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1902 



APPLETONS' 



ANNUAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



AND REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EVENTS 

OF THE YEAR 



I9OI 



EMBRACING POLITICAL, MILITARY, AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS; 

PUBLIC DOCUMENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, 

FINANCE, LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, 

AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY 



THIRD SERIES, VOL. VI 



WHOLE SERIES, VOL. XLI 




NEW YORK 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 

7a FIFTH AVENUE 
1902 




COPTBIOHT, 1902, 

By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY. 



Published March, 190i 




ol. Ga.0^8. 



PREFACE. 



•♦• 



To Americans — and perhaps to many more than Americans — among the events of 
the year 1901 the death of President McKinley was at once the most significant and 
sorrowful. The present volume contains a sketch of his wonderful career from his 
boyhood to the sudden termination of his presidency. It also contains a sketch of 
the life of his successor in the chief magistracy, together with a full-page portrait. 
Other events of importance and interest to Americans are duly recorded in the 
articles " Congress," " United States," " Philippine Islands," " Hawaii," " Porto Kico," 
and those on the various States of the Union. The most gigantic transaction that 
e?er took place in the financial and industrial world is that of the formation of the 
great Steel Corporation, the story of which is told in the " Financial Review of 1901." 
Two industries, perhaps developed to a greater extent in our country than in any 
other, are described and illustrated under the titles " Printing" and " Wire-Making" ; 
while nearly all the industries of this Western World were abundantly set forth in the 
"Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo," of which the reader will here find a good 
description, beautifully illustrated. While the typical American is thus accumulating 
money more rapidly than any other man on earth, he is also showing that he knows 
how to dispose of it so as to benefit his fellow mortals as well as himself. For proof 
of this, let the reader turn to the article " Gifts and Bequests," where he will find an 
itemized account of more than a hundred million dollars given to philanthropic and 
educational causes in our country in the year that is here recorded. The cause of 
popular education as it progresses year by year may be studied imder the head of 
Education in the several articles on the States, and in such other articles as those of 
"libraries" and the "Fine Arts." 

Court decisions that affect the constitutionality or interpretation of statutes are 
recorded under the head of Supreme Court in the article " United States," and also 
under Decisions in the State articles. The financial condition of the States and the 
nation may also be seen by reference to the articles just mentioned. The subject of 
irrigation, now most important in giving fertility to arid lands and increasing the 
food-crops of the world, as it progresses year by year, may be studied by looking at 
the articles on the Western States. 

(Jovemmental, insurrectionary, and industrial movements in the various countries 
of the world are recorded in the articles on those countries, some of which are of 
special interest as a part of the history of the first year of our century. The change 
of sovereign in Great Britain, the continued war in South Africa, the beginning of 
peaceable settlement in China, and the federation of the Australian provinces are 
among the most notable of these. 

The volume contains, as usual, an article on each of the great religious denomina- 
tions, together with articles on such of the smaller ones as have recorded and pub- 

• • • 

\\\ 



iv PREFACE. 

lished statistics ; and from these the growth of religions life and missionary enter- 
prise may be studied to advantage. 

In the articles " Archeology," " Astronomy," " Chemistry," " Metallurgy," and 
" Physiology " these sciences are recorded in their latest developments ; but perliaps 
the most wonderful result of science this year is to be found under the head of 
" Medicine," where the experiments proving that malaria and yellow fever are com- 
municated to human beings through mosquitoes are fully set forth. 

Among the special articles are one on the comparatively new industry of " Auto- 
mobiles," illustrated, with their latest developments ; one on artistic " Bookbinding," 
also illustrated ; one on the new enterprise of " Rural Free Mail Delivery " ; and one 
on the recent events in " Yachting." 

The death roll of the year is unusually long, and contains many names familiar to 
our readers. Among the authors we have lost are William E. Channing, Joseph 
Cook, Ignatius Donnelly, John Fiske, Edward H. House, John G. Nicolay, Charles 
NordhoflE, Mary A. Townsend, Walter Besant, Robert Buchanan, Mandell Creighton, 
F61ix Gras, Hugh R. Haweis, John Cordy Jeaffreson, Cosmo Monkhouse, Frederic 
W. H. Myers, Paul Silvestre, and Charlotte M. Yonge ; among the actors, Louis 
Aldrich, James A. Heme, Fanny Morant, Roland Reed, James B. Roberts, Edmond 
Got, James H. Mapleson, Harry Monkhouse, and Osmond Tearle ; among the artists, 
Jane H. Hammond, James M. Hart, Adolf R. Kraus, Edward Moran, Julian Scott, 
James E. Taylor, Edward Ford, and Kate Greenaway ; among the clergymen, Maltbie 
D. Babcock, Frederic Denison, John Jacob Esher, Justin D. Fulton, John Jasper, 
Thomas N. Lenihan, Abram N. Littlejohn, William McDonald, and Henry B. 
Whipple ; among the educators, Herbert B. Adams, John Thomas DuflBeld, Robert 
Graham, Richmond Mayo-Smith, Frederick A. Muhlenberg, Truman H. SaflPord, and 
Joseph Henry Thayer ; among the explorers, £douard Foa and Adolf Nordenskiold ; 
among the inventors, William F. Coston, Elisha Gray, David S. Holman, Thaddeus 
Hyatt, George Kellogg, and Lorenzo W. Kimball ; among the legislators, Charles A. 
Boutelle, James W. Bradbury, James A. Kyle, Cornelius R. Parsons, Hiram R. 
Revels, and William J. Sewell ; among the philanthropists, Elizabeth D. Gillespie, 
Margaret E. Crocker, Mrs. Egbert Guernsey, Tom Mosby, Henry V. A. Parsell, 
William A. Passavant, and Elizabeth Hanbury ; among the publishers, G. W. Carle- 
ton, Patrick Donahoe, Alexander C. McClurg, and Lewis A. Roberts ; among the 
scientists, Clarence King, Joseph Le Conte, Henry A. Rowland, Charles A. Schott, 
William J. Youmans, George M. Dawson, Rudolf Koenig, and Eleanor Ormerod ; 
among the statesmen, William M. Evarts, Benjamin Harrison, the Duke de Broglie, 
Francesco Crispi, Prince Hohenlohe-Schillingsfiirst, Marthinas Pretorius, and Li- 
Hung-Chang ; among the soldiers, Daniel Butterfield, George W. Getty, John P. 
Hatch, James S. Negley, Robert Nugent, Fitz John Porter, Benjamin M. Prentiss, 
and Joseph Gurko ; among the naval officers, Francis M. Bunce, John Irwin, Richard 
P. Leary, Thomas S. Phelps, and Francis A. Roe ; among the composers and 
dramatists, Edmond Audran, Paul Barbier, Pierre Benoit, and Giuseppe Verdi. 

The celebration of the two hundredth anniversary of Yale University is recorded, 
with a full-page portrait of the new president of that institution, Arthur Twining 
Hadley. There is also a full-page portrait of Li-Hung-Chang, the famous Chinese 
statesman, and full-page illustrations of the Pan-American Exposition, the New York 
subway, and the yacht races. The volume closes with a complete index. 

New York, February 11, 1902, 



OONTEIBUTOES. 



Among the Contributors to this Volume of the Annual CyclopcBdia are the following : 



Oicar Fay Adams, 

Aathor of A Dictionary of Ajnerican Anthors, etc. 

Besant, Walter, 
Buchanan, Robert, 
Creighton, Mamdell, 
HELX.MUTH, Isaac, 
Stubbs, Wiluam, 
Westcott, Brooke Foss, 
YoNOE, Charlotte Mary, 
and other articles. 

Frank K. Ashley, 

CoDsalting Engineer. 
Automobiles. 

Samuel Bamett, 

Wire Expert of United States Steel Corporation. 
Wire-Making. 

Karens Benjamin, Ph. D., 

Editor of United States National MoBenm. 

Exposition, Pan-American, 
Hatch, John Porter, 
Le Contk, Joseph, 
National Academy op Sciences, 
Rowland, Henry Augustus, 
and other articles. 

J. H. A. Bone, 

or the Cleveland Plain-Dealer. 
Ohio. 

Arthur E. Bostwick, Ph. D., 

Physics. 

William O. Bowdoin, 

Author of Book-Plates, etc. 

Bookbinding, Special American. 
William 8. Burke, 

Of the Albaqaerqae Jonmal-DemocraL 
New Mexico. 

Thomas Campbell-Cropeland, 

Aathor of American Colonial Handbook, etc. 
Vermont, 
Virginia. 

James P. Carey, 

Formerly Financial Editor of the Journal of Com- 
merce. 

Financial Review op 1901. 
John Denison Champlin, 

Editor of Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings. 
Fine Arts in 1901. 

Floyd 8. Chapman, 

Of the Hantlngton, W. Va., Advertiser. 

West ViRonnA. 



John H. CliffbrcL 

Colorado, 
Idaho, 
Oregon, 
and other articles. 

» 

Charles H. Cochrane, 

Author of Wonders of Modem Mechanism. 
Printing, Recent Advances in. 

8. O. Dunn, 

Of the Kansas City Joomal. 
Missouri. 

A. A. Fenwick. 

Minnesota. 

Frank Jj, Fleming, 

Of the Atlanta Constitution. 
Georgia. 
H. P. Gifford, 

Of the Carson City News. 
Nevada. 

Fredericka B. Gilchrist. 
Protestant Episcopal Church. 

Edgar Goodman, 

Of the Baltimore American. 

Maryland. 
Bev. William Elliot GrifEs, D. D., L. H. D., 

Author of The Mikado's Empire and Korea the Her- 
mit Nation. 

Japan, 
Korea. 

George J. Hagar, 

Compiler and Statistician. 
Gifts and Bequests. 

J. Castell Hopkins, F. 8. 8., F. A. Hist. 8., 

Author of The Story of the Dominion. 

British Columbia, 
Canada, Dominion of, 
New Brunswick, 
Ontario, 
and other Canadian articles. 

Frank Huntington, 

Of the SUndard Dictionary staff. 

Afghanistan, 
Australia, 
Brazil, 
China, 
Denmark, 
Italy. 
and other articles. 



VI 



CONTRIBUTORS. 



Abram B. Isaacs, Ph. D., 

Editor of the Jewish Messenger. 
Jews. 

Edward A. Jenks, 

Formeriy of the Concord, N. H., Statesman. 
New Hampshire. 

William H. Larrabee, LL. D. 

Archeology, 
Baptists, 
Chemistry, 

Freewill Baptist Church, 
Methodists, 
Presbyterians, 
Theosophists, 
and other articles. 

Harry Turner Kewcomb, 

Editor of the Railway World. 

Twelfth Census (in article United States). 
GoL Charles lu Norton, 

Author of Jack Benson^s Log. 
Yachting. 

Hugh J. O'Brien, 

Formerly of the Rochester Post-Express. 
Roman Cathouc Church. 

Solomon E. Ochsenford, 

Professor in Muhlenberg College. 

Lutherans, 

Muhlenberg, Frederick Augustus, 
and other articles. 



line K. 0'Ck)nnor, 

Author of Index to Shakespeare. 
Alabama, 
Connecticut, 
Qeographical Progress, 
Indiana, 
Maine, 
Michigan, 
Mississippi, 
North Carolina, 
and other articles. 

Eugene B. Palmer, 

Of the Salt Lake City Herald. 
Utah. 

Dora Knowlton Banous. 

Mapleson, James Henry, 
MoNKHousE, Harry, 
Reed, Roland Lewis, 
Roberts, James Booth, 
Tearle, George Osmond, 
and other articles. 



James A. Shirley, 

Formerly of the Mail and Express. 
Rapid Transit, and 
Real Estate (in article New York city). 

Munroe Ctanith, 

Professor in Colombia University. 

Mayo-Smith, Richmond. 
Hon. John K. Stahl, 

Secretary of the Farmers* Congress. 
Farmers' Congress, 
Mail Delivery, Rural Free. 

Charles Ck>leman Stoddard. 

Alaska, 

Obituaries, American (in part). 

Lewis Swift, Fh. D., F. A. A. S., 

Formerly Director of Lowe Obsenratory. 
Astronomical Progress. 

James B. T. Tupper, 

Chief of Law Division, office of Internal Bev( 
Washington. 

Supreme Court Decisions (in article Un 
States). 

J. Kendrick Upton, 

Formerly Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. 
United States, Finances of the. 

Edward S. Van Zile, 

Author of Kings in Adversity. 
Literature (Fiction), American. 

Qeorge S. Walker, 

Of the Cheyenne Journal. 
Wyoming. 

Frances V. Warner, 

Of the Jacksonville Times-Union. 
Florida. 

Frank Weitenkampf, 

Of the New York Public Library. 
Libraries, Public. 

Bobert H. Willson. 

Illinois. 

H. D. Wilson, 

Of the Topeka Capital. 
Kansas. 

Vincent J. Youmans, K. D., 

Formerly of the Popular Science Monthly. 

Medicine, Recent Advances in, 
NordenskiOld, Adolf Erik, 
YouMANS, William Jay, 
and other articles. 



ILLUSTRATIO]S"S. 



^•» 



Full-page Portraits, 

7ACIMO PAOB 

THEODORE ROOSEVELT Photogravure Frontispiece 

LI-HUXG-CHANG Photogravure . . .328 

ARTHUR TWINING HADLEY Photogravure ... 680 



Portraits in the Text, 



PAOB 

Abduekahman Khan 4 

Phiup Dan forth Armour .... 407 

Sis Walter Besant 480 

Robert Wilx.iams Buchanan .... 484 

Feaxcesco Crispi 487 



Albert B. Cummins 
Alexander Monroe Dockery 
JoBN Thomas Duffield . 

WlNFIELD T. DURBIN 

WiLUAM Maxwell Evarts . 



695 
722 
422 
692 
424 



Edward Onslow Ford 491 



Fiux Gras 

HiBDBULLAH KhAN . 

Prank W. Hunt 
Charles Dean Kimball 
Clarence Kino 



492 
3 
688 
757 
441 



Adolf Robert Kraus 441 



PAGE 

Joseph Le Conte 443 

Franklin Murphy 731 

John George Nicolay . . ' . . . 454 

Baron Adolf Erik Nordenski5ld . 502 

James B. Orman 675 

Cornelius Rice Parsons . . . . 456 

Thomas Stowell Phelps .... 458 

FiTZ John Porter 459 

Francis Asbury Roe 462 

Henry Augustus Rowland .... 464 

Ezra Perin Savage 727 

Charles Anthony Schott .... 466 

Joseph Henry Thayer . . . . . 471 

Joseph Kemp Toole 724 

Giuseppe Verdi 511 

Charlotte Mary Yonge .... 514 

Theodore Zeller 477 



Full- PAGE Illustrations. 

Colored Plate : ..^^^^ „.«« 

FACINO PAOK 

Plan of Pan-American Exposition 212 

Thk United States Government Building 214 

The Electric Tower 216 



The Esplanade 



The Ethnology Building 

Illumination of the Horticulture Building 

SfBWAY Views (under Elevated Railway, and Rock Excavation) . 
ScBWAY Views (at Comer of Central Park, and a Finished Portion) 
Yacht Race 



218 
220 
222 
390 
392 
800 



\u 



VIU 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Illustrations in the Text, 



PAGE 



8 

9 

12 
15 

29 



The White Pass, before the Railroad 

was built 

Cutting Grade for Railroad in the 
White Pass ...•-!• 
Residence of the Rev. W. T. Lopp at 
Cafe Prince of Wales .... 
Eaton Reindeer Station .... 
Terra Cotta Vases exhumed at Villa 

Fasanella 

False Fringe and Plaited Locks from the 

Tomb of Zer 31 

Bracelet from the Arm of Queen Zer-Ta 82 
The Oldest Continuous Line of Hiero- 
glyphs Extant 33 

Mars (two illustrations) 41 

Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, Wis. . 42 
Great Telescope of the Yerkes Observa- 
tory 43 

General Post-Office at Melbourne . . 52 
Sydney, New South Wales .... 55 
Mail-Coach Station, New South Wales . 59 



Wool Teams, Darling District, New South 

Wales .... 
Manhattan Steam Automobile 
RiKER Electric Automobile. 
Stratton Motor Cycle . . • 
Rae's System of Motor Control 
A Roycroft de Luxe Binding 
Viennese Inlay Binding 
Binding by Toof & Co. . 
Pyrographic Binding 
Court of Fountains 
Growth of Malaria Parasite in 

MAN Body .... 
Anopheles (eight illustrations) 

CuLEX T^NIORHYNCHUS . 

Yellow- Fever Mosquito 
Nicaragua Canal . 
Printing- Presses (six illustrations) 
Theodore Roosevelt's Home 
Wire-making (two illustrations) 
Yacht Race . . . . 



the 



Hu- 



34& 



563 



797, 



I 



THE 



ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA 



^•» 



A 



.., an empire in eastern Africa, 
also as Ethiopia. The ruler, whose title 
18 Negusti, meaning King of Kings, is 
I II, formerly King of Shoa, who succeeded 
es II. The Italians, who furnished him 
ith which he defeated rival claimants of 
one, obtained the treaty of Ucciali on 

1889, under which they claimed a pro- 
e over all Abyssinia as well as sovereignty 
erritories north of Tigre and inland from 
ah which before they were occupied by 
ere dependencies of Abyssinia. Menelek 
he protectorate, and on March 1, 189(5, his 
routed at Adowa an Italian army that 

Tigre and Amhara. Through the media- 
Russia a new treaty was signed on Oct. 
I, by which Italy renounced the protecto- 
er Abyssinia and Menelek recognized as 
territorj' all the country north of the 
Balesa, and Muna rivers, 
irea of Abyssinia, including Tigre and 
n the north, Amhara and Goiam in the 
ind Shoa in the south, with Gallaland and 

the Somali country and undefined regions 
>uth and west, is between 150,000 and 250,- 
are miles. The population under the rule 
legus is estimated at 3,500,000. Abyssinia 
?at Britain both claim the region north 
sh East Africa in which Lake Rudolf is 
1, extending as far south as 2** of north 
, and the western territories to the banks 
Vhite Nile are also claimed by Abyssinia, 
^s has a regular army of about 150,000 
Bind can command the services of the ir- 

troops and tribal levies of his vassals, 
ive troops consist partly of trained «ol- 
med with Vetterli, Gras, Snyder, and Rem- 
rifles, and partly of men armed with na- 
apons who have lands given to them to 

their services. The cavalry are recruited 
the Wollo Gallas. The Negus has im- 
500,000 repeating rifles of the latest pat- 

Lbyssinians, who have been Christians of 
:andrian rite since the fourth century, raise 
sheep, and goats, practising agriculture 
le. Coffee and cotton grow wild. The 
d the date-palm thrive. The sugar-cane 
ley, millet, and wheat are grown for do- 
eonsumption. Hides and skins, coffee, 
ms, dyes, medicinal plants, and civet are 
I. Gold from the Wallega country and 
e royal monopolies. American, some In- 
1 small quantities of English cotton goods 
>rted, the American unbleached cottons 
:ing half of the total imports, which in- 
o woolens, matches, cutlery, etc. Mene- 

L XLI. — 1 A 



lek's capital is Adis Abeba, which has a perma- 
nent population of 50,000 and a floating popula- 
tion of 30,000. The currency of the country is the 
Maria Theresa dollar and a new one coined by 
Menelek having the same size and value. Coins 
representing a half, a quarter, an eighth, and a 
twentieth of a dollar have been minted, and are in 
circulation, although at first the people regarded 
them with distrust. Previously the only medium 
of exchange of less value than a dollar was the 
amule, which was three pounds .of salt, worth 60 
cents. In 1880 the whole foreign trade of the 
country did not exceed $80,000 in value. Now 
the imports into Harar alone, the chief commer- 
cial town, are $2,800,000 a year, and the exports 
$1,400,000. This trade passes through Jioute, 
Abyssinia possessing no seaport. This French 
town, though but a few years oldj has 12,000 in- 
habitants, of whom 1,000 are Europeans. It is 
the outlet of trade routes from various parts of 
Abyssinia. A railroad^ 184 miles long, from 
Jibute to Harar, has been built with French capi- 
tal. It was completed before the end of 1901, 
having been constructed in two years at a cost of 
$0,000,000. The Italian railroad from Massowah 
will be extended into Tigre, giving to northern 
Abyssinia an outlet through that seaport. The 
victory of Menelek in the war with Italy stimu- 
lated the internal progress of Abyssinia and 
trade relations with the rest of the world, which 
have been facilitated by French enterprise at 
Jiboutil. The reconquest of the Egyptian Soudan 
by the British has given a fresh mipetus to this 
rapid development. An Italian company in 1901 
built a telegraph line from Massowah to Adis 
Abeba, Menelek 's capital, which is connected by 
rail with Adis Haleni. 

The boundary between Abyssinia and the Ital- 
ian colony of Erythrea has been settled by 
agreement. The boundaries separating Menelek's 
dominions from British East Africa in the south 
and from the Egyptian Soudan in the w^est have 
been the subject of protracted negotiations with 
Lieut.-Col. Harrington, the British political agent 
and consul-general at Adis Abeba. Count Leon- 
tieff, a Russian, who explored and occupied the 
equatorial province of Abyssinia for Menelek, 
was, early m 1901, appointed its governor and 
commander in chief of the forces to be raised 
there. He returned to this region that he had an- 
nexed or regained, taking with him a force of 
Arab and Soudanese soldiers and large quantities 
of weapons and military and hospital stores that 
came from Russia, and was joined on the march 
to Lake Rudolf by a regiment of Ethiopian sol- 
diers raised and trained by Cossack officers dur- 
ing his former sojourn in that country, which, hft 



1 



ABYSSINU. 



had led victorioasly against the enemies of Mene- 
lek in the region disputed bv Great Britain. In 
1900 King Menelek requested the co-operation of 
the British in suppressing a fanatical Moham- 
medan moUah who was disturbing the peace 
amone the tribes on the borders of the British 
Somaliland protectorate and the Abyssinian do- 
minions. A combined movement of British and 
Abyssinian troops was arranged. Haji Moham- 
med ben Abdullah, known as the Mad Mollah, an 
Ogaden Somali about thirty years old, educated 
as a wahad, or theologian, a disciple of the Sheik 
Mohammed Sal eh, the head of the mystic order 
of Tarika Mohamalia at Mecca, persuaded many 
of the Somalis that he was the incarnation of the 
prophet, appointed by the divine will to regener- 
ate the people of his race and establish an inde- 
pendent kingdom. Having acquired much influ- 
ence among the Ogaden and Dolbohanti tribes as 
a holy man who had made several pilgrimages to 
Mecca, he organized a body of dervishes who 
plundered other tribes on both sides of the bor- 
der. When the mollah began to subjugate the 
Somalis of Abyssinia, while maintainmg a con- 
ciliatory and submissive attitude toward Great 
Britain, the British at Berbera looked with favor 
upon the movement, which the French and Rus- 
sians accused them of fostering. The British 
authorities were inclined to encourage the new 
sect in their own territory so long as its leader 
was simply a religious teacher, enjoining re^- 
larity in prayers and other rites, and while his 
influence was exerted to allay feuds among the 
tribes and he himself delivered up malefactors for 
punishment. The people of Berbera would not 
listen to the strict teachings of the new sect, 
which interdicted the use of the leaf knt^ the 
favorite intoxicant of the coast Somalis, but the 
tribes of the interior fell under the mollah's in- 
fluence. At first he abstained from raiding an- 
tagonistic tribes in the British protectorate or in- 
terfering with the caravan trade, but after the 
Habba IJnis joined him he sent a defiant message 
to Col. Hayes Sadler, the British consul-general 
at Berbera, and took up an attitude of hostility 
toward all those who had dealings with the Brit- 
ish authorities, denouncing the British Govern- 
ment and all who acknowledged it as infidels. 
In the autumn of 1899 he advanced to Burao, 90 
miles south of Berbera, with a force estimated at 
2,000 horsemen and 3,000 spearmen, with 400 
rifles among them. He burned the town of a sec- 
tion hostile to his religious teachings, and estab- 
lished himself in the plain, threatening Berbera 
itself, and gaining many adherents by his suc- 
cesses, which were attributed to miraculous 
power. The ignorant believed that he could turn 
bullets into water and hear all that was said 
about him in distant places. While the British 
were making preparations to crush his force with 
troops from India he retired in November, 1899, 
to tne Dolbohanti. The British thereupon sus- 
pended their preparations. The local authorities 
urged immediate action, saying that the power of 
the mollah would grow rapidly if the expedition 
were deferred. The Imperial Government never- 
theless deemed delay expedient in view of the 
state of affairs in other parts of the world. At 
Burao, Mohammed Abdullah proclaimed himself 
the true Mahdi, and announced that all Moham- 
medans who refused to join him were no true 
believers. He claimed to rule all central Somali- 
land, acknowledging no British authority except- 
ing on the coast. Mis unchecked reprisals against 
tribes which were friendly to the English caused 
them to waver and to doubt the power of Great 
Britain to protect them. After looting far and 



wide the tribes who still professed loyalty to 
Great Britain, and killing a powerful chief who 
warned him of the fate which awaited him at the 
hands of the British Government, he retreated to 
the country of the Ibrahim tribe of northern 
Ogaden, and from that base extended his influence 
among the tribes on the Abyssinian frontier, seiz- 
ing the head men and cattle of the tribes that 
refused to join him. Ras Makonen, the Governor 
ol Harar, sent an expedition of 1,500 men to put 
a stop to his depreciations. Early in 1900 the 
mollah attacked the Abyssinians at their fron- 
tier post of Jig Jiga, but was repulsed with heavy 
loss. Then he returned to Ogaden and began to 
raid tribes friendly to the English and the no- 
madic Somalis who move with their herds back 
and forth between British and Abyssinian ter- 
ritory according to the state of the pasturage. 
The raids of his horsemen checked trade and 
peaceful industry and led to the joint Anglo- 
Abyssinian expedition, the plans for which were 
agreed upon in December, 1900. It was arranged 
that English officers should accompany the Abys- 
sinian expedition and an Abyssinian officer be 
present with the British force, and that during 
the operations the frontier between Abyssinian 
and British territories should be regarded as non- 
existent. Col. Hayes Sadler set about the organi- 
zation of a force of Somalis, which was not ready 
for operations till the end of March, 1901. The 
Somali frontier force, trained and commanded by 
Col. Swayne, consisted of 1,000 infantry, 4(K> 
mounted spearmen, and 100 camel sowars. The 
Abyssinians had 10,000 men under Ras Makonen 
assembled at Jig Jiga a month before the British 
were ready to act. They inarched southeastward, 
and after a series of skii*mishes in the Harradig- 
git district, and the capture of the enemy's camp 
at Walwal, with great numbers of camels, sheep, 
and goats, they drove the mollah out of Ogaden, 
which they raided to avenge a defeat that they 
suffered five years before, wnen 6,000 Abyssinians 
fell in battle. They could not now remain long 
in this arid country, and fell back in order to 
reorganize their force in time for the combined 
movement with the British. They endured great 
privations, inasmuch as it was the dry season of 
the year, and the few wells had been closed by the 
mollah and were only reopened with difficulty. 
Many stragglers returned in a famished condition 
to Harar. The force encamped round the wells 
of Gerloguby, w^here they held their ground when 
attacked by the dervishes. They waited until 
the rains came to enable them to advance, with 
8,000 troops accompanied by 25,000 followers and 
as many pack animals, across the desert 300 miles 
to the forest region of Dolbohanti in British ter- 
ritory where the mollah had taken refuge. The 
British force when able to take the field in May 
advanced from Burao in the direction of Dolbo- 
hanti. Ras Makonen had waited impatiently for 
the British, and was about to recall his troops 
from Ogaden, w^here they suffered greatly from 
disease and privation. When the British did 
move he organized a fresh force of picked Abys- 
sinian warriors from Harar to relieve these ex- 
hausted troops, who were mostly Somalis led by 
the Gabri of Fi Taurari. The fresh Abyssinian 
expedition concentrated at Dagaha Mado, 150 
miles south of Harar. It consisted of 10,000 men 
and horses, with a vast number of camp-followers 
and baggage animals, and was commanded by 
Abanabro, whose title was Kanyazmach, or com- 
mander of the right wing. 

The British, when prepared to move from their 
advanced base, still delayed operations until they 
could obtain information as to the movements 



ABrSSlNlA. 

of the AbyBsinians. WhUe the Somali field force 
was being oi^nized and trained an ADglo-Indisn 
expedition set out from Kismayu to puniah the 
M>utbeni Ogaden Somalig for the murder of an 
English official (see ELisT Apkica). Tlie influ- 
ence of the Mad Mullah had penetrated to thia 
remote quarter, and his coDiplicity in thiH crime 
was suspected. 

The Somalia are an intelligent, athletic, warlike 
race. Buppoaed to be Uallas by descent, modified 
by a large admixture of Arab blood. Along the 
entire coast known as Somali land they have 
pushed baek the Gallaa and sained the predomi- 
nant position of controlling the outlets to the sea 
and posaessins a monopoly of the trade from 
the interior. They are proud and conceited, and 
belwve that if they were supplied with rifles as 
the Abyssinians have been tbey would become a 
powerful nation. Under European training they 
note excellent soldiers. The Mad Mollah pro- 
fFSBed friendship for the English until some of 
Ms adherents plundered a hunting expedition and 
captured many rifles which he was unwilling to 
rntoiv. The Somali weapons are long-shafted 
ntemrs with leaf-shaped neada, javelins which 
dtey throw with accuracy to a distance of 40 
jaras, and double-edged, sharp-pointed, curved 
urords. The army that Mohammed Abdullah had 
eoUected for tlie Jehad or holy war that he pro- 
claimed against Christianity was estimated at 
40,000 men. He had obtained 3,000 rifiea of vari- 
ous patterns, and was well supplied with am- 
mnniUoD. His cavalry numbered about 8,000, and 
were the most formidable part of the force, 
nroontcd aa they were on the Somali horses, that 
tan cover 75 miles without water. 

When communication was established between 
the British and Abysainiaii forces both advanced, 
the Abyssinians along the Fafan river after con- 
centrating at Gahro, the British from Burao to 
Ber and HH Dab, from which place the camel 
corps and mounted infantry made a rapid night 
inarch through the desert and on May 20 sur- 
prised the Madoba and Jama tribes, capturing 
t^OO camels and 5,000 oxen and sheep that were 
intended as supplies for the moUah, whose scouts 
vere encountered at Assura on June 2. The 
nollah meanwhile made a flank march and at- 
tempted to recapture the animals from the zareba 
at Somala, where he was repulsed by Capt. Mac- 
Seill, losing several hundred men. Col. Swayne, 
an officer possessing more knowledge of the So- 
malis and their ways than any other Englishman, 
■nd who bad made an efiicieitt force of his Somali 
recruits, equal in many respects to the best Euro- 
pean soldiery, delivered an attack on the mollah's 
troops as they were returning to their canip at 
Vabel, taking them by surprise. When they 
tamed, the camel corps and mounted troops 
pressed them and with not rifle and mitrailleuse 
fire emptied many saddles. The mollah and his 
troops made good their escape, although pursued 
far 40 miles. On June 3 the Somatis made an- 
other attack on Capt. MacNeill's zareba with 
3.000 cavalry and 2,040 spearmen, pressing on in 
dose order and almost succeeding in their effort 
to penetrvte the xareba in spite of the hail of rifle 
and Maxim balls that killed over 400 of their 
number, while on the British side only 10 men 
»ere killed and 9 wounded. The faith of the 
Soma! in in the religious mission and supernatu- 
ral powers of the mollah was broken by the result 
of tfieHe engagements. The Jamas, who had borne 
the brunt of the last fight, made their submission, 
and many of the Dotbohantis deserted to the 
British, who had trained men of their own kind 
I when outnumbered a dozen to 



APQHANISTAN. 



one. The Abyssinian army arrived at Gerlognby 
on June 11 and aided in confining the moUiA to 
the Dolbohauti country, whence he was driven 



) the < 



, the 



join his standard. The Abyss 
able to march 20 miles a day for any length of 
time, but when the food that they brought with 
them was exhausted they could not find subsist- 
ence for their great number in so poor a country. 
They attacked trit>es that had submitted to the 
molloli, but in tlie end were compelled to return 
to their own country in a thoroughly exhausted 
condition. The force of Col. Swayne was capable 
of dealing with the mollah, whose prestige was 
destroyed, and whose army was reduced to about 
2,000. Operating from Burao, the British force 
routed Abdullah on July 17 near Hassan Ughaz, 
and drove the remnant of his army into the Haud 
desert. The British force included a contingent 
of Indian troops, and the Somalis of Col. Swayne 
had been taught to shoot as well as Euro- 
pean troops, whereas the rifles in the hands of 
the mollah's men were almost useless. Never- 
theless they fought courageously and killed or 
wounded 2 British officers and 32 men, losing 70 
killed and many wounded. The mollah's camp 
and live stock fell into the hands of the British, 
and he disappeared in the Mijertain country, his 
power and influence utterly destroyed. 

AFOHAMISTAN, a monarchy in central 
Asia, lying between Russian Turkestan and Btit- 
' ' ' The Ameer, Abdarraliman Khan, who 



Asia, Win 



enthroned 

had occupied Ca- 
bul, the capital, 



by the British after they 




creased to 1 
000 rupees 
enable Abdur- 
rahman to con- 



strong, united, 
and independent 
Afghanistan as a 
buffer state be- 
tween India and the Russian dominions. ThQ 
area is about 215,400 square miles, with 5,000,- 
000 inhabitants. Every eighth man is drafted 
into the Ameer's army, which has a strength of 
over 00.000. The regular paid troops garrison- 
ing Cabul, Herat, Candahar, and Afghan Turkes- 
tan numbers 37.000 infantry and T.OOO cavalry, 
with 380 pieces of artillery. Silks, sheepskin gar- 
ments, carpets, fabrics of camels' and goats' hair, 
felts, and rosaries are manufactured. Fruits, in- 
cluding apples, [lears, almonds, peaches, quinces, 
cherries, grapes, pomegranates, apricots, flgs. and 
mulberries, are abundant and are exported in the 
preserved state. Asafetida, madder, and castor* 
oil are exporled. Rice, millet, maize, wheat, bar- 
ley, and legumes are cultivated. Copper, lead, 
iron, and gold are mined in primitive fa-ihion, and 
in Badukslinn lapis lazuli and precious stones are 
obtained. The imports of Cabul fiom lnd\a. 'ncva 



4 ALASKA. 

valued at Rx 204.605. and exports Rk 217,236; a majority of the white citizens residing within 

Importa of I'andahar were Rx 329,U17, and ex- two niilea of a liquur-dealer's eBtablishmeDt must 

ports Rx 2t)3,6S4. Tbe trade of Bokhara with be obtained before a license can Usue. Alt license 

Afghanistan amounts to about 4,000,000 rubles fees are to be devoted to educational purposes in 

for imports, and Alaska. The former prohibition is continual 

for exports the against tbe sale to Indians, minors, and habitual 

same. The Ameer drunkards. 

gave his atten' The aew code of criminal procedure went into 

tion not only to effect on July 1, 1899, and it has been of the 

the military or- greatest advantage to the Territory. It gives the 

ganizatioD of his court much more liberty in obtaining juries; bis 

people for defense enabled the enforcement of the liquor regulations: 

against either and has made smuggling an unprofitable occupa- 

Russian or Brit- tion. The only sections that have met with eeri- 




^ ish aggression, ous complaint are those relating 

"j, but tUso to the of businesses and trades. A Territorial conven- 

' economical devel' tion. met in Juneau in October, 1S99, and sub- 

^ opment of the mitted a memorial to Congress petitioning for two 

country. Under additional judges of the district court; for a dele* 

the direction of an gate to Congreas; for probate judgea having, in 

English engineer addition to the usual probate powers, jurisdiction 

canals and other in certain civil and criminal cases; for commis- 

JrrigatLon works sioners having the jurisdiction of the justices of 

have been con- the peace and magistrates with like powers for 

structed. Forts incorporated cities and towns; for education of 

have been built the white children of the district; for a civil code 

along the Oxus, and a code of civil procedure; for amendments to 

and heavy Krupp guns have been imported. The the criminal code; for a general municipal ineor- 

arsenal at Cabul turns out small arms in quan- poration law; for the extension to the district of 

titles, and smokeless powder. homestead, timber and atone and coal land laws, 

ALABAMA. (See under United States.) with provisions for special individual surveys, and 

AIiASBlA, a Territorj' of the United States, in for modifications in the mineraMand laws to stop 

the extreme northwestern part of the North the wholesale appropriation by a few individuals 

American continent, ft was ceded by Russia to of the public mineral lands. 

the United States in a treaty concluded March Gov. Brady in his annual reports has specialljr 
30 and proclaimed June 20, 1867, in considera- urged the extension of the land laws, the adop- 
tion of the payment of $7,200,000. Its gross area, tion of a code of civil procedure, and the Dece«- 
Bccordine to the census of 1900, is 590,HB4 square sity for roads, telegraphs, and the erection of 
miles. Tlic main body of the Territory is bounded lighthouses upon dangerous points of the coast. 
on the east by the one hundred and forty-first The temporary seat of government is at Sitka, 
meridian west from Greenwich, on the north by formerly the Russian capital, 
the Arctic Ocean, on the west by Bering Sea and The following were the officials of the Territory 
Bering Strait, and on the south by the Pacific in 1901; Governor. .Tohn G. Brady. United States 
Ocean It includes also the Alaska peninsula and Judges — Melville C. Brown, District No. 1, Ju- 
the Aleutian Islands, trending southwcstward for neau; Arthur H. Noyes, District No. 2, St. 
more than 1.200 miles, and a strip, known as Michael; James Wickersham, District No. 3, 
Southea-.t \laska, 600 miles long, bounded on the Eagle City. United States Attorneys — Robert A. 
south b\ Uixon Sound and Portland Channel, and Friedrich, District No. I ; Joseph K. Wood ; A. M. 
on the east by the summit line of the mountains Post. Clerk. District Xo. 1. Joseph J. Rogers, 
parallel to the coast; and where such a line is at United States Marshals — James M. Shoup. Dis- 
a grcatfr distance than 10 marine leagues (34J trict No. 1; Cornelius L. Vawter. District No. 2; 
statute miles), by a line drawn parallel to the G. G. Perry. District No. 3. Commissioners — 
windings of the coast, which shall never exceed Edward de'GrofT, Sitka; Hiram H. Folsom, Ju- 
10 marine leagues therefrom. The position of the neau; F. P. Tuslin, Fort Wrangel; L. R. Wood- 
boundary of this southeastern extension is now a ward, Unalaska: Philip Gallaber. Kadiak; C. A. 
matter of dispute between Great Britain and the Shelbrede. Skagwav: W, J. Jones, Circle City; 
United States. Charles H. Isham, Unga; Lenox B. Shepard, St. 
OoTenunent. — Alaska was without civil pov- Michael; Sol Raplnsky, Haines Mission; J. P. 
cmment from the time of its purchase till May Smith. Kechikan : L. R. Gillette, Douglas. Officers 
17. 1S84, when it was made a "civil and judicial of Marine Barracks, Sitka— Capt. Joseph H. Pen- 
district." Although frequently designated as a dieton. commanding. Lieut. Georpe H. Mather, 
Territory, it is not so legally. In the act referred Surgeon Henry B. Fitts. Customs Officers — J. W- 
to above it is expressly stated that "there shall Ivey, Collector: Walton D. McNair, Special Depu- 
be no li^islative assembly in said district, nor ty. Sitka: Deputy Collectors— F. E. Bronson, 
shall any delegate be sent to Congress": but in Sitka; John M. Tenriev. .Juneau: J. H. Causten, 
the same net it is referred to as the "Territory- Wrangel; John R. Beegle, Kechikan; Claude B. 
of Alaska." The original laws prohibited the im- Cannon, Kadiak; Frederick Sargent, Karluk; J. 

fiorfation, manufacture, and sale of intoxicating F. Rinnot. Unga; William Gauntlet, Unalaska: 

iquors. except tor medical, mechanical, and sci- E. T. Hatch. St. Michael: Charles Smith. Cirele 

entilic purposes; and although liquor was openly City; G. A. AVaggoner, Wliite Pass; John Goodell, 

sold in Sitka, Juneau, Wrangel. and other cities, Orea; C. L. Andrews. Skagway: S. T. Penberthy, 

riublic sentiment was strongly against the sole of Homer: Matthew Bridge. Wharfinger, Sitka. 

iquor to the Indians. In January, ISO!). Congress Department of Agriculture — C. C Georgeson, 

passed an amendment providing for a high-license Special Agent: Superintendents: Fred E. Rader, 

system in the Territory with a species of local Sitko; H, P. Nielson. Kenai; Isaac Jones. Bu- 

option. Liquor dealers by its provisions are to reau of F,dn^Btion — Sheldon Jackson, .Agent; 

)Hiy a license of 91,000 a year, and the consent of William Hamilton, Assistant Agent; W. A. Kelly, 



ALASKA. 



Superintendent of Schools. Post-Office, Sitka — 
^Irs. A. M. Archangelsky, Postmaster. United 
SUtes Land Office, Sitka— W. L. Dustin, Sur- 
veyor-General; John W. Dudley, Register; A. J. 
Apperson, Receiver; Clinton Gumee, George W. 
Stowell, Clerks. Deputy Marshals — W. H. Mc- 
Nair (special), J. W. Snook, Sitka; W. A. Staley, 
Juneau; William D. Grant, Wrangel; John Mc- 
Elheny, Douglas island; Edward C. llasey, Ka- 
diak; Lewis L. Bovvers, Unga; James C. Blaine, 
Unala.ska ; Josias M. Tanner, Skagway. 

Population. — The native population belongs 
to two great stocks, the Eskimo and the Indian. 
The former inhabit some of the Aleutian Islands 
and the shores of Bering Sea and the Arctic 
Ocean; the latter occupy the interior and south- 
eastern portion of the Territory. The greater part 
of the Russians emigrated at the time of the 
transfer of Alaska to the United States. The 
development of the gold-fields of the Yukon basin 
and the Cape Nome district has brought a large 
increase in the white population in recent years. 
WTiere the natives have come into contact with 
the whites there are many half-breeds. The total 
population of the Territory according to the cen- 
sus of 1880 was 33,420; in 1800 it was 32,052. 
The census of 1900 was taken under much more 
favorable conditions than had been possible be- 
fore, owing to the greatly increased facilities for 
communication, and to the energy and special 
knowledge of the agents in charge of the work. 
The total population was 63,592, an increase of 
31.540, or 98.4 peY cent., over that of 1890. This 
was distributed according to sex, race, and nativ- 
ity as follows : 



RACES. 



Whites, natiTe-bom. . 
Whites, forei^-born. 

Natives • 

Segroefi 

Chinesw 

Japanese 



Totals 



Totals. 


Mal«. 


21,709 


19.171 


8,798 


8,136 


29,M6 


15,048 


168 


161 


3,116 


3,11,S 


265 


263 


63,592 


45.872 



Fonale. 

2,538 

662 

14,488 

17 

8 

12 

17,750 



* locludes 2,449 persons of mixed parentage. 

Gassified according to school, militia, and vot- 
ing ages, the distribution w^as as follows: 





SCHOOL AGE, 5-20 YRS. 


Militte 

■((«. male* 
18-44. 

13,331 
6.372 


Vo4lnjf 


RACES. 


Total. 


Mal«. 


Female. 


■gn, malea 
over «1. 


Whit«i 

IiKiian.H, negroes. Chi- 
nese, and Japanese 

Totals 


1,719 
9,680 


1,010 
5,009 


679 
4.680 
5.8.59 


25,966 
11,990 


11.408 


6.049 


19,703 


37,956 



Of the 78 settlements named in the census re- 
port, 37 have less than 200 inhabitants; 31 have 
more than 200, but less than 500; have more 
than 500, but less than 1,000; and 4 only have 
more than 1.000 — namely, Nome, with 12,486; 
J'^ka^way, with 3,117; Juneau, with 1,864; and 
Sitka, with 1.396 inhabitants. Other important 
renters of white population are: Wrangle, 868; St. 
Michael, 857; Douglas, 825; Unalaska, 428; and 
Kadiak. 341. 

Banking'. — The only national bank in Alaska 
is the First National Bank of Juneau. Its condi- 
tion, as reported to the Comptroller of the Cur- 
rency at the close of business. July 15, 1901, was: 
Resources: loans and discounts,* $54,319.91; 
United States bonds, $87,500; banking-house, fur- 
niture, and fixtures, $2,480; due from other na- 
tional banks, $4,075; due from State banks and 
bankers, $19,034.72; specie, $37,207.60; other re- 



sources, $21,823.24; total resources, $226,440.76. 
Liabilities: capital stock, $50,000; surplus and 
undivided prohts, $3,069.79; individual deposits, 
$105,125.60; United States deposits, $36,726.97; 
deposits of United States disbursing ofhcers, $26,- 
668.40; other liabilities, $4,850; total liabilities, 
$226,440.76. At the corresponding date in 1900 
the total liabilities were $169,840.85, distributed 
as follow: Capital stock, $50,000; surplus and 
profits, $1,964.88; individual deposits, $64,710.22; 
deposits of United States disbursing officers, $46,- 
231.14; other liabilities, $6,934.61. The resources: 
loans and discounts, $53,457.21; United States 
bonds, $62,500; due from banks, $17,505.60; spe- 
cie, $20,245.30; other resources, $16,072. 

There are no official statistics for banks other 
than national. The American Bank Reporter for 
May, 1901, reports the following banks in opera- 
tion in the Territory: Juneau: B. M. Behrends 
(private), capital $50,000. Nome: Bank of Cape 
Nome (incorporated), capital $200,000; Alaska 
Banking and Safe-Deposit Company (incorpo- 
rated), capital $75,000; First Bank of Nome (or- 
ganizing). Skagway: Bank of Alaska (private), 
deposits $20,000; Canadian Bank of Commerce 
(agency). 

Commerce and Navigation. — Alaska forms a 
single customs district of the United States, with 
Sitka as its port of entry. The following are 
classed as subports of entry: Dyea, Eagle City, 
Wrangel, Mary Island, Juneau, Kadiak, Una- 
laska, Circle City, Cook Inlet (Homer), Orca, 
St. Michael Island, SkagM'ay, Unga, Karluk, 
Kechikan. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1900, 26 sailing vessels, of 5,235 tons, and 390 
steam- vessels, of 207,645 tons, were entered l)y the 
district of Alaska, of which 5 sailing vessels, of 
3,037 tons, and 237 steam-vessels, of 143,082 tons, 
were American ; during the same period 26 sailing 
vessels, of 3,511 tons, and 317 steam-vessels, of 
151,893 tons, were cleared, of which 5 sailing ves- 
sels, of 2,012 tons, and 170 steam-vessels, of 94.388 
tons, were American. 

The total exports for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1900, were valued at $566,347. and the imports 
at $385,317. The exports for the nine months 
ending September, 1901, were valued at $1,881,627; 
the imports at $390,225. These figures are for the 
foreign commerce alone, and do not include the 
values of merchandise shipped to and from ports 
of the United States. 

Mineral Resources. — Although coal, copper, 
silver, cinnabar, lead, tin, arsenic, antimony, man- 
ganese, corundum, petroleum, slate, clay, and 
many varieties of building stone are reported 
in paying quantities, gold is the only mineral that 
has received the serious attention of the miners. 
The gold is mined chiefly by placers; but several 
quartz-mills are building, and some in successful 
operation, notably the great three-hundred-stamp 
gold-mill, the largest in the world, at the Tread- 
well mines, near Juneau. The great centers of 
the placer gold-mining industry are the Yukon 
valley and Cape Nome. Some coal has been taken 
out at Tyonek, on Cook Inlet, for use on a small 
local steamer, and at the agency of the Alaska 
Commercial Company, and an English company 
is making an attempt toward the development of 
the surface indications of petroleum near Cape 
Yakutat, Cape Martin, and Kachewak Bay. 

The output of precious metals from Alaska in 
1899 was estimated bv the Director of the Mint 
to be: Gold, 264,104 fine ounces, value $5,459,500; 
silver, 140,100 fine ounces, value $181,540; total 
value, $5,640,640. The value of the gold output 
in 1900, by the same estimate, was $8,171,000. 
These figures are for Alaskan territory alone, and 



6 ALASKA. 

do not include the output of the rich Klondike The pack at Karluk river in 1894 was 229,284 

mines in British Columbia. Alaska impori^d cases, in 1896 226^428 cases, and in 1897 154,- 

$9,137,608 of this Canadian gold in the nine 262 cases. In 1898 the pack had dropped to 

months ending with Septemter, 1901, against 60,000 cases^ and in 1899 to 40,000 cases. A 

$13,115,389 in a similar period in 1900. The gold- hatchery has been for several years maintained 

dust receipts at the Seattle Assay Office for the by the Alaska Packers* Association^ but so far 

year up to Sept. 30, 1901, from all Alaska and there is little sign of replenishment. In speak- 

KlondiKe districts, amounted to more than $25,- ing of the decline, Capt. Jefferson F. Moser, of 

000,000, and the total receipts for the three years the United States Fish -Commission steamship 

this office has been in operation exceed $50,000,000. Albatross, says : ** The output of salmon for a 

The last steamers sailed from Nome on Oct. 24, single year in 1897 was about 43,000,000 cans, 

1901, bringing out more than $1,000,000 in treas- so one does not wonder that the streams of 

ure, and the lakes and the Yukon river were Alaska are becoming depleted. This depletion, 

expected to keep open for traffic out of the Klon- already serious, is caused not by overfishing alone, 

dike till the middle of November. but by * barricading,' a process instituted before 

While the mines of the Klondike have come the acquisition of ^aska by the United States, a 

up to the estimates made last spring of the prob- means whereby the fish are actually prevented 

able output, Nome has been disappointing, al- from ascending the streams to spawn and are com- 

though the yield is in excess of $6,000,000. The pelled to remain practically impounded in the 

estimates for Nome made last spring w^ere $10,- lower waters, awaiting the pleasure of the pack- 

000,000, but by reason of the late and unfavorable ers. Although this practise is pimishable by a 

season, causing the ground to remain frozen un- heavy fine and imprisonment, the laws are not 

til July 10, the output was cut nearly one-half, enforced." The new code of 1899 made it neces- 

Interviews with many well-known miners who sary for the packers to erect hatcheries after Jan. 

have returned to spend the winter confirm all the 1, 1901. This was strenuously opposed by the 

statements regarding the disadvantages and dis- packers and fishermen, as were the following sec- 

couragements in nearly all the Nome districts and tions, placing restraints on illegal taking of the 

camps this season. fish: 

The year has been a prosperous one for Dawson, " It is forbidden to lay any seine, gill, or other 

and the frontier mining-camp has rapidly bios- net within 100 yards of the mouth, on either side, 

somed into a handsome capital city, with all the or immediately abreast of the mouth, of any river 

modem conveniences, beautiful homes, and well- or stream, whereby, in the setting or hauling of 

eraded thoroughfares. Many men who have dug said seine, gill, or other net, it may drift wholly 

fortunes out of the earth are staying in the city or partially across and operate to close the mouth 

and spending money in building it up. While the of said river or stream." 

placers have proved rich ana preaictions have ** Traps,, whether 'fixed or stationary obstruc- 

been made that they will hold good for ten years tions ' (built on piles or webbing) or constructed 

more with extensive hydraulic plants to operate of webbing and boats and susceptible of removal 

them, additional attention has been given this from place to place, are declared to be obstruc- 

season to quartz-mining, and several hundred lo- tions which ' impede the ascent of salmon to their 

cations have been made in' the Dawson district, spawning grounds,' and their use is hereby for- 

These properties will be prospected and developed bidden." 

this winter, and the winter diggings that were Sealing. — Not including a few sealskins 

neglected last season will also be made to contrib- brought directly into San Francisco from the 

ute to the wealth of the country this winter, north, the total catch in the Arctic in 1901 was 

The first gold stamp-mill ever built on the Yukon 24,127, most of the skins going to Victoria, the 

is under construction near Dawson, and it will rendezvous of the sealing schooners. The Bering 

operate on ore that gives gold values of $20 a ton. Sea catch was 10,314, the Copper island catch 

Tnere has been everything to encourage business 3,838, the coast catch 8,985, and the approximate 

men and miners in the Klondike region this year. Indian catch 1,000 skins. The world's catch of 

Fisheries. — Cod, halibut, and herring have fur sealskins for the year 1901 is approximately 

long been the food of the natives, and are now 54,000 skins. 

being taken in paying quantities by vessels from Timber. — The whole coast of Alaska, includ- 

San Francisco and Pugot Sound; but while Alaska ing the islands from 54** 40' to the eastern part 

possesses what are probably the greatest cod-fish- of Kadiak island, is covered with timber to the 

ing banks in the world, estimated to be 125,000 snow-line of the mountains. Hemlock and spruce 

square miles in extent, salmon canning is the prevail, but in places there is the yellow or Sitka 

only great fishing industry. The first canneries cedar, and upon Prince of Wales* island the red 

were erected in 1878, and the industry now has oodar attains large size. Young timber springs 

between $11,000,000 and $12,000,000 invested in up very rapidly, and the great amount of ram 

buildings, machinery, tackle, boats, and steam- falling upon the ground carpeted with moss that 

vessels. The total pack in 1898 was 974,601 cases, holds the water like a sponge, preserves this great 

20,518 barrels, and 4,300 half-barrels; total value, timber from destruction by fire. Forests of 

$3,544,128. The estimated pack in 1899 was coniferw exist along the rivers of the interior, 

1,000.000 cases and 15,000 barrels, and for 1900, the Yukon, Tanana, and Koyukuk, trees on the 

1,2.50,000 eases. Until 1899 there were no laws or latter stream attaining a size of two feet in diam- 

rules regulating the location of these canneries or eter. The Government has not put these lands 

the manner in which the fish should be taken; on the salable lists, and every man who builds a 

each canning company built where it pleased, and fire to cook a meal or builds a house to cover his 

the slaughter of fish went on without let or bin- head is a trespasser on this great timber reserve, 

drance. On the best streams, as the Karluk, Ka- The early disposal of these timber tracts is a mat- 

diak island, niany canneries have been built close ter of great concern to the people, for they would 

together, and there is the sharpest rivalry as to at once enter into the lumbering business, and in 

which jihall put up the largest pack. In conse- the near future could build up a very profitable 

quence the rivers and inlets are being rai)idly de- trade with Japan and China. The great facilities 

pleted, and an industry now yielding more than for water transportation will make the southeast- 

$3,000.0(X) annually is threatened with extinction, ern coast very desirable for lumber shipments. 



I 



ALASKA. 7 

According to the report of the Governor of " It is not generally understood that the Alaska 
Al&^a, there were 12 small mills operating in telegraph systems, while placing all the Alaskan 
southeastern Alaska in 1899. These only manu- posts in connection with the commanding general 
lactured lumber for use in the Territory. The of the department when completed, would not af- 
prices charged in Sitka were: Rough lumber, $13 ford means of communication with any other part 
a thousand ; flooring and rustic, $20 a thousand ; of the world. To increase the value of the Alas- 
selected boat lumber, $25 a thousand; and clear kan system, the chief signal officer of the army 
c«dar, $50 a thousand. Most of the lumber and conferred with the authorities of the Canadian 
timbers used in the great mining enterprises and Government at Toronto with a view to the exten- 
in the rapid building up of Dyea and SSkagway, sion of the existing Canadian telegraph lines and 
and in the construction of the White Pass Rail- the establishment of cooperation in telegraphic 
way, were imported from Puget Sound. Nearly all work between the Alaskan and Canadian sys- 
the timber taken in southeastern Alaska has been tems. 

put in the water by hand loggers, and has hardly *' The Canadian Government courteously placed 

€ver been more than 300 feet from salt water. in conference with the chief signal officer of the 

During the year many men who went prospect- army Mr. J. B. Charleson, assistant superintend- 
ing upon the Koyukuk, Tanana, and other Yukon ent of public works in the Yukon district^ who 
tributaries, and who were reduced to their last was charged with the extension of the Canadian 
dollar, found that they could maintain themselves telegraph line from Quesnelle to Atlin. The Cana- 
by cutting cord- wood to supply the steamboats, dian authorities had the longer line to construct. 
They obtained $7 and $8 a cord, and some offered but they performed their work with such expedi- 
their wood at $5 a cord on the last trips of the tion that, on May 5, 1901, the telegraph line was 
steamers. This they did without molestation completed between Dawson and Fort Egbert, thus 
from the Government officials -except in one or bringing the upper part of American territory on 
two instances. The wood was cut chiefly from the Upper Yukon in direct telegraphic communi- 
dead trees, and it was far better to use it on cation with Skagway, whence by steamer news 
the steamboats than to let it rot on the ground, could reach Washington, or any other part of the 

Xilitaxyy RailwaySy Telegraphs, etc. — Alas- world, in four days under ordinary conditions, 
ka was erected into a separate military depart- On Sept. 24, 1901, tel^aphic communication was 
ment in January, 1900, and placed under the com- established between Fort Egbert and the Upper 
mand of Col. George M. Randall, of the Eighth Yukon region, via United States military tele- 
United States Infantry. The headquarters of the graph and Canadian land lines, and messages were 
department was at St. Michael^ where the mill- exchanged between the commanding officeVs at 
taiy reservation embraces the territory included Fort Egbert, Skagway, and the authorities in 
in a circle described by a hundred-mile radius Washington." 

from the flagstaff at thatplace as a center. Troops " The total length of telegraph-line constructed 
are also stationed at Fort Wrangel, Skagway, up to date aggregates about 400 miles. The work 
Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet, Cape Nome, is being pushed along the Yukon river above 
St. Michael, Fort Gibbon, Rampart, Circle, and Nulato, and by the close of navigation in Septen^- 
Fort Egbert, near Eagle City. The Department of ber it is hoped that there will be telegraphic com- 
Alaska was discontinued, Sept. 15, 1901, by an munication between this point (St. Michael) and 
order issued July 25, and merged into the De- Fort Gibbon, a distance by the line of 420 miles, 
partment of Columbia, Gen. Randall, with his " The work upon the * transalaskan military 
personal and departmental staff proceeding to road ' under Capt. W. R. Abercrombie, Second In- 
Vancouver Barracks to take command of the fantry, acting engineer officer of the department, 
latter department. was prosecuted with energy and under trying con- 
In Skagway. Juneau, and Douglas companies ditions. The latest information from Capt. Aber- 
of militia have been organized, and in 1899 Mr. crombie is to the effect that the crossing of the 
F. D. Kelsey, of Juneau, a member of the Alaska Tanana will be reached by next November." 
bar, who is experienced as an officer of the The report of Capt. Bingham, chief quarter- 
National Guard of Oregon, was appointed adju- master under Gen. Randall, shows an expendi- 
tant-general with the rank of colonel. ture during the year for army transportation of 

Major Francis Greene, of the signal corps, is $185,744.74; for barracks and quarters, $49,- 

in charge of the construction of the military tele- 233.28; regular supplies, $4,517.20. Capt. Aber- 

graph line from Nome and St. Michael, via Eaton crombie expended for military roads and bridges 

and Nulato, to Eagle City, in the Upper Yukon $03,840. 

vaflev. At Eagle the line will connect with an- The only railway in operation in the Territory 

other to Valdez, on Prince William Sound, and is the short Yukon and WTiite Pass Railway, 

nith the Canadian line via Dawson to Skagway. opened for traffic between Skagway and Lake Ben- 

B.'tween Nome aild St. Michael a cable has been nett, over the White pass, in July, 1899. In the 

laid and is in successful operation. The laying days of the Klondike craze in 1897 it was a dif- 

of the cable from Juneau to Skagwav, the first ficult task and took many days to get over this 

link in the system that is to connect Seattle and pass with an animal and pack, and some men and 

Skagwav, was completed in November, 1901. many animals perished in the attempt. The 

With 'Col. P. H. Ray, for two years in charge transportation of freight coat as much as 40 

of the meteorological station at Port Barrow and cents a pound. Now the trip across is one of com- 

afterward in command of the troops on the Yu- fort and pleasure, and freight is carried for 3 

kon. originated the plan for a road into central cents a pound. The laying of this line presented 

iDd nortliem Alaska by way of Valdez and Eagle many engineering difficulties, especially for the 

Citj. • first 20 miles. The scenery is magnificent, and 

The progress on these important works is indi- the trip is now added to the tourist routes. The 

eated by uie following reports, the first from the road connects at Lake Bennett with boats for 

annual report of Gen. A. W. Greely, chief si^al Dawson and the Yukon valley. 

officer of the United States army, issued in Oeto- Several routes for an "all-American road " into 

^^r. 1901. and the second from the annual report the interior of Alaska have been suggested; chief 

of Gen. George M. Randall, commanding the De- of which are the Valdez- Eagle route following the 

partment of Alaska: line of the new military road, and a line from 



Cook Inlet to the Tanana through valleya of the 
Sushitna and Cantwell rivers. George U. El- 
dridge, of the UnitM IJtates Geological iSurvey, 
who wa<< in charge of a partj that made a kut- 




vey of the latter route in 1898, reports as follows 
upon its advantages for opening up railway com- 
munication with the interior: "Nowhere along 
the route of travel was an obstacle encountered 
that would prevent the construction of pack-trail, 
wapon road, or railway. Grades for the latter 
could easily be found, the streams could be 
bridged at alight e\]>en8e. and timber abounds 
either along the route or in close proximity to it. 
That the i*ushitna-Cantwell valleys afTord a feas- 
ible railway route to the interior of Alaska is be- 
yond dispute, yet in any undertakine in this di- 
rection the winter snows must not be lost sight of. 
They would surely entail heavy operating ex- 
penses for at least five months in the year, if, 
indeed, they would not altogether prevent traffle. 
Id the Sushitna valley the average depth of 



1 the mountains it ii 



■■ The desirable features of such a route are: 
(1) That the southern terminus be on water open 
the year round; (2) that the country traverMd 
yield a large amount of farm-produce fur those 
who may dwell in the in- 
. I tprior and leas agricul- 
tural portions of the Ter- 
ritory. The (iushitni- 
Cautwell route sflatdi 
both these conditions, and 
is the only one that does. 
Moreover, the route i« n- 
markablv direct, both to 
the Birch creek and KloD' 
dike mining regions aoil 
to the confluence of tht 
two great navigable riven 
of the interior, the Yukob 
and the Xanana, a poial 
that, from its position, it 
re^arued by many as of 
prime importance in the 
future growth and devel- 
opment of the interior, 

" Cook Inlet, in the win- 
ter season, is packed with 
floating ice as far south 
as the east and west fore- 
lands, a condition that 
has proved a barrier to 
navigation for four or five 
months each year. South 
of these points the ice i» 
said to be less aggressive 
and navigation possible, 
though ])erliBps a little 
impeded. OfT the shores 
of Kedoubt Bay the charts 
indicate a depth of water 
of 10 fathoms, and the 
coast has protection from 
the north, as at Tyonek. 
where, with less water, an 
excellent harbor is af- 
forded during the sum- 
mer. This locality, there- 
fore — without actual in- 
vestigation — would seem 
to anord a suitable loca- 
tion for the southern ter- 
minal of a railway line to 
the interior. 

" The second of the de- 
sirable features — that the 
country traversed shall 
alTord a supply of agri- 
nH HiiLT. cultural and farm prod- 

uce equal to its own de- 
mands and to those of the interior— will likely be 
realized if settlement is attempted, for the possi- 
bilities of this region are most encouraging t« 
tlie farmer seeking a new home. Moreover, so tar 
as at present known, this is the onlv area of sueh 
capabilities along the entire southem coast of 
Alaska. In other portions the great extent of 
arable valley lands is wanting, or the region, 
where open and level, has too greot an altitude for 
the growing nf grains and vegetables. A railway 
in the Siishitna valley might nave tributary ti> it 
many thousand farms from which to draw its 
tratlie. Besides farm-produce there would be car- 
ried a heavy tonnage of manufactured products, 
including machinery. The amount of return 
freight would, however, be considerably smaller 
than tliat passing inward, 

■' A feature of the Sushitna-Cantwell route that 
should not be overlooked is its pieturesqueness.. 



The routa would Ue at the very foot of Mount Me- 
Kinley, would pass through one of the grandest 
nuigvB on the North Auieiioan continent, and in 
the vallej' on either side of the divide would alfui'd 
ever-thanging views, equal to those along the 
most attractive routei« in the United bilates. 
Many routes have been found in^ the interior 
available for pack-trailn or wagon roads, but fur 
a railroad none aeetna to be so desirable as tlie 
Susbitaa valley." 

Agprlenltiira. — With Norway, Scotland, and 
Inland to prove the contrary, it often has been 
asserted that Krain and vegetables can not be 
grown in AlaHka. Uaranof cleared 15 kitchen 
gardens in IHOo and ripened barley and [lotatoes, 
and eomnion vegetables, ns hos been done every 
vear sinc«. Fine grasses spring naturally on any 
dnring: wild timothy and coarser grasses grow 
three and four feet high, and clovei' thrives well. 
Vincouver found the na' 
tiles cultivating potatoes 
and a kind of tobacco, and 
tavh family had its planta- 
tions in sheltered nooks 
■here they sowed their 
tubers like grain, and 
tred them the next i; 
01 spring. There were gar- 
dros on either side of the 
stockades at Sitka that 
provided fresh vegetables, 
tod hothouse frames se- 
cured the Russians many 
driicaeies. In United States 
lUjs the residents have 
successfully raised rad- 
uhes. lettuce, carrots, on- 
ioos. caltii Dower, cabbage. 
peas, turnips, beets, par- 
snips, and celery) and sin- 
gle potatoes have weighed 

I pound 3 ounces. V ege- 
table-4 are raised every year 

II the Yukon missions and 
trading posts, and (lie city 
nf Dawson, British Culum- 
bia. is abundantly supplitd 
nith fresh vegetables from 
it) oivn gardens. Small 
quantities of hay have been 
ciiml in southeast«m Alas- 
iLa since iSO.i, and recent 
experiments have success- 
folly demonstrated the 
value of the native grasses 

It has been shown that 
Ibe vegetables raised in 
.\laska are an important 
lactor in maintaining the 

Sealth of the mining 

With these 



.railed States Department 
of Agriculture has eslab- 
li'hed experiment stations 
■t Sitka (headquarters) 
iDd Kenai. on Cook Inlet, 
•ad has Rurveyed and set 
apart for experimental |>ur- 



liave consisted largely in growing different va- 
rieties of cereals, forage plants, flax, and vege- 
tables. Experiments in storing ensilage and in 
making hay from native grasses have been tried 
with success. Much infonuation regarding agri- 
cultural conditions in different parte of Alaska 
has been obtained through circulars of inquiry 
and the visits of agents to the different localities. 
Seeds have been distributed, and in many in- 
stances reports have been received upon the re- 
sults obtained from them; and the correction of 
the acidity of new land with lime lias been suc- 
cessfully accomplished. Sullicient evidence hus 
been obtained to show definitely that a consider- 
able variety of vegetables can be successfully 
grown in different parts of Alaska. It Iras also 
been shown that in southeastern Alaska and in 
Cook Inlet oats, barley, bucliwheat, and spring 
wheat will mature with careful culture: and thai 



KTi 



ireeti 



is of land at 




t Yukon and Rampart 
n the Yukon valley The work is carried on 
IB the same manner as in the ex]>eriment sta- 
tiont in the Stales, where it is the ll»ual prai-- 
li<* to lest the different varieties of plants flr^t 
Ol small plots. The experiments so far made 



the failure of former attempts to grow crops lias 
licen due to the natural acidity of the soil and ini- 
projier droinnjre. When these difficulties have 
Ill-en reniovi'd by proiuT li^atnlenl Ihe land is fer- 
tile and productive. Of the practical concluaww* 



10 ALASKA. 

from these Vesults, the Secretary of Agricul- 000 from dairy products alone. Very conserva- 

ture writes, supplementing the fourth annual re- tive estimates of the agricultural possibilities of 

port (1900) of the work in the Territory: " If our Alaska indicate that agriculture may be regularly 

mvestigations should do nothing more than estab- and successfully carried on over an area as large 

lish on a sound basis the growing of vegetables in as that of Finland." 

little gardens about the cottages of miners and Statistics of an industry so largely in its in- 

fishermen in Alaska they will make an adequate fancy are of necessity very meager. The bulletin 

return for the funds expended on them. But there of the Census Department, prepared from statis- 

is a fair prospect that they will do much more tics collected by special asents, published in con- 

than this. There are large areas on the western nection with the census of 1900, reports 12 farms 

peninsula, in Cook Inlet, and on the islands which in the Territory. The total acreage was 159 acres, 

are naturally adapted to the growing of live stock, of which 104 acres were devoted to the cultiva- 

The fact that a considerable number of domestic tion of vegetables and hay, and the remainder 

animals have already been maintained in this re- used for pasturage. Of these farms 5 were under 

gion would seem to show that an animal industry 3 acres (4 market-gardens and 1 raising poultry 

might be developed there. The department will as well as vegetables) ; 3 had more than 3 and 

attempt to find out under what conditions this less than 10 acres; and 4 had more than 20 and 

can best be done. less than 50 acres. The total value of the prod- 

" The growing of grain and other forage crops ucts of the farms of the first class was $627 in 

on a large scale in this region and in the interior 1899; of the second class, $3,010; and of the third 

is still problematical. The experiments which the class, $4,409. The total farm wealth of the Ter- 

department has thus far conducted have been ritory on June 1, 1900, was $15,686, of which 

very largely made with reference to the determina- $2,196 are invested in live stock, $690 in imple- 

tion of general agricultural possibilities of the ments and machinery, and $12,800 represent the 

Territory. The growing to maturity of such value of buildings and improvements (on 9 of the 

plants as wheat and oats in any region, even in 12 farms). No land values are given, as no titles 

small quantities, furnishes an excellent indication have been secured by the farmers, owing to the 

of the climatic and soil conditions of that region fact that no official survey has been made. These 

with reference to its agricultural possibilities, for ■ farms were all south of Kuskokwim river, in 

we know quite definitely what is required for the southeastern Alaska, and along the southern 

maturing of such plants. coast, including the Aleutian Islands. In this 

" In southern Alaska, which is the only part of section there are two centers of agricultural 

Alaska seen by most tourists, the forests cover activity, one on the southeastern coast in the 

most of the land. The natural meadows, which vicinity of Juneau and Sitka, and the other in 

occur in considerable numbers, are usually of the southwest in the region about Cook Inlet and 

<]uite limited extent, and for the most part escape Kadiak island. The main expense incurred by 

the notice of visitors pursuing the ordinary lines the settlers in opening farms has been in the 

of travel. The clearing of land for agricultural preparation of the soil for cultivation. This has 

purposes in this region Will necessarily be expen- been in some instances $120 per acre. The least 

sive, and will only be Aone as lumbering takes for which labor can be hired in the interior is $5 

away the trees and increase of population makes a day, and the average will reach $7.50 a day 

a demand for agricultural products. In most re- and board. At Sitka and Kenai the least that 

spects this region does not differ materially from white labor can be hired for is $2 a day. At the 

that of Puget Sound. It is probable that ulti- mines labor is paid from $2 to $2.50 a day and 

mately it will become the home of a considerable board. 

population, part of whom will engage in agricul- The farm animals and poultry comprised 13 

ture; the growing of such crops as oats, barley, milch cows, value $810; 5 oxen and other cattle, 

potatoes, buckwheat, turnips, and other vege- value $505; 5 horses, value $465; 10 swine, value 

tables, together with dairymg, will become im- $100; 3 Eskimo dogs, value, $150; and 176 chiek- 

portant industries, and it is probable that flax ens, value $166. The relatively higher valuation 

will be largely grown for its fiber here, as it will of oxen than horses is explained by the statement 

be in western Washington and Oregon. that they are better adapted to farm work in 

** For a considerable period our operations will Alaska, as they can be kept at less expense and 

largely partake of the nature of an agricultural are less susceptible to cold. The native grasses 

survey, to determine where agricultural opera- furnish abundant pasturage in the summer, and 

tions may best be carried on by incoming set- roots and ensilage take the place of natural for- 

tlers. By active work along the lines already age in winter. This enumeration includes only 

marked out, it is believed that the experiment sta- the animals on -farms, no enumeration having been 

tion in Alaska will prove an efficient aid in the made of cows, 1-eindeer, pack dogs, and other live 

development of the Territory, and will thus justify stock owned by the Indians or kept in towns and 

the expenditures for their maintenance. villages. On many of the small islands along the 

*' That Alaska will ultimately have a consider- coast of the Alaskan peninsula, and notably on 

able permanent population there can be but little Sanak and Shumagen islands, cattle are very suc- 

doubt. As we have shown in previous reports, cesafully raised. No detailed report was obtained 

Finland is the country which, on the whole, fur- of the number of cattle kept on these islands nor 

nishes the best basis of comparison with Alaska of those on Douglas island, near Juneau, where 

as regards natural conditions. Finland supports a number of cows are kept for dairy purposes, 

a population of 2.500,000, and its agriculture has The unenumerated stock far exceeds in number 

reached a high state of development. In 1895 and value that reported. 

Finland produced 38,174.083 bushels of barley, Of the total value of products— $8,046 — $5,565 

oats, and rye, of which 1.396.200 bushels of oats was from the sales of vegetables; $1,340. hay and 

were exported. At the same time there were 300,- ensilage; $179, chickens; $360, eggs; $310, calves; 

650 horses, 2,398,183 cattle, 1,067,384 sheep, and $274, milk; and $18, butter. The long periods of 

197,356 hogs. During the period from IHOI to daylight, the comparatively high temperature, and 

1895 there wore annual exportations of about 22,- the abundant rainfall, which mark the brief grow- 

750,000 pounds of butter, 400,000 pounds of cheese, ing season, are highly favorable to the rapid 

and 400,000 gallons of niijk, or a value of $6,750,- growth and early maturity of nearly all kindci of 



ALASKA. 



11 



Aes, for which there is an active demand 
idy market in the large towns and mining- 

The chief product in point of value was 
, returning $1,399; then followed potatoes, 

lettuce, $790; carrots, $850; radishes, 
beets. $205; cabbage, $141; celery, $80; 

$10: peas, $8; and rhubarb, $3. There 
ry little of what could properly be called 
Terv little tame grass was grown; and the 

with a capacity of 130 tons, were chiefly 
ith beach and other native grasses, which 
1 great abundance. From the 13 cows re- 

$292 were realized from dairy products 
10 from the sales of veal calves. 
1 the standpoint of income upon capital in- 

poultry-raising in 1899 was relatively the 
>rofitable branch of Alaskan agriculture. 
>ck on hand, June 1, 1900, consists of 176 
k'alued at $160. The total income was $539 
. Of this sum, $360 were derived from eggs 
79 from the sale of chickens. Eggs found 
y market at an average price of 43 cents 
ien, while the average amount received for 
vas $1.01 each. 

to be regretted that the special agents 
to secure feports concerning the farming 
ons of the Indians. The Thlingits, inhab- 
be southern coast, and the Aleuts, on the 
n peninsula and neighboring islands, have 
substantial beginnings in agriculture. 
every village of the natives on the south- 
.st has its community garden, and several 
ual gardens are found. Potatoes, cabbage, 
, carrots, lettuce, radishes, and other vege- 
of the hardier varieties are cultivated, 
'8 being the principal crop. At Tyonek, in 
t favorable year, over 300 bushels of pota- 
ere raised. Some barley was grown on 
: island from seed furnished by the agri- 
1 experiment stations. With that excep- 

cereals have been successfully grown. 

1 hay is usually gathered to feed the do- 
animals through the winter. The wild 

s cut with sickles and hung on trees or 
cure. The Indians understand the im- 
« of fertilizing, and gather large quantities 

and seaweed for the purpose. Stock-rais- 
i very limited industry, although the num- 
domestic animals owned by the natives 
ter than that reported for the farms. At 
lik they own over 30 head of neat cattle, 
mily having at least one cow. The cows 
hardy Russian stock, are small, and give 
le milk. Near some villages contact with 
nen has taught the natives the use of im- 
farm utensils, but in other localities they 

land with staves and other crude imple- 

The missionaries are introducing modern 
nong the Indians, and are instructing them 
■oved methods of agriculture. The estab- 
t of agricultural experiment stations has 
ry beneficial, and gives promise of accom- 
r still greater results. 
tttion. — The educational work of Alaska 
r the direct supervision of the Rev. Sheldon 
1. D. D., the United States general agent of 
»n for Alaska. He is assisted by Wil- 
amilton, the assistant agent of education 
*ka. and William A. Kelly, superintendent 
>ls for the southeastern district of Alaska, 
ng to Dr. Jackson's report for the fiscal 
ding June 30, 1900, 25 public schools were 
ned, with 27 teachers and an enrolment 

pupils. In addition the department con- 
to pay the salaries of 5 teachers in the 
idustrial School, giving instruction in the 
s of carpentering, domestic science, paint- 



ing, tinsmithing, net-making, boat-building, and 
in the common English branches, the total num- 
ber of pupils under instruction being 151. The fol- 
lowing table shows the location of the public 
schools, the race under instruction, and the total 
enrolment and average monthly attendance for 
the school year extending from September, 1899, 
to May, 1900: 



SCHOOI& 



Sitka : 

No. 1 (whites) 

No. 2 (natives) 

Juneau: 

No. 1 (whites) 

No. 2 (natives) 

Douelas : 

No. 1 (whites) 

No. 2 (whites) 

Skagwav (whites), 4 schools 

Wran^ell (whites and natives), 2 schools. 

Jackson (natives) 

Hoonah (natives) 

Saxman (natives) 

Haines (natives) 

Qravina (natives) 

Dj'ea Twhites) 

Kake (natives) 

Kadiak (whites and natives) 

Unf?a (whites and natives) 

Unalaska (whites and natives) 

Wood island (natives) 

St. Lawrence island (natives) 

Point Barrow (natives) 



Total enrolment during session, 189^1900. 



1899-1900. 



Arottg* 

monthlj 

■ttcxulanot 



ao 

21 

49 
12 

66 
19 
128 
53 
20 
16 
19 
11 
15 
17 
29 
38 
88 
53 
84 
28 



ToUl 
tnto]- 

tDMlt. 



47 

l&l 

96 
70 

100 
37 

214 

114 
51 

125 
76 
64 
61 
28 
87 
66 
47 
76 
61 
72 
82 



1,753 



The congressional appropriations for education 
in Alaska have been as follow: First grant to 
establish schools, 1884, $25,000; in 1886^87, $15,- 
000; in 1887-'88, $25,000; in 1888-'89, $40,000; in 
1889-'90, $50,000; in 1890-'91, $50,000; in 1891-'92, 
$50,000; in 1892-'93, $40,000; in 1893-'94, $30,000; 
in 1894-'95, $80,000 r in 1895-'96, $30,000; in 1896- 
'97, $30,000; in 1897-^98, $30,000; in 1898-'99, $30,- 
000; in 1899-1900, $30,000. The appropriation for 
1899-1900 was disbursed as follows: Salaries, $22,- 
921.13; supplies, $3,203.76; fuel and lighting, 
$1,246.96; repairs, $816.42; rent, $413.40; travel- 
ing expenses, $372.50; freight, $299.91; balance, 
$725.92. The expense per capita of enrolment 
was $17.45. The nature of the teaching in the 
native schools, aside from the industrial branches, 
upon which- great stress is laid, and the ability 
and progress of the pupils, are perhaps best illus- 
trated by notes from the field. S. R. Spriggs, the 
teacher at Port Barrow, says : 

" The pupils could best be managed when 
grouped in three divisions, viz., primary, interme- 
diate, and advanced. The primary department en- 
rolled 27 males, 17 females; total, 44; the in- 
termediate enrolled 13 males, 9 females; total, 22; 
while the advanced class enrolled 12 males, 4 fe- 
males, 2 of the 12 males being adults. 

** Englisli was the fundamental course through- 
out the year, more time being given to it than to 
the other studies because, being the basis of teach- 
ing in all the other subjects, its importance was 
continually seen and felt. The advanced section 
used readers. The intermediate was drilled in 
words, sentences, also in spelling and reading, and 
the primary section was inducted in part into 
the alphabet and names of familiar objects, this 
to be used as a basi.s of future work in the teacb 
ing of English. Writing (copy-books) was en- 
joyed by nearly all the members of the two upper 
departments. 

** Next in importance to English comes arith- 



12 ALA 

metic. For the advanced section this lias meant 
the gaining of an insight aa to what nuniberB 
really mean, fat-ility in counting, translating their 
numerals into our simpler and elastic ones, addi- 
tion, subtraction, a partial nia:itery of the mul- 
tiplication tables and practise in their operation, 
both by multiplication and division. To this were 
added examples, practical and useful, to illustrate 
the usefulness of what had been acquired. 

" The advanced section was aUo given lessons 
on the outlines of American histor}' and also in 
drawing simple straight-line delineations. One or 
two leHSons were given each week in physiology 
and hygiene to the three sections. 

" One element omitted in the report h that of 
ages. These it is impossible to obtain, the Eski- 
mos having kept no record of j-ears in the past; 
but on the average the primary class includes all 
those from about nine years down, the intermedi- 
ate between nine and twelve, and the advanced 
from twelve to sixteen. The two adulls reported 
were about twenty to twenty-two years of age 

P. H. D. Lerrigo, M. D., teacher at Ht. Law 
rence island, writes; 

" In mental ability the native children seem to 
compare favorably with those of more civilized 
countries. Some few are hopelessly dull, but the 
majority are capable of comprehending and retain 
ing the subjects which engage the attention of 
white children of similar age. A few are remark 
ably bright and exhibit capability for mental 



continued. The discipline was upon the < 
well maintained and punishment not frequ 




training to a very considerable extent. The great 
obstacles in their progress are irregularity in at- 
tendance and the lack of the gift of continuity. 
Their life involves nothing which is calculated to 
train them for continued mental application. Their 
work is such as requires physical strength and 
native acuteness for a little time, after which the 
strain is relaxed and tliey lapse inio a condition 
of utter idleness until again required to put forth 
effort Consdiuently their fatuities for long-con- 
tinued mental effort are undevelo|)pd and the chil- 
dren are unable to follow an extended course of 
work with (he facility of those who have come of 
more civilized stock. Limited by these draw- 
backs, however, they have during' the past year 
made an appreciable advance in llie use of Eng- 
lish, in orithmctic, in geography, and in general 
knowledge. 

" Precedent had accustomed the children to 
moderate talkinR during trchno] hours, and as it 
did not interfere with the work, the custom was 



culprit froni the schoolroom seemed to prod 
sufiicient moral elTect. In June, after the s 
was closed for the year, during my absence 
the villaee, some of the boys broke iaU 
bouse and committed trifling pilfering, but 
notliing of any great value, lipon this occ 
I considered it necessary to take a little 
vigorous action, and administered corporal 
isiiment to the two leaders, after giving th 
moral lecture upon the enormity of their 
deed. The parents came to me almost u 
mously, apologizing for their children, son 
them returning the stolen articles, some hrii 

tiayment for the things eaten, while othei 
ieved me of the necessity of further actio 
thrashing their boys themselves." 

In these schools the nalivea are Eskimos; b 
those attended by tiie Indians Ihe attendance 
regular and the pupils seemingly as deslro 
instruction and advancement The nati\e 
dren if sent to school regularly leain slowl 
Burily in the words of another teacher 
faith m the white man is great and for 
reason it is easy to work among theni Irrr- 
attendance and tardiness are due to home 
roundinga Ihe parents are often indilferei 
to whether the children attend or not 
homes are without sj«tein and Ihe childrei 
often tardi or must sti 
home beiau*^ *<ome artu 
clothmg IS lost 

The bureau repoHs Ih 
nomtment of a titize 
Some as supenntendei 
schools for the Cape 
district with duties si 
to those of the superm 
ent of schools in the 
diitnet — namely to msi 
schools that from tin 
time may be estabi 
within his district ripo 
their condition e\ amine 
did ales for the posittc 
teacher and aid this bi 
with suggestions and a 
regarding the education 
fairs of northwestern Al 
This was made neces.ai 
the great increase in po 
tion in the Cape Nom 
gion through the immigr 
of miners with their fan 
Owing to the friendly cooperation of the p 
of the Kusso-Greek churches throughout s 
western Alaska in urging the children of 
parishioners to attend the public schools, the 
ing capacity of the school -buildings in that r 
wos severely taxed. It was necessary to en 
the school -building at Kadiak and to send 
tional teachers to that place and to Unalasl. 
In several sections of Alaska the influx of 
men has resulted in an increased intere- 
schools on the part of Ihe adult native Alas 
Realizing the advantages to be obtained by 
a knowledge of the English language as w'i 
able Ihem to trade intelligently with the ■ 
men, they have made requests for night-scl 
At Wood island it was possible to comply 
such a request, and the result has been very 
factory. At Gravina. Saxnian, and W't) 
native Aliisknns are efficient members of the 






) the schools established b; 



ALASKA. 13 

States Bureau, most of the missions to a few years a^o so numerous that their bellowings 

naintain schools teaching general and in- were heard above the roar of the waves and the 

branches. The Presbyterian Church sup- grinding and crashing of the ice-fields, have been 

t missions, the Sitka Hospital, and the so far exterminated for the sake of their ivory 

raining-School ; the Protestant Episcopal that the natives with difficulty procure a sufficient 

10 missions; the Moravians, 3; the number of skins to cover their boats, and the flesh, 

4; the Baptist Church, 1; the Methodist on account of its rarity, has become a luxury, 

il Church, 1 ; the Congregational Church, The canneries are on their streams, carrying the 

wedish Evangelical Mission Covenant, 3; food out of the country, and by their wasteful 

lan Catholic Church, 5 and the Dawson methods destroying the future supply. And the 

1 ; and the Orthodox Russo-Greek Church, hunter and the miner, with their breech-loading 

firearms, have killed off the caribou or have 

itka Training-School reports as follows: frightened them away to the remote and more in- 

rs, 9 (2 of whom are natives) ; pupils, accessible regions of the interior. 

;, 147; day, 4; total, 151. Salaries, $6,818.- To have established schools among this starv- 

ent expenses, $8,874.59; total, $15,093.32. ing people would have been of little service, and 

I from tuition, ^97.10. During the year to feed them at the expense of the Government 

% Training-School for native boys and girls would pauperize and in the end as certainly de- 

successfully conducted. The teachers are stroy them. Some other method had to be de- 

kJified for the positions they occupy, and vised, and this was suggested by the wild nomad 

the class room and in the industrial de- tribes on the other side of Bering Straits, who 

ts the work is conscientiously and well had an unfailing food supply in their large herds 

'he carpenter shop and boat-building shop of domestic reindeer. To introduce the reindeer 

ler the management of two competent into America would afford the Eskimo as perma- 

cs who thoroughly understand their busi- nent a food supply as the cattle of the West- 

I these the young men are taught trades em plains and the sheep of New Mexico and 
ill enable them to make for themselves an Arizona do the inhabitants of those sections, 
(upport in the future. The shoe shop, in The vast territory of central and arctic Alaska is 
i manufactured every pair of shoes worn abundantly supplied with the long, fibrous white 
•ntire school, is under the direction of a moss, which is the natural food of the reindeer. 
Alaskan, who learned his trade in this Taking the statistics of Norway and Sweden as 

This shop brings in considerable income a guide, arctic and subarctic Alaska, by a conser- 

»rk done for outside parties. The sewing vative estimate, can support 9,000,000 head of 

cooking classes, and science kitchen are au reindeer, furnishing a supply of food and clothing, 

he direction of trained instructors, who and a means of transportation, to a population of 

taring the girls to become good house- 250,000. The reindeer is to the Eskimo what the 

As a result, Sitka is turning out numbers bamboo is to the Chinaman: food, clothing, shel- 

g men and young women who are not ter, utensils, and transportation. Dr. Jackson's 

II trained in the industrial arts, but are plan was to introduce the deer as a part of the sys- 
d in Christian principles." tem of industrial education; to establish indus- 
itka Hospital reports as follows: "Physi- trial schools where the chief instruction should be 
'harge and 2 nurses; in-patients, 179; out- the management and propagation of reindeer; to 
, 1,751; total, 1,960. Salaries, $1,830.34; loan these in herds of 100 or less to the various 
expenses, $744 ; total, $2,574.34. Receipts, missionary stations as industrial apparatus to be 

Many operations have been perfonned, used in training the teachable and capable youth 

vhich have been successful. The Sitka as herdsmen and teamsters, on condition that 

I is widely known, and many natives come after three years the Government may take from 

ig distances to receive treatment therein, the herd a number of deer in good condition e<}ual 

[>od is accomplished by the religious in- to the original number furnished, the stations 

a which is imparted afong with the help keeping the increase. This plan has since been 

> the body." These two institutions — extended to apply to capable native apprentices 

ning-school and the hospital — are doing with satisfaolory results, and at the stations as 

ward the regeneration, education, and ele- a reward for intelligent and persevering industry 

*{ the native Alaskans." two deer are given at the end of the first year's 

duction of Domestic Beindeer. — To apprenticeship, and five more at the end of the 

don Jackson and Captain M. A. Healy, of second year's, to develop gradually the sense of 

S- revenue cutter Efear, is due the sug- individual ownership of property — a sense which 

and development of the interesting and has never been developed in the tribal relation. 

il experiment of introducing reindeer into Dr. Jackson returned to Washington in Novem- 

ind arctic Alaska, and the training of the ber, 1890, and in his report to the Commissioner 

into herdsmen by the instruction of of Education emphasized the destitute condition 

ieer-men brought from Lapland for the of the Alaskan Eskimo and recommended the in- 

\Vhen Dr. Jackson visited arctic Alaska troduction of the domestic reindeer of Siberia. 

for the purpose of establishing schools When the Fifty-first Congress failed to take action 

i the Eskimo population slowly dying off upon the bills brought before it in regard to the 

irvation. For ages thej^ and their fathers matter, Dr. Jackson, with the approval of the 

ired a comfortable living from the prod- Commissioner of Education, issued an appeal to 

the sea, principally the whale, the walrus, the friends of missionary education for a pre- 

seal. These supplies had been supple- liminary sum to begin the experiment at once, 

bv the fish and aquatic birds of their and $2,146 were subscribed. Dr. Jackson thus 

nA the caribou that roamed in large herds tells the story of the work of the first years in 

inland tundra. But the whalers, entering his report for 1895: 

Die Ocean fifty years ago, have kept up a " As the season had arrived for the usual visit 

» warfare, killing hundreds and thousands of inspection and supervision of the schools in 

r and driving the remnant farther and Alaska, in addition to my regular work for the 

north into the Arctic Ocean, where they schools I was authorized to commence the work 

>nger in reach of the natives. The walrus, of introducing domestic reindeer into Alaska. The 



14 ALASKA. 

natives of Siberia who own the reindeer, knowing more seasons on a whaler, and thus picked up & 

nothing of the use of money, an assortment of very little English. And upon this class we have 

goods for the purpose of barter for the reindeer been dependent in the past, 

was procured from the funds so generously con- " However, notwithstanding all these difficulties 

tributed by benevolent people. and delays, Capt. Healy, with the Bear, coasted 

" The Honorable Secretary of the Treasury is- from 1,200 to 1,500 miles, calling at the various 

sued instructions to Capt. Healy to furnish me villages and holding conferences with the leading 

every possible facility for the purchase and trans- reindeer owners on the Siberian coast. Arrange- 

portation of reindeer from Siberia to Alaska, ments were made for the purchase of animals the 

The Honorable Secretary of State secured from the following season. Then, to answer the Question 

Russian Government instructions to their officers whether reindeer could be purchased ana trans- 

on the Siberian coast also to render what assist- ported alive, I bought 10 head, kept them on ship- 

ance they could, and on May 25, 1891, I again board for some three weeks, passing through a 

took passage on the revenue cutter Bear, Capt. gale so severe that the ship had to * lie to/ and 

Healy in command^ for the coast of Siberia. finally landed them in good condition at Amak- 

" The proposition to introduce domestic reindeer nak island, in the harbor of Unalaska. 
into Alaska had excited wide-spread and general " Upon my return to Washington city in the 
interest. In the public discussions which arose fafl oi 1891 the question was again urged upon 
with regard to the scheme, a sentiment was the attention of Congress, and on the 17th of 
found in some circles that it was impracticable; December, 1891, Hon. H. M. Teller introduced a 
that on account of the superstitions of the na- bill (S. 1109) appropriating $15,000, to be ex- 
tives they would be unwilling to sell their stock pended under the direction of the Secretary of the 
alive ; further, that the nature of the reindeer was Interior, for the purpose of introducing and main- 
such that he would not bear ship transportation, taining in the Territory of Alaska reindeer for 
and also that, even if they could be purchased domestic purposes. This bill was referred to the 
and safely transported, the native dogs on the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Hon. Al- 
Alaskan coast would destroy or the natives kill gernon S. Paddock, chairman. The committee 
them for food. This feeling, which was held by took favorable action, and the bill was passed by 
many intelligent men, was asserted so strongly the Senate on May 23, 1892. On the following 
and positively that it was thought best the first day it was reported to the House of Representa- 
season to make haste slowly, and instead of pur- tives and referred to the Committee on Appropria- 
chasing a large number of reindeer, to possibly tions. A similar bill (H. R. 7764) was intro- 
die on shipboard or perhaps to be destroyed by duced into the House of Representatives by Hon. 
the Alaskan dogs (thus at the very outset preju- A. C. Durborow and referred to the Committee on 
dicing the scheme), it was deemed wiser and Agriculture. On April 15 Hon. S. B. Alexander, 
safer to buy only a few. Therefore, in the time of North Carolina, reported the bill to the House 
available from other educational duties during the of Representatives with the approval of the Corn- 
season of 1891, I again carefully reviewed the mittee on Agriculture. The bill was placed on the 
ground and secured all possible additional infor- calendar, but failed i6 pass the House, 
mation with regard to the reindeer, and, while " On the 2d of May, 1892, 1 started for my thii"d 
delaying the actual establishment of a herd until summer's work on the coast of Siberia and arctic 
another season, refuted the correctness of the ob- Alaska in the United States revenue cutter Bear, 
jections that the natives will not sell and the deer Capt. M. A. Healy commanding, and, upon the 
will not bear transportation by actually buying 29th of June following, selected in the northeast 
and transporting them. corner of Port Clarence (the nearest good harbor 

" The work was so new and Untried that many to Bering Straits on the American side) a suitable 
things could only be found out by actual experi- location for the establishment of an industrial 
ence. The wild deer-men of Siberia are a very school, the principal industry of which is the 
superstitious people, and need to be approached management and propagation of domestic rein- 
with great wisdom and tact. If a man should sell deer. The institution is named the Teller Rein- 
us deer and the following winter an epidemic deer station. During the summer of 1892 I made 
break out in his herd, or some calamity befall his five visits to Siberia, purchasing and transporting 
family, the shamans would make him believe that to Port Clarence 171 head of reindeer. 1 also 
his misfortune was all due to the sale of the deer, superintended the erection of a large building for 
The Siberian deer-men are a non-progressive peo- the offices and residence of the superintendent of 
pie. They have lived for ages outside of the activ- the station, Mr. Miner W. Bruce, of Nebraska, 
ities and progress of the world. As the fathers ** Returning to Washington in the earlv winter, 
did, so continue to do their children. Now, they agitation was at once commenced before tongrehs, 
have never before been asked to sell their deer; it resulting in an appropriation by the Fifty-second 
is a new thing to them, and they do not know Congress, second session (March 3, 1893), of 
what to make of it. They were suspicious of our ' $0,000, to be expended under the direction of the 
designs. Another difficulty arises from the fact Secretary of the Interior, for the purpose of in- 
that they can not understand what we want with troducing and maintaining in the Territory of 
the reindeer. They have no knowledge of such a Alaska reindeer for domestic purposes.' The 
motive as doing good to others without pay. As management of tliis fund was wisely laid upon the 
a rule, the men with the largest herds, who can Commissioner of Education and was made a part 
best afford to sell, are inland and difficult to of the school system of Alaska, 
reach. Then business selfishness comes in. The ** At the expiration of his year's service Mr. 
introduction of the reindeer on the American side Bruce resigned, and Mr. W. T. Lopp, of Indiana, 
may to some extent injuriously affect their trade was appointed superintendent, 
in deerskins. From time immemorial they have " Siberian herders were employed at the begin- 
been accustomed to take their skins to Alaska and ning of the entei-prise, not because they were con- 
exchange them for oil. To establisli herds in sidered the best, but because they were near by 
Alaska will, they fear, ruin this business. An- and were the only ones that could be had at the 
other difficulty experienced was the impossibility time. It was realized from the first that if the 
of securing a competent interpreter. A few of the Alaskan Eskimo were to be taught the breeding 
natives of the Siberian coast have spent one or and care of the reindeer, it was important that 



ould hare the benEfit of the moat intelU- 
(tructont uid uf the beat methods that were 

B; uikiveriuil coniwiit it is admitted that 
pp* of northern Europe, beeause of their 
r inteUigence (nearly all of them being 

redd and write and some of them being 
ited with several languages), are much 
r to the Sanioyedes deer-men of northern 
and Asia and the barbarous deer-men of 
iHtem Sibrria. Intelligpni-e applied to the 
of reindeer. Just as to any other industry, 
» the best results. 

■refore, when in 1803 it was asoertained 
e berd at Port Clarence had safely passed 
t winter {thus assuring its peniianenue). 
« set about securing herders from Lapland. 
leing no public; funds available to meet the 
' of sending an agent to Norway in order 
ire tiliilled Lapp herders. I bad recourse 

the private benefaetions of friends of the 
ise, and HfiOO was contributed. 

William A. Kjellmann, of Madison, Wis., 
ect«d as superintendent of the Teller Kein- 
ition and sent to Lapland for herders. He 
from New York city Feb. 21, and landed 
is return May 12, 1894, having with him 
their wives and children, making 16 souls 

This was the ttrst colony of Lapps ever 
t to the United States. They reached the 
{eindeer Station safely on July 29, having 

1 over 12.500 miles. Upon reaching the 
Mr, Kjellmann took charge, relieving Mr. 

>}pp, who desired to return to the mission 
t Cape Prince of Wales." 

these small and careful beginnings is 
f up what promises to be one of the great 
les of this great and resourceful district, 
ginal purpose in 1890, to provide a new and 
!rmaoent food supply for the half-famish- 
:imD, has not been lost sight of. The Es- 
1 hardy and a docile race, their cbil- 



neantlme. " the discovery of large and valu- 
Id deposits upon the streams of arctic and 
ic Alaska has made the introduction of 
- a necessity for the. white man as well as 
;ii!io. Previous to the discovery of gold 
as nothing to attract the white settler to 
Rotate region, but with the knowledge of 
e gold deposits thousands will there make 
)me9, and towns and villages are already 
Ig into existence. But that vast region, 
> perpetual fro7.en subsoil, is without agri- 
I resources. Groceries. breadstufTs, etc., 
procured from the outside. Steamers upon 
<on can bring food to (he mouths of the 
iring streams, but the mines are often 
niles up these unnavigable streams. Al- 
Teat difficulty is experienced in securing 
it food by dog'train transportation and 
(ing of the natives. The miners need rein- 
in. the development of the mines and the 
of settlements upon streams hundreds of 
part necessitates some method of speedy 
A dog team on a long journey will make 
verage from 15 to 25 miles a day, and in 
«tions can not make the trip at all, be- 
ley can not carry with them a sufficient 
>f food for the dogs, and can procure none 
■ountry through which they travel. To 
e and render possible frequent and speedy 
jcation between these isolated seltlements 
iwing centers of American civilization, 
le ordinary roads of the States have no 
; Bud can not be maintained except at an 



'15 



pense, reindeer teams that require no 
beaten roads, and that at the close of a day's work 
can be turned loose to forage for tliemselves. are 
essential- The introduction of reindeer into 
Alaska makes possible the development of the 
mines and the support of a million miners. 




" The introduction of reindeer is opening up a 
vast commercial industry. Lapland, with 400,- 
000 reindeer, supplies the grocery stores of north- 
ern Europe with smoked reindeer bams, 10 cents 
per pound: smoked tongues, at 10 cents each; dried 
hides, at «l.25 to $1.75 each; tanned hides, $2 to 
$3 each, and 23,000 carcasses to the butcher shops, 
in addition to what is consumed by tlie Lappa 
themselves. Fresh reindeer meat is considered a 

f;reat delicacy. Russia exports it frozen, in car- 
oads, to Germany. The Nor«'egian Preserving 
Company use large i|uaniities of .it for can- 
ning. The tanned skins (soft and with a beauti- 
ful yellow color) have a ready sale for military 
pantaloons, gloves, ' bookbinding, covering of 
chairs and sohis. bed pillows, etc. The hair is in 
great demand for the filling of life-saving appa- 
ratus (buoys, etc.). as it possesses a wonderful 
degree of buoyancy. The best existing glue is 
made of reindeer boms. On the same basis 
Alaska, with its capacity for 9,200,000 head of 
reindeer, can supply the markets of America with 
500.000 carca.^»e3 of venison annnally, together 
with tons of delicious hams and tongues, and the 
finest of leather." 

There has been some opposition to the experi- 
ment, brought about in part by the failui'e to 
carry supplies to the Klondike in the winter of 
I807-'B8. The purchase of several hundred deer 
in Lapland and their shipment across the Atlantic 
and the continent, and by steamship again from 
Seattle to Haines mission, and the dying of a 
large percentage of them at that point before and 
after tbeir transfer from the VViir Department 
to the Department of the Interior, has very little 
bearing upon the work as it is being carried out 
in nortliem and western Alaska. 

At the very time that the cry of stari'ation was 
raised in the newspapers concerning the miners on 
the Klondike, another cry went up that a large 
number of whalers at Point Harrow were caught 
in the ice, and unless they pot relief, many ivould 
starve to death before spring. Aecoidinglv. the 
revenue cutter Bear was outfitted and sent oil to 
give relief. She landed a party of three olTiiers^ 
Lieuls. Jarvis and BerUiolI and Dr. Call. L'n- 



16 



ALASKA. 



der conditions that try men's souls, they made 
their way from the spot where they were landed 
at Cape Vancouver, a long distance south of the 
Yukon river, around the margin of the coast, till 
they came to the missionary reindeer station at 
Port Clarence. Here Mr. W. T. Lopp and the 
native Eskimo Antisarlook^ at the earnest en- 
treaty of Lieut. Jarvis, turned over their herds 
of remdeer to him, amounting in all to 437 ani- 
mals; and the natives not only parted with 
their animals, but volunteered to go with Lieut. 
Jarvis to drive them to Point Barrow. After sev- 
eral fearful weeks they reached that station and 
fave immediate relief to those hungry men and 
ept them alive until the ice-pack broke up. 
About 100 of these animals had to be slaughtered. 
The food that they afforded kept 200 men alive. 

The annual appropriations for the work have 
been as follow: 1894, $6,000; 1895, $7,500; 1896, 
$7,600; 1897, $12,000; 1898, $12,500; 1899, $12,- 
500; 1900, $25,000; 1901, $25,000. 

The following table shows the annual increase, 
together with the number of deer imported since 
1892: 



only 29 deer were imported from Siberia during 
the summer was due to two causes — first, that the 
Bear was able to make but one visit to that coast 
during the season, on account of the additional 
service imposed upon it by the rush of miners and 
others to Cape Nome; and second^ that a great 
epidemic of la grippe, measles, and pneumonia 
swept the whole region and affected nearly the 
whole population, and although the Bear cruised 
hundreds of miles along the coast of Siberia, call- 
ing at the various camps of the reindeer men, it 
was unable to secure but the small number given 
above. 

At nearly all of the herds many of the herders 
were sick, a number had died, and the people 
were in a discouraged and despondent condition, 
so that men could not be found to drive up and 
catch the deer and the owners were unwilliner to 
sell. ^ 

This epidemic extended the whole length of the 
Aleutian Islands, along both the American and 
Asiatic shores of Bering Sea, to Cape Prince of 
Wales and into the arctic, along the Siberian 
coast beyond Cape Serdze Kamen, and up the 



ANIMALS. 



Total from previous year. . . 

Fawns surviving 

Purchased during summer. 
Imported from Lapland. . . . 



Total Oct. 1. 
Loss 



Carried forward 



1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


• • • 

• • • 

171 

• • • 


14.3 

79 

124 

• • « 


323 
14.5 
120 

• • • 


492 
276 
128 

■ • ■ 


743 
857 

• • • 

• • • 


1,000 
466 

• • • 

• « • 


1,132 
625 
161 
144 


1,877 
638 
322 

• • • 


171 
28 


846 
28 


588 
96 


891 
148 


1,100 
100 


1,466 
384* 


2,062 

185 


2,837 

299 


143 


828 


492 


743 


1,000 


1,132 


1,877 


2,538 



1900. 

2,538 

756 

29 



3,se3 



* One hundred and eighty deer killed at Point Barrow for food, 66 lost or killed en route. 



Of the 3,323 deer in Alaska in 1900, 644 were 
still in the possession of the Government, 1,184 
belonged to the 6 mission stations, and 1,495 to 
20 Eskimo apprentices. From 1892 to 1900, 997 
reindeer w^ere purchased in Siberia, and from these 
3,342 fawns have been 'bom in Alaska. In addi- 
tion to the annual increase in numbers, Dr. Jack- 
son emphatically states in his report that the 
fawns born in Alaska greatly excel in quality 
those bom either in Lapland or Siberia. The 
reindeer are developing into larger and stronger 
animals than the Siberian deer, from which they 
came. The following shows the number, distribu- 
tion, and ownership of the various herds in 1900: 
Point Barrow: Presbyterian Mission, 100; Ojello 
(E.skimo), 37; total, 137. Point Hope: Electoona 
(Eskimo), 50; Ahlook, 50; total, 100. Cape 
Prince of Wales: American Missionary Associa- 
tion, 520; Eskimos, 460; total, 986. Teller Rein- 
deer Station: Government, 221; Norwegian Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Mission, 100; Tautook, 75; Se- 
keoglook, 75; Tatpan, 64; Dunnak. 50; estate of 
Wocksook, 75; total, 660. Cape Douglas: Mary 
Antisarlook, 400. Gambell, St. Lawrence island: 
Presbyterian Mission, 70. Golofnin Bay: Swedish 
Evangelical Mission, 147: Episcopal Mission, 69; 
Okitkon, 49; Constantine, 12; Toptok, 13; total, 
290. Eaton Reindeer Station: Government, 423; 
Episcopal Mission, 80; Moses (Yukon native), 65; 
Martin Jaeobsen (Eskimo), 20; total, 588. St. 
James Mission (Episcopal), 92. Total, 3.323. 

Of the 63 herders and their families, making an 
aggregate of 113 Norwegians, Finns, and Lapland- 
ers brought out in 1898 in connection with the 
reindeer enterprise, 3 men have died ; 12 men and 
their families, aggregating 24 people, have returned 
to Lapland, leaving 86 of the party still in this 
country. Of these 86, from 17 to 20 have made for- 
tunes in the gold-mines since the expiration of 
their term of service with the Government. That 



American side to Point Hope; also on the Lower 
Yukon river. 

Reindeer Mail Service. — During the summer of 
1899 the Second Assistant Postmaster-General 
gave to Mr. William A. Kjellmann, superintend- 
ent of reindeer in Alaska, as subcontractor, the 
carrying of the mail on route 78110. This route 
called for three round trips during the winter of 
1899 and 1900 between St. Michael, Eaton, Golof- 
nin, and Kotzebue, the latter place being north of 
the arctic circle. The Eaton station is on the 
direct winter route between Dawson, the Yukon 
vallev, and Nome, and its station post-office is 
the distributing point for the mails going north 
to Kotzebue, south to St. Michael, west to Golof- 
nin, Nome, Teller, and Cape Prince of Wales, and 
east to Yukon valley, Dawson, and the States. 
Mr. Kjellmann, being required to return to the 
States on account of sickness, gave the work into 
the hands of Mr. David Johnsen Elliott. Mr. 
Elliott employed Johan Peter Johannesen, a Lapp, 
as mail-carrier. The service was successfully per- 
formed with reindeer, each round trip being 1,240 
miles through a wilderness without a road. 

Early in the year the Post-Office Department 
concluded to give Nome a semimonthly service, 
and the contract was given Mr. William A. Kjell- 
mann. Mr. Kjellmann being sick and in the 
States, instructions were sent to Dr. F. H. Gam- 
bell to take charge and see that the mail was 
sent through without delay. These instructions 
reached Eaton in February, 1900, and on the Ist 
of March the reindeer started from Eaton with 
the mail for Nome. Mr. S. Newman Sherzer was 
released from his duties as assistant superintend- 
ent at the station and appointed manager of the 
reindeer mail service to Nome. Five consecutive 
successful trips were made, four of them with rein- 
deer and sleds. The five trips completed the win- 
ter contract. The round trips, a aistance of 480 



ALASKA. ANGLICAN CHURCHES. I7 

rough a country without a road or trail, ANGLICAN CHXJBCHES. General Sta- 

de as foilo^r: First trip, fourteen days; tistics. — The voluntary offerings of the Church 

rip, thirteen days; third trip, eleven and of England for the year ended Easter, 1900, as 

clays; fourth trip, eleven and one-half tabulated and published in The Times, London, 

nd fifth trip, fifteen days. The actual by Canon Bumside, the honorary editor of the 

I time was from one to two days less than Official Year-Book of the Church of England, were 

;oing figures, as a rest of twenty- four to as follow: 

ours was taken at Nome and a shorter I. Funds contributed to central and diocesan 

jrolofnin each way. societies and institutions: 1, Home missions, 

' instructions for carrying the mail came £599,406 14«. lOd.; 2, foreign missions, £831,093 

' and unexpectedly, there was no oppor- 14«. 9d.; 3, educational work, £132,752 9«. 9d.; 

JT preparing the route for relays of rein- 4, the clergy (educational and charitable assist- 

: the same deer made the round trip. ance), £180,515 4«. 8d.; 5, philanthropic work, 

request of Mr. N. V. Hendricks, subcon- £522,829 8«. 8d.; total, £2,266,597 128. 8d. 

on the route between Weare via Eaton II. Funds locally raised and locally adminis- 

Michael, Superintendent Gambell fur- tered: 1, For the parochial clergy, £822,878 0«. 2d.; 

is mail-carriers with reindeer, pack-sad- 2, for elementary education, £1,119,760 11«. 3d.; 3, 

i sleds between St. Michael, Eaton, and for general parochial purposes, £3,561,756 11«.; 

1 distance of 180 to 200 miles each way. total, £5,504,395 28. 5d. "Die total voluntary con- 

)ove routes aggregated between 6,000 and tributions thus amount to £7,770,992 15«. Id. 

les that were successfully covered by the The statement was regarded as comparing most 

The superintendent, in closing this part favorably with that of the previous year, and as 

port, says : " Our success in carrying the showing that up to the date of closing the ac- 

i due to three conditions : First, the capa- counts the claims of church work had more than 

the deer; second, the close attention given held their own under the strain of the various na- 

ork by Mr. Sherzer; and, third, the ex- tional calls for generous assistance in other direc- 

of the driver. Nils Klemetsen." tions. A total increase was shown of £306,558, 

ttract was made with Superintendent two-thirds of which belonged to the funds con- 

for carrying the mail with reindeer dur- tributed to central and diocesan institutions, and 

winter of 1900-1901 between Eaton and one- third to the fund administered locally ; but the 

?, a distance of approximately 250 miles, increase in the former was the more marked, be- 

ract calls for two round trips during the cause those funds amount to £2,250,000, while 

the local funds come to £5,500,000. An examina- 

being an unusual number of prospectors tion of the figures in detail will show that the 

ountry during the winter of 1899-1900, following interests advanced in the year under re- 

p established a reindeer express between view, roughly, to the extent of the sums given in 

tig-camps at York and Nome. As far as round numbers: Home missions, £50,000; foreign 

were concerned the line was a success; missions, £58,000; educational work, £13,000; 

i being an insufficient amount of patron- philanthropic work (including a sum of £189,757 

nake it profitable, the line was discon- for nursing institutions, convalescent homes, 

Fter two round trips. and cottage hospitals), £94,000; the maintenance 

•er were also used to a limited extent in of parochial clergy, £24,000; and general paro- 

ing of freight. . chial purposes, £139,000. Regret is expressed by 

the most important events in the year's the editor of the Year-Book that the two items in 

5 the placing of the first herd on St. Law- which a decrease is shown are the societies for 

ind, which I>r. Jackson thus graphically assisting the poorer clergy and their families, 

in his report: £13,000, and the funds contributed for elementary 

id been in the plans of the department education, £57,(X)0; also that no way has been 

or three years to stock this large and found to estimate the support given yearly by 

t island with a herd of reindeer, but it Church people to the Bible Society and other inter- 

>een convenient to do so until the present denominational agencies. 

Reaching the village, we met an unex- The average income of the English beneficed 

fficulty. The people were so discouraged clergy, as returned in the Official Year-Book, is 

rge number ol deaths that they had lost £249 per benefice. The lowest average is in the 

and ambition, and did not care whether diocese of Sodor and Man, £249. The highest is 

ired the reindeer or not, although in sev- in the diocese of London, £420 ; the next highest 

^ding seasons when we visited them they in that of Liverpool, £341 ; and the next in that 

be^ng and urging that deer should be of Manchester, £357. The funds for the aug- 

pon their island. The temporary dis- mentation of benefices would amount to about 

lent was so great that none could be £3 each if they were equally distributed. 

o were willing to become herders. Under Byl a parliamentary return made early in the 

ini stances, nothing could be done but year, it is shown that the total price of the 

the project of placing deer upon the advowsons sold under the Lord Chancellor's aug- 
d return the deer to Teller Reindeer Sta- mentation act from the time it came into 6pera- 
iring the night, however, some of the tion, Aug. 15, 1892, to Dec. 6, 1900, was £234,859. 
nen of the village who had been off hunt- The money has nearly all been invested with the 
ned, and finding that I had decided to ecclesiastical commissioners, but is under the con- 
deer away, they called a meeting of the trol of the Lord Chancellor. The funds may be 
gressive men of the village and came to used to augment the income of benefices in the 
their earnest remonstrances against not gift of the Lord Chancellor up to £400 a year, 
he deer. When I informed them that it Since August, 1892, £2,086 had been distributed 
edition of finding a number of young men to 14 benefices in grants made to meet equivalent 

willing to become apprentices and learn grants. A balance of £2,867 remained as yet un- 

re deer, they at once offered their own appropriated. 

nsequently, on the afternoon of the 30th, The total income of the Episcopal Church in 

»r were landed on the island to the east- Ireland for 1900 was £525.458. The investments 

he village." in securities amounted to £7,627,424, 

. XLi. — 2 A 



18 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 



The Church Missionary Society. — The an- 
nual meeting of the Church Missionary Society 
was held in London, May 30, Sir John Kennaway, 
Bart., M. P., presiding. The report showed that 
the total receipts of the society from all sources 
had been £350,492. The ordinary and appro- 
priated contributions had produced together the 
largest amount on record, excluding centenary 
funds, the sum being £313,000, or £9,000 more 
than in the previous year. The appropriated con- 
tributions had increased so rapialy that, after 
using £82,000 against the expenditure of the past 
year, £52,000 remained in hand, applicable to the 
current and future years. The centenary funds 
amounted altogether to £212,000, and enabled 
the committee to increase the society's working 
capital to £100,000, to wipe off the remaining 
mortgage on the Church Missionary House, and to 
add a new building to the Children's Home, as 
well as to cover a large part of the additional 
outlay in the missions caused by the increased 
number of missionaries in the past four years. 
The actual expenditure of the year had been 
£369,330, while the sums available for meeting 
it were so far deficient as to leave an adverse bal- 
ance of £42,883. This had been partly met by 
applying £10,000 out of centenary funds and a 
sum of £21,000, known as the Butterly fund, 
whereby it had been reduced to £11,883. The 
society had in the mission fields 558 stations, 
9,156 workers, including 1,176 European mission- 
aries (excluding medical missionaries), 84 medical 
missionaries, 7,896 native Christian workers, with 
76,370 communicants and 281,584 native Chris- 
tian adherents; while 19,083 persons had been 
baptized during the year. The society- maintained 
2,337 schools and seminaries, which had been at- 
tended during the year by 104,755 pupils and 
seminarists. In connection with the medical 
work, 11,887 in-patients and 747,839 out-patients 
had been treated. In China the mission had been 
spared the loss of European lives, and a few of 
the missionaries had been allowed to remain at 
their posts; while at stations from which the 
missionaries had been temporarily withdrawn, the 
work had been regularly carried on by Chinese 
clergy and teachers. In reference to the outbreaks 
of 1900 in China, the report said that " the Chi- 
nese nation, as a whole, no more deserves the hard 
words often spoken of it than do the missionaries. 
Not only are the people as a rule friendly, but 
even the officials have repeatedly shown kindness 
and courtesy to the foreigners, whose high mo- 
tives they perfectly understand, particularly to 
the ladies. Few missionaries in the disturbed dis- 
tricts would have escaped the cruel fate decreed 
by the Empress-Dowager if several of the viceroys 
and mandarins had not risked their own heads to 

Erotect them." The number of Chinese converts 
ad been considerable, including 627 baptized at 
the Fuh-Kien mission alone. In India the nas- 
cent churches were being led on to self-support, 
self-government, and self -extension. There was, 
however, a marked revival in the zeal of the devo- 
tees of the old religion, and the weaknesses of 
native Christians were at times the sorrow of the 
missionaries. At Khartoum the committee was 
anxiously awaiting the removal of the prohibi- 
tion of missionary work. The number of new 
missionaries, especially of women, showed some 
falling off. Though clergy were wanted at home, 
yet, in comparison with the majority of mission 
stations, the most undermanned parish in Eng- 
land had a plethora of workers. 

The report of medical work showed that during 
the year the number of beds in hospitals had in- 
creased from 1,484 to 1,613; of in-patients, from 



11,400 to 11,887; and of out-patients, from 630,000 
to 753,000. A medical training-house for ladies 
had been opened at Bermondsey. The income of 
the auxiliary had risen from £10,600 to 12,930, 
besides £2,737 brought forward and £3,797 from 
the Centenary fund. The expenditure had been 
£17,962, but the debt balance was only £484. 

The General Committee of this society, at their 
meeting' on July 9, resolved, in view of the some 
what embarrassed financial condition of the so- j 
ciety, to make a scrupulous inauiiy, and see | 
whether the present income could be in any way i 
better applied, and also to organize new endeavors . 
to reach the untouched resources of Christian Eng- . 
land. 

The '* Propag:ation Society." — The gross in- 
come of the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel from all sources had been £178,396, show- 
ing an excess of £42,000 over the total of the 
previous year; but the regular collections, sub- 
scriptions, and donations had fallen off by about 
£1,200. The bulk of the gross increase wa* 
constituted of special subscriptions for sufferei^ 
by famine in India and for the South African 
Church, and for the Bicentenary fund. Twenty- i 
six offers had been received from men willing to 
work abroad, and 5 clergymen and 14 lavmen 
had been accepted; while in the foreign field 45 
clergymen, many of whom had been educated in 
the society's local colleges, had been placed on the 
list of missionaries. 

The society had 761 ordained missionaries, in- 
cluding 12 bishops, 183 of whom were Asiatics 
or Africans; about 2,900 lay teachers, 3,200 stu- 
dents in its colleges, and 38,000 children in its 
schools in Asia and Africa. 

A meeting for young people held in connection 
with the bicentenary of the society, March 9, was 
addressed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the 
Rev. Roland Allen, of China, and the Bishop- 
designate of London. 

At a meeting held in the Guildhall, London, 
Feb. 12, in cdebration of the bicentenary of 
this society, the lord mayor presided, attending 
in state, and spoke of the extent of the work of 
the society. The Archbishop of Canterbury called 
attention to the agency of missionary enterprise 
in spreading religion and advancing civilization 
and commerce, and urged the duty of En^lishmeiL 
to support it liberally. Lord Hugh Cecil, M. P., 
referred to the dangers, unknown to it in its early 
times, with which it was now beset, througn 
effoi-ts to make it the tool of political ambi- 
tion. Resolutions were passed, recognizing " with 
devout and humble thankfulness to Almighty 
God " the measure of success which had been 
vouchsafed to the labors of the society, and in- 
voking the divine blessing to continue the work, 
in which the society had been instrumental, in 
bringing about the spiritual federation of the 
Anglican communion throughout his Majesty's 
dominions. 

At the closing meeting of the bicentenary cele- 
bration, held at Exeter Hall in June, the pri- 
mate presiding, it was reported that the society 
had failed to raise the whole of the proposed 
amount of £250,000. Up to the present time 
only a little more than £50,000 had been paid 
into the fund. Of this sum, £30,000 were being 
devoted to South Africa. The closing sermons of 
the celebration were preached in St. Paul's Ca- 
thedral by the Archbishop of Canterbury and 
Canon Newbolt. and in Westminster Abbey by 
Dr. Alexander, Primate of Ireland. 

Other Missionary Societies. — The Woman's 
Mission Association for the Promotion of Female 
Education in the Missions of the Society for 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 19 

&gation of the Gospel returned an income addressed by the Archbishops of Canterbury and 

72 and an expenditure of £10,483 for York and the Bishop of London, and responses 

were made by the Archbishop of Cape Town and 

port of the An^lo-Continental Society. Mr. Eugene Stock. 

its annual meetmg in June, represented Other Societies. — The annual report of the 

number of Old Catholics in Austria had Church Pastoral Aid Society showed that 1,200 

Leadily during the year, although their parishes were now giving and 700 receiving assist- 

ad been refu^ recognition by the Gov- ance through its means. The year's grants num- 

and their meetings nad been forbidden bered 1,001, for the maintenance of 744 curates, 

>lice. In Italy, while the spurious bishop- 152 lay agents, and 105 woman workers. The 

; priest Don Miraglia, having obtained society's dual basis, supplying both clerical and 

orders from M. Ren6 Vilatte, whose lay pastoral aid, was becoming all the more valu- 

ion was not recognized by the Anglican able in consequence of the decrease in the supply 

had assumed to exercise episcopal juris- of candidates for ordination. The total income 

Lhe work of the real bishop-elect, Count for the year had been £72,117, including £17,593 

s was going on independently, with head- in legacies, and a net increase of £4,101 in the 

at Rome. In France, the number of grants. The expenditure had been £61,902. 

ho had left the Church of Rome in con- The income of the Additional Curate's Society 

rith M. Bourrier's movement had risen to for 1900 was £37,034, a considerable falling o(T; 

0. The Bishop of Salisbury, speaking of while the expenditure was £58,240, and funds and 

ions of the Greek and Anglican churches, legacies had to be drawn upon to make the ac- 

t something had already been attained counts square. This expenditure had elicited an 

to burial rights, and arrangements con- even larger sum, £59,213 having been locally 

baptismal rites might follow ; but he did raised to meet the grants. Grants were being made 

iny hope of intercommunion in the near toward the stipends of 1,247 assistant clergy in 

1,034 poor and populous parishes; and about 

port of the Jerusalem and the East Mis- 5,000 parishes were recognizing the privilege of 

de at the annual meeting, June 13, the helping in this work. Since its formation the 

>f Salisbury presiding, represented that society had paid £1,915,007 in grants, to meet 

ne for the year ending with the month which £1,636,769 had been locally raised; while 

about £4,300, showing that the serious sums of £11,985 and £42,150 respectively had 

)f the two previous years had been been granted and locally raised to endow newly 

The necessity of having a reserve fund constituted districts. The allied Ordination 

) or £1,500 was urged, smce now Bishop Candidates' Exhibition fund had been able in 

the unique position of representing the the past year to distribute a larger sum than in 

communion in the mother city oi the any of the previous ten years, and 1901 had begun 

s left with unfinished buildings and an with 130 students on the list. 

it staff. This did not give to the other The Curates' Augmentation fund had received 

in Jerusalem a true idea of Anglican £14,931 during the year, of which £8,115 were 

aissions. It was represented by speakers paid in grants. The 176 curates benefited had 

visited the mission that the bishop came served on an average twenty-seven years, but their 

7 in contact with the Mohammedan average stipend was less than £130. 

ts well as with the Oriental and Roman The Church of England Incoi-porated Society 

of the Catholic Church. The cordiality for Providing Homes for Waifs and Strays had 

7 the Greek patriarch and priests toward received during the year £44,547 for the general 

can Church was very striking. Not only fund, £26,980 for special funds, and £1,647 in 

atives of the Church Missionary Society loans, and had expended £69,770. It had, at the 

nd in Bishop Blyth's house, but non- close of the year, 1,566 girls and 1,260 boys under 

sts, who were carrying on a great many its care. 

of Christian work in the Holy Land, The two hundred and forty-seventh anniver- 

dshop seemed in very friendly touch with sary of the corporation of the Sons of the Clergy 

;m. was celebrated in London, May 8. The object 

annual meeting in behalf of the South of the corporation was defined bv the Dean of 

United Church, May 23, it was repre- Windsor to be to help necessitous clergymen, their 

at the Society for the Propagation of the widows and dependent relatives, of every diocese 

ad decided to send out large assistance, in England and Wales. In the past year more 

nglican relations with the Dutch Re- than £24,700 had been paid to those for whom 

liurch had always been friendly till the the society existed, £15,000 alone going in pen- 

t hope of union had now been post- sions and grants to widows and aged single 

The natives, however, would be better dis- daughters of clergymen. The number assisted 

»'ard the English Church. The money fur- was 1,778. The corporation was by far the oldest, 

y the Propagation Society could not be the largest, and the most comprehensive of the 

till its allotment had been discussed by clergy charities. 

ioceses. The Church of England Scripture Readers' As- 

ption given to missionary and colonial sociation, it was represented at its fifty-seventh 

by the Archbishops of Canterbury and annual meeting in the Church House, Westmin- 

behalf of the United Boards of Missions, ster, employs no reader who can not satisfy the 

was attended by representatives of the committee as to his Scripture knowledge and his 

for the Propai^ation of the Gospel, the full acceptance of the plain teachings of the 

^lissionary Society, the Universities Mis- Prayer-Book and his loyal allegiance to the prin- 

>ntral Africa, the South American Mis- ciples of the Reformation. The number of grants 

Society, the Oxford Mission to Calcutta, was now 123, and the parochial clergy testified to 

i Mission, the London Jews' Society, the the intelligence, energy, and satisfactory results 

)f England Zenana Mission, the Church of the work done. During the year the readers 

md members of the Bible Society, the had paid 430,400 visits and calls, of which 7,720 

and Continental Church Society, and were to public houses, factories, and common 

»cesan fund committees. The guests were lodging-houses; had presented 2,266 childreu lox 



i 



20 ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 

baptism, and brought 2,070 to schools; had ment, instead of supporting it. The demand for 

brought forward 490 persons for confirmation, church reform and self-government was touched 

induced 9,200 to attend service, and reported upon, and it was asserted as a significant fact 

13,840 cases to the clergy for relief; and had con- that a large body of Churchmen w^ere now at one 

ducted or taken part in 21,520 services and meet- with the society in desiring the liberation of re- 

ings. The income, £12,071, showed an increase of ligion from state control; but it was also inti- 

£1,701, legacies having risen from £900 to £2,- mated that these persons had yet to learn that 

484. Grants had been received from the Bishop such freedom could exist with the retention of 

of London's and other diocesan funds, the par- state support. The income of the society for the 

ishes, and a number of companies. past year had been £4,321, and the expenditure 

The Church Historical Society was formed in £4,159. The chairman of the meeting in his ad- 
1894 to meet attacks on the historical position of dress, referring to a suggestion made by the Rev. 
the Church of England. The report issued in Dr. Joseph Parker at the meeting of the Congrega- 
January, 1901, mentions courses of lectures that tional Union that the Liberation Society should 
had been delivered during the past year at Liver- cooperate with the Free Church councils, said 
pool, Wood-Green, Birmingham, Manchester, and that they had offered to send deputations to 
Birkenhead, and the issue of a number of new meetings convened by those bodies ; but while some 
publications. A course of twelve lectures on of these councils regarded it as their duty to pro- 
Typical English Churchmen was to be delivered mote Free Church principles by' openly aavocating 
in the spring of 1901 at St. Margaret's, Westmin- them, there were other councils which held that 
ater, and at St. Alban's Abbey. their action should be of a strictly religious char- 

A Queen Victoria Memorial fund has been acter; and they regarded the promotion of dis- 

instituted by the council of the Church Army as establishment as political or semipolitical. Then 

a memorial of the sympathy shown bv the late some of the members of those councils belonged 

Queen with its work. It is intended to raise to churches which had not yet formed a pro- 

£6,000, to be devoted to such purposes as the pro- nounced opinion in favor of disestablishment, and 

vision and equipment of a uome for inebriate they were unwilling to be placed in a false posi- 

women; the endowment of a Victorian evan- tion by any combined action. Resolutions were 

gelist and mission nurse for work in the poorest passed opposing a Roman Catholic university for 

parishes; and the provision of a home of rest Ireland, to be created and endowed by the state; 

for mission workers. protesting against "a professedly national sys- 

Sunday-school Institute. — The annual re- tem of education which leaves a large part of the 

port of the Church of England Sunday-school In- nation without anv local control over the schools 

stitute, presented May 8, referred to a diminished which it is called upon to support." Another 

attendance on Sunday-schools, which was attrib- resolution declared that " the conference gladly ^ 

uted to a slackening fervor in church work and a recognizes the desire fpr greater freedom now 

f rowing interest in pleasure. The returns for everywhere prevalent in the English Episcopal 

899 had shown a net decrease of 7,000 scholars. Church; together with an increasing conviction on 

though the number in the infant classes had in- the part of the members that as a spiritual insti- 

creased by 10,000. The past yearns returns tution it should be able to adapt itself to exist- 

showed decreases of nearly 10,000 infants and ing reli^ous requirements. But so long as the 

1,027 boys, and an increase of 3,727 girls. The Church nas rights and privileges conferred upon 

number of members of Bible classes had fallen it by the state, and is in possession of large na- 

from 470,000 to 454,000, and the . number of tional endowments, the conference feels bound to 

teachers was smaller than a year previous. Train- oppose all attempts to diminish the control of 

ing lessons or lectures had been given under the Parliament over Church affairs, or to alter its 

direction of the institute all over the country to character as a national institution. It regards 

thousands of teachers, of whom 519 entered for with great satisfaction the acknowledgment by a 

examination, and 404 obtained prizes or certifi- growing number of Episcopalians that their 

cates. There were now in union with the insti- Church will not be entitled to enjoy the right 

tute 36 associations in London, 339 in other parts of self-government possessed by nonconformist 

of the kingdom, atid 20 in India and the colonies, churches until it ceases to be established and en- 

The year's income had been £9,171 from sales and do wed by the state." The meeting further pro- 

£1,530 from other sources. tested against the "tithe rent-charge" scheme, 

The committee declared that no other organized relieving the clergy from payment of half the rates ^ 

church work could show such results as had been on tithes, and advised tnat the relief of clerical ^^ 

achieved by the Sunday-school in the last century, distress, if granted from national sources, should 

The Bishop of Exeter said he was glad the Bible come from certain available funds, but expressed 

stood first as the foundation of all the institute's the opinion " that the adequate maintenance of - 

teaching. It was right to teach the Prayer-Book the Church's ministers will be best secured by re- • 

and Church history, but it was absolutely essen- liance upon the free-will offerings of those to 

tial that nothing pliould be put before the Bible, whom they minister — now withheld because of ' 

Liberation Society. — The triennial Conference the existence of large state endowments for eccle 
of the Society for the Liberation of Religion from siastical purposes." The proceedings at the an- 
the Patronage and Control of the State was held nual meeting of the society included a number 
in London, April 30, Mr. J. Carvell Williams pre- of addresses on subjects connected with its pur- 
siding. The report reviewed the public discussions poses. 

of the past three years as related to the cause At the autumnal meeting of the council of this 

which the society was seeking to promote and society, in October, a resolution was passed ex* 

the aspects of legislation that bore upon it. It pressing the opinion that ** the time has arrived 

claimed that, in spite of the most unfavorable con- when new and more aggressive efforts should be 

ditions, the strength of the liberation party in made to produce a general conviction that only 

Parliament had not been weakened by the elec- by means of disestablishment will the Church be 

tione of 1900. Of the 30 Welsh members of Par- enabled to correct admitted evils and the state be 

liament, all but 4 were pledged to support dises- freed from obligations which it is now admitted . 

tablishment. In Scotland, however, a majority to be unfitted to discharge." Another resolution 

of members were now opposed to disestablish- condemned the establishment by law of the 



ANQUCAN CHURCHES. 21 

of England and Scotland as involving At the sprint conference of the Church Associa- 

m of relisious equality, depriving those tion and National Protestant League, held in 

of the right of self-government, imposing Liverpool, May 10, Mr. Andrew S. Lamb, pre- 

ment duties which it is incompetent to siding, spoke in praise of the reformation settle- 

, and as being hurtful to the religious ment, and dwelt upon the importance of retain- 

ical interesU of the nation. ing the declaration against the mass. The Con- 

Snglish Church Union. — The forty- vocations bill was criticised as contemplating 

nnual meeting of the English Church a formulated self-government, which would lead 

18 held in London in June, Lord Halifax to disestablishment. Resolutions were pass^ at 

In his address the president referred the public meeting condemning the " intrigues of 

ctent to which progress in the Church Romanizing clergy, which endangered the civil, 

le past sixty years had been due to the social, and religious liberties of the British na- 

l file rather than to the rulers of the tion"; commending the efforts of the Church 

This would conUnue, and the ex- Association to maintain the Protestant religion 

of to-day would be found to be the established by law; and protesting against the 

8 of to-morrow. While the Church of attempt of the Roman Catholics "to tamper 

had not and could not forbid reserva- with '^ the statutory declaration made by the 

incense, the bishops ought to be obeyed Sovereign as being dangerous to the Protestant 

made regulations as to the conditions succession to the throne; and requesting the 

lich the sacraments should be reserved. Protestant electors of the country to urge their 

f no use to attempt church reform until representatives in Parliament to oppose strenu- 

ition of lay franchise was fixed at com- ously any legislation which would interfere with 

at least twice a year. The speaker the bill of rights as being mischievous and un- 

Jiat the period of shock and disintegra- constitutional and fraught with great danger. 

past and the period of unification had The abandonment of the bill amending the 

verywhere a desire appeared to come to- royal declaration was announced by Mr. Balfour 

id understand one another better. The in the House of Commons on Aug. 8. 

iry sermon was preached by Dr. Sanday. At the annual meeting of the Todies' League for 

lal report represented that the financial the Defense of the Reformed Faith in the Church 

of the society had sufi'ered by reason of of England, Lord Llangattock presiding, a report 

»U8 public appeals of other kinds. The was made that the membership had doubled, the 

received in subscriptions had been £504 present number of members oeing 4,443, in 29 

00 than in 1809. In 1893, when the mem- branches. A sisters' home had been opened in 
'as some thousands less than it was now, Chelsea, and a large number of ladies had come to 
riptions amounted to £101 more than in it. The words " and promotion " were ordered in- 
under review. , The appeals for aid for serted after " defense in the name of the society. 

se fund brought in £2^82 between Janu- so that its name will hereafter read " The Ladies' 
U and April, 1901, and a sum of £800 League for the Defense and Promotion of the Re- 
needed lor this purpose. formed Faith in the Church of England." The 
previous meeting of the union, held in meeting pledged itself by resolution to support 
4ord Halifax, being prevented by illness pure scriptural religion and worship, and to culti- 
ending, sent a letter, in which he drew vate an earnest spiritual life. 

to the importance of the distinction Convocatioii of Canterbury. — ^At the meeting 

the idea of tne collective episcopate and, of the Convocation of Canterbury, Dec. 11, 1900, 

I, of any member of the episcopate, as the Dean of Lincoln, preaching in Latin, referred 

!ndent teacher above the Church, and the to the terms of the writ which still summoned 

he episcopate as an integral part of the Convocation to consider not only Church matters 

lie episcopate, he urged, could ** only proper, but the " welfare of the public good and 

impose on the Church her own beliei, the defense of the kingdom." Convocation no 

the individual the belief of the body of longer met to vote taxes, but to deal with the 

is a member." All the addresses at this larger interests with which the Church should 

tr^ed the necessity of diocesan synods to concern itself. It should be as a guide to the 

intermediate link between the parish nation, inculcating patriotism and giving it a 

id the convocation. high ideal. On the subject of recent controversies 

hurch AsBociation. — ^At the autumnal in the Church of England, the speaker pleaded for 

3f the Church Association, held in Bir- a good feeling and temper on all sides, and for 

, Nov. 9, 1900, Mr. Andrew Lamb read some constitutional means by which the Church 

•n The Urgent Need of Fresh Lc^slation as a whole might consult together and express 

d the Procedure of the Ecclesiastical its wishes. The great difficulty at the present mo- 

1 the Matter of Ritual, in which he held ment was that the Church had got out of touch 
present enactments were not efficacious, with the laitv. Proper representation in the 
liscussion which followed, suggestions Church assembly of both clergy and laity was 
le that recourse should be had to lay necessary to enable Parliament to know what the 

under the act of Elizabeth, or to action Church as a whole really wished, and also to 
h of civil contract. At a public meet- restore harmony within the Church itself. Arch- 
in the evening it was resolved, " that, deacon Lightfoot was reelected prolocutor of the 
he bishops have done nothing to enforce lower house. 

of the Cnurch of England as laid down The Convocation met for the first time in 1901, 

[ajeaty's judges, but have fostered rein- Feb. 15. The archbishop spoke in the upper house 

n of the mass and of the confes8ionaI by of his reception during the week at Lambeth, of 

, licensing, inducting, and preferring a deputation on the bfll for the reform of Convo- 

I bent on promoting the reunion of cation and the constitution of houses of laymen 

cm by adopting the usages of the most in connection therewith, and suggested, in view of 

►ortion of the unreformed churches, it what had taken place then, that the consideration 

jeconrie the urgent duty of the electorate of the bill in that house mi^ht be postponed. 

ard the nation from the great social Perhaps, in the meantime, it might be possible to 

riestly dominion." ascertain the views of the Government on tU^ 



22 ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 

matter. Addressin&f the House of Laymen on the form of the clerical body without associating with 
same day, the archbishop, expressing the trust it the proposals for the constitution of a repre- 
that before long the houses of laymen in both sentative lay house. They commended the bill 
provinces might have legal recognition, said that to both houses as a necessary step to the end they 
it would be very important that the House of had in view — of giving the Church more power in 
Laymen should be considered by the nation at exerting the energies of its life in a free and whole- 
large as really representing the laity, and conse- some manner. The archbishop thought the bill 
quently they must take care that whenever they might be carried through Parliament without 
proposed anything of that kind the franchise for very great difficulty. It was comparatively a very 
the election of members of the House of Laymen small measure. It did not propose to add to the 
should be wide enough to satisfy the whole of the power of Convocation in the slightest degree, it 
laity as a body. In the lower house a resolution did not give them the right of doing anything 
was passed, in view of the strong feeling known which they had not already. It enabled the clergy 
to exist in many quarters that there should be to enter more thoroughly into the action of Con- 
a representation of the laity duly authorized to vocation by being more thoroughly represented, 
cooperate with the convocations of the clergy, The constitution of the lower house of Convoca- 
requesting the archbishop to direct the appoint- tion had never been handled by any act of Par- 
ment of a committee of the lower house "to inquire liament, and a declaratory act, therefore, was the 
into and report upon the methods of electing proper method of enabling the clergy to express 
representatives of the laity and the nature of the their opinion upon their own proper business more 
authority assigned to them, in other branches of effectually than they could now. The resolutions 
the Anglican communion and all churches in com- provisionally passed at the previous session of 
munion with it." It was also made a part of the Convocation with reference to the supply and 
duty of the committiee to inquire into the defini- training of candidates for holy orders were taken 
tion of " a lay member of the Church," adopted up and passed in the upper house. During the 
in various branches of the Anglican communion, discussion of them, the Bishop of London men- 
both for purposes of voting and as a qualifica- tioned five hindrances which he thought stood in 
tion for acting as a representative. A resolution the way of men's seekmg ordination. They were 
adopted in the House of Laymen approved of some non-realization of the oojectiveness of the call, 
amendment of the constitution oi the convoca- the unsettlement of men's minds, the attractions 
tions and of joint sittings, and of consultative of the Indian civil service, the poverty of the 
houses of laymen, but expressed the opinion that clergy, and the lack of encouragement given at 
action should at present be confined to the for- home and at school to men to come forward for 
mer subject, and that a joint meeting of the ordination. In the lower house a committee was 
houses OI laymen of both provinces shoiud be ar- appointed to consider the causes of clerical pov- 
ranged for " to consider how and on what basis erty among both the beneficed and the unbenenced 
the representation of the laity might best be car- clergy, together with the objects of existing cler- 
ried into effect. The upper house, by resolution, ical charities and the principles on which the man- 
declared it expedient that diocesan organization, agers act in making grants; and to inquire into 
wherever practicable, should be established with aiid report upon the methods adopted by existing 
a view to '' providing for some help and instruc- institutions and associations for increasing per- 
tion for deacons in preparation for the priesthood manently the incomes of poor benefices. Reports 
and the promotion of study and the maintenance of the Committee on Ecclesiastical Courts, ^m- 
of a high, standard of life among those who have bodying resolutions of the joint meeting of the 
been ordained." A message was communicated to two convocations in July, 1900, and of the Com- 
the houses from the episcopal administrator of mittee on " Ecclesiastical Dilapidations," advising 
the Old Catholic Church in Austria, expressing further consideration of the subject, were adopted, 
sympathy over the death of the Queen, ana prayer In the House of Laymen resolutions were passed 
for blessings upon the reign of King Edward \ II. condemning exercise of pressure upon young peo- 
Another message, from the Patriarch of Con- pie to make auricular confession; directing in- 
stantinople, announced the election of Photius, quiry into the religious privileges of members of 
Archbishop of Nazareth, to be Pope and Patri- the Church of England in workhouses, lunatic 
arch of Alexandria. asylums, and houses of industry; and approving 
At the meeting of the Convocation, May 8, the the use of the Revised Version of the Bible at the 
bill for reform of Convocation as offered in Par- lecterns in public services when it is desired and 
liament by the Bishop of Rochester was presented is not open to well-founded objection — the term 
by him and approved in the upper and lower " use " being understood to mean ** the occasional 
houses. The bisnop explained that he had been employment of* lessons from the Revised Version 
allowed in the preceding ^ear to bring in a bill when for the interest of more accurate translation 
which provided for a possibility of reforming the it is desirable." 

existing convocations, the creation of a repre- At the meeting of the Convocation, July 2, 

sentative lay element, and the uniting to a certain the Bishop of Rochester presented the report of 

extent of the two existing convocations. Since the joint Committee on Ecclesiastical Courts. It 

then it had been thought desirable to proceed with urged the strengthening of the diocesan and pro- 

the first and third of these objects, postponing the vincial courts, that they might dispose, as courts 

second. The bill in its present form was entitled of first instance, and in such a way that the de- 

" The Convocations of the Clergy Bill," and con- cision should not be merely the individual deci- 

fined itself to the two points mentioned. They sion of a single judge, bishop, or archbishop, but 

wished Parliament to declare that the convoca- should have a more representative character, and 

tions had power, with the King's assent, to amend so be more likely to commend itself to the judg- 

by canon the constitution of the Convocation ment of the litigants on either side. Resolutions 

and the representation of the clergy, and also were agreed to by the upper house to the effect 

to provide for the joint sittings of the two con- " that it is desirable (a) to strengthen the consti- 

vocations. The speaker desired to reiterate tution of the diocesan and provincial courts; (6) 

the ifact that it was not their will, but only that complaints concerning ritual or doctrine 

under pressure of circumstances, that the com- should, if the promotion of the suit be approved 

mittee brought forward their proposal for the re- by the bishop, be tried by the diocesan court in 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 23 

the first instance; (c) that if an appeal be carried At the session of May 8 and 9, a resolution 
to the provincial court, it should there be heard of Feb. 6, 1898, declaring that the present pro- 
before a court constituted as hereinafter pro- cedure at the confirmation of the election of 
posed/' The resolutions further embodied recom- bishops needs to be amended, and requesting the 
mendations concerning the constitution of tlie archbishops to consult upon the subject, was re- 
diocesan courts and the provincial Court of Ap- affirmed by the upper house. The draft bill en- 
peal, with a provision that in all cases arising in titled Convocations of Clergy Bill was ap- 
the diocese oi the archbishop the archbishop of the proved. The House of Laymen adopted a resolu- 
other province shall take his place in the Court of tion, concerning the report of the joint committee 
Appeal. These resolutions were concurred in by of the houses of Canterbury and York on lay rep- 
the lower house, except the one concerning the con- resentation, concerning the constitution of the 
stitution of the provincial Court of Appeal, which primary electoral divisions in any scheme for lay 
the archbishop was requested to refer to the joint representation, to which was added a clause 
committee. Resolutions were adopted contem- defining the qualifications of electors. A resolu- 
platin^ a national system of elementary educa- tion was passed in favor of the maintenance of the 
tion, working according to principles which were existing Book of Common Prayer, " subject, how- 
set forth, to take the place of the present system, ever, to such alterations and modifications as 
to be administered by authorities representing from time to time may be approved by the House 
and acting over large areas, embracing one or of Laymen and sanctioned by Parliament." The 
more administrative centers. In the lower house house expressed approval of the recommendation 
the proceedings at the confirmation of the elec- of the lower house for a retranslation of the 
tion of bishops were considered, especially with Athanasian Creed, but deferred expressing any 
reference to tne hearing of objections. The reso- opinion as to the compulsory or optional use of 
lution adopted by the house advised: " 1. That no the creed. 

objection should be received that has not been The House of Convocation met Jul^ 2 to con- 
communicated to the vicar-general in writing at sider the form of the revised accession service, 
least seven days beforehand, and allowed by him The service as submitted was unanimously agreed 
to be presented as an objection in due form of to by the lower house. 

law. 2. That a copy of the schedule of objec- Convocations of Clergy Bill. — ^The preamble 
tion should be sent at the same time to the to the convocations of clergy bill relates that 
bUhop-clect and to the dean of the chapter by the convocations are desirous of amending their 
whom he was elected. 3. That the schedule of ob- constitution and their representative system, and 
jection should be read aloud in court by an officer of obtaining power to sit as one body, but that 
of the court, who should then similarly read doubts have arisen as to their power to make these 
such reply, if any, as the bishop-elect or the changes without the authority of Parliament, 
dean and chapter shall have sent in writing The first clause enacts that, notwithstanding any 
to the vicar-general. 4. That the vicar-general doubts arising by reason of 25 Henry VlII, chap- 
shall, at his discretion, use the power of proroga- ter xix, the convocations may have powers with 
tion to another place not consecrated." A reso- the royal assent and license to make, promulgate, 
lution was passed expressing the earnest hope of and execute the necessary canons for the above 
the house that the Government would see its way purposes. Clause 2 directs that if the bishops 
to include the financial relief of voluntary schools and clergy of the convocations lay before the 
as an integral feature in its forthcoming measure King in Council a scheme for the union and joint 
of educational reform. The resolutions of the sittings of the two houses, the Council may issue 
joint committee on the accession service were an order confirming the scheme, and this order 
agreed to in both houses. The House of Laymen " shall have effect as if it were enacted in this 
took up the consideration of the report of the act." Otherwise the bill does not add to the 
joint committee of the late houses of laymen of powers of the Convocation. 

the two provinces on the representation of the Qualifications of Laymen. — The committee 
laity, which had been sent down to the house by of Convocation that was appointed to inquire as 
the archbishop in February preceding. No con- to the methods of self-government at work in the 
duMon was reached. various Anglican churches outside of England 
The two houses were invited to assemble in form and Wales, and especially with respect to their 
of a committee (July 3 and 4) to meet the Con- franchise and to matters of doctrine and of ritual 
vocation coming in the same form from the in which doctrine is involved, have published a 
northern province for the discussion of the ques- report embracing particulars concerning all the 
tions of the future of voluntary schools, the churches referred to in the resolution, and infor- 
course to be taken by the convocations in regard mation in regard to more than one hundred sees, 
to the convocations of the clergy bill, and eccle- In a general review of the position of laymen in the 
sia»tical dilapidations. parish and in the synods as illustrated in the 
Convocation of York. — At the meeting of the tables appended to the report, it is shown that 
Convocation of York, Dec. 11, 1900, Chancellor if a man is a communicant he is at once admitted 
Elpin was unanimously elected prolocutor of the to the congregational franchise, and in certain 
lower house for the fourth time. Addressing the dioceses no others are admitted. If not a com- 
house, he said that he would specially recommend municant he makes a declaration of church mem- 
to its consideration the question of the lay fran- bership; but no church accepts the declaration 
ehise, because it was quite certain that if any unless it is supported by guarantees which vary 
greater measure of self-government was to be ac- in different places. Mere payments for secular 
corded to the Church, it could be obtained only purposes are nowhere accepted as a qualification 
on the representative system. for ecclesiastical privileges. Women are admitted 
At the meeting of the Convocation, Feb. 21 and to the franchise in more than half of the American 
22. the lower house, in the discussion of a mo- dioceses and in a third of the colonial ; also in the 
tion approving the Convocation bill then before Established and the Episcopal Churches of Scot- 
Parliament, adopted an amendment approving of land. Parochial administration, the committee 
the participation of the laity in Church affairs, and report, contemplates normally vestries or parish 
requesting the president to Commend the work- councils restricted to matters of finance, congre- 
ing out of the problem to the House of Laymen, gational registers, etc.; but never includes power 



24 ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 

to regulate worship, or ^oes behind a "present- existing powers of convocation should be con- 
ment ' in case of alleged irregularities in the con- ferred on the new bodies. But when satiisfactoiy 
duct of divine service. The election to diocesan bodies had been created, Parliament should be ap- 
synods is made directly or mediately from the proached and asked for definite powers. The 
congregations; election to provincial or general Archbishop of Canterbury, replying to the repre- 
synods by the lav members of diocesan synods, sentations of these speakers, said he had no doubt 
The proportion of lay to clerical members varies that it would add to the force and efficiency of the 
from that of the Episcopal Church in Ireland, Church if it was intrusted in some effective man- 
where the laity are two to one, to that of the ner with more ample power of governing itself. 
Established Church of Scotland, where they are He could very heartily support the proposition to 
barely as many as the presbyters. Considerable empower the convocations to reform themselves, 
variation in the same respect exists as well in the ana likewise the general principle that a house of 
colonies. But what is possible in Scotland, Ire- laymen ought to be formed. But the formation 
land, the colonies, and the United States, is, the for the purpose of perfecting real legislation of the 
report sets forth, not necessarily possible in Eng- two convocations mto a single synod — they still 
land, where every Englishman may in some sense reserving their separate functions for ordinary 
claim that the national Church is his own church, convocation work — was of even more importance 
even if he is, as a matter of fact^ for the most part than the formation of a house of laymen. The 
absent from its worship. weak point was the proposed method of forming 
Deputation to the Archbishops. — A large the house of laymen. The speaker doubted 
deputation waited upon the Archbishops of Can- whether Parliament would quite consent to pasi» 
terbury and York, Feb. 13, on behalf of the draft a bill in which the formation of a house of laymen 
of the bill recommended by the two convocations was left so entirely in clerical hands, but thought 
for their reform and the organization of houses it almost certain that they would insert some pro- 
of laymen in connection with them. The Bishop visions definitely indicating what they considered 
of Rochester, who introduced the deputation, ex- to be a proper definition of a lay constituent of 
plained that Sir Richard Jebb (not beinff able to be the Church of England. For himself, he would 
present) had written a letter in favor of an auton- prefer a house of laymen which was not simply 
omy which should not be inconsistent with estab- the offspring of a body of clergy. '' I feel that 
lishment; speaking then of the objects which the their independence would be a real gain to the 
bill was intended to promote, he said that the Church, and that the sense of independence would 
existing machinery of the Church was virtually depend upon their being formed not upon lines 
that of medieval and prereformed times, and laid down by the bishops and clergy, but upon 
took no account of modem conditions — among lines which more exactly represent their own 
those conditions being a large body of educated minds. I have stated the two things which 1 care 
clergy in close touch with life in all classes of the about most: First, the formation of a single 
population. Such men were most sensitive to synod to bind the whole Church into one, leaving 
their responsibilities. The present organization to each of the separate convocations the business 
did not take account of a nighly trained body of its own province; then the houses of laymen, 
of laity. Then there was the enormous alteration without which we shall never have self-govem- 
in Parliament during the past three centuries, ment. But we must be careful how we press 
Parliament itself recognized its unsuitableness, anything upon Parliament which will in any way 
and its interference was most undesirable. In the damage in the eyes of the people of England the 
present proposal no attitude was assumed antag- independence of those houses of laymen when 
onistic to tne rights of Parliament. But in the formed." The Archbishop of York agreed with 
life of the legislature the principle of devolution the Archbishop of Canterbury that a house of lay- 
was regarded as an indispensable element. They men constituted by the convocations would not 
were only asking for a certain measure of devolu- be likely to command the confidence of the people 
tion. There were no disguise, no ephemeral mo- generally. " We should deal with the laity," he 
tives, no party spirit in the minds of the pro- continued, " not as persons who are taking a par- 
moters of the bill. It sought to proceed on the ticular interest in Church matters or occupy a 
line of concentration, viz., now to reform convo- certain position, but as baptismal members of the 
cation and to associate laymen, and to obtain body of Christ. We need to keep continually be- 
parliamentary sanction for the scheme. Sir John fore our minds that we are not giving them a 
Kennaway represented that the movement pleaded privilege, but calling them to the proper exercise 
as its justification the amazing growth of the of a right as members of the Church. . . . But it 
Church in the nineteenth century. The problems is necessary to ask this question: Granted that 
to be confronted were to secure that representa- you have reformed convocation and your house of 
tive bodies of the clergy and laity should have the laymen, what is the law they are going to ad- 
authority of a living voice and some power of minister? What is its basis? It is not the basis 
self-government. While it was hopeless to ask of what is called Catholic tradition or evangelical 
Parliament to consider a scheme of self-govern- tradition. It must be the law of the Church of 
ment, it was purposed to ask for further power England itself as it was reformed three centuries 
from the houses ; and Parliament again would be ago. Unless we make that perfectly clear it will 
able to approve or disapprove. In every step be a long time before we obtain such a measure. 
Parliament would have power to intervene. There But ... if we are large-hearted enough and cou- 
was already the precedent of the Established rageous and not too anxious to keep this body of 
Church of Scotlfina, in which was embodied all laymen within a Church limit; if we are not too 
the principle for which they contended. Bishop timid about giving the franchise to those who 
Barry spolce from his own actual experience in a may seem to stana aloof from the Church, but 
colonial bishopric of the working in the colonies are still to be reckoned members of the Church; 
of full synodical government, with clergy and if we remember that the Church is a national 
laity cooperating. Chancellor P. V. Smith, deal- Church, and that the nation as a nation has some- 
ing with the form of the bill, said that in seeking thing to say about it, and will not be dictated to 
autonomy, its framers had proceeded by adopting by ecclesiastics, we may entertain some hopes of 
existing, rather than creating new conditions, tlie success of our legitimate claims upon the na^ 
They did not ask that powers in excess of the tional Parliament." 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 25 

The Ritualistic Crisis. — ^The bishops of the ing enabled them to talk a common language." 
Church of England, Jan. 20, issued a letter to the Preliminary to the opening of the confer- 
(^lergy emphasizing the great and urgent need ence, written statements of opinion on its 
of united action in order to improve the ** unex- subject were invited by the bishop from each of 
ampled opportunities opening before the whole of its fifteen members. Among these expressions wa» 
Christendom with the dawn of th& new century." one by Dr. Sanday suggesting an appeal to an- 
In view of these opportunities, any causes, it was tiquity as a common ground, and defining an- 
said, would be the more keenly felt which would tic[uity as w^hat was prior to a. d. 451. The Doc- 
tend to lessen the Churches forces to grapple with tnne of the Holy Communion was the subject 
them. set for first consideration, after which it was in- 
^ Circumstances have given special i)romi- tended to discuss the question of Its Expression 
aence to certain points in the present condition of in Ritual. The sessions were, however, mainly 
JUT Church which cause very grave anxiety in taken up with the former aspect of the general 
those to whom by God's appointment the govern- topic, so that the chairman, the Rev. Dr. Wace, 
nent of it is intrusted. We inherit a form of at the close of the proceedings expressed his regret 
government which has come down to us from that it " had not oeen found possible to discuss 
ipostolic times. The duty of guiding the Church in principle some important questions of ritual, 
3 intrusted to the bishops, ana we can not escape such as adoration and reservation^ and the posi- 
he responsibility. All antiquity is united in tion of the minister, whether eastward or other- 
;eachinff that this burden is laid upon them, and wise." A favorable vote was given provisionally 
f any doctrine can be called Catholic it is that at the beginning of the conference to a sugges- 
iie bishops have a right to call on all the clergy tion by Canon Gore, for the adoption, as express- 
4> follow the godly admonitions and submit them- ing its unanimous conviction, of a statement of 
ielves to the godly judgments of those who are Hooker (Ecclesiastical Polity, Book V, chap, 
iet over them in the Lord. Those who refuse such Ixvii, sec. 7), with the supplementary state- 
)bedience are practically setting up a form of gov- ment, also from Hooker, that " the grace which 
^rnment which is distinctly not episcopal, and we have by the holy eucharist doth not begin, 
they can not claim that they are guided by Catho- but continues life," but it failed of final adoption, 
ic principles or are treading in Catholic paths. In A thesis by the Rev. N. Dimock was discussed, 
matters of ritual, the regmation of which is ex- setting forth that " in use the consecrated ele- 
pressly committed to the bishop by the Book of ments are effectual signs for the purpose of the 
Common grayer, the refusal of a clergvman to ordinance, seals of donation, and so truly exhibi- 
obey the solenm admonition of his bishop is a tive proxies of the things signified, wliose names 
grave offense — still more grave when the refusal they bear in the delivery, which are thus verily 
sets aside the judgment oi the bishops as a body, and indeed taken and received by the faithful, be- 
We therefore put before you that we as a body ing really present for the manducation of faith — 
uphold the duty of submitting to the decisions of cui prwsentia sunt omnia prwterita.'' Canon 
the archbishops given on questions referred to Newbold proposed the statement that " while the 
them in accordance with the direction in the Book bread and wine retain their natural substance, an 
of Common Prayer. We acknowledge thankfully addition is made to them, by virtue of which the 
the very general recognition of this dutv whicn body and blood of Christ are present really and 
has been conscientiously given by the clergy at truly." Three statements were finally adopted, 
large. But this has unfortunately not been uni- The first, by Prof. Moule, affirmed in its essential 
veraal. Brethren, you are well aware of the mis- points that our Lord is present at our commun- 
chief that must necessarily follow on disregard of ions, mysteriously, yet absolutely as an object 
the essential principle of all true government. The of faith, not on, but at the table; that we should 
great work which our Lord has committed to the worship him thus present, and revere the bread 
whole Church, and especially to our own branch of and the wine " as his equivalent signs of his once 
it, preaching the Gospel to the whole world, de- sacrificed flesh and blood " ; but that Holy Scrip- 
inands all our energy, and is seriously imperiled ture does not give us reason to believe " any espe- 
if we can not give to it our united force. We en-- cial attachment of his presence to the sacred 
treat you to use all your influence to persuade signs, albeit called his body and his blood by rea- 
those — ^we are thankful to know that they are few son of their equivalence as divine tokens." The 
m number — who are rep;ardless of our authority, second statement adopted was by Lord Halifax, 
to return to that obedience which alone can ex- alleging that the bread and wine by virtue of 
peet the blessing of God. our Lord's institution become sacramentally the 
"We recognize the pressing need of various body and blood ^of Christ, while in the natural 
measures of reform to enable the Church to do order they remain what they were before; that 
her work more efficiently, but all real progress in the holy eucharist is the memorial of the Lord's 
that direction is seriously hindered so long as, death, Christ being the real Consecrator, giving 
even in a few instances, submission to authority his body and blood, "mystically represent^ and 
is refused. Most of all will this hinder the ful- exhibited under the aspect of death " ; the pres- 
filment of any hope or desire of obtaining for the ence being not corporeal, but sacramental only ; 
Church such a real measure of self-government as spiritual, after the manner of a spirit. The third 
would enable us to supply what may be lacking statement, off'ered by Canon Gore, is that " the 
in our system, or to remove any stumbling-blocks bread which is of the earth receiving the invoca- 
out of the way." tion of God is no longer common bread, but eu- 
Bonnd Table Conference. — ^The report of charist, made up of two realities, an earthly and 
the proceedings of the Round Table Conference a heavenly," there being sacramental identifica- 
on ntual, held at the palace of the Bishop of Lon- tion of Jesus Christ with the bread and wine, 
don in October, 1900 (see Annual Cyclopaedia for The Bishop of London was requested by the 
1900, p&ge 20), was officially published in Feb- meeting of his diocesan conference in June to call 
ruary. The book has an introduction by the late a second Round Table Conference to be held in 
Bishop of London (Dr. Creighton), who said that the autumn of 1901. 

his desire in promoting the conference was ** to Reunion. — A meeting held in the Council 

bring together various phases of theological opin- Chamber in Salisbury, in the cause of Christian 

ion, as represented by theologians whose train- union, Feb. 12, was the result of meetings of rep- 



26 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 



ARCHEOLOGY. (American.) 



resentatives of the different religious bodies in the 
city held at the beginning of the year, at which 
a basis for cooperation between nonconformists 
and Church people was laid in a resolution 
" that it is the dVity of Christians who may be 
separated by ecclesiastical division to unite when 
circumstances permit (a) to promote spiritual edi- 
fication and a healthier and more friendly rela- 
tionship; and {b) for the furtherance of practical 
cooperation in matters which affect the moral 
well-beinc of the civU community in which they 
live." The mayor presided, and the addresses 
were made by ministers of the Established, Free 
Methodist, Congregational, and Baptist Churches. 
The Bishop of Salisbury, in closing the meeting, 
said that while he was not there at present witn 
any definite plan for reunion, such movements 
ought to tend in that direction ultimately. He 
believed that the whole counsel of God in this 
matter would not be revealed to any portion of 
the people, however large, while it was separated 
in spirit from the rest; but when the different 
parts were brought into touch and moral and 
spiritual harmony by such meetings as this and 
by similar action elsew^here, they might expect an 
outpouring of the spirit of wisdom and under- 
standing, as well as of holiness and joy, upon 
the whole Church, which would lead it to a re- 
union. 

The Church Congress. — The Church Congress 
met at Brighton, Oct. 1 to 4. The opening ser- 
mon by Bishop Welldon, of Calcutta, read, in his 
absence on account of illness, by the Vicar of 
Brighton, embodied an appeal to the Church to 
face the question of reconstruction of religious 
belief. The Bishop of London preached at a 
second place of meeting in favor of cultivating 
unity rather than struggling after an impossible 
uniformity. The opening address to the congress 
was by the Bishop of Chichester, who likewise 
put forth unity rather than uniformity as the 
object to be sought. The subjects discussed were : 
Church Autonomy, how exercised bv Established 
and Non-Established Churches, and how it should 
be exercised in the Church of England, Regard 
being had to the Restoration of the Church's 
Synods and to the Convocation Bill of 1900; 
Authority in the Church of England; The Refor- 
mation Settlement — the Appeal to Antiquity as 
a Principle of the English Reformation of Pres- 
ent-Day Ajjplication — the Standard of Catholicity 
with Reference to Doctrine and Ceremonial; The 
Empire with Reference to Church Work — the 
Victorian Era at Home, in India, and the Col- 
onies, and the Possibilities and Dangers of the 
New Century. Other subjects related to the 
Church and the schools; temperance and tem- 
perance legislation; the Church in relation to 
journalism, literature, the drama, and art; cov- 
etousness as exhibited in commerce, employ- 
ment, and the excitement of chance; the bap- 
tismal vow; social refonn with regard to the 
housing of the poor; Hooliganism; Prayer-Book 
enrichment and supplementary services; the 
work of the Church in the army; the cause of 
and remedv for abstention from divine service; 
the virtues of faith, hope, and love; assessment 
and taxation of clerical incomes; difficulties of 
country churches contrasted with those in towns; 
bells, belfries, and bell-ringers; and music as an 
aid to devotion in the services of the Church. Tlie 
concluding service of the congress was held in 
Chichester Cathedral, where the Bishop of Exeter 
preached. For twenty years the sessions of the 
congress have been followed by a Christian Con- 
ference at which men of all denominations have 
been given opportunity to compare their views. 



At the Christian Conference following the present 
congress, the subjects of religious indifference and 
moral apathy were discussed. 

The Australian Synod. — The Provincial 
Synod, meeting in Sydney, New South Wales, in 
August, adopted a resolution hailing with de- 
vout thankfulness the announcement of the union 
of the Presbyterian Churches in the common- 
wealth, and the contemplated union of the Meth- 
odist Churches, as indications of an approach to 
Christian unity. It also, declaring itself "pro- 
foundly conscious of the evils of disunion, and 
believing that the unity of the Church is agree- 
able to the will of God," urgentljr prayed the 
Australian bench of bishops to consider the whole 
question of Christian unity, and to approach the 
various Christian communions with an invitation 
to their leaders for united prayer and deliberation 
on the subject. The synod also considered a 
number of social questions, and passed resolutions 
expressing its mind on various questions, such as 
those of lotteries, gambling, street solicitation, 
the suppression of immorality, and Sunday rest 
for th e poli ce. 

ABChEOLOGY. American. — The Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History has undertaken 
the exploration, under the direction of Prof. Fred- 
erick \V. Putnam, of former Indian sites about 
New York city. One of the objects of the ex- 
ploration is to prepare a map showing the various 
towns, camp sites, and bunal places, and, bo far 
as possible, to trace out the historical Indian vil- 
lages. Another purpose is to bring together the 
domestic utensils, weapons, implements, and orna- 
ments of the different tribes who lived in the re- 
gion, and to make models of rock shelters and 
earthworks, so as to present as full a history as 
possible of the old Indian life in New York. Old 
Indian sites on Staten Island, Long Island, and 
Pelham Park, near Westchester, and at Croton 
have been explored, and considerable material has 
been secured from shell-heaps, village sites, and 
burial places. Pottery vessels, implements of 
stone and bone, pipes, and other pieces of native 
work, arrow points, ornaments of brass obtained 
during the early contact with white settlers, a 
number of Indian skeletons, and the bones of 
animals, including those of the Indian dog, have 
been secured. Numerous village sites, shell-heaps, 
rock shelters, and earth embankments have been 
described, photographed, and located on a map. 

Other work described in the report of this in- 
stitution for 1900 includes the continued explora- 
tion by Mr. Marshall H. Saville of the rums of 
Mitia, Yucatan, and its vicinity, with successful 
scientific results and the discovery of many im- 

Eortant facts relating to the* architecture of the 
uildings. Several cruciform structures were 
found, the walls of which were in several in- 
stances as elaborately ornamented with mosaic 
work as those of the great palaces. 

In his explorations of ancient tombs in the 
vicinity of Lake Titicaca, Mr. Adolphe Bandelier 
found many trephined skulls, together with speci- 
mens of pottery and other objects from tombs and 
village sites. By the large additions thus ob- 
tained, the museum's collection, showing different 
forms of trephining practised by the prehistoric 
Indians of Peru and Bolivia, is made one of great 
importance. 

In continuance of his explorations of the gla- 
cial gravel and other deposits of the Delaware 
Valley, N. J., in behalf of the American Museum 
of Natural History and under the patronage of 
Dr. F. G. Hyde, Mr. Ernest Volk has found a 
number of specimens of the handiwork of man 
under such conditions as show that they are of 



ARCHEOLOGY. (American.) 27 

great antiquity, and that they were contemporane- tinue his exploration. The three types of Arizo- 
ous with the formation of certain of these de- nian ruins, denominated caveate rooms, cliff 
po»it^ The evidence thus secured during many houses, and pueblos, were all found to be well 
Tears of research has made it impossible, accord- represented. The caveate rooms are burrowed in 
ing to the report of the museum, " for any one lava, generally in the top or sides of cinder-cones, 
familiar with the facts to doubt that man was The cliff houses, situated in Walnut CafLon, are 
living at the time of the deposit of these forma- small but topical. The pueblos occur in well- 
tions in the valley." Mr. Volk has secured re- preserved rums near Little Walnut river, and are 
mains of several human skeletons which were built of lava, sandstone, and limestone blocks, 
found at such great depths and under such con- Only a few of the ancient habitations dotting the 
ditions as to prove their very considerable an- country about Flagstaff are noted in the author's 
tiquity. He also obtained a large number of ob- preliminary account, but some of these are de- 
jects relating to the early Indian occupation of scribed in full, with details concerning the ar- 
the valley. rangement and character of the rooms. The 
A village site on Long Island, discovered by caveate rooms are excavated in lava or volcanic 
^Ir. Harrington and thoroughly examined, yielded breccia, and may be described as caveate rooms 
specimens of pottery, stone unplements, and other with vertical entrances and caveate rooms with 
objects, and several skeletons. lateral entrances. The former are well illustrated 
During a summer excursion in 1900 the curator by the *' old caves" one mile east of Flagstaff; 
of the museum, Prof. F. W. Putnam, visited New the latter by the " new caves " twelve miles east 
Mexico in connection with the work in anthropo- of the same place, and by caveate rooms one 
logical measurements, etc., of Mr. E. T. P. Hyde, half mile west of Turkey Tanks. The two types 
and for the purpose of making a comparative sur- are similar, and the former inhabitants were 
Tey of the ruins on the mesas and in the caHons apparently of about the same culture. The frag- 
in reference to their contemporaneity and their ments of pottery seen about the entrances to these 
greater or less antiquity. caves are identical with those found near the 
Archeological Institute of America. — The pueblo ruins in the neighborhood. It is inferred 
annual report of the Archeological Institute of that the cave inhabitants burrowed in the lava 
America, published in February, gave the number as the most practical means of constructing 
of members as 900, the largest* number in the his- dwellings which the region afforded. Free walls 
tory of the society, and the year*s income as were found in combination with the caves, but 
18,002. A balance remained in the treasury of they presented special distinctive characteristics. 
$1,S74, the principal part of which was pledged The builders simply used available building ma- 
te publishing the results of the Argive excava- terial and took advantage of geological condi- 
tions. Nineteen institutions had promised sup- tions. An arrangement in tiers was observed in 
port to the American school in Palestine, for the some of the " new caves " near Turkey Tanks. In 
opening of which sufficient means had now been some of these caveate rooms a combination of 
securea; and the director, Prof. Torrey, was at stone walls and excavated chambers was ob- 
Constantinople waiting for authority to go on served, the lateral separation of the rooms having 
with it. The school at Athens had been attended been made by a plastered wall of small boulders 
by 15 students. The Charles Eliot Norton fel- brought from the bottom of the adjacent depres- 
lowship, founded at Harvard University during sion. Walls seem also to have formerly existed 
the year for a scholar in some special subject at in front of the entrances to the caves, but they 
the school in Athens, yielded $600 a year. The have for the most part fallen. The pueblo ruins 
school at Rome had been attended by 24 students, near Black Falls, on the Little Colorado river, are 
9 of them women. A board of 7 trustees for the as a rule cubical, with rectangular rooms of one 
care of its finances had been constituted. It had or more stories. Curved walls are rare, although 
suffered a shrinkage in income, and was strait- in some instances the shape of the ruin follows tne 
ened. curvature of the mesa on which it stands. The 
The Saginaw Valley, Michigan. — Mr. Har- structures were built of sandstone and lava, and 
Ian I. Smith is publishing a paper serially in the the two varieties are found in close proximity. 
American Anthropologist embodying a summary The sites of some of these pueblos are unusually 
of the archeology of the Saginaw valley, Michi- high. It is not uncommon to find an entire mesa 
ean. The evidences, he says, on the extensive vil- top covered with rooms or surmounted by a wall 
lage sites and in the burial places, mounds, and perpendicular to the escarpment. The ground- 
other remains along the streams, suggest that the floor rooms had no external entrances, but where 
conditions of life in prehistoric times were similar there were several chambers side by side they 
to those which existed when the Indians were communicated with each other by doorways. The 
first met by the whites. His paper aims primarily highest walls of the pueblos are as a rule on the 
to summarize all the available data with refer- north and east sides — an arrangement which se- 
ence to every source of information; to publish cured a sunny exposure. One-story rooms at the 
ori^nal manuscript and other material not gen- base of the mesa, called basal rooms, are found in 
erally accessible; to include all clues and rumors, most of the ruins. They are now covered by rub- 
however vague, which might lead to further bish, but were once protected by the overhanging 
knowledge, and to classify all, in order that the edge of the mesa. They suggest cliff houses, and 
{nummary may serve as a field library for ready may be a survival of them. The walls of a build- 
reference in acquiring and recording further data ing called the citadel are made of blocks of lava 
on the subject. The author's personal contribu- and sandstone, covering the top of a truncated 
tion is based on observations and a collection be- elevation, and are arranged about a central court 
gun in 1883 — ^which was made in explorations that or plaza. In a cemetery near one of the groups of 
dealt chiefly with surface evidences. dwellings the graves were oval, commodious cysts 
Bains near Flagstaff, Arizona. — ^The results made of slabs of stone set on end and covered 
of cursory examinations of the ruins near Flag- with other stones. The upright stones were ce- 
staff, Arizona, made in 1890, are published by J. mented together with adobe. In one of them were 
Walter Fewkes in the American Anthropologist, the remains of a woman, lying upon her side. 
July-September, 1900, in a preliminary paper, it Near the body was a decorated food bowl, within 
being the author's intention to resume ana con- which were a smaller bowl, a decorated vase, and 



28 



ARCHEOLOGY. (Beitish— French.) 



a smaller food bowl. On the arm was an 
armlet of pectunculus shell. A remnant of a 
wooden prayer-stick, painted green, lay on the 
breast. The square ear pendants were of lignite 
covered with a turquoise mosaic surrounding a 
central stone. Four pieces of black and white pot- 
tery with geometric ornamentation were in the 
grave. While the author regards the racial and 
clan kinship of the former occupants of these 
pueblos as somewhat problematical, he thinks 
that they were quite likely kin to the Hopi. 

The Cliff-Dwellings. — The Colorado Federa- 
tion of Women's Clubs and the Colorado Cliff- 
Dwellers' Association, represented by Mrs. Gilbert 
McClurg, with the sanction of the Government of 
the United States, have obtained from Ignacio, 
chief of the Weeminuche Utes, the lease of the 
tract containing the Mesa Verde cliff-dwellings, 
for the purpose of setting it aside as a park. 
These Mesa Verde cliff-dwellings, which were ex- 
plored by Mrs. McClurg in 1881-82, after their 
first discovery and examination a few years be- 
fore by United States officers, cover an area 
20 miles long and 8 miles wide. The houses are 
usually about 100 feet below the top crags, and 
sometimes 1,000 feet from the bottom of the 
caflon, seemingly stuck on the side of the sand- 
stone wall and overhung by masses of rock. They 
are built and joined to the rock with remarkable 
skill, and are reached only by the most difficult 
paths. They number 400, some being in ruins 
and some in excellent preservation. One, called 
the Cliff Palace, contains 350. rooms. 

Mounds in South Dakota. — Excavations in a 
mound in Brown County, South Dakota, brought 
to light the bones of 9 persons, of some of which 
only the skulls were found, while of others bones 
enough were left to show that the persons were 
very tall. Beside the bones of one child was 
the skeleton of a dog. Stone pipes found near the 
bones were different from others that had been 
recovered from the Indian mounds of the region. 
They were not made of the red pipe-stone com- 
monly used, but of a very hard material, and in- 
stead of having an opening at the side for the 
stem, had a hole in the bottom. The earth of 
which the mound was made appears to have been 
due up and brought from a diBtance of 10 or 12 
rods. 

Buins in Salt Biver Valley, Arizona. — 
Work has been begun in the exploration of the 
extensive ruins in the Salt River valley, a few 
miles east of Phcenix, Arizona. They consist of 
a larse pile, about 25 feet high, 100 feet wide, and 
200 ^t long, surrounded by lesser mounds ex- 
tending half a mile northward, and toward the 
river in a southerly direction. The structures ap- 
pear to have been of adobe, by the weathering of 
the more exposed parts of which other parts have 
been protected against decay. Where thus pro- 
tected, the walls are from 12 to 18 inches in thick- 
ness. Some of the smaller mounds have been dug 
into and skeletons and various implements have 
been extracted from them; but the principal 
mound, where work is now begun, has been pro- 
tected by the Arizona Antiquarian Society, which 
has sought to prevent haphazard excavation. 

British. — The estimates of the age of Stone- 
henge vary widely. Mr. E. A. Maskelyne fixes its 
date at from 900 to 1,000 years b. c, while W. M. 
Flinders Petrie dates it as from 500 to 900 a. d. 
The earliest definite mention of it is in the thir- 
teenth century, by Henry of Huntington, who 
speaks of it under the name of " Stonenges " as 
the second wonder of England. An account by 
HecatfBus, of the sixth century B. c, of the cere- 
monies performed by the Hyperboreans of an 



island off the coast of Gaul in a circular temple 
of Apollo, is thought possibly to refer to it, and 
if so would be favorable to the earlier date. The 
results of recent researches also tend to confirm 
this date. Sir Edmund Antrobus, owner of the 
estate, has been making some excavations in co- 
operation with certain archeological associations, 
with a view to strengthening the positions of the 
stones. During this work a large number of stone- 
a^e implements and some *' sarsen " and sye- 
nite chippings have been found. The discovenes 
are interpreted as indicating that the monument 
dates back to the stone age, and that the stones 
were partly, if not wholly, dressed on the spot. 
The tools found consist of hammers and axes, and 
some of them are remarkably well formed. They 
are the first stone implements that have been 
found in the immediate vicinity of Stonehenge, al- 
though " sarsen " stone chippings and bronze 
tools had been found in some of the barrows of 
the district. 

Among the articles shown in the annual ex- 
hibition of objects recovered during the past 
season's excavations at Silchester, special men- 
tion is made of a large and well-preserved pad- 
lock, and an example of the farrier's tool known 
in France as a ** boutoir," and corresponding to 
the old farrier's " buttress." There were also 
parts of cooking utensils, several bucket handles, 
many carpenter's tools, some ingeniously fash- 
ioned candlesticks, and many well-shaped vessels 
in variously colored wares; numerous specimens 
of colored wall plaster, and a section of pave- 
ment combining the opus sectile with the opw 
tesaelatum. 

In a summary of the work done during 1900 in 
the investigation of Roman Britain, published in 
the Athenseum of Jan. 5, 1901, Mr. F. Hamfield 
speaks of three of the sit^s examined in 1899 — 
Widerspool, Melandra, and Ribchester — as having 
been left almost untouched, while Richborough, 
Cardiff, and Grelligaer had taken their place. Ex- 
plorations of Silchester, Caerwent, and Hadrian's 
wall had gone forward, and the Scottish Society 
of Antiquaries had completed Camelon and begun 
Lyne. At Silchester the neighborhood of the 
north ^ate had been examined, and more sub- 
stantial advance had been made in uncovering 
the whole of the 100 acres which lie within 
the ancient walls, the total excavation of the 
site being the chief point aimed at. Among the 
more remarkable finds in the ruins were tools 
(including some monstrous padlocks and a shoe- 
maker's stand) and a wooaen ladder in a well. 
At Caerwent the work had been continued in the 
southwestern quarter of the Romano- British 
town, and two inscribed fragments had been 
turned up. •Very little had tSen added to our 
knowledge of Romano-British villas, but sev- 
eral sites had been indicated. The fort at Rich- 
borough had yielded a fragment of an inscription 
and a silver ingot, stamped. Roman work had 
been discovered and examined at Cardiff and at 
Gelli^aer, 14 miles north, and minor finds were 
mentioned. The work on Hadrian's wall had 
yielded interesting results. The camp at Lyne, 
near Peebles, had been partly excavated, and ap- 
peared to have been at some time a definite 
Roman fort. 

French. — At the meeting of the French So- 
ciet^s Savantes, held at Nancy in April. M. Bletch- 
er, professor at Nancy, presented the result* 
of his studies of the remains of primitive mills, 
mortars, and pestles found in the region. They 
date from before the Romans, or even the iron 
age. The porphyry of which they are made is not 
found in the country, and must have been brought 



i 






ARCHBOLOGT. (Sc. 

iirdinarj way of commercial exchange from 
iderable distance. 

idlnaTiuL. — A book on the Kitchen Mid- 
of the Stone A^e in Denmark, published 
iienhagen, contains the contributions of 
•choiars who have been making studies of 
lepoBits during the past eight years, invea- 
g the subject from the points oi view of 
, geology, zoology, as well as of arche- 
In these papers the theory is confirmed 
le middens are representative of the stone 
all its periods but the latest. They are 
>T the water-line, and consist chietly of 
shells cast there after eating, with reiiinunts 
er articles of food. Remains of the dog 
ind there as the only domestic aniiual of 
aple to whom they appertained. Two of 
-fintained human skeletons, sometimes in 
:one colKns. Great numbers of articles in 
iod clay taken from them have been de- 



r->-RoMAN.) 29 

An inscription found during the excavations at 
the l<'orum in lOOU seemed to identify the ruins 
under the Church of Santa Maria Liberatrice as 
those of Santa &Iaria Antiqua. When the former 
church was torn down, the ruins of another were 
found a little behind it, in such a position that 
while Santa Maria Liberatrice stood outside the 
Palatine, the newly excavated church, that of 
Santa Alaria Antiqua, is inside it, with its en- 
trances facing the Forum. " As we go through 
the grand portal to read the new inscription," 
says Mr. William J. D. Croke in the Catholic 
Standard and Times, " we observe Christian and 
pBgBE coffins — the latter will have been adapted 
to Christian burial — bones and skulls, broken 
earthenware of all kinds, a profusion of marble 
of varied sorts and colors, broken capitals and 
painted pillars, all on the ground. Still standing 
are high and noble walls, decorated all over with 
Christian paintings; the perfect form of a Chris- 







&»^-^ 





Remains of cooking 
have been found, but none of dwellings. 
OS of several extinct animals and birds were 
the contents of the middens. The papers 
n full information concerning the species 
'» that flourished during the period of the 
IS. based on examination of the charcoal. 
lan. — At Bosco Reate, at the foot of Iklount 
iu^. private excavations are conducted by 
?puty di Priseo, owner of the Villa Fasa- 
under his own villa and upon an adjoining 
ty. A Roman villa has been discovered, 
i^ adorned with " beautiful and very inter- 
■' frescoes, in a slate of preservation dc- 
I as '■ superb," and of a style of picture 
ha^ not been found before in a Poinpeian 
The drawings are of houses of several 
, and views which, barring defects in pcr- 
e, were the work of good artists. 



tian basilica, the remains of the sanctuary, the 
apse entire, the very altar steps, the most sacred 
symbols in the apse. Had the history of early 
medieval Christian painting been unknown, it 
could have been made up by an inspection of this 
Christian Pompeii." Among the paintiugs are 
many of the ^ irgin. and a Crucifixion is espe- 
cially spoken of. On a slab of eight sides in the 
ambo or sacred enclosure are two inscriptions, 
one of which reads. " Johannes iKrvut »cm Uarim," 
which is translated, " John, the Senant of our 
Ijidv." while the translation given of the other 
is " The Gift of ,Tohn, the Servant of the Mother 
of God." The Greek crosses preceding the in- 
scriptions and their general style are paralleled 
in the inseriptionH of Pope John VIII [n the crypt 
of St. I'eter's. The Liber Pontificalis relates that 
this Pope John (A.n. 705-707} decorated tlie 
basilica of the !Mothcr of God with paintings. 



30 ARCHEOLOGY. (Geecian— Cretan.) 

Climbing a winding staircase leading from this While Cnossus is and must always be the 

church toward the south, the explorer reaches, on chief center of archeological and artistic inter- 

a lofty eminence, the palace of Caligula, the north- est in Crfete, it has suffered so greatly by spolia- 

emmost projection of the palaces of the Caesars, tion that its remains exist in an imperfect and 

which appears to have become a papal palace dilapidated state, so the practised eye of the sci- 

under Pope John. These discoveries eo far to entinc student is necessary to convey an adequate 

confirm De Rossi's theory of a general dedication comprehension of their meaning; while there are 

of pagan edifices in this region, or a supplanting other ruins in more retired parts of the island 

of them, by Christian structures. which, although originally less sumptuous and 

Qrecian. — In a critical discussion of certain elaborate, havmg escaped the destruction which 
Greek masterpieces recently discovered, Dr. has fallen upon the ancient capital, give more 
Charles Waldstein pronounces a bronze Hermes edification to the ordinaiy visitor. Such a site is 
which was found in the sea off Cerigo to be a described by Mr. D. C. Uogarth as having been 
work of Praxiteles or his school ; a wrestler in explored by him at Phsestos, on the south side of 
marble, of the same find, 'to be strikingly like a the island, where the ruin covers a promontory of 
Parthenon metope now destroyed, but known the rock. The palace is contained in a large reet- 
through a drawing by Jacques Carrey, in work- angle, very plainly to be made out, and although 
manship of the Rhodian or Pergaraene schools and taking the place of an earlier structure, is defined 
Lysippan in type; a bronze statue found near as bemg of one character and period — "that of 
Pompeii which was at first regarded as an original the acme of the Mycenaean age in Greece." 
by Polyclitos to belong rather to the archeistic Seen from a terrace on the northern approach, 
revival of Pasiteles ; while he characterizes the the ruin is distinguished into three main quarters, 
charioteer which was excavated at Delphi and the On the left, a broad stairway descends to a spa- 
Hermes from Cerigo as " the finest ancient Greek cious paved court containing an altar and tiers 
bronzes in existence." of stone seats built up against the rock, as if to 

Cretan. — In the continued exploration of the hold an assembly. The main building flanks this 
ruins at Cnossus by Mr. Arthur J. Evans during court on the east, and, being raised high above 
the season of 1900-1901 the palace proved to be it, is entered by a flight of steps described as "truly 
far more extensive than he had supposed. In majestic," ana extending the full width of the pil- 
the eastern quarter, three flights of stone stairs, lared hall at their head. The entrance without is 
one below the other, had been discovered, leading on the opposite side, where a second and larger 
down to a columnar hall with walls rising about paved court extends to the brink of the precipice, 
twenty feet. The staircase was flanked above and From this court entrance is given to the pU- 
below by a breastwork showing the sockets of the lared vestibule and main hall, and also to a 
original wooden columns, so that with this double double rank of galleries and a maze of small 
tier of colonnades the hall (which seems to have chambers to southward which form the third 
been partly hypethral) must have presented quarter. The walls and doors of this great court 
somewhat the appearance of an Italian Renais- are well preserved, and a comprehensive view of 
sance palace. Even at Pompeii no such stair- the various blocks is easily obtained, suggesting 
cases one over the other had yet been brought to their uses. " Here were the living and sleeping 
light. Among the individual finds were a mag- rooms of men, there of women. Their common 
nificent draught-board of ivory plated with gold ; hall of assembly occupies half of another side ; the 
crystal plaques backed by silver and blue enamel ; store galleries for the produce of the plain fill 
and the lid of an alabastron finely engraved with the other half. In the chambers to the south they 
the name and divine titles of Khyan, the Hyk- bathed, worshiped, and lodged their retainers and 
SOS king, whose monuments are rare in Egypt • their beasts." The structures were made of an ex- 
itself. Other objects suggested connection with cellent limestone, which has retained its sharp 
Arabia and Babylonia. A further store of in- and square outlines, while the gypsums of Cnos- 
scribed tablets was found, as well as additional sus have crumbled, so that they give a more con- 
wall-paintings, besides fragments of human fig- vincing general impression; but Phaestos is far 
ures in painted stucco relief. The modeling of inferior m details to Cnossus. " The elaborate 
the limbs and muscles and the minute delineation friezes, the sculptured frescoes, and the delicate 
of the veins in these figures seemed to Mr. Evans plaster relief of Cnossus were never here. . . . 
more in keeping with the spirit of the Italian The noble shell was decorated only in the rudest 
Renaissance than with classical antiquity. One manner." The objects found are of inferior inter- 
raale head wore a crown having a succession of est; and of the things which give the relics of 
fleur-de-lis, with an upright one in the center. Cnossus such rare importance, none have been 

The tradition that Crete had a hundred cities found, 
is regarded by Mr. D. G. Hogarth, in view of the Explorations have been made in the eastern 
discoveries that have recently been made, as prov- end of the island, in hope of discovering re- 
ing not altogether vain. Remains of primitive mains of the Eteocretans. A second inscription, 
settlements, too considerable to have been mere in a non-Greek language but Greek script, has 
villages, are coming to light, he says, at far more been found at Phasstos, containing more words 
points of the Cretan coast than bear a name in than the former one, broken and imperfect; but 
classical atlases. There are half a dozen such in nothing has come to light in the primitive script, 
a part only of the eastern half isle. So far as Excavations at Gorynia, on the Gulf of Mira- 
searched at present, these towns show little or bello, under the direction of an American lady, 
no sign of having continued into the historic Miss Harriet A. Boyd, of the American School at 
period. Their civilization was blotted out with Athens, have laid bare what Mr. Hogarth speaks 
the Mycenaean domination. The succeeding of as the most perfect example yet aiscovered of 
class of remains is found for the most part a small Mycenaean town, uncontaminated with 
higher up inland, on difficult heights or in remote later remains. Two narrow and tortuous paved 
gorges. " The coastal plains were secure no streets have been laid bare, here and there ascend- 
longer. An age of seafaring and communication ing by flights of steps, on both sides of which 
between ancient seats of luxurious life had given house's of stone with party walls of brick are pre- 
way to one of local and jejune development. But served to a considerable height. These two streets 
why and how we may only guess." converge toward a large building of fine masonry. 



\ 



ABCHEOLOQY. (BanruN.) 



31 



highest point of the knoll. WhUe almoBt 
ling in preciouB metal has vaniBhed from 
uildiuip, numeroua weapons, tools, and ves- 
r bronze remain in them. Among the 
Jaj vessels are complete specimens of tfpea 
isly infertal from fragments only; and 

the chambers ia one the objects and aym- 

which indicate that it was a small shrine. 

Bojd has given an account before the 
Jogickl Institute of America of lier explora- 

May. 1900, of the site of Kavouai, on the 
end of the narrow isthmus that connects 
cith the coast of Crete. The discoveries, 
in spots bearing characteristic names, are a 
id's house of thirteen rooms, with a ne- 
a of small tholos tombs in the neighbor- 
the walU, visible above tbe ground, of a, 
ig called the citadel; a beehive tomb; and 
p of three sets of walls representing three 
I of conalruction. The articles found in 
iiina consisted mostly of doiaeatic uteneila, 
i with designs in the geometrical style, 
limal figures in terra cotta. A thin bronze 
ras found in the beehive tomb, engraved in 
.executed design of Oriental motive and 
a style. The field of the design was divided 
anda after the Oriental fashion, and filled 
sphinxes having back-turned hel meted 
griffins with outstretched necks, and a re- 
; combiuation of a. man with one or two 
ampant. Individual expression was given 
h figure, 
^akro. Mr. Hogarth found remains, though 

large quantity, which he characterizes as 
iting all tbe immense interi-al between the 
nic and Hellenic ages. While most of the 
IS in the plain of Lower Zakro belong to 
oie of the Mycensan age, discarded ves- 
i clay and stone belonging to a previous 
were found tilling a pit in the Iimcstoae 

Vases in a delicate painted fabric of the 
type as the " Kam&res " ware of mid-Crete 
td here. The eaves about the plain had 
ised for sepulture in an age verging on the 
hie. The native objects from ail these 
s were mixed with elements of outside 

"parallel to things Cypriote and Egyp- 

Tbc houses of the town, with party walls 
■k, but true Cyclopean outer walls, were of 
size, one containing more than 20 cham- 
ind yielding more than 70 vases, besides 
fragments and objects in silver, bronze, and 

In one building, which belonged to a large 
of connected blocks, were found two in- 
I tablets in primitive script, a deposit of 
' implements and vases, and hundreua of im- 
ms of lost signets, lying in a heap aa if 
contained in a box, and representing laO 
te types — so well preserved that it has been 
ie to take casts of them for study in Eng- 

general result of east Cretan exploration 
ar is summarized by Mr. Hogarth as seem- 
Icely to establish the fact that the Pan- 
1 civilization which it ia agreed to call 
a«D was foreign in that part of the island ; 
liat the native civilization, existing before 
■incident with it, was much ruder, and per- 
>f a different character from that of mid- 

'ptlau. — The continued excavations at 
ps among the tombs of the first Egyptian 
Lies during the winter of 1000-lDOl vielded 
I of no less interest than those of the pre- 
year: and in March Prof. Petrie could 



some four hundred ^ 
writing wa( 

rude and pictorial stage, down to the c< 
of delicately figured hieroglyphics, indistinguish- 
able from those in use for thousands of years 
later. ^V'e have now in our hands the beautifully 
wrought jewelry and gold work, the minutely en- 
graved ivories, the toilet objects of 3Ienes, the 
founder of the monarchy, and his successor, fash- 
ioned more than sixty-five hundred years ago." 
Nearly thirty inscriptions and labels of Menes 
and his predecessors in stone and ivory had been 
recovered, from which were certainly learned the 
names of three kings — Narmer, Ka, and a name 
written with a fish sign. Among the works of 
Menes were parts of four ebony tablets with fig- 
ures and inscriptions, one apparently showing a 
human sacrifice, and a masitive strip of gold of 
unknown ui^e, with the name of Jloneii (Aha) 
upon it. Tbe forearm of the queen of Zer, the suc- 




able 



lo tra 



' development of the civilization during 



ceasor of Menes, had been broken off by the first 
plunderers of the tomb and laid in a hole in the 
wall; and was found still in its wrappings, with 
four splendid bracelets intact. One of theae brace- 
lets consisted of a series of figures of the royal 
hawk perched on the tomb. 13 figures in chased 
gold alternating with 14 carved in turquoise. The 
second bracelet was of apiral beads of gold and 
lazuli in three groups. TTie third bracelet was of 
four grnuna of hourglass beada, amethyst be-- 
tween gold, with connections of gold and tur- 
quoise. The fourth had a center piece of gold 
copied from the rosette seed of a plant, with 
amethyst and turquoise beads and bands of 
braided ^old wire. " This brilliant and exqui- 
sitely finished group of jewelry," says Prof. Petrie. 
" shows what a high level was already attained at 
the beginning of the first dynasty. It is two 
thousand yeors older than the jewelry of Dashur. 
the oldest yet known, and it has the great advan- 
tage of being carefully examined as found, and 
restruttg in its exact arrangement." Forty in- 
aeribed pieces of ivory and stone, and two lions 
carved in ivory, of King Zer, were found; also the 
great royal tombstone was recovered in pieces and 
rejoined. About 60 private tombstones gave the 
names in use in the roval household, '' many 
formed from the goddess fieith. but not one from 
Isis." A dozen inscribed ivories of King Den. the 
fifth of the first dynasty, were found, including 
the handle of the royal measuring cord. Also an 
impress of a beautiful royal seal, showing tiic 



32 ARCHEOLOGY. (Egyptian.) 

king wrestling with a hippopotamus and spear- the type of these peoples, with the forehead high, 
ing a crocodue. About 20 private tombstones the nead pointed, and the general character 
of this reign have also been recovered, with much closely like that of the Libyo-Amorites. The 
elaborately carved slate and bows and arrows, second civilization of the prehistoric age, as Prof. . 
The tomb of Perabsen, of the second dynasty, Petrie defined it (from 6000 B.C. to 5000 b. c), i 
yielded a large tombstone of the king carved m was distinguished by high mechanical skill shown | 
syenite, and the names of his three predecessors — in the marvelous working in flint, which was un- « 
Hotep-ahaui, Ra-Neb, and Neteron, the same as equaled by any later race in its regularity and j 
they are .given on the small granite statue No. 1, perfect control. A like skill was shown in the I 
at the Cairo Museum — carved oij stone bowls, regular forms of the stone vases, and in the pot- m 
Perabsen appears, therefore, to have been the tery. Copper was increasing in use, and the forms p 
fourth king of the dynasty, and his successor was of tools were i>eing evolved. The connection of « 
probably Kha-sekhemmi, whose tomb has been this second civilization with the East was hinted %: 
mostly cleared. From it were recovered the royal at by the use of forehead pendants and probably f 
scepter, formed of cylinders of sard held together face veils, as with the Arabs, and by the introduc- i 
by a copper rod in the axis, and with gold bands tion of amulets, unknown before, which are Sem- I 
at intervals; of which 28 inches in length remain, itic rather than Libyan. The worship of these ■ 
while the lower end is lost; also 7 stone vases people seems to have been that of the serpent, of | 
with gold covers fastened on with twisted gold which several coiled images are known. The I 
wire, 2 gold bracelets, 20 copper dishes, dozens of games have been preserved in some tombs ; among i 
•copper models of tools, copper axes, fruit-knives, them a game of ninepins ; one with four lions and * 
and a perfect dish of dionte. a hare; and games with balls and counters. I 

The rise and development of Egyptian civili- Certain paintings show that the people used laige - 
nation and art have been more fully treated by ships ; and the foreign pottery imported shows that ■ 
Prof. Petrie in lectures on those subjects at the they had intercourse with the rest of the Medi- { 
Royal Instijtution and before the Society of Arts, terranean. Carved slate palettes are among the ■ 
From considerations based upon the rate of depo- most important early monuments, or down to the ■ 
sition of the mud in the Nile valley, the au- time of Narmer, who was just before Menes. The - 
thor concludes that the end of paleolithic man animals represented upon them are interpreted as ^ 
and the beginning of civilization in that region emblems oi tribes. In some instances towns are pi^ " 
can not have taken place earlier than about 7000 tured as attacked by these animals, some of which 
B. c, for previous to that period the valley was a are striking picks into the walls. Another slate 
rocky gorge, and only wild beasts and a popula- shows a long procession of warriors bearing dif- 
tion of himters could nave existed where there was ferent weapons. A slate, evidently one of the 4 
no possibility of agriculture. Evidence has been latest of the series, assigned to the time of King 
found that paleolithic man was in Xhe country Narmer, presents the conventional ^ouping of I 
•down to a period when the Nile was nearly as king and captive, already established m the same 
low as it is now. No attempt is made to esti- form which lasted down to the Roman dominion, 
mate how long he might have been there before The reverse shows that the united force of Egypt ; 
that. A scale of sequences has been drawn up was composed of three very different races — the : 
from a comparison oi the contents of tombs and long-haired, the bearded, and the usual shaven 
rubbish heaps, especially of the pottery, compris- Egyptian of late times. The triumph they cele 
ing fifty periods, to which it is possible to re- brate is over a bearded people, who wore bulls' 
fer the objects found. By this means it has skins and horns on the head. A strong contrast 

was m-esented between prehistoric and dynastic 
art. The former was at its best far inferior to the 
rough work of the later people, while in mechan- % 
ical ability the later people snowed no marked im- 
provement, and in some respects, as in flint work, 
they never reached the prehistoric level. The first 
line of writing is on the tablets of the offerings at 
the funeral of Mena. During the reigns before 
his, no continuous inscriptions have been found, 
and signs are only used sparingly to explain fig- 
ures and scenes. By his time most of the con- 
ventions were established, and under his suc- 
cessor, Zer, the final crystallization of art took 
place, and no essential change occurred till its 
A BRACELET FROM THE ARM OF THE QUEEN OF ZER-TA, "^al decaj, fivc thousaud ycars later. In the ^ 

4700 B. o. reign of King Zer the facility of design in a defi- 

nite school became complete; and the seated fig- 
been possible to carry the research with tolerable ures of the king and the outline of the royal 
■exactness during the period hitherto regarded as hawk differ from all later works only by a severe 
mythical. The oldest graves known in Egypt are dignity, which was rapidly lost afterward. The 
those of a settled pastoral people, and yield pot- technical ability shown in the manufacture of the ' 
tery and small Quantities of copper. *No trace jewelry lately discovered has never been exceeded 
of the potter's wneel appeared in the whole pre- since. The linen of that age, as compared with 
historic period. The first steps in art were seen modem fine cambric, shows a finer thread and 
in white clay paintings on red pottery vases — a closer warp. The earliest statuary we have is 
usually figures of goats, but sometimes of larger of this age, and shows a high proficiency and com- 
jinimals and human beings. The ivory and bone pleteness of design which prove that we have yet 
<'arvings of the heads of camels were singular and to recover many earlier stages. These arts suf- 
ingenious. and belonged to the earlier period. The fered decline afterward. 

■canning of slate palettes in animal forms began The assignment of the four kings whom Prof, 
at its best in almost the earliest graves, and then Petrie calls predynastic, or of the " O dynasty," 
underwent continued degradation. A bust of a as he designates it, to a period before Menes, has 
man about half through the prehistoric age shows not been accepted without question. M. Foucart 




ABCHBOLOOT. (Eoti 



"■) 



ight. in a commuDication to the Acad^mie 
st-riptiona, to ahou on linguistic grounds 
le of the number Naniier was really that 
i whom Manetbo makea the Sritt kin^ of 



lutrlieat l>}'naati«« referring 




bt in the identifications by Prof Petiie ob- 
Ihat " it would seem to be wiser to treat 
■ntiRcation of Aha with Menea aa not yet 

John Garatanc, of the Egyptian ReseBreh 
it. reported, May 5 the ton pletion of tht 
tion of the tombs of Neter Kha known as 
ild^T of the step pyramid at Sakkara and 
successor, whose name is read Hen kliet 
mbs are situated westward from Girga and 
lerstnicture of the larger tomb is Msible in 
■pother from the farther aide of the Nile, 
riginal approach to the chamber of this 



60 feet below the level ol the desert. This 
e was stopped, after the burial of the 
>y single large stones placed at intervals in 
underers had, however, found their way 
, and carried off the treasure, but left many 
if archeolf^cal value; and it was by fol- 
their tracts that the explorers gained an 
!v. The entrances to the 18 chambers 
[rewed. so that it was very diflicult to pass 
e from one to another, with hundreds of 
of alabaster, bowls of diorite. breccia, and 
itonea. and jars Ihat had been filled with 
ind ofTerin^s. The impressed aealinga re- 
several chief officers and stewards of the 
vitb one of Perabsen, whom he apparently 
led; and two of the royal mother, Rap-n- 
The official title of the king is recorded 
ins of Upper and Lower Egypt. Uniter of 
o Egypta, Neter-Khe, the Golden (a w b)." 
anis name is the same. To the east of the 
ifere several mastabaa of this king's chief 
ts. The plana of these tombs, though they 
oeval, provide in themselves a remarkable 
I*. Thej link the type prevailing in the 
; times with thia large tomb, foreahad owing 
tte for masHive grandeur that prevailed at 



the beginning of the pyramid age North of this 
ita superatructure riaing in atepa and aimilar in 
des gn to the pyramid of his predecessor is the 
tomb of the kinL whose name seems to read Hen 
khet This tomb also had been plundered but the 
head and remains of the k ng w tli muth of the 
t I f imiture and some straps of the jewels 
V, " r 't Nl"- Garstang from se\eral con 

t as ] robable that both of 
the hltl erto unrepresented 
y>tian history but it la not 
I I Ic to identify the names with 

those on the traditional 
lists He IS of the opinion 
likeuise that the tombs 
■re near tl e site of his 
tone This 

L\ pi orations of the pyr 
am ids near '^akkarah 
where evcaiations were 
lamed on between 18H1 
and ISHG have beeq re 
sumed by Prof O Maa 
)>ero who will giie special 
attention to the chapels 
enclosures etc attached 
to each pyramid Some 
successful work has been 
done at the pyramid of 
Unas agaii st great diffi 
culties from the deep ac 
umulation of rubbish in 
tie course of whuh a 
grave of a person named 
riHT bamnofu intact and sev 

eral mummy pits of the 
Baltic penod haie been found In the mummy 

Elt of Psammetik the walls of the funereal cham 
:r are covered with texts from the ancient collec 
tion of magic formulas 

The results of three stasona of survejs and 
making drawings and tracings and copying in 
scnttiona in one of the tombs on the west side 
of the f>i1e opposite Thebes have been published 
by Mr Percj E Newberry in the Life of Rekhma 
Ra % izter of L pper Egypt offering an inipor 
tant record of bureaucratic life in the time of the 
eighteenth dynasty. The vizier <Zat) was de- 
scended from a family of oflicials, his uncle, grand- 
father, and great-grandfather having held the 
same positions, and other relatives other offices of 
slate. He is supposed to have been bom during 
the reign of Hatasu, and was brought up " a priest 
of the goddess Maat, the goddess of law." Be- 
sides occupvnng the post of vixjer. he was "kov- 
evnor of Thebes," " chief justice," " steward of 
Amen," and " n^tulator of all the art works of 
Amen " in Kamak. The scene depicting his lite aa 
vizier shows the court as a long building attached 
to the temple of Amen, open at one end and sup- 
ported by two rows ol columns, with a daia at the 
upper end, on which the vizier sat. An inscrip- 
tion describes him as " the vizier governor of 
Thebes and the soutliem towns in the divan of 
the vizier." He is depicted as wearing hia judicial 
robes, and having in front of him the ken mat, a 
sign of the highest judicial office. The " super- 
intendent of the court " stands on hia right, and 
the "guardian of those coming in" on his left; 
a collection of forty rolls of the law, " the books 
of knowledge." containing former decided cases, 
is before him ; the jury of " the members of the 
council of the southern tens and the acriijea and 
reporters stand in ttl'o rows on each side of him; 
and the porters and " two swift messengers " are 
at the doors. Another picture represents the 
vizier on his way to the court in the morning. 



34 . ARCHEOLOGY. (Palestine.) 

with many poor people crowding round him, and antiquities, largely from Abydos, were also di«* 

the accompanying inscription reads : ** The going tributed. 

forth through the land m the early morning to Among the papyri from the Fayum identified 
grant the daily favors and listen to the words by the explorers and translators of the Graeco- 
of the people, without showing any distinction be- Roman branch of the Egypt Exploration Fund 
tween small and great." The " keeper of the is a copy of the romance The Loves of Chserea» 
seal" was associated with the vizier in his state and Callirhoe, by Chariton. It was found, to- 
duties, and the two together visited the palace gether with documents dated in the reigns of 
every day to pay their respects to the king. A Commodus and Caracalla, and the handwriting 
list IS given of the Government officers who had corresponds with that of this period, not later 
to report to the vizier. He seems to have had than tne second century, a. D. It is inferred that 
supervision of the inland revenue and home a book to be known then at a village in the 
office, of the boards of trade and agriculture, the Fayum must have been written at a much earlier 
" regulation of canals " and of " the duties of period ; while in the uncertainty respecting Chari- 
steersmen and pilots on the Nile," of the work- ton's date, the dictionaries have assumed that he 
men attached to the Temple of Kamak, of the flourished not earlier than the fifth century. The 
duties of the minister of the fine arts, etc. In text, according to the Rev. W. C. \\fin8low, 
two large scenes depicting the collection and in- American representative of the Egypt Exploration 
spection of taxes, the commodities subject to Fund, tends to confirm the authority of the Flor- 
duty are enumerated and accurately pictured, a entine text of this work of the thirteenth century ; 
very noticeable feature of the representation beins " and the general result may be said to prove that 
that of the beads or ring money of gold paid the copies of the classics made at Byzantium—, 
as tithes. Each portion of the taxes is brought perhaps a thousand years after Greek literature 
in by a deputation consisting of the mayor, the had a place in Western Europe — were of a remark- 
registrar, tne surveyor, and the scribe. Among ably uncorrupted text." 

the articles are " 500 pigeons," baskets, and coils The work of the Ernst Sieglin Expedition at 

of rope. As minister of the fine arts, the vizier Alexandria has been carried on by the architects 

had the duty ** of inspecting all the handicrafts Au^st Thiersch and Ernst Flechter, and the 

and teaching each man his duty according to the archeologists, Alfred Schiff and Herrmann 

manner of all occupations." Every detail of the Thiersch. The Herren Thiersch, father and son, 

work of gold and silver smiths, cabinet-makers, have been mainly occupied with the remains of 

sculptors, and bronze workers is depicted. the Serapaeum, the foundations of which were par- 

The tomb of Tehuti, who made the decorations tially discovered and laid bare by Giuseppi Botti. 

of the great temples of Kamak and of Deir-el- Results have been obtained which will consider- 

Bahari, is near that of Rekh-ma-Ra, and was ex- ably modify earlier speculations. An unexpected 

plored by the Marc^uis of Northampton in 1898. find was the discovery of two magnificent sub- 

This artist was skilled in massive and in deli- terranean burial places (in the quarters Sabbari 

cate work, having both executed the creat bronze and Kom-es-Schugafa) richly adorned with wall- 

and electrum gates of Kamak, and fabricated paintings. Some sculptured reliefs discovered in 

the collars and necklaces of the favorites of the the same place are said to give " a new impression 

king. of Alexandrian art." 

The Egypt Exploration Fund has published the Palestine. — A room in the Govemment school, 
first part of the description of the tomb of Ptah- just inside of Herod's gate at Jerusalem, has been 
hetep, and his son Aukh-hetep, of the fifth dy- set aside as a. museum for the objects found in 
nasty, at Sakkara, with careful plans and draw- the excavations of the Palestine Exploration 
ings by Mr. N. de G. Davies. The tomb is a very Fund, and the articles have been numbered and 
large one, with many chambers and corridors, and catalogued. In one of the cases are 101 exam- 
has the walls decorated with hunting scenes and pies of pre-Israelite pottery, and in another 184 
representations of the pastoral life of the nobles specimens of Seleucidean ware. Besides these are 
of the period, and of sports and pastimes. The pottery figurines, gems, tablets, scarabs, and oh- 
reproductions of decorative work in these paint- jects of bronze, iron, bone, stone, and glass, and a 
ings are mentioned as being especially interesting, collection of coins. Although small, this museum 
and as bearing evidence that Egyptian decorative is unique in that it contains the only full collec- 
art derived its inspiration from textile work. tion from which the history of Palestinian pot- 

A book on Greek Ostraka from Egypt and Nu- tery may be studied from pre-Israelite to Roman 

bia, published by Prof. U. Welchen, contains 1,624 times. 

inscriptions from clav tablets in Greek, Arabic, A mosaic, described as a work of art of high 

etc., brought from Egypt and preser^ ed in the order, found in March in the grounds of a Jewish 

Berlin, Paris, London, Rome, and Tuiin collec- colony northward of the city of Jemsalem, near 

tions and in various private libraries. These m- the Damascus Gate, is of heathen design. It bears 

scriptions shed light on life in Egypt from B.C. figures of Orpheus playing the harp, with Pan 

300 to A. D. 700. The Jews appear from them to and a centaur beneath him. A frame or border 

have been in charge of most of the tax collec- around this group is composed of omamentally 

tions in Egypt. The name Jairus, mentioned in entwined branches enclosing other figures. Be- 

the New Testament, occurs in them. Heathen neath this are two women around whom is an in- 

priests are called elders. scription in Greek letters — " Theodosia " and 

A large number of papyri, including the oldest " Georgia." This is the second mosaic that has 

known texts of Plato, Aristotle, Herodotus, De- been found within a few years in this neighbor- 

mosthenes, Xenophon, Euclid, the Iliad, the Odys- hood ; but others, among which is the map of 

sey, etc., have been presented recently to Ameri- Palestine, from Madeba, have been found on the 

can universities and museums by the Egypt Ex- other side of the Jordan. 

ploration Fund. Among these are the oldest ex- When, sixteen years ago, the Didache was sub- 

tant text of St. Matthew, which becomes the jected to critical analysis, scholars surmised that 

property of the University of Pennsylvania, and the first part of it had been a separate work, 

a text of St. Paul that of Harvard University. They recognized in it the treatise to which patris- 

The papyri treat of legal, medical, social, and busi- tic waiters often alluded as The Two Ways, 

ness matters of almost every kind. A number of This work has recently been discovered, and has 



ARCHEOLOGY. (Babylonian and Assyrian— Mashoi^land.) 35 

been edited by Dr. Schlect, and published under there lies a lon^ and uninterrupted chain of de- 

the title Doctrina XII Apostolorum una cum an- velopment covering thousands of years; and that 

tiq|ua Versione Latina prius partis de Duabus these two powerful rulers of the fourth millennium 

Vila. The manuscript is of the eleventh century, before Christ, far from leading us back to the 

and suggests that the original may have been of dawn of civilization, are at the best but two 

pre-Christian- Jewish origin, adapted to the uses prominent figures from a middle chapter of the 

of the composer of the Didache. history of Babylonia." Notices have been found 

At Tel Sandahannah, the explorations of the of about twelve kings who reigned before Sargon. 

Palestine Elxploration Fund, unaer Dr. F. J. Bliss, An account of the educational system of the 

have resulted in the discovery of figures and tab- ancient Babylonians as revealed by certain tablets 

lets which are regarded by the Orientalists who which are apparently of the nature of students* 

have examined them as connected with the prac- exercise books, has been contributed to the tSo- 

tioe of witchcraft. Sixteen nude figurines in lead ciety of Biblical Archeology by Mr. T. G. Pinches, 

of men and women having their hands and feet In the system of study thus indicated as followed 

bound in complicated fetters and writhing in by young students were found the single wedge 

agony, supposed by Dr. Bliss to represent captives, corresponding to the " pothooks and nangers " 

are pronounced by M. Clermont-Ganneau to stand of modem days, lists of characters, extracts from 

for persons against whom incantations were di- bilingual lists and syllabaries, practice in writing 

rected. About 50 small stone tablets in the Greek names of men and countries, together with titles 

inscriptions are decided by Prof. Sayce to be of ofi^cials, phrases used in trade documents, and 

magical charms and incantations. In their ex- extracts from legends, which seem to have fur- 

planations the authors refer to the practice in the nished, as it were, the finish to a certain course 

old magic of making a figure in wax (or in the of study. Other scribes wrote out, as practice, 

other soft and readily melting substance, lead) of extracts from various bilingual lists — wooden 

the person to be bewitched, and melting it be- objects, lists of plants, vessels, etc., preceded by 

fore the fire or piercing it with needles or pins. i^n extract from an incantation and perhaps from 

Babylonian and i^syrian. — Three important a list of temples. Mr. Pinches had succeeded in 

discoveries in Babylon are announced in a pam- identifying one of the tablets written out by an 

{>hlet by Friedrich Delitzsch, Feb. 1, 1901 : 1. The ancient Babylonian student and found that it was 

ocation of the Marduk temple, Esagila, described part of an incantation invoking the aid of the 

by Herodotus and referred to frequently in Baby- god Ea to restore to health a person suffering 

Ionian inscriptions, under the mound known as irom some disorder. The tablet contained some 

Amram. 2. The great procession street which curious and interesting expressions, particularly 

was rebuilt by Nebuchadrezzar and named Aibur- in that part of it called the Prayer of Life. The 

shabu, of the pavement of which slabs of lime- afflicted man was to be relieved by the food which 

stone have been found bearing the inscription, was placed near his head, so that he might live 

" Nebuchadrezzar, King of Babylon, son of Nabo- and his foot might " stand on the ground of life." 

polassar, am I. The street of Babylon I have He was the son of his god, an expression con- 

SLved gloriously for the procession of the god nected by the late George Bertin with the ** sons 
arduk, the great god, with tablets of limestone, of God " of Gen. vi, 2, which he regarded as ex- 
Lord Marduk, crant everlasting life! " The plaining the biblical passage referred to This 
determination of the position of tnis street has man, therefore, being one of the faithful, the 
also led to the determination of the position of eye which looked at him ill was seemingly to be 
the wall, Imgur-Bel, the great inner wall of cast dow^n. (This part of the tablet is defective.) 
Babylon. The third discovery is that of the tem- From the enormous number of baked-clay tab- 
pie E-neach, the sanctuary of the goddess Nin- lets and fragments from the ruins of Nineveh and 
mach. the giver of fertility. It is in the ruin Babylon preserved in the British Museum, a selec- 
mound of Kasr, about the center of the Babylo- tion is to be made, under the authority of the 
nian complex of ruin mounds. trustees of that institution, of all the texts relat- 

The inscription on an obelisk which was erected ing to legends concerning the creation of the 
as a boundary stone or " landmark," discovered world and the mythical origins and deeds of some 
at Susa, is cited by Mr. W. St. Chad Boscawen as of the earliest and most famous kin^s of Meso- 
illustrating a highly civilized state of society potamia, with a view to their publication in a col- 
existing in Chaldea in an extremely remote an- lected edition. Since George Smith in 1876 called 
tiquitv. The monument bears engraved upon it attention to resemblances between parts of these 
the title deeds of estates purchased by a certain legends and some passages in the early chapters 
Manishtusa or Manishturba, king of the city of of Genesis, several renderings of them have ap- 
Ki^h, one of the oldest city kingdoms of Chaldea; peared in English, French, and German, and much 
which show that a svstem was already established attention has been given to the study of them in 
of relations between the king and his tenants, America. The text used by Mr. Smith in his 
with fixed stipulations as to pavments, provision work, after his death lost sight of for twenty-five 
of food, etc. The date of the deeds is estimated years, and only recently identified, will be pub- 
to be about 4500 B. c. lished for the first time in this collection. 

Below the remains of the structures of Sargon Mashoilaland.— Dr. Carl Peters has been for 




of debris, representing a period of which we have or Mashonaland), and reports that he has been 
as yet no knowledge. Antiquities were found be- able to ascertain that all the ancient ruins about 
longing to that period which indicated that the the eastern border of Mashonaland apparently he- 
arts had then already reached a high develop- long to the same class of civilization. He has 
ment. Writing was in an advanced stage; and everywhere found the same type of ruins, with the 
the workniansliip displayed in the carving of cyelopean wall as the typical form of house-build- 
sonie of the vases could well bear comparison with ing: while in some parts whole cities of these 
the best efforts of later art. The relics found here buildings are easily found. Artificial water fur- 
indicate, as a whole, to use the words of Prof, rows are still existent in parts of the region. Not 
Hilprecht, " that behind Sargon I and Naramsin only are all old workings on gold mines generally 



36 ARCHEOLOGY. (Phinese Turkestan.) 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



found in the neighborhood of these ruins, but Dr. 
Peters disco vereS during the summer of 1901 a 
series of ancient copper mines along the eastern 
bank of the upper 8abi. From all the evidence 
discovered in the explorations, from the occur- 
rence of symbols of phallus worship from the 
Zambesi down to the Sabi, and from other re- 
sults, the author is led to believe that the ancient 
conquerors belonged to a Semitic race; and that 
the repeated appearance of the names of Mas- 
sapa, Umsapa, Kusapi, Sabi, etc., makes it highly 
probable that they were Sabeans, a race very 
nearly related to the Phenicians of the Mediter- 
ranean. Thus the views of Theodore Bent and 
other explorers before Dr. Peters are confirmed. 
Two stones with old ' inscriptions, not yet de- 
ciphered, have been found in Manicaland. 

Arabian. — In a discussion of the age of the 
south Arabian Minaean kingdom. Otto Weber 
agrees in general with Glaser and Hommel as to 
the antiquity of the inscriptions, and endeavors 
to prove that the kingdom antedated that of the 
Sabeans, reaching its highest point of prosperity 
about 1000 B. c. At this time the Minaeans had 
the commerce of southern Arabia in their hands, 
while by means of a colony in the northern part 
of Arabia, Musri, frequently confounded in the 
Bible with Egypt, they were in close commercial 
intercourse with Mesopotamia. The author be- 
lieves that the Minaean inscriptions carry us back 
at least as far as 1200 B. c. It follows, of course, 
that the Minsean alphabet was developed much 
earlier. The Minaean kingdom lasted till about 
600 B. c, when it was overthrown by the Sabeans. 
The same subject is discussed by Lidzbarski 
(Ephemeris ftir Semitische Epigraphik) from the 
epigraphic point of view. This author, in op- 
position to Hommel, who supposed the Mi- 
naean script to be the parent of the Phenician, 
reaches the conclusion that the south Arabian 
script was derived directly from the north Semitic 
or Phenician, and that the oldest specimens of it 
can not antedate 800 B. c. Discussing the forms 
of the letters of the Siloam inscription at Jeru- 
salem, Lidzbarski concludes, on epigraph ical 
grounds, that it is very ancient, as was at first 
supposed, and not of the Hefodian period, as has 
recently been claimed. 

Chinese Turkestan. — Discoveries of manu- 
scripts and other ancient inscribed documents 
made by Dr. M. A. Stein, of the Indian Educa- 
tional Service, in Chinese Turkestan, promise to 
be of considerable importance for the history of 
that part of central Asia. Both the languages 
and tne alphabets of the documents are, lor the 
most part, Indian in character, but examples of 
Chinese are not wanting, as well as of some non- 
Arvan language which has not yet been identi- 
fied. The manuscripts found at Dandin-Uilig, 
Sven Hedin's Ancient City of Taklamakan, were 
chiefly written in the alphabet known as Central 
Asian Brahmi, and seem to represent a period ex- 
tending from about the fifth to the eighth century 
of the Christian era. Excavations made farther 
to the east of the desert, in the district once 
watered by the river Nya, which now loses itself 
in the sands, have brought to light, among other 
interesting objects, hundreds of wooden tablets 
inseril)ed with Kharoshti characters and often 
dated in years of the reigning sovereign. Both 
the language and the alphabet of these tablets 
are those of the Indo-Scythic princes of the first 
century A. i>. ; and it seems probable that the 
ancient civilization of the district was over- 
whelmed by the sand at that period. Only a gen- 
eral account of Dr. Stein's work has yet been re- 
ceived. 



ABGENTINE KEPUBLIC, a federal republic 
in South America. The legislative power is vested 
in the national Congress, consisting of a Senate 
of 30 members, 2 from each province and from the 
federal district, and a House of Deputies contain- 
ing 133 members elected for four years by the 
people directly. The President is elected for six 
years by electoral colleges having twice the num- 
ber of members in each province that there are of 
Senators and Deputies combined. The President 
is Julio A. Roca, elected in 1898. The Vice- 
President, whose function is to preside over the 
Senate, is Norberto Quimo Costa. The Cabinet 
at the beginning of 1901 contained the following 
members: Secretary of the Interior, Dr. Felipe 
Yofre; Secretary of Foreign and Ecclesiastical 
Affairs, Dr. Amancio Alcorta; Secretary of Fi- 
nance, Dr. Osvaldo Magnasco; Secretary' of War, 
Col. Pablo Ricchieri ; Secretary of the Navy, Com- 
modore Martin Rivadavia; Secretary of Agricul- 
ture, Dr. Martin Garcia Merou ; Secretary of Pub- 
lic Works, Dr. Emilio Civit. 

Area and Population. — The republic is di- 
vided into 14 provinces and 9 territories having a 
total area of 1,319,247 square miles, and a popula- 
tion in 1895 of 4,094,911, estimated to have in- 
creased in 1899 to 4,569,000. Buenos Avtcs, the 
capital, had 806,613 inhabitants in 1900. The 
number of immigrants in 1899 was 111,083, includ- 
ing 53,295 Italians, 19,732 Spaniards, 2,449 French, 
1,686 Russians, 950 Austrians, 732 Germans, 477 
English, and 344 Swiss; emigration, 62,241. The 
foreign residents in 1895 numbered 886,895, of 
whom 492,636 were Italians, 198,685 Spaniards, 
94,098 French, 21,788 British, 17,143 Germans, 
14,789 Swiss, 12,803 Austro-Hungarians, 2,269 Por- 
tuguese, and 32,184 of other nationalities. There 
were 105,000 immigrants in 1900. 

Finances.— The revenue in 1899 was $45,676.- 
189 in gold and $61,419,990 in paper, and the ex- 
penditure was $30,860,817 in gold and $103,887, 
458 in paper. The revenue in 1900 was estimated 
at $45,981,735 in gold and $67,122,000 in paper, 
and expenditure at $32,946,813 in gold and $95,- 
447,513 in paper. The budget estimate of revenue 
for 1901 was $37,991,000 in gold and $62,300,000 
in paper. Of the gold revenue $28,000,000 come 
from import duties, $2,800,000 from export duties, 
$2,645,000 from port and navigation dues. $460,- 
000 from consular fees and fines, and $4,086,000 
from debt service. Of the revenue collected in 
paper $15,000,000 come from the spirit dutv, $ll,- 
300,000 from the tobacco duty, $8,500,000 from 
duties on wine, sugar, and matches, $1,600,000 
from duties on beer and other articles. $5,.300.000 
from sanitary works, $1,800,000 from the land tax, 
$8,400,000 from stamps and licenses, $4,900,000 
from posts and telegraphs, $540,000 from land 
sales and leases, $3,570,000 from railroads, and 
$1,390,000 from other sources. The expenditures 
for 1901 were estimated at $25,981,543 in gold, of 
which $283,941 were for foreign affairs. .$24,487,- 
214 for debt, $10,.388 for the navy, and $1,200,000 
for extraordinarv and unforeseen expenses: and 
at $88,399,249 in' paper, of which $16,938,096 were 
for the Interior Department and Congress. $1 ,257.- 
840 for foreign and ecclesiastical affairs, $7,826,6.30 
for financial administration, $11,977,250 for debt. 
$11,685,938 for justice and education, $13,223,370 
for the army, $9,529,764 for the navy, $1,438,220 
for agriculture, $6,599,765 for public works, 
$3,458,370 for pensions, and $4,464,000 for extraor- 
dinary expenses. . 

Tlie debt on June 30, 1900, amounted to £87,- 
.575,508. including £6,345,000 of bonds held by the 
Government. Of the total £45,738,708 were na- 
tional loans, £31,891,657 provincial and other 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



37 



isumed by the Central Government, and 
43 cedulas. All the provincial debts have 
z-hanged for 4J-per-cent. national bonds, 
rovineial and municipal budgets added to 
[>nal budget make a total expenditure esti- 
1 1897 at $193,846,534. 
Lxmy and Navy. — The regular army is 
1 by voluntary enlistment. If the recruits 
sufficient the law of Nov. 23, 1895, gives 
> the Government to draw men by lot, who 
^ed to serve four years unless thev furnish 
tes. Another class is composed of con- 
*-ho are drawn for one year and trained 
Y days or longer, according to the needs 
?n'ice. Besides these all male citizens be- 
le ages of eighteen and forty-five belong 
ational Guard, divided into the active, re- 
nd territorial sections, and numbering 
'2,000 men altogether. The active army in 
peace consists of 12 regiments of infantry, 
ion of mountain troops, 11 regiments of 
4 regiments of field artillery, 2 regiments 
itain artillery, 1 regiment of engineers, 1 
of pontonniers, 1 brigade of sappers and 
L brigade of railroad troops, and 1 brigade 
Taphists. The infantry is anned with 
rifles of 7.65 caliber, with 5 cartridges in 
^azine; the cavalry, with carbines of the 
stem; the artillery, with 7.5 Krupp rapid- 
ins. The peace strength in 1900 was 1,340 
md 7,279 men. 

eet in 1900 consisted of an armored coast- 
ilmirante Brown, of 4,200 tons; 4 armored 
built between 189C and 1899— General San 
Pueyrredon, Belgrano, and Garibaldi, of 
7,000 tons; 4 armored gunboats of vari- 
es; 4 small protected cruisers; 7 unar- 
irst-class gunboats; 2 avisos: 2 school- 
i destroyers constructed in 1896; and 12 
» and 15 second-class torpedo-boats, 
lerce and Production. — The value of 
in 1899 was $116,851,000. The nrincipal 
imported were cotton cloths of the value 
119,000; iron manufactures, $18,077,000; 
, $8,252,000; bagging and sail-cloth, $6,- 
coal, $6,536,000; wood, $6,008,000; wine, 
K); yerba-mat^, $3,863,000; chemicals and 
53,343,000; paper, $1,919,000. The total 
exports was $184,918,000. The principal 
were wool of the value of $72,284,000; 
$59,919,000; hides, $25,629,000; animals, 
K); meat and meat products, $5,904,000; 
112.206,000. The commerce was distributed 
lifferent countries as follows: 



COUNTRIES. 


Importt. 


Exporit. 


tain 


$43,671,000 

10,908,000 

12.980,000 

9,710,000 

15.467,000 

13,780,000 

4,806.000 

8,198,000 

507,000 

1,372,000 

142,000 

58,000 

450,000 


$21,722,000 




41,447,000 




29,4.34,000 




^,438,000 


ates 


6,668,000 




4,927,000 




7,042.000 




2,785,000 




8,481.000 




178.000 




860,000 
332,000 


ntries 


41,784,000 








$116,851,000 


$184,918,000 







sports of live cattle in 1899 were 312,150 
f live sheep, 543,458: of frozen beef, 9,079 
f frozen mutton, 56.827 tons; of jerked 
164 tons; of wool, 237,111 tons: of butter, 
I pounds; of wheat, 1,713.420 tons; of 
116,276 tons; of linseed, 217,713 tons; of 



hay, 105,598 tons. In 1900 the exports of cattle 
declined to 150,550, sheep to 198,102; exports of 
frozen beef were 24,590 tons, of jerked beef 16,449 
tons, and of frozen mutton 56,412 tons. The wool 
exports fell off to 101,113 tons. The exports of 
butter were 2,322,662 pounds. The shipments of 
wheat were 1,929,676 tons; of corn, 223,357 tons; 
of linseed, 223,257 tons; of hay, 102,836 tons. The 
decline in the exports of live cattle was due to the 
fact that the ports of the United Kingdom were 
closed to animals from the Ai^entine Republic 
during the last eight months of the year on ac- 
count of the foot-and-mouth disease. In the sum- 
mer of 1901 the Argentine Government announced 
that the disease no longer existed in any part of 
the republic. Imports of sheep into Great Britain 
were interdicted for the same cause, but the sheep- 
growing indu.stry was already declining rapidly, 
as is indicated by the decrease in the wool exports. 
The exportation of ierked beef to Spanish-Ameri- 
can countries has dwindled with the rise of the 
trade in frozen beef. The butter trade with Great 
Britain, in spite of the slight decrease in the ex- 
ports, is likely to expand, because the Australian 
butter with which the Argentine product com- 
petes must travel twice the distance. The ex- 
ports of wheat and com from the Argentine Re- 
public are so uncertain and variable that they 
exercise a disturbing influence on the world's 
markets. The exports of wheat in 1898 were 645,- 
161 tons, and in 1897 only 101,845 tons. The corn 
exports in 1898 were 717,105 tons. The total 
value of imports in 1900 was $113,485,069, and of 
exports $154,600,412. Of the imports in this year 
34 per cent, came from Great Britain, 15 per cent, 
from Germany, 13 per cent, from Italy, 12 per 
cent, from the United States, 9.5 per cent, from 
France, and 16.5 per cent, from other countries. 
Of the exports 15.5 per cent, went to Great Britain, 
13 per cent, to Germany, 12 per cent, to France, 
11.5 per cent, to Belgium, and 48 per cent, to 
other countries. 

Navigation. — The number of vessels entered at 
Argentine ports during 1899 was 10,148, of 6,939,- 
567 tons, of which 3,319, of 646,518 tons, were 
sailing vessels, and 6,829, of 6,293,049 tons, were 
steamers. 

Bailroads, Posts, Telegraphs. — The len^h 
of railroads in operation in 1900 was 10,595 miles. 
The capital expenditure was $526,616,661 in gold. 
The cost of the national lines was $56,331,063; of 
guaranteed lines, $113,311,995; of provincial lines, 
$83,859,062; of private lines, $257,141,178. The 
gross receipts in 1898 were $41,394,169 in gold; ex- 
penses, $19,117,118. The number of passengers 
carried in 1900 was 17,813,712; tons of freight, 12,- 
725,657. 

The post-oflSce in 1898 carried 181,821,945 pieces 
of mail-matter in the internal and 34,630.224 in 
the international service; receipts were 7,318,989 
francs; expenses, including telegraphs, 12,141,810 
francs. 

The telegraphs in 1900 had a length of 27,584 
miles, with 58,656 miles of wire. The Government 
lines were 12,174 miles in length; provincial lines, 
3,530 miles; railroad telegraphs, 10,190 miles; 
private lines, 1,690 miles; messages in 1897, 5,296,- 
184. 

Political Affairs. — The political situation in 
1901 was dominated by the financial dittieulties 
that have disturbed and partially checked the 
prosperous development of this productive coun- 
try for many years. The commercial conditions 
were easier than they had been for three or four 
years, and the export trade was increasing when 
the Government brought forward a plan for the 
unification of the foreign debt that excited intense 



\ 



38 ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS. 

opposition and distrust. A change in the Cabinet ASTRONOMICAL PBOGBESS IN 1900. 

was made on March 21^ when Capt. Onofre Betze- 1901. The advancement of astronomy in these 

der was appointed Minister of Marine and Eze- two years has been progressive and satisfactory 

quiel Ramos Mejia Minister of Agriculture. When in all its branches. More especially is this true 

Congress assembled on May 3 the President stated in its stellar, spectroscopic, and photographic 

in his message that the accounts for the preced- departments. They furnish a record of process 

ing year practically balanced, the revenue hav- and discovery that has not been equaled m a 

ine been $65,500,000 in gold and the expenditure decade. 

oi3y $200,000 in excess. The conversion fund Eros. — The problem of the Sun's distance, which 

amounted to $8,500,000, and would reach $15,000,- has baffled astronomers for two thousand years, 

000 by the end of the year. The unification proj- has lately come close upon a solution. The most 

ect was announced, having for its chief object a surprising thing about it is that it has been ac- 

reduction of the service of the floating debt. The complished by a process never before dreamed of. 

resulting improvement in Government finances The Earth's distance from the Sun being the base 

was expected to lead to more immigration and line by which the distances, magnitudes, velocities, 

colonization. The bill was presented to Congress etc., of all celestial objects are measured (except 

on June 11. It authorized the issue of gold con- those of the Moon), it follows that its distance 

sols up to the amount of $435,000,000, bearing 4 should be determined with mathematical exact- 

per cent, interest and redeemable in fifty years, ness. Heretofore the only process known to ascer- 

the annual rate of amortization beinff one-half of 1 tain the Sun's distance with any prospect of ex- 

per cent. These were intended for the conversion actness was by the transits of Venus across the 

of all or part of the existing debts whenever such Sun's face. By her transit of June 3, 1769, the 

conversion would benefit the Government. The Sun's distance was computed to be 95,000,000 

new loan would be secured on the customs rev- miles. By her transits in 1874 and 1882 the dis- 

enue, the Department of Customs having to de- tance was reduced to 93,000,000, and by the new 

posit daily eight-tenths of 1 per cent, of its receipts process to 92,850,000. This reduction of the Sun's 

for every $5,000,000 of bonds issued. The Senate distance has reducfed the assumed distandes and 

gave its approval to the plan. In the Finance Com- magnitudes of all the heavenly bodies except the 

mission of the House of Representatives it ob- Moon. These transits, however, occur at irregu- 

tained a majority of a single vote. When the lar periods, and therefore are not often available, 

debate began the Opposition press and the hostile They occur as follow : Once in eight years, then 

politicians stirred up wide-spread alarm. Students in one hundred and five and a half, then again in 

held excited meetings and smashed the windows eight, then in one hundred and twenty-6ne and a 

of the Government newspaper organs. On July half, then in eight, and one hundred and five and 

3 they stoned the house of the President and as- a half, and so on forever. The next will take 

sailed ex-President Pellegrini. Shots were ex- place June 8, 2004, after an interval of one hun- 

changed with the police, who were unable to cope dred and twenty-one and a half years. They al- 

with the disturbance. Both houses of Congress ways happen in December and June; the last 

having given consent, a state of siege was pro- was on Dec. 6, 1882. 

claimed on July 4 for six months. On July 5 On Au^. 13, 1898, Witt, of Berlin, discovered 

the President sent a message to Congress with- an asteroid, or planetoid, or minor planet (as they 

drawing the unification bill. The Minister of Fi- are variously called), revolving round the Sun, as 

nance resigned, and Dr. Marco Avellaneda was do all the 465 now known that are between Mars 

appointed to the office on June 10. The popular and Jupiter. This one, however, which received 

excitement having subsided when its cause wa^ the name Eros, revolves between the Elarth and 

removed, at the end of July the state of siege was Mars, and can approach nearer the Earth than 

abolished. ' Further Cabinet changes were the ap- any heavenly body except the Moon. W^hen it is 

f ointment of Sefior Seru as Minister of Public in perihelion while the Earth is in aphelion, and 
nstruction and Justice on July 11, and of Dr. W. rising when the Sun is setting, of course it wUl be 
Esealante as Minister of Agriculture on July 17. on the meridian at midnight, and can approach 
The new Minister of Finance stated that, although the Earth within 35,000,0^ miles. These favor- 
the pressure of the external and internal floating able conditions are not often simultaneously ful- 
debt made the condition of the treasury difficult, filled. They would have been, however, had the 
the revenue collected greatly exceeded the esti- discovery been made four years earlier. The next 
mates, and the budget would close with a surplus, will take place in 1930. But there was quite a 
The Government was unwilling to repeal the con- favorable opposition in December, 1900; so near, 
version law, and would increase the conver- in fact, as to allow the determination of itsparal- 
sion fund, which would not be diverted to any lax. The nearer a planet approaches the Earth, 
other use unless Chile compelled the Argentine the greater will be its parallax, and if this is ex- 
Republic to purchase more war vessels in order to actly ascertained, Kepler's third law gives the 
preserve its naval superiority, the fund being distance of the Earth from the Sun, and from the 
availal)le for war purposes. The Patagonian other planets also. The distance from the Earth 
boundary dispute l>etwoen the Argentine Republic to this little speck of a world (supposed to be but 
and Chile had been referred to arbitration. Pend- 18 miles in diameter), when nearest, is 0.15 in 
ing the decision it was proposed by the Argentine terms of the Earth's distance from the Sun, while 
GovcMinnent that both nations should cease aug- Venus in transit is 0.27, or almost twice as far. 
nienting their war matenal. Chile agreed to this, Kepler's third law is: "The squares of the peri- 
but after the election of a new President in Chile odic times of the planets' revolution round the 
the victorious party proposed to acquire a new Sun are proportional to the cubes of their mean 
battle-ship and two cruisers. The Argentine Gov- distances from him." In the latter part of De- 
ernnient was determined in that case to make a cember, 1900, the little planet was so near that 
like addition to its own navy, but after some cor- two observers, one in New York and the other in 
respondence the agreement for the maintenance of California, obtained measurable angles, which 
the naval stattfs quo was renewed. A bill for gave its distance from the Earth's center, and so 
emission of more paper money failed. the great problem was solved without going to 
ABIZONA. (See under United States.) remote countries to observe the transits of Venus. 
ARKANSAS. (See under United States.) As the little planet was as near the Earth as it 



ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS IN 1900-1901. 39 

B until 1930, astronomers are waiting with In Vol. I (1900) of the publications of the 
endable patience for its next nearest ap- Yerkes Observatory, at Williams Bay, Wis., is a 
1. when the grand problem will be solved, catalogue of 1,290 double stars discovered and 
twentieth century was inaugurated by as- micrometrically measured by the greatest living 
nical incidents and an amount of discussion double-star discoverer, Prof. Sherburne W. Burn- 
if ever equaled. Allusion is made to the ham, F. R. A. S., whose work was recognized by 
ion in the light of the asteroid Eros, and the the Royal Astronomical Society of England when 
a outburst of a new first-magnitude star in it awarded him its gold medal m 1894. 
onstellation Perseus. The variability of In a catalogue recently issued, 2,000 are pub- 
stars and comets is well established; but lished, all southern pairs. Prof. Aitkin, of Lick 
I dark planet which shines by reflected sun- Observatory, Mount Hamilton, Cal., publishes a 
should vary in brilliance is a mystery too list of (32 pairs lately discovered with the 12-inch 
for solution. More than 465 little planets telescope at that observatory, all having been re- 
jeen discovered revolving round the Sun be- observed with the 3G-inch, and compared with 
Mars and- Jupiter, and Eros is the only one Burnham's list. The list is a continuation of a 
ich variation in light has been certainly de- previous list of double stars discovered there. 
. except their periodical variation by change Generally the telescopic binaries are of long 
tance from the Elarth and the Sun. When periods, but how long never has been ascertained. 
)velty was first announced, it was ascribed One of long period is Castor, generally considered 
ince, or more probably to error of observa- to be at least one thousand years. Both com- 
Three different theories have been advanced ponents are self-luminous suns like ours. At 
•ount for it, viz., (1) that the little planet least 30 telescopic binaries are known to have 
ible, the components revolving round each periods of less than one hundred years. The five 
parallel to our line of sight, as do many of shortest are Kappa Pe^asi, 11.12 years; Delta 
ouble stars that alternately occult each Equulei, 11.43 years; Xi Sagittarii, 18.85 years; 
(2) that tw^o asteroids may have col- Rho Argus, 22 years; and 85 Pegasi, 24 years, 
and adhered to each other, forming an ob- One of the most interesting of the double stars is 
esembling a dumb-bell. If this object ro- Sirius, the dog-star, remarkable as having been 
in o*^ 10™, the light changes could be ex- pronounced a binary years before it was discov- 
d; (3) this supposes that the little planet, ered to be one, by its vibratory motion — a strik- 
bout 18 miles in diameter, has on its surface ing instance of the refinements of modern astro- 
tright and two dark spots, at or near its nomical observations. A very interesting triple 
>r, its rotation on its axis presenting to the star is Gamma Andromeda, a bright star that has 
alternately its bright and dark spots. The a double companion revolving around it ; period 
.nd second theories are the only ones that unknown. 

r tenable. The most plausible, and the one Until recent times there was no way of ascer- 

rxplains what is observed, is that periodi- taining whether there might not be others, too 

it is occulted by something that cuts off a close to be divided by the telescope. The prin- 

n of its light, the phenomenon being visible ciples involved in the phenomena observed in the 

the Earth only wnen the rotatory motion resolution of spectroscopic binaries needs some 

' occulting object is parallel, or nearly so, preliminary explanation. Should a spectroscope 

r line of sight. This not only explains the be pointed to a star, it gives a spectrum resem- 

of the variation, but also its beginning and bling a piece of a rainbow, crossed by many dark 

ion. If, as Prof. Pickering remarks, " the lines. If a photograph of the lines be taken, and 

ion is caused by its rotation, it is possible, after a time another, and the lines do not agree 

measures of its light, to determine the time exactly, it indicates that they are formed from 

ation and the direction of its axis in space, two stars instead of from one only. It also indi- 

ict that its successive maxima and minima cates that the stars are revolving around each 

■ unequal intensity, and that the intervals other in a plane parallel to the line of sight. This 

en them are of variable length, would seem is called a spectroscopic binary. Of course, when 

countenance the first hypothesis — that the one is approaching our solar system, the other will 

ides are unequally dark. The variability of be receding from it. The waves of light from the 

jht of the planet is shown by the trails on receding star being longer, its lines are all moved 

taken in 1893 and 1894, and particularly so slightly toward the red end of the spectrum, while 

ose taken in 1896. In February, 1901, the the lines from the approaching star are displaced 

of variability amounted to two magnitudes, a like amount toward the violet, causing them al- 

n May 6 it was inappreciable." Prof. Wen- tcMnately to appear v narrow, broad, and double 

•f Harvard Observatory, argues that " if the at equal periods of time, which, when ascertained, 

ions were caused by markings on the sur- gives the period of their revolution around each 

t could scarcely have sunk to zero so sud- other. They are too near to be divided by any . 

In 1903 the asteroid will again be in op- telescope, hence the periods of spectroscopic binary 
?ni and situated as when its light mutations stars are much shorter than those visually seen 
first observed. by the telescope. This department of astronomy 
ible, Triple, and Binary Stars. — To the is not new. In 1889 Miss Maury, of Harvard Col- 
eye all the stars are single, but when ex- lege Observatory, while examining some Harvard 
d with modem telescopes several thousand celestial photographs, found that the lines in the 
und to be double or triple. It is possible for spectrum of Zeta Ursa Majoris close iip and sepa- 
to appear double when one component hap- rate once in fifty-two days, thus indicating that 
o be almost exactly behind the other. If a complete revolution is made in one hundred and 
►tion of revolution around each other is de- four days. Prof. Campbell, director of Lick Ob- 
after years of observation, they are called servatory, announces that he has found, by spec- 
ial ly double stars." But such instances are troscopic methods, that the pole-star (Alpha Ursa 
>mmon. If a motion of revolution of the Minoris) is a spectroscopic trinary, consisting of 
is detected, they are called " physically three suns belonging to a single system, which 
'.'' or " binaries."* and of these there are two revolve round each other, the brightest of which 
telescopic and spectroscopic. Several thou- is, as everybody knows, visible to the naked eye. 
elescopic binaries have been discovered. W^hat causes this star to be the most wonderful 



40 ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS IN 1900-1901. 

of all its congeners is the shortness of the period written on the subject to fill a dozen large vol- 

of revolution — only four days. As we do not umes. Not since the writer's remembrance has 

know how far apart the components are, their any unexpected astronomical phenomenon oe- 

hourly velocity in miles can not be ascertained, curred that has taken so deep a hold on the 

but it must be enormous. popular as well as the scientinc mind. It was 

More than twenty discoveries like that men- discovered Feb. 21, 1901, at 14^ 40m Green- 
tioned above have been made at the Lick Observa- wich mean time, by Rev. Dr. Anderson, who 
tory, but this surpasses them all, not even ex- watches the heavens for variable and temporary 
cepting that of Capella, another spectroscopic stars. It was then of the 2.7 magnitude, which 
binary lately discovered. One significance of this at seven o'clock on the 22d had increased to 0.3 
announcement is, that Prof. Campbell has also of a magnitude brighter than the first-magnitude 
discovered that the pole-star recedes from and star Aldebaran. At 8^ 10™ it was 0.2 brighter 
approaches the Earth at a velocity of about 5 than Capella, a much brighter star than Aide- 
miles a second. In two days it increases to 8.7 baran, almost equaling Sirius, the brightest of all 
miles, and then gradually decreases during the the stars, commonly called the dog- star. It ap- 
next two days to 5 miles. He concludes that peared in the Constellation Perseus, in right as- 
the visible star is revolving round a dark and cension 3^ 24n» 24.12a, declination north 43° 33' 
invisible body, in an orbit not greatly different 39.51" for epoch 1900.0. On Oct. 18, 1894, a photo- 
from the size of our Moon's orbit round the Earth, graph w^as taken of the region with the 24-inch 
once in four days, surpassing in speed everything Bruce photo-telescope at" Harvard College Observ- 
known except light and electricity. From the atory, with an exposure of fifteen minutes, which 
shifting of tne spectral lines toward the violet it showed stars down to the 12J magnitude, but re- 
is supposed that the entire triple system of Polaris vealed no star at the place of the new star. An- 
is approaching the earth at the rate of 15 miles a other photograph of the same region was taken 
.second. • on Feb. 19, 1901, with the Cook lens, revealing 

Mrs. Fleming, of Harvard College Observa- stars down to the seventh magnitude, with an ex- 

tory, has discovered Zeta Centauri to be a spectro- posure of sixty-six minutes, and it showed not a 

scopic binary, and Miss Cameron has lately found trace of the new star. The last photograph was 

Pi Scorpii to be one, by the shifting to and fro taken only two days before its visual discovery, 

of the lines in their spectra. Herr Belopolsky Only twenty-eight hours before its discovery by 

calls the attention of spectroscopists to the star Dr. Anderson, Mr. Stanley Williams photographed 

Iota Pegasi, whose motion in the line of sight the same region, when the star, if it existed, must 

seems to show a variation in a period as short as have been as faint as of 12 J magnitude, so that in 

one day, surpassing in this element all other spec- twenty-eight hours it must have increased in 

troscopic binaries. The spectrum resembles that brightness 100,000 times. At its maximum it wa* 

of the dog-star, with heavy hydrogen lines and the brightest temporary star that history records, 

narrow lines of iron. except the celebrated Tyeho Brahe's star of 1572, 

A noteworthy result in the work of the past which was visible to the naked eye at noonday, 
year is that a great number of stars are found to In the past thirty years a dozen nova\ as they 




mostly of short period: the latter being a characteristic feature of them 

pg,^^ all. The line must be sharply drawn between tem- 

Alpha Virginia 4 .013 days. porary and variable stars described elsewhere, a* 

4!p?* i Scorpii 1.46 day. the two phenomena are entirely dissimilar. Many 

Eto Peg^l'"!"!'!?!™. : : ; ; : : : : : : : : : : : : : t'^ ^^*' theories have been advanced to account for theiV 

Delta Leonis ."!.!...!!!!!!! !!.'!!!!!!!!.' i!92 •* sudden increase in brightness and anomalous be- 

Mu Scorpii (shortest knowu) 1 .4.58 '' havior while visible — such as collision of star with 

Alph^Aurigw 104'^ " ®^*'*' ^^"^^ ^^''^^ * planet to some other star, star 



Omega Leonis 14.25 

Kappa Pegasi......! !.!*.. !!.!!! !!!'!!'.". 6 days. One with a nebula, star with a meteoric stream, star 

component of Burnham's binary. Dark companion, with an asteroid, and asteroid with an asteroid; 

but all appear untenable. It seems strange that 

In the Astrophysical Journal for January, 1901, no one has suggested the collision of a star with 

Prof. Campbell publishes a list of 6 with specially a comet, which to the writer's mind seems the 

large motions in the line of sight, 3 of which have most plausible, not only to account for its sudden 

motions of 62 miles a second. Included in the increase in brightness, but also for fluctuations in 

list is the well-known parallax and proper-motion brilliance and final extinction in a few weeks or 

star Mu Cassiopeia, with a velocity of tfl miles a months. All comets are of enormous size; that 

second. Assuming for the parallax 0.275, and for of 1811 was the largest object on which the eye of 

the proper motion 3.95" a year, the star's velocity man has ever rested, being 1,250,000 miles in 

at right angles to the line of sight would be 41 diameter, in comparison with which our Sun is a 

miles a second, about a third of which, however, dwarf: its tail was nearly 1,000,000 miles in di- 

should be ascribed to the motion of the solar sys- ameter and 50,000,000 miles in length. Should a 

tem in space. It is perhaps worth noting that star enter the coma of such a comet, its light 

this star, bein^ one of the nearer stars and ex- would graduallv increase to its maximum on its 

ceptionally rapid in its motion, should also be one arrival at its nucleus, and gradually diminish as 

of the first to show a change in brightness due to they all do. On the other hand, should a star 

changing distance. A short computation from collide with a star, both would in a moment be 

the figures given shows that the change in its dis- converted into a white-hot liquid, if not a gas, 

tance should make it brighter by a tenth of a and the increase of light would be at its maxi- 

magnitude in about two thousand years, or a full mum in an instant instead of gradually, as ob- 

magnitude in twenty thousand years. served, and would require thousands of "^ years to 

The New Star in Perseus.— Another wonder cool below bright luminosity. Should such a 
has recently appeared in the sky, which has been comet fall into our Sun, the effect would be ap- 
watched with intense interest by every astronomer palling, and the inhabitants of a planet belong- 
in the northern hemisphere, and enough has been ing to some other sun would be spectators of 



ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS IN 1900-1901. 



41 



orary star, as we lately have been. The and every moving object a trail, the length of 

lena outlined above would also be observed which will depend on the length of time of ex- 

the star pass through a gaseous nebula in- posure and its velocity. On the other hand^ 

i a comet.. On Feb. 24, at noon, the nova should the camera be held on the moving object, 

its maximum of brightness, and then be- all tne stars will likewise leave trails on the plate, 

decline. From 3.6 magnitude on March their lengths depending on their polar distance 

star fell to 5.2 the next day, or l.G magni- and time of exposure. If the moving object be 

twenty-four hours. The nova now flashed examined by a telescope, it will be found to be an 

in and was 3.6 on March 20, and then de- asteroid, a comet, a satellite, or a planet, 

to 5.5 on the 22d ; and the next day it had Formerly the asteroids were searched for by the 

isen to 3.7, and thus it fluctuated. Spec- telescope, and a long watch was kept up to detect 

ically it presented several features never motion of anything in the field. They are now 

)bserved in any temporary star. Its spec- searched for by the trail process, which results in 

a many respects resembles that of other the frequent discovery of new ones. Since 1900 

iry stars that have appeared in the past twelve new minor planets have been discovered, 

years, being not quite continuous, but which are numbered from 452 to 466 inclusive, 

by broad hydrogen and helium lines, each Those designated FB, FO, FR, and FT were 

ng of a bright component toward the red found, on computing their orbits, to be identical, 

d a dark component toward the violet end. Solar Motion in Space, or Solar Apex. — 

striking spectrum even with a small spec- Among the marvels of astronomy is the well- 

e, the bright C line in particular being quite established fact that the Sun, like a mighty loco- 

uous, but the D line less prominent. In motive, is traveling toward the stars in a certain 

t fourteen years, or since the general ap- region of the sky, as determined by the spectro- 

n of photography to astronomy, eight new scope, hauling the entire solar system at tne rate 

re known to have appeared — viz.. Nova of 8 to 12 miles a second. Whether it be mov- 

in 1887; Nova Aurigse in 1891; Nova ing in a straight line or an orbital curve is un- 

in 1893; Nova Carinse in 1895; Nova Cen- known. It is the opinion of nnany that its path 

Q 1895; Nova Sagittarii in 1898; Nova is orbital, and that the cluster called the seven 

» in 1899; and Nova Persei in 1901. The stars, or Pleiades, is the center around which it 

and last of these, which were much is revolving, in a period of millions of years. Be- 

r than the others, were both discovered by hind the area occupied by them the photographic 

ierson. All the others were found by Mrs. plate, with a long exposure, depicts the existence 

^ from an examination of the Draper Me- of 2,326 stars. The point toward which the solar 

Photographs. The helium and hydrogen system is moving (in our age) is in right ascen- 

tf the last were persistent, but during sion 18i» 36>», declination north 19** 58'; or, in the 

'ht career its spectrum exhibited three constellation Hercules, nearly 19 degrees south of 

; phases of change. At first the gen- Alpha Lyra or Vega. These deductions are by 

>pearance of the photographic spectrum Prof. W. W. Campbell, director of Lick Observa- 

led that of the Orion type, and was very tory. In the January number of the Astrophysical 

that of other new stars in which the Journal he describes his method of procedure, 

lines were the most conspicuous. On some His results have been obtained by measuring the 

ns the spectrums of temporary stars velocity of recession or approach of certain se- 
to that of a gaseous nebu- 
)va Auriga had a double 
m of lines and bands. 
splacement of the lines 
the red indicated a veloc- 
n us, in* the line of sight, 
miles a second; while the 
by their displacement to- 
he violet, showed a rapid 
toward us, as if the star, 
; from us, had plunged 
me nebulous object mov- 
>ward us, causing the 
spectrum. Nova Auriga 
sible in November, 1901, 
lint nebulous star. The 

ary star of 1885 appeared Fio. 1.— February 20, 1901. 18:41 Fio. 2.— Juio: 5, 1901. 13:46 to 

in the center of the to 19 : 17 G. M. T. Power, 500 : 14 : 1 G. M. T. Power, 371 ; 

lebula in Andromeda, one Seeing, 8. A. E. D. Seeing, 5. P. L. 
six nebulae visible to the 

lected stars by means of the spectroscope. He 

has, in all, employed 280 stars in his most recent 

research, and, as a final result, he finds that the 

et that from right ascension xix hours to point in the heavens toward which he supposen 

irs, there are 13 planetary nebulae, and in the solar system to be travelling is as given 

other xxii hours there are but 11, and in above. This is about 15 degrees south of the solar 

lall portion of the sky nearly all the new apex as calculated by Prof. Simon Newconib. 

ave apj>eared. Mars. — Astronomers have been too intensely 

Trails. — Owing to the rotation of the occupied with the new star and the variation of 

from west to east, all the stars appear to Eros in brilliance to devote much attention to 

Mars. But the newspapers have not been back- 
ward in publishing " messages from Mars," a sen- 
sational and misleading title. What Prof. Doug- 
las saw, and what he announced, was a cloud 





eye, but whether it in any way was con 
with the nebula is unknown. 
T. E. Espin calls attention to the anoraa 



I daily revolution around the sky from 
west. If, therefore, a photograph camera 

irately pointed to any star, and exactly 
the guiding cross of spider threads in the 



, the plate will show every star a point, lighted up by the setting sun, which was visible 



42 



ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS IN 1900-1901. 



for aeventy minutea. It was trnly a message 
from Mars, but not from its inhabitants. The so- 
called discovery of canal s comes in the satne 
category. The illustrations herewith, especially 
the ^<econd, are the most accurate of the photo- 
graphic delineations of the so-called canals that 
have heen made. Fig. 1 was taken by Prof. E. A. 
Douglas, ot the Lowell Observatory, FlagstalT, 
Ariz., Feb. 20, 1901; power, 500; exposure, thirty- 
six iiilnules. Fig. 2 was taken by Prof. Lowell, 
the director, June 3, 1001; power, 371; exposure, 
sixteen minutes. Both show the north polar 
si)ow cap. No cause worth recording has been 
assigned for the long hairlike lines. They can 
not DC cloud*, but the other markiogs may be. 
Itoth vieH'B show, as Prof. Lowell says. " the Mare 
Acidaliuin, also the changes in the canals during 
the interval,'' and also changes in the snow cap. 
As regards the habitability of Mara, no one 
doubts. It seems improbable, however, that of 
all the eight planets, the E^rth alone should be 
the home of sentient beings. And the same may 
be said of the planetary worlds that revolve 
around the countless millions of other suns. 

Jnplter. — The planet Jupiter afTords many ex- 
amples of the marvelous, proving true the trite 
saying, " The astonished astronomer has nearly 
outgrown his ability to be astonished." Thia 
giant plsnet lias lately been well situated for ob- 
servation, being on the meridian at midnight, and 
has been the target for bombardment by the 
telescope, H}iectroscope. and the pboto- camera. 
Abundant evidence appears that Jupiter, from its 
immense size, has not yet emerged, as our world 
has, from his liquidity by heat, being still a white- 
hot world. One new feature lately observed is the 
existence of faint lines, somewhat resembling the 



At thia writing they have again appeared. \'a 
cause has been suggested that bears the imprru 
of probability, but it affords another strong argu- 
ment in favor of the hypothesis that Jupiter ia 
in a white-hot, semifluid condition. 

Another curious feature of Jupiter's disk is his 
belts. Several are visible, even with small tel^ 
scopes, on each side of his equator, extending en- 
tirely around the planet. They are protably 
clouds, assuming the beltlike form by the rapidity 
of his rotation, only 9^ 55™, coupled with his 
giant size, 274,000 miles in circumference. 

The same stri|ies are easily seen on Saturn, and 
with some difficulty on Uranus. Recently thet 
have been seen there with the great telescope at 
the Naval Observatory. They therefore aeem to 
be a feature belonging exclusively to the four 
outer planets, as the four inner ones have none. 
They are so conspicuous on Jupiter that he a 
often called the striped planet. 

The librationa of some of the shadows of 
Jupiter's satellites, while transiting his disk. have. 
ever since the invention of the telescope, attracted 
much attention, and elicited not a little discus- 
sion among astronomers. To deal intelligently 
with the problem, more observations than it h»s 
yet received are necessary. About three years 
ago Mr. C. T. Whitmell predicted that Satellite 
III, when Jupiter was in quadrature, if transit- 
ing his disk eouatorially, would be 6) times 
broader at the phase limb than at the other, and 
that its height would remain constant; but if the 
transit was not equatorial, the change in breadth 
would be less. Lately these predictions ha 




so-called canals on Jlars. crossing at vanous 
angle* one of his pqiialiirial bells. No cause has 
as yet Iwen Hssigneil for their existence there and 

not eUewhei-e. In ISiiO. I«SI), and 1890 small 
black spot* mottleil bis surface, which pave rise 
to the theory that the ph -- ' ..•..- 



Prof. Schaeberle. of Lick Observatory, also drew 

attention about the same time to the strange be- 
havior of the shadows not only of this, but also 
of the other three. 

.■M). 1902. the Earth as seen from Jupi- 



, the 1 



I do Mercury and 



ASTBOSOMICAL PROGRESS IN 1900-1901, 43 

5 seen from the Earth. During the tran- being greatest in middle latitudes and less at the 
lite I will cross the disk of Jupiter in eijiiator and the poles. This conclusion is de- 
hat will occult its own aliadow, which, rived from tbe observation of the relatively BmsU 

the pcnunibral fringe being larger than cloudlike masses lying in the upper regions of the 

lite, will i-BU»e it to be seen as a. ring planet's atmosphere. It is very doubtful whether 

he satellite. As such a phenomenon is the red spot is to be considered as a cloudlike 

■ ill be extensively observed, for it has mass. It seems to lie in the deeper levels of the 

been i*een by mortal eyes, nor can it be Jovian atmosphere, as is indicated by appear- 




Edward E. Barnard, the discoverer of 
's fifth satellite, has Id the past two years 
t a study, and finds its orbit elliptical, liice 
21 moons in our system. This, the small- 
oiber of our systeui except the asteroids, 
s around the planet in llii 5Tni 22.04>. Not 
> the plenets revolve, but their orbits also 
same. The Earth's orbit makes a revolu- 
ce in 109.830 years, while that of the little 
under consideration completes its icvolu- 



mlhs. 



■r OOOd 






Seen from the little moon, 
r disk would extend half-way from the 
to the z(^nith. The solar system affords 
!T example of so rapid a motion or any- 
omparable to it. 

I the great red spot or continent, which 
les a noating island, is observed for the 
.» of determining the period of the planet's 
n on his axis, it is found that the period i» 
to a regular change, causing a lengtheninf; 
eriod. Of course the rotation period of tbc 
itself can not change, but must forever l>e 
ant quantity. This oval red spot was dis- 
.. or. rather, first noticed, in lH<iU. and 
t has floated three- fourths around the 
from eoit to west, or the reverse of the 
i rotation. The spot has slowly increased 
th since its discovery. The rotation period 
iter is not the same in different latitudes, 



ances when it is near the borders of the planet. 
Small bright objects are often seen above it, 
and its surface is frequently veiled by a thin 
cloudlike screen. Prof Bredii-bin. who has made 
this strange phenomenon a study for years, con- 
siders the brick -coloied spot a soUd mass, slid- 
ing over the liquid surface of the planet, among 
the lower layers of the vaporous atmosphere. It 
ia very improbable that the spot is a sea of glow- 
ing lava, as many suppose, because of its color, 
but more likely a semisolid crust. The width of 
the spot is 8.000 and the length 30.000 miles. 

A ifest of NebtilB. — One of the most remark- 
able discoveries made in recent years in astronomy 
was the depiction on a photograph plate covering 
a portion of the skj two minutes less than the 
disk of tbe Jloon of lOS nebulse. The photo- 
graph was taken hy Prof. Max Wolf, at the Hei- 
delberg Ol)scrvatory, with the Broce photographic 
tdescojie. This astonishing cluster is in the con- 
catenation Coma Berenices, in a nebulous region 
due east of the star 0. and preceding it by ahout 
thirteen minutes of time. Four or five of them 
occupy a larger space than the others, and show 
central condensations, and some are elongated; 
but the greater number are round and very small. 
We should call a single nebula small whose appar- 
ent sine was equal to the Moon, The photograph 
was taken on March 4, 11(01. This is another 
striking example of what celestial photogi-aphy is 
accomplishing in regions from which the actinic 
rays have been speeding toward us with the ve- 
locity of light for thousands of years. 



44 



ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS IN 1900-1901. 



A Magnificent Bolide. — Since the last report 
but two fire-balls or bolides have appeared in any 
part of the world. They appear so unexpectedly 
and suddenly, and disappear so auickly, it is im- 
possible to make observations of mucti value to 
determine their height above the Earth, or how 
and where they are formed, and if their paths are 
orbital or simply tangential to the Earth. One 
appears to have been of unusual brightness. From 
published accounts it appears that not since the 
famous one of 1860, wnich traveled the atmos- 

Ehere from the Rocky Mountains to Nantucket, 
as one so interesting appeared. It was first seen 
in England, and was visible over a wide extent 
in Ireland, Wales, and the Isle of Man. Reports 
from 258 stations have been received, from which 
its height above the Earth at the beginning, mid- 
dle, and end of its visible path has been computed, 
ana also its velocity. The length of itd path in 
England was 66 miles, height 68 miles, decreasing 
to 26 miles, velocity 11 miles a second. It ap- 
peared Oct. 21, 1900, at 8i» 35m 25». Many ob- 
servers made the usual reports of a noise having 
been heard during its passage. Such sounds, how- 
ever, are purely imaginary arid impossible, for 
it was visible but a few seconds, and was at a 
height of 26 miles, so that before the sound could 
reach the observer the meteor must have disap- 
peared at least two minutes. It is a very loud 
noise that can be heard 26 miles, especially if it is 
made in a medium as rare as our atmosphere is 
at a height of 26 miles. A singular circumstance 
connected with this phenomenon was that on the 
same evening 5 other fire-balls were seen, but none 
comparable to the one above described, and all 
from different radiants. 

On the afternoon of Dec. 7, 1900, a fire-ball 
passed across Colorado and Wyoming, which is 
said to have rivaled the Sun in brigtitness. It 
appears to have burst near the northern bound- 
ary of Colorado, and horses and cattle were ter- 
ribly frightened by it. It may have been entirely 
consumed, or fallen to the Earth as dust, or may 
have continued on its journey, and may still be 
rushing through space. 

There appears to be no connection between bo- 
lides and shooting-stars, as many suppose. Dur- 
ing the ^eat star showers of Nov. 13, 1833, and 
a repetition of it on Nov. 14, 1866, both of which 
the writer witnessed, when countless thousands 
were visible from any one point, not a bolide was 
seen. 

Asteroids. — A broad stripe of the heavens on 
each side of the ecliptic is tattooed with these 
little " pocket planets," as they are often called ; 
all revolving: round the Sun with as much dig- 
nity as the Earth ; all in the same direction, west 
to east; and all very small, from 15 miles in 
diameter to Ceres, 477 miles. The smaller would 
be a world but 47 miles in circumference. When 
a new one is found it receives a provisional letter 
(as ES), and when ascertained not to be iden- 
tical with any before known it receives a per- 
manent number (as 446). It finally receives a 
name. 

It is a great task to take care of so large a 
family (nearly 475), and astronomers now Took 
with disfavor on their further discovery; but 
since the very faint Eros was found — which has 
an orbit so abnormal, and is going to solve the 
problem of the Sun's distance, having two-thirds 
of its orbit between the Earth and Mars, while the 
others are all between Mars and Jupiter — they 
look with more favor on the continued search. 

The following numbers have recently received 
names, for the discovery of which Prof. Max 
Wolf, of Heidelberg, appears to have a monopoly : 



No. 



N«BM. 



853. Riiperto CarolA. 

854. EleoDora. 

855. Qabriella. 

856. Ligiuia. 
358. Appolonla. 

861. BonoDia. 

862. Havnia. 

863. Padua. 

864. Isara. 
365. Corduba. 

866. VincoDtina. 

867. Amicitia. 

869. Aeria. 

870. Modestia 

871. Bohemia. 

872. Palma. 
378. Melucina. 
874. Burgundia. 

375. Ursula. 

376. Qeometria. 

877. Campania. 

878. Holmia. 

879. Huenna. 

880. Fiducia. 

881. Myrrha. 

882. Dodona. 



No. 



Nam*. 



884. Burdigala. 

385. Ilmatar. 

386. Siegona. 
888. Charybdis. 

389. InduBtria. 

390. Alma. 

891. Ineeborflr. 

892. WUhemina. 
393. Lampbetia. 
397. Vienna. 
899. Persepone. 

401. Ottilia. 

402. Chloe. 

403. Cyane. 

404. Arsinoe. 

405. Thia. 

407. Araebna. 

408. Fama. 

409. Aspasia. 

412. Elisabetha. 

413. Edburga. 

415. Pallatia. 

416. Vaticana. 

417. Suevia. 

418. Alemania. 

419. Auretia. 



No. 



Nam*. 



420. Bortbolda. 

421. Zahringia. 

422. Berolina. 

423. Diotima. 

424. Qratia. 

425. Cornelia. 
428. Monachia. 
482. Pythia. 
433. Eros. 
4^4. Hungaria. 
435. Ella. 

486. Patritia. 
489. Ohio. 
440. Theftdora. 

442. EichsfehlUi. 

443. Photograptiit. 

444. Gyptis. 

445. Edna. 

446. iStermitas. 

447. Valeutina. 

449. Hamburga. 

450. Brifitta. 

451. Patientia. 

454. Mathesis. 

455. Bruchsalia. 
457. Allsghenia. 



Dr. Edward E. Barnard*, with the micrometer ol 
the 40-inch refracting telescope at Yerkes Ob 
servatory, has made many observations and meas 
urements of the first four discovered asteroids- 
Ceres, Pallas, Juno, and Vesta. The first was 
discovered on the first day of the nineteenth cen 
tury, Jan. 1, 1801. None but a practical astrono 
mer can form the least conception of the difii 
culty of making such delicate measurements a; 
these. He says "the values 0.095" and 0.263" 
from the measures of 1894, are as closely in agree 
ment with previous results as can be expected 
this is pleasing after having waited six years foi 
a chance to measure them again." 

These are the largest of all the minor planets 
Following are the assumed diameters of the four 
Ceres, 477 miles; Pallas, 304; Juno, 120; Vesta 
239 miles. These figures are the results of fifty 
nine nights' work. 

Comets. — Since last report, five comets havi 
been discovered — viz., (a) (6) and (c) in 1900 
and (o) and Encke's in 1901. Comet (c) of 190( 
was discovered by Giacobini, and adds another t( 
the constantly increasing list of comets of shor 
period. It was not large or bright, but it was 
visible for a long time, which enabled astronomers 
to determine that its period is approximately 
seven years. 

The first comet of the twentieth century — (a] 
of 1901 — has in brightness, and in several othei 
respects, surpassed all comets since the famoui 
one of 1882. Unfortunately, it was so placed am 
its direction of motion was such that it w^as seei 
at but two Northern observatories — by Prof. E 
L. Larkin, director of the Mount Lowe Observa 
tory, Echo Mountain, southern California, anc 
by Prof. Campbell, of Lick Observatory. Prof 
Larkin says it " was observed for thirty-four min 
utes on May 17, and thirty-six minutes on th 
18th, when it disappeared behind the peaks of thi 
Tejunga, a spur of the San Gabriel mountain!- 
On the last- date it was well seen, but it had be 
come very much fainter. Its tail was very broa« 
in proportion to its length, which was only on 
degree. Its motion was rapid, and no trace of i 
could be seen on the 19th, 20th, or 21st. N( 
time was available to secure its spectrum." It 
orbit elements indicate it to be an ellipse of lon| 
period. It was discovered by Mr. A. Hills, at th 
Cape of Good Hope, and by Mr. Tattersal, of Wes 
Australia, on the morning of April 23, at w^hici 
time it was near perihelion and very bright, wit! 
a tail or tails about 10 degrees in length. Its pc 
riod is estimated at 1,143 years. 

Encke's comet has the shortest period of an^ 



ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS IN 1900-1901. 



45 



.3 years. Those of the shortest are called 

comets, because when at their aphelia 
re at or near the orbit of Jupiter. Of this 
there are 22. Similarly Saturn has 3, 
i 4, and Neptune 6. The present status of 
»eriodics is doubtless due to the attraction 
e giant planets. The first recorded appear- 
f Lncke*8 comet was in 1786. On a subse- 
retum to perihelion it was rediscovered by 
\e llerschel, and in 1818 it was again seen, 
t rai.sing a suspicion that it was the same 

Collecting the observations made in 1818, 
attempted to compute an orbit for it, on 
pposition that it was a parabola or an 
ola, but failed, as it seemed to be not only 
>:*e, but one of only three and a quarter 
As the time for another return drew near, 
puted a finding ephemeris for it for 1822, 
^ept its appointment to within a few days ; 
ifortunately it was visible only in the 
Ti heavens, and was seen by only a single 

Since then it has not been missed at a 
'etum. It is sometimes seen with a short 
tail, but generally it is tailless, appearing 
faint circular hazy disk. It is sometimes 
to the naked eye. One anomalous feature 
motion of this comet is that its period is 
ly shortening at the rate of about two 
it every return. The cause of this retarda- 
unknown. It is usually, and with some 
ascribed to its encounter with something, 

knows what, called a resisting medium, 
r\*ades all planetary spaces and may be of 
extent. If this theory be true, the same in- 
will ultimately cause* all the planets to fall 
e sun. 

Jen's comet, due at perihelion in January 
caped detection, as is often the case with 
eriod comets. Denning's comet also es- 
letection. 

onoinical Photognraphy. — The popular 
as the scientific world view with astonish- 
he advancement in this new department 
ronomy. The rapid plates take to a 
xtent the place of the human eye. Daily 
urly, in some part of the worm, the Sun 
tographed, thus recording the number, 
id position of his spots and pores and 
The constellations are likewise photo- 
i, bringing to view, by long exposure, stars 
it for any visual telescope to see, and clus- 
d nebulae whose light left them hundreds 
)usands of years ago. Dr. Roberts, of Eng- 
ho ranks high as a celestial photographer, 
•ently published a volume of his photo- 
of various objects, such as the Sun, Moon, 
. clusters, the Milky Way, and double and 
stars, which is verv valuable. A more 
ful or interesting story has seldom been 
ed to the world than the marvelous revela- 
•f what the great Crossley 3-foot photo- 
' telescope at Lick Observatory' has done 
»tial photography, as manipulated by the 
of. Keeler. His photographs of the ring 
in Lyra, the annular nebula in Cygnus, the 
cluster of stars 13 Messier in Hercules, the 
lebula in Andromeda, and many other in- 
g objects, reveal much that was formerly 
* n. Happening to expose one of Dr. Swift's 
'bula, he found that it was spiral. A com- 

of these photographs with those to be 
enturies hence may decide many questions, 
arvard Observatory, in the last two and a 
ars, 10.000 photographs have been taken, 
shaustive examination of the plates it was 
hat the famous asteroid Eros, now attract- 
nuch attention, appears on 15 charts taken 



before it was discovered by Witt, and on 5 spec- 
trum plates between October, 1893, and May, 1894, 
and on 6 plates in 1890. On one of the plates 
8 asteroids were depicted, and on another 46 
new nebulfie were counted. Prof. Keeler discov- 
ered 7 new nebulee on a photograph plate that 
had been exposed to the well-known nebula 61 
Messier, all on one square degree. On a plate 
exposed four hours on one of Herschel's nebula 
in Andromeda, 36 new nebulae and nebulous stars 
were found, and on another 20. All these had 
escaped Sir William Herschel's eye and telescope. 
Besides the nebulae, there was often found a con- 
siderable numl)er of objects which are probably 
nebulae so small that the resolving power of the 
great 36-inch telescope is insufficient to define 
their true character. 

Dr. Isaac Roberts has found by photography a 
very remarkable nebula in Monoceros, which is 
well worthy of study. A black gap or hole is 
in the center, resembling a dark tunnel through 
which everything beyond is of inky blackness, in 
appearance totally unlike any other known 
nebula. 

These citations are sufficient to show how 
photography, by long exposure and rapid plates, 
reveals objects far beyona the powers of any tele- 
scope. T'he Milky Way, that mighty Gulf Stream 
of stars, is made up of the silver light of hundreds 
of millions of suns, only a few of which will ever 
be visually seen by any telescope. 

Astronomical Prizes. — The following astro- 
nomical prizes since the last report have been 
awarded to astronomers for meritorious work in 
its several departments: 

The Laland prize, of a silver medal and 540 
francs, was awarded by the French Academy of 
Sciences to M. Giacobini, of the Nice Observatory, 
for the discovery of comets (c), Jan. 31, 1900, 
and (c) of Dec. 20, 1901. 

The Damoisean prize was awarded to J. von 
Hepperger, Professor of Astronomy at Graz, for 
investigations into the motions of Biela's comet 
at its separation into two separate comets at its 
return in 1846, resulting in the production of the 
two Andromeda star showers of Nov. 26 and 27. 

The Valtz prize was given to Abbe Verechaffel, 
of the Abbaaia Observatory, for extensive star- 
zone work. 

The Janssen prize, a large gold medal, was 
awarded to Dr. Edward E. Barnard, now of 
Yerkes Obser\'atory, for the discovery, in 1892, of 
Jupiter's fifth satellite. 

The Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical 
Society of England was bestowed on Prof. Ed- 
ward G. Pickering, director of Harvard College 
Observatory for extensive astronomical research. 

The same society presented a cash prize of 1,000 
guineas to Sir William and Lady Huggins, for 
distinguished services to astronomy. 

Beginning with 1823, the Royal Astronomical 
Society of London has, with a few exceptions, an- 
nually awarded a gold medal for conspicuous 
originality and research, in whatever country 
they might be shown; and the honor is height- 
ened by the fact that occasionally it has voted 
to give no medal at all. For forty-two years no 
award was made outside of England and the Con- 
tinent of Europe, and it was only in 1805 that the 
medal first came to this country, twenty years 
after the establishment of the first American ob- 
ser\'atory. The recipient was Prof. George P. 
Bond, director of Hansard Observatory, a son of 
Prof. William C. Bond, former director of the 
same observatory. Nine years later the same 
honor was conferred on an American astronomer, 
Prof. Simon Newcomb, of Washington, whose 



46 



AUSTRALASIA. 



\ 



work at the Naval Observatory, and also in the 
compilation of the Nautical Almanac, was re- 
membered. The declared reason for its bestowal, 
however, was his tables of Neptune and Uranus 
and his contributions to mathematical astrono- 
my. In more than fifty years, then, only two 
Americans received the society's medal. The con- 
trast between this record and that of the next 
twenty-five years is sufficiently emphasized in 
the mere statement that, out of the 21 awards 
made in the quarter of a century ending with the 
present year, 8, or more than a third, have come 
to the United States, not including a special 
award, called the Hannah Jackson Gwilt Medal, 
given to Dr. Lewis Swift in 1897. When it is re- 
membered that the other 15 were distributed in 
England, Germany, and France, the comparative 
accomplishment of this country in a science which 
is generally considered to be the most purely sci- 
entific of all, will be the more readily realized. 

Women as Astronomers. — The recent publica- 
tion of the Vassar College Observatory is one of 
peculiar interest. It gives a mass of valuable work 
that would do credit to any observatory where 
women never enter. The obsei'vers there have pub- 
lished a catalogue of stars within one degree oi the 
north pole. Miss Caroline Furness has measured 
the distortions of the Helsingfors astro-photo- 
graphic telescope deduced from photographic meas- 
ures. Mary W. Whitney is the director of Vassar 
College Observatory, over which the late Maria 
Mitchell so long and ably presided, to whom the 
King of Denmark presented a gold medal for dis- 
covery of a comet. At the Instance of Prof. 
Jacoby, of Columbia University, Miss Whitney 
procured a Repsold micrometer, which Miss Fur- 
ness has employed in the measurement of twelve 
photograph plates of the north-polar sky, sent to 
Prof. Jacoby by Prof. Donner, of Helsingfors, in 
Finland, who took them. She pronounces Don- 
ner's plates to be entirely free trom optical dis- 
tortion. 

Every astronomer in the world recognizes the 
valuable aid rendered to astronomy by Mrs. Flem- 
ing, long a valued assistant to Prof. E. C. Picker- 
ing at Harvard College Observatory, who has 
discovered many variable and some temporary 
stars. In one year she discovered 23 new vari- 
ables, 15 of which showed bright hydrogen lines 
in their spectra. 

Mme. Ceraski, of Moscow, has discovered 
many variable stars, some of them being of a 
distinct type. The first variable — ^21, 1900, Mono- 
cerotis — was discovered by her. By examining 
photograph plates she found the star in March, 
1899, to be of Hi magnitude, but in March, 1900, 
it had risen to the ninth magnitude, and in Octo- 
ber to 8.8. 

Lady Huggins has devoted years of arduous 
labor to the advancement of astronomy, and her 
achievements were considered so valuable . that 
she, jointly with her distinguished husband, Sir 
William Huggins, was recently presented by the 
Royal Astronomical Society with 1,000 guineas. 
Among others is Miss Agnes Clerke, who is noted 
as a writer on astronomical subjects. 

AUSTRALASIA, one of the grand divisions 
of the globe, consisting of the continent of Aus- 
tralia and island colonies of Great Britain, with 
interjacent islands. With the exception of tlie 
Dutch and German portions of New Guinea, the 
Gernian protectorates of the Bismarck Archipel- 
ago and the northern Solomon Islands, the 
French colony of New Caledonia, and some islands 
under native rule, chief of which are the New 
Hebrides, all the islands of Australasia belonjr to 
Great Britain. The six colonies of the Australian 



Commonwealth and the colony of New Zealand 
are self-governing, each having its representative 
Legislature, with a responsible ministry, dispos- 
ing of its own revenues and making its own laws 
under a charter granted by the British Parlia- 
ment, subject to a certain reserved veto power of ]_ 
the Imperial Government. Important powers of 
legislation and taxation have- now been delegated 
by the Australian colonies to the Federal Parlia- 
ment, over which the imperial control is less au- 
thoritative than it has been over the individual 
colonies. The executive chief who represents the 
Crown and gives final sanction to legislation iu 
the Federal Commonwealth is a Governor-General. 

The Commonwealth of Australia. — ^The Fed- 
eral Parliament consists of a Senate and a Hoiise 
of Representatives. Each of the six states form- 
ing the commonwealth sends 6 Senators to the 
Parliament, who are elected by the whole body of 
voters in the state. The tenn is six years, and 
half the Senate is renewed every third year. In 
case of a deadlock between the Senate and the 
House of Representatives the Senate must be dis- 
solved and new Senators elected. The House of 
Representatives consists as nearly as may be of 
twice as many members as there are Senators, 
and the seats are apportioned among the colonies 
according to their population. The first Parlia- 
ment has 75 representatives, of whom New South 
Wales sends 20, Victoria 23, Queensland 9, South 
Australia 7, Western Australia 5, and Tasmania 
5, every colony being entitled to at least 5 seats. 
The term is three years unless the House of 
Representatives is dissolved by the Government 
before that time expires. 

The Senators, as well as the members of the 
House of Representatives, are elected by the elect- 
ors in each state who are qualified to vote for 
members of the lower house of the state Parlia- 
ment, but plural voting is not allowed in Federal 
elections. A Senator or a member of the House of 
Representatives must be a British subject by 
birth, twenty-one years of age, or have been natu- 
ralized for five years, and must have been a resi- 
dent of Australia for three years, the qualification 
being precisely the same as for an elector. The 
Senate does not have the power of initiating taxa- 
tion or money bills, but may reject them or send 
messages to the other house suggesting amend- 
ments. Members of Parliament receive £400 a 
year, ministers not more than £12,000 for the 
whole Cabinet, the Governor-General £10,000. 
Ministers must be members of Parliament, or be- 
come elected within three months. 

The Federal Parliament has power to legis- 
late on matters relating to commerce, railroads, 
shipping, lighthouses, common finance, defense, 
postal, telegraph, and allied services, census and 
statistics, marriage and divorce, emigration and 
immigration, currency and banking, weights and 
measures, and conciliation and arbitration in 
labor disputes. The Governor-General has a 
Cabinet oi 7 ministers, all of whom must be mem- 
bers of Parliament, or must secure election within 
three months after their appointment. The com- 
monwealth, comprising the colonies of New South 
Wales, Victoria, Queensland,' South Australia, 
Western Australia, and Tasmania, designated the 
Original States, was proclaimed on Jan. 1, HK)1, 
five colonies having expressed by a general vote 
of the people their desire to federate, and the 
British Parliament having on July 9, 1900, parsed 
the act constituting the commonwealth. West- 
ern Australia voted to enter the federation in 
August, 1900. 

The Earl of Hopetoun was appointed in No- 
vember, 1900, to be the first Governor-General of 



AUSTEALASIA. 



4T 



Anstrali*. hii* functions beginning with the in- 
■nguratioB o[ the eominon wealth on Jan. 1, 1001. 
John Adrian Louis Hope, the seventh Earl of 
Hopptoun, bom ^pt. 25, IBDO, at the hereditary 
■eat in Scotland, tnicceeded his father at the age 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ of thirteen, waa 

^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^H ent«r the 

^^^^K ^^^^H army. He was 

m 



House of Lords. 
" "n waiting to 
the Queen, lord 
high commission- 
er to the General 
Assembly of the 
Church of Scot- 
land in 1887 and 
3 follow- 
ing years, and in 
IB8B waa ap- 
pointed Governor 



ACSTKiLu. Henry Loch. Re- 

turning to Eng- 
Und in 1895. he presided over the Institute of 
Xivaj Archit«.-ls. HUtreeded Lord Lathom as Lord 
Chamberlain at the end of 1BQ8, and received his 
•ppointment as the first Governor-General of Aus- 
tralia in November. 1000. 

The first mtnistry was composed as follows: 
Prime Minister and Minister for Externa) Affairs, 
E. Barton: Attorney-General, A. Deakin; Minis- 



:, C. C. Kingston; Minister of Defense. Sir 
John Forrest; Postmaster- General, J. G. Drake. 

The Crown colony of Fiji is administered in 
■Fcordanoe with native laws and customs, and 
its Governor is High Commissioner for the West' 
nn PaciSc. intrusted with the supervision of Brit- 
ith interests in the islands under native rule- 
British New Guinea is under the administration 
of a Lieutenant-Governor instructed by the Brit- 
ish Colonial Secretary in agreement with the Aus- 
tralian colonial authorities. New Zealand has 
not joined the commnnweallh. 

Area and Population. — The area in- square 
miles of the states forming the commonwealth, 
iccording to the latest surveys, and their popula- 
tion as estimated in 1S09 are given in the follow- 
ing table: 



OR»™*L STATB. 


A«. 


r<Tuu««. 




6W.4!>7 




























Total 


A«ra.srB 


3.rsA.Be4 



The increase in the population of New South 
Wales in ten years was 274.H30. and of this in- 
crease 17 per cent, was due to immi^ation and 
83 per cent, to +he excess of births over deaths. 
There were 233533 children on the rolls of the 
state schools in IHW) and 140.439 in average at- 
tmdance. with BO.ISO in private schools. There 
were 440 Chinamen who left (he colony in IS!IU 
and only 36 arrival. The total number ol im- 
migrants was 77.134. and of emigrants 70.22(1. 
The population of Sydney, the capital, was esti- 



mated in 1B09 at 438,300. The total population 
of New South Wales in 1001 was 1,362,232. 

The census of 1901 showed tnc population of 
Victoria to be 1,195,874. The urban population 
in 1800 was 5ft per cent, of the total population, 



the four towns 
in ten years was 12,303. and in the rural districts 
43,1M. The census of 1901 showed an increase in 
the population of the colony of only d5,4tl9 In ten 
years, and this was almost entirely in females. 
The natural increase since 1891 was 180.000, show- 
ing that 125,000 persons had left the colony. Th« 
number of immigrants by sea in 1899 was 83,384, 
and of emigrants 80,948. Education is compul- 
sory between the ages of six and thirteen, and in 
1809 there were 1.892 state schools, with 4.808- 
teachers and 143.844 pupils in average attend- 
ance, being 60 per cent, of the number enrolled. 

The census of 1901 made the population of 
Queensland 502302. The population of Brisbane, 
the capital of Queensland, was estimated at the 
end 01 1899 at 121,202. including suburbs, and 
there were 7 smaller towns with between 14,000 
and 20,000 inhabitants. The number of immi- 
grants in 1800 was 39.916, including 070 Chinese 
and 1,537 Pacific islanders; emigrants. 33,590, in- 
cluding 830 Chinese and 9H8 Pacific islanders. 
There were 888 elementary schools in the colony 
at the end of 1809, with 2,012 teachers and an 
average attendance of 63,133 pupils, while 11,389 
attended lOtI private schools. 

Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, had 
148,044 inhabitants at the end of 1809. The num- 
ber of immigrants in 1890 was 33.634, and of emi- 
grants 32,042. The census of 1001 showed an in- 
crease of 13 per cent, in population in ten years, 
compared with 14 per cent, in the previous dec- 
ade. The urban population increased 22 per cent. 
and the rural population 7 per cent., reversing the 
process of the previous decade, in which the urban 
population decreased 6 per cent., while the rural 
population inci-eosed 7 per cent. Public lands are 
reserved to afford educational funds. In 1890 
there were 284 regular and 393 provisional schools, 
and the number of scholars was 08,320. 

The immigration into Tasmania in 1890 was 24,- 
950, and emigration 20,805. The movement was 
mainly between Victoria and Tasmania. 

The population of Western Australia on June 
30, 1000, was estimated at 178,190. consisting of 
116,401 males and GI.705 females. Perth, the capi- 
tal, had 34,010 inhabitants, and Freemantle had 
about 16.000. which was more than the entire col- 
ony had in 1859. thirty years after its first set- 
tlement. The influx of gotd-seekers from the 
other colonies and from over the sea has ci^ased. 
In 1890 there were 20.278 arrivals and 20.225 de- 
partures. The average school attendance in 1899 
was 12,465 in 205 Government schools and 4.359 
in 83 private schools. 

The movement of population in the several 
stales for 1890 waa as follows: 



«^.,^ 


».*rs 


^ 


^ 


SA7'^ 


"l^, 


New South WiUe^.. 

Ww-t-rn Auslratta, 
THsmanis 


.W.-M11 

Mr4 


is.!>ni 
in..-,rs 

4.40B 

a.324 


"i 



48 



AUSTRALASIA. 



of their debts on June 30, 1900, in New South 
Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, on 
June 30, 1899, in Western Australia, and on March 
31, 1899, in Tasmania are shown in the following 
table: 



COLONIES. 


Rarran*. 


Expand! tor*. 


Debt. 


New South Wales 

Victoria 


£9,973,736 
7,463,117 
4,588,207 
2,780,858 
2,633,081 
943,970 


£9,811,402 
7,331,386 
4,540,418 
2,779,317 
2,396,448 
871,463 


£66,332,993 

48,774,886 
34,348,414 
26,156,180 
11,804,178 
8,395,638 


Queenslaud 


Bouth. Australia 

Western Australia 

Tasmania 



Of the revenue of New South Wales £2,617,313 
were derived from taxation, £2,108,433 from 
lands, £5,031,709 from 8er\'ices, and £210,281 
from other sources. Of the expenditure £2,049,- 
220 were expended on railroads and tramways, 
£754,527 on the post-office and telegraphs, £2,- 
310,271 to pay interest on the public debt, £27 
for immigration, £72(5,498 for public instruction, 
and £3,970,859 for other public works and serv- 
ices. The average rate of interest on the public 
debt is 3.63 per cent., and since four-fifths of the 
debt was contracted for railroads, tramroads, 
telegraphs, water-works, and sewerage, which 
yielded a net return of 3.45 per cent., four-fifths of 
the interest on the whole public debt was earned 
by these public works, on which the capital ex- 
penditure had been £64,371,745, viz., £42,084,214 
for railroads and tramroads, £1,127,740 for tele- 
graphs and telephones, £9,327,913 for water-sup- 
ply and sewerage, and £11,831,878 for other 
works. The public wealth at the end of 1898 was 
estimated at £169,705,000 and private wealth at 
£378,116,000; total, £547,821,000. The revenue 
for the year ending June 30, 1901, was £10,794,- 
233. 

The revenue collected in Victoria in 1899 was 
£7,396,944, of which £1,952,453 were derived 
from customs, £315.721» from excise, £108,745 
from the land tax, £305,762 from the duties on 
estates of deceased persons, £17,735 from the 
duty on bank-notes, £162,500 from the stamp 
duty, £40,735 from tonnage and navigation dues, 
£182,154 from the income tax, £2,849,370 from 
railroads, £553,672 from posts and telegraphs, 
£408,652 from public lands, and £499,445 from 
other sources. The amount raised by taxation 
was £3,085,805. The total expenditure was £7,- 
014,706, of which £220,199 were general expendi- 
tures, £313,055 pensions, £1,879,148 debt charges, 
£1,703,196 expenses of the railroads, £262,025 ex- 
penses of other public works, £520,824 expenses 
of posts and telegraphs, £67,186 for public lands, 
£605,875 for public instruction, £332,558 for 
charitable institutions, £162,526 for courts of jus- 
tice, £307,848 for police and jails, £96,092 for cus- 
toms and harbors, £137,524 for mining and agri- 
culture, £197,585 for defense, and £209,065 for 
other purposes. The revenue of Victoria for 
the vear ending June 30, 1001, was £8.087,264. 
Of tiie public debt of Victoria £37,210,611 were 
borrowed for railroads, £7,670,807 for water- 
works, £1,111,477 for school buildings, and £2,- 
361,382 for other public works. The average rate 
of interest is 3.83 per cent. The local debts 
amount to £8,474,471. 

Of the revenue of Queensland £1.461,690 came 
from customs, £148,423 from excise and export 
duties, £245,426 from stamps, £62,698 from li- 
censes, £66,477 from the duty on dividends, 
£323,622 from pastoral leases," £295,121 from 
other rent and sales of land, £1,422,852 from rail- 
roads, and £309,471 from posts and telegraphs. 
Of the expenditures £1,339,149 went for interest 
on the debt, £103,935 for endowments to muni- 



cipalities and divisions, £286,229 for public in- 
struction, £168,157 for the Colonial Treasurer's 
department, £96,123 for public lands, £67,116 for 
agriculture, £947,191 for railroads, and £362,908 
for posts and telegraphs. The expenditure out of 
loans was £1,182,668, of which £637,675 were 
for railroads, £40,459 for telegraphs, £57,222 for 
rivers and harbors, £266,710 for loans to local 
bodies, £54,490 for public buildings, and £18,511 
for advances to sugar planters. The revenue for 
1901 was estimated at £4,594,370, and expenditure 
at £4,571,738. The actual revenue was £4,327,- 
300, and expenditure £4,571,600. 

The revenue of South Australia is derived 
mainly from customs duties, internal revenue, 
railroads, posts, and telegraphs, and lands, and 
the main expenditure is for railroads and public 
works and interest on the debt, only about 10 
per cent, being reouired for civil administration, 
justice, police, and defense. Over half the debt 
was contracted for the construction of railroads, 
water-works, and telegraphs. In the year ending 
June 30, 1901, the revenue of South Australia was 
£2,818,712. 

In Western Australia £872,300, about a third 
of the total revenue, was derived from import 
duties, and the remainder from railroads, the 
postal service, mines, and leases of public lands. 
The interest on the public debt amounts to £439,- 
825 and the sinking-fund to £377,161. 

Of the revenue of Tasmania 58 per cent, is de- 
rived from customs duties and taxation, 32 per 
cent, from the railroad, postal, tele^aph, and 
other services, and most of the remainder from 
rent and sale of public lands. Of the expenditure 
36 per cent, goes for interest, 35 p«r cent, for pub- 
lic works, 10 per cent, for law and justice, 8 per 
cent, for general purposes, 6 per cent, for chari- 
table institutions, and 5 per cent, for education 
and religion. A part of the territorial revenue is 
applied to the reduction of the debt. The rev- 
enue for 1900 was estimated at £1,040,107, and 
expenditure at £926,364. The earlier loans, ob- 
tained solely for the construction of public works, 
pay 4 per cent, interest. The latest loan bears 3 J 
per cent, interest nominally, and taking account 
of expenses and commissions the net rate is 3.62 
per cent. 

Commerce and Production. — ^The value of 
the foreign trade of the several states for 1899 is 
given in the following table: 



COLONIES. 



New South Wales. . 

Victoria 

Queensland 

South Australia 

Western Australia. 
Tasmania 



Import!. 



£25,594,315 
17,952,894 
6,754,097 
6,884.858 
4,473,532 
1,769,824 



Export!. 



£28.445.466 

18,567,780 

11.942,858 

8,388,396 

6,985,642 

2,577,475 



The exports from the Australasian colonies, in- 
cluding New Zealand, which rose in value from 
£78,453,000 in 1898 to £88.845,000 in 1899, fell to 
£85,394,000 in 1900, the decrease being due to the 
fall in the value of the wool exports, which de- 
clined in value £6,465,000, while gold increased 
£1,218,000 and all other exports £1,218,000. The 
total value of imports increased from £08,537,000 
in 1898 to £72,178.000 in 1899 and £79,631,000 in 
1900. 

Of the total area of New South Wales only 
2.440,968 acres were cropped in 1900. About a 
fourth of the total area is covered with forests. 
The Government had alienated 46,850,577 acres 
and leased 128.034,958 acres. Land can be ob- 
tained by conditional purchase or on a conditional 
lease with the privilege of purchase, at the fixed 
price of £1 an acre for not less than 40 or more 



AUSTfLVLASIA. 4^ 

V40 acres in the eastern and for a maximum molasses, £683,711; of live stock, £787,216; of 

liO acres in the central division; or in the iron and steel, £84J,509; of timber, £441,298; of 

I division 1,280 acres may be taken as a tea, £335,942; of hides and «kins, £335,889; of 

tead selection, or 10,240 acres of grazing silk manufactures, £334,637; of coal, £276,137; 

18 a settlement lease on payment of annusu of oils, £245,152; of all other articles, £9,739,714. 

ind on condition of continuous residence. The exports of gold were £4,386,719; of wool, 

lit which condition the price is £2 an acre £5,701,410; of grain and flour, £1,643,463; of but- 

• maximum of 320 acres. Special areas may ter, £1,404,830; of frozen meat, £368,262; of hides 

erved by the Government in any one of the and skins, £505,167 ; of leather and harness, 

divisions, to be sold for a minimum price of £331,157; of live animals, £352,137; of sugar and 

te. for the maximum of 320 acres in the molasses, £154,970; of clothing, £149,800; of tal- 

D division, and 640 acres in the central and low, £141,334; of reexport of tea, £160,939; all 

■n divisions; and town and suburban lots other exports, £3,267,602. Of the total imports 

e sold at auction with an upset price of £8 of Victoria in 1899 the United Kingdom furnished 

e former and £2 10«. for the latter. In the the value of £5,990,027 ; Australasian colonies, 

n division the Government may lease land £8,440,458; India, £340,435; Ceylon, £159,728; 

istoral purposes under various forms and Canada, £19,378; other British possessions, 

ions. The production of wheat in New £216,314; the United States, £883,472; Germany, 

Wales in 1900 was 13,604,166 bushels; of £578,298; France, £199,849; Belgium, £122,236; 

5.976,022 bushels; of tobacco, 6,641 hun- Sweden and Norway, £107,833; Java and the 

pight; of sugar-cane, 170,509 tons; of Philippine Islands, £59,116; China, £56,844; all 

739,668 gallons; of brandy, 9,624 gallons; other countries, £159,646. Of the total exports 

inges and other fruit, 3.652 tons. There the United Kingdom received £51,648,150; Aus- 

36,213,514 sheep, 1,967,081 cattle, 482,200 tralasian colonies, £5,209,30^; India, £2,459,506; 

, and 239,973 pigs on Jan. 1, 1900. The Ceylon, £109,298; Canada, £45; other British 

ament timber reserves have an area of possessions, £1,431,166; France, £1,482,637; Grer- 

155 acres. The quantity of , timber saw^n many, £767,537; Belgium, £612,569; the United 




:he opening of the flrst mines in 1851. The was 121,877,604 pounas, nearly half of which 

ty of native silver obtained in 1899 was came from other colonies. Victoria contains large 

5 ounces, value £76,913; of silver-lead ore lignite and coal deposits which have begun to be 

letal. 444,627 tons, value £1,993,744; the available recently through the extension of the 

of copper, £395,451. From its discovery in railroads. The output of 250,000 tons in 1900 

here was £5,019,480 worth of copper pro- can be increased to any extent. The kinds of Aus- 

and since tin was found in 1872 the pro- tralian coal discovered down to the present have 

n of this metal had a value of £6,382,538. not been of hi^h quality, but in 1901 the Gov- 

imber of persons employed in 1899 in smelt- emment geologist of Queensland reported the dis- 

Iver, tin, and copper ores in 42 furnaces covery 01 enormous beds of anthracite that are 

),159. and in manufactures 55,646 were em- equal to the best quality of steam coal found any- 

The coal raised in 1899 was 4,597,028 wnere. Of the imports into Queensland in 1899 

>f the value of £1,325,799. the value of £2,905,437 came from Great Britain, 

exports of home produce from New South £2,997,883 from Australasian colonies, £198,880 

in 1899 were £19,221,854, and of foreign from other British possessions, £332,346 from the 

^e £9,223,612. The quantity of wool ex- United States, and £329,551 from other coun- 

was 240,019,494 pounds, valued at £11,- tries. Of the exports £4,272,952 went to Great 

r. The value of tallow exported was £510,- Britain, £7,027,367 to Australasian colonies, 

>f hides and skins, £1,035,905; of leather, £222,301 to other British possessions, and £420,- 

['29; of preserved and frozen meat, £588,- 238 to foreign countries. The export of gold was 

f coal, £1,005,794; of gold coin, £3,489,286. £2,613,511 m value; of copper, £22,551; of silver, 

mports from other Australasian colonies £46,552; of wool, £3,390,779; of sugar, £1,163,- 

i)9 were £12,113,402; from Great Brit- 010; of hides and skins, £700,303; of tin, £80,959; 

^8,211,351; from other British possessions, of frozen meat, £851,635; of salted and pre- 

rSO; from the United States, £2,219,319; served meat, £427.108; of meat extract, £215,- 

>ther countries, £2,120,463; exports to Aus- 209; of tallow, £468,829; of green fruit, £93,291; 

an colonies, £9,524,267; to Great Britain, of pearl shells, £137,873. The imports of woven 

t,480; to other British possessions, £1,451,- goods and clothing were £1,549.251 in value; of 

o the United States, £2,392,281; to other metal goods and metals, £956,916. 

les, £6,084,767. The overland imports were In South Australia less than 1^ per cent, of the 

1..320, and overland exports £4,961,495 in land has been sold by the Government, but 11 

The mineral resources of New South Wales per cent, has been leased to 538 tenants for pas- 
e coal, of which 5,507,497 tons were raised toral purposes. The cultivated area in 1900 was 
0. Coal is exported to the other colonies, 3,081,846 acres, of which 1,821,137 acres A^ere Un- 
as to Asia before the development of the der wheat and 34,915 acres were in orchards and 

and Japanese mines. vineyards. The yield of wheat in 1899 was 

area under crops in Victoria in 1900 was 8,453,135 bushels; of wine, 1,080,772 gallons, 504,- 

00 acres, 'producing 15,238,000 bushels of 065 of which were exported. The number of horses 

6,116,000 bushels of oats, and 1,466,000 in 1899 was 168,695; of cattle, 275.794; of sheep, 

8 of barley. There were 854.500 ounces of 5,667,283. The value of mineral products exported 

lised in 1899, valued at £3,418,000, the total was £453,020. The export of copper ore was £24,- 

previouslv obtained since 1851 having been 682; of copper, £406,208; of wool, £1,^11.693; of 

38,820. there were 30.640 miners employed wheat, £422,439; of wheat flour, £338,820. Of 

gold-fields and 60,070 operatives in the fac- the total imports £2,040,430 came from Great 

The value of wool imported in 1899 was Britain. £3,839,330 from Australian colonies, 

.059; of woolen manufactures, £(>09,689; £217,055 from other British possessions, £304,- 

on manufactures, £985,931; of sugar and 801 from the United States, and £422,742 from 

roL. XLi. — i A 



50 AUSTRALASIA. 

I 

other countries. Of the total exports £2,805,787 £13,555; of fruit, fresh and preserved, £2 

went to Great Britain, £3,637,878 to Australian The imports of textiles were valued at £3^ 

colonies, £517,823 to other British possessions, hardware, £106,353; sugar, £104,490; macl 

£247 to the United States, and £1,426.661 to for- £98,720. Of the total imports the value of 

eign countries. The wheat crop of 1901 was 11,- 120 came from Great Britain, £799,907 froi 

263,143 bushels, an increase oi about 3,000,000 toria, £275,414 from New South Wales, £] 

bushels in the yield of 1900. from other British colonies, and £50,405 frc 

In Western Australia there were 186,396 acres eign countries. Of the total value of e 

under crops in 1899, less than a three-thousandth £1,039,640 went to Great Britain, £391,i 

part of the surface of the colony, but still show- Victoria, £701,524 to New South Wales, 

ing a rapid increase in agriculture. Wheat and 232 to other British colonies, and £327,* 

hay are the main crops. The area already sold foreign countries. 

to settlers was 6,478,949 acres. There were 2,609 Kavigation. — The number of vessels enti 

leases of gold-mines, which gave employment .to the ports of New South Wales during IHi 

16,080 men, while 4,920 were employed in washing 3,219, of 3,468,591 tons, of which 2,908, of 

gold. The gold production for 1899 was 1,643,877 Oi*/ tons, were British or colonial and 2 

ounces, valued at £6,246,732. The production of 491,494 tons, were foreign; cleared, 3.1 

27 copper-mines was 1,991 tons, valued at £41,- 3,526,960 tons, of which 2,877, of 3,036,27^ 

452; of 103 tin-mines, 308 tons, valued at £23,- were British or colonial and 322, of 490,68: 

163. There were 23 leases of lead and copper- were foreign. The merchant fleet of the • 

mines and 71 leases of coal-mines. The export of consisted on June 30, 1899, of 502 sailing ^ 

gold in 1899 was 1,434,570 ounces, valued at £5,- of 55,554 tons, and 498 steamers, of 67,193 1 

451,368. In the northern and northeastern parts The number of vessels entered at Vit 

of the colony are about 20,000,000 acres of good ports wag 2,024, of 2,662,792 tons, of which 

grazing lands along the stream beds. The live 1,009,272 tons, were British, and 1,321, of l,i 

stock on Jan. 1, 1900, consisted of 65,817 horses, tons, were colonial; cleared, 2,031, of 2,f 

296,267 cattle, and 2,273,246 sheep. The export of tons, of which 411, of 1,063,142 tons, were I 

pearl shell in 1899 was £90,647 in value; of and 1,284, of 1.079,507 tons, were colonial 

pearls, about £20,000; of sandalwood, £29,719; merchant shipping comprised 233 sailing \ 

of timber, £553,198; of wool, £423,296; of skins, of 37,837 tons, and 148 steamers, of 60,96^ 

£61,998. Of the total imports Great Britain At the ports of Queensland 662 vessels 

supplied the value of £1,550,029, Australasian foreign trade, of 730,450 tons, were enterc 

colonies £2,312,357, other British possessions 630, of 733,613 tons, were cleared during 

£163,190, the United States £203,777, other In the coasting trade 6,692 vessels, of 3,^ 

countries £244,179. Of the exports Great Britain tons, were entered and 6,588, of 3,527 ,26( 

took £3,774,247, Australasian colonies £2,937,- were cleared. The shipping of the colon; 

574, other British possessions £f91,554, the sisted of 144 sailing vessels, of 9,928 tons, i 

United States £78, and other countries £82,189. steamers, of 12,867 tons. 

Western Australia is the source of the most valu- There were 1,020 vessels, of 1,708,556 toi 

able of the hardwoods that are used for sub- tered and 1,025, of 1,720,810 tons, cleared at 

marine construction, street pavements, etc. The Australian ports during 1899. The me 

jarrah and karri woods are regarded as unri- shipping of the colony consisted of 227 : 

valed for piles, bridges, and railroad ties, and vessels, of 22,421 tons, and 108 steamers, 

streets paved with jarrah have stood heavy traffic 445 tons. 

for many years. Karri, though less durable At West Australian ports 685 vessels, of 

under water and not so easily wrought, is more 052 tons, were entered in 1899, and 668, of 1.5 

valuable for bridges and floors, and equally good tons, were cleared. The colonial shippinj 

for street blocks. Efforts have been made to have sisted of 135 sailing vessels, of 6,653 ton 

these woods and the various kinds of eucalyptus 30 steamers, of 6,442 tons, 

and other woods found in the viigin forests of this The number of vessels entered in Tasmani 

and other colonies adopted in Great Britain for ing 1899 was 797, of 662,757 tons; cleared, ' 

street pavements and various structural purposes 655,358 tons. The shipping belonging 1 

instead of timber imported from America. colony consisted of 156 sailing vessels, oi 

Over one-fourth of the area of Tasmania has tons, and 44 steamers, of 6,485 tons, 

been sold or granted to settlers. There were 225,- BaUroadSy Posts, and Telegraphs. 

126 acres under farm crops in 1900, while 288,777 railroads of New South Wales on June 30 

acres were sown to grasa and 13,172 acres were had a total length of 2,896 miles, of whicli 

orchard. The yield of wheat was 1,101,303 were built by the Government at a cost of 

bushels; of oats, 1,148.160 bushels; of hay, 51,123 477,269. The gross receipts in 1900 were £ 

tons; of hops, 589,793 pounds. The exportation 572; working jexpen^s, £1,769,520, being 

of apples and other fruits is very large. The live per cent, of the receipts. The Government 

stock in 1900 comprised 31,189 horses, 160,204 ways had a length of 71 miles, built at a < 

cattle, 1,672,068 sheen, and 74,451 pigs. The £1*924,720, and earning £409,724 in the ye« 

colony contains rich aeposits of tin, copper, ga- £341,127 for working expenses, 

lena, and iron ores, and coal. The alluvial de- The state railroads of Victoria had a 

posits of gold have been worked out, but there length on June 30, 1899, of 3,160 miles, bui 

are gold-mines, producing the value of £205.936 cost ot £38,974,410, of which £2.908,121 wf 

in 1899, when the silver export was £208,869 and vided out of the revenue and the rest w^a 

that of copper ore £761,880. The quantity of rowed. The gross receipts in 1899 were £2,8' 

silver and copper ores raised was 417,866 tons, and expenses were £1,797,726, being 62.6 pe 

valued at £1,633,724. The value of the tin export of the receipts. The net income was equal 1 

in 1899 was £281,947, making a total of £6,961,- per cent, ot the cost of construction, or 2. 

249 exported from the beginning of mining. The cent, of the bonowed capital, on which th< 

production of the coal-mines was 43,113 tons, age rate of interest is .3.8 per cent. Ther< 

value £17,008. The export of wool in 1899 was 45.805,043 passengers and 2,779,748 tons of i 

£357,757 in value; of silver and silver ore, carried in 1899. 

£208,869; of timber and bark, £70,584; of hops. There were 2,800 miles of railroads in ope 



AUSTRALASIA. 51 

eensland at the beginning of 1900, nearly all land, 250 regulars and 4,117 volunteers and re- 

roperty of the Government, which haa ex- serves. Sir John Forrest, in June, 1901, reported 

d £19,110,725 in their construction. The the defense forces of Australia at 61,233 men and 

earnings in 1900 were £1,373,076, and the 15,000 cadets. 

Ling expenses £844,101. The sum appropriated for defense in New South 

railroads of South Australia at the end of Wales in 1900 was £280,058, including £31,897 

tiad a total length of 1,883 miles, including of permanent expenditure from loans, but exclud- 

iles in the Northern TeiTitory. ing £158,748 for the military contingent in South 

re were 1,850 miles of railroads in operation Airica. Victoria spent £197,585 in 1899; Queens- 

jstem Australia on June 30, 1900, including land, £36,065 in 1900; Western Australia, £22,789 

liles of private railroads. in 1899; Tasmania, £13,394. The contingents 

railroads of Tasmania had a length of 547 furnished by the Australasian colonies to aid 

in 1899. Great Britain in the Boer war had a total strength 

postal traffic of New South Wales in 1899 of 8,360 men. New South Wales sent 1,378 regu- 

5^18,608 letters, 1,408,140 postal cards, 46,- lars and 1,280 bushmen, with 2,546 horses; \ic- 

newspapers, 13,986,590 packets ana book toria, 521 regulars and 905 bushmen, with 1,603 
8, 654,474 parcels, 421,085 money-orders, for horses; Queensland, 417 regulars and 707 bush- 
6,927, and postal notes for £449,948. men, with 1,361 horses; South Australia, 245 regu- 

postal revenue of Victoria, including re- lars and. 330 bushmen, with 548 horses; Western 

from telegraphs and telephones, was £555,- Australia, 233 regulars and 243 bushmen, with 522 

nd expenses were £491,686. horses; Tasmania, 127 regulars and 188 bushmen, 

Queensland post-office handled 21,181,287 with .192 horses; New Zealand, 1,274 regulars and 

), 11,633,266 papers, 5,771^,013 packets, and 523 bushmen, with 2,660 horses. In the Chinese 

5 parcels in 1899; revenue, £200,726. operations there participated 260 men from New 

number of letters that passed through the South Wales and 200 from Victoria and a gunboat 

•ffiee in South Australia was 19,765,396 in from South Australia. 

packets, 1,531,400; newspapers, 8,937,040. The naval force in the colonies of Australasia 
>V>stem Australia 12,629,554 letters, 343,999 in 1900 consisted of 5 deck-protected cruisers and 
cards, 6,287,018 papers, and 3,015,995 2 torpedo gunboats of the royal navy, 2 of the 
ts were sent through the post'office in 1899. cruisers being in reserve; 1 old monitor, 5 torpedo- 
ostal and telegraph expenses were £230,700. boats, and two unarmored eunboats belonging to 
postal traffic of Tasmania in 1899 was Victoria; 2 torpedo-boats m New South Wales; 
>55 letters, 1,811,344 packets, 6,293,018 1 cruiser and 1 auxiliary steamer in South Aus- 
», and 288,558 postal cards; receipts, £78,- tralia; 1 gunboat in Western Australia; 2 gun- 
'xpenses of posts and telegraphs, £78,094. boats and 2 destroyers in Queensland; 1 torpedo- 
telegraphs of New South Wales on Jan. 1, boat in Tasmania; and 4 torpedo-boats and 4 
had a length of 13,663 miles, with 35,630 auxiliary steamers in New Zealand. The crews in 
of wire, constructed at a cost of £1,051,987. New South Wales numbered 579; in Victoria, 309; 
umber of messages in 1899 was 3,112,063; in Queensland, 740; in South Australia, 162; in 
receipts, £475,438; net revenue, £168,758. Tasmania, 39; in New Zealand, 1,004; total, 
length of telegraph lines in Victoria on 2,833 men. The British squadron on the Austra- 
30, 1899, was 6,747 miles, with 15,125 miles lian station, with headquarters at Sydney, num- 
re. The number of messages in 1898 was bered 9 vessels. A fleet of 5 fast cruisers of 2,575 
ISS. There w^ere 13,591 miles of telephone tons displacement — the Katoomba, Tauranga, 

Hingarooma, Mildura, and Wallaroo — and 2 tor- 
telegraph lines of Queensland at the close pedo gunboats of 735 tons — the Boomerang and 
19 had a length of 10,202 miles, with 18,968 Karakatta — -was equipped for service in the Aus- 
of wire. "Die number of despatches sent tralian seas under an agreement made with the 
5 the year was 1,208,489, and 201,562 ex- Imperial Government in 1887, according to which 
despatches were received; receipts, £98,- the colonies which entered into the arrangement 
ixpenses of telegraphs and post-office, £347,- pay 5 per cent, interest on the cost of the vessels 

and the expenses of maintenance, the latter not to 

South Australian telegraph lines had a exceed £91,000 a year. The charge on the colonies 

1 of 5,691 miles in 1899, including telephones, in 1900 was £126,000, of which New South Wales 
16,937 miles of wire. contributed £38,130, Victoria £32.699, Queens- 
telegraphs of Western Australia had a land £13,559, South Australia £10,419, Western 

I of 5,941 miles, with 8,749 miles of wire, on Australia £4,807, Tasmania £5,124, and New 

1, 1900. The number of messages in 1899 Zealand £21,262. These vessels are now obsolete, 

,136,513; net receipts, £79,716. and some new arrangement will be made with 

telegraphs of Tasmania had in 1900 a the commonwealth. The cost of additional naval 

I of 2,004 miles, with 3,252 miles of wire, forces in 1900 was £95,300, of which £60,300 

ing 428 miles of cable; number of messages, came from the imperial exchequer. Fortifications 

8; length of telephones, 815 miles; total re- have been erected by the colonies to protect their 

, £23397. principal harbors, and all have shared in the ex- 

exise. — The military forces in the colonies pense of building naval strongholds at King 

9 numbered 31,861 men of all ranks, includ- George Sound and Thursday island. Rear- 

J59 British regulars, 12,447 militia, and 17,- Admiral Beaumont, commander-in-chief of the 

lunteers and reserves. In New South Wales British fleet on the Australian station, advised 

were 835 regulars, 4,395 militia, and 4,756 the Commonwealth Government against the crea- 

leers and reserves; in Victoria, 393 regulars, tion of naval reserves, considering the system oy 

militia, and 2,102 volunteers and reserves; which the Imperial Government provides ships 

eensland, 287 regulars, 2,999 militia, and and men to be more effective and economical, 

rolunteers and reserves; in South Australia, Two first-class and 4 second-class cruisers, with 

ulars, 700 militia, and 661 volunteers and 2 cruisers in reserve, are the force recommended to 

»«; in Western Australia, 35 regulars and be maintained by the Federal Government. 

ilitia; in Tasmania, 29 regulars, 219 militia, The Federal Parliament. — The Earl of Hope- 

,788 volunteers and reserves; in New Zea- toun, Dec. 19, 1900, a few days after his arrival^ 



62 



AUSTBALASIA. 



sent for the Premier of New South Wales, and 
commisaioned him to form the first Federal min- 
istry. Sir William J. Lvne, whoae selection aston- 
ished and displeased the people of bis own and 
of the other colonies because he had been the chief 
opponent of federation in the form that 




tariff, in which revenue would be the secondiiy 
consideration, and the Bret would be to aeew 
Australian manufacturers from the competitimi 
of imported goods. The ministers were all pnh 
tectionists in their antecedents, but they indi- 
cated in their speeches that the Uovemment would 
favor the intermediate policy of a low revenue- 
producing tariff, with reasonable protection for 
certain selected indus- 
tries that could not 
be continued without 
such aid. The eltft- 
ors w-ere divided into 
low - tariflists anil 
high - tariffists, two 
parties only. In tbE 
result 21 Senaton 
and 35 RepresenU- 
lives were electfd 
who favored low tir 
iff, and 16 Senators 
and 40 RepresenU- 
tives who nad it- 
clared themselves (or 
hiph tariff. ThePrimt 
Minister, leader of the 
high - tariff party, 
claimed a working 
majority over the 
low - tariffiBts. whOM 
leader was G. H. Reid, 
chief of the free-trad- 
ers of New iSouth 
Wales, his own state, 









quette, being the actual Premier of the senior 
colony, returned his commission on Dec. 2'2, on 
the gi'ounil that he could not form an acceptable 
ministry tbat would be sutBciently representiitive 
of Australia, and advised the Governor-(;eneral 
to send for Mr. Barton, who was the acknowl- 
edged leader of the federation movement. This 
he did, and Mr. Barton promptly undertook the 
task. The State Premiers and ex-Premiers whom 
Sir William Lyne had asked to Join the Cabinet 
refused to accept his leadership, demanding that 
Mr. Barton should form the ministry. They will- 
ingly accepted ofhce under the latter, although 
he had never been a Premier. The commonwealth 



Jan. . 

the first Postmaster-General, left a vacancy that 
was filled on Jan. 25. 1901, by the appointment of 
James G. Drake, of Queensland. The postal, tele- 
graph, and telephone services of the states were 
transferred to the commonwealth on March 1. 
The elections to the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the first Federal Parliament were 
held on March 29 in Neu- South Wales, Victoria. 
Tasmania, and Western Australia, and on March 
30 in South Australia and Queensland. The elec- 
toral campaign was earnestly contested on the 
question of the tariff. There were three fi-ical 
policies presented to the electors; tariff for revenue 

Curposes only, or free trade, on the English model ; 
>w tariff, or a scale of duties adapted to produce 
the itrealest amount of revenue, except in the 
case of industries that had been created and fos- 
tered by high protective duties, as in Victoria. 
which should enjoy such moderate protection as 
would preserve them from extinction; and high 



victory in the elec- 
tions, which was leu 
disconcerting and less 
dangerous to tlie 
compromise that he 
hoped to effect in tar- 
iff legislation than the greater victory of llii 
troublesome allies, the extreme protection! at* 
of Victoria. In Queensland the election hinged 
less on the tariff than on the question of the 
abolition of Kanaka contract laDor. which llr. 
Barton had raised incautiously by declaring (or 
a white Australia. The Labor party of Queens- 
land, which asserts that sugar can be culti' 
vated with white labor, took up the cry and 
won a victory at the polls for protection agaiDst 
black labor as well as for high tariff, although 
Mr. Barton had tempered his first declarationi 
by saying that the abolition of Kanaka labor 
should only be accomplished gradually, out ot 
consideration for the great interests involved. 
The J.Ahor party in the various states was 
represented in the Federal Parliament by 8 
Senators and It! Representatives. The stated 
elected the Senators by the block system, every 
voter being reouired to vote on one ticket for fi 
separate candidates in the field. By this system a 
party controlling a majority of the voters in any 
state, such as the Ijibor party of Victoria, has the 
power of naming the entire representation of tne 
state in the Senate, This was not done in anf 
inslance. Queensland, by a special provision of 
trie ('onstitutjon act. had the ri^ht to make lawa 
dividing the state into senatorial divisions, but 
did not avail itself of the privilege. The Consti' 
tution allows states to vote for Representatives 
on a single tickei. and this course was taken by 
Tasmania and South Australia, while the other 
states were divided into electoral districts. Tas- 
mania adopted in Imth senatorial elections and 
those for members of the House of Representatives 
the Hare system of proportional representation 



AUSTRALASIA. 53 

'as already in force in local elections. At an exclusive interest in all islands within 1,000 
meeting of the Federal Cabinet, on April miles, but the Prime Minister deprecated discus- 
suggestion of Mr. Chamberlain that Boer sion that might embarrass the policy of the Im- 
s should be sent to Tasmania was rejected, penal Government. The colonies were agreed as 
irst Australian Parliament was declared to the policy of restricting Chinese immigration. 
Melbourne on May 9 by the Duke of Some advocates of a white man's Australia 
11, who was present as the King's High would like to send away the 38,000 Chinese al- 
sioner. The Governor-General on May 10 ready settled in Australia, although in many 
the proposed legislation. Parliament localities the disappearance of the Chinese market 
constitute a high court with extensive gardeners would inflict much inconvenience and 
e jurisdiction; to create an interstate temporary hardship. Of other colored races, ex- 
iion for regulating affairs between the cept the aboriginals, estimated at 200,000, whom 
elating to trade and commerce, and espe- the state governments endeavored to protect and 
I relation to railroads, with wide powers preserve from extinction, there were only a small 
rial administration, so as to secure the number of Hindus and the Afghans who are em- 
i of each state consistent with those of ployed in transporting goods by means of camels 
monwealth ; and to pass a public service in the arid regions of the interior. A motion requir- 
le Government was taking steps to secure ing vessels carrying mails to be manned by white 
r for the Federal capital in a location crews was rejected by the Government as con- 
LS suitable in climate, accessibility, and trary to existing contracts, but Mr. Barton prom- 
beauty. Among the measures to be ised in making future contracts to submit them 
before Parliament were bills for restrict- to Parliament. The Australian Government pro- 
itic immigration, for the diminution and posed to take over the administration of New. 
abolition of the introduction of labor Guinea, and, if possible, of the Solomon Islands 
e South Sea islands, for conciliation and also. The Government of Tasmania objected to 
ion in cases of industrial disputes extend- the postal regulation bill introduced by Mr. Drake 
>nd the limits of any one state, for uni- because it contained a clause excluding from the 
in the patent laws, and for granting a mails communications relating to racing lotteries, 
franchise in all Federal elections by the or sweepstakes, which are legal in that colony. 

I of adult suffrage. The question of old- The bill creating an interstate commission con- 
dons would have to be postponed in view tained important provisions affecting the business 
nt financial conditions. Subjects re^uir- of public carriers, shipping firms, and merchants, 
slation were banking, Federal elections, botn local and foreign. Sir John Forrest's de- 
on, shipping, and quarantine. Considera- fense bill classified the entire male population in 
3 being given to the best means of taking three divisions: eighteen to thirty years of age; 
averting, renewing, and consolidating the thirty to forty-five years; and forty-five to sixty, 
ebts of the states. Regarding tlie tariff, Except in times of emergency the defense force 
isters considered inadmi,ssible any policy will be kept up by voluntary enlistment. In case 
to destroy the industries which the ex- of emergency the Governor-General has power 
bate tariffs had established, and that a to call out any part of the defense force for serv- 
ring fair consideration to this factor must ice anywhere within the limits of the common- 
ily operate protectively as well as for wealth. The permanent forces are liable in such 
iuction of revenue. In regard to the rela- times to serve outside of the commonwealth, but 
the commonwealth with the islands of the not the citizen forces unless they voluntarily agree 
the ministers had taken such steps as to do so. The Federal customs regulation bill 
prudent without embarrassing the inter- authorized the collection of duties on ships' stores 

relations of the Imperial Government, consumed by passengers and crews between tHe 

>ad connecting the eastern states with first port of call in the commonwealth and the 

Australia was being studied, and it was port of destination. Against this provision steam- 
bat the project was feasible. A railroad ship companies protested, and appealed to the 
lorth would also become a matter of im- Imperial Government. Shipping representatives 
», and a proposal made by the Govern- objected also to a clause involving ship-owners in 
South Australia for the surrender of the responsibility after goods have Wn landed, and 

II Territory was under consideration, overriding the customary contracts with shippers 
ould be taken as soon as practicable for e. Dressed in bills of lading. The tariff bill elabo- 
?ious strengthening of the aefenses of the rated by the Cabinet was expected to produce a 
wealth, with the avoidance of extrava- revenue of £8,700,000 per annum. 

[>enditure and the fullest reasonable reii- A bill for the restriction of immigration con- 

>n the citizen soldiery. The services of an tained an educational test, such as has been 

I distinguished officer would be secured adopted in Natal and some other colonies. The 

iupreme command. Postal and telegraph requirement that every immigrant should write 

mid shortly be assimilated, and as soon 50 English words was intended to keep out Asiatic 

rial conditions permitted, universal penny immigrants. A proposal that immigrants from 

would be introduced. Interstate free Germany, France, and other European countries 

ould be established simultaneously with be allowed to write in their own language was not 

tsition of the Federal tariff. In the debate acceptable, as it drew a distinction between Euro- 

iddress the Queensland members brought pean and Eastern people. The bill contained pro- 

uestion of colored labor, and their amend- visions against the entrance of idiots, insane per- 

|uiring the immediate stoppage of the im- sons, recently released criminals, persons likely to 

n of Kanakas was rejected. There were become paupers, and sufferers from infectious or 

000 of these Polynesians in the common- contagious diseases. It provided for the renioval 

all employed on the sugar plantations, from the commonwealth of immigrants of the 

stion of excluding such laborers not only prohibited classes, and the cancellation at any 

the important sugar industry, but was time of certificates of exemption. Masters or 

ited with that of the relations of Aus- owners of vessels introducing prohibited immi- 

► the islands of the Pacific. Some mem- grants are liable to a fine of £100. Labor 

>mmended that Australia should declare members asked for a measure directed in plain 



54 AUSTRALASIA. 

terms against colored races, including the Japa- part of the town that had gone to decay. It was 

nese. They also proposed a clause prohibit- decided by the Assembly that the land on the 

ing the entry of persons from any part of the water-front should not be resold, but only leaaed 

world who are under contract to labor in Aus- for fifty years. A harbor trust was created. Sir 

tralia. A committee was appointed to inquire W. J. Lyne, having accepted a post in the Federal 

into the advisability of the commonwealth's un- ministry, resigned the state premiership on March 

dertaking its own coinage and adopting the 20. A new Cabinet was constituted on April 10 

decimal system. A divorce bill introduced first as follows: Premier and Colonial Secretary, John 

in the Senate brought the laws of all the states See; Attorney-General, B. R. Wise; Minister of 

into harmony with the acts of Victoria and New Public Works, Edward William O'SuUivan; Min- 

South Wales, and extended domicile to the whole ister of Education, John Perry; Secretary for 

commonwealth. It prohibited collusion and re- Lands, Patrick Crick; Minister of the Treasury, 

stricted the causes of divorce allowed in some of Thomas Waddell ; Secretary for Mines, John 

the states. Kidd; Minister of Justice, Robert Fitzgerald; 

The Federal Prime Minister, in spite of his dis- Vice-President of the Executive Council, F. B. 
claimer of any intention to complicate British Suttor. Mr. Hayes and Mr. Bennett were ap* 
international relations, countenanced the claims pointed members of the Cabinet without port- 
made by British missionaries on behalf of the na- folios. Federal affairs withdrew from state poH- 
tives of the New Hebrides who resisted the claims tics G. H. Reid, who resigned the leadership of 
of French colonists to lands in the two central the Opposition. Mr. Fitzgerald, having been de- 
islands. The New Hebrides, by agreement be- feated at the polls, could not remain in the min- 
tween England and France, are neutral territory, istrv, and his vacant office was amalgamated 
and disputes between Europeans and natives are with that of the Attorney-General in pursuance 
settled by a joint commission of naval officers, of the policy of reducing the expenditure of the 
but not disputes about land. The Federal Gov- state in consequence of the establishment of fed- 
emment, almost as soon as it was constituted, eration. The state elections were held on July 
telegraphed to Mr. Chamberlain a proposal that 3. The principal feature was the success of the 
an international tribunal be created to deal with Labor candidates, of whom 22 were elected, and 
land disputes. The French Government, after the 40 Ministerialists, 20 Independents, and 43 Op- 
establishment of the commonwealth, created a position candidates, which gave the Government 
naval station in the Pacific, strengthened the land a large majority with the assistance of the Labor 
defenses, and increased the naval force to 5 war- party. Parliament met on July 23. A bill redu- 
ships. cing the number of members in the state Parlia- 

New South Wales. — The Parliament of New ment was a corollary of federation. It was ac- 
South Wales consists of a Legislative Council of companied by a proposal for the election by a 
76 members appointed for life and a Legislative referendum of a convention to revise the Con- 
Assembly of 125 members elected in separate dis- stitution. The bill for compulsory industrial ar- 
tricts by universal sufTrage. The Lieutenant- bitration was introduced once more. The bill 
Governor is Sir F. M. Daney. The Cabinet in establishing women's suffrage, which failed to 
the beginning of 1901 was composed as follows: pass the Legislative Council by a narrow majority 
Premier and Colonial Treasurer, Sir William John in the previous session, was also brought in again. 
Lyne; Chief Secretary, John See; Attorney -Gen- The land laws were amended by an act immedi- 
eral, Bemhard Ringrose Wise; Secretary for ately throwing open lands suitable for settlement. 
Lands, Thomas Henry Hassall ; Secretary for Another act provides holdings for working men in 
Public Works, Edward William O'Sullivan; Min- the vicinity of Sydney and other populous cen- 
ister of Public Instruction and Industry and ters. Steps were taken to bring state products 
Labor, John Perry; Minister of Justice, William prominently before the world's markets. The 
Herbert Wood; Postmaster-General, William Pat- prosperity of the community seemed to be re- 
rick Crick; Secretary for Mines and Agriculture, viving in spite of a continued drought. The 
John Lionel Fegan ; Vice-President of the Execu- fiscal question, on which the politics of the colony 
tive Council, Francis Bathurst Suttor. had lately hinged, was now transferred to the 

The legislative Assembly that had supported domain of commonwealth politics. It was ex- 
G. H. Reid gave Sir William Lyne a still stronger pected that the people of New South Whales would 
support. The Labor party swung round to the pay heavier taxes under the Federal system, and 
support of Mr. Reid's successor, and reaped its that the sum to be refunded to the state from the 
reward in the readiness of the Government to Federal treasury would amount to over £1,000,- 
bring forward measures included in the Labor 000, out of which the old-age pensions, estimated 
program. The most important one that be- at £400.000 a year, could be paid without re- 
came law is the old-age pensions act. sorting to fresh legislation. Pensions for sol- 

The arbitration bill passed the Assembly, but was diers maimed in South Africa, and for the families 

rejected by the Legislative Council, contradictory of the killed, were provided for, and more liberal 

accounts having been given of the operation of provision was made for normal schools and ad- 

the New Zealand law after which it was modeled, vanced technical education and for water con- 

The Government appointed a commission to visit servation and light railways. The accounts for 

New Zealand and to make an impartial inquiry, the year ending June 30. 1901, w^ere closed wnth 

with the intention, should the verdict be favor- a deficit of only £87,000, notwithstanding the 

able, of resubmitting the bill in the succeeding extraordinary expenditure of £681,500 for des- 

session. The city coi*poration of Sydney was patching contingents to South Africa and China, 

reorganized by a measure providing for the elec- extinguishing of the plague, inaugurating the 

tion of an entire new council every year, whereas commonwealth, and entertaining the Duke of 

formerly the aldermen held oflice for three years, Cornwall. The Opposition, led bv Mr. I^ee, re- 

onerthird retiring each year. The municipal fran- sisted a long prorogation prior to dissolution, and 

chise was enlarged at the same time by giving the the ministry won on a trial of strength by 6G 

right to vote to lodgers paying 10/t. a week. In votes to 28. 

accordance with another act the city expropriated Victoria. — The legislative Council of Victoria 

all the water frontage and a considerable area has 48 members, elected for six years, and the 

in the rear, besides a whole section in the oldest Legislative Assembly has 95, elected for three 



AUSTRALASIA. 



55 



venal suffrage. The Lieutpuant -Governor 
i John Madden. The Cabinet in 1900 contained the 
following members: Premier and Chief Secretary, 
A. McLean; Treasurer. W. Shields; Attorney- 
General. \V. H. Iriine; Solicitor-Uenerat, J. M. 
Dalies: Minister of Mines, Kailways. and Irriga- 
tion. A. R. Outtrim; Minister of Agriculture and 
PuUic Works. G- Graham; Minister of Lands, J. 
H. McColl ; Minister of Defense, D. Melville; Post- 
maater-General, W. A. Watt; Minister of Public 
Lutnietion and of Customs. C. C. Salmon; with- 
out portfolio, J. Balfour. The defeat of the min- 
istry necessitated the appointment of a new Cabi- 
net, which was finally 
constructed after , 
tome changes were . 
made on Feb. 7, 1901, 
as follows: Premier, 
Treasurer, and Minis- 
ter of Labor, A. J. 
Peacock; Chief Sec- 
irtaiy and Minister 
of Railways, W. A. 
Trenwtth ; Attorney- 
General, I. A. Isaacs; 
Uinister of A^cul- 
ture, J. Monasey: 
Postmaster - General 
>nd Minister of Pub- 
lir Instruction. S. W. 
Gurr: Minister of 
Lands, D. J. Du|Kan i 
.Minister of Emense 
tod Public Works, 
ft". M. McCulloch; 
Solicitor - General, A. 
Wj-nne: ^linUter of 
Muies and Water- 
!>upply, J. B. Burton: 
viiho'ut portfolios, S. 
I GiUiott. k. McGregor, 
. E. J. Crooke, and P. 
Phillips. The Victo- 
rian Parliament was 

DFeoed on June IS. The legislation proposed by the 
minislera included the calling of a convention to 
frame amendments to the Constitution in regard tn 
both Chambers of the Legislature and the aubmis- 
sJDD of these amendments to the direct vote of the 
people. A bill to make the old-age pension scheme 
permanent provided for increased expenditure 
'liere necessary, while guarding the financial in- 
Imsts of the state. The old-age pensions author- 
utd under the ministry of Sir George Turner, who 
fired to the increase of the maximum weekly pay- 
ment from 7». to lOf., proved more costly than 
Ikj were expected to be, the applicants number- 
is; 16.000 instead of the estimated number of 
S.OOO, because the act had not been framed so as 
III pxclude persons who had been previously sup- 
ported by their children. With average pavments 
of 8*. a week the total annual cost was £330.000. 
The amended act corrected some of the detects of 
'he provisional scheme. The maximum weekly 
pension was again fixed at 7s. A new educntinn 
■rt extended the public-school system in accord- 
ince with the most modem views, especially in 
■^ard to technical instruction. It was intended 
lo remodel the Agricultural Department, with the 
•im of making Victoria one of the foremost coun- 
tms in the application of advanced principles and 
melhnds of working in the field of primary pro- 
iturtion, and a director of agriculture would be 
•ppninled to direct and supervise the department, 
ind the official agency in l..ondon be made a use- 



pansion. The Government established a dairy 
college. The railroad earnings having increased 
by over £250,000, the extension of railroads 
would be prontntcd so as to enable producers in 
remote districts to convey their commodities to 
market at a medium cost. Further works for the 
supply of water would be cooBtrueted, and the 
mines act would be amended with the object of 
extending coal-mjning. A Government coal-mine 
was estatilished to supply railroads and publiu 
departments. The policy of economy in state 
expenditures was to be continued. Bills were pre- 
sented for the settlement of trade disputes by 
courts of conciliation and arbitration, tor con- 




Bolidating the land acts, for forest conservation, 
and for the prevention of the adulteration o( 
food. Under the factories act wages were fixed 
by the boards in some trades at such high figures 
that the feltmongcrs in Melbourne decided in the 
- of 1001 to close their works, and em- 



ful busii 



i medituu to assist ii 



the u 



until the conditions under interstate free trade 
could be understood, as it was feared that when 
free trade came Victorian manufacturers could 
not compete with those of New South Wales and 
other states in which wages were lower and em- 
ployers were less hampered by labor restrictions 
impowd ijy the Government and the trade-unions. 
Tlie Premier refused to consider the suspension 
of the factories act, but delayed extending it to 
new trades. Col. Sir George Sydenham Clarke re- 
ceived the appointment of Governor of Victoria 
on Aug 8. 
Queensland. — The I..^islative Council is com- 

tosed of 42 members, nominated for life; the 
legislative Assembly of 72 members, elected for 
three years by universal suffrage. The Governor 
at the bpcinning of 1001 was Lord Lamington, ap- 
pointed in lfi95. The Cabinet was composed as 
loHoHs; Prime Minister, Treasurer, and i?ecretary 
for Mines, Robert Philp; Chief Secretary. Sir J. 
R. Dickson; Attorney -General, A. Rutledgc; 
Home Secretary. J. F, C. Foxton; Secretary for 
Agriculture, J. V. Chataway; Secretary for Pub- 
lic Instruction and Postmaster-General, J. G. 



56 AUSTRALASIA. 

Drake ; Secretary for Lands, W. B. H. O'Connell ; Public Works, R. W. Foster ; Minister of Educa- 
Secretary for Railways and Public Works, John tion and Agriculture, E. L. Batchelor. The min- 
Murray; without portfolios, D. H. Dalrymple and istry was reconstituted on Ma^ 14, as follows: 
George Wilkie Gray. On Jan. 29 Mr. Murray sue- Premier, Chief Secretary, and Minister controlling 
ceeded Mr. Drake as Postniaater-G^ineral and Sec- the Northern Territory, J. G. Jenkins; Attorney- 
retary for Public Instruction, while Mr. Leahy General, Mr. Butler; Commissioner of Crown 
took his place as Secretary for Railways and Pub- Lands, L. O'Loughlin; Commissioner of Public 
lie Works, Sir J. R. Dickson retired, naving been Works, R. W. Foster; Minister of Education and 
called into the Federal Cabinet as Postmaster- Industry, Mr. Brooker. Parliament was opened 
General, and Mr. Philp succeeded the latter as on July 13. A new Constitution was laid before 
Chief Secretary, transferring the office of Treas- the Legislature reducing the number of member* 
urer to T. B. Cribb. While the opponents of col- of Parliament by one-third, and limiting to 5 tlie 
ored labor won the victory in the Federal elec- number of ministers. The establishment of a Fcd- 
tions, Mr. Chamberlain disallowed a bill passed by eral Parliament rendered the reduction of state 
the Queensland Legislatnre in 1900 wnich con- expenditure imperative. A provision almost iden- 
tained a clause prohibiting the employment of tical with the one contained in the commonwealth 
Asiatics and other colored .laborers in sugar-mills act averts deadlocks between the Le^slative 
receiving financial assistance from the Govenv Council and the Assembly. Members of the coun- 
ment. The Labor party was not satisfied with cil are elected on the basis of household sufl'rage 
the proposal of the Colonial Secretary that an bj[ the whole body of electors voting as one eon- 
educational test be applied, as in Natal, and was stituency, the method formerly practised. Mem- 
determined to pass the bill again and again until bers of the Assembly are elected by single con- 
it should receive the royal assent. Queensland stituencies. Revenue returns were satisfactory, 
suffered in 1901 from a drought of unprecedented and new gold-fields found at Tarcoola, west of 
duration that affected the whole of the western Port Augusta, and in other sections, promised to 
country, causing great mortality among sheep, increase the resources of the state. The early- 
This caused a decrease in railroad and customs re- closing act passed in 1900 was considered too 
ceipts, which, with increased payments of interest stringent, and the Government proposed therefore 
on the public debt and added outlay on railroads, to modify some of its regulations. An agent was 
left the treasury at the end of the year with a appointed in London whose special duty is to pro- 
deficit of £528,000, which could be met by the mote the expansion of South Australian trade, 
issue of treasury bills, as similar deficits had An outer harbor was to be made at Largs Bay. 
been met before. This expedient could not be re- and railroads from Gawlor to Angaston and from 
peated with safety, however, to tide over the ex- Laura to Booleroo, running through rich produ- 
pected deficit of 1902, nor were retrenchments cing areas. A measure was introduced to faeili 
possible on the effective scale that had rescued tate closer settlement on land fit for agricul- 
the treasury in 1893. The Government would ture and more intense cultivation. Commercial 
have to give assistance to the pastoral industry, business was buoyant. A loan for public work* 
the oldest and most important one in the state, was raised locally. Receipts from railroads and 
Unless the immense recuperative powers of the customs were increasing. 

country asserted themselves, the only resort would Western Australia. — The Constitution ol 
be direct taxation, which was generallv unpopu- Western Australia was granted in 1890. The Leg 
lar in Queensland, although the Labor party islative Council, at first nominated by the Gov 
would welcome such a solution. An income tax emor, has been elective since 1893, when the 
was dreaded chiefly on account of its inquisitorial colony passed the stipulated limit of 60,000 popu 
character, and a land tax no minister would have latibn. There are 30 members, elected for sis 
the courage to propose in Queensland, although years in 10 districts by property holders. The 
both of these taxes produce a large revenue in Legislative Assembly is composed* of 50 members 
New South Wales. Aside from the sheep-growing elected in separate districts by universal suf 
injjustry, the development of the countrv was pro- frage. The Governor in the beginning of 1901 was 
ceeding favorably. Agriculture was nourishing. Sir Arthur Lumley, in whose absence Sir Alex- 
New markets had been opened to Queensland ander Campbell Onslow acted as Administrator 
products, and fresh capital was flowing in. Min- The Cabinet was composed as follows : Premiei 
ing continued to be developed, the yield of gold and Colonial Treasurer, George Throssell; Corn- 
in 1901 having been the largest in the history of missioner for Railways and Director of Public 
the colony. Railroads had oeen extended to the Works, Barrington Clarke Wood; Attorney-Gen- 
mineral fields, and further extensions with private eral, Richard William Pennefather; Colonial 
capital to remote parts of the state were under Secretary, George Randell. A general election was 
consideration. Parliament met on July 16. Spe- held at the end of April, resulting in the return ol 
cial sales of land were authorized to provide means 17 Ministerialists, 21 members of the Oppositior 
for meeting the treasury bills. The state Treas- party, 6 Labor candidates, and 6 Independents 
urer, who was a new man in public life, an- Mr. Throssell and his colleagues resigned on Mav 
nounced that he would propose an income tax 21. F. Illingworth, the leader of the Opposition 
should it be found necessary when the Federal relinquished the premiership to Mr. Leake, whc 
tariff came into force. on May 24 formed a ministry as follows: Prime 
South Australia. — The legislative Council has Minister and Attomey-GeneVal, George Leake; 
24 members, elected from 4 districts for nine years Colonial Treasurer and Colonial Secretary. F 
by householders; the Legislative Assembly has Illingworth; Commissioner of Railroads, J. tl 
54 members, elected for three years by all adult Holmes; Director of Public Works, W. Kingsmill ; 
citizens resident for six months in their respective Minister of Mines, H. Gregory; Minister of Lands 
districts. The franchise was extended to women C. Sommers. The new Premier promised to in 
in 1894. The Governor at the beginning of 1901 vestigate thoroughly the finances, to push for 
was Lord Tennyson, appointed in 1899. The Cabi- ward public works, and to institute an inquir} 
net was composed as follows: Premier and Treas- into the working and equipment of railroads. Ir 
urer, F. W. Holder; Chief Secretary, J. G. Jenkins; addition to a deficit of £50,000 an excess of ex 
Attorney-General, J. H. Gordon; Commissioner of penditure of £500,000 was to be provided for 
Crown Lands, L. O'Loughlin; Commissioner of The state was committed to an expenditure oi 



AUSTRALASIA. 



57 



ocoimt ol £3.000,000 extending over three 
and would have to borrow that amount and 
UU more for authorized worka, besides car- 
£1.000,000 of treasury billii maturing in the 

Kolling'ttork and other requirements for 
Jroada involved an expenditure of £1,000,- 
itill no alarm was felt, as the resources of 
ate were enormous and the revenue was 
. Parliament was opened on June 2U. An 
rj board of public works was instituted, 
iiture without the authority of Parliament 
>e discouraged. The aKricultural . pastoral, 
lining industries would be promoted by 
iment in every wa]'. The ministerial meas- 
icludod amendments to the public service 
ucUtation acts, a bill (or the regulation of 
es. others dealing with the rights of elect- 
id the redistribution of seats, and one 
ling plural voting. The railroad employees 

in July for a shilling a day more wages, 
g to accept the Government's offer of arbi- 
I. and interfering with mining, manufactuT- 
lilding. and trade. 

nanta. — The Legislative Council has 19 
rs, elected for six years by property 
, and the Legislative Assembly baa 46 



nominations were made for life, prior to 1801. 
The House of Kepresentatives has 74 members 
elected by adults or either sex who have resided a 
year in the colony and three months in the elec- 
toral district. The Maoris elect 4 members. In 
ISOB there were 373,744 registered voters, 210,520 
of them men and Wi^lb women, in the Euro- 
pean, and 13,028 who voted in the Maori districts. 

The Uovemor at the beginning of IBOl was the 
Earl of Ranfurly, appointed in 1807. The minin- 
trj was composed as follows: Prime Minister, 
Colonial Treasurer, Minister of Labor, and Min- 
ister of Defense, R. J. Seddon; Colonial Secretary, 
Postmaster-Ueneral and Electric Telegraph Com- 
missioner, Minister for Railways, Minister of In- 
dustries and Commeree, and Minister of Public 
Health, J. G. Ward', Minister of Lands and Min- 
ister for Agriculture, T. Y. Duncan; Commis- 
sioner of Stamp Duties and Native Iilioister, J. 
Carroll ; Minister of Immigration and Alinister of 
Education, W. C. Walker; Minister for Public 
Works, W. Hall-Jones; Minister of Justice and 
Minister for Mines, J. McGowan; Commissioner 
of Trade and Customs, C. U. Mills; without port- 
folio, A. J. Cadman. 

The area of New Zealand is estimated at 104,47 1 




rs, elected by householders. The Adminis- 

at the beginning of 1901 was Sir J. S. 

appointed Aug. 14, 1900. The Cabinet was 
»ed as follows: Premier and Attomey-Uen- 
;. E. Lewis; Chief Secretary, G. T. Collins: 
rer, B. S. Bird; Minister of Lands and 
, E. Mukahy; without portfolio, F. W. 
In Tasmania mining continued to show 
sa in 1901, and the Government revenue 
itisfactory except for a decline in customs, 
s beins light in view of the impending 
>n weal til tariff. 

r Zealand. — Under the Constitution of 
he executive power of the Crown is en- 
I to a Governor, and the legislative power 
#d in a General Assembly, consisting of a 
I live Council and a House of RepreMenta- 

The Governor summons, prorogues, and 
es Parliament on the advice of his minix- 
lle may veto bills or withhold them for the 
rration of the Imnerial Government, can 
rafts of bills to either house for considcra' 
nd proposals for the appropriation of public 

must come from him before Parliament 
{ally provide for expenditures. The Legis- 

Couneil contains 4S members, appointed 
en years, excepting those appointed when 



square miles, that of the North island being 44.- 
408. the Middle island 5H,523, and Stewart's 
island 605 square miles. At the census of 1800 
there were 703,300 inhabitants— 371.413 males and 
331,045 females, exclusive of natives. The propor- 
tion bom in New Zealand was 62.85 per cent.: in 
other colonies. 4.63 per cent.; in the United King- 
dom, 30.62 per cent.; in foreign countries, l.S per 
cent. Of the total population 43.fl» per cent, lived 
in boroughs. Wellington, the capital, had 41.758 
inhabitants: Auckland. 57,610; Christchurch, ol,- 
330; and Dunedin. 47.280. The Maoris, on Dec. 
31, 1800, numbered 30,854, having decreased from 
56,049, their estimated number in 18o7. There 
are 1.(145 public elementary schools, with 3,615 
teachers and 131.315 enrolled pupils, the aver- 
age. attendance being 107,066, while the private 
schools number 803. with 15,295 pupils. This is 
exclusive of the native schools, of which there ore 
S3, with 148 teachers and 3.065 pupils. 

The revenue for the vear ending Slarch 31, 1000, 
wai £5,380.980. of wli'ich £2.107.507 were derive<l 
from customs. £a60,«n8 from stamps, including 
postage and telegraph stamps, £l.li21.0]3 from 
railroads. £203,027 from thefnmi lax. and £12^.- 
721 from the income lax. Snlc< of land produci'd 
£90,831, The total ex|>enditures were £5,140.127. 



:58 AUSTRALASIA. 

of which £1,749,394 were for the public debt, oils, £126,967; of sacks, £123,596; of fane 

£1,039,412 for railroads, £472,653 for education, goods, £110,114; of coal, £92,815; of other me 

£388,582 for posts and telegraphs, and £278,692 chandise, £2,879,687; of specie, £125,977. 11 

for constabulary and defense. The expenditures export of wool was 147,169,497 pounds, valued i 

out of tlie public works fund from 1870 to 1900 £4,324,627; of frozen meat, 1,865,827 hundrw 

amounted to £32,978,626. The total receipts of weight, valued at £2,088,856; of kauri gum, 11 

the colony for the year ending March 31, 1901, 116 tons, valued at £607,919. The export of bu 

were £6,012,267, and the expenditures were ter was 136,086 hundredweight, and that of cheei 

£5,479,703. For the year ending March 31, 1902, 69,440 hundredweight, valued together at £713 

the revenue was estimated at £5,896,000, and ex- 617. The gold export waa £1,513,180, not inclu( 

penditure at £5.763,000. The amount of the pub- ing £14,913 of specie. The export of grain, flou 

lie debt on March 31, 1900, was £46,930,077, re- and pulse was £731,805 in value; of hides, skin 

quiring £1,674,618 for interest, not including and leather, £483,762; of tallow, £311,649; < 

£28,703 on treasury bills, and £46,073 for the phormium, or New Zealand hemp, £184,411; < 

sinking-fund. In 1901 the Government raised a preserved meat, £90,910; of ffrass seed, £61,074 

loan of £500,000 in the colony at 4 per cent, and of live animals, £22,689; of bacon and ham 

borrowed £1.500,000 in London. The total debt £14,364; of other colonial produce, £649,977; ( 

was £49,500,000, and £1,000,000 more would be British and foreign produce, £123,682. Of tl 

required to carry on the public works for another total imports in 1899 the value of £5,526,64 

year. The local revenues in 1899 amounted to came from Great Britain, £1,336,828 from tl 

£685,769 from rates and £1,206,095 from other Australian colonies, £775,309 from the Unitf 

sources; local expenditures were £1,778,574, and States, £332,833 from India and Ceylon, £303,5^ 

the local debts amounted to £6,963,254. The un- from Pacific islands, £22,879 from China, an 

improved value of lands in the colony in 1898 was £441,615 from other countries. Of* the total e: 

assessed at £84,401,244, against £75,497,379 in ports £9,427,515 went to Great Britain, £1,70$ 

1888, the rate of increase being 11.79 per cent., the 036 to Australian colonies, £433,499 to the Unite 

value of improvements at £54,190,103, against States, £133,215 to Pacific islands, £10,973 1 

£35,640,335, an increase of 52.05 per cent.; total China, £3,277 to India and Ceylon, and £221,8i 

valuation, £138,591,347, against £111,137,714, an to other countries, 

increase of 24.7 per cent. The number of vessels entered during 1899 wi 

Two-thirds of the land in New Zealand is be- 609, of 811,132 tons, of which 553, of 738,929 ton 

lieved to be good for agriculture and stock-raising, were with cargoes; cleared, 604, of 807,866 tons, < 

The total area is about 67,000,000 acres. There which 570, of 778,245 tons, were with cargoes. < 

are 9,000,000 acres of barren land and 20,000,000 the vessels entered, 388, of 392,671 tons, we 

acres of forest. The area cultivated in 1900 was colonial; 149, of 350,861 tons, were British; ai 

12,474,511 acres, of which 10,853,302 acres were 72, of 67,651 tons, were foreign. Of those cleare 

sown grass lands. This does not include 16,890 379, of 386,219 tons, were colonial; 152, of 35! 

acres of garden, 24,401 acres of orchard, and 48,942 442 tons, were British; and 73, of 66,205 tons, we 

acres of plantations. There were 269,749 acres foreign. 

under wheat in 1899, producing 8,582,000 bushels. The Government railroads on March 31, 190 

an average of 31.81 bushels an acre; 398,243 acres had a length of 2,104 miles, and there were K 

under oats, producing 16,326,000 bushels; 48,003 miles of private railroads. The capital expend< 

acres under barley, producing 1,585,000 bushels, on the Government lines had been £17,554,58 

The live stock in 1900 consisted of 261,931 horses. The gross receipts for the year were £1,623,89 

1,210,439 cattle, 19,348,506 sheep, and 249,751 hogs, and expenses £1,052,358, being 64.8 per cent. 

Since 1891 tne average amount of land settled an- the receipts; number of passengers carried, 5,46} 

nually has been 628,000 acres. There were 83,300 284; tons of freight, 3,251,716. 

persons engaged in agricultural and pastoral pur- The post-office m 1899 forwarded 37,380,671 U 

suits in 1896, of whom 31,204 were occupying ters, 1,103,700 letter cards, 1,643,051 postal card 

fafmers, 16,473 relatives working on farms, 20,236 17,883,208 books and parcels, and 15,717,388 new 

farm laborers, 1,638 holders of pastoral runs, and papers, and 344,664 money-orders were issued ai 

6,742 station hands. The area occupied by set- 245,377 paid. 

tlement in 1900 was 34,422,653 acres including, and There were 6,910 miles of telegraph lines ai 

25,607,049 acres excluding Crown lands held un- 19,228 miles of wire on March 31, 1900; numb 

der pastoral leases. Crown lands may be bought of despatches sent during the year, 3,159,093; i 

for cash or held on perpetual lease on condition ceipts from telegraphs and telephones, £162,94.^ 

of continued occupation and cultivation. The The colonial Parliament was opened on July 

mines of New Zealand in 1899 produced 389,558 The legislative program consisted of measur 

ounces of gold, valued at £1,513,173; 349,338 for improving oversea steam service, preventii 

ounces of silver, valued at £40,838; 11,116 tons the fixing of abnormal prices for coal and foo 

of kauri gum, valued at £607,919; and 975,234 stuffs by trusts, the establishment of a Cover 

tons of coal, valued at £487,617. The production ment coal-mine, and the regulation of the hou 

of gold was 50 per cent, greater than in 1898 and of clerks in mercantile offices and banks. T 

preceding years. The total export of gold since leader of the Opposition, Capt. Russell, challeng 

1857 was in value £55,966,498. There were 2,459 a supply bill, and when the Government obtain 

manufactories in 1895, employing 27,389 persons, a majority of 27 he resigned the leadership on t 

Their capital amounted to £5,796.017, and their ground that there was no organizwl Oppositio 

annual production was valued at £9,549,360. The address was carried by *a practically unai 

The total value of imports in 1899 was £8,739,- mous vote. The Cook and other islands were fori 

633; exports of colonial produce, £11,799,740; re- ally annexed to New Zealand on June 11. 

•exports, including specie, £138,595; total exports, cable was laid in 1901 between New Zealand ai 

£11,938,335. The imports of textiles and cloth- Australia at the joint expense of the coloni 

ing were £2,123,135; of iron and steel goods, in- and the Imperial Government, and a tariff of 

eluding machinery, £1,578,855; of paper and penny a word to London was agreed to. Peni 

books, £368,617; of sugar, £354,925; oi spirits, postage had proved a success, leading to an i 

wine, and beer, £306,491: of tobacco and cigars, crease of business that promised to make t 

£184,173; of tea, £183,691; of fruit, £180,590; of revenue in two years as large as it was before t 



AUSTRALASIA. 



59 



n of the rate. Railroad traffic and re- 
bowed a continuous increase. Progress 
it in the coDBtruction o/ the main trunk 
'he Government intended to manufacture 
t steel and all rolliDg-Htoek for the rail- 
id to improve the teclinkal schools. The 
af making advanceit of monef to settlers 
r rate of interest is popular and works 
orily. Jn six years £2,087,000 were so 
1, and the Uovemment intended to raise 
00 more for the purpose in London, but 
unt of the state of the money market 
for only haif that sum. A commission 
ointed in January to consider the advisa- 

federation with Australia. The Govem- 
d the people generally were opposed to 
■n. The L^bor leaders considered New 

to be more advanced than Australia; 
turers were of the opinion that, paying 
gher wages, they could not compete with 
an manufacturers: and all 'Sew Zea- 
^elt confident of their future as a separate 



vessels of the British navy in Australasian waters. 
There would be disadvantages to New Zealand in 
regard to postal and telegraph matters under fed- 
eration, and the advantage to the commerce and 
industries of New Zealand would be very slight, 
Biuce Australia olfered little demand for New Zea- 
land products. The possibility of moderate trade 

jcity was recognizei 

hope of securmg i 

fusal of the comraissio - 
ence of New Zealand w 
popular sentiment. 

Fiji.— The Governor of Fiji, Sir George T. M. 
O'Brien, has under him 6 European commission- 
el's, besides the one in the island of Rotuma, and 
11 native chiefs at the bead of the different prov- 
inces, and 175 inferior chiefs serving in v^ous 
civil capacities. The area of the group is 8,046 
square miles, including Rotunia. The population 
was estimated on Dec. 31, 181)9. at 122,t)73, com- 
prising 117,788 males and fi4,885 females. There 
were 4,373 Europeans, of whom 2,759 were males 




I vigorous island folk who would absorb 
dominions not only the Cook Islands, but 
9. the Tonga group, and all the lesser 
>f their part of the Pacific. The federa- 
nmission reported unanimously against 
ig with Australia, since federation would 
' prejudice the finances and hanll>er its 
lent in the prosecution of any policy for 
lopment ot the resources of Now Zealand, 
imissioners were of the opinion that im< 
aity would be better safeguarded by the 
; of two British powers in the Ponific. 
of them would be likely in a gust of popu- 
ion or prejudice to break away from the 
vithout inquiry into the attitude of the 
id by such inquiry time would be gained 
-tion and a catastrophe probably averted. 
d to defense, they believed that so long as 
ritain retains command of the sea New 
will be able to undertake its own land de- 
d that should nreat Britain lose couimand 
'a, Australia and New Zealand would not 

render material assistance to each other 
% foreign power, and that what assistance 
f them could render to the other would 
coming if they continued to be neparate 

A long time must elapse before .\us- 
n build up a considerable navy, and they 
d that the subsidy to the Australian 

1 be increased on the condition that Ihe 
Government provide more and better 
They were in favor also of the train- 

u imperial naval reserve for service on 



and l,i!14 females; 13,282 East Indians, of whom 
8,873 were males and 4,407 females; DS.47S Fijians, 
of whom 52,354 were males and 40,124 females; 
and 6,540 Polynesians. Rot u mans, half-castes, and 
others, of whom 3J400 were males and 2,740 fe< 



ind expend!- 



Fijians in IS9». 

The revenue in 1809 n 
ture £11.5,508. Of the r 
rived from customs; native taxes, paid in prod- 
uce. £20,7118. The expenditure for salaries was 
£40.035. There is a debt of £250.000. The value 
of imports in 1800 was £283,044, ot which £258,- 
761 came from British po»>ii-ssionH: value of ex- 
ports, £481,838. of which £42tl,703 went to Brit- 
ish possessions. European planters cultivated 
sugar-cane on 23.1(10 a - - ■ - " " 



2,228 a 



n 714 



tea on 210 acres, pineapples i; 
peanuts on 230 acres. The value of sugar ex- 
ported was £340.003: of copvft £77,330; of ba- 
nanas. £30,807: of spirits. £10,343: of peanuls, 
£3.182; of pearl shell.^. £3.0<)2; of trcpang, £2,- 
344; of corn, £1,366: of vanilla. £1,030. 

A petition from Fiji for annexation to New 
Zealand that was put in circulation after a visit 
from Mr. Seddon. the New Zealand Premier, 
evoked a warning to the natives from Sir George 
O'Hrien. who said to them in a speech that wher- 
ever there was a Government like that of New 



60 AUSTRALASIA. AUSTRIA-HUNGABY. 

Zealand the white man had always taken land AXJSTBIA-HUNGABY, a dual monarchy in 
from the natives; what had been done in New central Europe, composed, under the fundamental 
Zealand itself, where the colored people were law of Dec. 21, 1867, of the Empire of Austria and 
cooped up on a fragment of land left to them, the Kingdom of Hungary, inseparable constitu- 
would happen to the colored peopk of Fiji also, tional monarchies, her^itary in the male line of 
who woulQ lose nearly all their land. Mr. Sed- the dynasty of Hapsburg-Lorraine or, in the 
don appealed to Mr. Chamberlain, demanding event of the extinction of the male line, in the fe> 
that these charges should be either substantiated male line. The legislative power in affairs com* 
or withdrawn. The Governor of Fiji issued an mon to both monarcliies, wnich are foreign rec- 
order in Council making it an offense punishable tions, military and naval affairs, with the excep- 
with six mouths' imprisonment for any person to tion of the national territorial armies, common 
cause Fijians to become disaffected or to induce finance, commercial and railroad affairs concern- 
any Fijian to take action having for its object the ing both monarchies, the customs tariff, the coin- 
subversion or alteration of the present form of age, and the administration of the occupied 
government. There was disaffection against the Turkish provinces, is exercised by committees of 
Governor among both whites and natives. The the legislative bodies of both monarchies. These 
New ^Zealand Government requested the imperial committees, called the Delegations, meet alter- 
authorities to inquire into the condition ot Fiji, nately in Vienna and Budapest, the respective 
British New Gminea. — When the southeastern Austrian and Hungarian capitals. They are com- 
part of the island of New Guinea was annexed in posed of 20 members elected annually by each of 
1887 the Government of Queensland guaranteed the two upper houses and 40 members elected by 
£15,000 a year for the expense of administration, each of the two lower houses. Each Delegation 
The governments of New South Wales and Vic- meets and votes separately, and, in case of dis- 
toria afterward agreed to divide the expense, each agreement, they decide the question by a ioint 
colony contributing a third, and each having a vote. The common ministers are responsible to 
voice in the affairs of the protectorate. The Lieu- the Delegations, and they may be impeached for 
tenant-Governor at the beginning of 1901 was any dereliction of duty. 

George Ruthven Le Hunte. The local revenue, de- The Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary 
rived mainly from customs, was £11,683 in 1899; is Franz Josef I, bom Aug. 18, 1830, prdclaimed 
expenditure £15,583. Missionaries are active in Emperor of Austria on Dec. 2, 1848, when his 
the island. The coconut groves are being ex- uncle, Ferdinand I, abdicated in consequence of 
tended through European influence. Europeans a revolution, and he was crowned King of Hun- 
are prohibited from acquiring land titles from gary on June 8, 18G7, when the ancient consti- 
natives and from supplying them with fi^rearms or tutional rights of that monarchy were restored, 
spirituous liquors, and the employment of native The heir presumptive is the Emperor- King's 
labor is subject to regulations. Land for plant- nephew, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, born 
ing can be acquired from the Government by lease April 21, 1865, son of the late Archduke Kari 
or by purchase, the price being 28. 6d. an acre. Ludwig and the Princess Annunciata, daughter 
Tobacco, sugar, rice, rubber-trees, coffee, and tea of the former King of Naples, 
can be grown. The forests are rich and exten- The ministers of the whole monarchy at the 
sive, affording sandalwood, ebony, gums, rattan, beginning of 1901 were as follow; Minister of 
and many other products. Trepang, pearl shell. Foreign Affairs and of the Imperial House, Graf 
and pearls are found along the coast, and have Agenor Maria Adam Goluchowski; Common 
been exported since before the British occupation. Minister of War, Gen. Edmund, Freiherr von 
Copra and sandalwood are also exported, and Kriegharamer ; Common Minister of Finance, Ben- 
gold, which is found in the Louisiade Islands, on jamiu de Kallny. 

Woodlark island, and in the mountains of the The Common Budget. — The expenditure for 
mainland. The value of imports in 1899 was £52,- common affairs in 1898 was 183,905,220 florins, of 
200, and of exports £68,500. The number of ves- which 144,105,050 florins were ordinary and 
sels entered in the foreign trade was 92, of 19,600 39,800,170 florins extraordinary expenses. The net 
tons; cleared, 81, of 19,200 tons. There were receipts from customs were 71,147,770 florins, leav- 
7,767 letters, 2,120 newspapers, and 640 packets ing 112,757,450 florins to be provided by the two 
carried in the mails in 1899. The Australian monarchies, 2 per cent, of which, under the old 
Commonwealth has taken steps to assume charge Ausgleich, which was continued in force as a 
of the administration of New Guinea, which the modus Vivendi until 1899, was paid by Hungary, 
state governments of Queensland, Victoria, and and the remaining 110,502,301 florins were as- 
New Guinea are willing to resign. Lieut-Gov. Le sessed to the two monarchies, 70 per cent, to 
Hunte has endeavored to conciliate and win the Austria and 30 per cent, to Hungary. A joint 
confidence of the natives, and has refrained from commission agreed in November, 1899, that the 
retaliatory proceedings when they have com- quota of Hungary should be 34.4 per cent. The 
mitted savage crimes. Many of them are canni- Parliaments of the two countries having failed to 
bals. On April 8, 1901, James Chalmers, a mis- ratify this arrangement, the monarch decided that 
sionary explorer, a half-breed missionary, and the it should be adopted provisionally until June 30, 
native Christians who accompanied them were 1901. The sanctioned estimate of common ex- 
massacred and eaten on an island in the Aird penditure for 1899 was 156,857,000 florins; the 
river. The natives boarded their vessel and would budget estimate for 1900 was 172,324,750 florins, 
not leave until the missionaries went ashore with The budget for 1901 makes the total expenditure 
them. The members of the party were killed and 362,8.54.411 crowns, of which 322,497,028 crowns 
their heads taken off as soon as they landed. Mr. are for ordinary and 40,357,383 crowns for ex- 
Le Hunte, with 20 armed Europeans, mostly Gov- traordinary purposes. The expenditure of the 
emment officials, and 40 native constabulary Ministry of Foreign Affairs is 10,739,079 crowns, 
went to the island and destroyed the war canoes 10,530,784 crowns for ordinarv and 208,295 crowns 
and the village duhhousps. which Avcre lined with for extraordinary purposes; the expenditure of the 
human skulls, but left the dwellings intact. The Ministry of War for the army, 278,649,953 crowns 
natives attacked the party repeatedly with flights for ordinary and 25,168,528 crowns for extraordi- 
of arrows by day and night, and they had to fire nary purposes, making a total of 303,818,481 
in self-defense, killing 24 and wounding many. crowns; expenditure for the navy, 28,741,660 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 61 

or ordinary and 14,969,160 crowns for ex- troops, 79 officers and 2,964 men in the sanitary 

II y requirements, making a total of corps, 417 officers and 3,309 men in 3 regiments 

X) crowns; expenditure of the Ministry of and 22 cadres of train, 2,416 officers and 22,949 

1,620,609 crowns for central administra- men in 32 regiments ol Austrian Landwehr in- 

d the various departments, 2,640,000 fantry, 246 officers and 2,119 men in 6 jregiments 

;or military pensions, and 11,400 crowns and 3 squadrons of Austrian Landwehr cavalry, 

aordinary expenses, making a total of 2,587 officers and 22,312 men in 28 regiments of 

> crowns; for the Board of Control, Hungarian Landwehr infantry, and 426 officers 

crowds. The receipts of the administra- and 4,346 men in 10 regiments of Hungarian 

?re estimated at 5,819,705 crowns, leav- Landwehr cavalry; total peace effectives, 21,160 

134,706 crowns to be covered by the net officers and 325,350 men, with 62,824 horses and 

of customs and the matricular contribu- 1,048 field pieces. The infantry weapon is the 

the two monarchies, assessed, under the Mannlicher rifle of 8 millimeters caliber, caiTying 

sgleich arranged in November, 1899, in 5 cartridges in the magazine. The cavalry are 

Kjrtion of 65.6 per cent, to Austria and armed with sabers and repeating carbines. The 

cent, to Hungary. The extraordinary ex- field guns are of tempered bronze, having a smooth 

f the troops occupying Bosnia and Herze- breech block, the bore being 9 centimeters^ and 

*'ere estimated at 7,382,000 crowns, paid that of the mountain guns 7 centimeters, 

two monarchies in the same proportion. The Navy. — The Austro-Hungarian navy in 

0,000 crowns collected by the military ad- 1900 consisted of five armored turret ships built 

tion. between 1887 and 1897, the Kronprinz Rudolf, 

common debt, incurred before 1868, Wien, Monarch, Budapest, and Kronprinzessin 

to 2,719,494,879 florins, the expenses of Stephanie; six armored battle-ships with case- 

ar interest and amortization, are 126,047,- mated batteries built before 1878, Tegetthoff, 

ins, of which Austria pays 95,737,055 Custoza, Erzherzog Albrecht, Don Juan d'Austria, 

and Hungary 30,310,603 florins. The Kaiser Max, and Prinz Eugen; four ram cruisers 

loney guaranteed by both monarchies built between 1889 and 1899, Kaiser Karl VI, 

vaa 112,000,000 florins in amount on June Kaiserin und K5nigin Maria Theresa, Kaiserin 

K and 12,142,900 florins were Austrian Elisabeth, and Kaiser Josef I; 9 torpedo- vessels 

Asides this paper money there was a float- built between 1879 and 1897 and 7 of smaller size 

of 36,846,230 florins. built between 1887 and 1897; 6 seagoing torpedo- 

urrency of the dual monarchy was al- boats; and 24 first-class, 31 second-class, and 7 

the law of Aug. 2, 1892, establishing the third-class torpedo-boats. The navy was manned 

is. Instead of the florin a monetary unit by 737 officers, 613 mechanicians and employees, 

its value was adopted, the crown, e(|ual and 7,500 sailors. The Habsburg, of 8,300 tons, 

?ents in United States currency. Besides launched in 1900, and two sister ships since be- 

which have the value of 9 crowns 60 gun, are improvements on the Monarch, Wien, and 

0-crown and 10-crown pieces have been Budapest, which displace only 5,600 tons, but are 

1 gold; single crowns in silver, containing well protected with Harvey armor and armed with 

imroes of fine metal ; 20-heller and 10-hel- 4 9.4-inch guns mounted in couples in fore and 

s in nickel, 100 hellers making a crown; aft turrets, with a powerful quick-firing arma- 

eller pieces and single hellers in bronze, ment. The larger vessels will carry 2 such guns 

er gulden or florins continue to be legal in the forward turret and only 1 aft, but will have 

or any sum, but the silver crowns, al- 12 6-inch quick-firing guns in casements of Knipp 

accepted by the Government for taxes up armor. A sister ship to the armored cruiser 

amount, are legal tender only to the Kaiser Karl VI, of 6,100 tons, has also been begun, 

of 50 crowns. Notes of the Austro-Hun- The belt is lOJ inches thick, and the armament is 

3ank are legal tender. The bank has a 2 9.4-inch guns, 8 5.9-inch quick-firers, and 18 

)f 90,000,000 florins, and in 1898 had a re- smaller ones. 

nd of 32,535,000 florins and 737,476,000 Bosnia and Herzegovina.— The treaty of 
f notes in circulation, while the assets con- Berlin, signed July 13, 1878, placed Bosnia and 
rincipally of 490,089,000 florins cash, 75,- Herzegovina, Christian provinces of Turkey, 
florins loaned to the Government, 258,- under the military and civil administration o! 
florins of commercial loans, and 139,652,- Austria-Hungary and gave the right of military 
ns loaned on real estate. occupation over the sanjak of Novi-Bazar, the 
Army.— --Military service is obligatory civil administration of which was reserved to the 
; age of twenty-one for three years in the Porte. The civil population of the occupied prov- 
en years in the reserve, and two years ad- inces in 1895 was 1,568,092, and the military 

in' the Landwehr of Austria or in the population 22,944; total, 1,591,036. Their area is 

of Hungary. Those not drawn for the 19,700 square miles. The foreign population was 

rmy are enrolled in the supplementary re- 70,848, of whom 66,376 were of Austro-Hungarian 

r twelve years. The peace strength of nationality. The budget for 1900 makes the cost 

itro-Hungarian army in 1900 was 3,597 of central administration 3,650,424 crowns; of the 

ind 9,889 men in the staffs, 1,697 officers interior, 17,034,934 crowns; of finance, 12,750,780 

>3 men in military establishments, 9,428 crowns; of justice, 1,715,140 crowns; of buildings, 

md 161,602 men in 102 regiments and 102 6,375,090 crowns; total, 41,526,368 crowns. There 

•f infantry, 1,019 officers and 16,536 men are 546 miles of railroad and 6,290 miles of tele- 

iments of Tyrol ese jilgers and cadres and graph. The number of messages in 1899 was 

lions of ordinary jagers, 1,890 officers and 402,263, of which 153,091 were internal, 234,405 

len in 42 regiments of cavalry, 1.647 offi- international, and 14,767 official. The post-office 

25,586 men in 56 regiments and 56 cadres forwarded 9,457,505 letters and postal cards and 

artillery and 1 division of 3 batteries and 2,582.227 circulars and newspapers. The young 

of mountain artillery, 422 officers and men of the occupied provinces are obliged to serve 
m in 6 regiments and 3 battalions of for- in the Austro-Hungarian army by virtue of the 
tillery, 495 officers and 8,445 men in 15 law of Oct. 24, 1881. Four regiments of infantry 
IS of pioneers, 89 officers and 1,490 men in and 4 sections of engineers are raised, number- 
en t and cadre of railroad and telegraph ing 6,711 men. The provinces are garrisoned by 



62 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



the Fifteenth Army Corps, numbering 20,110 
men. 

Coznxnerce and Production. — The total value 
of the special imports of merchandise into the 
Austro-Hungarian customs territory in 1899 was 
804,400,000 florins, and of the special exports 
930,700,000 florins. The imports of raw wool 
were 54,920,000 florins in value; of raw cotton, 
54,453,000 florins; of silk, raw and manufactured, 
42,585,000 florins; of coal and coke, 41,812,000 
florins; of tobacco, 25,001,000 florins; or machin- 
ery, 22,007,000 florins; of cofl"ee, 20,668,000 florins; 
of copper, 14,925,000 florins; of flax and jute, 
14,731,000 florins; of wine in casks, 14,700,000 
florins; of eggs, 13,672,000 florins; of prints and 
books not bound, 13,385,000 florins; of hides and 
skins, 7,090,000 florins; of corn, 6,918,000 florins; 
of wheat, 5,449,000 florins; of hogs, 4,023,000 
florins; of lard and bacon, 2,670,000 florins; of 
rye, 1,302,000 florins. The exports of wood and 
wood manufactures were 116,303,000 florins in 
value; of sugar, 86,569,000 florins; of eggs, 
42,609,000 florins; of barley, 36,348,000 florins; of 
brown coal, 32,198,000 florins; of malt, 25,249,000 
florins ; of glass and glassware, 24,990,000 florins ; 
of cattle, 24,885,000 florins; of horses, 23,234,000 
florins; of gloves and shoes, 22,196,000 florins; of 
woolen manufactures, 21,219,000 florins; of hops, 
11,103,000 florins; of coal, 10,762,000 florins; of 
bed feathers, 9,809,000 florins; of cask staves, 
9,809,000 florins; of poultry, 9,793,000 florins; of 
beans, 6,805,000 florins. The imports of gold and 
silver coin and bullion were 21,557,000 florins, and 
exports, 35,533,000 florins. The imports from and 
exports to various countries in 1899 are given in 
florins in the following table: 



COUNTRIES. 



(Germany 

Great Britain .... 

Italy 

Russia , 

United States 

Switzerland , 

British India 

France , 

Turkey , 

Roumania 

Senria 

Beleium 

Netherlands 

Egypt 

Brazil 

Greece 

South America. . . 
Dutch East Indies 



Import*. 



290,278,000 
74,145,000 
69,699,000 
43.388,000 
62,478,000 
27,661,000 
48,717,000 
27,687,000 
18,717,000 
14,144,000 
17,988,000 
19,506,000 

8,858,000 

8,221,000 
15,940,000 

7,480.000 
11,760,000 

9,913,000 



Export*. 



491,487,000 

83.256,000 

71,787,000 

40,451,000 

16,062,000 

85,622,000 

18.217,000 

29,920,000 

80,396.000 

a3,007,000 

18,104,000 

6,552.000 

14,027,000 

10,384,000 

1,758,000 

6,497,000 

1,819.000 

94,000 



The area cultivated in Austria in 1899 was 
28,290,656 hectares, of which three-eighths was 
under farm crops, over a third forest, and a quar- 
ter pasture and meadow. The production of 
wheat was 18,157,000 hectoliters; of barley, 
24,250,000 hectoliters; of oats, 43,052,000 hecto- 
liters; of rye, 30,897,000 hectoliters; of pulse, 
3,791,000 hectoliters; of buckwheat, 2,025,000 hec- 
toliters; of com, 6,115,000 hectoliters; of other 
cereals, 1,356,000 hectoliters; of potatoes, 107,903,- 
000 quintals; of sugar-beets, 65.284,000 quintals; 
of other beets and turnips, 25,977,000 quintals; of 
wine, 3,368,000 hectoliters; of tobacco, 39,000 
quintals; oit hops, 108,000 quintals; of hemp, 
55,000 quintals; of flax, 69,000 quintals; of 
cocoons in 1898, 1,682,777 kilogrammes. The 
forests cover 9,787,508 hectares, of which 6,828,- 
415 hectares are pine forest. The product of coal 
in 1899 was 44,750,000 florins in value; of brown 
coal, 47,584,000 florins; of iron, 38,626,000 florins; 
of lead, 1,872,000 florins; of quicksilver, 1,230,000 
florins; of zinc, 2,020,000 florins: of silver, 1,905,- 
000 florins; of copper, 921,000 florins. The total 



value of minerals was 104,146,136 florins, and of 
furnace products, 47,498,868 florins. The value of 
fish caught by 14,385 fishermen in 3,404 boats in 
the summer was 1,615,469 florins, and by 11,816 
fishermen in 3,101 boats in winter was 1,054,146 
florins. The quantity of beer brewed in 1898 was 
19,206,585 hectoliters; of alcohol distilled, 1.3i^.- 
326 hectoliters. 

Three-quarters of the people ot Hungary de- 
pend on agriculture. Only 5 per cent, of the soil 
is infertile, 41 per cent, is farm land, 23 per cent 
pasture and meadow, 28 per cent, forest, and 3 per 
cent, garden and vineyard. Two- thirds of the 
land is managed by the owners and about half 
the farms, occupying half the cultivated land, 
are between 7i and 150 acres. The yield of wheat 
in 1899 was 40,905,000 centners; of corn, 33,189.- 
000 centners; of barley, 14,005,000 centners; of 
oats, 12,705,000 centners; of rye, 12,668,000 cent- 
ners; of buckwheat, 146,000 centners; of mixed 
grain, 1,591,000 centners; of other cereals. 501,000 
centners; of pulse, 2,216,000 centners; of potatocji. 
38,651,000 centners; of sugar-beets, 16.224,000 
centners; of other beets and turnips, 39,151,000 
centners; of wine, 2,041,000 hectoliters; of to- 
bacco, 436,000 centners; of hemp seed, 362,000 
centners; of rape seed, 431,000 centners; of co- 
coons, 1,244,728 kilograms; of honev, 33,518^ 
centners; of beeswax, 2,319 centners. The forests 
cover 9,037,844 hectares, of which 4,728,527 hec- 
tares are beech, 2,417,833 hectares oak, and 1,891,- 
484 hectares pine. The exports of timber and 
forest products in 1899 were valued at 85,506,000 
crowns, and imports at 13,386,000 crowns. The 
total value of ores and other minerals in 189^ 
was 57,383,000 crowns, the value of coal being 
13,006,000 crowns; that of iron ore, 9,847,300 
crowns ; that of lignite, 29,300,800 crowns, and that 
of gold, silver, copper, lead, manganese, and other 
ores, 4,674,900 crowns. The value of pig-iron pro- 
duced was 38,023,200 crowns; of gold, 10,059,900 
crowns; of silver, 2,427,600 crowns; of antimony 
ore and regulus and crude antimony, 855,700 
crowns; of lead, 740,900 crowns; of iron pyrites, 
639,800 crowns; of coal briquettes, 499,200 
crowns; of copper, 239,100 crowns; of other fur- 
nace products, 1,485,500 crowns; total, 54,970,900 
crowns. The quantity of beer brewed in 1899 
was 1,666,251 hectoliters; of alcohol distilled,. 
1,161,871 hectoliters; of sugar manufactured,. 
2,467,800 centners. The special commerce of 
Hungary in 1899 was valued at 1,198,761,000 
crowns for imports and 1,200,600,000 crowns for 
exports. Of the imports, 22.66 per cent, was raw 
material and 77.34 per cent, manufactured prod- 
ucts, while of the exports, 62.11 per cent, was raw 
material and 37.89 per cent, manufactured prod- 
ucts. Of the imports, 78.27 per cent, came from, 
and of the exports, 71.41 per cent, went to Aus- 
tria, Germany coming next, and then Great 
Britain, Servia, France, Switzerland, and Italy. 
The cotton fabrics imported were 142,316,000^ 
crowns in value; woolen fabrics, 95,460,000 
crowns; silk goods, 36,476,000 crowns; wine in 
casks, 28,927,000 crowns; wheat, 23,227,000 
crowns; refined sugar, 23,049,000 crowns; coal. 
20,732,000 crowns; boots and shoes, 19,785,000 
crowns; cotton yam, 19,784,000 crowns; coffee, 
19.309,000 crowns. The value of flour exported 
was 146,964,000 crowns; cattle, 86,127,000 crovms; 
wheat. 70,211,000 crowns; barley, 61,063,000 
crowns; hogs, 49,730,000 crowns; corn. 33,506,- 
000 crowns; horses, 30,697,000 crowns; oats, 
29,236,000 crowns; rye, 28,872,000 crowns; eggs,. 
28,533,000 crowns. 

Navigation. — The number of vessels entered 
at the ports of Austria during 1898 was 105,412, of 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



ea 



!,701 tons; cleared, 105,413, of 12,686,481 
Of the vessels, 88 per cent., and of the ton- 
90 per cent., was Austrian. The merchant 
ing of Austria on Jan. 1, 1899, comprised 157 
Is for oeean navigation, of 172,286 tons; 1,400 
ing vessels, of 24,623 tons; and 10,958 fishing 
Is and small craft, of 23 J 12 tons. The total 
)er of sailing vessels was 12,418, of 58,097 
steamers, 187, of 161,924 tons. 
e number of vessels entered at Hungarian 
during 1899 was 19,415, of 2,129,752 tons; 
•d, 19,420, of 2,128,595 tons. Of the vessels, 
r cent, and 00 per cent, of the tonnage was 
farian. The merchant shipping of Hungary 
rted of 62 vessels for ocean navigation, of 
I tons; 149 coasting vessels, of 5,483 tons; 
t83 fishing and small craft, of 442 tons. Of 
>tal number, 424, of 16,023 tons, were sailing 
8 and 70, of 47,094 tons, were steamers. 
ilroadSy Posts, and Telegraphs. — There 
11,444 miles of railroad in Austria at the 
of 1898, of which 4,763 miles were state lines, 
miles belonging to companies but worked by 
[^vemment, 4,938 miles lines owmed and 
ed by companies, and 62 miles foreign lines, 
number of passengers carried in 1898 was 
37,000; tons of freight, 111,198,000; receipts, 
17,000 florins; expenses, 178,930,000 florins, 
e length of railroad lines in operation in 
jary at the close of 1899 was 10,527 miles, 
hich 4,750 miles were Government lines, 
miles lines of companies worked by the 
mment, and 2,058 miles lines owned and 
ed by companies. The number of passengers 
Hi in 1899 was 61,581,000; tons of freight, 
3.000; receipts, 258,300,000 crowns; expenses, 
00,000 crowns. 

e number of letters and postal cards that 
d through the Austrian post-ofiice in 1899 
180,477,790; samples and printed matter, 131,- 
30; newspapers, 102,609,700; receipts, 99,059,- 
Towns; expenses, 85,425,706 crowns, 
e number of letters and postal cards that the 
^rian post-office forwarded in 1899 was 281,- 
00; newspapers, 111,989,000; samples and 
ed matter, 47,098,000; money and postal or- 
20,005,000; registered letters and parcels, 
9,0GO. The receipts, including those from 
raphs and telephones, were 45,507,000 crowns; 
ises, 32,713,000 crowns. 

e length of telegraphs in AustHa in 1899 
J3.235 miles, with 100,332 miles of wire. The 
)er of messages sent in 1899 was 14,697,898. 
e were 253 telephone systems, with 102 cir- 
between cities, having altogether 68,445 miles 
ire. The number of conversations in 1899 
33,402,544. 

e telegraph lines of Hungary had a total 
h of 14,015 miles, with 69,750 miles of wire, 
number of messages, including railroad mes- 
, was 13,919,737. There were 46 telephone 
inges and 27 intercity circuits, with connec- 
with Vienna and Berlin. The length of wire 
31,380 miles. 

Lstria. — The legislative authority for the em- 

8 vested in the Reichsrath, but each province 

8868 a large measure of autonomy and has a 

tag to legislate on matters not reserved by 

Constitution for the Reichsrath. The upper 

e of the Reichsrath, called the Herrenhaus, is 

»osed of 18 princes of the imperial family, 67 

i of noble families having large territorial 

ssions, 5 cardinals, 6 bishops possessing the 

of prince, and 140 members nominated for 

The lower house, called the Abgeordneten- 

is composed of 425 members elected for six 

, by 5 classes of electors — large proprietors. 



cities, chambers of commerce and trade councils, 
rural districts, and the class embracing the whole 
body of electors. The Council of Ministers ap- 
pointed Jan. 19, 1900, was composed as follows; 
President of the Council and Minister of the In- 
terior, Dr. E. von Korber; Minister of National 
Defense, Graf Zeno Welser von Welsersheimb ; 
Minister of Railroads, Dr. H. Ritter von Wittek; 
Minister of Finance, Dr. E. Ritter Bohm von 
Bawerk; Minister of Justice, Baron A. Spens von 
Booden; Minister of Worship and Public Instruc- 
tion, Dr. W. Ritter von Hartel; Minister of Com- 
merce, Baron G. von Call von Culmbach ; Minister 
of Agriculture, Baron K. von Giovanelli; without 
port^lios. Dr. A. Rezek and Dr. Leonard Pietak* 

Area and Population. — The area of the Aus- 
trian Empire is 115,903 square miles. The popu- 
lation at the census of 1890 was 23,895,413, com- 
posed of 11,689,129 males and 12,206,284 females. 

The number of marriages in 1899 was 213.631: 
of births, 986,098; of deaths, 656,176; excess of 
births, 301,997. The number of emigrants from 
Austria and Hungary in 1898 was 55,0>07, of whom 
52,282 emigrated to the United States, 1,060 to 
Brazil, and 605 to the Argentine Republic. 

Finances. — The revenue of the Austrian Gov- 
ernment in 1898 was 794,058,000 florins in cash 
and 7,502,000 florins in bills; total, 801,560,000 
florins. The expenditure was 803,547,000 florins- 
in cash and 5,787,000 florins in bills; total, 809,- 
334,000 florins. The revenue for 1900 was esti- 
mated at 1,585,811,822 crowns, the expenditure at 
1,586,403,933 crowns. The budget estimate of 
revenue for 1901 was 1,641,997,585 crowns, and of 
expenditure 1,641,163,344 crowns. The sources of 
revenue were: Reichsrath and Council of Minis- 
ters, 1,661,800 crowns; Ministry of the Interior,. 
2,922,023 crowns; Ministry of Defense, 862,711 
crowns; Ministry of Worship and Instruction, 13,- 
936,032 crowns; Ministry of Finance, 1,148,589,- 
848 crowns; Ministry of Commerce, 124,835,890' 
crowns; Ministry of Railroads, 280,476,440 
crowns; Ministry of Agriculture, 33,852,381 
crowns; Ministry of Justice, 2,522,444 crowns; 
pensions, 2,964,920 crowns; subventions and dota- 
tions, 628,200 crowns; state debt, 26,356,296 
crowns; debt administration, 19,600 crowns; sale* 
of state property, 401,000 crowns; payment by 
Lombard railroads, 1,968,000 crowns. The branches 
of expenditure were: Imperial household, 9,300,- 
000 crowns; imperial Cabinet chancery, 182,143^ 
crowns; Reichsrath, 2,585,224 crowns; Supreme 
Court, 49,724 crowns; Council of Ministers, 2,931,- 
714 crowns; contribution to common expenditure,. 
265.916,732 crowns; Ministry of the Interior, 67.- 
570,603 crowns; Ministry of Defense, 59,194,751 
crowns: Ministry of Worship and Instruction,. 
75,114,558 crowns; Ministry of Finance, 251,059,- 
328 crowns ; Ministry of Commerce, 125,772,230 
crowns; Ministry of Railroads, 246,541,050 
crowns; Ministry of Agriculture, .43,780,345 
crowns; Ministry of Justice, 70,037,115 crowns; 
Board of Control, 441,800 crowns; pensions, 58,- 
283,518 crowns; subventions and donations, 16,- 
114,610 crowns; state debt, 345,122,525 crowns; 
debt administration, 1,166,374 crowns. 

The debt of the Austrian Government on Jan. 
1, 1900, amounted to 1,581,728,212 florins, the con- 
solidated debt being 1,566,030,111 florins and the 
floating debt 15,728,101 florins. 

The Beichsrath. — Elections for a new Reichs- 
rath were held in January, 1901. The violent ob- 
structive tactics of the Young Czechs, who by that 
means endeavored to force the Government to 
alter the language regulations according to their 
ideas, had stopped the machinery of parliament- 
ary government and brought on the dissolution 



J 



64 AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

of the Reichsrath. The conservative Czechs, so that the rights of popular representation should 
called the Bohemian Feudalists, maintained the be safeguarded and the responsibility ot the Gov- 
same views as to the historic rights and the in- ernment clearly understood. At a calmer period the 
tegrity of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the politi- revision of parliamentary rules of procedure could 
cal and administrative e(}uality of the Czechs with be considered wherebjr the business of the Reichs- 
the Germans. They differed mainly from the rath would be expedited without infringement of 
Young Czechs on the question of methods, con- the freedom of discussion. An administration inde- 
demning every form of obstruction, and going so pendent of political influences was declared neces- 
far as to propose amendments to the procedure of sary in the interest of the people and the state, 
the Reichsrath that would enlarge the discipli- The abolition or alleviation of some taxes was an- 
nary powers of its president so as to prevent in the nounced, also the relief of certain provinces whose 
future the scandaK)Us scenes that paralyzed the revenues were insufficient. Measures were needed 
normal functions of the Chamber in 1900. The for the regulation of the currency. The necessity 
elections in Bohemia turned on this question as of preserving Austria's position in the world's 
to whether obstruction is justifiable or expedient, markets brought economical questions to the 
The language conflict increased the strength in front. The expiration of most of the commercial 
Bohemia and elsewhere of the Pan-German party, treaties entailed a revision of the customs tariff, 
which looks forward to the incorporation of the A bill for the promotion of industry and commerce 
German-speaking lands of Austria and of Bohemia would be brought in immediately. The comple- 
as well in the German Empire. The result of the tion of the railroad network of the state, espe- 
elections was the dwindling of the moderate and cially by a second line to Triest, would be sproid 
conciliatory elements without shifting the balance over several years. Another measure was in- 
between the aggressive parties. The Young Czechs tended to secure to the laboring population dwell- 
gnined the victory over the Old Czechs; the Pan- ings conducive to health and morality. Means 
Germanists won several seats; the Polish faction were required for the development and eouipment 
was strengthened considerably; the once domi- of the superior schools to conform with the latest 
nant Grerman Liberals continued to decline in advances of science. Reforms in other parts of the 
numbers; the Social Democrats increased at the educational system were in preparation, as well 
expense of the Christian Socialists, or Anti- as in various other departments. 
Semites, and of the Catholic Populists. The most The settlement of the language question by 
striking feature of the contest was the setback re- legislation was the only safeguard for the continu- 
ceived bv the Viennese Anti-Semites, which the ance of the system of government in Austria 
German t*rogressists helped to bring about by giv- which had produced a powerful army, flourishing 
ing some of their votes to Social-Democratic can- finances, high public credit, and universal educa- 
didates. The Clericals, as well as their Anti- tion. The Constitution afforded ample autonomy 
Semite allies, lost heavily. In Bohemia the Cler- to the lands of the Austrian Crown, while securine 
ical vote showed considerable gains, and the So- the unity and strength of the empire. The feud 
cialists lost 6 seats to the Young Czechs and the of the nationalities was the disturbing cause that 
Pan-Germans. The number of the latter in the had interrupted the normal activity of the Reichs- 
Reichsrath was increased from 5 to 21. Half of rath and hindered the establishment of old-age 
these subscribed to the program of Dr. SchOn- and invalid insurance and other projects for the 
erer, who advocated emancipation from Rome in material and intellectual development of the em- 
order to prepare for the entrance of the German pire. The Government intended to do all that it 
provinces of Austria into the German Empire, could to cure the evil, but was bound to preserve 
since the German Government would not favor intact the unity of language in certain branches 
the annexation of German Austria at the cost of of administration in which it constituted an 
bringing about Catholic preponderance in Ger- old and established institution. The cooperation 
many. Sch^nerer and his principal lieutenant, of the Reichsrath would be indispensable in the 
Wolf, had actually changed their faith and en- approaching settlement of the commercial rela- 
tered the evangelical communion. The Pan-Ger- tions between the two halves of the monarchy, 
man members lield a meeting to discuss SchOn- Among the projects of legislation, which were 
erer's program, which they accepted, with his enough to occupy several sessions of a Reichstag 
leadership, with the proviso that it did not in- working in perfect order, were measures for the 
volve the renunciation of the Catholic religion, protection of workmen, for the development of the 
but was to be taken as signifying only emancipa- commercial marine, for the construction of har- 
tion from the influence of the Roman curia in bors, for the improvement of the army, and for 
political and national affairs. The Pan-Germanic Bosnian railroads. The Reichstag in the early 
joined hands with the Germain People's party, part of the session was the scene of disorder and 
forming a strong group of over 00 members. The violence worse than any exhibitions of the pre- 
Czechs of all shades gathered together into one vious Parliament. Missiles were thrown at the 
club. The German Progressists also adhered to president, and several times the Czech and G^B^- 
the object of establishing German as the state man members came to blows. The president of 
language. The Catholic People's party and the the Chamber had to decide how to receive inter- 
Center party united in a club pledged to uphold pellations in other languages than German. The 
( atholicism, the dynasty, Austrian interests, and Czechs demanded the recognition of the absolute 
l>arlianientary government. equality of languages; the Germans insisted that 
The Reichsrath was opened on Jan. 31. The no language be used but German. Formerly every 
Pan-Germanic union, the Socialists, and the ex- member could speak Grerman, but in the "present 
treme faction of the Czechs had absented them- Parliament there were illiterate Slavs w^ho knew 
selves when the Chamber was called upon to cheer no language but their o\vn. The Government en- 
the Emperor. The speech from the throne offered deavored to bring about a compromise, but con- 
a list of important social and economic reforms, sultations with the party leaders were fruitless, 
in which Dr. von K^rber hoped to awaken sufli- The Czechs appealed to the article in the Consti- 
eient popular interest to bring about a truce be- tution establishing absolute equality of languages, 
tween the nationalities. The necessity was recog- the Germans to the traditional and necessary use 
nized of a clearer definition of the extraordinary of (German and the impossibility of discussion ear- 
powers of the Government in cases of emergency, ried on in the eight different languages of the 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 65 

rhe president then decided, on Feb. 20, in 1901 of 17 archdukes, 65 ecclesiastical digni- 
non-Uernian interpellations, which must taries, 10 bannerets of the kingdom, the Count of 
ted into German, and in this form in- IVesburg, 2 keepers of the crown, 2 presidents of 
[ in the minutes, with the original in- the royal assize court, 2 presidents of the adminis- 
n appended. This decision was not trative tribunal, the president of the royal table 
y to either Czechs or Germans, and its of Budapest, 3 delegates of the Diet of Croatia- 
oent was the signal for an exchange of Slavonia, the Governor of Fiume, hereditary mem- 
id an uproar that compelled the presi- bers, consisting of 7 princes, 169 counts, and 49 
iring the proceedings to a close. The barons, members nommated by the King for life, 
r sittings were as stormy and scanda- 60 in number, and 27 members elected by the 
* use of insulting epithets was formerly Chamber of Magnates. The Chamber of Deputies 
in Parliament, as it is contrary to the is composed of 463 members, of whom 413 are 
i education of the people of Austria of elected for five years by the electoral colleges of 
, and is even punishable by law. The Hungarian counties and towns, and 40 are elected 
vas introduced by the Anti-Semites in from among its members by the Diet of Croatia- 
of I»wer Austria and the municipal Slavonia. The Council of Ministers, constituted 
Vienna, and had the effect of demoral- on Feb. 25, 1899, was composed as follows: Presi- 
surprised majority. At the moment dent of the Council, Koloman von Szell; Minister 
conflict of nationalities became acute of National Defense, Baron G. de Fejervary ; Min- 
ation was adopted by the opposing par* ister for Croatia-Slavonia and Dalmatia, £. von 
le Reichsrath, and the employment of Czeh; Minister of Finance, Dr. L. de Lukacs; 
!rms calculated to shock ana revolt, and Minister of Worship and Public Instruction, Dr. 
e or silence opponents, was reduced to J. von Wlassics; Minister of Agriculture, Dr. J. 
The ruling of the president that the Daranyi ; Minister of the Imperial Cabinet, Count 
translation of Czech interpellations be J. Szechenvi; Minister of Justice, Dr. A. Ploss; 
arliament occasioned a fresh outburst of Minister of Commerce, A. de Hegedus. 
Mission, but the Czechs were not so out- Area and Population. — The area of the King- 
s the Pan-Germans, who openly avowed dora of Hungary, including Croatia and Slavonia, 
re for annexation to Germany and im- is 125,039 square miles. The population at the 
ligious rancor into the controversy by census of 1890 was 17,463,791, comprising 8,668,- 
f immorality against the priesthood and 175 males and 8,795,616 females. 
ing clerical scandals. The Social Demo- Finances. — The ordinary revenue of the Hun- 
led in the attacks on the clergy. The garian Government in 1899 was 603,525,000 
Lnti-Semites retorted by sweeping accu- florins; extraordinary and transitory revenue, 
gainst the Jews. The Government ar- 11,307,000 florins; total revenue, 614,832,000 
truce with the Czechs, promising pub- florins. The ordinary expenditure was 454,886,- 
'ements at Prague and other advantages, 000 florins ; transitory expenditure, 13,094,000 
3t the desired university at Briinn. The florins; investments, 38,903,000 florins; extraor- 
discussed economic and other measures dinary contribution to common expenditure, 
^re popular in the constituencies. The 6,685,000 florins; total disbursements, 513,568,000 
ind Czech members spontaneously came florins. The estimate of revenue from all 'sources 
lerstnnding for the advancement of canal in 1900 was 1,054,513,404 crowns, and of the total 
>ad schemes. In May, in day and night expenditures 1,052,681,821 crowns. The budget es- 
the Reichsrath endeavored to make up timate of ordinary revenue for 1901 was 1,012,770,- 
laction of years. The annual contingent 396 crowns, and of extraordinary revenue 43,811,- 
rmy, the imposition of a higher tariff on 901 crowns; total, 1,066,582,297 crowns. Of the 
ines, several measures affecting taxation, ordinary revenue, 2,849,317 crowns come from state 
king nine hours a day's work in mines, debts, 2,000 crowns from the Ministry ad latus, 
[Teski railroad scheme of the Government 7,867,497 crowns from the Ministry' of the Interior, 
ussed, and the last measure, as well as 687,121,467 crowns from the Ministry of Finance, 
bill, was passed by agreement between 268,606,726 crow^ns from the Ministry of Com- 
arties. The regular business was inter- merce, 38,924,077 crowns from the Ministry of 
; times by demonstrations against Anti- Agriculture, 4,543,319 crowns from the Ministry 
fiicials who had dismissed German Na- of Instruction and Worship, 2,085,170 crowns from 
and Social-Democratic school-teachers, the Ministry of Justice, and 770,824 crowns from 
ngement made between Austrian and the Ministry of National Defense. The ordinary 
n parliamentary committees respecting expenditure was estimated at 970,496,503 crowns, 
1 ot each half of the monarchy in the. transitory expenditure at 30,771,834 crowns, and 
expenditure was laid before the Reichs- investments at 55,288,080 crowns; total expendi* 
h a warning from the Prime Minister ture, 1,056,556,417 crowns. Of the ordinary ex- 
Government would not* undertake to penditure, 9,300,000 crowns were for the civil list, 
ough popular measures if bills necessary 182,144 crowns for the Cabinet chancery, 3,570,432 
(istence of the state failed to pass. The crowns for Parliament, 65,923,497 crowns for cora- 
gleich concluded by the Austrian and mon expenditure, 42,951 crowns for common pen- 
.n governments was unpopular Avith all sions, 19,448,005 crowns for Hungarian pensions, 
I Austria. It was generally regarded as 259,964,560 crowns for the national debt, 27,350,- 
irgain extorted from Austria during the 106 crowns for debts of railroads acquired by the 
n of the Reichsrath. The Czech repre- state, 312.204 crowns for debts of guaranteed rail- 
j even of the moderate stripe were unwil- roads, 8,397,310 crowns for loans of separate de- 
upport the Government in passing the partments, 16,926,513 crowns for the administra- 
:hrough the Reichsrath on condition that tion of Croatia-Slavonia, 334,640 crowns for con- 
1 concession be offered to their const! tu- Irol, 557,594 crowns for administration of courts, 
1 as equality in the employment of the 979,869 crowns for the minister-presidency, 141,- 
i German languages in the public oflSces 673 crowns for the Ministry ad latuSy 92,360 
lia and Moravia. crowns for the Minister for Croatia, 41.H43.S()0 
iry. — The upper house of the Hungarian crowns for the Ministry of the Interior, 176,691,- 
it is the Chamber of Magnates, composed 681 crowns for the Ministry of Finance, 188,744,- 

^ xu. — 5 A 



66 



AUTOMOBILES. 



045 crowns for the Ministry of Commerce, 45,337,- 
315 crowns for the Ministry of Agriculture, 
31,294,546 crowns for the Ministry of Instruction 
and Worship, and 30,492,491 crowns for the Min- 
istry of National Defense. 

The debt of the Hungarian Government at the 
end of 1899 was 2,475,225,000 florins, of which, 
1,089,033,000 florins were consolidated debt, 1,049,- 
404,000 florins annuities, 11,626,000 florins treas- 
ury bonds, 76,205,000 florins debts of the various 
departments, and 248,897,000 florins arrears. 

The Session of Parliament. — The most im- 
portant measure of the session of 1901 was one de- 
claring certain commercial occupations incompati- 
ble with a seat in Parliament, particularly an 
interest in any business house or an office in any 
company having dealings with the Government. 
The bill extended the scope of one passed in 1875 
in conseauence of abuses that became manifest 
during tne commercial crisis of 1873. Count 
Stephen Tisza was disposed to object to the strin- 

fent provisions of the new bill because it would 
isqualify some of the most active and influential 
members of the Liberal party, but he and his fol- 
lowers eventually withdrew their opposition, sacri- 
ficing party advantages in the interest of political 
morality and the dignity and independence of 
Parliament. The establishment of a special 
Agrarian party in Hungary was a singular polit- 
ical phenomenon in a country where nine-tenths 
of the members of Parliament are agriculturists. 
The success of the Agrarii),ns in Grermany in for- 
cing the Government of that country to adopt a 
minimum tariff prejudicial to Austrian, atid es- 
pecially to Hungarian trade, imposing high duties 
on cattle, pigs, poultry, eggs, and other animal 
products, was more freely discussed in Hungary 
than in Austria, and doubts were expressed 
whether a political alliance and. commercial war- 
fare could long subsist between two countries. 
The proposed German tariff was considered more 
favorable to Italy and even to Russia than it was 
to Hungary. 

AUTOMOBILES. Among the many subjects 
of interest that have claimed the attention of the 
engineer and inventor, and, indeed, the business 
man and the society woman, is the recent advance 
in the manufacture and operation of automobiles. 
Of the many styles now on the market there are 
comparatively few that can be considered as hav- 
ing met the demands of the general public, and the 
horse is still the favorite means of transit with 
the greater number of business men. Many kinds 
of machines are now made in this and foreign 
countries. The motive power is divided into three 
distinct classes — steam, electricitv, and gas, com- 
monly called gasoline, from the fact that the ^as 
is made directly from gasoline, which is carried 
by the vehicle. There are a few exceptions to this. 

Referring to the steam-propel lea vehicle, we 
find that many of its principal parts are common 
to all types of automobiles. It has a body 
mounted on the frame, running-gear having axles 
and wheels, a motor or enghie geared to one of 
the axles to propel the vehicle, apparatus for steer- 
ing, brakes, and means for signaling. These fea- 
tures may be made in many designs, and a good 
type of either could be used on any vehicle, 
whether propelled by steam, gas, or electricity. 

The steam -propel led vehicle has the following 
apparatus necessary for its perfect operation: A 
steam-boiler; a steam-engine; a pump for forcing 
the water into the boiler; an automatic governor 
for keeping the water at the proper height in the 
boiler; a frame and running-gear, consisting of the 
axles, wheels, and differential gear; an air-pump 
to keep a pressure on the oil-tank to force the oil 



to the burners; an oil-tank for fuel ; a water-1 
controlling valves and levers for starting, 
ping, and reversing the engine; the steering- 
the brakes; the steam-muffier ; the feed-' 
heater; the burners to heat the boiler; the 1 
pet or bell for signaling; and the vehicle 
containing the seat. Added to this are the : 
small paits, such as the automatic mechanis 
releasing the steam when the pressure beconw 
high and reducing the fire under the boil 
prevent the steam from creating too high a 
sure. This constitutes a complete steam- 
mounted on wheels, which must be capable * 
ing operated by any person having an ord 
knowledge of simple mechanics. Therefore 
necessary to make the whole operation of ^ 
ating the power as nearly automatic as pos 
and to design the mechanism so that it wil 
become deranged by reason of rough roa< 
any other ordinary condition likely to be en 
tered. This being the case, it is easy to u 
stand the difference of opinion that exists 
the best agent for the propulsion of automo 
The use to which the vehicle is to be put has 
to do with the selection of the proper p 
For heavy trucking, a large power that tak 
comparatively little room is essential, wher 
vehicle built for pleasure and long runs cou 
almost entirely filled with the mechanism wil 
impairing its efficiency. 

The Steam Automobile. — The steam aut 
bile is still the favorite type with many, anc 
among the earliest attempts to solve the pro 
One of the best machines of this type is the 
mobile. In this the power is applied to the 
axle from the engine.. The steam-propelled 
cles of this type weigh about 1,000 pounds 
tanks filled ready for a journey, and are des 
for the accommodation of 2 persons. The ^ 
are of the steel-spoke variety, 28 inches in < 
eter, with pneumatic tires 2^ inches in dian 

The gasoline-tank holds five gallons, an< 
water- tank 26 gallons. The extreme lengtli 
feet 4 inches; extreme width, 4 feet 10 J in 
extreme height, 5 feet 2^ inches. This auton 
carries sufficient fuel to run fifty miles wi 
replenishing, and the water-tank will need rel 
but once in that distance. 

The steam-machines can be run at any 
by simply regulating the steam-valve, and t 
one of the advantages of this type. They c 
repaired by any intelligent machinist, as s 
machinery is familiar to most mechanics, am 
break or disorder is easy to locate. They 
climb hills where a gas-machine will come 
standstill (both machines having the 
power), due to the fact that the steam-ma 
can be regulated to run at a slow speed w 
good pressure of steam, whereas a gas-ma 
engine must run fast enough to store the i 
sary power in its fly-wheel, and must then 1 
mit the power through clutch mechanism t 
axles, and as the gas-engine is an intermi 
engine, it can not properly develop its powe 
der these conditions. 

The steam-machine starts with an easy i 
ment, makes very little noise, and practical! 
no bad odors, ft can be operated at a low 
and the repairs are easy to make. Its disa^ 
tages are the number of its parts which are 
to become deranged. The boilers become 
heated and burn out, and they are, mor< 
liable to explode from careless handling or, ii 
of collision, when the boiler is damaged, 
gasoline is also a source of danger, especially 
careless persons, but when it is handled 
care few accidents occur. One of its chief < 



AUTOMOBILES. 



67 



backs is the amount of apace that the mechaniam 
occupira. It it is crowded, too close, it is hard 
lo grt at it for repairs. 

Ad automobile having several improvements 
;j, i^g marltet of its type ia shown 



herewith. 

Th* engine ia mounted directly 
ixle. It ia driven by steam. wRicli ii 
> boilvr composed of copper tubes, 
ibell or expanded jointa, 
md DO jotnta of any kind 
uv in the heat of the fire. 
rbe ereatest damage that 
rould happen with this 
Miler would be the burst- 
ing ot one of the tubes, 
■hich could be replaced 
•asily by a new one while 
in the road, and in a, few 



the I 



be seen that there ia considerable mechanism to 
lie kept in order. 

The gas-engine generally used in automobile 
practise is known as the Otto type four-cycle 
engine. Thi,* engine uses a mixture of gas and 
air, which is compressed in the cylinder and then 
exploded, creating the power, which is transmitted 
to the crank-shaft through the connecting-rod of 
the engine, and to the fly-wheel, which is mounted 



It ■ 



mid also 



take a pressun 
than 1,500 pounds per 
square inch of area to 
burst the tube, so there 
is very little danger from 
this cauftc. The bursting 
of the tube would not in- 
jure the vehicle proper, 
and is not dangerous to 
life. Id this design the 
water is fed to the boiler 
cally, whether 



the vehicle i 



not. The i 
densed, and the water ia 
D«*d over and over, thus 
■aviug the beat, keeping 




the boiler cleaner In 
Kale and sed: 
preventing all i 






n escaping steam. It also 
allows a mucn smaller water-tank to be used. 
Kerosene oil is used for fuel. It is gasified and 
burned under blast, which is automatically main- 
tained and governed by the pressure of ateam in 
the l>oiler. By the use of kerosene, the cost of 
operation is reduced more than sO per cent, as 
compared with gasoline. 

This machine has a 2 1 -horse-power engine, and 
weighs complete but 1.200 pounds. It will run 
100 miles without replenishing either fuel or 
water. For local traffic the tanks could be made 
much smaller and the engine of much less power, 
thus saving much of the space which is now filled 
with mechanism. This machine i.t being made by 
the Manhattan Automobile Company, of New 
York city, and is one of the best of its tyjie. 

The Gas-Enelna Automobile. — This type of 
noi-hine is well adapted for lon^ journeys and 
high speed. There is less mechanism than in the 
steam-machine, but this type has serious defects 
that offset in a great measure its olher advan- 
tages. The mechanism of the propelling parts 
includes a gas-engine, a carbureter or vaporizer 
for changing the liquid gasoline into gas. a spark- 
ing device to ignite the gas in -the cylinders of the 
engine, a gasoline-tank to hold the fuel, an elec- 
tric battery to furnish the electricity for the 
^parking device. ■ water-tank, a pump lo circulate 
the water around the gas-engine cylinder to keep 
it from becoming too hot. a device to cool the 
water after it becomes hot from the engine, a 
friction -clutch to transmit the power from the 
engine to the axle of the vehicle, the difTcrential 
fear, the reverse mechanism, and the change-speed 
device wherebv the iipeed of the vehicle can be 
■ lifred. It must also have the steering-device. 
brakes, etc., common to all automobiles, it will 



on the crank-shaft. This shaft ia very heavy, and 
the Hy-wbeel is very much heavier than those 
used in steam-engines, for the following reason: 
When the gaa is admitted into the engine cylinder 
the piston is drawn back, drawing in its supply 
of the explosive mixture of air and gas; tlien 
the movement of the piston is reversed, compress- 
ing the mixture: the mixture is then ignited by 
the electric sjiark. and the explosion instantly 
follows, forcing out the pistor -~' '~ '"■ 



power through the connecting-rod, i 
Hiiaft to the fty-wheel, where it is stored 
of the wheel taking up the motion and power. 



bv. 
id p 



The fly-wheel now has become the propelling 
power, and forces the piston back through the 
cylinder, thus expelling the carbonic-acid gases or 

Eroduets of combustion. It is then drawn back 
y the fty-wheel, drawing in a new gaa mixture, 
and attain reverses Its movement, compreHsing the 
gas mixture, and ia again exploded by the electi-ic 
spark, thus giving new momentum to the fly- 
wheel. It will be seen from this that the engine 
gives hut one power stroke in every tour strokes, 
and that the other three strokes of the piston are 
absorbing a portion of the power that is stored in 
the fly-wheel b^ the power stroke. 

The gas-engine has a governor, so the engine 
runs at a constant speed, and to have the auto- 
mobile run at difTerent speeds the gearing is 
changed by moving one of the controlling levers. 
There are usually three speeds at which a gas 
automobile, when operating on this principle. 

There is another way of governing gas-engines 
for automobile work which has come into more 
general use. and that is to throttle the explosive 
mixture, and also by changing the lead of the 
spark. Either of these ways will give good re- 



AUTOMOBILES. 



Bults, and enginen are now on the market that 
will run at speeds of 700 to 1,600 revolutions a 
minute. With a well-deHigned engine arranged to 
drive a single-seated carriage, an engine capable 
of giving at least 4 horse-power at 500 to AOO revo- 
lutions a minute should be employed, and if there 
are ateep hills, or it is desired to run at high 
speed, A 0-horae-power engine should be used. 

Trouble is caused by the gas mixture not hav- 
ing the proper proportion of air and gas. The elee- 
trie spark may fail to ignite the gases, either from 



of a poor quality, or too cold to vaporize. The 
vaporizer may fail to supply the oil vapor fast 
enough. The clutches may not work properly, 
causing the vehicle to start suddenly, or they may 
release slowly when it may be neceaaary to stop 
quickly, causing accidents that otherwise eould 
have been averted. The danger of the gasoline- 
tank exploding is not great when it is handled 
with care, and the engine itself is as safe as any 
kind of engine, when properly made. 

This type of vehicle requires a more experienced 
operator than either steam or etectrteally propelled 
vehicles, and when the parts are deranged or the 
engine fails to work, it is more difficult to locate 
the cause, and often more difficult to remedy than 
with steam. \\'hen the engine is stopped, it is 
necessary to eet out of the vehicle and start the 
engine again by turning a crank to compress the 
charge of gas and cet the first explosion, but as 
the engine is usually allowed to run while the 
vehicle is standing, this does not have to be done 
very often. The gas automobile made by the Au- 




tomobile Co. of America, in a test on ordinary 
roads of 464.2 miles, in which SO automobiles 
started and 13 gas-machines won first prizes,won 
2 of the 13. goinc the entire distance at an average 
speed of 12.91 miles an hour. This type of machine 
is. more expensive than steam, and weighs consid- 
erably more, but a gallon of gasoline will pro|)e1 
it a greater distance than the same quantity of 
oil burned under the boiler will propel the steam- 
machine. The present machine will develop A 
speed of 30 miles an hour on good roadn. and one 
supply of gasoline will pro|)e1 the vehicle a full 
days journey. The gasoline- tanks hold about 
10 gallons. 
This machine will run at speeds varying from 



U to 30 miles an hour without changing the gears, 
and on slower speeds, for hill climbing, etc., the 
slower gear is thrown in, and will work from I 
to 6 miles an hour. It runs with very little vibrg. 
tion, due to perfect balancing of the parts ukI 
the fact that a 3-cylinder engine is used, which 
allows the power to be more equally and ereEil)- 
applied to the axle, and this freedom from vibn- 
tion can not be attained unless the engines an 
carefully balanced. The engine cylinders art 
water-cooled, and the water-tank carries aulhcieiil 
to keep them in proper condition for a day's ran, 
due to the efficient water-heat radiators that in 
used, which continually cool the heated water ts 
it comes from the engine jackets. The radiatois 
are mounted on the front of the carri^e, and in 
of such design that they do not detract from tbc 
general appearance of the vehicle. The water- 
tank holiTs 7 gallons. The Stanhope phaeton ii 
steered by a jointed lever extending across aid 
in front of the operator, managed ny his right 
hand. Thus placed, it is less tiring to the anni 
than a siden ise-s winging lever. The surrey ii 
steered with a wheel. A vertically-moving handle 
at the driver's left engages the clutches of the 
speed gears, and a pedal operates the reverw. 
A liecond pedal acts on a pair of powerful brakes, 
one on each rear hub, which will hold the carriip 
in either direction on a hill. A tube surroundini 
the vertical steering-post, at the driver's left, con- 
nects with the throttle- valve which controls the 
engine, and is operated with the left hand, tin 
vaporizer of simple construction, which requim 
no adjustment, feeds all 3 cylinders of the engine. 
Jump-spark ignition, with variable lead, is em- 
ployed, and the current 
that operates the ig* 
niter is furnished by i 
storage celts of tat- 
tery. A muftler i* 
used to silence the ei- 
haust. thus making 
the machine noiseless 
compared with most nf 
this type. The part* 
are all made on the in- 
terchangeable princi- 
ple, so any broken or 
worn part can be dupli- 
cated at low cost and 

dering the numbered 

The Motor BIcyd*. 
— What may be prop- 
erly classed with the 
fas - engine autonio- 
iles is a machine 

' -'^-^ known as the motor 

cycle, which is an ordi- 
nary bicycle, driven bv 
a Bmatl gas - engine. 
On account of the difficulties encountered in re- 
ducing the mechanism so that it would fit within 
the frame of the bicycle, few manufacturers have 
been successful In producing a machine that is 
simple and neat. The diagram drawing illus- 
trates a machine of this tyjie, known as the St ni- 
ton motor cycle. This machine weighs complete 
but 78 pounds, and is propelled by gasoline go^. 
which ia generated and used as follows: The tank 
(II) holds Kiiflicient gasoline to propel the wh*e' 
about 7.> mill's at a speed vai-ving from 3 to JS 
miles an hour. The motor develops Ij horse- 
power, and is of the four-cycle type described 
above under Ihc head of The Gas-Engine Automo 
bile. The cycle is setarted by pedaling a fe» 



AUTOMOBILES. 



69 



to get momentum to compress the charge in The Electric Automobile. — The electric auto- 

gine; then the lever (17) is thrown into mobile is in many ways superior to either the 

which causes the belt (10) to engage the steam- or the gas-propelled vehicles. It is neater 

driving pulley of the motor, which in in appearance than the other types, and the 

Luses the piston (5) to move up and down mechanism is much simpler and easy to manage; 




THE 8TBATT0N MOTOB CYCLE. 



cylinder (4), thereby drawing in the gas, 

is formed in the mixing-valve (2). By 
g the switch (15) the electric current is 

on, thereby causing a spark at the end of 
ig (8), which ignites the gas, and the ex- 
1 forces the piston (5) downward, thereby 
g the fly-wJieels (7), which are connected 

small driving pulley, to revolve, and the 
is transmitted to the rim (18) b^ the V- 

belt (19). Compartment 13 contams cylin- 
, which automatically flows into the casing 

motor and lubricates the piston (5) and 

wearing parts. The exhaust gases of the 
are carricKl off through the pipe (20) into 
ler (21), which practically taices up all the 

The mixing- valve (2) is a simple device 
msforming the gasoline into a vapor and 
f it with air to form an explosive mixture, 
tteries (10) supply the necessary current to 
the gas in the engine. This current is made 
r through a coil of wire, and when the cur- 

intemipted a second current is created in 
T coil of wire, knowq as the secondary 
hich is wound outside of the first coil, and 
rrent is of much higher voltage and is used 
ce the spark. This double-coil arrangement 
wrn as a sparking coil. The batteries are of 
linaiy dry-cell type used for door-bell calls. 
ase tne fuel gives out or the motor fails to 
the tension on the belt can be relieved by 
of the lever (17), and the bicycle can then 
pelled in the ordinary way. 



but its faults are of such a nature that they are 
hard to remedy. 

Its mechanism consists of a storage-battery, an 
electric motor, an electric controller for regulating 
speed and reversing, gearing from the motor t6 
the rear axle, differential gear to allow one rear 
wheel to run faster than the other in turning cor- 
ners, etc., steering-gear, brakes, and signals. All 
the mechanism of this type has been fairly well 
perfected for propelling automobiles, with the ex- 
ception of the storage- batteries. These have been 
perfected for work where they remain at rest, as 
in a power plant, but when they are placed on 
a moving vehicle, they are often shaken vio- 
lently, and continually discharge the current at 
different rates, often at a higher rate than they 
can stand, and thus many troubles arise. In the 
first place, they are very heavy, and the active 
material comes loose from the plates; the plates 
buckle when the rate of .discharge is too great; 
the acid creeps out of the batteries ; the solutions 
become weak, or one cell gets badly out of order 
and causes a choking of the current; they some- 
times short-circuit, thus losing the power. But 
the most serious drawback is the fact that, on ac- 
count of the size and weight, they can not carrv 
enough cells to propel an ordinary vehicle much 
more than 30 miles on one charge of the battery. 
It then becomes necessary to recharge, and this 
can only be done at some electric-power station. 
In case the vehicle is taken too far, and the elec- 
tricity gives out, it becomes necessary to push the 



AUTOMOBILES. 



o the nearest station, which may he miles 



If it 



gettine a greater mileage from the electrically 
propelled vehicle has been attnclied from a differ- 
ent direction, however, and the remedy consists 
in savinr a part of the current and making it do 
work wBere it is now wasted, at the same time 
prolonging the life of the batteries. This method 
was devised and pftt«Dted by Frank B. Kae, an 
electrical engineer of New York city, who was 
one of the earliest inventors in this Ime. and has 
proved successful. The Rae electric automobile 
differs from the ordinary in the design of the 
motor and the method of its control, the object 
being chiefly lo obtain a very high efRciency in 
starting and accelerating, while at the same time 
maintaining the average efficiency at maximum 

The electric automobile depends for its energy 
upon the storage-battery, and the motor should 
be designed to meet the limitations imposed by 
the battery. The makers of storage cells, of 
whatever type, are careful to state the rat« of 
discharge for the best oonditiona of operation, and 
to give a maximum rate of discbarge that should 
not be exceeded. The usual design of motors for 
automobile work is based upon maximum-speed 
conditions, and in starting and accelerating such 



time in accelerating, and reaches speed witi 
rent consumption little if any above the 
discharge rate of the cells. This ia accom 
by a motor deBlgn in which the starting 
is produced by a Targe number of field turn 
small current, and by a system of ns 
whereby the effective turns are decreased 
crease the speed. 

Below is a diagram showing the seven 
binationa of field windings to produce I 
suit. The niotor is of the railway type, ont 
only being used on the vehicle. It is gearei 
rear axle by a simple differential gear, hav 
reduction, and is so arranged that the axle 
tinuous and is not weakened by dividini 
usually done. The tests upon one of tl 
cabs weighing approximately two tons, 
measured mile of .level boulevard, gave tlu 
shown in the table: 



:sr 


Sp-lrf 


a^^ 


•TT' 




s 


WTO 


! 


M 


a. as 


a.w 

80.00 


!l 


IBS 


81 .8 



, the ( 
period is from t' 



o thre 



times greater 



Whatever the speed made by the cab ■ 

test distance, the watt-hours consumed wei 
tically the same-^that is to say, for a giv 
tance the watt-liours per tcs-mile for the n 

tested averages 
'~ B2 at any spec 

6 miles to 12 a 

The 4 - per 
grade is ascen 
about 6 mil 
hour, while tl 
rent draft ia al 
amperes, whi 
well within tl 
charge rate < 
cells. In the cs 
which this let 
made the batte 
rated at 125 s 
hours at SO v< 
10,000 watt - 
The radius of 
therefor 



mmmt 



^>HMI(HihiH 

_y rrrrn" I'l'FI")"!' 



-liiiHilih 



required to operate the motor at maximum speed. 
It therefore follows that s motor ordinarily de- 
signed to utilize nearly or quite the rated dis- 
charge of the battery when operating under full- 
load and full-speed conditions, will reauire, to 
start and accelerate this load, a battery diachaive 
of two or three times the rated output of the 
battery. 

In practical operation in city streets, an auto- 
mobile consumes a very large part of its time in 
starting, slopping, and accelerating, again slow- 
ing down and getting under headwav. so that in 
ordinary practise the total energy taken from the 
batlery for this work is greater, and the rale of 
discharge much more severe upon the battery, 
than is the ease when the niotor is operating under 
maximum-speed conditions. 

The Rae system of design and control obtains 
a high starling efficiency, without sacrifice of 



miles. The 
has repeatedly 
50 miles on boi 
and asphalt ro 
JU The Riker % 

are driven \ 
equipment which consists of 2 motors, eai 
nee ted to a driving-wheel that turns freel. 
stationary axle. The latter Is in one piece, i 
the vehicle very strong. The motora are pi 
secured to the axle and suspended from t 
bars. In sonie cases there is an advani 
using but one motor, which must therefoi 
both rear wheels, and must be geared to t 
such a way that either of them can tun 

¥pndently ot the other while rounding 
o do this some makers cut the rear i 
halves, and connect the halves with the o 
sating gears. In this vehicle the compel 
gear is placed In the left-hand rear hub. i 
the rear axle as strong as with the 2-motoi 
od. This enables bolh methods of driving 
used, without sacrificing slrength or simp 
Within a radius of 30 miles, and withi 
York city, charging stations are erected 



BAPTISTS. 71 

electric machine may be recharged by con- mitted to interfere with any vehicle or member of 

og the batteries with a charging plug and the fire department or salvage corps going to or 

siting the price in an automatic receptacle, from a fire. A fine not exceeding $5 is the pen- 

li turns on the current for a certain length alty fo^r violation of this ordinance, 

tne, sufficient to charge the batteries. The regulations in force in Paris, France, re- 

itomobiles for Racing. — The machines quire the vehicles to be so constructed as not 

for high speeds, as for racing, have attracted to allow the escape of any matter that might 

at deal of attention. They are mostly of the cause explosions or unpleasant smells, frighten 

tropelled type. They are very heavy and pow- horses, or obstruct the view of the driver. They 

, and a speed of a mile in one minute sixteen must carry lights after dark, and handles regulat- 

three-quarter seconds has been made over a ing the machinery must be so arranged that the 

ured course. These machines have a power of operator can work them without taking his eyes 

than 50 horse-power. A vehicle now under off the route he is following. Each vehicle must 

:ruction in Jersey City is to be propelled at be provided with two distinct systems of brakes, 

ute of 70 miles an hour. It was ordered by each capable of shutting off the force of the motor 

al well-known men, and will cost $20,000. and bnnging it under instant control. One at 

i!arriage will be of the skeleton type, follow- least of these systems must act directly on the 

be lines of those used in France. The engine wheels or axles in such a manner as to bring 

t>e driven by gasoline gas, having 6 cylinders, them immediately to a standstill. All carriages 

will develop 125 horse-power. It. will weigh exceeding 250 pounds in weight must be able to 

t 2,800 pounds. In a test on the Brooklyn, reverse their machinery and run backward. The 

., speedway, Nov. 16, 1901, a Mors gasoline name and address of the maker and owner of 

line made a mile in 51 ^ seconds. the vehicle must be displayed on it, and the op- 

gulations. — In New York a speed limit of erator must slow down, or if necessary stop, each 

les an hour is imposed on automobiles. In time the vehicle may be the cause of an accident, 

nnati an ordinance was passed on Jan. 28, of disorder, or of an interruption of traffic. In 

to regulate the operations of automobiles- in narrow or crowded thoroughfares the speed must 

'ity streets. This ordinance requires every be reduced to a walking pace. The approach 

mobile to carry a lighted lantern between of the vehicle must, if necessary, be si^aled by 

!t and sunrise, the light to be visible at least a trumpet, and each one must be provided with 

eet distant. These vehicles must also have two lamps, a white one and a green one. 

listle or alarm-bell, to be sounded on ap- In Spain automobiles are taxed, the tax being 

^hing or crossing intersecting streets. The regulated according to the size of the cities. In 

. is restricted to 8 miles an hour, and no two Belgium one weighing 880 pounds or more is taxed 

be operated abreast except upon special per- $9.65 a year, while those under that weight are 

on of the chief of police. They are not per- taxed $3.86. 

B 

lPTISTS. The statistical tables published ing the year was in North America, 203,306; in 

e. American Baptist Year- Book for 1901 gives South America, 291; in Europe, 22,492; in Asia, 

umber of regular Baptist associations in the 8,178; in Africa, 810; in Australasia, 1,252; total, 

k1 States as 1.680, with 43,959 churches, 29,- .236,329. 

)rdained ministers, and 4,233,226 members. Northern Anniversaries. — The annual meet- 

* numbers show gains during the year of 25 ings of the Northern Baptist Societies in the 
iations, 532 churches, 337 ministers, and 51,- United States were held in Springfield, Mass., be- 
nembers. The number of baptisms returned ginning with the twenty-fourth anniversary of 
g the year was 107,235. The number of the Woman's Baptist Home Mission Society, May 
ay-school pupils, 1,794,820, was equivalent 20 and 21. The receipts of this society for the 
out 40 per cent, of the church-membership. year had been $6S*972, and the expenditures 
! colored Baptist organizations have in all $72,970; and the accounts showed a deficiency of 
i ministers, 14,897 churches, and 1,591,735 $4,429. One hundred and fifty-nine missionaries 
>ers. These figures are included in the above had labored under the auspices .of the society 
eration. during the whole or part of the year, at or from 

* total amount of contributions for general 103 stations, in 34 States and Territories, the Dis- 
onary purposes was $1,186,296, and $10,128,- trict of Columbia, 3 states in Mexico, Cuba, and 
ere contributed for local purposes. Porto Rico — 14 among Americans, 12 among Chi- 

hundred and two Baptist institutions for nesc, 19 among Indians, 32 among foreign popu- 
r education returned 2,463 teachers, 39,408 Iations in the United States, 61 among negroes, 
nts, and property and endowments amount- and 12 among Spanish- Americans. Ihese mis- 
) $36,072,735. sionaries, besides other meetings, had labored in 
i names of 38 Baptist benevolent institutions 4,999 Sunday-schools and organized 42. The 
hanages. hospitals, etc. — are given, and a list training-school at Chicago, 111., where, besides 

1 Baptist periodicals is published. Bible teaching, instruction is ^iven in medicine, 
i table of Baptists in the world gives: In nursing, industrial training, kindergarten meth- 
I America 45,301 ministers, 30.586 churches, . ods. physical and voice culture, with evangelistic 
.376,666 members; in South America, 28 min- visitation among the people, had been attended by 
, 15 churches, and 1,639 members; in Europe, 518 pupils, of wliom 373 were Americans and the 
ministers, 3.118 churches, and 488,869 mem- rest of 12 nationalities. 

in Asia, 1,602 ministers, 852 churches, and Publication Society. — The seventy- seventh 

15 members; in Africa, 111 ministers, 129 anniversary of the American Baptist Publication 

hes, and 6,700 members; in Australasia, 236 Society was held May 22 and 23. The report 

ters. 169 churches, and 19,261 members; to- mentioned a largely increased demand for the 

1,347 ministers, 34,869 churches, and 5,212.880 society's own publications, so many of them 

«r8. The number of baptisms returned dur- never having been sold before in a single year 



72 BAPTISTS. 

• 

during its history; yet the year's business as a Union had been under advisement for several 

whole had not been as successful as had been years. Now definite steps had been taken. An ar* 

hoped, the aggregate of sales— $670,972 — showing rangement had been made with the National Bap- 

a decrease of $1,645 from the previous year. In tist Convention, Louisville, Ky., for the joint em- 

the missionary department the receipts had been ployment of the Rev. Charles S. Morris, to visit t 

$108,982, and the deficit of $11,910 at the beginning the churches in the South, white and colored, in i 

of the year had increased to $18,624. One hundred behalf of missions in Africa. Under a similar | 

and ten missionaries and workers had been em- arrangement of cooperation with the Lott-Carey , 

ployed, 374 Sunday-schools organized, 644 per- Convention, another colored Baptist body, the ; 

sons baptized, 2,828 Sunday-schools and individ- Rev. C. C. Boone had gone as a missionary to j 

uals aided by gifts of Bibles, books, and periodi- Palabala, on the Congo. j 

cals, and 747 institutes held. The numbers returned from the mission fields 

Home Mission Society. — The meeting of the were: From the European missions, 1,231 preach- 
American Baptist Home Mission Society, May ers, 1,000 churches, 103,762 members, 79,742 pupils 
23 and 24, was its sixtv-ninth. The receipts — in Sunday-schools, 5,546 baptisms during the 
$706,833 — had been sufiicient to liquidate the debt year, $422,800 of contributions; from the missions 
of $32,201 with which the year was begun,, meet to the heathen, 1,278 preachers, 954 churches, 112,- 
all current expenses on a large scale, and leave 163 members, 39,981 pupils in Sunday-schools, 
in the treasury a balance of $203. Of the ex- 6,553 baptisms, $92,528 of contributions, 
penditure, $211,710 had been for mission work, Report on Coordination. — A special joint ^ 
$251,263 for education, $79,799 for expenses of mass-meeting of the societies was held May 23. i 
administration and collection, and $32,201 for the to consider the report of the Committee on Co- \ 
debt of the previous year. Eleven hundred and ordination appointed by the societies at the pre- j 
ninety-nine laborers had been supported wholly vious year's meeting. In the voting upon the j 
or in part by the society, 279 missionaries and 15 adoption of the report the parts were separated. \ 
teachers among the foreign population, 53 mis- and each section was acted upon by itself. The > 
sionaries and 101 teachers among the colored first recommendation, looking to a uniform quali- 
people, 20 missionaiies and 23 teachers among fication for delegates, was adopted in such shape ; 
the Indians, 14 missionaries and 6 teachers among as to read, " We recommend that the several 
the Mexicans, 12 missionaries and 5 teachers societies, after mutual consultation through their 
among Cubans and Porto Ricans, 3 teachers executive boards, change their constitutions so as 
among the Mormons, and 578 missionaries among to require the same c|ualifieations as to voter!^» 
Americans. The society aided in the maiute- and that the constitutional changes be submitted 
nance of 31 schools estieiblished for the colored at the anniversaries in 1902." The second recom- 
people, Indians, and Mexicans, 7 day-schools for mendation, providing for an annual ** mid-year" 
the Chinese, 1 day-school in Utah, 1 in New Mex- joint meeting of the executive boards or com- 
ico, and 1 in Cuba. Nineteen hundred and fifty- mittees of the societies, was passed without de- 
four churches and stations had been supplied, bate or division. The third recommendation, for 
4,906 members received by baptism, and 81 the consolidation of the missionary periodicals 
churches organized. An unusual demand had into one, was rejected. The fourth section of the 
been made upon the board during the year for aid report, recommending that all churches recognize 
from the loan and gift funds in the erection of the claims of the general societies (Publication, 
new meeting-houses. Fifty- two churches had Home Mission, and Missionary Union) for con- 
been aided. The attendance of pupils in all the tributions, was opposed by the friends of the 
schools under the care of the society had been- women's societies, and was lost. The fifth reconi- 
exceptionally large, and a notable improvement mendation, deprecating special appeals, was like- 
in the grade of preparation with which students wise lost. The sixth section, providing for a corn- 
enter was mentioned. The original purpose for mittee of nine to consider district secretaryships 
which the schools were established — that of pro- and collecting agencies, was adopted without ob- 
viding a trained leadership, especially well-quali- jection. The report was then adopted in the shape 
fied pastors and teachers — had been kept steadily to which the meeting had reduced it, as a whole, 
in view; and while industrial education had not Education Society. — The Board of Manage- 
been overlooked or neglected, it had been sub- ment of the American Baptist Education Society 
ordinated to the intellectual, religious, and moral reported at the annual meeting, June 25, that 
training. A resolution was adopted recognizing grants had been made during the year to 5 in- 
the increased importance of the Indian work, and stitutions of $70,000 in all, conditioned on $235.- 
the necessity of giving more attention to the edu- 000 additional being given by their friends. Six 
cation of the Indian children since the withdrawal institutions had completed the sums, $180,000 in 
of Government aid from the " contract schools." all, required to secure pledges made by the society. 

Missionary Union.— The meetings of the The society had in the year paid $97,885 to meet 
American Baptist Missionary Union took place $345,734 raised by 13 institutions. In eleven years 
May 27 and 28. The report (eighty-seventh) it had paid to Baptist educational institutions $1,- 
represented that during the early months of the 001,567, while $1,867,683 had been collected other- 
year it had looked as if an accumulated debt of wise for them, making an increase of Baptist edu- 
$111,000 might be increased to $160,000; but in- cational endowments of $2,869,250. This result 
stead of increase of debt the board were able to re- had been made possible largely by the munificence 
port the entire payment for all the work of the of Mr. John D. Rockefeller. The receipts of the 
year closed, with a surplus; with which surplus society for the year had amounted to $103,500. of 
and the sum of $68,666 unexpectedly received from which $100,823 were from Mr. Rockefeller. The 
the bequest of the late Daniel S. Ford, $73,000 had payments had been $99,490, leaving a balance of 
been paid on the debt, reducing the amount of $4*010 in the treasury. 

it to $38,297. Further, about $50,000 had been Historical Society. — ^At the annual meeting of 

sent in for India famine relief. The total amount the American Baptist Historical Society, May 

of the receipts for the year (exclusive of the 25, good progress was reported as having been 

India famine relief funds) was $687,706. The mat- made toward replacing the library destroyed in 

ter of cooperation between the colored Baptist the burning of the building of the American Bap- 

brethren, North and South, with the Missionary tist Publication Society several years before. 



BAPTISTS. 73 

's Societies. — ^The annual meeting of in China had been governed during the troubles in 

in's American Baptist Home Mission that country largely by the advice of the repre- 

ixiliary to the American Baptist Home sentatives of the United States Government there, 

•ciety, was held in Concord, N. H., May The missionaries in north China had escaped by 

Glances were reported by the treasurer going to Chefoo, on the coast, or to Japan. Those 

the general treasury and $84 in the in central China not resident in Shanghai had to 

•asury. The reports from the field re- leave their posts temporarily, and the women in 

ork in the Souths Utah, New Mexico, south China had sought places of safety for a 

a, among French Roman Catholics in season. The missionanes had acted with discre- 

ifacturing cities, and to the operations tion and fidelity through all the troubles. None 

lom Memorial College. From the suff'ered bodily harm, though some of their houses 

nission 13 church-members were re- were looted and many chapels were destroyed, 

th 32 children cared for at the home — The native Christians had as a rule been faithful, 

ion the support for which is looked for All the missionaries had now returned to their 

Sunday-schools of New England. A stations. 

• the better was remarked in the atti- The Woman's Missionary Union had contrib- 

( natives. While they had allowed their uted $31,801 to the foreign work during the year 

a attend school, they had themselves — an advance of $4,043 over the contributions of 

held aloof from the whites. They had the previous year. The women missionaries re- 

to be admitted to the evening schools, ceived no salaries, and the expenses they incurred 

s were passed by the meeting declaring amounted to only $2,477. The missions under the 

lain efforts of the society should be de- care of the Foreign Board — in Brazil, Italy, Mex- 

he work which it had pledged itself to ico, China, Japan, and Africa — returned altogether 
hile causes not directly in that line . 127 churches, 166 out-stations, 102 missionaries 

carefully scrutinized; and that its chief (46 men and 56 women), 41 ordained natives, 130 

lould continue to be to promote Chris- unordained native helpers, 6,773 members, 1,009 

ition and emphasize its importance, baptisms during the year, 2,294 jiupils in Sunday- 

lutions urged that every possible means schools, 70 houses of worship, 3o day-schools with 

create a public sentiment in favor of a 939 pupils, and $10,259 of contributions, 

tnal amendment making polygamy a The total receipts of the Sunday-school Board 

defined the position of the society as for the year had been $78,381, an increase of $6,- 

e manufacture and sale of intoxicating 778 from the previous year. It owed no debt, and 

the surplus on hand was adequate for current 

,807 auxiliaries of the Woman's Baptist needs. The reserve fund had been increased by 

sion Society reported upon at its an- $14,000, and now aggregated $44,000, which were 

ing of 1901, 354 were children's con- safely invested in interest-bearing securities. The 

Drganizations. Young ladies had dur- appropriations aggregated, with denominational 

Lst year contributed $755 for work in work, $16,288, besides the supplies sent in boxes, 

giVls and boys of junior age $711, which were valued at $8,000. During the ten 

tne support of the kindergarten in the years of the existence of the board it had made 

xico and for the work for Chinese chil- appropriations of $184,681. It had received $2,995 

Q Francisco, Cal. The sum of $599 had for Bible work, and had appropriated 31,554 copies 

in in the name of the " Baby Band," of Bibles, Testaments, and portions of Scripture, 

of 3,817 little folks seven weeks of age valued at $5,016. The contributions of the 

;er, mainly for the support of the Chi- Woman's Missionary Union to the board had 

rgarten in San Francisco. been, in cash and boxes, $9,023. 

n Baptist Convention. — The South- The Home Mission Board reported for its fifty- 

t Convention met in New Orleans, La., sixth year 811 missionaries, 2,660 churches and 

'he Hon. W. J. Northen, of Georgia, was stations, 6,671 additions by baptism, 162 churches 

^ly reelected president. The first report constituted, 100 houses of worship built, $82,542 

was that of the Foreign Mission Board expended in the building and improvement of 

y-sixth year. In accordance with the houses of worship, 511 Sunday-schools organized, 

lation of the previous convention, the and the details of the personal and other work 

at once proceeded to enlarge its work, of the missionaries in their several departments, 

e new missionaries had been sent out The State boards of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, 

convention year, important new points Georgia, Indian Territory, Kentucky, Louisiana, 

occupied, and old ones strengthened. Maryland, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, 

ts for the year had been $150,083, con- Oklahoma Territory, Tennessee, Texas, and Vir- 

;he largest* contribution ever made by ginia were in cooperation in part or the whole of 

represented in the convention to foreign their work. The receipts of the board for the year 

For the fourth year in succession the had been $86,904 for the regular work, and $4,110 

i able to report all indebtedness paid, in special gifts to the Church Building and Loan 

ppreeiable cash balance remained on fund, making a total of $91,075, as against $79,- 

i Chinese Publication Society at Canton 366 in 1899. An increase of gifts had taken place 

some progress, and had been aided by a in all the States except two. Seventeen mission- 

from the Sunday-school Board. The aries had been employed in work among the 

ent of theological training-schools was negroes in Georgia, Kentucky, Missouri, North 

I. Such schools were now in operation Carolina, and Virginia, with a total expeiidi- 

and Shanghai, China, in Africa, and ture of $2,391. Special emphasis was laid in 

aolo, Brazil, and arrangements were the report on cooperative work, and si)ecial 

r one in Rome. An advance step had mention was made of the " mountain • work " 

in medical work, in the shape of prepa- in North Carolina, Georgia, and Kentucky, for 

opening a hospital in north China. It which $2,850 had been appropriated. *' Fron- 
ented that 87 per cent, of the contribu- tier work " was favorably spoken of. Not 
e to the board go directly to the work all that was hoped for had been realized in the 
d. the expenses of management being matter of cooperative w^ork with the Home Mis- 
er cent. The actions of the missionaries sion Society of the Northern Baptists. Labors 



74 BAPTISTS. 

among the foreign population were carried on by bearing fruit. The educational report showed 

one missionary in Baltimore, Md. The work in that within three years 32 students had entered 

iCuba did not seem to have been helped by Ameri- the ministry, and that the seminary (at Roches- 

ean occupation. The sum of $11,277 had been ter, N. Y.), had representatives in Africa, Asia, 

spent upon it, and 177 baptisms were reported. Australia, Europe, and South and North America. 

The Church Building and Loan fund, which was Yet many of the churches were without pastors, 

begun with a contribution from the Woman's and the number of students in the seminary at 

Missionary Union, now aggregated $4,110. The Rochester was diminishing. About $80,000 of a 

year's contributions of this society to the board subscription undertaken tor education had been 

had been $47,437. A committee of nine members paid in. A report was made also concerning the 

on cooperation, appointed at the preceding meet- publication enterprises of the conference and its 

ing of the convention, brought in a report, recom- newspapers. 

mending an adherence of the convention to the A committee, consistine; of a representative from 
resolution made one year before to give special each conference, which nad had the care of or- 
•emphasis to the object of eliciting, combining, and phans since the connection with the orphanage at 
directing the energies of the whole denomination Louisville, Ky., was discontinued, reported con- 
in one sacred effort for the propagation of the ceming its erTorts to secure the adoption of the 
<iospel, and that it avail itself of the educational orphans of the Church in trustworthy families. A 
work of the new-century movement, and the at- Mmisters' Mutual Benefit Association and a 
tention and interest that have been awakened, General Benefit Association composed of ministers 
*' to press with special vigor just now some practi- of the German Baptist churches, held their meet- 
cable plan for trying to enlist, as far as possible, ings during the period of the sessions of the con- 
«very church and every member of every church ference. 

in this important work." It invited the State as- . Young People's TTnion. — The tenth annual 

sociations, conventions, and boards to cooperate meeting of the Baptist Young People's Union of 

in a " vigorous, specific movement of this kind,'* America was held in Chicago, 111., July 25 to 28, 

and to arrange for regular appeals in the district John H. Chapman presiding. The treasurer's re- 

associations ; requested the district associations port showed that the receipts of the union for the 

to appoint committees of ways and means for year had been $86,638, and the disbursements a 

the purpose of securing the interest and con- few cents less, while its liabilities were $18,900. 

tributions of all the several churches in their The report of the Board of Managers showed that 

bodies; and proposed the institution of a special examination papers had been received from all 

agency, with provision for its expenses, the par- but 6 of the States and Territories of the Ameri- 

ticular work of which should be to put itself into can Union, all the provinces of Canada, and Ja- 

direct communication with all the State organi- pan, comprising, in all, 3,569 senior and 10,947 

zations and the district associations in behalf of junior papers. Some changes had been made in 

the plan; to compile lists of the churches support- the arrangement of the studies and the examina- 

ing the boards, revising them from time to time, tions. In view of the number of readers who did 

for the use of the several boards ; and to secure, not take the examinations, it had been decided to 

through all proper agencies, direct communication have reports of reading. Under the new arrange- 

with every church within the bounds of the con- ment the Advanced Bible-Reader's Course will be 

vention, in order to induce them to contribute. In a four years* study of the 66 books of the Bible, 

connection with this report an ofl'er was presented emphasizing the historical background, and the 

from a group of Baptists in Baltimore of $4,000 contemporaneous history, the literary character, 

for the purposes of the proposed commission for the doctrinal and practical teachings of each book, 

three years, conditioned upon the appropriation and its relation to the whole scheme of biblical 

of $3,000 by the Sunday-school Board for the revelation. The Advanced Conquest Missionary 

same purpose. The discussion of the report in the Course will be a four years' study of missions 

convention was directed chiefly to the recom- from the time of Christ to the present day, as 

niendation of a new commission, and this was carried on by every evangelical body of Christians 

finally referred to a committee, none of whom in all parts of the earth. The advanced Sacred 

should be a member of any of the boards, to report Literature Course will be a four years' study of 

to the next meeting of the convention. (1) the history of the canon of the Bible, its 

The total contributions of the Woman's Mis- principles, methods of interpretation, and present- 

sionary Union to the three boards of the conven- day questions of its interpretation; (2) the origin, 

tion were $88,062. growth, and character of the kingdom of God; 

Meetings of the Southern Baptist Young Peo- (3) Christian doctrines, with biographical studies 
pie's Union were held in connection with the of the apostles ; (4) Christian doctrines, with bio- 
meetings of the convention. graphical studies of some of the leaders in the 

Triennial German Baptist Conference. — The history of the Church. During the past five years 

triennial General Conference of German Baptists the journal the Baptist Union, in addition to 

in North America was held in Berlin, Ontario, bearing all of its own expenses, had paid $13,270 

Sept. 25 to Oct. 1. Prof. L. Kaiser was reelected into the general work of the Young People's 

moderator. The seven conferences comprised in the LTnion. Increased efforts were now being put 

body — viz., the Atlantic, Eastern, Central, South- forth to make the paper indispensable to the 

western, Northwestern, Texas, and Pacific Con- young people of the churches. The sessions of the 

ferences — reported through their representatives convention were given mainly to the hearing of 

advance in numbers and increased financial addresses, to conferences, and to " rallies," of 

strength. A report was made representing that which two were held by the German Young 

during the past year 12 new churches had been People. 

organized, making a total of 249 churches, and Baptist Congress. — The nineteenth annual 

that the membership had increased to 22,889. The Baptist Congress was held in the city of New 

report of the general treasurer showed that a York, Nov. 12 to 14, Prof. Albert S. Bickmore pre- 

total amount of $83,426 had passed through his siding. In his address of welcome to the congress 

hands. The home mission work was represented on behalf of the Christian community, Archdea- 

as enlarging in all quarters. A new enterprise had con Tiffany, of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 

been started in South America, and was already dwelt upon the benefit which that body had re- 



BAPTISTS. 75 

oni a similar congress, which had been its list^ 9 of whom were ministers. Its receipts 

even years previous to the Baptist Con- had been $2,801, and its disbursements $2,665. 

'he subjects of The Consolidation of the Reports were made of the condition, as to finances 

Baptist Societies, Modem Evangelism, and students, of McMaster University and Wood- 

T Substitutes for the Old-Fashioned Re- stock and Moulton Colleges, all of which returned 

le Function of Penalty in the Christian a total enrolment of 482 students, 63 of whom 

The Ethics of Gamblmg, Cosmopolitan- were studying for the ministry. The Grande 

us Patriotism, and The Keswick Move- Ligne Mission (to the French Roman Catholic 

r the Deepening of the Spiritual Life, population) returned 140 pupils at Feller Insti- 

cus^ed in papers prepared for the occa- tute, 16 of whom had been baptized during the 

1 in addresses by appointed and volun- year, and 48 persons baptized in the churches, 

kers. The total income of the mission had been $15,664, 

lary of Mission Work. — A History of of which $2,203 had been contributed from the 

a Baptist Missions, by Ekimund F. Mer- United States, while the expenses had been $17,- 

blished by the American Baptist Publica- 417. The sum of $24,062 had been further received 

iety, besides accounts of the distinctly for the Building and Endowment fund. The 

Baptist missionary societies (American Publication Board had received $14,629 from sales. 

Missionary Union and the Foreign Board and returned practically no liabilities. The report 

}uthem Baptist Convention), gives sum- on the state of religion showed that the present 

f the missions of the American Baptist membership of the churches was 42,975 ; that there 

[ission Society in Cuba and Porto Rico, had been 572 baptisms during the year, and that 

ome Mission Board of the Southern Bap- the contributions of the churches had been $326,- 

k^ention in Cuba, and of the aid given to 747 for home objects and $68,360 for work abroad. 

in various forei^ countries by the The Sunday-schools returned 36,961 pupils, with 

1 Baptist Publication Society. The ex- an average attendance of 25,529 and 4,491 teach- 

ill the American regular Baptist mission ers, 1,192 pupils joined the church during the year, 

tside of the United States is represented and the total amount of $22,758 raised, of which 

numbers 585 missionaries, 4^868 native $5,149 were for the various missions. 

2,088 churches, and 217,100 members. Cronvention of the Maritime Provinces. — 

le amount contributed by American Bap- The Baptist Convention of the Maritime Provinces 

missions is given in the book as $1,953,- met at Moncton, New Brunswick, in October. The 

which $736,112 are for foreign missions reports from the churches showed that the number 

16,966 for home missions. of baptisms in Nova Scotia had been 150 less than 

ian Baptist Conventions. — The Bap- in the previous year, while two of the three asso- 

vention of Ontario and Quebec met at ciations in New Brunswick returned a gain of 

d, Ontario, Oct. 15, Mr. A. McNee, of 50; but in more than half of the churches there 

, presiding. The report on foreign mis- had been no additions by baptism. A loss of more 

ve an account of the condition of that than 1,000 members appeared in 5 of the 7 asso- 

India, where there were 28 missionaries, ciations from which statistics had come to hand. 

Hi and 70 unordained preachers, 79 teach- The receipts for home and foreign missions con- 

►Iporteurs, and 36 native churches with sisted of $10,271 contributed through the Wom- 

mbers, 352 of whom had been added by an's Society and $12,850 from other sources, 

during the year; and Bolivia, where 2 The schools at Wolfville had had a prosperous 

nonaries had been added to the staff and year. The question of union of the Baptists and 

re a self-supporting school and a college Free Baptists was discussed with much interest, 

z with 100 students. The native churches and the convention resolved to invite the Free 

had contributed about $1,270 to the sup- Baptist brethren to unite with it in foreign mis- 

the Gospel. Three schools of a higher sion work. 

re maintained in the same field. The re- The Baptists of New Brunswick, while united 

the board for the year had been $30,713, with those of the other maritime provinces in for- 

expenditures $36,195, leaving a deficiency eign missionary and educational work, have spe- 

2. The Committee on Manitoba, the cial interests, confined to their own province, in 

st, and British Columbia reported con- home missions, Sunday-schools, and the Ministers' 

;he growth of the Church in those terri- Annuity Association, of which home miiaions are 

here there were now 100 organizations, looked after by the New Brunswick Association, 

jmbers, and $200,000 worth of church while the other causes are under the care of a spe- 

, and the average contribution was from cial provincial convention, the meeting of which 

19 per member. Fourteen new churches for 1901 was held at Hartland. 



I erected during the year in Manitoba Baptists in Great Britain and Ireland.— The 
JCorthwest, and several in British Colum- statistics compiled from the returns of the 




expenditure of about the same of the Baptists 
and including $75 to Scandinavian and churches, 2,739; of chapels, 3,918; of chapel seats, 
ndian work. The Ladies' Indian Com- 1,323,251; of members, 365,678; of teachers in 
ad received $1,094. The Church Edifice Sunday-schools, 51,825: of pupils in Sunday- 
ported an income of $1,544 and an ex- schools, 528,131; of local preachers, 5,564; of pas- 
* of $1,034. Loans had been made to tors in charge, 1,992. These numbers show in- 
es. The income of the Home Mission creases for the year of 35 churches, 48 chapels, 12,- 
,d been $23,549, and its expenditures $28,- 835 chapel seats. 12,420 members, 879 teachers and 
ing a deficit of $4,458. One hundred and 8,743 pupils in Sunday-schools, 329 local preach- 
iiree pastors and 40 students had been ers, and 33 pastors in charge. New chapels pro- 
l, serving 350 churches and mission sta- viding seats for 13,400 persons had been erected at 
churches had been organized, 3 church a cost of £109,888, and £53,693 had been spent in 
. erected, about 500 converts baptized, improvements to buildings and the erection of 
[lurches declared for self-support. The new schools, class rooms, etc. Although tlie spe- 
luation Board reported 21 annuitants on cial efforts made in behalf of the Twentieth Cen- 



76 BAPTISTS. 

tury fund had called for large additional eontribu- House in London was laid during the season of 

lions, chapel debts had been reduced by £86,839. the meetings of the union, under the direction of 

The annual meeting of the Baptist Union of the president of the union, the Rev. Dr. Maclaren. 

Great Britain and Ireland was held in London in The building will have a frontage of 80 fc?^t on 

April. The secretary, in presenting the annua) Southampton Row and 140 feet on Eagle ^5t^eet, 

report, represented that the year had been one of and is intended to accommodate the ofhces of the 

unprecedented progress, with advance and in- Baptist Union, and to provide library rooms, a 

crease everywhere. While the condition of the large council chamber, (quarters for the various 

denominational funds — the Home Mission fund. Baptist societies and institutions, a ladies's room, 

the Augmentation fund, and the Annuity fund — and a visitors' room, where visiting friends may 

could not be pronounced entirely satisfactory, be entertained. 

the fact was to be accounted for by the special The autumnal meeting of the union was held in 

efforts which had been made in connection with Edinburgh in the second week in October, in the 

the Century fund. The whole amount of this fund absence of the Rev. Joseph Parker, D. D., the ap- 

not having yet been promised, it had been deter- pointed preacher, whose health did not permit his 

mined to extend the period allowed for the collec- making the journev from London, the missionary 

tion of it, and instead of closing it Dec. 31, 1901, sermon was preached, Oct. 8, by the Rev. K. J. 

to keep it open to the close of the current presi- Campbell,' of Brighton, on the subject of Christ's 

dential year. The total amount promised was Cosmical Significance. The statement was made 

£175,000, leaving £75,000 yet to be secured, while in behalf of the society that it was compelled to 

£100,000 had been received in cash. The report of turn a deaf ear to urgent calls for reenforcements, 

the Baptist Missionary Society showed that the because of the annual deficit of £10,000 which 

receipts for the general work of the missions, ex- had been the rule for three or four years past. 




larger than in the previous year. A further teen missionaries were returning to their fields, 
amount of £4,123 had been contributed in liqui- and 3 new ones were sent out. The meeting of the 
dation of the debt of 1899-1900; but a deficiency union proper was opened, Oct. 9, with an address 
of £9,915 still remained. The excess of annual on Evangelical Mysticism, by the president, the 
expenditure over receipts was explained to be Rev. Alexander Maclaren, D. D. At a reception 
wholly due to the recent increase of missionary given to " Ecumenical Baptist Delegates," repre- 
agency, 40 additional missionaries having been sentatives of Baptist churches in the United 
placed upon the staff of the society since the cele- States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South 
bration of its centenary. The total receipts for Africa, the Cape Verde Islands, Jamaica, IrYance. 
the year, including special funds and a special Italy, Germany, Holland, and Sweden were 
gift of £10,000 by the late. Mr. Robert Arthington greeted as guests of the union. A report made 
for work in Central Africa, had amounted to £98,- concerning the Twentieth Century fund repre- 
240, the largest total ever received by the society sented that of the £250,000 which the union had 
apart from the Centenary fund. The missionaries started out to raise, £185,414 had been promised, 
in China were returning to their posts after the of which £121,600 had been paid. One thousand 
troubles, and the attitude of the Cninese authori- and ten churches were contributing to the fund, 
ties seemed to be friendly. The record of the while 567 churches having 57,000 members (many 
Congo Mission was described as having been of them, however, not connected with the union). 
" marvelously full of encouragement and inspira- had not yet come into the scheme. A Baptist 
tion." Satisfactory reports were given as to other Women's Twentieth Century fund had been 
fields occupied by the society. The Zenana Mis- formed, and would attempt to collect 1,000,000 
sion returned a staff in India of 64 missionaries shillings toward completing the little more than 
and 200 native workers, with about 1,500 zenana £05,000 which still remained to be raised. The 
pupils, 3,000 houses open for regular visitation, subject of the autumnal sermon, by the Rev. Dr. 
640 villages visited for evangelistic purposes, and Alexander Whyte, of Edinburgh, was Marrow 
93 girls' schools with 3,700 pupils. One of the Men. Addresses were delivered on The Place of 
missionaries in China had been murdered during Baptists in the Progress of Christianity, by the 
the troubles. The receipts of the general fund had Rev. Dr. Clifford ; Great Laymen who ' have 
been, including special gifts of £865, £12,189, and Served the Church, by Mr. G. W. Macalpine, of 
the expenditures £13,018. The Legacy Reserve Accrington; Christian Reunion and Denomina- 
fund was exhausted, but a memorial gift of £1,000 tionalism, by the Rev. Charles Brown; The High- 
had been placed as a special reserve fund to meet est Churchmanship, by the Rev. F. B. Meyer; 
working expenses. The report of the Bible Trans- and an address by the Rev. Dr. John Smith, 
lation Society showed that 6.55,000 Scripture por- Presbyterian. Other meetings were held in be- 
tions and other publications had been issued from half of the Zenana Mission and the young people, 
the Calcutta and Cuttack presses, and a very large The South African Baptist Colonial and Mis- 
amount of colportage work had been carried on sionary Aid Society has been formed for the pur- 
at various stations. The progress of the revision pose of arousing interest in and collecting funds 
of the Singhalese Old Testament was referred to. for the European and native work of the South 
The balance-sheet showed an income of £1.537 African Union; to be a board of reference to ob- 
and an expenditure of £1,434, with subscriptions tain suitable men as ministers and missionaries in 
£347 higher than in the previous year. The bal- South Africa ; and to represent the South African 
ance of the reserve fund stood at £1,306. Union at the annual assemblies of the Baptist 

The Baptist Building fund, by means of the Union of Great Britain and Ireland. This has 

constant turnover of its capital, now amounting been done in accordance with resolutions passed 

to £54,267, had been enabled during the year to by the South African Baptist Union at its an- 

make grants of sums varying from £700 to £70 nual meeting in Grahamstown. This body fur- 

for building purposes. The amount lent to the thcr determined that the promotion of the work 

churches was £123 in excess of the loans of any in the Transvaal and Orange river colonies should 

previous year. be a first charge upon all moneys collected by the 

The memorial stone of the Baptist Church society up to June 30, 1902. 



BELGIUM. 77 

sis of the Netherlands. — The Baptists ber for Senators was 1,994,153, east by 1,227,720 

i^therlands began to hold general meetings electors. 

^80, and now have a regular organization The reigning sovereign is Leopold II, bom April 

le Union of Churches of Baptist Chris- 9, 1835, who on Dec. 10, 1865, succeeded his fatner 

the Netherlands. They have 13 churches, Leopold I, a prince of Saxe-Coburg, who was 

annual meeting of 1901, which was held elected the first King of the Belgians by a Na- 

:, was attended by 26 pastors and dele- tional Congress on June 4, 1831, after the seces- 

id about 30 visitors from Germany, South sion of Belgium from the Netherlands. By the 

. and England, as well as trom Holland, treaty of London, signed on Nov. 15, 1831, Aus- 

litional churches had joined the union tria, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia guaran- 

he year. About $300 had been contrib- teed the perpetual neutrality of Belgium. The 

missions, and the money was sent to the heir to the throne is Philippe, Count of Flanders, 

Baptist missions in Cameroons, on the bom March 24, 1837, the King's only brother, who 

md in North Africa. About $500 had has one son living. Prince Albert, born Aprils, 

itributed to home mission work. The 1875. The Council of Ministers appointed on 

?cided to begin colportage work in Bel- Aug. 5, 1899, w^as composed as follows: President 

i in parts of northern France. and Minister of Finance and Public Works, Count 

Bt Conference in Sweden.— The first de Smet de Naeyer; Minister of Forei^ Affairs, 

church in Sweden was founded in 1848, P. de Favereau; Minister of the Intenor, M. de 

members. The conference of 1901 was Trooz; Minister of Justice; M. van den Heuvel; 

>ebro, in the province of Nerike, in Sep- Minister of War, Gen. Cousebant Alkemade; 

The statistical reports represented 19 dis- Minister of Agriculture, Baron van der Bruggen ; 

ociations,' with 566 churches, 390 houses Minister of Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs, M. 

lip, 7 new ones having been built during Liebart; Minister of Industry and Labor, Baron 

•, 753 preachers, of whom 250 gave afl Surmont de Volsberghe. 

lie to ministerial labor, 41,101 members, Area and Population. — Belgium has an area 

ptisms during the year, 663,133 kronor of 11,373 square miles. The population on Dec. 

ted for church and missionary purposes, 31, 1899, was estimated at 6,744,532, composed of 

rch projjerty valued at 3.159,033 kronor, 3,363,436 males and 3,381,096 females. The num- 

which stood 962,784 kronor of indebted- ber oif marriages in 1898 according to the corrected 

d 934 Sunday-schools, with 3,482 teachers reports was 55,444; of births, 190,921; of deaths, 

72 pupils. The Committee for Foreign 117,457; excess of births, 73,464. The decennial 

> reported 4 missionary stations in the census of Dec. 31, 1900, shows a population a little 

Empire, 1 in Spain, 1 in China, and a over 6,800,000. 

ry family on the Congo working in con- The number of immigrants in 1899 was 26,364 

with the American Baptist Missionary and of emigrants 22,957, showing a net immigra- 

vhich is sustained by Swedes. The mis- tion of 3,407. 

^hina had not suffered by the riots of the Finances. — The ordinary revenue of the Gov- 

i was reported as prosperous, with a new ernment in 1898 amounted to 439,282,000 francs, 

)uilt at Kiaw-Chew, and several Chinese and expenditure to 426,012,000 francs. In 1899 

by the missionaries. Several of the the ordinary revenue was 466,728,000 francs. The 

Baptists were expecting to visit the budget presented for 1901 makes the ordinary rev- 

itates in 1902 to participate in the celebra- enue 488,429,760 francs, and the ordinary ex- 

the fiftieth anniversary of the organiza- penditure 488,047,973 francs. Of the revenue prop- 

the first Swedish Baptist church here, erty taxes were expected to yield 26,144,000 francs, 

1852. personal taxes 21,289,000 francs, trade licenses 
i-ITJMy a constitutional, representative, 8,600,000 francs, mines 2,200,000 francs, customs 
ditary monarchy in western Europe. The 43,120,166 francs, excise taxes 65,450,500 francs, 
ve power is vested in the Senate and the various taxes 2,902,000 francs, registration and 
r of Representatives: Senators are elected other fees 30,200,000 francs, succession duties 19,- 
: years, half of them being replaced every 720.000 francs, stamps 8,700,000 francs, fines, etc., 
rs. The number is half that of the Cham- 913,000 francs, rivers and canals 2,030,000 francs, 
ch is regulated according to the census railroads 206,000,000 francs, telegraphs 9,640,000 
atio of 1 Deputy to 40,000 inhabitants, francs, the post-office 15,783,620 francs, pilotage 
mber of Representatives in 1901 contained 1,460.000 francs, domains and forests 3,537,000 
ibers, the Senate 76. Of the Senators 26 francs, bank and other profits 15,871,800 francs, 
ed by provincial councils, the rest directly and repayments 4,868,174 francs. Of the total 
people. Candidates for popular election ordinary expenditure the interest and sinking 
taxpayers to the amount of 1,200 francs, fund of the debt absorbed 130,730,570 francs, the 
ss real estate worth 12,000 francs a year, civil list and dotations 5,047,990 francs, the Min- 
is of the Chamber of Representatives are istry of Justice 26,544,900 francs, the Min- 
or four years, half of them being renewed istry of Foreign Affairs 3,159,168 francs, the Min- 
ro j'ears. Every citizen over twenty-five istry of the Interior and Public Instruction 30,- 
age, possessing full civil rights, and dom- 563,950 francs, the Ministry of Agriculture 11,967,- 
r one year in his district, has one elect- 309 francs, the Ministry of Industry and Labor 
e, and can cast a supplementary vote if 16,250,150 francs, the Ministry of Railroads, Posts, 
rty-five years of age, married or a widower Telegraphs, and Telephones 164,560,412 francs, 
itimate issue, and pays 5 francs of direct ^ the Ministry of W^ar 55.339,316 francs, the Min- 
»r if he possesses real property of the istry of Finance and Public Works 34,652,345 
f 2,000 francs or investments in public francs, the gendarmerie 7,155,863 francs, repay- 
ielding 100 francs a year. If he is a ' ments, etc., 2,076,000 francs. 
? of an institution of higher education or The capital of the public debt on Jan. 1, 1900, 

has held public office or holds any posi- was 2,604,255.114 francs, comprising three scries 

►lying the possession of education he can of 3-pei-cent. rentes and Belgium's share of 219,- 

3 ' supplementary votes. The number of 950.6.32 francs in the old debt of the Netherhinds. 

r members of the Chamber in 1900 was The 3-per-ccnt. 7'en1e of 84,798 francs a year under 

, cast by 1,452,232 electors; the nuin- the head of military obligations has a capital 



78 



BELGIUM. 



value of 2,826,536 francs, making the total 2,607,- 
081,650 francs. The debt charge in 1900 amounted 
to 127,940,416 francs, including not only interest 
at 2^ per cent, on the share of £lgium in the Neth- 
erlanas debt, and interest and amortization of 
the 3-per-cent. rentes, but 2,500,000 francs for in- 
terest on temporary loans for extraordinary ex- 
penditures, 380,634 francs for annuities to the 
city of Brussels and the Duke of Wellington, 
144,550 francs for annuities in the Netherlands, 
1,751,930 francs for instalments on the price of 
railroads, 3,120,410 francs on railroad debts as- 
sumed by the state, 8,471,837 francs on debts in 
curred in completion of railroads, 612,000 francs 
annual instalment for seventy years from 1870 
on the rolling-stock of railroads, 750,859 francs 
annual instalment for the telephone system, 
1,105,000 francs for a fund for the construction of 
local railroads, 150.000 francs of guaranteed in- 
terest, 136,000 francs for various expenses, 4,882,- 
000 francs for military pensions, 7,652,973 francs 
for civil pensions, 2,825,000 francs for teachers* 
pensions, 9,200,000 francs for the militia, and 
2,153,050 francs for interest at 3 per cent, on cau- 
tion money and other deposits. 

Coxn.xn.erce and Production. — ^The special im- 
ports in 1899 had a total value of 2,260,200,000 
francs; special exports, 1,949,000,000 francs; tran- 
sit trade, 1,402,300,000 francs. The special imports 
of grain and flour were 343,700,000 francs; of 
wool, 187,200,000 francs; of wood, 123,400,000 
francs; of gums, 96,400,000 francs; of hides and 
skins, 96,000,000 francs; of chemical products, 71,- 
700,000 francs; of seeds, 69,200,000 francs; of coal, 
62,600,000 francs; of animals, 48,200,000 francs; 
of iron, 41,600,000 francs; of drugs, 40,900,000 
francs; of machinery and vehicles, 40,600,000 
francs; of cofl'ee, 39,400,000 francs; of flax, 36,- 
600,000 francs; of colors, 34,300,000 francs; of 
cotton, 31,800,000 francs; of cotton manufac- 
tures, 31,800,000 francs; of wine, 27,800,000 francs; 
of animal fats, 24,100,000 francs ; of vegetable oils, 
22,400,000 francs; of woolens, 22,200,000 franca; 
of butter and cheese, 21,200,000 francs; of fish, 
2,500,000 francs. The special exports of coal were 
120,500,000 francs; of machinery and vehicles, 
111,200,000 francs; of grain and flour, 93,300,000 
francs; of iron, 92,700,000 francs; of skins, 89,- 
900,000 francs; of glass, 87,800,000 francs; of 
linen yam, 79,600,0(K) francs; of cut diamonds, 
67,000,000 francs; of sugar, 62,800,000 francs; of 
zinc, 53,200,000 fr-ancs; of woolen yarn, 50,100,000 
francs; of flax, 48,500,000 francs; of chemical 
products, 46,400,000 francs; of minerals, 44,300,000 
francs; of fertilizers, 39,600,000 francs; of ani- 
mals, 34,700.000 francs; of seeds, 34,200,000 
francs; of gums, 33,000.000 francs; oif colors, 30,- 
900,000 francs; of cotton cloth, 25,400,000 francs; 
of meat, 23,200,000 francs; of animal fats, 22,- 
200,000 francs. 

The special trade with the diflferent foreign 
countries in 1899 is shown in the table above, 
giving the values of imports for consumption and 
exports of domestic merchandise in francs. 

Of the total area of Belgium about 65 per cent, 
is arable land, 18 per cent, forest, and 17 per cent, 
river, marsh, roads, and waste. I^ss than 19 per 
cent, of the people are engaged in agriculture. 
The yield of wheat in 1898 was 4,210,000 hecto- 
liters; of barley, 1,302,031 hectoliters; of oats, 
12,238.231 hectoliters: of rye, 7,296.932 hecto- 
liters; of potatoes, 32.161.916 quintals; of sugar- 
beets, 15,071.981 hectoliters; of other beets and 
turnips, 16..393,133 hectoliters; of tobacco, 35.270 
quintals. The production of raw sugar in 1898 
was 188.020.000 kilograms; of refined sugar. 66,- 
72.1,000 kilograms; of proof spirit, 593,340 hecto- 



COUNTRIES. 



Germany 

France — 

Great Britain 

Netherlands 

United States 

Russia 

Argentine Republic 

British India 

Sweden and Norway 

Spain 

Australia 

Italy 

Brazil 

Congo State 

Switzerland 

Roumania 

Chile 

Turkey 

Egypt 

Uruguay 

Peru 

Rest of Europe 

Other countries not specified . . . 

Total 



Import*. 



285,400,000 

889,700,000 

312,000,000 

109,000,000 

280,100,000 

191,900,000 

148,200,000 

84,700,000 

62,200,000 

43,600,000 

63,800,000 

62,000,000 

88,700,000 

5,200,000 

35,300,000 

30,300,000 

11,300,000 

2,000,000 

16,.500.000 

2,000,000 

32.000,000 

37,900,000 



2,260,200.000 



Exporti. 



485.500,000 

345.800,000 

360,700,000 

214,800,000 

65,400,000 

43,600,000 

19,600,000 

15,300,000 

23,800,000 

35.5O0.ai0 

10,500.1)00 

11.000,000 

9,200.000 

41,800.000 

8.200,000 

4,900.000 

12.Ga),000 

20,700,000 

1,700,000 

800,000 

41,700.000 

69,300,000 

67.000,000 



1,949,300,000 



liters. The value of fish caught was 3,857,279 
francs. 

Navigation. — The number of vessels entered at 
Belgian ports during 1899 was 8,672, of 8,632,626 
tons, of which 765, of 352,464 tons, were sailing 
vessels and 7,907, of 8,280,162 tons, were steamers. 
The number of vessels cleared in 1899 was 8,581, of 
8,521,331 tons, of which 750, of 340,777 tons, were 
sailing vessels and 7,831, of 8,180,554 tons, were 
steamers. 

The mercantile navy on Jan. 1, 1900, consisted 
of 6 sailing vessels, of 2,751 tons, and 67 steamers, 
of 105,786 tons. There were 381 fishing boats, of 
3,826 tons. 

Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs. — The 
railroads at the end of 1899 had a total length of 
2,850 miles, of which 2,521 miles were operated by 
the Government and 329 miles by companies. The 
number of passengers on the state railroads in 
1899 was 114,858,223, paying 64,853,772 francs of 
the gross receipts of 201,229,218 francs. The ex- 
penses were 118,661,088 francs; cost of construc- 
tion, 1,884,033,112 francs. 

The post-office in 1899 carried 130,202,227 pri- 
vate letters, 57,800,288 postal cards, 24,119,478 
olTicial communications, 127,701,208 newspapers, 
and 114,924,160 book packets; receipts were 23,- 
995,997 francs, and expenses 12,806,997 francs. 

The telegraphs in 1899 had a total length of 
3,958 miles, with 20,840 miles of wire. The num- 
ber of internal despatches was 3,300,944 ; of inter- 
national despatches, 3,363,927, including 567,320 
in transit; of service despatches, 5,886,000; re- 
ceipts were 8,783,017 francs, and expenses 6,372,- 
931 francs. There were 91 urban telephone cir- 
cuits with 22,340 miles of wire, and the number of 
conversations was 34,469,019; the interurban sys- 
tems had 8,378 miles of wire, and the number of 
conversations was 566,590. 

The Session of the Chambers. — A bill to 
regulate gambling, introduced by the Govern- 
ment and discussed by the Chamber in the early 
months of 11W)1, was intended to put an end to the 
public scandal of high play without destroying 
the prosperity of Belgian watering-places. The 
governments of France and Spain off'ered to co- 
operate with I^lgium in drawing up an inter- 
national code for the regulation of public casinos 
in their respective countries or, if found advisable, 
to suppress them altogether. The Government 
proposed special dispensations in favor of the 
ca**inos at Ostend, Spa, Namur. and Dinant, but 
the Chamber by a majority of 81 rejected the 
motion, and again refused to grant to the sea- 
bathing resorts an extension of their privileges for 



BELGIUM. 7^ 

two years when the bill was amended by the erected at Li^ge and Namur. The idea of a cen- 
Senate to that effect. The prohibitory clause in tral citadel was not abandoned. Gen. Brialmont 
the bill forbids all gambling in public places where favored strengthening the inner ring of fortifica- 
stakes are generally known or are of suflieient tions, which have become obsolete. The military 
tmount to make tnem an object of gain. commission pronounced in favor of the scheme 
A clause prohibiting games of chance in private already accepted by the Government of erecting 
as well as in public places was rejected by the a chain of forts extending in a semicircle 25 miles 
^enate. The question of compensating Ostend round the city. The demolition of the existing for- 
and Spa, which had made public improvements tifications, constructed in 1859, was decided on, 
on the strength of revenues derived from the giving room for the city to expand and providing 
gaming-tables, was laid over by the Senate for part of the means for defraying the cost of a new 
further discussion. When the Government old-age inner line of forts of greatly improved type, which 
pension act went into force 175,000 old people would absorb 41,000,000 francs in addition to the- 
applied for the pension, which is 05 francs a year, value of the site of the old forts. The fortification 
payable semiannually. A bill framed by the Gov- of the right and left bank of the Scheldt was 
erament and passed by the Chambers changes the deemed urgent, also the strengthening of the bat- 
principles governing accidents to workmen and teries at lermonde, but the fortress of Diest was 
employers' liability. Under the old bill a work- regarded as no longer necessary. The principle of 
man claiming compensation had to prove negli- an effective armed neutrality was approved with- 
gence on the part of the employer. The new act out qualification; yet when it came to actual 
provides that in all cases of disability extending army reform the Government was afraid to offend 
beyond two weeks the employer is bound to pay the mass of the Clerical voters by abolishing sub- 
half wages so long as total incapacity lasts, or, in stitution or materially enlarging the army on the 
case of partial incapacity, half the difference in peace footing. The commission recommended 
earning. Employers have the liberty of insuring that the annual contingent of 13,300 men be in- 
their risks in the Government savings-bank or in creased to 18,000, considering this to be rendered 
private companies ; if one does not do so he must necessary by the reduction of the term of active 
pay a certain amount into a state bank or an in- service to twenty-two months for infantry and 
surance company approved by the state to provide six months for cavalry and artillery. Otherwise 
for future compensation to workmen. Tne new the peace strength of 47,000 men could not be 
bill extends the principle of compensation, hith- maintained unless more volunteers could be at- 
erto confined to accidents from machinery worked tracted to active service. The Government de- 
by motive power, to those caused by agricultural cided to keep the annual levy of conscripts at the 
machinery when it is driven by an elemental force, same figure as before and to hold out inaucements. 
King Leopold having offered to give to the for volunteers to be embodied with the conscripts, 
nation the greater part of the roval domains and counted in the annual contingent. The prin- 
throughout Belgium, the Chamber of Representa- ciple of personal service, though recommended by 
liTes voted to accept the gift, but the Senate post- the commission, was discard^. The sum to be- 
poncd action in order to determine the status of paid for a substitute was reduced from 1,600> 
certain communes in the Ardennes. The Govern- francs to 1,000 francs or less. Encouragement is 
ment agreed to grant amnesty to political offend- given to volunteering by the offer of the same pay 
era and persons convicted oi misdemeanors con- to volunteers as is given to regulars. One-year 
nected with strikes, not including acts of vio- volunteers up to the number of 2,000 may be en- 
lencc. A Socialist motion to increase the pay of gaeed without remuneration with the privilege 
letter-carriers, which is only 2^ to 4 francs a day, of living at home or choosing their garrison town, 
was rejected. A bill was adopted granting higher Soldiers are not to be detailed for non-military 
pensions to teachers and admitting classes previ- duties, but will be trained in military duties 
ously excluded. The Socialists interpellated the throughout the shortened term of service. Prefer- 
Goremment re^rding instructions a general was ence in civil employments will be given to men 
said to have given to the civic guards to fire on who have servea in the army in any capacity, 
the people in case of riot, and the Government's The principle on which the army will be recruited 
position that good citizens should prepare to re- is voluntary enlistment, not conscription, the an- 
sist rioting was sustained by the votes of the nual levy in any district being fixed at the num- 
Right alone, the Moderate Liberals abstaining. ber required to fill out the contingent. The prin- 
The question of military reform was referred to ciple of volunteering is introduced in a country 
a military commission, and on its report was wnere conscription has been customary since the* 
based a bill presented by the Government. The army was first created, adopted altogether as an 
commission was appointed in order to appease a experiment in. direct defiance of the agitation that, 
feeling of alarm at the inadequacy of Belgium's called for army reform. The war strength of the- 
defenses and a growing sentiment in favor of per- army is expected to be increased by the extension 
sonal service. The Belgian Government formerly, of volunteering and the reduction of the period 
even when it did not neglect military affairs, re- of service with the colors from 145,000 to 180,000 
lied for the security of Belgium mainly on the men. The total period of service is eight years 
guarantee of the neutrality and inviolability of in the active army and five years in the reserves, 
Belgian territory by the adjoining powers. In which can only be called out in ease of war. 
recent years military experts have impressed the Volunteers are divided into those who choose the 
people with the idea of the instability of treaty military profession, those who volunteer to draw 
rights and with the necessity of being able to as- for the contingent, those who offer themselves as 
sert and defend Belgium's neutrality. In 1870 substitutes, and those whose condition entities 
France and Germany, on. opening hostilities, both them to special remuneration. All classes rank as 
invited Belgium to defend her frontier. Before the regulars in regard to term of service and pay. 
Franco-German War Antwerp was held to be the The Chambers had to decide in the session of 
most impprtant stronghold, the plan being in case 1001 the question of anexing the Congo State. 
of attack to concentrate supplies there and Lender the option of 1800, if the decision should be 
await assistance from outside. Since then strate- against annexation the loan of 25,000,000 francs 
gists have recognized the Meuse valley as the key made by Belgium to the Independent State would 
of the situation, and accordingly earthworks were be repayable after a further period of ten years,. 



80 BELGIUM. 

but with interest added. The advances under the Agitation for Electoral Befonn. — More im- 
<!onventions of 1890 and 1895 were made to ex- portant than any question that came before Par- 
tricate the Congo State from financial difficulties, liament was the question of suffrage which the 
but now that its finances were in a flourishing Socialists brought to the front by a lively popu- 
condition the sovereign was reluctant to submit lar agitation. At their annual congress in April 
the administration to the caprices of parliament- they decided to continue the struggle for the alwli- 
ary majorities. As there was opposition to an- tion of plural voting by every possible means, in- 
nexation in certain sections of the Belgian people, eluding, if necessary, a universal strike and street 
M. de Smet de Naeyer proposed to adjourn the agitation. The fruit of the universal strike of 
question for a further term of ten years, and in 1893 in favor of universal suffrage pure and sim- 
the meantime to allow the loan to stand over pie was the present electoral law establishing uni- 
without interest. Ex-Premier Beemaert opposed versal suffrage complicated with plural voting, 
this project, believing that the rights of Belgium This was voted in 1894 by the Catholic parly 
would lapse. Even the Socialists, opponents of then in power with M. Beemaert as Prime Min- 
colonial expansion hitherto, demanded the asser- ister. The tax qualification giving two votes 
tion of those rights or a new convention to pre- shuts out 765,000 family men of the working class, 
serve them. M. Beemaert proposed a bill declar- about 70 per cent, of the total number, and the 
ing the annexation of the Congo State and provid- professional qualification for the triple vote gives 
ing for the continuance of the existing administra- disproportionate influence to ecclesiastics, who 
tion for a year, during which the Legislature constitute one-sixth of the 42,000 electors so privi- 
should decide on a special regime, legislative, ad- leged. The Moderate Liberals in the former cam- 
ministrative, and judicial, for the new Belgian pos- paign for electoral reform were more averse to 
session. This would likely have been carried had universal suffrage than the Clericals, who granted 
not the sovereign intervened, declaring in a letter it because the Flemish peasants would strengthen 
to M. Woeste that the Congo administration their party as much as the working-class vote of 
would naturally refuse to participate in that sort the Charleroi and Li^ge districts would increu^ 
of hybrid government which would be chaos and the Socialist representation, while the Liberals, 
would produce friction and loss, both externally their real political rivals, would derive from it 
and internally; and stating that the time had not little accession of voting strength. Now the 
yet arrived when the Free State was able to as- Moderate Liberals were willing to support the 
sure to Belgium all the advantages that he desired Socialist demand. The Clerical majority, which 
should accrue to her, while, on the other hand, has been preserved through the various changes 
Belgium was for the moment unable to set up in the suffrage and representation laws since 1884, 
a substitute for the present administration. This has aroused much opposition by its legislation, 
declaration was tantamount to a threat of resig- and can hardly overcome a fusion of Liberals and 
nation as sovereign of the Free State if the an- Socialists at the polls. The education bill passed 
nexation scheme were pressed. M. Beemaert with- in 1895, prescribing religious instruction in the 
drew his proposals, and a Government bill was communal schools, unless parents apply for a 
presented, preserving Belgium's right of annexa- special dispensation on the ground oi religious 
tion by reaffirming the option and suspending scruples, this latter clause having been insert in 
flnancial relations between Belgium and the Congo deference to public opinion, was never put into 
State, thereby wiping out the various loans ad- operation in communes where Libei-alism is strong 
vanced by Belgium in the event of annexation, until 1901, and then only in a modified form. In 
It was thus left to King Leopold to choose the Brussels the communal authorities rejectcni the 
moment when he shall transfer the Free State and list of priests nominated as religious instructors, 
under what conditions. The principle was ad- and the Government law officers acknowledged 
mitted by both Chambers that the organic law of that the communal council has complete adminis- 
the new colony must be elaborated and approved trative autonomy in school matters. The appli- 
by the Legislature before annexation, but the cations for special dispensation were so numerous 
ministers intimated the kind of administration in Brussels that religious instruction became a 
on which the sovereign will insist, which will be farce. The ministry narrowly escai)ed defeat in 
one entrusted entirely to the executive power, the Chamber on the question of text-books. Thus 
with native affairs left completely under his own the revolt against secular education that brought 
control, the only intervention of Parliament to the Catholic party into power has lost its mo- 
be in financial affairs, and in those it should have tive and its energy. The Government in 1899 at- 
only the right to make suggestions, not to vote tempted to force through Parliament a redistribu- 
the budget. An annual report of the financial and tion bill that would rearrange the constituencies 
economical condition of the colony will be sub- in such a way as to secure a permanent Catholic 
mitted to the Belgian Chambers for formal ap- majority. The Moderates and Socialists saw 
proval, and only wncn it is a question of borrow- through the maneuver, and the bill aroused such 
ing or other matter affecting Belgian taxpayers hostility that rioting took place in the streets of 
will the Legislature be called upon to take action, Brussels, and the Government yielded before the 
while King Leopold will exercise the same super- popular storm. The election of 1900 was held 
vision and control that he has as sovereign of the under the system of proportional representation 
Free State. Before the passage of the Government enacted on Dec. 29, 1899. Voting is by scrntin dc 
bill perpetuating the right of annexation, but post- Uste. The number of seats allotted to each party 
poning indefinitely its consummation, the French is proportioned to the number of times the total 
Government, which under the treaty of 1884 ac- partv vote contains the electoral divisor, obtained 
qiiired a right of preemption, gave an assurance by cfividing the total number of registered voters 
that it would in no way contest Belgium's right by the number of tickets in the field. Parties 
to annex the Congo territories. The total amount whose list of candidates obtains a less number 
of the advances remitted to the Congo State as of votes than the electoral divisor are left out 
the condition of keeping the right of annexation of the representation, and thus second ballots are 
alive is about 32,000,000 francs. The bill was unnecessary. In the election of 1900 the Clericals 
passed. In the event of the King's death the won 8;> seats, the Liberals and Radicals 33, and 
Congo is definitely secured to Belgium by the the Socialists 34, reducing the working majority 
King's testament. of the Government from 70 to 18. In the session 



BOLIVIA. BOOKBINDING, SPECIAL AMERICAN. 81 

the electoral question was brought up by Britain, 35 per cent, to Germany, and 6 per cent. 

M)n, who proposed to take the opinion of to France. 

ntry on universal suffrage and tne appli- Bailroads, Posts, and Telegpraphs. — ^The 

yf proportional representation to all eiec- length of railroad in operation in 1900 was 604 

r means of a referendum. The motion ob- miles. 

>0 votes, and was rejected by a majority The postal traffic in 1899 was 1,181,683 pieces 

35, although there is no provision in the in the internal and 536,226 in the international 

ition for a popular referendum, which the service; receipts were 369,715 francs, and expenses 

riaiists described as a dangerous and revo- 489,173 francs. 

ry device. The Socialist party in a mani- * The telegraphs in 1899 had a total length of 

reatened revolution if pacific means should 2,254 miles, with 4,125 miles of wire, 

bring about the system of one man one BOOKBIKDING, SPECIAL AMEBICAN. 

>n July 30 the Socialists in the Chamber The binding of a book, though attractive to some, 

an episode of unprecedented obstruction has had little or no significance to a very large 
K>rder. The Radicals and the Moderate number of persons. The majority of men could 
» agreed to unite with the Socialists in the not tell the difference between a commercial or 
rn to secure the desired electoral reform machine-made binding and a special or hand-made 
»r by means of the election of 1902, after binding, and if the ordinary reader of the latest 
k>ciali3ts and Liberals will resume their ephemeral but transiently popular novel were 
of action. asked to pay $500 for a binding, even though it 
rVTA, a republic in South America. The had been executed by a Cobden-Sanderson, he 
s consists of a Senate of 18 members, 2 would feel sure that the price was extortionate, 
ch department, elected for six years, one- and that he was being robbed. The mass of book- 
sing renewed biennially, and a House of readers consider that bookbinding belongs to the 
ntatives containing 69 members, elected publisher rather than to the purchaser of a book. 
' years, one-half being renewed biennially. Cloth is good enough for them, especially when 
•sident and Vice-Presidents are elected for the decorations are so ornate, as is now so fre- 
ITS by direct popular suffrage. The Presi- quently the case in edition binding. They know 
* the term beginning Aug. 6, 1899, is Gen. nothing of the charms of Levant morocco, tree 
inuel Pando; the Vice-Presidents are Col. calf, pigskin, vellum, and the like, which are curi- 
eres Velasco and Dr. Anibal Capriles. The osities to them, nothing more. It is only within 

in the beginning of 1901 was composed as very recent years that a binder whose ordinary 




odoro 

7* 

»rior, Carlos V. Romero; Minister of Jus- patronage to maintain an establishment. Prior 

d Public Instruction, Samuel Oropeza; to 1875 the book world had been content with a 

r of War and Colonization, Col. Ismael simplicity that was severe. Our forefathers 

dressed the New England Primers in real board 

and Population. — The area of Bolivia is covers, which were again covered with paper, 

square miles. The population is estimated pasted on. Similar bindings of thin wood ap- 

),000, including about 250,000 uncivilized peared upon that standard book Locke on the 

Understanding. With the passing of bindings of 

aces. — The revenue was estimated in the this kind a dull covering of calf came into use 

for 1900 at 7,331,400 bolivianos, and ex- which now lingers in multiple specimen form upon 

re at 7,930,188 bolivianos. The foreign the bargain-counters of aealers in second-hand 

1900 amounted to 6,550,830 bolivianos, the books. 

I debt to 3,934,250 bolivianos. The time came when collectors of books had spe- 

Army. — The active army comprises 2 bat- cial bindings placed upon the volumes they cher- 

of infantry, each consisting of 220 men ished, but to have this done properly the books 

into 4 companies, 2 regiments of cavalry, Jiad to be sent to French or to English binderies, 

ents of artillery, 1 battalion in garrison in and be subject to the perils of two transatlantic 

apartment, and the military college, the voyages. Pioneer work in fine American book- 

trength bein^ 2,975 men. The National binding was perhaps done by William Matthews, 

in which obligatory service for two years who exhibited a copy of Owen Jones's Alhanibra 

ribed by law, numbers 82,560 men, divided in this class of binding at the New York World's 

■ee classes. Fair in 1853. Many notable bindings were after- 

nerce and Production. — The value of im- ward executed by him, and his reputation as a 

1 1899 was 12,839,962 bolivianos, and of special binder is exceedingly enviable. Following 

27,365,747 bolivianos. The production of him not quite thirty years later. Otto Zahn, 

is increasing, much of it coming from the a binder who had studied and practised the art 

strict, the export in 1898 reacbing 3,000 of fancy bookbinding in many lands, found 

The value of coca exported annually is enough encouragement to come to this country. 

,000,000 bolivianos. The production of sil- He finally established himself in Memphis, Tenn., 

1898 was 9,961,433 ounces, and in 1899 it where he has since remained, and where he now 

155,190 ounces. The annual production of binds for book-collectors of note throughout the 

rated tin ore is over 4,000 tons, and in L^nited States. So great has become the demand 

e export of bars was 2,000 tons. About for bindings of this class that Mr. Zahn has been 

•ns of copper ore were exported. The value obliged to limit his personal binding of books to 

?r exported was about 10,000,000 bolivi- those the minimum price of which is $100. 

of rubber, 8,000,000 bolivianos; of tin. Other bookbinders that are or have been well 

bolivianos. Other exports are wool, cat- known in the practise of their art in this country 

?s, and cofTee. Of the imports 27 per cent, are as follow: Smith, McDonald, Blackwell, Pfis- 

•om Germany, 11 per cent, from Chili, 9 ter, Kuster, Launder, Stikeman, the Club Bindery, 

t. from Great Britain, 9 per cent, from and Schleuning & Adams, in New York ; Sanford, 

and 8 per cent, from the United States, in Pittsburg; P. Ringer and Hertzberg, in Chicago; 

exports 44 per cent, are shipped to Great Peter Verburg, a pupil of Miss E. G. Starr, in 

OL. zu. — 6 A 



BOOKBIKDING, SPECIAL AMEBICAN. 



Chicago ; Dudley t Hodge, in Boston ; and tbe 
Roycroft Shop, East Aurora, N. Y. A large num- 
ber of women have talcen up the art, of wnom the 
late MisB Evelyn Hunter Nordhotf was tbe pio- 
neer. Others are Miss Ellen U, Starr, of Chicllfo; 
Miss Mary E. Bulkley, of Hillside. Mo.j Miss 
Elizabeth G. Chapin, of Brooklyn. N. V.; Mrs. 
Idah Mcacliam IStrowbridge (the Artemisia Bind- 
ery), formerly of Nevada, now of California; Miss 
Mary P. Pow. of Philadelphia; and Miss Minnie' 
Sophia Prat. Miss Emily Preston. Miss Helen G. 
Haakell. aod Miss Florence Foote, all of New York 



The new sciiool of American bookbinding at- 
tracted attention first to itself and then to the old 
masters of bookbinding. Collectors who coiild 
gratify their fancies recalled the fact that Roger 
Payne once executed bindings, and that Jean visiting 



generally carries the gold-lettered title of the i 
ume. The sides are the book's exterior niii 

the back, while the doubts is the iniiide of 
book's cover. A book that is to have a apei 
bindiDg ought to be worthy of it. It would 
foolish to bind a book made up of wood-p' 
paper, that has been poorly printed, in full [ 
rocco, inlaid, polished, and elaborately tooted. 
the book is a rare first edition, so much the betl 
The solace derived from the book will be all 
greater if it be also one of a limited edition, sigi 
and numbered. Upon such a book a choice hi 
ing may well be lavished, and if to tlie finisl 
book be also added a slip case, the joy of 
bibliophile can go no further. The book-lo 
who has had no personal contact with bo 



itudying a H'cll -equipped bindery i 




Groller lived and died, having in the meantime 
made himself notable through the bindiriR of his 
books, in which he took great delight. The way 
was prepared for the binders who came into exist- 
ence after them, and a market was assured for 
bindings that possessed artistic merit. 

The special binding of a book is an interest- 
ing process. The material used, now very gen- 
erally morocco, is carefully selected. In some 
cases the morocco is specially imported to the 
order of the binder who Is to use it. The sewing 
is done with much care and generally with Eng- 
lish sewing-cord. Some of the other features of 
forwarding, among which are l>eating, gilding, 
marbling, or sprinkling, putting the book m 
leather, etc., are entru«li<d to apprentices or other 
workmen, but they remain under constant super- 
vision, while the letterinft, tolling, inlaying or 
mosaic work, and other Hnishing processes, are re- 
served for the hand of the master. 

To bookbinders a book has a head and a tail, 
a front and a back, two sides, and the double, 
which is of course in duplicate. The head of a 
book is also known as the top. which is generally 
gilded. The tail ia the bottom of the book when 
It stands erect with the title conventionally hori- 
zontal. The front ia opposite to the bacii, wliich 



observing something of the technique of the w 
It is only by such means that anything lik< 
adequate understanding of the true significant 
the art of bookbinding can tie obtained. 

The exhibitions of fine bindings that are 
annually in New York city, Boston. Chicago, 
tiniore. and to some extent elsewhere, the 
of which was held less than ten years ago, \ 
done much to spread the knowledge of apt 
bindings. An appreciative colerie has come 
existence, to whose ranks additions are b 
made constantly. It is also because of these 
hibitions that we have become more critical 
no longer accept even the old masters as flaw 
unless they are so. So quietly has the lov 
fine bindings fostered by trie American craftsi 
grown among us, and withal so unobtrusii 
that it is not generally known that (here are a 

Eersona in our country who spend large sum: 
indings; because the books while in proces 
binding are not on view to those not concet 
and when they are finished they go at once 
the library of the owner, where their examiiM 
is reserved for him and his immediate friendi 
A book in binding passes through forty dial 
procc^-ica. The number of tools required. eJ 
sive of those used for exterior onuuueatatioi 



BOOEBINDTNQ, SPECIAL AMERICAN. 



wn forty and fifty. Those that are aaei 
is L'alied " tooling " are iimumfiable. 



»h»t ^ 

book is said to be " Hmshed " when the various 
6aal tool imnreasioiiB upon the inside or dc)Ubli>, 
u>d the outside of the book's cover are complete, 
if the tool- markings are made without using 
gold- leaf, or some substitute, the book is said to 
le ■■ blind- tooled." All books that are (rold-tooled ' 
muAt first be blind-tooled, after which the impress 
ol the heated tool must at least be duplicated 
fiactly in the depression made by the blind-tool- 
ing, and if the smallest deviation takes place be- 
muse of an unateadj hand or otherwise, the varia- 
tion remains upon the book and can not be suc- 
ressfuliy taken out. Sometimes more than 2,000 
sepamte impressions are made upon a compara' 
lively simple book -cover in the decorative process. 
If the de«iration be very elaborate, the number 
oJ tool impressions of course muUiplies. 

Tlie more one studies the art of bookbinding 
t)te more complex does it appear, and when some 
little theoretical familiarity with it is reached, a 
fitiely bound hook is no longer taken up with in- 
difference and unconcern. The very " feel " of the 
morocco — now the favorite binding for fine books 
-which ia the native tanned skin of a mountain 
pnt, is full of pleasure to the enthusiast. The 
^tin derives the name of morocco from the 
African country in which the goats arc found in 
innsiderable numbers. Levant moroceo comes 
!n>m the ^[editerranean ports of the Levant. Red 
morocco is generally considered by binders to be 
r- 1r»9 liable to fade than any other color. There are 
I many other binding materials, among which may 
be named alligator skin, roan or sheepskin, calf- 
'tin. pigskin. Russia, sealskin, and a very recent 
product called " niger calf." A freak binding that 
bis been sometimes used is humqn skin. The 
book-lover wbo has reached the proper stage of 
dtvelopment will derive a certain pleasure from 
\\t mere handling of his full-morocco books that 
ii quite incomprenensible to others. His knowl- 
edge of the processes through which they have 
puUed will be another source of pleasure to him, 
uA a book that has been specially bound will 
btve lurking charms for him that are securely 
hidden from all but brother bibliophiles. 

Isime very pleasing work in bookbinding has 
bren done by such concerns as the Merrymount 
Prt^s, Boston: Thomas B. Mosber, Portland, Me.; 
the Craftsmen's Guild, Boston ; the Brothers of the 
Rook, Gouvemeur. N. Y.; the Laurentian Press, 
Xfw York; and Thomas Maitland Clcland. in 
■hat are known as limited-edition issues. Many 
bookbindem, both here and in England, now take 
1 certain number of pupils. The course varies 
from about seven months in some American bind- 
eries to twelve months in the general English 
(hop. In France the course is much longer. Many 
tomen are turning their attention to bookbind- 
ing as an occupation, and some very fine results 
live been obtained by them. The chains tor 
tuition in bookbinding vary greatly, but range 
from (350 to S2,000 a year. Bookbinding is now 
tiught in many of the technical school in the 
lirger American cities. Some amateur binders ap- 

Cr to think that the preliminary processes of 
kbinding are not so important as are the 
Iniahing ones. As a result, they produce books 
that are fair to exterior observation, but lack 
the lasting rjualities. Their sewing is often 
poorly done in consequence, and without good 
wwing it is impossible to have really good bind- 
ing. In the perfect book, good forwarding and 
tood finishing go hand in hand. The result must 
w that the book, while giving eye pleasure, has 
ilto the quality of stability. Id the hands of a 



used for good binder it is so made that the book may be 
eaailv and fully opened and used without damage 
to the binding. The inside and outside are in 
harmony, and the thing of lieauty is a joy forever. 




Watered silks and satins, as well as vellum, or 
various fancy end papers, are used for fly-leaves in 
special bindings. Painting, as a decoration for 
bookbinding, is seldom used at present. The same 
is true in regard to the embroidering of book- 
bindings, once so high in favor among old Eng- 
lish binders. Some of the earlier binders used cer- 
tain tools BO persistently that they became char- 
acteristic, and now carry the originating binder's 
name. Thus we have a Le Gascon border and 
Venetian and Grolier omanients. Rc^er Payne 
was accustomed to cut his own tools. The simi- 
larity of design forms used by Deromc and PaUe- 
loup has been explained on the theory that (he 
former purchased the tools ot the latter at the 
sale of his ellects after hit death. A Janseniste 
binding shows a perfectly plain exteriorf but lav- 
ishes a wealth of decoration in tooling and inlay 
upon the book's double, and to show the gloi!ie4 
of the binder's achievement the book must first 
be opened. The number of eminent binders in 
New York city is greater than in any other city, 
but scattered all over the land are those who are 
working to good purpose in this field- The Club 
Bindery (NewYork) is doing some most excellent 
binding, but its bindings are unfortunately sel- 
dom seen oulside of the shop of execution or at 
the Grolier Club, whence it sprang. Moat of the 
workmen at the Club Bindery are importations, 
and the work done there is largely to the order 
of members of the Grolier Club, allhough some 
outside commissions are undertaken. 

The bookbinding that has thus far come from 
the Royeroft Shop has not filled the full measure 
of ideality, but some of it shows signs of gri'at 
promise. It has originated some very plea-iinjj 
design forms, but has not yet accomplished its full 



84 BOOKBINDING. SPECIAL AMEBICAN. 

capabilities either in the matter of binding or in 

illuminating, in which it has followed classic 
models without having reached the transcendency 
of the originals. Mrs. F. W. Goothold, of Ne* 
York, and Messrs. Gilbo t Co., of Brooklyn, have 
obtained charming results in 11 lumi nations. 

Certain of the pyrographic work done upon his 
bookbindings bj F. J. Poster is quite unique. An 
exain|)le shown at the Bonaventure exhibition in 
19O0 attracted much attention, as was also the 
case with one of his pyrogr^hic bindings in the 
Scribner exhibition of 1901. Many of his bindings 
in the more generally practised style also are 
beautifully finished. 

One of the most promisinK bookbinders who 
have recently appeared is Jft. Batph Randolph 
Adams, of tne New York firm of Schleuniuf; & 
Adams, whose attention was some time since 
drawn to the bindings executed in Vienna 
hundreds of year? ago, the production of which 
was abandoned because the binders of the day 
were unable to overcome certain difScuIties. In 
this work the early binders actually inlaid 
leathers of different colors into the ground color 
of the bound book. They were, however, unable 
ler fron 

1 dried _ _._ _ , _ 

e of their giving up the method, 
has been commonly supposed that this parting 
arose during the lapse of eenturips, but this is 
true onlv in a very small measure, for it is now 
known that the parting took place as soon as the 
moistening caused by the paste had dried out, 
and this being observed by the bindprs them- 
selves, occasioned the giving up of the work. 
For more than six years Mr. Adams has studied 
the Viennese bindings and has experimented 
with persistence, looking toward their produc- 
tion until he has at last overcome the difficulties 
that were insurmountable to the old binders of 



During the past twelve months he has been 
doing a kind of mosaic inlaying that has not pre- 
viously been done to any extent in this country. 
In place of beating or paring down the leathers 
used so that they shall have only a half thick- 
ness, and then pasting on the inlay (or rather 
overlay), Mr, Adams cuts the morocco ground 
entirely away, exposing the boards, and then in- 
serts the carefully ttttm inlay. By this method 



Modem American bindings, as well as those exe- 
cuted abroad, differ essentially from those of in- 
tiquity. The finished tooling that has grown bj 
adding tool- mark to tool -mark has attained 
among modem binders a far greater peifection 
than was the case even when such masters *9 
Roger Payne, Padeloup, Derome. and Le Gueon 





he preserves the beauty of the grain of the leather, 
which is taken out by the other method, and se- 
cures a satisfactory result. His bindings are among 
the most hopeful of any that have come into 
notice during the past year. Some new methods 
in finishing produce gold efTecta. by a process 
newly discovered by Rir. Adams, that exceed even 
the brilliancy of the French finishing, which has 
hitherto been the distinguishing feature of French 
binding. 



are considered. Our best modem bindinga, com- 
pared with those of the old masters, clearly shov 
wherein our foremost binders are superior in detail 
to their ancient brother craftsmen, so that if «t ' 
have lost somewhat in the matter of boldnesa w 
have gained infinitely in delicacy of touch and per- | 
fection of finish. The school of American book- | 
binding is no longer elementary, nor Is it needful 
now for American book-owners to send their vol- 
umes to Europe for fine binding. We already hivt 
several pupils of Cobden- Sanderson, the famoua 
English bookbinder, in the United States, and tlie 
work done by those who owe their skill to other 
masters is daily growing greater. 

BRAZIL, H federal republic in South America 
The National Congress consists of a Senate i>f 
63 members, 3 from each state and the federal dis- 
trict, elected for nine years by direct suffrage, one- 
third retiring every three years, and a House of 
Deputies, containing 212 members, 1 to 70,000 of 
population, elected for three years by adult male 
Brazilians; soldiers in active service, members of 
monastic orders, paupers, and persons convictd 
of crime being excluded. The President of llw 
republic is elected by direct suffrage for four 
years. Dr. Manoel Ferra* de Campos galles wh 
elected President for the term beginning Nov. 15, 
1898, and Dr. Francisco Rosa e Silva was elected 
Vice-President. The ministers of state appointed 
by President de Campos Salles are as folios: 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Dr. Olyntho de Ma- 
ealhaes; IWinister of Finance, Dr. Joaquin Martin- 
no; Minister of War, MarshaIJoaoN.de Medeiros 
Mallet; Minister of Industry, Alfreiio Maia; Min- 
ister of the Interior and Justice, Epitacio Peaso*; , 
Minister of Marine. Rear-Admiral J. Pinto do Lui- 

Area and Population.— The area of Brail! 
accordiiig to recent calculations is 3,218,130 square 
miles. "Die population in IHfHI was 14,333,015, not 
including about 600.000 uncivilized Indians. The 
number of immigrants in 1898 was 53,822 through 
Rio, Santos, and Victoria. The decision by tne 
Swiss arbitrotors of the boundary question be- 
tween Brazil and France, announced on Dec. It 
1900, sustained the contention of Brazil as to the 
river named in the treaty of Utrecht, and proved 
that France in 1713 voluntarily conceded to Por- 
tugal the territory in dispute. The Oyapuk river 
is the boundary o'f French Guiana and Brodl. 



BRAZIL. 85 

ces. — ^The revenue for 1899 was esti- sists of 40 battalions of infantry of 4 companies 

t 346,164,000 milreis, and expenditure at each, 14 regiments of cavalry of 4 squadrons each, 

23 mUreis. The budget for 1900 made 6 regiments of field artillery of 4 batteries each, 

Que 53,975,543 milreis in gold and 312,- 6 battalions of fortress artillery, 2 battalions of 

nilreis in paper, and the appropriations pioneers, and 6 transport squadrons. The een- 

Bre 36,973,646 milreis in gold and 263,- darmerie numbers about 20^000 men. The Na- 

nilreis in paper, including 9,026,670 mil- tional Guard is being reorganized, 

old for the currencv guarantee fund and The navy in 1900 consisted of 2 third-class 

milreis in paper for redemption of cur- battle-ships biiilt before 1885; the armored coast- 
'or 1901 the revenue was estimated at 58,- defense vessels Deodoro and Floriano, built in 
nilreis in ^old and 286,082,000 milreis in 1898 and 1899; 6 armored gunboats of various 
he expenditure at 37,510,000 milreis in dates; 2 old monitors; 4 small protected cruisers, 
L 244,514,000 milreis in paper. Of the and 3 without armor; 18 gunboats; 4 toi*pedo- 
^,400,000 milreis in gold and 123,454,000 cruisers; and 9 first-class and 17 second-class tor- 

1 paper were import duties, 33,200,000 mil- pedo-boats, besides 2 submarine boats built in 
aper railroad receipts, 15,500,000 milreis 1895 and 1896. The fleet had 4,000 seamen, 1,000 

postal and telegraph receipts, 600,000 stokers, 1,500 boys, and 450 marine infantry, 

n gold and 30,808,000 milreis in paper Commerce and Production. — The total value 

from stamps, etc., 105,000 milreis in ^old of imports in 1897 was 671,603,280 milreis, and of 

KX) milreis in paper receipts from various exports 831,806,918 milreis. The imports are cot- 

^,886,000 milreis in paper excise receipts, ton and woolen goods, iron, hardware, machinerv, 

milreis in paper extraordinary revenue, coal, fiour, cattle, jerked beef, rice, codfish, pork, 

milreis in gold emission, and 9,026,000 lard, butter, com, olive-oil, macaroni, tea, can- 

n gold and 34,350,000 milreis in paper dies, salt, kerosene, timber, wine and spirits, etc. 

-evenue. Of the expenditure 16,094,000 Of the imports at Rio de Janeiro in 1899 Great 

a paper were for the Department of the Britain furnished 41 per cent., Germany 11 per 

and Justice, 969,000 milreis in gold and cent., France 10 per cent., the United States 8 

milreis v\ paper for the Department of per cent.; of the coffee exports 68 per cent, went 

Affairs, 23,200,000 milreis in paper for the to the United States, and tne rest to Europe. The 

ent of Marine, 45,581,000 milreis in paper exports of coffee in 1899 from Rio de Janeiro, 

department of War, 12,859,000 milreis in Santos, Victoria, and Bahia were 9,284,412 bags 

[ 61,818,000 milreis in paper for the De- of 152 pounds, compared with 10,248,186 bags in 

; of Industry, Commimications, and Pub- 1898 and 10,353,197 oags in 1897. The fall in the 

ks, and 23,682,000 milreis in gold and price of coffee has checked planting. The produc- 

milreis in paper for the Depart- tion of rubber in the Amazon valley is increasing, 
Finance. To secure the revenue re- and rubber-trees have been planted in Bahia and 

y the Federal Government taxation has other districts. In Pemambuco 167,198 bales of 

^er^ heavy, and the revenues of the states cotton were grown in 1898. 'There are sugar 

licipalities are obtained by a system of plantations and factories in the same state. In 

that is not simply burdensome, but irk- Rio Grande do Sul 232,000 cattle were slaughtered 

1 discouraging to enterprise. The finan- in 1900, against 270,000 in 1899 and 340,000 in 
1900 clos^ with a surplus of 35,000,000 1898. In that state are fruit canneries^ breweries. 
The payment of interest on the foreign and tanneries. Rum an4 alcohol are distilled in 

lich had been interrupted, was resumed increasing quantities. In Minas-Geraes gold- 

igement of the British creditors on July mines worked by foreign companies produce 148,- 

when the Government had more tlian 000 ounces a year, and in that state and Bahia 
m deposit in London to meet the interest, 40,000 carats of diamonds have been dug from 
nounts to £2,400,000 a year. The Gov- river beds annually, and the quantity has lately 
has agreed to reserve 25 per cent, of the increased. A company has erected machinery to 
receipts for the purpose, and expects to work diamond-mines in Minas-Geraes. In the 
urplus of £4,000,000 a year, besides £1,- same state 65,000 tons of manganese ore were 
illotted to the fund for guaranteeing the raised. Great development has taken place in the 
The revenue for 1901 was 27,0(W,000 mining industry in a period of depression in other 
1 gold and 281,000,000 milreis in paper. branches of production. About 200,000 persons 
reign debt on March 31, 1900, amounted are employed in cotton-mills, in which 100,000,000 
>30,281 sterling, consisting of £3,292,000 milreis have been invested. There are also mills 
1 in 1883 at 4^ per cent., £5,298,600 raised for weaving woolen and silk, and for grinding 
cent, in 1888, tne 4-per-cent. loan of £18,- flour from Argentine and Uruguayan wheat. The 
obtained in 1889, £7,331,000 borrowed at cultivators of coffee have not attempted to reduce 
nt. in 1895, and £4,328,881 obtained in wages in order to escape from the financial em- 
he int«mal debt amounted to 511,197,100 barrassment caused by the fall in the price of 
composed of a gold loan of 20,549,000 mil- their product and in the exchange value of the 
ng 4i per cent, interest, one of 7,127,500 currency, because attempts to lower the wages of 
aying o per cent., 119,600 milreis payable industrial operatives have resulted in strikes and 

and bearing 4 per cent, interest, and the disorganization, and they fear that agricultural 

t. currency loan amounting to 483,401,000 laborers would refuse to work if their wages were 

The floating debt was 284,759 milreis, cut down. Large stocks of coffee were held over 

e were treasury notes for 10,175,000 mil- from 1900 and the crop of 1901 was abundant, 

le paper money in circulation in July, The worid's production of coffee, of which Brazil 

ounted to 703,666,174 milreis. The debts furnishes 62^ per cent., is being increased rapidly 

ates on Jan. 1, 1900, amounted to £10,- by new plantings in all subtropical regions, al- 

tterling. though tne present production is at least 12J per 

Lrmy and Navy. — ^The strength of the cent, in excess of consumption. The rubber, 

the peace footing in 1899 was 484 staff sugar, cotton, and tobacco interests in Brazil suf- 

1,573 officers, and 9,035 men in the infan- fer from the falling rate of exchange, which 

officers and 3,179 men in the cavalry and affects all branches of the export trade, owing to 

», and 1,400 cadets. The active army con- the indebtedness of local producers to foreign 



86 BRAZIL. BRITISH COLUMBIA, PROVINCE OF. 

bankers and merchants. To alleviate the crisis in 000,000 milreis for many years without any com- 

the coffee trade the Government in 1901 reduced pensation. A harbor at Rio de Janeiro was recom- 

freight rates on state railroads, and by agreement mended to be constructed by private enterprise 

with the companies on private railroads also. with Government assistance. On Aug. 5 the Alin- 

Navigation. — There were 1,077 vessels in the ister of Justice resigned and was succeeded by 

foreign trade, of 1,916,934 tons, entered, and 1,019, Sabino Barroso. 

of 1,853,707 tons, cleared at the port of Rio de BB.ITISH COLUMBIA, PBOVTNCE OF. A 

Janeiro in 1899; and in the coasting trade 1,229 portion of the Dominion of Canada, 409,910 square 

vessels, of 652,329 tons, were entered and 1,263, miles in area, with a population of 150,000. 

of 682,080 tons, were cleared. At Bahia 854 ves- Politicg and Legislatioii.— Politics in British 

sels in the foreign trade, of 1,396,989 tons, were Columbia at the beginning of 1901 were more 

entered and cleared and 745, of 14,842 tons, in the harmonious than they had been for some time, 

coasting trade. The Government of Mr. James Dunsmuir, a mil- 

Sailroads and Teleg^raphs. — The length of lionaire mine-owner of high character but slight 
railroads completed on Jan 1, 1900, was 8,718 political experience, had developed considerate 
miles, and 4,989 miles were being built, 4,670 strei^th, while the popular personality of the 
miles more surveyed, and 8,440 miles besides were new Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Henri Joly de Lot- 
authorized. The Government has guaranteed 6 bini^re, had also belped to put an end to fac- 
or 7 per cent, on the capital of most of the rail- tion warfare. The ministry was composed of the 
roads. Of those in process of construction 3,699 Hon. J. D. Prentice as Provincial Secretary and 
had Government subventions. The Government Minister of Education, the Hon. D. M. Eberts, 
owned 1,982 miles, which were leased to com- Q. C, as Attorney-General, the Hon. J. H. Turner 
panics. The cost of these lines was 257,674,937 as Minister of Finance and Agriculture, the Hon. 
milreis. W. C. Wells as Chief Commissioner of Lands and 

The telegraphs have a length of 10,143 miles of Works, and the Hon. Richard McBride as Minister 

line, with 21,936 miles of wire. of Mines. The Premier held no portfolio. Late 

Political Affairs. — On information extracted in 1900 two constituencies were opened through 
from Baron de Burgal, who afterward committed the resignation of sitting members who were can- 
suicide, and confirmed bv further inauiries. Rear- didates for the Dominion I^arliament — Ralph 
Admiral Custodio de Mello, who heaaed the naval Smith, in Nanaimo, and James F. Garden, in 
revolt of 1893 and was amnestied after a period of Vancouver. Mr. Smith was elected, and was suc- 
exile, was arrested on the charge of conspiring to ceeded by Mr. J. H. Hawthomthwaite in the Pro- 
overturn the Government of President Campos vincial Legislature (£he latter being elected by 
Salles. The old revolutionist was said to have acclamation). Mr. Garden was defeated for the 
been busy spreading disaffection in the navy ever Dominion House, but was renominated for the 
since his return to Brazil. The plan of the con- Legislature, and after a stiff fight carried Van* 
spirators was believed to be to procure the mur- couver on Feb. 19 for the Government against 
der of the President, which should be the signal Robert Macpherson, who had combined with the 
for an insurrection. During the general confusion Liberal element, led by the Hon. Joseph Martin, 
the monarchists in the army and navy were to and the Labor party in support of his candidature, 
take military possession of Rio de Janeiro and The Legislature met on Feb. 20, and was opened 
seize the Government buildings. The executive by the Lieutenant-Governor in some state and 
power would be entrusted to a triumvirate, con- with a complimentary escort of 40 khaki-clad sol- 
sisting of Admiral de Mello, Marshal Cantuaria, diers from South Africa. The speech from the 
and tne Advocate Lafayette-Pereira. The ulti- Throne was read by Sir Henri Joly de Lotbini^re. 
mate object was the restoration of the empire. Its significant passages were these: 
Rear-Admiral dc Mello was arrested on March 23 " As a mark of appreciation of the valiant serv- 
and confined on the island of Cobras, as it was ices rendered by the volunteers from British Co- 
feared that his presence in the capital might ^ive lumbia who went to South Africa to assist the 
rise to a disturbance. Extraordinary precautions empire in the war with the Transvaal and Orange 
had been taken secretly to prevent an insurrection. tYce State, my Government will introduce a meas- 
The attention of the Government was directed ure authorizing the conveyance to them of free 
particularly to the navy, and a close watch was grants of lana. A measure will be submitted 
kept on the war- vessels, as it was feared that the amending the school act. There will be submitted 
omcers could not be entirely trusted. After being for your consideration a bill having for its object 
kept in custody for several months Admiral de the encouragement of the wood-pinp industry of 
Mello lodged a complaint against the Government British Columbia. I am pleased to know that 
in the Chamber of Deputies, alleging that his ar- the dairying industry continues to develop in so 
rest was illegal, and that he was refused the means satisfactory a manner, and that new creameries 
of defending himself. He based his claim on the are being established. My Minister of Agricul- 
Constitution, which allows every one to denounce ture has obtained a promise of continued coopera- 
the President of the republic for abuse of au- tion on the part of the Dominion in rendering 
thority. His complaint was referred to a special expert assistance in their construction and subse- 
commission, on the report of which the Chamber quent operation, and in giving instruction in 
unanimously dismissed his charge against the the manufacture of butter and cheese. Recog- 
President. When Congress was open^ on May nizing the importance of encouraging provincial 
3 the President urged the continuance of a policy trade in agriculture and other natural products in 
of appeasement, from which the best results had the mining districts, efforts have been made to se- 
been obtained during his administration, and men- cure such a reduction of freight rates as will natu- 
tioned a variety of circumstances tending to show rally tend in that direction, and I am pleased to 
the 'Complete public tranquillity of the country, announce that this will be brought about. 
The Government proposed to develop military in- " For the purpose of promoting settlement, my 
struction and, as far as could be done without Government is considering the advisability of in- 
creating fresh financial difficulties, to accumulate troducing legislation having in view the exten- 
improved war material. The Government is sion of the syateni of small lioldings. A measure 
working for the purchase of the guaranteed rail- will be introduced with the view of aiding the 
roads, which have annually cost tne treasury 30,- construction of a railway from the Boundary 



BRITISH COLUMBIA, PEOVINCB OF. 87 

trict to the coast; of a railway to the To incorporate the Victoria Terminal Railway 

end of Vancouver inland; and of a rail- and Ferry Company. 

anadian territory from the coast to the To incorporate the Imperial Pacific Railway 

boundary of the province. The indus- Company. 

he province, I am liappy to state, are in To incorporate the District Power and Tele- 

ous condition. During the recess com- phone Company. 

were issued for inquiries into the con- To incorporate the Midway and Vernon Rail- 
general administration of the Asylum way Company. 
Q»ane; the rights of ^ttlers on the Es- To incorporate the Kootenay Central Railway 
knd Nanaimo Railway land belt; and the Company. 

nt of mining clamis in the newly or- To incorporate the Vancouver and Grand Forks 

'orcupine district, and lull reports of the Railway Company, 

oners in each case will be laid before To incorporate the Yale Northern Railway 

Company, 

sion was made by you at the last ses- , To amend the British Columbia immigration 

he Legislature for the appointment of act, 1900. 

ision to inquire into the working of the Respecting assignments for the benefit of cred- 

cts, and much preliminary information itors. 

obUined by the Department of Mmes To authorize a loan of $5,000,000 for aiding the 

•ation of the commission being used; but construction of railways and other important pub- 

l been announced that the Dominion lie works. 

2nt also intended issuing a commission To amend the drainage, diking, and irrigation 

ect to our mineral resources, a postpone- act. 

) deemed desirable in order to ascertain Respecting the manufacture of wood-pulp and 

extent these commissions might be able paper. 

rate to the advantage of the province. On Sept. 3 Dunsmuir — a Conservative in Do- 
mts will be introduced to perfect, as far minion politics, elected to the Legislature and 
le, existing mining laws. The act regu- made Premier through opposition to the policy of 
imigration, passed at last session, has Joseph Martin, the Radical leader — threw a bomb 
> effect, and the necessary machinery for into the political arena by accepting the resigna- 
«ment has been put into operation. A tion of Mr. J. H. Turner, Minister ofFinance, and 
a, consisting of my First Minister, and appointing the Hon. John C. Brown Provincial 
rable the Attorney-General, recently pro- Secretary and Minister of Education. Mr. James 
Ottawa to lay before the Dominion Gov- D. Prentice was transferred from this latter de- 
the claims of British Columbia to in- partment to that vacated bv Mr. Turner. Mr. 
(co^ition in the matter of railway devel- Brown had been a devoted follower of Martin, an 
ind in other respects, and to arrive at a opponent of Dunsmuir until very lately, and a 
t of certain matters requiring adjust- Radical of the most strenuous type. Mr. Mo- 
ween the two governments. The report Bride, Minister of Mines, at once resigned his post, 
legation will be laid before you.'* and the papers of the province with very few ex- 
>n. J. P. Booth acted as Speaker, and ceptions denounced the action of the Premier 
House was prorogued on May 11 the and the assumed change of policy toward what 
acts — among others of minor impor- was popularly termed " Martinism." The defense 
ere assented to in the King's name: made by the Colonist, the chief Government or- 
lorize grants of land to British Columbia ^an, was that the representation of both parties 
8 servmg in the South African war. m the provincial Cabinet was desirable; that Mr. 
md the extra-provincial investment and Brown himself was a good administrator and 
ities act, 1900. would make an excellent minister, and that he 
end the land registry act amendment now had complete confidence in the policy of the 

Premier. When the new minister went back for 

(nd the placer mining act and amending election to his constituency of New Westminster 

he was met with violent opposition, and on Sept. 
;nd the provisions of the Canadian con- 18, after a prolonged contest, he was defeated by 
cemption act, 1900. Thomas Gifford by 52 votes. On Oct. 4 his re- 
ing the maintenance of wives deserted tirement was announced, and the office was there- 
husbands, after left vacant for some time, although Messrs. 
nd the succession duty act. H. D. Helmcken, K. C, and R. F. Green were 
vide for the collection of a tax on per- understood to have been offered Cabinet places. 

The Opposition papers declared that the Govem- 

nd the inspection of metalliferous mines ment was tottcnng, and loudly urged the Premier 

.mending act. to resign, but the latter, on Oct. 10, announced 

nd the absconding debtors act. that he still had a large majority in the House, 

'nd the summary convictions act. and intended to remain in office. He met with a 

tnd the trustees and executors act. great personal misfortune about this time, when 

' protection and reformation of neglected a fire in his coal-mines involved a loss of about 

ndent children. $1,000,000.. 

nd the coal-mines regulation act. Belations with, the Dominion. — On March 

orporate the Lake Bennett Railway 15 a report was submitted to the House by the 

Premier and the Hon. D. M. Eberts concerning 

orporate the Queen Charlotte Islands their mission to Ottawa in January and February. 

Company. In the documents thus published and in the dis- 

)rporate the Kamloops and Atlin Rail- cusaions referred to, Mr. Dunsmuir had pressed 

pany. strongly upon the Dominion Government the 

orporate the Coast-Kootenay Railway claims of British Columbia in various important 

. Limited. ' matters — the necessity of checking Chinese and 

rporate the Comox and Cape Scott Rail- Japanese immigration; the right of the province 

pany. to a greater share of the revenues arising from 



€8 



BEITISH COLCJMBIA, PROVINCE OF. 



the Chinese immigration act; the desirability of 
settling the conflicting fisheries jurisdiction; the 
readjustment of the lumber tariff; the granting of 
cooperative subsidies to railways within the 
province; the adjustment of financial relations. 
The latter was a particularly sore point. i<Yom 
1872, when British Columbia joined the confed- 
eration, to July, 1901, the revenue contributed by 
the province to the Dominion had been more than 
$42,000,000. If, Mr. Dunsmuir said, the contribu- 
tion had been on the same basis per head as in 
the other provinces it would have been only $15,- 
957,000. The total amount expended by the Do- 
minion in the province during this period was $25,- 
915,000. He therefore argued strongly that on 
this account^ and because of the immense dis- 
tances, the natural obstacles to travel and trans- 
port, the great mineral resources available for ex- 
Sloitation and the sparse population, it was the 
uty of the Federal authorities to help the pro- 
vincial Government in building certain necessary 
railways. In the same way tne fishery question 
demanded settlement. By the decision of the 
Imperial Privy Council in 1898, the fish of the 
lakes and seacoast had been declared provincial 
property, while the right of regulation and control 
nad been largely vested in the Federal authorities. 
There was, however, much room for dispute and 
further litigation in the matter of licenses, and 
Mr. Dunsmuir proposed to Sir Wilfrid Laurier 
that they should compromise the question by a 
ten years' Dominion grant of $100,000 annually 
for encouraging ship-building in the province. He 
pointed out that in this as well as other matters 
British Columbia believed itself unfairly treated. 
For 1899 the fisheries revenue of all Canada was 
$76,447, of which the province contributed $45,801, 
while receiving only $12,195 out of "a total Do- 
minion expenditure upon fisheries of $408,754. 
Other matters were discussed in a voluminous cor- 
respondence between Sir Wilfrid Laurier and Mr. 
Punsmuir, but without practical result. 

This whole question was brought before the 
House of Commons at Ottawa by the Hon. £. G. 
Prior, of Victoria, British Columbia, on April 30. 
He began with the assumption that his province 
was suffering considerable disabilities because of 
the neglect of the Dominion Government to place 
sufficient sums in the national estimates for the 
protection of its interests. He referred to the dis- 
tance of the province from Ottawa, and to the 
difiiculty of sending special delegations to the 
capital. He spoke of the mission of the Hon. 
James Dunsmuir and the Hon. D. M. Eberts to 
Ottawa, and to the able document which these 
representatives of the British Columbia Govern- 
ment had prepared upon the matters at issue. 
After referring at some length to the Chinese and 
Japanese question and to that of railway develop- 
ment, he Quoted Mr. Dunsmuir's financial state- 
ments in the document mentioned above, and de- 
clared that while every one of thetrther provinces 
of the Dominion had received more from the Fed- 
eral Treasury than they had paid into it, the 
Government of British Columbia had, since con- 
federation, paid to the authorities at Ottawa $13,- 
607,258 more than they had received. Not one 
cent of the increased national debt of $223,800,000 
bad been expended in the Pacific province, as he 
considered the Canadian Pacific a national under- 
taking from which all the provinces benefited. 
He compared the revenues paid by British Colum- 
bia and Nova Scotia respectively into the Domin- 
ion exchequer in the year ending June 30, 1900 — 
file former $3,220,688, the latter $2,503,596. Th« 
Pacific province was therefore 28 per cent, in 
amount ahead of the Atlantic province, while the 



percentage according to population was still 
greater-^17.70 to $5.45. 

Similarly, in customs and excise, and in exports 
and imports, his province was ahead of those on 
the Atlantic coast. He quoted, with pride, the 
seagoing tonnage of Montreal and Victoria. The 
former great commercial center had a total of 
2,068,313 tons; the latter, a small town in popu- 
lation, had 1,796,^31 tons. "And yet," he ex- 
claimed, " the Minister of Public Works can not 
or will not see fit to give the paltry sum of $15,- 
000 a year for the purpose of dredging and put- 
ting the harbor of Victoria into better shape." 
The port of Quebec, which had only 1,088,630 tons 
of shipping, owed the Dominion Government $4,- 
000,000 for advances. The unfairness in connec- 
tion with the fisheries of the province was equally 
great. Out of a total Dominion revenue of |79,- 
788 from fisheries, British Columbia contributed 
$53,195, while out of a total Dominion expendi- 
ture upon fisheries of $251,469, British Columbia 
received only $13,662. For fisheries protection his 
province was not given one cent, while Nova 
Scotia received $97,370. He urged the Govern- 
ment to do something for the salmon-canning in- 
dustry of the province. He also spoke at length 
upon the ship-building question ana the matter of 
tne mint and assay omces. A reference was made 
to the possibilities of trade with Siberia, and Mr. 
Prior concluded by sabring that if the Government 
would do justice to his province they would soon 
develop a vast market for the products of eastern 
Canada. 

Finances. — On April 29 the Hon. J. H. Turner 
delivered his thirteenth financial statement to the 
Assembly, and announced his coming retirement 
from the ministry. The principal receipts for the 
fiscal year 1900-'01, and the estimates for the 
coming year 1901-'02, were as follow; 



SOURCES. 



Dominion subsidies and payments. 

Land sales and revenue 

Timber royalty and licenses 

Timber leases 

Free miners' certificates 

Mining receipts 

Licenses 

Real-property tax 

Personal-property tax 

WUd-land tax . . . 

Income tax 

Revenue tax 

Mineral tax 

Registry fees 

Chinese restriction act 

Succession duty 

Coal royalties 

Miscellaneous 



i9oa-'oi. 



$242,689 

115,000 
80,000 
60,000 

125,000 

200,000 
70,000 

120,000 
70,000 
65,000 
80,000 

150,000 
65,000 

120,000 
85,000 
25,000 
90,000 

111,550 



$1,754,289 



1901-*02. 

$S&1,151 

157,000 

85,000 

80,000 

130,000 

200,000 

70,000 

125.000 

75,000 

65,000 

85,000 

200,000 

80,000 

110,000 

135,000 

100,000 

95,000 

124,600 



$2,140,751 



The expenditures for 1900-'01 and the estimated 
expenditure for 1901-'02 were, respectively, $372,- 
790 and $411,440 upon the provincial debt; $221,- 
895 and $253,980 upon civil government or sal- 
aries; $219,470 and $231,132 upon administration 
of justice; $967,350 and $41,325 upon legislation; 
$118,700 and $124,380 upon the maintenance of 
public institutions; $70,650 and $87,300 upon hos- 
pitals and chanties; $326,470 and $369,037 upon 
education; $665,323 and $804,641 upon public 
works; $145,820 and $152,100 upon miscellane- 
ous items. The total for the current year was 
$2,218,468, leaving a deficit of $461,229. The total 
estimated expenditure for 1901-02 was $2,475,335, 
showing a deficit of $334,584. The supplementary 
estimates which have to be added to this amount 
were $167,484. 

The Fisheries. — The principal fish of this re- 
gion are the halibut of the lakes and rivers, her- 



BRITISH COLUMBIA, PROVINCE OF. 89 

ring, and salmon. The total value of the catch turc $21,459. But in British Columbia, where the 
between 1876 and 1899 was valued at $60,998,000. Dominion revenue was $53,195, the expenditure 
In the latter year the value of the salmon fish- upon the fisheries was only $13,662. The reply 
eries was $4,007,396; of herring, $37,450; of hali- was that Mr. Prior would **find the expenditure 
but, $103,750; and of fur-seals in the north, $441,- for the current year much larger." 
825. The value of the fish for home consumption On April 30 the Hon. Mr. Prior again brought 
was placed at $350,000, and the general total at up the c[ue8tion of the salmon fisheries of British 
$5,214,073. The number of fishermen was 23,806, Columbia, and quoted from two important docu- 
the vessels and boats 4,982, the salmon canneries ments or memorials prepared by the Canners' As- 
69. with a value of $1,380,000, and the total value sociation of the province. This organization was 
of all fishing-plants was $2,604,773. The value of altogether in favor of provincial control of the 
the product was $21,891,706. In 1901 the total fisheries. He himself deprecated the present di- 
pack of salmon from Fraser river was 920,313 vided jurisdiction under which the Dominion Gov- 
cases, against 316,522 cases in 1900. The price, emment controlled the rivers below low-water 
however, to the fishermen was only 10 or 12J mark, and the provincial Government looked after 
cents, against 19 and 20 cents in the preceding the rivers above low-water mark, so far as the 
year. fish were concerned. He also presented the claim 
On Feb. 22 a discussion took place in the House of fishermen to be allowed to catch fish with 
of Commons at Ottawa as to the position of these traps and seines, as the American canning men 
fisheries and the question of control. The Minis- did on the coast of their territory with the Sal- 
ter of Marine and Fisheries said that certain in- mon sweeping past on their return to the Fraser. 
spectors had been appointed or retained to look It was a great hardship. " Last year 2,269,245 
after the enforcement of Dominion regulations as pounds of salmon were bought by Canadian can- 
to fishinff and to fix the times and seasons in ners from the American fishermen, who caught 
which fish may be taken. " The local Government our own salmon and sold them to us at a cost of 
have the sole and exclusive right, under the Privy some hundred thousand dollars." The time was 
Council decision, to ^rant licenses for particular ' coming, according to authorities whom he re- 
localities; they get the fees and appoint officers spected, when Americans would capture the most 
for that purpose. It is a divided jurisdiction, of our salmon on their way back to their natural 
and we appoint three officers in Ontario to spawning-grounds. He urged attention to this 
keep track of the manner in which our regu- matter, even while admitting its serious difficul- 
lations are observed, and report to us whether ties and hesitating to express a personal opinion 
these regulations are proper or not, and whether as to the right course to pursue. But he strongly 
they should be amended. He proceeded to point advocated more hatcheries, and pointed to the 
out that ** the exclusive power to make regula- annual expenditure for this purpose of $50,000 in 
tions in connection with the fisheries is vested in the State of Washington. 

the Dominion Government, but the provinces of The Prime Minister thou^t this fishery ques- 
Ontario and Quebec, having been declared by the tion had two sides to it. "The remedy proposed 
Privy Council to be the owners of the beds of the by the honorable sentleman for the grievances of 
rivers and lakes, they were held, a fortiori, to be the canners — and I must say these grievances are 
the owners of the fish in these rivers and lakes, of long standing — is to transfer the control of the 
and it was held that the provinces had the exclu- fisheries in the Columbia river to the province of 
ftive right to grant fishery leases of areas in these British Columbia. My honorable friend will find 
lakes.* Therefore the revenues which we fonuerly on reflection that such a remedy could not be 
derived from the issue of licenses are now handed thought of for a moment, because, under the Brit- 
over to the provinces of Ontario and Quebec." The ish North America act, the Gbvemment and Par- 
minister admitted that there had been friction be- liament are powerless in the matter. We can not 
tween the provinces and the Dominion upon this divest the province of any control which it has 
subject. " There has been a disposition on the under that act, nor can we divest the Dominion 
part of the provincial governments to arrogate of its control over any matter assigned to it by 
power with regard to regulations which I do not our Constitution." 

think they possess." Especially was this the Sir Louis Davies, in speaking for the De- 
[^se with regard to what were termed " supple- partment of Marine and Fisheries, declared that 
mentary regulations." Upon this point there had there was no present indication of a falling off 
been " more or less friction." But there was no in the fisheries, and that there was not the 
x>mplaint as to the manner of administering the same necessity for hatcheries as there was at 
recognized Dominion regulations. The Hon. E. G. the south. However, the Government was build- 
Prior, of Victoria, had asked why the Govern- ing one at Sicamons, and would build another 
ment had not treated British Columbia in this re- on the Skeena river and, if necessary, at the 
Bpect as it had Ontario and Quebec. The min- River's Inlet. As to the matter of trap-nets, he 
ister replied that there was a wide distinction be- thought an industry worth $5,000,000 or $6,000,000 
tween lake and deep-sea fisheries. " In the mari- a year to the people of the province was too valu- 
time provinces the question whether the bed of the able to destroy in this way. In reply to a ques- 
sea from low-water mark to the three-mile limit tion from Mr. Prior as to means for the preserva- 
belongs to the province as a proprietary right, or tion of the salmon as they came through Aiueri- 
whether the Dominion has proprietary jurisdic- can waters, the minister said that negotiations 
tion over it, is a question not absolutely deter- on that point had reached an advanced stage when 
mined." He believed the Dominion to have the they were broken off by the Alaskan boundary 
right over seacoast fisheries. Mr. Prior then question at the Washington conference. In any 
drew attention to another branch of the same case, British Columbia fishermen were not doing 
subject. The Dominion revenue from Ontario badly in their own mode of legal operation. There 
fisheries last year (1900) was $794; the Dominion was an increase in 1899 over the previous year, 
expenditure upon Ontario fisheries was $3,704. and he was glad to see that the large undeveloped 
In Quebec the revenue collected was $2,563, the markets in Japan, China, and other Eastern coun- 
expenditure was $5,549. In Nova Scotia the rev- tries were now being exploited. His own judg- 
enue was $5,494, the expenditure $27,461. In New ment was strongly against permitting the use of 
Bnmswick the revenue was $12,015, the expendi- trap-nets, and it was founded upon the advice of 



90 BRITISH COLUMBIA, PROVINCE OF. 

expert officers. There would be no justification value thereof. Engineers in charge of hoisting- 

for the change, as the salmon could be caught in plants were forbidden to work more than eight 

Canadian waters by a less destructive method and hours a day. 
in reasonable quantities. Lands and Works. — The report of this depart- 

Education. — During the fiscal year 1899-1900 ment for 1900 dealt with roads, trails, buildings, 
the cost of education to the province was $307,479, dikes, and timber. By it the Government was 
and to the cities $81,886. There were in opera- shown to have built and maintained 5,615 miles of 
tion at the end of that period 4 high schools with roads and 4,414 miles of trails in the province. 
13 teachers, 48 graded schools with 235 teaehers. Much necessary work was still being done in the 
and 246 common schools with 246 teachers. In mountainous mining regions. Various public 
rural districts these schools were under the con- buildings had been erected, and m^ny repairs 
trol of a board of three trustees (elected), and in executed. A new court-house at Rossland, altera- 
the cities of a board of varying numbers. The tions in the Victoria court-house, and completion 
average attendance during the year was 13,438, of the Nelson Registry Office and of a Government 
and the number of pupils enrolled 21,531. The building at Atlin were announced. Important 
average actual attendance in high schools was surveys were described, and important diking 
344, in graded schools 9,013, and in common projects indicated. The timber cut on Crown 
schools 4,080. One of the most important of the lands was given as 232,831,982 feet, and as yield- 
measures passed in the Assembly in 1901 was the ing a royalty of $116,415. About 43,000,000 feet 
public schools bill introduced by Mr. Prentice. \^ere reported upon which no royalty was paid. 
By it the school districts of the province were Including licenses, rentals, 'etc., the total timber 
divided into three classes, the basis being as fol- revenue was $145,766. 

lows: For schools of the first class an attend- Labor Troubles. — This year strikes and labor 
ance of 1,000; for those of the second class of struggles were numerous and injurious. The sal- 
more than 250; for schools of the third class an mon-canneries difficulty turned upon the employ- 
attendance of fewer than 250. The per capita ment of Japanese and Chinamen, and was settled 
grant was $13 and $15 and $20, respectively, with after some deeds of violence had occurred. Mr. 
a provision of $300 for each school-teacher. Dunsmuir imported Scottish miners to replace 
Teachers in the third class were relieved from at- the Chinese in his Vancouver island mines, and 
tendance at normal school. • as soon as their fares had been paid and they 

Mining. — Up to 1901 British Columbia had had looked around a little most of them decamped 
produced $62,584,442 of placer gold, $12,812,860 of to the United States. The trackmen's strike af- 
lode gold, $12,380,449 of silver, $7,619,626 of lead, fected British Columbia more, perhaps, than the 
•$4,302,583 of copper, and $49,140,917 of coal and other provinces, but was general in its applica- 
<»oke — a total of $150,000,000. The annual report tion. The Rossland strike was, however, the most 
of the Minister of Mines for the province, made important. Immediately after the passage of the 
public June 29, showed a production in 1900 of eight-hour la^w in 1899 the Rossland Miners' 
placer gold, $1,278,724; lode gold, $3,453,381; Union prohibited its members from doing con- 
silver, $2,309,200; copper, $1,615,289; lead, $2,691,- tract work. Men earning $5 a day under contract 
887; coal, $4,318,785; coke, $425,745; miscellane- had to go to work at tne regular scale of $3.50 
ous, $251,740. The total was $16,344,751, against a da^, and the usual result of having no com- 
•$12,393,131 in 1899. The increase in every direc- petition followed in work which was insufficient, 
tion was said by the minister in the Assembly to and of operating expenses which were higher to 
have been most marked. The number of mines the mine-owners than in any other country, 
in 1899 shipping more than 100 tons was 43, and Early in 1900 the latter decided, therefore, that 
in 1900 it had risen to 60. In East Kootenay the they must, in the interest of their shareholders 
production of metals increased from $523,666 to and the mines, revert to the contract system. 
$2,855,851 ; in the Slocan district from $1,740,372 They declared that no reduction of wages would 
to $2,063,908; in the coast districts from $4,094,- follow, but the union thought otherwise, and for 
093 to $4,805,153. There was a decrease in Trail sixty-six days it succeeded in keeping the mines 
Creek from $3,229,086 to $2,730,300. In coal the shut down. Then, on April 3, a settlement was 
Vancouver island collieries showed a gross output effected by R. C. Clute, fc. C, and Ralph Smith, 
of 1,383.376 tons, and the Crow's Nest Pass col- M. P. P., on the basis of opening up the mines to 
lieries 206,803 tons. Lead showed the greatest in- full capacity at an early date and tne right of the 
crease in production — $1,813,017, or 2& per cent, companies to employ both union and non-union 
over the previous year. men. The contract sy^stem was then adopted by 

According to the provincial mineralogist, the the miners* union, with a good majority. Fric- 
mines of the province had paid back in principal tion, however, soon began. The mine managers 
and interest to the lenders of the money for their refused to allow. " walking delegates " to visit 
development $6,529,420 in 1898; $6,751,664 in their properties and interfere with their employees. 
1899; and $10,009,757 in 1900. There was consid- Agitators declared that the "muckers^' were 
erable legislation affecting the mines during the being treated unjustly. At Northport a union 
year. The placer mining bill made the claims was formed and, it was said, a series of aggressive 
similar in size to those of the Northwest Terri- movements were directed against the discipline of 
tories, and this involved a general increase in the smelter management. The ringleaders in the 
creek claims, and bar and dry diggings, while trouble were dismissed, finally, owing to a con- 
bench and hill diggings were abolished altogether, spiracy against one of the foremen, and the strike 
An important clause compelled judgments affect- then began. At first only a few of the men went 
ing mineral claims to be sent to the mining Re- out, but a campaign of calumny was started in all 
corder, and entered in the books of the district the mining regions and sympathy directed into a 
concerned. Free miners were allowed to consoli- sort of boycott against the Northport smelter, 
date claims up to ten in number. By the inspec- On July 11, by a ballot of 258 out of .340, it was 
tion of mines act an uniform code of signals was decided by the union to call out the 1,200 men 
aut}u)rized for use in the mines. Monthly returns employed in Rossland and its vicinity. The mine- 
were to be made by all mines engaged in treating owners declared that the whole trouble was caused 
or shipping ores, and they were to include the by a small clique of agitators, without real reason, 
quantity of ore mined or treated and the assay and on the day of the strike Bernard MacDonald, 



BRITISH COLUMBIA, PROVINCE OP. 91 

a-nager of Le Roi and other mines, made five years after the subsidy was paid, and ^ per 

A'ing statement: ''One thousand two cent, thereafter. The measure finally passed on 

uen are working peacefully on this hill. May 12, after prolonged debates in which the great 

I half of their number are members of point was the question of competitive lines under 

I. The wages paid average over $4.25 American control or Canadian lines under what 

s and are $2.50 for common labor. The was declared to be Canadian Pacific Railway con- 

iverage for all our wage employees is trol. Other matters complicated the issue, and 

ich is a higher average than in other the Government was supposed to stand by the 

stricts of the West. The eight-hour law Canadian Pacific Railway, and there the subject 

nderground men has been accepted by rested after the disposal of the loan bill legisla- 

apanies without any attempt to lower tion. The passage of the following resolution by 

)ii the contrary, these have been volun- the Associated Boards of Trade of Eastern Brit- 

gely increased throughout the schedule ish Columbia was one of the important phases of 

« and various classes of labor, with the the controversy: 

caption of common labor, which was " WhereaSj several applications have been made 
?d at the figure which has always pre- to the Dominion Parliament and provincial Legis- 
lature for acts incorporating railway companies 
J men had called out 700 union members to build lines of railway into the province of Brit- 
ted 600 other men engaged in the mines, ish Columbia from the United States ; and whereas 
-d of Trade at Rossland, British Colum- interested parties are strenuously endeavoring to 
a.red the strike illegitimate. The Car- create the impression that such railways, if con- 
Bind Joiners' Union also went out, and structed, would be inimical to the mining and 
ms organizations formulated their de- smelting interests of this province; and whereas, 
» Mr. MacDonald. He referred them to in furtherance of their designs, the opponents of 
Ion directors of his mines, and replied the competitive railways have proclaimed that 
lat they could not be granted. Toward those interested in mining and smelting in British 
of September, after the mines had been Columbia are opposed to the granting of said 
»wn more than two months, the strike charters: 

led on a basis very similar to that of ''Therefore be it resolved, that the Associated 

Boards of Trade of Eastern British Columbia, rep- 

portatioxL — When the Premier and Mr. resenting every town in the metalliferous portion 

isited Ottawa, earl^ in the year, they of eastern British Columbia, and every enterprise 

e Dominion authorities, in view of the whose success depends upon the development of 

ions of British Columbia to the Federal its mineral resources, emphatically declare for 

r, to assist certain railway enterprises free trade in railways, and believe that every 

•ovince at a ratio of two thirds to one bona-fide railway company desirous of building 

therwise, owing to overlapping jurisdic- railways in the province should be allowed to 

the peculiarly heavy requirements of the do so. 

it was contended that proper progress "And be it further resolved, that this associa- 

; impossible. The following lines were tion is strongly of the opinion that cheap freight 

recommended for immediate cooperation: rates are essential in building up the mining and 

idway, in the Boundary Creek district, smelting industries, and, in the absence of Govern- 

last, at soma point south of the Fraser ment ownership of railways, these can be secured 

ving a ferry connection with Vancouver only by competition and the control of rates 

Prom the present terminus of the Esqui- through a railway commission or other effective 

Nanaimo Railway to some point on the instrument." 
i of Vancouver island. From some point Oriental Immig^ration. — This question came 
British Columbia seaboard, say at Kiti- up for much discussion, and the competition of 
some point on the northern boundary of the Japanese and Chinese was keenly felt. In, 
nee, to form part of an all-Canadian line his appeal to the Dominion Government on Oct. 
ukon. 9, 1900, Mr. Dunsmuir declared that " without 
ughout the center of British Columbia," lowering the general standard of living necessary 
smuir said, '* extends a great apd com- to meet the decrease in wages, it is not possible 
y level plateau, admirably adapted for for white labor to exist in the face of a system 
line of railway, from which would ulti- that has grown up under conditions entirely for- 
adiate branch lines to the coast through eign to Anglo-Saxon communities." The Domin- 
ies, everywhere tapping localities capable ion Government had, however, disallowed the 
kable development and of creating im- provincial legislation of 1900 on the ground of 
iflSc — a wonderful natural system of com- imperial interests being affected by the attempted 
on, of which a parallel is not presented exclusion of Japanese. They increased the per 
ther province of the Dominion. capita tax from $50 to $100 a head, but this was 
ig came of this at the time, but, during not considered sufficient ; $500 was asked for, and 
on of the Legislature, the Government the laboring interests of the province steadily re- 
[ its railwav policy in what was called fused to separate the Japanese from the Chinese 

bill, whicn authorized the borrowing in any proposed legislation. The latter the Do- 

000 for giving aid to about 1,000 miles of minion authorities were reasonably willing to deal 
' railway. It was new and advanced with as requested. It was pointed out that these 
n. It discarded the principle of direct alien workers numbered 15,000 in a population of 
r bonuses, and put the matter in the 150,000 and were steadily increasing, while trouble 

1 loan repayable at the discretion of the arose, not only in labor circles over competition 
receiving it, and bearing 2 per cent, in- in the salmon canneries and the mines, but in 

r five years and 3 per cent, thereafter, politics, through the naturalization in 1900 of 

i to the Government control of rates and 1,166 Japanese and Chinese. On March 13 an 

on of contracts, and overcapitalization Oriental Labor Commission, appointed by the 

of the evils its terms were pledged to Dominion Government and composed of Messrs. 

he charge upon the revenue for aid given R. C. Glute, K. C, Christopher Foley, D. J. Munn, 

* act was to be li per cent, for the first and F. J. Deane, met in Victoria, and thereafter 



92 



BULGARIA. 



at Vancouver and New Westminster in turn. 
They examined representatives from every inter- 
est and business and profession, and held a large 
number of meetings. The investigation was thor- 
ough, the questions most elaborate, and the re- 
sults interesting. Dealing with the question of 
employing OnenUl miners, one witness said that 
in Cumberland 261 Chinese and 77 Japanese were 
employed underground, and 102 of the former and 
25 of the latter overground. Another witness 
said that in Victoria there were 388 Chinese mer- 
chants, 530 Chinese servants or cooks^ 886 em- 
ployed in salmon canneries, 197 laundrymen, 198 
market gardeners, etc. He gave the total business 
of Chinese firms in the city as $1,059,805 for the 
year ending Feb. 17, 1901 ; $107,594 was spent for 
miports from China, and $464,369 on goods pur- 
chased in Canada, England, and the United States. 
They had $573,500 invested in city business, and 
$296,000 in real estate. The Victoria Outlook 
gave the other side when it reckoned the total an- 
nual loss to the workingmen of Victoria from 
Chinese competition at $616,200. Col. Prior, M. P. 
for Victoria, urged the Government to do some- 
thing effective in restricting this immigration, and 
congratulated them and the country upon the 
action of the Japanese £mperor in commanding 
Lis subjects to cease migrating to Canada. 

The Mint. — The Dominion Government's 
action in establishing a branch of the Royal Mint 
at Ottawa and an assay ofi&ce in Vancouver was 
warmly approved by the province, which had so 
long urged this policy. Mr. Dunsmuir, early in 
the year, had pressed for it, and declared that 
Seattle was built up very largely by Canadian 
gold from British Columbia and the Klondike, 
which had been taken there for assay, the result 
being a large purchase of supplies and free ex- 
penditure of money by the miners. Gold at the 
Seattle assay office was handled at the same price 
as at the mint in Washington, while at Victoria 
or Vancouver it could only be taken plus the cost 
of expressage, insurance, and other charges. At 
Ottawa on Feb. 16 Messrs. F. Buscombe and A. 
O. Campbell presented a memorial to the Govern- 
ment from which it was seen that out of $20,- 
166,687 worth of gold received at the Seattle 
assay office, from Jan. 1 to Oct. 24, 1900, $16,- 
374,488 was from the Canadian Yukon district, 
and $493,116 from Atlin, British Columbia. On 
July 24, 1901, the Vancouver assay office was 
opened, with Dr. Haanel as superintendent. 

BULGARIA, a principality in eastern £urope 
under the suzerainty of Turkey, created an 
autonomous tributary principality by the treaty 
signed by the representatives of the great powers 
at Berlin on July 13, 1878. Eastern Roumelia, 
which was created at the same time an autono- 
mous province of Turkey, in 1885 proclaimed its 
union with Bulgaria, expelled the Christian gov- 
ernor appointed oy the Sultan, and has since been 
administered as a part of the principality, the 
Prince of Bulgaria holding the title of Governor- 
General by appointment ot the Sultan. The legis- 
lative body in Bulgaria is a single chamber cafled 
the Sobranje, containing 157 members, 1 to 20,000 
of population, elected for five years by universal 
manhood suffrage. 

The reigning Prince is Ferdinand, Duke of 
Saxony, bom Feb. 26, 1861, the youngest son of 
Prince August of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and of Prin- 
cess Clementine, daughter of Louis Philippe, for- 
mer King of the French. The heir apparent is 
Prince Boris, bom Jan. 30, 1894. The Cabinet in 
1900 was composed as follows: President of the 
Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs and 
Worship, T. Ivantchoff; Minister of the Interior, 



Dr. V. Radoslavoff; Minister of Public Instr 
tion, Dr. Vatchoff; Minister of Finance, 
Teneff; Minister of Justice, P. Pesheff; Minis 
of War, Col. S. Paprikoff; Minister of Put 
Works, T. Tontcheff. The Cabinet was conr 
tuted on Oct. 13, 1899. 

Area and Population. — ^The area of the pr 
cipality proper is 24,380 square miles, and that 
Eastern Roumelia 13,700 s(^uare miles. The po] 
lation of the principality in 1893 was 2,312,21 
and that of Eastern Roumelia, 998,431; tot 
3,310,713, of whom 2,505,326 were Bulgai^, 56 
728 Turks, 62,628 Roumanians, 58,518 Greel 
52,132 Gipsies, 27,531 Jews, 3,620 Germans, 9 
Russians, and 30,302 of other nationalities. T 
number of marriages in 1898 was 28,232 ; of birt 
141,046; of deaths, 82,725; excess of births, 58.3^ 

Finances. — The budget for 1900 makes t 
total revenue 83,827,863 lei, of which 35,294,9 
lei are derived from direct taxes, 29,401,000 
from customs, 915,000 lei from fines, 5,676,247 
from fees, 4,486,916 lei from rents and intere 
5,578,000 lei from transportation, and 1,975,£ 
lei from other sources. The expenditures w< 
estimated at 83,270,370 lei, of which 1,250,380 
were for the executive, 24,646,849 lei for the < 
penses of the public debt, 127,180 lei for the Boi 
of Audit, 3,898,439 lei for the Finance Departme 
7,238,880 lei for the interior, 3,838,354 lei 
foreign affairs, 8,114,526 lei for public instructit 
4,289,584 lei for justice, 20,773,432 lei for the arn 
3,229,570 lei for commerce and agriculture, a 
5,863,176 lei for public works. 

The public debt in 1899 was 290,000,000 
bearing 5 per cent, interest A loan of 25,000,( 
lei at 6 per cent, was obtained in 1900 on the 
curity of the tobacco tax. 

Commerce and Production. — The total val 
of imports in 1899 was 60,178,000 lei, and of < 
ports, 53,467,000 lei. The imports of textiles w( 
20,676,000 lei in value ; of metals and metal max 
factures, 5,455,000 lei; of machinery and to( 
5,329,000 lei; of colonial g«ods, 4,70^,000 lei; 
mineral oils and gums, 2,697,000 lei ; of hides a 
leather, 2,849,000 lei; of wood and wood mai 
facturesT, 2,677,000 lei; of glass and minen 
2,162,000 lei; of drugs, chemicals, and colors. 2.O.' 
000 lei; of paper and paper materials, 1,547,( 
lei; of spirits, 1,092,000 lei; of animal food pr 
ucts, 839,000 lei; of cereals, 670,000 lei; of a 
mals, 321,000 lei; of perfumery, 120,000 lei; of 
other merchandise, 6,992,000 lei. The exports 
cereals were 32,801,000 lei; of animals, 4,764,( 
lei ; of textiles and textile materials, 4,075,000 1 
of animal food products, 3,458,000 lei; of hid 
skins, and leather, 3,184,000 lei; of perfume 
2,663.000 lei; of wood and wood manufactui 
690,000 lei; of metals and metal goods, 592,( 
lei; of gums and mineral oils, 285,000 lei; 
spirits, 84,000 lei ; of drugs, colors, and chemici 
82,000 lei; of tools and machines, 80.000 lei: 
colonial goods, 69,000 lei; of glass and minen 
31,000 lei; of paper and paper materials, 21,000 
The imports from and exports to various counti 
in 1899 were valued in lei, or francs, as follow 



COUNTRIES. 



Turkey 

Austria 

Great Britain... 

Germany 

France 

Belgium 

ItaJy....,*: 

Russia 

Roumania 

Other countries. 



Total. 



Importo. 



6,484,000 


2i.aoo 


18,441,000 


4.160 


18,343,000 


9.874 


8,543,000 


8,696 


3J225,000 


4,915 


1,540,000 


8,215 


3,195.000 


1,026 


2,181,000 


15S 


1,668,000 


54."! 


3,559,000 


4,68C 


60,178,000 


53.467 



Kxporli 



BULGARIA, 93 

• 

imports from the United States were secure an overwhelming majority, because the 

lei, and exports to the United States local officials put the tickets of the Government 

lei in value. The land tax in Bulgaria candidates into the hands of the docile peasants, 

er cent, of the produce, as in Turkey, paid and those who are not docile the gendarmes drive 

a. land. Of the total area of 9,750,500 nee- away from the polls. The party chiefs were so 

18 per cent, is pasture, 25^ per cent farm numerous and all of them so ambitious that it 

rden land, and 17^ per cent forest. Wheat became impossible to form any coalition ministry 

chief crop, and much of it is exported, that would hold together. Ftince Ferdinand re- 
tobacco, and silk are important products, solved to ascertain, if possible, the genuine polit- 
er of roses, 4,327 kilograms were made in ical sentiments and preferences, and determined 
In the Government coiQ-mines near Pemik, therefore to have the approaching election con- 
) tons are raised annually. ducted without the interference of politicians and 
e were entered during 1899 at Bulgarian under the protection of the military. This tem- 
0,501 vessels, of 2,539,748 tons, and cleared porary government negotiated for a loan of 80,- 

vessels, of 2,523,831 tons. 000,000 lei with French and Dutch bankers to en- 

joadSy Posts, and Telegraphs. — The able it to continue the public works that were 

of railroads in operation in 1900 was 970 in progress and to pay on an advance of 25,00!Q,- 

of which 785 miles belonged to the Gov- 000 lei obtained in Germany at the beginning of 

it 1900 and liquidate floating debt and arrears of 

post-office in 1898 carried 10,317,000 let- the Turkish tribute.* For the new debt the to- 

&61,000 postal cards, 10,779,000 newspapers, bacco monopoly, estimated to yield 15,000,000 lei 

and circulars, and 304,000 money letters a year, was pledged. Before the arrangement was 

»tal orders of the total amount of 29,900,000 completed M. Ivantchoff's Cabinet resigned, and 

in the internal service, and in the external Gen. Petroff, on Jan. 25, 1901, form^ a pro- 

3,579,000 letters, 606,000 postal cards, visional Cabinet to conduct public business until 

OO newspapers, books, and circulars, and 82,- after the elections. The crisis arose over a ques- 

•ney letters and orders amounting to 8,939,- tion of appointments. Gen. Petroff found it neces- 

ncs. The postal and telegraph receipts were sary to remove several officials who 'were active 

31 francs; expenses, 3,127,723 francs. The partisans of M. Kadoslavoff. The party leaders 

ment telegraphs had a length of 3,270 miles, who remained in the Cabinet coveted the posts 

,740 miles of wire. The number of internal for their own followers, and when Gen. Petroff 

lessages was 1,053,494 in 1898; of foreign would not allow them to dispose of the vacant 

:es, 230,173; of service messages, 58,740; offices, M. Tontcheff, leader of the South Bul- 

1,342,407; receipts, 1,032,400 francs. There garian Liberals, resigned, and M. Ivantchoff fol- 

telephone circuits with 303 miles of wire lowed his example. The remaining members of 

towns and 5 interurban circuits with 925 the Cabinet were not faction leaders or politicians 
>f wire. of importance. They were retained in their places, 
tlcal ASain. — Depending entirely on ag- and with Gen. Petroff and Col. Paprikoff in con- 
re and the exportation of cereals, when trol the election was expected to be free from 
ail the people of Bulgaria are poor. After coercion for the first time and the gendarmerie to 
uccessive short crops the situation became be employed only for the purpose of preventing 
ou8 in the autumn of 1900. The Grovem- any recourse to violence on the part of the con- 
vAs embarrassed as well as the people, and tending factions. Consequently over 800 candi- 

16,000,000 lei of notes payable in silver, dates presented themselves, and the electioneering 
jMiyable in gold previously issued could not was more lively than had ever been seen in Bul- 
lemed because there was no gold, but they garia before. The hope that any one party would 
eclared to be valid at the national bank for emerge with anything approaching a majority 
«yable in gold or for foreiffn exchange. The was disappointed. The three strongest ones to- 
il bank, however, refused to accept them gether would form only a slight majority. The 

at a discount The Government then Stamboloffists, Zankoffists, Stoiloffists, and Kara- 

to pay them in silver with the premium veloffists were the most numerous, while Rado- 

For part of the salaries of officials war- slavoff made a pitiful showing. There was a group 

rere given. The Government planned new which adhered to the existing ministry ; the Feas- 

n the guise of monopolies of tobacco, salt, ants' party and the Socialists were represented, 

^roleum. Direct taxation was already and the Turks sent their own representatives. 

Mivy. The old tithes, requiring the culti- All the Mirty leaders were pledged to abolish the 

to give up to the Government a tenth of the tithes. The elections were carried out with im- 

every year, were abolished by the Stoiloff partiality as far as Gen. Petroff could direct, but 
•V, which created in their stead a land tax. in some districts soldiers interfered for the pur- 
Tthe tithes were again put into force, while pose of aiding Zankoffist candidates. The Petroff 
d tax continued to be collected also. The Cabinet resigned on Feb. 26, and on March 4 
herers met with forcible resistance when a Cabinet of Karaveloffists and Zankoffists was 
>manded the tithes. The tithes, which are formed, to which the Stoiloffists offered their sup- 
kind, amounted to 25,000,000 lei for 1900. port It was composed as follows: Prime Minis- 
id tax, payable in cash, yielded only half of ter and Minister of Finance, Petko Karaveloff; 
000,000 lei estimated because the peasants Minister of Forei^ Affairs, M. Daneff; Minister 
money. The Cabinet succumbed, in Decem- of the Interior, Michael Sarafoff; Minister of Jus- 
)0, to the internal and external difficulties tice, Alexander Radeff; Minister of Agriculture 
set it, but Prince Ferdinand requested the and Commerce, Alexander Rudskanoff; Minister 
al ministers to remain in their posts and of Education, Ivan Stavlikoff; Minister of Public 
►n the business of the country as a Cabi- Works, Ivan Belinoff; Minister of War, Gen. 
Affairs, only he insisted that Gen. Petroff, Paprikoff. In the new Cabinet Gen. Petroff re- 
L8 without party affiliations, should be in- tained the portfolio of the Interior and took that 

as Minister of the Interior. There are of Foreign Affairs fid interim, Col. Paprikoff re- 
dozen factions in Bulgaria grouped about raained Minister of War and took the portfolio of 
y leaders, and whichever one is in power Public Works in addition, M. Dantchoff became 

moment of a general election is able to Minister of Justice and Minister ad interim of 



94 BULGARIA. 

Agriculture and Commerce, and M. Bontsheff took attacks of KaravelofT, the leader of the Liberal 
charge of the Department of Finance. The party^as well as of the Russophile Zankotlists,who 
Ivantchoff Cabinet nad promised economies, but have always abetted the agitation. The Mace- 
was unable to effect them. The war budget, which donian Committee pretended that it still enjoyed 
absorbs more than a fourth of the revenue, could Russian support, as it did at times in the earlier 
not be cut down in a country where the army has part of its career, although the Russian Govern- 
as much political influence as it has in Bulgaria, ment, as well as other European governments, had 
nor could savings be effected in the civil service, unmistakably intimated at Sofia and at Constan- 
where all the functionaries down to the pages and tinople a desire that the Bulgarian Government 
doorkeepers are turned out with each change of sliould suppress the present agitation and fuldl 
ministry, to be replaced by creatures of the party its international obligations by proceeding against 
in power. The elections for the Sobranje took the lawless Macedonian Committee. Gen. Petroff 
place on Feb. 11. The following of the late power- showed a determination to put a stop to black- 
ful ministers dwindllsd to almost nothing, while mailing and personal violence on the part of agents 
the strong chiefs of other days who had long been of the Macedonian Committee by warning the pre- 
excluded from public life turned up at the head fects against countenancing any infractions of the 
of considerable factions. The Macedonian agita- law. He also ordered the suppression of the rifle 
tion was aggravated by the distressful economical clubs, but he did not see that his order was car- 
situation of the country, and one of its conse- ried out, nor did he proceed to the arrest of Boris 
quences was the aggravation of that situation for Saravoff and his associates, who since they took 
Bulgarians and still more for Macedonians, many charge of the agitation in May, 1899, had degraded 
of whom migrate annually into Bulgaria and Rou- it by their methods until proceedings of the Mace- 
mania for work, but were unable to do so this year donian Committee had become an international 
owing to the difficulty of passing the Turkish scandal. The course that the new Government 
frontier and to the quarrel bMBtween Bulgaria and would pursue toward the Macedonian Committee 
Roumania. Sarafoff, the president of the Mace- was problematical, notwithstanding the encour- 
donian Committee, had been sentenced to death by agement the members of the ministry had given to 
the Roumanian court for procuring the murder of it for electioneering purposes. Karaveloff and the 
a Bucharest professor, but the Bulgarian Govern- ZankoflRsts wore not men to condone methods that 
ment refused to deliver him up, and no Bulgarian brought the Macedonian movement into disrepute, 
minister dared to deal harshly with the Mace- the new Minister of the Interior, who was an old 
donian Committee, although its methods were leader of that movement, least of all, nor could the 
criminal and the subject of warnings and com- demands of Roumania, the warnings of the powers, 

¥laints from several European governments. The or the complaints of Turkey, accentuated by vigor- 
urkish Government treated Macedonians with ous repression in Macedonia, be continually disre- 
the utmost severity, with the full approval of the garded. I^nless the dangers of the situation were 
powers. Often the innocent suffered for the removed the necessary financial aid from Euro- 
guilty. Turkey had 150,000 soldiers massed on pean money markets would not be forthcoming, 
the frontier to put down the threatened rising. The agitators took heart, however, when tlieir 
Macedonian refugees in Bulgaria petitioned the professed friends came into power. The rifle clubs 
Sultan to let them return if they could find means again began openly to train volunteers. Whatever 
of gaining a livelihood in Macedonia. The agita- important move the new Cabinet in political mat- 
tion for the emancipation of Macedonia from Turk- ters made was believed to have the previous ap- 
ish rule and its annexation to Bulgaria, an aim proval of the Russian Government, 
which ran counter to similar Servian, Greek, Rou- The Sobranje met in extraordinary session on 
manian, and Albanian national ambitions and de- March 7. The new ministry stated that its task 
fied not only the military power of the Turkish would be to bring about an equilibrium in the 
Empire, but the concert of Europe, was so popu- budget and end the financial crisis and to 
lar m Bulgaria that no government dared to sup- strengthen the bonds that unite Bulgaria to her 
press the Macedonian Committee or even punish deliverer, Russia, and develop good relations with 
crimes committed by its members. The agitators neighboring states. This announcement gave no 
were discharged officials, retired officers, politi- encouragement to the Macedonian Committee, 
cians fallen from power, and idle adventurers of The Porte took more energetic measures than ever 
every type. They obtained money by blackmail to suppress the conspiracv that honeycombed 
and intimidation, and did not shrink from murder- Macedonia. The evidence of an intended insurrec- 
ing men who threatened to show them up. Bui- tion was apparent. Agents of the Sofia body were 
garians were not required to contribute to the found guilty of blackmail and assassination in 
fund from which they lived, but foreign mer- various parts of Turkey and were executed. The 
chants, Roumanians, and others, especially Turk- Turkish Bulgarians were organized in revolution- 
ish subjects and Spanish and Polish Jews. They ary bands pledged to obey secretly all orders com- 
assessed sometimes the entire Jewish colony in a ing through local committees from the Mace- 
town, sometimes individual Jews. The commit- donian Committee, which provided them with 
tee, which has been in existence since the Russo- weapons. Murder and other political crimes were 
Turkish War of 1877, had Macedonian bonds authorized, and the perpetrators were reported to 
printed, which were offered to some of the victims Sofia for reward ; but acts of personal vengeance 
of its extortions at 50 per cent, of their face value, and of pillage were prohibited, and those who 
Rifle clubs were organized throughout Bulgaria, committed them must suffer death. Every politi- 
The part of Macedonia bordering on Eastern Rou- cal murder must, however, have the sanction of 
melia was to be redeemed first, and the ostensible the president of the Macedonian Committee. The 
purpose was to make it an autonomous Christian chief of every band of 5 or 6 members received his 
province of Turkey, to be ultimately absorber! in appointment from Sofia. The members of dif- 
bulgaria, as Eastern Roumelia was, if not occu- ferent bands should not communicate with each 
pied at once by Bulgarian patriots and annexed other. The death penalty was threatened for de- 
without passing through the intermefliate stage, sertion in action or for any disposition to betray 
Col. Petroff took more vigorous measures to curb tlie secrets of the organization for gain. The Porte 
the agitation than anv of his predecessors, and demanded in energetic language that the Bul- 
thus provoked the enmity of the agitators and the garian Government dissolve the Macedonian Com- 



CANADA, DOMINION OP. 



95 



md its branches which were organizing 
>ands on the frontier. Gen. Paprikoff 
nilitary regulations forbidding military 
to have anything to do with the revolu- 
and restricting tne activity of the latter, 
incensed them that- they attacked Prince 
id in their newspaper organs. On April 5 
iravoff and the other officers of the Mace- 
Committee were arrested on a warrant 
>y the magistrate who investigated the 
made by the Roumanian Government rela- 
he murder of Prof. Mihaileano. This sud- 



den action of the authorities, occurring only a few 
days before the date of a Macedonian congress ar- 
ranged by the agitators, occasioned riots and street 
fighting in Sofia. The untrustworthy chief of 
police was superseded by an army olficer. The ex- 
citement was not widespread, and it soon passed 
over. The general feeling was one of relief. The 
arrested leaders, Saravoff and Stojanoff, were 
tried in August for complicity in the murder of 
Fitoffski, a Turkish spy, and Kovatchetf and 
Treloff for having planned the murder of Prof. 
Mihaileano. All of them were acquitted by a jury. 



O 



iPORNIA. (See under United States.) 
AJ>A, DOMIKION OF. A federai union 
ish provinces in North America; area, 
) square miles, with a population of 
). 

mment and Politics. — By the general 
i of Nov. 7, 1900, as shown in the com- 
etums, the House of Commons of Canada 
lOminally, as follows at the beginning of 
iberals, 128; Conservatives, 79; Independ- 

Giving the Independents to the Govern- 
bis would leave 134 Liberals to 79 Con- 
es, against the vote in the preceding Par- 
of 136 to 77. The Government at the be- 
of the year was as follows, including the 
Minto, who had been sworn in as Gov- 
^neral on Nov. 12, 1898: Premier and Presi- 

the Privy Council, Sir Wilfrid Laurier; 

• of Trade and Commerce, Sir R. J. Cart- 
Secretary of State, Hon. R. W. Scott; 

• of Justice, Hon. David Mills; Minister of 
and Fisheries, Sir L. H. Davies; Minister 
ia and Defense, Hon. F. W. Borden; Post- 
jreneral, Hon. W. Mulock; Minister of 
ure, Hon. S. A. Fisher; Minister of Public 
Hon. J. Israel Tarte; Minister of Finance, 
. S. Fielding; Minister of Railways and 
Hon. Andrew G. Blair; Minister of the 
, Hon. Clifford Sifton; Minister of Cus- 
on. W. Paterson; Minister of Inland Rev- 
Ion. M. E. Bemier; Ministers without 
), Hon. R. R. Dobell and Hon. J. Suther- 
[inister without portfolio, and Solicitor- 

without a seat in the Cabinet, Hon. 

Fitzpatrick. 

ment met in its first session at Ottawa 
7. The Hon. L. G. Power was elected 
of the Senate, and Mr. L. P. Brodeur 
of the Commons. The Earl of Minto 

the Houses with an address from the 

of which the following are the significant 




BT. UOir. SIR WILFBID LAURIEB, 
O. C. M. O. 



i: 



Government has learned, with ^eat satis- 
of the progress being made with the Pa- 
le scheme, and I trust that nothing may 
i delay its early completion. Last sum- 
ide a tour through Canada as far as Daw- 
r, and was everywhere received with un- 
[ proofs of devotion and loyalty. During 
mey I was, from personal observation, 
ipressed with the great activity displayed 
fvelopment of the mining and agricultural 
is of the country, arid with the subatan- 
ease in its population. The thrift, energy, 
-abiding character of the immigrants are 
t of much congratulation, and afford am- 
►f of their usefulness as citizens of the 
•n. 

ives me great pleasure to note the excel- 
play made by Canada at the Universal 



Exposition in Paris. The fine quality and varied 
character of Canadian natural and industrial 
products is evidenced by the number of awards 
won in nearly every class of the competition. It 
is a remarkable tes- 
timony to the effec- "' ' 
tiveness of our 
cold-storage trans- 
portation facilities 
that fresh fruit 
gi'own in Canada 
secured a larse 
number of the high- 
est awards. It is 
extremely gratify- 
ing to observe that, 
as a result of the 
display of Canadian 
resources, consid- 
erable foreign capi- 
tal has found its 
way to Canada for 
investment, and 
large orders from 
foreign countries 
have been received 
for Canadian 
goods. 

" The improvement of the St. Lawrence route 
continues to engage the very careful attention of 
my Government. During the past year ship canals 
have been widened and deepened, additional lights 
and buoys have been provided, and in a short time 
there wUl be telegraph and cable communication 
with Belle Isle. These additional securities will 
tend to make safer and more efficient than ever 
our great waterway between the lakes and the 
Atlantic. I am glad to observe that the revenue 
and the general volume of trade continues un- 
diminished, and even shows a moderate increase 
over the very large figures attained during the 
past year." 

The address in reply to the speech from the 
Throne was moved on Feb. 11 by Hugh Guthrie, 
and seconded by Charles Marcil. Mr. Guthrie re- 
ferred to the death of the Queen, the coming 
royal visit, and the general prosperity of the 
country. The latter development, " if not en- 
tirely, is very largely the result of the well -di- 
rected efforts of the administration." He dealt 
briefly with the position of the farmers, the im- 
portance of the preferential tariff, and the gal- 
lantry of Canadian troops in South Africa. Mr. 
Marcil referred particularly to the loyalty of his 
people in Quebec. " I thank Heaven that we, 
French-Canadians, should have had at Paarde- 
berg and upon other battle-fields representatives 
of our nationality." He sujrfjested that the 
Canadian flag should have a simple maple-leaf on 
a red field, and in connection with the Union Jack, 



96 CANADA, DOMINION OP. 

« 

instead of the Canadian coat-of-arms, and then of adequate protection and encouragement at all 

proceeded: "Our fellow-countrymen have upheld times to the labor, agricultural, manufacturing, 

the British flag in this country. And as to us, mining, and other industrial interests of Canada, 

the young generation of to-day, we mean also to " That in the opinion of this House the adop- 

uphold the same flag-" Mr. R. L. Borden, the tion of a policy of mutual trade preference within 

Conservative leader, followed with a short speech, the empire would prove of great benefit to the 

in which he denied that the Government had been mother country, and to the colonies, and would 

responsible for the public prosperity, and quoted greatly promote the prosperity, unity, and prog- 

pne of its supporters, John Charlton, as declaring ress of the empire as a whole ; and that the pres- 

ithat " it was due to the blessings of Providence ent time, when the Commonwealth of Australia 

and to causes beyond the control of the Canadian is laying the foundation of its fiscal system, is 

Government." He asked why the imports to particularly opportune for taking prompt and 

Great Britain in the first three years ot Liberal energetic steps toward the furtherance of this ob- 

rule had only risen $4,000,000, while those from ject. 

the United States had increased $34,000,000. He " This House is further of opinion that equiva- 
expressed regret that adequate recompense had lent or adequate duties should be imposed by 
not been meted out to the returned soldiers from Canada upon the products and manufactures of 
South Africa ; that the fast Atlantic line project countries not within the empire, in all cases where 
was still dormant ; and that no reference had been such .countries fail to admit Canadian products 
made in the speech from the Throne to the subject and manufactures upon fair terms, and that the 
of the Washington negotiations, and especially to Government should take for this purpose all such 
the question of the Alaskan boundary. Sir Wil- available measures as may be found necessary." 
frid J^urier followed and joined Mr. Borden in The subsidy to the Pacific cable was increased 
congratulating the mover and seconder of the so that Canada would take its share of £2,000,000 
address, and explained that the Imperial Govern- instead of £1,700,000. The silver-lead industry 
ment intended to do something in the way of pen- was encouraged with a bounty of $5 a ton for lead 
sions and allowances to the soldiers. If these refined in Canada, the maximum sum not to ex- 
were not sufficient, he had no doubt that " Par- ceed $100,000 in any one year, and to terminate in 
liament would be well disposed to supplement five years. The Dominion lands act was amended 
them by an extra grant." When the war was so as to give a settler from the United States 
finished conditions might, he thought, permit a one year in which to perfect his homestead entry, 
resumption of the Atlantic line negotiations. As The alien labor act was changed so as to make 
to the Joint High Commission: " It is still in ex- the penalty of $1,000 or less discretionary instead 
istence, and we intend at the earliest possible of arbitrary, and giving the right of application 
moment to resume negotiations." The address to a police magistrate, subject to judicial permis* 
then passed without division, and after an unpre- sion, as well as to the Attorney-General or High 
cedentedly short discussion. Court judges of the provinces. The late Queen's 

During the session that followed and was pro- birthday was made a permanent holiday as Vic* 
rogued on May 23 interesting and important de- toria Day. To Prince Edward Island was given 
bates took place. The coronation oath of the an annual grant of $30,000 in consideration o! cer- 
King was discussed at length, and a resolution tain failures in the pledge by Canada at confed- 
was carried asking the imperial authorities to eration to give it steady and efficient steam corn- 
modify its terms so as to eliminate any ofi'ensive munication with the mainland. To the Montreal 
allusions to Roman Catholicism. The South Harbor Commissioners was granted $1,000,000 to 
African war was debated for many hours upon a build elevators and improve their terminal facili- 
motion presented by Henri Bourassa condemning ties. Power was obtained to appoint three addi- 
the British Government for entering upon the con- tional judges in the Superior Court at Montreal, 
test, and urging its termination by granting inde- a chief justice for the Northwest Territories, and 
pendence to the Boers, subject to control of their two police magistrates in the Yukon. A subsidy 
foreign policy. The motion had only three sup- of $100,000 was voted for a steamship-line be- 
porters — Messrs. Bourassa, Monet, and Angers — tween Canada and France. The sessional indem- 
but was notable for the eloquent speech made by nity of members of the Commons was increased 
the Premier in defense of the mother country, in from $1,000 to $1,500. 

approval of the objects of the war, and in sym- The House adjourned on May 23 after a large 

pathy with the Canadian forces which had joined number of measures had been assented to, besides 

in fighting for British rights and liberties in that those already mentioned, the following being the 

far-off land. The address attracted much at ten- most important: 

tion in England. « To incorporate the Canada National Railway 

There was a prolonged debate upon Govern- and Transport Company, 
ment ownership of railways, in whicn Mr. W. F. To provide for the marking and inspection of 
Maclean pressed that idea as a panacea for all packages containing fruit for sale, 
the ills that Canada was heir to; upon the gen- To amend the Dominion lands act. 
eral transportation policy, or lack of policy, of the Respecting the Canadian Northern Railway 
Government, and their expenditures upon the St. Company and the Northern Pacific and Manitoba 
Lawrence route and the harbors of Port Colbome, Railway Company, The Winnipeg Transfer Corn- 
Montreal, etc., with a view to diverting the grain panv. Limited, the Portage and Northwestern 
trade of the far West from American to Canadian Railway Company, and the Waskada and North- 
channels; upon the Pacific cable scheme, the eastern Railway Company. 

taxation of Canadian Pacific Railway land grants To amend the Yukon Territory act, and to 

in Manitoba, the question of a beet-sugar indus- make further provision for the administration of 

try, and the manner in which the preferential tariff justice in the said territory, 

was injuring the woolen industry. The Govern- To amend the franchise act, 1898. 

ment's majority was tested on March 29, when Further amending the act relating to ocean 

Mr. Borden moved the following, which was de- steamship subsidies, 

feated on a party vote by 54 majority: To amend tlie act to restrict the importation 

" That in the opinion of this House the wel- and employment of aliens, 

fare of this country requires a pronounced policy To amend the Pacific cable act, 1899. 



CANADA, DOMINION OP. 



97 



jting the Ottawa Branch of the Royal 

ice«. — On March 14 the Minister of Fi- 
Ar. W. S. Fielding, introduced his fifth 
:>udget. It was a cheerful statement, and 
ister declared that in almost every dc- 
t of Canadian industry there had been a 
atifying activity, while trade and com- 
id flourished in such a degree as to make 
od one of unexampled prosperity. The 
for the last two financial years, ending 
, were as follow: 



SOURCES. 


1898-*99. 


1899-1900. 




$25,316,841 
9,641,227 

8,i»3,rr; 

8,589,404 


$28,374,147 




9,868,075 


k 


3,205,535 


K>11S 


9,682,227 








$46,741,249 


$51,029,994 



>tal increase had been $4,288,745, $1,000,- 
e than he had expected. The total ex- 
e chargeable to consolidated fund ac- 
"or what may be described as the ordinary 
i of government — was $42,97*5,279, show- 
rplus of $8,054,714. This he described as 
est in the history of Canada, the next 
J€ing that of 1899, which was $4,837,749. 
as, however, another class of expenditure 
ipital expenditure, and composed of items 
r special public works, railways, and rail- 
sidies. These amounts, including $3,308,- 

the Intercolonial and Prince Edward 
Lailwavs, $2,639,564 for canals, $1,089,827 
ic works, $230,850 for the militia, $725,720 

ay subsidies, and $1,547,623 for the South 

contingents and the Halifax garrison, 
Ki to $9,742,187. The public debt had been 
led bv $779,639. On June 30, 1899, it was 
,446 "(net) ; on June 30, 1900, it was $265,- 

On only two occasions in the history of 
linion had it been possible to announce a 
n in the debt — in 1871, when Sir Francis 
was Finance Minister, and in 1882 under 
me of Sir Leonard Tilley. He estimated 
nue for the current fiscal year (1900-'01) 
iO.OOO, and the expenditures chargeable to 
iolidated fund at $46,400,000. The total 
xpenditure, however, he estimated at $10,- 
additional^ and thought that probably 
M) would have to be added to the public 
s to the condition of the debt generally, 
i that the average yearly increase during 

years of the Laurier administration had 
749,093, against an average of $0,503,075 
revious eighteen years, 
ig with the coming fiscal year, 1901-^02, 
ding estimated an expenditure of at least 
►00 on consolidated-fund account and 
fO on capital account, together with sup- 
iry appropriations and bounties on steel 

production of at least $1,000,000. He did 
•ct a much increased revenue, and in this 
bought we had about reached " the crest 
ave of prosperity." The total expenditure 
e South African war was given in detail, 
iided $1,547,623 expended in 1898-'99 upon 
ngents and the Halifax garrison; $724,068 
1 from June 30, 1899, to Feb. 28, 1901, for 
e purposes; and an estimated further ex- 
e to June 30, 1901, of $120,000— a total 
1,692. He spoke of the position of Cana- 
urities in the British market. Our 2i per 
n of 1897, issued at 91 i, was now quoted 
hile British consols, which stood at 1135 
were now quoted as low^ as 97 J. If, there- 

►L. XLL— 7 A 



fore, Canadian credit had not materially risen, 
it had at least not shared in the very natural re- 
sults which war had brought to the greatest of 
British securities. The only change in the tarifif 
announced by the minister was the free admission 
for one year of all machinery used in the equip- 
ment of beet-sugar factories. 

Mr. E. B. Osier, a financier and capitalist, was 
selected to reply to Mr. Fielding in behalf of the 
Opposition. After pointing out that in the past 
four years the Government had obtained a rev- 
enue of $30,950,000 over the revenue of the pre- 
ceding four years, he declared that the surplus 
should have been treated in one of two ways — 
either to reduce the taxes or to reduce the public 
debt. Instead of this, it had been spent with a 
free hand, and the debt was actually mcreased by 
$6,900,000. "Where are all the professions of 
economy and all the platforms of the present 
Government when in opposition? They proposed 
to reduce expenditure, they proposed to cease 
bonusing railways and other works which they 
thought should not require public money." The 
speaker came out very strongly in favor of call- 
ing a halt in the squandering of public money 
in the bonusing of railways and other public 
works. It was the duty of the Government to 
cease this policy in the older provinces at least. 
He declarea that there was not the slightest effort 
on the part of the Government to keep the expendi- 
ture within the revenue. Mr. James Clancy took 
high ground against the alleged extravagance of 
the Government. They had collected a revenue 
of $36,618,000 in 1890, and in 1900 one of $51,029,- 
000. They had increased the taxation of the 
people. In 1896 the customs duties were $3.94 a 
head, and the excise 63 cents. In 1900 the cus- 
toms rate had increased to $5.37, and the excise 
to 83 cents. The specific increase on tobacco and 
cigars was $1,313,337; on sugar, $737,534: on rice, 
$26,000. While the minister had taken $14,000,000 
more from the people than in 1896, he yet glorified 
himself for a slight reduction in the public debt 
of 1900. " In arriving at his surplus of $8,000,000, 
the honorable gentleman did not include all the 
expenditures." The receipts for 1899-1900 were 
$51,029,994; the total expenditure was $52,717,466, 
leaving in reality a deficit of $1,687,472. It was 
unfair and misleading to separate the capital and 
consolidated fund expenditures when both were 
paid in the main out of revenue. 

Sir R. J. Cartwright, Minister of Trade and 
Commerce, defended the Government's financial 
position and record. It was true that the debt 
had slightly increased, but it was for such indis- 
putedly good purposes as the expenditure of $3,- 
500,000 upon the Crow's Nest Railway, the grant 
of $1,500,000 for the expenses of the troops sent 
to South Africa, and the discount of about $1,- 
000,000 on the 2i-per-cent. loan. As to the future, 
he was very optimistic. " During the next twen- 
ty-five years, in fact during a shorter period, we 
shall probably have to refund the whole, or very 
nearly the whole, of our debts. At this moment 
the charges for our debt and sinking-fund are a 
little more than $13,000,000 a year, but if my hon- 
orable friend (Mr. Fielding) succeeds in establish- 
ing 2^- or even 2|-per-cent. rates and in dispensing 
with the sinking-fund — as I know he will — the 
probabilities are that before the twenty-five years 
have expired we shall have reduced that $13*000,- 
000 to something like '$6,000,000 or $7,000,000." 
He was quite assured as to the nature of the 
present tariff. Replying to a remark made by Mr. 
Cochrane, Sir Richard said: *' If he means to say 
that our tariff is a very high revenue tariff, I 
will agree with him; if he says it is a protective 



I 



98 CANADA, DOMINION OF. 

tariff, I differ." Mr. Borden moved a vote of AgrJculture and Live Stock. — In reply to ai 

want of confidence on May 23, and reviewed tlie inquiry, the Minister of Customs stated in the 

whole financial position in his speech. His mo- House of Commons, on March 11, that the total 

tion was defeated by 100 to 51 votes. export of Canadian cattle to Great Britain in 

.Trade and Commerce. — Mr. Fielding's budget 1894-1900 was 735,204 in number, at a value of 
speech, on March 14, contained important figures $48,471,963, and an average price per head of 
relating to the expansion of trade and commerce $05.93. To the United States in the same period 
in the Dominion. The aggregate external trade the number was 233,060, the value $3,718,435, and 
of Canada in 1899 was $321,061,213, and in 1900 the average price $15.91. The average price to 
it was $381,571,230. The imports for consumption Great Britain had decreased from $78.43 to $GG.12, 
had risen from $154,051,593 to $180,804,316. The and to the United States it had increased from 
exports of Canadian produce had increased from $14.34 to $17.98. Figures were given of the export 
$138,462,037 to $170,642,369. The exports of Ca- of other annual products to Great Britain and the 
nadian produce to Great Britain rose from $85,- relative values in 1898-1900 as follow: Butter 
114,555 to $06,562,875, and to the United States increased in quantity from 10,000,823 pounds to 
from $40,462,856 to $59,666,556. The exports from 24,317,436 pounds, and in value from $1,915,550 to 
Canadian mines to all countries rose from $13,- $4,947,000; cheese decreased in quantity from 
308,150 to $24,580,266; from Canadian Fisheries, 196,220,771 pounds to 185,627,757 pounds, and in- 
$0,909,662 to $11,169,083; from Canadian forests, creased in value from $17,522,681 to $19,812,670; 
$28,021,529 to $28,663,668; of agricultural prod- bacon and hams in quantity from 85,208.562 
ucts, $46,743,130 to $56,148,807; of Canadian pounds to 134,949,129 pounds, and in value from 
manufactures, $11,708,707 to $14,224,287. The $8,020,482 to $12,749,175; eggs decreased in num- 
condition of the imports from Great Britain was ber from 10,280,466 dozen to 10,109,383 dozen, and 
shown by the figures of the five years during increased in value from $1,244,051 to $1,447,030. 
which he had held office: $32,979,742 in 1896; On March 28 Mr. Henderson referred to the 
$29,412,188 in 1897; $32,500,917 in 1898; $37,060,- great expansion in production of hogs during re- 
123 in 1899; $44,749,730 in 1900. The total trade cent years, and, incidentally, of the value of pro- 
of Canada had increased from $148,387,329 in tection in bringing about this result. In 1889 the 
1869-70 to $224,420,486 in 1894-'95, and to $381,- farmers were unable to hold their home market 
517,236 in 1899-1900. against American competition, and the duty was 

Speaking on the succeeding day, Mr. C. S. Hy- increased upon hogs, mess pork, fresh pork, bacon 

man compared the trade of Canada under Con- and hams. In 1890 36,000,000 pounds of hog 

serv-ative and Liberal rule. " During the seventeen product were imported from the United States, 

years of Conservative rule there was an increase In 1900 only 12,000,000 pounds were imported. In 

of $52,015,000, or about $3,000,000 per annum, 1889 only 4,000,000 pounds of hams and bacon 

while during the five years of Liberal rule it in- were exported; in 1900 there was an export of 135,- 

creased by $157,097,000, or somewhat in excess of 000,000 pounds. The home market had been pre- 

$31,000,000 per annum. Mr. E. D. Smith took up served, and the British market cultivated, 

this point and argued that if the Government Militia. — In reply to an inquiry on April 3, 

were responsible for the increases in trade they the Minister of Militia and Defense said there were 

were also responsible for the decrease. In 1898 43 battalions of active militia in Ontario, 30 in 

the export of w'heat had been $17,313,916 in value, Quebec, 9 in Nova Scotia, 6 in New Brunswick, 

and in 1899 $10,000,000 less. In 1898 the export 2 in Manitoba, 3 in British Columbia, and 2 in 

of flour was $5,425,760, and in 1900 $2,791,885. Prince Edward Island. Of these troops, 2,298 were 

He quoted- similarly other figures, and the total cavalry, 3,843 artillery, 328 engineers, 29,476 in- 

value for agricultural products showed a decrease fantry ; 140 belonged to army service corps, 344 

from $75,000,000 in 1898 to $68,000,000 in 1899. to the bearer companies, and 192 to field hospitals. 

1 hey had risen since then, but his point of respon- Sixty-nine corps were armed with Lee- Enfield 

sibility was, he contended, still good. The Mmis- rifles and carbines, and the remainder with Snider 

ter of Customs, in comparing the commerce of rifles. In camps all troops used the former. There 

("anada with that of the United States, on March were at the time of speaking 6,164,828 rounds of 

26, said the domestic exports of the United States ammunition at the headquarters of battalions in 

in the fiscal year 1900, exclusive of coin and bul- Ontario; 4,443,826 in Quebec; 232,850 in Nova 

lion, increased 14 per cent., and those of Canada Scotia; 318,517 in New Brunswick; 195,540 in 

23 per cent. The grand aggregate trade of the Prince Edward Island ; 181,615 in Manitoba; 479,- 

republic increased 13^ per cent.; that of Canada 833 in British Columbia. There were 90 field-guns 

19 per cent. On the basis of a population of 76,- attached to the various cavalry battalions. 

000,000 the foreign trade of the United States was There was only one arsenal — that at Quebec. 

$32 per head in 1900, and that of Canada, on a Later in the session Dr. Borden introduced and 

basis of 6,000,000 population, was $63 per head, carried a measure granting pensions to the oflS- 

The agrgregate trade of the United States in- cers, non-commissioned oflicers and men of the 

creasea 28 per cent, between 1896 and 1900; that permanent corps upon completion of twenty years' 

of Canada 60 per cent. service. Widows and children of officers who had 

The official reports for the year ending June 30, sen^d twenty years and were at the time of death 

1901, showed a total export trade of $195,641,838, on full pay or in receipt of pensions, were to be 

of which $40,143,828 was the product of the entitled to receive pensions. . Officers, however, 




tural products; $17,845,935, manufactures; and Africa during the year, and w^ere presented with 

.f 35 1,966 miscellaneous. Of the imports, $181,237,- colors by the King in person at Buckingham 

988 were entered for consumption. Of this Palace, London. Various imperial honors were 

amount $105»909,756 were dutiable and $75,268,2.32 conferred upon Canadian officers who had served 

non-dutiable. From Great Britain $43,164,297 during the war. 

were imported, and from the United States $110,- The Boyal Tour. — During a great part of the 

485.008. The total trade was $386,903,157, against vear Canada was stirred with anticipation and 

$381,520,286 in 1900. jpreparation for the state visit of the Duke and 



CANADA, DOMINION OF. 99 

?S8 of Comirall and York. The heir to the foreign agencies and banks, $2,204,257; call and 

e was returning from a tour that had in- short loans in Great Britain and United States, 

1 many British islands, Australia, New Zea- $23,530,628; bonds, debentures and stocks, $2,880,- 

Natal, and Cape Colony, and had covered 973; notes and checks of other banks, $1,090,470; 

than 30,000 miles by sea and land under the current loans and discounts in Canada, $58,850,- 

h flae and within the empire. Loyalty to 449. The total liabilities were given as $99,582,- 

k-ing foiind expression in the welcome that 059, and the total assets as the same amount, 

nven to the royal couple as they landed at Belations with the United States. — S()eak- 

»c on Sept. 16, and pride in the empire was ing in the House ot Commons on Feb. 18, Mr. VV. 

i in the reception that was everywhere F. Maclean referred to the strong taritT policy 

to the visitors as they traversed the Do- assumed by the Russian Government toward the 

•n from shore to shore. United States, and declared that " we must have 

Quebec the reception was particularly effect- a little De-Wetteism in our Goveniment. We 

nd the electrical display from fortress, city, must have a tariff with a sliding scale which will 

larbor added to the natural grandeur of the be friendly to a friendly government, but will be 

ry, made the evening spectacle wonderfully protective as against an unfriendly one.'* There 

>sive. A review of 3,000 troops took place was only one way to settle questions at issue be- 

le Plains of Abraham, and later of 11,000 tween Canada and the United States, and that 

5 at Toronto and 10 000 at Halifax. The was by means of the tariff. ** If they find their 

receptions here and at Montreal were can- goods barred out of Canada, they will quickly 

out of respect to the memory of President come to terms. In 1890 we imported $57,000,000 

nley, whose funeral was then taking place, worth of goods from the United States. That 

Royal Highness distributed the medals sum has grown to-day to $96,000,000 or more, and 

led' to the troops who had served in South it is growing steadily. Canada is the best outside 

I. In Winnipeg the central feature of the market the United States have. But as long as 

me was the presence of immense arches of we are fools enough to let their goods come into 

L upon the chief streets ; at Calgary, the gath- this country under the present low tariff, while 

01 thousands of Indians in solemn greet- they put up a high tariff to bar out our goods, we 

nd an exhibition of Western bronco-riding shall never get fair treatment from them." 

ports: at Vancouver, a great gatherinc of On March 15 Sir Richard Cartwright described 

l-children singing patriotic songs; at Vic- the advantage to Canadians of trade with Great 

Indian war-dances and the fireworks and Britain over trade with the United States. ** Man 

ination of the city and a fleet of men-of-war for man and family for family, our trade with 

; harbor. the 40,000,000 of people in Great Britain is very 

Toronto, seven miles of continuously deco- much more profitable to us than our trade with 

streets lined by 11,000 soldiers and several the 70,000,000 people of the United States." We 

ed thousand people, musical welcome by a sold to the former about $96,000,000 worth, and 

"d chorus of 2,000 voices, a crowded recep- to the latter about $60,000,000 worth per annum 

it the Parliament buildings, state dinners, — to the one country $2.50 a head, and to the 

ry review, university honors, and constant other 80 cents a head of its population, 

ng — were indications of the interest taken in Mr. Clarke Wallace, on March 18, went at 

»yal couple. At Ottawa, the unique feature length into the tariff relations of the two coun- 

i welcome was the visit to a lumbermen's tries as they affected the agricultural interests 

and a trip down the Ottawa on a lumber- of Canada. The best way to live on amicable 

raft. From Halifax the Duke and Duchess terms with the people of the United States was 

on Oct. 21, accompanied by a fleet of war- to look more closely to our own interests, " Let 

us make a tariff that will suit ourselves, and if 

iks. — In his budget speech on March 14, the American people charge high duties on Cana- 

the Minister of Finance ^ave statistics illus- dian products, let us protect our farmers by 

^ the condition of bankmg in Canada. On charging high duties on their products." He then 

1, 1870. the circulation of Dominion notes quoted a large number of items upon which the 

een $7,450,334; in 1895 it was $22,893,259; American duty was higher than the Canadian. 

it had risen to $28,113,229. The circula- During the year no direct steps were taken to 
f small notes ($1 and $2) rose from $3,489,- settle the Alaskan question or the ever-open, sub- 

1 Oct. 31, 1875, to $7,312,917 in 1895, and iect of reciprocity. In the House of Commons Sir 
6,110 in 1900. The total circulation of the Wilfrid Laurier expressed more than once his 
of Canadian chartered banks on Oct. 31, belief that the negotiations of 1899 would be re- 
was $18,642,895; in 1895, $34,671,028; in sumed, but at Montreal, in a speech on Nov. 6, 
$53,198,771. In the Government and post- he said there would be no more joumevs to Wash- 
savings-banks there was on June 30, 1870, ington seeking reciprocity. It would soon, he 
im of $3,337,072; in 1885, $32,979,076; in thought, be the other way. If nothing was to be 
H4.450.498; in 1900, $53,149,722. Public de- done by the United States to make trade rela- 

in the chartered banks on June 30, 1870, tions easier, it was urged by Mr. Charlton, a 

it^ to $54,074,760; in 1885 to $95,030,429; Liberal leader, and by the Toronto World, a Con- 

5 to $182,688,227; in 1900 to $277,256,716. servative newspaper, that the duties on American 

annual report of the chief bank in Canada, products be raised to the full level of the American 

ink of Montreal, was made public on May tariff on Canadian products. There was some 

[)1. Its net profits for the year were given expectation, however, that President Roosevelt, 

537,522, and its 10-per-cent. dividend as $1,- in pressing the McKinley policy of reciprocity, 

0. The capital stock of the institution was would include Canada in a fair offer for mutual 

0,000 : its reserve fund, $7,000,000 ; its notes interchange. In this connection the universal 

elation, $6,482,214; its deposits not bear- sorrow in Canada over the death of the President 

terest. $18,184,774; its deposits bearing in- was significant of the kind feeling entertained to- 

$54,.501.8.53. The assets included gold and ward the United States, 

coin, $2,5(]4.358: Government of Canada de- The Mint.— On May 17 Mr. Fielding, Minister 

notes. $3,472,440; indebtedness by British of Finance, announced in the House of Commons 

cs and banks, $2,536,166; indebtedness by that arrangements had been made for the estab- 



100 



CANADA, DOMINIOX OP. 



lishment in Canada of a branch of the royal 
mint. The structure, with fittings and plant, 
was to cost $300,000 and require an annual out- 
lay of not more than $/ 5,000. It would make all 
gold, silver, and copper coins required in the Do- 
minion, and, if time permitted, would have author- 
ity to make British sovereigns out of Canadian 
gold. The officials of the mmt would be special- 
ists appointed by the authorities of the Koyal 
Mint in London, and he estimated that the 
profits on the coinage would about equal the 
annual expenses. An assay office would be estab- 
lished in British Columbia, and the expenses of 
freight, insurance, etc., would be paid by the 
Government, so as to place the miner going to 
Vancouver in the same position as the miner 
going to Seattle, and malcing it possible to re- 
ceive much of the millions of Canadian gold now 
going to the American center. The bankers of the 
country did not approve of this proposal, but Par- 
liament and the people generally appeared to do 
so, and it soon became law. Mr. E. S. Clouston, 
President of the Canadian Bankers' Association, 
declared it to be a dangerous tampering with the 
currency and interference with a system which 
was now almost perfect. The trouble about 
miners and Seattle was due to the fact that most 
of them were Americans, and that the American 
steamers were more comfortable than the Cana- 
dian. The mint policy would disturb and dis- 
organize the currency system without any ade- 
quate return, and bring in the still more danger- 
ous element of a free-silver coinage Question. 
The policy, however, was carried out, the mint 
was soon in 'course of erection, and the assay 
office was duly established at Vancouver. 

The Census. — On Aug. 17 the result of the de- 
cennial census was announced, and the popula- 
tion of Canada was stated to be 5,338,883, against 
4,324,810 in 1881. It was a disappointment to 
many who had confidently expected that the fig- 
ures would at least reach the 0,000,000 mark, but 
was slightly improved by the subsequent addition 
of 150,000 whicn had been in some way omitted, 
and which made the total nearly 5,500,000. The 
population by provinces was as follows: 



PROVINCE. 



Ontario 

Suebec 
ova Scotia 

New Brunswiclc 

Manitoba 

British Columbia 

Northwest Territories. 
Prince Ekiward Island. 



1891. 



2.114,821 

l,488,5a'i 

450.396 

821,263 

152,506 

98,173 

06,799 

109,978 



1901. 

2,167,978 
1,620,974 
459,116 
831.093 
24«,464 
190.000 
145.000 
103,258 



53,657 

132.439 

8.720 

9,830 

93.958 

92,927 

78.801 

♦5,820 



* Decrease. 

The city of Montreal had a population of 266,- 
826, or an increase of 46,645; Toronto of 207,971, 
or an increase of 26,751; Quebec of 68,834, or an 
increase of 5,744 ; Ottawa of 59,902, or an increase 
of 15,748; Hamilton of 52,550, or an increase of 
3,570; Winnipeg of 42,336, or an increase of 16,- 
697; Vancouver of 26,196, or an increase of 12,- 
487; Calgary 12,142, or an increase of 8,266. The 
increases in the other cities ran from 1,000 to 
7,000. Halifax had 40,787, St. John 40,711, Lon- 
don 37.983, Victoria 20,821, Kingston 18,043 (a 
slight decrease), Brantford 10,631. The greatest 
comparative increase was in Sydney, Cape Breton, 
which had risen from 2,427 to 9.908, while Valley- 
field, Province of Quebec, as a result of industrial 
progress, increased from 5,515 to 11,055. There 
was a decided increase in the number of families 
in the Dominion, the number for 1891 being 921,- 
(;43, and for 1901 1.043.296. The number of dwell- 
ings had also increased from 877,586 to 1,000,652. 



Miscellaneous Statistics. — ^The pulp 
Canada showed some progress. During 
six months of 1901 Canada shipped t 
Britain $814,110 worth, against $2,00C 
ceived from Sweden, $2.750,(KK) from Nor\ 
$270,000 from the United States. In Mt 
Canadian exports of pulp were 5 per cen 
total imported by Great Britain; in Ms 
they were 7^ per cent.; in May, 1901, tl 
13i per cent. 

In 1900 there were 35,057 miles of t 
lines in Canada. Of these> 18,286 miles bel 
the Great Northwestern Telegraph C 
8,886 to the Canadian Pacific Railway C 
2,912 to the Western Union Company, a 
to the Dominion Government. The Go\ 
lines were largely in regions where the tn 
not very great, and where they were moi 
venience than a paying business enterpri 
outlay was $76,965 and the receipts only 

On June 12 the two great concerns wl 
w^orked a revolution in tne coal and steel 
of Nova Scotia at Sydney held their 
meetings at Montreal. The statement 
Dominion Iron and Steel Company si 
bonded indebtedness of $8,000,000, ] 
stock of $5,000,000, common stock of $1.' 
bills payable of $90,808, and accounts 
$545,848— a total liability of $28,636,6i 
credit side of the statement showed $1 
as the value of their property, $9,668,40 
value of the plant, $1,435,849 as due u 
ferred stock, $1,205,583 cash in banks i 
cellaneous sums making the same total a: 
bilities. 

The Dominion Coal Company showed 
mated output of 2,600,000 tons for 1902. 
2,044,877 tons in 1901 and 884,500 tons 
The total assets of the company were p 
$22,705,718, the surplus balance at $592 
net proceeds from sales, etc., at $6873 

Postal Affairs. — The report of the Pos 
General for 1900 placed tne net revenu 
year at $3,183,984, and the exp)enditures a 
646, leaving a deficit of $461,661, against 
in the preceding year of $398,917. The to 
ber of letters posted in Canada was Hi 
the post-cards 27,130,000, the registered 
4,312,000, the free letters 6,318,000, the nev 
etc., 32,972, packages 3,803,750, closed pa 
Great Britain and elsewhere 31,988. The 
of money-orders issued was 17,128, ; 
amount $201,145. The amount paid on 
orders was $2,797,375. Various imprc 
were made during the year, such as th 
automobiles in cities, insurance on regist 
respondence, the introduction of postal n 
other conveniences for the public. 

Criminal Statistics.— The figures 1 
showed an increase in the number of coi 
in every province except Quebec. Nov 
showed the lowest percentage, 7.07 in 1 
against 26.40 in 10,000 in British Columl 
total number of the convictions was I 
10.72 in 10,000, against 10.75 in 1899. Tfc 
fewer indictments among the laboring 
dustrial classes, and a slight increase in 
mercial and agricultural classes. The pr 
of females was larger than in 1899, bi 
smaller than in the average of 1884-'96. 
ures for 1900 were 5.8 per cent., against i 
age mentioned of 8.7 per cent. Crimin; 
foreign countries increased considerabl 
proportion of Roman Catholic offenders 
per cent, and the figures generally were t 
indicate the formation of an habitual 
class with repeated offenses. 



CANADA, DOMINION OP. 



CHEMISTRY. (Chemical Theory.) IQl 



^ays and Canals. — The official reports 

• showed a railway mileage in the Do- 
)f 17,824, and a total paid-up capital of 
,405. Of the cost of these railways the 
n Government had contributed at the rate 
2 per mile, the provincial governments 
er mile, and the municipalities $891. On 
, 1900, there were 17,657 miles in opera- 
train mileage for the year of 55,177,877 ; a 

passengers carried, 21,500,175; tons of 
35,946,183. The earnings of all the roads 
>,740,270, and the working expemses $47,- 

The Government railways — the Inter- 

and Prince Edward Island lines — had a 

fr traffic in 1900 of $1,477,468, a freight 

: $2,996,418, and a total earning power of 

0. Their mileage was 1,511; paid-up 
$64,636,200; the passengers carried were 

• ; and the freight was 2,213,455 tons. The 
were $4,720,810, as against $3,903,343 in 
d the expenses $4,652,336, as against $3,- 
n 1899. 

*anadian Pacific Railway annual report 
iscal year ending June 30, 1901, was made 
1 September, and showed gross earnings 
)5,203, and working expenses of $18,745,- 
«ed charges for interest amounted to $7,- 
and the surplus for the year was $5,736,- 
e half-yearly dividend to April 1 was $2,- 
and to Oct. 1 $2,248,420. The cost of the 
and equipment was given as $225,353,616, 
: of the ocean, lake, and river steamships 
3^91. The value of acquired securities 
linst debenture stock issued was stated 
89,455, and of real estate, hotels, and 
8 held by trustees for the company at 
H. Other securities were placed at $2,- 
while the balances due on lands sold and 
es was stated at $3,652,869. Advances to 
railways and interests amounted to over 
KM), and the total assets were $291,518,- 
e liabilities included $65,000,000 of capital 
91,540.082 of other stock, $47,238,086 of 
e bonds, $17,831,000 of Other bonds, $4,- 
of current accounts, and interest due of 
9. The total cash subsidies from Do- 
jovemment, provincial governments, and 
ilities were $29,930,590, the proceeds of 
mt sales were $22,663,120, and the sur- 
mings account was $11,122,560. The 
of the railway was 6,873 in 1900. 
rrand Trunk Railway had a mileage in 
3,138, and a paid-up capital of $344,760,- 
earried in that year 6,214,374 passengers 
1,705 tons of freight — an increase in each 
r 1899. Its train mileage was 16.488,361, 
>ts $20,430,167, and its expenses $12,999,- 
B earnings from passenger traffic were $5,- 
frora freight traffic $13,329,695, and from 
►urces. $1,621, 697. The cost of mainte- 
18 $2,714,895, and of working and repairs 
7. The general working expenses were 
9. 

nals of Canada on June 30, 1900, had cost 
ing and maintenance $79,043,784, and for 
renewals, etc., more than $16,000,000. In 
I year 1900, $2,760,219 was spent for con- 

1, $227,627 for repairs, and $202,609 for 
ince. The revenue was $322,043, against 

in 1867, and $369,044 in 1899. The ton- 
Tanadian vessels passing through in 1899 
8.733. The total passengers carried were 
and the freight 6.225,924 tons, while the 
ounted to $270,658. The traffic through 
idian Sault Ste. Marie canal for the season 
included 12,000,000 bushels of grain and 
► feet of lumber. Through the American 



canal went 45,000,000 bushels of grain and 1,000,- 
000,000 feet of lumber. 

Shipping and Fisheries. — ^The lighthouses in 
Canada in 1900 numbered 693, and their main- 
tenance cost $497,535. The wrecks and casu- 
alties in Canadian waters, or of Canadian sHips 
in other waters, numbered 151 against 270 in- 
1899, and the damage done was placed at $356,- 
848. The revenue of the Marine Department was 
$130,229, and the expenditures $982,562. The ves- 
sels built and registered in Canada were 297, with 
a tonnage of 22,329, and those sold to other coun- 
tries were valued at $205,618. The total regis- 
tered tonnage of seagoing vessels which carried 
cargo into and from Canada was 10,661,128, an 
increase of over 1,000,000 tons in the year. The 
tonnage of vessels employed in the coasting trade 
was 33,631,730. 

The value of the yield in Canadian fisheries 
during the fiscal year 1899 was $21,891,706, the 
chief products being cod, herring, lobsters, and sal- 
mon. There were 12,839 vessels and 28,100 men 
receiving a Government bounty in that year. The 
expenditure of the Government upon nsheries in 
1900 was $41 1,717, and the revenue $88,407. There 
were, in 1899, 18,708 men employed in lobster 
canneries, 8,970 in vessels, and 70,893 in boats — 
a total of 79,863 Canadian fishermen. The total 
value of their vessels, traps, etc., was $10,149,840. 
The e::ports of fish from Canada was $9,909,662 in 
1899, and $11,169,083 in 1900; while the imports 
were respectively $875,851 and $1,060,708. 

Insurance. — The total life assurance carried 
by Canadian companies in 1900 was $267,392,184, 
an increase of $15,000,000 during the year. The 
net premiums received were $9,211,082, and the 
assurance issued and taken was $38,602,589. The 
policies that became claims amounted to $3,131,- 
554. Of the rest of the business, British com- 
panies did $30,414,376 — a slight increase — and re- 
ceived $1,371,430 in premiums, and American com- 
panies $125,155,863— an increase of $12,000,000— 
with premiums of $4,263,181. Canadian com- 
panies also did $35,864,762 of business abroad, 
and received premiums of $1,626,198. The total 
life insurance business of Canada in 1900 was 
$303,256,946, with $10,837,280 paid in premiums. 

The fire insurance carried in Canada in 1900 was 
$802,181,916, and the premiums collected were 
$10,014,279. British companies did $540,448,020 
of business, and received $6,709,847 in premiums; 
American companies $108,127,777, with $1,370,581 
in premiums; Canadian companies $153,605,519, 
with $1,933,850 in premiums. The total losses 
paid in Canada were $7,780,001, and the percent- 
age to premiums was 93.70. The accident assur- 
ance business amounted to $111,541,077, with 
premiums of $703,520 and claims paid of $431,521. 

CHEMISTBT. Chemical Theory.— While 
it still seems impossible to break up the atoms by 
ordinary chemical action, the prospect of effect- 
ing that result by electrical methods appears more 
hopeful. Prof. J. J. Thomson, of the University 
of Cambridi^e, has announced that in the course 
of experiments with the cathode rays and other 
applications of electricity he has succeeded in 
determining the existence, weight, volume, and 
other physical properties of matter 1,000 times 
more minute than the atom of hydrogen. He calls 
these particles corpuscles;' and on the basis of his 
discoveries he bases the hypothesis of the corpus- 
cular constitution of matter. 

A considerable part of the address of Prof. 
Arthur W. Rticker as president of the British 
Association is devoted to the consideration of 
the validity of the theory of atoms. The author 
admits that the atom is hypothetical, but shows 



102 CHEMISTRY. (Chemical Physics.) 

that the Iiypothesia is a useful one in that it fur- two sets of results he has obtained are not coo- 
nishes the only intelligible explanation of such cordant, a fact which the author regards as bear- 
phenomena as those of diffusion, expansion, and ing very strongly against the dissociation theory, 
heat. Reviewing the criticisms that have been Nature maintains, however, that this theory, even 
made against the theory, he replies to them, and though it has not met with universal acceptance, 
cites certain experiments that have been made is not thus to be so easily overthrown, especially 
recently — such as those of Sir W. C. Roberts-Aus- until some more satisfactory and fruitful alter- 
ten on the interpenetration of gold and lead, and native hypothesis shall have been put forward to 
experiments with electrified, highly rarefied gases take its place. 

which seem to bear in favor ot it, and concludes Heydenweiller, studying chemical actions of a 

that, '* in spite of many outstanding difficulties, very mild order, such as the solution ot copper 

in spite of the tentative nature of some of our sulfate in water and the substitution of iron 

theories, the atomic theory unites so many facts, for copper sulfate — the changes being conducted 

simplifies so much that is complicated, that we in a closed vessel — observed that the chemical 

have a right to insist — at all events, till an equally action was accompanied by a real but minute 

intelligible rival hypothesis is produced — that the alteration in weight. In a notice of Heydenweil- 

main structure of our theory is true; that atoms ler's work. Lord Rayleigh mentions the question 

are not merely helps to puzzled mathematicians, that arises whether the mass changes as well sa 

but physical realities." the weight. If it does, and it should prove that 

Among the various theories of solution, that of the total amount of matter involved in a chemical 

Van't Uoff, which regards the dissolved substance change is not a fully constant quantity, then im- 

in a dilute solution as existing in a gaseous state, portant revisions will have to be made in physical 

has found much favor. But determinations of science, and some facts that are now puzzling 

molecular weight derived by this hypothesis do may be explained. If, on -the other hand, the 

not agree, especially in the case of electrolytes, mass too does not change, and it is shown tliat 

with those obtained by other methods or deduced mass and weight are not always in strict propor- 

from the chemical formulae. This circumstance, tiou, the accuracy of certain mechanical construe- 

coupled with the fact that the least electromotive tions in which mass and weight are important fac- 

force suffices to generate a current in an electro- tors will be affected. 

lyte, had already led Clausius to replace the hy- In a paper on zymic action read before the 

pothesis of Grotthus by other theories; but Ar- chemical section in the British Association, Prof, 

rhenius, observing that the anomalies in the Adrian Brown cited the experimental results of 

osmotic pressure and the freezing-points occur ex- an investigation of the action of invertose on 

cli^sively in solutions of electrcHytes, was led to cane-sugar. They confirm the conclusions of pre- 

the hypothesis that these contain the acids and vious workers that the action of inversion aoes 

salts in a state of dissociation, increasing with not follow the simple law of mass action. But 

the dilution. The hypothesis of electrolytic dif- the author does not regard the action as independ 

fusion has been put by Profs. Angelo Battelli and ent of mass influence. He considers that nmss 

Annibale Stefanini to a variety of tests in con- influence in inversion changes is restricted by 

nection with the mechanical phenomena of os- some other and hitherto unrecognized influence, 

motic pressure, optic phenomena, thermal phe- which he believes he has found in the time factor 

nomena coimected with freezing-point and boil- of molecular change. 

ing-point determinations, and electric phenomena. It was shown in a paper read by G. T. Bailey in 

Many of the results favor the hypothesis of the the British Association that microscopic exami- 

existence of free ions in solutions, but others are nation had revealed that metals occur in two 

difficult to reconcile with this theory. forms, viz., as (o) minute scales or spicules, and 

Another theory of solutions is suggested, with as (&) a transparent glass-like substance. The 

a new conception of thermal pressure, by Mr. G. spicules do not vary much in size in the different 

N. Lewis in the Proceedings of the American metals, and have a diameter of from j^^ to y^ 

Academy of Sciences. The theory according to of a millimeter. The form (a) passes into the 

which the thermal pressure of any phase is equal form (6) when the metal is pressed or hammered, 

to the pressure which the substance would exert and all polished metallic surfaces are covered with 

if under the same conditions as a perfect gas, a thin layer of this transparent form as with a 

arose in the consideration of certain remarkable lacouer enamel. 

general laws which treat of heterogeneous equi- Cneniical Physics. — Prof. James Dewar de- 
librium in which the several phases are subject to tailed some of the results of his researches in ex- 
different pressures. The author believes that the tremely low temperatures in a Bakerian lecture 
same assumption is alone sufficient to explain all on The Nadir of Temperature and Some Allied 
the laws of dilute solutions. Problems, delivered before the Royal Society. He 

From a large number of experiments made in had found that the helium thermometer, which 
the study of the relations betw^een the electric con- records 5** F. absolute as the boiling-point of 
ductivity and the chemical character of solu- hydrogen, gives 16** F. absolute as the melting- 
tions, Prof. John Gibson has deduced as the broad point. This value does not differ greatly from the 
principle underlying the results obtained, that in value previously deduced from the use of hydro- 
solutions intermolecular reactions tend toward gen-gas thermometers, 16.7°. The lowest tem- 
maximum specific electrical conductivity. perature recorded by gas thermometry is 14.5° 

The electrolytic dissociation theory of Arrhe* absolute, but with more complete isolation and a 
nius is severely criticized by Prof. Kahlenberg in a lower pressure of exhaustion it will be possible 
paper published in the Bulletin of the University to reach 13° F. absolute, which is the lowest tem- 
of Wisconsin (No. 47, February, 1901), in which perature that can be commanded by the use of 
experimental evidence in contradiction of it is solid hydrogen. The latent heat of liquid hydro- 
brought forward. Prof. Kahlenberg has renieas- gen near the boiling-point is about 200 units, 
ured the conductivity of a number of electrolytes and the latent heat of solid hydrogen is about 
at zero and 05°, and has calculated the degree of 16 units. 

dissociation from the measurements as well as The order of the specific heat of liquid hydrogen 

from determinations of the lowering of the freez- was determined by the author as averaging 

ing-point and the rise of the boiling-point. The about (> between the freezing-point and boiling- 



CHEMISTRY. (Chemical Physics.) 103 

point. Hydrogen therefore follows the law of tury, said that while he had at one time thought 

Oulong and Petit, and has the greatest specific he had liquefied helium, he had found that he had 

heat of any known substance; Ihe surface ten- not. The ^as he had then dealt with had proved 

fiion of hydrogen at its boiling-point was about to be a mixture of helium with some other gas 

one-fifth that of liquid air under similar condi- or gases that can be liquefied, but pure helium 

tions. It did not exceed one-thirty-fifth of the had not yet been obtained in liquid form. When 

Burface tension of water at ordinary temperatures, it becomes possible to prepare liquid helium in 

Free hydrogen, helium, and neon have been any quantity, we may hope to get down to tem- 

$eiNinited from the air by two methods, one of peratures lower than any obtained with hydrogen, 

Abich depends on the use of liquid hydrogen to and approaching closely to the absolute zero. 

K)ii the dissolved gases out of air kept at the In the course of the dynamic investigation of 

x>iling-point of nitrogen, and the other on a sim- the bromination of aromatic compounds, the de- 

)le arrangement for keeping the more volatile pendence of the velocity of bromination on the 

rases from getting into solution after partial ex- nature and position of the substituting groups 

laustion. A gaseous material was found in the of the benzene ring has been studied by L. Brun- 

lir that could be separated without the liquefac- ner, and especially the catalytic activity of the 

ion of the air. The spectroscopic examination most important bromin " carriers." In respect 

»f this matter was reserved to be dealt with in to this capacity, aluminum, chromium, iron, and 

I separate paper by Prof. Liveing and the author, thallium salts, compounds of antimony and phos- 

Uelium from the gas at the Kmg's Well, Bath, phorus, and iodin have been examined. The 
<ras subjected by Prof. Dewar to a pressure of 80 catalytic activity of the bromin "carriers" was 
itmospheres with part of the narrow portion of found to depend upon the nature of the substance 
he glass tube in liquid hydrogen. On sudden which was being disseminated, so that the ar- 
'xpansion, a mist from the production of some rangement of these bodies in a general series ac- 
K)lid body was clearly visible. It proved, how- cording to their activity is now possible. For 
ever, to be caused by some other material than benzene and bromobenzene the order is aluminum, 
belium, probably by neon. A similar mist was iron salts, iodin, antimony, phosphorus, halogens, 
seen with hydrogen under similar conditions of The investigations of radioactive substances 
expansion and certain relations (specified by the and the properties of radioactivity continue to 
author) to its critical temperature; and from this yield novel and interesting results. M. and Mme. 
experience applied to interpret the helium experi- Curie have established the fact that when any 
ments, the critical temperature of helium gas was substance is placed near a radiferous salt of 
computed to be under 9° absolute. It is now barium it becomes itself radioactive. The radio- 
safe to say. Prof. Dewar continues, that helium activity persists long after removal of the barium 
has been really cooled to 9** or 10° absolute salt, but decreases with time, at first rapidly, and 
without any appearance of liquefaction. On ac- then more and more slowly. A. Debieme observed 
count of the small refractivity of helium the similar phenomena when salts of barium were 
liquid must be far more difficult to see than placed in intimate contact with salts of his acti- 
liquid hydrogen. The hope of being able to liquefy nium. MM. Curie and Debieme, subjecting ra- 
belium, which would appear to nave a boiling- dium to air exhaustion in a glass vessel, found 
point of about 5** absolute, or one-fourth that of that the vacuum steadily decreased through the 
liquid hydrogen, is dependent on subjecting giving out of a gaseous substance which, when 
helium to the same process that succeeds with collected, was found to be intensely radioactive, 
hydrogen, only instead of using liquid air under Mme. Curie observed irregularities in the radio- 
exhaustion as the primary cooling agent» liquid activity of oxid of thorium that have not yet 
hydrogen under expansion must be employed, and been explained, but for a part of which Owens 
the resulting liquid collected in vessels surrounded suggests that air currents might account. E. 
with liquid nydrogen. From a tabular statement Rutherford, of McGill University, observed that 
of the results of theory and experiment given by air which had been kept near oxid of thorium, 
the author, it appears that by the employment and was then taken some distance away, retained 
of liquid or solid hydrogen as a cooling agent, its conducting power for several minutes, and 
we ought to be able to liquefy a body having a finding similar powers possessed by other thorium 
critical point of about 6** or 8° absolute, and a compounds, concluded that a particular radio- 
boiling-point of about 4** or 5** absolute. Even active emanation susceptible of being carried off 
then, if liquid helium could be produced wnth the by the air was given off by them. . M. Dorn repro- 
probable boiling-point of 5** aosolute, this sub- duced the experiments of Owens and Rutherford 
stance would not enable us to reach the zero of with radiferous salts of barium. Rutherford found 
temperature ; another gas must be found that is as that the emanation given off from a specimen of 
much more volatile than helium as helium is than radium was small at atmospheric temperature, 
hydrogen in order to reach within 1** of the zero but could be enormously increased by slightly 
of temperature. heating the radium, so that he obtained in this 

Among miscellaneous observations made by the way 10,000 times the amount of emanation given 
author in the course of his inquiry is that of the off at ordinary temperatures. Imprisoned in a 
great increase of phosphorescence in the case of closed vessel, the emanation remained radioactive 
organic bodies cooled down to the boiling-point a long time. . The results of further experiments 
of hydrogen, which is very marked when com- pointed to the conclusion that the emanation 
pared with the same effects brought about by the from radium was a radioactive gas, with a moloe- 
a^ of liquid air. Photographic action is still ular weight probablv lying between 40 and 100. 
lively, altnough it is reduced to about half the Experimenting on the communication of radio- 
intensity it fears it liquid air. Some crystals active properties to distilled water, M. and Mme. 
placed in liquid hydrogen became for a time self- Curie and M. A. Debierne have observed tliat 
luminous on account of the high electric stimula- under certain conditions water can be made even 
tion brought about by the cooling, causing actual more active than the body from which the influ- 
clectrical discharges between the crystal mole- ence is communicated. When kept in a scaled 
enles. tube the water loses the greater part of its activ- 

Prof. Dewar, in his lecture on Gases at the ity in a few days. When in an open vessel the 

Beginning and the End of the Nineteenth Cen- loss of activity is much more rapid, and is more 



104 CHEMISTRY. (New Sdbstaxces.) 

rapid according as the surface of contact with arisen from the study of a new property of mat- 

the air is increased. Solutions of radium salts ter — radioactivity." 

behave in an analogous manner. From these ob- New Substances. — On submitting the three 
servatious the authors deduce a theory which ex- varieties of sulfur to the action of liquefied am- 
plains various phenomena of radioactivity. As- monia at — 80° C, M. Moissan obtained no re- 
suming that each atom of radium acts as a con- action, but on allowing the temperature to rise 
tinual and constant source of radioactive energy slowly, solution occurred, at different tempera- 
without knowing precisely whence this energy tures, ran^injg from — 38° to — 11.5° with the dif- 
comes, they find that that of it which is accumu- ferent varieties. From this solution a new com- 
lated in a body from a mass of radium tends to pound, sulfammonium, was obtained^ of a dark- 
dissipate itself in two ways: 1. By radiation red color, and having at — 23° the composition 
(rays charged and not charged with electricity). (N.HB)aS; at 20° (N11,),S.2NH,, which is com- 
2. By conduction to a body in contact or trans- pletely dissociable at the ordinary temperature 
mission from particle to particle through the me- and pressure, and possesses the property of being 
dium of gases and liquids (induced radioactivity), able to add sulfur in the cold to a large number 
The phenomena are similar in their manifesta- of simple and compound bodies, 
tions to those of heat under similar conditions. In the description of some new organo-metallic 
and the explanation offered is analogous to that compounds of mercury, MM. Auguste Lumiere, 
given for them. Louis Lumidre, and Chevrotier represent that 

M. Henri Becquerel has observed that metals when alkali phenol diaulfonates react with mer- 

receiving the direct rays from a radioactive sub- curie oxid, compounds are fonned of great solu- 

stance appear to give off a secondary radiation, bility and presenting some peculiar reactions, 

the penetrating power of which is more feeble They are not precipitated by soda, hydrochloric 

than that of the primary rays, and is analogous acid, or ammonium sulfid. Their taste is pure- 

to the same property of the secondary Kontgen ly saline, and not metallic, as is usual with mer- 

rays discovered by M. Sagnac. The effect of the cury salts. The solutions possess great antiseptic 

secondary radiation is such that a metallic plate power. 

placed upon & photographic plate, instead of act- The fact that continuous beating of the pulp in 

ing as a screen to arrest the radiation from the the making of paper produces a transparent and 

source, gives, on the contrary, a stronger impres- elastic mixture which hardens on drying, and 

sion. greatly strengthens the paper has been utilized 

Prof. Marckwald, of Berlin, having inferred for the production of a new economical substance, 

from the experiments of P. and S. Curie, Giesel, This substance, cellulith, is prepared by a process 

and others, that the barium salt extracted from exclusively mechanical : a beating of the pulp for 

pitchblende contains the radium salt as an iso- a much longer time than is necessary for the 

morphous constituent, and that the process used production of mere paper. After such beating, 

by these workers for separating a strongly radio- which may last for from forty to one hundred and 

active salt from the barium compound is proba- fifty hours, until a homogeneous mixture having 

bly similar to that in use for isolating the con- no trace of fiber appears, the air in the substance 

stituents of an isomorphous mixture, fractionally is removed by beating for two more hours; what 

crystallized from water the barium chlorid pre- coloring matter may be desired is added, and 

Sared from pitchblende. He found that pure then the substance is heated. The hot cellulose 
arium first separated, and then a material, liquor passes into a vessel having a perforated 
probably the eutectic mixture, which was very bottom, through which it drips. On evaporation 
rich in the radioactive component. The most of the water the pulp hardens, gradually attain- 
strongly radioactive fractions had the power of ing the consistency of horn, and having a specific 
immediately discharging a charged gold-leaf elec- gravity of about 4. Cellulith may be worked as 
troscope when at the distance of half a meter from horn or ebonite is. Combined with sawdust and 
the latter, and when preserved under colored glass 30 per cent, of lampblack, a kind of dark ebonite 
soon turned to a deep-brown color. The radio- is formed, which is dense and capable of being 
active substance was strongly luminescent in a polished. 

dark room, and on interposing the hand between In an account of the hexafluorid of sulfur 
the preparation and a barium chlorid platino- published in 1900, M. Moissan mentioned that 
cyanid screen, the bones of the fingers were seen other bodies were formed at the same time con- 
sharply delineated on the screen. In the course of taining sulfur and fluorin. He has since, with 
his address at the British Association, the author M. I^beau, made a further contribution to the 
exhibited several preparations of " phototropic " subject. The compound described is sulfurous 
substances, compounds which changed color on fluorid, SO^Fj, and it is obtained by the regu- 
exposure to sunlight and recovered their original lated action of fluorin on sulfur d'ioxid. The 
tint on preservation in a dark place. He re- conditions of the experiment had to be carefully 
marked that the rapidity of change in either di- studied, as the reaction of these two gases is so 
rection is considerably enhanced by the tempera- violent that explosions frequently occur. The new 
ture. gas is necessarily accompanied by others, because 
In an investigation of the physiological action the operation is carried on in glass vessels. The 
of radium rays, by MM. Henri Becquerel and P. separation of these gases is effected by liquefying 
Curie, radifeious barium chlorid carried on the the whole at — 80° C, and fractionating in a vaeu- 
arm in a thin gutta-percha envelope caused at um. Sulfuryl fluorid is a colorless, odorless 
first a slight burning of the skin, resembling a gas, solidifying in boiling oxygen, melting at 
burn, but without pain. After a few days the — 120° C, and boiling at — 52° C. Although in 
red area increased and the skin was broken, and some respects it resembles its halogen homologue, 
a sore still remained fifty-two daj's aft^r the it recalls in its stability and inertness in other 
action of the rays. The effects were considerably reactions the properties of the hexafluorid. Thus 
stronger and exhibited greater penetrative power it is without action upon water, even in a sealed 
when more active material was employed. tube at 150° C. M. Moissan remarks that the^e 
M. Henry Becquerel concludes a summary of cxporinients with fluorin show that although it 
the studies of this subject with the remark that is undoubtedly at the head of the halogen group, 
they show that *' a new order of phenomena has it is a little removed from the others, having spc- 



CHEMISTRY. (New Substances.) 105 

I and characteristic properties which show salts. Details are given in the author's paper be- 

uities rather to oxygen than to chlorin. fore the Academy of Sciences of Paris of the 

n a prelimiuarv account of their investigation preparation and properties of the salts of sodium, 

the nature and origin of the poison of Lotus ammonium, silver, barium, strontium, and cal- 

bicuSf or the Egyptian vetch, W. R. Dunstan cium. 

I T. A. Henry show that the toxic oroperty is Prof. William Ramsey and Morris M. Travcrs, 

• to the pryssic acid which is fonned when the continuing their examinations of the new gases in 
nt i:* crushed with water, by means of the the atmosphere during 1900, found that the pres- 
irolytic action of an enzyme, lotasc, on a glu- ence of what they had called metargon was to 
id, lotusin, which is broken up into hydrocy- be accounted for bv the fact that in removing 
c acid, dextrose, and lotoflaviny a yellow col- oxygen from the mixture of the gases (krypton, 
ig matter. The authors have continued the in- neon, xenon, helium, etc.), phosphorus contain- 
tigation, with the object of ascertaining the ing carbon was employed. This mixture when 
perties and chemical action of lotoflavin and burned in oxygen j'ields a spectrum to some ex- 
otusin, and also of studying the properties of tent similar to that furnished by carbon monox- 
ise in relation to those of other hydrolytic id, but differing from it in that lines of cyanogen 
ymeii. From lotusin, a monobasic acid, lotu- gas are also present.- The authors are satislied 
c acid, is obtained, which furnishes yellow that their metargon, the spectrum of which is 
italline salts. With the exception of amyg- visible only at high pressure, and only when im- 
n, lotusin is the only glucosid definitely pure phosphorus has been employed to remove 
•wn that furnishes prussic acid as a decompo- oxygen, must be attributed to some carbon com- 
3n product. Lotusin is isomeric with luteolin, pound. Although their experiments had been nu- 
yellow coloring matter of Reseda luteoUi, and merous, they had not succeeded at the time of pre- 
b fisetin, the yellow coloring from young fustic, paring their paper (in November, 1900) in pro- 
ts eotinus. Morin, from Morus tinetoriay ap- ducing in quantity any gas yielding this com- 
rs to be hydroxylotoflavin. The amount of posite spectrum. It could only be obtained by a 
ssic acid given by plants of different stages of mixture of carbonic monoxid with cyanogen. 

w th has been ascertained. The formation By many repetitions of the process of liquefy- 

[>hes its maximum about seeding time, and ing by means of liquid air the mixture of argon, 

?r this diminishes rapidly. The power of lotase krypton, and xenon obtained by the evaporation 

rapidly abolished by heat, and is gradually of air, the authors succeeded in separating the 

troyed by contact with alcohol or glycosin. three gases from one another. It was proved that 

'anaform, an antiseptic much employed lately they are all monatomic by determining the ratios 

veterinary practise, and first prepared only a of their specific heats, using Kundt's method, 

years ago, is a condensation product of tannic Experiments were made, too, on compressibility 

1 and formaldehyde. It is a buff-colored pow- and observations of the spectra. That these gases 

, odorless and almost tasteless, insoluble in form a series in the periodic table between that of 

ter, but fairly soluble in alcohol, ether, caustic fluorin and that of sodium is regarded by the 

ali, and ammonia, and possesses all the anti- authors as proved from three lines of argument: 

tie powers of formaldehyde, but is free from its based upon the steady ratio of 1.66 between their 

>leasant smell and irritant action, while it re- specific heats at constant pressure and constant 

IS the astringent properties of tannic acid. It volume; on the fact that if their densities are re- 

>ears to be harmless when taken internally. yarded as identical with their atomic weights, as 

Q the preparation of the dialdehyde of sue- is the case with certain diatomic gases, there is 

;* acid by C. Harries, the aldoxim of the aide- no place for them in the periodic table; and be- 

le is prepared by the method of Ciamician and cause they exhibit gradations in such properties 

istwlt from pyrrol and hydroxylamin ; and as refractive index, atomic volume, melting-point, 

i, suspended in water and treated with nitrous and boiling-point, which find a fitting place in 

I, gives an aqueous solution of the new dialde- diagrams snowing such periodic relations. *' Al- 

e, from which the pure substance can be iso- though, however, the authors say, " such regu- 

d with some difliculty by fractional distilla- larity is to be noticed, similar to that which is to 

I. Succinic aldehyde is the first member of the be found with other elements, we had entertained 

hatic dialdehydes to be isolated in a purely hopes that the simple nature of the molecules of 

lomolecular form, and is of interest as being the inactive gases might have thrown light upon 

starting-point for the preparation of the three the puzzling incongi'uities of the periodic table, 

jrocyclic rings, furane, thiophene, and pyrrol. That hope has been disappointed. We have not 

• ready convertibility of the aldehyde into been able to predict accurately any one of the 
ivatives of these rings is shown experimentally properties of one of these gases from a knowledge 
be note of the authors. of those of the others; an approximate guess is all 
litherto only one organic base, nicotin, has that can be made. The conundrum of the periodic 
1 known as occurring in tobacco. As in most table has yet to be solved." 

its producing alkaloids several bases usually Sir William Crookes has pointed out that in his 

jr together, Pictet and Rotschy undertook a earlier proposed arrangement of the elements at 

'ch for others in this plant. In the treatment equidistant intervals on an ascending curve of 

I large quantity of tobacco extract, three new figure 8, horizontal vacant spaces exist into which 
PS were discovered, which were named nicotein, the new elements helium, neon, metargon, and 
itallin. and nicotemin. The last of these was krypton may, in consideration of their properties, 
)ciated with crude nicotin, with which it is be appropriately inserted. 

iieric; but it differs from it in being a sec- The powerful oxidizing acid called Caro's acid, 

ary base, and in forming a nitrosamin by which is prepared either by treating a persulfate 

ns of which it can be separated from the nico- with concentrated sulfuric acid or by the elec- 

notwithstanding it is present in only a very trolysia of moderately concentrated sulfuric acid, 

II amount in the crude base. The nicotein or by the action of concentrated sulfuric acid on 
ains two atoms and the nicotallin four atoms hydrogen peroxid, has been found by Baeyor and 
ydrogen less than nicotin. Villiger to have a composition represented by the 
ic osniyloxalates are described by M. L. Win- formula H.-SOa. It is gradually changed in solu- 
ert as forming a well-characterized series of tion to sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxid. 



I 



106 CHEMISTRY. (Xew Substances.) 

In experiments on the separation of thorium, the alkali metals. Chlorids are much more easilj- 
Mr. Charles Baskervilie, of the University of reduced by it than oxids. With most chlorids 
North Carolina, obtained determinations proving when once the action is started at any point it 
the presence of an oxid having unusual specific usually proceeds throughout the entire mass, and 
gravity, which could not be accounted for except very often with explosive violence. For the redue- 
by the presence of either a new oxid of a known tion of oxids, on the other hand, external heat 
element having Ki*cater density than the usual must generally be applied. Moissan has shown 
non-volatile residue after ignition, or of an un- that molten carbid acts on the oxids of ear- 
known element. Similar indications were af- bid-forming metals with the formation of me 
forded in the experiments on radioactivity. From tallic carbids. When, however, the reduction 
the insufficient data already obtamed, it appears takes place at a lower temperature, the metal is 
that in case the element be tetravalent, its atomic free, or almost free, from carbid. At intermediate 
weight lies between 260 and 280. The author pro* temperatures the amount of carbon in the re 
poses, if the supposed new element is identified, duced metal would increase until the tempera- 
to call it Carolinium, and to give it the symbol ture is sufficiently hi^h — as in Moissan's experi- 
Cn. The possibility of this new substance being ments for the formation of carbid — when carbid 
identical with M. Debieme's actinium is sug- alone would be produced. As a rule, however, 
gested. reaction by means of calcium carbid yields purer 

B. Brauner, of Prague, also announces the con- metals than if the reduction is aflfected by carbon 

elusion that thorium does not consist of a single alone, since the reaction takes place at a lower 

element, because on fractional hydrolysis of am- temperature. When the carbid is employed in 

monium thorium oxalate, fractions are obtained the proper proportion, only traces of calcium are 

in which the atomic weight of the metal varies present in the reduced metal. By using a large 

from 220 to 232. Supposing there are two con- excess of carbid, however, calcium alloys can be 

stituents, he distinguishes them as Tha and ThjS. obtained. Calcium carbid can be utilized in the 

Experiments on the transformations of Kontgen laboratory for various reducing purposes, but its 

rays by matter have shown M. G. Sagnac that the application on a technical scale would be eondi- 

study of the electric action of the secondary rays tioned on the yield of metal. In the case of oxids 

emitted by a body affords a test of the presence the yield depends on whether the oxid is easily 

of small quantities of relatively active substances, reduced by carbon or not. Both the calcium and 

such as copper, iron, or aluminum. Hence, also, the carbon of the carbid act as reducing agents, 

a method of searching for new elements. the former being the more powerful, as indicated 

Experiments upon the action of high tempera- by the differentiation of the general equation into 

ture on alcohols, described by W. Ipatieff, show two stages. The greater the difficulty of this re- 

that when alcohols are passed through red-hot duciion of the oxid by carbon, the less will the 

tubes according to a method adopted by Berthe- carbon assist in the reduction — that is to say. 

lot, the corresponding aldehydes are the chief more carbid will be required for the reduction, 

product. In many cases the yields are so good which will then take place chiefly at the expense 

that the method becomes an advantageous one of the calcium. This being the case, free carbon 

for the preparation of certain aldehydes. The hot is liberated, and the larger the quantity of carbon 

tube may be of glass or iron, preferably iron, and thus set free, the greater the difficulty of fluxing 

the temperature that gives the best yields is about or obtaining a regulus. The reduction of copper 

700° C. Alcohol treated in this way eave 25 per by carbid is, according to Moissan, hardly likely 

cent, of the theoretical quantity offormalde- to become a technical process. Carbid may, 

hyde, isobutyl alcohol about 40 per cent., and however, become useful in the production of other 

isoamyl alcohol from 30 to 40 per cent, of the metals in the pure condition, as, for example, for 

corresponding aldehydes. the reduction of nickel oxid or bismuth oxychlo- 

Martignon has observed that the rare earth rid. Improvements mi^ht be effected in the case 
metals — neodymium, praseodymium, and samari- of oxids easily reduced by carbon, by adding a 
um — are capable of combining with hydrogen certain amount of free carbon to the mixture, 
when the metal is set free from one of its com- Again, if the oxids are difficult to reduce by car- 
pounds in the presence of that element. This is bon, if the reduction, for example, takes place 
effected by heating the oxid of one or other of chiefly at the expense of the calcium, a saving 
the metals with metallic magnesium in an atmos- mi^ht be effected by the addition of aluminum 
phere of hydrogen. If the liberation of the metal to increase the reducing power of the carbid, and 
IS carried out in an atmosphere of nitrogen, a to decrease the quantity of carbon. The applica- 
nitrid is obtained. Nitrids of thorium, cerium, tion of carbid for the reduction of alloys appears 
and lanthanum have been prepared in a similar to offer better prospects. By proper use of chlo- 
n anner. rid and oxid, it is possible to reduce simultane- 

It was observed a few years ago by MM. Sabba- ously metals the separate reduction of which 
tier and Senderens that nickel is capable of caus- offers great difficulty. Alloys can thus be ob- 
ing the direct combination of hydrogen with tained which are not easily prepared by fusing 
ethylen and acetylen, with the formation of the constituents, owing to differences in the melt- 
ethane in both cases. The same authors have now ing-points. Carbid can also become useful in re- 
shown that reduced nickel is a very active cata- fining metals. The process of reduction by means 
lytic agent, surpassing even spongy platinum so of carbid is not without hope if it be applied in its 
far as hydrogen is concerned. Thus a mixture of proper place. This lies not in attempting to re- 
hydrogen and benzene vapor passed over reduced place existing processes of reduction, but rather 
nickel at the temperature of about 200** C, readily in application in cases where existing methods are 
gives hexahydrobenzene, no benzene escaping con- either useless or give only unsatisfactory results, 
version if the hydrogen is in excess. The reaction Among some striking experiments based upon 
appears to be a general one, since the homologues the affinity of aluminum and magnesium for 
of benzene behave similarly. Nitrobenzene is re- oxygen, which are described by A. Dubois, is one 
duced to anilin. in which moistened magnesium or aluminum pow- 

The studies of F. von Kuzelgen show calcium der is placed upon a scorifier or porous plate, 

carbid to be a very powerful reducing agent, it covered with dry magnesium, and ignited. As 

being even capable of decomposing compounds of soon as the combustion reaches the moistened 



CHEMISTRY. (Atomic Weights.) 107 

pirt an exceedingly brilliant flame appears, unlimited multiplication of new bodies — a power 

vhich is due to the reaction of magnesium with in which it differed so markedly from other ele- 

witer vapor. The magnesia thus tormed is left ments? Silicon most nearly resembled it, and was 

IB long filaments. Another interesting experiment much more abundant in the world, 3'et in spite 

is upon the reaction of aluminum on alumina, of attempts to constitute a chemistry of silicon 

Four atoms of the metal to one molecule of the like that of carbon, chemists were very far from 

jxid are mixed; upon igniting they react with getting the former to make compounds in rhe 

rivid incandescence, forming, it is represented, the same way as the latter. In attempting an ex- 

iiid A1,0. planation they entered a region of speculation, 

It is shown by W. H. Stanger and B. Blount but there was a basis to go upon in the indispu- 

Jiat in preparing cement by the rotary process it table fact that the smallest chemical unit of car- 

s possible to approach the theoretical ratio of bon combined with four units — not more — of hy- 

idds to bases, and to obtain a stronger and drogen. Kekul6, in whose hands and those of 

ounder cement than the best cements commer- Frankland this fact had resulted in the forma- 

ially prepared by the discontinuous process. The tion of the doctrine of atomicity, threw out the 

aw materials at the works with which the au- brilliant idea that carbon was capable of un- 

hors are concerned are a calcareous shale and limited combination with itself, as an explana- 

I limestone. These are crushed, dried, finely tion of the multiplicity of its compounds, and con- 

lowdered, and fed mechanically into rotary kilns, ceived of the carbon atoms as linking themselves 

lie fuel is powdered coal driven in by a together in a chain. In this way something was 

>last of air through an injector burner at the lost of the combining power of each atom — for 

ower end of the kiln. An intensely hot flame, example, while two separate atoms would have 

eadily controllable, is thus produced, and heats altogether eight combining powers, when linked 

be raw materials introduced at the upper end of together the combined couple could have only 

he kiln, which are caused to travel downward six — but the number of possible compounds was 

n a direction opposite to that of the blast. The indefinitely increased. 

naterials are then heated systematically, and at The question of a possible variability in the 

he lower end of the kiln near the burner become valency of carbon is involved in certain experi- 

»nverted into clinker. This falls into a rotating ments described by- Herr M. Gomberg. By the 

rylinder lined with fire-brick, through which is action of such metals as silver, zinc, and mercury 

piassing a current of air serving to feed the coal- upon triphenyl chlormethane, {CcHo)3Ccl, the 

lust flame. A great part of the heat of the halogen was removed, and, working in the com- 

dinker is thus regenerated. The clinker is then plete absence of air, the resulting j)roduct was 

roughly crushed between rollers that work under not, as would be expected, hexaphenylcthane, but 

a spray of water, and passes through a final ro- an unsaturated body which readily absorbed oxy- 

tary cooler into trucks by which it is conveyed gen from the air and combined directly with the 

to stock boxes over the grinding plant. Thus, halogens. The author thinks that the only pos- 

from the crushing of the raw materials to the stor- sible explanation of the observed facts lies in the 

ing of the finished cement, no hand labor is em- assumption that the substance is really triphenyl 

ployed, all conveyance, distribution, and transmia- methyl, (CoH5)jC, in which the carbon is triva- 

Bion being done mechanically. lent. 

In a method for the preparation of amids from The values obtained for the atomic weights of 
the corresponding aldehydes described by Messrs. iodin and tellurium having been inconsistent 
Pickard and Carter, the aldehyde dissolved or sus- with their relative positions in Mendel^ef's table, 
pended in water is shaken with a slight excess of numerous determinations of the atomic weight of 
ammonia persulfate and a certain Quantity of tellurium have been made in recent years, the re- 
lime; after the reaction is over no aifficulty is suits of which have varied from 127.5 to 128; but 
met in separating the amid in quantities amount- all above that of iodin instead of being below it, 
ing to 30 or 40 per cent, of the aldehyde taken, as required by the periodic law. It was pointed 
The method is said to lend itself to the prcpara- out by O. Steiner that these determinations had 
tion of alkyl-substituted amids; when it is used been made from the analysis of inorganic prepara- 
for this purpose, potassium sulfid is substituted tions, the absolute purity of which from sub- 
for the ammonium salt, and the alkylamin is stances of different atomic weights from that of 
present. tellurium had not been demonstrated. Taking 

In a new method of preparing anilin and its the diphenvl telluride, TefCoH.,),, a stable and 

malogues, by MM. Paul Sabbatier and J. B. Sen- well-defined, compound, and distilling without de- 

lerens, a mixture of hydrogen and nitrobenzene composition in a vacuum, this author obtained 

lapor is passed over reduced copper kept at a 12G.4 as the approximate atomic weight of tellu- 

temperature of from 300° to 400** C, wnen the rium — a figure much lower than the other de- 

y\e\d of anilin is nearly theoretical. If nickel i«» terminations, and corresponding with the predict 

employed instead of copper, the reaction goes far- tion of the periodic table. The investigation is 

:her, even at 200°, benzene and ammonia being not yet complete, 

produced. The principle that the transparency of sub- 

Atomic Weights. — In a lecture at the Royal stances to the Rontgen rays dejwnds upon the 

institution. May 30, dealing with the combina- atomic weights of the elements contained in the 

lions of carbon, Prof. Dewar exhibited some ex- substances, has been applied by A. Benoist to the 

imples of exothennic carbon compounds, which determination of the atomic weight of indium. 

>n decomposition give out heat, and remarked He found by this method that if the metal is 

hat such bodies, being characterized by the fa- bivalent its atomic weight is 75.0, but if trivalent 

•ility with which they passed into new combina- it is 113.4. By another process the author found 

ions, were especially important as a basis for that the atomic weight of indium was nearer to 

>rganic synthesis. An infinite number of carbon that of silver (108) than to that of arsenic (75). 

omnounds were already known, and in addition Hence he infers that the higher valency as found 

o those which occurred in the animal and vege- by transparency to the ROntgen rays is the more 

able worlds, chemists were every year preparing probable one. 

housands of absolutely new ones which had never The assumption of the atomic weight of 113 for 

xisted before. Why had carbon this power of indium, corresponding to the oxid ln,0, is con- 



108 CHEMISTRY. (Chemical Analysis.) 

firmed by the preparation by MM. C. Chabii6 and lapse of some time a precipitate of chrom 

E. Rengarde of well-characterized alums with lead is formed. Absolutely limpid water gi^ 

cesium and rubidium. trace of lead with this reaction. 

Announcement was made at the annual' meet- In the ordinary analysis of feeding stuffs, 

ing of the Chemical Society in London, March 28, been the general custom to deteimine only 

that a committee of the society had decided to of the many constituents present; for the c 

recommend, in reference to a uniform system of tation of ratios or for the determination oi 

atomic weights, (1) that 0= 10 be taken as the ing values, an estimation of the moisture, fa 

basis of calculation; and (2) that in assigning a tern, ash, and fiber is all that is usually rec 

number as the atomic weight of any element, only the percentage of undetermined matter bein, 

so many figures should be employed that the last ply designated " nitrogen-free extract." 

may be regarded as accurately known to one unit method of procedure, though sufficient for 

in that figure. purposes, is not scientifically accurate, and 

A method of estimating sulfids, sulfydrates, ists have for a long time felt that a closer 

polysulfids, and hyposulfites coexisting in so- should be made of the various substam 

lution, particularly in certain mineral waters, groups of 8ut)stances, such as ether extrad 

described by M. Armand Gautier, is based upon tein, and fiber, and that more attention t 

the fact that sulfydrates, distilled in a vacuum, be given to the bodies making up the nit 

give up all their sulfuretted hydrogen in excess free extract. Considerable work has been i 

of that required to form the monosiilfid, and this, plished in such analysis during a few yean 

again, yields the whole of its sulfur on distilling Good workable methods have been a*dopt( 

in a current of carbon dioxid. the determination of sugars, starch, and 

Chemical Analysis. — All ordinary sulfuric sans, and some attempts have been made t 

acid contains silenium or oxidized compounds of a separation of the various lignine and eel 

it, and such compounds can generally be detected bodies that make up the greater part of w 

in the purer acid supplied to laboratories for termed crude fiber. In many cases, more pi 

pharmaceutical purposes. Two fairly sensitive larly in the analysis of grains, the percenta 

methods of detecting selenium are described. One the various constituents will approximate 

is by the use of codein, which gives an intensely closely 100 per cent.; but in other cases, 

blue coloration to the sulfuric solution of sele- feeds rich in fiber, a considerable discrepanc 

nious acid; and the other is by the precipitation exists. Messrs. C. A. Browne, Jr., and C. P 

of selenium when sulfurous acid is passed tie describe an analysis they have made ( 

through sulfuric acid diluted with four times its principles indicated (Pennsylvania State C 

volume of water. M. Ad. Jouve regards the sele- Agricultural Experiment Station) of a sani 

nium as existing in the sulfuric acid in the forms distillery waste. In conclusion, the auth( 

of selenious and selenic acids. He records experi- mark that while the sum of the percentages 

ments in the examination for selenium in raw different constituents in many feeding stuff 

acetylene passed over sulfuric acid, and adds not equal exactly 100 per cent., the results 

that the detection of selenium in sulfuric acid close as can be expected with the present mi 

is of some interest if the acid is to be used in the of analysis. 

free state, whether from the pharmaceutical point Acetylene gas has been found by Jouve \ 

of view or under other circumstances in which it nish a very delicate test for selenium in si 

might be introduced in small quantities — for sele- acid by precipitating it in the elementary 

nium compounds are far from being harmless to tion. 
the human organization. Experiments in the synthesis of some ar< 

A very close chemical relationship has been ob- aldoxims by means of fulminating silv* 

served by Nencki and Marchlewski between the described by R. Schall and E. Retsch. If a 

red coloring matter of the blood and the green hydroxylic derivative of benzene is dissol 

chlorophyl of plants. Hematoporphyrin, a de- ether, some fulminating silver suspended 

rivative of hemoglobin, and ]>hyllocyanin, ob- solution, and hydrochloric acid led slow! 

tained from chlorophyl, both yield on reduction the well-cooled solution, the silver fulmina 

hemopyrrol, which is probably an isobutyl or appears and the hydrochlorid of the new 

methyl propyl pyrrol. xim crystallizes out. The method has bee 

Water containing the most minute traces of cessfully applied to resorcinol, orcinol, pyre 

lead affords to the naked eye a faint though per- und phloroglucosinol. 

sistent opalescence, a fact which has given rise The use of metallic sodium as a reducing 

to the opinion that the toxic metal is in com- in blowpipe analysis is recommended by C 

bination with some organic matters. Of such char- Lathrop Parsons, who finds, contrary to He 

acter are waters that have remained for a long experience in that particular, that the re 

time in new pipes or in old pipes which have takes place with the greatest ease on charcc 

been disturbed by some repairs or soldering, small piece of metallic sodium is hammcn 

Waters exposed when in contact with lead to the flat. The substance to be reduced is powder 

silicious and carbonated dust of the air are always spread upon it, pressed into the metal wi 

contaminated with nitrated particles. For the hammer, and the whole is turned and ki 

detection of lead, M. Billocq uses a zinc reagent into a little ball with a knife blade. It i 

in which the soda has been replaced by ammonia, placed upon a slight depression in a piece o 

This reagent is added in excess to the suspected coal and ignited. A momentary flash ensui 

water, and left quiet for several hours. The abso- the reduction is accomplished. The resi 

hitely limpid supernatant water is then decanted then heated before the blowpipe, and as th 

off, and the rest is thrown on a filter. The filtra- iim oxid and hydroxid immediately sin) 

tion is very rapid, and the dried precipitate is the charcoal, any fusil)le metallic particles 

easily detected. This is decomposed with warm easily into a button, and may be recognized 

acetic acid containing a little acetate of ammonia, usual manner. Volatile metals, like zinc, < 

and is filtered. The clear acid filtrate is touched and yield with surprising readiness the cha 

with a small glass rod wetted with a solution of istic coatings, and on digging up a little 

chromate of potassium. If the water contains charcoal, moistening with water, and placin: 

lead, a yellow cloudiness appears, and after the a silver coin, the " ilepar " reaction is obta 



CHEMISTRY. (Miscellaneous.) 109 

was present in any form. Applied to tern in vogue, must necessarily contain traces of 

Is the method yields results but little less arsenic; although Avith proper care such traces 

than when pure oxids or salts are re- would be so infinitesimal as to be absolutely neg- 

The metallic sodium does not need to be ligible in practise, 

nder naphtha, but may be supplied to a The investigations of this subject have also led 

n small rubber-stoppered, wide-mouthed to the discovery of selenium in poisonous doses 

But it must be kept away from water or in the beer, and to the suggestion that it may 

ne. Large quantities of sodium must be have been present as an additional agent in other 

i, or the reaction may become dangerously cases of poisoning attributed to arsenic. 

The use of sulfuric acid, eitlier as such or in 

ellaneouB. — The address of Prof. J. H. a more portable form as sodium hyposulfite, is 

hairman, before the chemical section of the advocated by Samuel Rideal as a disinfectant for 

m Association, was on the Teaching of destroying the bacillus typhosus in potable 

iry in the Medical Schools of the United waters, or in drainage from isolation hospitals. 

A historical review of the subject was Mr. M. Ackroyd showed in a paper reaa in the 

ifter which the speaker dwelt on the far- British Association that when the observation 

^ importance of chemistry, inorganic as periods are shortened to daily estimations of 

organic, to the medical student, and the chlorin, minimal amounts of rainfall are marked 

acy of merely analytical courses. He em- by maximum content of chlorin, and vice versa, 

1 the fact that the burning problems of The conclusion is stated by Samuel Rideal, after 

siology, the pathology, and the therapeu- the examination of a number of humus residues 

not of to-day, certainly of the near future, from the bacterial treatment of sewage, that if 

>ntiai]y chemical, and that they are not the sewage has undergone proper treatmeijt, the 

rily confined within the accepted limits of small quantity of peaty deposit called by Cam- 

i called organic chemistry. eron " burnt-out ash," is of the nature of humus, 

ition was directe(^ in England during 1900 and practically inoffensive ; and he quotes Ken- 

•nsiderable number of cases in which per- wood and Butler as agreeing that at Finchley 

id shown symptoms of arsenic poisoning in 1900 the deposit from open septic tanks could 

rinking beer; and investigations were set be removed with little offense, and had been 

to discover whether the beer in the market spread without nuisance over small areas of land 

ntaminated with this drug, and if so to in the neighborhood. This deposit has also the 

e source of the contamination. In very agricultural value of humus. Like peaty matters 

nstances traces of arsenic were found in the generally, it has a function in the property of 

supplied to the breweries. More care was encouraging, when in small quantity, the nitri- 

iken in the preparation of this substance, fying action in the final oxidation, and itself un- 

mplaints became less frequent. The whole oergoes slow oxidation to carbonic acid and ni- 

of the presence of arsenic in substances in trates. 

D use was reviewed by Mr. Alfred C. Chap- The quantity of grain harvested when basic 

tf the Society of Public Analysts, in a slag is used as a manure depends generally, F. W. 

»n Food and Drugs; Some of the Important DaiTert and O. Redmair sav, on the proportion 

Events, read before a meeting of Inspectors of phosphoric acid in the slag. The rapidity of 

ghts and Measures, July 12. The author the action of the slag is in direct relation with 

ed that the manufacturers would in future the fineness of the grinding of it, and with its 

ich precautions as would render a repeti- chemical nature. The authors propose for the de- 

recent experiences impossible; but while termination of the agricultural value of slag to 

as so, the investigations of chemists had depend on the solubility of the total phosphoric 

that arsenic in minute traces was a very acid in formic acid. A ^ood slag yields 90 per 

nore frequent impurity than had been sus- cent, of its phosphoric acid to this reagent. 

The finding of contamination of a sam- A comparative examination was made by Mr. 

effervescent phosphate of soda by that sub- Leo Yignon, as to ordinary properties, velocity 

had led to the discovery that arsenic in of saceharification, and heats of combination, of 

was of very common occurrence in phos- cotton cellulose, mercurized cellulose, cellulose dis- 

preparations. Fully 90 per cent, of the solved in Schweitzer's reagent and precipitated by 

N) tons of sulfuric acid annually produced acids, and Girard's nitrocellulose. The author 

land was prepared from pyrites containing found that concentrated alkalies, such as are used 

r less arsenic. This arsenic, sometimes to in the operation of mercurizing and probably hy- 

ent of 1 per cent., found its way into the drating, depolymerize the cellulose, without con- 

ictured acid, and as this was used in num- ferring any new chemical functions on it. The 

manufactures, it would easily be seen that same is true of diluted acids acting under the 

lanufactured products were all liable to conditions necessary for the formation of Girard*s 

lination. Truces of arsenic thus found hydrocellulose. 

vay into soda, artificial manures, soap. It appears, from experiments described by A. 

borax, and distilled vinegar, while it had Rossel and E. Laudriset, that the purity of acety- 

et with in traces in glycerin, baking-pow- lene gas is as much affected by the manner m 

leets, etc. Besides its occurrence in the which carbid and water are brought in contact 

ated minerals in considerable quantities, for its generation as by the quality of the carbid 

was found in traces in coal, and conse- employed. 

r in the atmosphere, in many natural river IlluFtrations of the advantages which engineers 

, in J^ea water, in sulfur, in some river have derived from chemical coadjutors are given 

, and occasionally it might even be present by Prof. Frank Clowes in a James Forrest lecture 

s and green vegetables. These facts show on Chemistry in its Relations to Civil Enginecr- 

itremely difficult it is to avoid in practise ing, delivered before the Institute of Civil Engi- 

traces of this almost ubiquitous sub- iieers. Among them, the author mentions as a 

In certain cases occurring at Manchester, most striking instance in which the engineer has 

had been easily traced back to the fuel been supplied by chemistry with suitable con- 

r kilning the malt; and unless fuel entirely structive materials the introduction of cheap 

m arsenic was used, malt, dried on the sys- steel of varying qualities in substitution for costly 



110 



CHILE. 



steel and other less suitable forms of iron. The 
Besaemer process was suggested and made suc- 
cessful by the chemical knowledge which was sup- 
l)!ied to those who were interested in the proce- 
dure. A broad extension of the application to 
further utilization of chemical knowledge and 
suggestion is anticipated. . The metallurgical 
chemist and the chemical metallurgist are at 
present engaged in furnishing metals and alloys 
new to commerce at the disposal of engineers who 
can use them, as thev are more suitable than 
others heretofore employed in their various de- 
signs. The necessity of chemical knowledge and 
chemical advice to the gas engineer was enlarged 
upon. The spheres of the engineer and the chem- 
ist are closely connected in the matter of water 
supply, as well as in that of the purification of 
sewage, as to which the cooperation of the chem- 
ist and the engineer has enabled such cities as 
London, Manchester, etc., in recent years to cany 
out on an experimental scale most important trials 
of natural and bacterial treatment of sewage, and 
has led to the publication of reports on the sub- 
ject which will become classical. This experi- 
mental work has promoted considerable and valu- 
able development and improvement of the bac- 
terial method. 

In studies of the chemical and biological 
changes that occur in the treatment of sewage on 
" bacteria beds," E. A. Letts and his coadjutor 
represented in the British Association that a large 

Eortion of the unoxidized nitrogen was found to 
ave disappeared during the passage through the 
beds. This may have been due either to the escape 
of the nitrogen in a gaseous state as free nitrogen, 
or possibly as oxids, or to the passage of the 
nitrogen into the tissue of animals or vegetables. 
Both of these causes of loss may operate at the 
same time. An examination of sewage matter be- 
fore and after the passage through the beds 
showed that in nearly all cases the amount of dis- 
solved nitrogen present in the sewage was greater 
after treatment than before, althougli, of course, if 
free nitrogen were evolved, only a minute fraction 
of it would remain dissolved in the sewage effluent. 
With respect to the possible biological explana- 
tion of the loss, it is pointed out that the sewage 
beds at Belfast and other places swarm with 
minute insects (Podura aquatica), and that spe- 
cies of worms are also present. These in feeding 
on the sewage undoubtedly cause a loss of ni- 
trogen. 

CHILE, a republic in South America. The 
Congress consists of a Senate of 32 members 
elected for six years and of a Chamber of Deputies 
elected for three years by the direct vote of the 
people, Senators in the provinces and Deputies in 
the departments. The President is elected indi- 
rectly for five years. Federigo Errazuriz was 
elected President of the republic for the term be- 
ginning Sept. 18, 1896. The Cabinet constituted 
in November, 1900, was composed as follows; 
Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior, Mar- 
sano Sanchez Fontecilla; Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs, Worship, and Colonization, Alberto Gon- 
zalez Errazuriz; Minister of Justice and Public 
Instruction, Francisco Herboso; Minister of Fi- 
nance, Manuel Covarrubias ; Minister of War and 
Marine, Arturo Besa; Minister of Industry and 
Public Works, Emilio Bello Codecido. 

Area and Population.— Chile has an area of 
200,829 square miles. The population on Jan. 1, 
1900, was estimated, at 3,110.088. The numlwr of 
iiniiTiages in 1899 W4is 13,053: of births, 100.787; 
of deaths, 86,278; excess of births, 20,509. San- 
tiago, the capital, had 320,638 inhabitants in 
1899; Valparaiso, 143,022; Concepcion, 55,458. 



The numbers of agricultural and industris 
migrants brought from Europe by the col 
tion agents of the Government have been 
in 1895, 2,102 in 1896, 870 in 1897, 564 in 189) 
548 in 1899. The sum appropriated for col< 
tion in 1898 was 616,890 pesos. The Goven 
has large tracts of land for suitable settler 

Finances. — The ordinary expenditures ai 
ized for 1900 were 11,068,114 pesos for the int 
2,047,332 pesos for foreign affairs and col 
13,205,827 pesos for justice and public instni 
5,705,955 pesos for finance, 9,766,588 pesos fc 
army, 7,154,699 pesos for the navy, and 24,4( 
pesos for industry and public works; total 
415,002 pesos. The ordinary revenue was 
mated at 95,954,390 pesos in currency^, an- 
extraordinary revenue at 22,404,386 pesos; 
revenue, 118,358,776 pesos. In 1899 the tota 
enue was 97,218,070 pesos in currency an< 
948,104 pesos in gold, and the expenditures 
77,726,740 pesos in currency and 78,777,314 
in gold. 

The public debt on Dec. 31, 1899, amount 
310,254,183 pesos, 234.289.414 pesos reprcsc 
the foreign debt, which was £17,571,706 st« 
consisting of £1 1,441, ItJip of 4i-per-cent., £l 
266 of 5-per-cent., £179,900 of SA-per-cent. 
£137,380 of 6-per-cent bonds. The internal 
was made up of 2,109,155 'pesos of 3-per-cen 
ligations, 20,827,203 pesos borrowed to r 
mortgaged lands, 1,903.532 pesos of mun 
debts for which the Government is liable 
51,124,880 pesos of paper money. The 
money was issued by the Government in 
after three years of contraction and an at 
to introduce specie payments on a gold 
The coinage act of 1895 prescribed the coint 
20-, 10-, and 5-peso gold pieces, called colons, 
loons, and scudos, and silver pesos, the ra 
30 to 1 being adopted. From 1895 to 1898 
were coined 42,690.530 pesos in gold and 8,01 
pesos in silver. When the issue of 50.000,000 
of new paper money was authorized in July, 
the President was authorized to lend 2( 
000 pesos to the banks at 4 per cent., ai 
raise a loan of £4,000,000 for the purpose of 
drawing the forced paper currency after 
years. 

The Army. — The active army is recruit 
voluntary enlistment. After serving two yea 
soldiers are transferred to the National G 
excepting those who are reengaged as non 
missioned officers. All able-bodied Chilear 
tween the ages of eighteen and fifty are undei 
gation to serve in the National Guard a< 
ing to the military law of Feb. 12, 189() 
exemption is granted to very many. The li 
Dec. 31, 1896, fixed the maximum strength < 
active army at 9,000 men. The infantry are 
main armed with Mauser rifles of a Chilea 
sign, though some carry Mannlichers of 8 
meters caliber. The cavalry weapon is a M 
carbine ^of the Chilean model. The efl" 
strength of the active army in 1899 was 2.8 
fantry, 1,745 artillery, 2,092 cavalry, and 31 
gineers; total, 6,987 men. There are about 
officers in the National Guard, training in ' 
takes place at the age of twenty, after whic 
members pass into the sedentary, and at the j 
thirty into the passive guard. 

The Navy. — ^The Chilean navy contains 
mor-clads, the O'Higgins, Capitan Prat, an 
mirante Cochrane; the armored cruiser . 
ralda; the monitor Huasnar; 4 protected en 
the Blanco Encalada. Ministro Zenteno, 
donte Errazuriz, and Presidente Pinto; 3 to 
cruisers, the Almirante Simpson, Aim 



CHILE. 



Ill 



Lynch, and Almirante Condell; 4 destroyers; 2 
gunboats*. 2 amied transports; and 7 first-class 
and 8 smaller torpedo craft. The school-ship 
Baquedano was not yet completed at the begin- 
ning of 1901. The South American Steamship 
Company, which receives a subvention of 125,000 
pesod a year, is under obligation to adapt its 15 
stumers for the transport service in case of war. * 
The navy was manned in 1898 by 199 oflScers, 
1m employees, and 3,794 seamen. 

Commerce and Production. — The total value 
of imports in 1899 was 100,260,358 pesos, and of 
dome^stic exports 163,106,133 pesos. The values in 
pesos of the imports from and exports to various 
eoimtries were as follow: 



CODXTRIES. 



Great Britain , 

0«miany , 

Vnit«^i States ,. 

Trance , 

?eru 

ArjceDtiike Republic , 

luly 

Tniguay 

Bolivia 

Other countries 

Total 



Impofts. 



44,338.000 
29,749,000 
8,198,000 
6,525,000 
5,185.000 
2,186.000 
1,537,000 
1,336,000 

8,206,666 



106,260,000 



Esporta. 



110,52 %000 

20,922,000 

7,360,000 

9,334,000 

4,248,000 

305,000 

870,000 

829,000 

1.124,000 

7,59<).000 



163,100,000 



The imports of animal and vegetable products 
was 17,696,059 pesos in value; of textile manu- 
factures, 29,058,119 pesos; of raw materials, 21,- 
689,398 pesos; of watches and jewelry, 2,091,536 
pt^sos; of machinery, 12,695,066 pesos; of house- 
bold furniture, 5,686,111 pesos; of paper, 2,940,975 
pesos; of wines and spirits, 931,831 pesos; of 
tobacco, 3364J68 pesos; of ores and metals, 42,- 
319 pesos; of articles connected with arts and sci- 
ences, 837,045 pesos; of drugs, 1,690,254 pesos; 
oi arms and ammunition, 786,709 pesos; of mis- 
cellaneous merchandise, 9,970,402 pesos. The ex- 
ports of mineral substances were 137,637,603 pesos 
m value; of agricultural produce, 10,597t^870 
pesos; of manufactures, 3,862,117 pesos; of wines 
and spirits, 328,615 pesos; of animals and animal 
products, 5,050,108 pesos; of miscellaneous do- 
mestic products, 1,460,424 pesos; of foreign mer- 
chandise, 1,573,819 pesos; of coin, 2,595,577 pesos. 
Of the nitrate export 39 per cent, went to Ger- 
many, 17.3 per cent, to France, 13.3 per cent, to 
the United States, 11.2 per cent, to Great Britain, 
and 10.9 per cent, to Belgium. 

Vavigation. — The number of vessels entered 
at the ports of Chile during 1899 was 7,207, of 10,- 
01G.7O4 tons; cleared, 7,154, of 9,738,769 tons. 

The merchant navy comprised 142 vessels, of 
71,214 tons, of which 39, of 27,387 tons, were 
steamers. 

Bailroads, Posts, and Telegraphs. — The 
total length of railroads in 1899 was 2,841 miles, 
of which 1,223 miles belonged to the Government 
and 1,618 miles to companies. The Government 
lines cost 85,907,165 pesos to construct; receipts 
in 1899 were 13,997,800 pesos; expenses, 13,911,783 
pesos; number of passengers carried, 6,346,184 
pesos; tons of freight, 2,089,330. 

The post-office in 1898 handled 55,404,009 pieces 
of mail-matter in the internal and 6,519,281 pieces 
in the international service; receipts were 1,791,881 
francs, and expenses 2,122,195 francs. 

The Government telegraphs in 1899 had a total 
length of 11,200 miles. The number of despatches 
was 1,183,691. The length of telegraphs and cables 
belonging to companies and railroads was 3,800 
miles. The length of telephone lines was 11,329 
miles. 

Internal Affairs. — The presidential election 
which occurred in Chile in 1901 influenced all 



events in the early part of the year. Pedro Montt 
was announced as the Liberal Conservative candi- 
date early in Febiiiary, and a month later Jerraau 
Riesco, a nephew of President Errazuriz, was 
nominated as the candidate of the Liberal Alli- 
ance, the Government party. A special session of 
Congress being called on March 6, the Cabi- 
net resigned to give place to one to be com- 
posed of Liberals only. The new ministry was 
constituted with difliculty after a protracted 
crisis. One that was formed by Amunategui Ri- 
vera on March 15 did not meet with the approval 
of Congress, which passed a vote of censure on 
the following day. The President exhibited no 
haste in appointing other ministers, and strained 
relations oetween him and Congress resulted. 
Julio . Seegers, whom he commissioned to form a 
ministry on April 2, was not successful in his 
efforts. On April 21a Cabinet was formed at last, 
composed as lollows: Prime Minister and Minis- 
ter of the Interior, Anibal Zanartu; Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, Worship, and Colonization, Au- 
gusto Orrego Luco; Minister of Justice and Edu- 
cation, Venturo Carvallo; Minister of Finance, 
Luis Martiniane Rodriguez; Minister of War and 
Marine, Gen. Vicente Palacios; Minister of In- 
dustry and Public Works, Joaquin Fernandez 
Blanco. Even then the crisis was not ended. On 
May 1 the ministry was satisfactorily recon- 
structed as follows: Minister of the Interior, 
Anibal Zanartu; Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
Luis Rodriguez; Minister of Justice, Ramon Es- 
cobar; Minister of Finance, Juan Sanfuentes; 
Minister of War and Marine, Gen. Wenceslao Bul- 
nes; Minister of Industry and Public Works, 
Joaquin Blanco. On the same day President Er- 
razuriz resigned his office into the hands of the 
Minister of the Interior until after the presi- 
dential election, asking leave of absence from Con- 
gress until June 25, on the ground that repub- 
lican precepts and traditions forbade him to con- 
tinue in the exercise of the presidential authority 
when a relative of his own was a candidate for 
the presidency. Anibal Zanartu accordingly dis- 
charged the presidential functions with the title of 
Vice-President. 'The regular session of Congress 
began on June 2. The Vice-President in his mes- 
sage stated that the relations with the Argentine 
Republic were satisfactory, and that the ques- 
tions with Bolivia and Peru remained in abey- 
ance. He expressed approval of the idea of arbi- 
tration provided it did not interfere with national 
independence and the rights of sovereignty. The 
extension of a trunk railroad to the nitrate dis- 
tricts and the laying of a cable were urged as of 
pressing importance, while public works ifor which 
money had been appropriated, causing a deficit 
of $0,000,000 in the estimates, could be postponed. 
New measures on education, law reform, public 
health, police, and the condition of the working 
classes were the legislative program. The election 
for President would be conducted with the free- 
dom guaranteed in the Constitution, and the con- 
version law would be maintained in its integrity. 
The presidential election was attended with some 
disorder. In Valparaiso the police fired on sup- 
porters of Sefior Riesco, who was elected by a 
decisive majority over Sefior Montt. President 
Errazuriz died on July 12, and Vice-President 
Zanartu remained at the head of the executive 
until Sept. 18, when President Riesco was in- 
stalled. 

The industrial condition of Chile was more 
favorable than it had been, the price of copper 
having risen and the crisis in the nitrate trade 
having been overcome by a combination of the 
companies for restricting production. The efforts 



112 cnaiLE. 

of the Government to attain sound currency, coin- plebiscite has not yet been held in Tacnf 

ciding with auspicious commercial conditions, Arica, nor has a definitive treaty been cone 

had brought Chilean paper money in three years with Bolivia. Plenipotentiaries have beei 

from a discount of 30 per cent, almost up to par. pointed several times to discuss the tenns 

Then tliere came a relapse early in 1901. E;^:- settlement, and all their efforts have led ' 

change went against Chile because the wheat crop result. At first the Chilean Government wa 

had failed, and instead of having a large surplus posed to favor Bolivia at the expense of 

for export the Chileans imported $5,000,000 worth. ' suggesting as the basis of a definitive treatv 

The succession of Seflor Zanartu, the leader of the the port of Arica go to Bolivia. In case 

party that prefers a fluctuating depreciated paper could not dispose of Arica the cession of 

cuiTency, and the uncertainties of the presidential other port was discussed, and Bolivia show 

election were depressing circumstances, for it was unwillmgness to accept any alternative port 

not supposed that Vice-President Zanartu would Chile was willing to cede. The discussion v 

help a man to be elected who would faithfully car- protracted and hopeless that the Bolivians 

rv out the law that promised a resumption of spe- to consider an alliance with the Argentin 

cie payments on Jan. 1, 1902, for which purpose a public and another appeal to arms for the 

fund of $50,000,000 was being accumulated. pose of getting the seaport that they n< 

Intemationai Disputes.— -The state of tension Chile therefore broke off negotiations and 

existing between Chile and the Argentine Repub- to discuss with Peru the conditions under ' 

lie over the interpretation of the treaty delimiting the plebiscite should be taken in Tacna and . 

their respective territories in Patagonia was re- It was proposed to submit these conditions 

moved by the reference to arbitration. The still bitration. These negotiations, which seemed 

unsettled difficulties between Chile and the repub- ly to be as futile as the prior ones with B< 

lies of Peru and Bolivia remain a source of dis- were interrupted bv a civil war that broke ( 

quiet and irritation in South American politics. Peru. The fund that Peru had accumulatt 

The district of Atacama was claimed by Bolivia the purpose of paying the indemnity to Ch 

from the foundation of that republic, but being a the event of the provinces returning to 

desert region it was not occupied or inhabited which seemed to be the most likely outcoi 

until Chileans began about 1840 to utilize the the plebiscite, was expended in the war, and 

guano deposits and later the nitrate found there, peace* returned Peru was for that reason 

The Chilean Government then asserted that the nurry to resume negotiations. Soon, howeve 

coast belonged to Chile almost up to the Bolivian Peruvian Government did press for the fulfi 

post of Cobija. Bolivia protested in 1866, and a of the treaty of Ancon, and the Chileans ha 

treaty was then made recognizing a sort of di- trayed the greatest reluctance to carry ou 

vided jurisdiction over the territory of Atacama. terms of the treaty. The arbitration propos 

An assertion of sovereignty on the part of Bolivia which the Chilean Government had cons 

led to fresh negotiations, resulting in the treaty were rejected by the Chilean Congress. Th« 

of 1874, which conceded that the territory, includ- was promulgated that the retention of Tacn 

ing the nitrate mines and the port of Antofagasta Arica was necessary in order to give Chile 

were under the sovereignty or Bolivia, but stipu- entific and strategfc frontier. The same r 

lated that for twenty-Sve years the persons and militates against the concession of a seap< 

property of Chileans should not be subjected to Bolivia. The adoption of this policy b; 

any other contributions than those then in force. Chilean Government was followed by a gre; 

A quarrel arose in the following year, and Peru tension of the administrative organization i 

joined Bolivia in the defense of her rights against occupied provinces, and the announceme 

the alleged aggressive designs of Chile. Chile was schemes of public works that would so streii 

victorious in the war, and having occupied not the influence of Chile as to turn in her fav< 

only the province of Atacama but the Peruvian plebiscite when it takes place at some ind( 

provinces of Tarapacd, Arica, and Tacna, it was future time. When Bolivia urged the rene\ 

stipulated in the treaty of Ancon, concluded with negotiations for a definitive treaty based oi 

Peru in October, 1883, that the nitrate-producing cession of a seaport the Chilean Minister o 

district of Tarapacft should remain a Chilean eign Aflfairs replied bluntly that Bolivia 

possession unconditionally and perpetually, while abandon all expectation of a concession of 

the territories of Tacna and Arica were to be sub- tory on the seaeoast on the part of Chile, 

ject to the Chilean laws and authorities for ten protocol arranged by the plenipotentiaries B 

>ears, at the end of which it would be decided by hurst and Latorre in 1898, providing for the 

a plebiscite whether they should remain in the ner of taking the plebiscite in Tacna and 

possession of Chile or revert to Peru, the country passed the Chilean Senate after having bee 

to which the inhabitants chose to belong having proved by both houses of the Peruvian Con 

to pay $10,000,000 in silver to the other. A third and was rejected by the Chilean House of De 

clause of the treaty provided that the manner of on Jan. 10, 1901. The attitude of Chile wa 

taking the plebiscite and the terms of payment of versally disapproved in South America outs 

the indemnity should be settled by negotiations, the Chilean nation. Peru and Bolivia ask< 

the settlement thus arrived at to be an integral good oflRces of the United States to induce 

part of the treaty. No treaty was concluded with to submit differences to arbitration and can 

Bolivia, but only a truce, because the Bolivian the terms of the treaty of Ancon. The pri 

Government could not be brought to assent to of beati possidentes, the idea that might i 

any permanent arrangement except such a one as right, seemed to Spanish-Americans to havi 

would give Bolivia ample access to the sea. In tivated all parties m Chile. This was regan 

the compact of truce Atacama is not mentioned, deplorable because it marred the harmoi 

The only coast district recognized as ever having the impending Pan-American Congress. Th( 

been Bolivian is the narrow strip extending from press of 1890 discussed arbitration for th 

the Peruvian frontier to a point a few miles south tlement of all disputes between American i 

of Cobija. The free entry of Chilean products into lies, but the subject was not yet ripe. Sin 

Bolivia was one of the terms of the truce, the Venezuela arbitration the idea has gained g 

object of both parties being to prepare the way until nearly all the republics in the two Am 

for a stable treaty of peace and amity. The are willing to consent to thi.^ pacific means 



CHUuE. CHINA. 113 

[Dsting differences among themselves. It was the able questions would not be allowed to come up 
main question to be considered at the Pan-Ameri- for discussion. The Argentine representative in 
can Congress appointed to meet in the city of Mexico notified the Mexican Secretary of State 
Mexico in October. A tentative program to that his Government would not be represented 
guide the action of the Coneress, drafted by the unless free discussion were allowed on all pending 
Bureau of American Republics, at Washington, and future arbitration cases. Bolivia, Brazil, 
was officially adopted by the Government of Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay took the 
Hexico, which submitted it to each government for same view, and all entered into an agreement with 
approval or suggestions. Chile suggested that, each other that if debate should be restricted they 
if any govemmertt objected to the discussion of would withdraw their representatives in sign of 
any question that was presented before the Con- protest. The Argentine Government advanced 
gre&s, that subject should not be considered, the opinion that any other course would signify 
Secretary Hay pointed out that this would bring acquiescence in the Chilean ideas of conquest, 
all the work of the Congress to naught. Chile The Argentine Republic and Chile entered into a 
then proposed to the Mexican Government to e.y mutual agreement not to purchase war material 
dnde all pending nuestions from the discussion pending the award of the boundary arbitration 
on arbitration, ana to consider an arbitration between themselves, but the Argentine Minister 
agreement that will only apply to future ques- of Foreign Affairs, taking credit for the initia- 
tions that may aiise. In a note to Washington tion of an international South American policy 
tliile asked for a definition of the limits within that would tend to the maintenance of peace, that 
which the subject of arbitration was to be dis- of unlimited arbitration, for which the adherence 
cuased. This communication was considered at of Ecuador was sought, stated that the Argentine 
a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Bu- Republic would not engage to remain neutral un- 
reau of American Republics. The Minister of less existing treaties were respected, and would 
Costa Rica, presenting the Chilean view, moved not countenance conquest of territory. The Mexi- 
that the action of the Congress on the subject of can Government announced officially that no al- 
arbitration be prospective and not retrospective, teration had been made in the original program of 
The committee agreed to this at the time, but the Pan-American Congress, and that free discus- 
afterward took up the matter again at the re- sion would be allowed on arbitration in all cases, 
^uest of the Minister of Bolivia, who objected to present and future. 

limiting the deliberations of the Congress by a CHINA, an empire in eastern Asia. The Gov- 
prearranged program and thought that the Con- emment, as laid down in the regulations of the 
gress itself ou^t to be permitted to define the Tsing dynasty, is based on the government of the 
limits of its discussions. Acting Secretary of family, and in theory the Emperor exercises su- 
State Hill offered a motion declaring that the preme paternal authority. The principles and 
hmitations of the program could only be ex- system of government were taken over by the 
c«>ded by the- unanimous vote of the Congress, Manchu conquerors, who founded the Tsing dy- 
vkhkh would allow Chile to prevent the discus- nasty in 1G44, from the Ming dynasty, and have 
sion on arbitration from going beyond the limita- been handed down since the age of Confucius, 
tions of the program. The Colombian min- All acts of government are regulated as far as 
ister proposed, on the contrary, to have the dis- possible by precedents running back thousands of 
eussion on arbitration entirely unrestricted, leav- years. Imperial affairs are under the direct con- 
ing full liberty to members of the Congress to trol of the Cabinet, called Neiko, consisting of 2 
initiate the consideration of any subject not speci- Manchus and 2 Chinese, advised by 2 members of 
tied in the program. The proposal of Mr. Hill was the Hanlin College, whose duty it is to see that all 
approved by the ministers of Co5ta Rica and edicts and proclamations conform in style and 
Ecuador, while the ministers of Bolivia and Co- substance with the dynastic regulations and Con- 
lombia voted in the negative. The Assistant- fucian precepts. Important questions are decided 
Secretary of State refrained from voting, leaving by the Chun-Chi-Chu, the Grand Council, com- 
the decision of the committee undetermined untu posed of 5 or 6 of the highest officers of state, both 
the Spanish- American members could arrive at Manchus and Chinese, who have control over the 
an understanding, which they failed to do, al- Manchu army, and, unless the Emperor is a strong 
though they met several times to consider the and resolute ruler, wield the real authority. De- 
matter. The position of the United States in crees and orders are issued by this council in the 
this controversy was a delicate one on account name of the Emperor to the executive boards in 
of the overweening jealousy of the power of this Pekin and to the provincial authorities. The 
republic entertained in all Spanish-American boards of administration are provided over each 
countries and fostered by intriguing Europeans, by a Manchu and a Chinese. One board, called 
MTien the United States Government, like the the Civil Office, supervises the conduct and ad- 
Govemment of Mexico, intimated a willingness to ministration of the officials, confers titles, and 
limit the discussion on arbitration in order to grants rewards and precedence for meritorious 
avert the threatened abstention of Chile and pro- conduct; another, the Board of Revenue, manages 
mote an agreement on arbitration, even if appli- the finances; the third, the Board of Kites, enforces 
eahle only to future quarrels, the suspicion arose in the laws relating to the ceremonies of the court 
South America that the United States favored and all public functions ordered by the Emperor, 
the side of Chile in the disputes with Peru and and regulates the rites called for by an eclipse or 
Bolivia. If the United States voted for unre- other national calamity; the fourth, the War 
stricted discussion the Chileans would consider it Board, has charge of military affairs and directs 
a mark of disapproval and animosity. The gov- the movements of troops; the fifth is the Board of 
emments of the Argentine Republic, Brazil, Para- Public Works; the sixth, the Board of Punish- 
cuay, and Uruguay, as well as the Peruvian and ments, is the high court of criminal jurisdiction 
Bolivian governments, were unwilling to partici- which tries and judges official delinquencies. A 
pate in the Congress unless arbitration could be seventh board, the Admiralty Office, created in 
lebated without restrictions. The Chilean min- 1S.S5, sits at Tientsin and directs naval affairs. 
ster at Washington on July 18 intimated to Sec- The Board of Censors, composed of 40 to 50 
•eiary Hay that Chile might not attend the Con- members, also under the dual presidency of a 
^ess unless guarantees were given that disagree- Manchu and a Chinese, is inde2)endent of the Gov- 

TOL. XLI. — 8 A 



114 



CHINA. 



ernment, and its memberB have the duty of watch- 
ing over all branches of the administration and 
the right to present memorials to the Emperor 
regarding any public need or evil or any relapse 
from the ancient standards. Their function is to 
keep the Emperor informed of all that goes on in 
any part of his dominions that is worthy of his 
notice, and in particular to keep an eye on mal- 
feasance or oppression on the pai"t of officials. The 
Tsung-li-Yamen, or Foreign Office, since 1861 has 
conducted all business with Western nations and 
with institutions directed by foreigners, such as 
the Maritime Customs and the Pekin University. 

The Emperor is Tung-Chih, reigning under the 
fitjie of Kwangsu, bom Aug. 2, 1872, son of Prince 
Chun, the seventh son of the Emperor Taokwang. 
He was chosen by the imperial family to succeed 
his cousin, the Emperor Tung-Chih, who died with- 
out naming a successor in 1875, and until March 
4, 1889, his aunt, the Empress-Dowager Tsu-Hsi, 
bom Nov. 17, 1834, acted as regent, as she had 
done previously during the long minority of his 
predecessor, who was her son. On Sept. 22, 1898, 
in consequence of the Emperor's action in decree- 
ing radical reforms, he was sequestered, and the 
Empress Dowager resumed the active direction of 
alTairs. During the retirement of the Emperor, 
who was announced to be very ill, Pu-Chin, son of 
Tsai-Yi, son of Yit-Sung, fifth son of the Emperor 
Taokwang, was proclaimed the adoptive son of the 
late Emperor Tung-Chih and the heir to the 
throne. This proclamation was issued on Jan. 24, 
1900. There are as many as 6,000 recognized 
princes of the royal blood. 

Area and Population.— The official estimates 
of the area in square miles and of the population 
or* the provinces of (^hina proper are given in the 
following table: 



PROVINCES. 



Pechili 

Shantung: . . 

Shansi 

Honan 

Kiangsu 

N^anwhei . . 

Kianfcsi 

Cheklang . . 

Fiikien 

Hupeh 

Hunan 

ShenHl 

Kansu 

Szechuen.. . 
Kwangtung 
Kwanesi . . . 
Kweicbau . . 
Yunnan 

Total... 



Arcft. 



58,949 
63,702 
66,268 
66,913 
44,500 
48,461 
72,176 
89,1.50 
38,500 
70,450 
74,820 
67,400 
125,450 
166,800 
79,466 
78,250 
64,554 
107,969 



1,313,828 



PopalaUon. 

17,937,000 

86,247,885 

12,211,453 

82.115,827 

20,905,171 

20,596,288 

IM,534,118 

11.588,692 

22,190,556 

84,244,685 

21,003,604 

8,432,198 

9,285,377 

67.712,897 

29,706,249 

6,151,327 

7,669,181 

11,721,676 



883,2.53,029 



Manchuria, with an area of 362,310 square miles, 
has a population estimated at 7,500,000; that of 
Mongolia, with an area of 1,288,000 square miles, 
is estimated at 2,000,000; Tibet is estimated to 
have an area of 651,500 square miles and about 
6,000,000 inhabitants; Jungaria is 147,950 square 
miles in extent and has about 600,000 inhabitants; 
and Chinese Turkestan has an area of 431,S00 
square miles and 580,000 inhabitants. The area 
oi the Chinese Empire is 4,218.401 square miles, 
and the estimated population 402,680.000. The 
ports open by treatv for Europeans to reside in are 
Canton, with about 2.500,000 inhabitants; Tien- 
tsin, with 1,000,000; Hankau, with 850,000; Hang- 
chau, with 700,000: Fuchau, with 650,000; 
Shanghai, with 615.300; Suchau, with 500.000; 
Chungking, with 300,000; Ning^jo, with 255,000; 
Chinkiang. with 140,000; and Anioy, Niiuhiiang, 
Wuhu, Wenchau, Shasi, Kiukiang, Wuchau, 



Kiungchau, Chifu, Swatau, Ichang, Pakhoi, 
Szemao, Mengtsz, Lungchau, Samshui, Funning, 
Kongmun, Kaulun, Lappa, and Yatung. The 
number of foreigners residing in the treaty ports 
in 1899 was 17,193, of whom 5,562 were English, 
2,440 Japanese, 2,335 Americans, 1,621 Russians, 
1,423 Portuguese, 1,183 French, 1,134 Germao*, 
448 Spanish, 244 Swedes and Norwegians, 234 Bel- 
gians, 178 Danes, 124 Italians, 106 Dutch, 90 
Austrians, 42 Koreans, and 29 others. There were 
401 British commercial houses, 105 Japanese, 115 
German, 76 French, 70 American, 19 Russian, and 
10 Portuguese; the Italians, Dutch, Belgians, and 
Spaniards had each 9, the Austrians 5, the Danej 
4, and Swedes and Norwegians 2. 

The Army. — The Army of the Eight Banners is 
composed of descendants of the Manchus, Mongols, 
and Chinese who put au end to the Ming dynasty 
in the seventeentn century and placed the reign- 
ing dynasty on the throne. These troops are 
usually cantoned in 25 towns of the province of 
Pechili in the vicinity of the capital and dis- 
tributed in garrisons in certain cities of the prov- 
inces and in Mongolia and Turkestan. The Army 
of the Green Flag, or provincial troops, are com- 
manded by the Governor-General and governors. 
Their total strength is supposed to be between 
400,000 and 500,000. Other troops, called irregu- 
lar, are recruited and disbanded as occasion re- 
quires. 

The Navy. — The naval forces of China are di- 
vided into the Peiyang, or northern squadron, 
belonging in the Gulf of Pechili, and the entirely 
independent southern squadron, called Nanyang, 
kept at Fuchau and Canton. The Peiyang con- 
sists at present of 5 small protected cruisers, 
the Hai-Chi, Hai-Tien, Hai-Yung, Hai-Shu, am'. 
Hai-Chen; 2 torpedo gunboats, the Fei-Ying 
and Fei-Ting; 1 unarmored cruiser, the Fu- 
Tsing; and 4 destroyers. The Nanyang com- 
prises 2 small protected cruisers, the Yang-Pao 
and Ye-Sing; 7 unarmored cruisers, the Hsi-Ying, 
Honan-Tai, Kai-Chi, King-Ching, Nan-Shin, Nan- 
Yin, and Pao-Min; and 2 tori)edo-cruiser8, the 
Kuang-Ting and Kien-Wei. There are besides 5 
gunboats, built before 1885, and 26 torpedo-boats. 

Commerce and Production. — The value of 
imports in 1806 was reported by the Maritime Cus- 
toms to be 202,589,994 Haikwan taels; in 1897. 
202,828,625 taels: in 1898, 209.579,334 taels. The 
value of exports in 1896, 131,081,421 taels; in 1897. 
163,501,358 taels; in 1898, 159,037,149 taels; in 
1899, 195,784,832 taels. These figures do not indi- 
cate the entire value of the foreign commerce, he- 
cause a great deal of merchandise is transported in 
native vessels that are beyond the control of the 
Maritime Customs. The imports of cotton yam 
were valued at 54,941,000 taels; of cotton cloth, 
48,524,000 taels; of opium, 35,793,000 taels; of rice, 
17,813,000 taels; of petroleum, 13,002,000 taels; 
of sugar, 10.226,000 taels; of coal, 6.397,000 taels: 
of iron goods, 4,021,000 taels; of fish, 3,849,000 
taels; of woolen cloth, 3,680,000 taels; of raw- cot- 
ton, 3,476,000 taels; of flour, 3,189,000 taels; of 
matches, 2,713.000 taels. The exports of raw silk 
were valued at 71,360,000 taels; of tea, 31,469,000 
taels; of silk fabrics, 10,527,000 taels; of beans 
and bean cake, 9,418,000 taels; of skins, 7,720,000 
taels; of wool, 4,141,000 taels; of matting, 3,652,- 
000 taels: of sugar, 3,373,000 taels; of cotton, 
2,980,000 taels: of straw braid, 2,882,000 taels; of 
tobacco, 2,310,000 taels; of clothing and shoes, 
2,224.000 taels; of provisions and piilse, 2,184,000 
taels: of paper, 2,158,000 taels; of oil, 2,046,000 
taels; of porcelain and pottery, 1,803,000 taeK 
The values of the imports and exports in 1899 
were in Haikwan taels as follow: 



CHINA. 



115 



TREATY PORTS. 



Import!* 



Exportt. 



OllUD 

at4>n 

E'ntsiu 

ratau 

noT 

ucbuang. 
lebAu . . . . 

^1» 

llfU- 

loircfaau. . 

udbAu 

yo^gize 

htn^chau 

ikhoi 

her ports 

Total... 



].>;i,fi08.ooo 

24.501,000 

13,862,000 

14,-255,000 

13,315.000 

13,C0'-».(X)0 

5,27U,0O0 

6,986,000 

3.655,000 

0,540,000 

440.000 

4,076,000 

8,374.000 

2,510,000 

2.443.000 

6,110,000 



273,756,000 



90,a37,000 
26.221,000 
23,000,0p0 
10,872,000 
4.525,000 
1,377.000 
8.693.000 
5,869,000 
6,173,000 
2,075,000 
6,15.5,000 
1,^6,000 
1,883.000 
2,142,000 
1,650,000 
1,458,000 

195,785,000 



The reexports from the various ports, amounting 
9,008,000 taels, are not included in tlie imports 
given in the above table. Tlie values in taels 
the imports from and exports to the various 

reign countries and ports in 1899 were as follow: 



COUNTRIES. 



ImporU. 



30jr-Kong 

TMl Britain... 

fmn 

lited States... 

tst India 

beria 

u»o 

l^asa 

Qj^pore 

itisn America. 
9st of Europe . 
iier countnes. 

Total 



118,096,000 

40,161,000 

35,896,000 

22,289,000 

81,911,000 

28 ,000 

8,409,000 

8,233.000 

8,646,000 

l,20t»,000 

10,172,000 

8,445,000 



273,756,000 



Kxporti. 



71,846,000 

13,968,000 

17,251,000 

21,686,000 

1,731,000 

18,214.000 

6,824,000 

5343.000 

2,232,000 

260,000 

86,764,000 

6,671,000 



195,785,000 



The quantity of tea exported in 1899 was 1,630,- 
^ piculs, of which 809,873 piculs went to Russia, 
«5,021 piculs to Great Britain, 218,535- piculs to 
je United States, 117,737 piculs to Hong-Kong, 
ad 45,607 piculs to Australia. The development 
' Chinese commerce in the last few years shows 
great increase of American trade, particularly 
t flannels, sheetings, and jeans. Russian cottons 
ive al.so come into competition with Manchester 
»ds. Russian kerosene has driven the American 
I out of the market, but the loss of this trade is 
Tset by the imports of American canned foods, 
garettes, and a variety of minor products. 
navigation. — The number of vessels entered 
nd cleared at the treaty ports during 1899 was 
5.418, of 39,268,330 tons, of which 12,098, of 1,473,- 
)0 tons, were sailing vessels, and 52,720, of 37,- 
)4,440 tons, were steamei-s. Of the total number, 
5.350, of 23.338,230 tons, were British; 31,009, of 
341^247 tons, were Chinese; 3,712, of 2,839,741 
sns, were Japanese; 2,078, of 1,854,246 tons, were 
erman: 822, of 013,191 tons, were French; and 
16, of 310,107 tons, were American. 
Bailroads and Telegraphs. — The railroads 
ready built in 1900 had a total length of 292 
iles. The railroads planned and authorized 
ould make 4,036 miles more. 
There were 14,285 miles of telegraph lines com- 
eted in 1900. Along the coast the Great North- 
•n and Eastern Extension Telegraph Companies 
ive submarine cables. The central administra- 
on of the Chinese Government telegraphs is at 
langhai. 

Peace Negotiations. — At the beginning of 
Wl the allied troops, under the command of the 
prman Field-Marshal Count von Walder.see, were 
occupation of Pekin and other places in the 
ovince of Pechili, and were guarding the rail- 
ids. The conditions on which the powers were 
Uing to evacuate the capital city and province 



had been given to the Chinese plenipotentiaries in 
a joint note. All the powers had repeatedly 
pledged themselves that they would maintain un- 
diminished the territorial integrity of China and 
the principle of equal treatment to foreigners em- 
bodied in existing treaties. Germany and Great 
Britain had entered into a separate agreement to 
keep the coasts and rivers free to the commerce of 
all nations, so far as they exercised influence, and 
not to make use of the present complications to 
seek territorial advantages, provided no other 
power sought to turn the situation to its ad- 
vantage; contrariwise they would agree between 
themselves as to what steps they would take to 
protect their own interests. The other powers 
had joined in the first part of this agreement, 
while rejecting the proviso, except Japan, which 
adopted it integrally as one of the signers. Russia 
had made an independent declaration that she 
would not infringe on the independence or integ- 
rity of China. The United States and Russia en- 
deavored to induce other powers to abate their 
demands for money indemnities from China and 
for the execution of high Chinese officials impli- 
cated in the antiforeign movement. The Chinese 
court was willing to accept the conditions imposed 
by the powers so as to deliver Pechili from the 
military operations that were carried on under the 
orders of Count von Waldersee, who had arrived 
with a large German force after the allied troops 
had broken down the resistance of the Chinese 
army, which had evacuated Pechili, 'the main force 
accompanying the court in its flight to the province 
of Shensi. The commander-in-chief, whose field 
staff was composed of German officers only, sent 
out punitive columns which scoured the province 
of Pechili. The German troops, who had the spirit 
of retaliation impressed upon them when they set 
out and the example of looting after their arrival, 
and who were ignorant of the people and of what 
had been done by those who were on the spot be- 
fore them, began by harassing the neighborhood 
of Pekin, looting w^herever they went and shooting 
innocent villagers on the supposition that the^ 
were Boxers. Soon they were sent out on expedi- 
tions and allowed to live on the country. They 
continued to punish the innocent with the guilty, 
and were said to engage in systematic pillage, to 
levy fines in quiet villages in order to reduce the 
cost of feeding themselves, and even to kill wan- 
tonly and to maltreat women. They outraged 
without compunction the cherished beliefs of the 
people, destroyed the authority of native officials, 
collected indemnities from towns that were either 
innocent or had already made atonement for their 
' crimes, drove out the regularly constituted offi- 
cials who were acting in harmony with the Euro- 
peans, set free Boxers who were held by the Chi- 
nese for punishment, sacked friendly towns; and 
killed the native police and harmless villagers. 
Chinese officials, appointed by Li-Hung-Chang as 
Viceroy of Pechili, were already administering the 
province under foreign supervision. The allied 
commanders in Pekin drew up a code of laws to 
be administered by Chinese judges. Persons who 
had any part in the Boxer rebellion or had com- 
mitted injury to the life or property of any China- 
man or foreigner during the uprising, or who at- 
tacked the foreign police or resisted arrest, were 
punishable with death, as well as persons guilty 
of murder, robbery, burglary, counterfeiting, and 
other ordinary crimes. 

The United States proposed that the negotia- 
tions concerning the indemnities to be paid by 
the Chinese Government and the revision of the 
commemal treaties should be withdrawn from 
the deliberations of the foreign ministers in Pekin 



116 CHINA. 

and be submitted to another tribunal. Some of Tung of Wuchang protested against; still the 
the powers expressed dissent and others hesitated Empress Dowager would not return to Pekin until 
to give a definite reply. For this reason the pro- the European soldiers were withdrawn. The lead- 
posal was withdrawn, and a despatch was sent ing members of the Grand Council at SinganFu, 
urging that negotiations be expedited. The Yang- constituting the Central Government, were tb 
Tse Viceroys, who had saved central and southern astute Yung-Lu, Lu-Chuan-Lin, believed to be a 
China from being carried away by the antiforeign reactionary, and Wan-Wcu-Shao, who was cred 
movement and who had braved the imperial dis- ited with progressive ideas. The court agreed 
pleasure in their efforts to bring the deluded court to the punishment demanded for the guilty offi 
to reason, objected strongly to some of the terms cials, and issued a bulletin announcing the sen 
demanded by the powers as destructive of the tences. The Chinese plenipotentiaries suggested 
independence of China. Their protest, intended that the Board of Punishment was' the proper 
probably to influence the powers rather than organ to give effect to the decrees. Edicts were 
the court, had no effect. On Jan. 13 the Chinese issued complying with the other demands of the 
envoys, Li-liung-Chang and Prince Ching, noti- joint note. Prince Chun, the Emperor's brother, 
fied the foreign ministers that, they had received was commissioned to go to Berlin to express 
the imperial sanction to sign the protocols in the China's regret for the murder of Baron von 
form reouired by the ministers, and on Jan. 14 they Ketteler, the German minister. The powers them- 
signed them. A few days later they sent a note to selves could decide about the legation guards and 
the ministers inquiring as to the probable date of fortifications, the military posts on the railroad, 
the withdrawal of the allied troops, stating that and the razing of the Taku forts. China had ac- 
the officials marked out for punishment by the cepted all the conditions of peace imposed by the 
ministers had been dealt with and had suffered powers. The amount of the indemnities and the 
the severest penalties that the Chinese law pre- manner of payment alone remained to be deter- 
scribes for the crimes they had committed. The mined. The speedy compliance with the twelve de- 
ministers replied that the signing of the agreement mahds of the powers was probably hastened by » 
must be followed by acts showing good faith, threatened expedition to Singan-Fu that Count 
and that it would be useless for the Chinese Gov- von Waldersee was preparing, which was cancelled 
eminent to expect the removal of the troops until after the final submission of the court. The con- 
China had conclusively proved her intentions. The version of the court at Singan-Fu to ideas ol 
ministers were still discussing the punishments progress was coincident with the resumption ol 
that they would require the Chinese Government authority by the young Emperor, with the con- 
to inflict upon the antiforeign princes and man- currencc of the Empress Dowager, 
darins. Death was prescribed for Prince Tuan, The military experts who studied the questioi 
Gen. Tung-Fuh-Siang, and Duke Lan, and for the of defensive works for the legations proposed ai 
high officials Ying-Nien, Chao-Shu-Chiao, and international fortress, with walls, moats, siege 
Chih-Hsiu, as well as for Prince Chuang and Yu- guns, Maxims, barracks for 2,000 soldiers, and sup 
Hsien. Men who had the Chinese army at their plies and munitions sufficient to withstand a sie^ 
back and the court in their power were not likely of three months. The area of the legation quarte 
to submit to such a fate. The United States, was vastly extended, enabling the representative- 
Japan, and Russia, recognizing the impracticable of the powers to seize private property of ^rea 
nature of the demand, opposed the death penalty, value. No Chinese or employees of the Chine» 
The Chinese Government at Singan-Fu proposed Government should be allowed to live within tb 
to decapitate Yu-Hsien, to order Prince Chuang to diplomatic area. The Italian legation took pea 
commit suicide, to exile Prince Tuan, Duke Lan, session of the Temple of Ancestors, which wa; 
and Ying-Nien to the frontiers, and to degrade sacred to the Emperor's own use, and, in additioi 
Chao-Shu-Chiao, Tung-Fuh-Siang, and posthu- to other property, laid claim to the residence an< 
mously Li-Ping-Heng and Kang-Yi. The aemand garden of the Director-General of the Iniperia 
of the ministers that capital punishment should Maritime Customs, and the Austrian, French, aa 
be inflicted on every one of the offending princes, German legations insisted on expropriating th 
generals, and officials seemed to the Chinese mind rest of the compound from which Sir Robert Har 
illogical, in no way a fulfilment of the paragraph and his staff assisted effectually in the defense c 
in the note requiring the punishment to fit the the legations during the siege. Sir Robert Hai 
crime; for if the severest known penalty were in- sent a letter of protest to the ministers. The legf 
flicted on the least offenders, there could be no tions of Russia, the United States, and Belgiui 
fitting punishment for those whose crimes were occupied the sites of other Government office 
graver. A supplementary list of oflficials to be The Board of Public Works, the Board of Rev( 
punished was furnished by the ministers. They nue, and the Board of Ceremonials were taken t 
agreed to allow the Emperor to commute the death the British and the Russians. The American I 
sentence into banishment to Chinese Turkestan gation was the only one that volunteered to con 
in the case of the imperial Princes Tuan and Lan. pensate Chinese ow^ners of the ground require 
Tung-Fuh-Siang, the commander-in-chief of the for the extension. The legation quarter has a 
Chinese army, could be dealt with when the Em- area of nearly one-half of a square mile. The leg: 
peror had the power, as was secretly promised, and tions began building barracks for the 1,750 so 
the others, living and dead, must suffer the dis- diors to be permanently quartered within th 
grace of capital punishment before the powers space. A glacis was built around the entire leg 
would believe in the good faith of China. The tion area. The American embrasures commantle 
death sentence w^as demanded for Chih-Liu and the main entrance to the imperial palace, tl 
Hsii-Cheng-Yu, who were prisoners in the hands Germftn the Hntamen gate. The ministers havin 
of the Japanese. For the members of the Tsung- ignored the plan for a uniform system of defen* 
Li-Yamen and the other Pekin officials, Hsu- Yung- that the allied generals recommended, the go^ 
Yi, H.su-Ching-(^heng, Lien- Yuan. Li-Shan, and ernments worked independently. The ministei 
Yuan-Chang, who were executed in the summer, avoided conspicuous fortifications lest they pn 
posthumous honors were demanded. voke hostilities or prevent the court from evi 
The humiliations and privations of exile made returning to Pekin. Against the advice of th 
the court willing to agree to terms that the military engineers who dt?signed a fortress, the 
Viceroys Liu-Kun-Yi of Nankin, and Chang-Chih- adopted the principle that the works should b 



CHINA. 



117 



ban a protection against mob violence, 
rally consist of a wall 15 to 20 feet high 
feet thick, with loopholes for rifles and 
uns. In the walls in front of the Ameri- 
)me of the other legations the loopholes 
:eil up, so as not to give oflTense. The 
rovernment made a demand that the 
>f the Board of Government and the 
bould be rnstored, and held that the 
•vernments should compensate private 
r the property they took for their own 
ind not place this burden on the Chinese 
I addition to the indemnities. In the end 
e authorities were induced to grant the 
oncessions, and to undertake to pay pri- 
rs- 

listers made out lists of provincial oflfi- 
deserved death for having instigated or 
the niurdere of missionaries and other 
during the Boxer uprising. Besides 
naries, 30,000 converts had been niur- 
ihe antiforcign fanatics, and to expiate 
cres, officials of various degrees were 
by the ministers for punishment. Of 
?red missionaries, 113 were British, 78 
pricans and Scandinavians aided by 
societies, and 49 were Roman Catholics, 
sh minister was especially anxious to 
justice the persons responsible for the 
nassacre, and obtained the assistance of 
Qor of Chekiang, on whose report the 
Jovemment eventually decreed the deg- 
tf the ex-Govemor and the commander 
ops. The victims at Chuchau w^ere II 
lissionaries, who were murdered in 
to the imperial edict of July, 1900, or- 
extermination of foreigners. The Rus- 
ter positively refused to be a party to 
r demands for decapitations. Tne Span- 
er agreed with him in the opinion that 
ts who had endured the si^e were not 
in such matters. Mr. Rockhill, the 
tates special commissioner, was in- 
)y the President to object to further 
The Japanese Government took the 
. The majority of the ministers insisted 
ary justice in the localities where the 
les were committed, and presented a list 
icials marked out for punishment, of 
should be doomed to decapitation. The 
ovemment took no interest in proceed- 
ng to the murders of missionaries. The 
hurch, although it is represented by a 
and a staff of ecclesiastics in Pekin, has 
e proselytes in China. Russia was op- 
Q the beginning to dictating judicial 
China, as the United States and Japan 
but the representatives of these powers 
rred with the others so far in order not 
the concert. The demand for decapita- 
afterward cut down to 4 and for other 
to 91, and in the end the ministers did 
on the punishment of any local officials 
lose already dealt with in Chuchau. 
o were caught in the American quarter 
Gen. Chaffee, under instructions from 
•n, invariably* handed over to the Board 
nents to be judged according to Chinese 

irshal Count von Waldersee called a 
of the foreign commanders on April 29, 
• the question of the withdrawal of the 
\e ministers were informed that evacua- 
. begin as soon as they had agreed on 
) be paid by China in indemnities and 
agreed to its payment. The generals 
hand over the administration of Pekin 



gradually to the Chinese, who had already estab- 
lished the various boards of government. This 
plan was in operation in the Japanese, American, 
and British quarters, the military exercising only 
a passive supervision over the departments con- 
fided to the Chinese officials. 

In the discussion of the indemnity and the 
mode of its payment serious differences between 
the Cabinets were disclosed, and the question was 
taken from the consideration of the ministers to 
be settled by negotiation between the govern- 
ments. The claims put forward by some of the 
powers seemed likely to bankrupt China. Italy 
demanded for the purpose of rebuilding the lega- 
tion sixteen times the cost of the one destroyed, 
and Germany wanted China to pay for the forti- 
fications at Kiaochau. France's claim was swelled 
in order to provide a liberal recompense for native 
Christians, and thus strengthen the influence of 
that power as the protector of all the Catholic 
missions in China. Russia required to be reim- 
bursed for the cost of her army in Manchuria 
and for repairs on the Manchurian railroads. 
Private claims for damages amounted to immense 
sums, almost every foreigner in China regarding, 
the situation as an opportunity for enriching 
himself at the expense of the Chinese treasury. 
The Austrian ana Italian governments insisted 
on indemnities for the families of soldiers who 
were killed in the defense of the legations and 
in the march of the relief columns from the sea 
to Pekin. All the governments required repay- 
ment of the expenses of the expeditions to China. 
The United States Government took the view that 
legitimate damages ended as soon as the lega- 
tions were rescued and the capital city and prov- 
ince occupied by the allied troops, but obtained 
no support for this contention, which would ex- 
clude the greater part of the German claim, and 
was a stricture on the useless and mischievous 
punitive expeditions that Count von Waldersee 
sanctioned in order to keep his soldiers busy. 
The ministers appointed the British, French, Ger- 
man, and Japanese representatives a committee 
to examine into the financial resources of China. 
They questioned all who were most expert in the 
matter, and came to vague and inconclusive re- 
sults. The claims after being sifted amounted 
to 450,000,000 taels, or £65,000,000. The United 
States Government endeavored to get the powers 
to agree first to a lump sum that would be withjn 
the resources of China to pay, and to apportion 
this among themselves according to the expenses 
and damages they had incurred. The sum of 
$200,000,0(>0 was suggested as being sufficient to 
pay well-founded claims, though perhaps beyond 
the ability of China to pay. The United States 
would be content with an eighth of this, and the 
other seven parts might be divided among the 
seven powers that had. taken an active part in 
the relief of the legations, excluding the two 
others. If the powers would cut down the total 
to $100,000,000, a sum that China could pay with- 
out being seriously crippled, the United States 
would reduce its claim proportionally with the 
other powers. The United States was willing to 
accept in payment bonds of the Chinese Govern- 
ment bearing 3 per cent, interest at par. The 
claims when first presented amounted to $85,000,- 
000 for Russia. $00,000,000 for Germanv, $^15,000,- 
000 for France, $25,000,000 for the United States, 
$24,000,000 for Great Britain, $23,000,000 for 
Japan, $0,000,000 for Belgium, and $30,000,000 for 
Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Spain, and for every 
month from April 1 the total increased at the 
rate of $10,000,000. The French claim included 
$18,000,000 demanded by the Catholic Church on 



118 CHINA. 

account of the destruction of mission property, other powers excepting the United States, Gren^ 
This did not include the sums exacted from local Britain, and Japan, the only three besides Ger 
authorities to indemnify native Christians, many that have important trading interests in 
American Protestant missionaries collected in- China. Such an increase has been contemplated 
demnities from local authorities and individuals, for a long time, but only in connection with tlie 
and the money thus paid the United States Gov- abolition of likin duties and other hindrances to 
ernment proposed to reckon in abatement of its commerce with the interior and the establishment 
total claim. Local mandarins were willing to of new treaty ports, throwing the whole of China 
make voluntary compensation in order to keep open to foreign trade, in which case the in- 
their names out of the black list of guilty officials, creased receipts must go to reimburse the loctl 
and wealthy men and villages would pay to ob- authorities for their loss of revenue. Otherwise 
tain immunity from the visitation of foreign sol- the effect would be to build up immense manufac- 
diers. The sums exacted, amounting to many turing interests in China, which, with foreign 
millions of taels, and the methods employed to capital and superintendence, the newest modern 
compel payment aroused fresh hatred against the machinery, and cheap Chinese labor, would under- 
missionaries in the northern and central prov- sell every other manufacturing nation. Russia 
inces. Germany increased her claim later to $70,- was much more urgent than Germany in pressing 
000,000 on account of the prolonged military oc- for the increase in the tariflF, for the blow to sea- 
cupation. Great Britain was willing to agree to borne commerce would be an advantage to Russia 
a reduction of the indemnities all round, and by increasing the overland trade with Russian 
Russia and Japan were non-committal. All the possessions. France would also benefit by the di- 
other powers rejected the proposal of the United version of commerce to her possessions south of 
States. Japan made a request to be allowed to China. Sir Robert Hart recommended as new 
increase her claim to cover the depreciation of sources of revenue a stamp tax, to produce an- 
Japanese bonds issued to defray the cost of the nually 5,000,000 taels ; a tax on native opium, to 
expedition. Other powers came in with increased produce 10,000,000 taels; and a house tax, to 
demands when they saw that their allotments produce from 20,000,000 to 80,000,000 taels. These 
were likely to be disturbed, and Japan thereupon new taxes were intended to supply the deficiencies 
withdrew the request, although it was strongly in the imperial revenues caused by China's in- 
backed by the United States and regarded with creased indebtedness to foreign powers. As se- 
favor by other powers. curity for the indemnity loan the Director-General 
The committee of ministers discovered that the of Customs, who has been a financial adviser of 
total imperial revenues amount to about $65,000,- the Chinese Government for over thirty yeai^ 
000 in gold per annum, of which $14,000,000 are proposed an excise duty on salt, which would pro- 
derived from the land tax, $12,000,000 from the duce from 15,000,000 to 20,000,000 taels a year; 
Imperial Maritime Customs, and the rest from a customs duty to be paid by Chinese junks, 
the grain tax, salt gabels, likin dues, opium tax, which would yield from 3,000,000 to 5,000.000 
and miscellaneous sources. Foreigners thought taels; an octroi at Pekin, if needed, producing 
that the land tax might be doubled or trebled 500,000 taels; the abolition of the Manchu sti- 
without producing hardship, the salt tax raised pends, amounting each year to 3,000,000 taels; 
from $6,000,000 to $20,000,000, and the total rev- and the commutation of the grain tribute into 
enue increased to $150,000,000, while Government money, giving 2,000,000 taels. Sir Robert Hart 
expenses could be cut down to $45,000,000, leaving proposed that the indemnity be paid by annual in- 
$105,000,000 a year with which to pay interest on stalments, each power accepting Chinese bonds for 
foreign loans. The committee of foreign minis- its portion of the total sum. Several powers, how- 
ters found that the maritime customs, amounting ever, objected to this method because they wanted 
to between 28,000,000 and 29,000,000 taels, were their portions immediately, and it was feared by 
practically exhausted, 24,000,000 taels being ab- others that individual powers misht inter\'ene 
sorbed in paying interest on the existing external in China for their aggrandizement if China failed 
loans, 2,500.000 taels in the maintenance of the to meet her obligations promptly. Sir Robert 
^taflf of foreign employees, 120,000 taels in sup- Hart thought that the likin and salt duties should 
porting the university, and 1,300,000 taels in keep- be collected by the Maritime Customs Depart- 
ing up the Chinese legations abroad. The com- ment. The new taxes he suggested in deference 
mittee recommended for the service of the new to the objection of Great Britain to an immediate 
loan an increase in the customs duties to 10 per increase of the customs tariff to 10 per cent, 
cent., yielding from 10,500,000 to 18,000,000 taels; which in pounds sterling is about the same as 
a salt tax, yielding from 4,000,000 to 20,000,000 5 per cent, was when tlie duties were fixed in 
taels; a Pekin octroi, yielding 500,000 taels; fi accordance with the Tientsin treaty; but by 
commutation of the rice tribute, yielding from doubling the tariff rates and gradually abolish- 
1,000,000 to 8,000,000 taels; the abolition of the ing likin he thought that China would be able to 
Manchu pensions; and the reduction of military pay the debt without difficulty by reason of her 
expenses. The committee recommended that the expanding resources. The duties were fixed in 
indemnity loan be guaranteed by the powers, en- 1801 at 5 per cent, ad valorem, but the valuations 
abling China to pay the required £65,000,000 by adopted then and since have converted them into 
borrowing £70,000,000 at 4 or 4* per cent., specific duties which are at the present time only 
whereas on the strength of her own credit she 2^ to 3i per cent, ad valorem. Great Britain and 
would have to issue a 5-per-cent. loan of £85,- the United States could not object by way of coni- 
000,000. The members of the committee were promise to such increases in tlie specific duties as 
as far from being unanimous in recommend- would make an effective 5-per-cent. rate. This 
ing the financial scheme as in the estimates was the recommendation of the committee of 
of the yield of the proposed taxes, which varied ministers in case a 10-per-cent. tariflf was not ac- 
from 21,500,000 to 61,500,000 taels. The land tax ceptable, and they proposed to assign further to 
and the likin they thought ought not to be the payment of the indemnities the native cus- 
touched. If they were divided in opinion the gov- toms and to impose duties on certain articles that 
ernments were still more so. The proposal to raise have been imported free, such as butter, flour, 
the customs tariff to 10 per cent, ad valorem clieese, foreign clothing, and spirits. The esti- 
came from Germany, and was supported by the n:ates of what these sources would produce varied 



CHINA. 119 

from 5J300,000 to 15,000,000 taels. The Russian chall have direct access to the Emperor. Foreign 

minif^ier estimated that the native customs would ministers when admitted to audience will be con- 

gire 3,000,000 taels, and that there was an avail* veyed in imperial chairs to the palace through the 

able balance of 3,500,000 taels in the existing cus- central gates, and will be received in the halls 

toms revenue, which could be increased by 2,500,- where the Emperor is accustomed to entertain 

000 taels if the import duties were raised to an imperial princes. 

effective 5-per-cent.; if they were raised further The ministers proposed improvements in Peiho 

to 10 per cent, there would be an additional 10,- river and a channel for ocean steamers in Shang- 

000,000 taels, giving a total of 19,000,000 taels to hai river, and the Chinese representatives ac- 

provide for the service of a loan of £70,000,000 cepted this proposition. The consideration of 

at 4 per cent., being 800,000 taels more than conditions to facilitate commerce and inland navi- 

would be required. gation, which were under negotiation before the 

The ministers notified China on May 7 that Boxer troubles began and formed one of the lead- 

the joint indemnity would be 450,000,000 taels, ing demands in the note of the powers, was by 

and asked by what methods she proposed to pay mutual consent left to be the subject of future 

it. The Chinese Government promptly agreed to negotiations in connection with the increase of 

pay the sum demanded, proposing to meet a loan foreign customs to 10 per cent, and the concomi- 

for that amount, conjointly guaranteed by the tant abolition of the likin. It was agreed that 

powers, at 4 per cent, interest, extinguishable in the new 6-per-cent. tariff, including goods here- 

fifty years, by paying 20,000,000 taels annually, of tofore exempt from duty, should come into force 

which 10,000,000 taels would be raised by a salt on Oct. 1, 1901, but that goods already in transit 

tax. 3,000,000 taels from native customs, and at the date of the signature of the protocol should 

2,000.000 taels from the likin ; if need should arise be admitted at the old rates of duty. The average 

the Manchu pension fund would be appropriated, prices of merchandise from 1897 to 1899 were 

Great Britain and the United States opposed a taken as the basis of valuation for the new specific 

joint guarantee, while Russia and the other duties, for it was decided that the duties should 

powers insisted on this and Russia on an increase be specific and not ad valorem, so as to prevent 

of customs duties to 10 per cent. The United frauds.' A commission was appointed to conduct 

States Government proposed to submit the whole commercial negotiations with China, as provided 

question of indemnities to the arbitration of The in the protocol, its task being to revise the treaties 

liague tribunal, but found no support for this of commerce and arrange for the opening of new 

M)lution. The deadlock lasted nearly two months, ports to trade. Delay was caused after the ques- 

and was broken at last by a compromise. As tion of the indemnity had been settled by the 6p- 

finally decided, the amount of the total indem- position of Great Britain to the negotiations being 

nity was not changed from 450,000,000 taels, equal conducted by an international commission in 

to $.337,000,000. Each creditor power was to re- which Italy, Spain, Austria, and the Netherlands 

ceive the amount of its claim in Chinese bonds would be represented, their trading interests in 

bearing 4 per cent, interest from July 1, 1901, China being insignificant, while England has 

to be extinguished in 1940 by a sinking-fund, three-fourths of the total Chinese trade. The Brit- 

the first payment to be made in 1904. Pay- ish proposal was that each power should ne^o- 

nients are to be made in gold at the rate of ex- tiate a tariff separately, the advantages of which 

change existing on April 1, 1901. The fiscal re- would be secured to the others by a most-fa vored- 

8ources assigned to the payment of the bonds are nation clause. With the object of preventing the 

the salt gabel, the native customs levied in non- isolated action of any of the powers in connection 

treaty ports, and the maritime customs imposed with the reopening of the Manchurian question or 

in treaty ports on foreign goods, the duties oeing otherwise, the British Government proposed to 

raised to an actual 6-per-cent. ad valorem payable exact a covenant from China that she would not 

in silver, excepting tne portions of the maritime convert or redeem the indemnity debt, but would 

cufttoms and of the salt cabel that are already pay it in strict accordance with the scheme of 

pledged for the payment of other debts. The free amortization extinguishing the debt in 1940. As 

list is abolished except in the case of cereals. If the British amendments were inacceptable they 

the duty of 5 per cent, prove inadequate, the were withdrawn. 

powers will be at liberty to increase it up to 10 The demand contained in the joint note for the 

per cent. The proposal to pay off the bonds by perpetual interdiction of imports of arms and war 

1940, instead of 19.50, as suggested by the min- material into China, and also of the materials 

isters, came from the Chinese Government, which for their manufacture, was opposed by the United 

must make a considerable financial sacrifice to States and Japan from the beginning as depriv- 

beeome rid of the debt sooner. The annual bur-^ ing China of an essential element of independence. 

den of the national debt is maintained to the last* The Chinese plenipotentiaries pointed out that 

at about 42,000,000 taels, whereas the scheme fa- the Chinese Government would not be able to 

vored by the ministers would steadily reduce the preserve the internal peace and order for which it 

burden after a few years. The interest and sink- was held responsible if prevented from maintain- 

ing-fund of the indemnity loan amount to 23,000,- ing an armed force. It was finally decided to for- 

000 taels per annum. Revenues now assigned to bid the importation of arms for two years, the 

other debts will, when those debts are extin- prohibition to be extended, if found necessaiy, for 

guished, be applied to the indemnity, the principal lurther successive periods of two years. The Chi- 

and interest of which will require first and last nese meanwhile had been importing munitioifs of 

the payment of 1,000,000,000 taels. In accordance war in lar^e quantities, and in their own arsenals 

with one of the demands of the powers the Tsung- were turning out magazine rifles and smokeless 

li-Yaraen was abolished and a Board of Foreign powder. When the edict was issued forbidding 

Affairs (in Chinese, Wai-Wu-Pu) instituted in its imports of munitions of war for two years it 

place, presided over by an imperial prince and was directed to private merchants, and did not 

containing two ministers and two assistants, apply, as the ministers had intended it should, to 

Wang-Wen-Shao and Chu-Hung-Chi were ap- either the imperial or the provincial governments. 

pointed ministers and Hsi-Hu-Peng and Lien-Fang The edict ordering the punishment of provincial 

assistants. The Wai-Wu-Pu shall have piece- officials was equally nugatory, and some of the 

denoe over all other boards^ and the ministers persons whom the ministers had proscribed were 



120 CHINA. 

even promoted. An edict suspended for five years and Shanhaikwan. In the tenth article 

official examinations in cities where foreigners promised to post during two years the ed 

had been murdered or maltreated. l^'eb. 1 prohibiting membership in any antil 

The final draft was completed and agreed on society on pain of death, the edict enume 

by all the ministers on Aug. 16, and Chinese com- punishments, the edict prohibiting examins 

missioners signed this protocol on Sept. 7. It con- and the edict of Feb. 1 declaring that the vie 

sisted of 12 articles. The first recited that Prince governors, and local officials responsible for 

Chun had been appointed on^June 9 special am- will, if guilty, be dismissed and never emf 

bassador to proceed to Germany to express the re- again. IJy the eleventh article China agn 

frets of the Chinese Government for the niur- negotiate amendments to the commercial tre 

er of Baron von Ketteler, and had sailed on July also to contribute 60,000 taels a year towai 

12; and that China had undertaken to erect a conservancy of the Peiho channel and ha 

memorial arch spanning the street at the place cost of the Whangpoo improvement, estima 

where the murder occurred, and had begun the 460,000 taels a year for twenty years. The U 

work on June 25. The second article recited that article stated that the edict of July 24 

by the edicts of Feb. 13 and 21 Prince Tuan and formed the Tsun^-li-Yamen into the Wai-\\ 

Duke Lan were exiled to Turkestan and con- or Board .of Foreign Affairs, which has prect 

demned to perpetual imprisonment; Chuang, Yin^- of the six other ministries of state. Chins 

Nien, and Chao-Shu-Chiao ordered to commit ing thus complied to the satisfaction o 

suicide; Yu-Hsien, Chi-Hsiu, and Hsu-Cheng-Yu powers with the conditions of the note ol 

condemned to execution; Yang-Yi, Hsu-lung, 22, 1900, which the Emperor accepted in i 

and Li-Ping- Heng to posthumous degradation; tirety in his decree of Dec. 27, the powers on 

while Hsu-Yung-Yi, Li-Shan, Lien-Yuan, Yuan- part agreed to terminate the situation ci 

Chang, and Hsu-Ching-Cheng were rewarded with by the disorders of the summer of 1900 a 

posthumous honors. By other edicts Tung-Fuh- withdraw the international troops, with tl 

8iang was cashiered and punishment was in- ception of the legation guards, from Pekii 

flicted on provincial officials, and it was stated evacuate Pechili, with the exception of the ] 

that Chuang committed suicide on Feb. 21, Ying- named. 

Nien and Chao-Shu-Chiao on Feb. 24, and Yu- The Emperor's brother, Prince Chun-Tsai- 

Hsien was executed on Feb. 22, and Chi-Hsiu who was commissioned to convey the Erap 

and Hsi-Cheng-Yu on Feb. 26; and that an regret for the murder of the German minis 

edict suspended examinations for five years in the Kaiser, did not proceed at once to Berlin 

places where antiforcign crimes had been com- his arrival in Europe, but halted in Switz« 

mitted. In the third article it was stated that by until he could receive instructions from Ch 

way of honorable reparation for the murder of regard to the ceremonial which the German 

Sujiyama an edict of June 18 had appointed Na- ernment wished to prescribe. As an act ( 

Tung special envoy to convey the regrets of the miliation suited to the expiatory character 

Chinese Government to Japan. The fourth article mission, and still more as a recognition < 

stated that China had already paid the cost of equality of the German and Chinese sovei 

expiatory monuments in foreign cemeteries that the Chinese prince was asked to kotow t 

had been desecrated. The fifth article stated that Kaiser, or go through the reverential cere 

an edict had been promulgated forbidding imports that Chinamen perform in the presence of 

of arms and materials used in their manufac- Emperor, consisting in touching the ground 

ture for two years, the time to be extended, if times with the forehead and making nine pro 

necessary. In the sixth article China's obliga- bows. This demand was withdrawn, and i 

tioii to pay the indemnity was acknowledged, the arranged that the Chinese prince should 

edict accepting 450,000,000 taels as the amount three obeisances. Prince Chun was receiv 

having been issued on May 29, the payments to the Sans Souci palace, in Potsdam, on Sept. - 

be made in gold at the rate of 3«. to the tael, delivered to Kaiser Wilhelm a letter froi 

payable half-yearly, the debt to be extinguished Emperor of China expressing deep regret 

in thirty-nine years according to the plan ol amor- Baron von Ketteler had been murdered a 

tization, the balance of the maritime customs, result of the invasion of Pekin by the rebc 

raised to an effective 5-per-cent. and including Boxers and the act of the soldiers in joinir 

articles previously on the free list excepting rice, rebellion, rendering it impossible for him tc 

cereals, flour, and precious metals, being assigned due protective measures, 
as security, also native customs administered in Military Operations. — The relief of the 

open ports by the Imperial Maritime Customs tions and the occupation of the Chinese im 

and the unhypothecated portion of the salt ga- city accomplished the ostensible objects c 

bel, the conditions on which the increase in the military intervention before the arrival of < 

tariff was agreed to being that the duties should von Waldersee, who had been accepted by t 

be specific, and that the beds of the Whangpoo tervening powers as commander-in-chief of t 

and Peiho rivers, the approaches to Shanghai and temationai forces after a preliminary corres 

Pekin, should be improved with the financial par- ence between the German and Russian Emp 

ticipation of China. The seventh article defined When he arrived with the German expediti 

the limits of the legation area, and affirmed the 20.800 men he found 18,500 English and I 

right of the legations to have a defensible quarter troops under Gen. Sir Alfred Gaselee, the 

reserved for exclusively foreign use, and also the ne«e force of nearly the same strength undei 

right to maintain legation guards. In the eighth Yamaguinehi, the Americans under Gen. Ch; 

article China agreed to raze the forts at Taku and command, the French contingent of 16,000 

others forts impeding communications between Gen. Voyron, the large Russian force undei 

Pekin and the sea. In the ninth article it was Linevich, and the small Italian and Austrij 

stated that China on Jan. 16 had conceded to the tachments. There were divergent views a 

powers the right to occupy the points necessary the different governments as to the military ; 

lor keeping open communication between Pekin to be followed, though they agreed in the oi 

and the sea — namely. Huangtsun, Langfang, that the purpose of the troops was to guai 

Yangtsun, Tientsin, Chunliangcheng, Tangku, capital and the surrounding districts and 

liUtai, Tongshan, Lanchau, Changli, Cliingwantao, them until China accepted the terms tha 



CHINA. 121 

. should impose as the conditions of evaeua- cipline and committed crimes and excesses on 

The city was divided into districts after cap- their own account, the guilty ones were pun- 

nd each national contingent had its quar- ished as severely as in the American command, 

the district given into its charge. At first and more severely than French or Russian sol- 

A as havoc and indiscriminate looting, but diers who got out of hand. The result of the Ger- 

he several commanders took charge oif dif- man policy was to plunge the country into au- 

sections they established patrols which archy after peace and order had already been re- 

d most of the looting by individuals within stored. The native police having been disarmed 

Lv. Systematized looting by command was and suppressed, the only persons carrying arms 

>t j^un. The houses of the princes and man- were bands of Boxers ana brigands, who easily 

who had accompanied the Emperor and evaded the foreign troops and pillaged the coun- 

►ss Dowager to Singan-Fu were stripped of try people with impunity. Deserters from the 

iraluable contents, as were merchants' ware- European armies increased the number of robbers. 

*, The imperial palaces were gutted, except The devastation of peaceful districts by the troops 

guarded by the Japanese, who alone re- added fresh increments to the starving Chinamen, 

i from plunder. American commanding whose only means of livelihood was robbery. In 

s did not countenance looting, however, and the middle of February Field-Marshal von' Wal- 

rench and the Russians kept their " troops dersee announced his intended great expedition to 

lly under control. The British collected the the borders of Pechili, to Taiyuen-Fu in Shansi 

nd sold it at auction for the benefit of their or beyond, to Singan-Fu, as w-as variously given 

8 and men. out. The expedition or the threat was intended 

American and French governments declined to impress the Empress Dowager with the neces- 

jognize the necessity Tor a comniander-in- sity of yielding to the demand of the ministers for 

after the object of the joint expedition had the punishment of the antiforcign members of 

already achieved, and their commanders the Pckin Government. The commander-in-chief 

not take orders from the German field- requested the cooperation of the American and 

lal. The Japanese accepted his authority as French commanders, who asked instructions from 

ter of form, with the understanding that it their governments. The United States Govem- 

[ not be exercised. The Russians withdrew ment telegraphed to Minister Conger, instructing 

forces to Manchuria, leaving Gen. Wogack him to protest strongly against further military 

only enough troops to guard the railroad operations, and communicated with the cabinets 

arrison the stations in the northeast, with in Europe. Nearly all the powers agreed that it 

ictions to take no part in hostile operations was inexpedient to resume military operations 

st the Chinese. Except the Italian troops while peace negotiations were in progress. The 

he petty Austrian detachment, the English ministers in Pekin, though not responsible for the 

the only troops besides the German expedi- intended movement, approved of it as a means of 

hat were placed unreservedly under the com- pressure. While Marshal von Waldersee con- 

of Count von Waldersee, whose staff was tinned his preparations the Chinese court yielded 

)sed only of German officers. For larger to the demand of the ministers. The French com- 

tions having a political bearing he called mandor, Gen. Voyron, as well as the American com- 

'onsultation the commanders of the inter- mander, refused to take part in an expedition into 

lal forces, who decided whether they would Shansi. The allies failed to organize any uniform 

rate with their troops, Becking first the ad- system of administration that inspired the confi- 

i their ministers or instructions from their dence of the Chinese. The Japanese and the 

nments if the proposed movement was like- Americans were the most successful, and the 

have political consequences. The interna- French and the British did best w^hen they relied 

command of Count von Waldersee was by on the native officials. The Germans by tneir in- 

nent between the cabinets confined to the discriminate punitive raids and wholesale requisi- 

ice of Pechili. By agreement with the Chi- tions aroused resentment. When the time was ap- 

ourt at Singan-Fu, Chinese troops were kept proaching for evacuation Field-Marshal von Wal- 

f Pechili so that they should not come into dersee planned an expedition through southern 

on with the international forces. A form- Pechili, where brigandage and Boxer crimes were 

•eement was made on Jan. 2 between Count becoming rife, but this he gave up because even 

^Valderaiee and Li-Hung-Chang, who was the English declined to take part. 

jy of Pechili, defining the limits of the dis- Looting and the selling of loot continued in 

o be occupied and kept in order by the allies, Pekin as long as anything of value could be found, 

le of which the Chinese engaged to preserve The temples were robbed of their images and 

and order. The military district to be decorations, and even of the gilded tiles on their 

lied by European troops was defined in gen- roofs; the palaces of their wood carvings and 

rders. The railroads and the military posts metallic ornaments. The missionaries, who were 

le of Pekin were assigned to diflferent divi- among the first to begin looting in Pekin, apply- 

of the international force. The German ing the proceeds to the support of the native 

s who had come too late to have a share Christians, went through the country imposing 

fighting and the looting that followed must fines of their own authority on villages where 

occupation, and were therefore sent out on native Christians had been murdered or robbed 

sions in all directions through the military and churches destroyed. An American missionary 

:t. They harried the country, seizing sup- named Ament, who obtained money from nearly 

R'here they could find them, and carrying off forty villages for the purpose of compensating the 

?ver valuable loot was left, shot defenseless families of Christian converts who had been mas- 

;, disarmed the police, levied fines on vil- sacred, was arrested by the French on the charge 

and towns w^hich had already expiated the of extortion. Bronze and porcelain figures of 

crimes committed in them, and dismissed enormous weight w^erc shipped to Europe. Auc- 

ative officials whom the European officers tion sales of Chinese loot were held in London and 

estored and who were establishing order. Paris. A collection of choice objects sent to 

depredations were committed by the orders France for public museums was returned to China 

R German officers. When the troops, de- by order of M. de Lanessan, Minister of Marine, to 

ized by such barbarous tactics, forgot dis- be restored to the temples and palaces from which 



122 CHINA. 

these treasures were taken. The German military Americans 150, while the guards of the Britiib, 

authorities took away the instruments that were French, Germans, Russians, and Japanese were 300 

presented to the Chinese Government astronom- strong. Including these, the garrisons at Tientan 

ical observatory centuries ago by Jesuit mission- and Shanhaikwan, 9 posts on the railroad between 

aries. The German Government offered to return Pekin and Shanhaikwan, and 250 men in small 

them, but the Chinese Government asked the Ger- posts on the Peiho river, the permanent interna- 

mans to keep them. The Americans and Japanese tional force to be kept in Pechili was expected to 

guarded the Forbidden City effectually, and the number 12,500 men. 

S'rench left the Palace of Ancestors undespoiled. Paoting-Fu was held by a French garrison, and 
Nevertheless pillagers carried off a large part of in the mountain passes beyond leading into Shansi 
the treasures preserved in the imperial city, and were the outposts of Gen. Liu's army of Chinese 
fire destroyed many of the buildings. In the be- regulars. For months the two forces faced one 
ginning of March the greater part of the Temple another without mishap. Gen. Bailloud, who had 
of a Thousand Years in the Summer Palace was 3,000 men at Paoting-Fu, desired to attack when 
burned to the ground. A conflagration that oc- Gen. Liu massed 10,000 troops within 12 miles of 
curred on April 17 in the part of the Winter Palace the French advanced positions, but was restrained 
occupied as the German headquarters cost Gen. by orders from Pekin. A massacre of Christians 
von Schwarzhoff, chief of staflr, his life when he at Chitigting-Fu was avenged by the French, who 
attempted to save military documents. Count had dilKculty in settling the quarrels between 
von Waldersee escaped naiTowly, and unique art Christians and the rest of the population at 
treasures and costly presents for the Kaiser were Paoting-Fu, where the Catholic missionaries were 
consumed in the flames, which wiped out an acre so arrogant and exacting that the military would 
of buildings. Another fire, which occurred on not uphold them, and left the government of the 
June 6, destroyed many buildings in the Forbid- city to the Chinese officials, confining their own 
den City, among them the Wuying hall, which action to the arbitration of disputes. A German 
contained the archives of the dynasty and the reconnaissance was carried beyond Paoting-Fu 
imperial library. The cause was at first supposed while the preparations for the advance toward Sin- 
to be lightning; later it seemed probable that some gan-Fu were in progress. Col. Hoffmeister's col- 
servant of the court had started the fire in fulfil- unm was checked at Kuangchang by imperial Chi- 
ment of the imperial policy of obliterating the nese troops, who fought stubbornly, although their 
historical precedents and literary standards that losses were about 300 killed, and compelled the 
were considered the chief obstacle to political Germans to .retire. Gen. Yinchang, by order of 
progress. Li-Hung-Chang, requested Count von Waldersee 
Of more than a score of expeditions undertaken not to send out expeditions, but to restrain the 
before January, only a third resulted in encounters native Christians and the missionaries from mak- 
with Chinese troops or Boxers and a few others in ing exorbitant claims, to allow the Chinese troops 
the execution c^. local ringleaders according to the to remain within 10 miles of the allies for the pur- 
German reports. The Chinese reported tnat the pose of keeping off Boxers and robbers, and within 
troops and ringleaders were in several instances the occupied territory to seek the assistance of I 
regular police and properly constituted officials the Chinese officials in the detection and punish- 
and the Boxers peaceful villagers. Boxers and ment of the guilty. The field-marshal promised 
bands of robbers did appear near the main garri- not to send out expeditions unless bands of rob- 
sons of Pekin, Tientsin, and Paoting-Fu, and be- bers or an advance of Chinese troops made it neces- 
came bolder and more numerous, but the troops sary, and said he would seek tne assistance of 
could not catch them. Count von Waldersee Chinese oflTicials. The indemnities to be paid to 
formulated his plan for evacuation before the end native Christians he said would be settled in the 
of January, but the condition of the river and future by mutual agreement between them and the 
harbor and the lack of transport rendered it im- local officials, or would be referred to the diplo- 
possible for the troops to embark before April, matic representatives. In March the Japanese be- 
Besides the permanent legation guards, whose gan to withdraw their forces, gradually turning 
number was fixed at over 2,000, he intended to over the districts they occupied to the Chinese ofR- 
leave 6,000 troops at Taku and Lutai, in the Tien- cials, with whom they had already cooperated, 
tsin district, and 1,500 at Shanhaikwan, to re- The United States Government, in April, withdrew 
main until all the conditions of peace were ful- all American troops, except enough to serve as a 
filled ; also to occupy the towns of Hosiwu, Matou, legation guard. A reported advance of Gen. Liu's 
and Tungchau until the evacuation of Pechili. troops a mile or two beyond the agreed line 
The permanent garrisons at Tientsin and Shan- offered the Germans an opportunity they eagerly 
haikwan were fixed at 2,000 and 1,500 men respect- seized for an encounter with the Chinese* regulars, 
ively, and garrisons along the railroad at about In previous skirmishes the Chinese had retired, 
300 men each, placed near enough together to be relying on as.«urances, coming mostly from Russia 
able to patrol the whole line, the troops at each and the United States, that if they evaded a con- 
station to consist of men of one nationality and flict the allies would not advance, and the negotia- 
the command of the whole force to be taken by the lions would reach a peaceful conclusion and Pe- 
different countries in rotation. The American and chili be evacuated on more favorable terms than 
Russian generals thought that half the number of would be the case if they were drawn into fight- 
troops would be sufficient to guard the legations, ing. On the report that the Chinese had passed 
and that 1,000 or 2,000 stationed at Tientsin, Shan- the bounds in the northwest. Gen. Kettler's 
haikwan, and perhaps two or three other points, brigade marched out in four columns. Col. HotT- 
were capable of protecting communications with meister's column met the Chinese, who had re- 
the sea, instead of 6,000 distributed at nine differ- tired to the Great Wall, on April 23, and drove 
cnt points. The larger plan of the commander-in- them into Shansi, capturing several* banners and 
chief was adopted, but the United States furnished guns. On the same day the column of Major von 
no troops except to guard the legation, Russia only Mflhlenfels, numbering 1,100 men, attacked a 
n contingent at Shanhaikwan. After the razing of strong body, estimated at 2,000, in a bastion com- 
the forts the seaport garrisons were to be reduced, manding the pass into Shansi and fought all day, 
The Austrians decided to have only 200 men for a and the Chinese did not yield, but toward evening 
legation guard, the Italians the same, and the began to enclose the Germans, who entrenched 



CHINA. 



123 



elves and sent for reenforcements. The Chi- 
lad surrounded their position with ritie-pits, 
rhen they had lost 40 men the Grermans 
they could not hold out. In the night the 
« retired. Col. von Ledebuhr's column had 
mish with the Chinese at Haishankwan, 
A'hich they retired beyond the Great Wall. 
>n VV'allmenich encountered them in a strong 
•n, and being joined by the battalion of 

von Miilmann, pursued them to Kukuan, 
ing 11 old and 2 quick-firing guns. The 
I, who marched out to take part in the ag- 
e movement, but were restrained at the last 
it by orders from their Government, agi*eed 
1 Kukuan while Gen. Kettler concentrated 
lole force at Paotin^-Fu and prepared to 

through the mountain passes into Shansi. 
Ivance column had already started to climb 
mntains when, as the result of pourparlers 
le Chinese commissioners and their messages 
igan-Fu, the Chinese court consented to 
te their advanced positions and retire be- 
all question from the neutral zone. An- 
Gierman expedition was sent into Mongolia 
sequence of a report that the Chinese were 
ing a great force beyond the Great Wall, 
rritory occupied by the allied troops did not 

more than half-way to the Great Wall, 
the rumored massing of a Chinese army 
Prince Tuan in Mongolia seemed deserv- 
' investigation, and consequently a cav- 
>rce was sent out under Capt. Magnis to 
oiter. Four columns, selected from wide- 
arated garrisons, rendezvoused punctually 
illage in Mongolia 250 miles from Pekin, 
: run over the whole country as far as 
>nter of Mongolia without finding any- 
to justify the rumor. One of the par- 
insisting of only 18 men, entered Kolgan, 
und there a quantity of ammunition in the 
1. Although it was a Chinese post, Lieut, 
ler decided to destroy this, and by the explo- 
l of his men were killed and all the others 
ed except a single man. Placing this one 
entry before the arsenal gate, the plucky 
ant, who w^as severely wounded himself, 
ord for the Governor and principal officials 
e and assist him in an investigation into the 
of the explosion. The Governor and two 
were admitted, and were bound and gagged 
mutilated soldiers; another official was then 
it in, and dismissed with the warning that 
Kummer would blow the Governor's brains 

the least hostile move on the part of the 
ce, after which a wounded soldier rode 60 

Chatou for reenforcements. 

renewal of active operations by the Germans 

1 lowed by a recrudescence of Boxer troubles 
same part of Pechili. A numerous band 
villages and threatened to massacre Chris- 
md attack German posts south of Paoting- 
rhese Boxers were largely recruited from 
ite farming people whose horses and cattle 
en seized and houses plundered by the for- 
oops. Near the Mongolian frontier and in 
m Shansi there was also a revival of the 
movement. When evacuation was near, the 
ition of the Chinese regular soldiers was 
in, in conjunction with whom the French 
?d against the Boxers on the western bor- 

le Gen. Kettler was engaged with the Chi- 
giilars on the west, the international troops 
nhaikwan were busy with marauding bands 
ossed the Great Wall in the east. Col. Rad- 
rith 800 British, Japanese, and French sol- 
iet out to punish a large band that had de- 



feated a large force of Sepoys and killed an Eng- 
lish officer. Major Browning. The enemy were 
encountered in force, and were driven back into 
the mountains, 50 being killed to 9 of the allies. 
These hungry bands tnat broke into Pechili from 
Manchuria were Honghots and others whom the 
Russians had driven out. After the frightful 
massacre committed by the Cossack troops of Gen. 
Gribski, who, misinterpreting the Czar's order to 
fling the Chinese across the Amur, had attacked 
every Chinese village near Blagovestchensk with 
fire and sword, and driven into the flood 4,800 men, 
women, and children, and killed twice as many 
more on invading Manchuria, the Russian Gov- 
ernment, upon occupying Manchuria, took pains 
to regain the good-will of the Chinese by giving 
them a good government. An immense number 
of troops were poured into the country. The peo- 
ple were generally peaceful, and the Tartar gov- 
ernors made only a brief and formal attempt to 
check the invaders, afterward submitting grace- 
fully and cooperating loyally with the Russians 
for the preservation of order. The Boxers of Man- 
churia were soon subdued with their help, and 
after the Chinese generals who made a stand with- 
drew their garrisons into Pechili, occupation was 
found for the Cossacks, most of whom were Bud- 
dhists and racial relatives of the inhabitants, in 
clearing the country of the brigands, who were a 
veritable pest and a serious incubus on the industry 
of an exceedingly productive province. These 
Honghot brigands were originally hired workmen 
or condemn^ malefactors who had been sent to 
dig gold in the mines belonging to the Chinese 
Government situated in the wild part of northern 
Manchuria. The miners quickly deserted to dig 
gold on their own account, and J,hose who came to 
take their places did the same, until the mountains 
were filled with a population of strangers too 
nunlerous to subsist on the scanty supply of gold, 
who made laws for themselves and robbed all 
others, infesting every road in the country, so that 
high Chinese officials had to pay a price to be al- 
lowed to travel unmolested. To sweep the^^e 
bands out of Manchuria was a long and diffi- 
cult task, but one that was amply repaid by the 
gratitude of the people and the benefit to the in- 
dustry and progress of the province. The expelled 
brigands on their way southward tore up the Man- 
churian Railroad, which gave color to the reports 
of Gen. Gradekoff's expeditions against alleged 
Boxers, Chinese troops, or the enemy — an enemy 
formidable enough, but one whose conquest filled 
the Chinese of Manchuria and elsewhere with 
gratitude and admiration for the conqueror, 
whereas the exploits of Count von Waldersee and 
the other generals, except their similar police 
services, excited contempt or pity among a people 
who abhor war and are impressed only by ethical 
principles and economical forces. 

The French followed the Americans in reducing 
their force, withdrawing 9,000 men in May. In- 
activity was fatal to discipline, and friction be- 
tween the powers was reflected in the attitude of 
their soldiers, who came near clashing on several 
occasions. When the American force in Pekin was 
reduced the Germans expected to be placed in 
charge of the part of the Forbidden City that the 
Americans were guarding, and vented their spleen 
when disappointSi by paying no attention to the 
challenge of the American sentries, until one day 
a German was shot. When Indian soldiers were 
placed to guard the area at Tientsin that was in 
dispute between Russia and England, the Russians 
and French jeered the Sepoys and almost provoked 
them to turn their weapons on their tormentors. 
French soldiers off duty came into conflict with 



124 CHINA. 

• 

an English patrol, and there were frequent street mobilizing the Siberian and a part of the '. 

rows between the nationalities. The Germans at peau troops, Russia made a display of mil 

Tientsin, annoyed by boats striking against a power immensely greater than the whole 

bridge they had built, fired upon a tug flying that the allies threw into Pechili. The Ri 

the British flag, killing two men of the Chinese army occupying Manchuria numbered 17 

crew, after which they imprisoned and flogged the men. In its attitude toward the Chinese dy: 

rest. When called on for an explanation, Gen. von and people, the Russian Government assume 

Lessel, the German commander, alleged that rOle of protector against European encroachi 

British tugs and lighters were in the habit of de- as well as against internal disturbers. The fi 

liberately running against the bridge. The Indian ship that had existed for centuries betweei 

and English troops at Tientsin and elsewhere in- Czar and the Son of Heaven obliged the Cz 

curred the animosity of all the Continental sol- lend troops for the suppression of a revolt ii 

diers, and the American troops had sometimes to Middle Kingdom, and these Russian troops 

share this odium. occupied Pekin for the reestablishment of ( 

Count von Waldersee, with two-thirds of the thus strengthening the fraternal friendshi] 

German force, departed in June, after Gen. Bail- tween the Chinese and Russian rulers. Ru 

loud and the French troops had already gone. The troops occupied Manchuria simply to presen 

tTapanese and British forces were gradually with- der, and their taak would be to suppress brij 

drawn. The Japanese before leaving their quar- age and protect peaceful trade. The rig) 

ter of Pekin had instructed a Chinese police force Russia to exercise military and political autli 

to take their place, and the Chinese Government, in Manchuria was secured by a secret treaty 

on resuming authority, engaged Japanese officials before the present intervention of the po 

to assist in organizing the new civil administration When Mancliuria was saved from Japan b; 

for the whole city and a Japanese colonel to com- intervention of Russia, with the officious ba« 

mand the police. Trained Chinese troops from of other powers, which merely pretended t« 

Shantung and Honan were brought in to succeed Chinese to have any control in the matter, it 

the allies throughout the province, and cooperated evident that this great and rich country v 

with them in each dis<lrict before they were with- fall to the share of Russia. It was foreseen I: 

drawn. P^kin was handed over to the Chinese the Japanese war that this would be the pol 

early in July. A new association, called the Lien- consequence of the building of the Siberian 

Chuang-Hui, or Society of Allied Villages, took road. When the concession of seaports an( 

the place of the Boxer organization in the west right of way for the railroad were granted 

and south, and in consequence the French decided many and Great Britain seized seaports as con 

to retain a garrison of 1,000 men at Paoting-Fu sation, and, by beginning the partition, bix 

until the autumn. A force of 3,000 imperial on the Boxer revolt. Great Britain, as w< 
troops could not, or would not, subdue a body of • other powers, recognized Manchuria as a s] 

these new Boxers at Chichau. The ministers, in of Russian influence, to compensate for which 

virtue of the clause in the protocol which holds many sought a sphere in Shantung and i 

high officials responsible for the existence of anti- Britain in the Yangtse basin, a region too 

foreign societies, called upon the newl^ installed and rich for this claim of preemption to be 

Chinese authorities to suppress this society within good, especially when British enterprise shu 

a short limit of time. The new movement spread this field, in which Belgian and French capita 

into Shantung, where the Governor put it aown, with Russian political backing, began to build 

while more energetic commanders checked it in roads and Gemian and American goods cro 

Pechili. Officers of the dispersed imperial troops British manufactures out of the market, 

took command of the new Boxer bands, which many secured in the Anglo-German agreemi 

persecuted cruelly the native Christians, compelled waiver of any exclusive commercial privileges 

the country people to join the society, and levied England might claim in the Yangtse valley 

on villages for supplies. restricted the agreement to ports and rivers ^ 

The military at Taku and the other fortresses the parties have influence, and consequentl; 

dismantled them and removed war material, but nied afterward that the agreement applied to ' 

the decision to level their walls was not carried churia, a Russian sphere in which Germany cl 

out, because the ministers, yielding to the pa- no influence. Russia made use of the mil 

triotic objections of the Chinese ministers, omitted occupation of Manchuria to consolidate her p 

this one of the demands of the powers from the cal influence, to introduce Russian administn 

protocol. and to promote the peaceful annexation o; 

Pekin had been in the possession of the allies country. Capital was poured in through 

a year when the Chinese garrison, 3,000 in number, Russo-Chinese Bank, which developed mines 

returned on Sept. 17, when the command of the by its discounts quickened the commerce o 

capital was formally surrendered to Prince Ching. province, increasing production and bringin 

The Americans still retained possession of the markable prosperity at the time when rich 

south gate and the Japanese of the east gate. No tricts of Pechili were becoming depopulated 

other foreign troops remained in the capital, ex- turned into a wilderness. Russian taxes, the si 

cepting the legation guards, nor any in Pechili, ex- and registration of lands, Russian money, am 

cept the detachments at Shanhaikwan, Tientsin, assimilation of the administration to the Ru 

and other points on the railroad*. The evacuation system were introduced without friction. 1 

of Pekin took place on Sept. 22, and the points was an ample supply of Russian officials whc 

along the route were successively evacuated. learned the Chinese, Mongolian, and Manchi 

The Manchurian Question. — Russian inter- languages in the school at Ourga in Monj 

ests in China were so diff'erent from those of the The Russian troops were selected from t 

commercial nations of the West, the policy of Rus- nearest akin to the Chinese and having the 

sia so distinct, her diplomatic methods so much dhist religion. Russian colonization was b 

more efl'ective, and her influence so powerful, that by the settlement of 80.000 emigrants from 1 

the ministers in dealing with the Chinese court pean Russia along the Argun river in central ' 

through the plenipotentiaries at Pekin could not churia. The Chinese inhabitants of MancI 

tell to what extent the court was influenced by became so well satisfied with Russian rule 

Russia or bound by secret engagements. By they would not willingly go back to the fc 



CHINA. 125 

t^imc. In Mongolia, tbo, Russian enterprise, had already repeatedly promised to respect. The 

hand in hand with Russian political control, was position taken by Great Britain resolved itself 

making similar progress. into the argument that China would impair her 

The Japanese Government was not blind to the ability to pay indemnities by yielding up any part 

ineritable destiny of the northern dominions of of her sovereignty in Manchuria. Japan appealed 

the Chinese £mpire and understood the protecto- to the Anglo-German agreement promising active 

rate actually exercised by Russia, and was seeking measures lor the preservation of the integrity of 

to consolidate its own position in Korea by simi- the Chinese Empire or anti-Russian measures in 

lar methods. Japan, wishing to gain time, and its dismemberment. Japan in accepting that 

Great Britain, anxious to hem back the Russians agreement stated that she did so as a cosigna- 

until British interests are more firmly established tory, and the Japanese Prime Minister now ex- 

in central China, supported by the United States, plained that the express provisions of the agree- 

which has had considerable trade in Manchuria, ment were the ones that Japan adopted, and it 

chose to i^ore the actual status of the province did not concern her if other powers interpreted 

and consider that it was not even pledged to Rus- it by a strange code of their own. 

^ia, when it was really delivered and held, the The United States Government appealed to the 

previous arrangements between the Russian and international understanding existing regarding 

Chinese governments being secret. English the preservation of the territorial integrity of 

statesmen assumed that the Anglo-German agree- China, all the powers having assented to this prin- 

irent was intended to avert the Russian annexa- ciple as laid down in the American circular note 

tion of Manchuria, but the German Chancellor of July 3, 1900. In a memorandum given to the 

repudiated the suggestion. Russia, whose an- Chinese minister on Feb. 19 and communicated to 

: nexations in the East are as far as possible the powers on March 1, 1901, Secretary Hay stated 

! gradual and pacific, was quite willing to agree to the opinion that it would be improper, inexpedi- 

the fiction, and intended to restore the nominal ent, and dangerous for China to make arrange- 

jiovereignty to the Chinese Emperor. An agree- ments or to consider any proposition of a private 

ment between Gen. Korostovich, representing Ad- nature involving the surrender of territory or 

miral Alexeieff, the Russian commander-in-chief, financial obligations by convention with any par- 

»nd Tseng, the Tartar general at Mukden, pro- ticular power, at least without the knowledge and 

vided for the resumption of the civil administra- approval of all the powers engaged in joint ne- 

\ tion by the Chinese authorities subject to the gotiation. In answer to Japanese inquiries Rus- 

\ control of a Rus:-ian resident, and for the organi- sia declined to discuss with a third power the 

j zation of Chinese police under the Tartar general, terms of the agreement pending negotiations, but 

f could call on the aid of the Russian military when promised to publish it when concluded, and would 

necessary, but must disband all Chinese soldiery consider any representations that Japan might 

' and deliver over all munitions of war to the make, as the agreement was not intended to mi- 

Russians. The English Government, learning of pair China's sovereignty or to injure the interests 

\ this secret agi'eement from newspaper reports, or rights of other states. 

asked at St. Petersburg for explanations. Other When the second agreement came to the notice 
I versionswere given or other agreements unearthed, of the British Government Lord Lansdowne de- 
f A second agreement provided for the maintenance tected in it the virtual establishment of a pro- 
I of a Chinese army in Manchuria after the comple- tectorate over Chinese Turkestan and Mongolia 
; tion of the railroad, Russia to be consulted as to as well as over Manchuria. Count Lamsdorff said 
' its strength ; allowed Russia to extend the railroad that negotiations were pending, the subject of 
in the direction of Pekin as far as the Great Wall ; which could not be disclosed, as such a course 
and restrained China from granting railroad or would be incompatible with the character of one 
other concessions or even building railroads, not independent state negotiating with another, 
alone in Manchuria, but in Mongolia, Hi, Kash- Japan and the United States both represented to 
garia, Yarkand, and Khotan without the permis- the Chinese Government through the plenipoten- 
sion of Russia. Count Lamsdorff explained that tiaries at Pekin that it would be inaavisable to 
the first agreement was a temporary arrangement sign a separate convention regarding Manchuria 
made by the military authorities for the duration while peace negotiations were still proceeding, and 
of the simultaneous presence of the Russian and both sounded the other powers, all of which took 
Chinese authorities in Manchuria, and that this the same view, even France and Germany. Eng- 
modus Vivendi must be followed before evacuation land, Germany, Austria, and Italy offered the 
by a permanent agreement with the Chinese same counsel to China. Japan notified China 
Government, not mling territory or confer- that if Russia obtained any territorial or com- 
ring an actual or a virtual protectorate, but mercial advantages Japan would require equiva- 
givmg an effective guarantee against the recur- lent advantages. Even Russia concurred in a 
ren<^ of an attack on the Russian frontier or the memorandum from Washington against secret ar- 
destruction of the railroad. The Japanese Gov- rangements with any one power without the agree- 
cmment took a mote strenuous course in oppos- ment of all while negotiations were going on, but 
ing the Manchurian agreement than the British or assumed that it did not apply to a temporary mili- 
American governments. Japanese naval forces tary arrangement. Other conditions that Russia 
were mobilized and despatched to Korea. The sought to weave into the agreement were that 
Germans could not understand the attitude of the appointment of the Tartar general in each of 
England and the appeal to the Anglo-German the three provinces of Manchuria should be sub- 
agreement of Oct. 16, 1900, as in framing that ject to the approval of Russia, a right that Russia 
agreement it was explained by the English as well already exercised; that a Russian official should 
as the German negotiators that its guarantees control the police in each province; and that tlie 
could not extend to Manchuria, England having, frontier customs should be under Russian control, 
by a previous understanding with Russia, con- and transit for goods imported from Sibrri?i 
ceded, even more explicitly than Germany had should be free throughout the interior. Althoujrh 
done, that Manchuria was outside of her political the Russian Govornnient refused to disclose the 
and commercial sphere. The trading rights in contents of the draft agreement further than to 
Manchuria, as in other parts of China, secured to state that they did not infringe the cxisting'treat y 
all the powers by the treaty of Tientsin, Russia rights of other powers in China, the Chinese let 



126 



CHINA. 



them be known, and soug;ht to turn the dissen- 
sion of the powers to their own advantage. The 
Yangtse viceroys, who had been appointed ad- 
visory members of the peace commission, sent a 
strong remonstrance to the court against signing 
the treaty, as it would impair Chinese sovereignty 
in the northern territories, though Russia had 
agreed to accept a less stringent control over the 
civil administration in Manchuria and to renounce 
her pretensions to exclusive rights in Mongolia 
and Turkestan, and also the cession of Kincliau. 
A new article was introduced stating that, China 
having broken her engagement h^ giving the rail- 
road from Shanhaikwan to Shmminting as se- 
curity for a foreign loan, Russia shall have the 
right to construct a branch of the Manchurian 
Railroad to the boundary of Pechili at the Great 
Wall. The Imperial Government directed the Chi- 
nese ministers in Europe to appeal to the powers 
to intercede with Russia and induce her to either 
forego demands which we^e injurious to China 
and countries having treaty rights in Manchuria, 
or to influence Russia to extend the time so as 
to allow further negotiations, the Russian Gov- 
ernment having notified the Chinese court that an 
answer was expected by April 2. The convention 
was not signed at that term, the Yangtse vice- 
roys having added to the protests of the powers a 
declaration that they would not recognize it if 
signed. China had been informed that Russia 
would tear up the draft unless it was signed at 
the date appointed. On April 3 the Russian Gov- 
ernment notified the powers that it did not in- 
tend to proceed further with the Manchurian 
agreement, but would await the development of 
events, though regretting that the intention to 
bring the occupation to a speedy termination and 
to submit the arrangements for effecting that end 
to the ministers at Pekin had come to naught. 
China, in notifying Russia of her inability to sign, 
said that in the perilous situation which she 
was passing through it was impossible to grant 
special privileges to one power when others ob- 
jected lest she alienate the sympathies of all. The 
effect of the diplomatic intervention of the powers 
had, according to the Russian view, the effect of 
prolonging the occupation and attendant Russi- 
fication of Manchuria. In the Russian circular 
note Russia renounced all negotiations, since a 
special agreement, instead of serving as an open 
testimony of Russia's friendly sentiments toward 
China, might involve that neighboring empire in 
various diflficulties. 

The Russian minister demanded the resumption 
of the Manchurian negotiations after the signa- 
ture of the protocol. The work of railroad con- 
struction was pushed rai)idly in Manchuria, many 
thousands of laborers being brought from the 
south. Chinese eii^igration into Siberia reached 
such dimensions that the Russian authorities 
took measures to stop it as much as possible. The 
junction of the Port Arthur Railroad with the 
main Manchurian line was effected in July. Sir 
Robert Hart appointed Russian officials to col- 
lect the maritime customs in Manchuria, who also 
collected the native customs. The Tartar general, 
. Tseng-Chi, who had been removed after signing 
the agreement with Admiral Alexeieff, but was 
reinstated at the demand of Russia, was con- 
firmed in his office for four years. In Turkestan, 
as well as in Manchuria, and even in Tibet, the 
prestige and influence of Russia seemed to grow 
amazingly as the result of the Chinese troubles. 
Envoys of the Dalai Lama went to visit the Czar 
in the summer, the mission being represented as a 
religioiis one due to the fact that the Czar had 
.some millions of Buddhists among his subjects. 



Politico-Commercial Bivalries. — Connected 
with the Manchurian question were the Anglo- 
Russian disputes about railroads in north China, 
which were incidents of a rivalry that began Ituig 
before the Bo.xer outbreak. In the railroad con- 
vention between England and Russia Eng- 
land promised not to interfere in railroad mat- 
ters north of the Great Wall. The other sections 
of the northern railroads, which connect Pekin 
with the sea, built with about £3,000,000 of Brit- 
ish capital, and constituting the only British 
enterprise in China, were regarded as a polit- 
ical rampart against the progress of Russian in- 
fluence and control into China proper. These rail- 
roads were torn up by the Boxers and by the 
Chinese troops that opposed the advance of the 
allies to Pekin. When Count von Waldersoe ar- 
rived at Tientsin on Sept. 27, 1900, the first ques- 
tion that confronted him was with regard to the 
reconstruction and control of the railroads. Gen. 
Gaselee thought that the British superinten(ie:nt 
of the line, Mr. Kinder, could collect Chinese 
workmen, recover hidden material, and get the 
line into working order quickly under the control 
of the British military authorities. The Russians 
having already occupied the railroads and be^pm 
repairs,. and the British being not yet in sufficient 
force even to guard the line, and having to de- 
pend on Chinese workmen, which seemed to be 
out of the question from a military point of view, 
the field-marshal decided to entrust the section 
between Tongku and Yangtsun to the Russians, 
while the one from Yangtsun to Pekin would be 
reconstructed by the Germans assisted by the 
British and other allied troops. The part running 
up from Tongku to Shanhaikwan he decided to 
place also in charge of the Russians. The Lulian 
line in the interior, in which French bondholders 
were interested, had already been occupied by 
French troops. Gren. Gaselee obtained the support 
of the American and Japanese generals for his 
contention that civilian management would be 
more effective. Count von Waldersee was not 
shaken in his opinion, and on Oct. 18, 1900, issued 
the ofder for a strictly military control, giving 
to the Russians control of the line between Yang- 
tsun and Shanhaikwan, while a German ofticer. 
Major Bauer, was appointed to repair and protect 
the section from Yangtsun and Pekin with Ger- 
man, British, and Japanese troops. Complaints 
about the transfer of the railroad to the Russians 
and arrangements made to secure material be- 
longing to the Belgian company owning the 
Pekin and Hankow Railroad when presented at 
Berlin again and again were simply forwarded to 
Count von Waldersee, to whom military matters 
had been entrusted. Representations were made 
subsequently at St. Petersburg also bv the British 
Government. Direct negotiations with the Rus- 
sian Government were more fruitful, and finally 
an arrangement was made for the transfer of the 
line from Shanhaikwan to Yangtsun to Count 
von Waldersee, to be given by him into the control 
of the British. The railroad was formally handed 
over to the Germans on Jan. 15, 1901. and by 
them transferred to the British on Feb. 21. Th? 
extension of the northern railroad from Shan- 
haikwan to Shinminting and Niuchuang was not 
restored to the British, but remained in Russian 
control. Russia offered to buy this part of the 
line from the Chinese Government. This would 
secure the English bondholders from loss, but the 
English Government would not readily sanction 
this solution, which would be in violation of a 
covenant not to alienate any part of the line. 
The concession for a great trunk railroad running 
through China from Pekin to Canton had been 



CHINA. 1 27 

?d by the Belgian syndicate that had con- court ordered large quantities of rice to be dis- 

d part of the line, the American and other tributed. When the ministers heard that native 

;ionaires having sold their interest. Christians were discriminated against they pro- 

r the British railroad administration had tested, and in response to their representations an 

d control of the northern railroad a seri- imperial edict was issued on Jan. 26 ordering all 

larrel arose respecting a part of the river rehef officials and Chinese soldiers to treat na- 

in Tientsin where the railroad officials tive Christians in exactly the same way as ail 

I to build side-tracks. This same piece of other Chinese throughout the empire, 
ras claimed by Russia as a concession An imperial edict was issued on Feb. 6 sus- 

i by Li-Uung-Chang as Viceroy of Pechili. pending for five years all official examinations in 

issians, who were in possession and had set districts where foreigners were killed, and one 

ndary posts^ stopped the railroad construe- fqrbidding the existence of antiforeign societies, 

itil a superior British force took possession reciting the punishment of guilty persons, and 

instructions from Gen. Barrow to carry placing on local officials responsibility for the 

siding by armed force if necessary. Gen. maintenance of order, with the warning that they 

k protested, and both he and the British would be dismissed permanently from the public 

I stationed troops on the disputed area and service if trouble occurred. These edicts complied 

?d to the field-marshal, who said he could with conditions laid down in the note from the 

udge the military question, leaving the powers. An imperial decree issued on Jan. 29 

»n of ownership to be decided by the gov- attributes the antiforeign outbreak to the old 

its concerned. Instructions came from system of government, condemns blind adherence 

id to maintain the sentries, but not to use to precedents, and orders the substitution of for- 

xcept to repel aggression. Count von Wal- eign methods for Chinese eiTors, calling upon 

had the military guards on both sides re- viceroys, governors, officials of the Central Gov- 

to a small number, and sent back the troops ernment, and ministers abroad to suggest reforms 

he British and Russian commanders had for the court and Government, local administra- 

i up. The sentry guards were left in their tion, education, military afl'airs, and finance. The 

ive stations on the disputed land until the old system of memorializing the Emperor was de- 

m of right could be determined diplomat- clared to be useless, and for the future it was 

The railroad company claimed to have a forbidden. Corrupt and dishonest officials were 
» the part taken for a siding, and residents declared to be responsible for China's troubles, 
British concession opposite set up titles to and it was therefore of paramount importance 
parcels of the alleged Russian concession, to employ only good men and to abolish or modify 
Q davs in March British and Russian sen- ancient methods and customs. In an edict issued 
aced one another in hostile array. The in February the Emperor adopted the principles 
lent closing the incident was reached by that Chang-Chih-Tung and other viceroys had ad- 
negotiations between the British ambassa- vanced in memorials to the throne. The inces- 
St. Petersburg and the Russian Minister of sant efforts of officials to maintain a fair ex- 
n Affairs after the sentries on both sides terior regardless of realities, their self-interest, 
I March 22 been removed by agreement be- and their devotion to precedent, were declared to 
the two commanders. The determination be the bane of the land. Excessive reverence for 
validity of the rival claims to the land was literary form had diverted the mind of the nation 
d for future investigation and negotiation, from substantial progress, and even where China- 
'an residents were anxious that the United men have imitated Western methods they have 

should resume the former American con- copied what is superficial and immaterial, disre- 

i at Tientsin. The title to this concession garding the fundamental elements in the strength 

?linquished during the administration of of Western nations, which are truth, justice, and 

•nt Cleveland, and the land was incorpo- devotion to the common good. This significant 

in the British concession with the under- edict, while reproaching Kang-Yu-Wei, the found- 

ig that should it ever be needed it would be er of the revolutionary reformers, whose projects 

d. Mr. Conger, after his return to China, were characterized as veiled rebellion, condemned 

I to the Chinese Government for a new the officials and the literati, the system of literary 

which would fix definitely the boundaries examinations, and the literary essay; declared 

American concession. Austria-Hungary, that military and financial helplessness had re- 
has had no settlement in China hitherto, suited from adhering to obsolete methods; and 

consulate only at Shanghai, obtained an pointed to foreign methods as the only hope of 
I Tientsin. Italy has a settlement adjoin- rescuing China from the disasters that had over- 
it of Austria. Belgium also determined to taken her. The progressive Yuan-Shi-Kai, who 
sh settlements in China. France and Japan succeeded Yu-Hsien as Governor of Shantung, 
ed the limits of their concessions. Germany even lauded missionaries, and publicly invited 
r possessed sufficient land at Tientsin. At them back to the province where Chinese pride 
I land was selected for a German conces- and exclusiveness had their deepest roots, prom- 

^ ising assistance and protection to missionaries of 

)rm Edicts. — The court at Singan-Fu was all churches, a promise that he kept faithfully, 

ly humiliated by its banishment from the By an edict published in the beginnmg of March 

,'but the hardships sufTered during its lon</ the ?]niperor declared that all decrees and reports 

[continued after its arrival at the ancient issued between June 20 and Aug. 14, 1900, were 

f empire, for- Shensi and the neighboring nnnullod. and directed that they should be ex- 

:*e of Shansi were afflicted with one of the punged from the archives so that no trace of 

t famines known in the history of China, them should be left in history. Some of the 

lost three successive crops. Two-thirdr^ of viceroys and governors in a memorial sug^j^ested 

pulation w^ere without sufficient food, and that imperial princes and students of rank should 

? proportion lacked fuel and clothing to visit foreign countries, that the army should be 

lem from freezing. The domestic animals drilled entirely after Western methods, that the 

acrificed to allay hunsrer. Infanticide be- colleges and schools should be extended, and that 

•omraon; the poor sold their women and a standard dollar currency should be adopted, 

n, and some resorted to cannibalism. The Progressive Chinamen, in consultation with 



128 CHINA. CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR, SOCIETIES OP. 

Japanese officers, established in Pekin a school the Manchus amenable to the ordinary courts, 

under a Japanese principal in which Chinamen invested the Chinese police with the same powers 

who have obtained a literary degree can quickly in the Manchu quarter as in other parts of the 

acquire the Japanese language, and through the city, and forbade the Manchu soldiers, as Chinese 

Japanese translations can learn the sciences of soldiers are forbidden, to carry arms except on 

the West, including history, mathematics, philos- duty. The Yangtse viceroys and several others 

ophy, law, and medicine. in their memorials suggested the abolition of the 

All the viceroys and governors were invited to Manchu pensions and of all special privileges of 
advise the couit as to the reforms that they Manchus in the capital as well as elsewhere. The 
thought necessary. Chang-Chih-Tung proposed progressive Viceroy of Canton took steps to sup- 
an inteinational commission to investigate mis- press opium-smoking among his subordinates, 
sionary methods. The missionaries are known to having memorialized the throne in regard to this 
the Chinese as the scholars w^ho teach Western vice. He also gave encouragement to the estab- 
doctrines. The Catholics have prospered more lishment of schools of Western learning. Li-Hung- 
than the Protestants, knowing the Chinese ian- Chang proposed in a memorial that examinations 
guage and assimilating Buddhist symbolism in in Chinese classics should be suspended every- 
their worship. Protestants — by their charitable where for five years, and that after that they 
protection of infants, their medical skill, and, should be combined with examinations in the 
above all, by their instructions in the sciences and Western branches. W'hen Li-Hung-Chang. in 
practical arts of the West, have won the respect of April, asked the court to appoint a time for its 
the intelligent and progressive element, and they return to Pekin, the Empress Dow^ager replied 
are the principal propagators of Western political that that would be impossible until the guests 
ideas. The Chinaman who embraces Christianity of the nation had departed. When negotiations 
adopts only that part of the Christian moral doc- for evacuation were advanced and the departure 
trines which he finds servibeable and of practical of the foreign troops was in prospect, the date of 
utility. In joining a Christian community he cuts Oct. 6 was set for the reentry of the court. In 
himself loose from Chinese society and enters an Pekin the Chinese officials tried to disguise the 
illegal secret society, .which he will not do unless ruin caused bv the siege and occupation by erect- 
he obtains compensatory benefits. These consist ing wooden facsimiles of the temples, pagodas, 
in financial assistance and in protection. Thus gates, and palaces that were destroyed. The 
bankrupts, impoverished men, and social outcasts court removed from Singan-Fu to Kaifung-Fu, 
become converts, and thus missionaries find them- in Honan, in October, and did not proceed to 
selves the heads of associations for mutual'benefit Pekin at the time set, putting off the date till 
and defense of an economic and social character, another year because the Cliinese plenipotentiaries 
and tend themselves to become practical business had mismanaged the negotiations and allowed too 
men. large a foreign force to remain in Pekin. An 

By an edict issued on April 23 the Grand Coun- edict issued on May 30 ordered the destruction 

cil was abolished and a General Board of State of all official documents in the archives in order 

Afi'airs was constituted in its place, with Prince to do away with burdensome precedents, and 

Ching as its president, and as the other members directed that the official writers of the six boards 

Li-Hung-Chanff, Yung-Lu, Kun-Kang, Wang- of government who were familiar with the old 

Wen-Shao, and Lu-Chuan-Lin, three of the mem- forms and precedents should be dismissed, and 

bers being Manchus and three Chinese. The vice- that the presidents should draw up such regula- 

roys Liu-Kun-Yi and Chang-Chih-Tung, who had tions for the conduct of future business as would 

already been attached as associate members to enable them to have immediate knowledge of all 

the Chinese Peace Commission, were appointed transactions. After the documents in all the 

advisory members of this new supreme council, public departments at Pekin were destroyed and 

the appointed task of which was to recommend the clerks dismissed^ the boards of government 

what reforms were needed in China. Their report were at a loss how to proceed without records 

would be laid before the Empress Dowacer by the or precedents. Proclamations were placarded in 

Emperor, and the changes approved by her would Pekin and other cities declaring that a national 

to put into force after the return of the court crime was committed by China in 1900, and that 

to Pekin. The Empress Dowager canceled the the punishment inflicted should be a warning 

nomination of Prince Tuan's son as heir presump- against its recurrence. An edict issued in October 

tive of the throne. A series of decrees enjoined admonished officials to enforce the reforms de- 

the protection of foreigners and of native Chris- creed, for the destiny of China was involved in 

tians. The responses to the invitation to supe- these changes, designed to render her independent, 
rior officials throughout China to send in reform CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOB, SOCIETIES 

schemes were so numerous and so conflicting OF. The twentieth International Convention of 

that the Emperor appointed a commission to ex- the United Societies of Christian Endeavor, held in 

amine the various projects and report upon them Cincinnati, Ohio, in July, was very largely at- 

for the information of the Empress, who would tended. The secretary's report showed that there 

have the ultimate decision. were now 61,427 societies, and called attention to 

In Canton the Viceroy Tao-Mo, with the con- the fact that the figures representing this number 

currence of the Tartar general, issued a proclama- wore the same as m 1891, but w^ere arranged in 

tion abolishing the privileges of the Manchus, de- different order, for they read then 10,274, while 

daring that they should henceforth be treated the nearly 1,000,000 members of ten years before 

similarly to the Chinese in the Kwang provinces, had become nearly 4,000.000; It had been ex- 

The policy of maintaining the special privileges of pected each year that a falling off in the increase 

the Manchu colonies in the Chinese cities has been in numbers would begin, but the time for that 

enforced more vigorously in Canton than in other had not yet come. A net increase of nearly 2.000 

places, and the Tartar braves have been accus- new societies had taken place since the Interna- 

tomed to terrorize the peaceable inhabitants of tional Convention of 1900 in London, with nearly 

the city, while their own quarter, into which the 100.000 added members. Unification of local and 

Chinese police were not allowed to penetrate, has district unions had advanced during the year, and 

been the refuge of the lawless. The new order interdenominational fellowship had been fostered, 

abolished the special Manchu tribunals, making " The denominational loyalty of Christian En- 



CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR, SOCIETIES OF. CHRISTIAN SCIENTISTS. 129 

<i«ivon.*r3,'' the report said, " is seldom challenged, particularly embodied in the prayer-meeting 
and on the contrary we find it officially and heart- pledge, to do what Christ would like to have us 
Uj commended in many ecclesiastical courts and do. Third, constant religious training for all 
assemblies in many denominations." Fifteen kinds of Christian service in the prayer-meeting 
countries were mentioned in which national Chris- and by various committees. Fourth, lovalty to 
tian Endeavor unions had been formed, and Chris- the local church and denomination with which 
tian Endeavor leaflets and constitutions might each society is connected. Fifth, interdenomina- 
be found in more than 20 languages, in Indian tional spiritual fellowship, through which we 
dialects, and the dialects of India and Africa. A hope to fulfil our Lord's prayer for spiritual 
larger number than ever of the societies had unity, that they may all be one. Sixth, Christian 
adopted some systematic and proportionate plan Endeavor makes no attempt, nor never has at- 
for giving money to the cause of missions, to tempted, to legislate for the individual conscience, 
their home churches, and to other benevolences, and neither the united society nor any State or 
The two-cents-a-week-pledge plan had worked local union regulates, controls, or imposes con- 
well wherever it had been tried. More than 20,00tf ditions upon any society of Christian Endeavor, 
members were enrolled in the Tenth Legion, These unions are for fellowship, instruction, and 
contributing at least one-tenth of their income to inspiration, and not for legislation or for the ex- 
religious causes. Eighty-five hundred and twenty- ercise of control. If any society is in doubt as to 
six societies had contributed, as societies, $200,- methods of organization and service, it should 
216 directly to the denominational mission boards, turn for authoritative instruction to the pastor 
1247358 to their home churches, and $56,387 to and church with which it is connected. The 
other benevolences. There were now 26,000 united society does not insist upon uniform con- 
Comrades of the Quiet Hour, pledged to make ditions of organization or a particular form of 
it the rule of their life to spend at least fifteen pledge, which shall constitute a Christian En- 
minutes in private devotion at the beginning of deavor Society. So long as a society holding the 
the day. One hundred and sixty thousand young fundamental principles of Christian Endeavor enu- 
people had in the last twelve months joined the merated above is working for Christ and the 
ehurch from the ranks of the societies. The num- Church as its church directs, and is making the 
ber of junior societies was now 16,000, with 483,- young people * more useful in the service of God,' 
000 members, and that of intermediate societies it is in fact a society of Christian Endeavor, and 
1^, with 38,500 members. The usual general will be heartily welcomed into the fellowship of 
and sectional meetings were held. Three large the movement." 
auditoriums and as many churches as were re- The Rev. Dr. Francis E. Clark, founder of the 

Juired were used for the meetings. On the first societies, spoke at the anniversary meeting on 
ay methods were considered, The Twentieth Cen- Christian Endeavor in the Twentieth Century, 
tury Home was the topic of addresses, and reports and at the quiet-hour services the subjects of 
were made. The subject of Twenty Years of The Gains in Twenty Years of Christian Endeavor, 
Christian Endeavor was treated in pulpit ad- The Essentials of Christian Endeavor, A Cam- 
dresses on Sunday, and evangelistic meetings were paign of Elducation, Making the Most of Our 
also held on that day. On Monday, Julv 9, 26 Forces, Revivals of Spiritual Interest and of Civic 
denominational rallies were held, and addresses Righteousness, and Advance Steps for the New 
were delivered and five-minute speeches made in Centurv, were discussed. 

the auditoriums. At noon the Christian Endeav- British Societies. — The British National Chris- 

orers participated in the noon-day evangelistic tian Endeavor Convention met at Sheffield, May 

work in the tenement and factory districts. Simi- 25. The report showed that during the ten 

Ur exercises were continued on the last day of the months since the World's Convention of 1900, 533 

meetings. new societies, including 119 junior societies, had 

Twentieth Anniversary. — The twentieth an- beenformed. 

niversary of the Young People's Society of Chris- CHBISTIAN" SCIENTISTS. The adherents 
tian Endeavor was celebrated Feb. 2, with of Christian Science declare that more than 1,000,- 
^pecial services at Portland, Me., where the first 000 persons are interested in their faith, and that 
society was established in the Williston Church, their journal. Science and Health, has a circula- 
Feb. 2, 1881. A memorial tablet was erected in tion of 211,000 copies. Three new Scientist 
this church as a part of the celebration. churches were dedicated on Easter Sunday, 1901 — 
The semiannual meeting of the Board of one in New York, which it was estimated would 
Trustees was held in Portland in connection with cost, when completed, $725,000; one in Chicago, 
the anniversary celebrations, and plans were made 111., costing $120,000; and one in Toledo, Ohio, 
for unifying the work in city, district, county, and A movement was quietly set on foot in the au- 
State unions. It was decided to hold the interna- tumn of 1901 to raise the whole amount of the 
tional conventions, after 1901, biennially, instead cost of the church in New York in advance of its 
of annually, as heretofore, in view of which the completion, and $400,000 was secured in four 
trustees recommended to the State unions that weeks, $100,000 having been subscribed at one 
they consider the advisability of holding biennial meeting. There are 7 churches in Greater New 
State conventions, alternating with the Interna- York and 3 in Chicago. The oldest church of 
tional Convention, and that special attention be the Scientists is in Boston, Mass., and cost $250,- 
pven to the county and district conventions dur- 000. The United States census of 1890 gave the 
inff the year when the State convention is not Christian Scientists 8,724 members and 26 pas- 
held. The following minute was adopted: ** Since tors or readers (2 to a church). The census of 
Christian Endeavor has become a world-wide churches for 1900, prepared by Dr. H. K. Carroll, 
movement it appears to us wise, on this, its who was chief of the Department of Religious 
twentieth birthday, to make plain the flexibility Statistics in the census of 1890, gave them 
and adaptability of the organization to the vary- 10,000 ministers, 579 churches, and 90,000 mem- 
ing needs of churches in all lands. The funda- bers, membership being understood to include 
mental principles of the Society of Christian En- not all adherents, but only persons who have 
deavor are the following: First, personal and signed the Church tenets. The Christian Scientists 
avowed devotion to our divine Lord and Saviour have churches or organizations in the larger 
Jesus Christ. Second, the covenant obligation as American cities, Australia, England, and Ger- 

VOL. XLL — 9 A 



130 COLOMBIA. 

many, and followers all over the world. The white, greenish, leaden gray, and black — brought 

church at Hyde Park, London, is said to havf 300 up by expert divers who work y/iien the wat«r is 

members, and congregations of five times that clear. The pearl shells are not marketed. For- 

number. It is estimated that the Scientist merly those who worked in these waters paid a 

churches in America will accommodate about 400,* percentage on their finds, and more recently an 

000 people, and the houses are usually full and annual tax. 

often crowded at both of the Sunday services. Commerce and Production. — Of the total 

The church in Bo^on, Mass., includes laree num- value of exports in 1898, which was $19,157,788, 

bers of non-resident members on its rolls, and the United States took $5„305,879; Great Britain, 

claims to have had 3,000 additions in 1900. $4,816,354; France, $3,371,760; Germany, $3,079,- 

COLOMBIA, a republic in South America. 886; and Venezuela, $1,000,738. The exports were 
The Congress, which meets biennially, consists valued at $19,157,788. The imports are metals, 
of a Senate of 27 members, 3 from each depart- hardware, foodstuffs, beverages, cotton goods, il- 
ment, and a House of Representatives contain- luminating oil, drugs, paper, and linen goods, 
ing 66 members, 1 to 50,000 mhabitants. Electors * The exports are coffee, timber, tobacco, vegetable 
must be able to read and write or must have an products, animals, hides, minerals, rubber. The 
income of 500 pesos a year, or real property worth United States exported the value of $2,985,800 in 
1,600 pesos. The President and Senators are 1899, in which year the imports showed an in- 
elected for six years by indirect suffrage, Repre- crease of which 50 per cent, consisted of American 
sentatives by direct vote on collective tickets for cottons, provisions, etc., and 40 per cent, of Eng- 
each department. The President of the republic lish importations. The civil war in 1900 caused 
for the term beginhing Aug. 7, 1898, was M. A. a falling off in both imports and exports of about 
Sanclemente. The Vifce-President is J. M. Marro- 25 per cent. The export duties were fixed on 
quin. The Cabinet was composed in the beginning March 1, 1901, at $3 in currency on 100 poimds 
of 1901 as follows: Minister of the Interior, Gen. of coffee, hides, roll tobacco, and cleaned cot- 
G. Quintero Calderon ; Minister of Foreign Affairs, ton ; $5 on rubber, manufactured tobacco, tor- 
Dr. C. Martinez Silva; Minister of Commerce and toise-shell, and tolu-balsam; $1 on ivorynuts and 
Communications, Dr. P. A. Molina; Minister of cottonseed; $5 a thousand feet on mahogany, 
War, Gen. Ospina Camacho, successor to Gen. cedar, and other woods; $10 a kilo on bird skins 
Prosperon Pinzon; Minister of Public Instruction, and orchids; $50 on heron plumes; $20 a ton on 
Dr. M. Abadia Mendez; Minister of Finance, Dr. ores; and on gold 20 per cent., on platinum 15 
E. Restrepo Garcia. The head of the executive per cent., and on silver 10 per cent, of the value, 
power was the Vice-President. The paper dollar was worth about 10 cents. Im- 

Area and Population. — The republic has an ports of cereals, vegetables, dairy-products, and 

area of 513,938 square miles, and about 4,000,000 lard were exempted from duty, 

inhabitants, including 150,000 tribal Indians. Bailroads. — There were 376 miles of railroads 

Finances. — The estimate of revenue for the completed on Jan. 1, 1901. The Panama Railroad 

biennial period 1899-1900 was 29,918,640 pesos in across the isthmus from Colon to Panama, owned 

paper, and of expenditure the same. The revenue by an American company, has a length of 4d 

18 mainly derived from customs duties, which miles. A railroad from Puerto Barrio, on the 

were expected to produce 21,453,640 pesos. Heavy Magdalena river, to Medellin is being built by the 

duties are collected on exports. The slaughter of Government of the department of Ajitioquia, and 

cattle and sale of meat are monopolies of the 42 miles have been built to Caracoli by American 

Government. The chief items of expenditure were engineers, leaving 76 miles yet to be built. In 

4,493,000 pesos for justice, 3,773,500 pesos for the department of Bolivar an American company 

debt, 3,731,000 pesos for financial administration, operates a railroad, 66 miles long, connecting 

and 2,524,848 pesos for the army, the strength of Cartagena with Calamar, on the Magdalena, and 

which was fixed at 1,000 men in 1898. The rev- one of 28 miles connects Barranquilla with the port 

enues of the departments, derived mainly from of Sabanilla. In Cundinamarca a railroad runs 

monopolies in tobacco, salt, gambling, etc., were from Bogotft, the national capital, to Facatativfi, 

estimated for the two years at 16,986,756 pesos, 25 miles; another to the salt-mines of Zipaquiril, 

and the expenditures at 17,346,040 pesos. 37 miles; a third to Soacho, 7 miles; and one to 

The internal debt on June 30, 1899, amounted connect Bogotfi. with Giradot, on the Magdalena, 

to 11,359,074 pesos, the consolidated debt being was completed from the latter point to Juntas de 

6,633,716 pesos, on which the annual interest is Apulo, 25 miles, and work on the remaining 71 

353,300 pesos, and the floating debt 5,725,358 miles was in progress when stopped by the war. 

pesos, for the redemption of which Congress has These are all national railroads. In Cauca a Gov- 

set apart a sinking-fund amounting at that date emment railroad runs from the Pacific port of 

to 1,738,000 pesos. The foreign debt, most of Buenaventura to San Jos^, 25 miles, and is being 

which is held in England, was compromised in continued 61 miles farther to Call. In Magdalena 

1897 by the issue of £2,700,000 of new bonds there is a line from Santa Marta, on the Atlantic 

bearing 1^ per cent, interest for the first three coast, to the Sevilla river, 42 miles, which is to be 

years, then 2 per cent, for three years, 2^ per carried 191 miles farther to El Banco, on the 

cent, for a like period, and finally 3 per cent. The Magdalena river. Santander has a railroad, 34 

interest was £47,250 in arrears on July 1, 1900. miles long, running from San Jos6 de Cucuta to 

On Dec. 15, 1900, the Government, with the object Puerto Villamizar, on the Ziilia river, at the fron- 

of improving the fiscal situation, issued a decree tier of Venezuela. In the department of Tolima an 

proviaing for the leasing by public tender for English company built a railroad between Lado- 

fifteen years, instead of five years as limited by rada and Honda, 21 miles, to avoid a dangerous 

law, of the emerald-mines, the revenues from the stretch of river navigation; and a line was begun 

pearl, coral, sponge, and seaweed fisheries, and the between Ibagu^ and the river port of Giradot, 

rural properties of the nation except the unculti- but only 2 miles were built of the total distance of 

vated lands. The entire product of the leases was 37 miles. 

to be devoted to the redemption of the currency. The Panama Canal. — The original Panama 

The pearl and coral fisheries in the Pearl Islands, Canal Company, organized by Ferdinand de Les- 

50 miles south of Panama, have been famous for seps in 1881, expended nearly the whole capital 

a century, especially for the remarkable pearls — received up to June 30, 1886, "which was 772,545,- 



COLOMBIA. 131 

mncs, and attempted in December, 1888, to and Tojima, and also of coffee, were made in con- 

i loan of 60D.1 00.000 francs. Failing in this, formitv with this provision, and consignments for 

mpany suspended operations in March, 1889, Colombia arrived. In January bodies of insur- 

ent into liquidation. An extension of time gents again took the field and attacked the Gov- 

? completion of the work was granted by the emment troops at Panama and other points, but 

bian Government in 1894, when a new com- gained no advantage and soon subsided. The 

nras formed which undertook to finish the causes of the civil war, which had already lasted 

in ten years from that date. The new com- a year, go back to the dictatorship of Dr. Nufiez, 

started with a capital of 65,000,000 francs, who was elected President in 1880 by the Liberals, 

vhich it expected to demonstrate that the the party that had governed the country for 

f a ship-canal with locks was quite practi- twenty years, and in 1885 went over to the Con- 

lind commercially profitable, and thus at- servatives, and with their support ruled as a dic- 

ufiicient fresh capital to complete the work, tator till 1895. After abrogating the Constitu- 

a further extension of six years was ob- tion, his first step was to repudiate the foreign 
, making the date when the canal is to debt. Unable to borrow more money abroad, 
npleted April, 1910. The main task per- and needing funds to satisfy his supporters, he 
i by the new company has been the reauc- founded a national bank witn a monopoly of the 
■ the Culebra ridge, because this was looked banking business, obtaining the capital by dis- 
as the chief engineering difficulty. The counting with the Panama Railroad Company the 
^ has been so far advanced as to show that payments of $500,000 a year in gold due to the 
>stacle can be overcome. About 3,500 men Government according to the contract made at 
een employed for five years on this part of the time the concession was given. For an ad- 
lal, and in 1901 the company had funds re- vance of $3,000,000 he released the company from 
ig to carry on the work for one year more, the annual payments for twenty-five years. The 
st of completing the canal was estimated in national bauK issued non-convertible paper 
: 512,000,000 francs. The total length of the money, which was declared to be the legal tender 
s 46 miles. The prospect of raising, capital for all debts, and the only lawful money, it being 
nee was so slim that the directors ol the a punishable offense to make contracts stipulat- 
ny began negotiations with the United ing that payments should be made in any other 
Government Tot the sale of the concession kind of money. The amounts of the earlier emis- 
e unfinished work. They set a price high sions were made public, but subsequently currency 

1 to reimburse the original shareholders, or was secretly issued by the bank of unknown 
alternative proposed that the French com- amounts, and the issues have continued until the 
ihould be a partner in the canal with the paper dollar, with which all debts contracted in 

States Government. The French engi- gold have been wiped out, was worth only a few 
^8timated in 1901 that the canal could be cents. While the rate of exchange was rising 
ted with an additional expenditure of not rapidly a moratorium was decreed, enabling 
han 250,000,000 francs. A commission of debtors to postpone payment until the currency 
jrs which examined the two routes for the became almost worthless. The premium on gold 
States pronounced the Panama and the has recently fiuctuated between 3,500 and 4,000. 
gua projects both to be feasible. A new President Caro, who succeeded Nufiez, continued 
to raise a capital of 500,000,000 francs in his arbitrary methods and ruinous financial ex- 
met with no response. The Colombian pedients. The valetudinarian Sanclemente was 
iment studied a scheme for completing the selected as Caro's successor to be President in 
>y its own means, employing convicts sen- name only, and he immediately resigned his func- 
to long terms to carry on the excavations, tions into the hands of the Vice-President. The 
rerage number of such prisoners is 1,000. complaints which the Liberals make of the rule of 
^lity of the last extension conceded to the the Clerical Conservative party are grave and nu- 
inama company was disputed, and in case merous. The Government has increased tenfold 
irts should decide it to be invalid the Co- the taxes bearing upon both natives and for- 
n Government considered the alternate eigners. Fruit, gold, silver, cacao, hides, and rub- 
f offering the concession to the United ber, which were formerly exported free of duty. 
Government with absolute control and the must now pay heavy export duties. Absolute 
lal lease of such adjacent territory as may monopolies for the manufacture of salt, matches, 
«ssary. Negotiations between the new cigarettes, and liquors have been sold to different 
company and the United States Govern- companies, also the rights of the pearl fisheries. 
i^re still pending. The American engineers A concession for running lotteries was sold, al- 
ted the value of the useful work done by though previously this form of gambling was 
•nch companies to be not over $43,000,000, little practised in Colombia. Bull-fights, cockpits, 
an a fourth of the capital that had been and gambling-houses were licensed. The endow- 
The American experts, while approving in ments of orphan asylums and hospitals were ap- 
l the plans of the French engineers, re- propriated by the Government. Articles destined 
the Culebra dam, designed to impound the tor the use of the clergy, convents, and religious- 
in the rainy season and store them for institutions of all kinds were made free of duty,. 
' the canal m the dry season, as unsafe and it is charged that, taking advantage of thi» 
built up from the solid rock instead of law, the industrial schools managed by monk» 
bed of clay. They found by boring that have been turned into great manufacturing estab- 
eath this bed of clay, between it and the lishments. The court of audit which formerly 
here was a thick stratum of sand. examined and made public all the accounts of the 
1 War. — The revolutionary invaders hav- Government has not been allowed to exercise its 
»n driven out of the country, and the in- functions freely in recent years, and public con- 
ts dispersed before the opening of the year tracts, which were formerly given to the lowest 
the Government officially declared peace bidders, have been privately awarded, 
hout the territories of the republic, and de- By abolishing obligatory lay education and 
hat the Magdalena war flotilla should be placing all the schools under the control of the 
ed to carry import and export cargoes, clergy the Government has given the greatest of- 
?nt8 of gold from the mines of Antioquia fense to the Liberals, who say that the nation is 



132 COLOMBIA. 

relapsing into ignorance; and they accuse the count of war materials it had purchased in order 
Conservatives of having made a compact with to be able to pay the armed force and civil offi- 
the Pope, not only to pay annually $100,000 in cials, and would expropriate whatever was neces- 
gold to the Vatican, but to submit the legislation, sary for feeding, equipping, and transporting the 
jurisprudence, and administration of the country army, and levy forcea loans or impose war con- 
to the direction of the clergy, and to hand over to tributions in the departments without resorting 
the Jesuits all instruction of the young. The to national funds. The governors were authorized 
Minister of War has suppressed all private teach- to proceed in the matter without requiring the ap- 
ing, and any teacher or professor who is de- proval of the Government, and each governor was 
nounced by a priest is removed. The free univer- held responsible for the suppression of rebellion 
sity has been handed over to the Jesuits, and in his department. A force said to number 6,000 
large subventions are paid to their other colleges, crossed the frontier on July 29 into Venezuela, 
The cemeteries have been given up to the Church, and was repelled by 10,000 Venezuelans and Co- 
and recreant Catholics as well as non-Catholics, lombians assembled there after a fight that lasted 
native or foreign, can not be buried in them or all day and part of the next. A few days later 
even outside of them in places to which the priests another Colombian force, 2,000 strong, crossed the 
objected. The Conservatives not only abolished frontier under the command of the Minister of 
civil marriage, but annulled all the marriages that War. Colombian rebels attacked Government 
had been contracted civilly or by any religious troops on the isthmian railroad near Colon, but 
rite except that of the Catholic Church during were driven off. The American yacht Namouna, 
twenty years. The Masonic order has been sup- which the Colombian Government had bought to 
pressed. The rights of free assemblage and of free convert into a war vessel, and renamed the Gen- 
speech are suspended, and freedom of the press eral Pinzon, arrived at Colon, and was equipped 
can only be exercised subject to the penalty of im- with guns. Gen. Castro denied that a state of 
prisonment or banishment or to the suppression of war existed between Venezuela and Colombia, de- 
an offending newspaper, which the minister can daring that the two invasions were the work 
order at any time. Opponents of the Government of the Conservative Government of Colombia 
have under military law been imprisoned, exiled, against the majesty of the nation of Venezuela, 
and even slain by soldiers acting under the verbal not an international attack by the people of Co- 
orders of the President or his subordinate officials, lombia against the people of Venezuela. A sec- 
Secret- service agents are supported for the pur- tion of the Colombians, he said, had attacked 
pose of watching the Liberals, who complain Venezuela. This attitude was altered into one 
that their private letters are frequently opened in more warlike in consequence of the action of the 
the post-office. The Liberals are opposed not only military authorities in Cucuta toward the Venez- 
to the clericalism of the dominant party, but also uelan consul and the invasion of Venezuela by 
to the centralized Government that was estab- organized Colombian troops who plundered the 
lished by the Constitution of Au^. 4, 1886, which people. The attention of the Colombian minister 
abolished the sovereignty of the nine states, which was called to this fact, and he explained that 
became departments administered by governors troops had crossed the border contrary to express 
appointed by the President, although still retain- orders to observe neutrality. Venezuelan revolu- 
in^ the management of their own finances and cer- tionists ioined the Colombians in incursions into 
tam other state rights. The Liberals of the nei^h- Venezuelan territory and seized the opportimity 
boring republics are likewise devoted to the prin- to raise the standard of revolt against President 
ciples of federalism and secularism, and therefore Castro (see Venezuela). Venezuelan troops 
are in thorough sympathy with the Colombian landed in Colombia and Colombian troops in- 
Liberals. All three republics formed, for a brief pe- vaded Venezuela, but still a state of war was not 
riod after gaining their independence from Spain, recognized. A force of 10,000 Venezuelans was 
a single state that was known as Great Colombia, concentrated on the frontier for the avowed pur- 
Their population is homogeneous, and political pose of protecting the national honor of Venez- 
rivalries or jealousy have not disturbed their good uela and the inviolability of her territory, with- 
relations, boundary disputes, as they have arisen out, however, breaking off commercial and friend- 
from time to time, having been settled by arbitra- ly relations with Colombia. The Venezuelan 
tion. Of each of them the political history has President, after establishing the fact that regular 
consisted of a long struggle to uproot the clerical Colombian troops had crossed the frontier, pro- 
rule that is a heritage irom Spanish dominion, claimed- martial law, recognized the Colombian 
As a result of clerical rule in Colombia for fifteen rebels as belligerents, directed that his passports 
years, while public works have been neglected and should be given to the Colombian minister, who, 
the public credit ruined, friars and nuns swarm without waiting for that formality, left the coun- 
everywhere and live on the fat of the land. The try, and withdrew the exequature of Colombian 
religious orders have gained the upper hand, and consuls. The governments of Ecuador and Nica- 
what they have accomplishd in Colombia they ragua gave assurances that they would remain 
hope to in Venezuela and Ecuador. Hence the completely neutral in relation to the internal con- 
Liberals of those republics were impelled to take flict in Colombia. 

an active part in the revolutionary uprising in A German merchant steamer was detained in 
Colombia. the harbor of Cartagena and searched by the Co- 
in the summer of 1901 Gen. Uribe Uribe arrived lombian authorities, and Abel Murillo, secretary 
from the L'nited States to take the lead of a to Gen. Uribe, was arrested on board in spite of 
fresh insurrection against the Government. Revo- the protests of the captain of the ship, who 
lutionists gathered early in July at Code, and in claimed that the passengers enjoyed the protec- 
consequence the Government sent troops to hold tion of the German flag. German cruisers were 
Bocas del Toro, where martial law was pro- ordered to Colon and Panama. When the revo- 
claimed. Venezuelans and Colombians marched lutionists appeared on the Isthmus of Panama the 
across the frontier, and between La Hacha and United States gunboat Machias was sent to Colon. 
Guajira, Venezuelan gunboats commanded by Gen. and subsequently the battle-ship Iowa was ordered 
Echeverria, who was a Colombian by birth, hov- to Panama, and the Philadelphia and the Ranger 
ered on the coast. On July 18 the Government an- to the Pacific side of the isthmus. The naval coni- 
nounced that it would suspend payments on ac- manders had orders to interfere in case the rail- 



COLOMBIA, 



133 



r other American property was in danger 
imunications across the isthmus inter- 
To repel the advance of Colombian revo- 
lts and their Venezuelan allies Colombian 
were massed on the frontier, 
nterest of the United States in the Colom- 
d Venezuelan broils was chiefly concerned 
ing the route over the Panama isthmus 
peaceful traffic, which the United States 
legal right and the duty to do under the 
>f 1846 with the republic of New Granada, 
h the United States guaranteed the com- 
futrality of the isthmus, so that free tran- 
1 ocean to ocean shall not be interrupted 
irbed. This guarantee was given in con- 
on of special rights conceded to the United 
>n the isthmus. Grermany possesses valu- 
mmercial interests in both republics, 
le middle of August the Colombian rebels 
id toward Bocas del Toro, looting^ on the 
e Chinese stores at Emperador. They en- 
before Bocas del Toro, and demanded the 
er of the town. The Government garrison 
enforced, and took up a position on the 
e side of the lagoon, and rifle fire was ex- 
i daily between the two lines of entrench- 
2,000 ^ards apart. Both sides obtained 
but neither ventured to attack the other 
own ground. The revolutionists made an 
t to seize the town after the Government 
went into camp outside. The movement 
>served by the commander of the troops, 
at out men in several steamboats to inter- 
eir solitary boat, which was compelled to 
ck in a crippled condition. The troops 
t an old cannon into play, but the revolu- 
\ kept their position until Sept. 14, when 
uzo made a night attack in front and rear, 
landed his troops unobserved from boats 
unches. After a sharp fi^ht the Liberals 
m their island camp, leaving 30 killed and 
id, 40 prisoners, ana their guns and ammu- 
Two modem cannons that the insurgents 
d their other weapions were obtained from 
Rican and Nicaraguan towns. When the 
n broke out the Colombian Government 
an interdict on all trade with foreign ports, 
was the only Colombian port left open. 
>nBular officers of forei^ governments 
ned to send for gunboats if the ports were 
>pened, and soon the embargo was lifted. 
iited States Government on Aug. 24 prof- 
A good offices to bring about a reconcilia- 
tween the Colombian and Venezuelan gov- 
ts. The answer of Venezuela placed the 
ability on Colombia. The American min- 
i BocotA also gave notice that the United 
would be obliged to intervene with force 
lian traffic were interrupted or threatened, 
lombian Government expressed its willing- 
accept the mediation of the United States, 
k1, to avert war, and denied having invaded 
ela, placing the burden of the issue on 
nt Castro. 

Uribe's expedition made a successful land- 
ised the Liberal standard, captured some 
t San Cristobal, and pursued the Govem- 
roops into the interior after beating them 
battles. In a manifesto Gren. Unbe de- 
that he was fighting for the union of Co- 
, Ecuador, ana Venezuela in a Great Co- 
Pedro N. Ospina, who succeeded Gen. Pin- 
Minister of War, arranged a conference 
lose of the Liberal leaders who were not 
7 engaged in the rebellion, and proposed a 
pacification according to which the revo- 



lutionary army was to be merged in the regular 
array and a new Government formed in which the 
Liberals and Conservatives should both be repre- 
sented, President Marroquin retiring. The acting 
President had Gen. Ospina arrested on the charge 
of treason, and appointed Dr. Concha Minister of 
War. 

On Sept. 9 Gen. Davila landed a force of 800 
men near La Hacha, which marched on the town 
while his gunboats threatened La Hacha from the 
sea, but did not fire upon the town. The Colom- 
bian regulars withdrew as the Liberals and Venez- 
uelans advanced, then gathered again in greater 
numbers, and on Sept. 14 surrounded and defeated 
Gen. Davila's force, which was caught on both 
sides of a river with the bridge broken, while Jos6 
Dolores, an Indian chief, placed his warriors in 
ambush on the line of retreat to Venezuelan ter- 
ritory. The revolutionary army was dispersed. 
Gen. Echeverria was killed with a large number of 
Venezuelans in the decisive engagement at Curu- 
zuo. The Colombian Liberals were rallied by Gen. 
Castillo. Venezuelan troops, 8,000 strong, con- 
centrated on the frontier between San Cristobal 
and Cucuta, and under the command of Gen. 
Valencia a Colombian force of 6,000 men was 
massed against them in the beginning of Octo- 
ber. No shots were fired from either side. 
Meanwhile fresh notes were exchanged between 
the governments asking explanations. A Cabinet 
crisis occurred at the end of September, the result 
of which was that Miguel Abadia Mendez took 
the portfolio of Foreign Aflfairs. 

In Venezuela troops were organized at Mara- 
caibo for a fresh landing in Colombia, and during 
the absence of the gunboat Boyaca they seized a 
position and blockaded Tumaco. Colombian revo- 
lutionists under Gen. Avelina Rosas were defeated 
by the regulars in southern Caucas early in No- 
vember. President Castro, of Venezuela, was hin- 
dered by risings of the hostile party in his own 
country from giving substantial support to the 
Colombian Liberals. 

Gen. Uribe Uribe, with 6,000 men, was master 
of the rich coffee-growing department of San- 
tander, where the revolution began. The Liberals 
overran the department of Bolivar, the Govern- 
ment troops holding only the seaports. The de- 
struction of the raUroad from Cartagena to the 
Magdalena cut off military communications be- 
tween the ports and the interior. Advancing 
through the department of Cauca to ,the Pacific 
coast, the revolutionists invaded the Isthmus of 
Panama, where they found some support among 
the merchants. They were dispersed in small 
detachments through the northern quarter of Co- 
lombia, and the 40,000 Government troops were 
also widely scattered. The capital and the great 
mountain plateau on which it is situated was safe 
from invasion unless the insurgents could obtain 
river boats enough to transport an army and 
supplies up the Magdalena. The people of Costa 
Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras, as well as the 
Venezuelans and the Liberals of Ecuador, gave 
aid and support to the revolutionists. Colon de- 
clared for the revolution, and Pinzon threatened 
to bombard the town. Commandant McCrea, of 
the Machias, forbade this on Nov. 25 until non- 
combatants could escape. Colombian troops were 
landed to attack the rebels in Colon, and United 
States marines from the Iowa were landed by 
Capt. Perry to guard the railroad. Gen. Alban, 
Governor of Panama, with 600 men, attacked the 
Liberals unsuccessfully at Chorrerra, and then 
marched against the body that held Empire and 
Culebra. The Iowa and the Concord at Panama, 
and the Machias and the Marietta at Colon, had 



134 CONGO, INDEPENDENT STATE OP THE. 

men to protect American property. French, Grer- money was needed to defray the expenses of sn]h 
man, and British war-ships were in those ports. pressing the Arab revolt and to pay the cost of 
COLOBADO. (See under United States.) expeditions into the Nile valley. In spite of the 
CONGO, INDEPENDENT STATE OF THE, increasing revenue from ivory and other sources 
a sovereign, monarchical, neutral, and independ- the budget continued to show a deficit, and it be- 
ent State, created out of the Congo International came necessary to apply to the Belgian Govern- 
Association, which was founded by King Leopold, ment. Jules de Burlet, who was Premier, pro- 
of Belgium, in 1883, and exercised sovereign pow- posed to annex the Congo State at that time, and 
era recognized b^ the leading powers. The general presented a bill to that effect, but owing to po- 
act of Berlin, signed on Feb. 26, 1885, recognized litical reasons this was withdrawn and the Bel- 
the Independent State, with Leopold II, King of gian Chambers voted to advance, under the same 
the Belgians, as its sovereign. On July 3, 1890, conditions as the former loans, a sum sufficient to 
a convention was signed between Belgium and the pay off the loan contracted with the bank and to 
Congo State, ratified by the two Belgian Cham- meet the deficit. This increased the indebtedness 
bers on July 25, 1890, providing for annexation to of the Free State to Belgium to about 32,000,000 
Belgium of the territories of the Independent State francs. Since 1895 the miancial condition of the 
after a period of ten years. The seat of the Central Free State has been increasingly prosperous. Bj 
Government is at Brussels, where the Secretary of virtue of a treaty made with Great Britain and 
State, Baron Edmond van Eetvelde, directs the Egypt in 1894 the Free State occupied under lease 
admiaistration with the assistance of secretaires the enclave of Lado on the upper Nile, in the Bahr 
in the various departments. Bowa is the head- el Ghazal province. The lease embraced this en- 
quarters of the local Government, which is gen- tire province, but the sovereign of the Free State 
erally in charge of a V ice-Go vemor-General — made a promise to the French Government with- 
Major £. Wangermee in 1901. King Leopold, by out any consent on the part of Great Britain that 
a will dated Aug. 2, 1889, bequeathed his sov- the Free State would not profit by the treaty be- 
ereign rights in the Congo territories after his yond a certain limit. The Lado district was in 
death to the Belgian state. In the convention of continuous occupation of the Free State forces 
1890 the Bel^an Government agreed to advance until and after the reconquest of the Soudan by 
to the Congo Free State a sum of 25,000,000 francs, the Anglo-Egyptian army, and in 1901, when the 
6,000,000 francs to be paid immediately and whole course of the river Nile was occupied by 
2,000,000 francs annually for a period of ten the British, there were six times as many Congo 
years. During these ten years the loan should troops at Lado as there were English. The lease 
bear no interest, and six months after the term ex- of the whole Bahr el Ghazal was not repudiated 
pired the Belgian Government should have the op- by Great Britain when the Congo State in defer- 
tion of annexing the Congo Free. State with all ence to French objections waived its right to 
the appurtenances, rights, and advantages attach- claifn possession and withdrew its forces to the 
ing to the sovereignty of that State, in which case Lado enclave. On the contrary, it was declared to 
a law would be made to determine the special be in full force by Lord Salisbury, who, by reas- 
r^gime under which the territories should then be serting its validity, intended to affirm the claims 
placed. From the date of the convention the of England to this region against the designs of 
Belgian Government was entitled to receive such the French Government, which was preparing ex- 
information as it desired to have regarding the peditions to take possession of it and hold it 
finances, customs tariff, and economical and com- subject only to the right of the Khedive of E^t 
mercial situation of the Free State in order to and his suzerain, the Sultan of Turkey, to reclaim 
have a clear idea of the financial situation, the the province. France having relinquished all pre- 
only connection of the Free State with Belgium tensions in this quarter, the Congo Free State pro- 
being the personal union of the two crowns. If posed to Great Britain in the spring of 1901 to 
at the expiration of the ten years the Belgian Gov- exercise its rights under the lease to take posses- 
emment should decide against annexation, the sion of and administer the entire Bahr el Ghazal. 
sums advanced would be redeemable after a fur- The negotiations ended in an agreement whereby 
ther period of ten years, during which interest a part of the Bahr el Ghazal apart from the Lado 
would be charged at the rate of Z\ per cent., and district was given over to the Congo State during 
sums accruing from concessions of State lands the lifetime of King Leopold, at wnose demise aO 
or mines should be set aside for the repayment the leased territories will become Anglo-i^yptian 
of the loan. The preamble of the convention al- possessions. A strip of territory at the eastern 
luded to the principle that the right of option extremity of the Copgo State which King Leo- 
might be extended in exchange for a temporary pold leased to Great Britain in 1894 was not oc- 
abandonment of any claim for interest. As there cupied, and the rights under the lease were aban- 
was some popular opposition to colonial enter- doned in deference to the protest of the French 
prise in Belgium, and as the King was not will- and German governments that no part of the 
ing to hand over the control of the administra- Congo territory under the treaties constituting 
tion, at any rate without a clear understanding of the Free State could be alienated without an in- 
the conditions on which it would be carried on in ternational agreement. In September, 1900, a 
the future, he decided, in consultation with his German force seized Belgian stations on this east- 
ministers, to postpone annexation until the law em border and compelled the Free State troops to 
defining the special regime could be elaborated to withdraw under threat of hostile action, claiming 
the satisfaction of all parties. The Belgian Gov- that the land was within the limits of German 
emment therefore passed a law in 1901 reserving East Africa. 

the option to be acted upon later in consideration Area and Population. — The north bank of the 

of the remission of all claim for interest for a lower Congo belongs to the Independent State 

new period of ten years (see Belgium). The from Banana to Manyanga, and from that point 

convention, which expired in February, 1901, pre- the southern bank. In the interiors the territory 

eluded the Free State from contracting other loans embraces the entire basin of the Congo, except that 

outside. Nevertheless the Free State did obtain the Kwango and Kassai rivers divide it from Por- 

from an Antwerp bank a loan of 5,000,000 francs tuguese territory on the southwest, and the Congo, 

at 6 per cent., secured by a mortgage on a large from Manyanga to the mouth of the Ubangi, and 

tract of territory in the upper Congo region. The the latter river throughout its entire course, from 



CONGO, INDEPENDENT STATE OF THE. 135 

1 territory on the northwest. Lake Bang- exports of which were 7,666,000 francs in value; 

Lake Moero, Lake Tanganyika, and Lake then palm-nuts, exported to the amount of 1,554,- 

Edward, and connecting lines, form the 000 francs; and palm-oil, of the value of 834,000 

I boundary and in the northeast, where the francs. The special imports amounted in 1899 to 

in of thirty degrees of east longitude and 22,326,000 francs, and special exports to 36,068,000 

ter parting between the Nile and the Congo francs. The values in francs of imports from and 

the political boundary, a district in the exports to various countries in 1899 are given in 

Egyptian sphere leased by arrangement the following table: 
reat Britain gives access to the Nile. The 



oountrhs. 



•ies of the Independent State are divided 

e districts of Banana, Boma, Matadi, the 

cts, Stanley Pool, East Kwango, Lake Belj^um 

i, Bangala, the Equator, Ubangi, Welle, Netherlands!'.*.!*.!*.!!!!!! 

' Falls, Aruwimi, and Lualaba-Kassai. §1^^ ^***'**° 

tire area is estimated at 900,000 square Q^J^Smy.]!!!! !!!!!!!!!! 

ind the population at 30,000,000. Portuguese' possessions! 

lumber of whites on Jan. 1, 1900, was 1,958, Portugal ... 

m 1 487 were Belgians, 176 Italians, 99 Eng- ^^^ countries 

5 Dutch, 81 Swedes, 72 Portuguese, 53 Total 

, 39 Danes, 33 Americans, 25 Norwegians, 



Import*. 



16,281,000 


83,050,000 


2,208,000 


8,931,000 


3,364,000 


297,000 


2,479,000 


62.000 


1,632,000 


178.000 


283,000 


1,6G7,000 


201,000 


12,000 


705,000 


61,000 



27,108,000 



Ezporti. 



89,188,000 



S8, 6 Spaniards, and 30 others. There are rri. • i • _a i j x «« oo,- o^^ 

ssonaries in 76 missions, 180 of the mis- , ^he special imports werej^lued at 22,325 847 

es being Roman Catholic and 120 Protes- *™''P«{ special exports at 36,067,959 francs. The 

* special inrports of textiles and clothing were 

iices.-The revenue for 1899 was estimated ^'i^^^JS Z^*"'^^ in value; of articles o! food. 

$6,500 francs, and expenditure at 17,251,975 3 887,912 francs; of steamboats, 2,704,819; of artij 

For 1900 the estimate of revenue was ^^^^ <>^ '^"''i'\^'^^^'?««7^QSw ' ""^ ™1^^^ t^^ 

iOO francs, of which 2,000,000 francs came ™«**', ?J,o°o"in''*"''^^' 1,667,391 francs; of machin. 

le Belgian treasury, 1,000,000 francs from IV^^l'^^P^^ ^''llf^'r.''' ^""""^ ^°'^. ammunition, 

vereig^, 4,680,000 francs from customs, ^,073 francs. The Government gives a bounty 

K) francs from transport, 11,200,000 francs (^^^ «^^7 ?r«f P]*Jl^^^ !^*^^ coffee-trees when these 

he State domains, 2,950,000 francs from ¥^.^, * ,^^»g^^ ^^ ^^ \»c*^^8- <^»<^*o plantations are 

budgets, and 626,500 from various sources, similarly encouraged. Enormous numbers of cof- 

)enditure for 1900 was estimated at 27,731,- fee-trees have been set out with the objct of get- 

ncs, of which 110,360 francs were for cen- ^^^S the reward, but many of the plantations are 

ministration, 11,050,013 francs for the De- ?» unsuitable land and many are unfruitful 

nt of the Interior, 15,423,681 francs for the ^J}l^^}^^t ^t^^f^K ^^® 5??^^ railroad has ful- 

ment of Finance, 158,000 francs for the ^^^^. ^^^ ^»g**est expectations of its promoters, 

ment of Foreign Affairs and Justice, and a"^? in connection with the steamer service on the 

francs were for contingencies. navigable waterways, reaching to the farthest 
Congo State issued 70,000,000 francs of confines oHhe Congo territories, the imports grew 
mder a decree in 1888 authorizing the issue ^^om 12,500,000 francs m 1894, and exports neariy 
000.000 francs; next 14,000,000 francs at trebled in the same time. The ivory trade con- 
en t, in 1896; and in 1890 and subsequent tinues to be la^e, and rubber exports fere mcreas- 
received an advance of 25,000,000 francs \^S' . The coffee-plantations are coming into 
le Belgian Government, to be paid with 3i hearing, and spice-plantations are springing up. 
t. interest after 1901, provided the territory The bulk of the trade is in the hands of the Bel- 
State should not be annexed by that date, g^ans, and almost the entire export of rubber goes 
; the Belgian Government advanced 6,804,- to Belgium, 2,031,599 kilograms out of a total 
ncs more. ^^ 2,113,465 kilograms in 1899. The imports 

tary Force. The defensive force of the In- ^^ ^^^ reached the total of 32,000,000 francs, and 

?nt State consists of 23 companies of native e^EP^tf rose to 51,000,000 francs. 

numbering 11,850 men, commanded by 200 RaUroads, Posts, and Telegraphs.— The 

an officers and 241 European non-commis- railroad connecting Matadi on the lower Congo 

officers. At Boma, the station of the with Ndolo and Leopoldville on Stanley Pool was 

?ts, and the Equator station, and in the opened to traffic on July 6, 1898. It has a length 

-Welle, Aruwimi, and East Kwango dis- of 260 miles. In Mayumbe a railroad is being 

ingle companies were kept in 1900, while ^"i^t for local traffic, of which twenty miles were 

ilev Falls there were six, in the Ubangi- completed before the end of 1900. Surveys are in 

teriritorv two, and in the territories of the progress for a railroad to connect the head of 

four companies. The army is recruited navigation on the upper Congo with the great 

bv voluntary enlistment, but by the decree lakes. The Government has 4 steamers for the 

30, 1891, all the natives between the ages transport service between the mouth of the Congo 

teen and thirty are liable to service, and and Matadi, and more than 100 on the upper Con- 

ual recruit, which was 2,000 men in 1896, go. The Belgian Premier planned in case of an- 

rn by lot. The period of service is five nexation to purchase the railroad for 70,000,000 

At need all the workmen and employees francs, 40,000,000 francs representing the deben- 

called to arms to form an auxiliary corps, ture shares, and 30.000,000 francs the ordinary 

nerce and Production. — The general shares. Owners of the stock objected so strongly 

ce, including the produce of adjacent re- that he withdrew the proposal. A Franco-Belpian 

sported by way of the Congo and imports syndicate has proposed to build a railroad from 

1 for those regions, as well as the exports Stanley Pool to Tanganyika, with a branch to 

jorts of the Congo State's own territories, Lado. 

jed in 1899 to 27,103,000 francs for imports The post-office in 1898 forwarded 104.032 pieces 

1.38,000 francs for exports. The principal of mail matter in the internal and 343,045 in the 

of export is caoutchouc, exports of which international service; in 1899 the numbers were 

ed to 28,974,000 francs. Next comes ivory, 105,924 for the internal and 332,520 for the inter- 



136 CONGO, INDEPENDENT STATE OP THE. CONGBEGATIONALISTS. 

national service. The posts cover the Free State volt in the Mongolia district and in the region 

from the Atlantic to Lake Tanganyika. of the Kassai was checked in September. An im- 

Telegraph lines have a total length of 795 miles, portant military post was established at Ndobo. 

Navigation.— At the ports of Boma and Ba- CONGBEGATIONAIilSTS. The following 
nana there were entered 192 vessels engaged in summaries of the Congregational churches in the 
ocean commerce, of 369,645 tons, in 1899; cleared. United States are given in the American Congre- 
197, of 375,715 tons. Of the total tonnage entered gational Year-Book for 1901 : Number of churches, 
191,643 tons and of that cleared 189,993 tons were 5,650; of churches added during the year, 46; ot 
Belgian, 79,037 tons entered and 85,588 cleared ministers, 5,568; of church-memfiers, 635,791, show- 
were British, and 65,682 tons entered and 67,112 ing a net gain for the year of 5,118; of members of 
tons cleared were German. In the coasting trade Sunday-schools, 743,634; of additions on eonfes- 
440 vessels, of 19,838 tons, were entered, and 451, sion during the year, 27,101 ; of baptisms, 11,518 of 
of 20,557 tons, were cleared. adults and 11,837 of infants; amount of benevolent 

Native Insurrections. — ^After the Budja re- contributions, $2,212,536, showing a gain of $77,- 

volt was suppressed by Capt. Verdussen the Bata- 263 ; of contributions for home expenditure, |7,- 

telas became unruly in the Lualaba and Kassai 497,930. The contributions for foreign missions 

regions, and on the Welle the Ababuas rose in re- were $501,987, and those for home missions $1,- 

volt, cutting off communication with Lado, and 699,074. 

attempting to seize the arms stored at Lobokwa, The seven theological seminaries returned 325 

where they suddenly surrounded the garrison of undergraduate students. 

40 men and killed a native soldier. The sending The American Congregational Association 

of reenforcements checked this rebellion. At San- maintains the Congregational House, Boston, u 

kuru disturbances occurred as a sequel to the accumulating a library, portraits, and relics of the 

operations of Major Malfeyt against rebels at past, and cares for whatever may illustrate Con- 

Luluaberg. Commandant La Have, with a force gregational history and promote the interests of 

of 500 men, started for the Welle in June, and Congregational churches. 

gradually brought the last of the rebels in that The contributions to the Sunday-School and 
region to submission. Agents who were guilty Publishing Society for the year ending Feb. 28, 
of cruelty to natives in the Katanga district and 1901, were $57,617, and its available income from 
elsewhere were condemned by the courts. Col. all sources was $76,156. It had 20 superintend- 
Bartels made a tour of inspection as a special ents, 14 missionaries, and 3 correspondents, and 
commissioner to report on modifications that published 6 periodicals, as well as a list of book» 
might be required in local methods of adminis- on religious and Congregational subjects, 
tration. King Leopold and his officials were de- The Board of Ministerial Relief returned the 
termined to root out the abuses that have been Ministerial Relief fund of the National Council 
charged ajgainst the Congo Administration. For- at $118,000; from which an income of about $5,000 
eign missionaries and others who have criticized accrued, to be distributed among beneficiaries in 
the Free State Administration condemn the sys- portions of from $25 to $200 a year. Sixtjr-four 
tem of leasing public lands for private exploita- persons and families — disabled ministers, widows, 
tion, charging that the natives are driven from and children — had been thus aided in 1900. 
the best land that they have in cultivation. These Education Society. — ^The twenty-fifth annual 
private domains in 1900 yielded to the treasury report of the Congregational Education Society 
100,000,000 francs, while the income from the represented that increased sums had been con- 
Crown domains was 700,000 francs. In the Mon- tributed in the West, and that the societv had 
goUa district, where the natives were provoked to given considerably more to academies and mis- 
revolt by the cruelty of Belgian agents, Capt. Mar- sions than in the previous year; that- it had paid 
dulier established a chain of military stations, all outstanding claims, was clear of debt, and had 
In the Kassai district Capt. de Wulf obtained a a small working balance in the treasury; and that 
decisive victory over the rebellious tribe of Bena- in the student department all claims had been 
Luluas. Of the Batatelas who revolted against promptly paid and a surplus remained. The year 
Baron Dhanis in 1895 and have since been pur- had been very successful in New Mexico, where 
sued by the Free State troops, a band of 300, new buildings hadi been erected at Cabezon and 
while encamped north of the river Luama, was Cubero; and much had been accomplished in 
attacked by 150 native troops under Capt. Ander- Utah, at the Gordon Academy. Work had been 
son, and after a brief engagement compelled to set' forward at Kingfisher, Eureka, and Chadron. 
surrender. There were still 1,000 rebels in the In the department of theological scholarships 
mountains bordering Lake Kassali, where by ter- more men than usual had accepted grants as 
rorizing the surrounding district they gained loans, giving their notes in payment. One hun- 
allies. A punitive expedition was sent out in dred and thirty-nine men, or one more than in the 
April under the command of Major Malfeyt, who previous year, had received scholarships. A large 
posted himself, with 700 men, at the confluence of demand from Southern Congregational churches 
the Congo and the Lukuga, while Capt. Savaes, for educated ministers was remarked, and the ex- 
with 150 men, took up a position where the Lua- pediency of establishing an institution in the 
laba enters the Congo, and Major Vandenbroeck, South was suggested. 

with 200 men, went to Kilwa, on Lake Moero, Church Building Society. — The forty-eighth 

smaller detachments occupying intervening posts annual meeting of the Congregational " Church 

so as to make possible a general enveloping move- Building Society was held in New York city, 

ment and cut off escape either to the north or into Jan. 10. The total receipts for the year 1900 had 

British territory on the south. The Batatelas, who been $213,160, of which $98,471 had been from 

had obtained repeating rifles from Belgian and churches and individuals, $28,083 from legacies, 

English traders, were joined by other tribes. One $55,304 from loans returned, and the rest from 

section when hard pressed went over the line and other sources. Loans amounting to $109,000 had 

surrendered to the Germans, but the main body been voted to 49 churches, and grants amounting 

outnumbered the Free State troops. The insur- to $76,973 to 97 churches. Both loans and grants 

gent Abubuas in the Welle region were finally had been voted to 26 churches. Loans amounting 

brought into subjection in August by Lieut. La to $39,158 had been paid to 26 churches, grants of 

Haye, who had 600 men in his command. The re- $60,881 to 70 churches, and both loans and grants 



CONGREGATIONALISTS. 137 

to 15 churches. On parsonage account, $24,810 of the society, the Kev. Newell Dwight Hillis was 

b^ been voted to 50 churches, and $24,195 paid elected to that office. 

to 43 churches. It was represented at the Na- The adjustment of the relations between the 
tional Council of Congregational Churches that national Home Missionary Society and its aux- 
dariDg its existence this society had bestowed aid iliaries has been under discussion since 1893, 
upon nrore than 3,200 churches and 760 parson- when a convention of the National Committee of 
iges, and only a very few such organizations had the American Home Missionary Society and repre- 
M«j!>ed out of existence without fulfilling the ob- sentatives of the State societies was held, and a 
ligations created by such aid. Already $3,800 compact was entered into concerning the col- 
more had been contributed back by aided churches lection and distribution of funds. Under this com- 
than they had received. pact all contributions of funds for the home mis- 
Home Hissioiiary Society. — The seventy-fifth sionary cause in auxiliary States were sent 
annual meeting of the Congregational Home Mis- directly to the treasuries of those States. Esti- 
sionary Society was held in Boston, Mass., May mates were to be submitted annually in conven- 
14, Gen. O. O. Howard presiding. The Executive tion by the auxiliaries of expected receipts and of 
Committee reported that the total receipts for the the need for funds for the work in each State, to 
jear by the national and auxiliary societies had be passed upon by the convention after the esti- 
been $538,986, of which $203,701 w^ere by the mates of income and needs of the national society 
auxiliary societies. A debt of $108,544 at the be- for the same year had been presented; and a 
ginning of the year had been reduced to $63,698. scheme of apportioning the funds was arranged. 
Eighteen hundred and sixty-three missionaries The working of this plan proved not satisfactory 
had been employed during the year in 46 States to the national society, and, under a provision 
and Territories, and reported 183 new Sunday- permitting withdrawal on giving one year's no- 
Bchools organized, 147,274 pupils and Bible-class tice, such notice was submitted to the convention 
scholars in organizations under the society's care, in January, 1900, together with a statement of 
and 5,113 additions on confession. The society the reasons for taking the step. A substitute 
gave its assent to a measure for consolidating the form of compact was drafted and submitted to 
several Congregational missionary anniversaries the several societies. Only a few of the auxiliary 
and the magazines of the societies. This measure societies responding favorably to the new propo- 
provides that two meetings of the benevolent sition, the national committee by resolution ex- 
societies be held each year, one in the East pressed its strengthened conviction that the old 
and one in the West, one for foreign and compact was impracticable, and its desire to co- 
one for home work, one in the spring and one in operate in future with each auxiliary State sepa- 
the fall ; and that a single monthly magazine cov- rately, " in respect to all matters of mutual in- 
ering the work of all the societies be published, terest in procuring and appropriating funds and 
A committee was appointed to cooperate with in the prosecution of missionary labors gener- 
aimilar committees from the other societies in ally." The committee also declared its judgment 
carrying out the measure. to be that the change it proposed should '' lead 
At an informal meeting of members of this so- to a more simple plan for direct appeals to the 
eiety at which representatives of the auxiliary churches in all States and largely increased con- 
societies and of the National Society were present, tributions to the treasuries, by which the work of 
a committee of fifteen was constituted to con- the auxiliary States need not be hindered in the 
sider and report some plan for perfecting the rela- least, while the work will receive wider support 
tions between the auxiliaries and the national than ever hitherto." These resolutions having 
society. Five members of this committee were been presented to a final convention, held in 
Dominated by the auxiliary societies and five by January, 1901, the national committee at its 
the Executive Committee, these ten after having next meeting considered a plan for future co- 
been elected by the national society to elect five operation with auxiliary States, and sent to the 
more; the entire subject of reconstruction to be committees of those States a platform of propo- 
eommitted to this committee, to be reported upon sitions representing that *' the Executive Com- 
by them at the next annual meeting of the na- mittee of the national society recognizes that 
tional society. These proceedings, on being re- there can be no separation of territory for its 
ported to the society, were approved by it, and field of service, and that it is bound, therefore, to 
the ten committeemen, representing the auxiliaries consider the needs for work within the limits of 
and the Executive Committee, were appointed. It the auxiliary States as carefully as elsewhere, and 
was agreed, in order to secure a modus Vivendi to that end seeks the counsel and cooperation of 
between the national society and the auxiliary the several State societies. While the national 
societies pending the action of the Committee of society is the direct representative of each and 
Fifteen, that the national convention for the pur- every Congregational church in the country for 
pose of making estimates and apportionments the administration of this great commission, and 
for the work should be continued; that such a as such must appeal to them severally for sup- 
convention be called at an early date by the Ex- port, its committee recognizes, also, the demands 
ecutive Committee to make estimates and appor- and needs of the State organizations for their iii- 
tionments for the rest of the fiscal year; that the dependent work, and suggests that the reaponsi- 
aoxiliary societies, whether they have entered bility for a suitable application of contributions 
into new relations with the national society or may properly be left with each church to deter- 
not, be invited to participate in the convention; mine, and thus will the constituency in every 
that the question of rebates as provided in the church become immediately and continue to be 
contract of 1898 be left to be aajusted between always clearly familiar with its individual share 
the Executive Committee of the national society in the support of home missions, both locally 
md the several auxiliaries; and that all appeals and over tne wide field, which latter, however, 
'or funds by the national society within auxiliary will to some extent include, at the discretion of 
states be in harmony with the work of the auxil- the national society, aid and service to some of 
aries. The object of the movement was intimated the auxiliary States." The maintenance of the an- 
o be the attainment of a close organic union be- niial convention was agreed to, with the under- 
ween the auxiliary societies and the national so- standing that it should receive reports and esti- 
iety. Gen, O. O. Howard resigning the presidency mates of receipts and expenditures of the Congre- 



138 



CONGREGATIONALISTS. 



Rational Home Missionary Society and each aux- 
iliary for the past year and the coming year, and 
consider all questions of common responsibility 
and mutual helpfulness. The principal effect of 
the new plan is considered to be to make the na- 
tional society free to appeal directly to any Con- 
gregational church for funds, leaving with everjr 
such church the responsibility for the precise di- 
rection of its gifts, and to give a clear recogni- 
tion and definition of the importance of the work 
in auxiliary States. 

American Missionaxy Association. — The 
fifty-fifth annual meeting of the American Mis- 
sionary Association was held at Oak Park, III., 
Oct. 22 to 24. The Rev. Washington Gladden, 
D. D., presided. The treasurer reported that the 
total receipts for the year had been $351,750, and 
the expenditures $353,352. The receipts were $15,- 
970 more, and the expenditures $17,523 more than 
in the previous year. The contributions of the 
women's societies amounted to $24,733. For four 
years the association had reported all obligations 
paid and no debt at the close, and it had created 
no new debt for seven years. The report of the 
Executive Committee mentioned a slight increase 
in the number of the schools, with more than 
1,500 additional pupils, and enlarged church work. 
The educational work in the South included 6 
chartered institutions, 43 normal and graded 
schools, and 32 common schools, with totals of 
474 instructors and 14,668 pupils, 2,078 being 
boarding pupils. Included in these were 12 moun- 
tain schools, with 67 instructors and 2,190 pupils, 
of whom 463 were boarding pupils. Of these 
pupils, 94 were classed as theological, 308 as 
•collegiate, 392 as college preparatory, and 1,547 
as normal. The higher institutions were Fisk 
University, Nashville, Tenn.; Talladega College, 
Talladega, Ala.; Tougaloo University, Tougaloo, 
Miss.; Straight University, New Orleans, La.; 
Tillotson College, Austin, Texas; and the J. S. 
Green College, Demorest, Ga. All of the moun- 
tain schools except Lincoln Academy, Kings 
Mountain, N. C, were among the white people 
of the hills. The common schools were chiefly 
parochial schools in rural places where public 
schools were wanting, and were in close relation- 
ship with the churches in the States of North 
Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, 
and Tennessee. The new educational work in 
Porto Rico consisted of 2 schools, with 8 teachers 
and 306 pupils. The 228 churches in the South re- 
turned 140 ministers and missionaries, with 12,050 
chuich-members, 1,454 additions during the year 
on profession, 17,347 pupils in Sunday-schools, 
benevolent contributions of $2,707, and $48,859 
raised for church purposes. From the Indian mis- 
sions were returned 20 churches, 52 out-siations, 
1,414 church-members, 2,665 pupils in Sunday- 
schools, 48 white and 53 Indian missionaries and 
teachers, and contributions of $2,988 to benevo- 
lence and church support. The schools at San tee, 
Neb., Oahe, S. Dak., Plumb Creek, S. Dak., 
Fort Berthold and Elbowoods, N. Dak., were 
attended by 211 pupils. The 21 Chinese mis- 
sions reported 15 Chinese workers and 46 work- 
ers in all, with 1,386 pupils in the schools, 
401 of whom had given evidence of having been 
converted. One hundred and eleven members 
had been added during the year to the Congre- 
gational Association of Christian Chinese. The 
addition, the largest ever had in one year, 
brought the number of Chinese converts up to 
2,000. Work had been begun* among the Japanese 
in Los Angeles and Fresno, Cal. The Alaskan 
mission comprised one school, 4 missionaries, and 
100 pupils. An amendment to the constitution of 



the association was adopted, providing for rota- 
tion in office of members of the Executive Com- 
mittee. A proposition for the election of salaried 
officers by the Executive Committee instead of at 
the annual meeting; of the association was re^ 
ferred. A proposition for having a joint annual 
meeting of the six Congregational societies in 
October was approved, and the Executive Com- 
mittee was instructed to communicate with the 
other home societies on the subject. Propositions 
for the cooperation of the other five societies in 
the publication of a united magazine, and for the 
appointment of a single joint treasurer in New 
York for this society and the Congregational 
Home Missionary and Church Building Societies, 
were concurred in. The society recommended the 
appointment of a committee of the six societiei 
for the promotion of harmony and cooperation 
in the collection of funds, and to suggest plans for 
the preservation of gifts and property to the pur- 
poses for which they were intended. A resolu- 
tion was sent by telegraph to President Roosevelt 
approving of certain courtesies which he had 
shown to Booker T. Washington, " a justly hon- 
ored representative of his people." A special re- 
port of the Bureau of Woman's Work showed that 
451 women had been in the missionary work ot 
the society during the year. 

The American Board. — The annual meeting 
of the American Board of Commissioners for For- 
eign Missions was held in Hartford, Conn., be- 
ginning Oct. 8, the Hon. Samuel C. Capen presid- 
ing. The Prudential Committee reported that 
the total receipts of the year from all sources, in- 
cluding $2,253 for the debt, had been $697,371. i 
decrease from the previous year of $40,586. The 
bulk of the deficit was in shrinkage of legacies. 
The regular donations from individuals, churches, 
and various societies had been $500,198, of which 
$198,655 had come through the several Woman's 
Boards (Woman's Board of Missions, Boston, 
$127,874; Woman's Board of the Interior, Chicago, 
$65,243; Woman's Board of the Pacific, $5,538). 
While the total amount of contributions had de- 
creased $7,338 from the previous vear, the gifts 
for the distinctive work of the board had in- 
creased $8,780. The expenditures had been $717,- 
081, or $14,970 less than in the previous year, 
while the debt had increased by $19,710 to $102,- 
341. The general summary of the mission fields 
gave as the numbers in the 20 missions: Of sta- 
tions, 97; of out-stations, 1,209; of places for 
stated preaching, 1,661 ; of ordained missionaries 
(17 being physicians), 167; of physicians not or- 
dained, 14 men and 9 women; of other men as- 
sistants, 4; of women (including 9 physicians, 168 
wives, and 182 unmarried), 350; whole number 
of laborers from the United States, 544 ; of native 
laborers (including 240 pastors, 513 preachers and 
catechists, 1,930 school-teachers, 293 Bible women, 
and 507 others), 3,483; making a total of 4,027 
American and native laborers; of churches, 505, 
with 50,892 members, of whom 4,551 had been 
added during the year; number of members from 
the first as nearly as could be learned, 157,658; 
of members of Sunday-schools, 66,601 ; of persons 
under instruction, 62,188, including 228 students 
for the ministry in 17 theological schools and 
seminary classes, 10,225 pupils in 103 boarding 
and high schools, and 49,375 pupils in 1,135 com- 
mon schools; amount of native contributions, so 
far as reported, $147,879. In Africa, improved 
conditions were noted among the Zulus, with steps 
taken toward the beginning of systematic church 
organization. In Micronesia, Ponape had been 
reopened to missionary residence after ten vears 
of virtual exclusion, and Guam, in the Ladrone 



CONGREGATIONALISTS. 139 

, had been occupied as a new missionary they make provision for instructing the young 
Indemnity for losses incurred in Turkey people in the Sunday-schools and Christian En- 
the massacres of 1895 and 1896 had been deavor Societies in every department of the mis- 
er to the United States Government, and sionary work; that the missionary knowledge 
be distributed as soon as the formalities and interest of candidates for ordination and in- 
e complied with. Increase in the number stallation be made a subject of faithful inquiry; 
e pastors, the average congregations, Sun- approved of the appointment of all salaried offi- 
ooi pupils, churches, and church-members cers of the six societies by executive boards, of 
corded in western Turkey. In central one administrative head, and of a limited repre- 
a Home Missionary Society had been or- sentative governing membership for each of the 
by the native brethren. In European Tur- six societies ; urged the five home societies to try 
D was marked in all the main features of the experiment of a united annual meeting, allow- 
k. Tbe conditions in Cbina and progress ing the meeting of the American Board to remain 
rery after the Boxer disturbances were unchanged for the present; recommended the in- 
i. In Japan the theological seminary of stitution of an advisory committee of seven mem- 
usha had been, opened again, under a bers by the executive boards of the five home 
n constitution, and the Mission of the societies to hold State meetings, and to which all 
Brethren was cooperating in sustaining questions of Joint action shall be referred — this 
Austria a mission house had been dedi- committee, with the addition of a member from 
I Vienna, restrictions on the holding of the American Board, to take measures looking to 
s meetings had been relaxed, interest in the organization of conference and State mission- 
nee work was increasing, and the popular ary committees and to labor for the adoption of 
tnt movement was growing. The church- definite and systematic plans of benevolence by 
ship of the mission had increased 17 per the churches, and that the committee appoint a 
Tine hundred copies of the Sunday-school secretary of systematic benevolence; that there 
Bohemian, prepared for the mission there, be one monthly missionary publication devoted 
lied for for Bohemian populations in the to foreign and home work; and that manuals of 
States. In connection with the enterprise instruction and information be issued suitable for 
tie Forward Movement, there were now 82 permanent use in Sunday-schools, Young Peo- 
s and 3 individuals supporting 105 mis- pie's Societies, and other similar organizations. 
8. The Twentieth Century fund was rep- A report on Comity, Federation, and Unity cov- 
l to amount, in cash and pledges, to nearly ered the subjects of cultivating closer relations 
L The committee on corporate member- with the brethren in Canada, cooperation with 
ommended a change in the make-up of the other bodies in general, the observance by the 
ider which the committee shall be required Congregational churches of the principle of com- 
se only one-half instead of three-fourths ity, and exchange of declarations of good-will 
lembership of the board from nominations with other bodies. The proposition approved by 
y the State associations. In an efifort to the council of 1898 on federation of churches was 
ontributions and pledges for the payment again referred to a committee, the members of 
lebt of the society, it was announced that which were to be chosen with a view to their 
had been given by an unknown friend being able to carry out those plans so far as 
ould be applied for the purpose. Contribu- they might now be found practicable. The com- 
?re asked for and the whole of the remain- mittee was requested to provide that proposals 
>unt of the debt — $54,000 — was secured in for federation, such as have been found advan- 
D an hour. tageous in Great Britain, be referred to other de- 
>zial Council. — ^The National Council of nominations in the United States, either through 
^tional Churches met in its eleventh tri- their own initiative or through the National Fed- 
session at Portland, Me., Oct. 12. The eration of Christian Churches and Workers, or 
nory H. Bradford was chosen moderator, such other agencies as might seem available to 
ort of the secretary showed that during the accomplish the object. The project for establish- 
>ars since the last preceding meeting of the ing foundations of a religious character in con- 
there had been gains of 36 churches, 7,485 nection with the great State universities was ap- 
s, and $1,023,906 in home expenses, while proved. The preparation of a system of graded 
ad occurred of 1,211 in children baptized, Sunday-school lessons was advised. While not 
in membership of Sunday-schools, 32,103 questioning the propriety of solemnizing the mar- 
bership of Young People's Societies, and riage of a party who has been shown to be in- 
) in benevolent contributions. The report nocent in divorce proceedings the council urged 
National Council Ministerial Relief fund upon the ministers the duty of withholding sanc- 
tted that the assets had increased to $125,- tion from those whose divorce has been secured 
i that 58 persons were receiving relief, in on other than scriptural grounds. A committee 
ranging from $20 to $200. The total re- was appointed to report to the next council on en- 
tn account of the council for three years richment of the worship of the churches. A board 
en $52,075,. while the expenditures had of fifteen trustees was constituted to have charge 
ch as to leave a balance in bank of $14,- of the council's Ministerial Relief fund and its 
he Committee of Fifteen which had been administration. Plans adopted by some of the 
ed by the previous general council to seminaries for the training of women for service 
r the relations of the six benevolent soci- as deaconesses were approved. Approval was 
' one another and to the churches made also given to the proposed erection of a Pilgrim 
t embodying recommendations which, as Memorial Church at Plymouth, Mass. 
d by the meeting, urged upon all the im- Cong^egationalists in Canada. — The fifty- 
e of laying added emphasis upon the mis- fourth annual meeting pf the Congregational 
rk at home and abroad to wnich Congre- Union of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick was 
lists are pledged ; requested each church to held in July. Papers were read and discussed re- 
T by a personal canvass to reach all its lating to the practicability of present-day preach- 
8 with an appeal for some gift to each of ing, the minister's conversion work, and the pros- 
missionary societies; suggested that the pect of forwarding the work of the home churches, 
s make October a missionary month; that The Woman's Board of Missions occupied three 



140 CONGBBGATIONALISTS. 

sessions with business, reports, and presentation its reconstruction, it was shown that while the- 
of conditions, needs, and possibilities. The young results of its efforts had been comparatively 
people of the churches received thoughtful consid- meager and unsatisfactory, a sum of £5,923 more 
eration, a whole session being devoted to Young than in the previous five years had been raised 
People's Societies. Other denominational inter- and disbursed; the minimum of pastors' stipends 
ests were remembered in addresses^ resolutions, in aided counties had been raised from £60 and 
and plans of work. even less, per annum, to £90, and in some in- 
Cong^regational XTnion of England and stances £100; and the sum of £2,152 had been 
Wales. — The sixty-ninth annual meeting of the added to the reserve fund, so that the expenses of 
Congregational Union of England and Wales was management were met without touching the ordi- 
held in London, beginning April 22. The Rev. Dr. nary contributions. The amount promised to the 
Joseph Parker, chairman, in his annual address. Twentieth Century fund of £525,000 amounted 
spoke in memory of the Rev. James Chalmers, at the time of the meeting of the union to £565,- 
missionary in New Guinea, news of whose mur- 704, while £25,416 had been paid to the central 
der, with those of his associate, the Rev. Oliver fund. The vast preponderance of the subscrip- 
Tomkins, and a number of their helpers, by sav- tions had been for local objects, and the central 
ages had just been received; in favor of a modi- fund, for which a lar^e amount was desired, had 
fication of the coronation oath to rid it of expres- received comparatively little. Of the 5O0,00() 
sions offensive to a large number of the people of guineas asked for, and which had been already 
the kingdom; in honor of the Christian men who promised, about half was to be used for distinct or 
had lifted up their voices in condemnation of the local schemes of church extension, and £150,000 
South African War — although he did not agree more for the reduction of church debts, leaving not 
with them; and bringing forward some objections more than £100,000 definitely for home, colonial, 
to the proposed closer union of the country Con- and forei^ missions, provision for aged pastors, 
gregational unions with the national union. The etc. Special effort was urged to increase largely 
annual report gave an outline of the reports of the amount available for those purposes. The re- 
the special subcommittees upon ministerial set- port on the subject of ministerial settlements and 
tlements and removals, sustentation, the mode of . removals, which had been under the consideration 
electing the chairman of the union, and the prob- of a special committee, began with the declaration 
lem of churches in large villages and towns. The that united action by the denomination as a 
Young People's Union had had a year of (]|uiet de- whole is an indispensable condition to the secur- 
velopment. Additions to the Congregational li- ing of practical reform. Its recommendations in- 
brary had been less numerous than m some recent eluded a provision making the county responsible 
years; progress was making in the examination of for admissions to the ministry within their sepa- 
manuscripts, and the library was being incrcas- rate areas under rules substantially the same and 
ingly used for the purposes of political research, similarly administered, and an appeal to the gov- 
It was set forth in a brief survey of the history of eming bodies of the colleges to consider whether 
the union that it had seen and helped to promote some scheme of amalgamation which would not 
a degree of cohesion among the Congregational impair efficiency but would effect economy, could 
churches at home and a solidarity among men not be adopted. It advised that ministers en- 
of the same faith and order in other parts of the tering the Congregational ministry from other 
world which far exceeded the brightest hopes of denominations should be reauired to give satis- 
its earlier days. The union was asked to con- factory reports from their colleges and official tes- 
done the breach of one of its rules involved by timonials as to character, ministerial status, and 
the joint assemblies with the Baptist Union, efficiency; and suggested that no application 
The business of the publication department had should be considered until the applicant is in corn- 
attained a better average than in the previous munion with a Congregational church. A course 
year. An important change in the method of three years' reading, with annual examina- 
of electing the chairman was made, by which tions, was suggested as the test that county 
a system of formal nominations is established, unions should apply to ministers without college 
A nomination by any twenty-five representa- training seeking recognition. In the case of va- 
tive members, acting jointly, is provided for, to cant pastorates, the desirability of inviting a^ 
be sent in by March 15 of each year. If no neighboring minister or layman to confer with the 
nominations are sent in by that date, the com- officers and to preside at the church and business- 
mittee of the union is empowered to nominate meetings was emphasized; and it was suggested 
not more than three nor less than two candidates that no one should be asked to preach " with a 
for the chairmanship. A resolution was adopted view " except after most careful inquiry. For 
declaring that " the assembly, deeply deploring facilitating removals, the committee recommended 
the long continuance of the disastrous warfare in the appointment of consultative committees by 
South Africa, is most earnestly desirous that no the county unions, to which churches seeking pas- 
effort may be wanting on the part of his Ma- tors and ministers seeking pastorates should ap- 
jesty's Government, not only to bring about a ply; that a central committee, elected by the 
termination of hostilities, but to secure complete county unions, should meet at Memorial Hall 
and lasting peace. In the opinion of the assem- and help the consultative committees; and that 
bly that object will be most surely realized by the these committees, pledged to secrecy, should keep 
adoption of a magnanimous and conciliatory pol- careful records as to churches and ministers. The 
icy. The report of the Church Aid and Home assembly expressed its general approval of the 
Missionary Society represented that the contribu- recommendations contained in the report, and re- 
tions from the churches were increasing, the num- quested that the county unions be asked to sig- 
ber of contributing churches having been 44 per nify their acceptance of the paper and of the rules 
cent, more than in the previous year, while the recommended m an appendix to it ; and instructed 
gifts from the county unions to the central fund the General Committee to appoint a special sub- 
showed a serious decline. The grants for the past committee, authorized to collect, collate, and re- 
year amounted to £4,075 — £141 leas than were port upon such information and suggestions on 
asked for — constituting an amount of pledges con- sustentation as it can obtain. The comniitt^s re- 
siderably larger than the anticipated income. In port further contained a note on the subject of 
a review of the five years* work of the society since sustentation. While the committee were agreed 



CONGREGATIONALISTS. 141 

he necessity for sustentation and for guard- at the meetings of the Baptist and Congregational 

e entrance to the ministry to that end, they Unions in 19(K), a joint assembly of the two bodies 

livided as to the lines on which a fund was held, for the first time, in the City Temple, 

be established; one section of the com- London, April 23 and 24. The Rev. Joseph 

recommended a scheme for the formation — Parker, Congregational, was chairman of the ses- 

from the Congregational Union — of a vol- sion, and said, in opening the meeting, that its 

federation of churches pledged to elect purpose was not to discuss the differences between 

linisters approved by a representative com- the denominations, but to verify and magnify 

of the federating churches; and to adopt their bonds of union. The Rev. Dr. Alexander 

pport a sustentation fund. The other sec- Maclaren then delivered his official address as 

the committee was of the opinion that any president of the Baptist Union, on the subject of 

to be effective should be formed by the the Preacher's Office, its themes, its demands, its 
gational Union and worked through the possibilities. A resolution was adopted express- 
unions, ing deep sorrow at the death of Queen Victoria, de- 
ititutioiial Beadjustment. — The subject vout acknowledgment of God's loving gift of such 
possible readjustment of Congregational an exemplary life, sincere condolence with King 

in order to give increased strength to the Edward VII, commending the King and Queen to 

[nation and greater efficiency to its work, the prayers of all Christians, grieving that the 

avoid some of the disadvantages acknowl- new reign and the new century began amid the 

to accompany extreme independence of the horrors of war, and praying for the speedy set- 

ual churches and the society organization, tlement of an honorable and lasting peace. The 

2n under discussion in the denominational Rev. Principal Rainy, moderator of the United 

ipers for more than a year; and some of Free Churcn of Scotland, was introduced, and 

ngregational ministers and laymen of the spoke of the accomplishment of the union of the 

t influence have openly spoken of the intro- Free and the United Presbyterian Churches there, 

1 of some of the features of the Presbyterian and of " the higher criticism." An evening meet- 

. A conference held in London, Feb. 26 ing in the Queen's Hall, with Mr. George White, 

, for the purpose of considering questions M. P., in the chair, was addressed by Principal 

nature was attended by delegates repre- Fairbairn, Congregational, the Rev. J. G. Green- 

; all parts of England. Among the subjects hough. Baptist, and the Rev. Dr. Uorton, Congre- 

)rominentIy brought forward was that of gational. At a joint meeting of Baptist and Con- 

ising of the standard of the ministry and gregational total abstainers it was shown that all 

provision of more adequate support for but two of the students of the Congregational 

!rs, concerning which it was suggested that colleges and all of those of the Baptist colleges 

ation should be formed of churches which were teetotalers. A resolution was adopted in the 

confine themselves to a list of ministers joint assembly urging the churches and Sunday- 

ed by the representative body, and should schools to assist in devising and employing means 

sustentation fund to be used only for per- for the reclamation of drunkards, and to aid 

Q that list; it was also proposed that this in legislative or administrative measures for the 

board, or council be constituted of repre- prevention of drunkenness. The resolution in ref- 

ves of all the colleges. The constitution of erence to education affirmed " that any system of 

tngregational unions was mentioned as a public schools, whether primary, secondary, or col- 

of weakness. Under the present system legiate, should aim as its sole object at the efficient 

ounty or group of counties has its own preparing and equipment of the young for the 

and these several unions have no connec- performance of their duties as citizens, irrespective 
ith one another^ or with the Congregational of the interests of a religious denomination or po- 
of England and Wales, while the last body litical party. The curriculum should be framed 
itute of legislative and administrative func- so as not to violate religious equality or allow of 

The Rev. Joseph Parker, chairman of the any sectarian or party instruction. The train- 

lal Congregational Union, addressing the ing colleges should be equally open, and on equal 

g, said that, searching for the one govern- terms, to all candidates for the teaching profes- 

nciple which might be made to underlie the sion. All public schools maintained from public 

« and suggestions that were presented, he funds should be represented by public manage- 

it in the idea of " a united Congregational ment." The annual sermon of the combined Bap- 

u" ** When a man said * I will never sub- tist and London Missionary Societies was 

authority,' he might see the question in preached by the Rev. R. Glover. The Rev. Joseph 

r aspect if he were part of the authority. Parker, D. D., delivered his annual address as 

ras the gist of the question. In anything, chairman of the Congregational Union, on the 

te freedom was impossible. We must yield subject of The United Congregational Church, 

ling, in order that we may get something By that term the speaker implied a general organi- 

' The feeling of the meeting was expressed zation of the churches somewhat after the plan of 

^lution to be that the time had come for the county unions, under which, without sacri- 

iting the common life and emphasizing the ficing their independence, they would attain greater 

•n interests of Congregationalism by con- cohesion and a higher degree of efficiency for their 

action with regard to entrance to the min- work. The United Congregational Church, he 

a sustentation fund; a retiring fund; and showed, would, guarding against unworthy bene- 

estion of removals. Attention was called ficiaries, establish a ministerial sustentation fund ; 

the discussion to the successful operation would not insist upon a uniform and inflexible 

Provident fund of the Scotch Congrega- way of receiving and recognizing its ministers, 

sts, which secures a retiring allowance of but would insist upon some way or some one of 

?r annum to each minister. A resolution several ways; and would preserve the central prin- 

lopted asking the county unions " to dis- ciple of Congregationalism which finds expression 

le question of a closer and more direct con- in the individual church, for " the individual 

I with the Congregational Union." church is the primary and indestructible unit of 

t Meeting of the Baptist and Congee- Congregationalism " ; but " individual churches 

lal Unions. — Pursuant to arrangements can be related, vitally and effectively related," 

a accordance with an understanding reached as are, under their various constitutions, the 



142 CONGREGATIONALISTS. 

United States, the Swiss cantons, the departments out of the 39 counties of England and Wales had 
of France, the parts of the United Kingdom, and received help from it in ministerial support and 
the Australian colonies. In the Unit^ Congre- evangelistic work. In the past year £4,200 had 
gational Church the completest possible unit of been distributed by it toward the support of 217 
Congregationalism would be realized, and with pastors and 74 evangelists. Its work was purelr 
it the truest conception of brotherhood ; while the supplemental to that of the county unions. It 
best would be maae by it of all the resources of needed £1,000 more to meet the year's expendi- 
Congregationalism. " Nothing would be allowed ture. A report of the Pastors* Retiring fund 
to run to waste. The whole line of duty and pos- showed that the average expenditure for the past 
sibility would be watched by a representative and four years on annuities paid to 173 ministers had 
responsible assembly either as a whole or depart- been £6,300, with £300 for office expenses. The 
mentally.'* At a meeting held in Albert UaU, the income from investments had been £4,000, and 
Earl of Aberdeen presiding, the Rev. W. G. Lawes, between £1,100 and £1,200 had been realized 
of New Guinea, spoke of the condition and pros- from subscriptions, legacies, etc. An average as- 
pects of the mission and of native Christianity in nual deficiency of £500 had been incurred, 
that country, to which special attention was for The subject of The Supply and Training of 
the moment directed, on account of the recent Local Preachers was considered at a lay confer- 
murders of missionaries. A United Ladies* Mis- ence. At a women's meeting papers were read on 
sionary meeting, at which Mrs. S. G. Green pre- Our Responsibility to the Unreached Classes, and 
sided, was attended by nearly 100 women mission- The Claims of the Girls' Guild of the Free 
aries of the London and the Baptist Societies, and Churches. A scheme of maintenance was proposed 
was addressed by 7 of the' number describing the at a conference on superannuation. A confer- 
conditions in their several fields. ence was held on the relations of the councils 
Autumnal Assembly of the Congregational to one another and to the churches. The council 
Union. — The Autumnal Assembly of the Union of the Twentieth Century fund adopted a scheme 
was held at Manchester, beginning Oct. 15, the of distribution. 

autumnal sermon having b^n preached on the Colonial Missionary Society. — The Colonial 
previous evening by the Rev. George Gladstone. Missionary Society received during the year cov- 
The chairman, the Rev. Joseph Parker, D. D., in ered by its sixty-fifth report, which was presented 
his opening address, made a further exposition of May 13, £5,236, and had a balance of £409 re- 
his scheme for a United Congregational Church, maining. The grant made by the Congregational 
He wanted to interest all the churches in the work Union and that of the London ^lissionary Society 
of Congregationalism; to do this they needed an for three years in aid of native churches in Brit- 
ideal, some ^eat uniting policy, some noble and ish colonies had been renewed. The report dealt 
sovereign prmciple, which they would find in the with the work of the society in the various col- 
union he proposed. It should embrace the col- onies, laying special emphasis on the new work 
leges as schools of the Church, should assume begun in British Columbia and Newfoundland, on 
responsibility for its ministers, make provision the " distressful condition of the colored churches 
for them in old a^e and when honorably retired, in Jamaica," and on work in South Africa and the 
and unite under its care the home and foreign Australasian colonies. Mission work had been 
missionary and other societies^ while the au- begun in the gold-fields of Tasmania, 
tonomy of the local churches should not be dis- Pastors' ^tiring Fund. — The report of the 
turbed, and the trust deeds should be free from Pastors' Retiring fund showed that £6,384 had 
the incorporation of any theological doctrine, been paid in annuities during the year, making 
The address was accompanied by a sketch of the £177,019 since the beginning in 1860. The number 
line of initial procedure which might be followed of annuitants was 173. Tne investments of the 
in the constitution of the Church, beginning with fund approximated, at present rates, £160,350. 
county conferences, and passing to a larger con- The pressure of applications was increasing 
ference representing all the counties, which should yearly, and rendered an early increase of resources 
frame a constitution for the United Church, and vitally important. 

then to the assembly holding two meetings an- The Pastors* Widows' fund had paid £1,220 to 
nually, as now, to constitute the Church. The 98 annuitants, making £28,190 paid since the be- 
resolutions unanimously adopted by the assembly ginning of the fund in 1870. 
expressed to Dr. Parker its sense of the serv- Chapel-Building Society. — The reports of the 
ices he had rendered to the Congregational English Chapcl-Building Society showed that it 
churches bv his two addresses as chairman of the haa, during forty-seven years, aided 818 churches 
union, and especially of the importance of the and 37 manses, and had disbursed £215,714. 
new ideals he had set before it; and continued: During the past vear notes and payments had 
"While not committing itself to any premature been made for 35 churches and 11 manses amount- 
approval or disapproval of the proposed * United ing to £8,545. The year's income had been £5,- 
Congregational Church,* this asseraoly deems the 503. 

proposal to be of such vital importance as to de- Congregational Historical Society. — The 
serve most serious and careful consideration both first annual meeting of the Congregational His- 
by the churches represented here and by the torieal Society was held in London, April 24. The 
county unions. This assembly therefore directs treasurer reported a small balance, and the see- 
the committee of the Congregational Union of retary accounted for the work that had been 
England and Wales to take immediate steps to done. The first volume of the Transactions had 
bring the whole subject before the churches and been issued, and contained articles on Non-Pa- 
the county unions for their consideration, and it rochial Rejyisters in Yorkshire, Dr. Watts's 
further instructs the committee that when suffi- Church Book, and From a Diary of the Gumey 
cient time has been allowed for the consideration Family. One hundred and fifty 'replies had been 
and discussion of the proposal of its chairman, it received to 487 circulars addressed to churches 
shall collect and tabulate the results of the discus- founded prior to 1750, asking for information as 
sion, and shall embody them in a report to be sub- to the existence of original records. In several 
mitted to the Annual Assembly of this union at cases existing histories had been presented to the 
the earliest possible date." A statement made in society, and in others promises of forthcoming his- 
behalf of the Church Aid Society showed that 21 tories had been made. 



CONGRESS. (The Pbesident's Message.) 143 

London Missionary Society. — The annual sisted of 909,050 square miles. It is now 3,846,595 

meeting of the London Missionary Society was s(|uare miles. Education, religion, and morality 

held May 13. The annual report showed that the have kept pace with our advancement in other 

gro!is income for the year had been £172,369, directions, and while extending its power the Gov- 

while the net income had been £148,203. Of the emment has adhered to its foundation principles 

Utter sum, £11,450 were for special purposes, and abated none of them in dealing with our new 

letving only £136,700 available for general use, peoples and possessions. A nation so preserved 

while the expenditure had been £150,860. By this and blessed gives reverent thanks to God and in- 

means the gross deficiency had been increased to yokes his guidance and the continuance of his care 

£30,608. This deficiency w^as mentioned as the and favor. 

veak point in the society^^s position. The churches In our foreign intercourse the dominant ques- 

had never provided it with the amount required tion has been the treatment of the Chinese prob- 

for the maintenance of the 70 additional mission- lem. Apart from this our relations with the 

aries sent out on the Forward Movement. Al- powers have been happy. 

though the directors had kept grants and pay- The recent troubles in China spring from the 

ments down to the. lowest point, the deficiency was antiforeign agitation which for the past three 

increasing from year to year. years has gained strength in the northern prov- 

Scottish Congregational Union. — ^The an- iuees. Their origin lies deep in the character of 

Duai business meetings of the Scottish Congrega- the Chinese races and in the traditions of their 

tional Union were held in Glasgow, beginning ^lay Government. The Taiping rebellion and the open- 

7. Mr. John Leith presiding, who was succeeded in ing of Chinese ports to K)reign trade and settle- 

ihe chair by the Key. W. Hamilton. Reports of ment disturbed alike the homogeneity and the 

the Widows' fund, the Ministers' Provident fund, seclusion of China. 

and the Theological Hall were considered. The Meanwhile foreign activity made itself felt in 
Committee on Applications for Aid reported that all quarters, not alone on the coast, but along the 
51 churches had received aid during the year ; that great river arteries and in the remoter districts,. 
17 aided churches returned an increase amounting carrying new ideas and introducing new associa- 
te 80 members, and 27 a decrease of 199. Grants tions among a primitive people which had pursued 
of £1,345 were voted to 48 churches. The Care for centuries a national policy of isolation, 
of Youth Committee reported that 900 children The telegraph and the railway spreading over 
had entered for the examination, compared with their land, the steamers plying on their waterways, 
500 in the previous year. The report on foreign the merchant and the missionary penetrating year 
mir^isions, it was explained, did not exactly re- by year farther to the interior, became to the Chi- 
flect the attitude of the churches of Scotland, as nese mind types of an alien invasion, changing 
many of the contributions were sent direct to the course of their national life and fraught with 
London. Thankfulness was expressed that the vague forebodings of disaster to their beliefs and 
churches of the union, with but few exceptions, their self-control, 
used unfermented wine at communion services. For several years before the present troubles 

South African Congregational Union. — The all the resources of foreign diplomacy, backed by 
Annual Assembly of the South African Congrega- moral demonstrations of the physical force of fleets 
tional Union was held at Cape Town, Oct 23 to and arms, have been needed to secure due respect 
31, the Rev. Walter Friend presiding. Three new for the treaty rights of foreigners and to obtain 
churches were received into fellowship. The satisfaction irom the responsible authorities for 
offices of the union were ordered transferred from the sporadic outrages upon the persons and prop- 
Port Elizabeth to Cape Town. erty of unoiTending sojourners, which from time 

CONGRESS. The second session of the Fifty- to time occurred at widely separated points in the 

sixth Congress began Monday, Dec. 3, 1900; and northern provinces, as in the case of the outbreaks 

after the usual official notification of the fact, the in Szechuen and Shantung. . 

President sent in his annual message, as follows: Posting of antiforeign placards became a daily 

occurrence, which the repeated reprobation of the 

To the Senate and Bouse of Representatives: imperial power failed to check or punish. These 

At the outgoing of the old and the incoming of inflammatory appeals to the ignorance and super- 
the new century you begin the last session of the stition of the masses, mendacious and absurd in 
Kifty-sixth Congress with evidences on every hand their accusations and deeply hostile in their spirit,, 
of individual and national prosperity and with could not but work cumulative harm. They aimed 
proof of the growing strength and increasing power at no particular class of foreigners ; they were im- 
for good of republican institutions. Your country- partial in attacking everything foreign, 
men will join with you in felicitation that Ameri- An outbreak in Shantung, in which German mis- 
can liberty is more firmly established than ever sionaries were slain, was the too natural result of 
before, and that love for it and the determination these malevolent teachings. The posting of se- 
to preserve it are more universal than at any for- ditious placards, exhorting to the utter destruc- 
mer period of our history. tion of foreigners and of every foreign thing,. 

The republic was never so strong, because continued unrebuked. Hostile demonstrations to- 

never so strongly entrenched in the hearts of the ward the stranger gained strength by organization. 

people as now. The Constitution, with few amend- The sect commonlj^ styled the Boxers developed 

ments, exists as it left the hands of its authors, greatly in the provinces north of the Yang-Tse, 

The additions which have been made to it pro- and with the collusion of many notable oflieials, 

claim larger freedom and more extended citizen- including some in the immediate councils of the 

^hip. Popular government has demonstrated in Throne itself, became alarmingly ajrfjressive. No 

its one hundred and twenty-four years of trial here foreigner's life outside of the protected treaty ports- 

its stability and security, and its efficiency as the was safe. No foreign interest was secure from 

l*st instrument of national development and the spoliation. 

be*t safeguard to human rights. The diplomatic representatives of the powers in 

When the Sixth Congress assembled in Novem- Pekin strove in vain to check this movement, 
tier, 1800, the population of the United States was Protest was followed by demand, and demand by 
.'i^J8.483. It IS now 76,304,799. Then we had 16 renewed protest, to be met with perfimetory edicts- 
States. Now we have 45. Then our territory con- from the Palace and evasive and futile assurances 



144 CONGRESS. (The Peesident's Message.) 

from the Tsung-li-Yaraen. The circle of the Boxer Attacks upon foreigners, destruction of 

influence narrowed about Pekin, and while nomi- property, and slaughter of native converts 

nally stigmatized as seditious, it w^as felt that its reported from all sides. The Tsung-li-Y 

spirit pervaded the capital itself, that the imperial already permeated with hostile sympathies, 

forces were imbued with its doctrines, and that the make no effective response to the appeals ( 

immediate counselors of the Empress Dowager legations. At this critical juncture, in the 

were in full sympathy with the antiforeign move- spring of this year, a proposal was made b 

ment. other powers that a combined fleet should 

The increasing gravity of the conditions in China sembled in Chinese waters as a moral demo 

and the imminence of peril to our own diversified tion, under cover of which to exact of the CI 

interests in the empire, as well as to those of all Government respect for foreign treaty right 

the other treaty governments, were soon appre- the suppression of the Boxers, 
eiated by this Government, causing it profound The United States, while not participati 

solicitude. The United States from the earliest the joint demonstration, promptly sent froi 

days of foreign intercourse with China had fol- Philippines all ships that could be spared foi 

lowed a policy of peace, omitting no occasions to ice on the Chinese coast. A small force of m. 

testify good- will, to further the extension of law- was landed at Taku and sent to Pekin for th 

ful trade, to respect the soverei^ty of its Govern- tection of the American legation. Other p 

ment, and to insure by all legitimate and kindly took similar action, until some 400 men we 

but earnest means the fullest measure of protec- sembled in the capital as legation guards, 
tion for the lives and property of our law-abiding Still the peril increased. The legations rej 

•citizens and for the exercise of their beneficent the development of the seditious moveine 

-callings among the Chinese people. Pekin and the need of increased provision ft 

Mindful of this, it was felt to be appropriate fense against it. While preparations were in 

that our purposes should be pronounced in favor ress for a larger expedition, to strengthe 

of such course as would hasten united action of legation guards and keep the railway ope 

the powers at Pekin to promote the administra- attempt of the foreign ships to make a landi 

tive reforms so greatly needed for strengthening Taku was met by a fire from the Chinese 

the Imperial Government and maintaining the in- The forts were thereupon shelled by the h 

tegrity of China, in which we believed the whole vessels, the American admiral taking no pi 

Western w^orld to be alike concerned. To these the attack, on the ground that we were not a 

•ends I caused to be addressed to the several powers with China and that a hostile demonsti 

occupying territory and maintaining spheres of in- might consolidate the antiforeign element 

fluence in China the circular proposals of 1899, strengthen the Boxers to oppose the reli 

inviting from them declarations of their intentions column. 

and views as to the desirability of the adoption of Two days later the Taku forts were cat 

meajsures insuring the benefits of equality of treat- after a sanguinary conflict. Severance of 

ment of all foreign trade throughout China. munication with Pekin followed, and a com 

With gratifying unanimity the responses coin- force of additional guards, which was adva 

«ided in this common policy, enabling me to see in to Pekin by the Pei-Ho, was checked at Lan^ 

the successful termination of these negotiations The isolation of the legations was complete, 
proof of the friendly spirit which animates the The siege and tbe relief of the legation 

Tarious powers interested in the untrammeled de- passed into undying history. In all the st 

velopment of commerce and industry in the Chi- chapter which records the heroism of the d€ 

nese Empire as a source of vast benefit to the whole band, clinging to hope in the face of despaii 

commercial world. the undaunted spirit that led their rel 

In this conclusion, which I had the gratification through battle and suffering to the goal, i' 

to announce as a completed engagement to the memory of which my countrymen may be , 

interested powers on March 20, 1900, I hopefully proud that the honor of our flag was maini 

•discerned a potential factor for the abatement of alike in the siege and the rescue, and that 

the distrust of foreign purposes which for a year American hearts have again set high, in ft 

past had appeared to inspire the policy of the Im- emulation with true men of other race am 

perial Government, and for the effective exertion guage, the indomitable courage that ever s 

by it of power and authority to quell the critical for the cause of right and justice, 
antiforeign movement in the northern provinces By June 19 the legations were cut off. 

most immediately influenced by the Manchu sen- identical note from the Yamen ordered each 

timent. ister to leave Pekin, under a promised c 

Seeking to testify confidence in the willingness within tw^enty-four hours. To gain time th 

and ability of the imperial administration to re- plied, asking prolongation of the time, whic 

dress the wrongs and prevent the evils we suffered afterward granted, and requesting an intc 

and feared, the marine guard, which had been sent with the Tsung-li-Yamen on the following 

to Pekin in the autumn of 1899 for the protection No reply being received, on the morning < 

of the legation, was withdrawn at the earliest prac- 20th the German minister, Baron von Kettel 

ticable moment, and all pending questions were out for the Yamen to obtain a response, a 

remitted, as far as we were concerned, to the ordi- the way was murdered, 
nary resorts of diplomatic intercourse. An attempt by the legation guard to n 

The Chinese Government proved, however, un- his body was foiled by the Chinese. Armed 

able to check the rising strength of the Boxers, turned out against the legations. Their qu 

and appeared to be a prey to internal dissensions, were surrounded and attacked. The missioi 

In the unequal contest the antiforeign influences pounds were abandoned, their inmates 1 

soon gained the ascendency under the leadership refuge in the British legation, where all the 

of Prince Tuan. Organized annies of Boxers, witn legations and guards gathered for more efl 

which the imperial forces 'affiliated, held the coun- defense. Four hundred persons were crow( 

try between Pekin and the coast, penetrated into its narrow compass. Two thousand nativ 

Manchuria up to the Russian borders, and through verts were assembled in a near-by palace 

their emissaries threatened a like rising through- protection of the foreigners. Lines of defens 

out northern China. strengthened, trenches dug, barricades raise 



CONGRESS. (The Peesident's Message.) 145 

ions made to stand a siege, which at once moted by tlie representations of the Chinese envoy 

in Washington, the way was opened for the con- 
June 20 until July 17, writes Minister veyance to Mr. Conger of a test message sent by 

* there was scarcely an hour during which the Secretary of State through the kind offices of 
^ not firing upon some part of our lines Minister Wu-Ting-Fang. Mr. Conger's reply, des- 
' some of the legations, varying from a patched from Pekin on July 18 through the same 
lot to a general and continuous attack channel, afforded to the outside world the first tid- 
le whole line." Artillery was placed ings that the inmates of the legations were still 
he legations and on the overlooking palace alive and hoping for succor. 

d thousands of 3-inch shot and shell w^ere This news stimulated the preparations for a 

troying some buildings and damaging all. joint relief expedition in numbers sufficient to 

ly did the balls rain that, when the am- overcome the resistance which for a month had 

I of the besieged ran low, five quarts of been organizing between Taku and tlie capital, 

bullets were gathered in an hour in one Reenforcements sent by all the cooperating gov- 

d and recast. ernments were constantly arriving. The United 

pts were made to bum the legations by States contingent, hastily assembled from the Phil- 

leighboring houses on fire, but the fiames ippines or despatched from this country, amounted 

'cessfully fought off, although the Aus- to some 5,000 men, under the able command first 

>lgian, Italian, and Dutch legations w^ere of the lamented Col. Liscum and afterward of Gen. 

I subsequently burned. With the aid of Chaffee. 

ie converts, directed by the missionaries, Toward the end of July the movement began. 
; helpful cooperation Mr. Cong^ awards A severe conflict followed at Tientsin, in which 
i praise, the British legation was made Col. Liscum was killed. The city was stormed 
ble fortress. The British minister, Sir and partly destroyed. Its capture afforded the 
MacDonald, was chosen general com- base of operations from which to make the final 
of the defense, with the secretary of the advance, which began in the first days of August, 
3 legation, Mr. £. G. Squiers, as chief of the expedition, being made up of Japanese, Rus- 
sian, British, and American troops at the outset. 
e life and ammunition the besieged spar- Another battle was fought and won at Yang- 
turned the incessant fire of the Chinese tsun. Thereafter the disheartened Chinese troops 

fighting only to repel attack or make offered little show of resistance. A few days later 

»ional successful sortie for strategic ad- the important position of Ho-Si-Woo w^as taken. 

such as that of 55 American, British, A rapid march brought the united forces to the 

sian marines led by Capt. Myers, of the populous city of Tung-Chow, which capitulated 

states Marine Corps* which resulted in the without a contest. 

[>f a formidable barricade on the wall that On Aug. 14 the capital was reached. After a 

menaced the American position. It was brief conflict beneath the wall the relief column 

the last, and proved an invaluable ac- entered and the legations were saved. The United 

I, because commanding the water-gate States soldiers, sailors, and marines, officers and 

which the relief column entered. men alike, in those distant climes and unusual sur- 

5 the siege the defenders lost 65 killed, roundings, showed the same valor, discipline, and 

nded, and 7 by disease — the last all chil- good conduct and gave proof of the same high 

degree of intelligence and efficiency which have 

ily 14 the besieged had their first com- distinguished them in every emergency, 

ion w ith the Tsung-li-Yamen, from whom The imperial family and the Government had 

^e came inviting to a conference, which fled a few days before. The city was without visi- 

iined. Correspondence, however, ensued ble control. The remaining imperial soldiery had 

yri of armistice was agreed upon, which made on the night of the 13th a last attempt to 

the bombardment and lessened the rifle exterminate the besieged, which was gallantly re- 

. time. Even then no protection whatever pelled. It fell to the occupying forces to restore 

rded, nor any aid given, save to send to order and organize a provisional administration, 

tions a small supply of fruit and three Happily the acute disturbances were confined 

flour. to the northern provinces. It is a relief to recall 

[, the only communication had with the and a pleasure to record the loyal conduct of the 

Government related to the occasional de- viceroys and local authorities of the southern and 

despatch of a telegram or to the demands eastern provinces. Their efforts were continuously 

sung-li-Yamen for the withdrawal of the directed to the pacific control of the vast popula- 

1 to the coast under escprt. Not only are tions under their rule and to the scrupulous ob- 

?stations of the Chinese Government that servance of foreign treaty rights. At critical mo- 

IchI and succored the legations positively ments they did not hesitate to memorialize the 

:-ted, but irresistible proof accumulates Throne, urging the protection of the legations, the 

attacks upon them were made by imperial restoration of communication, and the assertion 

egularly uniformed, armed, and* officered, of the imperial authority against the subversive 

g to the command of Jung-Lu, the im- elements. They maintained excellent relations 

)mmander-in-chief. Decrees encouraging with the official representatives of foreign powers. 

;ers» organizing them under prominent To their kindly disposition is largely due the suc- 

officers, provisioning them, and even cess of the consuls in removing many of the mis- 

• them large sums in the name of the sionarics from the interior to places of safety. In 
Dowager, are known to exist. Members this relation the action of the consuls should be 

':sung-li-Yamen who counseled protection highly commended. In Shantung and eastern 

rcigners were beheaded. Even in the dis- Chi-Li the task was difficult, but, thanks to their 

vinees men suspected of foreign sympathy energy and the cooperation of American and for- 

t to death, prominent among these being eign naval commanders, hundreds of foreigners, 

en-Hoon, formerly Chinese minister in including those of other nationalities than ours, 

^n. were rescued trom imminent peril, 

the negotiation of the partial armistice of The policy of the United States through all this 

a proceeding which was doubtless pro- trying period was clearly announced and scrupu- 

)L. XLI. — 10 A 



146 CONGRESS. (The Peesident's Message.) 

lously carried out. A circular note to the powers authorized to conduct on behalf of the United 

dated July 3 proclaimed our attitude. Treating States. 

the condition in the north as one of virtu£U General bases of negotiation formulated by the 

anarchy, in which the great provinces of the south Government of the trench Republic have been 

and southeast had no share, we regarded the local accepted with certain reservations as to details, 

authorities in the latter quarters as representing made necessary by our own circumstances, but, 

the Chinese people, with whom we sought to re- like similar reservations by other powers, open to 

main in peace and friendship. Our declared aims discussion in the progress of the negotiations. The 

involved no war against the Chinese nation. We disposition of the Emperor's Govermnent to admit 

adhered to the legitimate office of rescuing the liability for wrongs done to foreign goveminent^i 

imperiled legation, obtaining redress for wrongs and their nationals, and to act upon such addi- 

already sufTered, securing wherever possible the tional designation of the guilty persons as the 

safety of American life and property in China, and foreign ministers at Pekin may be in a position to 

preventing a spread of the disorders or their re- make, gives hope of a complete settlement of all 

currence. questions involved, assuring foreign rights of resi- 

As was then said, " the policy of the Govern- dence and intercourse on terms of equality for all 

ment of the United States is to seek a solution the world. 

which may bring about permanent safety and I regard as one of the essential factors of a 

peace to China, preserve Chinese temtorial and durable adjustment the securement of adequate 

administrative entity, protect all rights guaran- guarantees for liberty of faith, since insecurity of 

teed to friendly powers by treaty and international those natives who may embrace alien creeds is a 

law, and safeguard for the world the principle of scarcely less effectual assault upon the rights of 

equal and impartial trade with all parts of the foreign worship and teaching than would be the 

Chinese Empire." direct invasion thereof. 

Faithful to those professions which, as it proved, The matter of indemnity for our wronged citi- 
reflected the views and purposes of the other co- zens is a question of grave concern. Measured in 
operating governments, all our efforts have been money alone, a sufficient reparation may prove to 
directed toward ending the anomalous situation be beyond the ability of China to meet. All the 
in China by negotiations for a settlement at the powers concur in emphatic disclaimers of any pur- 
earliest possible moment. As soon as the sacred pose of aggrandizement through the dismember- 
duty of relieving our legation and its depend- ment of the empire. I am disposed to think that 
ents was accomplished we withdrew from active due compensation may be made in part by in- 
hostilities, leaving our legation under an adequate creased guarantees of security for foreign right* 
guard in Pekin as a channel of negotiation and and immunities, and, most important of all, bj 
settlement — a course adppted by others of the in- the opening of China to the equal commerce of 
terested powers. Overtures of the empowered all the world. These views have been and will be 
representatives of the Chinese Emperor have been earnestly advocated by our representatives, 
considerately entertained. The Government of Russia has put forward a 

The Russian proposition looking to the restora- suggestion, that in the event of protracted diver- 
tion of the imperial power in Pekin has been ac- gence of views in regard to indemnities the mat- 
cepted as in full consonance with our own desires, ter may be relegated to the Court of Arbitration 
for we have held and hold that effective reparation at The Hague. I favorably incline to this, believ- 
for wrongs suffered and an enduring settlement ing that high tribunal could not fail to reach a 
that will make their recurrence impossible can solution no less conducive to the stability and en- 
best be brought about under an authority which larged prosperity of China itself than immediately 
the Chinese nation reverences and obeys. While beneficial to the powers. 

so doing we forego no jot of our undoubted right Ratifications of a treaty of extradition with the 

to exact exemplary and deterrent punishment of Argentine Republic were exchanged on June ^ 

the responsible authors and abettors of the crimi- last. 

nal acts whereby we and other nations have suf- While the Austro-Hungarian Government has itt 

fered grievous injury. the many cases that have been reported of the ar- 

For the real culprits, the evil counselors who rest of our naturalized citizens for alleged evasioa 

have misled the imperial judgment and diverted of military service faithfully observ^ the pro- 

the sovereign authority to their own guilty ends, visions of the treaty and released such person* 

full expiation becomes imperative within the from military obligations, it has in some instances 

national limits of retributive justice. Regarding expelled those whose presence in the community 

this as the initial condition of an acceptable settle- of their origin was asserted to have a pernicious 

ment between China and the powers, I said in my influence. Representations have been made against 

message of Oct. 18 to the Chinese Emperor: this course whenever its adoption has appeared 

" I trust that negotiations may begin so soon as unduly onerous, 

we and the other offended governments shall be We have been urgently solicited by Belgium to 

effectively satisfied of your Majesty's ability and ratify the international convention oif June, 1899, 

power to treat with just sternness the principal amendatory of the previous convention of 1890 in 

offenders, who are doubly culpable, not alone to- respect to the regulation of the liquor trade in 

ward the foreigners, but toward your Majesty, Africa. Compliance was necessarily withheld, in 

under whose rule the purpose of China to dwell in the absence of the advice and consent of the 

concord with the world had hitherto found ex- Senate thereto. The principle involved has the 

pression in the welcome and protection assured to cordial sympathy of this Government, which in 

strangers." the revisionary negotiations advocated more dras- 

Taking, as a point of departure, the imperial tic measures, and I would gladly see its extension, 

edict appointing Earl Li-Hung-Chang and Prince by international agreement, to the restriction of 

Ching plenipotentiaries to arrange a settlement, the liquor traffic with all uncivilized peoples, es- 

and the edict of Sept. 25, whereby certain high pecially in the western Pacific, 

officials were designated for punishment, this Gov- A conference will be held at Brussels Dec. 11, 

eminent has moved, in concert with the other 1900, under the convention for the protection of 

powers, toward the opening of negotiations, which industrial property concluded at Pans March 20, 

Mr. Conger, assisted by Mr. Rockhill, has been 1883, to which delegates from this country have 



CONGRESS. (The Peesident's Message.) 147 

ited. Any lessening of the difficulties and wares had invaded new markets caused much 

ventors encounter in obtaining patents interest to center upon the American exhibit, and 

their inventions and that our farmei-s, every encouragement was offered in the way of 

ers, and merchants may have in the space and facilities to permit of its being compre- 

>f their trade-marks is worthy of care- hensive as a whole and complete in every part, 

ation, and your attention will be called It was, however, not an easy task to assemble 

ts of the conference at the proper time, exhibits that could fitly illustrate our diversified 

terest of expanding trade between this resources and manufactures. Singularly enough 

d South America, efforts have been our national prosperity lessened the incentive to 

^ the past year to conclude conventions exhibit. The dealer in raw materials knew that 

ithem republics for the enlargement of the user must come to him; the great factories 

ities. Two such agreements, sigAed were contented with the phenomenal demand for 

% on April 24, of which that establish- their output, not alone at home, but also abroad, 

ley-order system is undergoing certain where merit had already won a profitable trade, 

rgested by the Post-Office Department, Appeals had to be made to tlie patriotism of 

t been ratified by this Government. A exhibitors to induce them to incur outlays promis- 

:tradition with that country, signed on ing no immediate return. This was especially 

IT, is before the Senate. the case where it became needful to complete an 

iry dispute between Brazil and Bolivia industrial sequence or illustrate a class of pro- 

jiritory of Acre is in a fair way of cesses. One manufacturer after another had to be 

justnient, a protocol signed in Decem- visited and importuned, and at times, after a 

aving agreed on a definite frontier and promise to exhibit in a particular section had 

r its demarcation by a joint commis- been obtained, it would be withdrawn, owing to 

Eressure of trade orders, and a new quest would 

^ . _ ^ _ ave to be made, 

trade to that country, in marked con- The installation of exhibits, too, encountered 

tie favorable conditions upon which many obstacles and involved unexpected cost, 

roducts are admitted into our markets. The exposition was far from ready at the date 

resentations have been made to that fixed for its opening. The French transportation 

t on the subject, and some amelioration lines were congested with offered freight. Belated 

ffected. We rely upon the reciprocal goods had to be hastily installed in unfinished 

good-will of that Government to as- quarters with whatever labor could be obtained 

I further improvement in our commer- in the prevailing confusion. Nor was the task of 

IS. the commission lightened by the fact that, owing 

mtion signed May 24, 1897, for the final to the scheme of classification adopted, it was 

of claims left in abeyance upon the impossible to have the entire exhibit of any one 

of the commission of 1893 was at country in the same building or more than one 

led by the Chilean Congress, and the ^oup of exhibits in the same part of any build- 

il commission has been organized. ing. Our installations were scattered on both 

IS for the Congi*ess to appropriate for sides of the Seine and in widely remote suburbs 

ry expenses of the commission. of Paris, so that additional assistants were needed 

Tectionary movement which disturbed for the work of supervision and arrangement. 

1 the latter part of 1899 has been prac- Despite all these drawbacks the contribution 

)ressed, although guerrillas still oper- of the United States was not only the largest 

e departments. The executive power foreign display, but was among the earliest in 

iblic changed hands in August last by. place and the most orderly in arrangement. Our 

^^ice-President Marrdquin m assuming exhibits were shown in 101 out of 121 classes, and 

•f government during the absence of more completely covered the entire classificatipn 

^n Clemente from the capital. The than those of any other nation. In total number 

with no senous opposition, and, fol- they ranked next after those of France, and the 

precedents in such cases, the United attractive form in which they were presented se- 

ister entered into relations with the cured general attention. 

o Government on Sept. 17. A criterion of the extent and success of our 

.ifying to announce that the residual participation and of the thoroughness with which 

between Costa Rica and Nicaragua our exhibitors were organized is seen in the 

t of the award of President Cleveland awards granted to American exhibitors by the 

e been adjusted through the choice of international jury — namely, grand prizes, 240; 

.n engineer, Gen. E. P. Alexander, as gold medals, 597; silver medals, 776; bronze 

run the disputed line. His task has medals, 541; and honorable mentions, 322 — 

plished to the satisfaction of both con- 2,476 in all, being the greatest total number given 

to the exhibit of any exhibiting nation, as well 

ion in the Dominican Republic toward as the largest number in each grade. This signifi- 

' last year resulted in the installation cant recognition of merit in competition with the 

Jimenez, whose government was form- chosen exhibits of all other nations and at the 

lized in January. Since then final hands of juries almost wholly made up of repre- 

is been made of the American claim sentatives of France and other competing coun- 

► the Ozama bridge. tries is not only most gratifying, but is espe- 

of the exposition has been fruitful in cially valuable, since it sets us to the front in 

)r diplaying the good-will that exists international questions of supply and demand, 

3 country and France. This great com- while the large proportion of awards in the classes 

>ught together from every nation the of art and artistic manufactures afforded unex- 

iral productions, industry, science, and pected proof of the stimulation of national cul- 

bmitted in generous rivalry to a judg- ture by the prosperity that flows from natural 

all the more searching because of that productiveness joined to industrial excellence. 

le extraordinary increase of exporta- Apart from tne exposition several occasions for 

this country during the past three showing international good-will occurred. The in- 

he activity with which our inventions auguration in Paris of the Lafayette monument. 



\ 



148 CONGRESS. (The President's Message.) 

presented by the school children of the United citizens the benefit of the reciprocal stipulation 
btates, and the designing of a commemorative that the citizens or subjects of either power found 
coin by our mint and the presentation of the b^ that arrangement within the temporary juHb- 
first piece struck to the President of the republic, diction of the other shall suffer no diminution 
were marked by appropriate ceremonies, and the of the rights and privileges they have hitherto en- 
Fourth of July was especially observed in the joyed. But however necessary «uch an expedient 
French capital. may have been to tide over the grave emergencies 

Good-will prevails in our relations with the of the situation, it is at best but an unsatisfactory 

German Empire. An amicable adjustment of the makeshift which should not be suffered to delay 

long-pending question of the admission of our life- the speedy and complete establishment of the fron- 

insurance companies to do business in Prussia tier line to which we are entitled under the Russo- 

has been reached. One of the principal com- American treaty for the cession of Alaska, 

panics has already been readmitted and the way is In this relation I may refer again to the need 

opened for the others to share the privilege. of delicately marking the Alaskan boundary 

The settlement of the Samoan problem, to which where it follows the one hundred and forty-first 
I adverted in my last message, nas accomplished meridian. A convention to that end has been be- 
good results. Peace and contentment prevail in fore the Senate for some tw^o years, but as no 
the islands, especially in Tutuila, where a con- action has been taken I contemplate negotiating 
venient administration that has won the confi- a new convention for a joint determination of the 
dence and esteem of the kindly disposed natives meridian by telegraphic observations. These, it 
has been organized under the direction of the is believed, will give more accurate and imques* 
commander of the United States naval station at tionable results than the sidereal methods here- 
Paco-Pago. tofore independently followed, which, as is known, 

An imperial meat- inspection law has been en- proved discrepant at several points on the line, 

acted for Germany. While it may simplify the in- although not varying at any place more than 

spections, it prohibits certain products heretofore 700 feet. 

admitted. Tnere is still ^eat uncertainty as to The pending claim of R. H. May against the 

whether our well-nigh extinguished German trade Guatemalan Government has been settled by arbi- 

in meat products can revive under its new bur- tration, Mr. George F. B. Jenner, British minister 

dens. Much will -depend upon regulations not yet at Guatemala, who was chosen as sole arbitrator, 

promulgated, which we confidently hope will be having awarded $143,750.73 in gold to the claim- 

free from the discriminations which attended the ant. 

enforcement of the old statutes. Various American claims against Haiti have 

The remaining link in the new lines of direct been or are being advanced to the resort of arbi- 

telegraphic communication between the United tration. 

States and the German Empire has recently been As the result of negotiations with the Govern- 
completed, affording a gratifying occasion for ex- ment of Honduras in regard to the indemnity de- 
change of friendly congratulations with the Ger- manded for the murder of Frank H. Pears in Hon- 
man Emperor. duras, that Government has paid $10,000 in set- 

Our friendly relations with Great Britain con- tlement of the claim of the heirs, 
tinue. The war in southern Africa introduced The assassination of King Humbert called forth 
important questions. A condition unusual in in- sincere expressions of sorrow from this Govem- 
temational wars was presented in that while one ment and people, and occasion was fitly taken to 
belligerent had control of the seas, the other had testify to the Italian nation the high regard here 
no ports, shipping, or direct trade, but was onlv felt for the memory of the lamented ruler, 
accessible through the territory of a neutral. In my last message I referred at considerable 
Vexatious questions arose through Great Britain's length to the lynching of five Italians at Tallulah. 
action in respect to neutral cargoes, not contra- Notwithstanding the efforts of the Federal Gov- 
band in their own nature, shipped to Portuguese emment, the production of evidence tending to in- 
South Africa, on the score of probable or sus- culpate the authors of this grievous offense 
pected ultimate destination to the Boer states. against our civilization, and the repeated inquests 

Such consignments in British ships, by which set on foot by the authorities of the State of 

alone direct trade is kept up betw^een our ports Louisiana, no punishments have followed. Sue- 

and southern Africa, were seized in application of cessive grand juries have failed to indict. The 

a municipal law prohibiting British vessels from representations of the Italian Government in the 

trading with the enemy without regard to any face of this miscarriage have been most temperate 

contraband character of the goods, while cargoes and just. 

shipped to Delagoa Bay in neutral bottoms were Setting the principle at issue high above all con- 
arrested on the ground of alleged destination to sideration of merely pecuniary indemnification, 
the enemy's country. Appropriate representations such as this Government made in the three pre- 
on our part resulted in the British Government vious cases, Italy has solemnly invoked the 
agreeing to purchase outright all such goods pledges of existing treaty and asked that the jus- 
shown to be the actual property of American citi- tice to which she is entitled shall be meted in 
zens, thus closing the incident to the satisfaction regard to her unfortunate countrymen in our ter- 
of the immediately interested parties, although, ritory with the same full measure she herself 
unfortunately, without a broad settlement of the would give to fiiny American were his reciproc^ 
question of a neutral's right to send goods not treaty rights contemned. 

contraband per se to a neutral port adjacent to a I renew the urgent recommendations I made 

belligerent area. last year that the Congress appropriately confer 

The work of making certain provisional bound- upon the Federal courts jurisdiction in this class 

ary points, for convenience of administration, of international cases where the ultimate respon- 

around the head of Lynn Canal, in accordance sibility of the Federal Government may be in- 

with the temporary arrangement of October, 1899, volved, and I invite action upon the bills to ac- 

was completed by a joint survey in July last, complish this which were introduced in the Senate 

The modus vivendi has so far worked without and House. It is incumbent upon us to remedy 

friction, and the Dominion Government has pro- the statutory omission which had led, and may 

vided rules and regulations for securing to our again lead, to such untoward results. I have 



CONGRESS. (The President's Message.) 149 

3ut the necessity and the precedent for nounce the formal notification at The Hague, on 
•n of this character. Its enactment is Sept. 4, of the deposit of ratifications of the Con- 
measure of previsory justice toward the vention for the Pacific Settlement of International 
%ith which we as a sovereign equal make Disputes by sixteen powers— namely, the United 
equirin^ reciprocal observance. States, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, 
the Italian Government naturally regards France, Germany, Italy, Persia, Portugal, Rou- 
lon as the primary and, indeed, the most mania, Russia, Siam, Spain, Sweden and Norway, 
element in the disposal of the Tallulah and the Netherlands. Japan also has since rati- 
I advise that, in accordance with prece- fied the convention. 

I in view of the improbability of that The Administrative Council of the Permanent 

r case being reached by the bill now Court of Arbitration has been organized, and has 

Congress make gracious provision for in- adopted rules of order and a constitution for 

to the Italian sufl'erers in the same form the International Arbitration Bureau. In accord- 

ortion as heretofore. ance with Article XXIII of the convention, provid- 

inaugural address I referred to the gen- ing for the appointment by each signatory power 

ect of lynching in these words : of persons oi Known competency in questions of 

hing must not be tolerated in a great international law as arbitrators, I have appointed 

lized country like the United States; as members of this court Hon. Benjamin Harri- 

at mobs, must execute the penalties of the son, of Indiana, ex-President of the United States; 

e preservation of public order, the right Hon. Melville W. Fuller, of Illinois, Chief Justice 

sion, the integrity of courts, and the or- of the United States; Hon. John W. Griggs, of 

ninistration of justice must continue for- New Jersey, Attorney-General of the United 

rock of safety upon which our Govern- States, and Hon. George Grav, of Delaware, a 

urely rests." judge of the circuit court of the United States, 

most urgently reiterate and again invite As an incident of the brief revolution in the 

ition of my Countrymen to this reproach Mosquito district of Nicaragua early in 1899, the 

• civilization. insurgents forcibly collected from American mer- 
losing year has witnessed a decided chants duties upon imports. On the restoration 
•ning of Japan's relations to other states, of order the Nicaraguan authorities demanded & 
lopment of her independent, judicial, and second payment of such duties on the ground 
rative functions under the treaties which that they were due to the titular Government and 
ct July 17, 1899, has proceeded without that their diversion had aided the revolt. 

onal friction, showing the competence of This position was not accepted by us. After pro- 

mese to hold a foremost place among longed discussion a compromise was effected under 

>eoples. * which the amount of the second payments was 

treatment of the difficult Chinese prob- deposited with the British consul at San Juan del 

an has acted in harmonious concert with Norte in trust until the two governments should 

r powers, and her generous cooperation determine w^hether the first payments had been 

y aided in the joint relief of the belea- made under compulsion to a dc facto authority. 

Rations in Pekin and in bringing about an Agreement as to this was not reached, and the 

ading preliminary to a settlement of the point was waived by the act of the Nicaraguan 

'tween the powers and China. Japan's Government in requesting the British consul to 

9ns in favor of the integrity of the Chi- return the deposits to the merchants. 

jire and the conservation of open world Menacing differences between several of the 

rewith have been frank and positive. As Central American states have been accommo- 

for promoting the general interests of dated, our ministers rendering good offices toward 

ler, and fair commerce in the far East, the an understanding. 

of Japan can hardly be overestimated. The all-important matter of an interoceanic 

luable aid and kindly courtesies extended canal has assumed a new phase. Adhering to its 

ipanese Government and naval officers to refusal to reopen the question of the forfeiture 

^ship Oregon are gratefully appreciated, of the contract of the Maritime Canal Company, 

lint was made last summer of the dis- which was terminated for alleged non-execution 

)ry enforcement of a bubonic quarantine in October, 1899, the Government of Nicaragua 

apanese on the Pacific coast and of inter- has since supplemented that action by declaring 

rith their travel in California and Colo- the so-styled Eyre-Cragin option void for non- 

er the health laws of those States. The payment of the stipulated advance. Protests in 

{trictions have been adjudged by a Fed- relation to these acts have been filed in the State 

t to be unconstitutional. No recurrence Department and are under consideration. Deem- 

cause of complaint is apprehended. ing itself relieved from existing engagements, the 

jeworthy inciaent has occurred in our re- Nicaraguan Government shows a disposition to 

vith our important southern neighbor, deal freely with the canal question either in the 

ial intercourse with Mexico continues to way of negotiations with the United States or by 

id the two governments neglect no oppor- taking measures to promote the waterway. 

• foster their mutual interests in all prac- Overtures for a convention to efi'ect the build- 
ays, ing of a canal under the auspices of the United 
,nt to the declaration of the Supreme States are under consideration. In the mean- 
at the awards of the late joint commis- time, the views of the Congi'ess upon the general 
;he La Abra and Weil claims were ob- subject, in the light of the report of the commis- 
rough fraud, the sum awarded in the first sion appointed to examine the comparative merits 
'3,030.08, has been returned to Mexico, of the various trans-Isthmian ship-canal projects, 
amount of the Weil award will be re- may be awaited. 

I like manner. 1 commend to the early attention of the Senate 

ention indefinitely extending the time for the convention with Great Britain to facilitate 

s of the United States and Mexican In- the construction of such a canal and to remove 

al (Water) Boundary Commission has any objection w^hich might arise out of the con- 

led. vention commonly called the Clayton-Bulwer 

rith satisfaction that I am able to an- Treaty. 



150 CONGRESS. (The President's Message.) 

The long-standing contention with Portugal, good disposition in this regard has been e^ 

growing out of 'the seizure of the Delagoa Bay by the issuance of an irade for rebuildin 

Railway, has been at last determined by a favor- American college at Harpoot. 

able award of the tr