to somew-hat abrupt, 
furrowed and wrinkled. 

Shin moderately thick, tough, smooth, dull green at first, but eventually 
becoming more or less tinged with yellow, shaded with a brownish blush 
which sometimes partly deepens to red. A suture line often extends from 
the cavity to the basin. Dots numerous, often submerged and whitish, some- 
times areolar with russet point ; about the cavity they are larger, irregular and 
often elongated. Prevailing effect green or yellowish. 



222 The Apples of New York. 

Calyx tube large, narrow above, funnel-shape, sometimes approaching 
cylindrical. Stamens median to nearly marginal. 

Core medium or above, axile ; cells symmetrical, closed ; core lines clasping 
the funnel cylinder. Carpels elliptical to broadly obcordate, somewhat tufted. 
Seeds often abortive, small to medium, plump, obtuse, moderately wide, rather 
light reddish-brown. 

Flesh tinged with yellow or greenish, firm, moderately fine, not crisp but 
somewhat tough, juicy, sweet to very sweet, with distinct flavor and good 
quality. 

NERO. 

References, i. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 23:79. 1889. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:245. 3. Brown, Rural N. Y., 55:1. 1896. Hg. 4. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui, 
169:187. 1899. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:19. 6. Blackwell, Am. Pom. 
Soc. Rpt., 1899:198. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:134. 8. Powell and Fulton, U. S. 
B. P. I. Bui, 48:50. 1903. 

This is a variety of the Minkler group. It resembles Minkler in fruit and 
in the nursery its trees appear to be almost identical with those of the Minkler. 
The fruit is of good medium size, attractive red color, firm, has a tough skin, 
handles well and keeps late, but it is inclined to scald considerably after mid- 
winter unless highly colored (8). It has not yet been sufficiently tested here 
to demonstrate whether it is a desirable variety for this region but the fact 
that none of the group of apples to which Nero belongs has become a leading 
commercial variety in this state indicates that probably it will not be found 
well adapted to New York conditions. 

Historical. Origin Princeton, New Jersey (7). It is regarded with favor 
in Central New Jersey (6) and has been disseminated to a considerable extent 
in regions farther west and south. As yet it is practically unknown in New 
York. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium. Form roundish, a little inclined to conical, pretty 
regular and symmetrical. Stem short to medium, moderately thick. Cavity 
acute to somewhat acuminate, medium in depth to deep, medium in width to 
rather broad, often russeted and with outspreading russet rays. Calyx 
medium or above, usually closed; lobes pubescent, often erect or convergent, 
usually not separated at the base. Basin obtuse to somewhat abrupt, shallow 
to moderately deep, rather wide, sometimes gently furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, glossy, clear greenish-yellow mostly covered 
with bright red marked with numerous narrow rather inconspicuous carmine 
stripes. Dots mostly small, whitish or russet. Prevailing effect good bright 
red. 

Calyx tube short, conical or funnel-shape. Stamens below median to basal. 

Core median or inclined to sessile, rather small, axile or nearly so ; cells 
Symmetrical, closed ; core lines meeting or clasping. Carpels roundish to 
elliptical, smooth or nearly so, deeply emarginate. Seeds large, moderately 
narrow, long, irregular, obtuse to acute. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, rather crisp, moderately tender, 
moderately juicy, mild subacid mingled with sweet, slightly aromatic, good 
to very good. 



/' 




X 



m > 




X 




NELSON 



The Apples of New York. 223 

NEWARK PIPPIN. 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:13,3. fig. 2. Buel, A''. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826: 
476. 3. Downing, 1845:121. 4. Thomas, 1849:183. 5. Elliott, 1854:149. 6. 
Hooper, 1857:63. 7. Warder, 1867:690. fig. 8. Downing, 1869:285. 

Synonyms. French Pippin (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, of East New Jersey i). Yellow 
Pippin (I, 3, 5, 8). 

This is an apple of the Fall Pippin group, of good size, attractive yellow 
color and excellent quality. It is easily known by the crooked, irregular 
growth of the tree and the drooping habit of the branches (3). Coxe's descrip- 
tion of this variety (i) is here given. 

" Called the French Pippin in East-Jersey ; and in other places denominated 
the yellow Pippin: this apple, on young trees, is sometimes large; it is usually 
above the middling size ; the form is oblong — full, even and fair, hollowed 
at both ends — the skin has a greenish cast, turning yellow when fully ripe, 
with clouds of small black dots — the flesh is firm, very rich, juicy, and highly 
flavored; in taste and color like the yellow flesh of a pear: it is the finest 
early winter apple of the Middle States, and continues in full perfection until 
the maturity of the Newtown Pippin; it is also a much admired cider apple, 
and an abundant bearer, but apt to drop early in the autumn: the tree is of 
an irregular growth, the branches crooked and drooping, requiring great at- 
tention to pruning, which, when properly done, may be made conducive to 
the improvement of the natural growth — its excellence will remunerate any 
expense in rearing the tree, in the best form to promote its growth." 

Historical. Newark Pippin is an old variety which appears to have been 
well known in portions of New Jersey a century ago ( i ) . It was being cul- 
tivated by some fruit growers in New York early in the last century and was 
highly esteemed for table use and for cider (2). Downing calls it unprofit- 
able (8). Notwithstanding the excellence of its frttit it appears to have 
become nearly obsolete in this state. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to rather large, pretty uniform in shape and size. 
Form roundish oblong to oblong, often somewhat elliptical or obscurely 
angular. Stem rather long, moderately slender. Canity acute to acuminate, 
rather wide, deep, sometimes faintly russeted. Calyx large, open or sometimes 
closed. Basin large, wide, abrupt, deep, somewhat furrowed. 

Skin smooth or slightly roughened with capillary russet lines, slightly 
waxy, moderately thin, tough, greenish, eventually developing a rich yel- 
low tone. Dots numerous, varying from minute to rather large, rather 
conspicuous. Prcz'ailing effect yellow. 

Calyx tube large, wide, cone-shape or approaching funnel-form. Stamens 
median to basal. 

Core large, abaxile to nearly axile ; cells pretty symmetrical, open or closed ; 
core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish to oval, mucronate, tufted. 
Seeds numerous, short, wide, medium or below, plump, rather light brown. 

Flesh rather deeply tinged with yellow, tender, rather fine-grained, breaking, 
rich, juicy, subacid, aromatic, sprightly, very good to best for either dessert 
or culinary use. 



224 The Apples of New York. 

NEWMAN. 

References, i. Churchill, .V. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:346. 1890. 2. Beach, lb., 
15:274. 1896. 3. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bill, 48:50. 1903. 4. 
Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. But., 248:134. 1904. 

Synonym. Xewman Seedling (i, 2). 

Newman is a fruit of the Yellow Bellflower group. When it is 
well grown and properly colored it is rather attractive for a green 
or yellow apple. It is somewhat deficient in size for a good 
market apple and does not excel in quality, but late in the season 
is acceptable for dessert and ver}^ good for culinary uses. It is 
a good keeper and may perhaps be grown with profit to a limited 
extent but is not recommended for general planting in New 
York. The tree is a fairly good grower, comes into bearing 
young and is a reliable cropper, bearing full crops biennially. The 
fruit hangs well to the tree. 

Historical. Received from George Townsend, Gordon, Ohio, in 1890, for 
testing at this Station. It is as yet practically unknown in New York. 

Tree. 

Tree rather vigorous with very long, moderately stout, curved branches. 
Form upright becoming spreading and rather flat, open. Twigs short to rather 
long, curved, crooked, stout, with thick tips and large terminal buds ; inter- 
nodes short to rather long. Bark blackish-brown tinged with red and mingled 
with olive-green, slightlj^ streaked with scarf-skin, heavily pubescent. Lenti- 
cels very conspicuous, quite numerous, medium to large, roundish to oval, 
raised. Buds prominent, large to rather small, broad, plump, obtuse to acute, 
free, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium to rather large. Form oblong inclined to conic, some- 
times oblique, often faintly ribbed ; sides unequal ; pretty uniform in size and 
shape. Stem short to medium, rather slender. Cavity moderately shallow to 
deep, narrow to medium in width, symmetrical or sometimes compressed or 
slightly furrowed, russeted, occasionally with outspreading rays of russet, 
rarely lipped. Calyx medium, closed or somewhat open. Basin small, some- 
what abrupt, shallow to medium in depth, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin green changing to clear yellow with a faint shade of red or in highly 
colored specimens distinctly blushed with light red. Dots small to medium, 
green or dark, scattering, often areolar or red areolar. 

Calyx tube short and conical varying to funnel-form. Stamens median or 
above. 

Core large, abaxile; cells open or partly closed; core lines meeting or some- 
what clasping. Carpels rather long, roundish, emarginate, slightly tufted. 
Seeds medium, acute, slightly tufted. 





NEWMAN 



The Apples of New York. 225 

Flesh whitish, very firm, moderately fine-grained, rather tender, crisp, mod- 
erately juicy, subacid l)ecoming nearly sweet, slightly aromatic, fair to good. 
Season December to May or June. 

NEWTOWN SPITZENBURG* 

References, i. Coxc, 1817:1^6. 2. Thacher, 1822:137. 3. Buel, .V. Y. Bd. 
Agr. Mem., 1826:476. 4. Lindley, Pom. Mag., 3: No. 144. 1830. col. pi. 5. 
Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:36. 5. Ronalds, 1831:19. 7. Floy-Lindley, 1833: 
40. 8. Manning, 1838:51s. 9. Downing, 1845:139. 10. Downing, Horticulturist, 
1:341. 1847. II. Thomas, 1849:173. 12. Cole, 1849:125. 13. Hovey, Mag. 
Hort., 15:539. 1849. Hg. 14. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:73. 1851. col. pi. 
fig. 15. lb., 3:63. 1851. 16. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 17. Elliott, 1854: 
94. fig. 18. Hooper, 1857:65. 19. Warder, 1867:445. 20. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1871:8. 21. iMtz, 1872:121, 149, 153. 22. Downing, 1872:285. 23. Barry, 
1883:350. 24. Hogg, 1884:156. 25. Wickson, 1889:246. 26. Lyon, Mich. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 27. Bailey, An. Plort., 1892:245. 28. Powell and 
Fnlton, U. S. B. P. L Bid., 48:50. 1903. 29. Budd-Hansen, 1903:134. Hg. 30. 
Bruner, .V. C. Sta. Bid., 182:21. 1903. 31. Beach and Clark, .V. i'. Sta. Bui, 
248:134. 1904. 

Synonyms. Barretts Spitzcnburgh {22). Burlington (22). Burlington 
Spitcemberg (i). Burlington Spitzenberg (9, 17, 24). English Spitzemberg 
(i). English Spitzenberg (3. 24). Flushing (18) but incorrectly. Joe Berry 
(17, 19, 22). Kountz (17, 22). Matchless (4, 7, 9, 17, 22, 24). Newton 
Spitzemberg (i). Newton Spitszenburgh (2). Newtown Spitzemberg 
(7). Newtown Spitzenberg (3, 4, 12, 17, 19, 20, 24). Newtown Spitzen- 
BERGH (10). Newtow^n Spitzenburgh (15, 22, 23). Nezvtozvn spitzcnburgh 
(25). Ox Eye (17, 19, 22). Spiced O.v Eye (22). Spitzenberg, Newtown 
(9). Spitzenburgh, Newtown (ii). Spitzenburgh (22). Staalcliibs (13) 
but erroneously. Vandevere (13, 21, 25). Vandevere of New York (20, 22, 
23, 26). Vandervere (14, 16). i'andcrverc of New York (19). Wine 
(erroneously, 22). 

This is the old \'andevere of New York, but it is not the true 

\'andevere. It is quite different also from the Esopus Spjfccnbiirg 

which is commonly known among New York fruit growers by the 

simple name of Spitzenburg. The Newtown Spitzenburg is not a 

good commercial sort because it is an unreliable cropper, has too 

large a percentage of fruit of unmarketable size, and is not especially 

attractive in general appearance on account of its rather dull color. 

It is crisp, aromatic, rich, and mildly subacid mingled with sweet. 

Downing remarks that it is a most excellent fruit, suited to more 

tastes than any other apple of its season (22). 

Historical. This variety originated in Newtown, Long Island. It was at 
one time quite popular in some sections of this state, particularly in the dis- 
tricts along the Hudson, but is now seldom planted and is gradually going 
out of cultivation. 



226 The Apples of New York. 

Tree. 

Tree medium to large, vigorous or moderately vigorous \vith long, moder- 
ately stout, curved branches. Form spreading or roundish, rather dense. 
Tzcigs moderately long to short, straight, rather erect, geniculate, slender to 
moderately stout ; internodes medium to long. Bark dull brown, rather heavily 
streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent in spots. Lenticels rather inconspicuous, 
quite numerous, small to medium, oblong or roundish, slightly raised. Buds 
medium to small, wide, plump, obtuse, free, with little pubescence or none. 

Fruit. 

Fruit about medium size. Form roundish approaching cylindrical or some- 
what oblate ; pretty regular and uniform in shape and size. Stem very short 
to rather long, rather slender, pubescent. Cavity acute, deep, broad, indis- 
tinctly furrowed, sometimes russeted. Calyx small, closed, sometimes partly 
open ; lobes broad, obtuse. Basin small to medium, wide to rather narrow, 
shallow and obtuse to rather deep and abrupt, slightly furrowed. 

Skin smooth, tough, eventually becoming deep yellow blushed and mottled 
with dull red striped with carmine, streaked with grayish scarf-skin and often 
overspread with a light bloom giving it a peculiarly bluish cast. Dots char- 
acteristic, conspicuous, very numerous, yellowish or peculiarly gray; often 
with russet center, small, very numerous and crowded about the basin but less 
numerous, larger and irregular toward the cavity. 

Calyx tube cone-shape or approaching fuiuiel-form with short, truncate 
cylinder. Stamens median. 

Core above medium to rather small, more or less abaxile ; cells usually 
pretty symmetrical and partly open, sometimes closed; core lines meeting 
or somewhat clasping. Car[^cls smooth or nearly so, approaching elliptical, 
often nearly truncate at the base and narrowing somewhat toward the apex. 
Seeds numerous, below medium to rather large, rather narrow, plump, acute. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid mingled 
with sweet, rich, aromatic, very good to best in fiavor and quality. 

Season in Southeastern New York late fall or early winter ; in Western 
New York it is easily kept till February or March in ordinary storage and 
often some portion of the fruit remains in fairly good condition till the close 
of April (31), 

NEW WATER. 

References, i. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. L Bui, 48:50. 1903. 2. 
Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:134. 1904. 3. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I 
Bui, 56:211. 1905. 

A large winter apple, striped red, moderately attractive, of mild flavor and 
good quality. It is more suitable for dessert than for any other use. As 
grown in this locality it comes into bearing moderately young and is a reliable 
cropper yielding full crops biennially with occasional lighter crops in alternate 
years. It does not appear to be superior to standard varieties of its season 
either for home use or for market and for this reason it is not recommended 
for planting in New York. 

Historical. Received from Josiah G. Youngken, Richlandtown, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1893 for testing at this Station. 





NEWTOWN SPITZENBERG 



The Apples of New York. 227 

Fruit. 

Fruit large or above medium. luinii flat at ba.se, oblate, narrowing and 
often somewhat ribbed toward the basin, often oblique. Stem short. Cavity 
large, acute, deep to very deep, broad, occasionally lipped, sometimes russeted. 
Calyx large to medium, usually open, sometimes closed; lobes leafy, broad, 
long, acute. Basin usually rather large, sometimes oblique, moderately deep, 
varying from narrow or compressed to moderately wide, abrupt, often some- 
what furrowed and irregular. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, rather glossy, yellow or greenish blushed with 
orange-red and mottled and striped with pinkish-red over a large part of the 
surface. Dots inconspicuous, medium to small, pale gray or russet. Pre- 
vailing effect striped red. 

Calyx tube remarkably large, varying from conical to long funnel-form and 
extending to the core. Stamens basal or nearly so. 

Core very small to nearly medium, varying from axile to somewhat abaxile ; 
cells sometimes unsymmetrical and open but usually closed ; core lines meet- 
ing when the calyx tube is conical but clasping if it is funnel-form. Carpels 
roundish, slightly emarginate. Seeds few, dark, medium in size, wide, some- 
times slightly tufted. 

Flesh whitish tinged with j^ellow, firm, moderately fine-grained, crisp, tender, 
juicy or very juicy, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, aromatic, good. 

Season October to February or March; commercial limit January. 

NICKAJACK, 

References, i. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 19:565. 1853. 2. Stanford, Horticul- 
turist, 11:255. 1856. fig. 3. Downing, 1857:175. iig. 4. Hooper, 1857:65. 5. 
Downing, Horticulturist, 16:40. 1861. Hg. 6. Warder, 1867:445. fig. 7. Down- 
ing, 1869:286. fig. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:8. 9. Fitz, 1872:143, 156, 
166, 172. 10. Leroy, 1873:488. fig. 11. Barry, 1883:351. 12. Thomas, 1885: 
22,7- 13- Wickson, 1889:248. 14. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 15. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 16. Budd-Hansen, 1903:136. fig. 

Synonyms. Aberdeen (5, 7). Accidental (5, 7). Alleghany (5, 7). Berry 
(5, 7, 10, 12). Big Hill (5, 6, 7). Carolina (5, 6, 10). Carolina Spice (5, 
7, ID, 12). Caroline (7). Chatham Pippin (7). Chaltram Pippin (5, 7). 
Cheatan Pippin (5, 7). Cheataiv (7). Dahlonega (5). Edn'ards (12). 
Edward Shantee (7). Forsythe's Seedling (7). Goivden (7). Gowdie (5). 
Graham's Red Warrior (7). Hozvard (5, 7). Hubbard (5, 7, 10). Jackson 
Red (5, 6, 7). Leanham (7). Missouri Pippin (7). Missouri Red (7). 
Mobbs (5, 7). NiCKEjACK (i). North Carolina (13). Pound (5, 7). Red 
Hazel (7, 12). Red Pippin (5, 7). Red Warrior (5, 7). Rickmans Red (5). 
Ruckman (5). Ruckmans Red (7). Summerour (i). Summerour (3, 5, 
6, 7, 12). Treanham (5). Trenham (7). Walb (7). IVall (5, 7, 10). 
Wander (7). H'inter Horse (7). Winter Rose (5, 7, li). Wonder (3, 5). 
Worlds Wonder (7). 

This variety has long been known in various portions of the South and 
Southwest. Its popularity in those regions is attested by its host of synonyms. 
It is said to have the habit of reproducing itself so nearly from seed that its 
seedlings in some cases can hardly be distinguished from the parent (7). In 

Vol. I — 10 



22§ The Apples of New York. 

localities favorable to its proper development the tree is a strong grower and 
very productive and the fruit is large and sometimes well colored and showy 
but usually it is rather dull colored and not very attractive. It ranks only 
second rate in quality but it is a remarkably good keeper. It is evidently 
not well adapted for regions as far north as this. It has failed to gain favor- 
able recognition among New York fruit growers and has been planted but 
sparingly in this state. 

Historical. This variety is supposed to have originated near a stream of 
the same name in Macon county, N. C.,l among the Cherokee Indians (i, 2, 
3, 6, 7). The time of its origin is not definitely known but the fact that in 
l86i it is referred to as an old variety cultivated in at least three states and 
having over twenty synonyms (5) indicates that it has probably been under 
cultivation for a century or more. Colonel Summerour of Lincoln county, 
N. C, early disseminated this variety under the name of Winter Rose (7), 
but Silas McDowell of Franklin, N. C, at about the middle of the last century 
brought it to notice under the name Nickajack (2), which has now become the 
generally accepted name for the variety. 

Tree. 

Tree large, very vigorous. Fonn upright, moderately spreading. Twigs 
rather short, slender to rather stout, nearly straight, heavily pubescent ; inter- 
nodes medium to long. Bark smooth, of a rather clear dark red with some 
olive-green. Lenticels moderately conspicuous, quite narrow, small, raised. 
Buds smallj rather projecting, sharply acute, appressed, moderately pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large, rather uniform in size and shape. Form 
inclined to roundish conic varying sometimes to roundish oblate or rarely to 
roundish oblong ; sides usually somewhat unequal ; axis often slightly oblique. 
Stem usually short and thick. Cavity acuminate to acute, deep, rather broad, 
obscurely furrowed and partly covered with thin greenish-russet. Calyx 
rather large to below medium, closed or somewhat open ; lobes short to 
medium in length, rather broad, acute. Basin often oblique, rather shallow, 
medium in width to wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, obscurely furrowed 
and slightly wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, rather smooth, sometimes a little glossy, yellow or 
greenish, mottled and shaded with orange-red or red, irregularly splashed and 
streaked with bright carmine and somewhat flecked with russet. It is usually 
streaked over the base with grayish scarf-skin and overspread with thin 
bloom, giving it a rather dull appearance. Dots numerous, usually irregular 
in shape and of variable size, very conspicuous, pale or russet. Prevailing 
effect grayish-red. 

Calyx tube rather large, wide, varying from short and urn-shape or cone- 
shape to very long, approaching funnel-form. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core medium or above, axile ; cells closed or partly open ; core lines clasp- 
ing. Carpels rather concave, broadly ovate approaching roundish, tufted. 
Seeds below medium to above, light to dark brown, rather short and wide, 
plump, acute to somewhat obtuse, tufted. 



' Warder gives it erroneously as Macon county, Ga. 





NICKAJACK 



The Apples of New York. 229 

Flesh yellowish, very firm, somewhat coarse, rather crisp, moderately tender, 
juicy, mildly subacid becoming nearly sweet, slightly aromatic. It ranks good 
but not high in flavor and quality. 

Season December to May. 

NORTHERN SPY. 

References, i. Mag. Hort., 10:275. 1844. 2. Albany Cultivator, 2:41, 56. 
1845. 3. Genesee Farmer, 1845. (cited by 6). 4. Downing, 1845:120. 5. 
Horticulturist. 1:30, 144. 1846. 6. lb., 1:386, 482. 1847. 7. Hovey and Watts, 
Mag. Hort., \z:']2, 104, 538. 1847. iig. 8. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 14:530. 1848. 
9. Thomas, 1849:169, 174. ixg. 10. Cole, 1849:134. /zg. 11. Allen, Horticul- 
turist, 6:351. 1851. 12. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:70. 1851. col. pi. No. 23. 
13. Hovey, 1:19. 1851. col. pi. and fig. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 15. 
Mag. Hort., 19:68. 1853. 16. Elliott, 1854:94. fig. 17. Smith, Horticulturist, 
11:242. 1856. 18. Hooper, 1857:66. 19. Iloffy, A'^. A. Pom., i860, col. pi. 20. 
Hovey, J\fag. Hort., 29:459. 1S63. 21. Warder, 1867:541. fig. 23. Downing, 
1869:289. fig. 23. Fitz, 1872:166. 24. Leroy, 1873:501. fig. 25. Barry, 1883: 
351. 26. Hogg, 1884:161. 27. Wickson, 1889:248. 28. Lyon, Mich. Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 29. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 30. Taylor, Am. Pom. 
Soc. Rpt., 1895:192. 31. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 3:15. 1896. 
figs. 32. Bruner, A^. C. Sta. Bui., 182:21. 1903. figs. 33. Budd-Hansen, 1903: 
137- fig- 34- Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:51. 1903. 35. Beach 
and Clark, A''. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:134. 1904. 

Synonyms. Northern Spy (31). Spy (31). Spy (i, 19). 

Northern Spy is often known among- fruit growers and fruit 
buyers by the simple name of Spy. It ranks third in commercial 
importance among New York apples, being surpassed in this respect 
by Baldwin and Rhode Island Greening. When it is well grown it 
is superior to either of these in flavor and quality and easily ranks 
among the very best winter apples of New York. The fruit is large 
and attractive, being of a bright red color, overspread with a delicate 
bloom. The flesh is very juicy, crisp, tender and most excellent 
for either dessert or culinary uses. It is not a good variety for 
evaporating because it is too juicy and tender. It is well adapted 
for either local, general or fancy trade. It has a well-established 
reputation in market, and because of its size, beauty, fine flavor and 
high quality it often sells at more than average prices. It is ready 
for use in November and December, and retains its crispness and 
high flavor remarkably well until the close of the season (35). Its 
thin skin and juicy, tender flesh render careful handling- absolutely 
necessary, otherwise there is much shrinkage in storage (35). It is 
particularly susceptible to attack from blue mold (Penicillium glau- 



230 The Apples of New York. 

cum Link) in storage, especially if bruised or delayed in 
reaching storage. If well colored, jjicked, packed and handled with 
great care and stored soon after picking, it may be carried in storage 
as long as most winter varieties (34). Its keeping quahty varies 
considerably in different seasons and in different locations. In 
ordinary cellar storage its season sometimes closes in February, but 
more often extends to March or April, and if the temperature is 
very carefully regulated it may sometimes be held till May. It 
stands heat fairly well, but after being picked it should go into 
storage as soon as possible. Poorly colored fruit of this variety is 
not good in flavor and does not keep as well as well-ripened and 
highly colored fruit. In some localities it appears to require from 
two to three weeks longer than Rhode Island Greening to ripen 
properly. 

Both the foliage and fruit of Northern Spy are noticeably suscep- 
tible to injury by the scab and thorough treatment is required to 
prevent loss from this disease. It comes into bloom remarkably late. 
On this account its blossoms sometimes escape destruction by late 
frosts when earlier-blooming varieties are much injured. Often it 
produces many small apples which are seedless or nearly so. This 
indicates an improper fertilization of the blossoms. It remains to be 
demonstrated whether or not this fault may be remedied by planting 
near the Northern Spy some other late-blooming variety bearing an 
abundance of fertile pollen. 

Northern Spy is not as well adapted for general cultivation as is 
either Baldwin or Rhode Island Greening because it is more or less 
variable in season and quality, and in some sections is an unreliable 
cropper. Usually it is rather slow in coming into bearing, although 
under favorable conditions it has been known to yield profitable 
crops within seven years from the time of planting. The young 
trees increase in productiveness as they advance in maturity. In 
favorable locations, under good care, they usually become reliable 
croppers yielding from moderate to heavy crops biennially, or in 
some cases almost annually. This variety succeeds better in the 
cooler regions of the interior of the state than it does on the warm 
slopes south of the Fishkill mountains and on the coastal plain. It 





NORTHERN SPY 



The Apples of New York. 231 

generally does well on the hills and well-drained slopes in the more 
elevated regions from Chautauqua lake eastward to the Catskills, 
along the Champlain valley and in the uplands east of the Hudson 
as far south as the Fishkill mountains. In some portions of the 
regions just named it has become the leading variety in commercial 
orchards, but its cultivation is by no means confined to these regions, 
for it is grown quite extensively in many other localities and is gen- 
erally well known throughout the state. Experienced fruit growers 
frequently express a preference for warm, fertile soil, either gravelly 
loam or clay loam, with well-drained subsoil, upon which to plant 
Northern Spy, although in some few districts there is a decided 
preference for rather heavy clay loam. In the territory best adapted 
to its cultivation it is grown satisfactorily upon different slopes and 
different soils. When grown in sod the trees may be less productive, 
but the fruit doubtless colors better and keeps better than when the 
orchard is given frequent and thorough tillage during the growing 
season. 

The tree is very hardy and healthy, develops a strong root system 
both in the nursery and in the orchard, and has an upright, free- 
growing habit. For these reasons it is much in favor as a stock 
upon which to top-work varieties that are less vigorous, less hardy 
or less healthy. The top tends to become dense and must be pruned 
regularly and thoroughly to keep it sufficiently open to admit light 
and air to the foliage in all parts of the tree ; otherwise, especially 
on the older trees, much of the fruit is apt to be poorly matured 
and poorly colored. Pruning for this purpose should be done by 
removing the laterals and limbs that cross, being careful to leave 
the smaller twigs and spurs, as these are the ones upon which the 
most of the fruit is borne. 

The head of the young orchard tree should be formed with great 
care. In the words of one of our correspondents,^ the wood of this 
variety is very straight-grained and the tree is liable to split when 
heavily loaded. To guard against this, when the head of the small 
tree is formed no two limbs should be left opposite or nearly opposite 
each other, but the three or four branches which are selected for 

>E. W. Lamont, Cobleskill. N. Y. 



232 The Apples of New York. 

forming the head of the tree should be distributed along the main 
stem at some little distance apart. This distributes the load upon 
the trunk and gives more spring to the body of the tree, thus tending 
to prevent its splitting with heavy loads. Standard orchard trees of 
Northern Spy should stand forty to fifty feet apart in order to pre- 
vent their becoming too much crowded when fully matured. 

Historical. Originated in a seedling orchard at East Bloomfield, N. Y., 
which is famous for the production of this variety, the Early Joe and the 
Melon. This orchard was planted by Heman Chapin with seedling trees 
grown from seeds brought from Salisbury, Connecticut, about the year 1800 
(3. 4. 5, 6, 7, 18). Sprouts from the original tree were taken up and planted 
by Roswell Humphrey and by him the first fruit of the Northern Spy was 
raised as the original tree died before bearing. In 1847 nine of the trees 
set out by Humphrey were still living (6). The variety was confined to the 
vicinity of its origin for many years and it was not till about 1840 that it 
began to attract the attention of fruit growers in other localities (6, 12). Its 
great value then came to be more widely recognized and in 1852 the American 
Pomological Society not only listed it as a new variety of promise but also as 
a variety worthy of general cultivation. Since that time it has become ex- 
tensively planted not only in New York but in various other portions of the 
more northern apple-growing regions. 

Tree. 

Tree large, vigorous ; branches long, moderately stout, curved. Form up- 
right, dense, becoming roundish with willowy, slender laterals somewhat in- 
clined to droop. Twigs long to medium in length, erect, straight or some- 
what crooked, slender to moderately stout ; internodes long to rather short. 
Bark dull, dark brownish-red mingled with olive-green lightly streaked with 
thick scarf-skin ; heavily pubescent. Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, small, 
roundish or oblong, slightly raised. Buds deeply set in bark, medium to small, 
broad, plump, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit except when it is seedless is usually large or very large. Form round- 
ish conical, sometimes inclined to oblong, often noticeably flattened at the 
base, nearly symmetrical, sometimes regular but often noticeably ribbed. Stem 
medium to long, moderately thick. Cavity large, acute, very wide and deep, 
often broadly furrowed, usually with greenish-russet radiating upwards to the 
brim. Calyx usually small, closed, sometimes partly open ; lobes short, broad, 
obtuse. Basin small to medium, narrow to medium in width, moderately deep, 
abrupt, usually somewhat furrowed. 

Skin thin, tender and smooth. In highly colored specimens it is glossy and 
the clear pale yellow ground color is nearly concealed with bright pinkish-red 
mottled and splashed with carmine and overspread with a thin delicate bloom. 
Dots medium to small, not conspicuous, scattering, whitish, gray or russet. 
Prevailing effect bright red or striped red. Rarely the yellow or green color 
predominates. In such cases the quality of the fruit is low. 




LEE 




NORTHERN SPY 



The Apples of New York. 233 

Calyx tube sometimes large, long, cone-shape but more often narrow and 
somewhat funnel-form with very narrow cylinder. Siai)icns basal or nearly 
so. 

Core usually large, sometimes medium, abaxile ; cells pretty symmetrical, 
open or nearly closed, often not uniformly developed ; core lines clasping the 
funnel cylinder. Carpels much concave, broadly roundish, emarginate, slightly 
tufted. Seeds small to medium, wide, often abortive and few but sometimes 
numerous, plump, obtuse, dark, somewhat tufted. 

Flesh yellowish, rather firm, moderately fine-grained, very tender, crisp, 
very juicy, sprightly, aromatic, subacid, very good to best. 

NORTHWESTERN GREENING. 

References, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:27. 2. Rural N. Y ., 44:150. 
1885. iigs. 3. Van Deman, V . -"^ . Pom. Rpt., 1886:271. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:245, 5. Shepherd, Can. Hort., 16:205. 1893. 6. lb., 17:84. 1894. %-^- 
7. Beach, .V. }'. Sta. An. Rpt 14:254. 1895. 8. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 
J^:77- 1902. Hg. 9. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:84, 90. 1902. 10. Thomas, 
1903:343- II- Budd-Hansen, 1903:138. fig. 12. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 
1903:95. 13. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bid., 48:51. 1903. 14. Beach 
and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bid., 248:135. 1904. 

Synonyms. North West Greening (5, 6). Northwestern Greening (i, 
3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13). 

Attractive in color for a green or yellowish apple but apt to be variable in 
size and not uniform in shape. It is hardier than Rhode Island Greening and 
on that account some consider it worthy of cultivation in districts where the 
climate is too severe for the Rhode Island Greening. The fruit has a serious 
fault in that the flesh within the core lines is apt to be corky and discolored. 
It cooks evenly and quickly and when cooked has a fine yellow color but is not 
of high flavor or quality being much inferior in this respect to Rhode Island 
Greening. As a dessert apple it ranks fair to good in quality. At this 
Station it has not been a satisfactory keeper in common storage, the rate of 
loss being high in November and sometimes in December, moderate through 
the winter and gradually rising to high or very high in the closing weeks of 
its season. A large part of the fruit does not reach prime condition before 
January, a considerable portion of it remains sound at the close of the winter 
and some of it may keep till June. The tree is hardy, vigorous, a fine erect 
grower in the nursery, and a good strong grower in the orchard. It does 
not come into bearing very early but eventually becomes productive and is 
a reliable biennial cropper. 

Historical. Originated in Waupaca county, Wisconsin. Introduced in 1872 
by E. W. Daniels ( i, 11 ). It has been pretty widely disseminated throughout 
the northern portions of the apple belt where very hardy trees are desired 
(i, 4, 5, 8, II ). It has as yet been planted but very little in New York. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous with moderately long, stout, crooked branches. Form up- 
right becoming quite roundish or spreading, inclined to droop, dense. Tzvigs 
moderately long, curved, stout with large terminal buds ; internodes medium 



234 The Apples of New York. 

to long. Bark clear reddish-brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin, lightly- 
pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, medium to large, oval or elongated, 
raised, very conspicuous, pale and contrasting clearly with the bright smooth 
bark. Buds large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, projecting, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large or very large, variable in size and form. Form com- 
monly roundish but varying to oblong or to oblate and often inclined to conic, 
more or less irregular, sometimes elliptical, sometimes ribbed. Stem medium 
to short. Cavity rather small to large, acute to acuminate, moderately narrow 
to wide, deep, often compressed or lipped, often with outspreading russet. 
Calyx variable, small to large, closed or open. Basin small to large, narrow 
to wide, usually abrupt, moderatelj' deep, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, somewhat waxy, clear pale yellow or greenish, sometimes 
faintly blushed. Dots varying from small to large and irregular, usually 
whitish and submerged, sometimes gray with russet point. Prevailing effect 
clear yellow or greenish. 

Calyx tube moderately wide, conical or approaching urn-shape. Staniens 
median. 

Core medium or above, usually axile or nearly so; cells usually symmetrical, 
closed or sometimes open ; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels 
broadly roundish, truncate at base, narrowing toward the apex, mucronate, 
but slightly emarginate if at all. Seeds very small, variable in shape ; often 
some are abortive. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, medium in texture, crispness and firmness, juicy, 
with slight aroma, mild subacid, fair to good. 

OAKLAND, 

Referenxes. I. Garfield, Am. Pom. Sac. Rpt., 1883:120. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1883:12. 3. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 4. Thomas, 1897: 
647. 5. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205:45. 1903. 6. Powell and Fulton, U. S. 
B. P. I. Bui, 48:51. 1903. 7. Beach and Clark, A''. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:135. 1904. 

Synonym. Oakl.\nd County Seek-Xo-Further (i). Oakland County 
Seek-Xo-Further (2, 4, 6, y). 

A mildly sweet apple of good medium size, attractive dark red color, pleasant 
flavor and good quality. In common storage it is in season from late Novem- 
ber to midwinter or later; in cold storage it may be held till April (7). The 
tree is a rather slow grower. As fruited at this Station it comes into bearing 
rather young and is a reliable cropper, giving full crops bienniallj'. Probably 
it would be an advantage to top-work this variety on some more vigorous 
stock. 

Historical. This for many years has been a popular variety in Oakland 
county, ^Michigan, where it probably originated. In 1883 it was brought to 
the notice of the American Pomological Society by Charles W. Garfield (i) 
and was entered upon the list of that Society's Catalogue as a promising 
variety in Michigan (2). It was dropped from the list when the Catalogue 
was revised in 1897. In 1903 Farrand (5) stated that in some portions of 
Michigan it is quite largely planted for commercial purposes. It is practically 
unknown in New York. 





NORTHWESTERN Greemng 





OAKLAND (Reduced Size) 



The Apples of New York. 235 

Tree. 

Tree a slow grower with moderately long and stout branches. Form open, 
spreading, becoming rather flat-topped. Tu'igs short, straight, stout ; inter- 
nodes short. Bark clear brown tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with 
scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lcnticch quite numerous, very small, oval, not 
raised. Buds small, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fniit below medium to large, pretty uniform in size. Form roundish, 
usually somewhat oblate, sometimes inclined to conic, fairly symmetrical, 
irregular, often obscurely angular or ribbed. Stem rather slender. Cavity 
acuminate, moderately wide, moderately deep to deep, angular, sometimes 
lipped, often partly russeted and with some outspreading russet. Calyx pubes- 
cent, rather small, closed. Basin shallow to moderately deep, sometimes 
abrupt, compressed or furrowed. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, pale green or yellow blushed and mottled with 
dark red, striped with carmine and overspread with thin bloom ; highly colored 
specimens become deep red and almost purplish. Dots medium in size, light, 
sometimes mingled with flecks of russet. Prevailing color dark red dulled 
by bluish bloom. 

Calyx tube rather small, narrow, funnel-form. Stamens median to basal. 

Core below medium, somewhat abaxile with hollow cylinder at the axis ; 
cells usually symmetrical, partly open or closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels 
smooth, distinctly concave, elliptical, obtusely emarginate, mucronate. Seeds 
numerous, variable, small to medium, obtuse. 

Flesh white, very tender, fine-grained, juicy, sweet, crisp, good. 

OCCIDENT. 

References, i. Goff, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 2:35. 1883. 2. Bailey, An. Horf., 
1892:245. 3. Beach, IV. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1896:52. 4. Beach and Clark, 
.V. Y. Sta. Bill., 248:135. 1904. 

This fruit is of the Yellow Bellflower type, attractive bright yellow, excel- 
lent in quality and a remarkably good keeper. The tree is a little slow in 
coming into bearing but it is a strong grower, a reliable cropper and very pro- 
ductive. The fruit hangs well to the tree. As grown here it is not large. It 
sometimes averages above medium and sometimes below medium size. Usually 
it is pretty uniform for the crop both in size and shape. Apparently it would 
be a desirable variety for commercial planting in New York were it not some- 
what deficient in size. 

Historical. Originated by L. J. Fish, Martinez, California. Said to be a 
seedling of Yellow Bellflower. Scions of it were received in 1883 from Ell- 
wanger and Barry for testing at this Station. It was being then regarded as 
one of the promising new varieties. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to below medium. Form roundish oblate to roundish 
conic, often faintly ribbed. Stem long, stout. Cavity rather large, acuminate 
to acute, deep and moderately broad, sometimes russeted. Calyx closed or 



236 The Apples of New York. 

somewhat open; lobes long, acuminate, reflexed. Basin small to medium, 
shallow, medium in width to narrow, often abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, clear yellow often with a shade of brownish-red, sometimes 
blushed with bright red. Dots numerous, light or russet. 

Calyx tube rather narrow, funnel-form. Stamens median to basal. 

Core large, usually abaxile ; cells usually wide open as in Yellow Bellflower; 
core lines clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels large, broadly roundish, tufted, 
slightly emarginate. Seeds long, acute, tufted. 

flesii whitish or slightly tinged with yellow, firm, fine-grained, rather tender, 
crisp, juicy, sprightly, rich subacid, very good. 

Season January to May; usual commercial limit in cellar storage, March or 
April (4). 

OEL AUSTIN, 

References, i. Heiges, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1894:21. 2. A''. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 
15:688. 1896. 

Synonyms. Oel (i). Austin. 

An attractive apple of the Blue Pearmain group, of fairly good 
quality. It varies in size from small to above medium. It is in 
season from November to March or April. It is said to be very 
hardy in St. Lawrence county and a good thrifty grower, and it 
may prove desirable for the home orchard in those sections of the 
state where superior hardiness is a prime requisite. 

Historical. Received here from A. F. Clark, Raymondville, St. Lawrence 
county, in 1896. The original tree, 16 to 18 inches in diameter, was then 
standing neglected in an old pasture. Mr. Clark began to propagate the 
variety about 189T. He believes that it is a seedling of Stone,l a variety 
which is highly esteemed locally in St. Lawrence county. It is known locally 
as Austin. 

Tree. 

Tree rather vigorous. Form upright, somewhat spreading, rather dense. 
Tzvigs medium to long, rather slender to moderately stout, nearly straight, 
somewhat pubescent; internodes short. Bark clear olive-green tinged with 
reddish-brown and mottled with gray scarf-skin. Lcnticcls rather numerous, 
small, scattering, round, raised but slightly if at all. Buds small, obtuse, ap- 
pressed, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit small to above medium. Form broadly ovate to roundish conic, 
faintly ribbed, nearly regular, symmetrical, uniform. Stem pubescent, medium 
to long, moderately slender. Cavity small, acuminate, moderately shallow, 
narrow, sometimes russeted, symmetrical. Calyx medium to small, open to 
nearly closed ; lobes short, narrow, puliescent, converging and somewhat re- 

'Stone was erroneously identified by a leading pomologist for Mr. Clark as Bethel, and 
for this reason in the account given by Heiges (i) it is erroneously stated that Oel 
Austin is a seedling of Bethel. Both Stone and Bethel belong in the Blue Pearmain 
gronp, but they are quite distinct varieties. For a comparison of the two the reader is 
referred to Stone. 





OCCIDENT 



The Apples of New York. 237 

flexed. Basin moderately abrupt, shallow, narrow, slightly furrowed or 
wrinkled. 

Skill thin, yellow nearly overspread with dull, purplish-red and striped witli 
purplish-carmine. Dots numerous, russet, sunken. 

Calyx tube rather narrow, conical or approaching funnel-form. Stainciis 
median. 

Core abaxile, medium to large ; cells open ; core lines meeting or, when the 
calyx tube is funnel-form, clasping the funnel cylinder. 

Flesh yellowish-white sometimes tinged with red next the skin, firm, fine- 
grained, crisp, juicy, mild subacid, fair to good. 

OLIVE. 

References, i. Downing, 1869:294. 2. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 
248:136. 1904. 3. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 56:219. 1905. 

A small red apple, rather attractive in color. Unworthy of consideration 
by New York fruit growers. The tree comes into bearing young and is pro- 
ductive being a reliable annual cropper. The fruit hangs well to the tree. 

This is not the Olive of Coxe,l neither is it the Olive from Vermont noticed 
by Downing (i) and described in i860 in Gardeners Alonthly (3). 

Historical. Originated in Wake county. North Carolina (i). It is there 
a fall apple but as grown at this Station its season extends to midwinter and 
often a considerable portion of the fruit remains sound till April or later. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form roundish, or upright spreading, rather 
dense. Twigs short to above medium, slender, straight but geniculate ; inter- 
nodes long to medium. Bark clear brown with reddish tinge, lightly streaked 
with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent near ti^s. Lcnticcls rather conspicuous, 
quite numerous, small to above meduun, oval or elongated, usually not raised. 
Buds deeply set in bark, small, plump, obtuse, appressed, not pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit small to nearly medium, fairly uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish inclined to conic, varying to obovate, obscurely ribbed, fairly sym- 
metrical. Stem short to above medium. Cavity rather small, acute to acumi- 
nate, moderately deep, rather narrow, usually russeted, often somewhat fur- 
rowed, often lipped. Ccr/3'.r medium or above, usually open ; lobes often leaf}-. 
Basin abrupt, moderately shallow, moderately narrow to rather wide, often 
somewhat furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, entirely covered with bright, deep, dark red or mottled 
with red and striped with carmine over a deep yellow ground color, some- 
times marked with broken stripes of grayish scarf-skin. Dots numerous, 
pale, often large, areolar and conspicuous. 

Calyx tube short, conical or urn-shape with fleshy pistil point projecting 
into the base, or approaching funnel-form. Stamens median to basal. 

Core medium, somewhat abaxile ; cells usually symmetrical and open ; core 
lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, slightly emargi- 

^Coxe, 1817: i66. 



238 The Apples of New York. 

nate if at all, mucronate. Seeds brownish-black, small, rather short, wide, 
plump, obtuse. 

Flesh deeply tinged with yellow, moderately coarse, rather crisp, somewhat 
tough, juicy, rich, mild subacid or nearly sweet, distinctly aromatic, fair to 
good in quality. 

OLIVER. 

Referenxes. I. Ark. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1893. 2. Heiges, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 
1895:33- 3- Rural -V. Y., 54:843. 1895. fig. 4. Card, and For., 8:520. 1895. 
5. Thomas, 1897:268. 6. Yan Deman. Amcv. Card., 19:823. 1898. 7. Stinson, 
Ark. Sta. Bui, 49:16. 1898. Hg. 8. Beach, Amcr. Gard., 20:124, 166. 1899. 9. 
lb., ]V. .V. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1899:90, 138. 10. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui, 
60:130. 1899. II- Brackett. Amer. Card., 22:191. 1901. i2. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:143. fig. 13. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:51. 1903. 

Synonyms. Oliver (2). Oliver's Red (6, 7, 10, 11, 12). Senator (2, 4, 5). 
Senator (6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13). 

An attractive dark red apple of good size and good quality. It 
is of desirable shape, smooth and pretty uniform. It appears to 
coincide pretty closely with Baldwin in season, but it may not keep 
quite so late. Its commercial season in ordinary storage appears 
to be December to midwinter ; in cold storage it extends to ]\Iarch 
or April. Among the varieties which have been introduced from 
Arkansas and Missouri this appears to be one of the most promising 
for the Xew York fruit grower, but as yet it has not been sufficiently 
tested to determine its value in this region. It is doubtful whether 
it can always be properly ripened in the northern portion of the 
Baldwin apple belt, br t in the southern portion it appears to be more 
promising. The tree is evidently hardy in Western Xew York. It 
is healthy, vigorous, comes into bearing young, is productive and 
gives promise of being an annual or nearly annual bearer. The 
fruit hangs well to the tree, and there is little loss from drops or 
culls. 

Historical. This variety has been propagated since about 1873 in North- 
western Arkansas where it has been known as Oliver Red or Oliver. It is 
supposed to have originated in that region (7, 11). It has been disseminated 
from the Stark Nurseries, Louisiana, Mo., under the name Senator. 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size, very vigorous ; branches long, rather stocky. Form 
roundish or somewhat spreading; top open. Tzi'igs stocky, medium in length 
and thickness ; internodes medium in length. Bark dull brown and olive- 
green, pubescent. Lenticels numerous, large, mostly long, conspicuous, raised. 
Buds large, appressed, broad, obtuse, pubescent. Leaves medium or often 
large, long and rather broad, thick, dark green; foliage rather dense. 





OLIVER 



The Apples of New York. 239 

Fruit. 

Fruit large or above medium, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish or somewhat oblate, pretty symmetrical, regular or somewhat ellip- 
tical or obscurely angular ; sides sometimes unequal. Stem short to moder- 
ately long, medium in thickness. Cavity medium to rather large, acute to 
decidedly acuminate, deep, moderately broad to rather narrow, regular, smooth 
and green or partly covered with greenish-russet, sometimes with outspreading 
russet rays. Calyx medium to rather large, usually somewhat open ; lobes 
often separated at the base, short, broad, obtuse, erect or somewhat reflexed. 
Basin large, usually saucer-shape, wide and abrupt, sometimes moderately 
shallow and rather obtuse, somewhat wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thin, tough, somewhat waxy, smooth or slightly roughened 
with large russet dots, green or bright yellow, mottled and striped with red 
or nearly covered with bright deep red and splashed with purplish-carmine. 
Dots conspicuous, numerous, gray or russet, rather large, often somewhat 
elongated or irregular about the cavity. 

Calyx tube obtusely cone-shaped, rarely somewhat funnel-form. Stamens 
below median to basal. 

Core distant, rather small, axile or nearly so; cells closed or slit; core lines 
meeting or when the calyx tube is funnel-form clasping the funnel cylinder. 
Carpels roundish or somewhat elongated, narrowing toward the base and apex, 
emarginate, mucronate, smooth or nearly so. Seeds irregular, large, numer- 
ous, completely filling the cells, moderately long, wide, obtuse, or sometimes 
acute, dark brown. 

Flesh whitish with tinge of yellow or green, moderately fine and crisp, rather 
tender, breaking, juicy, somewhat sprightly subacid eventually approaching 
sweet, good or possibly very good. 

Season December to March or April. 

OLYMPIA. 

This strain of the Baldwin was discovered growing among some 
Baldwin trees in a small orchard of ^Ir. William Shincke, Olympia, 
Washington. The trees grow like the Baldwin and appear to have 
the general characteristics of the Baldwin, except that the twigs of 
one season's growth as compared with Baldwin twigs have darker 
bark with less red and more brown or olive-brown color. Other 
minor differences have been observed, such as shorter internodes, 
heavier scarf-skin, less conspicuous lenticels and more abundant 
pubescence on bark and buds. We have not had opportunity to 
determine whether these minor differences are constant. 

The fruit, so far as we are able to judge from the rather limited 
quantities which we have had the privilege of examining, averages 
distinctly larger than Baldwin fruit grown in the same locality, and 
is clearly superior in color, both the red and the yellow tones being 



240 The Apples of New York. 

more brilliant. A very careful comparison of the fruit of Olympia 
with that of Baldwin discloses no constant differences in structural 
characters. For a technical description of the fruit aside from size 
and color, the reader is therefore referred to the description of Bald- 
win on page 59. 

Olympia is best known in the vicinity of Olympia and is there 
regarded as a valuable acquisition. It is attracting favorable atten- 
tion also throughout the apple-growing districts of the state of 
Washington. The fact that it is regarded so highly in a region 
where the Baldwin succeeds well is a good indication that it may 
succeed equally well in the Baldwin districts of New York. It is 
therefore recommended as worthy of extended trial by New York 
fruit growers. 

Historical. The following account of this strain of the Baldwin apple has 
been obtained from correspondence with W. W. Whidden, George Langridge 
and William Shincke of Olympia, Washington. The original tree from which 
'Olympia was propagated was set forty years or more ago on the place of 
William .Shincke, Sr., in Olympia, Washington. It was evidently planted for 
a Baldwin as it stood with other Baldwin trees. The fruit was at first sold 
as Baldwin but Mr. Shincke noticed that it was larger and better colored than 
that of the common Baldwin. Mr. George Langridge was supplied with scions 
from this tree and when this stock came into bearing with Mr. Langridge it 
was found that the fruit from these trees, like that of the original tree from 
which the scions were taken, was larger and better colored than the fruit of 
the ordinary Baldwin. About 1890 it was first propagated for sale but under 
different names. Finally the County Horticultural Society named it Olympia. 

ONTARIO. 

References, i. Horticulturist, 1874:312. (cited by 22). 2. Downing, 1876: 
61 app. fig. 3. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:100. 4. Brown, Can. Hart., 13: 
114, 351. 1890. 5. lb., 14:138. 1891. 6. Nicol, Can. Hort., 15:117- 1892. 7. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 8. Brown, Amer. Card., 14:426. 1893. 9. Ont. 
Fr. Gr. Assn. An. Rpt., 1:65. 1894. 10. Dempsey, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 
1:24. 1S94. II- Edwards, Can. Hort., 17:212. 1894. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 
1895:78. 13. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 3:11. 1896. figs. 14. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897. 15. Can. Hort., 23:231. 1900. 16. Beach, E. N. Y. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:43. 17. lb., W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:36. 18. 
Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Bui, 37:45. 1901. 19. Budd-Hansen, 1903:143. 20. 
Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:51. 1903. 21. Beach and Clark, 
A''. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:136. 1904. 22. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:220. 1905. 

Fruit in many respects intermediate in character between its 
parents. Northern Spy and Wagener. Like Wagener. it is oblate 
and ribbed; like the Spy, it has a large, deep cavity and its color 





ONTARIO 



The Apples of New York. 241 

when highly developed is pinkish-red with carmine stripes over a 
clear, pale yellow background. As grown at this Station we have 
not been favorably impressed with it because it is inferior to 
Northern Spy both in color and (|uality. In fact it has been too 
deficient in color to rank as a good commercial sort. It is in season 
from November to March or April. So far as tested here it appears 
to follow Northern Spy in that it shows considerable variation in 
dilTerent seasons in its keeping quality (21). It has been a strictly 
biennial bearer, yielding heavy crops in alternate years. It appears 
to be superior to Northern Spy in productiveness, but is less pro- 
ductive than Wagener. It is hardier and longer-lived than W'agener. 
In portions of Ontario it is regarded as one of the best apples both 
for commercial purposes and home use (18). As grown in that 
region and also in some parts of Michigan it is on the average 
larger and more highly colored than we have found it to be at this 
Station. Doubtless there are localities in New York where it would 
succeed much better than it does at Geneva. On account of its good 
record in Canada as to its hardiness and productiveness it is cer- 
tainly worthy of trial in Northern New York and in those portions 
of the state where the Spy succeeds best. 

Historical. Originated by Charles Arnold, Paris, Ont., by crossing Northern 
Spy with Wagener. 

Tree. 

Tree medium to large, vigorous. For)n upright, becoming spreading. Tzi'igs 
rather short to moderately long, rather slender to moderately stout, quite 
pubescent; internodes medium or above. Bark dull, dark reddish-brown over 
olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin. Leiiticcls rather numerous, small 
to medium, or sometimes large, usually oblong. Buds medium size, plump, 
acute to somewhat obtuse, projecting, pubescent. Leaves usually long and 
rather large. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to very large, uniform in size and shape. Form oblate to round- 
ish inclined to conic, distinctly ribbed or even angular, pretty symmetrical. 
Stem medium in length and thickness. Cavity characteristically like that of 
the Northern Spy, large, acute or approaching acuminate, deep, wide to mod- 
erately wide, often thinly russeted and with outspreading rays of russet. 
Calyx small to medium, closed or slightly open ; lobes rather narrow, acute. 
Basin small to medium, deej), narrow to rather wide, abrupt, often furrowe 1 
and wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, bright pale yellow or greenish more or less washed 
with brownish-red faintly splashed with carmine, in highly colored specimens 
becoming bright pinkish-red striped with bright carmine ; often coated with 



242 The Apples of New York. 

whitish bloom and mottled and streaked with whitish scarf-skin, particularly 
over the base. Dots rather numerous, small, whitish, gray or russet. 

Calyx tube narrow, funnel-form. Stamens median to basal. 

Core usually rather small, abaxile with a rather large hollow cylinder at the 
axis ; cells symmetrical, closed or partly open ; core lines clasping the funnel 
cylinder. Carpels smooth or nearly so, roundish, narrowing toward the apex, 
often nearly truncate at the base, slightly emarginate. Seeds medium in size, 
moderately' wide to wide, obtuse to acute, rather dark. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately fine or a little 
coarse, crisp, tender, very juicy, sprightly, rather brisk subacid, more so than 
Northern Spy, aromatic, good to very good ; especially desirable for culinary 
use. 

OPALESCENT, 

References, i. Rural N. Y., 58:224. 1899. 2. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1901. 
(cited by 4V 3. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1903:12. 4. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 
56:220. 1905. 

When well grown Opalescent is a very attractive apple, being 
large, shapely, clear yellow, nearly or quite covered with brilliant 
red, in highly colored specimens becoming deep purplish-red. It 
has not been tested in Xew York sufficiently to show whether it may 
be considered a promising variety for this region. It does not 
appear to be as good a keeper as Baldwin. 

Historical. Introduced about 1899 by McNary and Gaines, Xenia, Ohio. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous. Form roundish, open. Tzcigs long to medium in length, 
erect, slender to moderately stout, curved or irregularly crooked ; internodes 
short to above medium. Bark dark dull reddish-brown mingled with some 
olive-green and covered with a heavy coat of mottled scarf-skin, pubescent. 
Lenticels rather inconspicuous, scattering, medium in size, roundish, some- 
times raised. Buds prominent, large to below medium, broad, plump, obtuse 
to somewhat acute, free or nearly so, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to very large. Form roundish conic, symmetrical or sometimes 
with sides unequal, obscurely ribbed. Stem short to medium, moderately 
slender. Cavity pretty large, acuminate, very deep, sometimes partly russeted, 
usually symmetrical but sometimes compressed. Calyx below medium or 
small, usually partly open ; lobes small, obtuse to acute, reflexed. Basin small 
to medium in size, often oblique with the brim decidedly prominent on one 
side, narrow to moderately wide, moderately deep to deep, abrupt, sometimes 
slightly furrowed. 

Skin moderately thick, rather tough, glossy, takes a brilliant polish ; color 
bright pale yellow nearly or quite overspread with dark deep red with scarcely 
perceptible streaks of. purplish-carmine. Dots numerous, small to large, red, 




OPALESCENT 



The Apples of New York. 243 

yellowish or russet, often sulimerged, frequently mingled with irregular lines 
and flecks of russet. Prevailing effect brilliant deep red. 

Calyx tube medium to rather small, cone-shape or short funnel-form. 
Stahiens median to basal. 

Core small to medium, abaxile ; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, closed or 
open ; core lines meeting or nearly meeting. Carpels smooth, roundish or 
broadly obcordate. Seeds acute, medium in size, form and color. 

Flesh distinctly tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately tender, a little 
coarse, juicy or moderately juicy, agreeable mild subacid, aromatic, good to 
very good. 

Season November to February or March. 

ORNAMENT. 

References, i. Thompson, Cat. Hart. Sac. London, 1842:29. (cited by 2). 
2. Leroy, 1873:520. fig. 3. Churchill, N. F. Sta. An. Rpt., 8:355. 1889. 4. 
Beach, N. V. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:590. 1894. 5- Ih., 14:254. 1895. 6. Burrill and 
McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui., 45:334- 1896. 7. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. 
Bui, 48:52. 1903. 

Synonyms. Orn.\ment de Table (4, 5, 6). Ornament dc Table (7). 
Ornement de Table (2). 

A rather attractive dessert apple of good form and fairly good color but 
hardly attractive enough for a good commercial variety. The flesh is tender, 
juicy and mildly subacid or nearly sweet; good in quality but surpassed by 
other dessert apples of its season. The tree comes into bearing rather young, 
is a reliable annual cropper and productive or moderately productive. It does 
not appear to be worthy of the attention of the fruit growers of New York. 

Historical. This is a European variety of uncertain origin (i, 2). It has 
been disseminated but sparingly in America. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous. Form rouiidish or spreading, rather dense. Tzvigs below 
medium to short, straight, slender ; internodes medium or below. Bark dark 
brownish-red partly streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels 
scattering, small, oblong or roundish, sometimes raised. Buds rather promin- 
ent, medium or below, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, quite pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or above, pretty uniform in shape and size. Form roundish 
inclined to conic or somewhat oblate, pretty regular and symmetrical. Stem 
short, rather slender. Cavity medium to rather small, acuminate or nearly so, 
rather deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, often partly russeted. Calyx 
medium in size, usually open, pubescent ; lobes long, acute, separated at the 
base, reflexed. Basin often somewhat oblique, shallow and obtuse to moder- 
ately deep and somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, clear yellow or greenish washed and mottled 
with dull red or orange-red and sparingly marked with narrow stripes of 
carmine. Dots numerous, small, gray or russet, not very conspicuous. Pre- 
vailing effect red and yellow, the red usually predominating. 



244 The Apples of New York. 

Calyx tube short funnel-form with moderately broad limb. Stamens below 
median to above. 

Core medium or below, axile or nearly so; cells usually closed; core lines 
clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels broadly roundish, obtusely emarginate, 
mucronate. Seeds few, dark, medium or above, wide, rather obtuse, often 
slightly tufted. 

Flesh whitish with slight yellow tinge, firm, fine-grained, tender, moderately 
juicy, pleasant, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, good. 

Season October to February or March. 

ORTLEY. 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:169. 2. Lindley, Trans. Royal Horf. Sac. Lon- 
don, 6:415. 1825. (cited by 4, 5). 3. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:39. 4. 
Kenrick, 1832:49. 5. Floy-Lindley, 1833:57. 6. Mag. Hort., 1:364. 1835. 7. 
Manning, 1838:57. 8. Downing, 1845:142. 9. Floy-Lindley, 1846:412 app. 
10. Kirtland, Horticulturist. 2:545. 1S48. 11. Downing and Ernst, Horti- 
culturist, 4:74. T849. ftg. 12. Horticulturist, 4:144. 1849. 13. Thomas, 1849: 
183, 188. £g. 14. Cole, 1849:130. 15. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:472. 1850. 

16. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. ¥., 3:78. 1851. col. pi. 17. Elliott, 1854:95. fig. 
18. Downing, 1857:90. 19. Hooper, 1857:67. 20. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 27:60. 
1861. 21. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 22. Warder, 1867:673. fig. 23. Fitz, 
1872:150. 24. Barry, 1883:351. 25. Hogg, 1884:249. 26. Wickson, 1889:246. 
27. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 28. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 
29. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 30. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45: 
334. 1896. 31. Budd-Hansen, 1903:144. 

Synonyms. Crane's Pippin (11, 17). Detroit (11, 13, I7, 19) • Detroit of 
the JVest (13, 14). Golden Pippin (11, 19, of some 17). Greasy Pippin (11, 

17, 18). Green BelWozver (11, 15, 17). Hollozv Core Pippin (11, 17, 19). 
Holloiv Cored Pippin (18). Inman (17). Jersey Greening (13, 17 but not 
of Coxe II). Melting Pippin (11, 17). Ohio Favorite (11, 17, 18). Ortley 
(16, 25). Ortley Apple (5). Ortley Apple (8, 11, 14). Ortley Pippin 
(7, 19). Ortley Pippin (8, 10, 11, 13, 17, 18). Tom Woodzvard Pippin (17). 
Van Dyme (16). Van Dyne (11, 17, 25, of some 8). Warren Pippin (16). 
Warren Pippin (11, 13, 17). White Bellefleur (10, 11, 12). JVhite Belle- 
fleur (17, 23). White Bellflower (15, 29). White Bellflozver (11, 13, 
14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 26). White Detroit (11, 13, 17, 18, 27). White Pippin 
(II, 18, erroneously 17). Willozv Leaf Pippin (17, 18). Woodman's Song 
(18). Woodward's Pippin (11, 17)- Woolman's Long (8, 14. 23, 25). 
Woolnian's Long (10, 11, 13, 17, 24). Woolman's Long Pippin (i). Wool- 
nary Long (6). Yellozv Pippin (11, 17). 

A pale yellow apple of the Yellow Bellflower type which has long 
been known in cultivation. Scattering trees of it are found in some 
of the very oldest orchards of the state, but it has never been grown 
to any considerable extent in New York and is now seldom or never 
planted, being less successful here than the Yellow Bellflower. It 
does better farther south and west. As grown in the North the 



The Apples of New York. 245 

fruit tends to be more ol)long-, smaller and of a paler yellowish- 
white color, coarser texture and sprightlier flavor than when grown 
farther south (17). The fruit has less acidity than Yellow Bell- 
flower and is more pleasant in flavor for dessert use. The skin 
being whitish and tender, is easily bruised or discolored in handling. 
It is also apt to be marred on the tree by the chafing of the limbs. 
The wood is brittle and the bearing limbs are often broken by the 
weight of the fruit (22). Ortley is quite subject to attacks of 
various insects and of the scab fungus, and requires thorough treat- 
ment to protect it from these troubles. 

Historical. This is an old New Jersey variety which Coxe described under 
the name Woohnan's Long Pippin (i). hi 1825 Floy sent fruit of it to the 
Royal Horticultural Society, London, under the name of Ortley and in the 
Transactions of the Society for that year Lindley described it under this name 
giving Woolman's Long as a synonym. Kenrick (4), Manning (7), Thomas 
(13), Elliott (17), Charles Downing (18), and other American pomologists 
have followed Floy instead of Coxe and describe the variety under the name 
Ortley. Emmons (16) gives Ortley as identical with Warren Pippin of Coxe 
but it is quite doubtful whether he was correct in this case. In portions of 
the South and West Ortley is an old favorite for planting in home orchards 
and has there been known under many different names prominent among 
which are White Bellflower and White Detroit. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous and medium in size or under favorable conditions 
large. Form at first upright with long slender shoots but when mature the 
tree becomes roundish or spreading. Tzvigs below medium to above, rather 
slender, straight, quite pubescent ; internodes short. Bark dull reddish-brown 
often overlaid with thick scarf-skin. Leiiticels small and scattering but rather 
conspicuous, mostly roundish, raised. Buds below medium, moderately pro- 
jecting, roundish, slightly pubescent, free. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large or medium, not very uniform in size or shape. Form oblong 
conic and flattened at the base, varying to somewhat roundish conic, regular 
or obscurely ribbed. Stem long, often slender. Caz'ity often large, acute or 
approaching acuminate, deep, varying from moderately narrow to wide, usually 
partly russeted, somewhat furrowed. Calyx rather small to medium, closed 
or somewhat open ; lobes long, acute, usually converging and reflexed. Basin 
small to medium, shallow to moderately deep, narrow to moderately wide, 
usually abrupt and wrinkled or slightly furrowed. 

Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth, waxy, pale whitish-yellow varying to 
rich yellow in well developed fruit, rarely with a faint pinkish-red blush. 
Dots inconspicuous, usually whitish and submerged. 



246 The Apples of Xew York. 

* 

Calyx tube funnel-form approaching cylindrical, sometimes constricted at 
the base of the limb and enlarging below, often characteristically elongated 
and extending to the core. Stamens median. 

Core large, widely abaxile ; cells usually symmetrical and wide open, some- 
times closed ; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels roundish ovate, 
elongated, emarginate, mucronate. Seeds numerous, characteristically small 
and pointed, roundish, plump, light to medium brown. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, 
sprightly subacid, very good. 

Season October to February. 

PALMER. 

References, i. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:224. 1905. 
Synonym. P.\i.mek of N. Z. 

A New Zealand apple received in 1897 for testing here from G. B. Brackett, 
U. S. Pomologist, Washington, D. C. The fruit is large or above medium, 
rather attractive in appearance for a yellow apple, brisk subacid in flavor and 
good in quality. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous with long, moderately stout branches. Form roundish, 
rather dense. Tivigs long, curved, moderately stout ; internodes short. Bark 
dull brown, tinged w-ith green, heavily streaked with scarf-skin, heavily pubes- 
cent. Lenticels scattering, small, round, not raised. Buds large, broad, plump, 
obtuse, free, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to above or sometimes large. Form roundish varying to 
roundish oblate or to slightly oblong, irregular. Stem long, moderately thick. 
Caz'ity acuminate, deep, rather broad, sometimes faintly russeted, not sym- 
metrical. Calyx open or nearly so, rather large. Basin deep, wide, abrupt, 
slightly wrinkled. 

Skin rather attractive yellow or greenish-yellow. Dots conspicuous, large 
and small, russet, sometimes areolar. 

Calyx tube long, moderately wide to wide, funnel-shape or urn-shape. 
Stamens marginal. 

Core large, aba.xile ; cells symmetrical, open ; core lines slightly clasping. 
Carpels broadly roundish varying from somewhat elliptical to slightly cordate, 
tufted. Seeds large, moderately narrow, plump, acute, rather dark brown. 

Flesh tinged with j^ellow or greenish-yellow, moderately coarse, rather 
tender, breaking, juicy, sprightly, brisk subacid, good. 

Season winter. 

PARAGON. 

References, i. Van Deman, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1891:123, 159. 2. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:246. 3. Heiges, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1895:30. 4. Babcock, Am. 
Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:190. 5. Amer. Card., 16:419. 1895. 6. lb., 17:12, 28, 
22,, 42, 65, 97, 146, 152, 194, 210, 306. 1896. fig. 7. Van Deman, Rural N. F., 
55:243. 1896. 8. Watts, Tenn. Sta. Bui, 1:24. 1896. iig. 9. Powell, Del. Sta. 
Bui., 38:19. 1898. 10. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui, 49:7. 1898. 11. Bruner, A''. C. 
Sta. Bui., 182:21. 1903. 12. Thomas, 1903:712. 13. Budd-Hansen, 1903:144. 





PARAGON 



The Applks of Nkw York. 247 

fig. 14. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. I'. I. Bui, 48:52. 1903. 15. Beach and 
Clark, iV. )'. Sta. Bui, 248:137. 1904. 

SvNONYMS. Black Ti^'i^ (8, 14), l)ul erroneously. Mammoth Black Tzcig 
(8, 13, 15), but erroneously. Twitty's Paragon (8). 

This is a southern variety of the Winesap type. In the apple- 
growing regions of the South where it has been tested it has proven 
to be an excellent variety in many respects, but it is not generally 
regarded by the orchardists of that region as being especially 
promising for commercial orchards. The fruit evidently does not 
develop to as high a degree of perfection in New York as it does 
in more southern latitudes. It is not probable that it will prove 
successful as a commercial variety here, though it has sufficient 
merit to make it worthy of testing to a limited extent. 

Historical. The Paragon originated on the farm of Major Rankin Toole 
near Fayetteville, Lincoln county, Tennessee (3, 6, 7, 8). The early history 
of the tree is not very clear but it probably came from a seed planted about 
1830. Grafts from the original tree were taken in 1870 by Mr. Twitty, a local 
nurseryman, and later introduced to the public. It was badly confused for 
a while with an Arkansas seedling now properly known by the name of 
Arkansas but then passing under the name of ]\Iammoth Black Twig. Some 
believed that the Arkansas was identical with Paragon. An extensive dis- 
cussion and the testimony of many persons has since brought out the fact 
that these are two distinct although similar seedlings of Arkansas and Ten- 
nessee origin respectively. Many have thought that Paragon may be a seed- 
ling of the Winesap crossed by Limbertwig as it possesses some of the char- 
acteristics of both of these varieties. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous with rather short, stout, twisted branches. Form 
roundish to spreading, inclined to droop, rather dense. Tzvigs medium to 
rather long, nearly straight, stout to rather slender ; internodes short to 
medium. Bark very dark reddish-brown, mottled with thin scarf-skin, pubes- 
cent. Lenticels scattering, medium in size, roundish to oval, raised. Buds 
large, prominent, broad, plump, acute to somewhat obtuse, curved, free, gener- 
ally pubescent. Leaves medium in size, broad. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or above, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
or sometimes oblate, slightly conic, rounding toward stem and calyx ; sides 
often a little unequal. Stem medunn in length and thickness. Cavity nearly 
obtuse to acute, medium in width and moderately shallow to sometimes rather 
wide and deep, usually symmetrical, often farrowed or compressed, occasion- 
ally lipped, usually russet and with outspreading russet rays. Calyx rather 
small, closed. Basin rather shallow and obtuse varying occasionally to abrupt 
and medium in width and depth, often furrowed and wrinkled. 



248 The Apples of New York. 

Ski)i tough, smooth, grass-green or yellowish, largely covered with rather 
dull, deep red and indistinctly striped with darker red. Dots gray or whitish, 
small, sometimes rather conspicuous. Prevailing effect dark red. 

Calyx tube rather small, varying from conical to funnel-form. Stamens 
median to slightly marginal. 

Core rather small ; cells partly open ; core lines clasping. Carpels much 
concave, roundish varying to nearly cordate, slightly emarginate. Seeds 
rather large, long, acute, dark ; often some are abortive. 

Flesh greenish or tinged with yellow, firm, a little coarse, rather tender, 
juicy, mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, good to very good. 

Season January to May. 

PARK SPICE. 

References, i. Carpenter, Horticulturist. 19:114. 1864. figs. 2. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Rpt., 1867. (cited by 5). 3. Downing, 1869:298. 4. Thomns, 1897:648. 
5. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:225. 1905. 

Synonyms. Park (5). Park Apple (3, 4, 5). Park Spice (5). 

As described by Carpentei", Downing and Thomas (i, 3, 4) the fruit of 
the Park Spice apple is medium to rather large, yellowish shaded with red 
and striped with crimson ; the flesh is yellowish-white, fine-grained, crisp, 
juicy, mild subacid, pleasantly aromatic, very good in quality; in season from 
December to March. 

Historical. Originated on the Park farm in Harrison, Westchester county. 
New York. In 1864 Carpenter stated that the original tree, then supposed to 
be over a hundred years old, was still vigorous and productive (i). So far 
as we can learn the variety is now obsolete. 

PARLIN. 

References, i. Heiges, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1894:21. 2. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1899. (cited by 4). 3. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1901:97. 4, Ragan, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:225. 1905. 

Synonym. P.-vrlin's Beauty (3). Parlin's Beauty (4). 

An attractive red apple of pretty good quality for dessert but being mildly 
sweet m flavor is less suitable for culinary uses. It has not as yet been tested 
sufficiently to determine its value for this region. 

Historical. In 1894 the original tree over fifty years old was still standing 
at Norridgewock, Maine, still vigorous, healthy and productive (i). The 
variety has as yet been but little disseminated in New York. 

Tree. • 

Tree not a strong grower, below medium size ; branches rather short and 
moderately stout. Form upright and somewhat spreading or roundish. Twigs 
short, straight, moderately stout with large terminal buds; internodes long 
to medium. Bark brown tinged with red, partly overlaid with rather thick 
scarf-skin ; pubescent near tips. Lenticels scattering, medium to small, round- 
ish or elongated, raised but slightly if at all. Buds large to medium, prom- 
inent, broad, plump, acute, free, pubescent. 



The Apples of New York. 249 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform in size. Form rather variable, 
roundish to oblate, often inclined to conic, more or less irregular, somewhat 
angular; sides sometimes unequal. Stem medium or sometimes long, rather 
slender. Cavity acute, usually deep, moderately wide or wide, often furrowed 
or compressed, marked with yellowish-russet which sometimes extends beyond 
the cavity, sometimes lipped. Calyx small, closed or partly open ; lobes small, 
narrow, reflexed. Basin rather small, deep, narrow to moderately wide, very 
abrupt, nearly symmetrical or slightly furrowed, sometimes wrinkled. 

Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, bright pale yellow blushed and mottled 
w'ith pinkish-red and striped with darker red, highly colored specimens being 
nearly overspread with bright red becoming on the exposed cheek nearly as 
dark red as Jonathan or Gano, often irregularly veined with russet. Dots 
usually small, yellowish or pale gray, sometimes large. 

Calyx tube funnel-form. 

Core medium to small, axile; cells closed or nearly so; core lines clasping 
or meeting. Carpels smooth, wide at the middle, emarginate, often approach- 
ing obcordate. Seeds below medium or small, irregular, dark, obtuse. 

Flesh whitish with yellow tinge, moderately firm, tender, moderately fine- 
grained, not crisp, moderately juicy, sweet or very mildly subacid, slightly 
aromatic, good or sometimes very good. 

Season October to midwinter or later. 

PARSON. 

References, i. Bailej', An. Hort., 1892:246. 2. Craig, Can. Dept. Agr. 
Rpt., 1896:132. 

Synonym. Parson's Sweet (i). Parson's Siveet (2). 

A large, handsome, dark red, early winter apple of excellent flavor. It has 
not been sufficiently tested in this vicinity to determine its value for this 
region. Professor John Craig states that it resembles the Sweet Winesap but 
is of much purer quality. 

Historical. Said to have originated near Springfield, Mass., as a seedling 
in one of the old orchards of that locality. Fowler Brothers brought the 
stock to Geneva, New York, about 1880 where it was propagated for their 
own sales as it was known only locally in the vicinity of Springfield. Mr. 
A. L. Root, of the Fonthill Nurseries, Welland, Ontario, who obtained the 
variety from Fowler Brothers, sent scions of it to this Station for testing 
in 1901. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous with long, moderately stout branches. Form upright and 
somewhat spreading or roundish, open. Twigs long, stout, slightly curved ; 
internodes short. Bark very dark brown lightly streaked with scarf-skin, 
pubescent. Lenticels numerous, medium in size, oblong, slightly raised, rather 
conspicuous. Buds deeply set in bark, large, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, 
pubescent. 

Fruit. 

The following is Craig's description of the fruit (2). "Large, roundish, 
oblique, conical. Skin moderately smooth ; colour, yellow, nearly covered with 
Vol. I — II 



250 The Apples of New York. 

rich dark red, marked with large white or russet-coloured dots marbled on the 
shaded side. Cavity, deep, narrow, regular; stem half to three-quarters inch 
long, deeply inserted, curved, slender. Basin large, slightly ribbed ; calyx, large, 
open. Flesh white, tender, flaky, fairly juicy, very sweet; core small. A large 
handsome sweet early winter apple. One of the best of the class." 

PAWPAW, 

References. i. Horticulturist, 13:149. 1858. 2. Warder, 1867:728. 3. 
Downing, 1869:299. 4. Thomas, 1875:508. 5. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890:296. 6. Farrand, Mich. St a. Bui, 205:42. 1903. 

Synonyms. Bali Apple (3). Pawpaw Seedling (i). Rubicon (3, 5). 
Western Baldzvin (3). 

A late-keeping winter apple of mediuin size, attractive red color and 
good quality. A hardy, moderate grower and regular bearer; must have 
suitable soil and good culture (5). It is not recommended for planting 
in this state. 

Historical. Origin Paw Paw, Michigan (i, 3). It has long been cultivated 
in Michigan to a limited extent, but is practically unknown to New York fruit 
growers. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large. Form roundish or somewhat oblong, inclined to conic, faintly 
ribbed; axis slightly oblique; sides unequal. Stem medium in length, moder- 
ately slender. Cavity acuminate, deep, rather broad, compressed, irregularly 
russeted. Calyx medium in size, slightly open. Basin medium in depth and 
width, somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled, compressed. 

Skin smooth, rather glossj', yellow overspread and mottled with attractive 
red irregularly splashed and striped with carmine. Dots moderately numerous, 
variable in size, russet or light colored, rather conspicuous, often areolar. Pre- 
vailing color red. 

Calyx tube short, conical. Stamens basal. 

Core medium in size., axile ; cells closed or partly open ; core lines meeting 
or slightly clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, slightly emarginate, slightly 
tufted. Seeds numerous, above medium size, rather wide, plump, acute, irreg- 
ular, somewhat tufted, rather dark brown. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine-grained, rather tender, juicy, 
subacid, good to very good. 

Season December to June. 

PAYNE. 

References, i. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 2. Wild, Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1902:203. 3. Stinson, Mo. Fr. Sta. Bui, 3:23. 1902. Hg. 4. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:146. 

Synonyms. Payne's Keeper (i, 2, 3). Payne Late Keeper (4). 

An attractive apple, valued in the Ozark region because of its 
excellent keeping cjualities. It is somewhat deficient in size, good 
in quality and nearly sweet. It is duller in color than Ben Davis, 
but better in flavor and quality. It has not yet been sufficiently 



The Apples of New York. 251 

tested in New York to indicate its value for this region, but it is 
probably not well suited to the conditions existing in this state. 

Historical. Originated on the Pajaie farm near Everton, Missouri. It is 
supposed to have originated from seed brought from North Carolina about 
1840. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium to above medium, sometimes rather large. Fortn 
roundish conic, somewhat elliptical, ribbed very obscurely if at all. Stem 
short, usually not exserted, rather slender. Cavity large, remarkably acumi- 
nate, very deep, often somewhat furrowed or compressed, usually covered with 
thin outspreading russet. Calyx small, closed or partly open ; lobes often flat 
and convergent, sometimes separated at the base. Basin commonly very small 
to medium, often obhque. 

Skin smooth, moderately thick, very tough, yellow or greenish washed and 
blushed with red and pencilled with narrow, obscure, carmine stripes, more 
or less streaked over the base with thin, dull scarf-skin. Highly colored speci- 
mens are almost wholly covered with bright deep red. Dots scattering, moder- 
ately conspicuous, rather large, pale gray or whitish often with russet point. 

Calyx tube small, funnel-form or nearly so. Staniots median to basal. 

Core medium in size, slightly abaxile ; cells often not quite uniform in size 
but usually symmetrical, partly open or closed ; core lines clasp the funnel 
cylinder. Carpels tender, slightly tufted, ovate, mucronate, but slightly emar- 
ginate if at all. Seeds medium or above, wide, rather flat, obtuse, tufted, 
often adhering to the carpels, rather dark. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, a little coarse, moderately juicy to some- 
what dry, moderately tender, pleasant in flavor, mild subacid becoming nearly 
sweet, good to very good. 

Season January to June. 

PEACH, 

References, i. Downing, 1869:299. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 3. 
Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:335. 1896. 4. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. 
Sta. Bui, 248:137. 1904. 

Synonyms. Peach of Kentucky (3). JVinler Peach (3). 

Fruit white-skinned, often with delicate pink cheek overspread 
with whitish bloom. In general appearance it is quite attractive, 
but it does not always average good marketable size. It has a per- 
fumed, subacid flesh of pretty good quality. The tree is long-lived 
and a pretty reliable biennial cropper, but hardly as uniformly pro- 
ductive as is desirable in a commercial variety. Although it has 
long been known in cultivation and is considered by some a profit- 
able sort, generally speaking it has won but little recognition among 
fruit growers. It is not recommended for general planting, but it 
may be valuable locally. 



252 The Apples of Xew York. 

Historical. Origin unknown (i). It is but very little grown in New York. 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous to vigorous with moderately long, 
slender, crooked branches. Form roundish or nearly upright, open. Tzvigs 
medium to short, straight, moderately stout; internodes medium to short. 
Bark brown or somewhat tinged with red, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, 
pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous but not conspicuous, small, roundish or 
elongated, not raised. Buds medium to small, plump, obtuse, free or nearly 
so, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium to above. Form oblate varying to roundish, flat at 
base, inclined to conic, somewhat ribbed and often irregularly elliptical ; sides 
often unequal. Stem short to long, sometimes swollen. Cavity rather large, 
acute, moderately deep, rather broad, furrowed, usually russeted. Calyx small 
to above medium, closed or partly open. Basin small to medium, shallow to 
moderately deep, narrow to moderately wide, abrupt to rather obtuse, some- 
times furrowed, often wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thin, rather tender, smooth, clear pale yellow or whitish, 
often with a faint blush sometimes deepening in part to pink, mottled about 
the cavity w'ith whitish scarf-skin and overspread with a white bloom which 
produces a delicate and beautiful effect. Dots numerous, whitish or areolar 
with russet point, often submerged. 

Calyx tube usually funnel-shape and rather narrow with wide limb, some- 
times conical. Stamens basal. 

Core medium or below medium in size, abaxile ; cells usually symmetrical, 
sometimes open ; core lines clasping or meeting. Carpels elliptical to some- 
what obcordate, emarginate, smooth. Seeds few, above medium to rather 
small, wide, obtuse. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, very firm, moderately fine-grained, break- 
ing, tender, very juicy, rather briskly subacid, perfumed, slightly astringent, 
good or sometimes very good in quality. 

Season December to May or June. 

PEARMAIN. 

The term Pearmain, like the term Pippin, has been apphed to very 
many different varieties of apples. In this country it is used now 
much less than it was formerly. Hogg states that it " signifies the 
Great Pear Apple. In olden times it was variously written Peare- 
maine or Peare-maine, being the Anglicised equivalent of Pyrus 
Magnus, just as Charlemagne is of Carolus Magnus. A Pearmain, 
therefore, ought to be a long or pear-shaped apple." 

Among the varieties described in this volume with the term Pear- 
main appearing either in the accepted names or in synonyms are 
those listed below. Synonyms appear in italics. 



The Apples of New York. 253 

Autitiini Pcaniiain. See Winter Pearmain. 

Blue Pearmain. 

Cannon Pearmain. 

Cogstvcll Pearmain. See Cogswell. 

Green IVinter Pearmain. See Winter Pearmain. 

Great Pearmain. See Winter Pearmain. 

Holloxv Crozvn Pearmain. See Wine. 

Hoopes Pearmain. See Greyhonse. 

Large Striped Pearmain. See McAfee. 

Large Striped ]\'intcr Pearmain. See McAfee. 

Lop-sided Pearmain. See Greyhonse. 

Old Pearmain. See Winter Pearmain. 

Pear}nain. See Winter Pearmain. 

Pearmain Herefordshire. See Winter Pearmain. 

Pryor's Pearmain. See Pryor. 

Red Winter Pearmain. See page 279. 

Red Winter Pearmain. See Westfieid Seek-No-Further. 

Russet Pearmain. See Hunt Russet. 

Striped JJ'intcr Pearmain. See McAfee. 

White Pearmain. 

White Winter Pearmain. See White Pearmain. 

Winter Pearmain. 

]]' inter Pearmain. See McAfee. 

Wi)tter Pearmain. See Milam. 

PECK PLEASANT. 

References, i. Kenrick, 1832:50. 2. Bull, Mag. Hort., 6:172. 1840. 3. 
Downing, 1845:126. fig. 4. Floy-Lindley, 1846:411 app. 5. Hovey, Mag. Hart., 
14:249. 1848. 6. Thomas, 1849:183. 7. Horticulturist, 4:344. 1849. 8. Cole, 
1849:125. 9. -V. 1'. Agr. Soc. Rpt., 1849:355. fig. ID. Emmons, Nat. Hist. 
N. v., 3:84. 1851. eol. pi. and fig. 11. Elliott, 1854:97. fig. 12. Hooper, 1857: 
69. 13. Mag. Hort., 26:101. i860. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 15. Mag. 
Hort., 30:162. 1864. 16. Warder, 1867:641. fig. 17. Downing, 1869:301. 18. 
Fitz, 1872:168. 19. Barry, 1883:351. 20. Rural N. V., 46:202. 1887. 21. lb., 
47:749. 1888. 22. Wickson, 1889:247. 23. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890: 
296. 24. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 25. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 1893: 
133. 26. Taft, I\nch. Sta. Bui, 105:109. 1894. 27. Alwood, I'a. Sta. Bui, 
130:135. 1901. 28. Van Deman, Rural .V. Y., 60:37. 1901. 29. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:147. 30. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. /. Bui, 48:52. 1903. 31. Beach 
and Clark, A''. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:137. 1904. 

Synonyms. Dutch Greening. Peck (26). Peck's Pleasant (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
6, 7, 8, 9, 10, II, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 30). JValtz 
Apple (17). JJ'atts Apple (12). 

This variety evidently belongs in the same group with Green 
Newtown, Rhode Island Greening and Perry Russet. It is an old 
favorite for home use in many parts of the state. It is more highly 
esteemed for dessert than for culinarv uses. The flesh is tender, 



254 The Apples of New York. 

pleasantly flavored and ranks very good to best in quality. The 
color is good for a yellow apple, being at first predominantly green, 
but as the fruit approaches full maturity it becomes waxen-yellow 
with an orange or pinkish blush. The fruit very often scalds in 
storage, but it is less apt to do so if placed in cold storage immedi- 
ately after picking. Its season for home use extends from October 
to March. Ordinarily February is its commercial limit in Western 
New York, but in cold storage it may be held till April (31). The 
tree is somewhat subject to root-rot and canker and it is not consid- 
ered as long-lived nor as healthy as either Baldwin or Rhode Island 
Greening. It has the reputation of being often a shy bearer. In 
some localities it may bear pretty regularly, but it is only occasion- 
ally that it gives full crops. The better grades of the fruit are of 
good size and attractive appearance, but there is apt to be a rather 
high percentage of loss from ill-shapen, undersized or otherwise 
unmarketable fruit. 

It is said to be known locally in some portions of the state under 
the name Dutch Greening. 

Historical. In 1845 Downing expressed the opinion that Peck Pleasant 
originated in Rhode Island and stated that it had long been cultivated in that 
state and in Northern Connecticut (3). It has been pretty thoroughly dis- 
seminated throughout New York state but it is found chiefly in the older 
orchards and is now seldom or never planted. In 1890 Lyon (2^) reported 
concerning the status of this variety in Michigan that it was generally and 
deservedly popular, the fruit being beautiful and excellent, and the tree in 
habit like Rhode Island Greening but less vigorous. 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous or a rather slow grower. Form 
upright spreading or roundish, rather dense. Tzvigs medium to short, nearly 
straight, moderately stout ; internodes medium to short. Bark brown tinged 
with red often mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; 
slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels quite numerous, small, oblong or round- 
ish, not raised. Buds very deeply set in bark, medium to small, broad, plump, 
obtuse to acute, appressed to nearly free, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to sometimes large, somewhat variable in shape and size. 
Form oblate to roundish, sometimes a little inclined to conic, often obscurely 
ribbed or irregularly elliptical, sometimes with furrow on one side. Stem 
medium to short and usually thick or fleshy. Cavity variable, obtuse or some- 
times acute, rather wide, shallow to deep, nearly symmetrical or a little fur- 
rowed, often lipped or compressed, sometimes partly russeted. Caly.v pubes- 






PECK PLEASANT 



The Apples of New York. 255 

cent, medium to rather large ; lobes long, open or closed, sometimes distinctly 
separated at the base, rather obtuse. Basin varies from broad to rather narrow, 
from obtuse to abrupt, and from nearly symmetrical to irregular and furrowed 
or wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, green becoming bright waxen yellow 
with orange-red blush, sometimes partly deepening to pink. Dots numerous, 
whitish and submerged or with russet point. Prevailing effect yellow. 

Calyx tube funnel-form. Stamens basal. 

Core medium to rather small, abaxile to nearly axile ; cells not uniformly 
developed, usually closed or slit ; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels 
rather tender, broadly roundish, often nearly truncate, emarginate, mucronate. 
Seeds numerous, rather dark, long, narrow, acute, below medium or above, 
sometimes slightly tufted. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, tender, crisp, fine-grained, juicy, pleasant subacid, 
aromatic, very good to best. Toward the close of the season it becomes 
inferior in quality although it may appear to be still in good condition. 

PENNOCK. 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:145. fig. 2. Thacher, 1822:132. 3. Buel, N. Y. 
Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:477. 4. Fessenden, 1828:131. 5. Cat. Hort. Soc. Lon- 
don, 1831:27. 6. Mag. Hart., 1:364. 1835. 7. Manning, lb., 7:47. 1841. 8. 
Downing, 1845:125. 9. Kirtland, Horticulturist, 2:545. 1847. 10. Longworth, 
^^'•, 3:395- 1848. II. Phoenix, lb., 4:470. 1849. 12. Thomas, 1849:170. 13. 
Cole, 1849:128. 14. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:59. 1851. col. pi. 15. Elliott. 
1854:176. 16. Hooper, 1857:68. 17. Horticulturist, 15:183. i860. 18. Warder, 
1867:449. 19. Downing, 1869:302. 20. Hogg, 1884:171. 3i. Lyon, Mich. Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 22. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 

Synonyms. Big Romanite (15, 16, 19). Gay's Romanite (19). Large 
Romanite (15, 16, 19). Neisley's Winter (15"). Neislcy's Winter Penick 
(19). Pelican (19). Penick. Pennick. Pennock (8). Pennock's Red 
Winter (2, 5, 6, 8. 10, 13, 16). Pennock's Red Winter (12, 15, 18, 19, 20). 
Phoenix (16). Pomme Roye (19, of some West, 15). Prolific Beauty (15. 
19). Red Ox (19). Red Pennock (15, 19). Romanite (18). Roman Knight 
(19). 

A rather large, red winter apple, pretty uniform in size and shape 
and attractive in appearance, but only fair to good in quality. It is 
much subject to the trouble commonly known as " Baldwin Spot," 
for which no remedy is known.^ The tree is hardy, very long-lived 
and a strong grower. It coiucs into bearing rather young and is a 
reliable cropper, usually yielding heavy crops biennially and bearing 
some fruit every year. Generally speaking it is not regarded with 
favor as a commercial variety because the fruit ranks but second or 
third rate in quality and. as above mentioned, is subject to the 
" Baldwin Spot." It is not recommended for planting in New York. 

'See page 38. 



256 The Apples of New York. 

Historical. This old variety has been long known among New York fruit 
growers by the names Pennock, Pennick, Penick and Phoenix. The true 
Phoenix is a distinct variety which apparently has never been known among 
New York fruit growers. Pennock is said to have been first cultivated by 
Joseph Pennock, of Springfield township, Delaware county, Pennsylvania. 
It was formerly grown to a considerable extent in Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey and was at one time popular in the Philadelphia market (i, 2). In 
1867 Warder remarked that it was then universally cultivated in nearly all 
parts of the country. In New York state it is found principally in old orchards 
and is now seldom planted. 

Tree. 

Tree large or medium, often very vigorous. Form regular, symmetrical, 
upright spreading. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish to oblate or slightly 
oblong, often inclined to conic, sometimes obscurely ribbed or elliptical but 
usually pretty regular ; axis sometimes oblique. Stem short, moderately thick, 
not exserted. Cai'iiy medium in size, acute or approaching acuminate, moder- 
ately narrow to rather broad, deep, usually symmetrical, green or russeted, 
sometimes with outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium to rather large, 
closed or partly open ; lobes medium to long, acute, connivent or varying to 
flat and convergent, pubescent. Basin medium in size, shallow to medium 
in depth, rather narrow to moderately wide, somewhat abrupt, sometimes 
obtuse, often a little furrowed or slightly wrinkled. 

Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, yellow or greenish washed and mottled 
with red rather indistinctly striped with carmine and somewhat mottled and 
streaked with thin scarf-skin. Well-colored specimens are almost wholly 
covered with bright deep red. Dots numerous, conspicuous, large, gray or 
yellowish, often areolar with russet point. 

Calyx tube rather large, moderately wide, usually conical, sometimes ap- 
proaching truncate funnel-shape. Stamens basal to nearly median. 

Core small, axile ; cells uniformly developed, closed ; core lines meeting or 
slightly clasping. Carpels ovate to roundish obcordate, emarginate, sometimes 
tufted. Seeds medium to large, moderately narrow, rather long, plump, some- 
what acute, rarely tufted. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, somewhat coarse, rather crisp, tender, rather juicy, 
subacid to mild subacid or nearly sweet; flavor lacking in character; quality 
fair to good. 

Season December to April or May. 

PERRY RUSSET. 

References, i. Willey, Horticulturist. 17:168. 1862. 2. Warder, 1867:468. 
fig. 3. Downing, 1869:303. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 5. Thomas, 1875: 
509. 6. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpf.. 1890:296. 7. Harris. U. S. Pom. Rpt., 
1892:271. 8. Bailey, An. Hart.. 1892:246. 9. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui, 76:84. 
1902. ID. Bndd-Hansen, 1903:149. 11. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bid., 
248:137. 1904- 





PENNOCK 



The Apples of New York. 257 

Synonyms. Golden Russet (i, 3), but erroneously. Pineapt^lc. Pineapple 
Russet. Poughkcepsie Russet (i), Init erroneously. Rhode Island Russet. 
Winter Russet (i). 

This variety evidently belongs in the same group as Peck 
Pleasant, Rhode Island Crcoiiiig and Green Newtown. The fruit 
is of good size, pretty unifonu and fairly attractive in appearance 
for a yellowish apple. It has a crisp, subacid flavor and easily ranks 
good in quality for either dessert or culinary purposes. It is in 
season from December to midwinter or later. Its comiuercial limit 
in ordinary storage is November or December ; in cold storage it 
may be held till March. It does not stand heat well before going 
intO' storage. In going down it often shrivels, becomes mealy and 
goes down quickly. It varies greatly in keeping quality in different 
seasons and in different localities, and is not regarded favorably for 
storage purposes. The tree is very hardy, healthy, very long-lived 
and a reliable cropper, giving good crops biennially or in some cases 
almost annually. The fruit hangs well to the tree, being borne on 
slender twigs. It is perhaps worthy of attention for planting in the 
home orchard where very hardy varieties are particularly desired, 
but is seldom regarded as a profitable commercial variety in New 
York state. 

Historical. This variety has long been cultivated locally in the vicinity of 
Berwyn, Onondaga county, N. Y., where some trees of it nearly one hundred 
years old are said to be still very productive. It has always been known there 
under the name of Rhode Island Russet onlyl and not until 1904, when it was 
identified by U. S. Pomologist Brackett, was it discovered that it was identical 
with Perry Russet. The fact that long before it was known as Perry Russet 
it had the local name Rhode Island Russet indicates that it was probably 
known in Rhode Island before it was introduced into New York. 

Warder (2) publishes a description which was made from a specimen ex- 
hibited by Mr. Utters at a meeting of the Northwestern Fruit Growers in 
1850. Willey (i), writing from Madison, Wisconsin, made the following 
statement concerning it in 1862. " Perry Russet is a sort sent from the East 
under various cognomens, as Winter Russet, Poughkeepsie Russet, Golden 
Russet, etc. It is universally hardy, succeeding in all locations, and much 
esteemed everyv.here. Tree good grower, forms a round even head ; fruit 
large, fair and excellent ; keeps well through the winter. Too many cannot 
be had, as it is the best of all the Russets." We are also informed that it has 
been known under the names Pineapple Russet and Pineapple. 2 Downing, 
in 1869 stated that this variety " was many years since carried from Perry, 

^Letters, L. L. Woodford, 1904. 

-Report by F. Newhall and Sons, Chicago, 111., 1904. 



258 The Apples of New York. 

Wyoming county, New York, to the West under the name of Golden Russet, 
but as it was entirely distinct from the true Golden Russet it soon became 
known as Perry Russet." 

Tree. 

Tree medium to large or eventually very large. Form symmetrical, roundish 
or spreading. Tn'igs medium to short, straight, slender ; internodes medium. 
Bark reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenficcis 
scattering, very small, oval. Buds small, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to nearly large, pretty uniform in size and shape. 
Form roundish oblate to oblate conic, slightly ribbed. Stem often swollen at 
base, short, thick or moderately so. Cavity very obtuse to acute, shallow to 
medium in depth, broad, often thinly russeted and with outspreading russet 
rays, a little wavy and often rather strongly lipped. Calyx medium in size, 
somewhat open ; lobes often separated at the base, narrow, acute to acuminate. 
Basin medium in depth to deep, medium to rather wide, abrupt, somewhat 
furrowed, not symmetrical, irregular. 

Skin thick, tough, nearly smooth or roughened more or less with russet, 
rather pale yellow \vith rather dull blush of bronze or brownish-red and some- 
times with obscure dark reddish splashes. Dots very numerous, usually small, 
sometimes rather large, prominent, russet, irregular and mingled with russet 
flecks or netted russet. Prevailing color yellowish. 

Calyx tube rather wide, short, conical. Stamens median. 

Core medium size, axile ; cells closed ; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. 
Carpels broadly ovate, tufted. Seeds medium, narrow, rather long, acute to 
acuminate. 

Flesh whitish a little tinged with yellow, medium to rather fine-grained, 
moderately tender or somewhat tough, juicy, with an agreeable subacid russet 
flavor, sprightly, aromatic, good. 

PEWAUKEE. 

References, i, Willey. Horticulturist. 1870. (cited by 2 and 20). 2. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871:51. 3. Downing, 1872:26 app. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 
1875:12. 5. Barry, 1883:351. 6. Thomas, 1885:520. 7. Can. Hart., 14:139. 
1891. 8. lb., 14:260. 1S91. 9. Bailey. An. Hort., 1892:246. 10. Can. Hort., 
17:69. 1894. II- !b., 17:251. 1894. 12. lb., 18:379. 1895. 13- Munson, Me. 
Sta. An. Rpt., 1896:71. 14. Waugh, ]'t. Sta. Bui, 61:31. 1897. 15. Dickens 
and Greene. Kan. Sta. Bui, 106:54. 1902. 16. Hansen. 5". D. Sta. Bui, 76:85. 
1902. 17. Budd-Hansen. 1903:150. fig. 18. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. L 
Bui, 48:52. 1903. 19. Beach and Clark, A''. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:137. 1904. 20. 
Ragan, U. S. B. P. L Bui, 56:231. 1905. 

Syxoxym. Peew.\ukee (7, 10). 

Fruit above medium to large ; often it is poorly colored, being 
greenish striped with dull red. \\dien well colored it is of fairly 
good yellow color largely washed and mottled with red and splashed 
with dark carmine. It is overspread with a heavy bluish bloom 



Till': Ai'Pr.RS of New York. 259 

which produces a rather dull effect, but it becomes bright and glossy 
when polished. Its quality ranks fair to good for either culinary 
or dessert uses. 

Pewaukee varies much in keeping qualities in different seasons 
(19). In ordinary storage its commercial limit varies from Novem- 
ber to January, or under favorable conditions till February. The 
rate of loss in the stored fruit is often high in November, then 
becomes lower till midwinter, after which it rises again. Its season 
in cold storage is variously reported as extending from November 
to February or March, or exceptionally to ]\Iay ( 19). 

This variety was produced by crossing Oldenburg with Northern 
Spy. As might be expected from its parentage, it is very hardy, 
although it has not proven as hardy in the North and Northwest 
as was at first expected, being inferior to Wealthy in this respect 
(16, 17). 

Pewaukee makes a moderately vigorous root development in the 
nursery, but in the orchard it becomes a good, strong grower and 
succeeds well under ordinary care. L'sually it is healthy and long- 
lived, but in some localities it is said to suffer from canker. The 
tree comes into bearing rather early and is a reliable cropper, bearing 
biennially or almost annually and often yielding heavy crops. It is 
not generally considered a desirable variety for commercial planting 
in New York, except in those portions of the state where hardiness 
is a prime requisite, for in spite of its vigor, hardiness and produc- 
tiveness it is usually found less profitable than standard commercial 
varieties because it is deficient in color and in quality and generally 
is not very well known in market. 

Historical. Originated by George P. Peffer, Pewaukee, Wisconsin, by cross- 
ing Oldenburg with Northern Spy. It was first brought to the notice of fruit 
growers about 1870 (i. 2, 3). It has been sparingly disseminated through this 
state but has not been cultivated largely in any locality and its planting does 
not appear to be increasing. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous or moderately vigorous, medium to large, with stout curved 
branches. Form upright spreading or roundish, open. Twigs long to below 
medium, curved or irregularly bent, moderately stout ; internodes long. Bark 
clear dark reddish-brown lightly mottled and streaked with gray scarf-skin ; 
slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels conspicuous being of a clear light color, 
scattering, usually medium or below, elongated, not raised. Buds large, broad, 



26o The Apples of New York. 

plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, much pubescent; the shoulder of the bud is 
flattened so that it bulges slightly on the sides. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium, often large, fairly uniform in size but not in shape. 
Form roundish oblate, sometimes approaching roundish ovate, characteristically 
rounded toward the cavity, ribbed, more or less irregularly elliptical. Stem 
usually short, often fleshy and often inserted under a lip. Cavity varies from 
moderately large to small, sometimes being scarcely at all developed, narrow 
to wide, ver}' shallow to moderately deep, often furrowed and sometimes 
thinly russeted. It is acuminate at the insertion of the stem but the outer 
portion is often moderately obtuse. Calyx below medium to large, partly 
open or sometimes closed. Basin medium in depth and width, usually some- 
what abrupt, wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, moderately thin, rather tough, grass-green becoming yellow 
washed and mottled with orange-red or red, striped and splashed with car- 
mine, often covered with bloom. Dots moderately conspicuous, pale gray or 
whitish, some being large, obscurely defined and areolar. 

Calyx tube funnel-form varying to cone-shape. Stamens median to basal. 

Core below medium to large, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells irregularly 
developed, usually closed or slit; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels 
obcordate, tufted. Seeds numerous, medium to large, rather long, moderately 
narrow, acute, plump, tufted, light brown. 

Flesh nearly w^hite, moderately firm, slightly coarse, rather tender, very 
juic}', subacid, slightly aromatic, fair to good. 

Season variable; commonly November to April in Northern and Western 
New York. 

PICKARD RESERVE. 

References, i. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1863. (cited by 9). 2. Warder, 1867: 
413- fig- 3- Downing, 1869:304. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 5. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892:246. 6. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:335. 1896. 7. 
Thomas, 1897:648. 8. Sharpe, Can. Dcpt. Agr. Rpt., 1901:543. 9. Ragan, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:22,2. 1905. 

Synonyms. Picard (7). Picard's Reserve (7). Pickard (4). Pickard's 
Reserve (9). 

A large, green or yellow fruit with reddish-bronze cheek which in highly 
colored specimens becomes in part pinkish-red. It is evidently allied to the 
Green Newtown group of apples. This is indicated by the elliptical form, 
occasional oblique axis, truncate base, the color and markings of the skin, 
particularly the outspreading russet rays about the cavity, the gray dots and 
the brownish-pink blush ; also by the texture, aroma and quality of the flesh. 
Although inferior to Green Newtown in aroma and quality it is excellent in 
both. It does not appear to show any marked resemblance to the group which 
includes Ortley and Yellow Bellflower and it is strikingly different from this 
group in its core characters. 

As fruited at this Station the tree has not come into bearing very young 
but with advancing maturity has proved a reliable bearer giving full crops in 
alternate years. So far as we can learn it has not been sufficiently tested in 



The Apples of New York. 261 

New York to determine its value for this region either for the home or for 
market purposes but so far as it has been tried it has proved desirable for 
home use, and it appears worthy of trial for commercial planting where a 
yellow fruit of this class is desired. Its culture in the Middle West is said 
to have declined in recent years on account of the susceptibility of the variety 
to the attacks of the apple scab. We have found no difficulty in protecting it 
from this disease by the ordinary line of treatment with bordeaux mixture. 

Historical. Originated in Park county, Indiana, from seed brought from 
North Carolina (2). Professor W. H. Ragan has kindly supplied the follow- 
ing statement concerning its history and habits of growth in Indiana. " It 
originated with the late Wm. Pickard, of Park county, Ind., and about 40 
miles from the place of my birth. Wm. Pickard was a Friend (Quaker) and 
had a pioneer seedling orchard. By chance he had several fairly good varieties 
and he boasted that he had as good fruit as those of his neighbors who had 
cultivated varieties. To convince them of this fact he invited his friends to 
a test of his varieties. To them he presented several varieties which in turn 
were pronounced good, bad and worse. Finally he brought out his ' best,' 
that is in his own opinion, but only announced that this was the last. On 
testing it they were all charmed with its high quality and it was suggested 
that this was ' Pickard's Reserve,' it having been reserved until the last of 
the feast. 

" Your inquiry concerning its quality, and your mention in that connection 
of Grimes Golden indicates that you know of its high character as a fruit. 
There is no mistake on this point, and yet I am hardly prepared to claim that 
it is the equal of that fine variety. But it ranks ' very good ' if not quite 
* best.' 

" The tree is upright and inclines to make splitting forks that are liable to 
split down and thus destroy the tree. It is fruitful almost to a fault, and if 
not overloaded, the fruit is of good size, averaging about with Yellow New- 
town in this particular, which it somewhat resembles in appearance. Its flesh 
is, however, much more tender and less acid than the Yellow Newtown. Its 
parentage is not certainly known, though it has been suggested that it may 
have been from seed of ' Ortley.' It was one of the very first (along with 
the Ortley itself) to yield to the attack of the apple scab, when it first in- 
vaded our country, and hence its culture has been largely discontinued with 
us." 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous ; branches long, moderately stout, liable to split at the forks. 
Form upright spreading, open. Ttcigs moderately long, straight, rather stout ; 
internodes medium to short. Bark dull brown tinged with red, heavily coated 
with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticeh rather conspicuous, numerous, 
medium size, somewhat elongated, slightly raised. Buds medium to below 
medium, broad, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, free or nearly so, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large, fairly uniform in shape and size. Form inclined to oblate, 
rather irregularly elliptical, sometimes broadly or obscurely ribbed, often lop- 
sided or with one side bulging; axis often oblique. Stem short, usually rather 
slender. Cavity pretty large, acuminate, irregular, wide, very deep, often com- 



262 The Apples of New York. 

pressed and sometimes lipped, russeted and with very conspicuous, outspread- 
ing russet ra3's. Calyx small to medium, partly closed or sometimes open; 
lobes acuminate, reflexed. Basin small to medium, narrow to rather wide, 
deep, rather abrupt, furrowed, slightly wrinkled. 

Skin smooth or slightly roughened with russet dots, green changing to 
yellow when fully ripe, often with faint streaks of brownish or pinkish blush. 
Bright and rather attractive for a yellowish apple. Dots russet and gray. 

Calyx tube conical or approaching truncate funnel-form. Stamens median 
to basal. 

Core small to medium, usually axile or nearly so; cells often not uniform 
in size but symmetrical, closed or partly open ; core lines meeting when the 
calyx tube is cone-shape, clasping when it is funnel-form. Carpels elongated, 
pointed ovate, smooth or nearly so. Seeds acute to slightly obtuse, long, 
medium size, brown, sometimes tufted. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid 
becoming mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, sprightly, very good. 

Season in Western New York November to February or March. 

PIFER. 

References, i, Mag. Hort., 19:210. 1853. 2. Horticulturist, 8:342. 1853. 
3. Warder, 1867:728. 4. Downing, 1869:304. 5. Burrill and McCluer, ///. 
Sta. Bui, 45:336. 1896. 6. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:52. 
1903. 7. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Biil, 248:138. 1904. 

Synonyms. Pfeifer (4, 7). Pfeiffer (i, 2, 3). Piper (6). 

A dull red fruit of medium size and fair quality. Its chief merit is that 
it keeps fresh and firm till very late in the season. The tree does not come 
into bearing very young but so far as tested here it appears to be a reliable 
bearer yielding full crops biennially. Not recommended for planting in New 
York. 

Historical. Originated in .Springfield township, Pennsylvania. Brought to 
the attention of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society in 1853 (i, 2). It 
does not appear to be known among New York fruit growers. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous with moderately long, slender, curved branches. 
Form upright to roundish, rather dense. Tungs medium in length to very 
short, straight or nearly so, slender, with large terminal buds ; internodes 
rather short. Bark clear reddish or olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf- 
skin, slightly pubescent. Lcnticels quite numerous, small to very small, elon- 
gated, usually not raised. Buds rather small, plump, acute, appressed, slightly 
pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium to above, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
inclined to oblate, regular or sometimes obscurely ribbed, usually symmetrical ; 
sides sometimes unequal. Stem short to medium, rather slender. Cavity 
acute to acuminate, rather shallow to moderately deep, moderately broad, 
smooth and greenish or occasionally slightly russeted. Calyx small to medium, 
closed or partly open ; lobes long, recurved. Basin varies from moderately 



The Apples of New York. 263 

deep and abrupt to rather shallow and obtusr, rather narrow to moderately 
wide, slightly furrowed or wrinkled. 

Skin tough, leathery, smooth, dull greenish-yellow blushed with dull red, 
becoming deep pinkish-red in highly colored specimens, with numerous narrow 
stripes of dark carmine, and overspread with a thin bloom which gives a dull 
efifect. Dots small, gray. 

Calyx tube long, very narrow below, funnel-shape. Stamens median to 
basal. 

Core medium in size, axile or nearly so; cells usually partly open; core lines 
clasping. Carpels obcordate, emarginate. Seeds numerous, medium or above, 
rather wide, plump, somewhat acute. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, hard, pretty coarse, somewhat crisp, not 
tender, juicy, mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, fair or possibly good. 

Season January to July. 

PINE STUMP, 

References, i. Berckmans, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1891:160. 2. Lyon, Mich. 
Sta. Bill., 143:201. 1897. 3. Massey, N. C. Sta. Bui, 149:318. 1898. 

As fruited at this Station this is a dull red apple hardly medium in size. 
It is in season from November to February. It originated in Granville county. 
North Carolina. In that region it is in season from the middle of September 
to early winter and it is said to be a very showy fruit and an excellent market 
apple of fine flavor and good quality (i, 3). It does not appear to be adapted 
to New York conditions and is not recommended for planting in this state. 

PIPPIN. 

The word Pippin, from the old English word Pippin, a seed, or 
the French Pepin, a pip or kernel, formerly signified a seedling 
apple in distinction from a btidded or grafted tree. Hogg remarks 
that, " Leonard Mascal, writing in 1572, says, ' Then shall yoii cover 
your seedes or pepins with fine erth so sifting al over them ' ; and 
' when the winter is past and gone, and that ye see your Pepins rise 
and growe ' ; and again, ' When so euer ye doe replante or change 
your Pepin trees from place to place, in so remouing often the 
stocke the frute there of shall also change ; but the frute which doth 
come of Grafting doth always kepe the forme and nature of the tree 
whereof he is taken '. 

" It is evident from this last quotation that Pippin is synonymotts 
with seedling, and is used to distinguish a tree raised directly from 
seed from one that has been raised from grafts or cuttings. The 
Golden Pippin, which, by the way, was raised in Sussex, where 
Mascal also was born, means simply Golden Seedling. 



264 The Apples of New York. 

" But there was another meaning attached to the word. In Henry 
R'.. Shallow says to Falstaff, " Xay, you shall see mine orchard; 
where in an arbour we will eat a last year's pippin of my own 
graffing-.' And this is interpreted by what Sir Paul Neile says in 
his Discourse of Cider, written in the time of the Commonwealth, 
wherein speaking of ' pippin cider," he says, ' For by that name 
I shall generally call all sorts of cider that is made of apples good 
to eat raw/ and that is evidently the signification in the above 
quotation from Shakspeare. 

" Coming to more modern times, we have the word kernel, which 
is the English equivalent of Pepin, also used to signify a seedling 
apple tree : as. for example. Ashmead's Kernel, the seedling raised 
by Dr. Ashmead, of Gloucester ; Cook's Kernel. Knott's Kernel, and 
many others." 

In this country the term Pippin has been applied to very many 
different varieties of apples. In Eastern and Southeastern New 
York when this word is used alone it signifies either the Green 
Newtown or Yellow Newtown specifically, or the group of green or 
yellow skinned apples to which these belong, while in Central and 
Western New York it refers to either the Fall Pippin specifically 
or to the group to which that variety belongs. In certain portions 
of the ^Middle ^^'est it is understood as referring to Missouri Pippin. 

POMME GRISE. 

References, i. Forsyth, 1803:53. 2. Ronalds, 1831:32. 3. Manning, Mag. 
Hort.. 7:51. 1841. 4. Cat. Hort. Soc. London. 1842. 5. Downing, 1845:124. 
6. Thomas, 1849:184. 7. Cole, 1849:129. 8. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 17:17. 1851. 
Hg. 9. Emmons. Nat. Hist. .V. ]'., 3:94. 1851. fig., col. pi. No. 77. 10. Elliott, 
1854:99. II. Hooper, 1857:70. 12. Downing, 1857:180. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1862. 14. Warder, 1867:469. fig. 15. (?)Leroy, 1873:684. figs. 16. 
Barry, 1883:352. 17. Hogg, 1884:179. 18. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890: 
296. 19. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 20. Dempsey, Out. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 
2:34. 1895. 21. Budd-Hansen, 1903:152. fig. 22. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. 
Bui, 248:138. 1904. 

Synonyms. (Bcc de Lievre, 15)? {Belle Fillc. 15)? {De Cuir, 15)? 
French Russet (22). Gray Apple (5, 6, 10, 12, 21). Grise (5, 8, 10, 12). 
Leather Apple of Turic (12). (Leder, 15)? (De Maroquin, 15)? {De 
Peau, 15)? Pomme de Cuir (12). Pomme Gree (i). Pomme Gris (3, 9, 
13, 18, 19, 20, 21). (Prager Reineite Franche de Grandville, 15)? {Reinette 
de Darnetal. 15)? (Reinette Grise, 15)? {Reinette Grise de Darnetal, 



Thk Apples of New York. 265 

15)? {Rcinette Crise Double, 15)? (Reinette Grise extra, 15)? (Reinette 
ijyise Francaisc, 15)? {Reinette Grise de Grandville, 15)? {Reinette Grise 
d'Hive), 15)? {Reinette toitte Grise, 15)'' 

A little russet apple valued only because of its excellent dessert 
quality. Its keeping quality varies much in different seasons. In 
cold storage its season extends from December to February or 
March, and in ordinary storage, from the middle of October to 
January or possibly February. After midwinter it is apt to deteri- 
orate in qualit}', although it may remain apparently in good condi- 
tion till March or April It has the reputation of developing 
particularly fine flavor when grown in the St. Lawrence valley. In 
New York it is seldom produced profitably in large quantities for 
the general market, not being attractive enough in size and color to 
command remunerative prices, but it is sometimes grown success- 
fully to a limited extent for local or special trade. It is recom- 
mended for home use because of its juiciness and fine dessert quality. 
The tree is hardy, healthy and moderately long-lived. In favorable 
locations it is a pretty good bearer, the fruit hangs well to the tree 
and is fairly uniform in size and appearance. 

The Swazie is an apple of the Pomme Grise type. It is described 
on a subsequent page. 

Historical. The Pomme Grise or fruit of this type has long been known in 
cultivation among the French in the vicinity of Montreal and in other portions 
of the St. Lawrence valley. According to Forsyth (17) it was introduced 
into England from Canada. Possibly it is identical with the Reinette Grise 
of Leroy (15) but we have not had the opportunity of determining this point 
definitely. If it is in fact the Reinette Grise it has been cultivated in Europe 
for more than 250 years. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form dense, roundish or spreading. Tzvigs 
short, straight, rather slender with large terminal buds ; internodes short to 
medium. Bark clear reddish-brown mingled with olive-green lightly streaked 
with gray scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels clear in color, quite numerous, 
medium to small, generally elongated, slightly raised. Buds rather prominent, 
medium in size, broad, plump, obtuse to acute, free, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium to small, fairly uniform in size and shape. Form 
oblate varying to roundish, sometimes inclined to conic, slightly ribbed, pretty 
symmetrical. Stem usually slender, much pubescent, often bracted and streaked 
with reddish-brown. Cavity pretty large, obtuse, deep, usually rather wide, 



266 The Apples of New York. 

often compressed or gently furrowed. Calyx small to medium, usually closed; 
lobes long, narrow, acuminate, pubescent. Basin variable, pubescent, often 
somewhat saucer-shaped, narrow to rather wide, moderately shallow, obtuse 
to moderately abrupt, furrowed. 

Skin moderately thick, rather tough, deep yellow or greenish partly or en- 
tirely covered with russet. In highly colored specimens the cheek is often 
partly smooth and yellowish-brown mottled and striped with bright dark red. 
Dots gray or whitish., scattering and usually inconspicuous. 

Calyx Jubc cone-shape. Stamens basal or nearly so. 

Core medium in size, slightly abaxile; cells symmetrical, usually closed or 
partly so; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish, narrowing toward the apex, 
slightly emarginate. nuicronate. smooth or slightly tufted. Seeds medium in 
size, plump, irregular, moderately obtuse, slightly tufted. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, crisp, moderately fine-grained, juicy, rich, subacid, 
aromatic, very good to best. 

POUND SWEET, 

The apple most commonly known in Central and Western New 
York under the name of Pound Sweet is large, roundish, marbled 
with light and dark green, eventually becoming more or less yellow 
and conspicuously streaked over the base with whitish scarf-skin. It 
is in season from October to January. The name now generally 
accepted by pomologists for this variety is Pumpkin Sweet. It is 
also known by some as the Lyman Pumpkin Sweet. It is described 
under the name Pumpkin Sweet in the succeeding volume. 

Several distinct varieties of apples have been known in cultivation 
under the name Pound Sweet, but so far as we have been able to 
discover only the one above referred to is green, all others being 
either more or less russeted or marked with distinct red. 

PRATT SWEET. 

References, i. Downing, 1869:312. 2. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:241. 
1905. 
Synonyms. Pr.vtt (2). Pratt Sz^'eet (2). 

A sweet winter apple which originated on the farm of Daniel Pratt, Rich- 
land, Oswego county, N. Y. We have not seen this variety. According to 
Downing (i) the tree is vigorous and annually productive; the fruit large, 
roundish conical, yellow striped and shaded with clear pinkish-red ; the flesh 
is yellowish- white, breaking, tender, juicy, rich and very good in quality. So 
far as we can discover it is not now known among New York fruit growers, 
nor do we find any record of its having been grown outside of the locality 
of its origin. Humrickhouse, in a list of new American seedling apples pub- 



The Apples of New York. 267 

lished in 1^5,3, mention,^ a fall variety under the name of Pratt. 1 Since Pratt 
Sweet appears to have heen but a local variety and since it was not brought 
to notice in New York till 1869, and since its season is given as December to 
March, it would seem that it is distinct from the Pratt of Humrickhouse. 
Ragan at first listed them as identical (2) but now considers them as " possibly 
identical. "2 

PRIESTLY, 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:146. fig. 2. Thacher, 1822:132. 3. Buel, A^. Y 
Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:476. 4. Wilson, 1828:136. 5. Kenrick, 1832:51. 6. 
Downing, 1845:126. 7. Horticulturist, 2:483. 1848. 8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., 3:72. 1851. 9. Elliott, 1854:176. 10. Hooper, 1857:72. ii. Warder, 
1867:729. 

Synonyms. Priestley (3, 5, 10). Priestley's American (6, 9). Red Cat- 
head (9). 

Fruit medium to large, blushed or faintly striped with red. Although it 
ranks only fair to good in quality it is an agreeable dessert apple especially 
in the spring when it is fresh, juicy and mildly subacid. It is less desirable 
for culinary uses because it lacks acidity. The tree is a pretty vigorous grower, 
hardy, healthy, long-lived and commonly bears good crops annually. The 
fruit hangs well to the tree. It is surpassed by standard varieties of its season 
and is not recommended for planting. 

The following is Coxe's description of this variety: "This apple is said 
to be a native of the county of Bucks in Pennsylvania, where it was first cul- 
tivated by a person from whom it has obtained its name. The tree has a hand- 
some, upright form, vigorous growth, and large leaves ; it is well suited to 
light soils — the fruit is large, of an oblong form — the skin smooth, the colour 
usually a dull red, streaked faintly with green, with spots of the same colour ; 
the flesh is white, has a pleasant spicy taste — it is an excellent table and kitchen 
apple; hangs late on the tree; is an abundant bearer, and makes good cider 
late in the season, but not of the first quality." 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to medium. Forjit roundish oblate to roundish oblong, usually 
quite regular and symmetrical. Stem long, usually rather slender. Cavity 
acute to acuminate, moderately deep to very deep, broad, russeted and with 
outspreading russet rays, sometimes faintly furrowed. Calyx large, usually 
closed, sometmies partly open ; lobes connivent, erect or reflexed, broad, acute. 
Basin very shallow to moderately deep, wide, obtuse or somewhat abrupt, 
distinctly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin tough, smooth, green or yellow washed and blushed with red and 
inconspicuously striped with dark carmine ; highly colored specimens are nearly 
covered with deep red. Dots rather numerous toward basin, larger and more 
scattering toward cavity, gray or russet. 

Calyx tube rather wide, conical. Stamens median or below. 

Core medium to small, axile : cells symmetrical, closed ; core lines meeting 
or clasping. Carpels roundish, emarginate. Seeds large, wide, flat, obtuse to 
somewhat acute, very dark brown. 

^Mag. Hort., 19:164. 1853. 
^Letter, 1905. 



268 The Apples of New York. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, rather coarse, crisp, juicy, agreeable mild subacid, 
somewhat aromatic, medium to good in qualit.v. 
Season December to April. 

PRINCE ALBERT, 

References, i. Hogg, 1884:128. 2. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc, 1898: 
356, 359. 3. Can. Hort., 12:10. 1889. 4. Garden, 64:322. 1903. Hg. 5. Ragan, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:172. 1905. 

Synonyms. Lane Albert (5). Lane's Prince Albert (i, 2, 3). Lane 
Prince Albert (5). Prince Albert (Lane) (2). 

Fruit large, grass-green eventually becoming yellowish with part of the ex- 
posed cheek covered with a thin blush and splashed with bright carmine. 
The general appearance is rather attractive for a green apple. It is too 
briskly subacid in flavor for a dessert apple but is valued for culinary uses. 
So far as tested at this Station the tree sustains the reputation which it has 
gained in England of coming into bearing young and being a reliable cropper 
and very productive (i, 4). Its season has not been proved here but it 
evidently extends from midautumn to midwinter. Hogg gives its season as 
December to March. Further testing is required to determine whether it is 
a desirable variety for this region. 

This variety is found in common cultivation in some parts of England and 
it is there usually called the Lane Prince Albert (4). Bunyard lists it first 
as Prince Albert (Lane) and afterwards as Lane Prince Albert (2). Ragan 
has abbreviated the name to Lane Albert (5). We prefer to follow Bunyard 
in calling it Prince Albert as that appears to approach more closely to the 
name 1)y wliich it is commonly known in England. 

Sharpe lists a Prince Albert of Prussia which is distinct from Prince 
Albert.i 

Historical. Introduced by H. Lane & Son, Berkhampstead, England, and 
exhibited by them at a meeting of the British Pomological Society, October 
26, 1857 (i, 4). The original tree was still in existence in a Berkhampstead 
garden in 1903 (4). In 1881 Prince Albert received a first-class certificate 
from the Royal Horticultural Society (2). In an article on "Progress in 
Fruit Culture in Queen Victoria's Reign 1837-1897," Bunyard presents a list 
of fruits introduced into cultivation in England in the last sixty years likely 
to prove permanent additions which includes but ten varieties of apples and 
one of them is Prince Albert (2). This variety is but little known as yet in 
America. 

Tree. 

Tree very vigorous. Form spreading, rather dense. Tzfigs stocky, moder- 
ately long. Bark dark greenish-brown. Leniicels numerous, roundish, medium 
in size, conspicuous. Buds large, plump, obtuse, pubescent. Leaves large, 
broad ; foliage dense. 

Fruit. 

Fruit pretty uniformly large, sometimes very large. Form roundish some- 
what flattened at the base and inclined to conic with broad obtuse ribs toward 
the basin, somewhat irregular. Stem medium to short, moderately thick. 

^Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1900:457 and letter, 1905. 



The Apples of New York. 269 

Cavity acute, varying from slightly obtuse to slightly acuminate, medium in 
depth or sometimes deep^ rather broad, somewhat furrowed, frequently com- 
pressed, sometimes faintly russeted. Calyx below medium to above, closed 
or slightly open ; lobes rather short and wide, inclined to acute. Basin usually 
below medium in size, often oblique, medium in depth to rather deep, rather 
narrow to medium in width, abrupt, irregular, deeply furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, moderately thick, tough, grass-green becoming yellowish with 
part of the exposed cheek shaded with red and striped with carmine, mottled 
and streaked with scarf-skin. Dots small, often submerged, whitish or some- 
times with russet point, numerous toward the basin, larger and more scattering 
toward the cavity. 

Caly.v tube rather short, moderately wide, cone-shape or approaching funnel- 
shape. Stamens median to basal. 

Core large to very large, abaxile ; cells usually symmetrical, open or some- 
times closed ; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels elongated or 
broadly roundish, obtusely emarginate, often tufted. Seeds numerous, medium 
or above, moderately narrow to rather wide, obtuse to acute, rather dark. 

Flesh tinged with yellow or green, firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, very 
juicy, briskly subacid or sour; suitable for culinary uses but has too much 
acidity for a good dessert apple. 

PRYOR, 

References, i. Kenrick, 1832:59. 2. Mag. Hart., 10:207. 1844. 3. Byram 
Horticulturist, 2:18. 1847. 4. Rice, lb., 4:289. 1849. 5. Phoenix, lb., 4:471 
1849. 6. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. V.. 3:67. 1851. 7. Horticulturist, 6:181 
1851. 8. Mag. Hort., 19:242. 1853. 9. Elliott. 1854:99. fig. 10. Downing 
1857:96. II. Hooper, 1857:72. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., i860. 13. Downing 
Horticulturist, 16:42. 1861. 14. Mag. Hort., 30:162. 1864. 15. Warder, 1867 
627. fig. 16. Fitz, 1872:143, 149, 172. 17. Leroy, 1873:780. fig. 18. Barry, 
1883:352. 19. Bailey, An. Hort.. 1892:247. 20. Clayton, Ala. Sta. Bui., 47:8 
1893. 21. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:52. 1903. 22. Bruner 
N. C. Sta. Bui, 182:21. 1903. 23. Budd-Hansen, 1903:155. fig. 24. Ragan 
U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:244. 1905. 

Synonyms. Bersford (24). Big Hill (9, 10. 17, 24). Bonford (24). Con- 
ford (24). Pitzcr Hill (g, 10, 17, 24). Prior's Red (10). Prior's Red (3, 
9, 24). Prior's Late Red (24). Pryor's Pearmain (24). Pryor's Red (i, 2, 
3. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, II, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19). Pryor Red (2;}). Pryor Red 
(17, 24). Red Russet (of some 24). Rouge de Pryor (17). 

A southern apple of good size and rich subacid flavor ; in season from 
December to February. Although it has long been known in cultivation it is 
seldom found in New York orchards, which is evidence that it is not well 
adapted to this region (13). 

Historical. This is said to have originated in Virginia (4, 12). Hooper 
remarks that " it varies much in its appearance, being sometimes green 
russeted, then sometimes dull o/ange-russet with a trace of red, and again 
deeply red or striped, and sometimes almost black with depth of color" (11). 
Warder (15) remarks " it is singularly affected by change of soil and climate; 
thus, on the Ohio River, it is seen quite flat and regular, with a dull green 



2/0 The Apples of New York. 

russeted skin, becoming yellow and ruddy ; in one part of the state of Indiana, 
on limestone, it is gibbous, round, often very large, and- covered with a rich 
cinnamon russet, while on the coal measures, west of the center of the state, it 
is smaller, regular, and distinctly striped deep red on red, with very little 
russet. Specimens from Rochester, New York, have been shown with scarcely 
a trace of russet, and having the stripes as distinct and almost as beautiful 
as those of a Dutchess of Oldcnburgh, so that no southern or western man 
would have recognized it for his home favorite. The distinctive icather- 
crackitig about the eye was present, however, in all." 

Tree. 

The tree as described by Byram (3), Warder (15), Downing (10, 23), 
Rice (4), and others attains large size and is productive when old, requiring 
a deep, rich soil and a w^arm season or southern climate for its proper develop- 
ment. Form upright, somewhat spreading, twiggy ; branches sometimes form 
peculiarly acute angles. Tivigs slender, clear reddish-brown wnth some olive- 
green. Lenticcls large, conspicuous, gray. Foliage scattering, folded, grayish- 
green, subject to leaf-blight. 

Fruit. 

The following description of the fruit is taken from Byram (3), Elliott 
(9), Downing (10), Hooper (11), and Warder (15). 

Fruit medium to large. Form variable but usually roundish oblate ; axis 
often oblique and sides unequal. Stem short, thick to moderately thick. 
Cavity small, acute to acuminate, often lipped, russeted and with some out- 
spreading brownish-russet. Calyx small, closed. Basin small, shallow, 
regular. 

Skin thick, greenish to brownish-yellow tinged with dull red. rather indis- 
tinctly striped with dark crimson, slightly russeted. Dots numerous, large, 
gray or greenish. 

Core closed ; core lines meeting. Seeds numerous, angular, acute. 

Flesh yellowish-white, tender, fine-grained, juicy to rather dry, subacid, very 
good to best. 

Season December to IMarch. 

RALLS. 

References, i. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:22. 2. Kenrick, 1832:59. 3. 
Mag. Hort., 1:149. 1835. 4. Hovey, lb., 10:207. 1844. 5- Byram, Horticul- 
turist, 2:19. 1847. fig. 6. Springer, lb.. 2:147. 1S47. 7. lb., 2:291, 388, 483. 
1847. 8. Mallinckrott, lb., 3:369. 1848. 9. Phoenix, lb., 4:4/0. 1849. 10. 
Cole, 1849:136. Hg. II. Thomas, 1849:170. 12. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
3:63. 185 1. 13. Elliott. 1854:100. Hg. 14. Downing, 1857:99. 15. Hooper, 
1857:75. 16. Mag. Hort., 26:102. i860. 17. //'., 27:101. i8bi. 18. lb., 27: 
262. 1861. 19. Am. Pom. Sac. Cat.. 1862. 20. Mag. Hort., 30:162. 1864. 21. 
Warder, 1867:517. fig. 22. Downing, 1869:321. fig. 23. Howsley, Am. Pom. 
Soc. Rht., 1871:74. 24. Fitz, 1872:141. 143. 147, 149, 156, 165, 175, 177. 2^. 
Leroy, 1873:713. 26. Downing, 1881 :ii index, app. 27. Barry, 1883:353. 2S. 
Wickson, 1889:248. 29. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpl., 1890:296. 30. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:242. 31, lb.. 1892:247. 32. JNIathews, Ky. Sta. Bui, 50:3::. 





^w 



X 



TiiR Aptlks of New York. 271 

1894- 33- Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:198. 34. Heiges, Mcchan's 
Monthly, 6:136. 1896. 35. Card, and For., 9:310. 1896. 36. Munson, Mc. Sta. 
An. Kpt., 18:95. 1902. 37. Haiiseii, .S". D. Sta. Bid., 76:88. 1902. 38. Stin?on, 
■Mo. Fr. Sta. Bui, 3:27. 1902. 39. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. L Bui.. 
48:53. 1903. 40. Budd-Hansen, 1903:156. /?.<[. 41. Bruncr, N. C. Sta. Bui., 
182:27. 1903. 42. Reach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui. , 248:139. 1904. 43. Ragan, 
U. S. B. P. /. Bui., 55:ro. 1905. 

Synonyms. Genet {23). Gcncton (21, 22,). Geniton (8). Gcniton (39). 
Gennetin (4). Gcnncting (14). Gciinctting (42). Ginct (23). Indiana 
Jannrtting (13, 14, 22). J.vnet (30). Janet (31, 37, 40, 41, 42). Janetting 
(21). Jefferson Pippin (23, 26). Jeniton (22, 27, 37, 38). Jennett (14, 
22). Jennetle (13). Jenniton (42). Missouri J.\xf,t (18). Missouri 
Janet? (22). Nezrr Fail (21). Nez'erfcil (4, 6, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 22, 33, 37, 
39. 40, 41, of Ohio 10). Ralls Genet (33, 35, 37, 40, 41). Ralls Genet (39, 
42). Ralls Janet (36). Paule Jannet (12). Raule's Genet ( 24). Raule's 
Janet (13, 15). Raule's Janett (5). Raule's Janette (10). Raule's 
Jannet (14). Raule's J annette (13). Raule's J annetting (14, 22). Rattle's 
Jennetting (10). Raul's Gennetting (6, 22). Raul's Gcnnetting (13). 
Rawle's Genet {23, 24, 26). Razvle's Genet (22). Rawle's Janet (9, 16, 
17, 20, 21, 22, 27, 2S, 29, 31, 32, 38). Ra7i'le's Janet (30, 35). Rawle's Janett 
(2, 3). Rawle's Jannet (11). Raz^Ie's Jannet (22). Razcle's Jennet (8). 
Ra-K'le's Jenneting (11). Razvle's Jennetle (13). Raid's Janet (13). Red 
Nez'erfail? (22). Rockremain (12). Roekreniain (6, 11). Jiock Remain 
(13, 14, 22). Rockrimmon (lo). Reek Rimnion (13, 14, 21, 22).. Royal 
Janetle (33). IViuter Genneting (13). Winter Jannetting (14,22). Yellozu 
Janetfe (13). Yelloz^' Janet! (14, 22). 

Ralls, although a southern variety, often develops pretty good 
quality when grown as far north as Western New York and 
Southern ^ilichigan. As grown here it seldom reaches marketable 
size unless it is thinned and it is rather dull in color being at the 
best only moderately attractive but it has the merit of being a good 
keeper and holds its flavor well till late in the season. In ordinary 
storage it is in season from December to May with April as the 
commercial limit (42). 

In districts farther south and west and, generally speaking, 
throughout the Ben Davis apple regions it produces fruit of superior 
quality, is generally held in high esteem for home use and has a 
recognized standing in market. It has there been cultivated exten- 
sively either under the common names of Jeniton or Ralls Janet or 
under some variation of these names. It has also been grown to a 
limited extent under the names Ncverfail and Rock Rimmon. The 
younger trees frequently bear annually and yield fruit of fairly good 
size but with increasing age the trees often become biennial or oc- 
casional croppers and in bearing years are apt to be so overloaded 



272 The Apples of New York. 

that the fruit is small. On account of the lateness of its blooming 
season Ralls frequently sets a good crop of fruit when earlier 
blooming varieties fail on account of unfavorable weather during 
the blossoming season. 

Ralls is but little known among New York fruit growers and is 
not recommended for planting in this state. 

Historical. The first that is definitely known of this variety is that trees 
of it were growing on the farm of Mr. Caleb Ralls in Amherst county, 
Virginia, something over a hundred years ago. There is no evidence to show 
whether it was a local seedling or an importation from some other section. 
Howsley (23) states that it was brought from France to President Jefferson 
by M. Genet at that time the minister from that country. This claim does 
not seem to have been made in print till about one hundred years after the 
time of its alleged occurrence and as there are no records to verify it, its 
truth seems problematical. We regard it as probably a Virginia seedling. 
Spreading from Virginia it has come into more or less common cultivation 
southward into the Carolinas and Georgia, northward into Southern Michigan 
and westward across the Mississippi valley to and beyond the Ozarks, but it 
remains practically unknown among New York fruit growers. 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous. Form upright becoming spread- 
ing and inclined to droop, dense. Tzvigs short, curved, moderately stout ; 
internodes short. Bark dull brown mingled with, olive-green, lightly mottled 
with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lcnticch numerous, small, oblong, not 
raised. Buds medium in size, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, slightly 
pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium to above, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish oblate varying to roundish inclined to conic, rather symmetrical. 
Stem often long and slender. Cavity obtuse to acute, deep, sometimes com- 
pressed or somewhat furrowed, often russeted. Calyx small to medium, 
usually somewhat open. Basin often a little oblique, wide, rather shallow to 
moderately deep, inclined to abrupt, wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, yellow or greenish blushed and mottled with pinkish red, in- 
distinctly striped with dull carmine, overspread with a light bloom which 
together with broken stripes of thin whitish scarf-skin combine to give the 
fruit a rather dull appearance. Dots numerous, small, whitish or russet. 

Calyx tube broad cone-shape or frequently funnel-shape. Stamens marginal 
or nearly so. 

Core medium in size, axile or slightly abaxile ; cells closed or partly open ; 
core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels rather flat, broadly roundish, 
emarginate, slightly tufted. Seeds medium or above, narrow, plump, acute, 
dark. 

Flesh whitish, firm, moderately fine-grained, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, 
subacid with a slight mingling of sweet, aromatic, pleasant, very good for 
dessert 



The Apples of New York. 273 

RAMBO, 

References, i. Dom. Encyc, 1804. (cited by 40). 2. Coxe, 1817:116. iig. 
3. Thacher, 1822:134. 4. Buel, .V. Y. Bd. Aiir. Mem., 1825:476. 5. Wilson, 
1828:136. 6. Fessenden, 1828:131. 7. Cat. Hort. Sm-. London, 1831:28. 8. 
Kenrick, 1832:37. 9. Manning, Mag,. Hort., 7:49. 1841. 10. Downing, 1845: 
93. fig. II. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1846:191. fig. 12. Elliott, Horticulturist, 
1:388. 1847. 13. Kirtland, lb., 2:544. 1848. 14. Thomas, 1849:151. 15. Cole, 
1849:116. fig. 16. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:472. 1850. 17. Humrickhouse, 
Mag. Hort., 15:28. 1849. fig. 18. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. ¥., 3:29. 1851. 19. 
Elliott, 1854:102. fig. 20. Horticulturist, 10:87. i^SS- 21. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat., 1856. 22. Hooper, 1857:73. 23. Ih., 1857:74. 24. Gregg, 1857:57. 25. 
Horticulturist, 13:1-14. 1858. 26. Mag. Hort., 30:162. 1864. 27. Warder, 1867: 
4S4. fig. 28. Downing, 1869:319. fig. 29. Fitz, 1872:163. 30. Barrj-, 1883:352. 

31. Hogg, 1884:184. 32. Wickson, 1889:245. 33. Lyon, Alich. Hort. Soc. Rf't., 
1890:296. 34. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:247. 35. Mathews, Ky. Sta. Bui, 50: 

32. 1894. 36. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:337. 1896. 37. Bndd- 
Hansen, 1903:158. fig. 38. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:53. 
1903. 39. Beach and Clark, A''. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:140. 1904. 40. Ragan, U. S. 
B. P. I. Bui, 56:247. 1905. 

Synonyms. American. Scek-No-Furthcr (7). Bread a)id Cheese (27, 40, 
of New Jersey 18). Bread and Cheese A/^ple (2, 19, 28, of New Jersey 10, 
15 and 17). Delaz^'are ( 2S, 40'). Fall Romanite (28, 40). Gray Romanite 
(28, 40). Large Rambo? (28, 40). Rambo (5). Rambouillet (28, 40). 
Ramboulette (23). Ramboulcttc? (40). Rom.xxite (5). Romanite (2, 4, 
7, 8, 15, 19, 28, 40, of New Jersey 10, 14, 17, 18 and 2y). Seek-No-Farther 
(19, of Philadelphia 2). Seek-No-Furthcr (4, 28, 40, of New Jersey 10, 17 
and 18, of Pennsylvania 22, of Philadelphia 8 and 15). S trilled Rambo (17, 
28, 40). Terry's Redstreak (19, 28, 40). Trumpington (40, ?28). 

The accompanying plate shows the whole fruit of Rambo. The 
section is shown on the same plate as that which shows the whole 
fruit of Walbridge. 

This fruit belongs in the same group as the Domine. Downing 
states^ that " Domine so much resembles the Rambo externally, 
that the two are often confounded together, and the outline of the 
latter fruit may be taken as nearly a facsimile of this. The Domine 
is, however, of a livelier color, and the flavor and season of the two 
fruits are very distinct, — the Rambo being rather a high-flavored 
early winter or autumn apple, while the Domine is a sprightly, 
juicy, long-keeping winter fruit." Rambo when well grown is an 
apple of excellent quality but in this state it does not take first rank 
for any purpose. It is less attractive in size and color and less 
desirable for market than Baldwin or Northern Spy. For culinary 

1 Downing, 1869: 147. 



274 The Aitf.es of Xi:w York. 

uses it is easily surpassed by Rhode Island Greening and for dessert 
by Tompkins King, Hubbardston and other apples of Rambo sea- 
son. When well colored it is rather attractive, the prevailing color 
being- a good bright red which forms a pleasing contrast with the 
yellow ground color. A'^ery often, however, the red color is not 
predominant and the fruit is rather dull and not particularly attract- 
ive. Often a considerable portion of the fruit does not reach good 
marketable size, particularly when borne on old trees that are over- 
loaded. The tree is less hardy than some standard varieties of this 
region and in unfavorable locations it is sometimes more or less 
injured by whiter. It seems to do particularly well on rather light, 
rich soils, either sandy or of limestone formation with well-drained 
subsoil. The wood is rather brittle and the trees often break with 
heavy crops. 

Warder (27) says that " It is a fall and early winter fruit, and 
some pomologists on the southern borders o-f its culture object to 
it that it will not keep long, and that it soon becomes dry and 
mealy when put away. When grown further north it is smaller, 
but more solid, and remains juicy until spring. It should b^ 
gathered early, even before it is well colored, and kept cool to make 
it retain its flavor and juiciness." 

As gro'wn at this Station its commercial limit appears to be 
November, although some of the fruit may be kept till March in 
apparently good condition. Storage men give its season as ex- 
tending in cellar storage to November and in chemical cold storage 
to February. It does not stand heat well before going into storage 
and goes down quickly, losing in quality and firmness, shriveling, 
becoming mealy and bursting (39). It was formerly grown to some 
extent for market in some portions of the state but during the last 
half century it has gradually lost ground in competition with other 
better commercial sorts. It is not now recommended for planting 
in commercial orchards in New York, but on account of the agree- 
able dessert qualities of the fruit it will doubtless continue to be 
grown to a limited extent for home use. 

Historical. Origin unknown. In 1817 Coxe (2) remarked that it was 
much cultivated in Delaware, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The extent of 
its cultivation at that time indicates that it must have originated at least fifty 
years previous to that date. According to Coxe it takes its name from the 




WALBRIDGE 




RAMBO 



The ArPLES of New York. 275 

families by whom it was brought into notice (2). It was introduced into 
Ohio by the early settlers from Pennsylvania and its cultivation gradually 
spread westward with the tide of emigration (27). In many localities in the 
central portion of the Mississippi valley it is still a favorite fruit. Wickson 
(32) says that on the Pacific Coast it has failed to sustain the reputation 
which it gained in the East. Generally speaking, it appears to be less popular 
and certainly less widely planted to-day than it w'as a quarter of a century 
ago. 

Tree. 

Tier medium size, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form upright spread- 
ing, open. The old bark is peculiarly rough. Tzi'igs medium to long, moder- 
ately stout, broad; internodes medium. Bark brownish-red mingled with 
olive-green, lightly blotched and irregularly streaked with scarf-skin, slightly 
pubescent. Lciiticcls numerous, small to' medium, round, not raised. Buds 
medium, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or sometimes large, often averaging no more than medium 
size, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form usually roundish and somewhat 
oblate but varies to roundish oblong approaching truncate, symmetrical, 
usually regular lint sometimes faintl}' ribbed. Stem short to medium in 
length, rather slender. Cavity pretty regular, moderately wide, rather deep, 
acute or acuminate, sometimes smooth but usually with some outspreading 
russet. Calyx small to medium, usually closed ; lobes medium to long, rather 
narrow, acute to acuminate. Basin wide, moderately deep, rather abrupt, 
often furrowed and somewhat wrinkled. 

Skin thin, a little tough, smooth or slightly roughened with russet dots, 
pale greenish-yellow, mottled with red, striped with carmine and overspread 
with grayish bloom. Dots conspicuous, rather large, whitish, gray or russet. 
In highly colored specimens the red is predominant. 

Calyx tube funnel- form, rather long with wide limb. Stamens median to 
marginal. 

Core medium to small, axile ; cells closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels 
roundish to broadly obovate, emarginate, slighly tufted. Seeds medium to 
rather large, broad, ratlKr ilat, obtuse, slightly tufted, light and dark brown. 

Flesh whitish with tinge of yellow or green, firm, rather fine, very crisp, 
tender, juicy, mildly subacid, aromatic, good to very good. Particularly 
desirable for dessert. 

RED CANADA» 

References, i. Thacher, 1822:131. 2. Fessenden, 1828:131. 3. ?\Iaining, 
Mag. Horf., 7:47. 1841. 4. Hovey, lb., 13:75. 1847. fig. 5. Watts and Down- 
ing, Horticulturist, 1:482. 1847. 6. Downing, lb., 2:289. i847- 7- Hovey, 
Mag. Horf., 14:124. i8-]8. 8. Horticulturist, 2:483, 544. 1848. 9. Thomas, 
1849:171. fig. 10. Cole, 1849:127. II. Emmons, Xat. Hist. X . Y., 3:101. 1851. 
col. pi. No. 42. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat.. 1852. 13. Mag. Hort.. 19:68. 1853. 
14. Elliott, 1854:102. fig. 15. Hooper, 1857:76. i5. Downing, 1857:07. fig. 
17. Warder, 1867:542. 18. Regel, 1868:465. 19. Barry. 1883:353. 20. Wick- 
son, i889:2_i7. 21. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt.. 1890:296. 22. Bailey. An. 
Hort., 1892:2^7. 23. Amcr. Card., 20:104. 1899. 24. Budd-Hansen, 1903:161. 



276 The Apples of Xew York. 

ng. 25. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:53. 1903. 26. Beach and 
Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:140. 1904- 

Synonyms. Bristol of some. Canada Red (25). Canada Redstreak (26). 
Nonesuch (2). Nonsuch (i, 3, 8, 13). Nonsuch (9). Old Nonsuch (7, 
10). Old Nonsuch (6, 9, 14, 15, 21, of Massachusetts 8 and 16). Red Canada 
(13. of Western New York 8 and to). Red Winter (26). Richfield Nonsuch 
(10, II, 14, 15, 16, 19, of Ohio 9). Steele's Red Jl'inter (20, 24, 25, 26, of 
Michigan 16). Steel's Red (17). Winter Nonsuch (10). Not the Canada 
Red of some portions of Ontario. See Roseau, page 292. 

This is a red winter apple which belongs in the same group with 
Baldwin and Esopus Spifcoibiirg. When well grown and in prime 
condition it is one of the best apples of its season for dessert use 
on account of its desirable size, attractive form and color and 
superior quality. It is well adapted to either general or special 
markets and often brings more than average prices. The quality 
of the fruit varies much in rlifferent seasons and in different locali- 
ties. When grown on heavy clay soils its quality in some seasons 
is decidedly inferior to that of Baldwin and would be rated only 
fair to good ; but when grown on certain fertile soils of a gravelly 
or sandy nature in favorable seasons it develops color, flavor and 
quality fully equal to that of Esopus Spitzcnbnrg. It stands heat 
well before going into storage and goes down gradually (26). Its 
season is somewhat variable. The commercial limit in ordinary 
storage is January or February, and in cold storage, April. Its 
season for home use usually extends from November to March or 
later. Although the fruit may remain apparently sound it is apt to 
lose much of its high flavor after midwinter. The tree is somewhat 
lacking in hardiness and is but a moderate grower. It should be 
top-worked on some hardier and more vigorous variety such as Bald- 
win or Northern Spy. In some cases it is an annual bearer but 
more often it is not a sure cropper. 

\\'augh recognizes Roseau as the correct name for an apple which 
is commonly known in Ontario under the name of Canada Red. 
It is quite distinct from the variety above described.^ For further 
consideration of this matter the reader is referred to Roseau, page 292. 

Historical. This variety probably originated in New England but its origin 
is obscure, Thacher ( i ) in 1822 described it under the name Nonsuch and 
later Fessenden (2), Manning (3), Hovey (7) and other New England writers 

^Can. Hort., 18:184. 1895. Waugh, Rural N. Y., 62:143. 1903. Rural N. ¥., 62:238, 
282. 1903. 



The Apples of New York. 277 

recognized this name for the variety. In 1849 Cole (10) described it as the 
Old Nonsuch. It appears to have been brought into Western New York from 
the vicinity of Toronto, Canada, and afterwards cultivated in this region under 
the name Canada Red. The earliest mention we find of the variety under 
the name Red Canada or Canada Red, as these names appear to have been 
used interchangeably, is that of Watts and Downing in 1847 (5). In Michigan 
it has been often cultivated under the name of Steele's Red Winter. In some 
portions of Eastern New York it is grown under the name Bristol. It has 
been pretty generally distributed throughout the state. In some few localities 
its cultivation in commercial orchards is increasing but seldom has it been 
planted to any considerable extent, and, generally speaking, it is found only in 
old orchards. 

Tree. 

Tree medium to large, moderately vigorous to vigorous ; branches short, 
stout, curved, crooked. Form upright to roundish, rather dense. Twigs 
medium in length, straight or nearly so, rather slender to moderately stout; 
internodes below medium to long. Bark olive-green tinged with reddish- 
brown, netted or streaked with thin scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels 
scattering, not very conspicuous, small, round, slightly raised. Buds promin- 
ent, large to medium, long, narrow, plump, acute, free or nearly so, slightly 
pubescent. Leaves medium to broad, rather thin. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to nearly large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish inclined to conic and somewhat flattened at the base, nearly sym- 
metrical and pretty regular but sometimes elliptical or obscurely ribbed and 
with sides a little unequal. Stem medium to rather slender, pubescent. 
Cavity usually large, acuminate, deep, wide, often partly russeted and with 
radiating green or russet rays, usually symmetrical, sometimes slightly fur- 
rowed. Calyx small, closed or partly open, pubescent. Basin small, usually 
narrow, shallow to moderately deep and rather abrupt, furrowed and some- 
times slightly wrinkled, often somewhat oblique. 

Skin tough, nearly smooth especially toward the cavity, slightly rough about 
the basin, rather clear light yellow or green largely overspread in well-colored 
specimens with a fine deep red blush, indistinctly striped with deeper red. 
Dots conspicuous, grayish or fawn colored. Toward the cavity they are scat- 
tering, large and often elongated as in Baldwin and Esopus Spitzenburg, but 
as they converge toward the apex they become more numerous and smaller. 
Prevailing effect very attractive bright deep red. 

Calyx tube elongated cone-shape or somewhat funnel-form. Stamens 
marginal. 

Core sessile, axile or nearly so, medium to rather small ; cells symmetrical, 
closed or slit ; core lines clasping. Carpels usually smooth, roundish, narrow- 
ing somewhat toward the apex, mucronate, but slightly emarginate if at all. 
Seeds very numerous, medium to rather large, angular, long, moderately wide, 
plump, obtuse. 

Flesh whitish with yellow or greenish tinge, firm, crisp, rather fine-grained, 
■tender, juicy, aromatic, rich, agreeably suliacid but becoming rather too mild 
toward the close of the season, good to best. 



278 The Apples of New York. 

RED RUSSET. 

References, i. Cole, 1849:131. 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:95. 1851. 
3. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 19:125. 1853. 4. Downing, 1857:97. 5. Hovey, Mag. 
Hort., 29:260. 1863. fig. 6. Warder, 1867:628. 7. Thomas, 1875:229. 8. 
Barry, 1883:353. 9. Can. Hort., 11:283. 1888. 10. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1890:296. II. Baile}', An. Hort., 1892:247. 12. Maynard, Putnam and 
Fletcher, Mass. Hatch. St a. Bid., 44:4. 1897. 13. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. 
P. I. Bui, 48:53. 14. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. But., 248:140. 1904. 

This is one of the russet Baldwins referred to on page 59. It originated 
as a sport on a Baldwin tree on the farm of Air. Aaron Sanborn, Hampton 
Falls, N. H., about 1840. It was introduced to notice by Cole in 1849 (l, 3). 
It is distinct from the Red Russet of Hooperi which is the Golden Pearmain 
of Elliotts, DowningS and other pomological writers. Instances are known 
where it has borne smooth fruit intcrmir.gled on the same twigs with russet 
fruit.'* The Red Russet is almost universally considered less valuable than 
Baldwin both by fruit growers and fruit dealers. It is known in many parts 
of New York but is nowhere planted extensively and is gradually going out 
of cultivation. 

For a technical description of the tree and fruit the reader is referred to 
the description of Baldwin on page 59. 

REDSTREAK. 

References, i. Forsyth, 1803:56. 2. Coxc, 1817:157. fig. 3. Thacher, 1822: 
133. 4. Forsyth. 1824:123. 5. Wilson, 1828:136. 6. Floy-Lindley, 1833:81. 
7. Downing, 1845:146. 8. Thomas, 1849:171. 9. Cole, 1849:137. 10. Emmons, 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:74. 185 1. fig. 11. Townley, Horticulturist. 6:496. 185 1. 
12. Elliott, 1854:177. 13. Warder. 1867:718. 14. Fitz, 1872:147, 159. 15. 
Leroy, 1873:781. fig. 18. Pa. Pr. Gr. Soc. Rpt., 1881:65. 17. Hogg. 1884:188. 

Synonyms. English Red Streak (16). English Redstreak (id, 13). 
Herefordshire Red Streak (7, 12). Herefordshire Redstreak (15, 17). John- 
son (17). Red Streak (i, 3, 4. 7, 9, 11, 12, 17). Red Streak (15). Rouge 
Rayee (15). Scudamore's Crab (7, 15, 17). Scudamous Crab (12). 

An English cider fruit formerly cultivated extensively in some portions of 
New York but now practically obsolete here. Downing (7) remarks that it 
is a capital English cider apple which thrives admirably in this country and 
is very highly esteemed as it makes a rich, high-flavored, strong liquor, and 
the tree is a handsome grower and a great bearer. Fie describes the fruit (7) 
as of medium size, roundish, with small calyx, rather deep basin, rather 
slender, short stem; skin streaked with rich red and with a few spots and 
streaks of yellow ; flesh yellow, rich, firm, dry, good. 

Coxe published the following description of it in 1817 (2). "This tree was 
originally brought from England, where it possessed a high reputation as a 

1 Hooper, 1857:78. 

^Elliott. 1354: iri. 

^Downing, 1869: 194. 

*At the meeting of the Oh.io .State Horticultural Society December. 1903, Mr. H. H. 
Aultfather exhibited samples of russeted Red Russet and smooth-skinned Red Russet 
grown by Mr. W. P. Myers, Minerva. Ohio. Fruits of the two types grew on different 
parts of the tree and were intermingled on the same twigs. 





RED RUSSET 



The Apples of New York. 279 

cider fruit; it has been cultivated extensively in this country, by the descend- 
ants of the English settlers in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The 
climate of America is supposed to have revived the character of this apple, 
which had deteriorated in its native soil, from the long duration of the 
variety — the fruit is rather small ; the form is oblong, flattened at both ends, 
the stem and crown both sunk — the skin is red, faintly streaked and spotted 
with yellow — the flesh is yellow, rich, firm, and dry ; it hangs late, and re- 
quires to be matured by housing to make the finest cider. The character of 
the cider, when properly made and fined, is very high, both for strength and 
flavour — the apple keeps well through the winter, and is much esteemed as 
an excellent kitchen fruit in the latter part of the winter. The tree is of 
handsome, regular growth, and a great bearer; the opinion of dealers is, that 
this cider is difficult to fine fit for bottling: when perfectly cleared, it ranks 
among our first fruit liquors." 

RED WINTER PEARMAIN. 

References, i. Elliott, 1854:141. fig. 2. Elliott, 1854:115. fig. 3. Down- 
ing, 1857:182. 4. Downing, 1859:329. fig. 5. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1870. 6. 
Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:256. 1905. 

Red Winter Pearmain is not now accepted by pomologists as the correct 
name of any apple but it is recognized as a synonym for several different 
varieties. The following is a list of synonyms as corrected by Ragan (6). 

Red Winter Pearmain (3, 4). Synonym of Buncombe. 

Red JVinter Pearmain (i). Synonym of Long Red. 

Red JVinter Pearmain (5). Synonym of Milam. 

Red JVinter Pearmain (2). Synonym of Westfield Seek-No-Further. 

REINETTE. 

The term Reinette, as designating a certain class of apples, has 
been introduced into English from the French. Leroy^ tells us that 
French horticultural literature shows that the word has been in use 
about four hundred years. Starting in with only one variety 
of this name the number has gradually increased until to-day there 
are several hundred. Leroy thinks they are all descended from the 
original variety, the Reinette franche or Reinette Blanche, which is 
the French Reinette of Downing.^ The derivation of the word is 
a disputed point, certain etymologists holding that it is the diminu- 
tive form of Reine, or queen, and others thinking that it is a cor- 
ruption of Rainet, a colloquial French word meaning a small frog. 
While European pomologists speak of the Reinettes as a distinct 
type, an examination of the technical descriptions of the various 

'Leroy. 1873:6 14. 
2 Downing, 1869: 184. 
V(;L. I — 12 



28o The Apples of New York. 

Reinettes does not show tliat they have any constant characters 
which are in any way pecuHar to themselves. Diel gives the follow- 
ing eight characters by which Reinettes can be recognized.^ 

" I. They have a fine-grained, delicate, crisp, firm flesh. 

" 2. They are mostly the ideal of a handsomely shaped apple ; in 
them the convexity or bulge of the middle of the apple towards the 
eye is the same as that towards the stalk, or not much different. 

" 3. They are all gray dotted, or have russety patches, or com- 
pletely covered with russet. 

" 4. They have rarely an unctuous skin. 

" 5. They have all the rich, aromatic, sugary, and brisk flavor, 
which is calkd the Reinette flavor. 

" 6. They decay very readily, and must, of all apples, hang longest 
on the tree. 

" 7. The really sweet and at the same time aromatic apples belong 
to the Reinettes, only as regards their shape, their character, and 
their fine and firm flesh. 

" 8. Apples with fine, firm, crisp flesh, which cannot of themselves 
form a distinct class ; for instance, the Pippins belong to this class." 

This classification of Diel is evidently an arbitrary one and differs 
in spirit at least from the conception of Leroy that the Reinettes 
represent one family descended from a single original variety. 

REINETTE PIPPIN. 

References, i. Downing, 1869:332. 2. Leroy, 1873:724. £g. 3. Powell 
and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:54. 1903. 4. Beach and Clark, AT. Y. Sta. 
Bui., 248:140. 1904. 

Synonyms. Reinette Pepin (2). Reinette Pippin (2). 

Fruit pretty uniform in size but often a little unsymmetrical with 
sides unequal. It is green in autumn but eventually becomes 
more or less tinged with pale yellow. It is an uncertain keeper in 
storage. It sometimes keeps well till midwinter but it often shows 
a high rate of loss during November. Early November is the 
common commercial limit for handling this variety in ordinary 
storage, although its season extends from October to March. The 
com,niercial limit in cold storage appears to vary from February first 

■Warder, 1867:370. 





REINETTE PIPPIN 



Tjiic Ai'i'LKS OF New York. 281 

to March first. As grown at this Station the tree is healthy, strong 
and a rcHable cropper, yielding moderate to heavy crops annually. 
In fact it is one of the most productive of the varieties thus far tested 
here, often bearing so heavily that a considerable portion of the 
fruit is below medium size. Although Reinette Pippin is excellent 
in (juality. Rhode Island Greening surpasses it for culinary use as it 
also docs in size and symmetry. 

Historical. Tliis variety originated in France where it has been known in 
cultivation for more than one hundred years (2). It appears to be but little 
known in this country. 

Tree. 

Tree medium to rather large, vigorous ; branches short, curved ; laterals 
willowy, slender and somewhat drooping". Form roundish to upright and 
rather spreading, open. Tzvigs medium to short, straight or somewhat curved, 
stout to moderately slender ; internodes medium to short. Bark reddish-brown 
mingled with olive-green, partly streaked with thin scarf-skin, heavily pubes- 
cent. Lenticcls scattering, medium, roundish or oblong, slightly raised. Buds 
very deeply set in bark, below medium to small, broad, flat, very obtuse, ap- 
pressed, quite pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium, sometimes large or very large, pretty uniform in size 
but variable in shape. Form oblate, occasionally roundish, rarely slightly in- 
clined to conic, often irregularly elliptical or obscurely angular; sides char- 
acteristically unequal as shown in the accompanying colored plate. Stem short 
to very short. Cavity medium or below, acute or acuminate, deep, moderately 
wide or rather narrow, often slightly furrowed, sometimes compressed, some- 
times with outspreading rays of thin greenish-russet. Calyx small to above 
medium, open to nearly or quite closed ; lobes long, acute to acuminate, re- 
flexed. Basin variable, small to rather large, moderately shallow to rather 
deep, narrow to rather wide, rather abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, green or pale yellow or often whitish 
especiallj' toward the cavity, occasionally very slightly blushed. Dots numer- 
ous, whitish or russet, areolar. 

Calyx tube large, deep, flaring, cone-shape to almost funnel-form. Stamens 
median to basal. 

Core small to nearly medium, usually more or less abaxile ; cells irregular 
in size, sometimes unsynmietrical, partly open or closed; core lines clasping. 
Carpels roundish to elliptical, obtusely emarginate, smooth. Seeds variable, 
irregular, often large, wide, obtuse. 

Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, firm, tender, rather crisp, moder- 
ately coarse-grained, subacid, rich, juicy, good for either dessert or culinary 
vises. 

REPKA MALENKA. 

References, i. Budd. la. Hort. Soc. Rft., 1880:525. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Rpt., 1881:1 iS. 3. Webster, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:113. 4. Budd, la. Agr. 
Coll. Bui, 1885:16. 5. lb., 1890:24. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 7. 



282 The Apples of New York. 

Taylor, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892:57. 8. Harris, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1892:274. 
9. Budd, la. Sta. Bid., 19:541. 1892. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:20. 11. 
Ragan, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1901:49. 12. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui., 76:92. 
1902. fig. 13. Budd-Hansen, 1903:163. Hg. 14. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56: 
181. 1905. 15. Ragan. U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:260. 1905. 

Synonyms. Dept. No. 418 (4). Green Szveet (12). Little Repka (14). 
Little Seedling (2). Little Seedling (3, 12, 14, 15). No. 410 (i, 5, 9, 12, 
13). Rcipka Melenkaya (14). Rcpka Malenka (14). 

Repka Malenka is said to be one of the best keepers among the Russian 
varieties but the fruit is too small to be valuable (7). 

Hansen (12) gives the following description of this variety: "Fruit below 
medium, conical to roundish conical, obscurely angular, somewhat irregular 
and unequal ; surface j^ellow, striped, splashed, mixed and dotted dull red on 
sunny side ; dots obscure, few, very minute, white ; cavity regular, obtuse, with 
considerable radiating russet; stem medium to long; basin abrupt, narrow, 
shallow, slightly corrugated and wrinkled ; calyx open or closed, segments 
erect convergent, very long. Core closed, clasping ; cells round ; tube funnel- 
shaped, sometimes linear (long and very narrow) ; stamens marginal or 
median; seeds about ten, large, plump, packed tightly in the small cells; flesh 
white, firm, mild subacid, good. Late winter and spring." 

RHODE ISLAND GREENING. 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:129. fig. 2. Thacher, 1822:134. 3. Buel, N. Y. 
Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:476. 4. Fessenden, 1828:131. 5. Cat. Hort. Soc. Lon- 
don, 1831:32. 6. Kenrick, 1832:52. 7. Floy-Lindley, 1833:37. 8. lb., 1833:86. 
9. Mag. Hort., 1:326, 364. 1835. 10. IManning, 1838:56. 11. lb., Mag. Hort., 
7:51. 1841. 12. Downing, 1845:128. fig. 13. Horticulturist, 1:257. 1846. 14. 
Jb., 1:361, 407, 431. 1847. 15. lb., 2:545. 1848. i5. lb., 3:292. 1848. 17. 
Thomas, 1849:184. 18. Cole, 1849:123. fig. 19. Elliott, Horticulturist, 3:420. 
1849. 20. Phoenix, lb., 4:472. 1850. 21. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:90. 
1851. col. pi. No. 22. 22. Hovey, 2:79. 1851. 23. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 
24. Elliott, 1854:104. fig. 25. Bivort, An. de Pom. Beige, 1855:60. 26. Gregg, 
1857:58. 27. Hooper, 1857:79. 28. Horticulturist, 13:144. 1858. 29. ///. 
Handb. Obst., 1:265. 1858. 30. Warder, 1867:414. fig. 31. Regel, 1868: 
453- 32- Mas, Le Verger, 1868:11. 33. Leroy, 1873:853. fig. 34. Lauche, 
i: col. pi. No. 62. 1882. 35. Barry, 1883:353. 36. Hogg, 1884:194. 37. Rural 
N. Y., 43:681. 1884. 38. Wickson, 1889:246. 39. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890:296. 40. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 41. Bredsted, 1893:171. 42. U. 
S. Pom. Bui, 7:354. 1898. 43. Adams, Amer. Card., 22:599. 1901. 44. 
Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:425. 45. Budd-Hansen, 1903:163. fig. 46. U.S. Dept. 
Agr. Yr. Bk., 1903:233. col. pi. No. 26. 47. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. L 
Bui, 48:54. 1903. 48. Beach and Clark, ;V. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:141. 1904. 

Synonyms. Burlington Greening (i, 6, 12, 24, 33, 36). Greening (17 and 
common colloquial usage). Green Newtown Pippin (7) erroneously, 
corrected by Floy. Green Ncivtown Pippin (36, erroneously Z2)^ ■ Hamp- 
shire Greening {2>2>)- Hampshire Greening (24). Jersey Greening (i, 
3). Jersey Greening (6. 24, 33, 36. ?2 and 12). Rhode Island (47). 
Rhode Island Greening (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 




\ 



\ 





f 



RHODE ISLAND GREENING 



The Apples of New York. 283 

18, 19, 20, 2T, 22, 22,, 24. 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 22,, 35, 36, 27^ 38, 39, 40, 
41, 44, 46, 48). Rhode Island Greening (47). V^erte de I'lle de Rhodes {22)- 
Verte de Rhode Island (23)- 

Rhode Island Greening is grown more extensively in New York 
than any other apple except the Baldwin and in a few sections of 
the state it surpasses even Baldwin. Its range of distribution on this 
continent is nearly coextensive with that of Baldwin. 

In accordance with the usage of the American Pomological 
Society (2t,) the word Greening in the name of this variety is put 
in italics as the first step toward shortening the name to Rhode 
Island. Fruit growers and fruit dealers know the variety very well 
by the name Rhode Island Greening but commonly call it by the 
simple name Greening. Among these classes of people it will doubt- 
less continue to be known by the name Greening or Rhode Island 
Greening as long as it remains in cultivation. 

The apple, as the name indicates, is green in color. It is com- 
monly deep grass-green in autumn, and later, as it ripens, develops 
more or less of a yellow color. It often has a dull blush and oc- 
casionally develops a rather bright red cheek but is never striped. 
Generally it is a reliable cropper and productive. The fruit has a 
recognized standing both in domestic and foreign markets and sells 
readily at good prices. It is generally regarded as one of the very 
best cooking apples grown being almost the peer of Esopus Spitj:en- 
burg and decidedly superior to Baldwin for all culinary purposes. 
It is alsO' very good in quality for dessert use. Hovey well remarks 
(22) : "As a cooking apple, the Greening is unsurpassed; and as 
a dessert fruit of its season, has few equals. To some tastes it is 
rather acid; but the tenderness of its very juicy flesh, the spright- 
liness of its abundant juice, and the delicacy of its rich and fine 
flavor is not excelled by any of the numerous varieties that we at 
present possess. In addition to these merits, it ripens up of a fine 
mellow shade of yellow, and its entire flesh, when well matured, is 
of the same rich tint." It is a favorite variety in nearly all of the 
apple-growing sections of the state but it succeeds particularly well 
in Central and Western New York and in the middle portion of the 
Hudson valley. When grown farther south it is less desirable for 
commercial purposes because it ripens earlier and is not so good a 
keeper. In the North it is a little less hardy than Baldwin. It is a 



284 The Apples of New York. 

good variety to grow with the Baldwin in commercial orchards 
because, being a little earlier in season, it can be picked and marketed 
before it is necessary to pick Baldwin. Moreover it bears good 
crops some years when there is but a light crop of Baldwins or per- 
haps none at all. 

In regions best adapted to its cultivation it thrives on dififerent 
slopes and on a variety of soils, but generally, it appears to do par- 
ticularly well on fertile gravelly or sandy loam with well-drained 
clay subsoil. The tree is long-lived and eventually becomes large 
although it is not an exceptionally rapid grower. It is hardy, 
strong, vigorous, and usually pretty healthy but unless thorough 
preventive treatment is given, both the foliage and the fruit are 
often injured by the apple-scab fungus. In some locations the limbs 
are rather susceptible to the disease known as canker.^ 

The tree does not come into bearing very young and in many cases 
it is classed as a biennial cropper, but in favorable locations with 
good care it becomes almost an annual bearer yielding moderate to 
heavy crops. The fruit hangs well to the tree until it begins to ripen, 
but then is apt to drop to a considerable extent especially in high 
winds. The tree has a tendency to form a rather dense head particu- 
larly when the soil is kept fertile and well tilled and the foliage is 
thoroughly protected from the attacks of insects and fungi. In 
pruning, special care should be taken to keep the head sufficiently 
open so that the light may reach the foliage in all parts of the tree. 
. Sometim.es the orchardist makes the mistake of cutting out large 
branches from the center of the tree thereby exposing the remaining 
limbs to injury by sunscald. A better way is, thin the top every 
year by removing as many of the smaller branches as may be neces- 
sar}- to make it uniformly open. In training the young tree it is 
well to form the head rather high because as it matures the branches 
become long, wide-spreading and more or less drooping, and where 
the tree is headed low the lower branches eventually are so much 
in the way that it is necessary to remove them. ^Moreover when 
loaded with fruit these bend so close to the ground as to interfere 
with the free circulation of the air beneath the tree, and thus condi- 

iPaddock, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:331. 1899. lb., 19:342. 1900. 



TiiK Ai'PLRS OF New York. 285 

tions are produced which favor the development of the apple scab 
and other fung-ous diseases. When well grown. Rhode Island 
Greening produces a large percentage of high-grade fruit that is 
smooth, uniform and i)retty large with little loss from undersized 
or other low-grade apples. It appears to be somewhat more subject 
than Baldwin to the attacks of apple scab and unless thorough pre- 
ventive treatment is given this trouble is apt to cause very serious 
loss both by direct injury to the fruit and by opening the way to 
the attacks of other fungi, notably the pink-rot fungus.^ 

In ordinary storage it is in season from October to March or 
April and its common commercial limit is January or early February. 
It may be held commercially in cold storage till March or April (48). 
It ripens rapidly during periods of warm weather in autumn and 
does not stand heat well before going into storage as this induces 
scald. If put in cold storage in good condition the fruit keeps well 
and goes down gradually but if aiTected by scald or disease it goes 
down quickly. In going down, it scalds badly in storage, loses in 
quality, turns yellow, becomes mealy and large specimens are liable 
to burst (48). The markets of the East i~)refer the green-colored 
fruit probably because this color is regarded as an indication that 
the apples are not over-ripe. In some western markets however 
the more attractive yellow and blushed fruit sells well. Some fruit 
growers follow the practice of picking the fruit while it is still quite 
green in order to hold its green color. Such fruit does not have as 
good flavor and quality as that which is allowed to become properly 
ripened on the tree and probably it is more liable to scald but storage 
men differ in their opinions on this point. It is very important that 
fruit of this variety which is intended for cold storage should be 
hurried into storage as soon as it is picked. This practice is more 
essential with Rhode Island Greening than with the average 
variety (48). 

Historical. The locality of the origin of Rhode Island Greening is not 
known with certainty but there is little reason to doubt that it originated in 
the State of Rhode Island and probably in the vicinity of Newport near the 
place now known as Green's End (43), "where, in olden times, there was a 
tavern kept by ]\Ir. Green, who raised apple trees from seed. Among the trees 

•Eustace, A'^. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 22:io8. 1903. n«f. .>. 



286 The Apples of New York. 

thus produced was one which bore a large green apple. The scions of this 
tree were in such demand by the people who stopped there as guests, that 
the tree died from excessive cutting and exhaustion. The fruit which resulted 
from grafting with these scions was known by different names — in Rhode 
Island as the ' apple from Green's Inn,' while in adjoining States it was called 
the ' Green's Inn apple from Rhode Island.' * * * jj-, ^\^q town of Foster, 
upon the farm of Thomas R. Drowne, at Mt. Hygeia, stands an old Rhode 
Island Greening tree, which is supposed to be nearly 200 years old. * * * 
This tree, to the knowledge of members of the family now living, has borne 
uninterruptedly until within a few years. 1 * * * Qn the farm of Frederick 
W. Winslow, a few rods southwest of the lime kiln on the northern verge of 
Fruit Hill, stands a Rhode Island Greening tree, which is locally known as 
the ' Daughter Tree.' This tree is a limb of the mother tree, which was 
broken off in the September gale of 1815, and which upon being thrust into 
the rich moist soil, took root and became an independent tree. The mother 
tree was planted * * * in 1748. It was, therefore, 141 years old when it 
was cut down in 1889. * * * Authentic records of trees of this variety 
that were planted about 150 years ago in the soil of North Providence, on 
the farm of the late Lemuel Angell, are still in possession of that family. 
It was introduced into the old Plymouth colony from Newport in 1765; from 
there (?) it was carried into Ohio in 1796 by General Putnam." 

While we have no record of its earliest introduction into this state it is 
well known that Rhode Island Greening was pretty widely disseminated in 
the older settled regions of New York during the eighteenth century. It is 
often found in the very oldest orchards now in existence in New York and 
it also ranks as one of the most important varieties in recently planted 
orchards. 

Tree. 

Tree large or above medium, strong, vigorous. Form wide-spreading, some- 
what drooping, rather dense. Twigs medium to long, often somewhat crooked, 
rather stocky ; internodes usually short. Bark olive-green with reddish-brown 
tinge, thinly covered with lines of gray scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels scat- 
tering but rather conspicuous, medium in size to rather large, usually roundish, 
raised. Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, appressed, pubescent. 
Leaves rather large, broad ; foliage rather dense. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large or very large, quite uniform in shape and size. 
Form roundish to roundish oblate or sometimes slightly inclined to conic, 
regular or a little inclined to elliptical, sometimes obscurely ribbed, symmetrical 
or sides slightly unequal. Stem medium in length and thickness, partly green, 

'This tree on the Drowne farm is supposed by some to be the original Rhode Island 
Greening tree. An illustrated description of it appeared in the Providence Sunday Journal 
October 2, 1898. Within recent years a sprout has grown out from the base of this old 
tree. In 1900 Senator T. R. Drowne very kindly furnished this Station with scions from 
this sprout and also from the upper branches of the tree. A comparison of the trees 
propagated from these scions, which are now growing at this Station, shows that the trees 
from scions taken from the upper branches of the old tree are the true Rhode Island 
Greening, but those grown from scions taken from the sprout at the base of the old tree 
are very different, thus demonstrating that the old tree on the Drowne farm is not growing 
on it? own roots and, therefore, is not the original Rhode Island Greening tree. 



The Apples of New York. 287 

pubescent. Cavity medium in size, acute, medium in depth and width, sym- 
metrical or rarely lipped, usually smooth, sometimes russeted and with narrow, 
outspreading russet rays. Calyx below medium to rather large, usually closed, 
sometimes partly open, pubescent ; lobes moderately long, acute. Basin small 
to medium, shallow and obtuse to moderately deep and abrupt, regular or 
slightly furrowed. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, wa.xy, grass-green varying to rather 
yellow, sometimes with brownish-red blush which rarely deepens to a distinct 
bright red (37). Dots greenish-white or russet, especially numerous toward 
the basin and often submerged. Prevailing effect green or yellowish. 

Calyx tube rather wide, usually cone-shape with fleshy pistil point project- 
ing into the base but occasionally funnel-form. Stamens median to basal. 

Core medium or below, somewhat abaxile to axile or nearly so ; cells pretty 
uniform, symmetrical, closed or partly open ; core lines meeting if the calyx 
tube is cone-shape, otherwise clasping. Carpels rather thin, flat, emarginate, 
roundish to roundish cordate, sometimes tufted. Seeds few ; often some are 
abortive. The plump ones are large, moderately narrow, long, acute to acumi- 
nate and sometimes tufted. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy, rich, 
sprightly subacid, peculiarly flavored, very good in quality. 

RIDGE. 

References, i. Genesee Fanner, 1833. (cited by 10). 2. Emmons, Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 3:46. 1851. col. pi. No. 55. 3. Downing, 1857:184. 4. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat., 1862. 5. Warder, 1867:536. 6. Thomas, 1875:510. 7. Barry, 1883: 
354. 8. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:166. 10. Ragan, 
U. S. B. P. I. BuL, 56:262. 1905. 

Synonyms. Ridge Pippin (i, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). Ridge Pippin (9). Ridge 
Pippin (10). Ridged Pippin (2). Not the Ridge of Bui. 248 of this 
Station. 

Fruit of good yellow color, not particularly attractive in form, a 
late keeper and good in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. 
It averages pretty uniform in size with comparatively few culls. 
The tree is healthy, hardy, long-lived and a reliable cropper yielding 
good crops biennially. Some growers consider it a fairly profitable 
variety for local markets. 

Since Bulletin 248 was published it has been discovered that the 
variety therein mentioned under the name of Ridge or Ridge Pippin 
is in fact Ribston. It appears that the name Ridge Pippin is used 
by some dealers as a trade synonym for Ribston, and this use of it 
led us into the error of publishing a duplicate report on Ribston 
under the name Ridge. 

Historical. According to Warder (5) this variety originated in the vicinity 
of Philadelphia but Downing (3) regarded this as uncertain. Although it has 



288 The Apples of New York. 

long been known in cultivation it has gained but little recognition in New 
York state either for home or for commercial orchards. 

Tree. 

Tree large, vigorous. Form upright. Tungs erect, long to below medium, 
somewhat stout, straight or somewhat bent toward the tip and rather blunt; 
internodes medium. Bark dull brownish-red overlaid with a thin to rather 
heavy scarf-skin, quite pubescent. Lenticels not conspicuous, scattering, 
medium to small, slightly raised, roundish or elongated. Buds medium, mod- 
erately projecting, roundish, quite pubescent, appressed. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large. Form flat at the base, roundish conic to 
oblong conic, prominently and irregularly ribbed; axis sometimes oblique. 
Stem short to long, pubescent. Cavity small to large, acute to acuminate, very 
shallow to deep, usually furrowed, often with outspreading russet rays. Calyx 
small to sometimes medium, usuall}'^ closed. Basin rather small, often oblique, 
moderately shallow to rather deep, moderately wide, abrupt, characteristically 
ridged and wrinkled. 

Skin smootli. gloss}^ clear yellow, often with a faint blush which sometimes 
deepens to a pinkish-red shade similar to that seen in a highly colored Yellow 
Newtown, sometimes veined and flecked with russet. Dots numerous, fine to 
moderately coarse, russet, or pinkish-white and areolar or submerged. 

Calyx tube rather large, wide at top, cone-shape to funnel-form. Stamens 
marginal to median. 

Core axile, rather small ; cells usually closed ; core lines meeting or slightly 
clasping. Carpels roundish, rather wide, broadly emarginate, slightly tufted. 
Seeds light and dark reddish-brown, short to moderately long, wide, plump, 
obtuse, sometimes tufted. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, very firm, somewhat coarse, crisp, moderately 
tender, juicy, slightly aromatic, mild subacid, good. 

Season February to April or May. 

ROCK PIPPIN OF EASTERN NEW YORK. 

A variety is grown under this name in Eastern New York, particularly in 
Dutchess county, which we have been unable to identify as any other named 
variety. G. B. Brackett, U. S. Pomologist, writes us that it certainly is not 
Lansingburg of which Rock is given by Downing! as a synonym and adds 
that he is unable to identify it. It is neither the Rock of New Hampshire,^ 
the Rock of Pennsylvania 2 nor the Rock Pippin of Ohio. 2. 3 It somewhat 
resembles Tewksbury but is distinct from that variet}^ It also bears some 
resemblance to Yellow Newtown but is smoother and has a redder cheek. It 
is know 1 to some vmder the name Winter Blush.4 All of the descriptions of 
Winter Alaiden Blush or Winter Blush which we have been able to find are 
brief and unsatisfactory. So far as we can determine none of them refer to 
the variety under discussion. Fruit of what appears to be the same variety 

'Downing, 1881:i2 index, app. 

^"Downing, 1869:338. 

'Warder, 1867:69i. 

♦Letter, C. H. Deuell, Banga)!, N. Y., 1904. 





•■^ 



RIDGE 



TiiK Apples of New York. 289 

as this Rock Pippin lias been sent us from Pullman, Washington, under the 
name Rock. 

W. H. Hart of Poughkeepsie informs us that Rock Pippin is found in 
many orchards in Dutchess county but in no large blocks. He considers it 
a good variety to grow for profit because rt keeps very late and is a good 
export apple to succeed the Newtown at the end of the season. In some 
seasons it is inclined to scab. It does not average as large as Baldwin and 
grades less No. i fruit than that variety. Its commercial season in ordinary 
storage extends to April and in cold storage to June or July. Mr. Hart re- 
ports that the tree is large, very vigorous, upright, with long, erect, stout, 
yellowish-brown twigs. It is hardy, very healthy, long-lived, a reliable cropper 
and, if kept free from scab, yields good to heavy crops biennially. The tree 
does not come into bearing very young. The fruit hangs to the tree exception- 
ally well. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium to above^ uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
oblate to roundish, not inclined to conic, regular or nearly so ; sides sometimes 
unequal. Stem short to medium, moderately thick, pubescent. Cavity small 
to above medium, acute to somewhat acuminate or sometimes approaching 
obtuse, moderately deep to deep, narrow to moderately broad, furrowed 
obscurely if at all, usually somewhat russeted. Calyx medium to small, 
closed ; lobes convergent to connivent. Basin scarcely depressed and very 
obtuse or varying to moderately deep and abrupt, wide, slightly furrowed 
and wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth or slightly roughened with russet 
dots, rather glossy, green or light yellow thinly washed with pinkish-red often 
deepening to a distinct bright blush, streaked and mottled with pale scarf-skin 
toward the cavity. Dots numerous, mostly irregular, submerged and whitish 
around the basin, sometimes areolar with fine russet point ; the russet ones 
are larger, more irregular and scattering toward the cavity. Prevailing effect 
pale yellow. 

Calyx tube small, conical to funnel-form. Stamens median to basal. 

Core medium to small, axile ; cells closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels thin, 
broadly roundish to somewhat obcordate, emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds 
rather dark brown, medium to large, rather wide, acute to obtuse, sometimes 
tufted, compactly filling the cells. 

Flesh whitish or slightly tinged with yellow, very firm, rather hard, a little 
coarse, somewhat crisp, rather tender, aromatic, juicy, sprightly subacid, good 
but not high in flavor. 

ROMANITE, 

References, i. (?) Phoenix, //()rf;V!(//i<r/.y/, 4:471. 1850. 2. Downing, 1869: 
339- ^g- 3- -^"J- Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:8. 4. Fitz, 1872:143. 5. Wickson, 
1889:247. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 7. Clayton, Ala. Sta. Bui., 47:6. 
1893. 8. Stinson, Ark. Sta. An. Rpt., T.X7- 1894. 9- Budd-Hansen, 1903:166. 

H- 

Synonyms. Broad River (2). Little Red Romauite. (Red Rom.\nite, i ) ? 
RoMANiTE of the South (3.4)- RoJfAXiTE, South (9). Southern Romanite 
(2, 8). 



290 The Apples of New York. 

The name Romanite has been and is still applied to several different varie- 
ties of apples. Tn the earlier history of orcharding in this country it was 
applied very generally to the Rambo, but this synonymy has now become 
practically obsolete. The Gilpin or Carthouse apple has also passed under the 
name of Romanite and it is still so called in a great many districts. The 
true Romanite of to-day, according to the accepted nomenclature of the Ameri- 
can Pomological Society, is the old southern variety of this name. It is also 
known in various parts of the South under the name of Little Red Romanite. 
The fruit of this variety is small but has a good color, is of good quality 
and keeps remarkably well, this last characteristic being one of its chief recom- 
mendations in the South where it is usually quite difficult to get varieties that 
are late enough for their long seasons. It is not recommended for planting 
in this state being evidently not well adapted to regions as far north as this. 

Historical. The origin of this apple is unknown although it is probable 
from the region in which it was being grown when it first became known to 
pomologists that it originated in one of the Carolinas or in Georgia. So far 
as we know it is not grown in New York. 

ROME. 

References. 1. Ohio Convention of Fr. Gr. Rpt., 1848. (cited by 2). 2. 
Hodge, Horticulturist. 6:iSi. 1851. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:102. 1851. 
iig. 4. Elliott, 1854:106. %. 5. Horticulturist, g:igs. iSS4. 6. Mag. Hort., 20: 
241. 1854. 7. lb., 22:130. 1856. 8. Wood, Horticulturist, 12:149. 1857. 9. 
Downing, 1857:102. fig. 10. Gregg, 1857:57. 11. Hooper, 1857:81. 12. Mag. 
Hort.. 26:101. i860. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 14. Warder, 1867:458. 
fig. 15. Fitz, 1872:172, 175. 16. Leroy, 1873:124. fig. 17. Thomas, 1875:221. 
18. Barry, 1883:341. 19. Wickson, 1889:248. 20. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890:296. 21. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 22. Mathews, Ky. Sta. Bui, 50: 
2,2. 1894. 23. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:254. 1895. 24. Rural N. Y., 55:1. 
1896. 25. lb., 56:244. 1897. 26. Massey, N. C. Sta. Bui, 149:317. 1898. 27. 
Beach, Jf. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:36. 28. Lazenby, Columbus Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1900:138. 29. Beach, IV. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1901:76. 30. Van 
Deman, Rural N. Y., 60:209. 1901. 31. Coxe, lb., 60:266. 1901. 32. Alwood, 
Ta. Sta. Bui, 130:136. 1901. 33. Black, Rural N. Y., 61:185. 1902. 34. Stin- 
son. Mo. fr. Sta. Bui, 3:27. 1902. 35. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui, 
106:55. 1902. 36. Budd-Hansen, 1903:167. fig. 37. Powell and Fulton, U. S. 
B. P. I. Bui, 48:54. 1903. 38. Bruner, AT. C. Sta. Bui, 182:22. 1903. fig. 39. 
Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:142. 1904. 

Synonyms. Belle de Rome (16). Faust's Rome Beauty (23). Gillett's 
Seedling (4, 9, 14, 16). Phoeni.v. erroneously (29). Roman Beauty (4, 16). 
Rome Beauty (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 
23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35). Rome Beauty (16, 27, 37, 39). Rome 
Beauty (36, 38). 

When well grown this fruit is of good size, uniform, fair, 
smooth and handsomely colored. It is thick-skinned, stands handling 
remarkably well and is a good keeper. It is held in cold storage 
till May or later. It goes down gradually in storage and if properly 





ROME 



The Apples of New York. 291 

colored is not subject to scald (39). It has an established reputa- 
tion in market and sells at good prices. As compared with Baldwin 
it is not quite so good in quality either for dessert or for culinary 
uses but the tree comes into bearing at a much earlier age and under 
right conditions is more nearly an annual cropper. It is not as well 
adapted as Baldwin for general cultivation in New York state, the 
fruit often being less reliable and less satisfactory in size and color, 
the foliage less healthy and the tree less vigorous and not so large. 
Although it is an old variety it has not been sufficiently tested in 
New York to determine the range of its proper cultivation. Gener- 
ally speaking it succeeds better farther south, as, for example, in 
some districts in New Jersey and along the Ohio river. It appears 
to be better adapted to bottom lamls and to fertile sandy or gravelly 
loams than to heavy clay soils. Evidently it develops proper size, 
color and quality more often when grown in Southeastern New 
York than it does in cooler and more elevated regions in the interior 
of the state yet in some localities in Western New York on warm, 
fertile, well-drained soils it attains good size and good color and 
gives promise of being satisfactory in commercial orchards. The 
tree is apt to overbear and in unfavorable locations as it advances 
in maturity there is often a considerable loss in undersized or poorly 
colored fruit. Although it is a good grower there appears to be 
some advantage in top-grafting it upon some more vigorous stock. 
When top-worked on bearing trees it usually produces some fruit 
within two or three years from the time of grafting or budding. 
The fruit is supported by a long stem and usually hangs to the tree 
remarkably well even in high winds. It is somewhat subject to the 
attacks of the scab and requires thorough and careful preventive 
treatment in order to protect it from injurious insects and diseases. 

Historical. Originated by H. N. Gilletl in Lawrence county, Ohio. Brought 
to the notice of the Ohio Convention of fruit growers in 1848 as a new variety 
(i, 14). It is holding its own as a profitable commercial variety in that section 
of the country (31) and also in certain other southern apple-growing districts 
(30, 34, 38), but Stinson reports that in Missouri it is an uncertain bearer 
and not a safe varietv to recommend for general planting although some 
Missouri fruit growers recommend it for planting in some locations (34). 
Although occasionally old trees of this variety are found in New York, Rome 
is as yet but little known among New York fruit growers. Within recent 
years it has been planted or grafted in commercial orchards to a limited extent 
and for the most part in an experimental way. 



292 The Apples of New York. 

Tree. 

Tree not a very strong grower in the nursery but in the orchard it is rather 
vigorous and attains good medium size. Form at first upright but later it is 
roundish to somewhat spreading and drooping, with rather slender lateral 
branches. Tz^'igs moderately stout, sometimes slender, moderately long; inter- 
nodes short. Bark mottled brownish-red and green, rather bright. Lenticels 
medium to large, scattering, conspicuous, round to oblong, raised. Buds 
deeply set in bark, very short, broad, obtuse, appressed. Leaves rather long ; 
foliage not particularly robust. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to very large, usually averaging above medium, pretty uni- 
form in size and shape. Form roundish to roundish conic or slightly oblong, 
regular or faintly ribbed, usually symmetrical but sometimes with sides un- 
equal. Stem characteristically long, slender, and often oblique. Cavity 
medium to rather large, characteristically obtuse and smooth, moderately 
shallow to rather deep, wide, sometimes compressed or lipped, often gently 
furrowed, green or red, never russeted. Calyx rather small to medium, closed 
or somewhat open ; lobes usually converging above but slightly separated 
toward the base. Basin small to medium, shallow to moderately deep, narrow 
to medium in width, sometimes abrupt, usually a little furrowed or wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, yellow or greenish, more or less mottled with 
bright red which in highly colored specimens deepens to almost solid red on 
the exposed cheek, striped with bright carmine. Dots rather numerous, 
whitish or brown, small. Prevailing effect red or red mingled with yellow. 

Calyx tube cone-shape or approaching short truncate funnel-form, often 
with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base. Stamens marginal to median. 

Core medium to large, abaxile ; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, open; core 
lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels roundish to ovate, narrowing both 
toward base and apex, sometimes obtusely emarginate, mucronate. Seeds 
numerous, medium in size, plump, acute to somewhat obtuse, slightly tufted, 
light and dark brown. 

Flesh nearly white with slight tinge of yellow or green, firm, moderately 
fine-grained to a little coarse, rather crisp, juicy, slightly aromatic, agreeable 
mild subacid, commonly good but not high in quality. 

Season November to April or May. 

ROSEAU, 

References, i. North American Pomological Convention, 1849. (cited by 
6). 2. Downing, 1869:340. 3. Plumb, Can. Hort., 18:184, 1895. 4, Waugh, 
Rural N. Y., 62:141, 143, 282. 1903. Hgs. under name Canada Red. 5. Rural 
N. v., 62:238. 1903. 6. Ragan, [/. S. B. P. I. Bui., 56:267. 1905. 

Synonyms. Baltimore (3). Canada Red (5). Canada Red of Ontario, 
not Red Canada of Western New York (4). Flushing Spitzenburg (3). 
French Spitcenburg of Vermont (4). Pommc dc Fcr of Quebec (4). Red 
Canada of Ontario, not Red Canada of Western New York (3). Rosseau 
(6). JVinesap of Vermont (4). 

A variety is known in portions of Ontario under the name of Red Canada 
or Canada Red which is said to be quite different from the Red Canada of 




> 

cd 

CQ 
X 

o 

a: 





ROXBURY 



The Apples of New York. 293 

Western New York (lescril)ecl on page 275. Waugh identifies this variety as 
the Roseau of Downing and remarks that it is really an important apple. 1 
He states that it is known in some parts of Vermont as the Winesap and that 
it is the Pomme de Fer of Quebec (4). Plumb (3) gives Flushing Spitzen- 
burg as its correct name and calls it identical with the variety described by 
Downing under the name Baltimore. vVe have not had an opportunity of 
verifying the conclusions of either Waugh or Plumb with regard to this 
matter. 

The following is Waugh's description of the variety. 

" The distinguishing good qualities of this variety are its peculiarly firm, 
solid flesh, making it a late keeper and a good shipper, and its fine solid red 
color, which makes it attractive in the barrel. It is unusually hardy in tree, 
so that it may be grown in northern latitudes with great success. So far as 
I know it is as hardy as Duchess of Oldenburg. Here is the technical descrip- 
tion of the variety made from Vermont specimens: Fruit irregular, oblate, size 
medium to large, cavity irregular, medium deep, stem medium long, basin 
shallow, usually smooth, calyx small, closed, color two shades of dull red, 
mottled and splashed, nearly covering dull green ground, dots many, yellowish, 
very conspicuous, bloom thin, skin tough, flesh white, core medium, slightly 
open, flavor subacid, quality good, season midwinter." 

ROXBURY, 

References, i. Thacher, 1822:136. 2. Fessenden, 1828:130. 3. Kenrick, 
1832:53. 4. Mag. Hort., 1:364. 1835. 5. Manning, 1838:62. 6. Mag. Hort., 
7:48. 1841. 7. Downing, 1845:133. fig. 8. Floy-Lindley, 1846:411 app. 9. 
Horticutturisf. 1:52, 34T, 361. 1846-47. 10. lb.. 2:483. 1S48. 11. Hovey, 
Mag. Hort., 14:112, 173. 1848. 12. Thomas, 1849:185, 190. fig. 13. Cole. 1849: 
135- ^g- 14' Phoenix, Horticulturist. 4:472. 1850. 15. Emmons, Xat. Hist. 
N. v., 3:96. 1851. col. pi. No. 18. 16. Am. Pom. Sac. Cat., 1852. 17, Elliott, 
1854:106. 18. Hooper, 1857:73, 82. 19. Gregg, 1857:59. 20. Horticulturist, 
13:144. 1858. 21. Mag. Hort., 26:6, loi. i860. 22. lb.. 29:437. 1863. 
23. ///. Handb. dcr Obstk., 8:157. 1865. 24. Warder, 1867:25, 491. fig. 25. 
Kegel, 1868:444. 26. Thompson, Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1:31. 1870. 27. 
Leroy, 1873:153. fig. 28. Gardiner, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt.. 1882. (cited by 35). 
29. Barry, 1883:354. 30. Hogg, 1884:27. 31. Wicksor,. 1889:245. 32. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 33. Bailey, An. Hort.. 1892:248. 34. IMun- 
son, Mc. Sta. Rpt., 1893:133. 35. Kncwlton, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1894:126. 
36. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui, 118:62. 1895. 37. Woolverton, Out. Fr. Stas. An. 
Rpt; 3:13- 1896. fig. 38. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc, 1898:356. 39. 
Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:434. 40. Budd-Hansen, 1903:169. fig. 41. Powell and 
Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:55. 1903. 42. Beach and Clark, .V. }'. Sta. Bui, 
248:142. 1904. 

Synonyms. Belpre Russet (17, 18, 27). Boston Russet (25, 27, 30). 
Boston Russet (9, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 24, 37). Marietta Russet (17, 18, 27). 
Putman's Russet (27, 30). Putx.\m Russet (23, 39). Putnam Russet (9, 
10, II, 17, 18, 24, 27, of Ohio 12, 13 and 15). Roxbury Russet (4, 5, 6, 8, 
9, 10, II, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 29, 31, 2,2. 2,3, 34). Roxbury 
Russet (3, 27, 30, 40, 41, 42). Roxbury Russeting (i, 2, 3). Roxbury 

* Letter, 1905. 



294 The Apples of New York. 

Russefing (7, 27). Rox or Rox Russet (colloquial). Russet, Boston or 
RoxBURY (7). Russet (27). Shippcn's Russet {27, 30). Sylvan Russet 
(17, 18, 27). 

The Roxbury is the most popular russet apple cultivated in New 
York. When well grown it is of good marketable size, and rather 
attractive for a russet, but it varies greatly in size and appearance 
in different localities. Being an excellent keeper it is well liked for 
southern trade. It also sells well in western and northwestern 
markets. The recent increase in cold storage facilities has had the 
effect of lessening the demand for long-keeping russet apples, and 
neither the Roxbury nor the Golden Russet is being planted as 
extensively as they once were, but within recent years there has 
been increasing demand for them for export. Roxbury fruit that 
is grown in Central and Western New York keeps better than that 
produced in more southern localities, and for this reason is preferred 
by fruit buyers. This variety has consequently been planted more 
extensively in this region than in any other. It generally has the 
reputation of being a biennial bearer and when grown on rich soils 
in favorable locations it is a pretty reliable cropper, but in many 
places it has proved but a moderate cropper and not very satisfactory. 

Historical. It is generally supposed that this variety originated in Rox- 
bury, Massachusetts, early in the seventeenth century. Soon after 1649 it was 
taken to Connecticut. About 1797 it was introduced from Connecticut into 
Ohio and afterwards disseminated there under the name Putnam Russet, 
Marietta Russet, etc. (9, 11, 24). 

Tree. 

Tree medium to large, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form roundish 
spreading or flat. Twigs above medium to short, straight or nearly so, stout, 
often with large blunt terminal buds; internodes medium to rather long. 
Bark rather light, dull, reddish-brown and olive-green, streaked lightly with 
grayish scarf-skin, much pubescent. Lenticels not conspicuous, scattering, 
medium to above, roundish, oval or elongated, sometimes raised. Buds large, 
broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit usually above medium to nearly large, sometimes large, variable in 
size and shape. Form oblate to oblate inclined to conic, often broadly and 
obscurely angular and sometimes remarkably elliptical as shown in the accom- 
panying half-tone illustration ; sides sometimes unequal. Stem short to medium 
rather thick or swollen, pubescent, often red on one side. Cavity acute rarely 
acuminate, rather deep, medium in width to rather wide, sometimes lipped. 
Calyx sometimes small but usually medium to rather large, pubescent, closed 




GOLDEN RUSSET 




ROXBURY 



The Apples of New York. 295 

or partly open; lobes variable; medium to rather large and long; sometimes 
short, obtuse or acute. Basin variable, usually medium in width and depth, 
varying from narrow to rather wide, and from obtuse to abrupt, furrowed and 
often slightly wrinkled. 

Skin tough or moderately tender, sometimes almost smooth, but usually 
largely covered with greenish to yellowish-brown russet. Highly colored 
specimens develop a bronze blush which rarely deepens to red. Dots russet 
or gray. 

Calyx tube rather large, moderately wide, with fleshy pistil point projecting 
into the base, usually conical, sometimes funnel-shape. Stamens basal to 
median. 

Core above medium to small, axile; cells usually symmetrical, closed, rarely 
partly open ; core lines meeting if the calyx tube is conical but clasping if it 
is funnel-shape. Carpels rather flat, elongated and narrowing toward the 
apex, or roundish ovate, sometimes slightly emarginate, mucronate, tufted. 
Seeds few, often abortive, medium or above, long, plump, acute, tufted. 

Flesh tinged with yellow or greenish, firm, somewhat coarse, moderately 
tender, breaking, juicy, sprightly subacid, good to very good. 

Season December to May or in cold storage to July (42). 

RoxBURY Compared with Golden Russet. 

As compared with the Golden Russet the Roxbury tree is larger, 
more spreading and more productive. The dots on the shoots of 
the Golden Russet are more conspicuous and more numerous than 
on the Roxbury. The fruit of Roxbury is larger, more oblate and 
it may be characteristically elliptical as shown in the accompanying 
half-tone plate ; that of the Golden Russet is less variable in color 
and more uniform in size and shape. The Roxbury stem is thicker 
than that of Golden Russet, often tinged with red on one side and 
often swollen. The stem of the Golden Russet is usually shorter, 
not swollen and not tinged with red. The cavity of Roxbury is 
more often furrowed ; that of the Golden Russet more often green 
and marked with greenish-gray dots. The flesh of the Golden 
Russet is more sprightly subacid, finer-grained and of richer flavor, 
that of the Roxbury being rather coarser, yellower, and more mildly 
subacid. The seeds of the Golden Russet are shorter than those of 
Roxbury and not so dark colored. 

RUSSIAN BALDWIN, 

References, i. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 53:573- 1894. 2. Can. H»rt., 18:222, 
266. 1S95 3. Heiges, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1895:32. 4. Can. Hart., 20:242. 1897. 
5. Budd-Hansen, 1903:170. 



296 The Apples of New York. 

A Russian apple commended very highly by Dr. T. H. Hoskins, Newport, 
Vermont, who was instrumental in introducing Yellow Transparent and Scott. 
He believed this to be worth more than both of the others and said of it,i 
" The Russian Baldwin has all the merits with none of the defects of the old 
Baldwin — being as large and handsome, as good a bearer, better quality, and 
a much better keeper." 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or above medium. Form roundish oblate, faintly ribbed. 
Stem short, moderately thick. Cavity deep, narrow to moderately wide, 
russeted, somewhat furrowed, sometimes lipped. Calyx above medium to 
small, usually partly open ; lobes short, wide. Basin small, shallow, narrow, 
somewhat furrowed. 

Skin thin, smooth, almost entirely mottled and splashed with bright red over 
a clear yellow background, becoming deep red on the exposed cheek with some 
indistinct streaks of purplish-carmine. Dots small, pale or russet. 

Core above medium to large, wide; cells partly open; core lines clasping. 
Seeds numerous, small, plump, dark brown. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, moderately fine, crisp, moderately juicy, 
mild subacid, good. 

RUTLEDGE. 

References, i. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 2. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11: 
223. 1892. 3. Ragan, U. S. B. P. L Bui, 56:272. 1905. 

This evidently belongs in the same group as the Bethel and Blue Pearmain. 
Its affinity to the Blue Pearmain group is shown by the texture, flavor and 
quality of the flesh and by the bloom, conspicuous dots and characteristic 
yellow and red colors of the skin. It is less highly colored than either Blue 
Pearmain or Bethel but is a better keeper than either. The fruit is pretty 
uniformly of good size and desirable form. The tree is a good strong grower, 
does not come into bearing very young, but is an annual cropper, yielding 
moderately heavy to good crops. It does not appear to be of sufficient value 
for New York state to be worthy of testing except perhaps in those regions 
where Bethel and Blue Pearmain are most valued. 

Historical. Received for testing at this Station from T. V. Munson, Deni- 
son, Texas, in 1892 (2). 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous with very long and moderately stout branches ; laterals char- 
acteristically covered with numerous small spurs. Form upright spreading or 
roundish, dense. Tzvigs short to rather long, curved or nearly straight, mod- 
erately stout ; terminal buds large ; internodes medium to long. Bark olive- 
green washed with reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; heavily 
pubescent. Lcnticels numerous, small to medium, round or slightly elongated, 
slightly raised. Buds medium in size, plump, acute, free, pubescent. 

Fruit. 
Fruit above medium, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form nearly 
globular varying to roundish oblate or to slightly oblong, regular or some- 
what ribbed, usually symmetrical. Stem short to medium, moderately slender 

1 Letter, 1897. 



The Apples of New York. 297 

to thick, sometimes inserted under a lip. Cavity medium in size, acute to 
sligktly acuminate, deep, rather broad or somewhat compressed, often slightly- 
furrowed, sometimes partly russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly 
open; lobes moderately narrow, acute to acuminate. Basin small to medium, 
often oblique, very shallow and obtuse to moderately shallow and somewhat 
abrupt, narrow to moderately wide, somewhat furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin rather thick, tough, smooth about the cavity but somewhat roughened 
toward the basin with russet dots and fine capillary russet lines, yellow or 
greenish largely overspread with orange-red, in well colored specimens becom- 
ing rather dull deep red, mottled and narrowly striped with purplish-carmine, 
often faintly marked with grayish scarf-skin toward the cavity and covered 
with a thin bloom which gives the fruit a dull appearance. Dots scattering, 
conspicuous, large, areolar, pale gray or russet toward the cavity but numer- 
ous and smaller about the basin. Prevailing effect red and yellow. 

Calyx tube urn-shape. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core small to medium, abaxile ; cells not uniform in size, usually sym- 
metrical, closed or partly open ; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish 
or sometimes inclined to ovate, usually smooth. Seca's small to nearly medium, 
obtuse to somewhat acute, plump, sometimes slightly tufted, light and dark 
brown. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, a little coarse, not very crisp, rather tender, 
moderately juicy, somewhat aromatic, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, 
fair to good in quality. 

Season January to JNIay. 

SALISBURY. 

References, i. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. i'., 3:51, yS. 1851. fig. 2. (?)Ragan, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:273. 1905. 

Synonyms. {Salisbury Pippin, 2) ? Salisbury Pippin, locally. Salisbury 
Winter (i). 

A roundish yellow apple of excellent quality. So far as we have been able 
to learn it is known only in the vicinity of Cortland where it is grown to a 
limited extent. We have not seen the fruit. Mr. Nathan Salisbury, after 
whose father this variety was named (i), reports^ that the fruit resembles 
Swaar in shape but is a little larger, ripens slowly and has very brittle flesh 
which is slightly acid. According to Emmons' description the fruit is yellow 
with a faint shade of orange ; stem short, slender and peculiarly inserted in 
a very shallow depression; flesh tender, juicy, subacid, very pleasant, equal 
to Swaar. 

Historical. The origin of this variety is unknown. It was grafted into 
a nursery on the old Salisbury farm in Cortland, N. Y., some years prior to 
1850. It is known in Cortland by the name Salisbury Pippin. We have not 
had opportunity to determine whether it is identical with the Salisbury or 
Salisbury Pippin catalogued by Lyon (2). 

SALOME. 

References, i. Hatheway, ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1878:133. 2. lb., 1879:195. 
3. Downing, 1881:103 app. fig. 4. Thomas, 1885:523. 5. Budd. Am. Pom. 
'Letter, F. E. Brogden, 1905. 



298 The Apples of New York. 

Soc. Rpt., 1885:26. 6. Can. Hort., 11:8. 1888. 7. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:249. 
8. Brown, Can. Hort., 17:252. 1894. 9. Craig, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1894:1^5. 
10. Waugh, F/. Sta. Bui, 61:32. 1897. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:20. 12. 
N. C. Bd. Agr. Bid., 1900:10. 13. Can. Hort., 24:454. 1901. 14. Dickens and 
Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui, 106:55. 1902. 15. Budd-Hansen, 1903:172. 16. Powell 
and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:55. 1903. 17. Beach and Clark, A'. Y. Sta. 
Bui, 248:143. 1904. 18. Can. Hort., 27:242, 245, 1904. iig. 19. Nat. Nursery- 
man, 13:52. 1905. 

This fruit is usually below medium size and but moderately 
attractive in color but sometimes it develops good size and good 
color. As grown in New York it does not excel standard sorts of 
its season in size, color or quality. In some parts of the state it is 
regarded with considera1)le favor as a promising commercial variety 
because the fruit hangs well to the tree in high winds, is firm, stands 
handling well and usually keeps pretty well, is smooth and usually 
free from scab ; and because the tree is vigorous, very hardy, healthy, 
comes into bearing early and is a reliable cropper, yielding mod- 
erate to good crops biennially or nearly annually. It appears to 
vary somewhat in keeping qualities in different seasons and in dif- 
ferent localities. As grown at this Station its usual commercial limit 
is March but exceptionally it shows a rather rapid rate of loss in 
early winter. It stands heat well before going into storage and goes 
down rapidly (17). In Central and Western New York it appears 
to require a warm soil and warm exposure together with careful 
attention to training that the top may be kept sufficiently open to 
admit the sunlight to the foliage in all parts of the tree so as to 
hasten the ripening of the fruit and improve its color. Because the 
fruit lacks in size and color probably it will never be planted very 
extensively in this state. 

Historical Salome originated about 1853 in a nursery in Ottawa, Illinois. 
The property afterwards came into the hands of Mr. E. C. Hatheway who 
discovered the merits of the variety and began its propagation. He exhibited 
it before the Illinois State Horticultural Society in 1878 under the name of 
Salome. In 1884 it was introduced to the trade by Arthur Bryant, Princeton, 
Illinois. It has been disseminated sparingly in various parts of this state. 
Thus far it has been but little planted in New York orchards but in some 
localities its cultivation is perhaps increasing slightly. 

Tree. 
Tree a vigorous, upright grower in the nursery ; in the orchard it becomes 
large. Form upright, becoming roundish, dense. Tzvigs short to long, rather 





SALOME 



The Apples of New York. 299 

slender to stout with large terminal buds, straight or nearly so ; internodes 

short to rather long. Bark clear reddish-brown tinged with olive-green, 

lightly mottled with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lcnticels clear in color, 

conspicuous, rather scattering, narrow, elongated, pointed, slightly raised. 
Buds medium to rather small, plump, obtuse to acute, free or partly adhering, 
slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium to above, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
oblate to roundish ovate inclined to conic, often somewhat elliptical or ob- 
scurely ribbed, usually symmetrical. Stem long, usually slender. Cavity 
above medium, acute to acuminate, deep, broad, often compressed or obscurely 
furrowed, thinly russeted. Calyx small, usually closed. Basin often but 
slightly depressed, but sometimes moderately deep and inclined to abrupt, 
usually rather narrow, furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, rather pale yellow or greenish, more or less 
mottled and blushed with pinkish-red rather obscurely striped with carmine, • 
marked toward the cavity with grayish scarf-skin and covered with whitish 
bloom. Sometimes a considerable portion of the fruit is overspread with a 
good red color. Dots conspicuous, whitish or pale gray, often areolar with 
russet point. 

Calyx tube small to medium, cone-shape. Stamens basal to nearly median. 

Core rather large, abaxile ; cells often unsymmetrical, usually wide open, 
sometimes closed ; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels thin, 
smooth, often decidedly concave, broadly roundish, sometimes slightly emargi- 
nate. Seeds rather numerous, medium or above, wide, obtuse, light and dark 
brown. 

Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine-grained, crisp, rather tender, 
juicy, sprightly, subacid, good to very good. 

Season November to March but sometimes it does not extend through 
January. 

SAVEWELL. 

Reference, i. Downing, 1869:346. 

Synonyms. CorncU's Saveivcll (i). Putnam's Saveivell (i). 

A Westchester county apple described by Downing as a valuable keeper. 
Fruit yellow with shade of dull red, medium in size, roundish oblate inclining 
to conic. Flesh pleasantly subacid, juicy, tender, good. Season February and 
March (i). So far as we have been able to learn this variety has not been 
cultivated outside the vicinity of its origin. 

SCARLET CRANBERRY, 

Reference-S. I. Rural .Y. )'., 45:593. 1886. figs. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892: 
249. 3. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui, 106:55. 1902. 4. Powell and 
Fulton, U. S. B. P. L Bui, 48:55. 1903. 

This is a southern variety and when grown as far north as New York it 
does not develop properly either in quality or in size although it often colors 
pretty well. It keeps in ordinary storage till late spring and has been held 



300 The Apples of New York. 

in cold storage till May without scald or decay (4). It is not recommended 
for planting in this state. 

This is a very different variety from Cranberry Pippin. 

Historical. Originated in Scott county,, Virginia, from seed of an unknown 
variety forty or more years ago (i). It is said to be a vigorous grower and 
very productive in that region, yielding very large, handsome and showy fruit. 
It has been disseminated by nurserymen in the South Atlantic states and in 
the Central Mississippi valley (2), but it is practically unknown among north- 
ern fruit growers. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium in size but in the South grows large (r, 4). Form roundish 
varying to slightly oblate or to broadly ovate, often somewhat ribbed, usually 
symmetrical. Stetii short to rather long, moderately thick. Cavity moder- 
ately large, acute to acuminate, deep to moderately deep, rather narrow to 
moderately wide, pretty symmetrical, gently furrowed, sometimes lipped, often 
partly russeted. Calyx medium to rather large, closed or partly open ; lobes 
acute to acuminate, sometimes separated at the base. Basin often oblique, 
very shallow to moderately shallow, narrow to moderately wide, obtuse, fur- 
rowed, wrinkled. 

Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, yellow, largely overspread with pinkish- 
red striped with purplish-carmine, mottled and striped over the base with thin 
scarf-skin which produces a grayish appearance. Dots conspicuous, numer- 
ous, small to large, pale, often areolar with russet center. Prevailing effect 
attractive red. 

Calyx tube wide, cone-shape to urn-shape. Stamens marginal to median. 

Core small to above medium, axile or sometimes abaxile ; cells often not 
uniformly developed, usually symmetrical, closed or sometimes open; core 
lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels rather flat, broadly ovate to some- 
what elliptical, mucronate, usually not emarginate, smooth or slightly tufted. 
Seeds medium or above, moderatelj^ narrow, plump, acute, sometimes tufted. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, rather coarse, moderately crisp, a 
little tough, moderately juicy, slightly astringent, mild subacid, fair to good. 

SCHODACK, 

References, i. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:224. 1892. 2. Beach and Clark, 
A''. Y. Sta. Bui., 248:143. 1904. 

This fruit is worthy of notice only because it keeps remarkably late. Its 
general appearance is good for a green apple and it retains good color, firm 
texture and a good degree of acidity till very late in the season. As fruited 
at this Station it seldom averages above medium size. It is fairly acceptable 
for culinary purposes from March till July but it is not good enough in quality 
to be classed as a dessert apple. The tree is a pretty good grower, comes into 
bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, yielding moderate to good 
crops almost annually. 

Historical. Received here for testing from E. L. Smith, South Schodack, 
Rensselaer county, N. Y., in 1892. 



The Apples of New York. 301 

Tree. 
Tree moderately vigorous with long, slender branches. Form roundish to 
spreading, open. Tivigs medium in length, slender, curved ; internodes rather 
long. Bark dark brown tinged with red, streaked with searf-skin, pubescent 
near tips. Lenticels dull, inconspicuous, scattering, medium, roundish or oval, 
not raised. Buds medium to below medium, prominent, plump, obtuse to 
acute, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit usually medium to rather small, uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish oblate varying to roundish inclined to conic, often obscurely ribbed. 
Stem often long and slender. Cavity usually acute, deep, broad, often slightly 
furrowed, sometimes partly russeted and marked with some large, elongated, 
irregular whitish dots and also with patches of whitish scarf-skin. Calyx 
small, closed. Basin shallow, obtuse, furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, grass-green eventually becoming tinged with 
yellow, blushed with rather dull pinkish-red which often deepens to a distinct 
red. Dots scattering, very large to small, russet or irregular, whitish and 
areolar with russet point. Prevailing color green. 

Calyx tube deep, long, funnel-form. Stamens marginal. 

Core abaxile, medium in size; cells usually symmetrical, often wide open, 
sometimes closed ; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, emarginate, 
mucronate, sometimes tufted. Seeds numerous, large, rather wide, long, 
plump, acute, usually smooth. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, coarse, rather tough, juicy, briskly 
subacid, fair or possibly sometimes good for culinary use. 

SCHOONMAKER, 

References, i. Elliott, 1854:156. 2. Downing, 1869:348. 3. Thomas, 1875: 

511- 

Synonym. Schoolniocker (i, 2). 

This old variety is still grown to a limited extent in some portions of South- 
eastern New York where it is esteemed as an apple of very good quality. 
Elliott (i) remarks that it is probably of foreign origin and that it was grown 
in Detroit as early as 1S04. The tree is upright spreading and moderately 
vigorous. Fruit large, roundish oblate, sometimes angular. Stem short and 
stout. Cavity deep. Skin a little rough, yellow or greenish with bronze blush. 
Core small. Flesh yellowish-white, crisp, briskly subacid. 

Season January to March (i, 2). 

SCOTT, 

References, i. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1877. (cited by 24). 2. Budd, 
la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:524. 3. Thomas. 1885:523. 4. Van Deman, U. S. 
Pom. Rpt., 1886:271. ng. 5. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:9, 94. 6. 
Rural N. Y., 47:249, 646. 1888. 7. Can. Hort., 13:174, 187, 216. 1890. 8. 
Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:249. 9. Can. Hort., 15:159. 1892. col. pi. 10. lb., 16: 
204. 1893. II. Heiges, L'^. 5". Pom. Rpt., 1894:22. 12. Craig, Can. Dept. Agr. 
Rpt., 1894:125. 13. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assn. An. Rpt., 26:16, 75. 1S94. 14. Card, 



302 The Apples of New York. 

and For., 8:200. 1895. 15. Craig, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1895:93. Hgs. 16. 
Budd, la. Sta. Bui, 31 :333- i895- i?- Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bui, 61:32. 1897. 18. 
Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:14. 19. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:308. 1901. 
20. Hansen, 6". D. Sta. Bid., 76:98. 1902. fig. 21. Budd-Hansen, 1903:173. fig. 

22. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bid.. 48:55, 1903. 23. Beach and Clark, 
A''. Y. Sta. Bid., 248:144. 1904. 24. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 56:277. 1905. 

Synonyms. Scott's Red Winter (8, 22). Scott Winter (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 
8, 9, 10, II, 12, 13, 14. 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24). Scott's Winter (11, 19, 

23, 24). JFilco.v's Winter (24). 

Fruit medium to rather small, of pretty good form and attractive 
color. It is especially suitable for culinary purposes in the spring 
because it retains a good degree of acidity later than most varieties 
of its season. Toward the close of its season its acidity is some- 
what subdued and it then becomes an acceptable dessert fruit 
although it is not of high quality. The tree is very hardy, healthy, 
comes into bearing young and is a reliable cropper, yielding mod- 
erate to rather heavy crops biennially or in some cases annually. 
The fruit hangs well to the tree but it is apt to be uneven in size 
and unless proper preventive treatment is given is liable to be 
injured by scab so that, on the whole, there is often considerable 
loss in undersized or otherwise unmarketable fruit. In ordinary 
storage it is in season from December to ^lay with March as its 
commercial limit {22,). 

Scott is valuable for regions where the climate is too severe to 
permit varieties of the grade of hardiness of Northern Spy and 
Rhode Island Greening to be grown profitably. It should not be 
grown in sod because the fruit is naturally small and becomes un- 
profitably so unless the orchard is heavily manured and given 
thorough tillage {12, 15). In some localities in this state it is 
grown with profit for local market, and in portions of New England 
and Canada it is classed among the commercial varieties. 

Historical. Originated about 1864 on the Scott Farm at Newport, Vermont, 
and brought to notice by Dr. T. H. Hoskins of that place. It is not generally 
known among New York fruit growers. It has been sparingly disseminated 
in various portions of this state but has not been planted extensively in any 
locality. 

Tree. 

Tree medium to rather large, vigorous. Form upright, becoming roundish 
or spreading, rather dense. Tivigs medium to long, stout to somewhat slender ; 
internodes medium to long. Bark dull reddish-brown mingled with olive- 




I- 
O 

o 

CO 



The Apples of New York. 303 

green, irregularly streaked with scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lcnticels scattering, 
small to medium, roundish, slightly raised. Buds medium or below medium 
in size, broad, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, free or nearly so, slightly 
pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium or sometimes medium. Form roundish conic to round- 
ish oblate, often irregularly elliptical, broadly but obscurely ribbed. Stem 
short to very short. Cavity above medium to rather small, acuminate, deep, 
narrow to rather wide, sometimes gently furrowed, usually russeted and often 
with outspreading russet rays. Calyx small, closed or nearly so ; lobes medium 
in length, converging and usually reflexed, rather narrow, acute. Basin below 
medium to rather small, abrupt, usually deep and rather narrow, slightly fur- 
rowed, often pubescent. 

Skin smooth, rather thin, moderately tough, pale yellow or greenish mostly 
covered with a bright deep red mottled and striped with darker red. Highly 
colored specimens have a very dark and almost purplish-red cheek. Dols 
scattering, obscure, pale yellow or russet. General appearance good red or 
striped red. 

Calyx tube rather long, cone-shape or approaching funnel-form, sometimes 
extending into the core. Stainois median to marginal. 

Core rather small to moderately large ; axile or somewhat abaxile with 
hollow central cylinder; cells pretty uniformly developed, symmetrical, closed 
or partly open ; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels broadly 
roundish, varying from nearly elliptical to nearly cordate, slightly emarginate, 
mucronate, smooth or nearly so. Seeds numerous, above medium to rather 
small, rather narrow to moderately wide, acute to acuminate, plump, dark, 
sometimes a little tufted. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, sometimes stained with red, firm, crisp, 
a little coarse, tender, very juicy, briskly subacid, eventually becoming rather 
mild subacid, aromatic, good. 

SCRIBNER. 

References, i. American Farmer. 1859. (cited by 4). 2. Downing, 1872: 
31 app. 3. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui. 45:340. 1896. 4. Ragan, U. S. 
B. P. L Bui, 56:277. 1905. 

Synonyms. Scribner's Spitzenberg (3). Scribner's Spitzenburgh 
(2). Scribner's Spitzenburgh (4). 

A medium-sized midwinter apple of very good quality which originated with 
Elijah Scribner, Plattsburg, New York. Downing describes the fruit as 
'■' angular, roundish conical, shaded with bright deep red ; flesh crisp, tender, 
juicy, subacid, slightly aromatic; in season from December to February" (2). 
This variety appears to be practically unknown among New York fruit 
growers. 

SEEK-NO-FURTHER, 

The meaning- of this name is evident. It has been applied to 
many different apples but the variety which pomologists know as 
the Westfield Scck-No-Furtlicr Xew York fruit g-rowers and fruit 



304 The Apples of New York. 

buyers commonly call by the simple name Seek-No-Further or its 
abbreviation, Seek. For an account of this apple th-e reader is 
referred to Westfield Scck-Ko-Fnrthcr. 

Among the other varieties described in this volume with Seek- 
No-Further occurring in either the accepted name or in a synonym 
are those mentioned in the following list. 

Long Island Scek-N o-Further see Ferris. May Seek-No-Further see Gray- 
house. Oakland County Seek-No-Further see Oakland. Rhode Island Seek- 
No-Further see Ferris. Scck-No-Further of some see Rambo. Westchester 
Seek-No-Further see Ferris. 

SHACKLEFORD, 

References, i. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:57, 126, 129. 2. Mo. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1885:34. 3. Gano, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1889:130. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:249. 5. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui, 43:104. 1896. 6. Thomas, 1897:653. 

Synonym. Shackleford's Best (i). 

An apple of the Ben Davis type. It ranks close to Ben Davis in quality 
but is less highly colored and is hardly as good a keeper as that variety. The 
fruit is smooth, uniform, of good size and under favorable conditions it 
develops good color but as grown at this Station on rather heavy clay loam 
its general appearance is not especially attractive. When grown as far north 
as this it evidently requires a warm slope and warm soil to develop good color. 
So far as tested in this region it sustains the reputation it has gained else- 
where of being very hardy, coming into bearing young and of producing good 
crops regularly. It is evidently less desirable than Ben Davis for planting in 
New York. 

Historical. Originated near Athens, Missouri. It was generally dissemi- 
nated in that locality as early as 1883 (i). Thus far it has been planted in 
New York only in an experimental way. 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous. Form rather flat, spreading, 
somewhat drooping, open. Tzvigs short to above medium, curved or nearly 
straight, moderately stout; internodes short. Bark clear brownish-red with 
some olive-green, partly streaked with scarf-skin, smooth or slightly pubes- 
cent near tips. Leniicels inconspicuous, scattering, small to medium, varying 
from roundish to elongated, not raised. Buds set deeply in the bark, small, 
with large broad shoulders, flat, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to rather large, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
to roundish ovate, pretty regular and symmetrical. Stem long, rather slender. 
Cavity medium to rather small, acuminate or approaching acute, shallow to 
medium in depth, narrow to medium in width, usually symmetrical and slightly 
russeted. Calyx above medium to medium, usually closed ; lobes long, moder- 
ately broad, acute to acuminate. Basin medium to rather large, medium in 




/ 




\ 




w 



SHACKLEFORD 



The Apples of New York. 305 

depth to sometimes deep, moderately wide to wide, rather abrupt to very 
abrupt, usually wrinkled and furrowed. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, waxy, smooth, pale greenish-yellow becoming 
nearly clear yellow, washed with red, mottled and striped with carmine. Dots 
inconspicuous, small, numerous, sometimes submerged, sometimes russet. 

Calyx tube varies from short to long and from cone-shape to funnel-form, 
often with a fleshy pistil point projecting into the base. Stamens median to 
basal. 

Core usually axile, above medium to rather small ; cells usually symmetrical, 
closed or sometimes open ; core lines meeting or clasping. Carpels pointed 
ovate, emarginate. Seeds numerous, medium or above, moderately wide, 
plump, acute or nearly so. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, moderately 
tender, juicy, mild subacid, fair to good. 

Season November to April. 

(I) SHANNON. 

References, i. Downing, 1881:104 app. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:25. 
3. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1886:269. fig. 4. Babcock, Rural N. Y., 49: 
873. 1890. figs. 5. McNeil, Ark. Sta. Rpt., 1890:33. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:249. 7. Clayton, Ala. Sta. Bui., 47:7. 1893. 8. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui., 
43:104. 1896. 9. lb., 60:133. 1899. 10. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui., 
106:55. 1902. 

Synonym. Shannon Pippin (i, 7). 

Fruit large, yellow, smooth, pretty uniform, rather attractive in appearance 
and very good in quality ; suitable for either home use or market. So far 
as tested here it is not sufficiently productive to be valuable in this region. 

Historical. The history of the Shannon is rather obscure. For some time 
it was supposed by leading pomologists that Shannon was an Arkansas name 
given to the Ohio Pippin.1-2 Later investigators however have been led to 
question the correctness of this view (i, 3, 9) and the bulk of the evidence 
now seems to indicate that the Shannon is an Arkansas seedling closely 
resembling the Ohio Pippin yet with sufficient difference to distinguish the 
varieties. As fruited at this Station the tree of Ohio Pippin is slightly less 
vigorous than that of Shannon. The fruit averages smaller, is usually some- 
what conic, the seeds are more numerous, the flavor is milder and the season 
is decidedly earlier than that of Shannon. Shannon is said to have originated 
near Boonsboro. Washington county. Ark. (9). It has been but little dis- 
seminated in New York. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous with long and rather stout branches. Form rather open, 
spreading. Twigs medium to long, moderately stout, crooked to nearly 
straight, quite pubescent ; internodes moderately short to very short. Bark 
reddish-brown, mottled with thin scarf-skin. Lenticels numerous, inconspicu- 
ous, very small, roundish or sometimes elongated. Buds medium to large, 
roundish, plump, somewhat acute to rather obtuse, appressed, pubescent. 

'Warder, 1867:484, 731. 
'Downing, 1869 :2g2. 



3o6 The Apples of New York. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large. Form oblate to roundish oblate, often somewhat elliptical and 
obscurely ribbed ; sides sometimes unequal. Stem short, moderately thick. 
Cavity moderately large, acute to acuminate, deep, moderately broad to very 
broad, symmetrical or somewhat furrowed, often with radiating russet rays 
or overspread with russet. Calyx large, open or partly open ; lobes separated 
at base. Basin above medium to rather small, moderately shallow to deep, 
moderately narrow to rather wide, abrupt, usually indistinctly furrowed but 
sometimes smooth. 

Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, bright, clear pale yellow, usually somewhat 
blushed. Dots inconspicuous, pale green or whitish, often submerged, some- 
times with russet point. 

Calyx tube yellow, rather long, very wide, cone-shape or somewhat funnel- 
form and sometimes extending to the core. Stamens median. 

Core medium to rather small, slightly abaxile; cells often not uniformly 
developed, symmetrical, partly open or closed ; core lines slightly clasping or 
meeting. Carpels thin, tender, roundish, mucronate, but slightly emarginate 
if at all, usually smooth. Seeds few, short to medium, plump, narrow to 
rather wide, acute. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, moderately firm, moderately fine-grained, 
breaking, tender, juicy to very juicy, sprightly subacid, good to very good. 

Season at Geneva November to April or May. 

(II) SHANNON. 

Reference, i. J. R. Johnson, Cat., 1894. 

The variety described below, so far as we know, has not been disseminated 
in New York. The following account is given in order that the reader may 
distinguish between this Shannon and the Shannon above described. 

This originated as a chance seedling on the farm of Wm. Shannon, Coshoc- 
ton county, Ohio. It was introduced by J. R. Johnson, of Coshocton, who 
stated that it is " yellow, of good size and good quality, keeps till April and 
holds its flavor; tree a good grower and a good bearer" (i). Mr. Johnson 
reports that he ventured to catalogue it under the name Shannon for local 
trade although lie knew that a very different apple had been previously intro- 
duced under that name by A. H. Ernst. 1 

SHEDDAN, 

Reference, i. Teiin. Sta. Bui, 1:29. 1896. fig. 

Although this is a variety of Tennessee origin it appears to have consider- 
able merit as grown in New York and is worthy of further testing in this 
region. As grown at this Station the tree is thrifty, comes into bearing young 
and gives promise of being productive. The fruit is of desirable size and 
good quality and is suitable for either home use or market. It somewhat 
resembles a well-grown Rhode Island Greening in color but has the advan- 
tage over that variety in being a much better keeper and evidently not liable 
to scald. 



•Letter, J. R. Johnson, 1895. 



The Apples of New York. 307 

Historical. Originated as a chance seedling with John E. Sheddan, Friends- 
ville, Blount county, Tennessee, about 1882 (i). It probably grew from a seed 
of Green Crank near which the original Sheddan tree stood. So far as we 
know this variety has not been grown in New York except at this Station. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous. Forui upright spreading, rather open. T?^'igs short, rather 
stout to sometimes slender. Bark dull green and reddish. LciUicels numer- 
ous, very small, roundish, dark. Buds small, appressed, rather obtuse. 

Fruit. 

Fruif above medium to large. Form roundish, slightly oblate, regular, 
symmetrical. Stent moderately long and rather slender to short and thick, 
sometimes swollen at the base. Cavity medium in size, obtuse to acute, mod- 
erately shallow to deep, rather broad, usually obscurely furrowed, sometimes 
lipped, somewhat russeted. Calyx small, closed or partly open. Basin shallow 
to moderately deep, narrow to moderately wide, obtuse to rather abrupt, some- 
what furrowed, wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, grass-green changing to yellow with an orange blush which 
sometimes deepens to red. Dots often submerged, numerous, pale or yellow- 
ish especially toward the basin but toward the cavity they are larger, more 
scattering and more often areolar with russet point. Prevailing effect attrac- 
tive yellow when the fruit is fully ripe. 

Calyx tube nearly urn-shape or approaching funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core medium to rather small^ somewhat abaxile to nearly axile, sometimes 
with hollow cylinder in the axis ; cells not always uniformly developed, sym- 
metrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels thin, smooth or 
nearly so, broadly roundish to broadly obovate, mucronate, emarginate. Seeds 
moderately dark reddish-brown, medium to small, plump, acute to obtuse, 
sometimes slightly tufted; often some are abortive. 

Flesh tinged with yellow or greenish, hard, firm, moderately fine-grained 
or slightly coarse, crisp, somewhat tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, 
good to very good. 

Season January to May. 

SHEEPNOSE. 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:125. 2. Warder, 1867:645. 3. Downing, 1869: 
351. 

This name has been appHed to several different varieties of apples 
having a conical shape. In some localities Yellow Bellflower is 
known by this name. In other places it is a common name for the 
Black Gilliflower. 

Warder (2) describes Sheepnose of Mears as a medium, roundish, 
slightly conic apple, smooth, greenish-yellow, in some respects 
resembling White Pearmain; flesh juicy, subacid, good; season 

December to February. 

Vol. I — 13 



3o8 The Apples of New York. 

In the time of Coxe, Bullock was commonly known in New Jersey 
by the name of Sheepnose (i). 

Downing (3) describes another Sheepnose as grown in New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania the fruit of which is of medium size, 
roundish conical, yellow, sometimes blushed ; flesh subacid, good ; 
season November and December. 

There are also other varieties which are known under the name 
Sheepnose. 

SHERIFF. 

References, i. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt.. 1880:600. 2. Downing, 1881:105 app. 
3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:12. 4. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt, 1895:193, 
199. 5. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bui. 76:98. 1902. fig. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:174. 

Synonym. American Beauty incorrectly (2, 5, 6). 

This variety has received attention in some parts of the West on account 
of its superior hardiness. The fruit is of medium size and pleasant flavor 
but not high quality. The tree comes into bearing young, is a reliable cropper 
and productive (i, 2. 5, 6). 

Historical. Downing reports that this variety was brought from Pennsyl- 
vania by James Sheriff and the original name having been lost it was called 
Sheriff (2). It was placed upon the list of the American Pomological Society 
in 1889 (3) as a variety worthv of testing but was dropped from that list in 
1897. 

Tree (2, 5, 6). 

Tree verj^ hardy, vigorous, tall, with few branches. Form symmetrical, 
somewhat spreading, open. 

Fruit (2, 5, 6). 

Fruit medium or below medium. Form roundish to rovmdish oblate or 
somewhat cylindrical, flattened at the ends, nearly regular. Stem short to 
long and slender. Caz'ity small, acuminate, deep, very narrow-, regular, green 
and russeted. Calyx closed ; lobes erect, convergent. Basin large, wide, 
shallow to deep, wavy or slightly ribbed. 

Skin pale yellow or greenish, nearly covered with light and dark red ob- 
scurely striped and splashed with carmine. Dots numerous, small, distinct, 
pale or whitish. 

Calyx tube funnel-shape. Staniois median. 

Core very large ; cells ovate, slit, closed. Seeds few to many, plump, 
pointed. 

Flesh whitish, fine-grained, tender, juicy, mild subacid, good but not rich 
m quality. 

Season December to February. 

SHIRLEY. 

References, i. N. Y Sta. An. Rpt., 11:223. 1892. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:249. 3. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:282. 1905. 



Thk Apples of Np:\v York. 309 

This is a bright-colored apple of the Ben Davis type. As grown at this 
Station it appears to be less valuable than Ben Davis being decidedly inferior 
to that variety in size and no better in quality. It is in season about with 
Ben Davis. 

Historical. This variety has been propagated by some nurserymen in 
Texas. In 1892 it was received for testing here from T. V. Munson, Denison, 
Texas. So far as we know it has not been disseminated among New York 
fruit growers. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous ; branches long, slender, curved. Form upright 
spreading varying to roundish, open. Tz^'igs short, straight, slender, with 
large terminal buds ; internodes short to below medium. Bark clear reddish- 
brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lcnticels scatter- 
ing, small to very small, round or elongated, not raised. Buds deeply set in 
bark, small, broad, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to rather small. Form roundish inclined to conic, some- 
times oblate, usually symmetrical. Stem medium to rather long and slender. 
Cavity rather large, obtuse to acute, deep, wide, usually symmetrical, some- 
times indistinctly furrowed, the lower part often russeted but the russet 
seldom extending beyond the cavity. Calyx small to medium, somewhat open 
or sometimes closed. Basin small to medium, abrupt, moderately shallow to 
moderately deep, rather narrow to moderately wide, usually smooth and 
symmetrical. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, waxy, glossy, yellow blushed and mottled with 
bright deep red, marked rather indistinctly with narrow stripes and splashes 
of purplish-carmine and overspread with a thin bloom which gives it a slightly 
dull appearance but when polished the fruit has a bright red color. Dots 
inconspicuous, small, pale, sometimes brown. Prevailing effect deep red. 

Calyx tube large, deep, urn-shape varying to elongated cone-shape or funnel- 
form. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core distant, medium or above, abaxile, with hollow cylinder in the axis; 
cells symmetrical, closed ; core lines decidedly clasping. Carpels broadly 
roundish or approaching roundish obcordate, somewhat emarginate, usually 
smooth. Seeds somewhat variable, usually large, long, wide, obtuse, some- 
what tufted, rather dark brown. 

Flesh whitish or tinged with green, firm, not tender, crisp, moderately fine, 
juicy, sprightly, mild subacid, fair to good. 

Season December to May. 

SKANK. 

Fruit uniform, of good size and attractive in color when highly colored ; but 
usually it is not highly colored and on this account would not rank as a first- 
class commercial variety. When well grown it is one of the best dessert 
apples of its season and it should not be allowed to pass out of cultivation. 
It is in season from October to February or later. The tree is hardy, healthy, 
long-lived and a reliable cropper, yieldmg heavy crops in alternate years. 



3IO The Apples of New York. 

Historical. This is an old variety which, so far as we know, is now grown 
only in Southern Seneca county. It was brought to our attention by M. C. 
Brokaw of Interlaken, N. Y., who reports that it was once cultivated in New 
Jersey under the name Skank. We have been unable to find any mention of 
it by pomological writers. 

Tree. 

Trrc medium to large, vigorous. Form spreading. Tzuigs medium in 
length, spreading, medium in thickness. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large or above medium, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
conic to roundish, regular, pretty symmetrical. Stem medium in length, mod- 
erately thick to rather slender. Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, broad, some- 
times compressed, thinly russeted, the russet not extending beyond the cavity. 
Calyx medium or below, closed or slightly open; lobes short to rather long, 
acute. Basin rather small, moderately shallow to rather deep, medium in 
width to narrow, somewhat abrupt, slightly wrinkled. 

Skin rather thin and tender, smooth, bright pale yellow partially over- 
spread and mottled with attractive red, distinctly splashed and often broadly 
striped with bright carmine. Well-colored specimens are nearly covered with 
red. Dots scattering, medium to above, russet or areolar with russet center. 

Calyx tube medium to rather large, funnel-form to cone-shape. Staiiuvis 
median to marginal. 

Core small, sessile or nearly so, abaxile ; cells pretty symmetrical, usually 
open or partly open ; core lines usually somewhat clasping. Carpels much 
concave, broadly roundish to slightly elliptical, emarginate. Seeds numerous, 
medium or below, rather narrow, quite plump, irregular, moderately acute to 
acuminate, rather dark brown. 

Flesh yellowish, sometimes with faint reddish tinge, rather firm, fine-grained, 
crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid, agreeably aromatic, good to very good for 
dessert. 

SLEIGHT. 

References, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1867. (cited by 3). 2. Downing, 
1869:353. 3. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:285. 1905. 

Synonyms. Sleight's Lady Apple (2). Sleight's Lady Apple (3). 
Slight's Lady Apple (t). Slight's Lady Apple (3). 

An apple of the Lady type which originated with Edgar Sleight, Dutchess 
county, N. Y. Downing describes it as an almost perfect facsimile of Lady 
except that it is nearly twice as large and ripens a little earlier. 

We have not seen this variety and have received no report of its being 
grown outside of the locality of its origin. 

SMITH CIDER. 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:131. fig. 2. Thacher, 1822:123. 3. Elliott, 
1854:157. 4, Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1856. 5. Downing, 1857:189. 6. Hooper, 
1857:84. 7. Horticulturist. 15:184. 1S60. 8. Mag. Hart.. 26:102. i860. 9. 
Hovey, lb., 29:262. 1863. fig. 10. Warder, 1867:614. fig. 11. Downing, 1869: 
354- %• 12. Fitz, 1872:143, 153. 13. Leroy, 1873:579. fig. 14. Thomas, 1875: 




Ul 

9 

o 

I 
I- 



The Appi.rs ov Xi:\v York. 311 

222. 15. Barry, 1883:354. 16. Wickson, 1889:247. 17. Lyon, Mich. Hort. 
Soc. Rpt., 1890:29(1. 18. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:249. 19. Can. Hort., 16:435. 
1893. 20. Mathews, Ky. Sta. Bui, 50:32. 1894. 21. Burrill and McCluer, 
///. Sta. Bui. 45:341. 1896. 22. Beach, II'. A'. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt.. 1901:76. 

23. Alwood, I 'a. Sta. Bui, 130:124. 1901. 24. Waugh, I't. Sta. An. Rpt., 14: 
308. 1901. 25. Kan. Sta. Bui, 106:55. 1902. 26. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. 
P. I. Bui, 48:36. 1903. 27. Biuld-IIansen, 1903:176. fig. 28. Beach and Clark, 
A^. V. Sta. Bui, 248:144. 1904. 29. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:72, 286. 
1905. 

Synonyms. Choice Ivcntuck (29). Cider (9). Cider (29). Cider 
Apple (i, 2). Foxvlcr (11, 13, 29). Fuller (11, 13, 29). Jackson Winesap 
(29). Pennsylvania Cider (11, 13, 29). Poplar Bluff (29). Popular Bluff 
(13). Popular Bluff (11, 29). Smith's (id, 26, 29). Smith's (11. 13, 29). 
Smith's Cider (3. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 

24. 25). Smith's Cider (9, 10, 13, 26, 29). 

\Mien well grown this is a beautiful fruit. It ranks good but 
not high in quality. Coxe ( i ) observes that it bears some resem- 
blance to the old A andevere of Pennsylvania. He describes it under 
the name Cider Apple by which name it is still commonly known in 
some sections of the country. Warder (10) remarks that it cannot 
be recommended for the table but gives great satisfaction for culinary 
purposes and for market, being " one of the most profitable apples 
planted in Southwestern Ohio and adjacent counties of Indiana." 
The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing young and usually is 
very productive. As grown in New York the fruit usually fails to 
develop properly in size and quality, and is, on the whole, unsatis- 
factory and unprofitable. 

Historical. This has long been a favorite apple in Bucks county, Pennsyl- 
vania where it originated (i, 5, 9, 10, 11, 19), and it is highly esteemed in 
certain regions farther south and west (i, 3, 10. 19, it,). Although it has 
long been known in cultivation it has not gained much recognition among 
New York fruit growers. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous with long, moderately stout, straggling branches. 
Form tall, upright spreading or roundish, rather open. Twigs above medium 
to long, curved, rather slender ; internodes short to medium. Bark dark 
brownish-red lightly mottled with scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels quite 
numerous, inconspicuous, small to medium, round, not raised. Buds mediurn 
in size, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, free or nearly so, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large when well grown but it often averages below medium. 
Form roundish oblate inclined to conic or varying to oblong and truncate, 
regular to somewhat elliptical; axis often oblique; sides sometimes unequal. 



312 The Apples of New York. 

Stem short to moderately long, slender. Cavity rather large, acute or some- 
times obtuse, moderately deep, moderately narrow to broad, often with out- 
spreading russet. Calyx below medium to large, partly open or sometimes 
closed ; lobes leafy, long, acute to acuminate. Basin wide, varying from very 
shallow and obtuse to rather deep and abrupt, somewhat furrowed and 
wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth or slightly roughened with capillary russet lines 
about the basin, glossy, bright pale yellow or greenish mottled and shaded 
with pinkish-red, splashed and striped with bright carmine. Dots whitish or 
russet, often areolar, rather large and conspicuous. Prevailing effect bright 
pinkish-red. 

Calyx tube short and obtusely cone-shape or sometimes approaching funnel- 
form. Stanicns median. 

Core below medium to rather large, abaxile to nearly axile ; cells sym- 
metrical, open or sometimes closed; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. 
Carpels thin, usually smooth, broadly roundish to elongated or narrowing 
irregularly toward the apex, acuminate, emarginate. Seeds numerous, above 
medium, wide, plump, obtuse, dark. 

Flesh whitish, firm, moderately fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid 
becoming mildly subacid, aromatic, sprightly, good but not high in flavor or 
quality. 

Season at Geneva November to March. 

"Makefield is the name given to an apple shown at the meet- 
ing of the New Jersey Horticultural Society in 1900. It origi- 
nated in Makefield township, Bucks Co., Pa., hence its name. It is 
supposed to be a sport from Smith's Cider, which it resembles in tree. 
It is fully as prolific as Smith's Cider. The fruit is like Smith's 
Cider in all respects, except that it has a deep red color, making it 
more valuable for market. The distinctive feature is that the red 
is not in stripes as in Smith's Cider, and even the small specimens 
are red " (22). 

SMOKEHOUSE. 

References. 1. Horticultunst. 2:482, 570. 1848. 2. Brinckle, lb., 3:333. 
1849. fig. 3. Thomas, 1849:152. 4. Horticulturist, 4:340, 414. 1850. 5. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 6. Horticulturist, 7:475. 1852. 7. Mag. Hort., 19:68. 
1853. 8. Hovey, lb., 22:558. 1856. Hg. 9. Horticulturist, 11:289. 1856. 10. 
Downing, 1857:104. 11. Hooper. 1857:85. 12. Hoft'y, N. A. Pom., i860, col. 
pi. 13. Horticulturist, 15:184. i860. 14. Warder, 1867:732. 15. Fitz, 1872: 
143, 153- 16. Leroy, 1873:815. figs. 17. Barry, 1883:355. 18. Wickson, 1889: 
244. 19. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 20. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892: 
249. 21. Hicks, Rural N. Y., 53:205. 1894. 22. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bui, 130: 
136. 1901. 23. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui., 106:55. 1902. 24. Bruner, 
iV. C. Sta. Bui, 182:22. 1903. 25. Budd-Hansen, 1903:177. Hg. 

Synonyms. English Vandevere (10). Gibbons Smokehouse (i). Mill- 
creek (12). Millcreek Vandevere (4, 9, 10, 16). Red Vandevere (16). 
Smoke House (ii, 12). Vandervcre (12). Vandevere English (16). 





SMOKEHOUSE 



The Apples of New York. 313 

Fruit uniform in size, symmetrical and attractive in appearance 
when well colored ; but too often its color lacks character, being 
neither distinctly yellow nor distinctly red. It is a very pleasant 
flavored dessert apple but hardly acid enough for most culinary uses. 
The tree is a good, vigorous grower, healthy, hardy and usually a 
reliable cropper, alternating good with moderate crops. It comes 
into bearing moderately young. The fruit hangs well to the tree. 
It is somewhat subject to apple scab and requires thorough pre- 
ventive treatment to insure clean fruit. The tree tends to form a 
rather dense head and requires frequent pruning to keep the top 
sufficiently open to develop fruit of good color and good quality. 
Some fruit growers regard it with favor as a commercial variety 
on account of its being reliably productive and yielding a very good 
grade of smooth fruit ; but it is not grown extensively in any part 
of the state, and, so far as we can learn, its cultivation is not being 
extended. 

ffisforical. Originated with William Gibbons, Lampeter township, Lan- 
caster county. Pa. (2, 12). It took its name from the fact that the original 
tree grew near his smokehouse. It was brought to notice about 1837 by Ash- 
bridge though it had long before been propagated in a nursery near the 
locality of its origin. It is supposed to be a seedling of the old Vandevere 
of Delaware and Pennsylvania as it much resembles that variety ; in fact 
Elliott fell into the error of calling it identical with Vandevere. l It has been 
grown more extensively in New Jersey and Pennsylvania than it has in this 
state. It is cultivated to a limited extent in many portions of New York 
but is not generally known among New York fruit growers. 

Tree. 

Tree medium to large, vigorous. Form roundish to wide-spreading, dense ; 
lateral branches willowy, slender. Tzcigs moderately long, straight, slender ; 
internodes long. Bark reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, lightly 
streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticcls very scattering, oblong, 
not raised. Buds set deeply in bark, medium in size, broad, flat, obtuse, ap- 
pressed, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
oblate or approaching oblate conic, rather regular, symmetrical or nearly so. 
Stem medium to long, slender. Cavity acute to acummate, medium to rather 
deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, sometimes gently furrowed, often 
thinly russeted. Calyx large, open or nearly so ; lobes often flat, convergent, 
separated at the base. Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, rather wide, 
sometimes compressed, somewhat abrupt, slightly wrinkled. 

^Elliott, 1854: 113. 



314 The Apples of New York. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth or slightly roughened with capillary russet lines 
and russet dots ; color yellow or greenish mottled with rather dull red, some- 
times deepening to a solid bright red, indistinctly mottled, striped and splashed 
with carmine. Dots generally conspicuous, large, irregular, gray or russet, 
becoming smaller and more numerous about the basin. Prevailing effect 
greenish-yellow, but in highly colored specimens, red. 

Calyx tube rather wide_, short., obtusely cone-shape or approaching funnel- 
form. Stamens median to basal. 

Core rather small, axile or nearly so ; cells symmetrical, closed or partly 
open ; core lines meeting or with funnel-form calyx tube, clasping. Carpels 
flat, broadly elliptical to roundish or somewhat cordate, usually smooth. Seeds 
few, very dark, large, narrow^ long, acute to acuminate, sometimes tufted. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately fine, crisp, moder- 
ately tender, juicy, mild subacid, delicately aromatic, with an agreeable but 
not high flavor, good. 

Season October to February or March. 

SPITZENBURG, 

New York fruit growers and fruit dealers commonly use the 
simple name Spitzenburg or its colloquial abbreviation Spitz, in 
referring to the variety known to pomologists as Esopus Spitzen- 
burg. Pomologists are now publishing this name with Spitzenburg 
in italics as the first step toward shortening the name to Esopus, 
but comparatively few New York fruit growers would recognize it 
by the name Esopus and it will doubtless continue to be called 
Spitzenburg as long as it remains in cultivation. For an account 
of this variety the reader is referred to Esopus Spitzenburg. 

This word has been variously spelled by different pomologists as, 
Spitzemberg, Spitzenberg, Spitzenbergh, Spitzenburgh and Spits- 
zenburgh, but Spitzenburg is now the commonly accepted spelling. 

Many different varieties have the word Spitzenburg appearing 
either in the accepted name or in a synonym ; those which are 
described in this volume are Esopus Spitzenburg, Flushing Spitzen- 
burg. Newtown Spitzenburg and Scribiier Spitzenburg (see 
Scribner). 

SPRING PIPPIN. 

References, i. Elliott, 1854:158. 2. Warder, 1867:732. 3. Downing, 1869: 
358. 4. Thomas. 1875:512. 5. Burrill and McCluer, ///. Sta. Bui, 45:342. 
1896. 6. Ragan. U. S. B. P. I. Bui.. 56:291. 1905. 

Synonyms. .Spring Pippin (6). Springport (6). Springport Pippin 
(4). Springport Pippin (i, 3, 5, 6). 





STANARD 



The Apples of New York. 315 

An old variety which originated in Springport, Cayuga county, N. Y (3, 4). 
It is probably now obsolete. The tree is upright, thrifty and unproductive. 
Fruit above medium, roundish, yellowish-green, with few scattering minute 
dots. Calyx closed. Stem short. Flesh crisp, sprightly subacid, very good. 
Season December to May (i, 4). 

The variety described by Rurrill and McCluer under this name is evidently 
not the true Spring Pippin (5). 

SPY. 

Fruit growers and frtiit dealers commonly mention the Northern 
Spy by the simple name of Spy. For a description of this variety 
the reader is referred to Northern Spy. 

STANARD, 

References, i. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1848:22. 276. 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., 3:78. 1851. 3. Elliott, 1854:158. 4. Warder, 1867:544. tig. 5. Down- 
ing, 1869:359. 6. Fitz, 1872:121. 7. Thomas, 1875:512. 8. Bailey. An. Hort., 
1892:250. 9. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:56. 1903. 10. Beach 
and Clark, A^ }'. Sta. Bui, 248:144. 1904. 

Synonyms. Stanard's Seedling (3, 5). Stannard (8). Stannard's 
Seedling (2). 

Stanard is a good apple but other varieties of its season are superior to it 
for either home use or commercial purposes. The fruit is of good market- 
able size and fairly attractive in general appearance but as grown at this 
Station it does not develop as bright red color as either Baldwin or Northern 
Spy and is decidedly inferior to either of these varieties in the texture, flavor 
and quality of its flesh. Its season extends to January but some portion of 
the fruit may be kept till spring. Its ordinary commercial limit is October 
or in cold storage March or April (10). The tree is rather vigorous, comes 
into bearing early and is an annual bearer, alternating heavy with light crops. 
It is not recommended for planting in New York. 

Historical. In 1848 Stanard was exhibited before the New York Agri- 
cultural Society as a new seedling by Benjamin Hodge, Jr., of Buffalo, by 
whom it w^as afterwards introduced (i). It has been disseminated in portions 
of the Middle West (4, 5, 8) but it has not won the favor of New York fruit 
growers and remains practically unknown in this state. 

Tree. 
Tree moderately vigorous ; branches short, stout, curved. For)n spreading, 
open. Tzi'igs generally short, somewhat curved, rather stout ; internodes 
medium to very short. Bark dark reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, 
partly streaked with thin scarf-skin, heavily pubescent. Lcnticels scattering, 
small to medium, often elongated, usually not raised. Buds prominent, large, 
broad, plump, obtuse to acute, free or nearly so, quite pubescent. 

Fruit. 
Fruit large to above medium, somewhat variable in size. Form oblate 
conic to roundish conic, wide and flat at the base, regular or obscurely ribbed ; 



3i6 The Apples of New York. 

sides sometimes unequal. Stcjii short to medium, moderately slender, usually 
not exserted. Cavity rather large, acute or approaching acuminate, moder- 
ately deep to very deep, wide, symmetrical, usually slightly furrowed or com- 
pressed, occasionally lipped, often russeted and with outspreading russet rays. 
Calyx small to above medium, partly open or closed ; lobes often somewhat 
separated at the base, narrow, acuminate to acute. Basin below medium to 
rather large, often oblique, varying from rather shallow, narrow, symmetrical 
and somewhat obtuse to deep, rather wide, somewhat furrowed and distinctly 
abrupt, pubescent. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth or slightly roughened by russet dots, somewhat 
glossy, greenish becoming pale yellow shaded with red. Highly colored speci- 
mens are almost completely covered with moderately dark, rather dull red, 
sparingly and rather indistinctly splashed and striped with dark carmine but 
usually the predominant color is yellow. Dots pale or russet, numerous and 
small near the basin, becoming larger, scattering, more conspicuous and 
irregular toward the cavity. 

Calyx tube rather large, long, urn-shape varying to cone-shape or some- 
times funnel-form. Stamens below median. 

Core medium or below, somewhat abaxile ; cells not uniformly developed, 
symmetrical, open or closed ; core lines somewhat clasping. Carpels much 
concave, roundish to elliptical, emarginate. Seeds moderatelj' light brown, 
medium or below, rather short, wide, plump, acute to somewhat obtuse. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, a little coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, 
brisk subacid becoming rather mild and pleasant, aromatic, good to very good. 

STARK. 

Referenxes. I. Warder, 1867:7,32. 2. Prairie Farmer, 1868. (cited by 25) 
3. Downing, 1869:360. 4. Fitz, 1872:170. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 6 
Thomas. 1875:512. 7. Mo. Hart. Soc. Rpt., 1888:327. 8. Clark, Mo. Sta. Bui. 
6:8. 1889. 9. Wickson, 1889:249. 10. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298 
II. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:250. 12. Can. Hort., 16:112. 1893. 13. Munson 
Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:133. 14. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bui. 43:104. 1896. 15. Rural 
-V- y-, 55:1- 1896. fig. 16. Can. Hort., 20:35. 1897. 17. Lazenby, Columbus 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:139. 18. Can. Hort., 23:126. 1900. 19. Dickens and 
Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui., 106:55. 1902. 20. Can. Hort., 25:303. 1902. figs. 21. 
Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 9:2. 1902. figs. 22. Budd-Hansen, 1903: 
179. figs. 23. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. L BiiL. 48:56. 1903. 24. Beach 
and Clark, -V. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:144- 1904. 25. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 
56:291. 1905. 

Synonyms. Robinson (25). St.\rke Apple (4). Yeats (7, 25). 

Stark is regarded as a good variety for the commercial orchard 
by some New York fruit growers particularly because the tree is 
thrifty, hardy, healthy, a reliable cropper and very productive and 
because the fruit is fair, smooth, uniform and keeps well. It is 
often dull and not attractive sometimes having but very little red 
color yet under favorable conditions it is nearly covered with red 





STARK 



The Apples of New York. 317 

and in the sprin^^ when the contrasting- yellow tints are fully devel- 
oped it becomes quite attractive. The accompanying- illustration 
shows a highly colored Stark which was grown in Dutchess county. 
At Geneva its season in ordinary storage extends from January to 
June with May as the usual commercial limit. The fruit stands 
handling well because it is very firm and has a thick, tough skin. 
It has a mild flavor and ranks only medium in quality but is well 
liked for baking and evaporating. It often sells in the general 
market at remunerative prices and is regarded by some as a good 
apple for export trade (20, 21). Stark not only does well through- 
out the region where Baldwin succeeds but also has won recog- 
nition as a desirable commercial variety in certain districts in the 
North, South and West outside the range of profitable cultivation 
of Baldwin. 

Historkal. Stark was first brought to notice in Ohio (3) and is said to 
have Qifiginated in that state (25). It is grown successfully over a wide range 
of territory and has received favorable notice in various regions from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific. In 1892 it was offered by nurserymen in all of the 
apple-growing sections of the country with the exception of the northern 
portion of the Mississippi valley and the Rocky Mountain region from 
Montana to Arizona and Texas (11). Thus far it has not been largely planted 
in New York but its cultivation in this state appears to be slowly increasing. 

Tree. 

Tree strong, straight, healthy in the nursery ; vigorous and large or moder- 
ately large in the orchard, with long, strong branches. Form upright spread- 
ing to roundish, rather dense. Tzvigs above medium length, nearly straight, 
slender to rather stout ; internodes short to long. Bark reddish-brown tinged 
with olive-green, lightly streaked with gray scarf-skin ; pubescent near tips. 
Lenticels quite numerous, conspicuous, small to large, roundish or oblong, 
slightly raised. Buds medium to large, plump, obtuse to acute, free, slightly 
pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to medium, sometimes very large, quite uniform in size and 
shape. Form roundish inclined to conic varying to slightly oblate or to 
roundish ovate ; sides sometimes unequal. Ston short to medium in length, 
moderately stout. Cavity medium in size, acuminate or approaching acute, 
moderately deep, rather wide to moderately narrow, sometimes gently fur- 
rowed, occasionally lipped, sometimes russeted and with outspreading russet. 
Calyx medium to rather large, closed or partly open. Basin shallow and 
obtuse to medium in depth and somewhat abrupt, rather wide, slightly 
wrinkled. 

Skin smooth or slightly roughened with russet dots, pale green becoming 
yellow more or less blushed and mottled with red and rather indistinctly 



3i8 The Apples of New York. 

striped with darker red. Prevailing effect dull green and red, but in highly 
colored specimens fairly bright red. 

Calyx tube rather wide, truncate cone-shape with fleshy pistil point pro- 
jecting into the base, or approaching funnel-form. Stamens median or below. 

Core medium to rather small, axile ; cells uniform, symmetrical, closed or 
parti}' open ; core lines meeting or slightly clasping Carpels thin, tender, flat, 
broadly roundish to obcordate, emarginate, mucronate, tufted. Seeds few, 
long, acute, tufted. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately fine to rather coarse, breaking, rather 
tender, juicy, sprightly, mild subacid, not high in flavor, fair to good, or nearly 
good, in quality. 

STAYMAN WINESAP^ 

References, i. Downing, 1881:106 app. fig. 2. Stayman, Mo. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1883:77. 3. Bailey, Mich. Sta. Bid., 31:54. 1887. 4. Rural N. Y., 55:1. 
1896. 5. Auier. Card., 17:33. 1896. 6. Van Deman, Rural N. ¥., 57:201. 
1898. 7. Powell, Del. Sta. Bui, 38:20. 1898. fig. 8. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 
58:800. 1899. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:20. 10. Rural N. Y., 59:466, 510. 
1900. fig. II. Amer Card., 22:191. 1901. 12. Van Deman, Rural N. Y ., 60: 
124, 210, 307, 532. 1901. 13. Taylor, {] . S. Dept. Agr. Yr. Bk., 1902:470. col. 
pi. 14. Rural X. Y.. 61:688. 1902. 15. Bruner. N. C. Sta. Bui.. 182:22. 1903. 
i5. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:57. 1903. 17. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:180. fig. 18. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:145. 1904. 

Synonyms. Stayman (4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12). Stayman (13, 16). Stayman's 
WiNESAP (i, 2. 3, 7, 11). Stayman's IVinesap (13). 

A^an Deman calls this the best variety of the Winesap class for 
general cultivation (12). Taylor remarks that the only particular 
in which it does not equal its parent is in its color which is some- 
what less brilliant than that of Winesap and adds that it appears to 
be adapted to a wider range of soil and climate and well worthy of 
testing throughout the middle latitudes, both for home use and for 
market (13). As tested at this Station the tree is moderately vig- 
orous, comes into bearing young and is a reliable annual cropper, 
alternating heavy with light crops ; but the fruit, as shown by the 
accompanying illustration, does not develop properly here in size 
and color. It is evidently not well suited for regions as far north 
as this. 

Historical. This variety was originated from seed of Winesap in 1866 at 
Leavenworth, Kan., by Dr. J. Stayman and bore its first fruit in 1875 (13)- 
The earliest published descriptions of it were given by Downing ( i ) and 
Stayman (2). "Further than these descriptions the variety does not appear 
to have attracted any special attention until after 1890, when its good qualities 
were discovered almost simultaneously by Mr. R. J. Black, of Bremen, Ohio, 
and Mr. J. W. Kerr, of Denton, Md., both of whom fruited it on top grafts 




Q. 
< 

CO 

UJ 



The Apples of New York. 319 

at about that time. It was first catalogued by the latter in 1894-1895, and has 
been quite extensively planted in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Mary- 
land and Virginia since that date, and somewhat in other States" (13). 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form spre;ading and somewhat open. Twigs 
below medium to rather long, irregularly crooked, moderately stout, with large 
terminal buds; internodes medium to long. Bark dark brown or reddish- 
brown with some olive-green, heavily coated with scarf-skin, pubescent near 
tips. Lenticels inconspicuous, scattering, small to large, roundish, raised. 
Buds prominent, above medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse to acute, pubes- 
cent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish conic 
to globular, flattened at the base and rounding toward the basin ; sides some- 
times slightly unequal. Stem medium to short. Cavity large, acuminate to 
acute, deep to very deep, medium in width to wide, often gently furrowed, 
sometimes compressed, usually partly russeted and sometimes with outspread- 
ing broken russet rays. Calyx small to medium, closed or sometimes partly 
open ; lobes long, acute to acuminate. Basin small, sometimes oblique, vary- 
ing from shallow, narrow and obtuse to medium in width and depth and 
abrupt, furrowed, somewhat wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, rather thick, tough, green becoming yellowish, often nearly 
completely covered with rather dull mixed red and rather indistinctly striped 
with dull carmine. In less highly colored specimens the striped effect is 
more noticeable. Dots light gray and russet, often rather large and con- 
spicuous. 

Calyx tube cone-shape to elongated funnel-form, sometimes extending 
nearly or quite to the core. Stamens median. 

Core small to medium, abaxile to nearly axile ; cells symmetrical, closed 
or open ; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels thin, tender, quite 
concave broadly roundish to elliptical, emarginate. Seeds variable, medium 
or above, long, obtuse to acute, plump ; often some are abortive. 

Flesh tinged with yellow or slightly greenish, firm, moderately fine-grained, 
tender, moderately crisp, breaking, juicy to very juicy, aromatic, sprightly, 
pleasant subacid, good to very good. 

Season December to May ; commercial limit, April. 

STERLING. 

References, i. Elliott, 1854:167. 2. Downing, 1857:115. 3. Warder, 1867: 
711. 4. Downing, 1869:75. 5. Aiir Pom. Soc. Cat., 1877. 6. Barry. 1883: 
341. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat, 1897:14. 8. Budd-Hanscn, 1903:181. 9. Thomas, 
1903:689. ID. Page 45- 

Synonyms. American Beauty (2, 3, 4, 5. 6, 9, 10). American Beauty 
(7, 8). Beauty of America (i). Beauty of America (4, 10). Sterling 
Beauty (2, 4, 6, 9, lo"). 

This is the variety described on page 45 under the name of American 
Beauty. At the time that description was written it escaped our notice that 



320 The Apples of New York. 

the accepted name for this variety in the American Pomological Society Cata- 
logue was changed in 1897 from American Beauty to Sterling. This state- 
ment is made for the purpose of revising and correcting the sjmonymy of this 
variety. 

STONE. 

Reference, i. Hoskins, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 5:18. 1879. 

An apple of the Bhte Pearmain group somewhat similar to Bethel 
in general appearance. We find no published description of this 
variety. It is highly esteemed locally in St. Lawrence county where 
it has come to be recognized as a very hardy, healthy, thrifty and 
long-lived variety. It has a tendency to overbear or to set more 
fruit than it can properly mature. It is an advantage to have the 
fruit thoroughly thinned early in the season. It has the habit of 
ripening its wood and shedding its foliage early in the autumn. 
Young trees in the nursery row have a rather rough, sprawling 
habit of growth. The fruit when well grown is rather large and 
although rather dull red in color is fairly attractive in appearance. 
It ranks good or sometimes possibly very good in quality. 

Historical. This variety was brought from Bethel, Vermont into Potsdam, 
St. Lawrence county, about 1836 or 1837 by a Mr. Stone. He propagated it 
in that locality and it came to be known locally as the Stone apple. For a 
tim2 the Stone and the Snow or Fameuse were about the only grafted apples 
known in that vicinity. During the last sixty years it has been grown in 
some sections of St. Lawrence county more extensively than any other variety! 
and has there become a standard winter apple for home use. Apparently it 
is unknown outside of Northern New York. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to very large, quite uniform in size and shape. Form 
round to somewhat ovate, rounding toward base and apex, regular or some- 
times slightly ribbed. Stem very short to medium, rather slender. Cavity 
very small, usually acuminate, very narrow, somewhat unsymmetrical, partly 
russeted ; the russet does not often extend beyond the brim of the cavity. 
Calyx medium to rather small, usually open, sometimes nearly closed; lobes 
rather broad and acute. Basin usually shallow, sometimes moderately deep, 
medium in width to rather narrow, sometimes slightly wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, rather smooth, takes a high polish ; color pale yellow or 
greenish washed and mottled with rather dull dark red which in highly 
colored specimens deepens to solid red, irregularly splashed and striped with 
deep carmine, overspread with bluish bloom and often noticeably marked with 
bluish-white scarf-skin." Dots numerous. Some are very large, irregular, 
very conspicuous, grayish and often areolar with russet point ; others are 
small, round, pale gray or whitish and often submerged. 

Calyx tube short, broadly conical. Stamens usually basal. 

'Letters of A F. Clark, Raymondville, 1896, 1905. 




STONE 



The Apples of New York. 321 

Core slightly abaxile with a hollow cylinder at the axis which becomes 
narrow above and extends to the calyx tube ; cells not uniformly developed, 
closed or open ; core lines nearly meeting or clasping. Carpels roundish to 
roundish ovate, a little tufted. Seeds not numerous, small to medium, vary- 
ing from rather long, narrow and acuminate to short, blunt and nearly obtuse. 

Flesh nearly white with j^ellowish tinge, moderately firm, a little coarse, 
rather tender, juicy or moderately juicy, mildly subacid becoming nearly sweet, 
somewhat aromatic, good to possibly very good in quality. 

Stone and Bethel Compared. 

Some have supposed that Stone is identical with Bethel ( i ) but as 
received from various parts of Northern New York it is certainly 
distinct. The fruit averages larger than that of Bethel, sometimes 
becoming very large, and its form is more elongated and more in- 
clined to roundish ovate. Its color is duller than that of Bethel, 
being not quite so dark red in tone, and it is noticeably less striped 
and splashed. The dots of Stone are considerably the larger, more 
irregular and more noticeably areolar. The dots of Bethel are the 
brighter ; its stem usually shorter and more slender ; its cavity 
decidedly smaller and narrower ; its basin slightlv narrower and 
more regular ; its core less abaxile and slightly smaller, and its cells 
less uniformly developed. 

STOWE. 

References, i. Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895. (cited by 2). 2. Munson. Me. 
Sta. Rpt., 1902:92. 

Synonym. Sfozn'c's Jl'lutcr (i). 

This variety has attracted the attention of ■Maine fruit growers because of 
its superior hardiness. Munson (2) considers it " well worthj^ of general 
dissemination as a valuable iron-clad variety." He reports that " the tree is 
vigorous and an annual bearer; fruit medium to large, greenish-yellow with 
blushed cheek; flesh subacid, good; season February to May in Aroostook 
county. Me." 

Historical. Originated in Perham, Aroostook county. Me., from seed 
planted about 1862. Known locally in Maine as Stowe's Winter (i). So far 
as we know it is not cultivated in New York. 



STREAKED PIPPIN, 

References, i. Downing, 1869:362. 2. Burrill and McCIuer. ///. Sta. Bui, 
45:342. 1896. 3. Beach and Clark, A^ 1'. Sta. Bui, 248:145. 1904. 

Synonyms. Hempstead (1). Quaker of some (i). Red Pippin (i). 
Skunk, erroneously (i). 



322 The Apples of Xew York. 

Fruit large, yellow streaked with red, the yellow usually pre- 
dominating. It is pretty uniform in size and when highly colored 
rather attractive in appearance. It ranks good to very good in 
quality either for dessert or culinary 'use. On Long Island it is 
grown more commonly than any other variety except Rhode Island 
Greening. In that portion of the state it is in season during late 
fall and early winter but as grown at this Station it keeps till Feb- 
ruary with ])ractically no loss (3) and its season extends to April 
or May. It is not sufificiently attractive in color to be desirable 
for general market purposes but it sells well in Long Island local 
markets. This variety is grown successfully on sandy or gravelly 
loam and also does well on clay loam. It is hardy, healthy, long- 
lived, vigorous, comes into bearing moderately young and is a reli- 
able cropper, yielding moderate to heavy crops biennially or almost 
annually. The crop ripens rather unevenly and there is considerable 
loss from dropping of the fruit. 

It appears from reports received from Northern and Xorthwestern 
New York that in some portions of those regions an inferior variety 
is known locally under the name Streaked Pippin but we have not 
seen this fruit. 

Historical. Origin, Westbury, N. Y. It is generally cultivated on Long 
Island and occasionally is found in the Hudson valley but it is little known 
in other portions of the state. 

Tree. 

Tree large, moderately vigorous to very vigorous. Form upright becoming 
wide-spreading and very drooping, rather dense. Tzi'igs medium to short, 
straight, stout to rather slender; internodes medium to short. Bark clear 
reddish-brown tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, slightly 
pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, but not very conspicuous, medium to 
small, roundish or elongated, slightly raised. Buds medium size, broad, 
plump, acute to obtuse, free, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish oblong to roundish 
conic, often faintly ribbed, symmetrical. Stem short to medium, slender to 
moderately thick. Cavity acuminate, sometimes acute, moderately narrow to 
rather broad, often slightly furrowed, occasionally compressed, sometimes 
lipped, sometimes russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open ; 
lobes usually short, obtuse. Basin shallow, narrow and obtuse, varying to 
medium in width and depth and somewhat abrupt, often somewhat furrowed. 

Skin thin, tough, nearly smooth, covered with a thin whitish bloom which 





STREAKED PIPPIN 



The Apples of New York. 323 

gives a slightly dull effect, bright and glossy when polished, predominantly 
yellow or greenish partly mottled and blushed with orange-red and distinctly 
striped with bright carmine. Dots rather numerous and conspicuous; whitish 
or with russet point, often areolar. 

Calyx tube conical. Stamens median. 

Core rather large, abaxile ; cells open or partly closed; core lines slightly 
clasping. Carpels much concave, broadly roundish or approaching elliptical, 
mucronate, slightly tufted. Seeds medium to large, rather plump, acute to 
obtuse, somewhat tufted. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, rather coarse, breaking, tender, juicy, 
pleasant subacid, slightly aromatic, good to very good. 

STUART GOLDEN, 

References, i. Downing, 1881:108 app. ftg. 2. Mo. Hart. Soc. Rpt., 1886: 
232. 3. Bailey, An. Hart., 1892:250. 4. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui., 
106:55. 1902. 5. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:57. 1903. 6. 
Farrand. Mich. Sta. Bui, 205:46. 1903. 

Synonyms. Stuart (6). Stuart's Golden (i, 2, 3, 4). Stump, incor- 
rectly (i). 

Fruit rather attractive in color for a yellow apple, not large enough for a 
good commercial variety but a very late keeper and of excellent dessert quality. 
The tree is not large, comes into bearing moderately young and is a reliable 
cropper, yielding full crops biennially. Not recommended for commercial 
planting in New York. 

Historical. Originated on the farm of Wm. Stuart, Rush Creek, Ohio (i). 
It has been disseminated to some extent in the Middle West; but, so far as 
we know, it is not grown in New York except at this Station. 

Tree. 

Tree small to medium size, low with short, stout branches. Form very 
much spreading, open. Tivigs below medium to sliort, straight or slightly 
curved, moderately stout to slender ; internodes short. Bark smooth, clear 
reddish-brown tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubes- 
cent. Lenticels clear in color, scattering, small to medium, oblong, usually 
not raised. Buds prominent, medium in size, plump, acute, free, slightly 
pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit usually below medium but sometimes medium or above. Form round- 
ish oblate or inclined to oblong truncate, often slightly oblique. Stem slender, 
often short, sometimes with fleshy protuberance. Cavity moderately shallow 
to deep, varying from acuminate and narrow to acute and rather wide, usually 
symmetrical, often thinly russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed. Basin 
moderately deep, rather narrow to moderately wide, somewhat abrupt, usually 
symmetrical, often wrinkled. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, waxy, pale yellow or greenish with orange blush, 
.sometimes deepening to pinkish-red. Dots often submerged, pale or russet, 
numerous and rather small toward the basin, becoming larger, more scatter- 
ing and often areolar toward the cavity. 



324 The Apples of New York. 

Calyx tube rather small, rather short, cone-shape, sometimes approaching 
funnel-form. 

Core rather small to above medium, abaxile ; cells open ; core lines meeting 
or slightly clasping. Carpels broadly elliptical. Seeds below medium to 
medium, plump, rather obtuse, moderately dark brown. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow', firm, moderately fine, rather crisp, tender, 
very juicy, agreeably mild subacid, rich, aromatic, very good for dessert. 

Season December to May or June. 

SUTTON. 

References, i. Cole, 1849:130. 2. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 15:249. 1849. fig. 
3. Elliott, 1854:85. 4. Downing, 1857:190. 5. Warder, 1867:616. iig. 6. 
Thomas, 1875:513. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1877:14. 8. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 
1880:50, 184, 207. g. Barry, 1883:355. 10. Can. Hort., 11:8. 1888. 11. Lyon, 
Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 12. Can. Hort., 14:36, 274. 1891. 13. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:250. 14. Munson, Mc. Sta. Rpt., 1893:133. 15. Rural N. Y., 
55:115, 181. 1896. 16. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bui, 143:200. 1897. 17. Rural N. Y., 
57:178, 239, 244. 1898. 18. Woodward, lb., 58:264. 1899. 19. Beach, W. N. 
Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1899:90. 20. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 60:54, 789. 1901. 
21. Can. Hort., 24:121. 1901. 22. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:309. 1901. 
23. Budd-Hansen, 1903:184. 24. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 48: 
57. 1903. 25. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bui, 205:45. 1903. 26. Beach and Clark, 
A''. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:145. 1904. 

Synonyms. Beauty (4). Hiibbardston Nonsuch (3) but incorrectly. 
Morris Red (8, 11, 25). Morris Red (16). Morris Red (19). Steele's 
Red (8, erroneously 11). Steele's Red JTinter (8, of Ohio 19). Sutton 
Beauty (i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21). Sutton Beauty 
(3, 14, 22, 23, 24, 26). 

Sutton is supposed by some to be a seedling of Hubbardston 
(22, 23). The tree certainly resembles Hubbardston somewhat but 
is much more vigorous and healthy. In color, texture, quality and 
season the fruit is intermediate between Hubbardston and Baldwin. 
Its uniform size, symmetrical shape, beautiful color and pleasant 
quality unite to make the Sutton an excellent dessert apple, but being 
mild in flavor it is less desirable for culinary use. It sells well in 
the general market but it appears especially suitable for fancy market 
and fruit-stand trade. It does not keep quite so long as Baldwin, 
hardly averages as large and because it is more tender requires more 
careful handling. Although in some regions its fruit seems to be 
somewhat more subject to scab than that of the Baldwin, yet in 
many localities it has gained a reputation of being remarkably 
healthy in foliage and fruit. The fruit hangs well to the tree. In 
favorable locations the tree has vigorous dark green foliage, is 





SUTTON 



The Apples of New York. 325 

handsome in form, a strong grower and productive, with a marked 
tendency to bear biennially. 

Sutton has been practically unknown in New York state until 
recent years but it is now being introduced quite extensively for 
commercial purposes. Although it has not done well in some 
localities, yet in most parts of the state it is regarded as one of the 
most promising of the newer varieties. Because the trees of this 
variety are still young the value of the Sutton for commercial plant- 
ing in New York has not been fully determined. 

Sutton has been disseminated in Michigan under the name Morris 
Red with Steele's Red or Steele's Red Winter of Ohio as erroneous 
synonyms. Ragan recognizes Morris Red as possibly identical with 
Sutton. Morris Red as fruited at this Station from stock obtained 
from D. G. Edmeston, Adrian, Mich., who has pronounced the fruit 
borne by this stock to be the true Morris Red^, is certainly identical 
with Sutton. 

Leroy refers to Sutton Beauty erroneously as a synonym for 
Wellington.^ 

Historical. Sutton takes its name from the town of Sutton, Mass., in which 
it originated. It was brought to notice through the Worcester County Horti- 
cultural Society in 1848 (2). In 1849 Hovey included it in a descriptive list 
of select varieties in the belief that it would become a popular fruit and re- 
marked that it had as yet been but little disseminated. It was not included 
in the American Pomological Society Catalogue till 1877 (?)• Within recent 
years it has been planted and top-worked upon older trees to a considerable 
extent in New York commercial orchards, but we do not know of any old 
trees of this variety in this state. 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous with stout branches. Form upright spreading, eventually be- 
coming roundish, dense. Tzvigs short to medium in length, straight, moder- 
ately stout to stocky; internodes short to medium. Bark dark olive-green 
somewhat tinged with reddish-brown, mottled and streaked with gray scarf- 
skin, pubescent. Lenticels few, very scattering, not conspicuous, small to 
medium, elongated or roundish, not raised. Buds prominent, large, broad, 
obtuse to acute, pubescent, free. Leaves somewhat narrow, medium to large ; 
foliage vigorous, dark green, healthy, rather dense. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium or rarely large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish or slightly oblong rounding toward cavity and basin, sj-mmetrical, 
regular or very slightly ribbed. Stem medium, to short, sometimes fleshy. 

1 Letters, D. G. Edmeston, 1897, 
= Leroy, 1873:864. 



326 The Apples of New York, 

Caz'ity acute or sometimes acuminate, moderately deep to deep, moderately 
wide to narrow, symmetrical, often with some greenish russet. Calyx medium 
size, partly open, sometimes closed, pubescent ; lobes vary from medium and 
obtuse to long and acuminate. Basin moderately shallow and obtuse to rather 
deep and abrupt, medium in width, somewhat furrowed and slightly wrinkled, 
sometimes compressed. 

Skin moderately thin, tough, often slightly roughened toward the basin by 
inconspicuous, concentric broken russet lines and fine russet dots, otherwise 
glossy and smooth; color attractive bright red striped with carmine or purplish 
carmine nearly overspreading the lively yellow or greenish ground color. 
Prevailing effect attractive red. The less highly colored fruit has a distinctly 
striped appearance. 

Calyx tube symmetrical, conical or sometimes funnel-form. Stamens 
median. 

Core medium or below, slightly abaxile ; cells symmetrical, closed ; core 
lines slightly clasping. Carpels broadly cordate approaching elliptical, emar- 
ginate, sometimes slightly tufted. Seeds rather light brown, small to above 
medium, plump, acute, sometimes a little tufted. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately fine-grained, crisp, 
tender, juicy, mild subacid, good to very good. 

Season intermediate between Hubbardston and Baldwin; early winter in 
the southern part of the state but farther north it is in season for home use 
from November to March, and the commercial limit extends to February. 

SWAAR, 

References, i. Doin. Encyc., 1804. (cited by 33). 2. M'Mahon, Card. 
Cat., 1806:585. 3. Coxe, 1817:161. 4. Thacher, 1822:138. 5. Cat. Hort. Soc. 
London, 1831:37. 6. Kenrick, 1832:53. 7. Floy-Lindley, 1833:85. 8. Man- 
ning. 1838:60. 9. Manning, Mag. Hort., 7:50. 1841. 10. Downing, 1845:134. 
fig. II. Thomas, 1849:185. Hg. 12. Cole, 1849:126. fig. 13. Emmons, Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 3:88. 1851. col. pi. No. 22. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 15. 
Elliott, 1854:108. fig. 16. Hooper, 1857:90. 17. Gregg, 1857:59. fig. 18. ///. 
Handb. Obst., 8:83. 1865. 19. Warder, 1867:632. fig. 20. Downing, 1869:373. 
fig. 21. Fitz. 1872:167. 22. Leroy, 1873:834. tig. 23. Barry, 1883:355. 24. 
Wickson. 1889:246. 25. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 26. Bailey, 
An. Hort., 1892:250. 27. Waugh, T/. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:310. 1901. 28. En- 
eroth-Smirnoff, 1901:463. 29. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bui, 106:55. 
1902. 30. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:57. 1903. 31. Budd- 
Hansen, 1903:184. 32. Beach and Clark, ^^ Y. Sta. Bui, 248:146. 1904. 33. 
Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:302. 1905. 

Synonyms. Der Schwere Apfel (18). Hardwick (20, 22, ss)- Sw'aar 
Apple (2, 3, 4, 7). 

In many parts of the state, and particularly in portions of the 
Hudson valley, Swaar has long- been a favorite variety for the home 
orchard, being valued especially for dessert use because of its rich 
flavor and fine quality. It is less suitable for cooking and there is 
little demand for it in market except among the comparatively few 






SWAAR 



The Apples of New York. 327 

people who know its good qualities. The fruit is usually of good 
size and form but not very attractive in color. Downing observes 
that this variety requires a deep, rich, sandy loam to bring it to per- 
fection but that it does i:ot succeed well in damp or cold soils, and 
adds that in its native soil he has seen it 12 inches in circumference 
and of a deep, golden yellow color (10). The tree is not as long- 
lived nor as hardy as either Baldwin or Rhode Island Greening. In 
many cases it is injured by apple canker^ or by sunscald and occasion- 
ally it sutTers from winter injury. In some localities it appears to be 
thriftier, hardier, and, on the whole, more successful when top- 
worked upon some hardier and more vigorous variety such as Bald- 
win, Rhode Island Greening or Northern Spy than it does when 
grown upon its own trunk. Generally speaking it has the reputation 
of being a shy bearer, yielding moderate crops biennially ; but in some 
cases it is regarded as a heavy cropper and an annual bearer. Often 
a comparatively large amount of the crop is lost in drops and culls. 
Its season is somewhat variable but in ordinary storage commonly 
extends from November or December to March or April (^,2). 

Historical. Downing states " This is a truly noble American fruit, pro- 
duced by the Dutch settlers on the Hudson, near Esopus " (10). Coxe (3) 
remarks that " In the Low-Dutch language this name signifies a heavy apple — 
it is a highly celebrated winter table fruit in some parts of New- York, and 
New- Jersey; it is a large green apple, of great and uncommon flavour and 
richness ; highly deserving of cultivation, in every collection of fine fruits." 
It has been widely disseminated through the state and often a few trees of 
it are still found in old orchards but it has nowhere been cultivated extensively 
and is now seldom planted. 

Tree. 

Tree usually medium or below medium size, moderately vigorous ; branches 
somewhat inclined to droop. Form roundish to quite spreading, rather dense, 
somewhat resembling that of Rhode Island Greening. Tzcigs below medium 
to short, straight or nearly so, rather slender to stout with prominent terminal 
buds ; internodes short. Bark of the trunk and older limbs peculiarly rough, 
that of the new twigs clear dark brownish-red mingled with olive-green, 
lightly streaked with scarf-skin and pubescent. Lcnticeh numerous, small 
to medium, elongated, slightly raised. Buds prominent, below medium to 
large, plump, acute, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large, fairly uniform in size and shape. Form 
roundish varying from oblate to somewhat oblong, often ribbed, regular, sym- 

^For an account of this disease see Paddock, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:33:. 1899 and 
19:342. 1900. 



328 The Apples of New York. 

metrical. Stem medium in length, rather slender. Cavity below medium to 
rather large, usually round, acute to somewhat acuminate, rather deep, mod- 
erately wide, often somewhat furrowed, usually russeted and with broken 
outspreading russet. Calyx small to medium, closed or somewhat open ; lobes 
broad, obtuse, usually connivent. Basin small to medium, usually shallow and 
obtuse, sometimes moderately deep and abrupt, moderately wide, a little fur- 
rowed and wrinkled. 

Skill medium in thickness, tough, somewhat roughened with dots and flecks 
of russet, green or eventually deep yellow, often shaded with a bronze blush. 
Dots numerous, greenish or russet. Prevailing effect green or yellow. 

Calyx tube cone-shape or elongated funnel-form. Stamens median or ap- 
proaching marginal. 

Core small to medium, axile to slightly abaxile with hollow cylinder in the 
axis; cells symmetrical, closed or sometimes partly open; core lines clasping. 
Carpels thin, tender, broadly roundish, emarginate, mucronate, sometimes 
tufted. Seeds numerous, below medium to above medium, broad, plump, 
obtuse, rather light brown. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately tender, rather fine-grained, juicy, mild or 
very mild subacid, aromatic, rich, very good to best. 

SWAZIE, 

References, i. Downing, 1872:27 app. fig. 2. Montreal Hort. Sac. Rpt., 
1883. 3. lb., 1886-87:96. 4. Bailey, An. Hort.. 1892:250. 5. Woolverton, 
Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 3:16. 1896. figs. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:20. 7. 
Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Bid., 37:46. 1901. 8. Waugh, Rural N. Y., 62:185, 
186. 1903. figs. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:185. fig. 10. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. 
Bui., 56:123. 1905. II. lb., 56:303. 1905. 

Synonyms. Golden Gray? (10). Pomme Grise d'Or (i). Pomme 
Grisc d'Or (s, 9, 10). Swaysie Pomme Grise (3). Swayzie (ii). Swayzie 
Pomme Grise (4, 7). Szi'aysie Pomme Grise (11). Swazie Pomme Grise 
(5,8). Szvazie Pomme Grise (i). Szuazie's Pomme Gris (10). Swazy (11). 
Swazy Pomme Gris (6, 9). 

This is a variety of the Pomme Grise group. As compared with 
Pomme Grise it is more ol)long, has more of a golden color, is more 
highly aromatic and superior in quality (i, 6). The fruit is small 
to nearly medium, of a golden russet color and excellent dessert 
quality. Woolverton ranks it best in quality for dessert but poor 
for cooking or for either home or foreign market. He remarks that 
it succeeds well in Southern Ontario especially in the Niagara dis- 
trict ; but. unfortunately, it is not very productive and consequently 
not profitable, one large tree at Alaplehurst, 75 years planted, having 
yielded only an average of four barrels of fruit each alternate 
year (5). 

The first published description of this variety which we find is 
that given by Downing (i) under the name Pomme Grise d'Or with 



The Apples of New York. 329 

Swazie Pomme Grise as a synonym. W'oolverton (5) gives an 
excellent illustrated description of the same variety under the name 
Sv^azie Pomme Grise with Pomme Grise d'v^r as a synonym. The 
name Swazie has been spelled variously by different writers. We 
follow the form used by Downing- (i) and accepted by Woolverton 
(5) and Waugh (8) as that appears to have priority in the pub- 
lished accounts of this variety. 

Historical. Supposed to have originated on the Swazie farm near Niagara 
(i, 5, 7. 8)- It is more generally known in Ontario and Quebec than in New 
York. It is not grown extensively in any portion of this state. 

Tree. 

Tree fairly vigorous, upright (i. 5, 7)- Tzvigs long, rather slender, straight; 
internodes medium or below. Bark clear, light brownish-red, quite pubescent. 
Lenticels numerous, rather conspicuous, irregular in size and shape, raised. 
Buds medium, moderately prominent, acute or roundish, adhering to the bark 
or partly free, moderately pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit small or sometimes nearly medium. Form oblate conical to roundish. 
Stem short to medium length, slender. Cavity narrow to moderately wide, 
acute, deep. Calyx closed or partly open ; lobes broad, obtuse. Basin narrow 
to moderately wide, medium in depth, furrowed gently if at all, slightly 
wrinkled. 

Skin rather pale yellow or greenish-yellow with some cinnamon-russet. 
Dots numerous, whitish. 

Calyx tube elongated, cone-shape. Stamens median. 

Core rather small to medium, somewhat abaxile, often with hollow cylinder 
in the axis ; cells usually symmetrical, closed or open ; core lines meeting. 
Carpels broadly roundish, nearly truncate at the base, narrowing toward the 
apex, mucronate. Seeds numerous, small to medium, variable in form, narrow 
to broad, often angular, usually obtuse or nearly so. 

Flesh whitish tinged with pale yellow, fine-grained, tender, crisp, juicy, 
highly aromatic, sprightly, rather mild subacid, pleasant, very good to best for 
dessert. 

Season December to March. 

SWEET AND SOUR. 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:172. 2. Thacher. 1822:22. 3. Floy-Lindley, 
1833:87. 4. Cultivator, 1:390. 1844. 5. Fo., 2:20. 102, 106, 153. 1845. 6. lb., 
3:130. 1846. 7. Thomas, 1849:186. 8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:90. 1851. 
g. Mag. Hart., 18:153, 1852. 10. Elliott, 1854:178. 11. Horticulturist, 11:46. 
1856. 12. Warder, 1867:475. iig. 13. Downing, 1869:374. 14. Rural N. Y., 
56:176, 412, 436, 551, 567, 770. 1897. 15- Van Deman, lb.. 59:M3- 1900. 

Synonyms. Bower's Apple (9). Compound (14). 



330 The Apples of New York. 

Scattering" trees of this variety are found in various parts of the 
state. It is of no special value but is propagated as a curiosity. 
Thacher (2) quotes the following very interesting description of the 
variety and account of its origin by the Rev. Peter Whitney in the 
Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Volume I. 

" There is now growing, in an orchard lately belonging to my honoured 
father, the Reverend Aaron Whitney, of Petersham, deceased, an apple tree 
very singular with respect to its fruit. The apples are fair, and when fully 
ripe, of a yellow colour, but evidently of different tastes — sour and sweet. 
The part which is sour is not very tart, nor the other very sweet. Two 
apples, growing side by side on the same limb, will be often of these different 
tastes ; the one all sour, and the other all sweet. And, which is more remark- 
able, the same apple will frequently be sour one side, end, or part, and the 
other sweet, and that not in any order or uniformity; nor is there any differ- 
ence in the appearance of one part from the other. And as to the quantity', 
some have more of the acid and less of the sweet, and so z'ice versa. Neither 
are the apples, so different in their tastes, peculiar to any particular branches, 
but are found promiscuously, on every branch of the tree. The tree stands 
almost in the midst of a large orchard, in a rich and strong soil, and was trans- 
planted there forty years ago. There is no appearance of the trunk or any 
of the branches having been engrafted or inoculated. It w^as a number of 
3'ears, after it had borne fruit, before these different tastes were noticed; but, 
since they were first discovered, which is about twenty years, there has been, 
constantly, the same variety in the apples. For the truth of what I have 
asserted, I can appeal to many persons of distinction, and of nice tastes, who 
have travelled a great distance to view the tree, and taste the fruit, but to 
investigate the cause of an effect, so much out of the common course of nature, 
must, I think, be attended with difficulty. The only solution that I can con- 
ceive is, that the corcula. or hearts of two seeds, the one from a sour, the 
other from a sweet apple, might so incorporate in the ground as to produce 
but one plant; or that farina from blossoms of those opposite qualities, might 
pass into and impregnate the same seed. If you should think the account I 
have given you of this singular apple tree will be acceptable to the American 
academy, please to communicate it." 

At the time when this account was first published it was cus- 
tomary in planting to set orchards with seedling trees from some 
local nursery, as was evidently done in this case, and if cultivated 
varieties were ever included they were later top-worked upon these 
seedling trees with which the orchard was first planted. From the 
account given by Whitney it is probable that the original tree of the 
Sweet and Sour apple originated in a seedling nursery from which 
it was transplanted into the orchard of his father where it first 
attracted attention because of the curious character of its fruit. 



The Apples of New York. 331 

When this \anely is discussed by fruit growers it is not unusual 
to hear some one relate the legend that it was produced by joining 
two half buds, one of a sweet the other of a sour variety, and insert- 
ing them as one bud under the bark of the stock as is ordinarily done 
in budding. This legend is recognized in the name " Compound "' by 
which this apple has been known to some in Western New York 
(14). The supposed split-bud origin of Sweet and Sour is occa- 
sionally discussed pro and con in horticultural periodicals. An early 
discussion of this kind is found in the Cultivator from 1844 to 1846 
(4, 5, 6) and a more recent one in the Rural Xczv Yorker (14, 15). 

The tree is vigorous, spreading and often quite productive. The 
fruit bears some resemblance to Rhode Island Greening in form, 
color, and occasionally to some degree in flavor. It is more marbled 
with green and yellow than Rhode Island Greening, more oblate and 
more often the sides are noticeably unequal. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to rather large. Form obiate, ribbed and rather unsym- 
metrical. Cavity rather shallow, broad, slightly furrowed. Calyx large ; lobes 
reflexed. Basin shallow, broad, irregular. 

Skin green, especially along the ribs, with a shade of yellow on the inter- 
vening surface and particularly on the exposed cheek. 

Flesh under the yellow skin very deeply tinged with yellow, mildly subacid 
or sweetish; but under the greenish skin, less yellow and more acid; quality 
remarkably variable, fair to good. 

SWEET GREENING, 

References. i. Thacher, 1822:138. 2. Downing, 1869:375. 3. Bailey, 
Mick. Sta. Bui, 31:54. 1887. 4. Waugh, I't. Sta. An. f'^pt., 14:310. 1901. 5. 
Ragan, L^. S. B. P. I. Bill, 56:303. 1905. 

Doubtful References. 6. Warder, 1867:668, 716, 722. 7. Downing, 1881: 
109 app. 8. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:209. 1905. 

Synonyms. Curtis Greening (6)? Curtis Greening (7. 8)? Illinois 
Greening (6)? New Greening (8)? New Rhode Island Greening (7, 8)? 
Sweet greening (i). Sweet Rhode Isl.\nd Greening (7) ? Sweet Rhode 
Island Greening (8) ? 

This, as the name indicates, is a sweet apple of green color. Thacher (i) 
describes it as " a large, handsome apple, resembling in size and form, the 
Rhode Island greening. Ripens in autumn, and possesses the valuable prop- 
erty of retaining its soundness and flavour till the middle of June. It is an 
e.xcellent apple for baking, and deserves to be more extensively cultivated. 
Its origin is uncertain, and it is doubtful whether this tine fruit is known out 
of the old Plymouth colony." 



33^ The Apples of New York. 

As grown in this state it is usually not as large as Rhode Island Greening 
particularly when it is borne on overloaded trees, but under favorable condi- 
tions the fruit becomes large as Thacher describes it. The tree is medium 
in size, upright, hardy, long-lived, comes into bearing moderately young, is 
a reliable biennial or sometimes almost annual bearer and often yields heavy 
crops. The twigs are medium to long, erect or spreading and stout. The 
fruit hangs well to the tree. Where this variety is known it is quite highly 
esteemed for home use because it is a good keeper and very good in quality 
for dessert and for baking or other culinary uses. Generally it is not con- 
sidered a good variety for the commercial orchard because sweet fruit of 
this color meets with little demand in the general market. It may be disposed 
of in limited quantities in some local markets. Some growers find that it 
takes better in southern than in northern markets. It is in season from 
December to April or ]\Iay. 

Sweet Greening is quite distinct from Green Sweet, page 150. From the 
accounts of Sweet Greening and Sweet Rhode Island Greening given by Down- 
ing (2, 7) and some other pomologists, there seems to be some reason for 
questioning whether or not these are distinct. We have not seen the fruit 
of Sweet Rhode Island Greening but the fruit of Sweet Greening which we 
have obtained from various sources corresponds fairly well with Downing's 
description of Sweet Rhode Island Greening. Ragan makes Sweet Rhode 
Island Greening synonymous with New Greening and probably identical with 
Curtis Greening and Illinois Greening (8). 

Historical. Origin unknown but from the statement of Thacher (i) it is 
probable that it originated in the old Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts. It 
is grown in some localities in Central and Western New York but has not 
been reported to us from any other portion of this state. It is now seldom 
or never planted. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large, uniform in shape and size. Form roundish oblate 
or sometimes approaching roundish conic, regular or somewhat elliptical ; sides 
sometimes unequal. Stem medium to short, moderately thick. Cavity medium 
in size, acuminate or approaching acute, deep or moderately deep, rather broad, 
sometimes gently furrowed, russeted and with some outspreading or broken 
rays of russet. Calyx partly open or closed ; lobes convergent or connivent, 
broad, acute. Basin moderately shallow and somewhat obtuse to moderately 
deep and rather abrupt, medium in width, slightly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth, bright, grass-green becoming yellowish or yellow, 
usually with no red but sometimes slightly bronze with reddish spots or dots 
or even with a well-developed brownish-red blush. Irregular, large, whitish 
dots and streaks of whitish scarf-skin appear about the cavity, sometimes 
mingled with a little russet. The whitish dots are rather conspicuous, numer- 
ous and broad toward the basin ; the rough or russet dots are more scattering. 

Calyx tube truncate funnel-form. Stamens median or below. 

Core small to medium, nearly axile with a hollow cylinder in the axis ; cells 
symmetrical, closed or slit ; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, 
emarginate, mucronate, somewhat tufted. Seeds very numerous, below 
medium to rather small, moderately narrow to rather wide, obtuse to some- 
what acute, plump, sometimes tufted. 



The Apples of New York. 333 

Flesh whitish with yellow tinge, firm, breaking or loose-grained, tender, 
moderately juicy or when over-ripe rather dry, very sweet, good to very good. 
Season December to April or Alay. 

SWEET KING. 

Reference, i. Downing, 1869:376. 

A striped red apple of medium size, sweet flavor and good to very good 
quality; in season from October to March (i). It originated at Oyster Bay, 
Nassau county. So far as we have discovered it has not been cultivated out- 
side the locality of its origin. 

SWEET RUSSET. 

Reference, i. Downing, 1869:377. 
Synonym. Su)iimer Russet (i). 

Various varieties have been cultivated under the name Sweet Russet. The 
one here noticed. Downing states (i) has been grown in New York, iNIassa- 
chusetts and elsewhere and is a good apple for culinary use, in season from 
November to March. The fruit is medium in size, yellow, mostly covered 
with patches and network of russet and the flesh is rich and sweet. We do 
not know this variety and we have no report of its being grown anywhere 
in New York at the present time. 

SWEET WINESAP. 

References, i. Elliott, 1854:160 — not the Sweet Winesap of Downing. 2. 
Warder, 1867:721. 734. 3. Downing, 1869:378. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871: 

10. 5. Thomas, 1875:501. 6. lb., 1875:514. 7. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 
1890:298. 8. Thomas, 1897:270. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:186. 10. Beach and 
Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:124. 1904. 11. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:141. 
1905. 12. lb., 56:170. 1905. 13. lb., 56:304, 305- 1905- 

Synonyms. Bailey Sweet (10) incorrectly. Hendrick (10). Hendrick 
Szi'cet (10). Hexrick (ii). Henrick Sweet (2, 5). Hcnrick Szceet (7, 8, 

11, 13, ?3)- Henry Szveet (3, 13). Ladies' Szi'eet of some (3, 12, 13), but 
erroneously. Lady Szveet of some, but erroneously. Lady Szveeting of some, 
but erroneously. Red Szveet Winesap (3, 13). Rose Szveet. Sweet Pe.\r- 
MAiN (8). Szveet Pcarmain of some (3, 13). Sweet Wine S.\p (6). 

An attractive red winter apple, symmetrical, uniform, of good 

medium size, or. under favorable conditions, rather large. It is 

excellent in quality for dessert or for baking or other culinary uses. 

Some fruit growers report that the tree is satisfactorily hardy, but 

others find that it is a little lacking in hardiness and for that reason 

prefer to top-work it upon some vigorous, hardy stock such as 

Northern Spy, Roxbury or Golden Russet. It is usually healthy 

and moderately long-lived. It tends to form a rather dense head, 

particularly where thorough tillage is practiced, and for this reason 
Vol. I — 14 



334 The Apples of New York. 

the top should be made sufificiently open so that the foHage may be 
kept in good working condition throughout the tree. The tree is 
not an early bearer, but when it comes into bearing it is a rehable 
cropper. In many cases it is inclined to overbear and produce a 
considerable amount of undersized fruit Some few hold that two 
pickings should be made on account of the tendency of the fruit 
to drop, but others report that it hangs to the tree well enough so 
that but one picking is needed if the fruit is gathered before it is 
too far advanced in maturity The fruit has a tough skin, stands 
heat well before going into storage and remains sprightly and 
crisp till late in the season As grown in Western New York it 
ordinarily comes into season in November and may be held in 
common storage till April first or in cold storage till May fifteenth 
(lo). It sells well in markets where there is any considerable 
demand for a red winter apple of sweet flavor. It is often shipped 
to Baltimore, Washington and other southern markets. 

Historical. Downing described Sweet Winesap in 1869 as a variety from 
Pennsylvania (3), with Henrick Sweet as a synonym. In 1879 fruit of the 
variety commonly known in Western New York as Henrick Sweet was identi- 
fied by Charles Downing for William J. Edmunds, of Brockport, N. Y., as 
undoubtedly Sweet Winesap. Mr. Edmunds has very kindly supplied us with 
some of his Sweet Winesap fruit which certainly is identical with the apple 
grown at Geneva and in other parts of the state as Henrick Sweet or Hendrick 
Sweet. He has also presented us with Downing's letter, the text of which is 
here given in full. " In looking over the apples you sent me a month or more 
since, I am now certain it is the Sweet Winesap which is described in Down- 
ing's second revised edition, page 378. Many years since the late Isaac Hild- 
reth, a nurseryman at Geneva, sent me a barrel of this kind which he said 
went by the name of Henricks Sweet and as you say, they kept through the 
winter into March with very little waste. Ladies Sweet keeps still later and 
is one of the best of its season." 

Sweet Winesap has long been cultivated in Western New York under the 
names Henrick Sweet and Hendrick Sweet. In some localities, particularly 
in Wayne county, it is known as Rose Sweet. Occasionally it is erroneously 
called Ladies Sweet, Lady Sweet or Lady Sweeting. Since it bears some 
resemblance to the true Lady Sweet it is not strange that it is sometimes thus 
confused with that variety. Warder listed it under the separate names of 
Sweet Winesap and Henrick Sweet. Thomas in 1875 followed Downing in 
giving Sweet Winesap as a variety from Pennsylvania and notices Henrick 
Sweet as a separate variety. Evidently he was not familiar with this variety 
under the name Sweet Winesap, but he must have recognized that it was 
identical with the apple commonly known in his own section as Henrick 
Sweet. The 1897 edition of Thomas (8), makes Henrick Sweet a synonym 
for Sweet Pearmain, but Lyon doubted the correctness of this decision (11). 





SWEET WINESAP 



The Apples of New York. 335 

We have not seen Sweet Pearniain hut the descriptions of that variety given 
by Downing (3) and Elliott ( i ) do not apply closely to Sweet Winesap. 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size, vigorous or moderately vigorous. Form upright 
spreading to roimdish, rather dense. Tzvigs medium to long, rather slender 
to moderately stout; internodes medium. Bark brownish tinged with dark 
red, mottled with inconspicuous grayish scarf-skin, scarcely pubescent. Lcnti- 
ccls scattering, small to medium, often elongated. Buds medium in size, 
broadly roundish, obtuse or sometimes acute, somewhat pubescent, generally 
appressed. 

Fruit. 

Fruit varies under different conditions from medium to large but under 
fairly similar conditions is pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
conic, wide and flattened at the base, varying to roundish ovate or to oblate 
conic, regular or slightly elliptical, pretty symmetrical. Stem short to moder- 
ately long, moderately slender. Cavity above medium size, acuminate to acute, 
moderately shallow to rather deep, moderately wide to wide, symmetrical or 
gently furrowed, sometimes partly russeted. Calyx medium or above, usually 
somewhat open ; lobes oft'en long and acuminate. Basin medium to rather 
large, often oblique, roundish, deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, de- 
cidedly abrupt, sometimes slightly furrowed. 

Skin tough, smooth, clear pale yellow or greenish nearly overspread with 
bright light red, plainly marked with long narrow carmine stripes, covered 
with a thin bloom and often to a considerable extent with thin, light gray 
scarf-skin producing a slightly dull eft'ect. Dots small to medium, scattering, 
whitish or russet. Prciwiling, effect red or striped red. 

Calyx tube funnel-shape, with broad, yellowish limb and narrow cylinder, 
sometimes nearly or quite cone-shape. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core small to medium, axile or sometimes abaxile ; cells usually symmetrical, 
closed or partly open ; core lines clasping. Carpels flat, roundish to broadly 
elliptical, emarginate. Seeds medium or below, plump, obtuse. 

Flesh nearly white, firm, rather fine, moderately crisp, tender, juicy, distinctly 
sweet, good to very good. 

SWENKER. 

References, i. Churchill, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:346. 1890. 2. Beach, 
Paddock and Close, lb., 15:276. 1896. iigs. 3. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. 
Bui., 248:146. 1904. 

This variety was received in 1890 from J. G. Youngken, Richlandtown, Pa., 
for trial at this Station. So far as tested here, the tree is vigorous, comes 
into bearing young and yields full crops in alternate years. The fruit is of 
good size but only fair in quality and not particularly attractive in appearance. 
It does not excel standard sorts for any purpose and is not recommended for 
planting in New York state. 

Tree. . 

Tree moderately vigorous with long, moderately stout branches. Form 
open, spreading. Tii'igs short to moderately long, straight, rather slender to 



336 The Apples of New York. 

stout, terminal buds large ; internodes medium to short. Bark brownish-red 
tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels 
very scattering, medium in size, elongated, slightly raised. Buds prominent, 
medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse to acute, free or nearly so, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to large. Form roundish to oblate conic, broadly or obscurely 
ribbed ; sides often unequal. Steiti short or medium, slender. Cavity acute 
to acuminate, deep, moderately narrow to rather broad, often russeted. Calyx 
small to medium, partly open or sometimes closed; lobes reflexed. Basin 
usually very small, shallow and narrow or sometimes abrupt and moderately 
deep, seldom furrowed or wrinkled. 

Skill thin, tough, smooth, somewhat waxy, pale yellow^ or greenish partly 
washed with light red, rather indistinctly striped with carmine and marked 
toward the cavity with broken stripes of grayish scarf-skin. Dots large, 
grayish, rather obscure, mingled with numerous others that are small and 
russet. Prevailing effect yellowish. 

Calyx tube medium to large, conical to funnel-form, sometimes extending 
to the core. Staiiicus median. 

Core below medium to medium in size, somewhat abaxile to nearly axile ; 
cells usually symmetrical, partly open or closed; core lines clasp the funnel 
cylinder. Carpels roundish to obcordate, emarginate, slightly tufted. Seeds 
medium to rather large, dark, plump, obtuse, sometimes tufted. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, or greenish, moderately firm, moderately 
fine, rather crisp, somewhat tender, juicy, mild subacid with a peculiar but 
not altogether agreeable aroma, fair quality. 

Season November to March or April. Commercial limit, February. 

TEWKSBURY. 

References, i. Coxe, 1817:156. fig. 2. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., i823: 
476. 3. Wilson, 1828:136. 4. Downing, 1845:140. 5. Thomas, 1849:186. 6. 
Cole, 1849:136. 7. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:88. 1851. 8. Elliott, 1854: 
160. 9. Hooper, 1857:93. 10. Gregg, 1857:59. 11. Warder, 1867:406, 416. 
12. Downing, 1869:382. fig. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:10. 14. Barry, 
1883:355. 15. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 16. Bailey, An. Hort., 
1892:251. 17. Amer. Card., 16:14. 1S95. 18. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 
56:309. 1905. 

Synonyms. Fink (9), but incorrectly. Fink (11), but incorrectly. Fink's 
Seedling (8, 18). Tewkesbury Winter Blush (10, 12, 16). Tewkesbury 
Blush (12). Tewksberry Winter Blush (3). Tewksbery Winter Blush 
(2). Tewksbury Blush (5, 7, 8, 17). Tewksbury Blush (18). Tewksbury 
Winter Blush (i, 4, 6, 11, 13, 14). Teivksbury Winter Blush (5, 8, 9, 18). 

Valued chiefly because it is a long keeper and holds its quality well late 
in the season. The color is bright yellow or greenish with a beautiful pinkish- 
red blush somewhat like that of Maiden Blush ; decidedly attractive. Although 
it is an old variety it is but very little grown in New York state which is 
pretty good evidence that it does not possess superior value for New York 
fruit growers. 





rSvi.. 




TEXAS 



The Apples of New York. 337 

Historical. Coxe (i) states that it came from the town of Tewksbury in 
Hunterdon county, N. J. In 1817 he gave the following excellent description 
of it. 

It is a very handsome fair frnit, \vith more flavour and juiciness than is 
to be usually found in keeping apples; I have eaten them in good condition in 
August of the second year, preserved without particular care, perfectly plump 
and sound. The size is small: the form round; the skin smooth: the colour 
yellow, with a bright red cheek — the flesh yellow, tolerably juicy and well 
flavoured with a considerable degree of sprightliness: the tree is of vigorous 
growth, straight and well formed — the fruit hangs late in the autumn." 

Hooper erroneously reported it as identical with Fink and retained Fink 
as the correct name for the variety (9). Elliott gave Tewksbury Blush as the 
correct name with Fink's Seedling as a synonym (8), but Warder (ri) con- 
sidered Fink distinct as shown in the following quotation from his description 
of that variety. " This long keeper was brought before the notice of the Ohio 
Pomological Society many years ago by Mr. Clarke, of Somerset, Ohio. Mr. 
Elliott considered it the same as Tewksbury Winter Blush, and introduces 
Fink's Seedling as a synonym of that variety. Others think it a different fruit, 
among whom is that practical Pomologist, the Secretary of that association, 
M. B. Bateham, Esq., who has propagated and planted the trees extensively. 
It was described as Fink's Seedling in the Ohio Cultivator, May, 1847. At 
the meeting of 1854, the merits and claims of this variety were freely discussed, 
and the Society named it the Fink, after admitting that it was an original 
seedling, as stated by Mr. Fink, in whose seedling orchard it had originated." 

Tev.kshury was given a place in the catalogue of the American Pomological 
Society in 187T (13) and was dropped from that list in 1890. 

Friht. 

Fruit small to nearly medium, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
conic, a little flat at the base, rather symmetrical. Stem medium in length, 
moderately thick. Caz'ity acute or acuminate, shallow, rather broad, sym- 
metrical, slightly russeted. Calyx very small, closed. Basin very small, very 
shallow and narrow, slightly wrinkled. 

Skin smooth, yellow with pinkish-red blush. Dots many, numerous, small, 
russet and areolar. 

Calyx tube small, long, narrow, funnel-shape. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core medium in size, axile or nearly so; cells often unsymmetrical, closed 
or somewhat open; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish ovate, emarginate. 
Seeds light brown, medium size, narrow, irregular, acute. 

Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine, crisp, rather tender, 
rather juicy, aromatic, sprightly, brisk subacid, good. 

TEXAS* 

References, i. Churchill, X. ]'. Sta. An. Rpt.. 8:355. 1889. 2. Bailey, An. 
Hort., 1892:247. 3. Beach, Paddock and Close, .V. V. Sta. An. Rpt.. 15:274. 
1896. 4. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:58. 1903. 5. Beach and 
Clark, .V. }'. Sta. Bui, 248:146. 1904. 6. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:242, 
309. 1905. 

Synonym. Pride of Texas (i, 2, 3). Pride of Texas (4, 5, 6). 



338 The Apples of New York. 

A late-keeping southern apple (i, 2, 3, 6). As fruited at this 

Station it is only moderately attractive in general appearance, 

medium in size, yellow, shaded and striped with red, mildly subacid, 

good in flavor and quality. Usually a considerable portion of the 

crop mav be held in good condition in cellar storage till early 

summer (3, 5). The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing 

young, is a reliable cropper and productive. Not recommended for 

planting in New York. 

Historical Received from Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, Illinois, in 
1880, for testing here (i). It has been propagated by some southern nursery- 
men (2, 6). It is practically unknown among New York fruit growers. 

Tree. 

Tree rather vigorous. Form roundish or somewhat spreading, rather dense. 
Tzuigs moderately long, slender, straight or slightly curved ; internodes medium 
to long. Bark rather clear brownish-red mingled with olive-green, slightly 
streaked with grayish scarf-skin ; somewhat pubescent. Lenticels moderately 
numerous, conspicuous, medium to large, elongated, raised. Buds below 
medium to large, rather prominent, plump, acute, free or nearly so, somewhat 
pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium in size. Form slightly oblate to roundish or roundish conic, 
somewhat ribbed ; pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem medium to long. 
Cavity acute to acuminate, rather narrow to moderately wide, moderately 
shallow to deep, usually partly russeted. Calyx small, closed or slightly open. 
Basin very shallow, rather narrow, wrinkled. 

SJdn smooth, clear light yellow, largely washed with faint red splashed and 
striped with carmine, in highly colored specimens becoming deep red on the 
exposed cheek ; streaks of whitish scarf-skin are conspicuous over the base. 
Dots whitish or pale russet, especially numerous toward the basin. 

Calyx tube long, funnel-form. Stamens basal or nearly so. 

Core medium, axile or nearly so ; cells closed or partly open ; core lines 
clasping the funnel cylinder. Seeds large to very large, long, rather flat, 
acute, dark, often tufted. Carpels broadly roundish inclined to roundish 
cordate. 

Flesh yellowish, sometimes tinged with red, firm, crisp, moderately juicy, 
breaking, mild subacid eventually becoming nearly sweet, good in quality and 
flavor. 

Season at Geneva, January to May or June. 

TITUS PIPPIN. 

References, i. Manning, Mag. Hart., 7:50. 1841. 2. Downing, 1857:224. 
3- Hooper, 1857-9.3. 4. Warder, 1867734. 5. Downing, 1869:383. 6. Thomas, 
1875:514. 7- Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 48:58. 1903. 8. Ragan, 
U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:311. 1905. 








TITUS 



The Apples of New York. 339 

Synonyms. Hang-On (s). Timothy (s)- Timothy Titus Sort ($). Titus 
(7,8). Titits Pippin (7, S). Well Apple ($)■ 

This variety evidently belongs in the Yellow Bellflower group. 
The fruit is large, predominantly yellow, smooth, fair, attractive, 
agreeably flavored, good either for dessert or culinary uses. The 
tree is a good grower, hardy, healthy, long-lived, comes into bearing 
rather young and is a reliable cropper, yielding good to heavy crops 
biennially or almost annually. The fruit hangs well to the tree. 
Usually a rather high percentage of the crop is of marketable size, 
but it does not ripen evenly. Some of the fruit becomes very ripe 
before winter sets in, but as grown at this Station the bulk of the 
crop keeps well into the winter in ordinary storage. A considerable 
portion of it may be held in pretty good condition till April in cold 
storage and it has been held till !\Iay firm and with no decay or 
scald (7). As grown on Long Island it is in season in fall and 
early winter. 

The accompanying plate should bear the legend Titus Pippin 
instead of Titus, since the name Titus has been used for a fall apple 
of Russian origin. 

Historical. Originated near Hempstead, Long Island (5). We find no 
record of the time of its origin bnt as long ago as 1841 Manning gave a 
description of this fruit and stated that he received the variety from Flushing, 
N. Y. (i). It is quite commonly cultivated on Long Island but is little known 
in other portions of the state. 

Tree. 

Tree large, rather vigorous. Form upright spreading, rather dense. Tivigs 
below medium to short, straight, moderately stout, with large terminal buds ; 
internodes short to rather long. Bark olive-green tinged with reddish-brown, 
lightly mottled with scarf-skin ; slightly pubescent. Lenticels brownish, very 
scattering, small to medium, roundish, slightly raised. Buds rather prominent, 
about medium size, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit above medium to large. Form oblong conic varying to roundish conic, 
often irregularly elliptical or obtusely ribbed ; sides somewhat unequal ; axis 
often somewhat oblique. Stem medium in length and thickness. Cavity small 
to medium, acuminate or acute, moderately deep to deep, narrow to rather 
broad, somewhat furrowed, often partly russeted and with narrow, outspread- 
ing russet rays. Calyx usually large and open or partly so ; lobes leafy, long, 
acute. Basin small, often distinctly oblique, shallow to moderately deep, 
narrow to medium in width, abrupt, often prominently ribbed, sometimes 
with mammiform protuberances. 



340 



The Apples of Xew York. 



Skin rather tender, smooth, waxy, yellow, often clouded with green, some- 
times with orange blush, rarely with distinct red lines or dots. Dots numer- 
ous, small, russet or submerged. Prevailing effect attractive clear yellow. 

Calyx tube large, wide above, deep, cone-shape with fleshy pistil point pro- 
jecting into the base. Stamens median or below. 

Core large, abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, wide open, sometimes partly 
closed; core lines partly clasping or meeting. Carpels elongated ovate, emar- 
ginate, tufted. Seeds irregular, often imperfectly developed, medium to rather 
large, long, moderately acute. 

Flesh white tinged with yellow, firm, a little coarse, rather crisp, moderately 
tender, juicy, subacid with pleasant aroma, good to very good. 

TOBIAS. 

References, i. Goff, .V. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:90. 1888. 2. Macomber, Amer. 
Card., 11:140. 1890. 3. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:146. 1904. 
Synonym. Tobi.-\s Apple (i, 2). 

As fruited at this Station this is a yellow apple of fairly attractive appear- 
ance averaging hardly medium size. It is fair to good in quality. It is in 
its prime in midwinter but its season extends from November to April. The 
tree is hardj^, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, yield- 
ing from moderate to good crops biennially or almost annually. It does not 
excel standard varieties for anj'^ purpose and is not worthy of the attention 
of fruit growers except perhaps in Northern New York where it may be 
desirable on account of its superior hardiness. 

Historical. Originated with Mr. James Tobias in Grand Isle county, Vt. 
(2). So far as v.e know it is practically unknown outside of the Lake Cham- 
plain district. It was received for testing at this Station in 1888 from J. T. 
Macomber, Grand Isle, Vt. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form roundish or spreading, rather dense. 
Tii'igs long to medium, irregularly curved, stout; internodes medium to long. 
Bark dull brown tinged with red, heavily streaked with scarf-skin ; slightly 
pubescent. Lenticels scattering, medium to large, roundish to oblong, slightly 
raised. Buds deeply set in bark, medium size, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, 
pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit below medium to sometimes rather large. Form oblate, varying to 
roundish, often a little inclined to conic, regular to broadly angular, some- 
times distinctly furrowed from basin to cavity. Stem medium to rather long, 
slender to moderately stout, pubescent, often obliquely set. Cavity small to 
medium, varying from slightly acuminate to a little obtuse, deep, moderately 
narrow to rather broad, somewhat furrowed, sometimes thinly russeted and 
with outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium to rather large, usually partly 
open ; lobes long, acute. Basin small to medium, shallow and obtuse to mod- 
erately deep and somewhat abrupt, narrow to medium in width. 

Skin moderately tender, smooth or roughened with russet dots and flecks, 
yellow, occasionally with slight blush. Dots distinct, numerous, medium to 
small, russet-gray or whitish, often submerged. 



The Apj'lks of New York. 341 

Calyx tube variable, conc-sliapo to truncate funnel-form. Stamens median 
to basal. 

Core small, axilc to somewhat abaxile : cells usually symmetrical, closed 
or sometimes open ; core lines meeting. Carpels rather flat, roundish, slightly 
emarginate. Seeds numerous, often with some abortive. The plump ones are 
large, long, rather wide, obtuse, slightly tufted, clear reddish-brown. 

Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, 
sprightly subacid, fair to good. 

TOBIAS BLACK. 

References, i. Goff, .V. }'. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:54, 90. 1888. 2. Macomber, 
.bner. Card., 11:140. 1890. 3. Waugh, I't. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:311. 1901. 

I""ruit of desirable size and fairly good form but of an unattractive dull red 
and greenish color. The flavor is nearly sweet, the quality hardly good. The 
tree is said to be very hardy and very productive (2). As grown at this 
Station it comes into bearing rather young, yields moderate to good crops and 
is almost an annual bearer. Its fruit is not equal to standard varieties of its 
season and the variety is not worthy of planting where these can be grown. 

Histflrieal. Originated with Mr. James Tobias in Grand Isle county, Vt. 
(2). So far as we know it is practically unknown outside of the Lake Cham- 
plain district. It was received for testing at this Station in 1888 from J. T. 
Macomber, Grand Isle, Vt. 

Tree. 

Tree rather large, moderately vigorous. Form flat, spreading, open. Tzcigs 
below medium to above, moderately stout, straight or somewhat curved ; inter- 
nodes medium or below. Bark dark clear brown with reddish tinge, lightly 
streaked with scarf-.skin, quite pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, medium 
or below, elongated, raised. Buds rather prominent, medium size, broad or 
roundish, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent. 

F UU IT. 

Fruit medium to large, fairly uniform in size, somewhat variable in shape. 
Form roundish oblate varying to roundish or a little oblong, somewhat trun- 
cate, frequently irregularly elliptical or obtusely ribbed; sides sometimes un- 
equal. Stem below medium to long, rather slender. Cavity medium to large, 
acute to acuminate, deep, rather narrow to moderately wide, often somewhat 
furrowed or compressed, sometimes partly russeted. Calyx medium size, 
closed or somewhat open; lobes long, acuminate. Basin rather large, deep, 
wide, rather abrupt, furrowed, sometimes compressed. 

Skin thin, tough, gras.s-green becoming clouded with yellow, largely over- 
spread with dark dull red and striped with purplish-carmine, often clouded 
with scarf-skin toward the cavity and marked with scattering flecks of russet. 
In highly colored specimens the red becomes dark and bright and the stripes 
indistinct. Dots conspicuous, pale green or grayish, sometimes with russet 
point, numerous toward the cavity, sometimes areolar. Prevailing cifeet dull 
red predominating over dull green. 

Calyx tube large, elongated cone-shape or funnel-form. Stamens median 
or below. 



342 The Apples of New York. 

Core medium or below, nearlj- axile with hollow cylinder in the axis ; cells 
usually symmetrical, closed or sometimes slightly open; core lines clasping. 
Carpels thin, broadly roundish to elliptical, obtusely emarginate, mucronate, 
somewhat tufted. Seeds numerous, medium or below, rather short, obtuse to 
rather acute, slightly tufted. 

Flesh tinged with green or yellow, moderately firm, breaking, moderately 
fine-grained, tender, juicy, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, fair to nearly 
good. 

Season November to April. 

TOBIAS PIPPIN. 

References, i. Goff, N. Y. Sta. An. R[>t., 7:90. 1S88. 2. Beach and Clark, 
N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:146. 1904. 

Tobias Pippin is of pretty good size, fair to good quality, and rather attrac- 
tive appearance for a yellow apple. It comes 'in season in October and some 
portion of the crop may be kept till March, but in ordinary storage November 
is its commercial limit. The tree is a pretty good grower and as tested at 
this Station comes into bearing rather young and produces full crops in alter- 
nate years. As compared with standard sorts of its season it does not appear 
to be worthy of general planting. Received here for testing from J. T. 
Macomber, Grand Isle, Vt., in 1888. So far as we know it is practically un- 
known outside of the Lake Champlain district. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading or roundish, dense. 
Tzi-igs short to medium, straight, stout to somewhat slender, with large term- 
inal buds; internodes short to medium. Bark clear brown with tinge of red, 
lightly streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels quite 
numerous, small to medium, rovmdish or somewhat elongated, not raised. 
Buds deeply set in bark, below medium to small, flat, obtuse, appressed, but 
slightly pubescent if at all. 

Fruit. 

Fruit varies from rather small to nearly large but when well grown averages 
above medium size. Form oblate conic to roundish ovate, often somewhat 
ribbed, fairly uniform. Stem short to medium, moderately slender. Cavity 
variable, rather large, varying from rather obtuse to nearly acuminate, moder- 
ately deep to deep, moderately narrow to broad, often furrowed or compressed, 
sometimes partly russeted and with outspreading russet. Calyx small to 
medium, closed or partly open. Basin small to medium, varying from shallow 
and narrow to medium in depth and width, abrupt, usually somewhat furrowed. 

Skin rather tender, nearly smooth, rather glossy, yellow mottled and streaked 
with w^hitish scarf-skin, sometimes distinctly blushed. Dots numerous, small, 
irregular, whitish and submerged or areolar with russet point. 

Calyx tube funnel-form or nearly so. Stamens median to basal. 

Core below medium to rather large, somewhat abaxile ; cells usually sym- 
metrical, closed or partly open ; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels 
broadly elliptical, emarginate. Seeds numerous, rather dark brown, medium 
to small, plump, rather acute. 



The Apples of New York. 343 

Flesh tinged witli ycllowj moderately firm, a little coarse, moderately crisp, 
rather tentier, juicy, mild subacid becoming sweet, aromatic, good or some- 
times very good. 

TOLMAN SWEET. 

References, i. Thacher, 1822:139. 2. Buel, A'. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826: 
476. 3. Manning, 3/a^. Hurt., TSO. 1841. 4. Downing, 1845:137. 5. Phoenix, 
Horticulturist, 1:361. 1846. 6. Thomas, 1849:162. 7. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 15: 
162. 1849. fig. 8. Cole, 1849:131. fig. 9. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y ., 3:87. 
1851. fig. ID. Elliott, 1854:110. fig. II. Gregg, 1857:60. fig. 12. Hooper, 
1857:93. 13. Horticulturist, 17:150, 167. 1862. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 
15. Warder. 1867:557. fig. 16. Barry, 1883:355. 17. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1890:298. 18. Manning, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1891:137. 19. Taylor, Me. 
Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892:57. 20. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:251. 21. Woolverton, 
Out. Fr. Assn. An. Rpt., 26:169. 1894. 22. Can. Hort., 17:229, 280. 1894. col. 
pi. 23. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 53:310. 1894. 24. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bui, 130: 
125. 1901. 25. Waugh, J't. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:311. 1901. 26. Hansen, 5". D. 
Sta. Bui., 76:106. 1902. fig. 27. Budd-Hansen, 1903:189. fig. 28. Powell and 
Fulton, U. S. B. P. L Bui, 48:58. 1903. 29. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. 
Bui., 248:146. 1904. 

Synonyms. Broz^'n's Golden Sz^'ect (10). Tallman's Sweet (15). Tall- 
man Sweet (26). Tallman Sivcet (27). Tallman Sweeting (2, 6. 11). 
Tallman's Szi'ceting (10). Talman Sweet (5, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23). Talman's 
Sweet (14, 16, 19). Talnuvi Szveet (28). Talman Sweeting (8). Talman's 
Sweeting (9, 10, 12). Tolman (25, 28). Tolman Sweet (3. 13, 18, 24). 
Tolman Szvcet (25, 28). Tolman's Sweeting (4, 7). Tolman Sweeting (i). 
Tohnan's Sn'ceting (6, 10). 

Fruit medium or below, rather attractive for a yellow apple. It 
meets with little demand in the general market, but is sold to a 
limited extent in special markets and to special classes of trade. 
The fruit is generally much esteemed for certain culinary purposes 
as pickling, boiling and baking. Its keeping quality varies in 
different seasons. In ordinary storage it is in season from Xovem- . 
ber to January with December as the commercial limit. In cold 
storage its commercial limit varies under different conditions from 
February i to April (29). Some find that it stands heat well before 
going into storage ; others report that it does not. It shows bruises 
very readily and requires careful handling. The fruit hangs pretty 
well to the tree, is quite uniform in grade and suffers comparatively 
little loss in drops and culls. The tree is a good grower, long-lived 
and very hardy. Throughout Northern New York, Northern New 
England, certain portions of Canada and the northern portion of 
the apple belt in the prairie region of the Middle West, Tolman 



344 The Apples of New York. 

Szvect has gained the reputation of being one of the hardiest of the 
old New England varieties. For this reason it is often selected as 
a stock upon which to top-graft less hardy kinds. The tree comes 
into bearing at a moderately early age, and, generally speaking, is a 
reliable cropper, yielding from moderate to heavy crops biennially 
or sometimes almost annually. 

Historical. Thacher's description of this variety is the earliest one of 
which we have any record. He was unable to trace it to its origin (i). 
^Manning (i8) in 1891 called attention to the correct orthography, the name 
having been differently spelled by various authors, and mentioned the sup- 
position that the variety originated in Dorchester (Massachusetts). It has 
long been known in cultivation in New York and it appears that it is more 
generally grown in the home orchards of this state than any other sweet 
apple. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright, very spreading, drooping, open ; 
top roundish ; branches long, moderately stout, curved and drooping. Tzvigs 
medium to long, straight or bowed, stout; internodes medium to short. Bark 
clear brownish mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, 
heavily pubescent. Lcnticeh rather conspicuous, scattering, medium or above, 
roundish or oval, not raised. Buds medium in size, broad, plump, obtuse, ap- 
pressed, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit commonly averages below medium but sometimes grows rather large. 
It is pretty uniform in size and shape. Form nearly globular or varying to 
roundish conical or to roundish oblate, often inclined to elliptical or obscurely 
ribbed. Stem medium to rather long, slender. Cavity obtuse to acute, broad, 
deep, often russeted. often obscurely furrowed yet pretty symmetrical. Calyx 
medium to small, somewhat open or sometimes closed ; lobes often long and 
acuminate. Basin small to medium, often oblique, moderately shallow to 
moderately deep, medium in width, rather abrupt, furrowed, wrinkled, some- 
times compressed. 

Skin tough, often marked by a suture line extending out from the cavity, 
sometimes reaching even to the basin ; color pale clear yellow or whitish- 
yellow, .sometimes a little blushed. Dots small, inconspicuous, pale yellow 
or faint russet. The skin is apt to be roughened slightly by very inconspicuous 
capillary russet lines over the entire surface, becoming heavier and concentric 
at the basin. 

Calyx tube urn-shape to truncate funnel-form. Stamens basal or nearly so. 

Core medium to rather small, axile ; cells symmetrical, closed ; core lines 
slightly clasping. Carpels rather flat, broadly roundish, slightly emarginate. 
tufted. Seeds medium in size, wide, plump, acute to somewhat obtuse, tufted. 

Flesh white, firm, neither tender nor crisp, rather hard, moderately fine, 
rather dry to moderately juicy, decidedly sweet, good to very good. 




'9^- 



-'«^W|V^ 



N 



TOLMAN SWEET 



The Apples of New York. 345 

TOMPKINS KING, 

References. i. Ncii' Gencscc Faniicr, 3:57. 1S42. 2. Cultivator, 1:390. 
1844. 3. Ellwanger and Barry, lb., 2:57. 1845. 4. Thomas, lb., 5:306. 1848. 
fig. 5. Cole, 1849:122. 6. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. ]'., 3:73. 1851. col. pi. No. 
SS. 7. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 20:178, 509. 1854. fig. 8. Elliott, 1854:142. 9, 
Am. Pom. Soc. Cat.. 1856. 10. Horticulturist. 11:397. 1S56. fig. ii. Mag. 
Hort., 22:545. 1856. 12. Downing, 1857:84. fig. 13. Hooper, 1857:50. 14. 
Mag. Hort., 24:111. 1858. 15. JNIattison, Horticulturist, 15:213. i860. 16. 
Mag. Hort., 27:98. i86r. 17. Warder, 1867:655. fig. 18. Fitz, 1872:157. 19. 
Thomas, 1875:217. 20. Barry, 1883:348. 21. Hogg, 1884:124. 22. Wickson, 
1889:2.45. 23. Lyon, Alicli. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 24. liailey, An. Hort., 
1892:242. 25. Rural N. V.. 53:28. 1894. 26. Ho>kins, Jb., 53:310. 1894. 27. 
Woolverton, ()iif. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 2:10. 1895. fig. 28. Card, and For.. 9:10. 
1896. 29. U. S. Pom. Bui, 7:356. 1898. 30. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc, 
1898:356. 31. Waugh, 11. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:297. 1901. 32. Can. Hort., 26: 
405. 1903. 33. Budd-Hansen, 1903:190. 34. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. 
Bui, 48:58. 1903. 35. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:147. 1904. 

Synonyms. Flat Spitzcnburg (28). King (5, 7, 17, 19, 24, 27, 31). King 
(15, 34)- King Apple (i, 2, 3, 4, 2,2, of New York 10, of Western New York 
8 and 13). K.ing Apple (12). King of Tompkins County (12, 14, 15, 16, 
18, 20, 21, 22, 26, 30). King of Tompkins County (17, 27, 28, 2i' 35)- Toma 
Red (15). Tommy Red (21). Tompkins County King (19). Tom's Red 
(21). Winter King (6). 

This apple is commonly called King. Less frequently it is called 
Tompkins County King or King of Tompkins County. Pomolo- 
gists now accept Tompkins King as the correct name. 

The fruit has a beautiful red color, with enough clearly contrast- 
ing yellow to make a very attractive appearance. It is symmetrical, 
uniformly large, and excellent in quality for either dessert or 
culinary uses. It is well adapted for marketing in fancy packages 
and is in good demand for both special and general trade, often 
selling at an advance over standard varieties in both domestic and 
foreign markets. The principal demand for it comes in late fall 
and early winter. It does not keep quite as late in storage as 
Rhode Island Grcoiing, but rather later than 1 lubbardston. It is 
in season from October or late September to December and January 
or later. In common storage its commercial limit is Deceml^er, or 
exceptionally January, and in cold storage usually February, but in 
some cases later. The fruit often begins to show some decav in 
November and sometimes even in October. Its keeping qualities do 
not vary so much in different seasons as is the case with many other 
sorts (35). Some of the fruit is often kept in cellars till spring, 



34^ The Apples of New York. 

but not with prime flavor, for usually it begins to lose flavor by 
midwinter or earlier. 

Tompkins King has been quite generally cultivated throughout 
the principal apple-growing districts of the state and often with 
fairly good success, particularly when planted on fertile, well- 
drained soils or top-worked upon thrifty, hardy stock. In the lake 
region of Central and Western Xew York in many cases it appears 
to succeed better on the uplands than it does close to the lakes. The 
fruit being large, there is often a considerable loss in windfalls, 
and on this account it is well to select a location for this variety 
that is well sheltered from prevailing winds. Generally it is 
regarded as more liable to loss from wormy fruit and less subject 
to injury from apple scab than either Baldwin or Rhode Island 
Greening. As a rule the tree does not come into bearing very 
young, but with maturity usually becomes a regular bearer, yielding 
rather light to moderately heavy crops biennially or sometimes 
nearly annually. Frequently it is regarded as a shy bearer and too 
unproductive for a good commercial variety, and it nowhere has the 
reputation of being a heavy cropper, yet many fruit growers find it a 
profitable commercial variety. Taking the state as a whole, it prob- 
ably ranks fourth in commercial importance, being surpassed by 
Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening and Xorthern Spy.^ 

\\'ere the tree hardier, healthier, longer-lived and more productive, 
Tompkins King would be much more extensively grown in com- 
mercial orchards. In the nursery it makes but a moderate root 
growth, and in the orchard it is somewhat subject to sun-scald and 
canker as well as to injury at the surface of the ground from what 
is commonly called " collar rot " or " collar blight." The cause of 
this collar rot is not definitely known. Some suppose that it may 
be due to a parasitic fungus ; others that it is caused primarily by 
winter injury. Tompkins King is certainly more liable to winter 
injury than are most of the standard sorts of this region. Even in 
some parts of Central New York, when standing in unfavorable 
locations, and particularly if on heavy, poorly drained soils, trees 
have sometimes been entirely killed by the winter, yet in many 

* See page 17. 



^1 



1^ 



^ 




TOMPKINS KING 



The Apples of New York. 347 

localities the variety has succeeded so well that it is regarded as 
pretty hardy and long-lived. E. \\\ Catchpole of North Rose. 
Wayne county, reports that in an orchard planted in that locality 
in 1861 with Baldwin. Rhode Island Greening and Tompkins King, 
the Tompkins King has hcen neither as hardy nor as productive as 
either of the other two varieties named and already shows a con- 
siderable number of vacancies in the rows. H. D. Cole of Inter- 
laken, in southern Seneca county, reports that he has an orchard of 
Tompkins King top-grafted about seventy years ago upon trees 
which were planted about one hundred years ago. These trees are 
still bearing good crops. He regards this variety as not sufficiently 
hardy if grown on its own trunk, but vigorous, healthy, long-lived 
and reliably productive when top-worked upon hardy stock. ■ The 
experience of many other fruit growers throughout the state cor- 
roborates that of Mr. Catchpole and Mr. Cole and goes to show, 
that because of its comparatively weak root development and liability 
to collar rot and winter injury, Tompkins King should be top- 
worked upon some variety which has a stronger root development 
and a more hardy trunk. Some have had good success in using 
common seedling stock for this purpose and others have found 
satisfactory results from top-working it upon Tolman Szceet, 
Northern Spy, Rhode Island Greening, Oldenburg, Golden Russet, 
Roxbury and other vigorous, hardy varieties. 

Historical. Some have thought that the original tree of Tompkins King 
grew at Jacksonville, Tompkins county, N. Y., but Bailey found that that tree 
had been grafted and therefore it could not be the original seedling (28). 
The variety appears to have originated near Washington, Warren county, 
N. J. It is said to have been brought from that locality to Tompkins county, 
N. Y., by Jacob Wycofif in 1804 by whom it was named King. The Congress 
of Fruit Growers at Rochester added Tompkins County to its name to dis- 
tinguish it from other King apples (15)- James M. Mattison of Jacksonville, 
N. Y., investigated the subject of the origin of Tompkins King during the 
winter of i860 and published an account of his investigation in the April 
number of the Horticulturist of that year. W^e quote his report in full. 

" Having given the subject a pretty thorough investigation, I present the 
following as the true history of the King Apple of Tompkins County: . 

"About fifty-six years ago, Jacob Wycoff brought it from Warren county, 
N. J. Mr. Wycoff moved to this county about sixty years ago, and finding 
the art of grafting practised here, procured the grafts while on a visit fifty- 
six years ago. Mr. Wycoff is now dead, but always claimed it to be a seed- 



348 The Apples of Xew York. 

ling, and it was named by him, King. The Congress of Fruit Growers at 
Rochester added Tompkins County to it, to distinguish it from another of the 
same name. 

" On a visit this winter I undertook to trace out its origin, and went to the 
place where it is said to have originated. This is about one and a half to 
two miles from Washington, Warren county, N. J. I found very old trees 
that had been grafted ; they seemed to be over fifty years old ; two aged men, 
Daniel Fleet and William Crivling, near Asbury, were both acquainted with 
it from boyhood. It originated on the north side of the Musconetcong moun- 
tain, about one mile from where these gentlemen live. Mr. Jesse Weller says 
he knew one very old tree on his farm forty years ago ; it has been dead 
several years. They call the apple Toma Red throughout that section. It 
does not appear to be much disseminated, being confined to a small locality. 
I brought some of the apples with me, and compared them with mine. I 
also gave them some that were raised in my own orchard. They are not quite 
as high flavored in New Jersey as they are here between the lakes (Cayuga 
and Seneca). 

" The tree is entirely distinct in growth. When I was in New Jersey I 
pointed out trees as I was going along the road, and inquired if they were 
not what we call the King of Tompkins County, and they said they were. 
The limbs grow so very horizontal that the tree needs scarcely any pruning, 
and one of its good qualities is, it is a regular bearer every year, and a fine, 
thrifty grower. Hundreds of barrels have been sold from this vicmity this 
year, and we are all of one mind, that it is the most productive, and will sell 
for the largest price per barrel of any market apple that is raised in this 
vicinity. Dealers realized four and five dollars per barrel last fall. The apple 
is one of those crimson red with yellow ground that attracts the eye, and its 
color will not disappoint you when you come to eat it. Its very agreeable 
perfumed flavor is equal to the Swaar. It wants gathering ten to fifteen days 
before the Baldwin or Greening, and if carefully done, will keep good until 
the first of IMay." 

The first published description of the variety which we have found is that 
given in the Xew Genesee Farmer in 1842, under the name of King Apple (i). 
The earliest mention which we find of the propagation of this variety by 
nurserymen is the statement made by Ellwanger and Barry of Rochester, 
N. Y., in 1845, that they had trees of it for sale (3). In 1848 T. C. Maxwell 
and Brothers of Geneva, N. Y., began to propagate it extensively and were 
active in disseminating it. Thomas, in 1848, described it under the name of 
King and stated that it was cultivated in Tompkins and Cayuga counties but 
not widely spread (4). In 1849 Cole mentioned it under the name of King 
from Ellwanger and Barry, and in 1851 Emmons described it as the Winter 
King from Tompkins county (S, 6). In 1856 the American Pomological 
Society at its Rochester meeting included this variety in its catalogue under 
the name of Tompkins King, using the word Tompkins to distinguish it from 
other varieties which were then known under the name King. 

During the last sixty years its cultivation has extended through New Eng- 
land, portions of Canada, Michigan, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Ohio. It 
has practically failed to establish itself in the Mississippi valley but is quite 
well known on the Pacific Coast, from Washington southward into California. 





TWENTY-OUNCE PIPPIN 



The Apples of New York. 349 

Trek. 
Tree vigorous, form spreading, open ; lateral branches rather slender and 
somewhat drooping. Tzvigs long to above medium, curved or irregularly 
crooked, moderately stout with thick tips ; internodes long to below medium. 
Bark dark brownish-red mingled with yellowish-green, lightly mottled with 
scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticcls rather dull but conspicuous, numerous, large 
to small, roundish to oblong, raised. Buds prominent, large, broad, plump, 
obtuse to acute, free or nearly so, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to very large, pretty uniform in shape and size. Form roundish 
to somewhat oblate, sometimes slightly inclined to conic, regular or obscurely 
ribbed. Stem short to rather long, often stout, sometimes thick and swollen. 
Cavity medium to rather large, obtuse to acute, moderately deep to rather 
shallow, moderately narrow to rather wide, often gently furrowed or wavy, 
occasionally lipped, often russeted, sometimes with fine outspreading russet. 
Calyx medium to rather large, closed or somewhat open ; segments long, 
acuminate. Basin small to medium, varying from narrow, shallow and rather 
obtuse to moderately wide, rather deep and abrupt, regular or sometimes 
obscurely ridged and wrinkled. 

Skin smooth or somewhat roughened with russet dots, fine yellow mottled 
and washed with orange red, often shading to lively deep red, striped and 
splashed with bright carmine. Dots rather numerous, conspicuous, white or 
russet. Prevailing color attractive red over yellow. 

Calyx tube small to above medium, cone-shape to funnel-form. Stamens 
median to marginal. 

Core below medium to rather large, abaxile to nearly axile; cells sym- 
metrical, closed or partly open ; core lines meeting or slightly clasping the 
apex of the tube when it is cone-shape or the limb when it is funnel-shape. 
Carpels roundish to somewhat ovate or obovate, tufted, mucronate, but slightly 
emarginate if at all. Seeds few, rather large, long, irregular, obtuse to some- 
what acute, often abortive, somewhat tufted. 

Flesh attractive yellowish, rather coarse, crisp, tender, aromatic, juicy, sub- 
acid, very good to best. 

TWENTY OUNCE PIPPIN. 

References, i. Downing, 1845:140. 2. Thomas, 1849:153. 3. Emmons, 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:21, 2,i- 1851. ^g- 4- Ih., 3:64. 1851. Hg. 5- Elliott, 1854: 
126. 6. Warder, 1867:461. 7. Downing, 1869:113. 8. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt., 1890:290. 9. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 2:8. 1895. Hg. 10. 
lb., 3:3. 1896. figs. 

Synonyms. Cabashea (7, 8, 9, 10). King (4). King (7). Oxheart. 
Not Twenty Ounce (2, 5, 6, 9, 10). 

Attractive in appearance, but second or third rate in quality. In 
season about with Tompkins King. It is grown commercially to a 
limited extent and some find it profitable, but, generally speaking, it 
is not a favorite with fruit growers. Undoubtedly there would be 



350 The Apples of New York. 

fewer trees of it growing to-day had it not sometimes been purchased 
by mistake for the true Twenty Ounce. The tree is a vigorous 
grower, hardy, healthy and long-Hved, but often it is not a satis- 
factory cropper. The fruit is large, noticeably heavy and apt to drop 
from the tree. 

Historical. The origin of this variety is uncertain. So far as we can learn 
it has always been commonly known to fruit growers and fruit buyers by the 
name Twenty Ounce Pippin and doubtless will continue to be so known as 
long as it remains in cultivation. Occasionally it has been grown under the 
name King. It should be remarked, however, that it is quite distinct from 
Tompkins King. It is known locally as Oxheart. 

Thomas in i8.|9 (2) recognized it as less desirable than the Twenty Ounce. 
Elliott (5) and Warder (6) adopted the name Cayuga Red Streak for the 
Twenty Ounce hoping thereby to prevent their readers from confusing its 
name with that of Twenty Ounce Pippin. Downing (7) added to the con- 
fusion by applying the name Cabashea to the Twenty Ounce Pippin which name 
had already been given to a fall variety,! and was so recognized by Thomas, 
Emmons and Warder. This fall Cabashea comes in season about with the 
true Twenty Ounce but is quite distinct from that variety. 

Tree. 
Tree medium to large, moderately vigorous. Form spreading or somewhat 
drooping. Tzvigs medium to long, moderately stout to stout ; internodes short. 
Bark dark brownish-red, mottled with scarf-skin ; pubescent. Lenticels 
numerous, moderately conspicuous, round, raised. Buds large, broad, plump, 
obtuse, appressed, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to very large, noticeably heavy. Form variable, somewhat 
oblate to globular with flattened base, often slightly inclined to conic, pretty 
regular but often somewhat elliptical or obscurely ribbed ; sides frequently a 
little unequal. Stem usually short and thick to sometimes moderately thick 
and of medium length. Caz'ily medium or below, acute to nearly obtuse, mod- 
erately shallow to deep, wide, somewhat furrowed, sometimes lipped, bright 
deep green with elongated wdiitish dots, often partly russeted and with out- 
spreading russet rays. Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open ; lobes 
separated at the base, wide, nearly flat or somewhat reflexed, pubescent. 
Basin below medium to large, shallow to moderately deep, obtuse to some- 
what abrupt, irregularly furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, clear pale yellow or greenish, in highly 
colored specimens largely washed, mottled and blushed with bright deep red 
striped and splashed with carmine. Dots numerous, small or narrow and 
elongated, moderately conspicuous, often submerged or depressed, whitish, 
sometimes with russet point. When well grown the general appearance is 
decidedly attractive and the color is somewhat like that of the Baldwin, 
particularly about the base. 

Calyx tube short, varying from funnel-shape with wide limb to obtuse cone- 
shape. Stamens median to basal. 

'A', y. Agr. Soc. Rpt., 1849:350. 



The Apples of New York. 351 

Core medium to rather large, axile or nearly so ; cells usually symmetrical 
and closed, sometimes open ; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels 
broadly roundish or inclined to ovate or to obcordate, slightly emarginate, 
tufted. Seeds few, often abortive ; when well developed they are medium to 
large, rather long, plump, acute to somewhat obtuse, sometimes tufted, 
medium brown. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, coarse, rather tender, rather crisp 
or breaking, moderately juicy, sprightly subacid with a peculiar but not high 
flavor, fair or sometimes nearly good in quality. 

Season October to January or February. 

VANHOY. 

References, i. -V. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 8:356. 1889. 2. Beach, lb., 15:276, 
284. 1896. 3. Massey, N. C. Sta. Bui, 149:318. 1898. 4. Bruner, N. C. Bd. 
Agr. Bui, 1900:11. 5, Budd-Hansen, 1903:194. 6. Powell and Fulton, U. S. 
B. P. I. Bui, 48:59. 1903. 7. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:148. 
1904. 8. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bui, 56:319. 1905. 9. J. Van. Lindley, Cat. 
Pomona. iV. C. (cited by 8). 

Synonyms. Van Hoy (3). Van Hoy No-Core (i, 2). Van Hoy No- 
Core (5, 8). 

As grown at the Geneva Station, \^anhoy lacks character, being 
unattractive in general appearance and only fair in quality. It is 
not desirable for any purpose and is remarkable only because the 
core is small and usually has no well-developed seeds. 

Historical. This is a variety of North Carolina origin and in its native 
state it is said to be a fair dessert apple with good market qualities (3, 4). 
It is practically unknown in New York. 

Tree. 

Tree moderately vigorous, not large. Form spreading, rather flat, open. 
Twigs below medium to short, straight, slender to moderately stout; inter- 
nodes long to below medium. Bark dark clear reddish-brown with some 
olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, but slightly pubescent if at all. 
Lenticels rather conspicuous, scattering, medium to small, elongated, slightly 
raised. Buds large to below medium, broad, plump, acute to obtuse, free or 
somewhat appressed, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 
Fruit medium, sometimes large. Form oblate to roundish, a little inclined 
to conic; axis sometimes oblique; sides often somewhat unequal. Stem 
medium to long, moderately thick. Cavity medium in size, acute to acumi- 
nate, moderately narrow to rather wide, moderately deep to deep, often com- 
pressed or obscurely furrowed, sometimes lipped, sometimes thinly russeted. 
Calyx below medium to large, closed or partly open ; lobes often leafy, long, 
acute to acuminate. Basin small to medium, somewhat obtuse to rather 
abrupt, medium in width and depth or sometimes deep, occasionally slightly 
furrowed. 



352 The Apples of New York. 

Skin thick, leathery, smooth, dull yellowish-green largely overspread with 
dull red and marked with narrow, obscure splashes or stripes of dark carmine. 
Dots rather conspicuous, pale yellow or russet. 

Calv.v tube rather large, cone-shape to funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core small, abaxile or nearly so; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines meet- 
ing or, when the tube is cone-shape, slightly clasping. Carpels rather fiat, 
roundish ovate to obcordate, slightly emarginate, mucronate. Seeds few, 
rarely plump, wide, rather long, obtuse to acute, sometimes tufted ; often all 
are abortive. 

Flesh whitish tinged with yellow or green, firm, a little coarse, quite crisp, 
breaking, moderately juicy, mild subacid, fair quality. 

Season at Geneva January to May. 

VIRGINIA GREENING. 

Referexces. I. Prince, .V. E. Farmer, 8:i. 1829. 2. Kenrick, 1832:60. 3. 
White, Horticulturist, 7:319. 1852. 4. Elliott, 1854:160. 5. Downing. 1857: 
200. 6. Hooper, 1857:95. 7. Warder, 1867:416. fig. 8. Downing, 1869:393. 
9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 10. Thomas, 1875:230. 11. Barry, 1883:356. 
12. Wickson, 1889:248. 13. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:251. 14. Budd-Hansen, 
1903:195- 

Synonyms. Green Mountain Pippin (8). Ross Greening (8). Virginia 
Pippin^ (8). 

A large, oblate, yellowish-green apple with hard, firm flesh. In the South, 
where it is supposed to have originated, it is valued as a late keeper. The 
tree is large, spreading, vigorous and productive. It is but little grown in 
this state. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to nearly large, uniform in size and shape. Form oblate or 
roundish oblate varying to roundish conic, regular or nearly so, symmetrical. 
Stem medium to long, moderatelj' slender. Cavity medium in size, acute to 
acuminate, deep, moderately narrow to rather broad, often slightly furrowed, 
russeted and with outspreading russet. Calyx medium or below, partly open ; 
lobes slightly separated at the base, usually short and obtuse to acute. Basin 
medium size, usually rather shallow but varies to moderately deep, moderately 
wide, obtuse or occasionally rather abrupt, furrowed obscurely if at all, slightly 
wrinkled. 

Skin thick, tough, smooth or slightly roughened with russet dots and flecks, 
grass-green sometimes with brownish blush. Dots distinct, usually areolar 
with russet center, whitish or fawn-colored on the blushed portion, often 
irregular toward the ca\ity. 

Calyx tube cone-shape to funnel-form. Stamens median. 

Core small to medium, axile or w ith a narrow, hollow cylinder in the axis ; 
cells symmetrical, closed or sometimes slightly open ; core lines meeting the 
limb of the calyx tube or clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels roundish to 
broadly obovate or approaching obcordate, deeply emarginate, smooth or 
slightly tufted. Seeds numerous, small, rather narrow, plump, acute to obtuse, 
usually smooth. 





'^^k 




WABASH RED 



The Apples of New York. 353 

Flesh creamy yellow or greenish, very firm, hard, breaking, coarse, moder- 
ately juicy, mild subacid becoming somewhat sweet, fair to good. 
Season February to June. 

WABASH RED, 

References, i. A^ Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:223. 1892. 2. lb., 13:170. 1894. 
Synonym. Wabash Red ]\' inter (2). 

As grown at this Station, Wabash Red is a rather attractive 
apple of fairly good size, bright color, smooth and uniform appear- 
ance and good dessert quality for a late-keeping apple, but rather 
too mild in flavor for most culinary uses. It has the merit of 
retaining its texture and flavor well till verv' late in the season. 
As tested here the fruit shows a tendency to be deficient in size. 
The tree is a good grower, is not slow in coming into bearing and 
yields rtioderate to good crops nearly annually. It is sufficiently 
promising to be worthy of further testing. 

This is distinct from Wabash or Wabash Bellflower. 

Historical. Received in 1892 and 1894 from Downing and Morris, Clinton, 
Ind., for testing at this Station (i, 2). 

Tree. 

Tree vigorous. Form upright to roundish, rather dense. Tivigs short to 
above medium, straight or somewhat curved, stout and with large terminal 
buds ; internodes medium to short. Bark brownish-red mingled with olive- 
green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin ; slightly pubescent. Lcnticels con- 
spicuous, quite numerous, small to medium, roundish or a little elongated, 
slightly raised. Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly 
so, slightly pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit large to medium, quite uniform in size and shape. Form roundish 
oblate, a little inclined to conic, usually regular; sides sometimes unequal. 
Stem short to above medium, rather thick. Cavity small to medium, acumi- 
nate to nearly obtuse, moderately deep to deep, rather narrow to moderately 
broad, sometimes lipped, usually russeted and with outspreading russet. 
Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open ; lobes sometimes separated at 
the base. Basin medium size, usually shallow and obtuse but varying to mod- 
erately deep and somewhat abrupt, \\ide, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thick, tough, nearly smooth, bright clear j-ellow, in highly 
colored specimens largely overspread with bright red or orange-red obscurely 
striped with darker red. Dots numerous, rather conspicuous, small to medium, 
whitish or pale yellow and russet. Prevailing effect red. 

Calyx tube cone-shape to truncate funnel-form. Sta)nens median. 



354 The Apples of New York. 

Core rather small, axile or nearly so; cells symmetrical, usually closed; 
core lines somewhat clasping. Carpels roundish, smooth or nearly so. Seeds 
compactly filling the cells, medium or above, rather wide, somewhat obtuse, 
tufted ; often some are abortive. 

Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, very firm, a little coarse, crisp, 
not tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, pleasant, sprightly, good. 

Season December to May. 

WAGENER, 

References, i. iV. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1847:315. £g. 2. lb., 1848:275, 
285. fig. and col. pi. frontispiece. 3. Horticulturist, 3:95. 1848. 4. Thomas, 
1849:173. fig. 5. Mag. Hort., 16:158. 1850. 6. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
3:73. 1851. col. pi. No. 41. 7. Elliott, 1854:114, fig. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 
1856. 9. Downing, 1857:110. fig. 10. Hooper, 1857:95. 11. Horticulturist, 
17:150. 1862. 12. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 29:261. 1863. fig. 13. Warder, 1867: 
490. fig. 14. Waring, Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871 :40. 15. Wagener, lb., 1872: 
454. fig. 16. Fitz, 1872:175. 17. Barry, 1883:356. 18. Rural N. Y., 47:749. 
1888. 19. Wickson, 1889:248. 20. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 
21. Can. Hort., 14:91, 131. 1891. 22. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 23. Can. 
Hort., 16:406. 1S93. 24. Rural N. Y., 56:317, 359. 1S97. 25. Waugh, Vt. Sta. 
Bill, 61:32. 1897. 26. lb.. Rpt., 14:311. 1901. 27. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bui., 
130:125. igoi. 28. Budd-Hansen, 1903:195. fig. 29. Powell and Fulton, U. S. 
B. P. I. Bui, 48:59. 1903. 30. Beach and Clark, .V. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:148. 
1904. 

A\"agener, at its best, is an apple of superior excellence. The color 
is a beautiful bright red with some contrasting pale yellow ; it has 
fine texture, high flavor and excellent quality. It is very desirable 
for culinary uses but is especially esteemed for dessert. It is in 
season about with Tompkins King or from October to February, 
yet often some portion of the fruit may be kept in ordinary storage 
till late spring. Its commercial limit is December, or, in cold 
storage, about February ist. It does not stand heat well before 
going into storage and is quite apt to scald toward the close of the 
season, particularly if not well colored. After scalding it goes down 
quickly (29, 30). Often there is some loss from drops, especially 
if the crop is not picked as soon as it is well colored, and 
many times there is a rather high percentage of loss in fruit 
that is unmarketable because it is undersized or misshapen. In 
the nursery Wagener is a pretty good grower, upright and well- 
formed ; in the orchard it is quite vigorous at first, but as it 
advances in maturity it usually becomes a rather weak grower, with 
branches full of fruit spurs. It comes into bearing at an early age 
and so long as it remains healthy it is a reliable cropper, yielding 





WAGENER 



The Apples of Xew York. 355 

moderate to rather heavy crops biennially or nearly annually. In 
many cases it overbears so that the fruit does not all develop prop- 
erly in size and color. Under such circumstances it is a great 
advantage to thin the fruit. To get best results the thinning should 
be done as early as June. Under favorable conditions the crop is 
pretty uniform in size, color and quality. 

The tree is often short-lived, but some report that it is longer- 
lived when top-worked upon hardier and more vigorous stock such 
as X'orthern Spy. Baldwin and Tolman Siccet. On account of its 
dwarfish form and habit of coming into bearing at an early age it 
is recommended by some fruit growers as a filler to plant between 
the rows of longer-lived apple trees. Some fruit growers consider 
it a profitable variety, but many do not. Although it was introduced 
about a half century ago and it is now sufificiently well known so 
that it may perhaps be regarded as a standard market variety, yet 
it has not established itself to any considerable extent in the com- 
mercial orchards of this state and is not being extensively planted. 

Historical. The first published reference to tlie Wagener which we find is 
that given in the Report of the N. Y. State Agricultural Societj- for 1847, 
in which it is stated that it was awarded second premium as a seedling of 
merit (i). In 1848 it was again presented for competition and was placed by 
the committee in the list of first-class apples, awarded an additional premium 
and also a diploma. An illustrated description of it was published in the 
report of this Society for that year with the remark '" This very fine apple the 
committee consider a desirable addition to the list of first-rate fruits. Its 
appearance is prepossessing as is also its size and form" (2). An account 
of the history of Wagener was also given in which it was stated that 
in the spring of 1791 Mr. George Wheeler brought with him from Dover, 
Dutchess county, X. Y., to Penn Yan, Yates county, a quantit}' of apple 
seeds which he sowed that spring in the nursery upon his farm which 
he was then reclaiming from the wilderness. In 1796 Abraham Wagener, 
from whom the name of the apple is derived, bought this seedling nursery 
and planted trees from it upon his place in what is now the village of 
Penn Yan. In 1848 it was remarked that the old tree was producing an 
.annual and abundant yield of beautiful and delicious fruit (2). It continued 
to bear full crops till about the year 1865 (15). After it was brought to 
tlie notice of the State Agricultural Society, the Wagener soon began to be 
propagated quite extensively and it has since become w^idely disseminated 
throughout the country. In 1892 Wagener w-as being oflfered quite generally 
by nurserymen throughout the country except in the North Mississippi valUy, 
the Rocky Mountain region and the plains from Nebraska to Texas (22). 
It is generally known throughout New York but is not planted extensively 
in any section of tlie state. 



356 The Apples of New York. 

Tree. 

Tree dwarfish to medium size, at first moderately vigorous but soon becom- 
ing a slow grower ; branches short, stout and filled with spurs. Form roundish 
to spreading, open. Tivigs short to medium, often somewhat curved, moder- 
ately stout, usually quite blunt ; internodes medium to short. Bark clear dark 
reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; 
pubescent near tips. Lenticels scattering, medium or below, elongated or 
sometimes roundish, not raised. Buds medium to rather large, sometimes 
projecting, plump, acute, free, pubescent. 

Fruit. 

Fruit medium to rather large. Form oblate to roundish oblate, broadly 
ribbed or irregularly elliptical ; sides often unequal. Stem short to moderately 
long, moderately thick to rather slender. Cavity variable, acute, moderately 
deep to deep, broad or sometimes compressed and rather narrow, often angular 
or furrowed, sometimes thinly russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed or 
partly open ; lobes small, usually short, acute to acuminate, connivent, reflexed. 
Basin medium in width and depth, abrupt, somewhat furrowed. 

Skin thin, tough, smooth, glossy, bright pinkish-red striped with bright 
carmine and mottled and streaked with thin whitish scarf-skin over a clear, 
pale yellow background. Dots numerous, whitish or russet, sometimes mingled 
with light russet flecks. Prevailing color bright light red. 

Calyx tube long, rather narrow, funnel-form, often elongated and extending 
to the core. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core below medium to moderately large, somewhat abaxile with hollow 
cylinder in the axis, varying to nearly axile ; cells symmetrical, closed or open ; 
core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels broadly roundish or approach- 
ing elliptical, but little emarginate if at all, smooth or nearly so, mucronate. 
Seeds moderately numerous, rather small to above medium, short to moder- 
ately long, moderately wide, obtuse, rather light brown ; often some are 
abortive. 

Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, moderately firm, rather fine- 
grained, crisp, tender, juicy to very juicy, subacid, aromatic, sprightly, very 
good to best. 

Season October or November, to February or later. 

WALBRIDGE. 

References, i. Rural N. ¥., 1870:204, 205. fig. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 
1873. 3- ^'«- Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875 136, 68, 124; Cat.: 8. 4. Downing, 1876:50 
app. fig. 5. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1877:213. 6. Burrill, lb., 1878:226. 7. la. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882:343. 8. Gibb, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:124. 9. 
Thomas, 1885:527. 10. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 11. lb., 1892:238. 12. 
Craig, Can. Dcpt. Agr. Rpt.. 1894:126. 13. Can. Hort., 17:69, 70. 1894. I4« 
Beach, N. Y. Sia. An. Rpt., 13:592. 1894. 15. Maynard, Putnam and Fletcher, 
Mass. Sta. Bui, 44:4. 1897. 16. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:15. 17. Waugh, 
Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:311. 1901. 18. Craig, Can. Hort., 24:76. 1901. fig. 
19. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1902:96. 20. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. 
Bui., 106:56. 1902. 21. Hansen, 5. D. Sta. Bui, 76:112. 1902. fig. 22. Budd- 





WALBRIDGE 



The Apples of New York. 357 

Hansen, 1903:196. fig. 23. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bui., 48:59. 
1903. 24. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bui, 248:149. 1904. 

Synonyms. Edgar County Red Streak (7, 8). Edg.\r Redstreak (2, 11). 
Edgar Redstreak (9, 17, 21, 22). Edgar Red Streak (4). Edgar Red Streak 
(16). Kentucky Red Streak (7). JValbridge (4). Wallbridge (13, 20). 

The accompanying colored plate shows the whole fruit of Wal- 
bridge. The section is shown on the same plate as that which shows 
the whole fruit of Rambo. 

Fruit red-striped, rather attractive when well colored, good for 
culinary purposes, but not equal to standard varieties of its season 
for dessert use. Season, November to February or March. Com- 
mercial limit, in ordinary storage, February ; in cold storage, April 
or May (23, 24). The fruit hangs well to the tree so that there is 
little loss from drops, but often a comparatively large amount of it 
is Undersized, misshapen or otherwise unmarketable. This variety 
has been planted to a considerable extent in Wisconsin, Iowa and 
adjacent portions of the Mississippi valley and has been grown 
quite successfully in many localities in that region. It appears to 
be less well adapted to New York conditions and is of comparatively 
little value for planting in this state. The tree makes a good growth 
in the nursery. In the orchard it is moderately vigorous, comes 
into bearing rather young and yields full crops biennially. 

Historical. The first description of this variety which we have been able 
to find is a very good one which appeared in the Rural New Yorker for 1870 
under the name Walbridge (i). It was disseminated from Wisconsin under 
the name Walbridge and has long been in cultivation under this name (4, 6). 
The American Pomological Society listed it as Walbridge in 1873 (2), but 
at the following meeting of the Society in Chicago, in 1875, it was decided that 
it was identical with Edgar Red Streak which originated with Joseph Curtis, 
Paris, Edgar county. 111., in 1818 (3), and accordingly it was entered on the 
Society's Catalogue as Edgar Red Streak with Walbridge as a synonym. 
It continued to be thus listed until 1897 when the popular name Walbridge 
was finally accepted by the Society (16). 

Tree. 

Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous. Form upright becoming round- 
ish or spreading, open. Tii'igs medium to long, usually curved, moderately 
stout, with large terminal buds ; internodes short to medium. Bark moder- 
ately dark reddish-brown, mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with 
scarf-skin; heavily pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small to medium, round 
to oblong, not raised. Buds prominent, medium to rather large, broad, plump, 
obtuse, free or nearly so, pubescent. 



35^ 



The Apples of Xew York. 



Fruit. 



Fniit sometimes nearly large but usually medium or below. Form roundish 
conic, flattened at the base, varying to roundish or to oblate conic, often one- 
sided. Stem short to medium. Cavity medium, ac-ite to acuminate, deep to 
moderately deep, rather narrow to broad, symmetrical, furrowed gently if at 
all, sometimes partly covered with fine russet. Calyx small, usually closed, 
pubescent. Basin small, characteristically shallow or scarcely at all depressed, 
often oblique, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled. 

Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth, green becoming clear pale yellow or 
whitish, washed with red, conspicuously mottled and striped with bright car- 
mine and overspread with thin bloom. Dots numerous, often submerged, 
sometimes whitish and rather conspicuous ; a few are russet. Prevailing effect 
in well-colored specimens, striped red. 

Calyx tube long, narrow, cone-shape to truncate funnel-form with fleshy 
pistil point projecting into base. Stamens median to marginal. 

Core small to medium, aba.xile with a wide, hollow cylinder in the a.xis, or 
sometimes axile ; cells symmetrical, closed or sometimes partly open; core 
lines clasping the funnel c\^linder. Carpels broadly roundish, emarginate, 
mucronate. Seeds few, dark, belo