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I 



aV 



APPLETONS' 



ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA 



AND 



REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EVENTS 



OF THE TEAS 



1878. 



ElTORACiyG POLITICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC DOCU- 
MENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERATURE, 
SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY. 



NEW SEKIES, VOL. III. 



WHOLE SERIES, VOL. XVHI. 



NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

1, 8, AND 6 BOND STREET. 

1885. 






COPTBIOHT BT 

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

1879. 



. .?.9i-3 



PREFACE. 



••• 



Tmfl volume of the Annual "Cyclopaedia" is the third of the new series 
and the eighteenth of the whole series. The plan of this work comprises the 
world's history during the year in every department of human affairs of suffi- 
cient importance to be permanently recorded. 

A special article is devoted to the affairs of each country, which contains a 
sketch of its history during the year, whether it is at peace or at war, in a state 
of quiet or of revolution, and full official and reliable information on its area, 
population, religion, education, army and navy, commerce, industry, militaiy 
affairs, the public questions agitated, and the reforms effected. (See the titles 
of all countries.) No efforts are spared to secure the fullest information from 
all parts of the world, and it is considered that in its several departments the 
work may be safely consulted as the completest and most reliable book of refer- 
ence. 

The details of American affairs in these pages embrace the speeches and pro- 
ceedings of Congress on the important questions of silver remonetization, re- 
gumption />f specie payments, the use of the army, etc. (see Conobess) ; the 
administration of the Federal Government (see Untied States) ; its army and 
navy (see Ajonr and Navy) ; the successful progress of its finances to a specie 
basis; the revenue from commerce and internal taxation; the demand for 
Government paper money (see Finances); the organization of the National 
party and its principles ; the unusual commercial activity ; the labor movements 
in several States, especially Massachusetts and California, with the details of the 
Chinese question ; the finances of the States ; their debts and resources ; their 
educational, charitable, and reformatory institutions ; the struggles of their in- 
debted cities and counties ; the various political conventions of the year, with 
their nominationg and resolutions ; the results of elections ; the proceedings of 
State L^islatures on a number of local questions of importance ; the extension of 
railroads and telegraphs, and all those improvements involved in the peaceful 
and rapid progress of the country, for which see each of the respective States. 

In the Old World the year 1878 marks a turning-point of its history. The 
reconstruction of Eastern Europe, long recognized by European diplomatists as 
an unavoidable necessity, was begun in earnest. By the treaty of Berlin, Bou- 
mania and Servia have been added to the list of independent states ; Bulgaria 
has actually become independent ; Eastern Boumeh'a has received the hope of 
future independence, which decaying Tm*key can not withhold for any length 
of time ; Bosnia and Herzegovina will be reorganized by Austria ; Greece has 
been promised an increase of territory ; Bussia has gained new regions, both in 
Europe and Asia, which she considered of strategical importance. Turkey, at 
last comprehending the danger of an entire decomposition, has purchased the 



iv PREFACE. 

promise of English aid by the cession of Cyprus and the pledge of internal re 
forms. For these important changes, see the articles Eastebn Question, Turkey, 
BouMANiA, Sebvia, Cypbus, Gbeece, Buloabia, and the map of Turkey. The 
peaceful change of rulers in France and the rapid advance of its republicanism ; 
the civil struggles in Germany to withstand the growing weight of the empire ; 
the frightful internal disorders threatening Russia ; the demise of the venerable 
Pius IX., and the peaceful inauguration of his successor, with the declaration of 
his policy, are fully described under the appropriate titles. 

A complete view of the various departments of internal commerce and the 
commercial prosperity of the country, and the astonishing development of its 
manufacturing industry, will be found under the title Commebce, Internal, 
while the vast agricultural crops of the respective States are noticed under the 
title of each. 

The advance in astronomical and chemical science, and the inventions and 
improvements in other branches, as the electric light, the megaphone, microphone, 
etc., etc., are fully and carefully set forth, with numerous illustrations. 

The article on the United States Life-saving Service (see Sebvice), with 
illustrations of every important step, is by Mr. William D. O'Connor, Assistant 
General Superintendent of that service, and has been read and approved by the 
General Superintendent, Mr. S. I. Kimball. 

The article on Meteorology is from the pen of Professor C. Abbe, a member 
of the Signal Service Department. 

The great engineering enterprises of the worid in progress are f uUy de- 
scribed, and also numerous mechanical improvements. 

The narrative of geographical discoveries in the different parts of the world 
is very complete ; also under the title Earth are presented summaries of the 
large divisions of the globe according to the latest statistics. 

The record of Literature and Literary Progress in the United States and in 
each of the countries of Europe is extensive and important. 

The results of the World's Exhibition at Paris are presented in a summary 
but very complete manner. 

As Turkey has been for centuries the recognized leader of Mohammedanism, 
the late Eastern war has dealt a severe blow to that religious belief. Its recent 
history, present condition, and the progressive decay apparent, have been de- 
scribed. 

Special articles on the great religious divisions and denominations constitute 
probably the only religious history of the year now accessible in the English 
language. 

In the biographical department is a full sketch of the new President of the 
French Republic, and obituary notices of eminent persons of all countries de- 
ceased during the year. 

Abstracts of important legal decisions in various States are herein given. 

Besides numerous illustrated articles, the volume contains steel portraits of 
William Cullen Bryrant, Professor Joseph Henry, and Queen Victoria. 

All important documents, messages, orders, and letters from officials and 
' others, have been inserted entire. 



APPLETOKS' 

ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA. 



♦»♦ 



A 



ADVEin'ISTS. Sbvshth-Dat Advknt- 
Br&. — ^Tbe seyenteenth aannal session of the 
General Ckmferenee of the Seventh-Day Ad- 
ventists was held at Battle Greek, Miohigao, 
beginning October 14th. Elder James White 
presided. The following statistics of the con- 
dition of the denomination were presented : 



co?mcBSNCia. 


i 


1 


1 


1 


jUiijiit 


8 
7 
9 
8 
9 

91 
4 
8 
9 

14 

18 
4 
& 
8 
9 
8 
1 

.. 
9 

• • 

• • 

1 


9 

7 

8 

5 

10 

19 

4 

18 

7 

S 

5 
9 
8 
8 
6 
9 

6 

•• 

■ • 

8 


16 

98 

91 

40 

14 

108 

19 

47 

95 

51 

79 

14 

96 

99 

6 

5 

4 

8 

16 

9 

• . 

5 


819 


Tmaont tt 


695 


Vtv durlsnd 


460 


Sr«ir Tmind Pennflylranift. . . . 
<Mo. 


850 
896 


Vvliiran .r-r 


8,908 


iTHftglft • ■......»•-» 


'880 


yji^anrfu - 


1,166 


Ufe^ , ,,.-,.,-, 


700 


IftHMW^II 


860 


lam%. and ISLtStaemA^ 


VXX) 


W^^pwyi ,. r. 


^65 




696 


riBitL. .-1* ^ 


740 


Keatecky and TeBneaaee 


79 
915 


Tfxsa Minkm ■ ■ . . 


150 


toMnI e^oatbern Mission 


69 
900 


SeraiftMiwioo 


45 


r<J<w«iln 'U'lulnn 


80 


Hkmh MlMkHiu 


80 






Total 


117 
106 


154 
97 


549 
478 


18,077 


AAKiTiB ia 13TT 


11,708 






GaiB dnrfa^ thie jear 


11 


57 


71 


1,969 



The total amoant of the pledges for sjste- 
matio benerolence was $47,687.29. A new 
Conference in Nebraska, called the Nebraska 
Conference, and the North Pacific Oonference, 
v€re recognized and admitted to representa- 
tion in the General Oonference. The bodies 
of Seventh-Daj Adyentist belicTers in Ne- 
Tida and Virginia were taken nnder the 
▼ateh-care of the General Oonference. In 
mswer to applications from Oalifornia, His- 
toQii, Kansas^ Dakota, and Ohio for help in 

Vol. mn. — 1 A 



bnilding up and strengthening the churches of 
the denomination, a committee was appointed 
to consider what coidd be done toward sup- 
plying the wants of those districts^ " and those 
of anj other portion of the field m like situa- 
tion, according to their appeals and requests." 
The general circulation of the works called 
** The Spirit of Prophecy " and " The Testi- 
monies" was recommended: and the Tract 
Societies were advised to make special efforts 
to place them in the library of each church, 
and in the hands of scattered brethren. The 
General Ooi^erence Oommittee were charged 
with the consideration of the subject of print- 
ing sermons on the principal points of the de- 
nominational faith, to be written by Elder 
James White, for the use of readers, colpor- 
teurs, visitors, and others. The opening of a 
mission in Great Britain was decided upon, 
and a missionary was appointed to that neld. 
A committee of three was appointed to take 
the sapervision of the entire work in Europe, 
with the understanding that they should act 
in harmony with the General Oonference and 
under its direction. 

Meetings of the General Tract a/nd M%a- 
9uma/ry Society^ the Educational Society^ the 
PMuhing Aeeoeiation^ the General Satibath- 
School Asaociation, and the Health-B^orm In" 
ititute were held in connection with the Gen- 
eral Oonference. The receipts of the Tract 
and Missionary Societies in the several Oonfer- 
ences had been in the aggregate $12,818.67, 
and they returned 142 districts of operation 
and 5,462 members, with 10,246 subscribers to 
the periodicals of the society. The Oonfer- 
ence agents had distributed 62,710 " annuals," 
188,261 periodicals^ and 6,296,802 pages of 
tracts. A tract society having been organized 
in Europe, a report was made from it of which 
the following is a summary : Number of mem- 
bers, including those in Germany, Italy, France, 
Egypt, and Switzerland, 201 ; missionary vis- 
its, 840; letters written, 108; periodicals dis- 



2 AFGHANISTAN. 

tribnted, 1,187 ; pageH of tracts distributed, 79,- be willing to go ont and fight wheneyerthe 
007 ; monej received, $56.80. The receipts jehad should be proclaimed and a part of the 
of the General Tract Society during the year country allotted to tJiem to subdue, objected 
had been $447.16, and its expenditures $455.- to being brought under the restrictions of a 
08. The larger part of the expense had been regular soldier^s life. In some cases the Ameer 
incurred for publications, which had been sent induced concurrence with his plans by sobsi- 
to nearly all the Southern States, and to Eng- dizdng the petty chiefs with acceptable gifts, 
land, Holland, Italy, and Africa, and, by means He is reported to have said, on taking leave of 
of agents in those places, to ail parts of the some of the minor chiefs wno reside near Brit- 
civilized world. ish territory : *^ Ton should remain outwardly 

The Treasurer of the Educational Society on good terms with the English, and try to get 

reported that the total value of the property as much money from them as you can. Bnt 

of the Society was $52,259.79, or, deducting be sure you do not let them become acquainted 

for the amount of debts against the same, with your mountain retreats. Manage to get 

$44,582.26. The receipts for the year had back tbe hostages you have given, and bind 

been $10,499.89. Resolutions were adopted yourselves only on personal responsibility.^* In 

recommending the selection of fifty young connection with these measures, the Ameer be- 

men who should become students at Battle gan to rebuild the fort near Ali Musjid. close to 

Creek College, to prepare for the ministry, the Khyber Fass^ and about two marcnes from 

those of them who need help to be assisted by Peshawer. In June rumors became prevalent 

loans of money without interest, and of fifty that the Ameer was massing troops on the firon- 

young women to be similarly assisted in pre- tier of Afghanistan, and was trymg to intrigue 

paring themselves for missionary work ; and with the nobles who were hostile to the pres- 

that efforts be made to raise a reserve fuud of ence of the English troops at Eelat and Quet- 

five thousand dollars for each of these purposes, ta, and who disapproved of the friendliness of 

The receipts of the Publishing Association the Khan of Eelat toward the British Govern- 

for the year had been $288,071.88, and its ment Evidence of the unfriendly disposition 

property was valued, clear of debts, at $99,- of the Ameer was given by the publication 

112.68. It published three English, one Da- at Constantinople, in July, of a letter which 

nish, and one Swedish periodical, which, to- he had addressed to the Sultan of Turkey in 

gether with the publications of the Californian January, in which he expressed regret that the 

and Swiss publishing houses, had an aggregate English had remained neutral in the Russo- 

monthly circulation of 67,676 copies. Turkish war ; advised the Sultan that the Rus- 

The receipts of the Health-Reform Institute sians, while they were as energetic as the Eng- 

for the year had been $185,228.87. Its prop- lisb, surpassed them in real friendship ; de- 

erty was valued, above all liabilities, at $67,- clared that he was convinced that the Russians 

591.56. There had been 615 patients treated were much more honest and sincere than the 

at the Institute, and its gross earnings for the English; and begged his Majesty "to with- 

year had been $82,000, and its actual gains draw from the English alliance and to ap- 

$15,000. proach Russia.-' 

The meeting of the General Sabbath-School About the same time it was noticed that the 

Association was the first in its history. The Russian General Eaufmann had, on the 23d of 

Secretary's report showed that auxiliary asso- June, taken the command of an expeditionary 

oiations had been formed in twelve of the dif- force to, march through Bokhara to the upper 

ferent Conferences. Since most of the organi- basin of the Oxus. The " Moscow Gazette," 

zations had been so recently formed, their re- in an article on the subject, suggested that this 

ports were brief and incomplete. Twelve of movement might be the Russian answer to the 

them (Michigan, Iowa, Kansas, Wisconsin, British occupation of Cyprus, and showed that 

New England, California, Illinois, Missouri, the presumea destination of the expedition was 

Ohio, Minnesota. Vermont, and Indiana) re- hardly more than four hundred versts, or twen^ 

ported 177 schools and 5,851 members. ty days' march, from the British possessions, 

AFGHANISTAN. The reports of the in- and added : " England has constantly shown 

temal condition of Afghanistan at the close of herself Jealous of our progress in Asia. She 

1877 indicated that the Ameer was endeavor- knows that each step we make, each new dip- 

ing to combine and consolidate his forces, and lomatic or military success we gain, hastens 

to carry out a policy which would eventually the moment at which Russia will be able to 

reduce the divisions of his state and give it a extend and consolidate her influence in the 

more compact organization. In those parts of countries bordering on the British possessions, 

the country where his authority was accepted, The present time seems very favorable for a 

be was forming an army on the system of com- continuation of this policy." The expedition 

pulsory military service, by forcing one man was supposed to be aimed at Balkh, a point 

in every twenty to enlist. Where this mea- south of the Oxus, claimed by Shere Ali as ar 

sure could not be carried out, a poll tax was Afghan province, and lying beyond the line 

levied. Difficulty was experienced in getting which the Russians had agreed in 1878 that 

the recruits to subject themselves to dril^ they would not pass. The menace to India 

since the new levies, while they professed to which would be involved in a Russian oocupa- 



ATOHANISTAN. 8 

don of Baikh was mentioned by Lord Olaren- of this khanate vonld redaoe th« diatance be- 

den M loDg ago as 1669, when in his cDrr»- tween the Raaaian and English frontiers to 

nuDdeoEewitb Prince Gortchakoff he said that abont 826 miles, b? roads easil; passable in 

Bilkb codd be of no use to Russia except fur SDmmer, but not so in winter. No offlcial 

pDrposM of aegTession, and that " on the Bin- news was given reeptjcting the progress of the 

doo Koosh ue British possessions might be expedition; but the Russian Agency iiabliHhed 

Tia>ed u a traveler on the summit of the an article denying the statements tliat were 

Simpkin might sorrey the plains of Italy." A current respecting its object, and professin); 

liter and more definite statement of the ob- that they related to old oconcreoces belonginjj 

jeds of the Bastiao expedition represented to a time when England was making prepara- 

chtt it aimed at the oooopation of the six tions for a war with Rossia. The state of 

miDor khanates between the soutbem coarse things hod ceased with the causes with whicli 

of the AmOD Darya and the Hindoo Koosh, it originated, and all the measnres connected 

one of which, Yakban. was acknowledged to therewith bad since been oonntermanded. 

be feudatory to Afghanistan. The occnpation A Bnssian mission, consisting of three En- 



ropttn officers, of whom the chief was Oen- senger to Tashkend. This embastiy was rep- 

tril Stotietof^ accompanied by an escort of resented by a Rnsrian diplomatist to have 

roaascks and Dzbecka, reached Cabool on the been ordered a long time l^efore the Con- 

!3dof July, and was received bythe Ameer in gress of Berlin, when the Russian relations 

iiriar, when the chief of the mission deliv- with England had assamed a threatening obar- 

tni two letters to the Ameer — one from the acter. 

(W. ud one from the Govemor-Gieneral of 1£. Arminins Yambfiry, in a letter written 

Tarkixtan. On the !d of Aagnst e, grand to the "AllgemeiDeZeitoog," represented that 

reriew was held in honor of the mission, the chief oh^ect of this Russisn mission was to 

lo which troops and represeDtadves had been establish friendly relations between Tashkeod 

nmmooed from all parts of Afghanistan, and Cabool. As a means of puttiog prexsnre 

Afl«r the review, the Ameer gave ue envoys on Shere Ali with this view, Russia was hold- 

*nneo replies to the Rassian letter, which ing in reserve the A^han Prince Abdurrahman 

were immediatelr sent oS by a special mea- Ehan, a relativeof the Araeer,andat the aame 



4 ATGHANISTAN. 

time his deadly enemy. Abdarrahman had for before, and was a member of the party which 
some time been residing in voluntary esdle at aooompanied Sir Douglas Forsyth to Yorkand 
Samarcand, and with the help of Bnssia might and ^leishgar in 1874. 
become veiy dangerous to Shore Ali. It had The embassy arrived at Simla about the hi 
been lately reported that Russia proposed to of September. An envoy had been sent to the 
exchange Abdurrahman for Khndayar Khan, Ameer at Gabool with letters announcing the 
the ex-ruler of Khokand, who had escaped dur- intention of the Governor-General to dispatch 
ing the preceding winter from Orenburg to the mission, and General Chamberlain and his 
Cabool. but Ehudayar, though he is evidently sti^ remained near the frontier for several 
a man of considerable energy, was not popular days awaiting the answer of the Ameer. The 
with his people, who had thrice expelled him. envoy, Ghulam Hussein Khan, who was per- 
from their country ; and M. Yamb^ry thought sonally well known and popular at Cabool, 
the Russians were not likely to pat themselves having resided there as a British agent fur 
to any trouble to get him again into their hands, several years, was hospitably received, Sep- 
Abdurrahman, on the other hand, was very tember 10th, but was given no encouragement 
popular in northeastern Afghanistan ; and by concerning the object of his visit ; the Ameer 
threatening to support him as a pretender to saying, it was reported, in reference to the 
the Afghan throne, Russia could at any mo- Briti& embassy, tnat if he chose to receive a 
ment secure the submisslveness of Shore Ali mission he would himself invite it, but mean- 
to its wishes. while it must await his pleasure at Peshawer. 
A special mission was appointed by the In- Sir Neville Chamberlain, having learned the 
dian Government in August to proceed to Ca- Ameer's determination, decided to proceed on 
bool for the purpose of opening negotiations his expedition without waiting tor a formal 
with the Ameer, with a view, among its other answer. He left Peshawer on the 21st of Sep- 
objects, to induce the Ameer to allow a British tember for Jumrood, a point in British terri- 
resident to remain permanently at his capital tory close to the Afghan frontier, while M^or 
It was under the direction of Lieutenant-Gen- Cavagnari of his st^ was dispatched with an 
eral Sir Neville Chamberlain, who was accom- escort of ^yberies to Ali Musjid, a station in 
panied by several other officers and a doctor, Afghan territory, to ask for a safe passage 
and numbered, with his retinue of escorts, from the Ameer's officer. The Afghan officer 
{guides, and bearers, about one thousand men. gave a courteous but decided refusal to the 
Sir Neville Chamberlain, the chief of this mis- British request After spending three hoars 
sion, is an officer of the Indian service, whose in parleying with the Af^an, M^jor Cavagnari 
military career began with the former Afghan returned to Jumrood. The embassy then re- 
war, where, although he was hardly more than tired to Peshawer, in obedience to instructions 
a boy, he served with great honor, and gained telegraphed from the Viceroy, after which it 
a high reputation for gallantry. He was soon was dissolved. Ghulam Hussein Khan, the 
made commander of a regiment of irregalar Viceroy's envoy, was recalled from Cabool, 
cavalry, and rose by rapid steps to the com- and orders were issued for the concentration 
mand of the Panjaub frontier force, a body of of troops on the Afghan frontier. ReSnforce- 
about eleven regiments of infantry and cavalry, ments were' dispatched for the garrison at 
which is stationed to guard the line of the Quetta ; a body of European and native troops 
northwest border, is directly under the orders was stationed at Thull, at the entrance to tlie 
of the Government of the Punjaub, and has Kuram Valley : a reserve force was collected 
been engaged in almost constant conflict with at Sukkur ; and the Baroghil and Eorambar 
the enemy. From this command he was called Passes were occupied by the troops of the 
during the mutiny to take the place of Colonel Maharajah of Cashmere. On the other hand, 
Chester, Adjutant-.General of the Army, who the Ameer of Af^anistan threw a large force 
was killed before Delhi. On the fall of Delhi into the Ehyber JPass, having a little i^ter the 
he returned to the Punjaub, whence he was se- middle of October, as was estimated at that 
lected to command the troops which undertook time, collected at Ali Musjid, three miles from 
the Umbeyla compaign of 1868. He was here the British station at Jumrood, 25,000 men. 
severely wounded for the eighth time during The Ameer returned by the envoy, Nawab 
his military service, and the campaign was com- Ghulam Hussein Ehan, a reply to the British 
pleted by Sir John Garvock. General Cham- re<^uest, which Lord Cranbrook, in a dispatch 
berlain after these events retired from active written afterward, characterized as evasive, 
service to the more quiet but highly honorable and which the British Government refused to 
position of Commander-in-Chief of the Madras accept as Shore All's final answer. The Brit- 
Army, which he held at the time when he was ish Cabinet then instructed the Viceroy of 
appointed upon the mission to Cabool. By India to address to his Highness a demand, 
reason of his long and distinguished service *4n temperate language," requiring a full and 
on the border, it is said *' no &iglish name is suitable apology within a given time for the 
better known or more respected throughout affront he had offered to the Imperial Govern - 
Afghanistan." Among his associates was Mr. ment, the reception of a permanent British 
Walter Henry Bellew, who had accompanied mission within his territories, and reparation 
Lomsden's mission to Cabool twenty-one years for any injury which had been inflicted by him 



AFGHANISTAK. 6 

on the tribei which bad attended the embasej', was reached with Rnaaia tlist the IndeDendenoe 

oith u nodertalciiig not to molMt them here- and integrity of Afghanistan shcmM be re- 

ifter: ud to notify hioi that, unless a dear speoted bj both powers, the Ameer had been 

•nd utitfuitoiT refjj was received from him anxioas for an Englirii alliance to protect him 

bj die iOth of November, his intentions would from Enssia ; then, while he was still seeking 

b« Mondered hostile and he would he treated to obttun a promise of protectioQ, the Vioerov, 

u ■ declared enemy. The dispatob of Lord Lord Nortbbrook, by instmotioii of the Gov- 

Cruibrook ooDt^ing these iostraotions em- ernment, informed him, " in ooociliatory lan- 

Ixxlfed ■ review of the transaotionB of the gnage," that "the discussion of the question 

Briiieh Oovemment with Shere Ali since his vonld be best postponed to a more convenient 

icKffiioa, and of its endeavors to secnre the season," and the feelings of his Highness be- 

iite^ty of iiis territory. The ot^eot of the oame nnfavorable to the British Government. 

Bridib Government daring the whole series He shortly afterward begtm to onltivate the 

of yean bad been, it said, to establish on its Bnsaians, and met British overtnrea with in- 

Boribwestera border " a strong, friendly, and creasing coldness. Although the previous 

independent state with interests in nnison with efforts to secnre the admission of a Briiish 

th<m ol the Indian Government ready to act in ^ncy into the oonntry had failed, the recep- 

Krtun eveatnalitiee as an auxiliary in the pro- tion of a Russian mission in 18T8 " left him " 

brtioD of the frontier from intrigue or aggTe»- (the Ameer) " no ftirtber esooSe for deoliniag 

MO." Cntil the lime that an understanding to receive at hia oaf)it«l the envoy from the 



British Government " ; and the embassy of Sir Major-General Sir Samuel Browne command- 

^~«TiIle Chamberlain was appointed, and oon- ing ; and the Qnetta column, Mtqor-General 

ftluted of men chosen because they were per- A. S. Biddnlph commanding, of which Lieu- 

'ouUj acceptable to his Highness. The Ameer tenant- General Donald Stewart afterward took 

«u swara that the whole policy of the British the command. The whole force was reckoned 

Gnrenmient eince his aoceesion to the throne at 84,000 men, one third Europeans. 

iitd been to strengthen his power and anthori- On the 31st of November, the Ameer having 

tr and to protect him from foreign aggression, failed to return the answer and give the assu- 

•il^Dgb the methods adopted for doing so ranees demanded by the British Government, 

niirlit not at all timee have accorded with his a detachment of British troops crossed the 

nn view; and he was bound by every bond frontier and occnnied Fort Eapion, opposite 

"I hitematianal courtesy, as well as by the Thnll, which had oeen abandoned by the Af- 

ir?stT engagements of 19SS, to a line of oon- ghan troops. On the next day, all the forces, 

dnrt'lhe reverse of that which he had adopted, nnmbering about SS,()00 troops, more than half 

The British forces were organized for the of whom were native, were ordered to move 

'"nt^mplated kdvanoa in three divisions : the forward. At daybreak on the Sist bd advance 

Eiram Valley oolnmn, U^or-Oeneral F. S. was made from Jumrood toward Fort Ali Mus- 

Boberta commanding ; the Jnmrood oolumn, Jid, and an engagement took place which lasted 



6 AFGHANISTAN. 

through the daj. The British having occupied The internal affiiirs of Alghanistan were 

a defile in the rear of the Afghans, these aban- complicated bj the death, in Aagost, of Ab- 

doDed the fort daring the nightL and General dallah Jan, the jonngest and favorite son of 

Browne occupied it on the morning of the 22d Shere All, and heir apparent to the throne, 

without firing another gun. On the 28d the oc- leaving the onestion of the saccesdoD again 

cupation without resistonce of Sibi, by a column in dispute. Of the five sons of 8here All, two . 

which was advancing bj the way of Quetta, are now dead : Mohammed All, the eldest, who 

was reported. A proclamation to the Afghans fell in battle in 1865, and Abdalli^ Jan, the 

was issued hj the Viceroy on the 22d, which, heir, just deceased. The eldest surviving son 

after reciting the history of the relations be- is Ibrahim Khan, who is represented to be of 

tween India and Afghanistan during the past a good di^osition and loyal to his father, but 

ten years, and the recent efforts to dispatch an of no ability, and hardly to be thought of as 

embassy to the Ameer, declared that ^* with the the future ruler of the country. Takoob Khan, 

Sirdars and people of A^hanistan the Indian the third son, is able enough, but has been in 

Government has no quarrel, as they have given rebellion and always at difference with his 

no offense. The independence of Afghanistan father, and has been in prison since 1874 for 

will be respected ; but the Government of India intriguing against the succession of Abdallah 

can not tolerate that any other power should Jan. Ayoob Khan, the fuU brother of Ya- 

interfere in the'international affairs of Afghan- koob, took no part in pnblic affairs till he fled 

istan " ; and it concluded : " Upon the i^eer with Takoob Khan from Oabool in 1870. He 

Shere Ali alone rests the responsibility of afterward lived at Herat with Takoob Khan 

having exchanged the friendship for the hos- till the time of that prince's imprisonment in 

tility of the Empress of India." Leaving Ali 1874, when, having failed in an attempt to 

Musjid in charge of a British regiment. General instigate a rebellion, he retired to Persian 

Browne continued his march to Laudikana and territory. Another claimant to the throne is 

Dakka, where he reached the frontier of Af- Abdurrahman, the son of Shere All's elder 

ghanistan proper, having destroyed by his sue- brother Afzool Khan, who took an active part 

cesses the Ameer's authority in the independent in his father's cause against Shere Ali, but 

territory. On the route, the head men of the sought refuge in Tashkend after the latter pre- 

hill tribes came out to pay their respects to vailed. The Russians have for the last five 

the British general, among tiiem Monammed years allowed him a subsidy of about $16,000 

Shah, chief of Ldpoor and head of the Mah- a year ; and, as he is thoroughly Russianized, 

munds, hitherto the Ameer's allies. he will be a good candidate for them to set np 

The Russian embassy remained at Cabool in case they desire to take a part in settling a 

after the breach with England, and showed disputed A^han succession. The last proba- 

no signs of an intention to withdraw from the ble claimant to the succession is Ahmed All, 

country. It was reported in October that it son of Mohammed Ali, the first named of Shere 

designed to visit all the important localities. All's sons. He is described as being an Intel- 

and seek full information respecting their com- lisent youth of about eighteen ^ears of age, 

mercial and industrial resources, and the dis- with a pleasing demeanor and fairly well eda- 

position of the people. The Russian Govern- cated. He has always been in favor with his 

ment replied to the inquiries of the British grandfather, and it is thought that he will be 

Government respecting the purposes of the preferred as the heir. His mother has another 

mission, that it had been decided upon at a son, who, however, being deaf and dumb, is 

time and under circumstances now no longer not likely to be brought into the contest, 

existing (under the probability of a war with The Afghans in front of the column of 

England), but was now intended merely as an General Roberts in the Kuram Valley fell 

act of courtesy to the Ameer. A semi-oflScial back behind Peiwar Kotul. General Roberts 

statement was also made, to the effect that pushed forward, and reached the foot of the 

there was no ground for the assumption which pass with his column on the 29th. The enemy 

some parties had made that the Russian Gov- fired upon the British troops when they were 

ernment had any part in the deciaon of Shere about to take up tbeir quarters for the night. 

Ali to reject the British mission. On the After a light engagement, the British en- 

18th of December an announcement was made camped on the ground they had occupied* 

that the Russian embassy had been formally The Afghan position was turned on the night 

and oflScially withdrawn. It was afterwa^ of December 1st, and the enemy were entirely 

stated that tiie recall of the mission had been defeated at four o'clock in the afternoon of 

ordered because of increased friendly feelings the next day, with heavy loss, while the Brit> 

toward England, and because the peaceful ish lost ninety killed and wounded. Some 

policy had obtained the ascendancy. It was trouble was experienced in the Khyber Pass 

suggested, however, that the step was also from the depreoations of the hiU tribes, who, 

partly directed by motives of policy, the rapid having gained positions there, harassed the 

advance of the British arms and the precarious convoys and messengers for the purpose of 

situation of the Ameer threatening to put the plunder. Migor Oavagnari was sent to punisli 

mission in an embarrassing attitude if it re- the marauders ; he broke up tlie hostile com- 

mained. bination and cleared the pass. (See India.) 



AFRICA. 



ALABAMA. 



AFRICA The area and population of the estimated as follows by Behm and Wagner 
iifferent divisions and subdivisions in 1878 are (** Bev5lkerung der Erde," vol. v., Gotha, 1878) : 



Dmsioirs jlsd subdivisions. 



SoBiHnjr AniOA. 

Moraooix ......••• ...••«• 

AJfwto 

Taais 

Tripoli (todnaiTe of Fezzan and Barca). 

Mitn 

HoRmmur AvaiCA 

Egypt (laclnslTe of Darfbor, Harar, etc) 

Otb*r territory 

CnrnuSooDAX 

WBTicr SooDAir 

Urm GnviA. 

TkunosTor rm Eqitatok. 

BQCTOI5 AmoA. .. 

Bffttah territory (inc. of CaAaria and Tranavaal Bepobllc) 

Onage Free Btate 

OAv territory 

fauna Of m Atlahtxc Oobajt , 

faUXM or TBI IXDIAK OOKAlff 

Total 



The Csffre rimng in the Gape Colony, which 
seemed to have been quelled in 1877, broke 
OQt anew in the last days of that year, and 
contmned during the first half of 1878. It 
guned great force from the fact that numer- 
ous chiefs who hod not participated in the 
ming of 1877 joined the GsJika chief Kicli in 
1S78, notably among them SandiUi, the chief 
of the Gaikas. It was considered the most 
formidable rising in the colony since 1851. 
Risings also occurred in Griqaaland, while on 
the horders of Natal and the Transvaal prov- 
ince a war with the Zooloos was imminent. 

A complete revolution took place in the 
fidministration of Egypt during 1878. A finan- 
cial crisis brought about by the f alling-off of 
the revenuee 1^ to the formation of a Com- 
mittee of Inquiry, which in its report pro- 
posed sweeping reforms in the administration 
of the finances. The plan of the commission 
received the sanction of the Khedive and was 
immediately carried into effect. (See Egtpt.) 

In Abyasinia the state of affairs continaed 
m a disordered condition during 1878. The 
rehel chief Mdek remuned with his men in 
the heights of Hamaseen. King Johannes in 
the early part of the year sent him a message 
to wait until lUPter the rains, when he womd 
severely punish him. 

Morocco was visited during 1878 by the 
cholera, the disease assuming a very malignant 
form, and causing great distress. 

AGRICULTURE. See CoiaiEBCB and Unit- 
oStatss. 

ALABAMA. The fiscal year of the State 
terminates on September SOth. The amount 
received for general taxes during the year end- 
ing September 80, 1878, was $556,441.14 ; from 
fKnerid taxes of previous years, $87,058.20 ; 
total trom taxes, $593,499.84. The sum re- 
eved from licenses and other sources was 
{1^729.02 ; making the total receipts $718,- 



AMA DV SQUABS MUiBS. 


POPULi 


ITIOK. 


Of dhrMoaiu 


Of MibdlvldoBi. 


Of dlTblOBfc 


Of rabdIvUook 


8,845,200 


• • • * * ■ 


16,677,600 


•••••• 




260,000 




6,000,000 




122,914 




2,867,626 




4S,T0O 




2,100,000 




844,500 




1,010,000 


•••••• 


2,072,600 


•••••• 


8,700,000 


1,828,000 


•••••• 


41,880,000 


• • • • • • 




860,400 




17,100,000 


• • • • ■ • 


050,000 


• • • • • • 


21,280,000 


MT,&00 




81,400,000 




58^000 




17,600,000 




288,000 




26,000,000 




1,868,000 




44,000,000 




2,600,000 




26^270,000 


•••••• 




870^574 




^''SS'Si 




42,600 




65,000 


•••••• 


8,106,000 


• • • • • . 


28,464,000 


^96« 




570,668 




28\fi85 




8,812,242 




10,941,000 




205,219,000 





228.36. The sum in the Treasury October 1, 
1877, was $198,787.68 ; of this amount $37,- 
759.61 was not available for general purposes, 
but was uDcurrent or belonged to the swamp 
and overfiowed land fund. The available re- 
sources for meeting all State expenses during 
the fiscal year were therefore $879,206.38. The 
total disbursements during the year were $651,- 
845.09, and the amount in the Treasury Octo- 
ber 1, 1878, was $265,620.85. Of this sum 
$34,492.61 is not available for general pur- 
poses, leaving subject to warrants $231,128.41 
on the 1st of October. The following items 
became due and payable on and before the Ist 
of January, 1879 : 

Interest and ezpenaea on State obUgatfons $40,000 

Interest on bonded debt 86,000 

Interest on UnlTersity Fund 12,000 

Interest on A^rlenltaral and Meehantoal OoUege Fond. 6,070 

Insane Asylum appropriation 16^600 

Dea^Domb. and BHnd Institution 4^ 

Salaries of officers, sberift^ fees, feeding priscmers, and 

oUier claims, not less than 65,000 

Expenses of Oeneral Assembly and appropriations... 40,000 

Making a total of $260,070 

This added to $25,000 also paid out makes an 
aggregate of $284,070 ; and to meet it there 
was in the Treasury October 1st $231,128.41. 

The issue of new bonds under the compro- 
mise of the State debt has been nearly com- 
pleted. (See volume for 1876.) The amount 
issued is $7,508^00. They are divided into 
three classes. Class A consists of the direct 
or what are called straight bonds of the State, 
that in no wise have reference to railroads, and 
bear interest at the rate of 2 per cent, for five 
years, 8 per cent, for the next five years, 4 
per cent for the next ten years, and thereafter 
5 per cent. Class B are bonds issued to take 
up the four-thousand-dollar-per-mile gold 
bonds, and make a complete and final separa- 
tion of the State from all liabilities for and 
complications with the railroads, and bear 5 



g ALABAMA. 

per cent, interest. Glass are bonds issaed to of $54,921.20 over and above all expenses, 

take up the bonds endorsed hj the State for the There were remaining in the Insane Hospittd 

Alabama and Chattanooga Railroad Company, on October 1, 1878, 408 patients. Thirty-three 

and bear 2 per cent interest for five years, and have been discharged as recovered duriBg 

thereafter 4 per cent Of Glass A the State has the past year. The Agricultural and Me- 

exchanged $6,878,700, leaving of that class yet chanical Gollege of the State at Anbam is re- 

to be exchanged, as nearly as can at present ported as more prosperous than auy other sim- 

be ascertained, $586,469.50. Of Glass B the ilar institution in tne Sonthem States. The 

State has exchanged $586,000, leaving yet to be beneficial results of the State Normal School 

exchanged of this class $7,500. Of Class G the at Florence have been such as to awaken mnch 

State had to issue $1,000,000 of new bonds, and public gratification with the institution. The 

exchange them for the bonds of the Alabama revised public-school system went into opera- 

and Chattanooga Railroad Company, which had tion on October 1, 1877, and very favorable 

been endorsed by the State as stated in the law ; results have followed the short period of its ex- 

and the State has issued and exchanged of the istenoe. 

new bonds $600,000. and has taken up of the A convention of the fire-insurance under- 
old endorsed bonds tne proper amount for the writers of the State was held in Montgomery 
new bonds thus exchanged. All of the new in June, when a State Association was formed 
bonds issued and exchanged, or to be exchanged, and officers were elected, 
are thirty-year bonds, wiUi the right of re- The product of the coal mines, especially 
newal by the State if desired. The amount yet along the North and South Railroad, is increas- 
to be exchanged, including the $400,000 of the ing rapidly. From 88,180 tons in 1874, it had 
Alabama and Chattanooga Railroad endorsed increased to 189,182 in 1877 ; and that of 1878 
bonds, is $948,969.50 ^ provided all the en- was expected to be not less than 50 per cent, 
dorsed bonds of said railroad company shall be higher. The quality of the coal appears to be 
presented for exchange. To which must be well established as excellent It is used for 
added $1,000,000 of fundin^^ obligations, mok- steam, gas, and household purposes, 
ing the total amount, exclusive of trust funds. Gold is found in Randolph, Tallapoosa, Clay, 
$9,452,669.50. When exchanging is completed, and Cleburne Counties. Some years ago ex- 
the debt will be, as nearly as can be ascertained pensive mining operations were commenced 
at present, as follows : and subsequenUy suspended. It is anticipated 
flbuuiA ftiLoiniMAA^fi»».<i*nf AiMftM M that thcy wlll bc reucwed. The assay gives 

SSb:::::7^m2;wo oolsJSSSt;;;;;;;;;* S?;??? So 22 pennyweights to 1,000 pounds of ore, and 

OmuO 1,000,000 00 S a p<r cant 80.000 00 in some districts it is estimated to be richer. 

$8,4fis,660 00 $186328 88 -^ State Convention of the Democratic Con- 

ObBgmtioiis.. 1,000,000 00 ^ 8 per oent 80,000 00 servative party was held at Montgomery on 

M^Monn MMMflfta ^^7 29th. to nominate candidates for the of- 

«9,4fiB,6w 00 isiM^M 88 ^^ ^^ (Jovemor, Secretary of State, Attor- 

This amount of interest will be decreased ney-General, Auditor, Treasurer, and Saper- 

Bomewhat because of the amount of funding intendent of Education. The Convention was 

obUgations canceled and burned, and such as organized by the appointment of Walter L 

may be lost or destroyed, etc. Bragg as chairman. The following nomina- 

During the year the amount of interest paid tions were made : For Govemor^jKufns W. 

on funding obligations was $71,042.86 ; on new Cobb ; for Secretary of State, W. W. Screws ; 

State bonds, $165,479.78 ; making the interest for Treasurer, Isaac H. Vincent; for Auditor, 

payment for 1878 $286,522.59. This includes WiUis Brewer ; for Attorney-General, H. 0. 

the necessary expenses which the State had to Tompkins : for Superintendent of Instruction, 

pay in making the payments of interest The Leroy F. Box. The following platform was 

amount of revenue from general taxes paid adopted: 

f^i^-nwf !f^J^^^ ^ i*^"" "^""i^"^' The Democratic «id Conserrativ people of Ala. 

S.^,?®^ o purposes, for the fiscal year ending tama in Convention aaaembled, reaaserthig the prin- 

80th of September, 1878, was $818,269.59. Ot oiples adopted in our Convention of 1876, do reaolve 

this amount, only $598,499.84 was paid into and deolare— 

the Treasury; the balance, $224,770.25, was ^l. That the Demooratio and Conaervative party of 

p«d to the coonti^to the enperintcndents for ^i^}^:^,,^^^ S'd A ^^fe^SlS 
school purposes. The surplus remaimng m the unoeaaing efforto. under the bleaainga of God, ia due 
Treasury after these payments was $66,888.27. the Dnaldefeat of the Radical leaders in their wicked 
The rate of taxation in 1874, 1875, and 1876 deBign,nianifoBtedfh)m the inception of reconatruc- 
was 75 cents on the hundred dollars' worth of **;?», ^ dentroy the peace, happiness, and prosperity 
T«./>*xA,.f TT T« 1 Qfrfr ««^ 1 QTo :4. «*»<. »rA ^«-.«.- Of both raccs in the South by involving them in cease- 
property. In 1877 and 1878 it was 70 cents. y^^ turmoil and ooUision. 

The State Penitentiary yields a revenue to 2. That the financial distreas, extending in many 

the State. During the past two years $80,000 localities to misery and want, is the necessary ont- 

in cash have been paid into the Treasury — $12,- growth of the profli^to expenditnree, fraudulent 

000 in labor, in payment for penitentiary farm, P»otloea.»dclaaa legislation which havemarked the 

-«^ A10 noi on C •^A' KYj-tK^uwa* j \t7 oourae of the Kepublioan party. They have created 

and $12,921.20, building a raJroad from We- ^ew and useless offices, and endowed those already 

tumpka to the S. and N. R. B., making a total created with princely perquisites inconsistent with 



ALABAMA. 9 

the lifflplieity of our syttem of government, and 8. We heartily eympathijEe with the parposes of 

hire orgmiaad en army of offioiab now attaining a the Preaident in hu efforts to remove all supposed 

itreogth which Daniel Webster warned us, forty causes of irritation arising from the alleged acts of 

j«en ago, would endanger the libertiea of our peo- the National Administration, and thus conduce to 

pie. We denounce the methods, the measures, and establish harmonious relations between the several 

toe men who are responsible for them as on worth/ classes of Southern society ; to eliminate intolerance 

the fopport of an honest and free people. and animosity from politiciu contests ; and to secure 

i. We congrBtalate the whole people of Ali^ to every citixen the full eigovment and exercise of 

buns opon the reign of good will ana reconoilia- his political rights and privileges. We regret that 

tioo, the sense of uberty and security, which per- these efforts have not been more successful . Har- 

Tide the entiie Umita of the State ; and while we monious relations have not been established : citi- 

Knev the pledges of protection to all the colored sens are denied the exercise and ei^oyment of their 




the union of the great governing race — the white maintained exclusively for his benefit. 

people of the land. 4. We denounce and condemn the spirit and pur- 

4. That the adminiatration of the State govern- pose with which the committee of Congress, known 
neat has been ably, wisely, and jnatly adnuniatered as the Potter Committee, are inquiring into the ex- 
liaoe the first inauguration of hia Excellency George istence and nature of alleged Kepubhcan Arauda at 
S. HoQiton; and we hold that the pledffea of the the late Presidential election in the States of Florida 
partj to retrench expenditures, reform aDuaea, and and Louisiana. If this investlnition were conducted 
unprove the laws have been rally redeemed. In fullv and impartially in the States of Mississippi, 
rapport of this aaaertion we refer with pleasure and Alabama, ana South Carolina, as well as those above 
oonfldenee to the statute booka, the financial oondi- named, and with reference to both political parties, 
ti'ia of the State, and the peace and good order which it would be found that Rutherford B. Hayes was en- 
perrtde the whole oommonwealth. titled to a great minority of the popular vote, and to 

5. That it is the purpose of the Democratio and the electoral vote, of all five Statea. 

ConMrvative party of this State to preserve invio- 5. The financial question having been disposed of 
lite its obligauona to the people and to the honaJUU by Congress, and the oountry at preaent needing re- 
creditors of the State ; and we congratulate the tax- pose, in order that capital mav seek investment, and 
pijen upon the prospect of being able to reduce the that industries may revive, tnus increasing the de- 
rate of taxation without impairing the credit of the mand for labor, the situation ou^ht to be aooepted ; 
Stifie or tamiahing its good name. and we oppose the further agitation of the question 

-, n i.i« om. ^ r^ ^ LI J] tkt this time as injurious to business and devoid of 

The Repabiioan State Convention assembled other than evil results. 

at >£oQtgoinery on July 4th. Oharles Hays was 6. We favor the construction of the Southern Pa- 

sppointed chairman. It was largely oomposed oific Bailroad by the aid of the General Government. 

of colored persons, and many counties of the ,. ^- 1^^?^ an amendment t» the State Constitu- 

c»-*^ -,^-« Ci*i..nn ^:.^4^ .^l»^<.»«4..f<^,* T4. tion aboDshmg the provision thereof which permits 

l?tate were without direct representation. It the waiver of exemptions. 

resolved to make no nommations for State of- We arraign the Democratic party before the peo- 

ficers, and not to contest with the Democratic pie on the following charges : 

fMrty for the control of the State. An address !• I* has been fiuse to its promises that it would 

to the Republicans of Alabama was adopted, ^<*^^J}^^ «te of taxation. This rate U in excess of 

.* u- \!iu jpvtZi^l iTT^ J^J:^ -^v^wc^, ^y^ ^ necessary to defriiy the expenses of govem- 

of which the foUo wmg is an extract : aent and to meet the obligations tS State creaiton. 

We poaitively believe that between the time ot S. That in the parts of the State where its political 

the opening and closing of the polls on the fifth day opponents were in a minority, it has violated the prin- 

of August next, a greater number of the quidified otples of looal self-government by removing from 

eleetors of the State would east their ballota for the office the penons elected by the people, and filling 

liOBuaees of this Convention for State offloen— if any their placea with officen appointed by the Governor, 

vers made— than for the persons who were nominat- against the will of the people. 

ed by the Democratio party. We positively believe 8. That by almost destroying the Aree-sohool sys- 

that if every qualified elector in the State, who so tem it has infiicted a cruel blow upon the children 

desired, were to vote on that day, and the ballots of the State committed to her nurture and guardian- 

vers honestly eonnted, our oandidates for State of- ahip ; that the money expended for their Muoation. 

Sees woald ba eleoted. The Bepublicana are as nu- b^ which ignorant labor would become skilled ana 

aeroos to-day as they were in 1878« when they car- divereified, would secure benefits of inestimable 

Tied the State, or as they were in 1374, when they value to the State. Bv its failure to foster the f^e 

eut more than 97,000 ballots, and more than one schools and provide ror their maintenance, it has 

bilf of the honest, legitimate votea of the State, been fHithleaa to its highest snd holiest trust. 

There have been nodeaertiona from their party in 4. That the syatemestabliahedbyit of hiring con- 

namber soillcient to be appreciable, or in number vietstowork outside ofthe penitentiary is pernicious, 

gRiter than its aoceaaions. because it imposes great hudship and suffering upon 

«. . „ . ,_. , J J. J the prisonen. and Dccause it is degrading to honest 

The foUowmg reeoiotions were also adopted : labor to be plaeed In competition with the labor of 

The Republicans of Alabama in Convention as- oriminals. 

•eobled make the following declaration of princi- Hetah^d^ That the Governor of Alabama is deserv- 

pjeg . ing of censure for his refhsal, on ample notice and 

1. We reoognise the equality of all men before the 'j " information, and upon the call of the sheriff of 

liv, snd hold thai it is Uie duty of the Government, *'^^ county, to take action to prevent a mob. in April 

h its dealings with the people, to mete out equal J*»t» ft?™ breAing and entering a jail in this State, 

lai exact juSloe to alL of whatever nativity, race, •* ""l^^^i ^^^^^^^^V^*?? !>"•<>?«" therefrom, and 

nht^w persuMion, religious or political. depriving them of life without form or color of law. 

1 We pledge ourselves to maintain the union of The election for State officers was held on 

' »r thirteenth, foSteenth, and fifteenth amendments Democratic party. The vote was as follows : 

•.fths Constitution. For (3k>yemor, Rufos W. Cobb, 89,671; for 



10 ALABAMA. 

Secretary of State, W. W. Screws, 87.678 ; for The biennial sessioxi of the Legislatare com- 
Auditor, Willis Brewer, 87,815 ; for Treasurer, menced at Montgomery on ISoyember 12tb. 
I. H. Vincent, 88,281 ; for Attorney-General, The Senate was organized by the choice of V. 
H. G. Tompkins, 88,204. In the Senate fifteen G. Little as President, and the House by the 
members held over and eighteen were elected choice of David Olapton as Speaker. 1'be Gov- 
—all being Democrats but two. In the House ernor (Houston), in his message previous to the 
there was a large majority of Democratic mem- inauguration of his successor, thus described the 
bers. The election of members of Congress, internal condition of the State : 
under the act of Congress, was held on No- p^^ ^j^ ^f ^^ ^^ importance to idl goTern- 
vember otli, and resulted in the choice of tne ments, it is with pleasure I note the fact that sever 
Democratic candidates in every district except in its history has Alabama been freer from strifei 
the Eighth, where the Independent candidate fnd bloodshed, nor her dtisens more orderly and 
was chosen law-abiding, than at the present time. The losff 
T>. *4.Ai-* ix* ji /\i.v^ and auxiously looked-for day when States can hola 
Previous to this election, and on October th^ir elections without Federal interference, and 
8d, the following letter was sent by united regulate and control their internal affairs, hss at last 
States Attorney-General Devens to the Unit- dawned upon us. The entire country is to be con- 
ed States attorneys in Alabama, Louisiana, and R"tulated upon the fact that »* poTcrnment bacon " 
ftrknfVi r*a*/^itn<i . ^"i ^^ longoT csTTy elections in Alabama, nor the 

Douin v^arouna . arrests or threats of government officials deter voters 

W^"e"™D. 0^ 5SSZ2?8d "d keep them f^om the polls ; that the time has 
T rtx r T> IT c rr '* J Z^ A j^ passed whcn armed soldiers of the Federal Govern- 
To Charles K Mayor, £tg,, UnUed btaUt AUornty^ ^ent can enter and eject from the legislative halls 
Moiugomery, Ala. ^f ^ g^^^ ^^ legslly elected representativea of the 
8iB : Information has been given me of certain people ; that Federal bayonets will never again keep 
outrages alleged to have been committed and threat- the members of a Legislature out of the Capitol of 
ened to be commitited in northern and middle dis- their State. These are causes for congratulation. 
tricts of Alabama, in connection with the approachinff How these changes and grand reforms were accom- 
Congressional election. This information is of such plisbed, it is needless to say. 
a character that I deem it proper to call your atten- mv v ^ ix» is_ av j 
tion to the laws of Congress intended to protect the The embarrassments resulting from the ce- 
purity of such elections. Proper steps must be taken pression of industrial and financial affairs have 
to punish those who offend against them, and to reached a large number of counties and cities 
secure to all citisens, without distinction of piutv, ^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^he United States. In Alabama 
while the election is pending, their just rights. The ^ .. i^v v***i.^ ^ .i^ . • ^; 
sutement of crimes igainat the elective iSanchise is ^^7 counties and citiej failed to pay pnnci- 
condensed in chapter 7, title 70, of the Revised Stat- P&i or interest on the bonds which they bad 
utes, and ^our attention is especially called to section issued for local improvements. The bonds be- 
6620, which enacts : " If two or more persons in jn^ held outside the State, the bondholders 
any State or Terntoiy conspire to prevent, by fo^ commenced suits in the Federal Courts and 
intimidation, or threat, any citizen who is lawAilly *^"'^^"^^** ""*•«•" *«« **^v*« ^^i** 
entitled to vote from giving his support or advocacy obtained judgments. These were foUowed by 
in a lawful manner toward or in favor of the election a mandamtts from the Court commandiiig a 
of any lawfullv qualifled person as elector for Presi- tax to be levied to pay the judgment. Various 
dent or Vice-Fresident, or as member of Congress oi measures were adopted to escape the tax, and 
S\^°^^rtfo^^^?^^^^ generaUy without success. tL case of the 
each ofsuch persons shall be puiished by a fine bt city of Montgomery will serve as an ilhistia- 
not less than $60 nor more than $600, or by impris- tion. A compromise of the city debt was pro- 
onment, with or without hard labor, not less than posed at a discount of one fourth. It amount- 
six inonths nor more ^an sixyears, or by both fine ^^ to $800,000. All the bondholders accepted 
and impnsonment." The enforcement of this pro- ^^^^^7^^J „.u^ *vV4.««««^ <. 4r.^»^^«f in i'ha 
vision is essential to proper discussion of the merits S^5®P^^5®» ^^^ obtained a judgment m the 
of citizens who come forward as candidates for Con- J? ederai Court. A manaafniM was issued com- 
f^ress. When^ therefore, it is invaded by combina- manding the City Council to levy a tax to pay 
tions or conspiracies, by force or threats, to prevent the judgment. A majority of the Council re- 

±T!<SS? «!:;i5f.'!:S!:rLP°':fJSi^.j:te2:.l° «gned. and _wc?e then fined by the Conrt for 




... „ City 

warrants to be issued against them by some firm and cussed. Numerous cases occurred in Arkansas. 

&:r S.'?^rp\l?'C^hraSl.»J; (^ f^^-?) ^I-mediately after the oj^n- 

dealt with according to law. Such warrants should wg of the legislative session, the sentiment of 

be made returnable when you or your assistant can the people of the State was expressed in the fol- 

attend at the hearing. On account of the importance lowing joint resolutions, offered in the Senate, 

of the matter, 1 deem it nroper also to add that in ingtructing their Senators and Representatives 

such cases you should endeavor to select those who » n^«««™ *^ «-«« *\.^ ^^^^^^t^^^f^^ <m/«v lawa 

you are satisfied are leaders in such conspiracies, ^^ Congress to urge the enactment of such laws 

rather than the mere followers. In no case will you as may be necessary to prevent the exercise of 

permit any warrants to be wantonly or causelesslv jurisdiction by the Courts of the United States 

ispued. The laws are to be executed firmly, but al- in suits against municipal corporations in the 

ways fairly and unpiutially. You will show this let- ^ g^^^^ 

ter to the Marshal, if you should have occasion to "^'«*~ •^»«*^"- 

place warrants in his hands relatinff to this subject. TFA^tmu, Municipal corporations, namely, counticF, 

Very respectfully, CHAKL£S DEVENS, cities, and towns, as organized in Alabama and otlier 

Attomey-Genextd. States, are integral parts of the State itself, and of 



ALICE MAUD MARY, PRINCESS. AMAT, LUIGL 11 

the gpvenuntnt thereof, and in bo for as euob oor- the grandson of the Grand Dake Lndwig II. 

poritioQi exercise power, partioularly the power to gj^Q nephew of the Grand Duke Ludwig III. 

U7tixei.ea^ power ^ part and p(ux«l of the bov- ^ the position of her husband was not such 

emjD AuthontT of the State in Its highest preroga- -"•» ""^ pwiwvu. vi. *«* uuouau^ «*oo uvt. oi*«u 

tive; and as to compel his residence in his paternal do- 

Wlm^^ The joriBdietion aaaerted by the Courts tninions, the young couple remained more than 

of the United States over suits against such corpora- a year in England, and their eldest daughter, 

lioDs. md particularly the jurisdiction by writ of PHncess Victoria, was born at Windsor OasUe, 

±;rpr"o?fe;yt^gK™^^^^^^^ ^^"^ «' !«««• J^' ^'^t ""''j' t' ^^^ 

tfa«G«nenl Assembly, is an encroachment upon the oess was very happy, and blessed with seven 

ri^u of the Sutes, preserved in the Constitntion children, five girls and two boys. The eldest 

9: the United States, and a plain violation of that soil Prince Ernst Ludwig Karl Albrecht, was 

clittM of the Constitution which declares " that the v^-.. "Wovfimher 25 1868 and WAacnnRennentlr 

jjiicial power of the United States shall not be con- ff ™ i:?J®^^?f ,v ! /^oVu^? i^f^^^fw TK^ 

'traed toextend to any suit in law or equity, com- ^^ 7®*" old at the death of his mother. Ihe 

mdioed or jproseoated against one of the United youngest son. Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Au- 

SiatM, by oitisens of another State, or by oitixens or gust Victor Leopold Lndwig, bom October 7, 

subiecu of any foreign state," because a suit or pro- 1370 was accidentally killed by falling from a 

S:r,.^^?,:?r,X\rlt:?e%'±f^ ^"^ow. M^ 3T..1878 The youngest Prin- 

the power to levy uzm upon iu oitixens, is in sub^ c«88, Marie Victoria Feodore Leopoldine, bom 

(Unoe lad effeot a suit or prooee<Uiig against the May 24, 1874, died a few days before her moth- 

Srate, binding and controlling its action in the mat- er, of diphtheria, the same disease to which 

^'^?*^ '*^^ **• e»stence ; and , , . .. her mother succumbed. Princess Alice made 

Ir4««w, The oontmaedezeroiseof suon Jurisdio- u^^^\* ««,— ««yx.^r.i«. ;•. n^»«n4>«,r k« y.^m »a 

tion irUl doubtless lead in the future, as in the past, f.®"®^? "^^^ popular in Germany by her ao- 

tfl unseemly conflict between Federal and State au- tmty m promoting hospital arrangements dur- 

thoritr, detrimental to that respect for law and es- ing the Franco-German war, when she was a 

ubiubed aothority which is the foundation of sooi- constant visitor at the '* Alice Hospital *' in 

*'^^ fre^j^ytrnm^nt: and , ^^^. .,, Darmstadt and President of the Alice Frauen- 

Jr*<r«M, The General Assembly observes with „^, .^ ^. ™.^«*««i„ oo-^«;«*;«« #«• r»k««;*«Ki^ 

rwt joy the InoreMing respect and reverence ^^rein or women's assoaation for chantable 

thDB^hoat the land for the form of government es- purposes, affiliated to the Berlm V aterl&ndische 

ubluhed by the fathers, and believes that it is the Verein. She was also an eamest patron of 

FMimoant will of all the people that this form of education and literature, and zealously inter- 

prtrnment shidl be mamtained in its true Bptnt in- ^^ ^ ^ ^ movements for Uberal 

tact for ever, and to aocomphsh this purpose the bar- ""^^ i*w4to*j. ui. uaouj ■uvtviuvuvd «v» «a^j«cu 

nwrnoaa cooperation of State and Federal authority reform. She sent her oldest son for education 

snder the Constitution of the United States is India- to a kindergarten in Darmstadt, where at her 

peutble: therefore, express demand no distinction whatever was 

Be^bgOeOfnertdAmmhiifo/Alab^ made between him and the other children. On 

^"^IS^i^e'^JS.^s^i^^^^^^^ f-ne 18, 1877, her husband succeed^ his child- 

of »och laws as mar be necessary to prevent the ez- l^^s unoie, Iiuuwig ill., as iirana IiUKe of 

erciM of jurisdiction by the Courts of the United Hesse. Her death occurred on the anniver- 

Sute« of suits or proceedings against municipal 001^ gary of the death of her father. Prince Albert, 

^^tti^t^•^L''oo'v^^ be recuested to for- ^,^^. T'' n 'tf ^^^^^^^^ ^^'« ^"H^ 

vinl a copy of the foregoing preamWe and resolu- ^^ Wmdsor Oastle for the customary memonal 

t-a to lion. John T. Morgan, of the Senate, and to services. 

enhoftheBeproaentatives fh>m thU State in Con- AMAT DI SAN* FILIPPO £ SORSO, LUI- 

^'»'- GI, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Velletri. Dean 

Referred to the Committee on Federal Re- of the Sacred OoUege, and Vice-Chancellor of 

Ution^ the Holy Roman Church, born June 21, 1706, 

On Xovember 27th Governor Cobb was in- died March 80, 1878. After receiving his edu- 

iiTorated, and delivered an address to the cation in the ecclesiastical Academy of Noble- 

Legblatare. The retiring Governor, George men, he was at the age of twenty-three appoint- 

!>. Houston, waa sabsequently elected Senator ed domestic prelate. On April 9, 1827, Leo XII. 

to represent the State in the Federal Congress, named him Archbishop of Nicea in partibuB^ 

Id the place of George £. Spencer. Mr. Hous- and sent him as Apostolical Nuncio to Naples. 

too was elected in 1865, but not allowed to take Subsequently this position was (Ranged for 

l^is seat. that of Nuncio in Spain, where, in consequence 

ALICE MAUD MARY, Grand Dnchess of of the will of Ferdinand YIL, a civil war had 

Hese-Daraistadt, Princess of England, second broken out. At both courts he was quite suc- 

^Qghter of Queen Victoria, bom at Windsor oessful, and the succeeding Popes, Pius YIII. 

Ci^Ie, April 25, 1843, died December 14, and Gregory XYL, held him in high honor. 

I'CB. Princeaa Alice was perhaps the best In 1887 he was created Cardinal. In the fol- 

bovn and the best loved of all the daughters lowing year he was sent as Apostolical Legate 

^t Qaeen Victoria. She became especially en- to Ravenna, where he remained six years, and 

beared to the English people during ner fatiier's became an intimate friend of Cardinal Mastai- 

U^ illness, when her name became '*synony- Ferretti, who was then Archbishop of Imola 

mous with a father's farewell and a mother's (subsequently Pope Pius IX.). Having been 

^ 'oaolation." On July 1, 1869, she was mar- recalled to Rome, he was made prefect of the 

n«d to Prince Ludwig of Hesse-Darmstadt, economical department of the Propaganda and 



12 AHEHIOA. 

preddent of tbe so^EtUed " camera dd Bp<^U." aad property has been eetimated at two Liid- 

when Pins LX. Bsoended the throDe, the 1^*- dred millioa dollarB. Prompt contribationa 

tion at Bologna waa intrusted to him. The for the benefit of the Buffering, and for defraj- 

revolntionarymoTementaof ISiShaTingforoed log the expenaes incident to the calamity, 

him to leave Bologna, he joined Piua IX. at ponred forth from everj part of the coonlfj. 

QaBta, and was in 1863 appointed to the two The harvests of the jeer have been vnasa- 

most lucrative positions at the Patial court, ally abondant, and the^ eiporta fitr exceed the 

'those of Vice-CbHQcellor of the Holj Roman imports. 

Chnrch and archivist of the apostolic letters. The year jast past wae marked bv no io- 
He retained both offices ontil his death, adding temational strife among the Sonth and Central 
to them tamj others in the oonrse of tine. American states or Mexico; nor has internal 
Doring the latter part of hie life he tnioe had diasennon been freqnent or of an alarming 
an apoplectic stroke, in oonseqaence of which character in any of them. There was a mo- 
be was anable to leave bis arm-chair; bnt the menCary snspeiimoD of diplomatic relations 
clearness of his mind remained animpsired between Chili and the Argentine Bepnblic, the 
nntil his death. L. Teste, in his work, "Pr6- Santiago Government having repudiated the 
face an Oonclave " (PbHb, 1877), says of his treaty of limits signed by the Chilian plenipo- 
character, "He has always been looked npoa tentiary, whose condnct was nuanimoQ&lycen- 
as an able, amiable, and obli^ng man, of very snred by the Legislature. Toward the end of 
Independent character," the year, however, friendly n^otjations vtn 

AMERICA. In the part of North America resumed, 
called the Dominion of Canada the year seems Ohili, so uniformly prosperons for a number 
to have passed in a more qniet manner than of years, was plonged into financial troublw 
nsnal. Some local excitements in Jnly, which of no ordinary character, the full extent of 
threatened for a moment something serions. vhicii was realized in the second half of the 
happily passed away. The electiona resnlted year. Several unavoidable and a few avoids- 
in a Conservative victory, and the rctam of bio causes oontribcted to bring about that state 
Sir John MacDonald to power. The principal of things: failure of the wheat crop, fall in the 
issue advocated by the Conservatives was the price of copper, and decrease In tne quantity 
protection of home indnstry. The administra- of sliver prodaced by the mines, constrnction 
tion of Lord DuSerin completed its sixth year, of unproductive railways, mtuntenance of a 
and he retired irom the office of Governor- nseless navy, and extravagant expenditures in 
Qeneral, and was succeeded by Sir John Doug- the various departments of the Government. 
las Sutherland Campbell, usually called the In Colombia, public affaire had been gradn- 
Uarqnis of Iiorne. Be is the husband of Lonise, ally retnming to their former sstjsfactory con- 
one of the daughters of Queen Yictoria. Their dition, overturned for a while by the late dis- 
arriva! in December was an event of nnnsnsl aertroQB revolotion. 
interest through out the Dominion. 

In the United States, the depression in com- 
mercial affairs continued throughout tbe year. 
It was mitigated somewhat by an increased 
feeling of confidence toward the close, and by 
an improvement in many branches of industry. 
Prices of necessaries were greatly reduced, and 
the expenses of living diminished. 

The returns of the State elections were less 
favorable to the Democratio party than in the 
previous year; but the latter still retuned its 
strength in the Federal Legislature. Gom- 

Elaints were made by both the Republican and 
'emocratio parties of local interference with 
electors, and measures were adopted by Con- 
gress for an investigation. The affairs in the 

Southern States have resumed a peaceful and cm hou. 
indnatrious aspect. 

Some Indian disturbances occurred among The political and commercial situations of 

the remnants of the Western tribes, btit of lesa Porn have experienced no change warranting 

importance than in previous years. bright hopcB for the immediate future ; nor 

A very aerions and afflictive visitation of the has violent psrty spirit been as yet completely 

yellow fever occurred in the Southern States, divested of its lawlessness, as attested by the 

It appeared in New Orleans about May 23d, assassination of ex-President Se&or Don Ua- 

and spread over a large sectJon of country, nuel Pardo in November, he being then Presi- 

The States of Lonlstana, l^ssiBsippi, and Ten- dent of the Senate. 

nessee were the greatest sufferers. Nearly a The recognition of the Diax administration 

hundred thousand cases occurred, and about in Mexico by the United States took place in 

twenty thonsand deaths. The loss to industry March. 



ANGUOAN OHUROHES. 13 

ISQUOAS OHUBOHES. The Conwea- and rearranged." Farther, the Gonyocation 
turn of CdiUerhury met on Febroary 12th. A resolved that '* some regulating power is ne- 
petition was presented, signed by 15,008 of the oessary by means of which, wbue the faith and 
ditfj and 80,140 of the laity of the Church doctrine of the Church remain unaltered, she 
of MgUod, declaring that " we consider the may be enabled to adapt her ceremonies to the 
cburchjardB, subject to the legal right of the changing circumstances of the time," and re- 
parishioners to interment^ to be the property quested the Bishop of Carlisle to embody the 
of the Charch of England ; that we are op- provisions of the scheme which he proposed in 
posdd to any legislation which shall permit the form of a draft bill, to be submitted to 
pdrsooSf not being ministers of that Churchy Convocation, and if approved by it introduced 
I) claim as a right to officiate in our church- into Parliament. 

jttdi^ and to use forms and ceremonies there- The seventy-ninth annual meeting of the 
ia which are not sanctioned by the English Church Mimoncvry Society wad held in Lon- 
Charch/^ A committee which had been ap- don, April 80th. The Earl of Chichester pre- 
printed in the Lower House in June preceding, sided. The general receipts of the Society for 
on the snbjeot of the ** burials question," made the year had been £207,058 ; adding what had 
a report holding that the present law was the been received for the India and China famine 
onlj secarity against the making of the grave- funds, and for special missions, the whole 
j&nii the scene of strife and unchristian con- amount intrusted to the Society had been 
trorersy. A resolution was adopted asserting £228,088. The total expenditures had been 
that the Church can not, without a breach of £208,846. The total number of clergymen 
£iith, permit in its own burial grounds services employed by the Society was 885, of whom 
Qot it8 own, but suggesting that the difficulties 208 were Europeans, and 182 native clergy, 
of Qonoonformists might be met by an altema- Fifty-seven European laymen were also at work 
tire service. A report on ecclesiastical law under the direction of the Society. A report 
vas adopted in the Lower House, providing was made of the condition of the missions in 
that the Convocation might frame canons to West and East Africa, Turkey, Persia, north- 
be, by permission of the Queen in Privy Coun- . em, southern, and western India, Ceylon, Mau- 
cil, kid before Parliament, when, if not ob- ritius, the Seychelles islands, China, Japan, 
jt^rted to, they might by royal license become New Zealand, and northwest America. Some 
a Uw. The Upper House approved the re- steps had been taken toward completing the 
port, and recommended that a draft of a bill independence of the church in Sierra Leone; 
be made in accordance with its suggestions, Converts from Islam had publicly professed 
&nd submitted to Parliament. A committee Christianity at Lagos. Measures had been 
vtf appointed to prepare forms of family and taken for consolidating and extending the Ni- 
pHvate prayer, to be considered, and if thought ger mission. Two of the agents connected 
^: aathorized, by Oonvooation. The Convo- with the mission on the Victoria Nyanza Lake 
cation met again ICay 14th. The Lower House had been killed in an affray with which the 
fciopt^ reooDomendations for the amendment mission had no direct connection, but men 
of the Lectionary, to the effect that in the were to be sent immediately to take their 
cDorae of the lessons the Gospel should be places. The troubles which had interrupted 
read thrioe in the year instead of twice as at the progress of the work at the Tamil Coo- 
present, and the whole of the Apocalypse ly mission in Ceylon during the past two 
•^^oold be read. It also requested tne Upper years had been settled, and the Bishop of Oo- 
Hi}ose to take means to obtain an improved lombo had consented to give to the mission the 
f jr<n of baptismal register. In the Upper same recognition as had been accorded to it by 
House, a report was presented which recom- his predecessors^ upon a guarantee being giveti 
^i^^l an increase in the amount of stipends that it should be conducted consistently witV 
t*) curates in parishes where the incumbent is the principles of the Church of England. 
poQ-regid^t, and tiiat in no case should it be The total receipts of the Society for the PrO' 
'«» than J8120, or the amount of the income pagaUon of the Ootpel in Foreign Parte for 
^ the incumbent. Some attention was given the year ending in May, 1878, were £148,488, 
*o the proceedings of the Reformed Episcopal of which £17,000 were given for distribution 
Cliorch, which 1^ been recently organized in by missionaries of the Society to sufferers 
tb« kingdom, under the superintendence of from the Indian famine. There were 547 
Bdhop Gregg, and a committee was appointed missionaries and about 1,100 oatechists and lay 
^i consider the matter. teachers employed by the Society during the 
the CoiitoofUion of Torh met February 19th« year. Of the missionaries, one was engaged 
^e Bishop of Oarliale introduced resolutions in Europe, 64 labored in Australia and the Pa- 
proposing a scheme of changes in le^lation, oifio, 120 in Africa, 185 in Asia, and 227 in 
•'' which the first was amended and adopted, America and the West Indies. The Society 
'^fedaring that '* in the judgment of this Con- had also 255 students in colleges abroad. Hin- 
^oestion the time has arrived when it has be- doo students of Bishop's College, Calcutta, 
'"^ necessary that the mode of legislation had begun to pass the preliminary theological 
^ matters affecting the spiritual affairs .of examination of the University of Cambridge. 
'•^i Chnrch of England should be reviewed The ordination of Peter Masiza as a priest in 



14 ANGLICAN 0HUR0HE8. 

Oaffi'aria was mentioned as the first instanoe Bishop of liohfield, died in ApriL The Rev. 
of a Calfre admitted to the priesthood. The William Dalrjmple Maclagan, vicar of Ken- 
work of the missionaries in China had suffered sington, prebenaary of St. PanVs Cathedral, 
from the famine, that in South Afirica from the chaplain to the Bishop of London, and hon- 
Caffre insurrection, and that in the West Indies orary chaplain to the Queeu, was appointed 
from the stru^le with the difficulties of dis- to succeed him as Bishop of Lichfield, and 
endowment Favorable reports were made of was consecrated to that office on the 24th of 
the condition of missions in Australia, New June. 

Zealand, and Japan. The anniversary meeting A final decision was given by the Qneen^s 

of the Society, which is usually held in April, Bench Division of the High Court of Justice in 

was postponed till the last of June, so that the the case of Martin V9, Mackonochie, which has 

colonial and American bishops who were then been in the ecclesiastical courts of England for 

to be present at the Pan- Anglican Synod might several years. The original suit in this case 

attend it. was begun in June, 1874, in the shape of a 

The Ebme Beunion Society is the name of prosecution under the Church Discipline act 

an organization which has been formed for the (8 and 4 Vict., c. 86), against the Rev. Mr. 

purpose of presenting the Church of England Mackonochie, of St. Alban's. Holbom, for 

m a conciliatory aspect toward those who re- breaches of the ecclesiastical law, principally 

gard themselves as outside of its pale, and of in the use of ornaments by the minister and. 

promoting the corporate reunion of all Chris- In the church. The case was heard in Decern- 

tians holding the doctrines of the Trinity and ber of the same year, and the defendant was 

the Incarnation and Atonement. The Bishop suspended from his office for six weeks. Con- 

of Winchester is president, and several other tinning his sJleged breaches of the law after 

bishops are members of the council. The his return to his church, he was served in 

Society professes that, although it can not sup- March, 1878, with a notice to appear before 

port any scheme of comprehension which Lord Penzance in the Court of Arches ; and 

compromises the three creeds or the Episcopal paying no attention to this, he was served in 

Constitution of the Church, it '* is prepared to the same month with a second monition, warn- 

advocate all reasonable liberty in matters ing him to abstain from thepractices mention* 

not contravening the Church's faith, order, ed in the former notice. He was also served 

or discipline." The annual meeting of the with a further notice to appear in the Conrt 

Society was held in London, July 10th, when of Arches on the 11th of May, but did not ap- 

a report was presented of its progress during pear. Lord Penzance thereupon proceeded to 

the year, ana addresses were made by the deal with the case in his absence, and in time 

Bishop of Winchester, the Bishop of Louisiana, issued a decree suspending him ah officio et a 

and others. henefldo for three vears, as a punishment for 

The annual meeting of the Society for the his contempt of the decree of the Dean of 
Liberation of Religion from State Control was Arches ana the monition of Lord Penzance, 
held in London, May 15th. Mr. Henry Lee of warning him to pay obedience to the previons 
Manchester presided, in the absence of Sir monition. Mr. Mackonochie then applied to 
Wilfred Lawson, Bart., the actual president, the Queen's Bench Division for a writ of pro- 
The income of the Society for the year had hibition to restrain Lord Penzance from pub- 
been £16,000. Nine hundred and thirty meet- lishing andproceeding with the decree of sas- 
ings and lectures had been held under its pension, llie decree of the Court was given 
direction during the year, and 2,820,000 copies oy a majority of one of the judges, and ^was 
of publications had been issued, of whicn a based upon technical grounds having no ref- 
considerable number had been circulated in the erence to the merits of the case. The Lord 
agricultural districts. Suggestions had been Chief Justice and Chief Justice Mellor, form- 
published as to the mode in which disestablish- ing the majority of the Court, and whose opin- 
ment could be effected. The organization for ion carried the decision, held that the monition 
promoting the objects of the Society had been issued to Mr. Mackonochie in the first instance 
advanced in London by the formation of a was in the nature of a penalty, and ended the 
council in each of the metropolitan constituen- proceeding against him ; and that, therefore, 
oies. The movement for disestablie^ment in no further penalty could be inflicted upon hinoi 
Scotland had made great progress, notice of without beginning a new suit. The sentence 
which was taken in one of the resolutions of three years' suspension, being in form a con « 
adopted at the meeting. Another resolution, tinuance of a suit that had been closed, ^«ras 
referring to the repeal of the Corporation and upon this view void. 

Test acts, whose fiftieth anniversary was near, A general conference of the bishops of the 

expressed thanks to Earl RdsscII and ^' to Church of England, and of the American and 

others associated with him in that great strug- colonial churches affiliated, with the mission* 

gle who still survive," for their successful ex- ary bishops, currently spoken of as the J^tgn^ 

ertions " to diminish the civil disabilities in- Anglican Synods or Conference, met upon in- 

fiicted or maintained in the interest of the vitation of the Archbishop of Canterbury at 

Church Establishment." Lambeth Palace, July 2d. The council had no 

The Right Rev. George Augustus Selwyn, authority, but was a purely voluntary meeting 



AISTGLIOAN OHUROHES. 15 

of bishops from varions quarters of the earth, and calling npon the Conferenoe to '* issae a 
for diBcuasion and consoltation on matters of solemn and consentient declaration that it is 
common interest. On the 28th of Jnne, at a the first duty of all Christians to labor and praj 
meeting held in connection with the Society for the uniting into one body of all those who 
for the Propagation of the Gospel, previous to call upon the name of Christ and agree in the 
the formal opening of the Conference, several divine authority of Holy Scripture, in the 
of the foreign bishops gave accounts of the creeds, and in the decrees of the Church, so 
condition of their churches in their several that there be no more divisions among us '* ; 
coontries. The Bishop of Madras told of the and, further, asking it *^ to recommend some 
conversion daring the year of more than twen- practical means and mode of action whereby 
tr thousand inhabitants of the district of Tin- a consummation so devoutly to be wished for 
nevelly within his diocese; the Bishop of Bom- may, in God^s good time, be accomplished.*' 
Uy read a paper on associated missions ; the The discussions of the questions which were 
Bishop of Colombo gave an account of the considered at the earlier sessions were contin- 
various tribes of Ceylon ; papers were read on ued until the day of adjournment, July 27th. 
mi»ion work in China by the American Biahop The reports adopted by the Conferenoe were 
of Shanghai, on foreign missions by the Bishop published after the a<y oumment. The first re- 
of Ohio, and woman's work in his diocese by port deals with the best mode of maintaining 
the Bishop of Bloemfontein ; the Bishop of union among the various ch arches of the An- 
Maritzbni^ spoke on the Church in Africa ; a glican communion. It admitted that the as- 
paper by a woman was read on the value of sembling of a true general council, to which 
the female education undertaken by women in the Church of England has always declared its 
India ; and. the condition of the Church in readiness to resort, is, in the present condition 
Australia and America was reviewed. One of Christendom, unhappily but obviously im- 
hondred bishops were in attendance during possible; and that the diflSculties attending 
the sessions of the Conterence. An opening the assembling of a synod of all the Anglican 
declaration was adopted: first, giving thanks churches, though different in character and 
to Almighty God for having brought the mem- less serious in nature, are too great to allow 
bers together for common council and united of its being recommended for present adop- 
worship; second, expressing sorrow at the di- tion; but suggested that such conferences as 
Tided condition of the flock of Christ through- the present one and the one which was held 
OQC the world, and an ardent longing for unity ; in 1867, cidled by the Archbishop of Canter- 
and lasUj, recording the conviction *Hhat unity bury at the request of or in consultation 
will be more effectually promoted by maintain- with the other bishops, might with ad van- 
in^ the faith in its purity and integrity as tage be invested in future with somewhat 
Uoght in the Holy Scriptures, held by the larger liberty as to the initiation and selec- 
primitive church, summed up in the creeds, tion of subjects for discussion, concerning 
and affirmed by the undisputed general ooun- which the report mentioned a few particu- 
eils. and by drawing each of us closer to our lars. Nevertheless, although there was no 
common Lord by giving oarselves to much hope ofageneriJ council, the reunion of Chris- 
prayer and intercession, by the cultivation of tendom should be kept in view; and it was sug- 
s ;^irit of charity and a love of the Lord^s ap- gested that the Tuesday before Ascension Day 
pearing/' Daring the earlier sessions of the be set apart as a day of intercession for that 
Conference the following subjects were dis- object. Concerning ritualism, the report af- 
cussed and referred to committees, viz. : "The firmed the principle that " no alteration from 
h«st mode of maintaining union among the va- long-accustomed ritual should be made contra- 
rioos chorches of the Anglican communion *^ ; ry to the admonition of the bishop of the dio- 
*' Volnntarj boards of arbitration for churches cese." Concerning confession, it affirmed that 
&> which such an arrangement may be applicar " the churches of the Anglican communion 
ble '^; ** The relation to each other of mission- hold fast those principles which are set forth 
^rj bishops and of missionaries in various in the Holy Scriptures, which were professed 
oranch^ of the Anj^lican communion acting by the primitive church, and which were re- 
in the same country '' ; "The position of An- affirmed at the English Reformation^'; that 
?!ican chaplains and ohapldncies on the conti- " no minister of the church is authorized to 
oent of £arope and elsewhere " ; " Modern require from those who may resort to him to 
(ijnoa of infidelity, and the best means of deal- open their grief in particular or detailed enu- 
ms^ with them " ; and " The condition, prog- meration of all their sins ; or to require private 
re:«, and needs of the various churches of confession previous to receiving the holy com- 
:!ie Andean communion.** The Conference munion; or to ei^oin or even encourage the 
then adjoorned, July 5th, till July 22d, to give practice of habitual confession to a priest ; or 
the committees time to consider the subjects to teach that such practice of habitual confes- 
vhich had been referred to them. On reas- sion, or the being subject to what is termed 
^-mbling an address was presented from the the direction of a priest, is a condition of at- 
As«ociation for the Promotion of the Unity of taining to the highest spiritual life." At the 
C.'iristendom, nrgingthat the present time was same time, the committee would not be under- 
favorable to the purpose of the Association, stood as desiring " to limit in any way the pro- 



16 ANGLICAN 0HUR0HE8. APPLETON, GEORGE S, 

• 
vision made in the Book of Oommon Prayer ered the opening address, in which he defend- 
for the relief of troubled consciences.^* The ed the Congresses as a useful medium for tlie 
report *^ On the Relation to each other of Mis- exchange of thought, and pointed out the good 
sionary Bishops and of Missionaries " involved results which he anticipated would follow the 
the consideration of some of the questions meeting of the Pan-Anglican Conference at 
which have been in dispute between agents of Lambeth. Papers were read on '^ Foreign and 
the Church Miesionarj Society in Ceylon and Colonial Missions, their Condition, Organiza- 
the Bishop of Colombo. The report recom- lion, and Prosperity,*' by the Bishop of Penn- 
mended that books of common prayer shoyld sylvania, the Rev. Mr. Maclear, and the Rev. 
be framed suitable to the needs of native con- Thomas Green ; " Modem Doubts and Diffi- 
gregations in heathen countries; that tiiey culties in relation to Revealed Religion,^' bj the 
should be based upon the " Book of Common Rev. Prof. Wilkins, the Rev. Stanley Leathes, 
Prayer,*' with only such deviations in point of and Dr. Thornton ; ** The Just Limits of Coni- 
form as should be required by the ciroum- prehensiveness in the National Church,'* by 
stances of particular churches; and that such the Hon. Charles L. Wood, President of the 
books when prepared should be submitted to English National (Ritualistic) Church Union, 
the approval of boards regularly endowed with the Rev. Llewellyn Davis (Low Churchman), 
authority for that purpose; that every mis- the Rev. Canon Ryle (classed as a Broad 
sionary clergyman, whether appointed by a so- Churchman), and others ; *' The Church's 
ciety or otherwise, should receive the license Work among the Rural, Urban, and Comnier- 
of the bishop in whose diocese he is to labor; cialPopulations*';^' The Attitude of the Church 
that in case of refusal to give a license to a toward Popular Literature and Recreation,*' in 
clergyman, the bishop should, if desired, state connection with which head the moral aspects 
the reason of his refusal, transmit them to the of the theatre were discussed by the Earl of 
metropolitan, or to the Archbishop of Canter- Mussrave, the Bishop of Manchester, and other 
bury, if there is no metropolitan, and make speakers ; " Woman's Work in the Church," 
them accessible to the person whose license is by the Bishop of Ohio, Miss Whatcley of the 
in question ; and it recommended a similar mission at Alexandria, Egypt, and the Rev. F. 
course of procedure in the "case of revoca- Pigou; "Church Property and Endowments"; 
tion of license, which it advised should not take "Ecclesiastical Patronage**; "The Marriage 
place except for grave ecclesiastical offenses.** Law as affecting the Church '* ; " Parochial 
Further, it suggested: "The bishop would prob- Councils *' ; " Cathedrals and Cathedral Insti- 
ably find it desirable, where the clergyman is tutionsj^ how to increase their Influence"; 
connected with one of the great missionary so- "The Supply, Training, and Examination of 
cieties, to communicate with the society or its Candidates for Holy Orders.*' The question, 
local representatives before taking steps for re- " What definite results as to the interpretation 
vocation of a license." It held that lay agents of Scripture have been produced by the dis- 
employed in more important spiritual func- coveries in Egypt, Nineveh, and the Catacomhs 
tlons should have the license or other express of Rome?** was discussed by Canon Rawlin- 
sanction of the bishop, and other lay agents son and Canon Tristram. A " Workingmen's 
should be considered to have his implied sane- Meeting " was held In connection with the 
tion ; that the authority of the bishop in ap- Congress. 

pointing places for public worship had been APPLETON, George Swett, member of the 

always admitted in the Church ; and that every publishing firm of Daniel Appleton and Com- 

place in which the holy communion is regularly pany, died July 7th, at the age of fifty-seven 

celebrated should have his sanction. Another years. He was bom at Andover, Massachusetts, 

report expressed the sympathy of the Confer* August 11, 1821. Both by his inherited tastes 

ence toward the Old Catholics, and the churches And by education he was eminently well fitted 

and individuals protesting against the claim of for the vocation in life which occupied all his 

the Papal Court to supremacy over all men in manhood*s years — that of a publisher. Having 

matters of faith and morals on the ground of its studied for some time in the Phillips Academy 

infallibility. The report "On Voluntary Boards — a noted educational institution in his native 

of Arbitration ** indicated the principles which village — ^he, at the age of about nineteen, went 

might be applied in cases wliere an appeal is abroad for the sake of study and travel, and 

sought from the decisions of the tribunals of passed four years at the University of Leipsic. 

the several ecclesiastical provinces, and under These student years were devoted especially to 

similar circumstances in the case of the trial literary and historical research, and in the 

of a bishop. The " Committee on Infidelity mean time he gained an intimate acquaintance 

and the best Mode of meeting it *' reported with the languages of Germany, France, and 

that it was impossible to give adequate con- Italy. With the literatures of these countries, 

sideration to that wide subject within the lim- as also with that of England, he was fully con- 

ited time allowed for their deliberation. versant. But while literature was for him an 

The eighteenth Church Congress met at object of close and systematic study, fine art 

Sheffield, October 1st. The introductory ser- occupied his leisure moments, and ne culti- 

mon was preached by the Bishop of Ripon« vated it with distinguished success. In partic- 

The Archbishop of York presided, and deliv- ular he was a connoisseur of painting, and at 



ABGENTINE REPUBLIC. 17 

tbe time of his death had accamnlated a rich *R. Garcia, and the Secretary of Legation (who 

ooUecdon of masterpieces of art. Daring the is also Oharg^ d* Affaires daring the absence of 

TtcatioDfl of the aniversity, and after the com- the Minister), Sr. Carrie. The Argentine Con- 

p)edon of his stadies, Mr. Appleton traveled sul-General at New York is Mr. Edward F. 

extensively in Europe, stadying the people and Davison. The Governors of the several Prov- 

the treasares of art and literatare. Having inces, etc., are: 

returaed home, he embarked in business, that saenoe Ayrea Dr. c. Tejedor (May, 1878). 

of i pabhsher, on his own aCCOant, at Phlla- Minister uf the interior..*!. Aleorta. 

delpbia. In 1847 he married Miss Caroline oito^JSS'''*''^*"'^ m.Mo^*''' 

Archer Osgood, who survives him. Later, he Cdrdou. ..".'.!!!."."!!!.'!'! iDr. a. del Viso. 

joined bis three brothers, John and William, S®"**'Sf* t^ i> w 

hisseniors, and Sidney, his junior, in condacfr- j5^".^::::::::;;::::m'*To^S 

iog the establishment founded in New York LaBioja. '.'.*.'.!'.*'.y. a. Aimonadd. 

by their father, Daniel Appleton, who died ^^'T^'\:V:^V''':V^J.VoU^''^^^ 

io 1849. Here his eminent attai nments as a Ban joim. '.'.'.'. .'.'.*.'!!!!.'! B. bonoei. 

scholar and as a connoisseur of art found i*°.^«A J*}'S°!?**J" 

abondant opportunity for their display. His slSSi|o .:::;.::::::v.;::B.oiil^^ 

coansel as a literary critic was of the highest Tucuman v. Ueiguera. 

Talae to the firm. He rapidly developed the ^^ ^^^ ^"^^ lieut-Ooi. P. Q6m^ 

biuiness of the house in various directions, The provincial Governors are elected by the 

especially in the publications designed to facili- people, and their period of office is three years. 

tate the study of languages, and to familiarize . x comprehensive view of the general condi- 

the American public with the classics of the tion of affairs in the repablic may be had from 

Tariona European literatures, both in transla- the following message delivered by President 

tioM and m their original forms. Intimate Avellaneda, on opening Congress, May 6, 1877 : 

relations were also established with the Span* ,, ^ *^ 

ish- American states, and large editions of Span- ^?*T; Sewatobs ahd DspimM : 

i«K »<^*Va ..^./^ .^^Kifok^^ \^ ♦^.^ A ,v«viA4^no A salute you on this auapioious day and aasure you 

Bh works were published by the Appletons. that every year our constitutional principles are pro- 

io Jlr. ueorge Appleton is in great measure greasively striking their roots deeper and deeper, 

due the origination and successftil completion of Your presence waa much needed, owing to the in- 

the work entitled *• Picturesque America," the tense activity of political life. The forum is full, 

noblest iUustrated work published in America. ?}'fl parties and oninions seek in this arena to ven- 

TT* -!»«. .»^«,i:i. ^^^^„^^^^A ♦k«4. ^♦i.*» ««^«* tilate their viewa, for it is from oppoding points of 

He also steadily encouraged that other great discuasion that the country becomes enlfghtened. 

eoterpnse of the house, the " American Oyclo- Let me sketch for you the condition of affairs, 

pedis." When attacked by his last illness, Many European and American statesmen were 

Mr. Appleton waa about to «o abroad for an »o impressed with the conciliation policy at Buenos 

PTtMuiZi f^ni. rtf 4^1.017^1 trSa n««t.A«»;4f ^ of Ayrcs that they asked themselves if »uch were not 

extended tour of travel. His unremitted at- p^f^rable to tl»e system of repression used In En- 

tention for years to his pursuits made an in- fope, which perpetuates violent rancor. Theexam- 

termissiou necessary for him. But disease pie we have given does honor to the human race, 

intervened, and he died at a comparatively At present some may besin to doubt about the con- 

eariy age. Five cbUdren survive him, all oilUtion policy, but! tell you my progrramme is un- 

flmwn nt« «^« fk^o^ oyv»o »«^ 4.»^ ;i««<.kV^^ altered. It is one of the privilef^es of my office to 

^Wv'S^F RFPnS r ?S ml^^nll?' •P?^^? °^^°^«*«" .ccordinV to my own ^lood will 

AKOfc^ IIWJ!, iCbfUiSLIU (Kbpubuoa. Ab- and this is essential to enable me to govern with 

clstuia), an independent state of South Amer- firmness. As a proof of conciliation I may remind 
ict, lying between latitudes 20° and 41° south, you that S,000,000 Argentines joyfully celebrated 
and longitudes 63° and 70» 17' west It is ®«J«»1 San Martin's centenary. 
Kn««j2?Jl-lu vl: T^ri" : I V 13 Two or three provinces are in a disturbed state. 
Jwmded north by Bolivia ; east by Paraguay, Governor Iriondo has put down a revolution in Santa 
Brazil, Uruguay, and the Atlantic ; south hj f^, and it is to be hoped that ho will now try con- 
Patagonia ; and west by Bolivia and Chill. cUiation. The state of Corrientes is more critical. 
The population waa returned at 1,768,681 in Minister Pla^a was sent, not simply to suj^port Gov- 
theoensusof 1869,butin 1876 it was estimated ernorDerqui but to study tlie order of to ings.Tl^^^ 
•* Q jaaT^ *w«r, vuvmu xviu xi» it<h vi>»iuA«t^ viotonous reocls laid down their arm* and submit- 
tt 2,400,000, exolosive of 98,291 Indians m the ted. It U now best to order new elections in Corri- 
lemtory of Gran Chaco, the Pampas, and antes. 
Patagonia. The population of the capital, The acoountBofl877Bhow as follows: 

Boenos Ayrea, was estimated at 280,000. Appropriations votod I?7.967,tm 

^The Preaident of the Republic is Dr. Don Acfiioi expenditures H'm^ 

XicoUs Avellaneda, who succeeded Sefior Sar- DeSdu* Moo,'ot4 

miento, October 12, 1874; and the Vice-Presi- 
dent is Dr. Don Mariano Acosta. The Cabinet Thus we spent ei^ht milliona less than Conjfreaa 
uiv^m.^^^^ «# ♦K^ «Aii^n.:n» *»;..:o4^».c. . t«*« authonaed, and, although the revenue did not come 
w composed of the following ministers : Inte- „p ^ ^,„ expectations, Still the economy of our Fi- 

.lor, Ur. Laspiar; l<oreign Affairs, Dr. Jdontes nance Department saved the situation. The expen- 

<ie Oca; Finance. Dr. Victorino de la Plaza; ditures or the last six years were : 1872, $2M62,7B5 ; 

Jaatioe, Public Worship, and Public Instruc- 1878, $81,026,070; 1874, $29,784,196 ; 1875, $28,667,- 

tian, Dr. Lastra ; War and Marine, General tlUur^JS^i^^^^ 

p-^-1 on, A : «*a ^ •»#•-• J. W • ^*. year's revenue we flna: import duties, a'iv,c»4o,9ou ; 

r^. ^le Argentine MmisterPlenipoten- Jxport duties, $2,824,491. ^he returis of' our im' 

tury to the Uoited States is Sr. Don Manuel port and export trade show: 
Vol. zviu.— 2 A 



18 ARGENTINE BEPUBUO. 



and Bohoolfl are all in good working order and the 

J876 ^'•^^^ HJOBJ.Toa number of acbolara baa increaaedrit will t>encoes- 

^*>*»- W,»»,i41 48,Ww««w gm^ iQ reaume tbe official inapection of acboola all 

Tbia apparent decline of 7 per cent, in our exporta over tbe country, and foater a spirit of learning in 

ia dne to tbe fact of reduced valuation on wool, bidea, 9Aeh localitj. The Miniater'a report abowa that 

etc., aa we find the quantitiea exported iu 1877 ex- there ia a aligbt inoreaae in the number of acholara; 

ceea tboae for the previoua year ; but the valuation there are at preaent C,900 atndenta enrolled in tbe 

waa reduced 15 per cent. Meantime it ia deairable national ooUegea and acboola.* Tbe Obaervatory at 

to invent new aouroea of revenue, since cuatoma du- C6rcloba baa now in print the ** Uranometria Argto- 

tiea are too lUble to fluctuation. We muat imitate t»n*i" ''Web ia likely to prove tbe moat valuable 

the United Statea in tbia regard. acientiflG work of iu kind ever published. Tbe 

The money for the coming coupons ia already in Meteorological Department baa publiabed ita first 

London. We have been nolesa punctual in paying volume, a work also due to the seal of tbe Director 

the home debt, and in a few days we will pay to the of the Obaervatory, and which ia of vaat acientiflc 

Provincial Bank the quarter'a inatallment due last imporUooe, as it proves, what baa long been sus- 

February on account of loan of September, 1876. pected, the relation between changea of temperature 

Our atooka have risen in London, but aome of the ^u^d tboae in the spots on the sun's disk. Dr. Bu> 

Englisb papera continue to question our solvency, meiater'a great work on the pbyaical geogxmphy of 

although we honorably pay our way. Aa we have *•>• lepubue ia alao progreaain^. 
aafely gone over tbe crisis, there is no reason now to » May, 1877, tbe new fronuer line waa defended 

propoae any alteration of the terma with bondbold- by a ditch SO leaguea long, and aeveral forte. Tbe 

era. English capiUl will eteadUy flow into tbia ditch ia now 80 leMues long, and there are 4S8 kilo- 

oountry, tHKsanae Engliahmen know that by spend- nietraa of telegraph, uniting Paun and Trenmielan- 

ing millioiia in America, India, and Auatralia to qnon. Along the new line have been buUt 150 

Eww cotton, sugar, and wool, they have enriched brick houses, 200 rancboa. two bospitala, and seven 

ngland more than if they had kept the money in acboola. attended by 900 children : 400,000 treea have 

London. During the last three trying yean we been nUnted along the line ; l,e00 national guards 

hnve notably reduced our national deM, which ia have been released from aervice, and there aire now 

now aa foUowa: only 900 national f^uarda on tbe frontier, who will 

LondoiibMBa 188,000.000 alao be aent home mimediately. 

Bomedebt ^I,979i40 Becent expeditions against tbe Indiana have been 

jnoatliigdebt.V.V..V.'.V.V.V.V...V.7... M9Ma8 auceesaftil, tne aavagea surrendering, since they can 

no longer make nutu aa bt fore. 

'nK^ $81,917,8u£* Measn. Senaton and Depntiea, there is a vacant 

Sqoal to about £19,000,000 ateriing, including £1,. ?«*,1"^*^J: VJZ'Va'^ ^I^ ^ T'^'^!'%^^' 

190,400 not emitte<J (of the Vareli loan)lbit re- ??^y^*Sf ^^^ ^i^: ^^°*^® -^"^ *^*J.*^ ^^ 

earned to make a port at Boenoa Ayres. l**5'f^^!!;- H«diedin harness, and on hiadeatb- 

The number of immigrenta last year waa 99,000, ^^ ^"^ ^^^'JP^ /^ ^^"•^ ^T***® a victorious 

being neariy the aameaa tbe previous year, and more expedition. Ths Argentine ipeople and Govem- 

thjuTthe aggregate of arrivala from Europi in all the S?°* ^^« P"4 ^P-^Tm •^ -n"*" S* ^^ memory, 

other comtHM of South America. The Solonixation The preaent Minuter of War wdl contmue the work 

and homestead law of 1876 is carried out in the moat ®^ *^ predeoeaaor. Freab efforta are neeeaawry. We 

generous manner, and we can boast of the following <f» "^o* reduce the wmy tiDwe push on to a lYonticr 

> colonies established since the paa«*ing of aaid law" ^V ^"J^ <*«f«°<^«4. ^ «»«» "^en- ^ ^. , ^, 

Libeitad (Entre-Bioa), 672 in£abita^U; Gen. Al- . ^"» f^.^.",?!^^ ^, year for a station at C6iw 

vear (Entii-Bios), 850 Beeonquista (Chiso), 1,900 ; ^^H *^ J^*" ^« .^^*^ •'^ tT^'S? ^^i^*/'' 

Besistencia (ChaS)), 600 ; Iriondo (CHaco), 914 ; Sai! »<* ^.« ^.«* >» li^ P"*^^ J^l ^T'l^v^^'t 

Javier (Chaio), 169 ; Olabairia (Boenoa Ayrea), 806; 5*f"*\f*^" "nT^^^^SS^S!?!^^'?/' "^ nlthough 

Caroya (Cordota), 616 ; Santa Crux (Pat4oni5),47. ?* ^ > ^'^ k l"l^ ^;!^!1!l!f!:-*^l!**£.'^".P'"' 

Mon5>ver, the wilsh oilony of Cbubut bMdoutted. Jf»* '^fJi**^!!!' 'i;;i%*Sfi:? ^^*^^**™n 

Thaoka ti Seaor Cirlos CaUVs efforU in Europe, the \^^. of n'SrP^^K^a^Jfu^^TI^^V J^JII**'^ ^^ 

steamships allow ua a reduction of 40 per c«S[it for ^^PJ* *" ^^^ ■i^„^^'i^*^j5'' Vfi^^ . v 

immigra^U' paasagea. It is necessary tto be more J^^? «P»)>1»« ^"^^ ^^r^^^il}^! Y'Z^ ^l 

libenS in proVidingfunds for new colonies, aa Mr. ^ibition quite as well oit was at Philadelj)hia, yet 

Dillon's t^k U to bnitate the homentead Uw of tbe ^« ^^« "<>' exceeded the amall sum voted for tbe 

United Statea, and prevent the woriungdaaaea from PMSP^S; *. ^ » ^i. v i ^« j t 

crowding into' town?. * Tiie National Bimk baa been reorganiied. I muft 

TbTirSpublic joined the Beme postal league on »P;«twhat I ""d last fwr of the ncoesaity for a 

April let. The Argentine postage atomp wHl now wJi^nn «irrency throughout the country Mints 

b- known and reapicted from j!^ to greenland, ^o«><l ««* too much to wtabliab here, but we can 

and thence to IndU and Polynesia. Tbe post-of- ^^ "O"*? «?»"«^ ^^^^ °» •^">*5- J* " impossible to 

floe returns for tbe yean* 1878 and 1877 weri as fol- «"/ .^^ buMnew with auoh a fiuctuatong coin aa Uie 

lows : Beceipt»~18t8, $158,906 ; 1877, $973,801. Tbe B^bvian ; and BoUvian notM muat be got nd of for 

latter figurea show an increase of 70 per cent. Ex- •^Jf' , ^. .»v n ^^ ^ £l: ^^ ^ 

penditiSea-1878, $486,716 ; 1877, $898,804, abowing .^«' relatione with all eountnea are fijendly^ You 

rdeoreaaeof96peroent. The V>legTapb returns for wiUbear^ithplewure that protects of a toreatyput^^ 

the aame years were : Beoeipts-IST*, fc5,278 ; 1877, UK-^ *"t ^^ *^* !SP*L?^ vexed questiona with 

$79,819. Bxpenditurea^ms, $171,179 ; 1877, $171,- ^^^ *»"/• ^^ "P>t^ f "^ apPTored by both Gov- 

172. BepaiiTbecome ooatly ^fter five yVare' wrvioi. •">»•«>*• ; they wiU be laid Wore yon at onoe. The 

In spite oTthe state of the public excbclquer, we have J^«««t»on» •» '/J^JJ'^U ^e left to arbitmioo. If the 

built a new post-offlca, the handsomest of our public Congresaea of both eountnea m^'^^^l^^^J^r 

buildings, ahd extended our telegreph lines to tbe ETJ™"® <>° S''"™j°» "^9^ W? ^ ??*P*^- ?'«• 

frontier town« of Boli vU. The number of miles of Tejedor and ElixsWe ment public gratitude for their 

new telegraph was 880. P»^» « *^»» negotiation. 

The estimatea in the department of PnHicInPtrue- ^^« ^•^^ ^nduded an extradition treaty with 
tion have been reduced by one half. The collegea S'S?"?' •^^V a protocol about nver navigabon. 
_1 1__ Batiflcationa of the treaty with Paraguay have been 

• For d€tsiM statetneata of tbe oatloail d*U. i«ftfv<iee ^changed, and a trea^ of extradition with France 

inaybeiiudetetiMvohDOii«aoftiM*AiiBiial(>dopiBdUa*' tv " • ■ — 

J^4aBd 18T& •Sea •"Aaaaal <^r«topiBdki^ Jbr ISH, fwtt. 



ARGENTINE SEPUBUa 



bi buB unngvd. Our limit* qoMtioa witli Fara- 
nr it btiof vbitnited on tt Wuhiugton. Uii 
HoliiiHr Knt IX. i> dMd. DnriDg * troubled 
ni(n 1h nerer lost hia «aiiiClr otunotar or the re- 

rl sf auotind. Tjii ArireaLlne QoreTnmeut and 
Cbgrsb an now in lelncion witb bU luooesaor, 
LmIIIL 

Htm. Seuton and Drputita, I am about to oon- 
dode. Th< ooaalliitioo of partiea, the centenary 
of gn Jlutin. tbe trut; vitta Chili thu sntrance of 
iMrapablia into the Bani*leaiiue,tbelVa(itiera,and 
I RdiiatiDa in the national enpenditure aiatbaoliier 
iniDUintbia meaHga. But 1 must likewise note 
Vu raiifil of boaineta, and tlie inereasa of reveaua 
ud ioiinicrattoo ; JM theao will prove lIluBory 
mlcM pablia winlon uproot abaaea, promote oaaful 
R^nai, and, witbin ligal limita, allow tioTaiiunenta 
Ue path lliei mnat take. 

liluUaet uopaiUallT, without fear or favor, in any 
pirt< midicta that may ariaa. It is my duty lo do 
w. I impiora tbe help of Providence for your de- 
litxratiima, and da«lan the aaaaion opeDod. 

N. AVEliAMEDA. 

Ttie foDawing table prweoti the eftimated 
apcDditore mod Krenoe for the fivcal jeu 
ISTS-'TS: 

bmuUd EneadWoi* : 

HhiMrT If ika iBtarioT |t,98>.tl% 

■UMiT or ronlfn AAlra lDa,tBff 

HlaMiT ar FlDSMia tK.'Kl 

UUnvnf JnaOeaaadPablleliiitraetlini 1.1M,4SS 

MliilHiTBfWaraBdHaitiia li,1<M,<Ma 

latnanadaU lynfil* 

Total (IT.IM.SM 

TteNmiMlaaatlaiatalat 1<SI0,0(W 

DAtt |SH,1S( 

Tbe utionol re*eim« uid eipeaditiire for 
tie right yean 18T3-'7d were aa follows : 



TEUa. 


(.p.*. 


K-F-* 


IMU. 






•ass 


10,MS,MO 








Total 


•1M,»SS,0M 


»1«,MC),T1* 


|8B,S14.Clt 



This shows in three jeara a balance of trade 
in favor of the oountr; of tlO,37G,05d. 

There has been an almoat uninterrupted 
improvement in the tialauoe of trade ever since 
1870. 

The exports in 187Y consisted principsUr of 
wool, tallow, hides, ete,, in quantity and volne 
as follows : 





ft—eij. 


Vd. 






»18,10S,T«S 












8,T^(K7 








ta^m.io» 





The following table exhibits the importa 
fl-om and exports to the United States for 
the twenty- one jeara 1867-77; 



TUM. 




Wl 


H&ITUTS 

lt.8W.«« 
I»WOO,OCN) 

l^s^(M»o 


11 














wi"::::!::::::::::;:::::;:: 


I 







The pablie debt ts Kt down, In the Presi- 
dent't menage, at t61iST7,803, from which- 
cur be dedactad the amortization fnnd, 
UKHmting to |S,83S,80a in December, 1677. 

In view of » possible conflict between Chili 
ltd tlie Argentine Repnblic, it may be not dd- 
iiu«mting to exhibit their relative finandal 
IMtitioiu in 1877 : 



VXAHS. 


!.»«.. 


l-t.«. 


T*U. 




»4 

08 

S 

m 

'i 
:li 

i 

lie 


81 


IS 

^S08,M8 








































JwTres 






vm.m 






•M.1M,0S1 
1,T*<,0M 


'"f» 






«,(»Mn 



^•ma 

Eipuftt 

^■bMiijtt. 



Tbe trade retanis t and the dndes eolleoted 
<» fanporu in 1873, IS78, and 1377, were ■• 
foOows: 






American manafactorers have lat«ly shown 
a great desire to extend their trade in South 
America. An Argentdne Journal states that 
en American agent who visited Bnenos Ayrea 
as the representative of a namber of mana- 
factnring firms of Philadelphia, New York, 
and other Amerioan cities, has returned to 
tbe United States well satisfied witii tlie re- 
salts of his canvass. " He has l>een literally 
overwhelmed witb orders, and looks forward 
with confidence to permanent and profitable 
trading relations witn the Biver Plate." 

The snbJoiDed report of the cost and profits 
of the Argentine railways for the year 16T7 is 
from ofBoial sources ; 



_ aod to tbe ArgenUDa Be- 
" fcr letl, p. M. 



20 



ARGENTINE BEPUBLIO. 



LINES. 



OreM Sottthera. 

Northern 

'Western 

GampaflA 

SniwCnaria. 



CmptUL 


Praeu. 

£120.253 

lod,iH)0 

H»,4U.> 

4,yoO 

8,000 

■ 


800,000 
87T,000 
T0vl,000 



Ftfcmt. 

i 



r 

Here follow the salient clauses of a con- 
tract with Messrs. John and Matthew Clark 
for the constrnction of the Transandine Rail- 
way: 

1. A line of railway from Mercedes (Rio 
Qninto), the present western terminus of the 
Argentine Railway system, to Mendoza, 200 
miles, for which the Argentine Govei-nment 
gives a 7 per cent, guarantee, at the rate of 
£6,800 per mile; say £1,260,000. 

2. A line over the Andes, 152 miles, in 
which the guarantee is shared between the 
two Governments in this ratio : 



DIVISIONS. 


MllM. 


OMt. 


OdUan tide 


40 

lis 


£T60.000 


Anrentine » , , » t , 


1,060,000 






Total 


168 


£1,810,000 







Thus the total cost of connecting the pres- 
ent railway system with that of tne Pacifio 
seaboard will be about £8,000,000. The sec- 
tion from Mercedes to Mendoza passes over 
level pampas. That of the Andes is described 
as follows : 

1. The steepest incline on the Argentine 
side is 1 in 40 (say 2^ per cent.) for a stretch 
of six miles. 

2. The steepest incline on the Chilian side is 
1 in 25 (say 4 per cent.) for a stretch of seven 
miles. 

8. The tunnel at the summit will be 8} 
miles long. 

This railway will open for settlement the 
vast extent of cultivable lands of the provinces 
of Mendoza, 8an Juan, and San Luis, with a 
present population of 175,000, and insure the 
development of the mineral resources of those 
provinces. When it is completed, travelers 
from Chili can obtain passage to Europe and 
back for less than is now paid for a single fare 
from Valparaiso to England (£45), with a cor- 
responding economy of time. 

An Argentine engineer, Sefior Huergo, had 
revived the project of a port for the city of 
Buenos Ayres at the Boca,* and such progress 
had been achieved in the work that early in 
July two sea-going vessels, drawing each more 
than twelve feet, entered the new port at low 
water. Seiior Hnergo asserts that with £200,- 
000 a port can be provided for Buenos Ayres 
to rival that of the Clyde. His plans and es- 
timates had been approved by the Govern- 
ment, and an adequate appropriation would 
probably be placed at his disposal for the com- 
pletion of that much-needed improvement. 

In view of increasing European immigration, 
and to insure greater security to colonists 



against the incursions of the hostile Indians,' 
the law of 1867, establishing tlie Indian fion- 
tier on the Rio Negro, the enlorcement of 
which had been hindered by the Paraguayan 
war, was revived on the recommendation of 
General Roca^ the Minister of War. The pre- 
liminary military operations were successful, 
and the savage Indians driven from the terri- 
tory chosen for settlement, though the uncalled- 
for violence exhibited by the national troops 
on the occasion was such as to merit shaq) cen- 
sure on the part of the Buenos Ayres press. 

The provincial Legislature of Hnenos Ayreti 
had granted to Colonel Plaza Montero 1,200 
square miles of public lands on the Rio Negro 
frontier, whereon to establish an extensile 
model farm for the raising of horses for ex- 
portation to Europe. A colony is also to be 
established in the Territory, the four sides of 
which are to be apportioned off in free farm 
lots to colonists. President AveUaneda sent 
the following message on the subject to Con- 
gress on August 14, 1878, and the Minister of 
Finance has since called for an appropriation 
of $2,000,000 to carry the law of 1867 into 
effect, and provide for the defense of the new 
frontier : 

The Executive oonsiders the time has arrived to 
carry out the law of August^ 1867, for making the 
JSio Nefpro our southern Indian frontier. The old 
system of scattered outposts and forts in the Pam- 
pas, protected by ditches^is found insufficient to 
Keep back the Indians. We must now moke our 
boBis upon the deep and navieable Bio Negro, from 
the Andes to the Atlantic seaboard. Hod we Kpent 
half OS much on such a basis as we have done on 
scattered inland frontiers, the result would be dif- 
ferent. 

In the lost century, when Father Fanlkner*B book 
on the unprotected state of this country startled the 
King of bpain, the Cabinet of Madrid sent Bieduia 
and V illanno to explore the Kio Negro and the cooctt 
of Patagonia. Accordingly, in March, 1774, the Mor- 
Quis of Loreto proposed to establish the frontii^r on 
tne Bio Negro. T)ie idea was taken up by F. Azara 
in 1796, and at various times revived and forgotten, 
until finally adopted by Congress in 1867, but again 
postponed on account of the Paraguayan war. A 
glatice at the southern portion of the map of the re- 
public shows that the Hio Negro is the natural south- 
ern boundoij of the settled part of our territoiy , al- 
though our jurisdiction extends to Cape Horn. 

At present our Indian fVontier extends 469 leagues, 
or 1,650 miles, in length : 

Patagonesto Fort Sao Martin 809 

BuenoB Ayres and Cdrdoba. ICO 

Total 469 

From San Martin is the eastern point of the Men- 
doza frontier. The two lines above mentioned are 
garrisoned by 6,616 men, with 70 commanders and 
878 subaltern officers. The annual support of this 
force oosts $2,861,199, exclusive of extras for ditches, 
forts, or earthworks. But as these men are only four 
to a mile, we might double the number and still le 
unable to prevent Indian forays. Meantime, if we 
adopt the Bio Negro, we can defend it with 1,600 or 
at most 9,000 men, by forming four sections or head 
centers, viz. : 1. From Patogones to Choeleohoel : 
2. From Choelechoel to Chicblnal ; 8. From Chicltinuj 
to Liniay Neuquen confluence ; 4. From Jjimav Neu« 
quen to foot of the Andes. The desert King between 
the Bio Negro and the Colorado, as well as the deep 



ABGENTINE REPUBUO. 



21 



Xiia, P.tMg(Hna to Choelecbocl, no troops oil] be 
r^uinJ, » tha IiidiuiB sre tuma and (rieiidly on 
lie ■oulb'ira bgnk of the Negro Lvreabouts, an; a 
Uttteh or 40 leaguea, leaTing ■ dixtaoce of only 70 
Itt/uu tn be guTiBOned, from Cbovkcliool la tbe 
iai'.,. Coloaal Uuarrioo'a M\ir*ejt (lS7'i) kJiow tbiiC 
IM X.'gro hu a depth of from IS to 32 feet all tha 

Nauouen ; in fact, that the Bio Ne- 



. ,s,(Dd of IE feet dniuiflitin 

SuppnainK, ihemfora, ■ force of S,000 men 
at> fmitiar line, the ao«t wuuld be barel; oi 
•f vhit oar praMDt froDtJer coiiti : 



The repabUo las not been entirely free from 
disturbiiDces in ita distant provinoea. On the 
14th of April an insurrection broke out at 
Suata Fi; the capital of tha province of that 
name. The barracks were attacked by the in- 
Burgents armed with revolvera and poniarda, 
but they were eoaily repulsed by the national 
troops, who have been lately provided with 
Remington rifles, which gives ihom such supe- 
riority over revolutionists that hereafter peace 
will be more easily maintained in the provinces. 
Otlier in^urrectiona in the provinces of SaltA 
and Corrientes were also put down without 
much loaa of life or property. 



sartBf ti,ti»,a<a >■ 

Nm mlj ahaJI we sare aver 11,600,000 yearly, hot 
■I ihall alto bj tbii maoanni uinei 1S,0IX> aquare 
IfUnu, iiy 130,000 aquare milea, of valuable terri- 
Urr. l('>rMTcr, the navigatioD of tbe Bio Hnfjo 
•i.i taible na to eatabliab agrioulcural and iDdDRtrial 
e>lgalei io the fertile vaUey of Litiiay Neuquee, fa- 
oodi for its ricb depoaita of copper and coal. The 
pnwal Indian population ia about SO.OOO aoule, of 
tbi Inocanian iribe, vbo are ■e[DH;iviIiied and will 
■MB fall into the bmbita of our gauohoa; the? can 
Duttr at praaent about 1,000 Itncea, and live by 
pluder. XlfortheBaoquelea, they are barely able 
tiBiuil too Bchtine men, ao many of their people 
biciai iooept^ land granta and aettleddowQ peace- 
LiltonlhehviDtieraof CAidobaandBanLuia. Oen- 
tnl Koca hai ridden over moat of the oouotry, and 
rrand iierywhere Una paaturagei and plenty of good 
■Uer. Cacique Nomutienra hai now only 100 war- 
rWi left, It Mareo Orande. Pioien, tha lion of the 
Pimpu, hii ahoat the aame DDmber at Halalico, 10 
iHfiiH onuide of Colonel Alaina'a frontier. All 
Viat can make little oppoailion to our oooupation of 
IN! Bio Titgra, the riohnoaa of which country waa 
iJaentMd In England by the JeiuiC F'ather Faulkner 
aoritUan a Lnndred years ago. Thoae Indians who 
■ill not accept land graou must ba driven over the 
kid Nt«TD to Patagonia. Those who anbmit will re- 
ctifa kind treatment and protection. 

AVELLANEDA, 
Oa>. BOCA. 



An. 1. The Bio Negro ia to ba nodathe aontlnm 

itr. 1 The Oovamment ia authorised to sptnd 
I1,sm,000 for tbia end. 
An. I. Tha laoda acquired ahall be duly meoaared 

Air. 4. Theae reiarvationa are aet apart for In- 

M iqiure leognea outside Alaina'a frontier at Goa- 

Hiqnan laaaneaon tbe south bank of Rio Quinto. 
tVuuara leaguaa betwaan Bio Orande and 14eu- 
Va. JOLIO HDCA. 

Prteident Avellaneda bos also issued a mes- 
MM with reference tn a new censns of the 
repnblio— the oost not to exceed (200,000 — 
lu be perfected and pablisbed within three 
ynn. The Cooatitntlon will be reformed he- 
lore 1344, and the present nnmber of Depnties 
Io the National Congress reduced. This last 
■ntaanre ia dictated by motiTes of economy, as 
Ar^ntine repreientatiTea «re paid oat of tbe 
uiioDol Trentory. . 



The Argentine Oommlssioner-General in En- 
rope reports that emigration to the Argentine 
Repabllo is approximating that of the most 
prosperous years preceding the flnanoial crisis 
from which the cotintry is now recovering, and 
that he has succeeded in obtaining a reduction 
of 40 per cent, from the ordinary fare, and a 
snving of six months' interest on the amonnt 

Bud by the Commissioner of Immigration at 
uenos Ayres to the steamsliip companies. 
Near Obloria 170 square miles of good agri- 
cultural land have been set apart for Mennonite 
colonies; and the cnrrent of immigration ia 
difllused through the various provinces, with 
due regard to the extension of railways and 
intern^ navigation. The agrioaltural districts 
have enjoyed a season of nneiampled pros- 
perity, and tha policy of retrenohmeot inan- 
gnrated by the Minister of Finance, Dr. De la 
Plaza, has imparted more oonfidenoe to foreign 
bondholders and to fiuanolal and commercial 
circles in the republic. 

Hr. Vaillant, in statistics compiled for the 
Paris Exposition, gives the nnmber of cattle 
and sheep iDsevend conntries, and shows that, 



22 ARGENTINE EEPUBLIO. ARKANSAS. 

compared with population, the Argentine Re- plenipotentiary, which provided for foreign 

pahlio possesses the largest number : arbitration, and apprehensions were felt that, 

^ notwithstanding the obvious anxietj of Argen- 

shMp. tine statesmen to avoid a rupture of friendlf 

relations, this unexpected action and rabse- 

^8^^200 qnent hostile measures of the Chilian Govern- 

66^052,180 ment might culminate in a deplorable war 

mSiii between the neighboring republics. The Ar- 

5t'5m[418 gentine Government have entered an energetio 

protest against the seizure, by a Chilian man- 



COUNTRnES. 



Biirop« 

United StatM 

Anstnlla 

Oaiutda 

Urognay 

Argentiiie SepubUo. 



Ctttl*. 



89,678,848 

96,928,400 

^760,672 

2,624,890 

6,092,488 

18,498,099 



Wine, sugar, aguardiente, and flour, hitherto ^^C^l^u^^ ^^ American bark Devonshire, to 

imported, are produced ih yearly increasing ^^^^h they had granted a permit to load guaio 

quantities and it is confidently expected that f^ *^« Isla de Leona; and it was thought that 

they will lioon become articles of export The ^« U°i^ States would not tolerate this act 

wheat crop of the current year is the largest of doubtful jurisdiction affectmg the commerce 

ever harvested, and in excess of the require- a^^ property of its citizens. . _^ ^ . 

ments of the^untry. ARKANSAS. The Dem^ratic State Con- 

The Government have issued the follow- jention assembled at Little Rock on Joly 4th, 

jjj^ . to nominate candidates for State officers. The 

f* • *. — :« 1 '1 J J ♦»!. -^ «-^ Convention was organized by the appointment 

Immigrantf, on amvia, are landed at the expense ^^ rp u tt««i«„ „„ ^u «:—««« tuJT ^^„^r^a 

of GovSmmeit, and boJrded and lodged free lor of T. B. Hanley as chairman. The noi ma- 

flve days, aasisted to paas the custom-bouse, afford- tions were as follows : for Governor, William 

ed every infonnation to enable them to find employ- R. Miller ; for Secretary of State, Jacob Fro- 

ment, and finally sent free to wherever they elect to jjch ; for Auditor, John Crawford ; for Trea- 

aettle. All this is done by national Government Thomas J. Churchill ; for Attomey-Gen- 

employees, who speak all lanffuaffes, the immigrant , tit -ci tt j j, r j> r-, .•'. _ 

beiSg ?ree to uke or reject any ad vi<i given to him ; eral, W. F. Henderson ; for Land CommissioDer, 

so that all intending immigrants can come to the Ar- D. W. Lever; for Justice of Supreme Court, 

gentine Republic with perfect confidence, al^ough John R. Eakin; for Superintendeut of Public 

piey may have no rel^ives here, as they will meet Instruction, J. L. Denton; for Chancellor, 

fJ^.l??^^a t ^'^tchTv^tbe^rtSl lS?ete ^J ^;J^^"-o^- The following platfonn was 

tne customs of the country. adopted : 

The wages during the harvest, which lasts four ^ ^^0 Democratic party of Arkansas in dele- 

months, are from «0 to 46 hard dollars (£6 to £8) g^ted Convention assembled, adhering to Uie prin- 

love of the 

oted to th« 

ights of the States and local self-government, do 




and can be worked all the year round, aj snow is g ^hat national-bank notes should be retired, 

unknown. There are immense tracts of paature ^^j^ farther Usue pit)hibited, and United States 

^^\ »nd boundless lorests : every kind of stock Treasury notes substituted thei^for. 

can be had at lower prices than in any other ooun- 3 ^hi power to issue paper money and coin as 1 

try ; there are numerous trunk rail wav lines, deep j^^ t^^der is only vested In the Nitional Qovero- 

nvers, almost daily communication with Europe, in- ^J^j . ^^^ ^y^^ ^^^^ should be ezennsed from time 

stitutions similar to those of the United Statei, uid ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^, ^^ a^ommodate the necessities of trade, 

even more hberd for foreiniera, who can acquire |^j, ^^d the flenera] wants of the people of a giow- 

land in fee without aaonfioing their nationality, jnaoonntrv r r b 




wUl receive aw acres gratis. Each of the fourteen ^y^^ j^^^lng of the debt at home, 
proymcea of the republic has passed special laws 5 ^^ ^^ opposed to any incresse of the interest- 
for the donation or sale of ehacra (smalT farm) lots t^.^jng part oYthe publie debt for any purpose, 
near the towns, which can be purchased at equally «. W believe the right of the State to tax prop- 
moderate pnoes, and are given gratis in some prov- ^rty in the State is inviolable, and that United SUtes 
inoes. In the colonies (settlements) ah«ady estab- i^^ndg g^ould bear the burden of government equally 
hshed, families of agricultural laborers who work ^j^^ all other property; and imy legialation thi 
hard can easily obtain land and »<}7«ij;» ^om the .ttempu the contnSy is injust and oppressive. 
proprietoTB, who have more land than they can cul- ^, ^^ ^ j^ fg^or of the remonetiiirtion of silver 

S^-' ^ cb I «T J 1.^1 « V js A« *nd ffiviuff it the same lenl-tender quaUties as eold, 

FHce of Stoc^-Horned cattle for breeding, £1 .^d that its coinage ahalfbe free and unlimited: 

10#. per head. Sheep, Sf. M. per head. Mares, lU g ^^ f^^^^ ^^^ equaliMtion of the value of the 

per nead. greenback, silver, ana gold dollar for all purposes. 

The long- pending question of boundaries eo that a national dollar shall be a dollar among all 

between the Argentine RepubUc and Chili re- ^^^""^^^ ""^ ''' •''•'^ department of our Govern- 

mains undecided. The Chilian Congress re- 9. Ve demand the unqualified and unoonditional 

fosed to ratify a treaty signed by the Chilian repeal of the odious resumption act. 



ARKANSAS. 83 

la. We damimd bj Oon^sB auoh leffislation m day in January following. The election for 

ihiHpwfdnt the inteipoBifeion of the Federal courts, members of Congress in November resulted 

br mandamMi or otherwrise, between the courts of . .v ^ «k^:^«. ^* ^«« rk^»^».«4.« tk.* r..^.^ 

the Sutes sDd the counties and cities of the States. *^ ^^^ 0**^^^® <>? ^^^"^ Democrats. The previ- 

Soch mterfereDce, bein^ hostile to the theory of our ous btate election resulted in tne success of 

Goreroment, leads to oentnlisation, and also do- the entire Democratic ticket, 
prife* the State of a free and rightful exercise of its No reports have been made of the condition 

"ir&or money .id on the pwt of the Gen- ?' *|'* inrtitutions of the State since Jannary, 

wtl GovemmeDt, on full security, for the conbtruc- iJ' ^ , », , . -. . . 

tionof the Southern Fadfio Bailroad. On July 7th an important decision was ren- 

11 We favor an appropriation b^ the General dered by the Supreme Oonrt of the State 

GorernmeDt to aid in the oonstrucaons of levees on the constitutionality of three millions of 

upon the Mississippi and Its tributaries. ^ ^ ^ "Levee bonds." Chief 

II. We are opposed to any tariff except for pur- *'''"27^ V. , . , j ,. j /i '"'".^•7 m IZ 

poMsofrevenue alone, believingthatthe same tends Justice English delivered the opinion of the 

to bnildnp particular tnduatrles at the expense of all Court, declaring the bonds unconstitutional 

o^en* and void. It seems that the Court rested 

A It" ?•• f^ ^PP??«^ ^ •"y settlement of our State upon the simple objection that the act of pro- 

<kbt wbioh would involve a compromise of any por- ^fj. ^ a^« xuf i^^^J: ^e 4.u,.«a k^»^<> «-«- i^4> ^^ 

tion of that which is just, in oi3er to pay anything Tiding for the issue of these bonds was not en- 

u^Q. that which is ui\]U8t or fraudulent. acted in accordance with the provisions and 

15. We are in favor of the next Legislature sub- requirements of the Constitution of 1868, and 
mtsjDg to the people a propoaed constitutional was therefore null and void. The Constitu- 

S wThf spprop^^^^^ S0JI7/0 ray the ^^^° ^' ^^® provided that on the final passage 

l«res boQds,\kilroad-aid bonds, the unjubt and ille- of every act a vote of the members should be 

Ei part of the Hoi lord bonds, or any other fraudu- taken by yeas and nays. In respect to this 

Dt claim against the State. act, the vote was not 80 taken, and therefore 

U. We demand of the Attorney-General that he lao^ed an essential ingredient required by the 

fn^^^ T ®^!?* •^^P' "^^ ascertain if any ot it Constitution as a fundamental condition to its 

nav outstanding has been issued contrary to law, vywuowivuwwu oo «» auhuouiouwu wuutvivu w *« 

Md, if to, that he instttnte proceedings to have the completion. It was only in its legal and tech- 
Mae declared void by the proper judicial tribunals nical a^^peots that the question of the legality 
of the country. of these bonds was presented to the Court, 

thlL^* 'f*!^ ^V!^,''^at'^?^ * radical revision of and they decided it according to the provisions 

thecninmal laws of the State as will reduce the ex- ^^ 4.. ^ ri^««*ii..,*:^« ^^ ioaq ^^a^^ L\.i»\^ ♦!»«> 

ptnie of their enforcement. <^^ ^^^ Constitution of 1868, under which the 

16. We demand auoh legislation as will carry into act was supposed to have been enacted. Judge 
effect the anirit. object, aiia intent of section 8, Artide Harrison delivered a cumulative opinion to the 
m. of the tlonatituUon of the State, in regard to effect that the bonds were also illegal and 
isoimiTiation b/ railroads in the rates of frcKfht jj because the act under which they were 
u^mnmsportation of persons and property witlin ^^^ ^^i^ a loan of State credit, which 

19. Wefivor a wholesome system of public schools, was forbidden by the Constitution; but the 

to the ead that every facility majjr be afforded for majority stood upon the grounds first above 

edacatioa oonsUtent with the ability of the peo- mentioned. This decision was severely criti- 

^ 80. We favor and invite immimtion to our State <^i«^ O?^^^^^ ^^^ ^"^^u^f, ^^^^.S^^^' 7^®^| 

from any and all quarters, provided that it is of the many ot the Donas were held. It was cbargea 

iMQfist and industrious okas. We want capital, mna* that the decision was based on a mere techni- 

ei«,aod brain: capital to be invested in our lands cality. To this it was replied that the courts 

Sl^JVn*^^®J*i''^^fe°*L?"o'"^^ of Arkansas could not be any more exempt 

oa^de to fell our vast forests and till our fertile - * u • !•«.• ai. - av^ * r ^4.i.«- 0*.^*.^.. 

««ldi: and braiiisto direct, eneigize,and utilifeboth ^p™ technicalities than those of other States, 

capital and labor. We ftirther c^lare that we know The constitutionality of the act was put in 

■0 North, no South, no East, and no West in the mat- question immediately after its supposed pas- 

wofimmimUon, provided it comes to buUd up our gaffe. It was farther charged that the deci- 

'"StffilTCr.^l'SJSSrffiinUon tht «on was a great outrage on the rights of inno- 

lli« colored population of the State of Arkansas are ©ent purchasers. To this it was replied that 

ii«ntifledinintereat with the great Democratic party the Legislature that enacted or attempted to 

of the State, and, fully recognicing the importance enact this law was not regarded by the people 

S[.«">^«J^<>n">5w?J?'i"5,*>«''^«t"*^?"''5"^'^ who are now called upon to pay these bonds 

&^Srt^^'irrSfc ?f the le^ntimate govLiment of Arkau^is. 

t^a/roveommon interests. It was a Legislature foisted into power under 

Ws fdly andorae the action of a minority of the the despotic and fraudulent system of recon- 
Hoflse of Representatives in the investigation of B^ruction that virtually took all political power 
itu^S^inye^SLTof ^ ?«t of the hands of tiie propert^^^^ 
i=« of the United States ; and we insist that the tax-payers, and placed it m the hands of ad- 
enines be ezposod and the orimlnalK punished, to venturers who had no other interest m the 
tk* end that aneh crimes may never be attempted country but to rob it. This levee-bond law 
^*'***«'- was generally understood at the time to be a 

Ko other party nominations were made. Tlie put-up job and steal, and so denounced by the 

^e eleetion is held biennially on the first Democratic and Conservative press of the 

Monday in September, and the Legislature as- State. They were not sold in the market, 

MDblei on the Toesday after the second Hon- and held as investments by all classes of 



24 ARKANSAS. 

people. The bonds were sqnandered in the million dollars' worth of bonda is to-day perbapi not 

most reckless and inexcusable manner for use- Z"""^} ''"• thousaod dollars, i^^'^v**- ""^ °V^''** 

1 1^1 1. j*Jij.A^L honda ever irot into toe banda of innocent pu^ 

less or unlawful works, and paid out at the ohasera, it waSonly through the contractora, who weit 

rate of about ten to one for what the same parUcept crimiuU to the &aud of their iasuance, and 

work could have been done by private con- not through any direct agency of the State. The 

tract. These contractors then took the bonds ^^^ *i^*^ 'hese bonda never sold on the market for 

to New York and other cities and sold them J?ore Umu twenty cento on the dollar, and for a long 

vv X v«T * v»«. <»uu ^yi/uvA viiiivo €Mi« ov»vi^ «u«iu ^^^^ bcforc the decision of the Supreme Court were 

for 8 song to capitalists who were buymg at held on the market aa being worth only about five 

greatly reduced rates Southern securities, cento on the dollar, is conclusive proof tliat there 

Knowingly and deliberately taking the chances waa a aettled conviction in the public mind that 

of a desperate speculation. To say that the they were illegal and worthleas. There nevij waa a 

«vni.Ai««nAro «.#• 4-kr<.A Ko.^/i> «.A.A <'»^y^^# ^«« morc fraudulcnt and unjust debt contracted by a 

purchasers of these bonds were innocent i^uv- government in the name of any people than tb«e 

chasers is a travesty on that term. They fevee bonds. They were a fmud and a awindle in 

knew that all Southern securities, issued under their inoeption^ne of the most contemptible awin- 

the carpet-bag governments, were riiky; and ^^^* in the wide range of villainies that charactcrixed 

especially did they know that these levee bonds *^J ^foVwMle 3?irit**ff "hV^eo^le'^'whoM 

were extraoi-dinarily risky. They knew it haJidTwero a7the*t?me'^tild;°dispos?rSf%ithout 

from the fact that the press of Arkansas from anythinff like an adequate conatderation, and for 

the very start had denounced them as a fraud works of no practical or permanent utility ; a shame 

and a swindle ; and they knew it from the ex- »»d dismoe to the party that controlled the govern- 

traordinary low price at which they were ment of the State; and for which the tax-payers of 

ir ^ Ai. 11 *^ 2^ WW wMt^i* i.«Y ""*" Arkansas are no more responsible m law, juBtioe, or 

Offered. At all events, aU these facts were equity than the people of Illinois or New York. We 

sufficient to put a prudent man on his guard, anoufd never pav one cent of theae worthleas, bogui 

and they should not have invested their money obligations ; ana we don't intend to do it, rep^- 

in them at all, or certauily not without first '®". ©^''hat our enemies may aay or think on the 

closely inauiring into their legality. subject. 

It was charged more seriously that the people The case of Hot Springs, as it is called, ex- 

of the State, in repudiating these levee bonds, cited unusual interest, and became of serioas 

^ere acting dishonestly and in bad faith. It importance to its inhabitants. The town of 

was urged that the bonds were issued with all Hot Springs is located in the southwestern part 

the proper formalities of law, and sold in the of Arkansas, about fifty miles from Little Rock, 

open market to bona fide purchasers. The It is located in a wild and picturesque conntrj, 

funds received were not stolen or squandered nestling in a series of sliort and narrow valleys 

by carpet-baggers, but honestly applied to inclosed by lofty and irregular hills, oonstltnt- 

works of great public utility to the State, ing a branch of the great Ozark Mountains that 

There was no trickery of any sort pretended, divide the waters of the Ouachita and Saline 

and there is no pretense that such is the fact. Rivers. It lies mainly in a narrow valley, famil- 

The State got the money from the purchasers, 'iarly known as " the Valley," running north 

and spent it for public purposes. To these as- and south between two shot^ and precipitocs 

sertions on the part of the bondholders it was mountains, from the sides of one of which, 

replied on the part of the State thus : and on an average height of about eighty feet 

These bonds were never sold by the State in open fro™ the little creek that ripples at its base, 

market or any other way. The State never realized flow the famous hot springs that give to the 

one cent of money out of them, and never handled town its name and celebrity. In tliis narrow 

a dollar in connection with them. They were Issued ^^Uey, through which runs only one and the 

out directly to contractors, by a Commissioner of «„:«*' U,^^* 5V ♦k^ ♦^-,« ^»ii.x^ Voii^^ a*^.^^ 

Public Works appointed for'that purpose, who made ^^\ s^^eeji of the town, caUed VaUey Street, 

auch contracts as he paw fit with his own pets and are located the principal hotels, batn-nouses, 

favorites, and paid therefor in bonds 'the price stores, shops, and offices. At the lower end 

•greed on. The contracts let out by the Commia- of the Valley, the two mountains inclosing it 

K iL'Aor, ^thT^o^ We^'" t^^^to ?b"^Ptly break off to the east and west, expos- 

pricticftl utility/and paid for St the most enormous ^% » comparatively level conntry, broken only 

rates. It is suppo&ed that the Comroiasioner made by gentle and undulating hills, over which the 

a percentage on every contract ; and the fact that town spreads out to a considerable extent. In 

nobody would take a contract except at the most ex- this part are located the residences of the mer- 

:"3AWXd \^ ruiait'of'*rSor.°." %7^. «!""» vi^? "^^ i*r"r '\'^' ^"^' ^^r 

oeedingly doubtful character, i^gain, railroad com- many hotels and board ing-houses, shops, mills, 

Saniea, that under another Isw wero receiving a the gas-works, and railroad depot, llie resi- 

tate bonus of $15,000 per mile for building their dent population of the town is about 4,000, 

~*?J?, '"'"''iu "'J^?..* ''''^t^J''^ building levees, ^j^h a transient population, consisting princi- 

and those they built, or the old ones they utilized, .^.ii ^* ;«„«i;^r«,k^ ^^.J^ /■«- ^v^ i?««^45* «# 

were nothing iore nir less than the embankment^ ^}^^\ ^^ invalids who come for the benefit of 

necessary for their road-bedn, for which they re- their health, ranging from one to three thou- 

ceived enonnnus sums. All manner of contracts sand. It is estimated that as many aa 20,000 

were let out without any regard to their necessity or people annually visit the Springs in pursuit of 

SJll?' Tht SaSLXt Z™rnWthrb'?a' P"*"-" «>• '»' «•« benefit of their health ; «.d 

was a perfect carnival of peculation, speculation, and the number IS yearly increasing. 1 his town 

f^ad. The entire work done for the whole three was built up on what was supposed to be pri* 



ARKANSAS. 25 

vate land, which was entered and located in available for bnilding-lots, but is covered with 
parsoance of law more than thirty years ago, evergreen and other trees of beautiful foliage, 
and held in quiet and peaceable podsession nn- At the north end of the valley is the Novacu- 
der title adverse to the Government for all that late Mountain, containing 200 acres, nnavail- 
period. But a few years ago the Qovemment able for building-lots. In their first report the 
laid claim to all the land on which the town is Commissioners recommended to the Govem- 
located, and contiguous territory to the amount ment the reservation of all these mountains as 
of four sections; and the question of title be- general parks, and the donation of four lots 
ing carried to the Supreme Court of the United for pubHo-school houses. The Commissioners 
States, that tribunal decided in favor of the asked that their time for finishing up the work 
Government, and by that act disseized 6,000 be continued until June 80, 1879. By act of 
people of the homes they had paid for, and im- Congress, April 20, 1832, Congress reserved 
proved and beautified with the toil of years, from entry the Hot Springs, together with four 
Bat Congress, in consideration of the oiroum- sections of land. At that time the surveys 
stances, enacted a law on March 8, 1877, pro- were not complete, nor for six years thereafter, 
vlding for the appointment of three Commis- Several settlers attempted to enter the lands 
sioners, whose duty it should be to survey and by preemption prior to Congress surveying 
lay off in convenient tracts, parcels, and lots them. Litigation continued among the claim- 
aU the land embraced in said four sections, hav- ants for thirty years. In 1870 Congress anthor- 
iag due regard to the boundaries of existing ized the claimants to institute suits in the Court 
claiiDs ; and, after laying aside as a special res- of Claims to settle the titles. The decisions 
ervation all the lands covering the Hot Springs, were adverse to them. They then appealed to 
to adjudicate the possessory or preemption rights the Supreme Court, April 26, 1877, which also 
of rival claimants to each individual tract, par- decided against the claimants. A receiver was 
eel, or lot so surveyed and laid out by the Com- then appointed to take charge of the property 
missioners, who were then to fix a price on and oolleot rents, and he paid to the Govern- 
each tract or lot, which the part/ adjudged the ment $5,000 in a few months, 
preemption right by the Commissioners might The Commissioners continued at work tak- 
pnrchase. The term of the Commissioners^ ing testimony in respect to claims, etc., until 
office was liuiited to one year. their term of office expired, when they suspend- 
On April 28, 1877, the Commissioners organ- ed operations. A few months more would have 
ized by the election of Hon. Aaron Cragin as been sufficient to complete the whole business, 
chairman of the Board. John Anderson was ' At once petitions, signed by nearly every man 
appointed stenographer and clerk. They ex- and woman in the place, were sent to Congress, 
amined the reserve to be laid off into lota, beseeching it to pass a supplemental act extend- 
blocks, squares, streets, and alleys, and deter- ing the time of the Commission long enough 
mined to retain control of all the medicinal wa- to enable it to complete the work assigned to 
tert for the general public, and directed that * it by the original bill. The Senate responded 
all the thermal springs should be reserved from to their appeals by passing the necessary act, 
sale. For the purpose of properly performing but the House of Bepresentatlves neglected it. 
the work, the engineer was authorized to make Finally, in the sundry civil appropriation bill, 
a thorough topographical survey of the en- an amendment was made which provided for 
tire reservation. Claimants were allowed six the continuance of the Commission. This passed 
months in which to file their claims, the ma- both Houses of Congress ; but in the enroU- 
jority of whom filed them within the last month ment of the bill, the section was left out in 
allotted to them. Rules were made to assist some unexplained manner. It did not appear 
the claimants in filing their claims, and the of- in the bill as signed by the President, and be- 
fice was kent open until 12 o'clock on the night came a failure. Immediately on the commence- 
of the 27tn of October, 1877, being the lost ment of the subsequent session of Congress in 
hour that could be allowed the claimants for December, 1878, a committee was appointed in 
filing petitions. During the six months 950 the Senate to investigate the change in the bill 
petitions were filed. The Hot Springs Moun- above mentioned. A new bill was also intro- 
taio, embracing the thermal springs, have been duced to provide for the same object as men- 
laid off and reserved from sale. The boundary tioned in the defective bill, 
line follows the base of the mountains, and is A confiict of authority between the Federal 
laid out as a carriage-drive, inclosing an area and State courts became very important during 
of 245 acres in the reserve. The Commission- the year. Subsequent to the war many conn* 
ers are of the opinion, from the nature and ties of the State issued bonds or scrip for in- 
character of the country, and the great impor- temal purposes. These have been bought up 
tanee of this place as a healtli and pleasure re- by citizens of other States at nominal prices, 
sort, that a much larger tract should be re- and the holders brought suits in the Federal 
•eryed from sale. The thermal springs all make courts for their face value. More than thirty 
their appearance on the west side of the Hot counties were thus sued.' In such cases the 
Springs Mountain, and west of the springs Federal Court, after judgment for the plaintifi', 
across the valley is Whippoorwill Mountain, issued a mandamus ordering the taxes to be 
the area of which is about 500 acres. It is un- levied and collected for the payment of the 



26 ABKANSAS. 

judgment. The groandB of the decision of the oably the oommands contuned in th« writ we iBsued 

Federal Court are set forth by Judge Dillon of H"^* ^rV/.'^^V'fi!: ^ « • i ^ 

♦k« TT a nj»»»;«^ n««,4. tt^.»:^4> jj^ n/v^rx/*.. •• I'* *he State of lowSf some years sinee, we bad 

the U. 8. Circuit Court, Hewitt & Cooper u. ,^ important conflict between tbe 8ute an^ Fedeml 

Judge and Justices of Jefferson County. In judicial tribunala conceniiDg the validity of bonda 

re Silverman, Judge of said County, Hewitt isaued by muaicipalitiet to aid in the oonatmction 

recovered judgment in the Federal Court ofrailroada. The Supreme Court of that State held 

against Jefferson County. The county did not **^*' '*^°*« ^^'^^^ were unoonatitutional, baving, how- 

^* , - If " 7 , "^ . Zy Try . X ever, previously decided otherwise: and under the 

appeal from that judgment. Hewitt assigned ^^t decision a large number of such bonda had been 

part of the judgment to Cooper. The Court issued. The State Supreme Court afterward chAnged 

awarded a peremptory writ of mandamus to their judgment, and neld the bonds to be invalid, 

compel the county authorities to levy a tax to ^^ P~S!t*^iH?5 .^!" begun by tax-layers in the 
«vA«> ♦Ka i,^A,w^^,>i tKa 4-^'m- mao iI^rJA^ ani^ oourts ol thst Statc to enjoin the counties from levy- 
pay the judgment. The tax was le^ed md ing any tax topayjudgments rendered in the Fedei4l 
afterward set aside. A rule was issued by the Courto on municipal bonds. The leading caee in tie 
Court against the County Judge of Jefferson Supreme Court or the United States upon this sub- 
County, Frank Silverman, to show cause why joct, which is well known to the profession, is the 
he should not be punished for contempt m not ^JJ ^^ j?/fi^«» «»• Johnson County, 6 Wallace Be- 
^K»«.;»o. ♦»,« ™«:* ^# »«»»^«.»«<. Ai^^4^^ ♦« !»;«* ports. The case is a stronger one than the cause 
obeying the writ of mandamus directed to him J^w at the bar, because in tliat case the injunction 

by the Court. He set up m defense that he from the State Court against the officers of Johnson 

obeyed certain orders of the State Court. Judge County was issued bffor4 the writ of mandamus was 

Dillon said : issued by the Federal Court. Here is a very correct 

synopsis of the point ruled in that case : 

The county officers on the alternative writ which ** After a return unsatisfied of an execution on a 
issued had full opportunity to be heard against the judgment in a Circuit Court of the United States 
demands that were made against them. No sufficient agunst a county fox interest on railroad bonds, is- 
reason was shown by the county or ito officers why sued under a Stata statute in force prior to the issue 
the peremptory writ of luandamus should not issue, of the bonds, and which made the levy of a tax to 
and the Court adjudged that it ought to be awarded, pay such interest obligatory on the county, a man- 
The peremptory writ was directed to Frank Silver^ damns from the Circuit Court of the United States 
man. County Judge, and Craig and others. Justices will lie against the county officers to levy a tax. even 
of the Peace, composing the County Court of Jef- although prior to the application for the uanaanaus 
fenon County. It commanded them ** to meet and a State Court has perpetually enjoined the ssme cffi- 
convene together at the courthouse in the town of cers against making such levy ; the mand&mu8. 
Pine Bluff, in said county, upon the day fixed by law when so issued, being to be regarded as a wiit necee^- 
fur levying taxes for county purposes for the vear sair to the jurisdiction of the Federal Court which 
1877, then and there to organize, open, and hold a had previously attached, and to enforce ita judg> 
County Court of said county, ana to levy the tax of» nienta. and the State Court, therefore, not being re- 
five mills upon the dollar of ail the taxable property gardea as in prior possession of the case.'' 
of said county, provided for hy the Constitution of Now Uie Stata officers in the State of Iowa were 
the State of Arkansas, for the payment of indebted- between two fires. First, the State Court enjoined 
ness contracted and created before and existing at them from levying the tax, and a subrequent man- 
the time of the ratification of this Constitution, pav- damns from the ^deral Court cuiumanded them to 
able only in United States currency, and cause tne levy precisely the same tax .which the writ of the 
same to oe collected at the same time and in the State Court forbade. If they obeyed the mandanaus 
same nianner that other county taxes are directed by of the Federal Court, and levied the tax, the Btato 
law te be collected, and te cause the proceeds of the Court would, the^ said, arrent them for contempt of 
said tax, as soon as oollected, to be paid into the its writ and nonish them. If they disregardea the 
registry of our said Circuit Court for the payment command of^ the writ of mandumns the Fedcrail 
and satisfaction of the said judgment, interest, and Court would attach them for contempt and punish 
costa.*^ them. Now, what was to be done t It was this di- 

It appears that this writ was duly served, and that lemma the County Judge, in the case at bar, said he 

in pursuance of this command they did meet, and supposed he was in: *^I am subject to two oom> 

levied the tax which the writ commanded them to mands ; the Federal Court commands the levying of 

cause to be levied. Afterward, at the instance of cep- this tax, and the Circuit Court for the county ras 

tain tax*pa^ers of that county, a proceeding upon eer- commanded me to annul the levy.*' He obeyed the 

Uorariwas instituted to have the order of uie County oiders of the local court, and in so doing he simply 

Court msde in obedience to this writ reviewed bv obeyed the wrong tribunsl. 

the Circuit Court of the county ; and that proceed- Tlie subject is very fVilly considered by tbe Su- 
ing was begun and carried on in the local court with- preme Court of the United St»tes in the al>ove>iD en- 
out any notice being given to the relatora or parties tioned case of Biggs v«. Johnson County. It would 
interested in the judgment; and in that proceeding consume too much time to repeat it at length; but 
the State Circuit Cfourt undertook to annul the order the efllect of it is, that in judgments rendered in this 
of the CountT Court, made in obedience to the com- class of cases the writ of mandamus is a writ neces- 
mands of this Court, and certified its action to the sary te enforce the judgment, and that judgmer.! 
County Court in that regard. When that action was can no more be interfered with by the State Conrts 
certified to the County Court commanding that Court than they can undertake to intenere with an ordi- 
to enter an order annulling ita prior levy of taxes, the nary writ of execution in the hands of the If arsl al 
County Court obeyed and caused that order to be of this Court; nor can the State Court anymore in- 
made. The tax had been extended on the tax-books terfere thon the Federal Court could interfere vrith 
of the county, and the warrant for collection was in their judgments or process. It is a rule that one 
the handa of the sheriff, who by the statutes of this Court shul not intenere with the processes of the 
State is«B oMoio collector. When it was known in other; and when this rule is observed harmony 
the community that the Circuit Court of the county exists in both, end there can be no conflict, 
had made suc£ order, the collector mode return (in In the case first cited the Supreme Court of tbo 
obedience to a rule issued upon him) that, although United States uses this language : *^ State Courts aro 
he demanded the tax, he was unable to collect it ; exemot fVom all intert'erence by the Federal tribu- 
fchat the tax-payers refused te pay it, and so practi- nals, out they are destitute of all power to restrain 



ARKANSAS. 27 

either the proesst or proceeding in tbe national been had, and the judgment orders of the Circuit 

Courts. Ciroalt Courts of the United States and Court and of tbe County Court setting aside said 

StiM Coorts act sepamtelj and independentlj of levy had not been made, 

etchother, and io their renpective spheres of action A*i.'Dii*/^ i. • ja i. 

tfatprooe*^ h^wd by the one is asYar beyond the , Against Pulaski County a judgment was ren- 

nMUofthe other as if the line of division between oered for a very large amount, and an onler 

them^'was traced by landmarks and monuments issued commanding the County Court to levy 

Tiiible to the eye.» Appellee relations exist in a a tax in United States currency sufficient to 

r ll?!S* ****''''*'' the State Courts and this ^^ jj q ^ q t answered that the 

c )iirt, bat there are no such relations between the K?v Vi -^"^.^Y."""/ ^^. ^ «uo»t«xom. wuav wijv 

&4te Courts and the Cirouil Courts of the United *^^^^ Oonstitutiou, which it was sworn to 




mTs^ ul th.";,v.«l sSS;;: ^yiUn, JS: Jj?»it «nd ylolate the Conrtitation of the State 

vht of mandamus in a proper ease, wher« it is ne- ^■'^^ Judge and Justices were then summoned 

c'SMiy to the exercise of their respective jurisdio* before the Federal Court and commanded 

UM, a^reeabljr to the principles and usages of law. peremptorily to levy the tax, under penalties 

^rso"t;i'o?e^^^^^^^^^^ of contempt of Court. Being powerless, and 

Mftoewsmt in the jurisdictional sens?. On the iiawilhng to encounter fines and impnson- 

MQinrj.it is a proceeding ancillary to the judg- ment, they obeyed. The tax was levied and 

QKQt whieh gives the Jurisdiction ; and, when is* collected, despite the State Constitution. 

ned, becomes a substitute for tbe ordinary process Subsequently in June, in the case of Graham 

;I»Vu3rthS'cSSS2f ' ^'°'*"" "' *• ""'• - «•• Po^J^*^ Chief Justice English of the State 

'* The next sogmstion of the defendants is,'* con- Supreme Court delivered an opinion in which 

tiaoat the United States Supreme Court, \^ that if the jurisdiction of the Pederal Courts is re- 

;3e vrit is issued and they should obey its com- viewed, and many questions in connection 

MoJ., they may be exposed to « Ruit for d»m»ge. ^jth their powers are discussed. The opinion 

U.'tS.Xa^: •"ifr.S^k'l^l.AhLlir*^: U a di««fi^ protest .gainst encroachmeW 

eoterbaoed by thLi Court, as all ezperienoe shows the Federal judiciary upon the reserved rights 

\m tbe State Courts at all times have readily aoqui- of the States ; and, though conceding to the 

e«*i iu the judgmenu of this Court, in all cases Federal Courts the right to entertain suits 

ooflJed to ito determination under the Constitution AiminHr AnnntiAA. and to tmfnroA th«ip indw. 

loilawsofCongrcaa. Guided by the experience of against countiea, ana to enforce tueir judg- 

tv) past, oorjiut expectations of the iiituVe are that ™2°H ^^ mandamus compeUing the proper 

U6 ume just views will prevail. Should it be officials to levy and collect taxes to satisfy 

ochenrue, however, the defendants will find the such judgments, yet maintains that this juris- 

a>*i ample means of protection at hand. The diction can be exercised only in pursuance of 

ilS^oTISSi^i '^Z ;?e£i"r <i"»r d'2'7f Z and -ocordanoe with the Oo.utitutfon and laws 

vnt in bsr of the sait ; and if their defense is over- ^' the State ; and that the bupreme Oourt of 

nied sod jodinnent Is rendered against them, a writ the State is the proper tribunal to interpret 

o( error from their Court will lie to the judgment the Constitution and expound the laws mark- 

■^ierthe twenty-fifth section of the judiciary act. jng und limiting the boundaries in which the 

^J'o^er?nl^ThrL%:fir.S^^^^^ Federal as we^ state Courts shall exercise 

^ feeood day of Mareb, 1888, entitled ' An act their junsdiction. 

fijiher to provide for the ooUeotion of the duties on In respect to the right of the Federal Courts 

aporti.' PrUoners In jaU or confinement for any to entertain suits against counties, the Supreme 

?wt?o^V^li!i1i^til\r''?^^'nX/'S^^^^ O^^^'t say ^^ <!^« "g^t is derived solely (in 

*w or tne United states, or any order, process, or ^ .* " ..v ,. . " i,'j, j,* i • • j* 

<l««6 Of soy Judge or cinrt thereof, may apply to connection with their constitutional junsdio- 

Mh«rof the Justiofts of tbe Supreme, or any Judge tion) from the statutes of the State, which give 

<■' aj District Court of the United States, for the the counties the right ^^ to sue and be sued ^' ; 

TUofhabeas corpus, and thev are severally author- g^^ that without such a law a county could 

i^'e^S^Uw*^ wthority otherwise ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^j. ^ j^ ^j^^^ ^^^ p^^^^ ^^ q^^ 

Saeh is the Uw of the land, aa deohired by the Courts. . , ^ , , 

!ii<k«ttribnnaloftbeoountry, and all Courts, Fed- In respect to the powers of the Federal 

eril aid State, must aooopt it and yield obedience to Courts to compel by mandamus County Courts 

It The eff^ of this is, that the action of the Cir- to levy taxes to pay their judgment, the Su- 

(.'tCoartofJefTenion County and the action of the ^,^^/ n^„^ „«5 ii*-* ^va^ ?»»;o^;Jf;^n t.«. 

^'iitrCoBitin parsuance hereof were nullities, preme Court say that this junsdiction has 

i&«Cojnty Judge has been examined on oath, and heen claimed by virtue of a decision of tbe 

^ disebims any intention to disregard the mandate Supreme Court of the United States, although 

y( thu Court ; but he haa made a mistake which the Court was divided on the question : but 

Win'ilLi^ *^* ^^"i^^^ lil'Vr^'iw'i"'!^**"- affirms that no case can be found in which the 

- jlteTrdi^to"^^^^^ Supreme Court has decided that a United States 

•: 'he end reanit injuriously to the piwties. Circuit or District Court can compel by man- 

^ & i» MOW ordireiihht the aaid rule af^nst said damns a County Court to levy a tax, or do any 

;i.^OT*n be resenred for the further action of the other act which it is not empowered by the 

-^JSt^^K ^""^A ^' ,^'*7*^°» •^•r^f *'*?, *J Constitution and laws of the State to do. 

:*^«^lleetor of aaid oounty, do proceed to oollnct v""*»"""'"»'" »"^ "•'^" "*■ wi^ •^•.nw^ vv ^*v. ^ 

'^ uxe^ levied to pay the relator's judgment, the ^^ respect to the constitutional provision 

*3« u if tbe said oertiorari proeeediogs had not that no county shall levy a tax to exceed one 



28 ARKANSAS. ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES. 

half of one per cent, for all purposes^ but may when it may be held up as a solemn declaration 

levy an additional tax of one half of one per by Oongress and the Sopreme Goart of the 

cent, to pay existing indebtedness at the time sobjagation of all tribes and the nullity of all 

of the adoption of the Constitution, the Court treaties now or hereafter made ; as the estab- 

uses this strong and emphatic language : lishment by the President, tlie Congress^ and 

Thiu Bection furniahea the measure and limiUtlon the courts, of 8 far-reaching principle, on 

upon the taxing power of the coauties, and neither which must follow the policy of settling all 

the Legulature^ nor the StaU OourU, iwr the FetUral Indian questions hereafter. Since the decision 

to^^/^t^toi^tr''"''"""^''^'^ «' ^^^ Supreme Court referred to it ha. b^ 

"^ come a question propounded openly in Gon- 

The Court say, however, that there may he gress " whether it is not time that the Govern- 

an exceptional case arising under the Constitu- ment should cease longer to attempt by force 

tion of the United States, forbidding any State of treaties to govern and civilize the Indians.^' 
to pass laws impairing the obligation of con- The Indian appropriation bill passed in May, 

tracts. 1878, contained a clause to remove all the wild 

One of the most important subjects to the Nez rerc6s tribes into their territory. In the 
State of Arkansas relates to the establishment Senate, General Maxey, of Texas, moved to 
of a territorial government by Congress over Etrike out this clause. His motion was re- 
the Indian Territory. The five Indian tribes jected. Mr. Edmunds proposed to remove 
occupying the Territory west of Arkansas have these wild tribes to such part of the Indian 
until recently been dmost unanimously op- Territory as the Government had a right to 
posed to breaking up their tribal relations, and use, and it was agreed to. Mr. Teller, of Col- 
nave been bitterly hostile to all measures for orado, offered a proviso that the removal should 
their future development. These views have be dependent upon the consent of the civilized 
changed among the Choctaws and Chiokasaws, tribes, and foithwith his motion was rejected. 
whose recently elected rulers were chosen to These indications bring the question home to 
support a change. Arkansas Las within her the five tribes whether they shall at some 
limits about fifty thousand square miles. Im- future day be crowded with all the savage 
mediately west of the State lies the Indian tribes, involved in wars, and driven out at 
Territory, with sixty-five or seventy thousand last, or whether Congress shall, after giving 
square miles, which was set apart and ceded each Indian of them a fee wmple in land 
by solemn treaty, about fifty years ago, as a enough to live on, and paying them the price 
country and a future home for the ^uthern of the balance, open their country to settle- 
Indians. This cession was made to be per- ment by the whites, and establish a territorial 
petual ; the lands were granted in fee eimple^ government, giving the Indians equal rights 
and the tribes were guaranteed independent with the whites, and enabling them to live in 
self-government and freedom from taxation, peace and perfect their civilization. 
But Congress, some ten years ago, without ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES. The 
notice or hearing, extended the revenue latce army on October 15, 1878, consisted of 24,- 
and taxation over all countries lying ieithin 761 enlisted men, which is a reduction of 
'* the bounds of the United States, Treaties about five thouaand since the previous year, 
with the tribes hitherto had always been held The desertions durins the year ending June SO, 
to be sacred, being made with independent and 1878, were 1,678; during the previous year 
not subject nations; and they had been so 2,516. In the expenditures for the army there 
recognized always by the political power, and was a reduction over the previous year of 
repeatedly by the Supreme Court of the United $4,828,784.54, which arose in part from the 
States. All this has now been reversed. The diminution of the force. The appropriation 
Congress in effect destroyed all treaties when by Congress was $25,712,600. 
it destroyed the sovereignty of one of the par- The only active service of the army during 
ties by extending over the Indian country, the year was caused by some Indian disturb- 
without its consent, the revenue laws of the anoes which were confined to a comparative- 
United States. In the noted case of E. C. ly small number of Indians. The discontent 
Boudinot vs. the United States, Mr. Boudinot among the Bannocks, which led first to slcx^ 
resisted the right of the United States to do of violence on the part of some members of 
this thing, quoting in vain the treaties with the tribe, and finally to the outbreak, appears 
the tribes and the repeated decisions of the to have been caused by an insufiSciency of food 
Supreme Court sustaining their inviolability, on the reservation, and this insuificenoy to 
The Cherokee authorities, in maintaining the have been owing to the inadequacy of the ap- 
rigbtsofthe Cherokee Nation, employed coun- propriations made by Congress to the wants 
sel to aid them. Rut the Supreme Court sus- of the Indians at a time when tbey were 
tained the action of Congress, and Mr. Bondi- prevented from supplying the deficiency by 
not was ruined, and with him the cause of his nunting. After an arduous pursuit by the 
people. troops of the United States, and several en- 

This is regarded as a precedent for the abro- gagements, the hostile Indians were reduced 

gation of all treaties with the Indians by simple to subjection, and the larger part of them snr- 

legislation, and the time will perhaps be short rendered themselves as prisoners. The other 



ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES. 29 

ax of disturbance was that of a band of north- been recently inaugurated in taking fifty Indian 

«m GhejenneS) who suddenly left their res- children, boys and girls, from different tribes, 

erratioii m the Indian Territory and marched to the Hampton Normal Agriculturd Institute 

rapidly through the States of Kansas and Ne- in Virginia, where they are to receive an ele- 

braaks in the direction of their old hunting- mentary English education and training in agri- 

groonda, committing murders and other crimes culture and other useful work, to be returned 

OQ their way. From documents accompanying to their tribes, after the completed course, as 

the report of the Secretary of the Interior it interpreters, instructors, and examples. It is 

appears that this disorderly band was as fully reported that the officer charged with the selec- 

sipplied with the necessaries of life as the tion of those children might have had thou- 

iTOO other Indians who remained quietly on sands of young Indians sent with him had it 

the reservation, and that the disturbance was been possible to make provision for them, 

caosed by men of a restless and mischievous In the opinion of the Secretary of War, the 

disposition among the Indians themselves. Al- policy of the Government toward the Indians 

most the whole of this band have surrendered should be designed to enforce these t\i'o propo- 

to tbe military authorities, and when some of sitions, viz. : 

them had taken refuge in the camp of the Red i. Fair and just treatment of the Indiana, including 
Clood Sioux, with whom they had been in tho faithful port'ormanoe on our part of eyerj prom- 
friendly relations, the Sioux held them as pris- "« > SS^"~ . , « , . , ^ „ 

r ?f^.[:?111^.^*"?.'''^ ?P "" '"' "®r. ofU'o!.?rr^pVr?,1,S!\^^^^^^^ 

of the United States, thus giving new proof of of a aufflcient miUtiJry force in the Indian country to 

the loyal spirit which they have uniformly act with vigor and aacocas when occasion requires, 

shown ever since the wishes they expressed and prevent the poaaibility of the defeat or maaaaoro 

It the counoU of September, 1877, were com- of email detachment* of our troopa, by which Indian 

i>lied with. 'vrars have been »o ouen in the post encouraged and 

Both the Secretary of War and the Secretary -,!^ . . vn 
of the Interior unite in the recommendation The army appropriation bill passed at the 
that pronsion be made by Congress for the close of the session of Congress in June, 1878, 
organization of a corps of mounted "Indian contained a provision for a joint committee to 
Miiliariea." to be under the control of the investigate the propriety of a transfer of the 
Mmj, and to be used for the purpose of keep- care of the Indians from the Interior Depart- 
iag the Indians on their reservations, and pre- pc^t to the War Department. The first meet- 
renting or repressing disturbance on their part, ing of the committee was on December 6th, 

It is believed that the organization of such <">d ^^o ^^\ witness called was the Secretary 

tbodyof Indian cavalry, receiving a moderate of the Interior, Carl Schurz. The following 

pij from the Ghivernment, would considerably extract from his testimony will show some of 

weaken tbe restless element among the Indians the points of the question : 

bj witlidrawing from it a number of young Permit me to atate that there are two methods of 

men and giving them congenial employment Indian manai^ement poaBible— either to herd and 

under the Oovemment it beinir a matter of ^^"^^ *^« Indiana under tbe walla or guna of a mill- 

•vnAnAi«<»i> *k.» i«.<i:o.ia :.. .^..r:^^ Aim/x<i4- »:fi. tary force, ao to apeak, bo a8 to watch them aud pro* 

experience that Indwns in service, almost with- ^^^^ outbieaka, o?to 8Urt them at work upon their 

out exceptions, are faithful in the performance innda, to educate them and to civilize them! 

Of the duties assigned to them. Such an or- Now, in the nature of thinga, the flnt method 

fulzation would materially aid the army in the would be the only method adopted by the military 

Kcompliflhment of a task for which its numeri- I>f»"?^ o/, the Government, for the aimple reaaon 

^•]«t.l»^k :- ^^^*i^^ 4^^^A ;»«..ai^:»«>4. t«. that it » their businesa to keep the peace and pre- 

wlslwngth IS sometomes found insufficient. It ^^^^ troublesome tribes from getting*^into miacfiief. 

mij be very ditncult and require much patient The second is the policy which we have followed 

effort to curb the unruly spirit of the savage and earned out, witn at least a partial success ; a 

Indian to the restraints of civilized life, but polioy oertoinly the moat humane and enlightened, 

^iperience shows that it is not impossible. i!^^J!'?!^'i!'!^thI'\T^\n^ 

u... f XL ^ *i^ 1-2 1. • ^ J *or as loziff aa the Indiana remain roatmnff tribea, 

Mimy of the tribes which are now quiet and without aSyaettled interests or property, we mav 

orderly and self -supporting were once as sav- always look for complications. It is also the most 

lie as any that at present roam over the plains eoonomical policy, tor the sooner the Indiana are 

or in tbe mountains of the Far West, and were jiviliied the aooner they will be able to provide for 

tban considered inaccessible to civili^g influ- a:lrbiti'o'f"^v;?ra^ei^rfe" 

eaces. It may be impossible to raise them fully of the Government is not the best calculated to in- 

^3 to the level of the white population of the struct them. This Question of a transfer has been 

Taited States, but they are aborigines of the discussed before, and in a report which has attained 

^ jontry, and caUed the soil their own on which ?o™e °®^^?*!?'L*' »l?t;^j^ t^' "^i«" ^^ Pl«^° f,^^^ 

ivyrnJxli^ k«.^ .•^^..^ ^»k «^»«^»i ^^A k««^ >* 8U<?gested the chief duties of the Bureau will be 

«v people hiive grown noh, powerful, and hap- ^ educate and instruct in tho peaceful arts ; in other 

?J' It IS also a well-anthentioated fact that words, to civilize the Indians. The military arm of 

Indians are apt to be peaceable and quiet when the Qovernment ia not the moat admirably adapted 

liielr children are at school ; and there is a to discharge duties of this character. We are aatis- 

«t«adUy increasing desire, even among Indians ?t* 4*^!' °2S''5? army officer in a thousand would 

L»u«^ «-^ ««»»«© ««»..^ vTvu «»u« ■^ *«x*«»« like to teach Indian children to read and write or 

fe.ongmg to comparatively wild tnbes, to have Indian men to aowand reap. These are emphatl- 

tbeir children educated. An experiment has oally civil and not military oocupations. The re- 



30 ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES. 

qnest for the titmsfer of the Indian Bureau seemed have not b«en revised sinoe 1868, are t-o be 

to be based particularly upon the uaumption, very thoroughly examined, and a new series adopt- 

induBtnously oireulated, that the Indum 01 vil service ^j *^\^^^^^^ .^«.f ^# 4-Ka a«/^«i«»c.i »^.v ^/ 

was responsible for all the wars. It was said that «^» ^^ l^me a part of the eventual work of 

the Indian agent steals the Indian supplien ; that the reorganization. The important feature of the 

Indians at last grew desperate, and tliere were wars, bill is the abolishment of a staff as a distinc- 

That was not the fact at all. There was scarcely a live corps of the army, and the interchangea- 

smgle instance where it was the fact. The real cause ^jiity of the line and staff for the offices in the 

ot almost all of our Indian wars was the breakmg „^„jL„i j^^«w^«,^„i.« «^«««.*^«« 4-u^ ^»^n^^, 

of treaties and encroachments upon the lands and several departmente, excepting the engineer 

rights of the Indian bv the white man. Then, also, corps. Better provision is to be made for the 

it must be considerea that the Indians themselves education of the cavalry branch of the aer- 
were not angels, and that thev had in some instances, vice, giving it equality in this respect with tiie 

L^nL^nM • wTi?!! '^^'''^ *^ provoked the re- ordnance and artillery branch, and additional 
sentment oi the wnites. mi l Jl /* j. * * m 

means will be secured for training omcera m 

The report of the commission will not be the higher branches of their profession, 
made until after the commencement of 1879. The action of Congress on this report will 

At the same time that this joint committee take place before the dose of the session, od 

was ordered, another was directed by Con- March 4, 1879. 

gross to examine and report on the reorganiza- By reference to the proceedings of Congress, 

tion of the army. (See Conqbbss, U. S.) This the animated debate of that body on the amend- 

work was completed before the opening of the ment to the army bill forbidding the nse of 

session of 1878-79. After mining very ex- the army as a posse eomitatus will be found, 

tensive investigations, the committee report a The measure was deemed worthy of notice by 

codification of aU laws rating to the army the Secretary of War, who describes ita prac- 

into one act The main features kept in view ticid operation : 

in the plan of reorganization are the disposi- The fifteenth section of the act of Congreaa oi 

tion and use of the army in time of peace as June 18, 1878, provides that 
a frontier and Indian police, and, second, its T^rook and after the pssaace of this aet it shsD noc be )aw> 

disposition as a nncleas of offenstye and de- ^j^,SStSS.TS^^'^^X*^ ^^^ 

fensive force for foreign war. The number of the laws, except in tudi coses ad mid«r such drcnmstaneee 

the ranlt and file, is Umited to 20^000 men, ex- VX^S^S^^^J^^^^^''^"''^'^ 
elusive of the signal corps. The system of , . , *..*.. 1 * -^v **. * ^-i.. 
^.»«n;»«^{^*. ^* ♦i.A <.»4^:ii^«« i..«»<.ir ^# 4.1,^ Id my judgment it is important either that this 
organization of the artillery branch of the provision be repealed or that the number of cases in 
service is changed from regimenttil formation which the use of the anny shall be *^ expressly au- 
to batteries or companies. The artillery arm thorised " be very much enlarged. In many por^ 
is consolidated with the ordnance corps. The ^io"** of o*"" Western Territories, and even in some 
Quartermaster-General's and Commissary-Gen- V^y}}^^ o^u® "^ewer States, a resolute desperado, 
^ iV l^flp ««**^ vj r"i ^™*""!^»'/ ^ ^ With a few followers, can defy the oittcers of the law 
oral 8 st^s are consolidated under the control and any local posse that can be organiied. Buring 
of the Quartermaster s Department, and the the vear numerous attacks have been made upon the 
staff corps as a distinctive branch of the ser- maif-eoaches in New Mexico and Arizona for pur< 
vice is abolished. The engineer and medical Po»«» ^^J^'^^'^U, "id Pjupder ; and while 1 £ave 
/«/^**va -m^^^x^ 4-1.^;. •v.aoav.i. a\^^\-^«,^\^^ ^«»«.:»» hceu of the opmion that the mails of the United 
corps retain their present d istmctive organiza- g^^tes may be Sefended by the use of troops, I have 

tion. Ihe Adjutant-Generars, Quartermaster- been obliged to give instructions that they can not, 

GeneraPs, Inspector-General's, and Paymaster- without disregarding the act of Congress, be em- 

General^s staffs are done away with, and the ployed to aid the omoers of the law in capturing the 

system of interohangeabUity of line and staff jobbers after they have committed the crinie. In 

officers substituted ^imilar^ to t^Vn^tl'^A^ 

system of organization, the object being to the new and sparselv populated regions of the West, 

give all the officers of the army an opportunity to say to robbers ana thieves that the^ shall not be 

of perfecting themselves in a practacal knowl- taken on anv writ unless the sherifi and his local 

edge of the several branches of service in the l^^^^JT" fr\^^^.^^''^T*Z^^^''^Jt "^'^ ff*"^ ^^^ 

?' . t«^ja J au u ^ at soldiers, is almost to grant them immuuitT from 

army. In order to reduce the number of offi- arrest, 'in those new regions the army is the liwor 

cers, It IS provided that there shall be no more chiefly relied upon by the Uw^biding people for 

promotions or appointments until the number protection, and chiefly feared by the lawleas classes, 

of general and line officers is reduced to a cer- Numerous instances mi^ht be dted, but the recent 

tain number. The offices of general and lieu- f ccurrences m Lincoln County^ New Mexico, oonsti- 

u»iu uuiui/va. x*io vuivvo vr» j5,=x.o*€M Miu *icu ^^^ ^ stfikiBg example. The inability of the officer 

tenant-general will cease with the decease of in command ofthe tfoops in that vicinity to aid the 

the present incumbents. The number of major- oflSoers of the law in making arrests was one of the 

generals and brigadier-generals is to be re- principal causes which led to the most disf^racefal 

duced to the lowest point. No change is made •**?«* ^{^\^9^ »°? ™"^«^ amountinir in fact to an- 

in the West Point Military Academy and the '^^-y^^rt^^ iU^^^ ,VX^ T^r^^^l 

general provisions of the bill look to the ehm- tion. after which a proclamation of warning was is- 

ination eventually of all officers of the army saed hj the President, when the troops were called 

who have not received a thorough military i°*o action and at once restored quiet. J am clearly 

education. The work of surveys and triangu- ff 1^^?^°!?'' *^3 ^^\ President should be left free 

lations is to be exclusively und'er the contl^l ^f ^U^^x'^^^'i^^U'^i ^tli^'^JS^'^ 

of the army, ine army regulations, which necessary; but if suohuseUto be limited to easc^ 



ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES. 31 

▼bin, as dMUred by th« aet above quoted, it *^ is and enforce the laws in ease the ditturbanoes and 

expre-«4)7 aothorixed by tlie Gonstitutioa or bv nets unlawful oombinations continue after the time named. 

ot CoD]freM," tben it ia re^pectfally sabraitted that The President therefore directs that ^oa instmct tbe 

Coo^reM thoald irive ver^ oareful attention to the proper military officer tliat at\er the time above men- 

taamantion and speeifloation of the oases in which tioned has expired he will proceed to disperse by 

«Kh iM of troopa is to be permitted. military force oil such unlawful combinations or as- 

Th, probation of the Preddent, .poken rwWy°^rr"o?:^'°fo';^,S5t'7o\.^"i*^.-* 

of by the Secretary of War, in which Lincoln gistance to the laws shall continue, aid the Governor 

GoQDtj, New Mexico, was declared in a state and authorities of the Territory in keeping the peace 

of insarrection. and an opening thns made for w^J* enforcinff the laws, 

theo^of the anny in the suppression of civU ^ ^^eVrGE w' M^B?S^^^^^^^^^ 

diitarbaoces, was as follows : To General W. T. SmaMAK. 

Whrm*j It in provided in the laws of the United mi. ji ji* « • 

Sutes that whenerer. by reaaon of unlawAil combi* The orders were accordingly given to the 

listioD or asaembly or persons, or a rebellion against Brigadier-General commanding the Military 

tkeMtborityoftheGovernmeotpftheUnitedStates, Department of Missouri to employ, if iieces- 

?>:'ltl'i^;"2,7.}S^T.i'J'i^1n'i^^.SS^^^^^^^^ «'y »» eaforoe the conditions «noanced by 

^ctil proceedmgs or the laws of the United States «iM« President, the forces under liis command 

TitfaiD sDv Bute or Territory, it shall be lawful for at the time and for the purposes indicated. 

Uis Presideni to call forth the militia of all the Statea, During the prevalence of the yellow fever in 

ttd to employ such part of the land and naval force the Soutiiem States, the War Department sent 

M be may deem necessary, to enforce the execution ro.«„„-j •«*:«>«« 4^^^^ .«^ ^^.^^ «»..^ :«.:., ^ ^^ 

of the laws, or to auppress such rebellion in what- IZ^^f^il^^^^i^^^ , ^S^ medioiues to 

ever State or Territory thereof the Uws of the United the destitute m New Orleans, Memphis, Grena- 

States may be forcioly opposed, or the execution da, and Chattanooga. 

xttTiot forcibly obstructed ; and— For the improvement of rivers and harbors, 

hJ^i^'l^ 1 i**?'' "t?* J? •PP'^f *'' '"l*^*' for the promotion of the general commerce of 

tf reaeon of unlawful combinations and assemblages ^i.^ ^^„ «*«„ ♦i,^ ..,„, ^r *k ni k nnn —- .^«..«..wi 

•f PcBoo. in arms, it has become impracticable to ^}'^ f^S?^'^^' l^® "T ^Jji'^^^'J^ ^.^ ^*°*^ 

enforce, by the ordinary course of judicial proceed- for 1877, nothing for 1878, and $5,016,000 waa 

Lif S the laws of the United SUtes within the Terii- asked for 1879. 

I nr of New Meuoo, espedally within Lincoln Coun- The Quartermaster's Department moved du- 

ty.sad tJiat tire laws of the United Sutes have been ^ng the year 79,260 passengers, 11,400 beasts, 

i>rcm forcibly opposed and the execution thereof "?,An oaV^ * ♦ }; i'~j'"6'""» ^'i.^v "^^*^ 

foreibly resi-»ted ; and— ^^^ 109,261 tons of military material. There 

WkvMM, The laws of the United States require Are in the office of the Qnartermaster-Generid 

thit whenever it may be neoessarj^, in the Judgment twenty four thousand claims and accounts un- 

^ilv^ K^V^i^""^' ^ ^ ***5 "?•"?* ^""^iH PA'^?"! settled, caUing for $18,000,000. 

of the faithful ezeoution of the laws of the United tk^ w«i.ir n«>/^«« Tui^\^m^i,^ A^^^^^.^^^ ^^\^^ 

States, he shall forthwith, by proclamation, com- , i°® ^^^^^ JP^° ^*>® seaooast defenses, owing 

Qsai such insargenU to disperse and retire peace- ^^ ^*^^ l&d^ 01 appropnations, has been limited 

tbi; to tiie irrespective abodes within a Umited time: to the care and preservation of the works. 

Now, therefore, I, Rutherford B. Hayes. President The system governing the construction of the 

%tl.^ ^^^'a^I}?"^^^ admonish all good ^^rks of defense was eUborated and adopted 

^.tiKtig of the umted States, and especially of the . iq-q ^i,^ ««:„ «^^,^ ^^»u:^i. — ♦i.J^«— 

TifritAiy of New Mexico, against siding, counte- ^^ J®^®» ^^^ ^^ features of which are the use 

u%eui7j abettinir, or uking part in such unlawful of heavy earthen barbette batteries, protected 

pneMdings ; and 1 hereby warn all persons engaged by high traverses, and arranged for guns and 

n ^reonneoted with said obstruction to the laws to mortars of large caliber, to be supplemented in 

v;i?*r3e and return peaceably to their respective the future by guns of the heaviest modern cali- 

i»U» on or before October 18th, instant. v. *»*«*« »'j6""o v.. «*v ij^t«^o» uium^iu wu* 

la witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand ^^> *^<* ^^ obstructions m the channels (mainly 

oieaoeed the seal of the United Statea to be affixed, electrical torpedoes) to prevent vessels from 

D^ne at the eity of Washington, this 7th day of running past the batteries. The Chief of £n- 

0/,ober, in the year of our Lord 1878, and of the in- gineers recommends, in addition to complet- 

'dependence of the United States the one hundred ?„ au^ ^^^^ \^^*4^^« •i.^^^-.r .^a..^:.!!.. v.^« 

^({^1^ j^ Q HATES ^ open oattenes already partially con- 

Bji^fteaident-.F.W.SiwABn, Acting Secretary structed, the conversion of some of the case- 

o^Suie. mated forts for the reception of guns of the 

The following is the letter of the Secretary ]"'^\ ««^'»»«J ^^'""^ T'^^'^u^ "/ ''T 

«f Wu addreuid to General Sherman relativi J^* t"*^" »"* *?^T'f wn' «- *p -^"^^ 

to the above Droclamation • defense have oontmued at W illett's Point with 

w Dw »* satisfactory results. The battalion of en gineers, 

Washihotoii, ^S^lk. \ under the law reducing the army, has been 

OcrxBAi.: The President has issued a procbma- fixed at 200 enlisted men. This number is 

-^ deolarin«r that by reason of unlawful obstruc- thought to be too small for the efficient per- 

*'?; 3^K*"f^^S!j '£!*»'"*"?S^^k''^ ft*!!!?/'"' ^^% formance of the duties required of them. 

-»i of the United ntatea within the Territory of r\ r\^^^ -i-* *u -^ -?^-^ «- -*^ 

^ tw Mexico, and espwwdlv in Lincoln County there- ^^ October 1st there were m store as a re- 

% can not be enforced by the ordinary course of ju- serve supply only 22,685 arms of the latest 

I'al proeeedingp, and commanding the persons model. The Hotchkiss gun has been approved 

' aprnng such oombinationa or assemblages to dis- bv the board of officers convened by order of 

'^"i^ ?aS5rr.%*"r i'sret'^^uH t^e secretary of War. for the pu^oae of rec- 

rvlsmation is prsliminary to the employment of ommending a magazme gun for the mihtary 

^ tooepe ef the United States to preaerve the peace service. 



82 



ASIA. 



The number of military convicts coDfined in 
the military prison of Fort Leavenworth on 
November 25th was 875. They are chiefly 
occupied in the manufacture of shoes for the 
troops. 

An order was issued by the President on 
April 12th granting to Gen. Fitz John Porter 
a court of inquiry into such new evidence as 
he might offer relative to a sentence of a court- 
martial in 1862 which dismissed him from the 
army. 

The condition of the Union and Confederate 
war records is stated by the Secretary of War 
to be as follows : 

The reoorda of the war of the rebellioD, both Union 
Mid GoDfederatef are under the obarffe of the Ac^'u* 
tant-General of the Army. The wonc of preparing 
these for publication is under charge of Col. Bobert 
N. Boott, to whose report I invite attention. The 
work of collecting repurts of battles by Union com- 
manders, which were not oriffinally forwarded, has 
been unremittingly piosecutea since the close of the 



war, and a verv large number has been added to the 
files through the medium of correspondence. Thtre 
are yet some important reports missing, but hopci 
are entertained of procuring them. TLe Confeder- 
ate records obtained in Sichmond at the time of it» 
capture were brought here in 1865, and have been 
carefully arranged. The agent recently appointed. 
Oen. Marcus X Wright, has been asaiduouBlT sna 
successfully engaged for the past five mootLi in 
procuring interesting papers relating to that side. 
Through a candid and liberal undervtandinffiiith 
the Southern Historical Society, as well as with eev 
oral other possessors of such papers, this Department 
is daily adding to its material for a history of the war. 
The Department is ready to transmit to Congress e 
considerable amount of matter systematically u- 
ranffed ao soon as specific action by Congress shall 
enable it to do so. The appropri&tioni» heretofore 
made have been for preparing for publication, not for 
publishing. 

ASIA. The area and population of the dif- 
ferent divisions of Asia were given as follows 
in 1878 (see Behm and Wagner, '^ Bevdlkeroog 
der Erde," v., Gotha, 1878) : 



niVlSIOlfS AND 8UBDIV1SI0IVB. 



ft¥W»TA , 

Obntbal Asia 

Bnssiao Central Asia 

Lake Aral 

Tenitorr of the TariLamsns. . . 

KWva. 

Bokhara. , 

Karategln 

£SlSS[c~ch<».) 

Caspiah DBA (ezdnsive of Ishmds) 
WasTBBii Asia , 

CaacMis 

Turkey Is Asia , 

BamoB , 

Arabia (hidependent) 

Aden 

Persia .'.*.. 

Afirbanlstaa 

Ksflristao 

Belooehistaa 

CmirA AVD Jatah 

China prop<*r 

Tributary states 

HoDif'Kong 

Maoao 

Japan , 

HDn>0STAK 

British India 

Nadve states 

Coimtrles of the Hlmatayas 

French possessions 

Portogaeae possessions 

Geylon 

Lsooadires 

ICaldires 

Faxthsb ItfniA. 

British Bnrmah 

Manlpoor. 

Tribes south of Assam 

Barmah 

Slam 

Anam 

French Gochhi-Chhia 

Cambodia 

Independent Malacca 

Btraita Bottlements 

East Iwdia Islaitdb 

Bnnda and Molnoea Islands.. . . 

Philippine and Booloo IsUoids . 

Andaman Islands 

Nioobar Islands 

Keeling Ishiods 

ToUl 



area nr squabb vxlbb. 



Of dirUou. 



4,824.000 
1, 524,500 



109, voe 
2,922,700 



4,686,100 



1,491,600 



898»700 



789,808 



17,808,000 



Of HbdivUoiii. 



1,806^ 
85,900 
79,700 
22.800 
84,000 
8^ 



109,467 

748,486 

218 

968,100 

7.65 

686,000 

278,700 

20,000 

106,600 



1,584,000 

2,986,500 

82 

1.48 

146,618 



820,418 

551,186 

90,400 

1.96 

1,487 

24,702 

744 

2,616 



88,557 

7.600 

ISsOOO 

190.500 

809,000 

198,000 

21,716 

82,400 

81,500 

1,446 

672^479 

114,129 

2/S51 

725 

8.6 



FOPULATIOH. 



Of dlTWom. 



8,440.8C2 
7,510,676 



87,680,000 



4C8,414,850 



248,1C8,000 



86,760,000 



84,051,900 



Of •obdirUtai. 



881,000,000 



4,505,8T( 

700,001) 

2,060,000 

100,000 



6^1,744 

17,880.000 

85,878 

8,700.000 

22,70T 

6.000,000 

4,000,000 

800.000 

850,000 

4(>^'(M),o6b 

29,&H),000 

1S9,144 

71,tt4 

88,628,818 



1(8,421,264 

46.110,200 

SJ)00,000 

271,460 

444,617 

2,450,542 

6,b00 

150,000 



2,747.148 
126,000 
180,000 

4,000,000 

6,750,000 
21,000,000 

1,600,000 
^•0,000 
209.000 
806,0^ 

26>«8,666 

7,450,006 

18,500 

5,000 

400 



ASTRONOMIOAL PH£NOM£NA AKD PBOGBESS. 83 

nil ttble does not indade tbe territoriiil ces- belt within which the eclipse was total passed 
ROM made by Turkey. (See £a8TKbn Qubs- over Montana, Wyoming, Uolorado, the south- 
tio5.) west comer of Kansas, the Indian Territory, 
The Chinese troops completed at the begin- Texas, and Louisiana. Eminent observers 
ting of 1878 the conquest of Kashgaiia, and were sent out at tibe expense of the United 
this country, after being for several years one States Government to several stations along 
of tbe independent sta^ of Asia, is now again the line of totality. A number of colleges and 
one of the tributary states of China. (See universities were also represented by distin- 
CsixA.) guished astronomers. Prof. Simon Newcomb, 
Tbe war between Russia and Turkey prac- Commander W. T. Sampson, and Lieut. G. G. 
tieaUrcame to a close in Asia in 1877, few Bowman were at or near Separation, Wy- 
morementsof importance being made in 1878. oming Territory. Prof. William Harkness, 
Tbe treaty of Berlin gave to Russia a large Lient. £. W. Sturdy, A. M. Skinner, Prof. 
ilioe of Asiatio Turkey, and to Persia the town O. H. Robinson, L. E. Wallace, and A. G. 
of Khotor. (See Eastbbn QmEsnoir.) Clark were in the same neighborhood ; as 
Xo sooner nad the Berlin treaty been signed, were also Prof. James C. Watson of Ann Ar- 
settJing for some time to come, as was supposed, bor, and the celebrated spectroscopist M. Jans- 
tbe Eastern question in Europe, than it seemea sen of France. Besides these, Dr. Draper of 
19 if it were to break out anew in the heart of New York, Prof. Barker of Philadelphia, Mr. 
Aas. The Indian Government sent an em- Trouvelot of Cambridge, and Mr. Edison, tlie 
Uasj to Shere Ali, t|ie Ameer of Cabool, which distinguished inventor, selected their points of 
the Istter refased to admit to his dominions, observation in Wyoming. Pro£ Asapb Hall, 
ft was supposed by many that he was insti- Prof. J. A. Rogers, A. W. Wright, H. F. Gor- 
^ted to take this course by the Russian GK>v* don, A. B. Wheeler, Prof. J. E. Eastman, Lewis 
•roment, and it was therefore expected that, Bass, H. M. Paul, H. 8. Pritchett, Prof. E. 8. 
if war should follow between Great Britain Holden, Lient. T. W. Very, Dr. C. S. Hastings, 
tad Afghanistan, Russia, if not actively en- Mr. G. W. Hill of the Nautical Almanac Office, 
aged on tbe side of the latter, would still be Gen. Myer, Prof. Cleveland Abbe, Prof. S. P. 
ber friend. Toward the close of the year, war Langley, Prof. 0. A. Toung, C. F. Braokett, 
was actually begun, and the Afghan territory C. J. Rock wood, W. Libbey, G. H. Calley, C. 
inrsded by a large English force. (See Ijtdia D. Bennett, W. McDonald, 0. J. Young, H. S. 
sod AFGHAViBTAir.) S. Smith, Prof. Maria Mitchell, Prof. Thorpe, 
An important act was passed in India, plac- Dr. Schuster, Prof. Ormond Stone of Cinom* 
iof restrictions on the native press, which had nati, C. W. Upton, Prof. G. W. Hoogb, Prof, 
become very seditious in its utterances. The E. Colbert of the Chicago AstronomicAl So- 
(iffliDe which prevailed in India during 1877 ciety, S. W. Burnham, Dr. Swazey, A. C. 
continued during the early part of 1878, and Thomas, Prof. Easterday, Mr. Lewis Swift of 
its effects were felt daring the entire year. Rochester, and Mr. J. Norman Lockyer of Eng- 
(See IxniA.) land, observed from stations selected in Colo« 
News reached Europe of a new Russian ex- rado. Messrs. L. Waldo and R. W. Wilson of 
pedition to Central Asia, which was said to Harvard College, F. E. Seagrove of Providence, 
uve been planned before the beginning of the J. K. Rees and W. H. Pulsifer of St. Louis, 
Rodso-TurkiBh war. The expedition was re- with several assistants, observed at Fort Worth, 
ported to aim at tiie occupation of the five Texas ; and Prof. D. P. Todd of Washington, 
minor khanates between the southern course .D. C, was at Dallas in the same State, 
of tbe Amoo Darya and Hindoo Eoosh— Kara Besults of Ohiervation — Diieovery of Two 
Zio. Shognal, Darvas, Sarikol. and Vakhan. Intra- Msreurial Planeti. — Since 1859, the date 
Of these khanates, the first three are inde- of M. Lescarbault's observation of a supposed 
pendent, Sarikol belongs to Kashgar, and the transit, the existence of a planet, or more than 
Ameer of Vakhan is a feudatory of the Ameer one, within Mercury's orbit, has been regarded 
ofCabooL by several astronomers as highly probable. 
The famine in the north of China continued Total eclipses of the sun afford the best oppor- 
doring 1878 in aU its horrors, abating slightly tunities for the detection of such bodies ; and 
towtrd the close of the year. Negotiations accordingly Prof. James C. Watson of Ann 
were set on foot by China to obtain the terri- Arbor, and Mr. Lewis Swift of Rochester, de- 
toiT of Ka\ja firom Russia, which power had cided to occupy themselves exclusively with 
occupied it for several years. (See China.) the search during the eclipse of July 29, 1878. 
Tbe King of Burmah died on October 28d. The details of their observations may be found 
Xo disturbances took place, and his successor in tbe '* American Journal of Science" for Sep- 
tate Crown Prince was quietly proclaimed tember and October, 1878. One intra-Mer- 
£ang. curial planet was undoubtedly seen by each of 
ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND these observers at different stations, and Prof. 
PROGRESS. Total EeUp9e qf the Sun. — ^The Watson is confident that he saw a second. He 
■oUr eclipse of Joly 29th was successfiilly ob- Bays : 

served not only by American astronomers but immediately after the oommencement of totality 

wo by partiea from France and England. The I began sweeps east and west extending about eight 
Vol. xviil — 8 A 



34 ASTBONOMIOAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS. 

dogrees from the sun. I had previously committed those with the polarisoope, hy Prof. Morton, 
to memoir the relative pUcee of eUre near the eun The Bpectrum of the corona was not that of 
down to the seventh magnitude, and the chart of the «« i«/^«,i«o^««i. „„„, ;♦- •»k/^4.^x«««»»i, 5«n;««#,ji 
region was placed oonvenientJy in front of me for «n mcandescent gas ; its photograph indicated 
ready reference whenever required. The first sweep A heignt equal to two tniros ot tne snn s diam- 
hegan with the sun in the middle of the field, and eter, or nearly 600,000 miles; the polarization 
extended eastward about eight degrees and back, was shown by Prof. Morton to be snch as wonld 
and I saw Delta Cancri and^ smaller stars marked y,^ produced by reflected light ; the Fraunhofer 
on the chart. The next sweep was one field farther j K ^^^^* ^j s, v^ . ^ » ^ /' . 
south, and eastward and buck as before. Then ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^e seen m the spectrum of the 
placing the sun in the field, I commenced a corre- corona ; and finally, Mr. Edison^s tasitseter 
spending sweep to the westward. Between the sun was violently affected by the coronal heat, 
and Theta Cancri, and south of the middle of the »* The general conclusion,'' says Dr. Draper, 
field, 1 came across a star estimated at the time to u that follows from these results is, that on 
be of the four and a half magnitude, which shone ^,.. *"*»"»» o u v*u uivcn? ^^ouaud u>, wioi. 
with a ruddy light, and certainly had a larger disk ^^^^ occasion we nave ascertained the true na- 
than the spurious disk of a star. The focus of the ture of the corona, viz. : it shines by light re- 
eyepiece had been carefuUv adjusted beforehand fleeted from tbe sun by a cloud of meteors sur- 
and securely clMnDed, and the definition was excel- rounding that luminary ; and that on former 
lent. 1 proceeded therefore to mark its position on ^^^^^iZIL :♦ u«„ k««« :^«u.»4>»^ -,;*v M«4.».:ai^ 
the paper circles, and to record the time ot observa- occasions it has been infiltrated with materials 
tion. It was designated by a. The place of the suu thrown up from the chromosphere, notaWy 
had been recorded a few minutes previously and with the 1474 matter and hydrogen. As the 
marked *. Placing my eye again at the telescope, I chromosphere is now quiescent, this infiltra- 
assured myself that it had not been disturbed, and ^^.^ i,-- taken nlare to a srflrcelv nerp^ntible 
proceeded with the search. I noticed particuUrly T ^^ '^t? ^ ^?. ®*^"^®v ^4!^ J?! 
that the object in question did not present any elon- degree recently. This explanation of the na- 
gation, sucn as would be probable were it a comet in ture of the corona reconciles itself so well with 
that position. In the next and final sweep I brought many facts that have been difficult to explain, 
into the field what I supposed to be Zeta Cancri, gQch as the low pressure at the surface of the 

fttd* 'f^^n'^l^'J^perit '"of'f,\'u'c.^^^^ »"». that it gainr thereby additional strength^ 

which I had seen in the first sweep. I proceeded The apparent extent of the corona as ob- 

to record its position on the circles with the deaig- served at difiTerent stations was remarkably 

nation 6. various ; the difference being doubtless owing 

The positions of these objects as finally de- ^ P*^ ^^ **»® relative altitudes of the points 

termined by Prof . Watson were as follows : of observation. The measures of Mr. Eas- 

tcrday gave a height of 700,000 miles above 
the sun's surface. Profs. Langley and New- 
comb traced the coronal matter along the eclip- 
tic to a distance of more than 9,000,000 miles 
from the sun. Prof. Cleveland Abbe, who 
observed with the naked eye from Pike's Peak, 
Prof. Watson has no doubt whatever that the traced one coronal stream along the ecliptic to 
first is a planet within Mercury's orbit. " In a distance of six diameters of tlie sun, and an- 
regard to (5)," he remarks, '' it is possible, but other at right angles to the ecliptic to a dis- 
not probable, that the pointing of the instru- tance of five diameters. The light of the for- 
ment may have been disturbed by the wind, mer was ^^ an exceedingly faint and delicate 
I marked the position on the hour circle first, white, apparently overlaid or intermingled 
and but a moment was occupied in passing from with the blue of the atmosphere. There was 
the eyepiece to the hour circle. I believe that no decided increase of brightness in that part 
this observation can be relied upon as giving of the ray near the solar limb, nor in the axis 
the place of a second intra-Mercurial planet." of the beam ; but the delicate light continued 
Mr. Lewis Swift of Rochester, N. Y., who uniform up to the corona in whose glare it 
observed from a position in the vicinity of Den- was lost." Prof. Abbe regards these coronal 
ver, OoL, saw also the planet (a), near Theta streams as collections of meteors moving in 
Cancri. He estimated its brightness as about cometary orbits about the sun, and rendered 
equal to that of a fifth -magnitude star. visible by reflecting the solar light — the view 
Observations of the Corona, — Profs. Dra- now also adopted by several other astronomers, 
per. Barker, and Morton, together with Mr. Prof. C. A. Young, Mr. Lockyer, and other 
Edison, gave special attention to the corona, observers regard the observations of 1878 as 
in order, if possible, to determine its true na- demonstrating an intimate relation between 
ture. With these observers, the main question the sun's condition as to tlie number of its 
for decision was whether the corona is an in- spots, and the constitution of the corona. The 
candescent, self-luminous gas, or whether, like recent eclipse was at a time of sun-spot mini- 
the planets, it shines by reflected light. Their mum. Inaeed, there has been a marked pan- 
station was at Rawlins, in latitude 41° 48' 60", city of spots for the last two years. The 
longitude 80° 11' 0" west from Washington ; chromosphere has been free from agitation ; 
height above the sea, 6,732 feet. The photo- the flame-colored prominences have been few 
graphic and photo- spectroscopic work was by and small ; and, in short, the whole solar snr- 
Dr. Draper ; the observations with the analyz- face has been remarkably quiescent. Corre- 
iiig fllit speotroscope, by Prof. Barker; and sponding to this condition of the sun, the 



WMhlagton M. T. 


OljfleC 


App.B. A. 


App-DMl. 


lets, July 89, 5 16 A. 

" ft, 5 IT 46 


ISI 


88T 24 
8 924 


18- 16' N. 
18' 8f N. 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS. 36 

eclipse-obserrations indicated a change in the generally ohserved ander favorable conditions. 

eolor and appearance of the corona. The gas- Prof. S. P. Langley of Allegheny, Pa., saw the 

eoas elements were mach less conspicuoas than entire disk of Mercury outside the sun at least 

io the eclipses of 1869, 1870, and 1871, near half a minute before the first external con- 

tbe epoch of sun-spot maximum. In short, tact. This visibility was regarded as due to 

the condosion of most astronomers is that the brightness of the coronal background. A 

the non-gaseous matter of the corona is cos- remarkable diiference was noticed between 

mical, while the gaseous elements so conspicu- the apparent size of the planet before and 

oos in eclipses at the epochs of spot maxima after its entrance upon the sun ; the former 

are strictly solar, consistmg of torrents thrown being greater than the latter in the ratio of 

oat to great distances by the snn^s eruptive five to four. Prof. Langley saw no '^ black 

force. ^*In spot-maximam years,*' says Mr. drop " nor ^Migament." He failed also to see 

Lookjer, '* we have violent up-rushes of gas the central bright spot, as well as the aureola 

from the sun's interior, and the corona is main- around the planet — phenomena observed by 

It bailt up of such gas. Further, we have several other astronomers, 

spots, and, if these are not evidences of the re- A comparison of the best contact-observa- 

tom convection currents, we have none other, tions obtained at different stations gave new 

Iq spot-minimum years, such as the present, evidence in favor of Leverrier's theory of the 

re bare no up-msbes, and the corona contains motion of Mercury's perihelion, and of the ex- 

ao gaa, and there are no spots. Spots, then, istence of a cause of perturbation between 

are only observed when we have a right to Mercury and the sun. 

l>)ok for the retarn of the upward current. Relative Brightness of Venus and Mercury, 
%boot which there is no doubt, and the rate of — On September 26, 1878, Mercury and Ve- 
whkh we have measured.'' nus were so close together that they were 
The serrations known as Baby's beads re- telescopically in the same field of view. Mr. 
oulned vbible, according to Mr. Oolbert, for James Nasmyth of Kent, England, improved 
two and a half seconds, indicating that the this favorable circumstance by making careful 
moantains around the moon's disk are one and comparisons of the relative brightness of the 
1 half mile high. two planets. The result of the observation 
The BelaUon between Sun-^ot Frequency was that Mercury has less than half the bright- 
Mi Chmges in the Earth's Atmosphere, — The ness of Venus, or, in other words, less than half 
^'American Jonmal of Science'' for June, the reflective power. This relative deficiency 
1^78, contains a letter from Dr. B. A. Gould, is the more remarkable when it is considered 
Director of the Oordoba ^S. A.) Observatory, that, in consequence of Mercury's nearness to 
snDoandng the probable discovery of a mutual the sun, its brightness ought to be nearly four 
relation between the number of sun-spots and times greater than that of Venus. The fact 
the condition of the earth's atmosphere. Dui'- seems to indicate an important difference be- 
in^ the first two or three years of Dr. Gould's tween the atmospheres of the two planets, 
residence at Gordoha — at the epoch of sun- The Satellites of Mars. — In a memoir re- 
spot maximum — ^the state of the atmosphere oently published by the Washington Observa- 
T4S eminently favorable for astronomical oh- tory. Prof. Asaph Hall has discussed all the 
^rrations. With the change, however, in the observations of the satellites of Mars, and has 
i^aditiou of the sun's surface, a simultaneous determined the elements of their orbits within 
variation oocorred in the atmosphere and mean very narrow limits of probable error. The 
temperatnre of Buenos Ayres and the Argen- name Phobos has been adopted by Prof. Hall 
tine Republic. In 1877 there were but ten for the inner satellite, and that of Deimos for 
ritv nights at Cordoba during the months of the outer. In brightness the former is rated 
^irch and April, while in July and August by the discoverer as an ll^-magnitude star; 
th&namber was still less; and from January 1 the latter as of the 12th. The diameter of 
t ; March 20, 1878, there was but one clear Deimos is estimated by Prof. Pickering of 
lii^ht In Dr. Gould's view these strong con- Harvard Observatory at six miles, that of Pho- 
tnsts indicate periodic fluctuations, and an bos at seven. At Washington alone 48 obser- 
^liiburate discussion of the facts at his dispo- vations of Phobos and 52 of Deimos were ob- 
^il SQstains the theory of a mutual relation, tained up to October 25th, when they could no 
*It is manifest," Dr. Gould remarks, 'Hhat longer be detected by the 26-inch equatorial, 
i^ the variations of the terrestrial temperature The periods and eccentricities derived from 
follow those of the sun-spots, and are tlius ade- these observations are as follows : 
"M^ to account for the correspondence ob- FboiK». Dahnoi. 

vrred between these and the variations of the Period 7b. sshn. 15 OTa. 80b. iTm. 68*8te. 

M vnetic declination, all necessity for assum- Bcoentridty ouS28 ooosT*. 

'}2 any direct and transcendental connection Not only are the orbits approximately circu- 

Wween thb latter and the disturbance of the lar, but the planes of both are very nearly co- 

*nsr rarfiace disappears.'^ incident with the equator of Mars. The mass 

The Transit of Mercury, — A transit of Mer- of Mars obtained from the Washington ob- 



^ occurred on the 6th of May, 1878, the pas- servations is T .ggi.gflg * 
^ occupying 7^ 88"-. The phenomenon was Minor Planets^'^i welve 



minor planets were 



86 



ASTRONOMIOAL PHENOMENA AND PE0GRE8S. 



discoyered in 1878, bringing the number np to 
191. The dates and places of discovery, to- 
gether with the names of the discoverers, are 
given in the following table: 



No. 


Kam*. 


DateofdlM. 


180 
181 
182 


Eucharta 


Jan. 29 

Feb. 2 

7 

8 

" 28 

March 1 

April 7 

^ 12 

June 2« 

Sept. 9 

u 82 

•* 80 


188 
184 
18ft 
186 

187 


I>elopeia 

Ennlke 

Celuta 


188 
189 
190 
191 


Menippe 
Phthia 
laroene 
Koiga 



DiMOTHW. 



Perrotln 
Cotteuot 
Paliaa 



Peters 
Prosper Haniy 
Goggla 
Peters 



PbrnofdlM. 



Toalonse 

Marseilles 

PoU 



u 



GUnton 
Paris 
Marseilles 
CUnton 



u 

M 
M 



12 

10 

10 

120 

110 

10 

11 

10 

12 

11 

11 

10 




•0 
-5 



The following minor planets, discovered in 
1877, have been named since the issue of our 
last volame: No. 171, Ophelia; 172, Baucis; 
and 178, Belisana. 

The Mom of Saturn's Bingi, — In the 
"Oomptes Rendns," vol. Ixxxv., No. 16, M. 
Tisserand has given a new determination of 
the mass of Saturn^s rings. Bessel's value of 
the mass was found from its disturbing effect 
on Titan, the largest satellite. M. Tisserand 
includes in his discussion the motions of the 
other satellites, and finds that the change in 
the position of their orbits is not so much due 
to the attraction of the ring as to that of the 
protuberant matter about Saturn's equator. 
M. Tisserand's value of the mass is ^f^, the 
mass of Saturn being 1. This is less than one 
fifth of the value obtained by Bessel. 

Cameta. — ^The first comet of 1878 was dis- 
covered by Mr. Lewis Swift of Rochester, N. Y., 
on the 7th of July. It had a perceptible cen- 
tral condensation, but neither tail nor nucleus. 
Its motion is direct ; its inclination, 78 deg^'ces ; 
and its perihelion distance was 128,000,000 
miles. 

The second comet of 1878 was detected on 
its first predicted return by M. Tempel of Ar- 
oetri, near Florence, on the 19th of .July, 1878. 
It had the appearance of a nebula three or 
four minutes in diameter, with several nuclei. 

With the aid of Dr. Von Asten's ephemeris 
Mr. John Tebbut of Windsor, New South Wales, 
detected Encke's comet on the evening of Au- 
gust 8d. This is the eighteenth perihelion pas- 
sage since its periodicity was discovered by 
EnolEe, and the comet has been observed at 
each successive return. Its appearance in 1878 
was that of an extremely faint nebulosity. Mr. 
J. D. Hirst, writing ft*om Sydney, New South 
Wales, under date of August 21 st, says: 

The oomet ia a very inconspicaous object, evea 
with a low power and the full aperture of the lli- 
lnoh Sydney refractor. It appears as a circular neb- 
nloua body, showiug sigiiB of ooodensation in the 
center, but no distinut nucleus. On the evening ot 
the 90th of August two tenth-magnitude atars were 
observed in the field with the oomet, the motion of 
the latter rendering it apparent that it must pass 
very close to, if not immediately over, one of them. 
This actually took place just before the comet set, 
the center of the oomet. passing directly over the 



•tar. It ia interesting to record that thia fidnt tenth- 
magnitude atar was not even dimmed, much leei 
obliterated, by the interpoaition of the denaeet part 
of the oomet ; it ahone right through the center and 
moat oondenaed part aa bright aa it had before ap- 
peared against the dark background of the aky. The 
other atar of the aame magnitude in the field formed 
an accurate standard of oomparison by which to de- 
termine any diminution of hght in the former. 

The Origin of CcmeU, — The ^'American 
Journal of Science" for September, 1878, con- 
tains an elaborate article on the origin of 
comets, by Prof. H. A. Newton of Tale Col- 
lege. In the theory of Kant comets as well as 
planets were originally parts of the nebalous 
mass from which the solar system was formed. 
Laplace, on the other hand, regarded them as 
of extraneous origin. Prof. Newton discusses 
such cometary phenomena as have an obvions 
bearing on this interesting question, and finds 
a decided preponderance of evidence in favor 
of a foreign origin. He grants, however, that 
the group of comets with periods correspond- 
ing with those of the minor planets may have 
originated in the solar nebola. 

Meteoric Showere. — The meteors of January 
Ist-dd— called Quadrantids from the fact that 
their radiant is in Quadrans — were observed 
in uDusual numbers by Prof. Herschel at Hawk- 
hurst, England, on the morning of January 2, 
1878. In thirty minutes Prof. Herschel counted 
twenty meteors, of which seventeen were Quad- 
rantids. Two were as bright as Jupiter, ^ve 
equal to first-magnitude, six equal to second-, 
and the rest about equal to third-magnitude 
stars. 

The Meteon of April 19th -^SSd, — The 
"Monthly Notices" for May, 1878, give the 
results of Mr. W. F. Denning^s watch for 
meteors of the April shower on the 20th, 21st, 
and 22d of the month. Twelve meteors were 
seen which belonged, undoubtedly, to the gronp 
of Lyraids. The radiant, very exactly deter- 
mined, was in R. A. 272°, N. decl. 82^ 

The Augnet Meteors. — The meteors of Au- 
gust 8th-12th were observed in 1878 under 
unfavorable circumstances; cloudy weather in 
many places, as well as bright moonlight, in- 
terfering with the observations. In ^^ The Ob- 
servatory" for September, Mr. H. Corder of 
Chelmsford, England, gives the following re- 
sults of his observations: During four hoars 
on the night of the 10th he counted 118 me- 
teors, of which 97 were Perseids. Of these, 
60 had visible streaks and 20 were colored. 
The maximum was from 2^* 16* to 8^- 15*-, 
during which hour he saw 44 meteors. The 
radiant was in R. A. 43°, N. decl. 56°. One 
meteor was seen absolutely stationary at B. A. 
47°, N. decL 68°. On the same night Mr. AV. 
F. Lenning, watching at Bristol, England, saw 
180 meteors in four hours and a half. During 
the half hour ending at 3 o'clock, when the 
moon had set, he counted 83. 

Meteoric Fire-balU^-^In " The Observatory " 
for February and March, 1878, Capt. G. L. 
Tupman discusses the observations of a great 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS. 



87 



fireball seen in England, Ireland, and Wales, 
oa the evening of November 23, 1877, at 8^ 
94*-, G. M. T. The radiant of this meteor was 
in R. A, 62*, N. decl. 21* ; heiglit when first 
sden, 9S miles ; first explosion at mid-conrse, 
exaotl/ over Liverpool, at a height of 46 miles ; 
leogth of visible path, 133 miles ; time of fiigtit, 
8 sdcoads nearly ; velocity, 17^ miles per sec- 
ond ; final explosion over the Irish Sea, at an 
elevation of 14 miles. A bright streak 40 miles 
in len^h and nearly half a mile in dianleter 
remuQdd visible for several seoonds over the 
latter part of the path. ^' All that was left after 
the explosion settled slowly downward, perhaps 
for a mile, before becoming invisible, which 
woald indicate that it was of the natnre of an 
impilpable powder.^' The plane of the meteor's 
motion was nearly coincident with that of the 
ecliptic Oapt. Tupman remarks that this fire- 
ball andonbtedly belonged to a meteor stream 
previoQsly known, whose radiant is in Tanrna, 
and that the orbit is near that of the comet of 
1703. 

The disappearance of the meteor was fol- 
lowed by the most violent detonation. ^' The 
explosion of a 13-inch bomb-shell, consisting 
of some 200 pounds of iron, woald not have 
prodaced a sound of one hnndredth part of the 
intennty of the meteor explosion. This proves 
that it was of considerable mass compared to 
an ordinary shell. A difficnlt question remains 
to be answered. How is it conceivable that 
BQoh a mass of heavy matter can be reduced to 
impalpable powder in five or six seconds ? All 
these bodies must be heavy to retain their 
planetary velocities after impact with the at- 
mosphere in the way they do.^' 

Sevend other large meteors were seen on 
the same evening, their paths, or at least some 
of them, radiating from the same point in the 
constellation Taurus. Oapt. Tupman thus oon- 
dades his interesting paper : 

The ftvquenoy of large detonating meteors about 
Norembar 81at-S3d was long ago pointed out by Mr. 
S. P. Greg and Prof. A. 8. llereohel, but the exact 
determination of the radiant point or of their real 
heights has seldom been possiblo. It is satisfaotory 
to have secured one of them so well. From the in- 
▼estigations of Prof. II. A. Newton of Tale Unlver- 
•tty, tha great detonating meteor of November 20, 
1877, in the United States, proceeded from the radi- 
•QC near Gamma Caasiopeia, found by Prof. Hersohel 
for a detonating meteor on the same night in 1864. 
It is evident, therefore, that there are two streams, 
perfectly duCinefe, crossing the earth's orbit in the 
place it occupies about November a0th-28d, and both 
yielding very large detonating meteors. 

In " Nature " for February 28, 1878, Mr. H. 
Hatfield describes a meteor seen by himself on 
the morning of February 18th, at 12^ 47"-. Its 
brilliancy surpassed that of the moon then 
full 

In the "Science Observer" for April, Mr. 
E. F. Sawyer describes a meteor observed at 
Boston on the Slst of March, at 7** 64*-. It 
moved very slowly over an arc of eight de- 
r^^ tnd its apparent diameter was one 



third that of the moon. The same fire-ball 
was seen at Everett, Mass., by Mr. William F. 
Delany. 

A daylight meteor was seen in full sunshine 
near Hawick, England, by Mr. James Elliott 
and others, at 10^* 20"* on the morning of March 
25th. 

A large detonating fire-ball was observed at 
several points in England on the evening of 
April 2d, at 7^* 65"*. It appeared in Ursa Ma- 
jor, passed between Sirius and the belt of 
Orion, and thence at a slow rate and in a di- 
rect line to the horizon. Its diameter was 
about half that of the moon. 

A meteor whose apparent magnitude was 
estimated at one third that of the moon waa 
seen at Pultney, England, by Mr. James L. 
McOance, on the evening of April 20th. In 
about two seoonds it moved from R. A. 42°, 
N. decl. 80% to R. A. 47% N. decl. 20^ 

A very bright meteor was observed by Mr. 
Tronvelot of Cambridge, Mass., on the evening 
of June 6th, at 9''' 25"*. It occulted Omicron 
Urs89 Majoris, and moved nearly due west. 
When about the middle point of its visible 
path it burst into several parts, but the explo- 
sion was followed by no detonation. 

On the evening of August 22d, at 10^ 2"*, a 
briUiaut meteor was simultaneously seen by 
Mr. Seth 0. Chandler, Jr., at Marlboro, N. H., 
and Mr. E. F. Sawyer, at Cambridge, Mass. 

At 7 o'clock p. M., November 12, 1878, a 
very brilliant meteor was seen in southern 
Indiana. Prof. D. E. Hunter of Washington, 
Davies County, describes it as presenting a 
clearly defined disk with a diameter equal to 
two thirds that of the full moon. It appeared 
in Lyra, very close to Vega, passed in a south- 
erly direction through the Milky Way, and dis- 
appeared about 20° N. W. of Jupiter. It was 
visible ten seconds. 

Binicvry Stars.— In Christie's " Observatory*' 
for August and the following months Dr. 
Doberck of Markree, Ireland, has a valuable 
memoir on binary stars. The following are 
his latest determinations of the periods (tf sev- 
enteen systems, together with tne true ecoen- 
tricities of their orbits : 



BQTART 8T8TBM. 


PMod. 


lOBMtflfll^. 


8121 Strove 


8708 y*rs 

95- ao »* 

M-90 " 
104-416 " 
114S6 « 
117-M •* 
18400 " 

m-86 " 

217-8T •» 
K2-485" 
288-8S » 
261 IS •* 
280-29 " 
84910 " 
402-62 - 
84fi-86 " 
1001-21 " 


0*2600 


Osmma Ckwona Borealis 

Xi Lil>nB 


0-8600 
0*0768 


8063 8tmvo , 


0*4612 


Omeca Leonis 


0*6610 


J) FrnTaDi 


0-8790 


ITSBStnive \ 


0*6600 


XI BoOtls 


0-7081 


Tan Ophlueht 


0*6065 


Eta Ossslopete 


0-6678 


T^Afnbds Ophlnohi .^ , ....,, 


0*4980 


44Bo0t!8.r 


0*7100 


1988 Straw 


0-6974 


86 Andromadtt 


0*6687 




0*7890 


Slfftna OoronaB 


0-7616 
0-829S 







The average eccentricity of the binaries 
whose periods are less tiban 200 years is 



38 



ASTEONOMIOAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS. 



0'4806; of those whose periods exceed 200 
jears, 0*6055. 

New Ihuble Stan, — A new companion of 
Aldebaran has been discovered bj Mr. S. W. 
Bamham of Ohicago, at the distance of onljr 
SO'' from the large star. It is very faint, be- 
ing about eqoal in apparent magnitude to the 
onter satellite of Mlars. In Febmarjr, 1878, 
the same distinguished observer discovered 
the companion of Bigel to be undonbtedljr 
double. Tlie instrument used in his observa- 
tions was the IB^inch Olark equatorial of the 
Chicago Observatory. Mr. Burnham calls at- 
tention also to the star 99 Herculis, whose 
duplicity was discovered by Mr. Alvan Clark 
in 1859. The companion, since the date of its 
discovery, has undergone a change of 42^ in its 
angular position. The components, therefore, 
in all probability, constitute a binary system. 

Birmingham on Red Stan. — ^Mr. Birmingham 
of England has been engaged for several years 
on the observations of twl stars, and has re- 
cently published some interesting results and 
speculations in the ^' Transactions of the Royal 
Irish Academy.'' His catalogue contains 658 
of these objects, with descriptions by himself 
or references to the observations of other as- 
tronomers. According to Mr. Birmingham, 
red stars are to be found chiefly in a particu- 
lar part of the heavens, viz., that part of the 
Milky Way extending through the constella- 
tions Aquila, Lyra, and Cygnus. It is noticed, 
moreover, that a large proportion of the red 
stars are variable, and that the intensity of 
their color varies inversely with the apparent 
magnitude. Mr. Birmingham refers these 
phenomena to the existence of nebulous rings 
with an accumulation of matter on one side, 
and more or less absorption of some of the 
colored rays, according to the densities of the 
different sections. The color of the red stars 
which are not variable may be due, he sup- 
poses, to a permanent atmosphere. Mr. Bir- 
mingham's memoir contains a collection and 
discussion of the spectroscopic observations of 
Hugg^ns, Secchi, Yogel, and D' Arrest. 

Relation between the Colore and Periods of 
Variable Stare, — The " Science Observer " for 
July, 1876, contains a paper by Mr. Seth C. 
Chandler of Boston on the relation between 
the colors of variable stars and the lengths of 
their periods. In Schdnf eld's catalogue of 188 
variable stars he finds 26 whose colors are not 
given, or whose periods are irregular. De- 
ducting these, he arranges the remaining 112 
in classes according to the length of their 
periods, separating the red or reddish from 
those notea as white, yellow, or of no decided 
color. The result is as follows : 



It is seen at a glance that the nnmber of t^ 
stars increases with the length of the period, 
while that of white or colorless stars de- 
creases. 

The stars are next classified according to 
their colors, and the average period of each 
class computed. The result is shown in the 
table below : 



CLASS. 

• 


Color. 


Ko. 


A Wii|v ptiwio. 


1 
S 
8 
4 
A 


White 

Yellow 

TeUow-red 

Bad 

Inteuered 


9 
16 
81 
47 
19 


186 dap 
184 " 
818 - 

8S8 - 

an * 



PERIODS. 


Whit* « 


r 7*llow. 
Pu>ewt. 

n 

86 
8 



lUdoriwUlah. 


Under 100 dars. 


No. 

It 
8 

8 



No. PtoOMt. 

18 48 


100-800 * 


7 7S 


800-800 »* 


17 74 


800-400 »* 


84 98 


OTer400 " 


16 100 



" The progressive increase in the value of the 
average period from the white stars at the one 
end of the scale to the intense red at the other 
end is very remarkable." 

The Origin o/iV«6«to.— The " Philosophical 
Magazine " for July, 1878. contains an article 
on the origin of nebulas oy Dr. James Oroll 
of Scotland. Laplace and other writers on 
Cosmogony had aeeumed the existence of mat- 
ter in a state of gaseous diffuaon, and had 
shown how the solar and sidereal systems 
may have been formed by the process of con- 
densation, and how future systems may be 
evolved in like manner from existing nebula) ; 
but what the previous condition of a nebula 
was, or what physical cause had produced its 
present gaseous state, they had never inquired 
The object of Dr. Croll's memoir is " to ex- 
amine the bearings of the modem science of 
energy on the question of the origin of nebu- 
lae, and in particular to consider the physical 
cause of the dispersion of matter into stellar 
space in the nebular form." 

A brief view of Dr. CrolVs hypothesis may 
be presented as follows: The so-called fixed 
stars are well known to have a proper motion 
in space. Reasons are not wanting for be- 
lieving that non-luminous bodies also exist, in 
indefinite numbers, moving in all possible di- 
rections, and with various degrees of velocity. 
Hie occasional impact of these opaque stars 
would be a necessary consequence. With great 
velocity at the moment of collision, sufScient 
heat might be developed to reduce the united 
mass to the form of a gaseous nebula. Such 
is supposed to have been the origin of the 
thousands of nebulas revealed by the telescope. 
The fixed stars have been produced by the 
condensation of ancient nebulas. These as they 
cool down must gradually become extinct, to 
continue their motion as non-luminons bodies 
until a new encounter, in the distant future, 
shall reconvert them into nebulas. 

The process by which opaque stars are sup- 
posed to have been transformed into nebulas is 
thus given in Dr. CroU^s very interesting me- 
moir :. 

Take the case of the ori^n of the nebulous mass 
out of which oar san is believed to have been formed. 
Suppose two b^dief), each one half the mass of the 
sun, approaching each other directly at the rate of 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS. 39 

47j mUes per second (and there is notliing at all im- ezplosionf howeyerf would be to disperse tbe blocks 

proWeioBQch a supposition), their collision would in all directions, radiating from the center of the 

tmuform the whole or the motion into heat, afford- mass. Those toward the outer circumference of the 

ini tn stnouDt sufficient to supply tbe present rate mass, meeting with little or no obstruction to their 

of ndialion for 50,000,000 years. Each pound of the outward progress, would pass outward into space to 

laaiiii would, by the stoppage of the motion, possess indefinite distances, leaving in this manner a free 

oot ]e»8 than 100,O0O,0O0,(XK) foot-pounds of enersy path for the layers of blocks behind them to fol- 

triUiformed into be^ or aa mucn heat as would low in their track. Thus eventually a space, per- 

Kj&x to melt 90 tons of iron or raise 264,000 tons 1* haps twice or even thrice that included within the 

C. The whole mass would be converted into an in- orbit of Neptune, might be filled with fragments hy 

eiodesoeut gss, with a temperature of which we can the time the whole had assumed the gaseous condi- 

f)roi no adequate conception. Ifwe assume the spe- tion. It would be the suddenness and almost in- 

eiie heat of the gaseous mass to be equal to that of stantaneity with which the mass would receive the 

liririi., *S374), toe mass would have a temperature entire st^re of energy, before it had time even to 

of aboat 300,000,000* C, or more than 140,000 times assume the molten, far less the gaseous condition, 

that of the voltaic arc. It may be objected that, which would lead to such fearful explosions and dis- 

eoormous ss would be such a temperature, ic would persionof the materials. If the heat had been grad- 

Mrertheless be insufficient to expand the mass ually applied, no explosions, and consequently no 

a^»t|^dvity so as to occupy the entire space in- dispersion, or the materials would have taken place. 

eluded within the orbit of Neptune. To this objec- There would first have been a gradual melting ; and 

ti^Q i( might be replied that, if the temperature in then the mass would pass by slow degrees into va- 

queation were not sufficient to produce the required por, after which the vapor would rise in temperature 

cipaaaion, it might readllv have been so if the two as the heat continued until it became possessed of 

Miei before enconnter be assumed to possess a the entire amount. But the space thus occupied bv 

higher Telocity, which of course might have been the gaseous mass would necessarily be very much 

tbd case. Bat without making any such assumption, smaller than in the case we have been considering. 

t'i« aeoesssry expansion of the mass can be accountea where the shattered materials were first dispersea 

for on veiy simple principles. It follows in fact fit>m into space before the gaseous condition was as- 

t!ie theory that the expansion of the ffaseous mass sumed. 

oast have been &r prreater than could nave resulted 

limply from the temperature produced by the con- BeuarehM of Prof . (TAow.— Recent volumes 

J^«^, T^» "^'^ *>«:?.^"?"» ^J considering what f ^j^ 44 Proceedings of tbe American Philo- 

mmt take place immediately after the encounter of r. 1 -y^^y^"*©" w* v«w ^uivaiuou x **««- 

tbe two bodies, and before the mass has had suffl- sophioal Society contain papers of great 

mt time to pass completely into the gaseous con- interest by Prof. Pliny E. Chase of Haverford 

dition. The two bodies coming into collision with OoUege, Pa., on *' Centers of Aggregation and 

Mch enormous velocities woug not rebound Uke Dissociation," "Dlastrations of Central Force," 

effect of the blow would be to shiver them into frag- ^be Nebular Hypothesis," " Radiation and Ro- 
dents, small indeed as compared with the size of tation," etc., etc. The nnmerons harmonies 
the bodies themselves, but still into what might be of the solar system pointed out in these papers 
cilied in ordinary language immense blocks. Be- ^.-^ vapv rATnorlmhlA anH mnaf crvmmn^iK ih^ 
brt tbe motion o? the two bodies could be stopped, *L®J,^^^ remarkable, and must commana the 
I <; would undoubtedly interpenetrate each other; attention of astronomers and physicists. 
ul this of course would breiUL them up into frag- Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical 8oei- 
a^ta. Bat this would only be the work of a few ety, — ^The gold medal of the Royal Astronomi- 
i^^ Here, then, we should have all the energy oal Society of London was awarded in 1878 
:lti2?mrr :!S^X^r :tlllTn';h^e%'o![S ^o ^aron Dembowsky of Gallarate,.forhis ob- 
Kite; for as yet they would not have had sufficient servations of doable stars, commnnicatea from 
tiiie to assume the gaseous condition. It is obvious, time to time during tbe last quarter of a cen- 
Howeter, that the greater part of the heat would ex- tnry to the " Astronomische Nachricbten." 
K OB the surfiM»e of the blocks (the place receiving p^^ ^f ^^ j?y^^ Academy of Sdencea,^ 
w« greatest concussion), and would continue there rp*^ «^™ ^# av^ Tr«««^u A^»jf.v.tr «« *i,^ -«* 
»bile the blodu retainecl their solid condition. It J^® pnzes of tbe French Academy, m the wo- 
li difficult in imagination to realize what the tem- tion of Astronomy, have been awarded as fol- 
P«7atare of the sorfiaces would be at this moment, lows : the Lalande prize to Prof. Asaph Hall 
nr, supposing the heat were uniformly distributed of WasbiDgton, for bis discovery of tbe satel- 

^''^nr"^:Sl5'^';,SflS?.SSoV.o3? rr. Mt««of Mars; the V«UaBt prize to Dr^halhof. 

pmi of hekt. Bat as the greater part of the heat ^^^ ^^^ researches which led to tbe rediscovery 

T^old at this instant be concentrated on the outer of three of tbe lost asteroids ; and tbe Valz 

uTers of the blocks, these layers would be at once prize to the brothers Paul and Prosper Henry 

i^ff£'S**iJ"'*' ^iff**^S? «>'i^»^o'>» thus en velop. ^f the Paris Observatory, for their continuation 

fi? the blocks and flUing the interspaces. The tem- _^ r!K««-r*«»««»o A.«i:*vf {^ '^L.^.f n 

;^itw of the inoandesSent gas, owing to thU enor- ^^ S fTi?*^ ? ^^bptic charts. 

y^ concentration of heat, would be excessive, and ^^^ Medal of the Vienna Academy of oey- 

i'-» expansive force inconceivably great. As a con- enMS, —The gold medal of the Vienna Academy 

•-tMoce, the blocks would be separated from each has been awarded to Mr. Lewis Swift of Rocb- 

i^«i»f « I^«i?-«'?L*^^'T. J f J? .*„ ""i^te e«^er, N. Y., for bis discovery of tbe first comet 

^ more than snfflcient to carry them to an mflnite c 1 oVo rnu v a* m xr a >*». \. 

-«»oce aninst the force of gravity were no oppos- ?! }^^^' , The observations of Mr. Swift have 

V <^»ude in their way. The blocks by their mu- hitherto been made nnder unfavorable circnm- 

tul impact would be shivered into smaller frag- stances. He now proposes, however, tbe im- 

???• syA of which would consequently become mediate erection of an observatory, to be far- 

««^M lS^".fi^u?lSS; Ji?A'^^^^^ n^bed with a 9-4.inch refractor by Messrs. 

"*&u wooio in a similar manner Dreax up into still /^ii_«a a.i^ 3* *.» -tj \i » m 

•BJl^r pieces, and so on until the whole came to vjlark A Sons, the distmgnished opticians of 

~ tbe gaseous stste. The genersl effect of the Carabridgeport, Massachusetts. 



ftO 



AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA, 



AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. The 
area and popnlation of Australia and Polynesia 
are, according to the latest accounts, as follows 
^e Behm and Wagner, ^* Bev6lkerung der 
Erde^" v., Gotha, 1878): 



coLONnai. 






OOLONZI& 


AiMta 
•qoaNBaUH. 


Fopolatka. 


flOMrti iBlftods 


8,94^S88 

86,814 

104,900 

1,816 

888,968 

11,648 


L981798 


Istonds toath of the Tropio of Cap- 
rioora: 


106,494 


New Zeaiud (indudlog Mjtorto) 
Oth^T iftllWHl* 


468,000 
1,181 


IsteadB between the Tropio of Capri- 
fiorn an<l the EoQAtoTr r .. r ...... . 


1,7I»,870 
189,100 


Islande north of the Equator 


Total 


8,428,168 


4.411J)00 







New Soath Wales* 

Victoria^ 

Bouth ▲ustrallat. . 
Western Australia. 

Tasmania 

Qaeensland 

New Zealand. 



Uttm 

MDl 



788 18,981,800 

886,18,968,008 

8721 5.728,578 

5S 886,078 

177! 

162 8,140,990 
645|10,487,851 



VtwtpKftn 
•Bd book 



6,658,800 
10,919,438 ' 
8,860,914 
549,898 



M«H^ 



8,801,088 
6,811,867 



2«0t 112,664 

128.025 

88,709 



■^84 



89 



58 



6,651 



82.896 

Ta,U2T 



The following table shows the number of 
live stock in the different colonies : 



The estimated population of each of the 
BritifiJi colonies was as follows : 

COLOKOB. Ftopohlte. 

Yiefeoria (June 80, ISn) 849,081 

New South Walee (Deoember 81, 1876). . . 689,776 

Queensland (Deoember 81, 1876> 187,008 

South Australia (June 80, 1877) 880,929 

Western Australia (December 81, 1676). . . 87,881 

Northera Tortltoiy 748 

1 984,798 

Tiamanla (Deoember 81, 1876) 'l05,494 

New Zealand 417,628 

NatlTes 100,000 

Total 8,647,809 

During the year 1876 the increase of births 
over deaths was : in Victoria, 18,288 ; in New 
South Wales, 12,105; in Queensland, 8,496; 
in South Australia, 4,674; in Western Austra- 
lia, 585; in New Zealand, 12,170. In each 
colony the number of births was more than 
double that of deaths, and the number of males 
largely exceeded that of females. 

The following table shows the revenue, pub- 
lic debt, imports, and exports for 1876, for each 
of the Australian colonies : 



OOLONIEB. 


HonM. 


QUtU. 


B^ 


T\p. 


New Bouth Wales.. 
Victoria 


866,708 

196,184 

106,908 

88,508 

88,688 

99,861 

180,888 


8,181,018 84,608,888 1T9.604 
1,054,598 11.T49J>S2 140.765 


Bouth Australia. . . . 
Western Australia . 
T^mnania 


819,441 

54,058 

18«,469 

4Hlt8 

1,965,807 


6,183,891 

899,494 

1.75M48 

11,647,868 

7,841,810 


18,106 
8Q.ift>l 


New Zealand 

Qaeensland 


128,741 
58,028 



COIX>NIIS. 

Victoria 

New Bouth Wales * 
Booth Australia t . . 

Queensland 

Tsnoanla 

Western AustnUa . 
New Zealand 



RenaM. 



PaU. 



.\086,656 
1,491,889 
1,448.885 
887,840 
168,189 
8,178,798 



14,n66,888 

11.470,687* 

4,a87,080t 

6,954,566 

1,590,500 

185,000 

80,895^11 



1^705,858' 
18,678,776 
4,576,188 
8,194,818 
1,188,003 
886,086 
6,905,171 



14,106,487 
18,008,941 
4,816,171 
8,608^81 
1,180,988 
897,898 
5,678,465 



The telegraph statistics, on January 1, 1877, 
were as follows : 



OOLONHS. 



New South Waks.. 

Victoria 

South Australia. . . . 
Western Australia. 

Tsamanla. 

Queensland 

New Zealand 



lOlcaor 
wink 


Steiloiii. 


8,478 


154 


4,S12| 


180 


8,904 


184 


IMH 


5 


680 


40 


6.156 


180 


1 7,847 


148 



854.804 

801,946 

874,141 

84,086$ 

66,088 

479.078 

1,061,086 



The postal statistics for the different colonies 
were as follows: 



•For 1876. 



t For 1877. 



$ In 1874. 



According to "Statistics of New Zealand, 
1877," the total estimated population of this 
colony on December 81, 1877, was 417,622, ex- 
clusive of 45,470 Maoris. This shows an in> 
crease over the population of 1876 of 18,547, 
of which 12,171 was due to an excess of births 
over deaths, and 6,876 to immigration. A reg- 
ular census was taken in March, 1878, but the 
results are not yet published. The total num- 
ber of vessels that entered from foreign porta 
during 1877 was 812, of 888,668 tons; and the 
number entered coastwise was 17,260, of 1,754,- 
158 tons. The number cleared was 17,239, of 
1 ,788,224 tons. The total value of the imports 
was £6,978,418. 

A vote of want of confidence in the Ministry, 
proposed in the Legislative Assembly of Victo- 
ria in January, was ne^tived by that body. 
This vote was of great importance, as consid- 
erable excitement had prevailed throughoot 
the colony at the course taken by the Legisla- 
lative Council in the wholesale dismissal of 
Judges and other Government officials in No- 
vember, 1877. On February 7th, the Legisla- 
tive Assembly passed a resolution in favor of 
the payment of the public creditors on the au- 
thority of votes passed by the Assembly alone. 
In the course of the discussion Mr. Berry, the 
Premier, said it was intended that the resolu- 
tion should only be temporarily operative. He 
disclaimed any purpose to deprive the Legisla- 
tive Council of the right of assenting to the 
appropriations. On February 18th the Assem- 
bly, by a vote of 68 to 23, adopted a motion 
presented by Mr. Berry for an address to the 
Crown, in consequence of the unconstitutional 
course taken by the Legislative Conncil in re- 
jecting the appropriation bill, providing foi 
the payment of the members of the Assembly. 
The Council on the 21st also voted an address tc 
the Crown, in reply to that voted by the As- 
sembly. A compromise was, however, brought 
about between the Council and the Assembly 

« JanoAiy 1, 1677. t For 1876. t Jeniuvy 1, 1876. 



ll I 



AnSTRO-HUNGABIAN KONAKOHY. 41 

ttiai ending tbe political 

(riaiiwbich hid troubled 

lia wIddj Tor almost aii 

moaih). PvliuneDtwaa 
a April 6th. 
I uMmbled agftin on 

Jilj ttb. In bU opening 

■peMh, the QoTemor an- 

D»aDced tbe iotrodno- 

tim <rf biUa for a new 

lou for pnblic worka, 

isd for the pnrohase of 

HoiooD'a Baj- Rail way. 

Tb« Gorenior also an- 

D>raii(«d that an iaterntt- 

tldoal flihibition would 

be hfld Id Helbonrne 

la 1880. Tbe Oolooial 

Trcunrer made his finau- 

dil ititemeiit cm Angnat 

Hth. TbeaotDalreTenae 
tor th« cnrretit year waa 
f»iD)at«d at £4,B91,71S, 

■ad Ihe etpenditnre at £5,1S7,642, leariog a ISTScomposedof Prince Adolf von Aneraperg, 
dcflrit of £140,929. This defioiencj wu to b« President (appointed November, 1B71) ; J. La«- 
Nicred bj tUToari and reconpmeDta. There aer, FreiherrvonZollbeiin,Iiiterior(November, 
»er» aL«'h> be loans for a total amonnt of 1971) ; 0. von Stremayr, Piiblio Worship and 
iS.OOO,000 for railways and pnblio worka. In Instruction (November, IBTl) ; Glaser, Jastioe 
the bogtDDini; of October a miniBtsriBl bill for Ofovember, 1871) ; J. Ritter von Ohlumecky, 
1 rtromi of the CoostltDtioD, cnrtailing tbe Commerce (appointed in November, lS71,Min< 
|x»«n of the Legialative Ooouoil, waa paMed iater of Agricolture ; transferred to the Mioia- 
M ill [bird reading ia the Assembly by a vote try of Commerce in May, 1ST5) ; Bnron von 
ofMagaiuA 8). Pretis-Oagnodo, ^nances (Jannary, 1872); Co- 

The Parliament of New South Wales was lonel Horst, Defense of the Oountry (appointed 
'^ncd by the Governor on September lltb. pro tarn. November, 1871, definitely In Maroli, 
-InoDg tbe measarea to be introduced by the 1872) ; Oount Hannsfeld, Agriculture (May, 
GaTemmeot was a acheme for theconstraotion 187fi) ; J. Dnger (November, 1871) and Florian 
of a thonsand miles of railway. Ziemialkowski (April, 1878), miniaters with- 

Thp South Australian Ministry resigned in out portfolio. 
ib( betnoaing of October, aud a new cabinet Areaof the Monarchy, 240,346 square miles; 
*u farmed, oomposed as follows: Premier, population, according to the censas of 1860, 
Ur. William Morgan; Attorney-General, Mr. S6,901,48S. Tbe area of Cis-Leithan Aostria 
Bjndn; Minister of Ednuation. Mr. Rowland (the land represented in tbe Beichsrath) is 
Bm«; Otlonial TreoHTirer, Mr. Mann. 11S,S08 sqnare miles. The civil population at 

1 revolt broke oat among the natives of the the end of 1876 was officially estimated at 
Ftfoeb colony of New Caledonia in the latter 31,766,887, to which rooBt be added the army, 
^orjnne. It iras said to be owing to the numbering (close of 1876) 177,449 persons; 
•Mare of a Urge and fertile valley in which making a total population of 2l,S44,S3fl. The 
vuthe large village of the chief Atui. Aeon- estimate is based upon the census of December 
ndsnble number of whites were massacred, 81, 1669, by adding the average percentage of 
tn ib« rMistanoe wsssabdned in a short time, increase. The civil population was dintribnted 

AnsTBO-HDNQARIAN MONARCHY, an among tbe different crown lands as follows : 
^pire in Central Earope. Emperor, Francis coimrRns. iDb^iuu, cv. ii, in^ 

J*«pbl.,bom August 18, 1880; succeeded ADiW.b*towth. Enm !,il|,4^ 

io onde. the Emperor Ferdinand I., Decem- (fjSSS; iSw* 

f*T 1 18*8. Heir apparent to the throne, bittU i,iM.»i 

irrhduke Rudolphns, bom Aognst 31, 1808. SiSSI' *TC^ 

The ministry for the common affairs of the ^T^mu////^]y"^V^"y^'.'.'.'.'.'.','.'.'.'.'.'. 18S.1I8 

Empire consisted, toward the close of the year Omju md G«di«c». ItJmJ 

H7i of Count Andrassy, Minister of Foreign •Trroi'!'""!!i"l!!!"l^""l!!i"ill^ S^r 

Afiinsndof the Imperial Hoase (appointed Votwtbng ids,7T9 

l*:i); Baron Leopold Friedrioh von Hofhiann, ESf^J^ S^'sM 

KJJiiiter of the Finances of the Empire (ap- bumU...'.'.'.'.'.* ,■■.■.■.'.■.■,■.".'.■ .■,'■■.'!.','.".'.'.',',' Mlies 



>rat*d 1876): and Count Arthur Bylandt- 2*5^111: '■!S^ 

t'-*''idt. Mmist«r of War (appointed 1876). n^HS^"] inj^ 

Tbe ministry of Ois-Leitnaa Austria was in 8i,t«6,98T 



42 



AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY. 



The moyement of population in 1877 was as 
follows : 



COUNTRIES. 



Atutrto below the Eniift.. . . 

AuBtrto Above the Eom 

Sataborg 

StyrtL 

Cartnthia. 

Carniolft 

Trieste 

GorltK and Qradlsca 

latrla 

TttoJ 

Vonurlbers^ 

Bohemia 

Horayla 

BUeata 

eattda 

Bnkowlna. 

Dalmatia 

Axtnj. 

Total 



Btatht. 


DmI^ 


8e,S48 


09,008 


84,878 


80^16 


fi,4fia 


4,786 


88,178 


88,678 


11,049 


9,770 


ie.971 


18,168 


6.098 


4,468 


7,467 


6,704 


11,148 


8,018 


^*S 


19,006 


8,284 


2,664 


810,468 


168,467 


81,856 


67,800 


81.488 


17,660 


868,816 


198,886 


84,186 


87.086 


17,877 


1N774 


889 


8,086 


868,686 


679,884 



16,046 
6,818 
1.0ti6 
7.631 
1,786 
2,946 
1,066 
1.449 
2,089 
f,li88 
868 

41,149 

16,149 
4,040 

46,888 

4,646 

4^856 

876 

161,718 



Of the total number of children bom, 18,719 
were still-bom, and of these 16,781 were legit- 
imate and 1,988 illegitimate. Of the live-born 
children, 716,577 were legitimate and 105,518 
illegitimate. Of the total namber of children 
bom, 440,074 were males and 412,562 females. 
Of the total number of deaths, 855,429 were 
of males and 824,405 of females. In regard to 
age, 28 males and 84 females were upward of 
100 years old at the time of their death. 

The number of professors and students ^- 
elusive of non-matriculated hearers) was in 
1878 as follows : 





A^POVHBO^v* 


Stnimto. 


CzemoTltz 


8S 
76^ 
94 
66 

61 
129 
840 


848 


Cracow 


642« 


Oratz 


866 


Innspnick 


620 


IjeniDcrif 


876 


Pnunie 


1,7^ 


Yieonat 


8,546 






Total 


604 


8,465 





The Austrian Keichsrath, immediately upon 
reassembling after the holidays, discussed the 
measures proposed by the Oabinet for the 
Ausgleieh or compromise with Hungary. Con- 
ferences were held during January between 
the Austrian and Hungarian Ministers, to ar- 
range the differeuces still existing with regard 
to the renewal of the commercial and customs 
treaty between Austria and Hungary. An un- 
derstanding was finally come to on all but one 
point — the increase of the import duties on 
articles of consumption, especially coffee and 
petroleum, devised with a view to increase the 
revenue. The Austrian Ministry, though in 
favor of the higher tax, did not think it could 
carry it through the House, while the Hunga- 
rian Ministers, for their Government, declared 
they could not consent to another change in 
the existing agreement, rince it would endan- 

• In 1876. 

t EzclnilTe of the taeatty of EyangeHcal theology. 



ger the passing of the Isariff in the Diet, where 
these fiscal imposts were looked upon as a com- 
pensation for the increase of duties on textile 
fabrics, of which Austrian industry had almost 
the exclusive benefit. On January 25th the 
Austrian Ministers had a conference with the 
presidents of the clubs of the different parlia- 
mentary factions. Three of the dabs, con- 
taining the majority of those who are called 
supporters of the Govemtnent, refused to ac- 
cept the bill. This conference wts regarded 
as decisive by the Ministers, and on the follow- 
ing day, the 26th, they tendered their resign 
nations in a body. The Emperor accept^ 
them, but requested the Ministers to retain 
ofiice pending the appointment of their soc^ 
cessors. On February 5, Prince Auersperg, 
in the House, read a letter from the EmpHeror. 
calling upon the Oabinet to resume office, in 
consequence of the imperative necessity of con- 
cluding the compromise with Hungary. The 
Minister stated that the Emperor had taken 
this step only after having come to the con- 
clusion that it was impossible to form a new 
Ministry which could give sufficient guarantees 
for the passage of the compromise as adopted 
by the two Governments. In conclusion, he 
said that the Government had felt itself bound, 
in view of the gravity of the situation, to com- 
ply with the request of the Emperor, and begged 
the House to hasten the discussion of the com- 
promise bills. On February 16, the Lower 
House of the Reichsrath resolved by a large 
m^ority to proceed to the special debate upon 
the customs tariff, and on the 19th, by a vote 
of 169 to 180, passed the bill, imposing a duty 
of 20 fiorins on coffee. This was an important 
victory for the Ministry, as the duty on coffee 
was the one which was most bitterly opposed 
in the Reichsrath, and which therefore threat- 
ened to bring the negotiations for a compro- 
mise to an end. 

On March 8th, Prince Auersperg stated in 
the Lower House that the Government had 
made searching investigation into the reported 
execution of Polish subjects of Austria by the 
Russian authorities, the result being that the 
statements in question were totally uncon- 
firmed. On the subject of the proposed Ber- 
lin Congress, he declared that it only aimed 
at the final settlement of Eastern affairs, and 
that it was in that sense that the Austrian 
Government had issued invitations to the Pow- 
ers. Every other subject was therefore, he 
said, excluded from European discussion. 

The budget was discussed in the Upper House 
of the Reichsrath on March 26th ; and in re- 
ply to the remarks of several speakers, Baron 
Pretis, the Minister of Finance, said that he 
had many years ago wamed the House and the 
public against taking a too sanguine view of 
the financial position of the country. The 
Government would, however, be able aeon to 
make the revenue and expenditure balance, 
provided that they were not compelled to take 
upon themselves fresh sacrifices for the defense 



AUSTRO-HXniGARIAN HONABCJHT. 43 

of Ida faoDorudprmtige of tb« Empire. Even for the protection of tbe interests of th« 

tbii lutef event oonld do no more than defer Monarchj. The Bom asked for, however, was 

for 1 ihort time the attsinment of the object not to be expended in ooinpletinK the eqnip- 

LD TKW ; ud he cautioned his hearers not to ment of the enaj. It was lotended to atford 

bcliere (or one single instant in the word the Qovernnient the means bj which, at the 

"baakrapL" There was, he said, no Justid- right time and on its own reaponsibilitj, it 

mCod «t all (or applying snoh a term to tlie might "lake such measures as, by the prompt 

fiiuicisl position of Anstro-UoDgary. The ntiUzation of the advantages for which the or- 

Bod^t aod Financial law for 18T8, as well as ganization of the army is alone fitted, to in- 

tlwbill proloDging the prwitorium of the com- sare the Vonsrohy against all danger and snr- 

pmniK with Hungary until tbe end of May, prise." In the afternoon Count Andrasay 

ID sdopud on the following day without de- made a statement to the Delegations, ezplun- 

Uu. ing the policy of the Government. In this 

Tbe Anrtrian and Hnngarisn Delegations statement he said that in pursuing its exertions 

DM on March 7tb. On the 9th the Govern- to npbold the interests of tbe Monarchy by 

otnl presented to both Delegations a bill an- pacino means, tbe Government could not ab- 

ihonnag an extra credit of 60,000,000 florins, stain from taking care that if the worst shonld 

Tbe preamble stated that in the present poei- happen the necessary measures sboold be 

tHo of stEdn it was not impossible that ex- adopted; for this reason the Government 

nordinary measnrea might have to be taken asked for 60,000,000 florins. With regard to 



ibe tititDde of the other Powers, it mlf^t a confidential character, and not intended to 

Hlrly be stated that Aostria's interests in the be entered in the j>rotoool of the sitting. 

£w <rere at the present time identical with Count Andrassy in his replies dwelt eBpeciaUf 

ibow of Europe, and were on all stdes reoog- npon the question of an Austrian occupation 

3iud u Micfa. How far other Powers wonld of Bosnia, which he described as not com- 

^ in protecting those interests could not ba prised within the urns of tbe Austro-Hunga- 

^rmined, and the programme of the Gov- rian Government. He pointed out that to 

tnmtat could not be made the subject of dis- guard against surprise was not the motive, 

"ision before tbe meeting of the Congress, but only one of the motives of the demand 

3* ^Mcifled in detail what ha nnderstood for a grant of 60,000,000 fiorius, and he added 

'»itr the name of Austro-Hungarian inter- that communication was made to Russia of 

t^ and what changes conld not be permitted what constituted the interests of the Aastro- 

'•<; A DKria-H angary. Hungarian Monaroby before the outbreak of 

la • subsequent sitting of the Budget Com- the wsr, and that the Bussian Government 

niu«« of the Austrian Delegation, Count An- acknowledged that the statement was well 

^fMy gave further information as to Eastern founded. lie also entered into details in an- 

'^>iri, and replied to several questions sd- swering the questions put to him as to the 

'■'feA to bim by various delegates ssking for objects of the partiai mobilization projected in 

•ipisaatioiu which were to be regarded as of June, 1877, and with regard to Uie support 



44 AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONABOHY. 

which the Goyemment anticipated from the' this measure, to the amoant of 60,000,000 

other Earopean Powers at the Oongress. He florins. In the Austrian Delegation the debate 

etnphaticalljr denied that it had been intended was continued until the Slst, and after some 

to ask for provision for a mobilization without remarks from Count Andrassy, who said that 

any mobilization being effected ; and he far- the vote was necessary to maintain the posi- 

ther declared that the Government by no tion of the Monarchy as a great power, the 

means contemplated ordering a mobilization grant of 60,000,000 florins was adopted by a 

of the army as soon as the grant of 60,000,000 vote of 89 to 20. 

florins had been approved. It certainly re- On May 28th Oount Andrassy read a state- 
quired to be provided with the means of show- ment to the Austrian Delegation explaining 
ing the world that the Monarchy was capable the manner in which a portion of the credit 
of protecting its interests in a practical man- vote of 60,000,000 florins was to be employed, 
ner; but to institute a military force in He said that, even though an agreement were 
presence of the Congress, from whose delib- established upon European questions, compli- 
erations a satisfactory understanding was an- cations might arise which would imperil Aus- 
ticipated by all — ^to appear before it at great trian interests. It was intended shortly to re- 
cost in a state of warlike preparation, only enforce the troops in Dalmatia and Transyl- 
ultimately to disarm — would be a proceeding vania, and possibly to make other dispositions 
for which the Government could not assume for the protection of the communications, 
the responsibility. To those who maintained There was a prospect of the early meeting of 
that it was too late to mobilize, he should feel a Congress, and the Government would use 
inclined rather to reply that he considered it their endeavors in behalf of the peace of £u- 
much too soon. In connection with this ques- rope, and to guard the interests of tiie Men- 
tion, he gave a denial to all the newspaper archy. 

statements of actual measures of mobilization On May 29th Coant Andrassy answered the 
having been taken, of the ordre de hataille question put to him in the Delegations about 
having been drawn up, etc., all which reports tue treaty of San 6tefano. In both bodies the 
were absolutely unfounded. question was the same — namely, whether the 
On March 12th the Hungarian Delegation Minister for Foreign Affairs would indicate the 
passed, by a unanimous vote, the bill of credit points he deemed incompatible with Austrian 
brought in by the Government. At the first interests, and the modification or eventual abo- 
sitting on the 10th, the members of the various lition of which he had set himself as a task ; 
fractions of the opposition represented in the the answer likewise was almost identical in 
Delegation determined to make their vote de- both Delegations. The first aud main con ten- 
pendent on the explanations of the Minister tion of the Government was that what should 
for Foreign Affairs in reply to questions they follow the war was a real, not a nominal peace, 
would put ; but while doing so they wicked it and that what was done should not conceal the 
to be understood that, even though they were germs of further disturbance and future com- 
not ready to vote the money in tiie form de- plications. From this point of view the extent 
manded, still, whatever might be the differ- which Bulgaria was to have, according to the 
ences of opinion between the Government and treaty, was open to great objections. Neither 
individual members of the Delegation, tiie mo- Austria-Hungary nor any other Power in Eu- 
ment the honor and interests of the country rope could well be opposed to the progress and 
were at stake, the Ministry might reckon upon advancement of those regions, but a large, com- 
the support of all parties. After hearing, pact State there in favor of one nationality at 
therefore, the explanations of the Minister, the expense of others was itself too artificial a 
all those who had previously deferred their creation, containing no guarantees of stability 
vote gave it in favor of the grant of 60,000,000 whatever. Ko European Power could well 
florins, in the form which the reporter chosen stand up for the maintenance of the territorial 
by the majority had proposed. This form was integrity and the stattu quo in Turkey, because 
somewhat different from that suggested by the it could scarcely take upon itself the reeponsi- 
Govemment; for while the latter merely au- bility for this; but, on the other hand, it was 
thorized tiie common Ministry, in case of ur- in the interest of every Power that what re- 
gent and unavoidable necessity, to provide for mained to Turkey should be provided with the 
any extraordinary expenditure required by the conditions absolutely necessary for its exist- 
army to the extent of 60,000,000 florins, the ence, and from this point of view likewise the 
other declared that in case Eastern fUffairs Bulgaria of the treaty was objectionable. An- 
should render the mobilization of the army other objection referred to clause 8 of the treaty, 
absolutely and urgently necessary for the pur- which relates to the transition period and con- 
pose of more energetically defending the in- tains the stipulation for a two years' occnpa- 
terestsof the Monarchy, the common Ministry, tion of Bulgaria, a correspondingly long oocu- 
while bound to appeal at once to the legisla- pation of Roumania, and right of way through 
tive bodies for their cooperation, was author- that country. Now, this time was much longer 
ized in concert with the two Ministries of Aus- than was required. Apart from all other con- 
tria and Hungary to incur meanwhile, on its siderations, so lengthy an occupation would 
own responsibility, the expenses required for create a state of uncertainty tending to perpet- 



AU8TR0-HUNGARIAN MONAEOHY. 46 

oAte the disqoietade from which Earope had The Austrian and Hungarian Delegations 

already saffered long enough. The third ob- met in Pesth on November 7th. In replj to 

jectioo referred to the too great extension of an address from the Delegations the Emperor 

the amall neighboring States. Not only was it said : 

not aj^inst the interests of Austria- Hungary j^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^y^ ^^.^ ^^^^^ y^^ j^ ^^^ 

thai these commonities snould improve ana present Bession, I receive with doable satisfaction 

better their condition, but, on the contrary, the aaBumnces of your loyal sentiments. The ait- 

tfais country had cooperated at the Conference nation was an earnest one when the Delegations last 

with those who urged that Montenegro should assembled. Events in the Eaat had entered into 

^ - X -:*^-„ u«* ^«.*«« a decisive phase ; we stood on the eve of a Congress 

receive some mcrease of territory ; but exten- ^^.^^^ ^J^^ y^^^^ ^1,^ ^.^j^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ iuto^'har- 

fion mast neither be m such measure nor m mony with the reouirements of the European bal- 
neb A direction as to interfere with Austna^s anoe of power, and with the interests of tlie Mon- 
Datoral lines of communication with the East, arohy, which were closely affected. With a putriot- 
lod be, as it were, a stimulus to further aspi- it™ deserving my thanks, at that earnest moment 
,7 ' 1 , r^ I'. owiMuiuo lA/ 1.UAVMV1 «7^ ^^^ means were jriven my Government which en- 
ratioM calculated to cause continual disquie- ^^,1^^ ^^ ^^ maj^^ i^g influence successfully felt in 
tode and agitation. In pointing out these ob- both directions during and after the Congress. It 
jiCtionSy the Minister said he onlv wished to is a matter of sincere satisfaction to me that the 
indicate the ireneral direction he had followed Congress succeeded in averting the imminent dan- 
«d -oold .dhere to without any mental re- f^ tSl&o%eX4'lff reX*X*w*Ete 
serration at the Congress. He had given frank Government will loyally stand up, is calculated to 
expression to these views in St. Petersburg and effectually prevent the return of the dangers which 
elsewhere. threatened the peace of Europe and our own inter- 
On May 26th the Austrian Government 00- «»*»• The Powers assembW in Berlin decided that 

copied,.? the request of the Turkish Govern- ^^e^^^v^^ ^o^uld tTn*^^^^^^^^ 

meDt, the fortress of Ada Kaleh on the Dan- gary. I accepted this task ; but I regret that, in 

nbe. The fortress is situated on an island ooneequeuoe of the deep-rooted confusion in the in- 

vhich extends along the Austrian bank of the ternal state of those countries, it was not possible 

Djnabe. from whil it.i, separated only by a ^ ?SS-V':XwteS^wrt±u?p! 

small branch of the^ nver ; while the mam p^^ed to our good intentions yielded in a sljort time 

stream lies between it and the Servian shore to the bravery of my troops. On this occaFion the 

opposite. The island till the middle of the army, based on ffeneral liability to military service, 

last century formed part of the Austrian torri- "tood the test brilliantly. I congratulate you on its 

^, «d not only Soes most of the fortress JS^X^TtSS.l^f'XntiryVru^S^d": 

oate from that tune, but even some of the ^^d likewise as members of those representative 

ori^na] gnos remain. bodies who have supported my Government with 

The session of the Austrian Delegation was discrimination and patriotism in tlie development of 

closed on June 8th after the common budget, the defensive power of the Monarohy. The prompt 

*^fx„w.^i^^ * t/\a atro Aaa a !«„ "u^A ^^^Ji and thofouflrh solutiou of our military task has freed 

amonntmg to 106,678,466 flonns, had been the populations of Bosnia and Herzegovina from the 

pa^d. The Austrian Reichsrath, after the terrorism of agitators, and has made it possible for 

paaat^ of the compromise bill (see Hunoabt) me to order the recall of a considerable portion of 

vas closed on Jane 28th. the army of occupation. It will now be the earnest 

hi the befrinning of July Freiherr von ZoU- cnfl«*^?'' <>' ™y,T^TP"?«"i ^.A*I?°J"^® ^^ ^*^ 

k«-. Ti: /v T -Ir W' v-T ^JVu T * • riflces demanded by this task with the financial con- 

beim, the Cia-Leithan Minister of the Interior, ^j^i^n ^f the Monarchy, and to hastm the time when 

refigned on account of ill health, and Prince the administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina may 

Aoersperg was temporarily intrusted with the be supported by the revenues of these countries. 

department The hope that this will succeed appears all the bet- 

n« Tni» QA*i. ♦Ua ▲«.♦•:«« 4^»»««- ;•> ^^^rxw,A ter founded, as our relations to all the Powers con- 

.. .*/.u . f '»*"a?^*™y» }^ accord- ^.^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^ excellent. Gentlemen, great are 

ttee with the provision of the treaty of Ber- the sacrifices demanded of you ; great historical 

•is. entered Bosnia. (See Tubkbt.) event<«, to prevent which lay not in the power of 

The Rdcharath reassembled on October 22d. any ainsle State, have claimed from the Monarchy 

h the Lower House the President thanked the Jl'^*"**!**'^}?"'' ' ^"^K^ TJ^^^'Ht^L ^^^a^^^I 

iiin» /«• u. K.**^.* k^.^:«^ «•»,! -/^i* ^.^^M^A fldence that the patnotism of my peoples and the 

amj for its bravery, heroism, and self-sacnflce, discrimination of their representat^eS will prove 

4aa bis remarks were received with loud cheers, equal to the greatness of the historical occasion. I 

^e Aostriao estimates for 1879, which were am convinced that you will unite your efforts with 

<^stribmed to the members, showed a reduc- those of my Government in order that the work be- 

tion of Ift nno {U\(\ flnrina in tha ATnAniliinrA g^^ i^ the interest of European peace and the pros- 

^ .A^zfr^'^A^l^a^ expenditure, «^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ M^onarcliy may be happily 

Md a decrease of 4,000,000 €oruia m the rev- terminated. In this firm confidence, 1 wish you 

Aoe, as coBpared with 1878. auecees in your work and greet you heartily. 



46 



BACK, GEORGE. 



BAPTISTS. 



B 



BACK, Sir Geoboe, Admiral, a distin- 
gnished Arctic navigator, died on Sanday, June 
2dd, at the age of 81. Born in 1796 he entered 
the royal navy in 1808, and the following year 
was taken prisoner by the French and kept in 
captivity for five years. In 1819 he accom- 
panied Franklin on his hazardous expedition 
from Hudson^s Bay to the mouth of the Cop- 
permine, and thence eastward along the north- 
ern coast of America. During this journey of 
over 1,000 miles, on foot and in canoes, with 
the mercury often 57° below zero, Back dis- 
played consummate fortitude and the highest 
degree of sagacity ; indeed, Franklin attributed 
to the personal exertions of Back the ultimate 
safety of the expedition. He was promoted 
to a lieutenancy in 1821. In 1825 he was again 
with Franklin in the Arctic regions, seeking 
to make the northwest passage. Again, the 
safe return of the expedition was mainly at- 
tributable to Back's fertility of resource and 
indomitable force of will. He was promoted 
to the rank of commander in 1825. In 1838 
he commanded an expedition to search for Sir 
John Boss, then in the north-polar regions. 
He was again in the Arctic seas in the year 
1836-^87. On his return to England he retired 
from active service. He was knighted in 1839 ; 
attained flag rank in 1857, and the rank of 
admiral in 1867. 

BAPTISTS. I. RBotJLAB Baptists nr the 
United States. — ^The whole number of asso- 
ciations in 1878 was 1,048; number of ad- 
ditions to the churches by baptism, 102,292 ; 
totflJ increase of members during the year, 
91,839 ; number of Sunday schools, 10, 422 ; 
of officers and teachers in the same, 96,- 
850 ; of Sunday-school scholars, 806,317 ; total 
amount of benevolent contributions, $4,318,- 
888.77. The ten theological institutions re- 
turned 40 instructors, with 459 students, all 
preparing for the ministry ; property valued at 
$1,845,547, and endowment funds of $1,360.- 
545. from which $57,127 of income were real- 
izea. Thirty-one colleges and universities re- 
turned 264 instructors, of whom 42 were wo- 
men, and 4,793 students, of whom 850 were 
women, and 573 were studying for the minis- 
try. The property of these institutions was 
valued at $7,465,691, and their aggregate en- 
dowment funds were $3,307,770, yieldiog an- 
nual incomes amounting to $175,628. The 
number of academies, seminaries, institutes, and 
female colleges returned in the *^ Year Book" 
is 46, with 285 instructors, of whom 172 were 
women, and 4,286 students, of whom 2,556 
were women, and 362 were preparing for the 
ministry. These schools returned a total prop- 
erty valuation of $2,392,585, and ten of them 
had endowment funds amounting to $352,000, 
and yielding a total income of $10,450. 



The following is a summary of the statistics 
of the Regular Baptist chnrches in the United 
States, as they are given in the '^ American 
Baptist Year Book " for 1878 : 



STATES AND TERRITO- 
RIES. 



AlabMIUL 

Arkansas 

CaliforDU 

Colorado 

Connectlcat 

Dakota 

Delaware 

Distrlot of Colombia. 
Florida 

OeorKl* 

Idaho 

lUinola 

Indiana 

Indian Territory 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Maasaehuaetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraaka 

Nevada 

JMew Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode IsUuid 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

VirglnU 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Total. 



ChofchM. 


OididiMd 
mInUton. 


1,426 


665 


998 


467 


103 


73 


24 


12 


119 


186 


15 


14 


11 


18 


81 


89 


276 


IW 


2,608 


1,829 


1 


1 


948 


698 


bU 


858 


90 


87 


9M 


880 


854 


195 


1,668 


869 


716 


416 


861 


1S4 


48 


8-} 


290 


827 


824 


298 


148 


99 


1,606 


a'U) 


1,954 


876 


144 


80 


8 


8 


86 


98 


178 


808 


1 


1 


879 


780 


1,726 


641 


618 


447 


60 


44 


626 


487 


69 


72 


916 


659 


1,278 


787 


1^04 


681 


1 


1 


112 


95 


1,226 


640 


14 


14 


867 


184 


196 


127 


8 


a 


88,908 


14,696 



44,619 

6,111 

1,026 

90,640 

4;i7 

1,625 

lai»61 

17.918 

805^306 

20 

68364 

41,611 

6,296 

83,479 

14,929 

166,086 

63,061 

80,528 

7,607 

49.410 

85,^99 

6^97 

118,909 

91,0ri8 

8,788 

63 

9,044 

81,786 

80 

112.050 

169^775 

47.646 

8.S86 

68320 

10,420 

107,669 

107,416 

67,176 

16 

9,560 

184,026 

8*25 

8S,72S 

88,886 

68 

8,084,8S4 



The anniyersaries of the Northern Baptist 
sooietiea of the United States were held at Ole ve- 
land, Ohio, beginning with that of the Ameri- 
can Baptist Publication Society , which held its 
fiftj-foarth meeting May 28th. The receipts 
of this Society for the year have been $264,059 
in the business department, and $40,551 in 
the missionary department; in all, $304,610. 
Twenty-two new pablications had been issned, 
making the whole number of works on the 
catalogues of the Society's publications 1,151. 
The total issues of the year were equal to 805,- 
Y27,245 pages 18rao, and since its organiza- 
tion in 1824 the Society had published 86,664,-- 
123 copies of books, tracts, and periodicals. 

The forty-sixth annual meeting of the Ameri^ 
can Baptist Home Mission Society was held 
May 29th. The receipts of the Society for the 
year had been $175,209, showing a falling off 



BAPTISTS. 47 

of tH,6U from the previons year, and the mended to the liberality of the people of the 

disborsements had been $174,119. The in- Northern chorches. 

dtrbtedoero was now $46,488, having increased The anniversary of the Wbman'a Baptist 
$4,980 daring the year. There were 222 mis- ffome Misnonary Society was held May 29th. 
fbniriesnnderappointmentofthe Society, who The report dealt chiefly with the history of 
reported 19,140 persons in the Snnday schools the organization of the Society, which was 
under their care, and had baptized 1,884 ner- effected Febmary 1, 1877. Its object is to 
»oos. The charches aided by the Society had cooperate with the American Baptist Home 
poDtriboted $5,911 to benevolent objects. A Missionary Society. Its total receipts for the 
Dew school for freedmen had been opened at year had been $6,887, and its expenditures 
y&tcbez, Miss., making the whole number of $8,401.56. Auxiliaries had been formed in 
ickoola for the education of preachers and fourteen States and Territories, and contribu- 
teachers among these people eight, with 85 tions had been received from nearly every 
teachers and 1,056 students. The property of Northern State. The Society had nine mis- 
tbe schools was all paid for, and free from en- sionaries in the field — ^five in the Southern 
combraDces. Applications had been made for States and four among the American Indians. 
io increase of the teaching force, which the A meeting of representatives of the three 
Board, for want of means, had seldom been societies of Baptist women, organized for the 
ftble to grant A school had been asked for in promotion of foreign missions, the Society of 
ikbama, which could not be provided for the the Ectety the Society of the West, and the So' 
&ime reason. This Society has been assigned eiety of the Pac06 Coast, was held at Gleve* 
b; the Government to the charge of the Union land, Ohio, May 80th. The Society .of the 
Vission in the Indian Territory, embracing East reported a balance in the treasury of 
Creeks, Cherokeea, Choctaws, Chiokasaws, and $2,000, and under its care in the Asiatic mis- 
Semiooles, numbering 56,700 persons ; and it sions, 24 missionaries, 25 Bible-readers, and 
liA also churches among the belawares. Sacs 84 schools, witb 884 pupils. The Society em- 
and Foxes, Ottawas, Nez Perots, and Miamis. braced 618 circles and 99 mission hands ; its 
i resolution was adopted remonstrating against receipts for the year had been $14,818 ; and it 
the transfer of the Indian Bureau from tlie had had ten missionaries under appointment, 
I^artment of the Interior to that of War, and sustained two schools at Ongole. 
eioept under the guarantee that the Indians The twenty-third meeting of the Southern 
»hoQld not thereby be deprived of the care of Baptist Convention was held at Nashville, 
the religious associations under which the re- Tenn., beginning May 9th. The Rev. J. P. 
cent policy of the Government had placed them. Boyce, D. D., presided. The report of the 
The misdon among the Chinese m California Foreign Mission Board showed that its total 
^ heen carried on in cooperation with one receipts for the year from all sources had been 
of the churches in San Francisco. This ar- $85,710.45, of which $1,128 had been con- 
nnirement would cease in July, when the Board tributed for the fund for the chapel in Rome. 
toped to put the work in charge of a suitably The expenditures had been $22,182.41, divided 
qoalified missioniiry. The missionary work among missions in Europe, China, and Africa. 
KBoog the German populations in tiie United The Board possessed an mvested fund of $18,- 
^tites was carried on in cooperation with the 200, and owed debts of $4,500. A church had 
^^m and Western German Baptist Confer- been bought for the Italian mission in Rome, 
«&cei which bore one half the expense. The in the neighborhood of the Pantheon and the 
Sr^ietr also labored amopg the Scandinavians University of Rome, for the sum of $28^600 
>ad the French. The appointment of a super- in gold, to be paid within six months. Five 
burodent of miasions to freedmen, and co6p- thousand dollars were still needed to complete 
eration with the Southern Baptists in promot- the payment, and an equal amount would be 
mx ministers' institutes among the freedmen, required to complete certain improvements 
v^tre approved. which it would be necessary to make in the 
Th« stxty-fonrth annual meeting of the church. The sum of $7,500 was obtained in 
'Ameriean Baptist Missionary Union was held the Convention. The receipts of the Home 
^J 30th. The whole amount paid in to ihe Mission Board had been $11,949, and the sum 
^^MTj of the Society during the year had of $4,585.76 had been paid to missionaries. 
•:^n (278,728, of which $18,044 was for addi- Thirty-seven churches and 75 other stations 
M >iii to Uie invested funds. The sum appli- had been supplied, and 89 Sunday schools con- 
'-Me to the payment of the current expenses ducted, with 112 teachers and 1,228 pupils. A 
•f the year was $217,992, but the expenditure report was made of the progress of the work 
^ exceeded this sum, and the treasury was of education among the Indians. An offer of 
'^ debt ^,489. There were 140 missionaries land had been made to the Board for the ad- 
^plojed in Bnrmah, Assam, the Telugn conn- vancement of this work, which the Board was 
Vt, China, Japan, France, Germany, Sweden, advised to accept, with the view of establish- 
ed ^tpain, with 956 native helpers ; and they ing a manual-labor school. The duty of the 
^l-orted 793 churches and 68,145 members. Convention toward the colored people was the 
^ enterprise of the Southern Baptist Con- subject of a special report, which repeated a 
^esdoD in baying a church at Rome waa com- recommendation made in the previous year 



48 



BAPTISTS. 



that ministers' institates be organized among 
these people, and the ministers of the Conven- 
tion give their special attention to the same, 
and Mlvised that the circulation of religious 
literature among them and their iustmction in 
denominational doctrines be looked after. The 
Oonvention commended the organization of 
woman's missionary societies, and advised 
that thej be made auxiliary to the regular 
boards for home and foreign missions. Prog- 
ress was reported on the effort to raise 
funds for tiie Southern Baptist Theological 
Seminary, formerly at Greenville, S. 0., now 
at Louisville, Ky. The churches of Kentucky 
had undertaken to raise the sum of $300,000 
for the endowment of the seminary, provided 
the other Southern States would raise $200,000. 
The sum of $284,000 had been raised in Ken- 
tucky, and between $65,000 and $70,000 in the 
other States. The seminary had been attended 
during the year by about ninety students, and 
had graduated five in the full course and four 
in the English courses. 

A National Colored Baptut Contention met 
at Nashville, Tenn., June 6th, for the purpose 
of discus:$ing measures for the advancement of 
education among the members of the colored 
churches in the South. Delegates were in at- 
tendance from Tennessee, Kentucky, Arkansas, 
Virginia, and Indiana. The Rev. N. G. Merry, 
of Nashville, Tenn., presided. A constitution 
was adopted for a *^ National Colored Bap- 
tist Missionary and Educational Oonvention," 
which shall hold annual meetings, and the ob- 
jects of which were declared to be : *^ 1st, the 
establishment of a book depository and reli- 
gious publishing bouse; 2d, cooperation with 
the American Baptist Home Mission Society 
in its work of educating the f reedmen ; and 
dd, the establishment and support of a religious 
newspaper in the interest of truth and the col- 
ored Baptist churches." Arrangements were 
made to publish an address to the white Bap- 
tists of tne North and South, setting forth the 
appreciation entertained by the Convention of 
the assistance which they had given to the col- 
ored people, and requesting a continuance of 
their liberality ; and an address to the colored 
Baptist churches. North and South, urging them 
to encourage a higher standard of religious 
worship, and to recognize the importance and 
necessity of education and morality among their 
people. The organization of a firm to be known 
as the Colored Baptist Repo:5itory and Publish- 
ing Company of the United States, for the pub- 
lication of religious literature, was determined 
upon. The ^* Baptist Herald," Paducah, Ky., 
was designated as the organ of the Conven- 
tion. 

II. Frsswill Baptist Chitboh. — ^The statis- 
tics of the Freewill Baptist Church in the 
United States, as they are given in the '^ Free- 
will Baptist Regbter" for 1879, show an in- 
crease of 106 churches, with a small apparent 
decrease in ministers and communicants. The 
following is a summary of them : 



TKARLT MSKTXNaS. 



New HMnpshtro 

Maine Western. 

Maine Oentnl 

Penobecot 

Termont 

Mfiwwichuaetts and Rhode Iiland. 

Holland PorchaBe , 

Oenesee 

Basqaehanna 

Kew York and Pennsylvania...., 

fit. Lawrence 

Union 

Central NewTork 

Pennsylirania 

Ohio and Pennaylvanta 

Central Ohk» 

Ohio 

Ohio Elrer 

Indiana 

Korthom Indiana 

Michigan 

St. Joseph's VaUer 

Illinois. 

Soathem Illinois 

Central Illinois 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Minnesota Sonthem 

Iowa 

Iowa Korthem 

Kansas 

Korthem Kansas and Southern 

braska 

Tirginia Free Baptist Association 

LoiBslana 

Otttarlo,P.Q 

Bengal and Oriaaa 

American Association 

Union Association 

QoarterlT meetinga not connected with 

ayeariy meeting 

Chiuchea not connected 



Ne- 



ri 

n 



lis 

70 
lOS 
118 
«1 
4T 
84 
88 
86 
81 
14 
14 
89 
7 
87 
M 
10 
65 
« 
22 
100 
21 
87 
48 
40 
«1 
17 
28 
86 
86 
10 



U 
1» 
10 
6 
6 
18 

12 
11 



Total. 



1,448 



186 
68 
88 
64 
41 
67 
40 
28 
28 
22 
18 

2 
25 

6 
80 
22 
11 
45 

4 
12 
88 
18 
84 
68 
82 
54 
17 
17 
25 
90 

9 

29 

15 
2d 

7 

8 

7 

18 

12 

18 



I 



9m 

4,694 

M\i 
iJXil 

S.161 

1,9^ 

1^ 

916 

M 

793 

2,ltitJ 

480 

1,«4T 

1,4S8 

^1 
m 

i4&T 

1,028 

1,»0 

2,447 

1,681 

2,281 

6» 

680 

1,419 

1^ 

SS4 

651 
T<M) 
620 
467 
445 
275 
701 

866 
2S3 



M82 |7^686 



The Kentucky Yearly Meeting, having 18 
chnrchea, 15 ordained preachers, and 725 eom- 
monicaots, has heen formed ont of yearly meet- 
ings whose statistics are indaded in the forego- 
ing tahle, since their retnms were made up. 
The number of yearly meetings is 39 ; of quar- 
terly meetings, 167; number of licensed preach- 
ers, 152. 

Besides the societies included in the Freewill 
Baptist Church, there are a number of asso- 
ciations of Baptists in America which in doc- 
trine and polity are in general agreement with 
the FreewiU Baptists. Among them are sev- 
eral associations of General Baptists in Indi- 
ana, Illinois, Kentucky, and some a4Joining 
States, numbering several thousand members, 
in support of whose doctrines and polity a 
weekly paper is published at Oakland, Ind. A 
body called the Southern Baptist Association 
held its first session at Friendship Church, 
Wayne County, N. C, in September, 1877, and 
represented 66 churches, 68 ministers, and 
8,108 members. Corresponding bodies in Geor- 
gia, South Carolina, ana Tennessee, with more 
than 50 ministers and churches and 2,000 mem- 
bers, are mentioned in its report. The ^^ Baptist 
Review," La Grange, N. C, is the perioaical 
organ of these people. The Freewill Baptist 



BAPTISTS. 49 

tlnirdiesiiiTenneaRee, Arkaii8iw,Georgi^Mi8- were granted admisBion to tLe Conference; 

fifiappi, and Texas, agreeing with tibia cnnrch among them, one at Haarlem, Holland. The 

is doctrine bat having no organic connection Execntive Board of the Sabbath-school de- 

«ritb it, camber several thousand members. It partment reported that the total nnmber of 

Is thooght that the total number of members Sabbath schools in the Ohnrch was 84, and 

uf these oatside bodies will not fall far short the total number of members in the Sabbath 

of 25,000. The list of Freewill Baptist insti- schools was 7,018. The trustees of the Sev- 

tatioQs of learning for 1878 includes the fol- enth-Day Baptist Memorial Fand reported that 

loving colleges and schools : Bates College, no change had taken place in the amount and 

Ltfwiston, Me. — Rev. Oren B. Cheney, D. D., condition of the fund, but that its income had 

President; Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, Mich. — been reduced in cousequence of the shrinkage 

KtY.p. W. 0. Dnrgin^ D. D., President ; West of rental values, in which all property suffered. 

VirginiaCollege,nemington, W. Va. — ^Rev. W. A paper was read, which had been prepared 

Caltgrove, A. M., President; Ridge viUe Col- by the order of a previous Conference, on 

itff, Bidgeville, Ind.— Rev. S. D. Bates, A. M., " The Difference between the Seventh-Day Bap- 

Preadent; Storer College, Harper's Ferry, W. tists and the Seventh-Day Adventists." The 

Tl (noraial and academic departments in principal points of difference were shown to 

operation) ; Rio Grande College, Rio Grande, be relative to the spiritual nature of man, on 

Ohio; Nichol's Latin School, Lewiston, Me.; which the doctrine of the Seventh-Day Bap- 

Xev Hampton Institution, New Hampton^, tists is more clearly in accord with that of the 

H. ; Austin Academy, Center Stafford^ N. H. ; so-called orthodox churches than that of the 

VMtestownSeminaryjWhitestownjN.Y.; Pike Seventh-Day Adventists, aud on the nature of 

Semiiwry, Pike, Wyoming County, N.Y,;Roch- the final retribution of the sinner. The sub- 

e^ter Seminary, Rochester, Wis. ; Wilton CoUe- ject of prepariog an expositiou of the priuciples 

fMk Institute, Wilton, Iowa ; Maine Central of the denomination, which was standing over 

Iffititate, Pittsfield, Me. ; Lyndon Literary and on a minority report made to the previous Gen- 

Biblicid Institute, Lyndon Center, Yt. ; Ran- eral Conference, was referred, with the report, 

(UD Academy, Berlin, Ohio ; Green Mountain to a committee, who were instructed to report 

Setninary, Waterbury Center, Yt. ; Lapham upon it to the next Conference. Resolutions 

Institute, North Soituate, R. I. were adopted asserting the importance of main- 

The " Morning Star,'' weekly, the '* Little taining unity of faith and Christian codpera- 

Sttf^^and^^The Myrtle," Sunday-school papers, tion, and of yarding against every tendency 

" Ussoo Papers for Sunday Schools," and a va- to disintegration among the churches of the 

n«!j of denominational books, are published denomination, which were described as widely 

&t the printing establishment in Dover, K. H. scattered throughout the United States, Great 

The anniversary meetings of the benevolent Britdn, Holland, and " thus constantly brought 

^tties of the dinrch were held at Lyndon into contact with various forms of religious 

C^fiter, y t, in the first week of October. The error and skepticism" ; and declaring that the 

noeipts and ezpenditores of the Foreign Mis- Church is the only organization through which 

^mj Society nad been each $18,845.98, and all moral and religious reforms should be car- 

titenetiDdebtednessof the Society was $5,020, ried on, and that the Sabbath reform, ''both 

^^ $1,026 leas than the amount reported at in respect to the day and the manner of obser- 

t»e previous anniversary. The sum of $26,820 vance, is one of the most important reforms of 

Lid been subscribed for the foundation of a the age." 

BibHcal school in connection with the mission The annual meetings of the Missionary, 

ia India, of which $25,000 had been secured Tract, and Education Societies were held in 

^7 pajment and interest-bearing notes. The connection with the meeting of the Confer- 

^bool, it was expected, would be opened in ence. The Missionary Society had to consider 

^K 1B79. Four missionaries had sailed for a proposition for the transfer of its work to 

ti;eir field of labor in October, 1877, two of the General Conference. A report was adopted, 

vhoQ hud been sent by the women of Rhode declaring the full transfer inexpedient, but 

'^d and New Brunswick. The total receipts recogniziDg that a change in its Constitution, 

<^ :be Woman^s IGssionary Society had been whidi would make all the members of the Con- 

t-V!;9fi, and its expenditures $8,671. Many ference members of the Missionary Society, was 

If V auxiliaries and bands had been organized, desirable. An amendment to the Constitution 

^d a genenJ agent of the Society reported was proposed, under the operation of which 

'i-A forty -three such associations had been or- the members of the Society shall consist of the 

Ti^ed under her direction. The sum of delegates to the General Conference in Confer- 

ti,460 bad been contributed for the school at ence assembled, together with all other persons 

^^fi Ferry, W. Va. who have become life members by the payment 

UL The Sbyictth-Dat Baptuts. — The of $25. The Missionary Board was instructed 



^fBU-2>ay Baptist Oeneral Conference met to continue its efforts to secure a laborer for 

^ it« Bxty-fourth annual session at Plainfield. the mission in China, which has been for a long 

•VJ^ September 25th. Elder W. C. Whitford time without a missionary, and send him to 

P^ed. YiSXj'two churches were represented that field as soon as practicable. The proceed- 

^7 letter, and three churches applied for and ings of the meeting of the Tract Society showed 

Voii. xvuL— 4 A 



50 BAPTISTS. 

that, by the inflaence of its publications, a inittee on the State of Religion reported that 

oharcli of thirty-one members had been tormed revivals of religion among tne churches of the 

in Scotland within a year and a half, having dilferent elder^ips had been very general, aod 

an efficient pastor, and publishing a weekly that numerous additions to the Church had 

paper. been made, particularly in West Ohio. The 

The Treasurer of the Education Society made Board of Missions was urged to u»e every 
a final report of the financial transactions of effort to establish missions in the Western and 
the Society from its organization in 1865 to Southern States, as well as in the Territories. 
September, 1878. The accounts of the endow- A resolution was passed advising the estab- 
ment fund amounted to a total of $44,683, and liahment of missions in foreign lands as soon 
those of the general fund to $41,172, the lat- as possible, and approving steps whicti had 
ter Bam being made up chiefly of interest on been taken by the East Pennsylvania Eldership 
endowment notes and on mortgages and bonds, toward beginning a mission in India. A Board 
The property of Milton College, Milton, Wis., of Foreign Missions was organized, with which 
was estimated to be worth $36,879 ; its receipts the several annual elderships were directed to 
for the year had been $3,949, and its expendi- codperate, with a view of establishing a mis- 
tures $3,946, and its indebtedness was $7,716.- sion in that country. The Eldership declared 
66. The school has divided into preparatory by resolution that a school was required for 
and collegiate departments, and has three the education of the ministers and people, to 
courses of study, classical, scientific, and teach- be under the control of the Church ; and propo- 
ers\ The number of students in both depart- sitions from Ridgeville College, Indiana, and 
ments during the past collegiate year had been Mount Pleasant Institute, Pennsylvania, were 
226. The endowment fund of Alfred Univer- considered favorably. A resolution was adopted 
sity, Alfred Center, N. T., was $96,401 ; the affirming the belief that the washing of the 
grounds, buildings, library, cabinets, and ap- saints* feet is an ordinance instituted by Christ 
paratus fund of the institution were valued at and advising all the ministers to teach and all 
$130,003 ; the receipts and expenditures of the the churches to practice it. The practice of feet- 
institution from its foundation in 1836 to the washing before the celebration of the Lord^a 
present time had been $228,286 each ; and the Supper was especially insisted upon. Measures 
revenue and expenditure for the year ending were taken for the preparation of a '^ Teacher's 
July 8, 1878, had been $9,616 each. Nineteen Manual" and '* Lesson Leaves" for Sunday 
teachers were employed in the university ; the schools. The introduction of temperance or- 
whole number of students enrolled during the ganizations into Sunday schools was recom- 
collegiate year was 416 ; and the whole num- mended. It was resolved to celebrate the year 
her of students who had pursued for four 1880 as the serai-centennial of the existence of 
months or more during the year classical stud- the Church as an organized body ; and a com- 
ics or the higher branches of English educa- mittee was appointed to make all the necessary 
tion, or both, was 1 18. arrangements for carrying the resolution into 

IV. Chuboh op God. — ^The number of mem- effect, 
hers of this Church in the United States is es- V. MENNONrrra.— The sixteenth annual Con- 
timated by the Secretary of its Board of Mis- ference of the Amish Mennonites was held at 
Bions to be about 30,000. The twelfth trien- Eureka, 111., in June. Forty -two delegates 
nial meeting of the General Blder$Mp of the were present, of whom four were from Ohio, 
Church of God in North America was held at two from Indiana, two from Iowa, thirty-two 
Syracuse, Ind., beginning May 29th. Elder from Illinois, and one each from Pennsylvania 
0. H. Forney was chosen Speaker. The Board and Nebraska. There was also an attendance 
of Missions reported that eight missionaries had of several hundred members of the churches 
been employed during the past three years, as visitors. Elder J. K. Yoder, of Ohio, was 
whose assignments, modifiea at the several chosen chairman of the Conference. The pro- 
meetings of the Board, had been principally ceedings consisted chiefly of devotional exer- 
in the States of Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, oises and addresses. The principal business 
and Michigan. The organization of the Church considered was the adoption of measures to 
had also been introduced into England, at Al- prevent the Conference from being disturbed 
vingham, through the agency of Elder John by the intrusion of petty cases of discipline 
P. Coulan. The General Book Agent reported and difference which ought to be settled else- 
that his receipts during the three years had where. The Conference decided that no cases 
been $9,160, and his expenditures $4,462. The should be admitted before it till after efforts 
publications issued during his term included, had been made to settle them in the local 
besides the '* Journal" of the General Elder church, or by special tribunals constituted 
ship, tracts on the subjects of feet-washing, from the neighboring churches, and failed, 
baptism, and the Churcn of God, the Const!- The Amish originated in Germany in the 
tution of the General Eldership, and a sermon seventeenth century, and, adhering to the 
by the late Elder Winebrenner on baptism, Mennonite Confession of Faith, differ but little 
which was preached in 1842. A reprint of from the regular Mennonites. Their preachers 
Elder Winebrenner^s "Treatise on Regenera- are not men of learning, but are chosen from 
tion" was in course of publication. The Com- among the membership by a vote of the peo- 



BAPTISTS. 



51 



pie, or in esMs where tbere is a tie, or the 
mijoritj for the person receiving the highest 
Domber of votes is only one, by lot ; and they 
receire no salaries. The Lord^s Sapper is ad- 
Dioistered twice a year. Besides this, bap- 
tum, feet-washing, and the holy kiss are re- 
garded as ordinances of eqoid importance. 
Ther take but little part in civil affairs, only 
oocaaonally voting at elections for school offi- 
cers, are censdentionsly opposed to military 
terrioe, and have no denominational schools 
orcbarch paper, depending npon the public 
Khook for the education of their children and 
Bpoo the Mennonites for their literature. The 
Chorch pays the debts of those who are un- 
fortonate and become insolvent^ and excludes 
those who can pay their debts and will not ; 
ud members are advised to consult the Church 
before embarking in any new enterprise. The 
older members are distingaished by certain 
pecoHarities of costume, such as wearing hooks 
and eyes instead of buttons, whence the sect 
has been called **tbe Hookers"; but tiie 
younger members are beginning to conform 
to the customs of the world. 

VL Tax BsBTHBKN, OB TuincBBs. — The an- 
imal Cooncil of ne Brethren^ commonly 
called German Bi4>tists, or Tunkers, met at 
North Manchester, Ind., during Whitsun-week. 
Enoch £beg was chosen Moderator. An or- 
ganization for the promotion of home missions, 
called the Ohurch Extension Union, had been 
formed in the previous year, the plan and 
management of which, in that it contemplated 
salaried officers, were a deviation from the 
Mtabliahed usages of the brotherhood. Sev- 
eral petitions were presented, asking the Ooun- 
(il to account for the departure. As the 
Union was an acknowledged innovation, and 
conld not be shown to be consistent with any 
precedents in the Society, there seemed no 
vaj of answering the petitions except bv dis- 
lolring it. It was accordingly dissolved, but 
a new organization was immediately formed, 
Qnder another name, with the same objects. 
It was claimed in jnstification of this course, 
tUt the Brethren, professing to have the 
primitive and apostolic form of Christianity, 
vere under obligation to spread it; and it 
vas stated that more than one hundred calls 
for tesrhers had been received from aU parts 
of the United States, and even from England 
Qd Switzerland, and tbere was no other effeo- 
tire way of answering them. The question of 
tbe validity of ** tub baptism," or baptism in 
the boose in exceptional cases of extreme sick- 
&««, instead of taking the candidate to the 
"(ream, was brought up ; but the Council, al- 
tboQ^ t general sentiment of disapproval was 
cipreased against it, declined to condemn it as 
vhhoot anthority of the Scriptures. The use 
of ^ fine and fancy carpets " was condemned 
M tending to pride and elevation. Condem- 
ution was voted against the practices of min- 
isters going about persuading people to join 
th« Church, and telling them that they need 



not observe the order of the Brethren in re- 
gard to apparel; against administrators of 
communion who fail to conform to the order 
in respect to dress and the hair ; and against 
expensive feasting at funerals. 

Vll. Baptists in ths Bbitish MAKima 
Pbovinokb. — ^The BaptUt Convention of Nova 
Scotia^ New Brunnoiek^ and Prince Mward^i 
liland met at Fredericton, N. B., August 
17th. The Rev. S. W. De Blois was chosen 
President. The statistical report gave the 
number of churches as 852, with 84,460 mem- 
bers. Three new churches had been consti- 
tuted, three ministers ordained, six houses of 
worship opened, and 1,786 persons baptized 
during the year. The endowment fund of 
Acadia College amounted to $88,868, of which 
$81,600 consisted of notes of hand and pledges. 
The most important business transacted was 
the adoption of the report of a committee 
which had been appointed in the previous 
year concerning the subject of placing the 
home mission work in uie three provinces 
under the control of the Convention. The 
committee presented a plan for the appoint- 
ment of a committee of thirteen persons to 
take charge of this work as soon as the legal 
obstacles to the making of the change can be 
removed. The Home Mission Board of Nova 
Scotia had already approved the principle of 
the new arrangement, but it stiQ awaited the 
ratification of the Convention of New Brnns- 
wick. A foreign mission is maintained by the 
Convention among the Telugus of India. 

y III. RaouLAB Baptists nr Gbbat Bbitain. 
—The "Baptist Hand Book" of the Baptast 
Union of Great Britain and Ireland for 1878 

gives statistics of the Baptist churches of Great 
ritain and other foreign countries, of which 
the following are summaries : 



OOUITTBIES. 



£ii|Fluid. •.. 

WalM 

Bootlflod 

IrelMid 

Total for th« United King- 
dom 

Eiirop«(DenmM^. Finland, 
FranQe.Q«nnan7jOre6oe, 
HoUand, Italy, Norway, 
Poland, RoMla, Spain, 
Bwed^8wiuerland,Tiir- 
key) 

Aala (AMam, Bnnnab, Oej- 
km, China, India, Japan, 
Falntlne, Biam) 

AfHca (Gape Colony, Port 
Katal, Watt Africa, Bt 
Hdena) 

America and the West In 
dlea (ezdosiTe of the 
United Btotea) 

Anatralaala 

Total 

Add for the United Statea. 



CUROM* 


Futon or 
ulfiSosaitik. 


1,964 

547 

90 

29 


1,886 

S44 

76 

21 


2,620 


1,886 


489 


814 


608 


160 


82 


16 


860 
181 


662 
74 


4,576 
22,924 


2,941 
18,799 


27,499 


16,740 



196,199 

64,188 

9,096 

1^868 



269,886 



86,470 



27,188 



1,126 



88,m 

6,866 

428,006 
1,982,886 

2360^ 



Number of Sunday 
Kingdom, 870,820; 



scholars in the United 
in France, 866 ; in Ger- 



52 BAFTISTS. 

manj^ 4,917; in Denmark, 547; in Holland, proving the meaaore by which the Baptisi 

745 ; in Poland, 505 ; in Rossia, 282 ; in Tur- Home Mission had become connected with the 

key, 108 ; in Sweden, 17,883 ; in Port Natal, Baptist Union, urging the churches to make 

172 ; in St. Helena, 250 ; in the West Indies, annual collections for the Mission, recommend- 

15,106. The Baptist Union of (Germany, Den- ing the associations each to appoint a repre- 

mark, Holland, Switzerland, Poland, Russia, sentative on the coounittee, and advising that 

Turkey, and Africa employs 200 missionaries special efforts be made to raise its income to 

and colporteurs. The Swedish Missionary j£lO,000 a year. 

Union employs 68 missionaries at stations in The receipts of the BaptUt Mistumary So- 
Sweden. The Swedish Baptists have a build- eiety for the year ending with the aimiversary, 
ing fund of £280 for furnishing loans for the May Ist, were £50,069, and the expenditures 
building of plain houses of worship, a poor during the same period were £87,873. Favor- 
fund, and the Bethel Theological Seminary for able reports were made of the progress of the 
the instruction of ministers, which in 1877 had missions in France and Italy. Opposition had 
21 students. Serampore College, India, under been manifested to the work of the Society in 
the control of the (English) Baptist Missionary Norway. 

Society, had 800 pupils. Besides their general The BaptUt Zenana Miuion reported at its 
missionary and other societies, of which notices anniversary, May 8d, that it employed about 
are given in the " Annual Cyclopedia " from twenty lady visitors and about thirty-six na- 
year to year, the Baptists of Great Britain bus- tive teachers and Bible women at various im- 
tain the Ohina Inland Mission, with 157 labor- portant points in India. It had received dur- 
ers, and the Palestine Mission, established in mg the year £2.772 for general purposes, and 
1870, which reports two missionaries at Nab- £1,205 for the nomes which it was intended 
Ins, with three baptized converts, upward of to build for the lady worlcers in India. 
80 children in the schools, and about 80 attend- The Baptut Home and IrUh Mieeion Society 
ants at the mothers' meetings. They have also reported at its anniversary in May that it con- 
numerous general and loou societies for the ducted in Ireland 17 principal stations and 211 
aid and relief of ministers and the care of the sub-stations, at which 21. missionaries and 
widows and children of ministers, and a Bap- other persons were employed, and the average 
tist Tract Society, having for its object *'to attendance was 6,000 hearers. In England, 
disseminate the truths of the Gospel by means the Society supported 25 churches, and indi- 
of small treatises or tracts, in accordance with rectly supported 28 other churches, which 
our views as Oalvinists and Strict Communion were attended by an average of 7,500 hearers, 
Baptists,'' the income of which for 1876 was and with which were connected 2,856 mem« 
£1,469. hers and 3,088 Sunday-school scholars. The 

The annual meeting of the Baptiet Union cost of the operations of the Society for the 

of Great Britain and Ireland was held in year in England and Ireland had been £5,215. 

London April 29th. The statistical tables The Bible Tranelation Society during the 

showed that 1,825 pastors, 8,881 evangelists, year ending in May, 1878, issued 28,470 copies 

270,000 members, and 870,000 Sunday-school of the Scriptures. Its receipts for the year 

scholars were connected with the churches were £2,098. It is translating and distributing 

represented in the Union. An increase was the Scriptures in various tongues, particularly 

shown in all important particulars. Two new in the languages and dialects of India. Of 

associations had been formed for home mis- the translations now in hand, those into the 

sionary work. languages of Japan and Orissa were nearest 

The autumnal meetings of the Union were conmletion. 

held at Leeds, b^^ning October 9th. The IX. Geksbal Baptists. — ^The one hundred 

first day's session was devoted to the subject and ninth annual meeting of the Association 

of missions, and a paper was read by one of of General Baptists was held in London, June 

the secretaries of the Society comparing the 17th. The Rev. Thomas Goadby presided, 

condition of its missions in 1848 with the con- The statistical reports showed that the total 

dition in 1878. It showed that in 1848 the number of members in the churches connected 

total number of European missionaries wholly with the Association was 24,948, with 179 sep- 

supported by the Society was 58, and that their arate churches, 109 pastors, 884 local preachers, 

labors were supplemented by those of 169 and 4,515 teachers m Snndav schools. There 

native teachers and preachers. In 1878 the had been 1,175 members added by baptism, 

Societjf employed the same number of mis- and the net increase of members during tho 

sionanes, 58, that it had supported thirty years year was about 250. 

before; but the native force consisted of 199 The annual meetings of the Baptist Union 

missionaries and evangelists, with 611 unpaid of Scotland were held at Edinburgh about the 

Sunday-school teachers and helpers. The con- first of November. The Union had just en- 

tributions in 1848 were £21,876; in 1878, £42,- tered upon its second decade, and a review 

254, special funds being excluded in both cases, of its history showed that, while it began 

The report of the Home and Irish Mission with 50 churches and 8,850 members, it had 

showed that during six months the Mission had grown to coneist of 81 churches and 8,168 

«pent £2,680. A resolution was adopted ap- members, with 7,670 pupils in the Sunday 



BAfiAGUAY D'HULIERS, AOHTLLE. BEEOHER, CATHERINE E. 63 

schools. The XTnion liad daring the year bnilt trio corrents by the operations of the animal 

U oew chapels, giving accommodation to 10,- economy, dins giving confirmation to the theory 

000 persona, at a cost of £59,485. One thou- proposed by himself, that all chemical actions 

Find pounds had been raised daring the year develop electric currents. Farther, he deter- 

for the beneficiary fond ; the ministers* provi- mined the electric conductivity of sundry ele- 

dent food had a capital of nearly £3,000 ; and ments and compounds. But the discovery 

a ehspel debt and building fund was about to which constitutes his strongest claim to rank 

be started with a capital of £4,000. The in- as a benefactor of mankind is, perhaps, that of 

come of the general fund was £528, of the the deposition of metal on the negative elec- 

benefici&ryfund £375, of the educational fund trode, when the two poles of a battery are in- 

£464, of the Home Missionary Society £1,647. trodnced into solutions of various metallic salts. 

The Edacational Committee had 13 students This observation he made in 1834, and shortly 

00 its rolls, and the Home Missionary So- after he discovered that by using feeble cur- 
dety returned 21 missionaries, 141 mission rents the metal could be deposited very evenly 
mtioDS, 1,720 members, and contributions on the surface of the electrode, and that the 
from the mission churches of £1,000. two solutions required for the purpose could 

BAfiAGUAT D'HILLIERS, Count Aohille. be kept from mingling by interposing between 

1 French general, bom September 6, 1795, died them an animal membrane without hindering 
Jone 6, 1878. He took part in the campaign the current. In 1840 De la Rive made prac- 
of 1812, and in the Spanish and Algerian cam- tical application of this discovery for the par- 
paignsw He became lieutenant-general and pose of gold-plating; thus the important art 
eonunandant of Constantine in 1843, but was of electro-plasty had for its real author this 
superseded in the following year. In the Con- indefatigable investigator. He continued to 
rtitneDt Assembly of 1848, of which he was a pursue his researches in eleetricity down to 
m«aber, he nsnally voted with the Right. He the day of his death, but there is not room 
was pkced in command of the army sent here even for a bare list of his discoveries, 
igsmst the Roman Republic, and in 1851 sue- Becquerel composed numerous treatises on phys- 
ceeded Changarnier as commandant of Paris, ical science, chiefiy, of course, on electricity and 
bot rengned six months afterward. In 1854 magnetism ; among them may be named his 
he commanded the Baltic expedition, and the '* Experimental Treatise on Electricity," etc. 
esptore of Bomarsund made him a Marshid (7 vols.) ; '^ Elements of Electro-Chemistry/' 
and Senator. He also distinguished himself " Terrestrial Physics and Meteorology," " His- 
u the battle of Solferino in 1859. In July, tory of Electricity and Magnetism," and many 
1970, he again became commandant of Paris, others. He was for fifty years a member of 
bat resigned on the formation of the Palikao the Paris Academy of Sciences ; was a corre- 
Cabinet After the conclusion of peace he pre- sponding member of the London Royal Society, 
sided over the inquiry into the numerous ca- and honored with the Copley medal. He leaves 
pitnktions, and in 1872 over the court-mar- a son who inherits his father^s eminent gifts. 
^ which sentenced General Cramer to one BEECHER, Cathebine Estheb, died May 
month's imprisonment. 12, 1878, at Elmira, N. Y., where she had be^n 

BECQUEREL, Aktoins CfisAS, physicist, living with her brother, the Rev. Thomas E. 

died in Paris, January 18, 1878. He was bom Beecher. She was bom at East Hampton, L. I., 

March 8, 178S; made a full course of study in September 6, 1800, and was the eldest child of 

the Paris Polytechnic School; in 1808 was the Rev. Lyman Beecher. The death of her 

attached to the engineer corps of the imperial mother, when Catherine was about sixteen 

arsiT; served with distinction through the years of age, brought upon the latter domestic 

entire Spanish campaign ; In 1812 was pro- responsibilities which lasted until her father's 

BH)ted to a captaincy in his corps, and deco- second marriage, about two years later. Soon 

nted with the cross of a chevalier of the Le- afterwfu^ she was betrothed to Professor Fish- 

ron of Honor. In 1815, on the downfall of er of Tale College, whose death by shipwreck 

Boaaparte, he resigned from the army, to de- off the coast of Ireland while on a voyage to 

T9te himself to chemical and physical research, Europe so affected her that she remained un- 

and became an instrootor in the Paris Museum married Uiroughout life. Her brother, Henry 

cf 5atura] History. He succeeded to a pro- Ward Beecher, says that this sad event nearly 

feiiorship in that institution in 1837, which destroyed her religious faith. In 1822 she 

pOQtion he continued to occupy down to his went to Hartford, Conn., and opened a school 

death. His chosen field of research was eleo- for young ladies, which was continued with 

trieity and magnetism, and with these two marked success under her supervision for ten 

important branches of physical science his years. During this time she also prepared, 

iiame Is inseparably linked. His experiments primarily for use in her own school, some ele- 

m thermo-electricity resulted in the formu- mentary books in arithmetic and mental and. 

Uti<4i of the thermo-electric series, bismuth, moral philosophy. Her sister, Harriet Beecher 

rlathom, lead, tin, gold, silver, copper, zinc, Stowe, was her assistant in the Hartford school. 

troB, tnd antimony. With the aid of delicate In 1882 Catherine went to Cincinnati with her 

^^aratas devised by himself, he was enabled father, who had accepted the presidency of 

to demonstrate the development of faint eleo- Lane Theological Seminary, ana in that city 



54 



BELGIUM. 



she opened a female seminary, which, on ao- 
connt of ill health, she was obUged to discon- 
tinne after two years. She now began to de- 
vote herself to the development of an extended 
plan for the physical, social, intellectual, and 
moral edacation of women. For nearly forty 
years she labored perseveringly in this work, 
organizing societies for training teachers and 
sending tnem to the new States and Territo- 
ries, and constantly using her pen in further- 
ance of her cherished project. " Hundreds of 
the best teachers the West received," said her 
brother, *' went out under the patronage of this 
system." As a part of her work in this direc- 
tion, she wrote '* Domestic Service," "Duty 
of American Women to their Country," " Do- 
mestic Receipt Book," " The True Remedy for 
the Wrongs of Woman," "Domestic Economy," 
" Letters to the People on Health and Happi- 
ness," " Physiology and Calisthenics," " Reli- 
gous Training of Children," "The American 
Woman^s Home," " Common Sense applied to 
Religion," and " Appeal to the People, as the 
Authorized Interpreters of the Bible." She 
also prepared the memoirs of her brother 
George Beecher, and wrote "Truth Stranger 
than Fiction." She left several unpublished 
manuscripts and an autobiography nearly com- 
pleted. 

BELGIUM, a kingdom of Europe. Leopold 
XL, Ein^of the Belgians, bom April 9, 1836, 
is the son of King Leopold I., former Duke of 
Saze-Coburg, and ascended the throne at his 
death, December 10, 1866. He was married 
August 22, 1858, to Marie Henriette, daughter 
of the late Archduke Joseph of Austria 0>orn 
August 28, 1886), who has borne him three 
daughters. The heir apparent to the throne 
is the brother of the King, Philip, Count of 
Flanders, born March 24, 1837, lieutenant-gen- 
eral in the service of Belgium, who was married 
April 26, 1867, to Princess Marie of Hohenzol- 
lern-Sigmaringen (born November 17, 1846), 
and has a son, Baldwin, born July 3, 1869. 

The area of the kingdom is 11,878 square 
miles, the population according to the census 
of December 31, 1876, 6,836.186. The follow- 
ing table exhibits the population of each prov- 
ince, as well as the number of arrondissements 
and communes into which each province is 
divided : 



BroMeli 161,816 

Antwerp 16a650 

Ghent 127,658 

UAgt 115,851 

Brogea. 45,097 

HaUnea 89,029 

Verrtera 87,828 

Louvaln 88,917 

Tonraaj 82,145 

Itolanbeek 6t Jean^ 87,292 

The movement of population was as follows 
in 1876: 



IzeDea* tl,m 

b'^faaarbeek* 81477 

Namor i&m 

Coartnd WM 

Baint Nioolaa. V^Vb 

Serming SitlS 

Mona 2M10 

Aloat Km 

Jomet 20;108 



PBOVINCXS. 


BZBTHB. 


DBATBa. 


MntefH. 




MdM. 


r«ml«. 


llalM. 


FaottlM. 




Antwen) 

Brabant 

FlandAn,EaaL 
** Weet 

HainanH 

Lt^ge. 

Limbong. 

lAmmhaxg.., 


10,801 

16,992 

14,607 

11,886 

16,908 

10,686 

8,418 

8.087 

4,614 


9,966 

16.202 

18,816 

11,289 

14,577 

10,206 

8,242 

2,811 

4,429 


6,662 
11,888 
8,200 
10,854 
9.606 
6,911 
2301 
2,049 
2,901 


5,670 
10.984 
7,760 
9,805 
8.674 
6,256 
2,065 
1,994 
2,729 


'il84 
7,528 
5JN0 

4,8fl5 

7.ne 

4.718 
lvM» 

2,tl5 


Total... 


90,489 


86.476 


60,861 


66,926 


88,8S8 



From the census tables we derive the foUoir- 
ing facts : The number of boys bom for 100 
girls was 104*6 ; the number of inhabitants for 
one birth, 80*6 ; the number of births per 100 
deaths, 161*6 ; and the number of inhabitant 
for one death, 46*3. In the same year the Dum- 
ber of still-born amounted to 7,930, 4,497 males 
and 3,433 females, and the number of divorces 
to 136. Of the births, 164,848 were legitimate 
and 12,667 illegitimate ,- and of the still-born, 
7,214 were legitimate and 716 illegitimate; 
making, in all, 171,662 legitimate and 13,283 
illegitimate births. 

Instruction is well oared for in all grades. 
In 1876 there were 6,866 primary schools, with 
669,192 pupils. Schools for adults have been 
established in most communes ; their number 
in 1876 was 2,616, with 204,678 pupils. The 
number of normal schools for primary teachers 
was, in 1876, 31, with 2,018 students, of wliich 
28 schools, with 1,282 students* were for fe- 
males. The number of secondary schools iu 
1876-77 was 198, with 17,881 pupils. Sape- 
rior instruction is imparted in the two state 
Universities of Ghent and Li6ge, and tlie two 
free Universities of Brussels and Lonvaui. The 
number of students in each of these in 187&- 
'77 was as follows : 



PROVINCES. 



Antwerp 

Brabant 

FlanderB, East. 
West 

Hainanlt 

Li6ffe 

Llmbor^ 

Lozembarff.... 
£7amur , 

Total 



Nombwo/ 
■mmdiiM- 


M nmlMr of 


OMOU. 




8 


152 


8 


841 


6 


296 


8 


250 


6 


486 


4 


886 


8 


206 


6 


20T 


8 


852 


41 


2,575 



Btatetk 



PttpalattoB oa 
Dm. si, 1611. 

6«8,851 



UNivxitsmEa 

Ghent 

Li6g» 6B0 

Brassels 616 

Loavaln 1,008 



868,458 
6S4,468 
956,854 
682,228 
205,287 
204,201 
815,796 



Total. 



2,566 



6,886,186 



The number of students in the special schools 
connected with the universities was as follows : 

ntnvERsrrnES. stai««L 

Ghent 275 

L!»Sge 881 

Brassels 106 

Loavain 206 



The population of the principal towns in 
1876 was as follows : 



Total. 



917 



* Sabarba of BniBMlfl. 




The recdpta and expenditares for 1B7S 
L Oi^iMijnaAptMi 

♦ TJi. ■ "sloiaSia 

"oiTKedlofUiei. 

n 6f«tiii<«ipu M^i^i.aw 

Taulnu^U. S7S,IU^ 

I Oi^teOT apntdltnna ; 

I PaMclabt. tLTOiTTl 

IDKHlaM 4.t«,I«) 

t juitkc. \esn.KO 

L rn^lOirm. ijeLMi 

iliHrtor 18,70,181 

- — . si,»u,ra« 

. ta,M63ot 

. ItM&MT 

. l,«M,MB 

a Ennonlliwr opuidUana U,1S1.4S« 

.. tnMa,at 

.. IXfilOfiM 

Tba pnblio debt at the close of 1876 wan as 

Mtows: 

Tig BdniWirpw cent*. IIV^MW.Cn 

rmiimivtthatnarrBat: 

lil(alia,«iiiT«luo«fl8M SM<4,18) 

•d HTta. nnllAM of IBM CT,4E8,O0a 

UHnadBaa) »l.tM.»M 

ukHriM(i^TBidieao) n,MS.4iM 

UHrtaa(l««n (H^ASl.wm 

UiatMIIMT. l8«,ISI0,lBn) n^TS.WO 

r™iwo«t»(]8TI) W^HBtMO 

1lmpiTc>BU<l^n 188,08S.IWa 

Bm pn wit* il$1t) I,4<».S8C 

FislD(deU .B.«..™,ii 

Total 

TbesUndingannj uforraed by conscription, 
to wbich everj able-bodied man who has com- 
pJd«dhi»nineteentb;earisliable. SabBtitution 
u lUowtd. The legal term of service i> eight 
jan, bnt tiro thirda of this time are geoerdl; 
ipcDt on farloogh. The strength of the armj 
it to be 100,000 men on the war footing, and 
40,000 in times of peaoe. In 1876 the arm; 
van compoaed aa folloirs : 



000 francs, the exports to 1,101,800,000 franca, 
and the transit trade to 1.006,800,000 tranoa. 
The special commerce with the different for- 
eign coantriea in I8TS was as foUows, in franca: 



ooi.«™i. 


ImfM. 


IfiH^ 




100 
100 
M 

m 
mo 
100 
wo 

«o 

10.1M,IXI0 

inltttlooo 
m,s«s,ooo 








tl^l^^'^'^ 


?s 












"isa 


































isIamIddo 










1*)T,10».000 











^ 


»UH» 


*WfT. 


^•rill. 


IubUi. 


iml. 






11 
at 






^S^'"'r 




'^Z 


















4ejM 


«,e84 









The dvie militia, or national guard, nnmbers 
135.000 men witbont, and 400,000 with, the 
rcwrre. Ita dutj ia to preaerre liberty and or- 
ifr in time* of peace, and the iudependeiice of 
tt« ronntry in times nf war. A royal decree, 
4tf«d October SO, 1874, divided the kingdom 
iato two military eircnrascriptjoas, one em- 
bracing the provinces of Antwerp and West 
ind Ewt FUadets. and tbe second the others. 

The imporU in 1876 amonnted to 1,807,100,- 



The commercial navy in 187S ooosisted of 
50 vessels, ot 50,166 tons. 

Tbe s^regate length of railroads in opera- 
tion on December 81, 1876, was 8,BSe kilome- 
tres (1 kilometre = 0'6B mile), of which 3,105 
kilometres were state railroads and 1,4B4 kilo- 
metres belonged to private roads. The aggre- 
gate length of the lines of electric telegraph 
on January 1, 1877, was S,08fl roilea; that of 
wires, S2,0S1; the nnmber of telegraph offices, 
618; tbe nnmher of telegrams sent in 1876, 
8.910,687, of wbich 1,952,686 were inland, 788,- 
298 foreign, and 284,703 transit dispatcher. 

In March, a committee appointed for that 

Snrpose reported to the Chamber on the intro- 
nction of the Flemiah language into tbe ad- 
ministrative affairs of the country. According 
to this report, tiiere ore in Belgium 2,266,860 

feople who speak French, 2,66Q,6Q0 who speak 
lemish, 88^70 who speak German, 840,770 
who speak French and Flemish, 22,700 who 
weak French and German, 1,790 who speak 
Flemish and German, and 5,4S0 who ppeas all 
three limgnagea. From this it will be seen that 
the inhabitants who do not anderstand tbe offi- 
cial language of the country are in a major- 
ity, aud for that reason tbe Committee recom- 
mended that the Flemish langaage he accorded 
e<|aa1 ri^ts with tbe French. The report of 
the Committee was adopted by both tbe Cham- 
ber and the Benate. 

On April I2th the Chamber paased, b; a vote 
of 60 to 24, a bill for increasing the nnmher of 
members cd the Chambers in accordance with 
tbe increase of population. The original bill 
fixing the additional number at fourteen depn- 
ties and Qve senators was amended in conse- 
quence of the efforts of the Left, and, after a 
long dlscnssion, tbe number was rednoed to 
eight deputies and fonr eeuators. The ees^on 
of the Chambers dosed on May 29tb. 

On June 11th the elections of onehalfoftbe 
members of the Senate (thirty-one) and of the 
Chamber of Bepresentativea (uxty-two) took 



arrondiBsemeiils wbose represeatation has been Instruction; M. Bainctelette. Mioieterof Pub- 

Teoentij' increased hod to elect also fonr odili- lie Worka; M. Qrani, Minuter of Finimce; 

tional senators and eight additional members U. Rolin Jacqnemefns, Minister uf the Id1«' 

of the Ohainber. Till now the proportion of rior; and Qeneral R6nj|rd, Minister of War. 
parties was in the Senate thirtf-three Catho- An extraordinarj session of the Chambcn 

lies and twentj-nine Liberals, and ia the Cham- was opened on Jalj 28d. M. R<^er, a member 

ber sixtf-eiKht Catholics and fiftj-siz Liberals, of the Belgian Congress of 18S0, was eleclud 

The result of the election was a complete sur- President of the Chamber pt Gepresentativta. 

prise to every one. The Liberal part; obtained On August Tth the Chamber adopted a bill for 

a majority in the Chamber of ten and in the the creation of a Ministrj of Pabholnetraction. 
Senate of six. In the arrondlssement of Ghent, The twenty-flith year alter the marriage of 

the defection of which in 18T0 from tlie Lib- the King and Qaeen was celebrated in Brussels 

eral caose was the occasion of the acceaaioo of fromAQgastS2dtotlieSSth. All thelargecide« 

the Clerioala to power, the Clericals were com- of the kingdom had sent deputations to eipreu 

pletel; defeated. In oonseqnenoe of this result, iheir congratulations. Amoog the presents 

the Ministry resigned, and ii, Frdre'Orbaa, was a crown and a lace train of great Tolne 

one of tlie leaders of the Liberals in the Cham- presented by the women of the kingdom, and 

ber, was introsted with the formation of a new a diadem presented by the city of Brassela. 



. The commnnal elections took place on Octo- cational question the King said that the iastrnc 

ber 29th, and likewise resnlted in favor of the tion given at the expense of the state shoiil 

Liberals. Of the nine provincial capitals, only be placed under the exclauve control of th 

one, Bruges, remains in the hands of the Ceth- civil authorities, whose mission would be t 

olio party. Among the towns in which the imbue the young with respect for the laws an 

Liberals have this year gained the ascendancy institutions of their oountrv. Various bill 

areMaliao8,£eclo, Tongem, andMarcbe. They would be presented to the (3hamber^ on th' 

also retain their andangereid m^ority in Lod- subject. Proceeding to speak of tbe army, b 

vain, Toarnay, Charleroi, and Ypres. In some showed that its organization was still inoon 

places, however, as in Li^ge, the Catholic ml- plete, and mentioned the necessity for the cr< 

norities have somewhat increased in strength, ation of a Dational reserve. The civio frnar 

The Chambers were opened by the King on should also be efficiently armed. Alltiding t 

November 12<;h. The King, in the speech from the state of trade, the King expressed the ho[ 

the throne, said that at no period had the re- that the indnstrial crisis was now past, an 

lations between Bel^^um and other states been stated that the Government was endeaTorir 

more influenced by feelings of esteem and con- to Snd means to alleviate the distress of tlio^ 

fldence than at the present time. On the edn- affected by it. Public works were being a 



BEBARDI, GIUSEPPE. BERNARD, CLAUDE. 67 

tirelj pushed forward. With regard to the the neighborhood of Rome and in a part of the 

financial ritoation. the King said that the equi- Marches and of Umbria. In Angast at the 

libnam of the bndget had ceased to be assured, same year he was added to the Commission of 

tod the present estimates were not altogether Three Cardinals to govern the dominion of St. 

of ft fftvorable character. The Treasury also Peter until the return of the Pope ; and on the 

hid contracted considerable engagements, for return of the latter to Rome, Berardi was com- 

vhich it would be necessary to provide. The missioned to receive him at the frontier. In 

GoTernment would submit proposals to the 1856 he was by the influence of Antouelli ap- 

Chambersfor effecting further reform in the pointed substitute of the Secretary of State, and 

electoral Jaw. from that time until his elevation to the car- 

The association of the Belgian Fr&e (Thurchea dinalate he always took a prominent part in 

hjs (px)«m up out of the Belgian Evangelical the temporal and ecclesiastical affairs of the 

Society, which was founded in 1887. After Holy See. In 1860 he fell for some time into 

existing for several years under this name, the disgrace, as his brother Filippo was charged 

Free Churches adopted an ecclesiastical orffan- with being at the head of a conspiracy against 

ization better fitted to promote the develop- the temporal power of the Pope, and with 

ment of their work. They accepted the Pres- having secretly delivered to the enemy impor- 

brterian form of government, and chose as the tant public documents. By the influence of 

standard of their faith the old Belgio Confession Antonelli be was, however, soon restored to 

of the sixteenth century, with the article which favor, and designated to the important position 

refers to the interference of the civil power in of Apostolic Knocio at St. Petersburg. For 

nutters of faith omitted. The Synod for 1878 this purpose he was obliged to take holy or- 

met at Brussels July 16th. Twenty churches, ders ; and being consecrated in immediate suo- 

French and English, were represented, besides cession priest and bishop, he was appointed 

which visiting members were present from the Archbishop of Kicea inpartilnu. As the rela- 

Waldensian and the Scoteb and English Pres- tions between Russia and Rome remained un- 

bfterian churches, and churches in Holland, friendly, he never entered upon his functions as 

Pastor Cacheux, of Lize-Seraing, presided, nuncio ; but on March 18, 1868, he was appoint- 

A reeolation was passed to the effect that a ed cardinal-priest. Much against his own 

greater prominence should be g^ven to the de- wish, he was appointed Minister of Public 

cided views entertained by the church on the Works, Commerce, and Fine Arts, which posi- 

snbjeet of the separation of church and state, tion he retained until the overthrow of tho 

A meeting was neld in connection with the temporal power of the Pope. When he was 

£f angelical Alliance, which was also attended forced to leave the Quirinal Palace in 1870 he 

br ministers of the Kational Church ; and the took up his abode with his brother Filippo ; 

asnnal public meeting was addressed by depu- and, as the latter had the reputation of being 

ties from foreign churches. The flnanoial re- an outspoken partisan of ItsJian unity and an 

port announced a deficiency of $8,600 on a intimate friend of the statesmen Nicotera and 

Decessary annual expenditure of $25,000. Mancini, Cardinal Berardi again awakened the 

BEKARDI, GnrsKPPS, Cardinal-priest of the suspicions that he was not himself in faJl har- 

title of Saints Marcellino and Pietro, bom mony with the policy of the Holy See* 

September 28, 1810, died April 6, 1878. He BERNARD, Claitdb, one of the greatest 

vas the son of a poor family of Ceccano, a physiologists of the present century, bom July 

Tillfi^e in the former Pontifical States near the 12, 1818, at St. Julien, in the department of the 

frontier of Naples. He received his first edu- Rh6ne, died Febmary 10, 1878. On account 

cation in the diocesan seminary of Ferentino, of the poverty of his family, he found it very 

tod sabsequently attended the Collegio Ro- difficult to finish his classical studies. After 

ouno. At the Papal university della Sapienza living for a short time with a pharmacist in 

be bodied law and theology, supporting him- Vi}lefranche-sur-Sa6ne, he went to Paris. In 

self in the mean while by giving private les- 1841 he became a pupil of the learned physi- 

tons. Feeling no vocation ^r the priesthood, ologist Dr. F. Magendie, who had a great in- 

be practiced law for several years and mar- fluenoe upon the progress of his studies ; and 

n«d; bat after losing his wife and only dau^h- in 1848 he graduated as a doctor of medicine. 

ter be was appointed in 1844 by Gregory XVI. Until 1858 he chiefly studied surgery, but from 

prvlate and Judge of the supreme tribunal of that year he relinquished surgery in order to 

the Consulta. In 1846 he became Judge of the devote himself entirely to the experimental 

Apostolic Chamber for civil, ecclesiastical, and study of physiology. In 1864 the chair of 

mminal afifairs. In 1848 Berardi followed Pius Professor of General Physiology was specially 

H. to Ga^ta, where he became the devoted created for him at the Sorbonne ; in the same 

and zealous partisan of Antonelli. At the in- year he was made a member of the Academy 

^tion of Antonelli, Pius IX. in 1849 intrast- of Sciences, and in 1861 of the Academy of 

^ Berardi with the difficult task of restoring Medicine ; in 1866 he succeeded his master 

tb« Papal authority in the recovered States of Magendie as Professor of Experimentel Medi- 

tb# Church. Supported by Neapolitan and cine in the College de France ; and in 1868 he 

^phmsh troops, Berardi displayed an astonish- became Professor of General Physiology at the 

iBg activity, and reestablished Papal rule in Museum. Four times he received from the 



58 



BIQELOW, GEORGE T. 



BOLIVIA. 



Academy the great prize of physiology : first 
in 1849 for hiB work '^Rechercbes sur les 
Usages da Pancreas " ; again in 1851 and 1853 ; 
and finally in 1872 for his work '' De la Phy- 
siologie g^n^rale/' In 1868 he became in the 
place of Flourens a member of the French 
Academy, and in 1869 he was appointed a 
member of the Senate. On the day following 
his death the Chamber of Deputies, on motion 
of the Minister of Pablio Instraction, Bardoax, 
nnanimonsly voted an appropriation of 10,000 
francs for a public faneral of the distinguished 
scholar. 

BIGELOW, Geoboe Ttleb, an American 

{nrist, died in Boston April 12, 1878. He was 
^orn at Watertown, Mass., October 6, 1810, 
graduated at Harvard Oollege in 1829, and be- 
gan the practice of law in Middlesex County 
in 1884. He served as captain of the New 
England Guards, was afterward colonel of an 
infantry regiment in Boston, and in 1844 was 
chosen an aide to Gk>vernor Bri^^ He was 
a member of the lower branch of the Massa- 
chusetts Legislature from 1840 to 1844, and 
of the upper in 1847 and 1848. He became a 
common-pleas Judge in 1849, and in 1850 was 
appointed an associate justice of the Supreme 
Oourt. In 1860 he succeeded Lemuel Shaw as 
chief justice, which position he held till 1868, 
when he resigned it. From this time until 
January, 1878, he served as actuary of the 
Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Com- 
pany. In 1868 Judge Bigelow was elected one 
of the overseers of Harvard University, and 
in 1873 he was a member of the Commission 
for the Revision of the Boston City Charter. 

BIGGS, AsiL, died at Norfolk, Ya., March 
6, 1878. He was born in Williamstown, Mar- 



tin Coonty, N. C, February 4^ 1811. After 
receiving a common-school education he began 
to practice law in 1831. He was elected a 
member of the State Constitutional Conven- 
tion in 1885, to the lower branch of the Legisla- 
ture in 1840 and 1842, and to the State Senate 
in 1844. He was chosen a member of Con- 
gress in 1846, and served one term. He was 
one of the three commissioners appointed in 
1850 to revise the State statutes, and who 
prepared the Revised Code of North Carolina, 
which went into operation in 1854. In the 
latter year he was again elected to the State 
Senate, and in 1854 was chosen United States 
Senator, which position he resigned in 1B58 
to accept the judgeship of the United States 
District Court of North Carolina under an 
appointment from President Buchanan. He 
held this position until the war broke out, and 
in May, 1861, he was elected to the State Con- 
vention which met in Raleigh and passed the 
ordinance of secession. A^er the war he re- 
sumed the practice of the law, and subsequently 
engaged in the commission business at Norfolk, 
Va. In the United States Senate he served on 
the Committees on Finance and Private Land 
Claims. 

BOLIVIA (RsptBLioA DK Bolivia), an in- 
dependent stfl^ of South America, lying be- 
tween latitudes 10* and 24* south, and longi- 
tudes 57* 25' and 70° 30' west. It is bounded 
on the north and northeast by Brazil, on the 
south by the Argentine Republic and Cbili, and 
on the west by the Pacific Ocean and Peru. 

The republic is divided into nine depart^ 
ments, which, with their areas in square miles, 
capitals, and population (exclusive of 250,000 
savage Indians), are approximately as follows: 



DEPARTMXICTS. 

Ataeaoui 

Benl 

Chaqaisflca 

Coehabunbtt 

IaP«x. 

Oruro 

Potoal 

BantJi Cruz 

TarUa 

Total 



Af«M. 



T0,178 

100.000 

78J98 

48,051 

sneoo 

54,297 

144,077 
114,484 



607,988 



P9|iiil>tiaB. 



104»0 
70,800 
87fi,78S 
47«,717 
670,408 
140,856 
876,894 
17^068 
180,940 



8,824,160 



CapiUla. 

Oobtta 

Triiddad 

Boere 

Coehabamba 

La Pax 

Oruro 

Potoa{ 

BantaCnu. 

Tar^a 



PopolatioB* 



2,500 

4,S35 
S<V,624 
44.908 
831098 

8.498 
«.%774 
11,786 

8,875 



The population of the foregoing cities is set 
down by a European authority as follows: Co- 
bija, 2,880; Trinidad, 4,170; Sucre, 28,979; 
Coehabamba, 40,678; La Paz, 76,872; Oruro, 
7,980; Potosf, 22,580 ; Santa Cruz, 9,780 ; Ta- 
rija, 6,680. ' But as these figures are taken from 
Lieutenant-Colonel J. Ondarza^s map and tables 
of population published in 1859, and no allow- 
ance is made for the increase of population, 
which the same authorities estimate at 80 per 
cent., it is presumed the table will be found 
approximately correct. 

Tlie departments are subdivided into 87 dis- 
tricts, ana these into 45 provinces. Only one 
fourth of the population is purely white, and 
the aboriginal is by far the most numerous ele- 



ment, particularly in the departments of La Pas 
and Tar\ja. 

The Ftesident of the Republic is Genera] 
Hilarion Daza (installed May 4, 1876), and the 
Ministers are: Interior and Foreign Affairs, 
Dr. D. Martin Laura; Finance and Public 
Works, Dr. M. Salvatierra ; Justice and Pub- 
lic Worship, Dr. J. M. del Carpio ; War, Gen- 
eral Don Manuel Oshon Jofrd. By the Con- 
stitution of Bolivia, drawn up by Simon Bolivai 
in 1826 and modified in 1828, 1881, and 186a 
the executive power is vested in a President 
elected for a term of four years, who appoint( 
a Vice-President and the ministers. The legis- 
lative authority is vested in a Congress of tw( 
Chambers, the Senate and House of Repreaen 



BOUVIA. BRAZIL. 69 

titiTei, both elected bj popular suffrage. The led since that date, while the neighboring oonn- 

ministere are liable to impeachment before tries have advanced in wealth and civilization. 

CoDgreas. The capital of the republic is La BOUTON, Nathaniel, died in Concord, 

Paz. K H., June 6, 1878. He was bom at Nor- 

The Bolivian Consul-General in New York walk, Conn., June 20, 1799, and was gradu- 

» Sefior J. Pol, and the Consul in San Fran- ated from Yale College in 1821, and from the 

Cisco Sefior F. Herrera. The American Min- Andover Theological Seminary in J824. He 

ister of the United States in Bolivia is the was pastor of the First Congregational Church 

Hon. R. M. Reynolds, residing at La Paz. The and Society in Concord, N. H., from 1825 to 

Metropolitan Archbishop is Dr. P. J. Puy y 1867; president of the New Hampshire His- 

Soloos (elevated in 1861), and there are the torical Society from 1842 to 1844 ; trustee of 

foDowing bishops : La Paz, Dr. Juan de Dios Dartmouth College from 1840 to 1877, and 

Bosque (1874); Cochabamba, F. M. del 6ra- secretary of the Board of Trustees from 1845 

Qido (1872) ; and Santa Cruz de la Sierra, F. to 1878 ; and president of the New Hampshire 

1 Rodriguez (1870). Missionary Society from 1852 to 1858. He 

Ko statement of the Bolivian finances has also served as vice-president of the American 

been published since 1875, for which year the Home Missionary Society and director of the 

leTenue was set down at $2,929,574, the ex- New Hampshire Bible Society, and was a cor- 

penditures at $4,605,504, and the national debt porate member of the New England Historical 

St £$,400,000, including Colonel Churches loan and Genealogical Society, and of the Maine, 

of £1,700,000 for the construction of the Ma- the Wisconsin, and the Pennsylvania Historic 

ddra and Mamor^ Railway. The revenue is de- oal Societies. Besides numerous sermons, ad- 

riTedfirom customs duties on imports, from the dresses, and articles in periodicals, he published 

mines snd other state property, and from a "Help to Prayer" (1882), " Sinners Directed," 

tax levied upon the Indian population yielding abridged from Baxter (1882), '* Memoir of Mrs. 

nesriy one half of the total receipts. The im- Elizabeth Macfarland " (1889), " History of 

ports m 1875 amounted to $5,760,000, and the Concord. N. H. " (1856), '' Collections of New 

exports to $5,000,000. The exports consisted Hampshire Historical Society," Vols. VII. and 

munly of guano, leather, Peruvian bark, tin, VIII. (1850-^56), and *' Lovewell's Great Fight 

tad nlver. The duties on goods importea at Pigwacket" (1861). 

through Peruvian porta were collected by the BOWLES, Sahvel, an American journalist, 

Penimn Government, and a sum averaging died January 16, 1878, in Springfield, Mass., 

(!iOO,000 was paid annually to Bolivia: but where he was born February 9, 1826. At an 

negotiations for a renewd of the custom- nouse early age he was employed in the office of 

treaty between the two countries not having the '* Springfield Republican," a weekly paper 

been taken up by the Republic of Peru, in spite which nis father had started in 1824, and of 

of the nrirent requests of the Bolivian envoy, which he was proprietor. In 1844 he per- 

Dr. Zoilo Florea, the Government of Bolivia saaded his father to publish a daily paper, on 

his isBued a decree restoring the Bolivian cus- which the son, though but a boy, performed 

tom-bouses. It is thought that the early com- an important part of the editorial labors. His 

pletion of the Madeira and Mamord Railway, political articles soon attracted attention, and 

▼hich win open navigation to the very center his letters from the South, where he was sent 

of Bolivia through the Amazon and its tribu- for his health in the winter of 1845, were widely 

taries, w3] free the country from the custom- read. Young Bowles soon became the virtuid 

home tutelage of Peru, and strengthen the head of the paper, and conducted it with enter- 

lEood relations now existing between Brazil prise and ability until the time of his death, 

tad Bolivia. In 1865 he made a journey to the Pacific coast 

The only raflways in operation are the lines with a large company, including Mr. Schuyler 

from La Paz to the port of Aygacha on Lake Oolfaz. The letters written on this journey 

Titicaca (60 miles), and from Antofagasta to to the ''Springfield Republican" were repuln 

Sftkr (38 miles). Some progress has been lished in a volume called " Across the Oonti- 

nsde in the construction of the Madeura and nent." In 1869 he published^' Our New West" 

Mftmor^ Railway by the American contractors, and ''The Switzerland of America," in the 

tbd Messrs. Collins, of Philadelphia. Seven latter of which were described the mountain 

Biiles of the road were already in operation, scenery and the natural parks of Colorado, 

ttd materisJa were on the ground for fifty Mr. Bowles was an industrious, fearless lour- 

miles additional ; but, owing to unexpected nalist, and not only made the " Springfield Re* 

d^lay ui the final decision of the English courts publican " a leading journal of New England, 

ia regard to the Bolivian loan and to the con* but during the war and afterward gave to it a 

tnct With the Public Works Gompany, work national reputation. 

^ been temporarily suspended. To Bolivia BRAZIL ^pebio do Bbazil), an empire of 

th'u enterprise promises nationiJ life, as with- South Amenca, and the only monarchy in the 

ott it it can not profitably export its abundant New World, extending from latitude 5° 10' 

lad vilnable products. The trade and reve- north to 88^ 46' south, and from longitude 84^ 

nies of the republic have not increased since 47' to 74^ 7' west. It is bounded north by 

1^, altbongii the population has nearly treb- the United States of Colombia, Venezuela, the 



60 



BRAZIL. 



Gaianas, and the Atlantic Ooean; east by the 
Atlantic; south by Uragaay, the Argentine Re- 

?Qblio, and Paraguay; and west by Bolivia, 
'era, Ecuador, and Oolombia. The dividing 
lines with Bolivia, Colombia, the Guianas, and 
the Argentine Republic have not been definite- 
ly drawn. The empire borders upon all the 
South American states except Ohui ; and oc- 
cupies more than two fifths of the South Amer- 
ican Continent. It is divided into twenty-one 
provinces and one neutral municipality (mu- 
nieipio neutro\ which, with their areas and 
population, were as follows in 1876 : 



PROVINCES. 



1. AmazonM* 

8. Fvk 

8. Manah&o 

4. Ptuihy. 

6, OwA* 

6. Bio Grande do Norte * 

7. Paiahyba 

8. Pemambaoo* 

9. Alegdas* 

10. Berjifipe 

11. Bahia 

12. Espirito Santo • 

IB. Rio de Janeiro. 

14. MaDidnio Neatro *,.., 
16. SSo Paalo* 

ParanA* 

Banto Gatarlna * 

B&o Pedro do Rio 
Qrande do BoL. . . . 

Minas Oeraea 

Qoyaz* 

Matto Oroaao 



!«. 

17. 
18. 

1». 

«0. 
SI. 



Total 

TJneiTilized Indiana. 



An* In a^ 



696.700 

46t\000 

i6a.ooo 

94^)0 
48,684 
18,000 
81,500 
6T,538 
21,204 
12,240 
288,524 
14,t)49 
86,600 
238 

72,000 
23,280 

78,886 
880,000 
284,000 
651,675 



8,210,000 



Genera] total 



POPULATXOX. 



Ttm. 



66,631 
882,622 
881^101 
178,427 
689,778 
220,960 
841,648 
752,611 
812,868 
189,818 
1,1^*846 
69,478 
466.890 
286,088 
680,742 
116,162 
144«818 

864,002 

1,618,419 

149,748 

66,760 



8,198,690 
1,000,000 



SUth. 



979 
87,199 
74,980 
88,796 
81,918 
18,020 
80,914 
89,028 
85,741 
21,495 

162,295 
82,659 

870,726 
48,989 

166,612 
10,660 
14,984 

66,876 

866^74 

10,638 

6,667 



MA8,66d 



10,666,148 



The capitals, in the order of the nnmhers, 
are as follows : 1, Mnndos ; 2, Belem or Par&; 8, 
SSo Luis; 4, Therezina; 6, Portaleza; 6, Na- 
tal; 7, Parahyba; 8, Recife; 9, Macei6; 10, 
Aracsgti ; 11, Sao Salvador or Babia ; 12, Vic- 
toria; 18, Nictheroy; 14, Bio de Janeiro; 15, 
Sao Paulo ; 16, Ouritiba ; 17, Desterro ; 18, 
Porte Alegre; 19, Ouro Preto; 20, Goyaz; 21, 
Ouyab4. In the foregoing table, the popula- 
tion of the provinces marked thus * is accord- 
ing to the last census, but tliat of the others is 
merely estimated. The complete report of the 
census when published will probably show a 
total population of 12,000,000. An official re- 
turn gives the population of Bio de Janeiro, the 
capital, at 274,972 for December, 1876, made up 
as follows: Free population, 226,088 (males 
188,880, females 92,158) ; slaves, 48,989 (males 
24,886 females 24,058). In the coast cities and 
in the northern provinces the mixed races pre- 
dominate ; not merely those resulting from 
the union of whites and Indians {mamalueoi), 
whites and negroes, and negroes and Indians 
(eqfu909), but half-breeds of every shade and 
degree. Brazil is probably the country where 
the mingling of races has taken place upon the 
most extensive scale, and yet intellectual de- 
▼elopment has not been inconsiderable. But 



such is the insuperable apathy of most of the 
inhabitants of the interior as seemingly to 
undermine their social and political existence, 
prevent good administration, and retard the in- 
troduction of needed reforms. Naturally the 
moral level is also very low ; but the Govern- 
ment has organized a system of popular educa- 
tion adapted to the requirements of the Tarious 
races, which promises favorable results. In 
the southern provinces, from Espirito Santo to 
Minas Geraes, the white element prevails, and 
there the European immigrants might be accli- 
matized and their descendants gradually scat- 
ter over the whole country. An increase of 
population being desirable, the Government 
continues its efforts to attract foreigners to the 
empire with a view to the founding of ooloniea 
in the southern portion of its territory ; and 
similar endeavors on the part of the provincial 
governments and of private companies bav^e 
already been attended by the establishment of 
a number of settiements, some of which are in 
a thriving ocmdition. By the gradual opera- 
tion of the law of September, 1871, the insti- 
tution of slavery is fast disappearing, to ^ve 
Elace in the succeeding generation to free la- 
or. The number of emancipated slaves np to 
December 81, 1875, was 21,704. The Emperor 
takes much interest in the prospects of the free- 
bom children of slaves, technically called in- 
genuo9^ whom the Gt>vemment may be called 
upon to receive from the owners of the motJti- 
ers to the number of about 25,000, on Septem- 
ber 29, 1879, when they shall have attained the 
age of eight years. The masters maj either 
retain them till twenty-one, paying them w^ages 
and educating tliem, or receive from the Oov- 
emment bonds of $800 bearing interest at 6 per 
cent, per annum. 

The Government of Brazil is a constitutional 
monarchy. The Emperor is Dom Pedro 11.^ 
bom December 2, 1825; proclaimed April 7, 
1881; regency, until July 28, 1840; crowned 
July 18, 1841 ; married September 4, 1843, to 
Theresa Christina Maria, daughter of the late 
King Francis I. of the Two Sicilies. Soon af- 
ter the return of the Emperor and £mprees 
from their tour through the United States and 
Europe, in September, 1877, anew Liberal min- 
istry was formed through the personal influence 
of the sovereign, whose policy of reform the 
Conservative ministry would not agree to oarry 
out. It is thought that the existing Ohamberv 
will be dissolved should a majority not be ob- 
tained in support of the policy of the new^ 
Cabi net. The latter, formed January 5, 1 8T8, i s 
composed as follows: Interior, Senhor iJeon- 
cio Carvalho ; Justice, Senhor Lafayette R. Pe- 
reira; Foreign Affairs, Baron de Villa Bella -, 
War, Marquis de Herval; Navy, Senhor An- 
drade Pinto; Finance, Senhor Silveira Mar- 
tinos; Public Works, Commerce, and Agi^loal- 
ture, and President of the Council of State, 
Senhor Sinimbti. Senhor Sinimbii, the head 
of the new ministry, is a well-known states- 
man, entertaining most liberal views^ and bis 



BRAZIL. 



61 



pofiej wiD, it is expected, favor the best inter- 
ests of the empire. The promised reforms will 
embnoe direct representation, retrenchment of 
Ditiooal expenditores (especially in the depart- 
meats of War and the Navy, both nnduljr de- 
veloped during the Paraguayan campaign), the 
repranoa of costom-hoase frauds, and a return 
to nonni] badgeta. Beoent elections in Bi^ia 
ud Psnai, although these provinces are ad- 
mJButered by ConserratlYes, give indications 
thft the Liberal party is increasing in strength 
lid inda^oe. The President of the Council, 
Ums^ A planter, has taken the departments 
of Agricoltnre and Public Works, once oonsid- 
ered of secondary importance, and has raised 
tjiem to the rank becoming such offices in an 
a^ricoltoral oonntry requiring public improve- 
QuntSt psrtionlarly railwaya and internal navi- 
gition, for the development of its natural re- 
Mtmes. The Council of State is made up of 
tiM following members in ordinary: the Prin- 
CM Imperial Donna Isabel Prince Gaston 
d'OrJetns Count d'Eu, and Uie Senators Vis- 
coont de Abaet6, Viscount do Rio Branco,yis- 
count de Muritiba, Viscount do Bom Retiro, 
Vucoont de Jaguary, Viscount de Nicthei'oy ; 
md of six members extraordinary : Senators 
Viflcoant de Arazi, Duke de Caxias, J. P. Dias 
de Ctrvicho, and J. J. Teizeira, Vice- Admiral 
J. R, de Laniare, and Dr. P. J. Soares de Souza. 
The IVeddent of the Senate, which is composed 
of 58 fife-members, is Viscount de Jaguarr ; 
tfao Vioe-President, Count de Baependy. The 
Archbishop of Bahia, J. G. de Azevedo (1875), 
i$ Primate of all Brazil, and there are 11 bish- 
opst viiL, those of Pari, Sao Luis, Fortaleza, 
Ofii^ Rio de Janeiro, SSo Paulo, Porto Alegre, 
Mariinna^ Diamantina, Goyaz, and Cuyab£ 

The amounts and various branches of the 
utional revenue and expenditures for the fiscal 
?«6r 1875-76 are exhibited in the following 
Uble: 

BXVXKUX. 

CHtoD'hooM $68,978,190 

BakaeefromlST^-niL 199,880 

D»podta 1,785,686 

^HdMledto 18,880 

y^tajtMZ 4,787,908 

Ttmmjmbm 9,662,647 

Blftfu-ttmion tend 9,018,887 

Total $79,986,076 

IfiiiitiTortiMliitarlar $4,947,716 

* ofJnstlM ai66,7S9 

* «rFQrel«&iJBUn 661,816 

** oflfMtM. 9,146,918 

•* oTWvu 10,671,149 

* orAfrieiiltiire,0to. 16,996,174 

** ofniuM 94,267,880 

Totri $68,026,848 

Snplas 4,910,997 

$79,986,076 

The revenue for 187&-77 was estimated at 
(^570,468, and the probable expenditures 
<t 160,248,665, which would show a deficit 
<rf •1,678,1»7. In the budget for 1878-'79 
the revenue ia set down at $51,650,000, and 



the expenditures at $53,861,084 ; deficit, $2,- 
211,034. 

The national debt was as follows in 1876 
and 1877 : 



NATIONAL DEBT. 


187S. 


isrr. 


FondJcn d^bt. 


$84,860,000 

146,676,100 

168,086 

7,980,446 

860,000 

1,818,886 

4,608,927 

986,278 

947,617 

4,00^091 

17,018,600 

74,688,876 


$81,608,888 

162,276400 

160,086 

7,666,208 

860,000 

1,819,484 

4,981,262 

87N969 

727,018 

8,897,207 

10,081,800 

74,678,929 


HonM d6bL ftmded. 


Debt befora 1827 

Loan for the orphan ftind. . . . 
Hp«f4al kwn 


In abeyance 

I>epo8ita of lavlngs bank*. . . . 

*^ of pawn-offlcea. 

•* poblla 


** ▼aitona sourcea^. . . . 
T^«aaiu7 bUle 


Bank notea 




Total 


$342,168,706 


$861,026^889 





The following is a statement of Brazilian 
finances from a London publication : 

The internal debt of tbe empire conBiBts of six, 
four, and five per cent, apotieea^ the dividends 
whereon are payable in currenoy, and a gold loan 
raised during the Paragiiajran war, the interest of 
which appears to be paid in sovereigns. Despite 
some recent addition to the former through the Bank 
of Bnudl, which that institution has not yet wholly 
placed at the profit it seeks, the quotations of cmoUdi 
at Bio are slightly above par, and the gold bonds 
are, of course, at higher quotations. Converted into 
sterling, at Sm. per milrei, the funded home debt 
of the empire may be stated at £80,208,670, carrying 
interest in sterling of £1,810,802. So that the con- 
joined services of the foreign and home debt of 
Brazil in 1877-^78 wUl need in sterling £8,247,240. 
out of a revenue for this year calculated to exceed 
fractionally £10,000,000, and brought, according to 
the Emperor's speech at the dose of the session of 
the General Assembly, to an equilibrium with the 
expenditures. Thus lar, then, the resources of Brasil 
are amply sufficient to bear a charge for dett, which 
bears a proportion to receipts less than the service 
of the public debt of England bears to its revenue. 
But. in calculating the revenue for the current year 
at that amount, it is to be borne in mind that tbe 
revenue of Brazil has for two years past been ad- 
versely affected and reduced, as well by the com- 
mercial misfortunes of the world, as at home by bad 
sugar and coffee crops, and by a orought in three of 
its northern provinces almost totally destructive of 
the crops. Not only have the great ports of Bahia 
and Pernambuco been suffering from short supplies 
reacting on the revenue, but, as Mr. Heath lately 
told the Bfo Paulo Bailway shareholders, a few 
nights' frost did last year enormous ii^ury to the 
coffee culture of tliat province, diminishing also the 
traffic of that line. The new crop is, however, greater 
than ever. As. then, the revenue has in the past 
suffered from tnese causes, so the present revenue 
will, it is to be expected, improve with better crops ; 
indeed, in the past ten months of 1877 those of cot- 
ton and sugar imported into England exceed by 
£800/)00 in value tneir imports for the same period 
of 1876, and we may again shortly see the total in- 
come of the empire rising to £12,000,000, to which 
it had ascended a few years ago, when the services 
of its debt wUl bear still more reduced proportion 
to its income. 

The total yalues of the exports and imports 
in 1875-'70, including precious metals, were 
$104,247,000 and $86,074,600 respectively. 
The yalues of the chief articles of export 
were, in the years 1874-75 and 1876-76, as 
follows : 



62 



BRAZIL. 



ooMMODrnxs. 



CofRM 

Baw cotton 

SogBT 

Mate (Pangtuy tea) 

Bkina 

Tobaooo 

iDdla-rablMsr 

DUunondB. 



ValMta 1874-^5. 



$62,900,900 

9,902,b00 

11,068,200 

748,000 

6,288,100 

2,994,000 

0,129,200 

245,700 



ValM bt 187»-ni. 



$06,046,100 
0,731,600 
7,020,900 

781,700 
0,942,000 
8,820,700 
0,006,000 

876,200 



The following are the statistics of the oom- 
merce between Brazil and the United States, 
during the year ending June 80, 1878 : 



IMPORTS. 



OOMMODimS. 


QonUtr. 


YalM. 


Brandfttoffl^ 


ijioiiii 

^71^720 


$4,617,881 

806,405 
650,797 

604,999 
27,980 
028,822 
840,408 
224,909 
104,839 
7S8.108 


Iron and steel, and manofius- 
tores of. 


Fetroleam, refined, gallons.. 
Provisions : 

Xiard, pounds 


All other provisions 

Gotten mannlkctnres 

Railroad ears 

Wool and manoflictares of. . . 

Drugs, chemicals, etc 

All other articles 






Total imports 




$8.6S&704 







SZP0RT8. 



00MM0DITIK8. 


QoMlUtj. 


YalD*. 


Coffee, pounds 


211,604,160 
78,076,008 

5,876,112 

406,007 

798,998 


$85,867,992 
8,160,884 

2,457,896 

1,288,085 

196,796 

97,127 

88,061 

61,166 
250,067 


Sngar, orown, pounds 

Indla-rabber and gutta-per- 
cha, crude, pounds 

Hides 

Barks, medidnal, pounds 

Wool, raw, pounds 


Wool, mannflMtured, pounds. 

Chemicals, drugs, djres, and 

medicines 


All other articles 




Total exports 


• • ■ • • • • 


$42,972,046 





The duties on imports were on the 1st of 
March increased 6 per cent, on the addition- 
al duty, raising it to 60 per cent.; and the 
following additions were made on articles 
of luxury : 40 instead of 80 per cent, on the 
official values of fermeuted drinks, liqueurs, 
spirits, wines, etc., furniture, fine woods, silks, 
and fine earthen and glass wares; 5 instead 
of 2 per cent, on gems cut or uncut, set or 
unset ; 10 instead of 6 per cent on goldsmith's 
work in gold or silver, gold and sQver watches, 
and on platina wares not employed in science 
and manufacture. 

Ooffee is the principal staple of Brazil, and 
is cultivated from the Amazon southward to 
the province of Sao Paulo, and from the At- 
lantic westward to the limits of M^tto Grosso. 
There is no country that can rival Brazil in 
its production, from the great advantage it has 
over all others, the coffee ripening during the 
dry season. The quantity exported in 1877 
was 840,506,600 pounds, of which the United 
States, the greatest coffee-consuming nation 
in the world, received 205,208,876 pounds. 
Coffee is admitted into this country free of 



duty, while in France it pays a duty of 1 franc 
56 centimes per kilogramme, or nearly 15 coots 
per pound. When the American Congress re- 
pealed the duty on coffee, the Brazilian Gov- 
ernment immediately increased the provindal 
export duty to the amount of the custoin-hoose 
duty formerly paid in the United States. The 
culture of the coffee-plant in Brazil, and tbe 
increasing commercial value of thia important 
product to the great South American empire, 
are thus deacrihed in a French journal : 

Even among the most ardent lovera of oofTee, few 
perBona have an approximate idea of the area of its 
production, the extent of ite consumptioD, or of the 
very conBlderable traffio to wiiich toe coifee-ben7 
has ffi ven rise. In the reign of Louis XVL of France, 
by tne care and dili^nce of Captain Duehieux, it 
was first introduced into Martinique. Planted and 
acolimatiied in the soil of that island, the limits of 
its ffrowth and cultivation have steadily enkrged, 
untu coffee has now become an article of primary 
importance to modem commerce. In 1861 tiie total 
production of the whole world was estimated at 
8,460,000 metrical quintals* ; in 1870 it had increased 
to 8,890,000, and in 1876 to 6,670,000 quintals. Since 
then the development has been'cc^uaUy progressive, 
and for last year the total is estimated at not leas 
than 6,600,000 metrical quintal!*, which, at an aver- 
affe of only 76 francs ($16) per 60 kilos at the places 
01 production, would represent a sum of not lest 
than 976,000,000 francs-t It is calculated that the 
consumption of Europe in 1877 absoibed about 288,- 
000,000 kilos of coffee ; and Braail furnishes nearlr 
one half of all the coffee consumed in the world. It 
is, therefore, both curious and instructive to observe 
the steady proves made by that country, whether 
as regards tne increase in production or an improve- 
ment in the quality of the ooffee. The culture of 
coffee in Brazil extends over a surface of ahout 665.000 
square kilometres. The principal places of prooDO> 
tion are the provinces of Bio de Janeiro, SSo Psnlo, 
Bahia, and CeaHL The construction of railways hsi 
enabled the planters to reduce their beasts of burden, 
and to concentrate their labor and capital more im- 
mediately to the culture of coffee and other export- 
able products. The transport by rail avoids the 
dama^ to which their proaucts were exposed when 
carried hv mules. The following flgurea will nve 
an idea or the radical transformation which has taken 
plaoe in the conditions of transport in the province 
of SSo Paulo. Fifteen years aero, hefore the estab- 
lishment of the SSo Paulo Railway, from 80,000 to 
100,000 mules were sold annually at the Sorocabo 
fair ; now only 10,000 to 12,000 mules are aold. On 
the other hand, the production of coffee in the prov- 
ince, which amounted then to 800,000 sacks of 76 kil, 
or about 22,600,000 kil., has rij*en to 1,800.000 sacks 
of. 60 kil. in 1877-'78, or obout 78,000,000 kit At 
the French Exhibition of 1867 Brazilian coffees alone 
obtained the gold medal. The berry varies in coloi 
from pale frreen to green, and is rather long. In the 
province of Sao Paulo, more particularly, the herry 
is found small and round, almoat identical with that 
of Mocha, and produces a delicious infusion. In fact, 
the coffees now grown in SSo Paulo rivnl in qualitj 
the best and most esteemed descriptions derived from 
other countries, and thc'f consumption in Europe is 
eontinually increasing. The import duties in France, 
1 fhmo66 centimes per kilogramme, beinff excessive, 
have hindered the development of the consumption 
of coffee. The rapid auementation in the import of 
SSo Paulo coffees into France from Santos has only 
been bron^rht about in conseqiicmce of their superior 
quality, which permits of their tskinr the pisee 
hitherto occupiea by other sorts of established repu- 

* Tbe metrical quintal = 100 
t = $19^00(]^000. 



BRAZIL. 63 

Mml At Hunbqrit and Antwerp the Bio Pinio aots, were choeen for this work. The expedi- 

»ifeMh«ir.b«.n more quickly appreoUUdit their tjon gtarted from Pw4 in the United SUtM 

'^i^.':Z'A:^^C:%::^tlT^'t ^^ette Enterprise on Jnne 3d and entered 

im-'T8 took Umoet one half of the ooffee exported toe main Amazon on the 7th. On the IBth 

Ir«D Sutot, luving imported isa,is> ucki. thoj reached Serpo, 672 miles from Pari, and 
twent; miles below the junction of the Ma- 

A table ebowing the nnmber of primary deira, the prinoipa! tributary of the Amazon, 

•rhoota in each profliiee, and the attendance Thej ascended tnat river for a distance of SDO 

iherest, will be found in the " Aimnal Cyolo- mile* to San Antonio, the northern terminiia 

pcdia " for 1875. of the preyeoted railway, below the falla of the 

The Minister of the Interior has sbolished Uadeira. A track chart of boih rirera baa 

in the Government CoU^e of Dom Pedro II., been made, showing ladtades and longitudes 

which confers degrees of Bachelor of Arta along their banks, and also their shoals, rapids, 

the olligstion for Protestants to bo examined and bars, so tliat navigation may in future be 

ID tbe conrae of religion, and has also sbolisbed perfectly safe. 
Ibe oatb in regard to religions creeds. Diam- 
iutiona have been opened to persons not at- 
lendiDg th« collegiate coarse. This is one of 
tbe secolarinng measures projected by the 
tiinimbd Cabinet, and will probably be fol- 
lored hy the establishment of civil marriage, 
ibe r^noval of relipous disabilities, and in- 
creased fscilities for naturalization. 

hi ISfiT there were only six railroads in the 
empire, of the aggregate length of G16 miles; 
in 18TS there were fifteen, with ?es miles; in 
18TI), twenty-two lines, with an aggregate 
l«Dgth of 1,148 miles; in 1877, twenty-seven 
tiDM, with an aggresate of 1,994 miles open 
to trsflic. There were at the latter date 4,S7S 
miles of telegraph and one hundred and foor 
oAoea. Althongb the new administration has 
iDsotrorated an era of strict e4»>nDmy and re- 
treochment, extending to the pnhllo works 

|4vjected by a former ministry, the construe- ioifo-Boa«»D a aA mTm ox. 
tioD o( important lines of railway will be con- 

Snoed. A oommisaion had been engaged in On Ifovember 10, 1877, the imperial decree 

■todying a general system of rsilwaya to be No, 6,729 was signed by the Emperor of Bra- ' 

built under a goTemraeotal gnarantoe of seven zil, granting a subsidy of $100,000 a year for 

per cent, for Uiirty years, or a kilometrio sub- a period of ten years to Messrs. John Roach & 

ventloD for^nch lines as show a probability of Bon, to establish a line of steamships between 

s net income of at least foor per cent. ; but the ports of New York and Rio de Janeiro, 

this «yst«m having proved impracticable, and calling at St. Thomas, Pari, Pernambuco, and 

too oneroQS to tbe Treasnry of the empire, Bahia. The contract, signed on the 14th ot 

soother will be devised more in accordance November, requires that the ships composing 

with the economical tendencies of the reform the line shall compare favorably with the 

Csbinet. By a decree dated November 34, steamships plying between Europe end Brazil. 

1*<TT, a gnarantee of seven per cent, on £400,- Tbe time allowed between New Tork and Rio 

Don of ^didonal capital has been granted in de Janeiro is twenty days, and a failnre in this 

bror of the Madeira and Maraori Railway, respect Butjiecte the contractors to fines and 

Tbe guarantee is for thirty years, and is to penalties. Two steamships have already been 

tike effect after the aotnal employment of placed on the line, the City of Rio de Janeiro 

£600,000 realized from the Bolivian loan and and the City of Pari. They are each 870 

deposited in I/radon. When tbe line is in op- feet long over all, SB feet beam, depth of hold 

trstioo, the guaranteed capital will be credited SI feet S inches, and S,G0O tons cnstom-hoase 

with a part of the net earnings ot the railway, register. They are divided hy bulkheads into 

nutil the Brazilian Government is reimbursed six water-tight compartments, and their engines 

of iis eipenditQre. As it was thought that the are of 2,500 horse-power. The City of Rio 

BraiiUan and Bolivian trade resnlting from de Janeiro, the pioneer ship of the new line, 

tbe construction of the Madeira and Mamor6 reached the harbor of Rio de Janeiro on the 

Kdiway would mainly fall Into American S9th of May. On June 8d the steamer was 

hinds tbe thorough snrrey of the Amazon visited hy the Emperor and Empress of Brazil, 

sod Madeira Rivers was nndertaken by the accompanied hj the ministers of state and tbe 

Ksvy Department of the United States. Com- offloera of the court ; and they were received 

Bund^ Selfridge, a skillfol, enei^^o, and by the Honorable H. W. Hilliard, tbe Ameri- 

siperienced officer, and an able oorpe of aadst- can Hioister, Captain Weir, tbe commaoder 



64 BRYANT, WILUAM 0. 

of the ship, Oolonel Willard P. Tiadel, the prose articles. Mr. Bryant was married while 

superintendent of the line. Captain Mayo of living at Great Harrington^ where he wrote 

the United States steamer Hartford, and other some of his best poems, snch as ** To Green 

distinguished Americans. The Emperor ex- River," "Inscription for an Entrance to a 

pressed his satisfaction with the ship and the Wood," and "To a Waterfowl." In 1821 be 

manner in which the contract had been carried delivered before the Phi Beta Kappa Society 

out. of Harvard College "The Ages," a didactic 

A famine of unprecedented severity has poem in the 6penserean stanza; and in the 

been experienced in three of the northern same year a volume of his poems was published 

provinces, but more particularly in that of at Cambridge, and immediately led to his rec- 

Cear&. A protracted drought dried up the ognition as a writer of high merit, 
springs, brooks, and rivers, completely de- In 1825 Mr. Bryant removed to Kew York, 

stroyed the crops, and deprived the inhabi- where he became editor of the "New York 

tants of all means of support. In the city of Review," which was soon after merged in the 

Aracaty, from the 10th to the 18th of Febru- " United States Review," for which he wrote 

ary, 664 persons died of hunger, and an equal literary criticisms and several poems. About 

number perished in the immediate neighbor- this time he delivered a course of lectures on 

hood. Many more died from starvation on Greek and Roman mythology before the Acad- 

their way to other provinces. At least 10,- emy of Design. In 1826 he became one of the 

000 persons perished in the province of Cear& editors of the "Evening Post," of which Wil- 

since the beginning of the famine, in spite of liam Coleman was then editor in chief. This 

the efforts of the Government to relieve the journal then had a marked leaning toward 

distress of the people. As much as $800,000 federalism, but Mr. Bryant labored to give it 

in a single month has been expended by the more of a republican character. Acquiriog 

national Treasury to support the starving pop- exclusive control of its columns a few jears 

nlation and to remove it to more favored dis- later, he took a bold stand in favor of free 

tricts. trade and against all partial or class legislation, 

BRYANT, William Oullbn, an American and gave the paper a decidedly democratic 

Joet, editor, and author, died in New York tone. From 1827 to 1830, in conjunction with 

une 12, 1878. He was born at Cummington, Robert C. Sands and Gulian C. Yerplanck, he 

Hampshire County, Mass., November 8, 1794. conducted " The Talisman," a flourishing annu- 

His father was Peter Bryant, who was a dis- al, and about the same time wrote the tales of 

tinguished local physician of learning and lit- "Medfield " and " The Skeleton's Cave," which 

erary acmiirements, and was the grandson of appeared in a book called " Tales of the Glau- 

Stephen Bryant, who came to this country in ber Spa." A complete edition of his poems 

the Mayflower. William^s remarkable preoo- was published in iMew York in 1882, and was 

city as a poet places him in this respect in the republi^ed in England with a laudatory pref- 

* rank with Pope, Chatterton^ and Henry Kirk ace written by Washington Irving, then in that 

White. Several metrical translations from the country. It was favorably reviewed by John 

Latin poets, written by him before he was ten Wilson in " Blackwood's Magazine," and gave 

years of age, were published in the local paper, the poet a reputation in Europe not less than 

and in his fourteenth year he published two that in his own country. After tiie death of 

important poems called " The Embargo " and Coleman, William Leggett became associated 

" The Spanish Revolution," the former a politi- with Bryant in the management of the ^' Even- 

oal satire relating to the embargo policy of ing Post" In 1884 the latter went with his 

Jefferson in connection with Napoleon's Berlin family to Europe, and traveled through France, 

and Milan decrees. In 1810 young Bryant en- Germany, and Italy, studying the languages 

tered Williams College, where he soon distin- and literatures of these and other countries, 

giished himself in the languages and bellei- and acquiring a weslth of knowledge of which 
ttres; but at the end of two years he left he made good use in his subsequent writings, 
college and engaged in the study of law. He He made in 1845 a second and in 1849 a third 
was admitted to the bar in 1815, began prac- visit to Europe, extending his travels to Egypt 
tice at Plainfleld, and afterward established and Syria. I)uring this time he wrote letters 
himself at Great Barrmgton. He soon took a to the "Evening Post," which were repub- 
high rank as a lawyer, but preferred literature lished in a book entitied " Letters of a Travel- 
to law, and gave much time to the former. In er." In 1857 he again went to Europe, spend- 
his eighteenth year he wrote his most famous ing much time in Spain, whose language be- 
poem, "Thanatopsis," which has been called came a favorite study with him. Another vol- 
"one of the most precious gems of didactic ume of his letters to the "Evening Post" was 
verse in the whole compass of English poetry." published under the title of " letters from 
It was published in 1818 in the " North Amer- Spain and other Countries." In the mean 
ican Review," and led to the life-long friend- time Mr. Bryant had traveled extensiTely in 
ship between its author and the now venerable his own country from Maine to Florida, mak- 
poet Richard H. Dana, who was then one of ing also a trip to the island of Cuba. In these, 
the club which conducted the " Review." To as in his foreign travels, he regularly wrote to 
this periodical Bryant also contributed several his paper letters which were widely read. 



BULGARIA. 65 

To 1855 a new edition of his poems was San Stefano, as modified by the treaty of Ber- 

poblisbed, and in 1868 appeared ^* Thirty lin, in 1878, an autonomous tribatary princi- 

Poems." a small volume of new productions, pality. Area about 38,000 square miles, popu- 

In lb(>4 the seventieth anniversary of his lation 1,859,000, of whom about 1,100,000 are 

bi.'tbdAj was celebrated by the Century Club Christians, mostly of the Greek Church, and 

of New York, an event which brought togeth- 700,000 are Mohammedans. The principal- 

er muj ot the prominent literary men of the ity of Bulgaria nearly corresponds with the 

cuQDtTT, and called forth eulogistic letters from former vilayet of the Danube, and lies on the 

QADj others who were unable to be present, south side of the Danube River, extends to the 

Tle?e letters, with the proceedings of the fes- Balkan Mountains, by which it is separated 

tival, were afterward published in a volume, from the newly constituted Turkish province 

¥r. firjaiit*s translations into English blank of Eastern Roumelia, and stretches from the 

v<:ne of the ^^Ihad '' and the ^* Odyssey," the coast of the Black Sea on the east to the bor- 

UnaBT appearing in 1870 and the latter in ders of Servia on the west The country near- 

hTI, at once put him in the foremost rank of est the Danube is a district of fertile plain 

tie trtnalators of those great epics. In 1876 lands; these are succeeded by a hill region, 

anew and complete edition of his poems was which is well adapted for habitation and for 

;>aLlisbed. His ** Library of Poetry and Song " tillage except upon the crests of the hills ; and 

u« proved a popular holiday gift book. Be- beyond rise the mountains. An extensive 

sdcj being the active editor of the ** Evening marshy region between the lower Danube and 

Pv.'S'^ up to the time of bis death, he was the the Black Sea, called the Dobrudja, bounded 

eLior of ^^ Picturesque America," published by on the south by a line extending trom east of 

k Appleton & Co., and was engaged with Silistria on the Danube to south of Mangalia 

Sidnej Howard Gay in the preparation of a on the Black Sea, and containing a population 

r.ipolar history of the United States. Few of between one and two hundred thousand, 

likrary men have been oftener called upon to consisting principally of Turks and Wallachs, 

}ij public tribute to the memo^ of distin- which was formerly a part of Bulgaria, was 

:-'ni'hvd Americans than has Mr. Bryant He gi^en by the treaties of 1678 to Koumania. 

li^lirered a funeral oration on the artist Thom- The plain lands of the valley of the Danube 

dj Cole in 1848, and a disconrse on the life are well adapted to the cultivation of grass and 

&n<I vritings of James Fenimore Cooper in wheat, and the hill regions furnish consider- 

K'i2, which was followed by a similar tribute able forests and support large herds of cattle. 

Ut Washington Irving in 1660. He was the The province has been regarded as one of the 

w-ctoT at the dedication of the statue of S. F. principal sources of grain-supply to Turkey, 

B. Murse in 1871, of Shakespeare and Scott in and has furnished the state with about one 

i'^r^, of HaSeck in 1877, and of Mazzini in tenth of its revenues. The Balkan Mountains, 

>7S, all of which are placed in Central Park although they constitate a formidable military 

ic New York. His address on the last-named barrier, form no natural ethnical or politicfd 

'xoaoD, which was made but a short time boundairy. The predominating population of 

^fure his death, was his last appearance in Eastern Roumelia are as intensely Bulgarian 

Public. The presentation of the ** Bryant in national feeling and as active in national en- 

>^**in 1876 was one of the many distin- terprisea as the people of the northern proy- 

gcished honors which the poet has received. ince, and have been identified with them in 

Id 1845 Mr. Bryant bought an old Dutch history and in all popular movements; and it 

^mion near what is now Roslyn. on Long is difiScult to speak of Bulgaria and the Bnlga- 

h^.mL This continued to be his residence for rians without mcluding the southern territory 

A P^rt of the year till the time of his death. and its people. 

Mr. Bryant's poems are characterized by The Bulgarians were originally of a race re- 
T^ritT aad degance in the choice of words, a lated to the Tartars and Turks, and are first 
' ncise and vigorous diction, delicacy of fancy mentioned in history as inhabitants of the re- 
el eieyation of thon^ht, and a genial yet sol- gions of the Volga River, whence the^ made 
^n and religions philosophy. He was an occasional incursions into the Roman Empire, 
'^'nosiastic lover of nature, and a dose ob- In the seventh century they crossed the Yolga^ 
^'▼er of its phenomena. In pastoral beauty and, mingling with the Slavic tribes, occupied 
sicr of his poems are not excelled. His prose the country north and south of the Danube, 
*^>-iogs are marked by pure, manly, straight- and built up a poweiful state. Their language 
i rvird, and vigorous Englidi. He was a per- was replaced by a tongue almost purely Slavic, 
^'^ of delicate sensibilities, extreme purity and on account of which they have become classed 
-t-^T, and of unflinching adherence to prin- wit^ the Slavic peoples ; but in physical traits 
';. So regular was Mr. Bryant in his habits their Tartar characteristics prevailed, and still 
• inng^ working, and taking exercise, that endure. They were converted to Christianity 
■-' > bis final illness his mental and physical in the ninth century, during the reign of King 
V/rroDtinned to be remarkable in one of his Boris, or Bogoris, under the ministrations of 
^moed age. the so-called Slavic apostles, Cyril and Metho- 
>^CLG AkIA, a province of the Turkish Em- dius. The Bulgarian nation attained great ex- 
f>^ which was constituted by the treaty of tent and power under the successors of Bo- 
YoL. XVIIL-— 6 A 



66 BULGABIA. 

gorls, when the royal court became the center A Bulgarian was appointed Bishop of Widio 
of a certain degree of culture. The kingdom in 1840, bat he died while on a visit to Con- 
was afterward conquered by the Constantino- stantinople, and it was charged that he was 
Solitto Emperors, but became again indepen- poisoned. An insurrection broke out in Widin 
ent in 1186; and during the reign of King ten years later, in view of which the Patriarch 
John II., 1218 to 1248, it attained such an ex- was requested to consecrate a Bulgarian bish- 
tent that its boundaries touched the Adriatic, op. He obeyed, but left the bishop withoat 
iEgean, and Black Seas. It then declined till, af- a see. When a National Assembly was called 
ter the battle of Kosovo, in 1889, it was easily to consider the question of reforms in 1858, 
overcome by the Turks. The ecclesiastical sys- a£fairs were mananged so that the Bulgarians 
tern of the Greek Church having been extended should not be represented in it, and their re- 
over Bulgaria, its churches fell under the juris- quests were again denied. Concerted measures 
diction of the Patriarchs of Constantinople, were instituted against the Phanariot (or 
Their authority was exercised in a despotic Greek) ecclesiastics in 1860, when the bishopB 
manner, discriminating against the Bulgarians, were driven away from several cities, and na- 
The services were conducted in Greek, the use tive bishops were appointed in their places, 
of the Bulgarian language on public occasions The prayer for the Patriarch was omitted from 
was discontinued, and the people were deprived the services of the churches, the name of the 
of facilities for education beyond those f^orded Sultan being substituted for his, and recognition 
by a few priestly schoob. At the beginning was refused about the same time to the elec- 
of the present century the Bulgarians were tion of a new Patriarch. Finally, the Turkish 
amonff the most miserable and backward of Government, after it had again failed twice to 
the inhabitants of the Turkish Empire. About gain the assent of the Patriarch to its propo- 
fifty years ago an awakening was begun, which sitions for tlie reform of the Bulgarian Church, 
has resulted in the revival of a strong national determined to act without regard to him, and 
spirit, the organization of popular schools in granted a firman on February 28, 1870, con* 
the Bulgarian language throughout the country, stituting it a separate and independent juris- 
the establishment of the independence of the diction. Bishop Anthrim, of Widm, was chosen 
Church, and the growth of a small but promis- Exard^ on the refusal of Ilaxion to accept the 
ingliterature. office, and was consecrated by the command 

The lessons taught in the gymnasium at Phil- of the Sultan, 
ippopolis comprise the Turkish, Greek, and Manufacturing and business enterprises were 
French languages, elementary mathematics, ge- largely develop^ during the ten years preoed- 
ography, Bulgarian and Turkish history, mental ing the Russo-Turkish war of 1877, and many 
and moral philosophy, religious and moral in- towns on the northern and southern slopes of 
struction, and church music. The larger schools the Balkans became prosperous and growing 
are provided with fine, spacious edifices, many industrial centers. Among them was Gabrova, 
of which were specially erected for them. In- distinguished for its manufactures and schools; 
struction is given free of cost in all the branch- Travna, where carvings in wood and pictures 
es of a common-school education. Until 1860 were made ; Yratza, the seat of a varied trade, 
the schools were dependent entirely upon sub- and of leather, silk, and filigree works ; Sliv- 
Bcriptions and charitable bequests. After the mia, Calofer, and Carlova, the seats of cloth and 
Church was separated from the jurisdiction woolen factories; Yamboli, a busy railway 
of the patriarchate of Constantinople, a reap- station ; Batak, in a lumbering district of the 
propriation of the ecclesiastical revenues was Bhodope Mountains ; and Kezanlik, on the 
made, and a part of them were set aside for southern slope of the Balkans, the chief cen- 
the purposes of education. At a later period ter of the production of attar of roses. Most 
the local authorities of some places, as Philip- of these places were destroyed or greatly in- 
popolis, were induced to allow a special tax to jnred during the course of the war. 
be laid upon the Bulgarians for the benefit of The treaty of San Stefano defined the boan- 
the schools. daries of Bulgaria so as to constitute a state. 
In 1876 fifty-one newspapers had been start- which, including aJl the predominantly Bulga- 
ed, of which fourteen were established in 1875. rian districts of European Turkey, both north 
Most of these, however, were printed outside and south of the Balkans, should have an 
of the limits of the present principality. Two area of about 79,400 square miles, and an 
of them were literary, one was theological, estimated population of between five and five 
and three were technical. and a half millions. The included territory 
The autonomy of the Bulgarian Church as extended from the boundaries of Servia and 
an independent exarchate was secured in 1870, Albania to the Black Sea, and from the Dan- 
after a hard and extraordinarily bitter con- ube nearly to the iSgean Sea, and took in 
test of about thirty years with the Greek about fifty miles of the iEgean coast. Of the 
clergy and the Patriarch of Constantinople, coast lands, a small strip on either side of the 
In 1833 the people of Samokov and Scopie Salonican peninsula, and a district in eastern 
asked for the appointment of Bulgarian bish- Thrace, bounded on the west and north by a 
ops instead of two Greek bishops who had line extending from Buruguel around Adrian- 
been removed, but the. request was denied, ople and thence to Hakim Tobiasi, were left 



BULGABIA. 67 

isder the exdnsbe Jurisdiction of Torkej. be demanded would be modified in accordance 

The British Oovemment made strennons ob- with this view. 

jections to the proYisions of the treaty respect- * Previoas to the meeting of the Congress at 
mg Bulgaria,' which were briefly stated in a Berlin, on the 80th of May, the British and Bus- 
drcolir addressed by Lord Salisbary to the sian Governments came to an agreement re- 
Povos, which was published on March 80th. specting the terms of adjustment which they 
It reciced, as among the most important oonse- would accept from the Congress. This agree- 
qneaces to whieh the treaty practically led, ment provided that Bulgaria should be di- 
tbtt by the articles erecting the New Bulgaria vided into two provinces : one north of the 
a fCroDg Slavic state would be created under Balkans, to be endowed with a political au- 
the ao^itees and control of Russia, possessing tonomy under a prince; the other south of 
importaBt harbors on the Black Sea and the the Balkans, but not to touch the .^ean Sea, 
Archipelago, and conferring upon that power and to have a Christian governor and a gov- 
i predominating influence over both political emment similar to that of an English colony. 
iad commercial relations in those seas. The Further, the British Qovemment reserved, 
etste would be so constituted as to merge in among other things, the right to demand of 
ths dominant Slavic majority a considerable the Congress the participation of Europe in 
m§m of popnlation which is Greek in race and the administrative organization of the two 
ijmpathy, and which views with alarm the Bulgarian provinces, and to discuss the dm-a- 
pro^ect of absorption into a community alien tion and nature of the Russian occupation of 
tD it not only in nationality but in political Bulgaria. The Bulgarian question was the 
tendency and religions allegiance. The pro- first topic considered by the Congress^ and the 
Tiaons by which this new state wonld be sub- first to be settled. The final decision of it 
jeeted to a niler whom Russia would practically was made substantially on the basis of the 
choose, ita administration framed by a Russian Anglo-Russian agreement, and established the 
eommiasary, and the first working of its in- principality of Bulgaria, to be bounded on the 
sntntiona eommenoed under the control of a south by the Balkans, and to include Varna on 
Busaian army, snffioiently indicated the politi- the east and Sophia on the west, the state to 
esJ sjsteaa of which in future it was to form own all the fortresses; the territory south of 
a part. Stipnlations, the dispatch continued, the Balkans to be erected into an autonomous 
were added which wonld extend this infiuence province, to be called Eastern Roumelia, and 
even beyond the bonndaries of the New Bui- to be governed by a Christian hospodar, nomi- 
laria. nated by the Sultan and the Powers, who 
ObJeotioB was made by the Greek uihabitants should be aided by a local elective Parliament, 
of the sonthem territory against the extension and supported by a local militia, the higher 
of the new Slavic state over communities of officers of which must be approved by the 
predomixiaDtiyGreoiannatlQnality, which found Sultan. The Turkish Goyemment was given 
expreasioo in protests and in the participa- the full and entire right to occupy and cover 
tion of the Qneks in the insurrections with the line of frontier separating Bulgaria from 
vhieh the diatriets around the BhodopeMoun- Eastern Roumelia, by whatever number of 
taittswereconmlsedduringthe spring and the troops it might deem necessary for the se- 
earty summer. It had not been the original curity of its borders ; but it was expressly nn- 
ictatioa of the Rnasian Government to make derstood that these troops should be composed 
the BolgariaD state so large ; for Count Shou- entirely of regulars, should not on any pre- 
vak^ Uie Russian Ambauador to Great Brit- text be cantoned among the inhabitants, and 
&itt, \ud asBored Earl Derby on June 8, 1877, should be used exclusively for frontier service. 
that if the Porte should sue for peace before It was stipulated that the principality of Bul- 
the Roasiaa armies crossed the>Ballcana, they garia should have a Christian government and 
would not pass that line, but the Emperor a national militia; that the Prince should be 
would insist open the aotonomy of Bulgaria as elected by the people and confirmed by the 
a vvmI province under the guarantee of En- Porte and the great Powers ; that the rights 
rope, and wonld ask the Powers to aranre to of all the nationalities should be taken into 
that part of the coontry south of the Balkans, account in whatever relates to the election or 
sa wefl as to the «ther Christian provinces ot the government, and that distinction of re- 
Torkey^ the best possible guarantees for a reg- ligions belief or confession should not operate 
nbr administration. But, at a subsequent in- against any one as a reason of exclusion or in- 
terview, the Count informed Earl Derby that capacity in what concerns enjoyment of po- 
kij Gornnment had decided that separation Htical rights, admission to public employment, 
uto two provinces wonld be impracticable, functions, or honors, or the exercise of the dif- 
I'v ** local information proved that Bulgaria ferent professions and industries. Liberty of 
33st remain a single province, otherwise the public profession of all creeds was assured to all 
aoat laborious and intelligent part of the Bol- the returned population as well as to stran- 
orisn population, and notably that which had gers. Until a permanent organization shall 
KoA suffered from Tnrkish nudadministration, be completed, for which nine months are al- 
vetnd remain exdnded from the autonomous lowed, Bulgaria will be governed by a provi- 
isitBtutions," and that the terms of peace to sional organization, directed by Russian com- 



68 BULGARIA. 

missioners, who will be assisted by delegated discontent of these people over the proTiaoni 
consuls of the great Powers. The Ottoman of the treaty of Berlin aggravated the disorders 
army shall evacnate Bnlgaria, and all the with which the country was already afflicted, 
fortresses shall be destroyed, within a year, Charges of outrages committed by Bolgariang 
and new ones shall not be erected. Mussul- were preferred, and became so definite that 
mans who remove from the principality shall an international commission was appointed to 
be allowed to retain their real property by suf- investigate them. The reports of the cominis- 
fering it to be administered by third parties; sioners were published in the latter part of 
and two years were allotted for a Turkish- August. The British, French, and Tarkish 
Bulgarian commission, to be engaged with the commissioners made identical statements, rep- 
regulation of all matters relative to the trans- resenting that atrocious outrages had been com- 
fer of state properties and religious founda- mitted by the Russians and the Bulgarians in 
tions. The province of Eastern Roumelia, as 1877 and 1878, both north and south of the 
defined by this treaty, has an area of 13,664 Balkans, but chiefly in the villages of the Rho- 
square miles, and a population of 751,000. dope Mountains. It had been intended to make 

The Russians had accomplished much in the this statement the basis of the report of the 
organization of the Bulgarian districts which commission ; but the Russian, German, and 
they had occupied, even before the treaty of Austrian representatives refused to sign it, be- 
San Sbefano was signed. They continued in cause the evidence upon which it was founded 
their work without waiting for the result of was not satisfactory to them, and the Italian 
negotiations concerning the meeting of the representative withdrew his signature after 
Congress, and did not change their course having attached it, for the same reason, 
even after the Congress had made its decisions. TIjc more important offices in both provinces 
In April an imperial ukase was issued direct- were filled by the appointment of Russians, 
ing the speedy establishment of the new or- The organization of the native militia was 
ganization. The province was divided into pushed with vigor. An enrollment of all young 
governments. Each governor should act along men of the ages of twenty, twenty-one, and 
with an administrative council chosen from twenty-two, was begun in September, which 
among the most trustworthy persons within was intended for the organization of a terri- 
the area of the government. The government torial army to consist of fifty battalions of 
should be divided into circuits, presided over infantry, seventy squadrons of cavalry, four 
by sub-governors, each having a council of sotnias of artillery, and four regiments of sap- 
seven Bulgarians. A superintendent should pers, to be commanded by officers selected from 
be appointed in each circuit, to be supported the Russian army. This army was enrolled and 
by a Bulgarian magistracy, to have the com- designed for service in both provinces, but two 
maud of a body of police composed of Chris- thirds of the whole were drawn from Bulgaria, 
tians and Mohammedans, and to be vested The particular organization of northern Bal- 
with the control of passes, and with authority garia was conducted with dispatch and without 
to act as a judge in small cases. An autono- disturbance, so that few events occurred in 
mous court of law appointed in each circuit connection with it which attracted attention 
town would exercise jurisdiction in all civil abroad. The evacuation of the fortresses by 
and criminal cases, partly in accordance with the Turks was begun with hesitation and car- 
former Turkish law, and partly in accordance ried on slowly, in consequence of the compli- 
with the determination of use and wont. The cations growing out of the continued presence 
constitution of a National Assembly at Phil- of the Russian forces near Constantinople. The 
ippopolis was contemplated after all the forts around Shumla were given np in July, 
above-mentioned institutions should have been and the Russians received possession of Varna 
organized. After the death of Prince Tcher- on the 11th of August The formation of bands 
kasski, the superintendence of tjie Russian ad- in the Dobru^ja to resist the occupation of the 
ministration in all of Bulgaria became lodged province by the Roumanians was reported in 
in the hands of Prince Dondoukoff- Korsakoff, the latter part of September, and it was said 
who, establishing his headquarters at Phili[)- that arms bad been dfistributed among the in- 
popolis, directed the organization of both sec- tending insnrgents. A circular was sent by 
tions of the country. Gen. Scoboleff to the officers of the territory 

While the appointment of the commissioners occupied by the Russians, threatening to pro- 

f or Eastern Koumelia contemplated by the claim martial law against those inhabitants who 

treaty of Berlin was pending, the Russian ad- should rebel against Russian authority ; and a 

ministrator continued to execute the policy similar circular was prepared by the Porte to 

previously adopted, which looked to the forma- be published in the provinces recently occupied 

tion of a compact, autonomous state, without by the Turkish troops. The organization oj 

seeming to regard the changes demanded by the administration of justice was effected in 

the^ new treaty. He was supported by the October, when tribunals were constitnted fo^ 

majority of the Bulgarian population, who civil and criminal cases, consisting of local trii 

were anxious to be incorporated into a state bunals in the circuits and governmental courts 

embracing their whole nationality, and strongly in each sanjak, with specif tribunals for case) 

opposed to a return under Turkish rule. The in which religious faith is concerned. An oni 



BULGARIA. CALIFORNIA. 69 

aonnc^ment was made that the civfl, military, be astonifihed at the injustice which the Powers 
&ad ecclesiastical service of Bulgaria would had committed against the Bulgarians in ^• 
iMDceforth be carried on in the Kusaian Ian- viding them into three parts ; declared that, 
$aag«. after having experienced nine months of free- 
The International Commission for the organ- dom under the Russian Occupation, they could 
mioa of £a8tem Roumelia was appointed in not return to subjection to Turkish misgovern- 
SeptembeTy and held its first meetmg at Con- ment ; and averred that they preferred the 
d«ntmople on the 1st of October. Its meetings provisions of the treaty of San Stefano to those 
were held afterward at Philippopolis. It was of the treaty of Berlin. In illustration of the 
Dot favorably received by the Bulgarian peo- injustice which they said the Congress had 
fJe. and complaints were made that the Russian done to the Bulgarians of Eastern Roumelia and 
«>fie6r8 did not heartUy encourage its objects. Macedonia, they claimed that the former prov- 
Priooe Dondookoff-Eorsakoff refused to sur- ince contained the beet part of the Bulgarians, 
raider the administration of the finances to and the latter 1,600,000 persons of that na- 
tbe eommiasion, as was stipulated in the treaty tionality. The Bulgarian boundary commis- 
of Berlin should be done, so long as the Bus- sioners returned to Constantinople early in 
sUn troops occupied the province ; but he December, averring that they were forced to 
<)f ered to give up the surplus revenue remain- do so because the Russians, despite reiterated 
ifig fifter defraying the expenses of the govern- requests, delayed furnishing an escort, and Gen. 
m^nt, indading the payment of the native Todleben refused to receive them when they 
militia then in the course of formation. It was wished to remonstrate. 
C'berved with concern that the Russians, instead A meeting of Bulgarians was held at Philip- 
of showing an intention to withdraw, were popolis on the 11th of November, which re- 
*^tng ireeh troops south of the Balkans, solved to continue in persistent opposition to 
<n3. Todleben, having arrived at Lule Bourgas the execution of the work of the commission 
>9 the last of October, gave orders for the for organizing Eastern Roumelia. Prince Don- 
repair of the bridges in the neighborhood, and doukoff-Eorutkoff was reported to have ez- 
r'.T the canstmction of barracks for the winter pressed the conviction, about the same time, 
ccarters of the Rusman soldiers stationed be- that the execution of the treaty of Berlin was 
tVeen Liverta and Tunclja. The arrangements a sheer impossibility, for the Bulgarians would 
('if sending away the greater part of the army take up arms to oppose the separation of East- 
tad for demolishing the fortresses of Widin em Roumelia from Bulgaria, 
isd Rostchok were stopped. The fortifications The Bulgarian Assembly was called to meet 
St Eusten^ji in the Doorudja, which had been at Tirnova, December 27th, where, after pre- 
&:;andoned, were rearmed, and military ^ards paring the organic law of the principality, it 
rere posted at the railway stations. The ap- was expected to elect a Prince. A draft of 
prehension waa excited by these movements the Constitution had been prepared, which 
^st the Russians did not intend to be bound provided for an Assembly consisting of four 
:.▼ the limitations of the treaty of Berlin, nor hundred deputies, one hundred of whom should 
?o evacuate the Bulgarian territories until a be selected by the Government. The Prince 
^cal peace was concluded. Journals friendly should have the right to exercise mercy, but 
*-> them stated, however, that their renewed should not be entitled to declare war. The 
slTa&cewasoraered,not on strategical grounds, election of the Prince was expected to take 
Uit for the sake of order and humanity. place on the 1st of January, 1679. The per- 
*>tk the 29th of October a petition signed by sons named in December as the principal can- 
V>/M Bulgarians of Eastern Roumelia and Ma- didates were Gen. Ignat\eff, late Russian Am- 
-^itMxia was presented to the commission sit- bassador at Constantinople, Prince Alexander 
* nz tt Philippopolis, protesting against the di- Wassiltchikoff, Prince Reuss, and Prince Alex- 
-nai^jD of Balgaria. The petitioners professed to ander of Battenberg. 



C 

CALIFORNIA. The Legislature, after a and mechanics who have nothing to do. Only 

■ricf adjournment, reassembled on January two or three days ago^the day before yester- 

4ih. In Uie Senate one of the first bills intro- day — they went to the Mayor of that city, I 

Iz •:«d was framed to authorize the Mayor, City think in a body three thousand strong, and 

i^n«l County Surveyor, and Superintendent of asked him to g^ve them labor in order that they 

^.Tttts in San Francisco to ^ve employment to may be able to get bread. The leader of that 

' V o thousand laboring men from the date of large body of men said to the Mayor, * Unless 

■•^passage of the bill to April lOUi, the price you give us something to do — some work — we 

- '^«e fixed by the ofiicers above mentioned, shall be obliged to st^, in order t^at we may 

' '*i f4 the Senators (Mr. Rogers) said : ** It is be put in the county jail, where we will have 

^-n known that the streets of San Francisco, food.^ '^ Another Senator (Mr. McCoppin) ob- 

•^ '-^ present time, are full of laboring men jected to the bill, saying: ** Why, at the end of 



CALIFOKNIA. 71 

[he time ot employnient, instead of hsTing one Acrosa the river ahont a mile apart, and then 
ihaoMnd or two thousand idle men in San draw them together, forcing ail the fish with 
Frucisoo, we wonld have five choasand or tea them, and then everything in the net is hauled 
tiiamknd ; for the; would come from all parts on shore. Their nets are eo amall that nothing 
<if the Stat« aeekinR work." At the previoua can pass them the size of a maa'g finger. The 
><»ioii of the LegiuatQre a committee was ap- caatom-houBe figarea showed that the exporta- 
puinted hj the Senate to examine into and re- tion of small fish to China in 18TS was worth 
port apon the actual condition of the Chinese (960,000. Specimens taken from a Chinese 
is California, and the effects of their presence boat were submitted, and conaistcd of 7oung 
Dpon the white population. A report waa perch, emelt, flounders, sardines, salmon, rook- 
iBtdc and published, witboat containing a por- cod, tomcod, shrimpa, and pipe-fish. Bome of 
tion of the testimoa; taken hi tbe 
cilr of San Francisco. A member 
of the Senate, on moving that this 
l«rtinionj be pablished, stated that 
ii dlKloaed, in part at least, the re- 
lujiins tbkt existed and still exist 
Wtreea some of the anthorities of 
ilw city, indading one branch of the 
P(JiM Dep&rtment, and the oriminal 
rl»a»e» in the " Chinese qnarter." In 
DiD$t inrtsDces these disclosures were 
in»le with extreme reluctance, and 
in nne case the witness — a special 
pohce officer — refused abaolntai)' to 
lOsweT certwn qnestions tonohing 
bL^ compensation and that of his as- 
iodsies s( tbe hands of the propri- 
etors of gambling- hooses and hooses 
"I prostitution then and now flo- 
crintlj kept open in the Ohineae 
qi&rter. An officer who had been 
specisUr detailed to examine that 
qnrter, and who, because of hiszeal, 
■u snmmftril; removed therefrom, 
t^iSed to the existence of from four 
t> »evea hondred ot those houses in 
fast qoarter ; and all the witnesses 
vlmitted npon oath that those dens 
•i infamy and pollntion, which are 
1 disgrace to the city and oiviliza- 
lion, coald be cloaed by simply en- 
fonring existing ordinances and taws; 
bot, by reason of the fact that they 
payfor tbe privilege of keeping open 
Rid plying their infamous vocations, 

tLev are not only permitted bnt ao- dMBwm tuut. . 

toaily encouraged to do so. A new 

Uw was therefore passed entirely reforming the fish were not over two inches long and not 
th« police system of Ban Francisco, and abol- as thick as a lead pencil, indicating a very amall 
i-hiog aU offices of special police. It was thus net. 

tuticipated that the doubtful praotioes which An act was passed to amend the sections of 
prevailed in the Chinese quarter, and which the Code of Civil Procedure relating to attor- 
Lave contributed not a nttle to foster the neys, etc. The amendment consisted in strik- 
L'-Tjadices entertained agatnst those people, ing out tbe words "white male" A'om tbe sec- 
•■jald be stopped. tions, thus permitting women and persons of 

A bin was also introduced in tbe House to color to practice law upon paxslog tbe requi- 
•f.-p the destruction of small fish, shrimps, site examination. The first person to take 
::.iQno«s, etc., known to be the food of large advantage of tliis act was Mrs. Clara S. Foltc, 
'-L. by stopping the drying and exporting of of San Jos^, who porsned her studies under 
itetn to China, as is now done by Chinese fish- disadvantages that wonld appall most stodenls 
"num. It was stated before the Fish Com- of tbe other sex. She h^ a family of five 
siMtOBen that on tbe river SocrameDto there small children to provide for, and most of the 
'ere about fifteen white men in the business time did her own housework unassisted, and 
and from five to eight hundred occasionally was obliged to take to the lecture- 
Tbe Chinese stretch two nets field as a means of adding to her meager in- 



73 CALIFORNIA. 

oome. Stie was fidmitted to tbe bar, and the for working men and women, the nnniber of 

local paper sa^B that "the committee appointad each required, the waf»a offered, the woA to 

to eiamine her conristed of some of our first be done, and where; ascertain thefadUtinfor 

lawjers, who sahjected ber to a thorough teat the performance thereof the sanitary condition 

of her legal knowledge, and who nnanimonsl? of the locality where such labor is to be done, 

certified to faer entire fiineas for advancement" the proTisione fur the comfort of the workmen, 

A concurrent resolution paased the Asaem- and the probable term of employment Th« 

bly providing fur a joint committee of nine to Boreaa must also keep a record of all sppli- 

consider the subject of a Cuustttntional Con- cationR for employment or information, villi 

ventioQ, voted for by a majority of 723 votes the name of each applicant, aei, age, nativitj, 

at the last election. Early in Jannary the trade, or calling, whether married or single. 

Committee reported a bill to provide for hold- nnmberinfamily(if any), andamonntof wage* 

ing a Convention to revise ana change the Con- aaked. In all cases where practicable, eitui- 

tiona should be filled in the order of 

their application, and without psrtiel- 

ity. The Bureau shall, when ordered 

by the Conimi»aionerH, establish branch 

ofiices in other parts of the State. 

The subject of irrigation has become 
of the highest importance to the State, 
and a bill was paased to secore tbis 
object A commission is created Co 
have charge of the nodertaking, and 
it is empowered to engage the services 
of skilllDl engineers, whose bnainess It 
shall be to make surveys, to ascertain 
the best mode of districting the State 
for irrigation pnrposes, and to draft 
plans for carrying ont the work. 

Another subject of no less impnr- 
tance to the prosperity of the State is 
the disposal of the dibrii from liv- 
draulic raining. At present it flows 
into the rivers, filling them np, and i* 
carried by freshets over the fertile low- 
lands, causing their destruction. Tbis 
prevails to a great extent through 
northern California. The losses Ij 
floods in February, which in the main 
were chargeable to the dihrU, were 
estimated at $76,000,000. Nothing vas 
done by the Legislature on the aubject 
Various resolutions relating to the 
financial policy of the Federal Gov- 
ernment, removal of troops from the 
Southern States, civil-servico reform, 
raihoads, eto., were introdnced before 
the Legietature, but fuled to be np- 
proved. The session dosed early in 
looMiTB Fiix. March. Some fifteen hundred and 

aixty bills were introdnced in both 
Btitntton of the State. It proposed to hold the Houses, a large number of which failed to be- 
Convention at Sacramento In Hay, and that tt come laws. 

should be com posed of 120 members. Thrmea- The certainty of the ultimate adoption of a 
sure was extensively discussed in eanh House, system of irrigation in the State, inconsequence 
and various amendments were made in one and of the passage of a bill for that end, was very 
rejected in the other. The act as passed pro- favorably received. A large tract on the weei- 
vided for the election of delegates in June and em skipe of the Sierra Nevada Uonntaios, It 
the aaaembling of the Convention on Septera- was thought, wonid become far more produc- 
ber 28th. Thirty of tlie members were to be tive under the system. Below the altitado of 
chosen on a general ticket, of whom each voter two thousand feet, the hills or mountains are 
was to vote for twenty. essentially the same in all their characteristics 

A bill was also pasiied to provide for a State of soil, shape, accessibility, and climate. The 
Labor Burean. It consists of com mission era length of territory inclnded in tbis elope, or 
whose doty it is to keep a list of all persons, foot-hills, is about four hundred miles, nnd the 
oompaniea, or corporations making applicatjons widtbfromfiveto thirty miles. The entire area 



OALIFORNIA. 73 

B equal to oae fifth of the area of the Saora- ^ Saw Fiukoiboo, Janttary 19, 1878, 

mento and San Joaquin Valleys. For the par- ^ BinuyrabU ihfSmaUof the State of California. 

,^..^\^ •:^» 4>ku ll*^^^'^^^^ «# ♦K-o> «»A<> «««-. Gsntlwcek: The undersigned ore the President 

poMain vieir this statement of the area may ^^ Secretary or the Workinpnen»s party of this 

be exteoded to the alUtuue ox tnree tnonsana state. We have read your speeches on the new ffag 

fife hundred feet ahove the sea. The soil of law with astonishment. We were not aware beiore 

this vast ezteot of territory is rich and warm. ^^ ^ ^^d it in the papers that we had used inoendiaiy 

The abandanoe of volcanic clay, formed from lanp»g?nhad flxecT on Simday. the 20th, for a gen- 

xu^u^ 1™ 'T.^^^A^ ;♦ «r;*K « .«v«.^*v^.»4^»^ era! upnsmg, had proposed to plunder and burn the 

dawlved lava, provides it with a recuperative eity aid kUl the people, or even to incite so much 

power within itself. This clay, under the in- as a riot. We have been examined once and dis- 

doeoce of water and exposure, slacks, and in charged, not for anv defect of the law, but from want 

this form it is easily combined with vesetable ®^ ^*<^^»' You read the reports in the papers, when 

mold, and the result is a good manure. The ^^^ *^^?^? ^"^^ at the sworn testimony. We need 

r *^"" r",^**^*^" /> x/^ •**«** «xv. x«w your assistance, and not our adversaries. They alone 

dimateofthis region, so far as temperature is f.^ve violated W, created riot, and trumped up 

coacemed, is essentially the same as that in charges based on false newspaper reports. For our 

\M Sacramento Vallej. But the absence of pai^i peace, law, and order have been our motto, and 

malaria and the presence of resinous matter in ^/" *>?/ The bsJlot-box is our batUe-fleld. But win- 

the.air, add«l.to^the benefits derived from ele- tS^,e\'urbr.S^v Sa^JiL'^^ot ^tt^il^^^^^ 

ritioo, result m a oUmate far superior to that land-grabber, and the Chinese Six Companies see 

of the lower valleys. It is more agreeable and the death-knell of all their hopes in our numbers, 

kealthfaL Bilious diseases and lung troubles our strength, and our calm resolution. They have 

ire comparativelv rare in this reirion, while ^?!*i?®^ our unguarded speeches : they have done 

tU ^.n^iTi^Iry^/ uT ^TLI« J!^«T11T-KU-«l- ^^ 'hey oould to provoke us into disorder ; and now 

the general vigor of its peraianent inhabitants ^^y ^haiga us wfth crimes they can not prove, and 

Till De above that of the Sacramento valley, ask for new laws to give effect to their persecutions. 

It produces everything that is raised in the lat- Gentlemen, you are supposed to be tne guaxdians 

ter; and the peach, apple, plum, and ordinary of the public hberties and the friends of the people. 

warden vegetables reaih iTdVw of perfection &th^«w«m 'L°.?iIonv *i^ «ur^!^« ^iow^l^/n 

.1.1 ^ , . ... J .^a. L «r tj. • iteaa tne sworn testimony in our case, now given 

which can not be attained m the valley. It is before ajury. Do not hasten to do wroig. 
uso asserted that in one notable instance this The Workingmen's party is a great power now-Hi 
reeion has produced oranges which have been respectable and orderly and resolute power. It is 
pronounced by travelers superior to any oth- destined to rule this State by law, and at no distant 
*p« r«a^ ;.. ¥\i^ Qfo^^A T1.A ««.««uv:i:*«. ^e ♦u:- day. We aver to you that we have never incited to 
ers raised m the State. The availability of this or oontempkted any riot, any kUIing of men, or de- 
region depends, lio we ver, upon facilities for struction of property ; never so mu<3i as broken tha 
irrigstion ; and, if this can be had, it will off^r peace or held a riotous meeting. We are simple 
iaiacements to agriculturists superior to those workingmen, who speak to oar fellows from our 
/ the great vaUeys. There is water enough in ?«»rt» ? ^*^«i" respond in thousands. This is what 
♦'•»- Foafk.^. 1>;«.I.. n.,^i.:»,A^ Vw -^^.K^;!^ 4.^ 1^** alarmed our enemies. This is what they can 
^ *e«ther River, nnchiimed by anybody^ to ^^^^^ ^^^id until the interests of the people arJ con- 

:n»te the whole range from Red Bluff to Fol- suited, and the Chmese pest abated, fr not removed 

«>?rn, and the practical use of it is entirely f ea- altogether. 

•iMe. In addition to this source, there are We are rapidly forming in two ranks in this city 

<hcr and more limited sources which are suf- *°? ^° *^l®)^? ' *^T '^^^'^"J ^^""^ *^® ^i"°®?u 

-.:^«» * ♦!. \.4, ^t ■»v»*»*^ " •"'-•" «*w o * nuisance abated, and those who have conspired with 

;"•*,. ^^.^® ^*^^ ^^ * considerable acreage the Chinese Six Companies to keep them here. Be- 

X thu vicimty. tween these two there is no peace, and there can be 

An unusual excitement was raised in San none. 

Frsncisco, in the early part of the year, by the ^^» *■ ** claimed, there is a middle party, who are 

d.™«tr.tion,ofworkrngmen The oocaeion rtrv^J}:iJ:X1/?h'^t;^^rt"hl1„' ^ .';:,r^ 

•>| ^ne excitement was chiefly the reckless and the front. Their assurance that this thing must and 

^•*xent language nsed by some of the leaders in will be done, speedily and peaceably, will give calm 

leir harangues, rather than any disorderly con- security to botn. Let them move solidly, and we 

<:ct bv the workingmen. Application was ^\" ''"? patiently. But while they content them- 

'vAa, tA fK>a T^«*:aiaf«*A #^« ♦k^ «w.a<.A»A «# ».^.^ selves with menacing us, and array themselves with 

JAle to the Legishiture for the passage of more ^^^ enemies, we can not abate a jot of our zeal and 

snagent laws, and an act was passed which devotion to our own interests, 

"•atiined the following provision: Eespectfullj; yours, D. KEABNEY, 

lay penon who, in the presence or hearing of xi t it ^*"»»^«°* ^^ *^« Workingmen»s Party, 

>»ntr-iTe or more persons, shall utter any language °" ^* Khiqht, Secretary. 

".Mntent either to incite a riot in the present or 4^ ^ -^, ,. i.tj 

rba toim^ or mny aot or acts of criminal violence ^ Convention of the workingmen was held 

tit^&jt person or property, or who shall suggest or at San Francisco about January 21st, at which 

i^-T.-e or eneonrage any aot or acts of criminal vio- the following declaration of principles was 

-je sgainst any person or persons, or property, or made : 
' -^: adTiiie or enoonrage forcible resistance to any 

- tie laws of this State, shall be deemed guiltv of Whereatj The Government of the United States 

• >*^7', and on oonviotion thereof shall be punished has fallen into the hands of capitalists and their will- 

.'Imprisonment in the State prison or in the county ing instruments; the rights of the people, their 

.•' >H exoeediiur two years, or by fine not exceed* comfort and happiness, are wholly ignored, and the 

.'fV>«0. or by both. vested rights or capital are alone considered and 

during the debate in the Senate on the bill, J^f ded, both in the State and nation. The land is 

' . *.JiVL?«I ^AA»^^ \^^I ™* Vl tl^* V J!! ^wt passing into the hands of the rich few. Great 

e. billowing address was sent to that body ^oney mo?opoUes oontrol Congress, purchase State 

' liie leader of the workingmen ; legUlation, rule the courts, influence all i ublio offl 



H CALIFORNIA. 

oen, and have perverted the great repnUio of our We demand that the Constitution of the United 

fathers into a den of dishonest manipulators. This States be amended to the effect that the President 

ooncentration and control of wealth haa impoverished and Vioe-Fresident of the United States and 8ena- 

tbe people, produciog crime and discontent, and re- tors of the several States shall be elected bj the 

tarded the settlement and civilization of the countrj. direct vote of the people. 

In California a slave labor has been introduced to 

still ftirther aggrandize the rich and demde the The following w^e adopted : 

f)oor. And the whole tendencv of this class legiM- -^. mi. -nr i_. t !•..• i _» *.i 

ation is to undermine the foundations of the repub- ., 7^«ft ^^ Workmgmen's political party of th« 

lie, and pave the way for anarchy and misrule, and State of Califorma, now joermanently organized, de- 

this Convention therefore declares as follows : f.*'** **»•* ^^ ^"^"J,'T^ .^ promoted to any poo- 

Skotiok 1. The workingmen of California desire **9,°? ^, ^JF »J*'« Central Committee who are not 

to unite with those of other States in effecting such ^^^l"*? *** ^^"^® ^ jPrevious poliUcal alliances, and 

reforms in our General Government aa may be neces- ^<>* .^^ promote and advance the mterests of tiie 

aary to secure the rights of the people as against Workingmen's party; therefore- . , ^ ,^ 

those of capital ; to maintain life, liberty, and happi- J&»/e«rf, That this Convention aTOOint, from the 

ness, against land and money monopoly. Only in members thereofj a Committee of Inveatigation, to 

the people, the honest workingmen, can we hope to ?"™^P« H*» politocal antecedents of all persons pnor 

find a remedy » i '^ to their election or appointment to any position lu 

Sao. 2. Chinese cheap kbor is a curse to our land, *^» V^^J^Jj or as a candidate therefor, 

a menace to our liberties and the institutions of our J^^^,^ P?i ^Hj conamittee hereby appointed 

country, and should therefore be restricted and for »''•" "PP^y ^ "»« <^^7 ">d county of San Francisco 

ever abolished. ^^'7' , , m, ^ . .^ ^ * .j 

Sbo. 8. The Und is the heritage of the people, and ^ ^f^f***' T'V** * migonty report of aaid oommit- 

its appropriation by the Government for t^e fcrJher- ^ If «^.^« oowxiyy when appointed, shall be suffiaent 

ance of the schemes of individuals and corporations ^ »<*™^* ^^ disquahfy such person or candidate, 

is a robbery which must be restricted in future, and mi_ • • ♦ r«. • 

alllands so held should revert to its lawAil possessor. The immigration of the Chinese bos been 

to he held for actual settlement and cultivation ; and a subject of absorbing interest in the Btate for 

individuals holding by purchase or imperfect title many years. The first treaty between China 

land m excess of one square mue shall be restricted ^^ j •xv . rr«;«.^^ c*-*^- «...« \>^^4i^A :^ t««^ 

to the use of that amount only for cultivation and ?5^,^^?jP°^*t^..®^*^l ^** ^*^v.^ ^ ^^^^' 

pasturage, and all lands of equal productive value 1844. Ibongn it granted no nghts or pnvi- 

ahall be subject to equal taxation. leges to the Chinese, yet immediately there- 

[Supplemental to section 8.] Our previous leris- after they began to emigrate to the State of 

latora have abused the trust confldingly reposed in California. Their numbers, few at first, grad- 

^^^la^lidT^^n'o^'li?^^^^^^^ nally and steadily increased np to the%'^^^^ 

priated vast tracts of the fairest lands on earth to of the year 1876, when the people of the Pa- 

themselves ; we therefore, in the name of humanity, cific slope became alarmed at the great influx 

consider a reaurvey of the State necessary, in order of this class of immigrants, and by means of 

fS ■^^'I^J'lV?; ^'^^ ?T^^\^' ^^I'lf^r} V^iS^ the press and public meetings endeavored to 

the law m this respect has been violated. As the ^v fa* »ru ^ * r *v ^-a x • * 

land is the natural heritage of the children of men, ^^^^^ ^'^^ ^^^ ^1 this excitement against 

wedeem.onthelawsof equity and justice, that one the Chinese, and consequent danger to their 

section of 640 acres is a sufficiency for any one man safety and welfare, wat^ however, of t^hort 

to own or transmit to his offspring. ^ duration. The nnniber of immigrants for the 

•i,^n'v''5'2.'*?*'®V''"i^I matensl not produced m quarter ending June 80, 1877, which was the 

the United States should be abolished. ™««^ ^„«w*r« *vii^«;««. ^ul /^ks,,^-. -.«;f- 

Sko. 4. The industries of the countryaredepressed second quarter following the Chinese agUa- 

or improved by the fluctuations in our financial sys- tion, was 6,691, the highest ever reached. The 

tem, and we therefore insist that the National Gov- rate of increase has been very rapid. Divid- 

omment shall give to the people a system of finance jn^ the last two decades into periods of ^re 

consistent with the agriwiltural, manufacturing and ^^ average number of immigrants for 

mercantile industries and requirements of the ooun- J^*"'^ *, j^ IT ^okr * io«n • i '»/"". 

try, uncontrolled by rings, brokers, and bankers, but the period from 1865 to 1859, inclosiTe, is o^ 

for the interests of the whole people. certained to have been 4,680 ; for the second 

Sko. 6. The pardoning power conferred on the period, 1860 to 1864, it was 6,600; from 1865 

President of the United States and the Governors of ^ 1370 9 gn . from 1871 to 1874, 18,000. In 

the several States should be abolished, and the same -,j.v«« JI^Ja^ «>.« <««^.A«aA #Vv« ♦i»o Vu«.«. ^^^^a^ 

be vested in commissions. ' <>ther words, the increase for the fonr periods 

Sko. 6. Malfeasance in public oflHce should he pun- 01 five years each has been at the rate of 50 

ishable by imprisonment m the State prison for life, per cent. The lowest estimate of Chinese in 

without Intervention ofthe pardoning power. the Pacific States id 160,000. Accepting this 

Sko. 7. We demand the abolition of the contract ^ correct, it will be seen that at the above ratfi 

system in our State prisons and reformatory insti- _- . ^^ ^_, ^/».^, ^«,i„^*,*„« a-u 1 ^, 

titions. They should be managed in the intere»«ts of increase, and after deducting the large 

of the people, and the goods therein manufactured number who return, the Chmese popmatioi 

should not be sold at less than current market rates will in the near future exceed the male adull 

for like products of free labor. , .^ 0. . population of Americans in those States anci 

o/^°u^iii^iVl"l^b^SrfoZ^^y^W^^^^ ?" oj^er races combined It k .pprehendc, 

currentrates of wages. that this rate of immigration will continue 11 

Sko. 9. Eight hours is a sulBoient day's work for oonsequence of the advantages to the immi 

any man, and the law should make it so. grants. China is estimated to contain nearl^ 

Seo. 10. All public offloers should receive a fixed ^^6 third of the population of tiie earth. Th' 

salary, and the feea should be accounted tor as pub- j,^..:*^ «r ^v^ «f»,^,.i„+i«« ;« ,,«««.^ .v «.. 

Uc moneys. density of the population m many province 

exceeds 400 persons to the square mile, an* 

Bnbseqnentlj this resolution was adopted : the average of all the provinces is 800. Th 



CALIFORNIA. 75 

wages of the laboring claaB in China range American worldngmen with their fSatnilies. 
from $8 to t5 per month. Their condition is Here they sleeo, cook, and eat. 
i htfd and miserable one. Thej are exceed- Another and more serioas objection mged 
Inglj migratory in their disposition, and, against the Chinese is that their personal and 
though their ports have been so scantily moral habits make them undesirable members 
opeoed to free commerce, they are to be found of society. The crowded condition in which 
to-dsj in every oivilized country of the world, they live renders the observance of hygienic 
They find in America a congenial climate, high laws and sanitary regnlations almost an im- 
rages, and a more liberal government. They possibility. Neatness and cleanliness is an 
are separated from as by a comparatively nar- exception. The air of their apartments is 
TOW ooean, which is pacific in spirit as well as fiUed with noisome smells and pestilential va- 
in name. Passage can be made quickly and pors, threatening disease and death. The prop- 
cheaply, the nsoal price being from $40 to erty occupied by them is lessened in value, and 
150, wMoh by competition has been reduced the locality itself avoided by the white pop- 
^ loir as |12. If any are too poor to pay this nlation. Not only their personal habits, but 
snail som, brokers stand ready to advance the moral ideas, methods, and institutioins are di^ 
necesMry amount, to be secured by a mort- rectly antagonistic to those of Americans. The 
gage contract on their future wages. religious ideaa, even of the higher and titled 
As the Chinese are thus reddents in the classes in China, are preeminently wretched. 
coQotry under treaty arrangements, petitions Their superstitions are numerous and ludi- 
aod memorials have been sent to Congress for crous. Their educational systems are exceed- 
the abrogation of the treaty. This has led to ingly defective. Among the laboring or cooly 
an invastigatioa on the part of Congress into classes the grade of morals is very low. One 
the nature of the objections against them and illustration of this is seen in their treatment 
their jostness. As a result it appears that the of woman. Her birth is commonly regarded 
Chinese laborer is in some respects very de- as a calamity. If not destroyed, which is not 
arable. He ia frugal, thrifty, patient, cheer- unusual, she is regarded as a slave, and suffers 
fgl, and obedient. He readily ieams his trade, privation, contempt, and degradation from the 
and expertly performs every species of light cradle to the tomb. Instances are frequent of 
work. Ct^ese cheap labor nas worked a the sale for debt by parents of their daughters, 
^reat matMiai benefit to California in its early and by husbands ctf their wives, and that, too, 
dara, by digging its canals, delving in its mines, for the worst purposes. Infanticide of girls is 
reclaiming its tale lands, building its railroads, practiced more or less in all parts of the em~ 
and in various other ways contributing to the pire, and in some sections to an alarming ex-* 
derelopment of its material resources. If the tent. The sanctity and obligation of an oath 
desire for money-making were the only ques- are disregarded, and torture is often employed 
lion in value in this contest between Ameri- to extract the truth. These are some of the 
eao and Chineae races, it would in its indus- characteristics of the class from which nine 
trial labor phase be promptly decided in favor tenths of the immigrants come, 
ol the latter. The material advantages of this A third and principal objection to the OM- 
kiad of lab<»', however, sink into entire in- nese was the fact that they do not assimilate 
fignifieance when compared with the personal with the American people, but remain a dis^ 
eonaiderationa at stake— tiie comfort and self- tinct and alien element In this respect they 
respect, the decent, honorable living of the differ from all other voluntary immigrants. 
laborer himselfl The Chinese laborer does The German, the Irishman, the Frenchman 
not come up to the American standard of in- have sought this country as a permanent home 
dostry. Ilioee who come to this country have for themselves and their posterity, promptly 
&o homes, no home feelings, nor home inter- and cheerfully adopting its habits, customs, 
ttta, in the nsnal sense. They are willing to and political instiitutions. Devoted to the peo- 
vork for less wages than will secure homes pie, to the Government and the laws, they 
arid comfortable support to white laborers. In speedily become the worthiest and thriftiest 
th«r own oonntry they work patientiy and citizens, vindicating in the chambers of the 
obedientiy daring twelve or thirteen hours for nation their knowledge of the political prin- 
less than one tenth of what the poorest class ciples, and iUustrating upon every battie-neld, 
of American workingmen receive. In the Pa- when liberty has been attacked, tiie patriotism 
tAa Stales they are willing to work for al- which such knowledge inspires. It is not sa 
mo4 half of the price paid to American oper- with the Chinese. They have been in this 
atiref. They are able to live upon rice, tea, country over a quarter of a century ; their 
^ dried fiab, costing upon an average from employment as house servants and laborers 
twenty to thirty cents per day. Under-doth- has brought them into close and immediate 
iag is a luxnry almost unknown to them, while contact with the people ; but no change has 
the dothing they wear is of the simplest and been produced in them. What they were 
fmest character. They bring with them when they came, they are at this day— the 
neither wives, families, nor children. Cue same in disposition, in language, in religion. 
I^iadred Chinese will occupy a room which, They manifest no desire either by word or 
^ fobdivided, would not accommodate five action to become iden^ed with the people 



76 CALIFORNIA. 

of tbe conntrj. Their sole object is to ma£e tive hj the United States Oircnit Coort in Gall- 
money. When they have accomplished that, fomia. The decision is written by Judge Lo- 
they do not invest their earnings in land nor renzo Sawyer, and proceeds upon the groond 
homesteads, but return with their wealth to that a Chinaman is not a ** free white person " 
their native China. They come with no de- within the meaning of the United States 
sire or purpose to make itns their permanent statutes. The latest revision of the natnraliza- 
home. So strong is their feeling in this re- tion.laws provides that they shall apply ^' to 
spect, that the poorest laborers stipulate, as a aliens, being free white persons, and to aliens 
part of the contract by which they sell their of African nativity, and to persons of African 
services, that their dead bodies shall be cai*- descent." Judge Sawyer interprets this pro- 
ried back to China, and thousands have been vision in accordance with the presumptive 
thus exported. They have no conception of meaning of Congress when the law was 
the American judicial or legislative system, amend^. He shows that the question of the 
They can not be relied upon to perform mill- admission of the Chinese to citizenship then 
tary duty. They are incompetent as jurymen, occupied the attention of Congress, and that 
Indeed, the only purpose for which they are there was clearly no idea or intention of open- 
available is to perform manual labor. They ing the door to that race. He holds that the 
bring with them neither wives nor families, purpose of Congress was to include only mem- 
nor do they intermarry with the resident pop- bers of the Caucasian race in the term '^free 
olation. They have an inferior intelligence white persons." A similar case has been de- 
and different civilization. Mentally, merely, cided m New York, where there are some 
physically, socially, and politically, they have Chinese who have received natm-alization pa- 
remained a distinct and antagonistic race. pers. There is, however, no ground for snp- 
Nor, in view of their strong national preju- posing that the Chinese as a body have enter- 
dices, is there any hope that the future will tained any idea of seeking naturalization, 
be different Instances are numerous where The election of members of the State Con- 
an inferior race has been absorbed and im- stitutional Convention was held on June 19th. 
proved by a superior one ; but the condition It did not excite a lively general interest in the 
precedent to such a result is an acknowledg- State, but provoked a good deal of feeling in 
ment on the part of the lower race of such San Francisco on account of the violent eti'ort 
inferiority, nations as well as individuals, who made by the Kearney party to carry the city 
must conclude that they need help before they and county — an effort which appears to have 
are willing to ask or receive it. The Chinese been successful through the division of its op- 
have not, and never will, come to such a con- ponents. There were six tickets in the field, 
elusion. Their inordinate vanity leads them the two leading ones being the Citizens' Kon^ 
to believe their conntry to be the center of a partisan and that of the Keameyites. The 
terrestrial system, and they therefore call it latter were originally organized as a Working- 
Midland, or Central Kingdom. They boast of a men^s party, but their leader, Kearney, soon 
civilization which antedates the birth of Christ, developed into a violent revolutionist. Kever- 
They point with pride to a philosopher. Con- theless, the thirty-three candidates on tbe 
f ucius, whose maxims, as perfections of wis- Kearney ticket were elected in San Francisco, 
dom, had become their code of laws. They being in a majority over either of the other 
obey a Government which, in their faith, is tickets. The result of the entire election was ; 
heaven - descended — an absolute despotism. Non-partisan, 86 ; Workingmen, 49 ; Republi- 
vast, awful, and impressive, whose terrible and cans, 9 ; Democrats, 5 ; Independents, 2 ; un- 
mysterious power regulates their lives or de- classified, 2. Total, 152. 
orees their death, and under which liberty is The session of the Convention commenced 
an unknown idea. Thus intrenched behind on September 28th. It was limited by the 
national prejudices, they are impregnable law to one hundred days. It was permanent- 
against all influences, and remain a great, ly organized by the election of Joseph P. Hoge 
united class, distinct from Americans in color, as President. The vote on the fifth ballot was : 
in size, in features, in dress, in language, in Hoge, 74; W. J. Tinnin, 73. Mr. J. A. John- 
custonis, in habits, and in social peculiarities, son, of Alameda, was chosen Secretary. It was 
The result of the investigation was the rec- still in session at the close of the year, and its 
omniendation that Congress adopt a resolu- hundred days expired only on January 6th. 
tion requesting the President to open a corre- The work of the Convention and its final re- 
spondence witn the Governments of China and port win form a portion of the history of 1879. 
Great Britain, with a view of securing a change Its action on the Chinese question, the most 
or abrogation of all stipulations in existing interesting subject before the State, it may not 
treaties which permit unlimited emigration be out of place to mention at this time, 
of Chinese to the United States. Gther mea- The Committee of the Convention to whom 
Bures, such as a capitation tax and restriction was referred the subject of the Chinese immi- 
of the number of Mongolians admissible on any gration were unable to agree on a definite plan 
one yessel, have been suggested. Meantime to remedy the so-called evil. On the first see- 
the question whether Cbmese are admissible tion of their report all agreed. It was as fol- 
to naturalization has been decided in the nega- lows : 



CALIFORNIA. 77 

The Legislature shall have and shall exercise the the right bat the solemn and bonnden duty of 

Mw to enact all needful laws, and prescribe ne- ^ State to advance the safety, happiness, and 

r!?/:SSSit"S; -Vt^^-rire^^f tm^^^^ P'O'Perity of its people, and 'u> prS^ide f}r its 

bardens and evils arising from the presence of aliens, general welfare by any and every act of legis- 

vbo Are or who may become vagrants, paupers, men- lation which it may deem to be condacive to 

dieiDti, oriminals, or invalids afBicted with conta* those ends, where the power over the particQ- 

pii3 or infectious dis««e», and aliens ortherwise i^r subject, or the manner of its exercise, is 

aMwrons or detrimental to the well-being or peace ^. ^l^^l^.^j ^„* »: jt ah *u 

of tb Suite, and to impose conditions upon which »<>^ surrendered or restrained. AU these pow- 

&aeh partons may reside in the State, and to provide era, which relate to merely municipal legisla- 

taemMQsandmodeof their removal from tbe State tion, or what may perhaps more properly be 

tt:v>a fiilore or reftisal to comply with such oondi- called internal police, are not thus surrendered 

uwi: fwjiArf, that nothingr contamed in the tore- restrained : and consequently in relation to 

toiDiihall be oonatrued to impair or limit the power y; *«''«*»****'^» "*^2^ vv»*o«^u«i*wj *«. zs>±awu w 

pfthe Legialature to pass such other police laws or ^^^^ ^"6 authority of a State is complete, nn- 

re^ioos as it may deem necessary. qualified, and exclusive." The same author 

also states: "The State may pass poor-laws 

This plau was based on the assumption that and laws to prevent the introduction of paupers 

the State had not the power within itself to set- or persons likely to become paupers." 

tie to question. It was believed, however, by The remarks of the "Sacramento Record" 

lU the Committee that the State had the pow- on this plan proposed to the Oonvention are 

er to protect itself from vagrants, paupers, crim- too appropriate to be omitted : 

iails, e^,^ under its police powers, and for self- t#-* • v* *. i - nu- 

prejerr^on. This;did n^ intSfere with the th^^rdlSltlh':* S.'."r.l?b?^pb^ 

ngats of l/ongress to regulate commerce. It the importation of paupen, vagrants, and criminals, 

vas proposed that courts should be established we fear the attempt will prove a failure. The great 

in Sjq Francisco and elsewhere, where vagrants, ni^orityof the Cninetto who land In this country 

a«.(iic«l^ and others coald be examined, and, r«°u."w J°^'.^!l'J/l^Sm/nUt^!fnli1t^-l' "^^^t 

:♦ u — t jk j.A^ t. t.x, Ti 1 A i_ the law was 80 strained in admimstenng it as to per- 

a It was found that they were hkely to become ^ert the language utterly. The Chineseire, as eveir- 

chargeable upon the tax-payers, placed m safe body knows, one of the most industrious races on the 

Irceping nntU they could be removed from the fsce of the earth. It is their industry that renders 

State, With respect to criminals it was pro- *^®™ "^ dangerous to our civiliiation. They are not 

y^YJ^r they had.been eonvicte^ in- ^^^''^l^^^^^^^^'^^ToSk^^^^^^t 

^esd of bemg sent to prison, they should be to support life upon. They are neither paupers nor 

<^eported from the State. This was a sort of vagrants, ond to attempt to put them in such a cate- 

(•i^iijhment. Oalifomia had tried, by means gory would almost certainly end in failure. 

6n^e« of Chinese immigration, but these f?.^??.^^!^^^ ^?* ^^*^^? ?^ ^^^ ^^P^'* ^' 

fiUotes had been declared in contravention of *^^ Committee, and was as follows : 

tU Federal Oonstitation. The suggestions con- 4"„^5!*«^ Immigration to this State of Chinese. 

tiiaed in the first section did not come within ^^^^}.i?lYl^f^'''^A^''i^^^^^^ °^ 
♦k • I'v-^- V^u ci J 1 ri \lil^ J the Umted States under the naturalization laws there- 
tie mhibition of the Federal Constitution, and of, is hereby prohibited. The Legislature shall pro- 

t::e opmion of Justice Wayne in passengers' vide for the enforcement of this section by appropri- 

fti^es was quoted in support of this theory, ate legislation. 

b the passenger cases it was proposed by the a division of opinion appeared before the 

;^jslature9 of IJew York and Massachusetts to Committee relative to the powers of the State, 

i.ipaae a tax of $1.60 on each passenger, or re- one side holding that the State had no power 

ji^ bonds of $460 from captains of vessels to enforce such a prohibition, and the other 

aa the passengers shodd not become a charge that it had the power. Several decisions of 

»?on the Statea. The United States Supreme the United States Supreme Court were referred 

'--^ decided thatthese enactments of the two to, as showing that the section incorporated 

fUA were unconst'tutionaL being a reflation a power belonging to the Federal Oovemment. 

. commerce ; but it wm admitted m the deci- a memorial to Congress was suggested, request 

--•n that the States had the right m the exer- ing legislation on the Chinese question, and 

n.-. of police powers to protect themselves another to the treaty-making power to modify 

V^ criminal vagrants and other dangerous the Burlingame treaty. It was urged that an 

-SAnas. No denial was made that the pro- attempt to nullify an act of Congress, or to 



•^sms contained in this section were stnctly interfere with the powers of the Government, 
^-Uim the lumts of the pohce powers of the ^ould raise an antagonistic feeUng all through 




•opoeed in the report of 

-.^, , ,...,. .^.. the Committee was contained in the following 

^ nndeniable and unlimited junsdiotion over sections : 

^ persons and things within its territorial « ^ « . . ,. .^, ^ 

-tiu as any foreign nation, where that juris- *t,!*T?;;*,' JS!!!^^®? ineligible to become citizens of 

• -!«,. ;. J^ «..^..iiA«^ 7!- »An4..«{.«^ \L ♦!»«. *'^® United States shall not have the right to sue or 

.. .ion » not anrrendered or restrained by the be sued in any of the courts of this Stite ; and any 

V ..Citation. By virtue of this, it not only is lawyer appearing fororagainst them, or any of them. 



78 CALIFORNIA. 

m a oivU pTOoeediDff, shall forfoit his UoenM to prao* eroment for white men. Citizenship had been 

tioelaw. No such foreigaer shaU be giwiud Uoew^ COTifeired upon four millions of colored peopk 

^wrry on any bu8ine88, trade, wooc^^^^ but this arose from necessity. ThenatuSizr- 

State, nor Bhall euoh license be granted to any per- ^'. *• *V" *""•»" , j j u.^^iy * *.» uat^uiwiM 

son or oorporation employing them. No suoh for* tion laws excluded Orientals from citizenahip 

eignerahaiu have the right to oatoh fish in any of the because it would be a disturbing element in 

waters under the juriadiction of the State; nor to the government. If these people were not 

purohMe, own, or lease real property in this State; adapted to become citizens, there were some 

and all contracts of oonyeyanoe or lease of real estate „,Jr^-,«i.„ «^:«o* «ii^«;«l ♦u^«» ♦« 1v^««,a 

to any such foreigner sb^l be Toid. arguments agamst allowing them to become 

Sbo. 7. The praaenoe of foreigners ineligible to be- denizens. It was a mistake to suppose that 
oome citixena of the United States is deolared herein cheap labor was beneficial to a country. There 
to be dangerous to the well-being of the State, and -^as no need now of fostering immigratioiu 
tlie Legislature shall discourage their immigration by heranflA hv the law of matenal increase a 
all the means within its power. It shall proyide for P® ?*, ' -^ i ^ 5 «w ^u^i/? ♦ ^V * 
their ex<dusion from residence or settlement in any healthy, vigorous race doubled itself m twenty- 
portion of the Sute it may see £t, or from the State, five years. Taking the present population at 
and provide suitable methods, by their taxation or 40,000,000, it may be naturally expected that 
otherwise, for the expense of suoh exclusion. It shall the population of the United States at the end 
prescribe suitoble penalties for the punishment of ^ ^f century would be 76,056,000. Chinamen 
persons convicted ol introducing themwitfam for- ^'^ «»'^ ^^"•'"y, ~: *p , » . ' vT ^"**r^^ 
biddan limits. It shall delegate all necessary power bad learned the art of drawmff the maxunnm 
to the inoorporated oities and towna of this SUte for from the soil and living on the minimum of 
their removal without the Umitp of suoh oities and subsistence. For ten thousand yeaxs Chinese 

^y**"'- « vii xa •*!.• *!.• o* * » vj had been learning how to live on next to no- 

Sbo. 8. PubUoomcerswithiu this State are forbid- ♦i,?^^ «.«.v«««. 5^^^^^ i«^«.o ^««. ^f ^^^i^ 

den to employ Chinese in any capacity whatever. ?^*nft Z-^- ^^^^ ^??" -2?* ^i *T i' 

Violation of this provision shall be ^und for re- four. Five Chinamen could exist on food anffi- 

moval from office ; and no person shall be eligible to dent for one white laboring man. The white 

any otBce in this State who, at the time of election man, therefore, can not compete with him, not 

be denied to any person employing Chinese in this thousands of years, and no one wanted to see 
State, and it shall be a sufficient challenge that the white laborers thus degraded. If the Chmese 
person offering to vote is employing Chinese, or has are to continue coming here, schoolhonses most 
employed them within three months next preceding be pulled down, for white men can not send 
the election. children to school Marriage among white peo- 
The objections were urged against these sec- pie would oease on account of poverty. Mi- 
tions by dissentient members of the Committee, gration could be accounted for by natural law. 
that they denied the right of the Chinese to Starvation had been the great, cauae in past 
the protection of kw ; that it was a plan of ages. There were sevenl^ millions of Ohma- 
starvation by constitutional provision; that the men now starving, and the only country open 
sections interfered with the rights of American to this starving race is the Pacific States and 
citizens by declaring whom they shonld em- Territoriesof the United States. The question 
ploy. It was well known that the principal was, therefore, a subject deserving the atten- 
portion of the Chinese coming to California tion of American statesmen. 
Delonged to dangerous classes. The oonvic- A debate oontinning two or three days took 
tions of the Chinese in San Francisco for one place, when the report of the Committee was 
year to the Slst of October, 1878, were 2,488. adopted, nfter very little alteration by the Con- 
It would cost less to send these convicted vention. This was chiefly verba). The im- 
crimiuids out of the State than to keep them pression seemed to prevail that the settlement 
in j£dl. They could be sent away for $16 each, of the question was beyond the power of the 
It was not an entire remedy for the Chinese State, and that these sections would, be de- 
evil, but it was the best thing that could be clared unconstitalaonal by the courts, 
done under the circumstances. Congress could The proposition to address a memorial to 
remove the evil. Not much would -come from Congress on the subject was approved by the 
requesting a modification of the Bnrlingame Convention. The following able memorial was 
treaty. The Chinese were already taking ac- reported by the Committee and unanimously 
tion to procure delay. It was patent to every adopted by the Convention : 
observer that China was f .^^ouraging tW ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ H^presmtati^ of iU 
migration. Congress could legishite and pre- jr^^^ g^^^. r^^^ people of the State of cSifor- 
Vent Chinese immigration. This was fully es- nla, by their delegates now assembled in Oonatitu- 
tablished, even though it leads to a declaration tional Convention, respectfully present to the Senate 
of war. The state of political parties at pres- •pd House of Bepresentatives of the United States 

ent was favorable for tecurinK enoh legiaUtion. &.1S:^,H\^it ^.'S'^rSS^SJ^iotiJ^tol? 
It had been said that to exclude Chinese from ^r relief from Chinese immigration, an evU of such 
the country was contrary to the policy of the magnitude and of a character so threatening t4> tlie 
American people, but from the foundation of higfhest interests of the State as to ezcice in the 
the Government liberal naturalization laws had ?»nd» of our whole people the most serioiw diaaatis- 
**«!«. ^^^¥\*^^A «.!.«. «,t>Ua •^^^ *r^ a^*^¥\^ in fiiSo faction and alarm. As hecomes a people devoted to 
only entitled the wlute riwe to settle m this ^.j^^ ^^.^^^^ Union, and filled with a profound rev- 
country. One fact had always stood out m erence for law, we have repeatedly, hy petition and 
this republic, that it was a white man^s gov- memorial, through the action of our Legialatore, and 



CALIFORNIA, 79 

b/ oar SeiMton and BepreaentativeB in Congress, lifh their own tribonalB for the redress of wrongs 

■ought the appropriate remedies againist this great and injaries amuDg themselves, independent of ovir 

wrong, and patiently awaited with oonfldence the ao- courts, and subject the victims of such tribunals to 

tioa 01 the Oeneral Government. Meanwhile this seeret punishments the most barbarous and terrible. 

guatevU lias growu, and strengthened, and expand- In our cities they live crowded and herded togather 

eJ its baneful effect upon the muterial interests of like beaats, generating the most dangerous diseaaes* 

tiie people, upon public morals and our civilization, They introduce the ancient, infectious, and incurable 

becoming more and more apj>arent, until patience malady called leprosy, the germs of which, when 

is almost exhausted and the spirit of discontent per- once distributed, can never be eradicated, but fasten 

Tides the State. It would be disingenuous in us to themselyea upon the people aa an eternal consuming 

sttempt to conceal our amazement at the long, delay rot. They poison our youth in both mind and body, 

of sppropristc action by the National Government They build no homes. They sie generally destitute 

toward tiie prohibition of an immigration which is of moral principle. They are incapable of patriot- 

npidlyapproaoiiingtheoharaoter of an Oriental in- ism, and utterly unfitted for American citizenship. 

TdsioD. and which tnreatens to supplant Anglo-Sub- Their existence here in great numbers is a perpetual 

00 eivilization on this coast. If the facts relating to menace to republican institutions, a souroe of oon- 

thia immigration now patent to all observers, if the stant irritation and danger to the public i>ettoe. 

sscdrtained knowledge now within the reach of every The system of labor which results firom their pres- 

intellif ent man, will not serve to awaken an interest ence is a system which includes all or nearly aU the 

upon tnis subject in the minds of the governing pow- vices of slavery, without the conservative influences 

er of this nation, we are tempted to despair of ever incident to the domestic or paternal relation between 

reaching a remedy. master and slave. It degrades labor to the standard 

If it be supposed, as has been often said, that the of mere brute eneivy, and this excludes the labor of 

hostility to Chinese immigration is confinea to a free white men, wno will not and can not endure 

imsll and ignorant class of our people, we protest the degradation of competition with servile labor, 

s^nst SDoh assumption. The discontent from this Chinese labor is, therefore, substituted for the labor 

csose is almoat universal. It is not limited to any of free white men, and the State is afflicted with a 

Sirtioular party, nor to any class or nationality. It quoH alave system, under ^hioh Chinese population 

oes not spring fVom race antipathies, hor alone from supplants white American citizens, and drives them 

economic considerations, nor nrom any religious sen- to other fields or to starvation, 

timent. nor from low hatreds or mercenary motives. The necessary hrevity of this memorial forbida 

We soomit that, our people being interested to a the further enlargement of facts and reasons for the 

greater , extent in commerce with China than any almost universal hostility in California to their im- 

ocber portion of the American people, the reasons migration. Webegtheearnest attention of the Gov- 

for this hostility to Ciiinese immigration must be ernment at Washington to this subject, fraught with 

considered overwhelming, when sufficient to arrav immense interest to us, and, as we believe, to the 

the whole body of our people against a treaty which whole peonle of the United States. Whatever the 

was intended to secure to that people, more than State or California may lawAilly do to abate or miti- 

to any other, the great benefits to be derived from gate this evil, it has resolved to do, declaring, how- 

Asiatio commeroe. Our sincerity can not tiierefore ever, our settled determination to avoid all oonfiict 

be doubted, since we are willing to forego all the with the national authority, and to limit our action 

benefits of commerce with China, if need be, rather to the exercise of the police power of the State. We 

then suffer the ills which this immigration must in- ask most earnestly and respectfully of the Congress 

svitably entail upon us and our descendants. of the United States such prohibitoi^ le^islstion as 

Among the many reasons forour opposition to Chi- will effectually prevent the further immigration of 

oese imtnigration, all of which can not be stated in a Ciiinese coolies or laborers to the ports of the oosst. 
brief memorial, we submit the following : 

1. The wuntry being now stocked with a vigor- xhere is another view of this subject wliich 

W^l^ i^«£3dTtJnSS^tl^^^^^^^^^^^ was occasionally alluded to. in the ibates of 

crease of our population, certainly not of the immi- the Convention, and recognized by all the con- 

gration of a non-assimilative and alien race. siderate members. The representation of the 

i. That, considering the character of Chinese im- pobUc action of the State would be imperfect 

muraata in respect to their habits «nd modes of life Without some notice of this aspect of the ques- 

snd physioal peouhantiea, this immigration operates 7. *'^*'"" . 'J" . """'^ ^*- •'"*f *^*:''^I'. ^* *"" H^«»- 

ss a siistitution of Chinese for white men of the ^^^^' " « bneflj set forth m the " Sacramento 

Csaeasian race, and not as an addition to our popu- Becord,** whose language aptly expresses it, 

lation ; the question being. Shall Chinese ultimately thus : *^ Every man who nas ever thought upon 

JfmSJ Sfth^'caiSsUn wcL\* ^^ ^^^^ *'^' '^^ ^^°^^' *^^* question knows perfectly well that John 

%?fhtreildjIlS^ of a^tomense increase of Chi- Chjnaman is formidable, not because of his 

neseimmigranU inthe near future. The effect of Pad qualities, but because of his good ones. 

the famine now unhappily prevailing inthe northern If he were really the poor, miserable creature 

provincea of China is sure to cause a migration of depicted by extravagant hostility, there would 

S^e'hSr'S^ 'T^e^2r\7h?n?er%^ir5^% itir^trfn'rirS L't^'^'L^L^w^'i^^^^ 

the aurvivors of thU caUmity forth In prodigious lefiRflation in regard to him. No race was ever 

numbers, in quest of food, eastward, because there 80 nated unless it was feared ; and that is a 

M no other outlet, and California offers the most truth which ought to be recognized in this 

fruitful field for their sustenance. The speculators case. The Chinaman is formidable because he 

in Chinese labor will if permitted, seiie tlie oppor- j industrious, temperate, frugal, patient, tract- 

timity to augment their fortunes by the importation of « *"**"'"'*^ *""*'i w«t**pvt oi.«, ** «^«., poviv^w, k^*m^w- 

these hungeMriven creatures into our ports. This f ole, and, above all, cheap. He works for very 

invaAion is to be dreaded by us more than a hontile low wages, but it is none the less true that he 

invassion by armed men, for, upon the flrnt note of does the work he undertakes. He has found 

slarm from such a cause, the nation would hasten to jjjg ^gy into every industry on the Pacific 

T'rhe ChLese Sini with them habits and cus- coast, because those who want labor find that 

toms the mo»t vicious and demoralizing. They are bis labor pays. That is the secret of the en- 

eeomful of oar laws and institutions. They estab- mity to him. That is the reason we are all 



80 CALIFORNIA, 

trying to get rid of liim. It is the wisest way been secured. Three years ago, when the 

to admit the truth frankly, and the truth is vines were much more immature, the prodnc- 

that white labor can not compete with Chi- tion was 7,000,000 gallons, which was fonnd 

nese. Nor is it worth while to try and seek to be in excess of the demand. Nevertheless, 

reasons for this in some inferiority on the part the effect was to establish a price for Califor- 

of John. It is sufficient that he can under- nia wines which, notwithstanding the great 

work and underlive the Anglo-Saxon and Gel- improvement since made in their quality, it 

tic and all other races of European develop- has been found impracticable to advance ; so 

ment. The fact that he can do this is not to that now, when the wines challenge the highest 

his disparagement. There is no more virtue commendations of the most critical Eastern 

in feeding upon beef and potatoes than in feed- experts, and are even favorably considered by 

ing upon rice. As a matter of fact rice con- ■ French connoisseurs by the side of their ovn 

stitutes the main support of a majority of the most approved products, the producers arc 

human race to-day, and no doubt will long compelled to accept prices for their wines 

continue to do so. Sneers at John because he which barely pay the cost of production. The 

eats rice, or because he wears a special dress, product for the year will be about 6,000,000 

or because his habits are not like ours, are on gallons, or less than half a crop. This is part- 

a par with the old English sneers at the French, ly owing to the heavy volume of rain that fell 

on the ground that they had brass money and last winter, but more doubtless to the unex- 

wore wooden shoes. All such arguments ai-e plained causes which forbid a full yield of any 

aimply contemptible, and so are animadver* fruit, and especially grapes, except at intervals 

sions upon the civUization of the Chinese, of three or more years. The quality of the 

There are probably not many members of the fruit, however, has been excellent. Never be- 

Convention who know much about that civili- fore have the grapes of Califomia been so rich 

zation, but those who have inquired into it for wine-making. The light red wines are 

know that it has at least the merit of endur- pronounced not only superior to any hereto- 

ance, and that no other civilization extant has fore produced, but equal to the best French 

stood the same test of time. All such talk, production. The white wines are also much 

moreover, is irrelevant. It is quite sufficient improved over the product of former years, 

to make it clear that competition with the Chi- This improvement is attributable to the age of 

naman is beyond our capacity, and that amal- the vines^ and also to the greater knowledge 

gamation wiib. such a people is out of the ques- of the vmeyardists in treating tbem and in 

tion, to establish the fact that ^ the Chinese handling the grapes. 

must go * — or that, if they do not go, the Amer- The increase in the demand for Califomia 

icans will have to. By freely admitting all the wines is very marked this year, especially for 

strong points of the Chinaman, moreover, it is export. It is estimated that this export will 

far easier to make out the case against him. reach 2,000,000 gallons, against 1,600,000 gal- 

We wish to get rid of him because we fear Ions last year, -and the prospects are favorable 

that he will drive us to the wall. That is a for a still largef foreign trade in 1679. Sweet 

perfectly good reason for excluding him, and wines are now very scarce, and command a 

we believe that it will prove far less difficult high price in the market. Wines of this class, 

to solve the problem on that line ^an by at- which sold last year for 40 cents a gallon, now 

tacking his morals and talking about his diet.*' readily command 60 centa, and are hard to 

Sufficient was known before the close of the find. On the whole, the wine interests of Cali- 

year to make an approximate statement of the fornia are considered to be in a very promising 

grape harvest and wine product. The State condition, and the industry has reached a stage 

now produces more grapes than any other in where it is capable of taking care of itself, if it 

the Union, and nearly as many as all the others can only be let alone. There exists, however, 

combined. In a good seasqn her product ot an anxious looking toward Washington, from 

wine alone has aggregated about 7,000,000 gal- a fear of some alteration of the tariff which 

Ions. Besides this product, she has put large might disturb or destroy the interest altogether, 

quantities of the fruit of her vines into raisins, or some commercial-treaty arrangement with 

and has distilled a considerable quantity of the France which might be equally injurious. The 

juice into brandy. Grape culture for the year ravages of the phylloxera have been mainly 

1878 has not been remunerative in the State, confined to the Sonoma Valley, with some 

because of a short crop and the low price of slight manifestations of its presence in the Napa 

the fruit in the market. The yield was less Valley. No traces of it have been found in Los 

than one half of what it should have been. Angeles County, or other grape regions. In 

In the Sonoma Valley the yield was one third the Sonoma Valley it has killed out from five 

of a crop, and in the Napa region about the to six hundred acres of vineyards. It has been 

same. It is estimated by competent judges observed that this pest prefers the more com- 

that there are 40,000,000 vines in bearing in mon or ordinary vine. It selects the Mission 

the State. These vines ought to yield not less grape in preference to all others when it can 

than 12,000,000 gallons of expressed juice ; or, find it to feed on. Experiments to destroy it 

more exactly, every three vines should yield have been made with tubes of sulpho-carbon, 

one gallon of wine. But this yield has never and if taken in time — that is, before the vine 



CAPE COLONY AND BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA. 



81 



JB tDtirely filled with the inseot— this is pro- 
noQDoed a sure remedy. 

The yield of gold and silver in California in 
1878 was $16,920«461 ; which is an increase in 
gold of $3,068,000, but a decrease in silver to 
tb« tmoant of $1,823,000. 

In the important case of the United States 
en. Throckmorton, the Supreme Coart at Wash - 
iiurt<Hi, on December 9th, rendered a decision 
fffirming that of the California Circait Conrt. 
The sotion was brooght to set aside the final 
decree of confirmation of a Mexican grant on 
the ground of its alleged forgery, etc. The 
Coirt declined to interfere, because the validity 
of the gramt was the very matter adjadioated 
Ure&ty years ago. The foUowing general prin- 
ciples were annoanced by Jastioe Miller in be- 
y^ of a unaniroons full bench : 

Courts of eqiiitv will not eot aside, on aoconnt of 
■llefed fraud, a deciaion rendered by a tribnnal of 
:MDpetont jariadiction, unleas the fraud complained 
of WMM extrinaio or collateral to the matter bo ac|ju- 
dlji£«d. There are rights which, even though found- 
rj in fraud, have been so established by formal ju- 
d-cul proceedings in legally oonatitnted tribunala, 
■cd by lefcal methods, that the^ are no longer open 
t> inqoirr in the nsual or ordmaiy way; and this 
Cnrt win not set aside a judgment because it was 
fvfinded on a fraudulent instrument or neijored evi- 
ieifece, or for any cause which was actually presented 
u>d coasidered in the judgment aaaailed. To over- 
rde the demuirer to this bill would be to retry. 
:»eoty yeara after its decision by the Board of Laud 
CAfflmisaioaers and the District Court, the ybij ques- 
nvns which they tried on the ground of fraud in the 
T«T7 doeninent on which this decree was rendered. 
Taa Supreme Court further hold that no one bnt a 
Uolted States Attomey-Oeneral, or some one au- 
t::orbed to nse hia name, can, without special act 
of Con i^i e s a, bring suit to set aside a United States 
rcteot, or a judgment rendered in a Federal Court 
OCX which meh a patent is founded ; and that there 
u iMthing in the record in this oaae to show that 
t je AUoraey-General sanctioned the proceedings. 

CAPE COLONY AND BRITISH SOUTH 
AFRICA. The area and population of the 
Briti^ posaesBions in South Africa were as 
fnUows in 1878 : 



The religions denominations were represent- 
ed as follows : 



DKNOMINATIONS. 



Protestsats: 

AngUcans 

Pnasbyteriana 

Methodists. 

Baptists 

Lathenns 

I>atch Koformed Cborcfa.... 

Othen 

GstboUos 

Jews 

HohsmmedADS 

Other reUgtons. 

BeloDging to do obiutih 

Unknown. 



WUto. 


Celorad. 


S«,548 


18,498 


8,480 


4,248 


1,960 


84,817 


8,178 


<18 


6,278 


11,143 


148,076 


28,420 


86,661 


68,0*29 


8,666 


1,001 


688 


• ■ • • • 


18 


11,196 


15 


8 


2,287 


881,810 


188 


228 


286,788 


484»201 



Total. 



40,041 

7,678 

82,277 

2,891 

17,421 

171,496 

98,790 

9,667 

688 

11,214 

28 

884.047 

406 



OOLOKUa. 


Am. 


Popotatka. 


: CfimBj ef cape of Good Hope ; 
a. OMOolonf proper, InolnslTe 


199,900 

8.460 

16.682 

12,491 

18,760 

114,840 


720,984 
127,701 


h. Bteaete Land 


4. Qrlma Lead West... 


4^277 

r$4,ooo 


1 9^tM , 


896,900 


■ T^aanal 


27^000 




Tbfeil *... 


S70«674 


1,760,421 





The total population of 720,984 in the Cape 
y'.aar, aeeordug to the census of 1875, was 
~ Tided as follows; 



KACia. 


MdM. 

128,910 

6,182 

60,679 

86^486 

100.817 
48,706 


Ffmal«. 


Total. 


'^e*pmm9twmm 


112,878 

6,686 

47,982 

87.071 

104,816 
48,479 


286,788 




10317 




98361 


^^^^9... 


7S30S 


^^t^^mi m^Vmanf 


914,188 


Wtt ^i^flf ^f^ vOfcflll. 


87,184 






T^ssL 


809,628 


861366 


780,984 



Of the total nnmher of inhabitants in Bassnto 
Land according to the census of 1876, 60,894 
were males and 67,807 females. In Griqna 
Land West, according to the census of June 
17, 1877, there were 12,874 whites and 82,- 
908 blacks. 

The Caffre war, which seemed to have come 
to an end in November, 1877 (see ** Annual 
Cyclopedia" for 1877), broke out again at the 
dose of the year. On December 20th Kreli, who 
was in hiding in one of the forests in the Trans- 
kei, sent messengers to Ibeka asking for peace, 
as he had been sufficiently punished. This 
was followed by the surrender of his chief 
councilor Botman, who declared that the tribe 
was subdued and craving for mercy. Col. 
Eustace discussed with Botman the terms upon 
whid^ the submission of the Galekas would be 
received by the Qovemment — ^namely, the un- 
conditional surrender of the chief and his son, 
and the disarmament of his warriors. Three 
days were given for Kreli to accept this or 
take the consequences. At the expiration of 
the time an unfavorable answer was given; 
the armistice was thereupon declared at an 
end, and on Friday, December 28th, Col. Glyn, 
commanding in the Transkei, moved forward 
fVom the Ibeka, with the forces at his disposal. 
During the negotiations with Kreli, however, 
one of his councilors, Kiva, with 200 follow- 
ers, eluded the guards at the river drifts and 
crossed over the Kei into the Gaika location. 
This immediately changed the aspect of affairs. 
A considerable section of the powerfdl Gaika 
tribe, whose veteran chief Sandilli was one of 
the most troublesome enemies of the British 
twenty-five years ago, and who up to this time 
had been overawed and kept in check, now took 
up arms against the Government. Martial 
law was proclaimed throughout portions of 
the Gaika territory, and the European resi- 
dents on isolated farms in their neighborhood 
were warned at once to move to the nearest 
camps and places of rendezvous for protection. 
The Gaikas in the last days of December made 
an incursion into Fingo Land, which >s under 
the British protectorate. They next attempted 
to cut off the communications by the post- 
road between King William^s Town and Kon- 



YoL. zvin. 



I 



8a CAPE COLONY AND BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA. 

• 

gha, which 18 the principal Station of the cavalry and after several hoars^ fighting completely 

and artillery belonging to the armed frontier routed. 

police, and is distant forty miles north of King In the beginning of March a movement was 
WiUiam^s Town. A severe engagement was undertaken by Commandant Griffith against 
fought on December 81st, between a body of tlie rebel positions on the Thomas River, and 
40 men of the 88th and 20 police, and a large the whole country from the junction of the 
body of Gaikas estimated at from 600 to 1,000. Eei to Henderson was effectually scoured, the 
In the beginning of January the Gaffres were Caffres everywhere retreating. Sandilli and 
swarming throughout East London division, his two sons, however, together with their fol- 
especially near the Kei. From Eongha Col. lowers made a backward movement into the 
Lambert, with a force 600 strong, went out colony daring the succeeding night and day, 
against them, but thought it better to defer and, passing within a mUe or two of the posts 
an attack until reinforcements should arrive, at Stutterheim and Grey Town, reached with- 
He relieved and brought away a garrison at out any hindrance the Izeli and Perie Bush 
Fort Jeupetu, and in less than an hour after- in the famous Amatola range, thus taking pos- 
ward the fort was occupied by the natives, session of their old and familiar strongholds 
At the junction of the Isomo and the Eei the in the wars of 1846 and 1851. 
Gaikas attacked the Fingoes, but were re- Ereli, after the disastrous battle of Quinta- 
pulsed with a considerable loss. On January na, fled to Pondo Land on the Umtata Biver. 
14th a generd plan of offensive operations for On March 14th news reached Ibeka that the 
the attack and dispersion of the enemy was peat Galeka warrior Eiva had taken refuge 
set in motion. Col. Glyn^s column, east of the m one of Ereli's hiding-places. CoL Glyn 
Eei, Col. Lambert^s from the Eongha, re^n- immediately sent out an expedition against 
forced by a large number of Fingoes, and Capt. him, which was completely successful. It took 
Brabant^s East London and Chalumna Yolun- Eiva completely by surprise, and during the 
teers, made a simultaneous movement upon engagement Eiva and three of his brothers 
the Eei and Chichaba Valleys. While Col. were killed. No sooner was the news of his 
Lambert's force drew the head of the Chi- death made known than Ereli showed signs of 
chaba Valley, the force under Capt. Brabant submission. His principal councilor, Botman, 
encountered the enemy lower down. About brought the intelligence that the great chief 
4,000 head of cattle and 10,000 sheep were intended to surrender in a few days. He 
taken from the Caffi^s, and a large number shortly after inquired on what terms peace 
of the enemy killed. A continuous roar of can- would be made. But he as well as Sandilli, 
non and musketry was kept up from Col. Glyn's who made a similar inquiry, was told that no 
column on the other side of the Eei, who took conditions would be made with rebel chiefs in 
from the enemy 1,000 cattle and 900 sheep, arms against the Government 
The losses of the British on this occasion were The mountainous region to which Sandilli 
very small. On the 16th Capt. Brabant drove had retired offered all the advantagea of a 
them with considerable loss from the fastnessea natural fortress, occupying a space of about 80 
along the Eabousie River, where they had miles square. At first the number of rebel 
concentrated their forces, and again captured Gaikas in the Amatolas was not more than 
large numbers of cattle and sheep. Nothing of 1,000, but constant reinforcements soon raised 
importance occurred during the remainder of it to 8,000 or 4,000. Gen. Sir A. Cunynghame, 
January. A decisive victory was gained by whose term had expired, was succeeded in 
the British, however, in the beginning of Feb- the latter part of February by Gen. Thesiger. 
ruary, when on the 7th Col. Glyn and Capt. The operations of the latter were at first un- 
Upcher inflicted a severe defeat upon the na- successful, but he gradually reduced the terri- 
tives at Quintans. It was undoubtedly the tory occupied by the rebels. Tini Macomo, a 
most disastrous defeat the Caffres had met with powerful chief who, after having been defeat- 
up to that time. The Galekas themselves ac- ed near Fort Beaufort, had joined SandilU^ 
knowledged severer losses than on any pre- was captured on May 27th, and, within* about 
vious occasion ; and the bodies of nearly 200 ten days after, Sandilli himself was killed at 
found in front and about the position, and more Isidengi. This virtually put an end to the war, 
than an equal number afterward discovered in and the troops were 0I^dered home, 
the neighboring kloofs and ravines, attested the At the same time that the troubles in the 
severity of their punishment It was known a Transkei territory were reopened, the power- 
day or two previous that the enemy were col- fol nation of the Zooloos, under their Eing Cety- 
leK)ting in that part of the Transkei meditating wayo, pressed close upon the borders of Natal 
an attack^ but it was difficult to judge which of and of the Transvaal province, along the Buffalo 
the positions, Ibeka or Quintana, they would River. This locality is distant three hundred 
approach. Col. Glyn made dispositions to miles in a straight line to the north from the 
meet either case. On the morning of the 7th Great Eei Ri?er of the Giukas and Galekas ; 
the forces of the enemy were seen approach- but the intervening provinces of Natal and 
ing, and proved to be the combined forces of Bassuto Land are traversed by a chain of "wild 
Ereli and Sandilli^ numbering about 4,000 to mountain ranges and highlands, called the 
5,000 men. They urere immediately attacked, Drakenberg, along which it would be possible 



CAPE COLONY, ETC. CHEMISTRY. 83 

ibr the savages to hold oommnnication with another Administration as soon as he conld 

each other. It was therefore an alarming cir- form the same. A new ministry was formed 

cumstance that the Zooloo King had chosen by Mr. Qordon Sprigg, and was composed as 

this time to advance claims of territory in the follows: Mr. Sprigg, Premier; Mr. Uppington, 

distriot of Utrecht, at the southern extremity Attorney-General; Mr. Laing, Commissioner of 

of the Transvaal, which both Sir Theophilos Crown Lands and Pablic Works ; Mr. Ayliffe, 

ShepstODe, the Administrator of that province, Secretary for Native Affairs ; and Mr. Miller, 

and the Provincial Grovernment of Natal were Treasurer-General. Parliament met on May 

not disposed to admit. There was mnoh cause 10th. Among the first questions it considered 

to apprehend that Cety wayo was assured of was the action of Sir Bartle Frere in dismissing 

80 alUanoe with his restless warlike neighbor the Molteno Ministry. A resolution supporting 

Seknkani, the late nnconquered foe of the the action of the Governor was passed by a 

Transvaal Republic ; and it was estimated that \ote of 87 to 22. 

both potoQtates together could command a joint CHEMISTRY. N%tr\fleation. — ^The process 
force of 47,000 men, armed with muskets .and generally in use for preparing saltneter (nitrate 
rifles. Iq the middle of March Sekukuni de- of potassium) is as foUows: Soil, containing 
dared himself openly hostile, and laid siege to more or less vegetable mold and carbonate of 
two forts in the direction of Ley den burg. Se- lime, is mixed with a certain proportion of 
vere fighting took place on June 22d at Lar- stable manure or other refuse organic matter, 
g)nl>eck on the northern border, in which the and disposed in small heaps, to the interior of 
rebels were defeated. The Eamas tribe was which there must be free access of air; the 
disarmed and dispersed. In August a mutiny heaps are sheltered from rain, and watered from 
broke oat in Zooloo Laud, in the native oolioe. time to time with stable sewage. After two 
Skirmishing had been going on daring July and or three years the earth is found to be sufiScient* 
Aa^ost, and by the end of August the Caffres ly rich in niter to be worth leaching. Of late, 
bad completely invested Leydenburg. however, niter is obtained far more ezpedi- 
A rising took place among the Griquas, in tionsly by the treatment of Peruvian nitrate 
Griqna Land East, daring April, On the 14th of sodium with potassium chloride, the prod- 
thej made an armed deinoustration against net being saltpeter and common salt. But 
Kokstadt, but were defeated with considerable how is the phenomenon of nitrification as seen 
loss. The rising was completely suppressed by in the artificial process to be explained? Clear- 
the end of the month. ly it involves oxidation of nitrogen into nitric 
The Oaffre war gave rise to a ministerial acid ; but the question which has long vexed 
crisis. It was well known that differences of the minds of chemists concerns the rationaU 
opinion had occurred on more than one occasion of this oxidation. The old chemists believed 
betweeu the Governor and the Cabinet. Pos- that a decaying organic body evolves more or 
sibiy it conld not be otherwise while the Gov- less of its nitrogen in a free state, and that this 
emor as commander-in-chief was responsible while nascent combines with the oxygen of the 
to the Imperial authorities for the movements air. According to many modern chemists, the 
and actions of the British forces, and at the oxidizing agent is ozone. Others again incline 
same time was constitutionally advised in all to the beli^ that nitrogen is never oxidized in 
matters of government by a ministry answer- the soil except when in the form of ammonia, 
able for their policy to the Colonial Parliament and that the nitrogen of organic matter is con- 
only. The dissensions in the Executive Conn- verted into ammonia as a preliminary to nitrifi- 
cileame to a head in the first days of February, cation. According to some experiments, the 
when the General, Sir A. Cunynghame^ called ferric oxide, which gives a red color to so many 
attention to the fact of there being virtually soils, is itself an oxidizing agent, and capable of 
tro commands on the frontier, one composed converting ammonia into nitric acid. 
of the military, controlled by toe General, and An entirely new explanation is offered by 
another a colonial army formed of the burgher Messrs. Schloesing and MtUitz, and their theo- 
and volunteer contingents, each operating in- ry appears to be confirmed by the researches 
dependentiy of the other. Sir Bartle Frere of others. According to this theory, nitrifica- 
took the military view that there could be no tion, so far from being a purely chemical pro- 
ipch division, that even the issuing of commis- cess, is the work of a living organism compara- 
sions to the oflcers at the head of the volunteer ble to the yeast-plant. They have found that 
expeditions against the enemy was illegal and nitrification, however active, is immediately 
onconstitntional, and that the colonial auxili- stopped by chloroform vapor, herein showing 
vj troops must be placed under Lieutenant- an analogy to all known organized ferments. 
General Sir A. Cunynghame, the oficer com* They have fiirther shown that, when the pro- 
minding the British forces in South Africa, cess has been suspended in this way for many 
The Governor, finding the Ministry persistent weeks, it can be renewed by the addition of a 
io the course of maintaining the independent small quantity of a nitrifying body. Again, the 
action of the Colonial Government with re- temperatureof boiling water snfSces to destroy 
H<ct to the burgher and volunteer contingents, all power of nitrification, and soil which has 
informed Mr. Molteno and his colleagues that been once heated to this point produces no 
he would feel it his duty to call to his Councils nitrates. I^ however, this soil be moistened 



84 CHEMISTRY. 

with water containing a little nnheated soil, triflcation has probably distinctire cbanust^n^ and 

the prodaotion of nitric acid begins again. migV^,^® i^oluted by cultivation under conditions 

Tu^ ♦k^^-^ u«- u^^^ ^^ixi^^^^A *^ w^w,^Zi^^\ BP«*ciallr auitable to ita growtli, but more or less nn- 

The theory has been subjected to practical fiVorable to the life of other asi^iatedjrenna. Fas- 

tests in Lngland, and the resiilts, as stated in teur hus purvued thi^ method with hucccai* in the 

^* Nature " by Mr. B. Warington, are as I'ol- oaae of beer yeaat, and haa abown that with tie pure 

lo^s: >'caBt thus obtained an unchanfreable leer may be 

manufactured, tlie organisms producing; accondanr 

It was found that the vapor of bisulphide of carbon, changes having been excluded. The subject of ni- 

and of chloroform, effectually prevented nitritlcaiiou trillcation haa clearly reached a atage which demands 

in a moiat ffarden aoil throoffb whlcli airwaa fre- the aid of the vegetable pbyaiologibt. 
quently aapu-ated, while witnoat these vapora the t,^ ^ , ^ ^^ n*ii 

aoil produced nitratea in couaiderable <juaiitity. A {^ew Compounds from Carbon Bisulphuret-^ 

solution of chloride of ammonium containing a little It is known that carbon bisulphnret, like cyan- 

tartaric acid, phosphate of potaaaium, and carbonate ogen, will unite directly with metals without 

of calcium, waai^ao completely nitrified in a few ^j^^ intervention of oxygen or any similar bodv ; 

weeka by the addition ol a email quantity of soil ^^^^^ .. j:„i.:«,^:„i,;«„«^« «# 4t ^„. »i * ♦? 

taken from the " fairy-ring " of a mellow. Thia so- ^ence its distingmshmg name of" erythrogen 

lution, when uitrifled, waa aucceaaftill^ uaed aa seed Guided by this property, L. J hompson made 

to produce nitrification in other similar solutions, the attempt to discover whether erythrogen 

which without this addition produced no nitric acid, could displace cyanogen from any of* its com- 

^\T^ *°'***'^' "i^'^r" *J«^l'»l*'7*^J prejudicial to binations, and in this way discovered not only 

nitrification ; aolutiona kept m a dark cupboard pro- ^""■'»v"*»i «*"« '" ^ « «j i j v^ i ^t "i 

dttcing nitrio acid, while aimilar aolutiona aUnding pat cyanogen can be so disp aced, but aUo that 

in daylight produced none. The evidence has thua m so doing two hitherto unknown compounds 

become very strong that the nitratea in aoil owe their are produced, viz., a new pigment and a new 

origin to oxidation brought about by living organ- explosite. The first experiment was made with 

lama. That mycoderms, in their proceaaea of lile, . f„^^i« ^# ^«„i «„„ A«*„;„:«« « -„♦».«« !«•«« 

may exert a powerful oxJdiaing action upon organic ^ 8*™P'? «' coal-gas containing a rather large 

matter, we have already learned through the re- proportion of carbon bisulphuret. A set t.f 

searcheaofPaateurand othera. The moat familiar Liebig bulbs were charged with caustic- potash 

example la that of the acetic fermentation. Vinegar solution containing dissolved bicyanide of iner- 

ia produced by the oxidation of alcohol during the ^^^^ ^^ j^e coal-gas was then slowly passed 

VZT^Li:,'Z''A"^^'^'^^^ '^'^''^^ '^^ hulbs, with the follo^ing're^sults: 

vinegar ia ever formed. It ia by aimilar low organ- Very soon the solution became milky, and this 

isms that fermentation of all kinds is brought about, effect continued to increase for several days. 

Putrefaction haa also been shown to be equally de- ^ith deposition of a white precipitate, which 

pendent on the presence of microscopic organiBma, became successively first gray, then black, and 

and except under the conditions suitable tor their ^^^«**« «'"^^'=~» ^j i * *i.''* • W 

rapid development putrefaction will not take place, pallj » beautiful scarlet, thus proving the ex- 

wltli tbia abunclant evidence before ua of the ener- istence of at least two, perhaps three different 

getic decomposition of organic matter brought about compounds. Haying ascertained by analysis 

by what we may term microscopic ftingi, we can t^at the scarlet compound deriTed nothing 

a'S^SS'n'/rnlt:^'^? o*JSinl?r?io"r ^^^ ^'^ coal-g.« but the bisnlphuret of caf 

and of ammonia, and thua producing nitrio acid. l>on, the gas was abandoned, and pure bisul- 

The organisms which prodTuce these wonderful phuret of carbon was employed mstcad. The 

changes consist of colorless cells ; they are indepen- process is as follows : 

dent of daylight, for they derive their aupply 01 car- . , . - , ., , . . 

bon excluaively from organized matter, and from the A strong aolution of the cyanide of potasaium la 

decompoaition of auch matter they obtain the force to be boiled for aeveral minutea upon binoxide of 

neoeaaaiT for life and growth. In thcae reapecta mercury, or, what anawera equally well, the nitric 

they difier entirely fh)m green vegitation, in which oxide o' mercury aold by apothecaries ; it ia then 

sunlight u the source of all energy, and carbonic-acid to be mixed with three timea ita bulk of a very strong 

gaa, deoompoaed by the aid ©flight, the material from solution of cauatio poteab, and when it haa beoc^me 

which carbon ia derived. The eolorleaa and green ooid i^ ii^uat be cautiously decanted into a Florence 

organisms, however, equally require phosphoric acid, fi»sk or other convenient veasel, and a conaidcruble 

gotaah,and other aahconstituc-nta; and both appear <juantity of bisulphuret of carbon added to it with 
> be capable of aasimilating nitrogen in the form of Irequent agitation. The mixture aasumes in rapid 
ammonu. Not only are these simple organiamainde- auccesaion a varie^ of tinta, pasaing from white, 
pendent of the aid of light, but liglitiajn some oasea yellow, brown, and gray, into black; and, if then 
at leaat, actually fatal to their existence. Thia fact Ifft to the ordinary temperature of the atmoephere. 
haa quite recently been eaublished by Downea and the black ia changed into acarlct m the course of 
Blunt. They find that the hadtria present in an or- twenty-four to forty-eight hcurs, according to the 
ganio fluid may in many caaea be entirely destroyed by quantity of caustic potash preaent. The larger the 
exposure of the aolution to daylight, and that even amount of potaah, the ahorter ia tlie time n quirted 
when this ia not the oaae their development ia much for the development of the acarlet color ; but tbia 
retarded byaueh treatment. Thia obaervation ia per- change is very soon brought about by the euiplov- 
fectly in accordance with the fact obaerved atBotham- ^^toX of heat, and therefore the flask contuining tlie 
ated, that uitriflcation did not proceed in aolutiona mixture should be placed in a water-bath at 110^ 
exposed to daylight. In the laat communication of Fahr., when in about half an hour the acarlet pre- 
Schloe.iing and M&ntz, it is stated that vegetable aoil oipitate will have formed, and we may diatilJ off 
suspended in water, by paaaing a atream of air SD<i collect the aurplua bisulphuret of carbon, aAer 
through the mixture, undergoes nitrilloation both in which the pigment must be well waaled and care- 
light and darkneaa. No detaila of the experiment are fully dried. 

of the material oonaequently at all timSe in partial "f a v©ry bnUiant tint. It rivals gold itdelf m 

darkneaa. The miorosoopio organism producing ni- resisting the effect of atmospheric inflaencesi 



OHEMISTRT. 86 

ud is, like goli, only attacked by aqna regla on the other band, ooinplex eompotmd* of 

Md those fluids whioJi ^nerate chlorine ; it is other elemeote are as a rule decompoaed bj 

norcoTer nnaflected by salphnretted hydrogen this tmbatanoe ioto two or more eirnpler eom- 

oTKiTof the hydro«Dlphnret>i, and aa a paint pounila. Ur. Hnnnay wu therefore indnoed 

it pnctiraliy imperishaole. to eiamme whether carbon is or is not the 

lb eompoaition appears to be yerj pecaliar, only element capable of forming seriea of 

ttoagh a Buffioient namber of analyses hss not bodies of oomplicated ttrnoture ; and whether 

jet been made to settle that qneetion beyond the the existence of water on this earth ie the 

nnge of doabt. Nevertheless, it seems to oon- reason of our not having complex bodies with 

fbt of one atom of mercnry (202), three atoms other elumenta than carbon for their basis. 

of ralphar (48), one atom of carbon (6), and The plan adopted was to take some compli- 

one atom of hydrogen (1) ; thus making 257 as oated snbstance containing no carbon wliioh is 

itt atomic eqaiyolent, and leading ns to eon- decomposed by water, find a solvent for it, and 

dude that it 18 a hydrio-erythride of the proto- act on it with other reagents ont of contact of 

nlphnret of mercnry, whence we may infer air and moisture. The substance nsed was 

Unt it might be made by a very different pro- oiycbloride of chromium (CrOiClt). and the 

tm to that above described, and, indeed, we solvents emplored were carbon dlsalphide and 

miT oatnrally expect many improvements in carbon tetrachloride. Mr. Hannay has devised 

the mode of its prodnotion. an appara'.us which allows of the sabstaDoe 

Ai we have aeen, the first effect of passing being precipitated, filtered, washed, dried, and 

toil-gia through an alkaline solution of bioya- weighed on fur analysis without coming in 

Dide of mercury is a white precipitate. U we contact with air or moistnre. The following 

' the process at this point we obtun, in the is a list of the obroraiam compounds prepared 
id di ■ ..... 



tad way of washing and drying, a gray-white by him ; 
porder, which on applying beat explodes with 
great Tiolenoe. Id ail probability it cousista 
•>f iTo siibatanoea, one oontalniog snlphnr and 
the other oyano^n nnited to some form of 
hrdroearbon : it is to this last that the name 



Cr,CI^^ 
CriCl,S,0.. 
Cr,Cl^tO,i. 
CrCI,B,H,0. 

CrClA. 

0K!l.P8t). 

Cr,Cl.P.(l,. 

Cc,CU,0,. 



a been provisionally given. 

Ai pri>earad In ths way deanribvd. oySDon !■ - 
■hiirpavdn-hxiDgagrMQiHb-gTsy tiDt,ind, whan Mr. Eannay haa prepared some analogont 

1 /(• gniu of it m tiesMd in « tsW-lnbe, it «x- manganese componnda, hut the anatyaea of 

[■odes at a ho»t of about 400 Fahr. with muoh ti,^h„ri. nnt »Bt Tipnn flTilnhnd 

rf •ti9i or ^u-boii wbile tha meroary -- " ~~~ -"' '^ Lamtiumtv of !• lamt. — Hi 

cf tb( tube to a conaiderabls diatanci 

5)a may tmlj be laid to oomhina t . „ ^ 

^*il gaapawier and ahot. Tlie cjinogen oom- cle» ot inoaodesoent carbon. The gronnds O- 

KP7«r salt having an explasivt qaality qoito eqosl snmmed np in the " Amenoan Journal of Oa- 

■■■•'•.at mareorul oompoaDd; and in sU likelihood ence" : "1. The increased limiinosity which 

I -• npper nlc ii tb« anbatanoo fhioli hu fra- chlorine gives to weakly Inrainons or non-lnmi- 

:i-a-J7 o«««i exploaions dimns th« r«p«inng_of ^^^ q^^ (g ^^ j^ ij, well-known property 

..i^tSJeWX'.d''brih7i:;i"^'fh;- pf«^«tingthec«bonsasnch.2.Aro^eld 

i-ndphate of ammonia, and no doubt or>mmonga». in aflame Is smoked only on the lower side, 

•:-,*w would Buwar the sama and, u that It would the ude opposed to the gas stream. Were the 

'--rmwiMpTMantiontobithaold Kaa-roetersiniiu- carbon there as vapor, as Frankland assnme^ 

■-■'"!o^™ "^""^ ' ^ *' " ""''"'^8 it would be condensed by a cooling action, md 

't'i om^d e^niin It i» not nwHiaaary HiM there «• oil aronnd the rod. 8, A body held in the 

•-.'■-J I be BoexcwBaor einatio elksli preaant in ths fiame is smoked even when it is in a state of 

-ift, tor this i* needed only to ininro Che forma- ignition ; this, therefore, can not be conden- 

-- a or p<ma.lion ; couMquently w« havo merely to gution of a vapor 4. These partiolos can be 

^^i'^i'P^^i'yrr^V a^'r^CKin'", actnally seen-in the flame wh«n it is n^.ade to 

- -= cold Irqaor, pa» a current of pnrlllBd ood-ns strike against a second flame or an ignited 

'--.iv'i it until aanffldent auantityof wbit<pre<ap- anrface, the particles aggregating together to 

era haa bma (onwd, whidi moat tbao b* waahed [orm visible maSHB. 5. The Inminons portion 

•^dri«di»U.>iaaalwa7. of a flame is not very transparent, no more so 

.Ww OMKpomd4 of GKromiwa and ilanga- than the layer of smoke of the same thioknaaa 

''«•. — A paper of oonridernble intereet in which rises above a fiame fed with tnrpendne. 

■" - -" • efaem' ' *" ' " " "' " -^ - "' a._._ ,_ 



. lemistry was communicated to 6. Flamee which nnqneitdonably o 

Gl«9gaw Pliiloaophioal Society by J. B. mlnosity to the presence of solid particlea give 

'■'moay, on oertaio new componnda of ohro- a shadow with sunlight, precisely as do hydro- 

^ ita mx>A manganMe. He obaervea that, on carbon flames; while Inminons flamaa oom> 

'^aaining any general litt of carbon com- posed only of ignited saees and vapora give no 

■ xnda, Imwever complicated their atractnre^ ench shadow in sunlight." 

'^^ ■« not aa a rnle decomposed by water; Alum hi Satrng-Powdan, — Dr. Henry A. 



86 CHEMISTRY. 

Mott, chemist of the United States Indian De- as follows: 1,000 grains of bread are burnt 
partraent, had occasion to analyze a number down to a small bulk, powdered with shout 
of baking-powders, and found that many of 100 grain measures of hydric chloride, and 
them contained alum and other injurious sub- wanned for a few minutes ; about two ounces 
stances. The best baking-powders are, accord- of water are then added, boiled for five min- 
ing to Dr. Mott, composed of bitartrate of put- utes, filtered, etc. A solution containing about 
ash, tartaric acid, carbonate of ammonia, and 250 grains of pure sodic hydrate is made in a 
soda bicarbonate, bound together by a little very little water ; and to this solution, when 
starch. ' Inferior baking-powders consist of boiling, is very cautiously added the boiling 
alum and bicarbonate of soda, and often con- acid solution of the charred bread, the whole 
tain terra alba, insoluble phospnate of lime, etc. boiled for a few minutes, filtered and washed. 
The physiological effect of alum taken inter- The filtrate, after the addition of a few drops 
nally is to produce dyspepsia, constipation, of a concentrated solution of disodic phosphate, 
griping, and a host of other disorders of the ali- is slightly acidified with hydric chloride, and 
mentary tract; and though a person need not subsequently rendered just alkaline with aro- 
apprehend that such grave evils will at once monic hydrate and boiled. The precipitate is 
ensue after eating bread "raised" by sucii collected, washed, and weighed as aluminic 
powders, there is no doubt that the protracted phospliate. 

use of such bread would produce the morbid New ElemenU. — Although research appears 

conditions enumerated. In the tables which to be tending toward a confirmation of the view 

follow, Dr. Mott states the results of his own that the elements are really compound, and 

Quantitative analysis of different baking-pow- that on further analysis they will be found to 

ers : have striking points of resemblance if not ac- 

Vn 1 A »«K«/. P««vJ!«. «.>««. .V Wi. Tn-1. ^^^ identity, several so-called new ones have 

\}'7f ^"**'*^-^^«^ "^ •^ ,^^ ^^;*- been added ti> the list during the year. 

BicarboDftte of soda 24 IT ** Ph%l%pp%um was fouud as an oxide by Mr. 

Sesqnicarbonate of ammoDia 2*81 " Marc Delaf ontaiue in a specimen of samarakite 

BuSS.!*f.*^**'::::':;:;;;::;:;S^ST « (an uranomobate of yttrium and iron) from 

North Carolina. The earth of this metal (phi- 

1^'^ lippia) is yellow like terbia, but its equivalent 

yo. 2.-4 Bakina^Pawchr manufactured in BaUU " '^^^er- ?^ communicating to the Pans Acad- 

more. Md, ®™y ^' Sciences an account of his diacoverj, 

Burnt aimn fiO'06 jmt cent Mr. Delafontaiue takes its approximate eqni va- 

Bicartmnatoofioda M-80 »* lent to be Comprised between 90 and 96 : 

Cream of tartar Nona * 

Starch. 57 IT ** Philippic formiate oiystaUizes with great facility, 

either on oooUng or by B{>oDtaneouB evaporation, id 

1<M)'00 small, briliiaot, rhomboidal priams, le^s soluble 

^^_,_- - -.«. than the form iate of yttria. The terbic formiate is 

No, 8.— -4 Baktng-P^wder manufadured m «. anhydrous and aoluble in from 80 to 85 parte of wa- 

Louie, Mo. ter. The eodio-terbio sulphate dissolvee with diffi- 

Borat alum 80-06 per oent oulty in a saturated solution of sodic sulphate, while 

Bicarbonate of loda W*82 ** tjj^ corresponditig salt dissolves in it easily. . . . 

CJeira of tartar »ooo ^ In the spectroscope the concentrated solution of 

^^"^^ philippium givea in the indigo-blue amafmificent ab- 

100' 00 sorption band, very intense and rather broad, with 

well-defined edges. This band, which atrikea one 

No, 4, — A Baking-Powder mamrfaetured in Mil- at a first glance, is not seen in soluticns of terbium, 

waukee Wie yttrium, and erbium. It is, then, characteristic of 

Bomt alam .' «M per oent philippium. and thus M. Soret/s conjecture that it 

BlGarl>onateof soda 20-79 »• belonjfs to a new simple body is confirmed. lu the 

Graam of tartar. . . . '. None green are seen two rather fine ravs varying in inten- 

Starch 50*68 ** sity, the most refrangible of whicnbelonga to erbium, 

as well as a faint ray in the blue near to the boun- 

'^^'^ darj of the green. The least refrangible of the e^reen 

E»timationo/Alum inBread.-Th, old Nor- ^'.'ei^tSTtCtt ?*«"&?, SllJ^rorth: 

mandy or soda process for the estimation of contrary, show it to be nearly as powerful as the er- 

alnm in bread has long been ont of nse, on ac- bium ray. Lastly, in the red there is at least one 

oonnt of the great difficnlty experienced in ^^ "y ^I'ioh has not been identified, 
redissolving the aJaminic hydrate or phosphate The same chemist reports the discovery of a 

after its precipitation, which often led to inac- second new element in the same mineral (ea- 

onrate results. Other processes have been snb- marskite), to which he has given the name of 

Btitnted, many of which are very complicated deeipium. The oxide of decipinm (assoming its 

and unsatisfactory ; and they are now likely formula to be DpO) has a molecular weight of 

to be displaced by a modification of the Nor- 122. The nitrate ^ves an absorption spectram 

mandy method, which simplifies the procedure consisting of at least three bands, in the blue 

and leaves little to be desired in point of accu- and the indigo. The most refrangible of them 

racy. This consists in adding the boiling acid is a little less broad than that of philippium, 

solution of the charred bread to a boiling sol u- is dark, and corresponds in its center to a 

tipn of sodio hydrate, contfuning a large excess, wave-length near 4,160. lliis distingnialiea 



CHEMISTRY. 



87 



dedpiom from didymiam and terbiam. The 
secood band is narrow, intense, not defined on 
'Ms edges, and is in the less refrangible part of 
the bloe, corresponding to a wave-length of 
4,780. This 18 nearly the exact place of one of 
the didymiam bands, bat the latter is far less 
intense. Finally, nearly on the limit of the 
blae and green there is an appearanoe of the 
third band. 

Another new element is announced by Dr. 
J. Lawrence Smith, which he calls mosandrum ; 
Ha^ too, iras fonnd in samarskite. The earth 
[mmtdra) of this metal belongs to the cerium 
groop. 

rinaJIy, Marignac has described some of the 
eoinpoands of a new element fonnd in gado- 
linite, and to which he gives the name of ytter" 
htM. The atomic weight of 181 is provision- 
ailj adopted for this element The nitrate is 
decomposed by heat without coloration; the 
oxide is less acted on by acids than the other 
oxides of the same group ; and sundry other 
pecoliar reactions serve to distinguish the new 



element from thorium, the only element known 
to possess so high an atomic weight. 

ChemUtry of the Orape. — In order to test 
the action of certain special fertilizers on the 
quantity and quality of grapes, Professor C. 
A. Gk>e8smann instituted a series of field ex- 
periments with the Concord grape and the 
wild purple grape ( Vitu Idbruaca^ L.), an ac- 
count of which is published in vol. ii. of the 
*^ Proceedings of the American Chemical So- 
ciety." His examination was for the most part 
confined to the berries and the juice of the 
grapes. The former were tested for the 
amount of water they lost at 100° 0., and the 
total dry matter left behind at that tempera- 
ture. The juice of the grapes, obtained after 
crushing in a hand-press, was examined for its 
specific gravity, its percentage of grape sugar, 
and its free acid. Ash analyses also were 
made, but a detailed discussion of their results 
is withheld by the author for the present. 
The following tables show the results of ex- 
periments with grapes not/ertilized: 



VAMI. 


Dalik 


SpMlflO 

gimvlty. 


TnapMrntan 


MdMvnlort 

■t ioo*-no* 
Omo. 


ofdtyaaaMfl' 

at MO'-llO' 

Cwl. 


PMMBtag* 

of imps 


PM«Mtaffl 

ofmifBr is 
■oUd dfj 


AaouttaonK 

onit.ofMilm 

■olntloDtoBM- 

tisUMlWpMli 

idm. 


Gaacofd gnae 


Joly 17, 


1876 


10175 


81* 


91*70 


8*80 


0645 


vn 


• • • 


■ fc^ 


J^2SK 


u 


1*0190 


81 


91*90 


8* 10 


• 625 


7-79 


916 


M « 


Angait9, 


u 


10200 


95 


9006 


9*94 


0988 


9-44 


949 


•• u 


August Ifl^ 


M 


10850 


93 


89' 19 


10*88 


9*000 


18*88 


929 


• M 


August 80, 


u 


10600 


95 


84-49 


15*58 


8*69 


65-88 


190 


<• H 


September 18, 


u 


10670 


98 


89*53 


17*48 


18-90 


79*46 


55 


• i. 


October 4, 


u 


10700 


18 


80*18 


19 89 


16-18 


81-88 


49-9 


^ffpl■wfld gnpe... 


Jnlr 19, 


1876 


1.090 


81 


9100 


9*00 


0-714 


7*98 


904 


- m '^ 


August 4. 
Angnstia, 


u 


1090 


9^ 


87*76 


19-95 


1*10 


8-98 


949 


M m 


M 


1095 


9^ 


87*59 


19-4S 


900 


16*08 


988 


• te 


August SO; 


M 


1060 


96 


88*49 


16*66 


6-60 


89*81 


147*6 


^taTattetyofwfld 




















pipe 


August 81, 


U 


1050 


96 


88*59 


16*48 


9*96 


66*18 


98 







It will be noticed from the above tabular 
sUtemeot that with the middle of August be- 
Ku t remarkable change in the growth of the 
Concord gn^>e. The free acid became most 
prominent in the juice about the first week in 
Aofost, sank to less than half its ouantity to- 
vvd the dose of that month, and amounted 
a^ the beginning of October to only one fifth 



of the Angust maximum. The sugar began to 
increase at the same time, and continued to 
increase till the fruit was ripe. 

In the following table are given the results 
of observations on various kinds of cultivated 
ripe grapes, all as far as possible collected at 
the same stage of maturity. ^ Other varieties 
not mentioned were also examined : 



VIMB. 


- 


gnvi^. 


T<m|wmtw 
Cwiignd*. 


MolannlM 

ai 10O*-ll0* 

Ctat. 


ifdryBoattor 

tt lOO'-IlO*' 

OmU 


Firentag* 

of grape 

e^wiailM 


of Mgar la 

Mild dry 

malkbm. 


AnsnllBMk. 

OMLoflOdA 
•olttttOB lO IIM> 

tnllM 100 parti 


<^«vC 


September t^ 187 
September 7, ** 
September 11, •« 
September 11, ^^ 
September 19, •* 
September IS, "> 
September 16, ** 


107 

1*08 

1*075 

1*064 

108 

108 

1*075 


96- 

91 

90 

90 

94 

24 

98 


79-85 
76*44 
79*91 
88-47 
76-51 
84*09 
80 88 


90*15 
94*56 
90 79 
1658 
98-47 
15 9S 
19-67 


15-15 
15*15 
17-94 
18*67 
17-86 
8*77 
9*90 


75-14 
61-68 
88 99 
89-60 
76-00 
64-94 
46*77 


88*6 


i& . ..I'.V.V.'.'.l 


144 


^<**MD.,... ..... .. 


94-8 


vaJT:.. .::;::::: 


56 


IWwiw 

♦VrtrOak 

l«»0» 


74 

168*8 
80-8 



Tie different kinds of gnipea above montloned be- 
^TacL, in many Instances, quite remarkably' unlike 
-•^a otber In regard to the aetion of their juice to- 
vtfj ba^ aeeitttc of lead. The latter produces in 
*^^'7 ease a voluminous colored precipitate j yet 
• *>e colors seem to result from the presence oi sev- 
<^-4 dj^unctly diif erent pigmenta in the grapea, pe- 



culiar, in all probability, to the wild native varictiea 
from which our cultivated onea have been produced. 
This reaction mav prove of practical use aa an aid in 
tracing the relationship to each other of the differ- 
ent varietiea of grapes ander cultivation. Dr. G. 
Engelmann, in his excellent description of the true 
American ^pe- vines, incidentally states that some 



88 



CHEMISTEY. 



growers oonsider the Delaware and the Clinton as 
derived from the same wild variety, the Biveruide 

frape ( Vitis riparia, Mich.)i whioh appears doubt- 
al, judging from the reaotion with hasio acetate of 
lead; for the juice of the Delaware grape gives a 
oream-colored precipitate, while that of the Clinton 
produces a bluish-green one, indicutiog quite differ- 
ent pigments in these varieties. 

An Bcanomieal Heating Gas. — When steam 
is passed over coke or charcoal at a red heat, 
dissociation of the elements of the waterj va- 
por takes place, the hydrogen being set free, 
and the oxygen forming coiiiponnds (carbonic 
oxide and carbonic acid) with the carbon; 
marsh gas is at the same time produced in 
small quantity. The proportion of the gases 
thus generated is, according to Frankland: 
H, 66-9 ; 00, 29-8 ; COi, 18-8. It is evident 
that here we have a very important heating 
gas, if it could be produced economically in 
considerable quantities. How to do this ef- 
fectually is the problem which has long en- 
gaged the attention of chemists and gas-engi- 
neers. This problem wouid appear to have 
been solved a few years ago by Joshua Kidd, 
an English inventor; and the improvements 
which have since been made on his process 
Justify the belief that a perfectly satiefactory 
solution has been found of the question of a 
cheap heating gas for domestic and manufac- 
turing purposes. 

In Kidd's system perfected the generator consists 
of a hollow cylindrical body or case of wrought or 
oast iron. This is terminated below by a cast-iron 
bottom, having a hole in its center about one half or 
one third of its own diameter ; below this is a second 
hollow cylinder of the same internal diameter as the 
hole above it: in this lower cylinder the fire-grate is 
lodged, the blast-pipe opening into it below the flre- 
gme. When making gas, the bottom of the small 
cylinder requires to be closed air-tight. This is ef- 
fected either by means of a flat hinged plate, which 
is kept tightly pressed against it bv a heavily weight- 
ed lever, or else by a short cap with a beveled edge 
attached to it by a ba^^onet joint. In the upper and 
laiger cylinder there is a coil of thick wrou«it-iron 
pipe which fits the cylinder pretty closely. The two 
ends of the coil are turned outward at right angles, 
and pass gas-tight through the body of the gen- 
erator ; the lower end is connected with an arrange- 
ment for supplying water under pressure, and Uie 
upper end with a smaller steam-pipe passing down 
parallel to the generator and terminating in a small 
steam-tap in fVont of the blast-pipe. In the center 
of the top of the apparatus is a cimilar opening nine 
inches in diameter, communicating below with a hol- 
low inverted truncated cone projecting into the gen- 
erator ; at the apex of the cone is a narrow cylindri- 
cal ring, which serves as the seat for a heavy conical 
valve. Above, this is surmounted by a short cylindri- 
cal fuel-box, carrying at its upper end a hopper, the 
opening between them being covered by a sliding 
plate. Attached to the fuel -box is a short flue used 
onl^ when lighting the fire. Besides the central open- 
ing in the ouver, there are two smaller ones, viz., the 
gas-outlet and a peep- or stoke-hole. 

If, now, a fire be lighted in the interior of 
this machine, and water driven through the 
coil, that water will be made to boil ; steam 
will be produced which will accumulate in the 
upper part of the coil, and, if not immediately 
allowed to escape, will become superheated. 



On opening the tap in front of the blast-pipe 
this superheated steam passes down the small 
pipe outside the generator, and blows with 
considerable force into the blast-pipe, carry- 
ing with it by induction a stream of air. In 
this way the requisite oxygen to support com- 
bustion and steam for decomposition are driven 
into the apparatus, from which they issue lu 
a permanent gas To describe fully the sever- 
al details of the working of the machine would 
require more space than can be afforded here, 
but the whole subject will be found treated in 
extemo in the ''Journal of the Society of 
Arts," No. 1825. The chemical reactions which 
occur in the generator are described as follow b 
by the author of the paper just quoted : 

Carbonic anhydride (COt) is doubtless first fonned 
by the aotiou of the oxygen of the air upon the car- 
bon of the fhel; this in its passage uj^ward through 
the heated fuel takes up another equivalent of car- 
bon, becoming reduced to carbonic oxide, CO, tbiis, 
COa + C = SCO, the nitrogen of course passing ofi 
unchanged and serving only to dilute the gas. with 
respect to the steam, this, as explained above, is de- 
composed in its passage over the incandescent coal, 
with the formation of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, 
and carbonic anhydride. The latter in its upward 
course shares the same fate as the COa produced liy 
the action of the oxygen of the air, L e., it takes up 
another atom of C, and passes into the state of CO. 
The decomposition of the steam, therefore, adds n\a« 
terially to the calorific value of tue gas, by enriching 
it with hydrogen and a further quantity of CO. 

The composition of the gas produced by this 
generator, when working at different pressures 
of water, and with various kinds of fuel, has 
been determined by analysis. The result is as 
follows : 



DESCRIFTIOlf OF FUEL. 


PrMkora of 
WBt«r. 


Compoaitlosi Mr ent bj 
TolvoM or tka gu. 


Pest ch«mnl. .......... 


Sqosrt fawh. 

16 Its. 
15 lbs. 

[ sorts. 

SOIto. 


f CO = 28 « 
J ^H = 14-6 


Anthracite. ............. 


* 


CU» = 4 
[ N s 680 

100-2 

f CO = 226 

H = 10-0 

CH« = 4-9 


Equal ports of snthrsoite 
and stesm coal 


CO* = 4-5 
^ N = 66*0 

100*0 

r CO = 88 8 

H =3 9-8 

CH«= 5-2 

CO* = 6-2 

K = 61-8 






1008 


Anihradto. ............. 


• 


rCO = 26-4 

H =3 18-5 

CH^ s 1-4 




CO* = 8 9 

. N = 64-6 






100 



As regards the quantity of mixed gases pro 
duced from a given quantity of fuel, this hai 
been ascertained ezperioieatally witJ^ the fo] 
lowing results : 



ITRT. 



89 



DBCRIR105 0P fUn. 



•intfcndte. 

i Equl ptru of tathndte and 

iMmeotl 

". Lpul ptrti of sDthndte tnd 

Heua eoai.. 

i EqiuJ parts of anUinclte wd 

•tcimeool 

S.lBtbneUo 



Wator-fNitan Cnbio It of |gM 




It will be seen, therefore, that there is a 
nitdj'iDcretiae in the quantity of gas prodnced 
l>er poand of fael consumed, as the water-pres- 
nre riws from 16 lbs. to 40 lbs. Beyond this 
point there does not appear to be much ad- 
TiQtage gained by stiil further increasing the 
presore. The foa produced is essentially a non- 
ImiDoas gas. W hen taken direct from the pro- 
diicer, it boms with a reddish-blue flame. Af- 
ter hsving, however, been stored in a gas-hold- 
er for t few hoars in contact with water, the 
koe loses this red tinge, and the gas bums with 
i Uae ligbtless flame very mu<& resembling 
ordiurj gas burned in the Bunsen burner. In 
DtHber case is there any smoke, soot, or de- 
posit of any kind by the burning gas, the sole 
prodQcts of combustion heing water and car- 
iuiiio anhydride. When the gas is made in 
considerable quantity, its cost in Loudon is 
iboat t quarter of that of ordinary iiluminat- 

Tie Eouiwilent of Oallivm. — ^Leooq de Bois- 
^drao lias determined the equivalent of gal- 
1*90 by the oalotlation of gallo-ammoniacal 
slom, ud by igniting the gauinm nitrate pro- 
iieed from a Imown weight of the metal. The 
^bt losses sustained in these two operations 
dcct the value of the equivalent in an opposite 
Bumier. The former process gave as the re- 
Kilt 70032 (hydrogen oeing 1), imd the latter 
^98. The mean value, 69*866, may be taken 
u tlw first approxiroatioD. Considerations 
lonnM on a clajssification of the elements in 
sxorduiee with their properties and the value 
«^ tbeir atomic w^hts iK>int to a maximum 
sitnber, 69*97, and a minimum, 69*66 (mean, 
*^% The author enters into some details on 
*^ eumparison of the spectra of the metals 
Al.G«,lii, on the one hand, and K, Rb, Cs, on 
Mother, and deduces hence for the equivalent 
«f niliam the value 69-86. 

Am Compound of Palladium. — In a com- 
seaieation to the Paris Academy of Sciences 
£• Ste.-Claire Deville and H. Debray recite 
^'JL on heating a solution of palladium chloride 
^iCI) with strong nitric acid in presence of 
-k-ammoiuAc, the palladium is converted into 
tiiaunonia chloride (PdCli-fNILCl), which 
>^«ipitates in small regular octahedrons of a 
'^i r«d color, sparingly soluble in water, and, 
*r the corresponding compounds of iridium 
r.t pifitmam, sJmost insoluble in a concentrat- 
"• ic^QTion of sal-ammoniac. The authors ex- 
>- ted that in heating with aqua regia certain 
^<btT-liquor8 containing ammoniacal palla- 
^3 chloride (dipalladamine chloride, PdOlt 



21^111) with excess of ammonium chloride, the 
metal would be entirely thrown down as a 
doable chloride. The result, however, was 
otherwise; for, instead of the expected com- 
pound, they obtained a reddish -black sub- 
stance, Pds01t2NHt, being a combination of 
ammonia with a palladium chhiride hitherto 
unknown. 

2few Proeeu for the Regeneration of Spent 
Oae-Lime, — A new process for regenerating 
the foul or spent lime of gas-manufacture 
has been introduced into many gas-works in 
England. It is known as Bishop^s processi 
and is described in an address delivered by Mr. 
John Mayer in the Chemical Section of the 
Glasgow Philosophical Society. In this sys- 
tem the kiln consists of a series of four calcin- 
ing chambers arranged vertically over each 
other, and, together with the furnace under- 
neath tibem, occupying the space of one of the 
ovens of the retort-bench. They are about 9 
feet long and 2^ feet wide. All the chambers 
are constructed of fire-clay tiles and blocks of 
similar form. The gases from the furnace 
pass backward to its farther end, and riang 
enter, by means of two ports at the comers, 
the lowermost calcining chamber, thence over 
the top of and in close contact with the spent 
lime, to the fore end of the same ; and thence 
up through two ports as before, traversing the 
second chamber in the same way ; then the 
third chamber; and, lastly, the topmost or 
drying chamber, Arom which they enter the 
main fine, the opening into which is reg[ulated 
hy a suitahle damper. The spent lime is first 
charged into the drying ohamoer by means of 
a shovel, and it remains in that chamber dur- 
ing the regeneration of the contents of the 
chambers underneath; and after the latter 
have been discharged into an iron wagon or 
barrow, the contents of the upper chamber are 
discharged into the lower chambers through a 
port near the front of each, the opening of 
which is covered with a suitable tile, as the 
chambers are successively filled, commencing 
at the lowermost; and the gases from the ftir- 
nace, while passing over and in close contact 
with the spent lime, disengage the carbonic 
acid and other impurities. Air is admitted 
through ventilating fiue-boxes, placed on either 
side of the furnace near to the ground, whence 
it is conveyed to and directed against the fuel 
in the furnace near to the center of the furnace- 
bars, where it issues from a number of holes 
about 1^ inch in diameter, pierced throagh fire- 
clay blocks, which form part of the sides of 
the fiimace. These air-holes pass through the 
blocks with a dip of about 1^ inch towfljrd the 
Airnaoe-bars. In practice it is found that one 
man can attend to two sets of chambers, such as 
those just described, and regenerate upward of 
50 cwt. of spent lime per shift of twelve hours, 
with a consumption of about 8 cwt. of fuel, 
which is usually the coke of ordinary cannel 
coal. 

Hydrogen Peroxide*— Tn^ amount of hydro- 




90 CHEMISTRY. 

gen peroxide in the air and in atmospheric de- tion of hydro<fen peroxide oontainiDg 8 or 4 per cent 

posits is the subject of a recent exhaustive re- ;^" '?if !j Jii^tt ^ PnL^?„*;f *^a^^^^ !lr'*?« 

'^•v a X 3t jf \r __ Tf t- ^^4.:^- tion, in eomvaleiit proportions. A nse of 4* or 6' 

port by SchOne, of Moscow. His investiga- q ^^^^ ^^^ ^j^h a very sligbt evolution of gae. 

tions extended from July 1, 1874, to June 80. On ooncentrating the solution in a vacuum, efflorcs- 

1875, and were conducted with wonderful cent crystalR separated on the edges at first, and then 

patience and care. He examined 215 speci- l*Tge tabular crystals formed in the solution. If, in- 

mens ot rain and haU, and snow and sleet Jte,adofevaporatin« the solution, once and a half or 

luvuo wt Aoiu «uvi uau, ouu ouvw nuu bjwi. ^^j^^ its vofuiiie ot absolutc alcobol DC added, End 

were tested on 172 occasions, beven samples i^ ^^ allowed to stand in a cool place for twenty-four 

of rain and 86 of snow appeared to contain no hours, spear-shaped crystals, often several centi- 

peroxide. metres long, appear in the solution. On analysis 

they give numbers agreeing with the formula KaiOt 
'" '^ They are identical with those obtained 
Fairly in the same manner, and with those 

wh«n'?SrSnf r'"JrS^rn7„7/«iS:?E!?.r?Sl.VSS obtained by ^emou Haicourt by solution of sodium 

J?«iv.J^«?w S^Hf «^n^^^^ dioxide in water. When rapiifly heated in a glass 
lively smallest Tield of peroxide IS obtamed. The . ^^ crystals melt, froth, evolve oxygen and 

amount attained a mimmum in Deoemberand Janu- J^ ^^ l^^^ , ^ J 'j^ ^^;^ vesseU, the aame 

ary , veij slowly mcreased until Apnl, was very much 'decomposition takes place more slowly,' requiring 

mfei^'^.frfe^^^ three months for completion. Absolute ^sicohol vtS 

w «nSl*n %.v«£KiJ °t«L' ntfi^nliv ilnin^^i" sorvcs it pretty wcll Jf oarbou dioxide be exduaed. 

1?^'/S,t Sn?r^ T? « "J?T //7,^2.^i^n^PrS«?n«Vl Ou cxamfuing the e&orescence above mentioned, it 

«nm^ra{?J«w u JA^nJ^nt nt^S* «XiS2 Iltholh ^*» ^<>^^^ ^o^c a mixturc of the substauce aWdy 

f^u^w ?KL^r^ S?ii IwiS^^^^^^^^ described and of another substance having the for- 
itis less abundaut m hail than in ra»n : and the j Na,H40., or NaoO^CHaO,),, a compound of ao- 

wmter rain yields more of this compound than snow •?: *''»a**4Vf» ^* *^«*ay2v**avr2„, • i.v.u|^vuuu v« .v- 

*^ii:«« r^ fil 21Jl •.^•ii.JS HM,!^ ♦«*-! -^ dium peroxide with hydrogen peroxide. To pre- 

^A^J^ i«t.xSi J^tTH t,. A«S t?.^«!r?^»» .«f P''^ i^ » mature of one mofecuirof sodium brdVate 

^/i^St^nr^^i^ v!« u^'L^nnSS? Kv ♦>.« i^thnJ tn "^^ about three and a half molecules of hyiogen 

w/n^n.fnSi?trinolmmP.^^^ psroxids solution are mixed and evapoited'' in 

n«t!«^?.«?^ J^ .av «? mI .??iS2 ^t^Ja^rZ v»cuo. The crysUls are colorlew and very minute, 

metre — that is to say, in 699*9 litres or water, or ___ „4. «,.,, *-««-«.„-«.„♦ „«,--, ./«i»i>i.. ;•« «r.«-A» ai^ 

dete^ined'Vp^ti'J^^mcia^d^^^h 'te iss!?.! tt^:^is,;^^s•J.°.;1T.t:^.';?■ 
«id of freezing mixture* ; and It wu found tb>t the L "«lH'l''''y.'^Si'f ""'fSi'wiJtt^^^^^ 
rue «id faUli tlie amoont »o obtained oorrespond- Sf„?H^^}h V.„ff..^ .^^^JS^Tinl f l^ J?S?i^h 
ed and went hand in hand with the numben ob- il'^.t-T^^.'^t^^^^f A^^^*«lT„-^S.i™lZ?™i^* 

^;sl^'.r!Lts»wi^\t^»i?d^?tir:ii';rt.iL'5 t\«'o?p«iuTt^'trS;i5.Td"°p:r.?Js.'r/dm'.; 

frte^mSuTal^^f^SpS^t^KI '''''^\h''*^''>\ I"" " 'T^'lSf *"5"?*5 

o'clock in the Swnoon,^r"lSoh it diminiahed* L'i w .SmS««,'«™ ' i'or<?PTwWt6^ ^S.^.! 

the minimuoi beine attiJiued between midnight ani !L%\°'ilTl ^^^^^i^^^T . *fi T?S?/T/ 

^ * — tua .;« «,/l io».A i.«n -»v.:»i. v-j k^...» ,,„ results, wnicn is very Hygroscopic and uaa tne for- 

li;,?io7fn^ f^5wikF .S5 ^h! JJn^oil ^^^S^ii niula ifaH^O., or K,0,(li;&,),. ^hese facta the an- 

wwupied for four weeks and t^he windows of which ^^or uses to explaii the " caUlytio" action, aa fol- 

were closed but were not »»>"*»f^*» .^" *>|>»JSr«^^^^ lows : The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in 

oontain an average of 0;ir c.c. peroxide In l^,(»Ocu^^^ ^^^i^^ solutions^is due, first, to the tendency of 

me^es. In dew artificially deposited ma badly ven- ^^^ gi^alies to- form compounds of the composition 

tilated room there was no peroxide ; its presence, j. g q. or R,0, (H.O,), ; second, to the t^dcncy 

however, became manifest as soon as the wmdows J^^^e alkali metal within this compound to oxidli 

were thrown open. Dew and hoar frost denosited u^elf to a higher oxide, the tetroxidi : and, third, to 

during the last hours of the nijjht snpeared to be pure ^^^ peductioi of the tetroxide to dioxicle by the water 

water ; m dew collected durmg the evening hours pf^g^Q^ 

perexide was met with, the amount beinij^ 0*06 ^ 

gramme to the litre. The peroxide is present in fog, * 2^ew JDUc&very in Therfno- Chemistry. — A 

and is apparently more abundant in spring than in discovery of importance in thermo-chemietry 

autumn. -The amount of peroxide present in anv j ^ communicated to the Paris Academy 
atmospheric deposit varies with the altitude at which " « . ^""''"""•^••'^« "^ ^'"j ^rt^" ^"^"^^"^j 

that deposit has been formed ; the greater the alti- 0^ Sciences, by M. Maumen6. Concentrated 

tude at which the condensation ukes place, the sulphuric acid« he writes, which has been left 

greater is the quantitv of peroxide which it will con- for some months standing, undergoes a ging:i]- 

^S\ .TH* *l doubtless due to the decomposition j^r change of condition. On mixing a liquid 

vrHi/iKi f.linf BiiKaf onAA miiaf iimi-lA*v»/\ whan A«r\/^«aH r.A - ^.. ..... ^ . Ji . 




metres of air. The author points out the scientific if acid three months old is used, the rise of 

advantages which would attend svstematio observar temperature so obtained has a value of about 

tion m tlis field at meteorological stations. go ^^^^ j^^ ^he same results occur even if 

The same author has investigated the rela- the acid has been hermetically sealed in glass 

tions of hydrogen peroxide to the alkalies, with tubes. With water and other liquids analogous 

particular reference to the decomposing action results are found. It is evident that some of 

of the latter on the former. Of this research the most important data of the thermal effects 

we append an excellent summary, published in of chemical action may require revising in the 

the " American Journal of Science " : light of this discovery. 

rr* .a t. 4r ^ j* * j t^ *i.« j.,«*;^« N^ew Method of Separating Arsenic and An- 

His first efforts were directed to tne production .. . ^a m a* ^ • 

of peroxide hydrates of the alkalies analogous to t%mony.'-K new mode of sepw-ating arsemo 

those of the alkaline earths. For this purpose a solu- from other metals 18 offered by Messrs. De 



CHEMISTRY. 91 

dennoDt and TrommeL Suppose that there complex. Thia belief appears to be deeply rooted 

ii a mixture of arsenic, antimony, and tin ; '"^ most minds ; 3ret, if we are to study nature arijfht, 

.L *i. Ak — ^ TiA ^^«.-^-» Iv^ «»i.^il ^^ must set It aside. We must be content to take 

then the authors would convert the whole Nature as she is ; i. e., we must do our best to amass 

uto saiphides by treatment with smphuretted facts, and from these we must draw the conclusions 

hvdrogeo, after having acidulated with hydro- warranted by the facts. Now, as our knowledge of 

ehloric acid, adding iuso tartaric acid for the Nature extends, do we find that she becomes to us 

sake of the antimony. When the mixture is "^""^ *5^ °^?^« ?^"r>e! Yes, and No. , It has been 

' " J .7 .•""*%. . jT • 1 now and again given to a nftod few to pierce through 

Mtarated it is aUowed to stand in a warm place ^he maze of tangled fncts and to espy the great prin- 

till the odor of sulphuretted hydrogen is no oiple which binds them into an harmonious whole. 

boger perceptible, and is then thrown upon But, even in the case of these great generalizations, 

a filter and washed with much care, as the f?^S"P®™«P,* ¥**^ observation frequentlv show 

h^^m^iA^^^s Y.»^.^/.Ki^.:» ^^\A Twrfxn^A Aana/^ that littlc dctsils have been overlooxed — ^that the 

ie*4midne of hydrochloric ^»d would cause ^ ^.^ j^ 1^^ .3 ^^ simpie-that there are dis- 

a la» of arsenic m the state of chloride. The orepanoies, vmy tmaU, it is true, but still there they 

ffbole is then transferred into a flask full of are, demanding an explanation, telling us that our 

rater, and heated to a boil. The reaction is la'"^ does not express the whole of nature's facts, 

more rapid m a retort through which a current Mature •ppears to be truly infinite ; and it is well 

-/ • • J xr^v Ji'4.- ^^ .»«-««:« ^^«« to remember that we ean never get tennblv nearer a 

Of air 13 passed. If the quantity of arsenic does knowledge 0/ an infinUy. This idea of the Simplicity 

not exceed two decigrammes, the distillation of nature is very apt to lead us to adopt the hypotb- 

of 500 to 600 c c. of water suffices for the com- esis of the non-elementary nature or the elements 

plete dissociation of the sulphides. The residue without sufficient evidence. The idea that all the 

«ti,enfiltered,,and the entire ouantity of th« ?/r.S'rir.'^'il^?rr„r^ili"il2^"{J^ro 

inemous acid is found m the filtrate, and de- muoh ^ keeping with the simplicity of nature ; it is 

Urmined by the ordinary methods. bo symmetrical, it surely muei be true. This is just 

Action of Water on Metallie AUoy» eontain- how the old alchemists reasoned ; we must absolutely 

i»g Carhon.—By acttng on spiegeleisen with forbid these a pr«)Woon^olu8ions to influence us as 

dilate salphuric^cid, Jloez/^^^^ ru^f^^TnenWtC^^^^^^^^ 




___ obtained, 

rhile at m^ O., with superheated steam, a ^"^^ ^\ ^1«^' -T? °!f^ '^^^ f?'L*^ ^^ ^^* "^""^ 

A*.*-:- *j ' 'J 1.! u • T^^j appear to be wild and romantic theono». 

wrttin action was perceived, which increased ''f ^e outcome of the whole matter is this : we want 

vith the temperature, being completed at a more knowledge ; our facts are few and vaffue; there 

^k>red heat. The hydrocarbons, however, is room for almost unlimited work. Ask Nature ; 

vere again decomposed. The same author trust her : be skeptical of your own interpretations 

ker tested a series of manganese alloys, and *>^^«' answers. 

fuoad that the best results were obtained by Perhaps even more worthy of note are the 

means of one containing roughly Mn 85, Fe 6, remarks made by Mr. Herbert Spencer, some 

C 8-5, graphite 4, Si I'l. Small portions of years ago, on the bearings of spectroscopic 

uii, treated with boiling water, decomposed research on the nature of the elements : 

ibe latter with the evolution of hydrogen oily g ^^^ ^^^l j. .^^^^ ,^,^^^ ^^^„ j^^^. 

Iropsbeing simultaneously formed; and the oilaWe with the assumption that the oonventionallv 

^S baroing with a luminous flame, showed named simple substances are really simple. Each 

^ presence of hydrocarbons. Another alloy yields a spectrum having lines varying in number 

«iiearlv similar composition gave the fol- fi;?in two to eighty or more, every one of which im- 

Ii.«ti» l,>^^u« . ♦!»« fl^-t ^^w^irZiw^^A ai:»i^fi«- phes the interceptmg of ethereal undulations of a 

^Jiog results: the flask oontamed slightly Jg^ain order by something oscillating in unison or 

fcUJine water with a mixture of iron and in harmony with them. Were iron absolutely ele- 

snganese oxides in suspension ; the liquid mentary, it is not conceivable that its atom could 

k'dfocarbona in the condenser were similar intercept ethereal undulations of eighty different 

to tboae previously found, the gases also bum- <>«^«» ? ^^^^^ »^ ^^* °o* ^^"^'^ *^1 »'■ mol??al« 

l^•-p;*.k 1 • "^ii ' CT l!r7*i!«r^i:!:™ contains as many separate atoms as there are lines 

i^with Inmmoas flames. He has thus shown j^ ^^^ Rpeotrum,^it ibust dearly be a complex mole- 

wit water alone at the proper temperature cule. Btill more clearly is this general implication 

wi^^^cwposes manganese-iron alloys containing confirmed by facts flimished by nitrogen, tne speo- 

etrboD trum of which has two quite different sorts of lines, 

K Jir. >ormaii Lookyer s reported discovery ^^ th^ conclusion that out of some primordial units 

o^cbe composite nature of many of the so- the so-called elements arise, by compounding and 

^«d ^^ elements," it is of interest to note the reoompounding ; just as by the compounding and 

fiptflion of a prominent chemical writer touch- reoompoundinff of so-caUed elements there arise 

M this matter a short time before the publi- ^''^^* *°^ ~^*^' ^"^ •*^*»- 

*£!«) of the alleged discovery. Professor Pat- The Determination of Organic Matter t;; 

*<oa Mair writes : Water-Analyne, — The important question of 




'^^^we should find thiirSxtremd7*»*lmpl«/«J- ^,^®° * ''^F?' elaborate paper was read by Dr. 
<=^ the reanlto of their actions are so wonder^ly Mey mott Tidy. He considered at length the ad- 



98 CHEMI8TRT. 

TantagQS and disadvantages of the processes in temperatnre of 1,180^, and clilnted with 8 toI- 

common nse, viz., the eamfnution proceMj the umes of nitrogen, 1,040'. The same degrees 

ammonia process^ and the oxygen process. The of dilation with carbonic acid show respec- 

combustioD process is declared to ^^ yield abso- tively 1,100^ and 780®. Among other tempera- 

Intely untrustworthy evidence on which to tares noted were the following : 

fonnd an opinion as to the probable source of Loeateiu Uunp 9S0* 

the organic matter." The ammonia procew leiSte^a^top With"diiDiVy::::::^ ijm 

famishes results which are not deucate enough The same without chimney : 

to allow the recognition of the finer grades of illuminating part 9^ 

parity or impurity. But of the oxygen pro- Alcohol Snp(SteoiioVb'9i2J !!*.!*. .**.!'. !*.!"!*..* i,no 

cess the author says that its results are con- '* (alcohol 0-822) i,i60 

stant and extremely delicate, and that it draws The slight difference in heating power resnlt'- 
a sharp line between putrescent and probably Ing from widely varying percentages of water 
harmless organic matter (a point of the first in the alcohol is worthy of remark, 
importance here). By it bad water could never A New Test for Carbolic Acid, — ^A very deli- 
be passed as good. But it is only when the cate test for carbolic acid has been discovered 
process is properly carried out that such pre- by Dr. E. W. Davy in molybdic acid dissolved 
else results are to be expected. The proper in strong sulphuric acid. When a drop or two 
plan of using the oxygen process is as follows: of a dilute aqueous solution of carbonic acid 
In two carefully cleaned twenty-ouiice flasks place is brought in contact with a few drops of the 
500 wpUmaia. 8eptem=7 grain*, or i^ gallon) of molybdic solution, there is immediately pro- 
the water; ^«. «*«^ ^^d 20 ^eptema of ^^^^ ^^^^^ U ^^ jj yellowish-brown tint, 
sulphuric acioL and 20 septema of solution ox potaa- „i.v ^ t j. ^ jj'uv 
Bio permanganate (2 grains per 1 ,000 septems). At which, pawing to a maroon or reddish brown, 
the same time treat two similar quantities of dis- soon develops a beautiful purple coloration. 
tilled water in precisely the same manner, and note The application of a gentle heat will hasten 
the exact time at which the permanganate solution the development of the purple reaction ; bnt 

rd:t'^^neJi;??KrdM?^u^':nr.^/r: '» *«» ^)- pj«««. tbot..h more dowiy .t tu 

houra. To the flasks, after standing the appointed ordmary temperature. It is the production of 
time, add a sufficiency of poussic iodide (1 in 10), tliis purple under the circumstances described 
and then a standard solution of sodic hyposulphite that constitutes Dr. Davy's test for carbolic 
(6-4 grains per 1.000 septems), until all of the free ^cid. The molybdic solution is made by dis- 
iodiue Ih removed (to be determmed by adding a tew «^i„'«« ™ui. ♦v'^ ««»:<.«>«»^a «# . ..»^^*i^ ».«-.♦ i 
drops of starcl. solution). By deducting the quantity 80^7"f» With ^e assistance of a ffentle beat, 1 
of oxygen equivalent to the hypo-solution used from P^rt Of molybdic acid m 10 parts by weight of 
that in the (quantity of permanganate originallv add- pure concentrated sulphuric acid. The mode 
ed, we obtain the quantity of ox;rgen used by the of using this reagent is simply to add three or 
water. The blank experiments witE distilled water f^^^ ^^^pg ^^ j^. ^^ ^ne or two of the liquid 
give the value of the liypo-solution. It is obvious „^ j^, «il^i*^i^« ,.i-^«,i «« „.,«- »^i.{«.^ JL^- 
that the samples of water must have a pink tint at ^,^f^ examination, placed on any white por- 
the end of the one hour or of the three hours ; others celain or white delf surface. In carrying ont 
wise fresh experiments are to be made with larger this test, however, it will 'be found most con- 
doses of permangfmate. The only important errors yenient to use a small white porcelain capsnle 

inSi!nU.*«^?nr,ll«^*^;tn^^^^^ haviug a handle, which will admit of the ap- 

rous salts, sulpnuretted hydrogen, and nitrites. But i* x° « i_ ^ i_ ^^ v ^ • vi i 

the first two would be <riscovered in the analysln, plwation of heat when.it may be desirable to 

and by their taste and smell ; aa for the nitritea, hasten the reaction of that agent. So delicate 

they act immediately on the permanganate solution, is this test that one small drop of an aqueons 

and any deoolorijtation taking place during the first golution of carbolic acid (1 per 1,000 by weight), 

five minutes must be due to uitntes and allowed lor. --.v^- •««^«^ «,;*!* ^v.^^ ^ #,^«« #i««;«v« ^F 4.ul 

It is admitted that permanganate fails to oxidize some when mixed with three or four drops of the 

Bubstancei*, as urea; but nevertheless the qunntify wolybdlc solution, immediately produces the 

of oxygen used gives evidence of the relative quan- yellowish-brown effect, which soon passes into 

tity ofmatter in the water which is likely to be in- a very distinct purple. Nor is this the extreme 

jurious; and this is precisely the one great object li^^t of its application, for the solution afforda 

of water- analysis. The quantity of oxygen used dor- „ «^^«:« ♦*«♦ I^^i «,»,«« «..« ♦:«,.^ ...^-^ ^:i.,4.^ 

ing the first hour as compared iith that used in the f. ^®^J^ ^^^ ^^^^ "^^^^ °^® **™®® ^^^^ ^""^ 

first three hours gives valuable information as to the than above. 

relative quantities of putrescent, easily oxidixable Determination of the Heat Value of Fueh^^ 

matter, and of non-putresoent and less easily oxidix- "With regard to the question of tlie heat valne 

able matters. pf f^^j^ j^ j, j^g \ieeti proved that conclusions from 

The Temperature of i^tewM.— Rosetti has, the results of elementary analysis are very 

with the aid of his very ingenious calorimeter, uncertain, and iJso that little reliance can he 

investigated the temperature of different flames, placed on direct evaporation experiments. The 

and finds the maximum temperature of a Bun- faults of these methods are pointed out by 

sen flame to be 1,360° 0., resal ting from a com- Weyl, who in "Die Chemische Industrie" 

bustion of 1 volume of gas and 2^ volumes of recommends, as preferable, decomposition of 

air. The admission of a greater or less quan- the fuel by dry distillation, and analytical de- 

tity of air reduces the temperature. Changes termination of the solid, liquid, and gaseous 

in pressure have but slight influence on the products of decomposition. In this method 

temperature. The flame given by gaa diluted the accident of too small a sample being used 

with the same volume of nitrogen shows a is avoided, as also too great pulverization and 



CHEMISTRY. CHILI. 93 

ir/iogst high temperature, and tbed^compofr- thejase of Bulphario acid in a voltameter is 

log action of atmospheric oxygen, which is eviaeot. 

therewith oonnected; and the whole of the CHILI (Rbp^bliga ds Chilb), an indepen- 

eoke 1$ weighed, and its carbon, hydrogen, dent state of Soath America, comprised be- 

tnd mioerid oonstitnents determined. The tween latitudes 24° and 56^ south and longitudes 

water, tar, and gas that are formed are mea- 70° and 74° west. Its boondaries are: Bolivia 

sored, and their heat of combustion ascertained on the north; the Argentine Republic and 

rith the aid of data that have been supplied Patagonia on the east, from both of which it 

]>j Fairrd and SiLbermann, and Deville. The is separated by the Andes; Cape Horn and 

dnal result will, of course, exceed the true the South Pacific on tlie south ; and the same 

combostion value of the coal by the amount ocean on the west. The southern boundary is 

of heat stjai^alent to the work of decomposi- contested by the Argentine Government, and 

UoQ into coke, tar, and gas. The decomposi- the long-pending negotiations between the re* 

tiun of the coal should be done as quickly as publics have only resulted in interrupting their 

posibJe, and at a high temperature. diplomatic relations. The treaty agreed upon 

i Xw ErphtUe, — A new explosive disco v- by Sefior Barnis Arran, the Chilian Plenipo- 

ereil by Professor Emerson Reynolds is com- tentiary, has been declared unauthorized by 

paooded of two substances, which can be kept the Minister of Foreign Affairs, and the Chilian 

a()art without risk, and can be mixed as re- Congress has passed a vote of censure on the 

9aired to form a blasting and explosive agent, envoy who had effected a treaty the main ob- 

The powder Is a mixture of 75 parts of chlo- ject of which was to submit the questions at 

rste of potassium with 25 parts of »u(pAiiraa, a issue to arbitration. Although a satisfactorv 

bud/ discovered by Professor Reynolds some settlement has not been reached, and much 

jearsago, and which can be obtained in quan- popular excitement is still apparent in Chili, 

titj from the waste products of gas-manufac- it is not probable that war will result ; and it 

torei The new explosive is a white powder, is yet hoped that bases may be arranged be- 

TQieh can be ignited at a lower temperature tween the Governments for reopening negotia- 

than gunpowder, and leaves less solid residuum, tlons. 

Beiearek o/B&rthslot on the Loa$ of Oxygen The area of Chili is set down in an official 

intkeEUe^rolyeis of Water, — ^Faraday first ob- report of 1875 at 124,246 square miles, excln- 

jtrred the inferior volume of oxygen set free sive of the Magellanic possessions, the extent 

ifl the electrolysis of water acidulated with of which is estimated at 95,758 square miles. 

«3iphuric acid ; and, though the fact has been The territorial division of the republic and its 

since noticed by every physicist who has population were as follows on the 1st of Janu- 

tmplojed the voltameter, no satisfactory ex- ary, 1877 : 

pliB3tion has hitherto been offered. But now provinces. Ftopiiiati<w. 

Bertbelot has nndertaken to measure the loss ^*^™t;: ilMiJ 

of oxjgen and to determine its cause. We SSSS^:::.:::::; isiiia 

^ire a brief acoount of his method and results Vaipiu3M> i8n,S84 

fnim the "American Journal of Science." cSc^Ig;.:*':::::*' im?84 

Ibat it is not d ae to the production of hydro- cnric^ ...!'.'.'.'. '. '. '. . '. 1 953M 

«a dioxide by the electrolytic ozone acting j^'glg iwoS 

o the water ia shown by the fact that water Mwiie fiy.',V.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.l iisIstt 

t&d ozone do not combine together directly. Nabie... i4Pi?^4 

^'<« doss the hypothesis that the oxygen splits 



PROVIICCES. FtmnlaCtOB. 

Bioblo 78,118 

Arauoo &2,681 

YaldlvlA 81,886 

LlioqalhiM 49.946 

ChUo6 66^698 

Angol (Territory) . . 8 1 .091 

Magellan Colony . . . 1498 



Total 2,116,173 

Population in 1865.. 1,819,888 

Oonoepdon 106,884 InbreaaeinlS joars. 897,545 

ioto ozone and oiitoxone during electrolysis fit The President of Chili is Sefior Don Anibal 

s^ Ode, since the relation of the active oxygen Pinto (elected for five years, and inaugurated 

^Q^^iag as gas is to that exbting in the liquid September 18, 1876). The Cabinet has been 

V) small, only a twentieth part. In one of changed, and is now composed of the fol- 

Benhelot^s experiments, there was 2*2 mgrms. lowing ministers, who are reported in favor 

Ktire oxygen in the gas collected and 44 of more satisfactory relations with the Ar- 

s.2nns. in the liquid. Moreover, Meidinger gentine Republic : Interior, Dr. Belisario 

^ii shown that when the sulphuric add used Prats ; Foreign Affairs, Sefior Don Jos6 Al- 

^ a density of 1*4, the amount of oxygen fonso ; Finance (vacant) ; Justice. Public Wor- 

'^^llccted may fall to two thirds of its theoreti- ship, and Public Instruction, Sefior Don Do- 

(%' Tftlae. In Berthelot^s experiment, 12*2 c. c. mingo Santa Maria ; War and Navy, Sefior 

-?dro^en was collected in ten minutes, but Don Comelio Saavedra. For the Council of 

c^jS-e c o. of oxygen instead of 6-14. Since State, the courts of justice, and the Church, 

'<je oxidizing body found in the solution occars reference may be made to the *^ Annual Cyclo- 

^^j vhen this is acidulated with sulphuric pffidia*' for 1877. There being at present no 

• 'i Berthelot concludes that it is refdly per- Chilian Minister accredited to the United States, 

''ipharic acid ; a view which its reactions con- the functions of Charge d'Affaires are ex- 

^*^ Further, oxygen is gradually disengaged ercised by Sefior Don Eduardo Vigil. The 

^ the liaiiid, reaching in the course of a Chilian Consul at New York is C. K. Flint, 

' Y boors me theoretical quantity, and even Esq. The Honorable Thomas Osborn is Envoy 

*:i<tiuig it The bearing of these facta upon Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of 



94 



CHILI. 



the United States, and D. J. Williamson, &q., 
GoDsal-General at Valparaiso. 

Tlie standing army is composed (1878) of 8 
generals, 7 colonels, 29 lieutenant-colonels, 88 
minors, 99 captdns, 20 adjutants-major, and 
197 lieutenants — 898 officers — and the follow- 
ing corps: five battalions of infantry, 2,000 
men ; two regiments of cavalry, 700 ; one regi- 
ment of artillery, 616; total, 3,316. Vacan- 
cies occurring in the regular army are filled 
by volunteers from the National Guard, but 
the regular strength of the army, fixed by the 
law of 1875 at 3,678, is seldom reached. The 
strength of the National Guard is as follows : 
infantry, 8,546 men; cavalry, 1,288: artillery, 
1,285; total, 6,119 men. A general rising of 
the Indians being apprehended, troops have 
been sent to the frontier to protect the new 
colonies. There has also been lately a great 
increase of brigandage in the interior of l^e 
republic, and stringent measures will be re- 
quired to extirpate it. 

The navy comprises ten vessels, as follows : 



VESSEia. 



8 lroo-<!lad ftigstes. . . . 

4oonrettM 

1 ininboat 

1 transport steamer... . 
8 pontoons 



Total. 



Hon*. 




MariDM. 


poww. 






8,000 


18 


876 


1,10<> 


80 


490 


140 


8 


19 


ICO 


• • 


80 


• • • • 


■ • 


48 


8,840 


44 


968 



Orvw. 



4.064 

8,828 

418 

840 

1,678 

10,888 



There are in the navy 8 rear-admirals, 1 
first-class, 9 second-class, and 18 third-class 
captains, 46 lieutenants, 48 coast-guard, and 
54 surgeons and engineers ; 1 naval architect, 
1 almoner, and 2 first-class pilots. There is 
also a battalion of marines, commanded by 1 
colonel, 1 lieutenant-colonel, 4 captains, and 
19 lieutenants, and a battalion of marine artil- 
lery of 432 men, commanded by 1 colonel, 1 
lieutenant-colonel, 8 adjutants-m^'or, 6 cap- 
tains, and 19 lieutenants ; besides the battalion 
of marine artillery at Valparaiso forming a 
part of the guardia eivil^ and comprising 808 
men, officered by 1 colonel, 1 lieutenant-colo- 
nel, 6 captains, and 24 lieutenants. 

The revenue of Chili for the year 1876 (es- 
timated at $24,561,670, including a foreign 
loan of $4,742,564 and a home loan of $8,050,- 
000) amounted to $23,492,456, as follows: 

Ordinary receipts $1^860.158 

Keeelpts eztraordlnanr 7,164.528 

BaUnce Ihnn 187& 947,775 

Total $88,492,456 

The expenditures were : 

Ordinary. $17,959,624 

EztraottUnary 8,725,615 

Total $20,686,189 

The revenue for 1877 was estimated at$17,- 
506,000, including a loan of $2,000,000, and 
the expenditure at $18,040,808; but a late re- 
port of the Minister of Finance before a Oon- 
^essional Committee sets down the deficits at 
$2,500,000. The estimates approved for 1878 



amount to $17,400,000, including the interest 
on the new loan. The total estimated revenae 
is $14,087,000, leaving a deficit of $8,500,000, 
which may be redu(^ to $2,200,000 by tbe 
balance of $500,000 of the loan, and by pro- 
posed reductions in the expenses of the 6or- 
emment. The foreign debt on Janoarj 1, 
1877, was set down at $38,809,000, comprisiDg 
seven loans with interest ranging from 3 to 7 
per cent, and the home debt at $10,780,875, 
with interest varying from 8 to 8 per cent 
The railway debt included in the total of |49,- 
589,875 amounted to $85,000,000. 

The banks have been authorized by the Gov- 
ernment to suspend specie payments until the 
81st of August, 1879. Their emission of paper 
money, to the amount of $15,600,000, is gaar- 
anteed by the state, and is made redeemable 
in coin at the above date. Large amounts of 
gold and silver have been exported to meet ac- 
counts abroad, the balance of trade having been 
against the country for several years past^ ow- 
ing to the fidlure in wheat crops and the de- 
cline in the price of copper. It is known that 
not more than $5,000,000 in bullion and coin 
remain in the country, and a very depressed 
feeling is prevalent in financial and commercial 
circles. The financial system of the country 
is based upon customs duties and the Govern- 
ment monopoly of tobacco. The income tax, 
the succession tax, and taxes on real and per- 
sonal property, deemed necessary to set the 
country on a sounder financial basis, are vehe- 
mently opposed by the deputies in Congress^ 
who are mostly men of large property, or capi- 
talists. The custom-house returns give the 
receipts for 1875 and 1876 at $7,801,854 and 
$7,422,790 respectively; and a decrease of 
$1,000,000 in the importations of 1877 will 
still further reduce this main source of the re- 
public's revenues. 

The subjoined table exhibits the value of the 
foreign commerce of Chili from 1878 to 1877, 
inclusive : 



TSARS. 



1878. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 



Xzpoiii. 



$88,810,271 
86.541,000 
85,928,000 
87,771,189 
26,228,986 



Tetellbnlfm 



$87,928,427 
88,810,000 
88,188,000 
89,215.415 
29,100,888 



$76.78S,€»S 

75,851,000 
74.066,000 
76.966..V4 
5&,d29,7» 



The following table shows the distribution 
of the Chilian trade in 1877: 



COUNTRIES. 



Great Britain 

Fnmoe 

Ocrmany 

Peru 

Argentine Republic. 

United States 

YarioQS ..• 



Total. 



Iflipurti. 



$9,858,856 
5,846,006 
8,892,242 
2,241,299 
8,057,895 
1,907,845 
8,297,679 



Export!^ 



$29,100,828 



$15,441,778 
8,414,885 
1,252,290 
8.422,722 
851,402 
915.905 
1,480,004 



$26,228,986 



The custom-house returns of the port of Yal 
paraiso for the first seven months of 1878 shoi» 
an increase over the receipts of 1877 as follows 



CHILI. 



95 



MONTHS. 



Febnarr. 
Much.... 
Apiil 

Mv 

JoAe 

Juij 



Total 

Increaae la 1878. 



1877. 



$821,116 20 
269,020 21 
629,906 89 
482,286 10 
467,299 47 
428,846 66 
418,447 63 



$2,961,670 10 



18f8. 



$28^820 12 
411,179 16 
628,924 17 
668,276 96 
668,890 86 
840,886 07 
661,140 80 



$8^89,616 12 
$877,746 02 



It 18 somewhat remarkable that while in 
California and Australia the ininiog interest is 
declining and more attention is given to agri- 
ealtnre, the contrary is taking place in Chili, 
where the mining exports have been increased 
by 13,407,000 in 1877 as compared with 1876, 
and a decrease of $1,856,000 is reported in the 
exports of agricnltural products. The exporta- 
tion of minerals for 1877 shows a falling off of 
$5,172,000, owing to the low price of copper 
in Enrope. Many of the smelting works nave 
been closed. Nitrate deposits of considerable 
extent have lately been discoTered in the des- 
ert of Ataoama, within the Chilian territory ; 
and, althongh the nitrate is not of a very 
high quality, it is thonght that it may be profi- 
tably produced in large^ quantity, the princi- 
pal obstacle having been removed, by the dis- 
covery of water on the "Gnillermo Matta" 
claim. Ad American company is erecting ex- 
tensive works at Catapilco, about forty miles 
north of Valparaiso, for extracting gold from 
placer mines, and they hope to realize an annual 
profit of a million dollars during fifty years. 

Commercial statistics for 1877 give the follow- 
ing detailed statement of vessels entered at all 
the ports of the republic, and the total move- 
ment of tonnage in the foreign and coasting 
trade: 

T0BEI6N TRADE. 



NATIOKALI. 
TIES. 


SdHag 


Tcoaafs. 


StauMfi. 


Tonnag*. 


Engliih 

Trench. 

6«iiian 

ItiJbii. 

American. 

memgnaa.... 
GutemAlan.... 

PeraiiaD 

Gfaifiu 

Vukras. 


809 

flO 
67 
11 
&7 
A2 
81 
24 
44 
89 


m,685 
80,018 
27.62T 
7,095 
22,6')8 
20,277 
12,109 
10,809 
11,854 
17,060 


600 

• • • 

44 

• • • 

4 

• • • 

• • ■ 

I 
203 

■ • ■ 


788,688 

"^Mi 

" 7,448 

**1J8S 
1C0,788 


TotaL 


eo4 


886,995 


857 


1,002,446 



COASTIKO TRADS. 



NATION AU- 
TIESk 


Salllag 


TooBng*. 

8P,62'» 
7,'»l 

16,75'> 
7.580 

21,968 
112,264 
104,042 

26,111 
111,906 

10,029 


StaMBan. 


Tmnaga, 


Eaglftb. 

Pratefa 

6«nnan» 

luaan. 

ADMricaa. 

Kiemgxuui.... 
GnateiiMlaa.... 

PerTtTtaiL 

ChiUn 

Viriwu.*.::..;; 


181 
9 

88 

64 
206 
8A8 
854 

66 
668 

28 


1,048 
86 

» • • • • 

1,045 
50 


1,848,665 

21 

89,986 

"1,8S6 

• • • • ■ « • 

516,929 
11,140 


T«W 


8,008 


009,760 


8,182 


1,911,861 



The total movement of tonnage during the 
year was : 

Toa& 

ArriTBls, sea-going craft 1,889,411 

AnrivHla, coasters 2,421,621 

8,761,089 

Departures, sea-going craft 1,420,467 

Deparcnres, coastei-s 2,828,110 

8,748,577 

Total tonnage of arrivals and departures 7,504,600 

Among the competing nations, a marked dif- 
ference appears in these figures between Eng- 
land and the United States. The tonnage under 
the British fiag exceeds all others combined. 

The navigation law, sanctioned by Congress 
on June 24th, came into force on September 
26th. The following articles affect foreign ship* 
ping in the ports of the republic : 

AsT. 41. No national vessel shall sail for a foreign 
port without being previously surveyed aa to her 
oonditiona of seaworthineas. The same regulation 
shall apply to foreign vesaela of whioh there may ex- 
ist douDta aa to their state of aeaworthineaa, the aanc- 
tion of the consul, ahould there be one, to whom 
due notice shall be given, bein^ previously obtained. 

Abt. 42. Veasela employed in the coasting trade, 
whether national or foreign, ahall be surveyed each 
year if Bailing veaaela, and eaoh six months if steam* 
era. 

Abt. 46. The maritime aanitary officials ahull not 
deliver the bills of health if the oaptaina of vessels, 
national or foreign^ do not present the crew list, 
signed by the maritime authority, or by the respeo* 
tive consular agent. 

Abt. 47. Theae requiaitea complied with, the mar- 
itime authority may still, with the knowied|^e and 
conaent of the administrative authority, detam any 
vesael whioh may be found badly stowed, or of which 
there may be reason to fear a disaster. Disputes 
ahall be aettUd finally by a commission of survey. 
Foreiflrn vettsels, merely calling at the ports, or sau- 
iog direct to a foreign port, shall be exempt from 
the foregoing regulation. If, by manifest cause of 
bad stowage or overloading, the veeael should be 
wrecked, or suffer a serious casualty, the maritime 
authority who permitted her departure ahall be held 
responsible for his neglect. Any captain who shall 
proceed to sea contrary to the ordera of the maritime 
authority shall be punished by imprisonment (|)r«- 
tidio mayor entu grado mimmo)^ and ahall in ftiture 
be dis<}ualified from taking any charge in the niridon- 
al marine. 

Abt. 108. Captaina of vessels, either national or 
foreign, shall be obli^^ed to deliver to the maritime 
authority, under receipt, and at the time of the firat 
visit, all correapondenoe, written or printed, wiiioh 
they may have on board, proceeding either from the 
coast or abroad, for placea in the republic. Such 
only ahall be excepted aa may be addressed to the 
consignee of the said vesael, provided that the weight 
does not exceed one hundred and fifty grammes. 
The aame obligation ahall apply to the other em- 
ployeea of the vessel and to the j^aasen^era. Trana- 
gressors of this regulation shall incur a fine equfd to 
Quadruple the postage of the correspondence, or 
tne payment of twenty-five dollars if the Quadruple 
should be leaa. The maritime officials ahall not frive 
pratique to vessels until the correapondenoe carried 
on board shall have been duly delivered. 

Abt. 110. Sailing vessels or steamers, national or 
foreign^ intended to carry passengers between ports 
in Chill, shall not admit more passengers than may 
be conveniently aooommodatea ; and the mnritime 
authoritiea of the port may prevent the Bailing of 
theae veaaela, whenever they ahall have embarked a 
in^ater number of passengers than they can carrj, 
with due regard to the apaoe, aeeurity, aeaworthi- 



96 CHIU. CHINA. 

II68B. comfort, and other oonditions exacted by the We are informed bj telegrapbio commnnication 
reKulations decreed for that puipose. that a treats between the two siator republics (Ar- 




venient height, an awning of plaokaor canvas water- the two stateSf and that the only subject of differ- 
tight, and sufficient to protect them from badweath- enoe between them has been finally removed out of 
er. Buch passengers shall, in default of a special the way. 

agreement, be victualed with rations equal to those nTiTxrA «« ^b.^.^:.^ :« Aot- i?^« ^« 

slrved to the saUors of the navy of the repubUc. ^ CHINA, an empire in Asia. Emperor, 

'^ Ewang-Lm, formerly called Tsaeteen, bom 

In 1877 there were abont 1,265 miles of rail- in 1872, a son of Prince Ch^an, and grand- 
way in operation, and 4,800 miles of telegraph son of the Emperor Tan-Kwang, who died 
lines, with 62 offices. The number of post- in 1850; he succeeded to the throne in 1875. 
offices in 1876 was 833; the ezpenditares of The area of China proper is 1,554,000 square 
the postal department were $246,938, and the miles; the population about 405,000,000. The 
receipts $228,433. area of the dependencies has received a large 

A conflict between State and Church has increase by the reconquest of Eashgaria, and 

arisen in regard to the appointment of a sue- was in 1878 estimated at 8,062,000 square 

cesser to the Archbishop of Santiago, the Right miles, with a population of about 29,580,000 ; 

Rev. N. y. Valdivieso ; the Ultramontane sec- making in all 4,616,000 square miles with a 

tion of the clergy being opposed to Sefior Ta- population of 485,000,000. 

foro, who has so far yielded as to decline to China now has diplomatic representatives in 

take possession of the see until the customary the United States, England, France, Germany, 

approbation arrives from Rome. It is report- Russia, Spain, and Japan. Tseng-chi-ta, the 

ed, however, that the Vatican may withhold the eldest son of the late Tseng-kuo-fan, was ap- 

confirmation of Sefior Taforo. The Government pointed in September to succeed Kuo-sung-tao 

has refused to pay the vicars-general and other as the Chinese Ambassador in London, and 

ecclesiastical officials of Santiago, because they Li-fong-Pao was appointed Charge d'Affaires 

had not been appointed by the civil anthority. at Rerun. Chin-San-Pin, the Chinese Ambas- 

The question of marriage between Roman Cath- sador to the United States, arrived at San 

olics and Protestants has excited some atten- Francisco on the 25th of July. He is a man 

tion lately, the present state of the law in re- past middle life, is an eminent scholar who has 

gard to the religious condition of Protestants had large experience of public affairs, and is 

being very illiberal, and it is hoped that it will now a mandarin of the first class. He visited 

soon be altered. A Protestant marrying a Ro- the United States in 1872 as joint commissioDer 

man Catholic woman in Chili is required to with Tung-TTing, in charge of the educational 

execute a public document under oath, *' bind- mission. 

ing himself that the sons as well as the daugh- The Chinese armies which have been operate 

ters that are born of his marriage are to be ing for several years against Eashgar made an 

educated in the Catholic religion, abstaining easycaptureof that capital December 17, 1877, 

from an3rthing that might prejudice the Catho- during the dissensions which ensued after the 

lio belief of the said sons and daughters ; so death of Takoob Beg. After a confiict between 

that, if in the choice of masters, schools, or the two pretenders to the throne, Beg Kuli 

other items relating to the education of his off- Beg, Yakoob Beg^s eldest son, and Aalitn Ehan 

spring, while less than twenty-five years of Tiura, a descendant of the former rulers of 

age, it should be thought by his wife while she Kashgar, the latter was defeated and escaped 

lives, and, in the case of her decease, by the across the frontier, leaving a considerable body 

parish priest of his sons and daughters, that of his adherents in the country. The Kirghiz 

any of the measures he may wish to adopt may of Badakshan, led by AH Beg, then rose against 

endanger the Catholic faith of said children, he the new Khan, and seized the town of Sari-Eul, 

will desist from it ; binding himself also not to while Niaz Bakir, Governor of Ehotan, asked 

name in death a tutor or guardian for his said the Chinese commander-in-chief at Turfan to 

sons and daughters who is not a Roman Cath- send him a Chinese garrison, as the inhabitants 

olic." A Chilian lady marrying a Protestant of Ehotan had decided to submit to the Chinese 

is required to give $200 to the hospital for fall- Government. Beg Euli Beg, who had in the 

en women, as if by her marriage she were par- mean time marched from Eashgar to Yarkand 

taking of their disgrace. She must also prom- and raised the strength of his army to 35,000 

ise under oath *^to educate the offspring of men, now proceeded to Ehotan; but finding 

either sex that may be bom from the marriage that the Chinese had taken Utch Turfan, he 

in the Catholic religion, and in the observance fied to the Russian authorities at Karakol. 

of the precepts and discipline of the Church, The Chinese army of occupation contained an 

striving further to secure, so far as depends on effective force estimated at nearly 12,000 men, 

her, the conversion of the dissenting consort." and was under the command of Liu-Sho-Daryn, 

The fallowing announcement is transcribed whose services in capturing the capital were 

from a London periodical dated December 23, rewarded with important marks of favor. The 

1878, come to hand after the above article had troops were for the most part armed with 

been sent to press : lances, only 1,600 of them carrying muskets of 



CHINA. 97 

EaroDean make. The EIrghix and the Russian Narjn, on the 18tb of July, that a hattle had 

merc&aoU in the territory of Kasbgar were in- taken place between the Eashgarian iusur- 

formed that thej had nothing to fear from the gents at Khotan, led by Niaz Beg, and 3,000 

dunese soldiers. After achieving this con- Chinese troops from Aksu, resulting in a disas- 

qnest, liu-Sho-Daryn was instructed to regain trous defeat of the Chinese. To retrieve the 

the roDtefrom Mourzat, and to march through honor of the Green Dragon, the Chinese com- 

that place with his army to join Tsin-Tsan- mander had dispatched 2,600 troops from Eash- 

Tioam, whose troops had dready taken up a gar to E^hotan to crush the Mussulman people. 

poatioQ between E^arashar and Shikho. Beg A report prevailed at Orenburg in the latter 

knli B^, with the fishily of the late Ameer Ya- part of October that the Chinese Governor of 

bob B^, took refuge in the Russian territory, kasbgar had' prohibited commercial dealings 

vfaere the ex-Ehan was detained as a prisoner with the Russians, and had ordered all Rus- 

bj the Rassian authorities. The Chinese de- sians within the territory to accept Chinese 

BuodedhisBurrender to them, but the Russians nationality or leave the country within two 

reposed to give him up. Garrisons were placed weeks. 

ifl each of the Eashgarian towns occupied by the The occupation of Eashsar by the Chinese 

Chinese, and the natives were oonmianded to was followed by events whidi seemed to threat- 

fornish horses for subsequent campaigns. At en to interrupt the fHendly relations which had 

Zttghishahn seven hundred smaJl-sized cannon, hitherto existed between China and Russia. 

made to be carried on the backs of camels, were The country was thrown into disorder by the 

foand, which had not been in use, but "lay change of rule, and the Russians complained 

under yeWet and brocade coverings, and were that their trade on the frontier was seriously 

ill snpplied from England." A Eashgarian damaged by brigandage, in which they asserted 

who was at Tarkand when the Chinese took that the Chinese soldiers took part. Russian 

that city, in a letter to Sir Douglas Forsyth, troops, dispatched to Sharkodeh to restore or- 

described the Chinese army at that place as der, neard when they reached that place that 

biring consisted of about one thousand men, the Chinese bands had threatened to set fire to 

ifld eaid: "A great number of Chinese haa the artillery depots and powder magazines at 

hitdlj any clothes, and many were lame and Eulia, with a view of depriving the Russians 

ia mlflerable condition. It was a wonder the of the power of making war upon them. The 

Chinese ever attempted to come to Yarkand sentries were therefore increased, and all the 

rith 8och troops. A hundred men only are material was removed to places of greater se- 

irmed with breech-loading rifles ; the rest are ourity. To the embarrassments growing out 

trned with sticks and short spears. The of the state of disorder were added others aris- 

Ctiinese in taking Yarkand killed only a few ing from the continued occupation of Eu^a by 

people, mostly innocent persons. . . . They the Russians. This city and the surrounding 

Aire 4<me their best to disarm the inhabitants, districts were taken possession of by the Rus- 

S>j!ne arms have been given up ; the peonle sians in 1871, in order, they said, to prevent 

Ure conoealed quantities of them. The Cm- Yakoob Beg, who had just made a successful 

&« Governor collected all the stallion-horses campaign against the Sungarians, from ad- 

^i the Tarkandies and others, and appropri- vancing upon it. At the same time the Rus- 

liad them to hia own use. All horses belong- sians gave a solemn pledge to fhe Chinese Gov- 

i&c to Andijaniee (which amounted to some emment that they would surrender it as soon 

^^^^Ktaaoda) were destroyed. The Chinese have as a sufficient Chinese force should have been 

^ exacting larve sums of money as a loan brought to it to restore order. The Chinese 

M>J!n herders and all others ; also immense now claimed that they had fulfilled their part 

ciaotities of grain from the villages, which is of the engagement, for their army, f^esh fi'om 

>f^ coUeoted in the several forts. . . . The victories over Yakoob Beg, was waiting at the 

Canoe have destroyed a few of the arms frontier for the order to march in and take 

vbich belonged to the late Ameer. The guns, possession. The Russians showed no haste to 

('^ they have not injured. They do not biow evacuate the position, and a part of the Rus- 

^ ose of gona.'' Niaz Beg was ffovemor of sian press opposed the fulfillment of the prom- 

Tirkaod under the Amban, by whom all or- Ise to restore it. The impression that a dispo- 

^ were iasned to Niaz Hakim, who saw them sition had been developed among the Russians 

I'ried out. Niaz Hakim Is the man who has against surrendering Eulja is enforced by a 

'■^^ all outsiders turned out of the country, remark which Terenijeif made in a book pub- 

'Hi is afraid of the Chinese," says the writer lished by him in 1875. In speaking of that 

'^ tbe letter, ** and they of him. Niaz Hakim position and the expected reconquest of Eash- 

' a torn out the Chinese in a few hours if gar by the Chinese, he said : *^ In view of such 

•« Ti^ed. He will do so when he is certain a reawakening on the part of the Chinese after 

' neeoforoements are coming for them. In their long slumber, our situation in Eu^a is 

'e whole of Kashgaria there are not more becoming very ambiguous, and every ambiguity 

-^ 7,000 troops (Chinese) — 5,000 in Eashgar, is injurious to the prestige of a great empire. 

* " ifl Yarkand, 200 in S^otan, and the rest Thus before long the Russian Government will 

- ''.ber towns.'* have definitely to decide the question as to who 

^aicl&gence reached the Russian garrison at shall be the future masters of Eu\ja." The 

Vol. xviii.— 7 A 



98 OEmA. 

"St Petersburg Joumal/J speaking of this for fm inTuion of Cashgar on the south erd 
subject in 16TS, said: " It KnI js vers to be but- Ohuguohak on the nortn. It is theonljdit 
rendered to China, Russian rule in tlte eastern trict occopied by Russia in Central Asiairliidi 
part of Oentral Asia woQid be undermined. . . . might be made a source of revenue instead oE 
The sorreuder," it continued, "would be an- expenditure to the Goremment. The soil u 
other triumph to England, and the Montchoos fertile and easilj tilled, and the moanUiDe are 
would hold their heads still higher. In fine, rich in minerals, including iron, copper, and cdbI 
Russian influence in Central Asia would be of ^oodquality. During the occupation b; the 
shaken." A diplomatic mission was appointed Chinese the land prodnoed flourishing crops, 
in Angost to go to St. Petersburg and negotiate and grun, flour, and all articles of food irere 
for an a^ustment of the differences respecting ahnndant and cheap. Trad^ assisted by tbe 
the frontier and the restoration of Kntja, and facilities of transport afibrded hj the river Ih, 
to demand the surrender of the fugitive ez- which rans east and west throogh the whole 

course of the vsEej, 
was in a tairl; flem- 
ishing oonditioD. The 
Chinese * established 
nine schools in Ui, et 
New Eulja, from its 
fonndadon is lT63,for 
the children of the 
garrison, and supple- 
mented then with t, 
college; and they af- 
terward founded 1 
Bohool for the study ot 
Russian, with annml 
examinations in that 
langnage, and prii^es. 
The citj wae in mius 
when Mr. Eugene 
Schuyler Tinted it in 
1873. 

In November it wu 

reported that Sir Thoa 

Wade, the British Am- 

TianjE or buvsm, pikdis. hassador at Peking 

had been instmclet 

Khan of Kashgar. The chief of the embassy, to confer with Lord Lytton at Lahore concern 

or Mimster Plenipotentiary, was Chnnghon, ing the relations of Russia with China respect 

Governor of Hoakdeo, the capital of Mant- ingthe restoration of Eulja. 

chooria — the same officer who was dispatched The advance of the Chinese anniee agaiuB 

to France in IBTD to explain that the niaseacrea the rebellious Bungarians was aoootnpanied h 

which occurred at Tientsin in that year were a general destmotion of the Hobammedani 

not the work, directly or indirectly, of the with their cattle and other property, in th 

Chinese Government. He was accompanied by provinces occnpied by them. In this, howeve: 

Silun, a Muritchoo, who had been employed they are said only to have done what the ii 

daring the late trouble as au agent, civil or mil- surgents had done before theni ; for duni 

itary, on the northwest frontier. The pleni- the period of their insnrrection, from 1861 1 

Jotentiories left Tientsin on the 6tb of Aognst 18T0, the Mohammedans had exterminated tl 
)r Peking, to have an audience with the Em- Chinese in the provinces of Shensi, Kausn, 1 
peror. The Russians professed to be ready to and Eastern Tarkistan. 
retire whenever they shonld be compensated The northern provinoee of Obiaa were o 
for the expense which Uie occupation of the flicted during the first sii months of 1878 by 
district had ocoasioned them. famine, whi^ lasted nntil it was partly all 

Knlja is a place of considerable strategical viated by the rains which began to fall 
and commercial importance, and might be made Juno, The famine first spread in the fall 

Erofitable to its possessor. It forms a wedge 187G, and was caused by the long-continu 
ito the Chinese territory, and isprotected on absence of rain. The dronght was a part of t 
the north by the Kopkesen and Knyuk Uoun- process of desiccation of the plaine of Chi 
tdns, and on the south by the Tien-^an range, and Shantung, which, having begun long a 
Few passes cross Uieee natural barriers, and in the table-lands of Central Aeia, has ni 
they are capable of being so fortified that they reached the densely popniated Dorthern i>r< 
could be made practically unasstulable. The inces of the empire. Mr. Frederick H. Ball'o' 
RuBsians holding it wonld at the same time of Oavendieh Square, London, who bad b* 
occupy an important vantage-ground, either in constant commnnication with the famii 



OHINiL 99 

Uricieo districts, in Febrnary, 1878, described of Europe and the United States. The foreign 

the condition there by saying that the people residents and the missionaries residing in Ohi- 

vere '*djing bj thousands upon thousands, na, particularly the English residents and mis- 

f omen and girls and boys are openly offered sionaries, were made the agents for distributing 

for sale to any chance wayfarer. When I left the relief, and did such evident service to the 

the coantry, a respectable married woman suffering people as to direct general attention 

cuold be easUy bought for six dollars, and a to their benevolent work, and call forth ex- 

little girl for two. In oases, however, where pressions of appreciation and gratitude. The 

it wis foond impossible to dispose of their chil- Viceroy of the province of Ohihli accepted the 

dnn, iMrents have been known to kill them invitation of the British consul at Tientsin to 

»»Qer than witness their prolonged sufferings, dine with him on her Majesty's birthday — ^the 

k fflsny instances throwing themselves after- first instance of the kind recorded — ^proposed 

wtfd down wells, or committing suicide by ar- the health of the Queen, and in a courteous ad- 

leoic Corpses lay rotting by the highway, dress referred with feeling to the efforts which 

iQ>i there was none to bury them. As for had been made by foreigners to relieve the dis« 

:>jd. the population subsisted for a long time tress. The Viceroy of Shansi addressed to Mr. 

^3 roots and grass; then they found some Forrest, the English consul at Tientsin, a letter 

aoirahment in willow-buds, and finally ate the of thanks for what had been done by foreign- 

tk'(hes off their cottages. The bark of trees ers in the matter of administering relief ; and 

r^fTed them for several months, and last July Mr. Forrest, writing to the committee of the 

I ^ceired specimens of the stuff the unhappy relief fund in Shanghai, said that the distribu- 

rr&itares had been by that time reduced to. tiou of funds, as coifducted, would do more 

hi most harmless Idnd was potato - stalks, really to open China to the English than a 

Vi'iz\ stringy fibers, which only the strongest dozen wars. In one instance, in the province 

tKth coold reduce to pulp, and which entirely of Honan, the relief proffered by one of the 

«itd all my attempts at deglutition. Theoth- committees was refused; and in another in- 

erde^ription of ' food' — ^I hardly expect ere- stance two Chinese district officers, appointed 

^:nitf but I have seen it myself— was red slat&- to assist the committee, were detected in steal- 

f^xe. It appears that this substance, when ing from the funds. 

r^>l!cd about in the mouth and chewed, will A letter was published in November by the 

cr:ar3a]]y split into small splinters, which can British Foreign Office which had been received 

^•vallowed after practice. To such fright- from the Chinese Government, expressing its 

f'j tritremities have the famine-stricken people thanks to the English in all parts of the world 

t (\nDs been put." At the end of December, for their subscriptions in aid of the sufferers by 

>T7, the fdmine region in the province of Shan- the famine, and " for the generous relief aff ord- 

^ vi^ estimated to include a population of ed by them in time of great calamity." A ban- 

iririr t«n millions needing relief. The foreign quet was given at Hong-Kong to the newly 

r^de&t% the Christian missionaries, and the appointed Ambassador to England and France, 

>/;remnient engaged in undertakings for the November 29th. The Ambassador made an 

r^^ef of the suffering ; societies were formed address in which he said that the impartial and 

">(:>llt>ct monej and grain for the sufferers ; excellent government giveh to Hong-Kong had 

\TjTi^hn was made for the collection and ac- cemented the friendly feeling between Eng- 

r^^nisiodation in places of refuge of persons land and China, and added that he regarded 

T>> wandered from their homes; andthepeo- the friends and enemies of England as the 

' '^ o( Europe and America were invited to friends and enemies of China. The rains be- 

1^' p. Barly in February a decree was pub- gan to fall in June, and continued at intervals 

-?W1 {Tranting postponements of taxation in through the smnmer and fall, producing a steady 

-scT handred townships of the province of mitigation of the distress. 

v^utan/, in consequence of the suffering ex- An edict issued by the Emperor on the 

^"eQc«d through ^^ flood, drought, locusts, al- 29th of March expressed dissatisfaction at the 

^liization of the land," etc. It was stated in supineness of his household officers in effect- 

t?nl that the largest number of victims and ing economies. Prince Knng was ordered to 

^ iarliest victims to the famine had been be handed over to the Imperial Court, and the 

i: c-fi-4inokers. Multitudes of starving people other members of the Grand Council to the 

»'• flwking to Tai-Yuen-fu, the capital of Board of Punishments, for the adjudication of 

^^'•< and a daily mortality of nearly 400 was penalties, because they had failed to suggest 

^"I'A m the city. Many died from sheer remedies for the existing state of distress. In 

^ *^:t:<>ii, others from repletion after long fast- a later decree these officers were deprived of 

^- nany from the intense cold; and some their rank, but allowed to retain office. 

•■*^ ?itea by wolves. The distress in north- A relief hospital for refugees from the fam- 

^ ^1 >nan was quite as grievous at the opening ine at Tientsin, containing four thousand wo- 

^•'jt spring. men and children, was burned on the 6th of 

^«r ^verity of the famine and the urgency January. The gates of the yards were locked, 

'-? appe^ for help awakened public sym- preventing the immediate escape of the inmates, 

'''T abroad, and subscriptions were opened and fourteen hundred persons were burned to 

•<i uberaQy anatained in the principal cities death. The two deputies who were in charge 



100 CHINA. 

of the BBtabluhment were degraded and inoft- Jonrnej in Tuimui that we fiurlj redized t)ie 
pacitated from ever boldingoffice agtiin. A enormona extent of Jteprodnction. Withsome 
report to Parliament bj Mr. Baker, of the fearaof being diaoredited, but at the aame titue 
British cooenlar establiahiaeDt attached to Mi. with the oonBoionmees that I tun nuderesti- 
QroBvenor'a mia«on, mentiona a great increase mating the proportion, I estimate that the 
in the prodnotion of opium. Speaking of Yun- poppy fields conBtitnte a third of the whole 
nan, it saja ; " Of the sole agnoultaral export, onltivation of Yunnan," Farther on, the re- 
opium, we can apeak with some certaint;, port remarks ; " We walked aome hundreds of 
We were aatonoded at the extent of the pop- milea through poppies ; we breakfasted Buong 
py-oultiTation both in Sechuan and Yunnan, poppies; we snot wild ducks in the poppies. 
We first heard of it on the boundaiy line be- Even wretched little hovels in the mountains 
tween Hupei and Bechuan. A few mtlesaouih were generally attended hj a peppy patch." 
of this spot the moBt valuable variety of native Imperial and viceregal ediota appeared from 
opium ia produced. In ascending the rivers, time to Idme prohibiting the cultivation of the 
wherever cultivation existed, we found nnmer- poppy, but, according to a recent report of Mr. 
ouB fields of poppy. Even the sandy banks Nicnolson, the secretary of the British legation 
were often planted with it down to the water's at Peking, on the opiam trade, they have been 
edge ; bnt it was not until we began our land in most cases ignored, the only result being an 



inoreaM in the price of the article, consequent peached. The capital ia aaii to be the chief 
upon the neoesaity of theprodnoer " silencing " center of consumption for the Indian opinm 
the officials. Bnt thougn this has been uni- which comes te Tientsin. The Viceroy of 
versally noderstood and acknowledged, the Nanking has ordered that every house let for 
"Peking Gazette " continues to publish me- opium-smoking be confiscated. The authorities 
morials from censors and others on the sub- of Soochow have also adopted energetic Diea- 
iect. More earnest attempts have recently suresagtunsttheproprietorsof thesbops. The 
oeen made to punish infractors of the laws, offieers of Canton have adopted a licensing sys- 
and tlie Government and people seem to be tem, and, having farmed out tbe trade to a par- 
entering upon ano^er general effort to abol- ticular corporation, exact a tax on all the opium 
ish or curtail tbe traffic. The Viceroy of the prepared and sold to it. The general com- 
two Kiang provinces recently denounced two manding in Kashgar has destroyed the poppy 
Taoatsis ana two or three district magistrates crops in Kanau and Shensi ; and all the fields 
to the Emperor as inveterate opium -smokers, boi^ering on the roads south of Moakdon have 
A decree of punishment was issued against been destroyed. The Governor of Bhansi has 
them, and the Viceroy has annonnced that any forwarded a memorial in which he ascribes 
officer within bis jurisdiction whose persond many aggravations of the recent famine to tbe 
appearance gives ground for suspicion of bis fact that the fertile and irrigated fields were 
being an opium-smoker will be interrogat«i3, given np to the cultivation of the poppy, while 
and, if fomul guilty, will be forthwith im- the food otops were consigned to stony and 



CHINA. CHRI8TIAK OONNEOTION. 101 

poor corners. Hib view is confirmed in the the center of Oorea to the ChineBe town of 
repoit of Mr. Nicholson, who shows that in Moakden, amid insults and threats of mnrder 
ShnA and Shensi, where the famine has been all along the Hne of the route, and was saved 
most intense, the poppy can be oultiyated with only by the declarations of his escort that he 
nooen only on the irrigable land& all of which was under the protection of the Emperor. For 
roald have been available for tne raising of several months his daily fare in prison was a 
Theat and yegetables, except for the profit de- handful of rice and a bowl of cold water, and 
hred from the opinm-culture. The Governor he had to sleep on the ground and associate 
of Shazui, vith the approval of the throne, has with criminals of the worst stamp. This was 
resolred to issue a proclamation laying on the the third time Monseigneur Ridel had been sen- 
ueestral dans and village clubs the responsi- tenced to death in Oorea ; on the two previous 
biiitj of preventing the growth of the poppy occasions he owed his escape to his own energy. 
ia their neighborhoods. A vigorous voluntary An insurrection broke out in the province 
^'guuzation for checking the spread of opium- of Ewangsi in the latter part of the year, and 
s3okiQg has been formed in Oanton, which immediately assumed such formidable propor- 
piblishes and circulates tracts, and has given tions as to cause considerable anxiety to the 
f-uds for essays discnssing the evils of the imperial authorities. The leader of the insur- 
trade and of the use of the drug. Several of gents was a general named li-Yunff-Choi, who 
ice^sa/s have been published. They are very was also notorious in the great Taiping rebel- 
pi Jo-spoken against those who have introduced lion, but had prudently deserted to the impe- 
> riim into the country. The religion of the rial side when he saw that the collapse of the 
^est, sajs the essay that won the first prize, rebellion was imminent. Since then he had 
tci'bes that we mast love our neighbors as our- gained great distinction in the service of the 
^Ires, practice kindness toward all, and not Emperor, and had been honored with the yel- 
^oe£t oorselves at others^ expense ; yet what low tunic. It seemed that he was disappointed 
xe thing in the world can be compared with at not receiving some coveted preferment, and 
.{•iom for the injury it inflicts on mankind, put himself at tne head of a revolutionary mo ve- 
13J the mischief it causes men to bring on ment. His army was reported to number fifty 
*iAt neighbors for the sake of their own gain ? thousand men. 

^ N'o wonder that mobs have bnmed some of The preliminary examination of the country 
ii Christian ohorohes and put to death West- at Eaeping, where mining operations are con- 
omen and women." The essayist also shows templated, has proved very satisfactory. A 
- >7 the importation of Western manufactures fiat piece of country about twenty miles long 
'4to the country would be benefited by the was found to be covered with coal and iron* 
ni'preajion of the trade. Missionaries from stone. The coal is bituminous, with 70 to 75 
Cm reported at the anniversary of the Wes- per cent, of gas, and 7i to 15 per cent of adi, 
k'U Mttionary Society in May, 1878, that naving every appearance of being excellent 
-"^prejodice caused by British support of the coaL The ironstone, which runs in a parallel 
\'^ trade was the most formidable obstacle line with the coal, is hematite. Boring opera- 
te; had to encoonter. An opium refuge has tions have been begun close to the river. The 
ki opened by missionaries in Peking, which coal fields of Eilung are worked by machinery 
i jtjS the first six months of its existence re- and foremen from England, and now produce 
i^«l fifty-three in-patients, and was attended about fifty thousand tons daily of coals which 
^/ stiriy three hnndred out-patients. are said to be equal to the best English coals. 
T> Bev. Mr. Mackay, a Oanadian Presby- Mr. G. J. Morrison, the late engineer of the 
kr:^ misaionarj, was attacked at the begin- Shanghai- Woosung railway line, early in the 
p^ fj( the year oy a crowd of Formosans at year made an examination of the country 
i--:^i«i. and was threatened with death unless between Hangkow and Canton with a view of 
^t'-f' the island ; but he remained in spite of ascertaining its nature with reference to the 
^c Unit, Violent attacks were made auring construction of railways. The distance be- 
V ^-immer upon the Protestant missions at tween the two points by a straight line is five 
t;:<iiiii^.fa and Teng-ping-fu. At the former hundred miles, but by the route he took it 
'^r. s chapel belonging to the Ohurch Mis- was eight hnndred miles. He passed through 
^tiTT Society was completely destroyed by the cities of Wuchang, Yo-chow, Siang-yin, 
' - > beaded by the literati and gentry. At Chang-sha, Siang-tan, over the Ohihling Pass, 
^ the rioters threatened to kill the catechist and thence by I-chang, Ping-shih, Lo-chang, 
^ ^<n?e of the chapel, but subsequently they and Shao-chow, to Canton. He wa^ interested 
^:-:<i htm to leave the city, and not to return in the examination of the coal fields of Hunan 
r.Srr [lenalty of instant death should he be and Kwang-tung, and in some places found 
i**.di«coTered. Some time ajgo Monseigneur that the coal trade had largely increased since 
' ^. 1 French missionary bishop, was cap- the visit of the Baron F. von Kichthofen. 
:< Tith other missionaries by the inhabi- CHRISTIAN CONNECTION.* The quad- 
■^ 'f Oorea, and condenmed to torture and rennial American Christian General Conven- 
;•"-. The Chinese ministers intervened in tion was held at Franklin, Warren County, 
^ Vor, and he was set at liberty during the 



»:>r 



/ rr _A J ^ • • •See ^'Anntud Cvclopiedla" for 1874, article CHmisTiAN 

. lie was escorted from a prison m OoK]racTioK,for«ftiUaoooiutofitAtiitioB. 



103 CHEISHAN UNION. CHRISTINA, MARIA. 

Ohio, beginnmg October 2d. About one hnn- for religion, faith, and practice ; that it cod< 
dred ministerB and fifty lay members were in tains truth for its matter, without mixture of 
attendance. Elder J. H. Ooe presided. The error; and contains the true sentiment of 
principal business transacted consisted in the Christian oneness. We therefore recommend 
adoption of amendments to the constitution the study of it to all of our people, that we 
of the body, by which it was given a certain may know of its cardinal principles." The 
legislative power, and was placed in control of Council expressed its appreciation of the im- 
the enterprises of the Church, particularly of portance of the Sunday school, but deprecated 
the missionary and publishing interests. Hith- the employment of ungodly teachers in the 
erto the Convention has had only an advisory same. The report on education urged the im- 
power. Under these provisions, the Nationd portance of establishing a college in a centml 
or Extension Society, previously a voluntary location, free from all denominational restraint, 
organization formed in 1872, was merged in fortheeduoationof the children of the Church; 
the missionary department of the General Con- and advised the ministers to study the sciences, 
vention ; its constitution was modified so that and thereby qualify themselves for greater use- 
its workings might become denominationally fulness before the world. It was ordered that 
effective : its name was changed to that of the General Council meet hereafter every four 
"The Missionary Society of the Christian years,in8teadof, as heretofore, every two years. 
Church in America''; and its corresponding Elder Flack, the Moderator of the year, esti- 
•ecretary was elected secretary of the mission- mates that the Union includes one hundred 
ary department of the General Convention, thousand members. 

with an Executive Board associated with him. CHRISTINA, Makia, Dowager Queen of 
Provision was made for the organization of Spain, born April 27, 1806, died August 21, 
auxiliary societies in conferences, churches, and 1878. She was the second of the eleven chil- 
Sunday schools. Arrangements are also to be dren of Francis I. of Naples, and had in her 
made for assuming and carrying on the pub- earliest youth acquired great independence of 
lishing enterprises of the Church, which have character. When Ferdinand VII. of Spain, 
heretofore been conducted by a private asso- in 1829, had become a widower for the third 
ciation at Dayton, Ohio, and for placing the time, he was induced by the representations of 
Sunday schools under the general control of Louise Charlotte, the older sister of Christina^ 
the Convention. A collection was ordered to to ask for the hand of the latter in marriagej 
be taken in all the churches in December for in opposition to the wishes of all his relatives, 
the Biblical School, and another in January, She accepted tlie ofier, and on December 11th 
1879, for the Publishing House. was married to Ferdinand. The King was 
CHRISTIAN UNION. The fourth General soon completely influenced by his beautiful 
Council of the Christian Union met at Wesley, and intriguing wife, and only three months 
Ind., May 16th. The Rev. J. V. B. Flack, of after the wedding, on March 29, 1880, re- 
Missouri, was chosen Moderator. A paper stored the Siete Partidas, which admitted, 
which had been adopted at the previous ses- female descendants of the King to the throne, 
sion of the Council, defining the position of This measure called forth a shower of pro- 
the Union as an undenominational organiza- tests. 'Charles X. of France, Francis of Na- 
tion, endeavoring to offer a common platform pies, the Queen^s own brother, and Don Carlos 
of principles on which all Christians can unite, and Don Francisco, the younger brothers of 
was readopted. It pronounces sectarianism an the King, all saw their claims endangered by 
evil, and declares that *^ all religious associa- this law, and urged the King to retract his or- 
tions, built upon a narrower basis than that der. But Ferdinand remained firm, and when, 
which teaches and treats all the Christians of on October lOth, Maria Christina was deliv- 
the locality as equal brethren of the one church ered of a daughter, Spain had again a Princess 
of the place, and presents creeds, tests, and of Asturias, a Crown Princess, who received 
usages which exclude a part of the Christians the name of Isabella. The second child of 
of the place, are not built after the New Tes- Christina was also a daughter, Marie Louise, 
tament model, and have no claim to be re- who afterward became the wife of the Duke 
garded as churches of Christ, simply because de Montpensier, and the mother of Queen Mer- 
tbey have Christians among them " ; and "that cedes, the wife of King Alfonso XII. Ferdi> 
the church is a divine institution, is God-made, nand VII. died on September 29, 1833, and 
not mechanical, not human, not man-made. Queen Christina assumed the regency accord- 
and God alone can place members in his ing to his last will, in the name of her dan^b- 
Church ; and, as every one who truly loves is ter, who was proclaimed Queen as Isabella II, 
bom of God, and therefore a member of his A civil war followed this step, in which I>on 
Church, therefore it does not depend on our Carlos sought to gain the throne. After a 
doctrinal views, baptism, votes, or enrollment, duration of seven years it was finally subdued 
but on a loving and obedient heart.^* A reso- by Espartero, who promised to the Basque 
lution, which substantially defined the doc- Provinces, the principal supporters of I>oii 
trinal position of the church, declared that Carlos, the restoration of their /w€rM. When 
'^we believe the Bible to be a revelation of Queen Christina hesitated to execute tliis 
God, and that it is, therefore, a sufficient rule promise, Espartero placed himself at the bead 



COLOMBIA. 103 

01 i new reTohtion, and on October 12, 1840, magistrates of the nine States are : Antioquia, 
$be formally resigned the regency and fled General T. Rinjifo; Bolivar, Sellor B. Ko- 
to Rome, and afterward to France. She re- gnera ; Boyacd, Sellor J. E. Otalora ; Oaaca, 
tOi-Ded in triamph in 1843, and remained Sellor M. Garces; Candinamaroa, Sefior D. 
in S{^ until 1854^ when she again fled to Delgado; Magdalena, Sellor Lnis A. Robles; 
Fruce. After that time she only occasionally Panam4, Sellor B. Correoso ; Santander, Sefior 
Tisited Spain. She was secretly married in M. A. Estrada ; Tolima, Sefior Dr. J. Maniqae. 
Decemtwr, 1833, to Fernando Mnfioz, one of The Oolombian Gonsal-General in New York 
berguarda, who was made Duke of Rianzares, is Sefior Miguel Salgar. The American Min- 
lad the marriage was acknowledged by a de- ister Resident at Bogota is the Hon. E. Deich- 
tree dated October 18, 1844. man. 

COLOMBIA (EsTADos Unidos db Oolom- The Federal army comprises in time of peace 

Hi), an independent state, occupying the north- 8,000 men; and in time of war each State is 

we^m portion of South America and the held to furnish a contingent of one per cent. 

soQiheastem portion of Central America, and of its population. 

extending from latitude 12** 21' north to I'' 20' Educational interests have suffered little 

»&th, and from longitude 68° 52 to 88° 6' west, from internecine strife, as attested by the 

h boundaries are : on the north, the Oarib- steady increase in the number of schools : 

bean Sea; on the northeast and east, Yene- 1,625 primary schools were officially reported 

2i2da; on the southeast, Brazil; on the south, for 1877, against 1,159 for 1875; though the 

Lmador; and on the west, the Pacific Ocean State school fund for the latter year amounted 

lad Costa Rica. The area of the territory of to $508,779, while that of the former did not 

C>Jombia has been estimated at rather more exceed $880,017. 

\hn 500,000 square miles, 400,000 of which The foUowing tables exhibit the amounts 

h to the north of the equator. The republic and several branches of the national revenue 

I! dfrided into nine Federal States and six Ter- and expenditure for the year ending August 

ntorieg. and its population is about 8,000,000, 81, 1878 : 

bcioding uncivilized Indians to the number of bevenux. 

J^me 50,000.* Customs 18,000,000 

Th. princjpd centers of population are the filJ^ra'SitaiiiiiK-i^.:;.::::::: ''K 

Tiliejs of the Magdalena, Oauca, and Atrato Post-Offlce 60,ooo 

RiTers, the first of which flows through seven ^legraphs 40,000 

Bjates comprising the vast central region of the ^;i^i^ii^:y/////////////////.i:i dolooo 

ft::iitr7,500 mDes in length, and varying from Charoh property 6,800 

^ to I'OO in width. It is the great highway Sundries _40^ 

M commerce to the Atlantic, and is navigated Total $4,888,800 

hm Barranquilla to Honda, a distance of 600 

isil**, hy steamers of from 50 to 200 tons, the xipinditurx. 

K'pertj of private companies. The mouth of ministry of Jj^riw $2g,M4 

»ite Uai^dalena is obstructed by bars, and a rail- « of Finance.! !!.*!!!.'!'.!.'!!!.*!!*.! i,i6ol480 

^ fifteen miles in length, constructed by a ^ 11 , J',^" *^ **^°« }'i?2'iS 

German company at a cost of $600,000, con- rlJbii?^^!^::;;:::::::::::::::::::::: }^^ 

ctcts the bay of Sabanilla with the town of Foreign aflUra 88,700 

»tT«.«aai«^ the lower limit of "verjaviga- ^^ss^i^,;^^v:^::v.::v^::::::: ^ 

•a. The Gauca valley 18 an elevated plam Pensions 116,220 

;^to a height of 6,000 feet above the sea- Po•^Offloe 488,^86 

**'d The Atrato Valley is generally similar Total IT,2Ti,988 

^ that of the Magdalena in ita topography. 

"Hie staple productions of the country are On comparing the totals of the foregoing 

^ cacao, sugar, rice, tobacco, cotton, in- tables, a deficit of $2,483,183 will be observed, 

C'o, nuize, mandioca, and cattle. The di- ^^^ is to be attributed to two causes : en- 

^ varies with the altitude of the land; the hanced exnenditures in the War Department 

if riiads yield all the tropical products ; and owing to the late revolution, and the partial 

^ pUteaus and slopes of the Colombian An- stagnation of foreign commerce while the dis- 

ia. those of sub-tropical and cold climates. turbance lasted. 

ne President of the Republic is General The national debt in 1878 was as follows : 

• iJiTnyillo, inaugurated April 1, 1878, and rorOgn debt |io,8»2,600 

'^^Ubiuet is composed of the following min- Homedebt 0,608,804 

^-n or secretaries: of the Interior and For- ^otaL 110,999^ 

'a Affairs, Dr. F. Zaldua; of Finance and 

•"tic Worka, Dr. B. Nufiez: of the Treasury The foreign debt incurred during the war of 

^ Credit, Sefior Gamacho Roldan; of War independence was consolidated in 4^ per cent. 

^ Marine, Sefior M. Hurtado. The chief bonds in 1873, and a convention entered into 

*~" — ■ with the foreign bondholders whereby month- 

i^iLt*!Sr* *^^}l5^S!'*^!5F»?f »WS!llf itSKS: ly payments were to be made by the Govem- 

7 .'«'«. rtt, see the Tohimet of tlie ** Annual OtcIoimb- '^ '^ a. jf f^ ^ v i. xl v lu u » & 

^ irisUudisn. nient of Colombia to the bondholders' agent 



104 



COLOMBIA. 



residing at Bogota. In spite of the political 
disturbances of 1876-^77, the interruption of 
navigation on the Magdalena for the past year, 
owing to an unprecedented drought, and the 
consequent lull in the export trade, the month- 
ly payments have been punctually made to 
the agent ; but, as they did not reach London 
in time for the payment of the coupons, the 
British Minister to Colombia, Robert Bunch, 
Esq., who was then in London, wrote the fol- 
lowing letter to the Right Honorable E. P. 
Bouverie. cliairman of the Council of Foreign 
Bondholders, which commends the fidelity of 
Colombians representatives and the sacrifices 
they have made to preserve the credit and 
honor of the country : 

LoNDOV, JwM 8| 1878. 
Tfi$ RigU Honorable £. P. Bouvxbib : 

My diab Sib : I regret to find that some misap- 
prehension ezists, even among peraona who are in- 
terested in the United States of Colombia, aa to the 
action of the Qovemment of that republic with ref- 
ercDoe to that portion of its external debt which is 
commonly known as the 4i per cent, loan of 1878. 
Founding themselves on the undoubted fact that 
the remittances from Bogot4 have been for some 
months past smaller in amount than the convention 
of 1878 gives the bondholders a right to demand, 
many persons think that this decrease is owing to 
the failure of the Colombian Treaaurv to meet its 
engagements ; in other words, that the bondhold- 
ers' agent, Mr. O'Leai^, does not send larger sums 
because he does not hmiself receive them. As this 
belief is altogether unfounded, and as much injus- 
tice is therebv done to the credit of Colombia, I 
think it may Se satisfactory te you to learn the real 
state of the case. By the last mail Mr. O'Leary 
writes to me as follows : 

*' To the bondholders I only send £8,000, and re- 
main with a balance of £22.000, which is more like- 
ly to increase than to diminish, as the supply of bills 
decreases. It is a thing which preys on my mind : 
the rate of exohanffe is 6 per cent, premium, ana 
bids fair to reach 20 before long. The detention of 
this money will delay the payment of the coupons, 
and the delay will affect prejudicially the credit of 
this countrv at the verv moment when it ought to 
be the highest, oonsiaering the sacrifices it has 
made and is ms^in^ to comply with its engaffe- 
ments. If you are m London, and can spare toe 
time, you will do Colombia a aervioe by impressing 
on the Council the necessitjr of explaining matters 
to the public, and so preventing a cause entirely be- 
yond numan control from damaging the credit of 
the country." 

As I entirely agree with Mr. O'Leary in his ap- 
preciation of the honorable behavior of Colombia in 
the matter of its foreign debt, it has appeared to me 
that the simplest manner of meeting his wishes is to 
trouble you with this letter. I have been a witness 
myself of the determination of the various Govern- 
ments of Colombia to satisfy the claims of the bond- 
holders. I hi^e even seen their money put away in 
the chest to wait for the next pay-day. when the 
Treasurjr was almost empty, and eveiyoody, from 
the President down, was on reduced allowances, and 
salaries were discounted at a loss of 25 per cent. 

The supply of bills has given out, chiefly because 
the drought from which the whole world has suffered 
of late has visited Colombia with especial severity. 
No doubt the political disturbances of the last half 
of 1876 and beginning of 1877 are partly to blame 
for the decrease of the exports, but this cause is as 
nothing when compsred with the physical one of a 
want of water in the river. 

Perhaps I am going out of your and my way to 



trouble yon with this explanation, but I like to %Kf 
a good word for Colombia when I can. 

I remain, my dear air, your faithful servant, 

BOBEBT BUNCH, 

The value of the exports for the year 1876- 
'77 amounted to $14,477,897, and that of the 
imports to $7,828,928. The subjoined table 
shows the value and destination of the exports 
for the year 1875-76 : 

DBSTDTATIOM. Valo*. 

Oennsof $2,678,228 

Wettlndles 244,416 

Buenos Ayies 4,000 

CosUBica 2,496 

ChiM 800 

Spain 16T 

Ebuador. 8^77 

United States of America. 2,610,S88 

United States of Colombia 116,2S4 

France 2,660,624 

Holland 6,922 

Great Britidn 824,»86 

Italy 4.238 

Peru 84,864 

Venezuela 21,M0 

Various 8,»fi6,fi8l 

Total $12,122,611 

The value of the imports for the same year 
was $6,709,109. It should be observed that 
the foregoing table contains an item of $116,- 
284, which, as it stands for commodities sent 
from other parts of the republic to the free 
Colombian ports of Panam4 and Colon (As- 
pin wall), would properly belong to the coast- 
ing trade, although m the ministerial report it 
figures as here given. 

The principal articles of export, with the 
quantities ana value of those shipped from the 
republic in the year 1875-76, are shown in the 
annexed table : 



COMMOniTIXS. 


QowtiUM. 


Vain*. 


Cotton, kilogrsmmes 

Indigo. " 

Caoutiuionc, ^* 

Hides, " 

Ooiree, *» 

DlvldlTlj " 

0<dd RDd diver coins 

Ores, kilogitunmes 


820,T98 
27,848 

804,612 
1,867,46T 
8,428,882 
8,090,868 

456,466 
184 

1,860,878 

8,467,600 

24,067 

^792,^09 

6.884 

8,616,887 


$201,116 

62,992 

174,579 

621,449 

1,168,828 

97.619 

1,991,672 

410 500 


Oold'dustT ** ....i 


61,674 

428,688 

622,724 

40,471 

40,000 

2,038,008 

180,880 

8,109,^6 

20,820 

804,116 


Gold (inffots) 


Odd and silver (ingots) 

Cabinet wood, kUogrammas . . 
PredouB stones 


Cinchona, kilogrammes 

Hata, " 

Tobacco (leaf) « 

Tobacco (elaborated^ kilo... 
Tsgua (vegetable Ivory), kilo. 



Of tobacco, Bremen, by far the largest pur- 
chaser of that article, took 5,046,000 kilo- 
grammes, and Hamburg and London each about 
270,000 ; while to New York but 62,000 kilo- 
grammes were shipped. New York took of 
cinchona some 2,820,000 kilogrammes, and 
London about 1,160,000. Of coffee, 928,000 
kilogrammes were sent to Hamburg, 624,000 
to Bremen, 242,000 to Havre, 464,000 to Lon- 
don, and 948,000 to New York. The more 
Important shipments of cotton were to the fol- 
lowing ports: Liverpool, 820,000 kilogrammes; 
Havre, 201,000; Bremen, 221,000; Harabur& 



COLOMBIA. 



105 



87,000; London, 12,000 ; and New York, 20,- 



000. 



The sbippiiu; moyements at all save the free 



) shipping 
(Panama 



porta (Panami and Aspinwall) of Colombia 
were m follows in the year 1876-78 : 





LAOUr. 


n BALLAST. 


raos. 


Neuof 
V«Mla. 


TOBI. 


No. of 
VHHk. 


Tou. 


BaottTiBtBnL. ...... 

C^fttffM, 


77 
78 

• * 

96 
85 
190 
20 
95 


41,011 
62,240 

• V • • • 

8^11 

Ml* 

202,866 

26,968 

25,568 


4 
22 

• • 

86 
9 
11 
51 
12 


50 
84,681 


Cmti 




i^ffifht 


4,156 
45 


KioSado 


Bibiaak 

SetiXiitL 


2,877 

14^14 

1,862 


riBBieo 






0O5 


867,788 


188 


67,687 


Simam 


288 

812 


820,648 
47,146 


41 
97 


41,428 
16,214 


MagTeaih. 


T<ttl 


005 


867,788 


188 


57,687 



GLKABED. 





LAxnv. 


Hr BALLAST. 


Koai, 


ifo.or 

VMda. 


Tom. 


No. of 
YhmI*. 


Tool. 


Booveaton. 

iWapeoA 


78 
64 

• • 

118 
81 

in 

28 
102 

577 


40,606 
57,827 

• * • • • 

11,288 

1,018 

198,695 

21,866 

26,290 


10 

88 
• • 
16 

t 
25 
56 

9 


808 
87,688 


l.j«t» 


2k;Ujda 


679 


X»8arto ].'. 

bibaSk. 


72 

11,027 

20,066 

1,200 


^AMnta 

iman 






852,440 


152 


71,294 


hmaen 


285 
292 


812,865 
89,575 


58 

99 


60,890 
10,404 


^^rm^ 


Tatel 


67T 


8S2,440 


152 


71,204 





Hie moat recent official retoma relating to 
rslwiya, telegraph lines, etc., are those re- 
tried in the " Annual Oydopffidia'^ for 1876. 

AffloDg the latest official acts of ez-Presi- 
^tParra, immediately before transferring the 
7ci3s of government to his successor, Greneral 
Tnijillo, was the approval of a contract drawn 
? between Sefior Eustorgio Salgar, Secretary 
.< the Interior and of Foreign Relations of 
'•> Uoited States of Colombia, duly authorized 
r^rrj of the first part, anjL as party of the 
■ w'.er part, Lacien N. B. Wyse, chief of the 
^jim&c erploring expedition of the Isthmus 
-^ Hra, 1877, and 1878, Member and Delegate 
^tlie Committee of Direction of the Civil In- 
vro^ooal Interoceanio Canal Society, pre- 
•idd over by General Etienne Tdrr. The 
y-TK important olansea of this contract are as 

.^. L The QoTemment of the United Statee of 
• i&bu ooDoedeft to Mr. Luoien N. B. Wyse, who 
'•9'?Ci, in the name of the Civil Internatioual Intez^ 
-'<&» Canal Society, represented by their Com* 
- '»« of Direction, the ezolueive privilege for the 
'••*c:t9a aeroM it« territoiy, and for the excavating 



of a oanal between the two oceans, the Atlantic and 
Paoiflc. Said oanal may be coDBtructed without re- 
strictive Btipulationa of any character. 

This oonoeasion is made under the following con- 
ditionB : 

1. The duration of the privilege shall he for ninety- 
nine years, to be reckoned from the day in which 
the oanal snail be opened wholly or partially to pub- 
lic Bervioe, or when the ffrantees begm to realise the 
tolls upon commerce and navigation. 

2. From the date of approbation by the Colombian 
Congress of the present oontract for the opening of 
the Interooeanic Canal, the Oovenmient of tne Bepub- 
lio oan not construct by itself, or concede to any com- 
pany or individual, under what title soever, the right 
to construct another canal across Colombian ter- 
ritoiy, which Bhall put in communication the two 
oceans. If the sranteeB wish to construct a railway 
as an auziliaiy of the eanal, the Gk)vemment (aaving 
existing rights) can not concede to anv other com- 
pany or incuvidual the right to establiso another in- 
teroceanio railroad, nor do so itself, during the time 
conceded for the construction and use of the canal. 

8. The necessary studies of the ground and route 
for the line of the canal shall be made at the cost of 
the grantees, by an International Commission of in» 
dividuals and competent engineers, in which two 
Colombian engineers shall take part. The Commis- 
sion shall determine the general route of the canal, 
and inform the Colombian Government directly, or 
their diplomatic agents in the United States or Eu- 
rope, at latest, in 1881, unless extreme necessity, 
clearlv proved, should prevent. The report shall 
include, in duplicate, the scientific labors executed, 
and an estimate of the projected work. 

4. The grantees will have then a period of two 
years to form a universal stock company which shall 
take charge of the enterprise, and undertake the 
work of the construction of the canal. This term 
will be counted from the date mentioned in the pre- 
cedinff paragraph. 

6. The canal shall be finished and placed at the 
service of the public within the twelve years imme- 
diately following the time of the organization of the 
company to undertake its construction ; but the ex- 
ecutive power is authorized to grant a further maxi- 
mum term of six years, if, in an extreme case, beyond 
the control of the company, and after one third |>art 
of the canal is built, tnev should recognise the im- 
possibility of finishing tne work in the said twelve 
years. 

6. The canal shall have the length, depth, and all 
other conditions necessary in order toat sailing ves- 
sels and steamers of 140 metres long, a maximum 
beam of 16 metres, and drawing 8 metres of water, 
shall, with lowered topmasts, be able to pass the 
canal. . . . 

Am. II. Within the term of twelve months reck- 
oned fh>m the time at which the Internationid Com- 
mission shall have presented the result of its definite 
studies, the grantees will deposit in the bank or 
banks of London which the national executive pow- 
er may designate the sum of 750,000 francs as securi- 
ty for the execution of the work. The deposit shall 
be made in certificates of the foreign debt of Colom- 
bia at the current price in the market on the day of 
deliveiy. On the conclusion of the canal the amount 
deposited as security will remain to the credit of the 
Treasury to indemnify the National Government for 
Uie expenses incurred in the erection of edifices for 
the use of public otfices. 

Abt. III. Should the route for the construction 
of the canal from one ocean to the other pass to the 
west or north of the imaginarv straight line which 
ioins Ca;^ Tiburon with Garachin^ Point, the gran- 
tees must arrange amicably witli the Panam& Bail- 
road Company, or pay an indemnity which shall be 
established by the terms of the law 46 of August 16, 
1867, ** which approves the contract celebrated July 
6, 1867, reformatory of that of the 16th of April, 1850| 



oonoemlnB thB conitniotion of a nilnwd tiom one Akt. VI. The entnnoa of theaaiu] ahall be ri( 

ooean to the olher by the iBtbmua of Panumi." . . , oualy prohibited to the war-veasela of beUigercnt 

Abt. V. The OoTemmentof the Bepublio deoUrei tioai, md whose destiuation minifeits tbeit is 

DBUIral for all time the porta >t either extreme of tioQ to t«ke put in hogUlitiei. 

tbe etaii, uid the waten of the Bsme, from laa to Akt. VII. The sruiteeB vill enjof the lifj^t. 

1 equently, in oasB of war between other ing ajlthe time of the poaiesaion of the privile 

:weeQ BUT nation and Colombia, the make nee of the porta at the eitremitiea of the oa 

canal shall not be inlerrapted for that aawell aa intermeiiiate pointa, for the anchorage 



and consequently, in oasa of war between other ing all the time of tha poaaeaaion of the privilegi 

>f the 6 ,.,_ _ . , , . 

ahall be free to cavl^te repair of ahipa, and the loadiDs, depoBitiDo;, tt 

- eioluaioD, or prefer- ferrinit, or disembarkioji; of merohanifise- The i 



«nca of persons ar national itiea, bj virtue of payine of tbe canal ahall be open and free for tho oon; 

the tolls, and tha obaenanca of tbe rulei eatabllahed of all nationa, and dd import duties ahall be 

b; (he oompanr, for the uae of Mid eanal and Its de- ered except on marchandiaa deacined to \ib 

peDdenciea. Forei^ troops are eioapted, and can docedfor conaumptian In other parte of tlae rei 

Dot paaa without tbe permiaaion of Congreaa. Tbe aaid porta ahall in sonaeqaeDoe b« open i 



COLOMBIA. 107 

piVUtlona from the beginnioff of the work, and the free fh>in politioal infloenceB. The eompanj shall 

ou^offl-hooaes uid gaards whioh the Govornment take the name of *' The Universal Interoceanic Canal 

uuy judge coarenient for the c^lleotion of duties on Company" ; its residence shall be fixed in Bogot4, 

mereuDdlM destined for other portions of the re* New York. London, or Farts, at the election of the 

publio fluJl be established, to prevent the practice grantees ; oranoh omoes may oe established wherever 

of smng^Img. . . . necessary ; its contracts, shares, bonds, and the titles 

Abt. \L The passengers, money, precious met- which belong to it, shall never be subjected b^ the 

als, merchandise, and articles and effects of all class- Government of Colombia to any charge for registry, 

ei tnnaported by the canal, shall also be exempt emission, stamps, nor any analogous charffe, upon 

from ill dutissL The same exemption is extended the sale or transfer of these shares and bonds, or on 

tall aitielea and merchandise, for interior or exte« any profits accruing on the same. ... 

lirt tnde, stored aoeordiog to the conditions stipu- Ast. XXI. The grantees, or those who in the fu- 

kid with the oompaoy, in their storehouses and ture shall succeed them in their rights, maj trans- 

jUtioas. fer those rights to other capitalists or financial oom- 

AiT. XIL The ships whioh wish to pass through panics ; but it is absolutely prohibited to cede or 

tbe ouul shall present in the port of the terminus nypothecate them, by any title, to any nation or for- 

•t vhich they arrive their respective registers and eign government. 

other sailinj^ documents, prescribed by ttie law and Art. XXII. The grantees^ or those who may rep- 

pablte treaties, in order tnat the vessel may navi- resent them, may forfeit their acquired rights under 

fU« ▼ithoat hindrance. The vessels which have the following circumstances : 

fl)t asid papers, or which shall refuse to present 1. If they do not deposit, within the term stipu- 

tham, maj be detained, and proceeded agamst ao- lated, the amount required as necurity for the exe- 

crila^ to law. . . . cution of the work. 

AsT. XIV. As an indemnity to the grantees for 2. If in the first of the twelve years allowed for 

th« eoit of oonstmction, maintenance, and opera- the construction of the canal the works are not b»- 

tiin, which are at their expense, they shall nave gun. In this case the companv loses the sum de> 

daring all the period of this privilege the exclusive posited as a guarantee, the wnich will remain to the 

n^ht to establish, and to receive for the passai^e of credit of the republic 




tie tanff which they sKiedl establish, and w£ich ma^ complied with. 

bd modified at any time under the following condi* 6. If the service of the canal shall be interrupted 

tiozu: for more than six months, except in an extreme case. 

1. These imposts shall be levied without excep- In oases 2, 8, 4, and 6, the Federal Supreme Court 

ti0Q or favor upon all ships, in identical conditions, shall decide whether the privilege has been forfeited 

S. The tariff shall be pnolished four months be- or not. 

r>re it is put into effect, m the ^* Diario Official" of Abt. XXV. The enterprise of the canal shall bo 

ty Goremment. as well as in the capitals and prin- considered of public benefit. 

cipaleommerDiai ports ofthe countries interested. Ast. XXVI. This contract, which will serve as 

1 The principal tolls which shall be collected on a substitute for the dispositions of Law 88 of May 

Tnacls slmll not exceed the rate of ten fhincs for 26, 1876, and the clauses of the contract celebrated 

eaeh cabic metro resulting fVom the multiplication on the 28th of May of the same year, shall be sub- 

ofthe principal dimension of the submerged portion mitted to the approbation of the President of tho 

of the ship in transit (length, breadth, and depth). . . . Union, and the definite acceptance of the Congress 

i Special tolls for navigation shall be reduced in of the nation, 

pi^portion to the exoess, when.tho net profits de- In witnens whereof they sign the present in Bogo* 

r>cd from it shaU exoeedi twelve per cent, upon tho ti on the 20th of March, 1878. 

SkTitel employed in the enterprise. EUSTORGIO SALGAR. 

An. Xv. As a compensation for the rights and LUCIEN N. B. WYSE. 

€ienption9 which are oonferrod upon the grantees Bogota, March 28, 1878. 

br this contract, tho Govemmont of the fiepublio Approved : The President of the Union, 

i^aU enjoy a particioation eoual to five per cent, of AQUILEO PARBA. 

'•^ fross product wnioh shall accrue to tho enter- The Secretary of the Interior and of Foreign Af- 

pn»e, seeording ^ tho tariff which shall bo fixed fairs, EUSTORGIO SALGAR. 
^xi hj the company. 

Air. XVI. Tho grantees are authorised to require Toward the end of 1878 the political state, 

rtfoitiDt in advance of any oharffes which they may of the conntry was reported as exceedingly 

ttuahsh. Nina tenths of theao obar^s shall be made satisfactory. The September elections in Gun- 

fViWe m gold, and only the remainingtenth part dinamaroa had resnlted in a majority in the 

»:«il be payable in silver ot twenty-five grammes of ^'"""*«'"» ,**«»^ *w>uaitom^ ix* » luajvt juj lu iui« 

liaenessofdoo. Assembly m favor of the National Govem- 

, hsr. XVn. The ships infringing the rules estab- ment ; while those in Boyac& had retnmed bnt 

-«Ud by tho companv shall bo subject to a fine two members for the opposition. The eleo- 

;*A s^d companv shall embody in its sUtutes, ui^ng in Santander had been acknowledged by 

>.i of which It ahair give notice to tho public simul- a\^^ jr^*^„„^^^ ^^ v« «« «^^u;««oi *J^r,^,^u 

•.i:r5x.Iy with iu ta^flF. If they refusS to pay said ^^ doetnnar%os to be an additional triumph 

'--% '^r fomiah anfiHoiont security, they may be de- for the new administration. 

*^:^i, and proceeded against according to bw. Tho A law was passed by the Colombian Oon- 

n:je prooeedinga may be observed for the damages gress on July 6, 1878, authorizing the appro- 

• 'l^i^ll "uS'o^ning of a canal shall bo P"^''Of ^'. »2f,000 and $5,000 respectively to 
i-«T»d finaneiaUy poeoiblo, tlS grantees are author- ">® applied in behalf of the development of the 
^'i ^) fonn, onder tho immediate protection of the agricultnral interests of the republic, in accord- 

•lombian Government, and in the time agreed upon, ance with sentiments expressed by President 

• vnrerial joint-stock company, which shsU under- Trmillo in his message of May last respecting 
^.<. the execution of the work, tAmg charge of all the establishment of gardens for the accli- 

-*co»l arranirementa which may be needed. As •»"« ««»*'"«»""*j"«' ^*, j5«i««iid iv* «**,. .^w 

*« tnttrprise ia essentially international and eoo- matization of the quina-tree m the cities of 

>»3ic it a anderstood that it shall always bo kept Bogota and Popayan. 



108 COLORADO. 

COLORADO. The State election occurred "loo that the GoTemment ehall issue to the depostt- 

on the first Tuesday in October. It was for «>"^^ '^^.•[j^d w °d ^^ oe^h6^Juid^!t\h 

the choice of a member of Congress and State sl^tJaLeSdmrnu to th^ riWe? bill p^d by Con* 

officers. 1 he Democratic Oonvention for tbe greBs. because they have enabled the Secretary of 

nomination of candidates was held at Pueblo the Treasury to entirely control tbe coinage of Pilver 

on July 17th, and was permanently organized »nd to hoard the same in the Treasury vaulta, to tbe 

by the choice of M. i Gerry as chaim«.. ^'^JS^^Tttr Zth^^teS^Tif reUef .nd 

The foUowmg platform was adopted : ^g ^^^ of juatioe to the buainesa and hiboring okises, 

The Democracy of Colorado, in presenting their ^e demand • . ^ , 

eandidates to the people for their suffrages, solemnly , 1- The rei)eal of the resumption act, and the 

renew their devotion to the Constitution and the lawM hberation of the coin hoarded in the Trea- 

Union, and ai&rm the following as the cardinal prin- Bury. 
dples of the Democratic faith : 2. The substitution of United SUtes le^al-tender 

A strict construction of the Constitution with all P«per for national-bank notes, and its j^ermanent 

its amendments ; the supremacy of the civil over the re€stablishment as the sole paper money ot the coun- 

militaxy power ; a complete severance of Church and try, to be made receivable for all dues to the Gov- 

8tate: the equality or all citizens before the law; ernment and of legal tender with coin, the amount 

opposition to all subsidies, monopolies, and class leg- of such issues to be so regukted by legislation or or- 

islation ; the preservation of the public lands for the fra^^c law as to give the people assurance of stability, 

bona Jidi settler ; the maintenance and protection of p the volume of the currency and consequent atabil- 

the common- school system; and unrestricted home ity of value. 

rule under the Constitution to the citizens of eveiy 8. It is the exclusive right and duty of Con^ss 

State in the Amerioau Union. to furnish to the people of the country their circu- 

Jittohed, That every honest voter should approve lating medium, wbe^er the same be gold, silver, or 

the investigation and thorough exposure of the mon- P»P©r 5 "id it should always maintain the value of 

Btrous frauds by which the will of the American *^ch currency so aa to meet the demands of trade, 

people, as expressed at the ballot-box, was set aside, The full faith and credit of the Government ahould 

and their choice for President and Vice-President he ijledged to maintain whatever currency it may 

deprived of the high offices to which they were ftuuish, of equal value and of eoual power, 
elected; and while we disclaim any purpose of in- *• No further increase in the bonded debt, and no 

terfering with the title of the fraudulent President further sale of bonds for the purchase of coin for re- 

(made valid by the order of Congress), to the end "umption purposes. vi- j i. a. ^ 

that such grave crimes against the Constitution and *^' ^ ^dual extinction of the public debt by the 

laws of the land may be rendered impossible in the redemption of the interest-bearing portion thereof 

future and their perpetrators made infamous for '° "^^h currency as the law will permit— in United 

ever, we demand that such investigation be fair and S^tes notes where coin is not demanded by the Ut^ 

searching, and the authors of the crimes be held to ter of tbe kw, and in silver equally with gold wher^ 

a full accountability under the law for their criminal «v«r ©p*^ is required, 
motion ^* ^ Tigia economy in the management of our own 

JZmoW That the commercial and industrial dls- affairs, both SUte and national, and a reduction of 

tress that has so long prevailed throughout the coun* expenditures m every branch of the public service 

try is the legitimate result of the vicious financial consistent with elBoacy. 

legisktion of the moneyed power, effected through „ -®;«/«?^» That the employment of the armr of the 

the agency of the Republican party in Congress ; ??»*«<* States, except to execute the laws and main- 

that by the demonetization of silver, the enactment ^^ ^^'^ ?^^^? P«!^i " contrary to and destructive 

of the resumption law, the retirement and destruc <>* *!>« principles of free government, and we expreea 

tion of legal-tender notes, the exchange of bonds O'^jn^titude to the present Congress for the law 

originally redeemable in greenbacks for those which making it illegal and punishable by fine Mid impns- 

(under the law) are to be redeemed in coin, and the onment to use the army as a poue eomO^ without 

maintenance of the national banking system, this J^• express authority of sUtute or of the Constitn- 

same moneyed power have prostrated labor, bank- **^"' , ^ mi_ ^ :i *v _^_ ^ 

rupted merchants, robbed widows and orphans, filled , Sesohtd, That we condemn the extravagance and 

our. poor-houses with paupers, transformed inciustri- incompetence of the late Republi^n Legislature, as 

ous men into tramps and outcasts, and filched from exhibited m the unnecessary and extrsordinarr 

peal estate and personal property (all over the land) ienrth of its session, and tbe bungling and tnoom- 

more than one half of what ought to be the minimum prehensible laws which it enacte^ , And we furtboT 

Yi^ae. condemn the Bepublican State officials for their at- 




tion 

lican form of government can long 

which the property of one class is entirely exempt **^2' »j.mi_*. .^i. .. u j -'. 

from taxation, while that of others must bear all the ,.^^f^» That a mint for coming ffold and eU ver 

burdens ; and we denounce as tyrannical and unjust »l>ould at once be establijhed m Colorado ; ana w^ 

in the extreme the action of the Bepublican pSty, «»ost heartily commend the energetic and unremit-^ 

by which hundreds of milUons of dofiars in n&onal \^^9 S^rts of Hon. Thomas M. Patterson, our xnem. 

bonds have been exempt from taxation, while eveir ^e«" of Congress, to procure the esUbUahment or ^nct 

other species of property must be taxed for their °^>'** ^ ^^^ aiaie, 

protection. ^, ^ ^ , , , Thomas M. Patterson was renominated, fot 

^Jt^^'^'J^?:^ before trade and business enter- Congress, and W. A. H. Loveland was xiomi^ 

prises can be checked m their downward course, an ^ ^ ^ -J o^ ««^.. ^^^ t,'^«*^«««* n««^,»^ 

increase in the volume of the currency U imperatively 5,?*®*^ '^^^,21^,?^^ ^^I Lieutenant-GoverpoTj 

required ; that, as one measure for the end sought, Thomas M. Field ; for Secretary of btate, J . S* 

we demand the free and unlimited coinage of silver, Wheeler ; for State Treasurer, Nelson Hallock: i 

BO that the owners of bullion may at pleasure have for State Auditor, John H. Harrison; for At- 

It coined into standard silver dollars at the mmts of tor ney- General, Caldwell Teaman. 

the United States, and, without further interference JrC^ « ui* ^*"** " ''" * ^***"™ 

upon the part of the Government, circulate the The Kepubhcan State Convention aasemble^^ 

same in the channels of timde and commerce ; and ftt Denver on August Yth, and was orgaxi izcK 



OOLOBADp. 109 

br the choice of James P. Maxwell as chair- and advantage, ia aid of the conBtruotion of irrigat- 

man. The f ollowini? platform was adopted : ^nfif ditches and highways through the mineral re- 

® *^ *^ gions of the State. 

The Repnblioans of Colorado, in convention as- 11. That we accept the resumption of specie paj- 

sembled, do hereby declare and resolve : ments as practically acoomnliBhed, and denounce 

I. TiiAt the American people are one people ; that the fraudulent practices of tne Democratic party in 

the American States are a nation, the sovereignty of now making war on the resumption of specie pav- 

vhoee Qovemment is supreme. meats, after declaring, in 1872 and 1876, that toe 

S. We demand the equality of all men before the same ought to be brought about at the earliest prac- 

\v9j that equal justice shall be done to all, and es- tioableperiod. 

p«cial privileges conferred on none. 12. That the army and navy^ of the nation have 

S. That in the present financial condition of the earned for themselves the admiration and gratitude 

country and the Government, no subsidies in money, of everr true and patriotic citi2en, and that they 

bonds, public lands, endorsement, or pledges of the should oe maintained in efficiency, and in such force 

pabUe credit, should be granted bv Congress to asso- as to protect the nation from attack without, and 

cotiona or corporations engaged in private enter- from commotion, treason^and rebellion within ; and 

piuea^ and that atrict economy is demanded in the we condemn the present Democratic House in seek- 

idminiatration of public afEairs, both State and na- ing to destroy the efficiency of both, especially while 

Uoad. our brethren and their wives and children are being 

1 That it LB the primary and saored dutj of the ruthlessly murdered by savages in the northwestern 

Bstionxl Qovemment to protect and maintain every territory of the nation. 

eittxen in all his civil, political, and publid rights; 18. Inasmuch as the production of gold and silver 

•ad until thia principle of the Constitution is oneer- constitutes one of the great industries of our country, 

folly obeyed, and, if need be, vigorously enforced, and we are largely interested in everything which 

tkd work of the Republican puty is unfinished, increases the demand therefor, we declare it to be 

The Bapnblioan partv is committed to unremitting the duty of the Gkneral Qovemment to increase the 

tHhrtt to Moure all the legitimate beneficial results coina^je of the precious metals ; and especiallv de- 

of the lata civil war, the sovereignty of the Union, dare it to be the duty of Congress, without aelay, 

^qaai righta for all citizens, untrammeled suflhiffe, to estabUsh one or more coinage mints in Colorado, 

•ad the redemption of eveiy pledge made by the whereby the production of our own mines can be 

i9«v«nuneQt to those who furnished the means or put into circulation here, without the expense and 

give their services to save the Union. annoyance of first shipping our btdlion east for coin- 

S. ThAt we reoognixe the fact that while in Colo- age and then back again for use. 

ndo, on aeoount of its peculiar industry, labor is 14. That we view with alarm the growing tenden- 

wail rewarded, and the laborer still found ** worthy cv of great and powerfhl corporations to consolidate 

of his hire," yet in many other sections of the coun- their capital and influence, in order to shut out com- 

tryaUbranohesofindustrr— manufacturing, mechan- petition on the great lines of trade and travel, and 

ial, and mining — are at this time greatly aepressed ; thus leave the people at the mero^ of merciless spec- 

ud we deprecate any legislation that m its nature ulators and unscrapulous but aspirinff politicians. 

Bast fhrther nnaettle values and bring the labor of 16. That we also view with alarm tne action of the 




p>rts, we demand such duties on those imports as dorsement of the people of his district. We declare 

fksii afford the greatest protection to American labor the act a gross outrage upon a free people, subversive 

v.d prodncttona, yet not be a burden on the con- of the fundamental principle of a popular ^ovem- 

•tsaer. ment ; an act done in violation of nffht, justice, and 

i. lliat the General Government should provide law, in a partisan spirit, to accomplisn partisan ends. 

lad be responsible for honest national money, suf- and one which can not be too severeljr condemnea 

£ei«st for aU the leffitimate needs of the country, by everv honorable man, by every patriot and every 

vish gold, silver, ana paper equal in value, and alike lover or popular institutions. 

receivable for all debts, public and private. The in- 16. That Thomas H. Patterson, by becoming a 

tr-met b— ring debt of the nation should be as soon partv to this great firaud and outrage perpetrated np- 

u ^MBtbl* reconverted into a popular loan, repre- on the people, and in accepting a seat in the House 

te^ed b^ sDoall bonds, or notes within the reach of at the hands of an unscrupulous and partisan nu^oritr 

tTcry ritixen. • in that body to which he was in no sense entitled, 

7. That the national honor and credit alike de- and against the expressed wish of the people of Colo- 

aaad that the national debt be held sacred, to be rado, iias forfeited their respect and confidence, and 

y»ii as agreed upon at the time such debt was con- has well earned for himself the contempt of all honor 

z^cte*!. able and high-minded men. 

;. That we approve of the action of the Republi- 17. That we commend to our State government 

'.ts Senate in attempting to make greenbacks re- bur system of f^ee schools, and all our educational 

.rirable in payment of Government dues, and we interests, which should be preserved, fostered, and 

L:&>iiQee the action in the Democratic House in de- built up with a faithfhl care and a generous hber- 

'iida^th^X measure. ality. 

}. Thflt while we demand rigid economjr on the 18. That the legislation of the nation should be 

^-t of the Ooveroment, both State and national, in such as to promote both the interests of capital and 

*««ir expenditures, and such reduction of taxation labor; that we are opposed to sumptuary laws and 

i-Bay be consistent therewith, we denounce the laws in the interest of any special class, and demand 

ft^'^a" of the Democratic House of Bepresentatives thatleoislationbeintheinterestof the whole people. 

.a vitbholding proper and neoessarv appropriations 19. That we protest agunst the payment by the 

z itr the specioas cry of ** economy " and ** reform," national <jk)vemment of the 



le millions of rebel claims 

'Jl9 great inconvenience and detriment of the ser- alreadv presented, and the billions more to be pre- 

"■^r. as the veriest claptrap, conclusively proved by sented, if a precedent is once established by the 

j> aiakiJif^ good the deficits in a succeeding Con- payment of one dollar of these claims — claims that 

T-trnhj defteienoy bills, a pieoe of trickery unwor- are at once illegal, presumptuous, and impudent. 

..r the leffialtt^on of a great and free countnr. 20. Lastly, we affirm our nnfalterinflr futh in the 

n. That the arid landa of Colorado, like the principles, the patriotism, and the political honesty 

r»i^r>A3knd» of other States, should be donated bv of the Republican par^, and in its preeminent fit- 

'■<- <>«oerml Oovemment to the State, for its benefit nets over aU other parties to administer the govern- 



110 COLORADO. 

mant of both the State and the nation wisely and the Constitntion, and to be fixed hj said Constitn- 

well; and in OTidenoe thereof, we hereby pledge our* tional Convention; and till such State officers are 

selves to do our utmost both to advance its principles elected and qualified under the provisions of the 

and elect its nominees. Constitution, the Territorial officers shall continue to 

21. That in Governor Boutt the Convention reco^ discharge the duties of their respective offices, 
nizes an executive who has faithfully, honestly, and 

well dischaived the duties imposed on him, ana has In the month of August, 1876, Colorado was 

thus gained Tor Wrnsetf what thU Convention cheer- admitted into the Union as a State. Upon the 

of ttete ol tMS^!""*^""" "^ ''• "'^'* third day of October of that year a Represen- 

tative to the Forty-fourth Congress was elect- 

The nominations were as follows : for Con- ed, and at the same time votes were cast for a 

fress, James B. Belford; for Governor, F. W. Representative for the Forty-fifth Congress. 

Itkin ; for Lientenant-Govemor, H. A. W. Mr. Belford at that time received a migority of 

Tabor ; for Secretary of State, M. H. Meldram ; votes thus cast. On the 7th day of November 

for Treasurer, U. S. Culver ; for Auditor, £. EL of the same year an election was held in the 

Stimson ; for Attorney-General, C. W. Wright. State for the Forty-fifth Congress, at which 

The Greenback State Convention assembled Mr. Patterson received a majority of votes, 

at Denver on August 14th ; delegates werepres- Mr. Belford claimed the seat by virtue of the 

ent from fourteen counties. It nominated vote oast in October. Mr. Patterson claimed it 

R. G. Buckingham for Governor, P. A« Sim* by virtue of the election in November. The 

mons for Lieutenant-Governor, J. E. Washburn report of the Committee alleged that Novem- 

for Secretary of State, W. D. Amett for Trea- ber 7, 1876, was the day fixed by law for the 

surer, G. W. King for Auditor, Alphens Wright election of a Representative in the Forty-fifth 

for Attorney-General, and Childs for Con- Congress from Colorado. This was under the 

gress. act of Congress passed Februarys, 1872. The 

The platform arraigned the Democrats for their report of three members alleged that Oc- 

advocacv and support of AMcan slavery, teaching tober 8, 1876, was the day. This was tinder 

the wild and cruel phantasy that man could hold the enabling act and the State Constitation. 

F»H?«?/f?'«?Jt°;«Pri^*il?2'"^^^^^ party for leris- jjie report of one member in favor of declaring 

lation in the interest of the money power; demanded „ „„™«„ „«« ^^a^ ^^ ^u^ ».^«.«;i ♦v^* *.2 

the Usue by the Government of absolute paper mon- ? vacancy was made on the ground that by 

ey as a full le^ol tender for all debts, public and lA^ ^o day was fixed on which a member of 

private, in suMciont volume for the entire needs of Congress could have been elected in Colorado, 

trade, and in payment of the whole of the interest- Aft»r a debate in the House of Representatives 

^^^i""^. ^S^*^^'''^*°I'•®P"?^*"l?*^y*^*^^P^£,^® a resolution was adopted on December 13, 

without the intervention of banks or agents; the ?oit»r • • ^ ^i fru^ \r-D\l. ' 

immediate repeal or the resumption act and all laws ^^"7, giving the seat to Thomas M. Patterson 

authorising the national banks; an enactment by by a vote of yeas 116, nays 110. This election 

Congress prohibiting any further issue of bonds, of member of Congress was also regarded as 

and a constitutional amendment making such issue important, as, in case the election of President 

imp^sible, and an income tax on all incomes above ^ ^^qq ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^f ^ep- 

' * . . resentatives, the vote of the single member 
The election in October was the second one from Colorado would have equal weight with 
held for the choice of State oflBcers. Besides that of the thirty-three from New York. The 
these officers, a member of Congress and mem- result of the State election was: Belford, 14,- 
bersoftheStateLegislature were also chosen. 294; Patterson, 12,008; Childs, 2,329. Bel- 
Unusual interest was awakened in the Congres- ford^s plur^ity, 2,289. 

sional election, as the same individuals were It would be the duty of the new Legislature 
candidates as at the previous election, and a to elect a member of the United States Senate in 
contest had been raised by the Democrat as the place of Senator Chaffee, whose term would 
to the right of the Republican to the seat, close on March 4, 1879. The total number of 
This dispute came up in the session of Congress members to be chosen was sixty-three; twelve 
commencing in December, 1877. The con- Senators held over, of whom eight were Repub- 
testants were James B. Belford and Thomas M. licans and four Democrats. To have a ma- 
Patterson. The question was referred to the jority in the Legislature, it was necessary for 
Committee on Elections, a majority of whom the Republicans to elect thirty of the new 
reported in favor of giving the seat to Mr. Pat- members. In like manner, for the Democrats 
terson, three reported in favor of Mr. Belford, to have a minority, it was necessary for them 
and one in favor of declaring a vacancy. The to elect thirty-four of the new members. The 
points of the case were as follows : On March Democrats elected three Senators and tenmem- 
8, 1875, Congress passed an act to enable the bers of the House, and the Nationals one, leav- 
people of the Territory of Colorado to form a ing the Republicans in a large migority. For 
State Constitution. This act contained the fol- Regents of the University there were 26,880 
lowing section : Republican votes, 25,462 Democratic votes, 
That until the next general oenaua said State shall ana 2,886 Nationid votes. The votes for other 
be entitled to one Representative in the House of State officers are canvassed at the subsequent 
BepresentetiveB of the United States, which Repre- „«„«j^„ ^p xv^ t a«;o1«*.,»^. tk;*. ^^^^m^t*^^» ^r^ 
aentative, together with the Governor', and State^d f^^»2° of the Legislature. This commence* on 
other offlcera provided for in said Constitution, ahall »^he first Wednesday Of January, 1879, and is 
be eleoted on a day subsequent to the adoption of limited to forty days. The more important 



COLORADO. Ill 

lobjectB to be considered are amendments to ▼©'» on December 5, 1878, and continued in sesBion 

the ^CpdV' wbich has cansed very general %gS'2ht"^gnlarly elected office™ were ae foUowe, 

dissatisfaction, tiie qnestion of imgation, the y^ . ^^^^^ ^f q ^^^ President ; E. O. Tenney, 

wming laws, and the State lands. There is no Vice-President ; and I. L. Bailey, Secretary, 

matter of greater or more immediate importance That the measures adopted were carefully contid- 

to the State of Colorado than that of irrigation. «"d and thoroughly discussed, and are presented 

VeryKttle can be raised within the limits of w^exgrewmg the dehberate convictions of your me- 

tlie State withont it Circumstances are such Ti^t the ri^ht to the use of water for irrigation. 

» to render agriculture peculiarly profitable and its proper and equitable distribution, is one of 

there. The mines continue to develop with the most important subjects that can occupy the time 

mcreasimr richness and rapidity, and thereby and attention of your honorable body. 

I ^L * A» J -L •_• That the present and future welfare of our affricul- 

hrpi numbers of active and enterprising per- ^^^^ interests depends hirgely upon the satisfactory 

fjns are attracted to become settlers. Works adjustment of the many intricate Questions regarding 

for the treatment of ores are needed, and the the priority of rljght to the use or water, the proper 

nnmber of consumers will increase correspond- settlement of which increases in importance with the 

iturfy. Thus the farmer will soon have a mar- increase of our population. , , ,, 

V t •* }%' <1 *»»"*«* wMi ovv** ui»T« «» tAM» rj^^^ ^^^ following resolutions embody the sent!- 

Ktai ni9 own aoor. i. ^ _. nients of said couTcntion, and your momorialista 

. The crop of gram of 1878 has for the first would respectfully request your careful consideration 

Qme been sufficient for home consumption, and adoption of the same m the enactment of laws 

The only lands of the State that can be irri- upon irrigation : ^^.^ ^,.o.«j 

ated by the means at the command of single ^^^-^i That the President of the State Board 

' J- -J 1 ^^ v* ^ ^ ^^ of Agriculture have included among his duties 

a4induals, or of a combination of farmers, are those of Commissioner of Irrigation, and that the 

those in the valleys of the various streams. Secretary of said Board be required to compile and 

Bflt those lands have all been appropriated, preserve statistics in regard to irrigation in this 

Hence the development of the agricultoral re- ^t^. , , _,, ^ ., ... , , , , ..,, . . . 

^^^^ ^# 4.^^ Cf JT^^^ !.«- .<>«^i«A^.. i?«»u »rii:^i. Besohed^ That the State should be divided mto 

»3/t«i of the State has reached a limit which i^^tion districts, according to the natural courses 

It can not pass without tne aid oi organized of tne streams, and that commissioners be appointed 

capital. The extensive area of now arid up- for the several districts. 

kids that is of no value except for the feeding Beaoh^dj That measures should be taken for asoer- 

of cattle and of sheep can, by irrigation, be *»f »« and perpetuating «>eprioritv of the right of 

«..ji« J _* 11- \.A Js^J j« rn ♦!. J ^^ ditches, individuals, and farms to the use or water 

nade wonderfully productive m all the ce- j^ each irrigation istrict, and also to measure the 

r^, and thus be rendered the source of limit- capacity of the natural slreams in the State. 

les} wealth. The only irrigating enterprises of SeioiMd. That a commissioner or commissioners 

jv extent that have ever been undertaken and fo' •«<* of the several water districts be appointed 

c^ed out in northern Colorado have been by the County Commissioners, one from each ^^^^ 

.k . « Av /^ «vf*i«xv7i« xyvmv « V »*« «« ^^ which the water district is situated: and that, in 

.^at of the Greeley colony, and the one prose- case of a tie on a question of disagreement, the DiB-» 

fzted by the Colorado Central Railroad men trict Commissioners shall choose another disinterest- 

h Larimer County. The result of the former ed person to act aa one of their number. 

ia? been the reguhir annual production of value ^ Awfwrf, That it should be the duty of the District 

.rX^.%^4. ««.- *u« .^^^^^ rJf A 4iyv««:oi.{M» »^A Commissioners to collect and place on file, in the 

•-.icient for the support of a flonnshing and ^g^^^ ^f^^^ County Clerks ancT Becorders of their 

;r..fnngcity of two or three thousand inhab- respective counties within their districts, all daU 

itiCtd. The latter was completed in the f aH of respecting the volume of water in the natural streams 

v» Tear, and sufficient time has not elapsed within their districts as far as ascertained from time 

•^ show its advantages. It has, however, al- to time, also the date of construction, the date of all 

.L^., ll^iJrllmZl, -^™«i?i.^«-««^ •««*« enlargements, the capacity at time of construction, 

fedj resulted m selling several thousand acres ^j,^ capacity of the enlargements, and the capacity 

of rulroad land. The increase m the value of of each ditch at the time they enter upon their du- 

^productive land by irrigating ditches is es- ties. Also, to divide the water among the ditches, 

r-sited at five dollars per acre. A canal a individuals, and farms respectively in accordance 

t^aJred miles long, with the necessary lateral "^^^A*^® prior rights a» i«certained by these data, 

-ii^ uAxivo yv°^ WAV** !«*« «ww«»»»j «w «H ^^^ ^ ^^^^ action as the law may direct. 

>naches, would carry the water, which is BtioUtd. That the Commissioners should be em- 

&«ncdant, five miles on each side, and irrigate powered, in the discharffc of their duties, to enter 

^*/iiX^ acres. upon the premises through which ditches and streams 

A State Convention to conMder this subject '"?,. ^ oflJ for persona and papers to administer 




through three days. The aggrieved may api 

r:*ilt of its deliberations was expressed in missioners to the l)istrict Court. 

t* folio winir memorial to the State Legis- ^^fc«rf, That there should be some uniform meth- 

-^ ** •^•'ow Aj^^iar ^ adopted for measuring the water entering the 

* ^^^ - diflTerent ditches. 

r thi ffonaraJbU the General AjuimUy of the StaU Bteoltftd^ That there is urgent need for legislation 

' ^ Oolorad/^. in regard to simplifying the method of obtaining the 

hrriMMwat : Tour memorialists in oonvention aa- right of way for irrigating ditches. 

* '■ M, to take into oonaideration the subject of JSwo^m^, That the most stringent and efficient laws 
•"vrion, oDa of BO much importance to the whole should be enacted to prevent the pollution of our 
' * vl? of Colorado, would respectAiUy represent — streams and ditches, to the end that the water shall 

T ji said oonvention met, in pursuance to a gen- remain pure and fit for household uses. 

<>; all laaaed through the press, at the city of Cen- BeeoUed^ That the subject of reservoira and the 



112 



OOLOBADO. 



■torage of water when it ia abundant, for nae in ae*- 
BODB of scarcity, is one of very great importance, 
and should be encouraged and protected by oarefiil 
legialation. 

The miniDg interests of the State have been 
greatly developed witliin a short time. Colo- 
rado is now the third State of the Union in gold 
and silver production. The yield of 1878 is 
estimated at $10,000,000. The mines gave a 
mnoh larger prodaction and higher percentage 
in 1877 than in any previous year. The value 
of gold and silver exported in that year, to- 
gether with a small amount of lead and cop- 
per, was $7,696,771.60. As compared with 



former years, the yield of gold and silver has 
been as follows : 



1872 $8,786,000 

18T8 4,070,000 

1674 0,862,000 



1875 $5,454,8S7 08 

1876 6,191,907 K 

18n 7,866,2888s 



The total yield of Colorado, since the first 
discoveries of 1859, exceeds $71,000,000, of 
which about three sevenths came from Gilpin 
County. The following table shows the yield 
by counties and sections in each of the valu- 
able metals, and the total yield of each meta] 
and county. But little copper is saved from 
the ores, outside of those treated at the Boston 
and Colorado Smelting Works : 



PBODUCnON OF OOLOBADO UmSS IN ISH. 



COUNHSS. 


Gdd. 


SOtw. 


LMd. 


OOppCIa 


TetaL 


Gilpin 


$1,968,480 07 

96,600 00 

108,000 00 

866,729 48 

66,000 00 

89,000 00 

160,000 00 

105,000 00 

900,000 00 


$161,956 88 
1,984,077 91 
606,960 89 
994,609 86 
428,980 00 
860,081 84 
40,000 00 
987,479 69 


$1,000 00 

198,000 00 

10,000 00 

9,000 00 
76,400 00 

8,000 00 

8^666'o6 


$89,296 64 
8,000 00 
8)600 00 


$2,906,087 09 
9,906J^77 91 


Clear Cr«ek 


Pirk 


788,499 89 


Bonlder 


098,S26 85 


Lake 


666,880 80 


Cnater. 


801,061 84 


^nnimH^ ................. . . . ^ . . * ^ 




190,000 00 


The San Juan country 




877,479 68 


All other Bonroee and localltiei. 




900,000 00 








Total 


$8,076,707 60 


$8,947,879 88 


$960,400 00 


$98,796 64 


$7,866^ 68 





As during the two preceding years, Colora- 
do now ranks next after Nevada and California 
in the production of gold and silver, leading 
Utah nearly a million dollars in those metals. 
Every county or section shows an increase 
over any former period except Summit, which 
did better in 1876, and that county and Lake 
in the earlier years of Colorado, when their 
gulches were producing bountifully in gold. 
'The combined product of gold, silver, and lead 
from these ^unties would, it was estimated, 
foot up a larger sum total during the year 1878 
than was ever obtained before. Boulder County 
has been credited with a larger product for 
1875 than for either succeeding year, but it is 
said that the figures were above the actual out- 
put. The yield for each county or section of 
Colorado for 1875, 1876, and 1877 is given as 
follows, reduced to coin or gold value : 



COUNTIES. 


isrft. 


isre. 


ISTT. 


Gilpin 


11,627,260 18 

1,721,817 77 

719,860 80 

664.069 26 

122,418 78 

296.108 8S 
104,258 62 

90,617 24 

198,076 20 


$2,105,544 78 

1,982,648 28 

650,044 84 

647,085 90 

850,000 00 

961,121 06 
90,900 00 

947,619 04 

60,000 00 


$2,208,087 00 

9,206,6n 91 

788,429 89 


Clear Creek 

Park 


Boulder 


698,895 86 


Rilfnmit . 


190,000 00 
801.081 84 


Cuftter, formerly in 
Fremont 


Lake 

The San Juan coun- 
try 


666,880 80 
8n,479 68 


Other flonroes and 
shipments. 


900,000 00 


Total 


$^448,876 18 $6,191,907 82 


$7,866,988 88 



A multitude of distinct lodes and veins are 
worked in almost every county, many of them 
constantly and others at intervals. Their pro- 
ductions vary greatly, some having produced 
almost nothing during the year, others a few 
thousands, and from such sums upward. Some 
very extensive placer-mining operations have 



been inaugurated, supplied with many miles 
of ditches and flumeSi and with little Giant 
hydraulics. The figures which embrace all 
the returns of any importance of gold dust 
from the streams and gulches of Summit Coun- 
ty represent the amount at $150,000. The 
total expense of getting out this amoant, ex- 
clusive of permanent improvements, is esti- 
mated at only 40 per cent, leaving 60 per cent, 
of the gross receipts as net gain. The average 
yield per cubic yard of placer ground is given 
at 25 cents. 

More coal was mined and sold in 1877^ than 
in any previous year, and possibly double the 
usual quantity. The estimates of the amount 
of the total output vary considerably. It is 
safe to say that about 200,000 tons of coal were 
mined, and that the sales footed up a total of 
$800,000 or more. Most of this coal came from 
the vicinities of Erie, Canon City, and £1 Moro 
or Trinidad. The Golden and Cucharas coeJ 
measures were also quite profitable. Many new 
deposits have lately been discovered and opened 
more or less : among them are several veins in 
Boulder, Jefierson, Park, Ouray, £1 Paso, and 
elsewhere. This article is coming into very 
general use for smelting, milling, mining, and 
domestic purposes. 

A most important decision relating to the 
side lines of mines was delivered by the Su- 
preme Court of the State during the year. It 
IS the first that has ever been delivereid on the 
subject The case is entitled Wolfly and Skin- 
ner ««. Lebanon Mining Company, being an 
appeal from the District Court of Qear Creek 
County, in an action of ejectment brought to 
recover possession of eight hundred feet of the 
Ben Harding lode. The Court held that the 
title of the plaintiff was founded upon the 



OOLOBADO. 113 

patent granted bj act of Oongresa, that its office a dia^fnon of the same, to extended laterally 
intention waa to ffrant a lode, and that the ^^ otherwUe a» to oooform to the looal laws, oua- 



property of any one who has BobeeqnonUy •joining shall be sold iubjijt to tU. oondition. 

LXilt. Ohilf Justice Thatcher sai?: JtdSTlS.'tt.SJj'S.^'.KTd^pft 

The ddolamtion oontuned three eonnta, in the flrst though in its downward trend it ia carried by ita 

of vhich the appellee claimed title in fee, and in the dipt, angles, and variations into the acHoinlng land. 

s«oood and thtrd he claimed title by preemption, Here is a departure from the oommon-law doctrine. 

oocapatioB, posaesaion, and purohaae under and by The qualifymg words, however, ** to any depth," 

virtue of the local laws, OQStom, and usages of miners limit the cureotion in which the mine may be pur- 

io OriiliQ Kining District, the lawa of Colorado, and aued beyond the side lines. The claimant is required 

those of ths United States. In support of the second Io file in the land-ofBoe a diagram of hia vein or lode. 

&nd third oounta, much evidence was introduced, This is his own act. The law contemplates that 

vhiob, however, the Court charged the Jury to dii- before he prenarea his diagram he shall so fiir expose 

ngird in the following instructions : and develop the lode aa to be able to trace ita course. 

'* After the iBsuing of the patent, all previously The position that if the plat made by the surveyor 

aoqoired rights by the patentee under the local laws, does not cover the lode, the patentee should be per- 

oja^j sodoustoma of the particular district In which mitted to shift the lines of his patent so aa to include 

the okun is located, are merged in the patent ; and the lode, which he before through his ignorance or 

the plaintiff having put in evidence a patent from indolence failed to locate, ia, it is conceived, without 

the United States, ^ou must not consider the right force. The error is not the mistake of a government 

or title soquired prior to the issuing of the patent, officer, but the mistake of a claimant, and others 

inch lifhts bein^ merged in the patent." ought not to be permitted to suffer by it. It is not 

Wheuier this instruction correctly laya down the the province of the surveyor to either discover or 

Iav we need not now decide. It ooiud not prejudice determine the course of the vein. He acts under 

the defendant. It ia enough to say th^t by this in- the directions of the claimant of the mine, who haa 

itmction the jury were necessarily confined to the already furnished a diagram of his lode. Uis duties 

iuoe made upon the first count. By their verdict are to survey the located premises, and make a plat 

thej foand that the plaintiff waa the owner in fee thereof, endorsed with his approval, disignatinff the 

of the property described In the declaration. Thia number and description of the location, the value of 

verdict was responsive only to the fint count. the labor and improvements^ and the character of 

The evidence tended to show that the Ben Hard- the vein exposed. (See section 8.) However toi^ 

ing lode in its general course or strike departed from tuous might be the course of the lode, the claimant 

the vertical side lines of the location described in had a perfect right to follow it up and prepare hia 

the patent, and represented bv the plat incorporated diagram so as to include It, together with the aurface 

therein, end entered the Bell tunnel lode location, ground on each side thereof allowed by local laws. 

vhioh was patented under the act of Congrees of There is no language in the act that requirea the 

Mij 10, ▲. D. 187S. That the plaintiff had the right diagram to be in the form of a parallelogram or in 

to so follow the patented lode was affirmed in the any other particular form. 

instractions of the Court. Upon this theory the caae From an examination of the entire act it seems to 

vit tried. To determine ita correctness, reference us that the central idea of a mininff location under 

mast be bad to the act of Congress of July 26, 1866, ita provisions is. that there muat be a diacovered 

onder which the Ben Harding lode was patented. lode within it whose locus in its general course ia 

At common law a grant of land carries with it all embraced within its boundariea. 

thet lies beneath the aurface down to the center of An assumed mining location, which, in fhct, oon- 

the earth. At hia pleasure the owner of the soil may tains no mine, would be wholly falae, and would 

^plyto his own purposea whatever ia included in contravene the law. Until a patent iasnes, to the 

tae eej^ent of the earth carved out by hia descend- extent only in ita downward course that a discov* 

iogexterior boundary linee. Says Sir William Black* ered lode ia within the preacribed exterior boun- 

■t)oe (book U., page 18), Cf^ffu €d aolwn, ^ut td utqu4 dariea of the claim, ia the location itself unassail- 

^ieoMMii, ia the maxim of the law. Upward, there- able. Patterson tit. Hitchcock decided this term. 

fore, no man may erect anv building or the like to The surface ground and the lode are not indepen- 

overhang other land ; and aownwara. whatever is in dent grants. It is not the purpose of the act to gnni 

I direot line, between tlie surface of any land and surface ffround without a discovered ledge. The 

the center of the earth, belongs to the owner of the lode is tne principal thing, and the surface ground 

wfioe, aa ia every day's experience in the mining incident thereto. In conveying a scjnnent of the 

eonntries. earth located under the provisions of the act, itia 

B/ the mlea of the oommon law, except ao far aa the intention of Congress to convey a mine contained 

nch rales have been modified by statute, must the within that aegment as the substance of the grant. 

sTtent of the plaintiff'a patented grant be determined. The act appeals to the industry and enterprise of 

Tbtt there may, however, be a grant of mineral sep- the miner, to make sure that the lode Le within hia 

ante from the grant of the oircon^aoent land, and location. The higher his diligence in this respect, 

tioi tern, where the grantor manifestly intends that the greater will be his reward. If bv lack of aasidu- 

e«h shall form a distinct possession and different ity and energy he makes an untme location — a looa- 

taheritaooe, adroita of no doubt. The question re* tion not embracing the lode he aeeka to aecure— he 

cm, What did Congreaa, by ita declared will in the can not be heard to complain that others have ex- 

vi of 1866, authoiise the United States to grant f In plored and discovered a lode thereon which might 

t'i« iifht of a just interpretation of this act must the liave been embraoed in his diagram. If, aa the evi- 

Ben Harding patent be construed. If the patent is dence tends to show, the Bell tunnel lode ia a oon- 

hroader than the law, it is to that extent ineffectual, tinuation of the Ben Harding lode (after its depar- 

Bised upon the statute, ita validity, and the extent ture ttom the vertical side lines), extending through 

to vhieb it operates aa a conveyance, muat be deter- the a^jaoent location, upon what principle of justice 

Buoed by reference to the statute. or law, in the absence or an express statutory provi- 

Section S provides that it ahall be lawful for the sion, can the patentee of the lode laat named claim 

cUimant of a vein or lode ** to file in the local land- the right to encroach upon premiaea embraced by 

YokXTm. — 8 A 



Hi COMMERCE (INTERNAL) OF THE UNITED STATES. 

the Bell tunnel lode location and deprive the owner is evidence that the anntia] increment of nft- 

thereof of the fruits of his discovery I tioniJ capital has at no epoch been greater 

The Chief Justice thus concludes : rektively to the iminber of the iIlhabitan^ 

nor probably as great, as at the present time. 

If, then, as the evidence tends to show, the ledff eon Jq igjQ the total national wealth, in real and 

which the Ben Harding lode was Wted deflected i^ personal property, was estimated at $771 per 

Its general stnke from the patented side hues, the *^ ,, ^ *^ aoa aaa aaa nnn^ •«-♦ aih aaa 

patentee is not entitled in virtue of his patent to its capita, or over $80,0<K),000,000 against $16,000,- 

possessionbeyondthesidelines, asaffainstone who 000,000 in 1860, and $7,000,000,000 m 1850. 

has subsequently located and patented it. It must now aggregate, measured by the inade- 

Judgment reversed, and cause remanded for fur- qj^^iq standard of a money valuation, over $40,- 

ther proceedings not inconsistent With this opinion. 5oO,000,000. The increase in the aggregate an- 

The enabling act of Congress under which nual productions of all manufacturing industries 

the State government was organized granted between 1860 and 1869 is estimated to have 

for school purposes 8,750,000 acres of land, been from $3,804,000,000 to $6,825,000,000. 

The State Superintendent of Schools, who has Since the latter date industrial production has 

examined this land, reports that the State will passed through a period of unprecedented stlm- 

not realize more than 100,000 acres in lands ulation and extension, followed by one of falling 

that have any value, except a nominal one for prices and consequent distress and anxiety; but, 

grazing purposes. in spite of a temporary retardation in certain 

In the State penitentiary there are 146 pris- branches, the aggregate production has with- 

oners. In Apnl, 1877, there were only 84. out doubt increased steadily, in spite of the 

The expenses of the prison have been $65,917, falling market, with prices declining 80 per cent 

and the earnings $8,522. or more on the average. The export demand 

The State has idready become famous for its has given an unusual impetus to agricultural 

mineral springs, and for the purity and healthi- production, and the financial condition of the 

ness of its atmosphere. It has also become a country to industrial and mining activity. The 

great resort for invalids, especially those with official returns of agricultural statistics sLow 

lung diseases. a larger increment of agricultural wealth, and 

COMMERCE (INTERNAL) OF THE UNI- a greater increase of productivity, in the seven 

TED STATES. Of the internal commerce of years from 1870 to 1877 than in the ten years 

the United States no comprehensive statistical of great business activity between 1860 and 

account is officially taken, by which the growth 1870. The area under cultivation was in- 

of the productive and mercantile activity of creased during the seven years 80,000,000 acres, 

the country can be accurately determined. The or from 90,000,000 acres in 1870 to 120,000,- 

extent of the traffic which is carried on within 000 acres in 1877. The increase in the aggre- 

the borders of the republic can be approxi- gate stocks of farm products during the same 

mately estimated from the amounts of mer- period was as follows : in the number of horses, 

ohandise conveyed over the various railroads, from 7,145,870 in 1870 to 10,829,700 in 1877; 

The value of commodities transported by rail of mules, from 1,125,415 to 1,687,500; of milch 

in the interior of the United States was esti- kine, from 8,985,882 to 11,800,100; of oxen 

mated by Joseph Nimmo, of the Bureau of Sta- and cattle, from 14,885,276 to 19,228,300 ; of 

tistics, for the year 1875-76, at $18,000,000,- sheep, from 28,477,951 to 85,740,500 ; of swine, 

000, or about 16 times greater than the total from 25,184,569 to 82,262,500 ; in the produc- 

foreign commerce of that year, which amounted tion of wheat, from 285,884,700 to 860,000,000 

to $1,121,684,277. The capitalized value of the bushels ; of com, from 1,094,255,000 to 1,840,- 

railroads of the country was $4,600,000,000, or 000,000 bushels; of oats, from 247,277,400 to 

28 times the capital employed in all the ship- 405,200,000 bushels; of barley, from 26,295,400 

ping, American and foreign, engaged in the to 85,600,000 bushels ; of rye, from 15,478,600 

foreign trade of the United States. The value to 22,100,000 bushels; of tobacco, from 250,- 

of the merchandise transported from point to 628,000 to 480,000,000 lbs. ; of buckwheat, from 

point in the United States, coastwise and on 9,841,600 to 10,500,000 bushels ; of hay, from 

the lakes, rivers, and other avenues of com- 24,525,000 to 81,600,000 tons. The produc- 

merce, would probably amount to near $10,000,- tion of other raw materials increased in a simi- 

000,000 more. The internal traffic between lar progression. The cotton-growing industry 

different points, probably 25 times greater in has been steadily growing, and produced a 

value than the total foreign trade, exceeds it larger crop in 1877 than in any other year since 

in bulk in a far greater proportion ; its tonnage the civil war. The aggregate mining products 

is not likely to be less than 100 times that of have kept pace with agricultural development, 

the total imports and exports. The output of the coal mines was 47,000,000 

While the vacant lands of the country have tons in 1877, against 29,000,000 tons in 1870. 
been nearly all occupied, and nearly all the The directions in which American industry 

natural sources of wealth, as far as they are is developing can be best seen in the absence 

known, are being exploited, there is yet no of comprehensive data of the internal trade and 

tendency apparent toward that condition of production of the country, by comparing the 

economical equilibrium where consumption tables of exports and imports through a series 

balances production. On the contrary, there of years, and noting the classes of articles of 



OOMMEROE (INTERNAL) OF THE UNITED STATES. 116 

roosamptjon the importation of which has oon- falling off of exports in many of the leading 
sdcnbljr decreased, and the classes of exported manuiactiired articles. It has heen estimated 
products whose qoantities and valaes have re- that the exports of finished manufactures during 
mrhhlj augmented, lliat agricultural pro- the ten years preceding the war, 1851-1860, 
dnction bss increased within the last few years formed 18 '8 per cent, of the total value of ex- 
inore rapidly than Industrial is perfectly natn- ports ; hut that during the ten years following 
fi!,from the opening of avenues of transpor- the war, 1866-'76, they formed hut^lO'S per 
uiion commamcating with immense tracts of cent, of the aggregate exports. This is sufS- 
fertile lands, which were before shut out from ciently explained by the increased facilities for 
all markets, but which can now lay down their exporting the products of the soil. The growth 
prodQCts with facility in any mart on the globe of industrial production is shown by the rapid 
wbere there is a demand for them. The length displacement of imported manufactures by 
of D6W railroads constructed during the ten home-made goods, which has gone on steadily 
jtiirs from 1868 to 1877 inclusive was about since the civil war, and stiU more rapidly dor- 
I.'.'jOO miles. ing the last three or four years, although the 
Cooperating with the increased facilities for decrease of imports in those years is attribu- 
lurketiiig the natural products of the country table in a consiaerable degree to the diminished 
im&i ifl a powerful stimulant, or rather ne- capacity for consumption, just as no small por- 
cttaitjr, for exporting the productions which tion of the large importations of the specula- 
-re most available for that purpose, and for tive period preceding them, which gave in one 
?r.eoding the branches of production which year an adverse balance of $180,000,000, was 
"^od the readiest market in the great commer- attributable to over-stimulated and luxurious 
cjI nations. This necessity consists in the consumption during that sanguine and debt- 
Rat mass of indebtedness which is owing in making epoch. 

ciiii coantry to Enropean capitalists, which is According to the returns of the last census. 

tii« chief cause and explanation of the large the manufactures of the United States inoreasea 

ud still growing balance of trade in favor of in the quantity of the annual product 52 per 

*ht Uoit^ States. For the last three years cent, during the ten years from 1860 to 1870, 

ti:e excess of exports over imports has been while the increase in population during the 

verr Urge, and has increased in a remarkable same period was only 22*2 per cent. The value 

progression, while every other large commer- of the yearly manufactured product was re- 

cial nation has in the same period complained ported in 1850 as averaging $44 per head of 

of tn adverse balance. While vast debts, pub- the population, and in 1860 at $65 per head. 

ir, corporate, and private, are owed in Eng- In 1870 it was returned as $128 per head, and, 

Ud and other foreign countries, there exists making allowance for the inflation of .prices, 

tnu^et ready-made for the surplus products must have amounted to something near $100 

ot* the United States at better rates than could on the former basis of values. Since 1870 the 

otherwise be obtuned, and a stimulus and ne- productive industries of the United States must 

^saty for creating an exportable surplus of nave developed with equal or greater rapidity, 

ti commodities of which the creditor ooun- and, judging by the returns of imports and 

^ea, or those connected with them by intimate exports, are capable of supplying the country 

^•jmmercia] intercourse, stand most in need, with most of the great staples of manufacture, 

A large exportation of grain and provisions is and even of marketing some classes of staple 

^i^(:GMrj to pay for the very railroads which products and many well-wrought and inge- 

briog them to the seaboard, a good number of niously devised American specialties in coun- 

vMch were bnilt during the speculative period tries from which a few years ago the same 

^>m 1869 to 1878, to a great extent with oapi- classes of goods were imported. During the 

ul borrowed abroad, and with rails in great period which preceded the late season of in- 

;vt imported at doable the present prices of dustrial depression, when all departments ot 

njL the excess of exports over imports enterprise were excited to an extraordinary 

ix^anted in the year ending June 80, 1876, state of activity, the industrial facilities of the 

*" $79,64^481. In 1877 it had increaised to country were extended with unreasonable ra- 

*i>I,152,094. In the year 1877-'78 it reached pidity. During the four years from 1870 to 

•'« fum of $257,814,284, and had increased by 1874 the number of spindles employed in mill- 

^'ceod of October at such a rate that, were Ing cotton were increased ftom 7,114,000 to 

'-^ exports and imports the same for the rest 9,415,883, or about 83 per cent. A similar 

-'the year as in 1877-78, the balance of trade extenrion of the plants was made in several 

' r]S79 would be over ^ee hundred millions ; other industries. This extension of productive 

!ct the earlier movement of the grain crop of capacity was out of all proportion to any possi- 

hT9 should be considered in the calculation. ble increase of consumptive powers or extension 

iitboogh the exportation of agricultural and of the foreign markets, ana must be followed 

^-^T raw products has, from natural causes, by a season of reaction and retardation. The 

'J^tirelj increased over that of manufacturea number of spindles in 1878 is reported at about 

;viacts, the fact that the manufacturing in- 10,500,000. That the hopes of the buoyant 

«<ries have developed in a scarcely less re- period of overwrought activity were not wholly 

askable manner is shown by the enormous misplaced, and that the efforts then made will 



116 



COMMERCE (INTERNAL) OF THE UNITED STATES. 



nltimateljr bear rich fruit, is shown by the fact 
that the ootton-manafactaring industry to-day 
is probably in a better condition than in any 
other country, the lOi million spindles con- 
suming nearly twice as much cotton each as 
the 89i million spindles of Great Britain, as 
they are kept busier than those of England or 
the Continent ; and the exports of cotton doth 
have increased from less than 18,000,000 yards 
in 1874 to over 126,000,000 yards in 1878, or 
from $8,000,000 to nearly $11,500,000^ at the 
same time that the Lancashire product is being 
slowly dislodged from all its chief foreign mar- 
kets, of which it has hitherto held the undis- 
puted monopoly. Comparing the imports and 
ezp<Ht8 of cotton manufactures in 1878 with 
those of 1878, there is found an increase in the 
exports from $2,947,628 to $11,485,628, or 
nearly $8,500,000, and a simultaneous decrease 
in imports from $29,752,116 to $14,898,791, or 
over $15,850,000 ; that is, the decline in the 
net imports within six Tears has amounted to 
nearlT $24^000,000. Measured by quantities, 
the change will be found mach greater, since 
the average price of American colored calicoes 
fell during the same period from 16^ cts. per 
yard to 7^ cts., and of unoolored from 10^ 
to 7^ cts. per yard. 

In 1850 the exports of agricultural products 
constituted 90 per cent, of the total exports. 
During the next ten years, 1851-1860, they 
made up on the average 78^ per cent, of the 
whole; from 1861 to 1865 they averaged about 
70 per cent ; from 1866 to 1870, 78 per cent ; 
and in the last five years, from 1874 to 1878, 
78f per cent The figures for the last eleven 
years are as follows, in round numbers : 



T1AR& 



1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1879 
1878 
1874 
1875 
1876 

isn 

1878. 



Total tspoHi. 



$454,000,000 
414,000,000 
499,000,000 
501,000,000 
549,900,000 
649,000,000 
698,000,000 
648,000,000 
64&000,000 
676,000,000 
7n,800,000 



1819,000,000 


70S 


811,700,000 


75-8 


891,890,000 


790 


896,000,000 


70-7 


407,000,000 


74-1 


494,000,000 


760 


500,000,000 


79-8 


480,000,000 


74-6 


514,000,000 


61*8 


517,700,000 


76-6 


699,000,000 


880 



The exports of other than agricultural prod- 
ucts have not increased in any sirailtf ratio, 
measured by their values. In 1868 they amount- 
ed to $185,000,000 ; 1869, $102,000,000 ; 1870, 
nearly $108,000,000; 1871, $164,500,000; 1872, 
$142,750,000; 1878, $145,000,000 ; 1874 $148,- 
000,000; 1875, $168,000,000; 1876^ $180,500, 
000; 1877, $158,500,000; 1878, $180,500,000. 

The apparent faUing off witlun four or ^ve 
years is aocounted for by the general decline 
in prices, the aggregate quantities of exports 
having pretty steadily increased. Were there 
an actual decrease in the exports of Ameri- 
can manufactures within the last decade or 
two, as undoubtedly there has been in certain 
daises, it would by no means indicate a decline 



in American industry. It is a well-known fact 
that the extension of manufacturing industries 
has been more rapid, enterprising, and multi- 
form of late years than ever before, and that 
in the stirring times which preceded the late 
panic the extension of factories and establish- 
ment of new industries, in which all countries 
rivaled each other, nowhere took place on so 
prodigious a scale as in the United States. And 
nowhere was this enterprise so little wasted as 
here, because by the more ingenious adaptation 
of mechanical methods to industry, and by the 
greater industry of its wcvkmen (two Ameri- 
can mechanics, it is said, being able to do an 
much work as three Englishmen), this country 
was able to hold its own against ail rivals ; and 
still more, because the principal vent which it 
had to seek for its increased production was in 
its own home markets. America has always 
been dependent on Europe for several of the 
main staples of industrial production, as well 
as for innumerable special lines of articles 
which can only be produced in the more coro- 

J»lex and luxurious communities of Europe. 
t has been the hope and ambition, the task 
and the uroent need of America, of late years, 
to free itself from this commercial dependence. 
A glance at the list of commodities given be- 
low, whose importation has declined within six 
years far beyond any possible diminution in the 
powers of consumption, will reveal the rapidity 
with which the displacement of foreign mana- 
factures, in the great textile and metal indus- 
tries, is going on in American markets. Every 
year, even during the present time of comDar- 
ative inaction and despondency, novel inans- 
tries hitherto practiced only in Europe are in- 
troduced, oftentimes with improved tools and 
methods suggested by the famous practical 
genius of the American. The time is already 
at hand when the dream and hope of the 
American for generations will be realized, and 
the United States will supply its own markets 
with all the leading mannfiEUstures which the 
country is capable of producing. Whether the 
causes which have accelerated that event will 
prove to have been evils or blessings, the future 
only can reveid ; for there is no doubt that the 
movement has been greatly hastened not only 
by the high protective tari^ which works most 
oppressively on large classes of citizens, but 
by the enormous debts contracted in Europe, 
much of which capital was wasted and misap- 
plied, by the decline of American credit in the 
money centers of the world, and by the crisis 
and the epoch of contraction and distress from 
which business has not yet emerged. Most 
usefU must the lesson of the crisb and its pro- 
tracted train of distress prove in weaning the 
mercantile community from traditions which 
can only be a pernicious delusion in the future. 
There was a period when high wages, large 
profits, and dear capital all went hand in hand ; 
out the America of to-day with its vast ac- 
cumulated capital, its manifold industries, and 
its great population, has long outgrown that 



OOMMEROS (INTERNAL) OF THE UinTED STATES. 



117 



primfdra itage of industrial development, and 
aboold range itself with the old and wealthy 
ooauDonities. So the sooner it adopts studi- 
ous, patient, and laborious methods of business, 
the more will its welfare be confirmed. Before 
1870 capital could not be obtained for indus- 
trial operations except at rates varying from 7i 
to 15 Dtf cent, per annum ; the average rate of 
bank diflootmt for fifteen years before 1860 was 
Ht per cant, at the same time when the rate 
is the London money market averaged 8*90 per 
r^at^ that of the Bank of England 4*02 per 
ml^ and that of the Bank of France 4*6 per 
tt:il Since the oiius the money and invest- 
3«Dt markets have been constantly flushed with 
e-pital seeking employment ; lenders have jbeen 
'3 the hant for good securities at 6 or 6 per 
rest.; $500,000,000 of Government bonds bear- 
•u 5 percent interest were disposed of before 
'>!, 1877, and before July 1, 1878, $240,- 
'1.000 of ii per cents, and nearly $100,000,- 
■Oof 4 per cents, nearly all being taken up in 
:1^ Tiiited States ; monev has been loanea on 
1^ against collaterals in uie New York market 



a good deal of the time at from 1 to 4 per oent.> 
the rate never ^oing above 6 or 7 per cent ex- 
cept in times ot active stock speculation, when 
additional commissions of ^ and sometimes as 
much as i per diem have been pud to carry 
margins; and prime commercial paper has 
been marketed most of the time at from 8 to 6 
per cent discount. 

The articles of import which have shown 
the most remarkable falling off between 1878 
and 1878 in the quantities imported are teztUe 
manufactures and raw wool, iron and steel 
and their manufactures, copper and brass man- 
ufactured and un wrought, lead and tin unman- 
ufactured, timepieces, gutta-percha, and tea. 
The total decrease in the imports of this list of 
articles was from $272,269,688 to $124,211,- 
784, a fioUing off of $148,027«800, or nearly 65 
per cent The decrease in tne imports of the 
articles niuned constituted 78 per cent, of the 
total decrease in the imports of all classes of 
merchandise between those years. The de* 
crease in the several classes of imports was as 
follows : 



CVrb,«alehM,aBdBMt«lal0 

ijannaBQaelnw 

Fu ottaftetarw ','. 

<ftBttnftetBrat 

f «h«y 

r«:<to 

^'^^ 4nM goods i. !....'. .'!!!.'.*.'!! 

'^QudhetonoofwooL 

v nd. boopt iiid obcet Iron 

u.'Jiiii'.;;; ' i' v.v//.' '* ;' '.'/.*. *.*'/.'.'//. ; ; 

^ •fiw filalBi, aad otbw manofketiirM. 

>'jfoCikbv«,alieela,aiidwlro. 

;^«7- »«>. nd othor maanftotorM of atod. 

: :>t. hcam, wad wonnftptnwa of. 

<f>i:api(indbon 



isra. 



$8,S74,8S5 
99,702416 
80,498^1 
99,8801,887 

8,fi6U61 
90,488,988 

4,888,957 
19,447,797 
98,896,791 

7,4n,666 
18,847,981 
19,740,709 

8,094,900 

4,166,934 
10,499,779 

8,966,471 

8,999,627 

18,866,653 

900,187 

94,466,170 



1878. 



$819,669 

14,898,791 

11,490,768 

19,701,781 

6,676,788 

8,868,015 

698,888 

19,065,806 

19,968,868 

1,680,767 

1,960,057 

580 

990,790 

1,990,087 

4.085,519 

617,188 

858,986 

19,119,689 

949,564 

16,660,168 



$9,469,9«B 

15366,886 
8,987,688 

10484,186 
1,874,879 

19,070,998 
8,989,868 
7,891,991 

14,866,868 
6.846,848 

19,607,994 

19,740,179 
9,674,110 
9,98^197 
6,457,967 
8,849,968 
9,668,691 
6,944491 
657,688 
8,806,009 



^ Taking an the textile fabrics together, the 
*.3^ off of the values imported was in the six 
: 4r» from $169,464,248 to $86,866,181 ; de- 
c^toe, 174,1 09, 1 1 7. or 46J per cent. The de- 
^'t^ in the total imports of iron and steel 
rxiocU was from $60,808,462 to $9,067,688, 



being $60,260,810, a falling off of over 84^ per 
cent 

The principal commodities of American pro- 
duction in wnich a largely increased exporta- 
tion has taken place between ^e year 1868 
and the year 1878 are the following : 




isea. 



fi lad maottlMtarM of. 

^ aad te piodaets (osefaulTO nf fliomim) 

^'^^ndiMttemmtetaioo 

''*»te.„ 

ttd 






$678,881 

788,895 

68,980,997 

1,516,990 

989,960 

i,6n,054 

406,519 

6,040,961 

848,468 

1,414379 

9,918,448 

91,810,676 

80378,968 



isra. 



$9/(76,196 

6,844,668 

18l,n4,60T 

9369,467 

8,078349 

ll,48^698 
1,876,969 

10,696,970 
1387,078 
6,077,668 
5,095,168 

46,674,974 
198348386 



$1301,81T 

6,111,966 

119,798310 

848,94T 

9,180,099 

6364374 

970,407 

4,656,009 

1,088,610 

6,668387 

9,181,n5 

94,764,998 

98,971,788 



-^^ass^regateincreaseintiiesedosen classes 926,087, their aggregate amount in 1868, to 
^ exports was $^62,899,614, or from $140,- $408,826,601. the sum of their exports in 1878, 



118 COMMERCE (INTERNAL) OF THE CJNITED STATES. 

being an increase of about 187 per cent The general shrinkage of valaes was the most ac- 
increase in the values exportea of this group tive cause of the stagnation, and was a pro- 
of commodities amounts to 64 per cent, of the cess which had to be passed through. There 
total increase in American exports during this is a general impression that the lowest decline 
period. The exports of breadstuffs were over in prices has been reached, so that there wan 
two and a half times greater in value in 1878 much more inclination to resume business en- 
than the J were in 1868, the increase in quan- terprises in 1878 than in the foregoing year, 
tity being still greater. The value of the total and less lack of work for laborers. The signs 
exports of provisions was more than quad- of recuperation can be traced perhaps as far 
rupled, while the average export price had back as the middle of the vear 1876. 
sunk for bacon and hams from 12^,^ cts. per The transactions of the Kew York Clearing- 
pound to 8^ cts., and for lard from 14^ cts. House afford one of the best available criteria 
to 8^ cts. That of live animals increased of the volume and activity of business through- 
eight fold, and that of fruits over three fold, out the country, making allowance for the gen- 
the preparation of desiccated and preserved era! fall of prices, throuffh which an equal 
fruit for foreign markets being almost a new amount of business can be performed with 
branch of trade, as also in that of exporting smaller money transfers, and cuso keeping ac- 
live animals and dressed meat to Europe. The count of the perturbations of the investment, 
export of oilcake nearly doubled. That of the stock, ana other speculative markets, and 
coal shows a steady increase. The Export of all the accidental movements of money which 
petroleum has more than doubled in value and are not immediately connected with the opera- 
quadrupled in quantity, since the average ex- tions of regular commerce. The comparison 
port price has declined from 29f cts. per gal- of the daily clearings of the New York banks 
Ion in 1868 to 14} cts. in 1878. The export shows a gradual improvement since the mid- 
of copper and brass products has more than die of 1877. In the beginning of 1878 the first 
trebled ; in 1873 there was a net import of cop- week^s currency clearings amounted to $128,- 
per and brass and their manufactures amount- 000,000 a day. In the beginning of February 
ing to nearly $3,250,000, while in 1878 the im- they had declined to $109,000,000, then rose to 
ports were only one quarter as great and the $130,000,000 on March 10th, and were large and 
exports four times as much in value as in that variable until the panic, reaching their highest 
year, and there was a net export to the amount amount on April 21st, $148,000,000. In the 
of nearly $2,250,000. In iron and steel and summer they sunk rapidly to $70,000,000 in 
their products the exports increased from $6,- the week ending August 11th, increasing again 
833,000 in 1868 to $12,000,000 in 1878. Since to $108,000,000 in the week ending September 
the opening of the Lake Superior mines the cop- 15th, and falling off suddenly to 50 millions after 
per production of the United States has grown the panic. They then increased toward the end 
to astonishing dimensions, so that already in of uie year, amounting to 86 millions in the 
the year 1874 there were 17,648 tons of cop- second week of January, 1874. They fluc- 
per mined ; the importation of this metal from tuated between 80, 70, and 60 millions through 
Germany and Belgium must cease altogether the spring and early summer, falling off to 50 
at an early date. millions and under in the dog-days, and in- 
Since the crisis of 1873 there has been a creasing as usual toward the end of the year, 
complaint of bad business and a feeling of amounting to 88 and 89 millions in some 
doubt and discouragement in nearly all branch- weeks of October and November, and clos- 
es of trade and all sections of the country, ing the year with 81 millions. The average 
The depression has been prolonged and wide- clearings in 1874 were about 72 million dol- 
spread, but not so paralyzing as that which lars daSy. In 1875 we find a brisker basiness 
has occurred in some other countries. It has in the beginning of the year than in 1874, 
had a most ii^jurious effect in producing misery and a higher average for the year, 74 mil- 
and demoralization in the ranks of the most lions a day; but the contraction in trade is 
useful class of citizens, the skilled mechanics reflected in the diminished amounts of the 
of many trades. It has brought great num- clearings in the latter half of the year, com- 
bers of traders to bankruptcy, who in ordinary pared with 1874. After the middle of 1875 we 
times could have held their position. Yet it find them also varying less from week to week, 
has had its good effects in compelling the busi- and more obedient to the usual variations of 
ness community to adopt methods of system business at the different seasons of the year, 
and economy, and in accustoming them to ao- In the spring and early summer of 1874 the 
cept rates of profit considerably below the diurnal transactions averaged some 80 millions, 
standard which has hitherto prevailed, and In the autumn and winter there appears to have 
which are necessitated by the greater develop- been less business activity than in the year 
ment of trade and industry, the larger accumu- before. All through 1876 there is marked de- 
lation of fixed capital, and the sharper compe- cline in the volume of the bank transactions 
tition which must exist henceforward. Since compared with 1875. The average clearings 
the harvesting of the large crops of 1877, there were the least of any year, being about 63 f 
has been a general improvement in the tone and millions; in the latter half of the year 1873 
disposition of the commercial community. The they had averaged 62|^ millions. In 1877 w e 



COMMERCE (INTERNAL) OF THE UNITED STATES. 



119 



find 8 marked improveraent over 1876, a steadj 
and normal flow of monej, and an average 
(hrongh the year of over 69 millions a day 
settled through the CleariDg-Hoase. It mast 
be borne in mind that the monetary transac- 
dons represented by those figures are based 
Qpon a lower scale of general prices than those 
Tbich ruled in former years. The aggregate 
tnuuactions of the Clearing-Honse were re> 
ported for the fiscal year 1876-77 as 24,668 mil- 
lions of doliare, against 22,892 millions in 1875 
>^6.24,613millionsin 1874r-'75, 24,142 millions 
in 187^-74 ,and 86,935 millions in 1872>'78 ; 
these inclode the currency and gold exchanges 
and the balances pud. The average daily ex- 
changes for each year, ending September 80th, 
^oe the first organization of tne New York 
Ckaring-House, were in millions of doUars, 
omittmg the fractions of millions, as follows : 
ISW, 19; 1855, 17; 1866, 22; 1857, 26; 1858, 
15: 1S59, 20; 1860, 23; 1861, 19; 1862, 22; 
IS<3, 48; 1864, 77; 1865, 84; 1866, 93; 1867, 
93: 1868, 92 ; 1869, 121 ; 1870, 90 ; 1871, 95; 
H71105; 1878,111; 1874,68; 1875,79; 1876, 
?/: 1877, 68. 

Taking the average daily clearings for periods 
f^i three months since the beginning of 1873, a 
:tefidring and gradual development of business 
on the new scale of values can be traced from 
lit year 1876. In the winter months of 1878 
tiiti average daily transactions amounted to 128 



millions of dollars; in the spring, to 116 mil- 
lions ; summer months, 82| millions ; autumn, 
69( millions. In the winter of 1873-74 the 
average business was 72^ millions; in the 
spring of 1874, 74f millions; summer, 62} 
millions; autumn of 1874, 74} millions. In 
the winter of 1874-75 the clearings were 77} 
millions a day; in the spring months of 1875, 
80} millions ; in the summer, 67 millions ; in 
the autumn months, 69} millions. In the win- 
ter of 1875-76 they were 72| millions; in the 
spring, 63} millions ; in the summer, 55} mil- 
lions; in the fall of the year, 65 millions. In 
the winter of 1876-77 they averaged 72 mil- 
lions ; in the spring of 1877, 70} millions ; in 
the summer, 61} millions ; in the autumn of 
1877, 70} millions. 

The statistics of bankruptcy form another 
fairly reliable measure of the good or evil con- 
dition of general commerce. Taking the rec- 
ord of failures as a guide, there is a noticeable 
improvement in business in 1877, and decrease 
in the number of insolvents and in the aggre- 
gate amount of their debts. The total number 
of failures in 1877 in the United States was 
8,872, and the aggregate liabilities $190,669,- 
000, against 9,092 failures with $191,117,000 
total liabilities in 1876. The statistics of mer- 
cantile failures in the different sections of the 
country and in the Dominion of Canada are 
given in the table below : 



BTATB. 


NambviB 


Tstaltaak 
dmUtiOB. 


bMkdroi. 
•Mh tmdar. 


Nnmbcr of 

MlUM. 


Pcrontif* 

orfla.aiM. 


Ttotal 


AwngB 


^'■ft'n ^tBC«t , . . X . . . .... 


984,707 
91J88 

S«,886 


$11M783S6 

112,811,918 

88,681,026 

6MM,8S1 

8,098,494 


$1,450 
547 
256 
2S1 
118 


1,858 
8,049 
],0T8 
8,756 
686 


Iin68 
lln78 
11d65 
lln84 
lin41 


$96,088,007 
77,173,750 
17,271,980 
56,187,074 
18,949,185 


$19,881 
85,811 
16,089 
20,887 
81,989 


V^UW^tAliW 


^.::tb-Tn St»tf« 


W*«u« States 


Pkofle Satfea aad Tenitoilet 


Told United 9tatoa 


«69,00« 


•817,814,110 


$486 


8.879 


11d78 


$190,669,986 


$21,491 




tv^B^Btai of CouHla . , 


6e,884 


$28,018,658 891 


1,892 


llnSO 


$25,588,908 1 818.400 










■» » - 



The number of bankruptcies among active pared with the same period in the previous 
traders in the first three quarters of 1878, com- year, was as follows : 





isrs. 

Htm MonriB. 


isrr. 

AUfl MOKTHS. 


STATB. 


KiHBlMrof 
Mlom. 


Tsui iuaiti«i. 


Nnmtarof 
•idloni. 


IbUllkbOltlM. 


faKgra StBfaB 


1,517 
9,560 
1.158 
9,909 
544 


$80,088,185 

79,876.469 

21,859,104 

56.655,846 

9,887,575 


978 
2,226 

791 
2,096 

474 


$19,098,075 
65.579,875 
12,289,288 
44,718,129 
10,182,408 


H-M> 8tat« 


SwtierD Statm 


■ «-t*ra ^atet 


Heflt Mates aad TeRitoriM 




Total TTnltod States., 


8,678 


$197,911,189 


6,566 


$141,862,265 




I>-Blaiaa of Canada 


1,942 818.183.821 


1,644 


$20,904,976 











Hke total number of failures in the United 
nu«s in 1877 was 8,678, total liabUities $190,- 
<*-9.936« average liabilities $21,491 ; the total 
t-mber in 1876 was 9,092, total liabilities $191,- 
'^3,7158, average Uabilities $21,020; the total 
'•.^anber inl875 was 7,740, total liabilities $201,- 
'.'^j,333, average liabilities $25,960. It was ex- 



pected that in 1878 the number and volume of 
bankniptcies among merchants would be enor- 
mously augmented. The repeal of the national 
bankrupt law went into operation on the 1st 
of September, and it was supposed that a large 
number of firms were carrying a burden of debt 
which with the diminished trade and low rates 



120 OOMMEROE (DTTEBNAL) OF THE UNITED STATES. 

of profits that have prevailed for several years, The whole body of share- and bond-holders feel 
and which are likely still to prevail, they could the keenest interest in keeping op the value of 
not expect to discharge or support, and that these capitals. The hopes of all the holders, 
they would thus avail themselves of the privi- great and small, supplement the efforts of the 
lege of bankruptcy to liquidate or compromise leading managers. The great bulk of aocnmu- 
their engagements before they were deprived lated capital is held under this system, and they 
of that last resort for embarrassed traders. It could not turn it over to another body of hold- 
is a most gratifying and convincing indication ers if they would. There is a great disquiet 
of the general sound condition of the meroan- and mistrust among the investors. It is plain 
tile houses of the country that the increase to many that the greater part of these works 
of failures in the first nine months of 1878. were built, extended, or recapitalized on such 
among nearly 700,000 trading houses inscribea a scale of cost and prices that they can never 
in Messrs. Dun & Barlow's records, was only return the ordinary profits and interest on the 
about 2,000 over the same period in the pre- invested capital, and that many of them can 
ceding year, in spite of this powerful induce- scarcely pay the interest on their debts. There 
ment to take advantage of the expiring bank- is additional doubt and insecurity caused by 
rupt law. The average of liabilities, except in the secret mauner in which the financial inter- 
the State of Oalifomia, was about the same as ests of the companies are conducted, and not a 
in previous years. The number of failures in little disauietude from the numerous malversa- 
1878 was no doubt swelled to no inconsidera- tions ana defalcations committed by officers 
ble extent by fraudulent bankrupts who were of corporations, which have been computed at 
able to compromise their obligations at less an aggregate of $80,000,000 within four years, 
than their face, though possessing the means One effect of tbe mistrust of corporate securi- 
of fairly coping with them ; in the last sixty ties has been the suocessfnl placing of Govern- 
days prior to September let there were 1,000 ment bonds bearing a low mterest. Another 
more assignments and compromises than in the has been the excessive demand for real-estate 
third quarter of 1877. Of the different por- securities, which has served to keep up inflated 
tions of the country, the Western States fur- values of real estate, great quantities of which 
nish a smaller proportion of loss by bankruptcy have changed hands by the foreclosure of raort- 
than the Eastern, but the Southern and Mid- gages; the natural effect of this must be a re- 
dle States about the same as the Eastern States, action which will tend to keep up the prices of 
The declension in the market values of cor- corporate securities. The great mass of in- 
poration stocks and bonds is a trustworthy vestors can not cut loose from the capital in 
measure for the entire nominal loss of capital the hands of corporations. The decline of share 
in the United States, or for the whole shrink- prices is steadily progressing; in many cases 
age of values. Indeed, it is not far from in- no doubt the fail is much too great already, 
eluding the aggregate loss, since, by the pecu- owing to the temporary arrest of affairs ; yet 
liar arrangements of American industry, nearly the average depreciation can not yet have 
the whole productive capital of the country, reached its lowest mark, nor the standard about 
except that employed in agriculture, wellnigh which the values must oscillate for the future, 
all the mining and transportation, and the unless there is an increase in the currency of 
greatest part of the manufacturing works, are the country and a general rise of prices. It is 
managed by incorporated companies ; while the doubtful whether the country would again ab- 
agriculture and merchandising interests them- sorb a large access of paper currency, and the 
selves are entirely dependent upon the bank- metal currency can only increase very slowly, 
ing and railroad corporations. The settlement unless silver is shut out from the European 
of this vast aggregate of associated capital to mints and coined free or in large quantities by 
a basis of value which corresponds to the aJ- the United States Government. Disturbance 
tered commercial conditions is most essential in business and in vested interests must follow 
to the healthful development of business ; but upon a sudden increment of either paper or 
this process is necessanly slower than it would silver currency, and can not be wished by the 
be were the capital controlled by a greater present holders of property. The great actual 
number of individuals. Those who have the depreciation in the values of corporate shares 
greatest interest in and the chief management may be illustrated by the fall in the prices of 
of the companies have it in their power and are the following list of twenty stocks in the New 
prompted to keep up the valuation of this capi- York Stock Exchange during five years, fh>in 
tal to correspond to the original investment or Januarv 1, 1878, to December 81, 1877; they 
former scale of profits ; diminished business are active stocks, which are constantly on the 
or smaller earnings do not affect the prices of market and frequently change hands, and thus 
shares as long as the dividends are paid, but best reveal the real shrinkage of values : Oen- 
the payment of the dividends enhances them ; tralNew Jersey, quoted January 1, 1878,atl06-|^, 
even passed dividends do not have their full fell to 14}, a decline of 91jt per cent., repre- 
natural effect in depreciating stocks, as long as senting a depreciation of over 18} millions in 
the stocks are kept out of the market by com- its capital stock, whose par value is $20,600,000; 
binations, and hopes are held out of the same Chicago & Alton Railroad, capital stock $24,- 
old rates of profit upon the revival of business. 999,700, fell from 115 to 78), or 86}, a depre- 



COMMERCE (INTEBKAL) OF THE UNITED STATES. 121 

Mob of over 9 millions; preferred stock of $666,286,787; at the date of lowest prices in 

the ttme, $2,625,400 at par, declined from 1878, $420,060,673; and on September 20,1878, 

116 to 103, the 14 points representing a third $461,060,678. 

of « million; Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, In 1876, 64 railroads, with a length of rail 
cipital t34f999,800, declined 12(, or f^om 90} of 8,846 miles and an aggregate invested capital 
to 78}, depreciation near a million and a half ; of $217,848,000, were sold nnder foreclosure; 
Cleveliiid, Colombns & Ciilcinnati, oapiiiBl stock in 1877, 80 roads with a mileage of 8,876 miles, 
|:,491,80O, fell 64}, from 93} to 89, nominal loss and a total capital of $198,984^400. The f ore- 
o*et 8 millions ; Colnmbns, Chicago & Indian- dosnres for the two years therefore embraced 
tpoli^ capital $13,938,972, sank from 41i to 4}, 84 roads and 7,721 miles of rail, with $416,- 
sd«din6 of 86}, standing for over 6 millions loss 832,400 of capital stock. Proceedings were 
o/ capital ; Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, institoted in 1876 against 80 more railroads, 
vith A nommal capital of $26,200,000, qnoted with 6.691 miles of rail and $897,894,000 capi- 
is H73 at 101 i and at the end of 1877 at 6H, tal, and in 1877 against 44 additional roads with 
dicHned 60, representing 18 millions and over ; a length of 6,409 miles and a total capital of 
Erk RaihtMd, capital $78,000,000, quotations $320,681,980 ; and 16 roads besides, 2,888 miles 
b 1873 67, in 1877 (December) 10}, shrinkage in aggregate length, having a capital of $266,- 
:^l making 44} million dollars; Hannibal & St* 766,4pD0, were ordered by the conrts to be sold 
Ji«eph common stock, capitalized at $9, 1 68,700, out for the mortgages in 1877. The total of all 
tell 38, from 60} to 12}, aepreciation of market the roads foreclosed or in difficulties for these 
nlue near 8} millions ; preferred stock of the two years was therefore 174, with a total mile- 
same road, $6,083,024, declined 63, or over 2} age of 21,109 miles, and a total invested capi- 
niL'liona, range of quotations from 71} to 28} ; t^ of $1,891,168,730. The bonds of roads 
Dinoii Central, capital stock $29,000,000, de- foreclosed or reorganized previous to January 
^e in prices 62, from 126} to 74}, depreciar 1, 1876, amounted to $169,878,300. Cf this 
trio of market value 16 millions; Lake Shore total capital of insolvent railroads, amounting 
t Michigan Southern, capital stock $49,466,- therefore to $1,660,687,080, embracing more 
y>0, quoted at the first date at 97 and at the than one third of all the railroad property of 
f nal ditd at 64}, or 82 less, depreciated nearly the United States, probably fully one half, or 
1$ millions; MUwankee & St Paul, oapitid over $760,000,000, may be considered wiped 
)Id,399,261, fell from 64} to 87}, decline 17^ out The loss of capital in the railroad busi- 
rcpreeenting 1} million ; Morris & £ssez, capi- nees is revealed by the fact that on $1,811,888,- 
uJ $15,000,000, quoted in the beginning at 92 608 of the $2,248,868,376 total railroad stocks 
^d finally at 78}, decline 18}, or 2 millions: of the United States no dividends were paid in 
Pacific M^ capital nominally $20,000,000, fall 1876, and on $642,604,841 of the total raiboad 
'•( price 62, or from 76} to 28}, showing a de- bonds, $2,220,298,660, no interest was paid, 
pfeciition of nearly 10} millions ; Chio & Mis- The interest and dividends together paid in that 
««^ppi, capital $20,000,000, fell in the stock- year gave an average return of only 8*66 per 
Tf^m qaotations from 49} to 10}, a range of cent upon the capital in vested. Whether, ho w- 
^9}, showing a depreciation of nearly 8 mil- ever, taking the share capital and debentures 
"&»; Panama Railroad, capital $7,000,000, together, the average rate of profit for a p6rio<l 
V^d from 180 to 126, shnnkage $860,000 ; of years nas been less on railroad capital, con- 
lAedo, Wabash & Western, with an original sidering only the amoimts actually invested, 
'^M of $16,000,000, fell off 60}, from 76} to than on other classes of property, must, in the 
i H< < depreciation of almost 10 millions; West- absence of exact informi&ion, be considered an 
-.n Cnion Telegraph, capital stock $88,787,476, open question. 

■ >^ed from 86} to 74}, 6} less, shrinkage The total ^ratn crop of 1878 was consider- 

wAii: 2} miUions. These twenty companies ably greater than in 1877. The wheat crop 

>v«9ent a total par capital of $482,804,868. of 1878 was estimated at about 400 million 

T:^ sbrinkage in the market value of their bushels. The States of Illinois, Iowa, Min- 

^-*k\3 during the period mentioned amounted nesota, Nebraska, Dakota, and Kansas pro- 

^tWaggregate to $174,680,976. A compari- duced, it is estimated, 46 million bushels of 

*''3 of the prices of the stocks of forty-five wheat more in 1878 than in the preceding 

^*Qada, being all the principal railroad stocks year. The average prices, however, are 26 or 

^^t in on the New York Exchange, at their 80 cents less for the bushel than in 1877, and 

^W rates before the panic of 1878, and at the total proceeds will be therefore considera- 

^-«ir lowest rates after the crash, with the bly less than in that year. The maize crop in 

"r"^ in September, 1878, shows a deprecia- the single State of Illinois in 1877 was 260 mil- 

^4 of 37 per cent as the immediate sequel of lion bushels, and in Iowa 166 million bushels, 

> panic, which was diminished to 81 per cent yielding in the two States respectively $76,- 

' September 20, 1878; the prices, reduced to 000,000 and $89,000,000. In 1878 their crop 

'-i valuee, sank in 1878 28 per cent, below was lO^per cent larger, but prices from one 

'•'•'•T highest range, and stooa in September, fourth to one third less. 

i'\ only about 20 per cent below that range. The grain produced in Europe altogether is 

" ^ '^nrrency value of these 46 stocks was, at estimated to aggregate 6,000 million bushels ; 

^ ^ate of highest prices before the panic, of this Russia produces about one third or over 



122 COMMERCE (INTERNAL) OF THE UNITED STATES. 

1,600 million bushels, France 520 millions, Ger- composed of 6,678,950 barrels of flonr, 65,834,- 
many aboat the same, and Austro-Hangarj 500 141 bushels of wheat, and 81,054,249 bushels 
millions. The aggregate prodaction of the of Indian com; and in 1877 of 6,107,531 bar- 
United States is 1,600 million bushels, about rels of fiour, 68,776,909 bushels of wheat, and 
the same as that of Russia. The production 77,995,208 of com. The Western shipments 
averages 40 bushels per head of population in in 1876 were made up of 4,977,846 barrels of 
the United States, and 16 bushels per head in flour, 4^,799,613 bushels of wheat, and 75,010,- 
Earope entire ; and the average consumption 881 of com, and in 1877 of 6,340,493 barrels 
is about 15 bushels per head. The average of flour, 44,638,537 bushels of wheat, and 67,- 
production of Russia is 25 bushels per head ; 587,819 bushels of corn. The proportions In 
that of Germany and France nearly balances the Atlantic receipts were: in 1876, 9,939,160 
the consumption, as does that of the whole of barrels of flour, 42,740,235 bushels of wheat, 
Europe taken together. The production in and86,776,163bushelsof com; in 1877, 8,546,- 
England is only 4 bushels per head, and that 349 barrels of flour, 46,000,508 bushels of 
country must therefore import three fourths of wheat, and 87,804,025 bushels of corn. A cal- 
the grain consumed. Russia exports, year in cnlation of the total receipts of grain at the 
year out, not as much as hidf its crops. The seaports, published by the l^ew York Produce 
production of the United States is nearly three Exchange, for the years ending August Slst, 
times the quantity needed for domestic con- ^ves: for 1875, 170,828, 767 bushels; for 1876, 
sumption; nearly two thirds of the average 208,762,038 bushels; for 1877, 181,791,088 
crop, or about 1,000 million bushels per annum, bushels; for 1878, 283,633,261 bushels. The 
can on the average be spared for exportation, increase has been, therefore, 70 per cent, since 
The best arable lands in the United States 1876. The exports of wheat and flour from 
have been or will soon be all taken up under United States ports and Montreal from the crop 
the stimulus which good prices and the export of 1878 were before the beginning of Decem- 
demand for cereals have given to cultivation, her about lli million bushels, leaving about 
Large tracts of new land have been broken 60 million bushels of the surplus available for 
in Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Dakota, ^port still in the country. 
The wheat lands opened up along the line of The commencement of the Russo-Turkish 
the Northern Pacific Railroad yielded in 1878 war in April, 1877, occasioned a large spec- 
a fine crop, which made up for the great dam- ulative movement in breadstuffs and provi- 
age caused by rains in the other parts of Min- sions. The price of No. 2 spring wheat ad- 
nesota. Kansas nearly doubled its production vanced from tl.44 per bushel in January, 1877, 
of cereals in 1878, and took its place as one of to $1.53 in April and $1.66 in July, and then 
the chief grain-producing States in the Union ; declined, in consequence of the extraordinary 
the crop of 1877 was 16 million bushels of size of the new crop and a clearer estimate of 
wheat and 103 million bushels of maize. In the European demand, to $1.36 in October, 
1878, 679,331 acres of new land was plowed and stood at $1.36 at the end of the year. 
up in that State, nearly all held in small par- Indian corn. Western mixed, was 62)^ cts. per 
eels and in great part paid for. This gives its bushel in January, 1877, 51 cts. in April, 60 eta. 
farmers a great advantage over those of Illi- in July, 59 cts. in October, and 66 cts. at the 
nois and other States of the West, where the close of the year. In the begining of 1878, on 
ambition to cultivate huge farms, which in the expectation of the early cessation of the 
themselves are often less economical to till European war, there was a breakdown in the 
than smaller pieces of land, and the desire to prices of grain and provisions, accompanied 
accumulate money, burdened many of the by an improvement in the cotton market. In 
farmers with loads of debt at high rates of the middle of January, No. 2 spring wheat 
interest, while grain prices were high, which sank below $1.30, and Indian com below 60 
at the present prices of produce are quite un- cts. In the beginning of February wheat sold 
manageable; in such districts, in spite of the as low as $1.22, but toward the middle of 
enormous crops and the exports of 1877 and that month the price rallied to $1.30 in conse- 
1878, great numbers of farms have been sold quence of the diplomatic complications of 
under foreclosure of mortgages ; and in some Great Britian in the Eastern question, but 
parts of Illinois the price of land has sunk gave way again after a few days. By the mid- 
from $60 to $20 or $25 an acre. ale of March the market had again stren^h- 
The movement of grain for the past five ened, with the price at $1.25; and new war 
years was as follows: — Western receipts: rumors caused an upward movement toward 
1873, 167,723,768 bushels; 1874, 171,249,249; the end of the month, and the market oontin- 
1875, 154,063,413; 1876, 173,561,877; 1877, ned generally buoyant through April. In May 
169,431,733. Shipments from the West : 1873, the price sank to $1.20, and the fluctuatingr 
134,862,056 bushels; 1874, 127,631,866; 1876, market, dependent upon speculations on tlie 
124,443,329; 1876, 150,361,872; 1877, 138,- prospects of a European war, gave place to a 
386,343. Receipts on the Atlantic coast : 1873, steadily falling market; and, when the expec- 
125,253,186 bushels; 1874, 139,399,192; 1876, tations of a still greater crop in 1878 were 
136,963,146; 1876, 163,694,941; 1877, 166,- confirmed by a generally favorable season, 
728,169. The Western receipts in 1876 were prices sought a much lower level, sinking be- 



COMMERCE (INTERNAL) OF THE UNITED STATES. 123 

hw $1 in the latter part of Jane, but ralljiDg vember 1, 1878, 4,598,000 swine were Rlaugh- 

^mewiiat in Jnlj, in conseqaence of reports tered in the Western packing and curing houses 

of reins in the Northwest, the unwillingness — that is, 80 per cent, more than in the foregoing 

of holders to take the low prices, and vaiions year — and the price ofhogs sank during the year 

specoUtiohs and combinations. In August and 60 per cent., or from $4 or $5 to half as much. 

September there was a recovery of 8 or 10 cts. The price of mess pork declined steadily, in the 

from the lowest midsummer quotations, and New York market, from $18.25 per barrel in 

Itfge speculative transactions took place, cans- * January, 1877, to $18.12( in December of that 

ing considerable irregularities of price. As the year ; no other article, except petroleum, exhib- 

ttock of spring wheat became aepleted, win- ited such a marked and rapid decline in Value. 

ter wheat stood relatively considerably lower. Other hog products went down in price in the 

The foreign demand fell off in September, and same ratio. The prices continued to fall in the 

i^run depressed prices. In the beginning of beginning of 1878; in the winter and spring 

October the price had again fallen to 96 and months the lowest prices were paid that had 

97 cts., and in the middle of the month to 90 been known for generations, mess pork going 

rtfl. In November there was a slight upward down several times below $10 per barrel in 

t^odency, and by the beginning of December New York, lard selling at $7 to $7.50 per cwt., 

the price had returned to $1. and bacon much of the time at 6^ cts. per 

The price of Indian corn was subject to the pound. In the month of May the lowest ebb 

same induences which governed the price of was reached, pork going below $9.50, lard 

wbedt, except that it was not so disturbed by down to $6.70, and bacon selling at 4f cts. 

^pecalative operations. The market was dull, There was a recovery during the summer 

mi prices were irregular at the beginning of months from this extreme prostration, pork 

tie jear, ranging from 50 cts. to over 60 cts., fluctuating above $10 and lard from $7 to 

with a downward tendency, wliioh showed $7.50; bacon was almost a drug in the market 

•i;^ of improvement in February. The mar- much of the time. September saw another 

kJ: was moderately active and firm until in sinking of prices, pork at $9, lard below $7, 

April large shipments filled the market and and bacon Quoted at 5 cts. and under ; in Oc- 

bruke down prices for a few days ; but they tober they aeclined to a still lower range. In 

recovered and slowly advanced, until in May the beginning of December old mess pork was 

:bey began to recede, ranging from 45 to 50 selling at $7.40 and new mess at $8.75, lard at 

<^, with a very active market and extraordi- $6.02^. and bacon at 4) cts. per pound. The 

D^rily large transactions, under a demand for price tor mess pork, which was $7.40 on the 

•hipment abroad. Large supplies poured in, Ist of December, 1878, was $18.50 at the same 

and the price BanlL40 cts. being taken in the date in 1877, $16.75 in 1876, and $21.25 to 

middle of Jane. In July and August there $22.25 in 1875. 

vas an active demand and an upward ten- The exports of dairy products, butter and 

dt4icy, which culminated in the latter part of cheese, which amounted to less than, $1,250,- 

September at about 50 cts. The demand fell 000 in 1850, and less than $2,750,000 in 1860, 

off in the latter part of the season ; and, as in 1870 amounted to nearly $9,500,000, and in 

fftvorable reports were returned of the new 1877 to $17,125,248. The development of the 

crcip, Uiere was a steady decline in prices and factory system of durying, both for butter and 

i^eat iSslling off in operations toward the cheese, and the employment of refrigerator 

e*2<l of the year, excepting a temporary activi- compartments in riulroad trains and trans- 

tj in the lower grades in November. oceanic steamships, have cheapened and im- 

In none of the staple exports of the United proved the average product, and brought the 

States except breadstuff's has the increase been American producer as near the European con- 

$-.' ;n^at in the ten years from 1868 to 1878 as scmaer, as regards the time, facility, and cost of 

in the class of protmons; and in no class has transportation, as he formerly was to the con- 

:Le percentage of increase been so large, it be- sumer in the nearest great city. Owing to this, 

'n^ over 300 per cent, or from $80,278,258 to the area devoted to dairy productions has been 

|I.!3,549,986. Of the exports of provisions and is still being immensely extended ; a large 

:s 1877—^78, amounting to the above-mentioned portion of the northwestern regions is being 

nm, bacon and hams formed the largest item, occupied by this industry. The dairy business, 

''?2 million pounds, of the value of $51,750,- now so well systematized, and capable of in- 

V'y ; lard was the next largest, 848 million definite further extension in proportion as the 

P'HincU, rained at $80,014,028 ; and after cheese, demands of the European market are met, has 

md bee( salt and fresh, salted pork came next, undergone considerable changes owing to these 

71 million pounds, valued at $4,918,646. The causes. Winter dairying in the Western facto- 

jiriaess of raising hogs and that of preparing ries has done away with the necessity of carry- 

:t«^afn for the market have increased, to satisfy ing heavy stocks over winter, and has created 

*'.!s great foreign demand and the augmented a demand for a fresh-made article all the year 

•j>me consumption, to immense proportions ; round. As the European market is conquered 

And in this last year they overstepped all bounds, by the cheapness rather than the quality of the 

ixA so exceeded the natural demands of the American products, the prices, which have 

tsarket that in the twelve months ending No- fallen considerably already since the export 



124 



COMMERCE (INTERNAL) OF THE UNITED STATES. 



movement began, will have a tendency to grav- 
itate still lower, while improvement in quality, 
whioh from natural causes most be very slow, 
can not be accelerated by the competition in 
cheapness, unless it is attempted to imitate the 
higher-priced foreign makes of cheese; the 
tendency to conform to the taste of the Euro- 
pean consumers is already observable in the 
cheese now sent to market. The export price 
must henceforward rule in the market for dairy 
products, as it does for cotton, cereals, and the 
other chief exports. The price for choice but- 
ter ranged in New York from 25 to 28 cts. per 
pound in the spring and summer of 1877, ad- 
vanced to from 88 to 40 cts. in the winter, and 
was between 25 and 85 cts. in the spring of 1878. 
The exports from that port from May 1, 1877, 
to the same date in 1878, were 27,500,000 lbs. 
Oleomargarine has affected the price and inter- 
fered with the sale of all the lower grades of 
butter within the past year or two. When this 
oil is churned with sour milk, and a quantity 
of cream or butter is added to it, it has a very 
close resemblance to genuine butter. The pro- 
vision merchants of New York and elsewhere 
organized the vigoroos prosecution of aU deal- 
ers who sold the article without complyins 
with the laws which require it to be ticketed 
with its name. As much as 25,000 lbs. of this 
artificial butter have been sold in some single 
weeks from the New York factories, and over 
5,000,000 lbs. of it were exported in 1877. 

The manufacture of cotton, like that of iron 
products, has within the past decade passed 
through an epoch of excessive acceleration and 
extension in all lands, and, like it, is now suf- 
fering the effects of too great an accession of 
capital and enterprise. The congestion and 
stoppage succeeding the over-stimulation of 
these two mighty industries aU over the world, 
and the accompanying derangement of the 
functions of economical production, are one 
of the chief causes of the general prostration 
of trade through which the world is now pass- 
ing. Each nation, encouraged chiefly by a gen- 
eral inflation of prices consequent upon an un- 
usual abundance of money of different kinds, 
hastened simoltaneonsly to establish its indus- 
try, and above all the great textile and metal 
trades, on an independent basis. No country 
took a more vigorous part in this struggle than 
the United States, and none is likely to emerge 
from it more unscathed and more victorious. 
In the accessibility of raw materials and in the 
abundance and cheapness of food it was strong- 
er than its rivals, and with methods of mechan- 
ical production it was better armed; its pro- 
tective tariff, the unusual home demand for 
railroad iron, and the long-fostered patriotic re- 
solve to furnish its own snpply of cotton manu- 
factures, whose accomplishment was aided, un- 
der the protection of the high tariff, both by 
the original high range of prices anq even by 
the extensive fall in prices and the depression 
of general trade in so far as it occasioned the 
fiobstitution of native cotton goods for dearer 



foreign fabrics — these and various other dr- 
oumstances combined to place America on a 
ground of vantage in the desperate intemation- 
al conflict which has raged most fiercely in the 
field of the cotton and iron trades, the cotton 
industry of the world must for some time to 
come suffer from the sharp competition aod 
slow trade resulting from tne excessive eiten* 
sion of manu£&cturing facilities. This exten- 
sion has been over 50 per cent within thirteen 
^ears, the spinning capacity of the world har- 
ing increased from about 2,000,000.000 lbs., 
equal to 5,000,000 bales of 400 lbs. each, in 1865 
to over 8,000,000,000 lbs. in 1878, as is shown 
by the following table, giving the number of 
spindles and their consuming capacity in the 
different parts of the world, according to the 
latest reports : 

Contmninff Power of the World in 1877-'78. 



oomrnoES. 


KoBkwor 
iflodtai. 


■pfndk. 


TMdpoodfc 


MOpOOdL 


OroAt BrtUin.... 

CoDtliMnt 

India 

(JnltedStBtM.... 


89,600,000 

80,000,000 

1,27^000 

10,600,000 


8S 

68 
75 
85 


1,808,600,000 

1,060,000,000 

9^08&,000 

688,600,000 


8,8«\0C0 

8,660,000 

88»,0«l 

l,706,2a0 


Itelri. 


71,875,000 


44 


8,141,685,000 


7,809,888 



This sharp international competition has been 
detrimental to l^e foreign trade of England 
in cotton manufactures, which is fast losing 
ground year by jear on the Continent and in 
India as well as m the United States. Of the 
total consumption of raw cotton in 1877-^78, 
which aggregated 7,848,000 bales, England 
took 40*6 per cent, the Continent 88*7 per 
cent., the United States 22*6 per c«iit., India 
8*1 per cent. ; of the total consumption in the 
year 1870-71, 6,246,000 bales. Great Britain's 
share was 47*9 per cent, that of the Oontinent 
81*4 per cent, of the United States 19*8 per 
cent, of India 1*4 per cent. ; in 1860 the Eng- 
lish mills manufactured 49*4 per cent of the 
world's total takings, the Continental mills 
81*5 per cent, the United States 19*1 per cent., 
and India none. The English exports of cot- 
tons to the United States, which were 226,- 
000,000 yards in 1860, were only 47,000,000 
yards in 1877-78, little more than one third 
of the exports of the ynited States the same 
year. The export of American cottons has 
increased with remarkable rapidity of late 
years, as the foUowing statement of exports 
for the last five fiscal years will show : 





pxaoa oooDS. 


OokiM 


TXABS. 


tidUffua*. 


OoUmH 


TiM,fud». 


«Ukte^ 


1878.... 
1874.... 
18T6.... 
1^77.... 
1878.... 


8,860,191 
18,887,510 
69,819,867 
76,780,860 

88,028,198 


8,844,888 

4,600,447 

16,488,814 

89,111,484 

87,76^818 


11,704,079 

17,887,967 

7^807,481 

106,881,694 

186,898,005 


fS,804,880 

T,7«2;97d 
10,180.!^^4 
11,48fi,e^«' 



The cotton crop of the United States In 
1877-78 was the largest ever grown, save tliot 



CO] 



• :"<;<( w 



(INTERNAL) OF THE UNITED STATES. 



1S5 



Qfoneyetf, 185(^*60, which was about 12,000 
biidi larger. The total crop of the year end- 
ing Aa|^ 81, 1878, amoonted to 4,811,265 
y«8, agiJnBt 4,485,428 bales in 1876-77, 
i,669,288 bales in 1876>'76, 8,882,091 bales 
m 1874-75, and 4^170,888 bales in 1878-74. 
Tbe total exports for the year amounted to 
Z,m,m bales, against 8,049,497 bales in 
IdT^'TT, 8,252,994 in 1875-76, 2,684,410 
yes in 1874-75, and 2,840,981 bales in 
187^74. The stock remaining on hand, Sep- 
(ember 1, 1878, was 48,449 baleSj being 76,189 
Ules lees than the stock remainm^ at the be- 
gioning of the year. The American cotton 
crop for each year since 1881 is given below : 



ICr-TI 4,81],M5 

Ki-IT 4,480,498 

I-3-18 4,609,388 

K^T3 8,881,991 

1*3-14 4,lT0,a88 

Ki-H 8,989,608 

bn-Ta 8,974,801 

KS-Tl 4,898,81T 

l«-1i 8,164,946 

M^ll 8,489,009 

l«C-W 8,406,896 

l*.-?! 8,009,971 

M-tl 8,898,987 

1%-V BONeord 

»•-« 8,886^ 

m:m 4,888,770 

M«-W 8.9H481 

IW-'M 8,888,901 

1«-'5T 8,096,619 

lA^K 8,640>46 

b04.». 8*988,889 

l^'a 8,080,097 



1861-'08 8,090,089 

1660.*61 9,416,267 

1840.*60 8,m,706 

lM8-'49 8,808,606 

1847.*48 8,484,118 

184^*47 1,860,479 

184ft-*46 8,170,687 

1844-'4& 8,484,689 

184a.*44 8,106,679 

1842-*48 9,89^908 

1841.'48 1,688,676 

1840-*41 1,689,868 

1689-'40 9,181.748 

1888-*a9 1,868,408 

1887-'88 1,804,797 

1884-'87 1,495,675 

1886-*86 '. 1,860,790 

1884-*86 1,254,828 

1888-'84 1,906.894 

lasg-'SS 1,070,488 

1881-'89 967,4n 

1880-*81 1,088,847 

8,808,889 

The takings by American spinners for the 
(liferent years, ending Aagast Slst, were as 
fbOowa, in bales : 



TIUXR— 


isra. 


isra. 


isrt. 


ists. 




1,068,089 
1461,079 


1,911,608 
14^000 


1,988,418 
147,000 


1,898,998 
148,000 




1,807,691 


UB4.B96 


1,486,418 


VMW 



Th» orerland movement of cotton in 1878 
Tia 693,640 bales, an increase of 56,754 bales 
<^^er the gross overland movement of 1877. 
Th« moTemeot direct to mannfactarers was 
S17.650 bales, against 800,282 bales in 1877, 
bcm^ an mcrease of 17,888 bales. With the 
«x<%ption of the Fall River mills, the Northern 
Varies worked less hours in 1877-78 than 
Cf the preceding year ; the coarser average ot 
'-^ prodaoed, however) made the amount of 
"^i^rial consumed larger. At Fall River, 
^h has 1,800,000 spindles, most of the mills 
««e on half time in the summer months. 

Tho Sea Island crop in 1877-78 was 22,825 
^ The stock on hand September 1, 1877, 
n< 1,048 bales. Of the total supply of 26,878 
^^ 16,295 were exported, 9,451 were con- 
l^ed by American manufacturers, and 127 
^saiioed on hand at the close of the season. 

The highest price of the season of 1877-78 
■^liTerpool was obtained on October 9, 1877, 
viei middling upland sold for 6}df. ; the mar- 
^< ▼•§ quiet and dull through the autumn 
!:d viflter, owing to the uncertain condition 



of European politics. The lowest price of the 
season, 5|{^, was touched on May 2, 1878, 
after the outbreak of the great strike in Lanca- 
shire. Prices afterward i^vanced some, owing 
to the strong statistical position, fluctuating 
between 6^. and ^d, through the summer, 
rising in August to ^^d, again on the prospect 
of a short supply, afterward weakening after 
increased arrivals, and standing on September 
29th at ^yL, The average price for the sea- 
son was 6^(2. against 6^3. the season before, 
and 6^. two seasons before. The extreme 
fluctuation was Itv^. The price ruling in the 
New York market for middling upland on the 
1st of January, 1877, was 12fc. ; on April Ist, 
life.; July Ist, 12ic. ; October Ist, 11)0. 
The price on the Ist of January, 1878, was 
^l-iV^i 0° February l8t,ll-|>^.; March lst| 
lOic. ; April 1st, lOJc. ; May 1st, 10}c. ; June 
1st, life. ; July Ist, lliV<^. ; August Ist, ll|c. ; 
September 1st, 124fc. ; October 1st, lOfc. ; 
November 1st, 9^. ; December Ist, 9-,^c. The 
price on the Ist of June, which was life, in 
1878, was llV^c. in 1877, 12c. in 1876, 16c. 
in 1875; August 1st, life, in 1878, 12c. in 
1877, 120. in 1876, life, in 1875; October 1st, 
lOfc. in 1878, life, in 1877, lie. in 1876, 
18fc. in 1875; November 1st, 9fc. in 1878, 
llAe. in 1877, 12^0. in 1876, U^. in 1875. 

The total crop of all countries in 1879, it is 
estimated, will be about 7,590,000 bales, of 
which American spinners will require about 
1,650,000 bales, leaving 8,978,000 of the Amer- 
ican crop available for export. The total esti- 
mated exportable surplus of the different cot- 
ton-growmg countries in 1879 is as follows: 

Ameriea. 1,691,900,000 

EMtlndiik 418,000,000 

Egypt 904,000,000 

Bradi 88,000,000 

8inTnia,ete 89,760,000 

Weat India, ettu. 11,060,000 

Total 9,980,000,000 

The actual consumption of Europe in 1878 
was 2,182,578,000 pounds, about 242,000 bales 
less than the estimated supply for 1879. The 
total power of consumption is 208,000 bales 
more than the estimatea supply. 

The trade in wool and the manufacture of 
woolen goods have been in an unsatisfactory 
condition since 1875. The competition has 
been lively and the market frequently flood- 
ed with manufactures, followed by periods of 
comparative scarcity, owing to the numerous 
bankruptcies, which excited the trade again to 
large unregulated production. Owing to this 
strong competition, the first prices of raw 
wool have generally been high until 1878. 
There is a slow but steady improvement in the 
average quality of American wool; one sec- 
tion of the country after another makes a fit- 
ful effort to improve the breed of stock, so 
that gradually the native-grown wool is dis- 
placing the foreign sorts, which have been re- 
Quired for the higher grades of goods. The 
demand of late has not been for fine wools. 



126 



COMMERCE (INTERNAL) OF THE UNITED STATES. 



owing to general contraction and economy. 
The extreme western country has made great 
progress in wool-growing. Oregon produced 
6,000,000 pounds in 1877, against 8.000,000 
pounds in 1876. The Territory wools, those 
of Nevada, Utah, Idaho, and Montana, show a 
marked improvement each year both in quan- 
tity and quality ; they possess a long staple, 
and are without burr. The Colorado product 
has been so increased that the carpet-makers 
rely entirely on that State for the softer kinds, 
instead of on Spanish, Mediterranean, and East 
Indian sorts; Colorado produces combing and 
filling wools at d5o. per pound, scoured. The 
Southern wools, Virginia South Down, Geor- 
gia, Lake, etc., are also improving in quality 
and increasing in quantity. It is well adapted 
from the length of its staple for medium grades 
of cloth, and commanded 55c. per scoured 
pound in 1877. The Texas wool increases in 
quantity, but shows a sad lack of improvement 
in blood, and is only adapted for the poorest 
work, owing not only to its underbred quality 
but to the pernicious practice of shearing twice 
a year which obtains in that State. The price 
for washed Ohio fleeces at the beginning of 
1877 was 45c. for fine wool. In the summer 
the price rose to 50c., but weakened later, and 
at the close of the year there were large stocks 
of XX Ohio in dealers^ hands and no buyers at 
44 to 45c. per pound. The price for American 
XX at the beginning of January, 1878, in New 
York, was 88 to 45c. ; in February, 87 to 45c. ; 
in March, 85 to 4dc. ; in April, 84 to 42c. ; in 
May, the same ; in June, 82 to 88c. ; in July, 
80 to 87c. ; in August, 80 to 88c. ; in Septem- 
ber, 88 to 88c. ; in October, the same ; in No- 
vember, 80 to 86c. 

In the iron industry, the means of production 
have been enlarged within a few years to a great- 
er extent relatively than in any other branch. 
The extraordinary demand during the rapid ex- 
tension of the railroad network of the United 
States gave the principal impetus to the move- 
ment The high price of iron which prevailed 
made it profitable to work furnaces and forges 
whose location and facilities would be exceed- 
ingly disadvantageous in times of ordinary de- 
mand. Since the demand for railroad iron con- 
siderably declined, the prices, owing to the ex- 
cessive increase in the exceedingly expensive 
works necessary for iron production, and to the 
large accumulation of stocks to be disposed 
of, declined in a far greater ratio ; so that no 
branch has been in a worse financial position 
for a year or two back than the iron trade. 
The rapid growth of the iron and steel indus- 
tries has been much more beneficial to the na- 
tion, however, than the large losses of capital 
sunk in useless works by over-sanguine under- 
takers has proved detrimental. The iron in- 
dustry is now, and will remain, the largest in 
the country, not counting agriculture. The 
American consumption is entirely emancipated 
from its former dependence on the English 
producers. The American demand for railroad 



bars alone is still large, and will long remain 
so. The railroad construction for the last four 
years, 1874-77, has been at the rate of 2,224 
miles per annum. This demand is now satis- 
fied altogether by the native product. In the 
year 1872, in which $850,000,000 were invested 
in new railroads, and 5,720 miles of track laid, 
the production of rails in the American mills 
was a million tons, and the imports from En- 
rope about half a million. In 1877 the con- 
sumption had diminished 60 per cent., and the 
total supply had decreased 60 per cent ; but 
that portion of the supply which came from 
abroad had ceased altogether, while that from 
American works had declined less than 25 per 
cent. The falling ofi* in the imports of iron and 
steel rails between 1878 and 1877 amounted to 
about $20,000,000 ; the import is now as good 
as nothing. The railroad network is likely to 
be extended in its smaller ramifications for 
many years to come, and it is probable that the 
25 per cent decrease in the native production 
will be recovered, and the demand will be con- 
stantly equal to or greater than the supply of 
the year of largest production. The rapidity 
with which foreign rails have been displaced 
by the American product, after the domestic 
works had been increased sufSciently to satisfy 
the demand, can be seen from the following 
table, which gives the number of miles of rail- 
road constructed and the number of tons of 
rails produced for the eleven calendar years 
1867-77 and the number of tons imported for 
the eleven fiscal years 1868-'78 : 



YawandiiicD*- 
Mnter tL 


lUOlMd 

coaatrwtod. 


NtCtoni 
pradaoad. 


Ymr •adliif 
JumM. 


Nrttooi 

tinpoitada 


1867 


8,449 
8,979 
4,61S 
6,070 
7,608 
C720 
4,069 
8,805 
1,758 
8,657 


462,106 
606,714 
608,586 
680,000 
776,788 
1,000,000 
890,0n 
789,418 
792,518 
679,689 
764,709 


1868 

1869 

1870 

1671 

1879 

1878 


151,0»7 


1868 


266,228 


1869 


818,888 


1870 


518,028 


1871 


595,821 

400,546 


1878 


1878 


1874. 

1875« 

1876 

1877 

1878. 


166,790 


1874. 

1875 


47,183 

5,878 
88 


1876 


1877 


12 



Simultaneously with the displacement of for- 
eign rails by American in the home market, 
the old iron rail has been rapidly supplanted 
by steel rdls converted by the Bessemer pro- 
cess. The rate at which this change has taken 
place can be seen in the following statement, 
giving the relative quantities of iron and Bes- 
semer steel rails, which each year made up the 
total annual product stated above : 



YKABS. 



1867. 

1868. 

1860. 

1870 

1871. 

1873. 

1878. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 



Imnlb, 


SMtlnUa, 


IMltOIII. 


BSttOBC 


450,558 


8,660 


499,489 


7,226 


588,986 


9,650 


566,000 


84,000 


787.488 


86,850 


905,980 


84,070 


761,068 


189,015 


584,469 


144,944 


501,649 


890,868 


467,168 


418.461 


882,540 


482,169 



COMMERCE (INTERNAL) OF THE UNITED STATES. 



127 



la IdTT, for the first time, the prodaotion of 
steel nik exceeded that of iron rails. The 
decrease in the prodnction of the latter was 
1S4,628 tons, while there was an increase of 
19,708 tons in the prod action of Bessemer steel 
nils. The total production of rails in 1877 
irsfl 114,920 tons, or 13 per cent, less than in 
1976. The manufacture of rails was carried 
m in nineteen States and one Territory, Wyo- 
ming, in 1677, Pennsylvania furnishing 46i per 
eest of the total product. In 1878 a plant 
W89 eetablished in a new State, Colorado. 

The decrease in the imports of iron and steel 
products in the six years from 1878 to 1878 
imounted to $50,250,819; the total imports 
in the former year having been $59,808,452, 
those of the latter $9,057,638. During this 
period the imports of railroad bars, which 
sffioonted to $19,750,000 in 1873, bad ceased 
altogether ; that of pig iron had declined from 
tl3.$47,2dl to $1,250,057; that of bar, rod, 
sheet and hoop iron from $7,477,556, to $1,- 
iidJOT; that of raw steel from $4,155,234 to 
1 1,220,037; that of steel manufactures from 
tKU92,779 to $4,035,512. Between the same 
dates there was an increase in the iron and 
Ettelexports, amounting to $1,943,198, or nearly 
S3 per cent. ; the exports of 1878 amounted to 
112,084,048. The price of iron had declined 
iboQt one half in this period ; the arerage ex- 
port price of pig iron per cwt was $2.49 in 
^73, $2.14 in 1874, $1.55 in 1875, $1.31 in 
1<6. $1.24 in 1877, and $1.21 in 1878. The 
chtnge in the national balance in this dass of 
^Jmfnodities was from $49,000,000 net im- 
ports in 1873 to $3,000,000 net exports in 1878, 
or over $52,000,000. The exports of all iron 
and steel products during the calendar year 
1877 amounted to $16,659,675, an increase of 
about $5,000,000 OTcr the exports of the pre- 
ceding, half of which increase was made up of 
Sretnss alone. 

The total product of pig iron in the calendar 
recr 1877 was 2,314,585 tons, against 2,093,- 
iS4 tons in 1876, 2,266,581 in 1875, 2,689,418 
to H74, 2,868,278 m 1873, and 2,854,558 in 
H72; there has therefore been a. decrease in 
:rie prodnction of raw iron of about 540,000 
*<0Qa, or not quite 19 per cent., since 1872. The 
• Ul prodnction of rails duriug the same pe- 
nod decreaaed over 235,000 tons: while that 
ct every other dass of products shows a con- 
iLJrrable increase. The number of furnaces 
i:: working order in the United States at the 
«-' »^ of the year 1877 was 716, against 712 
r. the cloae of 1876. The number of furnaces 
•') blast at the end of December, 1877, was 
-Tf>, ai>oat three eighths of the total num- 



ber of completed furnaces, against 286 in De- 
cember, 1876, or less than one third of the 
number then existing ; there was thus an in- 
crease during the year of 84 in the number of 
active furnaces. The consumption of pig iron 
was very much greater than in 1876, and the 
production also considerably greater ; the esti- 
mated consumption was 2,418,216 tons, against 
2,172,503 tons in 1876 ; the stock remainiog in 
makers' hands was 642,351 tons on the Ist of 
January, 1878, against 686,798 the year before. 
The imports of pig iron in 1877 amounted to 
66,871 tons, and the exports to 7,687 tons. 
The increase in the consumption of iron in 
1877 is explained by the decline in prices which 
continued in that year, and reached a lerel 
below which, it was thought, they could not 
ftu*ther descend. The Philadelphia price of 
anthracite pig iron went down steadily from 
$20.75 per gross ton in January to $18 in No- 
vember and December, the average for the year 
being $18.92 ; that of best iron rails from $38 
to $33, average $35.25 ; the price of refined bar 
iron fell from $48.72 in January to $44.80 in 
April, and remained steady at that figure for 
the rest of the year. 

The total production of rolled iron, with that 
of iron rails and other varieties of rolled iron 
given separatdy, is shown in the table below : 



TBAHS. 



18M 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1860 
1870 

isn 

1872 
1878 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 



boa nDty 



88^869 
866,298 
I80,n8 
459,558 
499,480 
588,986 
586,000 
787,488 
906,980 
761,069 
584,469 
601,649 
467,168 
882^540 



(XbtrnOti 
Bat tool. 



686,958 

500.048 

606,811 

679,888 

508,286 

642.420 

706,000 

710,000 

941.992 

1,0764^68 

1,110,147 

1,097,867 

1,042.101 

1,144,219 



Totel, 
B«l tani. 

872327 
856,840 
1,026,080 
1,089,896 
1,097,775 
1,226,856 
1,291,000 
1,447.488 
1,847,922 
1,887,480 
1,694,616 
1,509,516 
1,609360 
1,476,760 



The production of iron rails was about the 
same as that thirteen years before, while that 
of all other iron products taken together had 
more than doubled. The decrease in the total 
iron since 1872, the year of greatest production, 
was 371,000 tons ; but that of iron rails during 
the same period was 573,000 tons, so that there 
has been an increase of 202,000 tons, or nearly 
21^ per cent., in other iron products. The pro- 
duction of cut nails and spikes was 4,828,918 
kegs in 1877, against 4,065,322 kegs in 1872. 

The production of the different classes of 
steel and the total steel product for the past 
six calendar years were as follows: 



KOTDB or snzL. 


isra. 

NettoM. 


isrt. 

Ncttoaii 


1874. 

Nattrat. 


isra, 

Nflilons. 


isre. 

Nflitons. 


isrr. 

Nattau. 


"H^ fwK stml 


29,260 

8.000 

7,740 

120,108 


84,786 

8,500 

18,714 

170,662 


86329 

7,000 

6358 

191,988 


89,401 

9,050 

12,607 

875,017 


89,382 

21.490 

10,806 

525,996 


40,480 
25,081 
11294 


''^\fwtfc afefwl 


• "tfcfT itfcl nimrpt BmiifiTnnr 


-^ma^^^^m ^0M nnitt. 


560387 


^"••^^ ^t^^m j.^wi^ ...••••••••.•• 


Totaa 


160,108 


222.652 


241,614 


486376 


697,174 


687,842 





128 



COMMEBOE aNTERNAL) OF THE UNITED STATES. 



This great fnorease in the production of steel 
hss been attended by an increase in the exports 
of steel and its manufactures, exclnaiye of fire- 
arms, between the fiscal years 1878 and 1878, 
of $181,613, or since the fiscal year 1872 of 
$489,472, and a decrease in the imports of steel 
and steel mannfactures of $9,892,464 since 
1873, of which amount $6,467,267 was the de- 
crease in the imports of finished steel manufac- 
tures. There has occurred a ^at decline in 
the prices of steel products durmg this term of 
years. 

The production of Bessemer steel has been 
deyeloped faster than other branches of this 
great industry, owing to the preference which 
u given to Bessemer steel rails for railway 
tracks. In 1867 there were only 2,660 tons of 
Bessemer rails made in the Uunited States. In 
1876 the product had increased to 290,868 tons 
and m 1677 to 432,169 tons of rails. The quan- 
tity of pig and spiegeleisen converted into Bes- 
semer steel in 1877 was 662,227 tons, against 
689,474 tons in 1876, and 896.966 tons in 1876 ; 
the consumption of spiegeleisen alone was 
48,229 tons in 1877, 46,980 tons in 1876, and 
88,246 tons in 1876. The quantity of Besse- 
mer steel ingots produced in 1877 was 660,687 
net tons; m 1876, 626,996 tons; m 1876, 876,- 
617 tons; in 1874. 191,988 tons. The Besse- 
mer industry was nrst established in the United 
States in 1867, and during its eleven years* ex- 
istence up to the end of 1877 the totaJ product 
of steel rails amounted to 1,596,197 tons. Be- 
sides the consumption of Bessemer ingots for 
rolling rails, there is a quantity, whicn is al- 
ready considerable, used as a substitute for 
wrought iron and for other varieties of steel ; 
this use of Bessemer steel is rapidly increasing. 
The number of converters in operation within 
the year 1877 was 22 ; there are altogether ten 
companies engaged in the production of Besse- 
mer steel in the United States. There was a 
marked decline in the prices of Bessemer rails 
during the year 1878, the price sinking from 
$49 per gross ton at the works, which was the 
rate for the first four months, to $40.60 in No- 
vember and December, the average rate for 
the year being $46.68. In 1878, although the 
prices remained low, an improved business was 
reported by most of the makers. 

At the monthly auction sales of coal in 1878 
the prices brought were as follows per ton : 



DATC or SALE. 



January 80. . . , 

MarohST 

VmjI 

M«7a9 

JuneM 

JnljrSl 

AnfnutfS.... 
Beptember 25. 
October 80... 
NoTemb«r 26. 



Stoomw. 


Onto. 


Esf. 


$8 10 


|8 1«« 


$8 14 


8 1U 


8 074 
8 21} 


8 16} 


82& 


8 40 


880 


880 


8 45 


8 49^ 


848 


85«} 


8 4TI 


849 


86f^ 




8 47 


80Pf 




861^ 


868 


• • • a 


8M 


8 68 


84fif 


SOU 


8 67} 


820 


828 


828} 



SlOT*. 

18 67 
866 
8 09f 
8 76| 
8 76 
8 89 
890 
898} 

4 m 

406 
8 71f 



The exports of coal in the first ten months 
of 1878 aggregated 13,260,000 tons besides 
8,846,000 tons furnished to steamers engaged 



in foreign trade. The largest quantity vent 
to France, 2.600,000 tons, Germany takmg over 
1,600,000 of the rest, Russia 1,000,000, Sweden 
and Norway nearly as much, Italy also nearly 
a million. 

Toward the end of the year 1876 speculative 
operations drove up the price of petroleum to 
a nigh figure ; 80c. a gallon was paid for large 
lots on December, and $4,224^ per barrel for 
crude oil at the wells. In tne beg^niiing of 
1877, with a stock of 8,000,000 barrels at tbe 
W€lls and large quantities of fine oil ice-bound 
on the route, and no opportunity to ship 
abroad, there was a remarkable fall in prices, 
17c. being the usual price in February. Vihen 
the spring opened, and for the rest of tbe 
year, the prices ran lower still, 18c to 15o. 
being the usual range of quotations for stand- 
ard white oil in barrels firbm May to Decem- 
ber. The average price for the year 1877 was 
16*92c., against 19-12c. in 1876, 12'99c. in 
1876, and 18*09c in 1874 ; that of crude oil 
in bulk was 9* 12c per gallon, against 10*60c in 
1876, 6'69c in 1876, and 912c in 1874. The 
low prices of freight and of oil excited an 
unprecedented foreign demand. Hie orders 
for export commenced early in the spring and 
continued until the end of the year ; the total 
shipments were 8,781,178 bbls. against 6,884,- 
810 bbls. in 1876, and 6,810,296 bbls. in 1875. 
The largest increase was in the exports to the 
far East and the Levant; the shipments in 
cases, in which form the oil for the Oriental 
trade is put np, increased over 100 per cent 
for the year. 

The exports of petroleum from all ports 
from the 1st of January till tbe beginning of 
December, 1878, were 802,828,688 ^ons, 
against about 829,600,000 gallons during the 
same months in 1877, and 219,600,000 in 1876. 
Of this, 199,000,000 gallons were sent from 
New York, against 284,000,000 in 1877 and 
126,000,000 m 1876 ; nearly 64,000,000 gal- 
lons from Philadelphia, against 42,000,000 in 
1876 and 69,000,000 in 1876; and 81,000,000 
gallons from Baltimore, against 42,600,000 the 
year before and 83,760,000 m 1876. 

The tobaeeo crop of the United States in 
1876 averaged very poorly in quality ; yet the 
lai^ requirements of the European govern- 
ment monopolies in 1877, and a considerable 
specnlative demand for export to Germany on 
the prospect of the establishment of a monop- 
oly or a high tariff in that empire, drew ofl 
the larger part of the surplus, so that the 
market for the year closed quite firm. The 
yearns business in 1877 was feeble and de- 
pressed on account of the low quality of the 
stock and the general mercantile timidity 
The prospects of an unusually fine crop in 1877 
which was estimated at 70,000 hogsheads ii 
Virginia and 60,000 in Maryland and Ohio— 
the best crop since 1866— increased the caotior 
of the buyers. The operations of tbe Europeai 
rSgies were thus a great relief to the market 
The exports of leaf tobacco in 1877 from Nev 



OOMMEBOE (INTERNAL) OF THE UNITED STATEa 



12» 



fork were, in hogsheads, 92,798, against 100,- 
IS5 in 1876, 54,831 in 1875, 74,026 in 1874, 
lad 94,865 in 1878. The receipts at the sea- 
ports from the crop of 1877 were estimated at 
155,000 hogsheads. The crop turned oat leafj 
iod sound, bat vith less heavy leaf than was 
tipeetod. The exports of seed-leaf tobacco in 
IhTT were 83,950 cases, against 51,426 in 
h:<, 35,015 in 1875, and 81,801 in 1874. The 
jobbing trsde in seed-leaf tobacco at New 
\>xi £bs been mach ii\jared by the growth of 
' « Isrge cigar factories, which purchase sap- 
piiea on the spot where they are grown, and 
!>5 the extension of the trayeling System. The 
tnde was arreted by the strilce of the cigar- 
aukers in 1877, bat the smallness of the stock 
rtf old crops prevented the decline of prices. 
Tbd old stock remaining on hand Janaary 1, 
W7a, was for the whole country about 56,000 
m^ sod the new crop of 1877 was about 
1)0,000 cases of fair average quality. The 
^lantitj of domestic seed leaf manufactured 
iaro cigars in the year ending June 80, 1877, 
VIS S3,702,834 lbs., or 88,692 cases, against 
«?.789 eases in 1876, 71,785 in 1875, 89,140 in 
Xi, and 80,659 in 1873. The quantity of for- 



eign tobacco worked up into cigars in 1877 
was about 7 million pounds, against about 7, 
7^, 9^, and lOf million pounds in 1876, 75, 
'74. and 73 respectively. The number of cigars 
ana cheroots stamped for the internal revenue 
in 1877 was 1,800,009 mUle, of which 44,100 
mille were of foreign make, against 48,410 
mille in 1876, 57,345 in 1875, 65,060 in 1874^ 
and 75,018 in 1873; and 1,755,909 mille were 
of domestic manufacture, against 1,780,397 in 
1876, 1,869,317 in 1875, 1,792,789 in 1874, and 
1,699,732 in 1873. It is thus seen that the 
consumption of cigars has decreased since 1875, 
owing partly to the deficiency of the crops and 
partly to tiie impaired consumptive capacity 
of the people. The business in manufiustured 
tobacco has been large and profitable for the 
Eastern factories during the last couple of 
years. The quantity of manufactured tobacco 
on which the internal revenue tax was paid 
during the year ending June 30, 1877, was 
112,722,054 lbs., the number of cigars and che- 
roots 1,799,412 mille. The prices in the New 
York market in the year 1878 at or near the 
beginning of the months designated was for 
the following varieties, per pound, as follows : 



MONTH. 



F'knu J. . 

Vstfi... 

Irf 

Kit. 

4%m, 

«3.T 

a««M^^ 



KMiodqr lng% 
hMvy. 




New IkigUiMJ 

Mcd Im^ 

flUai. 




VwnmylwaaJm 




■liuft won. 



CMta. 

21/9 44 
20(^45 
14(^40 



14 1 
14 1 
IS 
14 1 
14 
14 1 



40 
40 
45 
40 
40 
40 



10^45 



Gnu. 

m(^21 
IB §24 
11 gl8 
11 §18 

11 019 

12 ®84 
11 ®18 
11 §18 
11 M18 
IS 4^24 



Tbere was tax active speculative movement 
^tyar in the early part of 1877, on account 
"/ its exceptionally strong statistical position, 
\ le stocks carried over in all countries being 
'^XOOO tons lees than those of the previous 
Tftf. and the crop in cane and heet sugar of 
I-tT^-'T? falling short of that of the season 
>:f»re about 800,000. Acting on the strength 
^* these facts, the American sugarmen im- 
'/ned Yerj largely, not taking into account 
•iii.*ieatly the influence of high prices to di- 
-i:^-*h conanmption in the depressed state of 
'ii<ry. The prices ranged excessively high 
2 Iftj, Jone, and July, drawing into the 
-^rican market quantities of the Oriental 
'^^Bct, which had never heen seen there be- 
'>uaod even cargoes of West Indian sugar 
"^^iiipped from England. At the same time 
^««3inption rapidly declined, until toward 
><< cloae of the year there was a breakdown 
'' T'licea, and the heavy stocks were nearly 

* fked off at the yearns end with great loss. 

• y importations, notwithstanding the short 
>''i In all eoantries, exceeded those of 1876 
•; MwS$4 tons, and the stock held over till 
'^^ was 25,862 tons, being one third greater 
te the stook remaining on hand at the open- 

Vd.. xviu. — ^9 A 



ing of the year. The total imports of foreign 
raw cane sugar in the United States during 
the calendar year 1877, not including the im- 
portations ftom the Pacific islands and Asia, 
were 646,499 tons, against 592,153 tons in 1876, 
heing an increase of 54^346 tons, or 9*17 per 
cent., and against 662,672 tons in 1875. The 
consumption of foreign unrefined sugar, de- 
ducting reexports of raw and manufactured, 
was, in 1873, 592,725 tons; in 1874, 661,809 
tons; in 1875, 621,852 tons; in 1876, 581,369 
tons; in 1877, 577,194 tons, being a decline of 
4,175 tons, or 71 per mille. The total con- 
sumption of cane sugar, foreign and domestic, 
increased from 269,466 tons in 1850 to 415,- 
281 tons in 1860, and to 530,692 tons in 1870, 
633,314 tons in 1871, 637,373 tons in 1872, 
652,025 tons in 1873, 710,369 tons in 1874^ 
685,853 tons in 1875, 658,869 tons in 1876, 
666,194 tons in 1877. There were 29,556 tons 
received at San Francisco in 1877, the largest 
importations coming from Hawaii and Manila^ 
and smaller quantities from Batavia, China, 
and Calcutta. The consumption of sugar of 
all kinds in the United States was 745,250 
tons in the calendar year 1877, against 745,- 
269 tons in 1876, heing a decrease of 19 tons ; 



130 OOMMEROE (INTERirAL) OF THE UNITED STATEa 

this was composed of 86,600 tons made from nearly one half. A proposed cbange in ibe 

molasses, 12,000 tons of maple sagar, and 2,000 tariff on raw sngars, the abolition of the color 

tons of native beet-root and sorgbam sugar, standard by which the grades have hitherto 

besides the importations above mentioned on been distinguished, and the imposition of t 

both seaboards. The proportion of the import uniform specific duty on all raw sorts, haTe 

trade coming to the port of New York was caused much uneasiness among the refiners. 

over 72 per cent, of the whole in 1876, but The change has been advocated on the grounds 

only 69-16 per cent, in 1877 ; the trade of of the greater simplicity of such a duty, the in- 

Baltimore, on the other hand, was 64*69 per adequacy ofthe color standard in distingnisfaing 

cent, greater in 1877 than in 1876, and of Bos- qualities, the encouragement of the importation 

ton 48*64 per cent., while the receipts at Port- of finer qualities of raw sugar, and the proven- 

land and the other New Englana ports, at tion of losses' to the revenue from the supposed 

Philadelphia, and New Orleans, diow a falling frequent fraudulent artificial coloration of sa- 

ofiT. The fluctuations in price were great dur- gars. Its opponents fear that it will so en- 

ing 1877, the general course being a decline courage the introduction of the high grades 

from January till March, an increase till the and of half-refined sugars as to greatlj injure 

highest range in June, and then a steady and if not nearly destroy the American refining 

great falling oft till the end of the year. The industry, in which a vast capital is emharked, 

mean price of brown Havana, for example, was and in which many thousands of laborers, 

in January, 92c. ; February, 9|c. ; March, 9|c. ; skilled and unskilled, receive employment, and 

April, 9-|^. ; May,'10Ac.; June, lO^c. ; July, whose appliances and machinery have been 

9fo. ; August, 8-^c. ; Beptember, 8^c. ; Octo- perfected for refining and clarifying the dark 

her, 8{c. ; November, 7-f^. ; December, 7|c. grades, producing from them a good article. 
The average prices for the year were 41c. per The receipts of eoffes at all Atlantic ports in 

cwt. higher than in 1876, and 92c. higher than 1877 were 841,214,488 lbs.; stock on hand. 

in 1876, for Ouba Muscovado, 4dc. higher than January 1, 1877, 4,022,862 lbs. Of the total 

in 1876 for Porto Rico, 42c. for Havana browns, supply, 81,629,620 lbs. remained over Januar) 

80c. for Manila, and 88c. for Brazil. 1, 1878. The consumption of the year wat 

The Louisiana cane crop was larger in 1876- therefore 804,480,146 lbs., against 802,680,21$ 

'77 than it had been in any year since the lbs. in 1876, 807,601,088 lbs. in 1876, 282,688. 

Southern war. The average prices of New 622 lbs. in 1874, and 269,188,160 lbs. in 187S 

Orleans molasses ruled lower in 1877 than in The importations in that year were larger thai 

the preceding year by 4-96c. Of molasses fot in any previous year except 1876, and the de 

household use the Louisiana product is the liveries for consumption were only exceeded 

most esteemed, and the large crop of 1877 by the years 1876 and 1871, alUiough thi 

compensated for the short foreign supply, prices ranged higher than in the previous year 

But the refineries can not use the native sorts The receipts at San Francisco during the yea 

on account of their high price ; so the cessa- were 16,179,220 lbs., and the consumption o 

tion of the refining industry explains the small the Pacific States 11,208,266 lbs. The remark 

consumption of 89,966,906 gallons in 1877, the able increase in the consumption of cofiTee i 

smallest in twelve years. 'Hie molasses crop the United States, at a period when a rednc 

of Louisiana and the other Southern States in tion in all luxuries is observable, is in contriu 

1876-'77, the main part of which was con- to the consumption of cofiTee in Europe, whic 

Bumed in 1877, was altogether about 12,900,000 declined in 1877 from 821,260 to 287,68 

gallons. The total consumption of molasses in tons, while the total conscunption of the JJnv 

the United States in 1877 was not quite 40,- ed States increased from 189,686 tons in 187 

000,000 gallons, being about 9,000,000 gallons to 140,907 tons, 0.87 per cent more. It 

less than in 1876. The consumption of foreign Brazil coffees were more largely used than i 

molasses was 27,066,906 gallons, that of the former years, the imports from Hayti, Fori 

previous year 9,898,698 gallons greater. Rico, Java, Sumatra, Europe, and Ceylon d« 

The molasses refining industry labored under dining. The average gold price for the R 

great difiSculties in 1877. The whole product berry for the year 1877, at New York, wi 

for the year from molasses received at the At- 19'72c. per lb., against 17'97c. in 1876, ai 

lantic ports was about 86,600 tons, against 19'lc. in 1876. New York^s share in the cc 

48,600 tons the previous year. The deficient fee trade is increa.sing; 64*88 per cent, of tl 

crop in the West Indies diminished greatly the imports came to that port in 1877, 61 per cei 

supply of molasses, and the refiners stopped in 1876, and 69 per cent, in 1876. The exte 

their works at an early part of the season, of the fluctuations in price was S^o. per lb. f 

The sugar refineries have suffered from various Brazil and Maracaibo, and 2ic. for Java ai 

depressing causes. Carrying light stocks, they San Domingo. The yeor 1877 was not a pre 

received no benefit from the rise of prices in perous one for the trade, 
(the early part of 1877. The reduction of the The tea trade in the United States has be 

rate of drawbacks allowed by the Government undergoing a considerable revolution of lal 

on importations to be improved and reexported and the prmcipal importing houses, once firm 

discouraged the export, and at the close of the seated in New York, have seen their trade < 

year 1877 the manufacture lad been rednoed varted into other channels. Closer commni 



COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES. 



0ONGBEGATIONALI8T8. 131 



dtioD with the East by telegraph, the Paoifio 
iteamers, and the tranacoDtinental railways, 
hire enabled the priinarj markets in the Ori- 
eoul ports to sapplant the old center of the 
tnde iQ America. Jobbers and large grocers 
tto seod their orders directly to the Eastern 
cities. Intelligence is transmitted so rapidly 
tlut ti)e market is constantly well stocked and 
thd margin of profit is small. San Francisco 
has become an important entrepot, and sup- 
plies much of the Western trade ; while New 
iVk, iostesd of being the central market as it 
QDce was, is only the distributing point for the 
^oods which are unshipped there. The total 
^HlQmption of teas in the United States was 
S4^9,822 lbs. in 1877, against 40,127,299 lbs. 
is 1976,46,094,596 lbs. in 1875, 52,424,545 lbs. 
n 1874, aod 51,028,904 lbs. in 1878. It is thus 
«aM that the ase of tea, like that of coffee, has 
i&*rea9ed daring the hard timee. Of the oou- 
(imptioa of 1877, less than 15,000,000 lbs. 
fffe China gpreen teas, over 20,000,000 lbs. 
rere Japan teas, and over 14,500,000 lbs. 
•)oioiig; the total black tea consumed was 
{9.000,000 lbs. The Japan teas, which were 
erst introdaced in this market in 1868, are 
pining rapidly in favor, ewen supplanting the 
Cbinese green tea in the Western markets. 
Toe price of tea, and of coffee as well, is fre- 
^lently of late subject to sudden fluctuations 
'HI aceoaot of rumors of the restoration of a 
tiriff OQ those staples. The arerage currency 
prio« of Japan tea, fair to fine, in New York, 
«ra$ n-^^c in 1877, against 87*04c. in 1876, 
mi 54'91c. in 1875 ; of Hyson, 82-62c. in 1877, 
im»t 33'92o. and 89*79o. ; of Oolong, 87'16c., 
tniiut 44-17C in 1876, and 40'20c. in 1875. 
At the beginning of February, 1878, Japan 
ka, soperior to fine, was auoted at 82 to 42c. ; 
b the beginning of March, at 28 to 85o. ; m 
April, at the same rates ; in May, the same ; 
b hue, the same ; in July, at 80 to 88c. ; in 
Aozmt, at 26 to 82o. ; in September, at 26 to 
^'' ; in October, the same. * 

The fall retarns of the wheat exports of the 
Toited States for the year 1878, as compiled for 
^i ^ew York Produce Exchange, give 228,- 
^,410 bushela, a giun of 68 per cent over the 
^rerioos year. Philadelphia shipped 88 per 
f'-nl, Sew York 53 per cent., Baltimore 89 per 
«at., and Boston 84)- per cent more than in 
M7. The potato crop, reported at 124,000,000 
' i^bel^ was larger in 1878 than had been ex- 
pected. The com crop has been large every 
r«ar^ncel874; theaveragein 1878 was51,000,- 
■<0 acres, against 50,800,000 in 1877, and the 
ji'M 30,000,000 bushels greater than that of 
i^::, which was 1,283,000,000 bushels. The 
•4! frop was the largest ever raised. The rye 
*n was 60,000,000 bushels, against 51,000,000 ; 
trier, 4S,00O,O00, against 84,500,000 bushels. 
*•« woal dip, 211,000,000 lbs., was the largest 
'"^ got, exceeding by 8,000,000 lbs. that of 
''^, 10 sptto of a decrease of 14,000,000 lbs. 
* < Womia. These figures are from the re- 
^iH of the Agricultural Bnreaa. 



CONGREGATION ALI8TS. The foUowing 
is a summary of the statistics of the Oongrega- 
tional churches in the United Statea, as they 
are given in the ^* Congregational Quarterly " 
for January, 1878 : 



8TATK8» BID. 

Alabftma. 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticat 

Dakota 

District of Oolvmbla . . 

riorida 

Ooorcla. 

nilnoh 

Indian Tenltory 

Indiana. 

Iowa 

Knnwii 

Kantttckf 

l/^n1if1fnai 

Maine 

Mairlaad 

Mniachoaetta 

Michigan 

Mlnneaola. 

Mlaalsaippl. 

Mlasoon. 

Nebraska 

Nevada. 

New llampiblre 

New Jeney 

New York. 

North OaroUna 

Qhfc) 

Oregon , 

Pennaylvania. 

Bhode Island 

Soath Carolina. 

Tenneaaee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington Territory. 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

WyomlQg 

Total 



CksfohM. 


MakUi.. 


18 


T 


71 


67 


8 


4 


8M 


860 


10 


6 


1 


11 


1 


1 


10 


9 


848 


848 


1 


1 


89 


88 


885 


194 


148 


85 


T 


T 


18 


10 


88T 


169 


8 


1 


02S 


668 


818 


194 


114 


86 


4 


8 


U 


44 


•8 


08 


1 


1 


186 


177 


88 


88 


869 


809 


5 


4 


880 


167 


9 


18 


n 


60 


84 


80 


8 


8 


7 


9 


9 


9 


8 


1 


19T 


818 


8 


4 


9 


9 


8 


8 


190 


170 


I 


8 


8,664 


8,406 



666 

4,199 

866 

08,808 

840 

084 

41 

667 

88,668 

11 

1,744 

14,761 

0,159 

600 

779 

80,878 

106 

87,478 

10,788 

0,9^ 

190 

8,747 

8,681 

88 

80,018 

8,871 

88,208 

887 

81,904 

&»8 

0,918 

4,600 

868 

46$ 

894 

48 

19,880 

^ 198 

160 

61 

18,894 

86 

860,090 



The numher of licentiates waa 204; total 
numher of persons in the Sunday schools, 
420,628; number of families, 145,012. The 
totiU amount of benevolent contributions re- 
ported by 2,736 churches was $1,117,808.44; 
the amount of contributions for home expendi- 
tures reported by 1,608 churches was $2,276,- 
164.87. 

The receipts of the Ameriean OtrngregtiHonal 
Uhum were reported at its anniversary in May 
to have been $24,688. The Union had ad- 
vanced to churches the sum of $11,946, and 
for pastors* libraries $864.77, and had a bal- 
ance in its treasury of $4v094. Thirty-one 
churches had been helped. The report gave a 
review of the twenty-nve years* history of the 
Union. The Rev. Dr. Edwin B. Webb, of 
Boston, Mass., was elected President at the 
annual meeting. 

The receipts of the Ameriean ffbme Mimenr 
ary Society for the year ending with the anni- 
versary in May, 1878, were $284,486.44, and 
its expenditures $284,640.71. The Society has 
employed 996 ministers, who had supplied in 
whole or in part 2,287 congregations and mis- 
sion stations, and had 91,762 pupils enrolled 



132 OONGREGATIONALI8T8. 

in its Sunday schools. Forty-seren chnrohes tional work of the Association had been Tig- 
had been organized bj the iniBsionaries dor- orously sustained with increasing numbers ; 
ing the year, and forty-six churches had be- various necessary new bull dixigs bad been erect- 
come self-supporting. The nnmber of addi- ed in connection with the higher institutions, 
tions to the churches by profession of faith and considerable attention had been paid to 
was 5,027. normal teaching. There were 7,229 pupils 

The sixty-ninth annual meeting of the Amer- in the schools, 1,529 of whom were receiving 

iean Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- normal instructioo. Five new churches bad 

sions was held at Milwaukee, Wis., beginning been organized, making sixty-four in all on 

October 1st. President Mark Hopkins presided, the list of the Assooiation, and 868 mem- 

The Treasurer reported that the total receipts bers had been added. The work among the 

for the year had been $482,204.78, and the total Indians had been impeded by the unsettled 

expenditures$486,772.98, of which sum $410,- condition of their affairs, but an increasing 

858.55 was charged to the cost of missions, interest had been shown in education. Twelve 

$9,375.64 to the cost of agencies, $2,546.44 to schools had been sustained amoug the Chinese, 

the cost of publications, $16,006.41 to the cost, with 1,492 pupils. 

of administration, and $47,985.94 to the ac- The Congregational Union of CanadOy at its 
count of the balance for which the Bofu^ was twenty-fifth annual session, adopted resoln- 
in debt on September 1, 1877. This statement tions expressing grateftil satisfaction and sy in- 
showed that the debt of the Board had been patby at the stand which the Congregational 
reduced to $4,568.26. The Woman^s Board Union of England and Wales had " recently 
had contributed $81,285.67 to the support of felt it to be its duty to take in opposition to 
female missionaries cooperating with the So- the aims and tendencies of skepticism and nn- 
ciety, and was supporting about ninety mis- belief as developed by the Leicester Confer- 
sionaries and ^ving aid to a large number of enoe,^' and tendering to the Union aforesaid 
native helpers and schools. Ten missionaries its congratulations that it had been enabled to 
had died anring the year, eighteen names had maintain the position it took, and '* to vindi- 
been dropped from the rolls, and nineteen new oate itself from the imputation of any sympa- 
missiouaries, including three representatives of thy or complicity with the rationalistic theol- 
the Woman's Board, had gone out. The ^^ Gen- ogy of the age.'* 

eral Survey '' of the missions gave the follow- The annual meeting of the London Mission- 

ing summary of members: Number of mis- ary Society was held in London, May 16tb. 

sions, 16; number of stations, 79; number of Samuel Morley, Esq., M. P., presided. The 

sub-stations, 529 ; total number of missionaries contributions received during the year for gen- 

and laborers connected with the missions, eral purposes had been £68,848, the largest 

1,549; number of churches, 248; members, amount ever received in one year from this 

18,787; training and theological schools, 15; source; and the total income, including lega- 

boal^ding-schools for girls, 26; common schools, oies, £10,665 given for the Indian famine, and 

612 ; total number of pupils, 26,170. other extraordinary receipts, had been £188,- 

Conoeming the condition of the particular 138. The expenditures had been exceedinglj 

fields, it represented that the possibility of civ- heavy, an increased outlay having been re- 

ilizing the Indians was made more clear every quired for carrying out plans for the enlar^e- 

year. The Dakotas were more and more seek- ment of the area and appliances of several of 

ing the privilege of instruction in the schools, the Sdbiety^s missions. 

the arts of civilized life, and religion, and the The income of the OongregationiU Home 

schools at the Santee Agency hid never been Missionary Society for the year ending in May, 

BO successful. The work in Spain and Austria 1878, was £6,199, and the expenditures during 

had called out much opposition. The ques- the same period were £4,876. One thousand 

tion of establishing a mission in Central Af- members were added to the churches. The 

rica had been careftiUy considered. The Zoo- Society has been reorganized, and will be known 

loo mission, which had fifteen churches with hereafter as the Church Aid and Home Mi&- 

more than six hundred members, and training sUyna/ry Society, 

schools for both sexes, with more than one The annual meeting of the Colonial Mission- 

hundred pupils, was thought to be especially (vry Society was held in London, May 9th. The 

well fitted to become a base of operations. total receipts of the Society for the year had 

The thirty-second annual meeting of the been £4,868. The report stated that '' in nearly 
American Missionary Association was held at every colony there is a Congregational union, 
Taunton, Mass., October 29th. E. S. Tobey, of combining all the churches for mission work, 
Boston, presided. The report of the Trea- formed, as nearly as possible, on the home 
surer showed that the receipts for the year model, with year book, college, Provident So- 
had been $195,601.65, and the expenditures ciety. Chapel-building Society, and other Chris- 
$188,079.46. The current receipts had been tian agencies in vigorous operation. There are 
$18,000 less than in the previous year, but the five hundred churches and stations, with an 
indebtedness of the Association had been di- income for religious purposes which can not 
minished by nearly $40,000. The report of the be less than £100,000 a year, to say nothing 
Executive Committee showed that the educa- of the mass of church, school, and manse prop' 



OOKGBEGATIONALISTS. 133 

aij which has been created and setiled in Wales, 17 ; in Scotland, 8 ; in Ireland, 1 ; in 

tnut**; and claimed that the existence of these the colonies, 10; in Madagascar, 1. Number 

organizationa was largely due to the work of of Congregational colleges and institations for 

thB Sodety. Thirty-six missionaries had been ministerial training : in England, 10, with 88 

employed in the Dominion of Canada; 81 professors and 816 students; in Wales, 8, with 

cfanrches and oat-stations had been supplied,. 8 professors and 122 students; in Scotlimd, 1, 

ind a net increase of 408 church members was with 8 professors and 18 students ; in the colo- 

reported. More than 70 students had been nies, 4, with 18 professors and 46 students; 

trsined in the Congregational College, many total, 18, with 57 professors and 497 students, 

of whom were holding important positions in There were also ten institutionB in heathen 

Cuuda and the United States. lands belonging to the London Missionary So- 

The following is a summary of the tables ciety, training about 800 native students. 

^T«Q in the *' Congregationid Tear Book '' The annual meeting of the Congregational 

London) for 1878, to show the number of Union of England and WaleiYrviA Yi^l'A.mljoinr 

Brtish Congregational ministers in Great Brit- don, beginning May 6th. The Rev. J. Bald- 

lin. the Continent of Europe, the British colo- win Brown presided as the churman for the 

2ies, and tiie foreign missions: Ministers in year. The Committee reported concerning 

EozUnd, and English ministers in Wales, 2,087; their operations for the year, which included 

W<j^ ministers, 424 ; ministers in Scotland, arrangements for the pubucation of two series 

li2 ; ministers in Ireland, 25 ; ministers in the of tracts and the reorganization of the Con- 

rimnel Islands, 8 ; English ministers on the gregational Church Aid and Home Missionary 

CmtiDent, 8; ministers in the colonies, 811 ; bociety. A conference had recently been held 

nLwionaries of the London Missionary Society, at Leicester, wholly unconnected with the 

145: natiwe ordained ministers, 817; total, Union, but participated in by many Congre- 

1M7. Of these, 2,796 were pastors, and 651 gationalists, the object of which was to bring 

were without charge. Congregational unions about religious communion without taking ac- 

exist, with their subordinate unions and local count of the theological opinions of the par- 

K^ociations, and general missionary and be- ticipants; and the result of the meeting had 

arfTolent societies, for England and Wales, been to create apprehension that it might be 

SM>Usnd, Ireland, Ontario and Quebec, Nova regarded as the sign of an increasing laxity of 

Scocia and Kew Brunswick, Victoria, New belief among the Congregationalists. Resolu- 

!^oqth Wales, Queensland, South Australia, tions which had been prepared by the Com- 

Western Australia, Tasmania, Auckland (New mittee with the object of meeting these ap- 

ZriLind), Natal, South Africa, Madagascar, and prehensions, and oi defining the tlieologicul 

ift-naiea. Twelve Independent churches are position of the churches of the Union, were 

T^nrneA in British Guiana, and six in India, adopted, as follows : 

be^es nine English churches which are sup- That, in view of the uneaBinesB prodaoed in the 

>«ned by the London Missionary Society, five ohurohes of the Congregational order by the pro- 

Eodish Union churches, and eleven Tamil, two oeedings of the recent oonferenoe at Leioeater on the 

'Miarese, two Teloogoo, one Undu, and one ^"^5 °^ religious oommunion, the asBembly feela 

:T.nj;_ni .11 ...•^^♦-S^ «af5,rn «K«..«W ^W«K cfiUed upon to reaffirm that the pnmaiyobject of the 

the terms of 
evaogelical 




!•? retamed at Hong-Kong and Shanghai, Tl»»* the assembly appeals to the history of the 

Ciina. The English Congregational services Congregational churches generally, as evidence that 

TT^ ^ T. -""©""" vvug* wgovtviw 9VET1VV9 CongregationaUsts have always regarded the accepts 

■^4 the Continent embrace a church m Pans, ance of the faoU and dootribes of the evangeliiil 

ri:h twenty-two stations and sixteen Sunday faith revealed in the Holy Scripturea of the Old and 

•cbot^ connected with the mission to the New Testaments as an essential condition of rcli- 

v«.rkingmen of Paris; churches at St Peters- «!<>«• communion in Conjrregadonal ohurohea; and 

^►, ™i Ai^-*.n^.^»air«r In ni.aofa. Aiv»i.Aka<i ^hat amoHff thosc have fQways been included tlie 

T' « *°? Alexandrovsky, in Russia ; churches incarnation, the atoning saori^oe of the Lord Jesus 

4t Hambarg and Berlm, and a sailors' msti- Christ, his resurrection, his ascension and media- 

:.td at Hamburg, in Germany; and a church torial reign, and the work of the Holy Spirit in the 

it Antwerp, in Belgium. The number of renewal of men. , ,. , , 

-^-^htm was, in England, 2,012, with 1,806 ,J^'^}^^P,^«^P^}'''^J^?}?}':^^^^^ 

^- .K ^w«^k^ ^Jz^^vX^^ \.^A ^«,.»»J;^<.i the basis of these facts and doctrines is, m the jud^- 

•Tfloh churches, preaching and evangelical ^^^^ ^f ^^^ assembly, made evident by the deilara- 

' ■^noQa, and churches supplied by lay pastors ; tion of faith and order adopted at the annual meeting 

^^^ 74S Welsh and 111 English churches. In 1888; and the assembly believes that the churches 

cl 9S preaching stations; Scotland, 107 represented in the Union hold these flwts and doo- 

-.ircbM; Ireland; 28 churches; the Channel trines in their integrity to this day. 

•Ciada, 17 churches ; Canada and Newfound- The resolutions were opposed by the Presi- 

j&i 121 churches; Australia, 169 churches dent of the assembly, but the vote by which 

'•>! H pfreachtng stations ; New Zealand, 20 they were adopted stood 1,000 in favor of them 

"^ .rrhes ; Natal, 4 churches ; Cape Colony, to 20 against them. 

:' '.hurches independent of the London Mis- The autumnal session of the Union was held 

•■-csry Society. The number of county asso- at Liverpool, beginning October 14th. The re- 

"-aciona and unions was : in England, 41 ; in port of the Congregational Total Abstinence 



134 OONGBEGATIONALISTS. 

Aflsodation showed that of the 2,492 Oongre- Another resolution, also nnanimonsly adopt- 

gational ministers in England and Wales. 750 ed, instrncted the Committee '^ to enter into 

were total abstainers. The chairman of the immediate correspondence with the repre- 

Union, the Rev. J. Baldwin Brown, opened the sentatives of the non-established eyangeucal 

regular sessions with an address reviewinff the churches, with a view to a conference at an 

resolutions respecting the faith of the Dodf early date on matters connected with the reli- 

which had been adopted at the meeting in the gious condition of England and the cooperation 

spring. While he felt obliged to express his of those churches for the promotion of £aith 

dissent from the resolutions, and doubted the and godliness among the people.'* Another tq»- 

expediency of adopting what seemed so nearly olution sanctioned the claims of the Church 

like the enunciation of a creed, be had decided Aid and Home Missionary Society, advised the 

that he would not place himself in the posi- formation of an auxiliary of the Society in 

tion of the leader of a party and an encourager every Congregational church in England, and 

of schism, and had therefore concluded that expressed the hope that the county associa- 

he would not resign the chairmanship of the tions would labor ** to diffuse throughout tlie 

Union, as he had once been tempted to do, churches a spirit of bold and generous enterprise 

saying: in promoting the objects which the Society 

I am of the same mind as in May, and, had I known ^^S,^™?}**®®-", , ,. ^ ^. ^ 

the Union's intention to formulate a creed, nothing Ibe sixty-sixtn annual meetmgs of the Con- 

would iiave induced me to occupy the obair. I am oregatianal Union qf Scotland were held at 

afraid I have litUe patience toward, or sympathy Edinburgh, beginning April 29th. The income 

with, those who would set up si^u-posts amid the ^f the Union for the year had been £1,691, and 

mists of human doubt. I dread them when they are *. ^ ^««^:*„«^- i*-! »«>a ^#t-.i.' i. oi koa ' 

set up as reliable guides to faith, for just in the pre 1^ expenditures £1,780, of which £1,630 were 
portion to which they are trusted do they becuilo m the shape of grants to churches, 
the soul from the Divine Guide. Convinced, then. The Welsh Congregational Union, at its sev- 
that the Union has lost some of its freedom which enth annual meeting, held August 6th to 8th, 
made it so dear to me as an ecclesiastical organixa- adopted resolutions expressing adherence to 
tion, and had taken some retrograde step m presum- ?r^ *>; . *«»vi«wvtio ^^y^%>aoxMMi^ uuu^yu\,^ w 
ing to formuhxte the theology of the Church, I had *"« ScnpturaJ views of truth as taught by the 
aome temptation to ask von to relieve me from the fathers m the Welsh pulpit for more than two 
duties of the oluur, but I saw by so doing I should centuries, and approvmg the declaration which 
lead a party and create a schism : and these things had been made by the Congregational Union 
I hate. More than this, the idea has been borne m ^^ ir^^io-,;! ^^a w^Ia- >»^m^a^;,«» ♦u^ ^r^^:.. 
upon me that we are really more of one mind about f r°§™u .*5^ ^* ul ^^^^^S^^« ^«, '"J^^ 
the policy of creed-making than was at first sup- "<5t8 of Onnsnanity, to allay the anxiety that 
posed. These resolutions were only a relief to our had possessed the minds of many in the church- 
burdened feelin/f. and an outcry of hearta longing to es, lest the denomination should lose its hold of 
express their faith uid love, rather than an expres- the faith once delivered to the saints." 

Bion of doctrinal formulsB. I would resist most n.^.^^^^4i^^ i i/- '^ ^' tl i. in. 

strenuously any effort to frame new forma of doc- Co^ngregatwnal M^MMnM «n TViri^.— The 

trine, or to impose them on the brethren. A very report of the American isoard for 1878 gives 

substantial unity reigna amung us as regards creedii the following summary of its missionary work 

and excommunications. Therefore, for the year of in the Turkish £mpire : " The moral forces 

my^offloe, I regard my true place as occupying this ^ow immediately connected with this Board 

Thire are many who think that since you have ^^ represented by 182 devoted men and 

begun to defend doctrines, you should go much fVir- women from our churches and our beat in- 

iher, for, since you havo commenced to set up guide- stitutions of learning ; by over 600 native 

posts to direct men who wander amid the mists, you preachers and teachers in active service: by 

ahouldoertamly raise one more in referenoe to man's no >vKM««i,*%a wUk ^ •»A»>K/>..k:*. ^* 1 1 

immortality, j&y advice, however, is to "let the 2La u on' i.^u'^ ^ membershlD of over 

dead past bury its dead." *>»^^ ; by 20 higher institutions of learning — 

colleges, seminaries, and boarding-schools — 

The following resolution was unanimously with an attendance of over 800 youth of both 

adopted : sexes ; by 800 common schools, with an at- 

That the assembly, while heartily recognizing nil tendance of over 11,000; by 285 places of 

ohurehes which are iTaithful to evangelical truth and worship, scattered from the Balkans to the 

ready to cooperate with them in all Christian service, Bosporus, and from the Bosporus to the Ti- 

is impressed with the importance of the inwease of grig ^h^re Sabbath after Sabbath over 25,- 

a healthy denominational sentiment m the Congre- ooa «.^« ««j «.««,^« «-^ ^T^^r.^^ ♦-TV * 

gational body, in order to the due administratioB of 000 "len and women are gathered to listen 

Congregationalism as a church polity, and the ade- to the gospel message ; by the Scnptnres in 

?[uate development of the resouroes of the churehes the various languages of the people, now dis- 

or the extension of Christ;s kingdom ; that it ear- tributed by tens of thousands of copies, and a 

re^m^X7Stte™rte".iMn^MXri^^^^^^ Christian Uteratnre, from 8abbatb-«,hool les- 

ral principles of churoh organization and order; and 8®?^ papers up to elaborate volumes on the 

that it instnicta the Committee, in proopect of a evidences of religion and the history of the 

jubilee of the Union in 1881, to make timely arrange- church." This Society, which is the principal 

ments for the use of specUl means during that year, Protestant Society laboring in Turkey, haa 

by publications and otherwise, for the popular ex- ♦-w^^ .^^nif-^^^* ♦v««-«.^««:^ a *i n -^^ l 

pbsftion of the principles and adaptations of Congre- ^**^^^ advantage of the extension of tlie Bntich 

gationalism, and for the promotion of knowledge in Protectorate over Asia Minor to call upon the 

regMxi to its history. British churches to help support it in ita work« 



OONGBESS, UNITED 8TATES. 



135 



OOJfGRESS, UNITED STATES. The first 
Kmoa of the Forty-fifth GoDgress,* being an 
extra sesaioii, was convened on October 15, 
1877, in pursuance of the following prooiama- 
tioD of the President : 

By U* I^^rideni of ike VniUd States of America, 
Whereas the final adjoarnment of the Forty-fourth 
Coa^ress, withoat making the usual appropriations 

• Hm ftiDowtBg la s fist of msmbera of the Forty -fifth Con- 



E. SfMiioer, John T. Morgnn. 
W. Doisey, A. H. Garlsnd. 
V'U^ortUa — Asron A. Sarj^ent, Newton Booth. 
Cohrado—JvrwxM B. Gbalfee, Henry M. Teller. 
rbaiMKfi'nf/— Wrn H. Bsmom, Wm. W. Eaton. 
/M(S«jF»— Thoa. F. Bayard, Eli Saalabary. 
fi»rida—&baion B. OonoTer. Chaa. W. Jones. 
OHfT^ia—JtAin B. Gordon, A^njamin H HllL 
/JUiMia— Bicfaard J. Offleaby, Darid Davla 
hdiama — O. W. Voorbjeea ^ontU Legialat ore meets), Joa. 
E^MeDonakL 
ib«a~ WUBam B. AIUaoD, Samael J. Kirkirood. 
IVnttW^-John J. IntH^s* P- B. Plumb. 
KfmiMtsf—Tbom, C. MeOvery, James B. Beck. 
Uvidana-^. B. Enatis, W. P. KeUosf . 
Jfo»««^IIannlbal HsmHa, James O. Blabe. 
M<tryiamd^-4itorm B Dennis, Wm. Plnckney Whyte. 
MamaeXmaeitB — Dennr L. Dawea, Oeorge F. Hoar. 
jr«dUdo»— laaao P. Chrtotlancy^homaa W. Feny. 
J»MM0<a-B. J. B. MoMilkn, William Windom. 
JViMJastApi— Blanche K. Brace, L. Q. 0. L^mar. 
JTiMoari— D. U. Armstrong: Francis M. CockrelL 
Wmnl-ii Mgemrm 8. Paddock, Alvin Saonders. 
JTMcufo— John P. Jonea, William Sharon. 
JTtftf ir<Mi|MMre— Balnbrldge Wadleigh, E. H. BoHlns. 
Jf<w Je rm§ T heodore F. Bandolpb, John R. MePherson. 
JTm rorA— Bosooe ConUlng, Fmncla Kernan. 
3f«rA OsroMisa— Angostos S. Merrlmon, Matthew W. 



aU9— dtealay aiatthewa, Allen O. Thorman. 
OreQem. — John H. Ifltehell, Lafayette Ororer. 
Hmftwamia J. Donald Cameron, WUHam A. WaHaoe. 
£todtf idamA — ^Ambroaa B. Bomalde, Henry B. Anthony. 
Jki^Ok CkMroUna^JeibM J. Patterson, M. GL Butler. 
TtMnime«» Jamea E. Bailey. Isbam G. Harris. 
7aakit— 3«ani0l K Mazey. Klofaard Coke. 
rwiami^-^iiattn 9. Monlll. Georvs F. Edmonds. 
Hin^iatfa— Bobert E. Withers, John W. Johnston. 
rw n>vi»<<s -Frank Hereford, Henir G. Da?ia. 
Wiwomein Timothy O. Howa, Angna Cameron. 

■oiTsa or asnuaufTAnna. 

iSatemo— Jamea T. Jones, Hilary A. Herbert- Jere. N. 
Tiasass, Cbas. U. Shelley, Robert F. Ugon, Q. W. Hewitt, 
Wa. IL FbrMT, W. W. Garth. 

ArtammMt-^Ladea 0. Gause, Wm. F. Blemona, J. E. Cra- 
vcgs^ Thas. M. Oontar. 

C(i<^n»lA— Hotaoe DatiSi Horace F. Paga, John K. Lat- 
t!»a. K. Fachaoo. 

fMorado^T. M. Patterson. 

fy*nu^effrut -Oeorge M. landers, James Phelps, John T. 
Vat L«t1 Waner. 

IMa wjr e Jamea WiBlania. 

^4r<fii»— B. H. H. Davidson, Horatio Bisbee, Jr. 

*J*orgia JnHan Hartrldge, Wm. E. Smith, Philip Cook, 
3^rr K. Harria, Milton A. Candler, Jaoaea H. Bk>nnt, Wm. 
a. FdcoB, Atez. H. Stephena, H. P. BeU. 




§. EdcB, W. A. J. Sparka, Wm. B. Morrison,' Wm. HartselL 
s. W. Tovaaband. 

l%diaMA—B. 9. Fuller, Thomaa B. Cobb, Geo. A. Blck- 
v-t. f , w Haa Sexton, Thos. M. Browne, M. 8. Boblnson, 

• laa Haua, M. 0. Hnnter, M. D. White, W. H. Calkins, 
L. Evana. A. H. Hamilton, John H. Baker. 

s»— J. O. dtoae, Hiram Price, Theo. W. Burdlck, N. C. 
'""vtec, Boah Clark, E. S. Sampson, H. J. B. Cumminga, 
»• F. flapo, Addison OUyer. 

rjB«a#-Wm. A. Philllpa, Dndley 0. HaskeO, Thos. Ryan. 

I>«««Ml^r— A. B. Boone, Jaa. A. McKenzle, John W. Cald- 
•^^ J. Prooter Knott, A. 8. WUHa. John G. Carlisle. J. C. 

* Baekbwa, M. J. Dnrham, Thos. Turner, John B. Clarke. 
/rf*W aJ gt i a -B. !«. Gibson, E. John Ellis, Chester B. Dar- 

■A J. B. Elan, J. B. Lsooaid, B. W. Bobartion. 



for the support of the army for the fiscal year ending 
June 80, 1878. presents an extraordinary occasion, 
requiring the rresident to exercise the power vestea 
in nim by the Oonstitutio^n to convene the Houses ot 
Congress in anticipation of the day fixed by law for 
their next meeting : 

Now, therefore, 1, Butherford B. Hayea, President 
of the United Btatea, do, by virtue of the power to 
this end in me vested by the Constitution^ convene 
both Houses of Congress to assemble at their respeo- 

ifo^ne— Thomaa B. Reed, Wm. P. Frye, 8. D. Lindaey, 
Llewellyn Powers, Eugene Hale. 

ifarj^/ofUif— Daniel M. Henry, Charies B. Roberta,. Wm. 
Kimniell, Thomas Swann, E. J. Henkle, Wm. Walsh. 

Mauachueette—yfi^ W. Crapo, Be^J. W. Harris, Wal- 
bridge A. Field, Leopokl Morse, N. P. Banks, George B. 
Loring, Be^J. F. Butler, Wm. CUflin, W. W. Bice, Amaaa 
Kurcross, George D. Robinson. 

Michigan— A. 8. WUliams, Edwin WiHets, J. H. MoGow- 
an, E. W. Keightley,_John W. btone, Mark 8. Brewer, Omar 

D. Conger, Chas. C. Ellsworth, Jay A. Hubbell. 
Jfinneeota—U. H. Dnnnell, H. B. Strait, J. H. Stewart 
Miesieeipoi^H. L. Muldrow, Van H. MauUng. H. D. 

Money, O. R. Singleton, Chaa. £. Hooker, J. R. Chalmers. 

ifZMOttH-Anthony Ittner, Nathan Cole, L. 8. Metcal^ 
Bobt A. Hatcher, R. P. Bland, Chaa. H. Morgan, T. T. Crit- 
tenden, B. J. FranJdin, David Kea, Henry M. Pollard, J. B. 
Clark, Jr., John M. Glover, A. H. Buckner. 

J^e6raato~Krank Welch. 

ITevada—Thomtm Wren. 

Ifew liampehire—Ynnk. Jones, James F. Bilggs, Henry 
W. Blab". 

New Jereetf—C. H. Sinnickson, J. H. Pugh, Miles Boss, 
Alvah A. Clark, A. W. Cutler, Thos. B. Peddle, A. A. Har- 
denburgh. 

^ete FoTifc— Jaa. W. Covert, Wm. D. Veeder, 8. B. Chit> 
tenden. Arch. M. Bliss, Nlch. MuUer, 8. 8 Cos, Anthony 
ElckhofT, A. G. McCook, Fernando Wood, A. 8. Hewitt, Beni 
A. Willis, C. N. Potter, John U. Ketcham. Geo. M. Beebe, 8. 
L. Mayham, T. J. Quinn, M. I. Townsend, Andrew WilUams, 
A. B. James, John H. Starin, Solomon Bundy, George A. 
Bagley, Wm. J. Bacon, Wm. 11. Baker, Frank Hiscock, John 
H. Camp, E. G. Lapham, J. W. Dwlght, J. N. Hunrerford, 

E. Kirke Hart, Chaa. B. Benedict, D. N. Lockwoo^ G. W. 
Patterson. 

yorth Carolina— Jemo J. Testes, C. H. Brogden, A. M, 
Waddell, J. J. Darla, A. M. Scales, W. L. Steele, Wm. M. 
Bobbins, Bobert B. Vance. 

Ohio-Mhion Sayler, U. B. Banning, Mills Gardner, J. A. 
MoMahon, A. V. Bice, Jacob D. Ooz, Henry L. Dickey, J. 
W. Keifer, John 8. Jones, Charies Foster, Henry 8. NeaL 
Thomas Ewing, M. I. 8onthaid. E. B. Finley, N. H. Van 
Vorhea, Lorenzo Danfbrd, Wm. McKtnley, Jr., James Mon- 
roe, Jamea A. Garfield, Amoa Townsend. 

Oreifon^Bkltaud Williams. 

Penneylvania—Ch^mKa Freeman, Charles O'Nein. Sam- 
uel J. Randall, Wm. D. Kelley, A. C. Banner. Wm. Ward, 
Isaac N. Evans, Blester Clymer, A. H. Smith, 8. A. Bridges, 

F. D. Collins, H. B. Wright, James B. Reilly, J. W. Klin- 

rr, E. Overton, Jr.. John I. Mitchell, J. M. Campbell, W. 
Stengor, Levi Maish, L. A. Mackey, Jacob Tnmey. Boasell 
ErrettjjThos. M. Bayne. W. 8. ShaUenberger, Harry White, 
J. M. Thompson, Lewis F. Watson. 

Jihode letand—Btfny T. Eames, L. W. Ballon. 

South CaroUna-^. H. Bainey, Richard H. Cain, D. Wy 
att Aiken, John H. Rvina, Robert Smalls. 

Tennetmee-^. H. Randolph, J. M. Thombnrgh, George G. 
Dibrell, H. T. Riddle, John M. Bright. John F. House, W. 
C. Whitthome, J. D. C. Atkins, W. P. Caldwell, Casey Young. 

7toa«— John H. Reagan, D. B. Culberson, J. W. Throck- 
morton, Roger Q. Milla, D. W. C. Giddlngs. G. Schleicher. 

Fermoist— Chaa. H. Joyce, D. C. Denison, Geo. W. Hen- 
dee. 

Virginia— "B. D. Donglas, John Goode, Jr., G. C. Walker, 
Joseph Jorgenson, Geo. C. Cabell, J. R. Tn<^er, J. T. Harris, 



Eppn Hunton, A. L^Prldemore. 



Teeil Virginia— Bm^, Wilson, Bei^. F. Martin, John K 
Kenna. 

iriaeo«ie<ii— Chas. G. Williams, L. B. Caswell. George 0. 
Hazleton, Wm. P. Lynde, Edward 8. Bragg, Gabriel Bonck 
U. L. Humphrey, Tnad. C. Pound. 

marrosiAL DBLiOATaB. 
Arizona— B.. S. Stevena 
J>akota-^J.P Kidder. 
Idaho— S. S. Penn. 
Montana— hi. Maginnls. 
New MesHeo—T. Bomero. 

Uiah—G. Q. Cannon. 

Waehington — O. Jacobs. 

Wyoming— W, W. Corlett 



136 OOKGRESS, UinTED STATES. 

tive ehamben at twelve o'olook, noon, on Hoodaj, basis of twenty-two thonaand enlistod men in 

^S 1"^*^V^ October next, then and there to con- the service, exclusive of oflScers, for the first 

aider and determine such meaaares as, m tbeir wia- ^,^„. .«^„*k!. «# ^u^ ^^.^^^^ fio^Ti «/*«» t?^- 

doni, their duty and tue weltare of the people may ^^^^ months of the present fiscal year. For 

seem to demand. the remaining eight months of the present hs- 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand oal year the basis of the bill is twenty thou- 

and caused the eeal of the United 8ute« to be affixed, gand enlisted men, and we have made our cal- 

Done at the city of Waahington, thU. 6tli day of oulations accordingly. 

May, in the year of our Lord 1877 and of tbe I nde- ^"^"X^j'"*' »^^^*"»"6V' 

pondenoe of the United Btatea of America the one ^^^ question, therefore, which wiU natural- 
hundred and first. ly suggest itself to every mind is this : Are tw en- 
Bv the I'resident: R. B. HAYES. ty thousand enlisted men, exclusive of oflicers, 
William M. Evabts, SecreUry of State. sufficient to meet the legitimate mUitary de- 
The Senate was called to order by tbe Vice- mands of the country ? Upon that question 
President, William A. Wheeler, of New York, there may be a wide divergence of opinion in 
In the House Samuel J. Randidl, Democrat, this House. 

was elected Speaker, having received 149 votes, " That we may arrive at a proper conclusion 

and James A. Garfield 182. For message of on this point, it is necessary to inquire what 

the President, see Annual Otolopjedia, 1877, w® the proper and lawful uses of the regular 

PuBuo DoouMENTs. army of the United States. 

In the Senate, on October 22d, the follow- ** The Constitution of the United States pro- 

ing resolution, offered by Senator Edmunds, vides that Congress may * raise and supoort 

of Vermont, was adopted : armies.' It also provides that * the President 

».^7-..j rnu * I * .^ w * shall be Commander-in-Chief of the army and 

Eetolifed, That a select committee conBiBtmcr of «„„„ ^# ^u^ tt«u«;i s^^^^^^ ^^a ^^ ♦k^ J.;iw;^ 

seven Sonatora be appointed, wliose duty it sliall be ^?7 ^' *^® United States and of the mibtia 

to toke into conaideration the atate of the law re- of the several States when called mto the o^tf^zf 

apeoting the aaoertaiuing and dedaration of the re- service of the United States.' The Const itu- 

ault of the electione of President and Vioe-Preaident tion also provides, in article 4, section 4, that 

of the United States; that aaid committee have pow- 4 ^j^ United States shaU guarantee to every 

er to report by bill or otherwise : and that said com- o* 7 • 1\^ ^^»f»»^" °"«»" 6»~ »"vw «v -o » ^* j 

mittee have power to confer ani act with any com- ^tate in this Union a republican form of gov- 

mittee of the House of Be^rosentativea that may be ernment, and shall protect each of them against 

charged with the same subject. invasion, and on application of the Legislature, 

Ordsred, That the Secretary communicate a copy or the executive (when the Legislature cannot 

of this resolution to the House of Kepreseutatives. y^ convened), against domestic violence.' In 

In the House on the same day. on motion ot these constitutional grants and limitations of 

Mr. Southard, a similar resolution was adopt- power, it is manifest that it lain constitutional 

ed, but making the number of the committee contemplation that the civil authorities of the 

eleven. States are expected to preserve internal order 

No act was passed in consequence of a re- and protect their own ffovernments. If, bow- 

port by this committee. ever, the States are uni&le to do so, and should. 

The special object of the extra session was through the Legislature or executive (the Le- 

to provide for the expenses of the army, owing gislature not being in session), call upon the 

to the failure of an appropriation at the pre- President for military aid, in that case it is his 

yious session. duty to furnish the assistance asked for. There 

On November 8th, Mr. Atkins, of Tennessee, his right to interfere terminates. In the his- 
from the committee of the House, reported a tory of this country but a very few instances 
bill making appropriations for tbe support of have occurred where Federal interference has 
the army for the fiscal year ending June 80, heen invited by State autliorities, except by 
1878. He said: ** The estimates as submitted the anomalous and revolutionary State govern- 
to us by the War Department for the present ments which have for the last decade disgraced 
fiscal year were $80,516,756.50. We have American civilization. For the purpose of 
provided in this biU for the sum of $25,763,- maintaining order and preserving peace in the 
000 as the appropriation for the present fiscal States the instances are so few and exceptional 
year. Last year the estimate was $81,896,- that we logically assume that for such a pur- 
035.90, the amount appropriated was $26,967,- pose alone there would not be any necessity of 
167.90. But the estimate included twenty-five a regular army whatever, as Stste military or- 
hundred cavalry. For that there was an ad- ganizations would answer for such defense if 
ditional amount appropriated, running up the called into service. 

general aggregate of the appropriation for last *^ The universally accepted theory of our sys- 

year to $27,624,567.90. There is besides a tem of government is that the States must reg- 

deficiency, for which an estimate has been ulate their own affairs in their own way, not 

sent to this House, for tlie item of transporta- inconsistent with the Federal Constitution, 

tion, amounting to $1,200,000; making in all Those rights necessarily carry with them the 

$28,824,567.90 the entire sum appropriated for duty of self -protection by their own civil passes, 

the fiscal year ending June 80, 1877, which is When that theory and practice is abandoned it 

in excess of the appropriation which this bill will be a rueful day for republican government, 

makes of $8,061,567.90. If the ordinary constabulary force in a Stato 

'' Mr. Chairman, this biU is made up upon the cannot preserve the peace and protect life and 



0OK6BESS, UIHTED STATES. 137 

propertj, and mflitary organizations mast be Obedience is the first and paramount duty of 

iDToked, why not encourage the States to or- a soldier ; and although the solemn authority 

^ruiize, discipline, and arm and equip their of the courts has been defi^, judges and gov- 

ailida organizations! I am frank to say that ernors have been deposed and stripped of the 

I sLaU favor a liberal appropriation at the next insignia of office, and the doors of State-houses 

session of Congress for tliat purpose. have been dosed by armed soldiers against the 

'* What are the real and true uses of our reg- rightful entrance of the legally and duly elect- 

;i]ir army in time of peace? Simply to furnish ed representatives of the people, and many 

ft small force to take care of our ordnance and other similar outrages have been committed 

fortft upon our ocean front, and to protect the by detachments of regular soldiers, under the 

^lorder settlements on our Indian frontiers, and immediate command of their officers, acting 

CO repel the cattle-thieves upon the Lower Rio under orders of superior officers, yet the coun- 

Grande. Now, just what force is necessary to try well knows that the responsibility for all 

pcHbrm that service it is our duty to amply the wrongs to public liberty lies at the door of 

provide for; and when I say amply I mean it. the late Executive, and in no manner attaches 

I would aocouter the United States soldier with to the army proper. 

ft]] the improved modem appointments, arms, *^ But while Oongress and the people acquit 

etc^ »o that when he meets the enemy upon the army of all responsibility for these great 

tie field of battle he cannot reflect upon a par- wrongs, it nevertheless was used in the hands 

siaonions and unfeeling Government because of the Executive as an involuntary instrument 

of the nneqnal means of defense with which he to perpetrate these wrongs against constitu- 

is mppUed. tional law and free government. Hence the 

'^ This bill provides to supply a force of twen- advocate of home rule and independent State 

tj tboosand men; that is, it proposes not to action, limited only by the Federal Constitution, 

recruit the army above the number of enlisted felt in the closing hours of the Forty-fourth 

men on the army rolls on the first day of this Oongress the absolute necessity of embodying 

□'iUth, which, from the most reliable data, is in the army appropriation bill a restriction, 

not over twenty thousand enlisted men. denying the use of the money so appropriated 

** I wish to noake one other remark in refer- for the maintenance of the army, if employed 

•"ooe to this bilL It is in reference to a restric- to uphold the State governments of either of 

tion that was placed on the last army appro- the rival governors of Louisiana and of South 

f>riation bUl, controUing the use of the army. Carolina. That action, though violentiy op- 

llie Committee on Appropriations did not posed by the Republican side of the House at 

•ie«m that, in view of recent events, in view the time, found a precedent in the action taken 

v*f the action of the President in carrying out by the Republicans of this House in theThirty- 

the Constitution, in carrying out the time- fourth Congress, in reference to the use of 

b:tpaored doctrine of non-interference by the troops to uphold the State government of Kan- 

<i«neral Government with the States, but al- sas, attempted to be set up by the pro-slavery 

1 >ving the States to regulate their own affairs party of that State in 1854. 

2 their own way, subject only to the provi- " But the independent and responsible course 
•'oia of the Federal Constitution, the commit- which the last House chose to adopt in refer- 
red did not feel that, in view of recent events, ence to this subject is derived from a much 
lod of the action of the President in so prompt- higher, more powerful and ancient source than 
ly removing the troops from Louisiana and the Republican Representatives of the Thirty- 
^ AQth Carolina, we should express a want of fourth Congress. It is coeval with represen- 
-^nfidenee in his policy, and his determination tative government. It springs from the very 
t • ftHow the people of the States to regulate nature of free government itself. In England 

* 2^ir own affairs in their own way. for centuries tne Commons withheld supplies 

*•* Kothing leas than the inexorable demand from the Crown whenever redress of grievance 

* f ciril liberty and free government for the could not be otherwise attained. It is as old, 
r^xthem States would have induced the Demo- then, as free government in the mother-country, 
^ranc Hooae of Representatives of the Forty- and, indeed, was about the only expression of 
/ >r3rth Congress to refuse the ordinary annual true and unrestricted freedom wh%:h the peo- 
t;i»ropriation for the maintenance of tiie regu- pie of the realm epjoyed. In this country it 

±T army of this country. Not, sir, that I is the resultant power which springs from the 

VMild be understood as intimating, much less great American doctrine of non-intervention 

inferring, the charge that the temper and dis- and popular sovereignty which lies at the base 

;-«c:ioa of our regular army is inimical to civil of our free States. What disciple of free gov- 

'. crty or local self-government ; for, with the emment will rise and gainsay the right to with- 

-'Z^cption of a few officers «high in command, hold supplies even from our gallant army, if 

*> srmy has exhibited no political bias, nor that army by a usurping Executive is to be 

*^a guilty of any voluntary oppressions of the employed for the overthrow of the State gov- 

^'['^ or of defiance of the civil authority, emments established by the people in their 

vildb, alas, has been of too frequent occur- sovereign right, and the erection on their ruins 

*'*fe in the last decade. No, no, sir; the ofthe governments of pretenders and usurpers? 

i'aj 19 not to blsme. It is created to obey. *^ Mr. Chairman, it is not necessary to recur 



138 OOKGRESS, UinTED STATEa 

to the argament, so often repeated upon this The extra Bession closed on the da^prevloiu 

floor and throughoat this country, that tbe to the commencement of the regolar session. 

United States, and not the Ezecntive, are re- No important public act had been passed. The 

quired bj the Oonstitntion to secure to each bills and resolutions offered in each House, and 

State a republican form of government. Fn- not decided upon, were continued into the reg- 

der that authority the President has no right ular session. 

to decide upon the legality of State govern- 

meats. That duty clearly belongs to Congress. 

Congress, then, had the right to destroy the For the President's annual message, see Pra- 

means which enabled the Executive to usurp "o Documents, Akitual Cyclopedia, 1877. 

this power or prerogative of Congress ; and, ^^ the Senate, on December 10th, the f ol- 

sir, it had the courage to do so on the 8d of lowing resolution, introduced by Mr. Matthews, 

March last. Had it failed to discharge its duty, of Ohio, was considered ; 

in view of the remarkable and unexampled WJksreat. By the aot entitled »* An act to strength- 

scenes then transpiring within these bolls and en the publio credit/' approved March 18, 1869, it 

in this CapitoL well might the patriot have ;*» provided and declared that the faith of the 

despaired. But with singular unanimity and Sfvml?l?^!!.in*i?r u.Tm,^v^^^^^^^ 

J . *^ . 4. av -Tk x» TT • payment in coin or its eaaivalent of all tUe intereet- 

determmation the Democratic House was ani- tearing obligations of the United States, except in 

mated but by one voice and one will. The oaaes where the law anthorising the iaaue of such 

present Executive of the United States too obliffationa had expressly provided that the Bame 

clearly saw the absolute necessity of non-inter- ™J«^t be paid in lawfal money or other currency 

vention, the right of the people of a State to '"'^^^^triond^ of the United Sute. an. 

regulate their own affairs m their own way, thorized to be issued by the act entitled •* An act to 

subject only to the Constitution, and hence authorize the reftindin^ of the national debt," ap- 

wisely, as Commander-in-Chief of the army, proved July 14, 1870, by the terms of said aot were 

ordered its removal from the soil of the two declared tobe redeemable in coin of the then present 

^^^c4-»^4.^ a4>»4-^<. ««;i ♦!.«« ^^^^^A t-y^^ ™««. *^« standard value, Deanng interest payable semi-au- 

prostrate States, and thus opened Uie way for ^^^j, j^^ ^^^^ coin ; anS ^ 

the return ot peace with its mynad blessmgs, WherMt. All bonds of the United States author- 

rejoicing the hearts of the people, and banish- ized to be issued under the act entitled ** An act to 

ing the dark and lowering clouds of war which provide for the resumption of specie payments," ap- 

fnr fiftAPn vfiara huH TiAVAr rAAiiA^^ tn thpMtAn proved January U, 1876, are required to be of tLe 

lor nneen years naa never ceasea to inreaien gescription of boncJs of the United States described 

every household with the storms of war, and !„ the said act of Conirress approved July 14, 1870, 

paralyzed every interest, moral as well as ma- entitled ^* An act to authorise the refunding of the 

terial, in the Southern States. national debt" ; and 

"The committee, therefore, after a calm W^A^rsa*, At the date of the passage of said act of 

consideration and full discussion, agreed to ?b*1^*^u" ^"^^ M^^/if '¥r^^^^^^^ 

^"v . _^ ^ ", 7T^ ;. ' «»6»^^«v 1870, the com of the United States of standard value 

omit the insertion of the restriction upon the of that date included silver dollars of the weifbt of 

use of the army, which was so persistently 418i grains each, declared by the act approved Jan- 




suited in the failure of the army bill. value, for any sums whatever: Therefore, 

** I repeat, sir, that despotic policy of mill- £e it retoUed hp the SenaU Uhs ffoiue of Repre-^ 

tary absolutism, under the late Executive, hav- •enUUwet coneurrtng thertin). That all the bonda of 

inir viAldml tn thn milder and mnra nAnopfnl ^he United States issued or authorized to be issued 

mg yieiaea to tue muaer ana more peaceful ^^^^^ ^j^^ ^^.^ ^^^ ^^ Conjjress hereinbefore recited 

modes iwinted out by the Constitution of the ^^^e payable, principal and interest, at the option of 
United States, there is therefore no necessity the Government of the United States, in silver dol- 
for the insertion of the restriction in this bill, lars, of the coinage of the United States, containing 
but on the contrary potent and patent reasons *12t grains each of standard silver; and that to re- 
fer its omission. I hope it will be the pleasure ^^^^ ^ its coinage such silver coins as a legal tender 
M IC* ^'"•■^'•v"* * "^r^ ■*' "^Y w"« p*^w» jjj payment of said bonds, principal and interest, ia 
Of this Congress, before it adjourns its labors, not in violation of the public faith nor in derogation 
to mature and enact such legislation as will in of the rights of the public creditor, 
flitnre be a guide to the Exeoative of tUs conn- ^ Matthews said : "Mr. Preddent, the Gen- 
try in the nse to which the array of the United „^ iT^llvTr'rVkl atliJ «# nks-Tl* s*.^ 

anti-republican and unconstitutional purposes ^*,,, ,^ ,. „ ^., «,. 

•a that of n|.holding or overthrowing State ^.^'Sl^f^o'^'Tne^T^eC^y^tire 

governments. ^ j , , i. ^®*^®' **^^ **^« *Pl'"»* ^^ *he contract under which the 

A brief discussion ensued on the number of ffreat body of its indebtedness was assumed by the 

men in the army, and the bill was passed and United States, and true financial wisdom, each and 

sent to the Senate. There it was passed with *11» demand the restoration of the silver dollar to it* 

several amendments, in which the House re- ^*^''"«' ^^^ " ^•'^^"^ ™°°®y- 

fused to concur. Subsequently, on November '^ This resolution was passed with great una- 

19th, the Senate receded from their amend- nimity. There were but three negative votes 

ments, and the bill was passed. in the House of Representatives and but on« 



OONGBESS, UNITED STATES. 139 

IB the Senate, and I have no doabt it expresses meaning gold coin alone, and not as including 

the defiberate and oonsidered pnblio opinion of silver coin as then known to the laws of the 

the people of that State with the same proper* United States, we are met at once by a conse- 

tioD among them as to nnanimity as was evi- qnence to which I wish to call the attention of 

dtsneed hr the vote of their representatives in the Senate, and that is that it would be just as 

the General Assembly. illegal and jast as dishonorable to pay the 

'' I have been moved, Mr. President, in part United States Treasury notes circulating as 

by that expresaon of pablic opinion of the money in any other than gold coin as so to 

^te which I have the honor in part to repre* pay the interest-bearing obligations of the Gov- 

»eQt in this body, to introduce tne resolution emment ; so that, if we are shut up to a gold 

whieh hs8 been just reported to the Senate by payment of our bonds by the terms of the law 

the Secretary. The resolution to which I now or the spirit of the law or the obligations 

•peek does not cover the entire ground cover- of honor, then also are we cut off, in respect 

cd by the resolution of the General Assembly to the resumption of payment of our non-in- 

^Ohio, forthe latter not only expresses the terest-bearing obligations which circulate as 

<^nion contained in the resolution now pend- currency, from any otlier medium of redemp- 

in; in thia body, that the restoration to the tion except that of gold alone. 

Manage of the country of the silver dollar au- *' The proposition is a very wide one, and its 

chorized by the legislation prior to the year application ought to be thoroughly understood. 

]^ IS not in violation of the public faith nor The Government of the United States in this 

10 derogation of the rights of the public cred- statute has pledged its faith not only to the 

isor, bat it also expresses the opinion that this owners and nolders of its interest-bearing ob* 

re^oration of that coin is demanded by true ligations, but to the people who are the holders 

ftn^jwaifc^ Wisdom ; in other words, that it is and owners of its non-interest-bearing obliga- 

ooionly the right of the United States consist- tions ; and in whatever medium of redemption 

«o:ly with its obligations to its creditors to re- they seek to liauidate one they are bound by 

st^re to its coinage the silver dollar, but that the same consiaerationsof law and public faith 

It \o expedient and wise and in pursuance of a to insist upon the redemption of the other ; 

proper pnblic policy so to do. and it is Just as much in violation of all these 

^ The recitals in the resolution refer to three considerations to make the silver dollar, by 

diffdoct periods in our legislative history, and any new legislation, a medium for the redemp- 

rlas^fj tiie public obligations by reference to tion of our Treasury-note circulation as to 

thoM dates. The first recital refers to all the ob- make it the means of paying our bonded debt. 

l^ationa which were outstanding on the date '* There are Senators here who are familiar 

vheo the * Act to strengthen the public credit* with the circumstances of the passage of this 

r??eived the executive sanction: the 18th day law. The history of the legislation antecedent 

•f March, 1869. That statute corrected and to its passage is very plain, and the questions 

»Qpplemented all the prior legislation on the which it was designed to solve are not doubt- 

«a'>ject by making an express and emphatic dec- ful. The question had arisen in consequence 

.jraHon and definition of the public faith in of the language used in the act of 1862 and in 

r?^>ect to the existing and then outstanding the subsequent acts authoriziug the issue of the 

'>Sri|rationfl of the Government. It providea bonds of the Government, with the exception 

s:« follows : of that statute which created the 10-40 bonds, 

Tbatin order to remove any doubt M to the pur- thereby it appeared that, although express 

?o»^ of the Ooverament to di»charge all ju»t oblira- Provision was made for the pajrment of the m- 

u cs to the pabltc creditors and to settle oonflicting terest accruing on those bonds in coin, the ques- 

^aeationa aiid interpretatioDs of the laws by virtue tion as to how and by what medium payment 

>f which aoeh obliga^Ds have been oontraoted, it gbould be made of the principal of the debt 

J Lerebj proTided and declared that the faith of the _-. i^^ ««««-„«-*wi tu^ ^.JLk-^v «^*« ».— 

rtilied gtktee is solemnly pledged to the payment ^*» left unanswered. The greenback note was 

.- coin or its equivalent of all the obligations of the ^i^® a legal tender in payment of all debts and 



'.'iited States not bearing interest, known as United demands, public and private, except interest 

**-si«s Doces. and of all the interest-bearing oblige- on the public debt and the payment of customs 

t KM of the United States, except in esses where the (iQ^g, 

«'p^;t~'^.dSl ?C Jh.'S.Srm^^lSnSd'S " The q«ertion was therefon, agitated wheth- 

i«fal money or other currency than gold or silver, ©r or not the prmcipal of the debt might not 

2^: none of eaid interest-bearing obligations not al- lawfully and properly be paid in the greenback 

•*fciy da« ahaU be redeemed or paid before maturity circulation. To meet that question and to an- 

.A^as at Mch timeUmted States notes shall be con- ^^^^ u and to answer it in the negative, the 

• TUble into com at the option of the holder, or an- , ,. ^ ,.. * * io«rk "vkomt^, i^uo 

>.* at iiQch time bonds of the United States bearing paWlO-credit act of 1869 was passed. In my 

t wer rmie of interest than the bonds to be redeem- judgment (and it was always my opinion), the 

-d can be sold at par in coin. Andthe United States yery nature of the case was such that under 

j>^ •olemnly plediros its fMth to make provision at the statutes the original indebtedness of the 

tt« earlftest practicable penod for the redemption of ^^„«f-,_ „„. ^^a, «^^«-„ki^ :« 4.u« ,^^^«u*^u 

i-: Cnitea dtatea ootes*^ln coin. *^ country was not repayable m the greenback 

notes. I believed that by its terms — I mean 

"* If the word * ooin,* as used in this act, for by the implied terms, not by the actual lan- 

i:iy sufficient reason must be interpreted as guage, but by a necessary implication growing 



140 CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 

out of the very nature of the contract, it being should be in the silver com, and of what fine- 
expreesed to be payable in dollars, and the ness and how much alloy ; and at that date, as 
greenback circulation not being doUars, but at every prior date from that time back to the 
being merely promises to pay dollars — the ori- beginning of the financial history of the Gov* 
ginal indebtedness of the country oonld not emment, there had been known to the conn- 
properly be liquidated in any other than coin try, to its laws, to its statutes, to its people, to 
dollars. Still there were a great many of a the world, as one of the legitimate, lawful coins 
different opinion, and the public agitation upon of the United States, the silver dollar contain* 
that subject became very extensive; and, to ing 871i grains of pure or fine silver. The 
meet it and to meet the doubts and to allay silver dollar authorised to be coined by every 
the disquiet excited by that public agitation, coinage act which had been passed and which 
this statute to which I have referred was had been changed only in reference to its 
passed. It was intended to settle that ques- weight as standard silver, as to its intrinsic 
tion, and was intended to settle every question value, as containing so much of pure silver, 
connected with the mode of paying those had been established at the very foundation of 
bonds, and to assure the public creditor that the Mint, and had been carried on continuous- 
he should be paid only in coin money. ly in every act of legislation upon the statute- 
" Mr. President, it does seem to me that if book. That was one of the coins. That was 
it had then been thought, if it had then been one of the coins also spoken of in the act of 
in contemplation of the parties, that these 1862 authorizing the issue of Government 
bonds ought only to be payable in gold money, bonds and establishing a sinking fund for the 
and that their value in the market ought only redemption of the principal of these bonds, for 
to be measured by that mode of payment in the fifth section of that act provided : 
undertaking to wttle doubts, this statute would ^hat all duties on importod goods sball be paid 
not nave created new ones ; it would not nave in coin or in notes payable on demand heretofore 
left such a question as that open ; it would not authorized to be issued and by law receivable in 
have been guilty of the ambiguity of introduc- payment of public dues, and the coin so paid shall 
ing a new element of dissatisfaction and discord ^® fo^o ws"' " ' ^V^iol fund, and shall be appUed 
between the Government and the public cred- "Fi>Bt.*Ti the payment in coin of the interest on 
itor. These bonds had been bought m the the bonds and notes ofthe United States, 
market and from the Government. They had Second. To the purchase or payment of 1 percent, 
been bought largely by the use of paper money, o^. 'H« entire debt of the United Sutes, to be made 
4>«t/i ♦iiA IL^'^J^i^ «rao «^iiAn «no/iA ;.«^v«>.xA<.;f;^» within each fiscal year after the let day of July, 1862, 
and the argument was then made m opposition ^j,ich is to be set apart as a sinkingVund, and thi 
to tlie passage of this act that it was meoui- interest of which shall in like manner be applied to 
table; that it was unjust to the people; that the purchase or payment of the public debt, as the 
it was a hardship to the Government, which Secretary of the Treasury shall from time to time 

ought not to be imposed to pay in any other *^^5?5h., m, ^ « .: i ^ *v*-^ p »^ v.. ^^'a • * »t 

^....«..^« ♦u^-^ -.k!v «,^»« iw.i^^..M> ^/ ♦K^o^ Third. The residue thereof to be paid into the 

currency those who were holders of these Treasury ofthe United States. 

bonds than that which had been received for 

them at the time. The answer to that was " At that date, up to the time of the passafre 
made and was accepted, and, in my judgment, of the act of 1873, which dropped that coin 
was conclusive. It was this: * It is an imma- from the list of the coins of the United States, 
terial circumstance what was the consideration the silver dollars authorieed by the previous 
received for these bonds ; it is a matter of no coinage acts were receivable in payment of 
sort of relevancy what we were willing to take customs duties, and were pledged by the see* 
or what you were willing to give. The ques- tion of the statute which I have just read to 
tion of our obligation is, what have we prom- the payment of the interest and the principal 
ised to pay ? what is the letter, and the spirit, of the public debt The same state of thinfrs 
and the true meaning of our contract? We in respect to the ledslation of the country ex- 
have taken greenbacks. We have promised to isted on the 14th day of July, 1870, which is 
pay dollars. That is our obligation, and that the date of the passage of the act to authorize 
we will declare.* And it was declared by the the refunding of the national debt, which pro- 
act of March 18, 1869. vides for the issue of 6 per cent, 4^ per cent., 
" Now, what did ' coin * mean at that date 7 and 4 per cent, bonds, and marks the beginniD^ 
Where do we go for the definition of a term of the second period of classification ; for that 
used in a statute ? What is ^ coin * ? Nothing was intended to make the beginning of a new 
is coin in this country but that which by law history for the public debt, the object being to 
may be coined as money, and everything which reduce the annual interest by converting our 
by law may be coined as money is coin. We 6 per cent, and other bonds into bonds of the 
had on our books at that time another statute description authorized by the statute of July 
which contained that definition, which enumer- 14, 1870. At that date the coinage of the 
ated the coins of the United States, which de- country, so far as it was regulated by law, re^ 
dared of what they should consist, how they mained, as I have stated, in the same condition 
should be named, at what value they should in which it was the previous year, 
be rated, how many grains of gold should be *^ In this carefully prepared and well consid- 
in the gold coin and how many grains of silver ered law, intended to be the foundation of the 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 141 

Bflr order of thlngB in relation to the public standing of the nature and extent of the obli- 

dtfbt; intended to be the new^ starting-point gations entered into under it hj tbe United 

kod period of reorganizing it ; intended to States, that it was declared in the statute of 

aike A new basis for the title of its holders 1870 * that tbe said bonds shall have set forth 

ittd owners; intended to strengthen it and se- and expressed upon their face the above-speoi- 

nre it 00 far as the ingenuity and the wit of fied conditions.* Therefore every bond here- 

ouB could do by the choice of careful expres- tofore issued and now outstanding, and all that 

rods; intended to define with the utmost pre- can by law be hereafter issued, either under 

cisum all the rights and obligations of both the act of 1870 or the act of 1875, contain the 

ptrtiesto tbe contract, we find, that the medium words that they are to be redeemed in the coin 

for tbe redemption of those bonds, the measure of the United States of the standard value as 

oftherslne of those bonds, was most explicit- it was on the 14th day of July, 1870; not as 

I; declared. They were declared to be redeem- it is at the date of the issue of the p€u>tioular 

tb!e w coin of the pre$ent itandard value at bonds, not as it may be on some future oocar 

Uw pjeasore of the United States after ten sion and at some future period, but as the law 

Tttfs from the date of their issue, and bearing stood at that time ; and is not less certain and 

hferes^ payable semi-annually, in 9ueh coin, explicit in its meaning than if it had recited 

There is no ambiguity about these terms, the coinage act of the United States then in 

Ibsre is no possible ground of doubt as to force and said, * Here is the list of the coins of 

rbat tbe woros mean. There is no vagueness which we speak, and here are the denomina- 

i> tbe meaning which was intended to be con- tions, the names, the weights, and the com- 

Tejed. It is as free from any possible shade parative values of the several particular coins 

<j( doobt as words con make it. It refers to in which we agree that you shall be paid.* 

tbe standard of values of coin as then existed, *^ I have already adverted to the grounds and 

the standard value then present, coin of that reasons for this very particular and express in- 

' present standard value.' sertion in the statute. It was done to secure 

''Tberefore, it seems to me, outside of all the cre<litor; it was done to assure the pur- 

Irjitimate contention in this argument in re- chaser; it was done to declare in express terms, 

<>art to the obligation of tbe Government, beyond the possibility of mistake, the full meas- 

tiut all the bonds issued prior to the act of ure and full extent of the obligation of the 

IS$^, and all the bonds issued directly under Government. 

the act of July 14, 1870, known as the refund- ^* Prior to the passage of this act of 1875, but 

ioff act, by their terms, by the phun and proper subsequent to the passage of the act of 1870, 

Btftoing of the words, are redeemable, as of to wit^ in the act of 1873, the Government of 

right, in the true and just sense of that word, the United States, actuated by motives and in 

^ tbe coins known to tne statutes of the United reference to purposes of its own, in the exer- 

^tates on those dates, either gold or silver, ac- cise of its sovereign prerogative, passed a new 

wording to the weights and rates expressed in coinage act, in which there was dropped from 

tte sutotes then in force. the list of authorized coins of the United States 

** Now, how do the bonds issued under the what had been always previously known to our 

i^ie resumption act of January, 1875, differ law as the silver dollar. 

fna those wtuch have been already the subject ^' Therefore it is true that since that year, and 

'ioor coa»derationf Let us see. The act to at the time of the passage of the act of 1875, 

y^ide for the resumption of specie payments, and at every date when bonds have been issued 

<a tbe third section and in the concluding para- since 1873, under the act of 1870 or under the 

inph of the statute, declares as follows: act of 1875, there were no silver dollars which 

Hid to enahle the Secretarv of the Treasury to <^.^°^^ ^T ^^-"^ Vi?'l '^iT *^® ^T1^ ""t '''' 

•>?«T« rod provide for the redemption in thiiaot silver dollars m Which they conld have been 

A.nik-»nz«d or t«qmred, he in anthonzod to nee any p&id off if they had then been due. Now, in 

nTJjsrevenaea, from time to time, in the Treasury law or in morals what difference does that 

-X .cbenriMi aporopriated, and to issue, Ml^nnd make? Could the United States by any act of 

• V-"^ of, at not Jess than par, in coin, either of the u_ -.«,_ ,vo»*;«t.i— 1« <>.«• «^ «^4. a^wx^ »;4>k ««««r 
-• ription of boods of the Uiited States d^ribed ^^ f'^^' particularly any act not done with any 
^^%dof On^grm appmptd Jtdff 14, 1870, entitled 8^c» design, change, alter, make over again the 

* Ai set to aatlioriae the refunding of the national terms of the contract between these parties, 
^'' with Hit qualUUt^ priviUget, and ex$mptton». between itself and its creditors ? Could it make 
U ! *J?°* «*«f««^7 ^ <»rn tills act into ?ull ef- ^y y^^j^^ j^ the hand of a new purchaser dif- 

-^d^to oso the proceeds thereof for the purposes ^^^^^^ ^ ^ .^ obligation and value by any act 

of its own from those which had been original- 

~Xow, then, it follows that this is as if it had ly and directly issued under the terms of the 

f'T-eat^ word for word every provision in the act of 1870 ? Was that the intention, or was 

vt o( Jaly 14, 1870, by reference to its date, it not most expressly the intention to make all 

•i had raiade the bonds of the 9ame obligation, these bonds identical, precisely alike in every 

^toeaame tenor, of the same meaning, as if particular as to the obligation of the United 

'w had been issued directly under the act of States and as to their values in the hands of 

•^TH. 1870; and that act was so particular, the holders? 

^ reference to avoiding possible misunder- '* Then, Mr. President, if the United States as 



142 CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 

one party to a contract conld not of its own it ont on the pnblio debt, or a part of it, what- 
mere motion, by any act of its own, change the ever was reserved beyond a sufficient amonnt 
character of the obligation, its nature, and its to pay the calls which might be made by hold- 
extent, how can it be claimed that that act lias ers of the certificates. I will not take time to 
affected the right of the holder of the bonds? read it. 

Was it intended to increase the weight of the ^' Now, Mr. President, itdoesseem to me that 

obligation ? Was it intended to add a new term the public faith has been pledged in relation to 

to the nature of the contract ? It is not to the this subject. Our Secretaries of the Treasury, 

purpose, as I have already had occasion to say the only authorized agents of our Government, 

in another connection, that gold wa(> in fact have given assurance according to this inter- 

the only circulating medium since 1878, any pretation of the law, and their acts have never 

more than prior to that act it makes any dif- been repudiated. They have given their pledges 

ference in the nature and extent of the obliga- in relation to this matter, and the Government 

tion of the contract that no silver coins were has profited by those pledges, 

in circulation." '* Mr. President, we passed here at a critical 

Mr. Morrill, of Vermont, said : '* The Sena- period of our history an amendment to the 

tor from Ohio set out with the idea that we Oonstitution in these words : 

had the right, the legal right, the equitable t^^ validity of the public debt of the United 

right, to pay our public debt m silver. Sir, it States, authorised by law, including debts incurred 

must be known to that Senator as well as to for payment ofpensionB and bounties for services in 

all others that we have not coined silver for Buppressinff insurrection or rebellion, shall not bo 

forty years for any circulation except as mi- ^^estioned, 

nor coinage. All the silver dollars that we ^^Imustsay that that amendment of the Con- 
have coined have been for exportation ; none stitntion was adopted through some appreben- 
of them to speak of have gone into circulation, sion of the representatives that might be re- 
and none of them have been paid out or re- turned here from the States lately in rebeUion. 
ceived by the United States, and tlie whole It was not intended to apply to the heresies of 
amount that we have coined annually for forty Ohio ; and yet I am forced to read it upon this 
years will not exceed about $160,000 per an- occasion, and in this hour of oonoiliation and 
num. During all this time we have been in reconciliation, when gentlemen have come back 
receipt of gold for our customs duties — gold and here and are rebaptized to their faith in the 
nothing else ; and every dollar of that gold has Union, to appeal to some of them for a patriotic 
been pledged for the payment of the interest endeavor to support the honor of the country. 
and the redemption of the principal of the I say I appeal to them as against the Senator 
public debt Now, can it be possible equitably, from Ohio. 

after we have made a pledge of the revenues ** The Senator from Ohio intimated that the 

collected exclusively in gold, that we can now law of 1869 was passed for the purpose of 

say that a debt contracted under such circum- doing away with the heresy about paying the 

stances may be paid in anything else than that debt in paper. Did he and those who then — 

which has been received by the Government I will not include him, for I believe he was 

for duties? Let me read what has once already not included in that category — but did tboee 

been read, but I desire to have it emphasized who were then opposed to paying the public 

again before the Senate. debt in paper reserve their forces in order that 

*' By the act of February 25, 1862, in the it might be paid in something cheaper, six or 

fifth section, it is provided : seven per cent, less than the value of paper ? '' 

That all duties on Imported goods shall be paid in ^ Mr. K^ard, of Dekware, said : " Mr. Preei- 

ooin— r o r dent, it seems to me that no more severe or 

,, . , ^, .. - ^, , ^ , bitter commentary upon the outcome of the 

"And then it goes on further and sets com management of the finances of this nation, foi 

apart as tollows : ^jj^ p^^^ twelve years, could be made than if 

First To the payment in coin of the interest on contained in the preamble and resolution upon 

the bonds tnd notes of the United Stati's. which we are now asked to vote: a severe 

oftr^ir'^&^^i^^^^^^ commentary indeed upon the management of 

in each fiscal year after the Ist day July. 1862, which ^^at party which, liavmg conaplete control of 

is to be set npart as a Hinlting fund, and the interest every branch of the Federal Government, yet 

of which shall in like manner be applied to the pur- now, in view of all their legislation for the past 

chase or payment of the public debtj as the Secretary sixteen years, sends in, as a reconnoiterinsr ad- 

of the Treasury shall from time to time direct. ^^^^^ ^j^.^ resolation, embodying, as it does, 

'* If that pledge of the honor of the Govern- the ominous and alarming question whether a 

ment shall be carried out, this whole debt will certain proposed act of Congress, of which this 

be exUnguiBhed in a very short time and after resolution is the harbinger, and which has al- 

the manner there prescribed. ready been resolved upon elsewhere, and lies 

"I desire to call attention to another act, printed on our table ready to follow on the 

passed July 14, 1870, whereby it was provided neels of this discussion, is or is not an act of 

that the Secretary of the Treasury should re- national dishonor, or, to use the precise words 

oeive gold coin for certificates, and should pay of the resolution, whether it is not ^ in viola- 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 143 

tioB o( the public fttth ' or * in derogation of the act of 1870, known as the funding bill, the 
(fa« rights (H the public creditor.* bonds therein authorized, to the amount of 
^'Sir, the Terj propounding of such a ques* $1,600,000,000, were made expressly payable 
tio&itftstoniflhing, and exhibits at least a doubt ^ in coin,' principal and interest, not designat- 
m the minds of its proponents of the propriety ing gold or silver coin, but including them both. 
uk] justice of the measure referred to. This Why were not the metals nominated or one of 
reioliitioii belongs to a declaratory class of acts, them designated ? Because by the regulation of 
DeeUntory legislation is never to be favored, the Government and the laws relating to coin- 
lad i9 to be regarded as rather vicious in its age, the two metals, the two units of value, the 
cbireeter, in that it tends to trench upon the silver and the gold dollar, were equivalents, or as 
prerogative of the judicial branch ; for, while nearly so as human statutes could make them. 
thi legislative branch have the power to use and were intended to be maintained at an equal 
vfast words they please In framing an act, it is relative value so long as both of them should 
Bot their duty to pass upon the meaning of be used. The intent of the law; well under- 
tint which they have framed. That is the stood by all parties to the contract, was to pay 
htf and prerogative of a distinct and inde- the debt for which these bonds were issued in 
pdideiit braooh of the Government, which gold coin or its equivalent in silver, or in silver 
mj not be invaded. But this resolution, be- coin or its equivalent in gold. The Government 
ifi^ of a declaratory nature, is more remarkable that borrowed this money and issued these 
la this, that it proposes to expound an act bonds had the power and the duty so to regu- 
vhich is not yet in existence, and in that re- late the value of its silver unit of value and 
fpect is without precedent to my knowledge. gold unit of value as to make them equivdents. 
""ib. President, history will yet record the No advantage was slyly contemplated, but all 
iSsiost incredible fact that, with a people was open and dear in the sunlight of honest 
emerging from an exhausting and terrible contract; and when the Government in 1878 
<niggle, those who had charge of their finances dropped the silver dollar out of its list of au- 
vere guilty of the folly — I will not call it by thorized coins, it preserved for its creditor the 
1 Junher name— one of those blunders worse equivalent in gold as it had agreed to do. This 
than a crime, of the rapid, unnecessary prepay- was the bargain ; this was the intent. There 
cent of a debt not yet due, at prices far above was no advantage contemplated either way. 
tii4t which its face called for. Men will stand, The Government was dealing in equivalents. 
I »r, in wonder at the fact that upward of It did not intend that any derangement of the 
I^!i0,000,000 of gold coin was sold out of the relative values of the two should inure to the 
Tr^asaryof the United States in tiiese last nine gain or the loss of either party to the bar- 
?«arB, to pay for bonds not due, not demanded, gain. 

ifid which had been forced above their value *^ The preamble before us recites the laws up 

Vt a class of legislation intended to have that to 1875 relating to the issue of these bonds ; 

nd DO other effect. And while those obliga- but it is incomplete. It is not true historically. 

tioQs not due were thus sought to be prepaid More is needed to complete this history. The 

It a rate high above their face value, the de- preamble, with its many recitals, still fails to 

Qaad notes of the Treasury, the currency of recognize an act of Congress quite as formal, 

^$ country, the money of the people, the just as constitutional, just as binding as any 

aeasare of %'alne in their daily contracts, was which are therein mentioned ; and that is the 

&huoored year after year, and no provision act of February, 1873 ; and therefore I submit 

vtutever made for their just payment. Such, to the honorable Senator, the mover of this 

<r, has been, in my judgment, the unwisdom resolution, that to make his recitals complete 

9f legislation in the past nine years. It has the following or its substance should be in- 

^ thi^ unwise financial course that has made eluded : 

Wf h a resolution as this possible. Here we And whereas from and after the act of Congress oi 

ir^ asked whether a law proposed, overshadow- 1884, and antil February 12, 1878, the silver doilai 

ft? TB already, is or is not an act of national ^^ ^^^i jfraina of standard value having been found 

^boQor ^ have a greater intrinsic value in public markel 

«. u. D-^ zA «. * *i «* 1. ^1. than the gold dollar of 25.8 grains, silver bullion 

Mr Freadent, any act that weakens the ceased to be brought to the mints for coinage and 

|?wt of the nation adds just so much to the silver dollars already coined could not be retained 

^en of the laboring men, and takes away in circulation ; and whereas^ the silver dollar of 41 2^ 

J>t 80 much from the just rewards of labor, fif""*'"" having become practically obsolete, the Gk)v- 

»K fK* .AA*^ «# /»^M A/»^n />•»•- a «rAairA^:«^ ^4 emmcnt of the United States by act of Conscreaa 

»3 Uje score of cold economy, a weakenmg of ^^^ ^^ the 12th of February, 1878, and du'v ap- 

.*liic credit is the most wasteful of conoeiv- proved by the President, abolished from its coinage 

^■^ proceedings. A man's good name is his the silver dollar of 412k grnins as a nnit of value, so 

^•^f posseanon, and our laws give remedies that for nearly Ave years the aame has ceased to 

•»J award recompense to every citizen who is ****** 

^ttified by slander or by libel. But a nation " Is not that true ? Is there any man within 

u> ao such remedy, and its sole defense must the sound of ray voice who questions the accu- 

J* fjmd in the jealous care of its citizens of racy of that historical statement? No, sir; no 

}zy^k honor and credit one will question it. It is simply and precise- 

" Xow, let it be noted that by the terms of ly the truth, and is a part of the history which 



144 CONGRESS, UOTTED STATEa 

the honorable Senator's resolution and pre- ferenoe in prinoiple; and then, I repeat, can 

amble has excluded. yon demand that a piece of coined silver worth 

^* Now, sir, let us not forget that this is not but ninety cents shall be taken as the equiva- 

a case, and we are not sitting in judgment lent of a piece of coined gold worth a hundred 

upon the sharp bargain, of two stock-brokers cents? You undervalue one coin deliberately; 

with their rights of ' option ' and of *' call ' and you do not certify the truth as to its value, but 

other phrases of their trade ; nor is it yet a yon stamp upon it that which you know at the 

case of contract between two citizens ; but it time is false. You cannot term such action 

is a case in which a great Government is deal- regulation. Is this an execution of the power 

ing with a transaction in which its own law- in its honest intent and meaning ^ to coin 

making power is to control its own case; for money and to regulate the value thereof'? 

it cannot be denied that unless the existing ^^It seems to me that, treating this whole 

laws of the land are to be altered, the object question in the light of the facts that surround 

of this resolution and the law it foreshadows it, it is impossible to say that there ever was an 

will fail. That is to say, we are considering a actual contemplation of using the metal of sil- 

contraot in which one of the parties must alter ver in the liquidation of this debt or its inter- 

the law in order to succeed in obtaining a con- est, or in the sale of the bonds or any part of 

struotion in its own behalf. them. I am speaking now of the question to 

*^ Now, Mr. President, what did Congress real- be determined by the actual facts, undeniable 

ly do by the act of Februry 12, 1878 ? It sim- and undisputed, that surrounded the transac- 

ply relinquished the attempt to keep gold and tion." 

silver at an equilibrium of value by law, and it The Vice-President : ^^ The question recnra, 

dropped the silver unit of value, the dollar of Will the Senate agree to the resolution ? " 

412i grains. Wisely or unwisely, it was done. The Secretary proceeded to call the roll. 

Such was the fact, that they relinquished the The result was announced — yeas 48, nays 22 ; 

attempt further to regulate and preserve the as follows: 

eauUibrium of value between these two units YEAs-MesBrB. AIIibou, Armstrong, Bailey, Beck, 



of value of silver and of gold. Bootli, Bruoe, Cameron of PennBylvania, Cameron 




rednact, the ratio was declared to be 15.98, or Men-iinon, Morgan, Ogleabv, Plumb, BanBom, Baula- 

practically 16 parts of silver to 1 of gold, bury, Saanders, Bnenoer, 'teller, Thnrman, Voor- 

What is now proposed is that Congress shall h«®^ Wallace, Wither»-48. , ^, . 

A«.a»4 a i»nr iw* lui^ ^^»^ *v# ».»^a 1 q^t ttV^^.*!* Nats— MeBBrs. Anthouy, Bamum, BayaTd, Blaine, 

enact a law m this year of grace 1877, which, Bumside, Christiancy, 6onkling, *Dawe. * Eaton 

under the pretext of regulating the value of Edmunde, Hamlin, Keman. Lumsr, McPhereon, 

the two metals when coined, shall falsify their Mitchell, Monill^addook, Eandolph, Bollins, S«r- 

true proportionate value. I ask any man with- ' gent, Wadleiffh, windom— 22. „ ^ . . _ 

in the sound of my voice, is any piece of silver . AB8BHT--M;BBBrB. Butler, Cockrell, Garland Har- 

containing 4124 gHiins United States standard ^^\^^1lS?""' ^°^""' ^'^^'^^' n^HeT^on, Sharon, 
worth anywhere in the world 25.8 grains of 

gold of the United States standard value? No So the resolution was agreed to. 

man will venture to say so. Now I will ask. The Vice-President: "The question is. Will 

does the power * to coin and regulate the ^e Senate agree to the preamble as proposed 

value ' mean the power * to coin and falsify * ? by the Senator from Ohio? " 

Has Congress the righi— I do not say the power, The roll-call having been concluded, the re- 

although those who realize the sanctity of the suit was announced, as follows: 

trust of power will believe that right must Yeas— MeBBw. Allison, Armstrong, Bidlev, Beck, 

always enter into its exercise— has Oongress Booth, Brace, Cameron of Pennsylvania, Cameron 

the right to make this false declaration and of WiBconsinjChaffee,Coke,Conover.Davi8of Illi- 

stamp it upon metal, that the lie may be the noi^ Dhvib of West Virginia, DenniB,l)orBev,Eu8ti8, 

o«« |/ «•! Mp^u Vo ' "^ Ferry, Gordon, Grover, Hereford, Howe, Johnston, 

better preserved ? jo„/g ^f Floriiw, Jones of Novacia, Kirkwood, Mc- 

" Let me ask the advocates of this resolution, Creery,McDonald,MoMillan, Matthews, Maxey,Mer- 

if Congress should declare by law that silver rimon, Morgan, Oglesby, Plumb. Btansom, Baulf^bu- 

should be equal to gold ounce for ounce, would }T^ Saunders, Spencer, Teller, Thurman, Voorheea, 

that be justice, would that be a regulation of ^^^^.tli^eBsrs. Anthony. Bamura, Bayard, BUine, 

values, or would it not be their entire confu- Buruside. Chris«tiancv, Conkling, Dawes. Eaton, Ed ' 

sion and derangement? Yet I say to you that, munda, Hamlin, Keman, Lamar, Mitchell, Morrill, 

knowing that 412^ grains are worth to-day in Paddock, Rollin», Sargent, Wadleigh, Windom— 20. 

any market in the world bnt ninety cents in . ABSKinv-Messrs. Butle^ Cockrell, Gnrland, Har- 

«/*M u ;« K«* « ^r.o..4>;».« ^4 Ar..^^^ ««^ «^4. r.* "^i Hill, Hoar, Inpalls, Keliofr^, McPherson, Pat- 

gold. It IS but a question of degree, and not of ^^ liandolph, Sharon, Why te, Wiihers-U. 
principle, whether you shall not stamp, com, 

and declare thereby that 4} grains of silver are So the preamble was adopted, 

equal to 25.8 grains of gold. No action was taken in the House on the 

*^ It is bnt a question of degree, and not a dif- resolution. 



0ON6RESS UNITED STATES. 145 

fntlie Hooae, on November 5th, Mr. Bland, denberffh. Hart, Hendee, Abram S. Htwitt, Joyce, 

ef MwsoDri, moved to suspend the rules so as to I'.eonarB, lind»ey, McUo wan, Moree, Nororow, fed- 

u k-— *^ :«♦-, ;i ^ Z^A *u^ ti^«-« ♦^ ««— die, Powers, Seed, William W. Kice, Sohleioher, 

enable bun to introduce and the House to pass gtephenB, SviaoD, *ard, and Wood-M. 

I i>Ul to SDthonze the free coinage of the staud- Kot Vorisa— Meaara. Aiken, Bagley, William H. 

v^ silver dollar and to restore its legal-tender Baker, Banka^ Bayoe, Beebee, Benedict. Biabee, 

c^i^r Blackburn, Bliss, Boyd. Bragff, Briirbt, Barchard, 

Tb« firk section provides that there shall be S^i'^'-oSrl!!;?' olIIJ n.'.w.'T nnn^fJ^'iSte" 

. J ^ ., V • A « ..L TT •<. J Ci. X Cobb, Collins, Crapo, Davidaon, Doofflas, Durham, 

^«led at the several mints of the United States Dwi^lii, Eickhoff, ^iett, I. Newton Evins, Jamea 

:ht wJfer dollar of the weight of 412J grams L. Evans, Fort, Freeman, Garfield, Gause, Gunter, 

t^)T of standard silver, as provided in the act Hale, Hanna, Harmer, Benjamin W. Harria, John T. 




lifTetofore coined by the United States of like Potter, Pugh, Quinn, Beillv, Boberts, Georoe D. 

Vfifht and tioeness, shall be a legal tender at Robinson, Boss, Byan, Sballenberger, Sinniokson, 

tscir nominal value for all debts and dues, pub- S'?»«^^«» ^ ^3"J'^i^\ Soutlianl, "Btarin, Bteuger, 

I- -J -. ■ *^ ^^* —u^-^ ^♦k«-...:-^ V.-^ Thompson, Martin I. Townsend, Tucker, Tumey, 

Icai pnvate, except where otherwise pro- VeedeWait, Wslker, Walsh, 'Wamer, WaUon 

r..Jed by contract; and any owner of silver Harry White, Whitthome, Alpbeua 8. WUliam*, 

biliion may deposit the same in auy United Andrew Williams, James Williams, Benjamin A. 

Skiies coinage mint or assay office to be coined Willis, and Wilson— 93. 

iniosocli dollars for his benefit upon the same go (two thirds voting in favor thereof) the 

teniM Aod conditions as gold bullion is deposit- r^ies were suspended and the bill was passed. 
«dfur coinage under existing law. 

Sectioa a provides -for repeding all acts q November 6th. this bill was received in 

ttdptrtsof acts inconsistent with the provi- ^^^ g^^^^^ ^^ ^^.^ ^^ ^^f^„^ ^^ ^^^^ 

M,M or tue act. Finance Committee. On November 21st it was 

MrBlanl: "This is the bill which passed ^ed back with amendments, and placed 

a< House last winter— " on the calendar 

Tb« Speaker: - Neither debate nor amend- snbseqaently,' in the ensning session, the 

«M « m order. The Clerk will proceed to ^^j,, ^Jtaken np and discnssedL 

T "* "'"• . ^ . , ^, On December 1 8th, Mr. Allison, of Iowa, sub- 

Jrjr*'*" 'Tf *^V' ^^ ^oo" ""^^Tr "nitted the following amendment : 

r«j 103, najs 84, not votmg 93 ; as fol- ^jj j^ the bill : 

.'jvs : 

Ssonoir 2. That immediatelv after the passage of 

YiAs—Mcsrrs. Aldrtch, Atkins, John H. Baker, thia act the President shall invite the govemmenta of 

^uiB2. B<;11, Biokneil, Bland, Blount, Boone, the countries composing the Latin Union, so called, 

39j:k, Brentano, Bridges, Broffden, Browiie, Buck- and of such other Europenn nations as he may deem 

'T, Bandy, Hanlio'<. Cabell^ Cain, John W. Cald- advisable, to join the United States in a conference to 

V"^. W. F. OaldwcU, Calkins, Candler, Cannon, adopt a common ratio of legal tender as between gold 

CarlUlc. Caswell, Cbalmera, John B. Clarke of Ken- and silver for the purpose of establiahing, interna- 

*.2?kr, John B. Clirk, Jr., of Missouri, Bush Clark, tiontiUy, the use of bimetallic money, and securinff 

'- '^a, Coo.c, Jacob D. Cox, Samuel S. Cox, Cra- fl^itv of relative value between those metals; suon 

^it*. Crittenden, Culberson, Cummings, Cutler, conference to be held at such place, in Europe or in 

Biaford, Darrall. Joseph J. Davis, Deerinff, Dibrell, the United States, at such time within six months, 

l^ser, Daoaell, Edfen, Blam, Ellis, Ellsworth, as may be mutually agreed upon by the executives 

J«ha a. E/ina, Ewing, Fclton, Finley, rorncy, Fos- of the governments joining in the same, whenever 

>', Fruiklin, Fuller, Gardner, Oarth, Qiddings, the governments so invited or any three of them 

^•rer. Go-xie, Htmilton, Henry R. Harris, Hurri- shall have siirnifled their willin^rness to unite in the 

* X Hitri \^, Hartiell, Haskell, Hatcher, Haves, same. The President shall, by and with the advice 

^•ton, Uen lers'jc, Herbert, Goldsmith W. Ijew- and consent of the Senate, appoint three oommis- 

**« Hooker, Houae, Uubbell, Humphrey, Hunter, aioners, who shall attend such conference on behalf 

Hr.:jQ, Itsner, Ja:nes Taylor Jones, John S. Jones, of the United States, and shall report the doings 

f^-V. Keiifhtley. Kelley, Kenna, Knapp, Knott, thereof to the President, whn shall transmit the same 

..'Lr^p, Lisron, Luttrell, Lynde^ MackeV, Mainh, to Congress. Said commissioners shall each receive 

)li"j;[n^. Mtrsh, Martin, Mc&enzie, McKinley, Mc- the aum of $2,500 nnd their reaaonable expenses, to 

^^'-0% iCills, Mon -y, Monroe, Morgan, Morrison, be approved by the Secretary of Stste ; and the 

V- .rov, K^al, Oliver. Pacheco, Pa^e, Patterson, amount necessary to pay such compensation and ex- 

;"- """«. Pollard, Pound, PrioCj Pridemore, Bainey, pon!>es is hereby appropri 

-•'.nic^h. R) I, Keaitan, Americua V. Bice, Riddle, the Treasury not otherwis 
^- ' ii4, R )b3rtAO0, Milton S. Robinson, Sampson, 

'>^% i^aUer. So lies. Sextan, Shellejr, Sinzleton, In the Senate, on Jannary 29th, the bill was 

V aoi*. Wil'iim E. Smith, Sparks, Springer, Steele, considered. Mr. Wallace, of Pennsylvania, said : 

/yrf, J^hnW. Stone, Joseph C. Stone, Strait, "Theact of 1834 rednced the weight of the gold 

« fiHir? I, Throckmorton, Tipton, Amos Town- j .i . - toorr j i av, • i.*. 

*.i, Ri har I W. Town^^h^id, TumJr, Vance, Van ooms, and the act of 1887 reduced the weight 

^*.**,Wad4 11, Welch, Michael D.White, Willete. of the silver dollar to 4124 grains, and the 

^ * t G. Williams. Jere N. Williams, Richard smaller silver coins proportionally. AU were 

^ ms, Albert S. Willis, Wren, Wright, Yeates, made legal tender for all sams. The act of 

s'„!:^e.V;^'. Bacon, Ballon, Blair, Brewer, 1849 authorized the coinage of a do^^^^ 

!r>. fTiiUsnden, Cla^in, Cole, Covert, Horace ^^^ ^or the first time, of a gold dollar; which 

*^'X Beniaon, Eamea, Field, Frye, Gibaon, Bar- latter was to be of the value of one dollar — a 
Vol. xvm. — 10 A 



priated out of any money in 
otherwise appropriated. 



146 CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 

silver dollar — or unit. The act of 1858 reduced silver dollar precisely as it stood before. The 
the weight of the half dollar from 206 grains addition to the fineness made up the 8^ grains 
to 192 grains, and the smaller coins proper- of weight taken from it. 
tionally. It took awajr from them their fall " There was therefore no change whatever 
tender quality, and made them a lawful tender in the unit of value, the silver dollar, but the 
for sums not exceeding $5. Up to 1858, there- gold coins were by these acts of 1834 and 1887 
fore, the silver dollar was the only unit of reduced in weight and fineness, so that the rel- 
valne ; both metals were in full use, and the ative value of gold to silver adjusted by the 
only laws upon the subject were those which act of 1792 at 1 to 15 was by this process ad- 
adjusted the relative value of the metals coined, justed at 1 to 15.988, or nearly 1 to 16. This 
The causes leading up to the legislation in the again demonstrates the basis of our system to 
several years named are given in the official be silver, with gold as its auxiliary, 
reports of the times. In January, 1838, the *^ During these four years, 1834 to 183?, the 
Director of the Mint says Hhat from 1792 to silver dollar was worth an average of 101.4 
1821 gold and silver remained at par with each cents in gold, and from 1837 to 1858 it ranged 
other, and that the first notice of a premium from 101 to 104. The quarter and half dollar 
on gold measured in silver in this country ap- were of equal fineness, and as a result of this 
peared late in 1821.' It then advanced to 5^ undervalue it became difficult to keep siker 
per cent. Between 1821 and 1832 it ranged coin in the country. It was sold as bullion 
from 2 to 7 per cent, premium, and during the and fled from us. France and Germany had a 
month in which he was writing it stood at 31^ relative value of 1 to 15|, and oursOver btand- 
to 4 premium. The relative value of gold to ing at 3 per cent, above this made it profitable 
silver in the coins of that day was 1 to 15 by to export. It was to remedy this, and not to 
law, and he states the actual average relative tend toward a gold stamlard, that the quantity 
value covering a period of years at 15.65 to 1. of silver in the silver coins less than one dollar 
Following this, in December, 1888, the same was reduced by the act of 1858. The Director 
gentleman is most distinct and emphatic in his of the Mint in his report in January, 1853, ex- 
views as to the purposes of the proposed legis- pressly states the necessity for such legislation, 
lation and in regard to silver as the standard, and instead of advising the gold standard, Mr. 
He unequivocally recognizes and insists upon Hunter, chairman of the Finance Committee 
it. His language is : of the Senate, in his report March 9, 1852, em- 
No purpose is presumed to be entertMued of chang- phaticaUy asserts the necessity for the donble 
ioff io any degree the standard measure of value re- standard of gold and silver. These were im- 
siding in our silver ooins, the acknowledged basis tiatory to the legislation of 1858. This was an 
of contracts. To do this by a diminution of the fine end of the legislation on the subject until the 

V^Z.l aXU'drut'rtfj e'^t.TS f«t of 1873 ; in it all, from beginning to end, 

deterioration of the metallic currency. Both gold ^he silver dollar of the original value mamtam- 

and silver have during the existence of the Govern- ed its place as the unit of valueand base of our 

roent been a general le^ tender, while silver alone system, and the astonishing fHCt is presented 

has been the standard of value familiar in our con- that from 1772 up to and including 1878, the 

oeption of price. Any modification of the gold com- ^^„,„ iqaa iqia «,»^ iqik ««« 4.k^ rv«i« !^«^ 

afre will be safe which shall leave this standard of y^^^s 1809, 1810, and 1815 axe the only ones 

value undisturbed, and none could be contemplated in which tnis aollar has not been worth more 

without concern which would impair it. The design than 100 cents in gold. The use of the word 

entertained, therefore, in the change of ratio now * coin' in our statutes during the war and since 

l!^f' iVJl'* ""?'' fr *" ?"3'°iH ^i"« ?^fw raay be understood when we recaU the language 

currency and the controllmff standard of value ; that ^a rw ^* ^* ai.^ -ir- * • i • ^ > r\ 

gold shall be, as at present, a legal tender for all ^^^^^ Director of the Mint m Ills report m Oc- 

amounts, but estimated in such a proportion to sll- tober, 1861. He says : * The silver dollar as it 

ver that the former will be exported by a sliffht pref- now is has actually three values : 1. It is by 

erence when occnsional circumstances shall induce ]a^ a dollar simply, or 100 units or cents. 2. 

the export of a portion of the national coins. gy ^j^^ ^j^j. p^.^^^ ^^ ^y^^^ j^ j^ j^g gg ^^^^ 

" Acting upon this principle, the weight of which is its true commercial value as compared 

the gold coins was reduced — ^the eagle from 270 with gold.' It was, when the war began, worth 

grains to 258 grains, and the others propor- nearly four cents more than a gold dollar, 

tionally, while the fineness was reduced from ** If gold was then the standard, why not 

91 6f to 899i. This, clearly, was an adjustment say so in the statutes ? Who required * coin ' 

of gold to the silver basis, and not of silver to to be inserted ? Perhaps, in a review of the 

gold. The act of 1837 was recommended by legislation and of the truth that this dollar, if 

the Director of the Mint. Its purpose was to coined, would flee from the country because of 

adjust the standard of fineness to round num- its actual value during all of those years, our 

hers. Gold was about 899} parts in 1,000, and friends will find some reason for their cry that 

it required no appreciable change to fix it at it was obsolete ; but can they give us any rea- 

900; but silver, standing at 892.428, required son why ^coin' was the word used? I com- 

a change in the number of grains if it was inade mend to them the inquiry, was it not an honest 

equal to 900 parts in 1,000. This was done, dollar when our credit was pledged? From 

and the silver dollar of 416 grains was made 1862 to 1878 the silver dollar of 41 2} grains 

one of 412i grains. This left the value of the was above par in gold ; when our credit was 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 147 

^dd^ it was an honest dollar, even in the our mints and cnt off the supply of the very 

Kose in which oar friends attempt to put the thing our necessities called for. Who dictated 

(tie. this policy ? Let us look fairly into this legis- 

** Yon say we have not coined a silver dollar lation, see its purpose, its ultimate scope, and 

for forty years. Why ? It was your undis- the end to he reached by those who originated 

potedanitof value; why not coin and pay it it, and who now with pen and speech bitterly 

o!]t \ The answer is, it cost too much ; gold antagonize its repeal. 

vts cheaper. Tet the Government that did ^* The proposition goes to tbe full extent of 
thiswithitflondoubtedstandardwould, if your striking out of existence as full legal-tender 
postioQ be correct, be immoral and a repudia- money all of the silver of the world. It is the 
t^r to do in the otner metal precisely what it fruit of the Paris conference of 1867, by which, 
h^ been doing for forty years in gold. Would with deliberate emphasis, the elevation of gold 
ve ha?e heard any such argument if the gen- as the sole standard and the relegation of sil- 
L'eoien who own the debt did not see an ap- ver to a subordinate position were determined 
preciation of their bonds in the use of gold upon. Germany, influenced by an imperial po- 
iloae? Bat there is another answer to the litical policy and from her attitude as a cred- 
i'liQment of non-coinage. In it we find a pos- itor, has been the leader in the practical move- 
able denial of the theory that gold will fly from ment. She changed from silver to gold, and 
a^if we ooio silver. It is the foct that while threw upon the world's markets all of her sur- 
lil tbe rest of the world estimated silver as 151^ plus silver. France, her neighbor, was com- 
V) 1 of gold oar laws estimated it as 16 to 1. pelled to cease silver coinage or be the recep- 
He dif erenoe is nearly 4 per cent., and neces- tacle of all of that surplus. Other European 
«irilj when oar silver was minted at that rate, nations upon a metallio basis were influenced 
sore than it was anywhere else, the cupidity in like manner, and our act of 1878, with no 
'fthebalHon-dealer sent it to the melting-pot such reason, swells the list that debases the 
'^ make for himself the profit of the dilier- white metal. Germany not only refuses silver, 
f^ If it had stood toward gold as silver did but she demands gold, and the same policy is 
el^where, the equilibrium of the two metals urged npon us. Where is the gold to come 
T 'aid not have been disturbed. The answer from ? What we have done the commercial 
to the cry that the cheaper metal flies, and the nations of the earth are advised to do. This 
fiormal relation of the two metals, is found in a is the ground it is put upon here now. What 
mrtnal relative legal value. This is both pos- is to be the effect of this ? 
fi^ and practicable. *' Mr. GOschen's English Parliamentary com- 
""We now come to the act of 1873. It mittee of 1876 gives its effect in these words : 
^ttged the base of our system from sUver to i^ j, obvious that if effect ahonld be given to the 
P^'J. Up to that time we had the optional poUov of eubetituting tt<Ad for silver wherever it is 
i^ard; debtors could pay debts in silver leasible, and giving ffold, for the sake of its ad van- 
♦"•Qars or in gold dollars. Contracts made on ^®* i° intemationarcommeroe, tbe preference, even 
*M filth of that hiw were changed, and the jmoJ^gpopalations whoeehabite andouBtomaarein 
»i^\t- • «^* *i.^T^*T « r^ j™T! J \/ • ^1 1 ^^^^^ of silver, and thus displacing silver fh)m the 
t^U got Uie option to demand pay m gold, pogition (whict it has always occupied) of doing the 
•u contracts m existence at the day of the work of the currency over at least as large an area aa 
t^iio^e were permeated by it. The option of gold, no possible limits could be assigned to the 
JJitf debtor to choose the metal in which he ^^^^ fall in its value which would inevitably take 
voold pay and the power of the Treasury to P**®*' 

f^ sOver dollars were stricken out of exist- ^^ This is the report of a committee vested 

toee. Before it, a debt payable in dollars could with speciflo power to inquire as to the fhrther 

^"^paid by silver dollars; after it, nothing but fall of silver. This committee was writing in 

Hi wonld pay. Legal-tender notes were put July, 1876, when silver had already fallen to 

^a a relation to gold alone, and not to silver ; 62f . It had not been this low for a century. 

<8^i bj this act, copying the policy of Ghermany " The total stock of gold money in the world 

ci utiNSTiog the wishes of Great Britain, both is about $4,000,000,000. Russia, Austria, Italy, 

^vhich were creditor nations, while we are and the United States are using paper. They 

T^j)n, resumption has been delayed and much require gold for resumption. By the doctrine 

^ the misery of the past four years been di- of our opponents it is to be gold alone. They 

^j cansed. But for the suspension of the need eight hundred millions. How does this 

*%}» of the silver dollars caused by it, the need affect the gold where it is now ? It must 

3Bit^coaId have given us at least $100,000,000 be redistributed. The demand for it for these 

^^^4t period. Oan it be said that this would nations necessarily increases its value wherever 

^< hire aided us on our road to resumption ? it may be. The quantity held by any nation 

•Common sense for a people seeking to re- must be decreased, and in decreasing the cir- 

"^ specie payment to deliberately cut off one culating medium you reduce prices, destroy 

^^^ metals as an aid thereto ? We were in commerce, and retard the progress of civiliza- 

^^^ of Buspenuon* with a currency that had tion. Nor do you advance it in the nation to 

^ Gallic basis. We had the bullion ; it was which you remit the gold, for you intensify the 

^''>vn prodnct. The people would have wel- commercial distress consequent upon the pas- 

^^ the silver coin, yet we deliberately closed sage from paper to metal, you increase the dif- 



148 CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 

ficnlty of getting it, and cheapen commodities California and Australia and the sflver in Ke- 

to buy it. We feel this most sensibly now. vada since 1848, has been the leading cause of 

We strike down silver, and in doing so increase the great stride in industrial development and 

the value of gold. We must have gold and we progress made by the world in the last thirty 

bankrupt our people to buy it with their com- years ; and the disuse of as much as has been 

modi ties. added logically and necessarily turns us back. 

*^ Seyd gives in 1876 the figures thus. Leaving Are not the owners of capital taking a fearful 

out of view paper entirely, there are now in risk in the adoption of this policy? In sueli 

the world full legal-tender money : an enormous reduction of money as will follow 

In gold coin and bank bullion $8,760,000,000 tTom its success all prices must fall largely, 

In legal-tender tllver in Kurope and elsewhero l,27fi,000,U00 (JaU mortgages be paid? Can capital »&\'i 

In legal-tander aUyer io the Last 1,260,000.000 j^j^ j p^j^jj^ ^^y^^ ^^ y^^j^^ fourfold mor^ 

Total of legal-tender metaiue money $6,270,000,000 ouerous. Taxes will be lessened upon pro)>^ 

jSTowif theiflgmi-twiderBikerbedemonetUed, ^^ ^^ erty because its value falls, and in the cons© 

**^ ' -J — quent distress and confusion public faith maj 

The whole li^-tender money of the world la $8,700,000,000 suffer. 

"In these figures we may see the great stake " ^^ silver be demonetized as lawful money 

that capital plays for. It is dealing with eco- can you use it at all as subsidiary coin ? lleri 

nomio questions over a vast field, and the propo- I ™6«t the question of my friend from Georgil 

sition needs to be thoroughly grasped to see (Mr. Hill). It is not, like our fractional notes 

its enormity. * promise to pay. It is payment. The legal 

" I do not assert this upon my own statement, tender quality you give it will span a moderat 

but I quote from an Indian writer, the officer gap, and the people will accept it for the gak 

of a bank in Bengal, Mr. Hector, writing in o^" convenience at its face value. But if silv^ 

1877, upon this subject. Let us see what he 'a^^s to one half the value of gold, will the m} 

gi^yg . sidiary coins pass at their face even as tokens 

If the United Rtatea and France should decide ^^' \t were redeemable by the Government < 

upon a single atandord of gold, then silver would exchangeable at the mints for gold, it conl 

depreciate bo much as to render it unfit to remain sustain itself; but that cannot be for ni&ii 

the measure of values in India. More, in my euti- reasons if it does so fall, and as a conseqnenj 

mation, depend, on the action of thoae two countries ^f relegating silver to the arts, as a result i 

than on auythmff else. Ix they elect to nave gold, .* j ^ .P ^ mi i ^^ 

we must have gold too, let the cost be what it may! ><» demonetization, you will compel yoor o^ 

Whichever country Ukea the initiative, the others people to reject it m the form of subsidiaj 

must fuUow, and the three would be competing for coin. Tliey will not accept a coin as paymej 

ffold together. ,^ , .. that is SO debased as to be worth but one half 

1 have not much faith in the unse fislmess of na- j^at it professes to be by law. The argnni^ 

tiona any more than m that of individuols. JLacn j u o * *.v * -i v -j- •« 

country will be guided by what It considers to be ^sed by Senators that silver subsidiary com 

for its own advantage, without much regard for the cheapened and may be used to defraud labor^ 

consequences to its neighbors ; but here, what is for intensified when you consider with how mnl 

the common good is likewise for the good of each m^re force it applies to an appreciated g< 

'"ThTJhr^vernments of India, France, and Amer- f Uar than it does to a silver dollar ; for if 

ica should ?gree upon a common course of action U takes two hundred and sixteen silver half d 

highlv desirnble in the interests of each. If nations lars to buy $100 in legal-tender silver dolk 

were influenced by considerations extending beyond it requires two hundred and thirty-eight sin 

their own immediate interests, I might go further hgjf dollars to buy one hundred gold dolla 

and say that the world at large would lose by the mi ^ ,^^ „,:j^«„ kI^-^taa,. *k<^«» .™» .0*^:^1^ 

general demonetization of silvlr, and that, with the The pp widens between them very rapidlj 

object of averting such a calamity, the agreement you totally reject silver as iull legal tend 

for concerted action might be so extended as t'* em- The result of such a system inevitably is t) 

brace all the nations of Europe, or at any rate all the wages of labor are paid in debased mo^ 

those which have not a single gold standard. ^^5,^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ p^^^ ^n i 

^ So both Ohina and India, with their large money. This is one of the worst results of 

and exclusively silver circulation, are driven exclusive gold standard. It serves to 6em\ 

to follow the programme of gold alone. If we strate the necessity, in justice to all cl&sses, 

diminish the legal-tender money of the world full-valued metallic money, upon an equal bi 

by two fifths, we add to the TaJue of the re- between the metals. 6ir, the people wliotj 

mainder by fully the same proportion. Keduce represent want no system of coinage in wli 

the measure of value by two fifths, and yon it takes fifteen ten-cent pieces to maJce a doi I 

add to the value of all money indebtedness an ^^ What is the remedy? Silver and gold 

equal amount, or, what is the same thing, you mutual aids to each other, open the door 

enable it to buy that proportion more of prop- resumption. We have another metal to 

erty or labor. Such a reduction will stop all gold. It is constitutional and lawful mol 

public improvements, deprive labor of employ- It is coin within both the word and the sf 

ment, cause its value to decline, and wages, of our laws. It is our own product. It« 

production, and consumption will all become increases the quantity of the modiuin of 

less. The addition to the stock of precious change. It is more easily accninnlated d 

metals, resulting from the gold discoveries in gold. It is desired by and is acceptable to 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 149 

people. It win, if gifted with the function of act of 1870 were passed, it was above par in 

QooeT, natorallj flow to the Treasury and to gold and was plainly implied in our contracts. 

tb« Taolts of oar banks as a basis for circula- There is nothing in our obligations to our 

tioOf and will impart confidence to business creditors that impinges upon our right or pow- 

lodTilae to property. Oar act of 1873deliber- er to retain the doable standard. It is the 

aielr rejects its aid. Who profits by tbis? Who only safe and sure path to resumption of ppecie 

»ifers from it? Can any reason be given why payments. It is most ui\just and inequitable 

ve shall commit tbis act of snioide? A debt- for those who own and control the measures 

cr Dstion, with our option plainly written in of values to seek to reduce the quantity thereof 

the Uv, with morality and justice both upon upon the ground that there is an over-supply of 

ibe side of the people, a silver-producing coun- one of them. Those who own the debt have 

trr. seeking a return to a specie basis, we yet no right to dictate the terms of payment. 

d^Gbereteiy aid to strike out of existence one Those who owe it, and are to pay it, are to be 

kilf of the world's measure of value, to depre- consulted before the contract is repealed, 

dtte to that extent all of the property of the There is no foundation, either in morals or in 

eoantrj, and to appreciate by a like measure law, for enhancing the value of the debt, and 

oar actaal indebtedness. it is neither just nor expedient to do so ; and 

"^The Senator from Vermont (Ikfr. Morrill) the exercise of the power to adopt a gold 

tmes that we must follow where commercial standard awakens distrust among tne people 

tstions lead. Is it wise to follow the lead of and tends directly to weaken the binding obli- 

Ijre^ Britain and Germany ? Both are credi- gations of the public faith.^' 

tiroatioas; we a debtor. The example of the The Vice-President: ^^The question pend- 

/jnner, from 1816 to 1825, in changing her ing is on the amendment reported by the Oom- 

<indtfd from silver to gold, does not com- mittee on Finance, which will be read." 

^od itself to as when studied in the light of The Chief Olerk : ^^ Tbe amendment report- 

ue history of that period. No people ever ed by the Committee on Finance is in section 

iQfered so intensely from the throes of finan- 1, line 12, after the word * contract' to strike 

nJ distress as did hers, and many sound think- out : 

ffi sscribe the misery of her people in those And any owner of silver bullion may deposit the 

Tears to this very cause. The change from sil- aame at any United States coinage mint or assay of- 

^^rlo gold in Germany should have noencomi- ^^«» *° he coined into such dollars, for his heneflt, 

iiiftomxm. It was the selfishness of a credi- PP?" ^^ V^T *®''^' ^^ conditions as gold bullion 

J !:u ^ *w w« lo^v av«uoutxvo9 xy« ** ^''^^ 18 deposited for coinage under existing laws. 

t««r and the far-seeing imperial pohcy of Bis- .. 1 , . ,. ^/^ ^ ^ . ^ * 

oirck that beheld unity and empire in gold ^^^ ^ "®^ thereof to insert : 

la 1 A sande new standard, and separate state 4°,4 **^® Secretary of the Treasury Is authorized 

Ncr iatheoontinnanoeof sU.er .ad the old ^i^:;!T^^°^^j:i^Z°';;^^^^:^r^:ZX 

•^.loa^ Like every other act of his states- time, silver bullion, at the market price thereof, not 

:::a3«hip, it was to add to the unity and power less than $2,000,000 per month nor more than $4,- 

»f the German Empire, and to cause their ne- 000,000 per month, and cause the same to be coined 

^Uee for money to bring familiarity with ^"?°. »"S** <*<>"?"• . ^""^ »°y J?*^'» ""^ ?'W''^5 

•L mi^wi^ <f o J arising from this coinage shall be accounted for and 

:. ^T^*"**" , . ...... . paid into the Treasury, as provided under existing 

** Asa silver-producing nation, it is to our m- laws relative to the* sobsidiaiy coinage : Jhtiidsdl 

t«nHt to give it use as money. If we demone- That the amount of money at any one time invested 

^-le it, we discriminate against our own pro- '^^ such silver bullion, exclusive of such resulting 

■Ivtiana. We appreciate gold by discarding coin, shall not exceed $6,000,000. 

Ci&^ and legidate to raise the value of the Mr. Bayard, of Delaware, Baid : " Now that 

i-iicle we are buying. This is contrary to the silver has reached the lowest point known in 

■avrests of oar own people, and demanded by the history of the world, that moment is taken 

so lUodard of morality. With a double stand- advantage of to construe the wording of the act 

^i there is less fluctuation in value than with under which certain bonds and obligations of 

I <£2le one. The use of both metals gives the Government of the United States were is- 

^4lihy progress, basis for confidence, value to sued, to insist at once upon a declaration that 

n*TVQcy in paper, and a just measure of value, it is proper and right and honest that, in the 

Tii xue of bat one strikes out of existence a hour of this extreme depression, it shall be 

«•"/% part of tbe world^s capital as a measure brought in as a means of payment of certain 

' Tilae, and is prejudicial to the progress of public debts. Tbis was embodied in the resolu- 

trJiz^ion. The value of the dollar of 412| tion of the honorable Senator from Ohio (Mr. 

n as has been steady from 1792 to 1873 ; its Matthews) that I have already discussed, and 

-'^'^ in all those years has never been inter- do not propose now to repeat it. Some reasons 

^"i with by legislation ; it is implied in the I gave were satisfactory then, as they are now 

r-M *eoin * ased in all our statutes creating to my own mind, and to which as yet 1 have 

-'Ifht^dneas; its coinage was suspended, not failed to hear any reply whatever. I hold that 

Vai^ it was cheaper, but because it was those bonds were the obligations of this great 

H'^T than gold. During all of the years Republic, and 1 know they have but one seen- 

•>n onr credit was pledged, as well as when rity — no property, no possibility of coerced col- 

*? pabhcHonedit act of 1869 and the funding lection— K)nly one thing and nothing more, the 



150 CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 

sentiment of honor of the people of this conn- earnest himetallist and advooate of silyer, to 

try. It may be deemed a mere abstraction ; the enormons amount of two hundred million 

but those who so consider it have read the his- pomids sterling, or a thousand miUion American 

tory of the human race to very little purpose, dollars, which will await a favorable market. 

Give me but the sentiment of honorable obliga- and this bill proposes it shall be the United 

tion in the hearts of a people, and I will ask States. 

no better or other security for the payment of '* Mr. President, the act of February 12, 1873, 

all their just debts in full. It will be fo and in- has been denounced, altogether unjustifiably, 

deed * the cheap defense of nations. ' as the cause of the decline in the price of silver. 

" Now, sir, this bill proposes to coin pieces of Bishop Latimer in one of his sermons told of 
silver of a standard nme tenths fine, weighing an old man who alleged Tenterden steeple was 
41 2^ grains, and to call them dollars and units the cause of Goodwin sands, because before 
of value in the American currency, and make the steeple was erected the sands were not 
them unlimited legal tender for all debts. This knowu. Just as reasonable is the pest propter 
is called in debate a restoration of the silver dol- hoc argument^at because in 1878 the Govem- 
lar, *the dollar of our fathers'; and yet it ment of the United States simply recognized 
seems to me that the consequences of such an as a fact that we never actually were under a 
act can scarcely be comprehended, or it would double metallic standard of values in the United 
not be so unhesitatingly urged. Can we be un- States, therefore you are to say that that l&w 
mindful of ttie combmed action of the leading passed in 1878 was the cause of the remarkable 
nations of the world since the United States fall in the price of silver which we have since 
ceased to use gold and silver as a double stand- witnessed. This law of 1878, under which the 
ard for their money? The same writer I have gold unit of value was adopted, was enacted 
cited makes this very sensible remark, that only after a careful preliminary examination 
' so long as the United States remain on the of the proposition, as unusual as it was corn- 
paper basis, they cannot themselves jadge of mendable. 

the practical effects of these resolves for the ^* Why, Mr. President, I hold in my hand a 

future.' letter from the Secretary of the Treasury to the 

" I believe there is good sense in that. If our Speaker of the House of Bepresentatiyes, pre- 

people had continued upon the metallic basis, sented on the 29th of June, 1870^and referred 

no such law as this could have been suggested, to the Committee on Coinage, Weights, and 

It is because it is presented theoretically to our Measures, and ordered to be printed, which 

people, who are still on a paper basis and not discloses this fact, that the recommendation 

in a oondiUon to appreciate it, that this cry for the discontinuance of the coinage of the 

which we hear all over the country, and which silver dollar, and the adoption of gold aa the 

has been so echoed upon the floor of both Houses sole standard of valuation, was submitted to 

of Congress, is heard at all. Controlled by a the most intelligent and competent persons to 

policy which has been gradually but steadily speak with authority on the subject ; and here 

adopted, the gold valuation was begun by Eng- are their views on the various pages of this 

land very nearly a hundred years ago. In 1784 document, which was placed in the hands of 

the English government limited payments in every member of both Houses of Congress, 

silver to £25; in 1816 they f educed that to £2 which was distributed as a public document, 

or 40 shillings ; and other nations have fol- was thus announced in advance, that opinions 

lowed in their track, the last accession by form- were taken upon the subject, that it was con- 

al proclamation being the consolidated Empire sidered, and after that (as was shown by the 

of Germany. Chili had long since adopted the Senator from Vermont the other day) the bill 

sole valuation of gold ; the vast colonial gov- proposing this change was eleven times printed 

ernments of Australia also. Holland has al- by the Congressional Printer and passed upon 

ready stopped her silver coinage, and is prepar- by committees of both Houses of Congress 

ing for a gold valuation. France is preparing from 1870 to 1878, when it became the law. 
for the same thing, and has stopped her coinage *'The laws of coinage of the United States 

of silver absolutely, and by a unanimous vote from 1792 to 1878 will disclose the fact that 

of her Assembly, within the last month. while there was nominally a double standard, 

"Belgium and Switzerland have given no in reality it never was maintained and practl- 

uncerthin note of preparation in this case, cally did not exist. Perhaps at the risk of 

Already Russia and Italy and Austria, who are tedium I had better recite shortly the history 

under paper systems still, recognize the neces- of the United States coinage. It is not lon^. 

sity of this preparation, so that the duties up- There have been but six acts of Congress which 

on imports in Russia are now made payable in touch the subject since the foundation of the 

gold, and the interest upon her foreign debt is Government. In 1792 was our first act ; and 

payable in gold; and that is the case with 416 grains of silver, at a standard of fourteen 

Austria. The result of this combined demon- hundred and eighty>five parts of pure silver 

etization, and preparation for continuing the and one hundred and seventy-nine parts of 

demonetization, of silver has created a great alloy, to be of the value of a Spanish milled 

fund of silver coin and bullion, which may be dollar, as the same was then current^ l>e- 

swollen^ according to the testimony of this came the unit of vdue in the United States. 



00N6BESS, UNITED STATES. 151 

rhere vas free coinage for botb metals. Both If we can have a onrrencj oonsistiDg of silver 

vere fall legal tender for their declared valae and gold coin of equal or Bnbstantially equal 

wbea of fall weight, and when of leaa, in pro- intrinsic value, so thejr will circulate together, 

portion. The same act authorized the gold I am in favor of it, and will gladly favor such 

eagle as a nnit, of 270 grains standard gold, legislation as will attain this result. I am 

and the alloy of gold was fixed at eleven parts willing to unite in any legislation which shall 

fine and one of uloy. Part of that alloy was utilize silver as a coin as much as can be done 

provided to be of silver. without putting the country on a depreciated 

**From 1792 to 18d4 there was no alteration currency as compared with gold, the standard 

whaterer in the standard or in the ratio of val- of the commercial world. But the bill now 

ves between these two coins, and I wish now to before the Senate does not even propose to 

call ibe attention of the Senate to some remark- give us a gold and a silver dollar of equal in- 

a^e features to be found in the record of the trinsic value. 

Mint from the berinning of the Gk>vernment " The silver dollar proposed by this bill 

utO the 80th of Jnne, 1877. I refer to the would not be of equal value with the gold dol- 

Ubles at page 28 of the report of the Director lar. It would be worth from 6 to 10 per cent, 

of the Mint for the present year, and it will be less than the gold dollar, as the price of silver 

foand that from 1792 until 1805 there were has been for a considerable period, 

coined of ulver dollars less than one million *^ This bill does not proceed upon the basis 

and a half; from 1806 to 1835 there waa not that we are to make a silver dollar equivalent 

e(Hned one. Not a single dollar of the unit in value to the gold dollar, according to the rel- 

aad standard of value was coined from 1804 ative values of these metals in the markets of 

until 1835. The history of that may perhaps the world at this time, or as they have been 

be carious, bat it does not disturb the force of since leading commercial nations of Europe 

the fact which I have stated and the inferences have entirely or partially demonetized silver, 

vbieh are irresistible, the fact being that the ** If we coin these dollars to-day of 412^ 

alrer unit did not practically exist under the grains of standard silver, we are coining a 

coioage of the Unit^ States ; that there were dollar depreciated from 6 to 10 per cent., ac- 

\ni fifteen hundred thousand dollars prior to cording to the fluctuations of the price of sUver 

l^M, and that not one was added to the coin- below the gold coin. So long as this silver 

a:ra from that time until 1886, and then one dollar is depreciated 6, 8, or 10 per cent., 

thoQfland were coined in 1836, none coined in or even 8 per cent., below the gold coin, it 

1^7 or 1838. In 1839 three hundred dollars will drive the latter irom circulation and out 

yerecoind." of the country. 

3Cr. Withers, of Virginia, said : ** Will it in- " I admit that if the remonetizing of sil- 

tempt the Senator too much to call his atten- ver in this country would bring this silver dol- 

u>>Q to the fact that, although no dollars were lar to par with our gold coin, then the two 

coined, very many millions were coined in would circulate together ; but I cannot believe 

^uu of dollars, halves and quarters, of the that this will be the result. So long as the 

tune standard vaiue precisely?" silver dollar is intrinsically cheaper bv 2 or 

Mr. Bayard : ^' That is certainly a fact, and 3 per cent, than the gold coin, the cheaper 

tbe several amounts will be found in the tables coin will remain here and the gold will be 

referred to ; but I am only speaking of this exported. Everybody will pay debts and do 

eoiaof416 grains, the silver dollar, which has business with the cheaper legal-tender coin. 

been so clamored for. " The intrinsically cheaper silver dollar, being full 

ICr. Keman, of Kew York, said : "Mr. Pres- legal-tender money, will exclude the gold as 

ident, we do not need this silver dollar to re- certainly as the legal-tender Treasury notes 

Tire boflinesa. We do not require it as a exclude both gold and silver irom circula- 

Rmedy for the distress existing among the tion. This always has been and always will 

^vQest intelligent business men, laborers, and be the practical result. The Senator from Wis- 

B«cbanic8 of the country. What we need, in consin ( Mr. Howe ) stated yesterday, as I un- 

nr judgment, is a restoration of confidence, a derstooa him, that silver would not ostracize 

restoration of a sound currency, and an honest gold. He is entirely mistaken if he believes 

measure of valoes. Then the business of the that the silver dollar proposed by this bill and 

^r^ntry will revive and be carried on free from the gold coin will at the present price of silver 

«eb <Usaflters as occurred in 1873, and from circulate together. The cheaper silver coin 

^r conaeqaences of which the country is still will certainly take the place of and exclude 

nfering — aoch disasters as every people have the gold. 

^^ainred who have had for any considerable " Therefore I insist that the practical effect 

j6G|th of time a depreciated and fiuctuating of this bill will be to demonetize gold in this 

nrrencj. country as effectually as we could do it by act 

''Sir, I am opposed to this bill because it of Congress, unless silver bullion shall rise in 

▼^ Dot give the country a stable currency price in the market so that the silver contained 

ci standard value at par with that of the in the dollar shall be equivalent in value to the 

''>3iniereiai world, and wiJl tend to continue gold contained in the gold dollar. We cannot 

^ evil we have been and are suffering from, make 412^ grains of silver equivalent in value 



152 CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 

to the gold in the gold dollar by act of Con- ence in the price of gold and silver which we 

gress. I think the beat evidence we have to now meet, there were a large number of citi- 

gnide ns proves that the silver dollar author- zens, many of them of intelligence and ability^ 

ized by this bill will be at least from 3 to 6 per who were then zealous and I doubt not honest 

cent, in value below the gold dollar, and there- advocates of an irredeemable paper currency, 

fore we will practically demonetize gold. We a currency which was not based upon or to be 

will not have as our currency gold and silver convertible into either gold or silver coin, 

coin ; we will have silver only. Our standard ** I observe that now, when silver is depre- 

or measure of values will not be gold and sil- dated below gold, is not worth as much as the 

ver, but silver alone. greenback in gold, the most of these advoc-ates 

^* Assuming as I do that the depreciation of of a paper currency are urgent and active 
silver bullion below gold will remain at least advocates of the Bland bill, and I fear if the 
from 8 to 6 or 8 per cent, after we have re- measure is adopted it will practically restore 
monetized silver by the passage of this act, in the country an irredeemable paper currency, 
and that the depreciated silver dollar will ex- Repeal the resumption law, make this silver 
elude gold from circulation, then the legal- dollar an unlimited legal tender at a depreci- 
tender Treasury notes will occupy the same ated value, which will expel gold, and silver 
relation to the silver dollar which they now will become what gold is now, not practically 
occupy to gold coin. The silver dollars will in circulation as coin, but a commodity, and 
be the coin with which the Treasury notes are we will have au irredeemable and inconverti- 
to be redeemed whenever they are redeemed, ble paper currency. 1 ask Senators whether 
and the Treasury notes will therefore be de- we should not legislate cautiously, so as to feel 
predated in value below the silver dollar, in- step .by step our way in reference to the coin- 
stead of being, as they are now, nearly at par age of silver dollars as an unlimited legal ten- 
with gold coin. We will then have a currency der, and avoid all danger of getting back to an 
consisting of silver dollars depreciated in value entirely irredeemable paper currency. I hope 
below gold coin and legal tender Treasury I am in error, but I have sometimes been dis- 
notes, or greenbacks as they are called, of less turbed lest this should be the result of the 
value than silver dollars. Should Congress re- legislation which during this session is pressed 
peal the resumption act and fix no time when upon Congress. 

the Treasury notes are to be redeemed or con- ** Thoroughly convinced that the currency 
vertible into the silver coin, they would at once of our country should be coin at par with the 
fall considerably below the silver dollar, and coin of the commercial world and paper con- 
as they are by law a legal tender for all debts vertible into that coin at the will of 'the holder, 
except where the debts are expressly made I am opposed to any measures which endanger 
payable in coin, and except for auties on im- our accomplishing that purpose within a rea- 
ports, the Treasury notes would become prac- sonable time.^* 

tically the legal-tender currency or money of Mr. Christiancy, of Michigan, said : ** Never 

the country, and the silver dollar would be in the history of this country was there so 

excluded from general circulation. The silver much, nor even one half so much, currency 

dollar worth only ninety or ninety-five cents lying idle in the banks, and in the hands of 

in gold will be driven from circulation by the bankers and capitalists, anxiously, clamorously 

inconvertible legal-tender Treasury notes as seeking and panting to be used and put in cir- 

quickly and certainly as was the gold coin culation, as during these same hard times : and 

when that was the coin with which the Treas- never was the demand for its use in circulation 

ury notes were promised to be redeemed, comparatively so small. The fact that it was 

Thus we will have, if this bill becomes a law, not used and did not enter into the circulation, 

as our only coin and measure of values, a de- was not because the bankers and other holders 

predated and fluctuating silver coin consisting did not wish to have it used and circulated, for 

of dollars of 4121^ grains. And should the their interest clearly lay in its use and circula- 

resumption act be repealed, we will have as tion ; but because business men, for entirely 

our currency the legal-tender notes iuconvert- other causes, did not wish to and would not 

ible into any coin at the will of the holder take and use it. The rates of interest fell ; the 

and depredated below and fluctuating more terms upon which bankers ought to get the 

than the silver dollar. In my judgment such currency out were as easy as ever before when 

a currency and measure of values would be the solvency of the borrowers was clear or tlie 

seriously detrimental to the business and pros- securities good. £ut here lay the real and im. 

perity of the country. mediate obstacle. A state of things had been 

*' Pardon me if I make one other sugges- produced, and was then and is still to some 
tion, and I make it with entire respect for extentexisting, which n^ade business men, men 
those who differ from me as to this measure, of enterprise, timid and cautious ; unwilling. 
Have you no fears that there is something be- owing to the uncertainties of the situation — 
yond this measure against which the people the dread of the effect of various wild schemes 
of this country should be guarded ? When of financial legislation — to embark in any great 
silver and gold were nearly equivalent in value enterprises, or even to continue those they al- 
and there was not this difficulty of the differ- ready had in hand, and which they were com- 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 163 

peOed to redace and get oat of as fast as they great extent fictitious, and consisting in drafts 

eoald, lest, on acconnt of such uncertainties, upon the future for which the pay-day must 

vhile they might be making a nominal profit, sooner or later come. In the South almost 

thej shooJd be really incurring great and un- everything in the shape of property, except the 

known losses. Ko great enterprises could there- naked face of the earth, had practically disap- 

'ore be undertaken ; and those already under- peared, and had to be recreated by the slow 

uken were abandoned at the first practicable process of labor and production. And, fortu- 

raofflent; and the toiling millions, owing to nately or unfortunately, the North and the 

ti}ft)e and many other causes — among which South, all sections of our common country, are 

ooe of the most prominent was the improve- so linked together in commercial relations that 

ment in labor-saving machinery — found little it is vain to expect one portion can long remain 

d^niAod for their labor. prosperous while a large part of the Union is 

''Mr. President, this was a state of things depressed and poor, 
for which neither the issue of more Treasury *^ But, in addition to the direct destruction 
notes Dor any other increase in the volume of and consumption of property and capital by 
esrrenoy, without a return to specie payments, the war, came necessarily, and, as I think, 
Toald have brooght a remedy. If more had rightfully, an immense debt, the mere interest 
been issued^ they could not have been kept in of which, drawn by way of taxes directly and 
fircaUtion when those already issued could indirectly from the productions of labor, con- 
sot. They would have gone with the others stitntes a formidable burden and causes an im- 
ioto the hands of the banks and bankers, just mense drain upon our resources. 
L< the silver dollar would, and would not Imve ^^ For one, Mr. President, looking at the 
drtQlsted among the people, unless the Gov- situation inunediately after the war, I did not 
enment should have done what the greenback expect, and could not see how any man could, 
an<l silver advocates seem to have made many a prompt restoration and steady continuance 
o( the people believe the Government ought of the same high state of prosperity as before, 
to tnd will do — send to each individual in the I thought I saw that a period of revulsion, of 
fittkm his aliquot proportion of the greenbacks terrible depression, must soon come from the 
or silyer pieces, without reauiring anything in causes I have mentioned ; and I never could 
retom, as the Agricultural Department dis- see how any man could suppose it could be 
tnbatM garden-seeds, except that it shall be avoided. My wonder was not that it finally 
aboolately impartial and universal But what- came in 1873, but that it was kept off so long, 
erer impression* may have been created out- I could not see (though popular delusion, 
fi4e, I think no one has yet, in this hall, advo- prompted and stimulated by hope, thought it 
»ted such distribution as this. did see) how the farmer, for instance, whose 
''Now, what were the real causes which means had been accumulating for years by a 
placed this state of things in the money small excess of income over outgoes, until a 
nirket, and the depressed condition of busi- considerable income had been accumulated, 
sc99 enterprises — ^in short, the distress among could, after some calamity which compelled an 
I'jd people, or the hard times? The immediate expenditure of all his accumulations, and after 
etttses were merely the combined results of all being compelled to anticipate the income of 
tfie snteoedents to that state of things. These many future years by debts upon which he was 
fa^ecedents, the real causes, are too numerous to pay interest yearly and ultimately to provide 
to be stated and analyzed in a single speech, for the principal, be quite as prosperous as he 
I can only tonch — and briefly touch — a few of was before ; or, except by great frugality and 
t^e more prominent The eajua eausana^ the industry, or some fortunate accident, avoid a 
t-aitfal mother of all the other causes, was the crash in tlje end. 

ferrible war which for more than four years " And in the case of the farmer I thought I 

•v«pt over the country, taking from produc- saw the case of the nation — which is but the 

: u occupations millions of men from all parts aggregate of our population — and that it was 

'Z the Union, who were engaged for between just as unreasonable to expect the nation to 

f fcr snd five years in destroying and consum- avoid a revulsion by any other kind of means 

t-^ the property, the wealth and capital of the than the farmer could in the case I have just 

uaoQ, of the people, and sweeping away the put ; and these were that the people compos- 

t^emnnlations of years of prosperity, instead ing the nation should cut down expenses, and 

vf producing and creating wealth ; so that, by increased frugality and economy, and in- 

vriout reference to the debt entailed upon creased industry in the production of values, 

t''>? nation, the nation^ as a whole, had become gradually overcome the depression ; that busi- 

>(x>rcr by thonsands of millions of dollars than ness men and men of enterprise ought to avoid 

sniediately before the war. In the North, it all speculative schemes and doubtful enterprises, 

ii tme, where the direct ravages of war were limiting their business to strictly legitimate oh- 

i» sod the prices were greatly augmented, as jects, and avoiding the creation of any debts 

*cil by the increased demand created by the which they could not readily and certainly meet. 

vtf ts inflated by the immense issues of Treas- But exactly the opposite of this was the course 

STT notes in which they were paid, was kept actually taken. The large fortunes suddenly 

>p an appearance of prosperity which was to a made during the war had kindled an inordinate 



154 CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 

desire for becoming rapidly rich, without much been excited and stiinulated into an nnnatural 

regard to the means, and a reckless spirit of ex- and feverish frenzy of exaltation, far above the 

travagance in expenses pervaded the whole peo- healthy and normal equilibrium of its powers, 

pie. The immense amoants of the Treasury A state of intoxication and onnataral exhilara- 

notes issaed and in circalation at the close of tiun sure, inevitably sure, to make the patient 

the war, and the hundreds of millions of Uni- sink as far below his normal condition as the 

ted States bonds afloat in the market, which stimulus had raised him above it ; a state in 

really constituted the debt of the nation, the which all men saw visions, dreamed dreams, 

debt of the whole people, soon began to be and built air castles, and took them for reality 

looked upon as the capital of the nation and its and sober truth. 

people. The unnatural stimulus of such an in- '* But just in this stage of the disease, when 

flation of the currency encouraged a reckless all seemed gold that glittered, there burst forth 

spirit of speculation, and drew men into the in New York, like a clap of thunder in a clear 

undertaking of numerous and gigantic enter- sky, the dismal shriek, *• The Northern Pacific 

prises far in advance of the legitimate demands Railroad has collapsed ; Jay Cooke is a bank- 

of healthy business. rupt ! ' And in a few hours this cry had been 

** Railroads especially were projected every- carried over the wires to every comer of the 

where ; not only to meet the present wants of Union, bringing a chill to the hearts of thon- 

commerce, but with the sole idea of creating sands who had invested their treasures in its 

business where it did not exist ; running hun- bonds and others directly or indirectly con- 

dreds of miles through forests or prairies or nected with that enterprise. And at once the 

deserts without an inhabitant, and depending holders, not only of these bonds, but the hold- 

npon future settlements to furnish business to ers of all the bonds and stocks of other abor- 

the roads. The existing trunk lines were tive railroad projects (for all were more or less 

loaded down with the branches which they connected with and dependent upon the others), 

undertook to construct, and which would not began to tremble. 

pay running expenses then, and some of wh;cli **The people began to open their eyes; and 
do not to-day; and finally the Northern Pacific down went one siter another of those abor- 
Railroad, that abortion of the last decade, tive railroad projects. All stocks and bonds 
which should only have been undertaken in felt the shock ; and through the whole series 
the next generation, was projected and com- one knocked down another, like a set of blocks 
menced. All these roads issued bonds and set up by children for amusement. All the 
stocks which were thrown upon the market, bright visions had been dissipated, and a con- 
and large sums were invested in them. They gestive chill succeeded the fever of exaltation 
bought and speculated in each other^s bonds which had preceded it. All began to open 
and stocks, treating them as so much reliable their eyes to the fact that debts were not capi- 
oapital. The iron manufacturers enlarged their tal ; and distrust took the place of confidence, 
works and machinery to meet the increased All then saw that, like insects, they had only 
demands which so many roads were expected been lifted into the region of imaginary pros- 
to reouire. Some of the iron companies also perity upon a hollow bubble, by the explosion 
issued bonds and stocks. They sola their iron of whic& they had been sunk deeper into the 
in large quantities for the bonds and stocks of mire than if they had never clung to its glitter- 
these railroad companies, and went on enlarg- ing film. Down went the iron men with roil- 
ing their works and increasing their produo- lions of the worthless bonds of such companies 
tion. This is but a sample of all the other in their hands and with large stocks of iron 
great business enterprises of the day, all of for which there was no demand ; and all de- 
which were carried on largely upon credit; pendent upon them or connected with them 
and all had come to look upon each other^s went down with them. Works were stopped 
stocks and bonds, and frequently upon their or greatly reduced in efficiency. Laborers be- 
own liabilities, as so much actual capital, as fore employed in the various railroad projects 
they had before looked upon the debt of the and at the forge were thrown out of employ- 
nation as the capita] of the nation : as if the ment, and the stocks of iron would only sell 
day of payment was never to come. at reduced prices. 

" All kinds of business were buoyant, brisk, '' Tliis is but a sample. All other great basi- 

lively, and apparently prosperous beyond ex- ness enterprises took a similar course ; and the 

ample in the history of the world. Labor was people woke np to the fact tiiat all were in 

in demand and wages high ; prices were infla- debt and none could pay. And capital, always 

ted, purely fancy and dmost fabulous, ^and timid, shnmk f^om undertaking or continuing 

all went merry as a marriage beU,' for the business enterprises which gave employment 

time— and the multitude were so short-sighted to laborers ; and the hard times were upon ns. 

as to suppose such a state of things could en- Such, in brief, were the causes of the hard 

dure forever ; as if the real prostration caused times and distress by which the country has 

by the war could be finally got over in this been afflicted, and not the want of a sufi^cient 

pleasant way. Now this, in my opinion, then volume of currency, which business and enter- 

and now, was exactly the period of disease in- prise would not venture to use, had it been 

stead of health in the body politic, which had issued. Whatever the amount of currency not 



OOtfGRESS, UNITED STATES. 155 

restiog upon a solid and reliable specie basis \ ** 1. I believe gold and silver coin to be 
migbt be m such a state of doabt ana suspicion, money of the Constitution — indeed, the money 
it would have gone into the banks or the bauds of ttie American people anterior to the Gonsti- 
ofetpitalista who dare not use it in business; tution, which that great organic law recog- 
as tbe blood in a chill shrinks back to the uized as quite indepeudent of its own existence. 
heirl , No power was conferred on Congress to de- 
" Still, in apite of all these obstacles, confi- clare that either metal should not be money. 
denee would long since have been restored and Congress has therefore, in my judgment, no 
biuineas enterprises resumed their normal con- power to demonetize silver any more than to 
dition, but for the wild financial schemes of demonetize gold ; no power to demonetize ei- 
bankrupt debtors, all of which schemes con- ther any more than to demonetize both. In this 
sisted in rnnning still more deeply in debt, or statement I am but repeating the weighty dictum 
piTing only in empty promises which were of the first of constitutional lawyers. ^ I am 
Bererto be fulfilled; like the greenback theory certainly of opinion,' said Mr. Webster, Hhat 
o: finance, started first by the iron manufac- gold and silver, at rates fixed by Congress, oon- 
rirers and taken up by decayed politicians and stitute the legal standard of value in this coun- 
Mo^ht to be forced upon the Government. try, and that neither Congress nor any State has 
** But thia insane delusion had already been so authority to establish any other standard or to 
thoroughly exposed that the country had ceased displace this standard.' Few persons can be 
to fear it, and all things were working upward found, I apprehend, who will maintain that 
before chia bill of ill omen came into the Sen- Congress possesses the power to demonetize 
ate. Confidence was being rapidly restored; both gold and silver, or that Congress could 
ili« Treasury notes had risen to ninety-seven be justified in prohibiting the coinage of both ; 
or ninety-eight cents in gold, and would soon and yet in logic and legal construction it would 
iure been at par with gold, when specie re- be difficult to show where and why the power 
nmption would have been practically accom- of Congress over silver is greater than over 
piuhed — no one wishing the specie when the gold — greater over either than over the two. 
Treasury note should be able to command it, If, therefore, silver has been demonetized, I am 
nd worth the same amount Such, but for in favor of remonetizing it. If its coinage has 
this silver bill, would, in my opinion, have been prohibited, I am in favor of ordering it to 
Keen tbe reaalt long before next January ; but be resumed. If it has been restricted, I am in 
ioT this oininous silver bUl, by which a debased favor of having it enlarged, 
coin is to be made a legal tender in the pay- *^ 2. What power, then, has Congress over 
sent of all debts and demands, both of the gold and silver? It has the exclusive pow- 
(rjremment and individuals. This, as it will er to coin them ; the exclusive power to reg- 
rtdnce the greenbacks to the level of silver ulate their value ; very great, very wise, very 
ind drive all gold from the country, will, in necessary powers, for the discreet exercise 
my opinion, put ofiT for years the resumption of which a critical occasion has now arisen. 
4-f specie payments, even in the proposed de- However men may differ about causes and pro- 
bued coin, and compel us to travel again over cesses, all will admit within a few years a 
the same toilsome road we had already gone great disturbance has taken place in the rela- 
orcr^ and leave us five or ten years hence fur- tive values of gold and silver, and that silver 
"Ler from real, honest resumption than, but is worth less or gold is worth more in the 
f.,r the passage of such a bill, we would be to- money markets of the world in 1878 than in 
diT. 1878, when the further coinage of silver dol- 
*' We shall never have a condition of things lars was prohibited in this country. To re- 
a which capital will seek investment in large monetize it now as though the facts and cir- 
^-^^510659 enterprises, creating a demand for cumstances of that day were surrounding us, 
^ibor and securing living prices to laborers, is to willfully and blindly deceive ourselves 
ztxH we get back to specie payments upon a If our demonetization were the only cause for 
i^ and proper basis, so that paper shall be the decline in the value of silver, then reinon- 
\mf^ upon coin and redeemable in it at the etization would be its proper and effectual 
vprion of the holder; nor until the coinage of cure. But other causes, quite beyond our 
:^ coontry shall have the real and substantial control, have been far more potentially opera- 
rilne for which it is made a tender. And, be- tive than the simple fact of Congress prohibit- 
r^ a commercial nation, that value must cor- ing its further coinage ; and as legislators we 
r-«;iond with the market value in the countries are bound to take cofmizance of these causes. 
T-.*ii which our trade is principally carried on." The demonetization of silver in the great Ger- 
Mr. BlAine, of Maine, siud : '^ The discussion man Empire, and the consequent partial, or 
'1 the qaestion of remonetizing silver, Mr. wellnigh complete, suspension of coinage in 
PVe^i dent, has been prolonged, able, and ex- the governments of the Latin Union, have been 
'"looire. I may not expect to add much to the leading, dominant causes for the rapid de- 
:« Talae, bat I promise not too add much to dine in the value of silver. 
u ieo^h. I shall endeavor to consider facts " I believe then if Germany were to remone- 
ncher than theories, to state conclusions rath- tize silver, and kingdoms and states of the Lat- 
er than argaments: in Union were to reopen their mints, silver 



156 CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 

woold at once resnme its former relation with comes general in the channels of trade. Some 
gold. The European countries when driven one, in conversation with GomiDodore Van* 
to fiiU remonetization, as I helieve they will derbilt during one of the many freight com- 
be, must of necessity adopt their old ratio of petitions of the trunk lines, said, * Why, the 
fifteen and a half of silver to one of gold, and Canadian road has nut sufficient carrying ca- 
we shall then be compelled to adopt the same pacity to compete with your great line/ 'That 
ratio instead of our former sixteen to one. is true,' repned the Commodore, * but they 

**3. The question before Congress then — can fix the rate and force us down to it.' Were 
sharply defined in the pending House bill — is, Congress to pass a law to-day declaring that 
whether it is now safe and expedient to offer every legal-teuder note and every national- 
free coinage to the silver dollar of 4l2^ grains, bank note shall hereafter pass for only ninety- 
with the mints of the Latin Union closed and six or ninety-seven cents on the dollar, there 
Germany not permittiug silver to be coined as is not a constituency in the United States that 
money. At current rates of silver, the free would reelect a man that should support it, 
coinage of a dollar containing 412^ grains, and in many districts the representatives would 
worth in gold about ninety-two cents, gives an be lucky if he escaped with merely a minority 
illegitimate profit to the owner of the bullion, vote. 

enabling him to take ninety-two cents' worth *^ And yet it is almost mathematically de- 
of it to the mint and get it stamped as coin monstrable that the same effect will inevitably 
and force his neighbor to take it for a full dol- follow from the coinage of an inferior silver 
lar. This is an undue and unfair advantage dollar. Assurances from empirics and scien- 
which the Government has no right to give to lists in finance, that remonetization of the 
the owner of silver bullion, and which defrauds former dollar will at once and permanently ad- 
the man who is forced to take the dollar. And vance its value to par with gold, must go for 
it assuredly follows that if we give free coin- what they are worth in the face of opposing 
age to this dollar of inferior value and pnt it and controlling facts. The first and instant 
in circulation, we do so at the expense of our effect of issuing any silver dollar that will pay 
better coinage in gold; and unless we expect customs dues and interest on the public debt 
the uniform and invariable experience of other will undoubtedly be to raise it to a practical 
nations to be in some mysteriotis way suspend- equality with gold ; but that condition will only 
ed for our peculiar benefit, we inevitably lose last until the amount needful for customs shall 
our gold com. It will flow out from ns with fill the channels of its use; and the overflow go- 
the certainty and resistless force of the tides, inginto general circulation will rapidly settle to 
Gold has indeed remained with us in consider- its normal and actual value, and then the dis- 
able amount during the circulation of the in- count will come on the volume of the paper cor- 
ferior currency of the legal tender; but that renoy, which will sink|>arf/>a««i with the silver 
was because tiiere were two great uses re- dollar in which it is made redeemable. That re- 
served by law for gold : the collection of cus- monetization will have a considerable effect 
toms and the payment of interest on the pub- in advancing the value of the dollar is beyond 
lie debt. But if the inferior silver coin is also doubt, but not enough to overcome the differ- 
to be used for these two reserved purposes, ence now existing — a difierence resulting from 
then gold has no tie to bind it to us. causes quite independent of our control on this 

*'4. Consider further what ii^ustice would continent, 
be done to every holder of a legal-tender "6. The responsibility of reestablishing sil- 
or nationid-bank note. That vast volume ver in its ancient and honorable place as mon- 
of paper money—over $700,000,000—18 now ey in Europe and America, devolves reaDy 
worth between ninety-eight and ninety-nine on the Congress of the United States. If we 
cents on the dollar in gold coin. The holders act here with prudence, wisdom, and firmness, 
of it, who are indeed our entire population we shall not only successfully remonetize sil- 
from the poorest to the wealthiest, have been ver and bring it into general use as money in our 
promised from the hour of its issue that the own country, but the influence of our example 
paper money would one day be as good as will be potential among all European nations, 
gold. To pay silver for the greenback is a with the possible exception of England, 
full compliance with this promise and this ob- ^^ 6. On the much-vexed and long-mooted 
ligation, provided the silver is made, as it fd- question of a bimetallic or monometallic stand- 
ways has been hitherto, as good as gold. To ard, my own views are sufficiently indicated 
make our silver coin even three per cent, less in the remarks I have made. I believe the 
valuable than gold inflicts at once a loss of struggle now going on in this country and in 
more than twenty millions of dollars on the other countries for a single gold standard 
holders of our paper money. To make a silver would, if successful, produce wide-spread dis- 
doUar worth but ninety-two cents precipitates asters in the end throughout the commercial 
on the same class a loss of wellnigh sixty mil- world. The destruction of silver as money and 
lions of dollars. For whatever the value of establishing gold as the sole unit of value 
the silver dollar is, the whole paper issue of must have a ruinous effect on all forms of 
the country will sink to its standard when its property except those investments which yield 
coinage is authorized and its circulation be- a flxed return in money. These would be 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 167 

oonnoaslj enhanced in valne, and w^nld gain will equate itself with the gold dollar, and ef- 

a disproportionate and unfair advantage over fectnallj guard against the drain of our gold 

ififj other apeoies of property. during the time necessary for international 

" 7. The qaestion of beginning anew the conference in regard to the general reSstablisIi- 

coinage of ulver dollars has aroused much ment of silver as money. 
dixQsdon as to its effect on the public credit; ^* And I think we owe this to the American 

and the Senator from Ohio (Mr. Aiatthews) laborer. Ever since we demonetized the old 

placed this phase of the subject in the very dollar we have been running our mints at full 

forefront of the debate — ^insisting, prematurely speed, coining a new silver dollar for the use 

and Ulogically, I think, on a sort of judicial of the Chinese cooly an(i the Indian pariali — a 

construction in advance, by concurrent resolu- dollar containing 420 grains of standard silver, 

tioo. of a certain law in case that law should with its superiority over our ancient dollar os- 

kppen to be passed by Congress. My own tentatiously engraved on its reverse side. To 

raw on this question can be stated very brief- these * outside barbarians ' we send this supe- 

Ij. I believe the public creditor can afford to nor dollar, bearing all our national emblems, 

be paid in any silver dollar that the United our patriotic devices, our pious inscriptions, 

."^rates can afford to coin and circulate. We our goddess of liberty, our defiant eagle, our 

hare forty thousand millions of property in federal unity, our trust in Grod. This dollar 

tfai4 coantry, and a wise self-interest will not contains 7i grains more silver than the famous 

permit os to overturn its relations by seeking * dollar of the fathers ' proposed to be recoined 

for an inferior dollar wherewith to settle the by the pending bill, and more than four times 

does and denumds of any creditor. The quea- as many of these new dollars have already been 

ti«iD mi^ht be different from a merely selfish coined as ever were coined of aU other silver 

standpoint if, on paying the dollar to the pub- dollars in the United States. In tiie excep- 

lie creditor, it would disappear after perform- tional and abnormal condition of the silver 

io? that function. Hut the trouble is that the market now existing throughout the worhl we 

inferior dollar yun pay the public creditor re- have felt compelled to increase the weight of 

najns in circulation, to the exclusion of the the dollar with which we carry on trade with 

Utter dollar. That which you pay at home the heathen nations of Asia. And shall we do 

wUl stay there; that which you send abroad less for the American laborer at home? Nay, 

« ill come back. The interest of the public shall we not do a little better and a little more 

(Ttiditor ii« indiasolnbly bound up with the in- for those of our own blood and our own fire- 

terest of the whole people. Whatever affects side? " 

Lim affects us all ; and the evil that we might Mr. Withers, of Virginia, said : ** Mr. Pres- 
indict upon him by paying an inferior dollar ident, the bill under consideration, which I 
Vi/old recoil upon us with a vengeance as believe is to be an important factor in restor- 
Dunifold as the aggregate wealth of the Re- ing the prosperous condition of our country, 
public tranaoends the comparatively small lim- has been assailed most vigorously upon two 
':> of oar bounded debt. And remember that grounds— objection to the legality of the pro- 
oar assgregate wealth is always increasing, and posed measure, and objection to its expediency. 
(•V l>onded debt steadily growing less I If I shall have but little to say with regard to the 
paid in a good silver dollar, the bondholder legal question ; fir?t, because I am not myself 
bas nothing to complain of. If paid in an in- learned in legal lore, and it is perhaps pre- 
f:rrior silver dollar, he has the same grievance sumptuous in me to attempt a legal argument. 
that will be uttered still more plaintively by But as long as I have the Constitution before 
the holder of the legal-tender note and of the me I cannot fail to recognize tlie force of that 
aatjonal-bank bill, by the pensioner, by the provision which specifies that gold and silver 
daj laborer, and by the countless host of the shall be the currency of this coantry, shall be 
pfior, whom we have with us always, and on the legal tender of this coantry. I recognize 
vhom the most distressing effect of inferior another fact, that the law of contracts must be 
money will be ultimately precipitated. held as applying to all the obligations of the 

^S. When we pledged the public cre<litor in Government, and when these bonds upon their 

1^70 that our obligations should be paid in the face distinctly declare that they are payable in 

stAJidard coin of that date, silver bullion w.os coin of a certain specified value, it cannot be 

vorth in the London market a fraction over that payment in such coin is a violation of the 

Mxty pence per ounce; its average for the contract. 

j'ist eight months has been about fifty-four ^* By the Constitution the power ' to coin 

;^re; the price reckoned in gold in both money and regulate the value thereof Ms giv- 

'.«Mis. But the large difference is due partly en to Con^^ess in explicit terms ; and stand- 

Ui the rise in gold as well as to the fall in sil- in<]^ upon that provision, I do not care to seek 

▼«r. Allowing for both these causes and strik- further to find an argument to sustain the 

tLz the difference, it will be found, in the judg- proposition that Congress has absolute and 

L mt of many of the wisest men in this coun- entire control of this subject. I know my 

:rr. perfectly safe to issue a dollar of 425 grains friend from Delaware (Mr. Bayard) says this 

iLukdard silver ; as one that, anticipating the power to * coin money and regulate the value 

t^ and legitimate influence of remonetization, thereof,^ if carried out in the manner proposed, 



158 CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 

wonid be to ' coin money and falsify the valne the question : ' How is it possible for the stamp 

thereof,* but I cannot admit the soundness of of the Government to ^ve to a piece of silver 

his logic. How is it possible for Congress to worth ninety cents valne as a hundred cents 9* 

falsify the value of an article when the Con- I answer, briefly, by making it a legal tender 

stitution gives it the power to fix that value f for all debts. The tremendous effect of value 

Whatever value Congress puts upon it is the of legal-tender power on currency is one which 

value, and it cannot, therefore, be falsified by does not seem to be appreciated by those who 

their action. oppose this proposition. Even my friend from 

*^ As an abstract proposition, I hold that un- Georgia, whose candid exposition of the argu- 

der the Constitution of the United States the ments on his side of the question has struck 

whole question of what shall be a legal tender me with such force, while admitting the possi- 

for debt is left with the States, and, although bility that the effect of making it a legal tender 

gold is now the sole standard by the laws of would be appreciable, failed, I think utterly, 

Congress, I believe that any State has the per- to realize the full force of this effect. Perhaps 

feet right now to declare both silver and gold a few citations will refresh the minds of Sen- 

a legal tender within its limits, because the ators on that subject, and show that the im- 

Constitution explicitly provides that this power print of the Government investing with legal- 

shall rest with the States, and the phraseology tender power an article intrinsically worthless 

of the Constitution is specific and conclusive, has in the history of more than one nation 

It does not say * gold or silver,' but ^ gold and stamped it with an absolute intrinsic valne 

silver,' one with as much force as the other, equal to that of gold itself. Why, sir, look at 

and no power exists legally to dissolve this the French currency, where three thousand 

partnership between the two metals which millions of irredeemable paper was issued and 

has been created by the Constitution itself, circulated side by side with sold, retaining the 

the fundamental law of the land. same value up to the close of the war and even 

^^ It is said that at the time these bonds were down to the present time, simply because it 

issued after the demonetization of silver in was full legal tender for all dues whether pub- 

1878, the holder had the right to expect pay- lie or private. Contrast this with our green- 

ment in gold because silver did not exist at back currency, with promise to pay and limited 

that time as coin. I will come to the discus- legal tender. Did not the Government here 

sion of the latter part of the proposition as to propose to pay the greenback in coin when is- 

the non-existence of silver in a subsequent por- sued ? Do they not stand pledged to pay it 

tion of the remarks I expect to submit. But either in gold or silver ? And yet because it 

no creditor has a right at any time to claim lacked that one single element of being a legal 

anything more than is specified in his bond, tender for all purposes, the greenback has not 

Shylock himself, who will live in all time as yet appreciated to the gold standard. I would 

the prototype of his class, demanded liis * pound call your attention to the issue under the laws 

of fiesh' because it was. so * nominated in the of 1862 of $60,000,000 of legal-tender certifi- 

bond.' Tet these bondholders claim more than cates or demand notes which were made legal 

their bond demands, claim something not spe- tender by the terms of the law for all pur- 

cified in the bond, claim the privilege to select, poses ; and what was the resnlt in that case ? 

of two alternative coins in which their bond It was that those notes remained at par all the 

must be paid, the one which in their opinion is time with gold, and they circulated side by 

most valuable, asserting that the option is with side with gold all the time, that they com- 

the creditor and not the debtor. It is a well- manded a premium of 185 per cent, with gold, 

known principle of law that no verbal under- simply and wholly by virtue of their being 

standing can set aside the written words of a made a full legal tender. Long antecedent to 

contract. When a written contract exists, so this time the bills which were issued under the 

far as my knowledge extends, it is held valid act of July, 1861, which were known as the 

in every court of justice. full legal tenders, were of par value with gold 

" We next come to the consideration of the all tlie time, that in the markets of the world 

expediency of remonetizing silver and making they commanded the price of gold, and as gold 

it an unlimited legal tender, as is proposed by went up to 10, 20, 100, or 175 per cent, pre- 

this bill. But, say my friends, ^ Is it poHsible mium, those notes went up, step by step, pari 

that yon can favor a proposition to pay a dol- poMu, Why was it ? Not because of the sim- 

lar worth ninety cents in lieu of a dollar worth pie promise of the Government to pay at an 

one hundred cents ? ' This is the favorite for- unspecified time and in no specified eonmiodity, 

mula. It is one which is taking, it is one but because they had the quality of being full 

which is best calculated to mislead the super- legal tender for all obligations. Unlimited le- 

ficial thinker; consequently we find aU through gfd tender in any commodity, I care not what 

the country the demand, * Make the dollar in it is, gives it a certain and positive additional 

silver equal to the dollar in gold, and we are value. That is seen in the greenback, which, 

for it, but we cannot ae^ee to a dollar which although payable in coin and a legal tender 

is worth less than a dollar in gold.' except for customs and interest, has not at- 

*^ My friend from Connecticut (Mr. Eaton) tained the value in the market of full legal- 

adds another point to that argument by asking tender notes because it is not a legal tendei 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 169 

for tH dues. The snbsidiarj ooin about which the same at an^ United States ooina^ mint or assay 

so maoh has been said has demonstrated the office, to be oomed into such dollare for his benefit, 

.jR^# ^f i^^^i 4'^^A^^ .^\i ».^«A /.i4v^i.i«> an^ nt ^po^ tlie Same terms and conditions as eold bullion 

f^ffact of legal tender stall more clearly and nn- u^'deposited for ooinajje under existing livs. 

eqmvocally, Bemg a legal tender for a limited Sio. 2. All acts and partd of acts in^nsistent with 

amoont, for sams of $5, it is yet inyested with the provisions of this act are repealed, 

s TicarioDs ralne which it would not otherwise -,, j i. * ^i. o ^ « i 

po83e» as compared with silver bullion and as , The amendments of the Senate were as fol- 

compared with the trade doUar ; and although l^^J ' ^^/^.^^ ^^^ .^'^J^ contract," in tlie hrst 

ibe bne contains 420 grains and the other 884 ^^}'P'^ ^i^}^^ o«,V^^^ c?^^^ provided by " 
sad a fraction. 
Utter sells 

Betds nothing ^j ^-^ w- — 1..^« ^ ^,. - . . *, x- n • 

the immense addition to the valae of any com- ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ following 

moditr effected by makinfc it a legal tender.. And the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized 

*• If the mere promise of the Government to *"d directed to purchase, from time to time, silver 

PIT tod the additional fact of being made a bullion, at the market price thereof, not less than two 

!-*•* ji •"^ ""*^'""""' ^^ ^* ^/«t"6 ««« » milhou dollars' worth per month, nor more than four 

iiauted legal tender wiU mvest a mere piece of million dollars' worth per mouth, and cause the same 

m^ or paper with a value which now approx- to be coined monthly, as fast as so purchased, into 

imstes so closely to that of gold, how can it "uch dollars ; and a sum sufficient to carry out the 

W urged that the imprint of the Government foregoing provision of this sot is hereby appropri- 

r...x« • »*^»oi «k;^k ;« 4^v» A^«,«»«/x.<«;«i ww,r^miA ated out ot any money in the Treasury not otherwise 

Bjwm a metal which m the commercial world appropriated. And iny gain or seigniorage arising 

to-day, without sucn stamp, and m the face oi from this coinage shall be accounted for and paid 

all the pernicious and adverse legislation of intotheTreasury, as provided under existing lawn, 

rbich it has been the victim, by this nation relative to the subsidiary coinage : Provided, That 



lad other nations, sells now at eight per cent, the amount of money, at any one time, invested in 

•- . . .^. .,, . ^ -1. Il^a au X such Silver bullion, exclusive of such resulting coin, 

di«»unt, how IS it possible to assert that that bj^^U not exceed $6,000,000 : And provide fiiHher\ 

<»in will not be largely appreciated in value if That nothing in this act shall be construed to au- 



mjde a legnl tender for all debts, public and thorise the payment in silver of certifloatea of de- 
private f Now, as my friend from Oonnec- P0«»* issued under the provisioos of section 254 of 
tieat said the other day, *I pause for a re- the Revised Statutes. 

^^•' , , , 3 ^ , Also, after section 1 insert the following ad- 

The amendments were ordered to be en. ditional sections : 

rroscsed, and the bill to be read a third time. ^ ^ ^ , ^ , , 

' The byi was read the third time by its title. Sao. 2. That immediately after the passage of this 

Tk D :j*»» /Mn^^- . uTX.^ ^^^JLx^^ :» ^« act, the President shall mvite the governments of 

The Presiding Officer : The question is on ^Xx^ countries composing the Latin Union, so called, 

th« passage of the blU. and of such other European nations as he may deem 

The resalt was announced, as follows: advisable, to join the United States in a conteren'ce, 




DiTi* of ItUaoi}!, Davis of West Virgiriia, Dennis; io be held at^siiJhpUoer in' Europe o7ii the'Uidted 

b^y, Eaatis, Ferry. Garland, Gordon, Qrover, States, and at such time within six months, as may 

H-ref^rd, Howe, I ngal la, Johnston, Jones of Flon- be mutually agreed upon by the executives of the 

ii. Jones of Nevada, Kellogg, Kirk wood, McCrecry, governments joining in the same, whenever the gov- 

McD >Q»ld, McMillan. Matthewa, Maxev, Mernmon, emmen ta so invited, or any three of them, shall have 

M >rfmn, Ogrleabj, Paddock, Plumb, Saulsburv. baun- signified their wiUingness to unite in the same, 

^r* sjpencer, 'Wier, Thurman, Voorhees, WalUoe, »rj,e President shall, by and with the advice and 

wmiofo, WitherB--48. , „, . consent of the Senate, appoint three commissioners, 

^ -^^T*"^^-^**^: Anthony, Bamum, BayaM, Blaine, ^y,o ghall attend such conference ou behalf of the 

B*-r33ideChnniancy,Conkling, Dawes, Edrnurids, United States, and shall report the doings thereof 

H* Kim, Hj^,KeraanjAmar,McPherson. Mitchell, to the President, who shall transmit the same to 

Mmll, Randolph, BolUna, Sargent, Wadleigh, Confjress. 

White — 21. ,» 1 «. TT • TTMi -n Said commissioners shall each receive the sum of 

'^«^— MeMrs. Butter, Eaton, Hams, Uill, Fat- $2,500, and their reasonable expenses, to be approved 

Scrion, Banaom, Sharon— 7. by the Secretary of SUte ; and the am<iunt necessa- 
ry to pay such compensation and expenses is hereby 

In the House, on February 21 st, tbe amend- appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not 

%? K-iJ^^ ^"*^ were considered. ^talS^i^^rtTny bolder of the coin authoriaed b, 

Ttie bill was read, as foUows: this act may deposit the same with the Treasurer oi 

& it €matUi, €te,. That there shall be coined, «t nnyasHiHtant treasurer of the United States, in sums 

'•t leveral fiiinta of the United States, silver dollars "^J le«« t^an •]?' and receive therefor eertiftcates of 

/t:^ weizht of 4124 grains troy of standard silver, »«' less than $10 each corresponding with the de- 

•I rroTided ia the act of January 18, 1887, on which nominations of the United States notes. The coin 

»fei i be the devices and superscriptions provided by deposited for or representing the certificates shall be 

fui act ; which coins, together with all silver dof- retained in the Treasury for tlie payment of the same 

-I heretofore coined by the United States of like <>" demand. Said certificates shall be receivable for 

•.-/ t «ni tlneneas, shall be a legal tender, at their customs, taxes, and all public dues, and, when so 

ttRiinai valne, for all debU and dues, public and woei^ed, m«y be reissued. 

^>ite, except where otherwise provided by con- ., , ., ..., . j * « 

»^; ^d aa; owner of sUver buUion may deposit -^Jso, amend tbe title to read as follows: 



160 CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 

An act to Authorise the coinage of the Btandard eil- qnestiOD at this late day of the session whether 

ver dollar and to restore its legal-tender character. ^q g^^ iq take this bill or whether a determi- 

Mr. Butler, of Massachusetts, said : ^* I pro- nation to disagree with the Senate shall defeat 

pose, Mr. Speaker, with the leave of the the legislation upon this subject. 
House, to give the reason why I think it is not ^* I do not like this bilL It is not what the 

well to concur in che Senate amendments. I country expects. But I am in favor of takiiig 

cannot discuss the bill in five minutes, but I this now as making one step in the right di- 

can say to the House in that time that it is not roction. But I give notice here and now that 

according to its dignity, not according to the this war shall never cease so long as I have a 

proprieties of legislation, not according to the voice in this Congress, until the rights of the 

conduct in which an American Congress should people are fully restoreid, and the silver dollar 

carry on its business, to pass a measure of this shall take its place alongside the gold dollar, 

importance without a single word of discus- Meanwhile, let us take what we have, and 

sion; and I myself would endorse a veto of supplement it immediately on appropriation 

the President of the United States if he should bills ; and if we cannot do that, I am in favor 

send it back here and say, ' This House origi- of issuing paper money enough to stuff down 

nated it ; they have not given me one word to the bondholders until they are sick, 
direct my judgment or inform my conscience.' '^ I say I protest against this bill while I vote 

I think tiiat we should do what we do like for it under that protest. I want, in this 

men, and not grab at what may be given to us House, to give nutice and the understanding to 

at the other end of the Capitol as though we go forth that this is no compromise and no 

of the House, which originates revenue meas- settlement. It is not what the country expects 

nres and controls the appropriations of the or desires ; but we vote for it now to secure 

country, are to take what they send us as what we can at this time, intending to continue 

though it were a good gift of God, without a the necessary legislation hereafter. If we 

question. amend it now and send it back to the Senate, 

'^I desire to have this measure discussed, and they discuss it three or four months longer, 
and the trouble with tlie friends of the bill — as they might do, they defeat that legislation, 
for we are here in a two-thirds majority — It is true policy to take this. It restores the 
seems to be we shall lose it if we discuss it. silver dollar, makes it a legal tender, and corn- 
Are they so afraid ? Furthermore, it is said pels the coining of $2,000,000 a month, up to 
we are to take this or nothing. Why, we have the capacity of the Mint. I say, pass the bill 
this bill always in our power. We can amend and let us then get up a free-coinage bill and 
it as much as we please ; send it over to the pass that also." 

other end of the Capitol, where our friends Mr. Ewing, of Ohio, said: '*Mr. Speaker, 

are in a two-thirds majority. If our friends nine tenths of the people of the United States 

think at any time the bill is in danger we can demand the unlimited coinage of the old silver 

recede from our opposition to those amend- dollar with which to pay their debts and con- 

ments and then take this bill at all times. But duct their business. They demand, in short, 

under the circumstances, I pray, gentlemen, we the status quo of silver as a money metal from 

shall not show such fear of this great measure the foundation of the Republic down to the 

that we are not willing to declare our senti- furtive and rascally acts of demonetization in 

ments to the country and give the reasons for 1873-^74. They are entitled to have that de- 

the faith that is in us. For one, I shall ask the mand heeded by their representatives. Tliis 

House, whether this bill passes in this way or House should at least make a determined effort 

another, at some time to give roe an oppor- to secure it. But if, in a faint, half-hearted 

tunity to explain to my constituents, who are way, we accept without a struggle a delusive 

not clamoring for this bill by any manner of compromise— without even asking a committee 

means — to explain to my constituents why I of conference — we will wrong ourselves and 

vote for the bill. At the present I think it is the people. By standing firmly for the whole 

a wrong done to every gentleraan situated as I right we will get it now, I think; and if we 

am, or otherwise, if he has not had that privi- fail, a tempest of popular indignation, which 

lege and never has had, and, if the President no officer of the Government can withstand, 

signs the bill, never can have it." will right the wrong, and right it thoroughly. 

Mr. Bland, of Missouri, said : "Mr. Speaker, "Mr. Speaker, see how the Bland bill has 

in the Forty-fourth Congress I had the honor been perverted by the Senate amendments from 

as chairman of the Committee on Mines and its original beneficent purpose and effect. Our 

Mining, to introduce a bill similar to this one. bill declared unlimited coinage of silver. In 

That bill passed this House and went to the Profesi^or Linderman^s testimony before the 

Senate; but the Senate did not even give it a Coinage Committee, he says that with our 

passing notice. At this session this bill was mints open we would get fifteen millions a 

introduced and pai^sed under a suspension of year from Mexico and three millions from 

the rules some three months ago and went to South America. This, added to our own pro- 

the Senate, and they have been debating it duct, w^ould enable us to coin silver doUars at 

there ever since and send it back in this the rate of about sixty millions a year. This 

amended and mutilated form. It is now a would call for a reopening of the New Orleans 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 161 

• 

ind Chiriottesyflle mints and the enlargement As I have not been permitted to say anything 

of the ctpacitj of the mints now coining ; bat on this question, I wish to ask w&l it be in 

the expense of Booh preparation woaldbe com- order for me to say I approve the amendment 

pintirel/ trifling. This bill shats out silver offered by the gentleman from Ohio (Mr. 

{too ibroad, expels from our shores one half Eeifer) f '* 

oftiieprodnct of our own mines, and gives us The Speaker pro tempore: ** The remark of 
Mt tf entj-four millions a year, except by tlie the gentleman is not in order. Does the gen- 
grK« of the Secretary of the Treasury, the tleman from Georgia yield f ^* 
ISA inreterate enemy of the silver dollar. Mr. Stephens, of Georgia: '^I prefer the 
Hot tbsnrd is the pretense of restoring silver Senate amendments in some respects to the 
u&IefTil tender for public and private debts original bill. I did not like the free-coinage 
rbrii, \}j the same act, we perpetuate a de- feature in the original bill. The amendment 
aooetization of nearly two thirds of the metal of that feature I approve. The other amend- 
to ptr them 1 And to crown the absurdity ments, Mr. Speaker, I do not like ; but not a 
T( make a large and indefinite appropriation single one of them is of such a character that 
*ji euble the President to select and send a I would forfeit the passage of the bill on ao- 
romisaion of anti-silver men to Europe to count of them — ^not one. 
pip«kj with our foreign creditors for a revo- ** The great object that I had in view, and 
otioDof even tMs smaU concession to the rights that I think the migority of the Uouse had in 
(if the people. view, is accomplished by this bill; that is, the 
''Bat these are not all the repulsive features donble standard of value by it is to be retetab- 
of tbesd amendments. The country is in an lished in this country. By it the dollar of the 
tpQj of business distress, and looks for some fathers is restored. By it silver is made money. 
KJ«f by a gradual increase of the currency. That is the great object I had in view. We 
Tk HoQse bill authorized not only unlimited can easily, if a majority of this House shall 
epjuge, bat coinage of silver bullion owned by hereafter think wise to do so, supplement the 
d^ns for immcKiiate use in business. This bill in any way we please. I shall vote for all 
VJI authorixes no coinage except for the Gov- these Senate amendments, lest we hazard the 
nmeat Two millions of silver bullion per great important principle established in the 
£o3tti are to be bought by the Secretary of bill. I shall say no more, but now ask the 
tlie Treasury, How will he buy it? There are previous question.^' 

10 qirplus revenues. But the resumption law The question was upon concurring in the 

auborues the issue of bonds to prepare for re- first amendment of the Senate, to strike out in 

sznptiou. Under that law only can he make line 12 of the first section the words ** provided 

&e porchaae, and only by the issue of bonds ; by " and insert in lieu thereof " expressly stip- 

^ saddling the people with at least two mil- ulated in the contract " ; so that it will read : 

feu per month of new bonded debt. And Which ooins, toRether with all silver dollars hew-. 

vben silver bullion is so bought the resump- tofore ooined by the United Statesof like weight and 

tiM Ml under which he will issue the bonds fineneae, shall be a lesal tender at their nominal 

J'7 't*' ** 'f''^^ nnjBt be hoard- J^lf^^^, ^Z^iTpi^\&^l!: Z 

tuintbe Treasury for the redemption of green- contract. r / r 

^'ii. Thos this bill, instead of giving the ., .. ^ :, j. . . 

people more currency, gives them only more , ^'^^ qnestion was put; and on a division 

^eddebt. Instead of being a biU to relieve there were--ayes 176, no^ 62. 

irtD from the terrible effects of contraction ^ T**® ^«^ amendment of the Senate was to 

adre«niption,it reSnforoes the resumption f!^™^^^'*^ ^ «i^f the word "contract" m 

weaieand encourages its promoters to stand ^l^^^.^^ f^ t^® first section, down to and in- 

am and resist aU efforts to repeal it. dudmg the word " laws," as follows : 

" We are told, * Get this mucn now, and then ^^^ '^J owner of silver bullion may deposit the 

a the rest by a new bill' Sir, if the friends •2?? '1 S^ PnUed States ooiuage mint or assay 

Jti.^ I r xiL» 1 • Z "'7"**" office, to be coined into each dollars for his benefit, 

*Ji6 people accept this as a triumph, a long upon the same terms and oonditiona as gold bullion 

^^ OD this question will follow. If the ene- ia deposited for coinage under existing Uiws. 

^^of lOver will not remonetize it now, when a ^a 4-^ ;«o/»,f «« i;/»r. ♦Ti ^.^/^^ .o #^^ii^«r<, . 

&i*rf:U» A«^*^.«^«» ;- .^^«» — «ii 4.\.^J A^ 14. And to insert m lieu thereof as lollows : 

f r<iar excitement is great, will they do it * , ^.t. « .. ^ ^i. r«_ . .i. . ^ 

•i^ it has been allayed by a vaunted triumph ? ^°,4^® SooretaTy of the Trejwnry « authorised 

?. «. a. *"~".?"*^2^ yj^ Twuuwu. wiuuipu I ^^^ directed to purchase, from time to time, silver 

ii, w; they wiU not yield another mch until bullion, at the tmirket price thereof, not leu than 

«iuU hare been demonstrated by sad expe- two million dollars' worth per month, nor more than 

*^^ that the amendments to this bill are in four million dollars' worth per month, and cause the 

i^U fresh triumph of the wrong over the fame to be coined monthly, as fast as so purchased, 

tA- nf tk^ m^ni^ ..^»A. ^^^^^^ ,v»^,xi^ into such dolkre ; and a sum somcient to carry out 

'J: ^I!r ™^^®^ P®^®f ^^®^ . .P^P*?- the foregoing provUions of this act is hereby appro- 

•-«a. Jt lue masses are not worn out m their pnated out of any money In the Treasury not other- 

^%rles to control their own Government, a wise appropriated. And any gain or seiffniorage 

1:4 fifiUtion will follow, and a new Oongress, srieing from this coinage shall be accounted for and 

"Taof guch agitation, secure that justice pwd into the Trewuiy, as provided under wdstinff 

ij*»\**«riuJ71/ "s^-JT-iui A •'ji J »» 1*^8 relative to the subsidiary coinage: Provided. 

»^i an be had now if inflexibly demwided." That the amount of money, at inj one fime, invested 

V. browne : ^* I nse to a qneation of order, in snob silver bullion, ezolusive of such resulting 
You xvni. — 11 A 



162 CONGRESS, UKITED STATEa 

ooiDjijhall not exceed $6,000,000: Andprfrndsd/ur- coinage of silver dollaw, with the objectiona 

tMTy That nothing in thiB act shall be construed to ^f tht\ PrA«iHAnf oa fnVnvira • 

authorize the pavSient in sUver of oertifloatea of de- ^^ ^^ rresiaent as loLowB . 

posit issued under the provisions of section 254 of m ax rr ^ t> ^_j. 

the Revised Statutes. ^^ '** ^^^^ ^f BtprtnnUiiwu : 

Ti^/^ /,r.A<.«^;/^n «r„- ♦«i^«« ^^ ^^^^^^« . « After a very careful consideration of the House 

The question was taken, as follows : \,ii, No. 1098, entiUed ** An act to authorise the coin- 

TxAS— Messrs. Aiken, Aldrich, Bacon, Bag]ej, age of the standard silver dollar and to restore its 

John H. Baker, William H. Baker, Ballou, Bannin}:, legaUtender character," I feel compelled to r«tum it 




Calkins, Camp, Campbell, Candler, Caswell, Claflin, annual message, that "neither the interests of the 

Alvoh A. Clark, Clark of Missouri, Bush Clark, Government nor of tlie people of the United States 

Clymer, Cole, Collins, Conner, Cook, Covert, Jacob would be promoted by disparaging silver as one of 

D. Cox, Crapo, Cravens, Cummings, Cutler, Dan- the two precious metals which furnish the coinage 

ford, Davidson, Ilorace Davis. Joseph J. Davis, of the world, and that legislation which looka to 

Deering, Denison, Dibrell, Dickey, Douglas, Dun- maintaining the volume of intrinsic money to as full 

nell, Dwiffht, Eames, Eden, Eickhoff, Ellsworth, a measure of both metals as their relative commer- 

Errett, I. r^ewton Evans, James L. Evans, Field, oial values will permit would be neither unjust nor 

Finley, Fornev, Fort, Foster, Freeman, Frve, Fuller, inexpedient,*' it has been my earnest desire to con- 

Oarfleld, Garth, Gibson, Glover, Goode, HaJe^ Hanna, cur with Congress in the adoption of such measures 

Hardenbeigh, Harmer, Beigamin W. Hiurns, Hart, to increase the silver coinage of the countnr as would 

Hartridge, Haskell, Hatcher, Hayes. Hazelton, Hen- oot impur the obligation of contracts, either public 

dee, Henderson, Ueory, Abram'S. uewitt, Hiscock, or private, nor injuriously^ affect the public credit. 

Hubbell, Hunter, Hunton, Humphrev, Hungerford, It is only upon the conviction tl:at this bill does not 

Ittner, James, Frank Jones, James T. Jones, John meet these essential requirements that I feel it my 

8. Jones, Jorgensen, Joyce, Eeifer, Kelley. Eeuna, dutv to withhold fh)m it my approval. 

Ketcham, KiUinger, Knapp, Landers, Lapham, La- My present official dut^ as to this bill permits only 

throp, Leonard, Ligon, Lindsey, Loring. Mackey, an attention to the specific objections to its passage 

Marsh, Martin, McCook, McGowan, MoSmley. Mo- which seem to me so important as to Justify me in 

Mahon, Metcalfe, Mitchell, Mone^, Monroe, Morri- asking fh>m the wisdom and dutv of Congress that 

son, Neal, Norcross, Oliver. O'Neill, Overton, Page, Airtber consideration of the bill ror which the Con- 

G. W. Patterson, Peddle, Phillips, Phelps, Pollard, stitution has, in such cases, provided. 

Potter. Pound, Powers, Frioe, Pligli J^uinn, Bainey, The bill provides for the coinage of silver dollars 

Bandolph, Reed, Beilly, W. W. Bice, Boberts, George of the weight of 4121 grains each, of standard silver. 

D. Bobmson, Milton 8. Bobinson,Boss,Byan,Samp- to be a legal tender at their nominal value for all 

son, Sapp, Sadler, Schleicher, Sexton, ShsJlenoerger, debts and dues, nublic and private, except where 

Singleton, Smnickson, Smalls, Southard, Stariri, otherwise expressly stipulated in the coniract. It 

Btenger, Stephens, Stewart, John W. Stone, Joseph is well known that the market value of that number 

C. Stone, Strait, Thompson, Thombuigh, Amos of grains of standard silver during the past year has 

Townsend, M. I. Townsend,B. W. Townshend, been fi-om ninety to ninety-two cents as compared 

Tucker, Tumey, Van Vorhes/Waddell^ait, Walk- with tha sUndard gold dollar. Thus the silver 

er. Walsh, Ward, Warner, Watson, Welch, Harry dollar, authorixed by this bill, is worth 8 to 10 per 

White, Michael D. White, A. S. Williams, Andrew cent, less than it purports to be worth, and is made 

Williams, C. G. Williams, James Williams, Jere. N. a Idgal tender for debts contracted when the law did 

Williams, Bichard Williams, Willits, Wilson, Wren, not recognixe such coins as lawltd money. 

Wright, xeates— 208. The right to pay duties in silver or in certificates 

Nats— Messrs. Acklen, Atkins, Bell. Blackburn, ^or silver deposits will, when they are issued in suf- 

Bliss, Blount, Boone, Bouck, Bragg, Bright, Brog- ficient amount to circulate, put an end to the receipt 

den, Butler, John W. Caldwell, Cannon, Carliale, of revenue Ic gold, and thus compel the payment of 

Chalmers, Chittenden, Clarke of Kentucky, Cobb, silver for both the principal and interest ol the pub- 



Manning, McKenzie, Mills, Morgan. Morse, Mul« randed debt has been issued since February, 1878, 

drow. Muller. T. M. Patterson, Prldemore, Bea, when gold alone was the coin for which the bonds 

Beagan, Biddle, Bobbins, Bobertson, Scales, Shel- were sold^ and gold alone was the coin in which 

ley, Slemons, Sparks, Springer, Steele, Throckmor- both parties to the contract understood that the 

ton,Tumer. Vance, Veeder,Whitthome,Wigginton, bonds would be paid. These bonds entered int4> 

Albert S. Willis, Wood— 72. the markets of the world. They were paid for in 

Not Vornro — Messrs. Banks, Bridges, W. P. gold when silver had greatly depreciated, and when 

Caldwell, Durham, Felton, Gardner, Keightley, no one would have bought them if it had been nn- 

Lockwood, Mfliflh, Mavham, Americus V. Bioe, A. derstood that they would be paid in silver. The 

Herr Smith, William £.' Smith, Swann, Tipton, Ben- sum of $225,000^000 of these bonds has been sold 

jamin A. Willis, Young — 17. during my administration for ffold coin, and the 

^ , J X 1 United States received the benefit of tliese sales by 

DO the amendment was agreed to. a reduction of the rate of interest to four per cent. 

The next amendment was to insert as a new During the progress of these sales a doubt was sug- 

section the invitation to European govern- psted aa to the coin in whioh payment of these 

ments ; which w« concurred fn-ye« 196, r'tUr^n'"„"h'o5.,d^« w '.""CrSt: 

nays 71 . 1 he other amendments of the Senate anticipated that any future legislation of Congress 

were then concurred in. or anv action of any department of the Government 

would sanction or tolerate the redemption of the 

T« ♦!»/% g»»a4>a ^« TT^v-^— « oQ*i» ♦i.^ "D-^^* principal of these bonds, or the payment of the in- 

In the Senate, on February 28th, the Presi- terest thereon, in coin of less vSue than the coin 

dent pro tempore presented the bill for the authorized by law at the time of the iaaue of tha 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 163 

^73<k beiDsr the ooin exaoted bj the Government Toted in its favor, the bill has pfissed and be- 
in eicluinj^ for the same." come a law." 

Iq Tiew of these fmota it will be lastly regarded as 

tgnj6 breach of the public faith to undertake to , ^ . , j . x-l tt ^x j- 

pay tbeae bends, principal or interest, in silver coin ^n the same day in the Uonse, alter reading 

wtiitb in the market less than the coin received for the message, the Speaker said : ^^ The question 

tbeaL It is said that the silver dollar made a le^al before the House is, * Will the Honse on re- 

"l^'ml^ to^hJ*"old'^dollar''^SSn'*° ^ ortera consideration agree to pass the bill ? ' " 

Jf Tb/biirMieve thif,'*and woSd not ja8*SF/an I" ^^' Stephens, of Georgia: " Upon that 1 

teTipt to pay debts, either public or private, in coin move the previous question." 

of ioftfiior value to the money of tae world. The The previous question was seconded and the 

o^iMl defeot of the bill is that it contains no pro- main question ordered. 

rt^^a proteedng from its operation preexisting debts The question was taken, as follows : 

n oa^e the coinage which it creates shall continue to ^ »it**.o«»v*» »» w i/»<^vu, w avuvttd 

benf leM value than that w<iich was the sole legal Tbas — Messrs. Aiken, Aldrioh, Atkins, John H. 

loafer wheu they were contracted. If it is now Baker, Banning, Bavne, Bell, Benedict, Bicknell, 




cKinigrciai value thjin any dollar, whether of gold ler, John W. Caldwell, W. P. Calawell, Calkins, 

9rptp«r, which is now lawful money in this ooun- Candler, Cannon. Carlisle, Caswell, Chalmers, Clark 

:rT,ftadh measore, it will hardly be questioned, will, of Missouri, Busn Clark, Clarke of Kentucky, Cly- 

iatiiejadgtnentormankind, be an actofbad faith, mer, Cobb, Cole, Conger, Cook, Jaoob 1>. Cos, 

liV>sU(tebts heretofore contracted, the silver dol- Samuel S. Cox. Cravens, Crittenden, Culberson, 

Wsboald be made a legal tender only at its market Cummings, Cutler, Danford. Davidson. Joseph J. 

n^'oe. The standard of value should not be changed Davis, Deering, Dibrell, Dickey, Dunnell, Durham, 

vubooft the eonsent of both parties to the contract. Eden, Elam, £llis, Errett, James L. Evans, John H. 

Sidioal promises should be kept with unflinching Evins. Ewing, Felton, Fiale^. Forney, Fort, Foster, 

iieUtr. There is no power to compel a nation to Franklin. Fuller, Garth, Giadings, Glover^ Goode, 

Ptriujastdebu. Its credit depends on its honor. Gunter, Hamilton, Hanna, HenrvR. Harris, John 

Trie nition owes what it has led or allowed its credi- T. Harris, ELarrison, Hartridge, Hartzell, Haskell, 

tsn to expect. I cannot approve a bill which in ray Hatcher, Hayes, Hazelton, Henderson. Henry, Her- 

jj'iiaKnt authorizes the violation of sacred oblige- bert, G. W. Hewitt, Hooker, House, Hubbell, Hum- 

n}». The obligation of the public fiiith transcends phrey. Hunter, Hunton, Ittner, James T. Jones, 

l1 qoeitioas of profit or public advantage. Its un- John S. Jones, Keightley, Eelley, Eenna, Knapp, 

^Mitiooable maintenance is the dictate as well of Knott, Landers, Lathrop, Ligon, Luttroll, Lynde, 

il' highest expediency as of the most necessary Mackey, Manning, Marsh, Mayham, McGowan, Mo- 

iitr, sad should ever be carefully guarded by the Kenzie. McKinlev, McMahon, Metcalfe. Mills, Mlt- 

£t^:3tive, by Congress, and by the people. chell. Money, Monroe, Morgan, Mulorow, ffeal, 

It is my firm ooavietion that if the country is to Oliver, Pa^e^ G. W. ratterson, T. M. Patterson, 




c-rditors, bat all who are engajB^d in legitimate Sexton, Snallenberger, Bhelwy, singleton, Blemons, 

bo^iaess, and none more surely tmm those who are Smalls, William E. Smith, Sparks, Springer, Steele, 

iependeat on their daily Isbor for their daily Stephens, John W. Stone, Joseph C. Stone, Strait, 

b«nl B. B. HAYES. Thompson, Thomburffh, Throckmorton, Tipton, 

£xsemvB Ma^tsiow, February 28, 1878. Amos Townsend, M. I. Townsend, B. W. Towns- 

hend. Tucker, Turner, Tumey, Vance, Van Vorhee, 

The President pwftjffMwwtf; "The question jy.«^«^e}l%,W^lF«''i ^"^^h welch. Harry White, 

IfcSwretary wiU call the roll. bert 8. Willis, Willits, Wilson, Wren, Wright, 

The Secretary proceeded to call the roll. Yeates, and Younflr— 196. 

The result was announced as follows : Nats— Messrs. bacon. Barley, William H. Baker, 

_ .. . „. n .« n . -n y,. - Ballon, Banks, Beebe, Bisbee, Blair, Bliss, BriiPflrs, 

TiAS-MeMTB. Allison, Bailev, Beck. Bruce, Chaf- Csin, Camp, Campbell, Chittenden, Claflin, Covert, 

KC^krell. Coke, Conover, Davis of Ilhnow, Da- Orapo, Horace Davis, Denison, Dwi^jht, Eames, 

ni y West Virginia. Dennis, Dorsey^Eustis. Feny, Eiokhoff, Ellsworth. Field, Freeman, F rye, Gar- 

x^-lmd, Qordoji, Grover, Hams, Hereford, Hill, field, Gibson, Hsle, Hardonbergh, Harmer, Bern. W. 

k'^a. lDg»Il», Johnston, Joom of Florida, -Jones of Harris, Hart, Hendee, A. 8. Hewitt, Hiscock, llun- 

u\i^ Keljogfir, Kirkwood, MoCreery, McDonald, gerfbrd, James, Frank Jones, JoyceV Ketcham, Lap- 

M^VLilan, Matthews, Maxey,Merriraon, Morgan, Eam, Lmdsey, Lockwood, Lorinsr, McCook, Morse, 

' '"^'^'J^'f^^J^^ Plumb, Saulsbury, Saunders, Muller, Norcross, O'Neill, Overton, Potter, Powers, 

--i-?rr. Teller, Thurman, Voorhees, Wallace, Wm- pugh, feeed, William W. Rice, GeorRC D. Robinson, 

■: 3, md With«rs--46. ^ ^, . „ , Boss, Schleicher, Sinniokson, A. Herr SmithiStarin, 

• tJ*"^!**"- ^»™a™» 5r»y*r?' Blame, Butler, Btenger, Stewart, Veeder, Ward, Werner JVatson, 

• -^^^ngv ^f^**' ^^^"v ^?^VP' ^P^'a Kenian, a. 8. Williams, Andrew WUliams, James Williama, 

Liw, IfcPherson, Mitchell, MorrUl, Randolph, Benj. A. Willis, and Wood— 78. 

.as Sar^nt, Wadleiffh, and Whyte-19. ifoT VoTW<>~Mes8rs. Aeklen, Cabell, Alvah A. 




The President pro tempore : " On the pas- The Speaker : " Two thirds having voted 
t&2e of the bill the yeas are 46 and the nays for the passage of this bill upon its recon- 
Kt 19. Two thirda of the Senate having sideration, the bill is passed, the objections 



164 OONGRESS, UNITED STATES, 

of the Preaidoit 



ing." 



to the contrary notwithstand- be«, Bland, Bli»s,BrenUno, Brewer, Bright, Butter, 

Calkins, Carlisle, Clark of Mitsoun. Coluns^amuel 

— 8. Cox, Joseph J. Davis, Deniaon, Dickey, Dwigbt, 

_ ^- __ . ., _ -^, - _ X* . - Ellis, Ellsworth, I. Newton Evans, Jamea L. Evans, 

In the House, on April 29th, Mr. fort, or John H. Evins, Freeman, Gause, Goode. Harmer, 

niinois, moved to siupend the rules and pass a Benjamin W. Harris. Harrison, Hart, Henkle, Henrr, 

bill to forbid " " " ' ' ** " " ' '^ * - .. „ r 

United States 

The biU _ _ 

and after the passage of the act it shall not be BkidTe,' BobertsI Boss, Soides," Schleicher,' Sexton j 

lawfiil for the Secretary of the Treasury or Shalleuberger, Starin, Stewart, Throckmorton, M. 

other officer under him to cancel or retire any L'^i*?' n^^S-"*'* ^°5' '^^^Iv^ ^?^^^%rTf^^^^* 

.»^.^ ^f 4-\.^ TT«U/^ flfoi-Afl i^««i i-^w^A^^ n/xf.^a WaddoU, Wait, W atson, W hittbome, A. S. Williams, 

moreof theUmted States legal-tender notes, Andrew * WiUiluns, Jaiiea WUlianii, Yeatea, anJ 

and that when any of said notes may be re- Toung^77. 

deemed or be received into the Treasury under g^ ,^^; ^.^ ^^^^ 1^ f^^^^ thereof) the 
any law from imy wuroe whatever and shall ^^ ^^^^ suspended, wid the bill was passed, 
belong to the United States, they shall not be r » r 
retired, canceled, or destroyed, but they shall xhe Senate, on May 28th, resumed the con- 
be reissued and pwd out agam and kept in gideration of the biU to forbid the further re- 
circulation, provided that nothing therem shall tirement of legal-tender notes, 
prohibit the cancelUtion and destruction of ^^ Bayaid, of Delaware, said : '* I offer the 
mutilated notes and the issue of other notes following amendment: After the word *cir- 
of like denominations m their stead, as now oulation,^ in line 10, insert: 
provided by law, and that all acts and parts of ^^^ ^hat the said note., when so issaed, 
acts m conflict with the act are hereby re- .hall be receivable for all dues to the United Statea, 
pealed. except duties on imports, and not to be otberwiae a 
The question recurred upon ordering the legal tender; and any reorint of the said notes shall 
yeas and nays, and there were 68 in the affir- ^^^ ^^ superscripuon.'^ 
mative. So the yeas and nays were ordered. The Presiding Officer : " The question is on 
The question was taken, as follows : the amendment of the Senator from Delaware-^' 
v iLM AVI A.V Aijj V A*w Mr. Bayard :" Mr. President, it will be ob- 

dtot, BieknaU .Btaokbdiii, Bloint, Boone, feoock, Treaeury notes of the Umted States is by this 

1X<w<4 Umamm IXviMoAa nm^^A^w% ItvM^HimA 11iiAlr«%A* Kill OTif llA1*19A<1 afV^f* fllAV ^ ahall TiaVA K^/trkYTIA 




uaiaweii, w . r. uawweu. i>'«npi>eii, uwoier. i. an- j nnderetand that they shall have been paid by 

non, Caswell, CbaUuers, Alvah A. Clark, Rush Clark, . , ^ tt«u*w1 a^..^^^.. . ^i/a t ^^A^^^^r>A ^u^^^^^JL 

Clarke of xintuoky, dlymer, Cobb, dole. Conger *!»? ^^J^ States ; and I undewtand the propo- 

Cook,JaoobD.CoxJjravena, Crittenden, Culberson, Bition is now deliberately made, m a time of 

Ciimminga, Cutler, I)anford, Davidson, Bean, Deer- profound peace, in the presence of no emer- 

ing,Dibreli,Donfflas,Dannell,Durbain|£den,£lam, gency, unaer no stress whatever of political 

Ounter, dale, HioiUon, H^nna, HWenbe?gh, Heniy of the United States, not only to issue the notes 

B. Harris, John T. Harris, Hartridge, Hartaell, Has- of the Government upon the credit of the Go v- 

kelhHatoher, H^es,Haselton. Henderson, Herbert, ernment, but to accompany them with a com- 

G. w. Hewitt, Mouse, Humpbrey, Hunter, Ittner, pulgory clause that they shall be receivable in 

throp,Ligoni i-ockwood, LuttreU, Lynde, Mackoy, other and third parties. 

Maish, Manning, Marsh, Martin, Mayham. MoGow- *^ I have proposed by the amendment I offer 

an, MoKenrie* MoKinle^, McMahon, Metoalfe, MUls, that these notes are to be receivable for public 

Mitchell, Morgan. Mornwn, MuldrowJJeal, Oliver, jues of the Government. That fact being 

S: ?X^fpT4'^^r hS^^^^^^^ L^n^SJS: tnown, the party who contracts with the Gov^- 

Bea, Reagan, Americus v. Rioe, Bobbins, Bobertson, ernment wiU arrange his prices aocordmgly, 

M.B.Bobinson, Byan, Sampson, Sapp^Sayler.Shel- aud if the notes be worth par or more than 

ley, Sinffleton, Slemons, Smalls, T^illiam E. Smith, par he will perform his services upon that cal- 

W^o^^tt g!^tt:ISri%'i2^n:^^^^^^ f-^on, fo one will be ^eceiv^^^^^^^ 

son, ThorJiburgL Tipton, Imos Townsend, B. ^. »>e wronged, and every one wiU have an inter- 

Townshend, Tucker, Vance, Walker, Walsh, Warn- est that the Government credit shall be as high 

er, Welch, Harry White, Michael D. White, Wig- as the credit of any other party, public or pri- 

KJ°f?o» ^:„9/ ^.!'*™*v./*"-No^'^?^?^',A- ^' vate. But I have excluded the payment of 

^^'iyZ^':::r:!'^.:^iZ^I"^l^-4i^r, dnde. upon in-porU in the mendment. I 

Briggs, Camp, Chittenden, Claflin, Covert, Crapo, know that there is a proposition before the 

Horace Dairis, Eames, Eickhoff, Fiye, Garfield, Gib- Senate that the duties on imports shall be made 

son, Hendee,Hiscock, Hungerford, Joyce, Ketcham, payable in Treasury notes. When the Gov- 

Lapham, Loring, BJpnroe, l^oroross, iPotter, Pugh, ernment of the United States issued these notes 

William W. Rice, G. D. Bobinson. Sinnickson, A. » iq«„ .^ ^«„«*^>i „ i«™ „,i.;«k k«« -«•«««-» ^>i 

Herr Smith, Stenger, Ward, Richard Williams, Benj. »» 1862 they enacted a law which has remained 

A. Willis, and WoocU^S. unrepealed upon the statute book from that 

Not Votihq— Messrs. Bagley, Ballon, Banks, Bis- day to this, and which of its own force has 



OONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 165 

estered into erery oontmot which the Got- longer having a rapplj of ooin from its ons- 

enuDent has made in the sale of its bonds from toma duties, will be compelled to purchase it — 

1S62 to the present day. By the fifth section and at what premiam cannot now be foretold, 

of the act of 1862 it was provided : *^ I cannot see any good reason for it. If 

Tbit lU duties on imported goods shall be paid ^® notes were below par, and you sought to 

m «»D, or ii) ootes payable on demand heretofore advance them to par by giving tnem tnis new 

wtMrizedtobeiaaoed andbylawreoeiTableinpay- function and use at the custom-house, there 

Ettt aC pabUp duea, and the ooin bo paid thfUlJ^ »d would be at least that reason for it ; but the 

^^a»a^i^/und ^^^^•^m^'lff'i^ notes are at par ; they are not only at par, but 

1. To tiie payment in oom of the interest on the .i, ^ Av -L>. *. a i i,\. ^ \ 2 m 

txidi and Dotei of the United State*. ^^^^ "*? ^®?^ "^^^^ ^^^^^^ *^ .^® markets of 

1 To the parchase or payment of one per cent, of the Umted States than a portion of the our- 

tae entire debt of the United States, to be made renoy, the coin of silver which has been created 

•iikui eaeh fiscal year ^r the 1st dayof July, 1862, a standard of value and stamped with the name 

-i.ch 11 to b« Mt apart as a smkmg ftand and the of American doDars. My friend from Missouri 

iiUercst of which shall in hke manner be applied to ,xr^^ ^T " ./ . " .Tt , t 

ta« parchase or payment of the public debt as the (Mr. Armstrong) says it is at par with gold, 

^^:rkary of the 'treasury shall from time to time and worth more than gold, he says. Without 

^^ne^ questioning his statement, I only would say 

A ^J? ^y^?* I^*^^ ^ ^ P*^^ ^*^ *^® Treasury ^^^ jf he ig right it goes to strengthen the sug- 

rfUie Umted States. ^^^^^^ j j^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ jjp ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 

''A few years ago, when the duties npon paper, as my friend from Missouri says, is 
iiiports paid in gold coin very far exceeded stronger than gold, and as we all know it is 
t^d imount of interest on the public debt, I just now more valuable than silver by 10 per 
proposed by way of relief to the importer and cent., then why do you wish to give it an in- 
M A matter of credit to the United States notes, creased credit by what plainly to my mind is a 
tJut s percentage of those duties might be pay- breach of the contract imder which every bond 
it)d in the demand notes of the Treasury ; and of the United States has been sold since the 
I well remember that no one was louder in his passage of the act of 1862 ? I cannot there- 
erpnsslon of reprobation of what he called fore see the expediency, I cannot see the right, 
t^Q a partial exercise of bad faith than the 1 cannot see* any good reason whatever for the 
present Secretary of the Treasury. I believed payment of customs duties in the Treasury 
tiut 60 long as enough coin was received at notes of the United States; but on the con- 
tte eostom-hooaes to pay the interest on the trary, I see every reason of morality, of justice, 
inMic debt, oar pledge in incurring that debt of expediency, in every light in which the sub- 
vas fdlly Mtaafieo. Now it seems from some ject can be viewed, that we should continue, 
ea!i«« the Secretary's opinion has changed, at least under existing laws, that source of sup- 
XlQd has not. I cannot imagine for what pur- ply of coin for the payment of interest upon 
p4e it is proposed to receive the Treasory the public debt, and not only so, but for the 
3jies instead of ooin, when the Treasury notes presence of coin in the country, which the con- 
tra i3 valuable as ooin. The duties upon im- tinuance of duties payable in coin guarantees/' 
p>jru of the United States have always, as a Mr. Hill, of Georgia, said : ^^ I wish now to 
y^3sxec of fact, been paid in coin. It forms say that I concur in everything that has fallen 
the only sonroe from winch under present laws from the Senator from Delaware (Mr. Bayard) 
tU United States receive their supply of coin on the subject of the power of Congress to 
IB rhieh interest on their debt is guaranteed make a legal-tender paper money. 1 do not 
to be paid. believe that that power does exist under the 

" Th^ I ask, if already the Treasury note Oonstitution of this country. I have always 

•^ at per with ooin, what further oredit do you believed that it did not exist, even under the 

desire for it! And if no farther credit is de- war power. The Supreme Court has held it 

ar^l for it, it having reached the acme of a to be constitutional as exercised in 1862, only 

^>I' ralae, why do you take from the public nnder the war power, and I am willing to rec- 

7t:ditor and from the Treasury of the United ognize that decision of the Court as law as far 

|*^.3i«9 the certain fund of coin that will enable as it applies to the present legal-tender cur- 

^ t<> perform with certainty its contract under renoy ; hut I can never under any circnm- 

*' i: laws by which these bonds were authorized stances subscribe to the doctrine as an original 

c^ issoed ? The tariff will oontinue in some proposition that the Congreas of the United 

^ifi«. We cannot, and never will, I suppose. States does have power to make paper money 

^ : je existence of the present generation, be a legal tender for the payment of private debts. 

^-Sout a tariff of duties upon imports. If the On the other hsnd, I concur with what seems 

«3iefl are paid in ooin, it is a certainty to the to be the real purpose of this bill as it comes to 

*?iitor which he can rely npon« Make the us from the House. I see no necessity myself 

^es payable in Treasury notes^ and you then for what you call further contraction. I am 

^^M Qpon him the risk, the possibility of as good a hard-money man, to use a common 

i^Tio^ a suspension of specie payment by the phrase, as any man in the Senate or in the 

^'<it«d States, and of being paid not in coin country. I want a sound currency, and I do 

vt<inynjr to contract, but in the paper money not believe any depreciated money is sound 

tf the United States. The Qovernment, no currency ; nor do -I believe any currency is 



166 CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 

sorrnd or any oountrj is soand which tolerates Mr. Blaine : " That is, as fast as they oome 
except as a necessity a depreciated paper money, in, they are to he paid oat." 
I want gold and silver for our money. I be- Mr. Bayard: *^ I mean this, that whenever a 
lieve Congress has power to coin money. I be- note has been paid — ^in other words, whenever 
lieve that the word * coin ' means metallic the Government has performed the promise in 
money. I believe we have no right to make regard to which it has been sixteen years in 
anything else but metallic money. That is my default, and after it has once paid the note- 
opinion. Therefore I want gold and silver as it shall not be reissued with the legal-tender 
our money. I want the gold dollar equal to clause attached. That is my proposition.^' 
the silver dollar, and the silver dollar equal to Mr. Blaine : *' Then the Senator, I think, 
the gold dollar. still ftirther muddles the currency, becanse 

*^ I am perfectly well aware that in the pres- those notes that do not come in for redemption 
ent condition of this conntry gold and silver will still be a legal tender, but those that hap- 
alone are not sufficient to constitute its cur- pen to come in for redemption when they are 
rency, and that we must have a paper currency, reissued will not be a legal tender ; and so the 
and I insist that that paper currency ought to Senator from Delaware gives us two kinds of 
be equal to gold and silver — ^that is, converti- Government paper." 

ble into gola and silver. I do not say ^con- Mr. Bayard: ^'If the Senator will read the 
verted into gold and silver.^ I have no re- amendments, he will find that the notes so re- 
spect for the argument which undertakes to issued shall bear a superscription which will 
prove that paper currency cannot be equal to prevent their being mistaken for legal-tender 
gold and silver because there are not as many notes." 

gold and silver dollars in the country as there Mr. Blame : " I am not, of course, trying to 

may be paper dollars. Convertible, in my misrepresent the Senator. I understand him 

judgment, means that it shall have the same to aim at this, that when a greenback shall go 

purchasing power; and whenever the paper into the Treasury and the holder of it receives 

currency gets to the point where it is equal in his gold or silver for it, the Government then 

purchasing power to gold and sijver, then it reissues it, and reissues it with the legal-tender 

ought to remain there. In my judgment, if quality stricken out." 

we make this legal-tender money, as you have Mr. Bayard : '* And that fact shall be print- 
got it to-day, receivable in the payment of all ed on it." 

public dues, it will be equal to gold and silver Mr. Blaine : " And that fact shall be printed 

with all the people of America. I think it is on it, of course. So, then, if they all go in and 

the only thing on earth that prevents it now all go out again, we should have a uniform kind 

from being absolutely equal in purchasing pow- of paper currency issued by the Government 

er to gold and silver. which would have the legal-tender quality 

"I move to amend the amendment of the struck out; but if one half go in and only one 
Senator from Delaware by striking out the half go out, we should have then two kinds of 
words ' excepting duties on imports,' so as to Government paper, still further, as I say, mod- 
read : dling the currency of the country. Then of 

iVoUfef, That the Bud notes when so reiswed course the Senator will obwrve that the power 

shall be receivable for all dues to the United States, of the national banks to redeem tneir notes, as 

and not be otherwise a legal tender: and any reprint they now have the right to do, in the legal- 

of the tNud notes shall bear this superacription.'* tender paper of the country, is by that much 

Mr. Blaine, of Maine: **Mr. President, the restricted, and you have thrown them back in- 

proposition of the Senator from Delaware, to 'confusion worse confounded,' because I 

even without the suggested amendment of the suppose this second edition of paper money 

Senator from Georgia, is a very radical one. It would not be of the kind which the national 

would work an extraordinary change in the banks might redeem their notes in. If I un- 

currency of the United Statea. I venture to derstand the Senator from Delaware correctly, 

read it in the hearing of the Senate: ^^ would not consider that a national bank 

rru * *v .J * '^^ discharging its obligation as it would be 

That the Bttd notes- ^^^^ ^^ handing out one of these new notes 

" Referring to the legal tenders— for its bill, unless he adopts the novel theory of 

when so reissned, shall be receivable for all dues of the Senator from Georgia, that the very mo- 

the United States, exoeptinff duties on imports, aod ment you take the legal tender out of the note, 

not be otherwise a legal tender. ^j^^^. moment it becomes equal to gold." 

'' It takes $846,000,000 and declares right oft Mr. Bayard : '* I apprehend that resumption 

that they shall not from that day forward be by the Treasury of the United States would be 

considered a legal tender between man and of course resumption by the national banks." 

man." Mr. Blaine: *'AhI that may be; but the 

Mr. Bayard : '^ Not precisely that. The Sen- great instrumentality hitherto relied upon for 

ator will see, if he will take the bill before the resumption by the national banks was that if 

Senate, that it provides for the reissue of the the Government paper was brought up equal 

notes when the same shall have become the to coin, and the national banks only had the 

property of the United States." obligation they now have to redeem in the 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 167 

three handred and odd millions of legal ten- The Presiding Officer : " The question is upon 

^rs, they maj meet their oblimtion ; bat the agreeing to the amendment of the Senator from 

ameodment of the Senator from Delaware takes Delaware (Mr. Bayard). * ' 

iw&T that power of the national banks to re- The roll-call having been concluded, the re- 

d«in. suit was announced — yeas 18, nays 42. 

^'The Senator from Georgia does not intend The bill was reported to the Senate without 

brhis amendment that coin shall reach the amendment, ordered to a third reading, and 

frea^ary of the United States in any way read the third time. 

wbiterer. The Senator from Delaware does The Presiding Officer : " The question now 

nuke a reservation that duties on imports shall is on the passage of the bilL" 

oil be paid in coin. Even that conservative The roU-oall having been concluded, the re- 

eltose the Senator from Georgia moves to strike suit was announced as follows : 

u«t. and moves then to put us upon a basis of Ykas— Mesan. Alliaon, Armstronff, Bailey, Beok, 

piper money in which the United States no- Blaine, Cameron of Peunsylvania, CttioeroD of Wis- 

Tliere is in receipt of coin, and which has no 5?°"?. Cockrell, Coke, Conover, Davia of Illinoia, 

lu^• . «^ .^w A^iT*^ \^^4>^^^ «v«»« An<i m«n T DenniB, Ferry, Gordon, Grover, Hiirrui, Hereford, 

power to pay debts between man and man. I jj.jj i^gaUe/iohnaton/ Jones o'f Floridii, Kellogg 

fionot imagine a more ingenious contnvance Kirkwood, MoCreery, McDonald, McMillan, ^fiS- 

ror rendering confusion in the financial world thewa, Mazey, Merrimon, Morgan, OKlesby, Pad- 

vurse confounded than the joint amendments dock, Ranaom, Saunders, Spencer, Teller, Thur- 

ofthe Senator from DeUware and the Senator «^^» Voorheea, Wallace, Window, and WitherB-41. 

> ^ n^ . Nats— Messrs. Anthony, Barnum, Bayard, Burn- 

iromUeorgia. „ , . ^ , ^ ^ side, Butler, CbrUtiancy, Conkling, Eaton, Hoar, 

"Undoubtedly this whole question of re- Howe, Keman, Mitchell, Morrill, Randolph, EoUina, 

simption has been radically changed by the Saulsbury, Wi^eigh, and Whyte— 18. 

CiiMTO of the sil ver dollar. I do not see whence ^^^bs wtr-i-Messrs. Booth, Bruce, Chaffee, Davis of 

b, bc«o«ble Senator from Vermont, who«e ^:^:^X^^lnU^o?^lult:i^^:t^^^ 

wmmittee has charge of the biU, derives his .on, Patterson, Plumb, Sargent, and Sharon— 17. 

S*r that tiie paper money of the United States q^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ,^3^^^ 

H going below the silver dollar. The Secre- '^ 

Utt of the Treasury may begin resumption 

to-morrow with $10,000,000 in silver, in my In the House, on June 14th, Mr. Burohard. of 

JBlrment, witii perfect safety.'' Illinois, offered the following resolution reiat- 

Mr. Morrill : " On the proposition of not re- ing to the Presidential title : 

ceiring it for duties, I shonla have stated." Whereat^ At thejoint meeting of the two Houses of 

Mr. Blaine : *' Oh, of course, on the propo- the Forty-fourth Cfongress convened pursuant to law 

^itioa not to receive it for duties ; but let it *°5 **^« ConstUution, for thepuroose of ascertaining 

•.^A ^ •* r- -u- _^*^ 4 1 1 J •«« A and counting the votes lor President and Vice-Presi- 

%iad as it ifl. My vote is largely mfluenced ^ent for the term oommencini; March 4, 1877, upon 

br the fact that the entire financial situation of oountmg the votea Rutherford B. Hayen was de- 

the eoontry has been changed by the introduo- olared to be elected Preaideut and William A. 

tJoo of the silver dollar. No man pretends Wheeler was declared elected Vice-President for 

with his eres open that the silver dollar has •-J^JJf^^; ^^^IJ^^subsequent Congress and nei- 

ie value of the gold dollar. No man pretends ther Houae haa jurisdiction to revise the action at 

t::at when the silver dollar begins to fill the such joint meeting, and any attempt by either House 

channels of circulation the Government wiU to annul or disre^urd such action or the title to ofSoe 

receive any gold whatever for duties. No mah ^^^^^ therefrom would be revolutionary and is dia- 

pretends that if you open the sub-treasury to- »PP«>^«d by this House. 

ia;m)w inNew York and invite every holder ^^' Burchard: /*I call for the yeas and 

o/ a legal-tender note to go and get silver in oaj^ on the resolution. 

exchange for it, there will be any demand for The question was taken, as follows : 

li» silver. You cannot do that with gold. I Yeas— Messrs. Aiken, Aldrich, Atkins, Bacon, 

ii»«iM «*▼ than t£% fnrmnlAtA thfl mAt^r thuf Bagley, John H. Baker, William H. Baker, Banka, 

com My, tnen, to lormuiate tne matter, tnat ^^l^^ B^^n^ B^^lJ^ Bell, Bicknell, Bisbee, 

reninptton in silver yon have got plenty of; Blair, Slount, iouck. Boyd, Brentano, Brewer,' 

rf«omption in gold yon have not half enough. Bridges, Brif^trs. Bright. Broaden, Browne, Bundv, 

"I have no faith that this GK>vemment will Burobara, Burdick, Cabell, John W. Caldwell, W. 

jaj gold next January ; I have abundant &ith ^' ^*^?7«"; Calkina, Campbell, Cannon, Cnrliale. 

t^^ if .^^ n*v ofW/il 4^^ «ia« tKa«^ «o ♦k^ Caswell, Chalmers, Chittenden, Clanm, Clark of 

w/ ^^ ?*?!?" ® A^r ^^ST®, " ^ ® MUsourl, Bush Clark, Clarke of kentucky, Clymer, 

f -oblem, and it has rendered me entirely care- cobb, Cole, Conger, Covert, Jacob D. Cox, Crapo, 

le^ on the question whether yon contract the Cravens, Crittenden, Culberson, Cummin^, Cutler, 

'^-tender notes any further. It is not going Danford, Horace Davis, Joseph J. Davis, Dean, 

t. make one hair white or black in regard to ^«,?""?' ?*''"T?LPl*l"*^i ^''^}%'A?J''^y!tl^ll' 

. ...^p.*:^^ »ti^«t.^. -^^ ^^«f.«^f — V-- v^^.. nell, Durham, Dwi^ht, Eames, Eden, Ellsworth, 

rr^ption whether you contract, as has been j.^^ j, Newton EVans, James' L. Ev«ns, John H. 

U habit, or whether you cease according to Evins. Ewinjr, Felton, Finley, Forney, Foster, 

tiu bilL Tour resumption is equally easy in Franklin, Freeman, Gardner, Garfield. Garth, Gause, 

lilvcr whether yon contract or whether you ^ib^Jgi 2*^<*."*fif*i <^«>de, Hanna, Harmer, Beiga- 

«•« to contract; you are not able to resume Si^WSeA^hfr', Hrv«%°eXrriend%''^ 

J wkL There is the whole problem to my .on, Herbert, G. V. Hewitt, fiiscick, House, Hub- 

'sind.^ bell, Humphrey, Hungaiford, Hunter, Hunton, Itt- 



168 CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 

ner, James, Frank Jones, James T. Jones, John S. in his bed b^ Biokness and had aaked me to 

, , T^ .^^ ,, , 1^., _ T^ « T^ ^ ^^^ report until to-morrow, that he 

make a diasentinff report for himself, 

^wx.«w- *-.^^w„«« «.w*^v^-..,, -*>.«-«*« T, —.vir- determined to yield to that request as a 

oalfe, mIUb. MitcheA, Monroe, korsan, MomBon, matter of coorteej. But, air, as this matter 

Morse, Muller, Neal, Noroross, Oliver, O'Neill, has been brought before the House for its con- 

Overton, Pasre, Q. W. Patterson, T. M. Patterson, gideration, I now bring before the House the 

Peddle, Philhps, Pollard, Pound, Pnoe, Puffh, «^^^«x ^^1 «^-^i„*:^« ^ ♦k-> «^«.«.:**^« n 

Bainey.' Bandofi)^, Bea, Be'agan. Beed, BeiAy, Will ^Pp^ wjd resolution of the committee.' 

liam W. Bice, Kiddle, Bobbins, Koberts, G. D. Bob- The Clerk read the report and resolution, as 

inson, Byan, Sampson, Sapp. Sayler, Scales, Bezton, follows : 
Shallenberger, Shelley, Sinnickson, dmalls, A. Herr 

Smith, Sparks, Stahn, Stsele, Stenger, btephens. The Committee on the Jndiciaiy, to whom were 

Stewart, John W. Stone, Joseph O. Stone, Strait, referred the bill (H. B. No. 4315) and the resola- 

Thompson, Throckmorton, Amos Townsend, M. 1. tions of the Legislature of the State of Maryland 

Townsend, B. W. Townshend, Tucker, Tumey, directing judicial proceedings to give effect to the 

Vance, Veeder, Waddell, Wait, Ward, Watson, electoral vote of that State in the last election of 

Welch, Harry White, Michael D. White, Whitthome, President and Vice-President of the United Sutes, 

A. S. Williams, Andrew Williams, C. G. WUliams, report back said bill and reBolutions with a reoom- 



Bichard Williams, Albert S. Willis, Beigamin A. mendation that the bill do not pass. 

Willis, Willits, Wilson, Wood, Wren, Testes, Tour committee are of the opinion that Congress 

Toung~215. has no power, under the Constitution, to confer upon 

Nats — Messrs. Blackburn, Bliss, Boone, Braffg, the Supreme Court of the United States the original 

Cook, Samuel S. Cox, ElUs, Fuller, Hamilton, Iiar^ jurisdiction sought for it bjr this bill. The only 

denbergh, Heukle, Henry, Abram S. Hewitt, May- clause of the Constitution which could be pUusiblv 




Knott. Loring, Luttrell, Lynde, Manning, Martin, Constitution to embrace an original proceeding by a 

McMshon, Money, Muldrow, Potter, Powers, Quinn, State in the Supreme Court of the United States to 

Americus V. Bice, M. S. Bobinson, Boss, Schleicher, oust anv incumbent fh>m a political office filled by 

Singleton, Siemens, Swann, ThombuiglK Tipton, the declaration and decision of tlie two Houses of 

Turner, Van Vorhes, Walker, Walsh, Wif^inton, Congress clothed with the constitutional power to 

James Williams, Jere. N. Williams, Wright--5fi. count the electoral votes and decide as a final tribunal 

upon the election of President and Vice-President. 

So (two thirds voting in favor thereof) the The Forty-fourth Congress selected a commission to 

rules were suspended, and the resolution was oount the votes for President and Vice-President, 

adoDted reserving to itself the riffht to ratify or reject such 

•>/ TT ^ • J « o • • 1 t< T • A. count, in the way prescribed in the act creatinir such 

Mr. Hartndge, of Georgia, said : " I rise to commission. By the joint action of the two Houses 
a question of pnvilege. Some time smoe the it ratified the count made by the commission, and 
House referred to the Oommittee on the Judi- thus made it the expression of its own judgment, 
ciary a bill introduced bv the gentleman fi-om ,,^J^ *^; departmenU of the Federal Government, 
iTatXrUviii ruw. Vi^^^u •«n«««K/...»;i AQ1K ♦^ all the State governments in their relations to Fed- 
Maryland (Mr. Kimmel), numbered 4815, to eral authority>reign nations, the people of the Uni- 
provTde a mode for trying and detemuning by ted Sutes, all the material interests and industries 
the Supreme Oourt of the United States, the of the country, have acquiesced in. and acted in ao- 
title of the President and Vice-President of oordanoe with, the pronounced finding of that Con- 
the United States to their respective offices J^Vesi^wVo^^ower^tound^^^ 
when their election to such offices is denied by de^fS^Hn'^uXrthe elSjt^ral l^te^r^to lol^l 
one or more of the States of the Union. On upon any judioisUriDunal the right to pass upon and 
the same day the House referred to the same perhaps set aside the action of that predecessor in 
oommittee a resolution of the Legislature of reference to a purely political question, the decision 
the State of Maryland, instructing its attorney- ^^^^^""^ " '^'^^®^ ^^ *^* ConsUtution im Con- 
general, so soon as Congress had passed a law ^But apart from these ftmdamental objections to the 
like that offered by the gentleman from Mary- bill under consideration, there are features and pro- 
land, to cause proceedings to be taken to test visions in it which are entirdy iinpracticable. Tour 
the validity and legality of the title of the oommittee can find no wajrantor authority to sum- 
pr«.nt incumbents of the offices of President Tv Atre'sCrat^^S^hS,^^^^^^^^ "^4 
ana Vice-r resident, ine uommittee on the any case, however grave and weighty may be its na- 
Judiciary have considered those measures, con- ture. The right to summon must carrr with it the 
sidered them together, both the bill and the power to enforce obedience to the mandate, and the 
resolution, and the committee have instructed oommittee om see no means by which the judicial 
T^^ ♦« «»«il« « .^..^^ t.^ «.i,:« iT«««A -«;i o^^^,» officers of a State can be compelled to assume the 
me to make a report to thw House, and accom- functions of jurors in the Supreme Court of the Uni- 
panying that report a resolution. ted States. 

^^ I desire to say here, as a matter of personal There are other objections to the practical working 

explanation, that this morning I was instructed of the bill under consideration to which we do not 

to make this report; but as the chairman of *H?^l'ATf?!^7w fh^Sv.f^ «^ 

XT ^ o^ 'Ai. 1.1. T J" • av i.1 It may be true tbat the state of Maryland has been, 

the Oommittee on the Judiciary, the gentle- Jn the Ute election for President and Vice-President, 

man from Kentucky (Mr. Enott), was detained deprived of her just and full weight in deciding who 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 169 

were legally chosen, by reason of frauds perpetrated Cntbenon, Onmmings, Cntler, Danford, BaTidson, 

bf retamin^ boards in some of the States. It msy Joseph J. Davis^ Horaoe Davis, Dean, Deering, Den- 

slso be true that these fraudulent acts were counte- ison, Dibrell, Diokev, Douglas, Dunnell. Durham, 

naooed or encouraged or participtated in by some who Dwight, Karnes, Eaen, Elam, Ellswortn, Errett, 

itov eiqoy high offices as the firuit of such frauds. It I. Newton Evans, James L. Evans, John li. Evins, 

itdae to the present generation of the people of this Ewing, Felton, Fhiley, Forney, Foster, Franklin, 

oouotry and their posterity, and to the principles on Freemso, Fuller, Gardner, Qarlleld, Qartb, Gause, 

vbioh our Qovemment is founded, that all evidence Gibson, Giddings, Goode, Hanna. Hardenberffh, 

tendin«^ to establish the fact of such fraudulent prao- Uarmer, Benj. W. Harris, Henry K. Harris, Jonn 

tices should be oalmly, carefully, and rigorously ex- T. Hams, Harrison, Hart, Hartzeil, Hartrid^e, Has- 

sfflined. kell, Hatcher, Hayes, Hendee, Henderson, llenkle, 

Bat year committee are of the opinion that the Herbert, Abram S. Hewitt, G. W. Hewitt, Hisoock, 

oon^equenoe of such examination^ if itdisolosesguilt House, Hubbell, Humphrey. Hungerford, Hunter, 

apon the part of any in high offlcuil position, should Hunton, Ittner, James, Frank Jones, Jae. T. Jones, 

not be an effort to set aside the judgment of a former John 8. Jones, Jorgensen, Keifer, Keightley, Kelley, 



Coo^fls as to the election of a President and Yice^' Eenna, Eetcham, Etllinffer, Landers. Laphiim, La- 
President, but should be confined to the punishment, throp, Ligon, Lindsey, Lookwood^ Mackey, Maish, 




may be protectea from a recurrence of the crime. O^NeiU, Overton,Paffe, G. W. Patterson, T. M. Pat- 

Yoor committee, therefore, recommend the adop- terson, Peddie, Phelps, Phillips, Pollard. Pound, 



riujg Ross, Bran, Sampson, Sappj . , , 

deolared Rutherford B. Hayes to be elected Presi- Shallenoeiiger, Shelly, Sinmckson, Smalls, A. Herr 

dent, and William A. Wheeler to be elected Vice- Smith, Southard, Sparks, Starin, Steele, Stenger, 

President, there is no power in any subsequent Con- Stephens, Stewart, Joseph 0. Stone, John W. Stone, 

gress to reverse that declaration, nor can any such Strait, Thompson, Throckmorton, Amos Townsend, 

fover be exercised bv the courts of the United M. I. Townsend, B. W. Townshend, Tucker^ur- 

Utea, or any other tribunal that Congress can or&- ney, Vance, Veeder^ Waddell, Wait, Walker, Ward, 

ste under the Constitution. Watson, Harr^ White, Michael D. White, Whit- 

We ai^ee to the foregoing report, so far as it states thome, Wiggxnton, Andrew WilHamfc, A. 8. WU- 





having reference to such reasons, 

the inquiry before us, 'and as giving 

tion to the propriety of the pending i 

dered by a majority vote or the House of ^presen- 

taUvea, to which we were and are opposed. Warner-— 14. 

WM. p. FRTE. Not Vomro— Messrs. Aclden,AtkinB. Ballon, Ben- 

0. D. CONGER. edict. Bland, Buokner, Butler, Camp, Etckhoff, Ellis, 

E. G. LAPHAM. Eort, Frye, Glover, Gunter, Hale, Haxelton, Hooker, 

•kr rr _^ -ji it r 11 xi. Joycc, Euapp, Kuott, Loriug, Luttrcll, Lyudc, Msu- 

Mr. Hartndge : " I call the premns qne»- nii^, \imrtin!' Monev, Mnldrow, Potter, Quinn, M. 

tioD. '^ S. Robinson, Sohleichei^^ Singleton, Slemons, 8 wana, 

Mr. Frye : '^ I desire to ask the gentleman a Thomburgh, Tipton, Turner, Van Vorhes, Walsh, 

qaestion. Is there not a propriety at any rate '^elch, Jere. N. Williams, Wiight-42. 

in obtaining for the chairman of the commit- So the resolation was adopted* 

tee (Mr. Knott) the privilege to sabmit his mi- 

nority report?" v vr ^ * In the Honse, on May 18th, Mr. Potter, of 

Mr Hartnd^ : I am mnch obliged to my ^^^ j^^^ J^. c* j ^ise ^o a qnestion of privi- 

friend for remmding me of that. I stated the j ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ Ql^,j^,g J^ ^ resolution 

reasoB why I desired to wait until to-morrow ,^» i^e investigation of aUewd fraud in the 

before I presented the rcDort. The chairman j^^ presidentiS election in tte States of Lou- 

of the committee is ill and desires to prewnt a ^^^^ ^„^ Florida." 

l"??^'"?? ""T'^ } i^ ''''T''^ ""^ ^"^ ^"""^ The Clerk read as follows : 

that he nave leave to do so. ,«^ «.^ «.. .«. «.*• 

Thep,w«noobjectioB,«idleavew«8grant- i.t^'^IS; rf.SsTO^di'TffLV^.V^ 

6d ftooordmgly. given to the electoral vote cast by that Stste on the 

The previous qnestion was seconded and the dth day of December, 1876, by resson of fraudulent 

main qnestion ordered, which was upon the returns of electoral votes from the States of Florida 

sdoptioa otthe resolution. "'^^Tn'^ffilvit by Ssmuel B. McLin, chsir- 
The question was taken, as follows: nj^n of thi Board of Stste Canvassers of the State 
YmAa — ^Messrs. Aiken, Aldrieh, Baoon, Bagley, of Florida, for the election held in that State in No- 
John H. Baker, William H. Baker, Banks. Banning, vember, 1876, for Electors of President and Vioe- 
Bayne, Beebe, BelL, Bicknell, Bisbee, Blnir, Blount, President, has been made publie, alleging false and 
B.>uek, Boyd, Bragg. Brentano, Brewer, Bridges, fraudulent returns for TOtes for such Electors in that 
Brigffs. Bright, Brogaen, Browne, Bundy,Burchard, State whereby the choice of the people of that State 
Bordickj Cabell, Cain, John W. Csldwell, W. P. was annulled and reversed, and that the aotion of 
Caldwell, Calkins, Campbell, Candler, Cannon. Car- the Board of State Canvassers in msking such re- 
lisU. Caswell, Chalmers, Chittenden, Claflin, Alvah turns was influenced by the eonduct and promises 
A. Clark, Clark of Hissouri, Clarke of Kentucky, of Hon. Edward F. Noyes, now a minister for this 
Bush Clark, Clymer, Cobb, Cole, Collins, Conger, Government to Franco: and 
Covert, Jacob D. Cox, Crapo, Cravens, Crittenden, WhirMt^ It is allegea that a eonspiraoy existed in 



168 CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. 

ner, James, Frank Joneti Jamea T. Jonea, John S. in his bed bj sfcknesB and had asked me to 

"'"''"" "' ut off the report until to-morrow, that ho 

light make a dissenting report for himself, 

^wv^w,,- -.««^w,«„ «.w-w„-w -*w^«*« , -*«.r^ had determined to yield to that request as a 

oaifa^liillBri^rtoheA, lloTa^^^\A^tK^^^or^Qu, matter of courtesy. But, sir, as this matter 

Morse, Muller, Neal, Nororoaa, Oliver, O'Neill, has been brought before the House for its con- 

Overton, PajBre, Q. W. Patterson, T. M. Patterson, gideration, I now bring before the Honse the 

Peddle, Phillips, Pollard, Pound, Price, Pugh, ««^^^ «« J -^-^i^*;,*,* Zt ♦k-. ^^.^^i**.^ n 

Bainey, Bandofi)!^, Bea, Be'agan, Beed, BeiAy, Will ^^^ "J^ resolution of the committee.' 

Ham W. Bice, Riddle, Sobbina, Koberts, G. l5. Bob- The Clerk read the report and resolution, as 

inson, Byan, Sampson, Sapp^ Sayler, Scales, Sexton, follows : 
Shallenberger, Shelley, Sinnickson, Smalls, A. Herr 

Smith, Sparks, Starin, Steele, Stenger, Stephens, The Committee on the Judiciary, to whom 'were 

Stewart, John W. Stone, Joseph C. Stone, Strait, referred the bill (H. B. No. 4315} and the reeola- 

Thompson, Throckmorton, Amos Townsend, M. 1. tions of the Legislature of the State of Maryland 

Townsend, B. W. Townshend, Tucker, Tumey, directing judicial proceedings to give effect to the 

Vance, Veedcr, Waddell, Wut, Ward, Wataon, electoral vote of that State in the last election of 

Welch, Harry White, Michael D. White, Whitthome, President and Vice-President of the United States, 

A. S. Williams, Andrew Williams, C. G. Williams, report back said bill and resolutiona with a recom- 

Bichard Williams, Albert S. Willis, Benjamin A. mendation that the bill do not pass. 

Willis, Willits, Wilson, Wood, Wren, Teates, Tour committee are of the opinion that Congresa 

Toung— 215. has no power, under the Constitution, to confer upon 

Nats — Messrs. Blackburn, Bliss, Boone, Bragg, the Supreme Court of the United Statea the original 

Cook, Samuel S. Cox. Ellis, Fuller, Hamilton, Hai> jurisdiction sought for it by this bill. The only 

denbergh, Henkle, Henry, Abram 8. Hewitt, May- clause of the Constitution which could be plauaiblv 

ham, Phelps, Pridemore, Bobertson, William JS. invoked to enable Congress to provide the le^^ 

J3mitn, Southard, Springer. Warner— 21. machinery for the litigation proposed is that which 

Not Votiko — Messrs. Acklen, Ballou, Benedict, gives the Supreme Court original jurisdiction in 

Bland, Buckner, Butler. Cain, Camp, Candler, Alvah "cases" or *' controversies" Df>tween a State and 

A. Clark, Collins, Davidson, Eickooff, Elam, Fort, the citisens of another State. The committee are of 

Frye, Glover, Gunter. Halo, John T. Harris, Hart- the opinion that this expression " eases " and " oon- 

riage, Httzelton, Hooker, Joyce, Kimmel, Kuapp, troversies" waa not intended by the framers of the 

Knott. Loring, Luttrell, Lynde, Manning, Martin, Constitution to embrace an original proceeding by a 

McMahon, Money, Muldrow, Potter, Powers, Quinn, State in the Supreme Court of the United Statea to 

Americus V. Bice, M. S. Bobinson, Kots, Schleicher, oust any incomoent fVom a political ofBoe filled by 

Singleton, Siemens, Swann, Thomburgh, Tipton, the declaration and decision of the two Houaea of 

Turner, Van Vorhes, Walker, Walsh, Wigginton, Congress clothed with the constitutional power to 

James Williams, Jere. N. Williams, Wright — 55. count the electoral votes and decide as a flnal tribuniJ 

upon the election of President and Vice-President. 

So (two thirds voting in favor thereof J the Tne Forty-fourth Congress selected a commission to 

rules were suspended, and the resolution was <^o"Dt the votea for President and Vice-President, 

adonted reserving to itself the right to ratify or rgect anch 

if TT -X • J c r\ • • 1 £< T • ▲ count, in the way prescribed in the act creating ench 

Mr. Hartndge, of Georgia, said : " I nse to commission. By the joint action of the two Houses 

a question of privilege. Some time since the it ratified the count made by the commission, and 

House referred to the Oommittee on the Judi- thus made it the expression of ita own Judgment, 

ciary a bill introduced by the gentleman from ^,^}^ the departments of the Federal Govcrament, 

i/.iiXriaTt^ f^Km XT \'^'^ ^\\ ^rxJ^^m^Ji ^QiK ♦«. all thc Statc govemmeuts lu thcir Tclations to Fcd- 

Maryland (Mr. Kimmel), numbered 4315, to eral authority, foreign nations, the people of the Uni- 

provide a mode for trying and determining by ted States, all the material interests and industriea 

the Supreme Oourt of the United States, the of the country, have aoquieaced in. and acted in ao> 

title of the President and Vice-President of oordanoe with, the pronounced finding of that Con- 

the United States to their respective offices g^»- ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

when their election to such offices is denied by d^M^nn*So^t?ng the^eUct^ral v^to^ or^'to toSf^ 

one or more of the States of the Union. On upon any judicial tribunal the right to paas upon and 

the same day the House referred to the same perhaps set aside the action of that predeoesaor in 

committee a resolution of the Legislature of reference to a pin-ely political question, the decision 

the State of Maryland, instructing its attorney- ^Jjs ^"^ " "^"^^"^ ^^ *^« ConstituUon u Con- 

general, so soon as Congress had passed a law *^But apart from these ftmdamental objections to the 

like that offered by the gentleman from Mary- hill under consideration, there are features and pro- 

land, to cause proceedings to be taken to test visions in it which are entirely impracticable, z our 

the validity and legality of the title of the oommittee can find no warranto* authority to aum- 

pr««nt incnmbenu of the office, of President f,°^^»sr.^^^«r.tViC^r.\';?5a^ t ^' 

and Vice-Fresiaent. The Oommittee on the any case, however grave and weighty may be ito na- 

Judiciary have considered those measures, con- ture. The right to summon must carrr with it the 

sidered them together, both the bill and the power to enforce obedience to the mandate, and the 

resolution, and the committee have instructed committee c^ see no means by which the judicial 

T*i/i f^ ^n.il^ « .^^.xw #.^ ♦».;- ti^.^»^ ^r>A «»^/x»« officers of a State can be compelled to assume the 

me to make a report to thw House, and accom- functions of jurors in the Supreme Court of the Uni- 

pan3ring that report a resolution. ted States. 

" I desire to say here, as a matter of personal There are other objectiona to the practical working 

explanation, that this morning I was mstmcted of the bill under consideration to which we do not 

to make this report; but as the chairman of ^Tnify^bT^K t'l'state of Maiy^^^^ 

the Committee on the Judiciary, the gentle- in the late election for President and Vice-President, 

man from Kentucky (Mr. Knott), was detained deprived of her just and flill weight in deciding who 



CONGRESS, UKITED STATES. 169 

weralefiUj oboMn, by reason of frsads perpetrated Oalberson, Omnmings, Cntler, Danford, DaTidaon, 

br retuminjT boarda in aome of the States. It may Joeepb J. Davis^ Horace Davia, Dean, Deering, Den- 

m be true that these fraudulent acta were counte- iaon, Dibrell, Diokev, Douglas, DuunolL Durham, 

Buoed or encouraged or participated in by some who Dwight, Eames, Kaen, Elam, Ellswortn, Errett, 

n}w eajoT high omoes as the fruit of such frauds. It I. Newton Evans, James L. Evans. John li. Evins, 

isdutothepieseatgeiierationof the people of this Ewing, Felton, Finley, Forney, Foster, Franklin, 

eaiDtnr and their posterity, and to the principlea on Freeman, Fuller, Gardner, Oarileld, Garth, Gause, 

wbich our GoTemment ia founded, that all evidence Gibson, Giddings, Goode, Hanna. Harden beivh, 

kcdlD^toestablish the fact of Buch fraudulent prao- Uarmerj Benj. W. Harris, Henry K. Harris, Jonn 

tm ahoald be calmly, carefully, and rigorously ex- T. Hams, Harrison, Hart, Hart.zell, HartridKe, Has- 

inrnel kell. Hatcher, Hayes, Hendee, Henderson, lienkle, 

Sat foor committee are of the opinion that the Herbert, Abram a. Hewitt, G. W. Hewitt, Hiscock, 

eoa««qQ«iioeoftuobejcaminationf if it discloses guilt House, Hubbell, Humphrey. Hungerford, Hunter, 

tpoa the part of any in high official position, ahould Hunton, Ittner, James, Frank Jon