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>4e A S48 BROADWAY. 


Entesed, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1858, hj 


in the Clerk's Office of the District Conrt of the United States for the Sonthmi 

District of New York. 


Thb basis of the present work is the " Cyclopedia of Biography/' edited by 
Bich, and published in London during the past year. The plan of that book 
wHl be found folly detailed in its preface, which is reprinted in the present 

Upon the appearance of the work above mentioned, an early copy haidng 
reached the hands of the publishers, whose names appear on our title-page, it 
occurred to them that a reprint of Bich, with the addition of American names 
(in which the English publication was almost entirely deficient), would be both 
acceptable and useM in our country ; and at their request the present editor 
undertook the task of making the desired additions. 

As in the case of the European original, the articles supplied in this edi- 
tion are fit)m different hands, though it has not been thought necessary, by 
initials, at the close of each, to indicate the authorship. Indeed some of the 
writers were unwilling to be thus designated. 

A moment's reflection must satisfy any one, that of all bboks, a biographical 
dictionary is least likely to attain to perfection. Death postpones not his visits 
to suit the conyenience of the compiler ; and even while he works, as his labors 
pass through the press, some new and distinguished victim drops into the grave, 
and should be registered with the past, when the speed of the printing press 
has made it too late to record, in its appropriate place, the name of the de- 
parted. Kay, the very writers themselves of some of the American articles in 
this book, passed into eternity ere yet their labors had reached the hands of 
the compositor, and on the editor devolved the melancholy duty of adding to 
the long list of the dead here recorded, the names of some of his co-laborers. 
In such a book as this, therefore, there must be omissions that are unavoidable. 

Again, a bic^raphical dictionary is not a general obituaiy record ; hence, 
designed omissions may to some imply imperfection, when they find little, per- 
haps no space allowed to names which they may think deserved honorable 
notice. And, ihdeed, one of the difficulties of the editor has been to discrimi- 
nate. While he would gladly have allowed space for names not mentioned at 
all, or increased the limits allotted to those but briefly noticed, he could not 


lose sight of the great object of the work, which was to present, in portable 
form, the largest possible amonnt of biographical memoranda ; and thus Or- 
nish to the student, as a book of ready reference, a companion to his study ta- 
ble, which might serve readily to recall a leading fact or an unremembered date, 
that might otherwise cost the labor of much, and perhaps unavailing research. 

The want of such a book has been so often felt by the editor himself, that 
he naturally supposed others must have shared the want with him ; and, in 
&ct, his own necessities were in part the motive which prompted him to un- 
dertake the labors of the editor. Of the extent of those labors he has only to 
say that he has added some thousands to the names in the English publication. 
These are the names mostly of Americans ; but, as his wish was to bring up , 
as &r as he could, the work to the end of 1855, European names, not con- 
tained in the English book, will be foimd here inserted. 

His greatest fear is of inaccuracy in the matter of dates. Amid so many 
thousands of these, it would be idle to hope for escape fix)m all error. He can 
only say, he has done what he could to avoid mistakes, and submits the work 
to his fellow students in the hope that it may sometimes meet a present want, 
or at least serve as a guide-book to the track that will lead to fuller informal 
tion. It may perhaps be worth something as " a labor-saving machine,'' if it 
be no more. 

Deeembw, ISCMS. 



Sevebal works, more or less resembling the present one, being already in 
circulation, it is necessary to state why the Publishers have ventured to expect 
a share oi the public favor for a new Biographical Dictionary. 

To many of these Dictionaries, considered as the production of individual 
writers, a degree of merit, far from slight, must, in feimess, be conceded ; but 
it would seem sufficiently evident, that no single scholar, however extensive his 
attainments, could ever be expected to catch, or even appreciate all the points 
of interest belonging to the numerous and varied classes of lives, which must be 
included in a General Biography. The necessity of seeking a combination of 
apt and eflFective talent, for the right production of any comprehensive Diction- 
ary, has loi^ been recognized in the case of our great * Encyclopeedias ; ' and 
such a combination was obtained for the service of Biography, by the editors of 
the voluminous * Biographic TJniverselle.' But the principle has not hitherto 
been applied in the construction of any work of the latter kind, which would be 
portable and adapted for general circulation. 

The volume now issued aspires to be a first attempt in the important direc- 
tion alluded to. The Publishers have desired to intrust the execution of the 
principal Uves of each class of remarkable men, to practised writers, who have 
cultivated the corresponding departments of Learning ; and from whom they 
had therefore reason to expect biographical notices, really characteristic, and of 
assured value. 

In the departments appertaining to History, Politics, Law, Military science 
and art, and Ecclesiastical affairs, valuable assistance has been obtained from 
Sir A^rchibald Alison, John Hill Burton, Professor Creasy, Professor Eadie, 
Professor Ferguson, and the Editor. The latter has also endeavored to delin- 
eate the peculiar character and services of the leading Mystics. 

Classical authors are treated by Professor Ferguson, Theological and Reli- 
^ous literature was given in charge to Professor Eadie and Dr. Jamieson. Poets, 
Novelists, and other great Men of Letters, are described by Professor Spalding : 
a memoir of Shakspeare comes from the pen of Charles Knight ; and notices 
of the Bards of Scotland from James Hedderwick and Thomas Davidson. 

The principal names in the department of the Mathematical and Physical 
Sciences were intrusted to Sir David Brewster and Professor NichoL In the 
Experimental Sciences, the department of Chemistry has been treated by Dr, 
B. D. Thomson ; that of Natural History by Dr. Baird ; and Applied Science 
by Professor Gordon. The distinguished names in Medical Science are treated 


by Mr. M^Ooimechy. The eminent Geographers have been attended to by Mr. 
Bryce, who has endeavored, by considerable research, to give exact information 
on the discoveries made by great travellers. 

In Mental Philosophy, our volume is chiefly indebted to Professor Nichol, 
who has furnished a r48um4 of the doctrines taught by many of the Founders 
of the great schools, under their respective names. To render this department 
more complete, the Editor has ventured to introduce the name of Sir William 
Hamilton, although, happily for science, that distinguished Metaphysician stiU 
labors amongst us. 

The list of articles written by Professor Eadie in Theology and Church His- 
tory, includes the Fathers and Beformers, besides many of the medieeval Di- 
vines and Schoolmen. Dr. Jamieson's catalogue is graced by the names of our 
modem Divines, Missionaries, and Philanthropists. 

In the department of the Fine Arts, the great Painters, Engravers, Sculptors, 
and Architects, are characterized by Mr. Womum, whose exact acquaintance 
with the literature of these subjects is well known. The same may be said re- 
garding the Musicians, under charge of Mr. Manson ; and of the great Actors, 
whose lives have been written by the dramatic writer and critic, Mr. Heraud. 

In a work so varied in its contents, so closely printed, and produced by so 
many hands, the Editor is conscious that there must be error ; and that to 
many readers, the space will appear unequally divided. Perfection in all re- 
spects is not pretended to ; but it is certainly hoped, that the design of the 
work and its general execution, entitle it to be regarded as a step of the right 
kind in furtherance of popular literature. It has ^een his aim to allot suf- 
ficient space for a satisfactory — ^however brief — ^memoir of all the leading or 
repreaeTdative men in each department ; room being provided, by limiting 
those of lesser note to a chronological notice, or brief description. It will be 
found, that many thousand names are contained in this volume more than in 
any other portable Biography ; and among novelties, may be mentioned the 
names of sovereigns, and ancient families of importance, arranged in complete 
lists. The advantage of such lists to the reader of history, will be obvious : 
many of them have been collated with great pains, in order to the removal of 
current discrepancies. 

The volume is farther enlivened by numerous illustrations of the birth-places, 
monuments, or other memorials of departed greatness ; all copied from the most 
authentic sources. 

Loudon, lOeft ifoy, 1864. 




AA, Peibb Van Der, & <^l>tfngn^■^A^^ kizut, pies, 
of the ootmcil of Lnxembonig, 158G-1594. 

AA, Petbb Van Der, b leanied bookseller of Lej- 
dcD, editor of nmnerons wozks, died 1780. 

AA, Chr. Ch. Ht. Van Der, ft oelebrftted minis- 
ter of Haeilem, 1718-1792. 

AA, Gerard Van Deb, ft distinguished patriot of 
the Netherlands, in the time of Phihp IL 

AA6ARD, CHRiSTiAif, a Dane, distinguished as a 
writer of Latin poetry, 1616-1664. 

AAGARD, NiCBL, a philosophical and critical wri- 
ter, supposed brother of the above, 1612-1667. 

AA6ESEN, Syehd, better known as Sueno, a Da- 
nish historian whose works date about 1186. 

AALAM, a renowned Persian astrologsr of the 9th 
ccnty., confidant of the Snltan Adah-Edoanlah. 

Dutch painter, 1602-1668. Hia nephew Wiuiam, 
of the same name, also a painter, 1620-1670. 

AAMA, GiTiLLARDiH, a k. of Ethiopia, 8th cent. 

AAKE, Dirk Van Deb, bishop and lord of Utrecht, 
oelefaiated for the perilous war which he maintained 
against the oomit of Holland, d. 1212. 

AARON, the associate and supposed brother of 
Moses, died b. c 1461. 

AARON, St., a British martyr, 808. 

AARON, St., an abbot oi Brittany in the 6th cen- 
tozy, supposed founder of its earliest monasteiy. 

AARON of Alexandria, a priest and physician of 
the 7th century, the earliest writer who is known to 
hare mentioned the small-pox and measles. 

AARON, of Barcelona, a Spanish Jew, an. of a 
work in Hebrew on the precepts of Moses, d. 1298. 

AARON, a Scotchman by birth, made abbot of St 
Martin of Cologne, 1042, died 1052. Left a work on 
the advantage of chanting the psalms and other vocal 
music in churches. 

AARON, Abhab, or Ayes, a learned rabbi, and 
editor of an editi<m of the foregoing, 1708. 

AARON, of Ragusa, a rabbin of the 17th cent. 

AARON, or ARON, Pietbo, generally called a 
Florentine, but supposed to be a Fleming by birth, 
was canon of Rimini in the 16th oentniy, a composer 
and anth. of many laborious woi^ on music 

AARON, Bex Asser, a learned Masorite of the 
11th century, commonly called Ben Asuer, author 
of a work on the Biblical Accents^ and probably 
chief of the college of Tiberias. 

AARON, Ben Chaim, bom at Fez, in the 16th 
centuiy, author of Commentaries on the Scriptures. 

AARON, Hachabon, a rabbi of the Caxaites, been 
in Nicomedia 1346, author of several dogmatical 
wcvksand commentaries 

AARON, Habiscbon, a rabbi of the Caraites, bom 
in the 18th centnxy, at Constantinople, author of a 



celebrated * CoDunentaiy on the Pentatonoh,' a * Trea- 
tise on Grammar,* &c. 

AARON, Isaac, a Greek Jow, inteipretcr to the 
emperor Manuel Conmenus, died of torture upon an 
accusation of sorcery, 1208. 

AARON, Margalxtha, a Polish rabbi, and pro- 
fessor of Jewish antiquities, bom 1665. Remarkable 
for his converuon to Christianity, and his unhappy 
death, which occurred in prison about the year 1780 ; 
author of numerous * Dissertations.' 

AARON, Nasi Babel, a great cabalist, supposed 
to have lived early in the Christian era. 

AARON, ScHASOON, a learned rabbin of Thessa- 
lonica, died 1660. 

AARSCHOT, Dug D*, a celebrated soldier of the 
Roman Church, died at Venice, 1595. 

AARSENS, CoBNEiLLE Van, a renegade patriot 
and statesman of Holland, 1548-1628. 

AARSENS, Fbanos Van, son of the preceding, 
celebrated as a diplomatist, 1572-1641. 

AARSENS, Fbancib, grandson of the last named, 
author of a work of travels, 1655. 

AARTGENS, or AERTGEN, a Dutch painter, 

AARTSBERGEN, Alex. Van, a Dutch nobleman 
of the 17th centniy, distinguished for his talents and 
industzT while at the university at Leyden, and af- 
terwards eminent as a statesman. 

AARTSEN. See JExtsEst. 

AASCOW, A B., a Danish phys., died about 

ABA, OwoN, or Albon, a tyrant of Hungary, slain 
by his soldiers, 1044. 

ABA, a reputed magician, put to death by order of 
the caliph Merwan, in the 7th centniy. 

ABACO, Anthont, a Roman architect of the 16th 
century, author of a work illustrated with engra\iQg8 
by his own hand. 

ABACO, Av. Fel. D'El., a celebrated composer 
and violinist of Verona, 1662-1726. 

ABACO, Babon, an amateur composer and violin- 
ist, lived at Verona in the 18th century. 

ABACUC, a Christian martyr, reign of Claudius. 

ABAD L, fiist Moorish king of Seville and Cordo- 
va, died 1055, after a reign of 26 years. 

ABAD II., son and sue of Abad L, d. 1069. 

ABAD III. succeeded to the throne of Seville 1088, 
made prisoner by the sultan of Morocco, and died 
miserably in Africa. 

ABADI, Ebn al, an. of a work on the Koran. 

ABAl^TI, Michel, a nobleman of Transylvania,, 
elected king, died 1690. 

ABAl'^FI II., son of the preceding, whom he suc- 
ceeded when only 14 years of age, was compelled to 
renounce his sovereignty, and d. in Vienna^ 1 718. 




ABAGA>KHAN, emperor of the Mogals, dictin- 
gnished as an opponent of the cmsaderB, d. 1282. 

ABA6ARUS. See Aboarus. 

ABAI, Hussein, author of a Harmony to the Ta- 
rions Commentaries on the Koran. 

ABAILARD. See Abelard. 

ABAISI, ToMMASo, a sculptor employed Trith his 
two sons in the cathedral of Ferrara, 1451. 


ABAKU M, a R nsdan ecclesiastic, slain 1684. 

ABALANTIUS, Leo, a Greek, who aided in the 
murder of Nioephorus. 

ABALPHAT, a native of Ispahan, oelebratedifor 
having translated the work of ApoUonius on Conic 
Sections into Arabio. 

ABANCOUR, C. X. J., Franquevillb D\ nephew 
of the celebrated Calonne, and one of the victims of 
the French revolution, 1792. 

ABANCOURT, C. Frebot D*, s French officer, 
bom 1801, author of * Memoirs on Turkey.' 

ABANCOURT, F. J. Willbbujk D*, author of 
'Fables,' &c., 1764r-1808. 

ABANO. See Apono. 

ABANTIDAS, a lyrant of Sicyon, k. b. c. 261. 

ABARBANEL. See Abrabanel. 

ABARCA, or AB-ARCA, Sanctius, long of Arra- 
gon and Navarre, killed in an engagement, 926. 

ABARCA, D. Jeromiano, au&or of a history of 
Airagon, lived in the 16th oentnzy. To another of 
the same fanuly a history of Levant is attributed. 

ABARCA, Martik Db, a nobleman of Airagon, 
eminent for his love of literature and knowledge of 
numismatics : about the end of the 16th centoiy. 

ABARCA, Dona Maria De, a Spanish lady, dis- 
tinguished as an amateur painter, time <^ Rubens. 

ABARCA, Pedro Dr, a Jesuit of Spain, eminent 
as an historian and theologian, 1619-1682. 

AB ARIS, a reputed magician of Soythia. 

ABAS, an ancient sophut, to whom oertaui histor- 
ical commentaries are attributed. 

ABASCAL, D. Jose Fern., viceroy of Peru during 
the South American war of independence. He was a 
native of Madrid. 1743-182] . 

ABASCANTUS, a phyacian of Lyons, 2d cent 

ABASSA, a Turkish officer, strangled 1684. 

ABASSA, ABBATSA, or A'BBAZAH, a sister of 
Haioun al Raschid, whose singular marriage and its 
results have furnished the romantic incidents of many 
an oriental story. 

ABASSARUS, the name of an officer who was 
chaiged by Cyras with the rebuilding of the Temple. 

AB ASSON, an impostor who persuaded the French 
and the Grand Turk that he was the grandson of 
Abbas, and was finally put to death. 

ABATE, Andrea, an artist of Naples, d. 1782. 

ABATI, Degu, a medieval Florentine family, one 
of whom is plaoed in the ninth circle of hell, by 
Dante, for his treacherous conduct to tiie Guelphs. 

ABATI, an Italian eccleoastic and poet, 16tii cen- 

ABATI, Anthony, an Italian poet, d. 1667. 

ABATI, an Italian physician of the 16th century. 

ABATI, NiooLo, a painter in fresco, employed at 
FcMitainebleau and many Italian palaces, bom 1512, 
died 1571, called also Dell 'Abate. His relations An- 
thony and Peter of thef^same name were also distin- 
guished as painters. 

ABATIA, F. Antoni, an alchymist, 17th cent. 

ABATINI, GuiDO Ubaux), a fresco painter of 
Rome, 1600-1656. 


ABAUNZA, PErsR, a Spanish on., 1599-1649. 

ABAUZrr, FiRMiN, na esteemed French author, 

distinguished also by the friendship of Sir Isaac New« 
ton, bom at Uzes, 1679, died at Geneva, 1767. 

ABAZA, a Turkish paaha, remarkable for his mi- 
litary talents and official career, died 1636. 

ABBA, autiior of a work exphdning the difficult 
words of the Tahnnd, 1548. 

ABBA, Arica, a Jewish rabbi of the dd cent 

ABBA, Thvixs, king of tiie Pelew Ides, 1783. 

AB^CO, Paul Del, a Florentine poet and as- 
tronomer, contemporary with Boccaccio. 

ABBADABU, Amon, sultan of Seville, 1042, noted 
for his magnificence and military talents. 

ABBADIE, Jambs, a celebrated Protestant theo- 
logian, 1658-1727. 

ABBADIE, the author of a Dissertation on the 
Conversion of the Grauls, published in 1702. 

ABBADIE, ViNCKNT, a French surgeon, transla- 
tor of MacBride's Essays, 1766. 

ABBAS, an uncle and sealous partisan of Maho- 
met, died 658. 

ABBAS, Ebit Abbas Abdallah, suraamed Babbha- 
ni, was a son of the foregoing, and chief of the Sahabuh 
or companions of the prophet, d. 687. 

ABBAS I., the seventh shah or king of Persia, by 
whom the ancient seat of empire was transferred to 
Ispahan. This prince is celebrated for his victories 
over the Ottomans. Many acts of domestic craelty 
tarnish the successes of a long reign of 41 years : died 
1628, aoed 70. 

ABBAS II., the son and snooessor of Sephy, be- 
came shah of Persia, 1642, at the age of 13 ; died 
1699 from the effects of his debauchenes. The most 
remarkable event of his reign was the conquest of 

ABBAS m. succeeded to the throne of Persia 
when only eight months old, and died in 1786, after 
a merely nominal reign, under the usurpation of Na- 
dir Shah. 

ABBAS, Au, a Penuui physician and astronomer 
of the 10th century. 

ABBAS, Ibu Abd-l-Mutaiib, paternal uncle of 
Mahomet. His great grandson founded the dynas^ 
of the Abassides. 

ABBAS, Halt. See Au Ben«Abbas. 

ABBAS, MiRZA, prince royal of Persia; distin- 
guished by his effiorts to intxoduce the culture of Eu- 
rope among his countrymen, 1785-1838. 

ABBAS, Pacha, viceroy of Egypt, grandson of Me- 
hemet Ali, whom he succeeded in 1849, d. 1854. 
His snooessor is SAid Pacha. 

ABBASAH, 1558-1634, a pasha of the Turkish 
empire. Distinguished as a inilitaiy leader in two 
successive revolts. 

ABBATUCCI, Ja. P., a native of Corsica, distin- 
guished in its wars with the Genoese and the French, 
afterwards opposed to Paoli, 1726-1812. 

ABBATUCCI, Charles, son of tiie foregoing, be- 
came general of brigade in the Frendi army, and 
was killed at the eariy age of 26, 1796. 

ABBATISSA, a poet of Sicily, 1570. 

ABBE, H., a painter, lived at Antwcip, 1670. 

ABBE, Louise, called La Belle Cardonniere, cele- 
brated for her penonal attractions and poetical talents, 
lived at Lyons in the 17th century. 

ABBEVILLE, Claude D\ a Capuchhi father, one 
of a mission to Marignon, the history of which he 
wrote, 1614. 

ABBIATI, FiUFPO, an historical painter in oil 
and fresco, bom at Milan 1640, died 1715. 

ABBO, Floriacexsis, a leaiiied abbot and histori- 
an of the 10th century, who was employed in an im- 
portant mission to the pope, killed in a tumult, 1004. 

ABBON, or ABBO, Cernuus, a Nonnan monk 




wlto was at the siege of Paris in 886, of whioh he left 
an acoOQBt in Latin verse ; died about 928. 

ABBOT, Abibl, D. D., a congit^atioDal minister, 
bora at AsdoTer, Mass., in 1770. He was a good 
scholar, haying taken his degree with high honor at 
Harvard, in 1787. His first pastoral charge was at 
Haverhill, on the duties of which he entered in 1794 : 
after continuing in this situation eight years, he re- 
moved to Beverlj, where he Bpesit tibe residue of his 
ministerial life—about 24 yearai In the winter of 
1827-1828 he spent three months in Cuba ; he em- 
to^ked at Havana, seemingly with restored health, 
but diedjust as &e ship reached the quarantine ground 
at New York, on the 7th of June, 1828 ; a^ was 
buried on Staten Island. He had imbibed the con- 
tagion of the yellow fever at Havana before his em- 
barkation. He possessed a refined literary taste, and 
was deemed an doquent preacher. 

ABBOT, Cbarueb. See Tentebobt. 

ABBOT, Charles, created Baron Colchester 1817, 
on retiring from the speakecship of the H. of Com- 
mons, was distinguished as a practieal statesman, 1757 

ABBOT, ChabtiKB, author of a work on the flora of 
Bedf<»dshire, was vicar of Oakley and GodcBngton in 
that ooonty ; died 1817. 

ABBOT, Qboboe, archbishop of Canterbury in the 
reigns of James L and Charies L, was a clothworker, 
and early remarkable for his polemical skilL He 
was an influential man at court untU Laud came into 
favor : he lost ground frtmi his attachment to Calvin- 
iBBL 1582-1638. 

ABBOT, RofBEBT, bp. of Salisbury, and eldest 
brother of the foregoing, is esteemed for his profound 
and extensive learning, 1616-1617. 

ABBOT, Maducb, youngest brother of the fore- 
going, was an eminent merchant, and one of the first 
direotoTB of the East India Company. Served in the 
ofluse of sheriff end kxrd mayor, and was knighted by 
Charles L ; died 1640. 

ABBOT, Qeobqe, son of Sir Maurice, took up 
arms in favor of Parliament, was author of several re- 
ligions works, 1600-1648. 

ABBOT, Saxoel, an Englidi painter, bom 1762, 
became insane and died 1803. 

ABBOT, Sajcuel, a merchant of Boston, and a lib- 
eral benefactor to the Theological s^ninaiy of Ando- 
ver, Mass., of which town he was a native. He ac- 
eumnlated a large fortune in trade, and retired from 
Boston to his native place, where he died in 1812, at 
the age of 80. In tiie establishment of the seminaiy 
in 1807, his donation was $20,000, and by his will he 
left it more than $100,000. He was a man of great 
prudence and piety, remaikable for his methodic^ ex- 
actness. Ne\'er wasteful of his means, he was still 
very liberal, and gave many thousands for the pro- 
motion of benevolent objectsi He had adopted for 
himself certain rules or maxims for his own govern- 
ment in the several relatiooa of life, and conformed 
his conduct to them. One was ** never to praise one 
in his presenoe, or dispraise him in his abaence." He 
died in great tranquillity, saying, he desired to live 
only if God had any thing more for him to db or mfir. 
He died childless, Imt left a widow, to whom he had 
been married Bitf years and more, and who possessed 
such business talents that she assisted her husband in 
trade, snd aided him much in the accumulation of his 

ABBT, Tboxao, a Crerman morahst, professor of 
philosophy fmd mathematics, 1788-1766. 

ABDALCADER, a Persian sheik of distinguished 
piety and wisdom. 

ABDALLAH, the father of Miablkmet, is renowned 

in the traditions of his country, both for his porBonal 
beauty and the purity of his manners. He was orig- 
inally a esmel driver. 

ABD ALL AH, a pretender to the caliphate after tho 
death of his nephew, the first of the Abassides ; slain 
by the troops of his rival, 755. 

ABD ALLAH, a caliph of the Saracens, who con- 
quered Jerusalem in the eighth century. 

ABD ALLAH, governor of Badajos, and chief of 
the Moors and Arabs in Portugal, 11th century. 

ABDALLAH, the Arabian king of Spain at the 
close of the 9th century, when the sovereignty wse 
entire, but in a declining state; died 901, after a 
troubled reign of four years. 

ABDALLAH, king of Grenada on the close of the 
10th oentniy. At this period the governors of the 
chief cities had sssumed the r^gal title. 

ABDALLAH, Beh Yussibc, founder of the power- 
ful but short-lived dynasty of the Almoravides, which 
flourished from 1094 till 1148, and included the 
Arabian empire of Spain with that of Afrioa. 

ABDALLAH, fourth and hu* sheik of the Wahar- 
bees, defeated by Ibrahim Pasha, and beheaded at 
Constantinople, 1818. 

ADALLATI1>\ a celebrated historian of Bagdad, 

ABDALMALEK, fifth caliph of the race of Uie 
Ommiades, distinguished for his miUtaiy conquests. 
Commenced a prosperous reign of 21 years in 684. 

ABDALONYMUS, a descendant of the kings of 
Sidon, restored by Alexander. 

ABDALRAHMAN, an Arabian author, bora at 
Cairo in the middle of the 18th century. 

ABDAL WAHAB, the founder of the Wahabees, a 
political and religious sect, who began their opposition 
to the sultan about the middle of the last centuiy. 

ABD AS, a Persian bp. the cause of the persecution 
under Theodoeius, in whioh he himself perished, 430. 

ABDEL-ASIS, chief of the Wahabees, murdered 
while at his devotions, 1808. 

ABDEL-MELEK, caUph of Damascus, 685. 

ABDEL-MUMEN, founder of the dyxuuty of the 
Afanoades (which succeeded that of the Almoravides), 
under the title of the Great Mehedi, or forerunner of 
the Messiah, died 1163. 

ABDIAS, the supposed author of an apocryphal 
history of the apostles ; about the 5th or 6th cent 

ABDOA, a Persian martyr, 250. 



ABDON, a judge of Israel, b. c. 1148. 

ABEEL, John Nelson, D. D., a minister of the 
Reformed Dutch Church who died in 1812, at the age 
of 43, much and deservedly lamented. He was a 
graduate in the class of 1787 at Princeton, and was 
licensed to preach in April, 1798. In 1795, he was 
one of the clei^ of the Duteh church in New York, 
where he continued until his death. Singularly amia- 
ble and unassuming, with a well stored and cUscrimi- 
nating mind, a remarkably melodious voice, and great 
zeal and sincerity, he possessed the qualities to make 
him effective in the pulpit ; and therefore deservedly 
stood veiy high in his day as an eloquent preacher. 

ABEILLE, Gabpard, a French wit and dramatist, 
bora at Kiezin 1648, died at Paris 1718. 

ABEILLE, Scxpio, brother of the above, author ol' 
a work on surgery, died 1697. 

ABEILLE, Louis, pianist and composer, d. 1765 

ABEILLE, L. P., polit economist, 1719-1807. 

ABEL, according to Grenesis, a son of Adam. 

ABEL, the second son of Vladimir II., became solo 
master of the Danish sovereignty after the murder of 
his brother Eric Killed m battle, 1252. 

ABiX, Ch. F., a Germu Tiolioitt, 17Z5-178T. 

ABEL, Dr. Clihke, an Engliih phjiioUD uid nat- 
nralut, tUe biitorian of Lord Amhen^a embuiy to 
China, di«d 1626. 

ABEL, Rahk, a painter of FnnkTott, letb cant 

ABEL, E. A., a pBinter of miniatoiH, laM <Mit. 

ABEL, OlsFU, a Genu. biitoTian, 1676-1768. 

ABEL, J., a dixting. Oenn. pHDter, 1780-1818. 

ABEL, NicH. H., a diitingaiidied gvometrician of 
Norway, 1902-1829. 

ABEL, Tsoiua, a diitingniBhed diTine, teacher of 
grammar and mmh to qnean Catharine ; exeented by 
orier of Hem? VIIL 1S40. 

ABEXA, J. F., knight ODm. of Malta, anthor of 
'Malta DluMiated,' 1647. 

ABELARD, Petsk, (ABAILARD, PmiBE,^ one 
oT the niOM iltiutrioiis of thn mediieTBl ■choofmsn, 
was bom 10T9 of a noble family, at Palaia, near Nan- 
tea in Brittanj. The atirring inoidenta of liia cbeqner- 
ed life, and eiq>eci&llj faia nmownod Bttaabma 
Heloin, and its melancholj fmita, Iutq throvn 
coliar and romantio eharm ronnd the name of Abo- 
lard. From his youth he devoted hinuelf to atndj, 
and throughout hia whole caraer he waa at no paina 
to ooDoe^ hit oonatuooa poaeeeaion of superior abiUtf. 
Hia firat teacher wai Konline. Coming to Parii at 
the age of twenty, and having acxia rivalled and 
ecUpaed hia tutor, Giiillanme da Cbampeaua, he re- 
moved in two yean from Paria to Melon, thenoe to 
Coiheil, and thence to Palais, hia birthplace, teaching 
philosophy all the while with great mccen. The at- 
Cractiona of Paria soon drew turn again to the metrop- 
olia, where he attacked the Realian of hia old nuuter 
with such n dialectic deit«iily and vigor, that Cham- 
peam'i school waa epeedily extiognished. By and 
by bii uitBgoiiiat wna made tnshop of Chilon-nir- 
Mama, and Abelaid commenoed to study theology 
under Auselm at Laon. Haiing, by liii tranacendeut 
talent, mode the SHininaiy at Laon his envious cne 
tny, be letcmed to Paiia, and epimed a Schocd of Di 
vini^ with unriTalled popoluity. In that eohunl 
were trained many men, Inim Torious oomitr' 
afterwards arrived nt high eccleeiaa^CBl hon( 

~ m furtlinft^ end above £fty bishops. In 


hia penon a diagiMeftl mtrtilatian. H«- 
loise, on this, took the veil and became a mm, and 
Abelard retired aa a monk icto the Abbey of SC Den- 
tat At length he reaumed hie prelectiona, but had the 
mirfbrtnne of bdng ampected of heresy, and was con- 
demned in 1121, % aconneilwhiohmet at Soinoni. 
Diuusted with the poneonting and eiaqieiatad monks 
of St Dcois, for he had denied their St Denii to be 
" Dionysioa the Areopagite," he mtired to Troyea, 
and selected a retreat which hia subdued and cbaslen- 
ed spirit named the Paraclete, or Cooiforter, and in 
this wnvent Heloiae wu at lengtli c«tabliahed aa su- 
perior. But the mifortanale reclose next provoked 
"* 1 ire of his neighbor, Bernard of Clairvani, and 
tin, for snapeoted heresy, did the oouncil of Sena pot 
brand upon him. He qtpealed to Rome, bat did 
t fbUow out hia afq>eal. Worn out with fatigue, 
persec u tion, and infirmity, he at length took lehge 
in the priory of St. Hircel, when he died 21st of 
Aplil, 1112, at the age of 63. His body, first mtened 
at Clnni, was soon removed to tJte Paraokte ; and 
twenty yean afterward Heloise was buried b«de him 
at her own request. Their ashes lay nodiaturbed for 
SOO yeara ; but in 1497 they wen tnnsferred to the 
ohunh of the abbey; then in 1800 removed to the 
garden of Che MuB6e Fraufus, in Paris ; and lastly, in 
1817, tbcy were deposited beneath a Uothic ahrine in 
the oemetety of Pare la ChaiM. The brilliant talents 
and oratory of Abelard are beyond di^uto. As a snlv 
tie and aooDmpliihed dialectician he had do rival. 
Hia " Conceptualitm " forma an epoch in the bistoiy 
of mind, and gave a salotaty impobe to the age in 

non Fnlbert, one of the Parisian 
KMtita, Heloise waa conveyed to Brittany, and bote a 
son in the house of Abelard's uster. The canon in- 
sisted uptm a marriage, which accordingly took place, 
a imion which Heloise openly denied, to her uncle's 
great vexation. Abelard next placed her in the coo- 
vimt of Aisenteuil j but her uncle took a terrible re- 
venge for the abduction of hia niece, by meanaofaome 
hired ruffian^ who broke into Abeliird'a chamber, and 

d, and gave 
which he hved. In his "Theologia" we di* 
vigorous and original mind, olten banipend by itspo- 
sitiau and txcleaiastioal subordination, but often as- 
sarting its native feeedom and ontnmmalied right, as, 
sample, in his illustration of the nmtnal provinces 
of reason and faith. In his book on Ethict, which 
he qoaintly called " Scito te Ipeum," he oppnses tbe 
Romish doctorg on many points of morali^ ; and in 
his other Treatise, " Sic ct Non" — " Yes and No," he 
exposed their boasted nniformity of doctrine, aod pro- 
duced in a aeries of 1G7 mbiica, the contradictory 
opimons of the cJder teachers of the chorch. His 
works were pnbliahed at Paris iu 16Uj and at the 
same place in 18B6, Conain published 'Ouvra;^ in 
editad'Abailard.' [J.E.] 




ABELL, JnOb, a mixsicuui, celebrated at the court 
of Charles IL 

ABELLI Louis, bishop of Rhodos, 1604-1691. 

ABELL Y, AsT^ a Fr. eodesiastie, emin. as a 
pffeacber, confessor to Catharioe de Medicis : 16th ct 

ABELLY, LouiB, a Fr. ecclesiastic, author of xm- 
Bieroas theological works, 160a-1691. 

ABEKCHAMOT, an Arabian chief; whoee exploits 
agaixut the Portngoeee were the admiration of the 
16th oeiitury. 

ABENDAKA, jAa, a Spanish Jew, author of a 
Hebrew Cominentaiy, died 1686. 

ABEN-EZRA, a celebrated rabbin, astronomer, and 
mathematician of Spain, whoee commentaries on the 
Sacred Scriptures are in high repute, both among 
Jews and Christians, fl. in the 12th cent 

ABERCROMBIE, Johk, author of several worics 
on hortioultore, published originallj' under his own 
name and that of Mawe, 1726«1806. 

ABERCROMBIE, Johk, M.D., the eminent author 
of * Enquiries concerning the Intellectnal Powers,' 
published 1830, and the 'Philosophj of the Moral 
Feelings,' published 1838, was bom at Aberdeen, Not. 
11, 1781, and attained the highest rank as a practi- 
cal snd consulting physician at Edinburgh ; died Not. 
14, 1844. 

ABERCROMBIE, James, a British Major General, 
who, during our colonial history, was, in 1758, placed, 
by Mr. Pitt, in command of 60,000 troops to capture 
Louisburg, and secure Fort William Henry and other 
(daces which bad been taken by the French, and 
thereby gave them the command of the lakes. At 
die head of 15,000 men Abererombie proceeded 
against Tloonderoga. His assault was injudiciously 
and unsuccessfully made, and he lost 2000 in killed, 
wounded, andnussing; after which he retired to his 
entrenched camp, on tiie south side of Lake Gedge. 
He was soon after superseded by Sir Jeffrey Amherst, 
who speedily reooraed llconderoga and Crown 
Point, and captured Quebec. 

ABERCROMBY, Ai:kx., Lord, youngest brother 
of Sir Ralph, a judge of Scotland, and occasional es- 
sayist in connection with Mackenrie, 1746-1796. 

ABERCROMBY, Dat., a Scotch physician and an- 
thor, 17tfa century. 

ABERCROMBY, Sir John Robt., lieul-gen., se- 
cond son of Sir Ralph, took the Isle of France whDe 
goremor of Madras in 1810 ; died 1817. 

ABERCROMBY, Patbiok, a Sootoh historian, phy- 
sician to James IL, died 1726. 

ABERCROMBY, Sir Ralph. This gallant and 
skilful soldier, and upright and humane man, was 
bora at Menstrie, in the county of Clackmannan in 
Scotland, in October, 1734. He entered the army at 
the age of eighteen, and saw some service during the 
last part of the seven yean' war in Germany. He 
was not employed in the American war ; and it was 
not untQ the war against revofaxtionaiy France broke 
out, that the important part of Aberraomby's career 
commenced. — He acted as lieutenant-general to the 
Duke ci York in the campaigns in Holland, from 
1793-6. Abercromby's promptitude and courage, and 
also his good sense and humani^, were greatly signal- 
ized dunng these unfortunate operations of the British 
troops; and both foreigners and fellow-countrymen 
noted the contrast whie£ his skill presented to the in- 
competency of the other leaders of the army at that 
period. At the end of 1796 Sir Ralph was appoint- 
ed commander-in-chief in the Weft Indies, and con- 
quered several islands from the French. He was sent 
to Ireland as commander of the forces, during one 
part of the Irish rebeUion, but his disgust at the sys- 
tem sanctioned Htuan by the government caused him 

to make indignant remonstrances, which were an- 
swered by his recalL He served again in Holland as 
second in command to the Duke of York, in the dis- 
astrous expedition to the Helder in 1799; and he 
again acquired the respect both of friends and foes, 
by his good conduct amid the imbecile blunders of 
those who were associated with him in command. 
But it is from iha expedition to reconquer Egypt in 
1801, when he was plaoed in unfettered authority at 
the head of a British army destined for a worthy ob- 
ject, that the lustre of his fame is dated. Sir Ralph 
readied the Egyptian coast in March, with a force of 
about 12^000 effective men. The French army that 
occupied Egypt, under General Menou, was much 
stronger ; but Menou, though aware of the approach 
of the English expedition, detached only part of his 
force under General Friant to oppose the landing of 
Abercromby*§ army. Abercromby placed his men in 
boats on the 8th of March, and made good his land- 
ing, though he was met by Frianf s troopfe vrith a 
heavy cannonade ; and the English, as they reached 
the beach, were fiercely and repeatedly charged both 
by the cavalry and the infantry of the French. Ab- 
ercromby then moved upon Alexandria, where the 
chief force of the French was posted. A slight ac- 
tion took place on the Idth, in which the English 
had the advantage ; but it was on the 21st that the 
decisive battle was fought which liberated Egypt. On 
that day General Menou attacked the British with 
the whole disposable force that he could concentrate 
upon their position. He had from 12 to 14,000 
troops in the field, a luge proportion of whom were 
cavalry ; and his artillery was also numeroua Abeiv> 
cromby had about 10,000 foot, and only 800 hone. 
He was also far inferior in guna The battle (which 
the English call the battle ^ Alexandria, and which 
is termed by French historians the battle of Canopus,^ 
began about an hour before daybreak, and raged wim 
unusual obstinacy till a little before 10 a. m. The 
French troops were all veterans of Napoleon's army 
of Italy; they attacked with impetaoait>' ; and the 
English, who had the fullest eonfidenoe in their chief, 
reosted with their national stubbornness. The British 
right wing rested on the ruins of some old Roman 
buldings ; and this point was the key of the position, 
and the especial object of the French assaults. Aber- 
cromby rode to this spot, and encouraged his men by 
voice, gesture, and example. On the other side, La- 
nusse, the best of the French generals, led on the as- 
sailing columns. Lanusse was shot dead, and his 
columns driven back, but they soon rallied and re- 
turned to the charge ; and a splendid division of 
French cavalry, under General Roiie, galloped for- 
ward upon the English infantry that was posted near 
the Roman walls. Sir Ra^ was attacked in person 
by some of these daring cavaliers, and the brave old 
general, though he disarmed his first antagonist, re- 
ceived a sabre wound in the chest from another French 
trooper, who was instantly shot down by a Highland- 
er of the 42d. Soon after this Sir Ralph received a 
musket shot in the thigh ; but he refused to quit tho 
field until the enemy were thoroughly repulsed, and 
he saw them flying from the field, which was strewed 
with 1,700 of their killed and wounded, and also 
with neariy 1,400 of the victorious English. When 
the excitement of the battle was over. Sir Ralph 
fainted and was carried off the field in a hammock, 
amid the blessings and tears of the soldiery, who 
loved him os a father. He was immediately carried 
on board Lord Keith's flag ship, where he died of the 
gunshot wound in his thigh, on the evening of 28th 
March, 1801, in the 6dd year of his pure and honor- 
abk life [E.S.C.] 


[6 I 


ABERCROMBY, Sir Robt., General, a younger 
brother of Sir Ralph. For thirty years governor of 
the castle of Edinbnigh, died 1827. 

ABERLI, J. L., a Swiss painter, 1723-1786. 

ABERNETHY, Rev. J., an Irish dis., 1680-1740. 

ABERNETHY, John, (1768-1831,) a celebrated 
soigeon. A native of the north of Ireland, he was 
educated in XiOndon, where his parents are said to 
have resided. He became a pnpU of John Hunter, 
by whom he was thoroughly imbued with the deter- 
mination to devote his remarkable energies to the re- 
form of the mode of practising the profession to which 
he was devoted. By his master he was admirably 
instructed in the oi^ganization of the human body, 
and his career is a brilliant example of the sucK^ssful 
application of his early knowled^ to the legitimate 
treatment of disease. It was in combating the em- 
pirical tendencies of his predecessors th|^ he perhaps 
became rather dogmatical in his manner, which, tA- 
thon^ it rendered him a favorite with his pupils from 
its eccentricity, produced enmity by its brusqueness. 
To a celebrated friend of the writer of this, who was 
familiar with him, he said, upon taking a patient to 
him, and commencing to explain the symptoms of 
the complaint, " Hold your tongue, sir, what have 
you to do with it ? " He became, at an eariy age, 
surgeon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and lectorer 
in its medical school His most important works 
were on Physiology, on Surgery, and on the treat- 
ment of local diseases. His groat merit was in point- 
ing out the legitimate road on which to practise the 
profession, and in carrying out the principles of his 
great master, John Hunter, with amazing energy 
and determination. iR.P.T.] 

ABERNETHY, Thos., a Jesuit misdonaiy in Scot- 
land, 1636. 

ABERTINELU, a Flor. painter, about 1512. 

ABESCH, Anna B., a painter on glass, d. 1750. 

ABGARUS, either the proper name or the title of 
several kings of Edessa, one of whom was oontempo- 
raiy with our Saviour, and is said to have written to 

ABGILLUS, a prince who accompanied Charle- 
magne to the holy land, and is known by his surname 
of Prester John. 

ABIAH, the second son of Samuel. 

ABIATHAR, high priest in the time of David. 

ABICHT, J. G., a German orientalist, 1672-1740. 

ABIGAIL, the wife of Nabal and David. 

ABIHU, one of the sons of Aaron. 

ABU AH, son of Jeroboam king of Israel 

ABI JAH, king of Judah after Jeroboam. 

ABUAU, the wife of Ahaz, and mother of Heze- 
kiah, king of Judah. 

ABILDGAARD, P. Ch. a Damsh physician and 
naturalist, died 1808. 

ABILDGAARD, N. A. brother of the foregoing, 
an historical painter, 1744-1809. 

ABILDGAARD, Soren, a Danish nat, d. 1791. 

ABIMELEGH, a k. of Israel, kiUed b.c. 1206. 

ABINGER, James Scarlett, Lord, an eminent 
English practising barrister and judge, was bom in 
Jamaica about the year 1769. His &imily was em- 
inent and inBuentiol in the West Indies, and his 
younger brother, Sir William Anglin Scarlett, became 
chief justice of Jamaica. He studied at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, entered at the Middle Temple, and 
was called to the bar on the 8th July, 1791, taking 
his degree of A.M. three years later. His practical 
sagacity, uded by a AilI, handsome person, which 
gave him, even in youth, on appearance of sedate im- 
portance, procured for him a rapid and lucrative bua- 
ness. His temper, discretion, and industry, were al- 

ways to be relied on; and few English banisters 
while yet junior counsel, have been intrusted with the 
sole management of so many important cases. There 
was nothing striking or inspiring in his eloquence, 
nor was he remaricable for original or profound legal 
views ; but he hod the most lucrative of all charac- 
ters attached to his professional fame, that of getting 
many verdicts. A writer in the public press, signing 
himself * Lorgnette,' who seems to have intimately 
studied his career, summed up his characteriistics as a 
practical lawyer by saying: — 'Watchfulness, pru- 
dence in the management of a -case, great moral 
courage in the choice or rejection of the means to be 
used on behalf of a client, experience of hnman na- 
ture, and great self-denial in the exhibition of that 
experience ; these were the chief agencies by which 
he acquired his ascendency over juries ; while it is 
not surprising that he should also have acquired great 
influence over the bench, when he added intimate 
knowledge of the intricacies of law to an unusual 
personal preference forjudges, and the prestige which 
almost unvarying success gave him.' He received a 
ffllk gown in 1816. Ho had before that date made 
unsuocessfol attempts to get into parliament, where 
he first sat in 1818 for Peterborough, a nomination 
seat He was one of the many eminent lawyers 
whose peculiar forensic powers have failed to please the 
House of Commons, and ho was not much heard 
there except on professional matters. He had been 
an advocate of Romilly's law reforms, and was gen- 
erally counted in the Wliig ranks, but he took a dis- 
tinct step in a gradual change, by beconung attorney- 
general under Canning in 1827. Wlien Sir Charles 
Wetherall was dismissed in 1829, for opposition to 
Catholic emancipation, Scarlett took a farther step by 
becoming again attorney-general under the Welling- 
ton administration, and ho followed up his accession 
by severe prosecutions of the opposition papers. In 
1834 he was made chief baron of the Exchequer, 
and raised to the peerage by the titie of Boron Abin- 
ger. He died on 7th April, 1844, of paralysis, 
which attacked him when on circuit at Buiy St. Ed- 
monds. His first wif%, married in 1792, died in 1829, 
and he was married a second time, a few months be- 
fore his death. [J.H.B.] 

ABINGTON, Thob., an English hist 1560-1647. 

ABINGTON, Fr., a comic actress, 1731-1816. 

ABIOSI, an Italian phys. and astrol., 15 cent 

ABIRAM, one of the seditious Jews, Numb. xvi. 

ABISB AL, Enrique O'Donnell, Count of, a Span- 
ish general who achieved many successes against the 
French, 1770-1834. 

ABISHAI, a nephew of David, king of Israel, and 
one of the commanders of his army. 

ABLAVIUS, a priefect, murdered by Constans. 

ABLESON, Joan, a naval commander, 17th cent 

ABNER, first cousin and captain of the host to 
Saul, murdered by Joab, b.c. 1068. 

ABNEY, Sir Th., distinguished for his friendship 
to Dr. Watts, and his public spirit while lord mayor 
of London in 1700 ; died 1722. 

ABOS, the name of two brothers who distinguish- 
ed themselves by the defence of Malta against the 
Turks, end of the 17th centuiy. 

ABOS, author of the opera of *Tito Manlio.' 

ABOU, a judge ccl. under Haroun al Raschid. 

ABOUAMROU. See Ahmed-ben Mohammed. 

ABOVILLE, F. M., Count D', a French general, 

ABRABANEL, *Isaac, a Portuguese Jew, author 
of numerous commentaries, 1437-1508. 

ABRADATAS, a king of Susa, of whom a beau- 
tiful fiction is related by Xenophon. 




ABRAHAM, the patriarch of the JewB» waa prob- 
ably the youngest aon of Terah, a descendant of 
Shem. The chitmology of his life is uncertain, but 
it dates beyond 2000 years B.a 

ABRAHAM, Nich., a learned Jesuit, 1589-1656. 

ABRAHAM, A. Sancta Cuuul, a Roman Oath. 
preacher, highly popular in Vienna, and remarkable 
for his eccentric wridngn, 16^2-1709. 

ABRAHAM, St., an anchorite of the 4th cent 

ABRESCH, Fb. Lonia, a celebrated critic and hel- 
lenist, 1699-1782. 

ABREU, Alexis, a med. wr. of Portugal, 1622. 

ABREU, Don J. Ajtt., a Sp. annalist, d. 1775. 

ABREU, J. M. De., a geometrician, 1754-1805. 

ABRIAL, A. J^ a Ft, statesman, hig]|ly distiu- 
gniflhed by Napoleon, 1750-1828. 

ABRIL, a teacher of the classics, 1530-1590. 

ABRILOLA, an Arabian poet, 973-1057. 

ABROSI, an astioL and phys. of Italy, 16th cent 

ABRUZZI, a landscape painter, 18th centniy. 

ABRUZZO, Balih., a Sicilian phil. 1601-1665. 

ABSALOM, the son of Dayid, k. b.c 1023. 

ABSALOM, archbishop of Lund, distinguished for 
his public spirit and ezpbits in arms, no less than for 
his learning, 1128-1191. 

ABSCHATZ, AssuAH Vox, a Gennan statesman 
and poet, 1646-1699. 

ABSTEMIUS, LAVREsmcB, fabulist, 15th cent 

ABU, MoeLEX, governor of Khorassan, and one of 
the chief instruments in establishing the Abassides, 
pat to death by Almanzor, 759. 

ABU-AMON. See Abiiei>-ben Mohammed. 

ABU BEKIR, the first caliph, and successor of 
Mahomet, disting. by his warlike talents and personal 
moderation. The scattered chapters of the Koran 
are supposed to have been collected by him ; d. 684. 

ABUCARA, Thxod., a controversial divine, bishop 
of Caria in the 8th centoiy. Another of the same 
name who lived a century later, is noted for the in- 
sinoerity of his public life. 

ABUDADAHER, the chief of an Arabian sect, 
disting. himself by the pillage of Mecca, d. 953. 

ABUL ABBAS, fint caliph of the Abassides, 
xeiffned 749-753. 

ABULFARAGIUS, Gbegobt, an Arabian histo- 
rian, bom 1226. 

ABULFAZEL, a vizier and historian of the Mogul 
empire, assassinated 1604. 

ABULFEDA, Tsmaki., a Syrian prince and geo- 
giapher, 1296-1368. 

ABULGAZI, Bkhadeb, khan of the Tartars, 
1645, and author of a Tartar history. 

ABULOLA, aa Arabian poet, 973-1057. 

ABUNDANCE, Jkan D*, a Fr. poet and satirist, 
16th cent, most of whose works still exist in MS. 

ABU-NOWAS, an Arabian poet, a favorite of 
HaiDun al Raschid. 

ABU-OBEYDAH, a Mohammedan general, di»> 
tingmahed as the conqueror of Palestine and Syria, 
aad by the friendship of Mahomet, died 639. 

ABU-TALIB, a native of India, author of a 
Joomal of Obaervations upon the English, translated 
by Major Stewazt, died 1806. 

ABU-TEMAN, an Arabian poet, esteemed the 
second in degree of superiority by his countxymen ; 
originally woriced as a tailor, 805-6 — 845-6. 

ABUZAID, Mibza, a great-grandson of llmur, 
pnxdaimed soltan at Asterbad during the civil wars 
fomented by Uleg Beg and his son. Taken prisoner 
in the endeavor to extend his empire, and put to 
death, 1469. 

ABYDENUS, an historian, quoted by Eusebius. 

ACACIUS, founder of the Acadani, 4th cent 

ACACIUS, bishop of Besea in Syria, died 436. 

ACACIUS, bishop of Csesarea, 839. 

ACACIUS, patriarch of Constantinople, 471. 

ACACIUS, bishop of Amida at the beginning of 
tiie 5th cent, disting. for a great act of benevolence, 
having ransomed 7000 Persians, who had been made 
prisoners of war, by the sale of his church plate. 

ACADEMUS, a private citizen of Athens, from 
whom the Academic grove, the favorite resort of cer- 
tain Athenian philosophen, took its name. 

ACAMAPIXTILLI, first kmg of the Aztecs, and 
founder of the city of Mexico, died 1420. 

ACARQ, D*, a Fr. gram, and critic, died 1795. 

ACCA, bishop of Hexham in the 8th century, cel- 
ebrated as a divine, also for his versatile literaiy tal- 
ents, and his skill in psalmody. 

ACCA, the nurse of Romulus and Remus. 

ACCAMA, Bebxabd and Mathzas, two Dutch 
painters of the 18th centuiy. 

ACCARIGI, Fr. professor of civil law, died 1622. 

ACCARIGI, Jac, professor of rhetoric, died 1654. 

ACCIAJUOLI, Doitatds, a distinguished scholar 
of the 15th centuiy. 

ACCIAJUOLI, J., an au. and lecturer, 16th cent 

ACCIAJUOLI, M., a Florentine poetess, died 1610. 

ACCIAJUOLI, Ph., a dramatic poet, 1637-1700. 

ACCIAJUOLI, Nicu., a distinguished Neapolitan 
statesman, 1310-1366. 

ACCIAJUOLI, Reinikb, nephew of the preceding, 
conqueror of Athens, Corinth, and Bceotia. 

ACCIAJUOLI, Zenobio, a Greek scholar and 
poet, librarian to Leo X., 1461-1520. 

ACCIEN, governor of Antioch when that city was 
besieged by the crusaders, 1097. 

ACCIO-ZUCCO, author of a versified translation 
of iEsop, with poetical additions, 1479. 

ACCIUS, L., a Roman tragedian, died b.o. 180. 

ACCIUS, Nevius, a Roman augur, who opposed 
the expedition of Tarquin the elder against the Sa- 

ACCIUS, T., a Roman orator, 1st century b.o. 

ACCIUS, TuLuns, the prince of the Volsd, with 
whom Coriolanus formed an alliance when he re- 
volted ftt>m Rome. 

ACCOLTI, Bemedetto, a eel. jurist and historian, 
secretaiy of the Florentine republic, 1415-1466. 

ACCOLTI, Fr., brother of the preceding, a jurist 
and poet, sumamed Aretinus, died 1483. 

ACCOLTI, Bebkard, son of Benedetto, an impro- 
visatore of distinguished powers, died about 1535. 

ACCOLTI, Peteb, a second son of Benedetto, and 
card, of Ancona ; noted as the composer of the papal 
bull against Luther in 1519 ; 1455-1532. 

ACCOLTI, Benbdetto, card, of Ravenna, and 
nephew of the two preceding, was called the Cioero 
of the age. He was highly distinguished by Leo X. 
and his successors, 1497-1549. 

ACCOLTI, Leoxabik), son of Fabricio, a natural 
son of the preceding, author of a life of the first 
Benedetto, &c. 

ACCOLTI, Ben., a conspirator against Pius IV., 
executed 1564. 

ACCORAMBONI, the name of several noted Ital- 
ians, one of whom was a niece of Sixtus V., and the 
author of some poetzy, murdered 1585. 

ACCOliSO, Fb., a famous Ital. jurist, 1182-1229. 

ACCORSO, Fb., son of the preceding, also cele- 
brated as a jurist, died 1328. 

ACCORSO, Marianqelo, a critical au., 16th cent 

ACCUM, Fr., an eminent chemist, 1769-1838. 

ACCURSIUS. See Aooorso, Fb. 

ACERBI, Embioo, a eel. ItaL surgeon, died 1827. 

ACERBI, GrossppE, au. of Travel, pubL 1798. 




ACERBO, Fb., a poet of Naples, 17th oentoiy. 

ACERNUS, S. B., a Polish poet, called the Sar- 
matiaii Ovid, 1551-1608. 

ACESEUS, a Gr. artist eel. for his emhroideiy. 

ACESIUS, bishop of Constantiaople in the reign 
of Constantine. 

ACEVEDO, F. A., Sp. revolutionist, killed 1820. 

ACEVEDO, Alonso, a Spanish advocate, distin- 
goished for his humane opposition to the nae of tor- 
tore, died abont 1780. 

ACH, Van, an historical painter, 1566-1621. 

ACILEUS, an ancient Grroek poet 

ACHiEUS, gov. of Asia Minor, 8d oentoiy B.a 

ACHAIUS, king of the Scots from 788 to 819. 

ACHAN, a Jew, stoned to death, B.a 1451. 

ACHARD, AiTTH., a learned divine, 1696-1772. 

ACHARD, abbot of St Victor in Paris, died 1172. 

ACHARD, Cl. F., a phys. and antiq., 1753-1809. 

ACHARD, F. C, a Prussian chemist, died 1821. 

ACHARDS, EI.EAZAK, bp. of Avignon, died 1741. 

ACHARIUS, Eric, a botanist, 1767-1819. 

ACHARY, or ASHARI, founder of a Mohamme- 
dan sect, called after his name in the 9th oentuiy. 

ACHENWALL, GtOdfret, a celebrtaed Prussian 
jurist, the founder of statistics, 1719-1772. 

ACHER, N., a French judse, author of an abridg- 
ment of * Plutarch's Lives,* died 1807. 

ACHERLEY, Roger, a polit writer, 1727-1740. 

ACHERY, J. L. D*, a learned monk, 1609-1685. 

ACHILLAS, minister and general of Ptolemj. 

ACHILLES, one of the great chiefs of the Ho- 
meric poems, is represented as the grandson of JEacns, 
and son of Peleus, king of the Myimidones. His 
share in the siege of Troj, and particularly the dealh 
of Hector, is described in the Iliad, and his death in 
the 24th book of the Odyssey. 

ACHILLES, Alex., a Prussian nobleman, author 
of works on physical science, died in poverty 1675. 

ACHILLES, Tattdb, a Christian bishop, and au- 
thor of a Greek romance hi the 8d century. 

ACHILLINI, the name of three Italians of the 
16th century, distinguished in professional literature. 

ACHISH, a king of Gath, with whom David took 
refuge. b.o. 1060. 

ACHMET L, saltan of the Ottomans, 1588-1617. 

ACHMET II., Buoeed. as -sultan 1691, died 1695. 

ACHMET nL succeeded 1703, deposed 1780, 
died, 1786. 

ACHMET, dey of Algiers, from 1805-1808. 

ACHMET, a gen. of Solyman, exec, for rebellion. 

ACHMET, an Arabian writer on dreams, 4th cent 

ACHMET-GIEDIC, grand vizier under Mahomet 
II., was one of the greatest warriors and statesmen 
that ever conducted the affairs of a nation. Ho was 
the idol of the people and the army. After repeated 
displays of magnanimity, he was secretly strangled 
by order of Bajaxet, 1482. 

ACHTER, Ulr., a Bavar. musician, 1777-1803. 

ACHTSCHELLING, Lucas, a painter, 16th cent 

ACID ALIUS, Vai^ns, a classical writer, 16th cent 

ACIEY, Michel V., a Fr. sculptor, 1736-1799. 

ACILIUS, AvioLA, a Roman officer, burnt alive, 
B.a 19. 

ACILIUS, AvioLA, consul of Rome, 54. 

ACILIUS, Caius, a Roman soldier of distinguished 
valor, in the time of Julius Ceesar. 

ACILIUS, Glabrio, consul of Rome, 2d cent b.c. 

ACILIUS, Glabrio, consul of Rome, 91. 

ACINDYMUS, Septimus, Roman governor of 
Antioch, 4th century. 

ACINDYMUS, Gr., a controversial an., 14th cent 

ACINELLI, a Genoese historian, 18th century. 

ACK, JoHANK, a painter on glass, 16th century. 

ACKER, Peier, a painter on glass, 15th century. 

ACEERMANN, Coiirad, a comedian of Ham^ 
burgh, esteemed the Garrick of Germany, died 1771. 

ACKERMANN, J. F., a physiologist, 1765-1813. 

ACEERMANN, J. Ch. GcyiruEB, an eminent 
phys. and medical writer of Germany, 1756-1801. 

ACEERMANN, Rudolph, a German tradesman 
settled in London, noted for his improvements in 
Kth(»raphy, &c, 1764-1834. 

ACKERSDYCK, Cor., a writer on Logic, 1666. 

ACKMAN, Wh ., a Scotch artist, ootemporaiy with 
the poet Thomson, whose merits he was the first to 

ACEWORTH, G. Dr., one of the reformation au- 
thors, a favorite of Archbishop Parker. 

ACOLUTH, Andr., an orientalist, 1654-1704. 

ACONTIUS, Jas., an eminent philosopher and 
divine, converted to the protestant faith, 16th cent 

ACORIS, king of Egypt^ 4th oentuiy B.C. 

ACOSTA, Cur., a suig. and naturalist, 16th oent 

ACOSTA, Gabriel, a divine of the 17th oentoiy. 

ACOSTA, J., edt of the Qdcutta Times, died 1820. 

ACOSTA, Josh., a Peruvian Jesuit, author of a 
histoiy of the West Indies, died 1600. 

ACOSTA, Manuel, author of a histoiy of the 
Jesuit missionaries to the East) 1541-1604. 

ACOSTA, Uriel, a Portuguese, distinguished for 
his inquiring q>irit, who, after many times changing 
his cried and enduring much persecution, committed 
suicide, 1640 or 1647. 

ACQUAVIVA, A. M., Duke of Atri, distinguished 
as a patron of literature, and the first publisher of an 
eneydopfledia, died 1529. Many others of this fam- 
ily are remarkable as oammanders^ statesmen, and 
men of letters. 

ACREL, Olaf, a Swedish surgeon, 1717-1807. 

ACRON, Helenius, a Roman grammarian. 

ACRON, a Sicilian physician, 5th oentuiy b.c 

ACRON, or Agroniub, John, a physician and 
mathematician of Friesland, 16th centoiy. 

ACRONIUS, John, a Dutch writer in oppositioQ 
to the church of Rome, 17th oentuiy. 

ACROPOLITA, G., a Byzantine historian, d. 

ACROPOLITA, Const., son of the preceding, a 
theologian and minister of state. 

ACROTATUS, son of Cleomenes, king of Sparta, 
rendered lumself odious by the murder of Sosistratus ; 
ho died without having reigned. 

ACROTATUS, grandson of the foregoing, became 
kmg of Sparta, B.a 268, killed in batde. 

ACTON, John, or Joseph, the son of an Irisli 
physician, settled at Besan^on, became prime minis- 
ter at the court of Naples towards the close of the 
last centuiy, and is noted as a bitter opponent of the 
French, 1737-1808. 

ACTORIUS, Najson, hist, age of Augustus. 

ACTUARIUS, Jo., a Greek physician, 18th oent 

ACUNA, Ant., bishop of Zamora, notorious for 
his part in the civil wars of the period, beheaded 

ACUNA, Chr., a Jesuit missionaiy, author of a 
work descriptive of the river Amazon. 

ACUNA, Fernando De, a native of Madrid, a 
great favorite with the emperor Charles V., and a 
writer of pastoral poetry, died 1680. 

ADA, queen of Caria, b.g. 344. 

ADAIR, James, an Indian trader, who resided 
among the southern tirbes (principally the Chicko- 
saws and Cherokees) for 40 years. In 1775, he pub* 
lishod his 'Histoiy of the American Indians,' in 
which his effort was to show, from certain supposed 
resemblances in customs, the descent of the Indians 



(Wm flia Jawi. The most viloable part of his work 
fi ID hie TDeabulsrks at laSiaii dikleets, and even 
tiwn ua DM SDliTel^ ■ati>r>ctOT7 to the ethoologiul 

ADAIR, Jaxei, aeqesQt at law, dutin^iaulied aa 
a ooanaetlor and recorder of London, died 1798. 

ADAIR, jAJiaa MAErmucK, a Scotch phTridan, 
antii. of Mrenl pn^earioDal woriu, died 1802. 

ADAIR, Jobs, F.R.S., a Sootchraan. distingniihod 
as an hydrognipber, end of 1 7th oentoiy. 

ADALARD, ahbot and founder of Sew Corbie, 
which vaa designed b/ him as a nuiwr7 of mission- 
ariea to oatTcrt Ibe Dortheni nationi. This diitm- 
gnidied monk ni eoiuiD-geniian of CharlcDiBgne, 
and was born abont the year 768. 

ADALBERON, aTchbisfaop of Rhehni, distin- 
gniohed for his Icaimng and statesmanship, eonse- 
orated HoKh Capet, 9BT, and died 9BB. 

ADALBERO.V, Asceuh, bishop of Laon, also a 
poOtldBn, noted for his trouheiy, died 1030. 

ADALBERT, a French Inehop of the 8th cent, 
vbo olumed impiralion, was condemned bj the comi- 
dlofSoinaiiB, 744, and died In prison. 

ADALBERT, Ushi^ of Pngne, saragely tnnrdered 
hy- Oe Bobaniana, 997. 

ADALBERT, an^Ushop of Bramen, died 1072. 

ADALBERT, arehUshq) of Hagdebnig, d. 1137. 

ADALBERT I, dnke ofTnscan?, 847-890. 

ADALBERT 11., son rf the preceding, 890-91 T. 

ADALBERT m., assocUled with fis fhtfaer Be- 
reiiBer as king of Itaiy, 960-961. 

ADALOAD, king ofLorabaidT, 604-635. 

ADAM, the fint man, nccordinf; to the reoelTed 
elmnHilan, liTsd to be 930 years of age; ^e date of 
hia creatum is fixed at 4004 years b.c. 

ADAM of Bramen, an eminent historian of the 
church, lired in the 12th centnry. 

ADAH DE u miJ.K, a French poet, 19th cenb 

ADAH,3cnTiis, adocofthe Soibonne, 12lhoent 

ADAM, ASOLFH. Cb., a mudeian, born 1804. 

ADAH, Alkx., Dr., a learned achoolnuuter of 
Edinb., an. of ' Roman Antiquities,' &c., 1741-1809. 

ADAM, Au, a pmtrter of battles, 1788-1812. 

ADAM, O., a German landscape painter, d. 1S28. 

ADAH, JlcQ., a learned Fr. writer, 1663-1738. 

ADAM, Jeah, a Jesuit preacher, 1 Tth CentniT. 

ADAM, L. 3., aS em, Fr. sculptor, 1700-1759. 

ADAM, Kica. S., brother of the preceding, ren- 
doed famoos by his admiied stKtne of Pinmetbena 
chained, 1T06-1T78. 

ADAH, HELcmoB, rector of a college at Hddd- 
beiv, noted as a Ttdnminons biographer, d. 1622. 

ADAH, Vica., a Fr. grammarian, 1718-1792. 

ADAH, RoBEBT, a celebralcd architect, mnch em- 
jdoyed In London in conjunction witii his brother 
Jainet^ most distingai>h«d for the Adelphi Buildings, 

ADAH, RoBEBT, anther of the ' ReUgiona World 
lUnUyed,' 177&'1B26. 

ADAH, Th., a clergyman who continued rector of 
WmtrinriuuD for 68 years, thongh preferment was 
Mdtinndly ofikred him, IT0U1tS4. 

ADAH, Rt Hon. Wh., a disCingniahed lanmotand 
ndi&daa, finally chief commiiaoner of the SooCtish 
JmyCoort, 1751-1839. 

ADAH£US, TnsoD., ea author of the ISdi oent, 
ewcdiUy of a work deogned to promote aoMoii of 
all Chitadan ehnrchefl, died 1660. 

ADAHANTEO, a leatud Talmndist, d. 16S\ 

ADAHANTIUS, » phyriornomict, 4^ century. 

ADAMANUS, the biographer of St. Cohmiba, 8th 

ADAHI, Ebhdt, n Polish writer, 1750. 

: ADAMI, Leonard, an ItaL scholar, 1690-1719. 
ADAMS, Abio., eel. by her ' Letters,' 1744-1818, 
ADAMS, AsDHEw, I.L.D., a jurist of Cooneoticnt, 
who wBaelBvaled to the bench inI78!), andappmnted 
chief jnitico in 1793. Re waa bom at Stratford, was 
a gradoate in the clas; of 1760 at Tale, representa- 
ti™ in Congress in 1782, and died in 1T97, aljad 61 

ADAMS, C. B,, an Am. Geologists He was pro- 
fessor of Amherst college, Mass., and in the fulfil- 
ment of the daties of his office as State Geologist of 
Yermont, pnbhshed some valuable reports upon the 
nataral history of that state. He was the author of 
several elementary icientiEo works, Sic. Died on the 
island of St. Thomas, 1853, where ho had gone for 
die improTement of his hcaJth. 

ADAMS, Gko,, ceL as a mathematiual inst maker, 
and uientific writer, diod IT86. 

ADAMS, Geo., sou of the preceding, antbor of an 
'Essay on Viinon,' &o., 1750-1795. 

ADAMS, John, the assomed name of Alex. Smith, 
one of the principal mntiueors of the Boun^, and niice 
known as the patriarch of Pitc^m's Island, where 
the nmtineers settled; d. 1829. 

ADAMS, John, an astrol., rtiffo of Charles 11. 

ADAMS, Joici, Rov., min. of 3ie Scotch chorcb in 
HattoQ Garden, and author of many works of elu- 
mectary instruction, died 1814. 

ADAMS, J., an Amer. poet and preacher, d. 1740. 

ADAMS, John, a celebrated American st 
the second Prendeat of the United States, was bom 
at Bnuntree, Maseachusella, on 19th October, 1735. 
Bis (kmo ia not associated with brilliant oratorical 
displays, or with critical triumphs in party conAict. 
His qualities were those of the accomplished man of 
hnsinesB, bat they came forth at a time, and under 
oonditiona that made business capacities of the most 
momentous importance to bis own countrymeu and 
to mankind at large. Tho United States are the sole 
great eioeption to the laying of Burke, that ' consti- 
tutions are not made, they grow,' That a constitu- 
tion was framed for the States, on principles which 
have attested their soundness for the plaoe and occa- 
rion by their dncabilily, is m^nly to bo attributed to 
the sagaci^ of Adams, and especially to his thor- 
oughly EngEsb oapaci^ to turn eiistmg inatitntions 


[ 10] 

and babiti to the nen- conditiaiu of the people, [iiiI«m] 
of inTeatiDg untried noTeltieL Henoe bii frieod and 
rival Jcffrreon, called him ' The column of Congre««, 
the pillBT of luj^rt to the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, ud its sbleet advocate and defender.' — Hav- 
ing itoidied at Cambridge, Mnmnrhiiiif-ttii, be joined 
the Suffolk bar in 1T69, and practised in Qoincy. 
He married, in 1764, Abigail Smith, a woman of 
great abilitjr and !iij;h patriotic aaiHratioDi, wbo 
bronght to him the inflQentja] local cormeotioD of the 
Quincj family, to vhich gho was related. Adams 
dated his expectation of the Doming revolution, and 
his pnparatioa to participate in the reorganizatioD of 
goveramenC in British America, to what he observed 
in 1T61, when the queetioa of the legality of wtits of 
Buietance, under the English exchequer system agunst 
the BoMon merchants, was tried. His first c^ien ad- 
vocacy of colonial independence irai in the support of 
the a|:flicalion of the Boston oitizrau lo have die 
courts oflaw reopened, vhen they had been closed, on 
the ground that their proceedings were informal with- 
out die use of that caiso of stamps which had been 
forcibly detained by the citizens. He showed his 
thorough independence, and brought on himself oon- 
^derable odium by becoming counsel for the soldiers 
charged with monler fra' shootuig citizens of Boston. 
Id 17T4, when Gage dissolved the Assembly of Masss- 
chnselts, he was one of the five who, baUB« separa- 
tion, were appointed to meet with other committees 
of WaabingtojD, and he was thus instnimenlal in the 
coDStmction of Congress. On the 6th of May, 1776, 
he took the Gnt step in the declaratioa of lodepcn- 
denee, by a prominent motion ' to adopt such a gov- 
cmiDeDt as would, in the opinion of Uie representa- 

tivcs of the people, best conduce to the happi * 

wfety of their constituents and of America.' 
one of the committee for preparing the celebrated 
neclmtion. He had, in the mean time, organized 
the fystaia which gai'e its war-servioe to the Cnited 

manaoement of the comi 
oigfamied another great branch of service, that of the 
foidgn department. He was one of the commistlon- 
en appointed to treat with France and Holland, and 
afterwards was sent to uegotiato Ihe treaty with Bi' 
tun. In 1 789, he became Vice-Preudeot, and on tl 
retirement of S^'ashington, in 1797, be was choeen 
President of the United States, remaining in oSc 
one period of four yean. He was all hu life, i 
'm public burinesi, and lived 

i, on the 4th of July, 
Hie iHiiiiversaiy of the Declaration of Independence. 
Before breathing Ids last he made the ismaik, ' Jef- 
feiton sorrivca ; ' but it was not so — Jefleison had 
died at an earher hour on the same day. [J.U.B.1 
ADAMS, JoHH QcdcT, en Amerioan statesman, Um 
■on of John Adami, was bom atBraintree, Massachu- 
tcttt, on the llth Jnly, 1767. He received bisname 
of Quincy &om his maternal grandfather, an inSuea- 
tial citizen of the colony, wbo died just as his celebra- 
ted grandchild was bom. Adams was cradled i 
the revolution, and when but nine years old bear 
the first reading of (he Declaration of Independecc 
from the old slate house in Bottuii. Ho accompe 
niod his father in his niisnona to France aud Ho! 
land, and there acquired the knowledge of fareign 
languages and countries, and the wide systematic 
views which made him invaluable lo a conntiy in which 
such qualiBcations were necessarily rare. He took a 
degree at Harvard with high distinction in 1787. In 
1791, mider the signatare of 'Pnblicola,' be suggested 

grave doubts about the soundness of the prinoi- 
pies actuating the French revolutionists, very remarii- 
able Hs the production of a republican pen. In 1803, 
be was sent from the state of Maasachnsetts as rep- 
resentative to the Senate in Congress, and sat until 
1808. He had been for a short time professor of rhe- 
toric m Harvard, when, in 1809, be was appointed 
roprescntatiye of the U. States at the court of Rusaa, 
and began his brilliant and multifsrious diplomatic 
career. In London he completed the negotiations foi 
the conclusion of the second British American war. 
He was called home in 1817, to sen'e in the cabinet 
of President Monroe. On the election of a President 
in 182G, the name of Adams was returned with those 
of Jackson, Crawford and Clay ; but as tliere was 
not for any one candidate the m^ri^ of electoral 
voles required by the CoDstitution, the selection fell 
into the hands ofthe representatives who chose Adams. 
He retired in 1829, declining the party advocacy, which 
it was said might insure bis reOlpction, and he has 
been looked buck on with regret as the last of tliose 
who oocnpied the chair wilJiout being borne into it hy 
a victorious faction. In 1831 hebeganacamcr of val- 
uable services as a member of the House of Eepieseii- 
tatives. Hemademany enemiesby his sympathy with 
the cause of negro emancipation. Ho was an active 
pamphleteer, wrote various works and contributed to 
periodica] lilentuie. He died full of years and htm- 
ors, on the 23d of Kebroaiy, 1848, and it has been mu- 


L 11] 


tomavy to speftk of him as fhe last of the old and 
higher class of American statesmen. [J.H.B.] 

ADAMS, JoHK, KeT., the only son of Hon. John 
Adams of Nova Scotia. He took his degree at Har- 
vard in 1721, and in 1728 was an associate in the 
ministiy with the Rev. Mr. Clap, at Newport, Rhode 
Island. He lemained there but two years, and died 
in Cambridge in 1740, at the age of 36. He left be- 
hind him a small volmne of poems more valaable from 
its rarity than for its literaiy merits. 

ADAMS, Job., an em. medical au., 1758-1818. 

ADAMS, LodibaC, the wife of John Quincy 
Adams, d. 1852. 

ADAMS, Matthew, a mechanic of Boston, who 
cultivated letters, and was possessed of a good Ubraiy, 
to which he allowed Dr. Franklin, when a youtili, 
frro access. The Doctor speaks of him with respect, and 
acknowledges his kindness. He was one of the wri- 
ters in tiie New Kngland Jonmal, and his essays were 
highly esteemed. He died poor, in 1758, bat left 
bc^iiid him a repntation for intelligenoe and probity, 
more valuable than wealth. 

ADAMS, Sakuei^ an American revolutioiiist and 
patriot, was bom in Boston in 1722. He was eariy 
an advocate of the republican cause, and sustained it by 
his pen, as well as by his personal support Li 
1765 he was chosen a member of the Mass. Assem- 
bly, and became remarkable for his vigorous defence 
o£ republican principles. During the period of politi- 
cal agitation which preceded the revolution, Samuel 
Adams warmly advocated the cause of the people 
against the tyranny of Great Britain, and was among 
the most active in exciting open resistance to the 
mother countiy. In 1774 he was elected a member 
of the prorincial council, at the period when kingly 
government was denounced ; and when Gen. Gage 
sent his secretary to dissolve the Assembly, the door 
of the l^slative chamber was found closed, the key 
being in the pocket of Adams. In 1774 he was sent 
ns a delegate to the Continental Congress, and be- 
came at once a highly serviceable member. When the 
resolution that declared the colonies " free and inde- 
pendent states * was offered, Samuel Adams boldly 
sustained it, and sternly exclaimed, ** I should advise 
persisting in our struggle for liber^, tiiough it were 
revealed from Heaven that nine hundred and ninety- 
nine were to perish, and only one of a thousand were 
to survive and retain his liberty t One such freeman 
must possess more virtue and ei\joy more happiness 
than a thousand slaves ; and let him propagate his 
like, and transmit to them what he hath so nobly 
preserved P* His conduct was in character with this 
declaration, and he was accordingly found among the 
foremost and boldest defenders of the popular cause. 
To him was due the origination of a Colonial Con- 
gress in 1 776. He was one of the signers of the Dec- 
laration of Independence, and he continued to serve 
in Congress nntil 1781. He was subsequently a 
member of the Mass. Convention to draw up a State 
Constitution ; in 1789 he was elected Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of his state, and in 1794 Governor, which office 
he held with distinguished honor until 1797, when 
he retired in consequence of his age. He died in 
1803, at the age of 82. 

ADAMS, Sir Th., lord mayor of London, 1645, 
diitingaished as a royalist, 1586-1667. 

ADAMS, Wm., an English divine, a friend of Dr. 
Johnson, and author of an answer to Hume on Mira- 
cles, 1707-1789. 

ADAMS, Zabdiel, a clergyman, ha\-ing in charge 
a OQOgzegation at Lunenberg, Mass. He was born 
in Qnin^, (then called Braintree,) in 1789, and was 
a oouiin of PiosUent John Adama. He was gradua- 

ted at Hairard in 1759, ordainod in 1764, and died 
in 1801, in his 62d year. His mind was naturally 
vigorous, and he improved it much by diligent culti- 

ADAMSON, Pat., abp. of St Andrews, equally 
noted for his talents and misfortunes, 1536-1599. 

ADAMSON, Hr., nephew of the preceding, and 
author of a curious poem, died 1639. 

ADAMUS SCOTUS, a ceL author of the 12th 
oentuiy, best known for his curious * Dialogue be- 
tween the Reason and the Soul.' 

ADAMUS DORENSUS, a writer on music, ISth 

AD ANSON, Michel, a celebrated botanist, was 
bom at Aix, in Provence, in 1727, died in 1806. 
He was educated at Plessis, studied in Paris under 
Reanmur and Bernard de Jussieu at the Garden of 
Plants, and afterwards made a voyage to Senegal 
He remained in Africa five years, and during his so- 
journ there collected an immense number of plants 
and animals. Upon his return to France, he found 
that LinnsDus had already promulgated his artificial 
System of Nature to the scientific world. To Adan- 
son this arrangement, and the arbitrary nomencla- 
ture of LinnsBus, were particulariy distasteful His 
prand aim was to produce a classification of the ob- 
jects of nature, based upon the natural relations which 
these have one with another. The first work in 
which he proposed this method was his * Voyage to 
Senegal,' in which he made an attempt to classify the 
mollusca according to the structure of the animal, 
and not the shells which they inhabit The next was 
his ' Families of Plants,' in which he strove to cany out 
the same principles in botany as he had commenced 
in oonchology. He has not been very successful in 
this attempt, as a comparison between his system and 
that of Linnsens will show ; but still, along with his 
teacher, Bernard de Jussieu, he has the merit of indi- 
cating a method of arrangement of plants by their 
natural affinities, in opposition to the artificial system 
then in vpgne. He possessed a great knowledge of 
botany, and was an accurate observer. He is the 
author of a veir interesting aooount of the immense 
tree called by the natives of Africa the Baobab, since 
named after him Adimmmia. He wrote also an ac- 
count of the trees which produce the gums of com- 
merce. At the revolution, Adanson was reduced to 
great poverty, but afterwards received a small pension 
from government His will directed that a garhmd 
of flowers, selected from the 58 families of plants 
which he had established, should be the only decora- 
tion of his coffin. [W.B.] 

ADAOUST, a Provencal poet, died 1819. 

ADASHEV, Alexis, eel. in Russian history as the 
minister of Ivan the terrible, and disting. by his vir- 
tues and talents, died in prison, 1561. 

ADASHEV, Dan., a younger brother of the pre., 
disting. himself against the Tartars, and was execut- 
ed, together with his little son, and aU the near rela- 
tions of Alexis, soon after the death of that minister. 

ADDA, one of the kings of Northumbria. 

ADDA, a disting. artist and soldier of Italy. 

ADDINGTON, Amtii., a physician and politioian, 
father of Lord Sidmouth, 1718-1790. 

ADDINGTON, Isaac, Secretary of the province of 
Massachusetts, died in 1715, at the age of 70. He 
sustained a high character for intelligence and integ- 
rity, and was one of those who opposed the tyrannical 
administration of Sir Edmund Andross in Mass. He 
held the office of Secretary for more than 20 years, 
was a member of the council and an efficient magis- 
trate, and left behind him an excellent reputation. 

ADDINGTON, S., Db., a dis. minis. 1729-1796. 


[ 12] 


ADDISON, G. Ht,, anfliOT of 'lodum R«niiiii»- 

WDon,' bom 1T9S. 

ADDISON, LAtnicELOT, father of the oelebrsted 
writer, and denn or IJlchGcld, vu esrly diEtingaiilied 
ij his attachment to the Stnarti. He U the mthor 
of KTcml -xorki. 1682-lTOS. 

ADDISON, Joseph, wmt Om aHatt >od of a clar- 
gyman, able and lenrtied, but not wealth/. He mu 
honi b 1673, at the rector; of MUaCan in Wiltahire. 
He waa edocated chieSy at the Charter Honae and at 
Oxford, and dbtlnguiehed himself as a writer of lAtin 
rersts, a pood manj of which were afterwarda pub- 
lished. He firrt appeared in print bj contributing 
English verses, some of which were original, and 
othcrt tranalations from the cUmIm, to Drydan'a ool- 
lections afiaiscellaEwona poami. Another of hia poet- 
ical efforts vaa a poem oomidimenting king WiUiaa 
'am which he took Namnr, It was 

wnnen alW be had been introduced to the uotioe of 
Icndinfi Motennen ol the Whig poitf ; whoae pobon- 
age of hiiu, prompted b; their expectadcn of his use- 
fulness in pohtioai life, appears to have been the cause 
nf his abandoning tbe intention he once had of enter- 
ing die oburoh. A pennon, procured for him bT the 
intenat of Lord Soman, enabled him, in 1699, to 
visit the continent, where he reiided for three jwin. 
Tb« bast of hia poems, a ' Lettar from Italj,' ad- 
dressed to Lord HaUfoK, hit eariiest patron, was writ- 
ten in ITOl, iriiila he woa itili abroad ; and hit >Tra- 
reli in Italj, the first largs work which he attempted 
\o pnea, eitubited verj promiiingly botlt his cIok- 
cat and miscellanKras kcowledge, and hia skill and 
livdinest in oompoaition. Not ver; long after hia re- 
turn to England, he wrote on the suggestion of the 
prime minister Qodolphin, ' The Campaign,' a poem 
celebnting Mariborongh's riotoiy at Blenheim. He 
in ^^intment as one of the 

celebntiiig Mi 
immediately n 

^leedi^ promoted to ba an under secretar; of state \ 
and he waa aecretarj to the lord-lieutenant of Ireland 
in ITtO, when the ministry which be serred wasdis- 
missed from office. The time of his steadiest and 
most sQCcessftil actiril; in literature embraced tbe 
foor jean eitonding from this lou of place to the 
otid of Queen AnneV reign* The tones being in 
power, he was aicloded from public employment. 
Bat, a short while before this, he had begun to pro- 
duce those periodical essayi by which bis fame has 
been longest and most seciuely preserved. In 1T09 
he began to furnish papers to the Tbtirr, which wo* 
ccadocted b; bis schooUellow and friend, Richard 
Steele. Korlj in 1711, these two writers cammaooed 
the aMcttfcr, which was cooticaed every week-day 
till the close of the following year. 

dremed, after having mode up the 655 mmibersocal- 
monly printed in iU first seven voltmies ; Addison 
and Steele oontributing abnost equally, and together 
iting all the assays except sixty or sevdnty. In 
1 oonrseof 1718 tbe CunnBm received a laige num- 
ber of essays tVom Addisan ; and then also a^ipeared 
Ms oelabrated tragedy of ' Cato.' The trnmense popu- 
larity whidi, paKly thnnigh political considoatioos, 
this stalely drama gained, both among readers and 
among playgoers, raised the reputatioa of the author 
to its nii^est poinl During the latter half of tiie 
year 1714 be contributed a good many papers to the 
new series of the Spedalor, making op its eighth Tol- 
nmo. The acoBssion of George I., oconrriog a little 
before Ijie publicatian of the Sptdabr waa closed, re- 
Btned the Whigs to power, and thus again diverted 
Addison &om literature to politica. And having acted 
OS secretary to the regent^, he wa* apptonted one of 
liiB lorda i^ trade. Down to this point in his hirtory, 
seems to have been really no good gromid for 
the allegations commonly mode of Ms inefficieacy aa 
B mao oC bnsinen. He had, indeed, failed in puUa- 
ment, having either not spoken at all, or broken 
down in the only attempt he made. Hia literary 
cdebri^, bowerer, and bis modesty and urbanity of 
lan, fliough tb^ might have prooured him a 
reception into ue society of persons of rank, could not 
have obtained and prenrved tbe ooDfideDoe of sooces- 
I ftateimea if he had not been quite competent to 
practical details of office. Bat it cannot well be 
doubted that he was unfit, though it had bMO only 
thnof^ his ineffiniency aa a debater, for flia last 
step wluch he ventured to take on the ladder 
of ambition. In 171T, a dissenuoa having oo- 
cnired in the ministry, Townsend and Walpolp, tlie 
ablest members of the cabinet, paasad over to the op- 
position ; and in tbe adminiilTation which was formed 
by the other Wliiga, Addison beoame a priooipal seo- 
retary of state, having Lord Strndcriaod, Marlbo- 
rough's son-in-law, as Us oaUeagns. His aooeptanoe 
of £ia office is oommcoly attrinited to tlia inODcnca 
of his wife, the Countess-Dowager of Warwick, whom 
he hod married a few montht before, and who is said 
to have, by ber haughtineas and violence, made hw 

tion as a means of escape from domestio discomfort. 
That Addison did bmome sottish in Oia last years of 
hia life has not been oleariy proved ; and one is glad 
to catch at any reasons for disbelieving it At all 
events, his he^th was now giving way ; and the 
state of it was made tbe excuse for his resignation of 
office, which he tendered in Anil, 1718, after having 
held it for leas than a year. His only subseqaeut e^ 
forts in literature that are worth noticing wen, an 
angry oontroveray with his old fHend Steele, who 
had joined the <^>pontian section of the Whigs, and 
his Duoompleted treatise on tbe ' Evidences id^ Chris- 
tianity.' He died at HoUand House, in ^onngton, 
in June, 1719, a few weeka after hiving actn^seed 
his for^-aeventh year. Addison's poetry is of veiy 
small account. His minor compoations in verse bold 
but a low rank even in that didactic and half-prosaic 
acbool to which they belong. ' Cato ' iteelf owed its 
fame, in a great measure, to extrinmc curcumstaDces : 
end it could not have been suGOesstul at all had not 
dramatio art been then la a state of decay. It is a 
eerica of dialognesrather than adrama; its speeches, 
often eloqoent, and almost always morally noble, are 
seldom truly poetical, and never pasuonate or pathetic : 
and there is an equal feebleneas in the inoidents and 
in Ae characters. It most be allowed, likewise, that 
no very gnat value belongs to any of his prose wri- 
tings, except his ooatributions to the SptelaUr and 


C i3] 


other periodioal pspen. These, howerer, make up a 
lu;geiiias8 ofliteraiyoompoflitions, andpoflMse du- 
ttngouhed merit and importance. In the histcMy of 
English alyle, a maiked epodh is oonstitnted bj the 
appearance of tlie writers who are oAeoest desiorilH 
ed as the Wits ofQneen Anne's time; and among 
these there were none who exerted, on thenuumer of 
later aolliors, so strong an inflnenoe as Addison. His 
graoe and refinement, aocanqnaued bj an admirable 
conmtaDd of fanuEsr idioms, gave him a charm that 
was wanting in the bare and stem writings of Swift : 
and he was soperiorto Steele, notonljin these points, 
but also in his oompaiatiTe freedom from looseness 
and inaooorai^, and in his power of rising to dignitj 
witiioot losing ease or freedom. Inrespect to mat- 
ters hi^er than stymie, the merit of the Periodioal 
£^78 is chiefly shared between Steele the proj ec tor, 
and Addison, tiie ooh' other steady and active con- 
tribntor. In those sketehes of character and man- 
ners, and those fragments of invented stories, which 
were the most pojralar things in ^e TaUer and its 
SQOcessoTB, Steele showed more deciave originality, 
and greater breadth and force of hnmor; but Ms 
ooacQntor excelled him by far both in delicacy of sen- 
tfanent, and in the skill, ingennit^, and consistency 
with which he worked np his materials into finished 
pictnres. To Addison the ifi^Mcfttfor owed, with hardly 
any exoeption, its papers of a more elevated and solid 
cast, tbose which maide it an instrument of enlighten- 
ment to its oontempofarieS) and entitle it to the grate- 
fnl attention of posterity. Such %ere its critical 
dissertations, always aboonding in good taste and 
eloquent expressian, the best of these being the 
criticisms which did so much for recalling notioe to 
MiHon : such were the papers on the * Pleasnres of 
the Imagination,' (efibrte highly meritorions in the 
clreamstanoes,) towards asoertaming the principles on 
which philosophical criticism must be foonded : and 
such, also, were many meditative and religions papers, 
some of them pnrely didactic in form, and others alle- 
gorical, and all of them excellent alike for their high 
ethical tone, and for their natoral and fine reflective- 
iffiss. If Addison's prose writings were once over- 
valued, the neglect aiid depreciation with which it has 
lately been fashionable to treat them, involve an enor 
which goes at least as far the opposite way. [W.S.] 

ADDISON, Alexamskb, a dittinguiriied lawyer 
of Pennsylvania, bom in 1759, died in 1807, at Pitte- 
bmgfa. For 12 years be held the offioe of Judge, 
and it is said there never was an appeal from any 
judgment he rendered. He was desBrvedly eminent 
for his learning, compact reasoning, and pnrity of 
style. In 1800 he published Beporto of cases decided 
in Peimsylvania. 

ADDISON, THOa, an English Jesuit, 1684-1685. 

ADDY, Wm., a writer on stenography, 17th oent. 

ADEL, or ADIL, k. of Sweden, 5th or 6th cent 

ADELAIDE, the amiable queen of William IV., 
whom she married 1818 : she was daughter of the 
Duke Saxe-Meiningen ; bom 1792, died 1849. 

AD£LAn)£, the good and beautiful empress of 
Germany, was the daughter of Rodolph II., king of 
Burgundy ; she was taken from a prison to marry the 
empcaror Otho L 951 ; died 999. 

ADELAIDE, mistress of Albert, duke of Bavaria ; 
assassinated by his son, 1892. 

ADELAIDE of Savoy, the widow of Louis the Fat, 
and wife of Montmorency, assomed the veil in the 
abbey of Montmartre, and died 1158. 

ADELAIDE, marchioness of Susa, and founder of 
the dominion ei:goyed by the house of Savoy in Pied- 
mont, was the contemporaiy and rival of the celebra- 
ted Miritilda, duchess of Tuscany, 11th oent 

ADELAIDE, Mai>amk Mabdk, eldest daughter of 
Louis XV. and aunt of Louis AVI. k. of Franoe, bom 
1780, fled before the revolutiooaiy storm, 1791, died 
at Trieste, 1800. 

ADELAIDE, Eugsnib Louisa, sister of Louis Phi- 
lippe, and his best counsellor, was bom 1777 ; she 
was privately married to Gen. Athelin; died Slst 
Deoember, 1847. 

ADELAIS, second queen of Heniy I. of Eng., eel. 
by the tronbadoors as the fair maid of Brabant, and 
ancestress of the Howards, died 1151. 

ADELARD, a learned monk of the 12th cent 

ADELASIA, queen of Sardinia, 18th oentmy. 

ADELBOLD, bishop of Utrecht, died 1027. 

ADELBURNER, M. an astronomer, died 1779. 

ADELER, CuRTTOS, a naval ccm. in the service of 
the Venetians and Danes, 1622-1675. 

ADELF&ID, a Saxon king, whose succesnon uni- 
ted the prov. of Bemicia and Deira, 559. 

ADELGISUS, king of the Lombards, 8th cent 

ADELGISUS, prince of Beneventnm, 9th oent 

ADELGREIF, J. A., a German scholar of high at- 
tainments, who believed that he was the representa- 
tive of God upon earth, that he was accompanied by 
seven angeU, and that he had a mission to banish all 
evil frxmi the worid ; ex. on a charge of soroexy,1686. 

ADELHER, a schoolman and divine, 12th oent 

ADELUNG, JAa, a musioian, 1699-1762. 

ADELUNG, JoBK Ch., known throughout Eu- 
rope as a philologist His great works are a grammati- 
cal and critical Dictionary of the Gkrmon tongue, 
and a work of vast resoait^ called ' Mithridates,' in 
whioh the remarkable affinities between the words of 
all languages are discovered. His general knowledge 
of literature and tiie arts is also displayed in various 
historical treatises, more especially in a cyclopsBdiaof 
what he terms * Human Folly.' He resided at Leip- 
sigand Dresden, usoally devoting fborteen hours a 
day to hard sfeody, and yet noted tor his good cheer. 
His worics in all make about seventy volumes. He 
was never married; 1784-1806. [E.R.] 

ADELUNG, Fr., nephew of the preceding, also 
distinguished as an historian and linguist, b. 1768. 

ADELWALGH, a king of Sussex, slain 686. 

ADEMAR, or AYMAR, an historian, 11th oent 

ADEODATO, an Italian artist, 12th centory. 

ADEODATUS, pope after Boniface IV., 614-617. 
Another of the same name elected 678. 

ADER, Wm., a phys. of Toulouse, au. of a work 
on the diseases cored by our Saviour, pub. 1621. 

ADET, P. A., a writer on chemistry, env^c^ from 
Fnmce to the United States, 1796. 

ADEUS, or ADDEUS, a Greek poet, 4th cent B.O. 

ADGILLUS, first Chr. king of Frisia, 8th cent 

ADHAD-EDDAULAH, saltan of Persia, died 988, 
after a glorious reign of 84 years. 

ADHED, last caliph of the Fatimite dynasty, de- 
throned by Saladin, and died 1171. 

ADHELM, bp. of Sherborne, the first ecclesiastic 
distinguished in tiie Anglo-Saxon church ; he is con- 
sidered the father of Anglo-Saxon literatore, and the 
first English poet, died 769. 

ADHEMAR, a troubadour of the 12th oentniy. 

ADHEMAR DE MONSEUIL, created Duke of 
Genoa by Charlemagne, on acoount of his success 
against tiie Saracens, was chief of the illustrious 
house oi Orange. 

ADHEMAR DE MONSEUIL, of the same family, 
was a distinguished general of the crusades, and bp. 
of Pays ; died of a contagion at Antioch. 

ADHEMAR DE MONSEUIL, anotiier of Uie fami- 
ly, also a great soldier, made bishop of Metz in 1827, 
1 died 1861. 




ADDIAIU, ■ FlonotlDa rKinilj of ti>e nidclb igM, 
which hue piodiieed nrenl duting. msii of latt^ ; 
?iie meuibtr of tbit Cuuny ii knonn u a paitimi of 
the Gnetpha. 

ADJUTT, jAt., K GTOiTert to protertuilisn, prof, of 
tbenlOT >t Wiltambaig, 1602-1668. 
ADI^R, GiMTAB. Sae AqcnA. 
ADLER, O. Ch., > distiiiK. teacbsr, 16T1-1T41. 
ADLER, Q. Ca., m afHie[aec«^i^, Koliaks 
i^Iar uiri diTioe, 17S4-18(M. 
ADLER, J. Q., a Dinuh oriraitalUt, bom ITse. 
ADLER, Ph., a Qeauun engraTcr, 16di oaat. 
ADLERBETH, Q., a SwedUi poet, ITSt-lBlB. 
ADLERFELDT, Gan., > Swvdi^ Doble who w- 
compsnied Chariea XIL in hu i—mpaigm^ of which 
h« wiDte k liutoi7; killed at Pnltowa, 1T09. 

ADLZBEITEH, chancellor and hutorian of Bava- 
ria, died 1663. 

ADIdlRAL, H., apcorFranabiavi, aiccnted 1794, 
tat an attempt on the life of Roba^oene. 
ADMO, a QeimaD engraTsr, time of AngoitDS. 
ADO, a distingnisbed abp. of Vieiuia, died 876. 
ADOLFATI, an Itahui omnponr. 
ADOLFI, QiAOOHO, an It. painter, 1683-1741. 
ADOLPH, a Gennan painter in England, 1750. 
ADOLPH, a Qennan acnlptor, 16th oeatiay. 
ADOLPHI, C. M., a mnlical writw, 1676-1768. 
AD0LP5US, count of Nanan, elected euperor 
12SS ; M in battle againrt bi« riTml Albert, di^ of 
Aortria, 1398. 

ADOLPHUS, count of Ciena, and i^. of Hnnater, 
disti^taiebed for bis tnrbnknce, died IS94. 

ADOLPHUS, count of CleTM, ton of the pracadiDg, 
ud foonderof ^e order of Foou, d. 1448. 

ADOLFHUS, dnlce of Gneldrea, noted for hie n- 
peated and crnel rebelliona aniiait hia father Anudd, 
■ud his despenito eom-age, 1488-1477. 

ADOLPBL'S, doke of Saian;, bom 1685, i 
ftir lua active aod Kl(*ions ibaie In Ha wan of the 
mnpira '^"""g the Dnt half of the 18& oentnry, and 
eveuallj for the check given to Frederick tiie Gnat 
after Ae mnender of Prague. Entered into militaiy 
•arrice 1701, roeoeeded nneipectedlj to the duohy 
1786, died 1746. 

AIX)LPEUS I., oonnt of Hoirtdu, 1106-1181. 

ADOLPHCJS U., hi) eon, mo. 1131, killed 1164. 

ADOLPHUS m., WD of the precedhiff, deapiriled 

of his dachy in a war with Denmaric, and aoou after 

died at the beginning of the ISth century. 

ADOLPHUS IV., son and snceanor of the preoe- 
ding, ncovered iiis dnchy 1237, bat retired from the 
worid 1236, and spent ^e remaining fourteen jean 
of hii life in a monasteiy. 

ADOLPHUS VIIL, sou of Gerard, connt of Hol- 
itain, BiutBined a long war with Denmark on aooooiit 
of Schkawig ; he is disting. as a wise rnler, also for 
hIa moderation in refnslDg the crown of Peamork 
afterwBida oOeied to him ; died 1469. 

ADOLPHUS L, dnke of Holitein and Sohlaawig, 
edebialed aa a warlike prince, 1644-1686. 

ADOLPHUS, Fbedzbiok IL, ten of Frederiok L, 
king of Sweden, ascended the tiirooe 1761, b«ng 
then 41 yean of age. In 1767 tie was eompellad to 
take a part against Pmsaia in the 7 yean' war, 
thongh ho was some jesra previonsly married 
(uter of Frederick the Great. Intr^ and dii 
lioa marked the whole period of his reign, and tboogh 
a par^ in the state nude atreoDOoa aDdaavon to ex- 
tend ue royal prerogativa, the king ezerdied littie 
teal power. The state of the coontij at his death in 
1771, ia represented by a native historian aa a pic- 
tnra of the axtcemeat anarch; that a state can reach 
nnder a repretantative gorenunaot. [&.R.J 

AD0LPHU3, JoRH, a ceL bairiiter and hiskviaa 
of London, 1766-1846. 

ADOAUUN, abbot of looa, and anthor of the cn- 
rions life of St Coininba, died 708. 

ADON, ahp., aod on. of Chronidei, 90i caitmy. 

ADONLTAU, a ton of David, pot to deafli by So- 
lomon, n.c 1010. 

ADRAIN, RoBKBT, a natfaenuliea] prcAaKC in 
Cfdnnihia College, M. Y., and aabaeqnentiy at Bnt- 
gei^ in N. Jersey, who came from Inland to tha U. 
S. widi Emmet and other Irish pditical lefbgeaa ; d. 
1843, a«ed 68. 

ADEETS, Fb. De Buhmoict, a leader of the Hn- 
janota, noted lor his darini 
His K«i, of like charaotar, b 
re of St. Bartholomew. 

ADREVALD, a theologian oTOie 0th oentniy. 

ADRIA, a SicU. antbor end phyi., died 1660 

ADELiENS, L., a I<1emiih pamter on glas^ ISHi 

1 6th centni7. 

ADRIAH, Huis, a yoong ^ri who fought in tlu 
defence of Lyons when besieged by the troopa of tba 
Omventian, and was eutcnted, 1^8. 

ADRIAN, a Giuak writer i^the 6th centaiy. 

ADRUN, Eiua.. a Fie 


ADRIAN, or HADKUK, Prmutig JEum, the Ro- 
_an emperor, iras bom 7S, and brought i^ nnder the 
eye of the emperor Ti^an, his fathers kinsman, who 
adopted him as hia son, and to whom he succeeded, 
117. He was a socoessful soldier, and a great lover 
of literature uid the arts, but di^raced by the mdnl- 
ganoe of sensnaiity. In the conrse of his reign ha 
viaited nearly every part of his dominions, and when 
ia Britun, ViO, bult a wall eighty miles in length, 
&om the month of the Tyne to Solwaj Frith, to pre- 
vent the incordons of the Caledonians. He waa the 
rettater of Jenisalem, which be Damed £lia Capto- 
lino, and when, on Hoont Calvaiy, he encted a 
temple to Jupiter ; died 186. jll-a] 

ADRIAN I., pope of Rome, 772-776. 

ADRIAN II., SDOoecded as pope, 887, died S72. 

ADRIAN UL, elected pope, and d. 885. 

ADRLU4 IV., an Pn gt'jim.n , at Snt a servant in 
a monastery, elected pope 1164, died 1159. 

ADRIAN v., elected pope, and died 1278. 

ADRIAN \1„ Booceeded Leo X 16S2, d. 1628. 

ADRIAN DE CASTELLO, a native of Italy, dif 
tingnished for his learning and ability ; became bishcfl 
of Hereford in tbe reign of Hen^ VIL, and after- 


[ 15] 


wards reridi^ in Italy was aooased of oonspiiacy 
agaiost Leo X. Wb sttbeequent fate is imknowii. 

ADRIANI, M. V^ a Greek scholar, chanoellor of 
FloreDoe, died 1521. 

ADRIANI, J. B., his son, as hist, died 1674. 

ADRIANI, M.y son of the hut named, d. 1804. 

ADRIAKO, a Spanish pamter, d. 1650. 

ADRIGHONIUS, Ch., a Batch hist., 1588-1585. 

ADRY, J. F., a rhetorician and hist, 1749-1818. 

ADSO, Hermeucdb, a monastic wr., lOth cent 

ADUARTE, DxBOO, a Spamsh hist, d. 1637. 

^CIDES, or ^CID AS, a king of Epims, said to 
be a descendant of Achillea, killed B.a 818. 

^CIDES, k. of the Molossi, after Alex, the Great 

iSDESIA, a female PUttonist, the mother of Am- 

uEGIDinS, k. of &e Franks from the deposition 
to &e recall of Ghilderio ; assassinatBd 464. 

JEGIDIUS DB CoLUMNA, a monastio philosopher 
and theologian, disting. in the 18th centmy. 

^GIDIUS, Peikr, a Flemish lawyer, d. 1588. 

^GIMUS, an ancient Greek physidan. 

^GINHARD, the secretary of Charlemagne, an* 
thor of amuds of his reign, and equally celebrated for 
his love adventure with the emperor's daughter. 

i£LF, a Swedish theologian, 18th oentoiy. 

iELFRIC, St., soznanwd the Grammarian, was 
archbishop of Gai^erbniy in the middle of the 10th oen- 
toiy. He is djgtmgnished as one of the brightest la- 
minaries of the age in which he lived, d. 1005. 

£LIAN, the celebrated anthoar of a * History of 
Animals,' a * Treatise on Providence,' &c., distin- 
gnished for the purify with which he wrote the Greek 
tongue, Bopposed to have lived in the 2^ centoiy. 

.£LIAN, CLAnDics, a Roman military writer. 

£LIAN, a general in the time of Valens. 

JELIANUS, Mexx?iu8, a Greek physician. 

iELIUS MELISSUS, a Roman jurist, 2d cent 

iSLIUS SEXTUS, one of the most oeL Roman ju- 
rists, successively sedile, consul, and censor ; an. of 
the eariiest known work on juiisprudonoc. 

iELST. See Aalbh. 

^MILIANI, St. Jkr., a noble Venetian, the found- 
er of a hospital and reli^ous order, 16th cent. 

MMTlJl j The, one en the most ancient and noble 
of the patrician families of Rome. 

.£MILIUS, Arth., a Dnteh hist, 1589-1660. 

JEMUUiVSj G., a Latin poet, related to Luther. 

^MILIUS, Paulcs, consul of Rome, b.c. 216 and 
219, skin at the battle of Camus. 

^£MILIUS, Paitlus, son of tbe preceding, distin- 
gnished in the Macedonian war, 8d cent B.c. 

iEMILIUS, Pau., an em. hist of Verona, d. 1529. 

iENEAS, one of &e heroes of Troy. 

JENEAS^ a Greek military author, 860 B.a 

^NEAS, or JSNGAS, a monastic writer, 9ihoent 

.£NEAS GAZJSIUS, a Pktonist, 5th cent 

.£N£SIDElffUS, a sceptical phil, Ist century. 

^PINUS, the assumed name of Hoeck, one of the 
most sealons of Lather's followers, 1499-1588. 

^PINUS, Framz, a German philosopher, 1724. 

£RIUS, founder of a sect of the 4th century. 

£RSENS. See JEbxbox. 

.£RTGEN. See AAinoENS. 

£RTS£N, or ^RSENS, Petbb, an em. hist 
painter, called Pietro Loogo, on account of his tall- 
nesi. There are several Flemish painters of the same 
name, three known to be sons of the preceding. 

^SOEINES, an orator of Athens, 4tii cent b.o. 

iESCHINES, a poor Athenian philosopher, ihe per- 
sonal friend and pupil of Socrates. 

.£SCHRION, an ancient phyrio. of Pergamos. 

.£SCHYLUS, a oeL Greek dramatto writer, was 

bora of a noble family at Eleusis in Attica, b.c. 525, and 
died at Gkla in Sicily, bjo. 456. From an anecdote 
which is related of him by Pansanias, it appears that 
his yontiiful fancy was early captivated by the exhi- 
bitions of the dnona ; and he accordingly devoted his 
life to the flervice of the tragic muse. At the age of 
twenty-five b.c. 499, he first presented himself at the 
festival of Bacchus as a competitor for the public 
prise; and fifteen years afterwards, B.a 484, gained 
his first victory. The pre-eminence which he thus 
acquired was suooessfuily maintained till b.c. 468, 
when he was defeated in a similar contest by his 
younger rival, Sophocles ; an event which exercised a 
strong infiuenoe over the rest of his life. Mortified at 
the indignitT whidi, as he thought, had thus been 
put upon lum, he quitted Athens and went to the 
court of Hiero, king of Syracuse. Of the remaining 
portion of his life but little is known, except that ho 
ooDtimied to prosecute his favorite pursuit ; and that 
his residence in Sicily was of some duration, may be 
inferred from the fact that it was sufficient to affect 
the purity of his language. His thirteenth and last 
victory was gained b.o. 458. On the mamier of his 
death, which was singular, the ancient writers are 
unanimous. While sitting motionless in the fields, 
his bald head was mistaken for a stone by an eagle 
which happttied to be fiying over him with a tortoise 
in her bilL The bird drc^ped the tortoise to break 
the shell, and the poet was killed by the blow. 
.£schylus is said to have been the author of 70 trage- 
dies, of which only eeven are now extant The im- 
provements which he intzoduced in the economy of 
the drama, were so important as to gain for him the 
distinction of the Father of Greek Tragedy. To the 
smgle actor of Thespis he added a second, and thus 
presented the regular dialogue. He abridged the 
lengtii of the choral odes andmade them subservient 
to the main interest of the plot ; substituted a regular 
stage for the movable wain of his predecessor ; pro- 
vided appropriate scenic decorations, and dresses for 
tho actors ; and removed all deeds of murder and 
bloodshed finom public view. His style is bold, lofty, 
and sublime, full of gorgeous hnagery and magnifi- 
cent expressions, suitable to the elevated characters 
of his dramas. His plays have little or no plot ; and 
have therefore been bhuned as deficient in dramatic 
interest But .£sGhylus was illustrious not merely as 
a poet Along with his brother Cynaegirus he dis- 
tinguished himself so highly in the battle of Mara- 
thon, B.C. 490, that his exploits were conunemorated 
by a descriptive painting in the theatre of Athens; 
and it is probable tiiat he took part in tiie subsequent 
batties of Artemisium, Salamis, and Platoeae. His 
warlike spirit is vividly portrayed in his tragedies, 
the ' Persians ' and the ' Seven against Thebes.' [G.F.1 

JESOP, generally known for the Fables attributed 
to him, lived in the 6th century B.a His history is 
not well authenticated, but it is understood that he 
was born in Phrygia, and acquired his Grnek educa- 
tion as a dave in Athens. He is regarded as tiie in- 
ventor of the apologue, of which his own composi- 
tions are also the purest models. They have been 
trans, into all modem languages. 

^SOP, Joseph, a Hebrew poet, 16th century. 

^SOPIUS, Cl., a Roman actor, 1st cent B.a 

^TION, an aixsient Greek aculptor. 

iETION, a Greek pamter, time of Apelles. 

iETIUS, a celebrated heretic of the 5th century. 

^TIUS, a Roman general, oeL for his repulse of 
Attila, assass. by the emperor Valentinian 454. 

iETIUS, an ancient physician of Sicily. 

iETlUS of Amida, a physician of the 5th oentoiy, 
author of a vast oollection of medical treatises ; under- 


[ 16] 


stood to be the first Chiiatiaa physidan whose wri- 
tixi£8 hare oome down to us. 

AFACKER, G., a Gennan theologian, 17ih cent 

AFER, DoMmus, a eel. Roman orator, one of the 
vilest partisans of Calignla, Claudius, and Nero. 

AFFLECK, Sir Ed., a nayal officer, died 1787. 

AFFLITTO, EcsT. D*, a Neapolitan an., 1782. 

AFFLITTO, J. M., a NeapoUtan au., d. 1678. 

AFFLITTO, Matt., a Neapolitan writer, chiefly 
on legislation, 1430-1510. 

AFFO, iRENiBUS, an hist of Italy, 18ih cent 

AFFRY, CooKT Louis D*, a Swiss commander and 
statesman during the revolution ; died 1810. 

AFRANIA, a Roman lady, eel. as an advocate. 

AFRANIO, inventor of the bassoon, 16th cent 

AFRANIUS, L., a Roman orator and dramatist, 
1st century b.o. 

AFRANIUS, L. N., consul of Rome, B.a 61. 

AFRANIUS, T., a dist Rom. gen., 1st cent B.a 

AFRASIAB, an ancient king of Persia. 

AFRE, St., a Grerman martyr, 4th century. 

AFRICANER, Cub., one of the most dreaded 
chiefs of South Africa, remarkable for the fruits of his 
conversion to Christianity, died 1828. 

AFRICANUS, Juuus, a Christian hist, 8d ct 

AFRICANUS, Sextos, a Roman jurist, 8d century 


AFZELIUS, Adam, a Swed. hot., 1760-1886. 

A6ABUS, a Christian prophet, Ist centuiy. 

AGAMEMNON, one of the heroes of Homer, rep- 
resented as the king of Argos, the Grecian Pelopon- 
nesus, and disting. at the siege of Troy. 

AGANDURU, R. M., a Spanish missionary and 
historian, 17th centuiy. 

AGAPETUS I., elected pope, 635, d. 536. 

AGAPETUS IL, elected pope 946, died 965. 

AGAR, P. Anth., a Provencal poet, died 1561. 

AGAR, Jacques, a French painter, died 1716. 

AGARD, Arthur, an antiquary of disting. learn- 
ing, one of the founders of the Royal Antiquarian So- 
ciety, 1640-1615. 

AGAS, Rai;ph, a disting. surveyor, 16th cent 

AGASIAS, an ancient Greek sculptor. 

AGATE, Fred. S., an Am. historical painter, d. 
1844, aged 37. 

AGATHA, St., a martyr of Sicily, 8d centuiy. 

AGATHANGELUS, an Armeman historian, 4th 

AGATHARCHIDES, an historical and geographi- 
cal writer, guardian or tatar of Ptolemy PMadelpnus, 
2d centuiy B.a 

AGATHARCUS, a Greek painter, 4th cent B.C. 

AGATHAMERUS, a geographer, 3d century. 

AGATHIAS, a Greek historian, 6th centuiy. 

AGATHINUS, a Greek physician, 1st centuiy. 

AGATHO, elected pope 678 or 679, died 682. 

AGATHOCLEA, a mistress of Ptolemy Philopa- 
tor, noted for her share in the usurpation of the su- 
preme power by her brother Agathocles. Killed, to- 
gether with her accomplices, in a massacre by the 
populace about 204 b.g. 

AGATHOCLES, an ancient Greek historian. 

AGATHOCLES, the tyrant of Syracuse, was the 
son of a potter, bom about 359 B.C., and elevated by 
his talents and intrigues from the rank of a simple 
soldier until he became general, and made himself 
master of all Sicily. He is said to have died by poi- 
son, B.C. 287. 

AGAZAVI, an Italian musician, 17th centuiy. 

AGELADAS, a Greek sculptor, 5th cent B.C. 

AGELET, Joseph, an astronomer, bom 1757, 
perished with La Perouse, 1785. 

AGELIUS, Auth., a prelate of Naples, d. 1608. 

AGELNOTH, archbishop of Canterinury, 1020 

AGER, NiCH., a phys. and botanist, 17th cent 

AGESANDER, a sculptor of Rhodes, 5th cent 

AGESIAS, a Platonic philosopher of Alexandria. 

AGESILAUS L, kmg of Sparta, 957 to 913 b.c. 

AGESILAUS IL, king of Sparta from b.c. 399 to 
361, is one of the most prominent characters in Gre- 
cian history. He is renowned for his conquests in 
Asia Minor, B.a 395, and for his victories over the 
Boootians and Athenians. In this war, however, he 
was at length defeated by Epaminondas, b.c. 368, 
died 361. 

AGAS, Ralph, a surveyor and engineer, 16tb 

AGGAS, Robt., a landscape painter, died 1679. 

AGILA, king of Spain, from 549 to 564. 

AGILAN, kmg of the Sp. Visigoths, 549-554. 

AGILULFUS, king of the Lombards, 591-^19. 

AGIS, a Greek poet, time of Alexander. 

AGIS I., king of Sparta, b.c. 1060 ; a second king 
of this name reigned in Sparta, b.c. 427-^99 ; a third, 
B.C. 358-331 ; a fourth, B.a 240. 

AGLAOPHON, a Gieek painter, 5th cent b.c. 

AGLIONBY, Edw., a poet, age of Elizabeth. 

AGLIONBY, J. Dr., distinguished as a scholar 
and critic, chaplain to Queen Elizabeth, d. 1610. 

AGLIONBY, WiiJJAM, a diplomatist, and culti- 
vator of the Belles-Lettres, 18th centuiy. 

AGNELLO, doge of Pisa, 1364 to 1369. 

AGNELLUS, And., a canon of Ravenna in the 
9th centuiy, author of Chronicles of that see. 

AGNES, St., a Christian martyr, 303. 

AGNES, queen of France, 1196-1201. 

AGNES, empress of Constautinople, 12th cent 

AGNESI, Maria Gaetana, an Italian lady of dis- 
tinguished learning, 1718-1799. 

AGNESI, Maria Teresa, sister of the preceding, 
distinguished as a musician, bom 1750. 

AGNOLO, B., a Florentine sculpt, 1460-1543. 

AGNOLO, G., an architect of N^les, 16th cent 

AGOBARD, a distinguished prelate, 9th cent 

AGOP, J., au. of critical and gram, works, 1675. 

AGORACRITES, a celebrated Greek sculptor, a 
pupil of Phidias, 5th centuiy b.c. 

AGOSTIN, M., a Sp. wr. on agriculture, 17th c. 

AGOSTINI, L., an eminent antiquary, 17th ceut^ 

AGOSTINO, Paul, a oel. musician, 1593-1629. 

AGOUB, Joseph, a lyric poet, reviewer, and Ara- 
bian scholar, 1795-1832. 

AGOULT, W. D', a Provencal poet, 12th cent 

AGREDA, Maria D', a Spanish abbess, author of 
a life of the Viigin Maiy, alleged to be written from 
Divme vision, 1602-1666. 

AGRESTI, Livio, an Italian painter, 16th cent 

AGRICOLA, C. L., a Ger. painter, 1667-1719. 

AGRICOLA, Ckehis Juucts, an eminent Roman 
general, the father-in-law of Tacitus. Bom in the 
reign of Caligula, 40. He distinguished himself by 
the subjugation of a great part of Britain, of which 
he was made governor by the emperor Vespasian. 
His successes and his high character excited the jea- 
lous fears of Domitian, by whom he was covertly 
withdrawn from public employment, and soon vSt&c 
died 93. 

AGRICOLA, Fr., an cedes, au., 1575-1616. 

AGRICOLA, Geo., a metalluigist, 1494-1566. 

AGRICOLA, G. A-, a horticulturist, 1672-1738. 

AGRICOLA, John, a controvermal divine, the op- 
ponent of Luther and Melancthon, and leader of tiie 
Antinomians, 1492-1566. 

AGRICOLA, NiCH., a Swedish reformer, d. 1557. 

AGRICOLA, RoDOLPHUB, one of the restoters of 
acienoe and letters in Europe, 1442-1485. 



[ 17 J 


AGRICOLA, St., buihop of Chalons, 6iih cent 

AGRIPPA, an ancient soeptical philosopber. 

AGRIPPA, an astronomer of the 1st oentoiy. 

A6RIPPA, CAJOLLra, an Ital. arch., 16th c. 

1108, a talented mystio philosopher, secretary to the 
emperor Maximilian, 1466-1535. 

AGRIPPA I., Hbbod, grandson of Herod the Gt, 
and under Clandins, king of all Palestine, died 44. 
See Acre xul, 23. 

AGRIPPA n., HsBOD, son and snccessor of the 
preceding, died about the close of the Ist centoiy. 

AGfiU*P A, Marcus ViraAMiUB, general of the Ro- 
man armies, and friend of Augustus Caesar, bom 64 
or 63 B.a His virtues and military talents contribu- 
ted greatly to Hm felicitous course and the gloxy of 
the leign of Augustus, whose daughter he married, 
and whom he would hare succeeded in the empire, 
but d. before him, b.c. 12. 

AGRIPPA, BfEHKNiuH, consul of Rome, B.a 503. 

AGRIPPINA, the daughter of Vipsanius Agrippa, 
and wife of Csesar GSermanicus, was bom some time 
before b.o. 12 ; d. in banishment, a.d. 35. 

AGRIPPINA, daughter of the preceding, and 
modier of tiie infamous Nero, was bom some time 
beforo AJD. 17 ; assassinated a.d. 60. 

AGUADO, Fr., a Spamrii Jesuit, 1572-1654. 

AGUESSEAU, Hbkbt D', a French statesman, 

AGUESSEAU, Hrnrt Frahcis D', son of the pre- 
ceding, a celebra. magistrate and advocate, finally 
ehanoellor of France, 1668-1751. 

AGUILA, C. J. E, ly, a French hist., d. 1815. 

AGUILLON, Frakcib, a mathema., d. 1617. 

AGUIRRA, J. S. D', a celebrated Spanish prelate, 

AGUJARI LUCREZIA, an It singer, d. 1788. 

AGTUEUS, H., a jurist, disting. in the war of 
the United Pnmnoes against Spain, 1533-1595. 

AHAB, king of Israel, 915 to 893 B.C. ^ 

AHAZ, king of Judah, died B.a 722. 

AHAZIAH, king of Judah, b.c. 885. 

AHAZIAH, king of Israel, died b.c. 897. 

AHLE, J. R., a Ger. musician, 1625-1678. 

ATTf.Tg^ J. G., son of the preceding, died 1707. 

AHLWARDT, C.G., a Ger. philolog., 1760-1880. 

AHLWART, PEnsB, a learned German, celebra- 
ted as the founder of the Ahelites, 1710-1791. 

AHMED, an Arabian poet, 10th century. 

AHMED-BEN-FARES, snmamed El Raai, autiior 
of an Arabic Dictionaxy, 10th centoiy. 

a Moor of Spain, celebrated as an oriental poet and 
annalist, died 970. 

AHMED-BEN-THOULOUN, an Egyptian chief, 
founder of the dynasty of the Thoolounides 9th ct 

AHMED GRXEDtK. See Achket Giedio. 

AHMED-KHAN, emp. of tiie Moguls after his 
brother, Abaker-Khan, 1282, killed 1284. 

AHMED RESMY HADJT, chancellor of the 
Turkish empire, author of an account of his own em- 

AHMED-SHAH EL ABDALY, an Affgfaan chief, 
foonder of the kingdom of Candahar and Cabul, eel. 
for his victories over the Sikhs, d. 1773. 

AHRENDT, or ARENTS, M. F., a ^at traveller 
and investigat of Scandinavian antiqmties, d. 1824. 

AHRUN. See Aabos or Aubxaitdria. 

AHUITZOL, king of the Aztecs before Montezuma 
H., when they wero conq. by the Spaniards. 

AIBEK, first Mameluke sultan of Egypt, 1254, 
isnssinated 1257. 

AIDAN, one of the earliest preachers of Chris- 


I tianity in Britain, afterwards bp. of Lindisfame, died 

AIGNAN, Stephen, a political writer and tragic 
poet of France, 1773-1824. 

AIGNEAUX, R. and A., us Chevalier, Sieiib8 
D', two brothers, noted as classical scholars, 16th 

AIKIN, Arthur, an English scientific and misoel« 
laneous writer. He was the son of Dr. Aikin, nephew 
to Mrs. Barbauld, and brother to Miss Lucy Aikin, 
throe well known authors, 1773-1854. 

AIKIN, E., a writer on architecturo, died 1820. 

AIKIN, John, M. D., celebrated as a misoellane' 
ous writer, chiefly on moral and biographical sub- 
jects, was bom at Kibworth-Haroourt, in Lieoester- 
shiro, 1747, and in 1764 became a student at the uni- 
versity of Bldinbuitth, but pursued his professional 
and literary caroer m London. His medical memoir 
appeared in 1780 ; and his principal work, the Gene- 
ral Biographical Dictionazy, the labor of which he 
sharod with Dr. Enfield, at various intervals from 
1799 to 1815. From 1796 to 1806 he was also edi- 
tor of the * Monthly Magazine,* and for nearly half a 
century contumed to enrich onr literaturo with nu- 
merous elegantly written and useful dissertations. 
Died at the age of 75, 1822. [E.R.] 

AIKMAN, Wk., a Scotch painter, 1682-1731. 

AILLAND, P. T., a Fr. ecclesiastic, 1759-1826. 

AILLT, P. D', a cardinal and theological dispu- 
tant, president of the council of Constanoe by which 
John Hubs was condemned, 1350-1419. 

AILMER. See Atlmer. 

known ancient historian, 1109-1166. 

AIMAR, RivAULT, jurist and adv., 16th cent 

AIMAR VERNAI, Jacques, a French peasant ce- 
lebrated as a diviner, 17th century. 

AIMOIN De Vareitmes, a French poet, 18th ot 

AIMON, or AIMOIN of Fleuiy, a French histo- 
rian, died 1008. 

AIMON, or HAYMOND, an historian and disci- 
pie of Alcuyn, died 853. 

AIMON, bishop of Valence, 943-977 

AIMON, an ascetic writer, died 1174. 

AINSWORTH, Henbt, a nonconformist divine, 
celebrated as a Hebrew scholar and Biblical commen- 
tator, died 1622. 

AINSWORTH, Robert, author of the well-known 
Latin Dictionaxy, 1660-1743. 

AIRAULT. See Atkault. 

AITKEN, Robert, a printer who came to America 
in 1769, and settled in Philadelphia, where he died 
in 1802, aged 68. Daring the contests with the 
mother country, he was always on the side of the 
colonies, and on that account was thrown into prison 
by the British. He published an edition cS the Bible, 
a magazine, and the transactions of the Amer. Philos. 
Soc. He is supposed to have been the author of an 
Inquiry concerning the principles of a commeroial 
system for the U. S., published in 1787. Jane 
Aitken, his daughter, continued his business, ailer his 
death, and printed the translation irom ttie Septua- 
gint, made by Chas. Thompson, Sec. of Congress. 

ATTON, WiLUAM, an Ei^l. botanist, d. 1793. 

ATTZEMA, F. Van, a ifiplomatist of Friedland, 
commissioned from Holland and Bohemia to the im- 
perial court, 1636. 

ATTZEMA, Leon, nephew of the preceding, his- 
torian of the United Provinces, 1600-1669. 

AIZO, a chief of the Goths, 9th century. 

AJAX, one of the Homeric heroes, called the Lo- 
crian, or the Lesser, to distinguish him from his more 
illustrious namesake. 


[ 18 ] 


AJAX, called the Gnat, ii repruented b? Homer 
■■ the KHi of Telamon ; he is mid to bftve died at 
TtDy in CMiBequieiioe of a, di^t« ooaceming the ar- 
mor of Achillet 

JlKAEIA, Martin, a medical aathor, UT9-16S8. 
Id son of tbe same name, and other members of 
the fsmilj, also distinguished themaelres in the same 

AKBAH, or AKBEY-BEN-NAFY, a Sanwen gov- 
enor of AlHca, who overran the oonoby as Tar a* 
tbt Atlantic Ocean, and prepared the conquest of 
Spain, killed 682. 

AEBAR, MOHAMMED, emperor of tlie Moguls, 
one of the greatest princes of modem Ado, died 1606, 
after a reign of 60 jears. 

AKENSIDE, Mark, waaboni b IT21, at New- 
casfle-npon-iyne, vhere bis father was a butcher. 
DesiniiDg in his youth to become a Praabyterian 
preadter, be received from a fnnd of tbe English dis- 
senters the means of stadTiug in the nniTerHtf of 
which afterwards be honorably paid back. 


[Dbnrgb, wJ 
q»e£lf to 

tamed to medical stadias, whiob he oo 

pleted at Lejden, graduating there in 1714. In the 
same year upeared hi* wcU-known poem, ' The 
Pleunies ol uie ImnginadoD.' This work not only 
has the Duarotdahle fmlta of all didactic poeby, but 
horers in a middle sphere between fancy and pluloso- 
pby, in a mumer which makes it obscure and nn- 
satisfactoiy, eren to readers who aje both poetical 
and metaphyMcaL Bnt it contiuns some noble pic- 
tures, many trains of finely reflective sentiment, and 
not a fow nice felicities of diction. His subsequent 
-effudons in verse comprehended only a few very poor 
MXles, some clasneally-ooBceived inscriptions, and a 
' Hymn to the Nuods.' AiWhaving nnsneceEiifuIly 
attempted medical practice in the connliy, be remov- 
ed to London, beini aided by a penuoa i^m a weal- 
thy and genetoos friend. He now busied himself 
chiefly in professional pursuits, attaining some eciea~ 
tific eminence, bnt no large sban of employment. 
He was a Eoaa of high rcspertabili^ and integri^, 
bnt dogmatic and irasdble ; and his brother-physi- 
cian, Smollett, ridiculed his pedantry in his descrip- 
tion of the ' feast in the manner of the ancient*.' He 
died in 1770. [W.S.] 

-tKERBLAD, J. D., a Swed. orient., 1760-1819. 

AKERLY, Sawtei, an Am. pbydcion of New 
Toifc, and medical writer, d. 18i5, s^ 60. 

AKERMANN, A., a Swed. engrav., 1718-1778. 

AKIBA-BEK-JOSEPH, one of the gniaCest of the 
Jewish rabbis, eel. for his confederatj with Bor-Co- 
keba, the false Hesdab, died of torture in die rei — ' 

AEOUI, a ikmous Tartar general, ISth cent 

ALABASTER, WiL, a learned divine, d. 1640. 

ALADIN, or ALA EDDTN, a prince of Arabi^ 
whoawnmedthetJtieofK.oftIie World,d. 1236. 

ALA EDDYN I., emp. of Hindostan, 1294-1316. 

ALAIN, Cbakttes, a Fr. writer, 14th centoiy. 

ALAIN DE LILLE, called the Great, also tht 
cider, to dletingmsb him from the following, was bp^ 
of Auierre, 12tii oentury. 

ALAIN DE ULLE, or DE L'ISLE, a divine of 
snob renown as to be colled the Uuiversal Dodo^ 
lived m the 12th or 13th oentuiy. 

ALAIN, R., a Fr. dramatic writer, bom ISSO 

ALAMANNI, Loom, \ statesman and poet of tlo- 
renoe, 1496-1BS6. 

ALAMIN, oaliph of Bagdad, 806-818. 

AL.4N, chancellor of Scotiand, 129L 

ALAN DE LYNN, a fomons theolog., IStb oeuL 

English cardinal, who, in the interest of the Komish 
chnrcb, prompted the intended invasion of England 
by Philip IL, 1532-1694. 

ALAN, of Tewkesbsiy, the Snend and historian <rf 
Thomas B Beckett, died 1201. 

ALAND, Sia J. Fobtksccb, otherwise Lord For- 
tesone, an able jodge and man of letters, bom 1370, 
died between 1733 and 1748. 

.UANO, H. De, ajorist of Padua, 14th cent. 

ALANSON, Edw., a eel. snrgeon, 1747-1823. 

ALARD, Fk., a prot. thcolo^on, oouverted from 
the Roman church, died 1678. 

ALAKD, Wh., son of the preceding, d. 1644. 

ALARD, Lambert, son of the lost named, cel^ 
brated as a Greek and Latin scholar, d. 1672. 

ALARIC, a Saxon king, middle of the 6th oent. 

ALARIC I., king of the West Goths, and oonanemr 
of the Roman - ■ 

the histoiy of thi 
thia diatingnisbcd 
rica of despotism 
ducef theonetir 

le of the w 

lilitaiy leader, 

Before the 

le throe cento- 

of the world to a deplo- 
imi;i« nuu) in baseness and effeminacy j while tha 
warlike Goths, engaged in the border warfare with 
the Roman troops, and sometimes ravaging the pro- 
vinces of the empiro in return (or the intalu belied 
□pen them, and the cusindon with which they were 
regarded, were daily growing more formidable. The 
defeat of the emperor Valens had long since discov- 
ered to the 'barbarians' their superiority over the 
. — ofthj fertile pravinoes whidi ^iread solempt- 

ngly b 

ibedience to Tbeodoiins the Great, and their 
ambition was a long time satisfied by serving in tha 
Roman armies. At length, A.11. 896, Ae death of 
TheodoDus, and the division of the empire between 
his sons Honorius and Arcadiua, nmewed the dia- 
graceful Intrigues which hod betni kept in saspenM 
by hi* able administratiaa. The public immorality 
and political baseness of Che period were only equalled 
by the private vices of the degenerate Romans ; and 
the oonrictioa became general that nothing could 
avert the disorgauixation by which socic^ was threat- 
ened. At this juncture the Gothie hordes veiB set 
in motion by a party iniioical to the government of 
Arcadins m the east, and Aloric, whose wild ambi- 
tion hod been flattered by these overtorea, commen- 
ced his famous maroh from the Danube. It is possi- 
ble that bis fortunes had been rising since tlie death 
of the Gothic king Atlianaric, A.i>. 381, but nothing 
certain is known of his early hislofy save that he be> 
longed to the princely family 1^ the Balti, descended 
IVom AeAscDordemigodsof Scandinavia. Thcconrse 
of Alaric at the head of his viotorions troops wa* 


[ 19] 


ftroogh Thraoe, Dacia, Maoedonia, and Thessalj, 
into Achua, and eveiywhere the offioen of Areadios 
betrayed their trust, or refused to fight; while the 
most glorious momunents (^ Grecian art fell a sac- 
rifice to these martial iconoclasts, whose name is still 
synonymous with tiiat of destroyer. The emperor of 
iiiB west, taking alann at his unexampled successes, 
sent an army to the aid of his brother, under the 
command of Stilicho, by whom Alaric was kept in 
check, and prepared for terms of accommodation with 
a foe for whom he had no other feeling than that of 
contempt, 898. By the terms of the armistice— 4br 
it was reall/ only an armed truce which ensued — ^the 
CMbac chief was acknowledged master of the East- 
em niyiicum by the emperor of the east, who also 
declined the further assistance of Stilicho ; and Hy 
his own followers proclaimed king of the West Goths, 
and of all the tribes who acknowledged their kindred 
or allegiance. Situated between the two empires, 
and nbject to the continued hostility of the Romans, 
Alaric employed himself in perfecting the equipment 
and discipline of his troops, and after two years of 
preparation suddenly forced the passage of the Alps. 
Wa usual success attending him in a succession of 
battles and sieges, he was on the point of capturing 
Honorhis, when, at the critical moment, Stilicho 
arriTcd with a levy of troops collected from Germany 
and the other barbarian provinces of the empire, 
"nie result was the final retreat of Alaric to his own 
government ; but he had now measured his strength 
against the legions of Rome in the sunny plains of 
Italy, and had also come to a good understanding 
with Stilicho, a man of splendid abilities, and of a 
kindred origin with himself, though he was now the 
sword and buckler of the western empire. Alter 
the retirement of Alaric, Italy was invaded by 
a host of tiie Gothic tribes, commanded by Rada- 
gaisns, who were defeated by Stilicho, and distri- 
buted over the face of tiie country. Alaric 
was rewarded for the strict neutrality which he 
observed on this occasion by a rich present 
from the Roman Senate ; but he demanded a more 
fertile province for the settlement of his own people. 
While this demand was in agitation, Stilicho was 
basely murdered at the instigation of Honorius, 
whose tottering throne his arms and diplomacy had 
so long upheld, and who had grown jealous of his po- 
pularity — pertuipat, also, of his affinity with the power- 
All king of the Goths, and of the friendly understand- 
ing between the two leaders. The threatening attitude 
xiow assumed by Alaric, as the avenger of his friend, 
attracted the discontented of all Italy to his standard, 
and invitations from the court of Honorius were not 
wanting to excite him to the enterprise. He com- 
menced his second march towards Rome in the year 
405, and after a victorious progress entered the eter- 
nal city, its first conqueror in six centuries. On this 
occasion his extreme moderation, and perfect com- 
mand of his troops, have won for him the applause of 
tlw most cautious historians — his exactions only 
amounting to a few thousand pounds* weight of gold 
and silver, and certain costly robes of silk and pieces 
of scariet cloth. Retiring from the ct^ to negotiate, 
he pitched his camp in the plains of Tuscany, but 
was drawn into Rome a second time by the perfidy of 
Honorius. He now deposed a sovereign with whom 
it was manifest no faith could be kept, and made At- 
tains, a mpch esteemed Roman pnefect, emperor. 
The friends of Honorius, however, on the departure 
of Alaric, endeavored to rally again ; the new empe- 
ror was deposed ; and the negotiations which Alaric 
set on foot at a distance from the seat of empire, 
noved frnitlear. These events, in fine, brought the 

now angry conqueror of Rome for the third time into 
the midst of its doomed palaces and temples, and the 
city was given up to pillage. In all probability tiie 
namele^ horrors of such a scene, infamous as the 
sack of Rome is represented, were not greater in de- 
gree than similar disasters which have occurred 
within the memory of man, and under the eye of 
more enlightened commai^ers. The fall of Rome 
was followed by tiie desolating march of Alaric and 
his troops towards the coast, where he was preparing 
to embark for Sicily ; but was surprised by a short 
illness, which terminated in his death, a.d, 410. His 
faithful followers prepared his grave in the bed of the 
river Busentinus, which they diverted from its chan- 
nel for the purpose ; and when the waters once more 
rolled in their accustomed course, the workmen were 
put to death, that no tongne might tell where the 
hero lay buried, with the choicest spoils of Rome to 
do him honor. [E.R.] 

ALARIC n., was the ninth king in descent from 
Alaric the Great, and succeeded his father Euric, who 
bad really added the Gothic monarchy of Spain to 
that of Gaul, ▲.d. 484. Alaric had the misfortune to 
ascend the throne at the critical period when the 
Franks, under the celebrated Clovis, were extending 
their dominions at the expense (^ the neighboring 
potentates, and was weak enough to surrender Syag- 
rius, the prince of Soissons, who had been defeated, 
and had taken refiige at his court, to the Frank 
king. The affronts to which he submitted seemed to 
have chafed the proud spirits of his high-minded and 
chivalrous subjects, and the general discontent which 
it occasioned was aggravated by religious differences 
arising from the constantly increasing opposition of his 
bishops to the tenets of Arianifm, always held by the 
Gothic kings. Under these circumstances his king- 
dom was invaded by Clovis, with the avowed design 
of extirpating the Arian herefy, and a battle being 
fought at Voii^Ue, in which the two princes met in 
personal conflict, Alaric fell worthily by the hand 
of his rival, a.d. 507. The body of laws which is 
known as the code of Alaric, was digested by order 
of this prince from those of Theodosius, and affiled 
to the exigencies of his own people. After his fall, 
the arrival of his brother-in-law Theodoric, king of 
the East Goths, redeemed the honor of his kin- 
dred in the battle-field, and Clovis was compelled 
to accept terms of peace. See Tueodobic the Gbeat. 

[E. R.] 

ALASCO, J., the. reformer of Pol., 1499-1660. 

ALBA-LITTA, Count, a learned It., 1769-1832, 

ALBAN, St., first Christian martyr of Great Bri- 
tain, killed at Rome, 803. 

ALBANEZE, an Italian singer, died 1800. 

ALBANI, J. J., cardinal, distinguished as a theo- 
logian, 1504-1591. 

ALBANI, Alex., a member of the some family, 
distinguished as a virtuoso, 1692-1779. 

ALBANI, J. F., card., nephew of tiie preceding, 
disting. as a man of letters ; reduced to poverty by 
the French, 1720-1803. 

ALBANI, or ALBANY, Louisa. Maria Carolixe, 
countess of, the unfortunate wife of the last pretender, 
Charles Stuart, married 1772, d. 1824. 

ALBANO, Fr., an Italian painter, 1578-1660. 

ALBANO, G. B., younger brother of the preceding, 
also a painter, died 1668. 

ALBANY, a ducal name, assumed by many princes 
of the royal house of Scotland. The first line began 
with the son of Robert II., and was extinguished in 
H. Stuart, 1460. The second Une commenced with 
Alexander Stuart, second son of James IL, and failed 
in his son John, who d. 1536. 




ALBATEGNI, an Arabian astron., 9th cent 

ALBEMARLE, duke of. See Monk. 

ALBEMARLE, A. J., Keppel, connt of, a Dutoh 
gen., favorite of WiUiam III., 1669-1718. 

ALBERGATI, C, an ItaHan aotor, died 1802. 

ALBERIC, a monastic historian, IStii oentnxy. 

ALBERIG L and his son ALBERIC 11. temporal 
lords of Rome in the 10th oentoiy, before the ciTil 
power was consolidated with the papacy. 

ALBERONI, GiuLio, card., a celebrated statesman 
of Spain. The son of a gardener, he rose to be prime 
minister; bom 1666, died in exile 1752. 

ALBERT of Aix, an hist, of the crosades, 12th c. 

ALBERT of Stade, a chronicler, 13th centniy. 

ALBERT of Strasbnig, a chronicler, 14th cent 

ALBERT, EnASBfus, a Germ, divine, 16ih cent 

ALBERT, or ALBRECHT L, the son and succes- 
sor of Rudolph of Hapsbnrg, both as duke of Austria 
and emperor of Germany, assassinated 1808. 

ALBERT, archdnke of Austria, and from his alli- 
ance with Isabella, daughter of Philip 11., joint sove- 
reign of the Netherlands, 1559-1621. 

ALBERT I., founder of the house of Brandenburg, 
ftom which the royal house of Prussia derives its 
origin, 1106-1170. 

ALBERT, marquis of Cnlmbaeh, sumamed the 
German Alcibiades, a principal actor in the wars of 
Charles V., 1522-1658. 

ALBERT L, duke of Brunswick, died 1279. 

ALBERT the Fat, son and successor in common 
with his elder brother Heinrich, to Albert I., died 
1318. He is the common ancestor of the reigning 
house of Brunswick, and its junior branch the house 
of Hanover. 

ALBERT, Charles, duke of Lnynes, constable of 
France, under Louis XHL, 1578-1621. 

ALBERT, Loms Ch., duke of Lnynes, a brave 
commander and man of letters, 1620-1690. 

ALBERT, Loms Joseph, duke of Luynes, com- 
monly called Count Albert, distinguished lumself as a 
general, 1672-1758. 

ALBERT L, duke of Mecklenburg, 1385 to 1879. 

ALBERT n., son of the prec^Ung and of the 
daughter of Magnus, king of Sweden, dfected king of 
Sweden 1863, detiironed by Mazgaret of Denmark 
1889, died 1412. 

ALBERT, Jans. See Albset. Jeanne D'. 

ALBERT, Ht. Chr., a Germ, linguist, d. 1800. 

ALBERT. See Albebtos Magnus. 

ALBERTET, a Provenfal poet, 18th centuiy. 

ALBERTI, Arktotle, a celebrated mechanic and 
architect of tiie 15th century. 

ALBERTI, Ben., a patriot of Flor., 14th cent 

ALBERTI, Cherubino, acelebrated Italian painter, 
1552-1615. His brother Giovanni wa3 also a painter 
of eminence. 

ALBERTI, DoMiNioo, a Venetian composer, cele- 
brated for his skill on the harpsichord, last cent 

ALBERTI, G. W., a Germ, divine, 1725-1758. 

ALBERTI, Jas., an Italian jurist, 15th cent 

ALBERTI, John, a Germ, orientalist, d. 1559. 

ALBERTI, Leander, a monastic hist, d. 1552. 

ALBERTI, Lboni BAPrxsrA, a universal artist and 
man of letters, sumamed the Florentine Vitruvius, 
bom 1404, died about 1480. 

ALBERTI, S., a German anatomist, d. 1600. 

ALBERTI m VILLANOVA, Francis, an Italian 
lexicographer, 1787-1800. 

ALBERTINELLI, M., an It pamtor, 1475-1520. 

ALBERTINI, Fr., an It antiquary, 16th cent 

ALBERTINI, Paul, a Venetian ecclesiastic and 
nan of letters, often employed by the state, 1430- 

ALBERTRANDY, J. Chr., a Polish antiqoariac 
and historian, 1731-1808. 

ALBERTUS MAGNUS, or Albertus Gbotus, was 
bom at Lamngen, in Snabia, according to some in 
1193, and according to others in 1205. It is said 
tiiat in early youth he was singularly obtuse. But 
he soon dim>layed prodigious capacity, so tiiat his 
immense and varied acquirements rapidly raised him 
to eminence. He studied at Paris, Padua, and Bo- 
logna; in 1222 he became a Dominican friar, in 
1224 was installed provincial of the order, and was 
raised to the bishopric of Ratisbon in 1260. Cologne 
was the chief scene of his popularity and usefulness, 
though other cities had been at an earlier period 
privileged with his learned visits. But he had little 
relish ror church preferment, and resigned his episco- 
pal honors in 1263, into the hands of Pope Urban 
rV. Thomas Aquinas was a favorite pupil of his, and 
the Albertists were a noted sect after their master's 
deatii, in 1280. The fame of Albert rests not on his 
genius^ but on his multifarious erudition. He seems 
to have embraced the entire circle of knowledge. Not 
only did he lecture on Aristotle and his Arab com- 
mentatois, Avicenna, and Averhoes, with mediaeval 
acnteness and profusion, but his works comprise dis- 
sertations on Theology, Aldhymy, Physical Science, 
Natural Iffistoiy, and Astronomy. His voracious 
mind had stored itself so vastly with the encyclopndic 
knowledge of Ids age, that his books are rendered 
comparatively useless by an incredible farrago of ref- 
erences, quotations, and digressions. Still, lus ardent 
pursuit or knowledge, and his patient attempt to pre- 
sent it in a connected and systematic form, must ever 
cause him to be regarded with peculiar veneration. 
His works, collected and published at Cologne, in 
1621, fiU 41 folio volumes, three of which are taken 
up with an explication of the * Sentences' of Peter 
Lombard. [J. E.] 

ALBI, Bernard D', friend of Petrarch, d. 1350. 

ALBICANTE, J. A., an Ital. poet, 16th century. 

ALBICUS, or ALBICIUS, a phys. and arbp. of 
Prague, noted for his lenient treataient of the Hus- 
sites, died 1427. 

ALBINI, Al., an Italian painter, died 1630. 

ALBINOVANUS, a Rom. poet, age of August 

ALBINUS, a R«mi. gen. proclaimed emp. same 
time as Septimus Sevenis, deftd. by him A.D. 197. 

ALBINUS, a Roman procurator under Nero. 

ALBINUS, consul of Rome, b.g. 157. 

ALBINUS, Bernard, a Germ, phys., d. 1711. 

ALBINUS, Bernard Siegfred, eldest son of the 
preceding, a great anatomist, 1696^1770. 

ALBINUS, Chr. B., brother of the preceding, also 
distinguished as an anatomist, died 1778. 

ALBO, Jos., a Spanish rabbi, 15th century. 

ALBOIN, king df the Lombards, 6th century. 

ALBON, a civilian and man of letters, d. 1789. 

ALBON, Jacques D', marquis de Fronsac, better 
known as the mar6chal de St Andre, an eminent 
French general, killed at the battle of Dreuz, 1562. 

ALBONI, Paoix>, a landscape painter, dL 1780. 

ALBRECHT, J. Seb., a naturalist, 1695-1774. 

ALBRECHT L, prince of Anhalt, died 1310. 

ALBRECHT U., his son and successor, d. 1362. 

ALBRECHT L, elector of Saxony, d. 1260. 

ALBRECHT U., second son of Al. L, d. 1297. 

ALBRECHT HI., sue. as elector 1419, d. 1422. 

ALBRECHT of Bavaria. See Albert. 

ALBRECHT of Brunswick. See Albert. 

ALBRECHT of Mecklenbuigh. See Albert. 

ALBRECHT, a German po^ 18th century. 

ALBRECHTSBERGER, Johann Geo., the most 
learned contrapuntist of modem times, was bom at 

ALB [ 1 

KtoalBr Neobniig, a mudl tovn in Lower AiutriB, in 
the yiiBT 1T86. He acquired hie first knowledge of 
tiw cngan and compiHtioii of H. G. Moan. In 1773 
he wu appcAntei conrt orgmnist at Tkmia, and aab- 
■eqnentlj chapel-muter at the eaUiedial of St SU- 
phen^B in ihe aame aity. He had for his pnpili lome 
of the most eminent munciaoa of the lut age, and 
amongst tbeee the name of Beethoren fignrea oa the 
chief. Hajdn had tlie greatest fViendahip and esteem 
for Albredibdwiger, and it ia laid that he rmjnently 
ooBsnIted him {mtfeioanall;. Hil pdindpaJ voil il 
hi< ' Elementary Treatise oo OmfaMim,' which waa 
first pnblielied at Leipzig in 1T0(L AJbTeahttberger 
died m 1803. [J.M.] 

ALBRET, Cau., lord of, constable of Fnnos, 
Gonnnander of the French anu^ at tiie battte of 
ApDoooTt, wheie ha was killed, 141G. 

ALSSET, Aladi, lord of, grandna of the preco- 
ding, a general andar Lonis XII., died IBSi. 

ALBRET, Jeu D', ion of ^ preceding, manied 
to Catberine, qneen of HaTHm, died 1616. 

ALBRET, jEunB D', dangbtei of Maigaret, 
qoeen of NaTaiTf^ andmatbetaf Bani^IV. ofFtaooe, 
died 1ST2. 

ALBLIIAZAR, an Anbian philoi., 9th cent 

ALBUQUERQUE, min. of Alph. XI., d. 1364. 

ALBUQUERQUE, AnoLPHim, fonndor of the Por- 
tngosae d<nniiuon in the Eut ladiea, d. ISIG. 

ALBUQUERQUE, C. E., an historiso, d. 1688. 

ALBCQUERQUE, H., a Portnguew general, died 

ALBUTIDS, C, a Rom. oi»tor, time of Angruhu, 

ALCAMENES, ■ Greek nolptor, Sth cent. b.c 

ALCAMEXES, king of Sparta, Sth cent I.C. 

ALC DS, a Greek Ijiic poet, 6th cent, 

ALC US.aMmewhathilerpoett''" 

ALC US,BGreekaaniedian, 4th 

ALCIATI, Aim., an Italian jurist, one of the firet 
to revive the aHaAj of Uteratnre, died 1660. 

ALCIATI, Fr., cardinal, nephew i^tbe 
also B diitingnithed jorist, died 1680. 

ALCIATI, TBU.fci, a Jemit, 17th oenEoiy. 

ALCIBIADI':S, a Christian mnitfr, £d cent 

ALCIBIADES, the eon of Cleininf, one of the 
taoKt rfmaritnble men of antiifoitf, was bom at 
Atlieiu about B.C. 449. He inherited from hia panats 
the hi^eet rank, with almost boiuuUeta weaMi, aod 
WB* endowed with a penon mnittully handsome^ with 
'' Host fascinating, and with talents whioh 

1 ] ALO 

wonld have laiaed him to the highest distinction, 
independently of the advantages whioh forlTuie had 
bestowed upon him, heti an orphan at an eariy age, 
he was placed uoder the wardship of his relative 
Pericl^B ; and became the favonte pupil and compan- 
ion of Socratea. Bat his gnat qn^tiea were marred 
by inordinate vanity and love of notoriety, which led 
hjm into wanton uid offensive exceeses ; evil tenden- 
cies whioh the teieani of the philosopher failed to 
ooonteract The stining events of the PeiopoDncaian 
war, B.o. 481-404, could not fail to call mto active 
operation the ener^ea of a mind so ambitions and so 
mucmpnlous; and aooordingly, from Ms finC aK>ear- 
SDoe in pnblio lif^, b.c, 421, when be pievcntsd the 
truce between Spaita and Athens from being oairied 
into efiect, he made the intensta of his connliy and 
his own reputation alike subservient to Ids suhemss 
of ambition. In B.C. 419 he waa choeen general, and 
daring the next three years he took a prominent part 
in the oomplicated struggle of intrigue and war which 
was carried on in the Peloponnesus. In B.C. 415 he 
was the Imdcr in advocating the Sicilian expedition, 
and ahand tbe command with Nioias and Luoacbus. 
Soon after the fleet set sail, an agitation was revived 
against him on th^ ground that be was in^oatad in 
tlia mntOation of the hosts of Hermea, and his ene- 
mies succeeded in procuring his recall. Tbe prood 
spirit of Alcibiades could not brook this indignity ; 
and, thet^ore, instoad of relnmiag to Athens, he pro- 
ceeded to Sputa, aod becoming the avowed enemy 

in Sicily wen delV^ated. Sentence of death was oon- 
eeqnently passed upon him, his proper^ was oonfiaca- 
ted, and a cnrse pronwmood upon him by the minis- 
ters of religion. Thnmgh his instrumentality an 
aQlaDce was formed between the Spartans and Tis- 
saphcmes, satrap at Lydia, wliicb led Co the revolt of 
many a£ the Asiatic allies of Athena. Bnl hia iofln- 
enCB at Sparta waa not long muntaioed ; in B.C. 412 
he took refuge with Tiesaphemes, and by his onri- 
vailed talents soon gained his favor ) and induced hii^ 
to withdraw from oil Spartan allies. Being again 
the open enemy tS Sparta, Alcibiades now wuhed to 
effect a reconcdiation with hia countrymen ; and en- 
tering into a cOTTcspoEulenoe with tbe leading men in 
the Athenian fleet at Samoa, was pardoned and le- 
oalled by the soldiers, and appointed one of tbeir 
generals. For the next four yean be remained 
abroad, tendering important services to hia country ; 
and having, by tbe viotones wMoh he gained, re- 
established himself in public favor, he letomed to 
Athens, B.C. 40T, where he waa reoaived with great 
enAusiasm. His property waa nstared to him, tbe 
priests were ordered (o revoke their cnne ; and aa 
the crowning honor he was appointed oonmiander-in- 
obief of all the foroes by land and sea. But tbe fickle- 
ness of the Atheniaii diameter again displayed itself 
In ooDseqnence of tLe defeat of me Athenian fleet at 
Notium B.C. 406, he was supeneded in the commaod, 
and went into vclnntaiy exile in tbe Thraoian Chereo- 
oesna. After the estabUshoient of the granny of the 
Thirty in &.C. 404, he was ODDdemned to banishment. 
Upon this he took refuge with Phaniabaini, satr^ of 
Bilbynia, intending to proceed to the court of ArUx- 
erxes, when one ni^t his house was surroitailed by 
aimed men and set on fire. He rrubed out sword in 
hand, but fell overwhelmed with nussiles, B.C. 404, 
in the foT^-fillb year of bis age. [^i-F.] 

ALCIDAUUS, a Greek rhetorician, 4th cen. B.C. 

ALCIMUS, lugh priest of the Jews iu the time of 

ALCIMUS, a Latin historian, 4th century. 


[22 ] 


ALCINOUS, ft Platonic philosopher, 2d cent | 

ALCIPHRON, a Greek writer, 3d or 4th oen. b.c. 

ALCM^ON, a natural philosopher and anatomist, 
Gth centniy b.c. 

ALCMAN, a Gr. lyric poet, 7th centaiy B.a 

ALCOCK, J., founder of Jesos College, Cambridge, 
d. 1600. 

ALCOCK, John, a oomp. of mnsic, d. 1806. 

ALCOCK, Nathan, a physician, celebrated as a 
lectorer on anatomy, last century. 

ALCOCK, Thos., a medical writer, d. 1888. 

ALCUIN, or as he Latinized his name, FiiAOCOS 
Albinus AiiCUiKus, was in all likelihood bom at 
York about the year 785. Educated in the monastic 
school at York, under Egbert and Aelbert, both of 
whom afterwards held the see of Yoik, he was pro- 
moted subsequently to be master of the same school, 
and taught in it till 780. Archbishop E^nbald sent 
him, in 781, to Bome, to get for him Ae pallium, and 
Alcuin, on his return, visited Chariemagne, atPanna. 
The emperor at once became deeply attached to him, 
brought him to his oonit, and heaped upon him 
honors and emoluments. At the court of Charle* 
raagne, Alcuin was a general p receptor, and coun- 
sellor. Ultimately he retired to Tours, where he died 
19th May, 804. Alcuin was not only a distinguished 
scholar, polemic, and poet himself, but aided and di- 
rected his imperial master in patriotically diffusmg 
through the eittpire the means of literaiy and theolo- 
gical education. He assisted at the councils of Fraok- 
tovt and Aix-la^Chapelle, at which the errors of FeUx 
and Elispandus on the person of Christ were con- 
demned. Altogether he was the most distinguished 
man of his age. [J.E.] 

ALCYONIUS, Peter, an Italian scholar, celebra- 
ted for his work on the Evils and Consolations of 
Exile, died 1527. 

ALDEGR^F or ALDEGREYER, a German paint- 
er and engraver, 150^1562. 

ALDEGUELA, a Spanish architect, last cent 

ALDEN, JonN, a member of the first company 
wliich settied in the colony of Plymouth in New £Ing- 
land. He continued in tiie administration of public 
affairs, under eveiy governor for 67 years. Miles 
Standish employed him to court, in his name, Pris- 
cilla Mullins, but the Puritan beauty preferred the 
messenger to the suitor, and met his proposals on be- 
half of his friend with the characteristic question, 
" Prithee John, why do you not speak for yourself? " 
Standish was compelled to seek a wife elsewhere, 
and John and Priscilla were united. He died Sept. 
12, 1687, in his 89th year. 

ALDERETE, Bernard, a Sp. Jesuit, d. 1657. 

ALDERETE, D. G. De, a Sp. chissic, d. 1580. 

ALDHELM, St., an English prelate, d. 709. 

ALDHUN, bp. of Durham 29 years, d. 1018. 

ALDINT, Tobias, a phys. and botanist, 17tii ct 

ALDINI, Giovanni, a natural phUosopher, nephew 
of Galvani, 1762-1834. 

ALDIS, AaA, a lawyer of high repute in Vennont, 
bom 1770. In 1816 he was appointed Chief Jus- 
tice, and died in 1847. 

ALDOBRANDINI, Stlvester, an Ital. jurist, in 
favor with Paul IH., d. 1558. 

ALDOBRANDINI, Cue., his son, became pope, 
and is known as Clement VIII. Others of this name 
are among the cardinals and princes of Rome. 

ALDRED, archbishop of York, by whom William 
the Conqueror was crowned, d. 1069. 

ALDRIC, St., bishop of Le Mans, 9th century. 

ALDRICH, Ht., a tiieolpgical scholar, famous also 
as an architect and com. of music, 1647-1710. 

ALDRICU, RoBT., bishop of Cariide, d. 1555. 

ALDROVANDUS, Ultssios, a celebrated natural- 
ist and collector of oljects, 1522-1605. 

ALDRUDE, countess of Bertinoio, celebrated for her 
heroic defence of Aneona, 1172. 

ALDUIN, a king of the Lombards, 6th cent 

ALDUS. Se Manutius. 

ALE A, Leonard, a religious writer of France, who 
endeavored to counteract tiie atiieistical ^irit of the 

ALEANDRO, Giobauno, card., commonly called 
Aleandeb, a disliuguished cultivator of the belles 
lettres, noted for his fieiy zeal against the Reforma- 
tion, 1480-1542. 

ALEANDRO, GiORALDfo, great nephew of the 
preceding, celebrated as one of the most learned men 
of the time, d. 1629. 

ALEMAN, a cardinal of the 13th century. 

ALEMANNI, Nigh., an antiquaiy, 1583-1626. 

ALElfBERT. See D'Auocbebt. 

ALEN, John Van, a Dutch painter, 1651-1698. 

ALENCON. Along line of counts and dukes of 
this name were celebrated in the middle ages, from 
the 11th to the 15th cent, the greater number of 
whom were of the blood royal of France. 

ALENIO, JnLiuB, a Jesuit missionaiy, d. 1649. 

ALER, Paul^ a French Jesuit, author of the ^ Gra- 
dus ad Pamassum,' 1727. 

ALES, Alex., a theologian, 18tii century. 

ALES, Alex., a Lutheran divine, d. 1565. 

ALESIO, li. P. D', an Italian painter and engra- 
ver, a pupil of Michael Angelo, d. 1600. 

ALESSANDRI, Auessandro, a lawyer and scho- 
lar of Naples, author of some curious essays on dreams 
and apparitions, &c., 15th century. 

ALESSI, Gaiaas, arch, of the Escurial, d. 1572. 

ALEXANDER, a philosopher of the 1st cen., pre- 
ceptor to the emperor Nero. 

ALEXANDER, St., a Christian martyr, 177. 

ALEXANDER of Paris, a Norman poet, 12th c. 

ALEXANDER, an English abbot, excommunica- 
ted and imprisoned by Pandulph, d. 1217. 

ALEXANDER, Aphrodibiensis, a famous Aristo- 
telian philosopher, 3d century. 

ALEXANDER, J., a Scotch engraver, celebrated 
for his copies of Raphael, 18th centuiy. 

ALEXANDER, Noel, a Dominican, writer of a 
church history in 26 volumes, 1639-1724. 

ALEXANDER, Polyhisior, so called from his 
vast erudition, 15tfa centuiy b.c. 

ALEXANDER, Solomon, right rev., a learned 
Talmudist, converted to Christianity, and made bp. 
of Jerusalem, 1799-1845. 

ALEXANDER, Thos., eari of Selkiik, known as 
a political writer and colonist, died 1820. 

ALEXANDER, Wm., an artist, author of a work 
on the costume of China, 1786-1816. 

ALEXANDER, Sir W. Eari of Stirling, a states- 
man and poet of Scotiand, d. 1640. 

ALEXANDEIR, William, a major-general in the 
American atmy ; usuaUy called Lord Stirling, from 
his claim to tiie earidom, d. 1783. 

ALEXANDER, Natii., was elected Gov. of North 
Carolina in 1806. He was a graduate of Princeton Col- 
lege, N. J., and having taken his degree there in 1776, 
studied medicine, and then entered the army. After 
the war he resumed the practice of his profession, 
which he continued until his elevation to the chief 
magistracy. He died in 1808, at the age of 52, 
leaving b^iind him a reputation for firmness and abi- 

ALEXANDER, Jambs, studied law in Scotiand, 
his native country, but came to the province of New 
Yoric in 1715, where his abilities as a tpeaker, his 

[23 J 


■ pTofta^op, and being & 
getat fkTarite of Got. Bomet, he wu nppcteted At- 
torneT-Ganenil in 1721, aod Kflarwardi Secnteiy of 
the prmiDcs, bcaidea which be wu for a. long time 
member both of the l^ipiialon uid of tlw Cosndl- 
Hb de«di oeooncd in 1T5S. 

ALEXAKDEK, Cun, > nUin of N'oithAald, 
Hui^ who gtiduted M T>le in 1777, <^daM u 
k Coiignntiaii>l miniatoT, and published ■ Latin &nd 
Engliih Onmmar. Ha died in 1838. 

ALEXANDER, J., a writer on algebra, 169S. 

ALEXANDER, TaiijjiJtirB, a Or. phji. 6th t 


ALEXAMDER IIL, imnamed the Great, na of 
PluUp, king of Kaoedooia, wa« ban at Pellk lu the 
siitanD(ifB.a B6fl. Id the diort ^wie to whkhwe 
■n DMemwitr ntliicted, it ii inqnnble to do 
more dtaii enrnotnUe ■ few of the lekding ertnt* in 
Qie life of thti eztncodinur man. In hit fcmteenth 
jear, B.c. 943, Alexander wai placed under the Im- 
medialBtaHiaD of Aristotle, and cenlinaed ta receive 
hii inrtmotion* till be wai nnexpeetcdlr called lathe 
IliiiMni Under the mperintendeDce of noh a maaM 
Ab powerfbl mind of Alexander wai rapidlj deraliqied 
and enriched with atorai of praotical and iisefbl 

. knewfedge. HIg pjijnosl edneatiiHi ~ ' — 

Ailij itteaded to j he wu tnioed to 
maDlr eiodiwa ; udin boimouuhi, 
excelled all bit eontemporarie*. When oitesn Tean 
dd, B.C 340, Philip, aettiDg oat m an expeditfon 
■gainit Bjtantimii, delegated to him the gonrmucnt 
during bii sbeenee. Ahxander'g Gnl emaj In anni 
was made two jeare later, ».a S38, at the battle of 
Clueroaea, by wbjob lui father eHabliihed the Mace- 
doiaan nprema^ in Greece. The mm^dcr of Philip 
in B.C SSS, whea abonl to march into Alia at the 
head of the cotulmied foreee of Oneoe, raised Alex- 
ander to tiie thnme at the mgn f^ twen^, and in- 
vi^Ted him in difficnltiee trorn which the promptest 
energf oonld alone have wved him. Several of the 
Gndaa itate*, atill frettiiig nader the e&iKti of the 
batA) of Chnronea, amonied meacom for thnwing 
off the galling joke, but the vigoroot promptitnde ^ 
the foQtliM nreieigTi frruiiiited their plana, and 
•wed tbem into ndanianon. The amembUd Gieeka 
at the ladmna of Coiiolb, with the ain^e BxaepUim 

of the Laeedamooiani, elected him aa ancceasor to 
bit fatber in the command againat Penda, thai vlr^ 
taally ackoowlodging him aa their lovBreign. Hav- 
ing now quelled oppontion in the aanth, he turned 
hia attention to the twrbarians ia the north, B.c 3SS, 
and weat, who bad reoonneed their allegiuice, and 
eatabliahad hia dominion from die northern limita of 
Scjthia to the thoret of die Hadiiadc Alexander 
now devoted himaelf to pieparalioiia lor hia Perriaa 
eipedition; and, ooadiwlfae Helleapootin theapring 
of B.o. 384, gained hia Srat rictorj over t^e Peraian 
aimj on the banka of the Granicni, a snail stream 
which falla into the See cf Marmora. Alter redncing 
the town* on the wealem ooaat of Aaia Minor, he 
marched la Gordinm in Galatia, when he untied 
with hia eword the famoui Gordian knot, and therfr- 
bj eitabliabed lua claim aa the conqneror of Asia. 
Having been joined here by reinforcementa from 
Maoedonia, ha proceeded throngh the centre of Ana 
Minor to Gilicia, where henearljloat hia life hj bail- 
ing when overheated in the wateri of the Cjd- 
mu. Hia. eaoond engagement with the Fenians took 
place on the plain of lanu, on the ahona of the 
Golf cf Sanderoon, B.c 883, Mirl ended In the total 
defeat of Darioa, i^ fled to the eaatem bank of 
tba Ei^ihtatBs, leaving his mother, wife and chil- 
dien in the huda of the oanqueror. The magnanim- 
it; of Alexander was honcfablv displajed in the 
delioaoj and nmaot which he ahowed to hia help- 
leaa priaooeni The battle of Imia decided the fate 
of the Peraian empire ; but before advancing in 
puraoit of Dariiu, Alexander judged it [mdent to 
nuke himaeif uiaiter of Pbcenioia, end etpeoiallf of 
the towns on the ooaat. Tjre, after a aiege of aeven 
monttu, was taken, b.o. 333, and the Inhabitants 
maaiaoBd or aold a* ilavee. ProoBediog next iotD 
Egypt, he reooiTod the ready submiarion of the in- 
habitanta. and founded the city of Alexandria at the 
mouth of the weatcm bianch of the Nils. In the 
qving of the aame ymr, B.o. S31, be act out in queat 
of Darius ; and proceeding thioogh Ph^^nioia, Syria, 
■ length, in October, mot with 


have amonated » 

than a Bullion of men, on the plaiui of Gnagamela, 
a village of Ai^ria, about fifty miles ttnm Arbela. 
Darius, who was imitrievably defeated, fled to Eob«- 
tana (Hamadan) in Media. Alexander, a> the oon- 
qneror of Aaia, now aesomed the pomp and splendor 
of an Eaatem denot j and prooeeding to Babylan, 
Snaa, and Paraepolu, wa* received by ue inhaUtasta 
astbeir imdoobtBd aovereign. In the beginning of 
B.a, 8S0, he marched into Hedir in pursuit of Da- 
rioa, who had there oolleoted a now foreo, and, fol- 
lowing him tbroogh tba deserts of Paithja, had 
neariy reached him, when the tinfottanate Uug was 
murdered by Beaana, aiti^ of Bactria. Tbe mag- 
nauimotis oonqneror caused tho body of his faDen 
enemy to be buried in the tombs of ths Fenian kingt 
St PerKpoUa, and spent ttie remaJoder of tbe year m 
oouaolidntiiig the oonqueata whidi be had already 
made. Bat nninteirapted aucocsa produced ita uaual 
effecta upon the mind ereii of Alexander. Hitherto 
Bol)er and moderate, he now became the alsve of bis 
passiona ; gave himself up to armgance and cnielty ; 
and in the arms of pleasure ahed tbe blood of hia 
bravcet and moat faitbfnl generals. The next two 
yean was apent in redadng under hia away the r»- 
muning countries of Centr^ Ana ; and in tiie ^ning 
of B.C. 837, he CTOeaed the Indus, and entered into 
the coandy of tbe Pmyab, where he met with no 
leaiatance dll be reached the Hydaapea (Jelum.) On 
the eaattn bank of thia river he waa vigorouiljr ot>- 
poaad, bat in nin, by Ponia tbe natiTe king. Still 

[24 ] 

pTMnng fomid, ba croaaeii the AoMonM (Chinati) 
and the HjdiBoteB (Raree^ and wa« prepftring to 
crasB tbe HTpbuis (Gsitb) when tlM Maeedomuu, 
■t lut vara out hf ialdgne, reliued to proceed ; and 
Alexander, after nsine every eSbrt to indooe them, 
wu obliged to lead mem back. RetnnuDg to the 
HjdBxpea, he tbere boiit a fleet and uited down tbe 
river, receiving as he proceeded the Ribminioa <S the 
inbabitsuts on either side. On nachiog the oonSa- 
enoe, he despatched a portion of hia aimy into Car- 
muiia, and continned Us Tojage down the Indni, tbe 
month at which he leached about tbe middle d B.a 
826. He here committed bis Beet to the can of 
Nearchnj, aod commenced hie return b; laud to Per- 
u, reaching Snsa in the beginniog d B.O. 325. la 
the spring of B.o. 831 be arnved at Bab/loa, which 
be intended to ma^ tbe capital of bii empire. Bnt 
hia boundleH ambition was &at jet ntufied. Hs 
oonuaenced preparations fbr the inTancm of Arabia } 
bat, while cheriuung this and other gigantic iwhflmwt 
of oonqnest, was attecked by a farer in May or June 
B.D. 828, and died after an illoea of etcren daji. — 
' Tbe histoiy of Ahuander lorms an important epoob 
in tbe history of matikmd. Unlike other Adatio 
ooaqneron, hu prcgresa was maiked liy samething 
more tban derastatiOD and nun ; at STery (tap of his 
coarse the Greek lango^ and dritiBdioD bixA. root 
and Sotiriabed ; and alW his death, Ore^ kingdom* 
were fonned in all parts of Asia, which continned to 
exist for centuries. By his conquests the knowledge 
of mankind was increased ; tbe sciences of geography, 
natural history, and otbeia, received vast additions ; 

die pivdocts of tbe reinote Ead.' 

ALEXANDER IV., a porthumons sod of Al 
der the Great and Roxaoa, put to deilli at an 
age by Cassaoder. 

ALEXANDER V., the son of Casnnder, ai 

c. 29S. 

ALEXANDER BALAS, kmg of Syria, k 

ing of Syria, a. 


dethroned b.c. 121. 

ALEXANDER, J.unixDB, king of the Jews, firom 
lOe to 7S B.O. 

ALEXANDER, Km of Aiirtobnlns IL, kmg of 
Judna, beheaded at Antioch, B.C 49. 

ALEXANDER, Setebob, emperor of Rome, was 
bom 206 ; moceedad 331 ; isaasdnatad 385. 

ALEXANDER, emperor of the East, been 870 ; 
>aooeeded91l; died 912. 

ALEXANDER L, bishop of Rome, 108-117. 
The leamd of this name pope, 1061-1073 ; the UM, 
11S9-1I8I ; the/nrft, 1354-1261 ; thejt/U, 1409- 
1410; the suti, 1492-1603 j tbe •sinril,166«-166T 
the o^ I689-169L 

ALEXANDER, king of Sootland. The >«, so. 
of Malcolm, 1107-1124; the ssom^ 1314-1349. 

ALEXANDER in., son of the preoeding, bon 
J341; cniwDed,l249j defeated tltt king of N<»way, 
1283; died, 1286. 

ALEXANDER, JaoeuXM, grand dnke of Utboa- 
lua, and afterwards king of FoUnd, bom 1461 
king, ISOl ; died, 1G06. 

ALEXANDER NEVS£Y, grand duke of Rusoi 
in the 13ch centmy ; oelebrsted in the annals cf the 
coaDUyaeaaaiDtandbero; 1218-13S8. 

iia and king of Poland, bom 1777; sncoeeded hi* 
lather, Paul L, 1801. Joined the league of Anitria 
and England against France, 1805. In alliance with 
Kapolecm, undo: tbe articles of ■ secret tna^, 1808- 

IBIO. Jt^ned a new coalitian againit NapoUoi^ 
1812. Banished the Jesnits from tbe Roananam- 
pile, 1820. Died, December, 1826. 

ALEXANDRIMI, Jcuna, a pbysidan, leill amt 

ALEXIAS, a Or. ]diyridBn, 4lli oimtaiy, B.O. 

ALEXIS, a Gmk comedian, 8d oentmr, B.a 

ALEXIS (CoKHEMnB) I., emperor of the East at 
tiM period of the first crusade. Hi* reign is sjgual- 
izad by Ae extension and oonsolidatloo cf hia do- 
miniona, thnngb his Ttctories over the Turks, Scy- 
thians, and Normana. 1048-1118. 

ALEXIS (CoKMBRii) n., xnoeeded as e uqwror , 
1180 ; detfarooed and murdoed, 1188. 

Alexis (Aflocun) IIL, usurped Aa empiis, 
1196; deOiKioed, 1S03; died, 1210. 

ALEXIS (La Jcuke) IV., reigned widi his fhtfaer 
after the depoatiDo of the preceding, until be wai 
himself d^cied and pnt to death, 1304. 

ALEXIS (Doou) v., raigued a few mooHis allBr 
the mnider of the {reosding, when he was dsAimied 
by tbe omsaden, snd pot to death by order of Baa- 

Al.KKTS TBS Fai«e, ao fmpcMcr wba endearond 
to pass for Akxie U. in 1191. 

ALEXIS, Dbaim CoHimTDB, a desoandant of &e 
C<»iimenes, serred in the Prenoh amy, became gor- 
enWT of Fetches and died 1619. 

ALEXIS on. Abco, a Sp. painter, 16B6-1700. 

ALEXIS, WicaMLOvtmim, cnr of Russia; bom, 
1629; snooeedfld, 1645; died, J677. 

ALEXIS, pDvonraOH, ten of Peter Om Qteat, 
disinherited by his father, and died in 1719. 

AI£XIS, WniLUM, a Ntrman monk and poeti 
snpposed to have bem martyred, lUh oentmy. 

ALEXIUS, ComrEirDB. See Axxx». 

ALETN, Chabi^ an English poet, died 1940. 

ALF, AbdiU., a Persian poet, ISth century. 

ALFARABIUS, an An^Han fiulaa., lOdi oentmy. 

ALFARAZDAG, an Arabian poet, 6di oentniy. 

ALFARO, Jnax De, a SpanUi p^MBr, 17tti cent. 

ALFENUS, Vabc*, a Ronuni jnrist, Ist cent. B.0: 

ALFIERI, a Roman anihitnet, lUed 1767. 

ALFIERI, CoDHT ViTTcmo, descended of a family 
both noble and rich, was bom in 1749, at Asti, hi 
Fiedmont. Left an oridum in childbood, ba eariy 
di^>Uyed bis aelf-willed obstinacy of oharacter; and 
bis e&cation liA him nearly a* ignorant as it (bund 
bint. At Iba age of uxteen he became tiie imoeD- 
trolled master of his fortana and his oondnat ; and 


fivtertnl tcusIlu career waaow of mdemma- 
doing tai diM^wtioD. A Iots of honBmuaihip and 
bone* «■< ODS of hii two •tninaeiC puaksa: ^m 
other imolTBd Mm in a lea of pnifligttte amoim, of 
iriiich tba most •caadalOBi had ita acene in Lcndon. 
A loTS-affur, not at all more endhabla, in vhich he 
engaged on retmning to Tnriii in 1772, had ths ef- 
fect ofKwAaoBg for tin fint time hi* poetical nu- 
Cqitibili^ and bia ambition of litemy fame. His 
qpalificatiaiu tar Boccefli ven u anproniliiDg aa pot- 
able. He appean to hare added, dnring bi> traTela, 
Btde m nothing to the vny naall iitock of knowledge 
urith irtiiiih Im kA adiDd ; and be never diowed »aj 
•ptinide for ubaanliuLi, eitlwr of am or of other 

""""'" — ■■ ' "o him. En povt of language, be 

"- ' fcieoL He bad learned no 
et of his natin pcorinoe ii 
bopekealy ei»n{it ; and, while be wu totallj nnprae- 
tind in writing, he qioke but indifibrentiy eren 
FiCDcb, the language of tiie Piedmonteae aolnlity 
■nd eoart. The 7000^ poet, imfiiTed hj tlie thirat 
fat gloiy jet more tiian bj bia nevly-awafanied lova 
of letam. let himmlf detarmiDedly to vanqntih all 
■'aa himself. He leuned 
If the daiiical writers at 

the Mga at Tnrfn, io 1776, lie took . 
at Floreooe, for Om atnd; of flia Italian 
noim when it is pm^ apokeo. — Id 1783, he pab- 
Ii£ed hia first series of tragedies, the FiUppo, Poli- 
nice, AntigotiB, and Virginia. A saoond series of ^i 
bagsdiei, appearing afterwards, eonlaiited, among 
others, tbe I^olemie and the Roamnmda. In die 
third aod last scries, which embraced nine, were the 
two Brntaaca, the Blaria Stouda, tbe Coni^iirwrr of 
tbe Paoi, and the Saul, which oontots with hla 
Fdippa the lunor of bmng hia best work. In the 
meantime, bowercr, hia atadie* sdflteed muT intBP- 
irntkoa; and be tTanilad Draeh, ohie^ Uiat he 

3ht ba near a Udj to wbsBi be had beoonie »U 
«d in Flonsuw. This was As Comitass Stolbeif;, 
who daiired Hie titb of CnuKsaa of Albanj IVom b«- 
faig On «ib OU-iued and neglected) of the Cbenlisr 
Chariea Edward Stout AftM dM deadi of dii* nn- 
fortoule prince, m 1786, bis widow and Alfleri lived 
togstber, and were imdeiitood to hsm been private^ 

manied. Thej woe in Paris dnring the 

of 17BS, and, eac^ng with dU&al^, reside 
fcadi tt Flonaee. AUarfa Waruj emplcTinenta 
wen nowprMeeatad with ianraasing udor; in hla 
totV-B^Oi Tear b* begra to lenn Greek, tar dw 
paiposaaf Na^fiDg ths Attio drama; and he wrote 
a laigs ma^M> «f fieoes, embcaolng Mdtes in Tarse, 
B strata kind «C poHtial eomediea, a^ hia Memoirs 
of hi* own Life. He died in 1808, and was buried 

tbe Gunona Florentine church of Sent* Croc& 
I character was exceedingly peculiar, and DOtni&- 
standing some fine and elevated pointa, cannot bnt 
^ nnsmiable. Ita moat prominent fea- 
indcmiCable caergy of will, which was 
ahown by the whole of his literary career, a ceaeeleaa 
craring for celebrity, and a bonndlesa aelf-esteem, 
bich eihibited itself in a lewrvcd baughdneas of 
lanner, and made h'Tn really a bigoted ariiCocrat at 
heart, while prafetong and sappoaing himwlf a vio- 
loit demcKrat Not iMS aingolar nie hia trogediea. 
the works on which Ms Stenuy fame depends. Is 
thedr atmuture, they cany to the faitheat ponaible ex- 
treme the nnit7 and nmplici^ of tbe French drama 
of the seventeenth centmy. Their representation of 
monotonous and deficient in iadJTidnality, 
rtrj powarfol, aa in the portrait of 
[I. ; and, in respect of aentimeat, their strength 
the gloomy and deeply traglo. The diction 
has, perhaps, more of vigor &an any other works in 
' a same laiu^aage, thongh this excellence is gained 
the coat of adopting a concisenecs which is always 
ragged, and sometimea obscure ; and tbe versificadon 
ia aa munelodioni aa any oombinatioD of Italian 
worda oonid be made. Altogether these am lemaA- 
able worits, which cannot soon be forgotten, but 
literary merit will alwaya be diftrently esti- 
mated by diftrent critica. rw. S.J 
ALFONSO I., anmamed the 'Catholic,' b. 698; 
elected king of Ovledo and Astuiias, T39 ; died, 707. 
ALFONSO n., called the ' Chaste,' auooeeded a« 
Ung of Aatnriaa, 791; abdicated, 336; died, S4S. 

ALFONSO m., snmamed the 'GrBat,'boni, 8*8; 

king of Aatiuiaa, BM ; added the kingdom of Leon 

to hie dominions, and was dethroned by bia son, 910. 

ALFONSO IV., snmamed the 'Monk,' king of 

Leon and Astnrias, 921 ; abdicated, 930 ; died in a 

ansstery, 933. 

ALFONSO v., b. 994 ; king of Leon, 999 ; pre- 
pared tbe way by hia conquests and policy for the 
union of Castile ; killed at the tiege of ^isen, 1028. 
ALFONSO VI. of Leon and L of Castile, aaoceeded 
ia father 10S6, and added tbt latter kingdom to his 
ominions 1072, died 1109. 

ALFONSO VII., the title asanmed by ALFOirao I. 
f Airagon, from hia marriage with the danghter of 
the ptea. ding, and runly contended for daring a pe- 
riod of seven years . 
ALFONSO Vm. (or the VIL, omitting tbe last 
imed,) of Leon and U. of Castile, b. 1106, sue- 
ceeded lise, made himself chieflord of all Cbriatian 
Spain, and aasomed tbe title at emperor 1 186, died 

ALFONSO IX., called the 'Noble,' b. IISS, soc- 
Mided aa king of Leon 1168, died 1230. 

ALFONSO X., called the 'Learned,' b. 1Z2I, k. 
ofLeon and Castile 12S2, dethrmedby Mason 1282, 
died 1284. 

ALFONSO XI., snceeeded aa kit^ of Leon and 
Castile M tbe year of bis birth 1312, defeated die 
Moon ISIO, died while beneging Gibraltar, 1360. 
ALFONSO L, snmamed the 'Battler,' king ofAr- 
ragoo and Navarre 1104, contended for the sovereign- 
ty of Castile as Alfosho VII. nnlil the death of his 
wife, and the anooeauoD of her ion to that kingdom ; 
died 1134, after gaining thirty-five anecessive victo- 
ries over die Hoors, led by the Almoiavideik Alpb 
n. reigned in Anagon 1163-1196. Alph IH. 1286- 
12»1. Am IV. 1S27-13S6. 

ALFONSO V. of ArragOD and L of Niples, bon: 
188S, aocoeeded his father as kkg oTArr^on, Na- 
ples, and »cUy, 1416 ; died 1468. AlfhIL, of Na- 
ples, reigned 1494-1496, 




ALFONSO, DTnE, the ArK of this name, duke of 
Femra. 1G06-1584; the «bmj, 156»-16B7; tba 
Oird, 1629-1629; the finrti, 1668-1662. 

ALFORD, JoHs, fbnDder of the AUbrd fiotemor- 
■bip in Hamrd Collage. Died Sept. 29, 1T61. He 
left bahind him a luge mm to be devoted to charita- 
ble parpoees. 

ALFORD, Hico., a Latin hiA, llSST-ie£2. 

ALFRAQAM, an Antrian utrtmotaeT, Mh cent 

ALFRAGO, Add., an Anblio acbolar oT Ital^, 
atitfaor of a history of Arahiui pbjnciaiu and plule- 
aopfaem, &c^ died 1620. 

ALFRED, an Eugliih biiltop and hiMorioal mitar 
of tbe 10th eentory. 

ALFRED, tiie ' PhiloiophaT,' a writer gnatlj «•- 
teemed at Rome in the 13th cHntiii7, 

ALFRED, a king of Northmnberland, 7th oent 

ALFRED, the baitard, brother and sueoenor of 
the preceding, noted for li» lore of letten. 

ALFRED, ■ Saion prinoe, brother d Edwaid the 
ConTeuia', who met with a cinel deadi in an attempt 
to gain the crovm, earlj' in the 11th cent. 

ALFRED, AELFRED, or ALURED, a. oelehrated 
Saxon monaich, i> comrooolj called The Great, and 
hai better merited Chat title, by eminent aervioea to 
the world, than perhaps an; other of the eelebratad 
monarchs who have bome it He ia one of the nten 
whoAe life formB an era, and thne, like LTonrgna and 
Charlemagne, Ma name is aeiodated not onV with 
the legiilBtire improvementi actaallj aooomidiilied 
by him, hnt with mimy others which had an eariier 
origin, and came to maturity near the time of hii 
reign. From the propenin^ to attribute to him 
BTory earlj and beneficent feature in the En^sh 
conKitution, it i> lome^niea difficnlt to dlaooverhis 
actnel achievemeata ; while aonaliiitg and hiatoriant, 
aniloos to provide an ample acconnt of one ao fa- 
rnooA, have endeavored to give perticnlare of ao 
many events in hia Ufa which conld not be aaoer- 
tained, that it ii diScolt to separate the truth from 
the falsehood, and tell what ii really known of him. 
It seems well ascertuned that he was bom in the 
middle of the 9th oealnry ; the year is sUted ai 849. 
Be waa the yomigeat son of Ethelwolf, king of the 
West Sbtoiu. Qivina promise of great capadly. Ma 
father gave him in hii eariy yoath oppoitomtiea of 
instmctiOD by travelling twioe to Rome, and living 
for some rirae in France ; and there is no donbt that 
the knowledge Uins acquired by him of a higher civ- 
ilization, prepared him for the exerdse of that be- 
nelicont infioence of bii people which enabled him to 
accomplish so many social impiovementa among 
them. While bis elder brother, Ethelied, waa king, 
they were both called on by the king of Hercia bi 
asritt him and his people against the Danish hotdei 
ovemmniog the eounby, and oppressiiig the Saxon 
people. They oonducted a long oontett with varied 
success; but thou^ conduct aod leadership seem to 
have been on the side of the Saxon princea, the Danes 
had numbers and ferocity. At a battle near Read- 
ing, Ethelrad leoeived a mortal wound, in the year 
671, and when he died Alfred suoceeded him. He 
derived bat gioomy protpeets from the state of the 
country, deeming the trimuph of the Dane* innita' 
hie, hut with an energy and connge, whioh in spite 
of painTal disorders never left him, be rcaolred to de- 
fend, step by step, the territt^es committed to his 
>±uf{0. A eoofosod hittoiy follows, in the course oF 
which it is said that nine gnat battles wen fou^t 
in one year. The Danes, reodring over t>esh re- 
emits from the continent, pressed Um by degrees, 
tmtal he ceased to oommaQd ao army, or eveo a 
guard, and, waadering alone, fomid saf^ in a pea- 

noVsbnt at Athelney, in SomersetihitB. The old 
chroniclraa tsD a story as cfaaracteiistia, that it has 
•acored general belief, about his beiog set by the 
paasanf a wife to wattdi the baking of tome cakes, 
and when — his nbd far away davishig prqjeots fw 

relieving his coontiy irom the invaders — he allowed 
the oakes to bum, the honest woman scolding him 
sarcastioally as one ready enough to attend to Ae 
function of eating them, though he conld not be at 
pains enough to watch them. JJ\et he had been a 
few months in this ntnat, he fonad means to gadier 
some of his most trusty followers, and to make at 
last a small army, which harassed the conqueren, 
and gradually increased. There is a well-known le- 
gend of his preparing at last for a pitched battle with 
iite leader i^ the Korthmen, Guthnm or Qorm, and 
ascertaining beforehand the state and oomber of the 
forces, by penetrating the camp in the disguise of a 
harper. The battle which fcllawcd crowned a series 
of Buceesses, and in the year 898 nstorcd him Co his 
throne. It waa hia policy not to attempt the ertir- 
patioa of the marauders, bnt to christiauiie and civi- 
liie them, mixing them np with tiie other inhabi- 
tants of the comjBy. The Danish chisb, &om feDow- 
kings, sunk to tribnlarics, and in the j«ai 8M, 
Allied might be smd to be king of Engiand. He 
bod not been long at rest, ere the Danes reinforced 
from the continent, and beaded by a powerful leader, 
Hastings, drove him into a new and ardaons oonflict, 
which terminated in his favor in the year SS7. In 
the meantime he boilt vessels, and trained men so 
effootively in maritime warfare. Chat he has been 
deemed die fbnoder of the British navy. He oonSrm- 

divided Ae coontty into grades of mnoidpalitiei, 
making die several communities of oidzeni checks on 
each <^ier's oondnct, l^ being mponsihie for the of- 
ttoees committed within cheii renecCive oommmd- 
ties. Thence he boa been called the inveotur o!&a 
arrangement of die ooontry into shires, hundreds, 
and lithings, thongfa he prabably only legolaled and 
eonfirmad what had been previously in eoatence. 
Ha has been called the author of trial by jury, bnt 
in ovr present understanding of the system, it waa 
not in pradJo* untQ long after his dsy. He waa ■ 
great soholar and anther, and translated Boediins on 
Hie Consolations of Philceopfay, widi other works, 
mto Saxon. Ho died either in B99 or 900. The 
mamfdr of M" , which bears the name oi his eontem- 
pnaiy Asser, was long deemed a genninelife, bolit* 
BstfacDiiclty has of late been doubted. [JAB.] 

ALQABDI, Aux., an Italian sonlp^ 17di et. 




ALQABOm, Fbamcw, ■ V^uedm, BqnJly ikfllod 
b the •BieiioM, teUen, wd luti, 1T1»-17M. 

ALHAZAK, ui AntriM utronomsr, died 103S. 

ALI, Bn-ABaAa, aataxaoalj uHed AbbAi Eu.T, 
ft odebimted pbjscian, b. in Peni>, d. 9S2. 

ALI, » near nUtion and confidential vizier of Ma- 
booMit, cqoaUj eloqaaot u an apoatle, and valiant 
ai a wsmoi of the nev faith. Succeeded to the 
j^ltph.ta S55, mnidered bj a faction 861. 

ATJ, ID AlmonTide snJtan of Africa and Spain, 
raeoMdadllOT, di«dIU3. 

ALI, mitaa of Africa, 1331-1361. 

*I.T, king of Gnnada, 1466-1488. 

*T.I ^ of Onde, the adopted Km and enoceuor of 
the late Nabob, Aa(TF-ni>-Dowi.AH, was bom of ■ 
poor •errant 1781. HarinR broken hith irlth the 
Ei^iih he wu depoieil, and anb 
for the monler of the EiugUsh n 

ALI, Bm, a natire of Poland, fint dragonuui of 
Mahomet IV., oeL foe bU ■kill in lang., d. 1S76. 

ALI, Bet arBao, chief of the Hamelnkea diadn- 
gniihed for his mrpriiing raloi aod genini, bom 
172B, kiDed 1778. 

AT.r, Ibh Bdwath, foon. of a Pan. ijautj, 10th c. 

*I.l , IBM Himmud, fonndei of a djnaitjr in Cor- 
doT> and all Hi^iani. Spain, lOUi aentnrjt. 

tioQt had been chieftaiua of Tepelon^. AlTa father 
had been Miipped of the greater port of bii pouu- 
■iani b; a eoDfedencj ^ the neighboring ohiefi ; 
and when flie old man died of a bnA«n beajt. 
AU vaa a bo? irf abont fonrtOKn jean. Bnt Ali'a 
Bother, Khamko, nrTiTed, and vu a woman of re- 
...A.M. tongj. She rooeesBfanf defended Tepe- 
Imk, the la>t itBUUBt of her aou'i heritage, agaiiiM 
hi* fatim'a foes ; and to her ezamj^ and inSoeoop, 
mnehboU) of the vigor and of the faroiJ^ which clur- 
actoued AH in after Tears, may be attribnted. A< the 
lad gnw np, the mother trained him to make ^ory 
and rerei^ the >ole olaecta of hia euateaoe. He 
collectod a iroall band of armed followeraj and nade 
repealed fiasTa into tile land* of hii hoMile nei^- 
bmi. SometiQwi he aon^t advantoiM and boo^ 
akoe, M a common fieabootn', «c Klephtii, aocord- 
bg to the modem Qreek title. Alfa earij yoDth 

wai paaaed la thii sdventiiraina manner; anj 
many of the viciantadei that he enconntered are fu 
more romantic than any noreliat ever invented. Bj 
the time that be wai twenty-four, he hod recovered 
the ereater part of the hereditary territories of hia 
famUy ; hia wealth and bii retainers were bcreaaiDS 
rapidly, and hii fame oa a militon chief was spread 
tiirougfaoat Albania, and the nei^boring provincea. 
He now began to inbigne for pr^modon and izifln- 
enoe at the anltan's conrt; and lavished his treasurer 
for that porpoae in bribea among tlie leading mem- 
ben of the divan at ConitantiQOple. Partly by tbett 
arte, and partly on the strength of the more credita- 
ble cluma which he acqnired by doing good service 
at the haadof abody of Albanians m tiie war of 1787, 
againtt Anatria and Uosu, Ali obtained official rank 
and favor &om the mltan. HewasmadepochaofTri- 
eala, in Theiialy, and aoon held other appoint- 
menta ; bnt hii gieat object waa to obtain the pacho- 
lic of Jannina, in sontfaeni Albania, and by audo- 
laom onft aod bribeiy, he succeeded m this in 1T88. 
JaoBina thmoeforth wbi tlie capital of hia domin- 
iooi. Ali [nyred olmoat invariably an ovamiiitch 
fbr die other pachaawho entered into rivalry with 
bifn . He Himelimes pnt them down by open force, 
bnt he more frequently rid himself of such advei^ 
BNriee by secret asaasaiiiotion, or by sowing ealnmnies 
against them at the enltan's divan. The anpjKvuion 
cf the little local chiefs, and die subjugation of the 
independent towns and tribes io Albania, was a 
(ask of mon diffionlty. In particular, the tribe of 
the Snliotes resiilsd him with tho nobleat oourage; 
and called into activity against them that Eeadiah 
TindiotiveDei* which waa a leading featore in hit 
afaaraotar. Hoor yeara paaied awsy before it was 
gratified; and Ah mstained from the Suliota more 
tbau ena htnuiliadng defeat By degrees this heroio 
raoe waa overpowernd, and in 1803, the garrison of 
tbeir last atmnshoid was massaored, ailer a war m 
which AU SDlliad lunuelf by the meanest perfidy, as 
well as by the moit bloodthiir^ barbarity. — Ah eji- 
lirpatoi die robber-chiefs who (as he himself had 
done in his youth) infested the mountain passei of 
Albaikia. He onished the looal indqiendeww of the 
ohisft, and Blade his authority practloally as well as 
nominally npnme over tbeir heroditai; jorisdiotion. 
His doniiiiioo* were made as orderly, and as aecnie 
for the merchant and the traveller, as tlioae of anj 
Ennqtean potentate. Ue eDriohed Jannina and 
his ether oitiea with atately buildings, and seonred 
them with fbrtiGoationa. Ho encouraged and pro- 
Csctod foreign mnrchanta, He ilemly enforced a 
complete equality of the membcn of all religious 
creeds. Switl to diaoorer, and merciless to poniah 
all dimes save hia own, he gave Albania a degree of 
tronqnilhty and proq>erity, inch as the oountry had 
never enjoyed since the ^ys of its ancient Epirote 
princes. — Ali Pacha watched with eager interest the 
wan chat raged through European Christendom, 
al^r the breaking out of the French revolution. Uis 
great object was to make himself master of an ample 
and compact dominion, which was to inclode Alba- 
nia, the Ionian iales, Mooedooia, Theisaly, and the 
whole of Greeoe. — Ue obtained poneuiou of the city 
of Pieveia, and otlier towna on the mainland, but he 
could not gain the Ionian islands, though he entered 
into a long series of intrigues, alHaacei, and baatili- 
tiea with the French and their eaemiea, in inecesuon. 
But tlumgh nnable to laaliie the magriiiiceDt scheme 
which he bad formed, Ali was for many yeora a 
prince of high power and renown, whose favor wajt 
conrted by the statesmen of European as well as of 
Analio ooorts. Had the lata sultan Mohmud been 




as imbecile as were his immediate predeoesson, AH 
Pacha wonld, in all human probability, have dosed 
his caxeer in prosperity and peace. But sultan 
Mahmud was resolute to reform the anarchy of his 
kmgdom ; and his proud spirit chafed at the idea of 
permitting his authority to be bearded by a Tasesl 
like Ali, whose insubordination was so imperious, 
and so notorious throughout the world. A pretext 
was eoon found for assailing him, and the sultan pro- 
claimed Ali a rebel, and all futhful Mahometans 
were ordered to destroy him. The war between the 
pachas who marched at the sultan's bidding, and the 
old pacha of Jannina, commenced in 1820. At first 
Ali had the advantage ; but sultan Mahmud inspired 
his lieutenants with some of his own spirit Many 
of All's strongholds were wrested trom him— the 
greater part <k his troops deserted him — ^his sons 
made terms with the enemy, or were slain ; and be- 
fore the end of 1820, Ali was doeely besieged in 
Jannina, It was in vain that he bribed the sultan's 
ministers: Mahmud declared that any person who 
spoke in behalf of Ali should be put to death. Other 
sums of money were sent from Jannina to Greece, 
with the view of raising an insurrection and drawing 
away the berieging army to suppress it. The Greek 
war of independence was thus fomented, and some 
of the Greek chiefs endeavored to assist Ali in Alba^ 
nia, but the Turkish troops steadily pressed the siege 
of Jannina. At last AU treated for a surrender : 
and, by a piece of retributive justice, he who had 
destroyed so many by first granting, and then viola- 
ting treaties of capitulation, now became the victim 
of a similar firaud. Khurshid Pacha, who commanded 
the besiegers, by giving a solemn pledge that the 
sultan's pardon for Ali had been granted, induced 
Ali to sunender, and then had him pot to death, 
though not till after the old man had defended him- 
selt desperately, and shot three of the soldiers who 
were sent to sUy him. The gray head was cut off| 
and sent to Constantinople, where sultan Bfahmud 
received it with his own hands, and exhibited it in 
grim triumph to the members of his divan. — Ali 
Pacha was killed on 22d Febmaiy, 1822. [E.S.G.] 

ALIABfET, J., a French engraver, died 1788. 

ALIBAITD, Louis, a republican, b. 1810, at- 
tempted the life of Louis Philippe, and executed at 
Paris 1886. 

ALIMPIUS, a Russian painter, 12ih oentuiy. 

ALISON, R., an Eng. composer, 16th oentniy. 

ALISON, Rkv. Archibald, a minister of the Scot- 
tish Episcopal Church, celebrated for his philosophi- 
cal essay on Taste, 1757-1828. 

ALIX, OF Chaicpaome, queen of Louis VIL of 
France, married 1160, died 1206. 

ALIX, Pbibb, a French divine, 17th oentniy. 

ALKMAAR, H., a German poet, 16th oentuiy. 

ALKMADE, C, an antiqnaiy, 1654-1787. 

ALLAINVAL, L. 0. D'., a dramatist, d. 1758. 

ALLAN, D., a Scotch painter, 1744-1796. 

ALLAN, Gbo., son of tiie preceding, d. 1828. 

ALLAN, Geo., an English antiquaiy, d. 1800. 

ALLAN, Sib Williau, a disting. mst painter, h. 
m Edinburgh, 1782 ; sue. Sur David Wilkie as Presi- 
dent of the Royal Soot Acad. 1841 ; d. 1860. 

ALLARD, Gut, author of works connected with 
the history of Dauphiny, died 1716. 

ALLARD, J. F., a French bibliopole, a great col- 
lector of literary curiosities, 1796-1881. 

ALLARD, Jban Fbanooibb, a French officer, ad- 
viser of Runjeet-Singh, king of Lahore, b. 1786, 
quitted France 1816, died 1889. 

ALLARD, M. A. L., a deputy to the French 
sembly. bom 1750, executed 1794. 

ALLARDICE, Barclay Robert, better known as 
Captain Barclay, a Scotch gentieman, famous as 
a pedestrian and agriculturist He performed the 
wonderful feat of walking 1,000 miles in 1,000 suc- 
cessive hours, without prerrious training. He visited 
the United States and published a wortc entitled an 
'Agricultural Tour.' Died 1864, age 74. 

ALLARTE, Marie Gat, a French novelist and 
translator, 175a-182L 

ALLARUS, Leo, a Greek physician, died 1669. 

ALLEGRAIN, £t., a French painter, died 1786. 

ALLEGRAIN, C. G., a Fiendi sculptor, d. 1795. 

ALLEGRL See Cobbbqoio. 

ALLEGRI, Alex., an Italian poet, 16th oentniy. 

ALLEGRI, Gbbo., an Italian composer, author 
of the < Misenn,' 1690-1640. 

ALLEGRINI, Fr., an Italian painter, died 1786. 

ALLEIN, Joseph, autiior of the 'Alarm to Un- 
converted Sinners,' 162^-1688. 

ALLEN, EmAN, an officer of some distinction, 
and great eccentricity, in the American army during 
the Revohitioii. He was a native of Roxbury, Conn. 
His eariy education was much neglected, which may 
account for and partiy excuse some of his specula- 
tive errors on religious subjects. As eariy as 1770 
he was outiawed in Vermont, to which he had emi- 
grated, for siding with the * Green Mountain Boys,* 
in opposition to the government of New York. The 
first exploit which brought him favorably to notice, 
was the capture, by surprise, of Tioonderoga, May 
10, 1776, which made the Americans complete 
masters of Lake Champlain. Though tiie scheme 
did not originate with him, but with Capts. Mott and 
Phelps of Hartford, it owed its success to his 
courage, coolness, and presence of mind. At the 
head of 88 men he crossed the lake opposite Tioon- 
deroga on the evening of the 9th, expecting to be 
followed by a much laiger force before daylight ; but 
the rest of the party not arriving, he determined to 
seize the fort with his handful of followers. He in- 
formed his men of his desperate resolution, and 
called upon those who were willing to accompany 
him. Without leaving them time to reflect, he 
moved towards the gate, put the sentry to flight, and 
following him through tiie covered way, entered tiie 
parade ground, and arranged his men in lines oppo- 
site the barracks in which the British troops were 
sleeping. Capt de la Place, the commander of the 
post, roused from his slumbers by the cheers of the 
assailants, found at the same instant Allen standing 
over him with a drawn sword, demanding the sur- 
j:ender of the place. * By what authority do you 
demand it? he inquired. *In the name of the 
Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress,' was 
the characteristic reply. There was no alternative 
but death, andTiconderoga, its garrison, ammunition 
and stores fell into the hands of the Americans. 
This success was followed bv* others ; the ci^iture of 
a sloop-of war, and St John's fort, but the latter 
was soon retaken. In this daring enterprise, Arnold 
acted as the assistant of Alien. In the autumn of 
the same year, he was twice sent into Canada to ex- 
cite rebellion against the English government ; and 
in the last of these expeditions, having formed a 
plan to reduce Montreal, in concert with Col. Brown, 
he crossed the St Lawrence at the head of 110 men, 
but before Brown could join him, was compelled, af- 
ter a desperate resistance, to surrender to a superior 
force. During his captivity he endured many hard- 
ships, and especially on his passage to England, 
when, with thirty-four others, he was confined in a 
room a littie more than twenty feet square. After 
being detained a month in the neighb<nhood of Fal- 




noodi, he n« sent bkck to Amerioa ; tai on the 
pktnm &om HsliTai to New Yo^ had in opportii~ 
ni^ of evLDcinj; hia gntitade to tbo captain, who 
treated him kinrSy, b; TdTuiing to join in a pnjeot 
to hill him and obtain poaMaricm of tbo vesaeL He 
waa exchanged in 1TT8 Tor CoL Campbell, and wm 
kindly received at headnniaiten by Wuhington. 
On big Tetnra to VermoDt, he waa made oommander 
oT the State milida. He died in 1789, baring htm- 
otabty ledsted many effbris to bribe him into disloy- 
alty to hii ootmtry. He waa tbs anthoi of WTenl 
umD worka, the bait known of which ii an sntohi- 
ograpbical aketch. Hia a«Miilt on &e Chiiatian re~ 
ligioa in a book entitled 'Alfea'a Thei^k^y, or H^ 
Oiadai of fieaaon,' haa, fortunately for lua repnta- 
non, iiink uito obacnrity. He adopted the noljon of 
tranimigntion, — whether in jeat or eaneat h ia 
difficult to understand. That hia infidelity was ae- 
ninied from oatentatiaa, lather than oonvletioa, i« 
evident from hia memorable leply to hia dying 
dangfatCTt who aakod him which ue ihonld believe, 
what he or what ber iDotbar, who wa* a aimeie be- 
licTBT in Chtiatiani^, had tangbt her. After an 
iaterral of de«p Bgitation, be aiid, 'BeHera what 
jimr mother bu tan^t yoo.' 

AIJiEK, HsntT, a reUgiooa entinuiai^ bom in 
Newport, R. L, IT48, who ptcyagated in Nora Soo- 
tia, abont the year 1778, certain wild qieimlMloaa, 
aimilar m tbcaB oT tlie andent heretioa, conoermng 
the emanation of the scvl from God, in which ho 
daiied that human nature wa* ootporeal before the 
&11, that the body will riaa from the giave, and tiiat 
then ia any obligation to obaeate the onUnanoea ot 
OwGoapeL He died 1784. 

ALLEN, bu, broHier of Ethan Allen, and ihanr 
in nunj of hi* eipkiita, waa bom at Cornwall, Coon^ 
17S9. He aided in forming the ooottitution of V*t^ 
nuDt, (rf'iriilch State he became anrrByor-general and 
tiMaiitfir. In 1780-81 be wu arat u oommiaaoner 
ts Ooogieaa. Be drew np the memorial in 178B for 
Oe MtiHiihmmif of Burlington CoDt^e. While 
majmvgeaetal cf militia, ha entered into a prirate 

rilatioa to ntpplr the State with aima, and for 
pnipoee aold hiB landi in Vermont and proceeded 
to Fraooe, and pnicbaaed M caonoa and 20,000 mn>- 
keta, in hopee of obtaining fee tfaem doable what he 
paid; but on hi* way Irom Oatend, being made pria- 
DDCT by the F.ngliA^ waa aoooaed of a da^gn to 
anp^T the Iriah lebelf with anna. Eight years 
elapMd before a deoiaion of the oourta was obtained 
in Ilia faror. iSim a abort captivity in France, he 
T«tnnwd to Amoica in 1801. The ranwoder of hia 
lift was ipeat in quiet, nineipaqy at Colobeater, Vei^ 
aDm. Ha waa the aoUior of the Notnral and Polit- 

ical Hiatory of Varmont Hia imtb occoirad at 
Philadel(diia in 1814. 

ALLEN, Jaioa, an eccentric poet of Boaton, bora 
1789, died 1806. 

ALLEK, jEBKiaAB, treasurer of the provinoe of 
Haau^boaetta in 171G ; ton of James Allen, a grad' 
nate of New CoUcf^ Oiibtd, who aettled in New 
England and became paitor of a church in Boaton. 

ALLEN, J<HIH, aecretaiy <£ the colony of Cou- 
nectiont in 1664. 

ALLBIN, Jomt, author of aersial obacnie notkt Id 
deCance of New England thedogy; Ixnn in En^aad 
1599, amignted to America with Ow Furitanai and 
died at Dedhmn, leri. 

ALLEN, JoK>, etiancellor of Ireland, murdered bj 
the Earl of Kiidare, 1584. 

ALLEN, Jobs, H. D., a diatinanithed h 
mar rf Holland 
frieod at U ~ ' 

and political w 

■ frequenter of Holland Home, 
1, BomOly, Homer, and Sidney 
Smith ; an eariy contributor to tte Edinburgh S»- 
riew; 1771-1848. 

ALLEN, UaTTHEW, oim of tin flnt aattlere of 
ConneotiaDt, to iriiich be omignrted with Hooker in 

ALLEN, MoSD, a Pieabytvlan ndi^ater, bom in 
Nortliampton, Maauchtuetta, in IT4B. Ha was 
nhqilain to die Oeorgia brigade irtien SaTannah 
was taken by the Bribah in 1778, and being cap- 
land and draiied liboty on parole, waa droned in 
atlsmptjug to anape Iran a priaon-ihip, Eebmary 8, 
1779. He waa noted fm hb patriotio eihortatiotu 
to the troopa, and fbr the btarary with whidi he «X' 
pond hU pemn dniii^ aotkm. 

ALLEN, Pun^ a pMtioal writer and k^alator ot 
Bboda idaiid, wbo waa the Mtbor of various ccoM- 
boUoa* to tbe Prat Folio aikd Unitad Stales Qatette. 
Bom 1775, died 1836. 

AUiEN, SAMim, a London mochaut, who pur- 
ohaaed in 1691 a large portion of New Hampahire, 
extending aix^ miles from the eea, and iaoluding 
Portsmouth and Dover. His claim being realated 
itj the Btttlen on the Eronnd of an ln£an title, 
which too late proved a Kirgny, a tadions lildgatiou 
ensued, whleh was carried on aftar his death by hia 
KO, and finally detennined in favoi of tiie settlers. 
The AUen fianuly became extinct balbre the fraud 
was diacovered. 

ALLEN, Solomon Hmuif , an American scholar 
of promise, and profeeaor in Hiddlebury College, 
Vermont, acotdentaliy killed by fklling from a toof 
in 1817, aged 28 yeara. 

ALLEN, Sou Tba AUen Gunily waa pioliSo in 
pnuhersud patriotlam. SiJoanon, coomienoed life 
aaaaotdio'andendeditaaamisaioiiaiT. Attbetime 
of Andre's eaptni« he was acting aa Ueut. and ai^, 
imdar CoL Jameaon, by whose command he acoom- 
paniod the Dufoitnnate prijoaer with a guard of nine 
men for the pntpoae of delivering him to General 
Arnold, but on tbe road received a coonter order, to 
tbe effiict that be waa to deliver Andre to Captain 
Hooglin at Lower Salem, send back 8 men, and pro- 
oeed with tbe remaining one to West Point. His 
prompt oomplianoe with the otder, la oppoaitioa to 
the wishes both of the escort and of Andre, deprived 
thelatter orhislait bopeofeacape. Allen delimred 
the letter? to Amold, wbo immediately fled, and on 
the arrival of General Waahington, the treasim b^g 
discovered, Andre waa broagfat to bead-qnartera. 
Ueotauant Allen dined tbat day with WaahJugton 
and Knoi, and to Um we aie indebted for the bimo- 
dote Bo characteriatlo of lim oommander-ln-chieC — 
Knox remarked, it woe " a fortunate dlanavery." " I 
can it," sud Waahington," a remaiiabli ProvidoDc&' 

[ 30] 


in rendered u good ■ervicn 
■i Ma brother Thomu, but in > miliUry oapuity. 
At ths age of fiftjr be began to ftudf for the minii- 
ti7, and for nearl; twenty yttit acted M a mUoon- 
UT in the w«tem part c^ the State of New York. 
Alter a moit UboHoni and KlT-denTing career, be 
died in New York, in 1831, aged 70 jean. 

ALLEN, Tnoiua, a PresfajteriBn minuter, bnitlier 
of the precediog, who was, Ukewiae, dutiagniihed 
during the Rerolntion aa a Tohmtoer chaplun, in 
whioh cBpoci^ he acted with the army at White 
Phuns m 1778, and at Ticondeniga in 1777. Ha 
waa preient at the action at Boinin^n in company 
with a volonteer regiment from Pittsfield, and wa> 
among the fnremoat to enter a bieaetwoiL During 
Sliaya rebeliioD, be wai of emiaent nrvioe to the 
goremment of ManachnHtta. He Tinted Enf^and 
in 1799, where lie formed the acqnainlsDCe of New- 
ton, Hawlis, and KowUnd HilL He died Fehmaij 
11, 1810, io hii 68th year. 

ATI .K M, THcmu, a native of Norwich, in Eng- 
land, and gndnale of the Univeiaity of Cambridge, 
who refiuing to read the bock of SeU aporta, was 
nleoced by fiiihop Wren, ind emigrated to New Eng- 
laadinl638. Me wae miiuiter of Charlestown, Han., 
and died in 1673. He waa ibe anther of aereral 
woda chaiucteriitic of the period, which are 
■erred in the New Elcgland library. 

ALLEN, Ta, o mathematiciwi, lM3-t6B2. 

ALLEN, T., antaqnarian, 1808-183S. 

ALLEN, Wh. Hekbt, a United Stalea naval offi- 
cer, who waa killed in an action between the Argoa 
and the Pelican in the British Cbannel, daring the 
war of 1812. Boot ITSi, died 181S. 

ALLERTON, Isuc, uiived in America ii 
MayHower, aa one of die Gnt getters of Flymontii. 
He was an active and enterprinng trader. Fcunt 
AlWttoi near Boston is anppceed to be named af^~~ 

ALLESTKEE, R., a oelebrmted divine, 17th cem 

ALET, J. C, a Fimch engnva, ITth centoiy. 

ALLEY, W., an Eogliah reformer, died 16T0. 

ALLEY, Rev. Jebohk, LL.D., a theological and 
political writer, 177B-18SS. 

ALT.EYN, EowAap, a celebrated actor of the IStli 
century, the companion of Shakipeare, and a beoe- 
factor to learning and his country, aa the foonder t ' 
Dnlwtch College, waa lK>Tn in London, 1st Septen 
ber, 1566. It is probable that he was introdoced ■ 
the ttage throagh big mother') second marriage wil 
a haberdasher and player, named Brown, and it 
certain that he bad a joint share with him and oi 

^chard Jotws in eeit^n 'playing appueli, play 
books, inatmrnonts, &c' In 169S, Alleyn married 
Joan Woodward, atep-danghter o{ &m theatrical 

manager, Phihp Hetulowe, and In ooojunction widi 
hii new lelative, imdertook llie management of the 
Rose Theatre, Bankaide, for a abort ieaaoo. After 
their leparatiiHi, Alleyn appean to have visited fb» 
provinces by himself; bnt in 1600 they united again 
'- Viild a new theatre, called 'The ForUme,' sitQ- 
i in Cripplegate ; and were also joint patentsea 
the maatership of hia m^esty** games of bean, 
bolls, and di^a,' exhibited at Patia Garden, which 
tjiey rebnill in 1606. In the aame year, AH^ pnr- 
chased the manor of Dnhrich ftom Sir Franda Cal' 
Ion, and ten year* afterwards, the death of Henslowa 
leFt him sole proprietor of tbeir variona ^lecnladona, 
to which he had alnadv added a ihare in the BIa<^- 
frian Theatre, inppoeed to have been Shaknteare'a 
interest in it, pnrchand in 1S13. A caieer like thii 
betoken* ■ piosperona and clever man, and aooord- 
in^y he waa known by hia contemporaries aa ' fa- 
~aona Ned Alleyn.' In Ben Jonaon'a ettimate, he 
raa oqnal to the great actors of Rome, and aeems 
□oet to hove exoelled la majestio parts. Qreen'i 
Oriondo Fnrioeo,' and Harlowe'a ' Jew of Malta,' 
kre mentioned aa charaeten of hia. The bnming 
down of the Globe and Fortone Theatres, turned the 
ODnent of hie fbrtnnea ; bnt before diia reverM he 
had delighted in acta of benevolence, and aeqneatered 
Unda to the college, designed for the lapport 
master, one warden, and foni fellowe, three of 
weie to be ecdealastica, and one a skilini or- 
ganist, and also of six poor men, ax women, and 
twelve boys to be edncatol in good literatore. After 
some legal diScnIties the patent paaeed the Great 
Seal on the Slat June, 1619, and on the 13th Sep- 
tember following, Alleyn having fonnallj and pab- 
licly diapoiscaaed himself of all property in the foun- 
dation, entered it with hia wife aa inmates of the 
establishment and eqnnla of those for whose comfort 
and elevation it was intended. He still, however, 
continoed mnster of the king's games ; and hia diaiy 
represents him as occaslonaUy filing before the king 
at Greenwich. It was daring bis residence in the 
collegB, indeed, that the Fortnne Theatre was burned 
down, which he forthwith rebuilt Having lost hia 
wife in 1624, Alleyn married again, ami expired 
himself, on the 36th November, 1626 ; by hia will 
endowing twenty almdionses, ten in the pariah of St. 
Botolph, and tan in St. Saviour's, Sonlhwarit, bewdes 
leaving considerable legaciee to his widow and rela- 
tives.— The motive to these variona acts of mnnifi- 
cenre has been anpcrstitiously ascribed to the cir- 
cnmttonoea of Alleyn having been smpriscd by tfaa 
apparition of the devil in one of his pcTformance* ; 
but no intelligent reader will pay the ahghteat regard 
to 10 abaord a story. There may have been some 
vanity — the player's peculiar faiJt — in the tranaao- 
tion ; since Alleyn manifested a partiality fbr people 
bearing his own aj^Uatioo, and directed that the 
master of the college shonld always be of the name 
oTAllenor AUeyn. Tbia sitnatjnn is now of great 
value ; the revenues of the foundation being large. 
The college is alto rich in works of art, Alleyn himself 
having left a oondderable mimber of pictlI^e^ and 
Sir Francis Bourgeota in 1810 faaving beqneatbed to 
it hia valuable oollectian. Papers in the hand- 
writing of AQeyn and Henalowe are also among its 
treasures, Alleju's diary, wblob has been pnblished 
by the Shakspeare Sode^, is particnlaily instructive 
toodiing the condition of Ae dramatists of the time. 
For the most pait, they wen exceedingly poor, and 
the ranUDeration paid for tbeir worts waa very 
nnalL Those wfa<^ like Shakspeoie and Alleyn, 
had tbe theatres in tbeir poaamsion, profited largely 
by the prevailing taste ; bnt tbe workers in the miues 


[ 31 ] 


<i th< dniDA UtioieJ liud in obieiirity fbr tin pre- 
ooiicHu meuu oT snbuneim ; and aomi of tbe de- 
teila of their dilficnltiu vaj ba gathend &om thia 
most iatemtiag docameat. From tbesB diffimthiM 
Staakqxuue ma exempt ; & faot wbioh ebedi ■ li^t on 
Li< ottncter *nd oondidiM to wliioli nfflciont &tten- 
tionhttanotbaennid. Tbe grMtaei* of die poet «u 
in Eut doubtleM doe to bi* iknnble poutloa u >n 
■ctoT and muiager; how ttuiwa* attuned iiaptdnt 
oawhichKnaBezpUnUtoDiayetdBBirable. [JjLH.] 

ALLIEN, L. Di U., a French uiliq., d. 1627. 

ALUONI, Co., Ml ItaUan botaH 1T26-1BIH. 


ALLISON, Funcu, D. D., yioe provort of tbe 
College in PhQada^ihia, to wbidi office he WM cleoted 
In 1755; wu bom in Indaud in 1705, and educated 
at die tTniveni^ oT Gla^ir. FemuylTaikia ii 
ieap\y indebted to him for aiding in laying the fonn- 
daticou oF her litemy inRitiitiaiu. Hii «al in die 
oaus of Iwning wai mch that for aerenl jeara after 
hie airival in America he inftmoted whhont fee or 
mrafd all who csme to him. He died m ITTT. 

ALLISON, P1.TBICE, D. D., bom in 17*0 in Lan- 
sastv Co^ Fl, and gndnated M Phlkdelpbia Col- 
legc^ At the iRe oT 22 he entered the Praelnterian 
mLoiatij, and «W a U& of n«»ftil»t« in Bwtiinon 

ALLIX. SeeAux. 

ALLOISL Balth^ id Italian punter, d. 1S3& 

ALLOHJ, Aux., an Italian painter, d. 1607. 

ALLOHI, Chkutophaik), xm of the pncading, 
■ t, d. 1619. 

ALLSTON, yiiMBomntm, anlrenaU}' aeknovl- 
edged aa of the fint emiuence among American 
painten, wai bom in Charleiton, S. Carolina, No- 
vember Blh, 1779. In hi» early yontb he mu eent 
to the Nordi for hi* edncatioii, ond at the ume time 
to invigonte hie deliwle coDstitnCion, and placed at 
tbe tohool of Mr. MCbett Rogers, in Newport, Rhode 
Island. This Klfctioti mnet hare been made both 
to account of tbe utnbrity of climate and the celeb- 
rity of the teacher, vhoee school at that time had 
dcKTredly aoqniied a high reputation. All his 
■choolboy yean were (pent under Mr. Rogers's in~ 
BtrQction until 1796, when he entered opon a hi^er 
academic conixe at Harrird CvUc^ in Cambr^ge, 
Ilaseachnietts. From thia institatian he received 
his Baocalanrante degree b 1800. Proud aa it may 
well be, of the ekm<t rt cmmJiih wnsos, which has 
been acqoired by many on its long liit of Alnmui, 
not «u aOHRiK ttiem hu reSwtod hif^er honor vpon 
it than that oiWaabingtOB Alltton. It la not poesible 
'~ a Udgnpbieal ikotch of thi* kind, which ia neoea- 

" ' '" ire than tb* lead- 

n blogn^y with 

oopiona Mlectiooi fhnn his oorrespondeDce, prepared 
by a writer ereiy way competent to do jastice to the 
aotijeo^ baa long been expectAd, and it is hoped will 
aooD be Iwd before tbe pnblic In the mettnwhile 
' Dtinlap's History of the Hise and Progresa of tbe 
Art* of Dengn in the United States' may be referred 
to for many intereiting patticnlai* of his aridatio 


ge, be did not long heutal 

the Fine Arts, it became neoetsary for him to atek 
them abroad Fortunately he had iobeiited ■ anffi- 
dent patrimony to enable him Co do tbit wttbocrt 
aiailing bimaelf of the EODerooi offers of many frienda 
who would have furnished him with whatever means 
be might reqalre. Determined to make himself a 
painter be embarked for Locdon in 1801, on bia own 
independent reeooroee, and on bia arrival loat no time 
in entering the Itoyal Academy as a student. Bei^a- 
min West, the distingulsbed American painter, bad 
ncoeedad Sir Joahns Reynolds as President of the 
Andsmy, and hia rvceptian of our young aipiraut 
was moat kind and enoonragii^ 'I ehall never 
foiget,' writaa Alliton, 'hii benevolent smile, when 
he taci me by the hand ; it is still fresh in my mem- 
ory, linked with the last of like kind, which ao- 
oonipanied the last ahaks of hia hand when I took a 
final leave c^ him in IB18.' 

At the anmul exhibition at Sonervt House in 
1802, Mr. AUaton adventured before the public for 
the Gnt time. In this exhibition he had three [nc- 

tbe lait of which he p^tad while al 
tbe French soldier he had two immediate applica- 
tiiios. Mod sooD after other similar proofs that his 
eaily attempts bad been favorably judged of by the 

Still t 

inued ai 

stadeut at the academy for two years mon, until 
1804, whenhe aooompanied VanderlyntaPariB. Tbe 
Loune, the great moaenm of art ia the French c^>i- 
tal, had than reosatly been enriched by spoliations 
from Italy and tba Netherlands of many of the finest 
works of the greatest artiata, and with those before 
beloiuing to it now poeaoued the richest oollection 
ever brmed. The atudj of such a coUectioQ natur- 
ally gave a new impnlae to Alliton's pencil, which in 
tbe ooarte of tbe few montba be remained in Paiia, 
produced fbor oii^nal paintings ud one copy from 
Rnbens. Bat like all true devotees to tbe ait, ha re- 
garded Rome as the only Mecca, end was impatient 
to make the pilgrimage ; his stepa were, therefore, 
now turned in that direction. Tbe majestic uatnre 

soul with delight and admirntiou, and be stopped for 
a while to contemplate its giandeurs before he passed 
the snblimo portals, which hero open upon the fairy 
land of art. Soon after thia we Snd him settled in 
Rome, where be remained abont four years, lleie 
it waa that he first formed tbe aoqaaintance of Cole- 
ridge, which soon matured iQto intimate friendship, 
and from him perhaps he acquired some of that fas- 
cinating power of conversation for which both were 
alike remarkable. I'rom a passage in ' PUtoer & 
BuQsen, Bescbieibang der Stodt Home,' it may be in- 
ferred that he waa Geld in high estimation by his 
brother artists then resident there. In speaking of 
Scliiok in their Chapter on tbe Modem Art, he i* 
thna mtrodnoed : ' It was a yoDOg American named 
AUstmi who Gnt taught him tbe way of preparing 
oertain diffiwlt oolor* Gv the first coot of a pictore, 




In Older to reeeive the Tarnish properly afterwards,' 
to whloh they add, * the skiU of this highly talented 
artist was shown particularly in landscapes, which 
were dtstingnished from others of that time, hy a 
strength and deamess of coloring closely approaching 
that of the early masters. It was this peonliar ex- 
cellence in Alston's painting, which fint fixed 
Schick's attention npon him.' When he had spent 
eight years ahroad in the diligent and faithful stody 
of the first woiks of art, by which he had now become 
a distinguished master, he deemed it his duty to 
offer the benefits of his knowledge to his own conn- 
try, and determined to return to it for that puprose. 
^nnben he reached America in 1809, he found the 
public mind too much occupied with the great polit- 
ical events, which then threatened to destroy the 
commercial prosperity of the oountiy, to be interasted 
in art Bnt for this, an artist of his genius and skill 
could not have failed to command the deserved en- 
couragement at home, without being compelled to 
seek it in a foreign land, as after a two yean^ ex- 
periment he found it necessary to do. He knew he 
had a right to make his profession remunerative, be- 
side which he was now bound to do it, by new obli- 
gations. He had become a married man, and his 
household must be provided for. These considera- 
tions sent him once more abroad, and London, being 
the place in which he was best known, was chosen 
for his residence. And hero also he had many trials to 
encounter, as tiie nlations between America and Eng- 
land were daily becoming less and less friendly. He 
felt the unfavorable influence of this national quaml 
npon him as an artist, and became disheartened. A 
long and serious illness soon followed, which required 
him to romove temporarily to the country ; and not 
long after came the heaviest of all his calamities, the 
death of his lovely and most amiable and estimable 
wife. He now needed a consolation the worid could 
not give ; it was by that aid alone he was enabled to 
support his affliction. 

As soon as he had in some degree recovered f^m 
this shock, Mr. Allston resumed his pencil, and found 
that as he became more widely known the demand 
for his paintings increased. Like encouragement 
attended him during the romaining four years of his 
residence in England; his pictures were sought for 
to ornament many of their finest galleries, and among 
his patrons he numbered their first connoisseurs in 
the art He was also no less beloved for the quali- 
ties of his heart than admired for his genius. Still 
success of every kind abroad had not alienated his 
afiections from home ; kind friends and generous en- 
couragement had made England deservedly dear to 
him, but his own Aigos was still more dear. In 1818 
he bade adieu to London for the last time, and re- 
turned without delay to America. Boston and its 
immediate vicinity now became his permanent resi- 
dence. Here he found a wide circle of friends to 
greet him with a cordial welcome, and a patronage 
which was limited only by his power of producing. 
During the remaining twenty-five years of his life 
there was no abatement in the ardor of their attach- 
ment to him— founded on their esteem for his pure 
and exalted character and admiration for his talent 
Had he been less severe as a critic of his own works, 
and less conscientious in performing his whole duty 
to his patrons, he could easily have increased the 
productions of his pencil to many times their present 
numbor. It was a proud distinction to be the pos- 
sessor of one of his paintings. 

When Mr. AUston found that he required a larger 
atelier than he could well command in Boston, he had 
one built of tho roquisite size in the acyoining village 

of Cambridgeport, commanding just such light as he 
needed, and to its near vicinity he removed his resi- 
dence about the time of his second marriage. It was 
here that many of the best of his smaller pieces were 
begun and finished ; and here that his great historical 
painting, BeLshaxzar's Feast, was brought forward to 
the state in which he left it, which even as a frag« 
ment fnrmshes decisive proof that in the very highest 
branch of the art he has had no equal in tiie present 
century. It was his last work, and bean so touching 
a relation to his last hours that we can in no way so 
well bring this sketch to a dose as by an account of this 
event, adopting the beautiful language of his rela- 
tion, Mr. Dana, in his Preface to Mr. ADston's Lec- 
tures on Art: * His death occurred at his own house, 
in Cambridge, a littie past midnight, on the morn- 
ing of Sunday, the 9th of July, 1843. He had fin- 
ished a day and week of labor in his studio, npon 
his great picture of Belshazzai's Feast; the fresh 
paint denoting that the last touches of his pencil 
were given to that glorious bnt melancholy monu- 
ment of tiie best years of his later life. Having con- 
versed with his retiring family with peculiar solem- 
nity and earnestness npon the obligation and beauty 
of a pure spiritual life, and on the reidities of tiie 
worid to come, he had seated himself at his nightly 
employment of reading and writing, which he usually 
carried into the early homrs of the morning. In the 
silence and solitude of this occupation, in a moment, 
*with touch as gentie as the morning light,' which 
was even then approaohiog, his spirit was called 
away to its proper home.' AUston was an author 
as well as an artist, and published a volume of poems 
and several works of fiction. 

ALLUT, Jean, the pseudonyme of Elie Mariox, 
a wr. of the 18th a who claimed inspiration. 

ALLY. See Au of Oude. 

ALMAGRO, DiEoo De, one of the Spanish con- 
querors of America, confederate with Pizarro. Made 
governor of Chili by Charles V. Defeated and put 
to death in a quarrel with the Pizarros^ 1538. His 
son of the same name was executed by osder of Her- 
reda, after a bloody engagement, 1542. 

AL-MAHDI, caliph of the Saracens, 776-785. 

AL-MAMUN, or ABDALLAH, son of Haroun-al- 
Raschid, and his sue. in the caliph., 814-833. 

AL-MAMUN, sultan of Toledo, 1040-1077. 

AL-MAMUN, sultan of Africa, 1185-1232. 

ALMANASOR, a caliph of the Saracens, who be- 
came a baker, died 1205. 

ALMANSUR, or ALMANZOR, the Victorious, 
oaliph from 764 to 775. 

ALMARUS, abbot of St Austin convt, 11th c. 

ALMEIDA, Eic, a Portuguese missry., 16th ct 

ALMEIDA, Fb. De, Portuguese vioeroy of India 
1505, killed at the Cape, 1509. 

ALMEIDA, Lorenzo De, son of Frauds, a oeL 
naval commander, k. in action with the Turks. 

ALMELA, DiEOO De, a Sp. writer, 15th cent 

ALMELOVEEN, Theodore Jamben Van, a Dutch 
physician and scholar, 1647-1742. 

ALMERAS, Louis, a Fr. general, 1768-1828. 

ALMINARA, Marquib, a Spanish diplomatist 

ALMOADES. See Abdel-Mumen. 

ALMON, John, a political writsr, 1738-1805. 

ALMORAVIDES. See Abdallah-Bbn-Yub. 

ALOADDIN, a sheik of Syria, commonly called 
the Old Man of the Mountains. In the history of the 
crusades his followers are called Assassins, corro^iied 
firom Anoddet, of whom he was prince. 

ALOMPRA, a man of obscure birth, who founded 
the Burmese empire, 18th century. 

ALONZO DE YIADO, a Sp. reformer, b. 1775. 




ALP-ABSLAN, a Tnrkish salt., 1064-1072. 

ALPHERY, BliKEPHER, a Russian prince, who be- 
tame an English rector, and refused the offer of the 
throne of Russia, 17th centoiy. 

ALPHONSO. See Alfonso. 

ALPHONSO, or AFFONSO I., inherited theoonn- 
ty of Portogal from his father, and was proclaimed 
lang after a bloody victory over the Moors 1189, d. 
1185. Alpu U., reigned king of Poitngal 1211- 
1223. AuPH in., 1248-1279. Alph VI., 1825- 
1356. Au>H v., 1438-1481. Alhh IV., was de- 
posed after a short reign of singular brutality, 1657, 
died 1683. 

ALPHONSUS, a Sp. hutorian, 14th oentuiy. 

ALPHONSUS, TosTATus, one of the most eminent 
theologians of Spain, 15th oentuiy. 

AIjPINI, Pbospebo, a physiological botanist and 
physician, 1553-1617. 

ALQUIER, a m. of the French assembly, 1742- 

ALSOP, GsoRGE, author of a treatise on the ' na- 
tire Indians' and of a description of the province <^ 
Maiyland, containing an account of the laws, customs 
and usages of staves, published in London 1666. 

ALSOP, RicHABD, an American poet, bom at Mid- 
dletown. Conn., 1759, died on Long Island, 1815. 
He was the author of a poem on the death of Wash- 
ington, and a translation from the Italian of a portion 
of Bemi's Orlando Inamorato. In company with 
Dwight, Hopkins, and Trumbull, he oommenoed in 
1791 the publication of the Echo, consisting of bur- 
lesque poems^ designed to ridicule the inflated style 
then in vogue at Boston. 

ALSOUFI, an Arabian astronomer, 10th cent. 

ALSTEDIUS, J. H., a Ger. divine, 1588-1688. 

ALSTON, Ch., a Scotch botanist, 1683-1760. 

ALSTON, JoflKPH, Governor of South Carolina in 
1812, in which year his wife, daughter of Aaron 
Burr, perished at sea. He died 1816, aged 38. 

ALSTROEMER, Joseph, a Swedish economist of 
great practical ability, 1685-1761. 

ALTDORFER, or ALTORI<\ Albert, a painter 
and architect of Bavaria, 1488-1578. 

ALTEN, General Cbableb, a German oflloer, 
disting. under Wellington, and created count Alten 
after the battle of Waterloo, 1764-1840. 

ALTER, Fr. Ch., a German critic, d. 1804. 

ALTFRIDE, bishop of Munster, 9th centuiy. 

ALTHAMERAS, a Swiss reformer, died 1460. 

ALTILIO, Gabriel, a poet of Naples, d. 1501. 

ALTDCG, H., an em. Germ, divme, 1583-1644. 

ALTING, James, son of the preceding, professcMr 
of Hebrew at Gioningen, 1618-1679. 

ALTING, Meeso, a Calvinist minister, d. 1612. 

ALTING, Mbkbo, a topographical wr., d. 1713. 

ALTISSIMO, an Italian miprovisatore. 

ALTISSIMO, a Florentine painter, 16th cent 

ALTMAN, J. G., a Swiss historian, professor of 
philosophy and Greek at Berne, 1697-1758. 

ALTOMARI, a naturalist of the 16th century. 

ALTON, Count, an Austrian general, died 1787. 

ALTON, CocKT, brother of the preceding, killed 
near Dunkirk, 1793. 

ALTORF. See Altdorfeb. 

ALURED, an English annalist of the Britons, 
Saxons, and Normans, 12th centuiy. 

ALVA Y ASTORGA, Peter De, a Spanish monk 
and mystical writer, 17th oentuiy. 

ALVA, Ferudcam D, duke of Alva, (or Alba, as it 
Is commonly called,) stands unenviably prominent in 
the history of tiie 16th century as the sternest in- 
strument of the sternest crowned bigot of that age. — 
Alva was bom in 1508, of one of the most noble 


families in Castile; he entered the army in eariy 
youih, and served with distinction in the greater 
part of the wars of the emperor Charles V., both in 
Europe and Africa. He was looked on as the first 
in ability and honor among the emperor^s generals ; 
and when Philip IL succeeded to the throne of Spain 
on Charles's abdication, Alva continued to be the 
great miUtaiy duke of the council and the armies of 
Spain. He acted as Philip's plenipotentiary in con- 
cluding the treaty of Chateau Cambres in 1558, 
which was not a mere pacification between France 
and Spain, but a league of the Roman Catholic pow- 
ers for the extermination of Protestantism. Alva 
was henceforth the frequent and most confidential 
adviser of the most violent Romanists in France ; 
and there is little doubt but that it was in pursuance 
of hia exhortations at the interview between him and 
Catherine of Medici in 1565, that the hideous mas- 
sacre of St. Bartholomew was planned and perpetra- 
ted. — ^The Netherlands, (including both modem Hol- 
land and modem Belgium,) formed a valuable part 
of the vast dominions which Philip had inherited. 
The Reformed doctrine had made great progress 
there, and Alva aiged on hie sovereign the duty of 
extirpating heresy in eveiy part of his kingdom, by 
the same system of merciless persecution which had 
been employed with seeming success in Spain itseUl 
In 1567 Ph^ determined on this fatal policy, and 
ordered Alva to lead a veteran army into the Neth- 
erlands, giving him powers which superseded all the 
ordinary governors and magistrates of the provinces. 
At the head of 20,000 ohosen troops Alva now com- 
menced his reign of terror at Brussels^ He formed 
a council of 12 of his most unscrupulous and merci- 
less officers, which he called the Council of Troubles, 
but which soon acquired, and deserved, the name of 
the Council of Blood. The council had unlimited 
power over the properties and the lives of ihe Neth- 
erlanders. Every one who was charged with heresy 
or disloyalty, was dragged before this tribunal, which 
dealt out coi^scation, torture, and death, throughout 
the unhappy country. Tumidts soon followed, which 
gave a pretext for letting loose the ferocioua soldiery 
on the wretched inhabitants ; and the Spanish troops 
were permitted, and even encouraged by their oom- 
manders, to practise an amount of licentious brotal- 
ity and fiendish cruelty, such as cannot be read of 
without shuddering, and which excited general hoiTor 
even in that age of religious wars. Alva's avowed 
maxim was that the king would rather see the whoW 
country a desert, than permit a single heretic to live 
in itk By treacherously pretending great favor and 
respect towards the counts of Egmont and Horn, two 
of the principal chiefs of the Netherlanders, he suc- 
ceeded in getting these noblemen into his power, and 
then arrested them and put them to death after a 
mock triaL The other national leader of the provin- 
ces, Prince William of Orange, more wisely distrast- 
ftd of Alva, kept away from his court ; and when 
the maddened population of the northern provinces 
took up anus against the intolerable tyranny of 
Spain, the Prince of Orange became their chief, and 
levied an army in Germany, with which he sought 
to rescue his country from Alva. This was the com- 
mencement of the glorious Dutch war of independ- 
ence, which was maintained for 68 years, and ended 
in the separation of the seven united provinces from 
the dominion of Spain. In the fint five years of 
that war, which passed before Alva's recall from his 
command, he fully displayed the high nature of his 
militaiy talents in battle and in siege, and still more 
in the cautious skill of his manasuvres. Bi^t the 
spirit of resistance which he had aroused was unoon- 


[34 1 


qnerable. He was ill seconded bj the Spanish oonrt ; 
and his troops, ill paid and ill supplied, grew insub- 
ordinate and mntinons. Alva was reoalled in De- 
cember, 1573, after a command of six years, dnr- 
ing which he boasted that he had brought 18,000 
persons to the scaffold, besides the almost countless 
numbers that had been massacred at Haariaem, and 
other revolted cities which his troops took by storm, 
and those also who perished under the unrecorded 
acts of wanton cruelty which the soldiery were al- 
lowed to practise throughout the unhappy country. 
In 1582 Aiva was once more employed by his sover- 
eign, and led the expedition against PortugaL*-The 
aged general completely conquered that country in 
ten weeks, and placed its crown on Philip's head; an 
acquisition which might seem to couL.te«*balance the 
calamitous war in the Netherlands. This was the 
last act of Alva's long and active life, for he died in 
the same year, at the age of 74. [E.S.C.] 

ALVARADO, Don Pedbo, one of the companions 
ofCortez, killed 1541. 

ALVAlRADO, Alph. De, one of the companions 
ofPizarro, died 1558. 

ALVAKES, Af6x>nso, a popular dramatio writer 
of Portugal, 17th oentury. 

ALVAREZ, Ehan., a Portuguese grammarian, reo- 
tor at Evora, 1526-1582. 

ALVAREZ, Ferd., a Port poet, 16th oentory. 

ALVAREZ, Fr., a Port divine, died 1540. 

ALVAREZ, Gomez, a Sp. poet, 1488-1538. 

ALVAREZ, Jose, a Sp. sculptor, died 1827. 

ALVAREZ, JuAK, a Sp. lawyer, died 1546. 

ALVAROTTO, Jas., an Ital. lawyer, d. 1542. 

ALVEARf DE Generai. don Carlos, minister of 
the Argentine Republic to the United States, d. 1852. 

ALVENSLEBEK, P. C, count of, a diplomatist 
and historian of Hanover, 1745-1802. 

ALVL\NO, Babt., a Venetian general^ disting. in 
the wars. of the republic, 1455-1515. 

ALVINTZY, Peter, a classical scholar and min- 
ister of Hungary, 17th centuiy. 

ALVINZY, an Austrian officer, 1726-1810. 

ALXINGA!r, J. 6., a Germ, poet, died 1797. 

ALYATTE, I., kmg of Lydia, 761-747 b.c. 

ALYATTE H., king of Lydia, 610-559 b.c. 

ALYPIUS, the arcUtect employed by Julius to re- 
build ihe Temple of Jerusalem, 863. 

ALTPIUS, an African bishop, died 430. 

ALZATE-Y-RAMIREZ, J. A., an astronomer and 
geographer, 18th century. 

AMAD-EDDOULAT, sultan of Perna, 933 to 
949, founder of the Bouian dynasty. 

AMADEUS. The counts of Maurienne of this 
name are the ancestors of the house of Savoy. Amad. 
L and U. are of uncertain date. Amad. III. fl. 1103- 
1148; Amad. IV., cotmt of Savoy, 1283-1258; 
AiiAD. V. 1286-1323; Amad. VL 1343-1383; 
Amad. VH. 1383-1891 ; Amad. VIH. 1891-1451 ; 
Amad. IX. 1465-1472. 

AMADIO, And., an illmninator, 15& oentuzy. 

AMADUZZI, J. C, a Rom. scholar, 18th cent 

AMAGE, a queen of ancient Saimatia. 

AMAIA, Fr., a Spanish lawyer, died 1640. 

AMAE, a Persian poet, 6th century. 

AMALARIUS, the founder of Christianity in Sax- 
ony ; archbp. of Treves 810 ; ambassador from Char- 
lemagne to Constantinople 813, 814. 

AMALARIUS, an eccles. writer, 9th oentuiy. 

ALMATHEUS. aichbp. of Athens, died 1600. 

AMALTHEUS, the name of several Latin poets ; 
Jerome, 1460-1517; Mark Antony, his brother, 
1475-1558; Francis, a younger brother, married 
1505; Jerome, son of Francis, 1506-1574 ; John 

Baftibt, another son, 1525-1578; Cornetjub, 
younger br. of the preoed., 1530-1603. 

AMAND, Mark Antont Gerard, lord of St, a 
French poet, 1594-1661. 

AMAR, J. P., a eel. member of the French conven- 
tion, b. 1750, tried for conspiring with Babeuf and 
acquitted, 1795, died 1816. 

AMAR, Dn Rivier, a miaoellaneons author and 
translator, bom 1765. 

AMARETTI, Arre C, a mineralogist, b. 1743. 

AMARITON, Jean, a philosopher, 16th cent 

AMARAL, Ant., a learned Port., 1753-1820. 

AMARA-SINHA, a Hindoo poet and grammarian, 
author of a Sanscrit dictionaiy, 1st c. b.c. 

AMASEO, RoMUUJS, a Latin schdar and teacher 
of the BeUes Lettres at Padua, 1489-1552. 

AMASIS, king of Egypt, 6th century b.c. 

AMATI, a violin maker, lived about 1600. 

AMATUS, a Jewish physician, 16th oentuiy. 

AMATUS LUSITANUS, a Portuguese physician 
of Jewish origin, 1511-1561. 

AMAURI DE CHARTRES, a mystic philosopher, 
condemned by Innocent III., 1204, d. 1209. 

AMAURY L, king of Jerusalem, 1165-1173. 

AMAURY n., assumed the title 1197, d. 1203. 

AMAZIAH, king of Judah, B.a 849-^20. 

AMBERGER, Chris., a Dutch paint, d. 1550. 

AMBIORIX, k. of the Eburones, Ist cent. b.c. 

AMBOISE, Fr., a miscell. writer, died 1602. 

AMBOISE, G. D', a French cardinal and minister 
of state, legate of Alex. VL, 1460-1510. 

AMBOISE, AiMERT, brother of the preceding, a 
disting. naval commander, and grand master <^ Uie 
order of St John of Jerusalem, 1434-1512. 

ABCBOISE, Craumont, lord of a French General, 
nephew of the cardinal, died 1611. 

AMBOISE, M. D', a French poet, died 1547. 

AMBROGI, Ant., a Latin scholar, 1702-1788. 

AMBROGI, Teboo, an Orientalist, 1469-1540. 

AMBROSE, St., son of the pnetorian pnefect of 
Gaul, was probably bom at Treves about 340. His 
father died when Ambrose was but a boy, but he 
was well educated, and being possessed of great rhe- 
torical powers, he soon rose to high eminence as a 
forensic pleader at Milan. At the death of bishop 
Auxentius, in 374, there was intense struggle and 
conflict between the Catholics and Arians about a 
successor, and Ambrose, as (7ofwu2ar, happened to de- 
liver a peaceful oration to the people, when an ad- 
miring and forward child cried from a comer of tiie 
crowd, Amimmut Epiaoofnu — * Ambrose Bishop.' The 
people hailed this as an omen from heaven, and in 
spite of every attempt on the part of Ambrose to 
elude the honor, he was baptised, and eight days 
after his baptism installed as bishop. The first lite- 
rary work of bishop Ambrose was to patronize and 
advocate celibacy. But his principal efforts were di- 
rected against Arianism, which exjoyed imperial 
patronage, especially that of Justina, mother of V»- 
lentinian 11. The city of Milan was embroiled in the 
conflict, but the bishop, backed by the population, 
was more than a match for the empress-mother and 
her Gothic troops. He put his episcopal power and 
prerogative to the test when he kept the emperor 
Theodosius for eight months under excommunication 
on account of a massacre in Thessalonica in which 
he had been concerned, and made him do public 
penance ere he was admitted into the great church 
at Milan. He also, in 384, successfully resisted the 
re-introdoction of pagan worship. The affairs of his 
diocese occupied the remainder of his life, and he 
died in 897. The tiieology of Ambrose was chiefly 
boiTowed fro&i the fathers of the Greek chniQh« and 




lu9 eloquence, tboiig}) grtit, !■ often tainted vidi an I 
(ffscted imitation or Ciceronian periods. Hii life 
■wts so ooeopied with the poUtickl nUdona of his i 
high pofiition, that he could not beftow npon tbBolo- 
gj a calm, prolonged, and mceesafiil (tud?. He in- 
trodac«d into hie cathedral the aatiphaoal chanta o( 
the Eastern church, hot the magnificent 'Te Decu | 
LAuDAsra, whlcfa bean hii name, was a oompodtion 
lomewhat later than hii bn^ period-. His works 
w«i« published b7 the Benedictinei oT France in two 
fUios, in 1SS6-90, and Cardinal Anfrelo Mai baa also 
disooTered and e>Uted two other* ofhis literarr prO' 
dnetlons. [J.E] 

AMBROSINI, AuBBOEio, a oompowr, d. ITM. 

AMBROSINI, Bast., a botaniit, ITth century. 

AMBROSENI, G., a writer on demonology, 16th 

AMBROSIUS, a relif^ocs poet, d. 1641. 

AMBR03IUS ADREXIANUS, a Br. k., d. 608. 

AMKIL, Am., a Fr. officer, d. in priion, 1823. 

AMEILHON, H. P., a Fr. bin.. 1T80-1811. 

AMELIA, Ajnix, a princeaa of Prussia, lister of 
Frederick the Great, lT3a-1787. 

AMELI.i, dnchen dowager of Saie Weimar, a 
Qiend of Goetbe, Schiller, and others, 1T39-IS0T. 

A.MEIJA, princess of Hecklonburg-Strelitz, bom 
1TT6, married 1798, died 1810, 

AMELU, daughter of Geo. HI,, 1788-1810. 

AMELIUS, a Neo-Platonist, Bd cenCnrj. 

AHELOT, X., a French statesman, 1788. 

AMELOT DE LA HOUSSAYE. Nich., aFr. hia- 
loijan and translator, died 1706. 

AMENOPHOIS, the name of several kings of 
Ef^rpt, of uncertain date, but man; a^ B.C. 

AHELL^GIU, Jebohe, an It. poet, I6th oent. 

AMENTA, apoet of Naples, 16S9-1719. 

AMERBACH, Johh, a printer, died 1S62. 

AMERBACH, Bohifack, sod of John, d. ISflS. 

AMERIGO VF,SPDCCI, a dlstingnisbed naviga- 
tor of the fifteenth century, to whom the discovery 
of America, which takesitsnamefhim him, has been 
improperiy ascribed. Tbe true discoverer of this 
continent was Sebastian Cabot, an Engliilimsn by 
birth, but of Venetian parentage, who sailing from 
London, reached the Coast of Labrador fourteen 
months before Colambns esme in sight of Paria. It 
Is now imposubletochange established nomenclature, 
but whatever glory may attach to the word America 
Ibelf, as tbe title of the New Wnrid, it must ever re- 
eall the falsehood of Vespuon, and the pervenuty of 
mankind. In 1499, a year after Cotnmbns had set 
out npon ills third voyage, and while he was strug- 
gling Bgwnst insumction in Uispaniola, several pri- 
vate expeditions were fitted out itom Spain, atid 
among them one by Alonio de Ojeda, a former offi- 
cer ofCoiumbus, during his second voyage. He was 
accompanied by Amerigo Vespucci, an accomplished 
scholar and able writer, horn in Florence, hut Ital- 
ian in perBdy as well as talent, who until 1496 
had consigned himself to mercantile life, when he 
was employed by Ferdinand as a pilot in the Span- , 
i^ navy. Withont any reoognlied rank in the ei- ! 
pedition, his scientiHc knowledge and skill gave him i 
an informal authority. Haring spent five months in 
fc^owing witb ease, under the gnidanoe of Ojeda, the ', 
track of Lkilambns, whom dley viated in Hispaniola, . 
be returned to Spain. Af\er this he made two voy- ' 
ages of discovery bj command of Emanuel, ting of 
Portugal, and suled along the coast of South Ameil- • 
ca frmn Braidl to Patagonia, returning finally to] 
Pcctngal Jane 14, 1604. Columbn* died in May, 
IS06, and in the lUtawii^ year Vespucci published 
■ nairative of his voyages without fear of eontradie- I 

tlon fknn the departed captain, whose laurels he at- 
tempted to appropriate to himself. His book wm 
written with eloquence, and composed with art, hot 
as respects truth a large portion of it shoutd be 
ranked in literature with the travels of Cmsoe and 
Gnlliver. He claimed to have discovered the coast 
of Paria prior to Columbus. To substantiate the 
assertion, he described a fabnlans voyage sidd to 
have occurred between May, 1497, and October, 
1498. This fiction was appropriately followed by 
anotber in which he figures as the commander, in- 
stead of the companion of the expedition of Ojada, 
and the four vessels of that officer were inoensed to 
■ii. Captivated by the charms of a stirring and ro- 
mantic narrative, the world, in an uncritical age, 
acceded too basdly to bis proposition, that the new 
continent shonld be called by his name. Though 
his fVaud was made apparent in a judicial inquiry, 
instituted bj royal authority, in which Ojeda testi- 
fied against him, the word was already on the foui 
winds. At that time the discovery of Cabot was 
not generally known, and the question was simply 
between Colnmbus aiid Amerigo. The whole stoir 
of the latter concerning his pretended first voyage Is 
easily disproved. Not cmly do both the Spanish and 
Italian writers of the period combine in attributing 
the first discovery of Paria and the Gulf of Meiieo 
to Columbus, but at the lei; moment in which Ame- 
rigo pretends that he set out by royal authority IVom 
Spain, Colambns was himself at the Spanish court 
preparing for his expedition, and colonial sffain 
were under the direction of Antonio Torres, a friend 
of Columbns, who would not, at sncb a crisis, have 
furnished another witb the means of forestalling him 
in the grand discovery of the age. Amerigo died at 
Terceira, but it is uncertain whether 1B12 or 1614. 

AMES, Fisher, an American statesman, was bom 
in Dedham, Mass., on the 9th of April, 1 766. His 
father was a physician, and combined the unconge- 
nial occupation of innkeeper with that of a country 
Esculapins. His son wasnfa delicate constitution 
in infancy, but of remarkable mental precocity. He 
began Che study of the classics at the early age of sit 
years, and mch was his rapid proficiency that he 
was enabled to enter Harvard University when be 
was only twelve years old. His mother at tliat pe- 
riod hdng a widow, and poor, her son was forced to 
keep school in order to eke ont a scanty support 
while pursuing his collegiate studies. On leaving 
college he studied law and commenced its praotio* 
in his native town, in 1781. Wltii lemariiable not- 


f 36] 


oral powers of eloquence, strengthened by study and 
diligent exercise, he soon became renowned at the 
bar as an orator. He sought a wider field for his 
eloqnenco in political life, and becoming a member 
of the convention in 1788 for ratifying the Federal 
Constitution, he took the lead, and evinced a rare 
oratorical power. He was a member of the State 
Legislature, and in 1789 the first representative of 
his district in Congress, where he at once was ac- 
knowledged as the most eloquent debater in the 
House. Ames was as ready with his pen as he was 
eloquent with his tongue, and was the acknowledged 
author of the ' Address of the House of Representa- 
tives ' to Washington on his retirement from the 
Chief Magistracy. On withdrawing from political 
life, he was elected President of Harvard University 
in 1805, but refused to accept the office. He died 
on the 4th of July, 1808, at the age of 52, leaving 
behind him the reputation of one of the most elo- 
quent of American orators. 

AMES, Nathaniel, an American physician, emi- 
nent for his knowledge of astronomy, bom 1702, d. 
at Dedham, Mass., 1765. He was author of an al- 
manac published for forty years. His son, Fisher, 
occupies a distinguished place among the orators 
and patriots of America. 

AMES, Nathaniel, a son of Fisher Ames, an 
American seaman, author of * Mariner's Sketches, 
'Nautical Reminiscences,' and 'An Old Sailor's 
Yam,' d. 1834. 

AMES, Joseph, a naval commander, d. 1695. 

AMES, Joseph, author of an historical account of 
English printing, 1689-1759. 

AMES, N. P., an Am. practical mechanic, famous 
for his manufacture of fire arms, swords, &c., d. in 
Massachusetts, of which state he was a native, 1847. 

AMES, William, a controversial div., d. 1638. 

AMFREVILLE, the Marquis D', a French naval 
commander, time of Louis XIV. 

AMHERST, Jeffret, Lord, a general officer of 
distinction in the British service, bom in Kent 1717. 
He entered the army as an ensign at the age of 14. 
Li 1741 he served m Flanders as aid-de-camp to 
General Ligonier, in which capacity he was present 
at the battles of Dettingen and Fontenoy. He was 
also on the staff of the Duke of Cumberland at Laf- 
ficld and Hartenbeck. He was made Colonel in 
1756, and soon after Maior General. On 16th 
March, 1758, he embarked from Portsmouth, and 
commanded at the capture of Cape Breton. In con- 
junction with Generals Wolfe and Prideaux, he re- 
duced all the French strong-holds in Canada, the 
entire conquest of which was completed on the 8th 
September, 1760, by the capitulation of M. de Vau- 
dreuil, and the surrender of Montreal, upon which 
he received the thanks of the House of Commons 
and the order of the Bath. His military command 
in America ended in 1763, when he was appointed 
Governor of Vii75inia. In 1770 he was appointed Gov- 
ernor of the Island of Jersey, and was elected to 
the peerage 1776, with the title of Baron Amherst 
of Honesdale. He was appointed Commander-in- 
Chief in 1782, and in 1787 he received a patent as 
Baron Amherst of Montreal. In 1793 the command 
of the army was again intrusted to him. Two years 
afterwards he was deprived of this merited honor, 
which was conferred on the Duke of York, and it 
was with difficulty that his irritation permitted him 
to accept the office of Field Marshal. He died, 
without issue, though twice married, in 1797, at the 
hge of 81. HLb success as on officer was due more 
to a r-^i^Ar and collected mind, than to brilliant genius. 

AMHUIiST, N., a miscelL writer, 1701-1742. 

AMICO, Ant., an antiquarian, died 1641. 

AMICO, Facbtin, an ItaL poet, 16th centuxy. 

AMICO, Vrro, a theoL and antiq., 18th cent. 

AMICONI, GiAooMO, a Ven. painter, d. 1753. 

AMILCAR, the father of Hannibal, k. 228 b.c. 

AMIOT, Father, a Fr. Jesuit and missionaxy to 
China, disting. by his long residence and researches 
in that oountiy, 181&-1794. 

AMINTA, a burlesque poet, 16th centuxy. 

AMLETH, a prinoe of Jutland, 2d. cent. b.c. 

AMMAN, JoBE, a Swiss painter, died 1591. 

AMMAN, John Conrad, a distinguished teachef 
of the deaf and dumb, 1669-1724. 

AMMAN, John, a lecturer on botany, p. 1740. 

AMMAN, Paul, a professor of physiology, natu- 
ral histoiy, and botany, died 1691. 

AMMANATI, B., an ItaL sculptor, 16th cent 

AMMIANAS, a Latin historian, 4th century. 

AMMIRATO, a Neapolitan poet, 1531-1601. 

AMMON, Andrew, a Latin poet, died 1517. 

AMMONIUS, a Syrian general, put to death by 
Ptolemy Philometer, b.c. 145. 

AMMONIUS, a surgeon of Alexandria. 

AMMONIUS, an Athenian philosopher, 1st cent. 

AMMONIUS, a pliilosopher of the eclectic school, 
flourished in the 6th century. 

AMMONIUS, called Saccas, or Sack-Carrier, 
from his first occupation at the port of Alexandria, 
is the reputed founder of the New Platonic school. 
He was bom in the second century, and some affirm 
that he was bom of Christian parents, but that in 
riper years he apostatized. Porphyry affirms it, 
while Ensebius and Jerome as stoutly deny it. Pos- 
sessed of a creative gsnius, and conversant with the 
prevalent philosophies, he strove hard to form a spe- 
cies of eclecticism, in which Christianity and all sys- 
tems of philosophy should be harmonized. In his 
attempt to accomplish this, he, as might be antici- 
pated, robbed Chiistianity of its prime peculiarities, 
and did great violence to the current philosophies in 
accommodating them to the new religion. The woiks 
ascribed to him ore numerous. Died 243, about 80 
years of age. Longinus, Origen, and Plotinus are 
usually reckoned among his disciples. [J'E.] 

AMMONIUS, Leyincs, a Flemish monk of dis- 
tinguished learning, died 1556. 

AMO, a negro from the gold coast, distinguished 
for his profound learning, 18th century. 

AMON, J. A., a German composer, died 1825. 

AMONTOUS, W., a Fr. mathemat, 1663-1705. 

AMORE, S. D., a Sicilian poet, 17th century. 

AMORETTI, Ch., an It. minendo., 1740-1816. 

AMORETTI, M. P., a learned Italian, d. 1787. 

AMORY, Th., a dissenting divine, 1701-1774. 

AMORY, Th., a literary recluse, author of several 
eccentric works, died 1789. 

AMOS, a Jewish prophet, 8th century b.c. 

AMPERE, AvDRE Marie, one of the greatest dis- 
coverers in electro-magnetism, 1755-1836. 

AMRU, Ben-El- As, a eel. warrior of the Islam 
faith, conqueror of Egypt, Nubia, and part of Libya ; 
ruler of Egypt 659, died 662. 

AMRU, Ben-Letth, suit of Khoras., 878-902. 

AMULIUS, king of Alba, 8th century B.C. 

AMURATH I., third Ottoman sul., founder of the 
corps of Janissaries, b. 1319, sue. 1360, d. 1389. 

AMURATH IL, b. 1404, sultan 1422-1451. 

AMURATH UL, b. 1544, sultan 1575, died after 
the conquest of Raab., 1594. 

AMURATH rV,, bom 1609, sultan 1622, took 
Bagdad 1637, died 1640. 

AMYN AHMED, a learned Persian, 17& cent 

AMYNTAS L, king of Maoedon, B.a 510. 




AMYNTAS n., king 89i, died 870. 

AMYOT, Jas., a learned Frenoh prelate, d. 1698. 

AMYRAUT, Moses, a Fr. theologian, d. 1664. 

AMYRUTZES^ a i^iloeopher of Trebizond, who 
became a Mahomedan, 15th oentiuy. 

ANACHARIS, a Scythian philoo., 600 b.c. 

ANACLETUS, bishop of Ronae, 78-91. 

ANACLETQS, an anti-pope, elected 1180. 

ANACREON, the ceL lyric of ancient Greece, 
lived in the 6th cent. b.c., chiefly at the ooort of 
Polycrates, the tyrant of Samoa. He is said to have 
been choked by a grape stone, in the act of dfinking 
wine, at the age of 86. 

ANAFESTUS, first dogo of Venice, 697-717. 

ANANIAS, hl^h priest of the Jews, 47. 

ANARL\, G. L., a writer on demonology, 16th c 

ANASTASIUS I., emperor of the East, bom 480, 
socceedfid 491, died 618. 

ANASTASIUS IL, sacoeeded 718, deposed by Leo 
m. 715, pat to death 719. 

ANASTASIUS I., pope of Rome, 898-403. 

ANASTASIUS U., elected 496, died 498. 

ANASTASIUS HI., elected 911, died 918. 

ANASTASIUS IV., elected 1163, died 1164. 

ANASTASIUS, an anti-pope, elected 856-6. 

ANASTASIUS, patriarch of Antioch, died 699. 

ANASTASIUS, the Younger, patrh. 699-608. 

ANASTASIUS, a Roman abbot, 9th centnxy. 

ANATOLIUS, St., bishop of Laodicea, 269. 

ANATOLIUS, a jurist, of the 6th oentary. 

ANATOLIUS, patriarch of Cnple, 449-468. 

ANAXAGORAS, the most illustrions philosopher 
of the Ionian school ; celebrated in history as the 
friend <if Pericles, and becanse of his trial and con- 
demnation at Athens for alleged impiety. He was 
bom at Clazomene, in Ionia, in the seventeenth 
Olympiad ; when twenty-fonr years of age he re- 
moved to Athens, then the centre of civilization and 
of Grecian nationality. Saved from death by the 
intercession and inflnence of Pericles, he was ban- 
ished from the adopted home where he had resided 
fi>r thirty years ; he passed the remainder of his life 
at Lampeacns, and died there at the age of seventy- 
two, snrronnded by respect and honor. Anaxagoras 
belongs in philosophy to the Ionic schod,--Uiat 
school whose researches were oonJined to the nature 
and laws otph^nocd phenomena. Nevertheless, he 
differs in important respects from his predecessors ; 
and certainly he was the last Inquirer in Athens who 
onght to have been subjected to the accusation of im- 
piety. The earlier lonians, in their imperfect efforts 
to comprehend the changes of the external universe, 
generally imagined it possible to reduce all things to 
varieties of one single element ; for instance, it was a 
favorite speculation that water is the principle or sub- 
stance of whatever exists; a dogma founded, perhaps, 
on a rude observation of the changes of form or 
mode, through which water may pass. Anaxagoras 
had the merit of discerning the necessary futility of 
all such generalizations, — declaring that the ele- 
ments, first principles, or aUma of things, must be 
very numerous, or even infinite ; elements so far re- 
sembling each other as to be capable of combining 
together, and forming, by their various unions, those 
varied properties or qualities which we recognize in 
things. But, beyond this step— in itself highly im- 
portant— Anaxagoras adventured on another, of still 
greater consequence. Accepting, like all the loni- 
ans, the dogma that matter is eternal — ^that nothing 
can really be either created or annihilated — ^he saw, 
nevertheless, that the simple properties of an eternal 
and inert matter oonld not explain the acticity and 
harmony characterizing the material universe. Hence, 

said he, the necessity of another power— tiie powet 
of TfiidUgmce, *A11 things were in chaos; then 
came Intelligence, which introduced Order.' The 
functions of Intelligence, as he conceived them, 
were indeed limited — merely supplementary, as 
Aristotle alleged, to those of the physical forces; 
but the formal recognition of the necessity of such 
an energy, was surely a movement in philosophy as 
momentous as new. It must be recorded, in fair- 
ness, and in palliation of the condemnation of Anax- 
agoras, that to the charge of impiety, that of a 
political crime was added — the greatest, certainly, 
of which a Greek citizen could be suspected— the 
crime of Median^ or of favoring the interests of Per- 
sia. [J.P.N.J 

ANAXAGORAS, a Gr. sculptor, 6th cent b.c. 

ANAXANDRIDES, a Greek satirist, starved to 
death for libelling the government, 400 B.a 

ANAXARCHUS, a Greek philosopher, the sup- 
posed master of Pyrrho, 4th centory b.c. 

ANAXIMANDER, an Ionian philosopher, the di«- 
ciple and successor of Thales, 610 — 647 b.c. 

ANAXIMENES, the disciple and successor of An- 
aximander, died 66o B.a 

ANAXIMENES, a Greek historian, one of the pre- 
ceptors of Alexander. 

ANAXIPPUS, a Gr. comedian, 4th cent. B.a 

ANCELOT, M., a French dramatist, d. 1864. 

ANCHIETA, Jos., a Portuguese missionary, called 
the Apostle of the New World, died 1697. 

ANCHWrrZ, N., a member of the PolUh diet, the 
betrayer of his country in 1782, killed 1788. 

ANCILLON, C, a Fr. historian, 17th century. 

ANCILLON, David, a Fr. divine, 1617-1716. 

ANCILLON, J. P. F., an historical and philoso- 
phical writer of Prussia, 1766-1837. 

ANCILLON, L. F., a religious writer, d. 1814. 

ANCKARSTROEM, John James, the assassin of 
Gustaviis III., bom 1768, executed 1792. 

ANCONA, C. D', an Italian antiquary, 16th cent. 

ANCOURT, Fix)RENT C. D*, a French dramatist 
and actor, 1661-1726. 

ANGUS MARTIUS, k. of Rome, 634-614 B.a 

ANCWrrZ, Couyx. See Anchwitz. 

ANDERSEN, Geo. a Ger. traveller, 17th cent 

ANDERSON, Ad., a Scotch historian, d. 1766. 

ANDERSON, Alex., a scholar, 17th century. 

ANDERSON, CHRisroPHEB, a Scotch Baptist Di- 
vine and author of *' Annals of the English Bible," 
and other religious workf, d. 1852, age 73. 

ANDERSON, Sir E., lord chief justice at the trial 
of Mazy Stuart, died 1606. 

ANDERSON, Geo., at first a laborer, but subse- 
quently accountant-general, author of a work on the 
affairs of the East India Co., 1760-1796. 

ANDERSON, G., an Eastern traveller, 17th cent 

ANDERSON, J., a Scotch advocate, 17th century. 

ANDERSON, Jambs, a misceL wr., 1739-1808. 

ANDERSON, John, F.R.S., professor of natural 
philosophy at Glasgow, 1726-1796. 

ANDERSON, Johk, a magistrate and author of 
Hambu^h, died 1748. 

ANDERSON, L., chancellor of Sweden under Gus- 
tavusVasa, 1480-1662. 

ANDERSON, R., M.D., a critical and biographical 
author, died 1830. 

ANDERSON, Richard, for many years member 
of Congress from Kentucky. He was also Minister 
to Colombia. Died at Carthogena July 24, 1836, 
on his way to Panama as Envoy Extraordinary to 
the Assembly of American nations. 

ANDOCIDES, a Greek orator, 468 b.c. 

ANDOQUE, P., an historian, died 1664. 




ANDRE, B., ■ lesnud Jeniit, born I74S. 

ANDRE, C. C, ■ Imraed QeinuiD, 18th cent 

ANDRE, J,, » GerniMi oompoeer, 1T41-1§00. 

ANDRE, J., a Lntbenm diTim, 1628-1690. 

ANDRE, J. v., > Germui mTMic, om oT the fint 
Rodanduu, 1SS8-1664. 

ANDRE, Jomt. Tliii snTortmuta officer vu 
bom Id En^nad 1T49. Hi> f&tber wu a natiTe of 
Geneva. la 17T4, three ytwn after euteriag the 
Biitisb may, h e joined hit regiment, tbe Rofml E agliah 
Fnrileo™, in Canada. The nait year he wai taken 
piiioner at St. Johns bj Montj^oraery. Atler hit 
exchange be wai lapidl; pramoted, and in 1T80 nan 
appointed Adjatant-Gensral, with the nnk of Major. 
Hi» prospects were of the roost flattering kind when 
tbe treason of Arnold led to hit death. The tempo- 
ruy ahuoce of Washington having been choMn by 
tbe tiaitor as the most proper season for oaTTying 
tnto effect his design of deliverinj^ to Sir Henry Clin- 
ton, the fortification at West Point, then nnder bis 
command, and refnung to conlide to any bat Maior 
Andre the maps and iDfarmation nqoirad by the 
British General, an intorrieir became necessary, 
and on the 19tb September, 1780, Andre left New 
York in the s1oopH>r-*ar Valtare, and an the next 
day HrTiTed at Fort Montgomery, fire milei below 
West Point, in company with Bererley Robinson, an 
American residing at tbe lines, throngh whom tbe 
commnaicadons had been carried on. The veuel 
was observed by Washington when crossing the river 
to go to Hartford, bat witbont any anspicion of the 

nived by (he traitor at the water's edge. 
Andre retained his regimentals, thongh he bad taken 
the precaution to pat on s gray overcoat Having 
arranged all the details of the proposed treason, Ar~ 
nold delivered to Andre, draughts of the works at 
West Point and memoranda of tbe forces nuder bis 
command, and the latter returned to the beach in 
hopes of being immediately conveyed to tbe Vulture. 

Bnt the ferrymen, who were Americans, having ob- 
nrved with niapicion the motions of the veetel, 
which having been fired npon by Colonel Livingston 
from Veiplank's Feint, had retired some distance 
down tbe stream, refused to carry him, and as Ar- 
nold would not interpose his authority be was com- 
pelled to change bis uniform for a less saspieioaB dress 
and return by land. Unfortunately for him ha per- 
sisted, against tbe advice of Arnold, in retsioing the 
papers, which he conceited in big boot. Accompa- 
tued by Smith, an emissary of Amcdd, and provided 
aritfa a passport under bii aumnod name of Ander- 

son, he let ont and reached in safety a «pot fivm 
which they could see tbe ground occupied by the 
Cngtisb videttes, when Smith eKolaiming "you am 
gafe— good bye," tuned and gaI]o|q)ed ba». At tbe 
entrance of Tarrytoirn, when a few mote bounds of 
hie horse woold have placed him beyond reacb of 
danger, an armed man started from ■ thicket and 
seised bis bridle, asking — " Wbere are yon hound ?" 
Two more man cama np, and Andre, Instead of an- 
swering tbe question and presenting his passport, 
inqnired to which party they belonged. "To be- 
low," was the reply. Thrown completely off his 
guard, and confirmed in the idea that he was safe 
on Ensliib groand, be said, " and so do I. I am an 
English oBlceT on urgent business and do not vrisb 
to be detained." " Yon belong to our enemiet, was 
the rqoindor, " and we arrest you." Too late Andre 
presented hli passport, and finding this did not aUay 
suspicion, offered them his money, horse, and a large 
reward, but without avail. They esaminod bis per- 
son, and, in his boots, found tbe fatal papen. He 
was then conveyed to CoL Jameaon, commander of 
the American oatpoata, who sent him nuder cfanrge 
of Lieut. Allen back to Arnold, but after tbe party 
bad set out, countermanded tbe order, through fear 
that tbe prisoner raight fall into the hands of British 
scouts, and directed Allen to intrust him to the core 
of Capt. Hooglin at I>>war Salem. By this change 
Andre was deprived of the hope of escape which 
dawned upon him, and Arnold, learning bis capture, 
absoonded. On tbe arrival of Washington, Andre 
was conveyed to Tappan and tried by a boiwd of 
General ofliceni, among whom were General Greene 
tbe Preudent, Lafayette and Knox. With the latter 
Andre had some time before formed a personal ac- 
quaintance at a wayside inn where they accidentally 
met when travelling on public nrvice. They had 
chatted, supped and slept together, and pait«d with 
mutual expressions of regard, little dreaming of tbe 
nature of their next meeting. On bis trial, Andre 
behaved with the frank heroism natural to bun, and 
tbonsh delicately advised that ha need aay nothing 
to cnmlnate binuelf, confessed tbe whole, and with- 
out the examination of a sin^e witness waa, in con- 
seqaence of his own admissions, condemned to death 
ai a spy. Alexander Hamilton, wbo became ac- 
quainted with Andra at this crisis, has left perhaps, 
^a most aSbcting acconnt extant of his last boors. 
Every effhrt was msde by Sir Henry Clinton to save 
him, and as there was a strong ^spoeition on tbe 
American side to do *o, if compatible with dnty and 
the public interests, bis execution originally a;^inted 
for tbe 80th September did not take place till the 
2d Octtdier. If possesaiou could have been obt^ad 
of the traitor, the life of Andre wnuld have been 
■pared. But under the circumstances, Washington 
did not deem it expedient to ohange even the mode 
of bis punishment, tbe disgrace of which principally 
afiected his mind. " Most I die in this manner ?" 
was his sad quasdon when broudit to tbe gallows — 
but he immediately recovered himself, and calmly 
looking round upon tbe scene, he bowed to tbe spec- 
tatoii and resigned himself with a smila to his fate. 
His remains, which were buriod on the spot, have 
since been removed to Ejigland and now repose in 
Weatmintler Abbey. It is to the honor of America 
that to tbe present day the death of none of her own 
heroes is more regretted than that of the galhkut foe- 
man whose snccess would have been fatal to her liber- 
tiea Andre is pitied as much as Arnold is oiecrs 

ANDRE, St. See Auon, jAoguM D'. 

ANDRE, Yva Mabi, a l<>enob Jeniit profew 

_.,. — .,._ 1875-178*. 




ANDREA, a cbronicler, 9th oentoij. 

ANDREA, Caval Camti, a novelist and mifoeUa^ 
DsouB writer of Italj, died 1678. 

ANDREA, C, fin Ital. tragedian, 17th oentniy. 

ANDREA, S., an Italian poet, 17th centniy. 

ANDREADA, FsBDCfAirD, a Portngneae admiral, 
the first adventurer to Chinflt, 1518. 

ANDREiE, John Gbo. Rkdciiard, a natoralist of 
Hanover, 1724-1798. 

ANDREAS, Jambs, a German reformer, secretaij 
of the conference at Woima, died 1690. 

ANDREAS, JoHH, a Conican pfelate, distinguished 
sis a promoter of printing, 1417~1475. 

ANDREAS, a leaned pfelate of Sweden, arch> 
bishop of Lund, died 1228. 

ANDREINI, Fr., a Sp. oomic wr., died 1616. 

ANDREINI, TftABET.LA, wife of the preceding, dis- 
tinguished for her beauty and for her talents as an 
improvisatore, 1562-1604. 

ANDREINI, J. B., son oi the preceding, a drama- 
tist and poet, hotn 1578. 

ANDREliNI, PuBUo Fbbto, professor of poetiy 
and philosophy, died 1518. 

ANDREOLI, G., an Italian sculptor, 16th cent 

ANDREOSSI, Anth. Fb., Count, a French diplo- 
madst and militaiy officer, 1761-1828. 

ANDREOSSI, Fb., an engineer, 1633-1688. 

ANDREOZZI, AmA, an Italian sutger, d. 1801. 

ANDREOZZI, G., an Italian composer, 18th cent 

ANDRES, JuAS, a Spanish author, 1740-1817. 

ANDRES DES VOSGES, J. F., a miscellaneous 
snthor and translator, bom 1744. 

ANDREW, St., the apostle, crucified 95. 

ANDREW of Cyiene, leader of a Jewish revolt in 
the reign of Trajan. 

ANDREW of Pisa, distinguished as an architect 
and universal artist, 1270-1845. 

ANDREW of RadsboD, an historian, 15th cent. 

ANDREW, Jomr, bishop of Aleria, d. 1498. 

ANDREW, ToBiAB, a Graek scholar, d. 1676. 

ANDREW I., king of Hungary, 1047-1061 ; An- 
DBBW n., 1204-1285 ; Amdbbw IH., 1290-1801. 

ANDREWES, Gbbb., a preacher, 1750-1825. 

ANDREWES, H., a mathematician, oomputer of 
the ephemeris, 1744-1820. 

ANDREWES, J. P., a misoeL an., 1787-1779. 

ANDREWES, Per. Milks, a dramatist, d. 1814. 

ANDREWS, LAmrcKLQT, bishop of Whiohester, 
distinguished as a scholar and divine, 1565-1626. 

ANDREWS, John, D.D., a clergyman of the Epis- 
copal Church, distinguished as a scholar; bom in 
Maryland 1746 and died in 1818, aged 67. His 
principal work was a treatise on logic. He was or- 
dained in London 1767, and after odiciating for many 
years in Maryland beoame successively head of the 
Episcopal Aoidemy in Philadelphia, professor of 
iQoral philosophy and provost in the Universi^ of 

ANDREWS, Robbbt, an eminent citizen of Vir- 
gmia, who^ in 1799, acted in coigunction with Dr. 
Madison, as oommissiooer on the part of that State 
to settle the boundary Une with Pennsylvania. He 
was mathematical professor in William and Mary 
College, and died in 1804. 

ANDRIEU, B., a medallion engrav., 1761-1822. 

ANDRIEUX, Fb. W. J., SiAimLAUB, a Fr. dra- 
matist, poet, axid misoellan. wr., 1759-1888. 

ANDRIOLI, M. A., an ItaL writer, 17th cent 

ANDRISCUS, a pretender to the crown of Mace- 
don, put to death 148 b.g. 

ANDROCLES, an Athenian demagogue. 

ANDRCmACHUS, the phvsician of Nero. 

ANDRONICUS, a Gr. architect, 4th cent b.c. 

ANDRONICUS of Rhodes, the restorer of the 
works of Aristotle, B.c. 68. 

ANDRONICUS of Thessalonlca, one of the Greek 
refugees from Constantinople, to whom we owe the 
revival of learning, died 1478. 

ANDRONICUS I., emperor of Constantinople, b. 
1110; shared the crown with Alexis, 1168; caused 
him to be murdered, 1188 ; dethr. and k., 1185. 

ANDRONICUS II., bom 1258 ; emperor, 1282 
dethroned, 1828; died 1332. 

ANDRONICUS lU., b. 1295 ; rebeUed, 1821^ 
emperor, 1328 ; died 1841. 

ANDRONICUS IV., joint sovereign with hisfathei^ 
1355 ; disinherited, 1373. 

ANDRONICUS, Livius, the oldest Latin drama- 
tist, and Latin translator of Homer, 240 b.c. 

ANDROS, Sib Edmund, Govemor of New Yoric 
from 1674 to 1682, of New England from 1686 to 
1689, and of Vii^inia from 1692 to 1698. His ty- 
rannical administration of New England forms the 
most remarkable featoro in his histoiy. From inter- 
fering with the freedom of the press, levying enox^ 
mous taxes without competent auUiorily, and disturb- 
ing the titles to landed property, he proceeded in 1687 
to the extremity of demanding the surrender of the 
charter of Connecticut The story of the famous 
charter oak, in which the charter, snatched from the 
table of the assembly when the lights were extin- 
guished, was deposited, is well known. An Indian 
war excited by his misconduct, but unattended with 
any important consequences, took place the next year. 
The memory of it is preserved in the name of Fort 
Androscoggin. On the 18th April, 1689, the people 
of Mass., unable any longer to endure bis exactions, 
and stirred to frenay by reports, probably unfounded, 
of an intended massacre, deposed and imprisoned 
Andros. As the abdication of king James occurred 
immediately after, the country was saved from the 
oiril strife which might otherwise have ensued, and 
the Govemor sent to England for trial. But the un- 
willingness of the authorities at home either to ap- 
prove tyranny or sanction revolt, prevented any 
judicial decision. The subsequent career of Andros, 
as Govemor of Virginia, was more wise and mode- 
rate. He died in England in 1714. 

ANDROUET DU CERCEAU, James, an architect, 
distinguished in Paris, 16th century. 

ANDRUS, Joseph R., an Episcopal clergyman 
who died in Sierra Leone, July 29, 1821, while on a 
benevolent but unsuccessful mission, as agent of the 
Colonisation Society, for the purohase of a place of 
settlement in the Bassa oountiy. 

ANDRY, NiCH., a medical author, died 1742. 

ANEAN, Babth., a French poet, killed 1565. 

ANELIER, a troubadour of the 13th century. 

ANEURIN, a chief of the ancient Britons, distin- 
guished also as a poet, 6tii century. 

ANFOSSI, P. an ItaL musician, 1786-1795. 

ANGE, Fbanois, a Pennsylvania planter, who 
died in 1767, at the age of 134, in the entire posses- 
sion of his faculties, having enjoyed perfect health 
until within four yean of his death. His memoiy 
extended to the execution of Charles I. His lon- 
gevity was partiy the result of very nmple diet 

ANGELI, Bokavbmtuba, an hist, d. 1576. 

ANGELI, Petbb, a Latin poet, 1517-1596. 

ANGELICO, John, an Italian painter, d. 1448. 

ANGELIO, a Latin poet, 1517-1596. 

ANGELIS, Stephen De, a mathemat, 17th cent 

ANGELO, FiofiiozzoLA, an Ital. poet, d. 1548. 

ANGELO, PoudAKo, a leamed wr., 15th cent 

ANGELO, Micheu See Michelaxoelo. 

ANGELONI, Fsu, an ItaUan historian, d. 1652. 




ANGELUCCI, Thbodobe, an ICallui poet, tmu- 
Utor, and pbreiciaii, <L 1600. 

ANCELUS, Chr., I, refugee CVom Greece, pro- 
tiBoor of the Greek bm^e at Cambridge, d. 163S. 

ANGERSTEIN, J. J,, ■ virtaoso, distioguiihed 
for Ms coUflctioQ of pauitings, lTSfi-182S. 

ANGILBERT, St., abbot of Saqnier, d. 814. 

ANI^IOLELLO, J. M., aVeiietiui hut, ISth cL 

ANGLESEY, HcRsr Vfn. Fiasr, Haiqnia of, a 
dUtJDgniihed oScer of the British simy, wu bom 
Id England May 17, 1768. He waa the eldest •oa 
of the EbH of Uibridge. At an eaii; age he entered 
the army, and his Srst actJTe serrice was is lilandera 
□iidartheI>iiheofYoikiiiIT94. In 1799 he served 
in the expedition to Holland. Toward the close of 
tlie year 1B08, having been raised to the rank of a 
Major-General, he joined Sic JohQ Moore, in the 
PenioBuIar campaign, and effected a brilliant mcceaa 
over the Frem:h, putting nine hundred of the enemj 
to a complete rout, and taking two hundred prison- 
ers, with onlj fonr hnndred men under his commaad. 
At Manager and Benveto he repulsed the enemy, and 
eorered the retreat of the Bridsh auder Sir John 
Uooie BO effectively, that they weis left anmoleated 
until their arriTal at Corunna ; here, when tlie 
battle took place, he so gallantly lappoited the Brit- 
ish that they were enabled to embark without mo- 
lestation. On his return to England he estered p»r- 
liamenC, and was a member of the House of Com- 
mons from 1806 to 1B12. On the death of his father 
in the Utter year, he took his seat bj the right 
of inheritance in the House of Jjords, as Lord Ui- 
bridge. When Napoleon retained from Elba, Lord 
Uibridge was ^veu the command of the British 
cavalry In Flanden, and fought with great gal- 
lantry at Waterloo, whore he lost a leg. Five 
days after the battle he was created Marquis of An- 
glesey, and received other honors from the British 
govemioent and people. During the ^al of Queen 
Caroliae, the wife t^ George the itb, he took the 
nnpopolar side in favor of the king, and on one ooca- 
^OD whoD he waa tarronndfld by a crowd who in- 
ustod upon his hnrraiag for the queen, be, after a 
long re^stance, cried out at last-^^^ Well then the 
Queen ', may all your wives be like her I " In April, 
182T, he held office nnder Canning, and in 1828 
was vice-regent of Ireland under Wellington. liis 
adminisbatiou of Irish affairs was conciliatory and 
iodidons, and acquired for him great popularily. 
Having eipresscd a strong sympathy with Catb- 
olio emandpatioa, he was recalled from Ireland and 

reenmed his place in the House of Lords, where he 
contumed to advocate the Irish oanse. The bill of 
Catholic emancipatioD having passed. Lord Anglesey 
was restored to the vice-regency of Ireland, and con- 
tinued at tiiat post until hia resignation in 1833. 
He was subsequently appointed Master-General of 
the Ordnance in IStS; d. 1854. 

ANGOT, a celebrated Vnacb privateer, d. 1661. 

ANGOULEHE, Chaklzs Db Valois, duke of, a 
natnral son of Chailea IX. and Marie Touchet ; dis- 
tinguished for bis bravery in the civil wars of 
Franoe, and in the campaigns of Flanden and G«r- 
msny, 1676-1660. 

ANGUIER, Fb. and Mich., scolplon of Norraan- 
dy ; the former of whom was most oelebrated, and 
died 1669; the latter, 1686. 

ANGUILIARA, L., a botanist of the I6th c. 

ANOtllLLARA, an Italian poet, b. 1G17. 

ANGUISCIOLA, a female palntar, ISth cent 

ANUALT-DES3AU, LiomiLii, priuM o£ the cre- 
ator of the Frnsdan army, ieTO'1747. 

ANIANU3, an artist and poet, 16th oentaiy. 

ANICH, Peieb, an aitrouomer, 1733-1 78«. 

ANICHINI, a medaUer, 16th centan. 

ANJOU, the dukes or ooonts * ' 

, when the line ended In John, 
king of England. The dnksi of the honsa of Capet 
reified 1246 to 1290. The hooM oTValcnB, 1290 
to 1480. Since this period the dukedom has been 
resBrved as an appanage for the younger princes of 
the royal family erf France. 

ANKASTROM. See Abcubstboeh. 

ANNA COMNENA, daoghlar of Aloiis I., empe- 
ror of the East, celebrated for her bean^ and ac- 
quiiemaots, boiu 1083 ; being defeated in a conspi- 
racy for placing the crown on the head of her hus- 
band, the devoted her life to letters, and wrote the 
hiatory of her fathei's rugn ; died 1148. 

ANNA DB CUaiuuss, queen of Ladislans VL, of 
Hnngary, married 1502, 

ANNA OF UnnoABT, b. 1608 j married Fnd. of 
Austria, 1621; died 1647. 

ANNA IVANOWNA. empress of Rna^ b. 1698 ; 
sucoeeded 1730; died 1740. 

ANNA PETROWNA, in whose honor the order of 
St. Anne was iostitnted, bom 1708; died 17S8. 

ANNE, queen ofEugUnd befbre George I., was the 
second daughter of James II_ and Anne Hyde ; born 
1664; mar. to George, brother of the fc. of Denmark, 
1683; sue. her father, 1702; d. 1714. 

ANNE OF AusiBu, qaeen of Lonls XIIL, and 
mother frf" Louis XIV. of France, b. 1602; m. 1615; 
regent of the kingdom, 1643-1661 ; d. 1666. 

ANNE or Bbetaoiik, qneen-coosort of Prance, b. 
1477; married to Charles VIU. 1491, and to Louie 
XIL 1499; died 1614. 

ANNE OF Cleteb, b. 1616; marriod to Heniy 
VIIL and divoreed, 1540 ; d. 1567. 

ANNE OF FiUjfCE, daoghter of Louis XL, b. 1462, 
mairied to the lord of Beaujeo, 1474 govemante i^ 
Charles VIII., 1483-1488 ; afterwaixis duchess of 
Bouiban till hei death, 1622. 

ANNESE, Genhabo, ■ leader in the Massaniello 
insurrection, 1647. 

AKNESLEY, Abthdb, by tarns a royidiit and r». 
publican, created earl of Anglesey for hia share in 
the Restoration, 1614-1686- 

ANNESLEV, S., a ocL Eng. divine, 1620-1696. 

ANNETT, Petbb, a sceptical writer, d. 177S. 

ANNICEKIS, a Grwk philosopher, 3d o. B.C. 

ANNIUS OF ViTKBBO, a Dominican monk, aathoi 
of a literaiy imposture, died 1602. 



ANNO, BTohfaiiliop a! Cologoo, 11th century. 

ASOT, P. S^ ■ miicellaiiMiui uithtr, d. 1828. 

ANQUETIL, L. P., a French Kami, anther of a 
UnlTerMa E[Ut<^, 172S-1SOS. 

ANQUETIL DU PERKON, A. H., brother of the 
preceding, dUdng. u an OrienCal acho.. 1781-1806. 

ANSALDl, C. J., nn utiqtiuian, 18th cenL 

ANSALDI, an Italian puotar, died 1818. 

AN3ART, A. J., nFr. historian. 1728-1790. 

ANSCAKIUS, biahop of Hambntgh, 80I-8M. 

AK5EAUHE, ti., a Kr. dnmatiit, d. 1784. 

AN3ELM, bom in Piedmont in 1088, died in 
April 1 109 ; tbe oelebrat«d chnrchmaji and meta- 
[JiTudsa — one of the greatest of those funons 
men who have held the see of Canterbuiy. On 
the death of LanTiano in 1089, Antehn, then on 
a visit to En^and, and whose wisdom, sentleness, 

ErepnlB, was nominated to the primacy bj WQ- 
Rofds. It ii not necBwaiy to refer hers to the 
political histoiy of this eelebrMed prelate ; dot can 
we elanoe othnwise than rausDiiiy at thoee prodnots 
of lui genin>— the Stcmiegiiait and the Pniolagiiaii, 
by which he ii known in pbiloaophy. These two le- 
maikable writingi are dedicated to an eaporition of 
two dem«D*tntk)M of tlw Eiistaiea of God. The 
tComlagmm coitains t^ tinal Mudips argnment — 
inTening ftaa the qnalitiei of Natore, abaolnte qna- 
lities or dirhie attrihntet ; and renlring these into a 
dirina and abacdnta Being. Anaelm'a ori^oal work 
is (he Pnmiogiam ; and eertainiy he hai Mated there, 
in evroy folnem, the pecnliar argmnent afterwards 
eiponiided by Des Cartes. Briefly, the aifpi 
thu, expressed aeariy in hia own words : — ' Thi 
man who denies the nality of God, canctictt, 
theriess,i^aB^ng more elerated than all olhen that 
exist, or rather so perfect, that nothing — no form of 
being — can be called aoperior to him. Bnt he af- 
finzia that then is no rod saMmce eorrespoading to 
tltis aaUal emcqilKm or iiUa. In makina anch an 
affirmation, however, he contradicts himselT. Deny- 
ing the attribata oferntoKs to this veiy Being, to 
whom, nevertheless, he attribntea all ptrfediiM, he 
Tirtnallj says, that tba moat perfect is inferior M 
many other things which an not perfect, bnt which 
enjoy the sopteme attrihnte irf eilstrawe.' We ihaJl 
speak mors fDliy of this peonliar form of arfmment, 
b)' which the Wi^of God is attempted tob« inferred 
from the kin of God, in onr notice of Dea Cartes. 
Anselm's metaphynotl writings have ncently 
icpnblisbed by BoocUttJ, under the title, Sattona 
Cruim : and Rcmnsat haa jnat com^deted a valnabln 
TDlons) on the prelate's life and chwacter. [J.P.N.] 

ANSELUG or PAua, 1636-1891. 

AKSELNtE, Anra., a i'reDcb preacher, also a dl»- 
tmgolthed KMiW : 1S62-I737. 

AKSii:LME, Geo., die Elder, a mathematioiui, d. 
1440. iUs grandson, of the same name, diadDgoidied 
as a phynoiao, d. 1S28. 

ANSON, QEoaaE, Lord, was bora at Colwich, near 
Rugeley in Staffo^lBhir^ on the 2Sd April, 169T. 
His father was William Anson, Esq., of Shogborongh, 
a property in the same connty, pnrchased in the 
reign cf James L by William Ansonof Lincoln's Inn, 
on eminent barrister, the founder of the family, and 
great-grandfather al the subject of the present oo- 
lioe. Little is known of Anson's early liistoty ; hi 
entered the navy as a volanteer without patronage 
■nd at du) age of 19 or 20 was sorting in thi 
Baltic fleet oodsr Sif John Norris. In 1717 he 
obtahied a Uenteoaal^s commission; 19th June, 177!i, 
was made commaodei ; and as oapt^u of the Scar- 
borough was sent in March. 1723-24, to S. Carolina, 

protect BritiiJi trade. On the breaking out of the 
Spanish war in the end of the year 1739, he was ap- 
pointed to the command of a sqaadron, destined for 
the west coast of 3. America, to attack the colonies 
of Spain, and cut off supplies by intercepting the 
treasure ships. This was the origin of tha voyage 
rotmd the vraHd for which Anson'a name ia but 
known. It proved one of the most disastrous on 
record ; not by any fault of the commander, hut 
owing to the ignorance and imbecility which pre- 
vailed at head-qnartei*. Several of the ships were 
ill-conditioned; he was obliged to receive on boanl 
260 infirm old men, out-pensioners of Chelsea Col- 
lege, most of whom were above 70, and none nnder 
60 years of ase ; and the sailing of the sqnadron was 
delayed till the worat season. It did not leave St. 
Helen's till 18th September, 1740, and Boon after 
nasfdng Madeira, scurvy, fever, and dysentery, l>roke 
ont among the crwws. Tremendous gales, encoun- 
tersd In roan^ng Cape Horn, dispersed tho squadron ; 
twn ships were driven t>ack along the coast of Bra- 
ul, and never rejoined ; one was wrecked on the 
ooast south oS ChUoe ; the commodore's ship the Cen- 
turion, 60 guns, and tho Tiyal sloop, 8 gnus, reached 
Juan Eemandei on the 9th June ; the Gloucester, 60 
gunt, not till 23d July, having been under s&il for 
five montha in a atoimy ocean, ' a circutnetance oo- 
panllelfld in the history of navigation.' The health 
of the crew was completely restored in this delightful 
island; but out of the anginal complement for tbo 
tliree shipe of 800 men, there now remunod only 83£. 
A cruise of eight months oo the coasts of Fern and 
Mexico secured some rich prises, but added veiy lit- 
tle in the way of geographical discovery, if we except 
some coast and port surveys. The two other ships 
being disabled were deetroyed, and with the (lentn- 
rion only, oontalning all the useful stores and the 
surviving men, whose ranlu had been again fearfolly 
reduced by diwase, Anson crossed the Pacific to Chi- 
na, tiavii^ remained some time at Tioian, one of the 
Ladronea, ' an earthly paradise,' to recruit. Leaving 
the Canton Itiver after a stay of five months, refitting 
and provirioning, he lay in wait, on the ooost of Lu- 
lon, for the Acapalco galleon, which annually brought 
an Immense tieaaare from Mexico in T«tam for 
goods from Manilla. This rich prize he caplnred, 
after a smart engagement with a force more tbsji 
three times his own, and thus possesssd himself of 
nearly a million and a half of dollars and 85,682 oi. 
of pure silver. Hetuming to Canton he eold the gal- 
leon, and soon alter sailed for England. Touching at 
the Cape, passing in eight of St, Helena, and run- 
ning in a (bg through the middle of a French fieet 
cruising in the channel, he reached Portsmouth in 
safety, on ISth June, 1744, alter an absence of tbi«i 
yean and nine months. Not one of the 260 vet»- 
rans returnod. The treasure was welcome; tbo only 




otiher advantage was tihe familiarizing British sea- 
men with the dreaded ' soathem ocean.' In 1746 an 
acoonnt of the voyage in a thiok 4to. vol. was pab- 
lished bj subscription, ostensibly drawn up by Rev. 
Richard Walter, A. M., chaplain in the Centurion, 
but really, as Sir J. Barrow has shown in his life of 
Anson, by CoL Robins, an engineer officer who went 
with him. Several editions were oalled for. A sec- 
ond volume, to contain the nautical observations, 
was promised, but never appeared, owing to Robins 
being hurried off to India. Even from the acoonnt 
we have, however, we can see that many errors in 
seamanship were committed ; but the chronometer 
^as not then invented, and the lunar method, though 
known to astronomers, was not yet practised at sea. 
Not long after his return we find Anson at the head 
of the Admiralty Board as first lord. In this capa- 
city he rendered great service to the nation ; he im- 
proved the ships, promoted the most deserving offi- 
cers in defiance of etiquette, and did much in laying 
the foundation of that pre-eminence which the navy 
of Britain has long maintained. In 1747, on occa- 
sion of a victory which he gained over the French, 
he was created baron Anson of Soberton in the coun- 
ty of Hants. In 1748 he married the lady Elizabeth, 
daughter of the lord chancellor, earl Hardwicke. 
His ordinary residence was Moore Park, Hertford- 
shire. He died without issue, 6th June, 1762, hav- 
ing outlived his wife two years. His elder and only 
brother, Thomas, died also without issue In 1771. 
The bulk of the property of both. was inherited by 
George Adams, Esq., of Sambrooke, Staffordshire, 
son of their only sister, who assumed the name and 
arms of Anson ; but the title became extinct A 
new creation took place, however, in 1806, and in 
1831, the third viscount Anson was created earl of 
Litchfield. [J.B.] 

ANSON, P. H., a French author, 1744-1810. 

ANSPACH, Elizabeth, margravine of, formerly 
lady Craven, 1750-1828. 

ANSTEY, Can., an EngUsh poet» 1724-1805. 

ANSTIS, John, an Eng. antiquary, died 1744. 

ANSTRUTHER, Sir A., a lawyer, died 1819. 

ANTAR, the hero of an Arabian romance, a chief 
and poet of the 6th century. 

ANTHEMIUS, consul of the East^ 405. 

ANTHEMIUS, emperor of the East, 467-472. 

ANTHEMIUS, an architect of the 6th century. 

ANTHING, Frederic, an officer in the Russian 
service, companion of Suwarrow, died 1805. 

ANTHONY OF Burqundt, distinguished in the 
mDitary service of France, 1421-1504. 

ANrHONY, P. G., a theologian, 17th century. 

ANTHONY. See AirroNius Amjoht. 

ANTIGN AC, A., a French song-writer, b. 1770. 

ANTIGONUS CARYSTIUS, a Greek writer, 8d 
cent. B.C. 

ANTIGONUS, ' the Cyclops,' one of Alexander's 
companions in arms ; afterwards king of Asia ; killed 
dOl B.a 

ANTIGONUS, GoNATAS, grandson of the prece- 
ding, king of Macedon, 277-241 B.O. 

ANTIGONUS, DosoN, regent and king of Mace- 
don, 280 B.a till his death 221. 

ANTIGONUS, SocHCBns, the reputed founder of 
the sect of Sadducees, 8d century b.c. 

ANTIGONUS, associated with Aristobulus I. as 
king of Judiea, 107-106 b.c. 

ANTIGONUS, son of Aristobulus II., king of Ju- 
isea, B.C. 40 ; killed, b.c. 37. 

ANTIMACO, Mark Antony, an Italian scholar 
and poet, 1472-1552. 

ANTI^IACUS, a Greek poet, 5th century b.c. 

ANTINE, M. F., a chronologist, 1688-1748. 

ANTINOUS, a beautiful youth, eel. as the com- 
panion and favorite of Adrian, drowned 182. 

ANTIOCHUS, a Platonic phiL, Ist cent. b.c. 

ANTIOCHUS, a monastic writer, 7th century. 

ANTIOCHUS I., k. of Syria, d. b.c. 261. Airr. 
II., k. B.C. 261 ; d. 246. Amt. HI., oalled the Great, 
k. B.C. 228 ; assassinated 187. Ant. IV., succeeded 
his father, but was kept a prisoner by ^e Romans 
till 174 B.C. ; d. 164. Ant. YL, king, b.c. 164 ; de- 
throned 162. Akt. VII., king, b.c. 140; dethroned 
128. Art. VIIL, reined B.a 126-97. Ant. IX., 
shared the kingdom with the preceding, b.c. 112- 
95. Ant. X. and XI., reigned 93-92 b.c. Ant. 
XIL reigned for a short time before 83 b.o. Ant. 
Xm., king, B.O. 69 ; dethroned by Pompey, who 
reduced Syria to a Roman province, b.c. 65. 

ANTIOCHUS L, kingof Commagena, from about 
69-32 B.C. The teeoni of the same name, king till 
29 B.C. The Udrd is supposed to have reigned about 
the commencement of the Christian era. Tha fourth, 
from 38-72. 

ANTIPATER, a Macedonian general, regent for 
Alexander, and after his death master of the Euro- 
pean provinces: died 318 b.c. 

ANTIPATER, k. of Macedon, 298-295 b.c. ; a 
third of the same name reigned a few days, 278 B.C. 

ANTIPAT£R, father of Herod the Great, and 
minister of Hyroanus, 63-43 b.c. 

ANTIPATER, son of Herod the Great, put to 
death for conspiracy, 2. 

ANTIPATER, L. C, a Rom. historian, 2 b.c. 

ANTIPATER of Sidon, a philos., 2d c. b.c. 

ANTIPATER, a Stoic philosopher, 1st c b.c. 

ANTIPHANES, a Gr. poet, time of Alexander 

ANTIPHILUS, a Greek poet, time of Nero. 

ANTIPHILUS, a Greek painter, 4th century. 

ANTIPHON, a Greek orator, killed 411 b.c. 

ANTIQUARIUS, J., an Italian scho., d. 1512. 

ANTIQUUS, a painter of the 16th century. 

ANTISTHENES, a Gr. command., 4th c. B.a 

ANTISTHENES, found, of the Cynics, 5th c b.c« 

ANTOINE. See Antony. 

ANTOINETTE. See Marie ANioiNErrB. 

ANTOMARCHI, Dr., physician to Bonaparte on 
the Island of St Helena, d. 1839. 

ANTON, Ch. Gottlieb, a German writer of cu- 
rious histoxy, 1751-1818. 

ANTON, C. G., a philologist, died 1814. 

ANTONELLI, P. A., a Fr. officer, 1747-1817 

ANTONELLI, a painter, 15th century. 

ANTONI, Seb. Deole, a tragedian, 17th cent 

ANTONI, an Italian officer, 1714-1786. 

ANTONIANO, Sylvio, a poet, 1540-1608. 

ANTONIDES, J., a Dutch poet, 1647-1684. 

ANTONIDES, J., an Arabian scholar, 17th c. 

ANTONINA, wife of Belisarius, distinguished for 
her public spirit, 499-565. 

saint of Rome, 1389-1459. 

ANTONINI, Annibal and Joseph, two brothers 
distinguished as historians, 17th and 18th cent 

ANTONINUS, Librraus, a Gr. an., 2d o. B.C. 

ANTONINUS PIUS, a Roman emperor, b. 86 ; 
succeeded Adrian, 138; died 161. 

ANTONINUS, Mabcdb Aureuus, successor of An- 
toninus Pius, 121-180. 

ANTONINUS. See Commodus, Caracalla, Dia- 


ANTONINUS, St., abp. of Florence, d. 1445. 
ANTONINUS, bishop of Constautine, 5th ct 
ANTONINUS, a geognu^her, age unknown. 
ANTONIO, or ANTONELLO, a pwnter, 15th o. 




Aim)NIO, a Spanish historian, 1617-1684. 

ANTONIO, Pedbo, a Spanish painter, d. 1675. 

ANTONICS, GoDFRBT, a Germ, lawyer, 17th a 

ANTONIUS, JEuxm N., a Span, hist, 16th c 

ANTONIUS, L., a Portognese phys., 16th o. 

ANTONIUS, Mabcdb, a Roman orator, proconsnl 
B.a 103; proscribed by Marins, pnt to death B.a 67. 

ANTONIUS Marcus, the ceL trinm^ir, grandson 
of the preceding, bom B.O. 86 ; disting. in the Jew- 
ish war; and uterwards as the companion in arms 
and friend of Julins Cesar. After the assassina- 
tion of the latter, and the overthrow of the re- 
publican party by the defeat of Bmtos and Gassins 
at Flulippi, Marie Anthony formed the trinmvifate 
with Octarins and Lepidus, B.O. 42. Antiiony mar- 
ried the sister of Octavins, but neglected her for the 
blandishments of Cleopatra ; and haying quarrelled 
with his coadjutors, was defeated at the battle of 
Actium, and put a period to his own existence, 
B.C. 80. 

ANTONY OF TuacAHT, a lawyer, 15th cent. 

ANTONY, St., the Great, bom in Egypt 251 ; re- 
tired to the desert, where he formed the first com- 
monity of monks, 805 ; died 356. 

ANTONY, St., of Padua, 1195-1231. 

ANTONY OF BoDSBOsr, king of Navarre, by his 
marriage with Jeanne IVAlbret, 1548, and father of 
Henry IT. of France, d. 1562. 

ANYARI, a Persian astrologer, died 1206. 

ANYSIUS, GiDY., an Italian poet, d. 1540. 

ANYTA, a Greek poetess, some centuries B.a 

ANYTUS, an Athenian orator, 4th cent. b.c. 

AOUST, TBE Mabquis D', one of the violent mem- 
bers of the French convention, d. 1812. 

APACZAI, JoBDi, an orientalist, died 1659. 

APAFFL See Abaffi. 

APEL, or APELLES, Johk, a German reformer, 

APELBOOM, a Dutch poet, died about 1780. 

APELLES, founder of a heresy, 2d century. 

APELLES, the most celebrated punter of an- 
tiquity, was bom about 865 B.C. at Cos, or at Colo- 
phon in Ionia. When already an accomplished mas- 
ter, i^parentiy, he entered as a pupil in the celebrated 
school of Pamphilus, at Sicyon, and paid the enor^ 
moos fee of this school, a talent, (about £220 sterling,) 
purely for the sake of the reputation enjoyed by its 
pupils. Apelles seems to have earned his unrivalled 
reputation portly by his unintermittent industry, which 
became proverbial, even among the Romans—' nuUa 
die* tme Hnea* is a saying, aoc<nding to report, which 
originated with this great Greek painter. Painting 
itself is sometimes termed by the Romans the Apel- 
lean art — ^An examination of the particular services 
of Apelles does not seem to justify his eztraordinaiy 
reputation, for he appears to have beei^ little more 
than a portrait painter, though doubtless one of the 
very hi^est class. In every respect, save one, how- 
ever, he was surpassed by some one of his rivals, but 
in the management of the whole, in that peculiar 
quality which the Greeks called Charisj grace or 
beauty, he was unrivalled. A list of bis known works 
will convey the most accurate notion of his style. Per- 
haps the most celebrated was the Vemtg Anadyomens^ or 
Venus rising out of the ocean, which became in after 
years such a favorite picture among the Romans, that 
Ovid (i4rf. Amost, iii. 401,) paid it the extraordinary 
oompHment of saying, that but for this picture, Venus 
would still have remained buried beneath the waves 
of the sea. The picture was painted for the people 
of Cos, whore it remained nntu removed three centu- 
ries afterwards by the emperor Augustus to Rome, 
who took it in lieu of 100 talents tribute ; an enor- 

mous price, and yet less by some thoosands than was 
recently paid for the Soult MuiiUo by the French 
government. The picture was, unfortunately, much 
damaged on the TOyage, and was, within a century 
from the time of its dedication in the Temple of Ju- 
lius Caesar, dictator at Rome, replaced by a copy, by 
order of Nero. The lustoiy of diis picture is worthy 
of note, M it is the protoQ^ of so many similar sto- 
ries of later ages. Other celebrated works were. 
King Antigonus on horseback ; a portrait of Campaspe, 
a beautiful slave and favorite of Alexander the Great, 
who presented her to the painter in reward for the 
picture which he had mads of her ; several portraite 
of Philip of Macedon, and of Alexander himself, who 
is said to have given Apelles the exclusive right of 
painting him ; for one of these, representing the king 
as Jupiter hurling his thunderbolts, Alexander is said 
to have present^ ApeUes with 20 talente of gold, 
about £50,000 sterling, twice the largest sum ever 
recorded otiierwlse, as die price of a picture. Further, 
aie mentioned a figure of Fortune, seated ; a naked 
hero ; a back view of a Hercules ; a clothed figure 
of one of the Graces; Clitus preparing for battle, 
mounted on his charger, and receiving his helmet 
from his ann-bearer ; Antigonus in armor walking 
by the side of his horse ; Archelans with his wife and 
daughter ; and the two following works, the only two 
pictures by ApeUes recorded, which appear to have 
contained a considerable number of figiues — ^Diana 
surrounded by ber nymphs, in which he was allowed 
to have surpassed the lines of Homer, from which he 
took his subject ; and the pomp or procession of the 
high priest dTDiana at Ephesus. The pictures of Apel- 
les were probably mostly painted upon panels of larch, 
(he used to boast that he never pfdntad upon a wall,) 
and executed in distemper : the impasto was doubt- 
less very similar to that of the Italian quattrocento 
masters before the introduction of oil painting. The 
Greeks had abundant resouroes in colors, and there 
is every reason to suppose that they were in eveiy 
respect as great in painting as in sculpture. Apelles 
himself, among other distinctions, is renowned for 
having introduced a very effective mode of glazing, 
or toning his pictures, which Sir Joshua Reynolds 
assumed to be tiie same process adopted by the Vene- 
tians of the sixteenth century. [See Pbotooenbs.] 
— ^Many anecdotes are recorded showing the intimacy 
between Alexander tiie Great and Apelles, and others 
of still more value, showing his own liberality of dis- 
position, and great skill and judgment in his art. 
One anecdote, related by Pliny, as illustrating a pe- 
culiar feature of Greek customs, may be recorded 
here : — ^Apelles had put in at Alexandria, driven there 
by contrary winds ; Ptolemy I. was then, at the close 
of the 4th century B.C., king of Egypt, with whom, 
while he was general, Apelles had been on bad terms. 
Some of the painter's rivals at the court of Ptolemy, 
taking advantage of this droumstance, endeavored to 
do him an injury ; they persuaded the royal fool to 
incite ApeUes to sup with the king. ApeUes attended 
accordingly, but Ptolemy indignant at the intrusion, 
demanded by whom he had been invited ; when the 
painter seizing an extinguished coal from the hearth, 
drew upon the waU the features of the man who had 
invited him with such mastery, that Ptolemy in the 
very first Unes recognized the portrait of his buffoon, 
and through this trifling incident became reconciled 
to the painter and received him into his favor. — 
ApeUes survived Alexander many years ; he does not 
appear to have accompanied him as far as Babylon ; 
the date of his death is unknown. He leflb writings 
on the arts, which he dedicated to his pupil Peraeus ; 
they have not been preserved. He was celebrated 




for fihe beauty of the hones in his pictures. — There 
was another Apelles, of Ephesns, mentioned by Lu- 
cian, who lived at the conrt of Ptolemy Philopator, 
about B.C. 220.— <Pliny, /Z*rf. NaL xxxv. 86 ; Plu- 
tarch, Aral. 12, Alexander 4, Fori Alet, Mag» 2, 8 ; 
Junius, CakioguM Artificumj &c. &c.— Womum, Epochu 
of PcinUng, vol. i.) [R.N.W.] 

APELLICON, a philosopher, Ist oenttuy B.a 

APER, Mabcds, an orator, 1st century. 

APER, Arius, a Roman preefect, killed 284. 

APHTHONIUS, a rhetorician, dd oentury. 

APIAN, Peteb, a German astron., 1495-1589. 

APICIUS, a noted glutton, time of Augustas. 

APIN, J. L., a medical writer, 17th centoiy. 

APION, or APPION, a celebrated grammarian, 
and historian of Egypt, Ist century. 

APOLLINARIS, Caius S., a grammarian who 
taught at Rome, 2d centoiy. 

APOLLINfARIS, bishcm of Laodioea, 4th cent 

APOLLINARIS, son of the preceding, and reputed 
author of a heresy. 

APOLLINARIUS, Glaudius, a learned writer, 
bishop of HieropoliB, 2d century. 

APOLLODORUS of Athbnb. See Zbuxis. 

APOLLODORUS of Damascus, one of the most 
celebrated architects of antiquity. He built the 
forum and column of Trajan at Rome, of which there 
are still magnificent remains, in the year 118 a.d. 
and was much employed by Trajan in Rome and else- 
whore. fiQs most remarkable work, however, was 
the great bridge over the Danube in Bulgi^ia, where 
the Alt runs into that river; it stood on 20 piers, 150 
feet high above the foundations, 60 feet wide, and 170 
feet apart. It was built for the emperor Trajan ; the 
bridge was of wood, but the piers were of stone. The 
wood-work was afterwards destroyed by Hadrian, as 
it gave the barbarians too great facilities for crossing 
the Danube. Remains of the piers are still standing. 
Apollodorus is said to have fallen a victim to the 
jealousy of Hadrian, who dabbled in architecture as 
well as other arts. — (Dion Cassius, Ixviii. 18, Ixix. 4 ; 
Procopius d» Mdif. Justiniani, iv. ; Hirt. GeschidUe der 
Baukuntt,) [R.N.W.] 

APOLLODORUS, a Qreek pamter, 5th c b.g. 

APOLLODORUS, a Greek gram., 2d cent. B.C. 

APOLLODORUS, a naturalist, 1st century. 

APOLLODORUS, an architect, killed 180. 

APOLLODORUS, a philosopher, time of Cicero. 

APOLLONIA, a female martyr, 248. 

APOLLONIUS, a Christian martyr, 2d cent. 

APOLLONIUS, bishop of Ephesus^ 2d cent. 

APOLLONIUS, CoLLATxus, a monastic poet of 
Navarre, 15th century. 

APOLI^ONIUS, DrsooLua, a grammatical writer 
and historian, 2d century. 

APOLLONIUS, Mtndds, an astronomer and astrol* 
oger, time of Alexander the Gkeat 

APOLLONIUS OF Pebqa, author of a treatise on 
conic sections, 8d oentury B.G. 

APOLLONIUS, Rhodeus, a poet, librarian of Al- 
exandria, died B.G. 240. 

APOLLONIUS, Ttaneos, a Pithagor. philos., and 
reputed worker of miracles, .1st century. 

APONO, or ABANO, Peteb of, a celebrated pro- 
fessor of medicine, noted for his studies in astrology 
and magic, 1250-1816. 

APOSTOLI, G. F., a Latin poet, 16th century. 

APOSTOLIUS, Michel, a learned Greek refugee 
from Constantinople, 15th century. 

APPERLEY, C. J., a writer on sporting subjects, 
known as ^Ninurod,' died 1848. 

APPIAN, a celebrated historian, lived in the reigns 
of Tr^^^n, Hadrian, and Antoninc. 

APPIANI, Andrea, a painter, 1750-1818. 

APPIANO, P. A., a disting. Jesuit, 17th cent. 

APPLETON, DANIK^ born in HaverhiU, Mass., 
in the year 1791 ; a bookseller and the founder of 
the publishing house of Applotou & Co.; died in 

APPLETON, Jesse, D. D., bom at Ipswich, New 
Hampshire, 1772, graduated at Dartmouth, 1792, 
ordained at Hampton, N. H. 1797. Elected Presi- 
dent of Bowdoin CoUege in 1807, and died 12th Nov., 
1819. He was a man of respectable talents. 

APPLETON, Nathaniel, D. D., an eminent New 
England clergyman, bom at Ipswich in 1698, grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1712, ordained at Cambri<^ in 
1717, in which year he was also elected a fellow of 
Harvard, which 54 years afterwards conferred upon 
him the second degree it had ever granted of Doctor of 
Divinity, Increase Mather, 80 years before, being the 
first admitted to that honor. He died in 1784 in the 
sixty-sixth year of his ministry and the 91st of his age. 

APREEOE, or RHESE, John, an antiq., 16th c. 

APRIES, or HOPHRA, king of Egypt, 695 b.c. ; 
dethroned by Amasis, 570 b.o. 

APROSIO, A., a monastic writer, 1607-1681. 

APTHORP, East, a clergyman of the church of 
England, bora in Boston 1738, went to England for 
education and graduated at Cambridge. After hia 
ordination he was appointed a misaiimary of the So- 
ciety for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
parts. He was sent in 1761 to Cambridge, Mass. 
During his residence there he engaged in a contro- 
versy with Dr. Mayhew, a congregational minister, 
in defence of the venerable society, in which he 
highly distinguished himself. He returned to Eng- 
land, and was afterwards vicar of Croydon, and rector 
of Bow church, London. He lost his sight in 1790, 
exchanged his living for the prebend of Finsbury and 
retired to Cambridge, in England, where he died in 
1816, aged 03. Besides his publications concerning 
the Propagation Society he was author of an answer 
to Gibbon and a discourse concerning prophecy. As 
a writer he was learned, terse and logical 

APULEIUS, a botanist, 4th century. 

APULEIUS, LnciuB, the eel author of a philo. 
romance, entitled the * Metamorphoses, or Golden 
Ass,' a Roman Platonist of the 2d century. 

AQUARIUS, a scholastic philosopher, 16th c 

AQUAYIVA, Andr. Matt., duke of, a celebrated 
scholar and soldier, 1456-1528. 

AQUAVIVA, Claude, a Jesuit, 1542-1615. 

AQUAVIVA, Octavio, abp. of Naples, 1612. 

AQUILA, an architect and tavtmt of the 2d cent, 
who was excom. for practising astrology. 

AQUILA, Caspak, (the Latinized form of his 
proper name Adler,) a friend and fellow- worker of 
Luther in the Reformation of Germ., 1488-1560. 

AQUILANO, an Italian poet, 1466-1500. 

AQUIL ANUS, a physician of Padua, d. 1548. 

AQUINAS, Thomas, usually called the Angelio 
Doctor, was a younger son of the count of Aquino^ 
and was bom at the castle of Rocca Sicca in 1227. 
This place was situated on the border line between 
the states of the church and the territory of Naples. 
From his earliest years he was smitten with the love 
of solitary study, and when a very young man he 
entered the Dominican order. Force was employed 
to prevent his becoming a monk, but in vain. So 
much was the youthful scholar wrapt up in his own 
cogitations, that when he studied at Cologne, under 
Albertus Magnus, his foUow-pupils gave him the 
name of Bo8 MuiiUf * mute oje* on account of his taci- 
turnity and apparent stupidity. In 1255 the univer- 
sity of Paris gave him the Utle of Doctor in Theolo- 


[ « ] 


gj. Hs lectured with brlDiuit moceu in Parii, in 

■CTera] of the Italian oniTerntiea, and nltlmttcly at 
Napltw. Being sammoDed by tlie pope to attend B 
general connci] at Lynni in 1274, he oommenced hii 
jotimej, and had reached MflrraciiE^ where be died, 
Kt the age of forty-eight. He waa canoniied by pope 
Jolin XXn. in 1SS3. The Parisian edition of his 
worki ia in twenty-three folio voltnnes. Bnt the 
amaiing lodiutTy of Thomaa during hia brief life, is 
wholly eclipaed by his prodigioni mental wealth, aa 
displayed in hia ' Snmma Thoologic ' and ' Commen- 
taiy OQ the Sentences of Peter Lombard.' In conoiBe 
and einiest simplicity of style, in snbtle and dariag 
Bpecnlation, in pnrity and loTtinoss cd* aim, ia ortho- 
doxy of religians sent[ment, In aenteness and vigor. 
In breadth and depth of new, in intsllect and heart. 
Id piety and temper, Thomu Aquinas U the acknowl- 
edsed prince of the medieval schoolmen and divinei. 

AQUINO, Ctt, a Jesnit, I854-1T40. 

AQUINO, L., Ci^ an organist, died 177B. 

AQUINO, Ph., a learned rabbin, died 1650. 

AJtABCHAH, a Mahomed, historian, d. U50, 

ARABELLA STUART, a first eonrin of Jnmes L, 
sod, from bei near affinity to the ctown, an object 
of snspi^on, both to that prlnoe and hi« predeoessor, 
Bijabeth. Died in the Tower, where her long and 
inelaDcholy oonflDement deprived her of reaann, ]61S, 

ARAGO, Francois Dohiniqite, a oelobratcd 
French astronomer, wai bom in EMagel, in the HMth 
of France, Feb. «, 1786. The early evidence he 
gave of talent induced his father, who had oripnally 

intended him in acoordanee with his hum Sle position 
for a simple agricultural lile, to send him to an ex- 
cellent school at Touloiue. The taste and aptitude 
be he™ evinced for a study of the tiatura] sciences 
were loch, that it was resolved to give bim eveiy 0|>- 
portonity of developing bis pecQliar taleut, and he 
was aceordingly presented for admission into tlio 
Polytechoic achoo! of Paris. Bit eiaminer was so 
ttmcV by his annrer to the first question that lie de- 
clined to propose another, and sent him to the inslitn- 
tioii, with high compliments of hia ahili^ and attain- 
nienta. He distinguiahed himself by the ardor of liia 
pniBuit of science, and the snccMSofhia studies while 
■ student of the Polytechnic, and after having com- 
pleted the cuiricnlnm there, was attached to ^e Ob- 
aervatoFj of Paris. Such was the rapid noknow- 
ledgment of bis ability, that he soon after received 
the qipointmoiit of tuiiitant to M. Diot, in the aci- 
■ntifio cotumisuou for the ueasnrDment of au arc of 

the meridian in Sp^ While Amga wai at Galaio 
in HajorcB, engaged in the icientiGc dnty to which 
he had been ^^mtod by hia country, war broke out 
betireen Fiance and Spain, and the Gras which he 
made to aid hia observations excited the sn^eion of 
the ignorant populace, who fancying them boacona 
to guide the French in theii mareh, made an attempt 
to seise npott Uie young philosopher. He however 
succeeded in eac^iing to the coast in diagnise, and fled 
for lefoge to the French vessel the Mystiqas, but 
was reftued pnilection, nottrithataiuling that the cap- 
tain had beoi iwerionily obedient to Us orders. In 
this emerBeDoy be letamed to land, and aoogbt secu- 
rity for his li& by placing bimaelf under the protec- 
tion of the antboritiei at &b prison. On his way be 
waa Buironnded by a furious crowd, and waa stabbed 
by one of thesn. Hs however succeeded in reachmg 
the prison, wbere he remained (br a short time, ontu 
through the conntvanoe of the Spanish captain-gena- 
nd he neceeded in making bis escape. He reached 
the coast, where a boat attended him, and having em- 
barked, made his way throogh the British squadnm 
which blocliaded the coait and arrived in aafe^ at 
Algieia, He now took passage on board an Algtoln* 
vessel bound to Marsfiilles, and arrived within sight oT 
thatportwhen hia vetacl was c^tnred by a Spanish pri- 
vateer and he taken prisoner to Rosas. Anattemptwai 
made to frighten AJago, by the show of preparatioa 
for an execution, into the coofeauon that he waa a ren- 
egade Spaniard, thatthe govemaientmigbt be justified 
in conllsoating iba vessel In the meantime he was im- 
prisoned in a loathaome dungeon, overrun with veiv 
min, and almost atarvcd to deadi. Arago now hit 
upon an expedieat for relief. Two liana had been 
sent by the Oey oi Algien at a present to the empo- 
rar Napoleon, and placed in the vessel m which Aisgo 
had taken passage and which hod been captured. 
One of these animJals had died, and Arago bethought 
himself of writing woid to the Dey that it bad been 
starved to death by the Spaniards. He succeeded in 
sending off a letter to that pntport, whioh was re- 
ceived hy the Uey, who, much enraged at the treat- 
ment of his beast, called the Spanish govemnwot to 
account, and demanding eompensatioii for the seizure 
of the veosel, threatened war if the demand waa not 
LDStantly complied with. Arago was now permitted 
[o Bet sail for MareeiUea, but being under the gnidanCA 
if an ignorant pilot, his vessel was kept drifting about 
the Mediterrsneau for several days, until by hazard 
the" coast of Africa wos made, when Arago landed at 
Boogie. The vessel had been so much damaged that 
it was deemed unseaworthy, and it waa determined to 
al>audon her. Arago now rcjiolved to make his way 
Algiers by land, and accordingly disguising himself 
an Arab he succeeded in reaching tiiat place with 
fety. On Ms airiral he found ^t the Duy had 
, it died, and a revolution hod broken out which re- 
lulted in the death of the legitimate incccssor. The 
>er made a demand upon France for the payment 
pretended debt, and as the French govemment 
positively refused compliance, the names of tbe Fronch 

the list of slaves, and the galleys threatened as the 
destiny of the philosopher. Alter moch sufiering and 
anxiety, Arago, in 1809, obtained pemuaaion to leave 
Algieia with a convoy of Algerine vessels and a oor- 
aair of that naUon in which ho him»elf embarked. 
The convoy had not sailed out of sight of Algiers 
wiieu they were pounoed upon by a brace of Enghsb 
frigates. The coreuir, on board of which Arago had 
taken passage, succeeded in eluding the English, 
though several times chased, and landrd liim in aafety 
on the French coast 

AKA [ 

On his anivkl at Paris he woa welcomed with great 
«alhi»ium mi elected with nccIunatioD a membci 
of the inetitme. Witbia the compass oT a brief 
bio)(raphy it would be impoHibla to eiinmerate all the 
bHiliaut diiooTeriei with which Arago haa iUmniDa- 
ted oatoral science. The deCenuinatiDa of the diam- 
eters of the planets, the dlaooieiy of coJoied polaHia- 
tion of Zight, and of magzietiBQi by rotation, are 
amoDi; the moat remarkable. Tlie ' Tranasotiani of 
the Academy of Scieoces,' of which he was Moretaiy, 
are enriched by hi> tcientifie contribation> ; and vo- 
rioni published memoiia lemify to his indurtiy and 
philosopliical fwuns. In politic* Arago always ad- 
vocated the cante of prc^isu, and in the reToIation 
of 1830 he boldly preaantEd himself as a cbaminoa of 
democracy. Diiring the mgn of Lonis Philippe be 
wBs a member of the chamber of depaliea and sat on 
the extreme left. His itileieat in politics was never 
allowed to interfere with his philonphio pnimits. 
He was appMnted head erf the Parts Obaerratory, and 
directed with undiminished ardor its astronomical oh- 
■ervations. In tlie proviiional Koverument of 1848 
he held the office of minister of marine, and ffaUUki] 
its duties to the manifest advantage of the republic, 
of which he was an ardent supporter. On the no- 
lent accesnon of Loaia Napoleon to the imperial 
throne, Arago refased to take the oath of aJlegiance 
ta the Qsnrper, but in ooaseqoence of his fame and 
the gloty he had shed over his oonatry, he was left 
undisturbed in his position at the head of the obser- 
vatory, and oondnned to devote himself with elusive 
ardor to hie scientific pnnaits until his death in the 
year 1863. 

ARAGON, Tduja of, a poetess, IBth cent. 

ARAJA, Fa., a muodan, 18th century. 

ARAM, EuoEirE, a schoolmaster of disting. learn- 
ing, executed for murder, 17fi9. 

ARANTIUS, a celebrated anatncilM, I6th Cent. 

ARATOR, a Latin poet, died 6S6. 

ARATUS, a poet and astronomer, Sd cent B.<^ 

ARATUS, general of the Aduean league, bom at 
Scyon, 27S B.C.; died 216 B.C. 

IrBACES, governor of Media, Bth cent B.C. 

ARBAND, F., a French poet, died 1640. 

ARBOGAST, L. F. A., a Fr. onnt, 1769-lBOS. 

ARBOGASTES, a getieral in the Rom. annie^ of 
barbarian origin, d. 395. 

AKBRISSEL, Robest or, an abbot, d. 1 1 1 7. 

ARBUCKLE, Jameb. a Scotch poet, d. 1784. . 

ARBULO, P. M., a Spanish sculptor, 16tli c 

ARBUTHXOT, Alsx., a Scotch divine, distin- 
guished OS a reformer, 1688-1588. 

ARBLTHNOT, Ax-eubdeb, a Scotch printer, 
16th century. 

ARBUTHNOT, JoHw, an em. physician of the 
ITth centoiy, bat more cUstinf^shed as a man of 
letters and a wit; the associate of Pope and Swilt, 
and the companion of Bolingbroke, at the oourt of 
Queen Anne: 1676-1786, 

AKCADIUS, emperor of the East, 896-408. 

ARCERE, Ayr., a French Orientalist, d. 1S9B. 

ARCEKE, Louis St., a French hist., 18th c. 

ARCESH-AUS, a Gr, phiioeopher, *th c. B.C. 

ABCH, JoHM, an Indian interpreter of the Chero- 
kee tribe, who died in 1825 while translating the 
Gospel of St. John. 

ARCHDALE, Joiw, governor of Carolina in 1696. 
During his administration, which lasted about live 
yean, great progresa was mode in internal Improre- 
menta, and he laid the foandation of the future pros- 
perity of the colony by the introduction of the rice 
plant, a small bag of the seed tieiiig given him by 
llie captain of a vessel from Madagascar. He pub- 

6 ] ABO 

liafaed in 1707 a history and deseriptim of Ilia 

ARCHELAUS, the teacbeT of Socrates In phyucal 
philosophy, 6th oeutuiy n.n. 

ARCHELAirS, a geographer, time of Alexaidei. 

ARCHELAUS, biehop of Mesopotamia, 278. 

ARCHELAUS, bishop ofCffiearea. 410. 

ARCHELAUS, chief general of Mlthridates TL, 
king of Pontn*, 1st century B.C. 

ARCHELAUS L, son of the praeeding, high prieM 
of Comana, 68 B.a. ; altorwarda, by hie marriage 
with Beivnice, king of Egypt ; dethroned and put to 
defttii B.C. 66. 

ARCHELAUS II., son and snceeMor of the prece- 
ding as the priest-king of the city of Comana ; de- 
pOB«d by JnUns Caesar 47 B.C. 

ARCHELAUS, son irf the last named, king of Cap- 
padaaa, B.C. 34 to a.i>. 16. 

ARCHELAUS, king of Macedon, B.c 413-399. 

ARCHELAUS, king of Sparts^ 9th cent. b.c. 

ARCHELAUS, the successor of his father Hend 
the Great as ruler of Judiea; deposed and banithed 
by Augustus on accoont of his cmelly, T. 

ARCHENHOLZ, J. W. Von, a German historian, 

ARCHENHOLZ, J., a Swed. hisL, 1696-17TT. 

ARCHIAS, a Corinthian arcbit, 3d cent B.C 

ARCHIAS, AouiB, L., a client of Cicero. 

ARCHIDAMUS L, king of SpaKa, b.c 630; flie 
sscKid of diii name king, b.c 469, died 427; the 
Mrd. reigned B.C S61-S66 ; the /oarli, B.C. 296-298; 
the jiflA, B.C. 240. 


ARCHIMEDES, tho most celebrated of the andent 
seometcra, was bom at Syracuse, abont 291 B.C. 
He was related, era his father's aide, to Hiero king r£ 
Syracuse, who deemed it an honor to liave so distin- 
guished a philosopher at his relative. Having oo- 
quired at an early age all the knowledge which could 
be obtained in his native city, he visited Egypt, which 
had long been regarded as the great seat of scienoe, 
and he remained there for severu years, enjoying the 
society of ila distinguiahed men, and stOTing bis mind 
with the knowledge whioh they imparted. With a 
partlslin which cannot be too severely condemned, 
one of the biographers of our philosopher has asserted 
that he conveyed to the EgTptiuu more knowledge 
' <ed; bnteven if we had c"'"^ ' 

dnced the same truth ttiita the well-knon , 
of the Greek philoaophers, who, in the infknoy of 
their science, went in qnist of it to Egypt Upon hit 
return to Syracuse, laden with the inteliectoal spoils 
of the East, he devoted the whole of his tnne to the 
oultivation of the maUiematicBl and phyocal Eoiateea^ 



•nd it was only when his ooontzy was in danger that 
be abandoned bis stadies, and directed all the ener- 
gies of his mind against the enemies of Syracnse.^ 
In the war which was carried on by the Romans 
against Hiero, abont the year 212 b.o. they had ob- 
tained some «gnal advantages in Sicily, and were 
thns emboldened to lay siege to Syrncnse itself. In- 
spired with tenor at Ihe naval and military prepara- 
tions of the Roman general, the inhabitants were dis- 
posed to offer an ignominious capitolatioo. Archime- 
des, however, removed their fears, and inspired them 
with oonrage. He is said to have erected vast ma- 
chines, nnder tiie protection of the walls of the city, 
which bafflled the attempts of the Roman engineers, 
and carried terror into the camp of the enemy. The 
machines by which he resisted the assaults of the 
Romans have not been described, and we can easily 
conceive that he erected works of defence which dis- 
concerted and alarmed his enemies ; bat when we are 
told that he sank the ships of the besiegers when they 
approached the city, by means of long beams of wood, 
and that, with grappUng hooks at the end of levers, 
he raised the vessels into the air, and dashed them 
against the rocks or the walls, we feel that we are in 
the region of fable and romance, and most regard all 
such assertions as among the impossibilities of practi- 
cal science. The inventi<xis by which he is said to 
have destroyed the Roman fleet when at a distance 
are less incredible. We may well believe that he had 
so improved the ballistSB of the ancients as to throw 
stones or missiles to a greater distance, and with a 
greater force, than had been done before ; and we 
may even admit that, by a number of plane mirrors 
throwing the reflected image of the sun upon one 
point, he could bum a ship at a distance ; but we 
cannot believe that the Roman fleet was thus destroy- 
ed, unless we had it in evidence that the crew were 
asleep. We have in the present day better mirrors 
than Archimedes could conmiand, and better ma- 
chinery for uniting their reflections upon one point, 
but we venture to say that a British or a French ad- 
miral would laugh at any such attempt to annoy 
him. Buflbn, it is true, has endeavored to attach a 
degree of probability to the story of burning a ship 
optically. He combined 168 plane mirrors so that 
he coold direct the light of the son which they re- 
flected to one spot, and he found that he could bum 
wood with them at the distance of 200 or 800 feet — 
This curious subject has been more recently discussed 
by M. Peyrard. Assuming the accuracy of Bufibn's 
experiments that f;ot times the heat of tiie sun is suf- 
ficient to inflame planks smeared with tar, M. Pey- 
rard supposes that ei^ times the san's heat will set 
fin to all kinds <^ wood ; and upon this supposition 
he found that, at the distance of about a sm/Ss oad a 
higif^ it would require 2,267 miirors to bum wood, and 
at the distance of thrtu quarttn of a mSk 590. This 
calculation proceeds upon the supposition that their 
reflections are all coincident, and that the mirrors 
have their two surfaces perfectly plane and parallel 
Bat it is well known that these conditions are impos- 
sible, and that the most perfect mirror that the most 
skilful optician could grind and polish, would, at the 
distance of three quarters of a mile, and much less, 
scatter thd light which it reflects over a surface ten 
times greater than its own, and would have very litde 
power in the combustion of wood. But there are 
other conditioiis necessary before these mirrorB, even 
if mathematically perfect, could set flre to ships. The 
ships must be absolutely at rest before the combined 
reflectors could infiame the wood upon which they 
fell, and, as has been abeadv stated, ^e crew must 
be asleep in the daytime when the son b shining. 

We regard, therefore, the story of the burning of the 
Roman fleet to belong as much to romance as the 
fishing for ships with hooks at the end of levers, the 
sinking of them by long beams, and the whirling of 
them in the air by ropes and grappling hooks. It is 
no slight presumption in favor of these opinions that 
the gigantic mechanism which the Syracusan philoso- 
pher is said to have wielded against the Roman power 
was of little avail in the defence of the capital The 
siege was converted into a blockade. During the 
celebration of the festival of Diana, when the Syracu- 
sans had indulged in a fatal security, the Romans at- 
tacked and obtained possession of the city. Marcellus 
had iflsued an order that Arohimedes and his house 
should be spared ; but, either firom ignorance of the 
order on the part of a Roman soldier, or from the ob- 
stinacy of Archimedes in refusing submission, he «ras 
run trough the body while drawing a geometrical 
diagram on the sand. Mareeilus was deeply afllicted 
when he heard of the event He took the relatives 
of the philosopher under his special protection, and in 
erecting a monument to his memory, he tulfilled the 
wish that Archimedes had expressed in his lifetime, 
that a sphere inscribed in a cylinder should be en- 
graven on his tomb. The death of Archimedes took 
place B.C. 212, and 140 years afterwards, Cicero, 
while questor in Sicily, went with a party of Syracu- 
san nobles in search of the tomb of the great philoso- 
pher, which his countrymen had allowed to go into 
decay. ' Remembering,' says Cicero, * some verses, 
said to have been inscribed on his tomb, which men- 
tioned that on the top of it tiiere was placed a sphere 
in a cylinder, I looked around mo upon every object 
at the Agrigentine Gate, the common receptacle of 
the dead. At length I obser\'ed a small column rising 
above the thorns, upon which was placed the repre* 
sentation of a sphere in a cylinder. This, said I to 
the nobles, must be what I am seeking. Several per- 
sons were immediately got to clear away the weeds 
and lay open the spot. As soon as a passage was 
made, we found on the opposite base the inscription, 
with nearly the latter half of the verses obliterated.' 
— The reputation of Archimedes did not reqnire to h* 
sustained by the fables with which the vanity of hi^ 
coantxymen has surrounded his name. Hif* disoove- 
rios in geometry, mechanics, and hydrodynamics 
would have immortalized him, had posterity never 
heard of his magical artillery against the Roman 
fleet He discovered that the surface as well as the 
solidity of any sphere is equal to two thirds of its 
circumscribing cylinder; and that the ratio of the 
diameter of a circle to its circumference is nearly as 
7 to 22. It is to him that we owe the demonstration 
of the fundamental property of the lever, and the 
method of finding the centre of g^vity of plane sur- 
faces. He discovered the guaoi/aevryus pressure of 
fluids, and pointed out the condition under which a 
solid body is in equilibrio when floating in a fluid. 
He invented the screw for raising water which bears 
his name ; and we owe to him the process of detect- 
ing the adulteration of the precious metals, which he 
so successfully applied in proving the impurity of the 
gold in king Hiero's crown. — ^A splendid edition of 
tiie works of Archimedes was printed at the Claren- 
don Press at Oxford, in 1792, edited by the Rev. 
Abraham Robertson. [^'^O 

ARCHINTO, the name of a noble family of Milan, 
many of whom were distinguished as men of letters, 
ecclesiastics, and statesmen, from the 12th to the 
17th cent Chaslbs, founder of a scientific acade- 
my, 1669-1782. Phiup, abp. of Mikn, d. 1558. 
GiusEPPK, abp. and card., d. 1712. Octavidb, an 
antiq. and diplomatist, d. 1666. 


[48 ] 


ARCHON, Louis, an antiqnariaii, 1645-1717. 

ARCHYTAS, a mathe. and plulo. of the Pjthago- 
rean schl., dist. for his prac. abilities, 5th c b.c. 

ARCO, Alph. De, a Sp. painter, died 1700. 

ARCO, NiCH., Connt, a Latin poet, died 1546. 

ARGON, J. Cl. Eleon. Lemiceaud D', a military 
engineer of France, 1733-1800. 

ARCOUS, C/BSAB OF, a Fr. advocate, d. 1681. 

ARCUDIUS, Peter, a Greek priest, diplomatic 
agent of Clement VIII., died 1635. 

ARCUDI, Alex. Tqos., of, a biographical writer 
of Venice, died 1720. 

ARCULPHUS, a French traveller, 7th century. 

ARCY, Patrick, a military writer, died 1779. 

ARDELL, J. M., an Irish engraver, died 1765. 

ARDENE, EsPRrr Jean De Rome D', a poet of 
Marseilles, 1684-1748. 

ARDENE, Jean Paul, brother of tfao preceding, 
distinguished as a botanist, 1689-1769. 

ARDERN, John, an English sorgdoiij 14th cent 

ARDERNE, James, an English divine, died 1691. 

ARDINGHELU, M., an a^braist, 18th cent 

ARDUm, elected king of Italy 1002, d. 1015. 

AREAGATHUS, a Greek physician, 8d c. B.a 

AREGIO, P. De, an Italian painter, 16th cent 

ARENA, Anth., a French poet, died 1544. 

ARENA, James o^ a jurist, 13th century. 

ARENA, Jos., a Corsican in the French service, 
execut 1802, on a charge of consp. agt Bonaparte. 

ARENDS, Th., a Dutch poet, died 1700. 

ARENDT, M. F., a Danish antiquary and travel- 
ler, remarkable for the singularity of his life and 
adventures, 1769-1824. 

ARENSBECK, P. D., a Swedish schL, died 1673. 

ARESI, Paul, an Italian prelate and theological 
and philosophical writer, 1574-1644. 

ARESON, the last Roman Catholic bishop of Ire- 
land, beheaded with his sons, 1550. 

ARETiGUS, a Greek physician, 1st century. 

ARETIN, A. and J. G., two brothers and art-wri- 
ters of Germany, 18th century. 

ARETIN, J. A. C. J., baron of, a diplomatist and 
man of letters, 1 769-1822. 

ARETIN, J. C, brother of the preceding, a states- 
man and author, 1773-1824. 

ARETINO, Chas., a classical scholar, celebrated 
at Florence, 15th century. 

ARETINO, Fr., a hiwyer, 15th century. 

ARETINO, GuiDo, a muscian, 11th century. 

ARETINO, an Italian painter, 14th century. 

ARETINO, Leonard, an historian, died 1443. 

ARETINO, Peter, an Ital. poet, eel. as a reckless 
satirist of princes and churchmen, 1492-1557. 

ARRETINUS, an Italian musician, 16th cent 

ARETIUS, Ben., a Swiss botanist and theological 
teacher, died 1574. 

AREUS, king of Sparta, 268 B.a 

ARGiEUS, lung of Macedon, 618 b.o. ; a aeoand 
of the same name usurped the throne, 393 b.g. 

ARGAIS, Greo., a Spanish historian, 17th ct 

ARGALL, R., an English poet, 16th cent 

ARGALL, Samuel, Sir, an adventurer who at the 
beginning of the seventeenth century attained wealth 
and eminence by his bold unscrupulous conduct 
For several years he was engaged in contraband 
traffic with Virginia. By the bribe of a copper 
kettle he obtained possession of Pocahontas, whom 
he carried to Jamestown, in 1612. The next year 
he was the means of creating hostilities between 
the English and French colonists by attacking a 
French settlement In Maine. On the plea that 
the discovery of Cabot had given to England 
the dominion of the Western world, he fitted out 

an expedition from Virginia and destroyed Port 
Royal and St Croix. The Dutch on the Hudson 
next fell under his power. By these high-handed 
ofxploits he obtained influence both in England and 
the colonies, and in 1617 was appointed Deputy Go- 
vernor of Virginia. His administration was vigorous 
but tyrannical, and he at once plundered the colony 
and restored it to order and prosperity. His regula- 
tions, almost equal to the blue laws in severity, were 
rigidly enforced. The attention of government was 
at length called to his rapacity, but, by the death of 
Lord Delaware, the instructions sent to that noble- 
man for his recall fell int^ his hands, and he used 
the interval before the arrival of a new governor in 
increasing his exactions and transporting his pro- 
perty to Europe. He still continued active, engaged 
in the Algerine expedition, was knighted for his ser- 
vices in 1623, and took part in the hostilities witii 
Spidn. His character is written in his actions, but 
the impunity he enjoyed was in a great measure 
owing to his partnerahip with the Earl of Warwick, 
by whose aid he was able to baffle the colonial com- 

ARGAND, a chemist of Geneva, died 1808. 

ARGELLATI, Ph., an ItaL printer, bom 1685. 

ARGELLATI, Fr., son of Phelix, author of an 
imitation of Boccaccio, died 1754. 

ARGENS, J. B. BoYEB, marquis of, a philosophi- 
cal and misceUaneons writer, 1704-1771. 

ARGENTERO, J., a phys. of Piedmont, 16th c 

ARGENTI, A., a poet of Ferrara, died 1576. 

ARGENTRE, Bertrand, an historian and jurist, 
president of Rennes, died 1590. 

ARGHUN-EHAN, king of Perria, 1284-90. 

ARGOLI, And., an ItaL physician and mathema- 
tician, 1570-1653. 

ARGOU, John, son of Andrew, a poet and archs»» 
ologist, died 1660. 

ARGOUNE, NoE^ a critical author, d. 1704. 

ARGUELLADA, Raymond, a Sp., disting. for his 
share in framing the constitution of 1812. 

ARGUELLES, Acoubt., a Spanish patriot, brought 
into note by the Revolution of 1612. 

ARGUIJO, Juan De., a Sp. poet, 17th cent 

ARGUSTIN, Anth., a Sp. antiquary, 16th ct 

ARGYROPYLUS, John, one of the Greek Mocsilf, 
refugees of the 15th centuiy. 

ARI, or ARA ERODE, a scholar and historian of 
Iceland, 11th century. 

ARIADNE, a Gr. princess, daughter of Leo. I., 
remarkable in the politics of the period, 457-515. 

ARIARATHES, ten kings of this name reigned m 
Cappadocia from the 4th to the 1st cent B.a 

ARIAS MONTANUS, an Orientalist, 16tii cent 

ARIBERT I., king of the Lombards, 653-«61. 

ARIBERT IL, succeeded 701, deposed 712. 

ARICI, CsBAR, an Italian poet, bom 3785. 

ARION, a Greek poet, 7th century, b.c. 

ARIOSTI, Amuo, a composer 17th centuiy. 

ARIOSTO, LoDovioo, the son of a gentieman in 
the service of the dukes of Ferrara, was bom in 1474, 
at Reggio, near Modena. His life, though not pros- 
perous, was far from being uneventful : during the 
whole of it he was employed, in various capatsities, 
by the ducal house of Este, who, niggardly and care- 
less in the treatment of this great poet, behaved oven 
worse in the next generation to the unfortunate Tnsso. 
From the schools of Ferrara he passed to Padua, 
where he was compelled to study law for five years, 
busying himself also with the classics, and being at 
length allowed by his father to abandon the legal 
profession. About 1503 he was received into tiie 
retinue of cardinal D*E8te, a younger son of the 

[ « ] 

reigning duke of Femn. Ai be gnw older, he wu 
npeatedlj empb^wd on oonfidsnEul poblio miaslona 
bj AUbiuo, the next dnke, tha oaidiiiftFa elder bro- 
thv; uid vben, in IJSIT, he loMthe cardinaT* faTOr 
hj decUningtostteiid him into Uimnrr, dnke Alfonia 
took him into hie own (errice. He rec^ved eome 
s, capable of being 
ad for three yean, 
fom 1633, be waa botiod in orgamxing and gorem- 
inf the moonteiooiu ^stnct of Qajfagnana, which 
liad jut becD n-aoqnired by the home of Eate. He 
cootimied to be a needj man, thoogh there it no 
tM«m bt mppoaing that he hred eitniagaDtl; or 
inegalarlj ; and, even if there wu inrofflcient grooDd 
fbr nia complajote of tha panimoD}' of hii patnnu, 
{t •moi to be qnjt« certain that thef wen bhnd to 
lua litoTBiy merit. Hia laet few yean wem epent in 
FensiK, where he died in 1A33. — Arioato would 
hold a place bo the hietoir of Italian lileranre, al- 
though he had eootribnted to it nothing bat hii mi- 
nor woAa. Hia Rime, er ihort ptecea of familiar 
icne, anoh aa lonuata and other lyrice, are eioettent 
intbeirclaaa; hiaWTenpoetioal Satirea, gay. f;Dod-ha~ 
mend, and wittilj obaerrant, itand in the first rank 
among Italian compmitiofu of (he kind ; and there 
ia much of felicitoo* wit, not witbont great indeoeo- 
cy, io bit five venified ComedJee. Bnt it la the ' Or- 
lando Fnrioao' that maket bim immortal, aa one of 
the gnateM of modem Eoropean poela. Thii cele- 
bxated work atanda in an odd r^ation to aimilar 
poema that praoaded it. In the oonrae of tbe Af- 
teenth oeoCniy, metrioal lomaDcea of chivali^ ap- 
peared in Italy ; and toirarda the oloae of that centnij 
Polci andBoiardo, borrowing from the romancea (he 
bbnloua history of Charlemagne and hia paludiiu, 
and ■"■'***'"); mach of that onioD of the aeriona and 
the comie which marked the eB^iona of the min- 
ttndi, wnked np tbaaa materials into chiTairone 
poau. Boiardo's 'Orlando lonamorato' takea ita 
name Irom the lore of ita hero, the knightly Orlando 
er Ridaiid, for the Eaatem prinoen Angelioa. Of 
thia poem, Aiioato'a (fint pnbliihed incomplete ia 
1516, and then in its preaeot abape ia llSSa) ia jiut 
Orlaodo'* madneat, canted by jea- 
I ita title, and a coruiderable part of 
Bat Chaiienugne'i war with 
Saracena ii fhlly Ttiated: iiotated adventorea of 
many cf hia champjona are oontinnally inlmdDoed ; 
and a prominanc^ which inomaiea aa tha work 
ptoeeeda, ia bestowed on the knight Roinlero and 
tha beaotiftil anaBin Bndamante. The poem 

which remore obataclea t< 

family of Esle ; and their 
history i* regarded as the leading nary of the 
Oiiando, by tboee critics who are unwilling to 
aDow that it ia nothing more than a collection 
of epiaodei. If unity of design was really at- 
temj^d by the poet, he baa certainly failed in the 
execntion : no one Mriea of adventorea ia so dedsiTo- 
ly proDuneot aa to fix the attention of the reader; 
and the several stories are interwoven, and altei> 
nately dropped and resnmed, with a caprice and 
complexity whidi make it no easy task to follow the 
winding*. The mixtnre of gayety with seriooaness 
is continual ; yet these lUssimilar elements are bar- 
moniied with mnch tkill and delicacy : and the airy 
■portiTeDeaa of fancy which ia preralent thronghont, 
sod the extraordinary animation with which the 
chiTalroos perila and acta of heroism are depicted, 
concur in abedding over the poem a charm which ia 
irreHstibla. lDpDUitafpoeticadomment,theOrlando 
is at once rkh and original : Arioato ia as mnch m- 
perior to Tasao in native genius, aa he is Infbrior to 
him fai ^11 of coflstractiTe art [W.S.] 

ARIOSTO, Gabbiel, brother of the celebrated 
poet, also a poetical writer. 

ARIOSTO, Horace, son of the preceding, a poet 
and comedian, died 1593. 

ARISI, Fb., an adroeate and poet, 1657-1748. 

ARIST.ENATUS, an elegant Greek wr., 4th o. 

ARISTARCHUS.Bgnunmariau and critic of noted 
severity, 2d centory B.C. 

ARISTAKCUUS, a Greek pbOoaopher of the Sd 
century 8.0. whose works on astronomy ahow that 
he was acquainted with the rotation of the eartb 
npon its own axis. 

AHISTEAS, a Jewish chromcler, Ist cent B.a 

ARISTIDES, a GiHik painter, Sd cent. D.O. 

ARISTIDES, ijjna, a Or. orator, 3d ct B.C. 

ARISTIDES, Qmrnuuir, • didactio writer, au- 
thor of a work on mntic, 3d oentary. 

AlilSTIDES, a philosopher, 3d centnry. 

ARISTIDES or Tsebbs, a painter, contemporary 
frith Apelles, was, according to Pliny, tbe gteatsit 
master of eipretaion amonji; the Greeks. The same 
writer relates that when Alexander the Great stormed 
Thebes, he waa so ttmck with a pictore by him of a 
dying mother with a child at her bosom, that he 
ordered it to be aent to hia palace at Peila. The 
works of Aiistidet were in groat repnte even during 
hia lifetime. Moaaon, tyrant of Elatea, paid bim 
£8,600 for a single easel piotuie of a battle of the 
Fenians, oontaimng one hondred figures only. Af- 
ter the siege of Corinth, U6 n.c., Attalaa III., king 
of Pergamns, offered £G,SOO for a picture of Bacchus 
and Ariadne by Aristides, but the Roman gfnenJ 
Mummias, thinking the piotare had some hidden 
value in it, tent it to Rome, where it was dedioattn) 
in the temple of Cares. A celebrated picture by thia 
painter, preserved in the temple of Apollo at Rome, 
waa daibuyed by a picture restorer, to whom the 
pmtor, M. Junius, had given it to be cleaned before 
the celebration of the Apctlinaria; another of the 
iucidenta which show how similar are the stories of 
ancient and modem art. Aristidea punted in en- 
caustic, that is with wax colors, the picture being 
afterwards bml ■..—(Pliny, Bin. Xm. riL 89, ixxv. 
4, 8, 10, 86, 11,39,40.) 

ARISTIDES, sumamed the Just, aa Athenian 
general and ataCesman, whose intrepidity greatly con- 
tributed totbevictoiyofMsrathoo. Being baoiahed 
through the Intriguea of Themistoclea, B.C. 483, hi) 
was leiealled by tua oountrymen to oppose Xerxes 




distin^iahed himself «t U 
tr Nmiig in the higheat ol 

After Nmiig in the higheat olBou of the state, he 
died a, poor m&n, 467 D.n. 

ARISTIPPUS, king of Aimu, hilled 2*2 B.C, 

ARISTIPPUS, a pnpil of Socrmi™, and foonder of 
a ichoal of philoaoph; at Cfiene, ith cent. b.o. 

ABISTO, on Anatotelian, Sd centoiy b.c. 

ARISTO, TiTTTB, a Stoie, Ijoio of Ti^an. 

ARISTOBULUS I., a Jewuh prineo, laccceded 
hia father Hjrcaniu aa lU);li priest, and took the dtle 
of king 107 B.c; died 108. 

AKISTOBULUS IL, nsu^ the throne TO b,c.j 
deposed bj Pompej G3 B.C. 

AEISTOBOLUS, brother of Mariatnno, -wife of 
Herod the Great, killed 35. 

ARISTOUITON, en Athenian, executed B.C. G16, 
Ibt oonapiring af^aiost the Piaistratidea. 

ARI?rOMENES, a Greek genera], npraaeoitative 
of the rojal honw of Mewene, 7th cent. B.C. 

ARISTOPHANES, a celeb, name in the Graek 
drama, author of numeroni comedies, eqoallj re- 
markable for the heanty of their compoBiliDn, and 
dieir pnogent satire, flouiiabed ia the Sth oL B.C. 
His liie and works have given occasioa to a vait 
■monot of learned writiug and critical inquiry, bat 
the facta kaown conoemiog him are few in number. 
Out of *i compositions of hia, only 11 ale aitant 

phyaician of Amyntas, king of MacedtKi, and his 
malher, Phostis, as well as bis father, believed to 
have been descended from Esculapins. Having lost 
both tiis pareuts ia early life, he was placed ander 
the goar^anship of Pronenua, an etoisent citizen cf 
Atametu, a city ia Mysia, aud altar completing his 
teventeeuth year, ha repaired to Athena, to study in 
(be school of Plato. Here he remained for twenty 
years, imbibing the noble spirit of hia master, devo- 
ting himself to the acquiaition of every speciea of 
knowledge, and honored in the estimattou of hia 
laacher and of his compHniona, as ' the intellect d 
the sohooL' Upon the death of Phito, 8*8 B.a, 
Ariatotio took up his residence at Atameua, on tlie 
iDvitatlon of his friend Hermeias, who though origi- 
nally the dnmestic slave of an Athaoian bi^er, who 
had permitted him to attend the school ofPlato, was 
now independent sovereigD of Atamans and Aaaoa. 
At the small bat interesting onirt of bis friend, and 

miToanded by llie scenes of his eariy studies, Aris- 
totle spent three happy yeais, enjoying the sooieqr 
of intellectual friends, anddavoting himself with nu' 
remitting assiduity to the stndy of nature. Here, 
too, he had formed ties warmer Ihaa those of friend- 
ship. Pytbia, the niece of the king, had gained his 
affection, and when the anfartunate aovereign had 
been betrayed by some n-ortUess iodividaue wtio 
had enjoyed his lioapitality, and had forfeited hi* 
life aa a rebel against tlie king of Persia, Aristotle 
fled to Lesbos with the family of his friend, and was 
soon afterwards married to his oiece, who did not 
lotig survive her uncle. During his residence at 
Hj^ene, in Lesboa, which was continued fbr two 
years, Aristotle seems to have received from Philip, 
Ung ofMacedoD, the flatterina; invitation to auperio- 
tend the education of Alexander his son. The com- 
pliment thus paid to bis talents and diaraoter was 
too high to be rejected ; and though the duties whioh 
anch an office demanded m%ht have interfered with 
the progress of his aiudiea, he cheerfully accepted of 
it, and todt np his rendence at Pella, when Alexan- 
der had reached his foiuteeoth year. The king re- 
ceived bitn with the most ma^ed attention, and 
science and learmng have in no future age been 
more highly honored than Ihey were at the court of 
Hacedon in the person of the dietinguiihed Stagy- 
rite, and through Che liberaUty of the most powerfbl 
of aovereigns. The Macedonian prince was in* 
stnicted during five or six years in grammar, riielw- 
ric, poetry, loeic, ethics, and politics, aud in thoM 
branches of pbyucs which had even at that time 
made some considerable progress. Aristotle mads a 
new collection of the Iliad for the use of his pujul, 
and composed a treatise ' On a Kingdom,' wtiich has 
not descended to our times. Upon the death of Phi- 
lip, in 3S€ B.C., Alexander sacceeded to the throne, 
when in the twentieth year of hia a§;e, and Aristo- 
tle continued to live with him as his liiend and coun- 
sellor till he set out on hia Auatio campaign in 3U 
B.C. The delicate constitution and intellectual hatuU 

of the philostqiher prevented him, at the age of fifty, 
from following hia pnpil in his martial career, and 
hs accordingly returned to Athens, where, in the 
charming retreat of the Lyceum, he delivered his 
leotures to crowded audieooea, while walking in the 
shade, amid the trees and fountains with which it 
was adorned. While thus instructing hia pnpils, and 
enjoying the popularity and repatation to which he 
had attained, he became, like all illustrious teachers 
of philosophy, the otgect of envy and persecution. 
His livala ia learmng diteoted agaimt him the asoal 
calomniea which genius ia ever deatined to endure 
from the ignorance and malice of its enemies ; and 
the heathen priests, dreading ^e progress of troth 
as the greatest enemy of their faith, charged the pbl- 
losopher with iminety and sedition. The frienddlp 
of Alexander had hitherto shielded him fivnn OpM 


[ 51 1 


pcnecBtlon, bnt npon the dutL of th&t mon&rch, in 
a.a S2&, he ma chBrged liafare tlie Areopogu* u 
u enemj' to the religioD of bi> oonntiy, nnd ftToided 
the fate of Socntee, wMch he knew awaited him, by 
making his exMfe to Chalci*, a cit; oTEnbcea. Id 
thii dtj of nsliigB bt spent the remainder oT hii life. 
Exhanalad with mental labor, and broken in ipirit 
h; hia mufortnnes, his feeble coiutitDtian gave way, 
and ba died in S82 d.c^ in the aixt^-thira jx>r of 
fail age, abont a year after hU retreat to Chalcla. 
Hii remains were carried to Stagirs by his feUow- 
citizens, and an altar and shrine erected over his 
graT«. The fettif al ofjlnrtocefid was iostitated in 
gT«titnde for his serriceB, and even in Plataich'a 
time, the garden of the phQaaopher, with its walka 
and bowers, was exhibited to the pnblic In his 
personal appearance, Aristotle was defbctiTe. Hs la 
described as hsTing little eyes and alender limbs, 
with a feeble voice and an imperfect attemnce ; and 
he it said to have itaprored tbe lymmetf; of hla per- 
son by gnat attention to dr«as, sad the nse of «!»- 
gant ornaments. The writings of Aristode were car- 
ried to Rome amons tlie other spoils of Athens, 
when it was captBred by Scjlla, and thej were edited 
by Aodroniens the Rhodian, abont Ibne hnndr«d 
Teani after they were composed. In onr narrow 
limits we can neither record the nnmber nor esti- 
mate the Talne of hia writings. He divided philoso^ 
pby into three departments — lAurttic, embracing 
pfayiiea,iiiatllemalies, theology and metaphpiicij e^ 
tiad, including logic, rhetoric, and poetry j and^nic- 
Int, indnding et£iea and politics. See Dr. GiUie'a 
£elK>«f iWUa efAri^uiie, mA <m accoimt of hi 
I^ 2 TOla. il& 1797. [Ti.B.] 

ARISTOXENUS, one of the most celebrated dis- 
elpks ct Aristotle, 4th ceatniy B.C. 

ARIU3, tbe noted heretic, was bom about the 
midda of the tfalid centniy. Hisentire life wasem- 
bioflad with disputes, principally with bishop Alex- 
ander and with Adfanaxtus on Uie divinity of Christ 
Alius held that God created hit Son, QM die 3on 
had Dot existed from aU eternity, and waa not in 
digni^ and euence eqoal with the Father. This 
fatal heresy was solemDly condemned hy the great 
oonncil which met at Ktoe In Zi6. Alter oomerons 
vicissitades, atrifta, and intrigues, Arias was in the 
act of celebrating; a trinmph in CoDitutiaople, wben 
be retired from 3ie crowd to latiBfy a caQ of natnre, 
and then and there mddenlj died at a very advan- 
ced >ge. His «nemiea mdely reckoned bis manner of 
death a judgment from Heaven. Arins was a man 
of bmtle and ambition, sotired by disupomtment, 
and irritated by defiant opposition, and his erron, if 
not prompted, ware at least shaped to aome eitei ' 
by tbe escituig circnmstanoea in which he wi 
placed. rJ.E.] 

ARKWSIQHT, Sm Riobud, an extraordinary 
man, whose genins ha* enatsd a permanent ' 
■ute on the oonstitslion at civiliaed society. 
in Pr«9tan in 1 7S2, of fanmbks parents, the youngest 
of thiitem children, he was brought np as a Iwrber. 
About 1 TGO he qnitted this precarious business, and 
dealt in kar, whicb he c(41eoted about the eoantrr, 
and discovered how to dye it and prepare it for wig 
makers. From 1T6T, not liU be was 8fi years of 
age, AilLwrighl gave himsdf up exclusively to the 
•abject of inventiona for apinning cotton. In ITSS, 
be was in Preston conatrncting bis fint maofaine. 
At thii time bis poverty was snch, that ' being 
bnigcSB of Praston he could not appear to vote ti 
tbe party with whtan be voted gave him a decent 
suit of clothes 1 * Apprehensive of meeting with tbe 
aanw hostile 

of the district as HargreaTes bad met witb, All:- 

wiight removed to Nottin^am, where he became a 
partner with Mr. Jedodiah Stmtt, the ingeniona im- 
praver and patentee of tbe stocking frame, and who 
' red essential assistance in perfecting tlie inven- 

tion fbr which Arfcwright obtJoed his first patent in 
1769. The improvement fbr which the patent was 
obtuned, consisted mainly in the nse of two pairs of 
KiDert, the flrst pair, between which the carded cot- 
ton in the form of a ' spnle,' or so(t oord, paised, re- 
volving slowly ; and the second pair revolving two, 
three, or ten times as f^t, so as to drtae ouf tbe 
spate to one-half, one-third, or one-tenth of Its 
thickness when between the first rollers. This in- 
vention was fallowed up by various improvementa 
and comblnatlDns of machinery, and mills for spin- 
ning cotton hy this method were erected in Nottlog- 
bam first, and then at Oromford m Derbyshire. The 
system has since been nniversally adopted, and in all 
its main feataresremains unaltered to the present time. 
Out of this invention hare grown np the largest mann- 
" ' re,tbelBrgesttrade,someDfthelHrEBstcitleB, the 
strevenu'', and the largest national prosperity in 
the world. Arkwright did not escape the system of rol>- 
bery and persecution, the fate of most patentees of 
saocessAil inreatians then as now. By aid of false 
witnesses a combination of the persons in the spin- 
ning trade succeeded in 1781 In depriving Ark wrlght 
of his patent right. The evidence upnn which the 
patent waa annulled, and upon which it has been 
much the fkshion to depreciate Arkwtright's talents, 
was that of persons In a low station of life, wfaoapoke 
of circumstance* which bad occurred IS years be- 
fore ! Ariiwrl^^s genius was not that of • me- 
chanic alone. Although the details of manufactn- 
rinR or commercial bnainess were altogether new to 
him, end ■Ithongh it was fire years before the works 
at Cromford retamed any profit, yet by indomttable 
energy he turned the tide of prosperity and wealth to 
his own advBDlBge, and for several years regulated 
tbe cotton market. He left great wealth to his 
heirs, who in their generation increased tbeir patri- 
mony to tbe moat colosaal fortune, perhaps, that bas 
been realited in Britain. [L.D.B.Q.] 

ARLAND, J. A., a painter, died 1748. 

ARLER, Pbikb Vox, an architect, 14tb cent. 

ARLOTTO, H., s facetkms writer, IGth crat. 


[ 52 ] 

ARMELLINE, M., > iBinwd monk, died 1T87. 

ARMFICLDT, Ciubi^eb, baroa of, a Sirediih gen- 
«»], time of Charlea XU. 

ARMFELDT, Gubiavus Madrice, oount oC, ■ 
Swedish sUtaamui, died ISU. 

ARUINIITS, or HERMANN, b Gemiui cUeT, who 
moinnuned Mi enmnd for ;«ui ■nuiut Varos and 
Gennaniciu, and wu at latt Bloin 07 the trescheiy 
of one oThii oonntiTnieB, 21. 

ARMINIUS, (Van HASMim,) wu born at Onde- 
wBter, Sonlh HoUud, in 1660. After Btod/ioff at 
Loydan ha went to Geneva, and enjojed iLe preToc- 
tiona of Beia. His mind seems to bave had an earlj 
lore of iuuoratiim, an earlj itching to oppoae astab- 
lished fomii of thongfat and belief, and he became a 
romantic aopporter of the pfaHoflOphy oTPeterKamni. 
At the age of twenty-SE be wu ordained minirter 
of one of the churches In Amsterdam, and preached 
with great acceptance. His views aooa be(mme nu- 
Mttted, and he was enlaogled in oontioTen]', In 
1603 he BDCceeded Jnnins in the ohair of theology 
at Leyden. Next aeuion be attacked the doctrine 
of predestination, and based it npon fcreknowledge 
of faith and merit. Oomar became his resolate an- 
tagonist. The warfare waxed hotter and hotlw, and 
tbe SCates-general interfared, Imt to no purpose, 
Arnrinius diedinl609. The candor and honesty of Ac- 
mimasarennimpeached, andhii ability is midoabted, 
but the system which now bears bii name was elab- 
Oatad after his death by E^aoopina and Limborch, 
Btrraral of its disttnctiTe taneti not being bdd by 
its name-fkther. [J.E.] 

AKMSTRONO, Jobs, a osl. pliys. ac of many 
Talnable woiks on medical science, I7S4-1829, 

ARMSTRONG, John, M.D., a Scotch pbysjcdan, 
better known as a poet, was bom at Castleton, on 
tbe banks of the Liddal, in Roiborghsliiie, 1709, 
and graduated at Edlnbnrgb, 1732. He waa al- 
■n*A/ distingnlshed by his love of literatnte and 
the aria, hot mora eapedallj fiir Mi claadoal 
attJunmants and taste in poetiy- AflAr one ta 
two professional essays, be [niblisbed, ITBE, a poeti- 
cal brochnre, entitled, an ' Essay for Abridging the 
Study of Medicine,' a pleasant attack on the ortho- 

fbUowed in 1787 by a professional woric on a snt^jeot 
raqniring great delicacy in its treatment, and two 
jears afterwards by ' Tbe Economy of Lore,' a poem 
which passed throagh several editions, ' more to the 
profit ^tbepiibliaher than the reader.' Hii reputa- 
tion, clouded by this nnforttuiate sally of humor, was 
fully established in 17U I7 the > Art of Preserving 
Health,' which is still r^arded as one of the best di- 
dactic poems in the English language, and has 
idaced its author In the same ra^ as Akenside. 
From this period to 1 768, Dr. Annstrong published 
Bcveral fbgitiTe {ueces, more or lees correct In taste, 
and in the last named year a volnme of sketches, 
rematkable fbr their ill-hnmor, imder the psendo- 
Djme of Lanncdot Temple, Eeq. In 1760, his poeti- 
cal epistle entitled 'The Day'.was pubhshed, as the 
prafaoe declares, withont the knowledge or consent 
of the author, and prooored for him the enmity of 
Chnrchin, who retorted its reSecttona in severe, and 
it may be nnjuadfiaUe, terma Armstrong was evi- 
dently dissatisfied with bis place in pablic esteem, 
and in all pTotuibili^ had cherished a morbid sensi- 
bili^ on this subject, which was ill concealed by tht 
afiictation of a good-natured cynicism, described by 
lbs poet Thomson, iriio waa also his intimate ftiend, 
as ' both bamane sod agreeable, like that of Jacques 
\b tbe play.' Tbis quality, whether agrseabl< 

him soliciting the appointment of phyucian to tbe 

West Indian fleet. In 1746 he was appointed to the 

hospital for lame and sick soldiers behind Bncking- 

' ~m House, and in 1760 accompanied the German 

my as physician. His collected poetical worka 

iro publiihed in 3 vols. 8vo. 1770, and along with 

am hie tragedy of tbe ' Forced Marriage,' which 

bad been rejected by Garrick. Dr. Armstrong died 

-- cooseqaenoe of a fall when stepping from bis car- 

ige, in 1779, and aoiprised bis friends by leaving 

saving of three tboinsand ponnds out of his mode- 

ABMSTROKG, John, Brigadisr-general in the 
U. 3. amy, 1776. Fonj^t at Fort Moultrie and 
An batde of Germautown. Tbe next year left 
the army throagh piqae. He was for a tJine a mem- 
ber i^ Congress. He died in 179G. 

ARMTNE, Lady Mazr, a woman of disting. bo- 
UBTolence and attunments, d. 1676. 

ARNAL, J. P., a Spanish architect, died 1806. 

ARNALD, a commentator, died 17SG. 

ARNALL, ML, a political writer, noted as a parti- 
san of Walpole, died 1741. 

AKNAUD, F. S. K, a miseellaneoiu author li 
France, 1718-I75T. 

AliNAUD DE MERUIL, a Fr. poet, d. 1820. 

AliNAUD, Fk., a French ecdestsstic, disting. as 
a joonialist and (oiait, 1721-17&4. 

ABNADLD DE VILLENEUVE, a famons alohy- 
nist and phyaidan, 1208-1314. 

ARNAULD, Aim., a political writer, time of 
Catharine de Medid, 1G60-1619. 

AKNAULD, BoHT., son of Anthony, an annallM 
and translator, 1689-1674. 

AKNAULD, Henbt, anotber son, bom 1697, bp 
of Angers 1649, died 1692. 

AKNAULD, AiTTH., another eon, celebrated ni 
a philosopher, theologian, and contreversialiat, 1612 

AliNAULD OF BbebCIA, an Italian reibnner and 
martyr, of tbe 1 2tb ceatoiy. 

ARNAULT, A. T., a Fr. dramatist, died 1834. 

ARNDT, CBULBa, son of Jashms a professor of 
Hebrew, 1673-1721, 

ARKDT, Com., a logician, 1628-1688. 

[ 58 1 


ARNDT, C, GottudVok, oonii»eU(it«na liter*- 
IT unaUDt of CBtherine II. 

ARNDT, Job. GarmiKD, hUt, 1718-1767, 

ARNDT, JoHB, > diTiM. l&W-iaSl. 

ARNDT, JoaHUA, lunthai of Qiriitiui, ftnthor of 
■ EccteButical Aotlqiiities,' lS2S-ie8S. 

ARNE, THCnua ADommra, Mm Don., the wm 
of an nphoUterer, wu bom in King-Street, Covent 
Garden, Londoo, in tbe fear I7ID. Ame, vliawaa 
hj hi» father ioteniled for the legal prtrfeuion, wai 
edncatod at Eton, and aerred a regijar tenn to nn 
attornej ; but his love of mniic prevailed over all 
dbatadea, and eontrai^ to ht* father** winhea, fae 
fonodc Un mbdetiea of law for the then leu Incra- 
tiTS itiid; of mono. Hii nngorenable taate led 
him to hare ncoone to Mraiwe and ecoantrie ms- 
U>od« Ibr Ua sratifloatioa, of wUiA the fallowliw In- 
ddent fiimi£el m example : — WUIa engaged in 
the attorne^B office hia meant were Umiled, and his 
mndcal appedta Iniatiable, bnt that ha might have 
an opportimilj of giatiffiug it, he often, a* w« find 
on the aotharity of Dr. Bomej, 'need Co aTaQ him- 
•elf of the priTiJefe of a eerrant, by borrowing a 
lively and going into the k*1Ibi7 ^ the oper», which 
waa than appiopnatad to domeatiet.' While an ap- 
prentice with (ha lawyer, the yoang enlhiuiaat re- 
ceiTod pcma leaeona on the Tiolin from HichneT 
Qiristian Feating, a Oormaii violinist then in mneh 
repnte, aod in a abort time made ao mnch progreu 
mpou that imtniiMnt that he quitted hia legal maa- 
ter and adooted mn^ a* a purfMuon. The fint 
notioa fai> ntfaer had of this eiicnmatanoe, waa 
wbaD oa one occanoo happeohig aocidentsUy to oall 
at tfaa honaa of a nelgfabonng gentleman, he faaod 
ta hia ■mpiiaa and eoatternatiOD the jonng Tbomaa 
Angnatiiie plajing leading viaHn with a party ofmn- 
nciana^ Thia inddent decided the fate of Ame. 
The vorid gained a mnaician of mnch taate and de- 
tioacy of feeling, and loat perbapa a dlaooDlented 
pettifiiggar. Sooti oAer this, Ame diacovering that 
aia nitBT, i^o afterwardi became Hit. Clbber, had 
not only a fine taate in mnoe, but a ' tweet-toned 

yean of age, aet to mnaio for her Addiaon'a Ami- 
■amaif, in which ehe penonated the hertdoe, hlf 
younger brother aupporting the character of the 
Pofft. Ame'a ancceaa in hii fint opera induced him 
to compoae mutic for Fielding's 7bn> Tkaii, whioh 
waa bRMight out in 1781. In 1738 he produced the 
mnaic to Crmat, which eitablialied hia npntation aa 
a lyrical oompaaer. In 1740 he married Miai Cecilia 
Yoang, a pupil of Gemlniani, and went with her 
pfofeiBioaally to Ireland, where both wen well re- 
ceived, he OB campr»Bi and >he ai ainger. In 17i3 
he returned to England, and produced two maeqnea, 
flrita— ia and Tie J^gmml o/Pmv; alao A'jibl, an 
opera, and TSmnu and SaBji, a hmnoroiu afterpiece. 
In 1745 Ame and hia wife wen engaged by the pro- 
prietor ofVauxhall, and here he compoeed lua churn- 
ing aouga, which are now ao nrely to be ieeik, and 
ao gree£ly aought after by amatann and odleetcn 
in all parta tf Qreat Britabi. It was not long after 
this that he compoaed hia two oratorioe, AM and 
JaiiA, bntthay met with no aacceaa. Hit Artax- 
wxet, a free trandation by himielf from the Arta- 
aene of Hetaataaio, i^ion which hia fame as an ope- 
ratic ctanpoaer now reita, waa composed in 1702, 
and it auk with tiie most triomidiant tucoiai. In 
1769 the Univeraity of Oxford oonfeiTed npoo 
Ame the degree of Doctor in Mnalc After this 
be oompoaed hia opera Tki Fairia, the mode for 
Maaon'a B^Hia ami Ctewtonu, additiani to Pnr- 
celTa King Ariiidr, aenral of Shakspeare'a aonga, and 
the Btm tf or i JtibSee, beudea many glees, catcher 
and canona. For hia excellence as a writer of ^eaa 
the Catch Club awatded him no fewer than aeven 
gold medala. His song and choma, Ruh jfrit—iia, 
which will live forever, 'may be aaid to have 
wafted his name over the greater half of the habita- 
ble world.' Dr. Ame waa aeized with gpaams of the 
longs, and died on the Gth of March, 1 778. On hia 
deith-bed, having been educated a Roman Catholic, 
he eoDgbt consolation troia the rites of that charch, 
and hia last momeirta were cheered by a hallelajah 
ning by bimsolf. Hrs. Arne died arnot tha year 
179S. Dr. Ame left an only son, Michael, who 
evinced a precociona taate for muaic, bnt never at- 
tained the same eminenee aa his father. He in eon- 
jmiction with Mr. Battishili produced the opera of 
Alam*a at Dmry Lane in 1784, and afterwards Cj- 
aaoa at the King's Theatre, from which he derived 
both honor and fame. He died wlthont isiae, but in 
w4lat year we have been nnable to discover. [J.M.j 

ARNE, Cecitja, wife of the celebrated Dr. Ame, 
a distinguished cantatrice, d. 1 796, 

ARNE, Michael, son of ths preceding, alao a 
oompaaer of mnaic, died about 1 7tU>, 

ARNIGIO, on Italian poet, 1623-1677. 

AKNHEIM, or AKNIM, a German baron, dieting. 
in the thir^ year^ war. 

ARNIH, LcDwio A. Von, a romaniat and poet of 
Germany, 1781-1831. 

ARNIS,«US, a meUphjrfdan, 16th century. 

ARNOBItIS, ArEK, a Chrtation writer, Rd cent 

ARNOBIUS, a biblical commentator, 6th cant 

ARNOLD, BcinDtcT, a genenl officer in the >ei^ 
vice of tiie United SCatei, and afterwarda in that of 
Great Britain, began life as a horae-iiealer In New 
England. He waa also for a time a druggial and 
bookaeller In New Haven. At tbe beginmng of the 
war of tbe RovolntioD he placed himsfjf it the head 
of a volnnteBT company, and aoon distinguished him- 
self; waa associated with Gen. Montgomery in the 
expedition against Quebec In tbla diaartroua af- 
fair, undertaken in aeven weather, hia iQuatriona 
colleague loat his life, ' and Arnold, who iras ■»• 



v«Telj wonnded In tha leg, displaved tbe highett 
abilities n» a comiDnnder, and the greBtest goUantr; 
SB a soldier. But liceatious and rapBcioDa aahe 
tm brave and intaDiKeat, he plundered MoQtreal in 
Ilia retreat, and bj bia misooadact'eiEBapernled Che 
minds of the Canadians, who pravionaly -wen not 
hoctile to the RerolntJon. After aihibiting great 
WDTBge and akill on Lake Champlain, at Fort Schaj- 
Isr, and the batds of StiQiratar, his leg was shat- 
tared by a bsU on the 7th October, 1777, in a dar- 
ing assaalt on Che Eogliah linea, which he pene- 
trated, and bat for his woond wonld have carried. 
Being nniitted fbr active Hrvice, ho was appointed 
oommander of the garriaon at Pbiladelphia, bnt hia 
dissipation, extortion and pecnlation, aubjectfld him 
to a trial bj conrt msnial, and to a reprimand from 
Waahington at the beginning of 1779. Cmbamisaed 
in his ciicumstancen, disappointed in hia eipecta- 
tiooa, aixl einaperated by disgrace, he fonned tbe 
dengn of retrieving hia misfortnnes, and crowning 
Ms £shanor, by betrsTiog his conntrj, and having 
intimated his dispositions to the British officeis, and 
established commnnicalion with them by means of 
Charles Beverley Robinson, a captain in the English 
service, whose properij lay within the American 
linea, he sohcited and obtained the command of West 
Point, for the pnrpoae of anrrenderiog it to Sir Henry 
Clinton, as the moat effectual way of destroying the 
defence of the Continental army. The price far 
which this political Jadas consented to betray his 
coontry, waa £30,000, and the retention in the Eng- 
lish service of the rank of Brigadier-QeneraL Tbe 
failore of his prt)ject is chronicled in the fate of 
Andre. Learning the capture of that ofGoer, he es- 
caped frtm West Point to the Vnlture sloop of war, 
and was carried to New York, leaving his wife bit- 
I^d him, who, however, on tile arrival of Wash- 
ingtMi, was sent after him, together with his eCFects. 
He fought with eqnaJ gallantry against his country 
as for her, first in Virginia, and then in Conaeoticnt, 
and hia name ia appropriately aaaocinted with the 
murder of Colonel Lodyard at Fort Tmmbnll, by CoL 
Eyre, an officer under his command. As mneh de- 
■pised by the English ashy the Americans, and subject 
to a thousand personal indignities, the more galling 
to a proud spirit from the impossibility of resenting 
them, be dragged out a miserable life, In onenvied 
opulence and rank, lonely aod self-abborred, a monn- 
ment of the worthleianess of talents without honesty, 
and died, onlamentsd, in London, in Jnna, 1801. 

ARNOLD, Cos., an astronomer, 1346-1695. 

ARNOLD, God., a myatio divine, 1665-171<. 

ARNOLD, Jaues BnBEBiHoa, a lientenant-geneTa] 
in tbe Briti^ ^""7, son of Benediot ATDo^ the 
tndtOT, d. 18G4. 

ARNOLD, Jomf, a meohanician, 1744-1799. 

ARNOLD, NiCH., a polemical dis., died 1680. 

ARNOLD, Pelbo, chief justice of Rhode Islani 
He was a member of Congress under the oonfedera- 
(Jon, and alWwarda judge, d. 18S0. 

ARNOLD, RiCHABD, a chronicler, lEth cant 

ARNOLD, Sakttkl, Hus. Ddc„ waa bom in Lon- 
don, in tlie year 1740, and received his musioal edu- 
cation atthe Cbspel BfiyH, St. JameiTB, finm Hr. Ber- 
nard Gates and Dr. Nana, who diacovercd in him 
the moat piiimiring talent*. In the year 1 760 he be- 
came oompoier to the Covent Garden Theatre, and 
in 1766 be undertook the duties of the same offioe at 
tbe Haymarket, Dr. Arnold produoed four orato- 
rioe, eight odes, three flerenadea, for^-aeven c^raa, 
three burlettas, boaides many overtures, conccrtoi, 
Bonga, and smaller jdecea, the number nf which ii 
not on record. The most popular of his •voAt, 
several of which stilt keep their place in public esti- 
mation, were T^e Maid e/ lAe Mill, The Smt-in-Lmr, 
The CaiCh of ADiiAaia, /nUa ind I'arica, Tit BatOa 
o/Hsrham, The Staraider of Calaii, The Claldnn m 
Ok Wood, The J/buateinea:), TKe Cibv ofSial, JMnw- 
bt*. The RenrmctH*, and The Ptvdigal Son. The 
University of Onford conferred npon him their degree 
of Doctor in Music a!>ont tbe year 1778. In 1788, 
on the death of Dr. Nares, he was apprnnted organist 
at the Chapel Royal and composer to the king ; and 
at the commemoration of Handel, which to(A ptaoe 
in the year following, Dr, Arnold was nominated one 
of the directors. He suoi^eeded Dr. Cooke as Con- 
ductor of the Academy of Ancient Hnnc in 1763, 
and was appointed organist of Wcetminster Abbey 
in 1793. IJr. Arnold, who is described as having pos- 
sessed those penoDsl manners and social virtne* 
which secure esteem, died on the 2d of October, 
1802, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Dr. 
Arnold married a lineal desoendant of the Baron of 
Herchiston, and led one son and two daughters. 


ARNOLD, Thob., a phydrian, 174^1816. 

ARNOLD, Thomas, D.D., was bom at West 
Cowes, in the Isle of Wight, on 18th Jtme, 179S. 
He belonged to a respectable family, hia faUier being 
collector of the customs in that place, and baring 
been destined for the miniatiyin the Chnrch of Eng- 
land, was in due time entered a stodent in the um- 
veraity of Oxford. On completing his college studies 
in 1SI9, be obtained deacon's ordeic, and imme- 
diately after took up his reudence at Laleham, near 
Staines, where tar the nine following years he kqit 
a private bmrding establishment, intended chiefly as 
a school of preparation for the tmiversities. In the 
luperintendence of this seminBiy, die cEiaracter of 
Arnold rapidly dereloped itself, and was marked by 
an indefatigable activity, a manly decivon, and de6- 
niteitess of purpose, atK>va all, by a sMtted religiotu 
faith, little to be expected &om the indolent and 
dreamy habits of hie yonth. He was an enunent 
Christian, as well as a ripe scholar ; and tile prind- 

Elaa on which he actod with the ntmoat eantesloess 
imself be infused into the minds of his pupils, by 
leading them to oidte a hi^ standard of intellectoal 
accomplishments with a Christian onltuie of tht 
heart and affections. The ancoess of this sviCem 
extended his fame far beyond the obscure aa<j lim- 
ited locality of Lalehami and in 1S37 he became 
head master ol Itogby •ohool, having been nonilua- 




ted to that Influential offioe by a uuinimoos Tote of 
the trustees, itho were told, on hl^ audiori^, that 
*lie would change the face of education all through 
the public schools of England.' That expectation 
was not long in being realized ; for having also ob- 
tained the app<nntment of chaplain to the 8cho(d at 
Rugby, in which capacity he preached discourses 
which have long been admired as models of sermons 
for educated youth, he succeeded, while fully sua- 
tuning the ancient celebrity of the insdtutioii as a 
dassieal seminaiy, in imparting to it a new and 
Christian tone. The great principle of his edu- 
cational qrstem was to make his pupils good men 
as weU as good scholars; and acoozxlingly, while la- 
boring to store their minds with usefid and elegant 
literatom, he tau^t them to make religion the 
daily rule of their life — not to confine it to Sab- 
bath and the church, but to cany it into the 
sdiool-room, the play-ground, the secular Cities and 
familiar intercourse of every day. The beneficial 
effects of the method pursued at Rugby led to its 
general adoption in the other great English schools, 
and produced a maiked improvement on the re- 
ligions tone of sentiment and feeling among the 
yoong gentlemen who thenceforth repaired to the 
universities. — ^Tbe principle of combining religion 
with secular education, which Dr. Arnold had suc- 
cessfully adopted in his school, he endeavored to 
cairy out in all that he undertook. Thus he main- 
tained the identity of church and state, realizing a 
ooodition of society in which all the laws, institutions, 
and measures of a Christian country should be based 
on purely Christian principles. With the same view, 
he accepted a place in the directory of the London 
univeraty, which he aealoudy encouraged, from a 
liberal desire to extend the benefits of a hteraiy and 
scientific education to all classes, irrespective of sec- 
tarian tests; but he wished to give it a religious 
character, and failing in his efforts to make exami- 
nation in the Scriptores necessazy for obtaining a 
degree, he resigned his oonneotion with that institu- 
tion. In like manner, having attempted in vain to 
infuse a Christian ^irit into the Pamg Magasm^ he 
established, at his own risk. The EngSimoH^s^Begitter 
-^a periodical to which his name and character would 
probably have gained a wide ciroulation ; hot finding 
that the publH»tion demanded more time than he 
could spare, he was obliged, after the issue of a few 
numbers, to relinquish the undertaking. — Dr. Arnold 
is known as an author by several volumes of discour- 
ses, by his Histoiy of Rome, composed on the princi- 
ples of Niebuhr, and by various pamphlets on mat- 
tars of oontemporaiy interest in religion and politics. 
The government of Lord Melboozne rewaided his 
pubho services by appointing him to the chair of 
modem histoiy in Oxford : but he had only given 
his inonguraJi lecture, when a spasmodic a£fection of 
the heart suddenly cut him off at Rugby, on 12th 
June, 1842, in the for^-seventh year oif his age. 


ARNOLD, Rby. TBoxAa Keschkvbb, an English 
classioal teacher and writer of educational books, d. 
185a, aged 58. 

ARNOLDE, R., a chronicler, 16th centuxy. 

ARNOLFO, sn Italian architect, died 1800. 

ARNOT, Huoo, a Scotch historian, 1749-1786. 

ARNOUL, king of Italy, 882 to 898. 

ARNOUL, a French prolate, 12th century. 

ARNOULT, S., a French aotress, 174(^1802. 

ARNOULT, J. B., a French writer, 1689-1758. 

ARNULPH, or ERNULPHUS, bishop of Roches- 
ter, hi storian , died 1124. 

ARMTZENIUS, OiBo, a Dutoh a/mmi^ d. 1765. 

AROMATRI, J., sn Ital phytician, 1586-1660. 

ARPINO, Jos., an Italian painter, 1560-1640. 

ARRIA, the wife of Cfccina Psstus, distinguished 
by her tragical death, 42. 

ARRIAN, a Greek historian, 2d century. 

ARRI6HETTI, Ph., an Itelian wr., 1682-1662. 

ARRIGHETTO, or ARRIGO, Henry, a Latin 
poet and ecclesiastio of Florence, 12th century. 

ARRIVABENE, L., bishop of Mantua, 16th ct 

ARRIVABENE, J. F., an Itelian poet, 16th ct 

ARROWSMTTH, Aabon, distinguished as a maker 
of maps and chttts, 1750-1823. 

ARROWSMTTH, J., a puritan divine, d. 1669. 

ARSACES L, elected king of the Parthians after 
conquering Seleucns, 288 B.C., killed in battle 250 
B.C. The succeeding kings were called Arsacidse, to 
the number of twenty-eight, the dynasty becoming 
extinct 217, when Artexerxes succeeded. 

ARSACES, king of Armenia, slain by Sapor 869. 

ARSENIUS, tutor of Arcadiu^ 4th century. 

ARSES, king of Persu, b.c. 889. 

ARSILLI, Fb., an Itelian physician, 16th cent 

ARSINOE, mother of Ptolemy L, king of Egypt 
after Alexander the Great 

ARSINOE, daugh. of Ptolemy, b. B.c. 816, mar. 
to Lysimachus, k. of Thrace, 800 b.c., dethd. 280. 

ARSINOE, sister of Cleopatra, by whose wish she 
was put to death, b.c. 41. 

ARTABAN L, king of Parthia 216 to 196 B.a 

ARTABAN II., succeeded 127, killed 124 B.a 

ARTABAN III., king 14 B.a, several times de- 
throned by the Romans, died a.d. 44. 

ARTABAN IV., king 216, dethroned 226. 

ARTAUS, JosEFH, a poet of Sicily, d. 1679. 

ARTARIS, an Itelian stetuary, 17th century. 

ARTAXERXES I., king of Persia, 465 to 424 B.C. 

ARTAXERXES II., king, 404 to 862 b.c. 

ARTAXERXES III., k. 859, d. by pois. 838 b.c. 

ARTAXERXES, or ARDSHIR, the first Sassanido 
king of Persia, reigned 217-240. 

ARTAXIAS, the name of three kings of Armenia; 
the frd, about the middle of the 2d c B.C. ; the seo- 
oadfrom 80 to 20; the third AJ>. 16 to 18. 

ARTEAGA, St., a Spanish author, died 1799. 

ARTEDI, P., a Swedish natoialist, died 1735. 

ARTEMIDORUS, a geographer, 1st cent B.a 

ARTEMIDORUS, a writer on dreams, 2d cent 

ARTEMISIA L, queen of Caria, 480 B.c. 

ARTEMISIA IL, queen consort of Caria, 876 to 
352, queen 362 to 360, B.O. 

ARTEMON, a military engineer, 5th cent B.a 

ARTEVELLE, James, chief of the popular party 
in Flanders, killed at the instigation of the nobles of 
Ghent, 1345. Philip, his son, leader of a revolt 
1382, killed the same year. 

ARTHUR, the famous British prince, is supposed 
to have flourished at the time of the Saxon invasion, 
and to have died in the battie-field about 520. 

ARTHUR, duke of Bretagne, son of Jeffrey, elder 
brother of John king of England, bom 1187 ; exclu- 
ded firom the throne 1199 ; taken prisoner 1202 ; as- 
sassinated, as supposed, 1203. 

ARTIGAS, Don John, disting. in the wars of the 
Banda Oriental, and Buenos Ayres, 1760-1826. 

ARTIZENIUS, H., an hUtorian, 1702-1759. 

ARTIZENIUS, J. H., son of Henry, disting. as a 
writer on iurisprudence, 1734-1797. 

ARTIZtolUS, Otho, uncle of the preceding, pio- 
fessOT of the Bellm LeUm, died 1763, aged 63. 

ARTOIS, J. v., a Flemish painter, 17th cent 

ARTUSI, G. v., a mosical author, 16th cent 

ARUNDALE, Francis, an English architect and 
antiquarian. He was engaged in the study of Egyp- 




tian antiquity and pablished a woik on the sabjeot 
Died 1858, aged 47. 

ARUNDEL, Maby, countess of, a lady of distin- 
g^hed learning in the 16th oentozy. 

ARUNDEL, T., abp. of Caoterbozy, noted for his 
violent persecution of the Reformers, 1853-1418, 

ARUNDEL, Sir Thos., first lord of Wardonr, re- 
ceived his title from James I., distingoiahed against 
the Turks, died 1639. 

ARUNDEL, Thos., Howard, earl of, son of the 
preceding, died at Padna, 1646. 

ARUNDEL, Blanche, wife of the last named, 
mem. for her defence of Wardonr castle, 1583-1649. 

ARVIEUX, Laureiit D', an agent of (^ Fr. court 
in Palestine, and the East, 1635-1702. 

ARZACHEL, an astronomer, 11th centcny. 

ASAPH, St., a British monk, 5th centoiy. 

ASBURY, Francis, a Methodist preacher, who 
came to the United States from England in 1771 and 
was appointed bishop by Dr. Coke, formerly a Pres- 
byter in the English church, in 1784. In May 1791 
Dr. Coke wrote to Bishop White, applying for a re- 
ordination of the whole body of Methodist ministers, 
of which Mr. Asbuiy is said to have himself ordained 
8,000. He stated tliat he had probably gone further 
than Mr. Wesley intended, and asked for the conse- 
cration of himself and Mr. Asbury to the Episcopate. 
Mr. Asbuiy died suddenly at Spottsylvania, in Virgi- 
nia, on the 3l8t March, 1816, aged 70. 

ASCHAM, Roger, a man of great learning, the 
mstructor of £li2abeth, died 1668. 

ASCHAM, Anth., envoy from Cromwell to Spain, 
where he was assassinated, 1650. 

ASCHER, a German rabbi, died 1821. 

ASCLEPIADES, a Greek physician, d. b.c. 63. 

ASCOLI, Lecco Di, a ma^ematician of Florence, 
burned as a heretic 1358. 

ASCONIUS, a grammarian, 1st century. 

ASDRUBAL, a celeb, general commanding the 
anny of Carthage, killed B.a 220. Another Cartha- 
ginian general of the same name, d. b.c. 489. 

ASDRUBAL, Barca, brother of Hannibal, van- 
qushed and slain 208 b.c. 

ASELLI, Caspar, an anatomist, 17th cent 

ASGILL, Sir Ch., a British officer, died 1823. 

ASGILL, John, a barrister, died 1783. 

ASH, John, LL. D., a lexicog^pher, d. 1779.^ 

ASH, John, a writer on the affairs of Carolina, 
who was sent to England by the colony in 1703 to 
seek redress of grievances. 

ASHBURTON, Alexander Baring, Lord, b. 
1774, commenced hi« political life as Whig member 
for Taunton, 1812 ; president of the Board of Trade 
under the Peel ministry, 1834 ; envoy to the United 
States on the Oregon question, 1842 ; d. 1848. 

ASHE, Samxtel^ governor of North Carolina from 
1796 to 1793 ; died 1813, at the age of 88. 

ASHIK, a Turkish poet, 16th century. 

ASHLEY, John, a musician, last centuiy. 

ASHLEY, John, commander of the force who dia- 
persed the insurgents in Shay's insurrection. Bom 
1738, graduated at Yale 1758 ; died 1799. 

ASHLEY, Robert, a misoellan. wr., 16th cent. 

ASHMOLE, Ellas, celebrated as an antiquaiy and 
alchymist, 1617-1692. 

ASHMUN, John Hooker, a distinguished scholar 
of America, 1800>1833. 

ASHMUN, Jehudi, bom at Champlam 1794, grad- 
uated at Burlington 1816. An infidel in early life, he 
subsequently became a member of the Episcopal church 
and editor of the Theolo^cal Repertory. In 1822 he 
sailed in charge of a reinforcement to the colony of 
Liberia, then in its infancy. Shortly after his arrival 

at the head of the colonists he repulsed an attack of 
800 savages. His health compelled him to leave Af- 
rica in March 1828. His deaA took place on the 
25th of August at New Haven, a fortnight after his 

ASHWELL, Geo., an English div., 1612-1693. 

ASHRAF-SHAH, king of Persia, 1722 to 1729. 

AS KEW, Anne, a prot. martyr, reign of Heniy 
Yin. ; b. 1521, burnt alive aft. sufier. the rack, 1546. 

ASKEW, AtiTK., a scholar of the 18th century. 

ASMON^US, a Levite firom whom tiie fflustriooB 
Asmonssan princes derive their name. 

ASP ASIA, a lady of ancient Greece, whose house 
at Athens becanie the resort of the greatest masters 
in philosophy and art, 5th century b.c. 

ASPINWALL, William, M. D., bom in Massa- 
chusetts 1748, graduated at Cambridge 1764; died 
1823. He was present at Leidngton and served as 
an army surgeon during the revolution. He was oel- 
braied for bis success in inoculation and for tiie erec- 
tion of small-pox hospitals. 

ASSELIN, G. T., a French poet, 17th century. 

ASSELYN, J., a Dutch punter, 1610-1650. 

ASSEMANI, Step., a catholic writer, 17th cent. 

ASSER, a French historian, died 883. 

ASSER, a Tahnudist, died 427. 

ASSERMO, Mbnevenbis, the instructor and biog- 
rapher of Alfred the Great, died 909. 

AST, G. A. F., a philologist, died 1841. 

ASTARIK, F., a composer, died 1808. 

ASTEL, Mart, a divine and philos., d. 1781. 

ASTLE, Thos., an aichsBokigist, died 1803. 

ASTLEY, Ph., the eel. equestrian, 1742-1814. 

ASTOLPHUS, k. of tiie Lombards, 749 to 756. 

ASTON, Sir Arthur, a royalist, killed at Drog- 
heda when taken by Cromwell, 1649. 

ASTON, Sir Thos., a royalist of Cheshue, taken 
prisoner and killed 1645. 

ASTOR, John Jacob, a native of Germany, dis- 
ting. as the wealthiest man in the U. S., a merchant 
of New York, and particularly for his enterprise in 
the establishment of the Amer. ftir trade, 1763-1848. 

ASTORGA, Marquis of, a Spanish diplomatist^ 
viceroy of Naples 1672. 

ASTORGA, Marquis of, disting. by his opposi- 
tion to the French usurpation in 1807, declaied a 
traitor by Napoleon 1808, died 1814. 

ASTORI, J. A. a Venetian scholar, 17tii cent 

ASTORINI, Elias, a physiologist, died 1702. 

ASTYAGES, last king of the Modes, dethroned by 
Qyrus, 6tii century B.C. 

ASTRUC, J., a French physician, 1684-1766. 

ATAHUALPA, last Inca of Peru, killed 1553. 

ATAIDE, vioeioy of India 1569, died 1580. 

ATANAGI, Denis, an ItaL author, 16th cent. 

ATAULF, king of the Yisigoths after Alaric. 

ATHA, Hakim Ben, the original of Moore's 
* Veiled Prophet of Khorassan,' who gave himself out 
for an incarnation of the Dei^, and met with a trag- 
ical end, 8th centuiy. 

ATHALARIC, king of the Ostrogoths, 526. 

ATHANAGILDUS, king of the Visigoths, 654. 

ATHANARIC, king of the Visigoths, 4th cent 
ATHANASIUS, the great champion of orthodoxy 
in the fourth centuiy, was bom perhaps about 296. 
His first appearance waa in support of his patron, 
bishop Alexander, against the Arians, and he was not 
only present, though nmply a deacon, at the council 
of Nice, but waa an active and intrepid member of 
that assembly. His rising fame led to his elevation 
to the see of Alezandxia when Alexander died. 
Bishop Athanasins was immediately involved in con- 
tests, which ended only with his Uife. Deposed most 

ATH [ 5 

onjnit]; in 380, ba wu leiDftatod Id 888. Depend 
•gain in 810, hs wu rainitated io MS. Hii anemiM 
fnpucd the must niuenipnloTu olurgM ig^oit him, 
■U of which tw nfnted with ui oTvrwbelnung Com 
at proof mi eloqaenov. Agtun in 8SG waa he sen- 
teDcad to be bsmitied, wbea he retired to Che t^yp- 
tian doKita, and tgun wu be wdoomed beck to the 

by the enmror 
1 him, aiid Athi 
holding the primapj for Aa long iptet of Ibr^-^ 
;ean, died at length in 978. He ww m mu of holr 
life, a bold end DoUa defender of the Godhead of the 
SaTJonr, an oratcr of read; and oonunandliweloqQenoe, 
and B pelate of henile and lodefatifnus aetiri^. 
The pn|ndi«a« «vtm of Oibhoa wot eMtened towui] 
him, 81^ be bai prtmooneed iqrao him a idandid en- 
log^ — History, ch^ xzL The monki a St Sfanr 
pobliihed tbe wtAt <£ thii ilhiatriooi father in liiree 
folioe, Paria, 1698. [J.E.] 

ATHANASIUS, a prinoe Inihap of NaiOei, lavued 
Italy, and died 90a 

ATHELSTAN, king of En^nnd, 92fi to 9S4. 

ATHEN.£US, a niUtary eDgiDBsr, Bd at n.c. 

ATHEN JEUS, a nammariaD, Sd oeDtoiy. 

ATHENAGORA^ B {diiloeopher <f the 2d ct 

ATHEHAIS, dw empreee of Theodomi, dlnln- 
gniahed for her teaming, died HO. 

ATUENADOSnS, a GmA {Ajucian, ]it oenl 

ATHIAS, Joe., a learned Jaw, ITth oantniy. 

ATHLONE, QoDfan, ooont of, a Dutob general, 

ATHOL, Jaam Mnair, dnka of, died ISSO. 

ATKINS, RoBT., a dlTine, ITtJi oentatr. 

ATKINSO>}, Ht., a mathematician, died 1881. 

ATKINSON, Thbodori, ncietary of New Hamp- 
•hin in I74I aiid chief justice in 1754, which i^ce* 
ha Rtained tOl the rvnhitiDn. Died in 1779. 

ATKINSON, Tboa., a mieoeL wiitw, d. ISSS. 

ATKYNS, Sm Bon., the patriotio defender of 
Lord Wm. Riueell, bom 1681 ; ohief baron of tbe 
aichflc(«er, I6SB to 1693; died 1709. 

ATKYNS, Sn Rovr., son of the pnoeding, hlMn- 
riaa ct GkmBeeterahire, died 171 1. 

ATKTNS, Rich., a writer on printing, d. ISTT. 

ATLEE, Samuzi. Jomr, cdIirhI <it a mgimeet at 
Oe battle of Long bland, in wMch be wu taken 
[■inner ; member of Congreae from Penn^Ivania in 
1780; died 1786. 

ATRATUS, Unoo, cardinal, an EagMx phyriclan 
and uttnrU phihiec^JieT, died 1S87. 

ATTA, a dramada poet, lit oentoiy ■.& 

A TTA RDI, B., a monaitio writer, 18tb century. 

ATTENDOLI, Duura, a writer on dnelling. 

ATTENDOLO, J. B., a poet, died 1692. 

ATTERBUKY, Lewu, D.D., father of the famoni 
Atterbory, 1681-1698. 

ATTEItBURY, Fkamco, bl^Mp of BwbaMer, «et- 
Bbnted at an eloquent preaduT, boni 166S, aneited 
OD a ehufce of conqiinM^ in fanir of the £!taarti 
1722, died in exile 1782. 

ATTERBUBT, Lcwiii LL.D., hraOer of tbe 
biihop, anthw ef usnoD*, &e., I669-1T81. 

ATTICDS, HnoDES, a oeL Oieek riwinldan, b. 
at MaraflND 110^ pnoeptor of Uaima AnnUna and 
Vera*, eonnil and goramor c£ the fine dtiei of A^ 
143, and mbaeqiHndy ; died 186. 

ATTICUS, Tma PoMPonna, the mi. (Hend oF 
(Sc ero, d irting. br the pnri^ of his lang. d. b.o. SS. 

ATTILA. Thia dittngoidted leader wu of Hoi>- 
gol-Tartar origin, and anoneednd fail nncla u king of 
the Hnna, xd. 484. AtfbM flie aOTM^gn author^ 

i^ wee divided between Atdla and his brother Bledu, 
wlio together hiTadfld Thrace, and oonipcTlod tbe em- 
peror of the East to pnrobaw their forbearance by a 
bttBTy fine and annual tribnte of gold, a.d. 442. 
Some three yean Inter Bleda tras deposed and pnt to 
death, and Attila acknowledged as only and sove- 
rdgn lord of the nomadic hordes of Ilungary and 
S<7thiii. This event is only obscurely related, but it 
wu either preoipitated, or shortly afterwards followed 
by the dlsoorery of a sword, the poswssor of which 
acqnired a aacrcd character in the eyet of the Si^- 
thian baibarians, who worshipped the god of war 
under that emblem J in short, it was believed that 
the divine right to universal empire was bestowed on 
AttlU when this old weapon, which hud long been 
burled in the earth, wu placed in bis bunds ; and it 
WM in this faith, added to the love of adventure and 
the hope of gain, that he meceeded in rallying to Ilia 
itaodird nearly all the barbHrians of Scythia and 
Germany. The war, !n tact, to which Attila, soon 
at the head of 700,000 combatants, challenged the 
whoJe driliced world, wu a straggle fnr the aacen- 
deoey between the tnc life of tlie desert and the 
Imnriooi settlements which had transferred the suv- 
ereign authority to some of the meanest and basest 
of mankind. The character of Theodosias the 
younger, emperor of the East at this time, contissta 
nnfaTorably in nearly eveir point nith that of Attjlo, 
who waa remarkable fbr his nmplicity and geaeral 
moderation, tliough sntject to gusts of passion, 
which, with bis cruel^ in war, well entitled him to 
be called the 'terror of the world' and the 'sconrge 
of God.' The East, according to some accoonta, u 
far as ^le plalna of Armenia, r«sonnded with the 
tramp of bis armed boats, and (Vom the Euiine to 
tbe Adrla^c some threescore and ten cities were given 
to fire and &e sword ; while Tbeodonns, who ought 
to have protected them with the tenor of his arms, 
was wringing tbe disgracelbl tribute and tbe means 
of aupfiOTting tbe equally disgrncvful splendor of his 
oonrt, fVom bis unhappy subjects. Not daring to 
meet the enemy in the tented Geld, the emperor, by 
his splendid promises, engaged one of the members 
of an embas^ from Attila to poison bim on his re- 
home, but tbe miserable man, overawed In' the 
nandlng presence of his cliief, confessed the 
plot ; and pwhapa the most striking passage iu hia 
history is tbe barbaric soom with which Atdla de- 
nonnoea thia attempt of Theodotioa aa the treachery 




of a slave towards one whose fortune and yirtaeA had 
made him master of the world I The death of Theo- 
doaus, A.D. 450, and the preparations of Marcian, 
who replied to the nsual demand for tribute, * that he 
had gold for his friends and iron for his enemiea.' di- 
verted the course of Attila from the East, and pointed 
to the Western empire. Other inducements to this 
famous expedition were not wanting. Honoria, the 
sister of the reigning emperor Valendman III., had 
offered her hand to Attila as the means of escape 
from a cloister to which she had been consigned for 
incontinence, and Genseric, the king of tlie Vandals, 
had solicited his aid against Theodoric king of the 
West Goths, whose destructiou was also a dariing 
object of Attila's ambition. He commenced his 
march to Italj, a.t>. 450, with an immense army of 
Huns, swelled by the numerous tributaries who owed 
him allegiance, and, crossing the Rhine, carried de- 
vastation through the greater part of Gaul and Bur- 
gundy, routing armies and destroying towns in his 
progress. Meantime the Roman army, under the 
command of ^tius, strengthened by an alliance with 
the West Goths, at whose head was Theodoric the 
Great, and with the gallant Franks, prepared to ofifer 
the last resistance of Italy to his advance. The ar- 
mies met in the environs of Ch&lons-sur-Mame, when 
the approach of Attila had already threatened Or- 
leans with destruction, and a bloody conflict ensued, 
at which the slain has been variously estimated at 
from one hundred and arty to three hundred thou- 
sand men. Although not routed, Attila was oom- 
pelled to retreat beyond the Rhinoi and was hardly 
dissuaded from an act of self-destruction which he 
had contemplated rather than be taken captive. 
The morrow of the battle discovered to him that he 
could continue his retreat without molestation, and 
he returned home only to recruit his forces, and 
spread equal devastation the year following in the 
plains of Lombardy. Ravenna and Rome Itself now 
trembled at his near approach, and his retirement, 
with a vast ransom, from the cities of Italy, has been 
attributed to a mirade. Between this period and 
the death of Attila, a.d. 453, a second invasion of 
Gaul is mentioned, which proved as destructive to 
human life as the precedmg. The East also was 
again menaced with a reign of terror, and Italy feared 
that his threats to compel the surrender of Honoria 
would yet be esecuted. These, and the thousand 
wild apprehensions which prevailed from the east to 
the west of Europe, while he lived, were aUayed hy 
his sudden death, occasioned by the bursting of a 
hlood- vessel, on tiie night of his maniage with the 
heautiful Ildioo. His wide-spread sovereign^, and 
the dreaded power of the Huns, died with him ; the 
confederacy of so many barbarous tribes, and the 
savage enthusiasm with which they ranged them- 
selves under his banner, being alike due to his singu- 
lar power of command and personal prowess. — ^Itmay 
be observed here, that the Hungarians so oalled at 
the present day are not descended from the Huns of 
Attila, but MH^efly a Majiar race, with a mixture 
of Roman, Tmrk, Moj:^1, Slavonio, and Gennan ele- 
ments. [E.R.] 

ATTIRET, J. Fb., a French Jesuit missionaiy 
and pamter, 170^1768. 

ATTWATER, Russel, an old revolutionaiy sol- 
dier, born in Cheshire, Conn., in 1762. He was de- 
scended on tiie maternal side from the Ducal family 
of Bedford. While a boy, he fought gallantly, at 
New Haven, when the British attacked that place, 
but was wounded in the right breast and left for dead 
upon the field. He, however, recovered, and served 
in the commissariat deportment daring the war. He 

was the first settier, in 1806, of the town of Russel, 
N. Y., which is named after him. He was elected 
to the Senate of New Toik, in 1612, and continued 
for four yean a member of that body. After the 
battle of Waterioo^ he was empby ed as a secret agent 
of Napoleon, to negotiate for the pnrchase of an im- 
mense tract of land in the Northern part of the State 
of New Yoik, on which, it was the design of the em- 
peror's friends, that he should reside wiSi some of his 
generals^ provided he could efibot his escape, but 
after Mr. Attwater had obtained the oonsent of the 
proprietors to the sale of tiieir estates, the news ar- 
rived of the surrender of Napoleon and defeated the 
project During the latter years of his Uie, Judge 
Attwater resided at Norfolk, St. Lawrence Co., and 
died in 1851, aged 89. 

ATTWOOD, Thoiias, an emineat composer, was 
bom in the year 1765, and oommenoed his musical 
career as one of the children of the Chapel Royal, 
St James's, under Dr. Nares and Dr. Ayrtcm. Hap- 
pening on one oocaaion to perform at Buckingham 
Palace, he attracted the notice of George IV., then 
Prince of Wales, who took him under his patronage, 
and sent him at his own expense to Naples in 1788, 
where he stuped for two years under FUippo Cinque 
and Gsetans LatiUa. He afterwards visited Vienna, 
where he immediately became a pupil of Moasrt, 
from whom he received instrnetions till the year 
1786, when he returned to England, where he soon 
became one of the chamber musicians to his royal 
patron, and musical preceptor to the Duchess of 
York and the Princess of Wales, afterwards the un- 
fortunate Queen Caroline. In 1796 Attwood suc- 
ceeded Dr. Jones as oigamst of St Paul's Cathedral, 
and in 1796 he was appointed oomposer to the king. 
About this period of his life he tamed his attentiGin 
to the composition of music for the stage, and pro- 
duced several <^)eras, the literary portion of the noost 
of which may be regarded as dead, though the music 
of many of iiiem is as mueh admired as it was when 
first performed. Amongst the most popular of his 
operas maybe named The I^fimmer^ The Marme ys, 
The Adopted ChM, The CaeUe af Sorrtnto, and The 
Smuggien. The fantastic tricks, and petty vanities 
of leading performers, disgusted Attwood, and caused 
him to torn his attention to sacred music, in which 
he was very soccessfuL For the coronation of 
George IV. he wrote his anthem The Kmff thoB Re- 
Joicey and for that of King William IV^Lord, Grmii 
ike King a Long Z^e, both of which horn the highest 
place amongst this class of musical compositions. 
In 1837 the Bishop of London appointed him with- 
out solicitation to the office of ozganist to the Chapel 
RoyaL He died in 1887, and his remains wero 
buried in St Paul's Cathedral, beneath the great 
oigan, with eveiy honor that the church and his 
professioital brathren could confer. Many of Att- 
wood's works, and they are very numerous in all the 
classes, are destined to eojoj a lengthened popu- 
larity. His style was founded principally upon that 
of his great teacher, Moxart, who, according to Mi- 
ychael KeQy, once said, * Attwood partakes more of 
my style than any pupil I ever had.' [J.M.] 

ATWOOD, Gbo., F.R.S., a writer on mechanics 
and mathematics, 1745-1807. 

AUBERT, Ajibe, a French fabulist, last cent 

AUBIGNE, Throd. Aosippa D', one of the most 
remarkable men of the 16th cent, an hist, satirist, 
and poet, persecuted on account of his attachment to 
the raformed religion, 1550-1680. 

AUBIGNE, CoKSTAKT, son of the preceding, and 
father of Mad. de Mainteoon. 

AUBLER, J. B. C. F., a botanist, 1720-1778. 




AUBREY, JOKX, ta utiqnur, died I TOO. 

AUBRIET, CuDDE, a Fnoeh painter, li 1740. 

AUBRIOT, HmB, nnjor ofPsiis, time of Ch. T., 
l iWIW t a ted in the Bastile, irhioli be bad erected aa a 
foctma agaiiiBt the En^iah, on a chuge of hereey, and 
teacned by the iniarii^Dtpapnlacs 1882, died •amevaar. 

AUBRY DE HONTDIDIER, a FreDoh kidght, 
wboee mnrdex vu ditoovsred bj the hoatili^ of Ui 
dog lo Richaid de Hacaiie, 13T1. 

AUBRY, C. L., a mathematician, laat oecitiii7. 

AUBRY, J. B., a French prior, tTSfi-lBOB. 

AUBRY, J, Ft a Fr. phyuoiau, but csntory, 

AUBRY, Mdixe., a balkt dancer, worahi[iwd tn 
Paria ai the goddea oTieaHHi, 1T98. 

AOBRY DE GANGES, Makk Olymmk, a femab 
repablican, eiecnted by Robe^eire. 

AUBRY, Ddbomohet N., a French ecoimmiat, do- 
pD^' to the Eatatoi General, 1T89. 

AUBRY, F., a member of tbe Fr. CoaTen. and the 
Committee of Public Safety, died in Engbmd 1802. 

AUBRY, SWFH., a irench pwnter, died 1781, 

AUBUSSOtf, J. D*. a tronbndonr, I3th cent 

AUBUSSOK, Peteb D*, a aoldier of tbe church, 
disdiunuhed against the Tni^ 15tb eentun. 

AlK^HlfUTY, ItoBT., jndge of tbe admirJ^ court 
at Boahm, in 1703 and 1 783 ; agent to England on 
the botmdaiy qneation with Rhode Iiland ; and an- 
tboi <d a pamphlet lecommeDdfaig the captnn of 
Cmm Breton ; died I7S0. 

AUCHMUTZ, Sib Sax., an Eng. gen., d. 1S2S. 

AUCliLAND, Wx. Evta, Lord, a diplomatiit aod 
ambaieadtr, 1744-IB14. 

AUDE, Josspu, a diamatist, la^ centtuy. 

AUDEBEET, O, a Latin poet, died 1878. 

AUUEBERT, J. B., an angrnw, diadngoidied Id 
lubjecu oTDatural hiitoiy, 1739-1800. 

AUDEFROI, a poet of the IStb aentmy. 

AUDENAERD, R. Vak, an engraver, d, 1748. 

AUDIFREDI, an astronomer, Isat oontuiy. 

AUDIFFREDY, TunzBE, disting. in Cayenne 
tar aaving Picbwni and other victima of the enrp 
<rifa(, 18th Fmefedsr, from itarration. 

AUDU'RET, J. B., a diplomaCut, died 1788. 

AUDINOT, N. M., a diamotiit, died 1801. 

AUDLEY, THoa., ahu<»ll<x of Hanij VIIL 

AUDONIN, king of tbe Lombard*, SA oeat 

AUDONIN, J. Vict., eirtamok»itt, d. 1841. 

AUDEA, JoaiFH, a Freni^ philoK^er of tbe re- 
TolntioBaiy Mbool, 1710-1770. 

AUDRAN, tbe name of a LyoneM family wbioh 
baa produced many dittiiignished artiit* : the moat 
■mineut are CaAMLES, 1694-1674; CbavDE, 1697- 
1S77; Ci-aiim, the Yoonger, 1B41-I664i Qskabd, 
1640-1708; Jobs, I667-1TB6; and Claudk, ane- 
phev of the fim of thia name, 16GB-17S4. 

AUDRAK, P. O., ■ Hebrew eoholar, lait cent 

AUDRIEN, Yna H., a French eocledaetic and 
rerohitianiit; anaaanatsd 1800. 

AUDUBON, JoHH Jaub, a oelebrated American 
«lliithcd(^iat,w*aboni JnLoniaanain 1782. Hedied 
in 186L From hie eariieit yean he vaa devoted to 
the itD^ of otmthcdogy, roaming the wihl woodj of 
Ida native coontry, liMeidng to tlu long of the ang- 
lut hirda, and picking np mm hla father all kinda of 
infoimatian atrant tbeir habits, ioMiiuiti, and misra- 
tim. He commenced ikatohins hia favotites trhQe 
a mere bn ; bnl a few yean anarwarda, when lent 
1^ hii fktber to Paria, he enioyed the opportonity of 
baring leimi in paintiDg from tlie o^brated Da- 
., . . . ■ilUfe.he " - 


ebooting Urda in the woodi or painting Aem iu the 
connting-hoaae. At loat wearied of the dmdgenea 
of budneea, he ihook the trammela off, and, in ipite 
of the entreaties of lus friends, betook himself to a 
wandering life in At rorest. Sleeping by night at 
tbe foot irf a tree anbsistlng on the (cnmc which he 

which he cooked for himselT; floatitw 
down tbe silent riveTs for bnndreds of miiea in • fnS 
canoe, and sketching from nature aa be went ^ong, 
be accomolated a large collection of faicbfbi and ac- 
cniate drawingi of the feathered tribes of America. 
These were made tbe siia of life in every case, and 
be added the details of feet, legs, lalotia, and beaks, 
all measm«d aocnrately by oompan. Not being 
able to procnre snbecriptlaDS in Ameiica to enable 
him to publish them, be visited England and Soot- 
land, bi Edinburgh he was received enthusiasti- 
cally ; lilt drawingi were admired and highly prueed, 
and there he commenced engraving tbe Ggiiree which 
have procnnd htm sDch a high reputation. The 
pnbUcation of this extensive aod gigantic work ex- 
tended over thirteen yean; daring tbe intervals of 
which he continued hit joomeyt to the vast prairies 
Bod fontta of America, and neglected nothing which 
oonld add to Its value. If Audobon be indebted to 
friaitdly aesinanoe for his descriptions of bis birds, 
his drawing! an bi* own, and bis highest olaim to 
admiration Is foonded upon them, as they exhibited 
a perfection never before attempted. Hia woik con- 
sists of 486 plataa, oontumng 1,066 fignrei of the 
of life, and has been jwooonnoed by Cnvier 'as 

the n __ 

that had ever been erected to nature.' Beeides hia 
great work, ' The Birds of America,' Audubon ia the 
anUior (^ another, entitled, ' Omithologioal Biogra- 
phy,' A Moond edition of 'The BMa of America' 
was publiahed ia royal 8vo. ; ood before his death ha 
had commenced the ' Quadrapeds of America.' This 
he has left to ha finished by his eons, who (nolinua 
to prosecate the science in which their father won 
sDch fame. fW.B.] 

AUERBACH, J. Q., a German painter, 17th o. 

AUERSBERG, HuwASD, baron of, dieting, in tbe 
IVontler war between the German empire and tha 
Turks, 18th oentuiy. 

AUQE, D. G., a l<'rench anther, ISth oentoiv. 

AUGER, Athuiasiub, a political and learned wii- 

r of France, t734-t7BS. 



ADGEE, L. S., tt Fr. jonma]i«t, 1772- 1829. 

ADQEREAU, PiEHBE Faiscois Chakles Ad- 
aSBEAC, wai bom llth Kovember, ITCT, in one of 
the [kabonigs of Puis. HU father na ■ noAii 
m&son, hin mother sold ftnit. Tonng Pierre had : 
education, except that of the FariJi Btreet^ He e 
listed while a. lad ; and attor aome yeui of servloe 
■ private ID the French arm;, ha enterad the Nea- 
pouton, TOM to the rank of seigeuit, and wu a fsno- 
ing-maater at Naple* vhen the wan of iJie French 
revototion broke onL Anj^rean then retnmed to 
France, and joined one of the insurrection levies of 
1 793. He piined his saccessiTe steps of pronii 

.ingereau in high repnCe u a bold and Bkilfal gene- 
ral of divinon. That reputation was angmented at 
Millesimo, at Cera, at Lodi, at Castiglione, at Ro- 
Teredo, and man; more of the scenes oC Damage thst 
were so numeRins at the cloee of the last, snd at the 
oommencement of the preMDt oentaiy. In 1S05, 
Augereau was a marshal of France, and Duo de Cas- 
tiglione. It is from tiiese facts that Angotaan's 
militaty talents must be judged, and not £>m the 
t«rnu in which Napoleon, and the writers of tbe Na- 
poleomc school hare spoken of him. Augereaa wi 
not onl/ a furiooa, but a stnoere rspnbUcan of tl 
revolndonary era, and he gave fVequent and deep 
offence to Buonaparte by the coarse frankneat of his 
language after the establishment of the empire. At 
last he reproached Napoleon on Hie battle>tield of 
Preuss Ej'lan, for the nielesa bntchei7 to which die 
French tnx^ were exposed. For this he was sent 
into retirement, and except a short period of emploj- 
ment in the Peninsula, he was not again introstsd 
bj the emperor with a command till afttir the disas- 
trous reverses in Kossia. Angerean acknowledged 
Lonis XVm., after Napoleon's abdication in 1814, 
and acknowledged Napoleon agun as emperor in 
ISlIi. But he was not employed in the campaign 
<^ Waterloo. He was one of the court-martial that 
was first appointed to try Manihal Ney, and refosed 
to sit in judgment on their comrade. Angerean died 
tn 1816. [E.S.C.] 

AUOIER, a., a tronbadonr, 12th cantiuy. 

AUQtIRELLO, Q. A, a scholar, poet, and al- 
chemist, 1440-1624. 

AUGUSTIN, Anth., a Sp. preUte, d. IGSS. 

AUOUSTm, or AUSTIN, St., called the apostle 
of England, died 610. 

AUGUSTINE, bishop of Hippo, and most famous 
of the Latin church fathers, was bwn at Tagasta in 
Nnmidia, ISth November, 854. Id early life he was 
loose, roving, and senmal, but at Milan the inflncnce 
of hii mother Honica, and the preaching of St. Am- 
brose, prodaced, about 886, a saving and permanent 
change on his heart and life. He had already left 
the Manichaean philosophy, and now he Tenoanced 
the stody of thetm^e, widch he had taught with suc- 
cess at Carthage, Rome, and Milan. He was or- 
dained a presbyter SSI, and fbnryeai« 
eame ooadjntor to Valerius in the diooesa of Hippo, 
now Bona in Algiers, and he finally succeeded his 
colleague In 396. His life was ^wnt in active lite- 
tBiy opposition against Uanichaeans, Doostjsls, and 
Pelagians. When Hippo was menaced by the Van- 
dal hosts, Augustine died, in the third month of the 
>l^;e, at the good old age of seventy-sii. The influ- 
ence of Augustine's theology hat bean felt in all sno- 
caeding ages of the church. He compacted the 
truths of retigiou into a system, with a logio whose 
Mveri^ is relieved by the glow of his eloquence and 
the fervor of his piety. His antobiograidiy is con- 

tained in his famons ' Confessions ; ' and his ' Civitat 
Del ' is nnivenslly admired. But he wrote too modi, 
and on too manjy subjects, to be at all times either 
Ineid or self-oonsisteDt His woiks are very nnmei- 
oni, and have been oAan edited and published. The 
Benedictine edition, Paris, 1679-1701, is in eleven 
handsome folios. [J.Ell 

AUGUSTOLUS, the name given in deriidon to 
Romnlns, last Roman emp. of the Wea^ dethroned 
and paDrioned by Odoacar, 4TS. 

STit4{ lost 

AUGUSTUS, the first Roman emperor, was bom 
at Velitm, a town of Ladnm, in the ooosulahip of 
Cioero, B.C. 68. Ha was the son of Caiua Octavios 
by Atio, die niece of Ae famous C. Julius Cssar; 
and was conseqaently tlie grand-nephew of the dic- 
tator. His t>al name was Cains Octavius ; bnt, in 
CDuseqaance of his adoptiiai by the will of the dicta- 
tor, he assumed thai of Caaar; and in B.C. 27, he 
received from the senate the title of Augustus, tt 
name by which he is now best known. Having lo 
his father at the age of four years, he went lo reside 
with his grandmother, Julio, who watched over bis 
feebie boyhood with the most asudnooa care. From 
his early years he showed a great capacity, and gave 
evidence of that prudence and forcright which char- 
acterized his subsoquent earoer. On the death aC his 
grandmother, in his twelfth year, he pronounced her 
(nneral oration ; and returned to the honse cf bis 
mother, who, along with her husband, L. Maroins 
Philippns, hencefi^tli superintended his education. 
At the ago of sixteen he assnmcd the toga virilis, the 
symbol of legal maturi^ ; Hnd in the same year was 
made a member of the College of Pontifii. The 
dictator, who had always showed great attentami to 
hit youthful relative, now took a more active part in 
truning him for pnblic life, and mamfestod hit affection 
Int tbe honon which he bestowed on himself, and on 
the Esmily to which he belonged. Augustas seems 
to have been preeent in hie camp at £e battle of 
Unnda, B.C. 46; and it was haie diat the dictator 
mads Wim his heir, and adopted him into the family 
of the Ciesars. Soon after their retain to Rome Au- 
gustus was sent to Apollonia in Epims, for the par- 
pose of advaooiog his military education, provious to 
accompanying the dictator ia the oxpedition which 
he meditated against the Parthlans ; and it was whil« 
hen that he was called upon to commence a oontcst 
the most arduous perhaps that was ever nndertakea 
by a youth of eighteen. On the Ides (16th) of 
March, B.C. 44, the ^ctator wat assassinated in tha 
senate house ; and Augustus, on receiving tha newt, 


nt out for Italy vitfa a Aw attenduta. A* tbs 
adr^iMd ion oTtbedieutor, henowBMnniBdtheiiBiDe 
of Cn»T; anil, SDConnged bj the snpport of the 
Tetorui Kildien, proclaimed hii moIntiDn to tyexige 
the ieaib (^ hufalhw; in other woril^ toaaeerthia 
claim to the *aTenif;Tit7- Appearing before tlie 
pca:tcir, bo fonnill}' accepted tbe dangcrona inherit- 
ance of the dictaMi') name and propert}' ; and in tiie 
complicated rtrnKgle vhich enaned, played hia part 
with an art wbii^h baffled the pmdence ot tbe oldeit 
itateamcD of Rome. Tbe coDteoding partiea firat 
met under the walla of Mntina, when Antony was 
defeated, and f<. iced to take refbge on the other ride 
of the Alpa, In 8.C. *3 Angnstoa wa» railed to the 
coDSalihip, notwithstanding the itreDaoiia op^oaition 
of theariitociacy; and, tiading that hia poudou now 
rendered a reoODinliatioD irith Antony doriiable, pro- 
ceeded to Cisalpine Gaul ; aod hen tbe celebrated 
intrariew took place between Antony, Le[Hdni, 
himwlf, which remlted in the formadoQ of the second 
trlamvLrate — a nnion which was cemented by tbe 
blood of many of tbe nobleatoitiiena of Rome. Aboot 
the close of Bj;. 42 the deciaire battle of PhlUppi 
waj fonght, which completely broke up tbe party i^ 
tbe senate. During the next nine years Anguataa 
relieved liimaelf of ul hta formidable opponents, with 
the exception of Antony, with whom he had long 
foreseen that the final conteat lay. Tbe lait stra ' 
took place at Actimn, on the 2d of September, 
31, when Antony was totally defeated, and Auguatns 
placed in the undoubted snpremacy of the Roman 
empire. AJVr aettling affairs in the East he letnmed 
to Rome, b.c. 29, and hie arrirsl was celebrated by 
three trinmpba on three soooenTe daya. In B.O. ST 
be aflMed tojiropoae to the nnate to restore the old 


bat a 

'a be consented to retain the administra- 
tion rf afUn for ten yean; and aooo after was 
inneted with the higheet Bdlitaiy aad tMl aodiority, 
both in the city and thronghont the pnviueea. The 

same protended nugnatini and resmnptlon of power 
woe repeated at interrala till the end of hia life. The 

oeeded by his stepaoc, llberiua Claodim Nero. An- 
gnstna wa< a man of middle atatnre, but well made ; 
and the eipresaion of his handsome fsoe was that of 
m-aryii^g ttaoqniUity, Thongb naturally of a feeWe 
— ■'*"'' — '"0 BlWned to a great age by a Kriot 

1 ] AVI 

observaiioe of temperance in eating and drinking. 
His early education bad imbued him with a taate for 
literature, which 1m oontimied to cultivate thiongb- 
out his long life; and hia liberal patnmage of learned 
meo, eepeoially in the penons of Virgil and Horaoe, 
has procured the name of the Aoguitan age for the 
brilliant period in which he lived. [<'-F0 

AUGUSTUS I, elector of Saxony, 1^53-1586. 

AUGUSTUS IL, boni I670j elector, 1694; king 
of Poland, 169Tj deposed by Charies XH., ITM; 
reinstated, 1709; died, 1733. 

AUGUSTUS in., hia aon and auoceaa., d. 1763. 

AUGUSTUS Fbid., d. of Suaaex, 1TT3-1843. 

AULISIO, DoHmu, a jnriat, 1639-1717. 

AULNAGE, F. H. S, a Sp. wr., 1739-1830. 

AULUS GELLIUS, a oeL Latin scholar, author of 
the ■ Atlio Nights : ' lived 2d oeutory. 

AUKALE, Cumnc, connt of, onated duke of 
Guise bv Francua L, died 1G50. 

AUNGERVILLE, R., tutor of Edward UL, tOat- 
wards lord chanoeUor, in., died 134E. 

AUNOY, Commai or, a Franob wr., d. 1706. 

AUREUAN, Lucnia DoNmos, b. 213, emp. of 
Rome 270, oooq. ofPalnren 274, aseanin. 376. 

AURELIO, Locna, an kiatorian, died 1637. 

AURENG-ZEBE, one of tbe gteateit of the Uogdl 
emperors, reigned 1669-1707. 

AURIA, VmoL, an hiatoriau of Sicily, d. 1710. 

AUKIA. Jo., an attnmomer, died 159S. 

ACKIGINI, Giua D', a French poet, died 1553. 

AUSEGIUS, a French abbot, 9th century. 

AUSOXUIS, St., a martyr of the fld oentmy. 

AUSONIOS, a Roman poet, 4tb century. 

AUSTEN, Jura, a ooveHat, I776-1S17. 

AUSTIN, Rksjamui, a democratic writer, whoa* 
signatare was 'Old South' during the Presidency of 
John Adama; bom, 1740; died, lS2a 

AUSTRIilA, DoH Jean, a Sp. admiral, b. 1645. 

AUVERGNE, Amt. D', a composer, 6. 1797. 

AUVIGNY, J. D'. a French writer, bora 1713, 
killed at the battle of Dcttin^en, 174S. 

AVALOS, FutD., marquia of Penara, a diitis- 
giudied Spaidah general, 1489-1625. 

AVALOS, ALni., nephew and aocceanr of the 
preceding, ] 603-1646. 

AVAUX, CuoDK Da Meshk, count of; a French 
diplomatist and scholar, d. 1660. 

AVELLANEDA, Alfb. Feed., the asaomed name 
a Spanish writer, who displayed his enmity to 
Cervantes by pnblishing a continnation of Don Quix- 
ote, and attacking the author, 1614. 

AVELLONE, F., an ItoL dramatist, iaat cent. 

AVEKTINE, J., an annalist, 1466-1634. 

AVENZOAR, an Arabian phya, 12th oeitfaiy. 

AVERANI, Bcc., a miioel. writer, died 1707. 

AVERANI, Jot., a scientiBc writer, died I73a 

AVEHDY, CtfM. Ce., Da U, complroUer-general 
of Franoe, guillotined, 1794. 

AVEROLDI, an antiquary, died 1717. 

AVERKOESv an Arabian philosopher, 12th ct 

AVER5A, Th., a dramatic author, 17th oent 

AVESBURG, RoBCBT or, a chronicler, 14th oan- 

AVIANO, JcBOME, an ItaL poet, 16th cent. 
AVICENNA, an Arabian philos-^er, d. 1037. 
AVIDIUS, a Roman emperor, 176. 
AVIENEJS. R. F., a Latin poet, 4th oentuiy. 
AVILA, John D', a Spanish priest, called the 
Apostle of Audalosia, died 1569. 
AVlLA-r-ZUNlGA, Locig D', a soldiel and dip- 
matist, time of Charlea V. 
AVILA, 6. G. D', an antiquary, died 1658. 
AVILEH, A. a D', ft Ftenoh architect, d 1700. 




AVIRON, James Lb Bathalixb, aathor of legal 
oommentaries, 16th centoiy. 

AYISON, Ch., « musical oompoaer, died 1770. 

AVrrUS, Flat., a Roman emperor, elected 455. 

AVITUS, St., a Latin poet, 6th oentniy. 

AVOGADRO, THK Count, a patriotic nobleman 
of Brescia, defeated 1502. 

AVOGADRO, LnciA, a poetess, died.1568. 

AVRIGNY, C. J. L., a French poet, d. 1828. 

AXELSON, Ejuc, a Swed. statesman, d. 1840. 

AY ALA, a Dutch phyucian, 16th centuiy. 

AY ALA, Peteb Lofez D*, a statesman, general, 
and historian of Spain, died 1407. 

AYALA, B. D*, a Spanish painter, d. 1678. 

AYALA, J. L . D\ a Spanish astrono., last cent 

AYAMONTE, Mabquis op, a patriot of Andalnsia, 
executed 1640. 

AYESHA, wife of Mahomet, d. 677. 

AYLMER, J., a controversial divine, hishop of 
London, time of Elizabetb. 

AYLOFFE, Sir Joseph, an antiqnaiy and miscel- 
laneous writer, 1708-1781. 

AYMON, oonnt of Savoy, 1829 to 1843. 

AYMON, a priest of Piedmont, 17th oentoiy. 

AYOLA, J. Db, governor of Boenos Ayies, 1586, 
killed by the Indians 1588. 

AYRAULt, P., a French lawyer, 16th oentoiy. 

AYRTON, Edm., a composer, died 1808. 

AYSCOUGH, G. £., a writer last century. 

AYSCX)UGH, S., an antiq. andmis. wr., 1745-1804. 

AYSCUE, Sis G., an English admiral, coadjutor 
with Admiral Blake. 

AYTON, Sir R., a Scotch poet, died 1638. 

AZAIS, P. U., a miscellaneous writer, last cent. 

AZALIAS, a female troubadour, 12th century. 

AZANAR, count of Gasoony, founder of the king- 
dom of Navarre, died 836. 

AZARA, Don J. N. De, a Spanish diplomatist, 
autikor, and antiquaiy, died 1804. 

AZARA, Don Feux De, a commissioner sent out 
by the Spanish government in 1781, to arrange 
with Portuguese deputies regarding the boundaries 
of their reflective territories in S. America. He 
constmcted good maps of the La Plata and its afflu- 
ents, and wrote an aooount of Paraguay, whose 
chief value consists in its contributions to natural 
history. [J.B.] 

AZARIAH, high pr. of the Jews, 9th ct b.c. 

AZARIAH, or UZZIAH, king of liie Jew8» Sih 
centuiy B.C 

AZARIO, P., an historian, 13th oentoiy. 

AZOR, J., a moralist, 16th century. 

AZUNI, Dominic Aiaebt, a writer on maritima 
law, died 1827. 

AZZO, P., an Italian jurist, 18th oentuiy. 

AZZOLINI, Lorenzo, a satirist, died 1682. 

AZZOLINI, Degio, an Italian cardinal, confidant 
of queen Christina, died 1689. 


BAAHDIN, Mah., a Persian jurist, 16th cent 

BAALE, St. V., a dram. p. of HolL, 1782>1822. 

BAAN, J. De, a portrait painter, d. 1702. His 
son James, also distinguished as a painter, d. 1700. 

BAARDT, P., a Flemish poet, 18th centary. 

BAARSDORP, C, a physician, died 1565. 

BAASHA, the usurper of die kingd. of Jeroboam, 
whose whole race he exterminated, 10th cent. b.g. 

BAAZIUS, J., a preL and his. of Swe., 1581-1649. 

BAB A, a Turkish adventorer, 18th century. 

BAB A-ALI, first indqiendent dey of Algiers, elect- 
ed 1710, died 1718. 

BABA-ALI, a learned Mahometan, d. 1569. 

BABACOUSCHI, A. R. Mdstapha, a Mahometan 
author, 14th centuiy. 

BABBINI, M., an Italian singer, d. 1816. 

BABEK, Khoremi, a Persian socialist, defeated and 
slain, after 20 years* conflict, 887. 

BABEUF, Francis Noel, bom at Saint Quentin, 
1764, and unknown during the first years of the rev- 
olution, except for his work on the Registration of 
Lands, has acquired a memorable place in tiie history 
of the Directory, first, by editing tiie ' Tribune of the 
People,' and afterwards by conspiring against the 
government The principles he advocated were those 
of absolute equality, as the apostle of which, at the 
critical period when the power of Napoleon Buona- 
parte was just rising, he displayed a singolar inflexi- 
bility of purpose and good faith. Before the appear- 
ance of the * Tribune, he had published a work enti- 
tled the * Life and Crimes of Carrier,' which is con- 
sidered the most impartial account of that inhuman 
monster. In his Journal, Babeuf took the surname 
of * Caius Gracchus,' and it is to his denunciations of 
all terrorigm, that we owe the well-known appellation 
of the system which he denounced. He was arrested 
in the month of May, 1796, and did not hesitate to 
make a daring avowal of his ambitious hopes as the 
chief of a great party. He endeavored to Moape the 
ignominy of the guillotine by stabbing himself several 

times with a poniard, secretly conveyed to him by 
his son, but was dragged bleeding to the seaffbld 
twenty-four hours afterwards, with the insfarament of 
death still rankling in the wound. His object, beyond 
all doubt, was to overthrow the present constitution 
of society, and this, perhaps, with the fallacy of his 

grinciples, is tiie worst that can be alleged against 
im. [E.R.] 

BABIN, F., a French casuist^ died 1784. 

BABINGTON, Anth., a catholic accused of con- 
spiring to place tiie unfortunate Maiy Stuart on the 
throne of England ; executed 1586. 

BABINGTON, G., a learned bishop, 17th cent 

BABINGTON, Dr. W., an English physician and 
mineralogist, 1757-1838. 

BABO, J. M., a German dramatist, 1766-1822. 

BABOUR, Mahomed, grandson of Tameriane, 
proclaimed sovereign of Tartaiy 1488 ; conqueror of 
Delhi 1525 ; and founder of the dynasty which reign- 
ed in Hindostan till the 19th cent, d. 1580. 

BABRIAS, a Greek poet^ long known as CMbriatf 
through an error of the copyist 

BABUER, Thbod., a paintor, 17th centuiy. 

BABYLAS, St., a martyr of the 8d oentuiy. 

BACAI, Ib. bkn Omar, a wr. of biog. 15th c 

BACCAINI, B., a leamed writer, died 1721. 

BACCALAR Y SANNA, VtscxstT, a commander 
and author of memoirs, d. 1726. 

BACCHANELLI, J., an Italian physic., 16th c. 

BACCHID^, a dynasty of Corinth. 

BACGHIDES, governor of Mesopotamia, and com- 
missioner of Demetrius, king of Syria, in the time of 
Judas MaocabsBus. 

BACCHIUS, a Greek writer on music. 

BACCHUS. See Boocuus. 

BACCHYLIDES, a Greek lyric, 450 B.o. 

BACCIO, Akd., an Ital. phy. and an., 16th ct 

BACCIO, F. B., an Italian painter, died 1517. 

BACCIOCCHI, Maria A^tne Eliza BooHAPAsnE, 
prinoess of, was tlie sister of Napoleon, born 1777 ; 





manied to M. Baooiooblu 1797 ; orowned with her 
bofllMud, prinoeM of Laoca and Piombino 1806 ; fell 
with BnoD&parte 1818, died 1820. 

BACELLAB, A. B., a Port historian, d. 1668. 

BACH, J. A., a jiniat, 1721-1759. 

BACH, JoBAinr SEBAsixAir, one of the most emi- 
DflBt masters of musical science, was bom at Eisenach 
in Upper Saxony, on the 21st of March, 1685. The 
anoestor of the lemaikable family, from which sprang 
the salgect of the following memoir, was Veit Baoh, 
a natiTB of Preshmg in Hungary, which city he was 
foioed to leave dnring the religions straggles of the 
16ih oentoxy. He lUtimately settied at Veohmar in 
Saxe Goiha, where he resomed his trade of miller 
and baker, and amnsed his leisore honrs by practis- 
ing on the goitar. He imparted a taste for mnsio to 
his sons, and they again to their families, most of 
whom adopted mnsic as a profession, nntil they fiUed 
all the o^ses, of mtudcians, oiganists, and chanters, 
in their native provinoe. The gzeat^ however, of 
the name, and one of tiie greatest of his age, was 
John Sebastian, npon whom all writers of mnsic, as 
well in England as in Germany, have bestowed the 
most unbounded laudations. Among many others 
who have left their written opinions of the ezoellenoe 
of this master, it is only necessary to mention the 
names of Forkel, his biographer, Marpmg, Handel, 
Kaiheson, Reichardt, Bee^oven, Von Reaanar, Men- 
delssohn, and Friedeman. In 1695 the father of 
John Sebastian Bach died, and he was left to the 
care of an elderly brother, who does not seem to have 
poeseased that kindly and afieotionate nature which, 
like music, was hereditary in the family. This 
brodier, instead of awjsting him in his eariy stndies^ 
did all he could to prevent him from progressing as 
rapidly as he otherwise would have done. He even 
destroyed a collection of studies which the young Se- 
bastian, being denied candles, had copied by moon- 
li^t. After the dea& of this brother, Sebastian at 
a vexy early period of his life commenced his pro- 
fessional career as a treble singer in the choir of Si 
MichaeTs school at Lnnebuig. In 1703, for reasons 
not now known, he quitted Lunebuig and went to 
Weimar, where he was appointed court musician, and 
in 1708 court ozganist, and director of the concerts 
to the duke. It was not long after this that he re- 
cdved an invitatioii to visit Dresden, wheze Marohand, 
a celebrated French oiganist, then held office. A 
musical contest between this professor and Badi was 
ananfled to take place, but the Frenchman left Dres- 
den urough fear of the German artist, whose fame 
had preoe&d him. On his return to Weimar, Prince 
Leopold of Anhalt-GOthen gave him the situation of 
chapel master, and in 1723 he accepted the office of 
director of music at Leipaig^ which appointment he 
held till his death. On one occasion he was invited 
by Frederick the Great to visit Potsdam, where he 
was most honorably entertained, and waa received 
with the most maxked condescension by that mon- 
arch, ibr whom he compoeed his world-renowned 
fugue, under the title of 'The Musical Offering.' This 
was Baeh*s last journey. Constant study, firequratly 
for days and nights together, first weakenedf then de- 
prived him of Us sight. He died of apoplexy, on the 
80th of July, 1750. Bach composed a great number 
of works in almost eveiy class of music, and all ex- 
cellent ; but it would, occupy too much space to enu- 
merate them here. He was great as a contrapuntist 
beyond all who went before him, and was no more 
tban equalled by the greatest of hb contemporaries. 
His ' PasBJonsmusik' and * Chorales,' or psalm tunes, 
have always been held in the highest estimation of all 
his vocal compoaitionSi The first time that a^y portion 

of Bach's vocal music was pnblidy per fo rmed in Great 
Britain was at the London Institution, at the course of 
lectures delivered by Dr. Ganntlett in the spring of 
1887. Inthe ' GermanMnsical Gazette' for 1823,thero 
was published a curious genealogical tree of tho 
Bach family, which shows uiat J&omVeit there were, 
down to Jobn Sebastian, who appears in the fifth 
generation, fiffy-eight male descendants, all of whom, 
acoordinff to Foricel, made music their profession. 
Among me most famous of the relations of Sebastian 
Bach may be mentioned, John Philxpp £m anuel, 
his son, bom in 1714, known as 'Bach, of Berlin, who 
was chapel master to the Princess Amelia of Prus- 
sia. He died at Hamburg in 1788. This composer 
left upwards of fifty different compositions, several 
of idiich were published after Us death. Jomr 
CHBiBTiAir, another son of Sebastian, the date of 
whose birth has not been published, was known as 
Bachof Afilan, and afterwards aa Bach of London. 
This composer came to London about the year 1769, 
and brought out his opera of ' Orione,' which was 
much adimred for the richness of its harmony. He 
died in Lcmdon, in the year 1782. John CHnnra- 
PHBB Fbibdbigh, thc ninth of the eleven sons of Se- 
bastian, was bom at Weimar in 1782. He held the 
situation of master of the concerts at the court of 
Buckaburg. He Is said to have been the ablest of 
performers upon the organ and clavichord of all his 
brothers. Wizxiam Fbsedkxan, the eldest son of Se- 
bastian, was bom in 1710, approached in his com- 
positions most nearly to tiie singular originality of 
Lis father. He died at Berlin in 1784. Gboboe 
Chrbbiopheb was a famous composer and singer at 
Schweinfurt about the end of the 17ih century. 
John BnofHARD, nephew of Sebastian^ was organist 
at Ordnn£^ where he died in 1742. John Ambso- 
siua, the father of Sebastian, was musician to the 
town and court of Eisenach, and John Christofhsr, 
twin brother of the preceding, held a similar situa- 
tion to the court and town of Armstadt John 
Chbisxoph, organist to tiie court and town of Eise- 
nach at the close of the 17tii century, was considered 
one of the greatest masters of harmony and perform- 
ers on the otgan of his time. One of his worics, 
which is still extant, a piece of church nrasic, has 
twenty obligate parts, ' and yet,' says the biogra^ier 
of the fam^y of the Bachs, *it is perfeotiy pore in 
respect of harmony.' Johann Ernst, chapel master 
to the duke of Weimar, was bom in 1712, and died 
in 178L JoHANN Lodwio, chapel master to the 
duke of Saxe-Meinengen, and composer of church 
music, was bom in 1677, and died in 1780. Johann 
MiCBABL, brother to Johann Christoph, who com- 
posed some good church mnsic, ¥ras bom at Arm- 
stadt in 1860. [J.M.] 

BACUAUMONT, Fn. lb Coionzux De, a Fr. po- 
lit, afterwards known as an an., 1624-1702. 

BACHAUMONT, L. P. Dx, a Fr. his., d. 1771. 

BACHE, Benjamin Fbankun, grandson of Dr. 
Franklin. He was editor of the Aurora, an opposi- 
tion paper during the administrations of Washington 
and Adams, died 1799. 

BACHE, RzcHABD, bom in England, married in 
1767 the daughter of Dr. Franklin, whom ho sue* 
ceeded as Postmaster-General of the U. S. in 1776 
died 1811, aged 74. 

BACHE, Gbobob Miffun, a lieutenant in tho 
Am. navy, engaged in the coast survey ; was bom in 
Philadelphia. He was returning from an explora- 
tion of the gulf stream, when the U. S. brig Wash- 
ington, which he commanded, encountered a storm 
off Cape Hatteras, during which he was washed fipom 
the deck, and drowned, Sept. 8, 1846. 



BACHELET, J., a French engraver, d. 1781. 

BACHELIER, J. J., a French puatar, d. 1806. 

BACHELIEN, Nich., a Fr. scolplor, d. lEE*. 

BACHEIiERIE, Hboh, ■ tronbsdcrar, 12th c 

BACHER, G. F., u medical anthor, 1766-1782. 

BACHEIi, Auac., Bon of the preooding, continuod 
be ohMrvations of hi» f»llier, died 1807. 

BACHER, Timouu), a Fr. diplomatut and po- 
litical agent, 17*8-1818, 

BACUT, PiETRO, nn Italian lelagee, vho came to 
the U. S. Id 1S25, and was appaialed inatnictor of 
Italian in Hairaid tlniveraitj, d. 1853. 

BACHIENE, G. A., an artTonoraer, d. 1783. 

BACmrEISTER, H. L. C, a diatingnidied wr. of 
TTOiis on Ruaaia, higtorica! and other, d. 1806. 

BACHOT, GisFiBo, ■ medieiil writer, 17th c 

BACHOVIUS, RciNEit, and his ran of the earns 
name, both known as jmiit*, the latter at Heidel- 
berg, I6th century. 

BACICI, J, B. G., an Italian painter, d. 1700. 

BACK, Abr,, a Swedish natnTnlirt, d. 1776. 

BACKER, Jlc, a Dntch piuater, died 1664. 

BACKER, A., nephew of the preceding, d. ISSB. 

BACKHOUSE, W., a practical alchemiit and an., 
iMtractor of the eel. Eliaii Aahmole, 1698-1662. 

BACKHUYSEN, Rdtolph, or Lddolpb, an em. 
Dutch marine painter, I631-1T09. 

BACKUS, AzEL, a theologian, d. 1824. 

BACKUS, Cbarles, D.D., a congregatioaal min- 
bter, bom at Norwich, Conn., 1 749, wh» graduated 
at Yale 1769, ordained at Somera 1T74. He ettah. 
a theo. Bch., and attained celeb. a> teacher, d. 1808. 

BACKUS, laAAC, a Baptist preacher, and volomi- 
noiu but insignificant writer, bom in Connecticut, 
1724. Died in 1806. He published a history of the 
Baptiata down to 1604. 

BACLER D'AHBE, Acbebt L., a military engi- 
gineer and geographer, 1761-1824. 

BACMEISTER, a German family of thia name 
has produced many distinguished men, lay and cler- 
ical. HEsnr, a jurist, 1684-1629. Hehbt, the 
yoonger, oonnsellor of Wurtemborg, 1670. John, 
I^esaor of medicine at Tnbingcn, 1710. Lccu, a 
celebrated Lutheran divine, 1E3O-IS08. Hii ion of 
the same name, also a theolimcal writer, 1670-]638. 
The son of the latter, also ofthe soitie name, profee- 
Mr of theology, d. 1679. Matthew, son of the elder 
Lucas, ■ medical aotbor, 1680-1626. SeunUH, 
an historian, 1646-1701. 

BACON, ABTaoNT, elder brother of Sir Franms, 
known as a man of letters and political intriguer in 
the reign of Elizabeth, bom 1668. 

BACOK, FsAHCia, Lord Vemlam, Viacount St 
Albana, Lord Chancellor of England ander Jamea I., 
author of the ' Instanratio Magna.' The attempt to 
describe or surround a mind like that ofthe immor 
tal Englishman, is akin to the effort to snrvey aomi 
grand Power in Nature, whose manifeatatioiia an 
almost infinite in form, and the sphere of whoas effi- 
dency is wide aa the nniierse. The industry of all 
vast minds is unwearied : nor ii it ever safe to aay 
of such, that any oue departmeut of labor, or apedes 
of activity, belongs to them peculiarly. From early 
manhood Bacon was immened in pablic affairs, ia- 
tmated with very onoroni rbnctions ; in the first rank 
as Jariaconanlt, he moTed in the woi^ of reforming 
and armnging the laws of England ; aa statesman he 
labored effectively in promotion of the treaty of 
Union — that foundation atone of modem British 
gieatneaa ; in the capaci^ of Historian be prodnced 
&e first work in Eagiish literature meriting the 
name of History, viz., his woik on the raign <^ 
Henry VIL; aa Orator Bod Writer ha had no ' 

hia age— jommg to energy and n^ of expres- 
sion, a splendor of diction which aometunes may 
dai^ too moch ; and baidit he renovated PhQoso- 
phy. There ar» two features only, in a character ao 
various and [Unatrinna, to iriiich we can refer In our 
brief sketoh, viz. : — bacon's aohievementa and valae 
in philosophy, and hia deaerta aa a Mait. — I. The en- 
taiprise undertaken by thiawonderM Intellect^ indi- 
oates by it* very elevation and oomprahensivmesa, 
the capacity of the genius that conceived it. Baeon 
resolved M rescue science from the deplorable nncCT' 
tainties and obstmctiona which then Enrroanded it^ 
to noonatmct the edifice of homan knowledge from 
ita very finndationa. Of hia projected ' lustauratio 
Magna,' the works he has left are only fragments ; 
nor oonld they he otherwise, fbr the execnijon of the 
gigantio plan is one of the teadinr ta^ delegated to 
hnniBni^, which cannot be oooipleted ao long as the 
ocRiditioa of bumani^ remains a progressive one. 
The 'Instaoratdo Magna' has six main parta: — 
PinI, Bacon felt it neodAil to ohalleuge new for in- 
quiry the T«spect and digni^ that belong to it, to 
detect the vices ol the ptdkwnfihy prevailing at bis 
time, and to point oat llie deficiflnciea requiring to 
be filled up. Soch ia the aiin of the treatise ' Ds 
Augmentia.' Saamdfy, the Reroedy had to be dis- 
covered ; the only certain cote for the evil rig- 
nalized. This aan is the ose of tbe true Me- 
Aod, to the adofitjon of otsemtfun and ti pet im uil 
instead of^/fcAmt, ea iDaLnauwnta for the discovery 
of fact, and in the suhstitntion in soch inquiries, Of 
tndiutKn for dsJuEtum or nllofpstie reaaoning. 'The 
prindples and processes <x die new meStod are elabo- 
rately exposed in the ' Novum Organum.' The (AW 
tknijbuih parts ij the ' Instaairatio ' were planned aa 
an exempl^catian or ioatruction in the nae cf the 
nesT OtramoD ; the fotmer, viz., the * Uistoria Natn- 
ralis et Experimentalia,' bdng dedicated to the col- 
lecting, by aid of observatioo and experiment, of the 
greatest possible maaof fatO; and the latter, tho 
Seals AMIscAm^ to eiemplucatioii (/ discovery l^ m- 
ducHai, (/general laws tnan these facta, and of tho 
ap[dioalion ol' these general laws by the iuverae pro- 
ceas of dabiction, to particular cases oamprehondcd 
wiUiin them. To finish thia memorable undertaking, 
it yet remuned that the results cT the method, or Uie 
truths of phihwophj be collected and arranged : but 
rightiy seeing that tio diacovery of these waa not a 
task he had to aCDomjdiah, but a legacy he had to bo- 
qneathe. Bacon was aatiafied with drawing up other 
two books, the lirEt, or the^A of hia ptau, named by 
him ' Anticipations,' and tha second or mizA, ' Pbilo> 
aophia Secunda SIve Activa.' having reference to ap> 
plications — to action or practice. — Snob thegraodaid 




of Hm intellectD&l Globe which the mind of this Eng* 
liahman endeavored to ipan I — ^It is in the aeoonid 
division of his great work that Bacon's more poeitive 
achievements are mifolded. ' And it most not be con- 
oeived that he is here satisfied with a set of general 
precepts, or with general statements conoeming the 
value and superiority of his Organon. The new 
Method of Inqniiy, on the other hand, is examined 
under every light, and its right practice exposed in 
detaiL In the first place, Bacon passes nnder review 
an the prooednres of observation and eveiy kind of 
experiment, showing with what special piecantion 
facts mnst be sought for, and how we may estimate 
tlie valne of the various sorts of facts bearing on any 
Inquiiy. With corresponding pains, and still greater 
gnooess, he nnfblds in the second book of the Oiganon 
in what way Induction enables one to detect from 
the collected facts, the tme canse, or the tme law of 
a jheaomeaoiL Having collected by observation all 
the facts which precede or foUow the phenomenon, it 
is necessary to exclude those in whose absence the 
phenomenon om be produced — to notice and separate 
those others in whose presence it always is produced; 
and lastiy, to select from among the latter class, 
such facts as vaiy in intensity when the phenomenon 
varies, t.e., which increase or diminish in proportion 
to an increase or decrease of intensity in the pheno- 
menon. In this way, according to Lad Baoon, the 
true cause is found ; and an application to this cause 
of a similar process, will evolve Ut cause, until in the 
end we reach supreme causes and universal laws. — 
In appreciation of these important and memorable 
labors, we have room for only three brief remarks, 
/war, it cannot well be denied that in certain respects 
Lord Bacon too much decried, or perhaps too littie 
understood the syllogism ; and that its peculiar mean- 
ing and value, as the only legitimate instrument in 
Deduction, ought to have preserved it and Aristotle, 
its immortal author, firom the ui^st di^mragement 
which one regrets to find upheld by the authority of 
so great a name. Nevertheless, this ii^stice to the 
Greeks, arising partly from defect of critical acquaint- 
ance with them, but more from his well-grounded 
revolt sgainst the depkxrahle methods sustained in 
physical inquiry under shelter of their authority, in 
nowise impairs the edifice Baoon himself reared, or 
attaches to it any incompleteness. Seoondfyf it is 
not pretended, with some exclusive and enthuriastic 
partisans, that previous to the writings of Racon, 
no philosopher had sought truths 1^ Induction, 
or based his inquiries on observation and experi- 
ment. It is certainly far from being true tiiat 
Gralileo, for instance, in conducting his immortal re- 
searches, pursued an enroneous coune, or that al- 
tiwugh be had studied the * Novum Oiganum,' his 
career of discovery would have been materially 
dififerent ; what is true is this — ^no one before Bacon 
had seen the fuH importance of the experimental and 
inductive metiiod, had discovered the extent of the 
sphere of which it is the only legitimate occupant, 
had explored its principles, and from principles dedu- 
ced rules for it as an Art. And it is equally tme, 
that every inquiiy of value, undertaken since the 
publication of his inductive code, has been conducted, 
with or without the consciousness of the Inquirer, 
according to laws laid down in that code. Latlfy, 
since the publication of tiie inductive code, its laws 
have been enlarged and greatty particularized, so 
that — be it said, witii perfect respect to the Oiga- 
non — ^it is not to Bacon's writings alone that we 
would pdnt now for full instru^on in his own 
[AukMophy. The exigencies of the modem sciences, 
as weQ of obMrvation as of experiment, have obliged 


us to refine his processes and multiply his precau- 
tions. The doctrine of probabilities enables us tc 
discern the relative values of different classes offsets, 
with a precision Bacon never dreamt of; and in the 
writings of modem authors — let us say of Mr, IfiH— 
the methods of induction are unfolded with a supe- 
rior comprehensiveness and effect. But although 
the advance of the j>Ay«icaJ sciences, caused by the 
impulse Lord Baoon communicated, has exacted for 
than processes more complete and perfect than his ; 
when, as to the moral sciences — as to inquiry, politi- 
cal, ethical, and religious — shall the time arrive 
in which inquirers shall practically recognize the 
validity even of the most general precepts in the 
Oiganon ? The ultimate application of these pre- 
cepts is sure ; but humanity has not yet acquired 
the strength to accomplish it — ^11. The length to 
which our analyns of Bacon's philosophy has ex- 
tended, prevents our dwelling much on the charac- 
ter of the Man. Nevertheless, one earnest, though 
brief word, in deprecation of the harshest treatment 
which, with one exception, has ever been applied to a 
mind so great. It is a canon we think which may 
be observed absolutely with far greater safety than it 
ever can be broken — ^that highest intellect and virtue 
are most doeely allied ; nay, notwithstanding appear- 
ances, their sevarence is impossible: certainly no 
mind like Bacon's, living tiirough its duration amid 
great ideas, ought to be suspected of vohintaiy de- 
scent to utter meanness, unless on evidence which, 
concerning transactions of the kind chaiged against 
him, has not come down assuredly from that age. 
Dissimulation, indeed, — oorraption, treach<*ry to 
friendship, it matters not what the mind may be that 
is guilty of them ; the acts are mean, and tiio mind 
foul. But the error in the popular judgment lies 
here— dissimulation and corruption are mferred on 
the strength of obscure circumstances, and without 
the necessary inquiiy whether taking the character of 
the mind into oonsidetrUion — the said acts could possi- 
bly signify to it^ either dissimulation or corraption ? 
At an Old BaUey indeed, or in Bcmco Regisy judgment 
must be summary ; but the Muse of Histoxy holds in 
her hands scales of another order — her question is, 
do Ir^ilsf understand this Man 7 It is passing strange 
to find Lord Bacon in the guise of an ordinary crim- 
inal, and treated with no more than the ordinaiy 
courtesy, before Lord Campbeirs judgment seat! 
The errors of Bacon, in so far as they are distinctiy 
established, were mainly those of compliance ; and it 
will probably be found that they most be classed 
among those nnodkaUary acts, which connect the best 
and wisest, through dieer force of circumstances, 
with tike times in which they live ; — mvo^untary, inas- 
much as they are done because they are usually 
done, and without rigid examination. Sad it were if 
through cause of conventional compliances, every 
eminent persouiige of our own day might justiy be 
branded as unveracious, and a hypocrite ! Sucn as 
he was — ance Bacon's time, England has seen no 
greater and seldom a better man. 

* And be tt mid be had this excellenee, 
That andeslroos of a falM renown, 
He ever wished to pass for what be was; 
One that swerved much and oft, bat being still 
Deliberately beni upon the right, 
Had kept it in the main : one that much loved 
Whatever in man is worthv high reepoct, 
And In his soul devontly did aspire 
To be it all, jet felt from time to time 
The littleness that clings to what is hnman, 
And saffered from the shame of having ftlt It' 

— ^Lord Bacon was bora in London on 22d Jaiu, 
1500, d. 1626. There have been various editions el 

BACON, JoBH, BD amment acalptor, the best of 
whoBB works are tha statnsg of Dr. JohaBoa mdjohn 
Howard in St. Paul's, *nd the funenl roonnineot of 
LoiJ Chatlittnl, 17*0-1796. 

BACOX, NATHAnmL., played ■ prouunent port ia 
the poHtica] tnmblea, and Indiui war in Virgiaia, in 
the time of Governor BeAeley. Tho eooiBe poimBd 
hy tb« lAtter, in npreaaog the iacnrsicHu i " '' ' 
diana by means of flrmtier forte, beins nn 
Baoon, ■ member al the cooncil, who had received a 
legal edacation in England, and wa« possesaed of 
nncb popular eloquence, wai placed by the people, 
eontraiy to the will of Berkelsf at the bead of an ex- 
peditioD vMch waa attended with I>et(er reedtg, but 
led to civil itrife. Baoon, proclumed a lebel in Ma;, 
1676, taken iniaanei, tried, acquitted, lealonid, and 
•g^ outlawed, died roddenlj in Oct white engaged 
in boidlitiei againit the governor whom he had de- 
feated and driven from Jamestown, wluch he burnt. 
His deafii can«ed the destruction of his partf, inauj 
of whomTeroexecuted, imprinnedandfined. Among 
tiie victims of this civil war, was Dnmunond, ei- 
gorenor of Carolina. Both parlies were in the 

WTOIW'-Bacan, in acting the part of a demr 

and Bericeley In JnJdsting upon a policy, not a , 
popnlar, but which experience had proved to be fataL 
BACON, Sib NiTH., half-brother of Sir Francis, 
known as a pointer, died 1615. 

BACON, Sn NicBOLAs, lord chancellcff in the 
.Rign of Queen Eliiabeth, and father of the oelebra- 
phflosopher, I610-I679. 

BACON, Amx, wife of die preoedina, known !• 
her trans, from the ItaL and Latin, 1621-1600. 
BACON, Ph., D.D., a comic writer, d. 1783. 
BACON, Ph., a naval com., time of Charles H. 
BACON, Robutt, an English monk, inflnential a* 
• pt«aclier at the court of Henry m., 1283-1346. 

BACON, RooER, a Franciscan monk of the thir- 
teenth ceiitniy, bom near Itccster in Somemt. This 
remai^ble peraon, most worthy of the ni 
benrs, fuled to be the reatoier of philosophy, 
fVom defect of energy nor will, but baoause ih 
were not yet ripe, living at an epoch of intelleo- 
toal torpor and profound ignorance, and surroanded 
by men neither instructed nor earing to beoome so. 
Bacon, as with the Chancellor allerwanla and the 
great Des Cartes, first grappled witJi the question, 
Why is this Ignorance ? Why is our human Reason 
a wiling oi^re ? The exposition of his reply ooco- 


^nf^ portion of &» ' Opus M»jnt •' and A» 
reply itself is not different in kind from that which 
in sJl ages mnst, by every ariginal thinker, be (bncd 
' " le question. Irrational deference to An- 

__ , avish reqnct for Custom ; satjeotion to 
popnUr pKJndioes, uid that vulgar selfisbneas which 
indnoee men to rejeot as dangerous, or de8[Hss as 
puerile, all knowledge they do not thamselvee poness, 
1 the causes of darkneH in nil ages : nor 
B overcome nnles* the iodtfieDdence and 
digni^ of Reason be aoknowledged, Ae inflnenoe of 
Buthori^, custom, and prqodiea disoce^led, and 
'bnth anight Orcn^ e«nM and i^stMnatla In*«a- 
tigation of Nature. And in hi* qniet dirister naar 
Oxford, the monk wrought out prinoiptes and model 
of legitimate investigation, and suooessfully followed 
hem. If not entitled to take rank as the founder of 
ixperimental philosophy, Roger Baoon was uoqnea- 
ionably the earliest philoei^ical EipHrimentalist in 
England. He reoogiiind as fVUly as Francis, the im- 
portance of experiment as distinguished from dedno- 
tion ) and he had this ■r™"'"« advantage over tha 
Chancellor — he Joined example to prao^it, and pnt in 
use, before his oonteniporaries, his own cooDsels. It 
is interesting to reQeet on the amount of actual dis- 
covery whii£ lewaided so much laborious research, 
" }n made signal advacoes in cities { he was an 
lleni chemist, and in all probabili^ disoovered 
gunpowder ; nevertlieless, it is on hi* dear diecem- 

' of true MeAad that his fame must rest. I>Driia 

iBwerring pnzmit of knowtege he eucountHred 
the Dsual oppoflition^ and a share also of encoumge- 
ment Pope Clement IV. aided and cheered him ; 
but after (he death irf' tliis proteotOT the smothered 
jealonsy and ^slike t€ the t^aneiacaDS broke fi«th, — 
" e mean and the weak are of conn* ever the mdi- 
t and fiercest persecntora. It is at once unjust and 
iwise to eonsidar emrs and crimes of this sort as 
:clD»Tfl attribute* of the KomisU church: their root, 
1 the oootraiy, lies deep in the heait of luan. The 
domain of physical inquiry is now whoUy safe from 
the disorders of intolerance ; but there are iarge de- 
partments of knowledge within which KaasoL is still 
not bee, when anthori^ abides on its lhron\ and 
popular piqiadice stons up its thonderbiilts. 


baij il tM-i.] 

BACON, Jobs, a congregational minister of Boe- 
ton, who died in 1S20. He was ■ politician of the 
Democratic party, a member of the State Senate and 
of Congress, and judge of common pleas. 

BACON, Samuel, an Episcopal olerf^ymon, who 
died 8d May, 1820. Shortly after his arrival in 
Africa, to which he hod gone with a number of 
coloivd peraona aa agent from the goreniment of the 
I'Dit«d States to establish a coUny. 




BACON, TaoKAii, & learned cletgymui of the 
Epiaoopal Church, who resided at Fredericktown in 
IttuyUuid, and pabliahed, besdea other Talnable works 
8 oomplete collection of the laws of the State, d. 1 78d. 

BACON, or BACONTHORP, John, a learned 
monk of the 14di eentnty, died 184^. 

BACOUE, Lbowabd, a Latin poet, d. 1994. 

BACQUERRE, B., a mescal writer, 17th ot 

BACQUET, a French lawyer, died 1697. 

BACZKO, a Polish chronicler, IStti oentniy. 

BADAJOZ, JvAH De, a Spanish architect, middle 
of the 16th centuiy. 

BADCOCK, S., a polemical wr., 1747-1788. 

BADEN, one of the sovereign families of GermaE/, 
dSs&iguished by many eminent statesmen and miH- 
tary leaders sinoe Ae 1 1th oentorf. Charles Fhbd- 
BRICK, bom 1728, was defeated several times by 
Moresn, and concluded a treaty of peace with the 
French republic 1796; adhered to the Confederation 
of the Rhine 1805, and received the title of Grand 
Duke; died 1811. 

BADEN, James, a critical writer and lexicogra- 
pher of Denmark, 1735-1805. 

BADEN, Richard De, the original founder of 
Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1826. 

BADENS, Fr., a Dutch painter, died 1608. 

BADESSA, Paul, an Italian poet, 16th cent 

BADGER, Stephev, missionary among the In- 
diana in New England; bom in Charlestown 1725; 
gndnated at Hajmiid, 1747; ordained 1758; died 

BADGER, Wm., governor of N. H., 1884 & 1835, 
d. 1852. 

BADI-EL-ZEMAM, the last descendant of Tamer- 
lane who reigned in Khorassan; died 1517. 

BADIA, DoMiNCK), a political agent and traveller 
of Spain, 1766-1824. 

BADIALI, Alex., an Italian etcher, 17th ct 

BADILE, AnT., an Italian painter, 1480-1560. 

BADILT, a naval officer, time of CromwelL 

BADLAM, Stepheit, Brigadier^general of the 
Massachusetts militia. The hill called Mount Inde- 
pendence derived its name from its being taken pos- 
sesdon of by Badlam, on 4th July, 1776. fie fought 
at Fort Stauwix, 1777. 

BADUEL, Cl., a protestant theologian, d. 1561. 

BAELI, F., a SioiUan historian, 17th ct 

BAENGIUS, P., a Swedish historian, 17th ct 

BAERSIUS, H., a mathematician, 16th oent 

BAERSTRAT, a Dutch painter, died 1687. 

BAFFIN, William, a skilful English navigator of 
the 17th oentory, deserving honorable mention as the 
first who lulled observations of the heavenly bodies 
for the determinstkm of the longitude at sea. Rules 
for the practice of the method which he employed 
are given in his account of the fourth voyage of 
James Hall, whom he acoompamed to the coast of 
Greenland in 1612, probably in the capacity of pilot 
Nothing is known of his history prior to this date. 
In 1618 he commanded a whaling ship in the sea of 
Spitzbergen. In 1615-1616 he went as mate with 
Robert Bylot, on two voyages, whose object was the 
diMoverj of a N. W. passage. In the second of these, 
the extensive bay named afler him (which should 
now be tenued a sea, since it is known to open north- 
wards), was discovered, and in great part traced. 
He wrote an account of these voyages also. Many 
of his statements are important, and highly sugges- 
tive. He calculated the horizontal or maximum m- 
fraction at 26'; the present estimate is 32' or 83'. In 
1618 we find him mate of a merchant vessel in the 
Arabian sea. In 1621 ho was killed at the siege of 
Kismia, a fort near Ormuz, while engaged in an 

Englfsh expedition co-operating with the Persians, in 
en&avoring to drive the Portuguese out of the Per^ 
sian Gulf. [J.B.] 

BAFFO, G., a Venetian poet, died 1768. 

BAFFO, a Venetian lady who was taken captive, 
and becoming his favorite sultana, enjoyed great au- 
thority under Amuratb III. 

BAF-KARKAH, an Arabian mathematician. 

BAGDEDIN, Mahomed, a mathemat, 10th ct 

BAGE, Robert, a novelist, 1728-1801. 

BAGFORD, J., an antiquarian, died 1716. 

BAGGER, J., a learned Danish praL, 1646-1698. 

BAGGESEN, Jens, a Danish poet, 1764-1806. 

BAGUONE, Cjbsam, a fresco painter, 17th ot 

BAGLIONI, G., a fiesco punter, died 1644. 

BAGLIONI, J. P., uBuiper of Perugia, put to 
death by Leo X., 1520. 

BAGUVI, G., a mc lioal writer, 1667-1706. 

BAGNATI, an ascetic writer, 1651-1727. 

BAGNIOLI, J. C, an ItaUan poet, died 1600. 

BAGO AS, the munierer of Artaxerxes Oohus, king 
of Persia, put to death b.c. 856. 

BAGOPHANES, gov. of Babylon, time of Alex. 

BAGOT, Lewis, bishop of Bristol, &c., author of 
Sermons on the Prophecies, 1740-1802. 

BAGOT, SiB Chaelbb, an English statesman and 
diplomatist, governor-general of the British North 
American Provinces, a special ambassador to the 
United States in 1815, d. 1848, age 61. 

BAGRATION, K. A., a Russian oomnuinder, kiUed 
at Moscow, 1812. 

B AGSHAW, Chb., an English catholic, and eccle- 
siastical historian, died at Paris 1626. 

BAGSHAW, Ed., a political writer and partisan 
of the royalists, died 1662. 

BAGSHAW, Eo., son of the preceding, assistant 
of Dr. Busby, died 1671. 

BAGSHAW, H., another son of Edward, author 
of Sermons, &c., died 1709. 

BAGSHAW, Wm., a religious writer, d. 1703. 

BAHA-ED-DOULAH, son of Adad^l-Doulah, 
shah of Persia 989, died 1012. 

BAHALI, an Arabian grammarian, died 842. 

BAHIER, J., a French poet, died 1707. 

BAHRAM, or BEHRAM, L, king of Persia, 272- 
276. Bahram n., 276-293. Bahram HI., reigned 
four months, 298. Bahram IV., 883-393. Baubam 
v., 421-440. 

BAHRDT, C. F., a German divine, died 1792. 

BAIAN, And., a native of Goa, converted to 
Christianity, and ordained as minister 1630. 

BAIER, J. G., a botanist, 1677-1735. 

BAIER, J. W., a German divine, died 1694. 

BAIF, Lazabds, a French ambassador and author, 
time of Francis I., d. 1547. 

BAIF, J. A., son of Lazarus, disting. as a poet, 
founder of an Academy, 1570. 

BAIL, Loma, a French divine, 17th century. 

BAILEY, Nathan, a lexicographer, d. 1742. 

BAILEY, Petbb, a miscellaneous writer, d. 1823. 

"BAlhEYf Walker, a medical author, d. 1592. 

BAILLE, LiEDT.-CoL., distinguished for his gal- 
lantry in the last war, 1778-1836. 

BAILLET, Adbien, a Fr. critic, 1649-1706. 

BAILLIE, Joanna, was bom in 1762, at Both well, 
in Lanarkshire, of which place her father was the 
parish minister. Her mother was sister of John and 
William Hunter, the famous anatomista Her life 
was spent in domestic privacy, and marked by no 
events more important tiian the appearance of 
her successive works. Her brother, who became 
Sir Matthew Baillie, having settied as a physician in 
London, Miss Baillie removed thither at an early 


[68 ] 


■go. ^e niided in the meln>po1i*, or lb n^bbor- 
bood, almoat oonstaDtl;, and died >t Uampatoad in 
Ttbra^rj, 1841. Her firM Tolame of dramu was 
pabliahed in 1T98 Their deiign, is bi whicb !t ii not 
too much b> uy that the workg wen good in apite 
of It, not by m«uis of it, vu indicated in the title i 
' A Series c^Fiaya, in which it is attempted to deli- 
neate the Stronger paoioni of the Mind, each Pa>- 
lioQ being tbe lobjeot of a Tragedy and a Comedj.' 
A BOcood Tolnrae of the 'Play* of tbe PauioDs' 
appeared in 1802, add a third in 1812. Tbe tn^gie- 
diei are fine poema, noble inaentjatent, and alaaaical 
and ifigorouB in langnage. Bnt tbey were not fit for 
the Mage; and ' De Montfort ' itaelf was with diffi- 
onlty supported for a while by the acting of Jotin 
Kemble and Mra. Siddona. Tbe tragedy of ' The 
Family Legend,' not oontained in lbs Hrie*, was 
acted in Edinbni^b in 1809, after a viut the poetess 
had paid to Sir Walter Scott. In 1 B36 ahe pnbUahed 
anotber aeries of > Plays of the Faaaions,' of which 
• Heoriqoea,' and ' The Separation,' the former a very 
striking piece, were attempted on the stage. Some 
of Mil* Baillie's «nall poema were exceeiUagly good, 

BAIUiIE, Counm. Jcani, disting. as a nsgotla- 
lor in tbe Eatf Indian BBrrioe, d. 1838. 

BAILUE, AUrr., DJ)., an aoatom., d. 1838. 

BAILLIE, Robert, a minister and delegate of the 
Scotch ohntob, died ISSS. 

BAILLIE, BociiE, belter known at La Blvi^ a 
oeL em{niia and aatrologer, died 1605. 

BAILLOD, Div., a Swlas writer, 16th oentoly. 

BAILLON, Eius., a naturaliat, d. 1809. 

BAILLOU, Wm. De, a pfayxician, dintiugoiihed aa 
■ The French Sydenham,' died 161& 

BAJIjLY, DA,va>, a painter, ITIh centoiy. 

BAILT, JuH Sn.v4iii, celebrated because ofhis 
attachment to acience ; atill mora through hii elo- 
qusDoe as the Hiriorian of Astronomy ; most of all 
on account of his connection with the nnfoldlng of 
the first or great French reTolntioo, and his mebui- 
choly fate. Baily was bom in Paris in the year 
1736 i in 1790 he presided aa Mayor of Pons at tbe 
Cianip de Mart, over that vnst asaemblags when the 
united Fiencb people boiled the auppoaed conunenco- 
ment of the Reign of Libert? and Univeraal Brothel^ 
hood; inl793onearcoQnUesa illastrious victima be 
perished on tlis scaffold. In his attachment to the 
oaiua of raljonal liberty Baily was constant through 
nil calamity : it was not desire of fame, nor the 
thirst to oierthrow, that led him towards the front 
ranka of the BeTolution; to, throngfa abiding faith 
i_ 1. jjjjj.^ [,g ^g^ withoot the shame of ro- 

linqniahiag bis e«rly principlea, and hopes, merely 
because tbe effort to realiie them had bran^t enl 
to himself.-^aily'a Hiatoty of Astninomy ia still 
very fascinating : as a itrictly philosophical work it 
does not answer the highest ends, — be waa led aatiay 
by the then novel and false dootrine of the value of 
some ancient and forgotten knowledge. As a tech- 
nical History it is sapplanted by tbe laborima, bnt 
yet very inaufficient history o( Ddimbn. [J.PJl.j 

BAILY, JoiiK, a nonconformist minister, bom in 
Lancashire 1644, exiled from Ireland 16S4, aeUUd in 
New England, and died at Boston 1697. 

BAILY, Kb., the celebrated astron., ITT4~1B44. 

BAINBIUDGE, Chb., an English diplomatist and 
ohnrcbman, made a cardinal IGll. 

KAINBRIDGE, Dr. Joan, an eminent [diysician 
and professcr of astronomy, 1682-1643. 

BAINBRIDOE, Wm., an Amer. oaptun, d. 188S. 

IWlUtain BUibrMsi.! 

BAINE, HiCH., a theologian, 10th century. 

BAINES, Edwabu, tbe dittingnished member oT 
pariiament, b. 1774 ; repreeentatire of Leeds, 16S8 te 
1840 ; died 1848. 

BAINES, R., a Hebrew scholar, 16th oentniy. 

BAION, a Fiench naturalist, last century. 

BAIRD, QEireRAL Six David, distingnialied "bj 
servioea in the Ksst Indies, in the eipedition by 
which the Cape of Good Hope was taken, and aubse- 
qnently at Corunna, where Oic command of Sir John 
Moore devolved upon him : entered tbe army as an 
ensign, 1773, died 1829. 

BAJARDI.anltolianjnrist, 16th centniy. 

BAJAKDO, an Italian punter, died 1670. 

BAJAZET, or BAYAZID, proclaimed soltan on 
the field of battle 1390 ; after ovsimnning Greece, 
he defeated Sigismuud of Hungary and the cruaoders 
1395 ; conquered and made ptiaimer by Tametlane 
1402, died 1403. 

BAJAZET U., sncceeded 1481; after sostaioing 
a long conflict with the Christian powers, and ood- 
qaoriz^g Moldavia, Bosnia, and Croatia, be was poi- 
soned by his second BonSa^m, who nsoiped the throne 
over Acbmet, l.'iI2. 

BAJAZET, tbe original of one of Racine's berae\ 
waa ■ son of Acbmet I., strangled by bis brother 
Amurath IV., 1665. 

BAJOLE, J., a French historian, died lOja 

BAKE, Laur, a Dutch poet, died 1714. 

B.UCER, David, a monastic writer, died 1641. 

B.VKER, Geofb., a mooaatio historian, 1347. 

BAKER, Sir G., a j^ysiciao and antiquarian, bORt 
1722, a baronet 1776, died 1609. 

BAKER, B., a natoralist, bom 1704, married ■ 
daughter of De Foe, 1729, died 1774. 




BAKER, Datio Emuiie, son of Henij, a writer 
•rthnttrical Wogr^hy in 176*. 

BAKER, Tan^ u anliqasriui, 166ft-1740. 

BA KER, S m Rica., an. of Eng.ChKHi.. 1E68-1MS. 

BAKE WELL, Rowr., « giMasr, died 17»B. 

BAKHTISHWA, the nunc of aevtrtl ptiyddaiii 
•t Ibe eonrt of Bagd&d. 

BAKI, an Otbrnan IttIc poet, died 1600. 

BAKKER, P. H., ■ Dntcli poet, died 1801. 

BALAAM, >;B^het ordirmer, 14th cent. B.a 

BALADAN, a king of ancieot Babyloii. 

BALAKLEI, iTutarpriooe, 13th ceotoiy. 

BALAMIO, Fiaui., Bphjiicim, 18th eeatarf. 

BALASSI, ULuuo, « pMnter, 1604-1667. 

BALBI, Adb., ft geogiapber, 17S4-I&18. 

BALBmUS, D. C, a Romu conral, elected a 
peror, and ilain 2S8' 

B.U.B1KUS, A. B., an hirtorUn, 1611-1(80. 

BALBIS, J. B., 1 botuust, (Ued 18SI. 

BALBO, LoDonoo, a compoer, 16th centniy. 

BALBO, CoDHT Cabas, % SArdiman atAteamui 
and pcMol writer, died 1858. 

BALBOA, Vamo Nmm Db, one of the most en- 
terpHnog and KiceBuAil of the eailj Spanith odven- 
toren in Sooth Awerio and the Wect ladiei. He 
fonnileditPaDBiDatbBBiM town built b; the Enro- 
peam in Sooth Amerioa, and fint beheld the Pacific 
ooean. Dsvila, the GoTeran of Dacien, put him 
4eaA in 1617, on a fi]n charge of diilo^al^, ooo 
riooed bj dread of Mi lepotation and abilitiea. 



« dk«iv(ai U> FulBl Ohu.) 


BAICANQUAL, WALm, chsptam to Jamea I., 
•ftmr. dean •rf' Rocbest., and bp. of Durham, d. 1642. 

BALCH, Wn., a Kew England minirter and oon- 
borenialut, bom 1704, gradoaled 1734, ordained at 
Salem ITZS, and died 179S. 

BALCHEN, J., an admin], lort 1744. 

BALDERIC, an amtalint, 12& century. 

BALDT, Besk., an Italian poet, died ISI7. 

BALDI, Cahillo, on Ariitotelian, died 1634. 

BALDI, Jab., a German poet, di«i 1668. 

BALDI, Laz., an ItaHu painter, died 1708. 

BALDI DE UBALDIS, a jnriit, died 1400. 

BALDIKOER, E. Q., a medioal writer, d. IB04. 

BALDINI, Baccio, a phnidAn, died 1585. 

BALDINI, J. F., an ItaUan max, died 1765. 

BALDINOCCI, P. H., an aitiM and hirtorian of 
FkKMB, 1684-1696. 

BALDOCK, Raltu De, bp. of London, d. 1307. 

BALDOCK, Robkkt Di:, chanoeflor of England in 
(be nign oT Edwaid U. 

BALDWIN, an archbithop of Canterlmi;, wb* 
went to Palestine with Richard L 

BALDWIN, the name of aeTBral ooonto of Flan- 
ders. Thejbif of thii name, elevated from Sia offioa 
of grand foniatcr. 887, d. 877. The tamd noceeded 
888, d. 918. The eUrd began hit teign 918. Tbe 
fiaii eocceeded 989, d. 1034. The^ •: 

1070. The KBeiiA leigned for a ehort time in 
Tbe e^* from 1111 to 1119. ■" ' " 
II91, and d. 1196. 

BALDWIN I., fint Latin emperor of CinutBntino- 
pie, was a son of tbe laM named ; jinned the cmaa- 
den 1300 ; elected emperor 1204 ; taken priacmer by 
Ae kinf; of tbe Bulgoriao*, and probably died be- 
fore iao6. 

BALDWIN n., Ia«t Latin emperor of Conitanti- 
nople, noceeded 1228; dethroned by Michel Pal»- 
ologne 1261, died 1£78. 

BALDWIN L, king of Jenualem, moceeded hii 
brother Godhny Bouillon 1100 ; eonqnerad the moM 
important oitlea on the >e« ooMt at Palestine Ihnn 
1101 to 1109, died lllS. 

BALDWIN XL, niDOBeded Baldwhi 1., 1118 ; taken 
priKmer 1124 ; rannmed 1136; died 1131. 

BALDWIN m., kins 11(4; mnried Into the fa. 
mily of ComDenDillSS; died 1162. 

BALDWIN IV., king 1178; died 11 86. 

BALDWIN v., fnooeeded Baldwin IV. 1I8S, Ml 
a few months afterworda died of poiacn. In 1187 Ja> 
captured by ft 
teat of Flanden and HuoalC, ki 
the historian of hi> hooie, 13th centnry, 

BALDWIN, ABnAHAv, a member of the oonven- 
tion by which the oooetitntion of the United States 
was framed. Ue was bom in 1764, and graduated 
at Yale, 1772. Removing to Oeorgia he became a 
member of the Legislature, and was chiefly initru- 
mental in procuring the establishment and endow- 
ofthe University of that iitate. He was in 
Congress as representative and sBnatoI Iram 1786 tO 
1807, when be died at Washington, in bis 64th year. 
He was brother-in-law to Joel Barlow, but never 
married. He was a man of extensive learning, and 
OB a politioian wss eminent for fideU^, firmness, in- 
dustry and moderation. 

BALDWIN, Bin., an arehaologiit, 16th oenl 

B.U.DW1N, Fb., a jurist, 16th contoiy. 

BALDWIN, J., a French sonK, died 16ea 

BALDWIN, Sib T., a minellaneoni writer, ITA 

BM^WlNy TnoD., a monk, died 1191. 

BALDWIN, Tuoa., D.D., bom at Norwioh, Conn., 
1756, nnited die avooationa of a politician with tboae 
Bspttit minister. Towards the doee oftiielSth 
centniy be was the most conspicuous member of hia 
denomination in New England. Deficient in early 
location, be attained by study, repntation both a* 

writer and speaker. Fmn Norwich, where be was 
fint settled, be naoved to Boston ; he was several 
timet eleoted to the L^iilatnre, and waa a member 
of tbe conve n tion for revising tiie State ooostilntion. 
He died In 1616, aged 71. 

BALDWIN, HuBT, a judge of the U. S. Supreme 
Court, died 1844, aged 65. 

BALDWIN, WrujAH, a moralist, died 1664. 

BALE, JoRK, a naloua reformer and cent 
rialist, 1495-1563. 

BALE, RoBKitr, an annatis^ died 1S08. 

BALECHOU, a., an engraver, died 1766. 

BALEG, an Eg^itian ^ef, 8th aenltnj. 




BALEN, HsiKDRioH Yak, an historical and land- 
scape painter, 1660-1632. 

BALES, Pkter, a writing master, died 1600. 

BALESDENS, J., an advocate, died 1675. 

BALESTRA, Ajnth., a painter, died 1720. 

BALFOUR, Alex., a noveUst, died 1829. 

BALFOUR, Sis And., a botanist, died 1694. 

BALGUT, John, a theologian, died 1748. 

BALGUY, Tho.. aonof John, 1716-1795. 

BALIN, J., a priest and poet, 16tb oentaiy. 

BALINE, G. D., a medical author, died 1850. 

BALIOL, Sir Alex., appointed chamberlain of 
Scotland by Edward L, 1291. 

BALIOL, Henry Dr, a Scotch nobleman who, in 
1241, accompanied Henry lU. of England to Ga»- 
oony, died 1246. 

BALIOL, Sir John De, founder of a college at 
Oxford, and guard, of Alex. HI. of Scot, d. 1269. 

BALIOL, John De, son of the preceding, raised 
to the throne of Scotland under the protection of Ed- 
waid I., 1291 ; in counter-treaty with France 1294 ; 
prisoner of Edward 1296-1299 ; died 1814. 

BALIOL, Edw., son of the preceding, invad. Soot* 
land and was crowned at Soodq 1882 ; after many 
reverses of fortune he finally resigned hb crown to 
Edward UI. 1855 ; died 1863. 

BALL, John, a preacher of roform, diating. in the 
Kent insurrection, executed 1881. 

BALL, John, a puritan theologian, 1585-1640. 

BALLABENE, Gr., a composer, died 1803. 

BALLANDEN, J., a misoellaneous wr., d. 1550. 

BALLAMTYNE, James, the ceL printer of the 
worics of Scott, ed. o£ i^he KeUo Mail, &c., d. 1833. 

BALLANTYNE, John, brother of James, and 
confidant of Sir W. Scott, died 1821. 

BALLARD, Geo., a Saxon scholar, died 1755. 

BALLARD, S. G., a naval officer, died 1829. 

BALLARD, Volants Vashon, a fellow-voyager 
with Vanooover, bom 1774 ; captain in the R. N. 
1807; lear-admiial 1825 ; died 1882. 

BALLENDEN, J. a Scotch historian, died 1550. 

BALLERINI, Pbter and Jerome, two brothers 
of Verona, distinguished as men of learning, and joint 
editors of theolo^cal and classical works; the first, 
1698-1764 ; the hut^ 1702-1780. 

BALLESTEROS, Fr., a Spanish officer, d. 183a 

BALLET, Fr., a religious writer, 1702-1762. 

BALLEXSERD, J., author of a prize essay on 
the medioal and domestic treatment of children, 

BALLIANI, J. B., a writer on physics, d. 1666. 

BALLIN, C14AUDE, artist in gold and metals to 
Loms XIV., 1615-1678. 

BALMEZ, J. L., one of the most distingmahed of 
the modem writers of Spain, 1810-1848. 

BALSAMO, L. and 0., Sicilian poets, 17th ct 

BALSAMON, patriaroh of Antioch, died 1214. 

BALSHAM, Hugh De, bishop of Ely, d. 1286. 

BALTHASAR, Auo. Ds, an historian, d. 1779. 

BALTHASAR, Ghr., a protestant wr., 17ih ct. 

BALTHASAR, J. A., Fxux Db, a Swiss historian 
of William Tell, died 1810. 

BALTHAZAR, last Ic of Bal^lon, 6th a b.c. 

BALTHAZARINI, an Italian composer, distin- 
guished in the ballet, 16di oentniy. 

BALTICUS, M., a Latin poet, 16ih centniy. 

BALTUS, J. F., a Jesuit theolog., 1667-1748. 

BALUE, John La, minister of Louis XL, bom 
1421 ; confined in an iron cage for treason, from 1469 
to 1480 ; died 1490. 

BALUZE, Step., a Fr. biographer, died 1718. 

BALZAC, John Louis Gubz Ds, an elegant 
French author, 1594-1654. 

BALZAC. This name, borne in the first half c/t 
the 17th oentniy, by one of the classics of French 
prose, has agam been made celebrated in our own 
day, by one of the most vigorous, original, and pro- 
lific of French novel writers. Honore De Balzac 
was bora at Tours, about 1799. He came to Paris 
when a very young man, and was thenceforth engaged 
oonstantiy in the toils and excitements of antiiorsMp. 
For several years he was very obscure ; and tiie only 
separate woi^ which he then published, bore tiie Be- 
somed name of Horace de St Aubin. In 1829 there 
appeared with his real name, his romanoe of *La 
Peau de Chagrin,' which at once gamed him a celeb- 
rity that never afterwards flagged. This striking 
story exhibits, not only Balzac's extraordinary power 
of impressive representation, but some of the most 
maiked characteristics of the school to which he be- 
longs, azid in which, if he is not equal to Victor Hugo, 
he is much superior to Dumas, and still more to Sue 
and De Eoclc. They luxuriate in characters and in- 
cidents which are horrible, rather than genuinely 
tragic ; and, when they condescend to {Mxifess a moral 
aim, they mar it by the gratuitous gioaaieBS which 
they throw into the details of tiie execution. The 
story of * The Shagreen Skin ' tells how a yoimg ru- 
ined gamester, about to throw himself into tiie Seine, 
is rescued by a soroeror, who gives him a talisman, 
consistuig of a piece of shagreen. The possession of 
it insures him the gratification of evoiy wish he 
chooses to form ; but with every gratified wish the 
skin shrinks in size, and when it is quite wasted away 
the possessor dies. In another story, * EU Verdugo,' 
a young Spaniard, beheads his parents, and his broil- 
ers, and his sisters, by common consent ; life being 
ofiered by a French general to any one of the &mily 
who win be the executioner of tiie rest There is 
less of exaggeration, with very much of intense in- 
terest, and of sternly accurate dissection of social 
vices and evils, in several of the best of Balzac's other 
novels. They are far too numerous to be named. It 
may be enongh to refer to ' La Femme de Trente 
Ans,' and *■ I^ P^re Goriot* Balzac attempted the 
drama likewise, but with little success ; and he was 
an active contributor to the ' Revue Parisenne,' and 
other periodicals. After the revolution of 1848 he 
contemplated writing romances of military life, and 
travelled to collect materials. He died at Paris in 
Aug. 1850. [W.S.] 

BAMBRIDGE. See Bainrridoe, Chr. 

BAMFYLDE, Fr., a learned nonconformist and 
member of parliament, d. in Newgate, 1684. 

BAMFYLDE, Sm C, a royalist, died 1691. 

BAMFTLDE, Sir C. W., a descendant of the two 
preceding, assassinated 1828. 

BANCHI, S., a Horentine priest who saved Henry 
rV. from assassination, died 1622. 

BANCROFT, Aaron, an eminent Unitarian minis- 
ter of New England bora in 1756. He published a 
life of Geoige WasMngton. Died in 1889. 

BANCROFT, J., bishop of Oxfoi^ died 164a 

BANCROFT, R., arohU of Canterb., d. 1610. 

BANDARRA, G., a Portuguese poet, 16th ct 

BANDELLO, M., a writer of fiction, d. 1661. 

BANDINELLI, B., an artist, died 1559. 

BANDINI, A. M., an antiquarian, died 1800. 

BANDURI, A., an historian, died 1743. 

BANIER, Ant., a fabulist, 1678-1741. 

BANIM, JoHN) an Irish novelist, 1800-1842. 

BANISTER, John, an eminent botanist and scien- 
tifio writer of Viiginia who Uved near Jamestown, 
and was aocidentiuly killed by a fall from a rock 
about the end of the seventeenth century. The pre- 
cise date Is uncertain. His chief productions are a 

t71 ] 


wttkgiM)/[ihiiti in &e PUknopliicii] Truuaotioni 
flf 16^ and otmrratioai on dw nabml prodnetioiu 
<f Titgiuik, and alio ti Jamuca, in which he had for 

BANISTER, J^ a botanical aathm, 1680. 
BAinSTER, J., a ntdiniat, diod 1879. 
BAKKERT, J. Va>., a Dutch ■dmirel, ITdi ot 
BANKS, Sn J., a jnitiM digtingiiiihed for hit I07- 
' to Charlu L, died 16U. 

ANES, J., an. <^ a wort on Cromwell, d. 1761. 
BANKS, J., a dranutio aotbv, ITch caOaxy. 
BANKS, TaoiUB, a Halptor, 1780-1806. 


BANKS, StB JonPH, Bart, a DelebraMd tMrtaniit 
■nd mveller, w» bom in Londim in 1743. Ba died 
in 1820. Inheriting at an early ase an ample for- 
tune, ha naoived in order to gratiFjr hia lore for boto- 
nj, to Ti«t funign eomntiiei at that time little known 
to natoralirtj. For thia purpose be mule a voyage 
to Nawfoiindland and the ooait of Labrador ; be w>- 
oompsnied Captain C«ok in his oelebrated Toya;^ of 
diioDven to the Sonth Seal j he viMt«d the coute of 
Scctlan^ and qient aonie time in Iceland. Banki 
tWTer pidiliihed auj aeoaant of the Tsat cc^ection ct 
otject* of natural hutoiy he had made ; Kill they 
wen not loat to aoienoe. Fabriciui deicribad hii In- 
net* i Broiuaonet Ma fithei; Gaertner proGcsd br 
his trniti and ttcdi ; Robert Brown's Frodromos or 
the plaiita of New Holland wu conuoced in tbe midrt 
of hit herbarium ; uid many other boteniits owi 
amilar (kvors. Eo^sh parka and gardens are indebt- 
ed to Banks for man; fine new trees and almiba from 
New Holland j our colonies for a raneC; of the logar 
fiane from TaJiiti, richer in ai^ar, and which admits 
of more frequent croppng ; and the commerce for the 
fiaz of New Zealani^ wbch promiiea to be of mob 
impxtaaoe to the British navy. In 1777 he was elect- 
ed pnadent of the Boyal Socie^ -, soon afterwardi 
(mted a hart., a E.6., and a member of the privy 
comoIL He wasagTBatfaTOrite withGeorgeUL, who 
was fond of botacj and asricalturs. Hia wealth and 
pcailioti in societ; enabled him to become the patron 
</ sdenoe in his native tMiuatrj, and during the long 
war which embroiled all Europe, he was ever ready 
to aanat, both by hi* pnrae and advioo, scientiSo 
of aU natioDi. Many ■ man of sotence haa bee 
defated to hia generous liberality, and ten different 
Mlleotirais of o^ects of natural history made for the 
Chiden of Plants, which bad fallen into the hands of 
BdCish izmsere, and bnnght to Eogland, were saved 
1^ his interference, and m seveiul inataneee, at his 
own e^iease, safely transmitted to Paris. Hia pub- 
liahed menxdra are few in nomber, sjid not of any 
great importaooe, yet Us name remains intimitely 

ftr il;e«n over the Royat Society, andathisdeadi 
he bequeathed his herbuiom and qilendid libtai; of 
books of natural history to the British Hnseuni, 
where they remain monuments of his patriotisn, taU 
sit, and aaddui^. rW3.] 

BANNAKER, BiMJAMnr, publisher of the Harr- 
land Ephemeridea, wu a ni^ra of extraordinary 
mathematical geoioa, who without aaaiitanoe acquired 
a prafotiad knowledge of aatrounny, cliiefly from the 
writings of FerguBsan, and made &a calonlationt n»- 
eesaniy for the work he edited. 

BANNIER, JoEiM. Seld-manbal of Sweden nnder 
Gnstavna Adolphua, 1601-1641. 

BANNISTER, Johk, the celebrated comedian and 
TacaUBt,bom 1T60; engaged at Dniiy Lane, L779; 
retired IBIS; died 1836. 

BANQUO, a Scotch Thana, lltb oenturT. 

BANTI. SioHOBA, a singer, died 180S. 

BAODAN, an Irish king, 6th oeotnrr. 

BAPTIST, a Dutch punter, died 1«61. 

BAPTIST A, Fr., a onrioni writer, 17tii oent. 

BAPTISTE, J., a Flsmiah painter, 1S36-1699. 

BAPTISTE, J. G., a pwntm of Antwerp, employed 
by Sir Peter Lely, died 1691. 

BAPTISTIN, J. B. 3., a oomponr, £ed ITIO. 

BAR, N. Dk, a French painter, 17tfa oentniy. 

BARAGUAY-D' HILLIEBS, L., a French gene- 

paigns, 1784-1813. 

BARAHONA, Loen, a Spanish poet, ISdi ot 

BARANZANO, R., a mathematical phikwipher, 
oorreqnndent of Bacon, 1E90-16S3. 

BARATIEK, J. P., diat. tor hia eariy knowledge 
of many laogusgea, also as a critio, 17S1-1740. 

BARBA, A. A., a mincmlogiit, I7th oeotory. 

BARBADILLO, a. J. Dk, a dramatiat, ITth 0. 

BARBANEQRE, J., a French geaanl, d. 1880. 

BARBARFiLL See Graaaioira. 

BARBAKiaO, Adodbto™, doge of Tenioe, 1486 
to IGOI. NicHoiAa, ambasaador from Veoioe to 
Constantinople, died 1S79. QaEOonr, a cardinal 
and bishop of Padua, 1636-1697. JouM Fuifcm, 
twice ■mbassador to Louis XIV. ; anerwarda oardinal 
and bp. of Padna, iee8-1780. 

BARBARINO, FsAnoa, a poet, 1364-1848. 

BARBARO, Fbakcib, a noble Venetian, distin- 
guished as a oommandm and aoholar, 188S-14M. 
Ebhoi.40, a olaaaioal tobolar, d. 1470. EKMOLao 
the younger, an ambaMador and daadoal scholar, 
1464-1493. DaviBL, ■ daatieal teholar and rheto- 
rician, ambassador to V,ii^tT,A^ 1^ patriarch of 
Aonilea, 1613-1670. 

BARBAR03SA, ABOtnn, a daring oonair, urn of 
a Greek ren^ade, who dethroned the Arab sheik, 
and made himself dev of Algiers, 16 16 ; defeated and 
alun by the timps of Charles V., 16 IB. 

BARBAROSSA, Khau Eddth, brother and too- 
ceiaor of Annish, tiie greateit sea cuitain of his age ; 
died I64B. 

BARBAROSSA. See Fhxdeuck. 

BARBAROilX, C J. Ua., member of the Fr. oou- 
TeotioD, and one of the Giroudin leader*, bm 1767, 
executed 1794. 

BARBATELLI, u Its^ao painter, died 1612. 

BARBAULD, Aim Lxutul, chiefly oelebrated 
for her 'Prose Uymus' and ' Eariy Leaseos ' forohil- 
dien, was the daughter of the Rev. John Alkiu, a 
dissenting minister resident in Laioasterabiie, where 
ehe was bom <m the 20th of June, 1748. While a 
child ahe waa remarkable for quickness of InteDect, 
no less than for the natural goodness of her diqioai- 


[72 J 


cal lileratare. For these advanteges Miaa Aikin was 
greatlj indebted to the affectionate zeal with which 
her father cultivated her talents, and in some measure 
to the litenuy circle into which he was able to intro- 
dtioe her on removing to Warrington, where he took 
charge of the celebrated school in 1758. After fifteen 
years of quiet seclusion, passed in these academic 
shades, Miss Aikin was induced to publish a volume 
of misoellaneous poems, which appeared therefore in 
1778, and met with the most flattering success. In 
the spring of the followinff year she became the wife 
of the Rev. Rochemond Barbauld, with whom she 
opened a school in the village of Palsgrave, Suffolk ; 
and took an active and inmiential part in its man- 
agement as teacher of composition, and the graceful 
exercises of reading and speaking. Here they con- 
tinued to reside for the next eleven years, and it is to 
this period that we are indebted for the works first 
alluded to, and for some devotional compositions. 
Mr. end Mrs. Barbauld then visited the continent for 
a short time, and on their return home, the former 
became pastor of a small congregation at Hampstead, 
where the subject of our notice resumed her pen; 
first in the interest of the dissenters on the repeal of 
the Test and Corporation Acts, and next in a poetical 
address to Mr. Wilberforce, suggested by the nyection 
of the slave bilL These spirited appeals were fol- 
lowed by some religious essays, the most remarkable 
of which is a sinp^ar discourse for the FasV-day of 
1798, entitled * The Sins of the Government the Sins 
of the Nation.' In 1802 Mr. Barbauld became min- 
ister o£ a congregation at Newington Green, where 
he died in 1808, and in this neighborhood his widow 
resided till her death in 1825, enjoying the company 
of her brother, and literary friend, Dr. Aikin. The 
simplicity of Mrs. Barbauld*s life and manners, the 
refinement of her imagination, and the purity of her 
soul, are well represented in the works which have 
rendered her name a household word in England, 
and to which the cause of education is so much in- 
debted. The versatility of her talente is shown in 
the critical and biographical notices witii which she 
amused herself in tiie early period of her residence at 
Stoke Newington, which include a selection of papers 
from tile * Spectator,' and similar classics, published 
in 1804, and an edition of the * British Novelists* in 
1810. Her last publication was a remarkable poem, 
named from the year preceding its i^ipearanoe, 
* Eighteen Hundred and Eleven.' Her collected 
works were published soon after her death, witb a 
memoir by her niece, Miss Lucy Aikin ; and the day 
is probabfy far off when her ' Early Lessons ' will be 
superseded hy any thing superior of the same class. 

BARBAULT, J., an architect, last century. 

BARBAZAN, Step., a French mami, d. 1770. 

BARBAZAN, A. W. Dk, a French general, dis- 
tinguished in the wars with Burgundy and England ; 
defended Melun 1420 ; died 1482. 

BARBEAU LA BRUYERE, a French geographer 
and historian, 1710-1781. 

BARBERET, a French agriculturist, last cent. 

BARBEYRAC, C, a French physician, d. 1699. 

BARBE YRAC, J., a nephew of the preceding, a 
distinguished jurist, 1674-1747. 

BARBIANO, AiAERic, count of, an Italian patriot, 
made grand constable of Naples, 1884-1409. 

BARBIER, A. A., author of dictionary of anony- 
mous and pseudonymous worics, died 1825. 


BARBOSA, Aug., bishop of Ugento, d. 1648. 

BARBOSA, Arias, a scholar, d. 1540. 

BARBOSA, Edward, a navigator, known as the 
fellow-voyager of Magellan, killed 1521. 

BARBOSA, Jo., an historian, 1674-1750. 

BARBOSA, P^ a lawyer, died 1596. 

BARBOUR, JoHK, a Scotch poet and chroniole]* 
chaplain of David Bruce, 1820-1378. 

BARBOUR, Jambb, Gov. of Viiginia; Secretary 
of War during the administration of John Quincy 
Adams, and ambassador to England in 1828. He 
died in 1884, haviQg lived for some years in retire- 

BARBOUR, Philip FEimusroVj judge of tiie Su- 
preme Court of the United States in 1886; was the 
son of Thomas Barbour, of Virginia, and younger 
brother of the Seeretaiy of War. 

BARBOUR, Thomas, played a distinguished part 
in Vh-ginia daring the Revolution, and united in the 
first protest against the Stamp Act; died 1825, 
aged 90. 

BARBUOT, J., a physician, 17th century. 

BARCALI, a Mahomedan author, 16th oent. 

BARCHAM, Dr. John, an antiquary, historian, 
and writer on heraldry, 1514-1005. 

BARCHOCHEBAS, a sediticus Jew who gave 
himself out for the Messiah, and was slain after a 
long resistance, and with an immwnaft number of his 
foUowers, 185. 

BARCKHAUSEN, schomst, died 1728. 

BARCLAY, Atjcx., a miscellaneous wr., 16th c. 

BARCLAY, J., a Scotch deigyman, minister of 
Cruden, and an. of a curious poem, 1675-1710. 

BARCLAY, Henry, D.D., rec of Trinity Church, 
New Yoric;, died 1765. 

BARCLAY, J., a Scotoh sectarian, died 1798. 

BARCLAY, N., an eminent Scoteh civilian, rose 
to be a counsellor of Lorraine, 1548-1606. 

BARCLAY, John, son of the preceding, disting. 
as a satirist, 1582, 1621. 

BARCLAY, Robert, the celebrated Apologist, 
was bom in 1648, at Goidonstown, county of Moray, 
and descended from an ancient and honorable an- 
oestry, who for centuries had flourished in the North 
of Scotland. The unsettied state of things at home 
induced his father, Colonel Barclay, to send him at an 
early age abroad, and accordingly he received the 
greater part of his education at Paris, under the su- 
perintendence of his unde, who filled the <^ce of 
rector in the Scots College. His parents being led 
from circumstances to ap;»«hend that familiarity 
with continental manners mi^t produce in their son 
a disposition favorable towards ate Roman Catholic 
religion, recalled him to his native country, where he 
appeared an accomplished youth, and combining the 
advantages of a liberal education with great natural 
abilities, he rapidly rose to distinction. His family 
having embraoSsd the principles of the Quakers, he 
was persuaded ere long to fbllow tiieir example, and 
in conforming to the peculiarities of a sect which was 
held in great disrepute, particulariy in Scotiand, he 
felt himself laid under a necesnty of vindicating tiiat 
course by tiie publication of several treatises in their 
defence, characterized by great variety of kamine, 
as well as power of aigument. His first woik, whidi 
was published m 1670, was entitied *Trutii Cleared 
of Calumnies,* and appeared in the form of a contro- 
versial pamphlet) in answer to an attack on Quaker- 
ism by the Rev. William Mitchel, a minister of the 
Church of Scotiand. His next publication, which 
was issued in 1678, was a Catechism and Ccoifession 
of Faith, containing an expodtion of tiie principles 
of his rdigious communion ; and totius he boon alter 
added his * Theses Theolofficse,' or Theological Pro- 
positions. — Becoming enuusiastically attached to 
the cause of Quakerism, which he identified with 
that of truth and the best interests of homanity, he 




resolved on d«votioff his fatare lift to its extAnaion 
in the world ; and with this yiew, he hi 1676 aooom- 
panSed Williun Penn m a totir of pcopagandism 
throngh England, Holland and Qennaay. It was 
while sofouniing at Amsterdam, in the oourse of 
^oae peregrinatioaa, that he pablishad tiie great 
woA which had long oocapied him, and on which 
his fame chiefty rests — *■ An Apology for the Tme 
Christian DiTinity, as the same is preached and held 
forth by the people in soom called Qnakers.* This 
treatise was originalbf published in Latin, but was 
speedily translated into most of the languages of 
Enrope, and while it greatly extended (he repntatlon 
of its author, the prixkciples it advocated became the 
salgect of keen and prolonged agitation. Barclay, 
on his retnm to his native ooontey, suffered mndi 
from the severe edicts issued against the noncon- 
formists of the period, being imprisoned five months 
in Aberdeen, besides other petty kinds of persecution 
in the fonn of obloquy and fines. His high chaiao- 
ter, however, for sincerity, as well as for talent and 
learning, carried him triumphantly over all opposi- 
tion, and latterly he enjoyed much distinction, being 
h<MH>red with an introduction to the English court, 
and tiie partial regards both of Charies II. and his 
successor, James H. Through the royal favor he 
received a commission as governor of East Jersey for 
lijb, whence he several times returned to visit lus na- 
tive land, and it was in 1690, the last visit he paid, 
he was seized wi& fever, and died amongst his rela- 
tives, at Ury, in Aberdeenshire, in the forty-second 
year of his age. [R. J.] 

BARCLAT DE TOLLT, M., field-marshal of 
Russia, bom 1756 ; director of the war against Na- 
poleon 1810; com. of the Russian troops at the bat- 
tle of Leipzig 1812, and in France 1815 ; d. 1818. 

BARCOCHAB. See Babchoobsbas. 

BARCOS, M. Ds, a Jansenist, died 1678. 

BARD, Pktee, a Flemish monk, died 1685. 

BARD, JoHK, an eminent American phyrician, 
who was bom at Burlington, N. J., in 1716, and died 
at Poughkeepsie, in 1799. Together with Dr. Mid- 
dleton he made, in 1750, the first dissection of which 
tiiere is any record in America. He was several 
years prendent of the Medical Society of New York. 

BARD, Samvbl, ILD., the family physician of 
Washington, son of Dr. John Bard, was bornin Phil- 
addpUa, 1742, and died in 1821. He was author 
of a Treatise de vhibns opii, a compendium of mid- 
wifery, and othermedical productiona. The Medical 
School of New York, and abo the hospital were es- 
taUisbed principally by hiB exertions. He was elected 
president ct the College of Surgeons in 1818. He 
was no less eminent for pie*y tiian for professional 
ridH and leandng. 

BARD AS, brSher-in-law of Ae emperor Theophi- 
hiSy and gnar^aa of his son Michael ; usurper of the 
suprane power 24 years; put to dea^ 866. 

rival generals of the Greek empire, who disputed for 
many years the supreme power, 970—890. 

BARDE, J. De La, an ambassador and historian 
of France, 1600-1692. 

BARDESANES, a Theosophist of Syria, founder 
of a Met in the 2d centniy. 

BARDI, the name of several distinguished Flo- 
renlmes in the 17th century. 

BARDILLI, C. G., a metaphysician, last cent 

BARDIN, p., a French author, died 1687. 

BARDZUIKI, J. A., a poet, 17th century. 

BAREBONE, PitAiBE God, a fanatic from whom 
the Bafebone^s Pariiament derived its name, 1668. 

BAREMT, DDEnuCB, a Dufiidi pahit, 1684-1682. 

BARENTIN, C. L. F. De, a French politician 
noted for his opposition to Necker, 1788-1819. 

BARENTZ, William, a skilful Dutch pilot, sent 
out by the United Provinces on three voyages, be- 
tween the years 1694 and 1697, in search of a N.E. 
passage to China. He failed in the object, but made 
some important additions to geography. Bear, or 
Cherry idand, and Spitzbergen were discovered by 
him ; the latter, in 80^, was found to have good 
herbage and herds of deer, while NovaZembla in 
76^, was a barren waste. Suddenly enclosed by ice 
on tiie coast of NovaZembla, on 26th August, 1696, 
Barentc was obliged to remain on this inhospitable 
shore till the following summer, and was thus the 
first navigator who wintered in the Arctic regions. 
He left the island on the 14th June, with a crew of 
fifteen persons, in two small boats, his ship being dis- 
abled. He died from fatigue on the 20th; but the 
adventurous survivors held on their perilous voyage 
— ^tiie most eztraordinaiy on record — and traversing 
a stormy ocean filled vdth floating ice, exposed to 
the extreme of cold, famine, and sickness, and to 
frequent attacks f^m bears borne along upon the 
ice islands, or pursuing them throng the water, 
they reached in six weeks the port of Kola, in North 
Lapland, a distance of 1,600 miles. Here tiiey found 
three ships ttam their own country. [J.B.] 

BAR ERE . See Babskbk. 

BARETTI, Jo., an Italian author, 1716-1789. 

BARGRAVE, Isaac, chaplain to James L, after- 
wards dean of Canterbury, died 1642. 

BARHAM, Ret. Rich. Harris, the disting. hu- 
morist known as Thomas Ingoldsby, 1789-1846. 

BARISON, a nobleman of Pisa, created k. of Sar- 
dinia by Frederick Barborossa, d. in prison 1154. 

BARKER, E. H., distinguished as a critic and clas- 
sical reviewer, 1788-1889. 

BARKER, G., F.R.S., distinguished as one of the 
original promoters of railways, died 1846. 

BARKER, G. P., an American politic, d. 1848. 

BARKER, J., a medical writer, 17th century. 

BARKER, M. H., a fugitive writer, known in xna- 
garine literature as the (Md Sailor, died 1846. 

BARKER, Robert, a portrait painter, inventor of 
the panorama, died 1806. 

BARKER, Sax., a philologist, died 1760. 

BARKER, Thomas, a poe^ 1721-1808. 

BARKHAM. See Baroham. 

BARKOK, a sultan of Egypt, 14th century. 

BARKSDALE, Cl., a miscelUn. wr., 17th cent. 

BARLAAM, a theologian, 14th century. 

BARL^US, a Latin poet, died 1648. 

BARLA.UD, A., a Dutoh critic, died 1642. 

BARLETTA, Gabriel, a preacher, 11th cent 

BARLOW, Francis, an artist, died 1702. 

BARLOW, Joel, author of the Columbiad, was a 
native of Connecticut, and bom at Reading, in Fair- 
field ooun^, about the year 1767. He was gradu- 
ated at xale College, in 1778, and imme£ately 
entered upon active Ufe. His subsequent career was 
one of great vicissitude. While a student at Yale 
he served during a vacation as a volunteer in the 
American army, and was present at the battie of 
White Plains. He also distinguished himself in early 
life by tbot facility of versification which never de- 
serted him. On the termination of hb collegiate 
course, after a brief study of the law, he embraced 
the design, somewhat singular for one who had no 
intention of ad^cting himself permanentiy to the 
ministry, of becoming a chaplain in the army, for 
which post he qualified himself in six weeks. His 
researches in theology were evidentiy not very pro- 
found. Perhaps he wished to gratify at once his 




pw^DD for ■dTcntoie uid hU tastB toi litonitora. 
It ia oertain that poMi; oocapied us miKh of bis 
lims u preaching. Bat noicbnr divini^ sot Istters 
■ngTOM»l hi9 attantion, Cor in 1761 he wag manied 
to Roth Baldwin, tlie aUtpr of Abraham BaUwin. 
While in tbs camp he began hEi poem the ' Vision of 
Colombns,' vhioh under the dtle of the Coluinblad, 
was afterirarda expanded into on epio. AiW the 
eoDclnaion of hostUitiei and the disbandiog of the 
arinj,^ life for aoiDe time consisted ol a leriea of 
Btniggiea to obtunn sobaitecce. Ue edited a oem- 
p^ter, pnblished hie Poem, and a version of Hymns 
by Watts, opened a bookstore practised lav, and 
fioally, in 1788, went to Eirn^ as ueat fur a bao- 
dolent enterprise, called the Sjioto Land Gompanj, 
of the nature of which he waa unaoquiUnted. For 
the next IT jean he was ablest frooi his Muntry. 
The bosiaeii whtoh took bim to Ennipe prorinc 
abortive, he hadreuonnetohispeDfora tiWi^aM 
published niany ^eoes both in proee and tmm on the 
rqmbiioaa dde, among which were hia * Advice to 
the Privileged Orders,* ' The Conq)inc7 of Kii^;e,' 
and 'Hai^ Pudding.' The horrors of the Freaoh 
Bevolution, however, grsdoally weaned him f^wn 

Ctica, and finding mercantile life mora profitable, 
levoted himself to it with great industry, and 
amassed ■ large fortune. In 1795 lie was appointed 
by Washington Consnl at Algiers, and waa instm- 
mental in redeeming many American oitiiens from 
captivity. Having negotiated treaties with Algiers 
■nd Tripoli, he retigned his post and returned to 
Paris, where he lived in great splendor. During all 
this time the Colnmbiad, the otierished project tf hli 
youth, had been steadil/adranciog to completion, and 
bis inoreased leisure enabled him now to labor more 
\j upon it. In 1805 he sold his property in 
to America, and fixed hia residence 
ia the I>isOiot of Columbia. In 
i the Colnmbiad was published in a splendid 
form, and the typogr^hioal eiecntion still entitles 
it to admiration. The engravings are deserving 
of especial praise. Of the poem itself it is diffi- 
onlt ta speak in terms of oommendation. It is 
heavy and combersome, devoid of any of the sointil- 
latians of genius, and few oan be found in the pre- 
eent day who have waded through the monotoDans 
melody of its many thousand lines. The reudeooe 
of Barlow in France had not tended to inorease his 
reverence for Christianity, and the Colombiad aSbrds 
some evidence that the army cbapUin of the Revotu- 
tion was tinctured with Che prevailing inlidelity. He 
only survived the publioalicm of bis poem about four 

Jcojs, but his deuh occurred in the senith of hia po- 
tlcal diadnotion. Appointed in 1811 aa Plenipo- 
tentiary to Fmnoe to obtain iudemuifioatioa for inju- 
ries sustained by Amerioan commerce, he was invi- 
ted to a conference with Xopoleoa at Wibia. But 
the sudden vicisstudes of climate in his rapid jonmey 
(0 meet the emperor, brought on inflammation of the 
longs, and he expired on the 22d December, 1SI3, at 
a Lttle village near Craoow, in Poland. * 

BAKLOW, Tbosub, bUkop of Liooola, a oasniat, 
and controversial writer, 1607-1691. 

BAULOWE, W., bp. of Bath and Wells, d. 1658. 

BARLOWE, W., son of the bishop, writer cm nat- 
ural philosophy, died 1635. 

BARMIi:K, the founder of the illustrious family 
■tailed the Barmecides, whose vaiiooa taleote oontribu- 
ted to the glory of Haroun-at-Raacliid and hia prede- 
oeasoTB, and who were massacred B03. 

BARNABAS, St., the ftUow-labixer ofPaul, sup- 
posed to have been stoned to death about 60. 

BABNARD, J., D.D., a biographer, died 16SS. 

BAKNABD, Sm John, lord mayor, and M.P. fat 

Londrai. the latter for 40 years, 1635-1764. 

BARNABD, Jons, an eminent oongi«gatioiial di' 
vine of Kew England, bom in Boston 1681, was 
giaduatsd at Harvard ITOO. In ITOT he was ^k 
pointed by GovemiK' Dudley chaplain in the army, 
and was praaent at the siege ti Port RoyaL He 
Portly after visited London, and was there during 
the eicilement oonceming Dr. SachevereL In 1714, 
having returned to America, the North Church in 
Beaton was built for him, but at the last moment be 
was snpplanted by a more popular candidate. He 
was at last settled as minister at Marblebead in 1716, 
in which pUoe he continued to officiate ontil bis 
death, wfai<^ )u4>pened in Jaimary, 1770. He pub- 
.isheda great ma^ discourses, and also a coIlectioD 
ol hymna 

BARNARD, Thkhiobe, a Dutch painter. 

BARNAUD, Nick., an alchjmitt, 16th MiOiatj. 

lOisnU tl tki JwSte.] 

BARNAVE, A. P. J., Mabu, by ^rofesrion an ad- 

Tooate, was bom 1761, and distingmshed in the par- 
liament <^ Grenoble during the first onunoul stmgrie 
against the despotio admioistratiaD of Lominie- 
Brlenne. Deputed to the statas^general by the pro- 
vinoe of Dauphin^ in 1789, hia eloquenoe, and hia 
aUiwst witd Aiminsiaam in the popnlar cause, marked 
him oat as the rival of Wrabeau, and when the lat- 
ter favorad the oonrt, as hia most dreaded advereary. 
One of a memorable trio, hia cbaracteristio taknt ia 
well eipnased in the epigram pointed at them i 
> Whatsoever these three have in band, Dnpont limh 
it, Bamave 9>sii> it, Lameth doa it. His love <^ 
justioe, in the abstract, waa carried to a reokless ex- 
treme in hia deaieea, aa a member of the diplomatic 
committee for the reorganiiotion of the colonies, and 
their fatal effects led him to abandon the system, 
though Si£y^ and Kobe^iierre denonnosd his inooU' 
sistcncj as a treason. A member of the iamooa Ja- 
oobinOnb, he fiiu^t a duel with the royalist Caaeli^ 
who had denounced tfae paCriod ss ' sheer brigands,' 
but Deitber of them received any serious injury. 
Like many otheis, bis entbnidum for the revolution 
waa saddened and cooled down aa he reflected upon 
the disaatera which had accompanied it, and his le- 
tnm to moderate oounsels was hastened by the sitU' 
ation into which he was momentarily thrown by the 
flight of die royal family, and their arrest at Venn- 
nes. Appointed with F^thion and Latour-Mauboorg 
to secure the kin^s return, Bamave rode in the car- 
riage with the Queen and Madame Elizabeth, and 
tonohed by their distress, bis conversion to the prin- 
ciples of a constitutional monarchy waa completed. 
He was now denounced by the jonmalisa as a deser- 
ter of the popoLar oaose, and at the olose cf tlia sea- 




lion retniDed to prirkte lif^ En his nttlTv towa at 
Grenoble, where he nnrrled the dfttif[1iter (^ an adro- 
eMn. Id August, 1792, be w*a imtted on & ohuge 
of BonspLriDg with the roTml fkmilf, witli wbom it 
vu Alleged he hftd held trvaAonaUe corrMpoodeDOe 
ever niwe the Mnet at Tucnnea, uid Bftor t oonfSne- 
mant of fire mooth^ cmdncted to Paris, and cod- 
demaedbjtbaTBTctatinttrjtrnniialofllimlle. The 
elltoct of hi* doqiMDC* on dii* oaeaAn was nch u 
to mam nen hit ni^inM? jndf^ and hie Mend 
Camille Damralini w^ on hearing hia lut words. 
Airived at Hie scaffold, he raised hit eyes to HesTOi : 
' Behold, at lei^rth,* he exolaimed, ' the nward of all 
I haTB done Tor liberty r He was oxocnted in 1798, 
at the early age of thirty-two ; and has left behind 
him a character mnaAaUe indeed for indlserecioa, 
ImtequaJly soforitsbiKieMjrofpaipote ; and a name, 
H an onlor, scaraelj sania*aed by any in Ibe nro- 

BARHES, JoBHDA, a friend of the famotu Dr. 
Bichard Bcmtley was a native of Londan, when 
be was bon in the year lOfii. His mdlmeBtarv 
education he reoeJTed at Christ Chuich Hoeprital, 
vbeDoa he waa removed to Emmannel College, Cam- 
bridge. TiMre be devoted himself to the Mndy of 
dsseical Bteratnn with so great assidnily and sno- 
eeas, that be rose to eminenoe as a Gredao , — Ms 
kne«ledge of the lai^;iutge of ancient Gieeoe, how- 
ever, being more minnte and accurate dian oompre- 
hensive, more limited to the ntoelies of the gramma- 
rian, tbas based on the enlarged and liberal views of 
the pbilologiit His reputation procured bim the 
appointment of Regius Professor of Greek at Cam- 
bridge in the year 1666 ; m 1700 he chai^^ his 
Mate by forming a matrimmial alliance with a Mrs. 
Hasan of Hemingford, a wealthy widow, and by 
means of the fortone acquired by bis marriage with 
tilts lady, he was enabled to bear the eipeaaes of his 
edition of Homer. ThatwoAwMpnbllsfaed in 1710. 
The sale, however, was not iiicb aa to ranniterate 
Urn, for in ITIl he amlied, tboogfa nmnooeaADy, 
to Lord Hariey fiir prefennent in the ehiucb, in a 
aeries of letters setting forth his claims, which are 
preserved in the Harleian ooEleotiDD. He died In 
171S, and was buried in HemingTord ohnrchyard, 
when hii widow erected a monnment to his memory. 
Bis works, which an now forgotten by ail but a few 
scbolan, were very volnminous. The following inay 
be onnddered a corre c t list of tbem in the order of 
publication : — Saored Poems, ISeS ; The Life of Oli- 
ver Cromwell ; The Tyrant, an Enghsh poem, 1670 ; 
Xerxes, and other dramatic pieces in tCogllsh anil 
Latin ; a Latin Poem on the fire in London and the 
Plagne; a Latin Ele^on Oa Bduading of John 

the Baptist; Esthem Hisloria Poetic* PanphrasI 
167S; Select Disoonrsee, 1680; The History of Ed- 
ward the Third, 1686; an edition of E<m;rides, 
1694 ; a Disoonrne on Matthew li. 9 ; an edition of 
Anaoreon, 170A; an editim of HMoer, 1711, S vols. 

BARNES, DuiTO. H., a distingnished American 
Donoholo^st, and aatbor of several admirable oom- 
mnnioations, ohIeSy on hit favorite scteooe, in SIDi- 
man's JonmaL He was killed Oct. 27, 1818, near 
Trfiy, New York, in attempting to escape fVom a 
Btaije, the borses d which bad run away. He ma 
a Baptiit minister, and the day before his deadi 
preached from &.e words, ' Te know not what shall 
be on the morrow.' At the time of his decease he 
was esteemed the moat learned ooocbologiit in tiM 
United Stales. 

BARNES, R., D.D., a protestant mar^, IMO. 

BARNES, TnoMAi, a political writer, lata primd- 
pal edhorof the 7««a, !7e6-IM1. 

BARNEVELDT, Johh D' Ouxir, a Dntch statea- 
raan, exeonted m a charge of treason, 1619. 

BARNEY, JoaHDA, commodore, distingmshed aa 
a naval oommander in the service of the United 
States and of France. He was bora at Baltimore in 
ITS9, and early In life entered the merchant service, 
imt on the oommenoemetit of hoMiiities with Engiand 
was appointed maiter's mate on hoard the Hornet, 

which p 

t he « 

He « 

twice o ap t u red ; &e Erst time he was exchanged, and 
the second cfitoled his escape tVom Plymon^ In 
Enfciand. On his return to America be was ap- 
pointed to the command of the Hyder Ally of IS 
gnne, and on the 28th April, 1782, captured the 
tienaral Monk of 18 gun*. In September of dw same 
year be aaHed hi the latter vessel to France with 
di^iatobefl to the American ambassador, and retnmed 
in safety irich a Urge amount of specie as a loan 
ftcm Ltrais XTI. On his next voyage to France in 
1 7H, when he carried Mr. Monroe to that oonntry, 
be aocepMd the oomniand of a FraxAi Mptadron, 
which be retained fortbree years. On the breaking 
ontofthewarof 1812 hewaspUced in command of 
the flotllla for the defence of ttie Chesapeake, and In 
1814 at the battle of Biadenabnrg was severely 
wounded in the thigh. His last employment In the 
service of his oountrjwat a mlsnon to Enrope In 
laifi. He died hi 1818 at nttaboig while on hit 
jonmey to Kentucky. 

BARO, Pmux, a protestant divine, lOth ct. 

BAROCCIO, Khed., an Ital. paint, 1628-1613. 

BARON, BoiiADVENTTBE, the psendonyme of ao 
Itiah eiasaic, named Fitigerald, died ie9a 

BAR0NIU8, C, wr. of church annals, lse&-160T. 

BAROZZL Ju., an It»L architect, ISQ7-Ifi7T. 

BAROZZl, F., aVenetian n'^blemau, the most learn- 
ed malhema. at his time, died In the inqniiltioa, ba- 
ing oonfloed en a obaise of magic, 16ih ot 

BARRAL, Loom MamiAi Di, a Fr. emigrant, 
BTohtiiAopofTDaianrider the empire, died 1816. 

BARRAL, Pbtkb, a Fr. anliiiDarian, d. 1772. 

BARRA3, Loom, Count, a naval commander, died 
a short time preiriocs to the levolutioQ. 

BARRAS, Paui. Frahcis, Count De, was ham of 
a noble Fmidi family of Provence, of whom it waa 
proverbial to say, * Noble aa tlie Barrases, old at 
the rocks. ' He was snooes^vely member of thr 
oonrenlaon and directory, ud [dayed an import- 
ant part in the prograas of the Fnnch nrointloa. 
As early aa the year 177S, when twenty years of 

J I, ha sailed for the Isle of France with the rank 
second Uentenant, and was tbipwreeked on the 
Haldive Islands. After this ha is ibnnd at Poodi- 




ehetry, then inTested by an EngUah maj, tad peace 
being eonalnded, retoraa to Fnoes, read; to ahaie in 
Uie pol!tic»l tnrablm cJ 1TS8. He ia represented at 
this tims u a man of recklen and dissipated habits; 
■object to fits of oonrafeona impulM ; tkl! and haad- 
toma of peraott, uid of fsltowi^ complexion : in re- 
gard to mental cbanctar, remarkable for the pradical 
quickness of his apprehendon, aod singular presence of 
mind nnder emergencies. F^red witli the prevailing 
enthosiaam in favor of reform, or seeing the meaaa 
of repairing hia ahattervd fortnnea, and aattifjing his 
restless spirit in the oareec if opened to him, he pre- 
sently declared against the coojt, and iras admitted 
It member of the fammu Jacobio Clnb. From 1 T90 to 
1792 we find him in the office of admimatrator for the 
department of the Var, and soma other pnblio om- 
plojments, indnding tbat of oommissaiy for the 
ann; of Italy. At a member of the convention in 
1792, he voted fbr the king's death, and declared 
■gainst the Qirondins. In 1793 he was sent to the 
sonth of France, and commanded the left wing of 
the army besieging Toulon, where he became ac- 

riDted with Napoleon, then cnitaln of artiileij in 
aame operations. When the savage excesses 
committed by the commisaionert and aoldien of the 
convention on thia and aitiiilar occajdona became the 
Bnbject of remonstrance in Paris, Barros and Friron 
were exempted from the general impntation, and it 
was only tbe popularity and andacioas bearing d' 
the fbnner that deterred Robaspiene from laying 
hands upon him. As the reign of terror drew near 
its close, and Henriot menaced the convention with 
his troops, Barras was Intmsted with its defence, and 
it was he who seized Robeapiene and conveyed him 
to tbe scaffi>ld. The vigoroos meaanrea which he 
DOT adoptsd against tbe party of the Monntain, 
gaJned him the appointment of general-in-ehief, de- 
Creed nnanimonsly by the convention ; and the merit 
belongs to him of engaging Bnonaparte in the public 
service on the famous 18ch Teod^miaire, (1th Octo- 
ber, 1 796,) when tlie revolt of Lepelletier orss sup- 
pressed, and aoon ai^erwarda the government of tht 
directory eatabliahed, of idiich Barras was one. Ka 
riding in the Luiembonrg pahtce, he offectad almost 
royal pomp, and for a while exercised a mailed ss- 
ouidency over his ooadjutora ; hut their subsequent 
disaenrious, and the inlngnei of a formidable party, 
St the head of whom was the notorious Si^yts, grad- 
ually sank them in poblic esteem, and prepared for 
tiie return of Buonaparte ftom Egyp^ and hia sudden 
daratiou to the coaaolahip. Bams is aoonsi ' ' 

coaajnring wid the English govertunent for the i**- 
toration of the Boorbons, and this for the vilest oon- 
nderations, yet he hailed with apparent joy the advent 
of the illusttiona soldier to whom he had firat opened 
the path of piefennent ^thout reoonntuig the 
petty intrigues of hia later years, It ia soffldent to 

y, that his public career — the mingled good and 
. -il of his political life — closes with this epoch. Foi 
whatever reason, he obstinately refused the employ- 
ments that were offered him thrtmgh the agency of 
Talleyrand, and at last died in retiretnent on the 
39th JaDDOry, IS29. [EK.] 

BARRE, WiLLUM ViscEirr, a FVendi lefiigee, ao- 
thor of ■ history of the firat consulate, ocnomitted 
snicids 1829. 

BARRERE, P., • French natoraliat, died 17E6. 

Anocreon of the Qnillotine,' as BoAe styled him, it 
one of the most sinister and eonapicuons chamcter* 
of the French revolution, more eapecially as a mem- 
ber of the Committed of Public Safe^ daring the 
reign of terror. He waa born at Taibes in Qascony, 
17S5, and being educated for the bar, met with conside- 
rable succesa as a youthful advocate at Toulouse, besides 
■ fin^ admitted a member of the Academy of Sciences 

for hja 1 

cnts. In I7SG he married a 

lady of fortone, and It may here be remarked, th*t 
his private virtues have been extolled in aingnlar coik- 
trost with hia perfidiona condnot in pnblio Ufe ; to 
which anomaly, perhaps, hia mora! weakness, and 
the brilliant talents which made him ashamed of 1^ 
and caused him to assume the urs of a bravo without 
the heart of one, among his more fcrodons, or to say 
the least, leas polished colleagues, may be in some 
measure the key. In 1739 he was sent to Paris, u 
the ropreaentative of his own province in the ' Third 
Estate ' of the < Etats Giniraui,' and took his place 
with the more moderate reformera. At this period 
he pnblished a jonmal entitled ' Le Point du Joor,' 
and acquired a high degree of popnlarity by hjs elo- 
qnence both as editor and representative. At fint 
loyal to the king, he was gradually carried away by 
the ridng tide of republicanism, and we And him, on 
the 17th Jane, in the ranks of those idio provoked 
the rerolutloD by which the commons of the third 
estate eonatltnted theraselvea a national assembly. 
When this body at length separated, Barrbre was 
appointed a j'ndgc in the High Court of Appeal, and 
in 1792 depDted to the National Convention for the 
department of the Biota Pj/rMa ,- acting aa presi- 
dent, in fact, when the king waa interrogated, whoso 
utnation in bygone times had exdted his most oom- 
pasaonate feelmgs. From this time he became the 
mouthpiece of tbe Jaooblns, and voted for the dcadi 
of the king with tiie obaervation, so often lince te- 
peated, ^ L arbre de la llbertA ne crolt qn' arresd par 
le sang des tyrans,' (the tree of liber^ only grows 
when watered by the blood of tyrants.) On uie lit 
of April, 1 793, be waa elected on the Committee of 
Public Sofe^, and constantly acted aa tha reporter 
of its projects to the convention, in which employ- 
ment his ingenlotis pkatibiUt^, and hcHe wit, wers 
of enenlinl service to those who had else stood grim 
and Btark in the midst of their atrociooa concepQons. 
It was Barrire who created the revolutionary army 
by the memorable decree, — ' All Ft«nco, and what- 
soever it contains, of men or rcsonrces, is pat under 
reqnialtion ; * and who gave for the motto on thrar 
banners, ' Le penple Fran^ia debont contre let 
^rans,' (The French people risen agunst grants I) 
It was he who denounced Donton on the one band 
on a charge of too much moderation, and Hubert On 
the odier for hia anarahlg doctrines; who steno- 



^ned Ibe Mcne* i^ gnalest horror ia ■ joks or an 
qignm, u vhen he aud, — * H n'j & qua left morti 
qui Dd nrukDmt pu,' (It U only tha demd who do not 
oamg back agun.) His fear of breaking with Rob- 
a^oene nude him the iattrament a! crneltigi which 
ha jetfed iQiiii, and which h« eodearored to hide under 
the e<Hkoeita in which ha clothed them, white hia 
heart revolted ; and if the alnencie of all piincipte ii 
lendend mora coiupiciiona in one oironnntgnoe than 
■Dother of hit puujo career, it it in the haste with 
which he mured the eiecntiiin of the fallen dictator 
widtoat trial on tha 9th Thermidor ; wsarcel; foor- 
Mid-ttten^ honif after ha had fawned upon him. 
Hie ■^iigii'''"g fadhtj of hia oooveraon did not pre- 
Tent the leactiim affitctiag himaelT, more espedaHy 
aa ha [sopoaed the cantinnatioQ of Fonqnier TiuTrtLe 
la hia office of pnblic aocaaer. The remit waa, hii 
trial and coodetmiation at the bar oT the convention, 
•he fan of which, and the political complicatiana of 
tile period, favored his aicape and conoealment mitil 
the amneaty which followed the ISth Bnunaiie ena- 
hled him to letcm to Paiia. He now preaented him- 
aelf to the senate ai a candidate for adnuuicHi into 
the legiilative body, bat Napideoa miitmsted bim ^ 
and he diaa{:f)eared till 1S15, when he tamed ap ai 
a member of the chamber of repreaeotativei during 
the hondred daja. At the aecorkd rettomtion of the 
Bonrbou, he waa compelled to retire hj the royal 
ordiikance which expelled the regicidea, and rvBided 
at Belgium tin the revolndon of 1S30, when ha once 
more retained to big ooontiy, and died 1841. He ia 
the author of namerooi political and hiatorical worka, 
beiideatbe'FointdaJoar,' and an anti-British jonmiil, 
entitled the ^ Argai,' pnbhihed nnder the imperial 

Eremmeut. Hi* own merooira have been published 
UU. Hipp, Camot, and David, in 4 Tcda. fivo. 

BAEEES, Jdseps Fa«rn, Wallkt Deb, Lieat. 
Gov. of Cape Breton and Prince Edward Iiland. Hit 
iiame ia perpetoated by the admirable chart) pub- 
liahed by him in 1T80 of the coasta, harbora and islaiida 
in the Golf of St. Lawrvoce, Nova Sooda and New 
En^and, oompiled by the order of Admiral Howe for 
the oae of the Britiah Navy. He attained tbe eiba- 
oidinaiy asa ot 102, and died at Halifax, Nova Soo- 
tia, Oct. 2I, 1804. 

BAKRET. Gan., a landxspe paint., ITSO-ITM. 

BARRETT. W., a topographical writ™, d. 1789. 

BAREDJGTON, Johm Shdte, Viacount, a writer 
on protestant theology, 1678-1734. Several of his 
■on* also diatingaiihed — DaiKES, as a lawyer, 17ST- 
1600 i SsMDEi., aa a naval officer, d, 1800; SarrrK, 
hia Biith son, a* bishop of Darham, 1734-1826. 

BAREON, JanEa, an American commodore, who 
Oornmanded in 1807 tbe Chesueake daring her tm- 
fortunate eocoimter with the Bntiab frigate Laopaid. 
Died 18fil, aged aa. 

BARRON, Sahuxl, commodore Id the American 
Navy. He eoirmianded in 1796 the brig Augaata, 
eqoipped for the porpoae of repelling the aggrGsaions 
of France. In 1805 he commauGid a fleet in the 
Haditerranean sent against Tripoli, but was com- 
pelled (o resign by in health. He died in I8I0 at 
BampCoD ia Virginia, shortly after his appoiatmeat 
M soperinlendenl of the Naval Aiaenal at Gosport 

BARROS, Joan De, a Portugaeae his., d. 1570. 

BARROW, Db. Ibuc, celebrated both as a mathe- 
matician and a divine, waa bom in London, in 1630. 
He waa aent at an earij age to the Charterhouae 
Scshool, where, however, hia quandsome temper, 
pngnadona habiti^ and proverbial idlenesa, oocasionsd 
gieat annayance to hit teaohera, aa well at deep dls- 
aatisCtctian and nain to hi* familj. On his removal 

institution to Felited in Etaei, he began 
to show a bettBT diapodtion ; for applying himaelf to 
bis stridiet with tpjiit and indefatigable induatiy, hit 
pogreaa was ao rapid, and his attaimiMnts in varioua 

pomted him tabs to Vianunt Faiifai, <J Emely m 
Ireland, who waa at this achooL Hia father, whr> 
had eariy dedioed him to a learned profeasioci, en- 
tered him, in 1645, a stodent of Trinity CoU^e, 
Cambridge. Bnl hit foituue having been greatly 
iqjured torongh hia attachmeat to the royal causey 
young Barrow would have been destitute of the meant 
t4 oontinue the expeniive ttyle of hving at that nnl- 
verri^, had it not bean for the liberality of the famoot 
Dr. Hammond, who gave him the benefit of his val- 
uable fUendihip, and throof^ whoae inflnenoe be, in 
1649, obtained a feUowahip in the college. Havina 
finished his literary and philosophical course, he di- 
rected hia itndiea with a view to the praatioe oif madl- 
ciize, and made great proficiency in the aubadiaz^ 
icienoet of anatomy, botany, and chemistry. Bn^ 
by the counsel of hia nncle, bithop of St Asaph, and 
hia own growing convictions of the duty imjwaed ihi 
him by hia oath aa a feUow, he withdrew from th« 
further pruaacution of thoae aclencea, and devoted 
himself to the study of divinity, retunios, however, 
hia strong predilection, and earnest porsoit of math- 
ematics. Diaappoioted in hia hopes of obtainbg tha 
Qr«ek profeaionuiip, he reaolved to diapel his cha- 
gnn by viuting the oootinent, bat waa so poor at the 
time, that to meet the expense of his travels he had 
to dispose of his hooka In 1660, he was chosen to 
the Greek chair at Cambridge ; and in July, II 

lived another 


e congenial to 

that of geomeby profeaaor in Greaham 
coUege, London. In 1663, he received the high 
honor of being the first Fellow elected by the coun- 
cil of the Royal Society af^ they were inooiporated 
by chartar; and almost irrmiBdiately after he waa 
upointad &nt professor of a mathematical lecture- 
ship fonitded by Dr. Lncaa, at Cambridge. Thia 
office he held for hi years, and then resieued it to 
Sir Isaac Newton, having reaolved to dedicate the 
rest of hia life to divini^. Several amall prefenuenta 
he obtained In the church, £11 having by bis pn- 
emioence as a preacher been marked out as capable 
of filling the moat dignified stations, be was, ia IGTO, 
ciuated Doctor in Divinity, preparatory to his being 
ippointed Master of Triiuty College, and chaplair '" 

the king. Charles had conceived a stroug partialltj 
for him, and on beatoiring theae honorable prefer- 
menla upon him, said ' that ha had given them to 




the "best man in Engbnd.' A fbrther honor awaited 
him, in being elected, in 1675, to the Yioe-Chanoel- 
lonhip of the nniverdty. Bat he was not destined 
to enjoy these honors long, for on the 4th May, 1677, 
he was seised with fever, which in a few days termi- 
nated his brief, thongh brilliant earner. — His works 
in mathematics are still held in great esteem. His 
sermons, with the exception of two, were poeihn- 
mons, thongh he had prepared them for the press. 
They are remarkable for abundance of matter, trea- 
sures of erodition, for splendor of description, and a 
spirit of glowing piety. Charies 11. nsed to call him 
'an unfair preacher, because he exhausted every 
subject, and left nothing for others to say after him.' 


BARROW, Sib Johk, Bart, F. R. S., seoretaiy to 
the admiralty from 1804 to 1846 ; a distinguished 
biographical writer and promoter of discovery, 1764- 

BARRUEL, Auocsmr, a French abbS, chiefly kn. 
for his memorials of Jacobinism, 1741-1820. 

BARRUEL DE BEAUVERT, Ckwrnr Anth. Job., 
a partisan c^the Bourbons, well known as a journal- 
ist and biographical writer, 1756-1817. 

BARRY, GiBAiiD, or Giraldus Cambrshsib, an 
English prelate and historian of the 12th cent. 

BARRT, J. T., an ar. and wr. on art, 1841-1806. 

BARRT, John, by birth an Irishman, was the 
first naval officer who held the rank of commodore, 
in the service of the United States. He arrived in 
America in 1760, at the age of 15, and adopting a 
seafliring life, acquired such high credit and esteem 
as a commander, that on the breaking out of the 
war, he was appointed by Congress, in 1776, to the 
command of the brig Lexmgton, and shortly after, 
to that of the frigate Effingham. During the win- 
ter, he served on land as aid-de-camp to Gen. Cad- 
wiUlader, in the neighborhood of Trenton. WhQe 
Jie American fleet was detained at Whitehall, he 

Sallantly executed a project conceived by himself of 
escending the river in boats to cat off the supplies 
of the English. He next oommanded the Raleigh of 
82 guns, which he was compelled to run on shore in 
Penobscot Bay. In 1781, he canned CoL Laurens 
in the frigate Alliance to France, and on his return, 
captured the British vessels Atlanta and Trepasa. In 
this action he was severely wounded. The frigate 
United States was buUt under his superintendence, 
and he retained the command of her until the acces- 
sion oi Jefferson. His death occurred at Philadel- 
phia in 1803. As a naval officer, he had every 
quality requisite to ensure the obedience and gain the 
affection of those under his command, and was no less 
respected and beloved in private life. During the war. 
Gen. Howe is said to have ofifored him |60,000, and 
the command of a British frigate, on condition of his 
deserting the American cause. It is needless to say, 
diat the proposition was indignantly rejected. 

BARRY, Mabie Jeanne De Vaubebnieb, Coun- 
tess Dn, celebrated for her beauty and infamous li- 
centiousness at the court of Louis XV., commenced 
her career in a millinery establishment, through 
which, she entered upon the life of a courtesan, and 
was taken under the protection of the Count da 
Barry. Presented at court 1759, when the place of 
Madame Pompadour was vaoant, she became the 
king's mu tress, and acquired the most unbounded 
influence over him. The dismissal and exile of the 
prime minister Choiseul was decided upon under her 
influence, guided by the * corrupt D'Aiguillon,* and 
the time-serving Maupeou,* who were the most im- 
placable enemies of the parliament, which had now 
maintained a quarrel for nearly a quarter of a cen- 

tury witii the court France, at this period, as the 
most vigorous and deep-sighted writer of the present 
age has described it, *■ with a hariot's foot on her neck,' 
was preparing for the fearful struggle of the revolu- 
tion, in whi<£ Dm Barry, with so many others who 
were either tiie glory or the shame of their oountiy, 
were doomed to pensh. At the death of the king, in 
1774, she was ordered by Louis XVL into the con- 
vent of Pont-aux-Damea, near Meaax, but after 
some time permitted to reside in the ohateau built 
for her by the old king. Here she lived some years 
in a creditable retirement, but coming to England to 
procure money for the use of the roySi. family by the 
sale of her diamonds, she fell under the displeasure 
of the revolutionary tribunal, and was condemned to 
the guillotine at the age of forty-nine. It is the 
conunon remark of historians, tiiat France was in- 
debted for much of its demoralization to tiiis prosti- 
tute ; rather, it might be said, she had the address to 
avail herself of the incredible corruption that pre- 
vailed at the very heart of society. She suffered at 
the close of the year 1798, uttering \\ e most pitiable 
cries for meroy on her way to the sonflbld. [E.R.3 

BARRY, Spbanoeb, a eel. actor, 1719-1777. 

BARRY, WiLiAAM T., bom in 1785, was post-mas- 
top-general during the administration of Jackson and 
afterwards ambassador to the court of Madrid. He 
died in 1885. 

BARSELAI, sultan of Egypt, 1422-1488. 

BARTAS, Wm. De Salustk Du, a Fi«nch soldier 
and diplom., diet also as a poet, 1544-1590. 

BARTH, John, a French privateer, 1651-1702. 

BARTUELEMI, Nich., a religious wr., 15th ct. 

BARTHELEMON, Fbancis Hippolitb, a oomp. 
and violinist, h. at Bordeaux 1741, d. 1808. 

BARTHELEMY, John Jambs, a Fr. aoMmt, mem- 
ber of the Acad., and an. of the * Voyage of the 
Younger Anarchasis in Ghreeoe,' &&, 1716-1795. 

BARTHEZ, P. J., a Fr. medic wr., 1734-1806. 

BARTHOLDY, J. S., a Prus. diplom., d. 1826. 

BARTLETT, Josiah, M.D., governor of New 
Hampshure in 1793, was bom at Amesbuiy, Mass., 
in 1729. He began the practice of the medical pro- 
fession in 1750, and though imperfectiy educated, by 
talent, perseverance and good fortune attained great 
reputation. In 1775 he was elected a member of 
Congress, Gcom which position he withdrew in 1778. 
The next year he was appointed justice of the Supe- 
rior Court of New Hampshire, and chief justice in 
1788. In 1790 he was made president of New 
Hampshire, and in 1793 was elected the first gover- 
nor under the new constitution. He died of paraly- 
sis in 1795, leaving behind him tiie reputation of a 
true patriot, a good physician, and a politician of a 
sound and discrhninating mind. 

BARTLETT, Josiah, M.D., an eminent American 
physician, bom in Charlestown, Massachusetts, in 
1759. During the war of the Revolution he served 
as surgeon's mate in the military hospital and also 
as surgeon on board ships of war. On the cessation 
of hostilities he settied in his native place, and ac- 
quired a deserved reputation not only in his profes- 
sion but as a ^aker and writer. The chief produc- 
tions of his pen wwe a discourse on the progress of 
medical science in Massachusetts, 1810, a history of 
Charlestown, 1814, and an oration on the death of 
Dr. John Warten, 1815. He served in Congress, and 
in the legislature of Mass. Misfortune clouded the 
last years of his life, and he died of apoplexy in 1820. 

BARTLETT, W. H., an English artist, known as 
an illustrator of Oriental life and scenery, d. 1854. 

BARTOLI, or BARTOLUS, a celebrated jurist, 
whose works occupy 10 folio vols., 1312-1356. 




BARTOLI, CoiMO, an Italian hist, 16lih oent 

BABTOLI, D., hist of the Jesuits, 160^1666. 

BARTOLO, an ItaL joiist, 14th ceatary. 

BARTOLOZZI, Fb^ an engraTor, 1728-1815. 

BARTON, BBEUAxnr Smitb, M.D., was bom 
at Lancaster, Penn., ef which his father was Reo- 
tor, in 176a. He studied medicine at Philadel- 
phia, Edinbnii^ London and Qottingen, at which 
kttar plaee he graduated. In 1789, on his retom 
to America, he beoame professor of natoral his- 
toiy and botany in the UniTersity of Pennsyl- 
▼ania. In 1796, he published aome remarks on 
fasdnation ascribed to ratdesnakesi and in the fol- 
lowing year, a theofy of the origin of the American 
tribes. In 1804, he commenced the Medical Physi- 
cal Journal, which he edited with ability for several 
▼ears. His Elements of Botany, the first work of the 
kind from an American author, appeared in 1804, 
and was re-published in 1812 with numerous engra- 
Tings. Sendee these, he was the author of nume- 
rous minor pieces on scientific subjects and Editor oi 
Collen's Hateria Medica. He died in 1815 at the 
age of 49. His character was noble, his mind acute 
and comprehensiTe, and he contributed greatly to 
the advance of science and learning in America. 

BARTON, Bernard, dist as the * Quaker Poet»' 
by profession a banker*s clerk, 1784-1849. 

BARTON, EuzABBTH, a poor girl of Kent, the 
subject of religious ecstacies, which led to her execu- 
tion, on a charge of high treason, 1534. 

BARTON, Tbomas, a clergyman of the Protestant 
Episcopal church, was bom in Ireland and graduated 
at Dublin Univerrity. He was ordained in England 
1754 and the next year came to America as a mis- 
rionary. In 1758 he served in the British army as 
chaplain in the expedition against fort Dn Quesne. 
At this period, he formed the acquaintance of Wash- 
ingt«)n. During the revolution, he adhered to the 
Roya* cause, but continued to reside in America. 
He died in New York 1780, Among his published 
works is a sermon on Braddock's defeat. 

BARTON, WiLUAM, Lieut Col. in the American 
army during the revolution. The most brilliant 
achievement of his life led by a strange fatality to 
his greatest misfortunes. Learning that Major Gen. 
Preecott of the British army was to sleep at a house 
a few miles from Newport on the 10th July, 1777, 
he put himself at the head of forty men, and after a 
rapid journey by water and land arrived at midnight 
at the general's quarters. The head of a negro who 
accompanied the party was used without detriment 
to the owner, as a battering ram to dash in the 
chamber door, and Gen. Presoott was surprised in 
bed with his aid-de-camp, and carried safely off. 
Prince, the negro, lived tiU 1821 and attained the 
ace of 78. CoL Barton was presented by Congress 
witii a sword and a large grant of land in Vermont, 
for his skill and daring in this transaction. But 
some irregularity in the transfer of this land led to ' 
his imprisonmeut in Vermont for many years and | 
he was not set at liberty till 1825. He died at Pro- 
▼idenoe, in 1831. 

B ARTRAM, John, a distinguished American bot- 
anist, who, without the advantages of scholastic 
tiaining, attained by genius and perseverance the 
highest rank among the students of his favorite sci- 
ence. He was a native of Pennsylvania, and was 
bom about the year 1701. By tiie death of his 
&ther, who was killed by Indians hi North Carolina, 
he came into possession, at an early ase, of a small 
estate near Philadelphia. Here, while cultivating 
tiie soil, he mastered the Latin and Greek languages 
and acquired the information necessary for the suo- 

e oisftd pursuit of botanic reseaichea. Purcha^ng a 
ehoice spot on the banks of the SohnylkiH, he en- 
ridied it with a vast collection of plants not only from 
every portion of the North Amerioan continent then 
accessible, but also from Europe, the prinoely gar- 
dens of which were indebted to him,' for their mag- 
nificent assortments of tnmsatiantic produotions. 
His travels on this continent were very extensive and 
afforded materials for many excellent communica- 
tions to the British Philosophical Transactions, not 
confined to botany, but ranging over the field of 
general sciencOi His attainments and enthusiasm 
attracted the attention of the learned in Europe, and 
he became the friend and c(nTeq>ondent of Linnaeus 
and Sir Hans Sloane, and was appointed American 
botanist to the king of England. He died in 1777, 
aged 75. 

BARTRAM, Wiluav, bom in the botanic gar- 
dens of his father on the Schuylkill. William inher- 
ited the passionate love for plants, which character- 
ised John Bertram. To gratify it, he abandoned 
mercantile life, and under the tuition of his father, 
whom he accompanied in his travels, devoted hims^ 
to the study of botany. Having tgont some time in 
Florida, he began in 1771, at the age of 32, a scien- 
tific examination of Georgia, Florida and the Caro- 
lines, the results of which were not published until 
1791. An English edition of his travels was pub- 
lished tile next year, and his work was also trans- 
lated into French. He was also the autiior of the 
best book on American Ornithology then extant, and 
prepared the way for the more complete researches 
of Wilson, who derived much aid from him. He 
died in 1828, at the age of 85, pen in hand, and with 
the ink not dry with which he had written the de- 
scription of a plant 

BARWAK, J., a royalist divine, 1612-1664. 

BARWAK, P., an eminent physiologist, d. 1705. 

BASEDAW, J. B., a Gknnan wr. on education 
and moral philos., fndr. of a normal school called the 
*Philantiiropinuin,' at Dessau, 1728-1790. 

BASEVI, an architect, b. 1795, killed 1845. 

BASIL, St., the Great, a celebrated patriarch and 
ascetic of the Greek church, 826-679. 

BASILIUS, a celebrated heresiarch, burnt alive at 
Constantinople, 12th century. 

BASILIUS, Valsntixb, a jurist, 15th cent 

BASILIUS L, emperor of the East 866-886 : the 
second of this name, who re-united Bulgaria to the 
empire, reigned 976-1025. 

BASILIUS, confid. of Constantino VII., d. 961. 

BASILIDES, inventor of the Abraxas, 2d ct 

BASILISCUS, emperor of tiie East, 476-477. 

BASILOWITZ, J., first csar of Russia, d. 1584. 

BASKERVILLE, John, celebrated for improve- 
ments in letter-casting and printing, 1706-1775. 

BASKERVILLE, Sir Simon, a phys., d. 1641. 

BASNAGE, Benjamin, a protestant divine, 1580- 
1652. Anthony, his son, miniflter at Bayeanx, 
1610-1691. Samuel, son of Anthony, author of po- 
litioo-ecdesiastioal annals, died 1721. Henbt, 2d 
son of Benjamin, a writer on jurisprudence, 1615- 
1695. Jaoques, son of Henry, the historian of the 
Jews, &0., 1658-1723. Henry, brotiier to the last 
named, a journalist and historian, 1656-1710. 

BASNET, Eowo., an Irish priest and soldier, died 
in the raign of Edward VI. 

BASS, Georqe, a surgeon in tiie English navy, 
who went out to New S. Wales, seven years after the 
formation of that colony, along with Governor Hunter, 
on board a ship in which the celebrated Flinders was 
midshipman. Soon after reaching Port Jackson, he 
and Flinders fitted out, at tiieir own expense, a small 




boil, eiglit feet long, which tbej called 'Tom Thumbs 
Bod in tbU, with one bo; tor theit compamon, they 
made two mrvefing TOjagei in 1796 tad 1796, klong 
the coRSt BonthwardB, Their report on the coimti — 
led to ttie (bnnding of now settlementB. Sent oat 1 
the goTernmcDt in 1T9T, tn b whale boat, wilb 
crew of As men, and provieioni for eii wseka, Bau 
cxmtnTed to make these la«t eleren weeks, and per- 
tbnned Bvoj^KBof600ndles. He traced a portii 
Ae aonthem ahorei of the rantinent, and fband 
Van Diemens' Land, inetead of being contiiiaons with 
it, aa Cook and ethen had amerted, wai Kpanled bj 
a wide straiL The qneition was not, however, re- 
garded as qmte rattled ; and in 1T9S, on FUnder^ 
retnni fcma Norfolk inland, Bau aod he were aeal 
ogt En a vessel of 2S tona, with inatmctions to sail 
tonnd Van Diemen'a Land, and examine the c^Mibili- 
tieB of the coasts. Their snccesatnl Tojage and favor- 
able report soon led to ftirther colonliaHon. The 
Strait received the name of its discoverer. No dansei 
conid check the ardor and darinf of Bass. In ITOS, 
be attempted to penetrate throng the eitraordinaij 
Tockj hairier wUch divides the maritime belt on the 
. . .1 .... p]j^ nj^j daring fifteen days 

scendidg by ropes into Che most frightful abysses. 
like many previous attempts, this proved nnnicc«ss- 
fiil, and it was not tdll IBIS that a practicablfl pass 
was fonnd, doe west of Sydney. [J.B.] 

BASSANI, a., a composer, I7th oentnty. 

BASSANO, an Italian painter, 1610-1692. 

BASSANO, H. B, Haset, duke of, a political wr. 
Utd. statesman of France, indered to quit England 
along with the ambassador Chanvelin, 1 T92 ; after- 
wards secretaiyof state and confidant of Buonaparte, 
fui well as editor of his official o»an. the ifoniair ; 
fell with the empire, bat retomed from exile 1820, 
and was recalled to official employment by Looia 
Philippe; 1758-1889. 

BASS FT, P aTEH, historian of Henry V. 

BA5SETT, RiCHABD, governor of Dolawaro. fVom 
1798 to 1801, and alio a member of the federal jodi- 
oiarynnder Adams from that time till 1602. He 
died in 1816. 

BASSl, lucRA, U. C, an Italian lady, made doc- 
tor ofphilo., and pn)f. at Bologna, 17U-1T78, 

BASSOMPIERRE, Y., a ft. marsh., 1675-1646. 

BASSUET, Pftbr, a Fr. surgeon, 1706-1767. 

BASTA, Oeoroe, a military writer, 16th cent. 

BASTIDE, J, F.DbLa,, 1724-1798. 

BASTWICK, JoHS, a controv, wr., 1693-1660. 

BATE, QsnaoE, a dist phy^cian and medical 
writer, historian of the civil wars, 1593-1669. 

BATE, H., a poet and jooraalist, last centnry. 

BATE, John, a writer on lo^c, 16th cent. 

BATECUMBE, W., a geometrician, 16th ct. 

BATEMAN, W., fndr. of Trinity hall, d. 186*. 

BATES, Join, an em. mnaician, 17«)-1799. 

BATES, W., B religious biographer, 1926-1699. 

BATHE, Wsi., an. of a cimo™ philological work, 
matter of the Irish school at Salamanca, 1564-1614. 

BATHURST, Au-eh, Eari, a distinguished oppon. 
irfWalpolein theHonseirfLinds, 1684-1775. 

BATHURST, Hiwbt, Earl, son of the preceding, 
some time lord chancellor, 1714-1794. 

BATHURST, Rr. Ret. Hefkt, bi^op of Nor- 
wich, 1744-1837. 

BATHURST, Dr. H., son of the ptveed., d. 1844. 

BATHURST, R*i.pb, a Latin poet, 1620-1704. 

BATHYANI, C. J., a noble HungariaD field-msr- 
iJisl of Austria, born 1679, in service 1716-1T4T, d. 
1772. See also BAtTHTAnn. 

BATHTIXUS, a ceL mimic, time of Angnatnt. 

BATOMl, P. G., an ItaL painter, 170ft-1787. 

BATOU, Khah, sue of Zengbis-khan, died 1276 

BATSCH, A. J. G. C, a naturalist, 1761-1801, 

BATTELT, Joim, on antiquarian, died 1708. 

BATEUX, Ch., a French clasric, 1713-1780. 

BATTHYANT, Coukt Casiheb Straltmas, a 
Hungarian revolutionist, whoM large estates were 
confiscated by ti« Austrian emperor, in consequence 
of his participation in the war of Hungary for lil>. 
er^. lie was hereditary governor of (he coimty of 
Vas, in Hnngarf, and was of the great boose of the 
BatthjaoTii died poca, an exile, at Paris, on 12th 
July, 1864. 

BATTHYANTI, Lona, a Hnnfpuiao Dobleman, 
^stingnished for bis connectira with the Austrian 
confiicta of 1848, and his anhai^j fate. He was 
bom about the year 1809, of one of the most illus- 
trioua families of the proud aristocracy of Hungary, 
He was (or many years the leader of the opposition 
to Austrian doinination, in the upper boose of Hun- 
gary, and by his talents and judgment increased the 
influence natnraJly awarded to his rank in that 
assembly. When the sweep of revolntionary events 
in 1848 rendered it necessai; to form a Hangariaa 
cabinet, Batthyanji was intrusted with (be function. 
It is said that at coort he was encouraged to treat 
Jellachich, (he Ban of Croatia, as a traitOT, at the 
very time when that leader was eoconragod to in- 
vade Hungary and subdne it for Austria. In Sep- 
tember, as prime minister of Hnngaiy, he went (o 
Vienna to endeavor to make moderate stipolationi 
for preMrving the nationality of RunKaiy on the one 
band, and on (he other restraining it flom violent 
outbreak ; but he fonnd influences nt work which ren- 
dered this hopeleaa, and re«gning, retired to his 
estates. An accident disabled him fVom joining in 
the warlike resistance to Jellachich bsd ha desired 
it, bat he took part In the Hnngarian parliament. 
He vent with a deputation to Prince Windischgraetz 
to accommodate terms, but was not received. He 
was arrested, and aiter some dtday, by order of Mar- 
shal Haynan, tried by conrt-mortiat and condemned 
to death. The conviction was for vsigne offences, 
among others for reagning office ; and it was ssJd 
that Uie Austrian government took vengeance on a 
Hnngarian nobleman for the disturbances of Vienna, 
and the tmrrder of Latour. He wsa condemned to be 
hanged, bnt an attempt to commit suicide prevented 
the ezeontianorthe sentence, and he wai shot on OcL 

BATTIE Wm., a wr. on insanl^, 1708-1778. 

BATTISHILL, Jon., a composer, 1708-I80I. 

R,VTUTA Ibx, an Arab Uoor of Tangiers, a cd»> 




bnted tnvQller of the middle agen He loft his n»- 
are town in 1824, and travelled for 28 yean over 
the Tarions ooantries of the East, chiefly for the pur- 
pose of seeing holy places, and retomed throogh 
Central Africa to Fez, where he took np his ahode in 
1858. A pretty fnll account of his interesting jonr- 
ney is given by Mr. W. D. Cooley In lus Hist, of InL 
and Mar. Disc voL L, from the only materials known 
to exist, * an extract irom an epitome.' [J*B.] 

BATZ, Babok De, a member of the constituent 
assembly, noted as a financialist, died 1822. 

BAUDEAU, N., a Fr. eoonombt, 1780-1792. 

B AUDELOQUE, J. Z., a French accoochenr, and 
writer on midwifeEy, 1748-1810. 

BAUDIN, P. C. L., a French civilian, deputy to 
the assembly and the convention, 1751-1799. 

BAUDIUS, DoMiHiG, a rhetorician, 1561-1618. 

BAUDOT DE JUILLI, Nigbolab, an. of a hist 
of the conquest of England, &c., 1678-1759. 

BAUDOUIN, Bcf., a Fr. arahssologist, 17th o. 

BAITDOUIN. See Baldwht. 

BAUDRAIS, a theatrical writer, magistrate of 
Paris during the reign of terror, 1749-1882. 

BAUDRAUD, M. A., a geographer, 1638-1700. 

BAUER, Fred., a German artist^ died 1826. 

BAUHINUS, John, a botanist, 1541-1618. His 
brother Gaspakd, also a wr. on botany, 1560-1624. 

BAULDRI, Paul, a ohronologist, 1689-1706. 

BAUME, Ajith., a chemical author, died 1805. 

BAUME, J. F. De La, a Fr. divine, d. 1757. 

BAUME, Nigh. Ano. De La, marquis of Montre- 
vel, and marshal of France, 1686-1716. 

BAUMER, J. W., a natnraUst, 1719-1788. 

BAUMGARTEN, Alex. Gottlieb, a German 
metaphysician and prof, of philosophy, 1714-1762. 

BAUR, Fr. Wm. Voy, a Russian general, an. of 
memorials for a history of Wallachia, d. 1783. 

BAUR, J. W., an archi and painter, 1610-1640. 

BAWDWEEN, Wm., an antiquary, died 1816. 

BAXTER, And., a Scotch philos., 1686-1750. 

BAXTER, Richard, a divine of great note among 
the English nonconformists, was bom 12th Novem- 
ber, 1615, at Rowton, Shropshire. His father's con- 
versation and example were the means of bringing 
him under early impressions of religion, and although 
he for a time contracted evil habits, such as lying, 
steah'ng fruit, &c., his juvenile piety was never 
wholly extinguished. Unfortunately, his education 
was committed to teachers whose incompetency or 
unfaithfulness were such, that he cannot be said to have 
enjoyed the advantages of rexolar instruction ; and 
yet, by dint first of his fathers counsels, and after- 
wards of his own genius and industry, he made at- 
tainments in knowledge superior to tibose of most of 
his contemporaries. His parents, who wished to 
procure him a place at court, engaged him to the 
master of the revels ; but the bustle and pageantry 
of the daily scenes in which that situation broaght 
him to mingle, were totally uncongenial to a mind 
like his, fond of contemplation and retirement. 
With redoubled zest he returned after a month's ex- 
periment to his studies, and resolving to devote his 
attention to divinity, prepared himself for the work 
in connection with the Church of En^^and. Having 
at the age of twenty-three received ordination, he 
officiated, first, as assistant at Bridgnorth, where his 
reputation as a preacher procured hmi an earnest in- 
vitation to become pastor of the church and parish 
of Kidderminster. In that town his ministry com- 
menced in 1640, and was distinguished by a zeal and 
success rarely equalled. The unsettled state of the 
times drove him from that post of usefulness, and 
obliged him to seek an asylum in various parts 


of England. Thou^ he espoused the cause of the 
parliament during the prevalence of the civil war, 
and became chaplain of a regiment, he was of de- 
cidedly moderate opinions, disapproved of revolu- 
tionary principles, especially of the violent measures 
adopted towazds tiie late king, and did not disguise 
his disagreement in many respects, with the con- 
duct of both parties, in conducting the affairs both 
of the church and the state. His integrity and ho- 
nest independence procured him general respect^ 
notwithstanding which, however, he was subjected 
to much harassing annoyance. Mr. Baxter, at the 
earnest solicitation of the people, returned to Kid- 
derminster, and discharged the ministerial functions 
in that place with aU his wonted assiduity for a pe- 
riod of fourteen years. Having begun to entertain 
conscientious sen pies about the et caUra oath, he re- 
linquished the Caurch of Elngland, and repaired to 
London, where, arriving immediately before the de- 
position of Richard Cromwell, he preached to the 
parliament the day preceding their vote for the re** 
toration of the king. Having obtained a license, he 
preached frequently in the metropolis, till, in 1676, 
a meeting-house was built for him ; but after preach- 
ing there once, he was dispossessed, seized by a war- 
rant from the Lord Chief Justice Jefferies, tried and 
condemned for some passages in his Paraphrase 
on the New Testament Through powerful influence 
exerted in his behalf with King James H., he was 
pardoned, and on regaining his liberty he resumed 
his ministerial functions, preaching to large and at- 
tached congregations in various parts of London. 
Mr. Baxter was a most voluminous author, one hun- 
dred and forty-five distinct works having proceeded 
from his indefatigable pen. The chief of these are 
his own ' Life and Times,' his * Dying Thoughts,' his 
'Saints' Everlasting Rest,' and his ' Call to the Un- 
oonverted,' of which 20,000 copies were sold in 
England in a single year, besides translations of it 
into all the languages of Europe. His whole aonl 
was absorbed by ze«l for the glory of God, and the 
salvation of men; and in the discharge of his duty, 
he was fearless as much in reproving Cromwell and 
remonstrating with the profligate Charles, as in ad- 
dressing a congregation of plam and ordinary people. 


BAYARD, P. DO Terbail, ChevaUer De, a French 
knight, celeb, for his valor and loyalty, killed in the 
ItaHau wars of Francis I., 1476-1524. 

BAYARD, Jas. A., an em. Am. statesman, bom 
at Philadelphia, in 1767. He was graduated at 
Princeton College m 1784. He entered Congress, as 
representative from Delaware in 1796, and sided with 
the federal government. He was transferred to the 
Senate in 1804, of which he was twice elected mem- 
ber for six years. In company with Gallatin he went, 
in 1818, to St Petersburg, as commissioner to nego* 
tiate peace with Great Britain, which, with hia as- 
sbtance, was accomplished at Ghent, in 1814. From 
political reasons he declined the appointment of En- 
voy to Russia, and being compcdled by sickness 
returned to the United States, and died in 1815, at Wil- 
mington, in the 48th year of his age. He was one 
of the most eloquent, patriotic, and highminded men 
of his day. 

BAYARD, John, a native of Maryland, bom 1788, 
who took an active part in the Revolution. He was 
present at the Battie of Trenton. He served in the 
Legislature of Pennsylvania, and in 1785 was a mem- 
ber of the Old Congress, at New York. He died at New 
Branswick, N. J., of which place he had been mayor, 
in 1807, and the sixty-ninth year of his age. Hifl 
character was noble and generous. 


[82 1 


BATARD, M., ft Franoh dnmatiBt, died 1858, 
aged 58. 

BAYER, John, a Germ. Bstron., 17th ceot 

BAYER, T. S., a phUologist, 1694-1788. 

BAYEUX, N^ a Fiench historian, killed 1792. 

BAYLE, a. L., a French med. an., 1774-1816. 

BAYLE, MosBS, a member of the Fr. convention 
and Com. of Safety, proecribed 1795, d. 1815. 

BAYLE, pEiiCB, bom at Carlat, in the coanty of 
Foix, in 1647 : the son of a Calviniit minister ;-«one 
of the most learned and laborions men of any age ; — 
witness that grand monument he has left, the ^ Dio- 
tlonnaire Historiqae et Critique.' His own aoooont of 
the cause of his extraordinaiy productive power is 
this — ^meriting well a prominent place among the 
memoranda of the ambitious student — ^ Amusements, 
pleasure-parties, games, collationa, trips to the ooun- 
tiy, visiting, and .other xecreatimis necessary-— so- 
cording to what they say — to many literary men, have 
no place in my manner of life ; I lose no time in 
them, neither do 1 spend any on domestic cares, or in 
interfering wi& any thing, soliciting any thing, or 
meddling at all with bunness. In tms way, a writer 
may accomplish much.'— >The events of Bayle's life 
are eminentiy characteristic of his habit of mind; at 
the one time a Calvinist ; at the next a catholic ; then 
Calvimst again ; finally of no tan^ble creed or even 
profession, or care about any faith of any sort : — if his 
singular logical acuteness enabled him to cut in pieces 
the arguments then passing current fbr reasons, the 
defective force of his moral and intellectual instincts 
seemed to render him quite as happy and comfortable 
without a belief as with one. His writings, according- 
ly, are essentially eritioal and sceptical : ne delights in 
showing how tiiose important questions which jmiloso- 
phy would fain resolve are engirt by innumerable diffi- 
culties. Take as a specimen his treatment of the posi- 
tion * There it a Chd.* The usual proofii-— apparentiy 
the soundest — on which one rests this position, tluU 
one, for instance, which would infer the exidence of a 
perfect Being, from the existence in the human mind 
of a corresponding tdlea-^are open to manifold objec- 
tions. Touching the Divine espoMx, our ignorance 
seems insurmountable. Though all men might be 
said to agree as to tiie hemg of a God, where is their 
agreement regarding his nature ; who can reconcile 
his immutabiu^ with his liberty, his immateriality 
and his immensity ? l£s unity is not demonstrated. 
His prescience cannot eaaly be accommodated to the 
firee-will of man ; nor his goodness with the physical 
and moral evil prevailing in the world, or witii tiie 
eternal punishment of the wicked. His decrees are 
impenetrable; his judgments incomprehensible. We 
can reach no higb^ than n^ative conceptions regard- 
ing his divine perfections. . . . Thus Bayle cbufite 
ratherthanreaMifw,<^— nay, heoondndes in the true spirit 
of the Pyrrhonist, that Reason is not a safe guide. 
Never was M^ better adapted to such a thesis : dear, 
polished, keen, and passionless. No good lihraxy 
should want the Dictionary ; and there are few In- 
quirers who may not derive benefit from its nngular 
jMges. Besides this Opus Majus, he wrote several 
miscelianeous treatiBes, collected in his * (Euvres Di- 
verses,' four vols. 8vo. He ^ed ' pen in hand ' at the 
age of fifty-nine, in December, 1706. [J.P.N.] 

BAYLEY, Ansklh, a Hebrew schol., d. 1791. 

BAYLEY, F. W. N., an English poet and misoelL 
author, died 1862, aged 45. 

BAYLEY, THB Right Hoh. Sir Johv, justice of 
the Eln^a Bench, member of the privy council, and 
author of a professional work, died 1841. 

BAYLEY, Lewd, bishop of Bansor, died 1682. 

BAYLEY, Katthus, attained Sie extraordinazy 

age of 186, preserving his £acnltiee till death. He 
died at Jones! Creek, North Carolina, in 1789, two 
years prior to which event he was baptiied. 

BAYLEY, N., writer of a dictionary, 1768. 

BAYLEY, Richard, a distinguiUied American 
physician, bom at Fairfield, Connecticut, in 1745, to 
whom the public are indebted for its knowledge of the 
nature and best mode of treating the croup. The 
New York riot of 1788, in which Alexander Hamilton 
was severely wounded, was occasioned by the impru- 
dence .of some medical students in his apartments, 
who out of waggery exhibited a skeleton to a man as 
that of his mower who had been recentiy interred. 
In the popular outbreak which ensued his whole col- 
lection was destroyed. He was appointed Professor 
of Anatomy at Columbia College, in 1792, and dT 
suigeiy in 1798. He was Health Officer in the port 
of New York from 1795 to August, 1801, when a 
single instant qwnt in the pestilential atmosphere of 
an ^migrant vessel from Ireland, occasioned hu death, 
which occurred, afler a week of intense agony, on 
the seventeenth day of the month. Besides his 
publications respecting the croup, he was author of 
some valuable remarks on the yellow fever, published 
in 1797 and 8. 

BAYLEY, Thomas Hatnes, a lyrical poet, dra- 
matic writer, and noveUst, 1797-1889. 

BAYLEY, Wm., an astronomer, died 1810. 

BAYNAM, Wm., an eminent American surgeon 
and anatomist, bom in Viiginia, 1749, d. in 1814. 

BAYON, J. De, a French annalist, 14th cent. 

BAZARAD, a Wsllachian prince, 14th century. 

BAZARD, Amand, a Fr. carbonaro, afterwards a 
follower of St Simon, 1792-1832. 

BAZIRE, Cl., a m. of the Fr. oonven., 1764-94. 

BEACH, Abraham, D.D., a clergyman of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, who for thirty years 
was assistant minister of Trinity Church, New York. 
He was bom at Cheshire, Conn., 1740, graduated at 
Yale College 1757, ordained by the bi&op of Lon- 
don 1767, and died Sept. 11, 1828. 

BEACH, Joux, a dei-gyman of the Episc. Church, 
who, having graduated at Yale College, in 1721, and 
fbr several years afler served in the congregational 
ministry, conformed to the Church of England, and 
was ordained by the bishop of London in 1732. He 
was a man of strong understanding, and uncompromi- 
sing adherence to what he deemed the tmth, and ac- 
quired great distinction as a controversialist in favor 
of Episcopacy and against the Calvinistic theory. 
His principal work was a vindication of the members 
of the Church of England. At the Revolution he 
suffered much in consequence of his constancy to the 
royal cause. He died March 8, 1782. 

BEACON, Thos., an Eng. reformer, d. 1570. 

BEARDE DE L'ABBAYE, anecon., d. 1771. 

BEASLEY, Frkd., an Am. divine and author of 
various contributions to moral and metaphysical 
scienoe ; was president <^ the university of Pennsyl- 
vania, d. 1845, aged 68. 

BEATON, Card., abp. of St Andrews, dis. for his 
persecuting spirit, assass. 1546. 

BEATON, James, neph. of the card., bp. of Glaa- 
gow, and an. of a histoiy of Scotland, 1530-1603. 

BEATRICE, a martyr and saint, 8d century. 

BEATflE, Jambb, the well known Scotch poet 
and moralist, was the son of a small farmer and shop- 
keeper, and was bom at Lanrenoekiik in Kincardine- 
shire, 5th December, 1785. After pursuing his stu- 
dies with the most brilliant success at Marischal Col- 
lego, Aberdeen, he was appointed usher to the 
Grammar Soho^of that city 1758, where he emoyed 
the society of many distinguished men, especially of 




R^id, tlie metaphyncian, from whom he acquired the 
prindpleg afterwards illiutrated in his 'Essaj on 
Tmth.' In 1761, being then in his twenty-sixth year, 
Beattie made his d&tU in the literaxy world as trans- 
lator of the Eclogues of Virgil, and author of several 
small poems which had appeared anonymously at va- 
rious times in the ^ Scots Magazine.' In 1766 he 
published *The Judgnient of Paris^* and in 1766 a 
selection of his poems, with the addition of tome 
which had not hitherto appeared. Between this pe- 
riod and 1770 he was preparing his famous essay, 
which he designed to counteract Uie baneful effects 
of materialism, by demonstrating the immutability of 
moral sentiment, which involves, in fact, the princi- 
ple of^ /irion instruction and revelation. His personal 
history during this period acquires some interest from 
his marriage with Miss Dun, which took place in 
June, 1767, and the friendship of the poet Gray, soon 
to be terminated by the death of the latter. The 
* Essay on Truth,' at once established the fame of its 
author, who received the flattering recognition of a 
degree as doctor of philosophy from the universi^ of 
O^dTord, and the offer of the professorship of moral 
philosophy in the university of Edinburgh, which for 
personal reasons, he declined to accept, as he did a 
handsome living in the Church of England proffered 
by Dr. Porteus. It was in the flush of his success 
that Beattie resumed his poetical studies, and grati- 
fioil the English public with his * Minstrel,' a poem 
written in me style and stanza of Spenser, and em- 
bodying, in the character of Edwin, a transcript of his 
own ideas and pursuits in his younger days. The 
first book of this celebrated poem appeared in 1771, 
tiie second in 1774, and a new edition of the whole in 
1777, and it brought the author so prominently be- 
fore the public that his merits were acknowledged in 
1773 by an annual pension of £200 firom the crown, 
graced, a little subsequently, by a private inter- 
view with the king and queen. In 1776 his es- 
says 'On Poetry and Music,* *0n Langbter and 
Ludicrous Composition,' and *0n the Utilitv of 
Classical Learning,' appeared, forming one volume 
with a new edition of his 'Essay on Truth.' In 
1790 and 1793 respectively, the two volumes of 
his * Elements of Moral Science' were first published, 
and as a further proof of his industry, there is 
scarcely an interval between the publication of the 
'Minstred* and his retirement in 1796, in which lite- 
rature was not more or leas enriched by his pen. It 
is sad to record that the insanity of his wife some 
years past, and the death of his sons, the younger of 
whom was suddenly snatched from him at the period 
just mentioned, siffectixl at last his well-regulated 
mind. Though he recovered this shock, it was only 
to pass the remainder of his days in his now solitary 
home, where he died of paralysis, 18th August, 1803. 
Beattie has been described by one who knew him as 
a man of middle nzc, robust in appearance, some- 
what corpulent, and slouching in his gait. ' His 
features were very regular ; his complexion somewhat 
dark. His eyes were black and brilliant, full of 
tender and melancholy expression, and in the course 
of conversation with his friends, became extremely 
animated.' His eldest son, James Hay Bkattie, 
1768-1790, gave proof of his philosophical and poeti- 
cal talents in some fragments which were edited by 
his fat her, 17 94. [E.R.] 

BEATTY, Sib Wm., M.D., F.R.S., author of an 
' Anthentic Narrative ' of the last moments of Nelson, 
with whom he was professionally present at the battle 
of Trafalgar, knighted 1831, d. 1842. 

BEAITY, John, M.D., general in the United 
States Army, captured by the English at Fort Wash- 

ington when holding the rank of Lieut CoL lu 
1779, after his release, he was made oommisaaiy 
general of prisoners. He was for eleven years Secre- 
tary of State in New Jersey, which oflioe he assumed 
in 1795. He died at the age of 77 at Trenton in tlie 
year 1826. 

BEAUCHAMP, Alph. De, a French historian, of 
the war in La Vendee, Suarrow, &c., 1767-1882. 

BEAUCHAMP, Jos., an astronomer, political agent 
of Buonaparte in the East, 1752-1802. 

BEAUCHAMP, Richard, an Engl architect, em- 
ployed at Windsor and elsewhere, died 1481. 

BEAUCHAMPS, P. F. G. De, a dramatic poet 
and historical writer on the drama, 1689-1761. 

BEAUCHATEAU, Fr. Mat. Chastelkt De, a lin- 
guist and poet, remarkable for the precodous devel- 
opment of his talents, 1645-1660. 

BEAUCHATEAU, Hippolyte, brother of the pre- 
ceding, disting. as a religious writer and orator. 

BEAUFOOT, Francis de Vkstdomb, duke of, 
killed at the siege of Candia, 1669. 

BEAUFORT, Hexby, an English pieUte, half- 
brother of Heory IV., made a card. 1426, crowned 
Henry VL at Notre Dame, 1430, one of the judges 
of La Pucelle, 1431, died 1447. 

BEAUFORT, Lodib De, an historian, d. 1795. 

BEAUFORT, Mabq., countess of Richmond, mother 
of Heniy VIL k. of England, 1441-1609. 

BEAUHARNAIS, Fannt, countess of, strictly, 
Maty Anne Fanny Mouchard, a writer of some theat- 
rical pieces, and poems, &c., 1788-1813. 

BEAUHARNAIS, Francis, marquis of, a Fr. roy- 
alist, nephew of the preceding, 1756-1819. 

BEAUHARNAIS, Alexander, Viscount, br. of 
Francis, a disting. general condemned by the rev. 
tribunal, and executed 1794. See Josbphink. 

BEAUHARNAIS, Eugene De, son of the preced- 
ing and of Josephine, bom 1781; in the service of 
Buonaparte 1804-1814; viceroy of Northern Italy 
1805 ; married t > the daughter of the king of Bavaria 
1806, and made duke of Leuchtenburg by his father- 
in-law at the restoration, died 1824. For Hortense 
Eugenie, sister of Eugene, and queen of Holland, see 

BEAUJEU, Chr. De., a Fr. officer and man of 
letters, disting. in the Spanish war, 1 6th cent. 

BEAU JOUR, L. F. De, a diplom, 1763-1836. 

BEAULIEU, Sebastian De Pontaclt De, a cele- 
brated militaxy engineer, time of Louis XIV. 

BEAUMARCHAIS, Peter Auoustin Cabon De, 
a dramatic author and musician, 1732-1799. 

BEAUMELLE, Ladr., a Fr. critic, 1737-1778. 

BEAUMESNIL, the pseudonyme of H. A Villaid, 
a Fr. actress and mus. composer, 1748-1803. 

BEAUMONT, A. De, a Fr. statesman, d. 1376. 

BEAUMONT, C. De, abp. of Paris, 1708-1781. 

BEAUMONT, C. E. De, a Fr. arehi., 1767-1811. 

BEAUMONT, E. De, a Fr. advocate, 1732-1785. 

BEAUMONT, Francis, the celebrated dramatic 
poet and fellow-laborer with Fleteher, was bom in 
Leicestershire about 1584, and died about IG16. The 
plays of these attached friends, who were singularly 
alike in genius and taste, are remarkable for their 
humor and delineation of character, and for some 
time contested the palm with Shakspeare, but they 
are disBgured by the gross indecency which disgraced 
the court of James I. 

BEAUMONT, Sir J., a judge, 1582-1628. 

BEAUMONT, Joseph, author of a religious alle- 
gory, professor of divinity, died 1689. 

BEAUMONT, J. T. B., an accountant and man 
of letters, disting. for his public spirit as the origina- 
tor of savings bwiks, &&, 1774-1841. 


BEAUMONT, Mutut LEFRi:tCE Db, a Fr. antho- 

nn of works adapted for ;nuth, 1T11-IT80. 

ooclesiostia and historian, died 16T0. 

BEAUMONT, Wilijam, an Amorioan rareeon, 
and author of ths experimental reseaichea on £get- 
tioD, whicli the cnriooa cue of the Canadian, SI 
Hartio, wbo hod been wounded by a ebot, is mch a 
wa^, that bit Htomach conld be reachod tbrotigh a 
hole Id fata side, afforded him a unique opportuuitj 
of making. The re)ult> of bis observatioaa wore of 
Ibe gi«aU)>t interest and value and vers ]inb!ished 
ID Eutope as well as in the United Statei. Dr. 
Beaomont was originaUy in the Army, but prac- 
Used towards ths end of Ms life at St. Louis, where 
bfl died ISna 

BEAUNE, K. De, a mathetaatiolan, died 16S2. 

BEAURAM, J. De, a gaiwraphical writer, 1697- 

BEAURIEN, Q. 0. De, a popular Fr. author of a 
work on natural history, &c., 1728-1T96. 

BEAUSARD, P., a Fr. matberaaticlan, d. ISTT. 

BEAUSOBRE, I^aac De, a celebrated pniteitaut 
theologlaD, author of a defence of the refoimed doc- 
trines, 4c., 1859-1738. 

BE.^U30BRE, C. L. De, SOD of the pTfceding, alM 
a divine and protettant writer, 1690-1T5S. 

BEAUSOBRE, L., another son, distinguished as a 
oatuial philosopher and scouomist, !7S0~17S8. 

BEAUVAIS, C. N., a Fr. historian, 17*6-1794. 

BEAUVAIS, W., a wr. on numis., 1698-1778. 

BEAUVILLIERS, Fhamcis Dk, dnke da St Ai- 
gnan, disting. as a oonrtieT and poet, 1807-1637. 


BECCADELLI, Jama., an histo., 1374-H71. 

BECCADELLI, Louis, an ItaL biogra., d. 1E72. 

BECCARI, Adoojtis. an ItaL poet, d. 1520. 

BECUARI, J. B., a phywolo. wr., 1683-1766. 

BECCARIA, Caus Bohesaiia, Haniais, author 
of a celebrated treatbe on crimes and punishments, 
which is regarded as one of the best works ever 
written on legislation, 17SS-I794. 

BECCARIA, G. B., an eiperi. phU 1718-1781. 

BECERRA, Gabpakd, a Sp. artist, d. 1670. 

BECK, Gkorijs:, an ingenious writer and pointer, 
bom in Eoglund, who came to America in 1791>. 
He translated lai^e portions of the Greek and Latin 
writers. He died in Kentucky In 1812 at the age 
of 63. In earlv life his rBpatation for mathematical 
ability caused his appointment as professor at the 
Royal Academy of Woolwich, in En^nd. 

BECK, John BaoDbiEAD, an American physidan, 

frofessor of Materia Medica in the N. Y. College of 
hysicians and Sorgeons, and joint author with his 
brother of the well known 'Medical Jiirispmdence.' 
Died 1861, aged G7. 

BECK, LEvns C, an American chemist and natu- 
laliat, was bom in Schenectady, N. Y., 1790. He 
was educated at t'nion CoQege and eoon after grad- 
natioD devote^l Hmtelf especially to Che study of the 
natural scieoos. He waa the anlhor of the ' Report 
on the Mineralogy of New York' and of various 
works on cheraislry and botany. Ho was profossor 
of chemiitTj at Rutgers' College of New Jersey, and 
aobseqoently of chemistry in the Medical College of 
Albarnr; died 1663. 

BECKET, Tnoiua 1., tho iUnitrioiu, hi^- 

spiritad, and flI-Aited chnrcbmon, canoiuied II79 
by Alexander IIL, was the son of a l/mdon dtiien, 
one time a nnuader, and waa bom in London on tlw 

Ie>tlval of St. Tbomo*, 1117. He recoired a colle- 
^alfl edncatiOD at Oifbrd, completed by the studj 
of the civil and canon law at Bologna, nuder the 
patronage of Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, 
and was early carried to preferment by his nndonbted 
ibilidea, aided by a handsome peram and refined 
nanners ; but still more by the jealonsy which divi- 
ded the civil and ecclesiastical powers at that time. 
On hia return ^m Italy, Beoket wai apptnnlad 
aiohdaaoon of CaDterboiy by his patron, and soon 
after the accession of Heniy U. in 1154, waa raised 
to the digmtj of high chanoenor j doubtless by the 
influence of the preUcy &voring his own ambltiaii. 
At this time, it should he remarked, the power of the 
popes had risen to an arrogant height, and the dis- 
pute about investitures, the subjection of flie dergj 
~o lay jurisdiction in criminnl matters, and Tartoos 
illeged abuses on either side, were ni^ects of ooo- 
inual and bitter strife between the church and the 
:rowned heads of Europe. It is not likely that 
Beoket waa ever undedded Id his own views on ai^ 
>f these antijecte, or on the port he waa destined to 
play in the politica of the period ; bat It is easy to 
imagine that each parl^ would aee the meona of ad- 
vandng it* own pretenuoaa in the splendid abihtiea, 
the ackno^edged puri^ of life, and the courtly man- 
nen of the yanng chmcbinan. On the death of 
Theobald, in 1162, the king and the ohief prelate* 
were equally urgent for his elevation to the see of 
Canterbury ; but onoe oonsecnted, it devolved upon 
vhether he would serve the churr^ or Che stale, 
he declamd for the former without heaitation. 
The king and bis late minister were aqoally matched 
for their indelibility, quickness of resolotion, uit- 
dauntod courage, and statesmanlike abilities ; and 
both were influenced, furthei than their own coo- 
sciences extended, by the spirit of the age. Thm« 
years of sCrife led to the ctnuicil of Clarendon, con- 
voked by Henry in 1164, wlieo Becket yielded to 
tho entreaties or menaces of the harona, and signed 
the famous ' Constitationa,' by which the differences 
between the chnrch and slate wero regulated. These 
nrtiolea not anlbf rendered the state supreme in all 




tliat onDWmed the general goremmeDt of the nation, 
bat virtually aeparmled the Clmrch of EugUnd from 
K^me. The pope, therefore, refiued to ratlTj thcon, 
and Socket, Nemg his opportnoitj, sod really m- 
penting of the complianoe that had been wmug froni 
Mm, retiued to perTonu hu otGoe ia the chnidi, and 
endeavored to Inve the kingdom, in whioh, at last, 
be mooeeded, cnly to draw down tba vaogeance of 
Heinj upon hii ooDneotiona. The pronBsa of the 
qaaml belongs rather to the history of the 
thaa a ringie IiAl Beohet remained In ex 
yeaia, and matten bung in some measure aoci 
dated, retanwd to England in IITO, ihortl; sflsr the 
coronatioa of the king's aon, whioh had been designed 
by Hemy a> a means of securing the snocession. 
Beckers refiual to remove the oenrares with wMoh 
the agents in this traiuaotioD had been viiited, his 
hangb^ contempt of the crown, uid the tenteacea of 
eiconmnmicalion which ho oonliinied to fhbninate 
£n>m the altar of Cantcrtmry oatbedial, provoked 
anew the iodiguotion of the Ung. It is idle to jndge 
the actions of mon in those iron timet by the formnUs 
offlie pieatut day. Tbe qoestioD stnppsd of all dis- 
gaiae wal simply tiii>~~ wheAer Tbomai i Becket 
or Ilsory Plaatagenet was haiionforth to be king u 
England. The Nnmao lords resolved tbe matter ii 
tboir own rude way, wbwL at length four of them left 
the royal pieeence in hot anger, aJlor hearing of 
some fresh indignity, aod determiiied on bringing the 
controrerty to a bloody close. The tragedy then en- 
acted [oRDs one of the most diamatic ineidsntt in 
English histoiy, and, the last ciy of the dying martyr, 
'To God, to the Blessed Mary, to the holy patrons 
of the chnTcb in which he had minirtersd, and to the 
blessed mar^ St DyooiaJas,' mnit have tank into 
every heart. B«ck£t waa moldered during the cele- 
bratioD of the vesper secvic* on tbe 29ib of Decem- 
ber, H 10. [E.iLJ 

BECKFOHD, Vhjjaii, wai bom in 1760. Tea 

years afterwards, by the death of his father, whose 
mayonilly of London wu Doted in the history of the 
time:), he succeeded to a prinoety fortune. Ue was 
precoeions, both in his love of literature and art, in 
his vigor of thought and expressioo, and in his re- 
tired eccentricity of dispoution. After having lived 
■iDch in Frunce, and visited Italy and other conti- 
nmal oDuntriee, he nuiried, in 1TS3, a ^l^■1(^htfr^ of 
ihe earl of Aboyne, who died yoang, leavuu two 
daughters, ooe ot whom beoame duchese of Hamil- 
ton. In 1734 he pnblishcd in Freiuh his Fj^tein 

romanoe of ' Vathek,' vhich has been adnurad so 
warmly by the iiterai; men of our time. Though 
he sat in mora paHiaments than one, polities oocu- 
pied very little of his atteotioD i be soon retired to 
the continent ; and his fondness Tia aichitectural COn- 
atmction and embellishment showed itaelf first in a 
boose he built at Cmtiu, in Portngal. In the com- 
mencement of the present century he began to build 
on Ms Wiltshire estate his magniSoent mansion of 
Fouthill Abbey, which became all the more famoDS 
for the difficulty of satisfying curiosity in regard to 
it. The cost exceeded a quarter of a million. TtM 
pile had not long been completed and fitted up, whnt, 
m 1822, it was abandoned and tbe estate soil Mr. 
Beckford spent his latest years chiefly at Bath, in- 
dulging his refined taste and his turn for seclnded 
study. In 183* he published 'Italy, with Sketohet 
of Spain and Portugal,' coutaininK recoilectiDns of 
bis early travels, and aboandiag ^ke in elogneaoe 
and satire ; and afterwards tiiere appeared a similar 
volume, commemorating two Portugnese monasteries. 
He died in 1614, in the O^tj-baHii year of hi* 
ago. [W.S.1 

BECKKGHAM, Csi*., a dram, wr., d. 1730. 

BECKM.UJN, J. A., an economist, 1739-1811. 

BECLARU, P. A^ a Fr. anatomist, IT86-132G. 

BEDDOES, TuoMAB, a distinguished physician 
and chemist, oontemporaiy with Priestley, and in in- 
timate friendship with Dr. Darwin. He is the au- 
thor of numerous works, and is characterized by 
Sir Humphrey Dary, as ' a truly temarkahle man, 
but more adrnirabiy fitted to promote inquiry than 
to conduct it:' 17GO-1808. 

BEDDOES, Tkohas Lo>-kll, an English poet, 
was bom iu 1803. His father was the celebrated 
physieian and chemist. Dr. Thomas Beddoes, the 
friend of Sir Hnmphrey Davy. His mother was the 
luster of Miss Edgeworth. He showed at a very 
eariy age great promise of poetical genius and a pe- 
culiar^ eccentric disposition. While at ^e nuiver- 
sity hie precocious talent was manifested !n a re- 
markable poetical work, tbe 'Bride's Tragedy.' 
Habits of intellectual self iudolgenca and a naturally 
relaxed viU interfered with the inclination, and au 
independent fortune relieved hizn from the neoestity, 
of exercising his intellectual powers to their ftrllnesi^ 
— '^ irdiagly never produD ' ' 

omy and physiology, of which sciences he was devo- 
tedly fond. In 184S, while dissecting at Frankfort, 
he prioked his finger and his constitution never re- 
ooveted fVom the effects of tbe wound. Ue died at 
Bask, Switzerland, Januaiy 1849. 

BEDG, usuallj named the Venerable Bede, was 
bom about 672, at Yarrow, near the month of the 
Tyne, in Northumberland. At the age of n 

to be educated, and in a sSott time ie transferred 
himself to that of SL Paul, which was also in the 
vicinity. In his nineteenth year be was ordained 
deacon, and eleven years afterwards he entered into 
priest's orders. His subsequent life, which was spent 
principally in tbe two religious houses refened to. 

induce tbe English recluse to ridt Rome. His 
imeutariet on the larger portion of the Old and 
r Testament are to a great extent compilationt 
n his Greek and Latin predecessors. His weU- 
wn ' Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation,' 
is replete with proirfs of its anthor't induf tij, hones?. 



knd crnduUtr, and atill maiutains iU place aa a high 
authoriCj. Bede died about the year 735, occapying 
Mb laM boon wJtb eamcrt devotional eureiaea, vA 
■ffactionatu comueli to liie younger brethren. His 
learning, irbicb waa great, waa equalled by his winc- 
dty. Hii nnmerou) works hace beeo often printed; 
the belt and last edition in 12 volnmes, octavo: Lon- 
don, I84S-14. King MTnd tianilatAd into Saxon 
Bedfl'a 'Hiatorioi Eccleiisstica ; ' a mra honor fbr a 
book of chnrch history. [J.E.] 

BEDELL, Gbsoobt T., D.D., rector of St An- 
drew's Church, Philadelphia, a dtstiiigtiished clergy- 
man of the Protestant Episcopal Church, was bom 
on Stateu Island in IT98, and wu gradnated at Co- 
lumbia College in 1811. He waa ordained by Bishop 
Hobart in 1814 ; wai stationed on the North River 
from 1815 to 1818, n-hen he removed to FayBttcville, 
North Carolian, and ttma there to Philadelphia some 

J ears afterwards. He wiQ be long remembered for 
is winning and pennadve eloquence. He died in 

BEDFORD, AirrmfB, a thedo. wr^ 1668-17*5. 

BEDFORD, Un.KiAH, an Garish theolo^au, the 
reputed author of a woik In the Jacobin interest, 
written bj Qeorge Harbin, died IT34. 

BEDFORD, JoMM Pi.*sTAOESEi, dake of, third aon 

an ttudled under H. NieJe, who made bim ■>■>• 
qnunted with the works of Sebastian Bach. In 1T8T 
Beethoven met Moiart, who, when he heard the 
yonth eitemporize upon a theme given htm, pr»- 
dictsd his future succesa. In (he year 1792 he was 
it, by the elector of Cologne, to Vienna, that be 
^t receive instructions fii the tJteoiy of muifo 
from Joseph Haydn. He soon made the acquaint- 
of miuiy of the nobili^, of the artlstt^ and lile- 
a Vienna. Beethoven was the pnpil of Haydn 
until the latter went to London, when he then took 
lessons in compoiadan and hormoin' from Albrechts- 
berger. At this period of his life, Beethoven was 
more admired as a performer, than ss a oomposer ; 
and it was thoUEht by ^e best German critics, that 
bis power principally consisted in eitemp'iraiy psr- 
fbrmance, and in the art of varying any given theme 
withont premeditarion. About this time he finally 
look up his residence at Vienna, and composed his 
fint quartettes. In IBM, Beethoven was ettgaged 
in the composition of his oratorio — ' Christ on the 
Mount of Olives,' which was first pertbrmed on the 
Gth of April, 1803. In 1804 he Gnished Ms 'Sinfo- 
nla Eroica,' and in 1805 he wrote his opera of ' Leo- 
lora,' known in England as 'Fidelio,' about which 
ime he was first attacked with that deaftwAS which, 
rlth other matters, made him distrastftil and taci- 
tnm, and became tbe master-malady of his life. It 
began greduall;, but was soon beyond tbe power of 
remedy, until at last be could only commnnicate with 
the outer worid by writing. A decided enemy to 
fiattery, and disduoing to court Ad favor of any one, 
Beethoven lived in Vienna depending solely npon 
leans which hiscompositionsmiglitprodnce, and 
tieqoantly rednced Co stiaiti little compatible 
with the greatness of his genius. The taate of the 
court hod changed, and Italian music bad almost 
bsulshed the grander music of the German masters. 
In these ciicnmetanoes he, in 1809, Tesalved to 
accept the office of chapel-master at the conrt of 
Jerome Buonaparte, then king of Westphalia, with • 
salary of 600 docatsj and it was only alter the 
archduke Rndolpb of Austria and the princess Lob- 

m of thirteen yean. 

BEDFORD, Gonima, played a distmgnidied port 
in the American Revolution, was elected governor of 
Delaware in 1798, and died at Wilmington 1813. 

BEDFORD, JoBB Rubseuj, sixth duke of, aWhig 
nobleman andpatron of letters, 1TS6-1BS9. 

BEDLOE, WsL, Capt., a notorious informer, known 
Id the case of Sir E. Godfrey, &c., d. 1680. 

BEECHEY, Sib W., R..^, a distingaiihed artist, 
best know n for his portraits, 1769-1839. 

BHETHOVEN, LcDwia Vab, was bom at Bonn, 
on tiie 17th of December, IT70. His father, JiAann 
Van Beethoven, was a tenor singer in the eleotonl 
chapel of Cologne, died in 1792. Bis grandfather, 
who died in 1773, was music director and bass singer 

at Bonn, and performed operas of his own cor 

tioD during the life of tbe elector Clemens Aug 
The mnsical education of Beethoven began nnt 
fktber when he was only five years oli Hii 
tutor was M. Pfeiffer, for whom the great oor 
always retiuned a warm regard, and to whom ', 
himself more indebted than all bii other teachera. 
Beethoven acquired his knowledge of the organ irom 
H. Von Der Eden, after whose <kath tbe yooi^ mo- 

kowits and Kiniliy Mttled upon him an anmii^ of 
4,000 Borins, that he changed hia mind. About this 
time also he resolved to aooept an invitation from 
the Philhaimonic Society to oocae to England, bat 
his ahnoit total deafness prevented him. In 1810 
Beetlioven bronght out his fintmaSL In tJie same 
year he nude the acqaaintuce of Battino Biencano 
of FtankAnt, whose oane^oadence with Ooatha baa 




outde the reading worid aoqaainted with ibe privato 
maimers of the great oompoeerf though her uarra- 
tions are sometimee leas faU of character than of 
caricature. Thzough BettinOf Beethoven was intro- 
dnoed to Goethe in the year 1612, a friendship which 
reflected quite as modi honor upon the nch and 
oonrtlj poet and minister, as it did upon the poor, 
hut ind^ndent and high-souled musician. On the 
8th, and again on the 12th of December, Id the year 
1813, the first performances of 'The Battle of Vit- 
toria,' and his symphony in A m^jor, took place in 
the hall of the university, for the benefit of Uie Aus- 
trian and Bavarian soldiers disabled in the battle of 
Hanan. In 1815 Beethoven was exclusively em- 
ployed in writing harmonies to Scotch songs for 
Geoige Thompson of Edinburgh. From this period 
till the end of his life, Beethoven was hamssed firom 
various causes, chiefly of a domestic nature, and 
which ought never to have fallen upon him. These, 
together with his loss of hearings begat a habit of 
gloomy thought, and a violent desire for solitude, 
till, by slow degrees, his frame, which was naturally 
robust and heiathy, yielded to maladies which were 
induced by the constant and long-continued mental 
irritation to whioh he had been subjected. Forgot- 
ten by the Viennese, hardly appreciated by the rest 
of tiie worid, Beethoven was seized with his last 
sickness; and the unnatural thoughtlessness and 
greed of his rehuives continued till the period of 
his death, which took place on the 26th day of March, 
1827. Beethoven died unmarried. His portraits, 
of which there are several, are all like him. He 
did not receive much education in his early youth, 
but when he became a man he read a great deal, 
and was well acquainted with the Uterature of Ger- 
many, and particularly admired the writings of 
Goetibe and Schiller. With Shakspeara*s works he 
was well acquainted, and admired them with the 
relish of a true artist He was usually reserved, but 
when he entered into oonversatiou he became ani- 
mated, and original in the turn of his thoughts and 
expression. Beethoven left upwards of 120 works in 
an styles. His melodies are beautiful and new; 
and lus instrumental music bears the unmistakable 
evidences of the grandeur and sublimity of his unri- 
valled genius. In 1846 a grand statue of Beethoven 
was erected in his native town amid great r^icings, 
and in p rese nce of tiie queen «f England. [J.M.] 

BEOA, Cob., a Duteh pafaiter, 1620-1664. 

BEGEYN, Abra., a Dutch painter, 17th cent 

BEHADER-KHAN, a suL of Persia, 1317-1886. 

BEHADER-SHAH, emp. of Hind., 1707-1712. 

BEHAIM, or BEHEM, M., a navigator, 15th c 

BEHMEN. See Bomi. 

BEUN, Apbra, a fugitive authoreas, d. 1689. 

BEHRING, YmTB, by birth a Dane, after having 
pnformed several voyages to the E. kdA W. Indies, 
entered the senice of Russia while still young. 
Having risen by the usual steps in the serrice, he 
became captain-commander in 1722, and was sent 
by the empress Catharine in chargn of an expedition 
^ilanned by Peter the Great before his death), whose 
object was to determine whether Asia and America 
were united. Crossing Siberia he sailed from the 
river of Kamtschatka in July, 1728; and reached 
kt. 67^ 18' N., havii^ passed through the stndt 
since called after him, without knowmg it Discov- 
ering that the land trended greatiy westward, he 
oonduded that the continents were not united, and 
returned; without, however, seeing America. In 
another voyage, in 1741, he touched upon the Ameri- 
can coast, in lat. 58^ 28' N. ; and gave name to 
lloaiit St EliasL In ratandngi Us ship was oast 

upon an island, since named after him, an outlier of 
the Aleutian gcoup, and here himself and many of 
his crew perished. On his discoveries is founded the 
cUum of Russia to that part of America lying west 
of the meridian of Mount St EUas, 141^ W. [J.B.] 

BEICH, J. F., a German painter, 1665-1748. 

BEINASCHI, J. B., an ItaL painter, 1684-1688. 

BEK, or BEAK, Anthoiit Db, bp. of Durham, 
one of the eel sold, priests of the mid. ages, d. 1810. 

BEK, David, a Dutch painter, 1621-1656. 

BEKKER, Euz., a wr. of fiction, 1788-1804. 

BEKKHER, Baltbasar, a celebrated protestant 
preacher, author of the * World Bewitched,' &c, for 
which he was suspended, 1634-1698. 

BEL, Ch. And,, professor of poetry, 1717-1782. 

BEL, John Jaiob, an au. and compiL, d. 1788b 

BEL, Mathias, hist of Hungarj, 1684-1749. 

BELA, the name of four kings of Hungary. The 
Jim reigned 1059-1062 ; the tMmd, 1181-1141 ; the 
third, 1178-1198; the fourth, 1235-1270. 

BEILCHER, Jonathan, bom in Massachusetts, 
1681, graduated at Harvard in 1699, sent as agent 
by the Province to the court of England in 1729, 
appointed hv Geoige II. governor of Massachusetts 
and New Hampshire in 1730, and afterwards re- 
moved from office principally in consequence of accu- 
sations founded by his enemies upon forged papers. 
Having vindicated his character and become restored 
to royf^ favor, he was in 1747 appointed governor of 
New Jersey. He died at Elizabethtown, N. J., in 
1757. He was a man of great ability, firmness and 
integrity, dignified, learned and aocomplL^ed ; but 
the eminence which he attoined is to be attributed 
not so much to his personal qualifications as to the 
friendship which he formed in early life with the 
princess Sophia and her son, afterwards George II., 
with whom he became acquainted while on a visit to 
Europe shortly after he left college. His grandfather 
kept a little tavern in Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

BELCHER, Jonathan, the second son of Gover- 
nor Belcher, having graduated at Harvard College, 
and entered the bar in London, was appointed in 
1760 senior counsellor at Halifax, N. S., and the 
next year chief -justice and commander-in-chiefl 
Two yean afterwards he was appointed lieutenant- 
ffovemor of the province. He died in 1776 at Hall- 
fax, in the 65th year of his age. 

BELDEN, JoeuDA, an American physician of enu 
nenoe, was bom in Wethersfield, Conn., and was 
graduated at Yale Coll^ in 1 787. He died in 1 818 
of spotted fever, at the age of 50. 

BELESIS, a governor of ancient Babylon. 

BELGRANO, Mand^ a commander in the South 
American war of independence, died 1820. 

BELIDOR, Bbbnasd Fohest De, a French engi- 
neer, author of a diet, of his art, 1695-1761. 

BELING, RiCHAAD, an Irish n^bel, 1613-1677. 

BEUSARIUS. * One of those heroic names which 
are familiar to evexy age, and to evexy nation.' Thus 
does Gibbon justiy characterize the emperor Justi- 
nian's victorious generaL Belisarius first distin- 
guished himself in the wars between the Byzantine 
empire and the kings of Persia. In 633, he was 
placed by Justinian at the head of the army by 
which that emperor sought to recover the old Roman 
province of North Africa from the Vandals, who 
had been in possession of it for seventy years. Bel- 
isarius was completely successful in his enterprise, 
and led the last Vandal king, Gelimer, as a captive 
to Constantinople. He was then sent on a similar 
expedition to conquer Italy fh>m the Goths, who held 
dominion there. He thoroughlv effected this purpose, 
Mpturix^ Rome, Ravenna, and other cities, inflicting 


( 88] 


severe defeats on the Goths in the field, and signalis- 
ing his own oonrage and prowess as a soldier, as well 
as his skill as a commander. The Goths offered to 
make him their king, but his loyalty was proof against 
all temptation, and when recifdled by Justinian, he 
promptly retomed in submission to the will of a ca- 
pricious and thankless master. After his departnre 
from Italy, the Goths lecoYered the greater part of 
that country, and Belisarins, who in the interval 
had been defending the soatii-eastem frontiers of the 
empire against the Persians, was sent a second time 
to Italy in 540. Being ill supplied with money and 
troops, he could effect but little against the nume- 
rous and well-appointed armies of the GMihs, and 
Justinian angrily deprived him of the command with 
every mark of disgrace. The old general was once 
more sommoned into activity and glory before his 
death, and saved Constantinople in 559 from a host 
of Bulgarians, who had suddenly advanced against 
it When this signal service was effected, Belisa- 
rius was again dismissed with ignominy by his un- 
grateful sovereign, and ended his days in poverty 
and neglect ; though the stoiy of his having begged 
his bread in blindness and utter destitution is a mere 
fiction of later ages. Belisarins died in 561, a few 
months before the death of the emperor whom he 
had served so well, and by whom he had been so ill 
xequited. [E.S.C.] 

BELKNAP, JxBEMT, D.D., a Presbytsrian cler- 
gyman of Boston, at which place he was bom in 
1744. He was graduated at Harvard in 1762, and 
ordained at Dover, N. H., 1767. During his resi- 
dence there, he wrote a histoiy of the colony. In 
1787, he removed to Boston and took charge of the 
Presbyterian cfaarcli there. Devoted to historical 
pursuits he became one of the founders of the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society. He did much towards 
the preservation of the monuments and records of 
the past His most popular work was entitled *The 
Foresters,' in which he gave a humorous delineation 
of American society. He died at the age of 54, of 
paralysis, in 1798. He was a very voluminous 
writer, and besides a great number of essays, ser- 
mons, historical discourses, tales, &c., published a 
Taluable American Biography in two vds. 

BELKNAP, Wm. G., an American army officer, 
first distinguished himself in the attack of the Brit^ 
ish on Fort Erie in 1814. Was in command as 
major in the Florida war, and was brevetted Briga- 
dier-General for his gallantry under General Taylor, 
at Buena Vista in Mexico; died 1851, aged 56. 

BELL, Aetdrew, Db., the celebrated projector and 
flyunder of the national school system, 1758-1832. 

BELL, Bbaufre, an Eng. antiquarian, 18th ct 

BELL, Benj., a writer on surgery, 1749—1806. 

BELL, Sm Cuab., an eminent physiologist, bora 
at Edinburgh, 1774 ; died at Edinburgh, 1842. The 
subject of our memoir was the son of a clergyman 
of tiiie Scottish Episcopal communion, in Ekiinburgh, 
who had other two sons, likewise distingoished-- 
JoBif, as a surgeon, and Geo. Jossph, as a lawyer, 
being professor of law in the University of Edin- 
bur^. Sir Charles Bell early settled in London as 
a lecturer and surgeon, and in the first capacity 
proved highly successful ; but his scientific tenden- 
cies oonld ill brook the commercial asperities often 
attendant on surgical practice, and he appears never 
to have attained the position in his profession, lu- 
cratively speaking, which his great talents and ac- 
quirements deserved. He was lecturer at the Wind- 
mill-Street School, afterwards at University College, 
and the Middlesex hospital, and latteriy in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. The mahx labor of his life 

consisted in perfecting his great discovery respecting 
the nervous system, that mysterious portion of the 
animal frame. This discovery, second perhaps only 
to that of the circulation of the blood by Harvey, 
required an extensive series of experiments upon 
living animals, which long deterred him from carry- 
ing tibem into execution. But ultimately, by discov- 
ering humane methods of procedure, his exertions 
were crowned with success, and demonstrated that 
the nerves given off by the spinal cord, tlie great 
nerve deposited in the backbone, are destined for 
one of two purposes ; those which leave the spinal 
cord in fhmt bestow the power of muscular motion, 
while the posterior roots supply sensibility. When 
the anterior roots of the nerves of the leg are cut, in 
experiment, the animal loses all power over the leg, 
altiiongli the limb still continues sensible. But if, 
on the other hand, the posterior roots are cut, the 
power of motion continnes, although the sensibility 
is destroyed. His subsequent researohes showed 
that every muscle in the body has two nerves appro- 
priated to it, one for sensation, and the other for 
motion ; the first to carry the influence of tiie will 
resident in the brain towards the muscle, and the 
second to connect the muscle witii the brain. It 
may be truly said that such men as Watt and Bell 
require no sepulchral monuments, since locomotives, 
railways, and steamboats contribute an ever aug- 
menting immortal tribute to the one, and eveiy 
student in medical science is an hereditaiy guardian 
of the genius of the other. [R.D.T.] 

BELL, Henbt, an Ingenious engineer, the first in 
Britain who sucoessftiUy applied the steam engine 
to propelling vessels, uough Millai's experiments 
were long prior, and Fulton had launched his first 
steamboat on the Hudson four or five years previ- 
ously to Bellas successful application of steam to the 
purposes of navigation. In 1811 Bell launched his 
boat, called the Comet, in reference to tiie appear- 
ance of a large comet ttiat year. He constructed 
the steam engine himself, and in January, 1812, 
the first trial of the Comet took place on the Clyde. 
After various experiments the Comet was at length 
propelled on the Clyde by an engine of three horse 
power, which was subsequently increased to six. 
This engine is still in the museum of Glasgow Col- 
lege. Thus to Henry Bell is due the honor of having 
first done in his own country, what otiiers who had 
attempted it-^e great Watt himself — ^had fiuled in 
doing, notwithstanding superior advantages of capi- 
tal Bell's perseverance and skill wer6 not rewarded 
with the outward test of success. Had it not been 
for the liberality of the ma^strates of Glasgow, who 
settled upon hun a small annuity, he must have 
spent the latter years of his life in poverty. He 
was bom in Linlithgowshiro 1767, and died at He- 
lensburgh on the Clyde in 1880. A monumental 
stone to bis memory Is erected on a twM. in the 
Clyde near BowUng. [L.D3.G.] 

BELL, James, a geographical writer and gazet- 
teer, originally a weaver, 1769-1833. 

BELL, Jomr, an em. Scotch suigeon, 1762-1820. 

BELL, JoHK, an. of various travels, 1691-1780. 

BELL, JoHK, an enterprising publisher, founder 
of the * Weekly Messenger,' 1746-1881. 

BELL, John, one of the leading members of the 
Seriate in New Hampshire during the revolutionary 
war, and eminent tor his integrity, firmness and 
sound judgment He died in 1826 aged 95. His 
sons Sasotel and John have both been governors of 
New Hampshire ; the former was for many years a 
Senator of the United States. 

BELLAMOMT, Ricoabd, Eabl ot. This nobl** 

BEL [ 89 J 

■urn wu pointed fftmmar of Vew YoA, Hun- 

choaclti ma New Hampshire b? ^t^lliam 


e arrived M New York in 1698, visited 
Boston in 1699, tetanied to New Yoit in 1700, and 
died than on thefithof March, 1701. Whilehawu 
in the colomea, they were gnatly disttirbed bj pi- 
rates, and the famcnu Captain (Udd vas a^itared. 
Lord BeUammt wu ezceedxnRly popular, which waa 
owing not only to his ensr^tic goremcnent, but to 
his leal, real or prnteiided, in behiilf of religion, and 

BELLAMY, Jajoh, a Dutch poet, 1767-178fl. 

BELLAMY, Joau^D.D., an eminent Cangreg*' 
doiul miniita', was biwn in Comu, 1719, was gnid- 
oatod at Yale 1786, and oidained at BathlelMm in 
17*0. Bediediiil790,attheageor71. Hia nli- 
giou woAs and sermoiu wen published in three 
TOlnmes la 1811. 

BELLAMY, Sunai^ a notoriom pirate, wboM 
muel, the Wludah, baanns S8 guns, wu loet at C^>e 
Cod in 1617, after he had cqibired leieral ihip* on 
the New EagUii4 coast 

BELLANGE, To., a Fr. p^nl, 16th and 17th o. 

BtLLARMIN, Cudhui, Kobut, was born at 
Honia Pnlciana in TnacanT, in 1612. Entuing the 
order of the Jeenit* in 1B60, he was ordaiaad priest 
ia 1669. He filled the ohair of theology at Lonnin 
tx leren jean from that period. Going to Bome 
In 1676, he distjngniihed himself by shrewd, iMild, 
and popnlar polemical preleotions, and was, as the 
great champion of the cbnroh, elerated to tlie rank 
of cardinal in 1699. His latter days were ^nt in 
Roma, where he died in 1621. Hia ' Opoa CoDtto- 
TerBomm^ fills three folio rolnma^ He has also 
left a Commentaij on the Psalms, esTeral smaller 

E'ecea, some of them devotional, and a treatise ' De 
itestate Smnmi Fnitificis.' Bellannin was a man 
of no mean powers and mental reaooroea ; and nne- 
qoaUed as a skilled Dontroversialiet among the nn- 
uetODS defendon of the Chnrdi of Rome. [J.E.] 

BELLAY, JoiCHiM Dc, a Er. poet, I624-1G60. 

BELLAY, Jobs Db, a Fr. cardinal, 1493-1560. 

BELLEPOREST, F. I>e, > Fr. hist., 1680-lGSB. 

BELLEISLE, Ch. Louis, Count De, a Erenoh 
BMnhal, time of Louis XV., 16S1-1761. 

BELLENDEN, Wuxuir, a Latin an^ 17th o. 

BELLUJLD, Acq. Daoim, Count, one of the best 
of tisMleoa'a generals, diatinanished also as an am- 
haeeidw, and moat lately in £e eatabliihment of the 
Beldan kingdom, 1773-1633. 

KIXIEVRE, PoKFOKiDi Db, a Fr. diplomatist, 
^atiaguisbed in the reigns of Chirlea IX., Heni; 
m., and Henry IV., 1529-1607. 

BELLINGHAJf, Iticat>.,pnridsd over the oolray 
of Haaaachnsett* as deputy govanior and governor 
fix- 28 years. He oame to America in 1634, and 
diod in 1673 aged 00. He was a man of good nn- 
dentaadiDg but lew words. For his seoond wife, he 
■lanied a Udy engaged to anotlier, performing the 
etnmoDJ Idms^ whhoat license, for which he was 
oOed to trial, \nt ascaped without oensnie. 

BIXLINI, Qarni^ an Italian punter, of tiie 
nme school as bis brothn Giovanni, It2I-IG0L 

R RI.T.T MT, GnovAXKi, a oelabratod Italian punter, 
was bom at Venice abont 1426. He belocigs to the 
■cboiJ ij painters known as tbe guaOrvctnlo, in Italy, 
literally (he fifteenth cantnry masters, buKdistin- 
gidshed as mnch by their style as their period. This 
atyie, lately hen designated, very inappropriately, 
Hie pmr^iaeku, ia well illuatrated in Bellinrs por- 
trait of tiie Doge Loredono, in the National Qaliery 
— hard and dry, but eiaot in detail, and hi^ and 
poBtiTO ia oolonn^ QioTanni BeUim waa one of i 

tbe Brrt of the Venetian artists to adopt the new 
method of oil paiudng in lien of the old prooen with 
Unpera vehiolea, that ia, with aape and gums. Hia 
best wotka are in oil ; they oonsUt chieSy of madon- 
nas and portraiu. He died at the advanced age of 
ninety, November 29, 1616. Tiliau and Gi<»gione 
were two of Bellini's many eminent aoholara. (Va- 
aari, Imi a/At Paiiiliin, &a. ) RidolS, Uamv^ dele 
AtU, &c I Cadorin, TUau VactBio.) [RJS.W.] 

BELLINI, L-, B OBleb. anatomist, lS4»-170a. 

BELLINI, TnoEMzio, waa bom at Catania Id 
SicQy, in tbe y«ar ISOG. Bellini motived hii mnu- 
oal edooatton from Zingarelli, in the Conserratoria 
of Naples, and pndoaed, at tbe theatre San Carlo of 


B «ity, hi 
foie he was twenty yews old. In 1837 he OC 
'H Pirata' for the Scala at Milan, and soon after 
' La Straniera ' for the same establishment. These 
operas were aacoesded by ' I> Sounambula ' (which 
has psihapa been paifonned a greater number of 
times in Greet Britain than any other foreign opera) 
at Naples, ' I CapnletU ed i MonteooM ' at Venioe, 
'Norma' at Milan, 'I Piiritaiii ' for tiie Theatre 
Italian at Paris, &a The life of Beltini was nn- 
marked by incidents. He waa pure in morals, and 
his manners, like his compositions, were genUe, mal' 
liflaous, and el^aut Subject to pnlmonio disease, 
he waa unequal to violent effort of aciy kind, so he 
never attempted tbe lofty or sublime in music. He 
died of consumption in 1886. A writer (L. W. Ti- 
nelli) in the < Mosical World ' uya of Bellini—' Tbe 
enthuuaam excited by tbia astoniBbing production 
(Norma) is beyond all descriptioD. In a few months 
tbe " Norma " beoame the favorite performance of all 
tbe Italian and foreign stages, and crossed the im- 
mense dialBooe of the ooean to deligfat tbe eara of 
the transatlantic intiabitanta. Soon after this new 
triumph, he was called to Paris, where he wtot^ in 
ius greatest stfla, " I PoritauL" It waa the last 
song of the swan I One morning ia the month of 
October, 1836, the inhabitants of Paris hastened to 
the streets of that immense capital to oontemplaU 
the numerous and select crowd which was fdlowlng 
a funeral procession. Some of the moat celebrated 
men were amongst the crowd. Sadness and aorrow 
were in the oonntenanoe of every one. A [Jaintiva 
and moving music added to the melanchol* aoeoe. 
Death had reaped one of the fineaC flowers of nature. 
The funeral oonconrse stopped at the cemetery of 
Ptre la Chaise, where the ooffin was deposited, and. 


(MM hour Bfter, a modot oiou na luaed on tba 
gromid, with ibe followina iaacripdon : " Ptbj for 
ttie peace of Vinceot Belliiii.' BeUini wu CIDI7 
twen^-nina yoan of a(^ when ho died. Hi* di^x>- 
■illan was good, thooffb axceedinf^Jj pauiomate. 
Hia appearauca waa noble nud eipmaiTe. Hia ga- 
nioa waavait aa araadoo, and hii aonl innaosnt md 
guitle H thefiretnf^of lore.' Thisis tliemkigiani 
of a fzieod and admirer ; let it lire in the memoir of 
aU mndciana. [J.k] 

BELLHAN, Ch. U., a Swed. poet, IT41-1796. 

BELLONI, JxsOMK, B oommercUl wi., d. 1T60. 

BELLORI, J. P., an Italian antiqaarf and con- 
Doiueor, an. of ' Livei of Uodem Faialsri,' d. 1690. 

BELLOSTE, A., a Ft. ann^ sdi^bod, 1654-1780. 

BELLOT, Lienb, B French naval officer, a volnu- 
Mer in the Englieh Arctic expedition >ent ont in 
search of Sir John Franklin; he had alread j dia- 
tingniehed himself aa a young officer of prondsa m 
the French navj, when he Tolonteered to aerre on 
board Che Prince Albert, diq>itcbed bj Ladf Frank- 
lin in 1 SR t . Dnring tbia expedition he vat foremoat 
in braving the dangen of the Noithera Sea and in 
extending the perilous iuTeatigaliooa into those nn- 
known and inboepitable regions. A strait disoov- 
ered b; him has been placed on the map with the 
name of BeUefi Slrait as a memorial of his oonra- 
geooa enterprieft. On hia return from the firat ex- 
pedition, he readilj avuled himaelf c^ the occasion 
of joining another, and obtained permiseioD to sail 
as a volunteer on board the FhiBnix, tuder the com- 
mand of Capt. Englefield, R.S. Dnriog thia expe- 
dition, he exhibited the same traits of generous 
devotion to the oaose he had so enthosiaatiaall; 
embraced, and waa a noble aiampla of a good cfficer 
and faeroia man. BelloC met with a tragic death 
onlheSlaCdayorAngnst, 1852, in the execution of 
the perilous aerviee he had volunteered to perform 
of communicating with Capt. EngleSeld, who wag 
n hia ahip, making an attempt to join Sir 

pieoe of ioe on which he aud hia fo 
were, was aoTSred by the gale from the land. Lt 
Bellot aent two of the men in the canoe to the land, 
and in tbe mean time, ha was drifted rapidly away 
with bia remaining oompaniiini. The (now begin- 
ning to fall rajudly, Bellot, while he expressed Ins 
joy at tlie safen tj* the two men he bad sent away, 
bmned himaelf m providing for the aecurity cf tluwi 
who we™ left, by teaching them how to shelter 
themaelves, by means of accumolatiDg the snow 
into temporary hnlaj ho then went abroad to make 
bis obaerrationB. H* had gone twice to observe 
which way the Boe was drifting, when he ataited out 
the third time and never returned. A strong gale 
of wind had driven the adveatnrona hero into a 
oraokin the ice and hewasdrowned. His two com* 
panions sncoeeded subsequently inreaehing tbe ship. 

BELLOTI, FsTSB, an ItaL paint., 16S5-1T00. 

6EL0N, pKTTB, anthor of travels, ISth cent. 

BELOSIELSKY, Pbihce, a Rnaslan nobleman, 
author of poetnaiu the French tongas, died 1609. 

BELSHAM, Thos., ace]. Unitarian, 17*9-1829. 

BELSHAM, Wx., brother of Tboma^ a miscella' 
neons and historical writer, 1762-1827. 

BELSHAZZAR, a fc. of Ciialdasa, abt 560 B.O. 

BELSUNCE, Heurt FuNcn Xavm De, ■ Ft. 
prelat« and hist, of dialing, benev., 16T1-1TS6. 

BELUS, the auppoaed first king of Babylon. 

B&LTH, a British commander mider Carsctaoaa. 

BELZOMI, QiovaflHi, celebrated for hi* discove. 
riea in Egypt, waa a natJT« ^ Padua. Hia earij 

atodiei, idiiah had a view to die monutie life, wot 
proseonled at Rome, from wMc^ his family had ori- 
^nally oome. The French invasion of 1798 caused 
a chu^ in hia plans; and in 1800 he left Italy, 
and viailad several parts of Eumpe. He caioe to 
England in 180S, where he soon after married. Ha 
was Call and robnit in person, of tmoommon stieugth, 
and commanding mien ; qualities wbioh, imited to 
great intelligenoe aud sagacity, patraeverauce and u 
love of enterprise, gave him imnienae InflneDoe 
among the wild people with whom he so long aaso- 
ciated. His remittsncBS ftom heme vera scanty ; 
and he aeenu to have turned to proBtable acconnt a 
knowledge of bydraulica which be bad ocqnired at 
Rome. Often, however, lie was obliged ti obtain a 
hvelihood by exhibiting Itats of strength. Leaving 
England in 1812, he visited Spain, Poitnga), and 
Malta, and in 1815 went to Ejypt, where he was 
for a short time employed by MehemeC AH in erect- 
ing hydnulic machinery at Cairo. Driven thence 
by the prejudice of the natives against hia Improved 
plans, he visted many parts of E^jypt and Nnbia, 
ond tiie shores of the Red Sea, dkscoveiing boned 
cities, rock temples, &e., and displaying the greatest 
ekill in tbe removal and shipment of ench gigantLe 
works as the bust of Meqinon, and other remains 
now in the British Mnseum. The peconiary means, 
besides a perecoal remuneration, were sappliad cfaiaSj 
by Mr. Salt, the English consul, but partly nlao by 
Burckhordt the traveller. In September, 1819, Bel- 
zoni left Egypt, and on hia way to En^and visited 
his native town, where be was receired with honor. 
Hia ' Narrative of Operationa,' Sai„ waa publiahed at 
London in 1820, m a Ito voL with atlaa. In 1828, 
aocon^Nuiied by Ms wife, he left England for Ho- 
rooco, with the view at penetraCiug to llmbootoOL 
He had neither commiaaiou nor asilatance from gor- 
emment, or any society, and except £200 sup^ied 
by the Messrs. Brigga of Alexandria, depended solely 
Du his own resources. Failing to obtain permistimi 
from the empeiw, he a^Ud to tim Bight of Benin, 
and waa forwarded on hia journey by llie king ta 
that coontrjr. Not long aiW, however, be wot 
seiied with dyaenleiy, aud died at Gato, in Dec, 
132S. Diiectioua oancemiuff hia property, and bia 
last regards to his wife, had been the day befora 
aent by letter to hia Mend Mr. Hodgson, tl>en oi tba 
ith the brig Swinger. [J3.] 

BEH [ 9 

BEUBO, Pxm, «Ten. poet and hiKoriBo, ncre- 
tuT to Lea X^ %ai ""^"'1 triifaop (^ Berguno 
tmder Pmnl ID., 1470-1617. 

BENAVIDES, > Chiliui buidiC and furata, vbo 
For urend jent committed lutBxampIcid atmcjties 
on ths ooaat and aciathem boimdai^ of ChlU, mwt- 
dsnng enrf one ha captond, vithont ragord to 
MX or age, and deraatatlDg the oomitr; with fire. 
Ha mu boni in tile province of Canoepcion, and waa 
for nme time a aoldiai in the patriot anDj, which 
he deaertad. He wa« twice mado piiaoner, aodaea- 
tenced to death, hat enaped, although the last lime 
riddled with ahot, and lef^ on tha Kronnd liir dead. 
On TeooTering from the effsGtt of hu woonda, be 
agua entered the Spanish eervice, and from revenge 
began hii oareer of blood. Among hia boldest ei:- 
flatt was the attempt to form a nary bf the cap- 
tore of fofeign veueli oa the ooaat of ChilL He had 
hia head-qnartera at the town of Aranoo, irtiioh wa* 
at length ci^itared b j tha forceg of the republic ; and 
lUHng himaelf into their handi while attempdug to 
escape, he waa ahot in Febniai?, 1622. 

BGNBOW, Join, a gallant English admiral, diit. 
Ib action whh the jriiates of Bubarj, and aftar~ 
ward* with the FraDch under tha oonunaud of Da 
CiMt, died of hi) wonnda, 1T02. 

BENCIO, Funcu, ao Italian poet, died 16M. 

BENEDETTO, C, an ItaL painter, 1616-1670. 

BENEDICT, St., repated (bonder of tha mmaitic 
Hfe in ttte We«^ whloh he BOtnmencsd in the roina 
oTalam^ near Napba, b. at Spotalo 4S0, d. MS. 

BENEDICT, 9r., an Eugliah prelate, 600-690. 

BENEDICT L, pope, BT4-678. Bohdiot IL, 
88*-«6B. B«m>ior la, 866-858. Bbbidiot IV., 
900-904. BnxDiCT v., 994-966. Bkeiidict VL, 
9TS-9T4. BEmnclVn.,97G-983. BemeoiotVIIL, 
anooeeikid 1012. Bdxdiot IX^ 1083-1018. BmiE- 
moT X, 1068-1059. BEmnor XL, 1303-130i. 
BeruncT XIL, 1831-1343. Bstncior XIIL, 1734- 
1760. BcanuDT XIV., lUitingnlsbed at one of the 
peataat popea who hai governed the ehorch, 1740- 
1758. An anti-pope, ni^er dw title of Bebedict 
XBL, waa elected 1394. 

BENEDICT, an Engliah abbot, died 1708. 

BENEVUTI, Ca., a Joanit, 171ft-l789. 

BENEZUrr, Akihont, a native of France, bcm in 
171S, wlio left his oounUy on aocoonl of the perae- 
mlion to which Proteitanta were anlgeoted, and after 
living in England fbr 16 jaan, removed in 1781 to 
Fhiladslphia, where ombiaciag the principles of the 
Qoaken, be, in 1742, tookohuge of their academf, 

I ] BEN 

in which poaiticn he oontinned nntQ IT82, irtien he 
resigned hii office, fbr the paipoe« of dflvotiiw hlni' 
■elf to the instniction cf tlie negroea. He died, at 
the age of 71, in the year 1784. He waa waQ 
known, both in Amerioa and Europe, for hia gener- 
ona and unremitting eiettiona to suppreit the slave 
trade, and wrote manj tracts upon the aabject, and 
dao a hietoi; of the ilave tr^o in Guinea. Hia 
dlaint'ireated beoeTotenoa cauaed him to be oniver* 
sally respected, bat like many of hia close he Carried 
hia notiona to ewMsa, ercn rellDqaishtng the naa ol 
animal food, ftom nnwillliigDese to cause pnin. 

BENQEHHIELH, J., Buon De, a Sir«dish Hates- 
man, poet and ptoftsuir of history, 1628-1701. 

BENGER. EuzABCTH Ooilvt, a writer irfbio- 
gra^Jilcal and hisCoiioal works, died IB27. 

BENEADAD. twokingsoTSjria, about 9th o. n.0. 

BENL Paoi, an ItaL philologist, died 1627. 

BENINI, ViMcnrr, an ItaL phya., 1713-1761. 

BENJAMIN or TddblA, an Eaaten traveller in 
Ada, au. oT a woA in Heb. on the anbject, d. 1173. 

BENNET, Ht,, eail of Arlington, one of the Coun- 
cil of Ch. U., known as the Cabal, 1618-1636. 

BENNET, Taoa., a Hebrew acboUr, 1673-ITW. 

BENNINGSEN, Levin Aooontis, Baron, a Rcw 
flan conunaoler, discing, in the war againat Poland^ 
aJt the battle of EyUoT&c., died 1826. 

BENNITSKI, A. P., a Kuwan poet, 1760-1808. 

BENSEBADE, luac Dn, a Fr. poet, d. 1691. 

BENSON, Qmo., a dissent minister, 1669-1762. 

BENT, Joan Var Dek, a painter, 166O-I09O. 

BENTHAU, E., an. of Sennooa, &B., I70T-1TT6. 

BENTHAM, Jas., br. of the preceding, au. of U|« 
■HiitoTf aadAndci. oftheChnrohofEly,' d. 1794. 

BENTHAH, Jbumt, bom in London in 1748, 
where he lived during moat part (/ hit long Ufe of 
eigbty^fDur yeai* ; one of the moat ramaikabla 
thinken and writers En^and haa reoeatly produced 
^^qnally eatiniable aa a oildxen and a man. Ben- 
tham'a labon must be divided into two grand nit^ 
— the fint by iiir the least important, althangh tlie 
one thnaiah wiiich he is popolarly known, Aa • 
writer on ua Suiouoe of Morila, prtfterly to called, he 
haa contribnted little that will be permanent in phi- 
loac^y. Great as a Jurist and reformer, espeeiaUy 
in Criminal Lawa, he naturally songfat to wei^ 
the vahM of actiont by their eitemalsffeotai and 
n^appUy he tranqjcrted this exception — correct in 
its luation to Pnhlia Law — into the doroaia of Soien- 
tific Morals, taking at tbe root of hia system, that 
good and bad, jnst and nqjntt, mnat be synuoymoua 
with tb* ■<■% IX imimif of an action. Iteterving 
ditonauon oT thia peculiar theory for the article tfi- 
anu, we hasten here to the agreeable taak of point- 
ing oat Beutham's tare, original, and inconteataldB 
merit*. He may be said to have been the first 
thinker who gaiwd olear ideas ot the cumbront- 
neaa and iniquity of the artificial English Lawe ; and 
althon^ questions may wall be started as to the 
practicability of his sweeping codification, it cannot 
be doubted that from his mind most of the states- 
man who luve sinoe effectively labored to mm- 
plify these laws, drew their beat inspirations. On 
many spedal doctrines cs tbeoriea <^ Law, his apec- 
tdations threw abundant and impcitant light — for 
instance, tha Doctrine of Punishments and the Theory 
of Evidence. Diaceniing the value of education as a 
{Hevaative means, ha threw himself into that subject 
with great eagerness — producing hit ooriont Ckriili^- 
nudf. On kindred moral aabjectt, he also wrote 
much, — oden perhaps not very oonudarstely, always 
with faarlewDeaa and power. His labon, in foot, 
attach to every great quettion of refonn which later 

l»a ] 

cut op ; mod tilers were few men oi emi- 
nsDce in hia time who did cot court & fHeodihip, 
ever open to the da»Brvlng, Mr. Benthsm's most di»- 
liiigniabad uiociitoa were probably Sir Samutl Ro- 
imUy tutd Jama MilL Hie woiki were Gnt pablisbed 
iu a collected fonn in the French buifrnag^ under 
the core of M. DmumI i an Eoaliah edition ha« diice 
appeared, edited, locordiiig to the philoK^ther'i own 
nqneM, bjDr. Bowiing. [J.P.N.I 

BENTHAU, Taos., bp. of LltoUeld, d. ISTS. 

BENTIKCE, WiLUAH, the Intimftts Mend of 
Winiun UL, cnated earl of Portland, diad ITOS. 

BENTINCK, W. H, Cavkhdibh, third dnke rf 
Portland, boni 1738; lotd-UeuteQanC of Iraland, 
1782) ohancellor of Oxford, 1TB3; home Mcretary, 
1791-lSOl; fintloidofthetTeiunry, 1807;d.l8O8. 

BENTINCK, LoBO Gsohoe, a Brittsb puliameu- 
tary leader, wai bom on 27th Febniai;, 1802. He 
was thethird son of the (borth dnke of Portland, aJid 
dioi descended from the diBtdnf^niabed Dntabman 
who enjoyed the frieodahip of William IIL He waa 
bj hia mother, adaD^terofMqarScottofBaleoinie, 
oonneoted with Canning, who marriad her atater, and 
be made anoh eari; aeqnaintanco with poUtioal btui- 
neu aa he poueased, ia the capaidt; of priTata aeoce- 
tai7 to hia nncle-in-law. He entered ttie army, and 
rose to the rank of major, but that probsrioo id time 
of peace had not aofficieot attractioD for hia Mining 
temperamBOt, and he toA wiUi laborimu ardor to 
Geld aporta and the tai£ Thoo^ a yonngar aon, the 
ibrtmiea of the family enabled bim to indulge in 
bone tBOing without mercenary viewi, and yet it ii 
generally aaid that he realiied a laise atun of money 
on the turf. His atiooeu and geoend high character 
in the sporting worid aroae fiinn a hi^-handed integ- 
rity, wluch gave him the poaition of a bold, eamert, 
honeit entbunaat, in ocoupatlona puraued by ao many 
tbrongb momentary eioitement, disnpation, or a base 
deaign to profit by the fbllie* ofothera. In 1820 he 
eutued parliament aa member for Lynn Regia, and 
continued to repreaent that conslitneiKy till hia death. 
He waa a very steady attendant, almoal always in hii 
ieat awake or atleep. But his attendance waa not d" 
a character to gire him the knowledge of a atateamao, 
rioce the benches in the Honae of Commona were hia 
place of reit between nnremitting Labors in the hunt- 
ing Geld and other congenial anmaa. Before 1S46 he 
waa generally aat down ai a moderate Whig, but it is 
•rideat that hia political partiaanahip reited more on 
panonal elliancea than conatitational viem. When 
ar Itobert Peel dealt hii final blow at the oom Uwa 

aonnd political economy, but the want of leaden 
and combination which threatened what ther eomtled 
thdr ruin, looked to Locd George aa a leailer, on ao- 
connt of Che eneigy and ikiU he had shown in hia Ai- 
vorite poraoita. He accepted of tiie {aopoeal, and 
become the leader of the opposition, tranaferring l» 
the interior of St. Stephen's the methods whidi gavo 
him success in hia more congenial occnpatioua out of 
dooiB. He made it his twofold ocoupsdon to hunt 
the enemy, aod to manipulate atatisticB into starring 
momentary resnltf^ aa in the calculatjooa of As bet- 
ting book. He knew to the laat little or nothing 
about polilios, but bis cliiTalrous bearing and utter 
nnconsciousneae of defeat, gave him pimi^arily even 
with hia opponenta. The energetic sea! with whioh 
he followed his new pursuita ^ke hia consldtntian, 
and, seized with an attack of the heart, he drof^ied 
anddcnl; dead on the 28th S^itember, IMS, and 
waa found lying on the road whrae he had been walk- 
ing^ [J.H.B.1 

BENTITOGIJO, <Hie of the •orerelgo familiea of 
Italy, among the diatingnishsd members of which 
are, Jaan, lead of Bologna, killed 1402, whose liaeal 
deaoendanli held thesigniorytill 1508. Usacoixs, • 
poetandstatMman, 1606-1573. Gntia, cardinal le- 
gale and hiatorian, 107Et-lG4t. Hiffoltte, a dra- 
maUat, died 16SS. Cobkxuo, a cardinal, a poet^ 
and a patron ofthe fine arts, 1608-1733. HamDA, 
a poetess, died 1711. 

BENTLEY, RictL^ ■ caL claanc, 1661-1742. Hi* 
SOD of the same name, a dramatist, d. 1 782. 

BENYOWSKY, Minaice ADaOHrna, Count, a Si- 
berian exile who effected hia escape, and was killed 
in action against the French wlien attempting to a>- 
flume the sovereignty of Uadagascar, 1 786. 

BENZELICS, the name of several abps. of L>ata, 
dialing, for theirgruat learaing. Ebic, 1642-17W. 
Hia aon of the same name, 167S-1T4S. Jaoon, Iv. 
of the last, d. 17*7. BmmT, 1889-1768. 

BENZEL-STERNAU, a Qer. states., 1788-1784. 

BENZEI^STEKNAU, C. Ca., Count De, a Gar. 
aUtesman, and man oflelten, 1767-1832. 

BERCHTOLD, LaoRiLD, Count, a diadng. ftu- 
lanthropiat of Ansbia, 1768-1809. 

Tours, about the beginning of the eleventh century. 
His earlieet edncation waa received under Fuibert at 
Ohartres, a teacher of affbctionate wisdom and piety. 
Benuger ahowed bom tlie Brat a hbeial q>irit of in- 
qniij. For soma time he taught in bis native catj, 
and gained there the office of Scholaatious, that is, 
supenntendent of tlia school attached to the cathe- 
dral or monaateiy of St. Martin. Allerwarda he wat 
archdeacon at Anger. The naioe of Bereoger it as- 
sociated principally with the famoua medisval con- 
troversy on the doctrine of tranBabstantiation. He 
had revived the doctrine of Scotna, that the bread 
and wine atill renuun aymboU after the oonaecraCion, 
and are not changed in mbstaooe ; but his doctrine 
waa oondemned by several councila, such aa that of 
Rome in lOAO. Theatrife raged for thir^ yean, 
and Berengcr sometimea wavered, and even formally 
recanted in 1079, onder the terrorism of his eccle- 
siastical auperiora. But he soon retracted, and by 
L^ufrauc and others, under Gregory VTI., the oonbo- 
TBisy waa pnilanged till hit death in 1088. The 
theological inflaaDce of Berenger was lost by his va- 
dtlatian, but he was one of the revivers of metaphy- 
seal study and dialectics, and as has been remarked 
' he oontinned Scotna Erigena, and prepared the way 
for Abelard.' Hia book 'De Sacra Coena,' waapol>> 




Kflhed ftt Berlin in 1884 ; tbe mannscript of it hav- 
ing been found by Leasing in 1770 in the dueal 
libraiy of Bronswick. [J.E.] 

BERENGER, Jas., a oel. anatomist, d. 1550. 

BERENGER, L. P., a Fr. poet and rhetorician, 
author of ' Lea Sondes PiDven^iaeV &c., 1749-1822. 

BERENGER, P., a disciple of Abelaxtl, 12ih o. 

BEREKGER L, king of Italy 888, elected emp. 
916, deposed 922, assassinated 924. 

BERENGER 11., king 950, deposed 962, died 966. 

BERENICE, the name of seTeral princesses of 
Syria and Egypt, of whom the most cdebrated axe 
the infe of Antiochns, strangled b. g. 248. The 
daughter of Ptolemy Anletns, and nsarper of his 
throne, who was deposed and killed by the Romans. 
The daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who con- 
secrated her hair to Venus. And the daughter of 
Agrippa, king of Judaea, the mistress of Titus. 

BERENICIUS, a Dutch adrentnrer, 17th cent. 

BERESFORD, Ret. James, a miscellaneous wr. 
and satirist, 1764-1840. 

BERESFORD, Yiscoont, a distinguished officer in 
the British anny, who gained for himselTa great name 
in tiie peninsular campaign, d. 1854, aged 86. 

BERETTINI, P. an Ital. architect, 1596-1669. 

BERG, J. P., a Gennan theologian, 1787-1800. 

BERGEN, C. A. Db, a Ger. anat, 1704-1760. 

BERGEN, Dbrk Van Der, a painter, d. 1689. 

BERGHEM, Nich., a Do. painter, 1624-1688. 

BERGIER, N. S., a wr. against deism, d. 1790. 

BERGIUS, P. J., a Swedish botanist, d. 1791. 

BERGMANN, Torberit OiiOP, a oeL Swedish 
chemist, to whom many and yaluable discoveries 
are attributed, besides the reconstitution of the 
science of mineralogy, 1785-1784. 

BERIGARD, C, an ItaL philosoph., 1578-1668. 

BERINGER, J. B., a Germ, mineralogist, 18th c. 

BERINGTON, Joskpb, a Roman Catholic hia- 
torian and bimaphical writer, died 1827. 

BERKELEY, Gboboe, eari of, author of * His- 
torical Applications,' and member of tbe privy coun- 
cil to Chariea H., died 1698. 

BERKELEY, Gbobob, bishop of Cloyne, bom in 
Ireland m 1684 ; died at Oxford in 1758. The in- 
terest connected with this rath«r remarkable man is 
measured by that of his system of philosophy, which 
we shall shortly characterize. It is necessary to a 
right understanding of Berkeley's speculations, that 
one recaD the fidse conceptions oertainly prevailinff 
at this time regarding the mode or manner in which 
we hkfw ,— we allude to the Theory of the Idea. It 
was thouffht that the idea through which we know, 
and the ming that we know through it, are perfectly 
distinct. The iiasof an object was fancied a sort of 
Image of the olject capable of being perceived by the 
mind ; just as the mind, in seeing, discerns not the 
object but the image of the retina. Adopting this 
to the idlest extent in respect of all that knowledge 
iriuch we can the knowledge of external thing, 
Bericeley yet held that knowledge of the mmd itself 
and of its operations^ comes <tt once and widiout the 
interposition of any medium— through a simple act 
of internal perception : ftvim which foundation, his 
strict logic led to the fdlowing erngnlar superstano- 
tore. What are termed extenud objects, being seen 
not in themselves but through or by idem, what right 
haive we to imagine the existence of these objects at 
all ? Supposing them real, they are confessedly not 
discernible by we human mind ; why then assume 
tiieir existence? True knowledge, on the other 
hand, cornea to us dbreoUy re^ieoting the mmd: is 
not mind and its phenomena thenfore— spiritual 
STitifias the sole really in the univene? Like 

Malebranche after him, the good Bishop of Cloyne 
reached this singolar conclusion the more readily, 
because of the rervency of his religious principles. 
' If the principles I entertain,' he alleged, * come to 
be admitted among men, ^ consequences that I 
think will foUow immediately are these — atheism 
and scepticism must utterly fall.' Ho assuredly had 
weiehed with little care the consequences insepara- 
ble from the concession to logic of a supremacy over 
our primary intuitions. Scarcely was the ink dry 
with which he wrote, ere the remorseless ^alectic of 
Hume attacked with equal vigor the existence of 
the spiritual world — reducing a£ possible knowledge 
to the bare fact — lexiM ! It certainly appears singular 
that even religious fervor could take so extrava- 
gant a torn In so acute a fkian : nevertheless, the 
moving principle of Berkeley's speculations was a 
spirit of revolt against the materialistic philosophy 
that issued from Locke's ' Essay on the Human Un- 
derstanding,' — Aldphron^ cfr the MvuUe Pkitoeophery 
being mainly a protest against the paradox of Man- 
deviUe, that virtue is only an artificial product of 
pdicy and vanity.— Berkeley's knowledge was ex- 
tensive ; he was fond of physical science, and he 
stmck out a sound theory of vision. His heart was 
a noble one, and his life pure. He was valued and 
admired among the best writers of the day, number- 
ing among his friends Swift and Stella, the Duke of 
Grafton, Lord Peterborough, and Pope. There is 
now a good editi<m of h& works in 8 vols. 8vo. 


BERKELEY, Vicb-Ad. Sir W., k. m ao. 1666. 

BERKELEY, NoBBosnoE, Baron de Botetourt, 
appointed Governor of Virginia in 1768, and died at 
Williamsburg in 1 770. During Ms brief administra- 
tion he was highly beloved and respected, and la- 
bored eamestlv to promote the interests of William 
and Mary College. 

BERKELEY, Wiluam, governor of Virginia under 
Charles I. and Gharies U. He came to America in 
this capadty in 1641. He espoused the royal cause 
daring the civil wars, and, by his influence, as well 
as by the disposition of the colony, Virvinia was the 
last of the English possessiccs to submit to the Pro- 
tector. He £en retired to his plantation, but, on 
the death of Govem<Nr Matthews, who had been ap- 
pointed by Cromwell in his stead, he was solicited 
by the people to resume the government of the 
colony, which he would only consent to do on con- 
dition that Charles IL should be proclaimed King. 
His popularity was so great that the people con- 
sented, and the consequences of this bold step might 
have been serious but for the opportune death of the 
Protector. He visited England upon the restora- 
tion. The latter portion of his career was douded 
by the rebellion of Bacon, whom he refused, against 
the popular wish, to appoint general in the Indian 
war. The opposition he encountered soured his 
temper, and Charies n., who was no friend to ex- 
treme measores, complained that " the old fool shed 
more blood in that naked country than he had done 
for the murder of his father." Berkeley died in 
England in 1677, immediately after his arrival in 
that country, to which he had gone for the benefit 

BERKENHOUT, J., a miscellaneous wr., 1781- 

BERKEY, Jomr Lkebanoq Vak, a Dutch physi- 
cian, naturalist, and poet, 1729-1812. 

BERLICfilNGEN, GoeizDb, sunamadwrn-Aand; 
a Gennan knight, distinguished hi the wars of Ba- 
varia, 1480-1562. 

BERNADOTTE, king of Sweden and Norway, 

f M] 

waitT tb» title oT Clurleg John XIV^ i 
of K lawyer, bom ITU; aergeuit in the mirinet, 
1789; eolond, 1T92 ; genenl of brigade, 1793, 
nanhaj of Frmnco mnd priaoe of Ponte Cotto, 
1806 ; chonii orown pmice of Sweden, 1810 ; kii^, 
1616, to M> death in 1841. 

BERNAL, RupH, an EngUili tiuNellaiieinu 
writer and arclueologiM, dflroted to the Mndy of me^ 
MTal antiqiiitj, d. 18M. 

BERNAitD, St., of Henthon, fomkder of the hos- 
jdceain the passage of the Alps, 9S&-I006. 

BERNAKD, St^ ronnder and abbot of Clairraai, 
one of th« most influential and tdented eodesUstios 
of the middle agee, 109I-I1S8. 

BERNARD OP Patu, a joriat of the ISth et. 

BERNARD or Tbdbihou, an eDthn*., 10th ct. 

BEIiNARD, Cath., b French poeteaa, last oant 

BERNARD, C, a bwHtmlent priest, 1B88-I6tl. 

BERNARD, Edw., a pnpii of Wallis, author of a 
tceatise on ancient measnres, Jcc, ISA8-169T. 

BERNARD, Jaxbs, a pn>t hist, 1656-1716. 

BERNARD, Jam, an aotor, died I83S. 

BERNARD, J. F., an antiquarian, last eaO. 

BERNARD, J. S., a medical an., 1T18-179B. 

BERNARD, P. J^ a French poel^ 1T10-177B. 

BERNARD, Stx., a miUt. engineer, 1779-1689. 

BERNARD, dnke <^ Weimar, command, of the 
Swvdish armf atW the death of QnitaTiu, 160i- 

BERNARD, FuHca, Sm, gorenior of New Jersey 
horn 1766 to 1760, and of Massachusetts IVom 1T60 
to 1769. Bernard was a man of ability and integ- 
rity, bat it was his miaTuitane In preuda otbt the 
Province of Hasoachasetta at a timfl when the 
greatest wisdom and caution woe required, and it 
was no longer pouible b; coerdTe measnres to ni- 
preu the spirit of liberty, which he, together with 
the mimttrr in England, seems to have mistaken fir 
lawless insubordination. Devoted to the interests of 
the British government, nithoot anj tme insight 
into the coarse of policy whioh those interests 
really required, he hoped, by incroaaed taxation, the 
presence of the military in Boston, and modifica- 
tiooa of the charter, to ttieDgthen the authority of 
England in the ocdony. The popnlarity gained bj 
his more moderate administratioa in New Jersey 
was coDseqaentlj soon lost, and, though the boms 
garemment maoiAsted its approbation of hii course 
oj CTsatiag him a baronet, it was also nnder the 
aecesn^ of recalling him. Hw most pndsewoithy 

batnre in Ma ccodoet was his patronage of literatuM 
and his benefactJotis to Harraid Colle^ He died m 
England in 17T9. 

BERNARDEZ, D., a soldier and poet, d. 1S96. 

BERNARDl, A. F., a Germ, gram., 1766-18:0. 

BERNARDI, J. E., a wr. on oiril law, 1761-183*. 

BERNARDl, J., an engrsT. and archit., d. ISSS. 

Ml. author of > Paul and VuKinia,' 17S7-18ia 

BERNARDIN, St., vjoar^eneral of die Frands- 
oans, rofbrmer and fbnnder of more than 300 monas- 
teries, 1880-1444. 

BERNI, Fb., a bnrieaque poet, died 111661 ao- 
other Italian of ^m same name, dltting. as a poet 
and dramatio anther, 1610-1678. 

BERNIER, Fa., a c«L tnTeller, died 1668. 

BERNINI, OiovAlTNt LoBSKxo, dining, as a paint- 
er, statsaiT, and aichitmt, 1596-1680. 

BERNIS, Fb. Joachih Db PisBRm De, a cardi- 
nal and ambaMadm of Fiauoe, disljngaishad also as 
a poet, 171S-1794. 

BERNOUILU. The fanrily name of a duatar 
of famous mathematiciane living at the period of 
the teviral of soieDoe, when Newton evolved the law 
of the celestial moticms, and he and Leibnitx tnvented 
and promnlgated the higher oalculai. All diatin- 
guiabed by eagerness in the porsnit of Aoalyits, and 
OM two elder, especially, by machrivad^aftmnper 
— they mingled eameslly in the been commerce and 
conflict of scientific writers, which ao enlivens tbe 
bistoiy of those timas, and renders the details of per- 
sona] hutoiT port and panjst of the history of the 
progress of knowledge. Oar limits oonlhte as withiu 
a £nple enumera^oi of these diitingaiihed men, 
and a bare natement of their main achievements. — 
I. Jaxe» Bbswhuuj, probably the most original 
analyst of the group; bom at Bade in 1664,— died 
in 170S. He had great powers of loTeDtioo, and 
much taste tia dm^dty in method and compori- 
ti<Hi, He RToatly extended the theory of the qua- 
drature of the parabola, and the geometiy of cane 
lines, ^rals, Sto.' Hiscbiercontribotions, however, 
relate to the sammatioo and doctrine of infinite 
series ; and we owe Mm the first systematic work oa 
the now very important likeary of ohanne. His 
writings are collected in S vols. 4to.~-2. Joini Bbb- 
KODiuj, brother of James ; bom in 1667, died in 
1746 ; also a very great analyst. Besidce his essays 
on the management of ships and the elfiptioal Gf^an 
of the planets, John BemouilU wrote on almost 
every branch of the existing mathematics; and he 
touched DOtMog he did not expacid and improve 
The great age he attiuned was wor&ily bestowed 
ou him; be died foil of honors. Uis collected 
writings BU fbur 4to. volumes. — 3. Joan Beb- 
HoniLU, BCD of the preoediog ; profbssor of mathe- 
matiosin St. Peteiahnrg, when he died in 1786; 
bom in 1696. — 4. Nicocab Bnoouiuj, nephew of 
1 and 2, bora in 1687 ; died in 1759 ; proTessor of 
mathematics in Padua. — 6. DAinEL BEBnooiuj, 
son of Nicolas, a very eminent philosopher, rivalling 
the glory of the elder brothers of the family. Ha 
was bom in 1700, and died in 178i. ITis two great 
wtnfcs are the ' Exerdtationes Mathematicsi' and 
his ' Hydrodynamicm : ' but besides writing occa- 
sional treatises and memoirs, he contested, and 
gained or divided with the greatest mathematicians 
in Europe, no fewer than ten prizes ofibred by the 
Academy of Sciences. No name of the time stands 
higher than that of Daniel BemouilU. — 6. Jomt 
BEBKaDiuJ, brother of Daniel, proi^ssor of mate- 




Bada, 1759, died in 1789, too mtIj for •oiaiioe. At 
Hiis doie of ihe fkmily of the BenumiUia, its former 
Ivories seemed about to blaze out again. In the 
QMHoe of about five years, the younger James pre- 
sented no less than eight memoirs to the Imperial 
Academy of Scienoea, which have been printed in 
the * Nora Acta ; ' and he was a correspondent of 
other academies besides. Every thing he wrote dis- 
played singnlar acuteness.— It is not often that the 
historian of Science has to record Gonoeming such a 
fhmUy. [J.P.N.] 

BERNSTORFF, Jomr Hartwio EnmBT, Count, 
a Danish statesman, disting. also as a patron of 
■denoe and art, 1712-1772. His nephew, Ajok 
Petkr, eel. as a miniflter of state for the enf raa- 
ehisem. of the Dan. peasants, &c, 1785-1797. 

BEROALDUS, Pa., a rhetcoician, 1458-1605. 
His nephew of the same name, a poet, died 1518. 

BEROD ACH, son of Bflladan, king of Babykm. 

BEBOSUS, a Chaldean priest and his., firag- 
ments of whose works exist in the writings of Ense- 
hius : time of AloKander the Great 

BERRETINI, NiOR., an It paint, 1617-1082. 

BERRI, John, of France, DukeDe, 1840-1416. 

BERRI, Ch. Fsko. Db Boohbon, Duke De, 
second son of Ch. X., and father of the duke de Bor- 
deaux, claimant of the Fr. crown, 1778-1820. 

BERRIMAN, Wm., au. of'Sermons, 1688-1758. 

BERRUYER, Joe. Is., a religions wr., d. 1758. 

BERRUYER, J. F., a Fr. general, 1787-1804. 

BERRY, Rsab-Admiral Sir Edw., K.C.B., dis- 
tinguished at the Nile aud Trafalgar, d. 1881. 

BERRY, Sib Jousr, a naval command., d. 1691. 

BERRY, Mart, an English woman of society and 
of literary accomplishments, died in 1854, at the 
advanced age of neariy ninety. She and her sister, 
whose death preceded hers by ei^teen months, were 
known in iHie liteiaiy circles of London from the 
time of Dr. Johnson to Macaulay. For upwards of half 
acentmy they saw at their house in London two gene- 
rations of fiteraiy men. They had read Miss Bumey's 
Evelina when fi«sh from the press, and snrrived long 
enough to weep in sympathy with the world over 
Dickeaf* paifa»de story of Little Nell. The two sis- 
ters were left, with their father, the literary execu- 
tors of Horace Walpole. Both of them had re- 
ceived the offer of the hand of that male gossip, and 
both had nrjected it The elder pnUished various 
miscellaneous woiks. 

BERRYAT, F., first edit of a collect of observa- 
tioos from the memoirs of learned societies, d. 1754. 

BERSMANN, Gbo., a Oer. classic, 1688-1611. 

BERTHIER. AunmDBa BurrensB, prince of 
Neufcbatd and Wagram, was bom in Paris in 1758, 
of higher parentage than that of most of the military 
diiefs of the Frsiuh revolution and empire. He saw 
some service in Bochambeau's amdliaiy corps in the 
American war, and continued in the French army 
after the fall of the monarchy. It is chiefly as Na- 
poleon's favorite chief of the staff that he acquirsd 
distinction. His talents for independent oommand 
were dender, hot he possessed the power of rapidly 
eomprehendhig Napoleon's wishes and tactics, and 
he showed an alacrity and a skill in carrying the 
imperial orders into eflfect, that made him most va- 
luable, and procuTDd him high promotion and favor. 
On the downfall of Napoleon, in 1814, Bertiiier, like 
other manshals, professed allegiance to the Bourbons, 
and he is said to have diown more readiness 
and seal in so doings than became one who had been, 
Hke Berthier, tiie favored friend, as well as the 
hiriily rewuded servant of the ex-emperor. On Na- 
poiM^s reCam in 1815, Berthier quitted France with 

the Bourbon princes ; but he suffered deeply in spirits 
and in conscience, and at last, after watching a body 
of Russian troops who were marching through Bam- 
berg agunst France, Berthier committed suicide. 

BERTHIER, J. B., an architect, &c., 1721-1804. 

BERTHOLLET, F., a Fr. historian, d- 1755. 

BERTHOLLET, Claudb Louis, bom at Talloire, 
near Annecy, in Savoy, 9th December, 1848, died 
at Paris, 6th November, 1822, aged seventy-four, 
affiyrds one of the most illustrious examples of a gen- 
ius for the practical application of science among the 
Mfvants of the last centniy. Educated for the profefr- 
sion of medicine, in an obscure comer of the oountxy, 
he came to Paris destitute of friends and acquaint- 
ances ; but having learned that M. Tronchin, a dis- 
tinguished practitioner in the metropolis, was a na- 
tive of Geneva, he made bold to call upon his country- 
man, and, fortunately for science, was kindly re- 
oeived and patroni2ed by him; and through his 
means Berthollet was made physician to the duke of 
Orleans. It was through this nobleman tiiat he 
was placed in the position of superintendent of 
the government dyeworics, where he acquired 
the Information contained in his valuable worii: 
on this art, and which led him to apply to practice 
in bleaching, the important fact, disoovered by 
Scheele, of the decolorizing properties of chlorine 
gas. It would be difficult to estimate, in its 
trae light, either morally or pecuniarily, the 
enormous benefits oonfeired on humanity by this 
application alone. James Watts introduced this 
application soon after from Paris to Glasgow. To 
the ehemist Berthollet, too, is due the salvation of 
his country ; for, when hemmed in by Austrian and 
Prussian troops, and the English navy, her com- 
meroe out of!^ and the very instruments of self-de- 
fence denied her, Berthollet instituted native iron and 
saltpetre works, and supplied the cannon, swords, 
and gunpowder to withstand the rathless invaders. 
Eminent for his love of art as well as of science, 
he was chosen by the Direotoiy, in 1766, to pro- 
ceed in company with his friend Monge to select 
such works as were best fitted to adom tiie Louvre ; 
and in 1796 he aooompanied Bonaparte to Egypt 
on a similar errand. By the illustrious genenu he 
was courted as a friend, not only from his simple 
and unobtmsive manners, so becoming his profes- 
sion, but also from his force and depth of character, 
which rendered him a valuable companion. How 
seldom does the man of science acquire credit for 
the benefits conferred on his fellows ? In no instance 
is this affirmation more remarkably exemplified 
than in the discoveiy by BerthoUet of tiie chlorate of 
potash, a sah which not only, as an indispensable 
ingredient in the lucifer match, administers to the 
convenience of every one, but enables many a poor 
shivering outcast to supply his daily wants. Ber- 
thollet, too, was the discoverer of detonating silver, 
the first of those compounds so valuable in tiieir ap- 
plication to flre-armfr--which are thus rendered in- 
dependent of the seasons. He discovered, likewise, 
ehlorocyanic, and first showed that the familiar 
volatile gas ammonia is a ccmipound of 1 voL of 
nitrogen and 8 vols, of hydrogen. Although the 
more modem views of chemical combinations have 
set aside his views on these subjects, it b impossible 
to read them without being struck with the ingenui- 
ty of his aiguments, and the force of his reasoning 
powers. In one point he successfully combated the 
opinions of the celebrated Lavoisier, who believed 
that oxygen was the acidifying principle. Berthol- 
let, on the other hand, showed that sulphuretted hy- 
drogen and pmssio acid are distinctiy acid, and yet 




contain no oxygen. Snbsequent obaezratians have 
only strengthened the views of Berthollet. Beiihol- 
let was endowed with the greatest liberality and 
benevolenoe of disposition, and was destitate of that 
narrow and contracted selfishness so pften complained 
of in these days of competition, which is too apt to 
mar the lustre of the scientific character. In his 
latter years he removed to the village of Arooeil, 
three iniles from Paris, near his friend La Place, for 
whom he entertained a warm affection. Here he 
fitted np a laboratoiy, and formed the Society of 
Arcneil, composed of a number of young chemists 
and friends, whom he encouraged by his example and 
kindness. Their names will show how happily was 
his friendship bestowed — La Place, Biot, Gay Las- 
sac, Thenard, CoUet-Descotils, Decandolle, Hum- 
boldt, and his son A. B. Berthollet The socie^ 
published three volumes of valuable memoirs. To a 
chemist, we know of no more sacred plaoe than the 
hamlet of ArcneiL But the last days of the good 
old man were dimmed by the snioide, by means of 
the fumes of charcoal, of his only son, in whom his 
affections were concentrated. From this sad calam- 
ity he never recovered ; and, to complete his misfor- 
tunes, his friend, the emperor, having been replaced 
bv the Bourbons, science was again, as in so many 
other instances, sacrificed at the shrine of politics, 
and the eminent chemist was reduced from a state 
of affluence to comparative poverty. Death, in 
1822, stepped in to his release, and posterity alone 
can yield some requital by revering die memoiy of 
the good Berthollet^ [R.D.T.] 

BERTHOLON, a French chemist, last century. 

BERTI, Alex. P., an ItaL author, 1686-1752. 

BERTI, J. L., an It. monk and hist., 1696-1766. 

BERTIB^ WiLLonoHBY, earl of Abingdon, a wr. 
of several polit and satirical pamph., d. 1791. 

BERTIER, J. S., a Fr. physician, 1710-1 7da 

BERTIN, Anth., a French poet, 1762-1790. 

BERTIN, H. Lb J. B., a French oomptroUep-gen- 
eral, disting. for promoting manuf., 1719-1792. 

BERTIN, J., a Fr. phy. and anatom., 1712-1781. 

BERTIN, J. v., a French painter, 1776-1841. 

BERTIN, St., fndr. of the monas. so called, 7th o. 

BERTIN, Thbod., a Fr. stenogph., 1760-1819. 

BERTINAZZI, C. A., a comedian, 1713-1788. 

BERTIUS, P., a Flem. geographer, 1666-1629. 

BERTOLI, G. D., an antiquarian, 1676-1758. 

BERTON, J. B., Baron, a French general, con-, 
demned and exeo. on an accus. <^ conspiracy, 1822. 

BERTRAM, C. B., a Heb. scholar, 1581-1694. 

BERTRAND, £., a Swiss natural, 1712-1790. 

BERTRAND, HsaniT, Count, one of Napoleon's 
most distinguished generals, and his companion in 
exile 1770-1844. 

BERTRAND, J. B., a Fr. physio. 1670-1762. 

of the royalist noblesse, min. of marine in 1791, af- 
terwards an hist, of the revolution, 1744-1817. 

BERULLE, Card. Piebre Db, fhdr. of the Car- 
melites and congregation of the oratory, 1675-1629. 

BERWICK, James Fitz-James, duke of, marshal 
of Franco, and natural son of James II., a gallant 
soldier, killed at Philipsburg, 1784. 

BERYLLUS, a speculative theologian, 3d cent 

BERZELIUS, John Jaoob, b. 1779, d. 1848, the 
8on of a parish schoolmaster at Vafersunde, in the 
south of Sweden, as is said. The subject of our 
memoir possessed the opportunity of acquiring the 
elements of a good education in a country where 
reading and writing axe understood to be within the 
grasp of the poorest peasant. He was educated for 
the medical profession at the university of Upsala, 

and obtained his first acquaintance with chemistry 
from Professor Afrelius, a nephew of Bergman, Eke- 
berg, and Ghan, to whom chemists axe indebted for 
the establishment of the blowpipe as an indispensa- 
ble instrument in chemical research. From tho 
period of his first pablioation, his Animal Chemistry, 
in 1806, till his deatii, Berzelius's career was one of 
the most active and industrious of any chemist who 
ever existed. His mechanical powers of manipnla- 
tion were of the highest order, and he set himself at 
an eaily period to make the most scrupulously accu- 
rate analyses. It was from tiiis power of minute 
investigation that, in company with Hisinger, he was 
enabled to detect, at the outset of his career, the 
new earth oxide oi cerium, and afterwards selenium 
and thorium. It was by his accurate investigationB 
that he was enabled to foUow np the foundation- 
stones of the atomic theoiy laid by Dalton, Thom- 
son, and WoUaston, and assist in raising a valuable 
superstructure, and to demonstrate, in 1816, that 
the mineral world, as had been enunciated by Smith- 
son, is a naturally existing exemplification of tho 
beautiful doctrine of definite proportions. It would 
be difficult to over-esUmate the value of the oontri- 
buticms made to the science by this indefatigable 
chemist, whose body and mind seem to have been in 
incessant action for the best part of half a century, 
whether we view them in his valuable investigations 
of the oonstitnents of nature, in the various editions 
of his System of Chemistry, which contained a com- 
plete digest of the knowled^ possessed by chemists 
at the time they appeared, of chemical substances^ 
or in the annual reports which he published, in oon- 
tinnation of those of Thomson, of the progress of his 
favorite science. The part which he took, too, in 
modifying the system of symbols, introduced into 
the science by Thomson, so as to suit all nations^ is 
highly deserving of commendation, since without 
symbols it is difficult to understand how chemical 
oonstitntion oould be rendered intelligible in its pre- 
sent complicated condition. The ingenious generali- 
zations which he sometutnesmade, although generally 
ultimately found to be untenable, were productive 
of vast benefit in encouraging and stimulating in- 
quiry. Among these views may be noticed his ideas 
of the compound nature of chlorine ; his theory of 
electro-chenustry, of isomerism, of catalytism, &c. 
It is much to be regretted that the free inquiry and 
Uberty of deduction which he claimed for himself he 
did not always allow to others, and that the closing 
years of his busy life should have been occupied in 
a coarse waifare with his contemporaries and the 
younger spirits of the age, and in an attempt, which 
ever must prove fruitless, to bind to the chariot- 
wheels of a past time the new disoovaries which 
uniibrmly refuse to be attached to dd-faahioned in- 
ventions. Much of this asperity of literary manner 
may undoubtedly be attributed to isolation during 
his earlier years, from the softening influences of 
life, and to deteriorating habits, which it is under- 
stood were too un^wringly encouraged. Berzelins 
contributed, in a remarkable degree, in disseminating 
the study of the science over the continent of Europe, 
by the able pupils who were educated under his eye, 
and who did not ful to oommunicate in their turn to 
their successors the accurate lessons which they 
themselves had so bountifully received. To have 
communicated the elements of the science to such 
men as Gmelin, Arfwedson, Rose, Mitacherlich, and 
Wdhlor, is no small piece of good fortune. No de- 
partment of the science has escaped the masterly 
touch of Berzelins; even organic chemistiy, which 
he was desirous of confining under obsolete rules, 




yms indebted to him for 11U1117 eaily eiooidaitioiifl^ 
which payed tite wet tat those which wne to follow. 
In no portion of uie fdenoe ware his lahon of 
noce ralne than in tiiat of analyses, the processes 
depending on an intimate acquaintance' with the 
properties of the rarioas kinds of matter, hy which 
the chemist is enabled to teD, to the meet minute 
fraction, how much of any ehnnent is present in a 
oompoand. Beraeliiis was Ibr many years professor 
of ehemifltiy in Stockholm. During &e latter years 
of his life he retired to the country, and married, and 
was elevated to the rank of baron. But to the last 
he took a deep interest in his science, and even when 
paralyas had denied to him the power of locomo- 
tion, he continued to dictate to his amanuensis his 
annual report, striving, as it were, to bid against 
nature, and to lengthen out the ^aoe of terrntrial 
mental existence. [R.D.T.] 

BESBORODKO, a Rns. min. of state, d. 1799. 

BESGHI, C. J., a cd. Indian missionaiy, d. 1742. 

BESOLDE, Chb., an Austrian hist, 1677-1688. 

BESOZZI, Ambb., an ItaL arcbi, 1048-1706. 

BESSARION, John, a cardinal and theoL, one of 
the restcrers of learning in the 16th c., 1896-1472. 

BESSEL, Ds. F. W., a Prus. astro., 1784-1846. 

BESSIERES, John BAimtr, duke of Istria, one 
of Napoleon's generals, marshal of France, bom 
1784, killed at Bippach 1818. 

BETH AM, Wx. Sm, an English genealogical and 
antiquarian writer, d. 1858, age 74. 

BETHLEM-GABOR, a native of Transylvania, 
who usurped the throne of Hnngaiy 1618, d. 1629. 

BETHLEN, Wolfoano^ Cknmt De, a stateeman 
and historian of l^ansylvania, massacred by the 
Tartars, 1679. 

BETHUNE, the ancestral name of Sully. 

BETHUNE, DiTiK, an eminent merchant of New 
Yofk, bom in Rossfaire, Scotland, in 1771. He emi- 
grated to America in 1792, and soon became promi- 
nent for his exertions in the establishment of Sunday 
Schools, and the distribution at his own expense c^ 
Bibles and tracts. His benevolent and usefol lifb 
terminated in 1824. 

BETTERTON, T., a ceL tragedian, 1686-1700. 

BETllNELU, X., a ceL It author, 1718-1808. 

BETUSSE, Joseph, an ItaL poet, 16th cent 

BEUERNONYILLE, Pkikb Rm^ count of, a 
statesman, diplomatist, and marshal of France, min- 
ister of war under the convention, 1762-1821. 

BEVEBIDOE, Weluam, bishop of St Asaph, emi- 
nent as an Oriental scholar and theologian, author of 
* Private Thon^to on Religion,' 1688-1708. 

BEVERID6E, Joan, the author of a small vol> 
mne of Latin poems, published in Philadelphia, in 
1766, and professor of andent languages in the 
academy of that citf. 

BEVERLEY, Robebt, author of an indiflbrent 
history of Yiiginia firom its first settlement to the 
year 1706. The observations on the natural pro- 
ductions and commerce of the country, and the 
chatacter and condition of the Indians, are more sat- 
isfactory. Beverley was bom in Virginia, and derk 
of the council under Andros, about 1697. His book 
was translated into French in 1707. 

BEVERLY, John or, the tutor of Bede, d. 721. 

BEVERNYNCK, J. Vait, a Dutch statesman, 
disting. also as a contributor to botany, 1614-1690. 

BEVERWICE, J. De, a med. auth., 1694-1647. 

BEVIN, Elwat, a Welsh music, time of Jas. L 

BEVIS, an English astronomer, 1696-1771. 

BEWICK, John, an artist and naturalist, cele- 
brated in the history of wood engraving, d. 1796. 

BEWICK, THoe., broHier of the prec, d. 1828. 

BEWLT, Wv., an experi. philosopher, d. 1788. 

BEXFIELD, W. R., an English musical com 
poser, d. 1868, aged 80. 

BEYER, Auo., a Germ. theolM;ian, 1707-1741. 

BEYER, Dr. G. A., prof, of Gr. litera., 18th c. 

BEZA, or THEODORE DE BEZE, was bom of 
noble parents at Vexelai in 1618. His studios were 
begun at Orleans under Wolmar, a German, to 
whom may be traced his pupil's attainments in 
Greek. Here he studied law, and having nt the 
age of twenty obtained a diploma, he spent the 
next nine years in Paris; living in the midst of 
sooh enjoyments as an ample fortune can at 
all times secure in the gay capital of France. 
Here he published his 'Juvenilia,' a collection of 
poems, many of which are just in character and 
gallantly, what might have been anticipated in the 
circumstances. His own oonsdence, his secret 
marriage, and a severe illneas, combined in solem- 
nising bis mind, so that at length he fled to 
Geneva, and pnbUoly avowed his attachment to 
the protestont reformation. In a very short time 
he became professor of Greek at Lausanne, and 
after ten yean^ labor there he returned to (Hneva. 
From the period of his return to Geneva in 1669, 
to his death there, October 18, 1606, Beza was 
identified with the Swiss reformation. He was the 
first rector of the new academy established there, 
and he succeeded Calvin in the chair of theology 
in 1664. After the great Reformer's death, Beza 
ooenirfed tiie first place of influence and responsi- 
bility, not only in the church of Geneva, but in 
the neighboring cantons and in France. In 1571 
he was moderator of the great protestant assembly at 
Rocbelle, by which the French confession was emit- 
ted. Be^ revisited France about 1660, and was in- 
troduped to, and favorably noticed by Catherine de 
Kedid and ibe Cardinal Lorraine, and he occasionally 
preached in the submbs of Paris. He was also on 
the battle-field with the great Cond6 m 1668. The 
Greek scholarship of Beza was consummate, and one 
of his early wotks at Lausanne was his famous trans- 
lation of tiie New Testament into Latui, printed by 
Robert Stephens at Paris in 1657* In 1665 he pul>- 
lished his first edition of the Greek New Testsment, 
making use of a MS., oontainiuff the four (Gospels 
and Acts, which usually goes by his name, and which 
in 1681 he gave to the university of Cambridge. 
This edition, which is almost the same as that of R. 
Stephens, was four times reprinted by him, and the 
last option of 1696 was taken as the basis of the 
authorised English version of the New Testament 
Bexa wrote many other treatises, especially on the 
power of the magistrate in matters of religion. But 
it is as an editor, translator, and commentator in 
connection with the New Testament, that all subse- 
ouent scholars hold Beza in high esteem, not only 
mr his own lofty aoquiremente, but also for the im- 
pulse which he gave by his example and his publica- 
tions to biblical studies. [J.E.] 

BHARHIHARI, an Indian poet, 1st cent b.c. 

BHAVABHOUTI, one of the greatest dramatic 
poeto of India, flourished in the last century. 

BHERING. See Behrcto. 

BIANCHI, Aut., a Venetian poet, last rent 

BIANCHI, Fs., a composer, end of last cent 

BIANCHI, John, a ceL anatemist, 1693>1776. 

BIANCHI, v., an Ital. diplomatist, d. 1738. 

BLU^CHINI, Fb., an Ital. ammi, 1662-1729. 

BIART, PoERBK, a Jesuit missio., who in 1612 as- 
cended the Kennebec, and went te Penobscot in 1 818. 
He was taken prisoner by Argall and sent to England. 

BIAS, one of the seven sages of Greece. 




BIBAES L, Mameluke mltan, 1260. IL, 1809. 

BIBB, William W., gorenior of the Tciritis; oT 

AlabamBJn 1817,BDdelactBdfintgoTeTDoriinderthe 

State CooBtitatiDD in I8I9, died in 1820 at Fort Jack- 

■on, at the e<u^ age of 39. 

BIBIENA, Bebkabdo De, a cardinal of Rome 
nndei Leo X., aod au. of a oomedr, 1470-1G2O. 
BIBIENA, F. G., a paint, and an^, 16£7-1743. 
BICHAT, Mahik Fbahoib Xavicb, one of the 
nuMt celebnted phyiiolofpiti of France, author of 
iBveral importaot nudicol works, 1771-1802. 
BIKERSTAFF, I&uc, a dramalao ao^ laat cent 
BICKERSTETH, Edwabu, a bi^^lj popular vri- 
Mr of reli^ooa worki, waa bom 19fb Manh, 1786, 
M Kiib7 Lonadale, in Weatmorelapd. After leceiT- 
ing the niilimenti of lenmin^ at the grammar echool 
of nia native town, be obtain^ at the age of fourteen, 
a rituatiaa in the General Post OSoe, London, and 
although that employment put an end for a time to 
hi* classical stndiea, it trained him to Ihoaa bnunea* 
habits which qnalified hini pre-aminently for tlie pe- 
onliar work which Proridenoo had in reserra for 
him. Di^joated inlh the monolonons lontiua of his 
dnttei in tlie pod office, he tumad his attention to 
the atod; of law, and obtained admission into the 
ohamben of an eminent London Httnmef, to whom, 
•ftw two fBars and a-half Krrice, he lieoame prin- 
cipal oleik. At a later period be lettW in Norwich 
u parloar to Mr. Bignold, a Toong and floorishing 
sttome/, and ooDDOcted himaelf still more rloselj 
with thjit gentlemaa by manying Miss Bignold, bis 
■ister, on 5tb May, 1812. For many years previons- 
ly, Mr. Bickentatb had been nnder deep impresuooa 
1^ persDoal religion. Amid all the angroadng avoca- 
tkois of bis legal business he attended to the one 
thing ueedfnl, never aUowina a day to pas* without 
dsTolitig a portion of it to uie regular stndy of the 
Scriptures, with private deFotion, and adopting va- 
rioni other methods for promoting his personal im- 
poreroent and bis walk with G^ The principles 
be regarded as «a vital to the welfare of his own soul 
be longed to import to others, and mourning orer 
the multilndei in the town of his Bd<qitian who were 
growing op in ignoraikoe and ineligion, he com- 
menced a Simday-sidiool by oollBCting a few poor 
•■hildren for ioitrnotian in scriptuiml knowledgB. 
This school, which gradually increased till it becBme 
a large and Important inatitntion, encouraged him to 
tiy other means of Christian nuefnlneas, and aocord- 
li^y ha originated a benevolent visiting society, a 
diureh miSBOnary sodety, a society for the onnvar- 
non of the Jews, all of which, in spite of ttroag op- 
poNtioD &Dm several quarters at mrst, continued to 
grow in anmben and influence. Having published 
his 'Help to the Study of (he Scriptnres,' which 
proved an eminently osdiil and accqitable work, ha 
was aomea^ pressed by several Cbristian friends to 
enter the nunisOy. The advice accorded with bis 
own ardent aqnratioua, and at length a door having 
been opened by Providence, be was oidainod deaoon 
in the CbnTch of England, and preaebed bis first 
•ermon in Norwich, lOlh December, 1816. In the 
beginning of 1816, Mr. Bickenteth nndertook a q>a- 
cial mission for the poipoae of inspecting the nttl«- 
meuu of the London Hianonaij Socie^ in Afiica, 
and tSiet having accomplished the important objects 
of bis embassy, returned to (he shorH of Britain ' 
the followiug August. For many years he acted 
one of the •ecretories of the Missionary Sooie^, and 
in that capscdty led a Life of incessant activity, jonr- 
neying in all parts of the country, and addressing 
Doblio meetings in behalf of the insIitutiDn. Reaign- 
Ing this laborioaa olfioa, he became, in 18S9, loie 

pastor of Whaler Chapel, LoodoB J and on 28d Oekk 
ber, 1B30, he undertixik the charf^ ot the rural pap- 
i^ of Watton, Herts. After a life of such Indefati- 
gable labor as he bad led, Hiis sitnation was a com- 
paialive unecure. But by multiplying the servioe«i 
botb on Sabbath end waek-dayi, ' he wnried,' to nse 
bis own phrase, ' as busily as a bee.' In all ques- 
tions afieedng the intoreeta of religion be took a 
prominent part, for he was looked up to as the bead 
of the evangelical party in the Church ct England, 
and in private be was unwearied in advancing the 
lanse of Christian truth with bit pen. The ' Chris- 
ion Hearer,' the ' Chrislisn Student,' a treatise on 
Baptism,' the ' Testimony of the Reformers,' and 
nanyolber woriu, weU known in the reUgions world, 
iMsst h(s tnety and seal Mr. BiokerstMh, in Feb- 
m«7, 18S0, was seiied with a paralytio stroke, 
whiiji soon after carried him oS^ in die riity-tUrd 
year of his age. l^-1 

BIDDLE, JAMn, ao AmaricMi oonunodore^ «a« 

iin in Philadelphia in 1733. He distinguished 

mself in the waroriB]2 with the British, and par. 
(ddpatsd in the victorious strug^e of tbe Wasp when 
she captnred the British brig (he Frolic. On the 
28d March, 1815, Biddle, while in command of the 
Hornet, met with the British brig of war the Pen- 
guin, off Tris(an D'Acunha, and caplmnd her after 
an action of only SS roinnte* duration. He was em- 
ployed as a diplomatist, and ugned the commocial 
treaty with Turkey in 1832 ; in 1845 be repreuoted 
" e United States as nlmsi Commissioner in the 

toe of A. H. Everett, in China. Died in IStS. 

BIDDLE, Joa>, a oele. Untterian, 1615-1662. 

ICkvub HUalx : 
nm u iriflHl ponr 

BIDDLE, NicBOLAB, captoia ii 


I» J 


H«*7, bmn Bt PhilMklpbU in 1T60. After mnj 
jcan of mdTenlare u k BritUh iBanui), in irhich h« 
■cqoirod ■ oomplete knoiried^ of bie jauftmoa, bs 
ntind the wrrioe <rf' Iha Doited SMtet, Mid vu 
TCijracaeMfiilinDaptaringdMTeMeliof tbe EngiUi 
•ntil Tth Munh, 1TT8, when, in action in the WmC 
ladiei vith the ship YMiuoiith of liic^-faiir goDi, 
dw tUndolph, vkidi bs eomnuuidwi, blew up, uid 
ba and tiie cnv, cooutiag of tbnx hmdred sod fif- 
Uen laen, Bxoapt fonr, wen dettoojed. 

BIDDLE, NicBOi.«a, ■ DOt«d Amflriaan fioueinr 
■^ Fieddcm of the Buk of ths Uaited StaM, wu 
bora in PbiUfMpbia, on the ttb of JumaiT, 1786. 
Hi* &tbar wu » diitingaUMd patriot daring ths 
d^TI dl (he ttoralatiaD, aod AIIhI the prominent effie* 
af -rimi pnMilimt </ the cnmnoawsalth of Penncyl- 
rasia whila Beojania Franklin «■■ tb« ohtef-nug- 
iMiate. Tha aalgect of oar biography graduated al 
Princeton College, in NevJeTWf, in the year 1801, 
iriiere he iiutauied a high character for elaMicol ac- 
qoirement. He then Rommenoed the nndy of law, 
bat before he wai admitted to the bar, he wu nleot- 
ed by tieoeral Annnlning a> his jHivate woMary, 
■ud aecompaoied that gentleman in his miMon to 
France in I8D4. While abroad he Cook adimntage 
of hii (^ipartanitiea for travel, and riiited vaiiom 
oonntriei on the Enropeaa cooUnetit. Before hia 
Tetom home he lerved also u lecietary to Mr. Mon- 
ne, then L'nited States miniiler to the enort of St. 
Jamea. When Ur. Biddle lettmied to the United 
Statea in IBOT, he caromeaoed tbe practice of the 
k^l profnuon at Philadelphia, where he al» en- 
gsj^ in litarary oecnpatioDS. He edited the Port- 
/Mt, in ooqjonction with Mr. Deimle, until that gen- 
dSBiaa'i death. Among hia literary perTurmaDOes 
he bu the er»dit of havinjj prepared a hiMory of 
Idwii and Claiiu^i eipedltHm to the Pacific Ooean, 
tttmm original iliii iiiaiaila auliiiiilliiil to him (breditoc- 

Tbe OaHwrtiaJ IHgal, pttpaml at tl 
of Idr. Mootoe and pnbliflied by Congieu, 
ten bj Nicbolu Biddle, and ia eiteenied a work of 
conaidenble Table to the mercantile interests. Hi- 
earl; embraced a politieal life, and was first elected 
to the legidatnre of Peniifylninia in 1810, and nib- 
teqnentlj to (he State aenate in 18]*, lie woe af- 
trrwarda nocniuated two sncceaaiTe times aa a candi- 
date for Ctatfoea, bnt did not succeed In being 
elected. His fint dir«t connection with tbe Bank 
of the Vnited Statis, an inatitotion of which he had 
been previonaly a political eitpporter, was in 1819, 
«ben he «b« elected a govenunent diivctor. In ISZ8 
ka wa* iBianimnaaly ^Men ptedfcit of that ooipo- 

ralion, to Ell the vacancy canted by tbe nelgnatioa 
of Langdon Chsves. He held this office for the pe- 
riod of aijrteen yflara, during which time he wat re- 
garded aa an able financier. The charter of the 
United State* Bank having expired in 1886, Andrew 
Jackaon, who was then President, vetoed its re- 
charter, and the Legislature of FaHHylrania adqtted 
the baiuc and cbartcred it u a State institation, nnder 
the title of the United States Bank of tbe State of 
Pennsylvania. Ur. Biddle con^ued u ita pnddent, ' 
and atrove to sostain it with all tbe eiMrgy and finan- 
cial tact he conld muster, hat wu nnsuooessfiil in 
saving it tkm bankruptcy. In 1889 Hr. Biddle re- 
tired from the presidency of the bank to hia eatate 
of Andalnria, on tbe Delaware, near Philadelphia, 
wfaei« be died in 1844 at ^e age of 68. 

BIDDLE, Thoh., an Am. ait. off., who fonght under 
0«D. Sc«t at Fort George and Lundy'a Lane, bnl wu 
riiot in a dtel at St. Louis by his antagonist, Spencer 
Pettla. The result was inevitable, ns they fought 
wttb overUi^nng pistols at the distance of five feet 

BIDERMANN, J. Q., a Ger. sanMt, 1708-17T2. 

BII>LOO, OoDracT, a Dnich anafc, 1649-1 TIS. 

BIEL, Gab., a pbiL of tbe NorainaHsta, 16th c 

BIEL, J. Ch., a learned Geman divine, d. 17*5. 

BIELFELD, J. F., Baron De, a political writer, 
eonnsellor of Frederick n., 1717-1770. 

BIEVRE, t™t MARqina Dc, a writer of some fu- 
gitive pieces, celebrated u an inveterate wit, 1747- 

BIRZ, Oddabt I>ti, martbal of Franoe, d. 1G61. 

BIOELOW, TiMOTKT, an eloquent and pnpalar 
lawyer of Barton, bom at Worcester, Maas., 1767, 
wu gradnated at Harvard In 1786 and died in 1821. 
Entering the House of Representatives in Massachu- 
setts, In 1790, he continued a member of it for 20 
years, of whii 
a legal practic 
1R,000 oai«a. 

BIGL.tNn, Johh, a miscel wr. 1780-1882. 

BIGNON, Jeko., a leaned Fr. wr. 1689-I66S. 

BIONON, J. P., grandson of Jerome, a dinting, 
eoelea and tnember ofthe Fr. Academy. 1662-1748. 

BWNON, L. P. E., a diplnmatist, and an. of a 
'Hlftory of French Dipkimacy,' »Titten by the desire 
tt Napoleon, by whom be was iVvqoently employed, 
and held <n the highest petrem, 1771-1841. 

BIGOT, Axsfiic, a French danio, 1626-1689. 

BIGOT, VtMceitT, a Jasnit miuionary at Penob- 
ioot, to which be wu «nt trota politieal motives by 
Denonville in 1687. 

BIKAM, W., an Engliab engraver, last cent 

BILDEBDTK, Wm., a Dutch poet, 1756-1881. 

BILFINOER, 0. B.. a Ger. ■nnnl, 169S-17G0. 

the aon of an advocatp, and Kke Fouch*, wu ednca- 
ted by the Joenits, but compelled to leave tbe cou- 
gi^ation of the oiat ry on account of his UcenCions- 
ness. He remained in obscurity until Uie outbiwak 
of die revolntion, when the revolt and fearful sacri- 
fice of Ufti at Nanci in the month of August, 1790, 
gave him an opportonhy of attacking the govern- 
ment, especially in a work of 8 vols. 8vo., entitled 
' Despotisme des Ministres de France.' Between this 
period and tbe autumn of 1792 be published several 
politicnl brochures, remarkable, it is understood, for 
tieir hmtal vehemence imther than for any original- 
ity or show of argument; and it wu (miy on tba 
10th of August in that year, when the death-Strug^ 
of the Swiss guard, followed by Ae sack of the 1^ 
lenes, and tbe imprisonment of the royal family locA 

5 lace, that be emerged IVom the obfcurfty of dia 
aubourgs as one of the hundred and foi^-lbiir w^ 


[ 100 ] 


feorned out the old manicipalB, and deobrad them- 
selves the ma^strates of the people. In the honible 
massacres of September he was seen standing in his 
official scarf, short brovm coat, and bUck wig, with 
one foot on a corpse and the other in a pool of blood, 
ui^ng the murderers at the Abbaye to continue the 
work of slaughter, of which, from mere physical ex- 
haustion they were growing weary. He was remark- 
able on all occasions for his repugnance to any regu- 
lar form in the administration of the people's wild 
vengeance, and had a principal share in the erection 
of die Revolutionary Tribunal, to which Marie An- 
toinette and many other victims were sent at his par- 
ticular instance. On the 9th Thermidor he con- 
sulted his own safety by joining in the clamorous ac- 
cusation of Robespierre, and a few days afVer his fall, 
was himself excluded from the committee which his 
cruel heart, and sometimes declamatory eloquence 
had so often served. The reaction having set in, he 
was condemned to tran^rtation, and afterwards to 
death, by the convention, but the sailing of the ship 
saved his life, and he remained twenty years in 
Cayenne before he effected his escape. In 1816 he 
made his way to St. Domingo, where the mulatto 
Petion was in power as president of the newly-estab- 
Ushed republic, by whom he was allowed a small 
pension. On tliis pittance the * resolute unrepentant 
man* contrived to subsist till the world was finally 
rid of him in 1819. [E.R.] 

BILLARD, Ch. M., a Fr. surgeon, 1800-1832. 

BILL AUT, Ad., a Fr. poet, time of Richelieu. 

BILLBERG, J., a Swed. mathemat, d. 1717. 

BILLING, SiGis., a French patriot and soldier of 
the revolution, coadjutor of Lafayette in 1830, died 

BILLINGSLEY, Sib Ht., a mathemat., d. 1616. 

BILSON, Thos., bp. of Winchester, 1536-1616. 

BINGHAM, Caleb, an American writer, gradua- 
ted at Dartmouth 1782, died at Boston 1817. He 
was a bookseller by profession and author of several 
popular school books, and also of a work of fiction 
entitled ' the Hunters.' 

BINGHAM, Jos., an eccles. writer., 166a-1723. 

BINGHAM, Sir Geo. Ridout, an officer in the 
Peninsular war ; afterwards accompanied Buonaparte 
to St Helena, 1777-1833. 

BINGHAM, William, United States Senator from 
Pennsylvania in 1795 and able adherent of the fede- 
ral party. In 1793 he purchased two million of acres 
in Maine. He died in England 1804. 

BINGLEY, Wm., a writer on natural history, d. 

BIOERN, the name of four kings of Sweden. 

BION, a Greek poet, 3d century B.a 

BION, a Greek philosopher, 8d centuiy B.C. 

BION, NioH., a Fr. mathematician, d. 1753. 

BIONDI, Sir Fb., an historian, 17th century. 

BIRAGUE, Clem., a Germ, engraver, 16th cent 

BIRAGUE, Rene Db, an It. ciudinal, resident in 
France, promoted the massacre of St. Bartholomew, 
and was made chancellor, 1509-1583. 

BIRCH, Sam., a distinguished citizen of London, 
mayor in 1814, promoter of the Lit Fund, 1757- 

BIRCH, Thos., a Quaker historian, 1705-1766. 

BIRD, Edward, R. A., a painter, 1705-1766. 

BIRD, JoHir, a math, inst maker, d. 1766. 

BIRD, or BIRDE, or BYRDE, Wiluam, the ad- 
mired musician, and great pupH of the celebrated 
Tallis, was bom about the year 1540, and is sup- 
posed to have been the son of Thomas Bird, one of 
the gentlemen of the chapel of Edward VI., where 
Bird received his first instructions in music as one of 

the singing boys. In 1563, he was made Mganist of 
Lincoln cathedral, which office he retained till 1569, 
when he was appointed gentieman c^ Queen Eliza^ 
beth's ch^)el, and in 1575 became organist to her 
majesty. Up to the period of his death, which hap- 
pened m 1623, he composed a great amount of vocal 
music, chiefly sacred, and from the circuizutanoe that 
the words he chose were, for the most part, portions 
of the Romish ritual, it is supposed that he was se* 
cretiy a professor of that faith, though from the ap- 
pointments he held, he must have conformed to the 
reformed religion. It is impossible now to name the 
number of his works, if we inclu'^e his instrumental 
compositions, of which no fewer than seventy-three 
are to be fomid in Queen Elizabeth's celebrated Vip< 
ginal book. Bird is, however, now chiefly known by 
his great canon ' Non Nobis Domine*' And thou^ 
some persons have sought to deprive him of the fame 
of its authorship, and have attributed it ^ Palestrinai 
neverthelesfl, those best able to judge have never 
hesitated to regard it as the work of William Bird, 
and to all time it will be looked upon as an English 
national work and an enduring monument of his 
greatness as a musician. Bird was highly esteemed, 
btoh in his private and public capacity. [J.M.] 

BIRDSEYE, Nathan, a congregational minister, 
bom 1714, gra[duated at Yale in 1736, ordained at 
West Haven 1742, and died at Stratford in 1818 in 
the 104th year of his age, leaving two hundred and 
six living descendants. He preached after he had 
attained 100 years. 

BIREN, John Ernest Db, dk. of Courland, and 
regent of Russia after the death of Anne, 1687- 

BIRGER DE BIELBO, Couirr Palatine, and 
regent of Sweden at the deatii of Eric, 1210-1266. 

BIRKBECfC, Geobob, M.D., the founder of me- 
chanics^ institutions, bom at Settie 1776, d« 1841. 

BIRKBECK, M., author of travels, &0., d. 1825. 

BIRBCENHEAD, Sm J., a poL wr., 1615-1679. 

BIROK, Aruand De Gontaot, Baron De, mar- 
shal of France, slain at the si^^ of Epemay, 1524- 
1592. Ch. db Gontaut, son of the preceding, 
bom 1561 ; admiral of France, 1592 ; marshal, 
1594 ; duke, 1598 ; beheaded, 1602. Ch. Armand, 
grand-nephew of the last, marshal, 1663-1756. 
Louis Anthony, his son, marshal oi France, 1701- 
1788. Arsiand Louis, duke of Lauznn, nephew of 
Louis Anthony, and sfter his deatii duke de Biron, 
celebrated as a companion in arms <^ Lafayette in 
America, and afterwards as a soldier of the revolu- 
tion, beheaded 1793. 

BISACCIONI, Count, a dis. It. gen., 1582 1663. 

BISCHOFF, Dr., a German botanist, d. 1854. 

BISCOE, RiCHD., an English divme, d. 1748. 

BISHOP, Georob, author of a narative of the 
persecution of the Quakers by the oongregationalists 
of New England, published 1661. 

BISHOP, Samuel, an English poet, 1731-1795. 

BISHOP, Sir Hbnry Kent, an English musical 
composer, prof, of music in the university of Oxford, 
b. in London, 1786, d. 1855. 

BISSET, Ch., a wr. on fortification, 1716-1791. 

BISSET, James, a fugitive writer, died 1832. 

BISI, Bonaventure, an ItaL painter, d. 1662. 

BIVAR, Don Rodrioo Dias Db. See Cid. 

BIZOT, Pierre, a wr. on numismatics, 1636-96. 

BLACAS, Due Db, a French diplomatist, favorite 
of Louis XVin., 1770-1839. 

BLACK, Joseph, bom near Bordeaux, 1728, died 
1790. His father, a native of Belfast, resided for 
some years at Bordeaux, as a wine merchant. He 
was of Scottish origin, and had manned Miss Gor- 

■ « < 




don, of Billhead, in Aberdeenflhire. The yoang 
ohemist was first at school in Belfast, and afterwards 
at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. In 
1756, he was appointed lecturer on diemistrj and 
professor of anatomj, afterwards of medicine, in Glas- 
gow. Here he remuned until 1766, when he was 
chosen to the chemical chair in Edinburgh. During 
this period he made the hnpoortant discoveiy of the 
cause of the difierence between limestone and quick- 
lime, and showed that quicklime is limestone deprived 
of a portion of its weight in the form of carbonic 
acid. It was by this experiment, while yet a student, 
tiiat he drew attention to the importance of the use 
of weights, a precaution which had hitherto been 
n^ected by chemists, and from which omission 
many erroneous theories bad been propagated. His 
second important discovery was that when water 
ehanges into steam, 140^ of heat enter into it which 
aie not peroeptible by the thermometer, and which 
he termed kUeid, It is obvious that on this fact de- 
pends some of the important eircumatances with re- 
gard to the economy of the steam engine. These 
two capital diseoveries of Black have been of greater 
service to science than perhaps any equal number of 
data ever pointed out by pbiloeophers. Dr. Black 
was a man of elegance, modesty, and indolence. His 
active life in science terminated in his thirty-eighth 
year, for after his removal to Edinbui^h he engaged 
in no inquiries, and contented himself with teaching 
th« science. He was beloved as a friend, medical 
adviser, and teacher, and his name must long occupy 
a xriche in the scienti6c temple of fame. [R.D.T] 

BLACKBURNE, Fr., a&eologian, 1705-1787. 

BLACK HAWK, whose Indian name was Much- 
ber-la-me'tdidb-ker'ierkj a celebrated chief and war- 
rior, d. 1838. 

BLACKLOCK, TnoMika, D.D., was the son of an 
English artisan settled at Annan, in the county of 
Dumfries, where he was bom, 1721. At the age of 
six months he lost his sight from an attack of the 
small-pox, yet arrived at distinction as a classical 
scholar and poet ; not, indeed, to very high rank in 
the latter respect, but to a degree of recognition ex- 
ceedingly creditable to his taste and intelligence under 
the circumstances. For the early cultivation of his 
mind he was indebted to the kind friends who read, 
for his behoo(^ the works of Spenser, Milton, Prior, 
and Addison, and subsequently to the friendship of 
Dr. Stephenson, who procured his admission to the 
univenity of Edinburgh. His first attempts in poesy 
were made in his twelfth year, and a few years later 
gave proof of his pasaonate love for music In 1 759 
he was licensed to preach in the Scotch kirk, and in 
1762 was presented with the living of Kirkcudbright, 
by the eari of Selkiric ; but after two years of strife, 
abandoned this field of labor, in consequence of ob- 
jections botii to his preaching and his blindness, 
urged by the perisMoners. A small annuity was 
settled upon him at this time, with which he retired 
to BIdinlrargh, where he passed the remainder of his 
life in Hterary pursuits, partiy employed as a teacher. 
The best of his poetical pieces is *The Graham,* an 
heroic ballad. He married in 1762 ; and in 1767 
the degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by the 
IfarisSial College, Aberdeen. The last edition of 
his walks was published in 1796, with a life of the 
author, by Mr. Spense. Dr. Blacklock died at the age 
of seventy, July 7, 1791. [E.R] 

BLACKMAN, Adam, an eminent Puritan minis- 
ter, bom in England, settled at Stratford in Connec- 
ticut, of which he was the first pastor in 1640, and d. 
BLACKMOBE, Sib Bichard, a very indifierent 

poet of fhe time of Dryden, in better repute as an 
honest man and a physician, died 1721. 

BLACKSTONE, Sib William, a judge and cele- 
brated commentator on the law of England, was bom 
in London on 10th July, 1722. He was the posthu- 
mous child of a silk mercer, and lost his mother in 
infancy. When about seven years old he was sent 
to the Charter House, where he was ultimately 
placed on the foundation. He studied at Pembroke 
College, Oxford, and in 1743 was made a fellow of 
All Saints. In 1746 he was called to the bar firom 
the Middle Temple. He had written some popular 
ftiptive pieces, chiefly poetical, one of them called 
' The Lawyei's FareweU to his Muse.' His qualifi- 
cations were not of the kind which bring business 
through the usual channels, and he retired on his 
fellowship. Finding, however, that his studies took 
naturall V the direction of the law and constitution of 
England, he opened a course of lectures on the sub- 
yc^ in 1758. Mr. Viner, struck by the importance 
of a foundation for teaching this important depart- 
ment of knowledge, foundea tiie Vinerian professor- 
ship, which Blackstone was the first to occupy in 
1758. The popularity of his lectures, and of some 
minor tracts on jurisprudential suljecta, opened the 
way to practice, and he returned to the law courts, 
entering parliament in 1761. In 1762 he received a 
patent as king's counsel, and the honorary office of 
solicitor-general to the queen. About the same time 
he married Sarah Clithroe, by whom he was the 
father of nine children. The first volume of the cele- 
brated ' Comentaries on the Laws of England ' was 
published in 1765. The other three volumes followed 
in rapid succession. No English law book has been 
at onoe so popular and so gravely censured. Both 
the praise ana blame were elicited by the same fea- 
tures. In England, so much weight is attributed to 
the sentences and individual words in which the law 
is expressed, that its interpreters generally seek 
safefy from responsibility in employing the exact 
terms in which it has been originally given forth, in 
statute, decision, or the opinion of some early sage of 
the law. This practice gives their works a hard, 
disjointed, piebald appearance, forbidding as a whole, 
however valuable the separate parts may be. Black- 
stone tried to convert the mass into a readable well- 
arranged book, and succeeded. He has made many 
people readers of the law, and more or less instructed 
in it, who otherwise would not have approached the 
forbidding science. But on the other hand, the deeper 
practical members of the profession have pronounced 
his work unsatisfactory and superficiaL To make 
his book consistent and readable, he endeavored to 
give a reason for every thing, while other writers told 
it baldly as it stood. The tendency of his commen- 
taries was thus to make whatever existed in the law 
appear to be exactiy what it should be. Now that 
many of the things which he commended as the per- 
fection of wisdcHU, have been abolished as tyrannical 
and absurd, his reasoning in their support sometimes 
appears sufficiently ludicrous. The disposition to 
justify things as they were, made his writings accep- 
table to government, and they were the more so that 
in accounts of the origin ci national institutions, he 
ever kept out of sight the more violent revolutionaiy 
movements by which the constitution was created. 
Only in his celebrated passage against the game 
laws does he take a side contrary to what may be 
called conservative predilections. The * Commenta- 
ries ' are still in active use, and ever oall for the ser- 
vices of fresh editors. Blackstone disliked political 
contention, and declined the opening to high promo- 
tion ofiered to him in the office of solicitor-general. 




He wa«, in 1770, app<unted one of the jnstioes of die 
Ki^s Bench, and in a few months transfezred to the 
Common Pleas. He died on 14th Febraaiy, 1780. 


BLACKSTONE, Wm., the first inhabitant of Bos- 
ton. He was a cleigyman of the Church of England, 
and had built his cottage among the Indians five 
years before the arrival of Grovemor Winthrop in 1630. 
The company claimed all the land on the strength of 
the charter, but gave him fifty acres, which he sold to 
them in 1635, extending to die Pawtucket or Black- 
stone River, near Providence, where the remains of 
his house are still to be seen. He died in 1675, after 
a residence of fifty yeaxs in New England. His body, 
covered with a white stone, reposes near his house, 
and a little eminence, called Study Hill, marks the 
place where the patriarch of New England retired for 

BLACKWALL, Akt., an Eng. critic, 1674-1730. 

BLACKWELL, Ausx., a ^tch physician and 
economist ; settled in Stockholm, and beheaded for 
conspiracy, 1747. His wife, Elizabetfe, disting. 
as the authoress of a * Herbal,* with 500 plates, 
drawn, engraved, and colored by herself. 

BLACKWOOD, A., a Scotch au., 1589-16ia 

BLACKWOOD, Sir H.. a nav. com., 1770-1832. 

BLADEN, Mabtik, a miscel. writer, d. 1746. 

BLAEUW, Wm., a Dutch geogr., 1571-1688. 

BLAINVILLE, M. De, an anatom., 1778-1850. 

BLAIK, Hugh, D.D., a ceL Scotch divine^ and 
miscellaneous writer, 1718-1800. 

BLAIR, JoHH, a member of the convention which 
formed the Constitution of the United States, and 
colleague of Madison as deputy from Viiginia. 
Washington appointed him, in 1789, an associate 
judge of the Supreme Court. He died in 1800, 
aged 68. He was one of the purest and most noble 
whom the Am. Revolution brought into public Ufe. 

BLAIR, Jas., a cleigyman of the Episcopal Church, 
and first president of William and Mary College in 
Vii^ginia, which was founded through his exertions. 
He was a native of Scotland, which he left at the 
end €i the reign of Charles IL He went to Virginia 
as missionary in 1685, was appointed ecclesiastical 
oonmiissary in 1689 ; visited England in 1691, to 
obtain the sanction of government for the erection of 
a college ; entered on his duties as ooUege president 
in 172^, which he continued to perform till 1742, 
and died after an arduous ministry of sixty years, in 
1743. A volume of his discourses was published in 
London 1742. 

BLAIR, J., a chronological author, died 1782. 

BLAIR, RoBT., au. of ♦The Grave,' 1700-1746. 

BLAKE, Wm., an artist and poet of singular genius 
and originality, lemariLable also for his extraordinary 
visions, 1759-1827. 

BLAKE. In all the long list of EngUind*s naval 
heroes, there is not a name more glorious than that 
of Admiral Blake. Perhaps he deserves to be ranked 
even highest of all, if we look not merely to the num- 
ber and brilliancy of his victories, but to the origin- 
ality of his genius, and to the hifh character of the 
ocmnuuMiers and the crews whom he encountered and 
vanquished. Blake tamed the pride of the Dutch 
navy when it was in the perfeodon of eqnipment, 
discipline, spirit, and skill He triumphed over Van 
Tromp and De Ruyter, admirals who, until they coped 
with Blake, were reputed invincible. Nelson him- 
self never ngnaUzed his genius and his bravery against 
such competitors as these. Robert Blake was die 
son of a merchant at Bridgewater in Somersetshire, 
und was bom there in August, 1599. He was well 
educated, first at his native grammar school, and 

then at Oxford, where he was distinguished for hfr 
strictness in religion, and for his liberal politics. At 
the age of twenty-seven, in consequence or his father^s 
embarrassments and deadi, Blake was called on, as 
the eldest son, to take the management of the wreck 
o£ the family business, and to maintain his mother 
and several younger brothers and sisters. He did 
this du^ in private life for many years : but on the 
outbreak of the civil war between Charles L and the 
parliament, Blake came forward on the popular side, 
and raised a troop <^ dragoons, which he personally 
commanded. Blake's military career has been 
eolipsed by the superior lustre of his naval achieve- 
ments ; but he was one of the ablest commanders 
and bravest soldiers that fought for the Houses ; and 
some of his exploits in the west of Blngland showed 

fenius of the highest order. It would be dilficnlt to 
nd parallels either in ancient or modem history, 
for Blake's defence of Lyme against Prince Maurice ; 
or for his daring occupation ofTauntoa and success- 
ful defence of that place agunst Goring. When the 
war was over Blake was made a commisstooer of the 
navy, and placed in command of the ships that were 
sent agfunst Rupert^s piratical squadron. Blake was 
at this time fifty years old. He may have had some 
aoqiiaintance with a seafaring life when be was 
a Bridgewater merchant, but besides his natural 
courage^ decision, and promptitude, he must have 
possessed remarkable quickness of apprehension and 
fertility of genius to enable him to adapt himself to 
his new command in naval war, and to inspire those 
whom he led, with his own daring alacrity, and in- 
domitable resolution. He was equally active and 
sagacious as a reformer of the numerous abuses which 
he found prevalent in the admiralty, and in every de- 
partment of the service ; and Blake did for the Brit- 
ish navy in the middle of the 17th century what Earl 
St. Vincent did afterwards for it at the close of the 
18th. Blake's successes against Rupert and other en- 
emies of the commonwealth, caused him to be raised 
to die chief command of the English fleet when war 
broke out between die English and Dutch repnbb'cs 
in 1652. A series of navtd batdes ensued, which are 
unequalled in history for the skill and for the obsti- 
nate valor displayed on both sides. Once, and once 
only, the Dutch had the advantage, on the 29di of 
November, 1652, when Blake was obliged with less 
than forty ships to fight Van Tromp with 80 in the 
Downs. But the English Admiral more than re- 
deemed his fame in the February following, when he 
completely defeated Van TVomp in dieir great three 
dayc^ sea fight along die channeL A last, when after 
two years of desperate warfare, Blake had nearly de- 
stroyed the Dutch navy, Holland was compelled in 
1654 to sue for peaoe. Cromwell had turned oatthe 
parliament and made himself protector of England 
during this period, but Blake declared that a sailor's 
duty was to serve his country against the foreigner, 
and he continued to guide die British fleets wherever 
the honor of England required. Cromwell sent him to 
the Mediterranean, where he made the English flag 
universally respected. He compelled the Maltese 
knights and the Tuscan government to pay for the 
seizure of s)me English merchant vessels, and made 
the pope pay also for having allowed them to be sold 
in his ports. He awed the dey of Alters into the 
suirendor of all his English captives ; and when the 
dey of Tunis refused to do the same, Blake burnt the 
pirate fleet under the guns of the town, destroyed 
the forts, and compelled the haughty barbarians to 
obey his orders. He did good service in blockading 
the port of Cadis, when the Spanish war began ; and 
his last and most daring enterprise was the destrao- 




UoD of tb« Spaidah Tt««aie fleet aod the foitifica- 
titHU M Suits Cnu in Teneriffa In 166T. Even the 
n^klist English called this ■chieTcmeaC ' mincn- 
loiu.' BUke hu been oenmred for reihneu in at- 
tempting it, bnt hii lut and beat biographer, Ur. 
Qepvorth Diion, hu proved that the enterprise wu 
aa ably plumed ae it vai heroically exemled. Thia 
Wit BlJce'» Sua] eerrice to his conntij. He iiclt- 
ened aa hia Tictorioiu fleet retnnied to England, and 
be died during the verr entrance of bis ahip into 
Pljmooth Smmd. It irouM be ditficult to And a 
character more pnrelf brigbt than Blake's. He *as 
lincerel/ religious, and he was as honest and ai gen- 
enos as be was brave. His morals were ataialcsi. 
Hia Triendihips and hia domeatio aSbctious were 
warm ; hut they never betrayed him into weaknesi ; 
■nd be atern^y cashiered hia own favorita brother 
who showed want of ooonge in command oF a ship 
at Santa Crui. Cromwell caused the j^reat adminil 
to be buried with the highest pomp at Westminster ; 
bnt DQ the restoration oT the Stuaria, they heaped 
alemal infamy on themselvea bjr outraging the mor- 
tal remain) of the hero before whom they and their 
despotic friends on the thrones of Europe tor so many 
jemn had trembled. The great admiral was at the 
mge of sii^ when be died in his country's service. 

BLAKE, JoaEpa, a large proprietor in South Car- 
olina towards the end of the seventeeuth century. 
He was nephew of the renowned admiral Blake, and 
was governor of South Carolina for about one year 

BIAKELET, JomfnroM, captahi In the United 
Stalee navy. In the war of 1813 he was in oom- 
mand of the Wa^. He fought two actions, one with 
tte Reindeer in 181*, which he captored and burnt, 
tlH other with the Avon, which was saved by tbe 
mpprouih of aome other English vessels after she hod 
itroA to him. Tbe Wan> with all on hoaid proba- 
bly fomidered at sea ahorUy after, aa no tidings was 
ever heard of her. 

BLANCAS, Ju., a Spanish hiatorian, d. IG90. 

BLANCHAKD, Ft, a oeleb. Fr. aeronaut, d. 
1809 1 hia wife, alKi an aeronaut, klllad I8I9. 

BLANCSARD, Jans, a Fr. paint, 1600-1«t8. 

BLANCHASD, J. R, proi. of rtiet, 1781-1797. 

BLANCHARD, Limak, a disting. contribntor to 
periodical litentnre, oommitted suicide, lB4fi. 

BLANCHARD, Wm., a oeL comod., 1769-183B. 

BLANCHE, queen of Navam, died 1*41. 

BLANCHE OF Asrora, q. of Navarre, d. 1800. 

BLANCHE OP Bodbbok, q. of Caatile, pois^med by 
hw hoAand, Peter Aa Cniel, 1861. 

BLANCHE or Cahtile, dang, of Alph. VL, b 
1187, q. ofLouiaVin. ofFranoe 1201, d. 13S2. 

BLANCHELANDE, P. F.,gDVernoror St. Domin- 
go, eiecnted as a counter-revolntionist 1793. 

BLANDE, ItiCHiBD, an emment cititen of Vir- 
ginia, renowned for his able political writinga, and 
exalted patriotism. For many years prior to the 
Revolution he was a leader in the House of BnrgeasM 
of Virginia, and In 1774 was a delegate to Congrees. 
His chief production was an inquiry into the rights 
of the British ooloniea, published in 1768. He did 
mnoh to help forward the Revolution, but old age 
prevented him from Caking any very acdve part m 
that event when it occorred. When elected a seoood 
time to Congress in 1T7G, he was compelled to de- 
cline. He died in 1778. 

BLAND, Theodobio, colonel, an offloer in the 
United States army during tbe Rerohilioa. He VM 

f laced in command of Albemarle barracks in Virginia 
I 1779. The next year he wm elected to Congreaa. 
He was afterwards a member of the lcgialatui« at his 
native State, Virginia, and alan of the fir«t Congress 
under the new oonitituBon, Ho died at New Tork, 
June 1, 1790. 

BLANE, Sm Q., phys. to Geo. in., 17*9-188*. 

BLANKEN, Joux, a Dutch engineer, last ct 

BLANQUt, Jebosk Adolphe, a French econom. 
ical writer, anthor of a work on tlie agrionltural 
condition of France and of a series of lectorea on in- 
duatrial economy, d. 1854, aged 55. 

BLANITRE, Lobd, aPeninsn. olBcer, k. IS30. 

BLAU, F. A., a Ger. tbeol. and critio, 1764-98. 

BLAYNEY, Da. Bkhj., a biblical wr., d. 1801. 

BLEECKER, Ann EueA, an American writer, 
whose posthnmoaa works in prose and verse were pub- 
lished In 1793. Her maiden name was Schuyler. 
After her marriage at the age of 17, she resided on the 
North River, and was driven from her reaidenoe near 
Albany by the approach of the English army under 
BurgOTua in 1777. In her Right she endured gnat 
privations. She died hi lT83,attho early age of 81. 

BLEKCKEI^ AtrmOKT, o minMllaneaua Ameri- 
can writer, by profession a lawyer, and a man of 
learning and alnlity. Prevented by ditBdenoe boia 
taking the stand at the bar to which hia attainment* 
entitled him, he turned hia aCteatloa to literature, 
and gained a looal celebrity in New Yoit as a poet 
Hf died in 1827, at the age of 49. 

BLEISWICK, Pcteb Vam, a Dntch steteiman, 
author of a Latin treatise on dykes, IT24-1790. 

BLESSINGTON, Maui. Power, countess of, oeL 
for bar contrib. to polite literature, 1789-18*9. 

BLETTERIE, J. B, R. Db Li, an his., legS-lTTJ. 

BLIGH, Geo. M., a naval nnunander, d. 1835. 

BLIZZARD, 9™ W., a disting. surg., 1742-1835. 

BLOCH, Mucus E., a naturalist, 1733-1799, 

BLOCif, JoAKDA K., disting. for her imitation* oT 
landscapes, portraits, &o., in paper, 1850-1715. 

BLOMEFIELD, Fh., a topograph, wr., d. 1766. 

BLOMflELD, E. V., a clas. aohol., 1788-1816. 

BLOND, Che. C, a mln. painter, 1670-1741, 

BLONDEL, a minstrel oefebrated hi the hirtorj 
of Rjobard I. a* the disooverer of hia dungeon. 

BLONDEL, David, a prolea wr., 1591-1656. 

BLOMIEL, Fa., a wr. on arnhiteo., 1617-1630. 

BLO>fDKL, JoHK F., an architect, 1706-1774. 

BLONDIN, J. N., a Fr. grammar. 176a-1888. 

BLONDIN, P., a French botanist, 1883-1718. 

BLOTELING, A. C, a Dutch engrav., 1834-1690. 

BLOOD, Thomas, originally a col. In the armr, 
notoriona for his attempt on the legalia, died 1680^ 

BLOOMFIELD, Robebt, an amiable man, and k 
pleanng descriptiTa poet, is chiefly remarkable a* an 



btUoae of tU trintnpb of IHenif IncIinUioiu onr 
eitanul diScnlCtei. He was bcm in I76A, at a 
Ttllago aeur Bniy St Edmnnd'a, when bii rather, a 
tailor, left him an orphan Id iuTuic;, and the widow 
taught a little achooL He woi a jonmeyTTxaxi oho^ 
inaliBr in London, when be wrote bi> paitoral poem, 
'The Fanner's Boy.' This, the wo A of hit ttiat it 
most liksl; to live, was pnbljshttl in 18D0, aad at- 
tained aa eitiaordinaty popolariCj, w«11 desBrred in 
itaeir, and natural in the barrenness which then 
raigDed in poetry. Among his subsequent Tolnmes 
were ' Good Tidings, or News from the Farm,' and a 
ooUedioD of 'Rnr^ Tales' sod other pieces. Hii 
feeble health impeded efibrts made to provide for 
him hj pemma oT rank who took an interest in the 
■elT-taogbt poet ; and after mncb distress and sick- 
Mss, wluoh in the end aflbcted the mind as well as 
flie body, be died at SheSbrd in Bedfiudshite In 1838. 

BLOOHFIELD, Joseph, irovenior oTNew Jenaj 
from ISOI to 1812, and bi^adier-general in the 
arm; of the United States in the last war with Eng- 
land! He died at Bnrlington, N. J., 183S. 

BLOUNT, Chablzs, earl of DeTmshire, and Lord 
Monn^oy, quelled T;TODe's rebel, 1663-1600. 

BLOUNT, C, a deisticsl wr., com. soicide, 1693. 

BLOUNT, Sib H., an Eastern ttar., IS02-1682. 

BLOUNT, Thob., a fbgitive hist., 1619-1679. 

BLOUNT, Sib Th. Pofk, Bart, author of a cats 
logne of celebrated actbora, tee., 1S49-16ST. 

BLOUNT, WiLUAH, goremor of TennesKe i 
1T9S. Expelled rrom the Senate of the United States 
for plotdng vi& the English government the ooo- 
qnest (tf the Spanish possessbns. Died at KiKnrille, 

BLOW, JoBH, a compoasr aC nnuic, 3. 1 TOB. 

BLUCHEIt. Gebhabt Lebbbcht Von Blucheb 
was bom at Rostock in Mecklenbnrg-Schwerin In 
1742, His Tamilf was andent but poor. Tooug 
Blncbei enlisted in a regiment of SweiUab bossan at 
the age of Sfleen, but soon afterwatds he entered the 
aimy of Prussia, the oonntiy which he wa« de. 
to serTe so abl/. He was presemt in some of the 
battles of Uie seven years' war ; and acquired 
high reputation as a daHng and resolute soldier, 
though his coarse and violent temper brangbl bim 
into heqnent difBcnlties, and impeded the rate of 
his promotion. He retired from the service io ITTO, 
in anger at a sappoaed slight, but retnrned to it 
ag^n in 1786, and when tlie wars of the French 
revolutioD oonunenced, Blucher was colonel :^ a reg- 
iment of Block Hussars. He commanded the left 
wing of the Dnke of Brunswick's army in 1 TS3, wHb 
mat credit for skill as well as courage ; and in 
1806, In the seoond war between France and Fms- 

da, he was onDmander of Hn Pmsdan e^nhj. 

After the disasters of Jena and Auerstad^ Blnchat 
signalized himself by the ability of his retreat, and 
by his de^wrote mristazice before he capitnlaCed to 
Ml ptirsusers. From 1806 to 1813 Blucher lived in 
rBtiremeiit, watching eagerly for Prussa's opportn- 
" *ir rising against ber Fr;nch oppressors. Thi» 

after Napoleon's Rourion campaign of 1813. 

9T was DOW seventy years old, hot hie spirit 
was as fiery as ever, and Uiera was no general in the 
war of German liberation whom his countrymen fol- 
lowed with more enthusiasm, or who did more for 
the rBBcne of the fatheriand. He commanded an 
aimy formed partly of Pruaeians and partiy of Rbs- 
nans, which was called the army of Klena. On Aw> 
SB, IS13, he routed and nearly destroyed tbe French 
army under Marshal Mocdonold, at the Katibacii, a 
victory ib*t redeenwd the reverses of Lntzen and 
BantiBn. Blnchcr waa by Napoleon's own oonfhs- 
sion, the keenest, the moat indomitaUe, and tha 
most forrnidable of tJie foes, who now drove the 
French back serosa the Rhine. No reverees dis- 
heartened him, no difficulties appalind him ; and it 
was only when held back by the more cautioni poli- 
cy of other chiefs of the allies, that the veteran waa 
ever heard to eipives diqileaaore or anxie^ about 
the p L 'O ffles e of the war. In 1814, when the oDiea 
entered France, Bluoher was again the Erst and the 
fieroest among Napoleon's asaiulanta. He bad tba 
advantage over him at Brienne ; he was surprised 
and severely ponlsbed by the emperor at Monterean ; 
bnt he was soon pressing forward ag^n upon Paria^ 
fonght deq>eratcly at CiiuHi, was victorious at LaoD, 
and finally joined in the attack opon Paris on the 
80th March, 1814, which caused the surrender of 
the French capital, and the end of the war. When 
Napoleon returned from Elba in 1816, Bluoher com- 
manded the Prussian army in Belgium, which In 
ooiynnotion with the Britjsh army under Wellington, 
fought the campaign of Waterloo. Bluoher't army 
wa* the first tlut ttie French emperor attacked ; on 
the 16^ of June the obsdnate battle <^ UgQy took 
place, in ii4iicb, as Blucher himself mnarkod, the 
Pnuuans lost the day, but not their honor. Thongb 
foioed to retreat in consequeace of this defeat, Bln- 
cher bad his army rallied and ready for action vain 
I before twenty-four honn were over ; and on the 13dl 
be marched according to promise to aid Wellington at 
Walarioo. Blooher came on the field In force to- 
I wards theeveoingofthatevei-memorableday. Helad 


Ua aolnnuu od Napoleon'a ri^ flank and nar, mdi 

the LDtantioii of not cmly BuccoririK tbo Engluh, but 
of utterly cmahinn the French. His »noce«ii it well 
known. Often repolMd, and at laM £etcelir charsed 
In front by the dnke'i army, the Fronch were onable 
lo Lold back Blucher on their riglit, and wen BwBpt 
&om the field in irretrievahle niin. After that de- 
asire battle Blacker advanced into Pranoe in coo- 
jnnotion with the duke, aud a second time was [sesent 
at the snrrendeT of Paris. Blocbei'a fierce animosity 
■f^nst the French made him wish to storm their 
capital, and he aipresaed a jmijxiH of shootiag Na- 
poleon himself on the very spot, in the ditch at Vin- 
ccDHs, where the Dnke ETEaghien had been Diur- 
deied. He yielded, howenr, thoneh sa&enly and 
relactautly, to the sage advice of his En^iih ool- 
leagoe. Blocher died In eitreme old af!e «t Krio- 
blowilz, in ^lena, Septamber 12, 1619. He va« 
almost idoliied by the Pnunan nation, who jnstly 
looked on him as the sarionr of the oonotry. Bln- 
cber knew little of Mral^y, bnt he had die good 
sense to be aware of his own deficiency, and to fol- 
low in military plans and maDoeuTres the able ad- 
Tloas of Gen^vl Gneiaeoaii, to whom he always 
frankly expressed his obligation. Old 'HarriialFor- 
wards ' (as the eoldien lored to call Btacber) ewi^ 
eised an animating inflceaca over his meo, which 
was invahublB, amid the general proetratioD ot spirit 
which the iDCcestes of the French brfore 1812 had 
created ; and eioept Wellington, no man did more 
(ban Bhichar towarda the llbaration of Eoinpe from 
Boonapaite's milztaiy a|:iire*Bian. [E.3.C.] 

BLUH, J. CuK., a German lyric, IT39-IT90. 

BLUH, BoBKBT, one of those active sidrila miiad 
to eminence by Uis rarolntionary enmB of 1S18. 
He had ipent hui early life in n mnch oheoority that 
Utile ia known of him. He is said to hare bMo bora 
at Cologne in ISOT, to have been • working jeweller 
tnTcUing abodt after the manner of the yoong Qer- 
aaa ha^craftamen, and lo lukrl se^ad in Cologne 
fai 1S30, as box openu of the dwatre. Afterwards 
he excited attentioD unong Ills Meada <£ advanoe- 
maxt in Germaoy by his oootributiona to flte press, 
and especially by hii eiposnres of the nltramonteae 
religious pat^ in the affair of the holy coat of 
1leie«. When Uie parlioiUBnt of Frankfort was em- 
bodied in 1848, he repiaseated Cologne, and became 
diitingnished as the leader of the eitrsme reioln- 
lioa par^. He had a rapid dennndatory eloqoence, 
whence he was called the Gennan O'CoDoell. " 
mixed himielf up with the revolnlioQaiy looTm 
at Vienna, and on their snpfreaaion was condemned 
by a court-martial to be ihot on the 9th of HoT«m- 
ber, 1948. The act waa significant, M the be^ 
□log of the stammeamrespnrsned by Anitria againat 
the liberal party in Germany. 

BLUMAUEK, L., a Got. sat. pool, 1TS8-1798. 

BLUMBERG, C. G., an Orien. sohol., 1664-1736. 

BLl'MENBACH, JUH FuDSRio, a oelebrat«l 
comparative anatonust, phyai<dogist, and natnrallst, 
«a> bom at Gotha in ITS2. He died at Gottingen 
in 1840. Whilst still a child, the y<nmg Blomenbach 
eihlbited a strong inclination for IJioae pnranita wbioh 
ia after years rendered him to distingnlshed. He 
stodied Grit at the nniversity of Jena, then at Got- 
tingen. At this latter place he snoOHided in per^ 
•nadlng the aniTartity to pnndiasa a large cadlection 
of otjects of natural history, philology, and ethnol- 
ogy, belonging to one of llie pn&ssors. He was ap- 
pointed curator of tUs amsamn, which he soon ren- 
dered famous by the extcDsin additioaa ha made to it 
" ■■ * ■ ' ■ ■ " irofmed- 

a imi<«ni^; : 

which he 

held fcr Dxty years. Daring all this time he de- 
voted himself with nninterruplsd assidnlty to the 
stndy of comparative anatomy, phynolo^, arid njlt* 
oral history, espedaDy his grand stndy, the natural 
history of man. He was the first lo establish the 
division of the homan raoe into five varieties, the 
Cancanan, Mongolian, Ethicqiian, American and 
Malay. But the grand idea predominant in Blomen- 
baoh's mind, was the sabject of the nnity of the hu- 
man species. To establish this he proved from ao- 
atcnuy and phjsiolo^ that a wide interval, withoot 
oonneotioD, withont transition, separates man from 
every other species of onimaL He shows that not 
only no species of animal approaches him, no genn* 
does, no family even. The hnman species is one, 
and one alone. His nomeroos worics upon this sub- 
ject, apoD natmral history, physiology, and compar- 
atits anatomy, have obtained for Blmnenbach k 
worid-wide rvpntation. He held highly responsihlo 
offices Offlmectod with bis university and the tovni ia 
which tie lived. He maintained a correspondence 
with the most eminent pbilosopbere of nit countries ; 
received all scientitio penons who visited Qottiugen, 
and was justly esteemed the patriarch of the nniver- 
sity. The town of Gottingen owed most of its proa- 
perity to him. Seventy-eight learned sodeties reck- 
oned him amongst their members. Medals wera 
Btmck in his honor. Each annlversa^ of his pro- ■ 
feworship was celobralsd bj fetes, and priies were 
estabij^ed in his name. Beloved by his pa[nlB and 
townsmen, revered by his country, he closed a calm 
and peacefiil lift at the advanced age of eiidity- 
eight [S^B.] 

BLUTEAU, D. K., a lexioographer, died 1734. 

BOABDIL, last Moorish king of Qranado, 1491. 

BOADICE.^ the celebr. British heroine, queen 
of til* Icenl, vanquished and died by poison, 61. 

BOBROF, SiHON S., a Russian poet, died 1610. 

BOCTHOR, Elliohs, on Arab, schol., died 1821. 

BOCCACCIO, QiovA-im, is aiustrious as one of 
the three fbonders of the literature which arose, in 
the Italian language, In the course of the fourteenth 
oeutnry. Dante's eTtraordiuary poems led the way ; 
Boccaccio and Petrarch were the restorers of Greek 
learning to Italy, and thus the prompters of a new 
literary spirit; and while the latter of the two ela- 
borated the beautiful language of Tuscany in its 
metrical shape, the farmer was the Barlie:>t writer of 
symmetrical and polished Italian prose. — Boccaccio 
was the natural son of a Florentine merchant and 
a Frenchwoman- He was bom either at Floranoa 
or at Paris in 1813, was edncated at Florence till 
his tenth yeai, and was than for six years the ap- 




prentice of a merchant at Paris. Bat his inclina- 
tion, always averse to commerce, and not less bo to 
law, soon led him, in spite of his fathei^s wish, to 
devote himself whoUj to literary porsoits. His au- 
thorship began at Naples, when he was not far from 
his thirtieth year. His first noted production was 
the *Filooopo,' an indifferent prose romance, in 
which he celebrated under fictitious names, his at- 
tachment to a natural daughter of king Robert. 
Much more meritorious was the ' Teseide,' a poem 
in the Italian * Ottava rima,* of which measure Boc- 
caccio is commonly believed to have been the inven- 
tor. In costume this work is a chivalrous r(Mmance, 
Theseus and the sons of (£dipas being invested with 
feudal manners and characters, and made the heroes 
of adventures wearing a romantic, not a classical 
air ; but in regularity of design and purity of lan- 
guage, it was a mighty step beyond the rude effu- 
sions of the medisaval minstxelaj. It has interest for 
us, as having probably prompted the ' Knighf s Tale * 
of Chaucer ; while the story was also used by the 
poet Lidgate, and in a fine cGrama with which Shaks- 
peare has been supposed to have had some concern. 
At Naples, likewise, about 1950, and on the sugges- 
tion (it is said) of Queen Joanna, was composed 
* The Deoameron,' the work on which Boooaecio*s 
celebrity is most securely founded. There was to be 
fouud already, among the literary stores of the ear- 
lier middle ages, a vast stock of invented stories, 
which had arisen in northern France sooner than in 
any other European country, but had lately begun 
to be related in the Italian tongue. From those 
older sources, especially the French familiar tales 
called ' Fabliaux,' Boccaccio boirowed freely. The 
same section of the popular literature suggested to 
him the idea of connecting a number of separate 
stories by one leading thread. He represents a party 
of gay ladies and gentlemen as retiring from Flor- 
ence to a villa in the neighboring hamlet of Fiesale, 
during the plague of 1348, and as amusing their lei- 
sure by the recital of the stories which make up the 
greater part of the book. It derives its name from 
the ten days during which the diversion lasted ; and, 
ten tales being told each day, the number in all is a 
hundred. lu point of style, the ' Deoameron ' is ad- 
mittedly one of the masterpieces of the language in 
which it is written ; it is admirable also for its grace 
and liveliness in narration. These qualities are, in 
many of the tales, debased by a lamentable gross- 
ness ; but some others, such as the *■ Grisel<^' are 
not only morally fine and elevated, but seriously and 
pathetically interesting. The story of * Giletta of 
Narbonne ' was, indirectly, the original of ' All's 
Well that Ends Well ; ' and other pieces of the col- 
lection were imitated by Chaucer and by Dryden. — 
Not long after the composition of the * Decameron,' 
Boccaccio came into possession of a considerable 
patrimony ; and thenceforth his favorite occupations 
were the study of the Greek tongue and its litera- 
ture, (then hardly known at all in Western Europe,) 
and the collection of manuscripts of the classical au- 
thors. Residing chiefly at Florence, he was em- 
ployed on several public mi^ons, which gave him 
opportunities for prosecuting those researches ; and 
one of these made him acquainted with Petrarch, 
who was ever afterwards one of his dearest friends^ 
About his forty-eighth year the exhortations of a 
Carthusian monk, strengthened by an alleged super- 
natural vision, inspired him with thoughts so serious, 
that he meditated retiring into a convent. The re- 
monstrances of Petrarch diverted him from this 
step ; hut the impression which had been made pro- 
duced a beneficial amendment in his views and con- 

duct, and awoke much sorrow both for the esoessef 
of his earlier life and for the licentiousness of the 
* Decameron.' To those later years belong diiefly 
his works in Latin prose, which, though they were 
valuable as aids in the infancy of classical studies, 
are now curious only as monuments of the past. 
Some of his smaller Italian compositions likewise are 
unimportant His last undertaking was the deliver- 
ing of public comments on the great poem of Dante, 
in a lectureship to which he was appointed by the 
Florentine magistracy. The sseal with which he 
prepared himself for this task was said to have has- 
tened the decay of his health* He died in Tuscany 
in 1376. [W.S.] 

BOCCAGK, M. A. Lb P. a poetess, 1710-1802. 
BOCCALINI, T., an Ital, satirist, 1556-1613. 
BOCCHERINI, Luzoi, a musician, 1740-1805. 
BOCCHl, Achilles, a patron of lltera., 16th o. 
BOCCHORIS, an ancient king of Egypt. 
BOCCHUS, k. of Numidia, vanquished 103 B.a 
BOCCOLD, John, commonly cidled John of Lc^* 
den, the chief of a revolt in the 16th century. 
BOCCUCI, Joseph, a Span, comedian, last cent 
BOCH, John, a Latin poet, 1555-1609. 
BOCHART, Samuel, a protestant divine, oeL as 
a biblical wr. and Orieortal scholar, 1599-1567. 
BOCK, a German botanUt, 1498-1554. 
BODARD DE TEZAZ, a French poet, last o. 
BODE, Chk. Aug., a Ger. Imguist, 1723-1796. 
BODE, J. Ehust, a Germ, astron., 1747-1826. 
BODE, J. J. C. a bookseller and trans., d. 1798. 
BODENSTEIN, the tutor of Luther, 1480-1541. 
BODIN, John, a wr. on jurisprud., 1530-1596L 
BODIN, Madame Camille, a French novelist, d. 

BODLEY, Sib T., a diplom. and man of letters, 
founder of the Bodleian library, 1544-1612. 
BODMER, J. Jac. a German poet, 1695-1783. 
BODSON, Joseph, a French revolutioiust who 
had the care of the royal family at the Temple. 
BOECE, an Italian philos(^her, 470-525. 
BOECE, Hector, a Scotch histor., 1465-1536. 
BOECLER, J. H. a Swed. historian, 1611-1692. 
BOEHM, And., a disciple of Wol^ 1720-1790. 
BOEHM, W. A., a German divine, 1673-1732. 
BOEHM, or BCEHMEN, Jacob, sumamed ' Ten- 
tonicus,* was bom at Old Seidenburgh, a short dis- 
tance from Gorlitz in Upper Lusatia, 1575. His 
parents being poor, he was employed in tending cat- 
tle from a very early age, and afterwards appren- 
ticed to a shoemaker, a business which he continued 
to follow after his marriage in 1594. He had the 
good fortune, for one in his station at that period, to 
learn reading and writing at the village school, and 
this was aU the education he received, the terms from 
the dead languages introduced into his writings, and 
what knowledge he had of alchemy or the other 
sciences, being acquired in his own rude way subse- 
quently; chiefly, perhaps, from conversation with 
men of learning, or a Uttle reading in the works of 
Paracelsus and Fludd. Whibt he was a herd boy, 
as the legend runs, he once retired to a little stony 
crag, known as the Land's Crown, and there discov- 
ered an opening through which he penetrated into a 
rocky enclosure, where he saw a great wooden ves- 
sel full of money, but was too much alarmed to take 
any of it, and when he returned with his companions 
they sought often and with diligence, but never 
found the entrance again. This circumstance made 
a deep impression on Boohmen, the rather as a stran- 
ger arrived there s me yean later, who was skilled 
in the finding out such magic treasures, and taking 
it away, did indeed enrich himself^ but perished by 




an infamous deatib, the treasure, it is said, hftTing 
laid there under a corse to him who should ever be- 
come possessed of it Another legend, which relates 
that a stranger, of a severe bnt firiendljr ooonteoanoe, 
came to his mastei's shop while he was jet an ap- 
prontioe, and warned him of the great work to 
which God shonld appoint him, exhibits the singular 
faith of Boehmen in tiie Divine goidanoe ; and the 
religions habits in which he was thns enconmged 
soon rendered him as oonspicaons among his profane 
fellow-townsmen, as his humility and love of peace 
among the arrogant clergy, by whom he was after- 
wards persecnt^. His stndy of the Sacred Scrip- 
tures had been constant and profound, but more 
e^iecially, if we may judge ftom tiie spirit of his 
theological system, of the Apocalypse and the writ- 
ings of PauL His letters manifest the deep earnest- 
ness of his convictions, and the sincerity with which 
he represented himself as tbe subject of Divine hi- 
^iration. *Art,' he says, ^bath not written here, 
neither was there any time to consider how to set it 
punctaafly down according to tiie right understand- 
ing of the words, but all was ordered according to 
the direction of the Spirit, whidi often went in haste ; 
so that in many words letters may be wanting, and 
in some places a capital letter for a word ; for the 
penman's hand, by reason he was not accustomed to 
It, did often shake ; and thoogh I could have written 
in a more aoenrate, fair, and plain manner, yet the 
reason was this, that the burning fire did often force 
forward with speed, and the hand and pen must hasten 
direct after it, for it cometh and goeth as a sud- 
den shower.' * I, indeed,' he continues, * can write 
nothing of myself, but as a child wh'ch neither 
knoweth nor understandeth any thin;;, which neither 
hath ever been taught, but only that which the 
Lord vonchsafeth to know in me.' The genuineness 
of his hmnility, often expressed in this or amilar 
language by Jacob Boehmen, and the simplicity of his 
faitii, cannot be doubted by those who have exam- 
ined his works, any more than the fine religions 
thoughts, and the depth of mystic wisdom contained 
in them. The first of these was called the 'Aurora,' 
or ' Morning Redness,' and was written after he had 
been for seven days together, as he expresses it, * en- 
vironed with the Divine light;' so that he discerned 
all things in their inward essences, as explained 
subsequently in his 'Signatnra Rerum,' or corres- 
ponding forms of things. Experiences of this kind, 
indeed, were repeated over a period of twelve years, 
before he was driven to embody his apprehensions in 
external writing, and when he did so, his MS. was 
handed about among those who chose to borrow it, 
ontil the clergy and town council interfered, and 
finally, not only proscribed his writings and prophe- 
cies, but poor Boehmen himsdf, who was constrained 
to depart for Dresden ; a catastrophe which will be 
better miderstood when it is known lliat many paa- 
sages in Ins writings are as red thnnderboldts 
branched against oppresaon and sham religion. The 
space to which we are limited renders it knpossible 
to give even an outline of his system, but we 
may observe generally, that it contains the first 
principles of Oriented metaphysics, as delivered 
by the ancient sages, and contained in the frag- 
ments of their philosophy, and that its brilliant 
Ugfats and definite outlines only fade away into 
vacuity, where th^ ought to be brought down 
into the physical nature of things. This de- 
fbct prevented him from acquirii^ the worid wide 
Ikme of Newton, who applied the principles demon- 
strably contained in the writings of Jacob Boehmen 
to &e planetary system ; and the same deficiency has 

ever prevented the poor uninstructed seer of Gorlitz 
from ranking with the philosophers, or indeed with 
the no-philosophers of whom any thing intelligible 
can be reported, down to the present time. The key 
to all his works, perhaps, is contained in the right 
understanding of the seven universal properties, 
three of which are hidden under fire, and three 
manifested ; the fire, or Spirit, being as the magnetio 
blaae which brings the first three into the last ; next 
to which may be the stndy of fire in ten forms, be- 
ginning with the eternal liberty, oi silent tranquillity 
of God without nature : and after this the three 
principles — darkness, light, and generation. The 
greatest master of Bcehmen's philosophy was a Ger- 
man named Frere, some of whose manuscripts are in 
the British Museum, and through whom and his ac^ 
quaintanoe with the family of Dr. Francis Lee, Wil- 
liam Law derived his knowledge, as well as the 
diagrams by which the principles am in some mea- 
sure illustrated. As an apostle of religion he has 
had followers in all parts of Europe, but as he never 
sought to establish a sect in his lifetime so all efibrts 
of this kind have failed since, and we must look for 
the real proceeds of his mfiuence in such movements 
as Aose of Primitive Wesleyanism and the Mora- 
vian Brethren ; add to which the most intelligent of 
the later mystics, followers of Law and Boehmen, 
accepted the revelations of Swedenborg. Boehmen 
died happily on Sunday, November 18, 1624. Early 
in the morning he called his son and asked him if he 
heard that excellent music, and on his replying in 
the negative, directed him to open the door that he 
might hear it the better. Asking afterwards what 
the clock had struck, he was told * two,' upon which 
he remarked that his time was yet * three hours 
hence.' When it was near six he took leave of his 
wife and son, blessed them, and said, *Now I go 
hence into paradise I ' He then bade his son turn 
him, and witii a deep peaceful sigh, his spirit de- 
parted. [E.R.] 

BOEHME, J. £., a Ger. historian, 1717-178a 

BOEHMER, G. R., a eel. botanist, 1723-1808. 

BOERHAAVE, Herman, physician, the pupil of 
Pitcaim. He was the son of the parish dei^yman, 
and b. 1778, at Vorhout, near Leyden, d. 1738. 
Boeihaave prosents a striking example of the suc- 
cessftd results of the proper exercise of talent, integ- 
rity, and industry. Without friends, and left an 
orphan when a bojr, he became one of the most pop- 
ular physicians and teachers in Europe, and by the 
soundness of his views, and good sense, contributed 
to elevate the profession to which he belonged from 
the degraded and empirical condition in which it 
was previously involved. Living at a time when all 
natural studies together did not embrace so much as 
one science in the present day, it is not to be ex« 
pected that any of his labors should now survive. 
But learned in the knowledge of the medicine, ohem- 
isbfy, and botany of his time, he must be viewed aa 
one of the dispeQers of mysticism, and (bunders of a 
great fabric which the revolutions of centuries can- 
not even perfect, while to his successors must be left 
the duty of recognizing the efforts of such true crea- 
tors of science. His works were the * Institutions oi 
Medicine,' ' Diagnostic and Curative Aphorisms,' a 
* System of Chemistry,' and a small work on Materia 
Medica. His memory is still ardently cherished in 
the university of Leyden, and in the Botanic Gar- 
den, where some relics of the great physician are 
still extant ; while a portrait of him adorns one of 
the halls. Boerhaave was a sucoessfrJ practitioner, 
as he is said to have left upwards of £200,000. 

BOESCHENSTEIN, J., a Heb. gram., 15th ot 

BOB [ 1( 

BOETHIUS, AwciiTS Mxinjija ToBQn*TDg Swrt- 
BEfus, was bom at Some of a rich tnd noble famil/ 
nbont 470, Tbe fint eighteen jam oC the orphan 
mre qient in diligent ttodj at Athens, and he re- 
tnnied to Romo a yonng man of nneqnaUed intellw- 
taal accompliabmenC Soon after ha entered the 
■enate at a member of the patrician order, and under 
Tbeodorie, king of tbe Goths, obtnined high prefer- 
ment Boathiu! had been DOnnil ia 18T tmder Odo- 
aoer, kingof theHenili, and ia the eishteenth jear irf 
Theodoric he wni elevated a Becond timo to tdie laiDe 
£gnitf. nil domestic life wag one of nndiitorbed 
fUici^, and hia pioaperitf had also besu crowned hj 
■Being hia two eona advanced to caninlar rant Bat 
s Hidden and faUl rerene orertaok him, and alter 
toon than twen^r ;fean of fUthrol aervice, he waa, 
4niing the petiod of his third conaolihip, aociued 
of treanaable corrnnnidenoe, condemned and bao- 
idied to Pavia, where after more than a year's im- 
priaonmen^ he waa b7 roTal mandate beheaded in 
prlion, October 23, S2S. It is nid to have been a 
vindicatian oT the doctrine of tbe Trini^, that stilted 
the Arian prqndicea of Theodoric and his con ' 
■gainst the crthodoi philosopher and patriotic si 
man. Hii most famoni woik, ' De Consolatione 
Philoaophin,' was composed dnring hia last gear's 
MpGnement at Faria. It has both prosaic and poet- 
ical chapters, and dialornea in its five book* ; and 
philosophy personified adduces comfort to the pris- 
oner, not from Scriptnre, hot from Plato, Ariilotle, 
•nd Zeno. His other woAi are anmenma, and on 
a Tact varie^ of nitjects. He traaslated Plato and 
Euclid, — his special favoritoa, — commented on Aris- 
totle, Cicero, and Porphyry, published reruons of 
Plotemj and Archimedes, and wrote on mniio, 
rhetoric, mathematics, metaphysics, and theology. 
It is hard to say whether BoiUiias was a Christian 
at all in the proper sense of the tenn. His 
&ejsm, his ideas of prayer, and his tmst in a £ 
Providence, appear to hare been borrowed from those 
oidnions with which Christianity was leavening 
directly so many classes of society, who did DOt I 
matly ent«r the commnnion of the chnrch. 
marks were published with note* at Basle, folio, 
1670. [J.E.] 

BOETTCHEK, J. Fb., a Get. alchyni., d. 1T19. 

BOGAROUS, ErmuuHi*, the fint minister, 
New York, of the Datch church. He aune here 
prior to the year 1639. He is (apposed to have re- 
turned to Hiuland bebre New Yoric became a ^tiih 

BOGDANOVTTSCH, H. Tsrod., a nuscellaneoas 
wr. and poet of Russia, ed- of tbe P Mnb u rglt CiMiria; 
■mploy. offidally by Catherine, 1743-1808. 

BOGOBIS, a king of Bolgaria, converted 811. 

BOGUD, a king of Uauritania, lit o. b.c 

BOGUE, David, a ceL dissenter, 1749-1826. 

B0GLTPBALU3, a Polish chronicler, d. 1258. 

BOGUSLAWSKJ, a Polish dnunat., 1752-1829. 

BOHEMOND, prince of Aotioch, died 1111. 

BOHN, JoBH, a GemiaD pby^dan, 1S40-1T19. 

BOBUN, Eqs., a political wr., 17th century. 

BOICHOT, JUB, a Fr. sculptor, 1788-1814. 

BOIELDIEU, Adbun, a composer, 17TS-1834. 

BOIGNE, B. L., Count De, an adventurer hi the 
nulitary service of the Mahrattas, died 1S30. 

BOILEAU-DESPREAUX, Niooi.a«, bora ia 1686, 
was the son of an officer of Che parliament of Paris, 
■nd belonged by descent and connections to a family 
of lawyers. While hia two elder brothers were pre- 
cocious in youth, Nicolas was alow as well as sick- 
h ; and he, the future satirist, was described by his 
nther as a good-natured boy, who would never speak 

I'l Bamt U liHilL] 

in of any one. He wm > diligent student, but 
allowed Htde either of Inveotion or of ambttioa , al< 
thnngh, mittaking hie vocation as others then mis- 
took it, he wrote a boyish tragedy. At the age of 
twenty-one he was admitted as an advocate ; but hit 
n^lect and dhdike of profeestonal pnmiitB soaodal- 
iied his reladans. He was allowed for a time to 
contemplate the clerical profesrioo, and held for 
some years a rinecnre benefioe ; which, however, on 
determining not to take ordera, he resigned, reftind- 
ing also ^ the profits. — He now betook himself 
wholly to letters ; and, begiuninj^ in 1666 his seriei 
of Satires in vem, which at length amounted to 
twelve, he was at once hiuled as a valuable oontrib- 
ntor to a literature, in which CorDeille, thongh In 
the full career of his genius, waa as yet appreciated 
bnt by ftw, while Moliire was only beginning to 
write. French versification, and French style, alike 
took a new and finer shape in his hands. The di- 
dactic kind of poetiy to which he hod devoted him* 
•elf, was cultivated with a success still more brilliant 
in hia aeries of Epistles. Even DOW, if his French 
admirers hesitate in asserting that the Sati»a come 
np to the nice perfection of their Horatian Diodelt, 
they eito! the Epiatles as decidedly superior to thoM 
of Horace. Boilean seemed to have determined on 
furnishing materials for completing the paralleL 
Besides a few odea and other small pieces, which ar« 
confessedly poor, he again measured lanoes with &a 
Roman poet, by publishing in 167S his ' Ait Poit- 
iqne,' a poem in four cantos. In the oonrse of diat 
year appeared the first four cantos (increased after- 
wards by two indifierent ones) of 'Le Lntriu,' a 
mock-heroic poem. It celebratea a contest as to die 
placing of a pulpit, which broke out among tlie c*D- 
ona of the Chapel of Saint Lonia, attaohed to tiiB 
Palais de Justice.— Ha waa now high In &var al 
ooiut, aodieceiged, with Racine, a joint sppoinCnent 
as hiatioiograpber of Lonia XIV. He had, long 
since, been nniveisally acknowledged by the publio 
voice as one of the most distingnished among those 
men of genius whose writinas adorned the AngnsCan 
age of France. He lived In oordial Intimacy with 
most of Chose military mnn who belonged to the first 
rank, such as Racine, Molifere, and La Fontaine; 
and be was reoHy both a prudent and modest man, 
and a kindly one, and even exhibited frequently an 
honorable liberality and generosity. Bnt he had 
been and was, mCRlless to theamalier eitlieus of tlw 
republic of letters ; and many enemiea were neoessB' 
rity made by a man who olien, by one epigrammar 
tin ooiqilet, was ^le to destroy the reputation and 

[ 109 ] 

dM liTclLhood of > poor dnmatist or ranuuM-miter. 
Acoordiogly BoUean was not reooired into the Aoa- 
demj till IS84 ; and thea 011I7 in obedieoce to a mg- 
nlficint hint lirom the throoe. The latter ;«aii of 
hin liTe wsre embittered bj much dckneM and inSr- 
ndtj; and he died (^dropay in 1711, IteqaeathiiiK 
almoit all Mi pnroorty to the poor, — The principal 
■work* of Boiieaa naTe altoady heen named. They 
place him as one of the memlwn of a Uterary trinin- 
licate, tt> which bekmg, with him, Honce ud Pope. 
While nooe of the throe is a poetof the highestclaw, 
the diatindJTB elementa of P0M17 an tsIt mnoh 
more acanty in the French orido and versifier than 
In either of the others. Pope owed much to him, 
reoetriug many hints, and not mifVeqaently tranila- 
Ung from him liteiaHy ; and in the art (rf' terae and 
sinking expnwon, Pope, moceaifnl as ha la, can 
•caioely be proaoonced eqnat to his model. Pi^s 
JDTcnne ' Essay on Critkism ' is by no means so 
masceiiy as the ' Art Po6tiqae ; ' bat ' The Rape 
tftfaeL«:k,'if itwanUthaturoTcomie reriiimlli- 
tode, which ii m striking in the ' Lntiin,' riae* far 
above it dooiigfa ita anpomatnral and other imagioa- 
tira ornaments, to which nolhing dmilai is presented 
bj the t'leoch poet, or ooold hao been invsated by 
fail dmid and ilnggiah fancy. [W.S] 

BOILEA.U, GiLU, a danical writer, 1631-1669. 

BOILEAU, JAS., an eoole^ writer, ieSS-1716. 

BOILEAD, JoHB J., a Fr. moralist, 1649-1795. 

BOINVILLE, A. De, a Freochmaa of noble fam- 
ily, who jcHoed the repabliean party, and was ^- 
4»-eamp to Lafayette, I7TO-1B12. 

BOISFREMONT, C. Dt, a Fr. punt«r, d. 1888. 

BOISEOBEBT, Fb. La Hrm. De, a wit and 
poet, ODe of the foandcn of the French Academy, 

BOISSARD, J. J., poet and aotiq., 1538-1602. 

BOISSAT, P. De, a mi>»L wr., 1608-1662. 

BOISST, L. De, a dnunatia writer, 1694-1668. 

BOISST D'ANGLAS, 1<'b. Aim., oeleb. as a 
member of the French oonceotioa, and after the fall 
of Bobeopieire of the Comita da Sahit Pnbtic, and 
tba ttmnoil of 500 ; and when the Koromment of 
Bnonapaite was established, of the French senate. 
He has the npotadon of being a sincere lover of lib- 
erq;, U ' * 

of'D'EtndBs d'on" Vieillanl,' foiperienoes of 
man,) 1756-1826. [E.K.] 

BOL, FERDDiain), a Dutch painter, 1611-1661. 

BOLD, Sak., a Daotrorern^ divine, died 1737. 

BOLDOrnC, C, an Italian author, last cenL 

BOLESLAUS I., king of Poland, S99-1035. 

BOLESLAUS U., moceod. 10S8, d. abont 1088. 

BOLESLAUS UL, b. lOSC, sac. 1102, d. 1189. 

BOLESLAUS IV.. sue his br. 1H6, d. 1169. 

BOLESLAUS V., b. 1219, boo. 1227, d. 1279. 

BOLEYN, A-tra, q. of Hemy Vin., 1607-1686. 

BOLIKGBROKE, He^t St. Joum, Lord, an 
orator, itatasman, aDdphiki«ophicalessayist,«asboni 
at his fathai's seal at Battanea, on 1st Oct., 1678. 
Bis fiunily was divided between the two great contend- 
ing psrtie* c^lhe 17tli oentniy, and it so happened 
tlwt tha high tory statesman and smpticiLl philosopher 
was educated by a prestnrtarian grandmother, under 
the infinenn of Daniel Bnrgess, the dissenlaiig di- 
vine. Little isknawaofhiseui^cdncatioa. Inl770 
he married Franeea, the daughter of Sir Hem; Wioch- 
•omb, bnt there was little happiness in the match, or 
ootdiality between them, for yoong St. John's habits 
sailed for more than the average amount of marital 
libenU^. HemadefainualTtHiawiiedlbr thsMtent 

of his d 

n in a rtxy disripated age. Enter- 
ing pariiament in 1701, he began his political career. 
His model was Aldbladea, and he was nmhitioas of 
showing that tlie pnrsait of pleasore and of political 
smbitioa might be nnited m the character of one 
possessed of his bnlliaat attainments. In an ag« 
when itatEimen were liable to little tetponsibility, h« 

great meuimie ancoeeded. With hie friend Har- 

he joined the mnki * "' """ ' 
with him became his cc 

ministry, which in 1710 owed its exiatcnoe to the 
trimn^ of AbiirsJI Hill over tiie duchess of Hari- 
boiDugh. Hia bold naBompuloas temper made him 
Ae ruling spirit in a gOTemmeut now condemned by 
all parties for Ita recklesaneaa. Ere ila extinction, 
hovever, by the death of Qnaen Anne, a rivalry be- 
tween St. John and Haitey had ripened to a deadly 
animouty and struggle for ascendency. In 1712 St 
John was raised to the peerage as Vieooimt Boling- 
brcko. It is renarkable that none of the apeechei de- 
livered by him in either House have been preaerved. 
Their absence makes a gap in British aenstorial 
oiatory. They am reputed to have been very bril- 
liant, and hia published wotfes have a fall aenteu' 
tiousneM much better adapted to oratory than to 

Uterators. There has always been a great qnestioD 
whether Bolingbroke was one of those who were 
plotting for the leatorstion of the exiled houM on the 
death of Queeu Amie, and the light which has bean 
tbiowB oa the mystery in later times, leave* liltta 




doabt of his gnilt He immediately felt, along wilfa 
his oolleagnes, that be xniut connt on the hostility of 
the new government. For some time he seemed to 
court and brave investigation, bat on the 26th of 
March, 1715, following up well-laid arrangements he 
escaped secretly Uy France. He was attainted on im- 
peachment, and justified the condemnation by enter- 
ing the service of the Pretender. He was soon 
disgusted with this trifling narrow political arena^ 
and showed extreme anxiety to be reinstated at 
home. He received permission to retom, and by 
special statate his property was restored, botWalpole 
would not give so dangerous an enemy the means of 
attacking him in debate, and his attainder was not 
reversed so as to restore him to his seat in the Lords. 
He occupied himself in writing bitter pamphlets and 
other works against the government. He nad taken 
for a second wife the Marquise de Vilette, whose so- 
cial and religious views seem to have been adapted 
to Ms taste. He died on 15th December, 1761. His 
works on mental philosophy, and the foundations of 
belief, received with a cry of execration, bnt now 
little read, were published after his death. [J.H.B.1 
BOLIVAR. Simon Bouvar was bom in 1783 
at Caraccas in Venezuela in South America. He 
was educated in Europe, and returned to America in 
1809 ; holding the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the 
Spanish service. When the revolutionaiy movements 
commenced, by which the Spanish provinces in 
America sought to establish their independence, 
Bolivar took an active part in them, and in 1813 he 
was at the head of the army whksh liberated the 
greater part of Venezuela from the government of 
Spain. He was driven out of Venezuela in the fol- 
lowing year by the Spanish troops, but (after one 
unsuccessful attempt) he forced his way back in 
1817, at the head of a force which he had collected 
at St. Domingo, and recommenced the war of libera- 
tion. In 1821 Venezuela and New Granada were 
freed from Spain, and these two provinces were united 
into a republic, called Colombia, of which Bolivar 
was president. Bolivar next took an active part in 
aiding in the liberation of Peru, and was made dic- 
tator of that country in 1822, an office which he re- 
signed when Peru was completely liberated by the 
victory of Ayachrcho on 9th December, 1824. The 
inhabitants of Upper Peru formed their country into 
a separate republic, which they named Bolivia in 
honor of Bolivar. Bolivar^s desire seems to have 
been to unite all the liberated provinces of South 
America in one federal republic, but his latter years 
were passed amid incessant tumulte of faction, and 
frequent outbreaks of civil war, and he died at last 
broken in health and spirits on tiie 17th December, 
1880. He had previously resigned lus presidency of 
Colombia, and taken leave of tiie inhabitants of that 
state in an address, in which he solemnly asserted 
the purity of bis motives throughout his career, and 
complained bitteriy of calumny and ingratitude. 
Amid the conflicting and obscure accounts of the 
South American wars of independence, it is difl9cnlt 
to judge correctiy on many points as to which the 
character of BoUvar has been called in question. 
Bnt his bravery, his energy, and the services which 
he rendered against the Spanianls are undeniable. 
Nor should we lightly credit charges of selfish am- 
bition, of cruelty, and perfidy against a man, who 
unquestionably devoted his own ample fortune, as 
well OB his time and life, to his countiy ; who more 
than once voluntarily laid down absolute power ; who 
abhoired slavery, and set the examine of emancipat- 
ing the numerous slaves on his own estate ; and who 
entertained the most liberal and enlightened views as 

a lawgiver, and as an earnest promoter of national 
education. ['''•S.C.] 

BOLLAN, William, was sent as agent from the 
Colony of Massaohusetto to Great Britain, to obtain 
indemnity for the expenses incurred in liie expedi- 
tion against Cape Breton. He succeeded in his under- 
taking, and ratomed in 1748 witii $800,000. For 
three yean^ arduous service he received no remune- 
ration, when the inadequate sum of |6000 was 
voted him, for which he had to wait seven years. 
He was a seoond time sent to England, but be- 
ooBiing unpopular was superseded. His reputation 
in the colony was, however, soon restored by his 
sending home a large collection of the letters of 
Gov. Bernard revealing the policv and intentions 
of the British Government, whidi he was permitted 
to copy by Alderman Beokford. He was accused of 
disloyalty in tiie British parliament and lauded for 
patriotism in America. He wwj an able writer, and 
author of a great many political tracto, many of 
which may be found in the Massachusetts historical 
collections. He died in England in 1776, having 
vainly attempted to reconcile Great Britain and her 

BOLLAND, Sib W^, a ceL lawyer, 1773-1840. 

BOLLANDUS, J., a Flem. taoant, 1596-1665. 

BOLOGNE, J. Db, a French sculptor, 17th c 

BOLSEC, Jer., a controveraial wr., d. 1582. 

BOLSWERT, S., a Duteh engraver, d. 1586. 

BOLTIN, IvAH, a Russian hist critic, 1735-92. 

BOLTON, Edm., an aatiqnaiy, 17th century. 

BOLTON, RoBT., a religions wr., 1571-1681. 

BOLTON, RoBT., dean of Carlisle, d. 1768. 

BOLTON, Wm. Compton, an Am. Com., d. 184a 

BOMBELLI, Raphael, an algebraist, 16th a 

BOMBELLI, Seb., a painter, 1685-1685. 

BOMBERG. Dan., an early painter, d. 1549. 

BOMILCAR, a general and magis. of Carthage. 

BOMILCAR, fav. of Jugurtha, kiHed 107 B. a 

BON, L. A-, a soldier of the revoL, 1770-1799. 

BONA, Cabdinal, an ItaL «iAMif, 1609-1674. 

BONA, J. De, an ItaUan physician, 1712-1786. 

BONAC, Mabq. Db, a F. statesman, 1672-1788. 

BONALD, L. G. Amb., Viscount De, a disting. 
Fr. wr. on religion and politics, 1758-1840. 

BONAMY, Aug., J. B., a gallant Fr. general, 
specially distinguished in the campaign of Russia. 

BONAMY, P. N., a periodical wr. 1694-1770. 

BONANM, Ph., a Roman historian, d. 1725. 

BONARELLI, G. U., an ItaL poet, 1658-1608. 

BONASONI, G., an Italian painter, 1498-1564. 

BONASLV, B., an Italian carver, died 1527. 

BONAVENTURE, J. F., a Roman eccle., d. 1274. 

BONA VENTURE of Padoa, a cardinal, noted as 
a friend of Petrarch, assassinated 1386. 

BONCERI'\ P. F., a wr. on civil law, 1745-1794. 

BONCHAMP, A- De, a Veiidcan chief, k. 1798. 

BONCIARIO, M. A., an ItaL an., 1555-1616. 

BOND, J., a physician and classic, 1530-1612. 

BOND, OuvEB, an Irish rebel, 1720-1798. 

BOND, Thomas, an eminent American physician, 
bom in Blaryland in 1712, who was for fifty years at 
the head of his profession in Philadelphia, and illus- 
trated in bis own person the power of medical science 
in retaining life in a constitution naturally weak and 
predisposed to consumption. Phineas Bond, his 
brother, was also a physician of eminence and an 
able writer, but died much earlier. In conjunction 
they labored in the establisbment of the Hospital of 
Pennsylvania and the Medical College and Academy* 
Phineas died in 1773, aged 56, and Thomas in 1784, 
aged 78. 

BONDT, N., a Dutch historian, 1732-1792. 




BONE, HsmtT, u enamener^ 1765-1884. 

BONEFACIO, Yes,, anital. painter, d. 1680. 

BONER, UuuGB, ft German fabulitt, 18th cL 

BONIFACE, one of the greatest capfeuns of the 
5th oent, ooant of the Roman empire, slain 482. 

BONIFACE, Sr., a oel missiomuy, killed 754. 

BONIFACE, the/nC, pope of Rome, 418-422; 
the Hetmd, 680-532; the tkMj 606; the /owtft, 
607-614; tiie Ji/tk, 617-626; the tuih, 896; tibe 
Mvmtk, 974-984; the nimtk, 1889-1404. 

BONJOUR, Wm., a Chinese misskmarj, d. 1714. 

BONNAR, Wm., Scottish historical and portrait 
painter, d. 1858, aged 58k 

BONNATERE, P. J., a Fr. natoraL, 1747-1804. 

BONNEFONS, Jomr, a Latin poet, 1554-1614. 

BONNER, Edm., the notorions bishop, d. 1569. 

BONNET, Ch., an em. physiologist, 1720*9a 

BONNEVAL^ Cu Albz., count of, a deserter 
IroBi Prince Eogene, master of the Toikish ordnance 
under the title of Aohmet Pacha, died 1747. 

BONNEVILLE, N., a joomalist and poet of the 
French revolntion, the friend of LafaTette and Kos- 
cinako, an. of * Esprit des Religions,' 1760-1828. 

30NNIER, A. £., arepnb. diplom., 1750-1799. 

BONNIER D'ARCO, A. S., a Fr. diplo., d. 1797. 

B0NNIN6T0N, R. P., an Eng. artist, 1801-28. 

BONNYCASTLE, J., an Eng. math., d. 1821. 

BONOMI, J. F., legate of Or. XUI., 1586-1589. 

BONOMI, JotBPH, an ItaL architect, d. 1808. 

BONNOR, HoNOBK, a Fr. historian, 14th cent 

BOOKER, Rxy. Luu, LL.D., a Chnreh of Eng. 
dex^gyman, and miscellaneoos wr., 1762-1825. 

BOONE, Damisu This extraordinary man, whose 
adTvntares as a pioneer in the American wilderness 
have given him the world-wide reputation of a hero 
ci romance, was born in PennsyWania or Virginia 
abont 1780, thongh bcooght up in N. Carolina. His 
passion fair roaming in the forest was kindled by his 
early adventnrons life as a huntsman, but it was not 
nntQ he was neariy 40 years old, that he entered on 
&e earner oi explorations which has rendered him 
celebrated. Leaving his family in North Carolina, 
he traversed, in company with Ms brother and a few 
other companions, the interior of Kentucky as far as 
the Cumberland River, between the years 1769 and 
1771. In this expedition he was captured by the 
Indians^ but escaped. An enthusiastic admirer of 
the beauties of nature, the wildurness had greater 
attractions for him than civilised life, and seUing his 
farm, two years after his return, he took his family 
with him, and accompanied by a few others of kin- 
dred disposition, he struck into the wilderness. His 
life lor many years was a long warfare with the In- 
dians and French, in the course of which his two 
sons and his brother were killed, and he himself 
long detained in captivity. His escapes were many 
and hair-breaddi. On one occasion he was hunted 
by dofls, on another with only fifty men he defended 
himseLT in a rode fort against upwards of 450 men 
under Capt. Dugnesne, who returned with the loss 
of 87 men, leaving, as Boone asserted, 125 pounds 
of bullets on the ground besides what lodged in the 
fort Though himself ever contending wiu barbar- 
ism, civilisation followed in his footsteps, and he en- 
dond hit privations with the devotion of a fatalist, 
who regaided himself as an instrument in the hands 
of Providenoe. Worldly prudence was however not 
among his qualities, and others reaped the advan- 
tages of hb exertionfi. After 17 years of hardship 
he discovered, too late, that he had not secured a 
legal title to his property in Kentucky, which he 
entered a wilderness and left with a population of 
half tt minion, and with execrationff upon the dis- 

honesty and ingratitude of his countiymen, but an 
unabated spirit of adventure, he betook himself to 
the yet unexplored regions of the Missouri. Highly 
respected for his integrity, honor, and amiability, 
admired for his ability and daring, and pitied for Ids 
misfortunes. Congress made him a grant in the lat- 
ter years of his ufe. He died at ttie age of 90 in 
the year 1820 — ^retaining his habits as a hunter al- 
most to the last, and when his feeble limbs would no 
more serve him, still delighting to sit in the open 
air with his tried rifle inms hand and his faithful 
dog by his side, gazing on the forest. 

BOONEN, A., a Dutch painter, 1669-1729. 

BOOS, Mabtik, a Bavarian divine, 1762-1825. 

BOOTH, Babion, actor and an., 1681-1788. 

BOOTH, Sis F., dieting, for his gift of £20,000 
to the arctic expedition of Sir John Ross, d. 1850. 

BOOTH, Qeoror, a royalist, created baron Dela- 
mere at tiie restoration, died 1984. 

BOOTH, Hkbtby, son of the preceding, created 
earl of Warrington by William HI., died 1694. 

BOOTH, JoNius Bbotus, an American actor, died 
1852, aged 56. 

BOR, P. C, a Dutch historian, 1559-1685. 

EORDA, John Cb., a Fr. mathema^ 1788-99. 

BORDE, J. B. Dx La, a miscelL wr., ex. 1794. 

BORDELON, Laub., a misc. wr., 1658-1780. 

BORDEU, Tmcop. Db, a medical an., d. 1776. 

BORDLEY, JoHH Be alb, an American agricul- 
tural author, bom in Maryland in 1728, and edu- 
cated to tho legal profession, in which, prior to the 
Revolution, he attained the rank of Judge of the 
Superior Court and Court of Appeals, in the Pro- 
vince. The favorite employment of his life, how- 
ever, was agriculture, upon which he published seve- 
ral useful works. He had a fine estate on Wye 
Island in Chesapeake Bay, where he did much by 
example and experiment to improve the science of 
husbandry. He died at Philadelphia in 1804, in 
the 76th year of his age. 

BORELLI, J. A., an Itel. philoso., 1608-1679. 

BORGHESE, the name of a family distmg. in 
Ital. history, one of whom married Maria Pauline 
Bonaparte, sister of Napoleon, and was made gov- 
ernor of the Transalpine provinces. The Princess 
Borghese, after sep. from her husband, d. 1825. 

BORGHESI, DiOMED, an Ital wr., 1540-98. 

BORGHINI, v., an Ital. antiquar., 1515-1580. 

BORGIA, CiinAB, son of Alexander VL, and 
equally disting. for his wicked ambition, k. 1507. 

BORGIA, LucBKCK, daughter of Alexander VI. 

BORGIA, Steph., an Ital. cardinal, 1781-1804. 

BORLASE, W., a county historian, 1696-1772. 

BORN, Bebtb. De, a troubadour, 12th cent 

BORN, BABoiff Db, a mineralogist, 1742-1791. 

BORRI, J. F., a religious adventurer, d. 1682 

BORROMEO, Ch., an Ital. cardinal, disting. by 
his virtues and literary talents, 1538-1584. 

BORROMEO, F., a bishop of Mikn, 1564-1681. 

BORRONIMI, Fb., an architect, 1599-1677. 

BORY, Gabbibl De., an astron., 1728-1801. 

BOS, Lambevt, a Greek scholar, 1670-1717. 

BOSEl, Gabpabd, a German botanist, last cent. 

BOSC, L. Aug. Wm., a naturalist, last cent 

BOSC, Pefeb Du, a celeb, preacher, d. 1692. 

BOSCAWEN, Edw^ a naval com., 1711-1761. 

BOSCAWEN, W., a classic, schol., 1762-1811. 

BOSCH, Bebnabd, a Dutch poet, 1746-1880. 

BOSCH, Jebome, a Latin poet, 1740-1811. 

BOSCH, L. A. G., a French naturalist, last ct. 

BOSCOVICH, RooEB Joseph, a learned and pro- 
found Jesuit ; born at Ragiisa in 1711 ; died at Milan 
in 1787. The writings of Boscovich are numerous 




aud important. His disserfcations on 'Vires Vitsb,' 
on * Light,' and on the * Solar Spots,' gave their 
author highest rank amongst the physical philoso- 
phers and astronomers of the time. He grasped 
the great conceptions of Newton, and did much to 
hasten the general acceptance of the theory of 
gravitation ; hut his chiei claim on the attention of 
posterity, rests on the ^eculataons in his * Theoria 
Phllosophicsa Naturalis' — speculations which touch 
on one side, the ailerwards celebrated hypothesis of 
monadsy and seem to point towards a physical scheme 
of Idealism. According to Boscovich the ulti- 
mate elements of matter ore atoms, or points indivis- 
ible and without extension. Each atom, or point, 
being surrounded by numerous concentric rings of 
influence — alternately of attraction and repulsion- 
one atom may exist towards any other in various 
relations, determined by their distance from each 
other. For instance, the two atoms may be within 
the sphere of each other's attraction— -iA^n is the 
hodytoUd; or the two atoms may be within the sphere 
of mutual repulsion, — then is the body ^cweoitf and eUu- 
tic; or two atoms may be so placed that they 
neither repel nor attract, being on the lino of indii- 
ference, — ihen is the body liquid. Gravitation or 
universal attraction, is, according to this view, the 
relation which atoms bear to each other after they 
have passed beyond the smaller or molecular dis- 
tances ; while the phenomena of physics and chem- 
istry depend upon and rise out of their various and 
varying relations while they are within tiiese infini- 
tesimal or molecular distances. This singular and 
probably far from inaccurate conception, destroys 
the common notion that matter is hnde and wert; 
and represents the phenomena of Nature as the im- 
mediate issue of Active Forces ; — a view which the 
progress of modem science unquestionably favors. 


BOSQUILLON, E. F. M., a Greek scholar, 1744- 

BOSSOHE, P. V. D., a Dutch somBtf, 1686- 

BOSSI, C. A., an Italian poet, 1758-1823. 

BOSSU, Rene Lk, aphHos. critic, 17th cent. 

BOSSUET, James Benione, a celebrated 
French divine, was bom in 1627, at D\jon, the 
capital of Burgundy, now in the department of 
Cote D'Or. Having commenced his education at 
the college of Jesuits in his native place, he re- 
moved in 1642 to Paris, where being destined for the 
clerical profession, he prosecuted the requisite studies 
at the college of Navarre. He was distinguished by 
his attainments in classical and patristic lore — ^two 
branches of knowledge which are deemed of indis- 
pensable importance in the lloman Catholic chureh ; 
but to these he added also an extensive and familiar 
acquaintance with the Sacred Writings, the perusal 
of which, in a stray copy which chanced to fall into 
his possession, made a deep and indelible impression 
on his juvenile mind. At the age of sixteen he began 
by occaaonal exhibitions, to evince his extraordinary 
powers of pulpit eloquence ; and having, on his be- 
coming duly qualifled for the discharge of the sacred 
functions, been appointed to the chureh of Metz, first 
as canon, and successively as arehdeacon and deacon, 
he there established his reputation as one of the most 
eminent preachers in France. An invitation to Paris 
was ere long the result of his high provincial fame ; 
and having by his preaching before the court won 
the favor of Louis XIV,, he was intrusted with the 
superintendence of the dauphin's education. It was 
for the benefit of his royal pupil that he composed his 
abridged view of * Universal Histoiy,' one of the most 

admired and valuable of his works. On ihe comple- 
tion of the prince's studies, he was rewarded for his 
zeal and fidelity in the dischaige of that responsible 
duty, by promotion to the see of Meanx, and soon 
after was appointed a oounseUor of state, and almo- 
ner to the duchess of Bui^gnndy. That elevated posi- 
tion he adorned by the splendor of his talents and 
the extent of his learning ; nor was he less distin- 
guished by his zeal for the diffusion of religion 
throughout his diooese, and his eneigetio defences of 
the catholic chureh. In fact, his life was divided 
between the performance of his proper duties as a 
bishop, and the composition of his controversial 
works. The strength and sincerity of his religious 
c(MivictionB have never been assaUed, any more than 
his eminent talents and learning have beep called 
in question. But the violence of his temper, and 
the cavalier treatment he gave to the amiable 
Fenelon, have exposed him to severe and merited 
censure. The latter years of his life were passed in 
retirement. He was a voluminous author. Amongst 
the numerous works he left behmd him, his * Funcml 
Orations' are held in high admiration, although it is 
to be regretted thut he often prostituted his great 
powers of oratory in eulogizing unworthy characters. 
His effiirts in the protestant controversy were met 
by tho energetic opposition of Claude and other 
divines among the French protestants, as well as of 
Arehbishop Wake in the Church of England. This 
great genius died at Paris on 12th April, 1704, in the 
seventy-sixth year of his age. [^<^*1 

BOSSUT, C. A., a learned geom., 1730-1814. 

BOSTON, John, a monastic writer, 15ih cent. 

BOSTON, Thos., a ceL Scotch div., 1676-1732. 

BOSTWICK, David, a distinguished minister of 
the presbyterian persuasion, bom 1720, died at New 
York, 1763. He was a man of much eloquence, and 
singleness of purpose. A posthumous treatise, upon 
infant baptism, bears his name, and shows him to 
have been a writer of alnlity. 

BOSWELL, Jambs, well known as the friend and 
biographer of Dr. Johnson, 1740-1795. 

BOSWELL, Sir Alex., son of the preceding, and 
a literary amateur, killed in a duel, 1822. 

BOSWELL, James, a second son, editor of an edi- 
tion of Malone's Shakspeare, 1779-1822. 

BOTELLO, DoK N. A. De, a Portuguese viceroy 
of India, killed in action 1629. 

BOTH, J. and A., Flemish paint of the 17th ct 

BOTHWELL, Jas. Hefbubn, earl of, the third 
husband of Maiy Stuart, d. in exile 1577. 

BOTT, John De, a Fr. arehitect, 1670-1745. 

BOTTARI, an Italian phUosopher, 1689-1775. 

BOTZARIS, Marco, a hero of mod. Gr., k. 1828. 

BOUCHAND, M. A., a Fr. jurist, 1719-1804. 

BOUCHARDON, E., a Fr. arohit. 1698-1762. 

BOUCHER, Fr., a French pamter, 1704-1770. 

BOUCHER, Jonathan, a clergyman of the church 
of England, bom in Cumberland. He came to 
America at the age of 16, studied for the ministry, 
returned to England for education, became the Rec- 
tor successively of several parishes in Virginia, ad- 
hered to the Royal cause at tiie Revolution, preach- 
ing his farewell sermon in Amerioa from tlxe text 
** Gk>d save the King," and on his second return to 
England was made vicar of Epsom. He was a man 
of great learning, eloquence, boldness and integrity. 
He published in 1796 a review of the causes and 
consequences of the American Revolution. His 
death occurred in 1804. 

BOUCHER, Luke, the murd. ofFerand, 1796. 

BOUCHER, P., a Jansenist writer, 1691-176a 

BOUCHER, Pieebb, author of a histoiy of C*- 



lUda pobluhsd in ISM. He m* govemiT otTimi 
Siriart*, uid lived to be Deu4j 100 jeta old. 

BOUCHOTTE, J. B. Noel, & loldier and stste*- 
tnin ID 1793, min. of mr to th« repab., 1754-1810. 

BOUCICAULT, J. Ls M^oaiiK, lord of, a Franeh 
annder ud nunlial, 136S-U26. 

BOUDET, J. P., ■ Fr. chemut, 1718-1828. 

BOUOINOT, ICuu, LLJ>., u eminent UwTer 
«f New Jenej, boni Id Pbiladelphik, 1740. He «u 
tude coniaiiaary gsaeral oTprieonera la 1777, uid 
elected to CongreM, of which ho wai preBident in 
1782. His ligiiKnre i> attaJied t* the tmQ' of 
paaea wiA EogUnd. He wm eguD elected to 
C«ngiHi in 1789. From 1T96 to 1806 he wu dl- 
leetor of the United State) mint. In 1816 he gare 
(10,000 to the American Bible Societj of which he 
ma elected fint Prerident He wu a great benefac- 
toc of Ptinoetou College. At bia deatbhe bequeathed 
the bnlk of bii large property for religioiu, edaca- 
tiinal lai chaiitable pntpoaea. He emplof ed his 
pen principallj in the nanae of religion. R^^arding 
the Indiaiii a* the IdK tribei^ be wrote a treatise on 
tba (Object, 181S. 

BOUPFLERS, Locn Fk., Duo De, diiting. oi the 
deAn. of Lille ag. Prinoe Engene, 16U~t711. 

BOUFFLEHS, S., a French emigrant, d, 1815. 

BOUGAINVILLE, Locn AinaiN De, wee bom at 
Faria, 11th November, 1729, aod though edaoated 
for the vofendon of law, jolaed the arm; nt au early 
age. Soon after his enlistment, be published a 
treatiie on the lotegral Coknlns ; and daring a i««- 
dence in London as secretaiy of legation, he was 
elected a fellow of the Royil Society. In the war 
irttich tarminBtod in 1760 with the loai of Canada 
to the French, BougBinville gained great dininctjon. 
In 1763-64 he peifurmed two roTSgas to the Falk- 
land isles, where he fonnded a colon/, himself being 
the £rst projeotcv, and a large pn^nietor jointly with 
the meidunts of St. Malo. In 1768 this ooton; was 
giTBi op to Spain on payment of 500,000 crowns ; 
and Bongaininlle was sent oat, Ifith Norember, to 
nuke the tbnnal transfer, and with instmctioDB 
tbemmfter to cotaipleta the drcmnaavigatioa of the 
^ba. Ha IukI bnt two ships, the Bondoose, 26 
gias, 314 men, and the Etolle, store ship. He lafelj 
aocomplisbed the otgect, visiting many islands in the 
intartitqiinl Parafic, some of which were till then 
unknown, but without making any remarkable dis- 
eoverin, and rewshing St Halo on 1 6th March, 17S9. 
He was accompanied by Prince Siet;hen of Nassau, 
and the naturalist Commeivo». Bongunville pub- 
lished a pleasing acoonnt of his voyage, which was 
translated by Fonter in I7T2. He afterwards com- 
Quaded one of the shipe of war, sent to aid the Ame- 
ricsns in their great struggle with Britaiiu He died 
attha ageofeighty-two, 31st August, 1811. [J.B.] 

BOUGAINVILLE, Jiajt Piibri De, elder 
brelber of the above, was a literaiy man of some 
note, and held sereral important offices [n Paris. 
Ona of his poems is nid to contain the geim of 
Pope's ' Univenal Prayer/ He died in 1763, at the 
eadj age of for^-ooe. [.I.B.] 

BOUOEANT, G. H„ a Ft. author, 1690-1 T43. 

BOUHIER, Jomi, a learned wr. 107S-1T46. 

BOUILLAKD, J., aFr. engraver, 1744-1606. 

BOL'ILLE, Fbamcu Ci.aDDi Auodk, Harqnis De, 
born 1739, one of the bravest and ablest generals in 
the interest of the crown at the period of Uie Freucb 
nrolatioa ; joined the allies when Louis foolishly 
allowed >iinftM*lf to be captured at Varennes, and died 
in London, after writii^ his curkns and valuable 
mamoin, 1800. 

BOUILLY, J. N., a dlploL and hisL, 1768-1840, 

BOULAGE, T. P., a ¥i. jurisconinlt, 1768-1820. 

Saiie, a political writer and hist., 1658-1722. 

BOULANGER, N. A, a Fr. eng., 1723-1759. 

distiognisbed as a moderate republican, and also as a 
political writer and orator, was bom 1761, appointed 
to the civil triinmol at Nanci, 1793, and to the coun- 
cil ofSOO in theyear 1796. Hetook anoctivepoit 
in the revolution of the 18th Bmmaire, and was nv 
mariuble for his fideli^ to Napoleon, whom he re- 
garded a* the represontative of national indepen- 
dence, and of the principles of the revolntion. He 
was proscribed by the Bourbons at the second resto- 
ration, and passed some yean in eiOe, when fae 
wrote hii ' Tableau Politique det rignee de Charles 
n. et de Jacqnes H.,' containing his review of the 
causes which led to the establishment of the English 
republic In 1649. Buonaparte mode bonorabte men- 
tion of him at St. Helen, as a fearless and honest 
man. The last yean of bii life were passed tran- 
quilly in the midst of his family. 1!^K.] 

BOULLXAU, laUMiEL, a French Bstron. nnd ge- 
neral Kbolar. an. of several worki, 1605-1694. 

BOULTER, R-aaa abp. of Armagh, d. 1742. 

BOULTON, Mattmew, an engineer of disting. 
fame in oonnec. with his partner Watt, 1728-1809. 

BOULTON, Rich., an Englidi pbvsidan. last c 

BOUQUET, Hoar, Brigadier General in the 

ritish army, served as Lient. Col. under Genera] 
Ambent in Canada in 1763, and relieved Fort Pitt. 
lade an expedition in 17^4 against the Ohio 
ns, of which an account with engravings was 
published the neit year. He died at Pensacoln in 
Florida in 1766. He was a brave and skilful ofGcer. 

BOURBON, the reigning family of France, Spain, 

id Sicily, the princes of which trace their descent 
from ' Robert the Strong,' killed 866. 

BOURBON, Chabi-es De Mostfeshieh, Duo de, 
known as anilabU offVaiKe, HSO-lU'il. 

BOURBON, LonB, cardinal and abp. of Toledo, 
distinguished in the revolntion of 1812, 1777-1823. 

BOURBON, Loma, Hv. Jo8., Dno de, at>d prince 
de Cond6, father of the iil-fat«dducd'Eughein, found 
bung in his bod-chnmber, 1330. 

BOUUBOrrE, N., one of those remarkable cha- 
racters raised to an nnenviable notoriety by the 
French revolution, whoM intrepid bearing might h« 
mistaken for heroism, if its fire were not darkened 
by savage cmolty nod tunbition withont principle. 




Little is known of his early life, but he was aboat 
twenty-seven years of age when deputed to the na- 
tional convention, 1792, as a member of the Jacobin 
party. He now signalized himself by voting for 
the death of the king * sans appel et sans snrsis,* 
(without appeal and without delay,) and afterwards 
of the unhappy Marie Antoinette. Commissioned to 
La Vendue by t^e national convention, he gave evi- 
dent proofs of his milltaty courage and ad^Dinistrathre 
talent, but committed exoesees which led to his re- 
call and accusation by the Committee of Public 
Safety. He had the good fortune to be acquitted, 
and was subsequently appointed to the army of the 
Rhine, where he again manifested bis soldier^like 
qualities, tarnished by the same faults. In 1794 he 
commanded openly in the insurrection which over- 
threw the power of Robespierre, and was on the high 
road to the dictatorship when he and his colleagues 
were cru^ed by Legendre at the head of ther sec- 
tional forces. Condemned by the zevolutionary Iri- 
bimal, he stabbed himself v^th a dagger, but sur- 
vived to see his fellow-prisoners beheaded, and to 
undergo the same fate. He retained his oourageous 
self-possession to the last moment, and manifested in 
his dying words the unconquerable spirit which ani- 
mated him. [E.R.] 

BOURCET, P. J. Db, a Fr. milit an., d. 1780. 

BOURCHIER, J., gov. of Calais un. Henry III. 

BOURCHIER, T., abp. of Canterbury, d. 1486. 

BOURDALOUE, L., a Fr. preacher, 1632-1704. 

BOURDELOT, John, a chissical com., d. 1638. 

BOURDELOT, P. M., a nat andphys., 1610-86. 

BOURDELOT, P. B., an. of Annotations, d. 1709. 

BOURDON, Leonard John Jo8ei*h, a member 
of the French convention in 1792, is chiefly memor- 
able for the interest he took in national education, 
and for his part in the denunciation and arrest of 
Robespierre, on which occasion he shared the oom- 
mand of the national guard with Barras. He was 
also charged with the translation of the remains of 
Marat to the Pantheon, and directed the ceremonies 
of their entombment. When his party was defeated 
by Legendre, Bourbon was denounced as an assassin, 
and met the charge by heading a oonspiracy which 
broke out Ist Apnl, 1795, and led to his imprison- 
ment at Ham. Restored to liberty by the amnesty 
of October in the same year, he afterwards appeared 
in the council of 500, only to hear the same accusa- 
tion repeated, this time by Boiwy D'Anglas. The 
charm was not pressed against him in legal form, 
and Bourdon was subsequently appointed agent for 
the directory at Hamburgh. Though a violent Ja- 
cobin, it is by no means clear that he was the san- 
guinary monster sometimes represented. He died a 
natural death as master of a primary school in Paris, 
some years after the re-establishment of authority 
by Buonaparte. [E.R.] 

BOURDON, Francis Louis, one of the most san- 
guinary members of the convention in 1792, obtained 
his seat, by favor of Leonard Bourdon, who had been 
elected for two departments, and allowed his name- 
sake, though not related to him, to usurp one of 
them. He was notorious for the atrod^ of his im- 
precations in the convention, always securing his 
own safety by attaching himself to the strongest side. 
He was among the fifty-three deputies condemned to 
transportation on the 19th Fructidor, (6th Sept., 
1797,) and died soon after his arrival at Cayenne. 


BOURDON, Sebaotian, a Fr. painter, d. 1671. 

BOURDONNAISE, B. F. M. Di La, a French 
naval officer, gov. of the Isle of France, 1699-1765. 

BOURGEOIS, D., a Fr. mechamo, 1698-1781. 

BOURGEOIS, Sir F., a painter, 1756-1611. 
. BOURGET, John, a Fr. antiquary, 1724-1775. 

BOURGOING, John Fr., Baron De, a French 
historian, ambassador of the republic, 1748-1811. 

BOLTIIGNON, F. M., a Fr. antiq., 1756-1796. 

BOURIGNON, Antonia, bom at LiUe, 1616, is 
ramaikable for her claims to illumination, and her 
singular histoiy, the former supported by a body of 
followers who were once numerous in Franoe and 
Scotland. She was unhappy in her paientage and 
education, her mother having oonoeived an aversion 
for her, and treated her with severity, ftom her ear- 
liest years, chiefly, it is supposed, on acoount of her 
unoomely appearanoe, but at last, perhaps, in revenge 
of the perverse temper which she had herself exoi- 
ted. As tiie poor girl advanced in years with no one 
to love or care for her, she gave her mind to the 
study of mystic theology, and acquired a morbid con- 
viction of the duty of self-mortification, which she 
carried to the utmost extaieme that her frame was 
capable of sustaining ; at the same time refusing to 
confess herself to the priests, and declaring that she 
was guided by the immediate Spirit of Grod, vouch- 
safed in answer to her prayers and sufferings. In 
1663, when the death of her parents had pished her 
in possession of a handsome property, she undertook 
the care of a female orphan asylum, which led, 
through a series of tiie strangest oircumstanoes on 
record, to her arrest on a chai^ of witchcraft, of 
which, however, she was acquitted. Wisely avoi<Hng 
any further entanglement in affairs of this nature, she 
now busied herself in the diffhsion of her principles 
through the press, and it may here be remarked, that 
she wrote with great facility in the French, Dutch, 
and German languages. The opposition of the au- 
thorities exposed her to continual vexation and insult, 
so that her life now, as in childhood, was one of per- 
petual trial ; and still more aggravated by the fatal 
gift of a preternatural genius which no one knew 
how to compassionate or controL In her case, as in 
many others of a similar nature, we have to lament a 
nobly endowed mind sacrificed in a just revolt against 
a priest-made religion, for want of the guidance 
which only the Word of God, aooepted in sincerity of 
heart, and consulted with the utmost simplicity of 
purpose, can affbrd. Her principal works are a trea- 
tise on * The Blindness of Man, and Light Bom in 
Darkness,' * The New Heaven,' * The Renewal of the 
Evangelic Spirit,' a * Treatise on Solid Virtue,' and 
the * Trath Discovered.' The substanoe of all her 
writings has been fixrmed into a system by the cele- 
brated Poiret, in his work entitled * Eoonomie de la 
Nature,' contained m 21 vols. 8vo. She died at 
Franeker, East Friesland, afler passing the last yean 
of her life in ministering to the poor. [E.R.] 

BOURMONT, Louis Acocste Vicfob, Count, a 
French marshal and royalist, minister of war under 
Charles X., and previously the chief instrument in 
Ney's condemnation, 1778-1846. 

BOURNE, Richard, missionary among the In- 
dians of New EIngland from about the year 1658 to 
1686. During the last fifteen years of his life he 
officiated at Marshpee, of whioh place he was pastor. 
He did much to promote the temporal as well as 
spiritual interests of the Indians, and after his death, 
his son, though not a missionary, continued to act as 
their counsellor and benefactor. His name was 
Sheaijashnb. The Bourne fiimily long resided at 
Marshpee and attained wealth and eminenoe. Ezra 
Bourne, grandson of Richard, was chief-justice of 
common pleas, and Josef^ Bourne, a great-grandson, 
graduated at Harvard in 1822, and Mted as mission- 
ary at Marshpee from 1729 to 1742. 




BOURNK, Yvnmn, > Latin poet, died 174T. 

BOURRIENNE, L. A. FinvKWr Dr, ■ French 
diplomHtiit, the scbooUcllov, utd »ft«rwanils tbe aec- 
retw oT Napolson, aa. at ' Memoira, ' 1769-1821. 

BOURSAULT, Edw., > Fr. dnnut., 16S8-1T0I. 

BOUTEEWECK, F^ • Oer. philo., 17Sft-1828. 

BOWDEN, JoHK, D.D., a tietftjinMD of the Epu- 
eopal chniwh, reetae of Nomlk, Conn., and profeuor 
at BtOm LeOra laA BMnl phUonphj in Cotombia 
CoUege, Naw York. In 1808 ba pnbUibed ■ Mriei 
of letten •ddmnd to Dr. Hillet oo tbe aporitdic ori- 
pn of epinopBcj. He «ru elected Bisbop dT Con- 
Tuctictit, bnt on hii dediniiig the office Mr. Jirvji 
«M elerUnd to it. Ha died in 1817 in die tixtj- 
nth year of hi* a^ 

BOWDICH, Th. Edw., u Ei^iitb natnnliit ud 
tnnller in the nraoe of the African Conpuij, 

wai offered at ditSerent timei the office of profeuor 
in HuTord L'mverait)', tlie Unirenil; of Virji^a, 
kod Che Milituy Acadeoi; at Weit Point. He con- 
tributed manj raluable nrdclci to the Trantactioni 
of tbe Amerioan Academy of Art* and Science*, 
Reea' Cyclopssdia, tbe North Ataerican Review, and 
other acientilic p^riodjcali. Hii reputation as a pro- 
found mathemadcian aud aBtroaomer, resta chieSj 
on ■ traaalatiou, accompanied by an elaborate com- 
meatarj, of tbe ^ M^canique CeleaCe * of Laplaoc, in 
four large quarto Tolumea. Dr. Bovditch's addilioua 
to the ori^nal work an io SKteaaive and important 
aa to entitle him to be ranked in tbe fint data of 

BOWDITCH, NATUtoEb, LL.D., waa bora at 
Sakm, Maatechosetts, March 24tli, 1773. Hit an- 
eeatora, fcr three geuentdoni, had been ihipmaaten, 
■nd his fatlier, on Tetiriug from the aaa, carried on 
the trada of a oooper, bj wilich he ^ined a ecanty 
mbaiiEence fw a family of aeveB children. He en- 
joyed the benefit of achod iiiatrartion oidy tiU hia 
teotk year, whca hia aaalataaee ma rsqaired in hi« 
fatbei'a aliap. At tirelre be waa appreudced to a 
•hip-chandler. In 1795 be lirst went to ««. Snch 
waa liis ardor for mathematical atndy, that he had 
(anght hiinaelT the Latin Uoj^age for the purpoie, 
and actniilly i«ad (he Principia of Kewlou. He 
made five lunji vojtgti: the Gnt in tbe capacity of 
captsin'a rierli, tbe next three aa anpercBrgo, aad the 
GfUi aa msiter sad tupercargo. It waa oo hi* return 
fnHn Che lait of thele, on the 2.iCh of December, 
1803, that he fonnd hia way into Saiam harbor, jn a 
dark and aaowy night, with no other aaaiaCance than 
hia own reckoninp;, and a tiagle glimpae of the Ii);bC 
on Baker'a Iilaud.' Ib 1799 he wiuelected a mem- 
ber of tbs American Aoademy of Arti and Sdencea, 
and in 1608 reiceived from Harvard tlDireraity tbe 
dcf^ee of HaMsr of Arts. He marned in 1 79tt. and 
lotc his wife in October of the aame year. In 1800 
he married a aocond time. With die aecond Mnt. 
Bowditoh he lired 88 yeara, and bad a nimigroua 
family of chiUreo. In I NOO be pabliahed bia > Prac- 
tical Navigator,' ao well known and extan^vely naed 
in oar mereaniile marina. From 16tA to 1823 be 
waa prwiilent of an ininranoe company at Salem. 
Be tben went to Boaton to take ehaiTfo of the Maaaa- 
thoae t li Hoapical Lih Inniranee Company, which 
nodar hie aoipicea alio became a Tnut Company, 
and <raa managed with ngnal ability and anceets. 
.Dr. Bovditch'a great alluiiraent* in maChematica 
had becotse ao well known in die emincij that he 

rard Univeraity in 1616, and he w 
her of tbe Royal Societica of London, Edinhnifih and 
Dublin, of the American Philoaophical Society, the 
Aatrooomioal Society of Loodoa, the Academy of 
Scieooee at Berlin, &c He died at Boaton, on tbe 
16th of Hanih, 18ft8. Dr. Vethake, from whoae 
notioa of him in Che Encyclopedia Amancana the 
above ia condenaed, aaya that ' Dr. Bowdicch waa not 
only a profound mathemacician and a akilfal man 
of boainesa, but in despite tbe defect* of hit early 
edncation waa imbned with a taaCe for elegant lice- 
ralnre, and waa a very general reader ; — that be had 
acquired an acqnaintauce with levcral langaaRca, 
ancient and modem; — Chat he paased throagh life 
witli a hip;h tenae of religion* and moral obligation, 
and waa beloved and reipcoted by all who had iotei^ 
e with bim.' 

BOWDOIN, Jaheh, LL.D., governor of Maiaa- 
ehnaetCa, a deaoendaol of Pierre Baudonin, who fled 
from France on the revocation of tbe Edict of NanCet, 
waa bom at Boeton in 1727 and »Tadi)ated at Har- 
vard in 1746. By the death of liia .father two years 
aner, he came in posreasioa of an immense furtoue. 
His wealth and leiiure ha devoted Co Lteraty aud ici- 
eutific puraoiCL He was elected in 1753 a repreaen- 
tative from Boaton to the general rourt, aod in 1756 
wai made a member of the council. Being opposed 
to the arbitrary meaaurea of (iovemor Bernard, tbe 
latter put his veto on bit election in 1769; but he 
waa re-elected tbe tubsequeiit year, and Uulchinion 
who bad than aucocvdad llvmard made no upposition, 
aa be thougliC he would be less dangrroui Co Britiah 
interests at tbe council than In the lej^ialatiire. Alter 
representing Mosancbusetts in the firnt Congreta, he 

] TuS cl 


olBce he cniitinned till 1T80. Ju 1785 be waa eleoCud 
govemur of MasHchuMtCs. Shuy's rebellion occurred 
during hia adiniuiaCmtion. Ha was tuccceded by 
HiLDCOck as f^vernin in 1T8T. Harvard University 
etirola him among the liats of iu benefBCton. In 
early life be occuaionally wrote poetry. Bnt aaCrono- 
my wni hia favorite pormit, in whjch he attained 




considerable eminenoe. He diod in 1790, at the age 
of sixty-lJlree. 

BOWDOIN, James, the son of Governor Bowdoin, 
was bom in 1752, graduated at Harvard in 1771. He 
afterwards pursued his studies at Oxford and travelled 
upon the continent of Europe. On the commencement 
of hostilities with England he returned to Boston. He 
did not take any active part in the war, but served in 
a civil capacity on several oocasions. In 1805 he was 
sent by Jefferson as plenipotentiaiy to Ihe court of Ma- 
drid, to purchase Florida and settle the limits of Louis- 
iana, but failed in his negotiations. He was a liberal 
benefactor to Bowdoin College. Ho died in 1811, 
aged 60. 

BOWELL, H. P., an English merchant, established 
at Smyrna, famous as a collector of, and writer on 
Greek coins; died 1851. 

BOWEN, Jabez, LL.D., lieutenant-governor of 
.Rhode Island, a native of Providence. He was grad- 
uated at Yale in 1757. For 80 years lie was chan- 
cellor of the college in Providence. He was made 
lieutenant-governor during the war. He died in 
1815, aged 75. 

BOWEN, Pardoit, M.D., an eminent physician of 
Rhode Island, bom in 1757. He graduated at the 
college in Rhode Island in 1775. He first practised 
as a surgeon on board a privateer, and for some 
years led an adventurous roving life. He went to 
Philadelphia in 1788 to complete his studies, and on 
his return to Providence, of which he was a native, 
obtained great celebrity, principally by his success 
in the treatment of yellow fever. He was struck 
with palsy in 1820, but lingered until 1826. 

BOWEN, Wm. C, M.D., professor of chemistxy in 
Brown University. He died in 1815 at the age of 
29, of disease contracted in making experiments 
with chlorine. His labors led to the establishment 
of the bleaching establishments of Rhode Island. 

BOWER, Arch., a Scotch hist., 1676-1766. 

BOWLES, Wm., an Irish naturaHst, 1720-1780. 

BOWLES, William A., agent of the Creeks and 
Cherokees. He played a oon^icuous part during 
the war of the Revolution, by inciting the Indians 
against the Americans. He was a native of Mary- 
land.. His influence was found so detrimental to the 
Spanish interests that they twice caused him to be 
betrayed into their hands, and he finally died mise- 
rably in Moro Castle, Havana, December, 1805. He 
was a man of crael and ferocious disposition. 

BOWLES, Rev. William Lisle, a poet and miscel- 
laneous writer, rector of Bremhill, in Wiltshire, 1762- 

BOWYER, Wm., an English printer, 1699-1777. 

BOXHORN, M. Z., a Latin writer, 1612-1658. 

BOYCE, Wm., an English composer, 1710-1779. 

BOYD, H., an English traslator, last century. 

BOYD, William, a Presbyterian minister of emi- 
nence in New Jersey, bom in 1758, was graduated 
at Princeton College in 1778, and died at Lamington 
in 1815. 

BOYD, John P., brigadier-general in the United 
States Army in the War of 1812. Before he entered 
the American service he was commaiitter of an ir- 
regular mercenary corps in India, which he raised, 
paid, and equipped himself, and served whichever 
of the native princes would pay him best Having 
sold his interest in the regiment to an Italian, he 
KitLtae in 1808 to Paris, and from thence came to the 
United States. He commanded iu the battle of Wil- 
liamsburg, Nov. 11, 1818. The British force was 
the most numerous, but the American loss was the 
most severe. He published in 1816 a brief account 
of the events of the war. His death oocnired at 

BOYD, Zachart, a Scotch relidous writer, died 

BOYDELL, J., an Englidi artist, 1719-1804. 

BOYE, J., a Danish philosopher, 1756-1830. 

BOYER, AsEL, a Fr. grammarian, 1664-1729. 

BOYER, Abel, a pharmaoopolist, died 1768. 

BOYER, Alexis, Baron, a French surgeon, 1760- 

BOYER, Claude, a French dramatist, 1618-1698. 

BOYER, J. B. N., a Fr. wr. on disease, d. 1768. 

BOYLE, Roo., tiie first eminent name of this 
family, whose ancient seat was in Hertfordshire, 
died 1576. 

BOYLE, Richard, son of the precedmg, known 
as the great eari of Cork, distintruished as a states- 
man in the reign of James I., 1566-1643. 

BOYLE, Roger, son of the preceding, and eari 
of Orrery, a royalist of the restoration, 1621-1679. 

BOYLE, Lord Charles, son of Roger, and 
nephew of the preceding, a fugitive writer and schol- 
ar, 1676-1781. 

BOYLE, Robert, brother of Roger, and son of 
Richard, earl of Cork, a vexy distinguished Inquirer 
of the 17th centoiy ; bom at Lismore in Ireland in 
1626, the year of Lord Bacon's death ; died in London 
in 1691. Boyle was an able and sedulous luvestiga^ 
tor of Nature by ErperimerU; and he contributed 
much to many branches of Physics, Optics, Pneu- 
matics, Natural History, Chemistry and Medicine ; — 
Pneumatics probably gainings most from his research- 
es. He was one of the foremost of those illustrious 
men who founded the Royal Socie^ in 1645, for the 
purpose of improving experimental knowledge, on the 
plan laid kown by Bacon. Boyle*s mind was essen- 
tially reverential, and he wrote largely on religious 
topics. He founded a Lectureship at Oxford, wbiclt 
has produced a number of valuable works on the being 
and attributes of God. [J.P.N.J 

BOYLE, John, earl of Cork and Onery, son of 
Lord Charles, and, like him, a scholar and author 
(Life and Writings of Swift, &c.), 1707-1762. 

BOYLE, Richard, earl of Burlington and Cork, 
an amat. orchit., and patron of Icaming, 1695-175.3. 

BOLYSTON, Nicholas, founder of the Boykton 
professorship ^f rhetoric and oratory in Harvard Col- 
lege. He was by profession a merchant, and died in 
1771, aged 55. John Quincy Adams was the first 
professor under the bequest, in 1806, at which time 
the sum originally given had accumulated to the 
amount of $28,000. His portrait is preserved in the 

BOYLSTON, Ward Nicholas, another bene&ctor 
of Harvard College, and son of the preceding. He 
established the nucleus of a medical and anatomical 
libraiy, with provision fbr its enlargement. 

BOYLSTON, Zabddo^ M.D., F.R.S., a distin- 
guished American physician, bom 1680. He first 
introduced inoculation into America in 1721, when 
the smallpox was raging in Boston. Beginning with 
his son, be inoculated in that and the following year 
247 persons. He was eminently successful in the 
experiment, but his triumph was purchased by the 
temporary loss of his popularity, as it was thought 
not only dangerous to impart the disease in that 
manner, but impious to forestall the woric of Provi- 
dence. He was even threatened with prosecution 
for poisoning and spreading infection, and an attempt 
was made against his life. On going to England he 
was received with great honor, and chosen member 
of the Royal Society. He published in 1726 a his- 
torical account of the introduction of inoctdation in 
New England. He died at the age of 86, at Boston, 
in 1760. 




SOYS, Whl, an uiljq. and natnnliit, d. 1808. 

BOYSE, Sam., a. fogidve wr. and poet, d. 17*9, 

BOYSEAU, a Spuilah general, 165^1740. 

BRACCIOLINl, Fk., an ItaL poet, 166&-16iS. 

BRACHMANX, Loboa 0^ a poat. and fugitive 
writer of Qatmaay, vbo onbi^iil^ drowiMd benelT, 

BRACKENRIDGE, Hcoh HEnr, amiKallanecRU 
AnMrieaa writer, born in 1749, and ^radoatad at 
Princeton in 1T71, Ha wat appointed judge of the 
Supreme Conit of PeuuylTuiia in 1798. tn 1T74 
be pnbliahed a poem on ths glory oT America ; in 
ITaianaowrantofthBLnsoirection in PoniuylTttnia, 
and the adTentarea of Capt. Farrago in two mla. 
ISOd; aim imtm cdona for tha itaiy of the law, 18U. 

BltACKETT, AtriHCWT, ooe of the first iettlerB of 
Pnttliuid, Maine, tlwn called Gaaco. .TogetliBr with 
hi* familr he waa made priMDer bj the Indiana in 
1678, and coBvejed Co Arrooeic Island. Having 
made liii eaeape, he was intnitted for aeveral years 
willi tha oommuid oT varions forts. He waa at laat 
kflled l^ the Indiana in battle, in 1S89. 

BKACKETT. Joshua, M.D., an eminent pfayiiciac 
oTKew Hampahire, bom in 1T33, gradoated at Hof- 
TWd in 1T62, and died ID 1B02. 

BRACTON, Ht. Dk, a writer on law, 13th at. 

BRADDOCfC, Edwabd, maJor-genaraL This 
bisre and able but unfortunate oJBcei was conmand- 
er-iD-obief of tba Brrtiib annj in America in the 
year 1T5(. The disastrooa event which boa made 
hii name memorable in hiatury, wsa owing to his 
□ontempt of the enanj and hia neglect to provide 
■gainat mipriae. Coudneliag in peiwn the eipedi- 
tioa againil Foit Da Qneane, be waa attacked on the 
6tb July, when abont aeven milM distant bom the 
Ibr^ by a ooDoesisd enemy, who fired npoa him 
the uialtvof tlie tall gran and the •nmonding 
licOT. Tha atlcnpt to rally tb« troop* waa frnitieaa. 
All his offioen, eie*^ Oeo^ Waahington, faU. He 
himilf iwxnTed a mortal wonnd, and eipued a few 
daya after at Dunbar, for^ milei distant fram the 
field. Tha entire Ion of the British waa TOO men. 

BEADFIELD, H. S,, an Engliah adventnrer and 
miaceUaneooa wribnr of prnae and poetry. On a visit 
to the United States he became known to acme litera- 
ry circlei, ud died 1853, aged 48, by hia own band 
on hia retam to England, where the latter pnit of hia 
career waa marked by poverty, miaeiy and dequur. 

BRADFORD, Aldeh, secretary of the Sute of 
MaanadiBntta from 1812 to 1824, and author of a 
luMory of MaMachnaetta and other wudu; d. 1848, 
oifcd 78. 

BRADFORD, Akdrbw, pnbliaher d the Ameri- 
n Mercury, the first newspaper that appeared in 
Philadelphia. The £nt unmber came oat in De- 
cember, 1719. He followed the profeaoon of a 
printer, and waa the only one in Pemuylvania from 
1712 to 1728. 

BRADFORD, Gamaliei, a descendant of Brad- 
ford, goyeraor of Plymouth. He served in the Brit- 
ish army during the French war, and commanded a 
regiment in the American service during the Revo- 
Intion. Ue died in 1807, aged 77. 

BRADFORD, J., a martyr of tba reformation, 

BRADFORD, TCiLLUit, attorney-general of tbe 
UnitedStatea, wasbomatPhiladelpbiain 1756. He 
graduated at Princeton, in 1772, and commen- 
ced the study of law under Edward Shippen. The 
war with Great Britain breahtng oat, he served for 
several years aa anotEcer in the milida, and att&ined 
the rank of Ueutenant-oolonel Delicate health oom- 
peUing him to leave tbe army be reanmed ttie study 
of tbe law, and waa admitted to ttie bar in 1 T79, in 
Pennsylvania. In 1784 he married the daoghter of 
Eliaa Bondinot. In 1791 he waa appointed a jndge 
of tbe Supreme Court of Peun^lvania. On tike pro- 
motion of Edmund Randolph to be Seeretaiy of State, 
he was invilad by Waabiogton to became attomey- 
senerol of the United Statea. But he i^d not liva 
long to eigoy bis new honors. Bis appointmoit took 
place in January 1794, and he died in August of the 
following year, of bilious fever. He was mnch n- 
gretted, iUike Tot liis rare abilitiaa and hia amiabla 
diaposjtion. Ha was a clear, persuasive and eloquent 
speaker. H'a work on capital paniahmeDt, pnb- 
Uahed in 1 733, haa tended greatly to meliorate the 
severity of the penal laws, not only in Pennsylianim 
but in many other States. 

BRADFORD, Wiixiah, colooal, was a grandson 
of the first printer in Penn^lvania, and adopted by 
hia nndt, Andrew. In 1742 be pabliahed the Penn- 
aylvania JonmaL Daring the Kerolntiotiary war 
hs fought aa mqor and colonel, at Trenton and 
Princeton. He died in 1791, at the age of 72. 

BRADFORD, William, waa the fint printer in 
Peonsylvania. He emigrated to America abont the 
year 168S, from Leicester in England, of which be 
waa a native. His first publication waa an almanac, 
printed in 16ST. In 1692 he was tried for havmg 
printed the wiitlnga oT George Keith, which were 
alleged to be aeditioni^ but was acquitted. He 
removed the next year to New York and printed tba 
laws of that colony. In October, 1726, the New 
York Gazette, the firat newapaper pubUabed hi that 
city, waa begun by him. He also started the mann- 
factare of paper at EUxabethtown, N. J. For SO 
years he was the only printer in the province of 
New Yoik, and for 50 years printer to tha govern- 
ment He died in 1762, at Che age of 93. 

BRADFORD, Willlam, one of the first aettlera in 
New England, and tbe aecond govemcs of the colony 
at Plymouth, was bom in tha north of England in 
1588, and brought up on a farm. At an early age be 
embraced tbe principles of the aeparatista, and when 
about 19 years old, atler several iaeffeutool attempts, 
escaped to Holland and learned the art of ulk dyemg 
at Amsterdam. With tbe prednce of Ma paternal 
eatate he engaged in snccesaTuI commerce. AAer 
ten yeara l>e delennined to remove to America with 
Mr. Robiuaon, and set sail for tbe new oonlineDt 
from Plymonth, in EngUud, on tbe 22d July, K2Q. 
Before a lamling was effected his wife was ^wned. 
Tbe firat governor of the colony dying soon alter, 
Mr. Bradford was choatm in his place in 1631. One 




tt the fint acts or iiu adminiatratioD vu to Kcnra 
ths frieadthip of Muuaoit, on Indiui nohem. In 
1822 the nnprovided oolonistj snared Mverely from 
fbnitiBf bnt wero putiAlly relieved b^ ths Indtw, 
kmong vhom, hofferer, a conspinc; look place to 
•Cfoct their dettruction, which wsa diKovered i>j 
Masu&tHt, and the lingleaden put to deuth. la 
1830 an enlargod charter vm given by ths council 
for the C0I0D7, to Bradford, Ua baiii, uaociatee 
*nd uaigna, one of a more limited natore having 

trecionily been obtained in the name of John 
ierce. Ebjo^k a high repatation in the col- 
ony, Bradford wus annually re-elected goremor 
nntil liu death, which oocnrred io 166T, with the 
exception oTSTe yenn at interrals, when, at bis re- 
qoest, eitber Mr. Winslov or Mr. Pierce wea chcBeo. 
Id a[nCe of the disadvantHgei attendii^ aa early lack 
of ediicatiod, (inveniiir Bradford, by aiaidoity and 
peneverance, iituiued a competeat knowledge of 
Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French and Dntcb. He 
wrote in a folio volmne of STO pages, a history of the 
ohurch in the colony to the year 16(7, bat the MS. 
haa been nafortuustely loet, with the eiceptioa of 
Mme fragmenta found in a, grocer's ihop at Halifax, 
and published by the Maaachnsetta Historical So- 
ciety. An abridgmeat of it ie however oonteloed 
in Morton*! memarial. 

BRADFORD, Willuic, another descendant of 
Oovemoi BiadTord, bom in 1729, and educated aa a 
^yncian. He afterwards boilt a houae at Mount 
Hope in Rhode laland, on the qiot associated with 
the name of King Philip, and devoted hunself to the 
atudy of law. In 1792 he waa elected a senator to 
Congresa, and was for many yeart speaker of the 
(ssemblj in Rhode laland and deputy gaventor. 
Uia death occurred in 1808, at the age of 78. 

BRADLEY, Jam., an EngUah astronomer, d. 1762. 

BRADLEY, Rich., a wi. on botany, d. 1732. 

BRADLEY, Stepheb R., one of the first aenatiHi 
to Coogreaa l^m Vennont, waa bom in Connecticnt 
1T54, gradnated at Yale ITTS, retired from publk 
life in 1813, and died in New Hampshire in 1830, 

BRADSHAW, J., a republican lawyer, preud. of 
the conrt for the trial of CharleaL, d. 1669. 

BRADSTREErr, Aijnk, author of the first volume 
of poems written In Amsiica, woa the daughter of 
Govertior Dudley, bom in England in 1612, married 
Mr. Bmdatreet in 1630. Her father and husband 
ahortly afterwards emigrated to America, and be- 
came goverDOni of Massachusetts. Her poems were 
published in 1642. The aal^BcCa of them were 'the 
iouT elements, constiCationa, ogea of man, aeosons at 
the year, the Aaeyriau, Persian, Grecian and Roman 
moikarchiea.* They posaesa a aimplici^ and melody 
of which the quaint title gives little promise. We 
qoota a single aCansa : 
• Wben I bchokl Iha besvens, u tn thdr pdtn^ 
And ibeD Uie wtb, Iba' old, >tlU oM In snta. 

BRADSTREET, Johb, major-general in the Eng- 
liah army. He was appointed in 1T46 Ueutenant- 
governor of St, John's, Newfoondland. General 
Sfaiitey placed him in command of !i,000 men in 
1766, for the purpose of tnuiepordng etores and open- 
ing communication with Fort Oawego, on Lake On- 
tario, which be aoccessfiilly accomplished. On bia 
letDin by the Onondaga river, be was attociied from 
au ambuscade nine mSea diatont from the fort. He 
landed on on island and with only as men main- 

tained his position tin anccor arrived, when en m- 
gagement ensued, in which he obtained tlie victory 
In I7S8, at the head of S,000 men, be made an expe- 
dition against Fort Frontenac, on Lake Ontario, and 
captared it together wiA 40 piecea of cannon, mer- 
chandise and provimons. In 1764, at die head of a 
large force, he advoncad into the country of the In- 
diana, and at Preaqoe Isle oompelled them to accept 
tenna cS peace. In 17T2 he was appointed muor- 
general, and died at Kaw Yoifc in 1T74. 

BRADSTREET, Siuon, governor of Hanaalni- 

aetts, waa a native of Uncolnahire. and brongfat up 
in the family nf the Earl of Lincoln. He atudiedfiw 
a year at Cambridge, and soon after became steward 
to the Countess of Warwick. After his marriage 
with a daughter of Mr. Dudley, his fbrmer tntor at 
the Elarl of Ijncola's, he emigrated to Maasachnsette, 
and arrived at Solem hi ISSO. He occnpted for 
several years many offices of pnblic trust, went as 
agent of the colony to Charlea II. on his reetoratioD, 
and wae appointed depnn goveimr in 1T6S, which 
office he held till 1S79, when he aucceeded Leverett 
as governor. In 1886 ttie charter was dissolved and 
the administration of Joaoph Dudley in New Eng- 
land began. He was again chosen governor in 16W, 
and continned in office nntil 1692, when Sir Willioni 
Pbippa arrived with a new charter, which deprived 
the colony of the power of eleotiog their governor. 
He died in 1897, aged 97. 

BRADSTREET, SnoK, a very learned coigrrga- 
tional minister, was graduated at Harvard Coltegc 
in 1693, ordained in 1698, and died in 1741, aged 
72. He wu more celebrated for his learning than 
for his eloqncnce, and waa a man of great eccentricity. 
He delivered his aermona extempcraaeonaly. Id a rit- 

doctrinal preach in|_ 

the practical tone of the t-'nglJA divines, of wbom 

TillotBon was his favorite. 

BRADWARIILV, T., abp. of Conterb., d. 1M8. 

BKAHE, P., Comte De, a distiug. Swede, tutor 

of Christina, and founder of many ui 


BKAHE, Trcno, a celebrated 
bom on the 14tli December, 1646, ai iiDuaatorp in 
Scania, and was the eldest aon and the aeoond <mild 
of a family of five Bona end live daugbtera. Having 
been adi'pted by bia uncle, George Brahe, and plaoed 
under hia core, be commenced tlie study r£ Latin in 
his seventh year ; and in oppoMtion to the wishes of 
his father, who bad destined him for the military 

Srofesdon, be proaeonled hia aohoiaMic atndiea for 
ve years nader private teaohete. About three yaaii 

[ 119] 


ftRsr his falher'i death in IG59, hs went to the ooi- 
venit; of Copeufeagen, with tha view of preparing 
buDKirfor the pinraasian of tlie lnw b^ the study of 
rhetoHc and philosophy. He had apeuc bnC UttJe 
more ttaaa K year at college when a great eclipse of 
the xu;, on the 21>t An^iat, 1560, «idted geneml 
intenst, and made '^cho an Afltrvnoiaer. Sorpriaed 
•t the daw agreemant between t^e calculated and 
obaemid phenomena, he raaolvad to itnij a. toieoce 
which, in addition to iti powar of predieljng futan 
erenta, waa, in genenl opinion, cxnmectod with the 
destaniej of maiL While he was indiUging this new 
paaaioa by the itndf of Stadias') ' Tubulffi Bergeu- 
ao,' ha wai sent from CopenLageD, in Febrnaiy, 
1562, nndfir the charge of ft tator^ to stadj jurispra- 
doDoe at Lfflpxig. Then he deFoted all hiA leimre 
boon to the study of ftatrunomT, making calcuU' 
tjoau, unufrnctiDg ioitmiDcntBi and carrying on aa- 
troDOVUoal ebsBrrationa. Tn May, 1565, he led 
'"V'S *<* **^ posaeauon of the tutate of his uncle, 
to wh^ he had aioceeded ; bnt iu coiu«qnence of 
tlM oppMitiaa made bj hit pareati to his aatnmomi- 

«al itndiaa, hs . 
Tint to Bome of th 

nade bj hit 
quitted De] 

imack in order 


Fvna Wittembetg, which he reached in tR66, 
k« went to Koetook, where in a duel with a ooantry- 
man of hia own, ha loM hit noae, which he very &- 
geaioasly replaced by one of gold and eilTer. Here he 
namaiuad till 1569, whan he visited An^bnrg, where 
ha madetke acqoaintanca of John and Paul Halniel, 
two dutingoiihad aitiiaaa and ardent lovers of aa- 
troaamj. Paol Hainiel coDatmctad for him, at his 
own ezpaiua, a magoifioent quadrant, which exhibit- 
ed (La^ mimites on it* graduated limb, and with 
whiab Tycho made many valuable nbscrvalloua dur- 
ing his May at Angibnrg. On hia return to Den- 
mtik in 1671, ^IVpho found that his reputation iiad 
preoaded bim. The kiogiiivited him to court, and 
hia matenaal uncle, Staoo Bills, gave him, at the con- 
Tsut of HeiritCTold, where he resided, apartments 
for an obMrratoiy liai. a laboratory. Tycho, most 
nnfortunately, eoiueiTed a pasaiou for alchsmy, and 
fDdnlged in the hope c^ oonverting the baser metals 
into gold. He was roused, hovevar, from this dream 
by the ajyearanoe of the mv star iu Cassiopeia, 
which coutiiuied ritibla from November, 16T2, till 
x in March, 1G74.— After marrying 
It girl, in 1578, and delivering, at the lung's 
a oonrse <^ lecinrat on aatronamy, he viuted 
, Frankfort, Bask, and Venice, and i«- 
niMd In 1575 to BatiibAi to witness the ooronation 
of the ampefor RAdolph. Tycho's reputation ia for- 
■ign eeaubies had now begun to aidte notics in his 
Mm. Fredanck IL lant measengeis to invite him 

to bis capital, and Tycho willingly obeyed the royal 
summons. Tlie king received him with the most 
flattering attentioo, gave turn a grant for life of tha 
island cf Hucn, and offered to erect at Us own ex- 
pense all the buildings and instnuneuts that wen 
necessary for carrying on hia astronomical and chem- 
ical ctudies. The celebrated observatory of UratJ- 
burg, or lU dig of At jtfloniw, was fonoded in August 
1576, and supplied with instrumenti ; aiul within its 
walls Tycho carried on those observations with which 
his name is inseparably connected.~~-Upon the death 
of Frederick IL, and the aocesfdon of Christiaa III., 
the prospects of Tycho were greatly changed. Al- 
though a temporary glory was ^rowD aroand him- 
self and hia childnm by a Vint from Jamea VL of 
Scotland, and other princes, yet his stndios were un- 
williugly tolerated by the Danish court The nobles 
grudged him hia penaion and the mognlGoent estab- 
liabmant at Uranibnrg. The phyddani envied hia 
popularity as a medical practitioner, and with such 
^n^aential enemies, Walcbendorp, the [x«eideat, had 
Qo difficulty in indulging hia own peiaonal dielika to 
lycho by meaaurea of injuatice and peraecntion.-.- 
Resolved to abandon for ever his ungnteful oonnby, 
Tycho, with all his apparatus of hutramenta and 
books, his wife, five sons and four daughters, along 
with his pupils, assistants, and servants, male and 
female, embarked at Copenhaj^n to seek the hospi- 
tality of a better conotiy. Aiier landing at Rostock 
in 1597, he went bv invitation to the castle of Wan- 
desberg, near Hamburg, the seat of Count BantioO, 
where his family nmauted till he was munificently 
established at Prague, the capital of the emperor 
Rildalph. This distinguished sovaraign gave him 
the osiatle of Benach as a reaidenoB, with a penajcn 
of 8,000 crowns. Thera be was virited in 1600 by 
Kepler, far whom he obtained the appdntment c^ 
Imperial mathematician to the emperor, ou the con- 
dition of assiatino Tycho in his observationa, Tycho 
dia n- ! X- .u. 1, -- .-.. .-.-- - 

biy of a painful disease with which ha w 
a temporary delirinm overshadowed some of his 
latest hoars. From this painful condition, however, 
he recovered, and resigned himself with tme Jnety 
iota the hands of his Maker on the Slth October, 
1601, in the fifty-fifth year of his age. The instni- 
ments of T^cho wcte purchased from his hein by 
the emperor Rtidolph for 22,000 crawu*. They ware 
shnt up in the house of Curtins, and iren regarded 
with such veneration, that not even Kepler was al- 
lowed to examine or make use of them. Thay re- 
mained iu the same place till the death of the empe- 
when.they were carried off, or destroyed, 

'«ted Bohemia.— The 

I's lifetime. Bid to a 
Tha buildinga were all demol- 
ished, excepting the fann-luiDse, which belonged to 
Tycho. His dwelling-house aud his observatoir ara 
marked by two puts and a mound of earth which en- 
closed tha garden. A very full aceouut of the life 
and labors of Tycho will be found in Sir David 
Brewster's ■ Martyrs of Science.' [D.B.] 

BRAINARD, Jons Q. C, an Am. poet, whs bom 
at Hew London, Coon., la 1797, and graduated at 
Tslo College, 1815, He was a relation of tiie cele- 
brated missionary of the same name, though their 
names by mistake or oaprioe were spelled di&iently. 
He practised for a time as a lawyer at Uiddlelawn, 




and in 1822 became editor of tlie Conneoticat Mirror, 
which he enriched with his productions, both of 
prose and verse. His most celebrated lines are a de- 
scription of the Falls of Niagara. 

BRAINERD, David, a celebrated Indian mission- 
arj, bom in Connecticnt in 1718. He was expelled 
from Yale College in 1742, for some indiscreet ex- 
pressions uttered in a fit of religious enthusiasm re- 
specting one of his tutors. He then prosecuted his 
studies under a Mr. Mills ; was licensed to preach 
before the end of the year, and sent as missionary 
among the Indians. He first went to an Indian vil- 
lage between Stockbridge and Kinderhook, where he 
labored faithfully for some time, when leaving his 
converts under the care of Mr. Sei^geant, he turned 
his attention to the Delaware Indians. He was or- 
dained at Newark, N. J., in 1774, and went to the 
folks of the Delaware, where finding little encour- 
agement, he removed to the neighborhood of Free- 
hold, N. J. At Crosweel^sing, his new abode, his 
exertions were attended with remarkable success. 
In less than a year he baptized 77 persons, and had 
the satisfaction of finding that their lives corre- 
sponded with their Christian profession. In 1746 be 
visited the Indians on the Susquehanna, but his 
strength failed, and in the spring of 1747, he re- 
turned to New England, and spent the brief remain- 
der of his life in the family of Jonathan Edwards. 
He died at the age of 29, on the 9th of Oct 1747. 
Though young he was a man of extensive knowledge, 
and was a foroible, instructive, and pathetic preacher. 
Bui his incessant and effectual labors as a mission- 
ary, perpetuate his name. He published an interest- 
ing account of them in 1746. 

BRAINERD, John, brother of the preceding, was 
also a missionary among the Indians, and succeeded 
David in his mission in 1748. He was succeeded 
himself by William Tenant, about 1766. He died 
at Brotherton, N. J., in 1772. 

BRAMAH, J., a disting. mechanic, 1749-1814. 

BRAMANTE, Donato, or Bramaktb Lazzari, 
oue of the great Italian architects of the Renaissance, 
was bom near Castel Durante, in the duchy of Urbi- 
no, in 1444. He followed in the great path of Bru- 
nelleschi, who died almost within a year from the 
time that Bramante was bora. He was originally 
a painter, and studied the works of Fra Bartolomeo, 
of Urbino, but first distinguished himself as an archi- 
tect at the court of Ludovico il Moro, at Milan. Bra- 
mante remained chiefly in Milan until 1489 ; he was 
employed on the cathedral, and on the repairs of the 
Basilica of Sant* Ambrogio; and was much engaged 
in neighboring cities, in 1600 he settled in Rome ; 
here he took advantage of the opportunities afforded 
by the ancient ruins of perfecting his knowledge of 
classical art, and qualified himself for the high posi- 
tion as an architect which he eventually attained. 
His works, however, are more properly termed Ital- 
ian than classic, as he accommodated the classic fea- 
tures to fhe wants of modern society. The Caneella- 
ria Apostolica at Rome, built as the private residence 
of the cardinal Riario, in 1495, is a fine example, 
and at the same time is one of the best specimens of 
the architecture of the Renaissance. The Vatican, 
however, was the arena of the greatest glories of 
Bramante ; hero he carried out vast works for Julius 
II. ; he first joined the Bclvidere villa to the old 
palace of the Vatican, and enlarged and embellished 
this by the addition of the Court of San Damaso, 
and the famous Loggie containing the celebrated ara- 
besques of Raphael, with many other improvements. 
In 1606 he commenced his great work, the rebuild- 
ing of St Peter's. Julius IL laid the first stone on 

the 18th of April of that year; but Bramante did nol 
live to execute much more than ihe four great piers 
which support the dome, which, however, became 
the key to the whole. Bramante died in 1614 ; and 
the great work was carried on by Raphael, aided by 
Giuliano da San Gallo, and Fra Giocondo, till 1518, 
and after Raphael's death, in 1520, Baldassare Pe- 
ruzzi was appointed architect, and continued tho 
work until 1636. Peruzzi was tacceeded by Anto- 
nio da SanGalloi the nephew of Giuliano, who con- 
siderably altered the plan. After the death of Anto- 
nio, in 1646, Mi<^elang«k> Buonanoti prosecuted 
the work, and completed the dome. Afler the death 
of Michelangelo, in 1664, the work was carried on 
by Vignola, and Pirro Ligorio, under the condition 
that ihey were to adhere to ihe plan of Midielan- 
gelo. Ligorio was removed by Pins V. for wishing 
to infringe this condition. At the death of Vignola, 
in 1673, Giacomo della Porta assumed the direction, 
who with Domenico Fontana, at length completed 
the cupola, and fixed the cross, during the short pon- 
tificate of Gregoiy XIV., in 1690. After the death 
of Della Porta, in 1604, the work was carried on 
by Carlo Maderno, and Giovanni Fontana ; and the 
greatest and most magnificent of Christian churches 
was eventually oonsecrated by Pope Urban VIII., in 
the year 1626, one hundred and twenty yean after 
the laying of the first stone by Julius 11.— (Vasari, 
VUedei PUtari, &c; Platner and Bnnseo, Beaekrei^ 
bung der Siadt Bm, [R.N.W.; 

BRAMHALL, John, an em. English prelate, bom 
at Pontefract, in 1693. He was prosecuted by Crom- 
well, but escaped to the continent, where he resided 
till the restoration, d. at Armagh, 1662. 

BRANCAS LAURAGUAIS, a Fr. nobleman, disi 
for his scientific discoveries, 1735-1824. 

BRAND, John, a political writer, died 1809. 

BRAND, John, an antiquarian, 1748-1806. 

BRANDENBURG, an electorate of the Ger. em- 
pire, from 1417 to the time of Frederick William, 
who succeeded as elector 1640, and created the king- 
dom of Prussia. 

BIV^NDER, G., an antiq. and nat, 1720-^7. 

BRANDT, a Duteh alchemist, died 1692. 

BlUNDT, Erksvou), Count De, a Danish statoo 
man, executed for conspiracy, 1772. 

BRANDT, Geo., an exp. philosopher, d. 1768. 

BRANDT, Seb., a satirical poet, 1464-1624. 

BRANT, Joseph, a celebrated Indian chief, of 
pure Mohawk blood, who was at the head of the Six 
Nations. About the year 1766, he was sent by Sir 
William Johnson to Dr. Wheeling's Indian Cbari^ 
School in Connecticut. He there received a good 
education, and was employed on public business. In 
1762 he acted as interpreter to Smith, a miadonary. 
He visited England in 1776, where his attainments in 
learning attracted attention. In the war he acted 
on the British side, and destroyed the settlement of 
Minisink, in Orange County, on the 22d of July, 
1779. In the engagement which ensued, 44 Ameri- 
cans fell beneath the tomahawk of the Indian. The 
destruction of the settlement of Wyoming has been 
ascribed to him by Campbell, as well as by other 
writers, but proofs were presented to the poet in 
1822, by one of the sons of Brant, that he was not 
concerned in that dreadful massacre. He visited 
England after the peace. The saddest event of his 
life was the death of a son, whom he kiUed in self-de- 
fence, when making a drunken attempt to murder 
him. He never recovered from the sorrow and re- 
morse occasioned by this act, and as an expression 
of penitence for a deed which was perhaps unavoid- 
able, he resigned lus captain's oommisaion in tho 






Bntiah ienrio& and sonrenden^ himflelf to JTudoe, 
but Lotd Dorchester, tlie Governor of Canada, would 
not accept his resignation. He translated the Book 
of Common Prayer, and the Gospel according to St. 
Mark, into the Mohawk, which were pnblished in 
London, 1787. He died in 1807, at the age of 65. 

BRANTOME, Peter De Bourdbillbs, lord of, 
an. of memoinillns. life in the 16th c, 15*27-1614. 

BRASAVOLA, A. M., an Ital. phy., 1500-1556. 

BRATHWATTE, Rich., a poet, 1588-1678. 

BRATTLE, Thomas, a British merchant, bom 
1657, and was graduated at Harvard, in 1676. He 
is the anthor of an admirable accoont of the witch- 
craft dehision in 1692, which is preserved in the his- 
torical collections, and also of several commnnica- 
tionson astronomical subjects in the philosophical 
transac tions . He died in 1718. 

BRATTLE, William, brother of the preceding, a 
leuned New England minister, author of a Latin 
System of Logic, nighly esteemed, and long used in 
Harvard College. He was bom in 1663, and gradu- 
ated in 1680 ; he was ordained a pastor of Cambridge 
in 1696, and died in 1717, aged 54. As a preacher, 
oahn, soft, and persuasive. 

BRATTLE, WnxzAM, the son of the prece^ng, 
aa American. It is more difficult to say what he was 
not than what he was. He was an eloquent congre- 
gational preacher, an able lawyer with a lucrative 
practice, a representative of Cambridge in the gen- 
eral court, a member of the Council of Massachu- 
setts^ a plvfsician of celebrity, a great epicure, and 
to crown all, majof^neral of militia. When the 
Bevohition broke out, ^rmpathizmg with the plans 
of General Gage, he accompanied the troops to Hali- 
fax, and died in 1776. He married the daughter of 
Gov. SaltonstalL 

BRAVO, John, a Spanish physician, 16th ct 

BRAXTON, Carter, bom in Yii^nia, 1786, and 
educated at William and Mary College, became 
member of the House of Buigesses in 1765, and suc- 
ceeded Peyton Randolph as member of Congress in 
1775, in which capacity he was one of the signers of 
the Declaration of Independence. He was after- 
wards a representative in the Legislature of Virginia. 
He was a graceful speaker, and a man of respectable 
attainments. Pecuniary embarrassments clouded 
the last years of his life. 

BRAT, StR Rbo. a fav. statesman of Henry VH., 
and amhiteot of&e fiimous chapel, d. 1508. 

BRAY, Thomas, D.D., was appointed by the bp. 
of London, in 1699, Ecclesiastical Commissary for 
Maryland and Virginia, and devoted a great portion 
cflus life to the extension of religion among all class- 
es in the American colonies. The Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in the United States must ever ranV, 
him among the foremost of those who have laborer 
in her behalf, and indeed, wherever the principles of 
the Churoh of England obtain throughout the world, 
the name of Bray will be honored as one of the chief 
promoters of the establishment of the Venerable So- 
ciety for the Propagation of the Gospel in foreign 
parts. He devoted the whole ofhis own fortune to toe 
cause of missions, raised large sums by appeals to the 
benevolence of others, established parochial schools 
both in England and America, and was instrumental 
in the formation of benevolent and religious societies, 
calculated to elevate and improve the social and spir- 
itual conation of the lower classes, and to cultivate 
and develope self-denial and missionary zeal among 
the wealthy and enlightened. He was an able and 
elo<iuent writer. Ail his productions are eminentiy 
prueticaL He puUiriied a memorial on the State of 
Religiott in America, a discourse on apostolic charity 

and the baptismal covenants, besides letters to the 
clergy, &c., &c. His death occurred in 1730, at the 
age of 78. 

BRAY, Wm., F.S.A., a literary antiq., d. 1832. 

BRAGLEY, Ed. W., an £a. antiquarian, d. 1854. 

BREARLEY, David, Chief Justice of New Jersey, 
bom in 1763, and was graduated at Princeton, in 
1781. He was a member of the convention in 1787, 
and aided in the formation of the Constitution of 
the United States. He was appointed by the Pres- 
ident District Judge for New Jersey in 1789, but 
died in the following year at the early age of 26. 

BRECK, Robert, a learned congregational minis- 
ter, an eminent Hebraist, born at Dorchester, Mass., 
in 1682, was graduated at Harvard in 1700, and or- 
dained at Mariborough in 1704. He is said to have 
read the Scriptures in Hebrew as part of his ordinary 
/amify devotions. He died in 1731. 

BRECKENRIDGE, John, Attorney-General of the 
United States. He was elected to we Senate from 
Kentucky in 1801, and distinguished himself in the 
two following years by his able and eloquent speeches 
req)ecting the judiciary of the United States and the 
affairs with Spain. He succeeded Mr. Lincoln of 
Massachusetts, as Attorney-General of the United 
States, and died at Lexington, Kentucky, in Decem- 
ber, 1806. 

BREDA, John Van, a painter, died 1750. 

BREDERODE, a Dutch patriot, 1466-1490. 

BREE, RoBT., an English physician, 1759-1889. 

BREENBERG, Barth., a painter, 1620-1660. 

BREGUET, A. L., a Swiss watch-ma., 1747-1823. 

BREISLAK, S., an Ital. geologist, 1768-1826. 

BREMER, Sir James John Gordon, disting. for 
his share in the late war with China, 1786-1850. 

BREMOND, Fb. De, a Fr. naturalist, 1713-42. 

BRENNER, E., a Swedish antiquary, 1647-1707. 

BRENNER, Hr., a Swedish Orientalist, d. 1732. 

BRENNUS, the name given by Greek and Roman 
authors to two Gaulish chieftains : the Jirsf^ leader 
of the memorable assault upon Rome, 388 or 389 
B.C.; the secondj chief of the hordes which invaded 
Thessaly and Greece, 278 b.c. 

BRENTON, Capt. E. P., a naval officer, disting. 
by his prof, inventions and liter, works, d. 1839. 

BRENTON, Wm., President of Rhode Island, 1660- 
1661, and Governor from 1666 to 1669 under the 
charter. He died at Newport, in 1674. 

BREQUIGNY, L. G., a Fr. histor., 1716-1795. 

BREREWOOD, Ed., a mathemat., 1565-1613. 

BRESSANI, Francisco Giuseppe, an Ital. priest, 
who labored as missionary among the Indians in Up- 
per Canada, but was taken captive and tortured, sd- 
though his life was spared. An account of his mis- 
sion was published in Italian, in 1653. He returned 
^o Italy and died. 

BRET, Anth., a Fr. poet and critic, 1717-1792. 

BRETISLAS, duke of Bohemia, died 1055; a 
moond of the same name sue. 1093, assass. 1100. 

BRETON, NiCH., a poet, time of Elizabeth. 

BRETON, Raymond, missionaiy, d. 1679. 

BREUGHEL, Peteb, an emment painter, 1510- 
1570. JoRK, his son, also a painter, 1568-1G42. 
Peter, another son, 1567-1625. Abraham, a thud 
son, of the same profession, died 1672. 

BREVEL, J. DuRANT De, a histor., d. 1789. 

BREVES, F. S. De, a Fr. diplomatist, 1660-1628. 

BRE>yER, Ant., a dramatist, time of James I. 

BREWSTER, Wm., one of the earliest settlers of 
the Plymouth (>olony; was bom in England in 1G50, 
graduated at Cambridge, and afterwaids entered into 
the service of William Daviiion, ambassador of Queen 
Elizabeth in Holland. After the disgrace ofhis patron 


C 122] 


he retired to the Nordi of Eo^^and. Some time after 
he separated from the Church of England, and at- 
tended the ministry of Clifton and Robinson. In 
1607 he accompanied Bradford in an attempc to es- 
cape from England, but was apprehended and im- 
pnsoDed. Afitor his release he departed to Holland, 
and having lost the balk of hb property, supported 
himself by teaching English at Leydan, usmg the 
Latin tong^ue as a medium. In 1620 he oame to 
New England, and as ruling elder preached for many, 
years at Plymouth. He died in 1644, at the age of 88. 

BREYNIUS, Jas., a German botanist, d. 1697. 

BRICKETT, John, an. of a Natural History of 
North Carolina, 1737. 

BRIDAINE, Jab., a trav. preacher, 1701-1767. 

BRIDFERTH, a Brit, monk and math. 10th c 

BRIDGEWATER, Fr. Eobston, duke of, eel for 
his enterprise in canal navigation, 1736-1808. 

BRIDPORT, A. Hood, a Brit adm., d. 1814. 

BRIET, P., a geographical writer, 1601-1668. 

BRIGGS, H., professor of geometry, 163^1680. 

BRIGGS, W., a disting. ocuUst, 1650-1704. 

BRIGHAM, Amarxah, an Am. physician and wri. 
on psychological med. and insanity, d. 1849, aged 51. 

BRIGHAM, Paul, a native of Vermont, who ser\-ed 
in the Revolutionary War, and was for twenty-two 
years Lieut-Governor of the State, besides filling 
other offices of ^ivil trust He died in 1824, at the age 
of 79. 

BRIGHT, Francis, arrived in America m 1629, 
and became minister of Chariestown, Massachusetts, 
but finding the spirit of religious innovation greater 
than suited his temper and judgment, he relinquished 
hi") post, and returned to England. 

BRIGHT, Timothy, an Eng. physician and theo., 
author of numerous works, died 1616. 

BRILL, M., a landscape painter, 1550-1584. 

BRILL, Paul, a landscape painter, 1556-1626. 

BRIMSMEAD, Wbc., a congregational minister, 
bom at Dorchester, and educated at Harvard Col- 
lege. He was ordained at Marlborough, of which 
place he was the first minister in 1666. While preach- 
ing on Sunday, Maroh 80, 1676, the Indians made 
an attack on the chureh, but all inside, with one ex- 
ception, escaped to the fort He kept a Latin jour- 
nal, which was made use of by Prince in compiling 
his annals. His death occurred in 1701. 

BRINDLEY, JAanss, the man who first devoted 
himself to civil engineering as a profession. In Great 
Britain engineering works were not intrusted to civi- 
lians till about the middle of the 18th century, when 
capitalists began to embark their wealth in specula- 
tions that promised a pecuniary return only, without 
regard to their own neighborhood being the soene of 
the projected improvement, or facilities being afifbrded 
by it to their peculiar business. The change was the 
forerunner of increased national means, and by the 
enlarged field of employment it opened up, gave rise 
to this new order of professional men, — ^pioneera of 
civilization. Brindley was bom in 1716, at Thor- 
sett, near Chapel-le-frith, in Derbyshire. He fol- 
lowed the usual labors of agriculture until his seven- 
teenth year, without the advantages of even the moat 
ordinary education. But he was a geniu^^ 

'Of mother wit, and wise without the sohools.' 

He was apprenticed to a millwright, who left him 
often to work out what the master himself should 
have designed and directed. Thus his inventive fac- 
ulties were brought into exercise, and he frequently 
astonished his employer by the ingenious improve- 
ments which he effected, and by the results of his 
ceal for bis mastoids honor. When his apprenticeship 

ended he engaged i|;i busineis on his own aooomit 
In 1752 he erected machinery for draining coal pits 
at Clifton, in Lancashire. The water wheel waa 
30 feet under ground, and the water was supplied 
from the Irwel^ by a tunnel 600 yards long. This 
was a work of baldness and ingenuity a century ago^ 
though we may amile at it nowl In 1756 he erected 
a jfami engine at Kewoastle-nnder-Lyne, which waa 
calculated to effect a great saving in fuel over the 
ordinary Newcomen engine. Ab^t 1757 Brindley 
was consulted by the duke of Bridgewater as to the 
praoticabilily of constructing a canal from Worsley 
to Manchester. Brindley's success in this nnderta- 
kinff was the means of awakening public attention 
to the advantages of canala. Had a man of inferior 
genius, or less dauntiess courage, undertaken the 
works, it might probably have turned out a failure, 
and the development of British inland navigation 
might have been deferred some years longer. When 
the canal was completed as far as Barton, where the 
Irwell is navigable for large vessels, Brindley pro- 
posed to carry it over that river by an aqueduct S9 
feet above the surface of the river 1 This project 
was ridiculed by the praaHoal men of the day. One 
much respected individual of the time would not dis- 
count the duke of Bridgewater's bill for £500, and 
when the dimensions of the canal aqueduct were 
communicated to him, he exclaimed : — ' I have often 
heard of castles in the air, but never was before 
shown where any of them was to be erected.' The 
duke raised the money, however, and in less than 
one year Brindley completed the aqueduct 1 Within 
forty-two yean aifter the duke of Bridgewater*s canal 
was opened, application had been made to parlia- 
ment for 165 acts for making canals in Great Britain 
at an expense of £18,000,000. Brindley engineered 
the great undertakings which opened an internal 
water communication between the Thames, the 
Humber, the Severn, and the Mersey, and united the 
great ports of London, Liverpool, Bristol, and Hull, 
by canals which passed throi4{h the ricbeist and most 
industrial districts of En^nd. Brindley died 1772, 
at the age of fifty-six, the victim of intense applica- 
tion to an arduous and exciting profession. He waa 
interred at New Chapel, in Staffiwdshire. Brindley is 
reported to have answered a Conmiittee of the House 
of Commons, when asked for what ot^ect rivers were 
created : — ' To feed navigable canals.' Railway en- 
gineen of the present day conceive that they are 
turning riven to their primitive destinations, for ca- 
nals are being converted into railways 1 Brindley 
could neither read nor write until liUe in life, and 
then but pooriy. He had great power of mental 
calculation, was of unwearying application and voc 
dustry, and eminentiy suceesafuL [Ia.D.G.B.3 

BRINKLEY, Db. J., an aation^ 1760-1885. 

BRINVILLIERS, the notor. poisoner, ex. 1676. 

BRISBANE, Admiral Sir Ch., an officer of dis. 
gaUantry in the war vrith France, the oompanion in 
arms of Rodney, Hood, and Nelson, appointed gov- 
ernor of St. Vmoent, 1808; d. 1829. 

BRISSEAU, Pbt., a Fr. physician, 1631-1717. 

BRISSON, M. J., a Fr. naturalist, 1723-1806. 

BRISSOT, Pbtbr, a medical an., 1478-1522. 

BRISSOT, Jean Piebrk, distbguished in the his- 
tory of the Revolution as leader of the Girondins, 
was an orator and political writer of the first ability. 
The commenoement of his public career as a jour* 
nalist was charaeteriaed by a singular stroke of van- 
ity, whereby the plebeian appellation of the humble 
pastry-cook who begot him, was metamorphosed 
into the name of his birth-place, and shone with 
aristocratic refulgence as * De Warville,' In the oh- 


[ 1^ ] 


•euritf of Mb early lift he aeems to have acqiiii«d 
bH the experience of men and thmgs neoessaiy to a 
pofitical intrigner. Ilestlesfli» echeming, and ambi- 
tionsy he was indefittigable in his seal for reform, 
especially for the ameUoratioa of the criminal code 
and the abolition of alaveiy. It is difBcnlt to say 
whether his character was spinled, or rather made, by 
the philosophy of Roossean. Madame Roland, when 
it became her fate to meet him, was oertakily disap- 
p<nnted in his appearance, for she saw no pasdon 
in lus countenance coiresponding to that of his 
style, and was rather stmck by the hwsy mobility of 
a novice than the dignity of an apostle in his con- 
versation and manners. When ike levolotion first 
dawned he was the advocate of a conslitational mo- 
narchy; growled at by Marat for 'giving his paw 
to Lafayette,' and again as bitterly denounced, es- 
pecially by Robespiene, for his imprudence in bias- 
ing forth the word * Republic' when his convictions 
were changed. While the states-general were dis- 
cussing the constitution, Brissot associated himself 
with Condoroet and Clavi^ as joint proprietors of 
the Momteur^ and in 1791 was returned to the first 
parliament His love cf occupation, his activity as 
a senator, as a member of the Jaoobin Club, and in 
the coterie at Madame Roland s-^periiaps also his 
extreme shiftiness in arffomen^— soon marked him 
out as the head of the middle daas republicans, first 
distinguished by his own name, and called ' Bris- 
sotins ' by the spirited Camille Desmoulins. His 
hour of triumph was under the ministry of Roland 
and Clavi^, with whom he, of course, fell at the 
period of Marat's insurrection, 2d June, 1798, when 
his name appeared first of die twen^-two Girondins 
ordered under arrest He endeavored to escape dis- 
guised as a merchant travelling to Neufchatel, but 
was discovered em rouU by the Revohitionajry Com- 
mittee of Moulins, and finally placed with his col- 
leagues, * all chief republicans,' * the eloquent, the 
young, the beautiAil, the brave,' at the bar of Fou- 
qmer Tinville. Brissot defended hims^ with the 
courage of a patriot and the serenity of a philoso- 
pher, and though it was not him, but his friend La- 
sonroe, who addressed the tribunal in an epigram, 
it exactly expresses the feeling of the whole party, 
' We die on the day when the people have lost their 
reason ; ye will cQe when they recover it ! ' The 
philosophical repast In prison, and the chorus of the 
ManeiUaise at the scaffold on the following morning, 
SI st October, have been often described, and it was 
at ^e former that Brissot emphaticflklly said, in 
answer to &e question whether he believed in the 
immortality of ^e soul and the providenoe of God— 
* I do believe in them ; and it U because I believe 
in them that I am about to die.' His history is that 
of his party, a weU-intentioned and talented body 
of men, but too sorupnkms of forms, too philosophi- 
cal and stu^ous of theoiy as legislaton, and in a 
word, hardly andacioas enough for the exigencies 
of the period. He left behind him manr works of 
importance, but especially on criminal jurisprudence. 
The chief of these are *Th6orie des lois Criminelles,' 
2 vols. 8vo, 1780, and 'Biblioth^ue Philoeophique 
du L^gislateur, du Politique, dn Jnrisoonsulte ; sur 
les lois Criminelles,' 10 vols. 8vo. 1786. As to his 
personal appearance, he was a man of small staturs, 
with thin pale foatures, lighted up by intelligence, 
and ennobled in circumstances of danger by intre- 
{Md determination. His dress and habits had been 
formed to flie Quaker model during his residence in 
America, where he had taken refuge firom the ter- 
ron of a ' lettre de cachet^' before the outbreak of 
the nvolntioa. [E.R.] 

BRISTOW, R., a Roman Catholic polem., 16th o. 

BRTTANNICUS, son of Claudius, and so named 
ftom his f ather^s sucoes. in Brit, pois. by Nero, 55. 

BRTITON, T., an amateur music, 1654-1714. 

BROCK, Isaac, major-general in the British army, 
who was killed in' the l»ttle of Queenstown, 18th 
Oct, 1812, -while rallying his troops, who recoiled 
under the gallant charge of CoL Chrystie. On the 
16th of August, he captured Gen. HuU and his army 
at Detroit A monument has been erected to his 
memory on the spot where he died. He was highly 
esteemed and reqwcted by both contending armies 
as -a noble and brave oflScer, and the Americans fired 
minute guns during his funeraL 

BROCKEDON, Wk., an English artist and writer, 
d. 1854, aged 67. Many of the popular books of 
the day were illustrated by him. He had an in- 
ventive genius, and produced various inventions show- 
ing considerable mechanical ingenuity. 

BROCKLESBY, R., a ^. on music, 1722-97. 

BROECK, Ahthont Ten, president of the Con- 
vention of the State of New York in 1776, held at 
Fishkill. He was mayor of Albany in 1781. His 
death took place at Albany in 1810, at the age of 76. 

BBOGLIE, YiciOB Fbakcib, Due De, marshal of 
France, and gen. of the emigrants, 1718-1804. 

BROIGNART, a. Louis, aFr. chemist, d. 1804. 

BROKE, Bjbab- Admiral Sib Poilip Bowks Vese, 
the gallant com. of the Shannon, 1776-1841. 

BROME, Alex., a satirical poet, 1620-1666. 

BROME, Rich., a dramatist, died 1632. 

BROMFIELD, W., an Eng. med. au., 1712-1792. 

BROMLEY, John, an Eng. clergyman, 17th c. 

BRONDSTED, p. O., a Dan. anriq., 1780-1842. 

BBOOCMAN, C. U., a Sw. wr. on edoc., d. 1812. 

BROOKE, Francis M., a novelist, died 1789. 

BROOKE, H., a novelist and mystic, whose prin- 
cipal work is * The Fool of Quality,' 1706-1783. 

BROOKE, Sir R., a wr. on civil law, d. 1558. 

BROOKES, J., an em. anatomist, 1763-1833. 

BROOKS, J., a phy. and man of let, 1752-1825. 

BROOKS, EucAZAR, brigadier-general, bom at 
Concord, Massachusetts, it\ 1726. He was chosen 
in 1774 a representative to the General Court, and 
continued for 87 years in public life. He fought at 
the battle of White PUins in 1776. In 1801 he re- 
tired into privacy, and died in 1806, at the age of 80. 
Though defioieut in early education his mind was 
improved by dUigent reading and contact with the 

BROOKS, John, LL. D., governor of Massachu- 
setts, bom in 1752. He was brought up on his 
father's farm, but at the age of 14 was apprenticed 
to a physician named Tuflis. Count Rumibrd was 
his fellow-pupiL After commendng the practice of 
medicine at Reading, he raised and drilled a compa- 
ny, having obtained some practical knowledge from 
observing the training of the British soldiers on 
Boston Common. He fought at Concord in 1775. 
He was raised to the rank of Lieut Colonel in 1777. 
He acted in concert with Arnold in the expedition 
on ihe Mohawk. He fought gallantly at the battle 
of Saratoga, storming the German intrenchments. 
He acted as adjutant-general at the battle of Mon- 
mouth, and won the esteem of Washington by his 
conduct at Newburgh. After the peaoe he retired 
into private life, and succeeded Dr. Tufts in hu 
practice as a physician. In the war of 1812 he was 
acljutant-general of Massachusetts, having long held 
the rank of m^or-general of the State miUtio. He 
was elected governor in 1816, which office he filled 
for seven years in succession. His death occurred 
in 1825, at the age of 72. One of his sous was 




killed in the battle of Lake Erie in 1818 — another 
son was Major Alex. S. Brooks^ of the U. S. army. 

BROOKS, Maria, an Am. poet, was bom in Med- 
ford, Mass. She resided, however, mostly at Bos- 
ton. On a visit to Europe she was welcomed by 
the literary circles gathei«d about Wordsworth and 
Southey, the latter of whom superintended the pub- 
lication of her poem * ZophieL* and pronounced the 
author * the most impassioned and ima^native of 
all poetesses.' * Zophiel ' was her principal work, but 
she pubHshed others. She died at Matanzas, Cuba, 
Nov. 11, 1845, at the age of about 50. 

BROOME, Dr. W., a dassioal scholar, d. 1745. 

BROOME, John, lieut governor of the State of 
New Yoxk, and president of the Senate — elected in 
1804, died August, 1810, aged 82. His early life was 
spent in commerce, in which he attained wealth and 
eminence. . 

BROSCHI, Gab., a disting. dnger, 1705-1782. 

BROSSE, Gut Db La, a Fr. bcSaidst, 17th ct 

BROSSES, Ch. Dk, a Fr. nwtmt, 1709-1777. 

BROSSETTE, Claude, a Fr. hist, 1671-1746. 

BROTHERS, R., a pretended prophet, whose pub- 
lic hist and publicat. date from 1793 to 1802. 

BROUGHTON, H., aHeb. schoL, 1549-1612. 

BROUGHTON, T., a fugitive writer, d. 1774. 

BROUKHUSIUS, J., a Dutch schoL, d. 1707. 

BROUNCKER, Wic, Lord, a philos., d. 1584. 

BROUSSAIS, F. J. v., a medic, au., 1772-1888. 

BROUSSONET, P. A. M., a Fr. nat, 1761-1807. 

BROUWER, Adr., a Dutch painter, 1608-40. 

BROWALUUS, J., a writer on bot, 1707-1765. 

BROWN, Andrew, editor of the Phihulelphia 
Gazette, was a native of Ireland. He came to Amer- 
ica in 1778 as a British soldier. After leaving the 
service, he engaged in the colonial cause and fought 
at Lexington and Bunker Hill. When the war was 
over he set up a school in Penni^lTania, but relin- 
quished the employment of teachmg, and began the 
publication of the Philadelphia Gazette in 1788. 
His paper was the vehicle through which much of 
the political discussions of the period were carried 
on. Its name at first was the Federal GazettCi 
but changed from a desh« to divest it of a partisan 
character. He died in January, 1797, of injuries 
received dnrin^jr the burning of his house, in which 
his wife and three children perished. The paper 
was carried on by a sole-surviving son. 

BROWN, CATHABnfE, a converted Cherokee, an 
interesting memoir of whose life has been compiled 
by Rufus Anderson of the American Board of Foreign 
Missions. She was bom at WHls Valley in Ala- 
bama in 1800. At the age of 17 she entered the 
school of the American Board at Chikama'tigah, and 
was baptized the following year. She is described 
as a girl of great loveliness and promise. Her death 
firom consumption in 1828, cut short the hopes of 
earthly usefulness which had been entertained of 

BROWN, CicARLEg Bbocxdsv, an American nov- 
elist, bom in Philadelphia in 1771. He was edu- 
cated for the legal profession, but an unconquerable 
timidity induced him to turn his undivided attention 
to literary pursuits. His first production was Wie- 
land, published in 1798, which was followed by 
Ormond, Arthur Mervyn, Edgar Huntley, Clara 
Howard, and Jane Talbot. He was also editor of 
the Monthly Magazine, the American Review, the 
Literaiy Magazine, and American Register, besides 
publishing several pamphlets on political subjects. 
He marned in 1804. In 1809 he fell into a con- 
sumption and died in 1810, at the age of 89. His 
writings, notwithstanding the brilliancy of theur 

style, have not attained any lasting pc^ulariiy, as 
they are boti^i destitute of unity and moztd purpose, 
and given up to the delineation of revolting crime. 

BROWN, David, a converted Cherokee, broker 
of Catharine Brown, who was educated at ihe same 
school, and labored for some years as an interpreter 
and preacher among the Cherokees. His letters 
and reports show him to have possessed a cultivated 
and highly intelligent mind. He acted for a time 
as secretajy of the Indian government. The dis- 
ease of which his sister had med proved also fatal to 
him, and he died at Creekpath, Mississippi, in Sept., 

BROWN, FbAKCis, D.D., president of Dartmouth 
College, bom^ at Chester, New Hampshire, in 1784, 
graduated at Dartmouth in 1605. He was ordained 
at North Yarmouth, in Maine, in 1810, and ap- 
pointed president of Dartmouth College in 1615. 
He was a man of great learning and amiability. He 
died in 1820 of consumption, at tiie age of 86. 

BROWN, Jacob, major-general in the United 
States army, was bom in Pennsylvania in 1775. At 
the age of 20 he went to Ohio as a stirveyor of 
public lands. From thence he went to New York, 
where he studied law and tau^t school, but soon 
relinquished these pursuits, and emigrated to the 
shores of Lake Ontario. He entered the service of 
his country as a militia officer in 1812, but distin- 
gnishing himself greatly in the defence of Ogdens- 
burgh and Sacketts Harbor, he was in 1814 ap- 
pointed brigadier, and soon after mi^or-general in 
the regular army, and placed in chief command at 
Niagara. He commanded in person at the batties 
of Chippewa and Niagara, and the sortie of Fort 
Erie. At the conclusion of the war he and General 
Jackson were alone retained as migor-generals, and 
the sole command of the army devolved on him in 
1821. He died at Washington in 1828, aged 52. 

BROWN, Jakes, an Am. statesman and diploma- 
tist, was born in Viiginia, 1766. He distinguished 
himself as a lawyer, and was jmned with Livingston 
in the preparation of the Code of Louisiana, to which 
state he removed alter its purchase by the United 
States. He was successively U. S. senator, and min- 
ister to France in 1832, d. 1836. 

BROWN, John, an officer in Hihe American army 
during the Revolution. He was bom in Berkshiro 
county, Massachusetts, in 1744, was graduated at 
Yale College in 1771, and after c(»upleting his legal 
studies at Providence, was appointed Kiiig*s attorney 
at Caghnawaga, New York. From thence he re- 
moved to Pittsfieid in 1778. In 1774 he went into 
Canada in the di^nise of a horse-deijer, to excite 
the people to rebellion. He was member of the 
Provincial Congress in 1775. ' He shared with Ethan 
AUen in the capture of Ticonderoga. He took Fort 
Chamblee on the 24th Sept. The next enterprise 
in which he cooperated was the attack upon Que- 
bec, in which Montgomezy fell. In 1776 he wae 
raised to the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the Con- 
tinental army, and the next year did eminent ser- 
vice on the shores of Lake George. A quarrel with 
Gen. Arnold, whose character he appears to have 
penetrated, induced him to retire fr(mi the service, 
not, however, without publishing an account of the 
enormities which he knew the General to have com- 
mitted, and predicting that he would prove a traitor. 
He was not however idle, but performed service in 
the militia of Massachusetts. In 1778 he was elected 
a member of the General Court. While attempting 
to relieve General Schuyler on the Mohawk, he was 
treacherously led into an ambuscade, and died on hii 
birthday, Oct 19, 1780, at the age of 86, together 




irith forty-fiTe of Mb commuid. He was, howeTer, 
reTonged on the same day by Gen. Van Rensselaer, 
Trho met and defeated the party by whom he had 
been dain. 

BROWN, M0SS8, captain, a naTal officer of the 
United States. • Dminff the Reyohitionaiy war he 
commanded several of the largest prirateers, and 
was engaged in many severe conflicts. On the es- 
tablishment of the Ainerican navy he was put in 
command of the Merrimac. He died in 1804 of an 
apopletic fit, at the 1^ of 62. 

BROWN, NiCH., a distingnished citizen of Rhode 
Island, remotely descended from Chadd Brown, the 
colleagoe of Roger Williams. He greatly contribu- 
ted by his liberality to beantify the city of Provi- 
dence, and Itenefit the college. He died in 1791, at 
the age of 61. 

BROWN, J., D.D., an essayist, 1715-1766. 
BROWN, J., a Scotch artist, 1762-1787. 
BROWN, J., a biblical expositor, 1772-1787. 
BROWN, J., M.D., a wr. on pathology, 178&-88. 
BROWN, John, an engraver, died 1801. 
BROWN, L., a landscape gardener, 1715-1782. 
BROWN, R., fnr. of the independents, 1560-1680. 
BROWN, Sib Saxusl, Oapt. R. N., inventor of 
iron suspension bridges, 1777-1852. 

BROWN, Tbomas, a recent Scottish metaphyn- 
cian ; successor of Dugald Stewart in the university 
of Edinbui^h. Bom near Edinburgh in 1778, he 
died at an eariy age in 1820. His tastes were lit- 
erary; and he relished philosophical discussion. 
When only eighteen years of age he published a re- 
futation of Darwin's Zamiomia ; the first edition of 
his Essay on Ccaue cmd Effect appeared in 1804, on 
occasion of a singular but unprofitable and Hi- 
managed controversy that had arisen within the 
Scottish Church : he afterwards issued a fragment 
entitled OutHnes of the FhftMogy of the Htanan Mind: 
bat his principal work consists of Lectures, of which 
mnltitndes of editions have been sold in Great Brit- 
ain and America. Brown likewise paid oSbrings to 
the Muses : his poems were collected into four 
volumes, but they are already forgotten. The met- 
aphysical system — ^if so it may be called— to which 
the writings of this philosopher gave currency, is 
certainly no continuation of what is termed the Scol^ 
tish School, but rather an effort at revolt, alike 
against its leaders and doctrines. In the first place, 
he makes an elaborate attempt to create an im- 
pression that the supposed merits of Pr. Reid in r6- 
ftitation of the Ideal Theory, are reducible to his suc- 
cessful demolition of a faUacy held by no important 
metaphysical writer, (except perhaps Berkelev and 
Malebranche) — a pure creation of Reid*s own fancy. 
On this histcnical point we shall remark at length 
under the article Beid; suffice it to state here, l£at 
Brown has completely failed, and shows besides an 
ignorance of the true merits of the question, quite 
remarkable in a man of undeniably quick apprehen- 
sion. The subject of Sensation disposed of, he next 
attacks the account given by his predecessor of oar 
mental faadiiet — a word to the use of which he 
strongly objects ; producing, instead of the careful 
description of phenomena occupying the volumes of 
Keid and Stewart, an artificial classification of spe- 
cious simplicity, but throwing no real light either 
on the nature of the more important psychological 
fiicts, or their relations. Mental phenomena, he 
conceives, should be divided into extmial and intemal 
States of the thinking principle, — the former being 
our sensations, the latter the contents of the IntelH- 
pence. Intemal states, he conaders, are either the 
reproduction of ideas of absent oljects, by means of 

what he calls rimpie suggestion, or the perception of 
their relations, through rtlalwe suggestion. Adding 
our Emotionsj classed into immediate, retrosp^iee, and 
prospective, Brown conceives he has described and 
explained all mental phenomena. — It were easy to 
show that in most of his attempts to simplify, Brown 
has mistaken and contorted the great facts of 
•psychology; his fatal error, however is this, — an 
error which may be inferred from the mere phrase- 
ology of his system, — ^he confounds the taU with 
merely passive desire, from which it had been a 
prime aim of his predecessors clearly to distinguish 
it. The teUl, he says, is simply desure, coupled with 
the belief that the object of the desire will foQow as 
an efiect That great faculty, the coequal of Sensi- 
bility and Intelligence, the source and condition of 
human liberty and dignity, is thus purely and sim- 
ply suppressed; nor was it possible for Brown to 
evade consequences which ever belong to that sup- 
pression ; — his philosophy is on the edge of those 
two abysses, sceptioism and fatalism. It is in nowise 
a favorable symptom either of the taste or acuteness 
of the time, that these Lectures have obtained a cur- 
rency so wide. If their metaphysics are bad, their 
style, considered as a philosophical one, is certainly 
the reverse of commendable. Diffiise and inaccu- 
rate, it is wearisome and misleading. Ambitiously 
rhetorical, its metaphors and digressions, often pleas- 
ing by themselves, distract &e attention of the 
student from the thought. Brown himself seemed to 
imagine that a philosophy might be itr^nrovised : and 
it is to be feared that his example and writings have 
done much to maintain the youth of our time in 
the delusion, that acquaintance with the Science of 
Mind may be promoted, and truth discerned, through 
glib use of the mere forms of philosophical thought. 
There is no use in such popular philosophy. If an 
aspect of dialectic is demanded of public instructors 
now, the time will come, when, to obtain accept- 
ance, they must exercise reflection also. [J.P.N.] 

BROWNE, Antb., an English lawyer, d. 1567. 

^OWNE, Geo., Count, an officer in the Russian 
service, 80 yrs. gover. of Livonia, 1698-1792. 

BROWNE, Isaac Hawkins, a poet, 1706-1776. 

BROWNE, Pat., M.D., a naturalist, 1720-1790. 

BROWNE, Simon, a controv. divine, 1680-1732. 

BROWNE, Arthdb, missionary in New Hamp- 
shire, for the Society for the Propagation of the 
Grospel, was bom in Ireland, and graduated at Dub- 
lin University in 1729. He was ordained by the 
Bishop of London, and went in the first place to 
Providence, R. I., but removed in 1786 to Ports- 
mouth, where he continued to officiate till his death 
in 1778, at the advanced age of 78. lie was a 
learned man and an eloquent pr^^her. 

BROWNE, Abtritb, LL.D., Greek professor in 
Trinity College, Dublin, was the son of the Rev. 
Marmadake Browne, of Newport, R. I., who carried 
him to Ireland for education, and placed him at 
Trinity College, but died on his return to America 
of the effects of sea^sickness. Thus left an orphan in 
1771, he continued throughout life connected with 
the College. He was a man of high attainments, 
and represented the University in the Irish House 
of Commons. He was the author of a compendium 
of the civil law, and of a translation from a poem en- 
titled *Hussen O'Dil, or Beauty and the Heart '—to- 
gether with two volumes of miscellaneons sketches. 
His deadi occurred in 1805. 

BROWNE, Sir THoaiAB, the distinguished author 
of the BeHgio Medid, was bom in London 1605. His 
early education was received at Winchester and Ox- 
ford. He Btodied medicine subsequentlyi and took 




Ms degree at Leyden. On his retnm to England 
he settled at Norwich, where he became famous as 
a practitioner of the medical art He was fond of 
stady, and passed his leisure in the preparation of 
his famous work the R^igio Medid, whicn was first 
published surreptitiously, but afterwards given to the 
woild In a new edition by the author hisaself. This 
work, on its first appearance, drew down iqwn the 
author many grave chazges against his orthodoxy 
and even his christian belief, which were triumph- 
antly refuted by Browne, who was the most sincere- 
ly religious of men. The Religio Medici was fol- 
lowed by the TreaiiM on Vulgar Erran^ the Hy- 
drioi^)kiaj or a Treaiue on Urn Buriah, and the 
Gctrdm of CyruM, The works of Sir Thomas Browne 
are marked with the odd conceits and errors of his 
age, but are remarkable for their majestic eloquence 
and wealth of illustration. He died in 1682, leav- 
ing behind him a son, Edward, who inherited his 
eminence as a physician, having risen to the dis- 
tinction of president of the London College of Phy- 
sicians, and his literary tastes, of which he gave 
proof by the authorship of a book of travels entitled 
Travda in Auatna, Hungary, Thessalyy andlkdy. Ed- 
ward was b. 1642, d. 1708. 

BROWNE, Ulysses AIaxim., an Irish exile, field- 
marshal in the service of Austria, 1706-1757. 

BROWNE, Sir W., a wr. on optics, 1692-1774. 

BROWNE, Wm., a pastoral poet, 17th century. 

BROWNE, W. a, a distmg. traveUer, k. 1814. 

BROWNRIGG, W., an exp. phUos., 1714-1800. 

BRU, MoBES v., a Spanish painter, 1682-1703. 

BRUCE, Archibald, M.D., was bom in New 
York 1777. His'father was at the head of the med- 
ical department of the British army. His mother 
was the widow of Jeremiah Van RennseUaer. He 
was graduated at Columbia College in 1795, and be- 
came the pupil of Dr. Hosack. He, however, took 
his medical degree in Edinburgh. After travelling 
on the continent and marrying in London, he re- 
tiuned to America in 1808, and was appointed ino- 
fossor in the College of Physicians and Surgeoin in 
New York in 1807. He commenced the Journal at 
American Mineralogy in 1810, of which one volume 
only was published. His death ooouired in 1816 
from apoplexy. 

BRUCE, David, a Moravian missionary, who died 
in Litchfield county. Conn., in the year 1749. 

BRUCE, Robert, king of Soots^ was bom in the 
year 1274. It is unnsu^ to oall monarchs by their 
family name, but Bruce has generally been made an 
exception, as he rather gained his kingdom by his 
services than acquired it by hereditary succession. 
After the death of Margaret of Norway, the daughter 
of Alexander HI., there were several competitors 
for the Scottish throne, chiefly among those adventur- 
ous Norman knights who were collaterally connected 
with the Scottish royal family. Among these was a 
Robert of Bruce— supposed to be a corruption of 
Bmix, his ancestral domain in Normandy — whose 
claim was that he was the son of Isabel, second 
daughter of David earl of Huntingdon, the brother 
of King William die Lion. On hereditary principle, 
as we now understand it, there was, however, a pre- 
ferable claimant in John Balliol, who was grandson 
of the 'eldest daughter of the earl of Huntingdon, 
and there were many other claimants. The ad- 
vantage which the English king took of this confu- 
sion, and his attempt to subjugate Scotland, are 
well-known chapters in British history. Had he been 
less tyrannical the Soots might have submitted to 
his sway, but he brought in high Norman notions 
of prerogative and feudal exactions, to which the 

Scots were unaccustomed. Exasperated and pre- 
pared to free themselves, they offered a good oppor- 
tunity to any daring and ambitious man who could 
put forth a title to head them as their king. Rob- 
ert, the grandson of that Bruce who had bieen one 
of the original claimants, after attending the court 
of Edward, and for some time hesitating, was at 
length, partly by accident, driven to take up his po^ 
sition as the kingly leader of the Scots. He had 
been concocting with Cumyn, who had similar 
claims, a plan for one or other of them starting ior 
the crown, and receiving the assistance of the other, 
who should be largely rewarded with the private 
estates of both. Cumyn revealed tiie project, and 
Bruce, secretly warned, escaped from the KngliA 
court to Scotland. Unconscious that his treachery 
was known, Cumyn met the fugitive in the Church 
of the Franciscans in Dumfries. Hot words passed, 
and Bruce in his fury stabbing him, he was de- 
spatched by an attendant. The deed of sacrilegious 
violence, whUe it occasioned Bruce's excommunica- 
tion by the pope, drove him in desperation to raise 
the batmer of Scottish nationality. Finding an en- 
emy not only in the English invader, but in the 
Celtie potentate tiie lord of Lorn, his cause seemed 
long hopeless. But oppression increased the num- 
ber of his followers, and at last he gained such sub- 
stantial success, that Edward resolved to go again 
to Scotland to crush him. He died on the way, and 
when his strong hand was removed the Scots rallied 
in larger numbers round the liberator and put him 
at the head of a considerable army. Edward XL, at> 
tempting to restore the English power by leading 
into Scotland a vast army of the flower of the Eng- 
lish chivalry, only brought them to destruction at 
the field of Bannockbum. This conolnsive battle 
was fought on the 14th of June, 1314. Its history 
shows mat Bruce was a oonsxunmate general ac- 
cording to the tactic of the day. His principle of 
warfare was what has always proved the best for a 
poor nation; not to ape cavalry, but to trust in 
highly trained foot soldiers well placed. His frame 
was injured by the hardships of his early strugglesi 
and he died on 7th June, 1829. [J.H.B.] 

BRUCE, Jaxbs, F.R.S., the celebrated explorer 
of Africa, was born on the 14th December, 1730, at 
Kinnaird, an estate and mansion near Larbert, 
in Stirlingshire, which had been in the possea- 
ston of the family for about 400 years. In 1590^ 
Sir Alexander Bruce, of Airth, made over the lands 
of IQnnaird to his second son, Robert, a minister of 
Edinburgh. This Robert Brace, who was distin- 
guished in the times of the Reformation, had two 
grandchildren, Robert and Alexander ; the former 
died of lus wounds after the battle of Worcester, 
without issue ; the latter, ill requited for his services 
in the royal cause, died in 1711, leaving twodaugh- 
tersi of whom the eldest, married to David Hay, of 
Woodcock-dale, Mid-Lothian, was heiress of iCin- 
naird, and left the property to her eldest son, David, 
he assuming the name and arms of Bruce. David 
Hay Bruce was the traveller's father. The Hays of 
Woodcock-dale were a branch of one of the oldest 
families in the three kingdoms. There is no foun- 
dation for the statement that the family of Bruce is 
descended from king Robert : — ^that line was itself a 
branch, and became extinct on the death of David 
U., 1871. All the families who have any records, 
are descended from tlie youngest of three sons of the 
fourth Lord Annandale, lineally sprung from Robert 
De Brais, who came over from Normandy with \yi)- 
liam the Conqueror. The name was variously spelt, 
Bms, Bruisi Bruise, Bruiz, and afterwards Bmoe.-^ 


[ 127] 

Hie ffiilijcet of tlui DDlice wu edocated in London, 
HuTOw-DQ-tha-hill, Bad the nniTermtf of Ediobn^fa. 
ObJigod to AbvHloa hifl itndieH for tho profeidoa of 
adrocato on accoTinl of bis healdi, he went to LoD- 
SoB ia I76S, in order to nuke omiigenieata tor aet- 
tling intnduiii ^Mvaj of trade. Here he chuiged 
liu pUn^ >nd maTtjiiig a Hiss ADan, daaghter of t 
rich vine mercli&nt^ deceaeed, he became partner ia 
that biKDeu. Hii amiable wife died within a year, 
loBTittt him in the deepest grief. RaDying, bow- 
iTcr, Sb let himaelf yigoimuij to sereral itiidiw, 

it thod^ita. in t7S7, be went on ■ lengtheaad 
m to 3m continent, combining pleunre with bos- 
DCM connected with the firm. Hii &ther'i deaA 
the year following, hafftened hie retom. Thoi^i ha 
unr enoceeded to the proper^, and though lua ir^ 
oime fnnn it began to imprcve cmadersblf ftom 
die year ITBO — owing to the eitabliahment of the 
Carrmi imn woike — do change took place in hie di>- 
■gna. He wa^ in fact, in dail; expectation of an 
^■pcuntmeot from goTemnwtit. He had made eome 
nnMtiwu aboot a deieent on the SpaniA coait, 
«£3^ brooght faim mtder the notice of Ur. Pitt and 
LcardHali&i; and from tbektter, in IT6S, he lo- 
o^nA tte appointment of coonl M Alpere, with the 
lii i i t iiiiila ni l hig ftat it waa Co be temporar7, and wai 
to ftdlitMe ^ne of dijcovery, which had been di(- 
etuwd between Lerd Halifax and himielC Prami~ 
■ea of aetiWanoe in canyins oat theee were made 
only to be broken ; and on hie being enpereeded, in 
176S, he left Alglert, and ha*ing vitited many parts 
of North Africa, and Western Asia, bs reached Aiex- 
■ndiia on the 20th Jane, 1768, and entered at his 
own con, npim (hat long and periloQt jonmey to 
diecorer the Kmrcee of the Kile, for which be ii fa- 
moax. Tlie head waters reacfaed by him are now 
known not to havs been thoee of the principal atream, 
bnl of an impratant branch of the great nver, vtiose 
•oarees, thongh oever yet reached, are aicertained 
to lie cioee npon the eqaator, 800 mllei aonth o fUie 
point reached by Brace. His aiogclar adrentnres 
gtHog and retnming, and during nla residence in 
Abyaeinia of two years, are detailed at lengtli, in 
Ub trsvela. He reached Cairo, on his retam, on 
10th January, 1T7S; but remuning in France and 
It^ (or the restoration of hia health, he did not 
airite in London till Jnne, 1774, having been ab- 
■mt twet*e years. RetDrcing to Scotland, he was 
ttctirely engaged fbr aome time in iniproring hia 
property. He married. May 20, 1776, Maty, daogh- 
ter </ Tbomaa Dnndai ot Fingask and lady Janet, 
daaghter of Charlet^ aixth earl Landerdale, by 
wbran he had two Bona and one dangbter. Mrs. 
BriKV died in 17M. It waa not till 1790 that hie 
'naiela appeared — In 5 nils. ito. They excited 
nmvenal interert, and were tnuulated into French 
and Oermao. Many of hit most itartiing atatementt 
wUch oMNed his veracity to be wrloiuly called in 
qaeation, have been since amplj eonSrmed — among 
oAera, diat of the horrid practice of devonring ie£ 
cat qni*eri)ig from the body of a living cowt Oil 
the eveidng of April 36, ITSi, when handing a Udy 
doVB (tain to her carriage, ha fell headkmg, and 
was taken up insensible, bat without apparent hart. 
He ex[rired next morning, )a the Dn^-foarth year 
of hia age. Be was sncceeded by hia aeoond aoo, 
the eldest having died an infant, ilia dangbter mar- 
ried John Jardbie, Esq., advocate, of Ediubnrgh. 
Hia remains were interred in the bmily vanlt at 
Lanbert. — Hr. Bmoe waa tall of atatnre, being aix 
fcM fbtn* fnahw In halgh^ trie pereoo wa* large and 

well-proportioaed, and he had a commanding air. 
He was extremely expert in the use of Srearma, and 
irf' the javelin aod lance — no small recommenda^oo 
among the rude tribes with whom he sojonmed* 
BRUCE, John, a moral phlloaoph., 1744-1826, 
BRUCE, MiCHiBL, one of the minor Scotch poets, 
waa bom at Kinneawood in the coonty of Kinrosa, 
27th March, 1746, and died of conromption in tbe 
tweo^-Bnt year trfhiaage, 6th Jnly, 1767. Hi) 

parenta were in poor drcmoMancea, his father lieing 
a weaver ; bat the merit belongs to ihem of im- 
proving Ula genini which they early discovered in 
poor Michael by a libeial education, with a view of 
qnalifring him for the ministry. They even sent 
him to tbe onivernty of Edinburgh for three or fbor 
years trom 1762, where he made great progresa in 
his classical and philoeopbical studies ; bat the graces 
cf poetiy and the Btlla LeOra were bis chosen pur- 
suit, in which the pensive melancholy to which men 
of genina are so frequently subject, and the gifrsof 
hia imagination, could be more freely indulged. 
There is little to record *f bis innocent nneveiitfol 
life. In 1760-6 be was teacberof a school at Gair- 
Dey Bridge, near Kinross, and felt the heart-sickness 
of a diaappctnted attacbment for the daughter of the 
people with whom be lodged, and who was a pupil 
of hia. Several of his poem* have perpetuated the 
memory of this circumstance, and the best of them 
is hli 'Alexis, a Peatoral,' in which the refinement 
of the scholar is elegantly blended with tbe poetJcri 
sense of the muse, andlbe pluintive eloquence cftbe 
lover. In 1766 be removed to a school near Alloa, 
where he composed his 'Lochleveu,' a descriptive 
poem In blank verie, in whicb he has gmternlly re- 
numbered tlia rirtues of hia tried (Vicnds Amot and 
HeoderaoD. All this time his health was grndnally 
nnking, and tbe fatigues of the villsga school, no 
longer relieved and hallowed to hii heart by the 

he could endure. In the winter of this year be 
abandoned whatever expectation be may have formed 
in the great business of life, and returned to his pa- 
rents, £at the toring hearts which had watched him 
with so much solicitude in the morning ofhisdaye 
might hush him to rest in their early evening. His 
last words are a celebration of the retam of Spring — 

The pathos and melody of many pasaagea In thia 
elegy, with the ' Alexia ' already alhided to, and his 
farewell to Lochleven, in imitation of ' Loohaber oae 




Hiir,' fairly repreMQt the Qatnral Ulent of Bmce for 
poetiy. Id penonfll ebarwter he nu ntmBrk&bla 
Ibr mgeDnooaoeu uid modesty, and, W a matter of 
course in a poet, for ■ feeUag heut and a, Ursl^ 
imaginfttioa. Living a few short yean, coDiomed 
by bard study and anxiety, hii poems are fev in 
tnunber. They were published in a volume, with 
tome others added to make a misceUauy, bnt with- 
ODt any means of Jistiagnishirig the authors, soon after 
his death, by his friend aad fellow-poet^ tlie Rev. John 
I^gan, and at a later period, properly discriminated, 
in the coUecliou of Dr. Andenno. [^.R.] 

BRUCE, P. H,, a Ger. officer aud trav., d. 1TE7. 

BRUCKER, John J., a Ger. critic, 1896-1T70. 

BRliCKKER, JoHS, a Luther, min,, 1726-180*. 

BRUF.YS, D. A, a Fr. dramatist, 1640-1723. 

BRUEYS, F. P. Dk, a Fr. admiral, 1760-1798. 

BRUGIERE, C. J^ a Fr. dramatist^ 1670-1764. 

BRII6MANS, S. J., a eel. physician, 1768-1818. 

BRUGNATELLI, L., an It. chemist, 1726-1814 

BEOGUIER, Jomi, a Fr. proles, dirioe, d. 1S84. 

BRUGUIERE, A. A., French author, d. 1828. 

CRUHL, Hr:, Count, Polish minister of state, 
I700-178S. FSEDEBicK I^iiiH, his son, a dramalio 
writer, 1789-1798. Hass Mobitz, his nephew, an 
asDoDomer and political economist d. 1809. 

BRUNCK, R. F. P., a dieting, critic, 1729-1808. 

BRU^E, W. U. A^ marshal of Fr., 1763-181E. 

BRUNEAU, Mathckih, a pretender to the crown 
of Ft. under tho title ofLooigXVIL, 1818. 

BRONEL, Mabo IsAUBABD, a dnl ongioeer of 
great fame, acoDsummatfl mechanical genius, aman 
of rare singlenest of mind and kindly disposition. 
He was bom at Hacqnerille in Normandy, in 1769 

— tiia y«ar that prodoced m m 

IT aotalHlitiei^ 

began an education for the church at the seminary 
of St. Nieain, at Ronen. Wis genius had a different 
bent, howeTer, and he so distinguished himself in 
mathematics and phydcal science, that Che superior 
of the establishment recommended his adopting 
another profession. He entered the royal navy irf 
France — comlraeltd a quadrant for himself — made 
several voyages, *nd returned home in 1792, during 
tho reign of terror. Being a royalist, he emigrated 
to tho United States, where necessity became the 
. mother of his wonderfully fertile invondon. He sur- 
veyed for canals, planned sawing mills, erected bo- 
ring mills for the ordnance, was architect irf the first 
theatre in New York (nnce burned down); and 
while in America conceived the blockmaking ma- 
chinery, the success of wMch should alone give Mm 

ehanism. With the block machinery on paper he 
oanie to Britain in the year ISOO. Lord Spencer, 

than firtt lord of the admiral^, bflcama Ids friend 
and patron. From this time Bnmel oontiDned to 
rende in England, and refosed to entertain proposi- 
tions made to him to settle abroad, under the auipi- 
OBS of other governments. After much delay, he 
ma employed to moke a set of block machinei? for 
Portsmouth Dockyard. With h^ipy discrimination 
Bnmel selected the late Heciy Maudslay as the 
maker oTthe machines, and thus was laid the foun- 
dation of one of the most eitan^ve and perEect en- 
gineering eitablishiaents in the kingdom. The ma- 
chines were made eaidfy after Bra^i nodsli. They 
have been for forty-seven years at work, and no 
change or improvement in any of them has nnce 
been made or snggested. This is a type of all Bru- 
Del's work. His plans and drawings were kept to 
bimself til] so elaborated that they really contained 
the essence of all that could be done in simptifying 
the means to accomplish the end in view. His cii^ 
ctdar saw for cnttine veneers, the machine fhr wind- 
ing cotton balls, as mventiona in pure mechanism — 
and the Chatham Dockyard and the Thames Tunnel, 
amongst works t^ civil engiueering, may be cited in 
illnstrsljon. The iirst eteauiboat that ran on the 
Thames, and the first double acting steam engine 
used for propelling steam vessels, were erected under 
his instructions m 1816. The histoiy of the Thames 
Tnnnel is too recent and familiar to require that we 
should repeat it here. Despite its fedlnre, commer- 
cially speaJdng, Bnmel continaed to look upon it as 
his greatest achievement, and devoted the latter 
years of his valuable life incompleting it. It is un- 
doubtedly a great and marvellous tnnmph of skill, 
and only those who know tie eitraordioary variety 
of engineering resources which it called into play, 
can sofflciently appreciate the talents of ibn engi- 
neer who planned them and superintended theirei- 
eoutlon. Brunei died in 18*9, in his eirfity-fiiat 
year. His son carries his htber's fame in ftill vital- 
ity to another generation. Brunei was knighted in 
1842. He was V.P.R.S., and corresponding mem- 
ber of the lostitate of France, [LD.B.G.] 
BKUNELLESCHl. Fturro, one of the earliest 
and most celebrated Italian arcMtecta of tho Revl- 
lol, was bam at Florence, in 1877. He was brought 
np a goldsoith, but devoted himself equally to 
sculpture and arehitecture. He paid, diso, early 
attention to penpective, and instriicted Mosacdo 
in this scienoe. Bnmelleealii joined the competi- 
tion, in 1401, for the hnxue gates of the Boptisteiy 
of St. John, at Florence ; but both be and Ms cele- 
brated cantemponi;, Donstellot admittadthat th^ 
were surpassed by Gfaiberti, who guned the commU- 
oon, though than a mere youth ; the ceutte gates 
were not fixed np until half a ocntnry after the 
oompetidon, H52. — BmnaileacM viailed Eome^ 
where tho Pantheon seems to have mode a great 
impreiaion on him, and to have determined b™ t« 
nndertake his great wo^ the dome of Santa Maria 
del Fioie, or cathedral of Florence, which had been 
led unfinished by Araolfo di Ijapo, He letumed to 
Rome m 1417, and made a model of the dome, bnt 
without convinoing his contemporaries of the prmoti- 
oatulitr oF his scheme, imtil after tke great congress 
d archilecta at Florence, in 1420, who then looked 
upon hira as mad. At length, however, in 1438, ha 
was appointed sole architect of the catliedrol, Lo- 
renzo Ghiberti being at first joined with Mm ; and 
Plough he did not live long eoongh to see his great 
work qnite oompleted, it was snfficiendy advaooed 
to secure its oompletion by his successors. This 
dome is the largest m the world oonstrocted of ma- 
«>ni7, it beii^ some feet wider than that of St 

[ 129] 

Peto's tt Roma. Tba uwiibr inteiior dbmeter Ii 
TB Tnacsn alia, OMiij ISO Englidi feet. — Bmnelleachi 
oiaodtad nutny olhar gift worfa in Florenoe, and 
flbawbiin; In Flonooe, ara wcsthj of mentioii, die 
magid6e«nt ntH PaUra, the nsldence of the grand 
dnkei ef Tmxaf, aod tlie dntR^ of San Lotsoki. 
He dlad tn 1446, ana wai borisd with Rreat pomp 
b Oe cMhadnl— (Taaari, Vk» (hi PHtori, &c ; 
M«eu, F%« iM -Br—rffrwiS tcc^ 1^12; Fantoizi, 
CWhA-flr--.) [R-N.W.1 

BRUNET, Ft F., a Ft. philoe. and theologicd 
writer, anthor ot • FtatSHe de> Religion*,' d. 1 806. 
BRmniBB, J. C, s Swiw phjooL, 1868-1727, 
BRUNO, a Roman wnt, ibimder of ^ order of 
dn CHtfauEaoi, lh«d I08&-1I01. 

BSCNO,GK»tiuira,aTemaAable Italian Tnqtdrar 

of the ISth oentorr, vhoae rerj daring and original 
■pecolatJODi deriTB fnih int«T«at from hit fate — he 
waa burnt ai *ji Adiatt b^ Che iDqulsition at Rome, 
on 17tli February, 1600. Wearied of ihacklea inaep- 
araUe &oid hia fint podtien aa a Dominican priest, 
Bnmo fled to Onwra in IfiSO, where be Ured two 
jean. TIib rigor, the deepoCion, and intolerance of 
Caivin, did not, however, Rut him ; and finding no 
adeqoate compaDiallan la the intelleotaal power, 
k^cal aMtenea*, or Tehament oonrage »t that great 
ReCxmer, he departed (br LToni, Tralon, and Parii. 
For •oma jean, indeed, Bnmo wai a wuiderer arar 
E<KCip«; nelind in London at the cloeeof 1689 1 
bat led by an nnhappy Istalitj, or dunmgb allbct of 
that lioDM-eicknBia which ii [Art at the moral being 
of erery Itattaii, be wearied of free and saft landa, 
and nttomed to leaob in Padua. The Liqaimtkn 
aireeted bim, and retained him In priion foi 

tion. On &th of Febroary be wat degraded, excom- 
mnuicated, and deKnced to the eeealar magintrata, 
after tte nanal dngnatioe fiirmnla — ' Tk^ As (e dmll 
lali mmirc^iJIll at pamiU, mi pmUieiiBllkml ^it- 
mem ^Untt.' Bnmo exclaimed, — 'Yoni eeot 

Mrikea more tfnoi into yonr own bearte than 
tmne, and hd died ai • brave man ought. — It (a &r 
from wotiderlDl that Bruno called down eaeledaatical 
fiirj on bii bead. Hi* wriliiiga 
put of keen and acarcalr-cono 
Bomiah Church and prieetbood i 
phy Isea onaooeptab^ far, rerallina ag^nat the dee- 
pOtioD of that Arittotle of tfa ml&Ie agea, ba took 
rtAige with Plato and Oa School of Alexandria. 
Hii ansa lay not in tbe direction of Atbetm, bnt 
In Ibat of Pantbaiaat i aj ht firon bringing down 


fined to diminTmh tbe im- 
partaDoe of the created or external nnivem ; nor ii 
It precisely eaay to aee, in wbat way he prorided 
for, or toBsi htunan liberty and reaponnbility in bi> 
really derout and imposing Bcbeme. We ahall char- 
■ctariia faia pemiliar pbaae of the doctrine ot Ae 
abaolole' luider tbe article SpiiKta. Bnmo wrote 
TOn largely. His Italian writingi were coUecled 
and pobliibed at Leipdg in S vol*. 8ro, in ISSO. A 
very interesting account baa rvcantly been given of 
bia life and general pbilceophj by the French writer 

-»«iw««.: rj.p.N.i 

BBUKSWIGE, Otso, dnfce at, chief of the dncU 
honae of Bmniwick and Lnnehnrg, 1204-1262. 

BRUNSWICK, Esimr Ado., dnke of; deacendant 
of tbe preceding, created aleotor of Hanover, father 
ofOeorael., 163»-ie&8. 

BRUNSWICK, Fkbd., dnke o^ one of tbe most 
diating. generala in the seven year^ war, 1T21-17B2, 

BRtlNSWlCK-LUNEBURQ, Ciuuuja. W. Fred., 
dnke 0^ ncpb, of tbe preccd., noted aa com. of the 
ffaraea intended to liberate Lonia XVL, killed 1806. 


H>p., duke at, br. of tbe prec., 1T61-17S0. 

BRUNSWICE-OELS, Frid. Aug., doke of, oels. 

I the an. of an eaaay on great men, 1740-1806. 

BRUNSWICK-OELS, Fhbd. W»^ dnke oC, brother 
of Qneen Caroline, diatingaiibed in tbe peninaolar 
war, and killed at tbe bead of bia troopa two dayt 
before tbe battle of Waterloo, 17TI-IBI5. 

BRUNTON, Mart, a novelist, I77B-18I8. 

BRUSCH, Gabf., a Bobem. nmiir, 1S18-1669. 

BRUS0NIU8, L D., a daadc. oompaer, 16th c 

BEUTI, J. M., aa historical writer, 161S-1694. 

BRUTUS, the snmamc of a Roman family, sere* 
ral member! of which appear in history. I. Lncica 
Jtniica BannJa, was tbe son of Harcns Jnnina, and 
of Tarqninia, sister of Tarqninina Snperbns (Tar- 
qnin the Proud), the last king of Rome. Whan 

'" young heloat hia father and elder brother by the 
iltyc^ Tangulnj and he himself escaped a titnllar 
fate by feigning idiocy ; which perbaps gave origia to 
the eomame Bnitiu or DaUard. Tbe riolence of- 
fered by SextQS, the son of Tarquin, to Locretia, 
tha wllb of Collatlaui, called forth Hm true char- 
acter of Brutna. Being a witne* along with bar 
hasbaod and father to her injnred virtue, ba drew 
trcm her bosom the knife with which she vindicated 
her innocence, and bound himself by the most 
solemn oath to visit tbe crime of Sextos upon Tar- 
iniin and all his accursed race, and to suffer no man 
tbereafter to be Idag in Rente. The populace wero 
easily excited, and tbeae being readDy Joined by 
the army, Tarqnin and loa family ware baoiahed 
fhnn Rome, B.a 610. In the following year Brutus 
and Cotlatinns, the husband of Lucretia, were 
elected aa the flnt contula, and headed the aimy 
ag^nst the attempts which were made to restore 
tbe baniabed family. When leading the cavalry 
agunat Porsenna, who had espoused the caoae <^ 
the Tarquina, Brotna enga{[ed in sngle combat with 
Arans, the son of tbe exiled king, and both fell, 
pierced by each other's ipears. 2. Decikds Jumos 
BsuTiTa, served mider Cxur in Qaol ; and, on tbs' 
Iflvaking out of the civil war, B.C. 49, activ^y ex- 
erted b&self In promoting bis interests. He after- 
wards obtained Uie command of Further Gaol, and 
Ttant, that Cksbt prom- 
of Cisalpine Gaul, wilJi 
the pnetorehip for B.?. 44, and the consnliihip fjr 
B.C. 43. Bemg thus in potaeuiou of tbe entire 
oonfldenca of Ciesar, his co-operation was oF great 




value to the other conspirators ; and he was accord- 
inglj sent by them to conduct their yictim to the 
senate house on the day of the assasanation. The 
motives which induced Brutus to join the conspiracy 
against his friend and benefactor, are not Imown. 
After the death of Csesar, B.a 44, he went to his 
province of Cisalpine Gaul, from which he was ex- 
pelled in the following year by Antony, to whom 
the same province had been assigned by the people. 
He now resolved to cross over into Macedonia to 
Marcus Brutus, but his soldiers deserted him on the 
march ; and he was betrayed by Camillus, a Gaulish 
chiefj and put to death by order of Ajitony. 8. 
Marcus Junius Brutub, son of M. Junius Brutus, 
by Servilia, sister of Cato of Utica, was bom b.c. 
85. When the civil war broke out between 
CsBsar and Pompey, B.G. 49, Brutus^ contrazy to 
expectation, joined the par^ of the latter, and 
fought under his banners at the battle of Phar- 
ealia, b.c. 48. Having thus incurred the displea- 
sure of the predominant party, he solicited and 
obtained the pardon of the conqueror, who restored 
him to his confidence, and generously allowed 
him to spend his time in his favorite literary pur- 
suits. In B.a 46 he was made governor of Cisal- 
pine Gaul; and in b.o 44, obtained the office of 
city prsetor ; thus not only acquiescing in the usur- 
pation of Cffisar, but accepting favors and offices 
irom the dictator. The change of mind which at 
this time took place was effected tiirough the in- 
fluence of Caius CassiuB, by whom he was per- 
suaded to join the assassins on the Ides of March. 
Failing to enlist the people on the side of the con- 
spirators, he retired to Athens, where receiving a 
large sum of money, he collected the scattered 
troops of Pompey, anj proceeded to take possession of 
Macedonia, the province which Csesar had assigned 
to him. After making himself master of Greece 
and Macedonia, he went to Asia and joined Casaus, 
whose efforts in raising an army had been equally 
successful. Brutus and Cassius now returned to 
Macedonia, and met Augustus and Antony on the 
plains of Philippi, B.C. 42. In the first engagement 
the army of Augustus gave way before that of Bru- 
tus, while Cassius was defeated by Antony. But in 
a second battle, fought about twenty days later, 
Brutus was defeated, and fell upon his own sword. 

BRUYERE, Jkan De La, a native of Normandy, 
was bom in 1644. After having been royal trea- 
surer at Caen, he was appointed, on the recommen- 
dation of Bossuet, to give instraction in histoiy to 
the duke of Burgundy, the grandson of Louis XIV. 
He remained attached to the court, and died in 
1696. In regard to the details of his life vexy little 
has been recorded ; but a prudent and unobtrusive 
reserve seems to have accompanied those habits of 
keen observation, on which mainly his literaiy fame 
was built. His ' Characters,* published in 1687, but 
much augmented in following editions, placed him 
immediately in the highest rank as a master of 
French style ; and they still entitle him to be named 
with Bochefoucault and Montaigne, among those 
writers whom the French regard as most thoroughly 
acquainted with human nature. The work is unlike 
the * Characters* of Theophrastus (a translation of 
which was prefixed to it), in substituting minutely 
drawn portraits, full of individuality, for outlines of 
characteristics common to large classes of men ; and 
from those sketches of a similar kind which had 
been so frequentiy produced in EiM|;land during the 
first half of the 17th century, it mffers not only in 
the variety and particularity of its scenes and 

figures, but also in the prominence it ffives to gene« 
ral maxims, and to reflections prompted by them. It 
abounds, to an extraordinary degree, both in striking 
thoughts expressed with epigrammatic force and con- 
ciseness, and in fragmentary sketches of men and man- 
ners, which suggest to every one parallels encoun- 
tered in actual enerience. The attempts which 
were eagerly made (and which are embodied in a key 
usually attached to the book) to identify the per- 
sonages described, proved at once the Parisian love 
of scandal, and the general conviction that the writer 
had drawn faithfully firom the life. La Bmy^re*8 
view of human nature is severe, but less, bitterly so 
than that of Rochefoucault ; and he excels in a deli- 
cate and philosophical irony, which he applies witii 
especial dexterity in half-hinting his real opinions oo 
questions about which he dissented from hu oontem- 
porories and countrymen. [W.S.] 

BRY, Theodore Ds, published in 13 parts, 
between the years 1590 and 1599, a work entitied 
** Collectiones peregrinantium in Indiom, orientalem 
et occidentalem Americam." 

BRYAN, M., a wr. on art biography, 1767-1821. 

BRYAN, Sir F., a statesman and poet, 16th ct 

BRYAN, George, a Judge of the Supreme Court 
of Pennsylvania, was descended from an ancient and 
respectable Irish family, and emigrated to America 
in early life. He took an active part in pubUo affiurs 
prior to the Revolution* In 1765 be was a member 
of the congress which protested against the arbitrary 
measures of the British Government. In 1778 he 
was made President of the Supreme Executive Coun- 
cil of Pennsylvania, having previously occupied the 
office of Vice-President The following year he was 
elected to the legislature. He was appointed a judge 
of the Supreme Court in 1780, and in 1784 one of 
the council of oensors. He was opposed to the 
establishment of the federal constitution. His death 
occurred in Philadelphia in 1791, at the age of 60. 

BRYANT, JAa, an. of an * Analysis of Ancient 
Mythology,* and other works of researdi, 1715-1804. 

BRIDGES, Sir S. Eoebtok, Bart., an an. of ex- 
traord. fertility and range of subjects, 1762-1837. 

BRYDONE, Dr. P., an. of travels, 1741-1819. 

BUACHE, Ph., a Fr. geographer, 1700-1776. 

BUAT-NANCAY, Louis Gabriel, Comte Du, a 
French diplomatist and historian, 1732-1787. 

BUCEUN, G., a German historian, 1699-1691. 

BUCE^ Martin, was bora in 1491 at Schelestadt 
in Alsace. His early life was spent among the Do- 
minicans, who sent lum to Heidelberg to pursue his 
education, and there he had a dispute with Luther on 
free-wilL In 1521 he became a convert to the Re- 
formation. At Strasburg he was both a pastor and 
teacher of theology for many years. At the diet of 
Augsburg he incurred such suspicion and danger by 
opposing the *■ Interim,* tiiat he welcomed an invita- 
tion from Cranmer to go and reside in England. 
He taught theology at Cambridge with no little ac- 
ceptance, and died there in February, 1550. Under 
the intolerant and fanatical reign of Mary, his ashes 
were dug up and burnt His works are numerous, 
and some of his commentaries are still held in repute. 
Cardinal Contarini said of him,—' That he was able 
to contend alone with all the docton of the Romish 
church.* [J.E.] 

BUCH, Cha8. Leopold Vow, a German geologist, 
d. 1853, age 78. 

BUCHAN, Rt. Hon. Stuabt Eeskins, earl of, 
founder of the Antiq. Soc of Scotland, d. 1829. 

BUCHAN, Wm., a Scotch physician, an. of the 
well-known * Domestic Medicine,' 1729-1805. 

BUCHAN, Elbabbth, a visionaiy, 1758-179L 




BITCHANAK, Dr. Clauditb, this a native of 
Cambnslang, in tiie neighborhood of Glasgow, where 
he was bom, 12th March, 1766. His father, who 
was parish teacher of that place, and a very pious 
man, brought him, both bj his precepts and example, 
nnder the early- mflnence of religion ; and the charac- 
ter and pnrsoitB of his fntore life took their direc- 
tion, in all probabilitj, from the impressions received 
nnder the parental roof. The family having removed 
to Inverary, young Bnchanan received his education 
at the grammar school of that town, of which his 
father had become master ; and having made great 
profidency in his knowledge of Latin and Greek, he 
obtained, while yet nnder fourteen, tiie appointment 
of tutor to the sons of Mr. Campbell of Pnnstaifnage. 
During the two years that he continued in that office, 
he exhibited a prudence and practical knowledge 
above his years ; and what is more, he advanced in 
piety and s^ct habits of devotion, in which he 
engaged daily In a lonely spot on the sea shore. Re- 
pairing in 1787 to London, he there acquired the 
friendship of the good John Newton, nnaer whose 
ministry he sat ; and having, .after a ripened inti- 
macy, oommxmicated to that venerable counsellor 
Bis earnest wish to be employed in preaching the 
gospel abroad, he was introdnced to the notice of an 
eminent Christian philanthropist, Mr. John Thorn- 
ton, who delighted to spend his fortune in advancing 
the cause €lt Christ. That gentleman, having satis- 
fied himself as to the character and principles of the 
young Scotchman, resolved to undertake the expense 
of giving him a university education, and accordingly 
Buchanan was in 1791 admitted into Queen's College, 
Cambridge. After a veiy distinguished career at the 
tmiversily, Buchanan was in 1795 ordained by 
Bishop PoTteus, and in the March following sailed 
for India as a chaplain in the East India Company's 
serrioee. In that chanuter he was destined to render 
important services to the cause of Christ; and indeed 
the name of Claudius Buchanan stands foremost in 
the history of the propagation of the gospel in India. 
Amid much opposition he continued his evangelical 
labors ; and having been appointed by the marquis 
of Wellesley, Vice-Provost of the College of Fort- 
William in Bengal, he issued in 1804 the first trans- 
lation ever made of the gospels in Persian and Hin- 
dostanee. In 1806 he published proposab fw a sub- 
scription to aid in translating the Scriptures in fifteen 
Oriental languages ; and through his zealous exer- 
tions the British and Foreign Bible Society, the uni- 
versities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Glasgow, were 
induced to aid in that important undertaking. To 
qualify himself by more familiar acquaintance with 
its dialects, he devoted a year to travel through the 
Indian continent. On Lord Minto's appointment to 
the gov.-generalshlp in 1807, Mr. Buchanan, who 
Considei«d the course of administration pursued un- 
favorable to the interests of religion, published his 
celebrated * Memoir of the Expediency of an Eccle- 
siastical Establishment in British India.* Compelled 
through declining health to abandon the field of his 
ardtt us labors, he left India and arrived in England 
in ^e month of August, 1808, and after having 
vi^ted his friends in Scotland, he returned to Eng- 
land, whoe he preached, and afterwards published 
* The Star in the East,' and * Christian Researches in 
Asia,' an interesting and eloquent appeal on behalf of 
miaaons. He finally settled as incumbent of the 
parish of Ousebum, if rkshire, where he died of a 
paralytic shock on 9th February, 1815. 


BUCHANAN, Geokoe, the celebrated Latin poet 
and historian of Scotland, was bom of an old but re- 

spectable family in the parish of Killeam, Stirling- 
shire, February, 1506, and having lost his father 
when young, was educated by his maternal uncle, 
James Heriot He had been at the universi^ of 
Paris about two years when the latter also died, and 
Buchanan was reduced to such indigence that he en- 
listed as a common soldier in the duke of Albany's 
army, but at the conclusion of the war he was en- 
abled to resume his studies, and took a master^s 
degree in 1528. Between this period and 1539-41 
I he was employed under various circumstances as a 
I classical teacher, and was residing with the earl of 
j CassiUs in Ayrshire, when his unlucky wit, and the 
Lutheran principles he had imbibed, led to his im- 
prisonment for some satirical verses written {'^Inst 
the Franciscans. He was fortunate enough to escape 
from SL Andrew's casi e, and finding his way beyond 
seas, lived some twenty years in exile, undergoing 
much persecution, even to confinement in tlie prisons 
of the Inquisition yet always recovering himself and 
living by his professional avocations. About the year 
1562 he is known to have been residing in Scotland 
i^ain, and had the good fortune a few years later 
to be intrusted with the education of tiie young 
prince, (James VI.,) whom he made * a pedant ' be- 
cause, as he said, * he could make nothing better of 
him.* Whether at home or abroad, his literary in- 
dustry never flagged, and few men have received 
more uniform praise from the learned, who seem to 
have vied with each other in celebrating the graces 
of his style, especially in his beautiful paraphrase of 
the Psalms^ composed in the imprisonment of a 
monastery, and his Scotch history ; at the same time 
that he is generally blamed as an historian, for 
writing of things as he was casually informed, and 
especially for his severe expressions against the un- 
happy Marv Stuart, The examples of royalty with 
which he had made acquaintance were hardly cal- 
culated to impress him with much reverence for the 
institution, and his work * De Jure Regni apud 
Scotos,' was really a vindication of the democratic 
control of princes. Sir John Scot, in his short de- 
scription oif Buchanan, quaintly observes : — * He 
was in so great disgust with the court before he died, 
that they caused summon him before them sitting in 
council, for some passages of his history too plain of 
the king's mother and grandmother ; and he had un- 
doubtedly run a great hazard of his life if the Lord 
had not freed him of the miseries of this world betwixt 
the citation and the day of compearance.' His life 
was thus curiouslv saved on the 28th September, 
1581, and as he left no property, he was buried at 
the expense of the city of Edinburgh. [E.R.] 

BUCHEZ, Arnold, a Dutch hist., 1565-1G41. 

BUCHEZ, P. J., a naturalist, 1737-1807. 

BUCKINGHAM, Georoe Villikrs, duke of, 
minister of Charles I., assassinated 1628. His 
profligate son, of the same name, the unprincipled 
minister and favorite of Charles II., 1627-1688. 

duchess of, a lady of distinguished accomplishments 
and benevolence, 1779-1836. 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, John Sheffield, duke 
of, author of * Memoirs of the Revolution of 1688,' in 
which betook a part, 1649-1720. 

BrCKINK, Arnold, an engraver, 15th cenL 

BUCKINGHAM, James Silk, an English traveller 
writer and politician, was bom in Falmouth, 1786. 
He commenced life as a sailor, and, subsequently 
abandoning the sea, he commenced a career of 
various adventure. He established a newspaper in 
India, and boldly advocated reform in the manage- 
ment of the East India Co. He afterward com- 

[182 J 

nieiwedh!>tTKTebinllh« East, «iidpnblul»d tb« m- 

•alt of his oburrMiotu in a, work on the Aiab tribe* 
in Palestine and Mesapotamia. Od bii ratnm to 
LoDdon he made an munDOcBrfuI Attempt to establish 

tiro literary papers, the ^ttgBx 
Both wen fsjlnres onder his management, bat the 
latter beoame fioaH; established. Bnclcin^bam was 
a member oTPerliametit for Sheffield dnritig several 
reait. He viaited the United States, and leetnred 
thera on the East, and on his return home rreqoentl; 
Eiade his appearance as a lecturer on varioui topici. 
Bis Butobiographj laCelj published is a rambling ao- 
CouDt of the very diveisified career of a man full of 
nprioe and fond of adyentaice. Died, June 30, 1S55. 

BUCELEK, B., an andq. and dir., 1716-1760. 

BL'CKMINSTER, Jwkfo, vas gnduated at 
Harrard Cotk^ in ITBO, ordaioed in ITi2 f Rut- 
land, Massachusetts, where he died in 1T93, after a 
ministiy of S3 jeara, at the age of 72. Hii sm of 
the same name, was bora in 1751, and graduated at 
Tale College in ITTO, and lived there as tutor from 
1771 to 1776. He was ordained at PortunoDth in 
I7T9, and died on the 3d June, 1812. He was a 
man of seal and eloquenoe. Joseph Stevens, his son, 
bom in 1764, gndnated at Harvard in 1600, and 
was oidained id BostoD in 1806. He was a man of 
ooaeiderable leaniing, and siqieriutended the publica- 
tion of Griesbach's New Testament. Ha died of 
U^tfj at ttie a^ ti2B in 1810. 

BUDD.£tJS, John FaAnoia, antlior of a Gennan 
'Eistnrioal Dictionoiy,' 1667-1 723. 

BUEL, JiBiE, a Ikmom Am. agriculturist, vai 
bonk in Coventi7, Conn., 1776. & was ^prentioed 
to a printer, at his own earneat reqoesl^ bj hia 
father in Rntland Vt, whan his (unily had nmored. 
In ead; life he established several newspapen in the 
State of New York, and, fiuallf in 1813, he nmoved 
to Alban7, and became the Editor of ths A&a^ 
Argia. Id 1814 he waa appointed State-printer, 
and, haiiDg held Hut office ddUI 1820, he letind 
to a fann near AlbaDy, wbeie he engaged in bis 
favorite pmniit of affriealtare, and, to advance its 
inteieala, ha established the Cullkalor, which ha con- 
tinoed uti] hia death in 1839. 

BCFFON, Gboboe Lona Lk Clkbc, Comte De, 
an emiDSDt natnraliit, was bom atMontbard, inBni- 
gnndy, in 1707. He died in 1768. BoilbD was 
educated at the collej^ of Dyon. When nineteen 
Tears old he traveOad through Uolj, and it is most 

|ippbabTy owing to his having inspacted in ponon the 
C-LVccts of the convulsions of nature, and the proofs of 
iiiiciirnt revolutions of fho (jrlolie iu that cooulty, that 
1^1' aril inilcbted for the works which luve inunur- 
lidizcd bis name. In 1739 he nus i^ipointcd aupc- 
riLiK'ndctit oTthe Garden of Plants; and from that 
(iTiu- be devoted his whole life to tlic study of natural 
liiil'iry. He was assiduous in bia attintioii to the 
l:LItil^i of his ofGce; and nnjer hisejcell^nt mauage- 
mt'iit the garden, and museum of natural historj at- 
t;ii Imi U> it, bccmnc tbe lint in Europe. For ten 
jiMrn he devoted himself to his grand work, his Ifa- 
l^iriil Ukluiy, the Srat volume of whii'U a|ipeared ia 
17-1'J, the rsmaioinf" fullowing at short intervals, 
'llio object of this work ia to give a gtneral theory of 
til'! globe which we inbubit, the disposition, the ua- 
Ii;n', sud origin of the substancci whiuh it offtn to 
iiiir view, the grand phenomena whiob operate at ita 
surfacB or in ila boBoui i the history of man, and the 
Inis-s which preside at his fonnation, in his develop- 
ment, during his life, and nt his death ; the nomen- 
rlature and the description of quadrupeds and birds, 
Che exnminatlnn of their fiicultiea, and the delinea- 
tion of their manners. Tlus work is written with 
groat elegance of style; and his eloquent descrip- 
tioru, the brilliancy (if ima^iinutiou wliich prevades 
Ihcm, an3 the correct taste he exhibited in arranging 
his sabjfcts, soon made it the moet popular bai^ of 
the kind aver written. An eitraoriUunry impulse 
was f^ven by Bnffi>n to the stndy of oatttral history 
in his OW1I conntry ; and be has the gnat ment 
besides cf having spread a love for the study of na- 
ture far and wide. The solid anatomical pornon con- 
tributed to the lustcsy of the qnodrupeds by Dauben- 
ton, added mru?b to its valuu amongst soiputUio men ; 
and man; of the beat works in ruituntl history, that 
have been written in France since his death, have 
been published nndir the name of ;3u^ ii Bufan. 

BUQEAUD, AUuaHM, duke oflsty, distinguished 
b tiie wan of Napoleon, and iu Africa, 1784-l!M9. 

BULKI-EY, pETsa, firat minister of Gmcord, 
MnssochuseCts, was a untive of Bedfurd.thire in 
England, and bom iu 15!^. Ho was graduated at 
Cambridge, and ordained in the English Church, 
but '11 ycarsafler waa silenced for non-conformity 
to its discipline, lie emigrated to New England, 
and iu IftlC was i-oiistiluled pastor in Conoord, 
ivbiirc bo died in lO.^il. H« was ao ciceJleiit 
scholar and a beoalactoc to Haivaid Collega. Uia 




too, John Bolkley, «m oae of tliB fint gndiutea tt 
Harrmrd. HaTing taken hie degree in I61S be i^ 
tamed to Englami, and divided hia time between 
prBcCia^ng u m phjiiciaii and presching to diufln^ng 
eoDj^gl^oQa. He £ed in Londcm, 16IS9. - 

BULL, Gbobob, > thsologiea! an^ 1694r-iro9, 

BULL, JoB>, B dieting, composer, 17Ch cent. 

BULL, JoHH, Genenl in llie RevcJatioDaty Army, 
•ni born in PaDinyiTuii&. He e&w much service la 
the Freneb ware, and alio in the war of iadepen- 
denee. He died in 1S44, aged M. 

BULL, Wnxiui, W. D_ iod <rf WllUam Bull, 
Lieut. Oar. of S. Conliaa, wbo died in 1765. He ii 
anppand to be the fint native of America wbo o1}- 
tained a medical degree. He woa a pn^Hl of Boer- 
have, and studied at die Univeraicj of Lejden. 
Alter retaining to America be Glled lerenl hapor> 
tant dvil officts, and in 1T64 wb» appmnted Ijeut. 
Governor of S. Carolina. He wm also oommander 
in chieT of the British forcei. He accompaniad the 
troops to England in 1T8S, and died there ia ITSt. 

BULLAKT, Jeak, a French architect, ISch c. 

BULLKR, ftr. HosB. Ch., a polit, 1806-1848. 

BULLIALDUS, Isiuii., an aatroo., ]60G-16d4. 

BULLIAfiD, Pet™, a 7r. botanirt, 1T*2-1T9S. 

6ULLINGER, HKirar, was bom at Bremgaiv 
ten in 1504, studied logic and scholastic philo- 
sophy at Cologne, irae gradnally weaned from 
Epny, then became the confidant cf Zninglins at 
fieh, and at length wu appcnnted to succeed him 
by the snffrages c/ the senatn and &« eceleaaatial 
iynod. For more than forty years he prended over 
the ehnich in Zmieh with gingulai prndeooB and 
enccess. He was a balwark and an apoatle of the 
Reformation, and he displayed great hoepitality to 
the refugees bora England nnder Che peraecntion of 
Qnem Hory. Hit works aie not very nniBerons, 
DOT an tliiy of pntient vshie. Dtsd September 17, 
15T6. [J.E.1 

BULLOCK, WiLLUM, antfior of a work entitled 
' Virginia im[«itially examined,' published in 1649. 

BULHER, Wk., an Ta^ printer, 1T46-1BS(). 

BULOW, F. W., Connt Too Dennewiti, a Pnu- 
Ban seneral in the bte war, 1TSB-I81S. 

BOLOff, Hrarar, Baron Von, a Pmw. diplom., at 
lengA mlnlstei ef fimlgn aflhin, 1790-1846. 

BtnrfAM, Job:(, the eriehratsd anthor of the 
■Plkrhs's Pregreas,' was bom in 162B at Etitow, in 
Bednrdshin. His father, thongh a traTelling tinker, 
had taa^ hln to read and ^te ; bnt eedooed by 
etil Biample, he plnaged into every species of Tiee, 
Had acqaind the character of a notorioos and har- 
•dened ptnffigate. He became a Mildter in the ht- 
▼iee ef the parliament, and was at Che siege of Lie- 
MeCvr, whefe haTing been drawn on one ooctuioa to 
•et as sentinel, be mrrowly escaped the fkte of his 
— iradt^ who wai tbM by a masket ball from the 

nyaliet eamp. Many other Temaikal.edeltveranea 
aie reoorded in hii early bietory, clearly eliowing 
that ProrideDoe, who threw OT«r him the shield of 
Divioe protection, had some Important work in rc~ 
serve fin him. Overiiearing the cODtersation of fonr 
pions women, who were talking to each other of the 
neceseiCy and blessedness of a religions life, and the 
hopeless miwry of ibe wicked, bii conscience waa 
stmek ; he began to think seriously, and his disso- 
lats compamons perceiving a sadden alteration in 
his condnct, which all thnr raillery eooid not aSkct, 
gradually abandoned hii ndety. As for Banyan, 
bo pot himself ia private oommuiucation with Gif- 
Ibrd, a disBentiog miniiler in Bedibrd, whose chapel 
he attended, aod being permaded that baptiim by 
imTuersion was the only Scriptnral mode of receiving 
the ordinance, be was in that manner received, in 
16fiS, into the commonlon of the chnreh. Conoeiv- 
ing Umielf called to proclaim the goapel, he pcram- 
bidaCed the oonntry aa an ittnerant preacher. AAef 
tlie restoralion, this emrse of life bnmghC him within 
the grasp of the law, which prohibited conventiclei, 
and as he coald not desist from a duly to which he 
imagined himself spedally oalled, he wa« condemned 
to perpetual banishment. This severe sentence was 
not corriad into eiecatlon ; bat be was coaGned in 
Bedford jail for the long period of twelve years and 
a-half. In that plaoe he enppoitad himself and 
family by tagging laces, and altiiough oat olfby his 
protracted coofinemenl from all opportunity of pablia 
preaching, he was, in the ovemuing proridenM of 
Etod, more extensively usefnl Chan while in the en- 
joyment of unfettered liberty ; for having during his 
ieisore hours exerted the extraordinary talents with 
which he was endowed, he product the ' Pilgrun's 
Progress,' a work which has been moT« extensively 
drculated, and done more good in the woiid than 
any other book, except the Bible alone. Banyan 
being at last released through the kind interceesioa 
of 1>r. Bariow, bishop of London, he was chosen 
pastor of the Baptist chorch in Bedford. 'Wherever 
he went, he was attended by crowded audience^ 
amongst whom were sometimes foond persons of, 
high eminence boCh in the church and #tat«. Be 
died in London, 168B, in the dxtieth year of his age, 
and was buried in Bnnhill cemetery. His other 
wDiks, ' The Holy War,' and ' Grwle Abounding to 
the Chief of Sinners,' are pieces of gi«at merit, 
though their fame is eclipsed by Us nnnvalled ollo- 
g<«7. [R-J-] 

BU0!4AFEDE, Appiah, a phiL wr., d. 1792. 

BUOKAPAKTE, Cuia., fjahor of Napoleon, bora 
towards 1T16, diatingnished himself in the COTsican 
war of iadependenee under PaoU, d. 17BG. 

BUONAPARTE, J., an lUlian biMoriao, IBCh at 

BUONAPARTE, Joskpu, elder brother of Napo- 
leon, bora 1768 ; commissary of the army of Itdy, 
1796 i deputy to the council of 600, and ambassador 
to Borne, 1797 ; king of the two Sicilies, 1806-1808; 
kingofSpain, I80E&18I3 ; llentenant-general ef the 
ein[»re to the abdic of Napoleon, 1814 ; and again 
in the hundred days, 1816; d. 1844. 

BUONAPAKTE, LAsnnA Rahouho, motlier of 
NajpcdMm, has no place in polit hlit, d. 1840. 

1778; king of HolUnd, 1806-1810; died in a phi. 
losnphic^ retirement a* count of St Leu, 1846. 

BUONAPARTE, Ldcikn, the next br. alter Na- 
poleon, bom 177G ; agent of the war department^ 
1793-179fi ; member of the conncQ of 500, 1797; 
president and confederate of Napoleon, 17B9 i ptinM 
ofCanlDO, 1807; died, 1840. 




BUONAPARTE, N., an Italian poet, 15th cent 

BUONAPARTE, Napoleos. See Napoleon. 

BUONAPARTE, Nap. Fr. Ch. Joseph, only son 
of the Qmperor and Maria Louisa of Austria, salated 
king of Rome at his birth, 1811-1832. 

BUONAPARTE, Zknaida CHARLOTrE Julia, the 
eldest daughter of Joseph Buonaparte, king of Spain, 
by his wife Julia Maria Clary, the sister of the pres- 
ent Queen Dowager of Sweden, the widow of Bema- 
dotte, was bom in Paris on the 8th of Jnly, 1802. 
She married her cousin, Prince Charles of Canino, 
the eldest son of Lucien Buonaparte, in Brussels on 
the 20th of June, 1822. She had twelve children 
by this marriage, eight of whom survive her. She 
was a woman of many graceful accomplishments. 
Died at Naples, 1854. 

BUONARROTI. See Michblanoblo. 

BUONO, BARTOLLoacBo, an Italian architect and 
sculptor, 15th century. An architect of this name 
flourished also in the 12th century. 

BUPALUS, a Greek sculptor, 6th century b.c. 

BURBAGE, Rich., an actor, age of Elizabeth. 

BURBECK, Henbt, an officer in the American 
army during the Revolution and the War of 1812. 
Died at New London, 1848, aged 94. 

BURCARD, bishop of Worms, died 1026. 

BURCH, Edw., an English artist, 1780-1814. 

BURCHARD, J., a Roman prelate, died 1505. 

BURCKHARDT, John Lnowio, was bom at 
Lausanne, in Switzerland, in the year 1784, or 1785. 
He studied at Basle, Leipzig, and Gdttingen, grad- 
uating at the latter. Introduced by Blumenbach, in 
1806, to Sir Joseph Banks and the African Associa- 
tion, he was engaged to travel under their auspices 
in central Africa: and having carefoUy prepared 
himself by varions studies, he received his instruc- 
tions in January, 1809. These bore that he was to 
remain two years in Syria, perfecting himself in the 
Arabic, thence to proceed to Mourzouk, in Fezzan, 
from which he was to cross the desert to Soudan, 
and the sources of the Niger. While in Syria, he 
visited most places of interest. In 1812 he readied 
Cairo, and being repeatedly disappcnnted in finding a 
^caravan to convey him to Mourzook, he performed 
various joAmeys in Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia, on the 
shores of the Red Sea, and through Arabia, collect- 
ing a great amount of the most important informa- 
tion. When, at length, in the autumn of 1817, the 
long-expected caravan was ready to depart, Burck- 
hardt was seized with dysentenr, and expired at 
Cairo, October 15, 1817, in the thirty-third year of 
his age. His last days were cheered by the land at- 
tentions of Mr. Salt, the En^tish consul ; and his 
death caused lively regret in Europe. His Travels 
occupy 4 vols. 4to., published at different times be- 
tween 1819 and 1880. [J.B.] 

BURCKHARDT, J. C, an astron., 1773-1825. 

BURDER, Geo., an evangelical minisi, d. 1832. 

BURDETT, Sib Fbancis, an eminent popular and 
parliamentary leader, was bom on 25th January, 
1770. The younger son of a younger son, it was 
only after a series of unexpected and calamitous 
deaths that he succeeded to the title and estates of 
his ancient and affluent family. Before that event 
he had in 1793 married a daughter of Thomas 
Coutts, the banker. He began his eventful parlia- 
mentaiy career by advocating an eiqposure of abuses 
in the Coldbath Fields, and other prisons. It was 
from the popularity thus achieved that in 1802 he 
was started for Middlesex. After a hot contest of 
fifteen days he wns returned, but the House found 
ihe election void, and imprisoned the sheriflb. The 
contest was still carried on by him in vain at enoar- 

mons expense. In 1807, when disabled by a around 
in a duel, he was started on the memorable oontesi 
for Westminster. His friends were successful, and 
he sat nearly thirty years for that oonstitDency. The 
main incident in his subsequent career is, that in a 
quarrel with the House of Commons he attempted 
to resist the Speaker's warrant for his arrest^ and 
created a disturbance, in which lives were lost. On 
tills occasion the seijeant-at-sirms found him affected- 
ly teaching his child magna charta. It was always 
suspected that his politics were founded more on 
love of popularity tlian conviction, and he proved 
this by capriciously changing them in 1885, and 
vehemently adopting the oSier side. When profess- 
ing democracy he was a thorough aristocrat in per- 
sonal feeling. His appearance was handsome and 
commanding, and with his dress and deportment 
made him we picture of a high-bred English gentle- 
man of the old school. He died on 23d Jan., 1844. 

BURDON, Wm., a philosophical wr., d. 1818. 

BURGESS, D., a popular preacher, 1645-1718. 

BURGESS, Rt. Rev. Thos., bishop of Salisbury, 
disting. for his profess, and liter, labors, 1756-1837. 

BURGH, James, a Scotch moralist, 1714-75. 

BURGH, John De, earl of Comyn, a soldier of 
tiie mid. y^ descended ftom Charlemagne, d. 1324. 

BURGOf AIR, Haits, a German painter and wood 
engraver, was bom at Augsburg in 1472. Thongh 
a painter of great excellence in his time and style, 
he is better known for his series of woodcuts, chiefly 
illustrating the achievements and life of tiie emperor 
Maximilian ; as * Der Weiss Kunig,' (the wise Idng,) 
an account of the acts of the emperor Maximilian I., 
with 237 large cuts, pnblished with the life by 
Treitzsauerwein, at Vienna, in 1775 ; and the tri- 
umphal procession of the same emperor in 135 large 
cuts folio, executed in 1519; *Le Triomphe do 
I'Empereur Maximilien I.,' accompanied with the 
ancient description dictated by the emperor himself 
to his secretary Marc TreitEsanerwem, Vienna, 1796. 
There is a third curious book of the * Saints ' of the 
imperial family, also by Burgkmair. — ^The abovb 
works, especially iiie 'Weiss Kunig,' are very valua- 
ble fbr the great variety and accuracy in detail of 
the illustrations of the manners and customs of the 
commencement of the sixteenth century. The blocks 
of these cuts, and many others by Burgkmair, are 
still preserved in the imperial library of Vienna. 
They are only partly executed by Burgkmair, he 
was aided by Albrecht Durer, and several other of 
the principal artists of his time : it is supposed that 
he actually cut very few df the blocks. The date 
of his death is uncertain, it is fixed by some authori> 
ties as late as 1559. * [R.K.W.] 

BURGOYNE, Jomr, lieutenant-general in the 
British army during the American war. Ajfber serv- 
ing in Portugal against Spain he entered into Par- 
liament Prior to me breaking out of the Revolution 
he came to America and was present at the battle 
of Bunker's Hill. In 1777 he was placed in com- 
mand of 7,000 British and German troops, for the 
purpose of opening communication between Canada 
and New York. He was at first attended with sac- 
cess, and compelled General St Clair to evacuate 
Ticonderoga ; but, partly owing to some izyudicioua 
movements by which he lost time, and partly to the 
defeat of several officers whom he had detached in 
difierent directions, together with the difficulties of 
transportation, his situation gradually became one ^ 
of great peril. He also found himself neither sup- 
ported by the rest of the British army nor by the 
Indians in the way which he had expected. In the 
battle of Stillwater on the .19th of September he r^ 




nuaad mBitsr ai &t field, but fait lou coottdenblj 
•ifeeded that of the Americui umy. Bis mpplie* 
mn limited, and in tlie [veMPce of * niperior force 
h* Taiuly ^)plied to Hoire uid CHatoa for relief. 
Anotlur diuitrom kction wm foof^bt at Santog* on 
tbe ferenth of October, in wbich hii c»aif wa< 
itonued and Mvenl of hii Duwt valiuiblg offioen 
killed. HIi ans; wa> sov rednoed to 8,500 Gating 
men, hij ntraat cut ofi^ hi* pioviuoD) eilunEte^ 
and no oanB left hijn but to aureoder, on coudi^on 
tbat hli troi^ ahonld be permitted to nurcb ont 
with all tbe bonara of war uid be allowed to ambarli 
for EnKlaiHL A oonveation wu accordingly ngned 
On the 17tliof October, and tbe Enf^lisb anu j eaoorted 
to Cambridsa, Mauacbnaetti. Biirgay oe went to 
En^and io the fallawiog May, bat wai not at fint 
receiTed by the king. He afUrwarda entered par- 
liament, aod in 1781 warmly advooatiid tha diicoD- 
tumanca of hoetilitiaa. Towardi the clou of hii life 
he deiotad himielf to literature, and was the author 
of aeTiral dramatic piece* which are KiU popular, 
and other worka. The drama* entitled tbe Btk^m. 
the Maid of Ott Oakt, the lari- -^ Hi Mt 
Bidar^ CcHir ilg Una, were wtitten bj Bni|^ 
well aa «Dme pamphlet! in hi* defence, and* Pnia- 
tiaury Ode. He wa« an offioer of bravaij and abili- 
^, biit had the miafortnae to oonteud UMOf^ottad in 
a oourtiy with which he waa anafqiiainted, agaioat 
» npoior enemy ahnndantly (qipljed, and lamiUar 
with every inob of the grtmnd, 

BUKI1>A\, JoBH, a phiioKipheT, 14th eentniy. 

BUIUGMT, J. L. Ds, a Fr. author, 1691-1T8S. 

BURKE, MoiXBt, JtidgB of tbe Court of Chan- 
eery in Sonth CanJina, and In 1TT3 judge of the So- 
prema Court, and waa choaen a member of Congre** 
in 1 780. Ha wa* bora la Ireland, and emigrated to 
America at the oommeocement of the HsTolution, 
during which he fought aa a Tolmileer. Died 1803. 

BLKKE, BMrnmn, a celebrated orator, alatennan, 
and philoaoidieT, waa bom at DuUin on lit Jannary, 
1 730. It hai bean mnch qnattioned whether he waa 
from tha bepnniiig what la termed a poUtioal adveo- 
tunr wiihout meaui of liTelibood to keep him iode- 
pendant, or eolered on life with a coniiderabla fop- 
tnna. Hit family waa *aid to be hJ^h and ancient, 
bat hia enemiea, who were many and bitter, treated 
thia Bi a common ntlional boait of all Iriihmeo, and 
■pake of Buke aa a aort of barbarian, who had ooma 
Aom a wild tribe to fight hi* way on in civiliied liJe 
}fj tbe fierce unacrtipaloa* liabita in whiob he had 
nan bceught np. Hia early edocatioa, however, 
waa dsriTad in the oalm laclndon d a Quaker 
MtninarT at Bailiton in Eildare, where he probably 
■oqnind much of (ha eolemn reflective otiaractaT 
" ' ' ' ' ' aatoral ardor. Ha Nndied, but 

Unbun, where tie took hia matter* degree lu 17ai. 
Be w>i dettined fbr the bar, and enler^ the Middle 
Temple, bnt legal atndiaaaeemtohaTe had no charm 
Ibihim. Hia abOifieaanHt have been aeen in} 752, 
forit it known that there «s* than a propoaal tochoote 
him ptofeator of lagia in the iminaiitjr ef Qlaigow, 
though he doei not ^pear lohave been, aa David Hume 
ji avowed oandidate. Hit first literary woric. 

Immediately afterward* appeared fala well-known 
eaaay on the Sublime and Beaoli&l. Ita original- 
i» of tboo^t, and Iniuriant flow of wordi, and 
iieuk, at onoe arreited attention; and whatever may 
be thooght ol the leading principlet, ao well iW- 
enlad by Payne Knight, and othen, the literary 
merila of the work entitled it to ita h^ repnti 

In 1767 ha pnblithed his accoont of the lettlementt 
in America, and shortly anorwardi co-operated with 
Dodaley in tbe ' Annual Register.' In 17fi3 hia abi- 
lity as a political partiiian obtained for lura a pen- 
)f .£S00 H year on the Irish eitabliihment, and 
vent waa rendered remarkable by the indigna- 
tion with which Boike repelled the chdms which the 
gentleman knowa 'as ungle speech Hamilton,'made 
on hi* political allegiance, cm the plea of baring ob- 
tuned for him this penuon. He entered pohtical 
life, for which he had been indnitriously truuing 
himteli^ by becoming private secretary to tbe mar- 
qnii of Rockingham, when first lord of the treaanr^ 
in 1766, ajid at the samo time entering parliament 
aarepresentativeirf'Wendover. At the conclusionof 
thia miuiiti7 he commenced that long oppotition to 
ita aucceaaora, which became memorable from the 
tone of philosophical and cOEiatitudoaal wiidom with 
which he pleaded what, after all, waa in reality tha 
roitoration of hi* own party connection* to power. 
On tha re-aatabliabment of tbe Rockingham admin- 
iatratioa in 1 7S8, he was mode paymaater-generaL 
Hia mbteqaent career is entwined with the biatorj 
of the period. Ita main feature* are lus ahare mths 
proaecutioa of Warren Hasting*, and that stem de- 
nunciation of the revolutionary progreia of France, 
which cnoaed hia dramatic quarrel with Fox and hia 
other old political friends. He made a large con- 
tributicm to the parliamentary oratory of his day, 
and his speeche* were ramaruble for their ricbneia 
of language and abundance of imagery. He died on 
July 8, 1787. rj.H.B.] 

IT— »^ 

BUBKE, JoHH Dolt, author of a history of Tlr- 

nnia, from its first settlement to 1Sn4, and of two 
dramatic piece*, entitled Bunker Hill and Bethlem 
Gabor. He was a native of Ireland, and first came 
to America b 1797, where he edited tome political 
newspaper* in Beaton and Kew York. He waa 
killed in a duel bj a Frenchman named Coqnabert, 
in 1808. 

BURLEIGH, WiuJAH Cecil, Lord, an eminent 
English statesman, wa* bom in 1620. Hi* father 
wai maatar of the robes, and tha* nnturaDy opened a 
court career to the cspaciities of the boo. He married 
m ISll a sister of Sir John Cbeke, who soon dying, 
after she had given birth to the son who became earl of 
Exeter, he was united In tS4G to Mildred, danght«T 
ofSir Anth. Cook, the director oFthe royal studies. He 
waa appointed muter of reignests by the Protector 
SomerieC He was at first involved with the fall ik 
hii maater, but not eipreasing any romantic fidelity • 




toluxn, speedily rose again and waa made eeoretaiy 
of state. His sagacity and caution prevented him 
from committing himself to the claims of Lady Jane 
Grey. Though thus commended to Queen Maiy, it 
was neither consistent with his principles or his cau- 
tion to aid her efforts tor the re-establishment of the 
power of Rome, and he kept himself apart, ofifering 
a modified opposition to the court. He was in the 
mean time in close communication with the Princess 
Elizabeth, helped her to evade the dangers surround- 
ing her, and prepared her to occupy the throne. On 
the day of her accession he took that place as her 
principal adviser, which he retained whQe he lived. 
In 1571 he was raised by the queen, always sparing 
of her honors, to the rank of baron. The history of 
bis administration is the history of England. He 
was essentially a statesman of wise management 
rather than of constitutional views.. Taking the 
immediate results of his policy, no statesman was 
ever more successful, but looking at ultimate effects, 
it may be said that he did more than any other man 
to bring England near to a despotism, and thns to 
lay the foundation of the civil wars of the ensuing 
century. It was his principle to make himself ac- 
quainted with the individual histories of men, and to 
dive as nearly as possible to the bottom of their 
character and intentions. Thus among his charac- 
teristic studies was genealogy, and he kept up such 
a potent system of secret inquiry as Britain never 
knew before, and has not known since. One of the 
most unpopular and uojustiiiable of hu acts was the 
death of Mary Queen of Scots. He was affected to 
the extent of a lively apprehension by the massacre 
of St Bartholomew, and thought it inconsistent with 
the safety of England and the Protestant cause that 
the captive queen should continue to live. He was 
in general, however, moderate and averse to sever- 
ity. He lived a moral, domestic life, characterized 
by the grave deportment of the age. He was nei- 
ther miuignant nor greedy, and left behiod him a 
high name for integrity. He died on the 4th ofAu- 
gMt, 1698. [J.H3.] 

BURMAN, Pbteb, a Dutch savant, 1668-1741. 

BURMAN, John, an em. botanist, 1707-1779. 

BURN, Richard, LL.D., a literary compiler and 
historian, author of * Bum*s Justice,' d. 1 789. 

BURNABY, And., an. of * Travels, &c., d. 1812. 

BURNES, Lieut. Col. Sib Alex., polit. resident 
at Cabool, afterwards interpreter to the army of 
Sdnde, assas. at the age of thirty-seveA, 1841. 

BURNET, Gilbert, bishop of Salisbury, an eccle- 
siastical historian, author of the Hidory of the Rrfor- 
motion. History of his Own Tkaes, The Expomtion ofihis 
89 Ar^ides, and other works. 1643-1716. 

BURNET, Jacob, an American lawyer, judge and 
politician, was bom in Newark, New Jersey, re- 
moved to Cincinnati in 1790, where he practiced 
law. He became Judge of tiie Supreme Court of 
Ohio, a U. S. Senator, and a delegate to the Harris- 
burg Convention of 1839, and was instrumental in 
obtaining the nomination of General Harrison to 
the presidency, d. 1863, aged 82. 

BURNET, Thob., an ecdeuastical wr., d. 1716. 

BURNET, Wm., son of bishop Burnet, bom at the 
Hague, in 1688. The future Prince of Orange stood 
as his godfather. In 1720 he was appointed 
Governor of New York and New Jersey, and during 
his administration was chiefly occupied in with- 
ataa^Ung the encroachments of the French. He 
married Miss Van Home, of New York. His wise 
and disinterested opposition to the French, rendered 
him unpopular with those whose mercantile interests 
were i^cted, and he resigned in 1728, and was 

appobted the same year Governor of fiifassachusetti 
and New Hampshire. He died in September, 1729. 

BURNET, a. T., F.L.S., a botan., 1800-1886. 

BURNETT, Jam., Lord Monboddo, the well-known 
speculative wr. on language, &e., 1714-1779. 

BURNEY, Crarlbs, Mus. Doc, was bom at 
Shiewsbuxy in 1726, and partly educated attiie free 
school there, and partly at the public aehool in Ches- 
ter. His first music master was Mr. Baker, organ- 
ist at Chester ; he received further instmctions m>m 
James Bumey, his elder half-brother, organist at 
Shrewsbury, and he was three years under the toi- 
tion of Dr. Ame. In 1749 he was appointed or- 
ganist of a church in London, in which year he was 
introduced to Mrs. Cibber, through whom, besides 
making the personal acquaintance of the literary 
and BCimitific men, the artists, acton, and wits ol 
the time, he was induced to compose >>r Druxy Lane 
Theatre three musical dramas, * Alfred,* * Robin 
Hood,* and *■ Queen Mab.' After this period, being 
in ill health, he went to Lynn Regis in Norfolk, 
where for nine years he occupied himself in collect* 
ing materiab for Mb great ' History of Music,' at 
the same time filUng the sitnatioii of organist, with 
a salary of £100 per ammm. In 1780, recovered in 
heolth, he returned to London, iriiere he soon procured 
fUl employment and gained a high reputation in his 
profession, and where his eldest daughter, then only 
eight years old, attracted much attention as a per- 
former on the harpsichord. In 1706 be brought out 
at Dmxy Lane a translation of Ronsseau's * Devin du 
Village.' In 1769 the ooUege of Oxfbrd conferred 
upon him the honorary degree of Doctor in Music. 
In the following year he set out on his travels with 
the olgect of vidting the great continental libraries, 
that he mig^ add to the stores of matter be had 
collected for his ^Histoiy of Mustc' In 1771 he 
pubUsbedhis 'Musioal Tov,' a work ofwiuchhls 
mend Dr. Johnson said when he wrote his account 
of the Hebrides, ' Ihad that clever dog Dr. Bmmey^ 
tour in my eye.' In 1776 -the first volume ofUie 
'Histocy of Muao' was paUished, ttie second ap- 
peared in 1788, and tiie iMrd and fourth in 1789. 
In Uus year Etbamid Burke proemr«d him the situa- 
tion of organist at Cheteea C<dlege. In 1796 he pub- 
lished his life of Metastasio. He also contributed 
the principal articles on musio to Reese's E&cydope- 
dia. His other Hterary works were ^ An Essay to- 
wards aHistoty of Comets,' 'APhin of a Public 
Musical School,' ' An Account (written for tiie Phi- 
losophical Transactions) of litde Cratch, the Infknt 
Musician,' *AMem(nr ol IJie Murical Festival in 
Honor of EEandel, which was held in Westminster 
Abbey in 1785.' In the year 1806 Mr. Wyndham 
procured for him a pension firom government of 
^300, from iHndi period be gave up his inteBectual 
labors. He died on the 16th of AprS, 1816. Dr. 
Bumey was twice married, and left by bis first wife 
two sons and fonr dansihterB^ and by Ins second one 
dau^ter. His eldest dsoi^rter, afatady mentioned, 
was celebrated as a mvsioian. His second daughter, 
Madame D^Arblay, is known from her novels, * Ce- 
cilia,' « Evelina,' ^Camilla,' and tiie 'Wanderer,* 
which works oommeneed a new era in light litera- 
ture. His eldest son, Jambs, sailed round the worid 
with Captain Cook, and afterwards commanded the 
Bristol, fifty gnn% in the East Indies. His second 
son was the learned Chablis Bubney, LL.D. Dr. 
Bumey was on terms of intimacy and iHendship with 
all the eminent men of his day. In all tlie relations 
of life, his character is described as exemplaiy, while 
his manners were peculiarly easy, spirited, and gen- 
tlemanly. [J.M.3 



BURNET, Cruuk, K» of the mL eompoMT, diK 
u • GiMk idialar, ITBT-IBIT. 

BL'KNEY, tU«»-AiJi>iBAi, Jta., elder brotlieT of 
OepncAd^ ft feUow-TOj. of Cook, 1769-1831. 

BURNEY, Wm^ LL.D., ■nflior rf 'IJt6« rf Ao 
H>TiJ Hnqw itf QreM Bribdn, Ac, 176S-1SS3. 

BCBNS, Jem, M.D., so. itf ft work en the Erl- 
deneei ud PrfaudplM ofChrlMtanttj', ITSO-IBSO. 

IT, Um gn>t pe—nt psM of ScoC- 
IftDd, lirad' end died wia&tlM ktMr hair or the 18th 
caabii^. Hii bther, mUbm BBnwM, ftaeording to 
the onnnal qwllizig of the inuiw, wh ft nMire of 
Eincftrauuhiia, whnio* he mi^nrtad, fitM to Edin- 
bdrgli, mad lAenrftrde to Ajnbat, obtiinitig emplof- 
Isent u be bait codid u ft working gudener. He 
nlliinfttelf took ft leaee of htsii ftciei cf Uod, abont 
ft couple of mile* from the (own of Ajt, In die dia- 
bict of Kjle, where be boib, bj the roadnde, wHh 
hie own hftudi, ft dfty cottage, which ia *tlU ataiidinfc, 
ftn olgect at interatt to Mraogen. To thii htunblB 
dvelUng, coneiethig Dwnl^ m n tut and ft tea, be 
bnmgkt in dne time ft TOooK brids, mined Agnea 
Bmwn, dftu^tai of a email fsnneT in the neighbor- 
iaa diitrict of Cariak, and the Gnt (hiil of thii 
a^Dn «■« BoBKiT, bom on tba 36th of Jamar;, 
1759. Tlw posiion at WDliam Bomen at th»t 
lime, and indeed throogliont hi* «fai4a Hie, wuthat 
' ft Usb-nuoded and nobU-bearted 

next brother, Gilbert, hftrii^ iMan placed nader ftn 
exceHeot teadwr, naioed Moriacfa. In 17M, when 
the poet wat 7 Tean oM, hie firtber Mmoied irilh hii 
brnQy to Honnt Oliphaiit, a bnn a ooi^le of mile* 
diitftnt, but for aome time afterwaidi l» Imjv oon- 
tinued to attend HDrdaek's*ch«oL If^libTa)7st 
Hoont OliphftaC «■* eauU, it jat ooaprieed Mrerat 
good booka, inolpdiiig tha * Speetator,' ^lan Bam- 
mft ' Poemi,' aomajkn of Shake^eareT and abore 
al^ ft coUeodon of Eof^ii Sou, which Bncna ao- 
knowledgei to haTe atndiaJ wtth eiillaa] care. In 
hii fiftsenth jeai Bobart waa tha principal labxreT 
on tha fann, whinh wM far fcnen proape i o u a ; andto 
the drudtfecr and affliotion whSch he endured at tliia 
period, Iiu Itrotlwr Gilbait aaoribad that depmedon 
of ipiiit% accompanied at tlmea with an tnegnlaT 
motioBaftha heart, towUchha waiaftemrdilia- 
blib Frooi the niMtis* <d Monnt Ol^ihaiit, tbe 
Bnma luuly fled in 1777 M the Una of LodUea, to 
the paiiih of Tarbidton. In Ae mjdati bowvTer, of 
areiT lardAip, thefonnc iMoeaatiDaed toadrance 
not onlf in Linjnii^ bntm aoooinpliihmaDtf. Rob- 
ert, with the aaaiitanca of Uf old teaobar, llardoeh, 
had » far maatered tha Frandi iangnage aa to be 
able to read it with MM. At Klriramti be llk»- 
wiee acquired ■ (mattering cf nenmntioo aad land 
nrvejiiiK} wbOa at TarbolKm be cohiTBted hit 
power* 3 oratoiy in a debating clab. BcAire tU* 

time ha had fallen in love with 'a bomiie, tweot^ 
■cnue Ibu,' with whom he had worked at lurre*!^ 
and bis ibelings had veated tbom>elTea in veree oC 
no TOiy nodceable merit. Hot long, howeTer, alter 
die Indifibrent aong of ' Handsome Nell,' he prodnced 
the inimiteblo lyric of ' My Nannie, 0.' In theliope, 
according to hii brother GUbert, oCbeing able to many, 
he became a flai-dreuer at Irvine ; bat at tbis occu- 
pation he eonCinoed only ui monthi, during wliich 
tfane be was initiated into tbe mjAterieftof&eemaBon- 
ry, and acquired Kinio additional knowledge of tbe 
world, tr^ther, it must be confeued, with some little 
lazin cf morals. HisretumtoLoahleawaga retomto 
ft qoEet ftnd correct mode of life. About this time a 
vidtot deieribed the Bums family ftt meal-time aa 
hating ' boi^ in one hand and qioods in the olber.' 
bsplred by a volume in hitpo*>esaon<Jlettersfrom 
tho pens of tbe best Rnglinh antbora, tbe poet aimed 
at epistolary exoeUence, and kept ctnies of such 
of his own commnDications to Ms friendt as pleoaed 
him. In 1784, WlHioni BnmeBs, 'tbe prieit-lika 
fhther * of *e ' Cottar's Saturday Ni^' died, loav- 
iiwUs family InTolTOd iaa mioonshtifation. With 
what little Uiey could reacne fVom the wreck at 
Locblea, Rol>ert and Gilbert Borne entered iqiontlie 
farm of Moswiel, in the parish of Mancbline. Hw 
fbrmer, In lib new and redouble position, deter- 
ndned to read agricnitaral books, calcnlale ortfis, 
and attend markets. In place, however, of tiecimi- 
Ing a good practical fanoer, he became only a great 
poet 1 It was at Mossgiel Uiat be produced his most 
maiteriy pieces, inoludlnj ' Tbe Cottar** Saturday 
Nigbt,' 'Addroseto the Deil,' "The Jolly Beggars,' 
' Halloween,' ' To a Mouse,' ' The Holy Fair,' ' Man 
was made to Mourn,' and others on which his fame 
chiefly rests. His powerfiil (atires on the ' Unco 
Gold, hicludlng the merciless and somewhat pro« 
^ne vene* entitled ■ Holy WilUo's Prayer,' tog^her 
with some ttsnsgiaBrion* against tha laws of moral- 
ly, stirred np many anemieB, wtionlarly amoi^ 
the 'Old light' dWr- On Uw od»r hand, hia 
genial, not to say oonnvial di^oidtioD, manly ind»> 

printed at Kilmarnock In 1786, was largely sub- 
scribed for, and yielded bi"! ft clear profit e( £2/t. 
With this money it was bis intention to frnoeed to a 
dtnation in Jamaica, as book-keeper on tba aetata 
of a Dr. Douglas, in order to escape from &.* con- 
seqnence* of an intrigue with Jean Armour, dia 
daughter of a mastor-mason In Hauchline, who nlti- 
mately, howerer, became his wife. With his at- 
tachment to ' bonnie Jean,' was mixed np a roman- 
tlo aSMtion for a Highland sirl, naiued Mary 
Caambell, tbe m^ect ofaome of hia moat beautiful 
and higb-tonod emisionA, Tlie extraordinary favor, 
bowoTor, with wbicb bis poems were rooeired by 
the critical worid, indnced him to proceed in 17&B 
to EdinbUT^ widi the *iei* of getting out a saoond 
edition, lOs reception in tbe Scottish cajntal was 
of tbe moot ^^*^^ing kind. In the society of the 
eail of Glencaim, Lord Monboddo, Mr. Heniy 
Erskine, Dr. Robertson, Dr. Blair, Dr. Adam Fer- 
guson, Dr. BlacUock, Mr. Henry Hackeuiie, Mr. 
Fraser Tytier, aud other celebrides, he was exhibit- 
ed as a 'lion,' and the (brce, originality, and biil- 
lianoy of hi* couTeraation seem to have prodnced 
even a greater impression than bis poetry. Admired 
ftnd marrelled at by eminent men, Bums exerted a 
still more wonderful fasciaadoa over beantifal 
wcmen. Among the lattor was Mrs. Jaa. M'Le- 
hoee, a wronged and deaetted wife, about hi* own 
age, with whom he entered into a singnlarly romao- 


[ 188 ] 


tio and imprndent correflpondence, under the Arca- 
dian names of Sylvander and Clarinda. His second 
edition Was at length published by Mr. Creech, and 
realized for the poet a profit of j£500, the list of 
subscribers having extended to thirty-^ight pages. 
This was the cuhninating point in the career of 
Boms. Out of the ftmds cf which he was now in 
possesfflon, he lent his brother Gilbert, who was still 
struggling with ihe nnfortonate farm of Mossgiel, 
the snm of £180. With the rest he took Tarions 
tours through Scotland, a professed 'mstic bard' 
and man St genins, writing diaries and letters, 
scratching impromptu verses on the windows of inns 
and taverns, and inditing passionate love-strains to 
ladies and damsels of every degree, with whom he 
had the slightest possible acquaintance. After 
three months' rapturous raving to Clarinda, t<^th- 
er with sundry other episodical attachments, he 
formally installed Jean Armour as his wife ; and 
having leased from Mr. Miller of Dalswinton the 
farm o£ Ellisland, on the banks of the Nith, between 
five and ax miles from Dumfries, he once more 
turned his attention to agricultural pursuits ; but in 
reality chiefly occupied himself widi railing at for- 
tnne^ and writing the most exquisite songs in the 
world. In August, 1789, he entered the excise 
with a view to eke out his insufficient income. His 
duties, however, which compelled him to ride some 
two hundred miles in the course of every week, in- 
terfered with the business of his farm, and in 1791 
he abandoned the latter, and established his head- 
quarters wholh" in Dumfries as an exciseman. The 
emoluments of his office did not exceed £70 a-year. 
Although poor, however, and often pinched for 
money, he was never in absolute want ; and it is 
remarkable, that although contributing assiduously, 
first to Johnson's * Scots Musical Museum,' and after- 
wards to Mr. Geo. Thomson's * Melodies of Scot- 
land,' he always seemed to resent any offer of remu- 
neration as an affiront. The written, collected, or 
altered songs contributed by Bums to these two 
miscellanies amounted to 284 in number. At Dum- 
fries Bums lived about five years, leading a some- 
what irregular life, occasionally getting into trouble 
on account of his capricious temper, or his demo- 
cratic sentiments, resenting fancied slights by pun- 
gent epigrams, but still retaining many warm 
friends, and penning lyrics which were destined to 
live for ever. Broken at length in health, owing, it 
is said, to his having slept all night on one occasion 
in the open air, this extraordinary man expired at 
his house in Dumfries, on the 21 st of July, 1796, in 
the thirty-eighth year of his age. Immediately 
after his death all Scotland was touched with re- 
morse at having suffered her greatest son to perish 
in poverty and neglect. Subscriptions to a large 
amount were raised for behoof of his widow and 
family ; costly monuments were erected in various 
quarters to bis memory ; and ever since, his fame 
has continued to increase. Although fond of repre- 
senting himself as * unlettered,' and as bred * at the 
plough-tail,* it may be doubted whether there was 
any thing either in the position, or in the training 
of Bums, unfavorable to the full development of his 
genius. His brightest effusions were born of his 
toils, aspirations, and sufferings. In several other 
respects, the humbleness of his station m life was an 
advantage. It heightened the surprise occasioned 
by his writings, and procured for him an amount of 
substantial patronage which has been too much 
overlooked. That his career was prematurely cut 
short must always be a matter of regret to those 
who remember that * Tarn o' Shanter,' * Bruce's Ad- 

dress,' and the celebrated parting song of * Ae Fond 
Eliss,' were among his later productions; but in his 
poetry and in his life, which are inseparably asso- 
ciated, he has left a snfScientiy splendid impression. 
The moral failings which he himseU acknowledged 
and deplored, are more easily forgiven than de* 
fended. Even, however, if there is something to 
condemn in his character, tiicre is much more to 
admire and honor. His poverty never betrayed 
him into any mean or sordid action, or lowered tho 
manly integrity and sturdy independence of his 
character. In literature his place is among the 
great ones of the earth. Much of hft prose compo- 
sition is labored and inflated; and his letters to 
Clarinda, in particular, present a strange and in- 
congruous mixture of friendship and folly, religion 
and wild passion. But his poetry is replete with 
fire, humor, and pathos, combined with perfect 
simplicity and natunilness. One main secret of his 
success was his almost always writing directiy firom 
nature. His Jeans, Marys, and Femes, were crea^ 
tures of veritable fiesh and blood. He even seemed 
to be continually working himself into fits of love, 
for the mere purpose of finding subjects for his 
muse ; while his intense admiration of natural scene- 
ry, in place of venting itself in cold description, was 
generally associated with some engrossing human 
emotion. Hence it is that he rarely fails to find 
his way to the hearts of his readers, and that he has 
succeeded in bequeathing to his country and the 
world, the most admirable body of lyrical composi- 
tion, whether as regards force of expression or ten- 
derness of sentiment, to be foimd in the literature of 
any age or nation. C*^*^*] 

BURR, Aaron, president of the College of New 
Jersey, bom in Connecticut in 1714. He was grad- 
uated at Yale College in 1785. In 1742 he was 
ordained at Newark. It was in a great measure 
owing to his influence that the College of New Jer- 
sey was founded, and he was appointed president of 
it in 1748. In 1752 he married a daughter of Jona- 
than Edwards, and died in 1757. 

BURR, Aaron, an Am. statesman and third vice- 
president of the United States, was bom in Newark, 
N. J., Feb. 5, 1756. His father was the learned 
and devout president of Princeton College, and his 
motiier the daughter of the eminent divine Jonathan 
Bldwards. Both of his parents died before their son 
had reached the age of three years, and to this early 
deprivation of the precept and example of his exem- 
plaiy parents, may be attributed the immoral life 
of Aaron Burr. He entered Princeton College at the 
age of twe^e and graduated at sixteen, having won 
for himselt during his college career the reputation 
of a youth of fine natural parts and studious appli- 
cation. While in his twentieth year, before he had 
completed his preparation fer the bar, to which be 
had determined to devote himself, he joined in 1775 
the American army under Washington, at Cam- 
bridge. His ardor in behalf of the Revolutionaiy 
cause was such, that he was induced to Join Ahiold 
as a volunteer in the expedition against Quebec. 
After his arrival there he was appomted aid-de- 
camp to Montgomery, and was by the side of that brave 
officer when he felL Subsequentiy in 1776 he was 
received by General Washington as one of his military 
family, but was soon cast off by that stem moralist 
in consequence of his debaucheiy. He never for- 
gave Washington this act of just retribution, brought 
upon him by his own %'ice. Burros military talents^ 
however, secured for him the high position of lieu- 
tenant-colonel in 1777, which he retained until 
1779, when he was obliged to relinquish it in con- 




ttquenoe of 01 heallii. Upon Buries retirement from 
military life, he reeamed tiie study of law, and com- 
menced its practice in Albany in 1782, bat soon re- 
moved to New York, where he early acquired a pro- 
minent poeidon at a great lawyer. In 1789 he was 
made attorney-general of New York. From 1791 
to 1797, he was a member of the United States Sen- 
ate, where he was distinguished as a leader of the 
republican party. In l^K) he was a candidate for 
the presidency, and received the same number of 
79 TOtes as Thomas Jefferson, and the choice was 
thus left to the decision of Congress, which on the 
thirty-sixth ballot elected Jefferson as preddent and 
Burr as Tice-president. In 1804 was fought the 
famous duel between Alex. Hamilton and Burr, in 
which the former was killed and the latter for ever 
loet in the public esteem. Burr had pursued Ham- 
ilton with tile most malignant animosity, and forced 
him to be his antagonist in a duel, which Burr 
seemed to have contrived for the puzpoee of taking 
deadly revenge upon his hated opponent. In 1807 
he was apprehended, taken to Richmond, Ya.^ and 
tried on a charge of a treasonable design upon Mex- 
ico ; he was, however, after a long trial acquitted. 
His public life was now at an end, as his oonntiy 
had no faith in his Integii^; he, however, resumed 
the practice of law, but lived in comparative obscu- 
rity until his death on Staten Island, Sept 14, 1886. 
His unscrupulous conduct as a statesman, and his 
debauchery in private life, deprived him of all pub- 
lic or personal sympathy, and he left accordingly 
hut an ill-fame behind him. 

BUKRILL, JoHK, speaker for many years of the 
House of Representatives in Massachusetts under 
Governor Shute. He was chosen member of the 
Council in 1720, and died in the following year, 
aged 68. 

BURRILL, Jakes, United States Senator from 
Rhode Island, was bom in 1771, and graduated at 
Brown University in 1788. After the completion 
of his legal studies, he attained great eminence at 
the bar and was appointed Attorney General and 
Chief Justice. He was elected also a member of the 
Assembly, of which body be became speaker. His 
election to the Senate of the United States occurred 
in 1816, and whilo there he principally distinguished 
himself in the debate concerning the admission of 
Missonn. He died at Washington in 1820, at the 
age of 49. 

BURROUGHS, Gn>., a con^gational minister, 
who was graduated at Harvard in 1670, and execu- 
ted at Salem on a charse of witchcraft in 1692. In 
the testimony against him It was affirmed that he 
had performed feats of extraordinary strength, and 
some of the witnesses declared tiuit two of his de- 
ceased wives, who accused him of having caused 
their death, appealed to them in open court, and 
occasioned the paroxysms of fear with which they pre- 
tended to be seized. It was in vain that he asserted 
his innocence, and even at the moment of death re- 
peated with tears the Lord's Prayer, which it was 
supposed impossible for a witch to do. The fanati- 
cism was too strong, and he perished with many 

BURROW, Rbvbkk, a mathematician, d. 1791. 

BURROWS, Stephen, an Englishman; accom- 
panied Chancclor in his voyage to the N.E. in 1558 ; 
and sailed again in 1556 in a small vessel to ex- 
plore the N. coasts of Europe and Asia. He was 
the first, at a later date, to observe the gradual 
change in the declination of the madpetio needle ; 
from his observations, and those 3 Gunter and 
Mair, in 1612, the existence of this secular variation 

was completely established in 1626 by GeBibrand 
professor of geometry in Gresham College, London. 

BURROWS, WiLUAic, an officer in the United 
States navy, bom near Philadelphia in 1785. He 
entered the service as a midshipman in 1799. 
During the last war with England, he was appcMnted 
to the command of the Enterprise, and engaged the 
British brig Boxer off PortUnd on the 5tii of Sep- 
tember, 1818, which surrendered to him after an 
action of 45 minutes, in which her commander, 
named Blyth, was killed. Dent Burrows had him- 
self been lying on the deck mortally wounded since 
the very beginning of the fight, but received the 
sword of his enemy with the words * I am satisfied— 
I die content.* llie bodies of Burrows and Blyth 
were buried together at Portland on the 9tii of Sep- 
tember, and Congress voted a gcdd medal to the 
nearest relatives of the victor. 

BURT, FBDBRAii, pastor of Durham, NewHamp* 
shire, and editor of a religious paper published in 
that State called the Observer. His name is to be 
ascribed to the coincidence between tiie day of his 
birth, March 4, 1789, with the beginning of the first 
government urider the Federal Constitution. Allen 
quaintiy says, ''There are names in our country 
originating in greater caprice,*-as Mr. Preserved 
Fidb, a sound merchant of New York, and Mr. Adam 
Eve, who died lately in Pennsylvania at a great age, 
and Mr. Pickled Ham, of MsJne, who has not yet 
turned to corruption." Mr. Bart died in 1886, aged 

BURT, FHAIIGI8) the first governor of the territo- 
ry of Nebraska, bom in PemUeton, S. C, and died 
Oct. 1854, a few days after reaching the country 
whose affairs he had been appointed to administer. 

BURT, JoHK, a clergyman, graduated at Harvard, 
and ordsined in Bristol, R. £, where he dropped 
dead of emotion or fatigue in a field adjacent to the 
town on the 7th October, 1775, at the moment that 
a cannonade was opened upon it by Capt. Wallace, 
a British officer. He married tiie dau^ter of Lieut. 
Gk>vemor William Ellery. 

BURTON, J., a classic, schol. and theol.,d. 1771. 

BURTON, Robert, the celebrated author of the 
< Anatomy of Mekncholy,* 1576-1640. 

BURY, Abthub, an English dirine, 17tii cent. 

BURY, Eliz., a distmguished an., 1664-1720. 

BUSBY, Db. RioH., a dasdcal teacher, fifty-five 
years master of Westmfaister school, 1606-1695. 

BUSCHE, H. Voir Deb, a Ger schol., d. 1584. 

BUSCHING, A. F., a miscel. wr., 1724-1798. 

BUSHE, Rt. Hon. Sir C. Keiidal, an able lawyer 
and orator, privy councillor in 1822, d. 1848. 

BUSHE, Geo. MAOAmnnEr, a celebrated surgeon, 
bom in Ireland but resident in New York, author of 
a work on the * Rectum,* d. 1886, aged 89. 

BUSHNELL, David, attafaied some celebrity 
during the Revolutionary war by the invention of a 
vessel for submarine navigation designed to destroy 
ships of war ftom beneath. The experiment was 
not successful, and the machine itself was captured 
in the Hudson on board a sloop and sunk. Bushnell 
was a native of Saybrook, Connecticut. 

BUTE, John SruAirr, earl o^ minister of state 
ioon after the aoc. of Geo. HL, 1760-1762, d. 1792. 

BUTINI, J. A., a physician of Geneva, last ot. 

BUTLER, Alban., a catholic biog., d. 1778. 

BUTLER, C, a catholic lustor., &c., 1750-1882. 

BUTLER, Jamsb Armab, a British officer, who 
fen in the successful defence of Silistria against the 
Russians in June, 1854. His skill and courage 
were powerful aids in securing the success of uie 
Turks. He was 27 years of age only. 


[140 1 


BUTLER, Jomr. The atrodties eommittod by 
tbis miscreant daring the Revolutionaiy war aknost 
exceed beliefl He was a native of Gonnecticnt| but 
removed to the valley of Wyoming, where in 
1778 at the head of 1,600 men, of which 800 were 
Indians and the rest tories painted to resemble Indi- 
ans, he attacked the towns and viUages in that ro- 
mantic region and indiecriminately massacred thoeo 
irho sabmitted as well as those who fought, women 
and children as wel> as men. To the question what 
tenns would be granted, he replied, ' The hatchet ; ' 
people of both sexes ahd every age were indiscrimi- 
nately shut up in houses wMch were then set on 
fire ; some were held down in tiie flames by pitch- 
forks, and in one instance at least a poor wretch 
had his body stuck foil of pine-knot splinters and then 
burned. He renewed these cruelties tiie next year 
in Cherry Valley, where he sent his son in oom- 
pany with Brant, the Indian chief. Butler survived 
the war and settied in Upper Canada, where he had 
5,000 acres of land and £MX> a year from the British 
government. The massacre cf Wyoming has been 
ascribed, by Campbell to Brant, but he was not 
present, and even in Cherry VaHey tiie Indian was 
more mereiftd than the white man. 

BUTLER, Joocpa, a learned English bishop, 
anthor of the eel. 'Axialogyof ReUgion,' 169^1782. 

BUTLER, PasccvAL) general, an officer in the 
American army during the Revolution. He shared 
in the siege and capture of New Yorit in 1781. Died 
in Kentucky in 1821, aged 61. 

BUTLER, PisBCK, a descendant of the dnkes of 
Ormond in Ireland, came to America as an officer 
in the British army, but attached himself at the 
Revolution to the republican cause. He was bitter- 
ly opposed to Qreat Britain. He represented Sooth 
GaroUna in the Congress of 1787, and in the con- 
vention which framed the Constitution of the United 
States. His dislike of Endand led him to disap- 

?rove of Jay's treaty, and the ffeneral policy of 
ITashington's adminis^tion, and highly to applaud 
the war of 1812. He died in 1822, at the age of 77. 
BUTLER, RiCHABD, mi^or-general In the army 
of the United States, who was killed hi tiie dis- 
astrous expedition of (General St. Clair against tiie 
Indians in 1791. The defeat was owing to the 
panic witii which the militia who occupied the first 
line were seiaed, on the attack of the Indians upon 
them on the morning of the 4th of November. They 
recoiled upon the first line of regulan commanded 
by Genenu Butler, and although that officer gallant- 
ly repulsed the Indians with the bayonet^ the con- 
fusion was irretrievable. He himself was wounded, 
and while lying on the ground at a little distance 
where he had been carried for safety, was pounced 
on by an Indian, tomahawked and scalped. The 
savage who performed this feat did not bear away 
his trophieis but was immediately killed by the 
American troops. The rout, however, was oom- 
plete, and out oif an army of 1,200 men 600 were in 
a brief space killed and wounded, and the rest put 
to flight The loas of General Butler oocasiooed 
nmveraal sorrow. He was an officer of distinguished 
valor and ability, and performed eminent services 
toward the close of the RevdutionaTy war. 

BUTLER, Sajcvkl, author of the exquisite poeti- 
cal satire, * Hudibras^' known and quoted wherever 
the English language is spoken, was bom in Wor- 
cestershire, 1612, and lived a Ufe of dmdgeiy and 
poverty till 1680. His poem was published after 
tiie restoration, tiie first two parts in 1668 and 1664, 
the third in 1678, and its popularity firom the first 
wa« unprecedented. Two collections of tiie author's 

postiramous poems have ^>peared in 1719 ati^ 1789^ 
respectively, but his reputation reets exclusively on 
the ' Hudibras,* which, for its pungent wit, Indiorons 
casuistry, and droll humor in the description of lifo 
and character, is unparalleled in the language. 

BUTLER, Db. S., a learned preUte, 1774-1840. 

BUTLER, Thomas, colonel, an officer in the Uni- 
ted States army, who highly disting^uished him* 
self at the battles of Brandywhie and Mon- 
mootii, at the former of which he was tiianked 
upon the field for his gallantry by Washhigton. 
He fought at the defeat of St. Clair, where his 
brother Richard lost his life, and led his battalion 
to a charge of bayonets seated on horseback after 
his leg had been broken by a baU. His life was 
saved by Capt. Eldward Butier, another brother. He 
was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 
1794, and commanded against the insurgents at 
Pittsbmg. In 1797 he was sent by Wasiiington to 
Tennessee to dispossess those who had settied on the 
Indian lands. He died in 1805, at tiie age of 61. 

BUTLER, WnxuM, mf^-general hi tiie Amw- 
ican army during the RevolntloD. His father was 
treacherously killed in South Carolina, which oir» 
cumstance iDdted him to redoubled eilbrtB to re- 
venge his death. He was elected to Congress in 
1800, and in 1812 was placed in command cf the 
troops retained for defence in South Carolina. He 
died in 1821, aged 67. 

BUTLER, WiLUAM, lieutenant-colonel of tiie 4tii 
Pennsylvania regiment^ an officer in the Revolution- 
aiy war, who aftor the massacre at Wyomhig was sent 
into the Indian country on the Susquehanna, and 
served in 1779 in the expedition of Sullivan against 
the Indians. 

BUTLER, ZBBUxx>ir, an inhabitant of the Vale of 
Wyoming at the period of the massaoro by the infii- 
mous John Butler. He was the second in command 
on the American side, and one of the few who es- 
capedon the 8d July, 1778. 

BUTTNER, GorrLiBB, a Moravian ndssionaxy 
amouff the New Yoric Indians, arrived in America 
in 1741, was ordained by Count Zinsendorf in Penn- 
sylvania in 1742, and died after severe labor in Feb- 
ruar y, 17 45. 

BUTTON, SirTromas^ was employed in 1612 by 
the merohants of London to prosecute the discoveries 
of Heniy Hudson on the N.E. coast of North Ameri- 
ca. He was tiie first who reached the east ooast 
through Hudson's Strait With his two ships» Res- 
olution and Discovery, he passed the winter at the 
mouth of Nelson's River, west side of Hudson's Bay, 
lat 57^ 10% and showed extraordinary sagacity and 
tact in keeping up the health and spirits o? his crow. 
In tiie following summer he made some important 
discoveries northwards, and returned home in the 
autumn of 1613, but was not again employed. He 
was first patronised by Prince Henry, son of James 
I., and received the honor of kni^tlMod as a roward 
for his services. [J.B.3 

BUXTON, Jkdkdiah, a celebnted eaknlator^ 
about 1705-1775. 

BUXTON, Sir Thos. Fowkll, Bart, a distin- 
guished philanthropist and reformer in the same field 
of labw as Mrs. Fry, (his sister-fai-Uiw,) and Wil- 
berforce, 1786-1845. 

BUXTORF, JoHir, a oeL Hebraist^ 1564-1629. 
His son, of the same name, also distinguished as a 
Hebrow and classical soholar, 1599-1680. 

BUZOT, Frahcis Ltonabd Nicholas, a member 
of the Fronch convention, and one of the Qimidist 
party proscribed by Robespienre; b. 1760, fonnd 
dead after his escape to Bordeaux, 1798. 




BTFIELD, Natbanisi^ s nephew on his mothez^a 
ade of Bishop Jnxon, and son of Richard Byfield, 
one of the Westminster divines, was bom in 16{>d, 
endgrated to Boston in 1674, became one of the 
chief setders of Bristol, Rhode Island, and was jndge 
of the Tice-adminUij coort of Massachusetts, besides 
occiqtying oiher distingaished civil and military 
offices. He died in 177^ aged 79. 

BYLES, AUxBBB, DJ)., a ooogregatianal minis- 
tor of Boston, remarkable for his genius, wit, and 
literary attainments, was bom in 1706, and was 
gradnatod at Harvard in 1725. He became paster 
of the ehnich hi Hollis street^ Boston, m 1733. He 
wi^ not only eminent for eloqnenee as a preacher, 
and eleganoe as a prose writer, but by his poetical 
talents attracted the attsntSon and esteem of Pope, 
Laofldowne, and Watts^ together with other* men of 
genina and learning in Kngiand. In his ministra- 
tions he abstained on principle from all nolitioal 
preaching, which together with the fhct of nis con- 
tinning in Boston dniing the siege, receiving Bfitlsh 
officers into his hoase iad praying iat the king and 
the saibty of Boston, oooaaoned him in 1777 to be 
denonnced as a.toiy and sentenced to be transpcNrted 
to England, which, however, was not put in e&ct 
He married for his first wife a niece of governor 
Belcher, and for his seoond the dan^tor of lieuteo- 
ant^^vemor Taylor. His son of the same name, 
after being ordained as a congregational minister, 
joined the dfaureh of England in 1768, and officiated 
at Boston, while his Ikther was still pastor of the 
Hollis street church. The elder Bylee died in Bos- 
Ian in 1786^ at the 1^ of 82, and the youi^^ at St. 
Jothn's, New Bmnswiok, in 1814. 

B YlOT, Robt., a skflful and enterprising seaman, 
who made many voyages in Tarioos capacities with 
Hodsoo, Button, Baffin, &C., early in the 17th cent 

BYNG, the name of two English admirals; 
GsoBOa, com. in the Spanish war, 1663*1733. 
John, his son, exec for alleged cowardice, 1757. 

BYRAM-KHAN, a Mogul chie^ assassin. 1561. 

BYRD, WiLUAM, Gdonel, one of the commis- 
sioners fbr establishing the line between North 
Carolina and Virginia, in 1728. He was distin- 
gmshed for his wealth, munificence and Kteraiy and 
■u fo u U fic attainments, was member of the Royal 
Society, and owned one of the largest libraries then 
on tibe continent of America. To the French Plro- 
teatants, who arrived in Viiginia in 1699, when 
driven fixxn their country by perBeoutioo, he di»» 
phiyed the greatest liberally. A history of the 
drawing the line between Virginia and Carolina, 
published anonymously, is supposed to have pro- 
ceeded from his pen* He wrote also in the philo- 
iophioal transactions. His son of the same name 
served as cominissioner with the Indians aboot the 
year 1766^ and hi other public employments. 

BYROM, Db. J., ceL as a poetical humorist and 
frigitive prose writer, 1691-1768. 

BYRON, JoBir, second son of William, Lord 
Byion, was bom November 8, 1728. He weni out 
with Anson, as midshipman on board the Wager, 
and was wrecked on the west coast of S<mth 
America, about lat. 47°. An Indian Cadque con- 
veyed him and Ins companions, afUr thirteen 
months^ dreadful sufferings, to the island of ChUoe. 
Thence they made their way northwards, being 
treated by tiie Spaniards vrith the utmost kindness, 
though the nations were at war, chiefly in cons^ 
qnenoe of the fiune which had spread abroad re- 
gaidiDg Anson's loftily chivahrons behavior tcmrds 
aooM Spanish ladies whom he had made prisoners. 
* Byron's Nacntive' of the fuflsrin^ and adyen- 

tures of himself and his companions, published in 
1745, after he returned home, was one of the most 
interesting accounts of nautical adventures ever 
given to the world. Being constantiiy employed af- 
terwards, as weU in war as in peace, he pei%>nned 
many briUiant services, of which the most worthy 
of mention is the destruction of a French squadron 
in Chaleur Bay. In command of two ships he made 
a voyage to the South Sea in 1764. In 1769 he 
was made governor of Newfoundland. In 1778 he 
commanded a fleet in the West Indies, and soon 
after rose to the rank of Vice-admiral <^the White. 
He is bettor known, however, by the humbler title 
of commodore. He had a family of two sons and 
seven daughters, by Sarah, daughter of John Tre- 
vanion, Esq., of Cartrays, Cornwall, whom he mar- 
ned in 1748. Byron died in London, April 10, 
1786, enjoying to the last a well-earned reputatioiu 
Captain Byron, one of his sons, was fatho: of the 
poet, who thus oddly alludes to his ancestor's mi*- 
tbrtunes in describing those of one of his heroes :— 

* > "• • ■ ' b ts sniferings wore eouipsntive 

To these rslsted in mf grend-osd** namUivo.* [«1*B.] 

BYRON, Gboegx GoROOBr, Lord, was the de- 
scendant, and beoame the head of an ancient and 
noble famiiy. Commodore Byxon, the celebrated 
voyager, was his grandfather; and his father. Cap* 
tahi Byron, a profligate extravagant man, married 
Miss €k>rdon, an AlMrdeenshire lady of old descent. 
The poet was bom in Lond<m, on the 22d of Jan- 
uary, 1788. Two years afterwards, his father hav- 
ing fled from his creditors to tiie continent, where 
he soon died, Mrs. Byron Gordon sought at Aber- 
deen, a residence sidted to her scanty resources, 
which seem tohave been in no way aided by the then 
Lord Byron, her husband's uoade, a retired and de- 
^oodent man. In the course of the eight years 
spent in Scotland, she, a violent and mi^udging wo- 
man, acted as if it had been her aim to weaken all 
the good tendencies in her son's fine nature, and to 
asgravato all the bad ones. Capricious alternations 
ofseverity and indulgence cherished his herditary 
hastiness of temper, ud pampered hie proud wilful- 
ness into selfish defiance; a constant change d 
teachers, and of methods of teaching, cherished 
habite of desultoriness and inattention in the boy's 
studies. Byron was already a spoiled child, when, 
about the commencement c^ his eleventh year, his 
granduncle's death made him the possessor of the 
fiunily title and property.— His mother, left by the 
gpiardians to take ner own way, now spoiled him 
more than ever; while at the same time she sub- 
jected him to fruitless and tormenting operations, 
designed to remove the lameness whidb, caused at 
his birth, she had taunted him with from childhood 
in her fite of anger. Improvement, both in temper 
and industry^ began on his being placed in an excel- 
lent private school at Dulwioh; but the promising 
prospect was destroyed by his mother's constant in- 
terferences; and he remained at this jdace for no 
more than two years, and these broken by frequent 
and loi^ visite to home. He was next removed to 
Hanow, where, though somewhat rebellious, and a 
very careless student of the Classics, he was liked 
as a generous and epirited youth, and went through 
a good deal of miscellaneous reading. During his 
school days at Harrow, and before he had entered 
his eighteenth year, he formed an attachment which, 
thouff h doubtless poetiaed and magnified in his own 
imagination afterwards, was probably more genuine 
and ardent than any he felt in mature life. The 
lady was Miss Chaw(Mrth, two years older than him- 
aeU; the heiress cf estates in the neighborhood of 




Ms patrimonial maniion of Newstoad Abbey in 
Nottinghamshire, and tiie near relatiye of a gentle- 
man who had been killed in a duel hy the preceding 
Lord Byron. He haa immortaluaed her maniage 
and melancholy fate in *The Dream' and other 
poems. — ^Entered at Trinity College, Ganbridge, in 
the autnmn of 1806, he resided for two years. His 
career at the nniTcrsity was eccentric, proftise, and 
on the whole idle ; bat he read sealonsly when the 
humor seized him, acquiring a rerv considerable 
amount of stray knowledge ; and a few persons of 
talent, with whom he had become intimate, were 
quite aware that he was a young man of no ordinaiy 
promise. While he was still at the university, he 
cironlated privately copies of a thin volume of 
verses, which was prudently reserved for friendly 
readers and soon suppressed. But before the end 
of 1807, and when in his twentietli year, he was 
rash enough to fSiuse the public with the * Hours of 
Idleness,' a collection of poems, from the veiy best 
of which no one would have ventured to presage the 
strength he was soon to exhibit. This strength was 
brought to a point by the anger which the young 
poet felt at the £unou8 critidsm on his book in the 

< Edinburgh Review.* Studying the satirical poets 
as modeU^ and collectiug every available piece of 
ffossip that could point an ill-natured jest, he at 
lengtitL, in 1809, poured forth his wrath, all the 
warmer for thfi nursing he had given it, in his poeti> 
cal satire * English Bards and Scotch Reviewers.' 
Scurrilously personal, and indiscriminatingly con- 
temptuous of all the literary celebrities of tiie day, 
this poem showed powers which evidently wanted 
only maturity and ^ guidance to achieve very great 
things. — In the same year he embarked with Mr. 
Hobhouse on a two years' journey on the continent, 
in the course of which he visited the Peninsula, ex- 
tended his travels to Greece and Turkey, and, witii 
his poetical enthusiasm now fairly awakened, com- 
posed in great part the first and second cantos of 

< ChUde Harold's Pilgrimage.' The publication of 
these, in the spring m 1812, when he had just com- 
pleted his tweuty-fourth year, made him at once the 
most popular poet of the time. The few who had 
already learned to appreciate Wordsworth and Cole- 
ridge, found, in the new poet, a freedom both from. 
the affectations of the one and from the obscurities 
and eccentricity of the other; while there were 
united with these a poetic elevation and richness 
not exceeded by either. The popularity, again, 
which Scott had won, by the 'Lay,' ^Marmion,* and 
the * Lady of the Lake,' was already beginning to 
suffer from the satiety produced by bad imitations; 
and the Scottish minstrel's favor with the public 
waned rapidly, when Byron, deserting the medita- 
tive poetry of the * Pilgrimage,' adopted, like Scott, 
the seductive form of the metrical ipmance, and 
gave it the charm of novelty by choosing Turkish 
and Grrecian stories. In 1818 appeared his wildly 
striking figment 'The Oiaour,'and the more regu- 
lar * Bride of Abydos.' ' The Oorsair ' and its sequel 
'Lara,' followed in 1814, and were aocompanied by 
the * Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte.' In the beginning 
of 1816, the first and most characteristic series of 
Lord Byron's works was closed hy the appearance 
of *The Siege of Corinth ' and < Parisina.'— While 
he was thus building up his poetical fame, his do- 
mestic history underwent several changes, to which 
he was no way slow in inviting attention. * Childe 
Harold,' the sated voluptuary, seeking to refresh his 
sick heart amidst the magnificence of nature, but 
contemplating all things through the medium of a 
cynical and despondent philosophy, had been avow- 

edly presented as an idealized portrait of the young 
poet himself, bitteriy convinced, by a premature 
experience, of the hoKowneM of worldly pleasures, 
yet unable to discover any higher truths, in the 
contemplation and realization of which happiness 
might be attained. Till the publication of the ear- 
lier cantos of 'Childe Harold,' Byron's proud and 
sensitive spirit had been tempted to misanthropical 
discontent by the equivocal position he held in 
society, partiy through accidental circumstances, 
partly through the reputation of his youthful irreg- 
ularities. But the stamp thus imprinted on his 
earlier poetiy was too much in accordance with his 
natural temperament to be easily effaced. The ex- 
aggerated and theatrical exhibition of his own 
character, in the persons of his heroes, was repeated 
even in ^ose of his tales, which were written while 
he was the idol of fashionable society, and enjoyed 
the prospect of domestic happiness ; aiid when mis- 
fbrtune and opprobrium du*kened round him, the 
petulant rashness of ill-trained youth passed into a 
permanent mood of mori>id and haughty defiance, to 
which his later poems gave utterance with increas- 
ing eagerness and constancy. With as littie power 
as any great poet ever possessed, of observing w 
delineating the character and passions of other men, 
Byron was not true to nature, unless when he drew 
his materials firom within ; but his poetry, thus un- 
real and fantastic in aU its representations of human 
life, has the singular charm which belongs to the 
self-drawn image of a nature nobly endowed with 
the poetic elements of greatness, and vacillating in 
its moral aspect between the extremes o€ goodness 
and of eviL — ^In the autumn of 1814, after having 
passed some years in that round of extravagant and 
unsatisfying dissipation into which he had been 
initiated even in boyhood. Lord Byron married die 
daughter of Sir Ralph Milbanke. The marriage 
proved unhappy {or both parties, through causes 
which have never been clearly explained ; pecuniary 
embarrassments aggravated dissension ; and in the 
beginning of 1816, soon after the birth of a daugh- 
ter. Lady Byron quitted her husband's house never 
to return. Very soon afterwards Lord Byron left 
England, in whiuh he never again set foot. His first 
place of residence was in the neighborhood of 
Geneva, where the sublime scenery of Switzerland, 
and the society of the poet Shelley, co-operated in 
awakening his mind to an elevation and puri^ of 
poetic inspiration such as he never reached before or 
after. Here were written *The Prisoner of Chillon,* 
and the third canto of ' Childe Harold.' The in- 
fluence of Swiss landscapes lingered fondly in his 
imagination during the next stage of his travels. It 
gave birth to * Manfired,' which, with all its faults, 
ethical and dramatic, is perhaps richer in poetical 
imagery and sentiment Uuin any of his other works. 
In the end of 1816 he took up his abode at Venice, 
where he remained for three years, visiting Rome, 
and there gathering materiab for the fourth canto 
of * Childe Harold.' His residence at Venice was 
disgraced by low and gross debauchery; and il 
there was greater refinement, there was no real im- 
provement of morality, in a more lasting attach- 
ment which he next formed for the Countess Guic- 
cioli, and which is not recommended to our Eng- 
lish feelinffs or notions, even by the countenance 
vouchsafed to it by the lady's ntther and brother. 
In the beginning of 1820 Byron followed the 
countess and her family to Ravenna ; where, with 
them, he became engaged in political plot% which 
soon cau9ed his It^ian friends to be banished from 
the papal states. Pisa then became the abode of 




the partj. Ben Byioii receiTed Mr. aaid Mrs. 
Shelkjy and sftenrardft Mr. Leigh Hnnty and witii 
these GOA^Qtors attempted nnmcoessifiiUy the 
periodical called ' The Lib«aL' His poetical vein, 
however, flowed fireely daring his residence in 
Italy. Besides * Manfred' and the last canto of 
* Childe Harold,' sad several works which aie nni- 
veraaQy admitted to he poor, he then prodnced 
'Maseppa,' *The Lament of Tasso,' and his Dra^ 
matic Poemi^ of which, whfle 'Cain' ahomided in 
^ old leaven, the tragedies indicated, morally, 
thoogh not poetically, an inclination to rise into a 
hjgher and purer region. Other inclinations, how- 
ever, were hetrayed by a new class of poems, in 
which the strexigth and versatility of the poet^s 

Snins were strihmgly displayed. They were mo- 
Bed on the bariesqno poetry of the Italians, which 
had hardly been emulated in the English langnage 
exeept by Frere. Byron's first attempt in this path 
was ' Beppo,' and the ethical looseness of this lively 
peoe be»Euae ezagerated into open depravity, while 
It was aeoompanM at first by mnoh noble poetry, 
and always by much stinging wit, in the notcrioos 
cantos of 'Don Joan.' — ^That Byron was secretly 
weary of aimless profligacy, and eager lor opportn- 
nities of honorable action, may be inferred firom his 

wiOinffness to take part in the abortive Italian con* 
qiiraciea A more promising field was now opened 
to him, soon after the unfortnnate death of his friend 
Shelleyw The London Committee of Philhellenes re- 
quested him to take part in the emancipation of 
Greece ; and he enthuriastically accepted the invi- 
tation. He sailed from Genoa in July, 1828, and 
began his philanthropic exertions in the island of 
Cephalonia. In January, 1824, he landed at Misso- 
longhi, already laboring under Ulness, which he had 
aggravated by bathing in the sea in the course of 
his last voyage. Disappointments in the great ob- 
ject of his expedition gi^ered round him, and were 
bravely borne ; but his health was further ii^Jured 
by anxiety, and by repeated exposure to bad wea- 
ther in, an nnhealUiy climate. He died at Misso- 
longhi, of rheumatic fever, or its accompanjring 
inflammation ci Jie heart, on the 19th of April, 
1824, soon after having celebrated, in affecting 
verse% tiie completion of his thirty-sixth year. 


BYTHNEB, YicioRnnjs, an Oriental., d. 1694. 

BYWALD, Lifiop., an Aust med. wr., 1781-96. 

BYZANCE, L. Dk, an OrientaUst, 1641-1722. 

BZOVIUS, or BZOVSKI, Abbaham, a Polish 
scholar and ocdosiastical historian, 1567-1687. 


C AAB, or EAAB, Bbh Zokaib, an Arabian poet, 
at first disting. as the satirist of Mahomet, and af- 
terwards as Ins friend and eulogist, d. 622. 

CABADES, a king of Persia, 491-582. 

CABADES, a Sp. theologian, ckse of last cent. 

CABALLERO, Dosr Jobb Abtonio, Marquis De, 
a Spanish liberal and adherent of Joseph Buona- 
parte, bom about 1750; condemned to perpetual 
•xile by Ferdinand VIL in 1818; and recalled by 
the oonstitudonalists of 1820. 

CABALLERO, R. D., a Sp. histoiiai^ 1740-1820. 

CABANIS, PiBRBB JxAM GBosOBa, a very eel. 
physician and philosopher, belonging to a recent 
•ohool; much concerned with the events which 
tnariced the close of the last and the beginmng of 
the present centory in France. He was bom in Co- 
nae, in 1757, and died in Paris, in 1808. Cabanis 
was dosely associated with the greatest men of the 
Revolution ; it was he who gave Oondorcet that fatal 
doseof afroHUinmii through whose energy he escaped 
death by tiie guillotine ; Cabanis attended and minis- 
tered to Mirabeau during his last illness, and he was the 
favorite phyrician of Napoleon. Considerable inter- 
est stin attaches to the physiological and psycholo- 
aeal speculations of Caha^ ; whoever desires fnl* 
u»t acquaintance with the best compacted physio- 
logical theory of mind, must indeed betake himself 
to tins author. A thorough disciple of Condillac ; 
starting with it as an axiom tiiat all of our sensations, 
(see CoHDiLLAO and Lookb,)— he sprang at once 
to the physiological expression of that theory, viz : 
tiiat ihii^ or jovf is the secretion of vital organs — a 
result or phenomenon cf vital structure . *• It,'' says 
he, Condillae had known the animal economy better, 
he would have seen that tand is tk/itouUf^ not an ea> 
•rtoaoe.' Among the phynologksal schools prevailing 
daring the times in which he lived, the potition of 
Cabanis is apparentiy as follows. There are tkrm 
of these schools ; the Jbit dlsceras in the animal 
economy nothing save peculiar fikymoal phenomena, 
evohed by the ssone laws which rule inorganic se- 
quences; the moond admits that independentiy of 
physical phenomena, liftisasetofipecial actions, or 

consists of vital jinqperlMf; the IkirA, to which Caba- 
nis belonged, and which he represents, concedes that 
with material elements, some peculiar \itaX pnncipU 
has been conjoined. Although this principle did not 
in the mind of Cabanis have any relation with intel- 
ligence or reason, nevertheless the concession — far 
from insignificant in France at the time — seems gra- 
dually to have opened his mind to those more ad- 
vanced views expressed in his famous letter to M. 
Fanriel, in which he declares at least for the potnbi* 
Uhf of the existence of the moral system governed by 
tins principle, after the dissolution of the oraonism. 
The student will find enough to repay perasal in the 
works of Cabanis. His style is literary, distinct, 
and strong; and he has thrown much light on the 
really physiological and physical phenomena of our 
human nature. A good edition of his collected 
works has recentiy appeared in Paris. [J.P.N.] 

CABARRUS, Francis, Count De, Sp. minister of 
finance under Joseph Buonaparte, 1752-1810. 

CABELL, Samukl I., Lieut.-Colonel in the Ame- 
rican army during the Revolution ; was bora about 
the year 1757, in Virginia. He had not completed 
his studies when the war broke out, but abandoned 
them, and joining the army, served in every cam- 
paign until he was taken captive in 1780, at the 
surrender of Charleston. After the conclusion of 
the war he was a member of Congress, and died in 
1818, aged 61. 

Provencal poet, said to have been k., and his heart 
served up to his mistress, by her husband, 1 8th c. 

CABEZA DE VACCA, a Sp. naviga., ]6tii c. 

CABOT, Gboror, a Senator of the United States, 
bom in Massachusetts, in 1752. He was destitute 
of the advantages of early education, and spent his 
first years at sea, but he improved his time so well 
in observation and the acquisition of knowledge, 
that he became at the age of 25 a member of the 
Provincial Congress, which met at Concord, and de- 
voted the remalader of his life to politics, and com- 
mercial pursuits. His talents and sound principles 
won for him the approbation of Washington, of whom 



ba wai a firm upholder, and he coincided irith Ham- 
ilton in hu Tiem of Gnasce, at well ai in Ms aenti- 
menU reqMctiag tbe Fiench Rsrolatioti. He waa a 
brilliant conTenatioDalist, a man of genanl IntelU- 

ence, oT integri^, amiabiiitj utd nligiou piindple. 
I died In 1828 at the age of 71: 

CABOT, JoBH, the diKoierer of the Continent of 
America, wu a Venetian, who embarked (him Bris- 
tol in 1*87, with a oommisHon fimn Honry VIL to 
conquer and settle noknoirD lands, and find oat a 
norui-iTast passage to the East ladies. In latitude 
SB floating ioe compelled htm to porsne a more 
■onlhecly direotioD, and imthe 24tli oiF Jnne hecams 
in sight of some part of the coast of Nora Scotia or 
Neimumdland. He followed the line of coast to the 
north-eact dll he reached the latitude of 67}, when 
he changed his conrse to the south, and next saw 
luid in Florida. A mutiny, owing to the scarcity of 
provi^oas, now compelled him to go biok, without 
turning hit discOTary to any practical account, Co- 
lombaa did not Bee the coast of North America till 
the following year, bat as hla previous disooreries 
had prompted the voyage of Cabot, to him after all 
belongs the honor of having nnreiled the New World 
to the gaze of mankind. 

CABOT, SicBijniAB, the second son of John Ca- 
bot, vhcm he accompanied in the Toyage of liST, 
which resulted in the discovery of the new conti- 
nent. It was Mnne yeai« befo>« the delndon was 

dialled that a path to the East ladies lay direct 
Orer the western ocean, and Sebastian made another 
attempt to disoover this in IGIT. In ISSfi he en- 
tered into the serrioa of Ferdinand and Isabella, but 
with no better nccess than efiectiifg some disoorer- 
ies on the coast of Bnuil. For many yean headed 
■s chief {ulot, having the snperviaioa cS all projects 
designed by Spain to lay open the West to the ad- 
venturooa spirit of Enrope. He returned to Bristol 
towards the end of his life, and was patronlied by 
Edward TL The favorite enterprise of his latei 

Company was institnted. In 1683 he pohtislied 
folio volume, entitled ' N'avigatione nelle parte nt- 
trantianale,' and to him is ascribed the first discovery 
of the variation of the magnetic needle. He was one 
of the foremost men of the snteipiiidng aoe in lAiob 
lie lived. He died in IGST, at the age c^80. 

CABRAL, F., a Fortngnese misvonary, aothoi of 
'Loltert from Japan and China,' 1638-1609. 

CABRAL, Peobo Alvabbz De, was sent ont by 
the king of Portugal soon after the return of Vasco 
da Gamn, in oommand ^ a fleet of thirteen ship^ 

with 1,SKX) fl^tin^ men, and a mmiber of Fraodt- 
oan mcokt as mismonanes, with theottfect oftoaUng 
ssttlamenta in die Elast Indies. He was the Bnt who 
had the boldness to adopt the route now generaUj 
Gdlowed In order to reach the Cape without Inenr- 
ring the delays and dangers cf the coast voyage. 
His plan was to sail S.W. till he should gain the Is- 
titude of the Cape, and l^ns oroas the Atlantic twice. 
FiJlowing this ronto from the Cape Verde Island^ 
he came in sight of the coast of Braiil, about lat. 
10° a., onSdHay, IGOO. Coasting S. asfaraalat 
1T°, he took possesdmln name of hissoverdgn, and 
the cross then erected at Porto Swnro is sul pre- 
served. A ehip was sent home with the news; and 
althoofth Yanei Pinion had visited this coast on As 
part of Spain three months earlier, the clum thence 
derived was waived, and the eovereignty of Brsol 
secured to PortugaL In crossing to the Cape, Ca- 
bral lost four ships in a dreadful storm whidi lasted 
twenty days. With the rest be reaciied India, made 
some settlements, and ntonied in Jnly, 1601, wltli 
rich cargoes. Yet he was ooolly reoelved by his mas- 
ter, on aooount of the great loss of life which had 
been sustained, though without any fsnlt on the part 
of Cabral, who was nndoiibtedly a navigator of high 
abmty. [J.B.1 

CACCIA, Febd., an ItaL simal, lSS9-ITTe. 

CACCIA, QaoLnLMO, an ItaL paint., 1668-16IS. 

CACCINI, Gdiujo, a eomp. of muoc, d. 161fi. 

CACCINI, FnucKSCA, danf^ter of the preoed., 
• pDstess and mndcian of the I7th centoi;. 

CABALOUS, P., Inshqi of Parma, elected and- 
pope, nnderthelide of Honcdus H., 1061, 

CADA MOSTO, Auitaio De., a Veuedan gentle- 
man sent out by Don Henry ot Portugal, in 1444, 
with Vioento de Lagoa, and again in 1446, to ex- 
amine the coast rc^OD of W. Afiici, Heofterwsrdi 
published a vetv interesting account of Madeira, tha 
Canaries, and uw districts which he vidtod on the 
m^nlandasfaraatheGnlfofGulnea, by which he 
gidned some eebbril?. fJ.B.} 

CAUAMOSTO, H. A., an ItaL astrtn., 16th c 

CADE, John, the notorious rebel of the reign 
of Henry VI., ossamed tha name of Mivtimer, and 
appeared at the bead of 20,000 men, levied in Kent, 
in the beginning of June, 1460 ; entend London aa 
the 15th July, and after several reverses, became a 
fiigitive, and was slain at Holkfield, in Sussex, by a 
gtmtiaman named Alexander Idea, 

CADER-BILLAH, cali^ of Bagdad, 991-IOSS. 

CADET, J. M., a Coraoan geolops^ last cent 

CADET DE VAUX, AarsairT Aixxu, a FtenA 
■oo^ known as a writer on agriaaltoral eoeoamy, 
&c, 1743-1838. 



CADHUS, (he reputed fmnidei of Thebea, and 
inventor of the eariieat Oieek a^ihabeli supposed to 
have Bonrisbed In the 16th oentory imx 
CADHUS, a Greek historian, 6th oentmy b.0. 
CADOCUS, a Brit or Welch eocleaiast., d. 6S0. 
CADOG, a Welch baid of the 6th oenfauy. 
CADOGAN, WluuM, &nt eaH o^ distinsuiriied 
I companion in arms of the duke of Miolbor- 
lADOQAN, Wh., M.D., a medioal anthor, died 

CADOUDAL, GaoBOK, one of the chiefs In the 
insurrection* of 1a Vendee, executed fbr a co 
the fint oonsnl, 1 768-1804. 

ough, li 



CADWALADTR, Ciuil, • W«L post, lOth a, 

CADWALLADEK, Johm, genenU, u gScw io 
lli« Ajnerioui tnaj doling She RevoluCioa, appoinCad 
tcuadier-gBDenl in 17TT uhI (aa^ M tha bnttle* 
•£ Frincetoo, Brandjwina, Ckmnuitown uul Mon- 
mouth. Dansg the war ha fanght > duel with 
Genenl CoQwaj. Be diad in Uuylud in 1786, 

CADWALLADES, Tuos^ > nedical «attwr, dM 

CADWALLADER, Tbomah, M.D., bd eminent 
phjiicion of PhiUdBlphia, itteohed to tlie PtmiiyU 
TaniB Hospital, aod one i^ tb» eartiMt mediiml nuo 
vho pnictued dliuctioa in Amaiiaa. He pnbUihsd 
in 1715 an ' Etanj on the Wart India Diy Griper' 
He died at PhUadalphia in IzfS, aged 73. 

G£C1LIUS, SiAUDi, a comio poet, Zd o. S.C 

CAUL'S AUKEUANL'S, ■ Gr. ftijK, ad ct. 

C£SALFINUS, Amdu, a celebrated boUulrt, 
waa bora at Areizo in Tonany ia 1619. He died at , 
EomainlSOa. Desliusd ior the m»iical prafeaaioo, 
lie na edncatad nnder Luke Ghiuep, at the lime di- 
rector at the pnblio gordena at Piu. It wai tbii 
uadoobtedly which gave him nch a lor* foe that 
branch of itodj bj vfaic^ hii aaiBe ii uoM fkvora- 
bly known to poilerity. Ailer leaching medioins 
kud botanj at Plaa, he wat invited to Kame, woi 
made phjnciao to pope Clement VIII., and dected 
protflov of medioiDe at tbe college of Sapiaoia. His 
medical and pbikieophical work*, of which he wrote 
a considerable Dnmb«r, are aeUan now looked into ; 
•nd were it not tat hli book ' On Planti,' the name 
of CKBalpinna woqld probably eie thi« have bem for- 
gotteo. Previoaa to hi* time natnraliMa had etodied 

Disti. C«n]pian« wa« the Gnt who Uadied tbem 
according to natore ; and die pabliation of hi* lya- 
tem, though Tery imperfect, forma a deddad era in 
tbe itudy of botaof. His method wai foutded upon 
tbe part* of fructificalion and tlks fferminaEion of tlie 
j^ant ; and hi* obeeiraticms npon these two snbjeota 
have laid the fooudation for tlie natural aTrangemant 
«f plant! formed on the diSennCM of the co^Iedon, 
and the laian artiGcial divitiune of Liniuani drawn 
£ram tlieir nzual diidnotiana. Eay, Totmefort, and 
LioDiBa*, onite in ^viog htm peat credit for hi* bo- 
tanical knowledge, and are not above acknowledging 
the OMictance they derived from him in their ey»- 
tenu of botany. Id hi* work 'Da Flanks,' C«ul- 
inm*, aHMBgA other thinga, shows that he had a 
tolerably good idea of the oircnlation of tha bkiod. 
Indeed a knoaledg* far beyond the age In which 
he lired, U Ibe gi^ind charaetenatie of Cntalpimu. 

C£SAH, AtxiiL. J., a Gr. anori, 1730-1792. 

C£SAB, Caidb Jduds, the dictator, waa bom on 
Ibel2thaf Jal;,B.c.IOO. Coonected by biith with 
Marini, and afterward* I7 maniag« wHhCinna, he 

It par^ kd, pvhapa, to that arttled 
porpose <^ breaking the power of Ibe aiutoontieal 
party, which he oheriabed Iran hia Snt appearance 
in pobllc life. At an earij age be diitingaiibed 
hinweif both in the oanp and in the Gmuo 1 and bad 
be devoted hia great mind to the study of cJoqoence, 
bo would, donhtlei^ have bem a fcsniid^le rival of 
hie great contemporair Cicero. At the age of 
tw«uiy-tbiee, (bxl 77,) be m^de Ua lint afpramux 
in the fonun a* a pnUic accuser ; and though forced 
ibr ecoiB lime by m* yootti to act a anboidinate part, 
be Meadily kept in new the gmnd olgect whioh ha 
had piopond to bimiif^ and latd ereiy meani to 

increaae hi* ^lapnbtrity. 
Spun, K.C. SS, WH elected Kdile for b.c 66, and In 
the foUowing year wa* made pontifex maximiia at 
the age of tUrty-tii. When pnetor-elect in b.c. G3, 
dniing the famoiu Ca^linarian oonspiracy, hli avoffod 
hoatihty to tbe ariatocracy excited a snsjricion tliat 
he wai himself privy 10 It, bat no proof wu adduced 
even by his enemies. In the following year be ob- 
tained the province of Kiuther Spain, and there fint 
displayed niat genius for war which has entitled him 
to be ranked among the greatest general* of the 
world. Retuming to Rome in B,c. 60, he found 
Poropey ready to deaert the aristocracy ; and having 
*accMded in effecting a reconciliation between him 
and CrasSBS, be formed with them the coalidon 
which ia known in history aa the First Triumvirate. 
By the influeooe of his new friend* he was elected to 
the oonanlihip for B.C. 59, and, while in office, ob- 
tained the prcrvinoaa of TVansaljdne Gaul, Ciaalpin* 
Qaoi, and lUyrioum, with *ix legions, for Bve years. 
Having thut obtained the command of an army, and 
the management ol aq important war, he proceeded 
to prepare himself iiiT the stmggls which be Ibreaaw 
wa* impendiag at Rome. Hi* lield of operatiaD af- 
fbrded him peculiar advantages ; the Gaul* were tbo 
horeditaiy enemioi of the Romans, and the gloiy of 
mbdning them conld not fail to increase his popu- 
larity ; while the oppoitunity of passing the winter 
in the oarA of Italy enabled him to watch the pro- 
oeeding* of partiea in tbe capitaL Durii^ tbe next 
nine yean he was occupied in the subjugatiiHi of 
TranaalpinB Gaul; having also twice (b.c S5 and 
54) landed in Britain, and received the submisuon 
of the inhatutanta of the southern portion of Iha 
island. The inMrval of Cseaar's abeence from Rome 
had pTOdmied a great change in ^e itste of pattie*^ 
Pompey, jeaiout of the fame of a man to whoee ele- 
vation be had mainly oontribnted, had efibcted a 
reconciliatjoa with the aristocratical party ; and, 
aided by their support, retolved to crush the coo- 
qoeror of GanL Accordingly in b.0. 4S, a decree c^ 
Uie senate was passed, 'that C»aur ihould disband 

[X46 J 


the predominiuit part/ nlying on tbe inflaeuce of 
Ponipey, to whom tbo mnnngement of the coDtert 
Iiad been intnuted. But the feeliogs of the armj 
were entiralj with CieaiLr ; and he, finding that hie 
men were reodj to follow him, cro«»od the Ruhicon, 
which aeparnted his province from Ital;, and thna 
commenced the civil w&r, the iune of whir^ invested 
bim with dictntorial power. Tn three month! bo 
mocle himself master of the whole of Italy. Pro- 
ceeding next to Spain, the itronghold of Pom;>e}', he 
rednced it M enbjectian ; and ader jAanng a short 
time in Italy, fiillowed bis opponent into Greece, uid 
brooght the contest to a fitio] iune on the plains of 
Phartalia, 4th Aug., b.c 4B. The battle of Phar- 
■nlia decided the Fate of the Roman empire : Pompej 
fled to EgTpt, bnt was murdered as he landed od the 
coast ; and Cffisur, who foUowed him, speedily 
qoashed all oppoaitjen in the eastern portion of the 
empire. After e short reeideuce in Rome in B.C. 47, 
he proceeded to AAica to prosecnte the war agaioat 
Scipio and Cato, who had there eoUected a large 
ftnny, and BnoJlj bronght it to a close on the 6th of 
Api^ B.C. 46, by the battle of Thapsni, in which 
the Pompeion par^ were completely defeated. In 
hi> abNDCe Casein had been etedad dictator for ten 
years ; and his return to Rome was siftaaliied by 
ronr magniBcent trinrnphs. Devoting himself now 
to the dntiea of a legisbitor, he oonected varioos 
abuses which hod crept into Che state; reformed the 
calendar, thereby conferring a real beneSt on the 
civilized world ; and exercised hiB nnlimited power 
with a degree of moderation which affected even his 
enemies with surprise. Bnt his career was destined 
to be §hort : a cDnspirocy against hii life wan formed 
at the beginning of B.C. 41 ; and on the Ides, or 
loth of March, he perished by the hands of assassins 
in the senate house, in the fittietb year of his age. 
As a warrior, a statesman, and a man of letteis, 
Cnsar was one of the most remarkable men of any age. 

C.tSAR, Sm Jouna, a dirtingoished lawyer, 

C^SARIUS, a dist abbot of the 6th oent 

CJSARIUS, John, a Gennan physician and pro- 
fessional teacher of philosophy, born at Jnliera 1460, 
died at Colo^ 16SI. The best known of his wrl' 
tiDgs are hii notes on Celsgs, and liis edition of 
Plin/s Natural History, bnt be is the anthor of trea- 
tises on dialectics oud rtietoric, now almost forgot- 
ten. He snfl^red much peraeontion for Lntheraniim, 
bat retamed again to the oathotic church. 

CAFFA, McLCBiOB, an Italian aculptor, 1681- 

publican general, bom 1756, killed at St. Jeai 
D'Acn, 1799. His brother Cb. Ahdbose, a philos. 

wr., 1768-1826. 

CAFFIAUX, J., a wr. on malic, ke., 1712-1777. 

CAFHERI, P., an omamen, ortiBt, 1634-1716. 

CAGLIARI, FiaLO, commonly called Faou> 
Vesokebe, was bom at Verona in 1638. He was 
the pnpQ of his nncle Aotonio Badile, and having 
earned considerable reputation in Verona azid its vi- 
cinit;, seeded finally in Venice, where he was the 
rival orHtian and llntoretto, and where he died in 
1588. Paul Veronese may be aooonntod among the 
Grst of the machimil painters, many of his works 
being little moie than ornamental schemes, such as 
the celebrated ' Marnoge at Cana ' in the Louvra, 
containing 120 figures, or portions of figures, of the 
□atural sixe. The magnificeut architectural back- 
gronods to some of these works are said to have been 
execnted by his bnther Benedetto Cagliaii. The 
St Nicholas in the National Galleij, though small, 
is a £ne example of his style : the chief attraction 
of his pictnies is their gay and rich coloring ; they 
are fortber diitinguished for their great freedom of 
execution, bnt are often careless in drawing, and for 
the most part purely capricious in costunje. — (Ri^ 
dolfi, Marariglie delt Artt, Sic ; Zanetti, DeOa Httna 
Vmaia-n, &cj pi.N.W.] 

CAGLtOSTRO, AixxAxatR, Count, the assumed 
name of Joseph Balsamo, the most notorious char- 
latan of modem times, 174S-1796. 

CAGNOLA, a ceL Ital. architect, 1T62-1888. 

CAGNOLI, Aifm., an ItaL astron., 1743-1816. 

CAGNOLO, JER., an Ital. hiwyer, 1493-1551. 

CAHER-BILLAH, Abasside caliph, 983-960. 

CAILLAU, J. H., a medical and poetical writer, 
anthor of a great nomber c^ professional memoirs, 

CAILLE, Nicholas Loois Db La, a French math- 
ematician and astronomer, 1718-1763. 

CAILLIE, a yonng and enterprising Frenchman 
who penetrated from Senegambia to Timbnctoot in 
1627-28, among the first to visit that part of central 
Africa. He retomed across the great desert to 
Morocco, bnt his discoveries were not 

previous tr 

'. [J.B.1 

CAILLEAN, A. C, a Frencfi au., 1731-1798. 

CAILLOT, a eel. French actor, 1732-1816. 

CAILLT, J. Dk, a French poet, 1604-1678. 

CAIN, the eldest son of Adam and Eve. 

CAINAN, the son of Enos. Gen. v. 9 ; the sam« 
name is pvea as a son of Arphaiad, Lake iii. 86. 

CAINKS, GiKiHoB, author of Lex Mercatoiia 
Americana, published in 1802, and other works on 
law J was reporter of the Supreme Court of New 
York. He died in 1826, at the age of 64. 

CAUPHAS, high priest of the Jews, 29-37. 

CAIUS, or GAIUS, a Roman lawyer, 3d cent. 

GAIL'S, MuTica, a Roman architect, 100 B.C 

CAIUS, procouBut of Asia, time of Angnitus. 

CAIUS, an ecclesiastic of the 3d century. 

CAn;S, a Roman saint, pope, 288-296. 

CAJETAN (TuoB. Dk Vio, caniinal), so called 
from his birth-plaoe, Gaeta, in Latin Ci^jeta, was 
born io 1469. At the age of tweoty-nino he pub- 
lished a noted book in defence ef the papal preroga- 
tive as to the colling of general coimciLs, and was 
in consequence raised saccesiively to the biihoprick 
of Qaeta and the ainhbishoprick of Piio. In 151S 
he was created cardinal. As the papal legate, he 
net Luther at Augsburg, and was sigiially outwitted 




by the reformer. Ciyetan relied on philosopliy and 
Peter Lombard, bnt Lather appealed to the Bible 
and St Paul. The cardinal's last years were spent 
in writing learned commentaries on the scholastic 
philosophy, and on many books of Scripture. He 
died in 1534. [J.E.] 

C ALA^IAN, the name of two ks. of Bulgaria ; the 
iira, reign. 1242-5 ; the 9eo(md^ sue and k. 1258. 

CALAMIS, an Athenian sculptor, 5th cent. b.c. 

CALAMY, EoMuxD, a presbyterian divine, m^n- 
ber of the Westminster Assembly, &c., 1600-1656. 
His son of the same name, minister of a private 
chnrch in Cripplegate, 1685-1685. Besijamik, son 
of the last named, a celebrated preacher, prebend of 
St. Paul's, died 1686. EoaicND, nephew of Benja- 
min, a celebrated nonconformist and polemic, 1671- 

CALANDRINI, J. L., a Swiss phiL, 1703-1758. 

CALANUS, an Indian phiL, time of Ale^cander. 

CALAN^rS, a bishop of Hungaiy, 12th century. 

GALAS, John, a victim of reli^inoas fanaticism, 
executed for the alleged murder of his sou, 1762. 

CALAVIO, Mahcode, a Heb. schoL, 1550-1620. 

CALCAGNINI, Coeuo, an Italian officer, di^tin. 
as apolitical agent and man of letters, 1479-1541. 

CALCRAFT, John, M.P. from 1796 to 1831, 
when he gave the easting vote in favor of the Re- 
form Bill, and shortly afterwards committed suicide. 

CALDARIC, L. M. A., an ItaL auat., 1725-1313. 

CALDAS, F. J., a Sp. naturalist, and patriot of 
New Granada, put to death by Murillo, 1816. 

CALDERON DE LA BARCA, Pedro, the Shaks- 
peare of Spanish literature, wa^ bora at Madrid, of 
a noble family, in 1600. Af^er having o mpleted 
his studies, he was for some time attached to the 
court ; after which he served for several campaii^s 
in the Low Countries and in Italy. He had already 
become famous as a dramatic poet, when in 1636 he 
was called to Madrid by Philip IV., a patron of let- 
ters, and himself a play-writer. From this time he 
was fixed at the court, and produced dramas with 
incessant rapidity. After he had reaohed his fiftieth 
year he took holy orders, and now buried himself 
oftene«t in composing dramatic pieces on sacred sub- 
jects. His life was spent in an affluence and popu- 
larity very unlike the fate of Cervantes, and did not 
close till he was very old. He died in 1681 at ear- 
liest, and perhaps some years later. — Calderon was 
neither the founder of the Spanish drama, nor in 
any re.spect an improver of its forms or ideas. It 
had been completely developed before the death of 
Lope de Vega, which happened while Calderou was 
still young. But he brought to it both a wealth of 
fancy, an intensity of feeling, and a fertility and 
dexterity of invention, which were not paralloled by 
any other Spanish dramatist, and hardly by those 
of any other country. Full scope was given for his 
powers by the structure of the Spanish drama, in 
which the irregularities of the old Enrrlish school 
were not equalled merely, but far outdone. As a 
painter of character he has little either of strength, 
of precision, or of accurate observation; he is 
neither a master of human nature nor a poet of the 
highest order, while Shakspeare was both ; and, in- 
deed, the lyrical cast of all his works gives them the 
air of dramatic poems rather than of poetic dramas. 
Bnt, within his own circle of thought and sentiment, 
be treads with a vigorous and elastic step; and 
there are few poets that have stronger attractions 
for minds keenly alive to the poetical and the 
roouintic. — Calderon*s dramas are said to have 
amounted to not fewer than five hundred ; a surpris- 
ing number (though not more than a fourth of 

Lope's), and a number which precluded the possi- 
bililT of deliberate care in cons^ction. The prin- 
cipal of those which have been preserved are 
distributable into three groups. The first contains 
his comedies of familiar life, the ' Comedies of Cloak 
and Sword,' as they were called in Spain. These 
are equally renuurkable for their grace and fluency 
of dialogue, and for their poetic beauty; for the 
liveliness and interest which animate the stories of 
the best of them, their general ingenuity in atuation 
and incident, and the equivocal morality and singu* 
lar violations of good taste which prevail in them 
all. From among them may be named, * The Faiiy 
Irfidy,' * Welcome Evil, if it come Alone,' and * Give 
Time to Time ! ' The second division consists of the 
Heroic Comedies, among which are to be found some 
of the very finest and most dignified of his works. 
His master-piece u usually held to be one of these, 
' The Constant Prince,' which represents with pro- 
found pathos the self-sacrifice of Don Fernando of 
Portugal, in an unsuccessful expedition into Bar- 
bar^'. The ^ Heracliu^' became famous in France, 
Corneille having been asserted to have imitated it. 
The singular play, called ' Life is a Dream,' unites 
poetical imagination with melancholy reflectiveness 
in a way which imparts to it a charm altogether 
peculiar. The third class of Culderon^b dramas 
embraces his Religious Pieces, or * Sacramental 
Acts' (Autos Sacramentales), compositions which 
bear a strong renemblanco to our own miracle-plays 
of the middle ages, and are, like them, deformed by 
fantastic extravagances of religious opiiiion and 
feeling. Some of them, however, are beautifully 
poetical. One of the most characteristic, held also 
by some critics to be the best, is * The Devotion of 
the CrosM,* a strange farrago of the wildest super- 
natural inventions, and tlie most impractioally- 
motived exhibitions of human conduct, but breath- 
ing a pot'tic spirit which is wonderfully impressive. 
One of its main incidents is the legend of one dead 
man shriving another, which hal beeu used in a 
narrative poem of Lidgate, our old monk of Bury. 

CALDERWOOD, David, one of the founders of 
Presbyteriiuiism, banished for his opposition to Epis- 
copacv, died 1651, 

CALDWALL, Rich., an Eng. phy., 15 13-1585. 

CALDWELL, Chaklrs, an American physician, 
medical writer, and professor of the Medical College 
at Lonisville. Died 1853, aged 90. 

CALDWELL, Elias Bouiunot, one of the chief 
promoters of the American Colonization Society, 
and clerk of the Stipreme Court of the United 
States. Died at Wasliington in 1825. 

CALEB, a patriarch of the Jews, 15th cent. B.C. 

CALEF, RoBT., author of a book entitled, *More 
Wonders of the Invisible Worid,* in opposition to 
Cotton Mather's * Wonders of the Invisible World,' 
advocating the witchcraft delusion. It was burned 
in the College yard at Harvard, by order of Increase 
Mather, in 1 700, and its author rendered very un- 
popular by his manful defence of the truth. He died 
in 1719. 

CALEyii:S, Walter, a Welch hist,, 12th cent. 

CALETTl, GiusEi'PK, an Ital. paint, d. 1060. 

CALHOrX, John Ewing, United States senator 
from South Carolinji, and cousin of John C. Cal- 
houn, was born in 1749, and educated by his uncle, 
Patrick Calhoun. lie graduated at Princeton in 
1774, and addicted himself to the law. After serv- 
ing in the legi.nlature of South Carijlina he was 
elected to the Senate of the United States in 1801, 
but died in November of the following year at the 
age of 52. He was a man of eloquence ar^^ great 


[148 1 


hidepondence of character, which he mAnifested in 
his brief career in the Senate \>j voting agunst his 
party, and with the federalists in the contest for the 
modification of the judiciary system of the U. S. 

CALHOUN, John Caldweu^, Vice-President of 
tile United States, was bom at Long Cane at Abbe- 
ville district, S. C, on the 18th March, 1782. His 
father, Patrick Calhoun, was a native of Ireland, 
but emi^ated with his parents to Pennsylvania in 
1783. From thence the family removed to the 
west of Virginia, bijt being driven away by the In- 
dians after the defeat of Braddock, they settled in 
South Carolina on the borders of the Cherokee ter- 
ritory. Before the Revolutiouaiy war Patrick com- 
manded a body of rangers raised for the defence of 
the frontiers against the Indians, and afterwards 
took an active part in the struggle for independence. 
He was for many years a member of the legislature 
of South Carolina, and died in 1796. The future 
statesman remained at home some years after his 
father^s death, but in 1802 was sent to Yale College, 
where he was graduated in 1804. He then entered 
the law school at Litchfield, Conn., and having com- 
pleted his studies returned home and was admitted 
to the bar in South Carolina. His great abilities as 
a public speaker immediately designated him for 
public life, and in 1808 he was chosen to the legisla- 
ture of his native state, in which he so distinguished 
himself that in 1811 he was sent to Congress. From 
that period until his death he was mixed up with all 
the great events and questions which attracted pub- 
lic attention. After remaining six years in Congress 
he was in 1817 appointed Secretaxy at War by 
President Monroe, and in 1825 was elected Vice- 
President of the United States. He was in the 
Senate from 1881 to 1848, when he became Secre- 
tary of State. In 1845 he was agun returned to 
the Senate, of which body he continued a member 
till his death, which took place at Washington, on 
the 3l9t of March, 1850. As a public speaker Cal- 
houn occupies the foremost rank among the great 
orators, not of America merely but of the world. 
His diction was remarkable for the absence of orna- 
ment and metaphor, and for its clear, terse and logical 
compactness. Avoiding all discursiveness of the 
imagination, his speeches are characterized by a 
salient pressure to the point, and a fiery veliemence 
of dogmatic argumentation unbroken in its flow. 
His whole mind and soul were given to politics. In 
earnestness he was never surpassed by even a reli- 
giaus devotee. Ho was from first to last the unbend- 
Rig advocate of State rights, but though his views 
were extreme, and his expression of them fearloits, 
he retained till death the respect and esteem of the 
whole country, which knew his integrity and admired 
his independence. 

CALIDASA, an Ind. dram., supposed Ist a d.c. 

CALIGNON, S. De, a political writer and histo« 
rian, chancellor of Navarre, 1560-1606. 

CALIGULA, a tyrant of Rome, whose proper 
name was Cains Csesar Augustus Germanicus, was 
the son of Germanicus and Agrippina, and began 
his reign at the age of 25, a.d. 37. After reigning 
happily a few months, he suffered from a fever, 
which is supposed to have affected his mind. Four 
years of the most revolting excesses followed this 
misfortune, when a conspiracy was formed against 
him, and he was assassinated. 

CALIPPUS, a Ger. mathematician, 4th ct b.c. 

CALIXTUS, the^, pope of Rome, 21^222; 
Uie second, 1119-1124; the third, 1455-1458. 

CALIXTUS, G., chf. of a prot. sect., 1686-1656. 

CALL, J. Van, a Dutch engraver, 1655-1708. 

CALLCOTT, John Wall, Ihe son of Thomas 
Callcott, bricklayer and builder, was bom at Ken- 
sington, Gravel-pits, in the county of Middlesex, on 
the 20th of November, 1766. At a very cariy age 
he gave indications of that love of literature, and 
forue acquisition of knowledge, which distinguished 
him in his after life. At seven years of age be was 
sent as a day-boarder to a neighboring school, where 
he remained five years, made considerable progress 
in the lAtin language, and commenced the study of 
Greek. He acquired the first rudiments of music 
from Heniy Whitney, organist of Kensington church, 
to whom he was introduced in the year 1778. In 
1779 he began to practice upon the ^innet, with 
the view or becoming an organist In 1780 he 
learned to play npon the clanonet, and made his 
first essay in musical composition. In the mean time 
he continued to improve himself in classical learn- 
ing, and acquired a knowledge of French, Italian, 
and German, and made an attempt to master the 
Hebrew and Syriac languages, while mathematics 
and algebra also occupied his attention. About the 
year 1782 he became intimate with Drs. Arnold and 
Cooke, whom he always regarded as his first patrons. 
In 1783 he obtained the situation of aasistant organ- 
ist at the church of St. George the Martyr, which 
he held till 1786. At this time his musical composi- 
tions were both numerous and varied ; ^*3t the con- 
nections he had formed induced him to make glee- 
writinsr his particular study. His first glee, *0 
Sovereign of the Willing Sonl,' was written in the 
year 1784. In 1785 he obtained three medals from 
the Catch Club, tor a catch, a canon, and a glee. 
In the same year he took his degree of Bachelor in 
Music, and in 1786 be had two medals awarded him 
by the Catch aub. In 1787, Drs. Arnold and Call- 
cott established the Glee Club, which has ever since 
continued to form one of the most attractive musical 
societies in London. In this year be was admitted 
among the honorary members of the Catch Club, 
and received two medals. In 1789, and every year 
till 1798 inclusive, he obtained all the four medals 
by the club, and took his place as the most popular 
gloe-writer of the day. In 1789, as colleague with 
Mr. Evans, he entered up<Mi the office of organist at 
St Paul's, Covent Garden, which ntnation he held 
until the church was destroyed by fire six years af- 
terwards. In 1790 Haydn arrived in England, and 
Callcot became one c^ his earliest pupils; and in the 
same year he took his degree of Doctor in Music at 
Oxford. In 1791 Callcott was married, and on that 
occasion be wrote the words and music of his glee, 
^Triumphant Love;' and the following year was 
app<Mnted organist in the chapel <^ Female Orphans, 
which place he held till 1802, when be resigned in 
favor of Mr. Horsley. In 1797 he commenced to 
collect materials for a musical dictionaiy, which was 
never published, but which led to the publication of 
his musical grammar, which appeared in 1805. 
Shortly after this he was appcunted to succeed Dr. 
Crotch, as lecturer at the Royal Institution, but his 
life of arduous and unremitted study weakened his 
mind, which at length sank under the burdens he 
had laid too heavily npon it He died on the 15th of 
May, 1821. Dr. Callcott was one of the brightest 
ornaments of the British school of music, and he had 
the strongest claim to esteem and reverence as a 
man. His works are well known to all glee clubs^ 
but are much too numerous to be mentioned by 
name here. A fine selection of his glees, edited by 
his son-in-law, William Horsley, Mus. Bac., Oxon, 
waa published in 2 volumes hi the year 1824. 





GALLCOTT, Sni A« W., R. A., ddett brother of 
the composer, dUdngoished as a landscape painter, 

CALLCOTT, Ladt Maria, wife of the preceding, 
an&or of several works of travel, a bistoiy of Spain, 
&c, 1779-1842. 

CALLENDAB, James THOMPaoH, a political wr. 
in the interest of Jefiferaon* Editor of die Recorder 
and Political Register, and author of * Political pro- 
f^ress of Britain 1795', and * Sketches of American 
lii^tory 1798.' He distingoished himself hj his bit- 
ter assault on the administration of Washington. He 
was drowned, while bathing at Richmond, Va., in 
Jul/, 1803. 

CALLEND AR, Johx, a Baptist minister of New- 
port, and anthor of a historical discourse on the 
eolony of Rhode Island, &om 1687 to 1788. He died 
in 1748, aged 41. 

CALLET, J. F., a Fr. mathemat., 1744-1798. 

CALLETT, A. F., a Fr. painter, 1741-1823. 

CALLIMACHUS, archi. of Corinth, 6th c. b.c. 

CALLIMACHUS, a Gr. poet, and hist 8d c. B.a 

CALLINICHUS, a Gr. rhetorician, 3d cent b.c. 

CALLINUS, a Gr. orator and poet, 8th cent. b.c. 

CALLIPUS, a phiL of Athens, assass. 851 b.c. 

CALLISTHENES, a Gr. phiL, the disciple and 
grand-nephew of Aristotle, and one of the aaoanta 
who accompanied Alexander into Asia, 365-828 b.c. 

CALLISTRATUS^ an Athen. orator, 4th ct b.c. 

CALLYf PiE2SH, a French Catholic divine, dirt, 
for his controver. and philosoph. writings, d. 1709. 

CALMET, AuovsnNE, was bora in 1672, near 
Commercj. After studying at Breuil and Port-lb 
Musson, he entered the order of Benedictines, assum- 
ing the vows finally in 1689. Afterwards he was 
removed to MOnster as sub-prior. For a short time 
he held the prioiy of St Lay, and he was abb4 of 
St. Leopold of Nancy when he was removed to 
Senonea, where he died in 1757. Calmet was a 
biblical scholar of no mean pretensions and acquire- 
meuts, as is shown by his Cammentaire LiUeralj by 
his Diclktmain de la BtbU, and by many disserta- 
tions on biblical subjects. His dictionary is well 
known in various English translations and abridg- 
ments, the most famous of the former being that of 
C. Taylor, in 5 volumes quarto. [J.E.] 

CALMO, Andrea, a Venet. poet, 1510-1571. 

CALO, John, a chief of Bulgaria, 13th cent. 

CALOGERA, Father, a phiiolog., 1699-1768. 

CALONNE, Charles Alexandre Ds, con- 
troUer-genenl (or finance minister) of the French 
government from the fall of Necker, 1788 to 1787. 
His name is chiefly memorable as the last of the 
plodding, intriguing, accommodating, and unprin- 
cipled statesmen by whom the French monarchy 
was hurried to the declivity of the revolution ; and 
especially for his daring experiment of assembling 
Uhe notables' on the 22d of February, 1787. In- 
stead </ extricating him from his difficulties, this 
measure really proved the signal of the revolution, 
as it did of Caionne's disgrace and exile. He was 
bora at Douai, 1734, and educated for the law^^ which 
he dishonored by his treacherous conduct to hu client 
La Chalatois. He is tiie author of numerous politi- 
cal works and financial memoirs, the best of which 
may be his * Tableau de I'Europe in November, 
1795.' Buonaparte permitted him to return to 
France in 1802, where he died on the SOtii of Octo- 
ber, about a month after his arrival, C^-^] 

CALPHURNIUS, J., a Greek scholar, 15th c 

CALPRENEBE, Walter Ds CosTBa, lord of La, 
a Fe. novelist aod dramatic poet, d. 1663. 

CALPURNIUS, TiTOB J., a Latin poet, 8d o. 

CALVERT, Denis, a Dutch paint., 1565-1619. 

CALVERT, Frederic, seventh Lord Baltimore, 
author of a * Tour to the East,' &c., d. 1771. 

CALVERT, George, secretary of state to Jamos 
L, first Lord Baltimore and founder of Maryland, d. 

CALVERT, Benedict, goveraor of Maryland, 
from 1727 to 1732. He resigned from ill health, 
and died on his passage to England. 

CALVERT, Frederick, baron of Baltimore, and 
proprietor of Maryland, author of a tour in the East, 
and Gaudia Poetica, Lintina, Anglica et Gallica, 
died at Naples, in 1771. 

CALVERT, George Sir, baron of Baltimore, was 
born in England in 1582, and graduated at Oxford, 
in 1597. After travelling in Europe, he was made 
clerk of the Privy Council under James I., through 
the friendship of Sir Robert Cecil. In 1619 he was 
appointed one of the secretaries of state, and receiv- 
ed a pension from the king of ^£1,000 per annum. 
His adoption in 1824, of Roman Catholic principles, 
seem rather to exalt him in the royal imvor, for he 
was received into the Privy Council, and created 
baron of Baltimore in Ireland, in 1825. He also re- 
ceiveda patent as proprietor of the south-eastern ex- 
tremity of Newfoundland, but being annoyed by the 
FVench, abandoned it, and visited Virginia. .Finding 
his creed displeasing to that colony, he fixed on the 
unoccupied territory north of the Potomac, and ob- 
tained a grant of it from Charles I., but died in Lon- 
don, in 1632, at the age of 50, before the completion 
of the patent, which was granted to his son Cecil in 
the same year, and the colony called Maryland, from 
Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles L 

CALVERT, Leonard, tiie first goveraor of Mary- 
limd, was brother of Cecil, baron of Baltimore, the 
proprietor by whom he was sent as head of the co- 
lony in 1633, accompanied by his brother George 
and two hundred Roman Catholica. They anchored 
in the Potomac, on the 24th of February, 1634. 
Through the agency of Henry Fleet, an Englishman, 
who lived for some years on the bank of the river, 
the governor opened a friendly conference with the 
natives, and was allowed by them to take peaceable 
possession of the country. The most liberal ground 
was taken in regard to toleration, and the Romaa 
Catholic Colony of Maryland presented in this re- 
spect a striking and remarkable contrast to New 
England. On the establishment of the common, 
wealth in England the parliament appointed another 
governor, and assumed command of the colony, but 
at the restoration the rights reverted to the original 
proprietor. At first Maryland was used as a penal 
colony, but the importation of convicts was prohibi- 
ted by an act of the Assembly, during the admini»* 
tration of Charles Calvert, son of CeciL 

CALVET, Esprit Cl. F., a natur., 1728-1 8ia 

CALVI, Lazzaro, an Italian painter^d. 1606. 

CALVIN, John, (Cauvin Jean,) was born at 
Noyon, in Picardy, 10th July, 1509. Law and theo- 
logy were combined in his earliest studies. He re- 
ceived, when he was but twelve years old, a benefice 
in the cathedral of his native town, and at the age 
of seventeen, there was added to this previous gnt 
the pastoral cure of Monteville. At his father^s re- 
quest he pursued legal studies at Orieans and Bour- 
ges. His mind, however, had been gradually open- 
ing to the errors of popery ; and, in the place last 
named, he openly avowed himself a disciple of the 
reformation. In 1532 he proceeded to Paris, but, 
having provoked the Sorbonne by his zeal for the 
new doctrines, he was obliged, with his friend Cop, 
to quit the city in haste. Under the anticipated 




patronftge of the qneen of Navarre, be returned to 
the French capital in 1584, bnt the fate of his pre- 
vions Tisit again pursued him, and he retired to 
Bade, tbion. travelled into Italy, visited the duchess 
of Ferrara, soon came back, and arrived, 1686^ as 
if by accident, at Geneva, the city with which his 
name is now immortally identified. His early labors 
and stem discipline did not at first suit the Gene« 
vese, and he was banished along with FareL The 
reformer halted at Berne for a time, and then remov- 
ed to Strasburg, in one of the churches of which 
town he labored as pastor with all his charaoteristio 
activity and decision, and not widiout maiked suc- 
cess. In 1541 he returned to Geneva— 'Or rather 
was recalled — and from that period till his death, his 
labors were unremitting in the pulpit and firom the 
press. As a citizen, as a pastor, as an ecclesiastical 
ruler and reformer, and as a correspondent and 
counsellor of foreign churches, he was instant 'in 
season and out of season.' The literary work which 
he executed is almost incredible, espedally when we 
consider the weak and emaciated constitution in 
which his indomitable spirit was lodged. Frequent 
headache? and firequent fastings to relieve those 
spasms — ^nocturnal study with a dim lamp suspended 
from the canopy of his humble bed — ^watchM anx- 
iety and domestic bereavement— contributed to short- 
en his life, and on the 27th of May, 1664, he died 
at the age of fifty-five. He had previously sum* 
moned the syndics of Geneva to his deathbed, and 
solemnly adjured them to persevere in their adhe- 
rence to the pure gospel of Christ. The works of 
Calvin comprise commentaries on nearly the whole 
of the Bible — in all of which, with varying success, 
the mind of the sacred writers is simply and forcibly 
expounded, without the parade of erudition, butwitik 
a clear perception and logical analysis of the process 
of inspired thought and argument. His * Institutes,' 
published at the early age of twenty-four, are a re- 
markable monument of precocious ability, and not 
only speedily gained for its author a European re- 
nown, but contributed in no ordinary degree to 
strengthen, fortiJFy, and extend, the protestant re- 
formation. The Latmit^ of the long dedication to 
the king of France is remarkable for its elegance and 
purity. His numerous tracts against popery have 
wit as well as iftisdom in them— especiidly the one 
called the ' Inventoiy of Sacred Belies.' His volu- 
minous correspondenoe has been partly published, 
but a verv larpw collection of letters remain in MSS. 
in the library of Geneva. The industry of M. Bon- 
net has, during the last two years, discovered many 
others, and collected them with a view to speedy 
publication. Of the system of theology named Cal- 
vinism, espoused so extensively in France, Britain, 
and America, this is not the place to speak. The 
merits of Calvin have been acknowledged by men of 
very opposite sentiments — as even by Simon and 
Bayle. No one now will justify Calvin's share in 
the burning of Servetus. The other reformers, even 
the gsntie Melanethon, vindicated the sad tragedy. 
It ynH not suffice to say that Calvin was drawn into 
the measure, or that the fate of Servetus was in ao- 
cordanoe with tiie law of the state, and therefore be- 
yond the control of the reformer. Calvin distinctly 
understood his own part in the business, and folttbat 
compassion was to yield to conscience. The only 
apology for him is, tiiat Cahrin was not, in the mat- 
ter of religious liberty, before his age. He was no 
exception to the genend rule. Cnmmer sent Joan 
of Kent to the stake, and himself in a few yean fol- 
lowed. Five Ckmevan disciples of Calvin wero burnt 
inflnmoe about the same time that Servvtnswas 

committed to tiie flames in Geneva. John Knox 
and Peter Dens use the very same argument and 
imagery for the capital punishment of heretics. Nay, 
Servetus himself admitted the legal theory under 
which he suffered ; for in his work called Restitutio, 
published a few months before his own death, ho 
says expressly tiiat the crime cS blasphemy is wor- 
thy of deathr— ' simpliciter ' — * without dispute.' Si- 
milar doctrines are propounded in old books of Scot- 
tish theology, by Samuel Rutherford, and in * The 
Hind Let Loose.' It took a long time to teach pro^ 
testants that man is re^nsible to God alone for his 
belief, and that liberty of conscience is a universal 
birthright [J.E.] 

CALVISIUS, Skluvs, a composer and writer on 
music and various subjects of learning, 155&-1617. 

CAM, or CANO, Dddgo, a Portuguese who dis- 
covered the river Zaire <nr Congo, and traced part of 
the S. Guinea coast in 1484-85. [J.B.] 

CAMARAY Y MUROA, a Sp. prehite, d. 1641. 

CAMBACERES, Jean Jaoquxs Regis De, duke 
of Panna, prince <^the empire, &c., b<»ii at Mont- 
pellier 1753, died at Paris 1824. Though a child 
of the revolution, and from the first favorable to its 
progress, the ambition of Cambaodrte was rather 
constructive than othendse, and added to his educa- 
tion for the law, well qualified him for his great 
share in the preparation of the civil code, and the 
.judiciary organization of France. He possessed tbo 
rare talent of preserving his credit for patriotism, 
without committing himself to the strife {^parties, 
and in 1799 was associated with Napoleon Buona- 
parte in the consulate. It does not appear that the 
first consul had much regard for him, and his con- 
duct must be regarded as equivocal, at the least, 
when it is conridered tiiat he rose to fresh hcHiors 
under the second restoration. The real product of 
his political activity is fiuriy represented by his * Pro* 
jet du Code Civil, et Discours Preliminaire,' pub- 
lished 1794, and the practical application of it in 
following years. The most distinguished of his re- 
lations were his brother, Stephen Hubert De Cam- 
uACEREs, archbishop of Rouen, and peer of France, 
a most esteemed prelate, 1756>1818; Baron Camba- 
CERES, his nephew, and one of Napoleon's generals, 
1778-1826; and his uncle, the Abbe De Camba- 
OERiss, distinguished as a religions writer and preach- 
er, 1721-1802. [E.R.] 

C AMBON, Joseph, one of the more violent Jaco- 
bins of the French Revolution, was bom at Montpel- 
lier, 1754, and returned to the legislative assembly, 
1791. He is chiefly memorable as the reporter of 
the finance commission, by which some kind of order 
was eliminated from tiie conftision lefl bv Calonne and 
his predecessors, and the basis laid for the subse- 
quent financial prosperity of his country. Whatever 
&are he may have taken in the agitation of the pe- 
riod, the merit belongs to him of pursuing this one 
aim with steady perseverance. He was disliked by 
Robespierre, and contributed to his fall on the 9th 
Thermidor, (27th July, 1794,) but was shortly after- 
wards compelled to save himself by flight In 1815 
he reai^ared on the public stage as a member ol 
the representativo assembly, and in 1816 was driven 
into exile as a regicide. He died at Brussels in 1820. 

CAMBRIDGE, Adolprus Frederick, duke of, 
youngest son of Geoxge III., bom 1774, served as a 
volunteer with the duke of York 1798-1795, viceroy 
of Hanover 1815-1887, d. 8th July, 1850. 

CAMBRIDGE, R. Owen, a miscel. wr., d. 1802. 

CAMBRONNE, Pierre Jacques Etdenste, Baron 
De, tiie brave commander of tiie old guazd at the 
battie of Waterioo^ 1770-1842. 




CAMBY5ES, the jb« of thk nun*, fatW of C;- 
nil, lifed about GB5 B.a ; the •seoiiiI, mi utd ntc & 
Cjnu, begun to r. G29 or 530 B.O., d. 6S3. 

CAUDEX, CtUBLm Pkatt, EuI, a dU. it.wjai 
ivnd stateemui, lord chincellor in 176S, prendant of 
the conncil 1783, 1718-179*. 

CAMDEK, Joan Jef*sets Purr, Muqnii, K.O., 
dii. u K dufutareited ■amut of Uie itMe for nitj 
ytma, lTG»-lStO. 

CAHDEN, Wm.. the eel utiqauun, an. <£ 'Jtu< 
Brituinia,' < Aoiuli,' Jk^ 16el-162S. 

CAMELLI, G. J., a mil. ud botuin, 17th o. 

CAHERARIUS, Joachim, > learned Genaan, 
lSOO-74. Hi«»DOf the ■amenarae, one of Ihefint 
phjmc^ botan., and chem. tj hit age, 1GB4^I598, 

CAM£KON, Libdt.-Ohii. StsAu>n, du. for en- 
roDing the ' Cameron Highlanders,' at bii own ex- 
peiiH, in 1798, died 1828. 

CAMERON, Jony, a Scntoli theologian, prof. oT 
diTinity at Qhugov, and aAerwardd at Uontanban, 
in Franoe, died 162G. 

CAMILLA, a prinoea of the Volid, k. in battle. 

CAMILLA J. A. v., an ItaL actHw, 17BS-68. 

CAMILLUS, UiBcm Fubids, a Roman genval 
cf di*. patriatUm, made dictator s.c 896, d. B.C. S6G. 

CAMILO,F., a Spani^ painter, 16IO-I671. 

CAMMERHOF, Fskdbbick, a Moranan bishop, 
<:ame to America io lT46ai awDnMntotuBfaopSpan- 
ftanberg. He iluni«t«red to the Indians on the Sus- 
quehanna, and al>o to the IroqaoU. He died, mooh 
lamented, at Bethlehem, in 17S1. 

CAHMOCK, Tboicu, a patantM nndet the PI7- 
tnooEh Company of Black Point in Maine, d. about 
tlw Tear ies9. 

CAMOEMS, Ldh [)b, is the only Portngnaee poet 
«bo eijofi a Ennpean ceMni^. He «a« of noble 
funilr, and bi* ameiton on Ibe fktbai'i aide were 
Spaoufa. He vae probably born ni Liabon, and the 
date of Ui tnrth wai 1G27, w a ieir yean earlier. 
After having been educated at Coimbn, he pawed 
Bome time io Coortly uciety at Lisbon; but an at- 
tacfamcnt to a ladj of diatinctioa faconght on him a 
Mntaoce of banlihnient to Santanm, vherelie oom- 
posed nraral ofliii poema, and issaid to have planned 
or began Ukat «hidi is the greatest of then. He 
then v^nntwnd Into the fleet, dlslinanislied himnlf 
agaiuttheAAieaD Moots, and lost hi* right eye in 
•n attack on Coata. On bis i«tam be found him- 
self neglected and poor; and in 1668 he embarked 
hr India, declaring a resoladon of neter again lee- 
[m bis natiTe conntrjr. Escaping fVom a steam, in 
*&cb the other tbibbIs of the £et fonodered, he 
Rached the PortngnMa settlement alOoa; and di' 
teen years psaed orar Mm in the East, amidst peii- 

loBB adrentnies, and oontinoal diiappoiatmeuts and 
mitrortaoei. He fuled to obtain employment in the 
public service, and entered as a volunteer in two ex- 
peditions, the one to Cochin, (in wbiob ahnoet all tlio 
Eniopeant wire destroyed by the dimate,) the other 
— '~-' the piratve of the lied Sea. A versified sit' 

for fire yean, glad to support himself by the fees of 
a small office- In this penod his gnat poem Is be- 
Ueved to have been oompleted. He saved the mann- 
soript with difflcnlty on being shipwrecked on the 
coast of Cambodia, when at length allowed to retoru 
to Goa. Here ha was twice impiisonad, finit on a 
groundless charge of malversation in office, and 
again (or debts which he was unable to pay. He 
now took up arms again, in the service or the gov- 
ernor of a remote seOlement ; and there, weaiy and 
displrilsd, he - was templed to sail for Europe in a 
himeward-bonDd vessel which happened to pass. 
He returned to Lisbon in 1669, as poor and unpioa- 
perous as he had been when be departed. He pub- 
lished his noble poem, but gained by it neither lams 
nor profit. The pubUo were blind to its valne ; and 
the ^verameut and court were otherwise occupied- 
It was probably abont this dms that Camoeos 
wonld have died of hunger, bad not a blank servant 
begged for liim at night in tbe streets. In 1678 
King Sebaatiau, embarking on his fatal eapediticM 
agaiuit Morocco, perished ia the bloody battle of 
Alcazar ; and, while bis mind had been Averted 
alike froiD administration and fh)m literature by hii 
obivalnms dreams, his saoceisor, an aged church- 
man, was eDgnssed by ecclesia^cal business and 
dismayed by pnblio calamitiea. The great poet of 
the nation was left to his fate. Ue died in a publio 
hospital in the year 16TQ. — Camoens left uutded 
hardly any department of poetry, from the tragedy 
to the sonnet ; and high praise is given to many of 
hit smaller oompositlinA Bat liis immortality waa 
oaused by the magnificent hercuo poem which we 
commonly call ' The Lnsiad.' The name be him- 
self gave to it was 'Os Lnsiados,' that is, 'The 
Luatauiana,' or ' Portngnese.' He designed in it* 
ten books to celebrate the glory and greatness of a 
nation, as to whioh he trinmphantly declared that it 
was soon to sntpas* the &iae and majesty of all 
others in the worid. The main story ii the voyage 
in whioh Vasco de Gama roouded the Cape of 
Storms, and disoovered the passage to India , but 
the whole history of Portugal is engrafted on this 
stock. Nearly a third of the poem is oocnpied by a 
narrative of the rise of the kingdom, which Vatoo 
delivers to the king of Melinda, much in the maonei 
of Auens's tale to Dido ; and occasion is taken for 
introducing minor incidoits and characters in short- 
er episodes. A plan embraoiug a field so widCj 
o^mld not well be executed without making too 
heavy demands on the attention of the reader \ and 
vodoubtedly there ate few who do not feel the poem, 
as a whole, to be wantiag in interest. Anotlier 
weakness lies in the want of local truth which per- 
vades it, and which eilubits itself both in the soene- 
17 and in the charaotert. Tbe work abounds in su- 
parnataral machinery, which is nothing else than a 
repetition of the heathen mjthijogy, whUe it often 
passes into ondisgniied allegory. Nor is any at- 
tempt made at describing exactly either the laod- 
soa^ies or the mamiers of the East : all is general 
and nncharaoteristic. Bat the glow of patriotic and 
warlike animatiau, the frequent pathos, (as in the 
stoiy of Inei de Castro,) ai^ the oonslant ufHueikoa 
of imagery beautillilly poetdoal, oomblna In present- 



Ing vs with 1 Mriei of piotarsB, moh u U Tory »re- 
ly to b« m(4 with in poetry, ind foil/ mffioent to 
vindicate the place of Ciunoeiu at one of the great- 
eat among modem poeta. The diction and TondG- 
cfttion, bIao, aie pronoanced by competent crilicfl to 
pasaesa the very highart merit [W-S.] 

CAMPAN, Madame De, a ]a<iy of the rcnrd 
honeebold, oelebratsd for her memoin of Uaiie An- 
toinette, 1T62-I82S. 

CAMPAin^ILLA, TaoxAH, a diituigniiliBd Span- 
iard of the ISth century, no leu lemarkabla oom 
tha originality of hi) writings, than through the aza»- 
ordinary lemnei of hii life. The contempomiy of 
Bacon aod Daa Cartel, be ranka with CKtoduo 
^ Bmna and a few otben, a* eridenoe that the time 
had come for a anooeural revolt agalnit the philoeo- 
phy of the Peripatetica and the Cbnrcb. like 
Bmno^ hia tendenciea vera towaida Platoniam ; 
many oFbia viewa, nlao, were tiotad irich myatidan. 
He had, boireTer, a clear oonoeption of the catora 
of metaphyaca j and he haa oontribotod one of our 
many ' Utopiaa' to politioal theory, in bia 'CiTitaa 
Sotia.' Campaaella found in the Spaniab goTaic- 
ment a mortal fbe. Seiea timet did he oadergo the 
horrora of the jualiM,' be paaaed leTcn y«arii in a 
dougaon — aapportiDg hia oonrage and nonriabiog 
hii ionl, with thought. At lecgth be eaoaped to 
France, and finmd a proteotor m K^elien, with 
whom tba hatred borne him by Spain was mfBcieot 
recommendation. Campanella'a worka oaimot be 
overlooked by the thorongh atadent of metaphyaioa : 
the more important of them have been leoeaCly ool- 
kcled and pabliahed la Germany. [J.PJf] 

CAMPANILE, an Italian aatiriat, ISSO-lSTi. 
CAMPANIU5, Th., a learned Swede, anthor of a 
deaoription of New Sweden, Amerioa, 1701. 

CAMPBELL, Abchihuj), marqnia of Aiwla, a 
diitingolBhed paitiaan of the covenanten, beheaded 
1661. Hia Km of the aame name, eari of Argyle, 
diating. aa a royaliat, and beheaded 1S86. 

CAMPBELL, Abch., bp. of Aberdeen, d. ITU. 
CAMPBELL, GB3IIOK, D.D., a profeaaor of divin- 
ity in the presbytarian chorch, 1709-1796. 

CAMPBELL, J., d. of Argyle and Greonwioh, a 
partiaan of the hooia of Hanover, 1671-1748. 
CAMPBELL, Jom, a Scotch an;hit., d. 1734. 
CAMPBELL, JoJW, a miacelUn. aii., d. 1776. 
CAMPBELL, Majob-Gkm. Sib Seil, Britiah reai- 
deot at Elba in charge of Napoleon, died 1827. 

CAMPBELL, Thomas, waa bom at Gbisgow- in 
Joly, 1777. Hia father, deecended (^a good funQy 
in Arg^ahire, waa a Virj^nia merchant ; bat be- 
fore the birth oi the poet, the yonngeat of hii eleven 
children, he waa in decayed ciicumatancea, an<j 
mibaiated on amall annnitiee from mercantile eoci- 
etie^ and by leceiving young men into hie honae at 
boardm. Thoma^ alW diatingniabiog himaelf a) 
icbool, paMed through the univeni^ of QIaagow 
with high reputation, which, howevn, waa gained 
leaa by ateady indnatiy or exact learning, than ' 
the preoociooa brilliancy of bia eaaaya in proaa i 
hii veniiieil tiaualatioua Rvm the ciaaaioa. Till 
end of hia life, Greek waa hia favorite atndy ,■ : 
lie was vainer of bia poficiency in it than <^ hia 
poetry or the fame it brought hiin. Hia atndiea at 
collc^ were aaaiated by a bnreaiy or eihibition, and 
by the hard-woDgtuoa d" private teachinga ; atid he 
became ■ncoeiiively, f« abort perioda, tutor in two 
familiea in tbs west of Scotland. The poverty of 
hia family precluded hia pnrauit of the more smbi- 
tioui profeauona ; and a ^w monthi ipeat aa a copy- 
ing clerk in Edinbargh, diagnatad hia aenaiUve and 
indolent mind with Ate dnidgaty and captionac 

of literary tt 
riticiam cf Dr. Itobert .tnder- 
>y thing elae, was owing bia 
preeocution of pootaoal compoaitioa. — One of hia firj( 
printed effbrB waa ' Tbe Wounded Hnmar,' whicji 
appeared wliea he waa about twenty yean of age. 
Aboot the same time, living in bnmble lodgioga in 
Edinboigh, and anpporting hhnaelF by private teach- 
ing of Oia alaaaioa, and by obaaure dmdgeiy Rir 
bookaellera, he waa oompoamg poetical &^menla. 

which ware gradimlly incoiTWrated into 'The Ples»- 
ea of Hope.' Thia poem, pnbliahed in 1799, in Ita 
ithor'a twenty-iscond year, became immediately 
id deaervedly famous; and, thon^ In a]Hte ol 
Ivice, ho Bold tha copyright abeolnlely for aiity 
innda, the pabliabera, on ita aocceaa, were fbr aomo 
ne veiy libera] to him ; and tbe icvereioD of tho 
copyright became pmStable in hia decllnii^ yean. 
Being now determined on making literature Ma pn^ 
feaaion, he apent upwarda of a year in Germany. A 
great poezn, ' The Qoeen of the North,' ardendy pnv- 
jected, waa auon dropped ; bnt he tianamitted Smn 
abroad, to tbe Jfanbi^ Chraade, nveral of bia fineat 
lyric*, among which ware, ' Ye Marinen of Eng- 
' ,nd,' and ' Tie Exile of Erin.' He bad intended 
ittliag in Edinburgh, where be bod long been inti- 
late with JefiVey, Brown, Scott, and Stewart, and 
lost of all with Aliaon; and with thia design ha 
It down hia pareuta in that dty. To them, indeed, 
> hia mother after her huaband'a death, and to hia 
ttera alwaya aiWwarda, he waa atfodily and hon- 
orably atibctionate and generona. — In 1803, how- 
be found it advisable to remove to London ; 
n tha e«ne year, nnoortain tbouffb his prot- 
pecta were, he married hia coitain ^aa Sinclair. 
Next year be obtained an engagement with the Star 
oewapAper, from wbich be received aboot four 
guineas a-week, chiefly earned by tranrfating foreign 
gaiettei. Abont the aame time appeared ' The Bat- 
tie of the Baltic' For aeventeen yean from this 
date be inhabited a honae at Sydenham, near Lon- 
don. In 1906 bis drenmstaneea were improved by 
a pension o( two hundred a-year bestowed by For* 
administration ; partly, perhaps, for tealous advoca- 
cy of Whig prindplea, but prompted alao by hia 
poetical celebrity, and by the neceasitiea of one who 
vaa alwaya thriftleaa, and diiqnalifled, both by tem- 
perament and bj feebleneaa of health, for steady 
laboraaabookadter's hack. In 1 807 waa pnbUriied 
one of the fmiM of bis taakwc^ ' Tha Annals of 




(heal Britein,' fat which he noeiYed ihne hmndied 
poaodB from aa Edinboigh bookieller. In 1809 ap- 
peared ' Gertrude of WToming/ to which, tiie year 
Rfter, * O'Ckmnor's ChOd ' was annexed. The plaoe 
which Campbell justly holds as one of the daasios of 
English poetry was now securely gained, when he 
had only reached his thirty-third year ; and, though 
his life ¥ras bat half spent, it may safely be said 
that nothing which he afterwuds wrote was worthy 
to be ranked with his earlier achievements. Hu 
time, in fiMt, was thenoefordi fHttsred away in de- 
snltory and occasional stodies, and in toils which 
liad no higher pnrpose than the snhaisteaoe of his 
fkmOy ; and the exqnisite delicacy and correctness 
ci taste, which give soch a charm to his finest 
poems, did no more than impede him in his prose 
writing. The romantic glow of imageiy and senti- 
Hient, which had inspired, in yonth, his ethical medi- 
tations, and which had risen into a more manly en- 
thnsiasm in his martial lyrics, died away amidst the 
bnny and coarseness of real life ; and the poet cer- 
tainly wanted the lelsnre, and probably wanted the