(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Appletons' annual cyclopædia and register of important events of the year .."

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



l* ■! 



■.'^- 




^^V^TT-i-*:^^ 



( r 



\ 



APi'LK'i (.> , 



S 



\ I. ( ; Ye. ^ 



■' \ \> 






. \ 



!' OF lMi\^:, 



t -' I .; . !>■ 'i r 



18 -^ 



St 






\ * . : , • \ . » 






E W 



«> ' 



i' r E T () ^ 



1, ^ ANT. 



! It". 



• • f> C O AJ 1' A N y, 

1 i^t J, I . 




♦*'•; 



'■*'ilT,C 



f^- ^ 









-' ,»■ 









,J^'\.-/ 







/^ ^ 



/> 



APPLETONS' 



ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA 



AND 



REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EYENTS 



OF THB TEAB 



1888 



aCBRACING POLITIOAL, MILITARY, AND E00LE8IA8TI0AL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC 
DOCUMENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERA- 
TURE, SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY. 



NEW SERIES, VOL. XIII. 



JO 



4 ~ 
« 3 



WHOLE SERIES, VOL. XXVIIL 



"^ l>u • ^ 



ti J ^ -^ * 



NfiW YORK : 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

1, 8, AND S BOND STREET. 
1889. 



# « ^ M «# 



. • « w 






^ tf ^ M 



i 



COPTBIOBT, 1880, 

By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 



• 






• • • 

• • • « • 

" • • » «> 

• • • • ** ^ 

••• • , •» 
! • .•' 

•• ••.. : ^ : 

• • • • • • • 

• • • * ". 

• • • »■ » 

* « • » k 

*• • • "• • 

• • • 

* * *« • ^ 



* te W to 
M k b « 



PREFACE. 



•»• 



The year 1888 was notable in the United States for elections that changed 
the political complexion of two branches of the National Government, and in 
Earope for the death of two emperors of Germany. Under the title " United 
States, Presidential Elections in," the reader will find in this volume a condensed 
compilation, by counties, of the figures of the last five presidential elections, more 
conveniently arranged for comparison than such figures ever have been before. 
In the articles " Harrison," " Morton," and " United States," the other facts of 
the canvass are set forth. The changes in Germany may be found under that 
title and in the articles on the three emperors — " Wilhelm I," " Friedrich III," 
and" Wilhelm II." .Other movements, political and military, are recorded in the 
articles " Abyssinia," " Afghanistan," " Great Britain," " France," " Samoa," and 
"Zanzibar," the article on Samoa being accompanied by a new map, which shows 
the harbor secured for the United States. Besides the public works described in 
the article " Engineering," a most important one is set forth under " Nicaragua," 
where the reader will find the latest facts about what now appears to be the most 
feasible plan for a ship-canal between the two oceans, illustrated by a colored 
bird's-eye view. The " Financial Review " furnishes the usual fine summary of 
the year's transactions, and the increase of our material prosperity may be further 
noted in the articles on the separate States and Territories, and in that entitled 
"Cities, American, Becent Growth of," continued from the two preceding 
volumes. Tlie most noted deaths of the year, in the United States, were those 
of Gen. Sheridan and Chief -Justice Waite, on whom the reader will find articles, 
as well as on their successors. Gen. Schofield and Chief-Justice Fuller, the last- 
named illustrated by a portrait on steel. Among the other losses of eminent 
citizens may be noted the Hon. Boscoe Conkling, who was a victim of the March 
blizzard ; the venerable A. Bronson Alcott and his daughter Louisa ; Asa Gray, 
the botanist ; Mrs. Lozier, the physician ; Seth Green, the pioneer pisciculturist ; 
and Bichard A. Proctor, the scientist. The Obituaries, both American and 
Foreign, will be found to cover a wide range. 

Among the special and timely articles are those on " Absentee," " Agnostic," 
" Atlantic Ocean Hydrography," " Burial Laws," " Balance of Power," " Beds, 
Folding," "Boats, Collapsable," "Charity Organization," "Camps for Boys," 
"Co-operation," " Cremation, Progress of," " Congress, Contested Elections in," 



iv PREFACE. 

" Diplomats, Dismission of,'* " Epidemics," " Government Departments,^ 
" House-Boats," " Immigration," " King^s Daughters," " Lands, Public," " Mininj 
Laws," " Mars, Recent Studies of," " Petroleum," " Sunday Legislation," "Teacb 
ers' Associations," and the " United States Navy." Most of these articles ar-» 
furnished by experts, among whom are Prof. Herbert B. Adams, Willard Parke: 
Butler, Prof. Stephen F. Peckham, Prof. John K. Bees, and Lieut Eayraond F* 
Eodgers, U. S. N. 

Instead of one colored illustration, this year the volume has four — the bird's- 
eye view of the proposed Nicaragua Canal, and maps of the Territories (soon to 
be States) of Montana, Washington, and the Dakotas, though the congressional 
action in regard to these Territories took place in 1889. The three steel por- 
traits include the new President and Chief -Justice of the United States and the 
young Emperor of Germany. Among the other illustrations of special interest 
are the new bridge over Harlem river, the moving of Brighton Beach Hotel, 
the appearance of New York streets after the great blizzard, the Eiffel Tower, 
the Lick Observatory, the maps of Southern Africa and the Samoan Islands, the 
new United States cruisers, the series showing evolution of the railway-car, the 
map of Mars as seen through the great telescope, and the numerous fine portraits 
in the text, including those of Vice-President Morton and Gen. Schofield. 

New York, April 6j 1889, 



CONTRIBUTORS. 



Among the Contributors to this Volume of the " Annual Cyelopcsdia^^ are the following : 



Herbert B. Adams, Fh. D., 

Professor in Johns Hopkins University. 
C(W)PERATIOX. 

Jerome Allen, Ph. D., 

Editor of the School Joomal. 
Teachers* Associations. 

Xarcos Benjamin, 

Fellow of the London Chemical Society. 
Gray, Asa, 
Pharmacy, 

Proctor, Richard Anthony, 
&nd other articles. 

J. H. A Bone, 

Editor of the Cleveland (O.) Plaindealer. 
Ohio. 

Arthur E. Bostwick, Ph. D. 
Identification, Personal. 

Charles B. Boyle. 
Mars, Recent Studies of. 

Samuel IL Brickner. 
Dissecting. 



Brightman. 
Ely, 

Port Arthur, 
aad other articles on new cities. 

Wlllard Parker Butler. 
Mining Law in the United States. 

Krs. Isa Carringrton CabelL 
Arnold, Matthew. 

Kilo D. Campbell, 

Got. Lace's private secretary. 
Michigan. 

Thomas Gampbell-Ck>peland. 
United States, Presidential Elections in. 



James P. Carey, 

Financial Editor of the Jonmal of Commerce. 
Financial Review of 1888. 

John D. Champlin, Jr., 

Editor of Cyclopeedla of Painters and Paintings. 
Fine Arts in 1888. 

Henry Dalby, 

Editor of the Montreal Star. 
Canadian Articles. 

Maurice F. Egan, 

Professor in Notre Dame University. 
Roman Catholic Church. 

Bev. William E. Griffls, D. D., 

Author of '* The Mikado's Empire." 

Japan. 
George J. Hagar, 

Of Newark (N. J.) Public Library. 
Articles in American Obituaries. 

Mrs. Louise S. Houghton. 

Charity Organization. 

Frank Huntington, Ph. D. 

Abyssinia, 
Bulgaria, 
Germany, 
and other articles. 

Ernest Ingersoll, 

Author of " The Crest of the Continent ** 
Calgary, 
Vancouver, 
and other articles on new cities. 

Abram S. Isaacs, Ph. D., 

Editor of the Jewish Messenger. 
Jews. 

Arthur S. Jennings. 

Brickwork. 



VI 



CONTRIBUTORS. 



Mrs. Helen Eendrick JohnBon. 

Harrison, Benjamin, 
and other articles. 

Charles Kirchhoff. 
Central and South American Articles. 

William H. Larrabee. 

Baptists, 
Buddhism, 
Mohammedans, 
and other articles. 

Albert H. Lewis, D. D., 

Author of " A History of Sunday Legislation/' 
Sunday Legislation. 

Frederick Leuthner. 
Labrador (and map). 

William F« MacLezman, 

Of U. S. Treasary Department. 

United States, Finances op the. 

Frederick G. Mather. 

Anti-Poverty Society, 
Immigration, 
and other articles. 

Miss Bessie B. NichoUs. 

Government Departments, 
Lands, Public, 
and other articles. 

CoL Charles Ledyard NortoxL 

Car-Building, 
Cordage, 
Engineering, 
and other articles. 

Bev. S. E. Ochsenford. 

Lutherans. 



Prof. Stephen F. Feckham, 

ChemlBt to the Geological Surrey of Minneaota. 
Petroleum. 

Prof. John K. Bees, 

Director of the Observatory of Colombia College. 
Astronomical Progress and Discovery. 

Lieut. Baymond P. Bodg^ers, TJ. S. N. 

United States Navy. 

Miss Esther Singleton. 
Alcott, Amos Bronson and Louisa May. 

T. O'Conor Sloane, Ph. D. 

Assocl^tions for Advancement of Science, 
Patents. 

William Christopher Smith. 
Articles on the States and Territories. 

Bev. J. A. Spencer, D. D. 

Literature, Continental, 
Protestant Episcopal Church. 

Parker Syms, M. D. 

Surgery. 

Bobert K. TumbulL 
Boxing. 

Arthur Dudley Vinton. 

Burial, Law of. 
Epidemics, 
and other articles. 

Iiouis von Eltas. 
Music, Progress of, in 1888. 

William J. Youmans, M. D., 

Editor of the Popular Science Monthly. 
Chemistry, 
Metallurgy, 
Meteorology, 
Physiology. 



ILLUSTEATIONS. 



"♦•♦- 



Portraits on Steel. 

BENJAMIN HABRISON, Peesident op the United States 
MELVILLE W. FULLER, Chief-Justice op the United States 
WILHELM I], Emperor op Germany 



ENGRAyBB 

BaU 

JSollyer 

Mall 



PAGE 

Frontispiece 
859 
845 



Portraits m the Text. 



DRAWN BT JACQUES REICH. 



PAGE 



Amos Beonson and Louisa M. Alcott 10, 12 

Matthew Arnold 41 

Francois Achille Bazaine 

roscoe conkling ..... 

Peux 0. C. Darlet . . . . , 

Outer Ditson 

Stdnet Howard Gay .... 
Robert Gilchrist . . . . , 

QUDICY A. GiLLMORE ..... 

Asa Gray 

Skth Green 

Caroline Scott Harrison 

Isaac T. Hecker 

Edhond Lebceup 



,12 


Clemence Sophia Lozier . 


. 502 


41 


Levi Parsons Morton 


. 577 


80 


Richard Anthony Proctor 


. . 707 


237 


Edward Payson Roe 


. 651 


630 


George Routledge . . . . 


. 722 


631 


Henry Berton Sands 


. 735 


635 


John Savage 


. 736 


875 


John M'Aluster Schofield . 


. 737 


635 


Ephraim George Squier . 


. 658 


880 


Lord Stanley op Preston 


. 275 


404 


David Hunter Strother . 


. 654 


408 


John Lester Wallace . 


. 657 


688 


John Wentworth 


. 658 


472 


Amos Henry Worthen 


. 659 



Full-Paoe Illustrations. 



Colored Plates — , page 

Map of Dakota Territory . . 259 
Map op Montana Territory . . 568 
Bird's-eye View op Nicaragua Canal 614 
Map op Washington Territory . 837 



Map op Central and Southern Africa 123 
Moving Brighton-Beach Hotel . . 808 

Map op Labrador 465 

The City op Zanzibar . . . .851 



Illustrations in the Text. 



TnrriNNABULUM pound in Peru 
Roman Bath .... 
Bass-relief at Bogaz-Eeui . 
Lick Observatory (2 illustrations) 
Pilot-Chart .... 
Folding-beds (5 illustrations) . 
Folding-Boats (5 illustrations) . 
Brickwork (14 illustrations) . 
Car-Building (11 illustrations) . 
Cordage (6 illustrations) . 
SsoiNEERiNO (13 illustrations) . 



PAGE 

. 24 
. 25 
. 82 

48,51 

. 59 

82-84 

98-96 

106-109 

180, 131 

248-252 

297-811 



Benjamin Harrison's Residence . .411 
House-Boats (2 illustrations) . . 417-418 
Identification (4 illustrations) . . . 422 
The Mary J. Drexel Home . . . 505 
Map op the Planet Mars . . • 512 
Scene after the Blizzard . . • 612 

Nicaragua Canal 615 

Map op the Samoan Islands . . . 730 
United States Cruisers (8 illustrations) 788-797 

New Naval Gun 794 

State House at Cheyenne . . . 848 



/ 



THE 



AlSriSrUAL CYCLOPEDIA. 



•♦• 



A 



This term, with its natural de- 
riTativea, abtenteeum, abssnteeship^ etc., has be- 
come somewhat conspicnoas in contemporary 
literatare, and is generally regarded as of re- 
cent origin. Bat it has a very respectable an- 
tiquitj, dating back at least to 1537, when the 
so-ealled Absentee Parliament was held at 
Dublin, Ireland (Act of Absentees 28 Henry 
VIII, chapter 3). Of Henry VIIT, Camden 
aays (1605), tbat he ^'enriched himselfe by the 
spojies of Abbays . . . and absenties in Ire- 
land/' Swift, in the ^' Argument against Bish- 
<^" (1761), says, "The farmer woald be 
screwed ap to the utmost penny by the agents 
and stewards of absentees/' In the present 
oentnry the term is used so commonly that 
citations are unnecessary, and those that have 
been given are quoted merely to show that the 
original meaning has survived the changes of 
oentories. Absenteeism is not peculiar to Ire- 
land. History abounds with " absentee kings " 
as weH as landlords. *' The Norwegians,'' says 
the historian Freeman, in his " Norman Oon- 
qoest" *' preferred a foreign and absentee 
king,'' and Wallace ("Rassia") refers to the 
*" prevailing absenteeism among the landlords." 
In general the term carries with it an inti- 
mation of reproach. Its simple meaning is 
— one who habitually or systematically stays 
away from home ; the attainder of reproach is 
derived from the assumption that any one who 
derive his incottie from investments on prop- 
erty ua one country, and spends it in another, 
necessarily impoverishes the land from which 
bb income is derived. The case of Ireland is 
Ibe most noteworthy of any for the considera- 
tion of American readers, inasmuch as absen- 
teeism is more general there than among any 
Qiher English-speaking people, and to it lias 
been ascribed a great part of the ills to which 
the Irish peasantry have fallen heir. In any 
trgument in favor of home residence, however, 
it is necessary to assume that the personal 
pre^nce, influence, and example of the land- 
lonb would be npon the whole beneficial. In 

VOL. XXVIII. — 1 A 



point of fact, Ireland is probably amUi as well 
off with a considerable iraotion or her landed 
gentry beyond the seas as she would be if they 
remained persistently at home. 

In 1672 Sir William Petty estimated that one 
fourth of the personal property in Ireland be- 
longed to absentees, and Prior in his list pub- 
lished in 1729 reckoned their income at £350,- 
000. In 1769 the estimated income of the ab- 
sentees was £581,700, and Swift in his time 
declared that one third of the rental of Ireland 
was spent in England. Absenteeism, accord- 
ing to the best authorities, continued to in- 
crease until the peace of 1816, when it began 
to diminish. Retorns presented to Parliament 
in 1872 showed that 25*5 per cent, of Irish soil 
was owned by absentee proprietors, and 26 per 
cent, by proprietors who, thoagh resident in 
Ireland, did not live upon their own premises. 
Prior to these returns a large number of es- 
tates had been impoverished by idle and ex- 
travagant sqaireens, and in 1848 and 1849 laws 
were passed facilitating the sale of encumbered 
estates, which has continued up to the present 
time, and has upon the whole reduced the 
average of absenteeism by subdividing the large 
estates and combining the small ones so that 
the present tendency is toward properties of 
moderate size. 

Many historians, however, hold that while 
Ireland had her own Parliament the local no- 
bility and gentry lived largely on their estates 
in summer but passed the winter in Dublin, 
thus spending their incomes among their own 
tenantry, or at least favoring the local circula- 
tion of ready money. With the union of Ire- 
land with Great Britain (1801) London naturally 
became the political metropolis common to both 
countries. Moreover, the agrarian disturbances 
rendered residences so uncomfortable and dan- 
gerous that a large number of landed pro. 
prietors removed their families to the Continent 
and rarely visited Ireland. 

The absentees have not lacked defenders, 
who hold that absence has no injurious effect 



2 ABYSSINIA. 

under moderD systems of financial exchange. Abyssinia, with an area of 700,000 square 

Thus an Irish landlord living in France receives peopled by Gallas, Somalis, and other 

his rental through bills of exchange, not in bul- which are practically independent, 
lion, and these bills represent in the end the The iniy* — The military forces arc 

value of exports from the United Kingdom into manded by Ras or generals, who are 

France ; otherwise, the remittance could not be same time governors of provinces. The 

made. While the absentee therefore consumes powerful general is Ras Aloula, ruler 

French goods for the most part, he aids in northern part of the kingdom, who in vad 

creating a demand for a corresponding amount Soudan and fought a battle with Osman I 

of British goods, so that his tenants are bene- and afterward attacked the Italians wbe 

fited as much as if he had remained at home, attempted to establish posts in the hilL 

It must be confessed that this argument is not of Massowah. His army numbers about 

altogether satisfactory from a practical and infantry and 8,000 horse, and is armec 

common-sense stand-point, but it served its 18,000 Remington rifles that were caj 

purpose in its day. The fact is that the legiti- from the Egyptians, and 500 Wetterli 

mate profits made by the tradespeople and from the Italians at Dogali. The army 

others patronized by the absentee accumulate Negus is of the same strength in po 

in and about his foreign residence, whereas, numbers, but has only 10,000 rifles. Ai 

if he had remained at home the benefit would army in the west consists of 20,000 ^ 

have accrued to his own dependents, and the troops with 4,000 rifles, and finds emplo 

wealth of his native land would have been cor- in guarding against incursions of the Si 

respondiugly augmented. A just conclusion ese. King Menelek, of Shoa, with his 

would seem to be, then, that while absenteeism dinate Ras Diurgu^, has a force of 80,0 

dues entail a certain loss upon the home prop- fantry with 50,000 rifles, besides a large 

erty, the loss is not fairly represented by the of cavalry, making a total force to resis 

gross income derived from the estates. There sion of over 200,000 men, one third of 

are numerous channels through which partial are armed with breach-loaders, and tl 

compensations return to the source whence with muskets and spears. The artillei 

the income is derived. sists of 40 pieces, 30 Krupps having been 

Granting a good disposition on the part of from the Egyptians, besides machine-gui 
the land-holder, it is no doubt desirable to re- The IMfllralty with the ItaUans. — The 

duce absenteeism everywhere to its lowest sinians are Christians, and their archl 

terms, especially in a country where there is called the Abuna, is selected and ordaii 

practically no middle class, as is measurably the Coptic Patriarch at Alexandria. Tl 

true of Ireland. The disposition to relegate cumstanoe and the former possession 

the duty of supervision to an overseer or agent Egyptian Government of the port of Maa 

is always objectionable, since too often such which gives the Abyssinians their only 

agents are not on good terms with the tenants to the sea, gave rise to frequent cont< 

and strive only to increase their own percent- between the Negus and the Egyptian G 

ages while securing as large returns as possible ment. When the Soudan was evacuate 

for their principals. British Government promised freedom o 

In free countries enforced residence is of through this port in return for Abyssini 

course out of the question, but where the laws in extricating the garrisons of Kassala am 

are just and properly administered there is posts in the Soudan. The Italians, who i 

little danger that absenteeism will be sufli- established themselves in Massowah a 

ciently general to affect the welfare of the com- the adjacent coast, with the acquiesce 

munity. Where it has through past misman- Great Britain, were not bound by this 

ageraent become a crying evil, the remedy lies antee. The Negus suspected an intent 

in the slow result of reformatory measures rath- the part of the Italians to conquer and c< 

er than in any arbitrary or revolutionary pro- his territory, and resented restriction 

ceedings. they imposed on trade. 

ABYSSIMi, a monarchy in Eastern Africa. The I^Ush MIflBlon. — The almost coi 

The ruler is King John or Johannis, who is annihilation of a detachment of 540 

usually spoken of by his title of Negus. The troops in the vicinity of Dogali in Ja 

territory directly subject to him is about 130,- 1887, by Ras Aloula, who nearly surrc 

000 square miles in extent, with a population them with 20,000 men, led the Italian G 

of not more than 2,000,000 souls. It consists ment to determine on a regular war. 

of a high plateau, of the average elevation of hope of averting this, the British Gover 

7,000 feet above the sea, which is nearly sur- to which the Negus had appealed in hi 

rounded by the low-lying provinces of the culties with the Italians, endeavored to 

Soudan. The tributary kingdom of Shoa has cede, sending Mr. Portal and Msgor Be 

an area of 16,000 square miles, and is much envoys to the Negus in November, 1887. 

more fertile and populous than Abyssinia prop- conditions on which Mr. Portal was auth 

er, containing 1,500,000 inhabitants. The King to offer peace were the acknowledgment 

of Shoa has recently occupied Harrar, which Italian occupation of Saati, the cessio 

extends to the southwest, south, and east of part of the Bogos country, the conclus 



ABYSSINIA. . 8 

a treaty of amitj and commerce, and an John joined Ras Aloala at Asmara, and finding 
a{K>log7 for the attack at Dogali. Ou ar- the Italian fortifications completed, coDciuded 
riving at Asmara, the headquarters of Has that it would be ansafe to attack them. The 
Alonla, Mr. Portal and his companions were Italians having made their base secure and 
made prisoners, and after many days^ deten- perfected their commissary system, sent out fly- 
Uon were sent on in search of the Negus, who ing parties for the purpose of learning the coun- 
was moving from place to place. At last they try and of provoking the enemy to advance. Ras 
overtook him on December 5. and were well Alonla pushed out his outposts, and there were 
received, but accomplished nothing in the way several skirmishes, the Abyssinians invariably 
of peace negotiations. They left him at Oheli- retreating. Colonel Yigono, the Italian chief 
cot on December 5, and returned with letters of staflT, made an excursion to the Agaiiietta 
to the Queen of England. plateau in quest of a suitable position for sum- 
Tke ItallaaB at Massowah. — By the beginning mer quarters, though there was no intention of 
of 1888 the Italians had erected strong fortifi- advancing beyond baati before another season, 
cations to guard against att.acks either from the By March the wells were partly dried up and 
land or from the sea. The town of Massowah, the Abyssinians had drained the country of 
which originally belonged to Turkey, and supplies. The army began to diminish, many 
was annexed by Egypt in 1866, is built on partiesdesertingandgoingback to their homes, 
a coral island, about two thirds of a mile in Ras Aloula remained with a part of his forces 
length, in the Bay of Arkiko, and has but one till June, and then left for his own province, 
road connecting it with the mainland. The HMon to SliM. — There were rumors of a rupt- 
Italians have their arsenal at Abd-el-Kader, on ure between King Menelek and the Negus, 
a promontory to the north. The army head- and the Italians, who were aware of the ambi- 
quarters were at Fort MonkuUo, four miles in- tious desire of the King of Shoa to overthrow 
land. A railroad which ran from Arkiko in Johannis and assume the title of Negus, sent 
the south along the coast to the arsenal, and Dr. Ragazzi in March to Shoa, by sea, with 
thence to Monkullo, was extended in February presents and offers of an alliance. But noth- 
to Dogali and Saati, the terminus being fifteen mg was accomplished by this mission, 
miles from Massowah. This line of communi- Peace Negatiatianst — Overtures.for peace were 
cations was rendered impregnable, and consti- opened by the Negus on March 20, with a 
luted a strong base for operations in the inte- message to a native chief who was friendly 
rior. The regular garrison, or special African to the Italians. Gen. San Marzano sent word 
corps, forms a part of the permanent army of that if the Negus wished to treat for peace, he 
Italy, consisting in 1888 of 288 officers and must address himself to the commander - in- 
4,772 men. It is recruited by voluntary en- chief. On the 28th an Abyssinian officer 
Hstment from all the regiments of the army, brought a letter from Johannis asking for peace, 
i soldier enlists in this service for the term in which he alluded to the ancient friendship 
of three years, and receives a special bounty, between himself and the King of Italy, and 
Thb body was supplemented by an expedition- expressed regret for the course taken by Ras 
try force that was sent from Italy in the au- Aloula. On March 30 two Abyssinian chiefs 
tamn of 1887, consisting of 480 officers, 10,500 were sent by King Johannis, who was then at 
men, and 1,800 horse. There were besides Saberguma, about ten miles south of Saati, to 
1000 native irregulars under the chief Debeb. Gen. San Marzano to continue the negotiations. 
The commander - in - chief of the forces was The Negus marshaled at that point a formi- 
lieot-Gen. Asinari di San Marzano. The com- dable army, either for the purpose of attack- 
mandant at Massowah was Maj.-Gen Saletta. ing, or as a military demonstration. On 
The brigade composed of the African corps, instructions received by telegraph from the 
tinder M^.-Gen.Gen^, and another brigade, un- Italian Government the Negus was offered 
der Maj.-Gen. Cagni, were encamped in the peace on condition (1) that he should ac- 
be^aning of February not far from Saati. A knowledge the Italian occupation of Saati ; (2) 
brigade, nnder Gen. Baldissera was stationed that he should not oppose the occupation of 
in the north at Singes, where a strong fort other points where the troops could spend the 
was built on the road to Keren, while the hot season ; (8) that he should guarantee the 
fourth brigade, under Mig.-Gen. Lanza, was safety of the tribes that had sought Italian pro- 
posted at Arkiko. The fortress and field artil- tection. On the 81st the Negus replied that 
lery consisted of 160 pieces. he could not accept the conditions, and on April 
He JMvaBce af the Negas, — While the Italians 2 he retired from Saberguma with his forces, 
vere making their position secure around Mas- which were estimated at 90,000 men. In 
aawah, tiie Negus refrained from attacking April the Italian expeditionary force returned 
them, expecting that the large re-enforcements to Italy. 

tram Italy would attempt to avenge Dogali Defeat of Italian TrMps. — Debeb, a native chief 

Vy marching into his country. There he was who for a time served with the Italians as a 

veil prepared for them. Ras Aloula's army mercenary, deserted them with his followers 

vsB Dot far back on the edge of the plateau at in March, and engaged in plundering the re- 

Moda and Asmara, which places were strongly gion around Massowah. On July 31 the Ital- 

teified. In the latter part of February King ian commander-in-chief sent against him 600 



4 ABYSSINIA. 

Bashi-Bazonks, under five European officers, Oypras, Egypt, and Turkey. Id a second note 
and Adem Aga, a native ally, who enlisted 200 he explained that the judicial system at Maaso- 
Assaortins on the way. The latter sent infor- wah was the same as at Tadjurah and Zeikh, 
mation to Deheb daring the march, and the declared that the occupation of Massowah fiil- 
Italian captain, posting the rest of his force filled the conditions laid down in the general 
around the village of Saganeiti, where Deheb act of the Berlin Conference, and characterized 
was with 700 men, half of them armed with the objections of France in the following vigor- 
muskets, entered the place with 100 Bashi-Ba- ous words: 

zouks, and drove the Abyssinians oat of a fort, it U not fVom Turkey that complaints and olgeo- 

which he then occupied. The Assaortins went tions reach us, buL as is always the case, from France, 

over to the enemy daring the fight and the who has succeeded in attractmg Greece into the orbit 

Italian irregulars fled from the fort in disorder. 1^2 <Jt."^^«i ^"^ France who would appear to 

jLuaiiou MiLvpuiaio u^xx ii yux i>ijv xvi v t«i uiovauvi. ^gard the pacific progresB of Italy as tending todi- 

Those outside were panic-stncken, and the en- mmiah her own power, as if the An-ican oontinent did 

tire force was routed, with a loss of 350 men. not afford am^le scope to the legitimate aotiyity and 

The Italian officers, with the few who stood by civilizing ambition of all the powers, 
them, fell fighting, and the rest were killed in The Greek Government at first supported 

flight. Before the occurrence of this reverse, the protests of France, but was brought to 

Maj.-Gen. Baldissera had relieved Gen. San accept the Italian view. The Italian foreign 

Marzano in the command of the Italian forces minister characterized the course of the FreDch 

in Africa. The chieftain Debeb was a relative Government with a severity of language not 

of the Negus, whose favor he regained with usual in diplomatic intercourse, because it 

the Italian rifles with which his force of scouts seemed actuated by a meddlesome desire to 

were armed when they deserted with their interfere, since there were only two French 

leader to the Abyssinians. His raids during traders in Massowah, and the capitulations had 

July in the Habash country, lying between the been invoked by the French consul in behalf 

mountains and the Red Sea, grew so bold that of Greeks, who were claimed to be French 

he plundered the neighborhood of Arkiko, four protSgis. After the exchange of views be- 

miles from Massowcm, before the punitive ex- tween the Italian and Greek Cabinets, the 

pedition was undertaken. The principal suf- merchants paid their taxes, but before that oc- 

ferers were the Assaortins, which tribe was curred several had been arrested, and some of 

under Italian protection. The Italian com- them banished as rebels. M. Goblet, in August, 

mander-in-chief hoped by the expedition to replied to the Italian note in a circular, insist- 

Saganeiti to encourage the revolt of the petty in^ that France had always regarded Massowah 

chiefsof the province of TigrS, who had thrown as Egyptian and Turkish territory. France 

off the authority of the Negus when he with- was the only power having a vice-consul there, 

drew his troops to meet the dervishes. Oapt. and he had received his exequatur from the 

Oornacchia, commanding the expedition, had Porte. Italy had for a long time disclaimed 

orders to surprise Saganeiti by a forced march, the idea of permanent occupation, and had 

but to withdraw if he found that the enemy failed to fulfill the requirements of the Berlin 

knew of his approach. He failed to observe Convention of 1885, by not notifying the fact 

his orders as to speed and secrecy, and when of taking possession to the powers, so that 

he reached Saganeiti, which is seventy-five they might have an opportunity to make ob- 

miles distant from Massowah, he allowed him- jections. The French minister denied that the 

self to be ambushed in the village, which had capitulations could be set aside without the 

the appearance of being deserted when his consent of the powers interested, and pointed 

force first entered. out that, in other cases, as in those of Tunis, 

Dlplonatle Difficulties. — The military governor Bosnia, and Cyprus, the power taking posses- 

of Massowah on May 30 imposed a tax on real- sion had been^able to produce a treaty conolud- 

estate proprietors and traders for streets and ed with the protected or sovereign govem- 

lights, and on June 1 a license-tax on dealers ment. He concluded by saying that if Europe 

in liquors and food. French and Greek mer- assented to the Italian procedure the French 

chants refused to pay these taxes. In the sum- Government would take note that hencefor- 

mer, the French Government, which has re- ward the capitulations disappear without nego- 

garded with jealousy Italy's occupation of tiation and without accord of the powers wher- 

Massowah, put forward the claim that the ever a European administration is established, 
capitulations existed there, as in other Eastern This discussion gave Turkey an opportunity 

countries, and that Italy was debarred from to renew her claim of suzerainty over the 

imposing taxes and exercising criminal juris- western coast of the Red Sea. The Porte dis- 

diction as regards French citizens and pro- patched a circular note to the powers, deolar- 

teges without the consent of France. Signor ing the Italian occupation of Massowah to be 

Crispi denied that the capitulations had existed a violation of treaties, and denying that the 

there under Turkish and Egyptian rule, de- mention of its possessions on the Arabian coast 

clared that if they had they were extinguished only in the Suez Canal convention implies a re- 

by Italian occupation, and asserted that, even nunciation of its sovereignty over the Soudan, 

if they still were in force, foreigners would be Russia, as well as France, joined in the diplo- 

subject to municipal taxation, as in Bulgaria, matic protest of the Porte. Germany, Great 



ADVENTISTS, SEVENTH-DAY. 5 

, Austria- Hungarj, and Spain declared moyeroent for the incorporation of a recognition 
italations inapplicable to Massowah. of the Christian religion into the Oonstitntion 
jitks af Ziltau — One of the grounds for of the United States. The International Sab- 
remonstrances against the Italian pol- bath-school Association retnmed an income of 
Lfnca was that France had some vague $6,446, and expenditures of $6,088. Provis- 
ander old treaties to portions of the ions were made at its aunnal meeting for the 
>ath of Massowah that Italy in 1888 preparation of series of lessons for the years 
:o her possessions. Italian irregulars 1888-'89 on Old Testament history, '^The 
3 ZuUa, which was nominally still sub- United States in Prophecy," ** The Third An- 
Egypt, and in like manner established gePs Message," on the leading doctrines of the 
ves at Diss6 and Adulis. In the begin- Bible ** for the use of those newly come to the 
Augnst the Italian flag was unfurlea at faith," and, for little children, on the life of 
ind a protectorate was formally pro- Ohrist, with special lessons on ** God's Love to 

over the district. The Italian G(»v- Man " for the camp-meeting Sabbath -schools, 
t, in a note to tbe signatories of the The receipts of the Central Publishing Asso- 
aet of the Berlin Conference, notified elation had been $412,416. The Pacific Pub- 
its action, which it declared to be only lishing Association retnmed property and as- 
al confirmation of a previously existing sets to the value of $246,949. 
i a step that was taken in compliance The accounts of the EdncatioD Society were 
e demands of the local sheikhs. The balanced at $86,664, and its assets were valued 
lag was raised als o at Adulis and Diss6. at $58,017. The organization of departments 
inSTS, SEVENTfl-DlT. The statistics of manual training in the schools of the denom- 
3ventb-Day Adventist Church, as given ination was approved ; and the preparation of 
Tear-Book"for 1888, show that it con- a pamphlet was directed to explain the pur- 
tbirty conferences, with the Australian, pose and nature of that branch of instruction. 
Central American, General Southern, The Health and Temperance Association had 
iland. Pacific Islands, South African, and emoyed a large increase of activity. The Ru- 
Lmerican missions. They returned, in ral Health Retreat Association reported a fund 
ministers, 182 licentiates, 889 churches, amounting to $21,872. 

341 members. The whole amount of Cieneral ConrercBce* — The General Conference 
eceived during the year was $172,721. of Seventh-Day Adventists met in its twenty- 
leral Conference Association is a body sixth annual session at Oakland, Cal., Nov. 18, 
las been incorporated under the laws 1887. Elder George I. Butler presided. The 
tate of Michigan to act as the business conference in Norway was admitted, constitut- 
Dcial agent of the General Conference, ing the third conference in the Scandinavian 
uard the financial interests of the Gen- field. The conference lately organized in West 
ference, and is expected to furnish pro- Virginia was received. The president made 
for the care of the property, deeds, be- an address in which he spoke of the work of 
ind wills that may accrue to that body, the denomination as advancing, notwithstand- 
keep its accounts. The object of the ing increasing opposition. Remarkable sue- 
on is in its constitution declared to be cess had attended the movements in Holland, 
e moral and religious knowledge and and fields were opening, besides the United 
on by means of publishing-houses for States, in South Africa, South America, and the 
-pose, publications therefrom, mission- West Indies. Immediate acts of prosecution 
lasionary agencies, and other appropri- against members for violation of the Sunday 
available instrumentalities and meth- laws of some of the States had been restrained, 
sing wholly benevolent, charitable, and so that none were now embarassed by them, 
ropic in its character, the payment of but the current in favor of making those laws 
Is on any of its funds is prohibited, and more stringent was increasing, and greater 
*rty may only be used for carrying into difSculties in that direction were to be antici- 
e legitimate ends and aims of its being, pated. Delegates from foreign fields reported 
rted to the Greneral Conference the re- concerning the condition of their work ; from 
* the Tract and Missionary Society for the Scandinavian countries that there were in 
1887 were $10,181, and the expendi- Denmark, 9, in Norway, 4, and in Sweden, 
1,118. Besides missionary labor in the 10 churches, with an aggregate membership 
States and other countries, tracts and of 810 in the three conferences. It had been 
ions had been sent by the society to difScult to furnish from the ofSce of publics- 
id West Africa, British and Dutch Gui- tion books enough to meet the demands of can- 
Lzil, the West Indies, British Honduras, vassers. The work in this branch was self- 
ylaces in Russia, some of the islands of sustaining. The mission in England had been 
ific Ocean, to different points in the in progress for about nine years, and now re- 
Q States, and to city missions under the turned four churches and about 185 members. 
)f tbe General Conference. The socie- In Australia there were three churches and 
annual meeting recommended the cir- 150 observers of the seventh day. The plan of 
of a particular newspaper, the purpose holding mission schools in Central Europe, 
i is to oppose the '* National Reform '' Scandinavia, and Great Britain for the purpose 



i 



6 ADVENTISTS, SEVENTH-DAY. 



AFGHANISTAN. 



of edacatiDg canvassers and colportears was 
approved by the conference. The subject of 
securing a ship for missionary work among the 
islands of the sea was favorably considered, 
but postponed on account of the lack of funds 
available for the purpose, and was referred to 
a committee, which was authorized to receive 
gifts during the year and report to the next 
general conference. A week of prayer was 
appointed, to be observed from December 17 
to December 25, and a programme of subjects 
for each day^s services was arranged. A com- 
mittee was appointed to which were referred 
al] questions growing out of prosecutions un- 
der the Sunday laws of the States against sev- 
enth-day observers ; and it was authorized to 
prepare a statement properly defining the posi- 
tion which Sabbath-keepers should occupy in 
the various contingencies which may arise un- 
der the enforcement of those laws. Further 
resolutions were adopted on this subject, de- 
clanng that 

Whereas^ The teachings of Christ entirely divorce 
the church and the state; and, WT^erecu^ The state 
has no right to legislate in matters pertaining to re- 
ligious institutions, and Sunday is only a religious 
institution : therefore, Betolvady That we as a people 
do oppose oy all consistent means the enactment of 
Sunday laws where they do not exist, and oppose the 
repeal of exemption clauses in Sunday laws where 
they do exist ; that we recommend that a pamphlet 
be prepared (I) showing the true relation which 
should exist between the church and the state : (2) 
exposing the organized efforts now being maae to 
unite church and state by ohanginz the Constitu- 
tion of our country: (8) showing the real effect of 
unmodified Sunday laws in places where they have 
been in force ; and* that said pamphlet be placed in 
the hands of all legislative bodies where efforts are 
or shall be made to secure the enactment of Sunday 
laws. 

Whereas^ To quietly and peaceably do our work 
six days in the week, as well as to keep the seventh 
day as the Sabbath of the Lord, is duty toward God, 
and an inalienable right, and that with which the 
state can of right have nothing to do ; therefore, jRe- 
solvedy That there is no obligation renting upon any 
observer of the seventh day to obey any law prohibit- 
ing labor on the first day of tlie week, commonly 
called Sunday. That while asserting this right, 
and while practicing the principle avowed in this res- 
olution of working the six worKing-days, the resolu- 
tion is not to be so construed as either to sanction or 
approve any arrogance on the part of any, or any ac- 
tion purposely intended to offend or impose upon the 
religious convictions or practice of any person who 
observes the first day of the week. Whereas^ we 
deem it essential to the proper work of the third an- 
gePs message that the true relation existing between 
tne church and the state, and the relation that exists 
between what men owe to God and what they owe 
to civil government should be understood ; therefore, 
Jiesolved^ That we recommend that this subject be 
made a part of the regular course of Bible study in 
all our colleges ; and that special attention be given 
to it by our ministers in the field. 

Resolutions were adopted declaring that 

Whereat^ Our Saviour has laid down the one sole 
ground on which parties once married can be di- 
vorced ; and, WJiereas^ The practices of society have 
become most deplorable in this respect, as seen in the 
prevalence of unscriptural divorces j therefore, Re- 
Bolved, That we express our deprecation of this great 
evil, and instruct our ministers not to unite in mar- 



riage any partiefl so divorced ; and that fi 
our own people, when about to contract mif 
alliances, to near in mind, and give due weig 
ii^unction of the apostle, *^ only in the LoroD 

The fifth annual session of the £i 
CouncU was held at Moss, Norway, Jm 
21, 1887. Action was taken with re 
to colportage ; to the translation into d 
languages and publication of books; 
conduct of mission journals ; and to the 
tion of missionaries. 

AFGHAinSTlN, a monarchy in Oentrt 
lying between the Punjaub and Belu 
on the south and Russian-Turkestan 
north, with Persia on the west. The 
the Ameer of Cabul, Abdurrahman Khi 
has striven with some success to com 
his authority over the semi-independen 
that owe him allegiance, but by the 
tion of taxes provoked a revolt amc 
Ghilzais, who are the most numerous ai 
like tribe of his immediate subjects. 

Iitemal Disorders — The Ameer was i 
to re-establish his authority over the 
that rebelled against taxation in 1887 
of his generals, Gholam Hyder Orakzai 
army consisting of six regiments of ii 
four squadrons of cavalry, and an a 
force of thirteen guns against the rebels 
Ghuzni district during the winter, ai 
ceeded in inflicting some punishment o 
and in restoring order for the time beii 
January Abdurrahman went to Jelalabi 
a force of 12,000 men for the pnrpos< 
ducing to submission the Shinwarri, 
and other insurgent tribes of northeasts 
ghanistan. His commander-in-chief, ( 
Hyder Khan Charkhi, had' already bee 
ating in that country and entered into n 
tions with the Shinwarris. 

Mistrusting the vigilance or fidelity 
Persian authorities who had once lei 
Khan, the Afghan pretender, escape fi 
retreat at Meshed, and allowed him to c 
a correspondence with the rebels, the 
Government persuaded the Shah to 
him over into its custody. He left Me 
January, and was taken to India, and s< 
interned at Rawul Pindi. 

In the summer Ishak Khan, the Gove 
Afghan-Turkistan, showed signs of insi 
nation. He is a cousin of Abdurri 
being the son of Azim Khan, who was 
of Oabul for a few months in 1867, ai 
overthrown by Shere Ali. Ishak Kb 
Abdurrahman^s companion in exile, a 
always professed subservience to his 
yet he has long been suspected of aspi 
the throne. He has discharged the dc 
his post with ability and diligence fo 
years, and in his own province he has c* 
uted to the success of Abdurrahman's 
of uniting the several parts of Afghi 
into a single realm, and has enabled the 
to draw some of his best troops from t 
becks of Turkistan. The province ha 



AGNOSTIC. 7 

id bj Ishak^s nnassisted efforts, and the To Huxley in turn it was suggested by St. PauPs 

has never ventured to interfere with reference to the altar raised in honor of ^^ the 

ninistration. unknown God.^^ An agnostic is one who holds 

Ii9s«-lfchai Bondary, — The joint Anglo- that everything beyond the material is un- 

1 Boundary Commission completed the known and probably unknowable. In his view 

ge of the boundary delimitation before the whole visible and calculable universe is ma- 

1 of January, 1888, and dispatched the terial in greater or less degree, and therefore 

rotocol with maps of the frontier on to some extent knowable, but the unseen world 

rj 4. The English commissioners, Maj. and the Supreme Being are beyond human per- 

ke and Capt. Yate, then returned to ceptions and therefore unknowable. 

d over the Trans-Caspian Railway and The ** Spectator " of Jan. 29, 1870, said of 

h Russia. Prof. Huxley : " He is a great and even severe 

CcBtrml Asian Eallway* — The Russo-Bok- agnostic, who goes about exhorting all men to 

[lailway, which was completed as far as know how little they know." Again, in 1871, 

ai in 1887, was extended through Bok- Mr. Button writes: ** They themselves (the ag- 

the terminus at Samarcand, and opened nostics) vehemently dispute the term (atheism) 

•istivities in July, 1888. Gen. Annen- and usually prefer to describe their state of mind 

ho projected and directed the construe- as a sort of know-nothingism or agnosticism or 

the road, has been appointed chief di- belief in an unknown and unknowable God." 

for two years, and has the disposal ot In 1874 St. George Mivart ("Essay on Re- 

00 rubles, which is less than half the ligion ") refers to the agnostics as ^' Our mod- 

at the Department of the Imperial Con- ern sophists . . . who deny that we have any 

i decided to be requisite to finish the knowledge save of phenomena." "Nicknames," 

>ot more by 1.500,000 rubles than the says the "Spectator" of June 11, 1876, "are 

has declared to be sufBcient. The given by opponents, but agnostic was the name 

>st of the line has l)een 43,000,000 ru- demanded by Prof. Huxley for those who dis- 

rbe whole length of the railway from claimed atheism, and believed with him in an 

ipian to Samarcand is 1,345 versts, or * unknown and unknowable' God, or in other 

00 miles. The section from Eizil Arvat words that the ultimate origin of all things 

i^un seven and a half years before the must be some cause unknown and unknowa- 

tion of the work, but the whole line ble." 

that place was built in three years, and Principal Tulloch in an essay on agnosticism 

tion from the Oxus to Samarcand, a in the "Scotsman" of Nov. 18, 1876, said: 

B of 346 versts, or 230 miles, was rushed "The same agnostic principle which prevailed 

i in six months. The cost of this sec- in our schools of philosophy had extended it- 

officially stated at 7,198,000 rubles, self to religion and theology. Beyond what 

arney between St. Petersburg and Sa- man can know by his senses, or feel by his 

d wiU not take more than ten days, higher affections, nothing, as was alleged, could 

e railroad is in proper working-order. be truly known." 

AdM of PkhlA to British India.— By vir- Conder, in "The Basis of Faith" (1877), 

;he treaty made by the Ameer Yakub wrote: "But there is nothing per se irrational 

t Gandamak on May 26, 1879, the dis- in contending that the evidences of theism are 

f Pishin and Sibi were assigned to the inconclusive, that its doctrines are unintelligi- 

Government for temporary occupation ble, or that it fails to account for the facts of 

Lministration. The revenues beyond the universe or is irreconcilable with them. 

as necessary for the expenses of civil To express this kind of polemic against religious 

ttration were to be paid over to the faith, the term agnosticism has been adopted." 

After the abdication of Yakub Khan Dr. James McCosh in an essay on " Agnos- 

istricts remained in British occupation, ticism as developed in Huxley's 'Hume'" 

§ the Kunam valley was evacuated by (" Popular Science Monthly," August, 1879), 

tish troops in 1880, and handed over to writes : "I nm showing that the system is false 

^pendent control of the Tussi. On the and thus leads to prejudicial consequences — 

don of the Sibi Pishin Railway in 1887 false to our nature, false to the ends of our 

;apied districts were formally incor- being." 

in the Indian Empire, and placed In 1880 (June 26), the " Saturday Review " 

he administration of the chief commis- printed the definition so widely quoted by the 

»f British Beluchistan. orthodox press : " In nine cases out of ten, ag- 

snc« Although directly derived from nosticism is but old atheism * writ large.' " 

<ek oyyooxoff (unknown, unknowing, un- Sir George Birdwood ("Industrial Arts of 

de), this word in its Anglicized form is India," 1880) said: "The agnostic teaching of 

nd in any of the standard dictionaries the Sankhya school is the common basis of all 

t 1869. Richard Holt Button is respon- systems of Indian philosophy." 

r the statement that it was suggested James Anthony Fronde, in his " Life of Car- 

. Thomas Henry Huxley at a social as- lyle" (1882), writes: "He once said to me that 

;e held shortly before the formation of the agnostic doctrines were to appearance like 

sequently famous Metaphysical Society, the finest flour, from which you might exfiect 



8 ALABAMA. 

the most excellent bread ; but when yon came Solomon Palmer ; Commissioner of Agricdt- 

to feed on it yon found it was powdered glass, are, Raf us F. Eolb ; Railroad Oommissionen, 

and you bad been eating the deadliest poison." Henry R. Sborter, Levi W. Lawler, W. C. 

These are but a few of the examples that Tunstall ; Ohief-Jnstice of the Supreme Goort, 
abound in contemporary literature. For Prof. George W. Stone ; Associate Justices, David 
Huxley^s own views, the reader is referred to Clopton and H. M. Somerville. 
his works, especially such essays and chapters FliamcoB. — ^The balance in the treasury on 
as are semi-religious or speculative. While Oct. 1, 1887, was $276,488.82, and on the same 
FtoL Huxley is, as has been seen, popularly date in 1888 it was $555,587.87. During the 
and no doubt rightly credited with having year, in accordance with a law passed by the 
originated the term agnostic, in its modem last Legislature, the entire school-fund, hither- 
acceptation, he is by no means the founder of to retained in the counties and disbursed there, 
the school that holds to a belief solely in ma- was paid into the State treasury. Of this fond^ 
terial things. The Grecian sophists, and proba- there was in the treasury at the latter date 
bly more anciently still the various Chinese $181,801.21 ; leaving the actual balance for 
and Oriental schools, taught and teach similar general purposes, after deducting this and 
theories. In more recent times Descartes, other special funds, $816,916.39. The bonded 
Kant, David Hume, John Stuart Mill, and oth- debt of the State remains the same as in 1887. 
ers have foUowed out trains of thought more An act of the last Legislature providing for re- 
or less identical, but all suggestive, whether funding the 6'per-cent. bonds amounting to 
just or not, of atheism. With Huxley the re- $954,000 into 8|-per-cent8. has not yet been 
pudiation of atheism was strongly emphasized, complied with by the Governor, as the former 
but his orthodox opponents have never been bonds are not redeemable till 1890, and he asks 
willing to admit that he and his contempora- an extension of his power till that time. The 
ries succeeded in freeing themselves from the tax valuation of the State in 1886 was $173,808,- 
implied charge. As popularly phrased by the 097; in 1887, $214,925,869. And forthepres- 
*' Saturday Review," it is held to be "atheism ent year about $223,000,000. 
writ large " ; and yet, when candidly examined, Edncttlmi. — The report of the State Superia- 
the agnostic creed can hardly be distinguished tendent of Education for the year ending Sept 
from those of the more liberal Christian sects. 30, 1887, presents the following statistics: 
It is an accepted principle of law that a court Outside of the cities and special school districts, 
may properly decide as to the scope of its own 3,658 schools for white pupils and 1,925 for 
jurisdiction, and a school of religion or phi- colored pupils were maintained ; the total nnm- 
losophy should in like manner, and in good ber of pupils enrolled in the former being 
faith be permitted to interpret its own belief. 153,304, and in the latter 98,896. The average 
While repudiating the charge of atheism, the daily attendance was 93,723 in the white 
agnostics have frankly admitted their inability schools, and 63,995 in the colored. During 
to define or individualize their conception of a this time the total number of whit« children 
deity. Perhaps it is not unnatural that those within school age was 272,780 ; of colored 
sects which accept the teachings of the Old and children, 212,821. There were 2,418 male 
the New Testament, in this regard, should con- teachers in the white schools and 1,237 female; 
sider non-acceptance as equivalent to atheism. 1,264 colored male teachers and 569 female. 
Some of the more important of the essays bear- The average length of the school year was 
ing upon this subject are as follows: "Agnos- only 705 days, a decrease of over sixteen 
ticism," sermons delivered in St. Peter's, Oran- days from figures of the previous year, due 
ley Gardens, by the Rev. A. W. Momerie, (Ed- to the omission of returns from the city and 
inburgh and London, 1887) ; " Agnosticism special district schools in this report. The 
and Women," ** Nineteenth Century," vol. vii, total sum available to the State for school pur- 
by B. Latbbury ; ** Agnosticism and Women," poses during the year was $515,989.95, and 
a reply, ** Nineteenth Century," vol. vii, by the expenditures amounted to $527,319.88, 
J. H. Clapperton ; ** Confessions of an Agnos- necessitating the use of a portion of the unex- 
tic," " North American Review " ; " The As- pended balance of former years. The school^ 
sumptions of Agnostics," " Fortnightly Re- of the State stand in urgent need of stronger 
view," vol. xiii, by St. George Mivart ; " An financial support. For several years the school 
Agnostic's Apology," '* Fortnightly Review," fund has been increased but sliglitly, while the 
vol. xix, by Leslie Stephen ; " Variety as an school population has been steadily growing in 
Aim in Nature," "Contemporary Review," No- numbers, being 32,614 greater at the close of 
vein ber, 1871, by the Duke of Argyle. the school year in 1887 than in the previous 

ILIBAMA. State GoTemneiit. — The following year. The per capita disbursement by the 

were the State officers during the year: Gov- State in 1887, being about seventy cents, is less 

ernor, Thomas Seay, Democrat ; Secretary of than in many of the Southern States. 
State, 0. C. Langdon; Treasurer, Frederick The Convict Systea. — The contracts under 

H. Smith, succeeded by John L. Cobbs; Audi- which the convicts sentenced to the State Peni- 

tor, Malcolm 0. Burke, succeeded by Cyrus D. tentiary had been previously employed, expired 

Hogue ; Attorney-General, Thomas N. McClel- by their terms on the first of January, and, in 

Ian ; Superintendent of Public Instruction, accordance with the law, proposals were issued 



ALABAMA. 9 

for a new lease, which was awarded to the East the colored race in AJahama. The opinion holds 
Tennessee Coal, Iron, and Railroad Ooinpany. that this university is not a part of the common- 
The convicts are to he employed in the Pratt school system of the State within the meaning 
coal-mines, near Birmingham, where the com- of the Constitution, and that the act under 
[Nmj agrees to huild prisons and to maintain consideration, in declaring that the sum appro- 
schools for the henefit of the convicts. Female priated shall he taken from that portion of the 
convicts are exempted from this lease, and also common-school fund given to the colored race 
all those who by reason of age, infirmity, or destroys the equality of the apportionment of 
physical defect, were unable to perform hard that fund between the white and colored races 
labor. The class of convicts last described are remiired by the Constitution, 
gathered at the walls of the old Penitentiary at Earlier in the year another act of the same 
Wetampka, and are enfi^aged in such employ- General Assembly, requiring locomotive engi- 
ments as are suited to their condition. neers to obtain a license from the State, was 
"^In accepting this proposal," remarks the passed upon by the United States Supreme 
Governor in his last message to the Legisla- Court and upheld. It was urged that the act, 
tore, ** whereby the continuance of the pres- when enforced against engineers running into 
ent lease system in Alabama appears to be fixed the State from outside points, became in effect 
for a term of ten years, I do not intend to give a regulation of interstate commerce, and, there- 
the sanction of my judgment to the perpetua- fore, unconstitutional, but the court refused to 
tion of the lease system. I thought, however, consider it as such. 

and still think, considering the state of our In October the same court decided that the 

finances, which does not yet justify an entire law prohibiting the employment of color-blind 

disregard of pecuniary considerations, and con- persons by railroads and requiring all railroad 

adering also the characteristics of those who employes to have their sight tested by a board 

oonstitnte very largely the criminal class, that of experts was not a regulation of interstate 

the lease system could not at present be dis- commerce. 

pensed with." PoMticiU — The first State Convention of the 

iairtaifi — The report of the railroad com- Labor party, which assembled at Montgomery 

mis^ioners for this year shows that there are on March 22, was the earliest political move- 

3w205 miles of railroad, including branches and ment of the year. The delegates voted to 

tidings, in the State. During the year, 530 present no separate State ticket, but advised 

mil^ of new railroad were constructed, indi- that Labor candidates for the Legislature and 

eating an nnusually rapid development. for Congress be presented in the several dis- 

Tdtow Fever. — Great alarm was felt through- tricts. A platform was adopted, of which the 

oat the State, in the latter part of September, following is the more iinportant portion : 

over reports of the existence of yellow fever .__ ^ . , . , ^ i j ^ j .u 

in AAiTAnil lrw»j»liri«a Thoop r*»nnrt« nrAVAil nn ^® f*^^^'' ^^^^ legiflltttion as may lead to reduce the 

m several localities, l nese reports proved un- ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^ prohibit the competition of convict 

foonded, except m regard to Decatur, where, labor with honest industry ; to secure the sanitary 

ftbout September 20, several well-defined cases inspection of tenements, factories, and mines ; to com- 

appeared. The disease soon became epidemic, pel corporations to pay their emplov^s in lawful 

and ail who were able to leave the city, at once ™«°«y <^*' the United States at intervals of not longer 

fl , , . I tinf. '^^ . . than two weeks: and to put a stop to the abuse of 

fled, leaving scarcely 600 persons remammg conspiracy laws. 

out of a population of several thousand. Quar- We also aim at the ultimate and complete owner- 

antine regulations were enforced against the ahip and control by the Government of all railroads, 

eitT, and the regular course of business was telegraph and telephone lines within ite jurisdiction. 

j^pended. Althongh the epidemic w« at no I.S^e^'^^tb'ortb^S^l^on^orC^Cnrj^.S 

tune violent, one or more new cases appeared eavings-banks added to the postal system. We also 

almost daily for about two months, when the desire to simplity the procedure of our courts and di- 

frosts of the latter part of November put an minish the expenses of legal proceeding, that the 

end to the soonrge. The total number of cases P^'' T7 ^ ^l^ '''' equality with the nch, and the 

>«^-*,^ ^^ »^TtfL.,««K«» 1 -r«- 100 ^f ^\.\^\. long delays which now result m scandalous misoar- 

rqwrted ap to November 1, was 123, of which ^^ of /ustice may be prevented. 

80 terminated fatally. The cases reported m And since the ballot is the only means by which 

Xovember increase these figures but slightly, in our republic the redress of political and social 

Confaibotions were received from several North- grievances is to be sought, we eswcially and em- 

»n cities in aid of the sufferers. Sporadic P^*?^^^/®^.® for the a<ioptoon of what is known 

i.iMc» lu ci« vi. V « c^uu^ivio. ^Y'^AOKAk^ as the "Australian system" of votmg, m order that 

cvee among refugees from Decatur occurred the effectual secrecy of the baUot and the relief of 

in other parts of the State, but there was no candidates for public office from the heavy expenses 

epidemic. now imposed upon them may prevent bribery and 

ItrriiiMn ^ decision of the State Supreme intimidation, do away with practical discrimination 

p^„ . A^^^A :« iTa.^k x1»..i«.:«» .-.v.^^^ in favor of the nch and unscrupulous, and lessen the 

Court was rendered in March, declaring uncon- pemicious influences of money in poh'tics. 
^tutional the act ot the last General Assembly 

making appropriations for the establishment The Prohibitionists met in convention at 

and support of a State University for colored Decatur on April 18, and made the following 

people. The act provides that the sums appro- nominations : Governor, J. C. Orr ; Secretary 

priated shall be taken from that part of the com- of State, L. C. Coulson; Attorney- General, 

Bu>o-schoo] fund set apart for the education of Peter Finley ; Auditor, M. C. Wade ; Treasurer, 



10 



ALABAMA. 



N. F. ThompMiD ; Superintendent of Edaca- 
tdon, M. C. Denson. 

A platform was adopted demaniliDg, in ad- 
dition to prohibition, Dational aid to educatioa, 
a residence of twenty-one jeara bj foreisnera 
before voting, better election Uwa, and the 
abolition of the iutemal -revenue ajatem. 

On Maj 9 the Democratic Convention met 
at Montgomery, and nominated the following 
candidates: Governor, Thomas Sea?; Secre- 
tary of State, C. C. Langdon; Treaanrer, John 
L. Cobbs: AadiCor, CjruB D. Kogae; At- 
torney-Genera], Thomas N. McOlellan ; Snper- 
intendent of Education, Solomon Palmer. 

BrieF resolutiona were adopted as follow : 

Tbnt the flrmneBs, BbititT.'und BtateBmsiwliip dis- 
plsyed by Presitknt Clcvelaiid iu the administration 
of biii high oa^-e eatitlo him to Ihe confldtnce and 
support ol' his fellow-oitiiens, Th»t we indorse «nd 
approve bin admin istraCioa, and CBpecially hia action 
and efforts (o nislce a relorm and reduotion of the 
tariff, and we believe that the int«regta of the oouDtry 
demand tiis re-election, and la that end out delegaUa 
to the Nalloaal Convention arc hereby inatnicted lo 

That we arc unalUrably opposed to the present 
war lariff. We demand reform of tha tariff and a 
icduction of the gurplua in the Treosai? by a reduc- 
iton of tariff taxation. 

That we indorse the adminiatraUon of Got. Seav, 
which hOB been so eminently aatisliictury (o the whole 
peonlo of Alabama. 

That we favor a liberal appropriation for public 
echooln, ID order that tbe meane of acquiring a knowl- 
edge of the rudimenla of education may be afforded 
to eveT7 child in the SUM. 

That we lavor the encouragement of immijiration 
to this 8(nle, and to that end we recommead suoh 
wine and judiciout le^lMion by the lienenl Assem- 
bly as will l>cal accomplish that result. 

The Republican State Convention met at 
Montgomery, May IS, aod nominated tbe fol- 
lowing ticket: Governor, W. T. Ewing; Secre- 
tary of State, J. J. Woodnll; Aaditor, R. S. 
Heflin; Attorney-General, George H. Craig; 
Treafurer, Sam T. Fowler: Superintendent of 
Education, J. M. Clark. This ticket was con- 
siderably changed beforethe election, Robert P. 
Baker liein^; the candidate for Secretary of 
State, Napoleon B. Mardis for Attorney-Gen- 
eral, and LemuelJ.Standlfer for Superintendent 
of Education. The following resolutions were 
passed : 

That while we depreciate all sectional issues and 
wish for harmony between all the citizens of our great 
couDti7, wo demand as the legal and conhtitutional 
right of the people that the exetciuc of the right of 
sufft-age shall be full and untramineied, and tliat the 
ballot shall be counted and returned ac cast in all 
sections of this great republic, and bi help secure this 



t the e ..._ .. 
amended as lo hinder fraud at 
That we condemn Presidcni 
sage and the Mills tariff bill as tending toward free 
trade and to the destruction of Amerimn industries 
and l« the degradation of American labor to the nerv- 
ile condition of European labor, and we favor liberal 



ALOOTT, AMOS BRONSON. 

man's wages, as hostile to labor, which is tha 
ftiundation of human prosTesf aiid wealth. 

That we hvor nadnnafaid for the education i 
children of the republic, and therelbre indon 
Blair Bill. 

That we favor civil-service reform, and con 
Preeident Cleveland's wholesale removal from 
for party reasons, while professing to be in fill 
civil-service reform. 

That we &VOT tbe entire abolition of the inB 
revenue system. 

That we oppose, now as heretofore, the pi 
convict system of Alabiuns as brulsl, and beat 
brings convict labor into oompelition with bonel 

At the election, Angnst 6, the Democ 
ticket received its nsual large majority. 
Legislature elected is overwhelmingly Di 
cratic, 82 out of 33 Senators and 91 out ol 
members of the House being Democratic. 
amendment to tbe Stale Constitntion, deal 
to reduce the amount of local and special I 
lation demanded at each legislative set 
failed of adoption, receiving fewer than 5( 
votes out of a total poll of over 180,000. 
the November election a Democratic delegi 
to the national House of Representative! 
chosen. The Democratic presidential t 
received 117,310 votes; the Republican, 57, 
the Prohibition, 583. 

lUOTT, IHOS BlOIItSON, educator, bor 
Wolcott. Conn., Nov. 29, 1 789 ; died in Bo 
Mass., March 4, 1888. Tbe family arms 
granted to Thomas Alcocke in ItilS. anc 
flrst of the name appearing in English hii 
is John Alcocke, who, after receiving thi 
gree of doctor of divin'ty at Cimbridge 
came Bishop ot Ely and was preferred 1 



evelsnd's tariff m 



Thatn 



■a and labor. 



condemn Senator Morgan's declaration tliat 
lincral wealth of Alabama is a "doubtful 
because it lends to increase the hiboring- 



5: ^^i> 



Chancellor of England by Henry VII. 
transformed the old nunnery of St. Badi: 
in Cambridge to a new college called J 
AicocVe was " given to learning and piety 
childhood, growing from grace to grace, so 
in his age were none in England higher fo 
liness." Thomas and George Alcocke i 
to New England with Winthrop's oompan 



ALCOTT, AMOS BRONSON. ALCOTT, LOUISA MAY. H 

ISSOy and the descendant of the former, Onpt. ion of Emerson, who descrihed him to Oarlyle 
John, who held a commission from his kins- as ** a majestic soul, with whom conversation 
mao Gov. Trumhull, lived on his father's es- is possible." He frequently gave " conversa- 
titt, '* Spindle Hill," where his grandson, Amos tions " in cities and villages, on divinity, ethics, 
firoD^n, the son of Joseph Cbatfield and Anna dietetics, and other subjects. These gradually 
Bronson Alcox, was born. ^^ My father was became formal, and were continued for nearly 
skilful in handicraft, and in these arts I inher- fifty years. They have been thus described : 
ited some portion of his skill, and early learned ^* He sits at a table or desk, and after his audi- 
tbd use of his tools," wrote Mr. Alcott in his tors have assembled begins to talk on some sci- 
ditfy, when describing his life in the primitive entific subject mentioned beforehand. He con- 
days of New England. In 1814 he entered tinues this for one hour ezactly-^his watch 
Silks Hoadley's clock-factory in Plymouth, and lying before him — in a fragmentary, rambling 
at the age of sixteen began to peddle books manner, and concludes with some such phrase 
about the country. In 1818 he sailed to Nor- as ^ The spirit of conversation is constrained to- 
folk, Va., where he hoped to engage in teach- night,' ^ Absolute freedom is essential to the 
ing, but, failing in this, he bought silk and freedom of the soul,' ^ Thought can not be con- 
trinkets and made a peddling tour in the adja- trolled.' Then he stops, and the next evening 
»nt counties, where he enjoyed the hospital- begins with another theme, treats it in the 
itT of the planters, who, astonished at the in- same desultory way, and ends with similar nt- 
tellectual conversation of this literary Autoly- terances." 

cos, received him as a guest. He spent the The opening of the Concord School of Phi- 
trinter of 1822 in peddling among the Quakers losophy, in 1878, gave him new intellectual 
of North Carolina, but abandoned this life strength, and he was prominent in its proceed- 
in 1823, and began to teach. He soon estab- ings. The last years of his life were spent with 
lished an infant-school in Boston, which imme- his daughter Louisa, in Boston. He was the 
diately attracted attention from the unique intimate friend of Channing, Hawthorne, Gar- 
conversational method of his teaching ; but risen, Phillips, Emerson, and Thoreau. The 
this was in advance of the time, and he was latter describes him as ^^ One of the last phi- 
denounced by the press and forced to retire, losophers — Connecticut gave him to the world ; 
He then removed to Concord, Mass., where he he peddled first her wares, afterward, as he de- 
devoted himself to the study of natural theol- clares, her brains. These he peddles still, bear- 
of^ and reform in civil and social institutions, ing for fruit his brain only, like the nut its 
edacation, and diet, and frequently appeared kernel. His words and attitude always sup- 
on the lectare platform, where his or^nality pose a better state of things than other men 
made him attractive. In 1830 he married Miss are acquainted with, and he will be the last 
Abby May, a descendant of the Quincy and man to be disappointed as the ages revolve. 
Sevall families, and removed to Germantown, He has no venture in the present. ... A true 
Pa., but in 1834 he returned to Boston, and friend of man, almost the only friend of human 
reopened bis school, which he continued for progress, with his hospitable intellect he em- 
several years. His system was to direct his braces children, beggars, insane, and scholars, 
popils to self-analysis and self-education, fore- and entertains the thought of all, adding to it 
ing them to contemplate the spirit as it un- commonly some breadth and elegance. Which- 
Teiled within themselves, and to investigate all ever way we turned, it seemed that the heavens 
sabjects from an original standpoint. A jour- and the earth had met together oince he en- 
oal of the school, kept by one of his pupils, hanced the beauty of the landscape. I do not 
Elizabeth P. Peabody, was published under the see how he can ever die ; Nature can not spare 
title of ** A Kecord of Mr. Alcott's School " him." 

(Boston, 1834 ; 3d ed., 1874). The school sug- Besides numerous contributions to periodical 
gested to bis daughter that of ^^Plumfield," literature, including papers entitled ^^ Orphic 
which is described in "Little Men." Sayings" in "The Dial" (Boston, 1839-'42), 
At the invitation of James P. Greaves, of he wrote ** Conversations with Children on the 
London, the friend and fellow-laborer of Pes- Gospels" (2 vols., Boston, 1836): ** Tablets" 
talozzi in Switzerland, Mr. Alcott went to Eng- (1868) ; *' Concord Days " (1872) ; ** Table- 
land in 1843, and Mr. Greaves having died in Talk" (1877); "Sonnets and Canzonets" 
the mean time, Mr. Alcott was cordially re- (1882); and "llje New Connecticut," an auto- 
ceived by bis friends, who gave the name Al- biographical poem, edited by Franklin B. San- 
cott Hall to their school in Ham, near London, born (Boston, 1887). 

On his return he was accompanied by Charles His daughter, LOUISA MAT, author, born in 

Lane and H. G. Wright, with whom he en- Germantown, Pa., Nov. 29, 1832 ; died in 

deavored to establish the ** Fruitlands," in Har- Boston, Mass., March 6, 1888, was educated by 

vard, Mass., an attempt to form a community her father. Her first literary attempt, ** An 

open a philosophical basis, which was soon Address to a Robin," was made at the age of 

abandoned. After living for a while in Bos- eight, and she soon began to write stories. In 

ton, Mr. Alcott returned to Concord, where 1848 she wrote her first book, " Flower-Fables," 

his life was that of a peripatetic philosopher, for Ellen Emerson, but this made no impres- 

For forty years he was the friend and compan- sion on its publication in 1855. In 1851 she 



12 



ALOOTT, LOmSA MAY. 



pablished io " Gleason's Pictorinl " a romantio 
story, for which aho received five doUars, Mr. 
Alcott never achieved worldly SDCcess, and, as 
the family were in etraitened circnmstanoea 
about this time, she engaged in teaching ia 
Boston, where she took a " little trunk filled 
witli the plainest clothes of her own making 
and twenty dollars that alio had earned in 




writing." At one time she aspired to become 
an ectresB, and had perfected lier arrangements 
for a first appearance, but was prevented by 
her friends. She occasionally appeared in 
amateur performances, and n'rot« a farce en- 
tilled " Ned BatcheWer's Adventures," which 
was produced at the Howard Athenffium. She 
also wrote a romantic drama, "The Rival 
Prima Donna," the manuscript of which she 
recalled and destroyed on hearing of dissension 
among the actors regarding the arrangement 
of the cast. In December, 1862, she entered 
into Government service as a liospital nurse, 
and was stationed id the Georgetown Hospital, 
near Washington, D. C, until jirostrated by 
typhoid fever, from the effects of which she 
never recovered. In 1885 she visited Europe 
as a travellng-companiuu, and soon after her 
return to Boston published " Little Women," 
which pictured her home life, and brought her' 
fame and fortune. Tliis was received with 
such favor that when " Little Men " was issued 
the publishers received advance orders for 60,- 
000 copies. Hiss Alcott addressed herself to 
children, and no author'sname is more endeared 
tu the young than hers. Although there is 
liltle in her writing that is not drawn from 
personal experience, this is so colored by her 
imagination, and so strong through her sympa- 
thy with life, that her books represent the 
universal world of childhood and youth. Bnt 
while they are characterized bj humor, cheer- 
fulness, good morals, and natural action, their 
healthfulness may be somewhat questionable 
on account of the sentimentality that is woven 



ANGUOAN CHUBOHES. 

into her work and breaks the natural graoc 
of childhood by introducing the romantic ele- 
ment, and a hint of self-importance and inde- 
pendence that tends to create a restless and 
rebellious spirit. She devoted herself to the 
care of her father, and in "death they were 
not divided." The sale of " Little Women " hu 
reached 260,000 ; that of all lier works together, 
over 800,000. Her publications are : " Flower- 
Fables " (Boston, 1865); "The Rose Family" 
(18641; "Moods" (1S60; revised ed., 1681); 
"Little Women" (1868); "Hospital Sketches" 
(1869); "An Old-Fashioned Girl" (1889); 
"Little Men" (18T1); "Aunt Jo's Scrap- 
Bag," a series containing " Cupid and Chow- 
Chow," " My Girla," "Jimmy's Cruise in the 
Pinafore," and "An Old- Fashioned Thanksgiv- 
ing" (187I''82); "Work, a Story of Ejperi- 
ence"(18T8); "Eight Cousins" (1874); "Rose 
in Bioom"(l8T6); "Silver Pitchers" (1876); 
"Under the Lilacs" (187B); "Jack and Jill" 
(1880); "Proverb Stories" (1882); "Spin- 
ning-Wheel Stories" (1884); and the first of 
a new series, "Lulu's Library" (1885). 

iNGLIClH CHIiKCIlES. GeMral 8tatMta.~The 
"Tear-Book" of the Church of England for 
1688 shows that the gross amount of money 
raised voluntarily and expended in 1666 on 
the building and restoration of churcbea, the 
endowment of beuelices, the erection of par- 
sonages, and the provision of burial grounds, 
while it was considerably less than in 1884. 
exceeded £1,000,000 ; and of this sum £63,000 
were raised in the fonrWelsb dioceses. The 
details of this particular branch of chorch ef- 
fort as carried out at Bristol snd Plymouth 
are recorded for the lirst time in the present 
volume. They show that while the population 
of Bristol has increased by nearly 56 per cent. 
the net gain in church accommodation has 
been TO per cent., while the whole expendi- 
ture upon church extension has been more 
than £500,000. A similar work has been go- 
ing on in the three towns of Plymouth, Devon- 
port, and Stonebouse, at a gross expenditure of 
£131,000. Nearly £500,00ii (£446,386) were 
raised during twelve years for founding the 
six new sees of Truro, St. Albans, Liverpool, 
Southwell, and Wakefield ; £60,000 in six years 
to complete the Bishop of Rochester's "ten 
churches scheme." The " Universities and 
Public Schools Missions" for the supply of des- 
titute places in the large towns and parochial 
missions for the laity have increased steadily. 
Activity in work for the promotion of temper- 
ance, for the rescue of the victims of vice, and 
for reform, has gone on with growing activity. 
The statistics of ordinations show that during 
fourteen years 10,020 persona had been admit- 
ted to the order of deacons ; and of these ad- 
mission.", the annual average for the former 
half of the period was B80, and for the Latter half, 
TTO. The statisticsof confirmations show that 
while the average number annually for the nine 
years ending with 1663 was 166.000, the aver- 
age for the succeeding three years was nearly 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 18 

804,000. Daring 1886, 77 new churches were presided. The secretaries report showed that 
bailt, and 185 restored, raising the number of the number of ordained missionaries, includ- 
Dew churches, between 1877 and 1886, to 809, ing nine bishops, on the society^s list at that 
ftod of restored churches to 2,572. Under the time, was 596, viz., in Asia, 187; in Africa, 
Church Buildings Acts 838 new parishes or dis- 139 ; in Australia and the Pacific, 17 ; in North 
tricts were constituted beween 1868 and 1880. America, 183; in the West Indies, 33; and in 
The number of permanent mission buildings Europe, 37. Of them, 114 were natives labor- 
other than parish and district churches is given ing in Asia, and 19 in Africa. There were 
AS 4,717, with accommodation for 843,272 per- also in the various missions of the society about 
sons. Confirmations were held during 1887 at 2,000 catechists and lay teachers, mostly na- 
2,361 centers ; . the whole number of persons tives, and more than 400 students in the soci- 
confirmed being 213,638. The voluntary con- ety's colleges. Papers were read and remarks 
tributions toward the maintenance of Church made in reference to various aspects of the 
schools between 1884 and 1886 were given as missionary work in their several fields of labor 
£1,755,958 ; the contributions between 1873 by the Bishops of Calcutta (^'Provincial and 
and 1887 to the '* Hospital Sunday'' collections Diocesan Organization in India ''), Japan, Ran- 
tt £727,250, the whole number of collections goon, North China, Cape Town, Zululand, Equa- 
being 33,134. It was claimed that during the torial Africa, Sydney, Fredericton, Missouri, 
twenty- five years, 1860-'84, Churchmen vol- North Dakota, and Guiana, and the Archdea- 
QDtarily contributed £528,653 for the educa- con of Gibraltar. A paper by the Rev. R. R. 
don of ministerial candidates, £35,175,000 for Winter, of Delhi, on '' Woman's Work in Mis- 
church building and restoration, £7,496,478 for sions," was read by the secretary, 
home missions, £10,100,000 for foreign mis- At a meeting of the Board of Missions of the 
nons, £22,421,542 for educational work, main- Province of Canterbury, held July 21, the Arch- 
\j elementary, £3,818,200 for charitable work bishop of Canterbury, presiding, said that the 
(distinctively Church of England), and £2,103,- board did not seek to work as a new missionary 
3Mfor clergy charities, making a total of £81,- society, or wish to collect money; but that it 
573,237, Contributions to parochial purposes, desired to bring before the Church the neces- 
Qosectarian societies, and middle-class schools sity of doing a great deal more for missions 
are not included in the estimate. than was being done at present, and to give 

Unrittry SMielles. — The annual meeting of proper information to the vast numbers of per- 
the Church Missionary Society was held May sons who knew nothing of the missions or of 
1. Sir John Kennaway presided. The total theimmensity of the interests centered in them, 
receipts of the society for the year had been Several of the American and colonial bishops 
£2*21,330, but they had not covered the spoke of the condition and requirements of 
expenditure, and there remained a debt of missionary interests in different parts of the 
£9,000 to be cleared off; and to meet the de- world, and of the importance of giving greater 
mands of various funds, the incomeof the pre- unity to the missionary work. A resolution 
ceding year must be exceeded by £37,000. was adopted assuring the bishops of the various 
Forty-three candidates for missionary work, dioceses and missionary jurisdictions abroad of 
twelve of whom were women, had been re- the desire of the board *^to aid them in the 
od?ed during the year. A resolution was work of extending the Master's kingdom." 
passed approving the action of the Executive Free and Open CJinrdi issoclatlMa — It was re- 
Committee in c^Iing for picked men to work ported at the annual meeting of this society, in 
among Mohammedans. March, that the council had decided to issue an 

The income of the Church Zenana Mission- address calling upon the people to defend the 

ary Society was returned at £23,268. The so- Church by uniting in a great effort to get rid 

ciety includes 900 associations and more than of the pew system. The Bishop of Rochester 

500 working parties laboring in support of the had written that the church which ^* blandly 

mission. From the missions — in West Africa, encouraged her wealthy children to build stately 

East and Central Africa, Egypt and Arabia, churches for their own enjoyment," leaving the 

Palestine, Persia and Bagdad, India, Ceylon, poor to worship in a cold school-room, ^^for- 

Mauritios, China, Japan, New Zealand, North- feited her claim to be the church of the nation." 

west America, and the North Pacific — were The Chirch Houe. — A plan for the establish- 

retnmed 280 stations, 247 foreign and 265 na- ment, in London, by a company, of a ^'Church 

tire ordained missionaries, 62 European and House," to serve as an informal ^^headquarters" 

3,534 native lay and female workers, 44,115 for the adherents of the Anglican churches, their 

communicants, and 1,859 schools, with 71,814 societies and associations, and as a place of de- 

papils. The native contributions had amount- posit for archives, libraries, and collections, took 

ed to £15,142. form in July. The final report of the Executive 

The anneal public meeting of the Society for Committee, which had been appointed by the 

the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts movers of the project to consider the subject, 

was held in London, July 10. The meeting was was presented to the General Committee June 

distingaisbed by the presence of many of the 7. A charter of incorporation had been grant- 

bbbops who baid come to attend the Lambeth ed for the enterprise on the 23d of February. 

Gooferenoe. The Archbishop of Canterbury The receipts in its behalf up to June 80 had 



14 ANGUCAN CHURCHES. 

amounted to £45,853, while a balance of £2,681 Bishop of Lincoln to answer allegations of of- 
was remaining at the banker^s, besides invest- fense in matters of ritaal, was decided by the 
ments and deposits to the sum of £85,868. Judicial Committee of tlie Privy Council, Aug. 
The total liabilities incurred and to be incurred 3, after an ex-parte hearing. The Bishop of 
in the purchase of the site — which is on the Lincoln was charged by the petitioners with 
south side of Dean's Yard — amounted to £42,- having offended in respect to the celebration of 
481, for the provision of which the resources the Communion by using lighted candles on 
of the corporation were amply sufficient. The the Communion-table when they were not re- 
Archbishop of Canterbury, speaking on the quired for the purpose of giving light; by mak- 
adoption of the report, remarked on the prac- ing at the same service and when pronouncing 
tical value of the scheme, which would pro- the benediction, the sign of the cross; by stand- 
vide a house not only useful as a place of busi- ing while reading the prayer of consecration 
ness for the Church of England in England, with his back to the people ; and by deviating 
but also as a general meeting-point and ral- in no fewer than ten ways from the ceremony 
lying -ground for the Anglican communion prescribed by the Book of Common Prayer, 
throughout the world. He was anxious that a The petitioners prayed the archbishop to cite 
good reference library should be formed as the inculpated bishop to answer these charges, 
soon as possible. A full collection of reports referring as precedents for the exercise of this 
of church work in all parts of the world was power to the case of " Lucy w. the Bishop 
needed. Valuable contributions concerning the of St. Davids" (1695), and of the Bishop of 
transactions of the American Church Conven- Cloghan, which was cited in 1822 by the Arch- 
tions had already been received from the Bish- bishop of Armagh. The archbishop replied 
ops of Iowa and Albany. Formal possession that, ^' Considering the fact that in the course 
was taken of the site on the 21st of tJnly, when of 800 years since the Reformation, there is no 
the first annual meeting of the corporation was other precedent " (than the Bishop of St. David's 
held, and suitable action was taken for accept- case), ^^ and considering the political and other 
ing the property. The purpose of the scheme exceptional circumstances under which this 
was defined to be for facilitating intercommun- particular case was decided," he objected to act- 
ion among the churches throughout the world, ing without instruction from a court of compe- 
The buildings already on the ground will be tent jurisdiction. The decision of the Judicial 
occupied for the present, and the erection of Committee was to the effect that their lord- 
others or of better ones will be left to the fut- ships were of the opinion that the archbishop 
ure, as the means and needs of the enterprise had jurisdiction in the case. They were also 
may be developed. of the opinion that the abstaining of the arch- 

ChDrch of England Temperance Society. — A break- bishop from entertaining the suit was a matter 
fast was given by the Council and Executive of of appeal to Her Majesty. They desired to ex- 
this association, July 11, to the bishops attend- press no opinion whatever whether the arch- 
ing the Lambeth Conference, for purposes of bishop had or had not a discretion whether he 
consultations respecting the progress of the so- would issue the citation. They would humbly 
ciety ; the movement against the liquor traffic advise Her Majesty to remit the case to the 
among the native races; and methods by which archbishop, to be dealt with according to law. 
the organization of the society abroad might The decision is considered an important one, in 
be accelerated and made more effective. The that it establishes the right of the archbishop 
Bishop of London presided. A letter was read to call bishops to account, 
from the Bishop of New York representing that Water in the Craminnton Service. — A case was 
great benefit had been derived in America from heard before the Court of Arches of the Prov- 
the influence of the society. Resolutions were ince of Canterbury, February 14, in which the 
adopted declaring that the importation of spir- Rev. S. J. Hawkes, of Pontebury, diocese of 
itnous liquors from England and other coun- Hereford, was charged with having adminis- 
tries was having a disastrous effect upon native tered to communicants water instead of wine 
races in the colonies and dependencies of the at the celebration of the holy communion. The 
British Empire, and recommending, the forma- defendant admitted that he had used water on 
tion of diocesan branches of the society. The the occasion, as charged, but pleaded that be 
resolutions were supported by the Bishops of had intended no offense against the rubrics. 
Sydney, Cork, Pennsylvania, Huron, Colombo, He had not been aware beforehand that there 
and Zululand, and the Bishop Coadjutor of An- was to be a communion service. Finding no 
tigua. The Bishop of Sydney declared that it wine in the flagon, he in his surprise ordered 
was absolutely impossible to exaggerate the the clerk to get something. The clerk had 
utterly disastrous effect which the traffic in brought water, and he had used it without 
spirituous liquors was exercising everywhere. thinking to examine it. Lord Penzance, in giv- 

Powers 9t the Archbishop. — The case of Read ing his decision, while admitting the defend- 

and others m. the Archbishop of Canter- ant's excuses, thought that he had erred in 

bury, involving an appeal of four members of judgment ; he should have made an explana- 

the Church of England resident in the diocese tiou or dismissed the congregation, and post- 

of Lincoln against the refusal of the Archbish- poned the service. The court would do no 

op of Canterbury of their request to cite the more than admonish the defendant against a 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 15 

repetition of the offense, and condemn him in have an opportnnitj of considering the details 

the costs. The conduct of the minister in in- of certain proposed bills dealing with the ec- 

stitating the proceedings was, however, jasti- clesiastical courts before they ai'e settled in the 

ficd. Such a departure from the order of pro- parlimentary committees, 
ceedings in the celebration of the holy com- The lower house, recognizing the urgent 

mnnioD was no light matter. Jhe rabncs of need of an increase of the clergy, declared by 

the Prayer- Book were not merely directory, resolution "that it will welcome the accession 

but were in their smallest incidents nothing of duly qualified persons possessed of independ- 

leas than positive commands of law, strictly to ent means who will offer themselves for the 

he foUowed and faithfully obeyed. So serious work of deacons ; but that it deprecates any 

a departure as this case disclosed could not be alteration of the law and of the ancient usages 

passed over, in the opinion of the court, without of the Church which would involve the relax- 

ecclesiastical censure, except at the risk of im- ation of the solemn obligations of holy or- 

plying that the breach of them was venial, triv- ders." The governmental measure for the re- 

ial or unimportant. striction of the opium-trade with China by giv- 

Ike CwTocatltBS. — Both houses of the Convo- ing control of the matter for a period to the 

cation of Canterbury met for the dispatch of Chinese authorities was approved, and the 

bosiness, Feb. 29. The archbishop exhibited hope was expressed that measures would be 

to their lordships of the upper house letters taken to prevent the importation of opium into 

patent, dated Sept. 16, 1887, conveying the Burm ah, and that the Government might see its 

royal assent to the newly amended canons as way clear to '^ bring about the final extinction 

to the hours of marriage, agreed to by both of the Bengal monopoly." A further devel- ' 

boasess and gave notice that it was necessary opment was suggested of parochial guilds, in 

that the two houses should meet together, in which, the house declared, might be discerned 

order that the new and amended canons might a wide possibility of increased spiritual good, 

be made, promulgated, and executed. The both in town and country parishes, 
ceremonial of summoning and receiving the The Convocation assembled again April 24. 

lower house, in full official form, was then A report was presented in the upper house 

performed for the first time, it was said, since from a joint committee of the two houses on 

1603. The archbishop read, in Latin and Eng- the relations of the Convocations of the North- 

Ush, the new enactments which brought the ern and Southern Provinces, the consideration 

law of the Church into harmony with the law of which was deferred. A motion was carried 

of the land, after which the document of assent for the appointment of a joint committee to 

was signed by the archbishop and bishops, report as to any new organization required to 

and by the prolocutor, deans, archdeacons, and enable the Church to reach the classes of the 

proctors of the lower house. A resolution of population now outside of religious organiza- 

the lower house relating to the election of in- tions. Satisfaction was expressed at the unani- 

cumbents by parishioners in cases where the mous passage of the House of Commons of the 

living is vested in the parishioners, was amend- resolution of Mr. McArthur in regard to the 

ed and approved. It recommends the inser- traffic in drink with native races. The bish- 

tioD of a clause in the Church Patronage Bill ops acted favorably upon an articultts cleri of 

providingfor the selection of a permanent com- the lower house respecting the exclusion of 

mittee by the parishioners, through which the the clergy from the county councils proposed 

election shall be conducted. A petition was to be erected under the new Local Government 

presented from the Lord^s Day Observance So- Bill, asking them to take steps to obtain such 

cietj on the subject of the relaxation ot Sun- alteration in the measure as would prevent such 

daj observance, which appeared to have in- exclusion. The lower house having, without 

creased of late years, and to the great increase instruction from the upper house, acted upon 

of Sunday labor; to which the house respond- motions suggesting additions to the Church 

ed that it deemed it its duty '^ to appeal to the Catechism, dealing with questions of doctrine 

der^y, to all instructors of the young, and to concerning which the Episcopate claimed the 

all who exercise influence over their fellow- exclusive right of origination, a resolution was 

men, not to suffer this Church and country to passed by the upper house, declaring itself un- 

lose the priceless benefits of the rest and sane- able to consider the action in question, because 

titj of the Lord^s Day. Its reasonable and re- it could not regard it ^* as regular and desirable 

%ious observation is for the moral, physical, that synodical validity should be given to form- 

aod spiritual health of all ranks of the popula- ularies professing to set forth the doctrines of 

tioD, and to it our national well-being has been the Church for the drawing up and circulation 

lan?e1y due." Sympathy was expressed with of which the consent of the president had not 

the clergy in the difiiculties to which they were been applied for and obtained." A report was 

Babjected in the collection of tithes, and the ef- made in the House of Laymen recommending 

forts of the house were pledged in favor of an increase of the Episcopate, and the adop- 

measores for remedying them. The president tion, as far as possible, of county boundaries 

(archbishop) was requested to appoint a com-* as the bases of the boundaries of dioceses, 

mittee to consider the question or an increase Concerning the principles which should regu- 

of the episcopate. A desire was expressed to late a system of pensions for disabled or aged 



16 ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 

clergy, the hoQse expressed the opinion that ^^ a to promote nnitj of faith and to bind the 
considerable portion of the fund should be pro- bodies represented ^* in straiter bonds of peace 
vided by the laity, or by non-beneficiaries ; that and brotherly charity." Seventy-six bishops 
every clergyman, in order to become eligible responded to tbis invitation, while the bisbope 
for a pension, shoald be expected to contribute and Archbishop of the Province of York de- 
an adequate amount to the pension fund ; that clined to join in the movement. The confer- 
the pension should be free from seizure by ence met on tfie 24tb of September, 1867. Its 
creditors ; and that the age at which, as a gen- time was largely occupied with discussions of 
eral rule, the pensions should commence, should the affairs of the South African churches, while 
be sixty-five." The house approved the pur- several questions were submitted to commi^ 
pose of the Tithe Rent-charge Recovery Bill as tees to be reported upon by them to a meeting 
a measure for facilitating the collection and of the bishops then remaining in England, in 
recovery of the charge in question. the following December. The second confer- 

The Convocation of York met for the dis- ence was called, again at the suggestion of the 
patch of business April 17. The archbishop, Canadian Synod, in July, 1877, and, the bisb- 
in his opening address, remarking upon differ- ops of the province of York having concluded 
ences that had occurred between the two houses to take part in it, was attended by 100 bish- 
at previous sessions, said that the present po- ops. It met on the 29th of June, and ad- 
sition of the Convocation had occasioned much joumed on the 27th of July, 1878. The sab- 
anxious thought with him, and that he feared jects discussed regarded *^ The best mode of 
that the two houses would not be able to co- maintaining union among the various branchee 
operate in the future. The prolocutor of the of the Anglican Communion " ; ** Voluntary 
lower house (the Dean of York) regarded boards of arbitration for churches to which 
these remarks as a reflection upon his oflScial such an arrangement may be applicable ^' ; 
course, and offered his resignation, which was ^^ The relations to each other of missionary 
accepted. The Rev. Chancellor Espio, D. D., bishops and of missionaries in various branches 
was chosen prolocutor. Resolutions were of the Anglican Communion acting in the 
adopted in the upper house urging the need same country " ; ^*- The position of Anglican 
of the Church for legislation on the ecclesias- chaplains and chaplaincies on the Continent of 
tical courts, and, without committing itself to Europe and elsewhere" ; '' Modern forms of 
the approval of particular recommendations, infidelity and the best means of dealing with 
indicating the report of the Royal Commis- them " ; and ^* The condition, progress, aod 
sion, dated July 18, 1883, as the suitable basis needs of the various churches of the Anglican 
of such legislation. Communion." The reports on these subjects, 

Hie LiHketh Conftrence. — The third Lambeth as adopted by the Conference, were incorpo- 

Conference of Bishops of the Anglican Com- rated as a whole in a combined ** letter," and 

munion — often designated the *^ Pan-Anglican put forth to the world in the name of the 

Conference " — was opened June 30. While the hundred bishops assembled ; which letter was 

idea of holding a conference of this kind had also published in Latin and Greek translations, 

been frequently mentioned before, the propo- The following invitation to the Conference 

sition for the first assemblage took serious of 1888 was sent out to 209 bishops : 

form in the Canadian Provincial Synod of Lamboth Pai.ao«, JViw. 9. 1S8T. 

1865, which unanimously resolved to urge Bioht Bevebend aitd Dear Brothbb : 

upon the Archbishop and Convocation of Can- I am now able to send you definite information with 

terbury that some means should be adopted regard to the Conference of Bishopij of the AngHcw 

u k« «;k:«v. 4-u^ *»^«»K^..« r^t ««- A n»it^»» rL.« Communion to be held at Lambeth, if God permit, m 

by which the members of our Anglican Com- ^^ ,„^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ 

raumon m all quarters of the world should In accordance with the precept of 1878. it has been 

have a share in the deliberations for her wel- arranfi^ed that the Conference shall assemble on Thun- 

fare, and be permitted to have a representa- day, July s, 1888. After four days' session there will 

tion in one general council of her members ^^^^J?"^TvVh^r]^?Ii^^ 

., , * ^ 1 1 11 rrt- 1 -^ tees appomted by the Conference may nave opportu- 

gathered from every land. This appeal, it nity for deliberation. The Conference will reaSbmble 

18 said, was prompted by the condition of af- on Monday, July 28, or Tuesday, July 24, and ^ill 

fairs then existing in South Africa, in view of conclude its session on Friday, July 27. 

the pronunciation of a sentence of deposition . Information as to the services to be held in conneo- 

o»«;Jlc,f UicUr^^ nr^\^^c.^ T« «««,^i;«««« ^uv. tion with the Conference, and other particulars, wiD 

against Bishop Colenso. In compliance with ^ ^^^^ ^^^.^ ^ the time draws neaT 

the request, which was seconded by the Oon- i have received valuable suggestions from my epi»- 

vocation of Canterbury, the archbishop issued copal brethren in all parts of the world as to the ob- 

in February, 1 867, an invitation to all the bish- jects upon which it is thought desirable that we should 

ops in communion with the Church of Eng^ Srhym^s^tl^a^'nTtt^^^^^^^ 
land, 144 m number, to meet for purposes of good enough t^ co-operate with me iTmaking the pre- 
Christian sympathy and mutual counsel on liminary arrangements, and the following are the sub- 
matters affecting the welfare of the Church jects definitely selected for discussion : 
at home and abroad ; explaining, at the same , }- The Church's Practical Work in Belation to, 
time, that the meeting would not be compe- • i^^a (rfTE^ri.^ ^ "*^^ (r) Care ot emigrants ; 
tent to make declarations or lay down defini- 2/ Definite Teachmg of the Faith to Various Classes, 
tions on points of doctrine, but would tend and the Means thereto. 



ANGLICAN 0HDR0HE8. 17 

koglican Conimunion in Relation to the Salisbury's visit to the Old Catholics, in 1887. 

arches to the ScaiifiMvian and other Re- (Sg^ "Annual Cyclopedia" for 1887, article 

irches, t<) the Old Catholics, and others. r%,^ n^ -,„,x, ,^« \ 

imy ol Ueathcn Converts. Divorce. ^^J? ^t^^ u"?'] .v u- . ^ u a .u -. 
riutive Standards of Doctrine and Wor- Cn the third day the subject of " Authorita- 
tive Standards of Doctrine and Worship " was 

I Relations of Dioceses and Branches of introduced by the Bishop of Sydney, and spoken 
n Communion. ^^ ^ ^j^e Bishops of Aberdeen, Western New 
atore asain to in\nte your eam<%t prayer ^ r j . .^ ^^ tu o- i. r a i- x. 
vine Head of the Ohiich may be pleased York, and Australia. The Bishop of Salisbury 
vifh his blessing this our endeavor to pro- suggested that very large powers should be 
ory and the advancement of his kingdom conferred on future Lambeth Conferences. The 

^ .,,.,, ^, . ^, . " Mutual Relations of Dioceses and Branches of 

your faithlul brother "^j^hris^^^^ ^j^^ Anglican Communion " was discussed by 

the Bishops of Cape Town, Brechin, and Derry. 

jference was attended by 145 prel- A petition from the English Church Union, 

fienting the Church as follows : The urging resistance to any tampering with the 

»p of Canterbury and 88 bishops of law of marriage, the concerting of measures 

ice of Canterbury ; the Archbishop of for securing the celebration of the Holy Com- 

I I bishops of the province of York ; munion in all churches on Sundays and holy 
ishops of Ai'magh and Dublin and 9 days, for the reservation of the sacrament, and 
ops ; the Bishop of Minnesota (repre- for the better observance of days of abstinence, 
tbe Presiding Bishop of the United was laid on the table. 

d 28 American bishops ; the Metro- On the fourth day, " The Church's Practical 

Fredericton and 8 Canadian bishops ; Work in Relation to (a) Intemperance ; (b) 

>po]itan of Calcutta and 4 Indian Purity ; (e) Care of Emigrants ; and (d) So- 

the Metropolitan of Sydney and 8 cialism,'^ was considered, the several depart - 

I bishops ; 4 bishops from New Zea- ments of the subject being introduced by (a) 

om South Africa ; 4 from the Cana- the Bishop of London ; (b) the Bishops of 

tories, and tbe remainder, missionary Durham and Calcutta ; (e) the Bishops of Liv- 

icluding the Bishop of Gibraltar and erpool and Quebec; and (d) the Bishops of 

> in Jerusalem and the East, who ex- Manchester and Mississippi, 
repiscopal functions. The Bishop of The Conference then adjourned till July 28, 

r and Bristol acted as Episcopal Sec- to give place to the meetings of the committees 

e Dean of Windsor as General Secre- appointed to consider the subjects referred to 

the Archdeacon of Maidstone as As- them. 

iretary. The Archbishop of Canter- The closing service of the Conference was 

ided. held July 28, in St. PauFs Cathedral, where a 

liminary meetings of the Conference sermon was preached by the Archbishop of 

. service in Canterbury Cathedral on York. 

ftnd a service in Westminster Abbey, The results of the deliberations of the Con- 
aon by the Archbishop of Canter- ference, which were published immediately 
e Conference was opened on the 8d after its adjournment, include an encyclical 
The sermon was preached by the letter, addressed to ^^The Faithful in Christ 
Minnesota, and bore reference to the Jesus " ; the resolutions formally adopted ; and 
e of unity In the Church, the bin- reportsof committees accepted but not adopted 
• it, and the possibility of a compre- by the Conference. While the encyclical letter 
nion. The business meetings were is official and the resolutions are given as formal 
th an address by the Archbishop of utterancesoftheConference, it was avowed that 
J, in the course of which the various the reports should be taken to represent its 
lat would be submitted for discussion mind only in so far as they were reaffirmed or 
rred to. The subject of " Definite adopted in the resolutions; but they were 
»ftbe Faith to Various Classes, and the printed in the belief that they would offer 
reto," was then discussed in private, " fruitful matter for consideration." At the 
[g speeches being by the Bishops of head of the questions which had engaged atten- 
[aine, and Carlisle. tion, the letter placed that of the duty of the 
bject of the second day's discussion Church in the promotion of temperance and 
Anglican Communion in Relation to purity. While the evil effects of intemperance 
n Churches, to the Scandinavian and could hardly be exaggerated and total absti- 
»nned Churches, to the Old Catholics nence was highly valued as a means to an end, 
9," and was introduced by the Arch- the language was discountenanced '* which con- 
Dublin. The Bishop of Winchester demns the use of wine as wrong in itself inde- 
the point of intercommunion ; the pendently of its effects on ourselves or on 
Gibraltar gave an account of his in- others," and the practice of substituting some 
with Eastern prelates, and of the other liquid in the celebration of Holy Cora- 
deling on the Continent toward the munion was disapproved. A general action of 
torch; and the Bishop of Lichfield all Christian people — nothing short of which 
e result of his and the Bishop of would avail — was invited to arrest the evil of 
.. xxTiii. — 2 A 



18 ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 

impuritj, by raising the tone of public opinion recogmze the real religious work which is carried od 

and stamping out ignoble and corrupt tradi- by Christian bodies not of our communion. We an 

♦:r*«a Ti.^ a««*/t«>:f J^ ^f Tna«..{A/.A «r<>o\«rxm.>«^ '*<>* olose our eyes to the visible blessm^ which hs» 

tions The sanctity of marriage was compro- ^^^ vouchsal<S to their labore for Christ^s sake. Let 

raise*! by increasing facilities for divorce, re- us not be misunderstood on this point. We are not 

specting which the Church should insist upon insensible to the strong ties, the rooted oonvictions, 

adherence to the precept of Christ. " The which attach them to their present nosition. Th«€ 

polygamous alliances of heathen races are al- J^^^^^' feJlhi'^'''^^" b^i^ teV"^C^ilteSt 

lowed on all hands to be condemned by the law oLrvere, ind^edfLs^^that T^n Engbi^d^y, 

of Christ ; but they present many practical but in all parts of the world, there is a real yearning 

problems which have been solved in various for unity — that men's hearts are moved more tfaaa 

ways in the past. . . . While we have refrained heretofore toward Christian fellowship. May the 

from offering advice on minor points, leaving S^ilTdSerencT''''^ ""^^"^ '*"^" '^^ 

these to be settled by the local authorities of Txr-^t ^ x ^l a j- . -oi. i. 

the Church, we have laid down some broad ,^^^^V^^^P^^*. ^ *i Scan^i°a^>a° Church, 

lines on which alone we consider that the mis- *t® seeking of fuller knowledge and the inter- 

sionary may safely act. Our first care has been change of friendly mtercourse was recom- 

to maintain and protect the Christian concep- mended as preliminary to the promotion of 

tion of marriage, believing that any immediate closer relations. Though it was not believed 

and rapid successes which might otherwise ^?«^ the time had come for any direct connec- 

have been secured in the mission field would ^'}'^ ^^^h tlie Old Catholic or other Contment- 

be dearly purchased by any lowering or con- fl movements toward reformation, the possi- 

fusion of this idea." The growing laxity in ^'}'^l <^^ »° utimate formal aliance with some 

the observance of Sunday as a day of rest, of ^^ them was hoped for. While there were do 

worship, and of religious teaching, was depre- a^ctnnal bars to commanion with the Eastern 

cated. The importance of the attitude of the Churches such as existed in the Roman Catho- 

Church toward the social problems of the day ^*^. Church, and while all Episcopal intrr.sioiLj 

was ur>red ; and its duties in this category were ^^^^»" t^®"" jurisdiction and all schemes of 

to be discharged by faithfully inculcating the proselytizing were to be avoided, it was only 

definite truths of the faith as the basis of all "^^t, tlie letter declares, 

moral teaching : particularly by a more con- That our real claims and position as a historicil 

stant supervision of, and a more sustained in- Church should be set before a ^ople who are^very 

terest on the part of the clergy in the work d^^rustful ot novelty, especially in rehpon and who 

J . * , F«»« ^» ""^^^^'ej »" "^^ ^^**^ appreciate the history ot Catholic antiquitv. Help 

done m Sunday-schools ; by encouraging the should be ^ven toward the education of the clergy, 

study of Holy Scripture ; by cautions and dis- and, in more destitute communities, extended to 

creet treatment of doubts arising from the mis- schools for general instruction, 

apprehension of the due relations between While it was considered desirable that the 

science and revelation — respecting which, standards, as repeatedly defined and as reiter- 

" where minds have been disquieted by scien- ated in the letter, should be set before the for- 

tific discovery or assertion, great care should eign churches in their parity and simplicity: 

be taken not to extinguish the elements of ^ certain liberty of treatment must be extended to 

faith, but rather to direct the thinker to the the cases of native and growing churches, on which 

realization of the fact that such discoveries it would be unreasonable to impose, as conditions of 

elucidate the action of laws which, rightly communion, the whole of the thirt;r-nine articles, col- 

conceived, tend to the higher appreciation of ir^^^.^:L7uZi^S^'^,^V:ZHi^:urZt 

the glorious work of the Creator, upheld by up. On the other hand, it would be impossible for 

the word of his power '' ; and by similar caution us to share with them in the matter of holy orders as 

in the treatment of questions respecting in- in complete intercommunion, without satisfactory 

spiration. A reference to questions in the evidence that thev hold the same form of doctrine as 

Jf,,,.. ^j. jv I c ourselves. It outrht not to be ditncult, much less im- 

nriutual relations of dioceses and branches of possible, to formulate articles in accordance with our 

the communion between which cases of fric- own standards of doctrine and worship, the accej^Dco 

tion may arise, was followed by a definition of of which should be required of all ordained in sudi 

the attitude of the Anglican Communion to- churches. 

ward the religious bodies now separated from The resolutions formally adopted by the 

it, which, it was declared : Conference are in general harmony with the 

Would appear to be this : Wo hold ourselves in Precepts set forth in the encyclical letter. Be- 

readiness to enter into brotheriy conference with any Sides approving, m general terms, the positions 

of those who may desire intercommunion with us in assumed in the several reports, they give more 

a more or less perfect form. We lay down conditions formal and detailed expressions ' concerning 

on which such intercommunion is, in our opinion, and ^^^^ ^f tj,^ questions considered in them. 

accordinsr to our conviction, possible. For, however rr^^ ,1 2*i *. t^ 4.1 # r ^ j 

we may W to embrace those now alienated from us. They declare that "the use of unfermented 

so that the ideal of the one flock under the one shep- juice ot the grape, or any liquid other than 

herd may be realized, wo must not be unfaithful true wine in the administration of the cup 

stewards of the great deposit intrusted to us. We jn Holy Communion, is unwarranted bv the 

can not desert our position either as to faith or disci- «^o^«iL «* ^.,«t^«^ ««^ :« «« ««„«4i.^-:-,wi 

pline. That concord would, in our iud^ent, be example of our Lord, and is an unauthorized 

neither true nor desirable which should be produced departure from the custom of the Catholic 

by such a surrender. But we gladly and thankfully Church " ; that the Church can not recognize 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 19 

;ept in the case of fornication or rights of bishops of the Catholic Church to 
' sanction the marriage of a person interpose in cases of extreme necessity,^' depre- 
)Dtrary to this law, daring the life cated any action tliat does not regard primitive 
)r party ; that the guilty party, in and established principles of jurisdiction and 
ivorce for fornication or adultery, the interests of the whole Anglican Commnn- 
kse during the life of the other party ion. The question of relations with the Mo- 
las a fit recipient of the blessing of ravian Church was remitted to a committee 
I on marriage, but that the privi- and to the Archbishop of Canterbury. Hope 
e Church should not be refused to was expressed that the barriers to fuller com- 
rties thus married under civil sane- munion with the Eastern Churches and juris- 
persons living in polygamy should dictions might, in course of time, be removed 
litted to baptism, but that they be by further intercourse and extended enlight- 
I candidates and kept under Chris- enment. The Archbishop of Canterbury was 
tion until such time as they shall be requested to consider whether it is desirable to 
on to accept the law of Christ; revise the English version of the Nicene Creed 
wives of polygamists may be ad- and the Quicunque Vult (Athanasian Creed). 
I>aptism, but it must be left to the Lastly it was resolved : 

•ities of the Church to decide under ^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^^ constituted churches, espe- 

imstances they may be baptized, cially in non-Christian lands, it should be a condition 

ig laxity in the observance of the of the recoiynition of them as in complete intercom- 

and especially the increasing prac- munion with us, and especially of their receiving from 

ine it a dav of secular enioymeDt, 5» epificopal succession, that we should first receive 

.*^ ««^ \l ?« ««««i.r«.i it*u«* ♦i^i from them satisfiictory evidence that they hold sub- 

ited, and it is resolved that the ^tantially the same doctrine as our own, aid that their 

il regard should be had to the dan- clergy subscribe articles in accordance with the ex- 

incroachment upon the rest which, press statements of our own standards of doctrine and 

, is the right of the working-classes worship; but that they should not necessarily be 

>f their employers." The opinion bpund to accept in their entirety the thirty -nine Arti- 

- ^ "^ J *v i. clea of Keligion. 

ference was expressed that no par- ^ 

ion of the Church should undertake Chirch Coigress. — The twenty -eighth Church 
the Book of Common Prayer with- Congress met at Manchester, October 1. The 
consideration of the possible effect Bishop of Manchester presided, and the open- 
on on other branches of the Church, ing sermon was preached by the Archbishop 
ing articles were suggested as sup- of York. The president, in opening the dis- 
$is on which approach may be made cnssions, spoke of the value of the Congress as 
ome reunion " : an instrument for creating enlightened public 
Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- opinion ; in which, by bringing men of differ- 
ontaining all thint^s necessary to salva- ent opinions together, and giving them equal 
$ being the rule and ultimate standard opportunities to present their views, it had 

xAS^« r«£!?t^ Tn !?fffl.??^t'2«Lnfin; advautagcs over the press. On the subject, 

>iicene Creed as the sumcicnt statement .. «, l ^ -r< ^ ^ l u r> ^^ i* tt ^ • 

tian faith; the two sacraments ordained To what Extent should Kesults of Histon- 

[mself— baptism and the Supper of the cal and Scientific Criticisms, especially of the 

tered with unfailin^r use of Chnst^B words Old Testament, be recognized in Sermons and 

, and of the elements ordained by him ; Teachings," the Rev.' J. M. Wilson declared 

SIllTtST^^jJ A'l'^^ that the' clergy must tell the truth, and the 

peoples called of God into the unity of whole truth ; the Dean of Peterborough sought 

a definition of the results of criticism ; and the 

iference requested the constituted president considered the introduction of diffi- 

of the various branches of the ^^^^ questions of criticism into the ordinary 

, . teachings of the pulpit very undesirable. In 

f^^ -= r««^ y^ ;« .w.«««,^ ^uu r.^^ -« ^1»® discussion of the question, ** How to sup- 
far as may be, in concert with one an- , ., rvr-i. m j.x. t% L-ioi. tT 
£e it known that they hold themselves in V^J the Defects of the Parochial System by 
enter into brotherly conference (nuch as Means of Evangelizing Work," the Rev. W. 
as already been proposed by the Church Carlisle, founder of the Church Army, de- 
1 ?,^^* ^^ America) with the rem^sento- scribed the working methods of that orgauiza- 
r Christian communions in the Entrlish- «.• „ rk*.i.«« ^.^k^^x^+o ^:«^»oa .a «,uk 4^u^ , «:««; 
>s, in order to consider what stei>s c^n be tion. Other subjects discussed, with the princi- 

toward separate reunion, or toward such pal Speakers upon them, were : " 1 he Church in 

may prepare the way for fuller organic Wales (Mr. J. Dilwyn Llewellen, on " Tithes," 

er. the Dean of St. Asaph, on '^The Work of the 

»res^ions of sympathy and fraternal Church"); "The Duty of the Church to Sea- 

rard the Scandinavian Church, the men" (on which persons particularly interest- 

ic Church of Holland, the Old Cath- ed in mission work among seamen gave the 

unity of Germany, the "Christian results of their experience and observations) : 

hurch" in Switzerland, the Old "Positivism; its Truths and Fallacies" (the 

n Austria, and the Reformers in Rev. W. Cunningham, the Rev. C. L. Eng- 

e, Spain, and Portugal, the Confer- strom, and Mr. A. J. Balfour) ; " The Needs 

loat desiring to interfere with the of Human Nature, and their Supply in Chris- 



/ 



20 ANGLICAN 0H0R0HE8. ANTI-POVERTY SOCIETY. 

• 

tianity" (the Archbishop of York and Mr. A. rar); "Competition, Co-operation, and Over- 
Balfoar) ; " Gambling and Betting ^' (the Rev. Population " (the Bishop of Bedford, Hon. 
Nigel Madan, Prebendary Grier, the Dean of and Rev. A. T. Lyttleton, Archdeacon Farrar^ 
Rochester, and the Rev. Charles Goldney); and Prof. Symes); and "the Several Aspects 
" The Foreign Missions of the Church of £ng- of the Question of Sunday Observance," in- 
land and the Protestant Episcopal Charch of eluding the questions of the closing of public 
the United States of America" (Rev. F. H. Cox, houses, the opening of libraries and museums, 
on " Missions to English-Speaking People," and Sunday recreation and traveling (Sir W. 
Rev. Dr. Coddington on "Missions to Sav- Houldsworth, M. P., Canon McCormick, and 
ages," the Rev. R. Bruce on " Missions to Co- the Bishop of Newcastle), 
lonial Lands," and a number of the colonial The Irish Syisd.— Tiie General Synod of the 
bishops) ; " Atheism " (Mr. R. H. Button) ; Episcopal Church in Ireland met in Dublin in 
"Agnosticism " (the Rev. H. Wace, D. D., and April. The report of the representative bodj 
"Pessimism " (the Rev. A. W. Momerie) ; said that the total assets of the Church at the 
"Temperance; the Demoralization of Unciv- close of 1887 amounted to £7,313,838. The 
ilized Races by the Drink-Traffic " (Dr. J. total contributions received during the year 
Grant Mills, the Hon. T. W. Pelham, Sir footed up to £136,963. The total expenditure 
Charles Warren); "Disposal of the Dead" for the year had been £438,848. About £12,- 
(F. Seymour Harlen, the Rev. H. R. Haweis, 000 had been received by the treasurers c»f the 
Mr. A. Sington, and the Bishop of Notting- " Victoria Jubilee Fund " for the educatioo of 
ham) ; "The Sunday-school System in its Re- the sons and daughters of the clergy. About 
lation to the Church " (Canon Elwyn, Canon £3,300 had been received for the purchase of 
Trotter, the Kev. J. W. Gedge, and Mr. J. the palace at Armagh, as a residence for the 
Palmer); "Social Purity" (the Bishop of primate. 

Newcastle, Mr. G. S. S. Vidal, and G. B. Mor- ANTI-POYERTT 80CIiT¥, an organization thst 
gan, D. D.) ; " Hindrances to Church Work grew out of the candidacy of Henry George 
and Progress" (the Bishops of Carlisle and for Mayor of New York city in November, 
Wakefield and Archbishop Farrar) ; " Adapta- 1886. The number of votes polled for Mr. 
tion of the Prayer- Book to Modem Needs" George on that occasion was a surprise to poli- 
(Canon Meyrick, Archdeacon Norris, Dr. Lum- ticians, and the result was accepted by the mem- 
by, of Cambridge, and the Bishops of Sydney, hers of the United Labor party, whose candi- 
Jamaica, and Grahamstown) ; " Maintenance date Mr. George was, as an indication thatthej 
of Voluntary Schools; Should the Education should push forward their peculiar doctrines 
in them be Free and Religious ? " (Prebendary by other means and in other fields. On the 
Roe, the Rev. Dr. Cox, Canon Gregory, and 26th of March, 1887, a few men assembled in 
Mr. J. Talbot); "The Bearing of Democracy the city of New York and organized the Anti- 
on Church Life and Work" (Rev. C. W. Stubbs, Poverty Society, with the following brief dec- 
Rev. Llewellen Davis, Mr. T. Hughes, Q. C, laration : " Believing that the time has come 
and Archdeacon Watkins) ; " Lay Representa- for an active warfare against the condition!) 
tion in Church Councils and Statutory Paro- that, in spite of the advance in the powers of 
chial Councils" (Lord Egerton, of Patton, production, condemn so many to degrading 
Canon Freinantle, and Mr. R. D. Uslin) ; poverty, and foster vice, crime, and greed, the 
"Free and Open Churches, Reserved Seats, undersigned associate themselves together in 
and their Influence on Attendance" (Preben- an organization to be known as the Anti- 
dary Hannah, the Earl of Carnarvon, Earl Nel- Poverty Society. The object of the soci- 
son, and the Rev. H. D. Burton) ; " The Va- ety is to spread, by such peaceable and law- 
nous Phases of Christian Service — Worship, ful means as may be found most desirable and 
Almsgiving, Work, and Home Life" (Canon efiicient, a knowledge of the truth that God 
Furse, the Bishop of Wakefield, Canons Hoare has made ample provision for the needs of all 
and Jelf, and the Bishops of Glasgow and Gal- men during their residence upon earth, and 
loway, and of Mississippi); *' Church Finance " that poverty is the result of the human laws 
(Rev. W. A. Whitworth, Mr. Stanley Leigh- that allow individuals to claim as private prop- 
ton, M. P., and Mr. H. C. Richmond); "Escha- erty that which the Creator has provided for 
tology " (Canon Luckock, Archdeacon Farrar, the use of all." The presidency was accepted 
Rev. C. H. Waller, and Rev. Sir George W. by Dr. Edward McGlynn, who had become 
Cox) ; " Increase of the Episcopate ; " " The prominent by his connection with the candi- 
Desirableness of Reviving the Common Relig- dacy of Mr. George. A high authority from 
ious Life of Men" (the Dean of Lincoln); and within the society declares that its indications 
"Lay Help." At " Workingmen's Meetings," are "to do God's work. We band ourselves 
held in the evenings during the session, the together to do the work of God; to rouse the 
subjects were presented, in popular addresses, essentially religious sentiment in men and 
of "The Needs of Human Nature, and their women, which looks to the helping of suffer- 
Supply in Christianity " (the Archbishop of ing. We want to do what churches and creeds 
York and Mr. A. J. Balfour); " Hindrances to can not do — abolish poverty altogether; to se- 
Church Work and Progress" (the Bishops of cure to each son of God, as he comes into the 
Carlisle and Wakefield and Archdeacon Far- world, a full share of God's natural bounties, 



ANTI-POVERTY SOCIETY. AROHiEOLOGY. (Amebioan.) 21 

right in all the advantages and fruits ARCHJEOLOGT. (Anerietn.) Gladal Man in 
zatioo and progress, a fair chance to America. — The evidences of the existence of man 
all his powers.'^ Still another an- in America in the Glacial epoch have heen 
lefines the scope of the organization as summed up hy Prof. F. W. Putnam, in the Bos- 
'* The poverty that we would abolish ton Society of Natural History, and Dr. C. O. 
3m the inability to get work, or from Abbott, in the American Association for the 
wages that are paid for work. The Advancement of Science. They include the 
to get work arises from the lament- palffiolithio implements which Dr. Abbott has 
that, in most countries — in most civ- found from time to time since 1876 in the 
»untries especially, and in those coun- gravels of the Delaware valley, near Trenton, 
t have attained to the highest civiliza- N. J., with parts of two skulls. The forma- 
have the densest population, which is tion in which these relics occur is declared gla- 
jnse factor in high civilization — the cial by Prof. Cook, State Geologist; it is re- 
)ouiities of Nature are appropriated as Terred by Mr. W. J. McGee, of the (Jnited 
)roperty by a few, by a class, and the States Geological Survey, to the southernmost 
re literally deprived of their divine in- extension of the over wash gravels from the 
3; and so, instead of having the equal terminal moraine formed during the latter 
^et at the general bounties of Nature, epoch of cold of the Quaternary ; and is pro- 
fulfill the duty as well as exercise the nounced by the Rev. G. Frederic Wright, who 
supporting themselves and their fami- has examined the terminal moraine of the great 
same equal chances that every other glacier from New Jersey westward, across 
;he world may have — they have to go Ohio, to be the direct result of the melting 
and begging of the few, who are the of the glaciers as they retired northward. Dr. 
onopolists of the generous bounties of Metz, of Madison ville, Ohio, found a chipped 
* the boon to labor. They have to implement in the gravel at that place, eight feet 
a blessing the chance to get work ; below the surface, in 1885, and another at about 
re there is an unseemly competition — thirty feet below the surface, in a similar deposit 
»le like that of brute beasts at the on the Little Miami river, opposite Loveland, in 
it rests with the monopolists to give 1887, both in a formation unquestionably gla- 
: to the one that will content himself cial. Miss Franc E. Babbitt reported to the 
least and the poorest fare of all — ^to American Association, in 1888, concerning the 
;hat will consent to live and reproduce finding of implements and fragments of chipped 
ies with the least proportion of the quartz at Little Falls, Minn., where they oo- 
of his labor." It has been said that curred in a well-defined thin layer in the modi- 
ttj leans somewhat to the side of the fied drift forming the glacial fiood-plain of the 
(ts, and this might seem to have some Mississippi river. Specimens of all these find- 
>n from the recent remarks of Dr. ings were compared by Prof. Putnam with speci- 
I, who said : *' Killing for political pur- mens from Abbeville and St. Acheul, France, 
xy be considered as something totally and with an English specimen from the collec 
from the crime of murder. If I tion of Mr. John Evans, and were found to 
appen to read in to-morrow's papers bear similiar marks of human workmanship, so 
Czar had been killed, I wouldn't put evident and so uniform in their character as to 
ye on my hat. Without discussing leave the supposition of their having been re- 
in moral casuistry, it is lawful to kill suits of accident out of the question. They 
, still I must acknowledge the grand were, however, made from different materials: 
ie character of the men who think it those from Trenton being, with four exceptions, 
y to do their best to kill him. These of argUlite ; the two from Ohio, one of black 
en feel that they are doing the noblest chert and the other from a hard, dark pebble, 
»t thing they could do for their coun- not yet identified ; and those from Little Falls, 
"ying to kill the Czar." It was ex- of quartz. Each of these materials was the 
lat the society would be in such shape one suitable for the purpose most easily ob- 
ke its influence felt in the November tained at the place where it was in use. These 
of 1887 in the State of New York, implements and the European specimens to- 
e Secretary of State and other State gether show. Prof. Potnam remarks in his re- 
«-ere to be elected. Mr. George was view, " that man in this early period of his 
id for Secretary of State, but he existence had learned to fashion the best avail- 
•ATcely any more votes in the whole able material, be it fiint, argillite, quartz, chert, 
iQ he had polled for Mayor of New or other rocks, into implements and weapons 
1886. Whatever political influence suitable to his requirements"; and *^ that his 
Dgth remained to the United I^bor requirements were about the same on both sides 
d the Anti-Poverty Society was ap- of the Atlantic, when he was living under con- 
thrown for their candidate for Mayor ditions of climate and environment which must 
York in 1888, who received fewer have been very nearly alike on both conti- 
000 votes, against 68,000 for George nents, and when such animals as the mammoth 
r in 1886, and 70,000 for George as and the mastodon, with others now extinct, 
f of State in 1887. were his companions." Evidences of later oc- 



22 ARCHEOLOGY. (Amebioan.) 

cupanoy, perhaps by the descendants of paleeo- upon them, while the sides had been lined 
lithic man, have been fonnd by Mr. Hilbom T. with wood or bark from two to four inches 
Oresson, in traces of pile-structures in the alln- thick. Two bodies had been placed side by 
vial deposits at Naaman^s Creek, in Delaware, side in the grave, both extended at full length 
At two of the structures, or ^^ stations,^' only on their backs with their heads directly west, 
argillite implements were fonnd, many as rude The space within the grave on one side of the 
as some of the palsBolithic types, with a large skeletons had been covered with ashes that 
number of long, slender spcar-points of that had been removed from the fire, the thickness 
material. In a third station, these forms are of the deposit increasing from a mere streak at 
mixed with implements of quartz, jasper, and the feet to six inches at the head, and extend- 
other silicioQs material, with traces of rude ing across the grave nearly in contact with 
pottery. All these discoveries, according to the companion head. The earth removed froDi 
Prof. Patnam, show that man had occupied a the grave was thrown around on every side so 
portion of North America, from the Mississippi as to leave the bodies in a hole nearly two feet 
river to the Atlantic Ocean, at a time when deep. No trace appears of any protecting 
the northern part of the United States was material having been laid over the bodies, 
covered with ice, and that at that early period They were covered with a black, sandy earth, 
he must have been contemporaneous with the which had been packed so firmly that it re- 
mastodon and mammoth. ^^ When we com- quired a pick to loosen it, reached beyond the 
pare the facts now known from the eastern grave on every side, and was about five and a 
side of the continent,^^ Prof. Putnam con- half feet high. No remains were found in the 
tinues, ^* with those of the western side, they mound above the grave of the posts which bad 
seem to force us to accept a far longer oc- probably once stood there. The author as- 
cupation by man of the western coast than sumes that the great fire near the middle of 
of the eastern ; for not only on the western the house had been made from the timbers 
side of the continent have his remains been composing it; that the upper timbers had been 
found in zoological beds unquestionably earlier torn down, and the posts cut off at the surface, 
than the gravels of the Mississippi, Ohio, and Fur the purpose of covering the grave, sand 
Delaware valleys, but he had at that time was brought from a ridge a short distance 
reached a degree of development equal to that away. There was no stratification. Earth 
of the inhabitants of California at the time of had been piled up first around the black mass, 
European contact, so far as the character of forming the grave-mound, and then differeut 
the stone mortars, chipped and polished stone parties had deposited their loads at conven- 
implements, and shell-beads found in the aurif- lent places, until the mound assumed its final 
erous gravels can tell the story." conical arrangement. The lenticular masses 
The CoBStrnctira of a Mound. — A careful ex- through almost the whole mound showed that 
amination has been made by Mr. Gerard Fowke the earth had been carried in skins or small 
of one of the mounds in Pike County, Ohio, baskets. The completed mound was thirteen 
in order to ascertain the exact method of its feet high and about one hundred feet in diame- 
construction. The presence of holes showing ter. Three other skeletons were found within 
traces in the shape of the dark mold resulting it, two on the original surface of the ground, 
from the decay of wood of its having contained and one two feet and a half above it. The 
posts, and arranged in a regular order, indi- bones were covered with a dull-red substance, 
cated that the mound was built upon the site showing a waxy texture under the knife-blade, 
of a house. A trench had been dug outside from which it is supposed that the flesh was 
of the house, possibly for drainage. Near the removed before burial. No relics were found 
middle of the house, which measured about with any of the skeletons, 
forty feet from side to side, there had been a The Great Serpent Monnd. — With the aid of a 
large fire, from which the ashes had been re- committee of ladies of Boston, who secured 
moved to an ash-bed, which was elliptical, subscriptions for the purpose of nearly $6,000, 
and measured thirteen feet from east to west Prof. Putnam, of the Peabody Museum of 
and five feet from north to south. Near Archaeology, purchased for that institution, in 
the center of it was a hole a foot deep and June, 1887, sixty acres of ground, including the 
ten inches across, filled with clean white "Great Serpent Mound," in Adams County, 
ashes, in which was a little charcoal packed Ohio, and it was converted into a6 inclosed 
very hard. At one end of the ash-bed, and park. The mound was restored, so far as was 
continuous with it, though not apparently a practicable, by replacing the earth and other 
part of it, was a mass of burned animal bones, material that had been plowed or washed or 
in eaual pieces, ashes, and charcoal. After carried away. Trees foreign to the spot are 
the nre had biM*ned down, a grave had been to be removed, and replaced with those that 
dug at the middle of the house, ten feet long are indigenous, so as to make the park an ar- 
from east to west, a little more than six horetum of native trees. As described by 
feet broad, and fourteen inches deep, having Prof. Putnam, in the American Association of 
straight sides slanting inward, with rounded 1888, the length of the serpent from tip to tip 
comers. Ashes had been thinly sprinkled on is about 1,000 feet, and the length, including 
the bottom and a single thickness of bark laid convolutions, 1,415 feet. The builders appear to 



ARCHEOLOGY. (Amkbioan.) 28 

led a ]edge of rock before constract- mounds on the neighboring hills, with covered 
abankment. Freqnent fires seem to or walled ways to the river- bank. In some 
led daring the construction ; and in cases there are graded ruads through tlie ter- 
so many people had been gathered races to the inclosures, as at Newark, Piketon, 
lay was beaten like a floor. The spot and Marietta. The villages are situated at in- 
become covered by a foot of soil. In tervals, showing that the people dwelt in dif- 
' of the elliptical mound that formed ferent centers, and there are very few works 
e^s head was once a pile of stones between these centers. 

>een brought up from the creek; they Against the supposition that the mound- 
blackened by long-continued fires, builders of these villages were the Cherokees, 
ras observed that the serpentine em- Dr. Peet argues that these works are entirely 
, was ever used for burial purposes, different from those found in Tennessee, south- 
il mound was found near by in which em Kentucky, and northern Georgia, the habi- 
3tons were discovered — one of them tat of the Cherokees in historic times; and the 
he surface that a plow had broken relics found in the Cherokee country differ 
s stones that formed the coffin and from those in the Ohio mounds. The works 
vay a part of the pelvis. Seven feet in the Cherokee country are large rectangular 
surface, and lying transversely under inclosures without circles, while many of the 
skeleton, was another resting on a pipes called duck -pipes are found there, 
r, over which huge stones had been There are very few pipes with curved stems, 
lat the bones were crushed almost to and none of the variety of sculptured animal 
iderneath the stone floor waa a stra- figures seen on the Ohio pipes ; and no effigies 
al feet thick of black ashes, evidently of any kind, which are common in Ohio, and 
[ corn, in which lay a skeleton over more common in Wisconsin, are to be seen in 
I length and of massive proportions. Tennessee. 

r the Ohio MoBBds. — The evidence ob- PresenratlOD 9t Andeit Mranments. — The com- 
roQgh the explorations of the United mittee of the American Association for the 
rean of Ethnology are regarded by Advancement of Science for the preservation 
Thomas as indicating that the typ- of archseological remains on public lands re- 
nt works in Ohio — the circles and ported to the Buffalo meeting of the Associa- 
md other works of that type, to- tion that it would be well if the following 
th the mounds pertaining to them, remains of early America could be preserved : 
ing to be built by the same people — Chaco Caflon, from the forks of Escavoda 
tr acted by the ancestors of the Chero- Caflon, for a distance of eight miles up, also 
lother class of structures— walls, in- one mile back from the brink of the caflon 
ind defensive works in the northern walls on each ^ide; Caflon de ChcUy, Caflon 
e State, and also in eastern Michigan del Muerto, Walnut Caflon, the.ruin on Fossil 
ibuted to some branch of the Iro- creek on the east branch of the Rio Verde and 
luron -Iroquois stock ; the box-shaped about fifteen miles south of Camp Verde mili- 
res, to the Dela wares and Shawnees. tary reservation ; the ruin in Mancos Caflon, 
tone mounds and mounds containing the round towers situated on the fiat valleys 
Its or graves of a peculiar type, in- of the lower Mancos ; the cavate lodges in the 
'*a savage life, and fierce warfare cinder-cone about eight miles east of Flag- 
jts of prey," are difficult to account staff, Arizona Territory. Besides these groups 
re probably the work of a tribe that of ruins and dwellings, there are isolated re- 
rne extinct. The effigy-mounds, of mains in the territories of New Mexico, Arizo- 
ily a few are known in Ohio, but na, and Utah, numbering over forty, which de- 
e compared with similar works in mand preservation. The Pueblos, which are 
I and with the bird-effigies of Geor- not in treaty reservations or grants, and the 
' present a problem difficult to solve." old Mandan and Arickaree village on the Fort 
ions of the type of which Fort An- Berthold Indian reservation, Dakota Territory, 
1 example are attributed to the Chero- to be preserved when they shall cease to be in- 
lile the work named presents some habited by Indians. 

8 of the influence of the white man. The committee has caused a bill to be intro- 

g the last from the list," says Dr. duced in Congress providing for a reservation 

* there remains clear and satisfactory in New Mexico for the purpose of archsBolog- 

that the ancient works of the State ical study. 

> at least six different tribes." PentYlan. — A Peruvian object, of a unique 

V. S. D. Peet finds in some peculiar character and hitherto undescribed, in the 

f the earth-works of the Scioto val- Ethnographical Museum of the Trocadero, in 

Qces of the existence of a clan-system Paris, has been brought to notice by Dr Ver- 

j builders. Among these features is the nean in "La Nature." It is a hollowed cylin- 

in circles and squaresof areas varying der, of a substance resembling bronze, bearing 

ity- seven to fifty acres. Such works various ornaments upon its circumference and 

tUy regarded as village-sites, and are its upper rim, and measuring sixty millimetres 

led by fortifications and signal- in length and twenty-five millimetres in interior 



24 



ABOH^OLOGY. (Eh< 



to.) 



diameter. It is marked on the outside by two 
parallel aeries of double spirals ruoniag in the 
general direction of its leogtb in such a man- 
ner as to form four figQres resembling tbe let- 
ter S. Twelve rio^ solid witb tba vessel 
itself, are evenly disposed in rows of four. 
Tboae of tbe first row are exactly above those 
of the tliird, while those of the second row 
occupy an intermediate position. Movable 
rings, having spherical swellings in the lower 
part, are haag upon tbe fixed rings of the up- 
per row in ssch a way that thej strike the 




vessel when it is shaken. On tbe flat rim at 
the top of the vessel are two groups of two 
baman flKures each, fscing each other, and 
represeuting the same scene. In each of them 
a re pa 1 si ve- looking man ataods iu tbe attitude 
of being about to strike with his hatchet a 
second persona^, whom he is hulding down. 
The features and appearance of the four fig- 
urea and tbe hatcheta bear a distinctly Peru- 
vian stamp. The relic is snpposed to be a (in- 
tinnabulum, or little bell, like those borne on 
the ends of staffs by Buddhist mendiosnts in 
the East, with which tliey seek to attract the 
attention of persona from whom they ask alms. 
Eiglaid.— The British Act for tbe Preserva- 
tion of Ancient Monnmenta baa been in force 
for five yeara; but, according to Lieut, -Gen. 
Pitt-Rivers, who is intrnsted with ita adminis- 
tration, only one owner has voluntarily offered 
any monument to be pnt under it. All had to 
be sooght out and asked to accept the act, and 



the larger number of the owners of schedoled 
monuments refused. Those who refuaed gen- 
erally did so, however, on the pronnd that 
they wished to remain responsible for their 
own monnmenta; am) very little damage to 
prehiatoric works is going on at present. Pub- 
lic opinion haa done more for tbeir preserva- 
tion than any act of Parliament conid do. 

W Kmui Wan Vf LMdM.— A part ot tbe old 
Roman wall of London has been discovered 
under tbe site that has been obtained for the 
new North Post-Office. The upper part of lb( 
wall only was broken down, while tbe rest i) 
in almost perfect condition, with its masonry 
sharp and tme. One hnndred feet of the stroct- 
are nave been cleared and exposed to view. 
It is constructed with facing-courses of stone— 
Reigate or "rag" — with red tile, and gronled 
core. A fragment of a similar structure of 
genuine Roman work also exists, or did exist, 
in the cellars on Tower Hill. 

<M Bmuui BatiM at Utk — Tracea of tlie old 
Roman baths at Bath were first noticed in 
1755. Further discoveries of remains wer« 
made in 1871. The properties covering the 
ruins were obtained hy the corporation of Bath, 
and some of tbe works were opened to pnblio 
view in 1683. One of the most important ot 
them ia 81 feet long and S8 feet wide, and b 
situated in the center of a hall 110 feet long 
and GB feet inches wide, which was formerly 
roofed with a vault supported by pilasters and 
arches, and is divided into three aisles, the mid- 
dle one of which covered the bath. The pedes- 
tals and lower parts of some of the pilasters are 
still standing, and the ate|is going down into the 
bath are well preserved. Behind the pilasters, 
in the side-aisles, which were decorated with 
sculpture, was a promenade gallery. The floor 
of this hail was twenty feet below tiie level . 
of tbe neighboring modern street. Anoth- 
er spacions apartment bad two sndatories, or 
aw eating-room a, with a fireplace between them 
and flues to beat them. The circular bath, 
which ia shown in the illustration, has been 
disoovered recently. It appears to have been 
once lined witb lead. These structores were 
an object of special attention to the British 
AsDooiation, which met in Batli, in September, 
1388, and the members of that body devoted 
an afternoon to visiting and inspecting them. 
The members assembled around the great oval 
bstb and in it, while the mayor of the city 
fnve an account of the work of opening up 
the ruins, their character, and the degree ot 
Roman civilization of which they gave evi- 
dence. After the Romans left Britain, the 
baths seem to have been allowed to fall into 
ruins, for a teal's egg bad been fonnd in tbero, 
and the common bracken had sprung up. New 
baths have been built upon the foundations of 
some of these structures, 

Geltle Eutkwarlu li HaapililNi.— As many as 
forty Celtic earthworkn are described by Hr. 
T. W. Shore NS remaining in Hampshire, Eng- 
land, in a state of preservation more or leas 



ARCHEOLOGY. fRoiiin.) 



iplete. Tbej are of varioas kinds and 
pea, and where they inclose areas and form 
■o-called camps the; are of very different di- 
isions. Host of them are hill-fortresBeB, but 
re are also marsh and peniosnlar fortresses, 
one ezainpte exista of a small former insa- 
refoge. The present Burroundinga uf these 
thworks are of service in asaiatiBg to deter- 
le tbeir original uses, fur, althoQgb the 
idlaod features may have changed, the geo- 
ic«l conditioDB are the Kame as in Celtic 
ea. The camps oonld hardly have been per- 
oentl; inhabited 
4, for few traces of 
ellioga or art cles 
domestic use have 
n fonnd w thm 
m, and from these 

aces they appear to 
'e been strongholds 

defense a case of 
tck. If th a IS al 
'ed, then these 
as most have had 
iatinct relationship 
the nnmber of peo- 

reqnired fur the r 
ense sod to the 
lolatioo and the r 
ital or the number 

cattl« Ihey were 
UK led to shelter 
tfa these data we 
f draw approii 
lely accurate infer 
les respect ng the 
stitm and denxtt? of the Celtic popalatioD 
;be time of their construction. 
tMU^ — In the course of the eicavntions of 

German Institute in the Forum, adjoining 
temple of Julius, foundations solidly end 
II built in trarertine bare been discovered, 
ich Prof. Richter has identified with the 
eh of Aagnatua The arcb appears to have 
■n one of three piers, like the arches of Seve- 

and Constantine, the middle passage being 
rteen feet wide. 

ImiIm •faalrdukaTOUatlw.— Excavationa 
re been made at the site of the ancient Syb* 
I for the sake of recovering the ruins of 

Grecian city that was destroyed five centn- 
( before Christ. Ruins attributable to such 
it* ha»e not yet been found, but a necropo- 
bas been discovered in the neighborhood 
icb indicates that there existed there pre- 
Ds to the Greek period a more ancient city, 
remains of which bear evidence of an ar- 
ie civilization precisely corresponding with 
t, specimens of which have beeu found at 
toIiMiia, Civita Caatellana, Corneto, and ra- 
19 points in other parts of the peninsula, 
' ID some details with the finds in the 
istrine depoaita of the northern provinces. 
oag the moat striking specimens of ancient 
iiaic art, are the cinerary nrna of the hat 



type, such as have been found on the Alban 
mountains onder two strata of volcanic depos- 
its, and which, with the well-tombs, are char- 
acteristic features at Oorneto (or Tarquinia). 
The urns are vessels of the rudest forms of 
pottery, hand-made and half-baked ; and with 
them in one of the well tombs at Corneto were 
found bronze helmets of most skilifui fabric 
and swords of bronze or iron ; and iu some of 
the tombs copies of the heluiets in clay, made 
(or covers to the round urns, a use to which 
the original helmets seem to have been pat 




after the death of their owner. In the same 
necropolis with these are found the ''corridor" 
tombs and " chambers," the latest and beat 
known form of the Etruscan tomb, the paint- 
ings on some of which at Cometo form a series 
coming down to Roman times. Conflicting 
views have been expressed concerning tbe ori- 
gin of these objects. Helbig believes that they 
are all Etruscan, and represent only different 
phases of Etmscan civilization ; and while to 
a certain extent there were overiappinga in the 
method of disposing of the desd, there was in 
no case a break, such as would be caused by 
the intrusion of a strange race introducing new 
arui. The bronze arms and implements be con- 
siders of Pbcenician and Canhaginian origin, 
of date not earlier than 900 b. o., or about the 

feriod of the entry of the Etruscans into Italy. 
heir identity with the rellca found at Sybaris, 
which the Etruscans did not reach, and with 
articles in the lake-dwellings, which are sup- 
posed to be of much earlier date, are cited as 
militallng against tbis view. Fiorelti and some 
other ItaJlan archteologists maintain tliat they 
are relics of a primitive Italic civilization an- 
terior to the Etruscan, and cite the community 
of the articles from such widely separated lo- 
calities in support of their view. Gamurrini 
would identify them with a Pel asgic civilization. 



26 ARCHEOLOGY. (Grkeoe.) 

ARnlMdBiUi. — A bath has been opened at Os- near the same place. At a later date were 

tia, under the direction of Prof. Lanciani, which foand a leaden vessel, quite shupeless throogh 

seems to have been struck by some disaster — oxidation, and a portion of the torso of a stat- 

perhaps an earthquake — while in full use, and to ue of Hercules in Poros stone, half life-size, 

have been completely buried. The statues found Mr. Carl D. Buck, of the American School at 

there are broken as if by a fall on them of the Athens, has described in the *^ American Jour- 

masoory from above, and have been split ver- nal of ArchsBology '^ certain inscriptions, found 

tically, while the fragments have been scattered on the Acropolis in December, 1887, of the 

to some distance from their bases. fourth century before Christ, which record the 

Sitnte, or Le^Vaaes. — Excavations at various dedication of vessels — apparently by freedmen 

places in Upper Italy have brought to light a who had been acquitted of the charge of vio- 

nnmber of vessels of the class called situlsB (or lating the conditions of their emancipation, 

vases for the purpose of the lot), bearing pecul- ExetnitkNis at Sicyra. — The excavations car- 

iar decoration^}. One found at the Villa Ben- ried on by the American School of Classical 

venuti, near Este, is 12^ inches high, and is Studies on the site of ancient Sicyonin Decem- 

composed of two plates of bronze riveted to- her, 1887, and January, 1888, were made most- 

. gether. It widens from the base in a curved ly in the theatre. The orchestra was laid bare, 
shape to near the top, and terminates in a re- and work was done in other parts of the bnild- 
stricted neck and overhanging lip. Elaborate ing. Two drains were found. The sculptures 
decorations are worked in three zones, toward include a marble hand grasping what might be 
the upper part of the vessel. A specimen the hilt of a sword, being a fragment of a stat- 
from the tombs at the Certosa Bologna, is ue of which no other part has been discovered; 
decorated in four zones, the lowest of which and a marble head and the torso to which it 
is composed of animals natural and winged, and belongs, separated, appertaining to a statue fep- 
the others are occupied respectively with resenting a Dionysus ^^ of youthful and girlish 
military, religious, and pastoral subjects. An- aspect '* which was thought to belong to the 
other situla at Bologna has three zones. Bronze Alexandrian epoch. This statue is the first 
specimens of allied character with these have considerable example of Sicyonian sculpture 
been found at Castelvetro, Modena, and in found on the old site. The main portion of 
Tyrol, but the more important specimens are the orchestra, like the theatre at Epidaurns, 
from Cisalpine Gaul, or the immediately adja- has no flooring other than hard earth. Abont 
cent territory. The date of these works is un- thirty copper coins were found, part of them 
certain, but Italian archsBologists assign them to Sicyonian, and the remainder Roman. An in- 
the latter half of the fifth century before Christ, scription found in a village near the sit« coo- 
Greece. The Hellenle Society. —The Hellenic sists of seven names, one of which contains the 
Society (London) has been active in connection old Sicyonian form of S (x). Its date may 

. with schemes of exploration, among which were possibly be as early as 450 b. o. 
the organization of the excavations undertaken IcarU. — In the course of the investigations be- 
in Cyprus, to be carried out by the director gunby the American School at Icaria, the Pyth- 
and students of the British School at Athens, ian or Temple of Apollo was discovered, with a 
and assistance to explorations in Asia Minor, relief representing Apollo with long curls seat- 
which were conducted by Prof. Ramsay and ed on the om^AaZo^, holding a mass of twigs in 
Mr. Theodore Bent. Accounts of the work in one hand, and a patera in the other. Behind 
which it had a part were given in the "Jour- him stands a woman, while in front is an altar 
nal of Hellenic Discoveries." Special mention with an adorant. Another relief represents 
was made, in the report of the discoveries on Apollo playing on the lyre. A large platform 
the Acropolis at Athens, of the excavation by of marble, a raarble-seat, some ba-«e8, and two 
the German Institute ot a temple of the Kabei- walls, one of which makes a curve as if it 
roi near Thebes; and of the excavations of the might inclose the dancing-ground of a theatre, 
American School at Dionusos, to the northeast were also found. 

of Pentelicus, which had been identified as IHscoverles at CephlssHS and DlmiyMs. — In their 

the center of worship of the derae of Icaria. excavations at Cephissus, the American School 

Foundations of two shrines, of Apollo and of discovered the head of a colossal male statue, 

Dionysus, had been found, and some sculptured a basso rilievo representing a warrior, a torso 

remains of high importance. of a statue without a head, and many inscrip- 

Dlseoveries In the Acropolis at Athens. — Among tions. 
the objects disclosed by the excavations on the Investigations at the spot known asDionysos 
Acropolis is a head, one of the most ancient have brought to light fragments of draped stat- 
sculptures ever found upon that site, carved in ues of an archaic epoch supposed to belong to 
Poros stone, and retaining a rich and brilliant Dionysus; the torso of an undraped statue; 
coloring. The hair and beard are painted blue the bearded head of a man, also attributed to 
and the face red ; and the pupils of the eyes Dionysus and referred to the sixth century, he- 
are delineated with the chisel as well as paint- fore Christ; and a headless stela^ like the sttla 
ed in. The head appears to be that of a tritpn, of Aristion which is to be seen in Athens, 
the rest of the body of which, in the form of a Many of these objects were found in the walls 
serpent ending in the tail of a fish, was found of a half-ruined chapel standing on the spot 



ARCHAEOLOGY. (Gbkboe.) 27 

ntly bnilt of old materials. The ex- articles are beads that belonged to necklaces. 

have also laid bare a portion of the They vary in shape, and are chiefly of glass ; 
he peribolos of the temple, and the but some are of stone as large as a franc-piece, 
ome votive offerings. and engraved on one side with pictures of ani- 
ls at Tuagnu — At Tanagra has been mals; and some are of onyx or natural crys- 

tomb of a child, within which were tal. A silver vase in the shape of a phiale, 

itatnettes of the same subject, repre- 0*18 metre in diameter, and having one handle, 

node man pressing to his bosom with is adorned on the outer side of its rim witb 

ind a cock. Several terra-cotta vases faces of men in gold, and a golden ornament 

id in the same place, of diverse forms, under each. The character of the articles is 

16 most part ornamented with flowers described as mostly Eastern, 
z). One of the statuettes found at the A Theatre aad Tenple at Vantlaeia* — The excava- 

Q represents a woman standing; an- tions made during 1887 and 1888 by the French 

old woman with a babe in her arms ; Archffiological School at Mantineia began with 

I youth standing clad in a chiton, with the clearing of the theatre, which was built of 

1 his right hand, and a chlamys hang- the common stone of the district, and presents 

his left arm. Others represent women some peculiar features. While parts of the . 

wo naked children seated, a naked building are so ruined that their ancient form 

atting on its heels, three men seated, can not be reconstructed, the conduits by 

nan standing. which the rain-water w^as carried off are in 

■pie af AphTMilte at Cerlga« — A report comparatively good preservation. Near this 

mains of the ancient temple of Apnro- building are the foundations of a temple, which 

7erigo has been made by Dr. Schlie- may be the temple to Hera spoken of bj Pau- 

the Berlin Society of Anthropologists, sanias ; but no inscription has been found by 

s identical with that of the Church which to determine to whom it was dedicated. 

>ly Eosmos; and the stones of the an- This foundation and the remains of the temple 

;tuary almost suffice for the erection are both very near the suriace of the soil. A 

ircb. The temple was a closed struct- large semicircular building, of which about a 

of tufa-stone, with two rows of Doric metre in height of the walls is left, gave the 

four on each side, of extremely archaip inscription KvkXo; 6 irp6s to yvfivda-iov. In front 

tiey are still preserved in the church, and alongside of it were large double atoai 

ir capital and ornaments; but only which may have formed part of the gym- 

lem, as well as the base of a column, nasium. The wall of the circuit of the town, 

u. On a hill-top in the neighborhood in a fair state of preservation to the height of 

ns of Cyclopean fortifications, which a metre or more, is built of large polygonal 

eraann thinks, from the character of stones, and is 20 stadia in perimeter; more 

lerds found, can not be older than the than a hundred of its towers are preserved, 

entury before Christ. The roads mentioned by Pausanias as named 

efc-€at Taaite af Mycmue* — The excava- after the respective towns have been discov- 

MycensB continue to reveal fresh ered. Among the less massive relics are the 

that the extent of the necropolis can pieces of sculpture by Praxiteles recorded by 

e inferred. It appears, however, that rausanias as being in the temple of Leto, in- 

ind surrounding the ancient city, ex- eluding on one pedestal a representation of the 

re it was unsuitable, was used for muses and of Marsyas playing on the flute; a 

The tombs are on the slope of the number of inscriptions, one of which records 

consist of one or two chambers, the name of the great general Philopoemen; 

*e reached by passages either hori- some terra-cotta tablets, which are supposed 

having a downward inclination, some- to have been theatre-tickets; and votive tab- 

)re than 20 metres long and 2 or lets. The stooes of the ancient city have been 

i broad. The chambers are 35 or 40 liberally used in.the construction of the houses 

letres in area, and constructed with of the modem town ; and some of the most in- 

e. They appear to have been family teresting objects were found walled in within 

id to have their doors and passages the sanctuary of the Byzantine church, 
hidden, to protect them against spoli- Cypras. Tenple of Aphrodite at Old Paphos. — A 

he skeletons are imperfectly preserved, ** Cyprus Exploration Fund " has been formed, 

1 to have been disturbed whenever under the auspices of the Society for the Pro- 

$rment8 were made; they were simply motion of Hellenic studies, to carry out on the 

at full length, or placed in a sitting island of Cyprus the same kind of work of 

The tombs are ascribed to an earlier identification and recovery of remains of an- 

the Homeric age, and even to a time tiquity that has been successfully accomplished 

ick as 2000 b. o. They have yielded in Palestine, Asia Minor, and Egypt. It is 

?cts that had not been found in other under the care of a special committee of per- 

tbe same date — such as bronze mir- sons interested in archaeological research. Per- 
il knives that served as scissors, and mission was obtained from the authorities to 
lich are now shown to have been in use excavate at Kouklia, on the site of the ancient 
lose early times. The most abundant Paphos, and operations were begun there in 



28 ARCHEOLOGY. (Egypt.) 

December, 1 887, under the supervision of Mr. sol district, have been examined by Dr. F. H. 
Ernest A. Gardener. Excavations were also U. GuiUemard. They are similar to two mono- 
made in January, 1888, by Mr. M. R. James liths at Kuklia, which are described by CW 
at the hill Leontari Vouno, Nikosia, in the nola, and have been regarded as Phoeniciim, 
course of which were discovered traces of and, perhaps, Phallic. Twenty - seven such 
early houses and walls, deep cuttings in the stones have been found at Anoyra^ all of a 
rock, a massive fort, primitive walls mixed hard limestone. They are usually two feet in 
with early pottery and other objects pointing depth, and from 2 feet 5 inches to 4 feet 8 
to a remote period, and archaic tombs. In the inches in width, while the hole is generally 
tombs were found about two hundred vases, about 9 inches wide, and from 2^ to 4 feet 
with fragments of pottery and broken articles high. The height above ground ranges from 
of bronze, lead, and copper. 6 to 10 feet. These stones are believed bj 

The temple of Aphrodite, at old Paphos, Dr. GuiUemard, from their situation and ac- 
was cleared out, and a large portion of the companiments, to have been parts of mills or 
walls was laid bare. The m^ority of the of olive-presses. Others believe that though 
walls were found to belong to the restoration they may have been adapted and utilized for 
of the temple made by Tiberius; but the Romans such purposes as these, they were originally 
appear to have made changes in the orienta- Phoenician, or prehistoric, and Phallic, 
tion of the parts of the structure that they AncieBt Sites li Asia Mlntr. — Mr. J. T. Bent, 
touched, so that difficulty was met in tracing giving an account to the British Association of 
an accurate plan of the work. The plan of some discoveries that he had made in Asia 
the temple falls into two main divisions— the Minor, said that during a cruise along the south 
south wing, standing detached, and a quadri- coast of that country, he had found the sites 
lateral, containing various halls and inclosures. of three ancient towns and identified them bj 
The south wing appears to be the earliest part inscriptions. In one place were thirty-three 
of the building of which any traces remain, inscriptions, many of them of great local in- 
It consists of a large hall or court, bounded terest, introducing a doctor, Aristobulus bj 
on the west by a wall of massive blocks. Be- name, who is mentioned by Galen, and numer- 
tween this court and the great quadrangle are ous consuls and pro-consuls of Rome, who 
remains of some irregular chambers and some ruled there. Local offices and dignitaries, 
pier bases, wiiich may have been part of a triple family names and customs, are referred to in 
avenue leading to the court. The rest of the all these inscriptions. At about five miles from 
site is occupied by buildings of later construe- LydsB, inland, the author discovered the ruins 
tion, of which, beginning at the south, the first of a fortress buried in a thick forest overlook- 
to attract attention is a great hall or stoa, with ing a lake, and identified the place from in- 
a row of columns down the center. The con- scriptions as Lissa. 

struction is Roman, but it probably retains the Egypt ExploradM Find. — The Egypt Ex- 
general character of earlier buildings ; and of ploration Fund, in acknowledgment of liberal 
sQch earlier chambers sufficient traces remain contributions to its resources (which amount 
to allow of a fairly accurate restoration. A to fully one half of its fund) from the United 
considerable number of inscriptions, a marble States, has authorized the presentation to the 
head of Eros, said to be *^ a valuable acquisi- Museum of Fine Arts, in Boston, of a selection 
tion to the treasures of Greek art,^^ fragments of Greek antiquities from Naucratis and of 
of bronze and terra-cotta, a fine bronze-gilt Egyptian antiquities from Nebeshet, the city 
pin, and a crystal cylinder belonging to a seep- of Onias, and Bubastis, and of a statue of heroic 
ter, were found in the temple. Among the in- size of Rameses II. 

scriptions in the Oypriot syllabary was a tablet The work of the fund for 1888 was begun by 
containing a letter from Antiochus to Ptolemy Mr. F. Llewellen Griffith on the mounds of 
Alexander, a tablet bearing a list of contribu- Ktim abtl Bill^, at TarrAneh, on the western 
tors to a feast called the Elaichristion, and a edge of the delta. The site is supposed to rep- 
tablet bearing an elegiac inscription recording resent an ancient city named Terenuthis. The 
that at the suggestion of King Nikokles the remains yielded little that was of interest, and 
town was fortified. Most of the inscriptions the work was discontinued, 
were on the pedestals of statues dedicated in HykMsMMOMiitsatBiliastls. — The excavations 
the temple in Ptolemaic times, which confer on the site of the great temple of Bubastis 
much light on the constitution of Cyprus dur- were resumed on the 23d of February, 1888, 
ing that period. Some very interesting ob- by Mr. Edouard Naville, with Mr. F. Llewellen 
jects were found in the tombs of various peri- Griffith, Count d'Uulst, and the Rev. Mr. Mao- 
ods that lie below the temple on the slope Gregor. The two pits formed in 1887 were 
toward the sea. A third work of excavation thrown into one, and the ground was cleared 
was carried on at Anargeth, which was iden- from east to west, following the axis of the tem- 
tified as the site of an ancient village, probably pie till the whole width of the building was 
called Melantha, where Apollo was worshiped laid bare. Among the discoveries were a third 
under the title of Opaon. hall built by.Osorkon I, of red granite lined 

PeifmtedMtMlltlis. — Some curious perforated with sculptured slabs ; the remains of a colon- 
stones — monoliths — near Anoyra, in the Lima- nade; a monolithic shrine in red granite; two 



ARCHEOLOGY. (Eoypt.) 29 

of an officer named Amenophis, in- This lion is one of a clafls of sphinxes in black 

with the cartoaches of Amenopbis III, granite that have been found at several sites 

torso of a woman of the same epoch ; in Lower Egypt, and are assigned to a period 

' Amenopbis IV (or Khu-en-Aten) in the previoas to the eighteenth dynasty. 

* the name of that king's patron deity. Portraits of the Gfmo-Rowui Periodi — Mr. Pe- 
ults of the investigations brought up trie placed on exhibition in London the oh- 
iber of the names of the kings who jects that he recovered in the exploration of 

traces of their work here to twenty- a vast cemetery, which he found near the pyra- 

^inning with Pepi Merira, of the sixth mid containing the tomb of Amenembat III. 

, including Usertesen III, of the twelfth The cemetery proved to be one of the Ptole- 

, and ending with Nectanebo. maio and Roman epochs, and furnished many 

nces associating the site with the rule new facts respecting the dress, mode of burial, 

[yksos kings were found in the shape of etc., of the Hellenized and Romanized £gyp- 

trave sculptured with the cartouch of tians of the three or four centuries before and 

jid the remains of three statues of this after the Christian era. The mummies of two 

One of these was headless, but was seat- or three earlier centuries had gilt sculptured 

a throne, with cartouches and stand- head-pieces, and those dating from about a. d. 

ng the family name, the throne name, 150 had portraits inserted in the place of the 

^'banner'^nameof the king in a perfect head. These portraits, of which there were 

preservation. This is the first instance more than thirty, were painted, apparently in 

1 a Hyksos statue has been found with colored wax, upon very thin wooden panels, 

t inscription. The inscriptions read as and are preserved in all their freshness. Many 

; '' The divine Horus who embraces of them are said to be wonderfully expressive ; 

U, the good god Userenra, the son of one, representing the face of a man of mature 

an, loving his Ka^ everliving.'^ This age, ^4s modeled with singular force and skill,*^ 

laian, is new to the Egyptian monu- and four are *' excellent portraits" of ladies, 

ilthough it suggests a curious coinci- These heads were slipped into the mummy- 

ith an Arab tradition of the going of case, and it appears to have been the custom 

JO Egypt, which, as given by Mas'^di, to keep the mummy, thus adorned, for several 

hat ''Hhe Hamites who peopled Egypt years in the house of the family. An impor- 

a for some time ruled over by women, tant fragment of papyrus, containing a tran- 

quence of which kings from all quar- script of a part of the second book of the 

e lusting after their land. An Amele- Iliad, beautifully written, is included in the 

ig named al-Walid invaded it from collection, and with it is the skall of the owner, 

ad established his rule there. After a lady, with shreds of her hair twisted over it. 

le his son, Rayy&n ibu al-Walid, in The Pynvid aid Statues of Lake Mttrte.— The 

ime Joseph was brought to Egypt." researches of Mr. W. M. Flinders Petrie in the 

^etrle has adduced reasons, from the Fayoum have brought to light what are sup- 

i on two cylinders bearing the titles of posed to be the remains of the structures de- 

g, for supposing that the name should scribed by Herodotns as two pyramids crowned 

Rbian rather than Raian, and that with colossal statues standing in the midst of 

:es his connection with the Rayan of Lake Moeris. At Beyahmu, a village about 

adition almost impossible. The Rev. four miles north of Med in et-el- Fayoum, ruins 

George Tomkins, however, has sug- destitute of inscriptions and called Kursi 

hat " if we must read Khian, the name Far^un, or Pharaoh's chair, had been already 

I be intended by the lANNAS of Mane- remarked and described by Ebers as resem- 

h roogh breathing.'' and adds *' that in bling dilapidated altars rising above other frag- 

i we may find for the first time traces ments of solid masonry. Ebers had also sug- 

ksos proper name in northern Syria; gested a connection between these objects and 

r-nazirpal received tribute from Khaian the pyramids of Herodotus. Mr. Petrie found 

dani *on the further bank of the Eu- that they were, in fact, two piles of masonry 

* that is, on the western side, south of standing on two stone platforms, at the corner 
tion of the Khabtir. And Shalmaneser of one of which was an angular block of some 
bute of Khaian, the son of Gabas, in sloping structure, like the corner of a pyramid. 
1 Syria toward the west. There are The piles of rubbish in which the ruins were 
aces of such a name, especially the half imbedded, were found to contain o vast 

ruins and great tanks of Khurbet number of fragments of limestone, red granite, 

east of Bethel, which have been and a hard and highly polished yellow quartz- 

to mark the site of the important Ca- ite sandstone. A search among these frag- 

city Ai or Hai." ments soon brought out scraps of hieroglyphic 

. Llewellen Griffith has compared the inscription, a morsel of bass-relief paneling, 

)n of the king as given on this statue and a royal oval containing the name of Ame- 

ser-n — with the name inscribed in im- nemhat III — the Moeris of Herodotns. As the 

characters in the cartouch of a black search was continued, numerous chips were 

ion from Bagdad, in the British Muse- found containing bits of detail, or wrought in 

ch presents some resemblance to it. the likeness of the undulating surface of the 



30 AROHiEOLOGY. (Egypt.) 

haman body, scraps of ornamentation such as transferred from Thebes to the new capital of 

are carved on the thrones of the colossi of the Ehu-en-Aten, along with the rest of the rojal 

period of the twelfth dynasty, and, finally, a archives. Palestine was held at the time bj 

Eolished sandstone oose measuring eleven and a Egyptian garrisons, and the representatives of 
alf inches in width. From this feature, Mr. the Egyptian Government appear to have been 
Petrie estimates that the statue, when perfect, active in sending home news about all that 
must have been about thirty-five feet high, was going on. Among the cities of Palestioe 
The masses of fragments about the other altar from which letters were dispatched were By- 
give hope that similar remains of a second bias, Smyrna, Akko or Acre, Megiddo, and 
statue may be found there. The pedestals are Ashkelon ; and reference is made in one of the 
twenty- two feet high. Supposing the statues letters to a coalition, at the head of which was 
to have been set upon a base three feet high, the the king of Gath. 

total elevation of the figures above the ground About three fourths of the whole number of 
is estimated to have been sixty feet. Each the tablets have been deposited in the Royal 
pedestal appears to have been surrounded by Museum of Berlin and the British Museom. 
an open court, walled around to about the Among those in the Berlin collection are letters 
height of the base of the statue. As these and dispatches from Tushratta, King of Mit- 
walls inclined inward, like the sides of pyloons anni; Burrabnrriyash, King of Karaduiyash; 
and pyramids, the effect when viewed from a and other kings of parts of Mesopotamia. The 
distance would be precisely that of a truncated fact is established in them that Tushratta was 
pyramid surmounted by a seated statue. The the father-in-law of Amenophis III, thus con- 
exaggerations by Herodotus of the heights of firming the representations on the scarabei of 
the monuments — which he gave as '^ fifty fath- that long, that he married a Mesopotamian 
oms above the surface of the water, and ex- woman. Among the eighty-five tablets acquired 
tending as far beneath " — as well as of the size by the British Museum are several of consider- 
of Lake Moeris, are ascribed to his having vis- able importance for the study of the relations 
ited the country during the inundation, and to which existed between the kings of Mesopota- 
his having been misled by his guides, who were mia and Egypt. A dispatch from Tushratta to 
probably no more trustworthy than the drago- Amenophis III refers to a treaty which existed 
mans of the present day. between the father of the former and Ame- 

Mr. Cope Whitehouse, on the other hand, nophis, and conveys proposals for a marriage 

who has made a survey of the depression called between his great-nephew and the daughter of 

the Raian basin, to the south and west of the the Egyptian king. A dispatch from Burra- 

Fayonm, believes that be has found there the burriyash to Amenophis IV, besides allusions to 

site of an ancient lake that was ample and deep a treaty, mentions exchanges of gifts. Letters 

enough to answer the description given by from the king of a country called Alashiya also 

Herodotus as of Lake MobHs. • It is described mention gifts and negotiations, and ask for the 

as being forty miles long, twenty miles wide, return of the property of a subject of Alashiya 

and more than two hundred and fifty feet who had died in Egypt leaving his family in 

deep, and connected with two other depres- the former country. Other dispatches are 

sions, one of which is represented by the Bir- from Tushratta to the wife of Amenophis UI, 

ket-al-Keroun, and the other is the Gharaq the greatly beloved Ti of the Egyptian mona- 

basin. The Birket is fed by the canal called ments, who appears to have been the daughter 

the Bahr Jusuf, which runs almost parallel of Tushratta, in which the proposed alliance of 

with the river from Osioot, till it finds a pass his great-nephew with Amenophis's daughter 

through the hills and enters the Fayoum. is again mentioned. Mr. A. H. Sayce has 

After emerging from the pass it divides into found in one of the inscriptions a mention of a 

four branches, running in different directions targumanam or dragoman having been sent 

toward the Birket or different parts of the de- with a letter, giving the first example of the 

pression. A fifth channel may also be traced, use of this word. 

Within the depression, near the northwestern Jlfevphls CoImsI of RaaiesM II. — Mtgor Arthur 

edge, is a hill called Grande Butte, or Haram Bagnold described before the Society of Bibli- 

by the Egyptians, which may be the island cal Archaeology, at its February meeting, the 

described by Herodotus. raising of the pair of colossal statues of Rame- 

Doravents tn the Babylonltn Langnage. — A large ses II, at Memphis, which are mentioned by 

number of clay tablets and fragments of tablets Herodotus and Diodorus as having stood in 

inscribed with cuneiform characters have been front of the temple of Ptah. One of them had 

discovered among the ruins of Tel-el- Amarna, been partly brought to light by Sloane and 

in Upper Egypt, the site of the capital built by Caviglia, and Hekekian Bey once began to «lig 

Amenophis IV, or Khu-en-Aten. They were around it; and a cast of its face was in the 

discovered in the tomb of a royal scribe, and British Museum. The colossus was raised by 

consist largely of letters and dispatches sent the aid of hydraulic apparatus, propped up, 

by the kings and governors of Palestine, Syria, photographed, and then laid upon its back, in 

Mesopotamia, and Babylonia, to Amenophis III the position which it had before occupied. It 

and IV ; and a note in hieratic on one of them is thought to have been about thirty-five feet 

says that a large portion of them bad been high, but was broken off at the knees, and the 



AROHJEOLOGY. (Palestine.) 31 

lid not be f ouDd. It is admirably carved, Palcstliie. The PmI of Belhesda. — The Pal- 
) face of the king is nearly perfect. estine Exploration Fund has announced the 
8 at Stoat* — The rock-cut tombs of Siout, discovery by Herr Conrad Schick, near the 
Lycopolis, have been re-examined by Church of St. Anne, Jerusalem, of what may 
Llewellen Griffith, who made careful in all probability be identified with the Pool 
ipts of all the eztaot inscriptions. Mr. of Bethesda. An apparently uninterrupted 
determined the date of the great tomb chain of evidence from a. d. 833 to the year 
as Stahl-Autar, having found that it 1180 speaks of the Prohatica pueina as near 
cavated in the reign of Usertesen I, of the church of St. Anne. The place spoken of 
fifth dynasty. He also discovered that is said by the earliest writers to have formerly 
»er ranges of tombs in the same clilf be- had five porches, then in ruins. Recently the 
» the hitherto unrepresented dynasties Algerian monks laid bare a large tank or cis- 
icleopolis (the ninth and tenth dynasties tern cut in the rock to the depth of thirty 
etho). feet, lying nearly under a later building, a 
•f the Dead — AeI Papyras. — A hiero- church with an apse at the east end. The cis- 
papyrns containing a recension of the tern is 55 feet long from east to west, and 12^^ 
f the Dead, which was written for the feet in breadth from north to south. A flight of 
;ribe Ani, in the early part of the nine- 24 steps leads down into the pool from the east- 
dynasty, has been acquired for the Brit- em scarp of rock. This pool was not, however, 
seam. It is in excellent preservation, large enough to supply the first requisite for the 
:cept for the absence of a character Pool of Bethesda — that it should be possible to 
id there, is complete, and contains some have five porches; but Sir Charles Wilson had 
es of rare beauty. The fact that it con- pointed out that this condition could be ful- 
chapter, the one hundred and seventy- filled if there were a twin pool lying by the 
hich has not been found complete any- side of this one, so that the two pools could 
else, gives it an extraordinary value. have one portico on each of the four sides, 
ChrMtai Scilptues* — Many specimens of and one between them on the wall of separa- 
/hristiau sculptures from Egypt show tion. Such a pool has been since discovered 
»f the ancient pagan styles, and of the by Herr Schick. It is 60 feet long, and of the 
ion of them to the purposes of the same breadth with the first pool. The pool is 
m faith. In a very primitive presen- therefore concluded to be undoubtedly the one 
[>f the Virgin and Child, with a figure pointed out by the writers as the Piscina Pro- 
in a dalmatica standing before them, hatica; and it afibrds ample room for the five 
le Fayoum, the two principal figures porches spoken of in the Gospel, as well as for 
irely nude, and are described as simply the ^yq porticos — which were probably the 
icing the well-known group in Egyptian same — which are spoken of by the " Bordeaux 
Isis suckling Horus; even the chair in Pilgrim *' as being then there in ruins. 
he Virgin is seated is of the same fash- The Walls of Jenisaleii. — The topography of 
the chairs of the twenty-sixth or ear- ancient Jerusalem has been difficult to make 
lasties. In a representation of a saint out, and the site of the sepulchre of the kings 
^ in a niche, the colonnettes are de- of Judah remains unknown. But the problem 
ifter columns of purely Egyptian tem- has been simplified by recent excavations, the 
\. bass-relief of St. George slaying the bearing of which was explained in the British 
has its counterpart in figures of Horus Association by Mr. George St. Clair. We now 
Set. In a collection of Coptic textiles for the first time know the contours of the 
3, sirens, cnpids, and other fabulous fig- rock and the features of hill and valley before 
m the pagan mythology appear as com- the 80 feet of debris began to accumulate. The 
[laments. Of this character are a com- Akra of the Maccabees being defined, it is 
I of the Triumph of Bacchus in the Mu- seen how, by the recorded filling up of the 
■ Lyons, and three embroidered pieces Asmonean valley, the two parts of the Lower 
lb Kensington containing half-length City became joined into one crescent, lying 
[>f Ap>ollo, Hermes, and Hercules, w'ith with its concave side toward the Upper City, 
imes inscribed on the background. In according to the description of Josephus. The 
^rilievo representing Christ and his investigations of Sir Charles Warren show that 
, also from Akhmin, and assigned to the temple must be placed on the summit of 
iod of Theodosius II or Marcian, the Moriah, with Solomon^s palace southeast of it, 
ire arranged, standing in line, without leaving a vacant square of 300 feet where now 
at artistic grouping, dressed in the^ we have the southwest quarter of the Haram 
Roman sculpture, and separated by a area. From the southeast quarter of the Haram 
>mamental motive. Each of the heads inclosure extends the wall of Ophel, discovered 
anded by a nimbus, that of our Lord by Warren, running 76 feet to the south, then 
istingaished by a cross inside of the bending toward the southwest. Further, it is 
These various objects combine, in the found that from tlje Gate of the Chain, in the 
those who have examined them, to il- west wall of the Haram inclosure, a causeway, 
the artistic activity of the period form- with complicated structures, extends westward 
link between ancient and modem art. toward the Jafia Gate. Having this ground- 



i 



32 



ARCHiEOLOGY. (Hittite.) 



work, we may proceed to place the walls. The 
third wall, built by Agrippa, does not concern 
us. The site of the second wall has been 
partly fixed by Herr Oonrad Schick. The first 
wall was the wall of the Upper City. On the 
northern side it ran from the Jaffa Gate to 
the Haram wall. The uncertainty has been 
about its southern portion. The investigations 
of the author have led him to adopt a line 
that corresponds in detail with the descrip- 
tions in the Book of Nehemiah. Taking Nehe- 
miah's night survey, then the consecutive allot- 
ments of work assigned to those who repaired 
the walls, and, thirdly, the points successively 
reached and passed by the processionists when 
the walls were dedicated, it is shown that every 
mention of a gate or a tower, the number and 
order of the salient and re-enteriog angles, 
and every other note of locality, exactly agree 
with the course of the walls as suggested. 
This course, moreover, involves the least pos- 
sible variation from the present line of walls, 
and that more in the way of addition than of 
deviation. The hypothesis commending itself 
as true by corresponding minutely with Nehe- 
miah's description, by tallying exactly with 
other Biblical references, and by meeting all 
the other requirements of the case, it has the 
important practical bearing that it indicates 
the site of the royal sepulchres, of the stairs 
of the City of David, of ** the gate between 
the two walls," etc., and shows that Zion was 
the eastern hill. 

mttlte. Characteristic FIgires of the iBflcriptloiM. 
— In a course of lectures at the British Muse- 



the peoples of the ooantry of the Rhatti men- 
tioned on the Assyrian monument?. Some of 
the personages among the representatives of the 
Hittites on £gyptian monuments, and also fig- 
ures of persons in authority found at Jerablus, 
or Carcbemish, are represented with the '* pig- 
tail," while other figures are in long hair with- 
out this style of dress. This would indicate— 
supposing the mass of the population to have 
been Semitic or of allied race — that there was 
in some of the cities at least, a ruling stock of 
another race, which may have been Tartar. 
On the opposite sides of the walls of the great 
chasm of Bogaz Keui are processions, one of 
male the other of female figures which meet at 
the head of the ravine, where a gigantic male 
figure, standing on the bent-down heads of 
two persons with long robes, and a female fig- 
ure standing on some animal and wearing a 
mural crown are presenting fioral symbols in 
which is a form like that oif the mandragora or 
mandrake, to each other. The figures in the 
female procession, each bearing what resem- 
bles an unstrung bow, remind tlie observer of 
the Amazons; and it is a striking fact that 
Bogaz Keui is not far from the place, by the 
river Thermodon, to which the Greeks assigned 
the Amazons. If the story of the Amazons 
was purely legendary, these sculptures might 
be regarded as showing that it was believed in 
in what might be regarded as their own coun- 
try. A seal lately obtained from Yusgat, now 
in the British Museum, is considered to cast 
some light on the nature of the Hittite inscrip- 
tions. It is circular and contains solar, devo- 




CENTRAL BASS-RELIEF AT BOOAZ KEUI. 



nm, Mr. Thomas Tyler expressed it as the cur- 
rently received opinion that there probably 
never was a Hittite empire in such a sense as 
the word empire now suggests. The view that 
the nation consisted of independent states or cit- 
ies, which formed federations under pressure of 
the necessities of war is apparently confirmed 
by the expression, ** King of the Hittites," used 
in the Old Testament. These peoples are to be 
identified with the Khita of the Egyptians and 



tional, and symbolical designs, with a male fig- 
^ure bringing tribute or a present, and a female 
making obeisance to a king sitting on a throne, 
behind whom are other figures symbolical, per- 
haps, of the spoilsof war or the hunt. Thedesign 
is analogous to a portion of the doorway inscrip- 
tion from Jerablus, in which oxen, asses, and 
other valuable possessions, the spoils of war, are 
presented to a king wearing a pigtail and a con- 
ical cap. A quadrangular seal from Tarsus, en- 



AROHJEOLOGY. (Afbioa.) 83 

• 

n five faces, bears on one face two fig- obtains its fonds tbrongb the subscriptions of 

renting a floral symbol resembling the citizens. 

e, while of seven other principal fig- TlieTeMpleatSlpiianu — In describing the tem- 

>, one having the head of a hawk, wear pie that Mr. Rassam has discovered at Aboo 

IL All the figures have the toes turned Unbba, the site of the ancient Sippara, or 

what are called the Uittite boots. Fig- Sepharvaim, Mr. W. St. Chad Boscawen has 

• occur resembling the crux ansataj or pointed out the close resemblance that it pre- 

>r' life, of the Egyptian monuments. sented to the Jewish temple. Its internal 

tda of FtssUler. — Mr. Sterrett, of the arrangements and even the names of the dif- 

n School at Athens, describes the dis- ferent portions were identical with those of 

t Fassiller, not far from the site of Lys- the Jewish temple. The Holy Place (hekal) 

lauria, of a monument of the same class was separated from the Holy of Holies (par- 

ulptures at Bogaz Eeui, Euy&k, and 6i- rako) by a veil. In the civil portions of the 

i»i. It is an immense monolithic atela^ temple a close parallel was presented to those 

ig on its back, and contains the figures of the Mohammedan mosque. The temple was 

nen and two lions in very high relief, the treasury ; it was also the school, and, like 

ag the center of the stone, at the hot- the mosque, was supported by a glebe or wahvf 

1 erect human figure, clothed in a gown estates and a regular tithe. Several thousand 

the whole of it. to the ground. The tablets had been discovered by Mr. Rassam in 

e clasped on the breast, with the chin the treasury of the temple, covering a period 

: them. The head-dress seems to be extending from the fall of l^ineveh, 625 b. o., 

: its month is open ; its ears and eyes until the time of Alexander the Great. These 

large. On either side of this figure archives throw much light upon all branches 

lion, full face, about as tall as the man of Babylonian social customs, and make possi- 

his crested helmet, and with the legs ble a restoration of the life of the people in the 

led ; that is, the curvatures alone are by-gone past with the fullest detail. Among 

I, while the mass of stone between the tablets is one recording the payment of the 

has not been dng away. Above the tithes by the majar domo of Belshazzar, and a 

tgare is a second figure of a man strid- list of the dues paid by the prince himself in 

ard, his left foot, which is in front, behalf of himself and his father. The date of 

og his whole weight. This foot rests the reign of the older Sargon, as given on the 

bop of the crest of the helmet of the cylinder of Nabonidus which was recovered in 

;nre; bnt the feet are not chiseled out, this temple (about 3800 b. o.), may be regarded 

odicated. The legs are merely straight as correct. The historical statements on the 

*he right hand is raised, and holds a same cylinder are in all other particulars accu- 

>ject, with something projecting from rate. Among the other inscriptions found on 

ally on one side, while a large object this site, were some cylinders recording the 

nder the left arm. This object reach- restoration of the great canal known as the 

feet, but diminishes in size and relief, Nahr Malka by Kliammurabi, who reigned 

tie foot the relief is very slight. On about 2200 b. c. These inscriptions, coupled 

I is a grand tiara, with four divisions with others written nearly fifteen centuries 

3. The whole height of the stela is 7*28 later by Nabopolassar, show that during that 

width at bottom, 2*75 metres: thick- long interval the Euphrates had shifted its 

op, 0-32 metre. A circular seaV hav- course to the west. In Sargon's time (8800 

ring-hole, was engraved on one of the b. c.) the river no doubt flowed close to the 

vex sides with a human figure having walls of Sippara, but in 2200 b. c. it had re- 

ead and wearing the boots with turned moved so far west that a canal had to be cut 

and with a design on the other side to connect the city with the river, and in 550 

Id not be made out. b. o. this canal had to be still further prolonged 

lift. BabykMlaB Ex]pl«ntton Fud vf Philt- to meet the still receding river. These facts 

-An exploring party has been sent out afiford evidence of the antiquity of the city. 

onia under the auspices of the Baby- Africa* The Caves of the Troglodytci8« — The 

Ixploration Fund of Philadelphia, and caves of the troglodytes, near Ain Tarsil, 

>in New York on the 23d of June. It about three days' ride southwest of the city of 

of Dr. John P. Peters, director, with Morocco, have been visited and partly explored 

lant, Mr. J. D. Prince; Dr. Hilprecht, by a correspondent of the London *' Times." 

roiversity of Pennsylvania, and Dr. They had been previously visited by Balanza 

of Yale, Assyriologists ; Mr. P. H. and Sir Joseph Hooker, who mention them 

chitect ; and Mr. J. H. Haynes, pho- but did not explore them. They are situated 

r. Arrangements were made for carry- in a narrow gorge, or cafion, the cliffs of which 

le work for one year, its continuance rise admost perpendicularly from a deep valley, 

i npon the success achieved during and are cut in the solid rock at a considerable 

The Babylonian Exploration Fund height from the ground. In some places they 

nized in Philadelphia, in November, are in single tiers, and in other places in two or 

er the presidency of Dr. Pepper, Pro- three tiers, one above the other, and ordinarily 

;be University of Pennsylvania, and inaccessible, except by ropes and ladders. The 
fL. xrmf. — 3 A 



34 ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

entrances to the caves vary from 8) to 4^ feet Fbumces. — On March 81, 1888, the i 

in height, are about 3 feet broad, and give ac- indebtedness of the republic amounted t< 

cess to rooms of comfortable size, furnished 427,000; the domestic debt, at the sam 

with windows, which were in some cases con- amounted to $47,000,000; total, $139,4S 

nected with other smaller rooms, also fur- The provinces have besides a foreign d 

nished with windows. The appearance of the $88,219,611, and a domestic debt of $2 

caves is hardly consistent with the conception 000. Tke income in 1887 was $58,1^ 

of the troglodytes as savages, which has been and the expenditure, $50,019,000. 
drawn from Hanno^s account of them. For The law making the authorized note 

these abodes show signs of great labor, and in- lation of banks a legal tender will exp 

dioate that their builders, in making the floors Jan. 9, 1889, when it will forcibly have 

and ceilings perfectly smooth, and putting more renewed. On June 15, 1888, the Gover 

than one window in the same room if it was had in circulation $6,000,000 of fraction 

a large one, had ideas of care and comfort per money. In 1887 the gold premii 

RnaBia. The Tovb of a Sejrthfaui King. — Inter- Buenos Ay res averaged 35^ per cent., a^ 

esting and important discoveries have been pared with 38} in 1886, and 37 in 1885. 

made in the exploration by the Russian Im- in May, 1888, the Government held $7' 

perial Archeaological Commission of the 000 gold coin, ready to moderate the pre 

mounds of that district of the western Cauca- A bridle has been put on wild stock sp 

sus which is traversed by the river Kuban, tion by limiting the delivery of stocks oi 

One of the most important of them — the Great sales to thirty days. Since 1880 the I 

Kurgan near Krymskaia — consists of three tine Government, provinces, railroads 

chambers, extending through a length of 67 have contracted loans to the amount of 

feet. The walls are of massive, well-hewed 810,000 ; out of this amount only $43,0i 

slabs of stone, stuccoed and frescoed, and the went toward canceling matured bonds, 

floor, of stone slabs, is laid in cement. The eral now loans were negotiated in Europe < 

first of these chambers contained numerous 1888 ; one for £7,000,000 for the conv 

archsBological relics of earthenware, silver, en- of outstanding Government bonds from 

graved beads, remains of an iron wheel and of cent, interest to 4^ per cent. ; £2,000,< 

two horses, and the skeleton of a young woman behalf of the city of Buenos Ayres: £i 

of high rank, with a triangular golden plate 000, city of Rosario ; £2,000,000, provi: 

bearing figures in relief, which formed part of 06rdoba; £1,000,000, province of Sant 

her tiara, and other personal ornaments of gold. £600,000, province of Tucuman ; provi 

The sec'md room contained a few relics. In the Mendoza, £1,000,000 ; province of San 

third, or principal room, was a skeleton, which £1,000,000 ; province of Entre-Rios, £1 

is presumed to be of a Scythian king, having 000 ; and, province of Corrientes, £1,00 

around its neck a thick golden unclosed hoop, together, £2 1 ,200,000. The bunk of the 

bearing figures at the ends ; near it a golden ince of Buenos Ayres also floated a $20,0 

plate, which was probably part of head-dress, loan in Germany. During 1887 the nj 

trnd around it silver drinking-horns and drink- bank increased its capital by $12,000,00 

ing-cups, a silver quiver overlaid with gold the following banks were fourtded : The 

and adorned with figures, copper arrows, and man and Rio de la Plata Bank, capital on a 

iron spear-points. Remains of rotten boards $2,000,000 ; the French Bank, $2,000,00 

and nails indicated that both bodies had been new Italian Bank, $2,000,000; the Arg 

inclosed in coffins. The relics are assigned to People^s Bank, $1,000,000; and the £ 

a date not much later than the Christian era, Ayres People's Bank, $3,000,000 ; the 

and are believed to represent an age of Scythi- de C6rdoba increasing its capital $500,0( 
an arts and customs of which little has hitherto On June 15, 1888, the total note circc 

been known. of banks was $87,925,000. On June 15, 

ARGENTIBfE REPUBLIC, an independent re- it was $79,000,000. The banking and cui 

public of South America. (For details of area, of the Argentine Republic have been 

population, etc., see " Annual Cyclopaedia" for extremely unsettled condition for sevoral 

1883.) A resolute attempt to put them upon a 

Govenmeot — The President is Dr. Juarez basis was made in the law of Nov, 8, 

Celman, whose term of office will expire on which made banking practically free, an 

Oct. 12, 1892 ; the Vice-President is Dr. Car- vided a national currency guaranteed I 

los Pellegrini. The Cabinet was composed of tional bonds bearing 4i per cent, inter 

the following ministers : Interior, Dr. Eduardo gold. These bonds are delivered to any 

Wilde; Foreign Affairs, N. Q. Costa ; Finance, ing institution that submits to the re* 

Dr. W. Pacheco ; Justice, Dr. F. Posse ; War Government inspection, for 85 per 0€ 

and Navy, Gen. E. Racedo. The Argentine their par value, and may be deposited as 

Minister at Washington is Don Vicente G. rity for an issue of bills up to the face va 

Quesada, and the Consul at New York, Sefior the bonds. 

Adolf o G. Calvo. The American Minister at Amy and NtTy. — The army of tiie re 

Buenos Ayres is Bay less W. Hanna, and the exclusive of the National Guard, accordi 

Consul, Edward L. Baker. official returns of June, 1887, was 6,256 e 



ARGEIJTINE REPUBLIC. 



85 



^ 2,945 infantry, 2,571 cavalry, and 
ry. The National Guard was 400,- 

• 

y coDBists of 88 vessels, mounting 78 
total tonnage of 16,612, with 18,055 
horse-power, and manned hy 1,966 
'here are three iion-clads, four cruis- 
pin- boats, seven torpedo-boats, four 
isports, and sixteen smaller steam 
; craft. 

(. — The lines in operation in the 
1 1887 were as follow : 

Lhi^ hi 
kilometrac. 

Ines 1,874 

og to the province of Baenos Ayres 989 

n^ to the province of Santa F6 298 

Off to the province of Entre-Klos 286 

8,701 

6,648 

re in course of construction 1,651 
\, to which will be added 7,925 
I of new lines, at a total cost of 
K), on which the Government has 
n to guarantee 5 per cent, interest, 
xception of the Formosa- Tarija line, 
cost only 4^ per cent, is to be guaran- 
le Argentine railroad system for- 
1 1887 7,657,406 passenf^ers, and 
tons of merchandise. The gross 
were $28,805,722, and the ranning 
^13,177,772 leaving net earnings to 
It of $10,627,950. During 1886 and 
essions were granted for the building 
I of railway ; in 1888 there were 84 
18 for concessions to construct new 

, 200 kilometres of tramway, out of 
600 kilometres to be constructed in 
liate vicinity of Buenos Ayres, were 
5 order. 

IM. — The lines in operation in 1887 
ad and operated as follows : 



s. 


LENGTH nf KILO- 
MBTBXB. 


OillMa. 


Employte. 




MO«t. 


Win. 


Cabls. 

78 
68 






18,017 
M64 


80,668 
12.185 


407 
261 


1,806 
852 










28,181 42,808 


141 


668 


1,667 



re added to the Argentine telegraph 

1887, 8,400 kilometres of line, and 
metres were repaired. There were 

of construction 850 kilometres of 

. The number of private telegrams 

651,280; Government messages 

^he receipts rose from $271,441 to 

the expenses amounted to $515,425. 
Hrfke. — The number of post-offices 
was 672. The number of letters 
n 1886 was 24,862,842, of which 

were Government dispatches, and 
foreign letters; newspapers, 19,998,- 
lich 2,185,824 were foreign. 
vrntf Lines. — A contract was made in 
between the Government of the 



Argentine Republic and Robert P. Houston, of 
England, by which the latter agrees to con- 
struct ten steamers, of at least 4,000 tons bur- 
den and a speed of 16 knots an hour, to ply 
between the north of Europe and the ports 
of the Argentine Republic, and four steam- 
launches for emigrant service in Europe. 
Also four steamers to ply between the United 
States and the ports of the Argentine Republic. 
The principal ccmditions of the agreement are 
the following : The Government of the Argen- 
tine Republic guarantees a loan of 5 per cent, 
per annum on £1,250,000 for the European 
service, and 5 per cent, per annum on £360,000 
for the United States line. The cimtractor for 
the European service agrees that these steam- 
ers shall always fly the flag of the Argentine 
Republic, and that, in case of war, the Gov- 
ernment shall have the option to buy them at 
a sum not greater than their original cost. 
Exceptionally good accommodations are to be 
provided for emigrants. 

In case the revenues of the contracting com- 
pany exceed five per cent., it will refund to the 
Government from this excess the sums it has 
received as guarantees, and in case the reve- 
nues reach ten per cent., the excess is to be 
divided between the Government and the 
company. The guarantee terminates at the 
end of eighteen years. It is stipulated that in 
going from Europe the steamers must not call 
at any port except Montevideo and places 
where it is customary to take coal ; but on the 
return trip they may call at any port. One of 
the steamers must arrive in the Argentine 
Republic at least once a week. Passenger and 
freight rates are to be fixed by agreement be- 
tween the Government and the company. The 
company also agrees to furnish each steamer 
with a refrigerator capable of holding at least 
8,000 dressed sheep or an equivalent amount 
of beef. The service is to begin in February, 
1889, and by the following November all the 
steamers must be running. 

The United States service will be performed 
under similar conditions, except that no re- 
frigerators are to be placed on these vessels. 

€<NUieree« — In 1836 there entered Argentine 
ports 4,727 sailing-vessels, with a joint tonrage 
of 764,238 tons, and 6,288 steamers registering 
2,751,062 tons. In 1887 the increase in the 
arrivals was 4,000 vessels, with a total tonnage 
of 1,000,000. 

The foreign trade of the Argentine Republic 
for six years has been : 



TKARS. 


Impovti. 


Export!. 


1882 


$61,246,000 
80,485,000 
94,066.000 
92,221,000 
97.658,000 

116,292,000 


$60,889,000 


1898 


60,207,000 


1884 


68,029,000 


1885 


88.879,000 


1886 


69,584,000 


18S7 


88,827,000 







The revenue collected from customs was 
$44,114,000 in 1887, an increase of thirty per 
cent, over 1886. 



86 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



The Argentine foreign trade was distributed 
in 1886 as follows (in thousands of dollars): 



OOUNTRIEa. 

England 

France 

Belgiam 

Germany 

Italy 

SpaiD 

Holland 

United States 

Brazil 

Urueuay 

Chili 

Paraguay 

Weat Indies 

Other coanlrles 

Total 



Import. 



97,658 



Kzport. 



88.482 


10,071 


17,002 


22,342 


7,821 


10,924 


8,044 


6,951 


4,647 


2,476 


8,717 


1,166 


780 


■ • • • 


7,648 


8,^80 


2,809 


1,948 


6,417 


2,767 


68 


2,819 


1,418 


419 


20 


1,184 


4,845 


8,742 



69,884 



The Argentine Republic is rapidly advancing 
toward the position of an important grain- 
exporting country, fmrnense tracts of pasture 
are being converted into farmland. A few 
years ago not sufficient wheat was raised to 
supply the home market. The number of 
reapers imported into the country last year 
was 1,429. The chief exports of Argentine 
products in 1887 were: Indian corn, 861,000 
tons; wheat, 238,000 tons; linseed, 81,000 
tons; jerked beef, 19,800 tons; wool, 240,- 
000,000 pounds (against 290,000,000 in 1886) ; 
sheepskins, 67,000,000 pounds; cattle, 110,000 
head. 

The American trade with the Argentine 
Republic is shown in the following table : 



YEARS. 



1885 
18S6 
1887 



Import into tht 

UaitMi sum. 



$4.77^616 
4,354,880 
4,977,018 



DomMtk uporti to tht 
Argcntiii* Rvpoblie. 

18,984,190 
^020,S85 
5,911,027 



Beginning with the year 1888, the export 
duty on wool and all products emanating from 
stock-raising has been abolisljed. An octroi, 
or consumption -tax, is charged on all goods 
leaving the bonded warehouses for local con- 
sumption, but from this tax several articles are 
exempted, paying from 2 to 60 per cent, import 
duty. The free list remained the same as in 1887. 

A French syndicate has conceived the plan 
of organizing a service of towing, by means of 
tug- boats, vessels through the Straits of Magel- 
lan, between the Atlantic and the Pacific, the 
toll to be twenty cents a ton. Ohili would 
have to give its consent, and has been applied 
to. 

Edmtlon. — There are 8,000 schools and edu- 
cational establishments in the republic, attend- 
ed by 230,000 pupils. 

ImigratlM. — Tlie number of immigrants 
landed in 1887 was 120,842, in 574 steamers, 
as compared with 93,116 in 1886. During the 
first six months of 1888 there arrived 63,503 
immis^rants. During the six years, from 1882 
to 1887, both inclusive, 615,220 immigrants 
landed. 

During the summer of 1888 the Government 



sent to Europe the General Commissio 
Immigration, Don Samuel Navarro, to 
arrangements for advancing passage-mo 
desirable individuals from the north of I 
wishing to emigrate to the republic, undt 
visions of the law of November, 1887, 
repaid in three equal yearly installment 
first, one year, after arrival. 

(MmdatlM. — A colonization society ba 
formed in Brussels, Belgium, for the 
ment and exploitation of 40,000 becta 
land granted by the Argentine Govemro* 
the purpose to Florimond van Varen 
the capital being fixed at 2,500,000 franc 
the charter of the company extending 
twenty years. The site is on the Atlan 
the peninsula of Valdez, and the colon; 
be called "New Flanders." The eanct 
naire has bound himself to introduce the 
Belgian families of farmers. Another < 
zation company was formed at Oorrientes 
Oolonizadora de Corrientes," with a cap 
$1,000,000. 

The Government has made the foil 
land grants during seven consecutive ; 
In 1881, 40,000 hectares; in 1882, 20. oi 
1888, 120,000; in 1884, 40,000; in 1885 
000 ; in 1886, 907,000 ; and in 1887, 4,36 
together, 5,678,000 hectares. During th 
four months of 1888 the total land 
amounted to 2,752,818 hectares, sold foi 
851,495. 

Exploring Ezpedltleiis. — The Geographic 
stitute of Buenos Ayres, under Governme 
has undertaken to explore southern Pata 
Don Augustin del Castillo, captain of i 
ate, who explored that part of the count 
fore, was to command the expedition, 
sailed for the Gallegos islands, and waste 
trate, if possible, beyond Lago Argent 
Lagos Viedna and San Martin, return! 
the Rio Negro ; also to determine the i 
boundaries between the republic and Ch 

Another expedition, having for its 
the exploration of the eastern slopes < 
Cordillera from Mendoza to the Rio Negi 
on Dec. 1, 1888, undertaken by Dr. Fre 
Kurtz, Professor of Botany at the Uni^ 
of C6rdoba, and Dr. William Bodenbem 
the Palffiontological Museum of that city, 
expense is defrayed by the Geographical 
tute of Buenos Ayres, and by the Na 
Academy of Sciences at C6rdoba jointly. 

P^maiient Rxhlbidon.— The President. I 
sued a decree creating a permanent exhi 
of Argentine products at Buenos Ayres. 

Cattie. — The slaughterings at the sal 
for exportation of salted hides in the val 
the Rio de la Plata were as follows: 



PLACES. 



Baonos Ayres. 
Montevideo . . . 
( >n the rivers . 
Bio Grande . . . 



Total 



1887. 


1886. 


61,000 
180,000 
681,000 
420.000 


182,000' 
814,0001 
744,000 
841,000, 


1,242,000 


1^1,000 1 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. ARIZONA. 37 

The alaughteriDg operations for the season of 1,200 square miles. Mount Adam, the highest 

1888 were 763,900 head of cattle in the Argen- ground in the colony, rises 2,815 feet above 

tine Republic, and on the banks of rivers, 452,- the sea. The Falkland Islands were discov- 

350 in Uruguaj, and 396,000 in Rio Grande, ered by Davis in 1592, and visited by Hawkins 

consdtating a total of 1,622,150 head. in 1594. In 1763 they were taken possession 

Barber iBprtTMMBlB. — The Argentine Oon- of by Franco ; subsequently they were held by 

gress approved Engineer Manero's plans, and the Spaniards until 1771» when they were for 

T(^ed $10,000,000 for the construction of a new a time abandoned, and the sovereignty of them 

port, the work on which is begun, and will was given op to Great Britain. In 1888 they 

consist first, of a canal 828 feet wide and 21 were taken possession of by the British Gov- 

feet deep below low- water level, prolonging ernment for the protection of the whale-fish- 

tbe Balisas river for the entrance of large ery. In 1884 the population was 1,640. The 

diips; a basin of the same depth will be con- revenue in 1885 was £10,488, and the ezpendi- 

stnicted for vessels remaining but a short time, tare £7,598; the imports in the same year 

and four other docks or basins also of the amounted to £48,814, and the exports to 

Mme depth, whose wharves will have a total £97,846. 

kngtb of 26^ feet ; finally, a maritime basin of IRIZONA* Territttflal GovenuMnt — The fol- 

equal depth, and 4,692 feet long will be made, lowing were the Territorial officers during the 

All the masonry will be of asphaltum blocks year : Governor, C. Meyer Zulick ; Secretary, 

ind brick. Separate storehouses will be built James A. Bayard ; Treasurer, 0. B. Foster ; 

for imported goods and goods to be exported, Auditor, John J. Hawkins; Attorney- General, 

which will 03cupy a total area of 8,280 feet by Briggs Goodrich, who died in June, and was 

164 feet, and have a capacity of 10,963,900 cu- succeeded by John A. Rush, by appointment 

bic feet. All the wharves will be provided of the Governor; Superintendent of Public 

with loading and unloading appliances. Instruction, Charles M. Strauss; Commissioner 

Wa t e r w rkfc — On Jane 23, 1888, the Govern- of Immigration, Cameron H. King, succeeded 

meat accepted the propositions of Messrs. by Thomas E. Farrish ; Chief-Justice of the 

S«nuel B. Hale & Go., to complete the water- Supreme Court, James H. Wright ; Associate 

works of the city, which will involve an out- Justices, William W. Porter and William H. 

lay of $21,000,000. The toll per honse per Barnes. 

BKHith is to be $6. FlnaBces.— The debt of the Territory is now 

?]tlcaitu«>— The area under culture with somewhat over $600,000. Of this sum, $850,- 

fiaes in 1887, was about 2,700 hectares of 2i 000 had been funded into bonds by the Legis- 

acres; and the wine-production amounted to latures previous to 1887, and the Legislature 

about 6,000,000 gallons, worth $1,500,000. of that year provided for the funding of $200,- 

^e vine-growing is chiefly in the province of 000 additional by the issue of bonds to that 

San Juan, which produces trrapes enough to amount. These bonds were sold at par in the 

Biake 250,000 hectolitres of wine. One wine- following November to the Bank of Arizona, 

making establishment — that of Marenco and The same Legislatare raised the interest on Ter- 

Ceresoto— exports 25,000 hectolitres annually, ritorial warrants from eight to ten per cent, 

its cellars, factories, etc., covering a space of and increased the poll-tax from $2.00 to $2.50. 

S0,000 square yardis, and occupying, during The assessed valuation of the Territory in 1887 

vintage-time, between 850 and 500 operatives, was $26,318,500. For 1888 there has been a 

There are several similar concerns in the prov- gain of $1,000,000 in Maricopa County, and 

iace, which exports 80,000 hectolitres per $500,000 in Yavapai County alone, 

innum. The vines coltivated are Monas, Mol- Edicatleii* — The school system is not yet ef- 

kt, and Uva de Vifia ; Bordeaux vines have fective in drawing a proper proportion of the 

abo been procured from Chili, the wine there- youth of the Territory into the public schools. 

frotn resembling Burgundy more than Bor- The average daily attendance during the scho- 

deaax. lastic year ending in 1885 was but 8,226, al- 

f|aanBdBe> — In August, 1888, the governments though there were 10,219 children of school 

of the Argentine Republic, Uruguay, and Bra- age in the Territory. That is, only 31 chil- 

al concloded a convention regulating uni- dren out of every 100 attended school during 

formly among them the rules that henceforth that year, although the total expenditnres for 

are to be ob^ierved respecting qaaran tine as be- public schools amounted to $188,164.88. For 

tween tbera and as regards other nations, to- the year ending in 1886 the showing is but 

gether with the sanitary inspection service. little better, as the Territory disbursed $135,- 

The Fiflduid Isfaui^ — The Argentine Repub- 080 with the result of securing an average at- 

Be has renewed its claim to the Falkland Isl- tendance of 35 out of each 100 children. The 

ands, now held by Great Britain. These isl- reports for 1887-'88 indicate improvement, 

aods are in the South Atlantic Ocean, between but there is still an evident need of a compul- 

M° and BS'^ south latitude, and between 57° and sory school law. 

63" west longitnde. They consist of the East Land daisis. On this subject, the Governor 

Falkland, area 3,000 square miles; the West says, in his annual report: *^ Surveyor-General 

Falkland, 2,300 square miles; and about one Hise, in his recent report to the Land Depart- 

hondred small islands with an area of nearly ment, says there are Spanish and Mexican pri- 



38 



ARIZONA. 



vate land claims pending in his office covering 
5,195,348 acres. The early settlement of these 
grants is in everj way desirable, in order that 
such claims, if any there be, as are just may be 
confirmed, and such as are fraudulent may be 
rejected, and the honest settler who in good 
faith located upon and paid the Government 
for his land may peacefully enjoy the same. 
The proposition before Congress to transfer 
these claims to a special court created for this 
purpose, if passed, or any transfer of the settle- 
ment of these claims from the Interior Depart- 
ment and Congress to the judicial arm of the 
Government, can not fail to work incalculable 
hardship to our settlers, and consequent dam- 
age to the Territory." 

Irrlgatioik— It is claimed that in the past few 
years over $2,500,000 have been expended in 
Arizona in the construction of irrigating-canals, 
and that in the next year at least $1,500,000 
more will be expended. Great activity and 
enterprise is being shown throughout the en- 
tire southern portion of the Territory in locat- 
ing water-rights, taking out canals, and re- 
claiming desert lands. The most extensive and 
successful irrigating canals are to be found in 
the Salt River valley, where canals over 200 
miles in length and reclaiming about 225,000 
acres are now in operation, and nearly 100 
miles more are in process of construction. In 
Pinal County, along Gila river, canals de- 
signed to reclaim over 200,000 acres are being 
constructed. In the counties of Pima, Cochise, 
Graham, and Yuma, the reclamation of land is 
not so extensive, but beginnings have been 
made. On the Little Colorado and its tribu- 
taries, in the county of Apache, about 20,000 
acres are under cultivation, while in the Verde 
valley, Yavapai County, about 2,500 acres 
have been restored. 

SlodL-IUlsfaig. — The following is the number 
of cattle and their assessed value for 1888, in 
the various counties, as returned to the Terri- 
torial auditor . 



COUNTIES. 



Apache . 
Cochise.. 

Olla 

Graham .. 
Mohave . 
Pinal .... 
Yavapai . 
Yama . . , 
Maricopa 

Total 



Number. 


VaIm. 


65,472 


$666,551 87 


78,294 


78*2,940 00 


19,974 


201,196 00 


45,541 


455,410 00 


20,763 


254,212 00 


81,460 


814,814 00 


141,174 


1,694,086 00 


8,840 


85,411 00 


12,698 


168,898 00 



418,715 $5,582,515 87 



To this total should be added Pima County, 
with 94,735 cattle, valued at $1,012,290. 

Mining. — The product of gold and silver for 
Arizona in 1887 is reported by Wells, Fargo, 
& Co. at $5,771,555, a slight decrease from 
the previous year. In November, 1887, a 
vein of gold of exceptional richness was dis- 
covered by two miners in Yavapai County, on 
Hassayampa river, about twelve miles from 
Prescott. Over $10,000 were taken from this 
mine in a few weeks, and an organization of 



capitalists was soon made to develop the 
erty, which is called the Howard mine. 

Rtflrands.— For 1888 the total numb 
miles of railroad assessed in the Territory 
1,053-41, valued at $7,317,930.57, a alig] 
crease in the total assessment over the 
ceding year. No new lines have been 
structed during the year. The Ten 
needs a greater number of north-and- 
lines meeting the two great trunk lines pt 
through the Territory east and west, 
following shows the details of the assesc 
for the year: Atlantic and Pacific, 3 
miles, assessed at $7,282.03 per mile ; 
valuation, $2,862,186. Arizona Mineral 
80 miles, at $5,706.33 per mile ; total, ( 
190. Arizona Narrow-Gauge, 10 mik 
$5,200 per mile ; total, $52,000. Arizon 
New Mexico, 41 miles, at $4,502.22 per 
total, $184,591.13. Maricopa and Ph* 
34*45 miles, at $7,000 per mile; total, tS64 
Prescott and Arizona Central, 73*3 ipil 
$5,151.62 per mile; total, $877,613.75. S 
em Pacific, 383 miles, at $7,500 per mile; 
$2,872,500. 

PnUtlcak — The Democratic Territorial 
vention met at Tucson on September 5 
renominated as delegate to Congress, Marc 
Smith. Candidates for the Territorial A 
bly were also nominated. The conve 
took an unusual position in refusing, by e 
of 30 to 84, to pass a resolution appr 
the national and the Territorial admin 
tion. Two weeks later the Republican 
ritorial Convention met at the same place 
nominated Thomas F. "Wilson for Deh 
together with a ticket for the Legish 
Resolutions were adopted accepting th< 
tional platform, condemning the Dema 
administration in the nation and Terr 
and embracing also the following : 

We condemn the pemiclouB practice of the p 
Administration in appointing men who are nc 
non-reaidents, but who are total stranffera 1 
great natural, mineral, agricultural, and oth 
sources of the Territories, as well as the imp 
function and duties of the high offices whereo 
are incumbent ; and in this connection we re 
fully invite attention to the custom at the prese 
served (we believe heretofore unheard of in An 
of creating a horde of spies, ferrets, and blackn 
emissaries called *^ special agents," who, under 
of law and the j>ay and support of the Goverr 
make it their business to obstruct and retard th 
est settler and miner from developing our ^ 
sources and flllinjf this Territory with thrift 
happy homes. This system now in voffue in A 
is equalled in iniquity, if at all, only by the I 
plan of espionage m Ireland. 

We demand the removal of the Apacho Ii 
from the Territory. 

It is the duty of Congress to appropriate 
cient money to construct reservoirs tor water-s 
in this Territory and for the development of ai 
water, the benefits of which would enhance all 
and bring to the treasury tourfold return. 

At the November election the Demo( 
ticket was successful by about the usual 
jority, and a majority of the Democratic 
didates for the Legislature were elected. 



ARKANSAS. 89 

8JS. Slate G^fcmMit — The following year in the treatment of prisoners at Coa] Hill 
State officers daring the year : Gov- Camp, in Johnson Ooonty, where a large nam- 
tmon P. Haghes, Democrat; Secre- ber of convicts were employed in the coal- 
bate, Elias B. Moore ; Treasarer, Will- mines. An inspection made in March by the 
^oodraft; Auditor, William R. Miller; State Penitentiary Commissioners revealed the 

- General, Daniel W. Jones ; State fact that the convicts bad been worked beyond 

nmissioner, Paul M. Cobbs ; Saperin- the prescribed number of hours, bad not been 

f Public Instruction, Wood E. Thomp- sufficiently fed or clothed or lodged, had been 

ief- Justice of the Supreme Court, worked wheu physically unable, and had been 

R. Cockrill; Associate Justices, Will- in charge of brutal keepers, whose punish- 

imith and Burrill B. Battle. ments had caused death to some and severe 

ExcttMMit — The State Geologist, in a torture to many others. The convicts at this 

the Gx>vernor, in August, says : camp were ordered back by the Governor to 

jis long been a popular belief that g^>ld the State Penitentiary, the warden of which 

existed in paying quantities in the State of was summarily removed for negligence or crim- 

Xhiring the last tew years, notably since j^al conduct in permitting such abuses. The 

Sprinas, and through the country west of isnment by fleeing the fetate. 
is excitement culminated in 1887-'88. In PoHUctk— The first political convention of 

[>ns ot the State it reached such a pitch that the year met at Little Rock on April 80, being 

ry man abandoned his usual occupation to i,«i-] nndpr thft flnsnirps of thft ffnion T.ahor 

Jaimaand turn miner. Every uSamiliar ne^^ ^^^aer tne auspices or tne union l^aDor 

garded as a valuable ore or an '* indication " P^^ty. 1 his convention nominated the follow- 

ng, and these delusions have been kept ing ticket: Governor, C. M. Norwood; Secre- 

sayere, some of whom were, perhaps, sin- tary of State, G. W. Terry ; Auditor, A. W. 

3me of them certainly fraudulent. These Bird ; Attorney-General, W. J. Duval ; Chief- 

er« and their dupes have been bo success- j ^ice of the Supreme Court, O. D. Scott ; 

ley induced capitalists and business men, ^""'"'-^ y- »<"« «Ki''t\. ^r^^*^ \\ ^' „ f^' 

i out of the State, and especially the visit- superintendent of Pubhc Instruction, B. r, 

lot Springs, to believe in the value of the Baker; State Land Commissioner, R. U. More- 

roining purposes to such an extent that head. No nomination was made for the office 

^\1?'' A ^1?^/ y®**? «)^panio« have ^f State Treasurer. Resolutions were adopted 
x>rated under the laws of Arkansas with a « ii '^ 

il stock of more than $111,000,000 for the ** lOiiOW : 

working the supposed gold and silver We favor such legislation as will secure the reforms 

ores of the State. demanded by the Agricultural Wheel, the National 

careful assay of ores from all the so- ^«J™«"' Alliance, and the Knights ot Labor. 
^^^ «.u« «««i^«:^4- #»:i« 4-^ 4i^A ^r^^^ We pledge ourselves to do our utmost to enforce: 
nes, the geologist fails to find more ^ T^xaSon of all lands held for speculative pur- 

silver deposits that could by any pos- poses at their full value. 

5 successfully worked. Of the alleged 2. A strict execution of the election laws and such 

.^ be says: ** It is very doubtful wheth- legislation as will secure a free ballot and a fair 

e one of them has ever legitiraately re- <^l^\^^ consolidation of the elections. State and na- 

single ounce of gold. . . . The future tional. 

isas, as a mining State, must depend 4. A change in the convict system, the abolition 
coal, iron, manganese, antimony, and of the contract system, and the working of the con- 
zinc, lead, and graphite. In these, ^icts within the walls of the Penitentiary at Little 

l-stone, marble, chalk, marl, and build- ^ '^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^ reduction of days for road- *^ 

she 18 nch. The geology of the working. 
not favorable for the production or 6. A public-school system that will educate all the 

f the precious metals " people, and we favor national aid to education. 

■««■.— The natural resources of Ar- fj'^l^"^ regulating mming and proper ventilation 

ave long failed of development, from ^.'^ws subjecting trusts, railroads, and other cor- 

opulation. but the necessity of attract- porations to State control. 

igrants to the State has not until re- " We favor the establishment of a labor and agri- 
en recognized. Early this year, a call cultural bureau." 

3d by the Governor for a State Con- This ticket relied for its support primarily 

to consider means of attracting set- upon the labor organizntions, especially those 

his convention met at Little Rock, on of the farmers, of which the Agricultural 

31, and provided for a bureau of immi- Wheel is the most considerable in the State, 

to be maintained by subscriptions se- It was greatly strengthened, however, by the 

a canvass of eacb county. It also decision of the Republicans to support it. A 

nded to the next General Assembly convention of Republicans, held in May, elect- 

lishinent of a State board of immigra- ed delegates to the National Republican Con- 

le necessity of such a board was after- vention, but intrusted the selection of a State 

cussed and urged by the various po- ticket to the State Executive Committee, which 

rties, in convention and during tbe announced the adoption of the Union Labor 

canvass. ticket early in July. 

. — The evils of the convict lease sys- The Democratic State Convention met at 

ived a fresh illustration during the Little Rock on May 81. For more than two 



40 ABEANSAS. 

months previous, aspirants for the gnbema- We indorse the united effoitB of liberal-miDdedeili- 

torial nomination had been engaged in a thor- ^^^ ^f the State, regardless of political affiliatioM, 

^««k ^«n»«oo y^* 4.1.^ fi4-<,fA i,Z^ ^« «n^./^ ^* to organize and buildup a State bureau of imraigr»- 

ODgh canvass of the State, two or more of tion, and hereby seooncf their invitation, extended to 

them generally appearing upon the same plat- all earnest, honest, and inteUigent people everywhere, 

form in joint debate. The principal objection regardless of political opinion or religious belief, to 

to Gov. htughes, who was a candidate for re- ^^^ their homes m Arkansas, where a cordial wel- 

nomination, rested upon the fact that a third <^^\^^ ^5 People wiU be extended to them and a 

" . 'y 1 *^''^^ K"" « ^-y** »'""''' » «A^ X* yn„g^y qj undeveloped resources, unexcelled by any 

term m that office would be contrary to prece- equal area on the globe, promises a generous r^wtrS 

dent and would establish an undesirable prac- tor industrious labor. 

tice. It was also claimed that the abases ex- The financial embarrassment of the State having 

isting in the penal institutions of the State been safely and certainly reUeved, we favor sucH 

«,zv«« ^.,« ;« o^A »,^«an.A f^ ♦!,« n^,r^mw>^m^^ modiflcations ot the convict system of the State as can 

were due in some measure to the Governor s ^e effected, to the end that the State shall assume the 

neglect to examine their management properly, complete control and responsibility for their main- 

The other candidates before the people were tenauce: that their labor may not be brought into 

John G. Fletcher, J. P. Eagle, W. M. Fish- open and direct competition with the honest and vol- 

back, and E. W. Rector. The first ballot in untary laborofthejpeople, andonsuoha reforiMtory 

. , ^ . . , J xi- X x. A u basis that novices lu crime may not be subjected to 

the convention showed that no one had ob- t^e baneful influences of contact and association with 

tamed a majority of the delegates, although hardened criminals. 

the temper of the convention was evidently We congratulate the people upon the growth of 
opposed to a third term. Gov. Hughes re- personal temperance throughout the State, and are in 
ceivedl22 votes: Fletcher, 113; Eagle, 97: ^^r of the strict entorcement of the ^ 
T^ TL V^ \ n.\ n ^''=*'™'*» ^i", *-«a6*^ *" » Statutes restricting the illicit sale ot intoxicating liq- 
J^ishback, 96; Kector, 25. A session of four uore. believing that it affords a striking example of 
days and 126 ballots were required before a the beneficent effects of the principle of local self- 
choice was made. The nominee, J. P. Eagle, government. 

received on the final ballot 248 votes, against On Jaly 4 the Prohibitionists of the State 

201 votes for Gov. Hughes. Other nominees met and adopted the following resolutions: 

of the convention were as follow : Secretary We congratulate the friends of prohibition in Ar- 

of State, B. B. Ghism ; Auditor, W. S. Dunlop ; kansas on the good tliey have accomplished in the 

Treasurer, William E. Woodruff; Chief-Justice contest with the liquor traffic, as is evidenced by the 

^f ♦K^ a«*v-Ar»A n^^»4- C4.^„i:,«V. t> n^«i,«:ii . fact that at least one half of the State to-day stands 

of the Supreme Court, Steriing R. OockriU ; redeemed from the presence of the saloon, ani nearly 

Attomey-beneral, William K Atkinson; bu- onehalf of our voters have been educated up to the 

perintendent of Public Instruction, Wood E. point where they will, under our local-option laws, 

Thompson ; State Land Commissioner, Paul M. vote against license. 

Cobbs That, the friends of prohibition feel thankful to the 

fwyr' 1 x^ _ XL *.• 1 A J •« past Legislatures for the passage of our local-option 

The platform approves the nation^ Admm- f^^^ ^^nd through whi<£^ so much good hssloeen 

istration, the tariff message of the President, done to our people and damaee to the whif^ky traffic; 

and the Mills Bill, reiterates the doctrine of and they would suggest that if said laws were amend- 

State rights, and continues as foUows : ^ \^ »o™« particulars thev would be more efficient, 

° ' and we would request said amendments be made by 

^ We fiivor liberal appropriations by Congress fertile ^Tbat^n^S^thstonding we are now in full accord 

improvement of our waterways, to the end that com- ^^ ^^^ national Prohibition party, and will put elect- 

StT«tTL^i^niSS* h^L^l^nf th^i^r^n^'' <>" ^^ ^hc field, yct wc wUl uot nimiuatc candidates 

regulated and cheapened, by bringing thein into com- ^^ the various fetate offices, but will do all we can to 

K!t:fi^^rH«n!^J*t!tiw5.S^^ ad^an«« *t»« ^^ of temperance on the one hand and 

natural tendency is toward monopoly and extortion. ^yreak down the liquor traffic on the other, by local 

We point with pnde to the successful admmistra- ^^tir^n ^,^A .n/tYi /^fi^^i. .n/ton^ •• «« »««« u^m^ iZ\ 

tion of'state affaire by the Democratic party and the M ""^ J^^^^^a a» wo may be able m a 

results that prove its wisdom and patriotism — to wit : Axxuii.* a v^ •• 

The rate of taxation reduced from seven to five mills, ^^ ^"^ election on September 8, owing in part 

the marvelous increase of material wealth of the State, to Democratic dissensions growing out of the 

which was greatlv enhanced by the passage of laws heated contest for the nomination, the Demo- 

which subjected tfie propertv of vealtfiy coiporations ^ratic majority was more than 2,000 fewer 

to the payment of an equitable proportion of the cost .. • looa t? i • j ^no^^ ^^Y''* 

of their own protection, on a basis of fairness to them- than in 1886. Eagle received 99,214 vot^ 

selves and justice to the people; the liberal encour- and Norwood 84,233; a Democratic majority 

agement and fostering care extended to tie cause of of 14,981. These figures do not include the 

Dublic eduction ; tiie founding and sustivining on a votes of nine townships of Pulaski County, the 

basis ot broad liberality the various charitoble msti- ^^n u^^u„ i* « »TV»;«vr .^^.^ «*^i^« * Ji *.u^ 

tutions of the State; and the payment of so much of P?^^"^,^^^^ ^Pf ^'^^ were stolen from the 

the just debt of the State as has already been accom- County Clerk's office after the election. The 

plisned, with the promise of its entire satisfaction at Legislature chosen was overwhelmingly Demo- 

no dij*tant day. , , ^ . , « ^ . cratic, the minority consisting in part of Re- 

We indorse the action of the Legislature of 1887 m publicans and in part of Union Labor repre- 

providmg for a geological survey of the State, and fa- *^ ^ -• a^-^u 1 *• ..u I:- 

vor the establishment by the next Legislature of a sentati ves. At the same election the question 

bureau of agriculture, manufacture, mining, and im- of callmg a convention to frame a new Consti- 

mieration. tution was voted upon. Returns from all but 

We favor a system of liberal enactment for the en- three counties gave 41,818 votes in favor of the 
couragement of railroads and manufactuiing establish- ^nnrfintion nnd QO 7ftO iurftin«t if THa fo- 
ments, but are opposed to anv exemption in their convention, and yu,7WU against ". lUe INo- 
fevor from the burdens of taxation, which can not be vemper election resulted in favor of the Demo- 
extended alike to all tax-payera and citizens. cratic national ticket. 



ARNOLD, MATTHEW. 



41 



nVEW, EDgligh critic, bom in 
Laleham, near Suines. EogUnd, Dec. 2i, 1822 ; 
died in Liverpool, EDgland, April IS, 1888. He 
wu the eldest soa of Dr. Tbomaa Arnold, an- 
ther of a "A History of Kome," who became 
Duster of Rugby School in 182T, and there in- 
DndDced new methods of discipliae and Id- 
Kractioa that created an epoch in the eda- 
eational history of England. The son, after 
spending some years in a private school, was 
•rat to Winchester College for a year in order 
to become familiar with the traditional system 
of English public schools. He then entered 
Rogby in 1897. and in 1811 came ont near the 
liead of the school harin^ in 1840 won a sohol- 
ir^Jiip at Halliol College, Oxford. His anda- 
dons wit and brilliant conversation won the 
•dmirstioD of liis fellow-students. Under the 




despotic but practical masterabip of Dr. Jenk- 
ins, Balliol had becotne the hardest working 
mliege at Oxford ; hut, says Andrew Lang, 
" the Oxford oF Hr. Arnold's undergraduate 
y<«ra was very much what Oxford had always 
b«en, a place for boating, cricbet, and Inung- 
isg-" In his poem entitled "The Gipsy Schol- 
ar," he has embalmed the memories of those 
pleasut days. While he was at Balliol, Oxford 
wBB Stirred with theological discussion. John 
HMiry Newman was in ihe fullness of his popn- 
Urily, and Arnold's intimate friend, Arthur 
Ho^ Clough " took these things too hardly for 
bis happinesa." Mr. Arnold won a scholarship 
for pnAciency in Latin the first year, and gained 
the Newdigftte prize with an essay on " Orom- 
we]] " ia Ihe second, bnt obtained only a sec- 
chmI dasB at graduation. In 1846 he was elect- 
ed a fellow ofOriel College. His friendship 
with Arthur Hngb Clongh of the same college 
i* embalmed in [be elegiac poem of " Thyrsis," 
Sot defliriof; to take holy orders or to follow 
[he life of a oolite tutor, he became private 
secretary of Lord Lanadowne, a leader of the 
Whigi^ in 1847. In 1848 he pnbliahed ander 



his Initial " A.," a volume called " The Strayed 
Reveler, and other Poems," which shows his 
inlierited love of Greek sentiment and form, 
and his early devotion to Wordsworth. These 
poems include ''The Forsaken Merman," ibo 
Biqaisite pagan poem "Ke«ignation,"and "The 
Sick King of Bokhara," an admirable picture 
of Eastern life in Central Asia. Three years 
later, in 18G1, after teaching at Rugby as assist- 
ant master for a short time, he married a daugh- 
ter of Justice Weiglitman, and was appointed 
to the office gt lay inspector of achoois, with 
supervision over the schools of the British and 
Foreign School Sociely, representing the Non- 
conformists. Thelaborionsduliesof a school in- 
spector were the regular occupation of liis life, 
and only ceased two or three years before he 
died. Many of his reports are preserved in the 
annual Blue Book issued by the Committee of 
the Council on Edaoation. In these he nrged, 
with the force of his epigrammatic and Inmi- 
nous stfle, the elevation of elementary educa- 
tion by such steps as esistingconditionsand the 
example of more progressive countries showed 
to be practicable. Id 186S he was sent to the 
Gontineut as foreign assistant commissioner to 
Btndy the French, German, and Dnteh systems 
of primary education. EveutusUy William E. 
Forster, who married Arnold's elder sister, 
framed a measure that established a mncb 
more rational, complete, and effective system of 
slemeotary instruction. In 1866 Mr. Arnold 
went on another official tour to examine into 
the state of secondary education abroad. His 
observations were embodied in "Schools and 
Universities on the Continent," which ap- 
peared in 1667- From that time he was pos- 
sessed with the idea that the lack of organized 
middle-class education, such as exists in Ger- 
many and France, and the consequent ignorance 
ofart,lanBi:sgeB,aDd literature, and indifference 
to their renninginfluences, were the explanation 
of the dollnesB, vacuity, sordid instincts, blind 
prejudices, and moral obtuseness thnt charao- 
terize the middle classes of English aociety. He 
made it his task to hold np for reprobation the 
faults that he grouped under the name ot " Phi- 
listinism," and to prove that it can be remedied 
by wider and better ducatioo. Five years after 
the poblication of his first volume of poems, 
which were remarkable for classic finish, and 
therefore unattractive to the general pnblic. be 
issued n second under the title of "Empedocles 
on Etna, and other Poems," bnt, soon becom- 
ing dissatisfied with the leading poem, he sup- 
pressed almost the whole edition. In 1864 he 
published under his name a volume containing 
some poems that were new and some that had 
appeared in the former collecticns, and this 
was followed -soon afterward by another vol- 
ume. These established hia reputation among 
scholars, and in I8S7 he was called to the chair 
of Poetry at Oxford. In 1868 appeared atrngedy 
after Greek models, named " Merope," which 
of itself was not so well received as was the 
remarkable essay on the principles of criticism 



42 ARNOLD, MATTHEW. ASSOCIATIONS, SCIENCE. 

that formed the preface. His last appearance American habits, manners, literature, morals, 
as a poet is in "' New Poems ^* (1867) ; but this and general want of interest to the traveler, 
is a misnomer, for, like most of his volumes, it ^* The man that introduced the useful adap- 
is fall of reprinted pieces. *^ Empedocles '' is tation ^ Philistine,^ ^^ says Augustine Birrell^ 
restored in its entirety, but the most remarka- "could have little sympathy with Democracy.*' 
ble additions are ''Thyrsis,'' ''The Terrace at ASS0CUT10N8 FOR THE ADVANCEMiST OF 
Berne,^^ " Dover Beach,^' the stanzas on Ober- SCIENCE. Ancilcai. — The thirty-seventh annual 
mann, and those from the " Grande Char- meeting of the American Association for the 
treuse." In two small volumes entitled "Lectures Advancement of Science was held at Cleve- 
on translating Homer " and " Last Words,'' he land, Ohio. The Central High School building 
argued the adaptability of the hexameter to was devoted to the sessions. The meeting 
the English language. His "Essays in Criti- began on Aug. 15, and adjourned Aug. 22, 
«ism,'' which first appeared in 1865, have had 1888. The following were the oflScers of the 
a broadening and elevating effect on the writ- meeting: President, John W. Powell, of Wash- 
ing of reviews and throughout the range of ington, D. C. ; Vice-Presidents : Section A, 
modern English literature. " Study of Celtic Mathematics and Astronomy, Ormond Stone, 
Literature" appeared in 1867. His lectures of the University of Virginia, Va. ; Section B, 
gave to the Oxford professorship of Poetry an Physics, Albert A. Michelson, of Cleveland, 
importance that it never had attained before. Ohio ; Section C, Chemistry, Charles E. Mun- 
He was re-elected at the end of five years, but roe, of Newport, R. I. ; Section D, Mechanical 
was compelled by the statute to retire on the Science and Engineering, Calvin M. Woodward. 
<sonclusion of his second term, and when sub- of St. Louis, Mo. ; Section E, Geology and 6e- 
sequently solicited to become a candidate again, ography, George H. Cook, of New Brunswick, 
he invariably declined, recoiling from the con- N. J. ; Section F, Biology, Charles V. Riley, of 
test that would arise from clerical opposition Washington, D. C. ; Section H, Anthropology, 
caused by his writings. Assuming that his- Charles C. Abbott, of Trenton, N. J. ; Section 
torical and philological criticism had unsettled I, Economic Science and Statistica, Charles W. 
much that formed the accepted body of Chris- Smiley, of Washington, D. C. Secretaries: 
tian belief, and perceiving that Christianity Section A, C. L. Doolittle, of Bethlehem, Pa.; 
was losing its hold on some classes of society, Section B, Alex. Macfarlane, of Austin, Tex. ; 
he gave his mind to the consideration of what is Section C, \^illiam L. Dudley, of Nashville, 
permanent, spiritual, and ennobling in religion. Tenn. ; Section D, Arthur Beardsley, of Swarth- 
with the view of presenting a puri6ed and ra- more, Pa. ; Section E, John C. Branner, of Lit- 
tional form of faith that would command the tie Rock, Ark. ; Section F, Bemhard E. Fer- 
acceptance of the callous and the skeptical, now, of Washington, D. C. ; Section H, Frank 
Ten or twelve years after he had broached the Baker, of Washington, D. C; Section I, Charles 
subject in a magazine, he published a volume S. Hill, of Washington, D. C. Permanent Sec- 
containing his conclusions under the title of retary, Frederick W. Putnam, of Cambridge, 
" Literature and Dogma." This was supple- Mass. ; General Secretary, Julius Pohlman, of 
mented by a review of criticisms upon it, en- Buffalo, N. Y. ; Secretary of the Council, 0. 
titled "God and the Bible," and in 1877 by Leo Mees, of Columbus, Ohio; Treasurer, Will- 
" Last Essays on Church and Religion." His iam Lilly, of Mauch Chunk, Pa. 
"Complete Poems" were published in two vol- Proceedings. — The meeting was called to or- 
umes in 1876, and, with the addition of more der by the retiring president, Samuel P. Lang- 
recent verses, in three volumes in 1885. Among ley, who resigned the chair to John W. Powell, 
his books not already mentioned are " Culture the president-elect. After the usual courtesies 
and Anarchy " (1869) ; St. Paul and Protest- from the city and a brief address by the presi- 
antism," with an essay on " Puritanism and dent, the meeting organized, and the sections 
the Church of England" (1870); "Friendship's took possession of the rooms assigned them. 
Garland," a witty and amusing satire (1871); In the afternoon the several vice-presidents de- 
** Higher Schools and Universities in Germany" livered their addresses before their respective 
(1875); "Isaiah, XL, L, XVI, with the Shorter sections, and in the evening the retiring presi- 
Prophesies allied to it, edited with Notes" dent, Samuel P. Langley, gave his address. 
(1875); a selected edition of Johnson's " Lives SectiMS.^ — In the mathematical section about 
of the Poets " with Macaulay's *' Life of Samuel twenty -one papers were read touching on the 
Johnson " (1878) ; and " Mixed Essays " (1879). problems of astronomy and theory of physical 
He was an industrious writer for current litera- instruments as well as pure mathematics, 
ture, and few first - rate English magazines Ormond Stone's address was " On the Motions 
failed to number him among their contributors, of the Solar System." William Harkness gave 
His visits to the United States 'were made in an account of the instruments and processes 
1883 and in 1886, during both of which tours employed by the United States Transit of Ve- 
he lectured in most of the larger cities. His nus Commission to determine the solar paral- 
last collected essays were "American Lectures" lax from photographs of the transit of Venus 
(1887); and his last paper was "Civilization in Dec, 1882. Asaph Hall's paper "On the 
in the United States," a widely read and much Supposed Canals on the Surface of the Planet 
quoted article, in which he severely criticises Mars" was devoted to the so-called "Canals 



ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANOEMEKT OF ROIENOE. 



48 



of Mars,*^ whose existence the paper tended to 
throw into discredit. 

The physical section was well represented. 
The address by Albert A. Michelson was de- 
Toted to a consideration of the problems in re- 
lation to light-waves. A report on the teach- 
ing of physics was presented on behalf of a 
eommittee by Thomas 0. Mendenhall. It took 
foil cognizance of the increased knowledge of 
teachers and their consequent adaptability for 
more advanced work in the elementary schools. 
For the latter experimental work was recom- 
mended. For college courses three hours a 
week during the junior year was suggested as 
& minimam. The report elicited considerable 
discussion. W. Le Conte Stevens's paper on 
*'The Qualities of Musical Sounds'' was of 
zoaeh interest as asserting that difference of 
phase among the components of a sound affect- 
ed its quality. Edward L. Nichols and W. S. 
Franklin described some experiments they had 
iDade to determine the velocity of the electric 
current. Although their method would have 
detected a current of one thousand million 
metres a second, it gave only negative results, 
tending to prove that the velocity sought was 
in exce^ of this amount. Edward P. Howland 
read a practiciil paper on instantaneous pho- 
tography, treating of the necessary conditions 
for its saccesB. He recommended as an illu- 
minant a mixture of sulphur and magnesium. 
He gave an interesting lecture, with experi- 
ments, on the same subject. 

The chemical section was largely occupied 
with a discussion of methods of water analy- 
st A committee handed in its report, stat- 
ing the progress made, and was continued. 
"The Presence and Significance of Ammonia 
in Potable Waters" was admirably treated by 
E- S. H. Bailey. Albert W. Smith spoke on 
the subject of water and water-supply, with 
special reference to Cleveland ; while the brines 
from the gas- wells near the same city were 
diseuseed by Charles F. Mabery and Herbert 
H. Dow. A paper of great interest was pre- 
sented by William P. Mason, of the Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute, on " Fatal Poisoning by 
Carbon Monoxide." It described the fatal acci- 
dents due to an escape of fuel-gas at Troy, N. 
Y., on Jan. 6, 1887. Three deaths and a num- 
ber of cases of serious illness resulted. The 
autopsies disclosed nothing abnormal except the 
rivid redness of the tissues and blood. The 
latter showed absorption bands due to the car- 
htfio moDoxide, and a specimen was exhibited 
that stiU showed the characteristic color and 
absorption spectrum. In the di'^cussion that 
this paper elicited, William S. Dudley spoke 
of cigarette-smoking, and traced its evil effects 
to the inhalation of the products of combus- 
tion containing carbon monoxide. The prod- 
ucts from one and one fourth cigarette killed 
a mouse, and its death was found to be due to 
this gas and not to nicotine or any other alka- 
Vnd. The vice-president's address in this sec- 
tioii, by Charles £. Mnnroe, presented the ad- 



vanced views of chemistry, as developed by 
the labors of Mendelejeff and those who have 
followed in his steps in their endeavors to sys- 
tematize chemistry. The title of the address 
was " Some Phases in the Progress of Chemis- 
try." The committee on indexing chemical 
literature presented its sixth report. 

The section- of mechanical science and en- 
gineering was somewhat delayed in its work 
by the absence of its vice-president, Calvin M. 
Woodward, but Charles H. J. Woodbury, of 
Boston, Mass., was elected to fill his place. 
The Nicaragua and the Panama canals both 
were subjects of papers, the former being 
treated of by Robert E. Peary, the latter by 
Wolfred Nelson. '* The Infiuence of Alumin- 
ium npon Cast-iron,^' as in the well-known 
^^ niitis castings," was the subject of a paper 
by William J. Keep, and a discussion by Will- 
iam J. Keep, Charles F. Mabery, and L. D. 
Vorce. The first-named read a paper detailing 
its beneficial effects npon stove-castings, and 
gave the foundation for tlie debate alluded to. 
The quality of the castings, it was shown, was 
in every way improved by the addition of small 
amounts of the metal in question. By repeated 
remeltings of a given sample, followed by a 
coresponding series of analyses, it was shown 
that the aluminium remained in the metal, and 
did not, practically speaking, disappear to any 
extent. Much of its influence on the final cast- 
ings was due to the fact that it kept the carbon 
in the graphitic form, precluding the possibility 
of white iron. 

In the geological and geographical section a 
number of interesting papers on geological 
subjects were read, but geography was omit- 
ted from the programme. A large number 
of speakers gave the results of their observa- 
tions and studies. George H. Cook, the vice- 
president, in his address, spoke on the "Inter- 
national geological congress, and our part in it 
as American geologists." He gave briefly the 
history of the congress and its efforts to set- 
tle upon fixed systems of nomenclature, and 
colors for indicating different formations on 
geological maps. He made the plea- that the 
American workers should be more actively 
represented, and that names less local, geo- 
graphical, and strange, should be adopted for 
different formations. The labors of John S. 
Newberry, as usual, were represented by sev- 
eral papers, one on the oilfields of Colorado, 
and others on pala>ontological subjects. Sources 
of oil and gas recently discovered in Ohio, 
Kentucky, and Indiana, were described by Ed- 
ward Orton. A new form of geological map 
was exhibited by J. T. B. Ives. It consists of 
a series of colored pasteboards, each of which 
represents a geological system, the most recent 
rocks forming the highest layer. Where rocks 
of a given system do not exist they are cut out 
of the pasteboard representing them, '^len by 
placing these different layers one upon the 
other a geological map is produced, valuable 
for purposes of instruction. 



44 ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCR 

The proceedings of the biological section markable interest. It was entitled '* Altrniam 

were, perhaps, as a whole, of less interest than considered Economically.'* The necessity for 

usual. Charles V. Riley, the vice-president of governmental supervision over the forests of 

the section, in his address, spoke on the causes this country was the subject of a paper by 

of variation in organic forms, giving some of Bernhard E. Fernow. He placed the value of 

the most advanced points yet touched on by the forests annually destroyed at from ten to 

the evolutionary philosophy. A number of twenty million dollars. Industrial training was 

papers were strictly monographs of primari- brought before the section by Mrs. Laura 0. 

ly technical interest. Edward P. Howland Talbot, and her paper elicited a good discos- 

touched the more practical aspect of the sub- sion on the subject. Edward Atkinson's pa- 

ject in his paper on aneesthesia. He described per on ^^The Uses and Abuses of Statistics," 

remarkable results in prolonged insensibility showed how inexperienced persons may be 

produced by a mixture of nitrous oxide and misled in attempting to draw conclusions from 

oxygen administered in compression chambers, statistics. He maintained that a strictly me- 

There seemed to be hardly any limit, compara- tallic currency was needed for the world, elidt- 

tively, to the time a patient could be kept ing a strong remonstrance from Edward Dan- 

safely in the anesthetic condition by the sys- iels. The latter subsequently read a paper on 

tern he described. *^Our Monetary System," presenting views in 

The section of anthropology was crowded favor of a paper currency. A carefully pre- 
with interesting matter. This section is a strong pared and elaborate paper on this subject was 
feature of the meetings, and is said to have by Edward H. Ammidown, upon " Suggestions 
shown a distinct advance this year. Daniel G. for Legislation on the Currency.'' Wilbur 0. 
Brinton, in his paper entitled ^^On the Alleged Atwater, treating of the ^' Food-supply of the 
Mongolian Affinities of the American Race," Future," predicted an increased productioD 
strongly argued against the tenet held by so based on the discoveries of science. The de- 
many that the Chinese and the American abo- cay of American ship-building was considered 
rigines are of common stock. He stated that by Charles S. Hill. He demanded government- 
in true racial characteristics they widely dif- al fostering of shipping and ship-building. The 
fer, and that the obliquity of the eyes is rather Nicaragua Canal was also the subject of a re- 
an accidental than a family feature. Horatio port by Henry C. Taylor and of a paper by 
Hale read two papers— one upon ** The Ar- Lieut. Robert E. Peary, 
yan Race, its Origin and Character," devoted AddnsB ff SetMng Pnsideat. — ^The retiring 
to proving the Asiatic origin of the Aryan president, Prof. Samuel P. Langley, devoted 
family ; the other, " An International Lan- his address to ^* The History of a Scientific 
guage." The second attracted much attention. Doctrine." It treated of the subject of radiant 
He strongly upheld the importance of discuss- energy, and eloquently depicted the struggles 
ing the requisites of such a language, and de- of past generations of scientific workers per- 
voted much time to showing the insufficiency formed in ouest of the laws and causes of light 
of VolaptLk. As a sequence to this paper, a and heat. He showed how persistently the old 
resolution was passed by the council, authoriz- caloric or substantial theory of light had over- 
ing the appointment of a committee to attend shadowed physiod science, and how recently it 
any congress meeting for the consideration of had been disposed of. He stated that Science 
an international language. The committee con- was not infallible, ^^ that her truths are put for- 
sisted of Meesrs. Hale, Henshaw, and McFar- ward by her as provisional only, and that her 
land. Other features of this section's work most faithful children are welcome to disprove 
were Frederick W. Putnam's illustrated paper them." He indicated one great problem wait- 
on the ** Serpent Mound," and the work done ing solution — the relation between temperature 
there during the last year in connection with and radiation. 

its preservation and the explorations about it ; Several public lectures were given, among 

Otis T. Mason's lecture on " Woman's Share which was one by the president, John W. Pow- 

in Primitive Industry," which was also illus- ell, on "Competition as a Factor in Human 

trated by lantern projections ; and Garrick Progress." He drew an important distinction 

Mallery's report on ^^ Algonkin Pictographs." between the actual laws of human progress 

Charles C. Abbott's address was a summary of and the doctrine of the survival of the fittest, 

the evidence of the antiquity of man in eastern Evolution, he declared, was barred from hn- 

North America, showing that pre-glacial man man progress — in its march the fittest did not 

is no longer a question but an established fact, always survive — the mind was advancing in 

The committee appointed to memorialize the some senses at the expense of the body. The 

United States Congress on the subject of the struggle for existence is transferred from man 

preservation of archsBologic remains upon pub- to the works of his own hand. The benefi- 

lic domain handed in its report, naming numer- cence of the process together with the speak- 

ons remains of the early inhabitants of the con- er's own confidence in the love and chanty of 

tinent which should be kept from destruction, his fellow-men were well depicted. Thomas 

The section of economic science and statis- C. Mendenhall lectured on " Japanese Magic 

tic» was favored with unusually interesting pa- Mirrors." These lectures were complimentary 

pers. Charles W. Smiley's address was of re- to the citizens of Cincinnati. 



ASSOCIATIONS FOB THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 45 

> — The attendance of members at duced his successor by a few happily choseu 
the meeting as registered was 842. One han- words, alluding to Sir Charles Lyell, president 
dred and ninety-tonr papers were read in the at the former Bath meeting of 1864, stating 
several sections. The usual receptions were that pure science was honored in Prof. Ljell, 
tendered by citizens. The members visited while in the election of Sir Frederick J. Bram- 
various localities of interest, and had an en- well a tribute is paid to applied science, 
joyable excursion on the lake. PicsldeBt^ Address. — Ihe president's address 
ApfKpff1atkw& — The income of the research began with a review of the work of old time 
fond for the past year was granted to Fred- engineers, who developed prime movers, and 
enck W. Putnam for the furtherance of his brought the story down to the present day. 
archseological explorations in relation to the He spoke of the increased perfection of the 
Serpent Mound in Ohio. modern steam-engine, but reminded his hear- 
Hcetii^ •f 1881I* — The next meeting is to be ers of his own prophecy made at the York 
held at Toronto, Can., under the following meeting, that the steam-engine would in the 
officers: President, Thomas C. Mendenball, of next century be a thing of the past. He then 
Terre Haute, Ind. ; Vice-Presidents: Mathe- cited gas, naphtha, and caloric engines to prove 
maticfl and Astronomy, Robert S. Woodward, that the direction of engineering progress had 
of Washington, D. 0. ; Physics, Henry S. been correctly indicated by him. The effect 
Oarhart, of Ann Arbor, Mich.; Chemistry, of the '^ next to nothing *' in engineering prac- 
Wiliiam L. Dudley, of Nashville, Tenn. ; tice was then developed. He cited the effect 
Mechanical Science and Engineering, Arthur of minute impurities upon metals, of the im- 
Beardsley, of Swarthmore, Pa. ; Geology and portance of the introduction of precisely the 
Geography, Charles A. White, of Washington, right amount of air into steam-boiler and other 
D. C. ; Biology, George L. Goodale, of Cam- furnaces to secure economy of fuel, and of the 
bridge, Mass. ; Anthropology, Garrick Mallery, effect of alloys upon metals even when in mi- 
of Washington, D. C. ; Economic Science and nute proportions. The influence of the " lit- 
Statiatica, ChHrles S. Hill, of Wanhington, D. C. tie '' was well illustrated in gun-practice where 
Permanent Secretary, Frederick W. Putnam, the difference of density of the air above and 
of Cambridge, Mass. ; General Secretary, C. below a projectile is supposed to cause its lat- 
Leo Mees, of Terre Haute, Ind. ; Secretary of eral deviation. He also cited the fact that a 
Council, Frank Baker, of Washington, D. C. projectile fired due north, a distance of twelve 
Secretaries of sections: Mathematics and As- miles in one minute,- would deviate from the 
trcmomy, George C. Comstock, of Madison, meridian 200 feet. The tenor of the latter por- 
WiiL ; Physics, Edward L. Nichols, of Ithaca, tion of the address was the importance of mi- 
N. Y. ; Chemistry, Edward Hart, of Enston, nute accuracy in engineering practice. 
Pa. ; Mechanical Science and Engineering, Sectlans. — Mathematical and Physical Science, 
James E. Denton, of Hoboken, N. J. ; Geology — Prof. Fitzgerald, elected as substitute for Prof. 
and Geography, John C. Branner, of Little Schuster, began his address by a tribute of re- 
Kock, Ark. : Biology, Amos W. Butler, of gret for tfie loss of Prof. Srhuster as president, 
Brookville, Ind. ; Anthropology. William M. who was too ill to attend the meeting. His 
Beanchamp, of Baldwinsville, N. Y. ; Economic address was devoted to the exposition of J. 
Science and Statistics, John K. Dodge, of Wash- Clerk MaiwelVs theory that electro- magnetic 
ington, D. C. ; Treasurer, William Lilly, of phenomena are due to an intervening medium. 
Maach Chunk, Pa. **The year 1888," he aflSnns, "will ever be 
Britlsk* — The British Association for the memorable as the year in which this preat 
Advancement of Science held its fifty-eighth question has been experimentally decided by 
annual meeting at Bath, beginning, Sept. 8, Hertz, in Germany, and I hope, by others in 
1SS8. Twenty-four years have elapsed since England." The intervening medium, he stated, 
this citj was the scene of its labors. The list has been decided to exist. Prof. Hertz pro- 
of presidents is as follows: President of the duced rapidly alternating currents of such fre- 
AsBOciation, Sir Frederick J. Bramwell ; Sec- quency that their wave-length was about two 
tion Presidents: Mathematics and Physics, Prof, metres^ ving 100,000,000 vibrations per sec- 
George F. Fitzgerald ; Chemistry, Prof. William ond. With these he detected phases of in- 
A. Tilden; Geology, Prof. William Boyd Daw- terference corresponding with those of light- 
kios; Biology, Prof. William T.Thistieton Dyer; waves. Thus we seem^ to be approaching a 
Geography, Sir Charles Wilson ; Statistics, Lord theory of the structure of the ether. 
Brann well ; Mechanics, William H. Preece ; An- Chemical Science. — Prof. Tilden devoted him- 
tbropology, Gen. Pitt- Rivers. The city of Bath self to the subject of the teaching of chemistry, 
possessing no public hall, a temporary building He advocated a better system, a higher grade 
was erected at a cost of £700 to provide a re- of teachers, and less hours of labor for them, 
c^ition-room and offices. in order that they might have time to keep 
€cMral JllM(tes« — ^The first general meeting abreast of the age by reading. He said that it 
was held on Wednesday, September 6, at 8 p. m. took longer than it did formerly to make a 
Sir Henry E. Roscoe, the retiring president, chemist, as more was expected of him ; he had 
resigned bis chair to the president-elect. Sir to be almost polyteohnical in his education. 
Frederick J. BramwelL Prof. Roscoe intro- Oeoloffy. — Prof. Dawkins spoke of the ad- 



46 ASSOCIATIONS, SCIENCE. ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS. 

vances in this soienoe, more especially as re- transmission of energy by electricity, and other 
garding the filling np of former gaps in the se- practical applications were described. Finally, 
qnence of animal and plant forms and types, the distinction was drawn betw^een the physi- 
He insisted that the Darwinian theory was re- cist^s and engineer's conceptions of electricity, 
ceiving additional confirmation. Treating of the first treating it as a form of matter, the 
the question of time in geology, he stated his latter as a form of energy, 
belief that all attempts to express geologic time AttemUnee, etr« — The attendance at the meet- 
in terms of years were failares. ing was nearly 2,000. Public lectures, excur- 

Biology, — Prof. Thistleton Dyer began by sions to points of interest, and exhibitions by 
alluding to the loss biological science had Col. Gourand and Mr. Henry Edmunds, of the 
sustained in the deaths of the great botanists phonograph and graphophone, were features of 
Asa Gray and Anton De Bary. He then the occasion. The president for 1889 was an- 
spoke of the outlook presented by the world nounced as Prof. William Henry Flower, 
for the development of systematic botany. Apprtpriatloiis. — ^The grants for scientific re- 
London, he said, possessed the best facilities search, divided among all the sections, aggre- 
for the work. England, the United States, gate £1,645. 

and Russia were the most active m the prose- ASTEONOMICiL PROGSiSS ABTD DISCOVERT. 
cutlon of the laborious task. He pleaded for IngtrmeDtb — ^The Roytd Observatory of Green- 
more workers and for increased accuracy in wich, England, has had constructed a new per- 
nomenclature. After reviewing the work done sonal-equation machine, to be used with the 
in difiereot portions of the globe, and describ- transit-circle. An object-glaxs 7i inches in 
ing the areas covered by different investiga- aperture, is fastened in front of the object- 
tors, he spoke of tbe Darwinian theory. Prof, glass of the transit- circle telescope, when this 
Weisman^s theory of the continuity of the telescope is made horizontal and pointed north, 
germ-plasm and the increased difficulty it might In the focus of the outer lens (51 feet away) is 
throw on the acceptance of the Darwinian hy- placed the vertical plate of the personal-equa- 
pothesis were spoken of, and the recent school tion machine. This plate can be made to show 
of the new Lamarckism was described. The an artificial star or sun. The plate is moved 
speaker's tendency was to adhere to Darwin, by suitable apparatus at any desired speed, and 
yet it is interesting to note how in the present the star's transit is observed over the wires 
day of discussions Darwin's own doubts are so in the transit circle. The true times of transit 
clearly brought forward. This is very notices- over the wires are registered automatically by 
ble in Prof. Thistleton Dyer's address. Physi- means of contacts between two sets of plati- 
ological botany, putrefaction, and bacterial in- nnm studs, properly constructed and adjnst- 
oculation for disease were finally treated in ed. The special point aimed at in this instni- 
some detail. The address was long and very ment was to reproduce the same conditions 
able. as when the heavenly bodies were observed 

Geography, — Col. Wilson reviewed the his- with the transit circle. The results obtained 

tory of commerce and the various centers and are said to be very satisfactory, 

paths which it had chosen in the past. The in- In the June, 1888, number of the " Monthly 

fluence of the Suez Canal was considered, and Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society," 

the immense importance it had given to Eng- Sir Howard Grubb describes a new arrange- 

land in the world of commerce was explained, ment of electrical control for driving-clocks of 

For the Panama Canal the speaker predicted far equatorials. The apparatus was devised for 

less important changes and results. African the stellar photographic instrument of the 

geography and the retardation of the develop- Mexican (Chnpnltepec) Observatory. The novel 

ment of the continent by its deadly climates part of the apparatus is the governor. In this 

were, in conclusion, touched upon. particular governor he uses, instead of the or- 

Mechanieal Science. — Mr. Preece, in his ad- dinary balls, a brass ring loaded with lead and 
dress, described the development of practical cut into eight segments : and in addition to 
electricity. He spoke of Prof. Oliver Lodge's gravity, springs are applied, one to each seg- 
brilliant experiments in electrostatic discharge, ment, tending to supplement the force of grav- 
and noted the discussion which was to take ity. By this arrangement the speed of the 
place upon the subject of lightning-conductors, governor may b^ increased from 90 to 135 
The history of the telegraph and its most re- revolutions. A number of ingenious devices 
cent improvements and achievements were are employed for controlling the motion, de- 
next in order. One hundred and ten thou- tecting the errors, and correcting them, 
sand miles of cable have been laid by English The new heliometer mounted at the Cape 
ships, and £40,000,000 have been invested in Observatory by Dr. Gill, employs electric illu- 
the same by English capitalists. Thirty-seven mination only for all the scales, circles, etc. 
ships are maintained to carry on repairs and Accumulators were first used, the charging 
lay new cables. In 1875 it was thought won- being done by Grove batteries; but this was 
derful to transmit 80 words a minute to Ire- found to be so troublesome, dirty, and ex- 
land, while now 461 words a minute can be pensive, that they now employ a dynamo run 
sent. The economic features ot electric light- by a steam-engine, 
ing and the history of its development, the Herr £. V. Gothard, in the " Zeitschrifb ffkr 



ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS AND DISCOVERY. 



47 



InstrumeDteDkunde/' describes a simple appa- 
ratoa, which he has devised for the purpose of 
registering the readings of the wedge photom- 
eter without disturbing the condition of the 
ere bj bringing np a light to read the microm- 
eter-head. 

Herr Repsold has recently proposed a par- 
tially automatic method of recording transits. 
The transit is mounted so as to be virtually an 
equatorial, with a small motion only in hour- 
ingie near the meridian. A star just before 
transit is brought into the center of the field of 
view, and the driving-clock started, so that the 
9tar remains steadily in the same part of the 
field, and its position in the field may be ob- 
served with the right - ascension micrometer. 
Meanwhile the telescope is following the star 
up to the meridian, and on reaching the me- 
ridian the clock-work is automatically discon- 
nect^ and a record made on tlie chronograph 
*^he^t 

UrfM States Mafal Otoerrat^.— Prof. WiUiam 
Harkness, of the executive committee of 
the Transit- of -Venus Commission, has given 
the preliminary results of the work of that 
<XHnmiftsion, which are detailed elsewhere. 
The great equatorial has been used in observa- 
tions on the fainter satellites and double stars. 
The transit-circle work has been continued, as 
in previous years, and comets and asteroids 



known as the Henry Draper Memorial has been 
much extended. The second annual report of 
the director on this work, shows that two tel- 
escopes are kept at work at the observatory, 
photographing stellar spectra every clear night. 
Four assistants are required in making the pict- 
ures, and five are employed for measurements 
and reductions. The report gives the mode of 
testing the sensitive plates. Mrs. Draper has 
sent to the observatory the 15- and 28-inch 
refiectors constructed by Dr. Draper, which 
are used in the above-mentioned work. In 
continuation of the work of examining high 
altitudes for the purpose of testing their suit- 
ability for astronomical purposes, Prof. Todd,, 
of Amherst, tested some high points in Japan, 
whither he had gone to observe the eclipse of 
August, 1887. His report is favorable. 

In Parts 8, 4, and 5 of vol. xviii of the ** An- 
nals " are described Mr. Parkhurst's photomet- 
ric measures of the asteroids, observations 
made during the total lunar eclipse of Jan. 28, 
1888, the photographic search for a lunar satel- 
lite, and Mr. W. H. Pickering^s observations 
of the total solar eclipse of Aug. 29, 1886. 

Tale Coltege Obfierratary. — Dr. Elkin^s report 
for 1887-'88 has been published. Heliometer 
observations on the parallaxes of the ten first- 
magnitude stars are completed. His results 
are as follow : 



STAR. 



A Tmaxi (Aldebarao) 

A AnrMre (Capella) 

«Ori0iiU(Bi««l).. . 

c Gaais Minorto (Procjoo). 

$ Gcaiiiiorain < Polhix) 

A Leooifl (R<»iniluA) 

cBoSiis (Arctiinis) 

ALjriB(Tegs) 

AAqiiile(Altair) 

« Cygni ( Arided) 



FtedlAZ. 


Probftble MTor. 


No. of 

eompariMw 

■tan. 


No. of 
obMrratioiu. 


Proper moUoo. 


+ 0116" 


± 0-029" 


6 


64 


0-202" 


+ 107 


047 


2 


16 


0-442 


-0009 


049 


2 


16 


0022 


+ 0-266 


047 


2 


16 


1 257 


+ 006S 


047 


2 


16 


0-628 


•t-0 098 


048 


4 


15 


255 


+ 018 


022 


10 


89 


2-287 


+ 084 


04A 


2 


80 


844 


+ 0199 


047 


4 


16 


647 


-0 042 


047 


4 


16 


010 



and star occultations by the moon, and obser- 
vations of stars for the Yarnall Catalogue have 
been kept up. Prof. Eastman began his zone 
work with the transit circle about October Ist. 

Gapt. R. L. Phythian has replaced Com- 
mander Brown as Superintendent of this ob- 
iervatory. 

A circular ** Relating to the Construction ot 
a New Naval Observatory " has been issued by 
the Navy Department. The plans of the pro- 
posted observatory have been completed. It 
will be on Government property, at Georgetown 
Heights, Washington, D. C., and will comprise 
nine buildings. 1, the main building, 69 x 807 
feet, which will contain the transit-room, li- 
brary, etc. ; 2, the great equatorial building, 
46x7^ feet; 3, the clock-room, 18x20 feet; 
4 and 5, observers' rooms, each 18x20 feet; 
6 and 7. ea^^t transit-circle building and west 
transit-circle building, each 80x40 feet; 8, 
prime vertical building, 18 x 20 ; 9, boiler- 
boose, 45 X 54. 

llarfaff<A C^OeKeObserratory. — Through the con- 
tinued liberality of Mrs. Draper, the work 



The value for a Canis Minoris (Procyon) 
above given agrees well with the mean of the 
values found by Auwers and Wagner. Stnive 
found for a AquilcB (Altair) a value of +0*181", 
and Hall's value for a Tauri (Aldebaran) was 
-h 0*102". O. Struve obtained very different 
parallaxes for Aldebaran and Capella, and the 
seven independent determinations of parallax 
of a LyrcB which have previously been made, 
agree fairiy well in assigning to it a parallax of 
about -1-0*17". Dr. Elkin is now engaged on a 
triangulation of the regions near the pole, to 
get fnndamental places of twenty-four stars ; 
and in connection with Dr. Gill (at the Cape 
of Good Hope) he will this winter observe the 
opposition of Iris for the determination of 
solar parallax. 

Lick Obflervatary. — The Lick Observatory was 
formally transferred by the trustees to the re- 
gents of the University of California on June 
1, 1888. Of the $750,000 left by Mr. Lick for 
the purpose of building the observatory and 
purchasing instruments, all has been expended 
except, it is said« about $90,000. This is the 



48 



ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS AND DISC>OVERT. 



nncleas of a fund the interest of which ie to 
poj for the care and use of the observatory and 
JD»>tru meats. Tbe Dniveraity of California is 
making; efforts to increase this maintenaDce 
fand to tl,O00,0CIO. The oliaervatory b&s m- 
oeaily is^ned tbc first Totame of its publica- 
tion'. Tbe contents of the votame are Mr. 
Lick's deeds of trust ; Prol'. Newoorab's report 
oo uiass for objectives; report of Mr, Burn- 
ham's work at Mount Hnmiltoii in testing the 
climate for doabid-star worlc in 1679 and nffoia 
in 1S8I ; descriptions of tbe buildings and in- 
struments; an account of the eniiiaeering and 
building at Mount Hamilton in 18S0-'&5; ob- 
servations of the transiti of Meroiiry in 1881, 
and of Venns in 1882; geological reports; me- 
teciroloi^cal obiervatiuDS, 18S0-'85; reduction- 
tables for Lick ObsetTBtory. 



instrnments. (See "Annual Ojclopsdia " fbr 
1685, paff« 54.) 

Kew iHcrlcu ObsenaUriM.— The Denver Uni- 
versily Observatory, of Oolorado, is to be pro- 
vided with new observatory bnildings And a 
new refracting telescope with 20-iiiuh object- 
glass. The telescope is t« be mounted 5,000 
feet above sea-level, or 600 feet higher tLaa 
tlie great Lick telescope. Mr. H. B. Chamber- 
lain, of Denver, is the donor. 

The Dearborn <.)bservatory, of Chicago, is be- 
ing removed to Evsnafon (within a few miles 
of Chicago). It will be placed on a site 250 
feet from Lake Michigan, it is expected that 
the 18H"cb equatoritd will be remounted in its 
new home in January, 1669. 

Fnvlgi OkscrraltrlN.— Tbe report of the Fnl- 
kowa Observatory for 18S7 says that the 30- 



^ 

^ 




m. 


I 


^ 


^w 


^^^^/j 




^^w 


-- 


ift*&^ 



Mr. Eeeler has recently shown that the see- 
ing in winter is not especially better at the ob- 
servatory than at lower elevations. At other 
time<< "the secret of the steady seeing at Mount 
Hamilton lius in the coast foga. These roll in 
from the sea every afternoon in the summer, 
rifling from 1,600 to 2,nnO feet. They cover 
the hot valley, and keep the radiation from it 
shut in. There are no fogs in day-time, end 

The complete instrumental equipment of the 
observatory is as follows : equatorinla of 36. 1 2, 
and S} inches aperture, a 4-inch comet-seeker, 
photo heliograph, 6-inch meridian circle, de- 
ollnograph, 4-inch transit and zenith telescope 
combined, 2-inch universal instrnment, three 
chronographs, live independent clocks, besides 
controlled clocks and chronometers, minor as- 
tronomical and a good set of meteorological 



inch refractor was emplojod by Dr. HenDaoD 
Strove in measuring those of Bornliaro's double 
stars which are only seldom raeasnrable with 
the old 16-inch, together with. other stars of 
which measures are scarce, making a working 
catalogue of 750 stars. Observations were also 
made of the faiuter satellites of Snturn, and of 
that of Neptune. Ludwig Struve has calcu- 
lated the constant of precession and the mo- 
tion of the solar system in space. He obtained 
values not greatly difierent from those previ- 
ously calculated. 

Tbe Koyal Observatory, Greenwich, is to 
have a new 28-inch refractor. The glass disks 
have been oast by Messrs, Chance, and the 
lenses will be made by Sir Howard (Jmbb. 

At the Oxford Observatory Prof. Pritcliard 
examined for the Photographic Comwittee of 
the Koyal Society two silver-on-glasa mirrors 



ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS AND DISCOVERY. 49 

of tbe same aperture, bat of different focal the Earl of Ross. All these photographs were 

lengths. He found that mirrors, particnlarlj enlarged from three to twenty-five times. Mr. 

those of short focal length, are comparatively Roberts calls attention to the important fact 

nnsaitable for the photographic work of chart- that, owing to different causes, which are not 

ing the heavens. easily discernible, bnt may be atmospheric, 

At the Paris Observatory M. Loewy's new chemical, and mechanical, the same area in the 

method for determining aberration and refrao- heavens will show, on tbe same exposure with 

kion is being used. The brothers Henry have similar plates, with apparently tbe same clear- 

eontinned their magnificent work in celestial ness of sky, surprising differences in the num- 

pboto^n^aphy, having taken seventy-f ourplates her of stars. He finds, on comparing MM. Hen- 

of different parts of the sky in 1887. Tne re- ry^s plate of the stars in Cyguus taken in 1885, 

port of the director, Admiral Mouchez, con- with those taken by himself in 1886 and in 

tains an engraving of the Pleiades made up 1887, that tbe number of stars in the Henry 

from three of the Henry protographs. plate is 8,124; in his plate of 1886, 5,028 ; aud 

iitffical Ph«fiigraphyt — Prof. Pritchard. of in his plate of 1887, 16,206 ; the exposure in 

Oxford Observatory, was encouraged by his each case was sixty minutes. The brothers 

access in determining from photographic plates Henry have succeeded in taking a photograph 

the parallaxes of the components of 61 Cygni, of the Pleiades after an exposure of four hours, 

to discuss the parallaxes of a Cassiopeis and which shows very much more nebulous mat- 

the pole-star. His equatonal he improved, ter than their well-known photograph taken 

and on each of fifty-three nights four plates last year. The negative shows stars down to 

were taken of /i CassiopeisB. The exposures the seventeenth magnitude, 

varied from five to ten minutes. About three PhotagnpUe Chart of the HenTCiifc — Dr. Gill, at 

per cent, of the plates were ii^jured or unsuit- the Cape of Good Hope, is pushing this work 

able for measurement. He took two iropres- in its preliminary stages with great energy. 

noDs on the same plate, slightly moved in The photographic instrument is kept at work 

poatioD. Two comparison-stars were used, by two observers from evening twilight until 

The resulting parallaxes were : dawn. Tbe reduction of the plates from south 

From star (AW = 00501'' ±0-037''. polar distance 0° to 12*5° has been com- 

** (B)» = ooim ±00285. pleted, and measurements are proceeding to 

An ioTeeti^ation of the results obtained by south polar distance — S0°, Derby dry plates 

Baiiig only a few selected plates of 61 Cygni were used with half-hour exposure, instead of 

and fM. Caffsiopei® has led Prof. Pritchard to an hour as previously. Dr. Gill, in a paper 

give up the laborious method used in the case published by the International Committee for 

of 61 Cygni, and hereafter to limit the observa- the Photographic Charting of tbe Heavens, 

tiooa to five nights in each of the four periods proposes the establishment of a central bureau 

of the year indicated by the position of the consisting of chief, assistants, secretaries, and 

parallactic ellipse. He hopes in this way to a staff of measurers and computers to take the 

determine in one year the parallaxes of fifteen photographs and measure tnem and make a 

liars. He plans to apply this method syste- catalogue, the work to go on for twenty-five 

maticallj to all stars between the magnitudes years, at a cost of $50,000 per annum. This 

1-5 to 2*5 which are well visible at Oxiford. would require the cataloguing of 2.000,000 

From a discussion of the approximate paral- stars. Some astronomers object to this work 

laxea that he expects to obtain, Prof. Pritch- as being unnecessary. It is expected that a 

ard hopes to infer some important cosmical considerablenumber of observatories in Europe 

reladona. The result of his approximate de- and America will begin work on the photo- 

tenuination of the parallax of Polaris is ir = graphic chart in 1889. 

(HX52'. A mean of all the determinations of Solar Parallax* — Prof. WiUiam Harkness, in 

preceding observers i?, according to Maxwell No. 182 of the "Astronomical Journal," gives 

Hall, w = 0*043'. From six months^ observa- an abstract of his paper, read before the A. A. 

tiona. Prof. Pritchard has obtained the follow- A. 8., " On the Value of the Solar Parallax 

ing proTisional parallaxes : deducible from American Photographs of the 

a c^wiopeic, 072" ± 043". I^ast Transit of Venus." In this paper an ac- 

^Oustopeie^'oigT ±0089. ' count was given of the instruments and pro- 

y CM«iop«te, 0050 ± 0047. ccsscs employed by the United States Transit 

Isaac Roberts has taken photographs of of Venus Commission in determining the solar 

ihe ring nebnlfle in the Lyre (57 M. Lyrsd), the parallax from photographs of the transit of 

domb-^ll nebulad (27 M. VulpeculflB), and the Venus which occurred in December, 1882. 

fine, globular star-cluster (18 M. Herculis). In Let v be the solar parallax, and dA and dD, 

tbe first the ring was well shown, also the respectively, the corrections to the right as- 

eentral star and nebulous matter in the in- censions and decliuations of Venus given by 

tenor, but there was no evidence of resolva- HilPs tables of that planet. Then, on the 

bifity. The photographs seem to confirm the assumption that Hansen's tables of the sun are 

eaqricion that the central star is variable, correct, there resulted from measurements of 

Photographs of the star-cluster showed promi- tbe distances between the centers of the Sun 

sent features not noticed by Sir J. Herschel and and Venus, made upon 1,475 photographs, 

TOL. xxvni. — 4 A 



50 



ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS AND DISCOVERY. 



taken respeotivelj at Washington, D. 0. ; Ce- 
dar Keys, Fla. ; San Antonio, Tex. ; Cerro 
Roblero, N. M. ; Wellington, Soath Africa; 
Santa Crnz, Patagonia ; Santiago, Chili ; Auck- 
land, New Zealand ; Princeton, N. J. ; and the 
lick Observatory, Oal. : 

» = 8-847" ± 0012" 
aA.= +2-898 
aD= + 1-264 

and the corresponding mean distance from the 
earth to the son is 92,385,000 miles, with a 
probable error of only 125,000 miles. These 
nambers are doabtless close approximations to 
the results that will be obtained from the com- 
plete discussion of all the photographs; but 
they can not be regarded as final, for several 
reasons, chief among which is the fact that the 
redaction of the position -angles of Venns rel- 
atively to the Sun^s center is still anfinished. 
When these angles are combined with the 
distances, it is likely that the probable error 
of the parallax will be somewhat reduced. 
The photographs taken at Lick Observatory 
seem to indicate that for altitudes 4,000 feet 
above sea-level, the values of the refraction 
given by the tables in general use are some- 
what too large. Prof. L. Cruls has published 
the results of the Brazilian observations of the 
transit of Venus made at three stations, St. 
Thomas (Antilles), Pemam'buco, and Punta- 
Arenas. The final result for parallax is vr = 
8*808". This curiously coincides exactly with 
the result of the EngUsh observations, taking 
the lowest probable result. 

EcUpfles of tlM Mmi« — Two interesting total 
eclipses of the moon occurred in 1888. The first 
on January 28, and the second at midnight, July 
22. The moon rose eclipsed on January 28, 
but was beautifully visible on July 22. Ob- 
servers of the eclipse of January 28 report a 
remarkable contrast between the visibility of 
the eclipsed moon on that occasion and in Oc- 
tober, 1884. The moon at the latter date was 
scarcely visible, while at the former it shone 
with a light that was plainly visible. Prof. 
Filopanti, of Bologna, thinks that the red color 
during the total eclipse arose in part from a 
phosphorescent quality of the exposed lunar 
surface. To astronomers these two eclipses of 
the moon were especially interesting as afford- 
ing opportunity for the observation of the oc- 
cultations of faint stars by the moon. Dr. 
Dollen, of the Pulkowa Observatory, Russia, 
prepared lists of stars to be occulted by the 
moon, and sent these to many observatories in 
Europe and the United States, with the request 
that the times of disappearance and reappear- 
ance be noted and forwarded to him. He re- 
p(trts that he has obtained in this way observa- 
tions of 783 phenomena (896 disappearances 
and 887 reappearances), made at fifty-five dif- 
ferent places. The places of observation are 
BO favorably situated that he considers there is 
ample material for calculating the place, the 
diameter, and possibly the eliipticity and the 
parallax of the moon. For the parallax and 



distance of the moon he has bases of 90° in 
latitude and 150° in longitude. 

Asteralds. — The small planet Istria (183) was 
rediscovered by Palisa, April 7, 1888. Of the 
first 250 of the planets, 288 have been observed 
at second opposition. Only two of the excep- 
tions are between numbers 200 and 250. Since 
the article in the ''*• Annual Cyclopaodia *^ for 
1887 was written. No. 268 has been named 
Adorea; 269 has not been named, and 270 
has been styled Anahita. The opposition m 
longitude of Sappho (80) occurred April 12, 
1888. Observations were made by many as- 
tronomers to determine the correction to the 
elements of the planet^s orbit. In Aagust and 
September, 1889, this planet will make a near 
approach to the earth, on account of the ec- 
centricity of its orbit and the commensura- 
bility of its period with that of the earth. Ob- 
servations of this planet will be taken in 1889 
to determine the value of solar parallax. Prof. 
C. H. F. Peters gives the following results of 
some of his photometrioal work on the small 
planets : voimiM ib bubm 

of cable UiooMlnL 

Yeata, 6-5 magnitude 82-2 

Cen'a,7-T " 218 

PalUw,8-d " 64 

Hfgeia 4-8 

Banomia 4*8 

Juno 8-7 

Hebe 2-4 

Iria 2-4 

Payctae 21 

Lutetia 19 

The total volume of the ten largest asteroids, 
therefore, is 81*5 millions of cubic kilometres; 
that of the first seventy. Prof. Peters found to 
be 127*74; and as the volume of the earth is 
1,082,841 millions of cubic kilometres, the com- 
bined volumes of the first seventy asteroids is 
to that of the earth as 1 to 7,862. 

Prof. Daniel Kirk wood has published re- 
cently an exceedingly interesting work of sixty 
pages on "The Asteroids or Minor Planets 
between Mars and Jupiter.^' This gives, among 
other items of interest, the asteroids in the or- 
der of discovery, to and including No. 271, 
the elements of the asteroids, theories in re- 
gard to the origin of asteroids, etc. The fol- 
lowing asteroids have been discovered since 
the table in the "Annual CyclopsBdia ^' for 
1887 was prepared : 



5 

I 



i 



I 

\ 



5 



s 



No. 



Num. 



271. Penthesilea 

272. Antonia.... 
278.1 Atropofl.... 
274.' PbilflgorU. 

275. Bapientia.. 

276. Adelheld... 

277. 

278. Paulina... 

279.1 

280. 



DlaooTcrer. 



Dr. Knorre, at Berlin. 
M. CbarIoi8,atNioe.. 
Uerr Paliaa, at Vienna 



ti 



ti u 

M. Gharloia. 
Herr Paliaa. 



u 



u 



No. of 

dIseoT- 

•ry. 



4 
2 
61 
62 
63 
64 
8 
66 
66 
67 



D«toordi»- 
oowy. 



Oct. 18. 188T 
Feb. 4, I88S 
MarcbS 
Aprils 
April 15 
April 17 
Mays 
Ma7l6 
Oct. 26 
Oct 81 



€onetB. — Six comets were discovered in 1888 
up to November 1. Comet I was discovered 
early in the morning of February 19, by Mr. 
Sawerthal as he was returning from the 



ASTRONOMICAL PROGBEBB AND DISCOVERT. 



51 



agraphic observatorj of the Ro^al Ob It has been saggested that there were three 

tor; at the Cape of Good Uo^ He no- tails. In May the appearance of tbe comet 

with the naked eje a EiospioiouB object, was said to be s malar t that of Eookes comet 

h on investigBt oo with the opera glass, (Dec 2 1871) as drawn bj Prof Uall A 

ed to be a cornet. The obserTBtioDS of sudden increase in bngblneBS is reported to 

hh observers show that the comet was i are occurred aboat Ma; 28 The spectram 

defined, the tail being distmcU; visible to obtained was faint, but fairly brood, contua 




taked eye, and estimated in April to be 
J o° in length. The nucleus was seen 
ated by many; others report a complete 
•tion into two portions. The duplicity 
e naclena was confirmed by observatioas 

by Barnard, at Lick Observstory. The 
■tion nf the two portions was estimated 

B. Hill to be abont eqnal to 8" of arc. 
irers report the tail very bright along the 
al «"«) and mach fainter on either side. 



ons, and crossed by three faint bands, cor- 
responding to the well-known carbon-ban(ls 
characteristic of cometsry spectra in (general. 

Comet II is the twenty. fifth reappearance 
of tbe Encke comet, the period of which is 3-3 
years. It was detected on tbe evening of July 
8. by John Tebbutt, at Windsor, New South 
Wales. Ita position had been predicted by 
Drs. liacklund and Berephimoff, and it was 
found almost exactly in the place assigned. 



52 



ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS AND DISCOVERY. 



In a 4|>inoh telescope it appeared as a small, 
bright, nebulous star, witnoat a nucleus. It 
was moving rapidly both east and south. This 
comet was originally discovered on Nov. 26, 
1818, by the astronomer Pons, at Marseilles. 
It was then viHible for seven weeks. Prof. 
Encke, of Berlin, subjected the observations 
to a careful investigation, and showed that the 
orbit was eUiptical, with a period of about 
three and one third years. He identified the 
comet with the comets of 1786 I, 1795, and 
1805, and predicted its return. His calcula- 
tions were almost exactly fulfilled. Ordina- 
rily it appears to have no tail. In 1848 it 
had two, one about 1° in length directed from 
the sun, and the other a little shorter, and 
turned toward it. At perihelion tbe comet 
passes within the orbit of Mercury, and at 
aphelion its distance from the sun is about 
equal to that of Jupiter. Investigations of the 
motions of this comet show that its period is 
steadily diminishing by about two and a half 
hours in every revolution. Encke^s theory 
was that the comet, in moving through space, 
met with a resistance from some rare medi- 
um, which was not able to impede the great- 
er masses of the planets. Many astronomers 
are inclined to doubt the existence of a re- 
sisting medium ; but lately, Dr. Backlund, the 
Swedish astronomer, from an examination of 
tbe observations of the comet between 1871 
and 1881, concludes that there is a retardation, 
although the amount is less than that assigned 
by Encke. No other comet seems to be re- 
tarded, so that if we accept the theory of a re- 
sisting medium we must imagine that it does 
not extend very far from the sun. The in- 



1848. It had a bright nucleus and short 
but was not visible to the naked eye. L< 
rier investigated its orbit, and predicted it 
turn to permelion on April 3, 1851. It retu 
within a day of the time predicted. Its 
helion distance is about 100,000,000 miles, 
its aphelion distance about 500,000,000 mi 
Comet Y was discovered on Septemb< 
by E. E. Barnard, at the Lick Observatory 
was described as circular, 1' in diameter, • 
enth magnitude, with a well-defiued nno 
No decided motion was observed in tw 
minutes. Prof. Boss calculated the provisi 
elements given in the table, which show 
the theoretical brightness at perihelion w 
be about seventy times tbe brightness at 
covery. The same observer furnishes the 
lowing notes : 

September 6. The oomet has a soft but oond< 
light. The coma is somewhat less than SO" in di 
ter, and symmetrical. Tbe condensation is very 
fonn toward the center, without a distinct nui 
Under illumloation tbe central parts — some 5" i 
ameter — appear as a star of 11*5 nuuniitude. 

September 6. There is a very small nucleus of i 
the tnirtoentb ma^itude. 

September 10. The nebulosity is elliptical, 
axes of about 40" and 60" respectively. Nuclear 
densation well marked, and is, perlutps, 10" soi 
tbe center of tbe nebulous mass. 

Oomet VI was discovered by E. E. 
nard, at Lick Observatory, October 81. 
describes it as having no tail, a strong oe: 
condensation, of the eleventh magnitud< 
fainter ; the nebulosity was 1' in mean di; 
ter, and was much elongated. 

We give the approximate elements of 1 
comets in the following table : 



Dwrignrtloa. 

issa,!.... 

II.. 
III.. 
IV.. 

V... 
VI.. 



Or. M.T 
FHlhalkm 



1688, Mareh, 16-96 
188S, .Tone, 28 
1888, July, 80*25 
1888, Aug., 20 
1888, Dec, 10-41 
1888, Sept, 9-45 



Q. 


M 




i 


Log.tf. 


245«»80' 


859* 


49' 


42M7' 


9*84450 


884»89' 






12«»68' 


9 5852 


101» 6' 


67- 


49' 


7404/ 


9-95424 


209-40' 






no 22' 


0-240 


8«28' 


857* 


46' 


16507' 


0- 18668 


187* 52' 


267* 


10' 


45*53' 


0-04984 



niaoovttj. 



Feb. 16,6awertluU.. 

July 8, Tebbutt 

Aug. 7, Brooks 

Aug. 9. Nice Ob«y . 
Sept 2, Barnard.... 
Oct 81, Barnard.... 



SjBOBJB. 



Comet a, 1S88 

2; 



lUi 

En 



vestigations of Mr. Sherman seem to point in 
the same direction as those of Dr. Backlund. 

Oomet III was discovered by W. R. Brooks, 
of Geneva, N. Y., August 7. On August 10, 
Prof. Boss reported the comet as small and 
condensed, and showing, with low powers, as 
a star of the ninth magnitude. It had a short 
tail with an estimated length of 10', and of the 
same breadth as the head. It had already 
passed perihelion when discovered, and was 
rapidly diminishing in brightness. It was 
thought that observations might be made up 
tp the October moon. 

Oomet IV was found at Nice Observatory 
on August 9. The ephemeris shows that the 
comet is slightly increasing in brightness. 
This comet is one of the short-period comets. 
Its last appearance was in 1880; its period is 
7*4 years. The present is its seventh appear- 
ance. This comet was first discovered by M. 
Faje, at the Paris Observatory, on Nov. 22, 



W. F. Denning says that fourteen 00 
were discovered between 1827 and 1886, \ 
between 1877 and 1886 forty-nine were 
covered. In seven years E. E. Barnard 
W. R. Brooks have discovered twenty « 
ets — ten apiece — and to the end of 
they had received $2,700 in prizes. In 
September number of "The Observatory 
W. Backhouse gives the following intere 
table in regard to naked-eye comets seen 1 
1881: 



COMET. 



1881, KGreat) 

1881, c (Scbaberle'B) . . . 

1882, a (Wells's) 

1882 (Great). 

1888, 6 (Pons-Brooks's) 

1885, d (Fabry's) 

1888,/ (Barnard's) .... 
1888, a (Sawerthal's). . . 



FinttMii with 



Duntioa of 
nakad-«yt 
TklUUtj. 



1881, Jane 29 . 89 days 

1881, July 27.. 88 *» 

1882, Biayll..' 24 ** 
1882, Oct l...i 188 « 
1888, Nov. 19.. ' 70 ** 
188e,Maroh29 29 ** 
1886, Nov. 9.. 49 " 
1888, April 7. . 87 « 



G 
la 



ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS AND DISCOVERY. 



58 



WaMe tmA Bteary Stm.— J. E. Gore gives in 
tiie ^^ Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronom- 
ical Society " for December, 1887, formulcD for 
tbe rectani^lar co-ordinates of the donble star 
2 1847, and gives the proper motion of tbe star 
as 0-1053" per annnm in the direction of posi- 
tion angle 114*1^ The following table gives: 



The 86-inch eqaatorial of Lick Observatory 
shows, ^*at a little less tban one fifth of the 
width of the ring from its oater edge, a fine 
but distinct dark line, a mere spider's thread, 
which could be traced along the ring nearly to 
a point opposite the limb of the planet. This 
line marked the beginning of a dark shade, 



STAR. 



Ttaie of perlastroo T 

Pofitioa of nod« Si 

FoiitkMi of periABtroD A 

lirtinafian y 

Eeue uukltj r c 

S<ml-«xlB iD^<u* a 

XaB moCioD. M 

FhM tn yean P 

Conpatrr 



pEridanL 


A Ophinelkl. 


TO (p) OpbindiL 


2 8111. 


1888-&fi 


17879 


1S07-65 


1878-52 


185«» 0' (18T0) 


105-6* (1900) 


120' 6' (1880) 




240«0' 


152 5« 


17P 45' 




88»8r 


88 1« 


580 28' 




674 


0-4484 


0-4912" 


6-868«8 


B'H" 


1-68" 


4-60" 


0-6725" 


-1190 


+0 9«88« 


-4 098» 




8028T 


87-5 


87-84 


84 65 


J. E. Gore. 


S. Qlasenapp. 


J. E. GoPO. 


M.GekiriA. 



Ike 8a« — The miniranm period for sun-spot 
occurrence was prolonged during the first four 
months of 1887. There was a sudden slight 
increase in the number of spots in the begin- 
ning of May, 1887. In the present eleven-year 
period two minima have occarred : one, from 
Sept 22 to Dec. 8, 1886, and the other from 
January to May, 1887. Including both of these 
periods in the same minimum, by neglecting 
the intermptions at the close of 1886, then the 
whole minimum period includes 222 days, and 
the date of the minimum may be given ap- 
proximately as Jan. 10, 1887. This does not 
refer to the absolute minimum for this eleven- 
jear period. On Oct. 28, 1887, some faculs, 
attached to a group of faint spots, are reported 
to have become on a sudden intensely bright, 
and faded again as quickly. No other change 
of importance occurred in the spots themselves, 
or in their neighborhood. Within three min- 
utes both faculse and spots had entirely dis- 
appeared. The magnetic instruments indicated 
DO distorbance. There were many days in 
1887 when tbe sun was without spots, but very 
rarely were faculs entirely absent. 

SMn* — Many skillful observers, among 
whom may be mentioned M. Trouvelot, Dr. Ter- 
bj, and Mr. Elger, consider that tbe rings of Sat- 
urn are not stable, but are subject to continual 
diangea. Dark masses have been observed on 
ring C, indentations have been seen on its 
inner edge, and other noticeable appearances 
recorded. Some astronomers have been in- 
clined to consider that these appearances have 
no real existence, but that they are due to bad 
teeing, distorting eye-pieces, etc. Prof. Hall, 
in using tbe great Washington glass, was, we 
think, unable to see some of the markings 
drawn on the rings by Trouvelot in his well- 
known pictnre of Saturn, as seen with a 26- 
ioch instrument. Mr. Keeler, of Lick Observa- 
tory, in the February number of the " Sidereal 
Messenger," in speaking of the distortion of 
J^tom's shadow, drawn by Trouvelot, says he 
had often noticed the distortion ^^ when observ- 
ii^ with tbe 12-inch equatorial, with a low 
power on a poor night; but it always dis- 
ippeared on employing a sufficiently high 
power, or with improvement in the definition." 



which extended inward, diminishing in intensi- 
ty, nearly to the great black division. At its 
inner edge the ring was of nearly the same 
brightness as outside the fine division. No other 
markings were visible." 

In the supplements to the ^^Pulkowa Ob- 
servations," Prof. H. Struve discusses his own 
observations made with the 15-inch refractor 
in 1884-'86 on lapetus. Titan, Rhea, and Dione, 
with a view to correcting the elements of these 
satellites and also of determining the mass and 
ellipticity of Saturn. Herr Struve's value of 
the mass of Saturn agrees closely with BessePs, 
being 1 -f- 8,498 ; the sun being unity. 

O. W. Hill, in the ** Astronomical Journal," 
of July 12, 1888, discusses the motion of Hy- 
perion and the mass of Titan. He points out 
the errors in the calculations of several com- 
puters, and gives as his value of the mass of 
Titan 1 -^ 4,714, the mass of the planet being 
unity. 

Man. — Prof. Schiaparelli^s observations on 
Mars, made during the opposition of 1881-^82, 
have been published. His new map agrees in 
general with that drawn in 1879. There are 
some noticeable differences, however, these 
being in a region seen by a number of observ- 
ers to undergo changes. The main interest of 
this memoir centers in the full account of ihe 
" remarkable duplication of many of the 
canals." Thirty duplications are recorded be- 
tween December, 1881, and February, 1882. 
The author thinks the phenomenon is periodic, 
and he concludes that duplication is connected 
with a period corresponding to the tropical 
year of Mars, and depending on the martial 
seasons. The tendency to duplication is pointed 
out as showing itself in other regions of Mars. 
Other observers have noted this tendenry. 
Schiaparelli thinks it impossible to deny the 
reality of the duplications, however difficult of 
explanation they may be. E. W. Maunder, 4n 
the September number of " The Observatory," 
in discussing Schiaparelli's observations, re- 
marks that ^^ it seems impossible to accept this 
as a description of a real objective change tak- 
ing place upon the actual surface of the planet, 
though as a record of a subjective appear- 
ance it must be unhesitatingly received. Prof. 



54 



ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS AND DISCOVERY. 



Schiaparelli's advantages in the way of keen 
and trained eye-sight, and telescopic and atmos- 
pheric definition are beyond challenge. Hith- 
erto the puzzle has received no satisfactory so- 
lution, for Mr. Proctor^s suggestion that the 
canals are rivers is quite irreconcilable with 
the account Prof. Schiaparelli has given of the 



The Chief Hetoor-Showen. — W. F. Denning 
gives, in the January, 1888, number of '* Month- 
ly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society,** 
a list of the chief meteor-showers, derived from 
his observations made during the past fifteen 
years, the positions being corrected for preces- 
sion, and brought up to 1890. 



NAMK OF SHOWER. 


Danttoo. Date of nuuimiim. 


Radiant polat. 


San'c k^lftadi. 


1. Quadrantids ! . . 

8. Lyrtdfl 


December 28-Janiiarjr 4 Januarys 

April 16-22 AprU20 

April8«)-May6 May 6 

July 28-Angust 25 July 28 

July 11-AugU8t 22 Autruat 11 

October 9-29 October 18 


a = 229-8» <= +525 

869-7 4-88 5 

887-6 - 8-1 

889-4 -11-6 

45-9 + 66-9 

98-1 + 16-6 

150-0 + 82-9 

26-8 +48-8 

1081 +82-6 


281 -e" 
81-8 


8. n Aaaarfds 


46-8 


4. 6 AaiiaridB 


125-6 


6. Perseida *. . . 


188-5 


6. Orionida 


805-9 


7. liOonida 


November 9-1 7 November 13... 


881-5 


8. Andromedea 


November 25-80 November 27. . . 


845 8 


9. Qeminida 


December 1-14 December 10 .. . 


8595 



Notes. — 2. Probably moviug in orbit of Comet I, 1861. 8. Have orbital reaemblance to Halley^a comet. 5. Obviooa 
displacement of radiant point from night to night May have aorae connection with (k>met III. 1862. 6. Badiant shows no 
displacement. 7. Observed from earliest times. Been bv Humboldt, 1799. Magnificent return in 1888, and aplendid shower 
in 1SH6. Very meager during the last fltteen years. I'hese meteors form a complete ellipbe. and the earth meets a lew at 
every passage through the n<Kle. But the meteors are nearly all massed in the neighborhood of their pnrenL Comet I, ISMi 
It is suppof^ th-it there are minor groups of meteors pursuing the same orbit ; if so, we may have a revival of this diaplaf 
in 1SS8, K>r on the night of Nov. 12, 1S22, shooting-stara, mingled with balls of fire, were seen in vast numbers at Potsdam, 
by Rloden. 8. Observed in 1798. Recurred in 1888. Very brilliant showera, Nov. 27, 1872, and 1885. It ia unoertsiB 
whether this group forms au unbroken stream or not. Betuma of the showers should be looked ft>r in lb82 and 1898. 



appearances he has observed. But it is quite 
likely that Proctor^s further suggestion that 
thej are * optical products,' neither objective 
realities nor optical illusions, but phenomena of 
diffraction, may prove more satisfactory. Fur- 
ther observations are urgently desired to test 
the point— observations not confined to two or 
three favorable nights near opposition, but be- 
gun early and ended late, and carried on with 
the most persistent continuity.'' 

In the ^^ Astronomical Journal " for A ugust, 
1888, Prof. Asaph Hall, of Washington, D. 0., 
says he made very careful observations of Mars 
during June, 1888. These were begun in the 
twilight, and were continued for eighteen 
night<(, but he was unable to see anything like 
the regular canals drawn by the European 
observers. The only remarkable change he 
noticed was the diminution in the size of the 
white spot at the south pole of the planet. 
These observations were made with the great 
26-incb instrument. 

In the " Astronomical Journal " for Septem- 
ber, Prof. Holden, of Lick Observatory, gives 
a series of drawings of Mars, as seen with the 
great 36 inch Lick telescope. He reports that 
they have seen none of the canals double, al- 
though many of the more important have been 
sketched ns broad bands covering the spaces on 
Schiaparelli's map that are occupied by pairs 
of canals. The observations also fail to discover 
any important changes in the continent Libya, 
which had been reported as submerged. 

Jiplter.— A remnant of the great red spot 
is still to be observed in the planet's southern 
hemisphere. This " rosy cloud " was first fig- 
ured and described by Prof. 0. W. Pritchett, of 
Morrison Observatory, Glasgow, Missouri, on 
July 9, 1878. The persistency of the spot has 
led some observers to consider that they were 
looking at the solid body of the planet through 
a hole, as it were, in Jupiter's clouds. 



Mr. Denning gives some interesting data as 
to heights of fire-balls and shooting - stars. 
Eighty fire-balls, between 1865 and 1887, gave 
an average height at beginning of 69*2 miles, 
and 30*2 miles at end of flight. Comparing 
these heights with the heights of meteors 
(nearly all shooting-stars of the first magni- 
tude or fainter), he gives the following table: 



AUTHORITY. 


No. of 
Mataon. 


Height at 
b«flnolDg. 

76 -9 miles. 
7»-6 *• 
81-4 ** 
800 •* 


Haight at aodl^. 


E. Hels 


271 
86 

49 
18 


5(>'l miles. ' 


A. S. Uerschel.. .. 

T. H. Waller 

W. F. Denning* 


58-8 ** 
62 4 " 
54 2 *» 



* stars seen in 1887. 



A careful discussion of the various records 
gives the following mean relative heights : 





At beginning. 


At ending. 


At iniddl* eown. 


Fir«-ball» 

Bhooting-stars 


69 miles. 
80 " 


80 miles. 
54 " 


49 Smites. 
67-0 " 



It is supposed that telescopic meteors are at 
still greater elevations than the brighter forms 
of these bodies. 

Meteorites. — In April, 1888, Prof. H. A. 
Newton read before the National Academy of 
Sciences a paper "Upon the Relation which 
the Former Orbits of those Meteorites that are 
in our Collections, and that were seen to fall, 
had to the Earth's Orbit." His studies lead 
him to adopt tliree propositions: 1. The mete- 
orites that we have in our cabinets, which 
were seen to fall, were originally (as a class, 
and with few eiceptions), moving abont the 
sun in orbits that had inclinations less than 
90°; that is, their motions were direct, not 
retrograde. 2. Either the stones that are mov- 
ing in the solar system acroes the earth's orbit 
move in general in direct orbits ; or else, for 
some reason, the stones that move in retro- 
grade orbits do not in general come through 



ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS AND DISCOVERY. 66 

le tir to the ground. 8. The perihelion-dis- raised to Mr. Lockyer's hypothesis hy M. 
mces of nearly all the orhits in which these Stanislas Mennier. He contends that the only 
oDes moF'e were not less than 0*5 nOr more conclusion we are as yet entitled to draw from 
tan 1*0 time the earth^s radios. The anthor the spectroscopic researches on meteorites is, 
Bomes as fully proved the connection of that they are composed of the same origiDal 
wnets with meteors, and considers therefore matter as other celestial bodies. 
lat the meteorites have velocities relative to The Observatory of Milan has published Part 
lesnn not |;^reater than 1-414 nor less than II, No. VII, of its observations. This last num- 
S44 time the earth's velocity in its orbit her contains a catalogue which is supplementary 
•rib's orbital velocity 18*38 miles a second), to two preceding ones. The first (1874) con- 
Mr. Lockyer, in his paper read before the tained the observed paths of 7,152 meteors seen 
oval Society, Nov. 17, 1887, gives the result in 1872 ; the second (1882) contained 7,602 me- 
' his ex{>eriments on meteorites. He ex- teors, and the present publication contains 9,627 
Dined meteoritic spectra under various con- meteors. 

tion?, particularly that of feeble temperature. 8«lar Pliyrif& — The experiments of Prof John 

e found it poasihleto obtain from meteorites Trowbridge and G. 0. Hutchins lead tliem to 

»ectra that showed the most peculiar features conclude that there \9 unmistakable evidence of 

[ almost every variety of spectrum — solar, the existence of csrbon vapor in the sun, and 

tir. nebalar, and cometary. *^ In the spectra that at the point of the suns atmosphere where 

ff nebnise, for instance, seven lines have been the carbon is volatilized the temperature of the 

letected, of which three were traced to hydro- sun approximates to that of the voltaic arc. 

pi, three to low-temperature magnesium, and An exceedingly valuable contribution to sci- 

ibe seventh, which has not yet been traced to ence has been made by 0. 0. Hutchins and 

its originating element, has been given by the £. L. Holden in regard to the meaning of the 

gbw from the Dhurmsala meteorite. The lines in the solar spectrum. They say that 

most characteristic nebidar line was identified ^^The dispersion given by the apparatus in the 

with the low -temperature fluting of magne- order of spectrum in which we work is such 

mm, and the unusual spectrum obtained from that a single wave-length occupies on the neg- 

the cfimets of 1866 and 1867 was ascribed to ative a space of 1*12 millimetres. This makes 

the same caase. The changes observed in the the distance between lines Di and Dt 6*7 milli- 

s{>ectnim of the great comet of 1882 were metres. We are convinced that there is much 

rach as would correspond to the changes in- in the whole matter of coincidences of metallic 

dooed by the change of temperature in the and solar lines that needs re-examination; that 

spectrum of a meteorite ; and the changes in something more than the mere coincidences of 

tbe spectram of Nova Cygni, and the bright two or three lines out of many is necessary to 

lines in snch a star as R. Geminorum received establish even the probability of the presence 

a similar explanation ; while a very fuU, in of a metal in the sun." They have examined 

parts almost perfect, reproduction of a con- some of the doubtful elements in the list given 

aderable portion of the solar spectrum has by Prof. Young in his book on **The feun," 

been obtained by taking a compo<iit6 photo- and find the evidence as fallows: For oadmi- 

jETsph of the arc spectrum of several stony me- um, there were two perfect coincidences ; for 

teorites, taken at random between iron meteoric lead, cerium, molybdenum, nraiJum, vanadi- 

polos. These and similar observations have um, there was no good evidence in favor of 

fed Mr. Lockyer to regard all self-luminous their existence in the sun. Among the metals 

bodies in tbe celestial spaces as composed of whose existence in the solar atmosphere has 

Deteoritesi, or masses of meteoritic vapor pro- seemed probable, their experiments seem to 

doced by heat brought about by condensation show that bismuth and silver were present, but 

of meteor-swarms due to gravity, so that the that tin, potassium, and lithium were doubtful, 

existeg distinction between star, comets, and They also furnish evidence of the existence of 

Aebolfld r^ts on no physical ba^'is. All alike platinnm in the sun, claiming that between 

are meteoritic in origin, the difierences between wavelengths 4,250 and 4,950 to find 64 lines 

tbem depending upon dififerences in tempera- of platinnm, 16 of which agree with solar lines, 

tore, and in the closeness of the component Henry Crew has made some observations 

meteorites to one another. Nova (new stars with the spectroscope on the period of the ro- 

that blaze forth suddenly) are explained as tation of the sun. He obtained, for tbe mean 

produced by the clash of meteor-streams, and equatorial velocity, 2*437 miles a second, which 

so^ variable stars are regarded as uncon- corresponds to a true period of rotation of 

deo^sed meteor - streams. Stars with spectra 25*88 days. Mr. Crew thinks that, while the 

Kke that of Alpha Orionis (Rigel) are con- sun-spot layer (or photosphere, if they be the 

adered not as true suns, but as mere clouds of same) is accelerated in the neighborhood of the 

B^amdescent stones; probably the first stage equator, the layer, which by its absorption 

of meteoritic condensation. Stars with spectra gives rise to the Fraunhofer lines, tends to lag 

f3t the first and second type represent the behind, having here a smaller angular velocity 

eondensed swarm in its hottest stages, while than in higher latitudes. Comparing the year 

spectra of Secchi's fourth type indicate an ad- 1886 with 1887, observers report that the aver- 

Tmced stage of cooling." Objection has been age height of both the chromosphere and prom- 



56 ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS AND DISCOVERY. 

inences has been constant. The prominences tion of 24 miles a second. Subsequent yean 
had decreased in number. The heights of the gave the following result: 1876-^77, 12 miles; 
largest prominences were much diminished. 1877- 78, 28 miles; 1879-*80, 16 miles; 1880-'81, 
Some preliminary investigations in regard to 11 miles; 1881-^82, 2 miles; thus showing a 
the surface-currents of the san seem to indi- decreasing recessional motion. In 1882-^83 
cate: 1. That the direction at the poles is gen- the motion was 5 miles a second, approach- 
erally vertical to the limb; 2. That there is a ing the earth ; 1883-84, 19 miles, approaching 
decided current crossing the equator, some- 1884-^85, 28 miles, approaching ; 1885-'86, 24 
times in a northerly, and at other times in the miles, approaching; 1886-^87, 1 mile approach- 
southerly direction ; 8. That changes of direc- ing ; and for the year 1887, 6 miles receding, 
tion occur most frequently in mid latitudes. These results are to be accepted with great 
Spectroseopy. — Prof. Grilnwald, of Prague, caution, as astronomers are not yet fully satis- 
has propounded a theory, according to which fied that an apparent change in the displace- 
the wavelengths of the lines due to a certain ment of the F. line indicates a real motion in 
element in a given compound are to the wave- the line of sight. The change of motion indi- 
lengths due to that same element, when the cated by the above figures is very much larger 
first compound is combined with some further than any that would appear probable from the 
body, as the volume the element occupies in known motion of Sirius in its orbit The see- 
the first case is to the volume it occupies in ond point of interest referred to the orbital 
the second. Examining the low temperature motion of Algol. The spectroscopic observa- 
spectrum of hydrogen, he finds that the wave- tions seem to show that this interesting van- 
lengths of its several lines are just double able is revolving about a primary, and that the 
those of the lines of the water spectrum, line system to which it belongs is, as a whole, ap- 
for line. Similar, but less simple relationships preaching the earth. Further observations are 
are given for other spectra, and Prof. Grtln- necessary to establish anything definite. Prof, 
wald concludes from them that hydrogen and H. 0. Vogel, in a communication to the Royal 
oxygen are compound bodies, and are dissooi- Prussian Academy, says that photography has 
ated in the sun. Hydrogen is inferred to have been successfully employed to overcome the 
a composition of the form A4b ; of which the effect of atmospheric tremors, so noticeable in 
supposed element A is associated with the line spectroscopic work investigating stellar mo- 
of the corona 1474 K ; and b with the * helium ' tions. The time of exposure employed is from 
line Ds . Louis Bell, Fellow of Johns Hopkins half an hour to two hours. 
University, has given, in the ^* American Jour- The Constait tf AberratlM. — ^Prof. Hall has pub- 
nal of Science," a paper describing his careful lished the results of his reduction of the ob- 
determinationofthewave-lengthsoftheDtline servations made in the years 1862-'67 upon 
of sodium. The result is to increase slightly a Lyrsd by Profs. Hubbard, Newcomb, Hark- 
Thalen^s correction of Angstrom^s value, the ness, and himself, with the prime - vertical 
wave-length finally adopted being 5,896*08 transit-instrument of the Naval Observatory, 
tenth-metres. Prof. Rowland has followed for the purpose of determining the constants of 
this with a table of the relative wave-lengths nutation and aberration. He obtained as the 
of about 450 standard lines, based upon the most probable value of the constant of aberra- 
above determinatioA, and designed to be used tion, 20'4542" ± 0*0144". This, with Michel- 
in connection with his photographic map of son and Newcomb^s determination of the ve- 
the normal spectrum. R. Copeland considers locity of light, gives for the solar parallax a 
that he has discovered a line in the spectrum value of 8*810" db 0*0062". 
of the Great Nebula of Orion corresponding to ftcdstiiig Medhm* — Freiherr v. Haerdtl, a pn- 
the place of Ds . He remarks that '^ the oc- pil of Oppolzer, lately read a paper at Kiel Uni- 
currence of this line in the spectrum of a neb- versity on the penodic comet of Winnecke. 
ula is of great interest, as affording another He found no indication of any influence on the 
connecting link between gaseous nebulsB and comet^s motion due to a resisting medium. On 
the sun and stars with bright-line spectra, es- the other hand, O. T. Sherman considers that 
pecially with that remarkable class of stars of the variations in the motion of Encke^s comet, 
which the first examples were detected by other than those produced by planetary attrac- 
MM. Wolf and Rayet in the constellation of tion, are caused " by a resisting medium con- 
Oygnus." The Astronomer Royal of England, nected with the sun, and disturbed by those 
at the January, 1888, meeting of the Koyal forces which produce and are produced by sun- 
Astronomical Society, called special attention spots.^' He considers *^ that the zodiacal light 
to two points of interest in the spectroscopic is intimately connected with these disturbing 
determinations of the motions of stars in the forces, being in fact a locus of condensation of 
line of sight. One point referred to the mo- matter driven from the sun similarly to the tail 
tion of Sirius. This star has shown a complete of a comet from the nucleus, and after conden- 
reversal of motion since Dr. Huggins^s first re- sation again precipitated upon the solar sur- 
sults. In 1868, Dr. Huggins found the motion face." 

to be 29 miles a second receding from the earth ; CatalogiiM* — ^Le Verrier, on becoming Direct- 
in 1872, 18 to 22 miles a second. The Green- or of the Paris Observatory in 1854, planned 
wioh observations in 1875-76, showed a mo- to reobserve Lalande^s catalogue of 47,890 



ASTRONOMIOAL PROGRESS AND DISCOVERY. 



57 



fitsn. He considered it necessary to make 
three observations in right ascension, and three 
in declination. Up to 1879 only aboat one 
third of the observations had been made. The 
tDiiQal namber of observations was about 
7.000. Since 1879 the instruments have been 
ioereased by the Biscboffsheim meridian circle, 
and the director, Admiral Mouchez has aug- 
mented the observing-staff. During the past 
eight years the namber of observations for the 
o^ogne has amounted to about 27,500. The 
first installment of this valuable catalogue has 
been published in two volumes, one devoted to 
the catalogue, and the other to the individual 
observations. The stars are in the first six 
boors of rig-ht ascension, observed during the 
jeftrs 1837 to 1881 . It contains 7,245 stars, and 
represents 80,000 observations in both elements. 
The introductory chapters contain a corapari- 
ion of the Paris Catalogue with Auwer^s re- 
redaction of Bradley. M. Bossert furnishes a 
valuable investigation of the proper motions of 
374 stars in the catalogue, and supplies a long 
list of errors in Lalande. 

In the Dunsink Catalogue of 1,012 southern 
fltars, by Rambaut, most of the stars are be- 
tween 2° and 23'' south declination. The ob- 
servations were made between November, 1882, 
and September, 1885, and are of stars which 
Beeded reobservation. 

The second part of the eighth volume of the 
O'Gyalla Catalogue has been recently pub- 
fished. This catalogue briefly indicates the char- 
acter of the spectrum of each star observed in 
the zone selected, which lies between the equa- 
tor and the 15th parallel of south declination. 
The pablication is intended as a continuation 
of the spectroscopic study of the northern 
heavens projected some years ago by Prof. Vo- 
gei and Dr. Dnn^r. The faintest stars observed 
are of the 7^ magnitude. The third volume of 
the Potsdam '^Observations" gave the first 
installment of the survey, the number of stars 
}mng 4,051, lying in the zone between 20° 
north and 1° south declination. The O^GyaUa 
Ckta]o$nie contains 2,022 stars. The spectra 
iliow that types I a and II a are most frequent. 
Only three cases of III h are given. 

The ninth volume of the " Observations " 
has also been issued and contains those ob- 
servations made in 1886. Dr. Konkoly de- 
teribes instmments and methods. Spectrum - 
photometry of thirty-four fixed stars and of the 
planets Mara, Jupiter, and Saturn is the most 
original of the work. Some nebulae and com- 
Hb, and some special stars, were examined pho- 
tometricaDy or with the spectroscope. Many 
notes in regard to the appearance of the solar 
sorfiaoe on each day of the observation, and a 
Uble of positions of sun-spots for 1886, are giv- 
en. A Lrge number of meteor observations 
and a list of radiants completes the volume. 

Volume xlix. Part I, of the ** Memoirs of 
the Royal Astronomical Society ^' contains Dr. 
Dreyer^s new general catalogue of 7,840 nebu- 
le and clusters of stars, being the catalogue 



of the late Sir John F. W. Herschel, revised, 
corrected and enlarged. The Council of the 
Royal Astronomical Society has printed an 
additional 225 copies of this catalogue, on ac- 
count of its value tu astronomers. It is sup- 
posed to give the records of all nebulsd of 
which the places have been published up to 
December, 1887. 

A. M.W. Downing, in the May, 1888, "Month- 
ly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society," 
gives the positions for 1,750, and proper mo- 
tions for 154 stars south of 29° south declination. 
This catalogue is deduced from a revision of 
Powalky's "Reduction of the Star- places of 
Lacaille^s *■ Astronomiee Fundamenta.' *' 

Dr. Peters, of Hamilton College, Clinton, 
N. Y., has undertaken to collate all available 
existing manuscripts of Ptolemy's catalogue, 
for which purpose he has visited the principal 
libraries of Europe and has the assistance of 
Mr. Knobel of England. 

Pulkowa Observatory has published the cata- 
logue for 1865 of the principal stars to the 
fourth magnitude, as far as 15^ south declina- 
tion. This catalogue re-examines the stars in 
the old catalogue for the epoch of 1845. 

J. G. Porter has published the result of two 
and a half years' work with the three-inch 
transit. The catalogue contains 4,050 stars 
between 18"" 50'. and 22"* 20' south declination. 
Most of the stars down to the 8 5 magnitude 
have been observed, as well as some fainter 
ones. The proper motions of 75 stars are 
given in the appendix. 

S. C. Chandler has published a valuable cata- 
logue of variable stars, in Nos. 179 and 180 of 
the " Astronomical Journal." The catalogue 
has been printed separately for distribution. 
The author says: "Thirteen years have passed 
since the appearance of SchSnfeld's Second 
Catalogue of variable stars. A work that shall 
represent the knowledge of to day as that did 
the knowledge of its date, is an urgent need of 
this branch of astronomy." This preliminary 
catalogue is issued in hopes of supplying that 
need. A great deal of care has been given to 
its preparation. The catalogue shows that of 
the 225 stars comprised in it, 160 are distinctly 
periodic ; 12 belong to the so-caWed Novcb. Of 
the periodic variables, Mr. Chandler has been 
able to assign both maximum and minimum 
epochs for 68 stars ; maximum epochs alone 
for 82 ; minimum epochs alone for 14, 9 of 
these being of the Algol type. The elements 
of 124 stars are the results of Mr. Chandler's 
own investigations; for 22 be has adopted 
those of Schonfeld, and for 14 those of Arge- 
lander, Gould, Parkhurst, and others, after in- 
dependent examination had shown that the 
data at hand would not give essentially im- 
proved values. He has added to the catalogue 
an arbitrary estimate of the color or redness of 
many of the stars. The catalogue also contains 
a list of some of the doubtful cnses of variables. 

PolarlSr---T. H. SafFord gives the year 2102 a. 
D. as the time of nearest approach of Polaris to 



58 ATLANTIC OCEAN, HYDROGRAPHY OF. 

the north pole, when ^e declination will be charts, showing not only the meteorolo^cal 
89" 82' 23. ' The star, he says, will reach 89'' conditions that may be looked for with reason- 
about the year 1944, and be for about 800 years able certainty, and the more or less regular 
within a degree of the pole. variations of currents, but all the obstacles, 

MedalSt — The gold medal of the Royal As- floating wrecks and the like, of which any 

tronomical Societj of England was awarded on trustworthy intelligence can be obtained. To 

Feb. 10, 1888, to Prof. Arthur Auwers, for his these are added what may be termed the ec- 

re-reduction of Bradley's observations. At the centricities of natural phenomena, such as cy- 

April meeting of the National Academy of clones, water-spouts, the appearance of whales, 

Sciences of the United States, the Draper As- etc. The course taken by all exceptionally 

tronomical Medal was presented to Prof. Ed- severe storms is noted, and, as the charts are of 

ward C. Pickering, Director of the Harvard a convenient size (24 x 80), they can be easily 

College Observatory. At the same meeting kept for reference in a drawer or in a port- 

the Lawrence Smith Medal for original work folio, and thus afford a highly valuable record 

on the sabject of Meteorites, was awarded to of the sea and its mysteries, for the benefit of 

Prof Hubert A. Newton, of Yale College, New navigators. 
Haven, Mass. A single instance may be cited : The collision 

BlUi«grip!iy. — A large number of valuable between the steamers ^^Thingvalla" and '^Gei- 

papers have been printed in the serial publi- ser " is among the most startling of recent dis- 

cations devoted to astronomical knowledge, asters. If the captains of those vessels had fol- 

and during the year tbe following books have lowed, even approximately, the courses plotted 

been published : *^ The Asteroids or Minor Plan- for transatlantic steamers on the pilot- chart for 

ets bet ween Mars and Jupiter, ''by Daniel Kirk- August, both vessels might have been still 

wood ; '^Movements of the Earth," by J. Nor- afloat, and the hundred and more persons that 

man Lockyer; ^'Old and New Astronomy," went down with the sinking ship might yet 

several parts, by Richard A. Proctor ; *'*' As- have been alive. 

tronorny for Amateurs," by Thomas W. Oliver; The monthly issue of the pilot-chart is on 

" The New Astronomy," by Samuel P. Lang- " Mercator's projection," so called, and in- 

ley. '* A Text-book on Astronomy," by Prof, eludes the whole area between the sixtieth 

Charles A. Young. The Smithsonian Institu- parallel of north latitude and the equator, 

tion has published a *•'' Bibliograf>hy of Astron- The preparation of each edition involves three 

omy tor the year 1887," by William C. Win- priutings, namely, the *' base," " the blue data," 

lock, of the U. S. Naval Observatory at Wash- and the " red data." 
ington, D. C. I. Tbe base may be termed the constant of 

Messrs. Chandler and Ritchie have pub- the chart. It is printed with black ink, and 

lished the new ^' Science Observer Code," to be includes only the permanent features of sea 

used in the telegraphic distribution of an- and shore. Coast-lines, islands, and the like, 

noimcements of discovery and of positions are clearly marked, also the general set of cur- 

from Oct. 1, 1888. rents, the compass-card, explanatory tables, 

ATLANTIC 0€EA!ir, HYDSOGEAPHT OF. Rapid storm-cards, etc. The parallels of latitude 
progress has been made of late years in the ac- and longitude divide the whole into squares 
quirementof knowledge concerning the sea and often degrees on a side, and these again are 
its phenomena. Especially is this true of the subdivided into what are known as '' ocean- 
great ocean subdivision known as the *^ North squares," of five degrees each. To avoid con- 
Atlantic." With its dependent gulfs and seas, fusion of lines, these smaller squares are not 
this ocean covers an area of somethinir like shown, but they are easily plotted by quarter- 
18,000,000 square miles, about one eighth of ing the large parallelograms, 
tbe total sea-s'irface of the globe. Coramer- II. The "blue data," which are printed di- 
cially its importance largely exceeds that of rectly over and upon the permanent data, con- 
all other oceans. Lying as it does between sist mainly of a meteorological forecast for the 
the great civilized continents, Europe on the month following the date of issue. There are 
east and America on the west, its commerce is also included the principal sailing-routes and 
as a hundred to one when compared with steamship-routes recommended for the month, 
that of larger and more remote seas. For this These routes vary from month to month, ac- 
reason it. has been more thorouorhly explored cording to well-established laws. Thus, in the 
than any other ocean-tract, and its phenomena summer months, the probable southern limit 
of tides and currents, winds and temperatures, of icebergs is tolerably well known, and the 
depths and shallows, are better known. steamer-routes are carried well southward of 

The Hydrographic Office of the United States the danger-line. So in regard to the ordinary 
Navy has always been in the front rank of in- sailing-routes, it is probable that any vessel 
vestioration. Struggling from the first with following; the sailing directions of the pilot- 
meager appropriations, it has nevertheless con- chart will sliorten her voyage by days or 
tributed its full share to the world's knowledge hours, according to the length of the trip, 
of this great highway of civilization. These sail ing- routes are plotted from the logs 

Among tbe most creditable of its recent un- and special reports of vessels, which have been 

dertakings is the publication of monthly pilot- accumulating in the Hydrographic Ofl&ce since 



ATLANTIC OCEAN, HYDROGRAPHY OP. 



59 



its establisbmeDt in 1829. The charts and 
eircalars of information are sent free to mas- 
ten of vessels, who, in return, are generally 
readj and glad to fnmish special reports. In 
this waj it has been possible to gather trast- 
worthy details concerning almost every **oceaD- 
tqaare " in the North Atlantic. Some of the 
squares are, of course, more frequently crossed 
by vessels than others, and the average direc- 
tion and force of the wind in these squares 
ean be stated with reasonable certainty for 
e^ery month in the year. A simple and in- 
genious system of symbols has beeu adopted 
for the charts, whereby the meteorological 
prohabilities may be forecast for a given square 
by any one who takes the trouble to look. Of 
course, the forecasts are not absolutely certain 
of realization, but the chances are that they 
will not be far out of the way. The map on 
thb page is a portion of the pilot-chart for 



different prevailing winds. The lines of long 
dashes show the course of recent storms, and 
the short ones the drift of derelict vessels with 
the dates when reported. 

III. The *^ red data " embrace the very latest 
information that has been gleaned from all pos- 
sible trustworthy sources up to the hour of go- 
ing to press. The printed information covers 
the land-spaces of the chart, and includes a list 
of all recent changes of lights, buoys, beacons, 
etc., condensed special reports of noteworthy 
events, accounts of extraordinary storms, dan- 
gerous obstructions, and barometric compari- 
sons. The symbolic data, also printed in red 
ink, show where drifting wrecks were last 
seen, and mark the erratic courses that they 
have followed as they have been encountered 
from time to time by dififerent vessels. In like 
manner, water-spouts, drifting buoys, floating 
logs, and everytldng that is dangerous to navi- 




nuyiVOHART POB OOTOBKB, 1888. 



October, 1888, lying eastward of New York. 
For typographical reasons the different coU 
(R^of the data are not shown, but some idea 
of the completeness of the information is 
afforded. Each of the small circles with di- 
Tergeni arrows represents an ocean-square. 
The numeral within the circle represents the 
percentage of calms ; 7, for instance, indicates 
that there are seven chances in one hundred 
that calms will be encountered. The arrows 
flj with the wind, showing its direction, and 
thej indicate the direction of the prevHiling 
vinda. The small cross-bars show the overHge 
force of the wind, according to Beaufort's scale 
—the standard commonly used by seamen. 
Thus, four cross-bars indicate 4 of Beaufort's 
ieale, namely, a " whole-sail " breeze, as jt is 
called. The various lengths of the arrows in- 
&cate the greater or lesser frequency of the 



gation, finds a place on the pilot-chart, which 
may very probably serve as a warning to save 
life and property. 

One of the most remarkable cases recorded 
on the charts is that of the extraordinarily 
named American schooner *' Twenty - one 
Friends.'' She was abandoned at sea, and 
first reported as a derelict, March 24, 1885, 
about 160 miles off ihe mouth of Chesapeake 
Bay. The Gulf Stream carried her east-north- 
east about 2,130 miles, where she was reported 
in August. Thence she drifted easterly and 
southeasterly, and was last reported, Dec. 5, 
1885, in the Bay of Biscay, having drifted 
3.525 miles in eight months and ten days. 
During her wanderings, which were largely in 
the most frequented part of the ocean, she was 
reported twenty-two times, and the number of 
vessels that passed near her without seeing 



60 ATLANTIC OOEAK AUSTRALIA. 

her can of course never be known. The dotted The publication of the pilot-charts was began 
red line that represents her coarse on the pilot- in December, 1884, and they have made their 
chart is only one of many that cross and re- way by mere force of merit into the chart- 
cross one another in all directions. rooms of all nations. The co-operation of the 

Wide as the ocean is, not a year passes Signal Service and of the Naval Bnrean was 

withoat mysterious disappearances. Many of cordially given, and merchant- captains were 

them are doubtless due to collisions with quick to recognize the value of the undertaking, 

*' derelicts," as they are termed by the Hydro- and became at once willing contributors to the 

graphic Office, or with some of the many other stock of general information, 

drifting obstacles recorded by the ^' red data ^* None of the other maritime nations have as 

of the pilot-charts. yet attempted to follow the example of the 

The headquarters of the Hydrographic Office United States in the issue of pilot-charts, 

are in Washington, but the branch-office in That they will sooner or later do so is to be 

New York, under the management of Lieut, expected, but at present the United States 

V. N. Cottman, U. S. N., bears a most im- Hydrographic Office may be pardoned for a 

portant part in the active work of the bureau, reasonable degree of pride in its unique and 

This office occupies by courtesy a comer of original work. 

the Maritime Exchange, situated on the lower ACSnALIl, a continent surrounded by the 

floor of the great Produce Exchange building. Pacific Ocean, forming a part of the British 

Perhaps no better place coald be found to Empire. The areas of the colonies occupying 

keep the bureau in touch with the great ship- the Australian continent, with that of the 

ping interests of the world. To the Maritime neighboring island of Tasmania and the colony 

Exchange almost every ship-owner, captain,, of Fiji, and their estimated population at the 

and underwriter goes on business or to give close of 1886, are as follows: 
and receive information, and in this way many 



valuable facts are secured at the latest possible ooLoyiKs. 

moment before going to press. It is some- New Soath Wales 

what humiliating that such an important and Victoria 

beneficent Government work should be carried ^'jS.aiiSdT!*^:; 

on in such narrow quarters; but, on the other Tasmania..!!!!!!! 

hand, it is a high compliment to its usefulness ^ 

that a great business organization like the Total 

Maritime Exchange should freely make room 



Ana. 



810,700 

87,8S4 

903,425 

668,497 

26,875 

7,740 



Pt^nlstioa. 



1,001,996 
1,008.048 
812,758 
842,614 
187.811 
126,010 



8,004,621 



2,923.782 



for it, where space is cramped at best, and The estimated population of Australia and 

where every square foot has a money value. Tasmania on Jan. 1, 1888, was 2,948,864. In 

The official records show that daring the the whole of Australia the number of persons 

year 6,739 vessels were visited; nautical infor- to the square mile is less than one. In Vic- 

mation was furnished to 88,845 masters of ves- toria it is 11*79; in New South Wales, 8*87; 

sels and others ; 10,897 pilot-charts were gra- in Tasmania, 6*40. The total excess of arrivals 

tuitously distributed, and 8,601 special deteuled over departures by sea for the whole of Aus- 

reports on the subject of marine meteorology tralasia (including New Zealand) in 1887, was 

were forwarded for use in the preparation of 64,856, showing a decrease as compared with 

the pilot-charts. the previous year of 5,iB71. The excess was 

The practical value of the branch-offices has greatest in New South Wales, where it was 

led to their establishment in other seaports, 28,516, whereas in South Australia the depart- 

and they are now in operation at Baltimore, ures exceeded the arrivals by 2,384. At the 

Boston, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, present rate of increase the population of the 

and San Francisco. Every year there are be- Australian colonies in the year 1900 will be 

tween 5,000 and 6,000 lives lost at sea, and, 5,000,000. 

while with the increase of commerce this The aggregate revenue of the Australasian 

average is not unlikely to be maintained, the colonies in 1885 was £28,750,000, and the 

Hydrographic Office is engaged in a noble aggregate expenditure, £25,250,000. In twelve 

work in reducing the chances of disaster. years the revenue had increased 94 per cent, 

The popular notion that sailing-vessels are while the population had increased 54 per cent 

being driven from the seas by steam compe- The total debt was £70,250,000, or £3 8». 9d. 

titi on is said by good authority to be erroneous, per head of population. Between 1851 and 

The sailing-tonnage of the world is, and prob- 1886 the value of the gold mined in all the 

ably always will be, nearly or quite double colonies was £324,000,000, of which Victoria 

that of steam. It is not generally realized that, produced £217,000,000. 

in spite of the long period of depression to Agrlciltire> — The census tables show that 81 

which the American merchant marine has been per cent, of the people of Australasia from 

subjected in consequence of the war for seces- whom statistics could be collected (about 40 

sion and because of congressional indifference, per cent), are engaged in agricultural occnpa- 

the tonnage of the United States is second only tions, while 31 per cent, follow manufacturing 

to that of Great Britain, and nearly double that and mining, 10 per cent, are employed in trade 

of any other nation. and transportation, 17 per cent, in professional 



AUSTRALIA. 



61 



oocopations, and 11 per cent, as laborers. Of 
the last category a large percentage are em- 
ployed in field 'labor, while the inhabitants of 
the remote districts, concerning whom there 
are no returns, make the ratio of agricultural 
producers much larger than appears in the 
statistics. All the colonies have pre-emption 
laws to attract agricultural colonists, but most 
of them have been late in introducing the sys- 
tem in a practical shape, and slow in improv- 
ing their first ilhberal regulations, owing to 
the antagonistic interests and influence of the 
vool- growers. There is an apparent profit to 
the state in this policy, for while a hirge in- 
come is flowing into the exchequer from pas- 
toral leases, the selling value of the public 
Unds is constantly rising. Public men have 
recently, however, become impressed with the 
shortsightedness of a policy that has retarded 
the growth of the colonies, and with the lib- 
eralization of the land laws the democratic 
Bentiraent grows stronger and the money-pow- 
er of the lease-holders is losing control over 
the policy of the Government. The graziers 
are nevertheless able, by fictitious entries and 
bj Uie actual use of force, to keep settlers out 
of lands that are by law open to them. The 
laws of New South Wales provide for the 
selection of farms of 640 acres or less at the 
price of 20«. an acre, to be paid for by in- 
stallments of 1$. an acre, interest being charged 
at the rate of 4 per cent. ; also of grazing-farms 
of 2,560 acres, which, like the agricultural 
homesteads, must be fenced. Victoria allows 
deferred payments of Is. an acre per annum on 
320 acres at the same uniform price, on con- 
dition that improvements costing 20«. an acre 
shall be made on the land. South Australia 
sells to homesteaders a maximum area of 1,000 
acres at the same price and terms of payment, 
requiring 10s, worth of improvements. Queens- 
land grants homesteads of 160 acres for only 
2«. 6^ an acre, payable at the rate of 6d, an- 
ooally, if 7s, 6a. worth of improvements are 
made, and permits other selections of from 820 
to 1.280 acres at no fixed rate of payment, but 
OD the condition of improvements of the value 
of lOf. to the acre. South Australia and West- 
on Australia each fix the maximum size of 
the settler^s holding at 1,000 acres, the price 
being in the former 20«., and in the latter 10«., 
payable in twenty annual installments, each 
colony requiring improvements of 10*. an acrc^ 
while in Western Australia the land must in 
addition be fenced. In Tasmania settlers can 
take up 820 acres at 20«., paying 2s. a year 
without further conditions. The privilege of 
selecting land in this oplony was taken away 
from ffesh immigrants, whether they have 
paid their passages or have been aided by the 
Government, by an act that went into force 
in 1888. 

The number of acres that had been sold up 
to the beginning of 1887, and the area that 
was not yet alienated in the several colonies, 
were aa follows : 



COLONDES. 


Total takan np. 


Ramalafaig In 

OCOWIL 


Victoria. 


22,489^88 
41,280,464 
10,996,874 
11,218,944 
2,lfi5,895 


88,766,877 
166,686,686 
416,667,966 
666,918,066 
622,482,906 


New South Wales 

Queensland 

South AustnUla 


Western Australia 


Total 


88,206,060 
4,618,464 


1,796,866,860 
12,866,646 






Grand total 


92,718,614 


1,808,728,406 





Of the total area now cultivated in the Aus- 
tralian colonies 8,697,954 acres are devoted to 
wheat, yielding 45,641,592 bushels, of which 
about 9,000,000 bushels were available for ex- 
port in 1886. Since then the home require- 
ments have gained on production, leaving a 
smaller surplus. 

The increase of live stock is shown by the 
following figures : 



STOCK. 


1870. 


1884. 


Horses 


797,800 

4,712,918 

61,294,241 

604,848 


1,804,286 


Cattle 


8,464370 


Bheep. .. 

Pin 


7^626,404 
1,108,940 







In 1872 the exports of wool from all these 
colonies amounted to 181,459,780 pounds, and 
in 1885 to 404,088,149 pounds. In 1886, how- 
ever, owing to the damage by rabbitis, the 
total production was only 898,541,828 pounds, 
the average per sheep being 4'62 pounds, and 
the total value, £16,218,846. The average 
value was 9ld, a pound, and the total repre- 
sented £4 1^. 4d. a. head of the population. 

Hw BabMt PMt« — About twenty years ago 
the colonists of Australia and New Zealand, 
having grown prosperous during the period 
when the civil war had stopped the production 
of wool in the United States and caused the 
price to rise, began to found societies of accli- 
matization for the introduction and breeding 
of hares and rabbits, in order to eigoy the 
sports to which they had been accustomed in 
England. Every land-owner became anxious 
to secure ground -game on his own estate. 
Their satisfaction at finding the soil and cli- 
mate adapted for the animals was of short du- 
ration ; for at the rate of ten litters a year, in- 
stead of four and six, as in England, with no 
natural enemies to keep down their numbers, 
the rabbits, which grew to enormous size, in a 
few years began to affect seriously the sheep- 
indastry and check agricultural operations. 
They consumed the herbage up to the doors 
of the farm-houses, destroyed orchards and 
vegetable gardens, caused the abandonment 
of land that had produced thirty bushels of 
wheat and sixty of barley to the acre, and ate 
the grass down to the roots, turning to desert 
immense tracts of pasture, and driving both 
sheep and farmers from entire sections of the 
country. Wealthy proprietors, after spend- 
ing large sums in the effort to exterminate 
the vermin, ended by abandoning their es- 
tates. Shooting, trapping, hunting with fer- 



62 



AUSTRALIA. 



rets, and poisoDiDg with arsenic, strjobnia, and 
phosphorus, destroyed them \>j miUions, yet 
checked but slightly their multiplication. Wire- 
fences were early tried to confine them within 
bouuds, but they burrowed beneath the io- 
closures without difficulty. Since then, how- 
ever, rabbit-proof fences have been devised, 
yet in some localities they have learned to 
leap over fences that were considered a per- 
fect barrier. The Government of New South 
Wales, for the purpose of protecting the popu- 
lous districts of the eastern division, proposes 
to build a wire fence, 400 to 500 miles long, 
from Albury to the borders of Queensland, at 
an estimated cost of £770,000. The Parliament 
of that colony offered a bonus of sixpence for 
every rabbit killed, and the payments under 
the act have increased in rapid progression, 
the sum called for in 1886 being £146,000, in 
1887 about £250,000, and in 1888 it was cal- 
culated to amount to £500,000. The same 
Government has now offered a reward of £25,- 
000 to any person who shall invent an effect- ' 
ive process for the extermination of rabbits 
that shall not be injurious in its operation to 
horses, sheep, or other domestic animals. The 
inventor must demonstrate the efficacy of his 
method or process, which must be one that is 
yet unknown in the colony, at his own expense, 
and will receive the prize after a year's trial. 
Pasteur, who discovered remedies for the silk- 
worm disease and cattle-disease, communicated 
to the agents-general in London a method 
that he had already tried with success in 
France. This is to produce an epidemic of 
chicken-cholera, a disease that is very infec- 
tious and fatal among rabbits, though harmless 
to other animals, except poultry. In the spring 
of 1888 a party of French and English scien- 
tists went to Australia, taking with them infu- 
sions containing the microbes of this disease, 
with the intention of introducing the infection 
among the rabbits of various localities by lay- 
ing before them contaminated food, after which 
it was expected to spread spontaneously. 

The Federal €onneU. — The British Parliament 
in 1885 authorized the formation of a council 
of the colonies, to meet at least once every 
two years tor discussion and united action on 
matters of common Australian interest. The 
second meeting of the council was held at Ho- 
bart, Tasmania, the regular place for assem- 
bling, in January, 1888, terminating a three- 
days' session on the 19th. New Zealand, 
South Australia, and New South Wales had 
not joined the confederation, and the repre- 
sentatives of the other colonies discussed the 
means of inducing them to take part in the 
councils. 

The Bfew Hebrides. — The anxiety of the Aus- 
tralians on account of the French occupation 
of the New Hebrides islands abated when the 
French Government set a date for the with- 
drawal of the military force. A convention 
for a joint naval commission was signed on 
Nov. 16, 1887, and the French agreed to evacu- 



ate the islands within four months from that 
date. On Jan. 26, 1888, the English and 
French representatives signed at Paris a dec- 
laration defining the functions and powers of 
the Anglo-French Naval Commission, and es- 
tablishing regulations for its guidance. The 
commission consists of a president and two 
British and two French naval officers. It is 
charged with the maintenance of order and 
the protection of the lives and property of 
British and French citizens in the New Hebri- 
des. The presidency of the commission shall 
be held in alternate months by the command- 
ers-in-chief of the British and French naval 
forces present in the group. The regulations 
provide that in the event of a disturbance of 
peace and good order in any part of the New 
Hebrides where British or French subjects are 
found, or in case of danger menacing their 
lives or property, the commission shall forth- 
with meet and take measures for repressing 
disturbance or protecting the interests endan- 
gered, but not resorting to military force un- 
less its employment is considered indispensa- 
ble. If a military or naval force lands, it must 
not remain longer than is deemed necessary 
by the commission. In a sudden emergency 
the British and French naval commanders 
nearest the scene of action may take measures 
for the protection of persons or property of 
either nationality, in concert if possible, or 
separately when only one force is near the dis- 
turbed locality ; but they must at once report 
to the senior officers, who shall communicate 
the report to each other, and immediately 
summon the commission. The commission has 
no power to interfere in disputes concerning 
title to land or to dispossess either natives or 
foreigners of lands that they hold in posses- 
sion, but it is charged with the police duties 
of stopping the slave-trade with the Kanakas 
and of preventing acts of piracy. The last of 
the French troops left the New Hebrides on 
March 15. 

The Chinese QvesdM. — Anticipations of an in- 
crease of Ohinese laborers and of the effect of 
their competition on the condition of the white 
laboring class, have produced an exciting po- 
litical and international question in the Aus- 
tralian colonies. Two high commissioners, 
accredited by the Chinese Government, visited 
Australia in May, 1887, with the objects of 
learning the manner in which their country- 
men were treated and of advancing commercial 
relations between the two countries. They 
found little to complain of in the treatment 
of the Chinese, but questioned the rightful- 
ness of restrictions on immigration that have 
recently been introduced, especially the head- 
tax that is imposed in the various colonies. 
The Chinese ambassador in London, on Dec 
12, 1887, asked the explanation of this ex- 
ceptional legislation, ana objected to it as a 
violation of treaty obligations. Chinese com- 
petition is most severe on the tropical northern 
shores of Australia, especially in the Northern 



AUSTRALIA, 68 

Territorj of South Australia. The white resi- of the head-tax from 1,848 in 1881 to 827 in 
dents of the territory in the spring of 1888 1882, and then increased at almost the same 
addressed a memoricJ to the Governments of rate at which nataralization papers were taken 
New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland, out, until thej reached 1,108 in 1886. In 
Togmg restrictive measures, in which they 1885 additional precautions were taken in con- 
blamed their own Government for introducing nection with the forms of naturalization, in 
the evil hy importing Chinese laborers for order to prevent fraudulent personation, and 
the gold- mines at public expense, and after- there was an increase of 488 in the number of 
wjird allowing them to squat on Government arrivals in 1886 over the previous year, be- 
linds to bid for Government contracts, and cause the papers that had been purchased 
to vote as rate- payers. From that district they from Chinese residents in the colony would 
bad advanced inland by way of Roper and not be thereafter available. By the laws of 
McArthur rivers into Queensland and the Victoria and New South "Wales, a poll-tax 
South Australian ruby -fields. The Govern- of £10 is payable on every Chinese immi- 
or resident at Port Darwin in the beginning grant, for which the master of the vessel is 
of April advised the authorities in Adelaide of responsible, and no vessel is allowed to bring 
informatioD that had come to him, according more than one immigrant for each 100 tons, 
to which vessels sailing under the Chinese flag Queensland collects a tax of £80 on each Chi- 
were preparing to land a great number of naman landed, and limits the number that can 
Chinamen to work the ruby-mines. The Gov- be brought in a vessel to one for each fifty 
emment has hitherto encouraged the immi- registered tons. Tasmania lias adopted the re- 
grstion of Chinese into the territory, because strictions that t)revail in Victoria and New 
they alone have developed the agricultural re- South Wales, and requires vaccination, as does 
sooroes of the land, and are almost the only South Australia, which, except for the North- 
bborers who wiU long remain and work in em Territory, imposes a poll-tax of £10, but 
the mines. Without them it would not have allows a passen^r for every ten tons. In all 
been possible to build the Port Darwin Rail- cases Chinamen who ai'e naturalized British 
road, which is expected to make the territory subjects are exempt from the operation of the 
prosperous- and self- supporting. There are at acts. In New Zealand an act was passed in 
pr^ent 6,000 Chineise in the Northern Terri- 1882 restricting the immigration of any person 
tory and only 600 Europeans. There is a born of Chinese parents, but this law has not 
regoIatioD limiting the Chinese to a distance received the approval of the home Govern- 
of 1,000 miles inland, but the South Austra- ment, and is inoperative. The number of Chi- 
BtD Gk>vemment proposes now to adopt in re- nese in all the Australian colonies does not 
spect to the Northern Territory the same re- exceed 51,000, and is smaller than it was before 
strictions on immigration that prevail in the the yield of gold began to fall off. Instead of 
rest of Australia. The Chinese question is increasing, the Chinese population is said to 
treated by Australian politicians as a working- have diminished of recent years at the rate of 
man^s question, although the workingmen 8 per cent, per annum. Living in compact 
there, unlike those of California, have not yet <;olonies, they are conspicuous in the towns, 
ftit the direct competition of Chinamen in the though forming a very small fraction of the 
trades, save in furniture-making, which the population. The only districts outside of the 
Chines have learned and pursue on their own Northern Territory of South Australia where 
account. They have been very successful as they outnumber the white population are the 
gardeners, and have taught the English colo- mining-camps and plantations of the torrid 
oi^ many improvements in the cultivation of part of Queensland, where they have been in- 
froits and vegetables. The large cities are en- troduced as laborers. 

tirelv supplied with such produce from their The question raised in the letter of Lew-ta- 

gardens. Once before, when the Chinese, len, the Chinese Minister, was submitted to 

who began to come in 1851, increased from the premiers of the different colonies by Lord 

2,000 in 1854 to 42,000 in 1859, Victoria im- Salisbury. Sir Henry Parkes, replying for New 

posed a capitation tax on immigrants, which South Wales, and D. Gillies for Victoria, urged 

had the effect of reducing the Chinese popula- the home Government to make a treaty similar 

tion to 20,000 by 1863, when the poll-tax was to that which was being negotiated between 

removed. The first of the more recent meas- China and the United States. Public meetings 

ores was passed in 1881 in consequence of the were held in the two colonies, much political 

aetion of the authorities of Western Australia, feeling was aroused on the subject, street dem- 

vho were about to import Chinese laborers, onstrations took place, anti-Chinese riots were 

The Chinese evaded the tax by procuring let- threatened, and, finally, the executives mani- 

ters of naturalization, which their countrymen fested their energy by prohibiting the landing 

in Victoria began to take out in unusual num- of Chinamen and sending about four hundred 

bers. While only 91 letters had been ifjsued back to China. The New Zealand Government, 

to Chinese during the eleven years preceding, in order to accomplish the same object, declared 

there were 817 naturalizations in 1882, and all the ports of China to be infected districts. 

the number increased to 1,178 in 1885. The In the middle of May a severer Chinese restric- 

trrivals by sea had fallen on the imposition tion bill was introduced as a Government meas- 



64 AUSTRALIA. 

nre in tbe New South Wales Parliament, and islands the people kill each other in family and 
passed the House of Assembly at once. It was tribal feuds. The effect on the relations of the 
made operative from the begiuning of that natives with whites is pointed out by Bishop 
month, and contained no exception in favor of Selwyn, of Melanesia, in a letter to the Colo- 
immigrants who were then on the seas or in nial Office. Any outrage committed by a white 
Australian ports. The act was virtually pro- man is sure to be avenged by a volley fired at 
hibitive, restricting the number of passengers the next boat^s crew, and then a man-of-war is 
to one for every 800 tons of the vessel carry- sent to pnuish the islanders, and a party land- 
ing them, and raising the poll-tax to £100. ed, often in tbe face of a heavy fire, thus **ez- 
Ohinese were allowed to trade only in certain posing valuable lives for the most trivial of 
districts, and only five in each district. Natu- causes.^* Recently the boats of the **• Eliza 
ralization of Chinese was forbidden. No Chi- Mary ^' were fired on from the New Hebrides, 
namen could mine without authority, and all the natives mistaking the English vessel for 
must take out licenses annually to be allowed the ^^Tongatabu," a labor vessel fiying theGer- 
to reside in the colony. The Legislative Conn- man fiag, which had recruited laborers for Sa- 
cil refused to suspend the rules to hurry the moa under the pretense that they were for 
passing of the bill, and meanwhile the supreme Queensland. 

court granted writs of habeas corpus for the Without waiting for a convention, the gov- 
release of fifty Chinamen who were detained emments of Queensland and Fiji in 1884 pro- 
in Sydney Harbor, declaring their detention hibited the sale of fire-arms to natives. But 
illegal. Two amendments of the Legislative these regulations are evaded by the labor 
Council, one keeping open the Supreme Conrt agents who find that guns and powder are the 
to persons who have claims for inaenmity, and only price that will gain laborers for the sugar- 
the other striking out the clause limiting the plantations. When an international agreement 
Chinese to certain areas and occupations, was proposed, France at once signified her wil- 
which latter was drawn in imitation of the ex- lingness to enter into the compact if the other 
isting regulations for foreigners in China, were powers should do likewise. Germany returned 
accepted by the Assembly ; and, when the Coun- no answer to the proposaL The United States 
cil stood firm, others were adopted by the Gov- declined to accede to the proposed regulations, 
ernment, and finally accepted by tbe hoose, Mr. Bayard in his reply recognized their geo- 
removing the features of the bUl that were eral propriety and tlie responsibility of con- 
most flagrantly in contravention of the trea- ducting such traffic under proper and careful 
ties, but not mitigating its severity as a restrict- restrictions, while signifying the intention of 
ive measure. An intercolonial conference on the Government of the United States for tbe 
the subject of restriction was held at Sydney, present ** to restrain its action to tbe employ- 
Its conclusions were embodied in the bill that ment, in the direction of the suggested arrange- 
was introduced in the Victorian Parliament, ment, of a sound discretion in permitting traffic 
which opened its sessions on June 21. between its own citizens in the articles referred 

The right of domicile of Chinamen in Brit- to and the natives of the western Pacific isl- 

ish dominions rests not merely on international ands." 

law and the comity of nations, but on the first New S«ith Wales. — ^The oldest of tbe Aus- 
artlcle of the treaty of Nankin, signed Aug. 29, tralian colonies has been self-governing since 
1842, which provides that there shall be peace 1856. The present Governor is Lord Carring- 
and friendship between the sovereigns of Great ton, who entered on the office in December, 1885. 
Britain and China and between their respect- The present ministry, which was constituted 
ive subjects, ^^ who shall enjoy full security and on Jan. 19, 1887, is composed of the following 
protection for their persons and property with- members : Premier and Colonial Secretary, Sir 
m the dominions of the other." This treaty Henry Parkes ; Oolonial Treasurer, John FitJK- 
was renewed by the one signed at Tientsin on gerald Burns ; Minister for Lands, Thomas 
June 26, 1858. The Pekin Convention of 1860 Garrett; Minister for Works, John Sutherland; 
provides that Chinese in choosing to take serv- Attorney-General, Bernhard Ringrose Wise, 
ice in British colonies are at liberty to enter who received his appointment on May 27, 1887; 
into engagements and take passage in British Minister for Public Instruction, James Inelis; 
vessels at the open ports, and that the Chinese Minister for Justice. William Clarke ; Post- 
authorities shall, in concert with the diplomat- master-Greneral, C. J. Roberts ; Minister for 
ic representative of Great Britain, frame regu- Mines, Francis Abigail ; President of the Ezeo- 
lations for the protection of emigrants sailing utive Council, Julian Emmanuel Salomons, who 
from the open ports. represents the Government in the Legislative 

ThdBc la Ams with Hie Padie Islanden. — Great Conncil, but holds no portfolio. 

Britain has for three or four years been attempt- The revenue in 1886 amounted to £7,594,800, 

ing to induce other nations to enter into an of which £2,889,138 were derived from the 

agreement prohibiting tiie sale of fire-arms and state railways, £2,068,571 from cust<iras, and 

powder and of alcoholic liquors in the western £1,643,955 from the pnblic lands, the sales 

Pacific. The consequences of supplying the amounting to £1,206,438. The revenue has 

natives with arms of precision are described increased from £22 per head of population in 

in a bine-book on the subject. In some of the 1871 to £39 in 1886. The total expenditure in 



AUSTRALIA. 66 

^9,078,869, being larger than in any 000. Woolen-mills are not profitable in either 

ear, and more than twice that of colony, and recently the Victorian Parliament 

3 expenditure on railroads, inclad- has added 5 per cent, to the duty on woolens, 

ays, was £1,710,495 ; on post and which was before 15 to 20 per cent. 

£610,651 ; on other public works, There were 1,890 miles of railway in opera- 

'; on the public debt, partly for ex- tion in 1886, which had been built at a total 

r loans, £1,579,689; on public in- cost of £24,962,972. The earnings for the year 

£741,121; on other services, £8,- were £2,160,070, and the expenses, £1,492,992. 

The total expenditure in 1887 was The telegraphs hod 20,797 miles of wire, con- 

K with an estimated revenue of £8,- structed at a cost of £666,028. 

The revenue for 1888 is expected to Rich silver-mines have been discovered near 

11,725, while the expenditure is es- the border of South Australia in a district 

. £8,209,885. The public debt has called Broken Hills. The ore-deposits extend 

m £7,880,280 in 1860, and £14,908,- over more than twenty miles, and many com- 

30, to £41,084,249 in March, 1887. Pjpies have been formed and mines opened. 

^1 debt more than £25,000,000 was The report of a week's run of the principal 

railroad construction. mine in March, 1888, showed 1,709 tons of ore 

ony was a penal settlement before treated, and 78,659 ounces of silver extracted. 

in 1828 nearly half of the total Ytetoria. — The Constitution was granted in 
I of 36,598 were transported felons. 1854. Unlike New South Wales, which en- 
vhen the last decennial census was joys universal suffrage, Victoria limits the 
population was 751,468, comprisjing privilege of voting by a property qualification, 
ales and 840,819 females. The in- The Governor is Sir Henry Brougham Loch, 
en years had been at the rate of 4*9 who was appointed on April 10, 1884. Sir 
>er annum. In the six years ending William Foster Stawell was appointed Lieuten- 
the net immigration averaged 80,000 ant-Governor on Nov. 6, 1886, and in the event 
a number of immigrants in that year of the death or absence from the colony of the 
88; of emigrants, 41,896. The num- Governor will assume the administration of the 
bs in 1886 was 86,284, and of deaths. Government. The Cabinet is made up as fol- 
>wing a natural increment of 21,697. lows: Premier, Minister of Mines, and Minis- 
-rate in 1887 was 18*15 per 1,000. ter of Railways, Duncan Gillies; Chief Secre- 
te capital, had an estimated popula- tary and Commissioner of Water-Supply, Al- 
1,709 at the end of 1886. The popu- fired Deakin ; Attorney-General, H. J. Wrixon ; 
be colony on Jan. 1, 1888, was esti- Commissioner of Public Works, J. Nimmo ; 
,042,917. Minister of Justice, Henry Cuthbert; Commis- 
K)rts in 1886 amounted to £15,556,- sioner of Trade and Customs, W. F. Walker; 
lich sum £12,884,200 represent the Commissioner of Crown Lands and Survey, 
domestic produce, including specie. J. L. Dow ; Minister of Public Instruction, 
value of imports was £20,978,548. Charles H. Pearson ; Minister of Defense, Sir 
ts of gold and coin were £1,878,285, James Lorimer; Postmaster-General, F. T. 
ixports, £1,592,840. The export of Derham; Ministers having portfolios with no 
reat Britain was 184,929,740 pounds, offices attached, James Bell and D. M. Davies. 
£5,259,809, the exports of this prod- The public revenue for the year that ended 
jountries being valued at £7,201,976. June 30, 1887, was £6,783,867; the expendi- 
nost important exports were coal, of ture, £6,665,868. The yield of customs duties 
>f £947.002, and tin, of the value of was £2,132,361; the income from railways, 
after which came sheep, silver, cat- £2,468,845 ; from posts and telegraphs, £418,- 
s, skins, and copper. The number of 295; from crown lands, £587,100. The inter- 
he colony on Jan. 1, 1887, was 39,- est and expenses of the debt absorbed £1,272,- 
rho gold product in 1886 was £355,- 591 of the total expenditure; the working ex- 
n limber of factories in the colony in penses of the railroads were £1,864,400, of 
3,694, employing 45,788 operatives, other public works £887.827, and of the postal 
policies of New South Wales, which and telegraph service £578,451 ; the cost of 
mport duties, and Victoria, which public instruction, £670,856. The revenue for 
a high protective tariff, are often the fiscal year 1887-'88 is estimated at £7,444,- 
to illustrate the advantages of free 000, and the revenue £6,906,000. The public 
igh without taking into consideration debt in June, 1887, amounted to £38,119,164, 
r area and natural resources of the of which £25,404,847 were raised to build 
he manufacturing interests are nearly railroads, £5,004,791 for irrigation works, 
3th colonies. Victoria excels in boot £1,105,557 for school-buildings, and £1,603,- 
factories, flour-mills, « and iron and 969 for other public works. Interest is at the 
manufactures, but in many branches average rate of 4^ per cent. 
;h Wales has the advantage. The The estimated population on Jan. 1, 1888, 
er of the factories in the latter colo- was 1,036,118, having increased from 862,346 
52 against 20,160 tor Victoria; the in 1881. The number of births in 1886 was 
le plant, £5,002,000 against £4,654,- 30,824; deaths, 14,952; marriages, 7,787. The 
L. XXVIII. — 6 A 



66 AUSTRALIA. 

deatb-rate in 1887 was 15*70 per 1,000. The The mileage of railways id Decemb 

excess of births over deaths in that year was was 1,381. There were 417 miles in ] 

only 6*4 per cent. Immigration has declined The length of telegraph lines was 5,45 

since the withdrawal of the aid given by the the length of wires, 10,310 mile^. 

colony before 1874. In 1886 there arrived by QiMBSfauid. — The Constitution dates fr 

sea 93,404 persons, against 76,976 in 1885, and when the colony was separated from Ne 

departed 68,102, against 61,994. About half Wales. The members of the upper h( 

of the population live in towns. The capital, nominated for life; those of the popula 

Melbourne, contained 390,000 inhabitants in are elected by restricted suffrage. T 

1887. ernor, Sir Anthony Musgrave, was a] 

The imports in 1886 were £18,530,575, which in April, 1888. The composition of th 

was about the average value for five years ; but try is as follows : Premier, Chief S< 

the exports fell off from £15,551,758 in 1885 and Vice-President of the Executive 

to £11,795,321 in 1886. The imports of wool Sir Samuel Walker Griffith, who is also 

amounted to £2,831,599, and the exports to Treasurer; Postmaster- General, Walt< 

£4,999,662; imports of timber, £1,170,539; tio Wilson; Attorney-General, Arth 

of woolens, 892,868 ; of cottons, £1,027,674. ledge ; Secretary for Mines and Public 

The exports of gold were £1,954,326. The William Oswald Hodgkinson; Colonis 

quantity of wool shipped to Great Britain was tary and Secretary for Public Inst 

93,889,887 pounds. . Berkeley Basil Moreton ; Secretary foi 

The state railroads in June, 1887, had a to- Lands, Henry Jordan; without portf< 

tal length of 1,880 miles, besides 316 miles in James Francis Garrick. 

cour<)e of construction. The cost of the lines was On May 1, 1886, the colony contain 

£26,479,206. The receipts in the year 1886-W 853 inhabitants, of whom 190,344 wer 

were £2,453,087; the expenses, £1,427,116. and 132,509 females. There were 

There were 4,094 miles of telegraph lines, with Chinese and 10,165 Polynesians in th 

10,111 miles of wire at the close of 1886. which does not include the aborigines, i 

Sonth Aiatralla. — According to a law that ing about 12,000. The increase since i 

went into force in 1881 the Legislative Council sus of 1881 was 109,328, equal to 51 

consists of twenty-four members, of whom cent. The estimated population on J 

eight retire every three years, and are re- 1887, was 354,596. According to th< 

placed by new members, two from each of of 1886, 55,890 persons were engaged 

the four districts, who are voted for on one culture, 51,489 in industries, 7,040 in 

ticket by the whole colony. The House of sional pursuits, 19,790 in commerce, a 

Assembly numbers fifty-one members, who are 163 were wives, children, and domest 

chosen by universal suffrage. ants. The number of births in 18 

The Governor is Sir William F. C. Robinson, 12,582 ; deaths, 5,575 ; marriages, 2,76 
who was appointed in February, 1883. The population of Queensland on Jan. 1, 16 
heads of the six ministerial departments are as computed to be 366.940. The death- 
follow : Premier and Treasurer, Thomas Play- 1887 was 14 56 per 1,000. The avera 
ford. Chief Secretary, James Gordon Ramsay ; sity of population in 1884 was 0*478 pei 
Attorney-General, Charles Camden Eingsron ; mile, that in the northern division of 
Commissioner of Crown Lands, Jenkins Coles; square miles being 0*24, in the central 
Commissioner of Public Works, Alfred Catt; of 223,341 square miles 0*17, and in th* 
Minister of Education, Joseph Colin Francis em division of 189,751 square miles 1*1< 
Johnson. northern division contained 52,339 

The revenue in 1887 was £1,869,942; the ants, the central, 38,821, and the s< 

expenditure, £2,165,245. The public debt, all 221,693. 

of which was raised for public works, amount- The total value of imports in 1886 ^ 

ed, on Dec. 31, 1887, to £19,168,500. 103,227; the value of exports, £4,935 

The population on Dec. 31, 1886, was esti- which sum £1,413,908 represent w( 

mated at 312,758, comprising 162,980 males £855,510 sugar. Other exported p 

and 149,778 females. The number of births besides gold, are hides, tin, preserve 

registered in 1886 was 11,177; deaths, 4,234; silver-ore, and pearl-shell. There wer* 

marriages, 1,976. The number of immigrants acres under sugar-cane in 1886, and of 1 

was 17,623 ; of emigrants, 25,231. At the end 34,657 acres yielded 58,545 tons of suga 

of 1887 the population was computed at 312,- at £1,125,284. 

421, showing a loss of 337. The population of At the end of 1886 there were 1,55 

the Northern Territory is not included in these of railway completed and 637 miles un< 

estimates. The death-rate in 1887 was 12*62 struction. Their capital cost was £10, "J 

per 1,000. the receipts is 1886 were £640,845, 

The value of imports in 1886 was £4,852,- running expenses £476,966. 

750 ; of exports, £4,489,008. The exports of The length of telegraph lines wa 

wool were valued at £1,955,207 ; of wheat and miles, with 14,443 miles of wire, 

flonr, £626,610 ; of copper and copper-ore. Western Aistralli. — The Government 

£230,868. ministered by a Governor assisted by < 



AUSTRALIA. 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



67 



».^ 



lative Council, one third of its members being 
appointees of tlie Crown. The present Gov- 
ernor is Sir Frederick Napier Broome, who 
hss held the post since December, 1882. The 
reTenae in 1886 was £388,564, and the ex- 
penditure, £394,676. The revenue for 1887 
was estimated at £404,190 and the expendi- 
ture at £478,189. 

The population is growing rapidly by immi- 
gration. The number of inhabitants, exclu- 
sive of aborigines, was estimated at 39,584 at 
the end of 1886. There were 2,346 natives in 
service with colonists in 1881. The number 
of births in 1885 was 1,466 ; of deaths, 806. 
During that year 5,615 persons arrived in the 
colony, and 1,877 departed. On Jan. 1, 1888, 
there was a population of 142,488 in the colony, 
iccording to official statistics. The rate of 
deaths during the previous jear had been 17*11 
per 1,000. 

The imports in 1886 were valued at £758,- 
013; tlie exports at £630,393. The chief ex- 
ports are wool and lead ore. There were 202 
miles of railroarl in operation at the end of 
1S86 and 299 miles were building. The tele- 
^ph lines of the colony had a total length of 
2,405 miles. 

TiwMJa — The Constitution was first adopted 
in 1871, and amended in 1885. The Parlia- 
ment consists of a Legislative Council of 18 
members, elected by land-owners and the edu- 
cated classes, and a House of Assembly of 
doable that number, elected under a property 
QQalification. The Governor is Sir Robert G. 
C. Hatniiton, who was appointed in January, 
1887. The Cabinet is composed of the follow- 
ing ministers: Premier and Chief Secretary, 
Philip Oakley Fysh; Treasurer, Bolton Staf- 
ford Bird; Attorney-General, Andrew Inglis 
Clark ; Minister of Lands and Works, Edward 
Nicbobis Coventry Braddon. 

Ibe area of Tasmania, which was formerly 
koown as Van Diemen's Land, is 26,215 square 
miles, and the estimated population in Decem- 
ber. 1886, was 137,211. The aborigines are 
entirely extinct. The number of births in 
1886 was 4,627; deaths, 1,976; marriages, 
^5. There were 16,399 immigrants and 14,- 
i)0 emigrants. On Jan. 1. 1888, the island 
contained 142,478 inhabitants. The deaths 
registered in 1887 were at the rate of 1545 per 
1,000. 

The imports in 1886 were valued at £1,756,- 
567 and the exports at £1,331,540. The chief 
irticles of export are tin, wool, preserved and 
fresh fruits, gold, timber, hides, and bark. 

The railroad mileage in 1886 was 303, while 
1S8 miles were in course of constructitm in 
1887. There were 1,772 miles of telegraph 
lines and 2,353 of wire at the end of 1886. 

IQi* — British sovereignty was proclaimed on 
Oct 10, 1874. The colony is administered as 
a Crown dependency by a Governor who is 
^High Commissioner for the Western Pacific. 
Tbe present Governor is Sir John Bates Thurs- 
Updl Fourteen of the sixteen provinces are ruled 



by native chiefs. The colony consists of a group 
of islands, of which there are eighty that are in- 
habited, the largest being Viti Levu, with an 
area of 4,250 square miles, and the next largest 
Yanua Levu, which is 2,600 square miles in 
extent. The island of Rotnmah was annexed 
in December, 1880. The native Fijians are 
Methodists in religion, except one twelfth who 
are Roman Catholics. The population of the 
colony in 1886 was 124,742, and consisted of 
2,105 Europeans, 832 half-castes; 6,146 Indian 
coolies; 8,075 Polynesian indentured laborers; 
110,037 Fijians, 2,321 natives of Rotumah, and 
226 others. Among the Fijians there were 
3,991 births and 4,908 deaths in 1886, and 
among Europeans, 77 births and 45 deaths. 

The revenue in 1886 was £64,574 and the 
expenditure £78,183. The imports amounted 
to £230,629 and the exports to £288,496. The 
chief commercial products are sugar, copra, 
and bananas. The yield of sugar in 1886 was 
11,716 tons grown on 10,543 acres, while 18,- 
128 acres are devoted to cocoanuts. 

ACSTRIi-HIJNClAST, a dual monarchy in cen- 
tral Europe, composed of the empire of Aus- 
tria, often called Austria proper, and otherwise 
known as the Cisleithan Monarchy, and the 
Kingdom of Hungary, called sometimes the 
Transleithan Monarchy, as the river Leis di- 
vides the two territories, and sometimes the 
dominions of the crown of St. Stephen. Aus- 
tria is composed of numeroun semi-autonomous 
states, and the provinces of Croatia and Sla- 
vonia, which form an integral part of the Hun- 
garian Monarchy, possess in common a separate 
diet. The two monarchies alike owe allegiance 
to the House of Ilapsburg, the head of which 
is Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. 
They have a common army, with separate mi- 
litia systems for the defense of their own bor- 
ders, a single navy, and also a common diplo- 
matic service, and they are united further in a 
customs union. The common ministry which 
looks after affairs of imperial concern is re- 
sponsible to delegations from the two parlia- 
ments, which meet annually in separate halls, 
discussing all questions apart, but voting as one 
body in case of disagreement. Each delega- 
tion consists of 60 members, of whom 20 are 
chosen from the upper and 40 from the lower 
house of the respective legislatures. 

The reigning monarch is Josef 1, bom Aug. 
18, 1880, who was proclaimed Emperor of Aus- 
tria on Dec. 2, 1848, and crowned King of 
Hungary on June 8, 1867, after the ancient 
Constitution was restored. The Crown- Prince 
is the Archduke Rudolf, born Aug. 21, 1858. 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the 
whole monarchy has been directed by Count 
G. K4Inoky de Kdrospatak since Nov. 21, 
1881. Lieutenant Field-Marshal Count Bylandt- 
Rheydt, who had been Minister of War since 
June 21, 1876, resigned on account of illness 
in March, 1888, and was succeeded by General 
Baron Bauer, previously commander of the 
Vienna corps. The Common Minister of Fi- 



68 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



naDce is BenjamiD de E4l1akj, who was ap- 
pointed on June 4, 1882. 

Area and Popalatton. — The population of the 
Austro- Hungarian Empire on Dec. 81, 1886, 
was estimate to be 89,640,834. The popula- 
tion of Austria proper was 23,070,688, and that 
of Hungary 16,570,146. In Austria there were 
11.188,462 males and 11.882,226 females in 
1885 ; in Hungary at the time of the census of 
1880 the males numbered 7,702,810 and the 
females 7,939,192. 

The number of births in Austria proper in 
1886 was 876,063; deaths, 678,458; marriages, 
180,191 ; excess of births over deaths, 197,606. 
The births in Hungary in 1885 numbered 787,- 
110; deaths, 522,650; marriages, 165,169; ex- 
cess of birthe over deaths, 214,460. Vienna 
contained in 1887, with its suburbs, 1,270,000 
inhabitants, while Buda-Pesth, the capital of 
Hungary, bad in 1886 a population of 422,657. 
That of Prague, the chief city of Bohemia, had 
at the last census 162,328 ; the sea- port Trieste, 
144,844; Lemberg, 109,746. 

The Oerapied PreYlnces. — The area and the 
population in 1885 of the Turkish provinces of 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, the area of Novi- 
Bazar, which the Congress of Berlin likewise 
gave over to the military occupation of Austria- 
Hungary, though the civil administration was 
reserved for Turkey, and its population accord- 
ing to the enumeration of 1879, are shown in 
the following table : 



184,411 florins; minerals, 12,889,295 florins,* 
paper and paper manufactures, 11,914,262 flor- 
ins ; iron and iron manufactures, 10,546,811 
florins; tobacco, 7,625,580 florins. 

The value of the precious metals exported in 
1886 was 1,797,057 florins, while the imports 
were 12,282,529 florins. 

The following table exhibits the movement 
of imports in 1885, and of exports in 1886 
across the frontiers of contiguous countries 
and by sea- ports : 



COUNTRIES. 



Qermaaj 

Trieste 

RoumanU 

Flume and oiher ports. 

RuBsia 

Italy 

Bertrla 

Switzerland 

Montenegro 

Turkey 



Total 



ImporU. 



KzporU. 



887,495617 

87,881.5fiO 

40,047,683 

81,748,124 

21,890,116 

19,176,409 

14,162,174 

6,477,870 

28&,U04 

284,312 



557,948,824 



897,^(2,570 
99,768,181 
84,870,591 
4^672.4T» 
20,549,044 
42,424,557 
18^78.699 
89,436.418 
72,425 
697,814 



696,682,278 



PROVINCES. 


Am in iqnu* 
milM. 


Popnlatko. 


Bosnia 


16,200 
8.540 
8,522 


1S7,574 


Herzespvina 


1,148.517 


Novl-Bazar 


168,<K)0 


Total 


28,262 


1,501,091 



Of the inhabitants of Bosnia and Herzego- 
vina 492,710 are Mussel man •», 571,250 Orthodox 
Greeks, 265,788 Roman Catholics, and 5,805 
Jews. There has been an increase of about 
44,000 in the Mohammedan population since 
1879. The Austrian military organization and 
obligatory service has, with some modifications, 
been extended to Bosnia and Herzegovina. 

CoDnnerce. — The total value of the exports of 
Austria-Hungary in 1886 was 698,632,273 flor- 
ins, against 672,083,194 florins in 1885. The 
value of the imports in 1885 was 557,948,824 
florins. The value of grain, pulse, and flour 
exported in 1886 was 95,445,185 florins; tim- 
ber, 57,570,588 florins; sugar, 49,119,976 flor- 
ins; instruments, watches, etc., 48,311,398 
florins; wool and woolen manufactures, 47,- 
361,901 florins; live animals, 47,277,808 flor- 
ins; animal products, 33,799,970 florins; bev- 
erages, 29,284,292 florins; fruit, nuts, hops, 
etc., 25,657,334 florins; leather and leather 
manufactures, 25,127,130 florins; glass and 
glass- wares, 19,446,478 florins; fuel, 19,324,- 
155 florins; flax, hemp, and other fibers, 19,- 
127,006 florins; wood and bone manufactures, 
18,186,692 florins; cotton manufactures, 15,- 



In Austria the area sown to wheat in 1885 
was 1,194,059 hectares, yielding 17,015,680 
hectolitres; 2,000,971 hectares were under rye, 

Eroducing 27,984,480 hectolitres; 1,166,416 
ectares under barley, producing 18,344,870 
hectolitres; 1,829,047 hectares under oats; 
producing 88,889,650 hectolitres; 367,657 hec- 
tares under com, producing 7,008,060 hecto- 
litres. Vineyards covered 228,949 hectares. 
There is a considerable export of wine and bar- 
ley, and in some years of wheat. 

The agricultural returns of Hungary for 1886 
give 4,070,360 hectares as the area devoted to 
wheat and rye, and the yield as 51,850,560 hec- 
tolitres. The crop of barley on 1,044,219 hec- 
tares was 13,343,882 hectolitres. Com was 
cultivated on 1,914,159 hectares, and the crop 
amounted to 29,767, 527 hectolitres. Vine- 
yards covered 368,562 hectares, and the value 
of the wine produced was 40,691,000 florins. 
There are large exports of horses, cattle, and 
sheep from both Austria and Hungary. 

RaUrtads* — The railroads of Austria had a 
total length of 13,618 kilometres or 8,512 miles 
on Jan. 1, 1887. There were 3,596 kilometres 
of state lines, besides 84 kilometres that are 
worked by companies, 1,590 kilometres be- 
longing to companies that are worked by the 
Government, and 8,348 kilometres owned and 
operated by private corporations. Hungary 
had 9,352 kilometres or 5,843 miles, making 
the total mileape for the empire 14,855. The 
state lines in Hungary had a total length of 
4,243 kilometres and the lines of companies 
were 5,109 kilometres in length, including 402 
kilometres that were operated in connection 
with the Government railroads. 

The Post -Office — The number of letters and 
postal curds carried in the Austrian mails in 
1886 was 408,475,000; patterns and printed 
matter, 56.337,000; newspapers, 90,112,800. 
The receipts amounted to 26,367,10^3 florins, 
and the expenses to 22,619,102 florins. 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 69 

The namber of letters that passed through There were 10 unarmored cruisers, 2 classed 

the Hungarian post-office in 1886 was 117,968,- as frigates and 8 as corvettes, 6 torpedo-ves- 

OOO, indusive of post-cards; patterns and sels, 16 coast-guards, 2 river monitors, and 88 

printed inclosures, 17,766,000; newspapers, torpedo-boats. 

47,031,000. The receipts were 10,281,768 flor- Cmuimi Fluuices.— The expenditure for the 

ins, and the expenses 8,648,492 florins. whole monarchy in 1887 was 123,866,414 

Miigrmpks. — Austria had 24,442 miles of line florins, as compared with 119J24,748 florins 

and 64,050 miles of wire in 1886, and Hungary in 1886. The budget estimates for 1888 make 

11,215 miles of line and 41,620 miles of wire, the expenditure for the common ftSairs of the 

There were 2,000 miles of line in Bosnia monarchy 134,480,897 florins, of which 41,- 

and Herzegovina. The number of messages 610,897 florins are covered by the surplus 

transmitted by the Austrian telegraphs in 1886 revenue from customs and 90,149,426 florins 

vas 6,701,899. In Hungary 6,009,696 messages are the contributions from the Austrian and 

were di^atched in 1886. Hungarian treasuries, the remainder being the 

MaftgatJM — The number of vessels entered receipts of the various ministries. The ex- 

tt the port of Trieste in 1886 was 6,971, of penditure of the ministry of Foreign Affairs is 

1,267,946 tons; cleared, 6,982, of 1,264,061 estimated at 8,869,100 florins ; expenditure on 

tons. The number entered at all Austro-Hun- the army, 117,162,860 florins, of which 18,- 

garian ports was 68,681, of 7,706,202 tons; 619,776 florins are for extraordinary purposes; 

the number cleared was 68,602, of 7,697,660 expenditure on the navy, 11,828,224 florins, 

tons. Of the vessels 80 per cent and of the including 2,146,147 florins of extraordinary 

tonnage 87 per cent, were Austrian. The mer- expenditure ; expenses of the Board of Con- 

cantile marine consisted in 1886 of 61 ocean trol, 129,168 florins. 

Reamers, of 69,462 tons, 82 coastmg steamers. For the administration of the occupied prov- 

of 14,491 tons, and 9,226 sailing-vessels of all inces of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1888 the 

kinds, of 228,044 tons. expenditure was estimated at 9,076,218 florins. 

Tit ArBy« — The active army and its reserve and the revenue at 9,147,189 florins. The cost 

tre under the control of the Imperial authori- of the army of occupation is placed at 4,424,- 

ties, whereas the Landwehr and the Landsturm 000 florins. 

that has been recently organized under the law Hie Mpte ADfaUNe. — The defensive alliance 
of 1886 are controlled by the ministry of na- between Austria and Germany was negotiated 
tiooal defense of each monarchy. The legal at Gastein and Vienna after the Berlin Oon- 
period of military service for every able-bod- gress by Prince Bismarck in consequence of 
ied man in the empire, except those who are the unfriendly attitude of Russia. Italy sub- 
exempt on account of family conditions, is sequently Joined the league, and after its re- 
three years with the colors, though the actual newal in February, 1887, on the arrangement 
term is osaally much shorter. The annual re- of details at the interviews between Prince 
<3Tiit is about 94,000 men. After completing Bismarck and Count E&lnoky and Signer 
the period of active service at twenty-three, Crispi at Friedrichsruh in September, the terms 
tbey are liable for service in the reserves till of the original Austro-German treaty of alii- 
the age of thii-ty, and then pass into the Land- ance were for the first time published to the 
w^r for two years, and after that are enrolled world. The new treaty, except in minor par- 
in the Landsturm for ten years longer. ticulars in respect to the military forces to 

The standing army in 1887 numbered 267,- be maintained and the conditions of mobiliza- 
179 men. Its war strength was 806,904. The tion, is oflScially declared to be identical with 
Austrian Landwehr numbered 162,632 men ; the other. The agreement is generally under- 
time Hungarian Honved, 167,869; the Austrian stood to be that if either Austria or Germany, 
Landsturm, 228,876; the Hungarian Land- without being the aggressor, is attacked by 
itarm, 212,246; the gendarmerie, 6,164; mak- Russia, the combined military forces of the 
iB^ the total military strength of the empire two empires will move against that power; if 
1,573,191 men, exclusive of officers, who num- France should attack either Germany or Italy, 
ber 17,867 in time of peace, and 82,786 in war. she would be opposed by both those powers 
The number of horses is 60,862 in peace, and acting in common ; and if France and Russia 
211,462 in war; the number of field-guns, 816 should combine to assail one or more of the 
in peace, and 1,748 in war. allied powers, the entire military and naval 

One full corps was armed with the new re- strength of the league would be called into 

peating rifle by the beginning of 1888, and in immolate action. The original treaty be- 

January the reservists were called out to be tween the two emperors contained three 

(iriUed in its nse. clauses. The first binds each power to assist 

Tke Havy. — The iron-clad navy in 1887 con- the other with its entire military power in case 

m/Ltd of 12 vessels. There were in process of either should be attacked by Rassia, the seo- 

eon^truction the ^^Eronprinz Erzherzog Ru- ond engages each to observe an attitude of 

dolf,^' a barbette turret - ship, 12 inches of benevolent neutrality if its ally should be at- 

armor, and the ^* Stephanie," a barbette belted tacked by a power other than Russia, but to 

ibip of 5,100 tons, with 9- inch plates, and en- co-operate with its foil military strength and 

finea of from 8,000 to 11,000 horse-power, only conclude a peace in common if Russia 



70 AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

should join the attackiog power either hy the Emperor Wilhelm, after having deolined a 
active aggressions or hy military measm*es in- ceremonious interview at Stettin in September. 
Yolving menace. The third clause provides Being brought face to face with the German 
that the treaty should be kept secret, and only Chancellor, he openly charged him with du- 
be communicated to a third power by mutual plicity in encouraging Ferdinand ^s course se- 
agreeraent, and contains an agreement that the cretly while officially condemning it as a con- 
Emperor Alexander should be informed, in travention of the treaty of Berlin. Bismarck 
case the Russian armaments assumed a menac- declared the communication purporting to have 
ing character, that an attack against one come from Prince Reuss to be a forgery, and 
would be considered as directed against both. on inquiry it turned out that the entire oorre- 

The animosity of the Russian press against spondence was fictitious. The conceutration 

the Germans was rekindled by the publication of Russian troops did not immediately cease 

of the part of the treaty that was directed after the exposure of the forged documents, 

against Russia. The Russian Government had but there was soon an abatement of activity, 

been informed of the terms of the alliance first on the part of Russia, and then on the 

some time before. The movement of Russian part of Austria, so that the Government did 

cavalry and other troops toward the German not deem it necessary to call the delegations 

and Austrian frontiers had already begun, and together to ask of them an additional credit 

there was a general expectation that war would The assurance of the Czar that the military 

break out in the spring. The Austrian dele- movements had no aggressive purpose did 

gations voted a large credit, and the canton- more than anything else to quiet the war 

ments of troops on the Galician border- were alarm. Prince Bismarck, in a speech in the 

soon more than equal to the Russian force, ex- Reichstag, on the German army bill, delivered 

cept in cavalry. The fortresses were strength- February 6, spoke of the fears that had arisen 

ened, and 200,000 huts were built to quarter during the past year as having more reference 

the soldiers along the frontier. to Russia than to France, and reviewed the 

The coolness existing in the latter part of situation and the relations between Germany 

1887 between Russia and Germany, and the and Russia. He expressed no fear on account 

menacing concentration of Russian troops on of the massing of Russian troops on the Ger- 

the Polish frontiers, were partly the result of man and Austrian frontiers, which he explained 

an intrigue which was attributed, but not by saying, *^ I conclude that the Russian Cabi- 

actually traced, to Orleanists, who desired to net has arrived at the conviction, which is 

embroil Germany and France, and nearly sue- probably well founded, that in the next Enro- 

ceeded in their purpose. The Czar came into pean crisis that may take piace, the weight 

possession of a letter of the date of Aug. 27, of Russians voice in the diplomatic Areopagus 

1887, bearing the supposed signature of Prince of Europe will be the heavier the further Rus- 

Ferdinand of Bulgaria, addressed to the Count- sia has moved her troops toward the western 

ess of Flanders, and imploring her to induce frontier." 

her brother, the King of Roumania, and the M. Tisza, in answer to an interpellation, said. 
King of the Belgians to use their influence, on January 28, that Russia, in pursuance of a 
the one with the Czar and the other at the plan of military reorganization, had effected a 
Austrian court, on his behalf. He would not, large displacement of troops toward the Aus- 
it is said in the letter, have accepted the Bui- trian frontier, which compelled Austria-Hun- 
garian throne except for the secret encourage- gary to take measures for her protection, 
ment of Germany, and as a proof of this a Aostrla. — The present Austrian Cabinet, which 
document was inclosed under the same cover was first constituted on Aug. 19, 1879, is com- 
which was in the hand- writing of Prince Reuss, posed of the following ministers: Minister of 
the German ambassador at Vienna, but un- the Interior, Count Edward Taafe; Minister 
signed. This conveyed assurances that if the of Public Instruction and Ecclesiastical Affairs, 
Prince should decide to take possession of the Dr. Paul Gautsch von Frankenthum, appoint- 
throne of Bulgaria, Germany was not in the ed Nov. 6, 1886 ; Minister of Finance, Dr. J. 
position at the moment to lend any official aid Duni^iewski ; Minister of Agriculture, Count 
or encouragement, but that, however hostile Julius Falkenhavn ; Minister of Commerce and 
the political acts of the German Government National Economy, Marquis von Bacquehem, 
might appear, the time would come when it appointed July 28, 1886 ; Minister of Landes- 
would reveal its secret sentiments and extend vertheidigung, or National Defense, Major- 
its open support. In a second letter to the General Count S. von Welsersheimb ; Minis- 
Countess of Flanders complaint is made of the ter of Justice, A. Prazak ; without portfolio, 
changed attitude of Germany, but in a third the F. Ziemialkowski. 

Prince is made to say that, subsequent to the The Reichsrath is composed of a House of 
meetings at Friedricharuh with E41noky and Ix)rdg, consisting of hereditary peers, princes 
Crispi, Prince Bismarck had given him renewed of the Church, and life-members, and an Elect- 
assurances. The misunderstanding occasioned ive Chamber, consisting at present of 853 depn- 
by this correspondence was dispelled when the ties, representing towns, chambers of com- 
Czar passed through Berlin in November, 1887, merce and industry, and ru rid districts. The 
and stopped to pay his respects to his uncle, consent of the Reichsrath is necessary for all 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



71 



kw8 relatiDg to military duty, and its co-opera- 
tion in legislation relating to trade and com- 
merce, CDstoms, banking, the post-ofSce, tele- 
graphs and railways; while estimates of revenue 
and expenditnre, tax-bills, loans, the conver- 
son of the debt and its general control, must 
be sobmitted to parliamentary examination. 

lemae and Expendltare. — The accounts of the 
Austrian Treasury are not made public till aft- 
er the lapse of several years. There has been 
for the past four years a large excess of expen- 
<iitore over receipts shown in the annual budg- 
ets. The budget of expenditures was reduced 
from 542,955,540 florins in 1884-^85, to 616,- 
625,771 florins in 1886-'87, but it mounts up 
again in the estimates for the year ending March 
31, 1888, to 537,221,802 florins. The increase 
is mainly in extraordinary expenditure, which 
is 64,580,756 florins, of which, however, 21,- 
830,100 florins extend over two years. The 
ordinary expenditures amount to 472,641,047 
^rins, the principal items being 125,517,831 
iorins for the interest and sinking fund of the 
poblic debt, 97,434,672 florins for financial 
administration, 89,215,805 florins for common 
dfairs, 58,412,692 florius on account of the 
Ministry of Commerce, 19.832,000 florins for 
the administration of the Department of Jus- 
tice, 16,547,104 florins for pensions and grants, 
16,197,491 florins on account of the Ministry 
of the Interior, 1 1,820,898 florins for education, 
11.729.712 florins on account of the Ministry of 
Agriculture, and 10,198,996 for defense. 

The total revenue is estimated at 509,546,- 
5H florins, of which 492,417,438 are derived 
from ordinary sources and 17,129,166 florins 
•re extraordinary revenue. The income from 
<iirect taxes on land, houses, incomes, etc., 
amoants to 99,068,000 florins. The amount 
wsed by indirect taxation is 803,721,814 flor- 
in's, customs producing 43,124,414 florins, ex- 
cise 87,507,400 florins, the salt-tax 20,447,000 
&xins, stamps 18,200,000 florins, the tobacco- 
tix 75,750,000 florins, judicial fees, 83,250,- 
000 florins, the state lottery 21,600,000 florins, 
tod other taxes 3,943,000 florins. The receipts 
from posts and telegraphs are taken as 27,682,- 
270 florins, those from railways as 40,056,317 
florins. Mines yield an income of 6,552,472 
llonna, forests and domains 4,179,560 florins, 
ad state property 2,140,760 florins. 

The total debt, not reckoning 412,000,000 
ii»ins of paper money, amounts to 3,587,885,- 
1-S6 florins. The special debt of Austria amounts 
to 767,184,511 florins, and the general debt of 
the empire to 2,770,700,646 florins, the main 
barden of which falls on Austria, as Hungary 
ptTs only something over 30,000,000 florins, of 
the interest on the general consolidated debt, 
tbe interest charge being 139,636,516 florins. 

■Bpuy. — Ooloman Tisza de Boros-Jend has 
Witn President of the Hungarian Council of 
IGidsters since Nov. 25, 1879. The heads of 
tike departments are as follow : Ministry of 
riuQee, Coleman Tisza ad interim; Ministry 
^tbe Honved or National Defense, Baron G^za 



Fej6rv4ry; Ministry near the Eing^s Person, 
Baron B61a Orezy ; Ministry of the Interior, 
Baron Bela Orezy ad interim ; Ministry of Edu- 
cation and Public Worship, Dr. August Tre- 
fort; Ministry of Justice, Theophile Fabiny, 
appointed May 17, 1886 ; Ministry of Commu- 
nications and Public Works, Gabriel de Baross, 
appointed Dec. 21, 1886; Ministry of Agricult- 
ure, Commerce, and Industry, Count Paul Sc^- 
ch^nyi; Ministry for Croatia and Slavonia, 
Coloman de Bedekovich. 

Tbe Hungarian Parliament consists of the 
House of Magnates and the House of Repre- 
sentatives. The former was reformed in 1886, 
and now comprises 61 ecclesiastical representa- 
tives, 60 life -peers, 16 state dignitaries and 
judges who have seats by virtue of their offices, 
20 archdukes, and 286 hereditary peers. The 
representatives in the lower house are not 
chosen by separate classes and voted for indi- 
rectly, as in Austria, but are elected by the di- 
rect vote of all male citizens over twenty years 
of age who are possessed of a low property 
qualification or belong to the educated class. 

RcYeBM and Eipeiidltare. — The Hungarian 
budgets uniformly present a deficit, and in 
some years the expenditures very largely ex- 
ceed the revenue. The receipts of the treasury 
for 1888 are estimated at 826,641,987 fiorins, 
the ordinary receipts being 819,899,999 fiorins, 
and the transitory revenue 6,741,988 fiorins. 
About one fourth of the revenue is derived 
from direct taxes on land, buildings, and in- 
comes, and one fourth from excise and customs 
duties and monopolies. 

The total expenditure for 1888 is estimated 
at 845,037,108 florins, of which 321,072,608 
fiorins constitute the ordinary expenditures of 
the Government, 2,267,426 fiorins are transi- 
tory expenditures, 13,771,079 fiorins are in- 
vestments, and 7,925,996 fiorins are extraordi- 
nary common expenditures. The ordinary ex- 
penditures under the chief heads are as follow : 
National debt, 115,599,408 fiorins; Ministry of 
Finance, 56,594,439 florins; state raiways, 26,- 
463,880 fiorins ; quota of ordinary common ex- 
penditures, 21,770,061 fiorins; Ministry of Com- 
munications and Public Works, 14,249,038 fior- 
ins ; Ministry of Justice, 11,972,024 fiorins; 
debts of guaranteed railroads taken over by the 
state, 11,724,285 fiorins; Ministry of the Inte- 
rior, 11,440,926 fiorins; Ministry of Agricult- 
ure, Industry, and Commerce, 10,897,828 fior- 
ins; Ministry of National Defense, 8,484,647 
fiorins ; Ministry of Instruction and Worship, 
6,591,340 florins; administrntion of Croatia, 
6,054,134 florins; pensions, 6,314,701 fiorins. 

The annual deficits since 1867 have accumu- 
lated into a debt that is nearly double tbe 
special debt of Austria. It amounted in 1886 
to 1,842,380,381 fiorins, while Hungary's share 
of the common debt was 248,000,000 fiorins 
more, the total charge absorbing 37 per cent, 
of the revenue. The excessive expenditures 
have been caused by the construction of rail- 
roads faster than the traflSc warranted. 



T2 BALANCE OF POWER. 



B 

BALANCE OF POWER* In the modem Enro- their respective delegates, while France, Swe- 

pean acceptation of the term, the halance of den, Venice, and the Pope were represented 

power is a matual anderstanding among sover- as mediators hy embassadors. The negotiations 

eign states that no one state may interfere extended over a period of five years, for it was 

with the independence of any other state. In not until October, 1648, that the treaty was 

this may perhaps be found the germ of that signed. It is remarkable that such apparently 

congress of nations to which many thoughtful hopeless differences could be reconciled at all, 

minds look forward as the ultimate arbiter but the Treaty of Westphalia proved to be for 

that shall render possible the disarmament of Europe almost what Magna Cbarta was to 

Europe. Neither the phrase itself nor the England. It was in effect the first ofiScial rec- 

idea from which it springs, is of recent ori- ognition of interdependent rights among rival 

gin. The small states of ancient Greece com- European interests. In other words, it inan- 

bined first against the threatening domination gurated a balance of power. France and Swe- 

of Athens and afterward against that of Sparta, den were appointed mediators, with the right 

More recently Europe, with show of systematic of intervention in case of need to uphold the 

organization, combined to resist the aggressions provisions of the treaty, and the hostile relig- 

of Spain, then against France, and still more ious sects within the borders of Grermany 

recently against Russia. Most of the wars were guaranteed independence, while they 

resulting from these combinations have proba- were bound over to keep the peace. To Car- 

bly tended to the establishment of international dinal Mazarin was due the main feature of this 

law and to the advancement of human liberty, compact, and although the unity and autono- 

Upon the whole, while the balance of power my of Germany were injuriously curtailed, and 

has perpetuated in Europe some of the relics French aggression was proportionately encour- 

of medicBval barbarism, it has tended to pre- aged, the treaty was substantially recognized 

serve a c>ertain international equilibrium, which and enforced down to the time of the French 

has probably prevented many wars, and has Revolution. 

certainly preserved the autonomy of many of Nevertheless, peace was not secured to 

the lesser powers. Europe by the treaty. The ambitions of Louis 

Conspicuous among the advocates of the XIV led to minor wars of conquest, and finally 

balance of power is the Ohevalier Friedrich to a disastrous attempt at the forcible annexa- 

Yon Gentz (1764-1882). As head secretary tion of Spain, with a view to uniting the two 

at the Oongress of Vienna and at the Conference kingdoms under Bourbon rule. The crisis bad 

of Ministers at Paris in 1816, he had abundant been foreseen, and an attempt was made to 

opportunities to study the opiniims of leading preserve the balance of power hy an equable 

European diplomatists. In 1806, while Europe partition of the Spanish dominions. Such an 

was well-nigh subjugated by Napoleon, he arrangement was not at all to the taste of the 

published *^ Fragments upon the Balance of aggressive Louis XIV, who, as has indeed been 

Power in Europe.'^ He defines the term as the case with almost all monarchs in alKtime, 

'* a constitution subsisting between neighboring did not hesitate to break through such a flimsy 

states more or less connected with one another, barrier as a mere parchment treaty. His at- 

by virtue of which no one among them can tempt to place his grandson upon the Spanish 

injure the independence or essential rights of throne revived the question of the balance ol 

another, without meeting with effectual resist- power. It was evident that the union oi 

ance on some side, and consequently exposing France and Spain would be fatal to the exist- 

itself to danger .'' His fundamental proposi- ing schemes of dependence and independence, 

tions are: 1. No state must ever become so Among the disastrous consequences antici- 

powerful as to coerce all the rest ; 2. Every pated was the restoration of the Stuarts in 

state that infringes the conditions is liable to England and the inevitable ascendency of the 

to be coerced by the others ; 3. The fear of Catholics all over Europe. England, Austria, 

coercion shoold keep all within the bounds of and Holland, therefore, the three great Prot- 

moderation; 4. A state that attains a degree estant powers of the period, with others of the 

of power adequate to defy the union should be lesser states, formed a coalition against Louis, 

treated as a common enemy. and the war continued until 1715, when un- 

Ferdinand III, Emperor of Germany is be- dertheTreatyof Utrecht the relations of all the 

lieved to have conceived the idea of a European European states were carefully readjusted, 

Congress in 1640, with a view to terminating Philip V retaining the Spanish crown, and 

the Thirty Years' War and reconciling the every precaution being taken to prevent a 

hostile interests of church and state. After possible union of France and Spain under 

protracted negotiations the Congress of Mtln- one sovereign, since such a union would at 

ster or Westphalia assembled (July, 1648), the once destroy the equilibrium. Although these 

Catholics and Protestants being represented by elaborate provisions failed effectually to dis- 



BALANCE OF POWER. 73 

iociate the two branches of the hoase of Bonr- served in the main for the better part of half 
bon, and although the Treaty of Utrecht was a century. They survived the revolution of 
obDozious to England, the peace of Europe 1848, and though modified in some quarters, 
was secured for thirty years. and even abrogated in others, they may be said 
Until about the beginning of the nineteenth to have survived in many of their main feat- 
century, Russia was substantially ignored by ures until the great German wars of 1866 and 
the European family of states. France, Spain, 1870. ^ 

Sweden, Austria, and Holland, with occasional At Vienna, in 1815, the first international 
iotervention on the part of Great Britain, had constitution was framed, defining the bound- 
preserved such an equilibrium as seemed good aries of European states, all the contract- 
to them, and none of the smaller states had ing parties agreeing thereto, guaranteeing the 
been arbitrarily absorbed by their more power- independence of the small principalities and 
fol neighbors. During these years, Peter and free cities, as well as incorporating in its pro- 
Catherine of Bussia had developed the re- visions the Constitution of the German Confed- 
fioorces of their empire, and Frederick II had eration. Every state in Europe had the right 
nised Prussia from a subordinate to an inde- to appeal to the rest in case of infringement, 
pendent place. Conquests of the great mari- and it seemed, for a time, as though the foun- 
time powers had extended colonization to Asia dations had been laid for permanent peace. In 
and India. The United States of America had the course of time several appeals were made 
secured independence, and Poland had been to the high contracting parties, and many in- 
forciblj partitioned by Russia, Austria, and temational disagreements were averted by the 
Prussia. The partition of Poland (1772) was wise measures adopted in conferences con- 
bat the first of a series of events that oul- vened under the provisions of the treaty, 
minated in the French Revolution. It was the Thus was inaugurated the nearest approach to 
first deliberate and gross violation of the sys- an actual balance of power, and during the 
tem of treaties based upon that of Westphalia, long period of general peace that followed, 
and with the French Revolution all pretense of the European world certainly made rapid prog- 
preserving the balance of power on its old ress in the direction of universal amity, 
lines was abandoned. Small states were over- But with advancing years, complications 
powered and annexed, and Europe saw her an- were developed ; there were wheels within 
dent boundaries shifted to meet the new con- wheels. Such compacts can only be main- 
^tiona. tained while all parties are measurably satis- 
To thonghtful observers, like the Chevalier fied with the working of the system, and the 
Gentz, and to the leading statesmen of the northern powers formed what was known as a 
period, including those of Great Britain, the Holy Alliance among themselves, otherwise an 
temporary nature of then existing conditions alliance oflfensive and defensive, unifying their , 
seemed evident. The meteoric career of Na- interests and binding themselves to act to- 
poleon, even when he might almost have writ- gether in all emergencies. It was held, and 
lea himself tbe ruler of Europe, did not mis- not without reason, that under the Treaty of 
lead these master-minds. They steadily held Vienna, the allied powers could interfere arbi- 
tbit lasting peace could be regained only trarily in the internal afiairs of states, on the 
through the restoration of nation^ rights, and ground that the peace of Europe was endan- 
tbat this coald only be effected by combining gered thereby. Conferences were held at Aix- 
agiinst the common enemy. After many dis- la-Chapelle (1818), Carlsbad (1819), and 
eoaraging failures, a coalition was at last Troppeau (1820), and restrictive measures 
formed, resulting in the overthrow of Na- were adopted, which were obnoxious to some 
pokon. of the treaty powers. At Verona, in 1822, the 
The Congress of Vienna met in November, Duke of Wellington, as the representative of 
1814, and remained in session until June, 1815. Great Britain, declared that his Government 
Here, for the first time, the most powerful and could no longer countenance the actions of an 
dl^inguished of living sovereigns and states- alliance that interfered so intimately with the 
Ben met, prepared to make mutual conces- internal affairs of individual states. England 
BOOS, with a view to a lasting peace. Even preferred isolation to any such tyrannical com- 
Franee, whose ambition had plunged Europe bination. Thus was inaugurated the princi- 
into prolonged war, was admitted an equal to pie of non-intervention, on the strength of 
tbe eooneil, M. Talleyrand representing her which England, in 1852, declined to act with 
^ereeta. In the then existing condition of Prussia in preventing the Napoleonic restora- 
Isrripean affairs, certain relics of medisBval- tion in France. On the same ground, England 
SBisarvived, and certain provisions that after- joined France in protesting against the inva- 
vtrd proved insupportable were embodied in sion of Schleswig, and opposed alone the an- 
tbe tr^ay. nexation to France of Savoy and Nice. The 
The fact that all the contracting parties traditions of Vienna were thus gradually ig- 
vere more or less dissatisfied with the results nored, and had become practically a dead let- 
flf its liberations, goes far to show that self- ter when, in 1863, Napoleon III proposed a 
lb interests were in general overruled. In new congress for the readjustment of the bal- 
^t of fact, the treaties then signed were oh- ance of power. The proposition was rejected. 



74 BAPTISTS. 

largely through the refusal of £ngland to par- tisms; in Africa, 3 associations, 88 churcbi 

ticipate. 85 ministers, 3,247 members, and 142 ba 

In spite of the still subsisting guarantees of tisms; in Australia, 6 associations, 175 churchc 

the powers, Denmark was compelled to sur- 181 ministers, and 15,189 members; total f 

render ber choicest provinces in the Schleswig- tbe world, 1,402 associations, 37,354 chorche 

Holstein campaign — a federal execution, as it 24,451 ministers, 8,506,719 members, and 17^ 

was called, by the German powers, and in 307 baptisms. 

1866 Austria was driven from the confedera- Of the Baptist educational institutions in tl 

tion in a startlingly energetic incursion by the United States, seven theological institutioi 

Prussians. This was the first war of any mag- return 48 instructors and 579 pupils; 30 ue 

nitude undertaken in defiance of possible inter- versities and colleges, 255 instructors and 4,0] 

ference under the compact of Vienna, and tbe pupils, of whom 687 were preparing for tl 

humiliation of France followed as a natural ministry ; 30 seminaries for the education • 

consequence four years later. Taking ad van- young women exclusively, 276 instructors ai 

tage of the crisis in Western £urope, Russia 3,597 pupils ; 42 seminaries and academies f* 

abrogated the pledges made at the end of the young men and for pupils of both sexes, 21 

Crimean war, and thus passed away almost the instructors and 4,125 pupils, of whom 2j 

last vestige of the Treaty of Vienna. were preparing for the ministry ; and 19 inst 

At the present time no open alliances can be tutions for the colored race and Indians, II 

said to exist among any of the European na- instructors and 5,408 pupils, 342 of whom we 

tions. The balance of power, as it was under- preparing for the ministry. The total value < 

stood in 1815 and the following years, has dis- the grounds and buildings of these 128 insi 

appeared, though its influence is no doubt still tutions was $9.118,096 ; and the amount < 

indirectly felt. The autonomy of Switzerland their endowments, so far as was reported, w^ 

and Belgium would probably be defended by a $8,763,385. Twelve Baptist homes, minister 

general alliance, should it be seriously threat- homes, and orphanages, with a total valuatio 

ened, but the main idea of all the great powers of $558,000 of property, had the care of 6S 

at present is to make an efiScient soldier of inmates. Four of them possessed endownaen 

every able-bodied man. To all appearance, to the amount of $92,792. 

the military power of the German Empire far I. AnerlcaM Baptist Societies. — The statistics < 

exceeds that of any other single state, a con- the women's Baptist societies for 1887 wei 

dition of afiairs wholly at variance with the &s follow : Woman's Baptist Foreign Missio 

principles laid down at Vienna, but against Society (Boston); receipts, $64,668. The » 

which no power on earth is at present entitled ciety sustained 29 missionaries and 102 school 

to remonstrate. in which 3,428 pupils were enrolled ; Woman 

That a third step toward permanent peace Baptist Foreign Missionary Society of the Wet 

and possible disarmament will ere long be (Chicago) ; receipts, $32,114; missionaries 8U| 

taken, may probably be counted upon with ported, 24; Women's Baptist Home Missio 

some degree of confidence, and if the lessons Society (Chicago); receipts $35,691; missioi 

taught by Westphalia and Vienna are per- aries (in the United States and Mexico), ic 

mitted to have their due efifect, the third gen- eluding Bible women and helpers, 71. Tfa 

eral congress may effect still more lasting and society sustains a training-school at Ghicag< 

beneficial results. from which 11 pupils had been graduated 

BAPTISTS. The ** American Baptist Year- Woman's American Baptist Home Mission S< 

Book " for 1888 gives statistics of the Baptist ciety (Boston) ; receipts, $23,573. It support 

churches in the United States, of which the teachers at schools m the United States, It 

following is a summary : Number of associa- dian Territory, Mexico, and Alaska. 

tions, 1,281 ; of ordained ministers, 20,477 ; of The tenth annual meeting of the Woman 

churches, 31,891 ; of members, 2,917,315 ; of American Baptist Home Missionary Society 

Sunday-schools, 15,447, with 116,453 oflScers the object of which is the education of wome 

and teachers, and 1,126,405 pupils; number of and children among the freedpeople, Indiani 

additions by baptism during the year, 158,373. and immigrants, was held in Worcester, Mas& 

Amount of contributions : for salaries and in May. The receipts had been $30,805, an* 

expenses, $5,849,756; for missions, $905,673; the expenditures $26,935. 

for miscellaneous purposes, $1,961,332. Value PnWcatloM Sodety. — The sixty-fourth annnt 

of church property, $48,568,686. In all North meeting of tbe American Baptist Publicatioi 

America, including the United States, Canada, Society was held in Washington, D. C, Ma; 

Mexico, the West Indies, etc., are returned 18. The Hon. Samuel Crozer presided. Th 

1,305 associations, 32,861 churches, 21,071 min- total receipts of the society for the year in aJ 

isters, 3,031,845 members, and 165,835 bap- of its departments had been $582,491. A re 

tisms; in South America (Brazil), 6 churches, served fund for the purchase of machiner 

14 ministers, 175 members, and 30 baptisms; and enlargement of business had been setasid* 

in Europe, 80 associations, 3,506 churches, from the profits of the book department dur 

2,592 ministers, 387,645 members, and 6,013 ing previous years, which now amounted t4 

baptisms; in Asia, 8 associations, 718 churches, $87,463. The cash receipts in the book de 

558 ministers, 68,618 members, and 3,287 bap- partment had been $449,882, and the entir< 



I 



BAPTISTS. 76 

basness done bj it^ including sales on credit, three churches had paid off their loans ; 282 
amouDted to $502,702. One hundred and loans were outstanding ; and the whole number 
twelTe new pnblications had been added to the of churches aided by gifts and loans had been 
list, and 29,307,797 copies of all publications — 981. The amount of the loan fund was $120,- 
bookss pamphlets, tracts, and periodicals, new 565 ; and the receipts for the Benevolent Fund 
aodold — bad been printed; of these, 28,115,225 had been $45,805. The schools included 12 
vere ^' graded helps '' and papers for Sunday- incorporated and 6 unincorporated institu- 
xhoola. The receipts in the missionary de- tions, in which 187 teachers had been en- 
partment, including the balance on hand at the gaged and 8,741 pupils enrolled ; 17 colored 
beginning of the year, had been $105,190. schools returned 116 teachers, 14 of whom 
Eighty-seven missionaries had been employed were colored, with 2,995 pupils, 818 of whom 
ID the United States, two in Germany and were studying for the ministry, 980 preparing 
Svedea, and five special missionaries — native for teachers, and 86 medical students. Indus- 
Annenians — in the Turkish empire. These trial education had been systematically im- 
retumed 42 churches constituted, 299 Sunday- parted at 8 institutions, and more or less at- 
«bools organized, and 984 persons baptized, tention given to it at the others. The three 
The receipts for Bible work had been $29,489, schools for the Indians in the Indian Territory 
vbile $21,482 had been expended for the pur- returned 282 pupils. The Indian University, 
chase of Scriptures and for appropriations of near Muscogee, had 86 students enrolled. The 
Seriptur^ for the Missionary Union and the third school, a new one for the society, was 
Soatbem Baptist Convention. at Sa-sak-wa, in the Seminole nation. Six 
Hhw Mlstoa Stdcly. — The fifty-sixth annual schools, with an aggregate enrollment of 250 
BMeting of the American Baptist Home Mis- pupils, were conducted in Mexico, 
son Society was held in Washington, D. C, MIsBioiiary Union* — The seventy-fourth annu- 
Maj 16. The Hon. C. W. Eingsley presided, al meeting of the American Baptist Missionary 
The total receipts during tbe year had been Union was held in Washington, D. C, beginning 
{351,596. Among the matters of special note May 21. The Hon. George A. Pillsbury, of 
which bad marked the yearns history of the Minnesota, presided. The receipts of the year, 
society were mentioned in the report, tbe from all sources and for all purposes, had been 
(ompletion and occupancy of the mission bead- ^ $411,885; the appropriations for current ex- 
quarters in the city of Mexico and the enlarge- penses had been $890,586 ; and $20,550 had 
ment of the work in that republic ; the com- been added to annuity funds and permanent 
]>ktion of a subscription of $15,000 for Chinese accounts. A committee which had been ap- 
miaaon headquarters in San Francisco, and the pointed at the previous annual meeting to con- 
pQrchase of a site on which a building is being sider and report upon the advisability of ac- 
ereeted ; the securing of a larger amount than cepting from the Publication Society the Bap- 
isoal for church-edifice work ; the appoint- tist missionary work which had been begun in 
mot of an additional superintendent of mis- Turkey reported a unanimous agreement of its 
sons for a new Western district, and of a dis- members that it could not recommend accept- 
trirt secretary for the Southern States ; the be- ance. " The claims of other fields, in still more 
mams of mission work among the Poles and pressing need, and brighter still in promise, '' 
Bohemians in the United States; and the adop- it represented, ^^are more, far more, than 
tioD of a new school for Indians in the Indian enough to employ the utmost resources at the 
Territory. Missionary operations had been command of the Missionary Union." A com- 
^jfiducted in 45 States and Territories, and in munication was ordered made to the officers 
Oatario, Manitoba, British Columbia, Alaska, of the Congo Free State expressing the con- 
ad three Mexican states. The whole number viction of the members of the Union that the 
«f lalKirers employed had been 748. French welfare and spiritual prospects, and even the 
n»ooaries had labored in 6 States; Scandi- continued existence, of the native population 
Barian in 16 States and Territories; and of that state require immediate suppression of 
German in 18 States and Territories, On- the traffic in intoxicating liquors within its 
^0, and Manitoba; 161 persons had labored borders; and a request to be addressed to the 
saoR|r the foreign population, and 217 mis- Government of the United States to use its in- 
vcaari^ and teachers among the colored peo- fluence to secure the same result in the Congo 
pk Indians, and Mexicans; 1,594 churches Free State, other parts of Africa, and the West 
ad oat-stations, returning 30,974 members. Pacific islands. A recommendation was made 
^ been supplied; 2,886 members had been that a fund of $100,000, to be called the '* Jud- 
TWQTed by baptism; 187 churches had been son Centenary Fund," be raised by individual 
^Tpnized; and 784 Sunday-schools, returning subscriptions of not less than $1,000 each, to 
^* 410 attendants, had been under care. In be expended in sustaining the foreign missions. 
^ ehorch - edifice department, 88 churches From the missions to the heathen — the Burmese, 
W been aided by gifts or loans, or both ; the Karen, Shan, Kachin, Chin, Assamese, Garo, 
^^tfxte amount of gifts being $82,787, and Naga, Telugu, Chinese, Japan, and Congo mis- 
--^ ■ «* loans, $20,510. With the aid of these sums, sions — were returned 67 stations, 881 out-sta- 
l«^>«rty valued at about $200,000,000 had tions, 262 missionaries, 826 native preachers, 
^ secured to the denomination. Thirty- 98 Bible- women, and 257 other native helpers 



76 BAPTISTS. 

— in all 1,443 missionary laborers, 642 cbarch- ganized, 1,100 persons had been baptized, l*i 

es with 61,062 members, 252 Sunday-schools missionaries were employed, 9 native preachen 

with 7,311 pupils, 764 schools with 702 native had been engaged, 6 churches and 19 stationi 

teachers and 17,604 pupils, and 662 churches had been supplied, Sunday- and day-schoolf 

and chapels. The totsJ of contributions for had been established, and $4,640 had been 

churches, schools, and general purposes, was contributed by the people in one year. The 

$44,588 ; value of missionary property, $19,862. Foreign Mission Board had been incorporated. 

From the European missions — in Sweden, Ger- It returned an income of $86,385, and had 

many, Russia, Denmark, France, and Spain — expended $82,776. Its missions were in Mexi- 

were returned 161 ordained and 307 unordained co, Brazil, Italy, West Africa, and northern, 

preachers, 654 churches, and 66,146 members, central, and southern China. The women^f 

The whole number of baptisms during the missionary societies had contributed $18,00C 

year was 10,602 — 6.632 in the European, and in aid of the work. The various committee 

6,070 in the heathen missions. In the special reports on missionary work urged enlargement 

work of translation, revision, and printing of of foreign mission enterprises, enforced the im- 

Scriptures, the revision of the Shan New Tes- portance of labors among the colored peopk 

tament had been completed, and a new edition of the South, and commended the work amon^ 

partly stereotyped, while the Old Testament the Germans, Chinese, and other foreigners ii 

was ready for printing. The Sgau Karen Old the United States, and especially that in Cuba 

Testament was under final revision and prepara- A collection of $3,600 was taken for sendm| 

lion. A new and revised edition of the Bur- additional missionaries to Mexico. The twc 

man Bible was going through the press. The boards were instructed to appoint a committee 

translation of the Old Testament into Assamese to confer with a committee representing the 

was nearly done, and the New Testament was Northern Baptist societies, " not with a view 

under revision. Translations of the New Tes- to organic union,^' but to consider what can be 

tament into the Lhota Naga and Angami Naga done to adjust their several fields and agencies, 

dialects had been be^un. Several missionaries so as not to have conflict of agencies. The in- 

were engaged in translating the New Testa- vested funds of the Theological Seminary were 

ment into different languages of the Congo, shown to amount to $316,000, and the real es- 

The Rev. R. H. Ferguson had been commis- ,tate to $200,000. The classes included 157 stu- 

sioned to reduce the Kachin language to writ- dents. 

ing, with a view to the translation of the Bible Cienun Baptists. — The German Baptists of the 
into it. The missions in Russia are among United States are organized into five confer- 
nominally Lutheran populations of Germanic ences — the Eastern, Central, Northwestern, 
origin — as the Letts and Esthonians — the Southwestern, and Texas Conferences. These 
churches among whom were gathered mostly by conferences returned in 1887, 13,187 members, 
agents of the German Committee of the Union. 930 baptisms, and $127,742 of contributions foi 

SMtheni Baptist CoMfeitioi* — The Southern missionary and other purposes. 

Baptist Convention met at Richmond, Va., Cetored Baptists* — The Colored Baptists of the 

May 11, 746 delegates being present. The United States are organized in three societies, 

convention is composed of delegates — laymen The Baptist African Missionary Convention ol 

and ministers — from each Southern State. It the Western States and Territories (formerly 

is purely a missionary body, having no eccle- the Baptist General Association of the Western 

siastical jurisdiction or control of the churches. States and Territories), formed in 1873, is in- 

and does its work through the Foreign Mis- terested in mission work in Africa, where i< 

sion Board, which has its ofSce at Rich- has a mission at Mukimvika, on the Congo, 

mond, and the Home Mission Board, having The fourteenth annual meeting, held in 1887. 

offices at Atlanta, Ga. The former president was attended by representatives of churchet 

of the convention, the Rev. P. H. Mell, D. D., and associations from Illinois, Iowa, Kansas. 

Chancellor of the University of Georgia, who Missouri, Nebraska, and Indiana. The society 

had presided over the meetings for fifteen years co-operates with the American Baptist Mi^ 

in succession, had died during the year. The sionary Union. 

Rev. James P. Boyce, D. D., President of the The Baptist Foreign Missionary Conventioc 

Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, was of the United States, organized in 1880, at iu 

chosen president. The Home Mission Board meeting in 1887 returned its receipts at $4,069 

had received during the year $48,023, while and its expenditures at $4,018. Ten Statei 

$41,154 had been raised for the same purposes were represented in the roll of its membera 

by co-operative bodies (State and local boards). It has a mission among the Vey tribe on the 

It had employed 287 missionaries, occupied borders of Liberia. 

1,114 churches and stations, and returned 4,857 The American National Baptist Conventioi 

persons baptized, 431 Sunday-schools organized, was formed in 1886. The corresponding sec 

with 17,240 teachers and pupils, 306 churches retary. Rev. Richard de Baptiste, who hac 

constituted, and 64 houses of worship built at spent two years in gathering the general sta- 

a cost of $54,068. The board had sustained a tistics of the colored Baptists, reported ic 

mission in Cuba, in which, in a little more 1887 that 26 institutions of learning were pro- 

than two years since the first church was or- vided for them, with which were connectec 



BAPnSTa 77 

152 teacherss and 3,<M)9 pupib; that there were article) ; Free Christiaii Baptists of New 

19.375 Toiamee in the fibraries of 17 of these Brunswick, 10,777 ; Free Baptists of Nova 

ostitotioius and that the total ralae of 23 of Scotia, 8,415 ; making, with the members of 

the insdtotions was $1,072,140. The religions the Free- Will Baptist Church, 171,022 of simi- 

ftttistics of these people were as follow : num- lar faith. 

ber of district assodatioiis, 300; of chnrches, The educational institations of the Free- 

10,068: of OTdained ministerss 6,605 ; of mem- Will Baptist Church include Hillsdale (Mich.), 

bers, 1,155.486; of Snndaj-schoola, 8,804; Bates (Lewiston, Maine), Rio Grande (Gallia 

vith 10,718 officers and teachers, and 194,492 County, Ohio), Storer (Harper's Ferrv. W. Va.); 

papils; namber of baptisms last reported, 48,- Ridgeville (Ind.), and West Virginia (Fleming- 

il2; Talae of contributions — for salaries and ton, Taylor County) colleges, ana six preparato- 

expenses, $330,445 ; for missions, $23,253 ; for ry seminaries. The reports of the benevolent 

«docation and other objects, $47,900. Forty societies are for 1887. The receiots of the 

jcKDnals are edited and controUed by Colored Education Society were $3,600 ; and the total 

BtpdstB. amount of its three invested funds was $9,908. 

The meetings of all of these societies for The receipts of the Home Mission Society were 

1^ were held in succession at NashviUe, $8,108; its permanent fund amounted to $11,- 

Tenn., beginning on the 18th of September. 125. The sum of $5,667 had been raised and 

They were foDowed by a special meeting of expended for home missionary work by five 

the American Baptist Home Mission Society yearly meetings and the Central Association. 

to consider its work among the colored peo- The society sustained missions at Cairo, ID., 

^ At a united session of the African Mis- Lincoln, Neb., Oakland, Cal., Worcester, Mass., 

ionary Convention of the Western States Harper^s Ferry, W. Va. (with Storer College), 

ffid Territories and the Foreign Mission- and in the Western States. The church at 

uj (Convention, a plan was reported for the Hampton, Va., had become self-supporting. 

sniSeation of the foreign missionary work The receipts of the Foreign Mi^ionary Society 

of the two bodies, and for co-operation with were $15,244 ; the amount of its Permanent 

the Missionary Union. It provided for the fund was $10,103; of its Bible-school fund, $18,- 

f^^madoo of a new society, to be known as 360 ; and of the Bible-school hall fund, $6«3. 

the American Baptist Foreign Mission Conven- Its missions, which are in Bengal and Orissa, 

^ into which the existing foreign mission- India, returned 24 missionaries; 578 commu- 

ttj societies shonld be merged; and for co- nicanta, with 37 additions by baptism; 2,672 

ofteration with the Missionary Union on a plan Sunday-school pupils ; and a native Christian 

«hieh should allow the independence of each community of 1,229 persons. In the day and 

Mdety while securing mntual consultation other schools were 3,628 pupils, of whom 407 

lad assistance. The plan received favorable were classed as ^^ Christian,*' 1,481 as ^^ Hindu,** 

eoQsideratioa, and was referred to the Execu- 118 as ^^ Mohammedan," and 1,622 as ^^San- 

tive Board of the societies and churches for tal." 

fiseuadon during the year. At the meetings III. Hie Brethrea, ar Taakers. — The annual 
^^ ^ the National Convention and the Home meeting of the Brethren, or Tnnkers, was held 
Mi»on Society, papers and addresses were in North Manchester, Ind., in May. The con- 
presented respecting the common objects in vention declared against the wearing of mus- 
vhich the two bodies were interested. A res- taches and the trimming of hair by barbers; 
ebtion was adopted by the former body pledg- cautioned members in respect to taking oaths ; 
iof co-operation with the American Baptist and warned members living in Western States 
Home Mission Society in its work for the col- against writing flattering reports concerning 
ored people. their crops and financial success unless they 
IL Fr»-WUI Baptist Chnreh, — The statistics of were sustained by facts. It also reaffirmed its 
tliia church, as tabulated in the " Free- Will previous declarations agamst the use of tobac- 
Baptist Register and Year -Book" for 1888, co; decided that applicants for membership 
1^§ P»e the footings: Number of yearly meetings, should promise to refrain from the habit; and 
^; of quarterly meetings, 183; of churches, directed that ministers who chew or smoke 
1,531; of ordained ministers, 1,314; of li- should not be allowed to assist in church ad- 
eenaed preachers, 167; of members, 82,686. judications. An arrangement was made for 
The latest general statistics of other liberal giving help to poor congregations in Denmark 
Baptist bodies, similar in faith and practice to and Sweden. 

tbe Free- Will Baptists, are those given in the IV. Chareh of Gad.— The distinctive doctrines 

'^Liberal Baptist Year-Book" for 1884, and of the Church of God, as given in brief in its 

ire summarized as follows: Original Free- Will " Year-Book " for 1888, are: 

Bdpti<?ta of North Carolina, 8,232 ; other Free- That tbe believers in any ^iven locality, according 

Will Baptist Associations in the United States to the divine order, are to constitute one body ; that 

'besides those affiliated with the Free-Will the divinion of believers into sects and parties, under 

BaDtlit Chor^h'i 4. Q.5ft • ^Anf^rAl Kflnti«itq 1.S - human names and creeds, is contrary to tlic spirit and 

^IM ^..liarcn; 4,yD«, general mptists, Irf,- ,^^^^^^j. ^^e ^ew Testivment Scriptun^s, and consti- 

So: i^eparate Baptists, 6,829; United Bap- tu^es the most powerful barrier to the success of 

t««. 1,400 ; Church of God, 40,000 (see Christianity. 

^ ''Cbarch of Godwin another part of this Thatthebelieversof any given community, organ- 






- i 



ki 



78 



BAPTISTS. 



ized into odo body, constitute God's household or 




That the Scriptures, without note or comment, con- 
stitute a sufficient rule of faith and practice; that 
creeds and confessions of faith tend to divisions and 
sects among believers. 

That there are three ordinances of a representative 
chaiacter, equally bindinjj upon all believers, name- 
ly : immersion in water in the name of the Father, 
tne Son, and the Holy Ghost ; the washing of the 
saints' feet (see Christ's example, precept, and prom- 
ise) ; and the eating of bread and drinking of wine in 
commemoration of the sufferings and deatn of J^us. 

The " Year-Book " gives the statistics of 
sixteen annual elderships, as follow: 



ELDEBSIUPS. 



East Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

West Pennsylvania 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Illinois 

Michigan 

German 

Southern Indiana 

Texas, Arkansas, and Indian Ter- 
ritory 

Kansas 

Maryland and Virginia 

Nebraska 

Maine 

West Virginia 

Missouri 



Total 



When or- 


No. of 


ganiiad. 


miniatcn. 


1880 


77 


1886 


66 


1844 


86 


1846 


82 


1848 


28 


1858 


40 


1850 


22 


1864 


fi 


1857 


16 


1857 


27 


1871 


27 


1872 


17 


1875 


20 


1878 


20 


18S4 


20 


1871 


12 




450 



No. of 
mMnb6ra« 

6,778 
4,000 
2,000 
1,200 
1,000 
1,600 
400 
200 
1,900 

♦900 
700 
980 
500 
1,100 
1,000 
425 

28,688 



♦ IncladlDg 424 Indians. 

The total number of members, including 
6,000 scattered, is estimated to be not less than 
29,683. 8. M. Smucker, LL. D., estimates it 
at 80,000 

The educational iustitutioDs are Findlay Col- 
lege, Fiudlay, Ohio, incorporated in 1882, 
opened for students in 1886, and now return- 
ing a faculty of 13 members and upward of 
170 students; and Barkleyville Academy, 
Barkleyville, Venango County, Pa., chartered 
in 1884, having property valued at $6,000, and 
returning an average attendance of about fifty 
pupils. The penodicals of the church include 
a weekly general religious newspaper and 
two Sunday school journals. The Central Book 
Store was established in 1885, and balanced 
its accounts on the 30th of April, 1887, at $20,- 
657. The General Missionary Society was 
organized in 1845, and has conducted success- 
ful missions in different parts of the United 
States. The missions among the Cherokee 
Indians in the Indian Territory return 424 
members, 9 organized churches, 4 Sunday- 
schools, 10 preachers, 12 preaching appoint- 
ments, and 2 meeting-houses, with a third in 
building. The subject of establishing a foreign 
mission has been considered by the General 
Eldership, but nothing definite has yet been 
accomplished in tlie matter. A fund has been 
accumulated by voluntary contributions from 
the Annual Elderships, of more than $(')00. 

The general and highest legislative and judi- 
catory body of the Church is the General El- 



dership, wliich meets every three yeai 
next meeting will be held at North Ben 
in June, 1890. 

Baptist C*3gre8Bi — The seventh annnal 
Congress was held in Richmond, Y 

4, 6, and 6. The Hon. J. L. M. Gui 
sided. The purpose of the meeting wi 
sively the discussion of the questions la 
in the programme, with entire freedot 
expression of opinion. The first topi 
considered was ''Education." respectin 
papers were read on " How far si 
State Educate ? " by Prof. B. Puryear, 
mon w. Parochial Schools," by the 

5. Moxom and by the Rev. Walter Ri 
busch; and the discussion was contii 
the Rev. Norman Fox, D. D., Prof. W. 
kinson, and Prof. E. H. Johnson. The 
of '^ Temperance " was discussed in pi 
"High License," by the Rev. Waylan< 

D. D., and "Prohibition," by the Re^ 
Delano, who was supported by other s] 
Other topics discussed were " A Natic 
vorce Law," by the Hon. A. S. Bacon 
Rev. Norman Fox, D. D. ; "The Limit 
migration," by tiie Hon. J. G. Sawyc 
H. A. Delano, Rev. L. W. Cranda 
George E. Horr, Jr., Hon. E. N. Blak< 
Ellis, D.D., H. McDonald, D. D., an 
speakers ; " Romanism : its Relation t( 
tific Thought," by A. J. Rowland, D. L 
Political Aspects," H. McDonald, D. 
others; " Mohammedan Propagandism, 
Rev. F. S. Dobbins, Norman Fox, D. 
other speakers; "Christian Science," 

E. Horr, Jr., W. E. Hatcher, D. D., i 
T. T. Eaton ; and " The Purity of the CI 
Terms of Admission," by E. T. Hiscoi 
and "Nature and Discipline," by F. 1 
D. D., and W. W. Boyd, D. D. 

V. BapttelB !■ Great Britain aid Irelu 
" Baptist Handbook " for 1888 gives i 
lowing statistics of the Baptist cburche 
United Kingdom : Number of churches 
of chapels, 3,701, containing 1,198,< 
tings ; of members, 304,385 ; of Sundai 
teachers, 46,786 ; of Sunday - school 
458,200; of local preachers, 4,118; of 
in charge, 1,860. It was estimated t 
churches from which no returns had I 
ceived would add 10,000 to the list of m 

Baptist Union of Englxind and WaU 
annual spring meeting of the Baptist U 
England and Wales was opened April 
an address by the Rev. Dr. Clifford on t 
eral subject of the condition of the faitl 
ticular interest was att^iched to the que 
the relations of the Union with the Ke 
Spurgeon, who had withdrawn from 
tion with it (see "Annual Cyclopaed 
1887), because he regarded its practic 
tolerant of persons holding and teachi 
trines of questionable orthodoxy. Th< 
cil of the Union, a kind of executi^ 
mittee, consisting of one hundred m 
had, in December, 1887, appointed a coi 



BAPTISTS. 79 

to fisit Mr. Spnrgeon, and " deliberate with them consistent with it^ and the Union have had no 

him as to how the unity of our denomination difficulty in working with them, 

in true ]ove and good works may best be This action was not accepted by Mr. Spur- 

miintdned.'^ This committee reported to a geon, who declared himself ^^one outside of 

sabseqaeDt meeting of council, Jan. 18, 1888, the Union,'^ and having no right to have any- 

that Mr. Spurgeon had declined to discuss thing further to do with its creeds or its dec- 

tbe qu^tion of his action toward the Union, larations. ^^ All has been done that can be 

and that he could not see his way clear to done,^' he said, *^and yet without violence we 

withdraw bis resignation ; but that he had ran not unite ; let us not attempt it any more ; 

famished a statement embodying the follow- but each one go his own way in quiet, each 

ing conditions: striving honestly for that which he believes to 

In answer to the question what I would advise as be the revealed truth of God. I could have 

likely to promote permanent union in truth, love, and wished that instead of saving the Union, or 

good woAs I I should ani^wer: (1) Let the Union even purifying it, the more prominent thought 

^^l^"£' ''^iS^H«l'drn^aU> '^^^^^ l\«d been to conform everything to the word of 

DO biiter summary of these than that adopted by the '"S,, ^2*. . , /. , t> . . i , 
Eran^Ucal AlUimce, and subscribed by members of The Irish department of the British and 
aomany religious* communities for several years. The Irish Home Mission was transferred to an ex- 
eiaet words need not be used of courae, but that for- ecutive committee in Ireland. Resolutions 
iBttla indicates the run of truth which is most gener- aHnntft^ dt^oUrmtr that thft nnpstion of 
lUj followed among us, and should be so followed. !^.®*^® adopted decianng tliac tne question oi 
',,, ,, •i^T.xi. ij disestablishment m Wales was ripe tor settle- 
He had, however, declared that he would ment, and ought to be no longer postponed; 
not undertake, on these conditions being com- ^^^ deprecating any further extension of state 
plied with by the Union, to rejoin it, but would ^j^ ^o denominational schools, 
iwait results. The question was again con- jy^^ autumnal meetings of the Union were 
»1ered at subsequent meetings of the coun- |,^]^ ^^ Huddersfield, beginning October 1. 
cil and a declaration was adopted which was jy^ Clifford presided. The report on the funds 
mtended to define the attitude of the Union ^^ connection with the Union showed that the 
m relation to the questions at issue, in terms ^^^^^ amount invested up to the close of the 
that would be acceptable to Mr. Spurgeon. j^^ y^^^ ^^ £116,554, showing an increase 
This declaration was brought before the Union ^f ^y^^^ £3,000. Annuities amounting to 
tt the present meeting, and after discussion j^^U were paid every year. The Augmenta- 
ind the consideration of amendments, was ^^^^ f^^^ ^^g £5^0 ^^^^^ ^nd the Education 
idopted in the following terms: f„n^ required increasing. A minute was 
That while expressly disavowing any power to adopted renewing the protests of the Union 
eoctrol belief or restrict inquiry yet, in view of the against the maintenance by the state of " the 
naeaMness produced m the churches by recent discus- *« ^f - 



^SSL .h^o;!r"^;enTwiSi'^e"'^'Sher ^ypte™ of sectarian elementary schools " and 




-Pw 



12 < 



rsT 



^ ^ pply 

» ?.?nTh 'rrdX^c"arveTe^ country withont violating the. righte of con- 

»ot3 of a new life: as in tlie supper we avow our science." Meetings were held in behalf ot the 

3B}<:ai with one another while nartaking of the symbol Baptist Foreign Missions and of the British 

cithe body of our Lord broKen for us, and of the and Irish Home Missions; and prepared papers 

a»d ^led for the remission of sins. ^ ^ ^ were read and addresses delivered on various 

The Lnion, therefore, is an association of churches „„i,;««*„ ^* ^««^«»;„«f;^«„i i^^^w^^^t 

Bd ministere professing not only to believe the facts subjects of denominational mterest 

ad doctrines of the Gospel, hut to have undergone Baptist Missionary Society. — Ihe annual 

tbt sptritual chan^ expressed or implied in them, meeting of the Baptist Missionary Society was 

This change ia the fundamental principle of our church held April 24. Mr 0. Townsend, J. P., of 

^rii- r ^ jji.- 1 Bristol, presided. The income of the society 

Txe following facts and doctrines are commonly 1 j v not oai u ^:^ :«^ ^««^ ^«™ 

beSeved by th? churches of the Union : The divini ^^^ l>een ^61,341, showmg an increase from 

iaepiration and authority of the Holy Scriptures as the previous year of £2,988 : yet the balance- 

tb supreme and sufficient rule of our faith and prac- sheet exhibited a debt of £5,869, which had 

ti« and the right and duty of individual judgment been caused by increased expenditure. This 

^iT^^l^rX'i^Ur^'a^o^ rhe'^u;?^':L?rf fo^ld, however probab.y be extinguished by 

tbe Lord Jeaua Christ, and his sacriflcUl and mediate- the proceeds of legacies which would not have 

Hii work; justification by faith— a faith that works to go to the reserve fund. The publication of 

'^ lore and produces holiness ; the work of the Holj Mr. Bentley's *' Grammar and Dictionary of 

Hjm in the convenoon of rinners and in the sancti- ^he Congo Language " was mentioned as an 

aatbto of all who believe; the resurrection and the . P u**.^^ tu^ ««« «/ 4U^ 

jsdanent of the la.^tdav, with the eternal blessedness e^^nt of much mportance. The use of the 

'^tbe rijrhteous and the eternal punishment of the steamer '' Peace " for the purpose of Mr. btan- 

Tkied. ley's expedition to relieve Emin Pasha (con- 

A» so LiM»rical fact, the last half of this statement trary to the policy of the society not to par- 

t ^S ^\'^n^.^.!^^lZr^X, ««5P»t« in enterprises that jnight have a jnili- 

*»», white reverenUy accepting all divine teaching, ^ary aspect) was shown in the report to have 

^ aec^ited other mterpretationB, which seem to been unavoidable, because the suffering follow- 



BAZAINE, ITtANOOIS AOHILLE. 



ere of the explorer had to be got out of the 
couDtr;. Ad offer of £16,000 bad been made 
b; Mr, Arthrington, of Leeds, to the society, in 
coQJanctioa with two other missionary socie- 
ties, tor the purpoxe of carrying the Gospel to 
the tribes on the banliB of the Amazon and its 
tributaries; but its acceptance would have in- 
volved heavy and permanent additional exaea- 
dituro, and it bad, therefore, been declined. 

The income of the Baptist Zenana Mission 
in India bad been £6,666. A defioit of £288 
was returned. 

The Bible Translation Society had pnb- 
liebed, or assisted to publish, new versions of 
the Bible or parts of the Bible translated by 
Baptist missionaries in fonrteen languages of 
India, China, Japan, Ceylon, and West Africa. 
Its receipts for the past year had been £2,817. 
The chief iUms reported in the eipenditnre 
were grants of £1,000 to the BaptiKt Mission- 
ary Society for translations, £800 to the " Mis- 
sion Press " at Cal tta, d £350 to Ip rt 

liaptitt Union fWU«—Th stati t f 

the B&pti!.t Un f Wales, p t d t te 

meeting in Angn t (h Id G rd g ) h wed 
that the nnmbe f h h dm U 

tions had increased fr ra 663 in 1B72 t TOT 
and the Sunday p pi f m 61 16T to 100 
S30. Five thou and f h d d d f rty 
eight persons h d be b ptized d ng th 
year. Reasluti w passed m g 

Welsh " legii'lat ed ( f b h d m Ub 

liehment was declared to be one), condemnmg 
the recommendations of the Koyal Commission 
on Education, and approving the society for 
the utilization of the Welsh language. 

Tl. S«Mrai Bapdst iMdatlw^The one hun- 
dred and nineteenth meeting of tlie General 
Baptist Association of the New Connection 
was held in Derby in April. The Rev. W. H. 
Tetley presided. The summary of the statis- 
tics of membership showed that the total nam- 
ber of additions by baptism during the year 
bad been 2,236, and the net gun of members 
U.S. The report of the building fund showed 
that its capital amounted to £6,332 and its 
receipts for the year had been £1,399, while 
loans had been made to the amount of £850. 
Since the fimd was instituted more than £18,- 
000 had been in'snted in loans to the churches. 
The receipts for foreign missions were £8,107. 
The debt of the fund (£800) was reduced by 
£700. Action was taken in favor of an Asso- 
ciation book fund. 

UZtlNE, FRiX^IS ICHOLF^ French general, 
born in Versailles. Feb. 18, 181 1 ; died in Mad- 
rid, Spain, Sept 23, 1888. He was the son 
of a French officer, and after leaving the £cole 
Polytechnique he joined the Fureicn Legion in 
1831, and servedhve yearsin Africa, rising to 
the grade of first lientennnt, and winning the 
cross of the Lecion of Honor on the field of 
battle. He went to Spain in 183T, and fought 
in two bard campugns against the Cariisis, 
returning to Algeria as captain in 1839. He 



saw mncb fighting during the next nine ; 
and when the Foreign Lagion, organiMi 
brigade of infantry, was sent to the Ei 
18S4, he was appointed to the command, 
greatly distinguished himself before Sebasi 
and after its capture was named military 
ernor of the place, and promoted to be gc 



r 







'C 






of division. In the Italian campaign of 
he commanded a division in the attac 
Melegnano, where he was wounded, ai 
the battle of Solferino he took a conspi' 

furt. He was given a high command ii 
renoh expeilition against Mexico, d 
gutshed himself by brilliant and energetic 
lies, and on the recall of Marshal Forey in 
succeeded as commander-in-chief He rec 
the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor, 
ing been made a commander in 1866. ai 
September. 1864, be was promoted Mars' 
Fnince. His vigorous aggressive strategy < 
President Juarez into a corner of the coi 
The fortress of O^aca surrendered in F 
ary, 1865, the garrison of 7,000 men 1 
down their arms. Ha also organized i 
barons bnt effective system or guerilla 
fare. Bazaine married a wealthy Me 
lady, and soon afterward misunderstan 
arose between him and the Emperor 1 
milian, who suspected Ihe French genei 
lukewarmness in his cau^e, when fortnn 
gan to turn in favor of Juarez, owing, a 
2&\Dfi alleged, to the obstinate resistance i 
Mexicans an^ the policy of the Unitefl S 
Nayioleon sent orders for the ultimate 
drawal of the French troops, and when Be 
was suspected of a design to make himsel 
pcror instead of Maximilian, he dispa 
Gen. Castelnan to arrange the evocui 



LZAINE, FRANQOIS AOHILLE. BEDS, FOLDING. 81 

, at a coancil of Mexican notables, Ba- was not arraigned till Oct. 6, 1878. The Duo 

eclared the maintenance of the empire d^Aamale presided over the tribunal. The 

ble, and on March 12, 1867, having re- marshal, who wore his full uniform and the 

to Vera Cruz, he embarked with all decorations of the Legion of Honor, in reply 

i68 for France. On his arrival he was to the charges of military incapacity in letting 

with a storm of reproaches. He nev- himself be blockaded in Metz by a force not 

B retained the confidence of Napoleon much superior and in capitulating, and of trea- 

I was made a senator and intrusted sonable correspondence with the enemy with 

e oomriiand of the corps stationed at the object of making himself independent of 

and in October, 1869, was given the the Government of National Defense, he said 
mmaDd of the Imperial Guard. that the motto of *^ honor and country ^* that 
I the Franco-Pmssian War began, Ba- he bore on his breast had been his for the for- 
ad command of the Third Corps. He ty years that he had served France, at Metz as 
ave supported Gen. Frossard at For- well as elsewhere. He was found guilty (1) of 
it would not move without orders. On having capitulated before the enemy in the 
, 1870, he took command of the Army open field; (2) of having agreed to terms mak. 
Rhine, with which he checked Gen. ing his command lay down their arms ; (8) of 
tz at B«my on the following day, al- having entered into negotiations with the ene- 
Napoleon and his staff to retreat in my before doing all that duty and honor de- 
He retired on Metz, perhaps in order manded ; (4) of having surrendered a fortified 
n the enemy nntil MacMahon^s army place that was intrusted to him to defend. He 
-med at ChAlons. If he had ordered was condemned on December 10 to death and 
»erial Guards to support Canrobert at military degradation, but in compliance with 
tte, the Germans might have been driv- the unanimous recommendation of bis judges, 

a retreat, instead of forcing him to President MacMahon commuted the sentence 
ito the citadel of Metz. His army was to twenty years* seclusion. He was incarcer- 
' compact force that remained after the ated in Fort Sainte Marguerite, near Cannes, 
er of Marshals Leboeuf and Canrobert on December 26. In the following August 
I capture of the Emperor. The garri- he lowered himself from a window by a rope 
ie many brave sorties, but each party into a boat, on which he made his escape to a 
aten back. After fruitless efforts to ship lying off the island, and reached Italy. 
)etter terms, the commandant signed a From there he went to Cologne, and to Eng- 
idon on Oct. 27, 1870, before a single land, and finally he took up his residence in 
the enemy had fallen within the walls Madrid. In September, 1874, he published in 
fortress, in accordance with which his the New York ** Herald *' a defense of his con- 
ad of 173,000 men marched out without duct during the war, to which Prince Friedrich 
rms. His declaration that his army was Earl bore honorable testimony, and in 1888 
ihed by famine was contradicted by wit- he went over the ground again in a volume, 
who said that there was food, and that BW^ FOLDING. Bedsteads so contrived that 
m had in their knapsacks six days' ra- they can be folded into a more or less com- 

Accusations of treachery resounded on pact form are to be found in all civilized and, 

aide. It was discovered on investiga- perhaps, in some uncivilized lands, and are of 

dai he had held communication with almost as many different patterns as are the 

•ck through a go-between named Regu- tables and chairs that keep them company. 

1 after learning the pretended determi- Goldsmith's familiar lines in the *^ Deserted 

of the Germans not to treat on any Village " are more than a century old : 
with the Grovernment of National De- The chest ooDtrived a double debt to pay, 

bad allowed himself to be duped into Abed by night, a ohest of draws by day, 

ity and finally into a surrender by Bis- and they goto show that folding beds were not 

who suggested that far better condi- uncommon at that time. In 1888 about forty 

f peace would be granted if he kept his patents were issued in the United States bearing 

Dtact in order to sQpport a serious Gov- upon such articles of furniture, and a visit to 

It with which Germany could negotiate, any industrial exhibition or large furniture es- 

he wily diplomatist held out the hope of tablishment affords abundant evidence that the 

toration of the empire with German aid. supply keeps well up with the demand. This 

his return from captivity Bazaine pub- is largely due no doubt to the crowding of 

a book entitled "L'Arm^e du Rhin," in population in the large cities. Where a fami- 

be avowed that he felt no obligation to ly occupies a flat or *' apartments,'^ the ques- 

be Government of National Defense aft- tion of space becomes very important, and 

downfall of the empire, and considered where a single person occupies a room, perhaps 

f justified in acting independently. It a small one, his comfort is greatly enhanced by 

DC till then that he was cited to appear being able to double the floor-space by dispos- 

nwt, 1871, before the Committee of Mili- ing of the bed during the day-time, 
ivestigation of the National Assembly at To begin with the simpler and least expen- 

Ikfl. He offered himself for trial by sive forms of folding beds, it may be said that 

martial without awaiting the report. He ingenious mechanics not infrequently provide 

▼ot.. xxTm. — 6 A 



BEDS, FOLDING. 



tliemeelves irith aonvenieDt devices of aisah&r- 
acter witboat calliDgDpon CbefDriiitare-dealer. 




FIb. l.—A HoU-IUDI FOLDDia-BED. 



One of tlie simplest possible is shown in Fig. 1. 
It is A shallow oblong box with the boUom 
preternblf of slats and the sides and ends deep 
enough to receive the mattress and coverings 
that are to be used. This depth shoald exceed 
the thickness of the mattress by tliree or four 
inches. Diagonal braces ma; be placed at the 
corners to prevent the racking unavoidable in 
raising and lowering. One side of the box is 
attached to the wall by means of strong iron 
hinges (A A) which stionld be screwed to the 
studs if the wall is of lath and plaster, or oth- 
erwise Beoared so an to bear the strun. To 
the other side of the box, legs (B B) are at- 
tached, also b; liiuges, so that the; lie flat 
against the slats when the bed is raised to its 
day-time place and secured by hooks against 
the wall. To keep coverings and mattress from 
falling against the wall when the bed \* lowered, 
bands of some suitable material are used. 

The same general principle may be employed 
with any of the light cottt kept by dealers, but 
in this case the wall-hingea must l>e attached 
to projections bearing them oat from the wall 
so that there will be room for raattress, cover- 
ing, etc., between wall and slats. It will natu- 
rally occDF to any one with an ejre to decora- 
tive effects, that a curtain hung over this some- 
what unsightly object when it is hooked up, 
will effectually conceal it, and it may, with the 
exercise of a little taste, be made really orna- 
mental. 

The occupant of a narrow ball bedroom in 
New York requiring more space and a table, 
had recourse to the device shown in Fig. 2. 
The bedstead wos one of the light cots re- 
ferred to above. Fixing two stout screw-eyes 
(0 0) in the studding at tbe bead of the bed, 



be lambed the head-piece looeely to 
that the lasbings should serve as hin 
the foot of the bed he attached a 
passed the free end tlirongli a pulley | 
near the ceiling. It was an easy mi 
bedding being properly lashed, to 1 
whole affair until it rested flat against 
as shown in the Qgnre, For additional 
the long slack of the hoisting-line wt 
around outside the bed and made fas 
hooks about seven feet from the flo 
upper pair of legs was either folded 
shown or opened and nsed as a shelf. 
ing-board placed nfion the lower pair 
as shown in the engraving at E, c 
them into a very passable substitute fo 
Recently some inventor has hit upon 
idea, and has patented it with some 
ments and elaborations. 

On yachts and other small vessel! 
bunks are sometimes provided for the 
stretching stout canvas across a re< 
iron frame and hinging the frame to t 
of the vessel. In this case the oute 
the frame is supported by books att 
lines depending from the deck-beams 
not in nse, the frames are folded up fls 
the side of tbe vessel, and occupy scai 
room at all. 

The next step in elaboration is the ' 
■ i," HO called 





^ 




h,l„. r.H„i,l..t 


x 


ISubstalitiiilly, 






ilar to those 






\ 


describe-l, ex< 








it is indepec 




■ 




the wall, b: 






\ 


wood-work f 
bojT into wh: 
folded when n 








It is, moreover 








that the tptr 








lilting and low 




■ \ 




more easily pi 








than «h(ro th 




1 




1" not di 




^-^ 












^^ hen not in 




^ 










~ 


\ 


--'>— 












w 






/^ 


— -\59^ 




_^^,_ 







tains sliding on rods are drawn in froi 
whole atrnotare, and the top may even \ 



BEDS, FOLDING. 



ftsbelf oriDftntel. Ingenious wlf-actiDgatt&ch- 
meiits adJDSt tJie letcs of the beditaao, 80 that 
ttMf op«D orshut as the bed U lowered or raised. 

A sligtitl; more complicated form of the 
muitel-bed is Bimilarin structure, s&vethat It 
folds endwise, iuvolviog a joint raidira]' of the 
nuttresa and side-pieceB. 

The bedsteads tltas far described are quite 
moderate in price, and ere coming into use very 
tztenuvelj. The; are better in ma,nj respects 
than the more costly kinds, since the open 
itnictare admits free circulation of air throagb 
tud about tbe mattress and coverings while 
the; are not in nse. The more elaborate and 
ornaiDentsl folding beds, " cabinet- beds, " as 
tbef are sometimes called, are manufactured 
in a great variet; of stjles, and are very com- 
plete and ingenions in all tbeir appointments. 

Figi. S and 4 show one of the direot-acdng 
tiod, where the bed Is wheeled outward be- 
fore being lowered from its aprigbt position. 
Tbe raising and lowering are usaally facili- 
tiled bj counter- weights, springs, or pullejs 
ojticealed in the casing. For low-ceiled rooms 
cabinet-beds are made which fold in the mid- 
dle, instead of being raised hodUj. These, 
bowerer, project farther into the room when 
folded, ttna in them it is impracticable to nse 
the "wire mattresses" as generallj famished 
lo the trade. 

Cabinet or fnmitura bedsteads are often onl; 
ogDamental coverings for the bedding, bnt many 
fil them inclnde also a wardrobe, with drawers, 
or, if desired, a washetand, mirror, and tbe like, 
iH Tcrj compact and convenient. These beds 
Und with the aide to the wall wbeninose.or 
•itb the foot to the wall if preferred. That is 

u Mj, the wardrobe part is swung or pulled 
ont toward tbe mid- 



tended for ui 

ftortation is essentiaf. The common type of 

oot with a oaovas support for the mattress and 





^ m front and side elevation. When not 
* iM. it it a handsome piece of furniture, and 
Ui casnal observer suggests notbiug more 
^^ffl ordinary wardrobe and bureau. An- 
'^ cUm of folding-beds inclndes those in- 



coverlngs is so well known that it does not 
require illnstration. In effect it is precisely 
like the one shown in Fiji;. 6, except that the 
legs can not be folded parallel to the side-pieces, 
and it lacks the long braces marked A A. 

Fig. 6 shows one of the best camp-beds 
in the market. The legs turn on a bolt in the 
nsaa) manner at B, bat are so attached to tbe 
»de-rails, by means of an iron fixture, that t^ey 
can be folded parallel to the side-rails, and 
rolled up in the canvas as shown at C. 
When open for ase, the bed is six feet three 
inches long and twenty-nine inches wide; 
folded it forms a roll aiwat six inches in diam- 
eter one way and four inches the other 
way. The weight is fifteen ponuds. 

A camp-bed somewhat more elabo- 
rate in constmction than that shown in 
the illustration has semi -cylindrical side- 
rails of wood. They aremada of three- 
ply veneering similar to the cbair-seats 
commonly in ase, except that they sre 
not perforated. To these tlie canvas 
stretcher is firmly tacked, and with- 
in them are simple iron fiitures to 
as braces for the legs. AH the attach- 
ments are laid within tbe hollow semi-cylin- 
ders when the bed is to be folded, and then 
the oanvas is rolled snd packed between tbe 
two, which, when strapped together, form a 
handsome varnished oylindrioal box less than 



84 



BELGIUM. 



foar inches in diameter, and weighing alto- 
gether eleven pounds. 

Many varieties of camp-beds are mannfact- 
nred which told much more compactly than 
those here described, some of them within the 
dimensions of a moderate sized valise. These 
may all be classed as were inoditications of the 
cots described. Taking Fig. 5, for instance, 
catting the side-rails into fonr pieces, and for- 





Fio. 6.— Caicp-Bkd. 

nishing each section with independent sets of 
legs, it is evident that the whole could be 
rolled up in a more compact form than that 
shown. The weight, however, is naturally in- 
creased, and the trouble of taking apart and 
putting together is considerably greater. Where 
space for transportation is to be considered, 
some of these more compact devices are very 
convenient. 

BELGIUM, a monarchy in western Europe. 
It was formerly a part of the Netherlands, but 
seceded and formed itself into an independent 
state in 1830. Prince Leopold of Saxe-Co- 
burg-Gotha was elected king by a National 
Congress in the following year. His son, 
Leopold II, the present King of the Belgians, 
succeeded to the throne on Deo. 10, 1865, at the 
age of thirty. The law-making power is vested 
in two chambers, called the Senate and the 
Chamber of Representatives, both of which 
are elective. The members of the Cabinet, 
who assumed office on Oct. 26, 1884, are as 
follow: President of the Council and Minis- 
ter of Finance, A. Beernaert ; Minister of Jus- 
tice, J. Lejeune ; Minister of the Interior and 
of Public Instruction, J. Devolder; Minister 
of War, Gen. C. Pontus; Minister of Rail- 
ways, Posts, and Telegraphs, J. H. P. Vanden- 
peereboom ; Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
Prince de Chimay; Minister of Agriculture, 
Industry, and Public Works, the Chevalier A. 
de Moreau. 

Area aad Popilatlra. — The area of the king- 
dom is 29,455 square kilometres, or 11,873 
square miles. The estimated population on 
Dec. 31, 1886, was 6,909,975, comprising 2,- 
951,800 males and 2,958,675 females. Be- 
tween 1880 and 1886 the rate of increase was 
1*14 per cent, per annum. According to the 
census of 1880 there were 2,287,867 Belgians 
speaking French only, and 2,479,747 speaking 
Flemish only, while 41,046 could speak only 



German, and 471,872 spoke at least 
these languages. 

All the people of the kingdom are p 
Catholics except some 15,000 who are 
ants and 8,000 Jews. Education is bf 
but is gradually becoming diffused unc 
making elementary education more 
than it formerly was. Universal edu 
one of the demands of the Liberals, 
party in power opposes it, and is susti 
a decided majority of the electors, c 
of the wealthy class and constituting 
tenth of the adult male population. T 
et of 1888 allots 1,613,620 francs for 
education, 8,747,490 francs for inte 
education, and 10,167,774 francs for 
education. Of the total population ov< 
years of age in 1880 the proportion w 
not read nor write was 42 per cent., 
between the ages of seven and fiftee 
only 29*4 per cent. 

The number of births in 1886 was 
of deaths, 116,264; of marriages, 39, 
cess of births over deaths, 50,187. T 
her of emigrants in 1886 was 17,02S 
was less by 2,775 than the number < 
grants. The population of the princi] 
on Jan. 1, 1887, was as follows: Bruss 
suburbs, 425,204; Antwerp, 204,498 
146,424; Li^e, 187,559. 

KcTeBM aad Expenilitire. — The ordina 
et for many years has almost invariabl 
a deficit. In 1885, when an extraordi 
penditure of 44,974,750 francs was 
plated in the estimates, with an estin 
traordinary revenue of only 6,159,88^ 
the ordinary budget was revised so tl 
remained a small surplus. In the f 
year, instead of the expected surplus o 
000 francs, there was an actual aeficit 
than that amount. In 1887 the revi 
below the expenditure nearly 2,500,00* 
The estimates for 1888 make the total 
revenue 313,641,559 francs, and the 
expenditure 307,748,123 francs. The 
from property taxes is estimated at 2S 
francs ; from personal taxes, 19,282,00( 
from trade licenses, 6,580,000 franc 
customs, 24,682,600 francs; from ex< 
775,500 francs; from registration dul 
860,000 francs; from succession dul 
420,000 francs; from stamp duties, 6 
francs; from railways, 114,500,000 
from telegraphs, 8,103,700 francs; f 
post-office, 9,421,300 f ratios; from m 
dues, 4,280,000 francs ; from the natio 
and amortization funds, 11,498,100 
from domains and forests, 1,300,000 
from other sources, 5.290,269 francs. 

The expenditure for interest on th 
debt amounts to 96,102,231 francs; 
and dotations, 4,568,675 francs; for < 
of the Ministry of Justice, 15,426,361 fr 
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2 
francs ; of the Ministry of the Intel 
Public Instruction, 21,829,764 francs 



BELGIUM. 



85 






Mmistry of Public Works, 16,712,281 francs; 
of the Ministry of Railways, Posts, and Tele- 
graphs, 83,850,116 francs; of the Ministry of 
War, 46,003,270 francs; of the Ministry of 
Finance, 15,290,905 francs; of the gendarmerie, 
3,946, OOio francs; repayments and other ez- 
penditiires, 1,636,500 francs. 

The national debt, including the capitalized 
Tftloe of annnities amounting to 80,106,000 
fnncsi, exceeds 2,500,000,000 francs. The 
funded debt consists of 219,959,683 francs of 
21-per-eent. bonds, 519,859,000 francs of 8-per- 
c«ni8., and 1,185,509,458 of Sf-per-cents. The 
credit of the Government, notwithstanding its 
Urge and graduaUy increasing debt, is so good 
that the 3^per-cent. bonds stand at 2 per cent, 
above par in the market. 

Ike PMl-Ofllce* — The number of letters that 
passed through the Belgian post-office in 1886 
vas 90,744,556, not reckoning 14,123,401 
official letters; the number of postal cards, 
16,568,401 ; printed inclosures, 55,268,000 ; 
newspapers, 94,394,000. The receipts during 
1886 amounted to 14,806,595 francs, and the 
expenditure to 8,893,171 francs. 

11k Imy. — The army budget for 1888 fixes 
the peace effective at the following figures : 



TROOPS. 



bfntrf 

C»T*by 

Artflkrr .... 

Gcadannerie 
lain 



TottI 



OOoa*. 


Rank and file 


1,187 


82,495 


856 


5.506 


447 


7,661 


90 


1,479 


58 


2,080 


452 


1,850 


8,815 


50,571 



84,883 
5,862 
8,188 
1,569 
2,188 
1,802 

58,886 



—el 












The staff, numbering 125 officers, and 772 
officers of the medical corps, are not indnded 
in this statement. The number of horses is 
8.900; of guns, 200. The war-strength of the 
innj is 120,000 men, 13,800 horses, and 240 
gvoa. There is besides a civic guard, which in 
1887 numbered 41,222 men. 

An extensive plan for fortifying the line of 
tbe Meuse was adopted in 1887, but the Gov- 
cniment has resolved for the present to direct 
ite efforts chiefly to extending and arming tlie 
Mfieations at Li6ge and Namur. These two 
lorteeases will absorb all the army at its pres- 
ent strength, except the troops that are re- 
^wd to garrison Brussels and the central 
<»adel at Antwerp. The Ministry of War has 
«<>Uiiied a credit of 60,000,000 francs for the 
fwchase of modem ordnance of large caliber. 
Tbe works at Li^ge, when extended to the ad- 
JKent heights, are considered sufficient to 
«mst the passage of a German army up the 
^*^Q«e ?alley. Namur on the French side is 
^50 strong a position, and only guards one 
cf the routes from France, while that by way 
«^MoM and Charleroi is left open. Contracts 
«'e been awarded for the construction of 
t»€nty-one metallic forts along the Meuse, 
*bicb will strengthen the defenses against a 
^^fnuua invasion. They will consist of cupo- 
* ffld will be completed by the end of 1890. 



CMiHeree and Inlnrtry. — The returns for the 
general commerce of 1886 give the value 
of the imports as 2,662,715,581 francs, and 
of the exports as 2,512,122,555 francs. The 
imports for home consumption amounted to 
1,385,049,000 francs, and the exporta of Bel- 
gian produce to 1,181,974,000 francs. The 
imports of breadstuffs were valued at 205,- 
069,000 francs; the exports at 54,514,000 
francs ; imports of textile materials, 177,- 
211,000 francs; exports, 98,154,000 francs; 
imports of yarns, 27,121,000 francs; exports, 
136,261,000 francs ; imports of tissues, 31,- 
546,000 francs; exports, 67,288,000 francs; 
imports of live animals, 72,047,000 francs; ex- 
ports, 34,641,000 francs; imports of hides and 
skins, 79,926,000 francs; exports, 69,929,000 
francs ; imports of chemicals, 52,669,000 
francs; exports, 18,551,000 francs; imports of 
timber, 50,972,000 francs; of metals, 29,866,- 
000 francs; of oils, 21,022,000 francs; exports 
of iron, wrought and un wrought, 54,118,000 
francs ; of machinery, 50,813,000 francs ; of 
coal, 50,127,000 francs; of glass, 48,940,000 
francs ; of sugar, 82,567,000 francs ; of paper, 
28,614,000 francs; of steel, 17,672,000 francs; 
of arms, 13,127,000 francs. The export of 
sugar in 1886 exceeded the import by 53,000 
metric tons. The product of pig and wrought 
iron in 1885 was 1,182,125 tons, and in 1886 it 
was 1,167,182 tons. 

The share of France in the import trade of 
1886 was 251,031,092 francs, and in the ex- 
port trade, 329,580,022 francs. Great Britain 
furnished 172,324,410 francs of the imports, 
and took 236,416,435 francs of the exports. 
The imports from the Netherlands were larger, 
araounfang to 199,841,114 francs, while the 
United States came next after England with 
160,394,949 francs of imports, Germany fol- 
lowing with 151,941,981 francs, and then Rus- 
sia with 74,224,681 francs, the Argentine Re- 
public with 59,981,488 franca, Sweden and 
Norway with 37,941,106 francs, Roumania 
with 81,307,880 francs, Peru with 29,840,208 
francs, Brazil with 21,346,208 francs, and 
Uruguay with 17,574,454 francs. The third 
largest consumer of Belgian products was Ger- 
many, the exports to that country amounting 
to 195,790,476 francs. The Netherlands took 
175,417,466 francs. The exports to other 
countries were small in comparison, 40,647,- 
175 francs going to the Unitea States, 84,064,- 
822 francs to Italy, and 29,457,862 francs to 
Switzerland, after which come Spain, the Ar- 
gentine Republic, Brazil, Turkey, and Russia. 

BfavlgattMit — In 1886 the number of vessels 
entered at Belgian ports was 6,216, of 4,094,- 
026 tons, of which 3,367, with a total tonnage 
of 2,351,844, were British. The number 
cleared was 6,206, of 4,060,901 tons. The 
commercial marine in 1887 numbered 67 ves- 
sels, of 86,837 tons, of which 55 vessels, of 
81,285 tons, were steamers. There were 342 
fishing vessels, of 12,009 tons. 

Rai&Mds* — The lines worked by the state 



86 BELGIUM. 

had a length of 8,175 kilometres, and the lines missions to be examined in both languages, and 
worked by companies were 1,246 kilometres the Government adopted the measure, wLidi 
in length on Jan. 1, 1887, making a total of simply carries out a provision of the Constitn- 
4,421 kilometres, or 2,763 miles. The receipts tion. Its practical effect would be to exclude 
of the state railroads in 1886 were 117,918,- Walloons from officers' posts, and after it had 
879 francs, and the expenses 66,241,271 francs, been passed by a large migority, the Govern- 
On the lines of the companies the receipts ment was induced by popular clamor to recede 
were 85,144,278 francs, and the expenses 19.- from the constitutional position and supports 
213,485 francs. The capital expended by the substitute measure, which merely recommend- 
Government in building riulroads was 929,- ed the study of Flemish. By this action the 
697,462 francs up to the end of 1885, while ministry offended not only the Flemish Liber- 
railroads that had been purchased were paid als, but the Clericals, who had been its firm 
for iu annuities representing 319,798,681 francs supporters, 
of additional capital. Ftreigi RdattMS. — The Belgium scheme of 

Tdegraplu. — ^The number of dispatches, pri- fortification aroused the jealousy of the Ger- 

vate and official, in 1886 was 6,798,108. The man Government, which endeavored in 1888, 

length of lines on Jan. 1, 1887, was 8,800 with partial success, to force Belgium into a 

miles, with 17,900 miles of wire. The receipts military aUiance and secure an understanding 

for 1886 were 2,868,650 francs, and the ex- by which the fortress of Li6ge and the rail- 

penses, 8,679,250 franca. roads will be handed over to the Germans in 

HecdoBS* — The biennial elections for one half the event of another French war. King Leo- 

of the seats in the Chamber, and the quadren- pold^s sympathies are supposed to be with Ger- 

nial elections for the renewal of one half of many by reason of family ties and dynastic 

the Senate were held on June 12, 1888. The traditions, while the present Clerical-Conserva- 

Conservatives, who in the last Chamber num- tive ministry is suspected of the same partial- 

bered 96 against 42 Liberals, and in the Senate ity or, at any rate, of antagonism to the ruling 

42 against 27, were successful, owing to the powers in France. The prevailing sentiment 

defection of the Radicals who had previously among the people, however, leans toward 

supported Liberal candidates. In the new France. The Liberal party and the entire Wal- 

Chamber there are 98 Conservatives and 40 loon population of the south are warm friends 

Liberalp, and in the Senate 51 Conservatives of the republic, while the Flemings are indif- 

and 18 Liberals. ferent. By manifesting a desire to exert diplo- 

The LaigMge QMstfon. — The Flemings have matic pressure on Belgium, the German Gov- 

recently raised the language question by organ- ernment aroused the anti>German feeling of 

izing a party to secure for their mother-tongue the country ; but since England has refused to 

the equality that the Constitution guarantees, renew her pledges in regard to defending the 

Until Hendrik Conscience demonstrated the neutrality of Belgium, and is even partly com- 

literary capabilities of Flemisli, and appealed mitted to the anti-French alliance, the Bel- 

to race pride in his historical and satirical pas- gian Government may be constrained to meet 

sages, the Flemings were content to see the the wishes of Germany. Early in 1888 the 

French employed almost exclusively in official German minister made complaints respecting 

intercourse, in the courts, and in the army, attacks on the German Government by a por- 

and even cultivated it themselves in their com- tion of the Belgian press. This was hardly 

mercial and social relations. When their na- done with a view to the immediate abatement 

tional spirit was finally aroused, the adoption of the offense, because the Belgian press is the 

of French as the language of instruction in the freest in Europe. The Liberal organs assail 

Royal AthensBum, which was opened at Ant- the King and his Cabinet with the full liberty 

werp in 1886, gave occasion for its manifests- that the Constitution accords, and if they use 

tion in a storm of indignation that compelled the same license in speaking of German policy 

the Government to alter its decision. In the the Ultramontane journals denounce the French 

summer of 1887 the King was almost mobbed authorities in terms as immoderate. These 

for delivering a French oration at the dedica- representations regarding the press led up to 

tion of statues to Flemish heroes in Bruges, others relative to the French control of the 

The inequalities of which the Flemings com- Nord Beige Railroad, which the German Gov- 

plain are that no official is appointed to a post ernment complained gave an unfair strategical 

in southern Belgium without being conversant advantage to France, although the railroad 

with French, whereas there are thousands in from Yerviers to the German frontier was in 

Flanders who know no Flemish ; that French German hands and the entire network of the 

is the language of public boards and assem- Duchy of Luxembourg was worked by the im- 

blies and of the army; and, notably, that it is perial railroad administration of Alsace-Loraine» 

used in military and criminal courts in Flan- Finally came the overtures with regard to the 

ders, even when the accused person speaks occupation of Belgian fortresses by Prussian 

only Flemish. The knowledge of French has troops in case France should begin a war 

long been a prerequisite for an appointment against Germany. The French sympathies <^ 

in the army. Deputy Coremans, of Antwerp, the people, especially of the Walloons, who are 

introduced a bill requiring candidates for com- not only allied to the French in blood and Ian- 



BETTING. 87 

bot are fateful to them for their aid in None of the lexicographers have disoovered 

-Qf^e for Belgian independence, is mani- or devised a satisfactory derivative origin for 

on everj occasion, The Socialists, for tlie word ** bet." A bet may be defined as a 

ce, when forbidden to bear the red flag snm of money or its equivalent promised by 

ir processions, carry the French colors one person to another if some doubtfnl qnes- 

stead, and joarnalists and politicians of tion is decided in a specified way. The possible 

J views express distrust and alarm at variations apon this simple statement of the 

rns of Germany. King Leopold is the case are nearly infinite ; the bet may be made 

1 object of Radical and Republican at- between two persons only on even terms, or 

on account of his suspected predilections, between auy number of persons on uneven 

he visited Louvidre in the summer a mob terms. It may rest upon the result of a single 

)00 workingmen gathered in the streets, ^ event or upon the combined result of any num- 

ng *' Down with the German ! " * her of events. In short, it offers all the un- 

rttMl oi tbt Ndteriuitfs Bauidary. — By the healthful excitement of gambling, without the 

of November, 1842, and the boundary formalities that usually surround the card- 

Dtion of August, 1843, the rectification table. 

frontier between Belgium and Holland Betting has, until within a generation, been 

;ft for amicable settlement between the more common among the upper classes, so 

ountries. A convention was made on called, in Great Britain than among the cor- 
. 1888, with reference to the exchange of responding classes in Ainerioa. This is largely 

villages on the frontier, and also relative due to the influence of New-England schools 

t boandary, which was fixed in the canal and churches where it was taught that all bet- 

meozen. The communes of Baarle and ting was not only dishonest and dishonorable, 

^ in North Brabant, were transferred to but sinful as well. That these teachings had, 

etherlands, because it was impossible to and still have, a powerful restraining influence 

« customs regulations within them, and is not to be questioned, but it is equally indis- 

toaaon had created difficulties for both putable that the habit of betting on all man- 

oments. ner of events is rapidly gaining ground in all 

mtlMMl CMgifOCS.— An international in- classes of society. 

al exhibition at Brussels was opened on Probably there was never before so much 

7, 1888. It attracted many exhibitors betting on the result of an election as during 

England, France, and other countries. the presidential canvass of 1888. It was es- 

International Congress of Commercial timated that in the city of New York alone 

net at Brussels, on September 30, to elabo- something like $2,000,000 changed bauds within 

I project of international legislation in the a few days. Syndicates were formed by the 

s- of bills of exchange and maritime law different parties for the placing of bets. In 

aformity with the principles approved at many instances odds were given and the money 

Miner session at Antwerp in 1885. placed in the hands of a stake-holder. One 

I international conference having for its somewhat notorious person in New York is 

t the co-operation of the principal states reported to have had nearly $70,000 in current 

^OecUng and publishing information re- funds in his possession. 

ing their customs tariffs was held at Brus- All this is contrary to law, and the vote of 

D March, and adjourned for six months after any person having a bet that might influence 

tin? a draft convention, which it was ex- that vote may be challenged. In most of the 

id the governments would accept. Theco* States there are statutes more or less rigor- 

ition of customs oflScials in compiling such ous against betting in various forms, but it 

mation not only will save merchants from may be said that in general nobody minds them, 

t»le and losses resulting from ignorance and pool-selling, book-making, and betting on 

Dl«nnderstanding, but may lead to the re- horse-racing, boat-racing, ball-matches, and 

il of anomalies in the various tariffs. the like, goes on without apparent let or hinder- 

fices have been established by the Belgian ance. In the United States, laws against bet- 

sniment for the purpose of supplying per- ting have been so long in existence that their 

intending to emigrate with information inefficiency has for the most part failed to ex- 

ie to them that can be obtained through cite comment. 

Bploroatic and consular agents. In Great Britain there has been compara- 

nrHSG* The modem practices of betting, tively recent legislation, which has an interest- 

idr various forms, especially among people ing bearing on the question. "While it is mani- 

speak the English tongue, are so popular festly impossible to enforce a law prohibiting 

so dangerously demoralizing that their private bets between individuals, however ob- 

mable restriction has become one of the jectionable such bets may be, it is certainly 

lative problems of the day. The practice within the legitimate province of legislation to 

I old as the race, and, like gambling for make it dangerous for designing persons to ply 

n and the use of intoxicants, is so com- their trade in a public way. 

t to mankind in general that its complete In Great Britain the evils of betting have 

^reason can hardlj be looked for while been recognized in the statutes at least since 

ttn nature remains as it is. Queen Anne's time, when if any one gained a 



88 JBETTING. 

bet of more than ten ponnds the loser was en- in hand and a stake-holder, it woold seem that 

titled to recover the amount if he had paid it, the incitement to great sacrifices of real prop- 

and if he did not do so within three months, ertj under stress of emergency would be large- 

any one might sue him for three times the ly wanting. 

amount, with costs. This act was long a dead It is a noteworthy feature of betting trans- 
letter, but was unearthed for some purpose in actions that no legal documents or contracts 
1844, and subsequently annulled by the Gam- are in use. Millions of dollars and hundreds 
ing Act (8 and 9 Vict.). Unfortunately as it of thousands of pounds change hands every 
seems, the annulment of this act was closely year on the strength of a memoranda m pen- 
coincident with an enormous increase in bet- ciled in a note-book at the time of making the 
ting on horse-races. " List shops ^' were opened, bet. All betting is conducted, as the phrase 
where any one could stake muney in advance goes, *' upon honor,** and, considering the mag- 
on any horse, and so many acts of dishonesty nitude of the transactions, it is certainly re- 
were perpetrated that the Betting Houses Act markable how few are the failures to pay. 
(16 and 17 Vict.) was introduced by Sir Alex- Whether it is possible wholly or even par- 
ander Cock burn, afterward Lord Chief- Justice tially to restrict betting, is a question that can 
of England, and by him carried successfully be argued on both sides, with little hope of set- 
through Parliament. This act suppressed all tlement. That the practice is demoralizing in 
permanent places kept expressly for betting the extreme is unquestionable, 
purposes, the object being to remove obtrusive A professional sharper is said to have sum- 
temptation from the daily walks'of the multi- marized the case as follows, when asked how 
tude, who were the easiest prey of swindlers, he made his calling pay : *' It follows by a law 
The act applied only to England, and one re- of Nature,^' said he. *' We are told that there 
suit was that Scotland soon became a head- is a child born into this world every second, 
quarters for the professional swindlers of the and therefore there must be a daily addition of 
United Kingdom. In due time, however, the more than five millions to the population of 
provisions of the act were extended to Scot- the globe. Now, the deuce is in it if, with 
land, and the evils arising from established this continual rising of fresh spooneys to tho 
and permanent betting-places were largely di- surface of society, I can not come across as 
minished. This act, carefully prepared by many as will serve my turn.'* 
George Anderson, of Glasgow, went into effect It is this class of professional sharpers that 
in July, 1874, upon which the Scottish betting- is most harmful to the community, and any 
agents closed their establishments and moved reasonable legislation looking to restraining 
to Boulogne, where a thriving business was their proceedings would be welcomed by all 
carried on by mail and otherwise, until the the law-abiding classes. The making of pri- 
evil results became so manifest that the French vate bets can probably be prevented or re- 
Government in turn interfered, and the agents strained only by promoting a sentiment agaiosi 
were driven to new devices. So successful are it ; but it would seem possible and desirable tc 
they, however, in evading the law, that it is prohibit public betting, and especially to ren 
estimated that about £5,000,000 changes hands der betting on elections dangerous as well as 
every year on the results of horse-racing alone, disreputable. 

In England, legislation appears to discrimi- The talk of racing and betting men abound 

nate between what is termed '* ready -money '* in slang phrases, many of which, as used im 

betting and betting on credit, the former being England, are not understood by Americans 

made illegal, while the latter is not so specified. As they are frequently encountered in Englisl 

One result has been that among the poorer novels, a few definitions are appended. ^ 

classes small clubs have been formed, where *^ dollar," in betting parlance, means five shiB 

betting is carried on upon credit, just as it is lings; a *'quid ** is a pound sterling ; ** fivers ' 

among the wealthy at their palatial club-houses, and " tenners *' are respectively five- and ten 

Bets of honor, these are called, and when a pound notes; a *^pony" is twenty-five pounds 

** gentleman" or a "nobleman** loses, he will a "century** is one hundred pounds; and 

go to any extreme to meet his obligations on the " monkey ** is five hundred pounds ; a " thoa 

Monday following ; repeatedly have men mort- is the recognized abbreviation of thousam' 

gaged their lands and pawned their wives* " A stiff *un ** or a " dead *un ** is a horse the 

jewels in order to escape the disgrace that has been entered for a race, but will not con 

would follow the non-payment of such an ob- pete ; " skinning the lamb ** means that th 

ligation. It has therefore been held that it book-maker has not bet against the winnio 

would be better, if possible, to place restric- horse. " Hedging,** in its simplest meanini 

tions upon betting on credit, rather than upon implies that a bettor having made his bet, b< 

betting with ready money, since the credit sys- comes fearful of losing, and bets the oth( 

tem permits the bettor to incur any number of way, so as to make the accounts balance i 

liabilities for almost any period of time, in ad- nearly as may be. A more elaborate defin 

vance. He loses, let us say, on the first event, tion is given as follows by an English writ^ 

but hope bids him strain every nerve to meet " Suppose that a betting man backs a partici 

his obligations, for may he not win on the sec- lar horse for a certain race before the entri< 

ond ? If all betting transactions involved cash are due, and that the horse is entered, £avo: 



BfiZIQUE. 



89 



ablj weighted, and accepts — it is pretty certain 
to come to shorter odds than it was hacked 
for. After its owner has accepted, it may he 
Aasomed that the price will not he more than 
fifty to one, which the maker of the bet will 
Uy to the same person, so that he may himself 
stand to win fifty poands to nothing I That is 
hedging/* Further, if the horse becomes a 
fsTorite, and attains the price of say ten to one, 
the bettor may lay off or hedge twenty-five 
pounds more, in which case he is said to 
''Stand on velvet." In other words, he is sure 
to win in any event, hence the turf proverb, 
*• No bet is good until it is well hedged to." 

BiZlQnS (bay-zeek), a game with cards. 
Sometimes it is spelled hazique. The word 
seems to be naturcJly derived from the Span- 
ish heHeo^ a little kiss, in allusion to the dis- 
tioctive feature of the game, as hereinafter de- 
scribed, namely the '' marriage " of the queen 
and the knave. Murray gives it as a corrup- 
tion of the French, hengue, a game at cards. 
B^zique, in its present form, is a revival, with 
modifications, or perliaps a combination of 
several old games possessing certain features 
in common. Chief among these is *^ mar- 
riage," and among the others are *^ brusquem- 
biDe," *' rhomme de bron," " briscan " or 
'^brisque," and "cinq cents." "Brisque" 
bears the closest likeness to b^zique, and is, in 
fiet, nearly identical save that it is played 
rith a double pack and with certain features 
rendered necessary by the introduction of ad- 
ditional cards. The following rules and direc- 
tions govern the game in America, and are 
mb^ntiallj identical with those accepted 
elsewhere. They are, in the main, rules as 
l»id down by " Cavendish " (Henry Jones), the 
^^f recognized English authority on the game : 

In b^sone two raclm of oTdinary playing cards are 
Bed, but Defore snaffling; all cards oeiovr the deDomi- 
Bitkm of seven are rejected, as in eachre, and the re- 
■•iiuih? 64 cards (32 in each pack) are cut as usual. 
Tbe game may be played by two, three, or four persons. 

Tv».kaiied BMqTiei The dealer deals eight cards 
to himself and hia adversarv as follows : three to his 
tdvenary, three to himself, then two to each, and 
•^ three to each. 

Th« cards raok as follow : Ace, ten, kin^, oueen, 
ktt?e, nine, eij^ht, seven. In case of ties the leader 
Vina. Tramps win other suits. 

The objects of the play are : 1. To promote in the 
Itttd rarions combinations of cards wnich, when de- 
(i>md^ entitle the holder to certain scores as given in 
tictaUe: 2. To win aces and tens; 8. To win the 
ifHaSkd 1a.n trick. 

After dealing;, the cards remaining undealt are 
<^3ed the "stock." They are laid on the toble a 
^ to one side, and the top card is turned up for 
iTBapB, and Laid near the stock, and the stock cards 
mt s&^btly spread po that they can be readily taken 
W the players as the game proceeds. 

The non-dealer plays anj card out of his hand. 
The dealer p]«ys a card to it, the two constituting a 
"tricks** He need not follow suit, nor play a card 
4« Vina the trick. If, however^ he wins the trick by 
^T^ a bijZ'ber card or trumps it (which he may do, 
>^ao<9gfa boldin^iii his hand a card of the suit 'led), 
«hai't» lead. Whoever wins the trick has the next 
W; bat, before playini;, each player draws one 
^ from tbe stock, the winner of the trick drawing 



the top card, the other player the card next it ; by 
this means the number of tne cards in each hand is 
restored to eight, as at first. This alternate playing 
a card and drawing a card continues till all the stock, 
including the trump card (generally exchanffed tor 
the seven), which is taken up last, is exhausted. The 
rules of play then are as hereinafter prescribed. The 
tricks are lett face upward on the table until the end 
of the hand ; they have no value except for the aces 
and tens that thev contain. 

Dedaiingi — A "declaration" can only be made by 
a player immediately alter winning a trick, and be- 
fore drawing a card from the stock. The declaration 
is effected by placing the dediu^ cards face upward 
on the table, where tney remain. Though left on the 
table, they still tbrm part of the hand, and can be 

Slaved to a trick just the same as if they had not been 
eclared. Each score is marked at toe time of de- 
claring. 

Players are not bound to declare unless they like, 
although they may win a trick and hold scoring 
cards. 

A card can not be played to a trick and be declared 
at the same time. 

It is optional to declare or exchange the seven of 
trumps after winnini;^ a trick with some other card. 
When declared the seven need not be shown unless 
asked for. When exchanged the seven is put in the 
place of the turn-up card, and the turn-up is taken 
into the player's hand. The card taken in exchange 
for the seven can not be declared until the player ex- 
changing has won another trick. 

Any number of combinations may be declared to 
one trick, provided the same card is not used twice 
over. Thus, a player having declared four kings, 
and holding two or three queens matching as to suit 
may, ai\er winning another trick, marry them all at 
the same time. But, if a player holds king and queen 
of spades, and knave of diamonds, he must not put 
down the three cards to score marriage and b^que. 
He must first score one combination, say b^zique ; 
then, after winning another trick, he may place tbe 
king on the table and score marriage. 

In declaring f^sh combinations one or more cards 
of the f^sh combination must proceed from the i>art 
of the hand held up. For instance : a player having 
sequence in trumps should first declare marriage in 
trumps, and then, having won another trick, he can 
declare the sequence by adding the sequence cards. 
If he incautiously shows the sequence first, he can 
not afterward score marriage of the king and queen 
on the table. 

The same card can be declared more than once, 
provided the combination in which it afterward ap- 
pears is of a different class. Thus : suppose spades 
are trumps, the queen of spades can be declared in 
marria^ or trumps, in sequence, and in four queens : 
but a kmg or queen once married can not bo married 
again, nor can a card having taken part in a set ot 
four tisike part in another ^et of four, to make four 
aces, kings, (queens, or knaves ; nor can one b^zique 
card be substituted for another to form a second sm- 
glc b^zique. 

Table of Bniqiie Ekxvesi — Each seven of trumps, de- 
clared or exchanged, counts 10 ; king and queen^ of 
any suit (marriage), when declared, count 20; king 
and queen of trumps (royal marriage), when de- 
clared, count 40; queen of spades and knave of 
diamonds (called b^zique), when declared, count 40: 
queen of spades and knave of diamonds, declared 
twice in one deal by the same player (called double 
b^zique), count 500. 

The above score is in addition to the forty, if, per- 
haps, already scored for single b^zique. 

In order to entitle to double b^zique, all four cards 
must be on the table at the same time, and unplayed 
to a trick. If all four are declared together, only 
600 can be scored, and not 540. 

Any four aces, whether duplicatea or not, when 
declared, count 100; any four kings, whether dupli- 



90 



bSzique. 



cates or Dot, when declared, count 80; any four 
queens, whether duplicates or not, when declared, 
count 60; any four knaves, whether duplicates or 
not, when declared, count 40 ; sequence oi best five 
trumps, when declared, counts 250. The best five 
trumps are ace, ten, king, queen, and knave. If a 
player haii already decutred a royal marriage (40 
points) he can subeequentlv declare a trump se- 
Quence (260 points) : but, if tne sequence be declared 
nrst, it precludes tne subsequent declaration of the 
royal marriage with the same cards. Each ace or 
ten taken or saved in trick counts ten. The winner 
of a trick containing an ace or ten at once adds ten to 
his score ; if the tnck consists of two aces or tens, or 
one of each, he adds twenty. 

Sometimes aces and tens are not scored till the end 
of the hand. In this case, each time an ace or ten is 
played the winner of the trick takes up the cards on 
the table, and turns them face downward in front of 
himself; and when all the cards have been played, 
each player looks through his cards to ascertain now 
many aces and tens it contains. When near the end 
of the game, if scoring in this way, it occasionally 
happens that both sides can score out. This being 
BO, some players deduct the number of aces and tens 
held by one fVom those held by the other, and only 
allow the majority of aces and tens to reckon. Other 
players, when near the end, count the aces and tens 
in their tricks at once if it makes them out. Thus : 
being 960, and having four aces and tens in the 
tricks, the player would at once call game. Others, 

r'n, give precedence in scoring aces and tens to the 
.'er who wins the last tricS. But the best and 
simplest method is to mark each ace and ten as the 
score accrues, not only at the end, but all through the 
game, as !:« done in the case of omer scores. 

The winner of the last trick counts ten. 

The Last Eight Tiioki.— The last two cards of the 
stock are taken, one bv each player, as before, the 
loser of the last trick taking the turn-up or seven, as 
the case may be. When the stock is exhausted no 
further declarations can be made. Then all cards on 
the table that have been escposed in declaring are 
taken up by the player to whom they belong, and the 
play of the last eight tricks commences. The winner 
of the previous trick now leads; the second player 
must follow suit if he can, and must win the tnok if 
he can. If he holds a trumpj and is not able to fol- 
low suit, he must win the tnok by trumpinj^. The 
winner of the trick leads to the next. The tncks are 
still only valuable for the aces and tens they may 
contain. 

The winner of the last trick scores ten points. 

Mode of SoQiing. — A numbered dial with hand, or a 
b^zique-board and pegs, or counters, may be used. 
The last plan is to Imb preferred. Eleven counters are 
required by each player, one marking 500. four each 
marking 100, one marking 50, and five each marking 
10. The counters are placed to the left of the player, 
and when used to score are transferred to his right. 
This system of marking shows at a glance not only 
how many each player nas scored, but, bv looking to 
his left, how many he is playing for. This is often 
important when near the end of the game. 

The game is usually played 1,000 up. If one 
player scores 1 ,000 before his adversary obtains 500, 
the game counts double. A partie is the best three 
games out of five, reckoning a double as two games. 

Hinti to Be^ixmari.-— The first difficulty in playing 
to the tricks is to decide what cards to throw away 
and what cards to retain, so as to do the least harm 
to your chance of scoring. 

1. It is, if anything, disadvantageous to get the 
lead unless you nave something to declare. There- 
fore, when a card (not an ace or a ten) is led, do not 
take it. but throw away a losing card. (See 5 and 12.) 

2. Tne cards that can be spared without loss are 
sevens, eights, and nines, as they form no part of any 
of the soori ng combinations. ( 6ut see 7 . ) 

8. After these, the least injurious cards to part with 



are knaves (except the b^que knavB and tl 
of trumps). 

4. It IS oetter, when in difficulties, to lead 
an ace, as a rule, than a king or queen, thoi: 
are many exceptions. Aces count a hundn 
only eighty, and queens only sixty; but k 

Sueens can marrv and aces can not. And, i 
' you play for lour aces, you have to sacrii 
other comoination, and having shown four i 
are pretty sure to lose some of them in th 
Remember that evcij ace or ten lost to you 
difference of twenty m the score. 

5. It is seldom advisable to go for four ae 
you happen to hold three, and are in no d 
Kather make tricks with the aces when op] 
offers. 

6. If driven to lead an ace or a ten. and yoi 
sary does not take the trick, it is often gooi 
lead another next time. 

7. Do not part with small trumps if it can b 
The seven, eight, and nine of trumps shouk 
to trump aces or tens led. If possible keep < 
trump in hand to get the lead with when yoi 
declare. 

8. Do not part with trump se<^uence cardi 
if you have a duplicate card of the trump 
you should not play it until near the end or t 
as playing it shows your opponent that yo 
duplicate. This frees his hand, as he need i 
keep sequence cards. Armed with this kn 
he will trump every ace and ten you sube 
lead. 

9. Until near the end of the hand, do not 
b^que cards, even after declaring b^ziquc 
doing you give up all chance of double b^i 
score for which is very hi|?h. Having decl 
zique, and holding or arawing another b^zii 
sacrifice every thin£r, even sequence cards if n 
for the chance of double b^zique. 

10. Having a choice between playing a 
scoring card from your hand, or a smaUtru 
your hand, or a card that you have declai 
rule play tne declared card, so as not to exf 
hand. 

11. Avoid showing your adversary, by "9 
declare, that he can not make the trump seq 
double b^que. By keeping him in the c 
hamper his game, and as a likely conseque 
save some of your tens or aces from being 
him. For example, (hearts being trumps) 
early in the hand you hold four queens, 
queens of hearts and two queens of spade 
much better to sacrifice, or, at all events, to 
scoring, sixty, and not to declare these, thj 
your adversary know that he con not make 
or b^zique. (Compare 8.) 

12. Whenever your adversary leads a card 
ace) of a suit of which you hold the ten, 
trick with the ten. Tnis rule does not 
trumps, a^ in that suit you require the ten 
part ofyour sequence. 

18. When there are only two cards left in i. 
win the trick if possible. It is the last c 
declare, and it also prevents your adverse 
declaring anything more that hand. 

14. Toward the end of the hand run your 
the cards your adversary has on the table, 
accordingly. For example: suppose vour < 
has an ace on the table, and you hoia a car 
suit, throw away that card tliat you may b< 
trump the ace in the play of the last eight tri* 

15. In playing the last eight tricks your on 
should be to save your aces or tens and to v 
of the adversary. 

16. It b of more importance to win aces and \ 
at first sight appears. It is very captivating 
fice a number of small scores for the chance o 
ing a large one^ and very ai^eeable when si 
succeeds. But it is the practice of experience< 
to make sure of a number of amall scorea. '. 



BfiZIQUE. 91 

•jer who babituaUy wins the most aoes and nation with it. If all the players follow to a lead out 

oome off winner in the lonff mn. of turn there is no penalty, and the error can not be 

deavor to remember in what suits the aces rectified. 

have been played ; and, in leading small 14. The cards played must not be searched. 

MMe those smts of which the most aces and 15. If a player revokes in the last eight tricks, or 

at. B^ this means you diminish your oppo- does not wm the card led, ii' able, all aoes and tens in 

mce of making aces and tens. the last eight tricks are scored by the adversary, 

lilarly^ after your adversary has declared 16. An erroneous score, if proved, may be correot- 

d leaciing cards which he can win with those ed at any time during the nand. An omission to 

score, if proved, can be rectified at any time during 

lin, in discarding small cards, retain those the hand. 

t least likely to be taken by aces and tens. TriplSf or Thzee-Haoded B^nSi — When playing 

carefully watching your adversary's play three-handed b^zique, three pacKs are employed, and 

Qdcne to a great extent what cards he has in all play against each other, as in three-nanded eu- 

i wnat combinations he is going for. Thus : chre. 

ires a marriage, and discards the king, but The dealer deals to his left, and the eldest hand 

e queen, he is probably going for queens ; has the lead. The players deal in rotation. 

WB anotner marriage, and discards another I'riple b^zique counts 1,500, and all the cards of 

inference is stren^hened. With attention triple b^zique must be on the table at the same time, 

ience it is surpri'ting how much may be in- The game is usually 2,000 up. 

to your adversary's game, and your own line In playing the last eight tricks, the third hand, if 

thereby materially directed. unable to follow suit, nor to win tne trick by trump- 

id P^Tiatow of Boiqiiet — ^1. The highest deals, ing, may play any card he pleases. 

^ the cards rank as in playing. In otiier respects, the method of playing is the 

players deal alternately throughout the same as in the two-handed game. 

Fonr-Haoded B^idqaei — When playing four-handed 

le dealer giyes his adversary or himself too b^nque, four packs of cards are employed. The 

, the nuniDer must be completed from the players may all play against each other, or with part- 

rhe non-dealer, not having looked at his nere. When playing with partners, the partners are 

y, if he prefers it, have a fresh deal. (See cut for, two highest against two lowest^ and sit oppo- 

8.^ site to each other, as when playing whist, 

le oeaier gives his adversary too many cards, Triple b^zique counts 1.500, and all the cards of 

T having too many must not draw until his triple b^zique must be on tne table at the same time. 

s reduced to seven. If the dealer gives him- but the b^ziques may be declared from the hand of 

lany cards, the non-dealer may draw the sur- either partner. A player may declare when he or 

5, and add them to the stock. But if the his partner takes a trick. In playinf^ the last ei^ht 

aving too many cards, looks at his hand, he tricKs, the winner of the previous trick plays with 

k> Bme 9. his left-hand opponent , these two play their cards 

. card la cx{>osed in dealing, the adversary against each other, and score the aces and tens, and 

option of a fresh deal. then the other two similarly play their cards. The 

player draws out of his turn, and the adver- game is usually 2,000. One player scores for him- 

owB the draw, there b no penalty. If the self and partner. 

y dLtoovers the error before drawin/yp he may Bddffne Panaohei — In the game so called, the four 

Qty to his score, or deduct twenty from that aces, four kings, four queens, four knaves, must be, 

her player. in order to count, composed of spades, diamonds, 

he first player, when drawing, lifts two cards hearts and clubs ; thus an eighty ot kings, composed 

of one, the adversary may have them both ot two kings of spades, one of hearts, and one of dia- 

bce upward, and then choose which he will monds, does not form a combination : and, in like 

If the second plaver lifts two cards, the adver- manner with queens and knaves. This game ought 

s a right to see tne one improperly lifted, and to be the obtiect of special agreement. 

Kxt draw the two cards are turned face up- B^dqiie withoat a Tmrnpi — This is played as the or- 

tnd the player not in &ult may choose which dinary eame. except that no card is turned to make a 

take. trump, out tne trump is decided by the first marriage 

spkyer plays with seven cards in his hand, which is declared. For example: you or vour sd- 

renaiy may add twenty to his own score, or versary declare a marriage in clubs, then clubs be- 

trenty ftom that of the other player. On oome trumps, and so on with the other suits. 

ery of the error, the player with a card short The five nighest trumps, orscore of 250, can not be 

lie two cards at his next draw instead of one. declared until after the first marriage has been de- 

'both players draw a second time before plav- clared. The seven of trumps in this game does not 

oe is no penalty. Each must play twice with- count ten points. The b^ziques, four kings, four 

iwing. But, if at any time dunng the play of oueens, eto.^ are counted the same as in b^zique when 

Dd one player discovers the other to have nine tne trump is turned, and can be declared before the 

luaaelr holding but eight, he may add 200 to trump is deteraiined. It is the same with the other 

B aoore, or deduct 200 from that of the other cards which form combinations ; their value remains 

The pbyer having nine cards must play to the same as in the ordinary game of b^zique. 

tt trid[ without drawing. PdUah Bedqne (sometimes called *^ Open B^zique," 

fa player at two-handed b^zique shows a card or ^^ FildnisKi'') difiers in man}r particulars from 

table m error, there is no penalty, as he can the ordinary game. When a scoring card is played, 

flfibly derive any benefit trom. exposing his the winner of the trick places its face upward before 

him (the same rule applies in the case of two scor- 




»rth it. placed overlapping one another lengthwise, from the 

fa player at two-handed b^que leads out of playertowara his opposite, to economize space. When 

ba« is no penalty. If the adversary follows, a scoring card is placed omon^ the open cards, all the 

or can not be rectified. sevens, eights, nines, and plain suit tens in the tricks 

if a player at three or four handed b^zique are tumea down. Open cards can not be played a 

^ oftum, he must leave the exposed card on second time, and can only be used in declaring. 

^ and he can not declare anything in oombi- Whether so used or not they remain face upward on 



92 BfiZIQUE. BIBLE SOCIETIES. 

the table UDtil the end of the hand iDcludlDg the last maj b^ziaue, except that four packs are shuffled t* 

ei^ht tricks. A player can declare after winning a getncr ana used as one, and nine cards are dealt i 

trick and before drawing again when the trick won the p>layer8, three at a time to each. When acombiiu 

contains one or more cards which, added to his open tion is declared and one of the cards composing it 

cards, complete an^ combination that scores. Every played away, another declaration may be complete 

declaration must mclude a card played to the last (after winnms a trick) with the same cards. For ii 

trick won. Aces and tens must be scored as soon as stance, C declares four aces, and uses one to win 

won, and not at the end of the hand. The seven of trick, or throws one away. He has a fifth ace in fa 

trumps can be exchanged by the winner of the trick hand^ and wins a trick ; he can add to it the three r 

containing it ; and if tne turn-up card is one that can raainmg declared aces and score four aoes again, ac 

bo used in declaring, it becomes an open card when so on. Marriages can be declared over and ov> 

ex(;hanged. The seven of trumps, when not ex- again : thus king and queen of hearts are declare* 

changed, is scored for by the player winning the trick and tne player draws another king of heuts. £ 

containing it. plays the declared king and wins the trick. He ct 

" Compound declarations '^ are allowed, that is, then marry the queen a^ain. This is sometimes oa 

cards added to the open cards can be used at once jected to, on the grouna of alleged bigamy, but if pa 

(without waiting to win another trick), in as many mitted only after the declared King is played— thats 

combinations of different classes as they will form to say, removed from the sphere of active life — I 

with the winner's open cards. Thus, suppose A has queen may properly be' regarded as a widow, free 

three open kings ana wins a trick containing a king ; marry again. 

before drawing a^in he places the fourth king with B^zi^ue follows the same rule, if, for instances 

the other three and scores 80 for kings. This is a knave is plaved away, another knave makes anothi 

simple declaration. But if the card led was the open bezique, ana so with double and triple bdsique, if ■ 

queen of trumps and A won it with the king, and he former declared cards. which remain unplayed can 

has the following named open cards : three kings matched from cards in hand to make the requia 

three queens, and ace, ten, and knave of trumps, he combinations. Sequence can be declared over as 

at once declares royal marriage (40) ; four kings (80) ; over again, and compoimd declarations made amoi 

four queens (60) ; and sequence (250), and he scores the declared cards are now generally allowed. TI 

altogether i30. sevens of trumps do not count, nor does the last tria 

Or. if ace of spades is turned up, and ace of hearts unless by special agreement among the players TI 

is lea, the second plaver has two open aces and wins game is 8,000 up. The points for ue plaj[ers to ain= 

the ace of hearts witn the seven of trumps, and ex- are to declare lour aces or sequence, which can i\m 

changes. He scores 10 for the exchange, 10 for the be declared over and over again, if fVesh aces or 

ace of hearts, 10 for the ace of spades, adds the aoes quenco cards are taken into the hand (the duplioe 

to his open cards, and scores 100 for aces — 180 in all. sequence cards being first played away). With B 

If a declaration or part of a declaration is omitted, probability of sequence, everything else, includi 

and the winner of the trick draws again, he can not even aces or chance of doulne bezique, should 

amend his score. sacrificed. 

A second declaration can not be made of a card al- „-_,_ _ oAttmwn^wxa « .j rrv ^ 

ready declared in the same class. For instance, a *1I»L«* SUtlETlES. MMtnoau — Ine seveni 

Sueen once married can not be married again, and a second aDDual meeting of the AmerioaD Bi^ 

fth king added to four already declared, does not Society was held May 10. The Hon. E. 

entitle to pother score for kings. Fancher presided. The cash receipts of « 

It must be kept in mind that no declaration can be g^^ietv for the vear for ffenfirAl nnrnosM Ym 

effected by means of cards in hand. Thus B, having f"*'*®''^ J?I \ ® ^. l^J. JB^"®'^*^ purpose^ m 

three open queens and a queen in hand, can not add been |557,840, m addition to which $4,9 

his open cards to his hand. He must win another had been received to be permanently inTest** 

trick containing a queen wh^ he can decUre queens. The cash disbursements for general pnrpoa 

. Declarations continue durmg the nlay of the kst ^^^ ^ieen $506,453. The funds held in trusty 

eight tncks exactly as dunng the play of the other v. •'«'=" v^^t^"* * iv*»i*vio nc^ivi lu uiuou^ 

cards. o r j which only the income is available, amoun^i 

The game is 2,000 up. It is desirable after each to $347,721, and had yielded during the y^ 

deal to shuffle thoroughlv; othcrwi^je, a number of $18,662. The investments for general purp(^ 

small cards will run together in the stoc^ amounted to $204,661, and had returned 

from the interest of the game. It is also well to fol- ;„«^^^ ^p Am oqo iJ^^.^ ♦!»«», «-^^ k»n^M 

low the rules for ordinary bezique respecting changes income of $10,282. More than two hund* 

of cards ; otherwise, the scores of one may run very volumes had been added to the ubrary, t- 

high and the other very low, thus impainng the in- thirds of the number being copies of the Scri- 

terest of the ^me. The leadf is even more disadvan- ures in various languages, some of them rep» 

tageous than m common Wzique. It is importeiit not genting work done in ancient times. Progi- 

to lead anythmg that can be won by ordinary bezique *'^"''*"» ^ ^ T «"v<t«ui, vtuj^, x • vj^. 

cards. It is oflen desirable to win with a high card, ^as reported on translations of the Scnptit 

though able to win with a low one ; thus, having king into Spanish, Modern Syriac, popular Japans 

and nine of a suit of which the ei^ht is led^ if you and Telugu. Preparatory to printing an & 

win the trick you should take it with the king. It tion in ancient Armenian, a committee 

tr t^^r,rro^nV b^^enr^cX^^^^^^ scholars in Constantinople h^d been invit^ 

in the game is to decide whether to win tricks with give counsel m respect to doubtful readiij 

sequence cards, on the chance of eventually scoring The Muskokee version was under examinatS 

sequence, or to reserve trumps for the last eight tricks, with reference to corrections for a new editi- 

K !i?J!Jl?v"' i^® ^^"^ ^ well advanced, and you are Translations into the Indian languages of Mes 

badly off for trumps, win tncks with sequence cards, j • j u ^ n ^ iT* :i ^ \^ 

and especially if you have duplicate Sequence cards ^^ ^ere desired, but could not be undertal^ 

make them both. If badly off^in trumps toward the for the want of a competent translator. Pr^ 

end of the hand, and your adversary mav win double ress had been made with the version for 

bezique, keep in hand an ace or ten of the b^zioue Laos people. The question of a version i^ 

suits, since when it comes to the last eight tncks, ^.u^ <v«o«. w«,iH r^fcvCiw^^ «,«« n»^». «.i..:«^».»^ 

whe^ suit must be followed, you may prevent the ^?® ®.*»^ W^°"^^^^-,^°* was under ad viseme.* 

score of double bezique. Versions in other Chinese dialects were t: 

Grand or QUneie Biudqae.— This is played like ordi- dergoing revision. The whole number of issitf 



BOATS, COLLAPSABLE. 



93 



I 



during the year at home and Id foreign coan- 
tries bad been 1«504,647 copies. In the mis- 
sionarr and benevolent work of the society, 
387 Bible distributors were employed in foreign 
landSf and 126 colporteurs in the United States. 
Tbe general re-sapply of the United States, 
which had been in progress for six years, was 
DOW drawing to a close. So far, it had resulted 
ID the Tiffltation of 5,001,844 families, 607,009 
c^ whom were found without the Scriptures ; 
asd the supply of 427,346 families and 243,764 
iodiTidoais in addition. Amendments to the 
diAiter of the society had been procured, en- 
larging it8 powers to take and hold real estate 
by bequest or devise, which had previously 
been timited bj tbe condition that the property 
be ah'enated within three years ; and giving it 
authority to receive gifts and bequests in trust. 

Mtt ad Fareigi.— The annual meeting of 
tbe British and Foreign Bible Society was held 
m London, May 2. Lord Harrow by presided. 
Hie gross income of the society for the year 
hid been £250,882, and the expenditure £224,- 
823. As more than £100,000, however, of the 
total income was merely the price paid for the 
books sold, the net income had really been 
only £147,000. The whole number of Bibles 
lod parts thereof issued had been 4,206,032, 
or 273,354 more than in the previous year. 
The money received was spent on foreign agen- 
eies, on auxiliaries abroad, and on kindred 
fodeties. The agents had charge of the de- 
pots, superintended the colporteurs, watched 
tbe passing through the press of the Bibles in 
the native languages of foreign countries, and 
»ld the Scriptures — all with the object of pro- 
■odng as far as possible the putting of the 
Kbie into every man^s hand. Speakers at the 
laQlTersary dwelt npon the benefits realized 
is missionary lands from furnishing converts 
vith tbe Scriptures in their own tongues. 

mis, COIXAPSABLE. Scientifically con- 
tracted boats capable of being folded or col- 
l^M into comparatively small space are a 
Bodem invention. If we ignore the rude bar- 
Wic contrivances made of the inflated skin of 
•wmalsand which were merely rafts or floats, it 
ffiij fairly be said the existing type of folding 
^ caine into being without passing through 
^ Qsnal protracted stages of development. 
JW inventor is the Rev. E. L. Berthon, an 
t^h clergyman, and to him belongs the 
wdit of having first conceived, and subse- 
!»eiitly worked out the problem. 

In Jane, 1849, the " Orion," a favorite pas- 
"s^er-ste^raer plying between Liverpool and 
^^aspow, ran upon a sunken rock off Port Pat- 
^ within two or three hundred yards of the 
*we. The accident was the result of inexcus- 
^ carelessness, as the weather was clear and 
«* sea calm. The ship hung for a few minutes 
^^ the rock, and then slid off into deep wa- 
^- miking at once and carrying with her about 
^^ persons of whom 150 were drowned. Only 
^ of her boats was safely launched, and that 
*»aptared by the sailors and firemen. The 



others were swamped by the rush of terrified 
passengers. Among the saved was a clergy- 
man, a friend of Mr. Berthon, who wrote and 
published an account of his experiences. Know- 
ing Mr. Berthon as a good draughtsman, he 
asked him to prepare some illustrations for the 
book, and while making the drawings the idea 
of a collapsable boat came into his mind. 

Then followed the usual difficulties that be- 
set inventors. For a quarter of a century he 
fought the battle single-handed. In his own 
words: *^ Nothing but faith and confidence in 
the invention which a higher power put into 
my mind, and a sense of certainty that some 
day it would prevail, carried me through. And 
now I am thankful to say that these boats 
are to be found in all parts of the world. 
They have been adopted by the Admiralty and 
by the India Board, and though, as hitherto, 
ship-owners stand off as being free from all re- 
sponsibility with regard to the lives of their 
crews and passengers so long as they act up to 
a most defective law, I may confidently assert 
that the day is not far distant when this sys- 
tem of supplementary boats will be general." 

The inventor's description of the boat is as 
follows : ^^ Imagine a long melon cut into thin 

slices" (evidently the rind 
alone is meant), *^ their shape 
will be more or less lenticu- 
lar. Now suppose these to 
be jointed together at each 




Fio. 1.— Berthon FoLDnfo-BoAT, 
Midship Sections. 

1, Boat collapsed against bulwarks. 
2, Same boat expanded automat- 
ically, on letting go the gripes, 
showing arrangement of thwarts, 
bottom boards, and gunwale struts. 
a a, Strong canvas cover, protect- 
ing the boat when collapsed against 
the bulwarks, a 5, Cnainwale of 
wood, to which cover is attached. 

Tbe shaded spaces are eight air-cells 
between the skins, all separate and 
water-tight. 



end so as to lie flat side by side, like the 
leaves of a shut book, or to take any other 
positions radiating from a central line. Now if 
a certain number of such segments, properly 
placed at certain distances, are connected to- 
gether by some flexible material on their outer 
edges, and made water-tight, the structure be- 



94 



BOATS, COLLAPSABLE. 



comei a boat, bat having aa ;et only ooe skio, 
it wonld 11DI7 float so long as that ekin is Dot 
pierced. Bat noir let na suppose another skin 
to be applied to the inner edges of these len- 
ticular segiiieots and made water-tight, not 
moreij is there a boat within a boat, bat the 
spaces between the segments, being all sepa- 
rate snd distinct, an iiqurj to one does not 
affect the rest." 

In fact the strnctnre forms a trne life-boat 
amply provided with water-tight compart- 
ments, and capable of enjthing that an ordi- 
nary boat can do.escept that iu canvas skin is 
more osmIj pierced tlian the wood or iron of 
which boaiB are usually coostracted. So long 
aa the Berthon boat Is properly handled and 
kept in open water, she is 
IS safe as any other boat of 



len ticalar segments heretoforedesoribed) 
are hinged to the stem and stem poets. 
collapsed these timbers lall down on eitlx 
of the keelson in vertical anil parallel ; 
and when opened they assnme sucli po 
as to form the skeleton of the boat, eitt 
the two canvas skins as described. 

Experiments were at first made with 
rubber, but while it served admirably 
new it was found that it would not 
exposure to changes of climate, ani 
failure led the British Admiralty to cot 
the boat as a failure. Years elapsed 
they could be Induced to reconsider 
availability when covered with canvas, 
canvas as now prepared is satarated 
boiled oil and litQarge, and 




,— BlHTHOH FOUIIHO-BOAT. SHZm PLUt. 



folded boat. One very important feature of 

these boats is that they open themselves au- 
tomatically as sooD ss the weight comes on 
the falls. There is therefore nothing to be 
done bat to swing the boat clear of the chain- 
wale and lower away. Of cuurse the same 
difficulties in taking the water are present as 
in the case of ordinary boats. 

The materials used in construction are mainly 
wood and canvas. The longitudiual timbers 
are preferably strips of American elm, !iteBmed 
and bent In a mold, and riveted together with 
copper. The stem And stem posts are attached 
to the keelson, and on each «de are four Jongi- 
tudinally cnrved timbers (AAA, Fig. 1) (the 



In practical service these boats collaiM 
about one fifth of the space oconpied 
ordinary boat. They may be laid one 
of another, stowed below decks, or, wh 
by far the best plan, lasheil along outsii 
bulwarks as shown in Fig. 9. Itissaic 
the frames are strong enough to snstai 
full complement of pas^iengers at the t 
but lowering a crowded boat into the wi 
extremely ilangerous and, as with all bo 
is best to allow the craw only on board. 

The Berthon boats are buiit of all 
from the light, single-hsnded canoe, 
folded and carried under the ann, to the 
life-boat, 40 feet long by 18^ feet beam. 



BOATS, COLLAPSABLE. 



96 



of this Utter size are in use In the British dsvj. 
Tb«j weigh aboat hftj-five handred pounds, 
utd roUapse to 2^ feet. A wooden boat of 
like dimensions weighs more than twice as 




Fta. a.— DouoLAU Toumre-Bius. 

BMh. Such a boat will oarr; eight horses, 
ud a tteavj field-gan with its ganners, besides 
ibe regalar crew of oarsmen. The boat is 
b«cbtd, broadside on, and odb of her gnn- 
filw is lowered till it is nearlj on a level with 
die buttom -boards. Then the horses are led oS 
•Tihoni difficulty, as they are generall]' very 
tlid to step or jump over the gunwale for the 
<ite of E^ttiDg on shore. Of coarse, with 
orb t freight bb here specified, extra floor- 
Mtdi ire necessary to guard against restive 

The importance of such boats for military 
ud uvsl pnrposee, and for hnnting and ei- 
^unog eipeditions. is self evidpnt, but of far 
Ma consequence is their use for life-saviDg 
botrd our great passenger- steamers, as well 
00 the huge troop-ships used by European 
f^tn. These veaaels often carry nearly or 
fBtt two thoosand sonls, and their fall i!Om- 
fineDt of non-collapMble boats is capable of 
<sTiiii; only uboot six hundred, even under 
1^ noet favorable oircnm stances. With the 
Rtn ptssenger-steamers the case is hardly any 
^er. They all of them carry more of the 
t^kirj type of boat than they are by law re- 
VOTd to csrry, bat the ^npplj is far short of 
lI'iiFCesmtr, and lack of mom prohibits the 
<nui»nstion of more boats. tVobabl; it is 
w&irtble that the nse of ordinary boats by 
''•tk tither of the merchant service or of the 
MTjjhnnld be altogether abandoned. A fair 
^•pljiboold always be at hand, Unt a supple- 
^WtTT snpply of collapsable boats is a neeea- 
^. aad shnuld be required by law, now that 
'^ practical ntility has been proved. It is 
^^ftorrto notice that the great transatlan- 
**eim»hip lines have anticipated legislative 
'^ in this reopect, and all the beat shipa 
*^'Maipped with collapsable boats. The 
*J*( New York," the lateat accession to 



the transatlantic passenger fleet, baa thirty 
large boats, capable of carrying every soul on 
board under ordinary oonditiuns. ISizteen of 
these are non-collapsable, ten are " Chambera'e 
patent unsinlcable, semi-collapsable boats," and 
foor are Berthon boats. 

The Ohambera hoata mentiiined are shallow 
boats fitted with washboards, which increase 
the height of the aides and the consequent car- 
rying capacity of the boat. They are stowed 
one on top of another, three occupying the 
epaoe of an ordinary boat. When rused Into 
position, the washboards lock themselves in 
place. These boats are provided with forty 
air-tight compartments, and the bottom is so 
arranged that it serves as a life-raft in case of 
accident. Under the seats are lockers for pro- 
viuons, etc 

Another folding boat known as the Douglass 
model is largely used in this country. It is 
based on the Berthon principle in so far as 
concerns its folding longitudinal timbers, but 
it is much lighter, and is intended mainly for 
the use of sportsmen. It is not a life-boat, 
having only one akin, and no water-tight com- 
part in en ts. 

With each boat stout carved transverse ribs 
are provided which are easily o^jnsted and 
sprung into place when the boat is expanded. 
kee|iiag the whole structure firmly stretched. 
Externa] strips of hard wood protect the can- 
vas from wear and tear, and add to its 
strength. {See Fig. 3.) The seats and fioor- 
buarda are seen folded in the illustration, with 
the stout ribs that keep the frame expanded 
when in use. 

Still another type of folding boat collapses 
endwise like an accordion, the bent ribs press- 
ing inward against one another toward the 
midship section. When expanded these boats 
ore stiffened by a jointed or hinged timber 
fastened along the bottom for a keelson or 
backbone. In transportation these boats take 




FOLDIHS-BOIT. 



up very little room, as it is possible to stow 
them in a bag or a box no bigger than a mod- 
erate-sized trunk. The one shown in f^K. 4 
is known as the Osgood folding boat^ The 





06 BOLIVIA- ^ 

box ID which, with all its attachments, it is order to increase the revenae it is proposed to 
packed for transportation, measares thirty- raise the duties and the liqaor-tax and the tax 
eight inches by seventeen inches, by eighteen on patents. The exportation of national coin 
inches deep. The oars, paddles, etc., are will continue to be prohibited until apprehen- 
jointed for ease of packing. The weight of a sions of a monetary crisis shall be allayed. The 
twelve-foot boat is from twenty-five to fifty by-laws of the new " Banco de la Paz " have 
pounds, according to the completeness of its been approved. Congress had voted $10,000 
equipment. toward defraying Bolivians representation at 

At the Glasgow International Exhibition in the Paris Exhibition of 1889, but the Govera- 
1888, was exhibited the Shepard collapsable ment finding that the amount would not suf- 
life-boat which has several distinctive features, fice to do so with dignity, a bill increasing it 
(Fig. 6.) The transverse timbers work on has been submitted. The sum of $300,000 has 

been voted toward additional mint machinery 
at Potosi. 

Treaties. — An understanding has been arrived 
at between BoUvia and the Argentine Republic, 
fixing the boundary between them in the Ohaco 
in a preliminary manner; a commission was 
to convene in November to determine the fron- 
tier line definitively. Negotiations with Brazil 
about a treaty of commerce, amity, and navi- 
gation were still pending; it will embrace an 
understanding facilitating the Madeira Mamon6 
_ Railroad scheme. The treaty of commerce with 

Fio. 6.-8eEPABD Collapsable Lifb-Boat. ^^^u is to be revised and completed ; the 

A, Sheer plan, collapsed. B, Cross-secUon, expanded boundary treaty with Paraguay is to become a 

and collapsed. subject of negotiations without further delay. 

Bolivia has engaged to send delegates to the 
a swivel attached to the keelson. When the Congress about to meet at Montevideo for the 
boat is expanded their upper ends lock to the purpose of laying down rules for private inter- 
in wales, and are firmly held in position. When national rights. A treaty of commerce and 
stowed these ribs are turned, as shown by the amity mutually guaranteeing literary and ar- 
dotted lines at A, so that they overlap one tistic right has been concluded with France 
another in a plane nearly identical with that of and signed. 

the keelson and end posts. The other dotted Sallroads* — An English company has been 
lines show bottom-boards, etc. At B is repre- formed in London for the purpose of building 
sented the midship section as it appears when a line of railway from Arica to Bolivia in con- 
expanded and when folded. junction with the present owners and share- 
These boats have been adopted by some of holders of the Arica and Tacna Railroad, with 
the transatlantic steamship lines. a capital of £2,000,000. The parties chiefly 
BOLIVIA, an independent republic of South interested in this new enterprise are Messrs. 
America. (For details relating to area, terri- Clark Brothers, who have built railways in 
torial divisions, population, etc., see ^^ Annual the Argentine Republic, Richard Campbell, 
Cyclopedia ^* for 1883 and 1886). the Australian Bank in London, and Mr. John 
Gofenment — The President of the republic Meiggs. The new line is to reach La Paz via 
is Don Aniceto Arce, whose term of office will Tacna and Corocoro. The Huanchaca Cora- 
expire on Aug. 1. 1892. His Cabinet is com- pany has. resolved to build, with its own funds 
posed of the following ministers : Foreign and without interest guarantee, a railroad and 
Affairs, Sefior Velarde; Finances and Inte- telegraph line from Oruro to the Bolivian 
rior, Don Telmo Ichazo; War, General Ca- frontier. 

brera. Bolivia is not represented by a minis- Teiegrap1i8> — A new telegraph line is io course 
ter at Washington, nor are the United States of construction between Tupiza and Tariza. 
at present represented fit La Paz, except by As it will be connected with the Huanchaca 
Samuel S. Carlisle, American Consul- General. Mining Company ^s private line, it will insure 
The Bolivian Consul-General at New York is rapid communication with Mallendo and En- 
Don Melchor Obarrio. rope. The project of an international tele- 
irmy. — The strength of the regular army is graph bureau has, therefore, been submitted 
3,031 rank and file, the number of oflBcers be- to Congress by the Government, 
ing 367. PiMie Works. — In July Don Cristian Suarez 
FlBtnces. — The foreign debt has been reduced Arana arrived at Puerto Pacheco after having 
to $826,000, $2, 280,000 having been paid dur- accomplished the junction between the road 
ing the past four years in settlement of Chili^s that leads from Isozog to Las Salinas and the 
claims arising from the war on the Pacific, wagon-road opened in that direction from 
The home debt amounts to $2,500,000. The Puerto Pacheco, thus establishing direct com- 
budget for 1887-'88 estimates the income at munication with the Paraguay river. The two 
$8,665,790, and the outlay at $4,599,225. In departments more directly benefited are Chu- 



BOUVIA. BORNEO. 97 

d Santa Cruz. The settlements of pean mannfaotnre, and this so cheaply that not 

ata in the Ohaco will be greatly bene- merely in times like the present of depressed 

da, as it will have a tendency to at- markets, but at all periods, it will not cost the 

igration toward this region, one of Government more than twenty-five rupees per 

fertile of South America. In the pound. Should all the expectations which 

lining regions new wagon-roads have this important discovery has awakened be 

mthorized by Congress. realized, it is believed that it will lead to the 

Jgktt — Not only is La Paz to be trav- substitution of Indian-manufactured quinine 

ram way-lines, but the electric light for the febrifuge in the hospitals and dispensa- 

iniversally introduced. ries of India, and, as a necessary consequence, 

I EipcdttlfBt — In January Baron de to the substitution of yellow bark for red bark 

arrived at Ghililaya, Bolivia, after in the Sikkim plantations. 
ased nearly a year on the Tipuani Iidlai TramMcs. — In May another rising of 
ifflnent of the Mapiri. He had been Indians occurred in the province of Sicasica, 
-hunting expedition among the dis- some eight thousand of them being in arms, and 
ch gave the ancient Peruvians all threatening to massacre all the whites. They 
. The baron speaks highly of the were commanded by a chief of the name of 
) of gold, but declares the climate to Y illca ; but the cavalry garrisoned at Ayoayo 
worst description, and the region to was hurried on to suppress the revolt, which 
d with yermin and deadly animals, was quelled and the ringleaders imprisoned. 
. into the forests with over two hun- Blver NavlgallMk — The Bolivian Government 
Of this number only a very few has granted to Mr. John L. Thomdike the ex- 
med with him. The others sue- elusive privilege for ten years of steam naviga- 
• feverSj snake bites, and like evils. tion between the Desaguadero river and LaJce 
-terk. — ^The shipments abroad of Bo- Poop6, all material which he will require for 
hona-bark have been steadily on the his enterprise to be admitted duty free. Since 
1 1888, not only cultivated but wild the Peruvian Government has seized the rail- 
as more than compensating for the roads of the MoUendo-Areauipa-Puno lines of 

from the island of Ceylon^ which Peru their administration nas become so bad 

orted from October 1 to September that Bolivian merchants who had been avail- 

, 251 pounds, as compared with 18,- ing themselves of these lines in connection 

I 18d6~*87, and 16,226,162 in 1885- with Lake Titicaca for the transportation of 

cultivated Bolivian bark has, in 1888, their goods, have been compelled to return to 

rted not only in flat pieces, but also the Arica-Tacna outlet, and this in spite of the 

ipe of tubes, and is still highly es- fact that from Tacna the goods have to be for- 

1 account of its large quinine con- warded on mules' backs, and that at Arica the 

^anwhile, Peruvian cincnona plant- goods have to pay storage and harbor expenses, 

that, at ruling prices abroad, their which are not charged at Mollendo. While 

las ceased to be profitable ; but, as this is the case, the Bolivian Government has 

9 does not deter them from export- ordered the organization of custom-houses at 

than ever. A recent report by a the Mollendo Agency, at Puerto Perez or La 

named Van Lon, who resides in Paz and the remaining ports of Lake Titicaca, 

idicates that there is likely to be a in conformity with an understanding arrived 

sAvy increase in the production of at with Peru, and in conformity with the law 

only on account of the enlarged of July 16, 1886, regulating the general cus- 

' trees that has been planted, but be- toms' service. 

found that the new growth is capa- Mlvla at tlie Barcdma ExhlMUwi* — The Huan- 

Klucing bark that will yield 18 per chaca Mining Company has made a magnifi- 

Ikaloid. It is stated that there are cent display of its rich copper ores and blende, 

es under cultivation in Java, which, and the Bolivian firm of Artola Brothers, of 

ies per acre, would give about 10,- Bolivian embroideries, textile fabrics, seeds, 

■ees, which, at 1^ pound a tree (the feathers, skins, chocolate, and small figures of 

rage), would yield 15,000,000 pounds, whites and Indians dressed in the costumes of 

*r six years. While the supply from the country, together with a thousand curiosi- 

d Java thus promises to be abundant ties, all together giving a high idea of Bolivia's 

he Government of India has pub- resources and its manual and artistic skill 

- the information of the public, highly creditable to the South American in- 

he Bulletin of the Royal Gardens, land republic, 

e particulars of the new process of BORNEO, the largest of the Malaysian isl- 

auinine from the cinchona- bark by ands, having a length of 850 miles and a 

. By the aid of this process, per- breadth of 600 miles. Its area is about 270,- 

i\j by Mr. Gamme, it is found pos- 000 square miles. The Dutch claim imzerain 

ilize the calisaya or yellow bark va- rights over the greater part of the island, com- 

to extract from it the whole of its prising the entire region south of the native 

a form indistinguishable chemically state of Sarawak, which has long been admin- 

dly from the best brands of Euro- istered by Englishmen, and the territory be- 
L. xxvin. — 7 A 



98 BORNEO. BOXING. 

• 

longing to the Saltan of Sala. In 1881 the conntries. New possessions have since been 

British North Borneo Company was char- added to tlie British Empire in many parts of 

tered in England, and took possession of the the world, and the Government has at length 

northern end of the island, by virtue of a decided to declare a protectorate over British 

grant from the Sultan of Sala. Commercial North Borneo, Sarawak, and the large native 

stations were established, and a civil adminis- state of Branei. 

tration was organized by 1888, when the reve- BOXING. Individaal prowess is a large fac- 
nae collected amounted to $50,738, while the tor in the sarvival of the fittest. Man is no 
expenditure amounted to five times that som. exception. From the beginning the praises 
The area of British North Borneo, as the new .of the man of speed, of muscle, of skill in the 
state was called, is 81,106 square miles. Its use of naturo^s weapons have been sculptured 
population is 150,000. The principal products and sung. To acquire physical superiority has 
are beeswax, edible birds^-nests, camphor, co- been the study of ages. The ancients paid 
coanuts, coffee, dammar, fruits, salt fish, gutta- great honor to the runner, the dumb-bell lifter, 
percha, hides, India-rubber, elephants^ tusks, or any other specialist ; but they outdid them- 
cattle, pepper, rattans, rice, sago, seeds, pearls, selves when it came to the winner of the pan- 
sharks^ fins, tortoise and other shells, tobacco, cratium, a combination of boxing and wres- 
trepang, cedar, and many kinds of cabinet- tling, kicking, biting, gouging, and choking, be- 
woods. The imports increased from $429,000 side which the contests of the modem prize- 
in 1883 to $585,000 in 1887, and the exports ring under what are known as the London 
from $159,000 to $535,000. The climate is rules are a parlor amusement, 
temperate, and agricultural colonies have been To become a clever boxer is now the study 
founded, the sales of land up to the end of of many people who a few years ago would 
1887 having been 120,000 acres. There are have considered it degrading to be seen in the 
plantations of sugar, coffee, pepper, and other street with a pugilist. Books on this subject 
tropical products. The soil has been found are being rapidly placed on the market, and 
to be remarkably good for tobacco-culture, schools of seif-defense are opening all over the 
and, in the first three months of 1888, appli- country. To be a fairly good boxer is soon to 
cations were made for 158,835 acres more, be a requisite in more than one occupation. 
Borneo tobacco now competes successfully The police of at least one American city (Pitts- 
with that grown in Sumatra. There are five burg) are being instructed in the art of box- 
companies engaged in planting tobacco. The ing at the expense of the tax-payers, and it is 
revenue now exceeds the expenditures, not expected that when the force is composed en- 
reckoning the proceeds of land sales, which tirely of proficient boxers the use of the clab 
are treated as capital. The revenue is derived and pistol will almost entirely cease, 
from duties on opium, salt, tobacco, and spir- Boxing as it is now known, outside of those 
its, export duties, fees, and rents. Stations old-time brutalities with the cestus (a sort of 
were first founded at Sandakam, Papar, Eirai- brass knuckles), is about three hundred years 
nas, Gaya, Kudat, and Silam, on the coast, old. It came into prominence first in England, 
and, as soon as land was cleared at those The old English idea of boxing — ^to call it an 
points, immigrants began to arrive, and the art as it was then seems ludicrous — was bat 
Dyaks of the interior brought in their produce little better than that of the ancient Greeks 
to sell. A police force was recruited from and Romans. In olden times in England two 
Malays and Dyaks, Sulu Islanders, Nubians so-called boxers entered a ring to settle the 
and Somalis from Africa, and Sikhs from In- question which had the greater brute strength, 
dia. Tribal feuds and head-hunting forays courage, wind, and endurance. There was not 
are now of rare occurrence. In 1884 the ter- the slightest question of brains in the battle, 
ritory was enlarged by the additional grant of Soon a man came forward who was able by 
Dent Land in the south. The country enjoys a show of agility to make up for his lack of 
tlie advantages of settled government under a size in a fight with one of these old-time gi- 
system of laws copied from the code of India, ants ; and then came a fighter like Tom Crib, 
There are ofiSces, barracks, hospitals, jails, who introduced the famous ^* milling on the 
and wharves at all the stations. Explorations retreat" tactics, and it became possible for a 
recently made in the interior have resulted in man like Tom Spring, who was not much more 
the discovery of alluvial gold in paying quan- than medium sized (a middle-weight) and, a 
titles on the Segama river, and of coal-beds few years afterward, for Tom Sayers, almost 
in the southern province, but only the agricult- a small man, to beat all the heavy-weights in 
ural wealth of the country has thus far been England and hold the championship belt 
developed. The forests produce some of the When such results became possible, boxing 
finest woods that are known, among them the might be said to have really become a science, 
valuable bilian-tree, and there is already a Since the time when only giants could be 
considerable export of timber to China. The victorious pugilists this science has undergone 
British Government in the beginning refused more than one revolution. Once the two 
to extend political protection to the North fighters stood toe to toe, and to retreat, to go 
Borneo Company, as there was at that time down, to manoeuvre in any way, was disgraoe- 
a prejudice against the annexation of new ful. Once men used the left hand as a shield 



BOXING. 99 

^bt as a mace. Then the right hand the neck on the jagnlar vein. Bat he soon 

ie shield and the left the weapon of found the full-arm swinging blow as danger- 

In the time of Heenan and oayers, ons to his own hand and forearm as to his 

isb fighters depended mainly upon opponent's circulation, so he changed the full- 

; bnt Heenan showed them the supe- arm swing to a half-arm one, and tried to de- 

the left. For years it was said that liver the blow on the jaw-bone instead of on 

yokel '^ hit with bis right fist, or the neck, as it was equally effective and less 

swinging blow. John L. Sullivan, likely to be fatal. However little future box- 
Liest pugilist of the age, who brought ers may value Sullivan's round-arm delivery, 
?88 of pugilism from the gutter to a they can not fail to give him credit for cen- 
L almost as well-paying as base-ball- tralizing his fire and for pointing out a su- 
*r riding running horses, revolution- premely vulnerable spot. 
lat, developed the blow on the point PrdlHiiary PrtnfB.— Gentlemen want to learn, 
w, and with swinging, ronnd-arm not the tricks of the ring, but the simple 
his terrible right, incased though it points of scientific pugilism. The first thing 
>ozing-glove, mowed down opponents m boxing is to learn to double the fist cor- 
ed to their knowledge and practice rectly, ^* make up a bunch of fives,'' as it is 
^ to defeat him. Possibly some of called in ring- parlance. Not one man in a 

triumphs are explained by the facts thousand can do this, not because there is 

ime out at a time when pugilism was anything difiicult about it, but because so few 

&bb and good big men were scarce, will make the attempt naturally. A novice 

le met his opponents under Marquis is sure to protrude the middle, or second fin- 

iberry rules instead of under the rules ger, thinking he is making a very formidable 

ndon Prize-Ring, which would have weapon of his hand, when in reality he is only 

my of them far better. Sullivan's increasing his chances for that curse of boxing 

h Charles Mitchell, under the London — broken hand-bones. At best, ninety -nine 

•*ranee, in March, 1888, resulted in a amateurs in a hundred double up the fist 

r a protracted encounter. A man, squarely, that is, with the first and second 

inferior in weight by forty pounds, fingers closed tightly and the third and fourth 
1 in a bare-knuckle fight for hours, loosely folded. This makes another ugly-look- 
much to change the popular idea of ing but very ineffective weapon, sure to be 
boxing. A few years ago it was all injured at the first good blow. To double the 
1 swinging blows, and decisive bat- fist correctly, open out all the fingers and the 
ry short time ; now it is more can- thumb to the widest stretch, then close natn- 
3 careful hitting, and mostly with the rally. The backs of the big knuckles, the only 
, the right being saved, as before ones that should ever strike on an opponent, 

advent, for the coup de grdce, Sul- will be found to have formed an arch when 

c boxing to one extreme, to win or the hand is tightly closed. In fighting or box- 

lort order by one decisive hit on a ing the hands should be held loosely, half open, 

ot, the point of the jaw. Mitchell all the muscles and those of the forearms re- 

d back the tide by his long, waiting laxed, till the moment of delivery, when the 

while another man, Jack Dempsey, fist should be most tightly closed. No one 

erful middle-weight, has been a sort can practice throwing a base-ball without learn- 

^-wheel. ing how thoroughly interdependent the mus- 

»efore the idea had been broached cles are. The wisdom of resting the hands by 

the legs in a prize-fight, or the giving them perfect freedom while not actually 

wed it, there was some knowledge delivering a blow has been illustrated by many 

>8t vulnerable spots for blows. The great boxers. Those masters, Jem Mace and 

e stomach, called ^^the mark," was Joe Cobum, always manoeuvred in the ring 

ese, and a severe blow on this spot with hands as open as if they were about to 

telling. Other points of attack were wrestle, not to strike with the fist". Indeed, the 

if the ear or on the jugular vein ; the wonderful Gypsy's commonest trick in a ring 

the eyes, the throat, just over the was hitching up his waist-band, wiping his 

d on the short ribs. The extreme hands on his fighting- breeches, or rubbing 

ess of the point of the jaw and the them together. Dominick McCaffrey, in his 

left for John L. Sullivan to demon- easy forty-minute victory over Golden, in their 

[Tie "big fellow," as his admirers skin-tight glove contest, was doing with his 

to call him, while sitting in a sur- hands a great deal of the time the practice 

air having the arm that he broke that a Bchool-girl does with her fingers in 

y Cardiff's head reset, told the writer order to be able to stretch an octave. Jem 

-tide that he discovered his famous Carney, in the light-weight championship bat- 

»at " blow partly by accident and tie with Jack McAuliffe, used the same method 

fm reading the works of a famous of keeping his hands fit for their work. For 

lovelist. Sullivan said he knocked boxing-practice with ordinary gloves the hands 

if time in the beginning of his career do not need the hardening the pugilists give 

"ing a swinging right-hand blow on theirs before a matched battle; but no blow 



100 BOXING. 

in boxing should be delivered with the hand or this or any one position long, and the mnscles 
glove open. A light blow shoald be given in of the legs and body are rested by steppinff 
showing a friend a move, not by slapping, tap- about. In walking abont an attempt shoald 
ping, or ^^ flicking,^' but by accurate gauging be made to keep the left foot a little in advance 
of the time and distance. When an amateur of the right, and be ready to fly into the attitude 
can deliver a light blow with a closed hand in no time. Proficiency in leg-work, which is 
delicately, he is becoming artistic. They say most important, can only be acquired by long 
that Mace could knock down an ox or simply practice and natural aptitude. 8ome boxing- 
touch the powder on a lady's face with a blow teachers tell pupils to stand with the left or 
from his dinched hand. The story may have advanced foot turned out. This is contrary to 
just a flavor of the trip-hammer- and- watch- the whole theory and practice of boxing, which 
crystal tale about it, but Mace certainly was a simply tries to make the most of nature's laws 
wonderful artist. Pugilists harden their hands in every instance. The very important thiui^ 
in different ways. The change from the bare- about a position is the advantage it gives to 
knuckle fighting of olden times to the dog-skin- get quickly backward or forward and to see- 
glove battles of recent years does away with ond the delivery of blows. Let any one when 
much disagreeable and tiresome work in this standing perfectly still with his left foot ad- 
direction. Good, hard rubbing is one of the vanced and the toes turned well ottty try to 
best things in the world to harden the flesh spring backward or forward ; then try it with 
and bones of the hand. Alcohol, lemon-juice, the toes turned in. All pedestrians, sprinters, 
rock-salt, gunpowder, saltpeter dilute, tannin, six-day runners, and heel-and-toe walkers pro- 
and alum are some of the washes used. Jem gress with feet either held perfectly straight or 
Carney, the English light-weight champion, with the toes turned a trifle in. The child of 
used to whet his hands over a smooth plank nature, the American Indian, travels in the same 
for hours a day during his training, slapping way, and so do most mail-carriers and policemen, 
the backs of his hands back and forth over The variety of positions in which to do good 
the wood as a man straps a razor. As, in and effective boxing is as great as is the num- 
spite of all precaution, a carelessly delivered ber of boxers. Every man selects that attitude 
upper-cut, a blow on an opponent's head, or a best suited to his height, reach, length of leg, 
failure when very tired to have the hands as and tactics. To stand well up, so as to take 
well closed as they should be, is always liable full advantage of the height, is generally con- 
to injure the hand, it might not be out of the sidered wise, some men even standing on the 
way to mention a simple remedy, of which toes. This is seemingly a very tiresome atti- 
few surgeons are apt to think. It will do tude, yet it is one that Tom Sayers frequently 
away with what most fighters' hands have, as^med. A man's position, however, must be 
unsightly bunches from the broken bones not governed by other considerations than a sole 
having been properly set. A silver dollar in- wish to stand as tall as possible. Any one that 
sorted under the bandage over the broken has ever tried to hit a punching-bag knows that 
bone will press the ends in together so tightly force is gained for the blows, even if speed is 
as to heal them most completely and without lost, by assuming a stooping attitude, 
a bunch. A wooden dollar would answer just TIm Afbu* — The left arm should be held oat ^ 
as well. perhaps a little farther than elbow-distaooe 
fl[«w t* Stasd. — A good position in boxing is from the body, with the hand held so that the 
very important. The approved position is with thumb is uppermost. The left arm in position 
the body erect, weight between the legs, the should form an obtuse angle. The right arm 
left being advanced in front of the right. The should be thrown across the body, with the hand 
toes of the left foot are turned iny those of held in the neighborhood of the left nipple, or* 
the right foot out. The rule among the cley- over the pit of the stomach, as individual prao- 
erest of the professionals is " On the flat of the tice finds it more effectual to hold a high or a 
left ; on the ball of the right." . The right leg low guard. Holding a low guard renders ^^stop- . 
need not be behind the other in a line run- ping " less speedy, but " cross countering ^ 
ning from the heel of the right foot through more forcible. The right arm, if held for a high . 
the ball to the heel of the left, as has some- guard, should form an acute angle ; if for a low 
times been taught. It would require a tight- guard, a right angle. The elbow, it is now de- 
rope walker's balancing powers to stand with termined, should be held close to the body, 
one foot exactly behind the other in deliver- There are no prominent pugilists who now i^ 
ing a blow, though the right will greatly sec- tempt guarding with the elbow to any extent 
ond the effort if it is pretty nearly behind the As with the legs, the arms are not held rigidlj 
left. The right leg should be slightly bent at in their positions. In fact, some of the mosi 
the knee, the left held straight but not stiff, successful boxers seldom stand on guard a . 
Just how far apart the feet should be kept, is they are pictured. The right hand should, 
another matter of individual practice, influ- not be too strictly confined to the position de- 
enced also by each one's height and build, scribed, but it can not be allowed as much lati* 
The most convenient distance between the tude as the left, which is the offensive mem* 
feet is generally abont half the ordinary step. ber. The right is at once the buckler and tbf 
It would tire anybody but a statue to keep reserve force of the body. Its duties are U 



BOXING. 101 

the incoming left of an opponent, or to have the hand in a natural position — that 
ia-counter *' his deliveries. is, with the thamh on top, not on the outside 
iie left and not the right foot and arm of the closed fist. Strike forward as far and 
meed in scientific hozing, is the first as straight as possible. The bag, if light, 
at a beginner, who always wants to shoald be swinging freely, and it should be 
^ht foot and right hand foremost, asks strack, *^ met," as it is coming toward the hit- 
. The left arm, side, and leg are held ter. A heavy bag should never be hit except 
of the right for two reasons. First, when it is swinging from the striker. The 
rtunity is given by bringing the left left-hand blow is not hit as the blow with the 
in advance of the right to inflict pun- right is, but is a sort of quick, half-push — a 
as well as to guard it. The only use "jab " or a **prop "it is called in ring-par- 
>vice makes of his left is to guard with lance. No blows with the right hand should 
his right entirely for offensive work, be struck during the early practice, but every 
is noc in general use as the right hand effort should be made to acquire dexterity, 
but for this getting it into a position force, and speed in delivery with the left. It 
little blow, and a half-pushing blow at is not the few hard hits with this hand that 
m it tells, no amount of practice could tell so much as the many light blows for which 
man to do much with it. It takes a no return blow or counter is taken. After some 
led man to throw a stooe well with confidence has been acquired by bag-work, 
hand, and he can not use his right, practice with an opponent should be begun, 
-handed man can hit in the same man- Always try to land the blows squarely on his 
L his left that he can with his right, face or body. To ^^ stop "an opponent's blows 
I practice he can hit a good left-handed and never to get hit, is even more important 
a little different manner. Think of than effective hitting. It tires more to strike 
•ant of practice it takes for a person than to stop ; therefore, if two men were to 
driving a nail with the right hand to meet, one of whom was a perfect stopper 
ible to drive the nail with the hammer though he could hit scarcely at all, and the 
is left hand ! But with a hammer-bead other could not " stop " blows, the good stop- 
i with a different kind of blow, he can per would win. Very few of the present-day 
lail with the left hand quite well. boxers excel as stoppers. None can come 
lolding of the left arm and leg in ad- near the excellence of that wonderful ex-cham- 
' the right is a wonderfully clever yet pionof the light- weights, Billy Edwards, who in 
ray of making boxers ambidextrous, nis day worsted all who came before him, re- 
Q does not render the left as handy as gardtess of difference in size and weight. To 
t, but it enables it to hit a different stop well requires much practice and good hard 
blow, which is almost if not quite as work with as many different kinds of hitters 
I as the sledge-hammer smash of the as possible. As the left-hand blow of an op- 
rhe second reason is, that the right, ponent is coming in for tlie face, the right, 
it accomplished hand, is made to do which has been lying across the breast, should 
id reserve if not skirmish duty. It is be suddenly raised, the palm turning outward 
more important to defend than to of- as it meets the incoming punch. The blow 
d at the same time the right is " stop- should be stoppeil in such a way as to have the 
1 opponent's blows, its hitting strength forearm or wrist of the striker land on the tight- 
kept in reserve for a heavy blow on ened muscles of the forearm of the stopper. It 
ibs when the opportunity comes. is hard to clinch the hand too tightly or ^^stop " 
% tmd Mt be Hit — To learn hitting too forcibly. A few good hard stops will some- 
ud up before an eight or ten pound times so hurt an adversary's arm as to render 
g-bag in the attitude described ; draw him most cautious about " leading." Do not 
, arm and shoulder back so that the attempt to throw off the blow ; the best way 
TDs a slightly acute angle with the is merely to stop it. Always keep the right 
loved hand opposite the side or short elbow as low, near the ribs, as possible. 
1 the left shoulder twisted back, the There is a left-hand lead for the body as 
oulder, of course, coming forward in well as for the head. The point of attack on 
odation and the right fist or glove the body is the pit of the stomach or " mark." 
from its position over the mark or the To hit the ** mark" effectively, the hand should 
pie up almost upon the left shoulder, be turned so that the back or large knuckles 
: shoald always be used to learn hitting, are on top and the thumb on the inside. The 
ginner feels more confidence than in weight should greatly assist this blow. The stop 
aiHT on an opponent. When drawn or or guard for the body lead is with the right, but 
back as far as possible without strain- struck downward instead of upward. Much 
;h the left hand as tightly as possible, stopping is very trying to the arms. Tom 
denly shoot it forward, or "lead" at Sayers's right forearm was as much injured as 
as hard as possible, helping the force if it were broken, if it was not broken, in the 
blow by drawing back the right arm battle with John C. Heenan, stopping the Troy 
it side of the body and stepping in with giant's terrific lef^-handers. Few fighters 
foot. In dehvering the blow, be sure emerge from a battle without forearms black 



I 



102 BOXING. 

and blue from wrist to elbow from stopping principle. John L. Sullivan's earlj work was 

Uieir opponents' blows. successfallj done hj the fall - arm swingmg 

Dodging and Couteriiig. — As a rest and as oross-coonter, which he modified, after a few 
one of the easiest ways of inculcating use of broken hands, to a half-arm swinging blow, 
the straight counter the teacher of one of the There are two good ways of striking the cross- 
best boxing- schools in this country always counter. One way, the first to be described, 
takes up the ^^ slipping'' or dodging of the left- has the advantage in speed and handiness of 
hand lead as soon as his pupils can show fair delivery, but the second method is considered 
proficiency in hitting and stopping. Dodging the safer. That is, there is less danger of be- 
and countering the left lead is performed by ing severely countered in return, 
throwing the face suddenly toward the right When boxing with aD opponent for practice, 
shoulder as the left lead is about to land on have him lead with the left for the face. In- 
nose, mouth, or eye, the head being at the same stead of stopping the blow with the right 
time dodged slightly forward and a little forearm, as before treated, or dodging it bj 
toward the right, the left hand being simul- throwing the face toward the right shoulder, 
taneously sent in on the opponent's face. The throw the face just a trifle toward the left 
beauty of this blow is its ease of delivery and shoulder and, without turning so much as to 
the combination of muscles which aid its force, take the eye from the bitterns face, rise as 
A boxer can hardly be so tired that he can not much as possible on the ball of the right foot, 
use this method of punishing an opponent, and and try to hit him with the right on the jaw, 
in many a prolonged contest has it secured the or on the neck close under the ear, by throw- 
victory. Variety may be given this manoeuvre ing the right hand and arm over, "<K;raw" the 
by occasionally making the counter do on an incoming left, which should slide harmlessly 
opponent's body. over the cross-connterer's right shoulder. A 

The greatest exercise movements in boxing little practice will show just how to turn the 

are the straight counters. The straight or left- hand slightly so as to land on the jaw or 

hand counters are made on face and body just neck with the clinched knuckles of the third 

as the left leads are, only, instead of the blows and fourth fingers. This is one of the pretti- 

being made when an opponent is on guard, they est, most scientific, and severest punishing 

are delivered in response to his leads. To blows in the whole science of boxing. The 

straight counter : The moment an opponent cross-counter may be guarded by throwing the 

leads, stop his left with the right, and simul- right hand up to the base of the ear, catching 

taneously, or a fraction of a second later, as the counter in the palm and throwing it off. 

individual practice finds best, let go the left It may also be avoided by ducking. To duck 

forcibly on face or body. the cross-counter, throw the head straight down 

As almost everybody is so much in need of as the blow is near its destination, and bring 

left-hand development and practice, the best it up on the outside of the blow, which, of 

boxing-teachers instruct in the feints with the course, has just missed. Perhaps the best way 

left in an effort to make the left the offensive is to dodge it. In dodging turn the face to the 

one before any attempt is made to teach the right as the left lead is delivered ; this will 

offensive use of the right hand. present the back of the head for the receipt of 

A feint is a make-believe. It may consist the cross- counter, and make an opponent liable 

of a pronounced false movement with the fist to break his hand. Variety is sometimes given 

or glove, but a scowl, a clinching of the teeth, to the cross-counter by aiming at the short 

a stamp of the foot might serve. A clever ribs instead of the jaw. This is called the low 

feinter so manages it that he gets an opponent cross-counter. To strike the old fashioned or 

nervous — ** rattled" — off his balance — with safe cross-counter, dodge the left lead as if to 

arms in a position impossible to be serviceable make the dodge and left counter, but come up 

in guarding, while he himself is drawn back in a quickly close beside the antagonist and deliver 

Eerfect attitude for a tremendous blow which tne right like lightning on jaw or neck. It 
e lets go at exactly the right moment. Feints should always be remembered that landing a 
may be made with the left for the face followed good straight left-hand blow on an opponent's 
by a blow for the features, or on the body fol- nose or chin will prevent his effectively "cross- 
lowed by a body-punch, or a body-feint may ing " that blow at least. Another stop for the 
be followed by a face-blow or vice versa, A cross-counter, especially when an opponent is 
left-hand feint may be followed with a blow much addicted to its use, is to land a few solid 
of the right hand or the opposite, or a half- left-handers on his right shoulder. This will 
dozen feints may be made before any real at- temporarily paralyze his right delivery, 
tempt is made to plant a hit. Ultra-Sctentlfc Work. — Good head-work gener- 
Tlie Right HiBd.— Not till familiarity with the alship and ducking and dodging are very essen- 
use of the left has been acquired should any tial ; ability to manoeuvre the feet is, if any- 
effort be made at right-hand delivery. The thing, more important. Only long practice will 
great right-hand blow is called the cross-coun- tell an individual how much ducking he can do 
ter. All but direct right-hand leads, and they with safety, and it is best to rely on ducking 
are very seldom made by experts, are modifi- only as a resort in a tight pinch. Properly bal- 
cations or complications of the cross-counter anced on the feet, and well practiced in getting 



BRAZIL. 108 

rard or forward and breaking ground to Janeiro is Thomas J. Jarvis; the Consul-Gen - 

ide, is generally easier and safer than eral, H. Clay Armstrong, 

ng in close quarters, which frequently Finaices. — The Sterling debt of Brazil 

ete one to lose sight of his opponent. amounted, on March 31, 1888, to £29,000,000, 

boxer who battles on the defensive, de- and the home debt to 487,306,700 milreis. The 

ng only on straight counters or the old- paper money in circalation on April 30, 1888, 

>ned cross-counters, a good stopper and consisted of treasury notes to the amount of 

c:r, and well up in leg-work, will bother 188,861.263 milreis ; notes of the Bank of Bra- 

ch heavier man, no matter how ex)>ert zil, 15,276,850; notes of the Bank of Bahia, 

the Marquis of Queensberry's rules for 975,550 milreis; notes of the Bank of Maranhao 

ig- matches are understood in this country, 166,700. The treasury notes form part of the 

? is very little chance for an in-fighter, but home debt referred to. The budget for 1889 

one of the great things in boxing. £spe- estimates the ordinary expenditare at 188,108,- 

r is in-fighting valuable in an unexpected 671 milreis ; the outlay authorized for 1888 

anter. The principal point about in-fight- had been 141,280,108 milreis ; the income in 

3 to keep both hands at work. In an un- 1889 is estimated at 140,000,000 milreifl, as 

cted fracas let the opponent do all the compared with 138,895,000 authorized for 1888. 

ing and struggling ; keep the left going Brazilian finances have been gradually im- 

^ht in his face and at the body-mark, and proving, as the diminished deficits of 1886 and 

swing the right on neck, jaw, and short ribs. 1887 show. During seven consecutive years the 

very expert blow which few, even of the deficits, reduced to sterling money, have been : 

»sionals, have mastered, is the draw and 1881, £1,294,000; 1882, £1,185,000; 1888, 

ter for the cross-counter. The enemy's £2,784,000; 1884, £2,679,000; 1886, £8,947,- 

the right cross-counter, is drawn by a 000; 1886, £2,863,000; and 1887, £2, 802, 000. 

T feint with the left. His cross-counter The deficits in 1886 and 1887 chiefly arose 

:>pped with the left, and the movement of from railroads and other public works. The 

»odj^ which aids in stopping his right with deficit for 1888, it is believed, will not exceed 

eft, helps in sending a tremendous right £1,800,000. The floating debt is $4,656,000. 

bis jaw. The paying of wages to the freedmen will re- 

lother clever move is the inside right, quire an extensive circulation of additional silver 

of the most expert use it, but it is a very coin to the amount of about $7,000,000, for 

dve blow. The inside right is used iu- which the equivalent in treasury notes of 500 

[ of the cross-counter by stopping a left to 2,000 reis will be withdrawn. This amount 

with the right, making the movement of of silver will have to be bought in the open 

for the stop aid in getting the right into market. 

ion and delivering a counter with it on Amy. — The actual strength of the Brazilian 

jaw, bat inside instead of outside and army is 1,520 ofiicers and 18,528 men ; in the 

» the arm that led. event of war it may be raised to 30,000. There 

>per catting is sometimes effective, but is is also a gendarmerie in actual service of 6,847 

ys so dangerous to whomsoever attempts men, 1,008 of whom are at Kio. After the 

at many boxers do not attempt it at all. new census shall have been taken, the National 

apper cut is a counter. It should only be Guard, at present dissolved, will be reorgan- 

after careful illustration by a good teacher, ized. The Oomblain carbine, now in use in the 

blow should never be employed except Brazilian army, will soon be replaced by an- 

1 an opponent comes in head down. other weapon, while the artillery is to receive 

LAZIL. (For detmls relating to area, terri- Bange field- pieces. 

1 divisions, population, etc., see " Annual Navyt — The naval forces of the empire were 

opsedia," for 1884.) composed in 1888 of nine iron-clads, six cruis- 

wenmmL — The £mperor is Dom Pedro ers, a mixed school corvette, a paddle-wheel 

X)m Dec. 2, 1825. He returned from steamer for artillery practice, four patachos or 

ipe on August 28 vrith his health restored, light school craft; five torpedo-boats of the 

Cabinet is composed of the following min- first class; three third-class torpedo-boats; 15 

»: President of the Council of Ministers gun-boats, 7 of which have paddle-wheels, 4 

Minister of Finance, Senator Joao Alfredo are wooden with screw, and 4 steel with 

ea d'Oliveira; Minister of the Interior, screw; two steam-transports, and eleven steam- 

itj Jos^ Femandes da Costa Pereira, Jr. ; launches. The two new gun-boats have re- 

ster of Justice, Deputy Dr. Antonio Fer- ceived their armament, and there were on the 

k Vianna ; Minister of Foreign Affairs, stocks, in a forward state of construction, two 

tor Antonio da Silva Prado ; Navy, Sena- other gun-boats — all of them steel. The Bra- 

LuLb Antonio Viera da Silva; War, Sena- zilian fleet mounts 184 rifled Whitworth and 

liomaz Jos6 Coelho de Almeida ; Agricult- Armstrong guns, 94 Nordenfeld mitrailleiiset^ 

Deputy Rodrigo Augusto da Silva. The 11 rapid-fire Nordenfeld guns, 4 Hotchkiss re- 

illan Minister at Washington is Dr. Joao volving guns, and 11 smooth-bore pieces. The 

loro de Louza Correia. The Consul-Gen- collective horse- power is 19,829, and the ton- 

of Brazil at New York is Dr. Salvador nage, 40,252. It is manned by 4,272 sailors 

doDca. The American Minister at Kio de and ofiicers. 



104 



BRAZIL. 



PMtal Serrlce. — The report of the postmaster- 
genera], dated Dec. 81, 1887, shows that there 
were then in operation 1,963 post-offices, of 
which 558 were in the province of Minas- 
Geraes, and 11 in that of Goyaz. The total 
receipts for the second half of 1886 and the 
whole of 1887, were 8,064,281 milreis, and the 
expenses 8,824,788, the deficit not exceeding 
260,501, which is trifling considering the size 
of the country and the moderate rate of post- 
age. Three provinces had a surplos. Money 
orders were paid to the amount of 1,712,204 
milreis. The number of letters handled in the 
foreign mails was 4,012,879, distributed as fol- 
lows: Portugal, 1,181,600; France, 678,452; 
England, 684,580; Germany, 554,820; Italy, 
378,158; United States, 218,837; Rio de la 
Plata, 140,278; Spain, 97,117; Belgium, 44,- 
628; other countries, 140,010. The number 
of foreign letters exceeded those of 1886 by 
226,917. The home mails forwarded 12,042,- 
998 letters and 27,271,189 newspapers. 

Telegraphs. — In July, 1888, there were in 
operation 10,638 kilometres of Government 
telegraphs, with 18,403 kilometres of wire, 
connecting 170 offices. The service includes 
48 kilometres of cable, the bulk of which is in 
the Bay of Rio. 

CMuierce. — The development in BraziPs for- 
eign commerce during the quinquennial period 
1882-^88 to 1886-^87 is shown in the ensu- 
ing tables, reduced to eontosj or thousands of 
milreis : 



The sugar and cotton exportations from Per- 
nambuco have been as follow : 



YKABS. 


Sogar. 


CoMoa. 


1886 


Tods. 
106,797 
146,066 
in.818 


186.844 


1887 


248,700 


1888 


869,886 





The export of hides from Rio Grande do Sol 
in 1887 was 856,111, compared with 758,622 
in 1886. 

The American trade with Brazil exhibits 
these figures : 



FISCAL YKAR, 


From the United 
StatattoBraiO. 


From BrMEflto 
tbcUnllod BlitM. 


1886 


$7,268,086 
6.480,788 
8,071,668 
7,068,892 


$46,268,660 


1886 


41,907 jns 

624»58.176 


1887 


1888 


68,710,884 





TKAR.S. 


Import. 


Export. 


Total trad*. 


1882-'88 


190,264 
194,482 
178,481 
197,602 
209,407 


197,038 
216,014 
226,270 
194,962 
268,620 


887,297 


188:i-'84 


410,446 


1884-'85 


404,701 


1885-'86 


892,464 


1886-^87 


472,927 






Total 


970,086 


1,097,799 


2,067,886 





On examining the amounts exported of each 
of the nine principal products shipped, it will 
be found that for the last two fiscal years the 
figures were as follow: OoflTee, 826,186 tons 
in 1885-^86, and 864,409 tons in 1886-'87; 
sugar, respectively, 112,899 and 226,010; cot- 
ton, 15,054 and 23,280; India-rubber, 8,150 
and 14,083; tobacco, 25,904 and 22,988; hides, 
16,768 and 12,975; cocoa, 4,188 and 8,566; 
Brazil-nuts, 5,564 and 5,692 ; and rum, 570,372 
litres against 562,661. During the five years 
named, the export of diamonds reached alto- 
gether the value of 2,488,000 milreis, and that 
of gold bullion and dust 6,578,000 milreis. 
Coffee shipments from the ports of Rio de 
Janeiro and Santos were as follow, during the 
twelve months from July 1 to June 30 : 



DFSTINATION. 


188 7-* 88. 


1886-'87. 


To Europe 


1.812,784 

1,764,681 

117,778 


8,110,472 


To the United 8t*tefl 


2,648,006 


To other countrien 


185,229 






Total 


8,195,188 


6,898,707 



The maritime movement at Rio in 1887 was 
as follows: Sea-going vessels entered, 1,102; 
sailed, 824; coastwise crafts entered, 1,208; 
sailed, 1,511. The nationality of vessels entered 
at Santos in 1887 was : Brazilian, 263 ; British, 
129; German, 102; French, 58; other fiags, 
274 ; total, 826. 

Satlraids. — During the summer of 1888 the 
Minister of Public Works submitted his report 
to Parliament. The past thirty years have ^- 
dowed the country with 8,402 kilometres of 
railway, the system being as follows : Govern- 
ment lines, 2,018 kilometres; lines on whose 
capital the Government has guaranteed inter- 
est, 2,585 ; provincial lines, 95 ; lines on which 
provinces have either guaranteed the interest 
or paid subsidies, 1,552 ; lines on which neither 
interest has been guaranteed nor subsidies 
granted, 2,157; total, 8,402. There will con- 
sequently be in operation in two years some- 
thing like 18,000 kilometres of railway. The 
lines guaranteed by the state represent a capi- 
tal of 148,822,128 milreis, or £16,125,352. 

Rlfer Niflgatlrat — Navigation on the central 
artery of communication, the Sao Francisco, 
is unencumbered for a distance of 1,500 kilo- 
metres, and, after the railways starting from 
Pernambuco and Bahia shall connect with it, 
the products of the interior of Minas-Geraes 
will have an outlet toward the sea. The rivers 
Ti^t6 and Piracicaba in the province of Sao 
Paulo are already made navigable, completing 
communication in the eastern portion of the 
province, and soon the Mogiana Company will 
render navigable the rivers Mogy-Guassti, Par- 
do, and Rio Grande, assisted by the Western 
Minas Railroad Company. 

Harbor InproTeHents, — Notable progress has 
been made in improving the harbors of Maran- 
hao and Cear4, and proposals have been made 
to the Government to put in better condition 
that of Pernambuco. A wharf of considerable 
length is to be built at Santos ; the entry to 
the port of Rio Grande, continually obstructed 
by quicksands, is also to be deepened. 



BRAZIL. 105 

AhMm Steowr Ubm.— The speculators for a landed at Rio in 1887 was 81,810, 17,115 of 

rise in wheat at New York and Chicago ran op them being Italians, 10,205 Portagoese, 717 

tbxt cereal to sach a point in 1888 and thereby Germans, and 274 Aostrians. There also ar- 

okhanced the price of floor so much that Hun- rived at Rio 4,134 in transit for Santos and 

girian flour has sold more advantageously than 405 for Sao Francisco, constituting a total of 

ever at Hio, giving rise to regular steamship 85,849 immigrants as compared with 25,741 in 

lines from Trieste and Fiume direct to Rio. 1886 and 80,135 in 1885. Adding to theland- 

The maf^tade of this flour interest in Brazil ings at Rio the direct arrivals of immigrants at 

vill be best understood by referring to the outports, 20,151, the aggregate gain of popu- 

amounts shipped thither from the United lation in 1887 was 56,000. The Provincial 

States in the past sixteen years, aggregating Assembly of Sao Paulo has passed a law au- 

9,462,648 barrels, there being a 21-per-cent. thorizing extension of aid to immigrants from 

increase during the past eight years, as com- abroad, to the number of 100,000 per annum, 

pared with the shipments of the preceding for five consecutive years, while the province 

e^ht years. of Minas-Geraes has contracted for 80,000, to 

fiuMlpattaB. — Prior to the resignation of the be procured during a twelvemonth. 
Cotegipe Cabinet, in March, abolitionists were faidnstries. — Great enterprise and activity 
sdll exposed to persecution at the hands of the were displayed in many localities to foster and 
men in power ; but Jos6 de Patrocinio and create a variety of industries. A firm in Sao 
Senators Joaquin Nabuco, Dantas, Prado, and Paulo has begun to turn out an article of wax 
Joio Alfredo have persevered undaunted in matches, competing with the imported Swed- 
tbdr endeavors to bring about the immediate ish. Sulphuric acid is being manufactured 
abolition of slavery. The bill passed both from Sicilian brimstone, both in the province 
houses on May 18, the recommendation of the of Sao Paulo and at Rio. Rio and Porto Ale- 
new Cabinet and the law was signed the same gre have each a glass - factory, and at Rio 
day by the Princess-Regent, and promulgated. Grande do Sul artificial guano is made. There 
Fall returns had at last been obtained of the is also a glue-factory. Tanneries are numer- 
dave registration of March 30, 1887. The to- ous, using the valuable domestic materials that 
tal nnmber was 723,419, of the declared value abound. At Rio there are refineries of cotton- 
of 485,225,21 2 milreis. It was estimated, how- seed oil and castor-oil. The Government has 
ever, that emancipations and deaths had re- three powder-mills, but gunpowder for hunting 
dnoed this number to 600,000. The entire and mining is still imported. At Macacos, 
bill, as framed by Senator Prado, consisted of near Rio, dynamite is manufactured. Soap of 
fire brief articles, as follows : I. Declaring all grades is made at Sao Paulo, Porto Alegre, 
free, from date of the law, all slaves in the Pelotas, and Rio. Composition and stearine 
empire ; II. Relieving from further service the candles, vying with the best European and 
free-bom children of slave mothers ; III. Lo- American mi^es, are turned out at Rio and 
calizing the new freed men within their county Pelotas. Brazilian vegetable wax — camauha — 
far two years; IV. Empowering the Execu- is used for a similar purpose, and seems to 
^e to issne the necessary regulations; Y. Re- have a promising future. 
▼oking all contrary provisions. Most of the cotton - weaving factoriea in 
Jndgin^ from experience in other countries Brazil do tlieir own dyeing. At Sao Paulo 
where slavery has been suddenly abolished, calico-printing is carried on successfully. At 
there was some apprehension that it would be Rio Grande do Sul there is a large woolen 
dilBcalt to secure the coffee-crop, then in its factory connected with a dyeing establishment. 
prime, and get it properly prepared for mar- Steam sugar-refineries are in operation at Rio, 
k^ The freedmen have worked steadily, and Bahia, Taubat^, and Rio Grande do Sul. Sev- 
there has been no disorder. The crop has eral rectifying distilleries exist at Rio. Arti- 
oome in a little more slowly, and is, perhaps, ficial wines, liquors, and cognacs, are chiefly 
a Ktde less carefully prepared. The planters made at Rio. There are many breweries, and 
have been sullen, but resigned. The rise in some Brazilian beers have been awarded a 
coffee in the past few years has benefited the premium in Europe, having stood the trip 
planters. Sugar has sJso advanced consider- across the Atlantic admirably, 
abiy, and the central sugar-house system had At Itti, in the province of Sao Paulo, a 
prepared this branch of industry for the in- paper-mill is to be equipped and one at Maran- 
eritable event for years past. The " Centre hao. Creditable paper-hangings are printed at 
da lodnstria e do Commercio do ARSUcar," an Rio on imported rolls. 

anociation of sugar-planters and exporters, is There were in operation, on Jan. 1, 1888, 36 

actively at work to introduce the diffusion central sugar-houses, the Government guaran- 

peoresB of extracting the sugar from the canes, teeing the interest on 85 of them. Nearly all 

instead of the almost antiquated centrifugal of the machinery was imported from France. 

iTstem, together with the latest and most ap- Since Jan. 1, 1888, all machinery and tools in- 

faroved American and European methods and tended to be used for manufacturing have been 

tinery, and a more rational system of admitted duty free. 

cultivation. ¥lttcaltue« — In 1887 the province of Sao 

— The number of immigrants Paulo produced 5,000 hectolitres of wine, sell- 



loe 



BRICKWORK. 



iug the red wines at 100 to 13S francs the hec- 
tolitre, and the white wines at 1G0 to SOO. 
The Governrneut haa ordered for gratuitona 
distribution in Brazil 8,000 stalks of vines 
fWim France, and as manj from Spain and 
Portugal, Madeira, and the Azores. The na^ 
tire vine, indigenous to the pronnce of Matto- 
Grosso. Viti» tyeoidei, will also be widelj 
distributed. At Para a wine is made from 
fresh cocoa beans and pulp declared by trav- 
elera to be delicious and refreshing. 

EiplerlBS Expedltl«B&— The second Xingd ex- 
pedition, under the command of Dr. Ton den 
Steinen, which in IBBT explored the interior 
of Malto-Grosso, returned to Cujaba early in 
1888, the result being the discoverj of a great 
Garih nation in the center of South America, 
the Bacairi and Sabugua, and the discoverj of 
the Camayura and Anite tribes of Indians, 
who spealc the ancient Tupi language, and 
whose weapons are slings. The tributary of 
tlie Xingii, the Culnene, was thoroughly ex- 
plored. 

Toward the close of 1887, Col. Labre, after 
ascending the Msdeira river as far as Bolivia, 
descended the Rio Madre de Dioa at a point 
where it isjoined by the Rio Acre or Aqairy, 
thns proving that communication between the 
Amazon and Bolivia is comparatively easy 
without nndergoing all the trouble caused by 
the Beni rapids. This discovery seems to open 
up a great future for that region. 

BUCKHOEK. The construction of baild- 
ings in brick is a very ancient art. The fire- 
resisting qualities and remarkable durability 
of the material have contributed to make it 
the most popolar of all building materials. In 
recent years there has been a rapid advance in 
the artofmakingbricks, which has, in ameasure, 
revolutionized the coostmction of brick build- 
ings. The shape was, until recently, to a great 
extent limited t« the simple parallelepiped ; hut 
bricks are now produced in a great variety of 
forms and in different colors. 1'hus there are 
bricks formed so that when laid side by side 
they produce a continuous molding, either hori- 
zontEJly, as in the case of a string-course or 
plintb, or vertically, as in jambs of door and 
window openings. Bricks are also made in 



tion of ornament Is often made of terra cotta. 
The arobitect has thus at his command means of 
producing effects that were not previously with- 
in his reach. Although the architeetanil effect 
is satisfactory, the construction of hriokwork, 




strength, is open to improvem^t. 

1 custom is to employ face-briekf 
of a superior quality to those on the interior . 
of the wall, and this is an obstacle to good 
construction, as sncb bricks are almost invari- 
ably larger than the commoner varieties, and < 
hence can not be properly bonded in or tied . 
together. Even a graver error, which, in tbe .. 
n^ted States, is almost universal, is that of 
nsing what is known as "running bond." ^ 
Formerly the practice was to boild brick- 
work in one of the systems known respective- > 
ly as English and Flemish bond, and the an- L 
oient brick buildings in Enrope are all of Ihii K 
construction. In recent years the mnningH 




wedge-shapes for arches, and of other forma 
for the construi^tion of pavements, curbs, sills, 
cornices, copings, etc. The form of brick in 
which the i^nrface is ornamented is coming 
more into use every day, although this descrip- 



bond has, in onr country, almost entirely 
taken their place. In English bond, the hrickj 
are laid with their long and short sides (tecb* 
nically termed stretchers and headers) parsk^^- 
lel to tbe length of tbe wall in alternate 
courses, while in Flemish bond they are IM.^ 
alternately headers snd stretchers in eaoh > 
course. Both systems have tbe advantage a(.^ 
forming "bond," or, by the arrangement, l>p-ifl'.' 
ping tlie bricks to produce a solid mass. Tlisll 'i 
conslmction of running bond will depeodfcfl 
upon whether tbe wall is exterior or interior.^ 
If the latter, the bricks will all be laid stretcWSM 
ers — that is, with tbe long side parallel to tbuM 
side of the wall, except in every fifth or sev^/] 
entli course, when they will be laid headen)i/^ 
When tbe wall is exterior, all the bricb^ 
on the face are laid stretchers, bonding be-. ^ 
ing obtained by laying the bock bricks i|^^ 
every fifth or seventh course diagnnally, end * 
cutting off the comers of the face-bricks ■!>-■ 
these points, in order to permit their inlr*^ 
duction. The objection to this fomi of ooit 
Btruction is that, as headers are introdnoet '■= 



BRIOKWOBK. 



107 



ly one coarse out of five, tlie remainder 
> wall is unconnected, except by the mor- 
nd thus tbe principle npon wfaich correct 
Ag is baaed, tbat no two mortar-joints 
d ctiiae under one antitber, is violated. 
B Strength of a wall depends, to a great 
t, upon the qnality of tLe mortar em- 



The fODDdatioiiB of a building are obviously 
important. In localities where Blone abounds, 
they are often conetrncted in what is known 
as rough or random mbble, which conslBts of 
rough pieces of stone laid, without dressing, 
in such a way as to produce the best bond 
possible nnder the oiroumstances. Examples 




d. To make good mortar, clean, sharp of this system of the conatrnction of tounda- 

la required and a hme having no in- tion are found in nearly all buildings of New 

derable Jiydrauhc qualities. These are York city, formed of the gneiss rock of which 

I m the proportion of about one of lime ManhatUn Island is mainly composed. Brick 

or of 8and,_with no more water than is \a a good material for foundations, and, if it is 

wy to moisten the whole of the parts ^ell burned, the moisture has no effect upon it. 

Where brick is employed for foundations, it ia 

\^,,^^ nsual to form footings. These consist of widely 



'mmm 



Jlow of the miitare's being thoroughly 
ed. The custom in many parts of the 
ry is very common of using lime that ia 
ttle better than pure chalk. Such lime is 
: all suitable, and not a tew of the build- 
oddeDta tbat have occurred from weak 





spread courses, diminished by o£^«ts equal to 
half the thickness of a brick till the width of 
the wall is reached. In good eooetvuction, 
every brick in ibe footings is laid a header 
where possible, while all stretchers neces- 
sitated by the width of the course are placed 
in the interior of the wait. The brick or stone 
footings may either be built npou the soil or 





= 


«^ 


1 






1 






1 






1 






1 






1 




1 1 1 


r' 1 1 1 


rill 


. 



work may he directly attributed to the upon a bed of concrete, depending upon the 
[oality of the mortar by reason of the natnre of the soil. Where hard rock or gravel 
>Tment of chalk lime. is found on the site of a building, f " 



108 



BRICKWORK. 



be laid diraotl; npon it, bnt otherwise the nae Silverlcfck'a bond the bricks are all laid on 
of concrete ia advisable. Concrete for this edge, stretcher and header alteniatel; in each 
purpose is composed of iime or cement mixed conrae, producing an appearance somewhat 
with sand and ballast. In heav^ work, Portland aimilar to that of Flemish bond in oolid brick- 
or Rosendale cement i» generallj preferred. work. Dearne's plan ia to laj the bricks all - 

Bricks being absorbent, the moiature from headera and flat in one conrae, and all 
the groand will freqaentl; rise by oaptllary atretohers on edge in the other. The oul; ad- 
attraction. To preveat this, damp conrses are vantage of hollow bond ia the saving in mi- ' 
terial. Beaides these bonds or ajstema of laj- 
ing the bricks, there are others in common 
nae. Diagonal bond ia sometimes employed ' 





employed. These consist of a layer of some 
material impervioas to moisture, which ia laid 
immediately above tbe gronnd-line. Asphalt, 
sheet-lead, slate, and Portland oemsDt ere 
among the materiab employed for the pur- 
poae. To prevent the penetration of wa- 
ter into the interior of a building, it ia fre- 
quently advisable to construct an area- wall 
aroand the entire aice, at a diatance from tbe 
main walls of tbe bntlding of about three 
inches. Such walls are built wholly below 
the ground, and are finished on top with a 
course of molded bricks. With the same ob- 
ject, the main walls of isolated buildiogs are 
sometimes constructed with a cavity in the in- 
terior, which not only effectnally prevents the 
dampness from penetraUng into the building, 
but also aasiats in rendering it warmer in 
winter and cooler iu summer. Sach nails, 
known by the general term of " hollow walla," 
are constructed of two casings about two inches 
apart, such casiogs being connected by the iu- 
aertion of iron or brick ties every two or three 
feet. Tlie ties are always formed in such a 
manner as to prevent the passing of moisture 
across them. At the bottom of the cavity in 
tliese walls is a gutter connected with the 
drain, and any water that finds its way throngh 
the outer casing is conducted away. 

Hollow bond, as distingniahed from hollow 
walla, is used in some parts of the country for 
the erection of small buildings, fence-walls, 
and in other positions where but little strength 
is required. There are two methoda of con- 
structing auch walls, known respectively as 
SUverlock's and Dearne's, and both of these 
systems are limited in their application to 
walls of the thickness of a single brick. In 



in executing thick walls for heavy bnildingi. "'■^ 
On the exterior it is similar to English bond; ■"'■ 
but on the interior tbe bricks are laid di- *' 
agonally, with the object of obtaining a bet- "^ 
ter bond. For the purpose of tying togeUier ^ 
the component parts of brick waits of all 4 
kinds, boop-iron bond is sometimes employed, -^'u 
In England its use is common, but in the '■: 
United States it ia not employed to any great ■'■i 
extent. Tbe hoop-iron ia laid in between the ' ' 
mortar-joint 8, in every fifth or seveutfa course, ■; 
end ia lapped at all comers and joints. To pre- ti? 
vent oxidization tbe iron is often covered with 'ii 




U|1ITI.^^ER1L 



tar, or is galvanized. Sometiiiiea it has jagged v^ 
edges to iiive it a better hold on the mortar. -^ 
The construction of arcHea in brick may bt-,,; 
divided into two distinct classes: 1. Thost .|" 
known as ganged, in which each brick is enl ^~ 
or ganged to a wedge ahape in order to pro- . . 
dace a parallel mortar-joint, and in which tbe /^^ 
ends are curved to conform to the curveol ''"' 
the arch; 2. Those known as rough arches, it J" 



BUDDHISM. 



109 



which the bricks are laid without catting. In 
the Utter case, the difference in the lengths of 
the cuTYes, that is, of the intrados and the ex- 
trades of the arch, is reached by the forma- 
tion of wedge-shaped mortar-joints. Ganged 
srehes are formed of speciaUjr made hricks, in 
which a proportion of sand has heen nsed to 
render them friahle, and the catting is effected 
hj means of a coarse-toothed saw, the exact 
shape being obtained by rabbing the sides on 
a stone, to the form of a template. This is 




nrVXBTKD ABCH. 



often done by the bricklayer on the job, bat 
mere frequently in the brickmaker^s yard, 
frofn detail drawings furnished him by the 
architect. The names by which arches are 
known, unlike most of the technicalities of 
the building-trade, are substantially identical 
throD^oat the country. They are taken in 
aearly every case from the curves to which 
they are formed. Thus we have semi or 
semicircular, segmental, elliptical, and cy- 
eloidal arches. Among pointed arches there 
is the equilateral, which comprises two arcs 
tfmck firom the abutments. The inverted arch 
is always segmental, and is struck upside down, 
for the purpose of distributing the weight of 
the superincumbent building over the space in- 
tervening between two piers. Flat arches are 
useful over horizontal window and door heads, 
and are osually formed with the camber or 
curve on the intrados. 

The manner in which the exterior joints of 
brickwork are finished varies considerably in 
different parts of the country and in different 




fI.AT ABCH. 



kinda of work. In interior walls the joint is 

'"gtmck,'^ that is, finished by drawing the 

trowel along it to render it smooth. Where 

the same wall is plastered, the mortar is left 

rcH^h so as to form a key for the plaster. In 

eDerior walls the mortar-joints, as a rule, are 

finished level with the bricks, and the whole 

surface is painted with two or three coats of 

od-paint. The mortar- joints are thus hidden. 

A small brush guided by a straight edge and 

dipped in white paint is used to paint in the 

mortar- joints at the proper distance apart. 

KBDflHL An analysis of Southern Bud- 
Sam, which has been published by the Bishop 
of Colombo, embodies the results of twelve 



years' observation of the system in Oeylon and 
first-hand studies of the sacred books. The 
author draws a general distinction between the 
traditional school of interpretation, as it is 
known to Singalese scholars, and that to which 
Europeans incline. *^ The Singalese tradition, 
if it differs, differs always in the direction of a 
meaning more puerile, more wooden, less 
Christian," although the higher meaning may 
in some cases be acknowledged by the Buddhist 
interpreter. 

Numerical estimates of Buddhist adherents 
are of no value, because Buddhism, unlike other 
religions, does not claim exclusive possession 
of the ground. It is a parasitic religion, ready 
to thrive where it can, without displacing or 
excluding another with which it comes in con- 
tact. While a Christian or a Mohammedan or 
a Hindoo can be that only, a Buddhist can also 
be a Conf ncianist or a Taoist or both, and to 
a great extent a Hindoo or planet-worshiper. 
In Oeylon, the statues of Hindoo deities are 
found in the precincts of the Buddhist viharcu; 
on the Buddhist festivals, Buddhists visit Hindoo 
and Buddhist temples alike ; when Buddhists 
are sick the Hindoo or the devil-priest meets the 
Buddhist monk at the door without offense. 
*^ What is most practically the refuge of a Cey- 
lon Buddhist is not anytldng truly Buddhistic, 
but the system of astrology, charm, devil-danc- 
ing, and other low superstitions." It is these, 
and not the doctrines of the Tripitaka or any 
rule of self-sacrifice, that the Buddhist has to 
abandon when he becomes a Christian. 

Buddhism is a system of precepts or a method 
of escape from evil, which is discovered and 
lost again and again in successive ages. The 
precepts are held to be unchangeable, but be- 
come lost sight of till a new Buddha appears, 
who revives the knowledge of them for the 
benefit of his age. All the Buddhas of the suc- 
cessive ages — the term ** ages " being taken in 
an infinite sense — ^* do and say exactly the same 
things; they are bom in the same family, leave 
home at the same hour of the night, throw their 
bowls into the same stream, and so on." The 
Buddha of the present age is Gautama. 

There is not the slightest hint that the truth 
came by revelation from any person superior 
to the Buddha, or that the Buddha is in any 
sense God. But, if it be asked whether Bud- 
dhists believe the Buddha to be a mere man, 
or to be the Supreme Being, the question can 
not be answered in one word. Buddhism does 
not possess the idea of distinct grades of being, 
permanently separated from one another. To 
buddhism all life is one. He who was a god 
may now be a brute, and afterward may be a 
man. The difference is not one of indelible 
character, but of stage. But of all beings, a 
Buddha has reached the highest stage. He is, 
therefore, the supreme being, but the phrases 
in which this dogma is expressed do not imply 
anything like what we mean by God. The 
Buddha attained a position higher — ^not in do- 
minion, but in enlightenment— than those of 



110 BUDDHISM. 

the highest deities known to Buddhism, Indra The resultant biogn*aph7 of Gaotama shows 

and Maha Brahm4 ; in fact, he is represented as nothing sopernataral and nothing that in those 

having passed through the stages of being both, days was strange. Many high-born persons 

on his way to his final birth, as a Buddha. went through renunciations similar to his, and 

The sources of information respecting Gau- bore among their adherents the title of Bud- 
tama are, on the one hand, the Tripitaka, or dhas. A like course was prescribed in the 
threefold collection of sacred books, which laws of Menu as a regular part of a Brah- 
form the canon of Southern Buddhism, and man^s life. Gautama is not recorded as having 
may be spoken of as the books of 250 b. o. ; performed any act of conspicuous or extraordi- 
and, on the other hand, the biographies of nary goodness or self-sacrifice in his historical 
Buddha, tliat of Asvaghosha, which is attrib- life; but he attributed to himself these and all 
uted to the first century, a. d, that which sorts of noble actions in former births. Most 
bears the name of Buddhagosha, which may probably his career was as nearly as possible 
belong to the fifth century, a. d., and the Lalita that of an ordinary, devoted teacher, and he 
Vistdra, or ** beautiful, detailed narrative," of was distinguished, not by strange acts, but by a 
uncertain date, but between the first and sixth strange degree of sympathy, insight, and con- 
centuries. The last works are the chief source structive ability. 

of Arnold's "Light of Asia," while the books The historical treatment of the life ofGau- 

of 250 B. o. are the source of the lives given by tama shows nearly all the parts of his biogra- 

Rhys Davids in the Hibbert Lectures, and Dr. phy that are relied on as parallel to Ohristian 

Oldenberg in his " Buddha." nistory to belong to the unhistorical Lalita Yis- 

Evidence exists as to the prevalence as far t4ra and the other later books. Whether these 
back as about 250 b. o., of Buddha's teaching northern biographies borrowed from Christian- 
and of some of the sermons and traditions, ity, is an interesting question that depends on 
carved on the rocks or on pillars, in different the date of Asvaghosha — which some put as 
parts of India, in the form of edicts of Asoka early as 70 b. o., some as late as 70 a. d. ; on 
under the name of Dev&nampiyo Piyadasi. the veracity of the early Christian traditions as 
Their date is established by the mention of to the travels of the apostles ; and on the de- 
contemporary Greek kings, and they are ac- gree of intercourse between Kaniska's Indian 
credited in the Singalese chronicle, the Mahar- court and the western countries. But even were 
ranso. In comparison with whatever historical all admitted, the resemblances to Christianity 
matter is incorporated in the Tripitaka, the are small and few. In the historical narration 
sources of information of the other class are there are, to the author's view, only two points 
untrustworthy. Whatever is included in them that bear resemblance to anything in the life of 
and not in the Tripitaka that must naturally Christ. One is the visit of the old sage, who, 
have been inserted there if it had been believed, after the birth of Gautama, predicted that be 
can be regarded as of later fabrication. Of would be a Buddha, and rejoiced to have seen 
this character are most of the points of the him ; but this story is wanting in some of the 
biographies that bear any reference to Chris- important features of the similar incident in 
tianitv. Singalese chronicles go much further the life of Christ ; and, moreover, it only corre- 
back than 250 b. c, and with the same circum- sponds with the common Indian custom of 
stantiality. They give lists of kings who pre- getting a sage to visit the infant and pro- 
ceded Asoka, and lists of monks who were nounce his horoscope. The other is the so- 
leaders of Buddhist congregations from Gau- called temptation of Buddha by Mara ; but in 
tama's time till then. It would be unreason- this case the attempt is very different from that . 
able to refuse all credit to the earlier part of which was made upon Christ by Satan, and i 
these chronicles. It is hardly possible to dis- an inevitable incident of the story, 
trust them so far as to doubt that the sacred Other apparent instances are fictitious. B 
books, substantially as we have them, existed a multitude of little parodies, nearly all 
a hundred years earlier. them misleading, a total impression is convey 

In the Pitaka substantial facts are chron- which is very far removed from the 

icled correctly, but adorned, not overlaid, with Likenesses to Christianity, and most toucbs^ 

fictitious and often absurd circumstances. The ones, there are ; but they are generally in 

falsehood in the stories does not seriously expression of man's weakness and need, no 

interfere with the truth ; it falls off directly the method of meeting it. 
the story is handled. The incredible elements The Nirvdna of the books and of pre 

of the Pitaka life of Gautama are mostly Ceylonese conviction is the state in which t 

of this nature. They belong to what is little is not left any capacity for re-birth. This stu 

else than a conventional mode of narration ; which sees final death within reach, migb 

they are little more than the epithets that we called the potentiality of final Nirvdna ; a 

used to select, without thought of truth or is inaccurately imagined to be happin 

falsehood, from our Gradus^ to adorn the plain have attained that potential stage, and to 

substantives of our originals. The separation that one has no more births before h* 

of the history from them requires no exercise The attainment of Nirvdna, thus inaccura 

of the critical faculty, and gives no room for thought of, is possible in life ; its final achi0 

arbitrary decisions. ment, in the last death, is Paranirvdna. 





BULGAEIA. 



Ill 



Id practice, the Ceylon Buddhist among 
the masses is both better and worse than his 
ereed. Better because, instead of a distant 
NirrAna, or a series of births, he has before 
him the next birth only, which he thinks will 
be in heaTen if he b good, in hell if he is bad ; 
because he calls on God in times of distress, 
sad has a sort of faith in the one creator, 
whom bis priests would teach him to deny. 
Worse because his real refuge is neither 
Buddha nor his books, nor his order, but dev- 
ils and devil-priests and charms and astrology 
and every form of groveling superstition. 

BOjCISII, a principality in eastern £nrope 
that was set apart from the Turkish Empire 
ud given an independent government by the 
Treaty of Berlin, signed July 18, 1878. East- 
em Koamelia was at the same time consti- 
tDted an autonomous province of Turkey, re- 
zuaininjg under the direct political and military 
aathority of the Sultan. The goveiiior-general 
was to be nominated for the term of five years 
by the Saltan, who must select a Christian, 
and submit his choice to the approval of all 
the treatj powers. The Sultan was given the 
right, which he has never exercised, to erect 
fortifications on the land and sea frontiers 
of Eastern Roumelia, and to maintain Otto- 
man troops there. The Roumelians were to 
preserve internal order by means of a gen- 
darmerie, assisted by a local militia, but, in 
ease of a disturbance of the peace within or 
witboat, the governor-general could call in 
Turkish troops. The treaty arrangements 
were overturned by a revolution that oc- 
onrred on Sept 17, 1885, when the govemor- 
^neral was deposed, and the union of East- 
tn Bomnelia with Bulgaria was proclaimed. 
Prince Alexander of Bulgaria assumed the ad- 
nnnistration of the province, and the Eastern 
Uoimielians and Bulgarians joined in repelling 
the Servian invasion, for which the union of 
the two provinces gave occasion. The signa- 
u»y powers held a confer^nce in Constantino- 
^ and as the result of their deliberations the 
Man issued a firman on April 6, 1886, in 
^^b he recognized the change in the status 
f» by coufiding the government to Prince 
^ Akxander and by agreeing to a modification 
^-^^1 ^^^ organic statute, at the same time re- 
K^v\ ^^^. certain districts of Kinali and twenty 
YuUges m Rhoupchous or the Khodope, which 
^ peopled almost entirely by Mussulmans. 
AwnatDisMon was appointed to revise the or- 
^ sUtQte in order to bring it into harmony 
f^the changed conditions, chiefly by trans- 
^^ the administration of the customs to 
?*°°j?*rian Government and amending the 

^ ^^^^^ ^^® proceedings of this Tur- 
^■wiigirian commission were not completed, 
®^ to the revolution of Aug. 20, 1886, 
»«^ resolted in the abdication of Prince Al- 
fttDder. The annual tribute to Turkey, which 
»« filed by the organic statute at 246,000 
ach^ ?«fldj Tnrkish, the Provincial Assembly arbi- 
I wfl/ reduced to 186,000 pounds, including 









of p?«^ 

Tbi5«J* 
1, mki' 



id u^fc? 



lal 



the customs equivalent, and after the revolu- 
tion of September, 1886, no part of it was paid 
till 1888. Bulgaria has undertaken to pay 
the debt of Eastern Roumelia to the Porte, 
which at the beginning of 1880 amounted to 
743,632 Turkish pounds, according to the 
modified estimate of the Provincial Assembly, 
and to 1,082,642 Turkish pounds, if the origi- 
nal sum is maintained. 

The council of ministers was composed in 
1888 as follows : Prime Minister and Minister 
of the Interior, Stambuloff; Minister of For- 
eign Affairs and of Public Worship, Dr. Stran- 
sky ; Minister of Finance, Katchevich ; Minister 
of War, Colonel Mutkuroff; Minister of Jus- 
tice, Stoiloff ; Minister of Public Instruction, 
Zivkoff. This ministry was constituted from 
elements of both the Liberal and Conservative 
parties on Aug. 81, 1887, after Prince Ferdi- 
nand's assumption of authority. It contained 
the three regents, Stambuloff, Mutkuroff, and 
Zivkoff, who had exercised the powers of gov- 
ernment during the latter period of the inter- 
regnum, Zivkoff having succeeded Karaveloff 
after the latter's arrest for complicity in the 
military insurrection of February, 1887. 

The present Prince of Bulgaria is Ferdinand, 
Duke of Saxe-Coburg, the youngest son of Au- 
gustus, the Duke of Saxe-Coburg, and the 
Princess Clementine, of Bourbon - Orleans, 
daughter of Louis Philippe, King of the 
French. Ferdinand, bom Feb. 26, 1861, was 
elected prince by the unanimous vote of the 
National Assembly on July 7, 1887, in succes- 
sion to Prince Alexander, who abdicated on 
Sept. 7, 1886. He assumed the government 
on Aug. 8, 1887. The treaty powers have not 
ratified his election, and none of them have 
yet formally recognized his government. 

The National Assembly of Bulgaria under 
the Constitution of 1879 consists of a single 
chamber, the members of which are elected 
by universal suffrage, in the proportion of one 
to every ten thousand inhabitants, for three 
years. The prince may dissolve the Assembly, 
but must order new elections within four 
months. 

CeniMerce. — The people of both provinces 
pursue agriculture almost exclusively, and 
grain is the chief product and article of ex- 
port. Sheep are kept in large numbers, and 
there is a considerable household manufacture 
of w:oolen cloth and braid in Eastern Eou- 
melia. There is an export trade in timber 
from the mountains. Wine and raki, tobacco, 
and silk cocoons are among the other products 
of this province. The imports of Bulgaria for 
1884 were valued at 46,851,280 leii or francs, 
and the exports at 48,867,237 leii. In 1886 
the trade of Eastern Roumelia is included from 
the 1st of November in the returns, which 
give the imports as 88,843,617 leii, and the ex- 
ports as 42,017,984 leii. In 1886 the value of 
imports was 61,687,169 leii, and of exports 
87,768,679 leii. The imports from Austria- 
Hungary were 16,481,698 leii in value; from 



•s. 



112 BULGARIA. 

Great Britain, 16,829,805 leii; from Tarkey, the opening months of the year, was near at 

12,899,846 leii. The exports to Turkey were hand, and woold find him ready to die for 

valued at 16,958,508 leii; to France, 9,827,- Bulgarian liberty. 

568 leii ; to Great Britain, 4,585,685 leii. The Area aid P»pilatiM.— The area of the princi- 

share of Eastern Roumelia in the total imports polity of Bulgaria is 24,860 square miles, and - 

was 15.860,000 leii, and in the exports 11,186,- its population, according to a census that was . 

750 leii. taken in 1881, is 2,007,919, consisting of 1,027,- :^ 

Fbuuices. — The budget for 1887 makes the 808 males and 980,116 females. Eastern Roa- 

revenue 47,218,266 leii or francs, and tbe ex- melia or South Bulgaria, as it has been official- 

penditure 47,874,414 leii. The estimates for ly called by the Bulgarians since the union, 

1888 fix the receipts at 58,708,046 leii, and has an area of 18,500 square milea, and con- ' 

the disbursements, at 69,047,770 leii. The chief tained on Jan. 18, 1885, when the last census ^^ 

branches of expenditure are ! War, 28,228,840 was taken, 975,050 inhabitants. The Chris- ' 

leii ; Interior, 7,518,694 leii ; the debt, 6,878,488 tian Bulgarians numbered 681,734 ; Turks and \!Z 

leii; Finance Department, 5,768, 112 leii; Public Moslem Bulgarians, 200,498; Greeks, 53,028; 

Works, 5,114,4^4 leii. In December, 1887, the gypsies, 27,190; Jews, 6,982; Armenians, , 

Sobranje authorized a loan of 50,000,000 leii, 1,865 ; foreigners, 8,788. The retrocession to "_ 

of which 19,000,000 leii were to be applied to Turkey of the canton of Eirjali, and of twenty ^^ 

tbe construction of the Zaribrod-Sofia- Vakarel Mussulman villages of the Rhodope in accord- :^ 

railroad, the same sum to the purchase of the anoe with the Turco- Bulgarian arrangement of j^ 

Varna line, 2,000,000 leii to discharging the April 6, 1886, that was concluded on the rec- /"^ 

debts of Prince Alexander, and the remainder ommendation of the Constantinople confer- f 

to army equipments. The Government was ence, reduced the Mussulman population by ^^ 

not successful in placing this loan. It under- 40,000, and emigration has diminished further 

took to pay 140,000 Turkish liras as the amount the number of Mohammedans. The capital of ; 

of the Eastern Roumelian tribute to the Porte, United Bulgaria is Sofia, Philippopolis, the 

with 21,000 liras per annum on account of former seat of the Eastern Roumelian Grovem- 

arrears, and in 1888 made the first payments, ment having been reduced to a prefecture. 

The quota of the Turkish debt to be borne by Sofia has 20,501 inhabitants; Philippopolis, '^ 

tbe principality of Bulgaria was left to be 83,442; Rustchuk, 26,168; Varna, 24,555; "^ 

settled by agreement between tbe signatories Sbumla, 28,098. -- 

of the Berlin Treaty, but the powers have not The IMpk«atlc SttiatlM. — In October, 1887, -*- 

yet fixed any sum. M. Nelidoff, tbe Russian ambassador at Con- '^ 

The Bulgarian Government in the latter part stantinople, suggested to the Porte that the ' 

of 1887 reduced the tariff on goods coming from Sultan should order Prince Ferdinand to leave -^ 

Turkey, and entered into an understanding Bulgaria, and that Russian and Turkish com- ^r 

with the Porte, which made a like concession, missioners should be sent to govern the princi- >- 

In 1888 the Turkish Government, in its desire pality for four months, choosing a new Cabinet, ^^ 

to please Russia, adopted various harassing dissolving the Chamber, and orderiug the eleo- :*^ 

regulations, refusing to recognize Bulgarian tion, at the end of three months, of a new as- > - 

postage-stamps or Bulgarian passports, and sembly, to which should be submitted the .'^ 

levying a duty of 8 per cent, on imports from choice of two candidates that Russia would 

Bulgaria. Bulgaria retaliated in May by plac- nominate for prince. The incident of the 

ing the same duty on Turkish goods, until forged documents supervened (see Austria- 

finally Turkey reduced its duty to 1 per cent. Hunoart), and after the explanations between 

An order of the Bulgarian Government doub- tbe Czar and Bismarck the German Go vernmeat 

ling the duty on Russian spirits in July pro- repeated its declarations regarding the illegality 

voked a remonstrance from the German consul of Prince Ferdinand's position and its acqiu< 

at Sofia, who has charge of Russian interests escence in the restoration by peaceable an 

until diplomatic intercourse with Russia shall diplomatic means of Russia's infiuenoe in B 

be resumed. garia as it existed before the dismissal of t^ 

The Amy. — Universal obligatory military serv- Russian Minister of War and the Russiau ofiSo^^ 

ice has been adopted. The army consists of of the Bulgarian army. Germany suppo 

12 regiments of infantry, 8 of cavalry, 8 of the Russian demand that the Sultan should 

artillery, with 24 field-guns and 2 mountain- clare Ferdinand a usurper, but Austria w 

guns, and 7 companies of pioneers. The peace not join in any declaration on the subject 
efi^ective is 29,000 men, and the war strength Revolotlomiry Said at Itoui^as. — Russian di_ 

100,000 men. The South Bulgarian contingent matic activity was accompanied, as usual^ 

in time of war is 26,000 men. The infantry, an attempt to incite insurrection in Bui 

who are well drilled, are armed with Martini Capt. Nabokoff, a Russian, who had been 

rifles. The Government, in 1888, purchased demned to death for participation in the 

15,000,000 cartridges in Belgium, prosecuted bellion that had been effected at Bourg 

works of fortification at Varna, Bourgas, and 1886 under cover of two Russian gunbo^^ 

other points, and prepared vigorously for war, but who had been set free on being claim 

which. Prince Ferdinand predicted in a speech a Russian subject, was the leader of the 

that made a sensation throughout Europe in attempt, and behind him was, the chief of 






BULGARIA* 113 

i Rnssophiles, Zankoff, who was in elective assembly tinder the supervision of 

^Constantinople, while his coa^jotors the representatives of the powers; the as- 

fe cashiered officers of the Bulgarian sembly would send a deputation to the Czar 

id Andre Eappe, a MoDtenegrin. in acknowledgment of Russia's services in 

as snpplied by the Slav committees ia liberating Bulgaria ; the Czar, content with 

and Odessa. They recruited a band this act of satisfaction, would renounce the 

ne hundred Montenegrin mercenaries, idea of having a civil or military representa* 

ered a Greek vessel at the Turkish port tive in the future Government; and all the 

to to convey the party to Kustenje, powers would accept any prince that the as- 

ig that they were emigrants. When sembly wonld clioose comformably to the 

village of Eeupruli, on the Roumelian stipulations of the Treaty of Berlin. Russia, 

the Black Sea, near Bourgas, they after an interchange of views with all the 

] the master of the vessel to set them cabinets, communicated the suggestion to the 

They tried to incite the Roumeliotes Porte, and was supported in identical notes 

lem, but without success. The Prince by Germany and France, while England, Ans- 

negro had tardily telegraphed a warn- tria, and Italy sent separate communications 

3 plot to the Porte, yet the Bulgarian of negative import. After receiving a second, 

» received notice from Constantino- more emphatic note from Russia, and one still 

le to intercept the revolutionists be- more urgent from Germany, the Grand Vizier 

r reached Bourgas. The Bulgarian laid the matter before the council of ministers, 

learlj surrounded them, and killed and in pursuance of an trade sent a dispatch 

while many were taken prisoners, in- to M. Stambuloff on March ^, which ran as 

lappe, only about twenty making th^ir follows : 

to Torkish territory, where they were On the arrival of Prince Ferdinand of Coburg in 

by the Ottoman authorities. Capt. Bulffaria, I declared tq His Highness in a telegram 

• and Capt. Boyanoff, a notorious Bui- <>/ -^V??*,* ^^z ^^^7' that as his election by the Na- 

3VolDtionist, were among the slain, tionai^ulganan Assembly had not le^ive^ 

V J a. , J <^ w MCMu. gent of all the Signatory powers of the Berhn Treaty, 

;he documents captured were letters and as that election had not been sanctioned by the 

ag Zankoff, Hitrovo, the Russian min- Sublime Porte, his presence in Bulffaria was contrary 

Bucharest, the city attorney of Odessa, to the Beriin Treaty and was illegal. 

ontenegrin priest named Eapitchich, To-day I have to declare to theBulMrian Govem- 

„ 1 Jtj ;„ ♦!,« «K^««*;^« S jy^^^X ment that in the view ot the Imperial Government 

a hand m the abduction of Pnnce j^ig portion remams the same-that is to say, the 

tr. Three other bands were organized presence of Prince Ferdinand at the head of the 

negro for the descent on Bourgas, but principality is illegal and contrary to the Treaty of 

Lab Government arrested some of the Berlin. 

men, and prevented their embarking. The effect of this declaration was to rouse 

n war- vessel appeared off Bourgas at into activity all the elements in Bulgaria that 

ent when the attempt to surprise the were hostile to Prince Ferdinand or to inde- 

nijzht was to be made, and vanished pendence. Clement, Metropolitan of Timova, 

failure. These events took place in was dismissed for insulting the prince. Rev- 

ining of January. olutionary bands made incursions from Mace- 

I PrtptsaK — The Porte, which had donia and Servia, but were promptly met by 

Riza Bey, its commissioner in Bui- soldiery. Opposition journals called on Prince 

i the arrival of Prince Ferdinand, de- Ferdinand to resign, and anti-national cliques 

L January to send again a representa* were busy in the army. Manifestations of a 

Sofia, and appointed Eiazim Bey its revolutionary spirit had been made easy by 

Qoner. M. Nelidoff thereupon threat- the action of Prince Ferdmand^s Government in 

leave Constantinople, and the ap- abolishing the press censorship before the 

ent was canceled. Under Russian press- close of 1887, and in restoring to their rank 

e Turkish authorities also release<l the in the army many officers who had partici- 

negrins who had taken part in the pated in the deposition of Prince Alexander 

?» affair. In February, Count Schou- and other Russian plots. Ferdinand, however, 

. the Kussian ambassador at Berlin, ex- effectually counteracted these symptoms of 

^ tlie Rassian position to the German restlessness by making a tour of the towns, in 

€dlor, and as a result of the pourparlers^ all of which he was received with demonstra- 

igrwi was sent from the Russian Foreign tions of loyalty that proved in the eyes of Eu- 

^, asking the powers to declare illegal the rope the attachment of the mass of the Bul- 

»w of Prince Ferdinand of Coburg in garian people to their de facto prince as the 

^ and at the head of the Bulgarian embodiment of a stable government and of na- 

^mentf and to communicate that dec- tional independence. 

jw» to Turkey, and request Turkey to CaMiet CMb, — In the spring. Major Popoff, 
7 it to the usurping prince. This was who had done more than any one else to de- 
wed by a note explaining the conse- feat the Russian revolutionary conspiracy in 
*« of sach action, which would be that the time of the regency, was arrested, with 
Bulgarian ministry would drive Prince four other oflScers, on the charge of malversa- 
•Mnd from Bulgaria, and convoke an tion of public money. A discrepancy of 7,000 
roLxxTiiL — 8 A 



114 BULGARIA. 

francs was discovered in the regimental ac- The Eastern RtOways. — From the time 

counts. For this his subordinates were charge- rail connection between Europe and th< 

able, and no saspicion of dishonesty could rest poros was first contemplated, the proje 

on the patriotic soldier who had refused Gen. passed through many vicissitudes. The t 

Eaulbars^s offered bribe of 200,000 rubles to men who governed Turkey in the reij 

deliver Sofia over to the revolutionists in No- Abdul Medjid and Abdul Aziz plani 

veraber, 1886. But he had offended Stam- junction with the Austrian resMu, whih 

buloff, who was jealous of his influence with Ignatieff, through palace influences and 

the prince, and therefore a court-martial cash- matic chicanery, sought to shape a s 

iered him and condemned him to four years^ to join the projected railways of £ui 

imprisonment. Col. Nicolaieff, president of Turkey with tiiose of Russia. For ten 

the court-martial, publicly declared that the or more the political troubles of the 

trial was unfairly conducted, and on the prevented any step being taken. At 1 

strength of this opinion Natchevich and Stoll- m 1868, contracts were awarded to tb« 

off, ihe Conservative members of the Cabinet, gian Van der £lst, and when he faile 

urged the prince to quash the sentence or Vienna banker Hirsch obtained a new c 

order a re-trial. Stambuloff threatened to sion, contracting to build a line from Co; 

resign if this advice were followed. On June tinople to the Austrian frontier near A 

12, Stoiloff and Natchevich tendered their with four branches running to the Mget 

resignations. When apprised of their action, from Adrianople, to Salonica from Pristi 

Stambuloff sent to the prince the resignations the Black Sea, and into Servia, the tot 

of himself and his Liberal colleagues. A com- being 2,600 kilometres. On the securit 

promise wa.<« effected, in accordance with which subvention of 14^000 francs per kilomet 

Prince Ferdinand, on June 28, remitted the annum for ninety-nine years, Hirsch ob 

penalty of imprisonment. The migority of subscriptions for 1,080,000 bonds of 400 

the ofScers of the army were incensed at the each, which were rendered attractive I 

result of the trial, and some of them entered feature of lottery drawings. When the 

into a plot to rescue him from prison, and Austrian Railroad Company declined i 

seize Stambuloff and the other Liberal minis- sume the contract for working the line 

ters. Five ofiicers were arrested as ringleaders, stipulated rental of 8,000 francs per kilc 

Another dispute occurred between the Con- per annum, Hirsch, with the aid of Pi 

servative members of the Cabinet and Stam- financiers, founded a French company f 

buloff on account of attacks on the former in purpose, called the Soci^t^ d^Exploitatic 

the Liberal press, and they again handed in Chemins de Fer Orientaux, which has 

their resignations, but the prince brought changed its domicile to Austria. Ignati 

about an accommodation. 1872, after Mahmoud Pasha had beconi 

The Servfaui FrMtler ReetUcitiMU — The dispute eign minister, succeeded in having the 

in regard to the possession of a tract of past- plan changed. The Austrian and &• 

nre lands in the Bregovo district, which was junctions were abandoned, and the len| 

one of the causes of the Servo-Bulgarian war, the line was reduced to 1,280 kilometref 

was finally settled in July, 1888, in accord- ning to Bellova, to connect with the R 

ance with the agreement arrived at between . nian and Russian lines by means of the \ 

the two governments, by a mixed commission Rustchuk line. A part of the money thi 

sitting at Negotina. The difference between subscribed for the abandoned portion: 

the two countries arose from the fact of the paid to Hirsch as compensation for the c 

frontier line having become changed through of contract, none of it being returned 

the deviation from its former course of the bondholders. Austrian and English dipl< 

Timok river. The question was settled by a was set in motion to induce the Porte 

mutual exchange of land. The Porte raised tend the Bellova line to Nish in order t 

an objection to the direct negotiations with it with a projected line through Servia, i 

Servia in the first place, and now protested 1875 Turkey and Austria entered into : 

against the cession of Bulgarian territory tual engagement to construct r^lroads t< 

without the previous consent of the suzerain on the one part, and to Belgrade on the 

power. This protest was simply intended as before the end of 1879. Then came the 

a formal assertion of reserved rights, and after ruptcy of the Turkish treasury, the S< 

explanations had been offered by the Bnlga- war, the Bulgarian rebellion, and the I 

rian Government it was withdrawn. In Sep- Turkish War, all of which events had 

tember, when negotiations were opened for origin in the conflict. The Treaty of I 

the conclusion of a commercial treaty between settled the question in the Austrian 

Bulgaria and Servia, Turkey put forth more and restored the main features of the 

emphatically a claim to participation in the inal Hirsch project. Servia and Bo 

treaty, requesting that the Servian Govern- were bound to build the sections of the 

ment should recognize the Turkish minister lying within their respective territories, 

resident at Belgrade as the first Turco-Bulga- sian diplomacy endeavored still to defe^ 

rian plenipotentiary. But Servia consented to arrangement by bringing pressure on 1 

treat with Bulgaria alone. Alexander to grant a concession to R 



BULGARIA. 115 

contractors for a line from Sofia to Rastchak, 72 miles. The road was ready to go into op- 

reljing on Rassian influence over the new eration in Jalj. From Vakarel to Bellova the 

principality to postpone indefinitely the con- line had already been built by the Soci6t6 des 

straetion of the line from Vakarel to Zaribrod Raccordements, and wds the property of the 

enjoined by the Treaty of Berlin. TheBalgarian Porte, subject to a mortgage to the construc- 

ministers steadfastly resisted the Russian de- tion company. By the terms of the original 

maod, which was renewed and urged in many contract the Porte was under obligations to 

tbnns, and thus began the friction between give the working of both the Macedonian line 

Ra^ia and Bulgaria. Russian infiuences at and the Bulgarian Junction road to the Soci6t6 

Sofia and Constantinople were strong enough, d^£xploitation des Ghemins de Fer Orientaax, 

however, to delay the meeting of the Confix but it had long before quarreled with Baron 

TfMt <2 Quatre^ which was announced for the Hirsch, and would have no further dealings 

early months of 1881, until 1883, and when with his company. It offered the contract for 

the convention was finally drawn up the Bui- the Bellova road to the Soci6t^, which, possess- 

garian delegates were deterred from signing it ing no rolling-stock, sublet it to the contract- 

lotil the Hossian clique at Sofia concluded or working the Servian railroads. The Bul- 

that farther opposition was useless. Then a garian Government applied for permission to 

scheme to obtain the contract for Russian en- operate the Junction line, and received no re- 

pnneers was tried, but Karaveloff outwitted ply, as Russian infiuences were predominant 

Eojander, the Russian diplomatic agent, and in Constantinople. The Turkish Government 

secured it for a Bulgarian syndicate. The also refused to conclude a postal convention in 

eoolnees that arose on this account between regard to Eastern Roumelian letters until Bul- 

the RojBsian representative and the Bulgarian garia threatened to use the Austrian post-office 

Prime Minister, who was ref4ised admittance in Constantinople, and on July 12 the Turkish 

to the Rassian agency, excited the resentment authorities consented to accept them when 

of the latter, and brought him into the con- bearing Bulgarian stamps, 

dition of mind to prepare the revolution in The Bulgarian railroad was opened with fes- 

^'Eftsrem Ronmelia in the following year, which tivities on the 12th of August, and the first 

led to the complete estrangement of Russia. through train that passed over the internation- 

By the convention concluded at the CoT^fe" al route entered Constantinople on the mom- 

rmee d Quatre^ in 1883, Austria, Bulgaria, Ser- ing of the 14th. The trip from Vienna to Con- 

ria, and Turkey agreed among themselves to stantinople takes less than forty-eight hours, 

boild railroads connecting the European sys- The Bulgarian line had been open for internal 

tem with Constantinople and Salonica. The traffic from July 5. 

tvo lin^ were to be completed and opened Brlguidiget — The Bulgarian Grovernment had 

for traffic in the summer of 1886. Austria a serious grievance against the Turkish authori- 

bdh the section from Budapesth to Belgrade ties in the fact of their snpineness in regard 

md opened it in September, 1884. Servia to the operations of Macedonian brigands who 

{Ranged into debt in order to fulfill her part made incursions into Bulgaria from the Balkan 

promptly, and had the roads running south- mountains, and when safe on Turkish soil again 

vtrd to the Turkish frontier and eastward to made no pretense of concealing themselves or 

i^ Bulgarian frontier ready for operation be- their business, but openly established their ar- 

t9r% Bulgaria and Turkey had fairly begun senals in the villages. On July 8, a band of fif- 

tbeir continuations. Bulgaria was the slowest ty brigands from the Rhodope descended on 

IB performing her part of the engagement, and Bellova, and carried off two railroad officials, 

tfoosed the anger of the Servians, who were Austrian citizens named Lftndler and Binderby. 

tbe readier on this account to begin the cam- They gave notice that their prisoners would be 

ptign against Bulgaria that placed it out of her released on the payment of a ransom of 8,300 

power to complete her section of the Constan- Turkish pounds into the hands of a Greek 

tbo}^ line within the time set. Turkey was named Illiopulos, the consular agent of hisGov- 

eot much behind Bulgaria in finishing the ernment at Tatar-Bazar(^ik. The diplomatic 

^aetioQ lines. The Salonica railroad was agents of England, Austria, Italy, Servia, and 

jiQ^a^ to the Servian branch from Belgrade in Roumania demanded of Stambuloff that he 

IW, yet could not be opened under the pro- should take steps to secure the release of the 

naon of the convention before the route to captives, which he finally accomplished at the 

C<i^tantinop1e. It was, however, officially end of five weeks by the payment of the stipu- 

cpeoed on May 18. The passage from Vienna lated ransom. Other acts of brigandage led to 

toSalofiica takes thirty-five hours. fresh representations. Sometimes the robbers 

The Bulgarian section has been built with do- assumed the character of partisans of Russia, 

Biestie capital and native labor at the low cost, whose object was to drive Prince Ferdinand 

fcr a mountain railroad, of 200,000 francs per from the throne. Their bands were composed 

•Oe. The total cost, amounting to 17,000,000 of Macedonians, Montenegrins, and Bulgarian 

frtncs. inclusive of rolling-stock, has been de- refugees. Their chief lurking-place was in the 

friyed from the ordinary revenues of the prin- Rhodope mountains. The Bulgarian Govern- 

«^tT, 3^600,000 francs being still due to the ment redoubled its efforts to repress the evil, 

^i^traetors. The length is 114 kilometres, or and through its remonstrances obtained the co- 



116 BURIAL, LAW OF. 

operation of the Ottoman anthorities. The dis- ancient common law. For aboat foni 

trict around Sofia was infested with robbers, years Fugland, under the name of 

and was scoured with geDdarroes, who captured formed a part of the Roman £mp 

some. A band was surrounded by troops near there is no reason to beJieve that. ^ 

the Macedonian frontier, and fourteen were Roman domination came to an end, th< 

captured and straightway hanged. ized Britons abandoned with political i 

Selmre of the BcllOTa Eailrwid. — ^On July 15 the the civilization and jurisprudence thi 

Bulgarian Government, alleging the necessity long enjoyed; still less that they W4 

to guard the line in consequence of the ^attack or desire in any way to withdraw 

of brigands on the station at Bellova, took sepulchres and graves of their dead 

possession of the Bellova -Vakarel Railroad, tection that those laws had so fully 

The concessionairei of the Porte had already On the contrary, it is distinctly s 

been refused permission to operate the line, on Scandinavian historians that the parti 

the ground that a Bulgarian law forbade a for- ized Saxons had been specially taught 

eign company from working a line over Bui- ence their places of burial. Nor d( 

garian territory without special permission, in the history of the occasional inroa 

which the Government could not see its way Danes any evidence that these invi 

to accord. The Porte appealed to the organic literated in the slightest degree the n 

statutes of Eastern Roumelia, but the Bulgarian usages in the matter of the dead com 

Government refused to recognize this as being from the Romans or from Odin. 1 

longer in force after the Tophan^ convention laws of that rude people,^ carefully 

and the retrocession of the Rhodope villages, in the twelfth century by the lean 

Finally, in order to clear away the complica< quarian, Saxo Grammaticus, speak wi 

tions arising from illegalities on its own side, rence of those who insult the ash< 

the Porte decided to turn over the administra- dead, not only denouncing death i 

tion of both the Bulgarian junction and the ^^alieni eorruptor cinerU^'*'* but ooi 

Vranja-Uskub line to Baron Hirsch. The Sofia the body of the offender to lie forever 

Government still insisted on a preferential and unbonored. The law of the Fra 

right to work the Eastern Roumelian section neighbors of the Saxons) not only 

in connection with the rest of the Bulgarian from society him who dug up a dead 

line, to the advantage of both the international plunder, but prohibited any one from 

and the local service, and offered to assume all his wants until the relatives of the 

responsibilities for the operation, the interest consented to his readmission to soci 

on the bonds, and the purchase of the road, distinctly recognizing the peculiar and 

A truce was agreed to, whereby the Oriental interest of the relatives in the remai 

Railway Company assumed the administration was the right to protect the dead i 

of the Constantinople line, and provisionally by the Norman Oonquest. It is true 

of the Bulgarian junction line. When Baron swarm of Roman Catholic ecclesias 

Hirseh^s company attempted to take over also poured into England with the Conq 

the Yranja-Uskub line difficulties were invent- erted themselves actively and indefa 

ed, and the Franco-Servian company was left monopolize for the Church the tem 

in possession. The Bulgarian Government ar- thority over the bodies of the dead, a 

ranged through an English syndicate to pur- succeeded in ingrafting upon English 

chase the Yama-Rustcbuk Railroad, with the law that curious and subtle distincti 

proceeds of an issue of bonds, the total sum still exists in Great Britain and her 

amounting to nearly 47,000,000 francs. The viz., that the heir can invoke the ci^ 

road, which continues temporarily its mail and to protect (or give conipensation for 

through passenger service, was transferred to the to) the monument, cofnn, or grave- c 

Government administration on August 26. A his ancestor, while the ecclesiastical ai 

new line, 200 kilometres long, pasRug through alone have the right of property in th 

Rasgrad and Tirnova, and joining the southern and the disposal of the body of the dea 

railway, is determined upon. This distinction has never been fully n 

BURIAL, LAW OF* The due protection of the by common law in the United States 

dead engaged the earnest attention of the great cause the American and English ca 

law-givers of the polished nations of antiquity, on this point, it is necessary that th 

The laws of the Greeks carefully guarded the of the law of burial should acquain 

private rights of individuals in their places of with the history of burial law as abo 

interment, and a similar spirit shows forth in recounted. When the United States 

the clear intelligence and high refinement of the English common law as the la 

Roman jurisprudence. Upon the common law land, they eliminated from it the eccl 

of England (from which the large body of element, and thus the right to pre 

American jurisprudence is deduced) the Roman bodies of the dead reverted to those 

civilization, laws, usages, arts, and manners previously possessed it. But to this 

must have left a deep impression, have become taint of ecclesiastical interference in ci 

intermixed and incorporated with Saxon laws is observed in some States. Thus, it 

and usages, and constituted the body of the held that neither the heir nor the exe< 



CALIFORNIA. 117 

(trator coald maiutmn an action at com- in their discretion if they choose, subject only 
kw for the personal matilation of a to sach considerations of public policy as would 
placed upon a railroad track and run prevent indecency, impropriety, or danger to 
r a train, whether such mutilation was the living. The children of a deceased person 
tal or intentional ; but in nearly every possess, next in order, according to the prior- 
be common law has been abrogated or ity of their ages, the right to bury their parent, 
rented by statutes, making it both a together with the additional right to remove 
d crioiinal offense to mutilate the body or protect the remains. If there be no chil- 
irb the dust of a dead person. It is dren, then the next of kin possess the right; 
of remark that, while the law has in but, if the next of kin be of an equal degree 
nstances recognized the right of indi- of relationship to the deceased, but divided in 
by will or by contract during life, to opinion, the courts may determine, by evidence 
of their bodies after death, it has never of the wishes and mode of life of the deceased, 
>gnized any right of the heir or the ex- the method and proper place of burial. In 
to dispose of the cadaver for any pur- case the deceased dies away from home and 
cept that of burial — for example, nei- friends, the stranger in whose house the body 
i heir nor the executor has the right to is may cause it to be buried, and pay the ex- 
dead body to a medical college for dis- pense out of the effects of the deceased, or 

have a primary claim upon the decedenVs 
laty of borial lies primarily upon the estate. And, in case the relatives are unable 
r or administrator, but the rule in- or unwilling to bury the dead .body, the pub- 
only so much of the idea of property lie authorities must perform the interment, 
remains as is necessary to enable him As has been previously mentioned, there is 
is daty ; and, when the burial is over, no property in a corpse; it can not be retained 
It of the executor ceases, except in case by creditors, nor attached for non-payment of 
Dproper interference with the cadaver, debts ; it is not an export nor an import, and 
re, the coffin, or the grave-clothes. In can not be taxed as such. Yet the common 
3nce of any testamentary provision, the law is not without remedies to protect graves. 
1 has the right to designate the place A suit for trespass can be maintained by the 
al of his deceased wife; but, after the owner of the land or person having charge or 
as been once buried, any further dis- custody of it against any person disturbing a 
i of the remains belongs to the next of grave; the party who has caused the burial, 
L similar right to control the burial- or the next of kin, can bring an action for any 
f a deceased husband rests with the injury done to the monument, the coffin, or 
jid it has even been held that a widow the grave-clothes, and equity maf be invoked 
id ordered the funeral of her husband to protect a grave from desecration. But, 
ible for the cost thereof, although she while these are the common-law remedies, the 
infant at the time, the expense being statutes of nearly all the States of the Union 
1 necessary. Either wife or husband have created additional protections and reme- 
compelled to perform the duty of burial dies, making the disturbance of the dead a 
>pt the alternative of renouncing the criminal offense, and severely punishing the 
but the method and place of burial are desecration of graves. 



C 

ilOBHU. State C^fcmieBt— The follow- TaliatlMS.— For 1887 the total assumed vnlua- 

rere the State officers at the beginning of tion of the State was $908,119,480, and for 

etr: Governor, R. W. Waterman, Repub- 1888, before revision by the State Board of 

K electwl Lieutenant-Governor, but acting Equalization, $1,083,888,828, an increase in one 

overnor since the death of Governor Bart- year of $175,213,848. Fresno County leads 

in 1887 ; Secretary of State, W. 0. Hen- with an increase of $21,649,564, followed by 

Iw, Democrat; Treasurer, Adam Herold, San Francisco with $20,974,905; San Diego, 

wcrat; Comptroller, J. P. Dunn, Demo- $19,127,914; Santa Clara, $15,428,412; Los 

', Attorney-General, G. A. Johnson Demo- Angeles, $12,678,218; and Tulare, $9,360,958. 

; Sarreyor - General, Theodore Reichert, The total valuation of San Francisco County is 

«^lican; Superintendent of Public Instruc- $272,711,006. 

jlraG. Hoi tt, Republican; State Engineer, DedsioBS. — On April 30 the Supreme Court 

"ffl H, Hall, Democrat ; Railroad Commis- of the United Stated rendered a tinal decision 

«R. A. Abbott, P. J. White, J. W. Rea; adverse to the State in the celebrated tax suits 

5^- Justice of the Supreme Court. Niles brought to recover State and county taxes as- 

^8; Associate Justices, E. W. McKinstry, sessed upon the principal railroads within its 

.Thornton, J. R.Sharpstein, Jackson Tern- jurisdiction. The defenses set up by the de- 

r B. McFarland, A. Van R. Patterson. fendant companies were, first, alleged discrimi- 



118 CALIFORNIA. 

nation agaiDst the companies contrary to th^ &ro of the whole peo^, inseparably bound up 

fourteenth amendment of the Constitution in theintereRteof those living in sections which an 

disallowing^a d«i«ctioD for mortgagee, which ^t ^^^JX'Xto/^K'i "qS^iu^ 

IS allowed to all other citizens ; second, that the use for which property is taken be to sati 

the assessors included property which, by the great public wont or public exigency, it is a ^ 

State Constitution, the State Board of Equali- ^^ within the meaning of the Constitution, anc 

zation had no right to asseSs, but which was f,!?i® if^^'^ij^^^^ J?,r^ ^'\^'' "^"^^u^' ""^^^ 

assessable and actually assessed by county that property to satisfy the want or meet the exigt 

boards; third, that assessments in some of the Another decision of this year declares 

cases included franchises granted to the com- act of 1880, providing for the protectioi 

pany by Congress, such as that of constructing lands from overflow, to be unconstitutioni 

railroads in the United States* Territories as that it permits the levy of assessments o 

well as in the State. The Circuit Court found land-owners without giving them notice oi 

these defenses to be true in points of fact, and lowing them a bearing thereon, providing 

the Supreme Court without expressing any ^or a summary mode of collection withoi 

opinion on the first ground of defense, based suit at which the tax-payer could be beard 

on the fourteenth amendment, sustains the IndislriaL — The total wheat product of 

other grounds and affirms the judgments of the State for 1887 is estimated at 874,000 toni 

Circuit Court. The decision conforms to the 2,000 pounds each, distributed among the a 

former decision of the Court made two years ties as follows : 

ago, in reference to similar taxes on some of oounties. tod^. 

the same roads, the only new point being the «^**** S^JSJ 

illegality of taxing franchises granted to the cioiusa. '.*.*.!!'.'. '.!*.!'.!'. aoiooo 

company by Congress. The judgments of the Contm Co«u .* 8o!ooo 

Circuit Court in au cases are affirmed. ^^ :::::::::::::: ^;SSS 

This decision covers suits brought by the Like.".'.'..'.!.'!.!!!!!! 4^000 

State against the Central Pacific Railroad Com- J^nd^Jf* ^'JJJ 

pany. Southern Pacific Railroad Company, Mereed..!*. "!!!!.'."!.' 60,000 

Northern Railway Company, and California Monterey 8c,ooo 

Pacific Railroad Company. ^; ' ; ; ; ! ; ; ! ; ; ,S;ooo 

On May 31, in the case of the Turlock Irri- Bacramento!!!! !!!!!! ao,ooo 

gation Company t?«. Williams, the State Su- |S diw'"'^'"'' is 000 

preme Court rendered a decision of great im- Ban Joaquin*!!.'!!!.'!! 60,'ooo 

portance, upholding the coustitutionality of xxrun xv x j _xi. *. * 

the Wright irrigation law passed by the last Wh'Je the eastern and northern counties of 

Legislature. Extensive irrigation has been Sacramento valley show an increased y 

hitherto impossible in the State by reason of ''"f 1886, there is a decrease in the San J 

the decision of the same court, that riparian "i""" and Santa Clara valleys and m the soi 

owners had a right to the natural and nndi- ^^f""?^*- The total product is nearly » 

minished flow of the stream as against all other ^O^ *<>"* ^^ tn*" »? 1886 

persons. As any act of the Le^slature giving » J^^! production of wool for 1887 «place. 

to other individuals or private eorporltions 81-664,281 pounds or about 7,000,000 pon 

rights in the stream wonlJ be unconstitutional, '^^, *•"*? " *^.? previous year. Revised « 

the Wright law created public irrigation disi ™«*^* ^"'^ '"r*%'!r^"«1'Kl?/?L^®*^- ^''■* 

tricts, pFovided for their organization, and then f 9, P?"°^» ^ f?"", 1885, 86,501,390 pounds, 

declared that the use of water requir^ by such %i^^' 88,500 160 pounds, 

districts for irrigation, together with rights of ,. ^''V'*'*'"/'?* ','l«!r"tf -^""SnnlSfn?' 

way and other property necessary for them *'*'"' *^„\P!;?*^"*'* J*"" ^^?^ ^*"'8 80"^''^? ^. 

*hould he a puhlU Je. and that private rights "L^'l"*''''*^ P"""^^ •" '"^^ja'^, of nearly 

and property should be condemned and taken ?"." ,''f f* "» T ^T ^"n^^ ?°* k^' 

for such use. The court decided that such dis- *'»« *""»' «<"»** f"""" ^'■?»"° P"""*-^' ^'"« 

tricts were in effect public corporations, and |f 7 ^l^ "K" ^"« "??"t*'"*^ "• ^^7*°^^'' 

their right to take or condemn private prop- I*"*jr'>;'=^ •'f P™"*^ *" ^ admirably adap 

erty was constitutional. The court say: A.!f j ° j ?' •. a i • .v q, 

' Other dried fruits were produced in the SI 

The districts, when orf^nizcd an provided in the as follow : 

net under discussion, have all the elements of corpo- Pom^. 

rations formed to accomplish a public use and pur- Prunes 1,82A.0V0 

pose, according to tlie rules of law laid down in Ha- Apples, saD^lrled . . 780.000 

gar VI. Superv'sors of Yolo County. Such a general Pe«l><M, »»n;drled. LJW.OOO 

scheme, by which immigration may be stimulated, y^t^:^!^- *^^^ 

the taxable property increased, the relative burdens Ompos, sun-dritHl . . 6oo,fH)0 

of taxation upon the whole people decreased, and the Aprlcot«, Bundriedl^ 200,000 

comfort and advantaGre of many thriving communities Nectarines, san- 

subserved, would seem to redound to the common ad- ^t\^ 100,000 

Ie's^'rtont.'"lt' is^ tC'^thafi'nddSl.^/p^fv'r^";: There were also produced 1,090,000 poui 

sons and private property may be benefited, but the ^^ honey extracted, 250,000 pounds of honej 

main plan of the Legislature, viz., the general wel- the oomb, and 25,000 poundis of beeswax. 



COUNTDB. 1 

Ban Luis Obispo ... 4 

Santa Barbara 8 

banU Clara 1 

Banta Crux 1 

Sba.Hta 

Sbkiyou 

Solano 8 

Sonoma 1 

Stanislaus & 

Sutter 5 

Tehama 4 

Talare ft 

Ventura 1' 

Yolo ft 

Yuba 1 

Total 8T 



Figw. sun-dried 9< 

Apples, evaporated. fiO( 
Apricobi, evapo- ] 

rated V 8.00( 

Apricots, bleach'd ) 
Peaches, evaporat- 
ed, peeled 60C 

Peaches, evaporat- 
ed, unpeeled 730 



CALIFORNIA. 



119 



There was an estimated yield of 1,500.000, 
pounds of walnuts, 500,000 pounds of almonds, 
and 250,000 pounds of peanuts. 

The vintage of 1887 yielded 18,900,000 gal- 
k>as distribnted among the counties as follows : 
Napa, 2,700,000; Sonoma, 1,500,000; Santa 
Clara and Santa Cruz, 2,220,000; Alameda 
and Colusa. 1,000,000; Fresno, 2,000,000; Los 
Ang:elefl and south, 2,000,000 ; Sacramento and 
north, 1,000,000; other counties, 1,500,000. 

The total acreage of vines in the State is esti- 
mated at 150,000 acres, of which about 100,000 
acres are in bearing. 

Ckime iBBlgntlMk — The number of Chinese 
arriving and departing through the port of 
San Francisco during the period from 1852 to 
Nov. 17, 1880, the date at which the restric- 
tion act went into effect, was 258,085 and 
123,061 respectively. 

Fraoa Not. 17. 1380, to Ang. 0, 1$$2 : 

AxTiTmls 4d,666 

DrpArtores 18,414 

fyam Aojr. A. 1SS2, to Dec 81, 1885 : 

ArrfT*I» 18,703 

DepwCares 40,481 

fW tbe 7«w ending Dec 81, 1886 : 

Axrivalfl «,714 

Departizres 18,267 

fm tJK jtmr endinir Dec 81, 1837 : 

Anirals 11,572 

Departoret 9,919 

The collector of the port says: "Our Chi- 
nese popolation, notwithstanding the statistics 
indicate an excess of departures over arrivals 
acee Ang. 5, 1882, in fact shows no diminu- 
tk>n, being recruited through the underground 
viaducts, across the borders from Bntish Co- 
lumbia and Mexico.'^ 

Nttlcal. — The only State officer to be regu- 
krij elected this year was a Chief -Justice of 
tbe Supreme Court The Prohibitionists nom- 
]2»ted their candidate, Eobert Thompson, on 
AfrU 4, at a convention which also chose dele- 
sates to tbe National Prohibition Convention. 
Tbe Democrats on May 17 nominated Niles 
Searla, also at a convention for selecting dele- 
ipited to the National Convention and presiden- 
tkl electors. The Democratic platform adopt- 
ed at this time indorses the administration of 
Pr»dent Cleveland, favors tariff reform, free 
etHoage of gold and silver, the election of 
Cidced States Senators by a direct vote of the 
people, and the establishment of a system of 
postal telegraphy by the Government. The fol- 
k>«iog portion relates to State issues : 

EmoU^. That we favor the enacting of such meas- 
p« » shall place our variou8 industnefl on an equal- 
ST before the law in the use and distribution of the 
ynben of the streania of this State for irrigation, min- 
'se. milling, and other beneficial purposes. 

Wc oomoncnd the action of our Democratic State 
"i^ialt in pre^injB^ the California tax cases toward 
s^imate decisions, and hope this most important issue 
^3 nnt be permitted to rest without final adjudication 
5>QQ its merits. We once more condemn the acts of 
wvt corporations which have persistently ref\ised to 
pw ihdr lawful portion of the public revenue. This 
BHisre to reapoDd to a just demand has seriously con- 
tacted the public-school fund, and must render our 
ciacatiflnal system less efiTectivc, until collection is en- 
fc»»d, «• ti» honest tax-payer is comipelled to contrib- 



ute beyond his pro|>ortionate share. The Bepublican 
party, ever sincere in its professions, has finally dis- 
avowed all intention to resist the demands of its cor- 
|>orate masters. It refuses to stigmatize their encroach- 
ments or to question their misconduct, but, on the 
contrary, as the action of its late State Convention 
demonstrates, yields readj compliance to their dicta^- 
tion. While fully appreciating the benefits of organ- 
ized capital, we declare that tnc protection of those 
privileges which our Constitution declares are the 
common heritage, is paramount to the increase of 
individual wealtli. 

Jieaolvedj We believe that the public should be pro- 
tected from the great non-tax-paying trusts and cor- 
porations which now challen^ the authority of the 
Government. The Democratic party was foimded to 
maintain the interests and liberties of the people. It 
alone is competent to resist those encroachments which 
imperil the safety of the State. The Kepublican party, 
while professing to be the friend of labor, has demon- 
stratea by its uniform action that its tendencies are 
toward the creation of monopolies and trusts, through 
whose instrumentality alone it hopes to perpetuate 
its existence. The Demooartic party emanated fVom 
the people. Its aim has always been to care for the 
weak and to be just to the strong. While it is ever 
ready to promote industries and to stimulate enter- 
prise, it never will permit wealth to shirk its rightful 
obligations or to impose upon poverty tbe expenses 
of a Government formed for the benefit of all. 

No nomination was made by tbe Republicans 
at their State Convention in May, which was 
merely preliminary to the National Convention, 
but a second convention was held in August 
for that purpose and for the purpose of nom- 
inating presidential electors. Before this date 
tbe resignation of Judge McKinstry created a 
second vacancy on the Supreme Bench to be 
filled by popular election. The convention 
nominated W. H. Beatty, formerly Chief-Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court of Oregon, to be 
Chief-Justice and S. D. Works to succeed 
Judge McKinstry. The following platform, 
prepared by an indorsement of the work of 
the National Convention, was adopted : 

Besohed, That we declare that the welfare of Cali- 
fornia demands, and the dignity of labor and the in- 
terests of capital require, the maintenance by the Na- 
tional Government of the American system of a tar* 
iff for protection, under this policy which has been 
constantly supported by the Republican party since its 
foundation. . . - We arraign the Democratic partj 
of California for supporting the national Democratic 
party, which stands upon a platform that declares for 
British free trade as promulgated by the Mills Bill, 
and view with alarm this assault upon our American 
labor. We insist that the success of this British policy 
would destro;^ the growing industries of our common- 
wealth, especially the grape, raisin, nut, wool, lumber, 
borax, lead, quicksilver, sugar, beet, and cereal indus- 
tries ; also our manufacturing interests, and would 
reduce the wages of our workingmen to starvation 
point; and we further believe tiiat the legitimate 
eflbrts of organized labor to protect itself against cheap 
and contract labor, is a direct step toward the per- 
petuation of the American protective tariff system 
sustained by the Republican party ; also, that proper 
apprenticeship laws should be adopted. 

Jiesolredj We pledge to the American people, and 
especially the people of California, that our candidate.^ 
for Congress, if elected, will sustain the protective 

S)licy of the Republican party, and will oppose the 
ritish and Solid South policy of the Democratic 
party ; that our American industries shall be protected 
for the benefit of the American people, and that Amer- 
ican labor shall be fostered and protected as against 
the competition of foreign labor ; we denounce as un- 



120 OxlLIFORNIA. CAMPS FOR BOYS. 

Amerioan and contrary to the best interests of the Be- CHIPS FOft BOT& Summer camps of a S( 

publican party t^e cheap-labor poUcv of the Demo- ^^ at least of a non-military character, have 

cratic Solid South of to-day, as we did the slave-labor k^^„ „ ^ ;«.♦;« «*;„«. ^^^^-...Jl ^f a»«»^^«« , 

policy of the Democratic sJlid South of 1861 ; and we }?f ^ a distmctive feature of American i 

declare that the one was, and the other if permitted to "le. They are a natural outgrowth of 

continue will be, destructive to the best interests of Methodist camp-meeting, which, in its 1 

the laboring-classes of this republic. was but an organized development of a 

J^olved That the purity, of the l^t is the pillar common to aU the pioneer settlers of the 

of the State, and the denial of a free ballot to the ^. *. rru • j u j i j • j- 

humblest JVmerican citizen, whatever his color or tment. The idea has developed m maiiy di 

race, imperils the liberties of the people ; we therefore ent directions. In the older States, the ca 

denounce as dangerous to our country the Democratic tents of the early camp-meeting have 

policv of the Solid South in depriving the colored superseded by permanent structures, t 

Kia;?nX^ds"S;;^X'^tt^e?S; Cottage Cito^, Ma.s., and Ocean Grove, : 

franchise can not long survive. The educational purpose m connection 

Resolved^ That a financial policy whereby both gold such gatherings found its first successful 

and silver shall form the basis of circulation, whether ization at Chautauqua, and there are now 

the monev used by the peuple be coin or in certificates ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ organizations in various par 

redeemable in coin, or both, as convenience may re- ., ^ ^«„„*«„ a«,^«« ♦!»« •«««♦ ^^^J.^^. 

quire, is imperatively demanded. the country. Among the most commem 

Reiohed^ That we commend our Representatives in of these annual encampment-s are those mte 

Congress for their efforts in behfdf of restrictive for the benefit of boys, and incidentally fo 

Chinese legislation, thus redeeming the pled^ of the convenience and necessities of their pa 
party made for them, and renew our determination to ^ guardians. Such camps are of cofni 

make such restnction etfective, and in everv way to «"« 6 "»*«»«"*'• •-'uut* v«i*jpo «*« vi. ^vri"i 

Ere vent the competition of Chinese with Amencan lively recent ongiu, the oldest of whic 

ibor. We thank the Republican National Conven- authentic account is at hand having 

tion for its emphatic declaration on the subject, and opened for its first season in 1885. But 

we have implicit fai J that the Republi^n partjr of y^^^^^ ^.^jg encampments formed a moi 

the nation will protect ua in all our industries against , ^^ «^«.„i„L r««*r— !> «p »k« ^^^^^^ ♦«-, 

the Chinese. ^^^ regular feature or the summer ten 

many schools, that at West Point, establi 

On August 10 the State committee of the as a regular part of tlie course in 1816, b 

American party adopted the Republican ticket no doubt, the first of its kind in the coui 

as their own. On the following day the Demo- It is certdn that &s early as 1860 Mr. G 

cratic State committee added the name of principal of the famous "Gunnery," ac 

Jeremiah F. Sullivan to their ticket as the sue- school was called, in Litchfield, Conn., us4 

cessor of Judge McEinstry. Some doubt was take his pupils into camp among the beav 

felt in the early stages of the campaign as to Berkshire nills, and about twenty-five i 

the ability of the Republicans to carry the ago William T. Adams (" Oliver Optic "), 

State on account of the failure of the National story for boys, entitled ** In School and C 

Convention to nominate James 6. Blaine, the introduced an episode of camp-life. Mr. Ac 

choice of Califomian Republicans for President, informs us that the whole passage is imagii 

and the hostile record of Harrison, the nominee, and that he had never heard of such an ei 

toward Chinese exclusion. These factors did prise on the part of any school, 
not, however, prove influential with the voters, The instances cited differ from modern ca 

and at the November election the Republicans for boys in that they are either undertake! 

obtained a strong plurality on both the State recreation alone or form a part of the re} 

and National ticket, electing a Congressional curriculum. The modern camp, on the 

delegation of the same complexion as in the trary, is an independent affair, existing fc 

preceding Congress. The official vote for own purposes and having a definite obje 

President will be found in the article entitled view, namely, the care and government, 

" United States." or without instruction, of a number of 

8m FnadsM.— During 1887 the bank ex- With a great many parents and guardian 

changes for the city reached the amount of long summer vacation presents numerous 

$828,427,816.85, an increase of $186,206,425.14, plexing questions, and in many cases it i» 

or 22 per cent. This shows San Francisco to cult to provide adequate amusement and re 

be the sixth city of the Union in the volume of tion coupled with reasonable supervision 

banking business. In round numbers the ex- restraint. The summer camp is design < 

ports amounted to $38,000,000, against $35,- meet these requirements. It removes its ' 

000,000 for 188C, showing an apparent decrease hers from the undesirable influences of 

of about $2,000,000. and hotels ; it provides them sufficient aa 

The imports for the year reached $41,780,943, rnent and employment, and while aff(^ 

against $36,048,621 for 1886, showing an in- plenty of fun and exercise in the ope« 

crease of $5,732,322. The customs receipts were reduces to a minimum their opportunitic 

$6,742,078.41, against $5,855,619.93 for 1886, getting into mischief, and renders it quiC 

an increase of $886,458.48. Despite the fact possible for them, in the exuberance of 

that two transcontinental railway lines have youthful spirits to become, even nnconsciii 

been completed to the Pacific Ocean on the a source of annoyance to their elders, 
north and one on the south, San Francisco re- The selection of a site for a camp is of | 

mains the great port of entry for teas and silks, importance. It should be far enough 



CAMPS FOR BOYS. 



121 



0& 



^s^ 



from other babitatioDS to secure immanity 
from too frequent visitors, and yet it should be 
neAT enough to hotel accommodations to ena- 
ble anxious mothers to visit their sons without 
too much trouble and delay. It should be so 
far away from shops and other village attrac- 
tions that applications for leave to go to town 
will not be made for trivial reasons. The lo- 
eation shoald be, if possible, on a sandy or 
gravely formation with sufficient slope — pref- 
erably to the south or southwest — to insure 
good dr»nage. Pure and abundant drinking- 
water is essential, and a large body of water, a 
kke rather than a river, is quite as necessary. 
The ordinary forest growth of a mountain re- 
Bon is desirable in the immediate vicinity. 
Spruce, hemlock, pine, and cedar do not gen- 
erally grow where there are natural malarial 
eooditions, and judicious thinning out will let in 
eooogb suiilight to dissipate too dense a shade. 
In the matter of shelter, there is a wide di- 
versity of practice. Some of the camps have 
substantially built log- cabins, others rely upon 
tentsw others upon regular frame buildings, and 
atill others use portable houses, such as were 
described in the ^* Annual CyclopsBdia ^' for 
1886. In all cases there should be some sub- 
stantial shelter within reach, available for gen- 
eral purposes at all times and for social resort 
and refuge in case of prolonged storms. 

For many reasons, tents are to be preferred 
for i^uarters. The best is the ordinary army 
Rgnlation wall -tent costing, with a Hy or 
4wible roof-covering, about twenty-five dol- 
lars. Such a tent affords ample quarters for 
two, and may be made to accommodate four, 
Vit this is not desirable. When properly set 
^ and cared for, a tent is proof against the 
Wviest rain and will stand against any wind 
o( oTdtnary violence. 
One ob\iou8 advantage in the use of tents or 
^ «aaly portable houses is, that they are ex- 
posed to the elements only during the period 
»Wn actaally in use. When the summer is 
wer, they are securely stored, and they are as 
^ as ever when the next season opens. 
Vbere permanent structures are used the 
^^cy is naturally toward greater luxury 

lu J! ^"^P*'^^'® ^**** *''"® camp - life, and 
««walth of pupils is not unlikely to suffer 
la coniequence. Colds are almost unknown 
«»<«g soldiers in the field ; but in barracks or 
P^^niMent quarters they are by no means ex- 
^ Floors should be provided for all tents, 
"•wde in panels— say two panels to each tent 
*~««y can be easily removed and stacked for 
we winter. 

^be meas-hall, as it may be called for lack of a 
*^ name, need be nothing more than a stout 
^'^"^ bnilding, thoroughly weather-proof and 
**^ie of witlistanding any wind. Two rooms 
jwdwirable--a dining - room and a sitting- 
[^''^bat it is possible to make one room an- 
»€r for both porpo^es. The mess-hall should 
praised well clear of the ground, so that wind 
•« weather can sweep underneath during the 



ol 



tit 



c.^:' 



lie sMi^ 






DOiS^ 



^ 



winter months. In the case of an established 
camp, where a large part of the equipment is 
necessarily left on the ground, some perma- 
nent custodian is indispensable, for even in the 
wilderness valuable property may prove tempt- 
ing to maurauders. 

The daily routine of the camp must depend 
largely upon circumstances, which differ more 
or less in all cases. There should, however, 
be regular hours for rising, for meals, and for 
retiring, as well as for the study-hour, if there 
is one. In a general way, the daily calls of a 
military camp may be followed, beginning with 
reveille and ending with tattoo and taps. If 
possible, a bugle should be used, but, if not, a 
whistle is a fairly good substitute. Different 
calls may be devised for the different offices of 
the day. The use of some such instrument in 
preference to a bell, a gong, or a tin horn, is, 
of course, simply sentimental, but discordant 
noises seem sadly out of place amid sylvan 
surroundings. Immediately after reveille, 
blankets and bedding should, in pleasant 
weather, be hung out to air, and all hands fall 
in for police duty, sweeping out tents, and, in 
general, putting the camp to rights for the 
day. At a suitable interval after breakfast, an 
hour or so may be set apart for study; but 
study from books is properly subordinated to 
the study of nature, to learning the thousand 
useful things incident to a self-reliant life in 
the open air. The successful management of 
such a camp calls for a combination of quali- 
ties by no means common. The superinten- 
dent should, in the first place, be thoroughly 
in sympathy with boys, otherwise he can not 
enter into the spirit of the situation. He must 
possess that quality of moral force which com- 
mands ready obedience and is capable of en- 
forcing authority. He must, moreover, be a 
good " all-round " athlete, familiar with boats, 
a good swimmer, handy with tools, and even 
capable of teaching a boy to mend his own 
clothes or repair a damaged tent. 

The object of a summer camp is not instruc- 
tion in the ordinary lines of learning. It is 
designed to develop the individual resources, 
to cultivate helpfulness, and enable a boy, 
should he ever be left figuratively or actually 
upon a desert island, to make the best of the 
situation. As little restraint as possible is ex- 
ercised, but gentlemanly manners are at all 
times required, and more attention is paid to 
the manly qualities of truthfulness, honor, and 
mutual helpfulness than to the learning of 
schools. The following is an extract from the 
circular of one of the most successful of exist- 
ing camps, indicating the outfit required for 
each pupil: 

Three suits of underclothing suitable for summer. 

Three suits of pt^amas simply made. 

The usual toilet-articles. 

An old thick overcoat, an old jacket, a colored 
flannel shirt, and a pair of slippers will be found ecrv- 
iceable. 

One Norfolk jacket, with two stout pairs of knee- 
trousers. 



122 



CAPE COLONY. 



Four pain of corduroj stookings. 

Two nannel shirts. 

One pair of swimmiog-truDkB. 

One worsted belt. 

One cap, or light felt hat. 

One pair of heavy all-wool camp-blankets, gray. 

Three ^airs of rubber-soled gymnasium shoes. 

One pur of stout leather boots. 

One pair of rubber boots. 

One rubber coat. 

No fire-arms will be allowed. 

Each boy will be allowed twenty-flvo cents a week 
for personal expenses while in camp ; it is requested 
that no other money be furnished to any boy for use 
durins: the summer. Necessary additional expenses 
will be paid by the camp, and an account will be sent 
to parents. 

There will be two terms, the first bennnin^ near 
the end of June and ending about the be^nnmg of 
August, and the second bei^nning early m August 
and enaing early in September. 

The fees for the two terms will be $150 ; for one 
term, $85. 

CANADA, DOMINION OF. See DoiinnoN of 
Canada. 

CAPE COLONY, a British colony in South 
Africa, the form of government of which was 
established on March 11, 1858. British Caf- 
fraria was incorporated in the colony in 1865, 
and responsible government was established 
in 1872. The executive authority is vested in 
the Governor, assisted by an Executive Council 
appointed by the Crown. The legislative power 
rests with a Legislative Council of 22 members, 
elected for seven years, presided over ex- officio 
by the Chief- Justice, and a House of Assembly 
of 74 members, elected for five years. On 
Sept. 1, 1887 an act took effect ^ving the 
Transkeian territories representation in the 
Legislative Council, and two members in the 
House of Assembly. The Governor of the Cape 
of Good Hope is Sir Hercules George Robert 
Robinson, appointed in 1880. He is also com- 
mander-in-chief of the forces within the colo- 
ny, and High Commissioner for South Africa. 
The Governor is assisted in his administration 
by a ministry of five members. 

Aiet aidPopiilatlOB. — The area of Cape Colony 
is 218,636 square miles, including 14,230 square 
miles in the Transkeian territory. The esti- 
mated population of the colony and its de- 
pendencies in 1885 was 1,252,847. The total 
white population is estimated at 800,000. The 
capital of the colony, Cape Town, had a popu- 
lation of 60,000 in 1886. Eimberley had a 
population of 25,000, and Port Elizabeth, 
a population of 18,000 in the same year. 
During 1886, 4,781 marriages were regis- 
tered in the colony. Assisted immigration 
was stopped in 1886. The number of emi- 
grants sent out by the emigration agent in 
London between 1873 and 1885 was 23,387, 
the greatest number in any single year beinsr 
4,645 in 1882. Basutoland, with an area of 
168,000 square miles and 168,000 inhabitants, 
of whom only 400 are whites, a rich grain- 
producing district, is administered by a resident 
commissioner under the High Commissioner for 
South Africa. Bechuanaland, 180,000 square 
miles in extent, with a Caffre population of 



478,000, and Pondoland, with 200,000 inl 
ants, are British protectorates. The P< 
have as yet refused to receive a resident 
missioner. 

FhuuMCS.— The revenue for the year 1^ 
estimated at £8,451,000, and the expenc 
at £3,110,000. Of the total revenue o 
colony, one third is derived from customi 
one third from railways. One third of tl 
penditnre is for the public debt, and one 
for railways. On Jan. 1, 1887, the colon; 
a public debt of £21,171,854, besides £1 
439 raised for guaranteed companies. Go: 
paper monev has been issued to the amot 
£2,860,000.' 

CoBHerte. — ^The total value of imporl 

1886 was £3,790,261, and of exports, mcl 
specie and diamonds, £7,806,688. For the 

1887 the exports were £7,585,087. The 
of the wool exported in 1886, was £1,580 
ostrich-feathers, £546,280; hides and i 
£397,091 ; copper-ore, £559,828; Angora 
£282,184; wine, £28,426: diamonds, £8 
756. In 1887 the export of diamonds 
8,598,980 carats, valued at £4,240,000. 

The number of vessels entered and cl 
at the ports of the colony in 1886 was \ 
having a tonnage of 5,549,217. 

The number of miles of state rnilroa 
the colony at the end of 1886 was 1,599 
gross earnings were £1,048,686, and exp< 
£646,715. The capital expended on rail 
to the end of 1886 has been £14,130,616. 
net earnings, which averaged 2} per cen 
the two years preceding, were 4^V V^^ ^^ 
1887. 

The revenue from the postal service amoi 
in 1886 to £125,684, and the expenditu 
£188,057. The number of letters carried 
ing the year was 6,529,874, and of newspi 
8,151,835. 

The total length of the telegraph lines i 
colony at the end of 1886 was 4,829 i 
During the year, 770,500 messages were sc 

Naval Defenses. — The colonial and im] 
Governments are jointly fortifying the h; 
of Table Bay, the Cape Government prov 
the labor. Works at Simon^s Bay have 
built by the British Gt>vemment. 

Natal. — The colony of Natal was sepa 
from the Cape of Good Hope in 1856. 
Governor is assisted by an Executive Coi 
composed of the chief functionaries, a 
Legislative Council made up to seven appo 
and twenty-three elected members. The pr 
Governor is Sir Arthur Elibank Havelock, 
was appointed to the post in October, 
The revenue in 1886 was £600,177, and tl 
penditnre £717,414. In 1887 the revenue 
to £816.680, while the expenditure was i 
325. The public debt at the end of 188: 
£4,085,126. 

The area of the colony is 21,150 square i 
and the population, as returned in 18£ 
442,697. Between 1878 and 1884. whe 
sisted immigration ceased, 4,526 immig 



CAPE COLONY. 



123 




CENTRAL & SOUTHEKN 

AFRICA 



SCALE OF MILES 



100 200 



iOO MO 



!• 



124 CAPE COLONY. 

were brought into the colony at Government entering bj way of Delagqa Bay, the Oran^ 

expense. The white population at the end of Free State must impose duties at its Vaal 

1887 was 35,866. There were 32,312 Indian frontier which shall be equal to the appointed 

coolies. One quarter of the^e are indentured tariff less the Portugnese transit daties. Im- 

to the planters for a term of five year:*. The ports destined for the crown colonies of Basnto- 

free Indians compete with white mechanics land and British Bechuanaland would be sub- 

and clerks, and the further importation of in- jected to the same maiiiime duties, and their 

dentured laborers, who, after the expiration of governments would, like the republics, receive 

their term of servitude enter the tield of white three fourths of the sums collected. A uniform 

labor, meets with strong popular opposition, tariff of 12 per cent, was proposed, of which 3 

The native population was 408,922, but of this per cent, would be retained as the transit 

number more than 225,000 live on reservations, charge. Sir Gordon Sprigg, the Cape minister, 

and the colonists are anxious to remove them who presided, suggested that if the republics 

to Zulnland. both declined to enter into the arrangement, 

The total trade by sea in 1887 amounted to the British Government might agree with the 

£3,333,000, against £2,333,000 in 1886. The Portuguese Government on a uniform tariff, 

chief exports are wool, sugar, hides, corn, and the British and Portuguese colonial authorities 

recently gold, of which £120,021 were exported retaining part as transit charges, and paying 

in eleven months of 1887. A large part of the the difference to the Dutch republics or to in- 

commerce consists of transit trade with the land merchants in the form of a rebate. The 

interior. conference agreed on specific duties on guns. 

Railroads to the Orange Free State and the spirits, tea, coffee, and tobacco ; on a free list 
Transvaal borders were authorized by the comprising fence-wire, machinery, railroad 
Legislative Council in March, 1888, and a loan materials, printers^ material, and pig iron: on 
of £1.500,000 has been raised for the purpose, a 10-per-cent. rate for agricultural implements, 
The development of the railroads to within a vehicles, and iron manufactures; and on a gen- 
short distance of the frontier has assisted the oral tariff of 12 per cent, on all other articles, 
improvement of the trade of Natal, which has Between the colonies and states composing the 
greatly increased since the gold discoveries in union free trade sliall exist, except in spirits 
the Transvaal. The railroad mileage at the and sugar, 
close of 1887 was 217, against 195 in 1886. Cape Colony agreed to extend its railroad 

Srath African Cistoou aid Railway Union* — A lines to the Orange river near Colesberg, there 
conference of the South African states and to join lines that the Orange Free State prom- 
colonies to consider the question of railway ised to build northeastward through Blomfon- 
extension into the republics and an agreement tein to Harrismith, and thence through the 
with regard to customs and the collection of coal and gold fields to the Vaal river. At 
duties, which it would necessitate, was called Harrismith an extension of the Natal system 
at the initiative of the English, who had neg- will join the line. 

lected the matter of railroad communication In Natal, where the existing tariff is 7 per 
with the Orange Free State and the Transvaal cent., as against 15 per cent, in Cape Colony, 
until the construction of the Delagoa Bay Rail- there was much opposition to the customs 
road threatened to divert the trade of those union. President KrtLger, of the South African 
states and of the central parts of South Africa. Republic, expressed himself as desirous for 
Delegates from Cape Colony, Natal, and the free trade with the Free State and the colonies. 
Orange Free State met at the conference, which but his Government was precluded from enter- 
concluded its sessions on Feb. 18, 1888. The ing the customs union by a customs treaty with 
South African Republic, which had carried Belgium and an agreement with the Nether- 
through the Delagoa Bay project in spite of lands South African Railway Company per- 
British discouragement, was not represented, mitting goods to be imported by way of the 
The conference agreed on the principle of a Delagoa Bay Railroad free of duty. The rail- 
uniform scheme of tariffs for the four members road proposals were carried in the Free State 
of the proposed ZoUverein. The duties would Volksraad after a long discussion, by the cast- 
be collected at the seaboard by Cape and Natal ing vote of the President, and in the last days 
officials, and the colonial governments would of May a large majority agreed to the customs 
retain one quarter to cover the cost of collec- union with the English colonies. During the 
tion, harbor works, and postal and cable sub- session a resolution was passed also in favor of 
aidies, paying three quarters into the treasury federal union with the Transvaal. The Cape 
of the Orange Free State or the Transvaal Re- Legislative Council in August rejected the 
public according to the destination of the goods, proposition of a customs union, after it had been 
To carry out tliis arrangement, it would be approved by the Assembly. The Transvaal 
necessary for the Transvaal to enter into a Government agreed to admit imports from the 
similar agreement with Portugal by which the colonies at the same rates as on the Portuguese 
same rates of duty should be levied on imports frontier, and to cancel the concession tc» the 
brought over the Delagoa Bay Railroad, or, in Dutch and German railroad company, remit- 
case the South African Republic declined to ting duties on freight, on obtaining a pledge 
enter the union or to impose a duty on goods from the British Government that it would not 



OAPE COLONY. 



125 



aeqaire the Delagoa Bay Railroad, which has 
been baih from Lorenzo Marqaez as far as the 
bills bordering the Northern Transvaal territory, 
and is to be carried across these and extended 
to Pretoria. The right of Portugal to the 
coantry of the Mapntos south of Delagoa Bay 
baTing been established by arbitration, the 
Qoeen of Amatongaland early in 1888 ac- 
knowledged the sovereignty of the King of 
Portugal over this part of her territory. The 
Cape Parliament authorized the extension of 
the railways from Colesberg to the Orange 
river and firom Kimberley to the Vaal river. 
As sooD as Parliament was prorogued, on Aug. 
17, the Government called a special session to 
reconsider the customs union tariff bill, and 
both branches passed it, in order to avert a 
Cabinet crisis. 

TilBtiad — On May 14, 1887, Zulnland was 
annexed to the British Empire by proclamation. 
Mr. Osborn, the resident commissioner and 
chief magistrate of the new possession under 
Sir Arthur Havelock. gathered such of the 
Zolas as would accept his invitation at Nkon* 
jeoi on July 7, where he hoisted the British 
flag and read the proclamation. Usibepu, the 
most powerful of the chiefs among whom the 
British had partitioned the country after the 
deposition of King Cetewayo, who had been 
permitted to retain bis territory in the north- 
east on the king's restoration, was beaten by 
the Usntus, or Zulus, who were attached to the 
djnasty, under Cetewayo^a son, Dinizulu, and 
was driven into the Zulu Reserve. After the 
annexation, as soon as laws and regulations 
bad been made for the territory, the British 
made preparations to restore their ally and his 
follow era to the lands from which they had 
been expelled, but deferred their intention 
when Dinizulu and Umyamyana made prepara* 
tions to drive out the renegades again. Dini- 
zolu retired into the New Kepublic, but came 
back after vainly imploring the Boers to join 
him in an attack on the British and their Zulu 
allies, and became involved in a quarrel with 
another chief. Both were summoned before 
the special commissioner to have their differ* 
enees settled. Dinizulu was at first contuma- 
ck>ua, but on Nov. 14, 1887, they both appeared 
aod were ordered each to pay a fine of cattle. 
At the end of that month Usibepu and Sokwet- 
j&ta, another chief who had fled into the Re- 
•erve, were restored. In January, 1888, Usibe- 
pu attacked a kraal belonging to some of 
Dinizulu's people, seized their cattle, and drove 
the Usntua off the land. Dinizulu again went 
to the New Republic to ask the assistance of 
the Boers. While he was absent, in April, 
some police who attempted to make arrests at 
the kraal of Undabuko, his uncle, were forcibly 
ejected. In May Dinizulu fell upon the chief 
Hamelane and recaptured stolen cattle. The 
Zolaland police, with an escort of dragoons, 
proceeded to execute warrants of arrest against 
him and other chiefs. Dinizulu and Undabuko 
eoQected their followers at Ceza, in the ex- 



treme northwest, and compelled the British 
force to retreat after sharp fighting, in June. 
Zulus who were loyal to their king, Dinizulu, 
then rose in rebellion in all parts of the coun- 
try. Store-keepers in different parts of Zulu- 
land were murdered, and natives who were 
friendly to the English were plundered. On 
June 23 the Usutus attacked Usibepu, who had 
raised an impi at the call of Governor Havelock, 
and routed his force inflicting heavy losses. 
Usibepu fled, with the police at Ivuna, who 
were also attacked. The English raised levies 
of natives in Basntoland and the Reserve, and 
sent them under European leaders to quell the 
rebellion, while troops were moved forward 
from Durban to the frontier, and from Cape 
Town to Durban, and re-enforcement« were 
even sent from England and Egypt. Lieut.-Gen. 
Smyth, commanding the British forces in South 
Africa, went to Zululand to direct operations. 
A body of troops, native levies, and police 
advanced from Nkojeni against the Usntus 
under a brother of Cetewayo named Tshing- 
ana, at Hlopekulu, near White Umvolosi river, 
and defeated them, after six hours^ fighting, on 
July 2, losing two white ofiScers and a large 
number of natives. Usutu chiefs looted Sok- 
wetyata's cattle and attacked the magistrate of 
Inkhandla district. In the beginning of July 
Somkeli and his vassals rose in the Umvolosi 
district against Mr. Pretorius, the sub-commis- 
sioner, and other chiefs on the coast near San 
Lucia joined the rebellion. Before marching 
upon Ceza, where Diuizulu had been joined 
by his loyal subjects from all parts of Zulu- 
land, and had a force of 4,000 warriors. Gen. 
Smith sent an expedition to the Umvolosi. 
Somkeli surrendered voluntarily, and ordered 
his under chiefs to desist from hostilities. 
Other columns dispersed the minor insur- 
gent forces in the south and east of Zululand. 
The general waited for levies of Zulus and 
Basutos, but these never came except in small 
numbers. Sir Arthur Havelock did not share 
the current opinion as to Dinizulu^s guilt, and 
was anxious to save the Zulus from a war of 
extermination, and hence arose the usual dif- 
ferences between the civil and the military au- 
thorities. The only considerable native force 
that was raised was John Dunnes impi, num- 
bering over 1,500 warriors, which took part in 
the reduction of Somkeli near San Lucia. The 
British forces, numbering about 2,000 British 
regulars, besides police, Natal volunteers, and 
native levies, began to move on Ceza in the 
early part of August, establishing military sta- 
tions at various points. Dinizulu and Unda- 
buko, whose followers had dwindled to 1,000 
men through hunger and cold, fled into the 
Transvaal. The Zulus several times attacked 
the British posts and flying columns, and raided 
the friendly natives in the Reserve. Usibepu, 
the prime mover of the troubles, was supported, 
if not instigated, by the Natal colonists and 
officials, who have shown uniform hostility to 
the royal family of Zululand, and a determina- 



126 CAPE COLONY. 

tion to uproot the loyal attachment of the mangwatos, and Lobengala, king of Matabele- 
Zala Caf^es to their hereditary kings. The land. The Transvaal Boers, in order to fore- 
marders and robberies of the English protegS stall the English, who, having ousted the Dntdi 
first drove Dinizulu and his starving followers from Bechuaualand, apportioned the best farm- 
to acts of retaliation. Usibepu's people also ing-lands among immigrants of Britisli birth, 
invaded Swaziland, and killed men and women made a ferry across the Crocodile river, just 
on the pretence that the Swazis had helped below the month of the Macloutsie, with the 
Cetewayo. The revolt of Somkele was due to object of taking possession of the disputed 
an unjustifiable attack by Usibepu, who had tract under grants that had been issued to Boer 
been admonished to keep quiet by the British citizens some time before. A Transvaal Boer 
authorities. Dinizulu gave himself up in Sep- named Grobelaar, in July, 1888, went with an 
tember to the Transvaal authorities on a prom- escort as special envoy of the Transvaal Gov- 
ise that he should not be surrendered to the emment to Lobengula. When the Boers were 
English, who willingly acquiesced in an ar- returning through the debatable ground, in or- 
raiigement that relieved them of the responsi- der to cross by the ferry. Chief Khama forbade 
bility of putting him on trial for his life. Un- them the right of passage, and when Khama 
dabuko made his escape into Amatongaland, sent some men to stop them, the Boers took 
but afterward delivered himself up to the civil away their guns. A stronger party was sent 
authorities at Nkojeni. The British Govern- to retake them, and this was tired upon, but 
raent announced the intention of maintaining Khoma's people returned the fire, and charged 
Zululand ns a permanent possession. Gen. on the Boers, -who fied after two of them had 
Smyth, who arrived at Nkojeni on August 1, been killed and the commander and another 
left Zululand in the beginning of September, wounded. The scene of the fight was on land 
leaving an army of, occupation consisting of that has been in dispute between Khama and 
1,500 troops. Lobengula, and lies just within the British pro- 

The New RepiUie. — After Cetewayo was al- tectorate. The High Commissioner asked for 
lowed to return to Zululand, Usibepu made war explanations from the Transvaal Government, 
on him and compelled him to take refuge in which had nominated Grobelaar an envoy to 
the Zulu Reserve, where he died. His people, Lobengula. Khama collected a force of 3,000 
the Usutus, under Undabuko and Dinizulu, ob- men armed with rifles, besides 800 horsemen 
tained the assistance of Transvaal Boers by with Martini-Henry breech-loaders, and was 
ceding to them the third part of Zululand, and joined by a band of Britis^h border police. A 
defeated Usibepu, who in his turn fled into force of Transvaal Boers was encamped on the 
the Reserve. The Boers formed the New Re- opposite bank of Crocodile river, in readiness 
public of Western Zululand on the lands that for action, while the matter was being investi- 
had been sold to them, and acquired others on gated by commissioners of the British and the 
the sea- shore. The British, in response to an Transvaal Governments. Gen. P. J. Joubert 
appeal from the Usutus themselves, interfered, and H. Pretorius were the representatives sent 
and induced the Boers to give up the latter, from the Transvaal to co-operate with Sir Sidney 
except such as were actually occupied, and to Shepard, the administrator of Bechuanaland, in 
forego their claim to a protectorate over the an inquiry in to the facts. The incident led to the 
whole of Zululand, by conceding their right to important intimation being made by Sir Hercu- 
the territory of Western Zululand, and formally les Robinson, under instructions from the Brit- 
recognizing the New Republic. In October, ish Government, to the President of the South 
1887, a treaty of union was concluded between African Republic, that the Matabele, Mashona, 
the South African Republic, formerly called and Makalaka territories, and the northern part 
the Transvaal, and the New Republic of West- of Khama^s territory, as far as the Zambezi, 
em Zululand. The treaty was ratified by the are solely within the sphere of British influence. 
Volksraad of the South African Republic when Lobengula, the Matabele king, concluded a 
it met in May, 1888, and also by that of the treaty with England in April, by which he 
New Republic in June, subject to the approval bound himself to refrain from entering into any 
of the British Imperial Government, in ac- correspondence or treaty with any foreign 
cordance with the treaty concluded after the state or power to sell or cede any portion of 
Transvaal war, which placed the foreign rela- his dominions, including the tributary t^rrito- 
lions of the republic under the suzerain con- ries of Mashona, Maka, and Malaka, without 
trol of Great Britain. Gen. Joubert and another the previous consent of the British High Corn- 
commissioner were sent from Pretoria to take missioner. The Transvaal Republic was cut 
over the government of the New Republic, off by this treaty from any extension north- 
nnd when the reorganization was effected ward, except with the sanction of the Britisli. 
Lucas Meyer, the former President, was left at The Boer Government therefore sent Com- 
the head of the administration, with the title mander Grobelaar to Lobengula to remind 
of Border Commissioner. him of a previous treaty that he had made with 

Boer IbtmIsii of Rhana's Territory. — The terri- the Transvaal, but the chief of Matabeleland 

tory lying between the Macloutsie and Shashi refused to discuss the subject. Grobelaar died 

rivers has for some time been the subject of of his wounds two weeks after the affray with 

dispute between Khama, the chief of the Ba- Khama^s men. Another fight took place be> 



■4a~ 



CAPE COLONY. 127 

tween MokhachwaDe, the headman who bad northeastern part of the German possessions, 
topped Grobelaar, and two traders named toward Ovamboland, was brought to the verge 
Frmncia and Chapman who attempted to cross of dissolution by attacks of the Zwartboy Hot- 
bj the same ferrj. At the request of President tentots and fights witli Bushmen. Discoveries 
Paiil Kroii^r, of the South African Republic, of paying gold- quartz in Hereroland are likely 
the British Imperial authorities, in the summer to revive the fortunes of the earliest, but most 
of 1887, modified the original proclamation of neglected, of the German colonial possessions, 
tbe protectorate up to 22d parallel of latitude, and may induce the German Colonization So- 
by fixing an eaatem limit at the longitude of ciety for Southwest Africa, which has succeed- 
tbe mouth of the Macloutsie. The Boers ed the Ltlderitz corporation, to give the prom- 
elaimed not only the right to the route through ised police protection. An Englishman named 
tbe disputed territory and grants of land within Stevens, when leaving tbe copper mine back of 
% but also a protectorate over Matabeleland, Walfisch Bay in 1857, took with him a fragment 
br virtue of a treaty that they made with Mo- of rock of curious appearance. Many years 
selekatxe, the grandfather of Lobengula. afterward he went to live with his sons, who 
Qtrmam Cil—lTirtti ami BrttMi EipaaslMi. — The were gold-miners in Australia. On seeing au- 
British port of Walfisch Bay is the only good riferous quartz he was struck by its resem- 
harbor on tbe entire seaboard of German South- blance to his specimen, which was produced, 
west Africa, extending through twelve degrees and was found on analysis to be a rich piece 
of latitude, and it gives access to the two prin- of gold ore. After his death two of his sons, 
cipal rivers running through Damaraland and with two companions, went to Walfisch Bay to 
Namaqualand. The bay of Angra PequefLa in prospect, arriving in October, 1887. They ob- 
the south has disappointed the expectations of taiued permission from the German author!* 
tbe Germans, while Porto do Ilheo or Sandwich ties, who placed little faith in their story or in 
Haven is small and threatened with obstruction their prospects of success, since several expe- 
bf sand. The Germans are indignant that ditions of scientific geologists had failed to 
Great Britain should desire to retain this en- make any promising discovery. These practi- 
date, only twenty-five square miles in extent, cal miners, nevertheless, found paying rock 
wbich is absolutely useless since the German within a few weeks. The richest vein is on 
annexation of the country. The English Gov- an island in Swakop river near Walfisch Bay. 
enunent might be willing to exchange it for The natives as soon as they saw what was want- 
Togoland, which is a similar source of annoy- ed brought sacks of gold quartz to Stevens 
aoce in the midst of British possessions on the from various quarters, showing that there are 
Gold Coast, but fears the dissatisfaction of the extensive gold fields. In quality the ores are 
Cape Colonists. In April, 1888, Nama rob- said to compare favorably with those of the 
bers made an attack on the little English set- best Californian or Australian workings. The 
tlement, which was only saved from massacre Australians were employed at first by the Co- 
bjthe timely dispatch of troops from Cape lonial Society, butsince March, 1888, their opera- 
Colony. Tbe Cape Government complained to tions have been conducted for the account of a 
tbe Grerman Governor that the protectorate branch syndicate that has the monopoly of the 
bad not been made effective. After the with- gold mines. The German Colonial Society for 
^wal of British protection, which was like- Southwest Africa has recently designated only 
vise only nominal, and was formally renounced the northern part of its possessions, extending 
in 1880 by the English Government, Germany from Swakop river to the Portuguese boundary 
proclaimed a protectorate over Damaraland, or at the Cunene, as German Damnraland, while 
as \he Germans sometimes call it Hereroland, the region between Swakop and Orange rivers 
comprising the region between the Orange and is officially known as German Namaland. The 
tb Cunene rivers, by virtue of a treaty made German protectorate includes some fertile land 
»ith tbe head-chief Maherero by the Lflderitz in the north, resembling the neighboring Por- 
Company, which had undertaken to work tuguese possessions. The greater part of the 
tbe abandoned copper mines. The enterprise country, however, is only fit for grazing, and 
proved unprofitable, as it had before in the is so poorly watered that the herds of its 200,- 
Biods of the English, on account of the cost of 000 inhabitants, scattered over 290,000 square 
ttrrying the ore to the coast, and the company miles of territory^ find only a scanty herbage. 
Itiltd in its duty to maintain order, and afford- There is a small export trade in cattle, but the 
«1 BO protection to the disappointed Hereros, commerce is much smaller than formerly. The 
•bose herds of cattle suffered, as before, from German West African Company is an entcr- 
tbe bbck-msiling incursions of the vengeful prise distinct from the colonization society 
^ama Hottentots, once the masters of the that succeeded Ldderitz, and has for its ob- 
^bole country, but now confined to their rob- ject the development of trade with the interior, 
^-nests in the mountains of southwestern The English Government, by the occupation 
Hereit^and. Anarchy and disorder reached of Bechuanaland, had driven a wedge between 
^h a degree that in 1887 German officials the German possessions and the Transvaal, and 
*^re repeatedly attacked and the horses and by the annexation of San Lucia Bay and the 
^Ic of the imperial commissary were stolen, extension of its suzerainty over Amatongaland, 
^ new Boer republic of Upingtonia in the had slmt out German iufiuence from the east 



128 CAR-BUILDING. 

coast. The region south of the npper and mid- try ^* in existence. To-dav more than 15,00( 
die Zambesi was still considered a prospective men earn their bread by constructing railway- 
field for German enterprise and a path by carriages of various kinds, and 500,0u0 ean 
which Germany might in the f ature reach the their living through the management of the car- 
Boers whom the hated English have walled in rlages at'ter they are built There were tbei 
from the outside world. The Delagoa Bay in service a few tram-cars of coinparativelj 
Railroad is, indeed, a German enterprise, but rude construction, drawn by horses for the musi 
Bntish influence is predominant at Lisbon, and part, and designed for the transportation ol 
Delagoa Bay territory is likely soon to become passengers or freight over short distances 
English by purchase. The British announce- Now it is estimated that there are in use uboui 
ment that the entire region south of the Zam- 78,000 cars, of all descriptions, drawn by nearly 
besi, as far west as the actual bounds of Da- 30,000 locomotive-engines, over 150,600 mile: 
maraland, is within the sphere of British inter- of track. These figures are substantially fron 
ests was intended to warn the Germans away Poor^s ** Manual of Railroads, '* the acceptec 
from the rich but undeveloped commercial authority on the subject. There are about 14( 
field of central South Africa, and to hem in car- building establishments in operation ii 
the independent Boers on the north side also, the United States, and not only do these tun 
England bound herself by a memorandum out cars for ordinary passenger traffic and foi 
agreendi^nt not to extend her dominion west- miscellaneous freight and merchandise, bu( 
ward beyond the 20th meridian. She now they build vestibule and palace *^ coaches,^ 
asserts her ultimate claim to the whole inte- restaurant or buffet cars, observation cars 
rior east of this line. A mere announcement mail, express, refrigerating, and milk cars, 
does not accomplish that object except in re- menagerie and circus cars, and cars for the 
flpect to the Transvaal Republic, which dare different kinds of live-stock. Some of thes< 
not now officially organize annexations north- latter are so complete in their special appoint 
ward. But while the Germans are dreaming ments that they are not inaptly termed ^' pal- 
of commercial routes across the Kalahari des- ace-cai*s " after their kind, the latest additioi 
ert, the English are extending the Northern to the list being a '^ palace-car for hens,^' de- 
Cape Railroad to the Yaal river, and soon Eng- signed for the conveyance of from 3,500 to4,50( 
lish companies will be working the gold-bear- live fowl, in comparative luxury. This car is 
ing ledges that are known to exist in Khama's described as two feet higher than the ordinary 
kingdom and Mashonaland, where many locate freight-car ; it has two aisles, one longitudina 
the gold-mines of ancient Ophir. Two syndi- the other transverse. It is partitioned off intc 
cates obtained conflicting mining rights in the 116 compartments, each four feet square 
disputed tract between the two kingdoms, one Food is carried beneath the car, and water k 
of them from Ehama and the other from Lo- a tank on top ; the supply being sufficient foi 
bengula, but on the advice of Sir Theophilus a full load for a journey of 2fiOO miles. The 
Shepstone both concessions were canceled. ** Car-Builder^s Dictionary^' specifies regulai 
The influx of English capital and settlers into car-types as follows : 

the Transvaal gold-fields promises in time to Bm^gage-car, boarding-car, box-car, buffet-car, c» 
give the Anglo-baxon race the same social and booae or conductor's car, cattle or stock car, coal-car, 
political ascendancy in the Boer republic that derrick-car, drawing-room car, drop-bottom car, 
they have at the Cape. Gold exists in South dump-car, express-car, flat or platform car. gondola- 
Africa only in lodes of rock, and must be ^^; hand-car, hay-oar, hopper-lwttom car horacM^r, 
_ , J .;, . , . ' , . hotel-car, inspection-car, lodsnnff-car, mail-car, milk- 
worked with steam machinery and expensive ear, oU-ir. ^-car, pilace-1»r, pas'senger-car, pay- 
stamps. The emigration is therefore not of car, postroflice car, push-car, postal-car. refrigerator' 
the adventurous and migrating kind that is at- car, restaurant-car, sleeping-car, sweeping-car. tank- 
tracted by alluvial washings, but consists of ^i tip-car, tool or wrecking car, three-wheeled 
skilled laborers who will be permanent resi- '**°^"<^^' 

dents unless the seams give out. The Trans- This list is confessedly incomplete, for new 
vaal authorities maintain good order, and in devices are continually added to meet the de- 
return the mine-owners willingly pay special mauds of the time. 

taxes, and not only support the greatly increased J. E. Watkins, of the National Museum in 
expenses of Government, but fill to overflow- "Washington, in his reports on the Department 
ing the treasury of the republic, which a few of Transportation, gives a history of car-build- 
years ago was bankrupt, owing to the aversion ing, which places its origin at the beginning oi 
of the Boers to paying any taxes at all. The the century, when active brains in this coun- 
British are desirous of using the Zambesi as a try and in England perceived the advantages 
route to the central parts of South Africa, but of tramways for the transit of wheels. In 
are hindered by the tolls and import duties 1812 John Stevens published a pamphlet ex- 
exacted by the Portuguese Government. plaining the advantages of railway travel, and 
CAR-BULDING* Fifty years ago a few expressed the belief that passengers might by 
wheelwrights and carriage-makers were ex- this means be carried at the rate of one bun- 
perimentally eufraged in adapting the four- dred miles an hour. The highest speed yet 
wheeled road-wagon of the period for use on a attained does not fully realize this dream, but 
tramway. There was no *^ car-building indus- it would be rash to say that such a feat will 



OAR-BDILDING. 129 

■eTer be accomplisbed. About 1819 Benjamin weight — which is but between four and five tons — 

Dearborn, of Boston, petitioned Congress in her small bulk, and the simplicity of her working 

renrd to wheeled-camaires for the conveyance «^achmery. We rejoice at the result ot this expen- 

^ ., J ^^^^^ ^, .Vr •^^/'""'^J •****'" ment. as it conclusively proves that Philadelphia, al- 

«r mails and passengers with such oelenty as ^ayg famous for the skill of her mechanics, is enabled 

hid never before been accomplished, and with to produce steam-enf^ines for railroads, combining so 

complete security from robbery on the high- many superior qualities as to warrant the belief that 

wit/' His memorial points to the sleeping- ber mec&anics will hereafter supply nearly aU the 

— -«^ ♦K^ 4^»»;.« «Ao/»..*«.«f «- -«,.>«« *k^ public works of this description in the country, and 

^ .^^ the train-restaurant as among the fcy our superiority m the Adaptation of this motive 

possibilities of the future. Bat Congress was power, as we have hitherto in navigation, perhaps 

indifirerent then, as now, to matters outside of supply England herself. By the company's adver- 

pracdcal politics, and the committee to whom tisement in to-dav's paper, it will be seen that this 

the matter was referred never saw fit to rescue ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^'^ P^ regnlarXy on the road thui 

In the mean time the problem had been sue- ^^^^, ^^^ ^^^^ mentioned, incidentally as it 

fleasftdly solved on the Stockton and Dariing- were, m connection with the new locomotive, 

ton Railway in England, and in 1826 William ^^^ ^^^ citation proves that the /^regular pas- 

Strickland was sent abroad in the interest of fenger-cars were already famihar to the pub- 

the Pennsylvania Society for the Promotion of ^^^' P^^^^ ^^/^^ allusions are somewhat un- 

Intemal Improvement. As a result of his f^^^f"^ ^ ^ d*^®- ^*>^«' 1®^^ ^^^^^ ^fi'"" 

reports on £ng]ish railways, private enterprise ^^^ wrote : 

took coorage in America. The first cars here. Now, in order to carry^ on all this business more 

« in England, were constructed for tramway ^'\y^ the people are building what i* called a rail- 

^.^^^ TuIZ «r««^ ;« ^»«»»»»;^» ^uu ♦ul ro»a- This consists of iron bars laid along the 

service. They were in connection with the ground, and made fast, so that carriages withlmall 

gnnite-quarnes at Qumcy, Mass., and in Dela- wheels may run along upon them with facility. In 

Wire Connty, Pa., in 1826 ; and in 1827 a this way, one horse will be able to draw as much as 

coal-road nine miles long was opened from the ^^^ horses on a common road. A part of thb nul- 

Mmch Chunk mines to Lehigh river. The ''^Jt^}j^^l^7^l^'^^^^^^ 

„. ^ , - , , , ? . , , upon it, you can do so. You will mount a car some- 
rolling-stock of these early roads was the work thing like a stage, and then you will be drawn along 
of wagon-builders, whose purpose was merely by two horses, at the rate of twelve miles an hour, 
to mount stout boxes upon wheels suitable for g^ch was the beginning of the Baltimore 
ramung upon rails. The complicated prob- g^d Ohio Railroad, now known so familiarly 
feffls of oscillating trucks and passing curves to millions of people that it is called the ** B. 
It high speed came m later. ^ O." for short. Its construction was begun 
The early annals of car-bnildmg are neces- Jq i828, and the first section of fifteen miles 
tarUy somewhat incomplete. One of the first ^^g ready for traffic in May, 1830. Fig. 2 is 
rrfCTences to the infant industry is found in the sketch, probably somewhat fanciful, that 
the Philadelphia " American Daily Adver- accompanied Peter Pariey's description. 
tiKr," imder date of Nov. 26, 1882. It de- i^ S'ovember, 1882, an advertisement ap- 
tr^i ?^ . ^^J^^^ ' locomotive built by peared in Philadelphia papers in the interest 
M. W. Baldwin, of that city: of the Philadelphia, Germantown, and Norris- 
ft fd^es us pleasure to state that the locomotive en- town Railroad, in which, after the schedule of 
tat built by our townsman, M. W. Baldwin, for the trains, was the following paragraph : 
PfcJbdelphia, Germantown, and Nomstown foOlroad Pasgengeni wishing to take a short excursion will 
C«^y has proved highly suooesstW. In the find this 5 very pleaSmt one. The scenery alon^ the 
pw«of a number ofgenUemen of science andm- ^^ j, biutiful, and at Germantown Mr. ^^un- 
Wnm on such subjwjs, the empne was yesterday ^^^^ hotefis fitted up in a style that will render com- 
^«don the road for the fi«t Ume. All ^erparts ^^ on a warm day, is refreshments of the be^t quali- 
Z^"" S"^"^"^^^' W^ polished and fitted to- ^ ^^^ j^ abunda£<i wUl be constantly on hand ; and 
S" '"'i*''- ^i?TS^ ^^^7^' ®**!7f ^^"^ ^ pereons wishing to take a walk in the fields will find 
S^•5t!l/'° ^"^^^^Z""* removed to the com- ^^ ^ o'^^he Wissahickon veir romantic and 

K * ^^'J^u ^^J^V ™<>™J°«f. ^*^« Y^ *^"" beautiful, iid but a few mmutes' walk from the raU- 

Wely put together, ready for travel. After the regu- ^^y^^ ' 

V psftsengcr-cars had arrived fVom Germantown in 

ti» afternoon, the tracks being dear, preparation was The firm of Kimball & Davenport, of 0am- 

Jid« for her surting. The placinj^ the fire in the bridgeport, Mass., was probably the first in the 

%Bi« and raising the steam occupied twenj min- United States to take up car-bailding on a large 

«». The engme (with her tender) moved from the ,^^i^ tx.^„ «. a ,,J^^ 4.u« v.,«:Jl«« :« iooA 

^ in beaufiftd style, working with great ease and »«ale. They entered upon the business in 1884, 

^inaity. She proceeded about one half a mile be- and for twenty-two years were among the lead- 

J'l^ tbe Union Tavern at the township line, and re- ing establishments in that branch of industry. 

^smsA immediately, a distance of six miles, at a Charies Davenport was the active member of 

2«d ^ about twenty-eight imles to the hour. Her ^j concern. He deUvered his first passenger- 

«eed having to be greatly slackened at all road-cross- ^ I^u n _! j w " d ^T a • 

i»gi,«ad it being after dark, but a portion of her «ar *<> ^he Boston and Worcester Railroad in 

P<W9 was uj»ed. the spring of 1835. It was a departure from 

Us needless to say that the spectators were de- the English coach-body pattern, though it re- 

Bfbtol From this experiment there is every reason tained the side doors. The seats aU faced one 

J^^^^'X?X^«^ m'"r a^o^fTi way, which necessiuted turning the car at.the 

^l read. The chief superiority of this engine over end of the route. Mr. Davenport soon devised 

r ^m «7 of the English ones, now oonsists in the light reversible seats, but did not patent them, and 

VOL. xxvm. — 9 A 






CAR-BUILDING. 




^ 


i 


^"^ 


__'— — ^-il 


iOi^al 




Ro. &— Davd'i Duvura fob Cax. 



Fia. T.—FiKOT PUM or Lohq 




Pio. B.— FmsT Cab with Rii 




Flo. B.— FsAn 




ID un> II,— Paklok-Cui aVtanwniM Traih. 



132 OAR-BUILDING. 

thej presently became pablio property. He The patent lead-lined anti-friction jo 

patented and used a buffer coupling arrange- the patent oil-boxes, springs, equalizin 

ment, with double-acting draw-springs. In proved body-bolt beanugs with coll^^ 

looft V^ I. -li. i.1- .c J. • u* t. 1 in the way of bafety and check- chains, 

1888 he built the first eight-wheel passenger- ^^ iron truck-fiining-all these d: 

car, with seats for sixty persous, and to his days not only to the superiority of the 

enterprise and ingenuity were largely due many ffreoter cost, to say nothing of the use « 

of the improvements in oar-building that were """ ^^o ^^^y »P/i?K8, etc., and the oo 

^^A^ «N..;Jv« 4^ ♦K^ y»;w;i nra«. merous patented desicrDs of the modei 

made pnor to the civil war. ^ ^ ^ The matter of upholstery and decorat 

The managers of the Delaware Car- Works, out, the use of hard woods highly polU 

of Wilmington, have kindly furnished from carving upon the paneling inside, th 

tbeir tiles the following account of tbe oldest signs of seatrframes, the expensive met 

passenger-car now in use, " Morris Run, No. J^® improved style of glazing and oi 

1," constructed for the Tioga Railroad Com- J^^Ji^^c^^^dt^elem^eSl^ia'^c:?, 

paoy^ and delivered complete, according to old with the new. 

contract, the lOtb of September, 1840. This It will readily be seen, therefore, ' 

may be taken as representing the best type of ^9* tbo cheaper labor and material 

passenger-car then constructed : llfl^t^riittSr^^^Mo?;! 

This car has been in continuous service fh)m that was a fair specimen of the best class o 

date up to the present time. It was placed on exhi- was possible to turn out at that time, 

bition at the Chicago Exposition of Biulway Appli- of thLs car had the peculiaritv of being 

ances, held in 1888, as an illustration of the durability without any sash (presumably on aocoi 

of passeuger-ooaches when constructed of the best fear lest, if the windows were opened, i 

materials^ as well as to furnish an historically interest- be sure to follow), and the wooden] 

ing and instructive comparison between the earliest the sides of the car were made to open 

and later types of railway-carriages. This car was con- lower half up inside of the upper half, 

structed upon an order for *^ one first-class passenffer- openings were very narrow^ and wer 

car,'' to be finished in every respect in a **hi^ly ventilanon rather than for sight. As 

modem *' manner, with all tne latest improvements, ined, this gave the car a very odd ap 

It was styled in the contract *■*■ An eight- wheeled pas- the outside. Yet it was by no mear 

sender and ladies' accommodation car." and was in- since, in the first days of railroading, 

tended to excel anything of the kind tnen running in sen^rs had become accustomed to tne 

the country. Although at this late day we can rapid form of locomotion, and eouall; 

scarcely realize the actual state of things as they then the dangers of sight-seeine throuc^n thi 

existed, owing to the vast improvement which has while in motion, it prov^ a source o1 

taken place since, it is fair to assume that the car should at least entitle it to our lenient 

*^ Morris Run, No. 1," when it left the shop did equal The car had no raised roof, the i 

and perhaps excel its kind in beauty of finish, in com- being laid on fiat fh>m end to end, 

fort of appointments, and in excellence of arrange- somewhat beyond the body for protec 

ments. Its extreme age and the fact of its still re- gers while alighting. Just when this f 




wae 
standi 

The general dimensions of the oar were as follow : carriasj^ in use abroad and copied ii 

Thirty- two feet in length of frame ; 8 feet 6 inches in The latter were simply the ancient foi 

width of frame ; 6 feet 4 inches in height fVom fioor to stage-coach bodies, placed on long fi 

ceiling (no mised floor). For this ^^ eight-wheeled sets of three, with side-openings in tl 

ladies^ car," built with continuous trami^, solid primitive coach-doors, a horizontal plai 

bracing, double uprights, stationary sash, Venetian step, and with a single pair of open- 8p< 

blinds, and dead-light neatlv trimmed, the price under each coach-body. At the ends 

charged was $2,000, aelivered Iree on board of a ves- brakes extending to the brakeman's 

sel at the wharf of the builders. It may be added top of the coach, fVom which position I 

that for some heavy wrougbt-iron brace-rods, studs, signals of the driver, and be governed 

and bolts, thought necessary for extra strength in the Tour- wheeled passenger cars were us 

bodies, an additional sum of $40 was afterward al- and the body was suspended upon lea 

lowed, bringing up the price to $2,040. This figure, braces, similar to the old-fashioned C< 

however interesting it may be in the lisfht of modem The seats were placed around on the 

comparisons, when the cost of a firut-claas passeng^er- the passengers were facing each oth 

car ran^s, acpending upon the details of the finish row of seats was placed upon the top c 

and fittings^ anywhere tVom $4,200 to $6,600, must where the passengers sat back to twc 

not be considered as a wholly trustworthy banls of lecting fares, the conductor did not ei 

relative costs in labor and materials in tnose early that purpose, but passed around on tl 

days compared with the present costs for the same a foot-board. There were no brakes, 

structure. We must bear in mind the various im- engine or on the cars; consequently tl 

provements that have since entered into the con- be stopped by revernng the engine, 

struction of a car as elementf^ of increased expense, eccentrics would oi^tch on the center, i 

such as the monitor roof with its glazed deck-sash ; volve, in which case the engine could 

the decorated head-lining or ceiling ; tbe patent coup- by some application of mechanical fore 

lers, buffers, etc., with wider and heavier platforms, The wood-working tools consisted 

built as a part of the car-fioor fVaraing ; the elaborate three machines, the perfected machine 

chandeliers, bracket-fixtures, trimmings, basket-racks, consisting of a circular saw and Daniel' 

and hardware generally, as well as the compartment could plane but half a car-sill at one m 

conveniences, such as closets, w^ash-stands, water- being taken out and reversed after ea 

coolers, etc., that go toward completing a modem a very limited assortment of other p 

coach. The single item of trucks alone has been de- ances of a like degree of adaptabili 

veloped in the direction of safety, elegance, and dura- labor-saving machines could be enuc 

bility far beyond the dreams of inventors in 1836. score, and the Daniel's planer has b 



OAR-BUILDING. 133 

reiful machine, planing all four aides at onoe, 1827. He is anable to learn, however, that it 

ichines for mortising square holes, for carv- c^me into favor in England before 1860, while 

:nS?s:S?-^ie^ '^1i ^.U^rottr in^ it was in general use o| the Baltimore and Ohio 

8 have added to the car-buildere' facilities. Railroad as early as 1885. Fig. 9 shows the 

(ho])s At this period were constructed to take ordinary 6rst-clas9 passenger car in frame and 

t over forty feet long, as their standard length complete, substantially as used at present on 

It thirty-mne feet, while nowadays they are -ii American railroads 

nearly double thia length : so that with each «"' ^merican raiiroaas. 

5 as railroad-building has increased and travel The now familial' type of car-wlieels was not 
emoregeneral. the equipment was made corre- reached without a vast expenditure of time 
isgly larger ana stronger and more comfortable, and money. At first they were made with de- 
Unlay the finest day-coaches rival the best par- taohed spokes, but the advantage of solid iron 
ram all easenuals tor the comtort of travelers, ^i«4.^„ „!„ «™, -m^^^^^^im^A a«iii 4Vn- »io.^<» ^^^^ 
equipped with lavatories, hot-water and steam' P[ate8 was soon recoguiEed, and for many years 
«apparato8, gas, electric lights, and luxurious chilled cast-iron wheels were used almost ex- 

ar, while ever^ year additional appliances dusively on American roads. The improved 

oced for comfort and safety. methods of making steel have rendered it pos- 

ferring to the illustrations in detail : Fig. sible to use a stronger, lighter, and more dura- 

>f s what is believed to be the first raU- ble material, and wrought-iron wheels, with 

ver constructed exclusively for passen- steel tires, are now largely employed. For 

It was designed by George Stephenson sleeping-cars, wheels constructed partly of pa- 

6 Stockton and Darlington Railway (Eng- per are extensively used. A disk four inches 
in 1825, and for several years such cars thick is formed by gluing together numerous 
in 086 on that road, especially in sum- sheets of specially prepared paper-board. These 
Tbeywere without roofs and were de* are dried under heavy pressure and fitted around 

I onlj for fair-weather service. Fig. 2 a cast-iron hub, which is provided with a flange, 

wn already referred to. Figures 8, 4, The circumference of the disk is trimmed in a 

are tjpes of what may be termed the tutning-lathe to fit the steel tire, and finally 

li-bodj car.'* Fig. 5 represents a car two thin wrought-iron plates are placed on 

ed fi^m England for use on the Albion either side of the paper disk, and the whole is 

td in Nova Scotia, where it was in serv- fastened together with twenty-five or thirty 

several years. It had seats for only four small iron bolts. Wheels constructed on this 

^rsL Fig. 6 is the side elevation in de- plan are peculiarly " easy riders,*' the weight 

a coach- body car, a working plan in falling on the edges of the combined sheets of 

r the guidance of the boilders, and as paper-board, which insures an exceptionally 

DO doubt the most accurate representa- even distribution of strains, 

existence of this type. The original Palace, parlor, and special or private cars 

I was made in 1831 by John 6. Davis, are the latest development of American in- 

mt engineer, and is certified by James genuity. In perfection of construction and 

then, and for years afterward, a build- equipment they far exceed anything of the 

n and carriages in Albany, N. T. kind built abroad, and have to a considerable 

m occurred to American builders that extent found favor on transatlantic lines. The 

1 he a distinct gain to reduce the num- very latest improvement is the ^^ vestibuled 

wheels and increase the carrying ca- train " whereby several parlor or other of the 

>7 uniting several of these coach-bodies, costlier kinds of cars are coupled together, 

g. 7; and it is curious to note that the forming in effect one continuous vehicle, dust, 

body- lines are still retained by modem smoke, and cinders being wholly excluded 

builders, while American builders early and a supply of pure, fresh air admitted at 

)d them for straight frames, which are the forward end. The fiat frame, marked A, 

Ij superior construct! onally to the is attached to a hood of flexible material folded 

type. In Fig. 8 is shown what was so as to expand and contract like the bellows 

7 the first car constructed with a raised of an accordion. When two vestibuled cars 
signed to aflbrd more head-room, and are coupled, as in Fig. 11, the frames are 
:the center ofgravity as near the ground locked together, and the hoods are kept ex- 
ble. The end compartments contained tended by powerful springs, so that the whole 
Tangements and a refreshment-room or train is homogeneous. 

lie passengers sat back to back^ facing The dimensions, cost, etc., of the ordinary 

d along a longitodinal partition. This types of cars, as at present used on American 

lar car was called the " Victory," and railroads, are as follow : 
^ was patented by Richard Imlay. 



in use on the Germantown Railroad in class. 

nd was andonbtedly the pioneer of the 

tor " roofs. The increased length and pi^tft,,^ „ flat car. 

of cars led to the invention of the Frd^ht or boxcar. 

^ or eight-wheeled truck, which is gen- pj^'jj^^*' " * * 

egarded as an American invention, but Drawii^-room car. 

Ifr. Watkins finds described in an Eng- sieeping-car 

nphlet, by Thomas Tredgold, as early as ^^^^-^ 



LagUi. 



FmI. 

84 

84 
80 to 84 
50tofi2 



Wtlght. 



Ponod*. 

ie.000 to 19,000 

22,000 to 27,000 
28,000 to 84,000 
4.\Ono to 60.000 



PriMb 



$880 

650 

800 to 1,100 

4,400 to 5,000 



60 to 66lT0,000 to 80,(tOO 10,000 to 20,000 



50 to 70 



60,000 to 90,00012,000 to 20,000 
5,000 to 6,000 800 to 1,200 



134 CHARITY ORGANIZATION. 

CBAUTT ORCAllIZATIOll, the banding to- The preventive work of organized cha 

gether of all benevolent agencies, mnnicipal, inclndes, in Syracuse a Society for the Pre' 

institutional, and private, for the better admin- tion of Cmelty to Children ; in Philadelphi 

istration of charity and for a study of the excursion fund for women with infants or 

causes and cure of pauperism. (For a full children; in Buffalo, Brooklyn, and Orai 

definition of charity organization and a history N. J., day nurseries ; in Wilmington, Del., 

of the New York City Charity Organization regular visitation of the almshouse and of: 

Society, see " Annual Cyclopasdia " for 1885.) Boys' Reform - School. Five cities main 

The fundamental idea of charity organization labor-bureaus or work-exchanges, five 

is that pauperism is a disease of the body poll- wood-yards, seven have wayfarers' lodga 

tic and must be dealt with on scientific princi* friendly inns, nine provide sewing for wom 

pies ; that all the problems of modern social, three have laundries, and a fourth — New 

industrial, and political life affect the great ^-is taking steps toward opening one. In^ 

question of pauperism; and that experience apolis has free baths, and makes a s^ 

teaches that its scientific solution is possible, feature of Thanksgiving dinners and Chria 

Charity organization has elevated to a profes- work, associating together individuals 

sion the practical dealing with this problem. families of the rich and poor by these 



-It is a false idea that the aim of char- Baltimore, in connection with its friendl 

ity organization is to relieve the rich from im- and provident wood-yard, also maintains 

posture. Its aim is rather to enlist the rich in workshops where the old and feeble ar^ 

an attempt to change the conditions of distress, vided with employment suited to their ^ 

The warfare that in its preventive work it tion. In New York a committee of legf^- 

wages against imposture is for the sake, not of taction has been formed to protect tb^ 

the rich, but of the poor, because of the de- against oppression or imposture. Its 

moralizing effect upon character of successftil existence has proved largely preventive 

imposture, because of the check upon liberal- the past year it has given counsel in fouc^ 

ity, and because money given to fraudulent and active assistance in three. Attem^ 

cases is so much diverted from the truly needy, impose upon respectable workingwomen 

Saving money to the country is not the object, also exposed by New York and Baltimor-^ 

but an incident of its work. ing in co-operation, and the offenders 

Methods — The methods of charity organiza- brought to Justice. New York publisher 

tion are of two kinds— preventive and con- '^Monthly Bulletin," a cautionary list of fr< 

Btrnctive. The former includes the detection lent societies or of individuals frauduleDt.1. 

and suppression of frauds, a search into the liciting aid. It also examines sensation Ai 

causes of the poverty of individuals, and the peals sent to newspapers, and exposes t 

securing of adequate and suitable relief where that have no good claim upon public sympa 

relief is needed. For these purposes it makes Beggars. — In view of the danger now thr 

use of investigation, registration, conference, ening society, of a caste of confirmed paup 

and co-operation, acting on the principle that the charity organization societies of the Ib 

the organization of charitable work is the most cities are making strenuous efforts to break 

effectual means of preventing poverty, as the the practice of street-begging, and with mc 

organization of labor is an efficient means of arable success. The New York society, throe 

increasing wealth. On this principle it is an its specid agent, last year procured the arr 

agency for the collection and diffusion of in- of 117 beggars, 115 of whom were corns 

telligenoe, its bnsiness being not to distribute ted, and 2 discharged with reprimand ; S 

alms, but to show those individuals, churches, were warned, counseled, assisted, and dire 

societies, and public authorities who do, how ed. The results upon the practice of stre 

to make the most of their bounty. It is not a begging are very marked, 

relieving agency ; it discovers difficulties, and Coitral RegtotratloB. — In 1886 the co-operat 

society finds the means of meeting them. In of the various charity organization societief 

constructive work it includes both the rich the country was made more perfect by a ( 

and the poor, aiming to educate both classes tern of central registration at Buffalo. 1 

in their relative duties, to break down class system is of the greatest benefit in trac 

prejudices, and to build up the character of the frauds and in diffusing intelligence. Itinclii< 

poor. The first of these objects it seeks to at- besides the registration of hundreds of tfa 

tain through direct teaching in churches, in sands of investigated cases, a plan for a t 

educational institutions, and through the press ; graphic code, a plan to secure uniform sta 

the second by establishing friendships between tics, a plan for introducing teaching of char 

individuals of both classes through its system organization subjects into high - schools 

of friendly visiting ; and the third by the per- colleges, and the preparation of a primei 

sonal influence of the friendly visitor, educating organized charity for educational purposes, 

the poor in courage and hope, in providence EdocatlM. — ^Buffalo has for two years m 

and skill, and by bringing reformatory influ- charity organization a subject of study in 

ences to bear. In recommending individuals high-school. Johns Hopkins University 

for relief, the question is never, Is he worthy? established a course of lectures on the subj 

but, Will relief make him better ? Harvard and Cornell Universities and 



CHARITY ORGANIZATION. 185 

JJmaik Theological Seminary of New York urea of the varioag societies shows that the 
IttTe indaded some of the literatare of ohari- ratio of oases lifted from dependence to self- 
ties in their courses of reading. A digest of support is in direct proportion to the nnmher 
pncticil suggestions for treatment of various of friendly visitors employed, the supreme im- 
forms of distress and misfortune has recently portance of this branch of the work becomes 
bees prepared by the central committee of the evident. The total number reported last year 
5ev York society and sent to every charity from 34 societies, representing 65 per cent, of 
orginizatioo society in the United States and the whole number, and 88 per cent, of the 
Gn»t BritaiD for suggestion and amendment, population in their fields of work, was 3,660, 
in the hope thos to supply the English-speak- or about one for 2,292 of the estimated pau- 
ing world with '^a code that shall be at least pers in these fields. Of the actual cases treat- 
thebssisof a beoign, intelligent, and helpful ed, this nnmber of visitors is as 1 to 164 fami- 
fjitem of charitable therapeutics.*' A body lies. To provide uniformly at the rate of 1 to 5 
cl kgal sQggestions has been prepared by law- families, the rate actually existing in Boston, 
jers of ability and published in a hand-book 103,750 would be needed, or 1 volunteer work- 
forfriendlj mtors. The district conferences er out of every 16 families of the 52 cities un- 
ve also a valoable means of practical educa- der consideration. New York has 180 volun- 
tioo. teer visitors. Among the friendly visitors of 

The mere existence of charity organization Boston are 40 college* students. 

is an edocation of the public in true philan- LegislatiM* — Besides the regular business of 

thropy. Charity without alms was a surprise, investigation, registration, visiting, exposure of 

Tbe proof that it could exist was a powerful frauds, direction of charitable effort, promotion 

means of edacating public opinion and tends of co-operation, and education, much ' effort 

to recoocile class with class. has been given to both preventive and con- 

The constructive work of charity organiza- structive work in the way of procuring a bet- 

tioo is chiefly in education of the poor. There ter legislation. The first, and in many respects 

is nothing in the system to encourage in the the most important law procured by charity 

poor a distaste to earning a living. It con- organization was that secured in New Haven 

^dsIIt bailds up a sense of the honorable na- in 1880, regulating the sale and use of intoxi- 

tBre of labor and of the dishonor of accepting eating liquors, which is still tbe best in force 

nseeesary alms. Association with the fnend- in the country. In 1888, through its efibrts, 

ij^tor raises the standard of ideas of com- Massachusetts passed a law for bringing chil- 

^ sod dignity, and gives new courage, hope, dren of worthless parents before the courts 

ttd strength of character, while the visitor and giving them into proper guardianship. In 

<^ imparts direct instruction in thrift, neat- 1886, charity organization in various cities me- 

^ aod tbe care of children. Technical edn- raorialized Congress in favor of postal savings- 

<^o is given by some societies. Two have banks. The memorial was unfavorably report- 

^en- gardens, two have cooking* schools, ed, but the effort is laid aside temporarily only. 

Si% have sewing-schools. Other educational In 1887, Boston, after three years of continuous 

Ac^bods are a night-school for boys in Buffalo effort, succeeded in getting a law prohibiting 

^ a girls^ club and reading-room in New begging and peddling by children. In 1886, 

^^wick, N. J. The various provident the Committee on Mendicancy of New York 

themes are an education in self-denial, frn- procured amendments to the State penal code 

fih'ty, and forethought. to include stale beer dives in the category of 

NrUol SdMocs. — Indianapolis has a Dime disorderly houses. It also, in 1887, secured 

^Hngs and Loan Association, with 166 de- legislation which passed both Houses unani- 

pontorg holding 456 shares of $25 each. New- mously, defining more clearly who are va- 

^ and C&itleton (Staten Island), N. Y., and grants, lengthening the terms of commitment 

hwpot% R. I., have savings societies, the lat- with a view to a more reformatory discipline, 

te" aduurably successful and peculiarly needed and making more futile the pretexts by which 

from tbe anomalous nature of social conditions professioniu beggars legalize their traffic ; but 

tfcere. Five cities have coal savings societies, Gov. Hill withheld his signature. It also at- 

ad PtiOadelphia has a well-managed loan re- tempted, in connection with charity organiza- 

^ Tbe office is in the building of a manu- tion in other cities and with the State Ohari- 

fcftorer, and all appearance of charity is thus ties Aid Association, to procure postal savings- 

><Biioved. Security is insisted upon, and a banks, but without success. They secured a 

i^ecial feature is that, when possible, it is the bill for municipal lodging-houses, but it has 

perwoal guarantee of a friend in the borrow- remained a dead letter, the Board of £sti- 

■rsoim circle, who thus has a personal inter- mate and Appropriation persistently refusing 

nc in bia sobriety and industry. All legal the $23,000 asked for by the city. In October, 

fonw are carefully insisted upon and regular 1888, a special committee of charity organiza- 

payments enforced. The educational value of tion was appointed to take it up. In 1886 the 

Ai system has been found very great. New Charity Organization Society of New Haven 

T(H^ has jn^t inaugurated with good promise a procured a local ordinance suppressing low 

Ti^an of stamps for penny savings. variety theatres. In 1887 a bill was secured 

tMnily flftfirs. — As a collation of the fig- in Pennsylvania providing a system of way- 



136 CHARITY ORGANIZATION. 

farers' lodges, and they are now in operation, enta. The results for law and order are 

The same year Baltimore tried to procure an evident in some of the smaller towns, noti 

amendment to the law forbidding street-beg- in Newport, R. I., and Oasileton, Staten Is! 

ging, was nnsuccessfol, and is continaing the In the large towns they are not yet visibU 
fight. New York is now attempting to secure €MMiid«i& — From the tabulation of stati 

longer sentences for drunkenness and vagran- collected in the thirty-two larger towns, 

cy ; and efforts are being made, and wul be conclusively shown that from 40 to 58 per * 

continued at Washington, to carry out the of all applicants for charity need employi 

views of the combineid societies with regard rather than relief; that from 16 to 23 

to immigration. cent, need police discipline ; and that f roi 

When charity organization does not procure to 87 per cent., or one third of the whole i 

legislation directly, it does it indirectly by con- ber, need material assistance. In other w< 

stant agitation of certain topics, and by educat- two thirds of the real or simulated destiti 

ing the popular mind as to the precise nature of the country could be wiped ont by a i 

of legislation needed. In general, it may be perfect adjustment of supply and demanc 

said that the legislation most needed is that labor, and by a more efficient administratit 

of such a character as to render criminal legis- the laws. The fact that the best success^ 

lation unnecessary. charity organization are in the small to 

Order. — In 1881 the Executive Oommittee of shows that the cure of pauperism is a quet 

the Boston Oharity Organization Society called not of alms, nor of a redistribution of we 

the attention of the police commissioners to but of neighborhood, 
ttie lack of interest in enforcing the license. The value of the statistics collected and t 

screen, and Sunday laws, and the laws forbid- lated, and of the conclusions drawn from tl 

ding the selling of liquor to minors and habit- is evident. The aid that co-operative stud^ 

ual drunkards, or to be drunk on the premises, experiment by so large a body of experts 

After two years of agitation, they were meas- to the student of social questions, can hs 

urably successful. be overestimated. The financial econora 

8Utistlc& — Charity organization was insti- the work is excelled only by its moral econi 

tuted in London in 1869; in America (in Buf- Edward Atkinson^s estimate of the value t* 

falo, N. Y.), in 1878. There are now 82 community of a single man converted . 

affiliated societies in Great Britain, 98 in Eu- pauperism to self-support, shows a gal 

rope, Asia, Africa, and Australia, and 65 in New York city alone of $1,819,200 in th^ 

the United States, with correspondents for co- year. This amount, compared with the ' 

operation in investigation or aid in 85 towns 000 that the organization cost, gives b 

or villages, where no society exists. It is es- faint idea of the gain to society. Amoc 

timated that 1 in 125 of the whole population moral benefits are the uplifting of chare 

belongs to the dependent classes, is either a the inspiring of confidence between class 

pauper or a criminal or dependent on them, class, and the holding of public officials, 

The urban pauperism of the country is as 1 as boards of health and inspectors of b 

to 16 ; 62*5 per cent., or five eighths of the ings, to their duties, 
pauperism within the bounds of the thirty-four Charity organization is steadily growii 

larger societies, or one sixth of the entire pan- favor, but is not yet sufficiently undera 

perism of the United States, has been investi- and trusted either by rich or by poor. A. 

gated and registered. tempt made in New York in the spring of 

C«-«penitl«ii* — Charity organization, in the va- to bring it into disrepute as " a device of 

rions towns and cities where it exists, has ob- tal, not to save the poor, but to save itsa 

tained the co-operation of 66 per cent, of vol- class-movement, a conspiracy against the i 

untary out-door charities, of 69 per cent, of ests of labor," brought forward a large :: 

indoor institutional relief, of 80 per cent, of ber of new adherents, but doubtless wai 

the boards that distribute relief from taxation, without its effect upon the minds of the L 

of 45 per cent, of the churches, and of 50 per classes. 

cent, of private beneficence. These figures BlUltgrapby* — Chicago publishes a moi 

represent co-operation promised and available, bulletin, *^ The Council," a series of u 

rather than actually and fully used. Its bene- monographs upon topics connected with 

fits are to a large degree mutual. work. '* The Monthly Register," of Phil 

Kesilts* — In Elberfeld, Germany, charity or- phia, is a medium of communication bet' 

ganization has reduced pauperism 78 per cent, twenty-four of the societies. '* Lend a Hi 

in fifteen years ; in London, 30 per cent, in ten a monthly fnagazine, devoted to philanthi 

years; in Buffalo, 87 per cent, in ten years, gives much space to it, and publishes rooi 

In many cities it has entirely done away with lists of reports, essays, and books on kin 

public out-door relief. In Cincinnati there was subjects. London publishes a *^ Charity 

a decrease in one year of 16 per cent, of pau- ganization Review"; New York, a ''Moi 

perism ; in the smaller towns and cities the Bulletin " for the information of memln 

result is more marked. In New York, in five " Directory of Charities," a ** Handbool 

years, 4,548 families have been made self-sup- Visitors," and various miscellaneous pa 

porting who were previously chronic depend- Baltimore and Boston publish ** Directori 



CHEMISTRY. 187 

(^iaritiea,*^flDd Bostoo, beadfiB isBiiingTaloable caHed a di-pole. The middle point of the line 

trtcts, poUisbes a ^ Sekci list ^ of books and joining each pair of poles remaining alwajs in 

papers on diaritable work, to be fonnd in the the surface of the envelope, bat freely movable 

BckoQ Pabfic library and elseirhere. All the in it, the di-pole woald be able to rotate freely 

Itfger towns pablish annoal reports. The aronnd this central point. The atom being 

Afflerican Social Sdeoce Association Report, supposed to possess a greater attraction for the 

k 12, contains valoable mcmographs on positive than for the negative ends of the di- 

duritj oqcanization, and there are very many poles, the positive ends would turn toward its 

Kittered through various State reports, which center, while the valencies of the same atom 

ire lost, except io limited circles, i he valuable would repel each other, and take up their posi- 

jHUDphkt, ^ XoCes oo the Literature of Chari- tions at the comers of the tetrahedron, from 

ties,*^ bj Prc^ Herbert Adams, issued by Johns which, however, they can be deflected. 

HopkioB University, is the best guide to the The theory of valency as upheld by Helm- 

tolyof this subject. holtz, with its classification of the elements as 

UUU^III. Charinl niHapky. — Pursuing monads, dyads, triads, etc., according to the 

isfiraetfcbes into the nature and origin of the number of definite, or atomic charges of elec- 

(letoenta, Mr. William Crookes applies the tricity which are associated with them, is called 

term meta-elements to designate such sub- in question by Prof. Henry Armstrong, who 

^uoesM have been revealed in his own ex- advances in its place what he terms a theory 

penmentB tnd those of Kruss and Nilson in of '^residual afl^ty.^* He would define a 

tite rve earths, the chemical differences be- molecular compound as one formed by the 

tveen which are so faint as to render it doubt- coalescence of two or more molecules, un- 

ful whether they are to be classed as separate attended by redistribution of the constituent 

^MDenti or modified forms of the same ele- radicles, and in which the integrant molecules 

inenL Among such bodies are those into are united by residual aflSnities. In other 

vbich jttriom, erbium, samarium, etc., prob- words, the unit charge must be capable in cer- 

tbiy split ap. When the only perceptible tain cases of promoting the association, not 

ebeoiod difference is, say, an almost imper- merely of two, but of at least three atoms. 

eeptible tendency for the one body to precipi- After explaining his theory in some of its 

-m Ute before the other, or when the chemical details, with graphic illustrations, the author 

<iiereDce8 reach the vanishing-point while adds that if his contention is correct that 

weU-marked physical differences still remain, residual affinity plays a far more important 

t^ pKblem is an embarrassing one. Seven part than has hitherto been supposed, and that 

"^ of sach cases that have occurred in it must be taken into account in all discussions 

ue tathor'8 experiments are described. If we on valency, ** it follows of necessity that our 

ntltiply the elements in accordance with these views regarding the constitution of the minority 

Hides of differences we are liable to come in of compounds at present rest upon a most unoer- 

woflict with the periodic theory, which "has tain basis. . . . The properties of compounds 

derived sach abundant verification that we being demonstrably dependent on tlie intra- 

ttQ not lightly accept any interpretation of molecular conditions, it is difficult for a chemist 

pb^omena which £eu1s to be in accordance to resist the feeling that the peculiarities mani- 

J^it" To naeet this difficulty he applies the fested by the different elements are also very 

Wtpesia already suggested in his British probably the outcome of differences in structure. 

™^on address on the " Genesis of the . . . There appears to be an increasing weight 

j^^Dte" (see "Annual Cyclopaedia" for of evidence to favor the assumption that the 

1^)1 that the atoms are not necessarily all influence exercised by compounds in cases of 

wolately alike among themselves ; but that chemical change is local in its origin ; that it 

^ "Sliest ponderable quantity of any ele- is exercised more by a particular constituent 

B^t 'lis an assemblage of ultimate atoms or constituents — in particular directions, in 

•toort infinitely more like each other than they fact — than by the molecule as a whole." 

*^8 the atoms of any other approximating A relation has been discovered by Dr. C. 

r^'"; and that the atomic weight ascribed Bender to exist between certain physical con- 

*• we suhstance " merely represents a mean stants and chemical valency. On mixing two 

^oe aronnd which the actual weights of the chemically inactive salt solutions, the density, 

^j^di^ atoms of the element range within expansion, and electrical resistance of the mixt- 

*J«n nmitg." ore generally diverge very considerably from 

.~^fy of the form and action of the atoms the arithmetical mean of those of the con- 

•«fWQ,8Qggegted to Professors Victor Meyer stituents. But Dr. Bender finds it possible to 

p Kieckeby experiments in diversion of the prepare "corresponding" solutions, which, on 

^ ^alencies from their positions, supposes mixing, shaJl not exhibit such divergence, and 

2J^we atom is a sphere surrounded by an further, the strengths of those " correspond- 

*°*r-«J€ll, and that it is itself the carrier of ing " solutions expressed in gramme-moleculea 

^^^ific aflSnity, while the surface of the per litre bear extremely simple relations to each 

p^ envelope is the seat of the valencies, other. For example, with respect to density 

^Jfo valency is conditioned by the existence of and expansion, a solution of sodium chloride 

w.;i ^^^'Ppofite electrified poles, forming a system containing one gramme-molecule per litre of 



f 






Er 

V«1 



i. 



.it 



C^ 



l" 



138 CHEMISTRY. 

water at 15° G. oorrespondB with a solution of and then examined, it is found that, a[ 

potassium chloride also containing a gramme- certain limit, reached in ahout fourteen 

molecule, or a barium-chloride solution con- the amount of barium carbonate form 

taining half a gramme-molecule, barium being creases with the length of time during 

divalent ; corresponding with these are also a the blocks have been exposed. When t 

solation of ammonium chloride containing f actions are reversed — that is, when s 

gramme-molecule, and a litbiam-chloride solu- sulphate and barium carbonate are mixe 

tion in which } gram me- molecule is dissolved in subjected to pressure, a part of the b 

a litre of water. With respect to electrical con- carbonate, increasing with repetitions < 

ductivitj, the following also correspond : Solu- pressure, passes over into the sulphate, 

tions of NaCl, LiOl, and i (BaGU), each con- author regards it as established that mat 

taining n gramme-molecules; and of EOl and sumes under pressure a condition relat 

NH4OI, each containing f n gramme-molecules the volume it is obliged to occupy ; an< 

per litre. for the solid state, as for the gaseoua, tb 

Chealeal Pbysics. — A close relation has been a critical temperature, above or below 

found by Oarnelly andXhomson to exist between changes by simple pressure are no longe 

the solubility and the fusibility of isomeric car- sible. 

bon compounds. Pictet had observed that the Heating a platinum wire nearly to mell 

lower the melting-point of a solid, the longer an atmosphere of chlorine, W. R. Hodgl 

are the oscillations of its molecules, so that the observed that the walls of the glass vease 

product of the melting-point, measured from covered with a yellow deposit that | 

the absolute zero, by the oscillation, is con- to be platinous chloride, while the less 1 

stant. Hence, the author's reason, of two part of the wire was incrusted with fin< 

isomers, the one with the lower melting-point crystals of platinum, and a lambent flan 

will, at any temperature below this point, have seen playing about the wire. With br 

its molecules moving with oscillations of great- instead of chlorine, less of the salt was fc 

er amplitude than the one with the higher but the flame was more pronounced; 

melting-point; and being in less stable condi- chloride of bromine, both phenomena w< 

tion, they will be more readily separated from tensified ; with iodine the action was weal 

their fellows. Solution also being a sort of with chlorine and iodine it was very vig 

loosening process to the molecules, should fol- With phosphoric chloride, the phos| 

low a similar rule. Hence, it is concluded, united with the platinum and melted i1 

the order of fusibility is the order of solu- with silicon fluoride the wire was coverei 

bility ; and in any series of isomeric acids, not crystals supposed to be of silicon, 

only is the order of solubility of the acids The cause of the ejection of solid pa 

themselves the same as the order of fusibility, from platinum and palladium when gl 

but the same order of solubility extends to all under the influence of the electric current 

the salts of these several acids. The authors formation of incrustations upon the glasi 

find that for any series of isomeric compounds surrounding the wire, has been investiga 

the order of solubility is the same whatever be Dr. Alfred Berliner. It proves to be pre 

the nature of tlie solvent; and that the ratio by the escape of gases occluded vrithi 

of the solubilities of the two isomerides in any metal, carrying off particles of the sub 

given solvent is very nearly constant, and is with them. 

therefore independent of the nature of the The vapor-density of sulphur has been 

solvent. termined by Dr. Biltz. Previous experi 

In his earlier experiments on the union of made at a limited range of temperature r 

bodies by pressure (see ^'Annual Gyclopasdia^for from its boiling-point, indicated a compc 

1883), Spring made use of simple substances; in of this element of six atoms to the mo 

his later work compound bodies are used. Mixt- The later experiments by Dr. Church, no^ 

ures of dry, pure, precipitated barium sulphate firmed by Dr. Biltz, made at higher ten 

and sodium carbonate were subjected to the tures and showing a regular decrease of ' 

influence of a pressure of six thousand atmos- density as the temperature rises, give th 

pheres under various conditions of temperature mal constitution of two atoms to the mo] 

and duration of contact. It was found that the which is reached at 860° C., as alone st£ 

amount of barium carbonate produced by this the test of intervals of temperature, 

action increases with the number of times the Experiments upon the vapor-density of 

mixture is compressed. After a single com- chloride by Drs. Grtlnewald and Victor '. 

firession the amount was about one per cent, for the purpose of determining its mol 

f the solid block produced by this compression formula, give as a result FeCla as th< 

is ground into fine bits and again subjected to symbol, instead of FetCU. The result 

the same pressure, and the process repeated a the formula of this salt into harmony 

second time, about five per cent, of the barium those of the corresponding salts of alum 

carbonate results. A sixth compression yielded AlOU, and Indium, InCla. It follows th 

nine per cent, of the product. If the little former view as to the tetrad nature o 

blocks produced by one, three, and six com- must be laid aside, 

pressions are left to themselves for some days Thomson and Threlfal have found it 



CHEMISTRY. 139 

passing electric sparks through nitrogen con- tion products, and again between those of bro- 

tained in a tube at a pressure of less than 0*8 mine and chlorine is smaller than that between 

of an inch of mercury, a very slow, permanent the substitution derivatives of chlorine and 

itiiDinution of the volume of the nitrogen oc- fluorine. While this difference of boiling- 

eors. If the tube is heated at 100** 0. for sev- points between corresponding bromides and 

enl hours, the original volume is regained. chlorides amounts to from 20° to 23° C, that be- 

Rew SafestiMCS. — A curious compound of ar- tween chlorides and fluorides approaches 40° 0. 

senious iodide with the hexiodide of sulphur This fact, coupled with the small influence 

has been obtained bj Dr. Schneider, of Berlin, which the substitution of fluorine exerts upon 

It appears in a dark-graj mass of homogeneous the boiling-point, iudioates the probability that 

bard and brittle crystals, which yield a reddish- the boiling-point of free fluorine itself lies very 

brown powder on pulverization. They can not much below that of chlorine (—88*5° C), and 

be preserved in the air, losing all their iodine that fluorine much more nearly approaches the 

in twenty-four hours, but can be kept in sealed volatility of hydrogen. Indeed, it appears 

tobes for any length of time. The compound likely that fluorine is one of the so-called per- 

iei of pecoliar interest on account of its bearing manent gases, and might form a worthy object 

opon the theory of affinities. The hexiodide for the attention of those who have been suc- 

of sulphur affords the only known instance in cessful in forcing the other *^ permanent ^* gases 

which the supposed six combining bonds or to reveal their boiling-points. Under all cir- 

iffioitiea of sulphur are satisfled by monnd at- cumstances fluorine attaches itself to carbon 

oms; and the natural supposition that it would with far greater tenacity than any of the other 

be eminently ^* saturated" is overthrown by halogens. 

this revelation of its capacity to enter into new Several compounds of silicon tetrafluoride 
compounds. with organic derivatives of ammonia, similar 
The compound EF,8HF has been prepared to the body 2N, HsSiFi, have been formed by 
by M. Moissen by combining potassium fluoride Messrs. Oomey and Loring Jackson, of Harvard, 
tod hydrofluoric acid in suitable proportions, One of two compounds with aniline formed by 
avoiding any sudden rise of temperature. On them is remarkable for being insoluble in the 
cooling the solution to —28° 0., crystals sepa- usual organic solvents, only alcohol slowly act- 
nted. The crystals are extremely deliquescent, ing upon it with decomposition. Brought in 
ire decomposed by water into the free acid and contact with water it is at once decomposed, 
potassium fluoride, and dissolve in water with with deposition of silicic acid; the solution, on 
production of the most intense cold. If they evaporation, yields pearly tabular crystals of 
are suddenly heated with crystaUine silicon, the aniline fluosilicate, aniline fluoride remaining 
miris becomes incandescent, and a violent dis- dissolved. Another aniline compound was 
mgagement of silicon tetrafluoride gas occurs, formed as a white powder, decomposing when 
While experimenting on the production of warm or when treated with water, and even 
fdatinous gun-cotton, F. Nettlewood obtained, spontaneously on keeping, 
bj the nitration of alginic acid, a body suffi- A new base, theophylline, has been discov- 
^ntly elastic on compression but not explo- ered by Dr. Eossel in tea, which, while an 
pve, which gave a brown color when dissolved isomer of theobromine, differs very materially 
in water in alkaline solution. The original from it in physical and certain chemical prop- 
odor of the nitro-alginic acid was bright yelr erties. Theophylline forms a well-crystallized 
low, and it was insoluble in water. Unmor- series of salts with the mineral acids, and with 
(laoted cotton dyed a fine Bismarck-brown platinum, gold, and mercury chlorides, and, 
edor, which was fast to soap, more so than like theobromine, yields with silver nitrate a 
maoy aniline colors, and equaling chrysoidine. silver substitution compound, which is readily 
Mordanting with alumina or tartar-emetic did soluble in nitric acid. 

not increase the fastness or the depth of the A new base and its series of salts, belonging 

color. The depth of shade was considerable, to the group known as ^* platinum bases," have 

tnd could be worked to a great intensity. In been obtained by Dr. Heinrich Alexander, of 

ID acid solution the dye failed to attach itself Ednigsberg. The base has the composition 

to the fiber, ammonia being the best alkali. Pt(OH)fl, 4NHtO, and may be considered as 

A large number of new aromatic fluorine the hydroxylamine-platinum compound cor- 

sQbstitution products have been prepared by responding to the free base of the green salt 

Dra. Wallech and Hensler, the properties of of Magnus. The chloride of the series had 

w^hich point to some interesting conclusions been already prepared by Lessen. The free 

regarding the physical nature of fluorine itself, base is precipitated from this salt on the addi- 

It is found that in all cases the specific gravity tion of stronger bases, and is perfectly stable 

of a compound is raised by the introduction of in the air, extremely insoluble in water and 

fluorine instead of hydrogen, while on the alcohol, and behaves like a true metallic hy- 

oiber hand the substitution of fluorine is found droxide. The sulphate, phosphate, oxalate, 

tohavearemarkably small effect in raising the and two interesting isomeric salts, have been 

boiling-point. A still more interesting fact is obtained. 

tbat the difierence between the boiling-points A new series of isomorphous double chlo- 

of corresponding iodine and bromine substitu- rides of the metals of the iron and alkali groups 



140 CHEMISTRY. 

have been prepared bj Dr. KeomaDn. The the seBquioxides of iron, obromium, and alami- 

general formula of the Bystem is 4R01 M«Gl6+ nnm, and on the other hand, between the ox- 

2H«0, where R may represent any member of ides of copper, silver, and mercary, and those 

the group of alkali metals, and M either iron, of the alkali metals. The experiment also 

chromium, or aluminum. Magnesium and be- confirms the arrangement in MendelejefTs daa- 

ryliium are also included in the series, 2MgO]fl sification of the elements by which manganese 

or 2 BeClfl replacing 4R01. They all crystallize occupies the place between chromiam and 

in forms belonging most probably to the regu- iron. 

lar system, generally in octahedrons or rhombic Four new zinc titanates have been obtained 

dodecahedrons, with the exhibition of charac- by Lucien Levy by melting titanic acid with 

teristic and brilliaut colors. mixtures of zinc and potassium sulphates. At 

Pure trichloride of nitrogen has been pre- dull redness the product is always the sesqoi- 

pared by Dr. Gattermann, of Gdttingen. As basic titanate. At bright redness it is one of 

usually made, the substance is rather a varying the three others, according to the proportion 

mixture of several chlorides than homogeneous, of fiux. 

The author^s process consisted in washing the Three new sulpho-chlorides of mercury have 
crude product, which was as richly chlorinated been isolated by Drs. Poleck and Goercki, of 
as possible, with water till all the sal-ammoniac Breslao. The peculiar changes of color which 
was removed, draining it, and leading it over a occur when a solution of mercuric chloride is 
rapid stream of chlorine. The success of the precipitated by sulphureted hydrogen gad- 
operations, which were performed without ac- from white to yellow, orange, brownish red, 
cident, was ascribed to the fact that they were and black, are produced by different degrees 
performed on dull wintry days, when the sun^s of combination of the chloride and sulphur, 
actinism was very low. But at last, in about forming different substances, of which the first 
the thirtieth preparation, the oil exploded with had been already shown by Rose to be 2HgS, 
its usual detonation. At the same moment, Dr. HgCli. The present authors have, by careful 
Gattermann noticed that the sun had broken manipulation, succeeded in securing other oom- 
throngh the clouds, and was shining upon his pounds — 8HgS, HgOU, 4HgS, Hg01«, and 6Hg8, 
apparatus. The apparently spontaneous ex- HgCl«, while the final product is the (sulphide 
plosions seem, therefore, to be due to the vio- of mercury, HgS, itself. In each case the fil- 
lent dissociation of the chloride by the wave- trate was found to be free from quicksilver 
motion of light. It was found that the bum- and chlorine, proving that the extra molecule 
ing of a piece of magnesium ribbon near the of the chloride had in each case combined, 
oil was as effective as sunlight, in producing These sulpho-chlorides are very stable, per- 
the explosion. The temperature of dissocia- fectly insoluble in water, insoluble in hydro- 
tion of the compound was determined to be chloric and nitric acids, but soluble in aqua r«- 
about 95° 0. gia* 

The allotropic amorphous modification of A tetrasulphide of benzine has been pre- 
antimony, signalized by M. Gore, and result- pared pure, by Dr. Otto, of Brunswick. It 
ing from the decomposition of antimony chlo- appears when phenyl-disulphide, prepared by 
ride, bromide, or iodide by the battery, has passing sulphureted hydrogen gas through aq 
been obtained by P. H^rard. The author alcoholic solution of benzine-sulphuric acid, 
heated antimony to dull redness in a current is allowed to stand, when the liquid separates 
of nitrogen, and observed a development of into monoclinic crystals of sulphur and a yel- 
grayish vapors which condensed in a gray low oil. The yellow oil consists of a phenyl- 
powder on the sides of the glass tube in which tetrasulphide (C6Ht)flS9, which at the ordinary 
the apparatus terminates. This powder con- temperature is a very viscid, heavy, highly re- 
sists of minute globules united like the amor- fracting oil with an unpleasant odor. It is a 
phouB arsenic of Bettendorff ; it contains 98*7 comparatively stable compound, but on warm- 
per cent, of antimony . Its specific gravity at ing with colorless ammonium sulphide is re- 
0° is 6*22, while that of crystalline antimony duced to disulphide. According to Klason, 
varies, according to Isidore Pierre, from 6*725 phenyl-tetrasulphide is also the product of the 
to 6*787. Amorphous antimony melts at 614** C, action of dichloride of sulphur, SsCU, upon 
while crystalline antimony melts at 440° 0. thiophenol, OeHs^SH, the mercaptan of the 

Three new chlorine compounds of titanium benzine series, and Otto shows that this is 

have been obtained by Drs. Eoenig and Van really the case. 

der Pfordten, of Munich. They may be con- A new gas, of the composition PSFa, and 

sidered as chlorine derivatives of titanic acid, possessing some remarkable properties, has 

Ti(0H)4, and form the only complete series of been discovered by Prof. Thorpe and Mr. J. W. 

such compounds with which we are as yet ac- Rodger. It is called thiophosphoryl fiuoride. 

quainted in inorganic chemistry. Various methods of preparing it are given. It 

E. A. Schneider has obtained a compound of is spontaneously infiammable, and burns with 

manganese sesquioxide with cupric oxide, and a greepish-yellow flame tipped at the apex with 

has thereby formed a new illustration of the blue. It is readily decomposed by the electric 

properties which indicate an analogy on the spark with deposition of sulphur ; is slowlj 

one hand between the manganese oxide and dissolved by water ; and is somewhat soluble 



CHEMISTRY. 141 

in ether, but not in alcohol and benzine. It A new tetrahydrio alcohol, doHtoOi, be- 

can be reduced to a liquid by means of Gail- longing to the series CnHtnOi, lias beeii syn- 

letet^s apparatus. theticiuly prepared in the laboratory of M. 

To the gaseous hydrates already known, M. Friedel, by M. Oombes. It is the first tetrahy- 

Villard has added analogous hydrates of me- dric alcohol which has been prepared by direct 

thane, ethane, ethylene, acetylene, and protox- synthesis, and is one of the results of the apph- 

ide of nitrogen. They are generally less cation by M. Combes of the aluminum chloride 

^luble and less easily liquefied than those reaction of MM. Freidel and Crafts to the fatty 

previously obtained, and are decomposable at series. 

the respective temperatures of 21*5°, 12°, Id'S**, A substance having all the appearance of silk 

H"^ and 12**, all C. It is shown in the case of is prepared by M. de Chardonnet by the addi- 

methane and ethylene that a gas may form a tion to an etherized solution of nitrated cella- 

bjdnite above its critical temperature of lique- lose of a solution of perohloride of tin, and to 

diction, and that these two gases have a this mixture a little of a solution of tannic 

critical temperature of decomposition con- acid in alcohol. A fine stream of this liquid, 

aderably higher than the others. under water acidulated with nitric acid, be- 

The gas, allene, the isomer of allylene, the comes consistent, and may be drawn out, 
second member of the acetylene series of dried, and wound. It is gray or black in as- 
hydrocarbons, has been obtained pure and pect, supple, transparent, cylindrical, or fiat- 
examined by MM. Gustavson and Demjanoff, tened, of silky aspect and touch, and breaks 
of Moscow. It is very different in some of its under a weight of twenty-five kilogrammes the 
properties from ordinary allylene, yet is repre- square millimetre. The fiber burns without 
MQted by the same empirical formula, CsHi. the flame being propagated; is unattackable 
It is obtained from the action of zinc-dust by acids and alkalies of mean concentration, 
opon an alcoholic solution of dibrora-propylene. by hot or cold water, alcohol, or ether, but is 
It is colorless, has a peculiar smell, and burns dissolved in etherized alcohol and acetic ether, 
with a smoky flame. Unlike allylene, it yields Saccharine is a coal-tar product which was 
no precipitate with ammoniacal copper or sil- discovered in 1879 by Ira Remsen and C. 
ver solutions, but gives white precipitates with Fahlberg, and is distinguished by the intensity 
iqueous solutions of mercury salts. of its sweetness, which is rated at two hun- 

A sodium salt of zincic acid has been iso- dred and fifty times that of cane-sugar. It is 
lited in the crystalline state by M. Coroey, prepared by a long and complicated process, 
ind Loring Jackson, of Harvard University, and has a composition which is represented by 
(>n shaking with alcohol a concentrated solu- the formula CsH»SO«. It is a white powder, 
tion of zinc or zinc oxide in soda, the mixt- or appears crystallized in short, thick prisms, 
ore separated on standing into two layers, a has an. odor of bitter almonds, is hardly sol- 
heavier aqueous and a lighter alcoholic layer, uble in cold water, more so in boiling water, 
The heavier layer, being washed with alcohol and quite soluble in alcohol and ether, and has 
solidified with a mass of white crystals, while an acid reaction. When mixed in solutions or 
the alcohol washings, on standing, deposited used as a sweetening, it is hardly distinguish- 
loog white crystals, which when purified and able to ordinary human tastes from sugar; but 
malyzed, gave their composition as 2 NaBZn- it has been observed that insects are not at- 
O^+THaO, or 2Zn(OH)(ONa)-|-7H90. Hence tracted to it, and some insects avoid it. It is 
>his new salt may be regarded as hydrated a strong antiseptic, and does not perceptibly 
sodium zincate. It is soluble in water and interfere with digestive action, except in an 
alcohol holding soda in solution, but is deoom- acid medium, when its antiseptic power is 
poeed both by pure water and alcohol. greatly weakened, and digestion is retarded. 

Some new salts of camphoric acid have been It is not eliminated by the salivary or the 

described by J. H. Manning and G. W. Ed- mammary glands, but is carried away in the 

vards. Manning found that manganese cam- urine. It has been used to some extent aa an 

I^orate, MnCioHMOi, was precipitated from a emollient in diabetes and intestinal affections, 

mixture of potassium camphorate and manga- and to prevent the absorption of the ptomaines 

aese sulphate heated on the water-bath. It of the blood, but its value for these purposes 

is whit«. Chromium camphorate, Crt (Cio- has not been settled. No use has been found 

HuO«)s, was obtained as a bluish-green pre- for it in ordinary economy, except to assist in 

eipitate from a mixture of potassium camphor- adulterations. 

iteand solution of chromium sulphate. Fer-. On completing the filtration of a solution of 

nc camphorate, probably a snbcamphorate, pig-iron in hydrochloric acid, P. W. Shimer 

resolted from the precipitation of a strong observed a minute residue in the beaker. It 

lohition of ferric chloride with potassium cam- was a gritty substance, with a steel-gray color 

pborate. It had a yellowish color and was and metallic luster. Under the microscope it 

ioaoloble in water, and gave on drying at 100° a appeared to be made up of opaque cubical crys- 

baff-yeDow powder. A white heavy preoipi- tals and fragments of the same color and luster, 

tate of mercnric camphorate, Hg, CioHi404f The material had a specific gravity of 5*10, 

vas formed on adding potassium camphorate and was insoluble in hydrochloric, but readily 

to a concentrated solution of mercuric chloride, soluble in nitric acid. Upon analysis it was 



143 CHEMISTRY. 

found to consist of aboat 88 per cent, of a ti- terations of nickel and some other metals has 

tanium carbide, in which titaniam and carbon been described by T. B. Warren. Two samples 

are present in very nearly the exact propor- of nickel tubes having been carelessly mixed 

tion of their atomic weights. and the magnet applied to them, they were 

The only compoands formed by the union found to be unequally attracted by the magnet, 
of metallic bases with ben zine-sul phonic acid, and were finally re-sorted by this test and re- 
prepared and analyzed previous to the experi- separated into the original lots. Differences in 
ments of T. H. Norton and T. W. Schmidt, the appearances of the two lots could be de- 
were the barium, copper, zinc, and silver salts, tected only on a close examination. Portions 
The authors have increased this number by of the metal were alloyed with tin, arsenic, and 
the addition of the cadmium, manganese, nick- antimony separately, and this had a decided 
el, cobalt, and mercnrous salts. effect on their magnetic polarity. Cobalt is 

New Processes! — A new method of preparing similarly affected when alloyed with paramag- 

silicon, and recent researches respecting its al- netic metals. 

lotropic modifications are reported by H. N. A process for the determination of tannin 

Warren. The element is prepared from bars by means of diluted lead acetate, employed by 

of silicon eisen, by dissolving away the iron M. Yillon, depends upon the fact that that 

connected with the positive wire in dilute salt precipitates tannin and not gallic acid and 

sulphuric acid, and treating the solid residue, its allies. Tannin liquors and lead liqnors are 

heated to redness, with a stream of carbonic prepared (the latter containing a proportion of 

anhydride, and subsequently heating in con- sodmm acetate with the lead acetate) ; meas- 

tact with zinc. On dissolving the zinc away, ured portions of them are left in contact for 

the silicon separated in a crystalline condition, five minutes and then filtered ; and the specific 

A further quantity was simultaneously con- gravities of the lead acetate, the tannin liquor, 

verted into graphitoid silicon by fusing at a and the filtered mixture, are severally taken, 

full white heat in contact with aluminum and all at the same temperature ; and from these 

parting by means of acid. The three modifi- the proportion of tannin is calculated, 

cations of silicon may be converted by suitable A method for extracting the alkaloids of 

means from the crystalline to the graphitoid, cinchona-bark with cold oil has been used in 

and even to the amorphous, or vice term. the Government factory at Sikkim with most 

The following means for determining the satisfactory results. By it all the quinine is 
quantity of morphine in opium has been separated as against only about half by the pro- 
awarded by the Austrian Pharmaceutical So- cess formerly used, and the quality of the 
oiety the prize offered for a simple method product is unimpaired. 

sufiSciently accurate to meet the practical A basic process for iron described by W. 
need : Five grammes of the opium powder are Hutchinson as used in South Staffordshire, 
macerated in a small flask, with 75cc of lime- differs from the ordinary basic process in that 
water, for twelve hours, with frequent shaking, the converting is conducted in two stages. 1, 
This is then filtered through a plaited filter, desilicouizing the metal in an acid-lined con- 
To 60cc. of the filtrate, corresponding to 4 verter ; and, 2, dephosphorizing in a converter 
grammes of opium, which is brought into a with a basic lining. 

weighed flask of such a size as to be nearly A method is described by F. A. Gooch for 

filled by the ether and ammonia, there are the separation of sodium and potassium from 

added 15cc. of ether and 4cc. of normal am- lithium by the action of amyl alcohol on the 

monia. The flask is then well corked, and the chlorides. It is also applied to the separation 

contents are mixed by gentle agitation. The of the same metals from magnesium and cal- 

flask is then set aside for from six to eight cium. 

hours, the temperature being kept at from 10^ C. In experiments made by W. H. Greene to 

to 15** 0. At the end of that time the ethereal ascertain whether mercury can be purified by 

layer is removed, 5cc. of fresh ether are added, distillation, or whether foreign metals are 

and the flask is gently shaken. The ether is vaporized with it, twelve distillations were 

again removed, and finally the crystals of mor- made of mercury which had been mixed with 

phine, which have separated, are collected on a bismuth, lead, tin, sodium, and copper. The 

small plaited filter. The crystals which remain retorts contained no residue of mercury and 

in the flask are washed with 5cc. of distilled the distilled mercury was pure, 

water. This wash-water is brought on the Hasebroek proposes as a delicate test for 

filter, and finally the flask and also the filter bismuth the addition of hydrogen peroxide 

and its contents are dried at 100** C. Thecrys- made alkaline with potassium or sodium hy- 

tals on the filter are transferred to the flask, drate to bismuth subnitrate, which, on heat- 

and this is then dried until a constant weight ing, from white becomes brownish yellow 

is obtained. The morphine thus produced is with the evolution of oxygen, 

pure, and dissolves completely, though slowly. The investigations of Christopher Rawson 

m 100 parts of saturated lime-water. The of the various methods of estimating indigotin 

principles of treatment are the same for opium show that indigo, when finely pulverized, is 

extract and opium tincture. completely dissolved by sulphuric acid, at from 

A method for detecting by the magnet adul- 90** to 95** C, in one hour. The permanga- 



CHEMISTRY. 143 

nate method affords a qoick and ready means coloring sabstanoes in other ways than by 

for the approximate valuation of indigoes, bat promoting oxidation or reduction, thus : The 

the resalts obtained are sometimes too high, color of an organic snbstance is an effect of 

The method of precipitation with sodium its highly complex structare, notwithstanding 

chloride and titration with potassiam perman- the fact that its composition may be simple 

gMiate gives resolts which, for all practical enough. It may consist, for instance, of but 

purposes, are trustworthy. three or four elements — carbon, hydrogen, and 

The accuracy of the soda-lime process for oxygen, with, perhaps, nitrogen — but the num- 

determining nitrogen having been questioned, her of atoms necessary to produce the smaUest 

W. O. Atwater and 0. D. Woods have given particle or molecule of color is large ; and every 

ittention to the methods of manipulation and color depends upon the way in which the atoms 

tbe soaroes of error and ways of avoiding them, are arranged in the molecule. The shifting of 

tDd have been convinced that when rightly a single atom will cause a brilliant color to be- 

managed it gives excellent results. At the come colorless. The effect of light on such 

nme time they decline to say that they regard substances is variable; sometimes the change 

the soda- lime method as entirely reliable, even induced is oxidation ; it is sometimes a molecu- 

for protein compounds, unless all needed pre- lar change, or the rearrangement of the atoms 

eantiona are observed. in the molecule. Light may also be capable 

To detect and measure magnetic susceptibil- of resolving a complex substance into two or 
itj in substances which show no evidence of more simpler substances. The color of a sub- 
magnetism under the usual processes, Mr. T. B. stance depends upon the rate of vibration of 
Warren places a weight of the substance experi- its molecules. The more brilliant the light 
mented upon in the pan of a chemical balance the more ample are the vibrations. It is easy, 
vhich is adjusted to the magnetic meridian ; then, to understand how a light of great brill- 
eqailibrinm having been made, a magnet is iancy may throw a colored molecule into such 
placed directly under the scale- pan, when, if the a state of intense vibration that the molecnle 
mbstance is paramagnetic or positive, the pan will fall to pieces. The complex and unstable 
vUl be drawn down. The weights that have to compound is resolved into two or more simple 
be added to restore equilibrium give the meas- and colorless bodies. Unstable colors are also 
oreof the susceptibility of the substance in hand, liable to be changed by oxygen, which is never 
Diamagnetic or negative substances are also excluded from framed pictures ; moisture, 
att3iu<ted under the same condition, instead of which is used in the mounting of pictures, and 
being repelled, as might be supposed ; and the is in the air ; and acidity, which exists to a 
author infers from this that magnetic repulsion, greater or less extent in all towns where coal 
in a positive sense, does not exist. To measure is burned, and which is sometimes a property 
oiagnetic permeability, a plate of the metal or of the paper on which drawings are made. All 
4ntam of the liquid is inserted between the preparations of lead are sensitive to impurities 
iDagnet and some iron-filings. When the plate of the air, and should never be used in works 
b removed, the magnet is attracted to within of art; and of mercury, only pure cinnabar or 
a 6xed distance of the filings, and the weight vermillion. Acidity may be partly remedied by 
required to produce equilibrium is noted, the washing the paper in a slightly alkaline solu- 
pbte is then inserted, and the diminished tion,or by using weak borax- water in applying 
tttraction is again noted. The difference in the pigments. Of the various colors, the 
taght is due to che arrest of magnetic influ- yellows and crimson are most afl'ected by sun- 
»ce by the interposed layer. light, and blue and gray tints by an impure 

Solphuric acid and naphthalamine hydro- atmosphere. The difference in the effect of 

<^ride have been found by 0. E. Howard to direct sunlight and diffused daylight upon 

be most delicate and satisfactory reagents for colors is very great. In the latter the prevail- 

^etecting the presence of nitrogenous and ing rays are tiie yellow ones,while the violet and 

chloride impurities in drinking-water. Water ultra-violet rays, which are so active in direct 

^ slightly tainted with nitrons acid only sunlight, are absent. Diffused light sufScient 

pr« a very faint pink on application of these for the exhibition of pictures is forty times 

tests. In proportion as the contamination is weaker than average direct sunlight, or four 

greater, the coloration is more intense, until a hundred times weaker than that of summer. 
^«ep carmine is produced. The reagents for In a paper read at the British Association 

i^kiorides, the presence of considerable quanti- on '* The Action of Light on Water-colors," 

ti« of which may indicate contamination by Dr. Arthur Richardson named cadmium yel- 

ttimal excreta, are nitric acid and silver low, cadmium orange, king^s yellow, and 

titrate. They produce in water containing indigo, a^^ colors which bleach by oxidation 

(bJorides a white precipitate of silver chloride, under the combined influence of light, air, and 

tbe exhibition of which rises from a mere opal- moisture, but are permanent in an atmosphere 

«icgiice when the quantity of chloride is slight of carbon dioxide or in dry air. A second 

fo t disdnct deposit when the contamination group of colors on which light exerts a reduc- 

is considerable. ing action, which is independent of air, and in 

Ckarirtry sf tbe Arts. — W. N. Hartley has some cases takes place in the absence of moist- 

*^n that light may effect changes in organic ure, includes Prussian blue, vermillion, lakes. 



144 CHEMISTRY. 

gamboge, etc. Pmssian blue fades in moist wbich is then exposed, to dry it, for ten o 

air ; much more rapidly in an atmosphere of twelve hoars at a temperature of 90° O. Tb( 

carbonic dioxide; but is permanent in dry air. tube is then exhausted with petroleum ether 

Mixed with cadmium yellow, Prussian blue dried, cooled, and weighed. The loss repre 

gave a green which was very sensitive to light sents the butter fat. For sugar, the milk, it 

if moisture was present, but was permanent in specific gravity having been determined, L 

dry air. Vermillion was shown to fade in dry treated with mercuric nitrate or mercuri* 

and moist air, also in an inert atmosphere like iodide solution for precipitation of albumen 

carbon dioxide. With cadmium yellow an ox- shaken, filtered, and subjected to polariscopu 

ide was formed which blackened in moist air examination. For the estimation of ash, th< 

in a few hours, though in dry air light was milk, treated with nitric acid, is dried anc 

without action on it. The author condemns as burned at a low red heat till the ash is fre< 

unsafe those pigments which fade in dry air, from carbon. 

and shows that the greater number of paints In the analysis of butter, a portion of the sam 

are stable in sunlight, provided moisture is pie, taken frofn the inside of the mass, is placet 

absent. on a slide, treated with a drop of pure sweet 

When petroleum is stored in lead -lined oil, and examined with a microscope and wit) 

tanks, the lead is rapidly corroded, with the polarized light and the selenite plate. Pun 

formation of a heavy, brownish-colored pow- butter will show neither crystals nor a parti 

der. This powder has been found to consist colored field with selenite, while other fata 

of a carbonate and hydrated oxide of lead and melted and cooled and mixed with butter, wil 

a small quantity of valerate of lead ; the brown- usually present crystals and variegated colors 

ish color is due to organic matter. The by- The specific gravity and the melting-point an 

pothesis that the white lead, of which the pow- determined with apparatus prepared for thai 

der practically consists, and a paraffin, is formed purpose. Volatile and soluble acids are esti- 

by the action of an oxidizing agent and a small mated by processes requiring considerable 

quantity of valeric acid present ii^ the petroleum manipulation. The amount of water is ascer- 

on the lead, is supported by experiments made tained by heating at 105** C. for two hours in 

by William Fox. a flat-bottomed platinum dish full of sand. 

H. Le Ohatelier has found that hydrated Salt is volumetrically ascertained by adding 

cements treated with a large excess of water hot water, waiting till the melted fat has aU 

give up not only the lime present as hydrate, collected on the top, and running the water, 

but also, in time and after treatment with fresh without any of the fat, into an Erlenmayer 

quantities of water, they surrender nearly all flask. The salt is also determined in the flltrate 

the lime in combination. Slow -setting cements by means of solution of silver nitrate. The 

contain much calcium hydrate; quick-setting methods of estimating curd depend on the 

cements, very little. principle of drying a weighed portion and 

Analytical Cheaistry. — In the analysis of milk extracting the fat with ether or petroleum, 

as recommended by the Association of Official The residual mass is then weighed, and the 

Agricultural Ohemists, the butter is estimated curd determined by loss or ignition. In Bab- 

by drying on the water-bath for thirty minutes, cock's method for the determination of casein, 

or by drying with powdered asbestos for two dried butter is treated with light petroleum 

hours at 100° 0. For casein, the milk is till all fat is removed. The residue is then 

digested with HsS04, or the dried residue is ignited with soda-lime or treated by the Ejedahl 

rubbed up and transferred to the soda-lime method. 

combustion tube, or is transferred to a di- For the determination of traces of arsenic in 

gestion fiask« and the casein estimated by the tissues, yams, and paper-hangingn, R. Fresenios 

method of Kjeldahl. For the estimation of and £. Hintz digest the chopped tissue with 

the fat, a strip of blotting or filtering paper is hydrochloric acid for one hour; add solution of 

saturated with a measured quantity of milk, ferrous chloride, and heat till the excess of hy- 

and dried, after which the fat is extracted from drochloric acid has passed off, and then boil 

it; or the milk is dehydrated by means of an- till the distillation is stopped by frothing. More 

hydrous sulphate of copper; the fat is ex- than two thirds of the liquid in the retort could 

tracted by means of the low-boiling products generally be distilled over. A second distills- 

of petroleum ; the butter is saponified with tion with hydrochloric acid is efiTected, and 

solution of potassium hydroxide in alcohol, the sulphureted hydrogen treatment is applied, 

and the excess of the alkali is determined by After elimination of organic matter, the pre- 

means of a solution of hydrochloric acid. In cipitate is filtered, treated with bromo-hydro- 

Babcock's method for estimating water in fat, chloric acid and ferrous chloride, and distilled 

the milk is placed in ignited asbestos, and sub- Treatment with sulphureted hydrogen givei 

jected, at 100° C, to a slow current of dry air arsenic trisulphide. 

till the water is expelled. The tube containing The state of combination in which quicksil- 

the solids from this operation is placed in an ver is dissolved in natural waters has been 

extraction apparatus, and exhausted in the studied by G. F. Becker in the course of hii 

usual way. In Prof. Macfarlane^s method the investigations of the quicksilver deposits of the 

milk is absorbed in asbestos fiber in a tube, Pacific slope. Pyriie or marcasite almost inva- 






CHEMISTRY. 145 

ruibl J accompanies cinnabar ; gold is associated gen has been determined by Dr. Rebs, of Jena, 

vitb it ID a considerable nnmber of cases; cop- to be H^». It is a bright-yellow, mobile, trans- 

per salpbides or sulpbo-salts not infrequently ; parent oil, possessing an odor peculiar to it- 

and sulphides of arsenic and antimony and zinc- self. When dry it may be preserved in a closed 

blende sometimes. The waters of Steamboat tube without decomposition, but in contact 

Springs are now depositing gold, probably in the with water it breaks up rapidly, with evolution 

mc^lic state ; sulphides of arsenic, antimony, of sulphnreted hydrogen and separation of 

tnd mercury ; sulphides or sulpho-salts of sil- sulphur. 

Ter, lead, copper, and zinc; iron oxide and A new method of testing alcoholic liquors, 

possibly iron sulphides; manganese, nickel, and discovered by Prof. Schwartz, consists in deter- 

eobaltcoTnp«iunds, with a variety of earthy min- mining the specific gravity and the index of 

erals. The sulphides most abundant in the de- refraction of the substance under examination, 

posts are found in solution in the water itself, Mr. Thomas Turner has experimented upon 

while the other metaUio compounds occur in the value of the sulphuric-acid method for esti- 

deposita from springs now active or which mating silicon in iron and* steel, and has com- 

bg?e been active within a few years. These pared it with the aqua-regia method. His 

wrings are thus adding to the ore-deposit of conclusions are, that with cast-irons of specially 

the locality, which has been worked for quick- good quality the silicon can be correctly esti- 

alver in former years. There is reason to sup- mated by evaporation with dilute sulphuric acid; 

pose that deposition is also in progress at with phpsphoric irons the residue obtained, 

Sulphur Springs. Experiments were made to though white, is often impure, and should be 

determine the conditions of solubility and of further treated in order to obtain accurate 

precipitation of quicksilver and the other me- results; with phosphoric irons containing ti- 

idlic constituents of the deposits in the various tanium, the silica is contaminated with iron, 

earthy salts or mixtures of them, held in the with titanic oxide, and phosphoric acid. The 

raters. They showed that there is a series of residue may be very nearly white and still 

compounds of mercury of the form HgSnNaS, contain 20 per cent, of substances other than 

one or other of which is soluble in aqueous so- silica; on treatment yiMYi aqua regia^ the color 

btions of caustic soda, sodio sulph hydrate, or of the residue is usually an indication of its 

iodie sulphide, and apparently also in pure wa- purity. 

i ter, at various temperatures. These solutions Cbcflilctl Syithcds. — Dr. E. H. Reiser has 

I Kjb»st, to a greater or less extent, in the pres- effected a synthesis of water, in which a known 

I eiMre of sodic carbonates, borates, and chlorides, weight of oxygen in the form of copper oxide 

I There is strong evidence that the waters of has been made to combine with an actually 

I Steamboat Springs contain n^ercury in the same weighed quantity of hydrogen. The weighing 

I iomu, if indeed they do not still carry it in so- of the hydrogen was accurately effected by 

latioo. Bisulphide of iron, gold, and zinc- causing it to be occluded in palladium, where- 

blende form double sulphides with sodium, by a compound was formed which is stable at 

vhich appear to be analogous with that of ordinary temperatures, but gives out its by- 

mercury. Copper gives a double sulphide, but drogen when heated. A new determination 

combines more readily with sodic snlphhydrate of the atomic weight of oxygen by this process 

than with the simple sulphide. All of the sol- gives it as slightly lower than 15*96 and more 

aUe sulpho-salts may exist in the presence of nearly 15'87. 

sodic carbonates. Mercuric sulphide is readily Drs. Emil Fischer and Tafel have succeeded 

precipitated from these solutions, by cooling, in artificially preparing glucose directly from 

by dilution, and by other conditions that may glycerin. The glycerin was oxidized by means 

be brought about among the substances exist- of soda nnd bromine to aldehyde, and this 

ii^ in the solutions. was subjected to a subsequent condensation by 

In examining olive-oil for mixture of lard means of alkalies. The synthesis had been 

«l, Mr. T. B. Warren confirms the presence of previously effected by decomposition of acro- 

pnppj.oil by passing ozone into the mixture, lein dibromide with baryta water, but the new 

when a black product will be obtained by S.Cl^, method is a far readier one. 

and the viscosity will be increased. The lard- Bernthsen and Semper have produced by 

.ri oil may be removed by boiling the coagulum in artificial synthesis the substance nucine, or 

I moderately strong alkaline solution. The re- juglon, which appears in the form of needle- 

laaioiDg mass is washed and treated for the esti- shaped crystals upon the outer coatings of 

i&atioD of the iodine absorptions, when, knowing walnuts, and which has been found in the ex- 

tbe iodine absorption of the mixture and the pressed juice of the same. 

iet proportion of it due to the recovered lardoil, The synthesis of crystalline dicalclum arse- 

«^e have the difference corresponding to the niate, or pharmaoolite, has been effected by M. 

ofi^e and poppy oils. If we know that two Dufet through the slow interdiffusiou of so- 

«l3 0Dly are present, and we know the iodine lutions of nitrate of lime and di sodium arse- 

|tl»orption of each, we have no difficulty in fix- niate. The gradual precipitation thus brought 

izigon the quantities of each necessary to cor- about resulted in the formation of a group of 

r»pood with the determination. crystals exactly resembling those of pharma- 

Tbe composition of the persulphide of hydro- oolite-inonoclinic prisms of a pearly luster and 

VOL. xxvm. — 10 A ^ 



•3 
r*9 



146 CHEMISTRY. 

frequently possessing a pink tint. The chemi- nected as directly as possible with hydrogen, J. 
cal analysis of the crystals led to the for- W. Malletdescribes a method hy which this may 
mala HCaAs04+2H90; and the substance be done in the case of gold. A known weight 
thus becomes chemically as well as physically of zinc is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, and 
isomorphous with brushite, the corresponding the hydrogen evolved is measnred. A solo- 
phosphate of calcium, H0aPO4+ 2 HaO. tion of bromide or chloride of gold is then 

Atovle Weights. — The following new method treated with zinc more than sofficient to pre- 

for the determination of the atomic weight oipitate the whole of the gold, the residual zinc 

of oxygen was described by W. A. Noyes at being determined by the hydrogen evolved on 

the American Association : treatment with sulphuric acid. The difference 

The apparatus to be used consbts of a U-tube, filled ^^ volume of hydrogen obtained gives a direct 

with copper oxides, to one side of which is attached a means of calculating the atomic weight of gold, 
tube with a capacity of about 20 co^ and to the other Cliealstry tf Plants. — Helen 0. De S. Abbott 

side a three-way stop. cook. The l^tube is first ex- ig convinced that a similarity of one or more 

b^S'r^n'h'r^'t: 'k1 ^^^^'tCn've^^'S chemical constitnents is to b« found in all 
into water, which then condenses in the tube on the plants which have reached the same stage of 
opposite side from the stop-cock. The rain in weight evolution — that there is a development in 
of the apparatus ffives the weight of the hydrogen, chemical constitution, closely connected with 
AfterweigMng the Rases remainmg in the ^^^j, morphological evolution, which plants 
are pumped out and analyzed. The water is also ex- ., ^, ju A.^. a. \. 'i*^!. 
pellld, and from the loss in wei^rht of the apparatus Pass through— and hence that chemical char- 
the weight of oxygen is determined. The advantages aoter, as mdicating the height of the plant m 
of the method are : The weight of the hydro^n is the scale of progression, is essentially appro- 
determined directly ; the weight of the oxypn is also priate for a basis of classification. Some one 

usual correction of the weights to a vacuum becomes 1*"* botanical characters m plants of distinct 

unnecessary ; impurities in the hydrogen, and espe- genera and families on the same plane of evo- 

dally any nitrogen which it contains, will be detected lution or development. Ohemical constituents 

and the amount determined : finally, no ciror can re- ^f ^i^^^ ^re found in varying quantities dor- ^ 

suit from mcomplete combusUon of the hydrogen. j^/gtated periods of the yiarf Certain com- 

In the report of the Committee on Electrol- pounds present at one stage of growth are ab- ^ 

ysis of the British Association, a direct de- sent at another. Different parts of plants roaj ' 

termination of the ratio between the atomic contain distinct compounds; whether any of i 

weight of copper and that of silver, based upon the constituents found in plants are, as has 

the electrolytic experiments of W. N. Shaw, is been said, the result of destructive metabolism, 

madeto give Ag:Cu -17:10; whence the atomic and of no further use in its economy, or not, ^ 

weight of copper is made 63*333, or, corrected, it is a significant fact that certain cells, tissoea, i 

68*360. This value being different from that or organs peculiar to a plant secrete or excrete - 

ordinarily received, a direct determination was compounds peculiar to them which are to b« b 

made, at the request of Prof. J. P. Cooke, by found in one family, or in species which are 

T. W. Richards. This experimenter deduced closely allied. 

an atomic weight for copper of 63*44, which, The chemistry of the onion as a field-crop c 
although it does not exactly coincide with has been studied by R. W. E. Mclvor, in Aos- ^ 
Shawns results, is nearer to them than the old tralia. The soil in which the plant is grown ^ 
accepted value of 63*17. is a chocolate loam of basaltic origin contain- .. 
The atomic weight of didymium, freed from ing in a virgin state sometimes as much as 0*28 ^ 
all other allied metals known at that time, was per cent, of nitrogen and 0*20 per cent of pho»- ^ 
determined by Cleve, in 1874, as 147. After the phorio acid extractable by hydrochloric acid. . 
discovery of samarium as an accompaniment While non -nitrogenous guanos and superphos- - 
to didymium, and under evidence that it was phates have in a few instances slightly increased ; 
present in the sample examined by him, the the crop, it has been found that manures con- 
author made a new determination of the atom- taining nitrogen in the form of sulphate of -■ 
io weight of ^didymium, freed from samarium, ammonia or as a constituent of blood-guano ' 
as 142*3. produce more satisfactory results. The liheral .. 
With the atomic weight 198*6, osmium has use of superphosphate mixed with sulphate of ^^ 
formed a notable exception to the periodic ammonia has invariably proved more beneficial I 
law, standing at the opposite end of the plati- on the poorer land than superphosphate aioDe. , 
num group from where its other properties The largest returns, however, have resulted _ 
would place it. The atomic weight of this from the joint use of a fertilizer composed of 
metal has now been redetermined by Prof, the sulphates of ammonia and potash and en- 
Seubert by means of the analysis of the pure perphosphate. The farmers are of opinion that ;^ 
double chlorides of osmium with ammonium onions produced by the aid of purely chemical 
and potassium, and is fixed at 191*1. This gives manures keep in good condition for a longer 
to it its proper place in the periodic classifica- period than those obtained from ground which 
tion, as before iridium. is naturally '* forcing," or which has been re- 
Considering that it is desirable that all deter- cently manured with rich farmyard mannre. 
minations of atomic weights should be con- It seems fairly clear to the author that the on- ' 



Uw. 
42-48 
89-8« 
1-88 
6-53 
8-70 
0-80 



CHEMISTRY. 147 

ommon with other crops,'' depends Jnly and Angnst, 1886, to deteimine the rate 

oil for its supplies of nitrogen. The of oxidation or destraction of the sewage of 

position of air-dried onions growing the city of Chicago, which is carried through 

ired land was foand to he : the Illinois and Michigan Canal to the Illinois 

g94'8 river, examinations were made of the dilute 

ibto mattfir (N = 2-8D 1010 sewage at the point (Bridgeport) where it is 

pnm^eid into the canal, and of specimens of the 

I 1,0000 water taken on the same day at stations select- 

J nitrogen and mean composition of ^ ^^ intervals through a distance of 169 miles, 

that an average crop of, say, eight jn which a total descent of 1,467 feet occurs. 

•emove from an acre : ^"® conditions of the tests were vanously 

Urn, <^^V^^<^^^^ &t the several stations, so that no 

p^o, 10-88 absolute result was possible; but the experi- 

^ 0;80 mentasawhole was interpreted as showing "in 

SiO *!'.*.!*.'/. !*..*. !!'.*.! 1-72 * '^^ and unmistakable way the general fact 

*"" of the gradual purification of a highly contami- 

^****^ 119M nated water by what maybe broadly termed 

al sulphur in air-dried onions was oxidation " ; and importance is claimed for the 

iverage 0'051 per cent. investigations " as showing pretty fully the 

3ence of aluminum was supposed to rate at which a city's sewage is destroyed un- 

r to Lycopodium among plants ; but der certain conditions of temperature, dilution, 

reh has found traces of it in the ash- and velocity of flow." Investigations were also 

Y other plants. It occurs in all the made in the succeeding winter — December, 

Lycopodium which were examined, January, and February — to ascertain the effect 

»se which are of epiphytic habit, but of cold. The results were marked by perplex- 

allied genus SeUiginella ; and in the iug irregularities, but tended to show a slow 

»rae — but not all — ^tree-ferns, in large rate of change at that season. 

LS. Prof. Atwater has published seme of the 

CIWBtalry. — The results of observa- results of his analyses of the flesh of American 

le effect of free carbonic acid in po- fishes in tables which give severally the proxi- 

T on leaden pipes have been summa- mate ingredients, as directly determined, of 

Z, Reichardt Only water containing the fiesh, and of the water-free substance of 

nic acid has been found to attack the the fiesh ; the percentages of phosphoric acid, 

16 view that lead pipes conducting sulphuric acid, and chlorine in the flesh ; classi- 

tr become incrusted gradually, and fioation of fisli by percentages of flesh, chiefly 

ipable of resisting corrosion, has not muscular tissue, in the entire body ; classifica- 

&d. Except with hard waters hold- tion by proportions of water-free substance in 

lime, no deposit has been observed, the flesh ; classiflcation by proportions of fat in 

' years of use. Mountain springs do the flesh ; composition of water-free substance 

f contain more than enough free car- in flesh of preserved fish ; composition of flesh 

I to dissolve the monocarbonate of in preserved flsh ; and composition, including 

nt, often hardly enough to form hi- botn flesh and refuse. Other analyses have been 

; but sometimes waters holding much reported— of cod by Prof . Chittenden, and of 

Intion have more. Experiments thus menhaden by Prof. G. H. Cook ; comparisons of 

,hat these spring-waters do not attack the groupings made by the author according to 

ore than the most minute degree, the percentages of the different classes of con- 

ers more frequently contain free car- stituents with the classification by families as 

i than spring- waters, but in far small- practiced by ichthyologists, show no very defi- 

7. It has thus far been found that nite connection between the two. Intheanaly- 

»ntaining bicarbonates do not attack ses of preserved fishes, the replacement of the 

even free carbonic acid, in small water in the flesh by salt is remarked upon as 
, is without effect in the presence of a matter of physiological interest. 
i and magnesia. But the less min- As a simple and inexpensive freezing-mixt- 
r a water contains, or the '* softer " it ure, J. A. Baohman has used the spent nitro- 
re readily is lead dissolved. Distilled sulphuric-acid mixture which had been em- 
ic-acid-f^ee water dissolves lead slow- ployed in a Grove battery, with snow. At tem- 
paration of oxy hydrate ; distilled wa- peratures of about zero Centigrade, this acid, 
g carbonic acid in solution dissolves with various proportions of snow, gave a fall of 
ich larger quantity, with a separation from thirty to thirty-two degrees of tempera- 
lead carbonate, which can be very ture, or nearly the same as that obtained when 

Water to be conducted through lead simple hydrochloric acid is employed. As there 

uld, under all circumstances, be ex- was so little difference in the result when the 

r ^e carbonic acid and the amount snow was used within considerably wide limits 

d. Its action on lead plates should of proportion, it was found most satisfactory to 

>ted. mix the snow with the acid until it reached the 

experiments of J. H. Long, made in consistency of a thin mush, dispensing with 



148 CHEMISTRY. 

weighing. The temperature obtained when the they are not in nse, one, A, is entin 

BDOW is wet is ahnost as low as when it is dry, with mercury, while the other, B, 

which is not the case when hydrochloric acid more or less mercury, according to the 

alone is used. When working at a tempera- desired. The tubes are so adjusted 

ture near zero, the spent acids answered as soon, on making the exhaust, as the 

weU as, if not better than, hydrochloric acid ; in B is less than wiU support the 

but wlien endeavoring to obtain lower tempera- column in A, this column falls, and i 

tures than —30^ 0. by previously cooling the cury rises in B till it cuts off the out 

acid, better results were obtained with hydro- nectiog with the exhaust, 
chloric acid. A new form of apparatus for fracti 

Out of a large number of chemical com- tillation, by Dr. J. Tcherniac, in the ' 

?ounds experimented upon, Prof. William transformation of ammonium sulpho 

homson has found that those having the into calcium snlpho-cyanide, is deseril; 

most remarkable antiseptic properties are the H. Norton and A. H. Otten. The novc 

compounds of fluorine, hydroduorio acid, the is the introduction of a device caUed 

acid and neutral fluorides of sodium, potassium, seur^ to prevent the frothing accompai 

and ammonium, and the fluo-silirates of those rapid distillation of the ammoniacal Vn 
bases. Of these, sodium fluo-silicate is per- Edward Hart has devised a simple a] 

haps the best suited for an antiseptic. It is such as can bo made by an amatei 

not poisonous, possesses no smell, and is spar- blower, for fractional distillation. T 

inerly soluble in water. It has only a very ciple of it is the familiar one of the ** 

slightly saUne taste, and may therefore be em- mator.^^ The bent tube is so adjusted 

ployed in preserving food without communi- condensed portion runs down and passe 

eating any taste to it. A saturated solution its inside at each bend, while the vapc 

containing 0'61 per cent, of the salt is not ir- upward through the ring of descendio 
ritatiug to wounds, while it possesses great In an apparatus by Ramsey and Y< 

antiseptic power for animal tissues. determining vapor-densities of solids 

The value of phosphorus pentoxide as a dis- uids, a test-tube, having inserted fron 

infectant has been measured by Dr. Einyoun, a thermometer with its bulb covered i 

in experiments on cultivations of the micro- ton, is put in communication with a ! 

organisms of anthrax, yellow fever (Finlay), pump. The apparatus having been co 

typhoid fever, Asiatic cholera, and cholera exhausted, the liquid to be examined, is 

nostras, the nutrient medium being agaragar. to trickle down the thermometer and 

The cultivations were divided into series ac- the cotton. The stream of liquid hav 

cording to the way they were covered. The cut off, the pressure and temperature £ 

result of the experiments was the conclusion as soon as they become constant. Ai 

that this substance is a surface disinfectant admitted, and a second reading of pres 

only, having little, if any, penetrating power, temperature is taken. K the exper 

and is wholly unfit for fumigation and disin- made with a solid, the bulb of the then 

fection where penetration is desirable ; and is previously covered with it by dipp 

that its limited scope of usefulness is alto- the melted substance, 
gether met in the use of bichloride of mer- An improved form of apparatus 

cury. analysis described by J. T. Willard i 

P. Bockairy, in testing butter, substitutes tially a combination of Elliott's and 

toluene for benzine. The test-tube is heated land's apparatus for the analysis of ^ 

to 60° 0., and shaken up so as to mix the two cident to water analysis, with importa 

liquids. If the sample is a fat, turbidity im- fications and additions. It was desi^ 

mediately occurs, but if it is butter, even if use with mercury, but admits the emp 

mixed with fat, the two liquids mingle without of water. 

turbidity. The purity of the butter is deter- In W. Thomson's improved form c 

mined by keeping the test-tube for half an Thomson's instrument for determining 

hour in water at 40** 0. If the butter is pure, orimetric value of fuels and organic con 

there is no turbidity, but if it contains a the substance is burned in a stream of 

foreign fat, turbidity at once appears, and instead of with potassium chloride, 
ultimately a precipitate. A new apparatus for condensing n 

From examinations of certain waters — one contact with liquids, described by Proi 

of them being a ** mineral " water free from all consists of a series of perforated plat 

possible sources of contamination — Prof. E. H. of stone- ware, arranged in column. T 

S. Bailey has been led to consider that free as they rise are brought into immedi 

ammonia may be sometimes a natural constit- tact with an extensive plane surface 

uent, and not indicative of any pollution, of absorbing liquid, 
the water. An electrolytic method for liquefyii 

ApiNUHtis. — For preserving constant the vacu- is employed by H. N. Warren, whic 

nm employed in fractional distillation, Gode- scribed as being better adapted than tl 

froy uses two vertical tubes united at their method, when a compound gas, like 

lower ends by a fine tube, of which, when required. 



CHEMISTRY. 149 

In Knablanch's improved form of apparatus A source of error in experiments, dae to the 
for the determination of snlphnr in coal-gas, a formation of carbonic dioxide by the action of 
m^allic holder is filled with gas, and water is ozone on the cork stoppers, and hidia-mbber 
tnmed on. The gas, together with ^ve or six connectors of the apparatus, has been detected 
tim« its Tolame of air, is drawn into a com- by Eieser and F. H. Storer, of Bussey Institute, 
bastion tube and over heated asbestoa The H. Earsten had also observed that such con- 
mlphar prodacts are absorbed in a solution of nectors are liable to oxidation, even in mere 
potassinni carbonate. air and at ordinary temperatures. He found 
Improvements in apparatus for rapid gas the yield of carbonic acid increased fourfold 
inalyas by Dr. Arthur H. Elliott consist in when non-nitrogenized substances were ex- 
reducing the length of the tubes by enlarging posed to air ozonized by phosphorus instead of 
the upper portion of the bulbs, and by substi- to ordinary atmospheric air. 
toting a aolntion of bromine in potasac bromide MteceDaMtUt — The address of Prof. Tilden, as 
!<»' the liquid element to absorb illuminants. vice-president for 1888 of the chemical section 
For the generation of sulphureted hydrogen of the British Association, was devoted largely 
or hydr<^en gas, J. H. J. Dagger uses a glass to the subject of chemistry teaching, which, in 
TMsel containing hydrochloric acid, which is spite of the great advance of the science, was 
eonnected from its lower tubulure, by means of still hampered, he said, by the ignorance and in- 
t flexible tube, with the generator, and the two difference of the public. One man is required 
Tesaeis, snpported by wooden forks, are ar- to teach college classes, both elementary and 
ringed at different heights and fixed to the advanced, in pure and applied chemistry, inor- 
fkie of the HaS cupboard. The lower part of ganic and organic, theoretical and practical, 
the generator is filled to about half an inch ^* This is a kind of thing which kills specialism, 
above the end of the acid-tube with pieces of and without specialists we can have not only 
gbsB or glass marbles ; above this layer is the no advance, but no efiScient teaching of more 
iron sulphide or the zinc, as the case may be, than rudiments. That teachers ought to en- 
10 small pieces. The flow of gas can be stopped gage in research at all is by no means clear to 
or regulated by altering the levels. the public and to those representatives of the 
An ad jQstment of the Reichard ^s aspirator has public who are charged with the administration 
been applied by Prof. LeR. 0. Oooley as part of the new institutions. ... A popular mis- 
of an apparatus for removing noxious vapors take consists in regarding a professor as a liv- 
m the evaporation of corrosive liquids. ing embodiment of science — complete, infallible, 
To obviate the liability to accident from the mysterious ; whereas in truth he is, or ought 
bfUDping that follows an explosion in Liebig's to be, only a senior student who devotes the 
trough, Arthur Michael places an India-rubber greater part of his time to extending and con- 
l>kg on the bottom of the trough, and holds solidating his own knowledge for the benefit 
tike eudiometer firmly down upon it. of those who come to learn of him, not only 
An apparatus has been devised by Thomas what lies within the boundaries of the known, 
C. Van Nftys for the estimation of carbonic but how to penetrate into the far greater region 
teid by means of barium hydrate, the chief of the unknown. Moreover, the man who has 
purpose of which is to afiTord means for pre- no intellectual independence, and simply ac- 
renting the contact of external air containing cepts other people's views without challenge, 
evbooic acid with the barium hydrate when is pretty certain to make the stock of knowl- 
tritnrated with oxalic acid or when filtered and edge with which he sets out in life do service 
ra^ed. to the end." The little demand among school- 
Mr. Fletcher, of Warrington, has introduced masters for high attainments in chemistry, the 
a tubing made of two layers of India-rubber indifference of manufacturers who, when they 
nth soft tin-foil vulcanized between, which is want chemical assistance, instead of employing 
ted to be gas-tight under any pressure, and trained chemists are often satisfied with the 
|ree from smell after long-continued use, while services of boys *' who have been to an evening 
s retains the flexibility and elasticity of an or- class for a year or two,'' and the difiSculty of 
fintry rubber tube. finding a satisfactory career in connection with 
Kickd has been found by Prof. Dittmar to chemistry, are assigned as other reasons for the 
be t most durable material for making basins lack of attention to the efficient teaching of 
in which to conduct operations with aqueous the science. The disposition to encourage 
cystic alkalies. young chemists to engage in investigation and 
Id an apparatus described by G. H. Bailey attack difficult problems, may be carried too 
^ maintaining constant temperatures up to far. " Already we are in danger of losing the 
500' C^ the substance to be heated is placed art of accurate analysis. One constantly meets 
IB a glass tube, together with the bulb of an with yonng chemists who are ready enough to 
&r-^ermometer, and these are inclosed in a discuss the constitution of benzine, but can not 
vider tube resting on the iron casing of a fur- make a reliable combustion. And, according 
s>ce. The air-thermometer serves to measure to my own experience, attempts at research 
^temperature, and is connected with a pas- among inexperienced clieraists become abortive 
f«folator, by which means the temperature more frequently in consequence of deficient 
^J be kept constant at any desired degree. analytical skill than from any other cause." 



- J 



150 CHEMISTRY. 

An anneoessarj amonnt of time is often spent reduction of the chloride to metallic 

on qualitative mineral analysis, while an ac- while others believe that a subchlc 

quaintance with the properties of common and formed. Experiments bj Spencer B 

important carbon compounds ought to be ac- berry support the former view. The e 

quired at an early stage. Quantitative work — exposed under water with frequent stij 

serious work, in which good methods are used expose fresh surfaces to the light, and c 

and every effort made to secure accuracy — circulation of air resulted — in each cas* 

might with advantage be taken up much sooner two distinct processes of separation— 

than usual. One of the best means of preparing production of metallic silver, 

for original research is to select suitable mem- The differentiation of yeast is presei 

oirs, and to work conscientiously through the Mr. 0. 6. Matthews, of Burton-on-Tren 

preparations and analyses described. ** When exceedingly interesting field for experii 

chemistry is taught, not with professional or which may be found some of the ca 

technical objects in view, but for the sake of yeast deterioration. There are many 

educational effects, as an ingredient in a liberal of saecharomycss, and of so nearly equ^ 

education, the primary object is to make the ity, that a variety of ferments are oft< 

student observe and think. But with young ent in what the brewer may regard as 

students it is very important to proceed slow- yeast. Variations in the character oi 

ly, for chemistry is really a very difficult sub- mentable liquid tending to the nourish) 

ject at flrst.^' certain ferments, rather than others, i 

Ooncerning the constitution of meteorites, termine the growth of a mtyority of c 

Prof. Lockyer names fourteen elements which cies, especially in the case of spontane 

occur most constautly in such bodies, and eleven mentations. A natural selection has d( 

others which occur less freauently or in smaUer taken place in the case of brewer^s 

quantities. Of them, oidy hydrogen, nitrogen, which may be regarded as an educat 

and carbon occur in an elementary condition, modified form from spontaneous or aij 

Hydrogen and nitrogen are asserted to be fermentation ; and all ordinary yeasts 

ocdaded as gases by the stones. Oarbon exists a preponderating quantity of this t 

in the forms of graphite and the diamond. The form. It is not until an abnormal per 

proportion of compound substances known on of some other kind appears that its pre 

the earth that are found on meteorites is smaller, demonstrable, though some time bef( 

many terrestrially common ones being absent, the yeast may have exhibited peculiai 

Thus, free quartz has not been found in any its action. Hayduck has traced a con 

meteors. Many of the meteoric chemical com- between the amount of nitrogen yeast c 

biuations, on the other hand, are unknown to and its fermentative capacity, and has 

terrestrial mineralogy. A compound of car- that an increased nitrogen percentage 

bon with hydrogen and oxygen exists as a companied, as a rule, by increased fei 

white or yellowish crystallizable matter, solu- tive power ; but that after a certain lit 

ble in ether and partly so in alcohol, and latter diminishes. Yeast takes up nitr 

exhibiting the characters and the coraposi- proportion to the amount of that com 

tion of one or more hydrocarbonaceous bodies existing in the wort, and will take up i 

with high-melting points. Various alloys of a higher than at a lower temperate 

nickel and iron occur, with which magne- quick yeast be carried through cons 

slum is always associated, the four principal worts of high gravity, a marked deteri 

of which have respectively six, ten, fourteen, ensues — owing, doubtless, to a replete 

and sixteen equivalents of iron to one of of the ferment. It has become so i 

nickel. Among other minerals are Lawrencite, protoplasmic constituents that saccharii 

protochloride of iron ; Maskelynite, with the tions no longer exert their normal stira 

composition of labradorite; and silica (as as- effect, and it is quite possible that in a 

manite). Among the compounds identical in the cells are alcoholized or partially a 

composition and crystallographic character ated. Such deteriorated yeast may be r 

with minerals found on our globe, are magnetic to activity by fermentation in a compar 

pyrites, magnetite, chromite, and the following weak wort, and it is a fair reasoning tl 

silicates : olivine varieties, enstatite and bronz- surplus constituents are passed into ne 

ite, diopside and angite, anorthite and labra- without drawing entirely on the cell-f 

dorite, and breunerite. The oxides of carbon constituents of the wort. The visible 

have been detected in many meteorites, where oration of yeast by the accession of bac 

they are assumed to have been occluded. When a matter of high importance. All throi 

the meteoric substance is heated and examined process air-borne germs are being co 

with the spectroscope, the most volatile ele- into the products, and when the oppo 

ments appear first, and so on in regular order, arrives they take effect, and this oppo 

and this without regard to the proportions in occurs when the vitality of the yeast hi 

which they are respectively present lowered ; for a healthy fermentation pr< 

The blackening of silver chloride under ex- their development. Bacteria then may 

posure to light has been accounted for in sonably regarded as both cause and ef 

various ways. Some chemists attribute it to a yeast degeneration. 



CHILI. 151 

ami, an indepeDdent republic of Soath during the war with Spain and the one with 

America. (For details relating to area, ^e Pern and Bolivia ; 8 and 7 per cent, bonds 

^Annoal Gjrclop»dia ^' for 1884.) Final re- were issued, and since 1837 the latter have 

turns of the census of Nor. 26, 1885, showed gradually been reduced through the operations 

the popolation at the time to have been 2,527,- of the sinking-fund ; of these bonds, there 

330, exclusive of 50,000 wild Indians, and in- were outstanding, on Dec. 81, 1887, $6,648,- 

dnding 51,882 foreigners. 900 ; furthermore, $16,965,756, for which there 

CtfCffVMcaL — The President is Don Mannel exists no sinking-fund, and, finally, there are 
Bahnaceda, whose term of office will expire on $24,887,916 paper money, the internal debt 
Sept 18, 1891. The Cabinet was composed thus reaching, in the aggregate, the sum of 
in 1^8 of the following Ministers: Foreign $48,897,572, on Dec. 81, 1887, as c($mpared 
Affiura, Don Demetrio Lastavria ; Interior, with $49,917,687 on Dec. 81, 1886; which at 
Doo Pedro Lncio Quadra; Treasury, Don £n- the time included $26,687,916 paper money; 
riqne S. San Fuente; Industries and Public of which, consequently, during the twelve- 
Works, Don Vicente Davilla Larrain ; War month, $1,800,000 had been withdrawn from 
and Navy, Don Evaristo Sanchez Fontenilla; circulation and destroyed. 
todJnstice, Sefior F. Puga Borne. The Chilian The actual income in 1887 was $45,888,953, 
Minister to the United States is Don Domingo as compared with $17,000,000 in 1877, and 
Gaoa. The Consul-G^eral in New York is $9,000,000 in 1866, whereas the actual outlay 
Don Federico A. Beelen; the Consul-General in 1887 was only $87,118,408 for ordinary and 
for California, Nevada, and Oregon, resident extraordinary expenditures; so that a surplus 
It San Francisco, is Don Juan de la Cruz Cer- resulted of $8,775,545. On Dec. 81, 1887. the 
da. The United States Minister to Chili is Chilian treasury held in cash the sum of $21,- 
William R. Roberts ; the American Consul at 277,710, without counting the bar-silver re- 
Valparaiso is James W. Romeyn. tained as reserve to secure the note circula- 

Iray. — The strength of the permanent army tion, and without the $2,298,754 of capital 

was fixed by law of Dec. 80, 1887, at 5,885, and interest which Peru was then still owing 

consisting of two regiments of artillery; one Chili. The budget for 1889 estimates the re ve- 

battadion of sappers ; eight of foot, and three nue at $46,000,000, and the expenditure at 

regiments of horse, to be added to which $58,000,000, the deficit to arise from railroads 

ihere is a coast artillery force of 500 ; consti- which the Government intends building, in 

toting in the aggregate 5,885 men, commanded conformity with the authority obtained from 

bj 982 officers. The military school is at- Congress under date of Jan. 20, 1888. 

tended by 115 cadets. The National Guard, The Council of State sanctioned the plan 

organized under provisions of the law of Sept. authorizing the President to spend the sum of 

26, 1882, is composed of 90 corps, numbering $1,204,000 for the purpose of canceling the 

in the aggregate 48,674 file. county debts of the republic with the exception 

lavy. — In conformity with the provisions of of those of Valparaiso and Santiago, 

the law of Dec. 30, 1887, there were in active On Aug. 7, 1888, the contract terminated 

service in 1888 two frigates and one monitor, all which gave to certain banks the privilege of 

tnnored vessels; three corvettes; three cruis- issuing bank-notes; there were in all eighteen 

ers; two gun-boats ; one transport ; four *''• es- banks enjoying the advantage named, and on a 

campavias,^^ and eleven torpedo-boats, out of cash capital of $28,111,887, their circulation 

tbirty-one vessels composing the Chilian fieet, amounted to $16,061,262. The three leading 

vith a joint tonnage of 17,495. The navy was banks circulating notes, comprised in the above 

commanded by 55 officers; there were 289 sum, are the Banco Nacional, with a capital 

sar^eons, pilots, and apprentices on board, and of $6,000,000, and a circulation of $4,500,456 ; 

1,988 sailors and marines. The naval school the Banco de Valparaiso, capital $5,125,000, 

St Valparaiso was attended by 70 cadets. issue $4,098,812; and the Banco de Santiago, 

PMUk W«rlM.— In April the work connecting capital $4,000,000, issue 2,678,600. The Gov- 
Lake Vichuquen with the ocean was begun, ernment intends to decree in the future the 
This work will result in the formation of a free issue of bank-notes under the proviso of 
rtrong military port. the guarantees stipulated by section 7 of the 

HiOMcs. — The foreign indebtedness of Chili law of March 14, 1887. 

consisted, on Jan. 1, 1888, of the following ChaiitaUe Institntioog, etc — The Government 

oat^anding bonds : 8-per-cent. loan of 1848, paid subsidies to hospitals, lazarettos, vaccina- 

$5S3,00O ; 4J-per-cent. loan of 1885, $4,024,- tion offices, and to the fire departments, to the 

000; 4i-p€r-cent. loan of 1886, $80,050,000; amount of $650,600, distributed among 225 

tnd 4^per-cent. nitrate certificates, $5,830,- establishments. The police was subsidized by 

005; constituting a total of $40,487,005, money $471,900. For 1888 there had been set aside 

ehiefiy expended in the construction of Gov- for the benefit of all the institutions named 

ernment lines of railway ; consequently, Chili $1,196,140. 

bag something to show for what she owes Cholera*— Between Dec. 25, 1887, and Feb. 8, 

abroad. The home debt was contracted par- 1888, there were in Valparaiso alone 4,500 

tially during the war of independence, in part cases of cholera, 1,857 proving fatal ; the epi- 

a^ for the building of railroads, and finally demio disappeared gradually with the advent 



152 



CHILI. 



of oool weather, bnt dnring the first fortnight 
in March, there were still 201 cases of which 
77 resulted in death. 

PMUI 8er?t€e« — The number of post-offices in 
operation in 1887 was 481, dispatching dur- 
ing the year 37,308,210 items of mail-matter. 
The number of ordinary letters handled in the 
mails in 1886 was 14,299,883 ; registered let- 
ters, 125,902; sample packages, 39,639; ju- 
dicial notifications, 15,392 ; Government mes- 
sages, 703,255 ; and newspapers, 20,124,189; 
together, 85,808,210, dispatched in 1886. The 
receipts in 1887 were $483,439, nearly balanc- 
ing the expenses. Postal money-orders were 
paid out in 1886 to the amount of $1,633,822. 
The Government paid subsidies to ocean 
steamers for carrying the correspondence in 
1886 to the extent of $228,880. 

Railrvads. — The Chilian railroad system, on 
Dec. 81, 1887, consisted in in the first place of 
Government lines : 

Lnfl[thla 
kflooMtrM. 

Santtefo to Yalpandso 187 

Branch line. Las Vegas to Banta Bosa 45 

Santiago to Maule mna San Fernando to PalmiUa, 

branch line 804 

Santiago to Ooncepcion 418 

Angol to Traiguen 73 

Benaoio to Victoria 76 

Total 1,09G 

Next of private lines : Kikm.im. 

Arloa to Tarna 68 

Flsagoa to Tres liarias 106 

Iquiqne to Virginia 194 

Ffttillos to Salitreras del Sur 98 

MeJIUones to Cerro Gordo 29 

Antofl^gasta to Ascotan 297 

Tal tal to Befresoo 82 

Ghanaral to Las Animas 60 

Caldera to Copiap6 242 

Garrizal Bi^o to Cerro Blanco 81 

Goqoimbo to La Serena 16 

Ovalleto Panulcillo 128 

Serena to Bivadavia 78 

Tongoy to Tamaya 66 

Laraquete to Maqaegna 40 

Total 1,658 

The Government lines projected, toward the 
cost of which Congress voted in 1888 the sum 
of £3,517,000, or its equivalent, were : 

KIIometfM. 

Victoria to Valdivia 403 

Coiha6 to Mulchen 48 

Goncepcion to Ga&ete 160 

Toni6 to Caaquenes 200 

Talca to Consdtucion 86 

PalmiUa to Pichilema 45 

Peleqaen to Peumo 86 

Santiagoto Melipilla 69 

Santiago to Penon 27 

Calera to Cabildo 76 

^ VlloB to Salamanca 128 

Ovalle to San Marcos 60 

Gnasoo to Vallenar 48 

Total 1^ 

Other Means of Intenal Transportttloo. — In the 

cities of Santiago and Valparaiso there are 
comfortable tramway lines ; in the former a 
distance of 60 kilometres, in the latter of 10. 
There are tramways, moreover, at Ooncepcion, 
Gopiap6, Chilian, Limache, Rengo, Quillota, 
San Felipe, Santa Rosa, Serena, and Talca. 
There are besides in the country about 800 



wagon-roads measuring 66,000 kilometi 
length, and 2,000 ordinary roads of a 
length of 40,000 kilometres. Seventy- 
water-courses are navigable a distance ol 
4,800 kilometres. 

Telegraflis. — ^The Government owns i 
all the telegraph lines in operation, there 
150 offices in 1886, increased to 170 in 
The length of line was 10,300 kilometrcj 
of wire 12,148, the entire cost of whicl 
only been $844,325. There were sent 41 
private telegrams in 1886, bringing $12 
and 112,819 Government messages ch 
$80,476. Private lines exist between Sai 
and Valparaiso, Arica and Tacna, Santa 
de Los Andes and the Argentine Republii 
a cable runs along the coast. Concession! 
been granted to build additional private 
between Arica and Tacna, Serena anc 
quimbo, Santiago and the Condes minei 
Concepcion and Talcalguano. Telephone 
are in operation at Santiago, Valparaiso 
in other cities. 

€ — ■ c r < e « — ^The foreign-trade movem< 
Chili has been as follows: 



ITEMS. 



Import 

Increase 

EdDDort. 
Products of the mines. 
Agricuttnral products . 
Manufactnxies — 
Sundry merchandise . . 

CK>Id coin 

Be-erport 



Total.. 
Increase. 



1886. 



$47^01,850 



40,864,840 

9,710,747 

66.531 

107,891 

644,416 

446,784 

$51,240,149 



II 



•48,* 
1^ 

49.4 
9,« 



8 

8 



$59,f 



Chili produced in 1887 29,150 tons o 
copper, compared with 35,000 in 1886 
export during the first nine months of 
was 23,675 tons fine, against 22,990 dnrii 
corresponding period of the previous yea 

The Chilian exportation of nitrate of 
has been as follows : 



DESTINATION. 



To Northern Europe 

To the Mediterranean 

To the United States on the 

Atlantic 

To the United States on the 

Pacific 



Total 



1885. 



Qolatiila. 
8,554,687 
41,93U 

827,296 

77,712 



9,601,625 



1886. 



QnfaiUli. 
7,950.452 
163,092 



18, 



1,436,169 1, 
255,605 



9,805,288 15 



The American trade with Chili exhibits 
figures : 



FISCAL YEAR. 


luipofti nroin 
Chill into Um 
Unitwl SUtai. 


DooMatie 
from thfl 

StiltMtO 


1883 


$485,584 
637,986 
604,625 
1,182,845 
2,8C«,28;) 
2,894,520 


$2,887.1 
8,236, 
2,192. 
1,978, 
2,062, 
2,428, 


1884 


1886 


1886 


18S7 


18S8 



General Prodicdmi.~-The ''Sinopsis Ee 
tica," Santiago, 1887, sums up the prodi 



CHILI. CHINA. 15S 

activity of the republic in the following words : libraries, Chili spent in a single year on edn- 

^'Agricnltare, in its main braDches, produces cation $4,957,437. 

omually, on the average, 7,000,000 hectolitres BTewspapenu — The number of periodical pub- 

of wheat, 3,000,000 hectolitres of barley and lications throughout the country in 1888 was 

other cereals, and a proportionate amount of 130 ; 30 in Santiago, 15 in Valparaiso, 5 in 

T^tabies and fruit peculiar to the temperate Iquique, 4 each in Concepcion, Copiap6, Cu- 

sooe. In 1886 the country exported over ric6, Sereua, and Talca, 8 each in Ancad, An- 

1,800,000 hectolitres of wheat in the grain and geles, Cauquenes, Chilian, San Cdrlos, San 

in tlie form of flour, and 266,300 litres of Felipe, Vallenar, and Freirina, and 2 each in 

wines. Cattle production amounts to 500,000 Ligua, Melipilla, Osorno, Pisagua, Quillota, 

bead per annum, and that of sheep and goats to Quirihue, Rancagua, and San Fernando— one 

2,000,000 on an average. The mineral branch in nearly every chief town of a department, 

turns oat some 25,000 to 40,000 tons of copper, CHINA, an empire in eastern Asia. The 

180,000 kilogrammes of silver, 10,000,000 tons TsaitUen or Emperor, Hwangti, born in 1871, 

of coal, over 15,500,000 quintals of nitrate of succeeded to the throne by proclamation, Jan. 

Boda, large amounts of inaoganese, and for the 22, 1876, on the death of the Emperor T^ung- 

working of metals, etc., there are in operation chi. He is the ninth Emperor of China of the 

foondri^ and machinery of the first class. Tartar dynasty of TsMng. During his infancy 

Manufacturing furnishes an ample supply of the affairs of the Government were directed by 

ordinary commodities. There are a great the Empress Dowager, widow of the Emperor 

many flour-mills and other factories. A large Hienfung, in concert with Prince Ch^un, fa- 

ngar-refinery is in operation at Villa del Mar, ther of the present Emperor. On becoming 

near Valparaiso, while at Santiago there is of age, Feb. V, 1887, the young Emperor as- 

a wool- weaving establishment producing fine sumed the government of his dominions though 

doths, etc., and smaller ones are to be met with the Empress Regent still exercised the royal 

in ^e interior, as well as other industries, prerogative to a certain extent till July, 1888, 

Eielusive privileges are granted to newly in- when she retired from active state duties. The 

vented industries foreign to the country, and a administration of the Government is under the 

good many such are in course of exploitation.'^ direction of the Neiko or ministers of state, 

lerAaBt HaifMt — ^There were afloat under four in number, two Tartars and two Chinese, 

the Chilian flag on March 15, 1887. 37 steam- with two assistants from the Han-lin or Great 

en with a joint tonnage of 18,769 ; 7 ships College. Seven boards assist the ministers in 

with 7,866 tons; 91 barks with 45,989 tons; 5 the admini.<tration of the empire. In addition, 

bri^ with 1,514 tons; 8 schooner-brigs with there is a board of public censors, independent 

2,295 tons; 12 schooners with 1,225 tons; and of the Government, consisting of from 40 to 

19 sloops with 1,058; together, 179 vessels 50 members, under two presidents, one of 

with 78,716 tons. Two new steamers and 16 Tartar and the other of Chinese birtli. Any 

aailing-vessels were registered during a twelve- member of this board is privileged to present 

month, while 2 steamers and 10 sailing-vessels remonstrances to the Emperor, and one censor 

were either sold or wrecked. The maritime mast be present at the meetings of any of the 

movement in 1886 was, vessels entered, 9,568, Government boards. 

with a joint tonnage of 8,081,229, and 9,654 Area and Popilalloii. — ^The total area of China 

Bailed, measuring jointly 8,868,887 tons, bring- and its dependencies is 4,179.559 square miles, 

m^ 47,167 passengers and taking away 41,032, with a population of 404,180,000, not including 

BO Uiat 6,135 remained in port. Corea. In the latter part of 1886 there were 

Eiiatii* — ^The Chilian university at Santi- 7,695 foreigners resident in the open ports, of 

ago is called the *^ Instituto Nacional." In 1886 whom 3,438 were British, 777 Japanese, 741 

422 stodents attended the lectures on law and Americans, 629 Germans, 471 Frenchmen, and 

political science ; 290 on medical science ; 122 319 Spaniards. More than half of the foreign- 

00 pharmacy ; 80 on physics and mathematics ; ers reside in Shanghai. 

and 104 caltivated the fine arts — i.e., drawing. Finances. — As the receipts of the Government 

painting, sculpture, and architecture ; total from internal sources are not made public, the 

Dumber of students, 968. Four hundred and amount of revenue can only be estimated. The 

five diplomas were granted. The lyceums in the ordinary revenue was estimated in 1886 at 

provinces, of which there are twenty-two, were 66,400,000 haikwan taels, or about $80,344,000, 

attended by 3,892 pupils in the same year, so derived from the following sources: Land-tax, 

that altogether 4,860 youths were receiving a payable in money, 20,000,000 taels; rice tribute, 

Id^er degree of education, and for 1888 Con- 2,800,000 taels; salt- taxes, 9.600,000 taels; 

gress set aside a subsidy of $829,694 for the maritime customs, 15,000,000 taels ; native 

Mme purpose. The free schools numbered 862, customs, maritime and inland, and inland levy 

with 78,810 pnpils, the average attendance be- on foreign opium, 6,000,000 taels; transit levy 

mg 47,780 ; there are besides normal schools ; on miscellaneous goods and opium, foreign and 

ai^ for all public schools Congress voted a native, 11,000,000 taels; licenses, 2,000,000 

anbady of $1,406,000 for 1888; adding thereto taels. The receipts from forpign customs 

salaries of professors, teachers, pensions, and amounted in 1886 to 15,144,678 taels. The 

money spent on new school - buildings and customs duties fall more upon exports than im> 



154 CHINA. 

ports. The main expenditure is for the main- settling the thinly peopled expanse of Man- 

tenance of the army, which is estimated to cburia and Mongolia, and apportions lands 

cost 60,000,000 taels per annum. The total among the soldiers. This policy is followed 

external debt was estimated at $25,000,000 in not only for the pnrpose of raising a more 

1887. A preliminary agreement was made etfectnal bulwark against Russian encroach- 

with an American syndicate, contracting for ments, but also to relieve the congested parts 

the minting of money, and granting conces- of Oliina, and create a field for colonization 

sions for banking, negotiating loans, building where the Chinese emigrants will escape the 

and operating railroads, and opening and work- hostile edicts and oppressive regulations that 

ing mines. Revelations regarding the charao- are driving them back from foreign shores, 

ter of the intermediary, a Polish adventurer, The Bannermen, or Manchu soldiery, number 

and the opposition of British and German 90,000 or 100,000 at Pekin, where they 

rivals of the eoncessionaireSy led the Tsung- form an imperial guard to protect the dynasty 

11- Y amen to reject the arrangement. The against external or internal foes, while 20,000 

Chinese Government subsequently obtained more are distributed among the chief cities of 

from an English manufacturer the machinery China. They are not pure Tartars, because 

and dies for coining new copper cash, which there are not more than 1,000,000 people of 

will be composed of less brittle metal than unmixed Manchu blood among the 28,000,000 

those now in circulation, and also silver taels now inhabiting Manchuria, where a reserve 

or dollars, and 50, 20, and 10 cent pieces. army of 188,000 Bannermen is kept up. 

The Amy* — The army consists in time of Tbe Na? j. — The iron-clad navy in 1887 con- 
peace of about 250,000 men, and this number sisted of two powerful armored ships, built in 
can be increased to about 850,000 in time of Germany, of 7,335 tons displacement, 6,000 
war. Most of the troops are armed with either horse-power, and a speed of 14^^ knots. Each 
Mauser or Remington rifles, and the Govern- is protected by 14-inch armor, and carries four 
ment possesses a good supply of Krupp 8-oenti- 12-inch £rupp breech-loading guns in two bar- 
metre field-cannon. Large quantities of foreign- bette towers, en echelon^ protected by 12-inch 
made arms have been purchased, and the armor; one armored cruiser, built in Germany, 
arsenals of China, under foreign supervision, of 2,300 tons displacement, carrying two 8-inch 
are beginning to turn out both arms and am- Krupp guns, en barbette^ protected by lO-ioch 
munition. Besides the Chinese and Manchu armor, and one 6-inch Krupp ; two nnarmored 
militias, each province possesses a regular army steel cruisers, of 2,200 tons displacement, carry- 
of enlisted troops under the command of its ing two 8-inch Armstrong guns, besides 40- 
viceroy. The army of Pechili, which served pounders and machine-guns; two nnarmored 
as a model for the rest, has been instructed by steel cruisers, of 1,400 tons displacement, each 
European ofiScers, and is well armed and uni- carrying two 25-ton Armstrong guns and four 
formed. Fears of Russian aggression in the 40-pounders ; twelve gunboats, each mounting 
west and on the side of Corea have led to the a single heavy gun ; two strongly armed cor- 
reorganization of the army of Manchuria, vettes, built at Stettin ; and two fast armored 
There are 30,000 troops constantly under arms, cruisers, built in 1887 by Sir William Arm- 
including 15,000 from the Pechili army, which strong. The squadrons of Foochow, Shanghai, 
form a nucleus. The total military strength of and Canton include between forty and fifty 
the three districts into which Manchuria is unarmored cruisers, corvettes, sloops, and gun- 
divided is from 250,000 to 300,000 men. There boats. One cruiser of 2,150 tons displacement 
are breech -load ing rifles provided for about and 2,400 horse-power has been built in China, 
one third of them, while the others are armed and others are in course of construction, 
in part with muskets. The cavalry carry Win- There are also several swift torpedo-boats. 
Chester or Remington repeating-rifles. The ftaatfce. — The total value of imports 
Russian Ussuri frontier is fortified, and the amounted in 1886 to 87,479,323 haikwan 
towns of Kirin and Ningati are girdled with taels, or $105,849,980, and the total exports 
forts, some of which are strengthened by steel during the same year to 77,206,568 haikwan 
plates. There is a line of telegraph from Pekin taels, equal to $93,419,947. The chief im- 
to Aigun on the Amoor river. The adrainis- ports and exports, and their values for 1886, 
tration of the Hi territory was reorganized in are as follow : 

IMPORTS. Haikwan task. 

Coal 1,798,»5« 

Oil 2,21^097 

Seaweed, Bhell-flsb, 

etc 2,198,088 



June, 1888. The soldiers receive good pay and imports. Haikwan taei*. 

food unless they are defrauded by their offi- Opium..... 2i*J^S?i 

cers. The garrison at Umritsi, which had not fS^lof^^.;'.:', '?^;?$J 

been paid for six months, formed a plot in Wooien goods ... . 6,63o',948 

June to murder Liu Tsin Tan, their commander- ^®^^ &.8i&,iu2 

in- chief and the governor of the new dominion. exports. Hagran t^ii. 

They laid a mine of powder under his residence, gnJ; \'.'.\\\\'.'.\',\\ 28,'834,'848 

but the plot was divulged just before the time sujrar.! .'*.'.. '.*.*.'." 1,688,403 

for its execution, and the chief conspirators, Straw braid 2,089,185 

numbering thirty men and officers, were cruelly During 1886 the principal countries partici- 

put to death. The Central Government seeks pated in the trade with China as follows, the 

to make the military organization a means of values being given in haikwan taels : 



EXPORTS. Halkwaa tadb 

Hides 996.24T 

Paper, tinfoil, etc.. . 678,561 
Clothing 948v68S 



CHINA. 



165 



OOCniTRIES. 



Gmt Britain 

Hoor-Koog 

bte 

Uiited States 

CoaiiB«nt of Europe (with- 
out Boista) 

Japan 

Saiaa (Id Europe and 
in) 



Importa 


to— 


22,084,753 

84.889,671 

16.980,085 

4,647.888 

2,749,088 
5,691,489 

202,918 


19,745,694 

22,552,676 

631,601 

9,685,691 

11.928,404 
1,222,086 

7,089,882 



Total tiad*. 

41,780.447 
57,442,847 
17,51 1,6;}6 
14,888,024 

14,677,487 
6^18,525 

7,242,250 



There were exported in 1886, 295,639,300 
pounds of tea, of which 126,604,950 ponnds 
vent to Great Britain, 768,856 pouDds to 
Riuaia, 40,591,750 pounds to the United States, 
20,733,000 pounds to Hong-Kong, and 17,120,- 
666 poanda to Anstralia. 

The reports of the Imperial Maritime Cus- 
toiDs for 1887 show an increase of 6,000 piculs 
in the imports of opium, the total being 73,877 
picols (1 picn1=133i ponnds). This does not 
denote an increased consumption of Indian 
i^inm, bat is probably due to placing the 
jonk-trade between the Continent and the 
ports of Hong-Kong and Macao, from which 
smuggling was formerly encouraged, under the 
control of the Chinese customs authorities by 
ID arrangement with the British and Portu- 
gaese governments. In 1887 the system of 
paying a &ze<l duty to the customs authorities 
io lieu of likin and of admitting opium in bond 
first went into operation. The sum collected 
83 prepaid likin duties by the customs depart- 
ment was for the year 4,645,843 taels. In 
spite of the opium convention, the use of In- 
dian opium is steadily growing less. Only the 
wealthy or old people, unaccustomed to the 
flavor of the native-grown drug, will pay the 
higher price of Patna opium. The difference 
of quality is disappearing with the introduc- 
tion' of improved methods of cultivation, and 
already opium is grown in Honan that is 
ahnost as good as that of Patna, and costs $40 
less per picul. Practically all the prepared 
opinm contains a considerable admixture of the 
Chinese product 

The Chinese have taken largely to import- 
ing cotton-yarn instead of the finished goods. 
The yam-trade has increased from 108,360 
picols in 1878 to 523,114 piculs in 1887, the 
value being 12,547,653 taels, or more than one 
third of the entire value of the cotton goods 
imported. The yarn of Bombay is preferred 
to that of Maochefiter. The imports of iron 
and steel have fallen off, and the import of 
kerosene-oil shows a remarkable decrease— 
from 23,038,101 gallons in 1886 to 12,015,135 
gallons in 1887, which is probably due to the 
<&eouragement ofj its use by the authorities 
because of the many fires it has caused. The 
export of silk in 1887 was 56,000 piculs, or 
aboat the same quantity as in the preceding 
year, with an increase of five per cent, in 
prices. The exports of silk-cocoons and man- 
ufactured silks were greater than in 1886. 
The exports of straw braid, which, is the 
staple of the trade of Tientsin and Chefoo, 



have increased from 25,930 piculs in 1877 to 
150,952 piculs, valued at about $4,500,000 
in 1887. The tea-trade has suffered from 
the competition of the Indian product, which 
is sold for a third less in the London mar- 
ket. The Chinese Government in 1887 asked 
the opinion of the Foocbow Chamber of 
Commerce as to the cause of the decadence 
of the tea-trade. The report represents that 
the tea-growers have grown negligent in 
their methods of cultivation, no longer ditch- 
ing or manuring or pruning or planting new 
shrubs, and that they strip the leaves four 
or five times a year, instead of three times, as 
formerly. The leaves are full of dust and 
stalks, and are too dry to admit of sufficient 
firing. The sophistication and adulteration 
practiced by the tea-guilds lowers the quality 
of the product still further. The dust and 
stalks have caused the markets of the Conti- 
nent of Europe to slip away, and now Ans- 
tralia and Canada prefer the more carefuUy 
cultivated teas of Ceylon. The decline of the 
tea- trade in 1886, which caused the alarm of 
the Government, became more marked in 1887, 
the quantity diminishing 6 per cent., while 
there was a fall in value of 12 per cent. 

Navlgatioi.— During 1886, 28,244 vessels, of 
21,755,460 tons, were entered and cleared at 
Chinese ports, of which 23,262 were steamers, 
of 20,619,615 tons. Of the total number, 
16,193, of 14,006,720 tons, were British; 7,862, 
of 5,374,821 tons, Chinese; 2,702, of 1,499,296 
tons, German ; 413, of 148,799 tons, American; 
380, of 270,002 tons, Japanese ; and 123, of 
158,400 tons, French. 

The tonnage of 1887 was 22,199,661, the 
largest ever known. Of this, 14,171,810 tons, 
or about two thirds, were British ; 5,670,123 
tons, or one fourth, Chinese; 1,480,083 tons, 
or one sixteenth, German ; 806,169 tons were 
Japanese; 130,890 tons were French; and 
60,539 tons were American. 

RaltaTMids and Tdcgrapli& — A small railway 
from Tongsan, at the Kai-ping mines, to 
Yung-chong, in the province of Chihli, was 
originally built for the conveyance of coal. It 
has obtained a considerable passenger-traffic 
also, declared a 6-per-cent. dividend on its 
paid-up capital for 1887, and in 1888 was ex- 
tended to Tientsin. Another railroad extend- 
ing from Kai-ping to Petang is in course of 
construction. In 1884 there were 3,089 miles 
of telegraph lines and 5,482 miles of wire in 
operation. 

NavtgalioB of the Upper Tangtse.— The English 
inserted in the treaty relative to the open ports 
a clause opening Chung-King also to foreign 
trade as soon as steamers could be made to as- 
cend so far. The last open port on the Yangtse 
Kiang at present is Ichang, 1,000 miles from the 
sea. Chung- King, the commercial emporium 
of the wealthy province of Szechuen. which has 
a population of 70,000,000, is 500 miles higher, 
wnile between tliem is a series of rapids, where 
the river passes through a narrow, rocky chasm. 



156 CHINA. 

Junks are dragged by men up* stream along the goods was restricted to the China Merchants' 

bank, and descend by shooting the rapids. An Steam Navigation Company, a corporation 

Englishman named Archibald Little formed a composed entirely of mandarins and other 

company and built a steamer of special design. Chinese. The British merchants of Shanghai 

When he was ready to make the experimental raised an outcry against this arrangement, and 

trip, he applied for permission through the blamed their Governmeot for not interfering 

British minister. The Imperial Government to obtain for them a share in the privilege, 

advised with the chief provincial officials, who They charged the German minister, Ilerr von 

raised objections, both real and fanciful, and Brandt, with bringing about the monopoly for 

pleaded at least for delay, which was grant- the purpose of iiyuring them, and declared that 

ed. Aside from the danger of collision with the warehouses having the right of storing goods 

junks when the steamer is working its way up in bond would gain all other business, and that 

the swift current, there was a probability that the rows of warehouses and miles of wharves 

the boating population of Chung-King would that they had constructed would be deserted, 

attack the steamer and crew in order to dis- Herr von Brandt explained that the Chinese 

courage the competition of a line of steamboats. Government wished to test the system before 

Trade RegalatlMS.— The English Government establishing it permanently, and therefore re- 
in the late opium convention obtained tlie con- stricted it to the wharves of the native com- 
sent of the Government of Fekin to a provis- pany, and would not listen to a proposition 
ion admitting opium free to all parts of the to admit all warehouses that offered sufficient 
empire without its being subjected to transit guarantees. 

dues on the payment of 80 taels a chest at the Tke CmidillM of ChlMse Aknnd* — In August, 
port of entry in addition to the customs duty, 1886, three high officials were sent abroad as 
This drug is now the only commodity that cir- an imperial commission to inquire into the 
culates throughout China free from the lihin treatment and condition of Chinese emigrants 
taxes that are levied by the local authorities on in foreign countries. They first visited Manila, 
goods passing by road, river, or canal through in the Philippine Islands, where the Chinese 
their several jurisdictions. The UHn was orig- complained bitterly of the wrongs they received 
in ally a war tax imposed by tlie provinces to at the hands of the Spaniards, and begged for 
raise means for the purpose of suppressing the the appointment of consular agents to protect 
Taiping rebellion. The stations are so near them. Although they are plundered with im- 
together that the price of goods carried far into punity by lawless individuals and subjected to 
the interior is many times enhanced, and trans- extortionate taxes by the authorities, yet their 
portation is delayed to a corresponding extent, community of 50,000 souls is thriving. At 
Native traders, who compound the taxes with Singapore the Chinese number 150,000, and 
coiTupt officials, have an advantage over for- are the richest of all the inhabitants, owning 
eigners. A clause in the opium convention four fifths of the land and much commercial 
provides for the commutation of the likin tax capital. The British Government has recently 
by the payment to the imperial revenue officers consented to the appointment of a Chinese 
of a tax equal to half of tne duty. This secures consul, but he has no jurisdiction over the 
a transit pass that carries goods through all laborers passing through the port in great num- 
the likin barriers to the place of destination, bers. These are looked after by a British regis- 
The British merchants, on securing this con- trar-general, who does not prevent the perpe- 
cession, were confident of being able to com- tration of gross frauds by the labor companies, 
pete successfully with the French in the prov- In Malacca and Penang they found the Chinese 
mcesof Yunnan, Quangsi, and Quangtung. Ac- prosperous in business. Thei*e are 100,000 
cording to the report of the British consul at Chinamen in Perak and Selangore, mostly en- 
Fakhoi, however, it has proved illusive as a gaged in mining tin, several of whom are 
means of stimulating trade, because, when the millionaires. The 80,000 Chinese residents in 
goods reach the declared market they are sub- Rangoon are many of them merchants dealing 
jected there to a tax approximating the sum of in rice and in precious stones. In Sumatra 
the likin taxes they would otherwise have to there are large numbers of Chinese laborers 
pay. The Provincial Government at Canton employed on the tobacco plantations. Those 
argues that there are no treaty restrictions who are saving do well, but the majority are 
against taxing Chinese and property in their addicted to gambling, and in this they are en- 
possession. The principle here involved was couraged by the overseers, who keep those 
a subject of discussion in connection with the who fall in debt at work beyond the legal 
trade of the treaty ports, until it was settled term, because they are ignorant of their right 
by the Chefoo Convention that the local au- to return home at the end of three years. The 
tborities have a right to impose likin in the Dutch authorities promised to have this righted, 
open ports outside tiie limits of the foreign In Batavia the Chinese are heavily taxed, and 
settlements. gambling is common. In other Dutch colonies. 

The Chinese Government has decided to in- containing more than 200,000 Chinese immi- 

troduce the system of bonded warehouses. A grants, they are treated " most outrageously " 

beginning was made in Shanghai on Jan. 1, by the aathorlties. In Australia, the Chinese, 

1888. The privilege of warehousing bonded who, on landing, are subjected to a tax of from 



CHINA. 157 

i^lO to £30, prajed that measures for their province of Honan, where it enters the great 
protection might be taken. The commissioners pastern plain,^ and cut a new bed through the 
reported that there were several millions of northern part of Shantung into the Gulf of 
ChinaDaendoingbusineasasmerchantsorwork- Pechili. In 1887 this process was reversed. 
ing as laborers in foreign countries. In some After an unusually rainy September the stream 
ports emigration is increasing, and the Chinese broke through the southern embankment at 
merchants are thriving. Their prosperity has Cheng-chow, forty miles above Kaifeng-fu, on 
excited the jealousy of the peoples among which the 28th of that month. Where the first breach 
tfaey dwell, and caused hostile measures to be occurred 5,000 men, who were strengthening 
adopted by foreign governments. The Dutch the levee, were drowned, and at another spot 
authorities have been endeavoring to expel nearly 4,000 laborers were swept away. The 
them from their colonies, and collisions between bed of the river was several feet above the sur- 
ihe Cliinese and natives are of frequent occur- face of the land. When the gap attained a 
Fence. If steps are not taken to render the breadth of 1,200 yards, the river deserted its 
residence of the Chinese abroad more secure bed. The overflow confined itself at first to 
and peaceful, the commissioners fear that they the channel of the Lu-Chia river, but soon 
will all flock home. They view with dread flooded the Chungnou district, destroying 100 
the prospect of this sudden influx of population villages and inundating the lands of 800 more, 
in the overcrowded districts of the sea-coast. Several of the suburbs of the great commercial 
After placing their report in the hands of Chan city of Chusien-Chen were swept away, and 
Chib-tang, the Viceroy of Canton, they set out, the elevated situation of the main town alone 
in September, 1887, on a Journey to Borneo to saved it from destruction. The flood spread 
study the condition of their countrymen in over a low, thickly populated district, begin- 
British North Borneo, Sarawak, and the Dutch ning 70 miles south of Kaifeng-fu, submerging 
possessions. The viceroy, in forwarding their 1,500 villages, and when it reached the valley 
report to Pekin, accompanied it with a memo- of the Huai-Ho, the destruction of life and 
rial in which he recommended the appointment property was still greater. Many walled cities 
of consuls to look after the interests of Chinese were depopulated and virtually destroyed, 
subjects in foreign lands. He suggested that There were between one and two millions of 
consuls-general should be maintained in Manila, persons drowned, and some say as many as 
in some of the Dutch colonies, in Sydney, and seven millions. The most careful estimate 
in Singapore. So important did he consider makes the number of those who lost their lives 
the matter of appointing a consul-general to 1,600,000, and of those who were left home- 
Manila that he obtained the consent of the less and destitute 6,000,000. Millions of those 
Government of Madrid, but this was with- left without shelter or means of life, per- 
drawn when the colonial authorities objected, ished of famine and cold. The Emperor and 
The treaties of 1857, that give European gov- Empress contributed largely from their private 
emments the right to maintain consuls in Chi- fortunes to relieve the distress, and the Gov- 
na, do not accord reciprocal rights to the Chi- ernment did everything within its power, be- 
itese Government. The omission is simply due ginning by ordering 32,000,000 pounds of rice 
to the heedl^sness of the Chinese negotiators^ from Central China destined for Pekin, to be 
who had no thought when the instruments taken at once to the inundated district. The 
were drawn up that China would ever want guilds co-operated with the mandarins in dis- 
to send officials abroad. The number of Chi- tributing relief. The river, if left to itself, 
nese emi^auts who sailed from Hong-Kong would probably have formed a channel very 
daring 1887 was 82,897, being 18,000 more nearly along its ancient bed. The Government 
than in the previous year. About half of the ordered the breach to be closed as soon as the 
iucreaae was due to a larger emigration to the waters subsided, appropriating $2,500,000 for 
Straits Settlements, while 5,000 more emi- the purpose. When the work was begun in 
frrants than in 1886 were destined for the the spring the people of Honan destroyed ma- 
United States, and 3,500 more for the Aus- terial that was sent to mend the dikes, because 
tnhan colonies. they wished to have the river run in its new 
InidatiM in Hmib* — One of the periodical bed, and not return to their province. The 
floods that have caused the Hoang-Ho, or Yel- soldiers and workmen who were sent to stay 
k)w river to be known as " China's Sorrow," the progress of the flood or to repair the dam- 
oecurred in the autumn of 1887. This river, age were sometimes surprised by a fresh over- 
ri^ng in the mountains of Thibet, and descend- flow, and in one instance nearly 5,000 soldiers 
ing with great rapidity from the Mongolian were drowned together. The waters of the 
plateau, washing down great quantities of nver spread over a district 7,500 square miles 
the loose, fine, yellow earth called loess, has in extent in a series of lakes. The cities of 
changed its course in the flat coast region nine Chin-chow, Wei-shi, Tsung-mow, Yen-lin, 
times within the historical period. In 1852, Fu-kao, Shiva, Cheng-chow, Taikang, Taiping, 
baring f 3r Gve hundred years poured its great and Ying-chow were submerged, and all but 
Toloroe of water into the Yellow Sea south of the northern part of Chow-kia-kow. The 
the promontory of Shantung, it burst its north- waters found an outlet through the Huai-Ho 
ern bank near Kaifeng-fu, the capital of the into the Hongtsze Lake, flooding a wide dis- 



158 CITIES, AMERICAN. (Annibton.) 

triot in the proyince of Nganwhei, and a part 1872 the Woodstock Iron Company was organ- 
of the overflow reached &e sea, six montba ized, owning more than 40,000 acres. Messrs. 
after the first catastrophe, a long distance sonth Noble and Tjler were at its head, and the town 
of the ancient mouth of the Hoang-Ho, while is named for Mrs. Tyler, ** Annie's Town." 
the main volume entered the Great Canal near Prior to 1883 no land was sold. The city waa 
the HoDgtsze Lake, and flowed through it surveyed and laid out, drainage-system per- 
into the Yangtse Kiang. When all efforts that fected, streets macadamized, buildings, church- 
were made in the winter to stop the breach es, stores, and school-houses erected, and rail- 
proved useless, the Government set a force of road connections secured, entailing not one 
60,000 men at work to dig a deep canal for the dollar of debt upon the inhabitants, who num- 
purpose of tapping the river above Cheng- bered at that date 4,000. It is lighted by 
chow, and leading it into its regular channel electricity and gas, and has two daily papers, 
at a point below the gap. The barriers that and five miles of street-railway. It is 800 feet 
were interposed to confine the river to its bed above sea-level, and one of the highest points 
at Cheng-chow were all swept away by the accessible to railroads in the State. Pure water 
midsummer freshet caused by melting snows, is supplied by an artesian well, forced to a res- 
After the expenditure of over $10,000,000 ervoir one mile distant at an elevation of 236 
with no satisfactory result, the Emperor de- feet. A pressure of 100 pounds to the inch 
graded the two high officials who had charge renders fire-hydrants sufficient, without steam- 
of the work of restoration, and sent them to engines. Four hundred houses were completed 
Manchuria to work on the military roads, within the first six months of 1888. Anniston 
Therd were damaging floods in the province of owns 30,000 acres of coal-land, and 75,000 
Manchuria in the autumn of 1888. Moukden, acres of brown and red hematite iron-ore. Its 
the capital, was innundated, and all the crops capital is upward of $10,000,000 — more than 
in the neighboring district were destroyed, that of the whole State in 1880. It employs 
Extending over the country, the floods caused 6,000 workingmen, to whom $60,000 are paid, 
wide-spread misery, and at last reached the weekly, in wages. Four charcoal-furnaces are 
port of Newchang, where the foreign quarter in operation, with an annual capacity of 50.- 
was submerged. 000 tons of car-iron. Two of these were built 
Etrthfitke in Tnuuui.— A destructive earth- in 1873 and 1879, and have never known a cold 

2uake visited the province of Yunnan late in day except for repairs. Two coke-furnaces, to 
December, 1887, laying the capital and other have an annual capacity of 100,000 tons of pig- 
towns in rains. The shocks lasted four days, iron each, are being completed this year. The 
There were 5,000 persons killed by the falling largest pipe-works in the United States, with 
of houses in the capital district. At Lainon a daily output of 200 tons of finished pipe, are 
the destruction was almost as great. Farther in course of construction. The United States 
north, at Lo-chan, 10,000 persons lost their Rolling Stock Company has a plant of $1,000,- 
lives, and the aspect of the country was changed 000 in Anniston, having purchased the car 
by the sinking of tracts of land and the forma- and car-wheel works and car-axle forge of the 
tion of lakes in their place. town. The daily capacity is twenty-five cars. 
CmES, IMERICIN, RBCGBIT GROWTH OF. Anniston has the only steel-blomary in the 
JUiiston, a city of Calhoun County, Alabama, in South, and the largest cotton-mill in the State, 
the northeastern part of the State, on the producing 115,000 yards a week of sheetings 
main line of the East Tennessee, Virginia, and and shirtings. Goods have this year been ex- 
Georgia Railroad, at the crossing of the Georgia ported to Shanghai, China. There is a cotton- 
Pacific, 60 miles from Birmingham, and 100 compress with a daily capacity of 1,000 bales, 
from Atlanta, Ga. It has a population of 12,- There are two foundries, a rolling-mill, machine- 
000, which is twice what it had one year ago. shops, boiler and sheet-iron works, planing- 
It lies in the heart of the great iron region mills, and fire-brick works, a horse-shoe man- 
of the South. The ore is mined in open cut, ufacturing company, and factories of stoves, 
without tunneling or underground delving, and agricultural implements, and ice. There are 
the supply seems inexhaustible. A hill, or four railroads, two of which are operated and 
rather mountain-side, of iron within the corpo- owned by the citizens, viz. : The Anniston and 
rate limits of the town has been dug from for Atlantic, connecting with the Georgia Central 
npward of ten years, with scarcely perceptible at Sylacauga, and the Anniston and Cincin- 
results. The hills that surround the town are nati, connecting with the Cincinnati Great 
largely of iron-ore. The Coosa and Cahaba Southern at Atalla. The latter has been corn- 
coal-fields, affording the best of coking-coal, pleted this year, and cost $1,000,000. The 
are within 25 and 45 miles, and vast forests yearly tonnage of the three railroads, in full 
supply timber at convenient distMUce. Lime- operation, is 118,765 gross tons. Competitive 
stone abounds. There was a furnace here dur- freight rates are the right of Anniston by lo- 
ing the civil war to supply iron to the Confed- cation. New Orleans is 14 hours distant ; 
erate Government; but it was destroyed by Cincinnati, 17; Washington, 26. There are 
the national troops in 1865. The site, with three banks, one National, capital and surplus 
the main deposits of iron-ore, was purchased $300,000 ; one State, and one savings, capital 
by a private citizen eighteen years ago, and in of each, $100,000. There are churches of all 



CITIES, AMERIOAN. (BiBicmoHAM, Bowung Grbsn.) 159 

denomioatioiiB, and a new school-bnilding, An- are of iron, steel, and wood, Inmber being 
niston being a separate school-district. Two derived from virgin forests. In addition to 
paj-8cLoola, for boys and girls, stone stmct- the larger industries — iron-works, foundries, 
ares, are the gift to the town of Mr. Noble. machine and car shops, rolling and planing 
Mftogbaa, a city of Jefferson Oounty, Ala., mills, etc. — are bridge and bolt, iron -roofing, 
50 miles north of the center of the State, 100 tool, tack, famitore, stove, soap, carriage and 
miles from Montgomery, 349 miles from New wagon, and clothing factories, brick and fire- 
Orle^na, and 1,017 miles from New York. It brick works, breweries, steam- bottling works, 
was founded in 1871 by the Ely ton Land Com- and a cotton-compress. The total number of 
pan J, owning 4,150 acres, with capital of $200,- employes is 22,010; yearly wages and salaries, 
000. Its altitude above sea-level is 602 feet. $10,010,892. The annual volume of business 
The population in 1880 was 4,600; in 1885, is $56,000,000. Convict labor is employed in 
21,347; in 1886, 30,000; in October, 1887, the mines. The climate is healthful. There 
41,725 ; in October, 1888, it was estimated at are three summer-resorts and seventeen hotels. 
50,000. About 40 per cent, are colored. Sur- lUwUng Green, the county-seat of Wood 
ronndlDg villages, sustained by the city, make County, Ohio, in the great northwestern Ohio 
the population of the district between 65,000 natnrid-gas and oil field, 20 miles south of 
and 70,000. The taxable valuation of property Toledo, on the Toledo, Columbus, and South- 
in ISSl was $2,953,375.37; in 1887, $33,019,- em Railway. The population in 1885 was 
485 ; increase in the county during the same 2,000 ; at present it is 4,000. Gas was found 
period, over $26,000,000. The sales of the in 1885, and 21 wells have been drilled, aver- 
Land Company for the year 1885-^86 were aging in depth 1,100 feet, and varying in flow 
$2,250,000; for the first three weeks in An- from 1,000,000 to 5,000,000 cubic feet a day. 
gust, 1887, $1,000,000. The debt of the city The formation is: Drift, 10 feet; limestones, 
is $355,000. Iron is the prominent industry. 400 ; shales, 680 ; Trenton, 20. As a rule, gas 
Ore is supplied by Red mountain, six miles is found in the Trenton rock at a depth of 10 
distant, estimated to contain 500,000,000,000 feet, the volume being determined by the po- 
tons. The thickness of beds on an average is rosity. About 40 wells are scattered over 
22 feet, and the impurities are of lime, assist- Wood County, yielding, at a low estimate, 
ing fluxing. Limestone lies in the valley. 160,000,000 cubic feet daily. The field is di- 
0^ is also distant six miles, in the Warrior vided, Bowling Green occupying the center of 
field, the largest in the State. One million the larger area. Oil was discovered in 1886. 
tons of coke are required yearly by the dis- The county owns 104 wells, producing daily 
triet. The cost of manufacturing pig-iron is 10,400 barrels ; and 9 miles from the city, at 
|9 a ton. There are 21 furnaces, the first of Cygnet, is the tank-farm, of 50 tanks, holding 
which, within corporate limits, went into blast 85,000 barrels each, from which oil is pumped 
in 1880. The daily output is 2,078 tons. Six to refineries distant 45 miles. The capacity 
trunk railroads enter the city, which has a of the pipe-line is 8,000 barrels daily, and ex- 
Union passenger depot, and others are in tensions to Chicago and Toledo are proposed, 
coarse of construction. There are numerous The depth of the wells is from 1,175 to 2,000 
branch, belt, and short mineral roads. Com- feet, and from 85 to 50 feet in the Trenton 
p^itive rates lower the cost of transportation, sandstone. The pool is estimated to contain 
There are 66 miles of street-railway, in horse- 60 square miles, and 100,000 acres of land in 
car and dummy lines, electric-lights and gas- the county are under lease for gas and oil pur- 
works, 4 daily and 11 weekly newspapers, poses. The town is on a limestone ridge, and 
and 37 churches. There are 11 banks, pos- lime, burned by gas in four patent kilns, is sold 
Ka»ng aggregate capital, surplas, and undi- below competition by that made with coal and 
Tided profit of $2,750,000, with deposits wood fuel. Glass-sand abounds, and there are 
tmounting to $2,500,000. Education is under four glass-factories, employing 500 hands, 
the conts'ol of a board of commissioners. There The quality of the glass, it is claimed, is im- 
ire 34 public schools in 8 buildings, a college, proved by gas-burning. There are 2 planing- 
m academy, and numerous private schools, mills, and a rolling-mill is being constructed. 
Tbe drainage is not completed ; but the War- Incubators, also, are heated by gas. There 
ing system has been adopted, and from seven to are 5 newspapers (1 in the German language), 
«^t miles of sewers are constructed yearly. 2 banks (both private), with aggregate depos- 
Tbe water-supply is also insufficient; $500,000 its of $300,000; total capital, surplus, and de- 
have been appropriated for enlargement of posits, over $1,000,000. Four hundred resi- 
works, and it is proposed to tunnel Red deuces and several business blocks were con- 
iBoontain to the Cahaba river, eight miles dis- structed in 1887. Water-works are projected, 
ttnt. An abundant supply will result, with costing from $50,000 to $75,000. The drain- 
pressare almost sufficient to dispense with fire- age is good, and the streets are wide. Two 
engines. An appropriation of $300,000 for a railroad lines secure outlets to the Great Lakes 
Oovemment edifice has been recently made and trunk lines, and competing rates reduce 
by Congress. The manufactures, which are freight. Additional facilities will be added 
dipped throughout the United States and to by a branch road that has been surveyed 
Oanida and ll^xico, and exported to Europe, through the town. The county fair-ground 



160 CITIES, AMERICAN. (Calgabt, Canton, Chattanooga.) 

covers 57 acres. The enrronndiiig farms are of nals. The capital invested is $10,000,000, and 

rich, black soil, needing no fertilizing. the yearly prodncts amoant to $13,000,000. 

Calgary, an incorporated city of 2,500 inhab- Six thousand workingmen are employed, llie 
itants, in the province of Alberta, Canada. It machinery manafactured is shipped to Europe, 
is near the confluence of the Bow and Elbow North and South America, Australia, and else- 
rivers, within sight of the Rocky Mountains, where. The Buckeye Works — capital, $1,500,- 
and just outside of their eastern foot-hills. It 000 — employ 900 hands, and have a capacity of 
is nearly north of Fort Benton, Montana, dis- 15,000 harvesting-machines and 2,000 thrash- 
tant from that point about 200 miles, and has ers. Four mills consume daily 2,500 bushels 
an altitude of 3,388 feet above the sea. This of wheat. The county is, save one, the largest 
is the point where the Canadian Pacific Rail- producer of wheat in the State, averaging 
way enters the Rocky Mountains, and it is the yearly 1,286,410 bushels. Coal-fields onderlie 
center of a vast cattle and sheep grazing re- it. Forty large mines are worked, with a 
gion, of which Calgary is the supplying point daily output of 6,000 tons, some of which are 
and headquarters. The city is well built, the within a mile of the city. Two hundred others 
excellent stone of the neighborhood being are operated by farmers. Cheap fuel and free 
largely employed in its structures. Several sites for factories induce location. Clay for 
handsome churches and commodious school- pottery, sewer-pipes, and brick abounds, with 
houses have been erected, and the appearance building and limestone and black-band ore. 
of the town is far in advance of wliat would There are 5 railroads, with unlimited connec- 
be expected of its recent origin and rapid tions. Canton is lighted by gas, electricity, 
growth. A public water-system, good drain- and gasoline. There are 8 daily newspapers 
age, electric street-lighting, police and fire de- (one in German), 6 banks (of which two are 
partments, and other modern appurtenances of National), a street • railroad system, and a 
city organization, testify to its alertness. The dummy-line of two miles, water-works of the 
banks are especially noteworthy for their Holly system, owned by the city, so that no 
strength and business facilities. This is one tax is paid for water, and a drainage system of 
of the headquarters of the mounted police, aud storm- water sewerage. There are 17 churches, 
a center of Indian trading ; there are also Do- a central high-school costing $99,600, 7 ward 
minion and railway land-agencies here. A and 4 relief public^chool buildings, and 2 
railway is about to be built north and south parochial schools, 1 opera-house, 6 modem 
from Calgary, to connect it with the coal hotels, a public library, 2 talernacles, public 
region of Lethbridge, the ranching country halls, a paid fire dep^i^ment, with electrie- 
around Edmonton, and other districts now alarm system, telegraph facilities, and tele- 
reached by stages. The surrounding region is phone communication to a distance of 75 miles, 
rapidly undergoing development, by means of It has a free mail-delivery. The summer- re- 
irrigation, in grazing and farming industries, sorts are numerous. There is a new post-office 
while new mines are constantly opening in the building and an Odd Fellows Hall. A United 
mountains. All this is of advantage to Cal- States Signal Service station is located here, 
gary, which has the same situation relative to ChtlUoMga, Hamilton County, Tenn., at the 
the mountain border of Canada that Denver foot of Lookout mountain, on Tennessee river, 
has in relation to Colorado. six miles from the southern boundary of the 

Canton, Stark County, Ohio, 60 miles from State. Chattanooga was founded in 1836, and 
Cleveland. The population in 1870 was 8,660; first known as Ross's Landing, from the nnme 
in 1880, 12,258; io 1888, estimated at 30,000. of the Cherokee chief. It was incorporated in 
Manufactures are the prominent interest, and 1852. The population in 1860 was 2,545; i 
include: Mowers and reapers, thrashing-ma- 1870,6,091; in 1880, 12,879 ; in 1887, 36,903 
chines, farm implements, safes, hay-racks, hay- and in 1888 it is estimated at 50,000. Durin^ 
tedders, sulky and hand plows, reaper-knives the civil war it was an important strateg;; 
and sections, steel cutlery, saddlery, hardware, point, and a famous battle was fought near 
feed-cutters, horse-powers, mining and milling Thirteen thousand National soldiers are bax^J 
machinery, street-lamps, glass, iron bridges, in the cemetery. Chattanooga is on the 
springs, saws, iron roofing, hay-carriers, cast- natural highway through the mountains, 
ings, stoves, steam-boilers and engines, stone- was the focus of interstate wagon-road ^ 
ware, brick, flour, carriages, wooden articles, days gone by. It is 195 miles above M 
printing-presses, drilliDg-machines, tin and Shoals, and on the cdmpletion of engin 
woo<len pumps, doors, blinds and sash, feed- works at that point, will possess valuabL 
mills, flouring machinery, bells, lawn-rakes, cilities for river transportation. It is 
post -hole diggers, house furniture, carpets, thirty-four miles fartlier from the Gul 
glass oil-tanks, hay -forks, bee-hives, paper water than Cincinnati. The iron industr 
boxes, faucets, surgical chairs, toilet and laun- progressed for twelve years. Four fur 
dry soaps, brooms, woolen goods and yarns, are in blast within the city limits, and it i 
blank-books, baking-powder, mattresses, ex- financial distributing- pomt for a dozen mo- 
tension ladders, hardware, novelties, files, re- the district. The coal-mining plants, 
volving book and dry-goods cases, roasted which the supplies of fuel are drawn, nu 
coffees, watches, watch-cases, and railway sig- twenty-two, with a total output in 18& 







CITIES, AMERICAN. (Chktknne.) 161 

1^200,000 gross tons. It is the first poiDt in as the line of the British possessions. Another 
the Soath where the maoafacture of Bessemer road soon to he completed, the Chejenne and 
•teel was attempted. The daily capacity of the Burlington, a hranoh of the Burlington and 
Roane works is 250 tons of rails of this steel. Missouri system, will add another to the city^s 
Nine lines of railroad enter Chattanooga, facilities for communication. The assessed 
formed hj four trunk, and one independent valuation of real estate in 1886 was |2,208,- 
sjrtem. There is also a narrow-gauge line to 457 ; the total amount of real and personal 
the top of Lookout Mountain, costing $150,000; property was $2,675,000. It is understood that 
an incline to that point, costing $76,000; and the assessment- roll represents only ahout one 
another to Misdon Ridge, costing $25,000. A third of the actual value of the property. In 
belt road of 80 miles mns 128 passenger and 1887 there was an increase of ahout half a mill- 
500 freight cars daily. Truck-farming is a ion dollars, the amounts aggregating $3,258,- 
profitable industry. During the year 80,000,- 000. A large portion of the personal property 
000 feet of lumber, 1,000,000 hnshels of grain, in the city and county consists of live-stock, the 
200,000 tons of iron-ore, and from 5,000 to 10,- principal source of wealth ; in 1886 this inter- 
000 bales ol\cotton, with farm produce, are est in the county was assessed at a value of 
floated to the city from upper points. There $4,481,194. Cheyenne is, moreover, the sup- 
sre three daily and six weekly newspapers, ply-point for a great stock-raising territory, 
electric and gas light companies, water-works, many of the largest owners of ranches having 
five banks (three of which are National), with their homes in the city. The manufactures, 
total capital, surplus, etc., of $1,360,000, a though a secondary interest, are increasing, 
public school attendance of 6,000, in addition to There are two saddle and harness establish- 
aameroas private schools, and two universities, ments, a carriage and wagon factory, a plan- 
Ibe sewerage system has cost $150,000. There ing-mill and wood- work factory, two book- 
are twenty miles of street-rmlway, and an binderies, two breweries, and two cigar-facto- 
eleetric line is building. The city contains an ries. The total value of manufactures for 1886 
opera house and twelve hotels. Thetax-valua- was about $500,000. The Union Pacific Rail- 
tioQ in 1880 was $3,294,992; in 1885, $6,480,- way employs several hundred men in its 
d60: in 1888, $12,328,000. The sales of real machine and car-repairing shops. The Chey- 
estate daring the year 1886 were $3,028,125 ; enne and Burlington is also to have a shop 
in 1887, $18,264,505. Tlie city debt is $206,- there very soon. The tax-levy for 1887 was 
000. The manufacturing establishments in 1885 eight and three fourth mills, divided as fol- 
nnmbered 99. At present there are 152, 132 lows: general revenue, five and a half mills; 
of which employ steam-power. The capital streets and alleys, one and one quarter mill ; 
invested is $8,711,700; hands employed, bonds of 1875, one half mill; bonds of 1882, 
^432; yearly wages, $3,332,900; products, one mill; bonds of 1884, one half mill. The 
110,655,000. There are eight foundries and water-works, owned by the city, were con- 
maehine- shops, as many factories of agricult- stmcted at a cost of about $150,000. The 
oral implements, two cotton-compresses, two source of supply is 127 feet higher than the 
iteam-boiler shops, three rolling-mills, ten city, and the gravitation affords sufficient 
flailing and eight saw mills, two stove works, force for all domestic and manufacturing pnr- 
Vwo large tanneries, extensive pipe works, six poses. The water comes from Crow Creek, 
brsas and seven brick works, factories of the source of supply to Lakes Absaracca and 
i^nnga, carriages and wagons, scales, boxes, Mahpealntah, the city owning 160 acres of 
ticks, soap, candy, cane mills, wire nails, ci- land, controlling one mile of water on Crow 
I ?*^ furniture, fertilizers, galvanized and «r- Creek, 480 acres partly covered by Lake Mah- 
:^\\ ^^tairal iron, artificial stone, powder, dyna- pealutah, and 160 partly covered by Lake 
i^ '1 ^*^*ad many small industries. Chattanooga Absaracca. The system includes sixty fire- 
\j^l "^^^ttty-five churches, independent of those hydrants and steam-pumping machinery, on 
^i\ \ ^ ^^^^^ population. Many of these are the line of the main pipe, for extinguishment 
^* %J^ ^^'^^ buildings. The post-office and cus- of fires. It is estimated that with an increase 
*{^V^| r?^^^**^^ a fine edifice. Chattanooga is a of storage-basins the present system, would 
*tS^ '^ ^^^^^ ^ Signal Service station. supply a population of 50,000. The city has 
|^_P34i.i| ^•'■■^ a city, capital of Wyoming Territory the best modern system of sewerage, an alarm- 
j^^Mw-^l ^^^'^^•seat of Laramie County. Chey- system fire department ; telephone communica- 
Din§«'^| j^. ^^^ fif^ settled in 1867; its population, tion, gas and electric lighting, and a street-rail- 
..^'^^y the census returns of 1880, was way. By act of the Legislature of 1886, an 
1*^; but in 1887 it was estimated at 10,000. appropriation of $150,000 was made for a Ter- 
"J** at the base of the Rocky Monntains, ritorial Capitol to be completed in two years. 
^^'orty miles from the western line of Ne- There are five banks with capital aggregating 
^^ and about twelve miles north of Colo- more than $1,000,000, and average deposits of 
^ ana is on the line of the Union Pacific over $8,000,000. Three daily and three weekly 
^Jjaj, 516 miles west of Omaha, and at the newspapers are issued. The Union Pacific 
j/p^ ^^ ^® Denver. Pacific, Colorado Cen- Railway has bnilt here one of its finest depots, 
l^jtodCljeyenneand Northern railways. It at an expense of over $100,000, and that of 
^ proposed to extend the last road as far north the Cheyenne and Burlington was erected at a 

TOLXXTin.— 11 A 



.•<■' 



162 CITIES, AMERIOAK (Oounoil Blufpb, Dboatub.) 

cost of about $90,000. Other noteworthy focns, Ooancil Bloffs has long been eminent, 
buildings are 8 churches, 4 public schools with This is the eastern terminus of the Union 
property valued at $75,000 ; a convent school Pacific system, and a western terminas of 
that cost $50,000; a county hospital, $35,000; the Northwestern, Burlington, Milwaakee and 
an opera-hoQse, $40,000; and a club-bouse, St. Paul, Rock Island, Wabash, and Illinois 
$30,000. The Young Men's Ohristian Associa- Central systems, from Chicago, while other 
tion has a membership of about 300, and an railways lead north to Sioux City and St. 
income of more than $8,000. It has a fine Paul, and south to the cities along Missouri 
hall, a gymnasium, and a free reading-room, river. All this centers in one great station. 
The county library, containing nearly 2,000 These railway facilities make the city a flour- 
volumes, is open to the public. Three-quar- ishing business point, the wholesale and job- 
ters of a mile northwest of the city are the biug trade amounting in 1887 to $33,000,000, 
grounds of the Territorial Fair Association, of which one third was in agricultural im- 
containing 80 acres of land, and furnished plements alone — ^an item in which Council 
with suitable buildings and a flue race-track, ^lufls is exceeded only by Kansas City. Manu- - 
Fort Bussell three miles west, has recently facturing is not so forward, the combined ^ 
been enlarged at a cost of $150,000, and is a products amounting to $4, 000, 000' a year. Sev- '^ 
permanent military post, the largest in the de- eral railroads have extensive repair-shops here, ^- 
partment of the Platte. Twenty miles north- and one corn-cannery employs 400 men. Wag- -- 
west of the city is the Silver Crown Mining ons and carriages form ano^er leading object - 
District, the development of which was begun of manufacture. The public schools are well ^ 
in 1886. Several mines are now in operation managed and numerous, and the Roman Cath- -~ 
that will yield over fifty dollars to the ton. A olic Church supports two academies; but there ; * 
smelter having a capacity of thirty tons a day are no special institutions of higher learning. ^ 
has been erected there, and a concentrator. The healthfulness of the town is high, and -:= 
and about one hundred men are engaged in many persons doing business in Omaha prefer <_ 
the mines. Several of the mines are more to make their residence here. A few miles i 
than one hundred feet deep, and it is the opin- below the city a lake-like lagoon from the Mis- ^ 
ion of mineralogists who have looked into the sonri forms a summer pleasure-place, where :^ 
matter that richer gold and silver ore will be hotels have been built, and boating and fishing ^^^ 
reached at a greater depth. attract excursionists. 't-^ 

CrancU Btai^ the largest and oldest town in Decatv, Morgan County, Ala., 25 miles from 

western Iowa, with a population of 86,000. the northern boundary, on Tennessee river, at :^ 

Council Bluffs (a name given by the Indians), intersection of the East Tennessee, Virginia and 

began as an Indian trading-post, and then be- Georgia and the LouisviUe and Nashville rail- >^ 

came a settlement of the Mormons after they roads. It is on the water- shed between the .\: 

removed from Nauvoo, 111., in 1846. When the Gulf of Mexico and Ohio river, has an altitude r^ 

California gold discoveries sent emigration west- of 600 feet, and enjoys all advantages of the , 

ward this place became one of the main start- valley of the Tennessee. It is in the cereal __ 

ing-points for overland travel. It is at the foot belt, producing grains, blue grass, clover, etcj^ ^.__ 

of and upon the bluffs forming the eastern a cotton region, and tobacco-growing country^ 

margin of the bottom-lands bordering the Mis- and the mineral resources are also unlimited^ 

souri, and is connected with Omaha, Neb., including coal and iron in close proximity, ^^ 

immediately opposite, by a railway -bridge, and while timber of best quality abounds. Lime- , 

a wagon- bridge across which street-cars will stone, asphalt, building-stone, granite and mar- ^^ 

presently be run by electric motors. The busi- ble, manganese, glass-sand, and brick-day are V! 

ness and a large part of the best residence part available. The town was devastated during . 

of the town is upon the level expanse at the the civil war. On Jan. 11, 1887 — the date of ^^ 

foot of the bluffs ; but many fine streets run organization of the Land Improvement and 

into the beautiful ravines that indent the high- Fm'nace Company with 5,600 acres of town, '^ 

lands ; and upon their wooded crest is an ex- 50,000 acres of mineral lands, and $400,000 . 

tensive public park, the cemeteries, and the capital — ^it contained fewer than 1,500 inhab- 

reservoir of the water-system, supplied by itants. In one year, $900,000 had been ex- _ 

pumping (through settling- basins) from Mis- pended in improvements, including industries; _^ 

souri river. The city hall and court- bouse, and the population in July, 1888, was 7,500. - 

the Federal building, and the high-school, are It has a street-railway, an electric-light and ' 

stately edifices. Just outside of town is a State telephone company, 1 daily and 3 weekly news- ^^** 

institution for the instruction and care of deaf- papers, a water-works system costing $200,000, "^ 

mutes which has 375 pupils. The city is well and 2 banks (one National), with capital of '^' - 

paved, sewered, and policed. It is lighted with $100,000 each. It was surveyed by a land-^^^^^^ 

gas, but the incandescent system of electric scape engineer, and the sewerage is of the "^ 

Bghting is extensively used. There are some Waring system. Freight rates are competitive. ^-— 

exceedingly handsome churches and society Other railroad lines, in addition to the two ::=^ 

halls, and a public library of 7,500 volumes is trunk systems, are projected and construct- - ^ 

well patronized. There are three daily news- ing. Navigation of the river is dependent on ^ 

papers and several weeklies. As a railway completion of the works at Mussel Shoals.^ 



OrriES, AMERICAN. (Dubhaic, Eau Olaibb, Ely.) 163 

The schools are private. Indastries completed and Eaa Claire rivers. It is 821 miles northwest 

or began include a 70-ton charcoal iron-far- of Chicago, and 84 miles east of St. Paal. The 

nace, costing $100,000; a charcoal company^s population in 1880 was 10,118, according to the 

plant of $120,000; a bridge and construction. United States census; in 1885 it was 21,668, 

companj, $100,000 ; oalc extract works, $60,- according to the State census ; and it is now 

000; a borseshoe-nail factory, $100,000; boiler estimated at 25,000. The Chicago, St. Paul, 

and engine works, $100,000 ; a $1,000,000 plant Minneapolis and Omaha Kailroad, the Chicago, 

of the United States Rolling Stock Company; Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad, and the TVis- 

car-constniction and repair-shops, $300,000 ; consin Central Line, with branches extending 

a car-wheel foundry, $60,000 ; an ice factory, in various directions, including those of the 

$10,000; a ootton-com press, $75,000; a furni- pine, hard wood, and mineral regions of the 

tore^ sash, door, and blind factory, 6 brick- north. The chief water-power is supplied by 

yards, large lumber-yards and mills, and an the dam across Chippewa river, giving eighteen 

artificial stone company. The daily output feet head, while the dam on £au Claire river 

of 3 band saws is 60,000 feet of lumber, and supplies the linen and other mills. These riv- 

of 1 circular saw, 15,000, wliile 2,500,000 ers, spanned by ten bridges, are thickly lined 

shinies are handled yearly by the latter com- with manufacturing establishments, including 

pany. A steamboat is owned and operated in a dozen large saw -mills, a sash-and-door fac- 

tbe business. An opera-house and business tory, a linen-mill, a furniture factory, a refrig- 

blocks are building. Two thousand residences erator factory, two foundries, and a factory of 

asd cottages have been erected. The ^^ Tav- electrical machinery and appliances. The fol- 

em^ cost $140,000. lowing statement exhibits the principal statis- 

DvhaH, Wake County, North Carolina, 25 tics for 1888 : Assessed value of property, 

miles from Raleigh, on the North Carolina Rail- $5,404,487.89 ; bonded debt, $195,000 ; school 

road; population, nearly 8,000. It owes its census, 4,401; men employed in saw-mills, 

ux>speHt7 to a single world-famed industry, etc., 1,572; amount of lumber sawed, 182,000,- 

Prior to the civil war, tobacco was manufact- 000 feet ; lath sawed, 62,000,000 ; shingles 

nred in one small factory, which fell into the sawed, 82,000,000 ; paper made, 2,621,000 

hinds of the National army, pending negotia- pounds; value of lumber, lath, and shingles, 

tions for surrender by Gen. Johnston, in 1865. ^2,541,000; value of sash, doors, and bUnds 

Orders received for the product of this estab- made, $838,000 ; value of paper and pulp 

fisbment, after the disbandment of the armies, made, $140,000. Eau Claire is one of the 

gave an impetus of growth to the town, which largest lumber manufacturing cities in the 

DOW has business connections all over the world. United States. It manufactures annually 800,- 

The larg^t granulated smoking-tobacco factory 000,000 feet of lumber^ It has 25 miles of 

in the world, with a edacity of 10,000,000 water-mains with 820 hydrants, 2 electric- 

poonds jearly, is here. It has a larger pay- light companies with circuits 41 miles long, 

roil than any other manufacturing establish- an electric fire-alarm system, 4} miles of street- 

B^nt in the State. Cigarettes are the specialty railway, 8 public parks, a sewage system, 

,«ff mother company, and 254,183,333 were paved streets, an opera-house built at a cost of 

dupped during 1886. The increase for the $60,000, with a seating capacity of 1,200, 

TDOQth of July over the same month for the beautiful residences and churcnes, 2 daily news- 

▼esr previous was 20,895,140. There are more papers, a female academy, a free public li- 

ihaa a dozen factories of tobacco and snuff, brary, a fine race-track, and an agricultural 

The tobacco-boxes are made here. A cotton- exposition building. It has telephonic con- 

miD, of 8,568 spindles and 200 looms, produces nections with all the neighboring towns. A 

1000 yards of cloth a day, the bulk of which noted characteristic of this climate is its pure, 

ii made into tobacco-bags. There is also a dry atmosphere, which is favorable to those 

bol^bin and shuttle mill, with a capacity of afflicted with pulmonary troubles. The Chip- 

^,000 pieces a week, for cotton, woolen, silk, pewa is one of the largest rivers in the State, 

J3te, flax, and woolen mills. A tobacco-cure and its great valley, with its numerous streams, 

eompany makes three forms of medicaments, proffers an accessible supply of timber, con- 

aad a fertilizer company uses tobacco-dust as sisting of maple, oak, birch, elm, hemlock, and 

i hms. The sales of tobacco in a year from bass-wood. For the encouragement of new 

tangle warehouse amounted to 8,830,000 manufacturing enterprises, a bonus of $100 is 

pounds. The amount paid for stamps on to- offered for each operative who shall be regu- 

iaeeo, from the figures of the Internal-Revenue larly and steadily employed in any legitimate 

OfSee, in six years and nine months, was $37,- manufacturing enterprise. This policy, during 

S^212.83. The streets are paved with stone, this the first year of the experiment, has se- 

tWe are electric lights and water- works, eleven cured the establishment of four large enter- 

cborches, two newspapers, and a graded-school prises in Eau Claire. 

^oilding erected at a cost of $6,500, which By, a town in northern Minnesota, organized 

iceoQmiodates 500 pupils. There are also two in 1886 by the Ely Mining Company, popula- 

fanale seminaries. tion about 1,000. It contains the Chandler 

ta Cbipe, a city, county-seat of Eau Claire iron mine, which is in process of development 

Coonty, Wis., at the confluence of Chippewa to a width of 130 feet, length 1,000 feet, with 



164 CITIES, AMERICAN. (Fobt Watnb, Glbnwood Spbikos.) 

from ooe to eight feet of stripping. Over 300 Its growth, previous to getting railroad con- 
men are employed, and 1,000 tons of ore are nection with Denver, was very slow, but since 
shipped daily on 60 cars each of 20 tons ca- theantnmnofl887 the population has increased 
pacity. The ore, a hard hematite, assays 68 to 8,000. This is due to the advantageous 
per cent, metallic iron, and is low in phospho- situation of the town as the supplying point of 
rus. It has a saw-mill producing 80,000 feet the Grand River valley ; and to the presence r^ 
of lumber daily, principally used in the con- there of remarkable thermal springs, in the l 
struction of the Chandler and other mines, utilization of which a large capital is being in- ~ 
The first ore train entered this town Ang. 15, vested. The advantage of situation consists in 
1888, and through trains between this point its being at the convergence of three main 
and Duluth, Minn., were put on the Duluth valleys along which will naturally flow the ^ 
and Iron Range Railroad Aug. 21, 1888. products of mines and ranches, and currents of ^''^ 

Fort Wayne, the county- seat of Allen County, travel. Two railways, the Colorado Midland ^ 

Ind., on St. Mary^s river, in the northeastern and the Grand River branch of the Denver and '' 

part of the State. It originated in a fort built Rio Grande, now terminate at Glen wood, but 

in 1794 by Gen. Anthony Wayne. The in- both are to bd extended westerly The Bur- ' 

habitants in 1828 numbered 500; in 1840, lington and other routes have been surveyed ^ 

1,200; in 1860, 10,319; in 1880, 25,760; in through this pomt, which thus bids fair to be- ^ 

1888, estimated at 40,000. The first city come a railway center, and consequently a '^ 

charter was granted in 1839. On July 4, 1848, point of commercial supremacy. This part of -"- 

the Wabash and Erie Canal was opened. Nine the State abounds in coal, both anthracitic and - = 

railway lines pass through the city. Improved bituminous. The former is of excellent quality. '* 

farms and forests of hard- wood timber sur- and from the latter superior coke is made. -^^ 

round the city. Within thirty-five miles are About 15,000 acres of coal-lands were taken ^^ 

28 stave and bolt factories ; the annual out- up in this district previous to 1887, for which ^ 

put of each is from 500,000 to 18,000,000 the Government was pdd nearly $204,000. r? 

staves and headings. There are 4 banks. Many mines and coking ovens have already N^J 

5 daily newspapers, 10 miles of street-rail- been opened by corporations, and preparations :e 

way, a public and a Catholic library. Young are making for others. Much of this product -.^ 

Men's Christian Association reading-rooms, is directly tributary to Glenwood. Immense 1= 

and churches of all denominations. There are bodies of hematite and magnetic iron ore occur cr- 

fine Catholic church, school, and hospital in the mountains, at places easily accessible; '~: 

buildings. Their library cost $65,000, exclu- while lime, fire-clay, and other furnace ingre- '---r^ 

si ve of books, and contains 5,000 volumes. The dients abound. Hence it is expected that ^. 

First Presbyterian, recently erected, cost $90,- smelting-f urnaces and iron-mills will be erected ; ^ 

000. There are 12 public-school buildings, at Glenwood within a short time, to which ^ 

The system was established in 1858, and re- could be most cheaply brought (as it is all -- 

organized in 1878. The attendance is 8,500 down grade) the silver and lead ores mined in .^ 

pupils. There are several institutions for the high ranges eastward and southward, while >^i^ 

higher education, notably Methodist and branch railroads about to be constructed will ■— 

Lutheran. There are forty miles of water- add to the list of mines tributary to this new -— 

main, supplying water for domestic purposes town. There is little room for agricultare in 

and fire protection. Forty-two thousand dol- the immediate vicinity, but farther down Grand — 

lars were expended in improvements of sewer- river lies an extensive ranching and cattle- 

age during 1887, and $77,000 on streets and grazing district, which will sell and buy from 

side- walks. There are two opera-houses, a this market the moment that railway connec- 

Masonic Temple, and an academy of music. The tion is established. The thermal springs here..^,^ 

new Government building, a handsome struct- are of remarkable size and power. They gu ' 

ure, cost $200,000. The city is lighted by out in many places along Grand river, j 

electricity. The manufacturing industries in- below the picturesque callon at the mouth 

elude the shops of the Pennsylvania Railway which the town is built. The principal one 

Company, the White wheel- works, employing in the edge of the city, and has a basin six 

180 hands, with monthly wages of $4,000 ; a feet in diameter. The overfiow of this is co^ 

walnut-lumber firm employing 200 men and ducted into an oval pool, fioored and walled 

manufacturing 6,000,000 feet of walnut alone with concrete and masonry, which is a^ 

yearly; a company manufacturing gas- work hundred and sixty feet in length. Beside 

machinery and apparatus, a brass-foundry, two great pool elaborate bath-houses, par\ 

large breweries, wagon and pulley works, amusement-rooms, etc., have been buil^-» 

handle-factories, grain-elevator, woodworking which all modem appliances are employed, 

and mill machinery, iron- works, lumber yards in connection with which a large hote^ 

and mills, and coffee, fipice, baking-powder, sanitarium are in process of erection, 

and fiouring mills. buildings are steam-heated, lighted by ^1^^^^^^ 

Gleawttd Sprligs, an incorporated town in ity, and surrounded by ornamental gro^ ^^^ 

Garfield County, Col., at the western base The temperature of the waters at their ^ 

of the main range of the Rocky Mountains, 126° Fahr. ; and some springs arise inside 

where the Roaring Fork enters Grand river, caves which are filled with steam, 





0ITIE8, AMERIOAN. (Hastings, Hutohinbon, Jaoksonvillb.) 165 

natoral vapor-baths. The water is clear, and gambling resorts. The first newspaper was 

not unpleasant in taste or smell when hot and published in 1872, and 5,000 copies were printed 

fresb. Thej contain an nnnsnal quantity^ of and sent East as advertisements. At the same 

scdid ingredients, snch as salts of soda, mag- date a population of 600 incurred a debt of 

nesia, iron, and lime, with sulphur and carbonic $100,000 for public improvements. Four 

add, and are believed to possess remedial qual- bridges (one 1,680 feet long) and a court-house 

ities of a high order. The altitude of the were built. The growth was slow and substan- 

lo^lity is 5,200 feet, and the air and water of tial, and proportioned to the settlement of the 

that poritj to be expected among the mount- county, a rich agricultural region. There are 

aina. The town is well built, and contains two other lines of railroad, and two more are 

school-honses, churches, and business blocks approaching. Hutchinson has twelve salt com- 

that would do credit to a far older and more panics. A recent drill for natural gas resulted 

populous place. There are three newspapers, m the discovery, at a depth of 425 feet, of a 

two of which are dailies ; two banks, with a salt-deposit from 800 to 820 feet thick, and 10 

capital of $100,000 each ; and two large hotels, miles square. Salt is brought to the surface 

Water is supplied by a gravity system from a by saturation of water in weUs, which is 

mountain brook ; and the streets and most of pumped to large tanks and evaporated. The 

the larger business-houses and dwellings are tanks present a curious appearance, owing to 

lighted by electricity. crystallization of salt through the leaks. The 

"*""f — ^b^ county -seat of Adams County, firound beneath often resembles snow-drifts. 

in the southern central part of Nebraska, on The aggregate capacity of the works in opera- 

tbe Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad, tion is 5,700 barrels of salt a day. The freight 

180 mil^ west of Omaha. This city has grown on lumber for the year was $150,000 ; on coal, 

up during the past ten years with phenomenal $150,000; and on building-stone, $100,000. 

strength and vigor. It has a population of The business-houses are of brick and stone — 

1S,000, and, besides the main line of the Bur- 181 of these and 1,380 dwelling-houses were 

Hn^on system, has branches of the Union Pa- constructed during the year past. Hutchinson 

dfic (St. Joseph and Grand Island Railroad), is fast becoming a meat-packing center and 

the Missouri Pacific, and the Northwestern manufacturing point. The capacity of a meat- 

(Fr^ont, Elkhorn, and Missouri Valley Rail- packing establishment in operation is 2,000 

road). Other railroads are surveyed to reach hogs a day. A contract was signed at Chicago, 

this point. The surrounding country is fertile in September, 1888, for the erection of a large 

find well settled. Corn is the principal crop, lard-refinery and cotton- seed-oil factory and a 

bat the rearing of live-stock is an equally im- pork-packing house. The buildings and plants 

{wrtant industry. The city is solidly built, in will cost $500,000. A stock-yard and salt com- 

its business part, while its more scattered resi- pany has paid $98,000 for grounds, and it is 

dence portion possesses many handsome houses, contemplated that $500,000 will be invested. 

The principal streets are paved and sewered. The city is lighted by gas and electricity, has 

sod the whole city is lighted by gas and elec- water- works, street-car lines, a daily news- 

triettT. Twenty miles of horse-car tracks paper, telephone facilities, and comfortable 

We been laid. There are two daily newspa- hotels. The schools are excellent; the churches 

per?, a board of trade, several banks, a power- numerous and well supported. There is a 

fol loan-and-in vestment association, and con- handsome Masonic Temple. 

aderable wholesale business. In addition to JacksoBTine, Duval County, Florida, a com- 

tbe public schools, which occupy large brick mercial city and winter resort, on St. John's 

WoldingB, there is here the nucleus of a uni- river, 15 miles from the ocean, in the north- 

vfmtj in Hastings College, an institution un- eastern part of the State. The population is 

do the control of the Presbyterians, which is 25,000. During the winter season from 60,000 

"•til endowed and offers a full course of to 70,000 visitors register at twenty hotels, 

(Q^lfi^te instruction. This school admits in addition to others in boarding-houses. It 

€n^ ^«xe9 to equal privileges, and has about is lighted by gas and electricity, has street- 

^^oliundred students. All#the leading relig- railways, daily newspapers, telegraph, ocean 

^ denominations have churches, and tlie and domestic, and telephone facilities; 2 Na- 

icnng Men's Christian Association, the Ma- tional, 8 private, and 2 savings banks; 8 

*®^ uid other societies, maintain their miles of cast-iron water-main, with water- 

^€=^J ^ffgiaizations. There is a large and handsome supply from artesian wells, and 9 miles of 

^ ^jty»e . terra- cotta sewers. The sanitation is elaborate, 

"**hBiB,a city, the county-seat of Reno but during the year there were 4,711 cases of 

^^y, Kansas, on Arkansas river, at the yellow fever, and 412 deaths. The tide rises 

^ first reached by the Atchison, Topeka, three feet in the river. The city has an ocean 

^ Santa F6 Railroad. The population, by port, the harbor being improved by jetties at 

J«Qw census retarns, has increased more than the mouth of the river, in operation since 1879. 

J^*W in three years. It was founded in 1872 There is a foreign and coastwise commerce. 

TOnton C.Hutchinson, and all deeds to town The river traffic has decreased of late years, 

^ contained forfeiture clauses prohibiting by reason of increase of railroads, of seven of 

^ ale of intoxicating liquors and keeping of which Jacksonville is the terminus. The total 



166 CITIES, AMERICAN. (Lincoln.) 

2,208 miles in the State are tributary to the beef-packing house is soon to be built. Fao- 
city. It is a center of fruit-packing and ship- tories of several kinds are rising. The brick- 
ping. A company has been organized for and-tile works employ 150 men the year 
orange-auction and forwarding. The lead- round, and can make 60,000 common bricks 
ing jobbing bosiness is the wholesale grain and and 12,000 pressed bricks daily, besides all sorts > 
feed trade. There are 90 wholesale establish- of tiles. The Lincoln canning-factory is capable 
ments and 500 retail, which employ nearly of packing a million cans of vegetables and 
5,000 hands. The amount of business capital 2,000 barrels of vinegar in a year. In all, 70 
in both branches is $20,000,000. A cutton- factories are now counted in the city, whose 
house, with gin and press, is being erected, combined product amounts to $8,000,000 an- ^ ] 
and the city will eventually become a cotton- nually. As the capital of the State the city ^ 
center. There is a direct line of steamships to has many public institutions, some of which .< 
New York. A new charter has recently been are imposingly housed. The new Capitol is >. 
granteo, by which the corporate limits are ex- a stately edifice, after the style of the Capitol . 
tended. The public schools number eleven, at Washington, built of white limestone from V 
white and colored, with an attendance of 2,254 the bluffs of Platte river, and capped by a . 
pupils. The value of school property is $70,- dome rising 200 feet above the trees of the 
500. There are also private, art, and music park in which it stands. The interior is hand- ; 
schools, and a Toung Men's Christian Associa- somely finished, and the whole building cost 
tion. The streets are paved, and there are $500,000. Three miles southward is the State 
shelled roads. It has lumber-mills, cigar-facto- Insane Asylam, and the Penitentiary stands in , J 
ries, a brush-factory, boiler and machine shops, another suburb. The post-office and other .:; 
founderie<>, marine railways, jewelry and curio, Federal offices occupy a large and ugly struct- "~ 
carriage and wagon, and ice factories, a coffee ure on the public square, and a county court- j^ 
and spice mill, binderies, and other manufact- house is soon to be built at a cost of $200,000. ^ ' 
uring indastries. Lincoln derives a large part of its distinction * 

LhiMlik — The capital of Nebraska, in Kent from its institutions of learning. Here is the ;; 

County, 65 miles southwest of Omaha ; popu- State University, occupying a group of large ^ 

lation, 85,000. There is no river here, or buildings in shaded grounds, which form a - 

natural site for a town ; but the place was park in the midst of the town. These grounds -_ 

chosen to be the capital when it was a mere were reserved by the State, and the main - 

cross-road because of its central position in building was erected in 1870, at a cost of $140,- - 

what then constituted the population of Ne- 000, out of funds accruing from the sale of city — 

braska. The State became owner of the town- lots. Since then other buildings have been - 

site, and sold nearly $400,000 worth of lots added, laboratories furnished, etc., until now ~ 

within a few years, so rapidly did people as- this university is one of the best equipped in " 

semble and property appreciate. Lincoln is the West. It is under a board of regents, and ^^ 

now the railroad- center of the State. The will ultimately embrace an academic course, -^ 

Burlington routers trains enter and leave over an industrial college, and colleges of medi- r: 

six dififerent lines ; the Union Pacific has lines cine, law, and the fine arts, to which will be '»= 

both north and south ; the Elkhom route added special advanced courses ; only the first '^ 

comes in by two lines, and the Missouri Pa- two are organized, as yet, under sixteen pro- ■'^^ 

cifio by one. At least 1,000 men are em- fessors and several instructors. A preparatory _ 

ployed here by the railways alone. Partly school is attached, and the tendency of the 

as cause, partly as effect of these railroad fa- curriculum is toward modern and practical v 

cilities, an enormous wholesale and jobbing requirements, rather than toward classical ^^ 

trade has arisen. The sales of groceries training. This appears in the prominence 

amount to $4,000,000 annually. Agricultural given to the Industrial College, which offers _: 

implements, , cigars and tobacco, dry goods, two courses, leading to the degrees of bachelor tr: 

drugs, and liquors follow, augmenting the of agriculture and bachelor of civil engineer- -:. 

wholesale business to $12,000,000 annually, ing. An experimental farm is carried on by v^ 

making it a serious competitor in trade with the State in connection with this college. In ,-^ 

Omaha, St. Joseph, and Kansas City. As a 1887-'88 this university had 400 students. It /^^ 

grain-market Lincoln is important. Her mer- is free to residents of Nebraska, and receives, ^v-r 

chants own seventy -five elevators in all parts without further examination, the graduates of . ^ 

of the State, and handle three fourths of the about twenty accredited high-schools in the 

cereal-crop of Nebraska — i. e., from fifteen to State. Besides this, the Methodist Church 

twenty million bushels of corn and small opened in September, 1888, the Wesleyan 

grains. Ten Eastern grain-dealers muntdn iTniversity. It occupies a building costing 

buyers here. Live-stock forms another ele- $70,000, three miles from the center of the , - 

ment of prosperity. Three quarters of the city, and owns 240 acres of gift-land. This 

total shipment of beef and swine from the school is designed to be a university, and 

State passes through Lincoln, and is quartered among its foremost departments will be a ^ 

in her immense stock-yards. Two pork-pack- polytechnic school. A third university, just 

ing houses represent, combined, a plant of founded, is under the care of the Campbell ite/^ 

$200,000, and can pack 5,000 hogs a day; a Church; and the Boman Catholics support a 



GITTES, AMERIOAN. (Mobils, Montoomsbt.) 



lOT 



eonrent school haying 150 pupils. BnsiDess 
oolkges and a complete system of pablic 
achools are to be added to this remarkable list 
of edacational facilities. The State Library has 
SO^OOO Tolames, and is especially rich in law- 
books. The society of Lincoln is of an intelli- 
genoe and coltare anasual in towns so far 
west, and the wealth is considerable. The city 
is therefore well kept and handsome. All of 
the principal streets are well shaded and 
paTed, and street-cars ron in every direction. 
Gas and elictricity light the streets and houses. 
Many examples of modem architecture, com- 
m^idal and domestic, adorn the town, and 
some of the chnrches are costly and handsome. 
Bililf, the only seaport of Alabama, on Mo- 
Inie river, at the head of Mobile Bay, 24 miles 
from the Gnlf of Mexico. The population in 
1880 was 29,132; in 1888 it was estimated at 
40,000. The Government has appropriated 
$250,000 for improvement of the harbor, 
where deep water is needed. At present 
reesels of 15^ feet are floated. During the 
year 138 vessels entered the port, with a ton- 
us^ of 128,250 tons. It is the outlet of 2,000 
miles of navigable rivers, passiug through rich 
^Srioiltiira], iron, and coal regions, and it is 
important as a coal port. The trade in coal 
for the year was 39,433 tons, of which 648 
were imported. Next to New Orleans it was 
the largest cotton - receiving market of the 
South prior to the civil war, the average an- 
ooal exports for five years being 632,808 bales. 
The receipts (which have been sreatly dimin- 
ished bj increase of railroads and construction 
of interior compressors) for the year 1886-'87 
were 216,142 bales. Timber has largely re- 
pUoed the cotton interest; the shipments, for- 
^a and coastwise, reach yearly 30,000,000 
feec From 160,000 to 200,000 pieces of white- 
otk for wine- barrel staves are shipped yearly, 
Miging from $120 to $150 a thoasand ; and 
the Seaboard Oil-Refining Company, of New 
York, has its staves for oil-barrels manufact- 
ired here. Cypress shingles are a leading 
iadra^; 130,000,000 were the combined 
prodoct of eight mills in 1887. The dust, com- 
posed of long, stringy particles, is used in con- 
scrocdng roads through the marshes by which 
the dtj is surrounded, forming an elastic, 
9c«ndles8 road-bed. The wool trade is in- 
oeasing, and the sales of rosin and turpentine 
^ioring the year reached 132,092 and 28,725 
Wrels reflectively. Truck-farming in the 
sabarbs began in 1879, and is a profitable in- 
^dsdnent. The value of the crop of the pnst 
year wa? $294,971. There are five railroads, 
one recently completed to Birmingham, and a 
iteamboat trade with Montgomery. There is 
a fine of steamers to Liverpool, England, and 
«e to New York. Water -works costing 
I50O.OOO have been recently constructed, and 
^40.000 were expended on new wharves dur- 
isf 1^7. There are 6 bank^, 9 insurance 
companies, 34 churches, 1 daily and several 
weekly newspapers, 4 orphan asylums, a United 



States marine hospital, a Jesuit college, acade- 
mies, and numerous private schools. The 
High-School, for colored children, is a large 
building. There are electric and gas works. 
Mobile has the only American Anti-Friction- 
Metal Company, with a daily output of 5,000 
pounds, tan-yards, paper and wooden box, 
barrel, harness, saddlery, wagon, and other 
factories, and cotton-mills in operation and 
constructing. African Village, a few miles 
distant, contains all survivors of the last slave- 
ship that entered Mobile Bay (in 1859), the 
minority of whom were freed by the emanci- 
pation proclamation before being sold. Many 
of the older ones speak their native tongue. 

HwtstHery, a city, the capital of Alabama, 
in the county of the same name, on bluffs of 
the Alabama river, 400 miles above Mobile 
Bay and 40 miles below the junction of the 
Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers. The population 
in 1880 was 16,713; in 1886, nearly 30,000. 
Navigation is open all the year. The city 
lies in the prairie belt, between the north- 
ern and southern pine regions, and its resources 
are in agriculture, mineral development, and 
yellow pine and hard woods. It was incorpo- 
rated in 1837, and made the capital ten years 
later. Since 1880 it has eiyoyed a " boom," 
and shares in the prosperity of Birmingham 
and other mineral districts. During this 
period, over 2,500 dwellings were built and 
occupied within its limits. About twenty-five 
per cent, of the inhabitants are engaged in 
manufactures. From 120,000 to 140,000 bales 
of cotton are handled yearly. There are 7 
large storage warehouses, with capacity of 73,- 
500 bales, 2 compresses, and 4 ginneries. 
There are 3 railroads, with lines in six di- 
rections. The bulk of river trade is con- 
trolled by a city steamboat company, giving 
bills of lading to New York and Liverpool, via 
Mobile. The total tonnage yearly of all freight 
is 600,000 tons. A narrow-gauge railroad of 
fifty miles, southeast to the timber district, has 
been constructed. The total capital invested 
in business for 1887, was $15,595,000, and the 
annual volume of business was $80,185,000. 
The grocery trade reaches $7,000,000, and the 
dry-goods trade $3,000,000 yearly. The city 
is lighted by gas and electricity, and has an 
electric railway of fifteen miles. Power is 
applied overhead. Water- works supply 5,000,- 
000 gallons of artesian water, and the drain- 
age is perfect. There are 5 banks (2 Na- 
tional), 3 daily newspapers, 2 theatres, 7 
hotels, 1 infirmary, and 9 churches for whites. 
There are 5 public-school buildings (8 white 
and 2 colored), a business college, and private 
schools. A State University has been recent- 
ly founded. Two land companies have parks 
at Riverside and Highland Hill, the former a 
manufacturing suburb, the latter a place of 
public resort. Land is given to manufactures, 
which include an iron furnace, foundries, and 
machine and car shops, and boiler- works, cot- 
ton, cotton-seed-oil, fiouring and wood-work- 



168 CITIES, AMERICAN. (Montpeuer, Munoib, Nbw Obleaks.) 

ing mills, briok-yards, carriage and wagon, jute-bagging factory, with capacity of 20,000 
ice, candy, soap, fertilizer, cigar, paper-box, yards a day, employing 200 hands; machine- 
vinegar, cracker, and sausage factories, a plant shops ; a saw-mill ; bridge and wood-carving 
for distilling alcohol from smoke, and an oil- companies; a straw-palp, a paper, 8 glass, and 
refinery. The Capitol building was erected in a rubber works; skewer, duster, handle, wheel- 
1851, on a site reserved by the founder in furnishing and heading factories; floar-mills; 
1817 for the anticipated purpose. The United elevators; and minor industries. About 2,000 
States Post-Office (which cost $130,000) and hands are employed. The court-house, recent- 
city buildings are handsome. ly completed, is a handsome structure, costing 

MMtpeOer, Indiana, 38 miles south of Fort $250,000. There is an opera-house and a free 

Wayne, on the main line of the Fort Wayne, mail-delivery. 

Cincmnati, and Louisville Railway; population New Oricans, a city and port of entry of Lou- 
estimated at 1,000. The town is on an ele- isiana, on Mississippi river, 105 miles from ita 
vated plateau, by the Salamonie river. Three mouth. During the winter there is an influx 
gas- well? are in operation, flowing millions of of from 20,000 to 40,000 visitors. The popu- 
cubic feet a day. The town is thoroughly lation in 1870 was 191,418, of whom 142,293 
piped, and by means of pipe-lines could easily were whites ; in 1880, 216,090 (whites, 158,867); 
furnish gas to many other towns and cities of in 1887, 246,950 (whites, 202,800). The debt 
northern Indiana. Petroleum exists also in a of the city, Sept. 1, 1888, was $17,491,546.58. 
field 20 miles in length. A well within the cor- This amount does not include the Gaines judg- 
porate limits flows 100 barrels in twenty-four ment, on appeal, for $1,925,667.82. New 
hours, with double capacity by pnmping. Build- Orleans is the largest cotton-receiving market 
ing-stone and limestone abound. There is a in America, and the largest in the world, with 
large quarry, with latest improvements in steam the exception of Liverpool. But the percentage 
machinery, electric blasting, etc., where 25 cars of the total crop received has fallen behind, 
can be loaded daily. The timber-supply is owing to the large overland movement from 
very large. Glass-sand of superior quality is the interior. Its cotton exchange was estab- 
found in close proximity. The drainage is ex- lished in 1870. The receipts for the year 
cellent, and the water-supply abundant. There 1887-^88 were 1,912,228 bales, averaging $46.25 
are 4 churches, a Citizens^ Bank, with assets of a bale, out of a total crop of 6,928,245 bales. 
$297,000, two hotels, and good schools. A The largest receipts were in 1861, viz., 2,255,448 
large bending-works has been erected. Free bales. The largest since the war were in 
gas and free land are offered as inducements 1882-^88, viz., 1,999,598 bales. The exports for 
to manufacturers. Rail connection with the the year 1887-88 were 1,550,994 bales, valued 
great trunk lines is made. at $71,844,280. In 1880 there were nineteen 

Mucie, a city of Indiana, the county-seat of establishments for cotton-compressing. Prior 
Delaware County, on an elevated plateau above to 1880 there were but two through railroads. 
White river, east of the center of the State. At present there are six trunk lines, constructed 
The population in 1880 w&s 5,268 ; in 1888 it in consequence of the completion of the jetties 
was estimated at 14,000. It is surrounded by in Mississippi river in 1879, assuring deep 
a thriving farming community. Natural gas water and an ocean terminus at New Orleans, 
was discovered in 1886, and twenty wells are The freight of these for the year ending Aug. 
in operation, averaging 915 feet in depth, with a 31, 1888, was 2,568,624,551 pounds forwarded, 
total capacity of 90,000,000 cubic feet in twenty- and 2,992,582,835 pounds received. The ton- 
four hours. The gas is of excellent quality, dry, nage of two canals for the year, of 5,978 ves- 
and free from sulphur. The Trenton rock, sels, was 105,441 tons. There are numerous 
which here reaches its highest point, with a canals for drainage. The height of ante-bellum 
downward trend to east and west, is struck at prosperity was reached by New Orleans in 
75 feet above sea-level, and is drilled to a 1860. Only produce of the lower Mississippi 
depth of 30 feet. Muncie has three competing valley was exported. At present the tonnage 
trunk lines of railroad, affording access to of the port is greater than ever, and the amount 
markets in all directions. The electric lights, of commerce is much larger. The character of 
in addition to gas, are of two systems. There the imports and exports is completely changed, 
are 12 churches, 8 daily newspapers, a li- The greatest advance of late years, and the 
brary, 4 banks (one of which is National), 4 most promising field of the future, lies in coal 
brick school - buildings, valued at $100,000, and iron from Southern districts in course of 
with a regular attendance of 1,800 pupils, development; in lumber from Southern forests; 
The water- works have a pumping capacity of in the wool and hide trade of Texas and Mexico ; 
2,500,000 gallons a day. Water for manufact- in various Mexican produce ; and in wool, 
nring is supplied by the river and Buck creek, fruits, and other products of California and 
and is offered free, as are gas and land, to in- the Pacific coast. The foreign imports include 
duce location. There are five miles of sewers, tea, silk, Japan ware, kari gum, Alaskan fnrn, 
telegraph and telephone facilities, and a paid whale-oil, spermaceti, walrus ivory, cochineal, 
fire department, with electric alarm. Muncie balsam, orchilla, rubber, jalap, sponges, mohair, 
has a board of trade. Establishments located etc. The ocean traffic with New York haa 
or contracted for are: A bending- works; a been extended, and vast additions are made to 



CITIES, AMERICAN. (New Oblkans, Oqdek.) 169 

the nsaal cargoes of cotton, sugar, molasses, crease in mannfactare of cotton goods. Other 
and rice to that port. Raw material is returned industries include artificial limbs and flowers, 
manufactured, and large imports are received bags, bagging, boxes, bricks, brooms and 
through New York. The average yearly brushes, canned goods, carriages and wagons, 
receipts of wool are 30,000,000 pounds, the cars, cisterns (a local indastry), confectionery, 
immense wool trade of Texas passing through coffins, corks, corsets, cotton-seed oil, china, 
the port ; and of hides, upward of 12,000,000 cordials and sirups, distillation of pine, drugs, 
pounds. The trade in tropical fruits of Central dyes, flags, food, furniture, hardware, hair- 
and South America, originated a few years ago, work, glycerine, hammocks, hosiery, moss, 
has increased with steady growth, and is now mattresses, mineral waters, perfumeries, pot- 
the largest single it«m of foreign importation ; tery, saddles and harness, safes, soap, sails, 
50,000 hunches of bananas were imported in shot, trunks, tinware, and vinegar. The clear- 
1880. For the past year 2,500,000 bunches ings of 14 banks (8 National, with capital of 
were imported, i^ainst 1,421,145 bunches in $2,925,000, and one a United States depositary) 
1887: and 6,000,000 cocoa-nuts, against 2,449,- for the year ending August 81 were $448,016,- 
915 of the year previous. The grain trade with 066, an increase of $41,447,618 over those of 
the interior is fluctuating. The total value of 1887. The balances are $52,970,805. The in- 
domestic produce received by river, lake, and suranoe companies nomber 16, and there is a 
rail for the year ending Aug. 81, 1888, was State lottery with a capital of $1,000,000. 
tl68,474<,393. By United States Custom- There are 6 street* railroads and 7 daily news- 
House statement, the imports of foreign goods papers, 1 in the French and 1 in the German 
for 1888 were $11,558,562; exports, $80,698,- language. In 1884 the churches, including 
062; customs receipts, $2,791,984. The foreign colored, numbered 171. Public schools were 
exports for the year were $504,808 ; transship- established in 1840. The attendance is large, 
ments to Mexico, $2,085,957 ; imported com- Among other educational institutions are Tu- 
modities entered without appraisement for lane University, the Jesuit College, and the Ur- 
transportation to interior points, $2,756,858. suline Convent. There are 17 public parks. 
The number of vessels clearing the port for Hospitals, asylums, and infirmaries are nuroer- 
the year ending July 31 was 1,031, with a ous. Architecture, for which the city was 
tonnage of 1,150,430 tons, and 1,060 vessels never noted, has recently progressed. Drink- 
eatered, of 1,151,715 tons. The number of ing-water is obtained from cisterns, and there 
Tessels belonging to the port at same date are water-works from the river. An artesian 
were 437 ; gross tonnage, 50,350. The manu- well, owned by an ice-factory, yields 150,000 
UsAares have largely increased, outstripping gallons from a depth of 600 feet. The Cus- 
the commerce. The capital invested in 1870 tom-House, next to the Capitol and Treasury 
was $5,429,140 ; in 1880, $8,565,303 ; in 1888, at Washington, is the largest public building in 
^1,667,670. In 1880 there were 915 estab- the United States. Two opera-houses (one 
Itshmenta, against 2,185 at present; and 4,411 French) and numerous theatres and clubs pro-> 
buds were employed, against 23,865 to-day, vide amusement during the season from Jnnu- 
of whom 6,270 are women. The yearly wages ary to May. A cotton exposition was held in 
are $8,242,599, slightly less than the entire 1884-^85, toward which Congress appropriated 
capital in 1880. The products are valued at $1,365,000, with $300,000 for exhibit. (See 
141,508,546. Raw material of all kinds is in "Annual t/yclopeedia ^' for 1884, page 573.) 
dose proximity, and transportation to factory Ogdea, Weber County, Utah, at the foot-hills 
um) market is cheap. Exemption from taxa- of the Wasatch mountains, near Great Salt 
ticm and license was secured for ten years by Lake, at the junction of Weber and Ogden 
tbe Constitution of 1879, extended in April rivers. It has a population of nearly 9,000. 
hst for a similar period. The principal ad- It is the center of Ave leading trunk lines of 
Tince has been in tbe manufacture of boots railroad, receiving (on a basis of the first four 
t&d shoes, of which there are 226 establish- months of the year), 19,278,000 pounds of 
iseots; inmen^sclothing, manufacture of jeans freight, and forwarding 8,268,000 pounds. The 
bring been recently introduced ; in foundries revenue to the railroads is $368,386.68. Other 
ad machine-shops, which supply most of the roads are building, contracted for by Ogden 
Bttcbinery for Southern cotton, rice, and sug- citizens. It is known as ^^ Junction City." 
V mills ; in lumber, malt liquors, artificial The streets are wide, and there is natural sew- 
iee, and fertilizers ; in rice-cleaning and pol- erage, with running water on both sides of the 
^ung and sugar-refining. Hawaiian sugar is sidewalks. Water is supplied by mountain 
iopo^rted for this purpose in addition to Cuban, springs and streams. The town is lighted by 
Thm are two large refineries and a sugar ex- electricity, and there are street-cars, telephones, 
ebange. The tobacco production has doubled, etc. The productions of the region include 
F» 55 establishments in 1830 there are at iron, which abounds in brown and purple hem- 
premxt 188, and 33,120,667 cigars and 33,888,- atite ores, cost of delivery, $1.50 to $2 a 
^ cigarettes were manufactured during the ton ; wool ; salt, evaporated naturally from 
yesr, while 1,683,638 pounds of manufactured the lake; lime, in mountain deposits ; building- 
tobacco, 141,916 of perique, and 37,824 of stone; and coal. Coke is furnished by gas- 
B3fi complete the output. There is also in- works. Ogden possesses valuable water-power. 



170 CITIES, AMERICAN. (Port Abthub, Pbovidbnor, Quinot.) 

The fall in Ogden caflon is 660 feet in five 160,000, product, $21,770,000; of wool, 84, 

miles. The motors of an electrio-light com- capital $8,560,000, product $18,980,000. 

pany, a powder-mill, and several floaring-mills Other manufactures are gymnastic apparatus 

are run by tliis power. There are, in addition, and jewelry which is one of the most exten- 

a woolen-mill, and cigar, knitting, and canning sive industries. There is a large British ho- 

factories. Fine fruit is grown in the surround- siery mill and colony. Notwithstanding its 

ing country. The educational and religious ad- location. Providence has no foreign commerce, 

vantages are good. The Central School is a There is a line of steamships to New York 

handsome building, and there is a fine hotel. and Boston, and the city is the terminus of a 

Port irthir, a city in the province of Ontario, Baltimore line of coast steamers connecting at 
Canada, population 6,000, situated on the west Baltimore and Norfolk with railroad and 
side of Thunder Bay, at the head of Canadian other steamboat lines. There are local lines 
navigation on Lake Superior, and 60 miles to shore resorts, which are numerous. The 
west of the Nipigon river. In 1800 it was a streets are narrow but remarkably clean. To 
terminal point of the Hudson Bay Fur Com- Sept. 80, 1884, the water-works had cost 
pany, and in 1872 it was named Prince Ar- $6,491,167.60, and the sewerage, $1,685,214. 
thur's Landing in honor of Prince Arthur, then At the same date there were 86 churches ; 1 
a resident of Canada. It has public and pri- high, 11 grammar, 88 intermediate, and 48 
vate schools of the highest grade, a court- primary schools, costing yearly $252,826 ; and 
house, a town-hall, board of trade, registry, 14 lines of horse-car railways. Among the 
port, and inland -revenue offices. It hi^ two public buildings may be mentioned the Stato- 
banks, brick blocks valued at $800,000, and House (built in 1759), the Friends* Meeting- 
first-class hotels. There is a flue harbor in House (in 1727), the Board of Trade (erected as 
which the Government has constructed 2,000 a market in 1778), the First Baptist Church 
feet of a breakwater at a cost of $150,000, the (in 1775), and University Hall (in 1770). The 
entire projected length being about a mile, city hall cost $1,500,000. The Narragansett 
Within the harbor lines are 2,500 yards of Hotel, completed in 1878, is eight stories high; 
docks. It is located on the Canadian Pacific its cost was $1,000,000. It is of pressed brick, 
Railway line, and is a terminus for both the and can accommodate 400 guests. The Ma^ 
eastern and Lake Superior division and the sonic Hall, Butler Exchange, Arcade, library, 
western or prurie division. Its grain-eleva- and court-house, are some handsome speci- 
tors have a capacity of 2,000,000 bushels. In mens of modern architecture. The St^te 
the vicinity are extensive quarries of marble Prison is at Providence, and there are numer- 
and limestone suitable for building purposes, ous hospitals and asylums. Roger Williams 
and inexhaustible quantities of brown and red Park contains 100 acres. The Washington 
sandstone, slate, and granite. Silver and gold Insurance Company, organized in 1799, has 
mines, discovered in 1888, are located forty extended its business largely of late years. 
miles southwest of the town. An unlimited The new Catholic cathedral and opera-house 
extent of mining land may be purchased from are fine edifices. 

the Crown at $2 per acre. It is the center Qitaicy. — A city of Adams County, lU. The 

of exploring and prospecting parties. The population in 1880 was 27,268, but there was 

mining districts are known as the Beaver and an increase of 80 per cent, by 1887, and it is 

the Silver Mountain, the former employing 48 believed that the census of 1890 will show 

men. The tunnel of the Silver Mountain mine 40,000. This is due to an awakening of enter- 

is 1,400 feet in length, and the shaft is 400 feet prise on the part of the citizens. Previous to 

deep. The value of real estate in 1887 was 1885 trade was stagnant, manufactures were 

$1,250,000. It has steamboat connection with depressed, property was low in value, taxes 

Fort Williams four times a day. Twenty-five were high, the city was deep in litigation and 

miles distant are the Kakabeka Falls on the debt, and everybody was discouraged. *^ Then 

Kamioiotiquia river, a celebrated resort for some of the patriotic citizens who had hitherto 

tourists. A daily paper, the " Port Arthur held aloof from local affairs began the work of 

Daily Sentinel,^' is published, and a daily steam- restoration and redemption. The lawsuits 

boat line runs to Duluth, connecting with the were compromised, the debt was funded, 

trains of the Canadian Pacific Railway. streets were improved, water, gas, and electric 

Provldeiice, one of the capitals of Rhode Isl- lights were provided, and municipal enterprise 

and, at head of Narragansett Bay, 84 miles awakened the people. . . . The citizens began 

from the ocean, was founded by Roger Will- to realize the enormous natural advantages of. 

iams in 1686. Seventy years later the popu- their situation, and to seek the trade of the 

lation was 1,500. In 1882, when incorpo- million or more people who live within 75 

rated, it had 18,000 inhabitants ; in 1870, miles of her court-house. Capital appeared 

68,904; in 1880, 104,857; in 1887, 122,050. from its hiding-places, labor flocked in to take 

The manufacture of cotton was introduced in advantage of high wages, manufacturing estab- 

1793, and of woolen goods a few years later, lishments sprung up like magic, real e^^tate 

The number of establishments in the State in rose in value, extensive building operations 

1885, of which Providence was the natural began, and everybody prospered." The num- 

headquarters, was : Of cotton, 90, capital $21,- ber and beauty of the public buildings that 



CITIES, AMERICAN. (Rai.kiqh, Saitta F6.) 



171 



DOW grace this town are remarkable — a fact 
partlj due to the stores of excellent brick-clay 
and architectoral stone in the immediate 
neighborhood. These include a new Federal 
bvOding, a new city hall, and a new county 
coort-hoase, all of noble and costly propor- 
tions. The State of Illinois has just completed 
here the erection and installment of a soldiers' 
home, which occupies spacious ornamental 
froonda on the edge of the city, and shelters 
Dearly aix hundred veterans of the civil war. 
This home is arranged upon the cottage-plan, 
squads of forty-five or fifty dwelling in de- 
tached houses, but all assembling for meals, 
for amusement, for public entertainments, Sun- 
day worship, etc., in the large central building. 
The buildings all differ in materials and de- 
sign, so that the architectural effect is varied 
and pleasing. There are a hospital, dairy, rail- 
way station, etc. This was the first of the 
Su^ institutions of this kind; but Iowa, 
Michigan, and some other States have followed 
the example. The latest new public building 
is the handsome public library. This faces 
the city park, has a frontage of 100 feet and 
capacity for 100,000 volumes. It was built 
bj popular subscription, and is well supported. 
Beades the book-shelves, the building con- 
tains reading-rooms, study-rooms, etc. Quincy 
takes great interest in intellectual and literary 
Batters, and supports many reading-circles 
tad Hterary and self -improvement societies. 

tilrigh) the capital of North Carolina, in 
Wake County, near the center of the State. 
The population in 1870 was 7,900; in 1880, 
Meo ; in 1887, 14,000. It is lighted by elec- 
tricity, has a street-railway, and has contract- 
ed for water- works and an improved sewerage 
jTstem. The mechanical industries are car- 
shops, with capacity of ten cars a day, two 
i^oUiing- factories, a cotton-seed-oil mill, a manu- 
fwtaring company to make shuttle-blocks for 
eouon-mills and grind phosphates, an ice-fac- 
tonr, an iron-foundry, and a shoe-factory, with 
oittor establishments. A good business is done 
ia cotton ; from 50,000 to 75,000 bales are 
Itiudled yearly. Here is a white marble post- 
offce, which cost $355,000, and a new brick 
Khool-house, which accommodates 700 pupils. 
Th€ Capitol building, a massive, domed struct- 
tre cf gray granite, is at the junction of four 
tftnoes. TTie State Penitentiary, costing up- 
ward of $1,000,000, for which $75,000 was ap- 
propriated yearly for ten years by the Legislat- 
^ is a model institution. It contains within 
^oe walls the low log structure first used for 
poal purposes by the State. One of the State 
nsaoe asylums, of which there are three (two 
^fkred and one white), is on the outskirts; 
lad institutions for the deaf, dumb, and blind 
*n located in or near the city. A fine geologi- 
«1 iDDseum is in the Agricultural Department. 
Tb attendance on the public schools reaches 
1000 pupils. In addition, there are a Baptist 
od an Episcopal school for girls, a boys^ acad- 
^, and other private schools. Wake Forest, 



a Baptist College, and the University of North 
Carolina, at Chapel Hill, are distant a few miles. 
There are a university, a normal, and a medi- 
cal school for colored students. The first and 
last of these are supported by philanthropic 
donations, and conducted by the Baptist Home 
Missionary Society. Together they occupy six 
buildings, on a campus of twelve acres, and 
have 450 students. The departments are in- 
dustrial, normal, academic, theological, and le- 
gal. Shade-trees of elm, oak, and magnolia and 
flowering gardens for nine months in the year, 
are a feature of the city. 

Santa F^ the capital of New Mexico Terri- 
tory, 20 miles from Rio Grande river, in a 
basin surrounded by mountains, 7,300 feet 
above the sea. The population in 1860 was 
4,846 ; in 1888 it was estimated at 7,000. Sev- 
enty per cent, are Mexicans. The climate is 
delightful. The temperature is remarkably 
even. A sanitarium, with capacity of 640,000 
cubic feet, for Eastern invalids, has been es- 
tablished, the only one within the Territory. 
There is also a hospital for Territorial patients, 
with air-space capacity of 288,000 cubic feet. 
The city is very old. In 1541 it was in exist- 
ence as a "pueblo" of the Indians, and con- 
tained 16,000 souls. It became the capital of 
the Territory after occupation by the Span- 
iards, the present executive mansion having 
been erected at this time and known as the 
" Adobe Palace." It is one story high, with 
walls five feet thick. It is the only town in 
New Meidco with competitive railroad lines. 
Two roads are completed, and seven others 
projected to pass through, or with the city as 
objective point Ten million pounds of wool 
are shipped yearly. A peculiar herb, "au- 
role," adapted for washing wool, which im- 
parts a fine, soft gloss, abounds. Agricultural 
land surrounds the town, of which a large part 
is owned by the Government, and is subject to 
entry. There is a land-office. The rain-fall 
in 1881 was 21 inches, and it has since in- 
creased steadily. The county has produced 
more from mines than perhaps the whole Ter- 
ritory outside. The gold in placers of the Ortiz 
grant alone, of 60,000 acres, is estimated at 
from $100,000,000 to $150,000,000. The mine 
was once worked by 10,000 Spaniards. On 
expulsion of the latter in 1680, all mines were 
filled up by the natives, and churches and min- 
ing archives destroyed. Their return was per- 
mitted in 1705, under promise to discontinue 
mining forever. Copper, silver, lead, and zinc 
are also found. There are 20,000 acres of cok- 
ing, bituminous coal, and 8,000 acres of anthra- 
cite. Nearly every religious sect is repre- 
sented in Santa Fk The cathedral, when 
completed, will cost $400,000. The first Prot- 
estant church was built in 1855. The oldest 
church in the United States — that of San Mi- 
guel — founded in 1550, was rebuilt in 1710. It 
is of adobe. The total value of public build- 
ings is $1,250,000. There are three public 
schools, the University of Mexico (with an In- 



172 CITIES, AMERICAN. (Saratoga Spbinos, Towkb.) 

dian departmeDt), a Catholic college and or- cold-storage warehouse capable of keeping two 
phans^ school, a Presbyterian academy, the car-loads at the freezing-point, a brick-yard 
Kamona School for Indian girls, costing $65,- which turns oat 20,000 bricks a day, a lumber 
000, and a Catholic school for Indian boys. A company, the output of whose mills in 1888 
daily newspaper is published, and there are was 10,000,000 logs, large shipments being 
two national banks, capital of each, $150,000. made to Duluth, Two Harbors, and Ely, and 
The Capitol, erected at a cost of $200,000, ninety cars being used for the business in one 
and Territorial Penitentiary, $150,000, are fine mouth. There are two saw -mills with a ca- 
buildings. Adobe, or sun-dried earth, un- pacity of about 80,000 feet of lumber daily, 
burned, with or without straw, is the leading and a prominent social organization called the 
material for residences. Santa F6 has a plan- Skandinavian Society. Fine brick-day is found 
ing-mill, a cracker- factory, and a brewery, in the vicinity, and east of the town is Burnt- 
Pottery is manufactured by the Indians. side Lake, a popular camping-ground. The 

Santiga Sprlags, a watering-place of New Minnesota Iron Company, Charlemagne Tower, 

York, 36 miles north of Albany, in Saratoga of Philadelphia, president, employs 1,400 men^ 

County, near the center of the State. The and holds 8,000 acres of land, covering the 

resident population is estimated at 12,000. larger portion of the iron deposits in that dis- 

There are upward of 40 mineral springs, with trict, extending to the shores of Lake Vermil- 

various medicinal properties. Tne principal ion, and including the present site of Towei 

are the Vichy, discovered in 1872, by drilling city and beyond its limits eastward for a dis- 

180 feet. Water is forced to the surface by tance of 75 miles. The ore is found in twc 

natural pressure of carbonic-acid gas. It is lenses averaging 60 feet wide at an altitude oi 

alkaline, rather than salt. There are a mag- 1,000 feet above Lake Superior, and 1,600 feel 

netic spring and baths near old High Rock, above the ocean - level. The first ore wai 

The Geyser, spouting 25 feet, was discovered taken out in 1884, immediately subsequent tc 

in 1870. Others are the Congress and Colum- the completion of the railroad from Tower tc 

bia, in Congress Spring Park ; the Hathom, Two Harbors in the spring of that year. The 

Empire, High Rock, Excelsior, Star, Champion, first shipments of ore, amounting to 64,00( 

Hamilton, Washington, White Sulphur, etc. tons, were made by railroad July 3, 1884. Ii 

The tract was owned by Iroquois Indians of 1886 the output reached 804,000 tons, anc 

the Mohawk tribe, and was a favorite hunt- would make over 150,000 tons of rails, th( 

ing-grouud. The value of the springs was Minnesota Iron Company contributing on< 

known to the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, tenth of the entire iron product of the Lake 

Senecas, and Cayugas, who resorted to them. Superior region. The ore is principally cele 

The Saratoga patent was sold to citizens of brated for the small proportion of phosphorm 

Albany in 1684. High Rock Spring was first contained in it, on account of which it is soughi 

visited by white men in 1767, when a wounded by manufacturers of Bessemer steel, who pro 

English baronet was restored to health. A nounce it the purest magnetic ore kiiown. Il 

settlement was made here in 1773. The pres- assays as high as 68 per cent, of metallic iroi 

ent town was founded in 1819, and made a and *055 of pbosphoros. The veins of on 

post-office in 1826. There are six mammoth average from 16 to 160 feet in width, and the 

hotels and numerous others, afifording accom- ore belt is from 6 to 10 miles wide. This min- 

modations for from 15,000 to 20,000 visitors, ing region is regarded as virtually one greal 

The season is from July 10 to September 1. deposit of iron ore extending through the 

The architecture is varied, and the gardens and range of hiUs overlooking Lake Vermilion, 

grounds extensive and beautiful. The attrac- In 1887 the output was over 450,000 tona 

tions beside the springs are parks, drives, the There are nine pits each furnished with th< 

lake, the race-course, and club-house. The latest and most approved appliances for exca- 

Association for Racing was organized in 1864, vating, hoisting, and transferring to the ore cars, 

and a charter was obtained in 1865. The The pits bear the names of the promoters o1 

town has one national bank, with a capital of the enterprise. The Stuntz pit is from 20 tc 

$125,000 and equal surplus. The town-hall 60 feet by 400 feet. At a depth of 60 feet the 

was erected at a cost of $180,000. The New ore was brought through a tunnel to be hoist 

York Central and the Delaware, Lackawanna, ed to the railroad cars. The Stone pit, one 

and Western are the principal railroads. eighth of a mile west of the Stuntz, is worked 

Ttwcr, a town in northern Minnesota, in- in three slopes, the width of the deposit vary- 
corporated in 1884, is situated in a region of ing from 25 to 125 feet, the deepest point be- 
valuable timber-land on the south shore of low the surface being 100 feet. The mine can 
Lake Vermilion ; population 5,000. It is one are hoisted directly from this pit by powerful 
and one half mile from Tower mines, for drums. The Ely pit, directly west of the 
which its provision-stores furnish supplies, no Stone and adjoining it, when opened for a dis- 
general store being located in the mining dis- tance of 200 feet, showed a vein of good ore 
trict, which has a population of over 1,000 at the second level 129 feet wide. It is now 
men, the majority of them householders. It 400 feet long, 50 feet deep, and from 20 to 12C 
has five churches, two graded schools, the First feet in width. In the vicinity are two air- 
National Bank of Tower, capital $50,000, a compressors for working powder-drills, two 



OmES, AMERICAN. (Towkb, Two Habbobs.) 173 

engines and drams for hoisting purposes, and roy three feet thick, supporting stone ballast 
dectric'light machinery consisting of 2 dyna- over which from 2,000 to 8,000 gross tons of 
mos of 20 lights each, lighting pits, trestles, ore are transported daily during the shipping 
ind docks. Two gangs of miners are worked, season. In the stock piles nine cubic feet of 
one by night and one by day, throughout the ore will weigh one gross ton. The grades are 
jear. The number of men employed in the very steep, and over $100,000 is to be ezpend- 
pits is about 1,100; the wages each month ed in lowering them. This will admit of an 
amooDt to about $55,000. Tower pit No. 1 at increase in the length of the ore-trains. Near- 
A depth of 100 feet when opened for a distance ly half a million tons of ore have been shipped 
ci250 feet on the length of vein showed good over the road the present season. From Two 
ore at one point over 155 feet in width. The Harbors to Duluth, Minn., the line passes along 
ore of Tower pit No. 2 showed clean for 400 the shore of Lake Superior, opening up a re- 
feet, with an average width of 100 feet in ore. gion of several thousand square miles abound- 
Tbe shaft in this deposit is 60 feet deep, the ing in wealth. It is estimated that there are 
ore being taken through a tonnel from the 1,600,000,000 feet of pine lumber in the vicin- 
bottom of the shaft to the railroad cars by an ity which can be easily reached. A popular 
odkss rope attached to 9 cars with a capacity division of the railroad is the Lester Park 
of 2 tons each. The Breitung pit, where a Short Line. Lake Vermilion, on which the 
diamond-drill is in operation, lies south of the town lies, is 85 miles in length, and contains 
Tower, and is from 10 to 40 feet wide by 100 871 islands. Its shores are irregular, and bor- 
feet long and 50 feet deep. The North Lee dered with a forest of pines alternating with 
bas been opened 200 feet in length by 50 hills covered with verdure and wild flowers 
feet in depth, and from 80 to 40 feet in widti), which overlook the Tower mines and the ad- 
s abaft having been sunk 50 feet below the joining;: town. From Jasper^s Peak there is a 
bottom from which drifts are being run. The fine view of the Indian reservation on an isl- 
Soutb Lee shows a vein 20 feet wide exposed and in the most picturesque portion of the 
for abont 100 feet in length. The pits of this lake, which the inhabitants still navigate in 
eompanj are all comprised in the length of birch-bark canoes, sometimes formed of one 
QD6 mile. The ore bed is blasted with dyna- piece of bark weighing 25 pounds. It abounds 
mite cartridges containing about 50 per cent, with fish, and in the woods on its banks are 
of nitro-gl jcerine, the blasts being discharged large and small game. A little steamer takes 
every six hours. The product of these mines, pleasure parties across its waters, which at sun- 
4,000 tons of ore daily, is shipped to steel- works set are of the color of vermilion, 
ia Pittsburg and Chicago, and supplies furnaces A range of hills, bordering the southern 
iji Duluth, Buffalo, Troy, Toledo, Ashtabula, shore of the lake, embraces some of the richest 
Cleveland, Erie, Scranton, and other cities, and most extensive deposits of iron ore in the 
Tbe Minnesota Iron Company have expended world, discovered in 1680 by George C. Stone, 
IB the building and equipment of the railroad of Duluth, Minn., and scientifically explored 
ttd ore docks, and in the development of the by Prof. Chester, of Hamilton College, the work 
mines not less than $4,000,000. New receiv- of collecting the specimens employing two 
B^r ore docks have been built by the company summers, and that of examination one winter. 
i& Cleveland the present year (1888), bringing Tw« Hartos, a town in northern Minnesota, 
tbe ore into direct competition with foreign on the shores of Agate Bay, 27 miles north of 
or». An immense body of iron ore of a high Duluth, population about 400. It is a popular 
grade has been discovered this year in section pleasure-resort, has first-class hotels, a brick 
19. by the Minnesota Exploration Company, machine-shop, car-shop, foundry, round-house 
Four miles from Tower is the Union mine, the for locomotives, and an ore pier extending 600 
property of which extends along the range for feet into the bay, provided with 180 pockets, 
tb« distance of about a mile. The post-office each with a capacity of 110 tons, making the 
of Tower mines is called Soudan. Tower is dock-storage 14,800 tons. The docks of the 
eoonected with Two Harbors by a railroad 68 Duluth and Iron Range Railroad received, in 
^ksiu length, constructed in 1884, and ex- 1688, 80,000 tons of coal. The first cargo of 
teoded to Duluth in 1887, connecting the iron ore from the Tower mines was shipped 
ai&es with the capital of the State by rail via from the ore docks on Aug. 19, 1884, the ship- 
^ dry. The Duloth and Iron Range Rail- ments amounting that year to 62,124 tons. In 
rosdb equipped with upward of 850 double 1885 the shipments reached 225.484 tons; in 
Qght-wheel ore cars with a capacity of 24 1886, 800,000 tons ; in 1 887, 400,000 tons. In 
cross tons each — the Minnesota Iron Company 1888, for the season to August 20, the ship- 
>^e (retting out the present year 180 cars of ments of iron ore were 185,000 tons as against 
«« daily— and 17 large consolidated locomo- 191,000 tons for 1887 to that date, and 185,000 
^€8, which haul from 450 to 500 tons to a tons for 1886 to the same day. Four acres of 
^fao. The railroad passes through spruce and dock property are owned by the Elys to be 
^HBarack swamps to Two Harbors and through used for shipping granite. An appropriation of 
^1« of otherwise unbroken wilderness. The $10,000 has been made by the Government for 
SBbstroctiire across the swamps where it was a light-house. Tlie town has a building asso- 
^ t railroad never could be built is a cordu- elation and has had a rapid growth. A steam- 



174 CITIES, AMERICAN. (Vakcwuvbb, Viotobia, WnnnpEo.) 

boat mns daily to Dalnth, and a large fleet of eleotricitj, has public water-workg 

vessels is etuplojed during the season along formed police, and a paid fire dep 

the lake-shore in trade or in pleasure excur- hospitals, and public schools, 

sions to that city, to Isle Royale, celebrated ¥lcttria, a seaport at the southern e 

for its brook-trout fishing, and to the Apostle of Vancouver Island. It is the ca] 

Islands. Within two miles of the town valua- largest city of British Columbia, 

ble copper mines are in process of develop- forty years ago as a trading-station and 

ment. It is proposed to inclose the bay by of the Hudson Bay Company. W 

means of two breakwaters, one of which is gold discoveries upon the upper Fra 

partly finished, four hundred feet of it having caused a rush to British Columbia, in ; 

been built at a cost of $20,683 ; the entire Victoria suddenly attained a popu 

cost is estimated at $77,600. The bay is of 80,000, and it passed through a feverL 

vast importance to the iron interest, as the of business and inflated property-i? 

port is the place of shipment of ore from the With the decline of the gold ezcitec 

great Vermilion mines at Tower and Ely. In dwindled, but under the recent dev 

1886 an appropriation of $22,600 was made by of the province, due to the completic 

the Government for its improvement. Canadian Pacific Kiulway and the gi 

Vaiconfer, a seaport of recent origin on the Alaska on the one hand, and the nei 

coast of the mainland of British Columbia. It region around Puget Sound on the ot 

stands upon a gentle slope bordering English toria has advanced to a present popu 

Bay and Coal Harbor, near the entrance of 12,000. It has a beautiful site, and 

Burrard Inlet, an arm of the sea deeply indent- climate is healthful, closely resemblin 

ing the mountainous coast, and furnishing safe the Devonshire coast of England. B 

anchorage for vessels of the deepest draught. Park, overlooking the Straits of Fuc< 

The shore was covered with forests of trees, Olympic mountains, the beautiful gr 

whose average height exceeded 200 feet, until Government House, and many fine i 

1886, when it was definitely settled that here drives, make the place one of the m( 

should be built the terminus of the Canadian esting in Canada. Three miles wee 

Pacific Railway. A town was then surveyed, the harbor and naval station of Es 

systematic clearing began, and a settlement (pronounced Es-kwi-malt), which is th 

sprang up with great rapidity, anticipating the vous of the British Pacific squadroi 

railway. A year later fire swept away the has just been completed a graving-doc 

town, which has been rebuilt in a much more $460,000. Here and at Victoria En$ 

sul)stantial manner, most of the business center pie and manners predominate, and t£ 

being of brick or stone and exhibiting many phere of the place is in marked co 

fine structures. The terminal facilities of the that of the American Pacific coast tow 

railway and connecting steamship lines are ex- toria has an immense shipping intei 

tensive and complete, and the commerce is very does a large business in naval supplies 

large. A line of steamers plies between here merchandise, coal, timber, and fis 

and Yokohama and Hong-kong, under the fiag transpacific steamships from Vanc< 

of the Canadian Pacific Steamship Company, China and Japan touch here. A reg 

at intervals of about three weeks ; and coast plies weekly between Victoria and S; 

lines of steamers run daily to Victoria and the cisco, and fortnightly to Alaska. Dai 

Puget Sound ports, and less frequently to San ers run to Vancouver, New Westmini 

Francisco and Sitka. There is a large foreign the ports on Puget Sound. A raih 

trade by sailing-vessels, also, in lumber, squared thence up the eastern coast of the : 

timber, and merchandise, while the fishing in- Nanaimo, where vast deposits of 

terest is becoming profitable. An important mined, and agricultural and forest pro< 

jobbing and wholesale trade is carried on with made available in large quantities. V 

mterior towns and northerly coast-points; and growing steadily, and replacing th< 

the manufacture of spars and ship-timber, from structures with handsome and con: 

the gigantic Douglas fir of the region, together business blocks. Banking, postal, s 

with lumber and dressed articles, such as doors, graphic facilities are of the beet or 

sash, blinds, and cabinet-stuff, employs hun- addition to public schools, there an 

dreds of workmen. All this has come into ex- private academies, and churches of e 

istence since the last census, and no precise nomination. The Chinese, among w 

figures are available. The town is now a city many wealthy merchants and contract* 

in organization and appearance. Its {>opulation a large element in the population, 1 

approaches 6,000, ana includes many persons not yet aroused that antagonism whi< 

of wealth, whose homes are costly and filled them in the United States, 

with modem appointments. A magnificent WlBBlpeg, the capital of Manitoba a 

hotel is operated by the railway company, and mercial center of western Cai\ada. 

the many opportunities for eiyoyment and population of 80,000, and an assessme 

sport, the mUd climate and wonderfully pict- of $40,000,000. This city stands in tl 

nresque surroundings, attract tourists and of vast prairies, on the bank of Bed 

sportsmen. The city is lighted by gas and the mouth of the Assiniboine, its 



E8, AMERICAN. (Winnipeg.) COLOMBIA. 175 

from the ^west. Both these streams nipeg is the suhnrb St. Boniface, the seat of a 
ible by steamboats, though this meth- Roman Oatholic archbishop, where are con- 
sportation bas been ahnost entirely vents, academies, and a theological school. 
1 by railroads. Before 1870 the The climate in Winnipeg is much like that of 
hardly more than a fortified post of Minnesota, though rather more severe in win- 
on Bay Companj, known as Fort ter. It is, however, healthful for most per- 
) center of a small farming and hunt- sons, and its winter rigors do not interfere 
unity of people, mostly half -breeds, with either business or pleasure. 
Red River Colony. An insurrection COlMMBiA^ an independent republic of South 
ese led to the dispatch of an army America. (For details relating to area, popu- 
hich made its way through the wil- lation, etc., see ^' Annual Cyclopssdia ^' for 1886 
•om Fort William, on Lake Superior, and 1887.) 

aed the malcontents. This was in GoTonmoit — The President is Dr. Rafael 

le exploration and advertisement of Nullez, whose term of office will expire on 

of the region led to emigration there Aug. 6, 1892. His Gabinet is formed of the 

ely afterward, and the people soon following ministers: Of Government, Don 

L railroad connection with the east. Domingo Ospina Camacho; Foreign Affairs, 

road was completed up the Red river, Don Vicente Restrepo; Finance, Don Felipe 

5t with a line to St Paul ; and in 1883 Paul ; War, Gen. Antonio B. Cuervo ; Educa- 

trnment line, now incorporated with tion, Don Jesus Casas Rojas; Treasury, Don 

adian Pacific, was opened between C4rlos Martinez Silva; Public Works, Gen. 

g and Port Arthur, on Thunder Bay, Rafael Reyes. The office of Vice-President 

eat harbor on the north shore of Lake has been abolished for the term of the present 

'. Under this impetus, and because of administration, and Gen. Eliseo Pay an put on 

influx of settlers upon the free prairies the retired list and pensioned. 

Ltoba and westward, the city grew with The United States Minister at Bogotd is 

iinary rapidity, and public and private Dabney H. Maury, and the Colombian Minister 

iaes were undertaken upon an immense at Washington is Don Jos^ Marcelino Hurtado. 

A second railroad to the United States The Colombian Consul at New York is Don 

ait, several local lines were constructed, Climaco Calderon. The American Consal- 

le Canadian Pacific pushed westward, General at Bogota is John G. Walker; the 

ng and crossing the Rocky mountains in Consul at Carthagena, William B. McMaster ; 

Then came a succession of bad crops, a at Colon-Aspinwall, Victor Vifquain ; at Me- 

4 insnrrection of the half-breeds of the dellin, William Gordon ; and the Consul-Gen- 

bvest Territories, and a consequent oessa- eral at Panama, Thomas Adamson. 

ofunmigration. Under this stress. Win- flnanM. — The statement submitted to Con- 

Jg-8 inflated prosperity collapsed, and a time gress for the fiscal year 1888 by the Minister 

great discouragement and hardship ensued, of Finance shows that to the external debt of 

nithU it has now recovered, and business, £1,913,000, mostly held in England, there has 

tttabli&hed on a firmer foundation, is steadi- to be added £806,000 accumulated interest. 

•^Tancing. ** Notwithstanding all you have The internal funded debt amounts to $6,087,- 

^told about it, you can hardly be prepared 000, while the floating debt, which consists of 

™d the frontier trading-post of yesterday numerous commitments to railway and other 

f^ormed into a city of 30,000 inhabitants, enterprises, amounts to $24,568,000. The 

^ miles of imposing structures, hotels, total internal debt reaches, therefore, the sum 

^ banks, and theatres, with beautiful of $29,605,000. In addition, there is an issue 

y^^ schools, and colleges, with tasteful of inconvertible paper money amounting to 

(jl even splendid residences, with immense $10,180,000. The revenue for the ensuing 

"H and many manufactories, with a far- fiscal year is estimated at $18,178,700, and the 

*% trade, and with all the evidences of expenditure at $28,852,800, showing a deficit 

«lth comfort, and cultivation to be found in of $5,679,100. 

J^°^* century's growth. . . . Situated just The gross amount of duties collected at the 

^ the forests end and the vast prairies Colombian custom-houses in 1887 was $4,795,- 

'P^ ^th thousands of miles of river [boat] 268, the expenses were $800,951, leaving the 

^j^^^on to the north, south, and west, and treasury $4,494,812 net proceeds. The cus- 

™/ailwaj8 radiating in every direction, tom-house at Barranquilla collected $3,098,- 

'•^^Peghas become the commercial focus of 000; that at Carthagena, $906,000; Cticuta, 

« Canadian Northwest. . . . From there the $327,000; Buenaventura, $268,000, and Tu- 

ttB of the people in the West are supplied, maco, $75,000 ; none of the other custom- 

wttuswaycometheproductsof their fields, houses collected over $50,000. By decree of 

^ from the far north are brought furs in June 13, the duties to be collected at Cticuta, 

^^anety." The buildings of the Provin- in the interior, on imports has been fixed at 25 

^OTerpment are commodious, bat have per cent, to date from August 14. 

^ ^Jchitectaral pretension. They stand Aniy.— The strength of the Federal army on 

^we bank of the Assiniboine, and are a peace footing, for 1889 and 1890, has been 

•"^^wajded by growing trees. Opposite Win- fixed at 5,500 men, with their officers ; in war- 



176 



COLOMBIA. 



time the States are bound to famish a contin- 
gent of one per cent, of the population. 

CMUMite.— The following tabular statement 
shows Colombian trade with some of the lead- 
ing commercial coantries : 



EXPORTS. 



TILAR. 



1881 
1882 
1888 
1884 
1885 



United StatM. 


TSaglaaA, 


$6,991,800 
4,961,470 
6.171,466 
8,891,848 
2,842,077 


$6,677,606 
6,462,281 
8,809,798 
2,108,688 
1,164,042 



FnuM. 

$5,016,006 
6,898,696 
4,188,836 
4,288,606 
8,491,071 



IMPORTS. 



TEAR, 



1881 
18S2 
1888 
1884 
1885 



United StetMk 


Enfiand. 


$6388,188 
6,408.846 
6,86S,971 
6^81,821 
^668369 


$^999,^6 
6,296,660 
6.099,414 
6,944,671 
8,881,964 



Fnnes. 



$6,214,845 
6.969346 
5,984 858 
7,169,408 
6,067,608 



The United States' trade with Colombia in 
two years has been : 



FISCAL YEAR. 



1887 

1888 



Import. 



$8,950,958 
4,898,268 



DoBMttie flzpoii 
to Colemlik. 



^978,965 
4,928,259 



BailTMuls. — At the annual election of directors 
of the Panama Railroad Company, held in New 
York on March 26, the president, J. G. Mc- 
Cnllongh, resigned, and his successor. Gen. 
John Newton, was installed. The former re- 
marked on the occasion : *^ The road was bought 
in 1881 at $290 net per share. Dividends as 
high as 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 per cent, on the 
capital stock of $7,000,000 have been paid. 
For the past year a little less than 9 per cent, 
was earned, and 6 per cent, was paid in Janu- 
ary, leaving $660,000 in the treasury. The 
company to-day has no floating debt, and 
there is not a suit against it pending in the 
United States. The physical condition of the 
property is about perfect. Since the riots and 
fires of 1885 the stations have been rebuilt of 
corrugated iron, and the equipment of rolling- 
stock is ample." 

In March a railroad company, limited, was 
incorporated in London with a share capital 
of £172,000 for the purpose of purchasing and 
operating the £1 Dorado- Honda Railroad. 

In May a Franco- Belgian company was 
formed with a capital of 2,500,000 francs, 
2,400,000 francs paid in, for the purpose of 
obtaining concessions for rdlroads in Colombia, 
and building and operating them. 

Simultaneously the National Government of 
Colombia approved the contract entered into 
by the State of Antioquia with O. S. Brown 
for the continuation and completion of the rail- 
road between Puerto Barrio and Medellin, the 
capital necessary being $6,000,000. 

Stealer Uaes. — Negotiations have been 
opened between the Government of the State 
of Panama and the Pacific Sreani Navigation 
Company for the extension of its line to the 



northern sections of Panama by the establish- 
ment of a tri-monthly service of light-draught 
steamers to ran between Panama and Puerto 
Pedregal, in the province of Chiriqui, and the 
port of Sona, in the province of Veragna, a 
subsidy to be paid the company of $700 for 
each round trip. 

In April the steamer ^^Flamborongh" left 
Colon for Kingston, Jamaica, being the pioneer 
ship of a new line between Colon, Jamaica, 
and Hayti. 

In August it transpired that the West India 
Lloyd Steamship Company had given orders to 
build six steamers for the purpose of more 
rapidly transporting tropical fruits to New 
York and England. To this end, two of the 
steamers will ply between New Orleans and 
Savanilla, touching at intermediate ports and 
connecting at Trujillo with two other vessels 
of the line, which will run between New York 
and Livingston, Guatemala, Nassau, Jamaica, ^ 
Trujillo, and the Island of Inagua, the nearest 
of the West Indian Islands to New York and - 
Great Britain. The two largest and finest -* 
steamers will ply between London and Colon, 
touching at Plymouth, the Azores, and Ja- 
maica, and connecting with the New York '= 
steamers at Inagna. 

Tctegnpks. — On February 16 Bogotd was ^ 
united with Quito, the capital of Ecuador, by ^ 
telegraph, and in June with Carthagena; at . 
the same time telegraphic communication was '* 
established between Panama, Barranquilla, c 
Carthagena, and Santa Marta, and a telephone - 
company was making arrangements for estab- 
lishing communication by telephone between 
Panama and Colon. :-^ 

In October the Panama Railroad Company ^ 
was authorized by the Government to send 
public messages over the wires of its line be- >- 
tween Panama and Colon till the Government ; 
shall have constructed its own line. — 

WagM-RMd. — ^In May the government of the w 
State of Bolivar opened the wagon-road from 
Tolti to Sinceljo. This road was built to bring — 
the rich region of Sdbanas, Bolivar, in closer . 
communication with the coast. -^ 

MlBeral Bmotras. — Colombia contains numer- 
ous gold and silver bearing zones, and iron and ^ 
copper, lead, zinc, antimony, arsenic, and cin- ^^ 
nabar are to be found among the metals, .-^ 
while salt-beds abound, and sulphur, kaolin, ^ 
and fire-clay are to be found. Cundinamarca _^ 
and Boyac4 are comparatively poor in gold 
and silver bearing lands if we except the Ari- 
ari and Gnguaqnl gold-beds, the silver-bear- 
ing copper-lodes of Tosca, the gold veins of 
Villa de Leiva and Loata, and the gold wash- 
ings in the beds of the Guataque and Cocuy. _ 

In the eastern ridge of the Cordillera, which 

separates Pamplona from Bucammanga and __ 
covering a space of over fifty kilometres, the. 
primitive formations are interspersed by gold 
and silver bearing ledges. Under the Spanish 
rule these reefs were worked. The wealth ob- 
tained from them is a matter of history, while 



COLOMBIA. 177 

a visit to-day to those localities affords proof Hie Faiaaa Canal. — Two important eveDts 
of tbe vast amount of labor that was ex- have occurred in the history of the Panama 
pended to cut moontaiu- tunnels yet to be Canal since the last annual meeting was held in 
seen, some of which are from 50 to 600 Parison July 21, 1887 — the change of the canal 
metres in length. These main tunnels, opened from one at the sea-level to one with locks, 
in former days, measare about ten kilometres, and the issuing of a loan. M. Ferdinand de 
and when one remembers that the rock cut Lesseps, president of the canal company, and 
tiirougb is granite and that the means of work- the board of managers dnring the latter part 
ing were of a most primitive nature, it be- of 1887 came to the conclusion that a total 
comes evident that only rich retarns would re- change of system had become imperative, if 
pay the labor required to overcome such obsta- the canal was to be dug within a reasonable 
doBL At Baya and Vetas thin quartz lodes time, thereby keeping the expense of aocom- 
fre found. Here the richest leads are situated plishing the work within certain limits. A 
ether horizontally or perpendicularly, a fact contract was consequently made on Dec. 10, 
vith which the old miners were well ao- 1887, with M. Gustave Eiffel, an engineer of 
qoainted, as is proved by the manner in which note, constructor of the gigantic tower for 
they followed the lodes. These Baya and the Paris Exhibition of 1889, who undertook 
Vetas mineii, or '' Pamplona " mines, were to construct such locks as the company would 
abandoned after the declaration of independ- approve, on his submission of plans, with their 
ace, and although we know from periodical working machinery, and to do such excavation 
iaq>ection that they contain great wealth, they and like work as may be necessary for the 
are not worked any more than are the numer- work of construction. It was expected that 
OQs reefs that are everywhere observable, ten locks would be required; still the com- 
whieh have never yet been touched by the pany reserved the right to postpone its decision 
miner's pick. In this region there is the old as to the number of locks till April, 1889, aJlow- 
Stnta Catalina mine, which was worked by an ing to M. Eiffel an extension of time for the 
English company up to 1850 and abandoned as completion of the two upper locks if the decis- 
Qxtprofitable simply because the process of ion thereupon be not announced by Jan. 1, 
amalgamation was defective, and not from the 1889. M. Eiffel engages to finish all the work 
absence of good metal. The company had also stipulated for bv June 80, 1890. His contract 
at that time to contend against the decree does not incluae the control of the Chagres 
that was issued prohibiting the exportation river, nor any part of the canal work not im- 
<tf the precious metals. At no great distance mediately connected with the building of the 
from Baya and Vetas rich gold washings have locks and their operation when completed, 
been formed by volcanic action and the wear Allowances of 88,200,000 francs were made M. 
tad tear of ages and climatic influences on the Eiffel to enable him to get into a position to 
aides of the mountains. Here the gold is found build the first four locks, 6,000,000 francs, 
IB a detrituM composed of quartz, gneiss, mica, however, being applicable to the second four, 
and iron ; and from the beds of the Emat& and An extraordinary meeting of shareholders was 
Giroo, which wash through this formation, held at Paris in March, and on this occasion 
gold has been found for centuries. In the Bu- M. de Lesseps said : ^' The direction of the 
caramanga gold washings the precious metal is canal with locks does not differ from the direc- 
feond principally in scale and seldom as dust tion of the sea^level canal. This canal will 
iff nuggets, and it is owing to miners not hav- have, in all its length, in each lock the same 
iBg Doted this fact that they have lost through width and depth of water as the final canal. 
metlve apparatus the gold that otherwise The largest vessels — those 150 metres long, 
vonld have well repaid them for their labors, and having a draught of 8 metres — will be able 
The gold-washing machinery of to-day would to -pass in 1890 from one ocean to another. 
at?e every grain that was then lost. Its All our efforts are concentrated on the neces- 
qoality is the best known, showing only *02 of sity of opening the canal for universal naviga- 
Rber to '98 pure gold. There are further- tion with the greatest rapidity by absolutely 
Q(?e the Go^ira and Rio Hacha alluvial de- sure means. After the inauguration, the yield 
posts, the Tiqui quartz reefs, and the Porc6 of the transit taxes alone being 125,218,750 
Biat, San Jorge, and Ur^ sands. The reason francs and all the expenses 108,926,260 francs, 
<xf the failure of the Sinti company is clearly there will be a margin in round numbers of 
txpUined by the fact that the apparatus was 21,000,000 francs to be distributed among 
iaappropriate for working the kind of gold-ore the shareholders after deducting the reserve 
^ is found there. In Antioquia the Porc6 funds and the tenure to the Colombian Cov- 
ad Kedin rivers may he mentioned as rich ernment." Over 1,000 shareholders were in 
a gold for a distance extending over twenty- attendance at the meeting ; M. de Lesseps's re^ 
feee leagues in length by fifteen leagues in port was unanimously approved, together witii 
tpeadth, and here a cubic metre of earth has the resolution to make a loan of 840,000,000 
Ifoduced one pound in weight of gold, while francs. The report estimated the amount req- 
atpos Bocas on one occasion one pound in uisite for finishing the canal at 654,000,000 
▼«?ht of gold was obtained from only fifteen francs, 254,000,000 being necessary to pay for 
Foends of sand. excavation, 125,000,000 for locks and masonry, 

VOL. IXTIIL — 12 A 



17B COLOMBIA. 

15,000,000 for reseryoirs for the feeding of the The canal, through its entire length, is to have 

npper portion of the canal, 50,000,000 for ma- the same depth as the eventual sea-level canal, ^ 

terial, and 210,000,000 for the covering of gen- hut through the adoption of the canal with 

eral expenses and the interest on honds and locks, the excavation yet to he done is limited ^ 

shares. The French Chamher of Deputies to from 84,000,000 to 40,000,000 cuhic metres. ~ 

passed the Panama Canal Lottery Loan Bill Bat the construction of the locks alone will 

without Government guarantee earlj in May, not suffice ; the main point is the feeding of _ 

and the Senate in June. The bill provided for those works. For the latter purpose embuik- 

the issue of 600,000,000 francs in bonds, the ments have to be made in connection with the ^ 

numbers to be drawn after the manner of a lot- rivers Chagres, Obispo, and Rio Grande, the for- 

tery twice a year, and the winners to receive mer of which alone is capable of furnishing per 

premiums of various amounts. It also provided second 10 cubic metres of water, which it is ' 

20 per cent., or 120,000,000 francs, to be set estimated would suffice for the passage through "^ 

aside in French r^n^ for the payment of prizes, the locks of ten vessels, of a joint tonnage of - 

and to serve as a sinking-fund. On June 27, 20,000, per diem. The total amount of exca- ^ 

860,000,000 francs, being half the amount an- vation actually accomplished in 1886 had been " 

thorized, were offered for subscription with a 11,727,000 cubic metres ; during the first nine ' 

lottery scheme including three annual prizes of months of 1887 it was 9,877,000. ~ 

500,000 francs each, and three of 250,000 francs; In August 250,000 hectares of land in Co- ^ 

furthermore six of 100,000 francs, there being lombia were transferred to the canal company ^ - 

six drawings per annuni, distributing altogether under the contract made by the company with — 

8,390,000 francs yearly till the year 1 918, beg^- the Government. Nathan Appleton, -who was ^ 

ning with which 2,200,000 francs per annum sent by the United States Government as a dele- "^ 

will be drawn for in four drawings and em- gate to the international congress held in Paris, '>= 

bracing two prizes of 500,000 francs each, two in 1879, to decide as to the route that should > 

of 250,000 and four of 100,000, the minor lots be adopted, and has been connected with the -i 

ranging between 1,000 and 10,000 francs, enterprise from its beginning, being asked his l- 

Bonds were issued having a face value of 400 opinion about the change of plan, said the adop- < 

francs, payable by lots or at 400 francs within tion of the lock system was the only thing that ^:^ 

99 years by a special deposit of French rentes, remained to assure success. =: 

and offered at 360 francs, bearing 15 francs per The Panama Canal Company, late in Novem- .-. _ 

annum interest. Out of the 2,000,000 bonds ber, resolved to offer for public subscription 

offered, 860,000 were sold. At the first draw- on December 10 the 1,140,000 unsold lottery ■— 

ing the large prizes were taken by bonds that bonds ; but the shares declined so rapidly that 

had not been sold, to the great disappointment it became evident the subscription would result :^^,^^ 

of subscribers, the company therefore decided in failure. M. de Lesseps and his colleagues re« 

that at the October drawing all the prizes signed, and at their request the Tribunal of the< 

should be ^ven to the 860,000 bonds that had Seine appointed Messrs. Hue, Bandelot, and !>• 

been sold ; it was compelled to take this course Normandie to settle the company^s affairs. On 

by the dissatisfaction of the bond-holders. December 6 the company's shares had dropped^,^^^^^ 

At the time of making the contract with M. to 175, and on December 17 they fell to 93'7r^ 

Eiffel, the plan of eight locks was adopted. On francs, recovering 12 francs next day. 
their departure from the Atlantic Ocean the lee M«iioply at ^aaa* — On March 1 the sol 

vessels would at first encounter two locks of right to manufacture, import, and sell ice _ 

8 metres fall each, subsequently two of 11 me- the Department of Panama was sold at Bo^^^ 

tres each, the length of the lock-chambers t4, at the Ministry of the Treasnry, the bojj^ 

being 180 metres. Hence the altitude over- to pay $45,000 a year in advance for the pi^- 

come would be 38 metres. The difference be- lege, in silver coin of 0*835 fineness, 

tween the latter and the total height of the exclusive privilege thus granted runs fift 

mountdn-range was to be overcome by exca- years, but work must begin in ten months, 

vations. On the west side three locks of 11 the expiration of the concession the maxi^ 

metres fall were to be built and one of 8 me- tories will become Government property, 
tres fall. The difference of 8 metres is neces- ReglstrattM tf Compailes. — ^The following ^^ 

sary on account of the lower level of the Pa- was signed by President Nufiez on May 
cific Ocean at low tide. Subsequently, in May, Article L All Arms or companies formed 

It was deemed advisable to modify the plan by of Colombia, whioh carry on a permanent b 

building ten locks instead of the eight alluded within its territory, shall register their deeds o^ 'P^ 

to, lock 1 to be located at Boliio Soldado ; nenphip or charters in the notary's office of ^S^-^ ^ 

2, at San Pablo ; 3, at Matachin ; 4, at Obispo ; ^"^ ^^f™ they mtend doing buaiDesa. 
K «♦ v^^^^^Ar.l oil r»« *k« A /i» J^:^ -;^ft r A Abt. n. Such companies or flrms will not "^^ 

5, at Emperador— all on the Atlantic side ; 6, ^j^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 1^1 estoblished, nor w 5^ 

at Cucaracha ; 7 and 8, at Paraiso ; 9, at Pe- be able to daim the protection of the law, if th^:^ 

dro Miguel ; and 10, at Miraflores — aU on the not previously been duly legalized by tiie Ex^^^'* 

Pacific side. There are to be three locks of 1 1 For this reason tiiose companies or firms will k^ 

metres fall, and two locks of 8 metres fall on ^^^^J^ *°, *^*^® *T^iT**''?^3^''^l''P ^ ^% 

i J ' "r »"'" *^ j^ Z'* " "i«" w «»*i v« ^^^ ^^ ijj^y^ jjQ^ Y^^^ legalized m the mami^» 

each end of the canal — that is, on the Atlantic j^ provided or do not obtion such legalizatioD. "* 

and Pacific sides of the center of the oaoaL six months from date. 






COLOMBIA. 



COLORADO. 



179 



•v'^' 



IIL All finns and companies shall haye a 
duly kgalized repreiMuitative, witb a fixed plaoe of 
abode. 

AsT. TV. Should any company not appoint a rep- 
resntatiye, then the President of the republic will 
appoint some one to represent the company, and snch 
Bominee will enjoy the rights and privileges apper- 
taining to the place when filled by any one ap- 
point^ by the firm or company. 

AsT. V. The present law in no way afi^ects the 
Ftoama Interoceanic Canal Company, which will 
eootinae to be ruled solely by the existing treaties 
•od oontracts. 



. — The message of President 
Kafiez, delivered at the opening of Congress 
00 July 20, said: '^An extradition treaty has 
been agned with the United States; it had 
been rendered necessary by the exceptional 
state of affairs that now exists on the Isth- 
mos of Panama in conseqnence of the extraor- 
dinary inflnx of foreigners to the Isthmus. 
The Cerrati question was submitted to arbitra- 
tbn, and was decided by the Government of 
Spain, which will also decide on the boundary 
question now pending with Venezuela. Until 
Utat dedaion is reached, Venezuela and Co- 
lombia will respect the statu$ quo which has 
existed up to date. The boundary question 
with Costa Rica will also be decided by Spain, 
md thos a possible conflict between the two 
eoontries prevented. On Sept. 7, 1887, the 
Government declared its intention to abrogate 
daoa^ 10, 11, and 28 t>f the commercial 
tnatv with Ecuador, the abrogation to take 
effect July 7, 1888, when those clauses pro- 
Tiding for mutual concessions to imported prod- 
tee of the two countries will become void.^' 

He ExtnittlMi Treaty. — The extradition treaty 
relerred to in President Nullez's message was 
aped in Bogotd May 7 last by Sefior Vicente 
Btttrepo, Minister of Foreign AfiPairs of Co- 
lombia, and John G. Walker, CAargi d* Affaires 
^the United States, and received the sanction 
of the National Legislative Council on May 25. 



which is stipulated in the request for his extra- 
dition. Article Vll provides that if the ac- 
cused is not proved guilty within three months 
he shall be set at liberty. Article X says that 
neither of the contracting parties undertakes to 
hand over its own citizens for trial by the 
other. By Article XI the fact that the accused 
may be liable to other charges shall not be 
held to debar him from extradition. One 
yearns notice of the annulment of the conven- 
tion must be given. 

COLORADO. SUte GerenuMBt— The follow- 
ing were the State officers during the year: 
Governor, Alva Adams, Democrat; Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, Norman II. Meldrum, Republi- 
can ; Secretary of State, James Rice, Republi- 
can ; Treasurer, Peter W. Breene, Republican ; 
Auditor, Darwin P. Eingsley, Republican ; 
Attorney-General, Alviu Marsh, Republican; 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, Leonidas 
S. Cornell, Republican; Railroad Commis- 
sioner, A. D. Wilson; Chief-Justice of the 
Supreme Court, William E. Beck; Associate 
Justices, Joseph C. Helm and S. H. Elbert, 
who resigned in August. Gov. Adams ap- 
pointed M. B. Gerry to hold the place made 
vacant by Judge Elbert until a successor 
should be elected in November, when Victor 
A. Elliot was chosen. At the same election 
Charles D. Hayt was chosen to succeed Chief- 
Justice Beck at th^ close of his term. 

Pvpalitlra* — By the census of 1880 the num- 
ber of people in the State was 194,827; in 
1885 there were, according to the State census 
of that year, 248,910 people. Upon the basis 
of the school census of this year, it is esti- 
mated that there were 850,000 people in the 
State at the date of the census in April. 

Edacatira* — The following statistics, compiled 
by the Superintendent of Education, indicate 
the growth of the public schools during the 
past two years : 



ITE3IS. 



i^^ -ii 






dnK9t 



liBberordlitriets 

^^ *(^mI popnlatioo .. .. 
52StoW-«*ool» 

Sy?* to gnd*d Mhools . . 

«*« in nnmded ichoola 

«rita pttbBc schools . . . 

£S!*«y»tt«iidaoce ... 

^»«of«chool-boaae«.... 



S12KW 

5JJJ»Mw buldingt, dteB, And furniture 



per eapita of school popolatlon. 
{Mr ciptta of eoroUment 



1887. 



T79 

(»,216 

1,180 

84,471 

17,800 

43,901 

27,147 

686 

$2,492,701 

1198,287 89 

$865,028 76 

$18 26 

$20 16 



1888. 



990 


211 


76,212 


11,229 


1,158 


28 


27,986 


8,515 


81,606 


4,806 


50,746 


7,844 


81,516 


4,869 


620 


184 


$8^,021 
$806~771 16 


$745,820 
$118,4^ 27 


$1,152,411 78 


$287,888 02 


$15 12 


$1 96 


$28 71 


$2 75 



^^des for the extradition of persons ac- 
■^of murder or attempt at murder, of coun- 
^^ forgery, fraudulent disposal of pub- 
J^"<^ robbery, burglary, where attended 
J^J^Qt entry of a public or private place, 
^^^'wbomation of perjury, rape, arson, 
J^» the destruction of railroads, tramways, 
y coMtmction the injury of which would 
^m danger to life. Article V provides that 
7^ tccMed of political crimes shall be 
**«d over on any other charge than that 



The €aptt4iL — The Legislatare of 1885 passed 
an act providing for the erection of a State 
capitol building at Denver, and creating a 
board of capitol managers to superintend the 
work. A contract was made by the board for 
constructing the foundation, and in July the 
work under this contract was substantially 
completed. Preparations were made during 
the latter part of the year for beginning the 
superstructure, which is to be largely of sand- 
stone from quarries at Gunnison. 



180 COLORADO. 

ftaflrtaik — ^The following statistics show the Ri^er and Uncompaghre Utes to the Uintah 

mileage of railroads in the State in November : Reservation in Utah. Bat the refiisal of Coio- 

xii«. row and his band to remain in Uintah, and 

Denrer and Bio Ortnde 1,487 their annual return to Colorado for iiahiog 

Ateffionrxo^iiMdsiitoF^; '/.:*. *::::*.!'.: 471 and hunting, finally led to trouble with his 

Bariin«on and Mianouri 845 band last year, when they were driven back to 

S±?pJd<lr*::::::::::::::::::::::::::: nS utah by the Colorado state troops. 

Denrer, Tezaa, and Qoif 147 As a consequence of this disturbance, and 

Denver, Utah, and Padflc 65 through the efforts of Colorado citizens, a bill 

Denver and Santa F6 6 j t /~i xi.' -j* 

Chicago, Eock Island, and Padflc (eatimated) . 950 was passed by Oongress this year, providing 

for a commission to treat with the Southern 

^^^ *^^® Utes, the only remaining band in the State, 

The Denver, Texas, and Gulf Road to Fort and to procure their removal to southern 
Worth, Tex., was completed early in the Utah. The commissioners appointed in July 
year, giving direct communication from Den- under this act were T. C. Cbilds, of Washing- 
ver to the Gulf of Mexico. If the Federal ton, R. B. Weaver, of Arkansas, and J. Mont- 
Government can be induced to construct a suit- gomery Smith, of Wisconsin. They reached 
able harbor on the coast, this line will prove the Ute reservation in August and spent sev- 
of great value in the development of Colorado, eral months in negotiation, during which, 
Another road, completed later in the year, with several Ute leaders, they visited southern 
was the Rock Island and Pacific, to Colorado Utah with a view of selecting the proposed 
Springs. Various branch lines were also in reservation. They were finally successful in 
process of construction. the object of their mission, the Indians having 

StMk-ftaWig. — In Colorado, as in other oonsent.ed to the removal. A tract of about 
parts of the Western plains, the cattle industry 1,190,000 acres will be thereby opened to set- 
is gradually changing in character and meth- tiers in the State. 

ods. A Colorado journal says : ^* The plains Iisinuicet — The sixth annual report of the In- 

in the eastern part of the State which, less suranoe Commissioner, for the year ending in 

than a dozen years ago, were covered with May, estimates that new risks were taken dur- 

cattle, are being rapidly settled and only the ing the year against fire amounting to $50,619,- 

poorest range is left A striking illustration 776, and upon life amounting to over $8,000,- 

of this fact is found in Pueblo County. The 000. This business was done almost entirely by 

range cattle are being shipped out of that sec- outside companies. ^* The record heretofore 

tion of the country, some to the ranges in the made by Colorado companies,^' says the commis- 

western part of the State and some east to sioner, ** has been indifferent, and in some cases 

Kansas and Nebraska. It is only a question positively bad. There has been bad faith in 

of time when the ranges in the western part many of them from their very inception." 
of the State will be settled also, and the herds Hm Deep-Waler HtrWr CMveatlMk — Early in 

compelled to move again. But it will only be July a convention, composed chiefly of Texans, 

changing the business fi*om the control of a with a few representatives from Colorado aD(^ 

few into the control of many. There are large Kansas, was held at Fort Worth, Tex.« foi 

portions of the mountainous parts of the State the purpose of promoting a movement to se 

that will be utilized as ranges, but they will cure a deep-water harbor on the Gulf cot 

accommodate a comparatively small number The convention adopted resolutions of wbic^^^ 

of cattle. The system will be entirely changed, the following is an extract : 
and while the altitude in many parts of the it is the sense of the convention that the con 

State will prevent the raising of com in such merclal, agricultural, mining, and Btock-raising i\ 

abundance as in Kansas and Nebraska, other «»t«*» not only of Texas, but of all the territory 

fodder can be raised in as great abundance *?i7^' ^^TS!? f ®!L'*,i*'® commerce and 

««,! -/x «„.«k ^i.^«rv^. ♦!,«♦ n«ir»«„^^ ««7*i« of the United States with other countries, demj 

and so much cheaper that Colorado cattle- first-class port on the coast of Texas. 

raisers can compete with those of any other This convention believes that such a port O'^^ok^ 

portion of the country. That this can be done to be selected bv aboard of competent enginee:*^"^ ^1 

m Eagle County has been demonstrated, and pointed by the United States Government, 
land which, a few years ago, was deemed The remainder of the resolutions urge '■::«^P^ 

worthless for farming, because of the altitude, Senators and Representatives in Congre»^^ ^ 

is now yielding large profits." need of appropriations for this work. 11 ^ ^ 

The Utes. — The people of the State have long also voted to recommend a second conv^^ -»-^^ 

desired to rid themselves of the presence of to be held in Denver at an early date, w^*^ ^^ 

these Indians, who have several times threat- should include representatives from alK- « 

ened the public safety. By an early treaty States and Territories west of the Missi^-^^-*^ 

with the United States, they were separated Pursuant to a proclamation by Gov. A^^^ '^ 

into three reservations, known as the White this convention assembled at Denver o'^^^^.z:*^ 

River, Uncompaghre, and Southern Ute reser- gust 28, and remained in session several ^^^^ ^ 

vations. In 1879, when the Meeker massacre Delegates were present from nearly aL^^ ^ 

occurred, the Government made a new treaty, States and Territories embraced in the ca^ ^j^ 

which resulted in the removal of the White cept from the Pacific States. Gov. Thay^^^^^"^* 





COLORADO. 



181 






t 



ate. tJ^ 

rer <« 
-It *:^ 



Nebraska, was chosen permanent chairman, 
and wajs and means of securing the ohjects of 
the meeting were discussed at length. A dif- 
ference of opinion prevailed as to whether 
GaI?€ston or some other port on the coast 
should be designated for improvement. Two 
reports were submitted by the committee on 
resolutions, of which the majority report, rec- 
ommending no particular harbor, was adopted. 
On October 17 a committee appointed by 
the conveotion met at Dallas, Tex., adopted 
t draft of a bill to be presented to Congress, 
and took measures to secure its early considera- 
tion by that body. 

FaBtfnL — Both the Union Labor party and 
the Prohibition party met in State conven- 
tioa at Denver on September 1. A confer- 
eooe committee was selected by each conven- 
tion to agree upon a fusion ticket, but the re- 
fosal of the Union Labor men to ratify the 
ticket so agreed upon, brought the plan to 
naught. The Union Labor men nominated a 
State ticket headed by De La Martyr. 

The Prohibition nominees were : For Gov- 
ernor, W. O. Stover ; Lieutenant - Governor, 
Warren R. Fowler; Secretary of State, W. 
W. Waters ; Treasurer, Harry G. Schoock ; 
Auditor, W. A. Rice : Attorney-General, J. H. 
BoQghton; Superintendent of Schools, J. A. 
Smith ; Supreme Court Judge (long term), A. 
W. Brazee ; Supreme Court Judge (short term), 
D. £. McCaskell ; Regents of the State Univer- 
«tT, Isaac T. Keator, J). W. Robbins. 

On September 4 the Republican State Con- 
vention met in Denver. There were five can- 
^dates for the gubernatorial nomination, each 
biving upon the first formal ballot the follow- 
ing support: David H. Moore, 181 votes; Job 
X Cooper, 123; Ex-Senator H. A. W. Tabor, 
ISft ; Wolfe Londoner, 84 : Lieutenant-Govem- 
« Meldrum, 74. On the fifth ballot Job A. 
Cooper was nominated. The remainder of the 
^cket was completed as follows : For Lieuten- 
mvGovemor, William G. Smith ; Secretary of 
^tue, James Rice : Treasurer, W. H. Brisbane ; 
^ttditor, Louis B. Schwanbeck ; Attorney-Gen- 
*J»l Samuel W. Jones ; Superintendent of Pub- 
» Instrnctioc, Fred Dick; Regents of the 
^^^l^niversity, Charles R. Dudley, S. A. Gif- 
^\ Sapreme Court Judges (long term), Charles 
"Han; (short term), Victor A. Elliott. 
Relations were adopted ratifying the work 
« we Kational Convention and favoring lib- 
f« pensions, anti-Chinese legislation, a fair 
*K and free coinage of silver. On State 
^•^^wns the platform declares as follows : 
,1 J "^?f Wrbut stringent legislation respecting the 



A 



'ti 



- "'yrmr out stnnjront legislation respecting tne 
S JV"* the State. We declare that pools, rebates, 
^wdiscrimjnationft should be prohibited, and the 
j^^n rigidly enforced by heavy penalties. We 

' jK^d legislation that will prevent the charging 
g^°««Jt rates. We also demand letpislation i>ro- 
^^t.1 officers Judicial, legislative, and executive, 
^#*^^ni?, directly or indirectly, railway-passes 

_ tibodilare in favor of stringent State and na- 

tnista and combinations 



be 0^=^:1 ir**fWinn prohibiting 
TkiTrf'l "^hnd and nature. 



While we uphold the National Government in all its 
endeavors to preserve the public domain for the bene- 
fit of honest settlers, we must earnestly condemn the 
course pursued by tne present Administration in ita 
wholesale attempt to cancel and annul pre-emption 
and homestead entries at the instance of land-agents, 
thereby tyrannically anddifihonestlv taking A'om poor 
but honest settlers their money ana homes. 

That the Legislature enact laws providing for tiio 
protection of the health and Kafety of those engaged 
m mining and other hazardous occupations. 

That the lien-law of the State be so amended as to 
secure to the laborer wages earned by him, and pre- 
vent his being defrauded of them by dishonest prac- 
tices at the hands of unscrupulous persons. 

We favor a liberal appropriation by the State Leg- 
islature for the purposes of inducing immigration and 
advertising the resources of the State. 

We urge our congressional delegation to continue 
their efforts to secure all legislation necessary to peiv 
feet a system of reservoirs in the Rocky Mountains for 
irrigation purposes. 

A resolntion was also passed urging such leg- 
ii^lation as wonld permit the surplus of $1,000,- 
000 of current funds in the State treasury to 
be applied in payment of the State debt. 

The Democratic State Convention assembled 
at Denver on September 19, and nominated the 
following ticket without a contest : For Gov- 
ernor, Thomas M. Patterson ; Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, John A. Porter; Treasurer, Amos G. 
Henderson ; Secretary of State, W. R. Earhart ; 
Auditor, Leopold Meyer; Attorney - General, 
J. M.Abbott; Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, J. A. Hough ; Regents of the Uni- 
versity, F. A. Chavez, Charles Ambrook; Judges 
of the Supreme Bench (long term), M. B. Ger- 
ry ; (short term), A. J. Rising. 

The platform ratifies the acts of the Nation- 
al Convention, favors free coinage of silver, 
denounces trusts, and discusses State questioDs 
at length as follows : 

We demand that all reservation of public lands in 
Colorado not absolutely necessary for the uses of the 
Government shall be thrown open for occupation and 
settlement ; and we pledge ourselves to the people to 
use all available means to secure that end and to se- 
cure to all bona-fide settlers now on said reservations 
their rights. 

The existing laws of the United States with regard to 
the public timoer domain are emphatically condemned, 
and we charge the Republican party with responsi- 
bility for the same. By these laws, as construed and 
enforced by the courts, railway companies are given 
unlimited and unrestricted ri^ht to denude the public 
domun of its best timber, while the privileges given to 
private citizens with regard to takmg tiinber for ne- 
cessary purposes are so restricted as to practically deny 
them Its use. 

We deplore the evils of alien landlordism every- 
where, and especially sympathize with those on the 
borders of our State who are suflferinp from its perni- 
cious effects, and tvc demand the enactment ot such 
Federal and State le^slation as will ^ve relief to our 
Hufferinir fellow-citizens and prevent its further exten- 
sion. Wo favor the passa^ of a law establinhin^ a 
board of mediation ana arbitration, with power to in- 
quire into and ac^ust all disputes arising between em- 
ployer and employ^, to be created as is provided by 
the laws of the State of New York on that subject, 
and embodyins^ the recommendations of President 
Cleveland to Congress on April 22, 1886. 

We demand that the funds of the State Treasury, 
instead of being used to create perquisites for the 
Treasurer^ office, shall be placea at interest, imder 



182 COLORADO. CONGO FREE STATE. 

rei^ulAtions and safeguard to be provided by law, for State purposes for 1889 and 1890 shonld 

whereby such intereata ahall be added toauch funda ^^ increased from four to five mills, and also 

'""^^^^f^!* ?^i ^^'T/' "l^*r P^^ "^ f T upon two amendmente to the State Constitu- 

caDdidates tor the Leffislature to the enactment of such "F"" •"*" oixicumiuwuwj w w»j« k^t«t»^ v^v wm* 

alu^. "^ tion— one permitting county indeDteoness with- 

Being opposed to all unnecessary taxation, either in certain limits, the other modifying the clause 

direct or ind'urect, we repudiate the proposed amend- forbidding a State debt, and e