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APPLETONS' 

CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY 



VOL II. 
CRANE-GRIMSHAW 




tgyCisZL 






A P P L E TONS 



CYCLOPAEDIA OF AMERICAN 
BIOGBAPHY 



EDITED 11 

JAMES GRANT WILSON 

AND 

JOHN F I S K I : 



As it is the commendation of a good huntMnan to find game in a widi wood, 
ck> it is no imputation if he hath not caught all. Plato. 



VOLUME II. 

CRANK-CIilMSll.WY 




N E W Y () H K 

D. APPLKTON AM) COMPANY 

1, 8 and 5 BOND 8TBKF.T 
1 8 9 9 




Copyright, 1887, 
By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY. 



LIST OF PORTRAITS ON STEEL. 





ARTurr 


ENGRAVER 




PAM 


Grant, Ulysses S. 


Wurtz 


Hall 


Front\ 


i -J,trrt 


Dix, John Adams 


Bogardua 


Ritrhie 


Ami !v< 


Emerson, Ralph Waldo 


Munroe 


Hall 




M 


Farraqut. David Glasgow 


Brady 


Hullyer 




III 


Fillmore, Millard 


Baker 


Hall 




m 


Franklin, Benjamin 


Huplessis 


Hall 




M 


Fulton, Robert 


West 


Hall 




M 


Garfield, James Abram 


Sarony 


Hall 




M 


Greeley, Horace 


Bogardua 


Hall 




784 


GREENE, tfATHANAEL 


Trumbull 


Hall 




;.*> 



SOME OF TUE CHIEF 0ONTREBUTOB8 
to APPLETON8 1 CYCLOP.KIHA OF amkkk an BIOGRAPHY. 



Adams, Charles Kendall, 

President of Cornell University. 

Agassiz, Alexander, 

Author mid Professor. 

Allibone, S. Austin, 

Author " Dictionary of Authors. ' 

Amory, Thomas C, 

Author •' Life of (ieneral Sullivan." etc. 

Bancroft, George, 

Author " History of the United States." 
Barrett, Lawrence, 

Author " Life of Edwin Forrest." 

Bayard, Thomas F., 

Secretary of State. 

Bigelow, John, 

Author " Life of Franklin," etc. 

Boker, George H., 

Poet, late Minister to liussin. 

Botta, Mrs. Vincenzo, 

Author and Poet. 

Bradley, Joseph P., 

Justice United States Supreme Court. 
Brooks, Phillips, 

Author "Sermons in English Churches." 

Carter, Franklin, 

President of Williams College. 
Champlin, John Denison, 

Author "Cyclppedia of Painters and Paintings ," 

Chandler, William E., 

Ex-Secretary of the Navy. 

Clarke, James Freeman, 

Author "'IVii (inat Keligions," etc. 

Cooper, Miss Susan Fenimore, 

Author •• Rural Hour*," etc. 

Conway, Moncure D., 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Coppee, Henry, 

Professor in Lehigh University, Pa. 

Coxe, Arthur Cleveland, 

P. E. Bishop of Western New York. 

Courtenay, William A., 
Mayor of Charleston, s r 

Cullum, Gen. George W., 

Author " HsglaCar of West Point tiradoatea," etc. 

Curry, Daniel, 

Author and Kilitor. 

Curtis, George Ticknor, 

Author " L'fe of James Buchanan," ale. 



Curtis, George William, 

Author and Editor. 

Custer, Mrs. Elizabeth B., 

Author " Boot* and Saddles." 
Daniel, John W., 

United States Senator from \ irgula. 

De Costa, Benjamin F., 

Historical Writer. 

De Lancey, Edward F., 

Kx-Presidcnl Ueuealugical and Biographical Soctetv. 

Didier, Eugene L, 

Author '• Life of Edgar Allan I 

Dix, Morgan, 

Hector of Trinity Church, New York. 

Doane, William C, 

I' K Btohop of Albany. 

Drake, Samuel Adams, 

Author " Historic Personages of Boston," etc. 
Draper, Lyman OL, 

•i.in Historical Sochrtv 

Dupont, CoL Henry A., 

of Delaware, late U. S. Army. 

Fiske, John, 

Aiitln-r uiid l*rofe«»OT. 

Frothingham, Octavius B., 

Author "Life of Qeorga Kipley " 

Gayarre, C. E. A , 

Author " History of I<outsiana." 

Gerry, Elbridge T., 

MemlM-r of New York Bar. 

Oilman, Daniel C, 

I*resldent of Johns Hopkins Unlversttr 

Goodwin, Daniel, Jr., 
Hsjsber «>f Illinois Bar 
Greely, Gen. A. W. TJ. S. A.. 

Author • Time Y«-sr» of Arrtk- Service. ' 

Green, William Mercer, 

Lata P. K Bishop of Mississippi. 

Greene, Capt. Francis Vinton, 

United Stati-s Engineer Corjw 

Hale, Edward Everett, 

Author •• Franklin in France." etc 

Hay, Col. John, 

Author ' UN af Lincoln 

Henry, William Wirt, 

of the Virginia Historical Sortsry. 

Higginson, Col. T. W., 

Author " History of the United States." *•* 



vm 



SOME OP THE CHIEF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Hilliard, Henry W., 

Late Milliliter to Brazil. 
Hoppin, Professor James M., 
Of Yale College. 

Howe, Mrs. Julia Ward, 

Author " Later Eyries," etc. 

Huntington, William R, 

Rector of Grace Church, New York. 

Jay, John, 

Late Minister to Austria. 

Johnson, Gen. Bradley T., 

Member of Murylund Bur. 

Johnson, Rossiter, 

Author " History of the War of 1812," etc. 
Johnston, William Preston, 

President of Tulane University. 

Jones, Horatio Gates, 

Vice-President of Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

Jones, J. William, 

Secretary of Southern Historical Society. 

Jones, William Alfred, 

Author " Character and Criticism," etc. 

Kobbe, Gustav, 

Musical Editor of New York "Mail and Express." 

Lathrop, George Parsons, 

Author " A Study of Hawthorne," etc. 

Lincoln, Robert T., 

Ex-Secretary of War. 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, 

Author " Life of Hamilton." 

Long, Col. Charles Chaille, 

Late of the Egyptian Army. 

Lowell, James Russell, 

Late Minister at Court of St. James. 

MacVeagh, Wayne, 

Ex-Attorney-General, U. S. 

Mathews, William, 

Author " Orators and Oratory," etc. 

McMaster, John Bach, 

Author " History of the People of the United States." 

Mitchell, Donald G., 

Author " Reveries of a Bachelor," etc. 

Norton, Charles Eliot, 

Professor in Harvard University. 

O'Neal, Edward A., 

Governor of Alabama. 

Parker, Cortlandt, 

Member of New Jersey Bar. 

Parkman, Francis, 

Author " Frontenac," " French in Canada." etc. 

Phelan, James, M. C, 

Editor Memphis "Avalanche," Tenn. 

Phelps, William Walter, 

Member of Congress from New Jersey. 

Pierrepont, Edwards, 

Ex Attorney-General United States. 

Porter, David D., 

Admiral United States Navy. 



Porter, Gen. Horace, 

Late of Gen. Grant's Staff. 

Preston, Mrs. Margaret J., 

Author and Poet. 

Puron, Dr. Juan G., 

Spanish Author and Editor. 
Read, Gen. J. Meredith, 

Late Minister to QfWQS, 

Reid, Whitelaw, 

Editor of New York " Tribune." 
Ricord, Judge Frederick W., 

New Jersey Historical Society. 

Robinson, Ezekiel G., 

President of Brown University. 

Romero, Mattias, 

Mexican Minister to the United State**. 

Sanborn, Miss Kate, 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Schurz, Carl, 

Ex-Secretary of the Interior. 

Shea, John Gilmary, 

Author and Editor. 

Sherman, William T., 

Late General of United States Army. 

Smith, Charles Emory, 

Editor Philadelphia " Press." 

Spencer, Jesse Ames, 

Author and Professor. 

Stedman, Edmund C, 

Author •' Poets of America," etc. 
Stiles, Henry R., M. D., 

Author " History of Brooklyn, N. Y." 

Stoddard, Richard Henry, 

Author "Songs of Summer," etc. 

Stone, William L, 

Author " Life of Red Jacket," etc. 

Strong, William, 

Ex-Justice United States Supreme Court. 

Stryker, William S., 

Adjutant-General of New Jersey. 

Tucker, J. Randolph, 

Member of Congress from Virginia. 

Waite, Morrison R., 

Chief Justice United States Supreme Court. 

Warner, Charles Dudley, 
Author and Editor. 

Washburne, Elihu B., 

I.nte Minister to France. 

WeUing, James C, 

President of Columbian University. 

Whitman, Walt, 

Author " Leaves of Grass," etc. 
Wilson, Gen. Jas. Grant, 

President Genealogical and Biographical Society. 

Winter, William, 

Poet and Theatrical Critic. 

Winthrop, Robert C, 

Ex-United Suites Senutor. 



To the aboce list other names will be added as the work progresses. 



Amonq the Contributor, to the *<co„d vol„m< of « ,| /7 ,/,w iyeL>j.<,dia of American Diogrm- 

phy " are the follnting 



8. Austin Allibone, LL. D., 

Author Of " Dictionary of Authors." 
Kvi:i!i;i •■!'. Al.KXANDER II., 
KVKRKTT, K D WARD. 

Oen. Christopher C. Andrews, 

Member of the Minnesota Bur. 
GlLFILLAN, .Iamks, 

Goodrich, Aaron. 

Lawrence Barrett. 
Forbest, Edwin. 

Marcus Benjamin, 

Fellow of the Chemical Society. 
Drapkr. John William, 
Gibbs. Geoboe, 
and other articles. 

Bev. Beverley R. Betts, 

Editor "New York Genealogical nccorJ." 
Eioe.vbrodt Family, 
Glass, Francis. 

Arthur E. Bostwick, Ph. D. 
Emmet, Thomas Addis, 
Girard, Stephen, 
and other articles. 

James C. Brogan. 
Articles on Roman Catholic Clergymen. 

Mrs. Isa Carrington Cabell. 
FLOYD, John Hivhanan, 
Fries. John. 
and other articles. 

John D. Champlin, Jr., 

Author of "Cyclopaedia of Painters and Paintings. 
Articles on American Painters. 

William E. Chandler, 

K\-S.rntury of the Navy. 
Gilmobe, Joseph A. 

Titus M. Coan, M. D., 

Authoi. 

Articles on American .Missionaries. 

Moncure D. Conway, 
Author. 
DAB**?, Viroinius, 
Daniki.. John .Moncure. 

William A. Courtney, 

Mayor of (*hnrl<-»ton. S. C. 

De Saussube, William G. 



Rev. Daniel Curry, D. D., 

Author and Editor. 
ArtI.II. on BlMMttOT THE METUODIM 
COPAL Cm it n. 

Mrs. Elizabeth B. Custer, 

Author of ■ |t,„.t. nnd Saddle.." 
CUSTER, QftOBOl Abjutbi 

Maturin L. Delafield. 

AbTICLSBOJI thi. DbLAFIBXO Family. 
Edward F. De Lancey, 

Plwkbal V-« Wit (Jcnealogical SocJrlr 

Thk [>i Laxch Pamily, 

Thk Floyd and Ployd-Jobbi Family. 

Eugene L Didier, 

Author, 
Garrett, John Work, 
Gibbons, .1 ibbs, Cabdival. 

Bev. Morgan Dix, D. D., 

Rector >»f Trinity Church. New York 
I);x, John Adams. 

Col. Henry A. Du Pont. 

I»l PoMT Dl NrMOVBS, 

Dv I'o.M. Samuel Francis. 

Ellsworth Eliot, M D. 
Rliot, Ret. John. 
Eliot, Rev. Jared. 

John Fiske, 

Author and IVofewor. 

Thk Faibpax Family, 

Franklin. Kknjamin, 
Pulton, Robebt, 

GaUE, THOM it 

ami oilier «rti( •!«■«. 

Bev. Octavius B. Froth ingham, 

Author of •■ Life <>f (u»r,T Hiplcr." 
Pi i.i.i k. SaBAU Makoakkt. 

Capt. Francis V. Greene, U. S. A., 

Author of Tli'- Yuk»t>urg Campaign." 
Franklin. Willi a 

A P. C. Griffin, 

of i he IV-ton niblk Library 
I'ki.m IV, I'lliMP. 
(BY, Ei.itRHMiE. 

Jacob Henry Hager, 

.J..iiriuii'»i ninl Traind-v 
D KINSON, DaNII I. M'r.vBNB, 

i »nn FoiNitt.xTEB, 
an. I Other art i. 



z 



I "NTUIBUTORS TO THE SECOND VOLUME. 



Henry W. Hilliard, 

Late U. S. Minister to Brazil. 

Fitzpatrick, Benjamin. 

Prof. James M. Hoppin. 
Foote, Andrew Hull. 

Mrs. Julia Ward Howe. 

Crawford, Thomas. 

Frank Huntington. 
Cushman, Charlotte Saunders, 
Dallas, Alexander James, 
and other articles. 

Oliver Johnson, 

Author of "Sketches of the Anti-Slavery Move- 
ment." 

Garrison, William Lloyd. 

Rossiter Johnson, 

Author of " History of the War of 1812 " 

Farraout, David Glasgow, 
Giddinos, Joshua Reed, 
and other articles. 

Horatio Gates Jones, 

Member of the Philadelphia Bar. 

Graff, Frederick, 

Grant, William Kobertson. 

Rev. J. Ryland Kendrick, D. D. ( 

Ex-President of Vassar College. 

Articles on Baptist Clergymen. 
Samuel A. King, 

Afironaut 

Donaldson, Washington H. 

Gustav Kobbe, 

Musical Editor of the New York "Mall." 
Articles on Musicians. 

George Parsons Lathrop, 

Author of " A Study of Hawthorne." 
Dana, Richard Henry, 
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. 

Josiah Granville Leach, 

Member of the Philadelphia Bar. 
Articles on Pennsylvanians, 

Neil Macdonald. 

Elgin, James Bruce. Earl of, 
Galt, Alexander Tilloch, 
and other Canadian statesmen. 

Rev. S. E. Ochsenford. 
Articles on Lutheran Clergymen. 

Francis Parkman, LL. D., 

Author of "The French in Canada." 
Frontenac, Louis, Count, 

William Walter Phelps, 

Member of Congress from New Jersey. 

Garfield, James Abram. 

Admiral D. D. Porter. 
Decatur, Stephen. 



Gen. Horace Porter, 

Formerly of (Jen. Grant's Staff 

Grant, Ulysses S. 
Juan G. Puron, M. D. , 

Spanish Author and Editor. 

Articles on South and Central Americans. 
Whitelaw Reid, 

Editor of the New York "Tribune." 
Greeley, Horace. 

Frederick W. Ricord, 

Librarian of the New Jersey Historical Society. 

Edwards, John, 
Frelinghuysen, Frederick T.. 
Frelixghuysex, Theodore. 

Rt. Rev. Edmund de Schweinitz, 

Moravian Bishop. 

Articles on Bishops of the Moravian Church, 

Miss Esther Singleton. 
Damrosch, Leopold, 
Gorges, Sir Ferdinando, 
and other articles. 

Rev. Jesse Ames Spencer, D. D. . 

Author of " History of the United States." 
Articles on Bishops of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church. 

Henry R. Stiles, M. D., 

Author of " History of Brooklyn ." 
Ellsworth, Oliver, 
glllmore, quincy adams. 

WiUiam L. Stone, 

Author of " Life of Brant." 
Fraser, SlMOX, 
Gates, Horatio. 

Charles Burr Todd, 

Author of " Life of Joel Barlow." 
Dwight, Timothy. 

Charles Dudley Warner, 

Author and Journalist. 

Fiske, Daniel Willard. 

John W. Weidemeyer. 
Cushing, Caleb, 
Fry, William Henry, 
and other articles. 

Gen. Jas. Grant Wilson, 

Author and Editor. 

Dana, Richard Henry, Jr.. 
Drake, Joseph Rodman, 
Fillmore, Millard, 
Grant, Anne, of Laggan, 
and other articles. 

John Laird Wilson, 

Author and .lotmialist. 

Frobishf.r, Martin, 
Gaines. Edmund Pendleton, 

and other articles. 

Robert C. Winthrop, 

Ex-U. S. Senator from Massachusetts 
Granger, Fran< is, 
Granger, Gideon. 



APPLETONS' 

CYCLOPAEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



CRANK 



CRANE, Anne Monrtire (SeemCller), author, 
b. in Baltimore, 7 Jan., 1888; d. in Stuttgart. tier- 
many. 10 Dec.. 1872. In 1869 she married August 
Seemilller, of New York, and in 1871 went to iJer- 
maiiy. hoping to derive benefit from the medicinal 
waters there, but did not live to return. Her first 
novel, " Emily Chester" (Boston, 1864), was anony- 
mous. She subsequentlv published " Opportunity" 
(1867), and " Reginald Archer " (1871). She wrote 
lor periodicals, and a collection of her miscellane- 
ous essays was published in 1873. 

CRANE, Bruce, painter, b. in New Vork in 
1857. He studied under A. H. Wyant in New 
York, where he first exhibited in the National 
academy in 1879. His studio is at Summit, N. J. 
His principal works are " Old Mill- Pond on Long 
Island" (1879); "On Shrewsbury River," "After 
the Rain " (1880) ; " Moor in Nantucket." " Inlet 
on the Jersey Shore" (1881); "Suburban Road at 
Easthampton," " Blossom Time "(1882) ; " Winter " 
(1888); "The Waning Year," "Indian Summer" 
(1885) ; " Land Near the Sea" " November 
Woods," "Summer "(1886). 

CRANE, Ichabod B., soldier, b. in New Jersey; 
d. in Port Richmond, Staten Island, N. Y, 5 Oct., 
1857. He was appointed second lieutenant of ma- 
rines in January, 1809 : captain of 3d artillery in 
April, 1812 ; brevet major in November, 1813 ; major 
in the 4th artillerv in September, 1825 ; lieutenant- 
colonel in 2d artillery, 3 Nov., 1832; colonel in 1st 
artillery, 27 June, 1843; and governor of the Mili- 
tary asylum at Washington in May, 1*51, in which 
latter capacity he acted till November, 1853.— His 
son. Charles Henry, surgeon-general, U. S. A., b, 
in Newport, R. I., 19 July, 1825 ; d. in Washington, 
D. C, 10 Oct., 1883. He was graduated at Yale in 
1844, and studied medicine at Harvard medical 
school. In 1847 he passed the examination as act- 
ing assistant surgeon, and was at once ordered to 
Mexico, and, after attaining the full grade of as- 
sistant surgeon, served with the army of invasion 
till July, 1S4H. During the ten years that followed 
he was stationed in almost every state ami terri- 
tory of the Union, and was repeatedly in the Bald 
with expeditionary forces against the Indian-, nota- 
bly that against the Rogue river trilie in 1858. Be 
was promoted surgeon, -Jl May. 1881, and in Feb- 
ruary, 1868, was assigned to duty as medical direc- 
tor, department of Key West. On 30 June he was 
appointed medical director. Department of the 
South, In Sep tem ber, ]*tM. ha was placed on duty 
in the surgeon-general's office in Washington, anil 
vol. »i. — 1 



became assistant surgeon-general, with the rank of 
colonel. 88 July. 1888 <m the retirement ,,f8utg> 
Gen, Barnes. :{ July. 18*2. |, r U.-ame - 
eral of the l*. S. army. He received btereta 
dude the rank of bngad le r-fO U etul in the regular 
service at the close of the civil war. 
most noteworthy characteri»ti<-s *fj the facility 
with which he managed the complicated roul 
his office, and the good judgment that he brought 
to bear in reconciling the often conflicting interests 
of the army medical corps when it was at its nu- 
merical maximum during the civil war. 

CRANE, Jonathan Tnwnley, clergvman. h. in 
Connecticut Parma, near Kliiahrrth N. .).. 18 Jnaa 
1819; d. in Port Jenrfc, N. V.. 1«; Pel... 1880. Ha 
was graduated at Princeton in 1M:{. in IH44 was 
licensed to preach, and was admitted t<> t! 
Jersev annual conference of the Methodist 1 
pal church in 1845. In 1846 he was stationed aa 
pastor at Hope, Warren co.. N. .1., and in If 
Bel viderv ill the same state. In l*-!*-'!* he preached 
at Orange, N. .1.. and in June, 1k4<», whs . 
president of the Conference seminary at IN-nuing- 
ton. N. J., which ofliee he resigned in \>OH to as- 
sume the pastorate of Trinity church, JatSM Citv. 
In 1868-'72 ha was pmatding alder of the Newark, 
N. J., district. Dr. Crane was a delegate to the 
genera] oonf erenoes of ihhi. 1881 186$ and ISA 
lie was an able preacher, contributed largely to 
the periodical literature of hfej church, and pasV 
hahea M Bam7 on Duneine;" (1848); "The itight 
Wav, or Practical Lauturai OB the Decalogue" 
(1858); "Popular Amusements" (1869): "Arts of 
Intoxication ** (1870); "Holiness the Birthright 
of all God's Children" <1S74); and "Methodism 
and it- Methods" (1878} 

CRANE. William, merchant, h. in Newark. N. 
J.. 6 May. 171HI; d. in Baltimore. Md 
1866. In Richmond. Va.. where he resided from 
1HU till 1884) he was distinguished f,.r hi* zeal in 
promoting the religious welfare of the colored peo- 
plt, He ».v the Bounder of the Richmond Afri- 
can Baptist missionarv society which sent out I>ott 
Cary to Liberia, and he tangh! the first acb 
hlack- in Richmond, -md was one of the origina- 
tor- <.f Richmond ooDasja. giving to it fjljOOO 
benefactions to other religious ol • large, 

111- ion, William (arev, clergyman. 1>. ii 
BOnd, Va.. 17 Manli. 1816; d. ill Indepen •: 

•7 Pefx, 1886. «ua graduated st Coluinhian 
college and at Hamilton theological seminary. He 
was ordained in 1838 and was pastor of a Baptist 



CRANE 



CRAVEN 



church in Montgomery, Ala., from 1839 till 1842, 
and afterward pastor of various other churches in 
IfiasiafippJ and Texas. He has been president of 
Kiariasippi female college, of Semple Broad us col- 
lege, of Mount Lebanon college, and of Baylor 
university, Independence. Texas, to which he was 
called in lS(i:{, retaining the place till his death. 
Upon the removal, in 1885, of the names of Baylor 
university and Baylor female college to Waco and 
Belton, respectively, the property, buildings, etc., 
were left at Independence, and were thenceforth 
called " Crane college " in honor of Dr. Crane. He 
was regarded as one of the ablest and most schol- 
arly divines of his denomination. He was the 
author of " Literary Discourses," a " Life of Sam 
Houston," and other works. 

CRANE, William Montgomery, naval officer, 
b. in Elizabethtown, N. J., 1 Feb., 1776; d. in 
Washington, 18 March, 1846. He was a son of 
Gen. William Crane, an officer in the Revolutionary 
army, who was wounded at Quebec, and died in 
1814. William Montgomery entered the navy as 
a midshipman in 1799, became lieutenant in 1803, 
commander in 1813, and captain, 22 Nov., 1814. 
While in command of the brig " Vixen " he distin- 
guished himself in the attack on Tripoli. He was 
in the " Chesapeake " when she was attacked by 
the " Leopard. In July, 1812, while in command 
of the brig " Nautilus, he was captured by the 
frigate " Southampton," and, on being exchanged, 
was ordered to the lakes, where, in command of 
the " Madison " and " Pike," in Chauncey's squad- 
ron, he served until the end of the war. In 1827, 
in the flag-ship " Delaware," he commanded the 
Mediterranean squadron, acting as joint commis- 
sioner with Mr. Offley, U. S. consul at Smyrna, to 
open negotiations with the Ottoman government. 
He was appointed navy commissioner in 1841, and 
in 1842 chief of the bureau of ordnance and hy- 
drography. He died by his own hand. 

CRANEIELD, Edward, governor of New 
Hampshire, d. in England in 1704. He was select- 
ed by Robert Mason to become governor of New 
Hampshire in 1682, and gave up lucrative employ- 
ment in England with hopes of bettering his for- 
tune. In the administration of his office he was 
exceedingly arbitrary, and in his greed for money 
he attempted to tax the people without their con- 
sent. This action was strongly resented, and com- 
plaints referred to the board of trade were decided 
against him. Associations were formed for mu- 
tual support in resisting the collection of illegal 
taxes. At Exeter, the collector was driven off 
with clubs, and fanners' wives threatened to scald 
the officer if he should attempt to attach prop- 
erty in the house. Gov. Cranfield forbade the 
usual exercise of church discipline, and, in his 
efforts to intimidate the clergy, prosecuted, con- 
demned, and imprisoned the Rev. Joshua Moody. 
Religious worship was almost entirely broken up 
in the colony. In 1685 he returned to England, 
and afterward became collector of Barbadoes. 

CRANSTON, Henry Young, lawyer, b. in New- 
port, R. I., 9 Oct.. 1789; d. there, 12 Feb., 1864. 
He received a limited education, and after follow- 
ing a trade, studied law, and in 1809 was admitted 
to the bar. From 1818 till 1833 he was clerk of 
the court of common pleas, and he was a member 
of the state conventions held for framing and im- 
proving the constitution of Rhode Island. He 
was a member of the state legislature from 1827 
till 1843, and was repeatedly elected its presiding 
officer. Subsequently he was sent to congress and 
served from 4 Dec, 1843, till 3 March, 1847, after 
which he was again a member of the state legisla- 



ture and for three years its speaker, lie retired 
from public life in 1854, but continued his n-si- 
dence in Newport until his death. — His brother, 
Robert Bonnie, b. in Newport. R. I., 14 Jan., 
1791 ; d. there, 27 Jan., 1873, received a public- 
school education and later was employed in the 
collection of internal revenue. For a time he was 
sheriff of Newport, and then was elected as a whig 
to congress, serving from 4 Sept., 1837, till 3 
March, 1843. He was a banker for several years, 
was postmaster, and a member of the state legisla- 
ture, serving for one term as speaker. Subse- 
quently he was sent to congress as a " law-and- 
order whig," and served from 6 Dec., 1847, till 3 
March, 1849. Later he was elected mayor of New- 
port, but declined the office. He bequeathed $75,- 
000 to those poor of Newport " who are too honest 
to steal and too proud to Deg." 

CRANSTON, John, president of Rhode Island, 
d. 12 March, 1680. He appears to have had some 
knowledge of law, and was for many years attor- 
ney-general of the colony, first holding this office 
under Nicholas Easton in 1654. In 1672 he be- 
came deputy-governor, and continued in that ca- 
pacity until his election as governor in 1678, in 
which office he remained until his death. During 
King Philip's war he was selected to command, 
all the militia of the colony, and he was the first 
that ever held the rank of major-general in the 
colony. — His son, Samuel, president of Rhode 
Island, d. in 1727. He became governor in 1698, 
and was thirty times successively chosen to that 

glace, holding the office until his death. Gov. 
ranston held his place probably longer than any 
other man that has ever been subjected to the test 
of an annual election. He also held the highest 
military office that it was possible to occupy in the 
colony, and his great firmness in times of unex- 
ampled trial is said to have been the cause of his 
great popularity and successful administrations. 

CRAFO, Henry H., governor of Michigan, b. in 
Dartmouth, Mass., 24 May, 1804 ; d. in Flint, 
Mich., 23 July, 1869. He early removed to New 
Bedford, where' he resided until 1857, when he set- 
tled in Michigan. For many years he was exten- 
sively engaged in the manufacture and sale of lum- 
ber, and also held important political offices. He was 
elected mayor of Flint, subsequently served in the 
state senate, and was twice chosen governor of the 
state, holding that office from 1864 till 1868. Dur- 
ing the civil war he rendered important services 
to the cause of the Union. 

CRAVEN, Charles, colonist, d. in 1754. He 
was secretary of the proprietors of South Carolina, 
and governor of the colony from 1712 till 1716. 
During 1712 he was ordered to sound Port Royal 
river, and it is supposed that he then founded 
Beaufort. Three years later all of the Indians 
from Cape Fear to St. Mary's river combined un- 
der the leadership of the Yemassees for the pur- 
pose of destroying the colony on Ashley river. 
Gov. Craven at once proclaimed martial law, laid 
an embargo on all ships to prevent the departure 
of men or provisions, and at the head of 1,200 
men, part of whom were faithful blacks, met the 
Indians in a series of desperate encounters and 
finally drove them beyond the Savannah* 

CRAVEN, Thomas Tingev, naval officer, b. 
in Washington, D. C, 30 Dec. 1808 ; d. in Boston, 
Mass., 88 Aug., 1887. He was the oldest son of 
Tunis Craven, of the U. S. navy, and his wife, 
Hannah Tingey, daughter of Com. Thomas Tingev, 
also of the U. S. navy. Young Craven attended 
school until 1822, when he entered the navy, and 
from 1823 till 1828 served in the Pacific squadron 



i 1; \ 






I 



on tin- "United State*" mid on the "iv.-icock." 
In 1828 1k« joined the "Erie," of the West India 
■quadrat), m sailing-master, and took part in the 
capture "f tin- pirate •• FederaL" After being 
commissioned lieutenant in i s:;o. he neat three 

i in orniaing on the M Boxer, and m i v 
was attached to the receiving-ship at New York, 
after whieli he joined the "John Adams." In 
he eoiiinianded the " Vinoennea," ('apt. Wi' 

-hip in theantarotic exploring expedition. Me 
then served on the " Iioxer. ' •• Fulton." " Monroe," 
"Macedonia," and "Porpoise," principally in the 
Afrioan squadron, after whieli, during lH4<i, lie was 
attached to the naval rendezvous in New York, lie 
then served on the "Ohio," in the Pacific sqnad- 
108, and on t ho " Independence," in the Mediter- 
ranean squadron, returning home in January, 1850. 
In the following July ho was made commandant 
of midshipmen in the U. S. naval academy in An- 
napolis. l>eeoming commander in December, 1808, 
and remaining at the academy until June, 1855. 
After commanding the " Congress," of the Mediter- 
ranean squadron, for several vears, he was ordered 
to resume his post at Annapolis. In October, 1860, 
he was detached from this place, and, after a short 
time spent in recruiting-service in Portland, Me., was 
commissioned captain in June, 1861, and assigned 
to the command of the Potomac flotilla. In the 
autumn of 1H(>1 he was placed in command of the 
•• Brooklyn," participating in the capture of New 
Orleans and subsequent operations on the Missis- 
sippi. He was made commodore in July, 1862, 
ana during the subsequent years of the civil war 
commanded the " Niagara," on the coast of Eng- 
land and France. In September, 1866, he was 
placed in command of the navy-yard at Mare isl- 
and. Col., where he received, in October of the 
same year, his commission as rear-admiral, and 
continued there until August, 1868, when he as- 
sumed command of the Pacific squadron. In De- 
cember, 1869, he was retired, but continued on duty 
in Sari Francisco until that office was dispensed 
with. He afterward resided at Kittery Point, Me. 
— His brother, Alfred Wingate, civil engineer, 
b. in Washington, D. C, 20 Oct., 1810 ; d. in Chis- 
wick, England, 29 March, 1879, was graduated at 
Columbia in 1829, studied law and then civil en- 
gineering. In 1887 he was associated with Gen. 
George b. Greene on important professional work 
near Charleston and elsewhere. He was a SUCOSSB- 
ful railroad engineer and manager, and rapidly 
rose to the first rank in his profession. Mr. < 'raven 
berame engineer commissioner to the Croton water 
board of New York on its organization in 1849. and 
continued in that capacity until 1868. Awning the 
many works projected and carried out during these 
years under his supervision were the building of the 
large reservoir in Central park, the enlargement 
of pipes across High Bridge, and the construction 
of the reservoir in Hoyd's Corners. Putnam BO, 
He also caused to be made an accurate survey of 
Croton valley, with a view of ascertaining its capa- 
city for furnishing an adequate water-supply, and 
was largely instrumental in securing the passage 
of the first law establishing a general sewerage 
system for New York city. Later he was associated 
with Allan Campbell a< a commissioner in the 
work of building the underground railway extend- 
ing along 4th avenue from the Grand osntral 

ile|H.t to Harlem river. He was one of the original 

members of the American society of civil engineers, 
a director for many years, and its preeidenl from 
November, 1888, tili November, 187L— Another 

brother. Tunis Augustus Mucrioiiotnrli. naval 
officer, i». In Portsmouth, N. II., 11 Jan.. isi:{; d. in 




Mobile bay. .\ hi.. :, Aug* 1864. lie entered the V 
S. imw as B midshipman in Kebruai 
until 1887 served in different reseekv 

he was at his own request attach. .| • 

survey. In imi be wr* mode ,t and 

served in the "Falmouth" until 1848, vfo 

was transferr.il to the -North Carolina." 
years later he was connected with the I' 
ron as lieutenant of the "Hah." and participated 
in theconouest of California. In 1M49 he returned 
net and for- some time afterward was saarmlaled 
in the work of the coast-sun ci. having command 
of various vessels attached to this l.un-au. He com- 

mended the Atrato expedition which left New 
York in October, 1857. for the purpost 
ing the Isthmus of Darien by way of the 

river for a ship-canal. Later hs command.-d the 

" Mohawk," stationed off the enact ofOnba to inter- 
cept slavers, on one ooonehm hs oaptarcd a brig 

containing 5<M» negroes, who wen- afterward BUM t. 
Africa and Unerased. He also saved tin i 
a Spanish merchant 
vessel, for which he 
was pr es en ted by the 

queen <»f Spain with a 
gold medal and a di- 
ploma About the 
same time the New- 
York board of un- 
derwriters presented 
Mrs. Craven with a 
silver sendee of plate 
for the efficient serv- 
ices rendered to mer- 
chant vessels while at 
sea by her husband. 
At the beginning of 
the civil war he was . 

placed in command y, 
of the "Crusader." 
and was instrumental 
in preserving for the Union the fortress at Key 
\Ve>t. In April. 1861, be was made a commander, 

and ordered to the charge of the "Tuscan**, 

in search Of Confederate cruisers. While so oc- 
cupied he succeeded in blockading the " Sumter." 
so that, after it hod U-eii kept a close prisoner 
for two months in Gibraltar, the officer* and 
deserted her. <»n his return home, he was 
command of the monitor "Tecnmssh," and di- 
rected to join the James river flotilla. A few 
months later he was attached t<> Admiral Far- 
ragut's squadron, then collected for the attack <>n 

Mobile, In the subsequent battls the "Teoumsefa " 

was given the post of honor, and on the morning 
..f :> Aug.. leading the Beet, she Ired the first shot 
at 6.47 a. M. The general Otden to the various 

commanders directed them, in order to avoid the 
line of torpedoes at the sntranos of the l«y, to pass 

east wan! of a certain red buov and directly under 
the u'uns of 1'ort Morgan. The Confederate nun 
-Tennessee" was on ti"' [»ort In-am of tin 
cunisch," inside of the line of torpedoes, and Cra- 
ven, in his eagerness to engage the mm. p a ss ed to 

-i of the buoy, when suddenly the monitor 
reeled and sank with almost SVCjn one on l«*rd, 
fleet H lied by a torpedo. As the "Teem 

going down, Com. Craven and his pilot, Jol 

lins, nut at the foot of the ladder leading to the 

top of the turret. Craven, knowing it was tl 

no fault of the pilot, hut by his own command, that 

ital change i" hat coons had been made, 

stepped hack, saving: "After you. pilot." There 
was no "after" for him. When the pilot reached 
the top round, the vessel seemed "to drop from 



**,.;* 



CRAWFORD 



CRAWFORD 



under him," and no one followed. A buoy that 
swings to and fro with the ebb and flow of the 
tide marks the scene of Cora. Craven's bravery and 
<>f his death, .ind beneath, only a few fathoms deep, 
lies the "Tecumseh." He has been called the 
"Sydney" of the American navy.— Charles Hen- 
derson, naval officer, son of Thomas Tingey, b. in 
Portland, Me., 30 Nov., 1843, was graduated at the 
U. S. naval academy in 1863, promoted to ensign, 
and served in that capacity in the South Atlantic 
blockading squadron until 1865. He participated 
in many of the engagements in the vicinity of 
Charleston and Savannah during 1863-'4, and was 
attached to the " Housatonic " when she was blown 
up in February, 1864. During 1865-'7 he served 
in the European squadron on the " Colorado," and 
was commissioned lieutenant-commander in No- 
vember, lx'iti. He then served on the "Warupa- 
noag," and was made lieutenant-commander in 
March, 1868. after which he was attached to the 
Pacific squadron. Subsequently he served on shore 
duty at Mare island, Cal. In 1874 he became ex- 
ecutive officer of the " Kearsarge," of the Pacific 
squadron, and later of the " Monocacv." He was 
detached from duty in June, 1879, broken down by 
over- work, and was retired in Mav, 1881. — Henry 
Smith, another son of Thomas Tingey, civil en- 
gineer, b. in Bound Brook, N. J., 14 Oct., 1845, 
studied in St. John's college, Annapolis, Md., and 
later in the scientific department of Hobart, but 
was not graduated, as he entered the army shortly 
before the close of the civil war. He obtained em- 
ployment on the Croton works in New York city, 
nut in 1866 went to California and became secre- 
tary, with the rank of lieutenant, to his father, then 
commanding the North Pacific squadron, and in 
1869 was appointed assistant civil engineer of the 
navy-yard at Mare island. This office he resigned 
in 1872, and then practised his profession in San 
Francisco until 1879. He was commissioned civil 
engineer in the U. S. navy during the latter year, 
and ordered to Chester, Pa., where he was occupied 
with the construction of the iron floating dock 
then building for the Pensacola navv-yard. Later 
he was ordered to the navy-yard at League island, 
Pa., and in July, 1881, was sent to the navy-yard 
at Portsmouth, N. H., and in September, 1882, as- 
signed to special duty at Coaster's harbor training- 
station. He was granted leave of absence in 1883, 
and took charge of the construction of the new 

Croton aqueduct 
in New York, up 
to March, 1886. 
He is the inventor 
of an automatic 
trip for mining- 
buckets (1876), 
and of a tun- 
nelling machine 
(1883). Mr. Cra- 
ven was given the 
honorary degree 
of B.S. by Hobart 
in 1878, and is a 
member of the 
American society 
of civil engineers. 
CRAWFORD, 
George Wash- 
ington, lawyer, 
b. in Columbia 
county, Ga., 22 
Dec, 1798; d. in 
Richmond county, Oa., 22 July, 1872. He was 
graduated at Princeton in 1820, and after studying 




law he was admitted to the bar in L8fiS> He was 
appointed attorney-general of Georgia in 1827, and 
continued in that offloe until 1831. Fnun 1887 till 
1842 lie iraa ■ member of the legislature from Rich- 
i id enmity, with the exception of one year. He- 
then was elected to congress as a whig to fill t ho 
vacancy caused bv the death of Richard W. Haber- 
sham, and served from 7 Feb., 1843, till ;i March 
of the same year, during which he was also i 
governor of Georgia, and re-elected in 1845. Later 
he held the office of secretary of war in President 
Taylor's cabinet, serving from 7 March, 184!>. till 
15 Aug., 1850. On the death of the president Mr. 
Crawford resigned his portfolio, and subsequently 
spent some time in travel abroad, after which he 
returned to Georgia, where he resided in retire- 
ment at Bel-Air, his home in Richmond county. 

CRAWFORD, Martin Jenkins, lawyer, b. in 
Jasper county, Ga., 17 March, 1820; d. in Colum- 
bus, Ga., 22 July, 1883. He was educated at .Mer- 
cer university, and, after studying law, was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1839. For a while he followed 
his profession, but the death of his father caused 
him to give his attention to planting. From 1845 
till 1847 he was a member of the state legislature, 
and in 1850 was a delegate to the southern con- 
vention held in Nashville during May. In 1853 he 
was made judge of the superior courts of the Chat- 
tahoochee circuit, and held that office until his 
election to congress as a democrat, where he served 
from 3 Dec., 1855, until his withdrawal on 23 Jan., 
1861. He was then elected by the convention of 
Georgia a delegate to the Confederate provisional 
congress, serving from January, 1861, till Febru- 
ary, 1862, and subsequently was appointed one of 
the three commissioners sent to treat with the au- 
thorities in Washington for a peaceful separation 
of the states. During 1862 he raised the 3d Georgia 
cavalry, and after a year's service was transferred 
to the staff of Gen. Howell Cobb, with whom he 
continued until the close of the war. He then re- 
sumed the practice of his profession, and in 1875 
was appointed judge of the superior courts of the 
Chattahoochee circuit, to which office in 1877 he 
was reappointed for a term of eight years. In 
1880 he was appointed associate justice of the su- 
preme court of Georgia, to fill the unexpired term 
of Logan E. Bleckley, on the completion of which 
he became his own successor by appointment from 
the state legislature. 

CRAWFORD, Samuel Wylie, soldier, b. in 
Franklin county, Pa., 8 Nov., 1829. He was gradu- 
ated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1846, 
after which he studied medicine, and in 1851 be- 
came an assistant surgeon in the U. S. army. He 
served in various forts in the southwest, principally 
in Texas, until 1860, when he was stationed at Fort 
Moultrie and later at Fort Sumter, being one of the 
garrison of that fort at the beginning of the civil 
war, and having command of a battery during the 
bombardment. From that time till August, 1861, 
he was at Fort Columbus, New York harbor. He 
then vacated his commission of assistant surgeon 
by accepting the appointment of major in the 18th 
infantry, and in 1862 was commissioned a briga- 
dier-general of volunteers. Gen. Crawford served 
with distinction in the Shenandoah campaign, being 
present at the battles of Winchester and Cedar 
Mountain, losing one half of his brigade in the last- 
named action. At the battle of Antietam he suc- 
ceeded Gen. Mansfield in command of his division, 
and was severely wounded. Early in 1863 he was 
placed in command of the Pennsylvania reserve-, 
then stationed about Washington, and with thaw 
troops, forming the 3d division of the 5th army 






« i; \\\ lORD 



(HAW 



corps', he wit engaged at Qettyel ng with 

rt In ibsequently he participated in nil 

operations <>f the Army" of tin- Potomac until 
••of the war. He was bn'vettedesjooeBjhejhr 
from colonel, in 1888. u|i to major-general in lHitt, 
for conspicuous gallantry in the buttles of the 
Wilderness, Spotteylrania, Petersburg, Fire Forks. 

and other engagements, tieii. Crawford M inn-- 

land out of the volunteer en viae in I860, end then 
served with l > i — wejwn^ in the south, ht^wifag 
eolonel of the 18th infant rv In February, 181 

later of the 8d infantry, lit- continued in the ser- 
vice until February, 1*7:1, when, owing todleebUity 
reuniting from wounds, be was retired with the 

nuik of brigadier-general. 

l i:\\\HII!l). Thomas sculptor, b. in New 
York citv. 81 Miirch. 1814; <l. in London, I80ot, 
lie was of Irish parentage. Of his early 
years we only know tlmt he was at school with 
Page, the artist, ami that liis proficiency in hit 
studies was hindered bv the exuberance of liis 
(MOT, which took form in drawings and carvings. 
His love of art led him, at the age of nineteen, to 
enter the studios of Fra/.erand Launitz, artists and 
artificers in marble, well known to the New York 
of that day. In is:{4 he went abroad for the pro- 
motion of artistic studies, and took up his residence 
in Home for life, as it proved. The celebrated sculp- 
tor, Thorwaldsen, became his master and friend. 
Under this fortunate guidance he devoted himself 
to the study both of the antique and of living 
models. His first ideal work was a group of •• I >i - 
pheus and Cerberus," executed in 1889, and pur- 
chased, some years later, for the Boston athemeum. 
This was followed by a succession of groups, single 
figures, and bas-reliefs, whose rapid production 
bore witness to the fertility as well as the versatili- 
ty of his genius. Among these are •• Adam and 
five" and a bust of Josiah Quincy, now in the Bee- 
ton athenaeum; " Hebe and Ganymede," presented 
to the Boston art museum by Mr. C. C. Perkins, and 
a bronze statue of Beethoven, presented by tin- same 
gentleman to the Boston music hall: "Babes in 
the Wood," in the Lenox library; "Mercury and 
Psyche"; "Flora," now in the gallery of the late 
Mrs. A. T. Stewart; an Indian girl": "Dancing 
.letinv," modelled from his own daughter; and a 
statue of James Otis, which adorns the chapel at 
Mount Auburn, Cain1>ridge. In 1849, while on a 
visit to this country, he received from the state 
of Virginia an order for a monument to be erected 
in Richmond. He immediately returned to Home 
and began the work, of which the design was a 
star of live rays, each one of these bearing a statue 
of some historic Virginian. Patrick Henry ■! 1 
Thomas Jefferson among the number. The work 
i> surmounted by a plinth, on which stands an 
equestrian statue of Weebingl on. These statues, 
modelled in Rome, were cast at the celebrated Mu- 
nich foundry, where, as elsewhere, their merit was 
much appreciated Mr. Crawford's most important 
works after these were ordered bv the national <:<>\ - 
eminent for the oapito] at Washington. First 
among these was a marble pediment, bearing life- 
size figures symbolical of the progress of American 
civilization; next in order came a bronze figure of 
Liberty, which surmounts the dome; and last of 
these, end <>f his life-work, was a bronze door on 

which are modelled various scenes in the public life 

of Washington. Prominent among Mr. Crawford's 
works was also his statue of an Indian chief much 

admired by the Bngiiah sculptor Gibson, whopro- 

|M»ed that ' ii bronze copy of it should l»- retained 
in Home as a lasting monument. Mr. < "rawford's 
health failed under the pressure of the great public 



works hem enumerated. In 1<!6 he wan suddcnlr 
afllioted with blindness censed bye cancerous ■/• 
w above middle height, well formed 
and athletic, with a clear eye. ruddr complexion, 
and energetic temperament/ I lie wm a 

liberal, m religion a Protestant, m character gen. 
e roim and kindly, and adverse to discords, profee* 
sioual or social.'— His SOU, I'ranrN X alien, au- 
thor. I>. in Bagni di Lucca, Italy. 2 Aug., 1854, has 
lived chiefly abroad, lb' has published novels, in- 
eluding "Mr. Isna< forfc. 1882); M Dec- 

tor Claudius" (I «q); 

"To Leeward" (l*s|, : "All A: 

ister" (1885); "Tale of a lonely 
Parish "(lHMj, : and •• Sarecineeca " (1888). 

CKA WFOKII. Thomas Hartley, lawyer, b in 
ChamUrsburg, Pa.. II Nov.. 17sj; : d. in Washing- 
ton. I', i '.. tn iML, 1888, lb- wut graduated st 
Princeton in 1804, studied law, was admit- 
bar in 1807, and began to prnetiei m GkasjaV 

burg. loiter he was altOted as a JsAksOBJ democrat 
to congress, and was re-elected, nerving from 7 
Dee*, 1889, till | March. 1888, I »u ring 1883 he was 
a member of the state legislature, and in 1836 was 
appointed a commissioner to ■ alleged 

trends In the purchase of the reeerrets 

land Of the (reek Indians. Kn-in lKtst till [£ 

be held the office of comndsaionsrof Indian affairs. 
In 184o he was appointed Judge of the criminal 
court of the District of Columbia, and continued as 
such until his death. 

CRAWFORD. William, soldier, b. in Bsrfcsley 

county. Va.. in 1789; d. in Wyandot OOUnty, Ohio, 
11 June, 1788. He wits a ntfrejor. and the asso- 
ciate of Washington, under whom be served. At 
the beginning 01 the French and Indian war he be- 
came an ensign in the Virginia rinemen, end tsj 
with (ten. Breddock in the expedition sgainst Fort 
DuQuesne. He continued in the MrTiee until 1781, 
having been promoted to the grade of contain on 

the recommendation of Washington. He again 
served during the Pontine war from 17«sl till 1 

and in 17<>7 settled in western Pennsylvania, where 
he purchased land and became a justice of the 
peace. Sn.n after the beginning oi the Revolu- 
tionary war he raised a company of Virginians and 
joined' Washington's army. In 1778 M W1B msde 
lieutenant-colonel of the 5th Virginia regiment, nnd 
later beoame colonel, resigning from the ann> in 
17S1. He was at the battM "f Long Island, in the 
sulistHpient retreat across Mew Jersey end ovsrthe 
Delaware. partWpetfd in the Utiles of Tnnt.-n and 
Princeton. an<l afterward was engaged around Phila- 
delphia. In 1778 he was assigned so fr ontier duty. 
ami during the following years was ouwip fa d in 
suppressing the Indian attacks on As -ttlers. 
After his resignation he retired to his farm, in the 
bops of spending the remainder of his days with 
his familv. baring alrea.lv given nearly twenty-five 
vears of his life to the service of his country j but 
in Mav. ITS'2. at the urgent request of (ieiis. Wash* 
ingtoii and William In inc. he accepted, though 

with great reluotenee, the command of on expedi- 
tion egoinel theWyendot and Delaw are Indians on 

the banks of the Muskingum. The Indian - 

red "ii 4 June, and an engagement ensued. 
in which Crawford's troops were surrounded in a 
grove called Battle island by a 1 
Than Ins own. For two days tl 
tinned, when, lading themeelrss hem me d in, «»>«■>■ 
decided to cut their wag out In the ret rvat that 
followed, the soldiers wen' separated. and Col 
ford fell into the hands of the Indian- 
end days of cruel exiierienee, during which he wee 
suhj.vt'.-d to horrible torture, he wss burned to 



6 



CHAW FORI) 



CKKKiUTON 



death. The storv is told l.y N. X. Hill, Jr., in the 
"Magazine of Western History" f<»r May, 1885, 
under 1 1 k - title at "Crawford's Campaign. *' 
CRAWFORD, William Harris, statesman, 1». 

in Amherst county, Ya.. 21 Fcl»., 1772; d. in Elbert 
county, Ga., 15 Sept., 1834. His father, who was 
in reduced eironmstanoes, removed first to South 
Carolina and then to Columbia county, Ga. After 
teaching school at Augusta the boy studied law, 
began practice at Lexington in 1799, and was one 
of the compilers of the first digest of the laws of 
Georgia. He became a member of the state senate 
in 1802, and in 1807 was chosen U. S. senator to 
fill a vacancy. The political excitement of the 
period led him to engage in two duels, in one of 
which his opponent fell, and in the second of 
which he was himself wounded. He was re-elected 
in 1811, acquiesced in the policy of a U. S. bank, 
and in 1812 was chosen president pro tern, of the 
senate. He was at first opposed to the war with 
Great Britain, but eventually gave it his support; 
and in 1813, having declined the place of secretary 
of war, accepted that of minister to France, where 
he formed a personal intimacy with Lafayette. In 

1816, on the re- 
tirement of Mr. 
Dallas, he was 
appointed sec- 
retary of the 
treasury. He 
was prominently 
urged as a can- 
didate for the 
presidency, but 
remained at the 
head of the treas- 
ury department, 
whereheadhered 
to the views of 
Mr. Jefferson, 
and opposed the 
federal policy in 
regard to in- 
ternal improve- 
ments, then sup- 
?orted by a considerable section of his own party, 
'his position on the great question of the time sub- 
jected him to virulent hostility from opponents of 
his own party ; and Mr. Calhoun, who was one of 
these opponents, became a dangerous rival for the 
democratic nomination for the presidency, to suc- 
ceed Monroe. Crawford, however, as the choice of 
the Virginia party, and the representative of the 
views of Jefferson, secured the nomination of a con- 
gressional caucus in February, 1824; and in the 
election that followed he received the electoral votes 
of Virginia and Georgia, with scattering votes from 
New York, Maryland, and Delaware — in all, 41. No 
choice having been made by the electoral college, the 
election reverted to the house of representatives, 
where John Quincy Adams was elected over Jackson 
and Crawford, through the influence of Henry Clay, 
the fourth candidate before the people, who brought 
his friends to the support of Adams. The result 
was also due, in a measure, to the confirmed ill 
health of Mr. Crawford, and perhaps to imputa- 
tions brought against his conduct of the treasury 
department! These charges hejairomptly refuted, 
and a committee that included Daniel Webster and 
John Randolph unanimously declared them to be 
unfounded. Hut his health rendered it impossible 
for him to continue in public life; and, although 
he recovered his strength partially, he took no part 
after this date in politics. Returning to Georgia. 
he became circuit judge, which office he continued 




^*~&0r<»y£r*<- 



to fill with great efficiency, by successive elections 
in 1828 and 1831, until nearly the end of his life. 
He had no connection with tne nullification move- 
ment, to which he was opposed : and his last days 
were spent in ret ir e men t. Personally he was a 
man of conspicuous social gifts, an admirable 
conversationalist, religious in his views and feel- 
ings, and a supporter of Baptist convictions. At 
his home he dispensed a hearty republican hospi- 
tality, and his name is eminent among the illus- 
trious citizens of Georgia. — His son, Nathaniel 
Macon, educator, b. in Oglethorpe county, Ga., 22 
March, 1811 ; d. in Walker county, Va., 27 Oct., 
1871, was graduated at the University of Georgia 
in 1829 with the first honor. At the age of twen- 
ty-five he was elected to a professorship in Ogle- 
thorpe college, at Milledgeville, Ga. He had been 
a Presbyterian, but changed his views and entered 
the Baptist ministry. In 1846 he accepted the 
chair or theology in Mercer university, and ten 
years later was elected to the presidency, but soon 
retired to accept the professorship of moral philoso- 

Ehy in the University of Mississippi In 1857 he 
ecame professor of theology in Georgetown, Ky., 
but returned to Georgia again as president of Mer- 
cer university, where he remained for seven years. 
At the close of the war, in 1865, he accepted the 
presidency of Georgetown college, Ky., and con- 
tinued to fill this office until near the time of his 
death. He was the author of a volume entitled 
u Christian Paradoxes." 

CRAZY HORSE, Indian chief, b. about 1842. 
He was an Ogallalla Sioux, brother-in-law of Red 
Cloud, and one of the principal chiefs of the hos- 
tile Indians that for several years defied the au- 
thority of the U. S. government in the northwest- 
ern territories. He left Fort Laramie, and went 
to war, after the murder of his brother in 
1865. He soon established a reputation as a brave 
and cunning leader, and gathered a strong band, 
whom he ruled with despotic rigor. With Sitting 
Bull he surprised and destroyed Gen. Custer's com- 
mand on the Little Big-Horn river, 25 June, 1876. 
He was pursued by Gen. Terry into the Black Hills, 
and the following spring Gen. Crook conducted an 
expedition against him and forced him to surren- 
der, with 900 followers, at the Red Cloud agency. 

CREERY, William Rufus, educator, b. in Bal- 
timore, Md., 9 May. 1824; d. there, 1 Mav, 1875. 
He was graduated at Dickinson college, Carlisle, 
Pa., in 1842, and at once began teaching in the pub- 
lic schools of Baltimore, continuing in this occu- 
gation until 1854, when he became professor of 
elles-lettres in Baltimore city college. In 1859 he 
was chosen president of the Lutherville female 
seminary, where he remained until 1862, when he 
renewed his teaching in the public schools of Bal- 
timore. Five years later he was elected city super- 
intendent of public instruction for a term of lour 
years, and in 1872 was re-elected. In conjunction 
with Prof. M. A. Newell he prepared the Maryland 
series of school-books, which includes " Primary- 
School Spelling-Book " ; " Grammar-School Spell- 
ing-Book " ; a series of six " Readers," and " Cate- 
chism of United States History." 

CREIGHTON, John Orde, naval officer, h. in 
New York city about 1785; d. in Sing Sing, N. Y.. 
13 Oct., 1838. He entered the navy as a midshipman 
in June, 1800, served under Preble before Tripoli, be- 
came a lieutenant, 24 Feb., 1807, and was attached 
to the frigate " Chesapeake," in June, 1807, when 
she was attacked by the " Leopard." He was af- 
terward attached to the " President." and was first 
lieutenant in her action with the " Little. Belt." 16 
May, 1811. lii 1813 he commanded the brig •■ K;i'- 



I REIGHTON 






with the rank ol i mandant, 

tad whs matin rnirtff". 97 April, isi<;. in iv„>i>- , 80 

be commanded t h»- squadron on the oomI of Itrazil. 

( i;i M.ii ion. Johnston Blakeley, naval offl- 

<rr, b. iii Rhode [aland, 12 Sot., 1822; d. in Mor- 

aii, N. .1.. 19 Nor., 1889, ll' entered the 

us ii midshipman, in Feb., \KiH, I mm •nine a 
lieutenant, !• Oct., 1858, commanded tin- steamer 
" ( Mtawa," <>f the SOUtfa Atlantic blockading KJUad- 
run, in 1862, commissioned as commander, '-''» 
Sept., 1869, was on special duty in 1NM, and in 
immander of the steamer " Mahaska," of 
the South Atlantic blockading squadron, which was 
engaged in the bomhardmenl of Forts Wagner 
and txiegg in August, 1869, Be ffll transferred to 
the "Mingo," of the South Atlantic blockading 
squadron, ami commanded that steamer till the 
of the war. He was commissioned captain 
on 99 Nov.. 1S68, and became a commodore on it 
Nov., 1874 He was commandant of the Norfolk 
navy-yard in 1879, and was retired with the rank 
of rear-admiral in 1889. 

< REHJHTON, William, clergyman, b. in New 
York city in 1796; d. in Tarrvtown. N. V.. 99 
April, 1865. He was graduated at Columbia in 
1819, studied theology, and took orders in the 
Protestant Episcopal church, and during a great 
part of his earlier ministry, 1816-'36, was rector of 
St. Mark's in New York city. During the suspen- 
sion of Bishop Onderdonk he was elected provisional 
bishop of the diocese of New York, but declined 
the office. He presided in the diocesan convention 
for nine years, and in the lower house of the gen- 
eral convention of the P. E. church during its ses- 
sions of 1853, 1856, and l&M). Se was. from 1836 
until 1865, rector of Christ church, Tarrytown. 

CKKLE, Joseph, centenarian, !>. in Detroit, 
Mich., in 1725; d. in Caledonia, Wis., 27 Jan.. 
1866. The date of his birth is established l»y the 
record of his baptism in the French Catholic 
church, Detroit. He was married in 1755 at New 
Orleans, and a few years afterward settled at 
Prairie du Chien. He lx>re arms at Braddock'a 
defeat, and before the Revolution was employed 
in earning letters between Prairie du Chien and 
Oreen Bay. He settled in Wisconsin during the 
Revolutionary war. The later years of his life were 
passed with a daughter by his third marriage. born 
when he was sixty-nine years old. He enjoyed ro- 
bust health up to within two vears of his death, 
and was able to walk several miles without fatigue 
and to chop wood for the familv. 

CRENSHAW, Anderson, 'jurist, b. in South 
Carotin*, 99 Hay, 17*:*: d. in Alabama in 1*47. 
He was graduated in 1806 from the College of Co- 
lumbia, S. C, being the first graduate of the insti- 
tution, became a successful lawyer, removed to 
Alabama about 1819, and held the offices of judge 
of the circuit court from 1H21 to 1898, being also, 
until 1832. judge of the supreme court, ami chan- 
cellor of the southern division of the state from 
the organization of a separate court of chancery in 
1838 till his death. Though a Whig in politics, 
he waselected to the judicial pOStS thai lie helil by a 

Democratic legislature.— His son, Walter Henry, 

b. in AbU'ville district. S. < '.. 7 July. 1817; d. in 
Alabama in 1S7S. He was graduated at the du- 
ty of Alabama in 1884, and was from 1888 till 
im'>7 ii member of either the upper or lower house 

of the Alabama legislature, officiating M Bleaker of 

the house in l*'H -*•">. and prcsidenl of the « sate In 
1865-*7. In 1986 he was a member of the Constitu- 
tional conve nti on. He was afterward lodge of the 
Rutler county criminal court, and with two other 
commissioners codified the laws <,f the state, 



< I: I 8 IP, Michael, tra<l.r ami Indian fighter, 
i>. m Alleghany 

emigrated from Yorkshire, BngUi 

western Man land, ami win n memt. r • f •• . n|,, 

company in 1752. His son n 

head, of Philadelphia, while yet a minor, became a 

men hunt, re rod to the Ohio in tie- spring of 

1 77 J. an.! establiahi .1 a settlement 
in::. He took command of the pioneers, who 
I wired for an Indian war. and. after Dr. Coonoflj 
had warned him of a general Indian war, made * 
declaration of hostilities on M April and •!■ U ated 
, a parly of Indians in a skirmish OBJ ' 

otmr party of white* tresctMronslj ma— mil 

I family of the chief Logan on Feu 
gan, who had U-cti friendly to ll ar- 

oused Cresap. as the leader of the white men In 
that region, of committing the crime, and v 
a pathetic BneSOft, attribute*! to Lojma and pre- 
served in Jefferson's •• Notes,* 1 the deed attn. 
his memory, until his son-in-law. J. J. Jacob, and 
later Ilrantz Mayer, proved that he was in Mary- 
land at the time of the occurrence. QoT. Immiion- 
gave him the commission of captain of tin- llam|»- 
shire count v militia in Virginia, After tl< 
elusion of tfie Duninon- exjHilition he returned to 
Maryland, but again went to <»hi<> the foUowfaej 
spring, and penetrated simoal to the Kentucky 
wilderness. On his return he leaned that he had 
been oomniissioned by the Continental congreas as 
captain of a company of Maryland riflemen. He 
went with hi* company to Jioston and joined the 
army of Washington: but. having bssa afflicted 
with his final illness liefnre he took the command, 
and finding himself growing wor„-. he left for 
home, and died on the way. in New York, when he 
was buried with military honors in Trinity chun h- 
vard. S-e " Biographical Sketch of the Iji! 

Mi«ti«jJ Cresap, by J. J. Jaool 

with notes, by Bra'ntz Mayer. Cincinnati. 1HU6), 

See. also. Mayer's disco ur se in vindication of Cn- 
sap. delivered before the Maryland historical so- 
ciety in May. 1861, published under the title 
•• Tagah-jute. OT Logan the Indian, ami Captain 
Michael Cresap' 1 (Nee York, 181 

CRESPEL, Emanuel, clergyman, b. b 
gium about 17<m>. He arrived m Quebec ii 
where be finished hb ecclesiastical shadies, and was 
ordained in K'-'ti. Be accompanied, as cheplnm. 
the expedition of Lignenr against th. I 
was then sin i actively st a ti o n ed at Niagara, Fn -n- 
tenao, and Crown Point. living recalled to Franc*, 
be sailed from Quebeoin 1789, but hi* nsssLth* 
"Iji Renommee, was driven on Anticosti island 
and wrecked. Fifty-four of the |w%seengers escaped. 
The remainder, including F at he r Creeps!, at- 
tempted to reach Hlngan in two b 

which was lost. The survivor. Wen hemmed m 
by ice and forced t<» remain till spring I 
Crespel escaped to an Indian itinn, and l 
fbund his way to I French |»>st, froinwlmh he 
s,nt assistance to hi* companions. Only tl 
then wen found alive. When I I fn-m 

his ■ufflsringi be went toOnsbseaad ««.» appointed 
pastor of Sotsflsm Hereturned to Europe in 1738. 
lie wrote a series of letters describing nsa«s> 
tuns, which appeared in French (Frankfort, 
and were shortly afterward published in (ierman 
(English translation. 1 i ..... 

CRFSSON. Elliott, philanthropist, b. in Phila- 
delphia. 2 Manh. 1796; d. thei 
fjnui lusmhor of the nitnirt] of Fri« - 

. ssful merchant in Philadelphia, and drvoied 
ii to Unevohnt objecta, especially the 



8 



CRESSON 



CREVAUX 



promotion of the welfare of the Indians and ne- 
BOM in tlif I'nited States. He conceived the in- 
tention of becoming a missionary among the Semi- 
noles of Florida, but afterward gave his mind to 
the scheme of colonizing American negroes in 
Africa, engaged in establishing the first colony of 
liberated slaves at Bassa Cove, on the Grain coast, 
became president of the Colonization society. MM 
labored as its agent in New England in the winter 
of 1838-'9, in the southern states in 1839-'40, and 
in Great Britain in 1840-'2 and 1850-'3. He left 
in his will $122,000 to various benevolent institu- 
tions, and a lot, valued at $30,000, for a home for 
superannuated merchants and gentlemen. 

CRESSON, John Chapman, civil engineer, b. 
in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1806 ; d. there in 1876. 
He was educated at a Friends' academy, attended 
lectures on agriculture at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, and then became a farmer, but sold his 
farm in 1834, and engaged in business in Philadel- 
phia. He was then made superintendent and en- 
gineer of the Philadelphia gas-works, and held the 
office for twenty-eight years. He was given the 
chair of mechanics and natural philosophy in 
Franklin institute in 1837, and in 1855 was made 
its president. He also held a similar chair in the 
Philadelphia high-school for two years. He was 
for many years a manager and one of the vice- 
presidents of the Pennsylvania institution for the 
blind, and was connected with many other charita- 
ble institutions. He was also manager of the 
Schuylkill navigation company, president of the 
Mine HUl and Schuylkill Haven railroad company 
in 1847-76, and one of the original Fairmount 
park commissioners, afterward becoming chief en- 
gineer of that park. 

CRESWELL, John A. J., statesman, b. in Port 
Deposit, Cecil co., Md., 18 Nov., 1828 ; d. in Elkton, 
Ind\, 23 Dec, 1891. He was graduated at Dickinson 
college, Pa., and. was admitted to the Maryland bar. 
He was a member of the state legislature in 1860 
and 1862, and assistant adjutant-general for Mary- 
land in 1862-'3. He was elected to congress, and 
served from 7 Dec, 1863, till 3 March, 1865 ; and, 
having distinguished himself as an earnest friend 
of the Union, was elected as a republican to the U. 
S. senate in March, 1865, to fill the unexpired term 
of Thomas H. Hicks. On 22 Feb., 1866, he de- 
livered, at the request of the House of represen- 
tatives, a memorable eulogy of his friend and col- 
league, Henry Winter Davis. He was a delegate 
to the Baltimore convention of 1864, the Philadel- 
phia loyalists' convention of 1866, the Border states 
convention held in Baltimore in 1867, and the 
Chicago republican convention of 1868. In May, 
1868, he was elected secretary of the U. S. senate, 
but declined. On 5 March, 1869, he was appointed 
by President Grant postmaster-general of the 
United States, and served till 3 July, 1874. 

CRESWELL, Julia (Pleasants), author, b. in 
Huntsville, Ala., 21 Aug., 1827; d.nearShreveport, 
La., 9 June, 1886. Her father. Col. James J. 
Pleasants, of Virginia, removed to Alabama, be- 
came secretary of state, and married a daughter 
of Gov. Bibb." The daughter was educated by a 
superior teacher from the north, and was encour- 
aged by her father to write verses. In 1854 she 
married David Creswell, a lawyer and planter, who 
was a district judge of Alabama. Her cousin, 
Thomas Bibb M. Bradley, a young poet of promise, 
who died soon afterward, induced her to publish a 
selection of her poems with some of his own. The 
volume appeared in 1854, before her marriage, un- 
der the title " Apheila, and other Poems, by two 
Cousins of the South " (New York). After the war 



Mrs. Creswell taught a village-school, while her 
husband, who had lost his large estate, resumed the 
practice of law. She has published an allegorical 
novel entitled "Callamura" (Philadelphia, 1868), 
and left many unpublished poems to be issued in a 
posthumous volume. 

CRETIN, Joseph, R. C. bishop, b. in Lyon* 
France, in 1800; d. in St. Paul, Minn., in 1857. 
He studied in his native diocese, and became a 
priest, with the intention of devoting himself to 
the foreign missions. In 1838 he volunteered for 
the diocese of Dubuque, and reached that city in 
1839. He was appointed vicar-general and pastor 
of the cathedral. In 1843 he took up his residence 
at Prairie du Chien among the Winnebagoes. He 
was requested by them to build a church and 
school-house, but was prevented from doing so by 
the Indian agent. Father Cretin continued among 
the Winnebagoes till 1848, when he was expelled 
by the government officials, and the tribe removed 
to Long Prairie. He then returned to Dubuque. 
In 1849 the seventh council of Baltimore recom- 
mended the erection of Minnesota into a diocese, 
with the title of St. Paul, and the appointment of 
Father Cretin to the new see. He proceeded to 
France in order to secure priests for his diocese, 
and there received episcopal consecration at the 
hands of the bishop of Belley. He returned to 
America in 1851, accompanied by several priests, 
and began his work at St. Paul. Before the end 
of the year he was enabled to substitute a building 
of stone for the little log cabin in which he minis- 
tered, and to establish a school and seminary. At 
this period there was an immense influx of popula- 
tion into Minnesota, and Bishop Cretin was soon 
organizing Catholic parishes in every direction. 
In 1853 the Sisters of St. Joseph were introduced 
into the diocese, and placed in charge of an acade- 
my for young ladies, and of the parochial schools. 
Bishop Cretin also erected a hospital, an asylum, 
and novitiate, which he confided to their care. He 
revived the mission among the Winnebagoes, who 
had been removed to Long Prairie. He stationed 
a pastor and opened a school among them, which 
was managed by the Sisters of St. Joseph. He also 
established missions among the Ojibways, and sta- 
tioned priests and founded churches at Crow Wing, 
Mill Lake, Sandy Lake, Saux Rapids, and Fond du 
Lac, as well as promoting the nourishing Indian 
settlements on the British border. In 1855 he gave 
the Brothers of the Holy Family charge of his 
schools for boys, and established a novitiate of the 
order in St. Paul. He founded a house of the Sis- 
ters of the Propagation of the Faith at Pembina 
for the instruction of the Indians. Through his 
agency a convent of the Benedictine order was 
erected at St. Cloud, which has grown into a great 
school and abbey. He also founded a convent of 
Benedictine nuns. Bishop Cretin did much to de- 
velop the resources of Minnesota by the interest he 
took in immigration. His letters addressed to in- 
tending emigrants, published in the New York 
journals, and copied into the newspapers of Eu- 
rope, had the effect of determining many to settle 
in his adopted territory. When he was appointed 
bishop, there were in his diocese one log church 
and three priests : in a few years there were twenty 
priests, twenty-nine churches, and thirty-five sta- 
tions, and the Catholic population had increased to 
more than 50,000. He built the cathedral of St 
Paul at a cost of $70,000. 

CREVAUX, Jules Nicolas, French explorer, 
b. in Lorquin, Lorraine, 1 April, 1847; killed in 
Bolivia, 24 April, 1882. He studied medicine at 
Strasburg and in the Naval medical school at Brest, 






CRITTKXDRH 



became assistant surgeon in the French navy on 34 

3, whs attached to the marines at the be- 

gfuaing <>f tht war of 1*?<». Itecamc a surgeon of 

the second class in I s ?:!. sained the otom of the 

lagton of honor in 1S7<> for devotion U) \ellow- 

brrer patients in the Salui islands, and, after n-- 

ering from an attack of the disease, ascended 

Maroui river fan French Guiana, explored tin* Tu- 

nrao-Humac mountains, and desoanaad tin Yuri to 

the Amazon. He afterward ascended tin- Ovapock 
■gain, mill daaoondai the Payou to the Amazon, 
anil then explored Tapoura river. Altera visit to 
Frame. I>r. Orervau returned to Booth America, 

made a voyage on the Orinoco, and in lssi set out 
from Buenos Ayrm with a number of oompanioai 

to ascend the Paraguay ami cross over to the Ama- 
zon by the Tapajos and the Zingu. The expedi- 
tion roachod the confluence of the Pilaya ami Pil- 
comayo, ami embarked in three boats; hut. in the 
Btfloa of the Teyo, Dr. Crevaux and all his com- 
panions save two were treacherously murdered by 
the Tapeti Indians. 

CUEVECCEl'R. Jean Hector St. John de, 
author. I), in Caen. Normandy, in 1781 ; d. in Sar- 
celle. near Paris, in 1813. After studying in Eng- 
laud he emliarked for America in 1754. Be pur- 
ohtMed an estate near New York, and married the 
daughter of an American merchant. Daring the 
wars of the Revolution his farm was frequently 
ravaged, and he himself forced to seek safety in 
flight. In 17S0, as his affairs in Europe required 
his presence, he obtained permission from the Brit- 
ish commander to cross tne line of the army, and 
entered New York with one of his sons, from which 
city he was about to sail. But the unexpected 
appearance of a French squadron led to his being 
susiMicted of having entered New York as a spy, 
ana he was cast into prison. After a detention of 
three months, he was released by two prominent 
merchants becoming security for him. He then 
embarked on a vessel sailing for Dublin, and 
reached France in 17*'.?. About this time he in- 
troduced the culture of the American potato into 
Normandy. He had previously published in Eng- 
lish his "Letters of an American Farmer." Be 
now translated those letters into French and had 
them published in Paris. He then returned to 
New \ork. where he was appointed 1'ivnch consul. 
Nil sooner had he landed, in November, 17*3. than 
he learned that his house had been burned and his 
farm ravaged by the savages. His wife had died a 
few weeks before, and he could learn nothing of his 
children. He discovered them, however, in the 
charge of an English merchant named Flower. 
who, through gratitude for Crevecoeur's kindness 
to the English prisoners in Normandy, had, at 
great risk, re-cued them. The appointment of 
Cn'veccpur was agreeable to the American govern- 
ment, and Washington gave him particular proofs 
of his esteem. He accompanied Franklin m the 
journey that the latter took in 1787 to Lancaster 
to lay the first stone of the college which he had 
founded. The "Lettrcs d'un cultivateur Aimri- 
cain" £ vols., Paris, 1784) gives an elaborate de- 
scription of the United States and Canada. It was 
so laudatory of the climate, productions, etc. that 
more than "five hundred families left France 00 
the faith of Crevecceur's statement-, and settled 
on the Ohio, where most of them pe rished Be 
also wrote "La culture des |>onimcs de terrv" and 
•• Voyage dans la haute Peii-vlvanie et dans lY-tat 
de New York" (2 vol's.. Paris 1801). 

CRIADO l>E CA8TILLA, Aiuuso (cre-ah'-do 
ilav nastncil -yah), Spanish governor of Gua t ema l a 
from 131)8 till Pill. During his administration 



peace and order nhjMi in every section i 
country, a* the nlilm-tertng s«naflt4aM headed »-t 
Drake hud been successfully npelled before he en- 
tered ofliec. !)•■ fotiiidetl the town and port of 
Santo ToimU. on the harUr ..f Camilla 

I BINNON, Pater « rancls, Canadian R. c. 
bishop, b. m cuilen, ...tinty Louth, Ireland, m 

1. in Jacksonville, Fin., in 1*K>. He cam* 
to Canada when a Uiv, and SJM oninined in To- 
ronto in 1064 He was then typointed tn misskm 
ary duty in Lmdon. Ontario, lb- elected St. 

church in Stratford. He became bishop of 
Hamilton in 1*74. During hi- admu 
the diocese the nnmher of < aihHke *a* doubled. 
CRISPIN, Silas, s..i.iier. b. m r« Mil i earn 

alx>ut Ikiii. He was appointed to the I'. S, mili- 
tary academy in 1H4I1. and at graduation ranked 
thinl in his class. Assigned to duty at the arwnal 
at Watervliet, N. Y.. he numim-d ther 
and then served successively at the arsenals at 
Alleghany, Pa.. St. Louin M<>.. and the I^eaveo- 
worth onlnance de|Mit in Kan-ax. In 1800 he be- 
came assistant in-jKH-tor of arsenal*. He was pro- 
moted captain of ordnance, :t ftfjg Ifltl. SSsfl in 
that grade served through the Oivfl war, liar ing 
charge of different dejiots for the onlnance depart- 
ment. He received snocesstve broveti to include 
that of colonel in the regular army at the eloae of 
the civil war. but did not receive hi- precaution a* 
major of ordnance until 7 March, 1807. < >n 14 
April, 1878, lie eras promoted lieutenant-colonel, 
and colonel 88 Aug- 1861. 

CHITTENDEN, John Jordan, statesman, b. 
in Woodford oounty, Kv.. i<» SepC, l>7: d near 
Frankfort. Ky., 80 July'. 1808. Ilis father served 
in the war of the Revolution, with the rank of 
major. The son was graduated at William and 
Mary college in 1*07. and entered upon the prac- 
tice of the law in 
his native coun- 
tv, but after a 
snort time re- 
moved to I/Ogan 
county, border- 
ing on Tennessee, 
a thinly settled 

Fart of the state. 
n 1H<K) Gov. 
Ninian Edwards 
appointed him 
attorney-general 
of the territory 
of Illinois. Be 
served for a short 
time as a volun- 
teer in the war 
..f 1818, was aide 
to Gen. Shelby in 
1818, and served 
with Adair and Barry in the Canada campaign. 
After leaving the army he n-iiiii.il the i>n». 
hi- pioftaainn. soon attaining a high place st the 
bar In 1810 llS was elected to the legislature, 
when he at once toot a high rank. Tie 
vear he was elected to the V. s. senate, but after 
three vear-' service he ssfhrnod hi- sssA and in 
Ok up his n-idenee in Frankfort. Hera 
he soon rose to eminence in the legal P*?*""* 00 ] 
c-|h< iallv as a criminal law> . rved ssvora l 

term- in the legislatun I hi f" "! 

,,1 |,v Pre-ident Adam- V. S t attorney. 

i.ut on the sneaeatea of Gem Jackson t» the 

preside.ii v in 1S29. he was removed. He was 

: again to the C S. senate in 1885. and 
served a full term. In the remarkable cam 




Jj/VScUt**\s*^*~ 



10 



CRITTENDEN 



CRITTENDEN 



1840 Mr. Crittenden took an active part in favor 
of Gen. Harrison. He was n elected to the senate 
at the expiration <>f his term, but resigned his scat 
to accept the appointment of attorney-general in 
Harrison's cabinet. On the death of Harrison, 
and the accession of Mr. Tyler, Mr. Crittenden's 
views of national policy not being in harmony 
with those of the new president, he retired from 
the cabinet. Mr. Clay having decided to retire 
from the senate in 1842, Mr. Crittenden was ap- 
pointed to fill the vacant seat ; and at the expira- 
tion of the term was again elected for a full term. 
In 1848 he was elected governor of Kentucky, and 
resigned his seat in the senate to fill that office. 
Notwithstanding the intimate relations between 
Mr. Clay and himself, he favored the nomination 
of Gen. Taylor in 1848 as the whig candidate for 
the presidency, but only after Mr. Clav had 
assured him that he would not be a candidate. 
When the president died, and Mr. Fillmore suc- 
ceeded him, Mr. Crittenden accepted the port- 
folio of attorney-general in the new cabinet. The 
great question as to the constitutionality of the 
fugitive-slave law was referred to him, and he 
prepared an opinion in favor of it. In 1855 he 
was once more elected to the senate, and took 
a leading part in the discussions of the impor- 
tant questions that came before congress in the 
course of the next five years. The sentiments 
uttered by him were eminently national, and he 
exerted his full strength in a patriotic effort to 
effect a satisfactory settlement of the disturbing 
elements that imperilled the perpetuity of the 
Union. He opposed the repeal of the Missouri 
compromise, ana, in expressing his views of the 
questions growing out or the Kansas troubles, vig- 
orously opposed the policv of the administrations 
of Presidents Pierce and Buchanan. He favored 
the election of Bell and Everett in the presidential 
canvass of 1860. He vehemently opposed seces- 
. sion, and supported Mr. Lincoln's administration, 
holding that it was the right and duty of the gov- 
ernment to maintain the Union by force. He ex- 
erted his full power to effect a compromise between 
the contending parties, but, failing to accomplish 
it, took his stand for the government. In the 
hope of maintaining the Union, he proposed an 
amendment to the constitution in December, 1860, 
providing for the re-enactment of the Missouri 
compromise, and the prohibition of any interfer- 
ence by congress with slavery wherever it should be 
legally established. Mr. Crittenden had been six 
times elected to the senate, and his last effort in that 
body was to save the Union. On 4 March, 1861, 
he presented the credentials of his successor, Mr. 
Breckinridge, and retired. Returning to Ken- 
tucky, he urged his state to stand by the Union, 
and held it firmly against the appeals of the other 
states of the south. He became a candidate for a 
seat in congress, and, being elected, took his place 
in the house of representatives, where he was at 
once recognized as a powerful leader. He offered, 
on 19 July, 1861, the following resolution, which 
was adopted with only two dissenting votes : " Re- 
solved by the house of representatives of the con- 
gress of the United States, That the present de- 
Elorable civil war has been forced upon the country 
y the disunionists of the southern states, uir in 
arms against the constitutional government, and 
in arms around the capital ; that in this national 
emergency congress, banishing all feelings of mere 
passion or resentment, will recollect its only duty 
to the whole country ; that this war is not waged 
on their part in any spirit of oppression, or for any 
purpose of conquest or subjugation, or purpose of 



overthrowing or interfering with the rights or es- 
tablished institution^ of those states, but to defend 
and maintain the supremacy of the constitution, 
and to preserve the Union with all the dignity, 
equality, and rights of the several states unim- 
paired : and that as soon as these objects are ac- 
complished the war ought to cease." He opposed 
the employment of slaves as soldiers, and he denied 
the power of congress to organize the state of 
Wed Virginia. His last speech, delivered 22 I'd... 
1863, showed that his force had not abated. He 
denounced the conscription bill, and declared that 
the war had been changed from its original pur- 
pose. He was again a candidate for congress. I mt 
died before the election. Mr. Crittenden's per- 
sonal qualities were fine. He made friends every- 
where ; there was cordiality blended with dig- 
nity in his manner ; his voice was musical in con- 
versation, and captivating in his public speeches. 
By Thomas Corwin and others of his compeers he 
was esteemed the most able debater in the senate. 
— His son, George Bibb, b. in Russellville, Kv., 
20 March, 1812 ; d. in Danville, Ky., 27 Nov., 1880, 
was graduated at the U. S. military academy in 
1832, served in the Black Hawk expedition, though 
not at the seat of war, and resigned, 30 April, 1833. 
He volunteered in the Texan revolution of 1835, 
and was taken prisoner at Meir, on the Rio Grande, 
by the Mexicans, who carried him with his com- 
pany to the city of Mexico, where he was confined 
in a foul prison until released, through the inter- 
vention of Daniel Webster, nearly a year after- 
ward. On one occasion the Mexicans decided to 
shoot a certain number of the prisoners as a meas- 
ure of retaliation, and Crittenden, being an officer, 
was one of the first to draw lots to determine 
which of them should die. He drew a favorable 
lot, but when a friend who had a family drew a 
fatal black bean, he gave to that soldier his white 
bean, and risked his life in another chance. He 
served through the Mexican war as captain of 
mounted rifles, and was brevetted major for gal- 
lantry at Contreras and Churubusco, was one of 
the first to enter the city of Mexico, became major 
of mounted rifles, 15 April, 1848. served on frontier 
duty, was promoted lieutenant-colonel, 30 Dec., 
1856, and on 10 June, 1861, resigned and joined 
the Confederate service. He was commissioned 
brigadier-general, and soon afterward major-gen- 
eral, and was assigned, in November, 1861, to the 
command of southeastern Kentucky and a part of 
eastern Tennessee. On learning that Gen. Zolli- 
coffer had moved his forces across the Cumberland 
at Mill Spring, he gave orders to recross the river, 
but Zollicoffer delayed executing the order until 
the rise of the river rendered it impracticable to 
transport the artillery. When Gen. Thomas ap- 
proached with a large force, on 18 Jan., 1862, Gen. 
Crittenden ordered an attack. The Confederates 
attempted to surprise the Union troops at Fishing 
Creek ; but only two regiments came up to begin 
the attack in the morning of 19 Jan., and after the 
death of Gen. Zollicoffer the troops were demoral- 
ized. Gen. Crittenden effected the retreat of his 
forces across the river, leaving the artillery be- 
hind. He was severely censured for making the 
attack, was kept under arrest until November, and 
soon afterward resigned his commission. He con- 
tinued to serve as a volunteer on tin* staff of Gen. 
John S. Williams, who frequently followed his ad- 
vice and gave him the command of bodies of troops. 
After the war he resided in Frankfort. Ky., where 
lie was state librarian from 1867 to 1871. — Another 
son, Thomas Leonidas, b. in Russelh ijle. Ky.. 15 
May, 1815, studied law under his father, was ad- 



CRoASDALF 



CBOCKKK 



11 



mitted t<> Um l>ur, and I M-camc commonwealth's at- 
torney In Kan tacky in 1842. lie Mired In t In- 
Mexican war as lieutenant-colonel of Kentucky 
infantry, and was volunteer aide t" Qen. Taylor at 
the Iwittle of Pinna Vista. In 1861 li" \\a- ap- 
|K>int«-«i liv President Taylor consul t<> Urerpeol, 
an<l nmd till 1868, then returned to tin- United 

States, resided for some time ut Frankfort, and 
afterward engaged in mercantile business at Louis- 
ville, Ky. At the beginning of tin fllrfl war he es- 
poused the national oauss, and on 27 Oct., 1861, 
was appointed brigadier-general of volunteer*. Hi 
commanded a division at the liattle of Shiloh. and 
was promoted major-general, 17 .Inly, 1NU2. for gal- 
lant services on that Bornnion, and assigned to the 
command <>f a division in the Army of the Tennes- 
see, lie commanded the 2d corps, forming the 
left wing of the Army of the Ohio under Gen. 
Hucll, and afterward served under (Jen. Boseetam 
in the battle of Stone River, and at Chickamauga 
commanded one of the two corps that were routed. 
In the Virginia campaign of 1864 he commanded 
a division of the QtO corps. He resigned, 18 Deo. 
1864, but entered the regular army as colonel of 
the 68d infantry on 28 July, UNMLwss breYetted 
brigadier-general for gallant rv at Stone River, 2 
March, 18(17, transferred to the 17th infantry in 
lsii!», and served with his regiment on the frontier 
until he was retired on 19 May, 1881.— Thomas T., 
a nephew of John Jordan, l>. in Alabama about 
1828. served in the Mexican war as lieutenant of 
Missouri mounted volunteers, afterward settled in 
Indiana, and entered the volunteer army in 1861 
as colonel of a regiment of three months' men, 
with a detachment of which he took part in the 
battle of Philippi. The regiment was reorganized 
under his command at the expiration of its term 
of service, and served for three years. lie was 
promoted brigadier-general on 28 April, 1862, and 
taken prisoner at Murfreesboro on 12 July, and not 
released till October. He resigned 5 May, 1863. 

CROASDALE, Samuel, soldier, b. in Penn- 
sylvania; d. at Antietam, Md., 17 Sept.. 1862. Ib- 
was a lawyer in Doylestown, Pa. Immediately 
after the president's proclamation of 15 April, 1861, 
he volunteered for three months, and, after the 
governor's call for nine mont lis' men in the summer 
of 1868, raised a company in Doylestown, and. 
iijxm the organization of the 12Nth Pennsylvania 
regiment, was appointed its colonel. After a few 
week>' service in camps of instruction near Wash- 
ington, the emergencies of the invasion of Mary- 
land required the services of the regiment in the 
field. At Antietam it was assigned an important 
position, and Col. Croasdale, baring formed I i- 
men in line, was Uniting an assault undei a heavy 
lire, when a ball killed him instantly. 

< ROCKKR. A I van, capitalist, b. in Leominster, 
Mass., 14 o.t.. 1801; d. in Pitchburg, 2i> Deo, 
l^Tl. He obtained an academic education, entered 
a paper-mill at Franklin. X. EL, in lN-<>. removed 
to Fitehburg, Mass., in 1898, and l>egan to manu- 
facture papal on his own account on borrowed 
capital. lie struggled for many years with debt-, 
but gradually extended his business, and in 1*34 
laid the foundation for a fortune by purchasing all 
the land in the Xa-him valley, in order to build a 
Hew road. He was elected to the Massachusetts 

legislature in 1835, where he advocated steam 
communication with Mo-ton, returned to the 
legislature in 1848, and obtained a chattel for a 
railroad be t w e e n northern Massachusetts and 
the seaboard, which was completed through his 
■•ion- in 1h4">. He afterward engaged in build- 
ing the Vermont and MassSfihusstta, the Troy and 



Boston, and the Hoow tunnel railroad*, and in 

- lectured in UhaJf of It. 
Hoar in- paper milk which became Um largwjt In 
the United state-, if built tn arhlne ahope and 
foundries. He was the tir-t to uae cotton-warts in 
the manufacture of white VgftK, ami palm-leef 
fibre for coarse wall-pa|»-r. II. tv a member of 
the state senate for two terms during the ciril war, 
on 2 Jan.. 1878, wm elected to congraw a. a re^ 
publican to Mm out the unexpired term of 
William 11. Wadiburn. who had | wll nimi \,. 
■Wianut, and wa- n-.].<t.-d f..r the following 
term, serving from 14 Feb., IM72, until hi- death. 

(ROCK hit. Charles railroad builder, b. in 
Troy, N. v.. 16 8ept, 1822; d. m Monterey, GaL, 

14 Am:.. 1***. He had a fair .-ducatioii. and waa 
tVned adrift by In- father. In 1846 ha * 
California, engaged in mining, and "|«'iied a store 
anient... He ua- elected t<> the common 
council in 1h.V>, and to the l.gi-lature m 1800, 
With Lalaad Stanford, Mark Hopkins, and 
P. Huntington, he furiii-li.-d meant for the stirrer 
of a railroad route aOTOSi the Sierra Neva<la; ana 
on the |iassage of the Pnion Pacific railr.^wl bill 
by congress he was aasooiated with them in con- 
structinu' the Central Pacific divi-i..n. tl. 
sujiplving the capital beyond the government 
suioidy. He personally built a large por* 
the nio-t difficult wjQHons. ander contrast. In 
1871 he was e l ected president «-f the Boutassi 
Pacific railroad oomp a ny, of California, and second 
vice-president of the Cent ml Pacific. -u|« nntend- 
lug, in the former capacity, the eonstrucooaof the 
divisions in Arizona. New nterico, and Tcxa 
1884 he effected a consolidation of the prOpertM 
of the two companies, having a joint oontrsl of 
s.itd.t miles of railroad and steam-hip lines, and 
soon afterward removed t<> New Vork city. 

CROC KKK. Hannah Mather, author, b. in 
Boston, Mas-., in 17<m; d. in Rozoury, Mass., 10 
July, 1H47. She was a granddaughter • 4 
ton Mather, a daughter of tie Bi r. Samuel 

Mather, of Boston, and married Joseph < i 

Of Taunton, who left her a widow. In 1*10 she 
sent to a newspajier a series >.f " I.. tten on 
masonrv," which were republiehed on the advice 
of the Ber. Dr. Thaddeua at Harria. who wrote a 
preface to the volume. She published afterward 
H The School of Reform." and in 1816 I 
tions on the Rights of Woman." and wrote »n 
account of the life ..f Madam Knight, the school- 
mistress of Benjamin Franklin, which i- preserved 
in the library of the Antiquarian 
Worcester, Ma—. 

CROCK KR. Marcellu- M.. Mi.r.b. in Frank- 
lin. Johnson <■<•.. In-C. »i F- b.. I860; ,1. ill Wash- 
ington. I>. c.. 86 Aug., l^i-V He watered tl 
militarv academy in 1*47. l»«'t left at the I 
ud year, studied law, and practised 
Moines, Iowa, He entered the national xrviceas 
major of the 2d Iowa infantry in May. 1861, was 
promoted colonel on 80 Deo., fought with distinc- 
tion in the battle of Shiloh. April « and 7, 1868, 
WM promoted brigadier-general on 29 N«>v., 1888. 
and engaged at the awajeof Vicksburc. pBOd 
a raid in Mississippi. After the re-enliatm 
Ins brigade at reteran volunteers he f.-nght through 
rgisoaeapaign of Sen. Bbonnan. wim iaaan 

big a diM-ioii I pari <>f the time. He was suffer- 
ing from consumption during the w 
militarv career, and was assigned to d 

•li account of sickness. The brigade thai 
he had commanded and brought I 
discipline waa as k named •Crocker** gi 

heavily in the assault of Raid Hill OatBIW 



12 



(ROCKER 



CROCKETT 



Atlanta, on 22 July, 1M<>4. and in Hardee's attack 
on their position later in the day fully half were 
killed, wounded, or captured. 

CROCKER. Nathan Bourne, clergyman, b. in 
Barnstable, Mass., 4 July, 1781 ; d. in Providence, 
R. I., 19 Oct., 1865. He prepared for college at 
Sandwich academy, was graduated at Harvard 
in 1802, studied medicine, and then theology, took 
orders in the Protestant Episcopal church in 1803, 
and was elected rector of St. John's church in 
Providence, over which he presided until his death, 
with the exception of a lew years, during which 
his health prevented his preaching. He was sec- 
retary of the corporation of Brown university from 
1837 till 1843. The ministerial life of Dr. Crocker 
was identified with the history of the Episcopal 
church of Rhode Island, which contained but four 
churches of that denomination when he assumed 
his pastorate. Some of his sermons and occasional 
addresses and lectures were published. 

CROCKER, Uriel, publisher, b. in Marblehead, 
Essex co., Mass., 13 Sept., 1796; d. in Cohasset, 
Mass., 19 July, 1887. He went with his father 
to Boston in 1811, and was apprenticed to Samuel 
T. Armstrong to learn the printer's trade. Two 
months later, Osmyn Brewster, a son of Dr. Brew- 
ster, of Worthington, entered the same office. Mr. 
Armstrong's store, No. 50 Cornhill, was formerly 
occupied by Paul Revere, and is now 173 and 175 
Washington street. In 1814 Mr. Crocker was made 
foreman of the printing-office, and in 1818 taken 
into partnership bv Mr. Armstrong, with his asso- 
ciate Brewster. Mr. Armstrong withdrew in 1825, 
and the firm of "Crocker & Brewster" was contin- 
ued until they retired from active business in 1876. 
At the fiftieth anniversary of their copartnership 
Mr. Crocker said : " Mr. Brewster and I first met 
in the year 1811, as apprentices of the late Samuel 
Y. Armstrong. It was in the old building which 
stood on the same lot where we spent fifty-four of 
the fifty-seven years that we have been together, 
the old number being 50 Cornhill — that's old 
Cornhill — now forming part of Washington street. 
We left it only three years ago, when we removed 
to the adjoining store. I had been an apprentice 
about two months when he came. It was pleasant 
to see him, as it removed from me the title which 
the youngest apprentice in a printing-office has 
affixed to his name. Our partnership agreement, 
1818, just fifty years ago, was drawn up and wit- 
nessed by Jeremiah Evarts, father of William M. 
Evarts. In the arrangement of our business, Mr. 
Brewster attended chiefly to the book-store. I di- 
rected the printing-office, the latter having been 
wholly in my charge since I was eighteen years of 
age. The numerous persons in our employ — and 
there were in former years from twenty-five to 
thirty in the printing-office alone — were paid in 
full every Saturday night. The first large work 
we published was ' Scott's Family Bible ' (6 vols., 
8vo, 1820). It was an experiment, and many of the 
older booksellers prophesied that we should not be 
successful. The result was entirely satisfactory." 
On 29 Nov., 1886, Mr. Crocker celebrated the sev- 
enty-fifth anniversary of his partnership with Mr. 
Brewster. A number of distinguished people were 
assembled at his home to congratulate the two 
nonogenarians. Among them were Dr. Oliver 
Wendell Holmes, Dr. Samuel Herrick, Frederick 
D. Ames, ex-Gov. Rice, and Gov.-elect Ames. Each 
guest was presented with a portrait of these mer- 
chant princes, and a member of the Brewster fam- 
ily contributed a poem in commemoration of the 
diamond wedding festivity. See Mr. Crocker's 
" Autobiography * (Boston," 1869). 




^V^fl^, ^tcxJfctt 



CROCKETT, David, pioneer, b. in Limestone, 
Greene co., Tenn., 17 An-.. 17*6; d. in Texas, 
March, 1836. His father, a Revolutionary veteran 
of Irish birth, moved to eastern Tennessee after the 
war, and about 1793 opened a small tavern on the 
road from Knoxville to Abingdon. When David 
was about twelve years old his father hired him 
to an old Dutchman, with whom he went 400 miles 
on foot, but, after remaining a few weeks with his 
master, ran away and succeeded in reaching home. 
Shortly afterward he was sent to school, but on 
the fourth day 
gave one of the 
pupils with whom 
he had quarrelled 
a sound beating, 
and, after playing 
truant for a time 
to avoid a flog- 
ging, ran away 
from home to es- 
cape the venge- 
ance of his fa- 
ther. For three 
years he worked 
for teamsters in 
Tennessee, Mary- 
land, and Vir- 
ginia, and for 
eighteen months 
was bound to a 

hatter in the last-named state. Tired of wander- 
ing about, he finally returned home, and short- 
ly afterward worked hard for a year to pay two 
notes of his father's, amounting to $76. He 
then went to school for six months, and learned 
his letters for the first time, but relinquished 
study to seek a wife, and, after several disap- 
pointments in love, married and settled in Lin- 
coln county in 1809, and about 1811 in Frank- 
lin county, one of the wildest parts of the state. 
Crockett had by this time acquired some fame as a 
hunter, and, at the beginning of the Creek war in 
1813, he enlisted in a regiment of sixty-day vol- 
unteers. He served through the war, and after- 
ward settled on Shoal creek, in a desolate region 
of the state, where a temporary government was 
formed by the settlers and Crockett was made a 
magistrate. He was subsequently appointed to 
the same office by the state legislature, and was 
then elected colonel of militia. In 1821 he was a 
candidate for the legislature, and winning favor by 
telling amusing stories and by his skill with the 
rifle, was elected by a handsome majority, though 
he had never read a newspaper in his life, and was 
entirely ignorant of public speaking. In 1822 he 
lost all his property by fire, and moved again to 
the Obion river, where he devoted himself to his 
favorite occupation of hunting, living on bear- 
meat and venison. He served again in the legisla- 
ture in 1823-'4, and in the latter year was an un- 
successful candidate for congress. In 1826 he was 
again a candidate, as a supporter of Jackson, and 
this time was elected, serving two terms, from 1827 
till 1831. In his second term he opposed Jackson's 
Indian bill, and this course caused his defeat in 
1830; but he served again in 1833-'5. Crockett 
was popular at Washington, where he became 
noted not only for his eccentricity of manner, but 
for his strong common sense and shrewdness. He 
prided himself on his independence, and thus set 
forth his position : "I am at liberty to vote as ray 
conscience and judgment dictate to be right, with- 
out the yoke of any party on me, or the driver at 
my heels, with his whip in hand, commanding me 



CRn KS 



MAN 



13 



to ge-wo-haw, just at his pleasure." Aft.-r the in- 
creasing Lnftaanoi of Jsjokson in Tcnnossoo, whi.h 

in.fl>' it impossible for Crockett to be re-elected to 

gross, In- joined the Texans in their >t r :. 
for independence, ami. having psritonned viinoua 

exploits. ended Km adventurous life in tin- famous 
defence of the Alamo, whSTO, as OM of t I » . -i\ -ur- 

n of a band of 140 Texana, be surrendered to 
Santa Anna, only to be massacred by that ofl 
oiden. An unauthorised account of Crocki 
life, entitled "Sketches and Eccentricities of 0ok> 
mI David Crockett" (Philadelphia, lK;t;{>. drew 
from him a characteristic autobiography <1 
and hfl also published a burlesque " Lift* of Van 
Boron, Heir-Apparent to the Q oron un enl " j 16 

and a "Tour to the North and 1)<>wm EaM " 
York, 1*35). See, also, '•Crockett's Exploits in 
Texas" (New York, 1848); and "Life of Colonel 
d Crockett." bv Edward S. Ellis (Philadel- 

Shia). — His son. John W., l>. in Trenton, Tenn.; 
. in Memphis. Tenn.. 24 Nov., 1852, was a mem- 
ber of congress in is:{?-'41. He was elected by 
the legislature attorney-general for the 9th dis- 
trict of Tennessee <>n l Nov., 1841, and afterward 
removed to New Orleans, where, on 88 May. 1848, 
he became associate editor of the " National." 

CROES, John, P. E. bishop, b. in Elizabeth- 
town, N. .1.. 1 .June, 1768; d. in New Brunswick, 
N. J., 26 July, 188SL His early vears were occu- 
pied partly in mechanical pursuits and partly in 
efforts to acquire a classical education. During 
the Revolution he served as a sergeant and quarter- 
master, and after the war he opened a scnool in 
Newark, N. J., and studied for tne ministry of the 
Episcopal church. He was ordained deacon by 
Bishop White in Philadelphia, 28 Feb., 1780, and 
priest in March, 1792. He then became rector of 
Trinity church, Swedesborough, N. J., which place 
he held for twelve years. He was uniform! v active 
and zealous in the service of the church. In both 
diocesan and general conventions. Dr. Croes be- 
came rector of Christ church, New Brunswick, in 
1801, having in charge also a neighboring church 
and an academy. He was elected bishop of New 
Jersey in the summer, and consecrated in Philadel- 

fmia, 19 Nov., 1815. During the remainder of his 
ife he gave himself to the duties of his high office 
with conscientious devotion and fidelity. Bishop 
Croes published a few sermons and addresses. 

CKOFFUT, William Augustus, author, b. in 
Redding, Conn., 29 Jan., 1835. He received his 
education in the public schools of Orange, Conn. 
In 1861 he enlisted as a private in the U. S. army, 
and with a certain pride records that the warrant 
of a corporal is the highest military appointment 
he has ever held. He was a journalist before join- 
ing the army, and has been successively engaged 
upon the New Haven, Conn.. "Palladium.** the 
Rochester, N. Y., " Democrat," the St Paul, Minn.. 
" Times,'" the Minneapolis "Tribune." the Chicago 
" Post," the New York " Graphic," " Tribune." and 
"World." and the Washington. D. (".. "Post." 
He has twice visited Europe, and travelled through 
Mexico, Yucatan, Cuba, and Nova Scotia, and has 
been a voluminous correspondent of pipsi in 
most of the large cities of the west. lie wrote 
the libretto of a comic opera entitled " D.-eret." 
brought out in New York in 1888, for which Dud- 
ley Buck composed the music. The motive for 
this opera was drawn from life among the Mor- 
mons. He is the author of - The Histon f ('"ii- 
n. client in the Rebellion " (New York. 1867); -A 
Helping Hand w (Cincinnati, 1868); "Bombon Hal- 
lads," a popular series of political rhymee (New 
York, 1880); "A Midsummer Lark" (1882); and 



h-rbilu" (1886). The 
Lark "is n humorous account of ,-, t. 
■OTOOS, written in rhyme, but printed for the moat 
part in the form of prone. 

CROQbUN, ttoorre, Indian agent, b. in Ire- 
land; d. iu PsSBSJVnk, Pa,, nlx.ut AsMM 
He was educated In Dublin, ami 
country settled near Hssrfaburg, Ph.. and wae an 
Indian trailer there h* early im 1 . ,,g ac- 

quired the confidence of the Indian* mid a knowl- 
edge of their language*, he became agent for the 
colony sssonc them. He wan a captain in Brad- 
dock** ex|H-dition in 1 755. engag Irfenos 

of t lie western frontier in 1756, and n 
was made deputy Indian ag 
nia and Ohio Indians by Sir William Johnson, 

who, in 1 7<U{. sent him to 'England t afar with 

the ministry relative to an Indian l-Mindarv-line. 

While on a inhwion, in 1789, to paeifj 

Indians, he WSS attacked. wournicd, and taken to 
Yincennes, but was v-.n inlSBSed. and tuccsniwJ 

in accomplishing hfa inission. In May. 1766, be 
made a settlement fonrmilas from Eort 1'itt. nnd 
he continued thereafter to render valuable service 

in pacifying the Indians and ooncflisttng thsssta 

British Interests until 177»*>. 

CBOQHAH, Q w OT gn, loldier, b. n.-ar L»ui»- 
ville. Kv.. U N'o\.. I7flj d. iii ana, 8 

Jan.. 1849. His father was Maj. W'illiar 
ghan. of the Revolution, and his mother a «i»ter of 
Gen. George Rogers Clark. He was graduated at 
William and Mary college in 1*10, and, entering 
the army, was aide to CoL Boyd at the hsl 
Tippecanoe in 1811, and made captain iu the 17th 
infantry. 12 March. 1818. He distinguished him- 
self under Harrison in the sortie (rem l"ort 
Meigs. became his aide-de-camp, with the rank of 
major. 80 March. 1818, and. on the 1st and Id of 
August following, conducted the memorable de- 
fence of Fort Stephenson, at Lower Sandusky, 
against (Jen. Proctor, with an army of 500 regulars 
and 700 Indians. Maj. Croghau was brevetted lieu- 
tenant-colonel for 
his gallantry <>n 
this occasion, and 

subsequently re- 
ceived from con- 
gress a gold med- 
al. He was made 
a lieutenant-colo- 
nel -.M Feb.. 1814; 
upon the reduc- 
tion of the army 
at the close of 
the war. he was 
transferred to the 
1st infantry. He 
resigned in l v 17. 
wa s p ostanal 

New Orleans in 
1884, and was ap- 
pointed inspeot- 
or-general. with 
the rank of colo- 
nel. 21 Deo, 1866. 

In 1846 he joined , 

Tavlor's armv in Mexico, and served with credit 
at the battle of Mont.rcv.— His eon, George 81. 
John a I i . federat e officer, was fatally wound.-.! 
at McCoy's Mills, W. Ya.. during retreat 

from Cotton Hill, in Dio—hsT. 1861. Before nia 

death be admitted SO ticii. Bcnham. by »h<*e •ol- 
diers he bad U-.li wounded, that he hud f^nght 
on the Vinig side. Be invented a peculiar pack- 
seddk for mules, which had been I 




& a: VtyAjL*^ 



14 



CROIX 



CKonK 



in i ■'iiiveying wonntleil men over the mountain- 
passes of we.-tern Virginia. 

4 HOIX, Jeau Baptiste De La, It. C. bishop, 
b. of a noble family, in (irenolde. France, in 1053; 
d. in Quebec, 28 Dec., 1727. He was first almoner 
to Louis XIV., and came to Canada in 1685 as suc- 
cessor t<> Laval, the first bishop of Quebec. He 
founded three hospitals, and distributed more than 
a million livres among the poor. 

CROLY, David Goodman, journalist, b. in 
New York citv, 3 Nov., 1829 ; d. in New York, 29 
April, 1889. He was graduated at New York uni- 
versity in 1854, was subsequently a professor of 
phonographv, and a reporter for the New York 
"Evening Post " and "Herald" from 1855 till 
1858. He owned and edited the Rockford, 111., 
"Dailv News" from 1858 till 1859, and became 
city editor of the New York " World " when it was 
founded in 18C0, then its managing editor until 1872. 
His active work as a newspaper editor terminated in 
1878, when, in consequence of ill health, he resigned 
the editorship of the New York " Graphic," which 
he had held since 1872. Mr. Croly predicted finan- 
cial catastrophes, and foretold in the spring of 1872 
the panic of the autumn of 1873, naming the bank- 
ing-nouse (Jav Cooke & Co.) that first failed, and 
also indicated the railroad (the Northern Pacific) 
that would first go down. Mr. Croly contributed 
many articles to periodicals, and published lives of 
Seymour and Blair, with a "History of Recon- 
struction " (New York, 1868), and a " Primer of 
Positivism" (1876). — His wife, Jane Cunning- 
ham, b. in Market Harborough, England, 19 Dec., 
1831, is known by her writings under the pen- 
name of " Jenny June." Her father came to the 
United States when she was ten years old. Until 
that time she was educated at her native place, 
afterward by her father and brother at Pougnkeep- 
sie and New York. In 1857 she was married, and in 
1860 became editor of Demorest's " Quarterly Mir- 
ror of Fashion," and when that periodical and the 
New York "Weekly Illustrated News" were in- 
corporated into " Demorest's Illustrated Monthly " 
she became the editor of the new journal. Mrs. 
Croly has been also editorially connected with the 
New York " World," " Graphic," daily " Times," 
and "Noah's Sunday Times," and was dramatic 
critic and assistant editor of the " Messenger " for 
five years, 1861-'6. She invented the system of 
duplicate correspondence, and has practised it for 
thirty years. Mrs. Croly's pen-name of "Jenny 
June " was derived from a little poem by Benja- 
min F. Taylor, sent to her, when she was about 
twelve years old, by her pastor, in Poughkeepsie, 
with the name underlined, because, he said, "You 
are the Juniest little girl I know." Mrs. Croly 
called the first Woman's Congress in New York, in 
1856, and also the second, in 1869, and in 1868 
founded the Sorosis, and was its president until 
1870, and again from 1876 till 1886. She is vice- 
president of the Association for the advancement 
of the medical education of women. She has pub- 
lished "Talks on Women's Topics" (1869); "For Bet- 
ter or Worse " (1875) ; a " Cookery- Book for Ytoung 
Housekeepers " ; and " Knitters and Crochet, 
" Letters and Monograms " (New Y T ork, 1885-'6). 
^ CROMPTON, William, inventor, b. in Preston, 
England, in 1806. He was brought up as a hand- 
loom cotton-weaver, and at an early age learned the 
trade of a machinist. While superintendent of a 
cotton-mill in Ramsbottom, near Berry, he made 
many experiments on cotton-looms. He came to 
Taunton, Mass., in 1836, and while there devised a 
loom for the manufacture of fancy cotton goods, 
for which he received a patent on 23 Nov., 1837. 



In this loom one part of the warp was depressed 
while the other was lifted, instead of allowing one 
part to remain stationary, thus securing more room 
for the passage of the shuttle. Another feature of 
it was the chain, which, with its peculiar apparatus, 
operated the warp. Mr. Crompton went to Eng- 
land in 1838, ana, after patenting his loom there, 
returned with his family to this country in 1839, 
and in 1840 adapted his loom to the weaving of 
fancy woollens. At least three fourths of all the 
woollen goods now made in the United States are 
woven on the Crompton loom, or on looms embody- 
ing its principles. Mr. Crompton retired from act- 
ive business in 1849. on account of failing health. — 
His son, George, inventor, b. in Ramsbottom. Eng- 
land, 23 March, 1829, came to the United States in 
1839, and in 1849 was called to the management of 
his father's business. In 1851 he engaged in the 
manufacture of fancy looms in Worcester, Mass., 
where the Crompton loom-works have since been 
established. He soon directed his attention to im- 
provements in his father's loom, and since 1854 has 
taken out more than fifty patents, including those 
for the harness mechanism, picker movement, let- 
off and stop motions, shuttle and shuttle-boxes, 
shipping mechanism, and devices for finding the 
pick when broken or exhausted. He has also re- 
ceived eight patents for textile fabrics. At the 
Centennial exhibition in 1876 he received an award 
" for the best looms for fancy weaving on shawls, 
cassimeres, and satinets." By Mr. Crompton's im- 
provements in his father's looms there is an in- 
creased production of sixty per cent., with a saving 
of fifty per cent, in labor and more than that in 
the cost of repairs. 

CROMWELL, Henry Bowman, merchant, b. 
in 1828 ; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 2 April. 1864. He 
engaged in trade at an early age, and became a 
member of the firm of Cromwell, Haight & Co. be- 
fore he was twenty years old. In 1850 he became 
a partner in the firm of John Haight & Co., in Hud- 
dersfield, England, and resided there until 1854, 
when he returned to his native city, and soon en- 
gaged in the shipping business, managing a line of 
screw propellers in connection with the Baltimore 
and Ohio railroad, his business increasing until he 
had connection with nearly all the important do- 
mestic seacoast ports. During the few years pre- 
vious to 1861 he had in successful operation steam 
lines from New York to Savannah, Charleston, Wil- 
mington, Norfolk, Alexandria, and Washington, 
Portland, and Baltimore ; also from Baltimore to 
Charleston and Savannah. When the civil war be- 
gan he sold nearly all his vessels to the government, 
and immediately proceeded with the construction 
of two fine steamers, the " George Washington " 
and " Oliver Cromwell," which subsequently sailed 
between New York and New Orleans. Although 
Mr. Cromwell's commercial interests were so large- 
ly connected with the south, he firmly upheld the 
cause of the government during the war. 

CRONYN, Benjamin, Canadian P. E. bishop, 
b. in Kilkenny, Ireland, in 1802; d. in London, 
Ontario, 22 Sept., 1871. He was graduated at Trin- 
ity college, Dublin, in 1821, in 1825 was ordained 
a deacon of the Episcopal church, and afterward 
officiated for a short time as curate in the diocese 
of Chester, England. Returning to Ireland, he 
served for six years as curate under the late arch- 
bishop of Tuam. In 1832 he emigrated to Cana- 
da and became rector of St. Paul's church. Lon- 
don, which charge he kept until 1857. when he was 
elected bishop of the new diocese of Huron. 

('HOOK, George, soldier, b. near Dayton, 
Ohio, 8 Sept., 1828. He was graduateH at the 



CKooK 



(U<M,KS 



15 



3 . militiiry academy in 1868, and WBI "ii duty 

with tin- Itli infantry in California in 

Mr participated in the Kougc river i\j«-<|it i<m in 

.mil commanded the I'm river ex|>cdition in 

; where he was engaged in several a<t i<>ri-.. in 

• f which he was wounded In nil niTOW. Bi 

had risen to a captaincy when, at tin- beginning of 

tin- civil war. In' returned to tin- cast ami In-came 

colonel of thr 86th Ohio infantry. Ha afterward 

l in tin- WrM Virginia oampalcna, ii a> 

mand of tha8d provisional brigMfl, from 1 May 
till 15 Aug.. 1868, and was wounded in th<' totion 
at Lewisbure;. He engaged in tin- northern 

Virginia ami Maryland oampaigna in August ami 

.September. 1868, and for his services at Antietain 
was br e vet te d Uautenant-oolonel, U. S. army. He 
served in Tennaaaaa in 1H«U{, and on 1 Jnlv he was 
transferred to the command of the M cavalry 
division. After various actions, ending in the 
battle of Chickamauga, he pursued Wheeler's Con- 
federate cavalry from the 1st to the 10th of j 
Octoln-r, defeated it. and drove it across the 

Tennessee with 
great l<>-s. Mr 
entered upon 
the command 
of the Kana- 
wha district in 
western Vir- 
ginia in Febru- 
ary, 1864, made 
constant raids, 
and was in 
numerous ac- 
tions. He took 
part in Sheri- 
dan's Shenan- 
doah campaign 
in the autumn 
* of that year. 

Ps S >? and received 

SZJsV 1 -?*. J>) T-tS-Vllj the 1, re vets of 

brigadier -gen- 
eral and ma- 
jor-general in the U. S. army. 18 March. INC."). 
Gen. Crook had command of the cavalry of the 
Army of the Potomac from 2»5 March till' !> April. 
daring which time he was engaged at Dinwid- 
dle Court -House, Jettersville, Sailor's Creek, and 
Farmville, till the surrender at Ap|iomattox. He 
was afterward transferred to the command of 
Wilmington. N. C, where he remained from 1 
Sept, i*<m. till 15 Jan., ls(Mi. when he was mus- 
tered out of the volunteer service. After a six 
weeks' leave of absence he was assigned to duty 
on the board appointed t<> examine rille tactic-. 
was oommiasionea lieatenant-oolone] <»f the 88d 
infantry. I'. S. army, on 88 July. 1866, and as- 
signed to the districts of Boiee, Idaho, where he 
remained until 1878, actively engaged against tin 
Indians. In 1878 Geo. Crook was assigned to the 
Arizona district, to quell the Indian disturbances. 
He sent an ultimatum to the chiefs to return to 
their reservations or* 4 be wiped from the face of 
the earth." N'o attention was paid to his de- 
mand, and he attacked them in the Tout., basin, B 
stronghold deemed impregnable, and enforced suit- 
mi— ion. In 1H?."> he was ordered to quell the dis- 
turbances in the Sioux and Cheyenne nations in 
the northwest, and defeated those Indians in the 
battle of powder Hivi'r. Wyoming. In March 

another battle result* -d in tlie destruction of 189 

lodges, ami in June the battle of Tonga* River 
was a victory for < rook, a daw day- later the 
battle of the Rosebud gave him another, when the 




>'«d savages massed their forces and swv 

in crushing Custer. 
Annan ok, on r^. 

struck a severe blow at Slim Buttea, I' 

followed it up with Midi nlent lew vigor that by 
May, 1*77. all the hostile triU-n in the northwest 
had M.I. I.d. In 1HH2 be returned to Ariaoaa, 

forced the Mormon-. pupiatb 

to raoata the Indian land- on whid 
had seized, encouraged the Apache* in planting, 
and pledge«l them the l»rot< I,. gorero- 

mint. In aha mine Of Ikkj the Chineahuas in- 
trenched themselves in the f 

tain- on the northern Mexican Itoundary, ami 
began a series of nud-. Deal Crook Mni'ck the 
trail, and. instead of following t'«<.k it backward, 

fM-mtrateil iutoand bM>k pomeiwiori of their strong- 
mlds, and, as fast an the warrior- returned fr in 
their plundering eamoraioaa, made (Jasaj prisoners. 
He ssaiehed over 866 milaa, made -too psiaoaMia, 

and captured all the horses and plunder. I'uring 
the two years following, lie had sole < harp- of the 
Indians.and in that time BO depredation occurnd. 
He set them all at work on their farms, abolished 
the system of trading and paying in goods and 
store orders indulged in by oontractora, |>aid cash 

direct to the Indians for all hi* supplies, and 
stimulated them to imMisil exertion. The tribe* 
became self-supporting within three veers. 

CROOKS, Beorwe Kichard. author, h. in 
Philadelphia. Pa.. :t V, b.. 1888. Hi vai fraduated 
at Dickinson oollege in 1840. and la 1*41 e nt atad 
the ministry of the Metbodiat Kpiv-opal church, 
ami became a misskmary In Illinois. He was 
called to Dickinson college in Ih-12 aaeaaaaasalaajd 
mathematical tutor, in lH-W became principal of 
the Collegiate grammar-school, ami in 1*4« adjunct 
profeaaor of Latin and Greek. In 1H4H. having 
returned to the mini-try. he wa- atationed succes- 
sivelv at Philadelphia, Wilmington, New York, and 
Brooklyn. In 1mm be became idit-.r of "The 
Metlnxlist. " In conjunction with I>r. McCliatook, 
he baa prepared a scries of •• First Books " in I .at in 
and Greek (lK4G-'7); and he mperviead an edition 
of Butlers "Analogy." for which he furnished an 
analysis, index, and biography (1888). He also wrote 
•• Life and letters of Rev. l>r. .John MeClii 

.md "Sermons of Hi-hop Simpson" (1886). 

CROOKS, James. Canadian merchant, b. in 
Kilmarnock, Sot land, in 177h : .1. in Weal Flam- 
borough, Ontario, in I860, Hewasoneoftl 
est settlers in Upper Canada, making his home at 
Niagara in 17!U. Ha established the fir-t jwi*r- 
mill. and sent the first load of wheat ami flour 

from Upper Canada to Montreal Daring the war 
of isi*2 be served with diatinctiou at QaaaaatoaTj 
and other points on the Niagara frontier. He *a* 

soon afterward elected to the assembly, and ulu- 

matelv became a member of the l< 

—His' son, Adam. Canailian state-man. b. in West 

Flamborough. Ontario. 11 i 

ins.-), was graduated with honors at Kind's college, 

Toronto in ts.Vi. admitted to the lar n 

and distinguished himself as an equity lawyer. 

He was for eight vears « UOt ,,f , '"' 

I'niversitv of Toronto (formerly Knur's <x41ege). 

He contested the r. 

Riding of Toronto i:i the Ontario MaMatttaj 

■awmntv in 1867 as a liberal, and to defeated, but 

eeted by the aajne constituency u ISTLaad 

ai.iK.int.d attorney-general in Mr. Wake's oaktaat 
lie became prorinaal treasunr u »' , «' r jYv M l ° 1 ,r " 

• and mini-ter of edocatioo in 1878. holding 
the two portfolios until 1H7T. when he resigned the 

j treasurer'-, but rctaimd that of the minister Of 



16 



CROOKSIIANKS 



CKOSBV 



education until 1883, when he was judicially do- 
rian. 1 insane and confined in a private asylum at 
Hartford, Conn. Though his administration of 
the department of education was successful in a 
certain sense, his concessions to the Catholic hier- 
archy of Ontario in deleting passages obnoxious to 
them from Collier's school history of England, and 
the discarding of one of Sir Walter Scott's poems 
as a teachers' examination class-book, for a similar 
reason, gave great offence to the majority of the 
liberal party, as well as to the conservatives. 

CROOKSIIANKS, George, Canadian pioneer, 
b. in New York in 1778; d. in Toronto, 21 July, 
1859. His father, a native of the Orkney islands, 
emigrated to Shrewsbury, N. J., about 1775, but, 
being a loyalist, soon left the United States and set- 
tled in New Brunswick. The son went to Canada 
in 1796. During the war of 1812-'5 he directed 
the construction of military roads, and attended to 
the transportation of cannon, etc., for the army. 
When York (now Toronto) was captured by the 
Americans, he followed the British forces to 
Kingston, and his house in York became the head- 
quarters of the American commander. He was for 
many years a member of the legislative council, 
and was noted for benevolence and charity, when 
systematized charity was unknown. He con- 
tributed largely toward the erection of St. James 
Cathedral, Toronto. 

CROPPER, John, soldier, b. in Virginia in 
1756; d. at Bowman's Folly, Accomac co., Va., 15 
Jan., 1821. He was a captain in the 9th Virginia 
regiment of the Revolutionary forces in 1775, was 
soon promoted to be major of the 5th, engaging in 
the battle of Brandywine, where his regiment suf- 
fered severely, and became colonel of the 7th, tak- 
ing part in the battles of Germantown and Mon- 
mouth. He was made lieutenant-colonel of the 
11th regiment on 15 May, 1778, and afterward pro- 
moted to be its colonel. 

CROPSEY, Jasper Francis, painter, b. in 
Rossville, N. Y., 18 Feb., 1823. After studying 
architecture for five years he turned his attention 
to landscape painting, under the instruction of 
Edward Maury. He visited England, France, 
Switzerland, and Italy in 1847, went abroad 
again in 1855, and resided seven years in London, 
sending his pictures to the Royal academy and to 
the International exhibition of 1862. After his 
return home, in 1863, he opened a studio in New 
York, where he resided until 1885, when he re- 
moved to Hastings-on-Hudson. He has been since 
1851 a member of the National academy. His 
works include "Jedburgh Abbey"; "Pontine 
Marshes " (1847) ; " Backwoods of America " (1857) ; 
"Richmond Hill" (1862); "Greenwood Lake" 
(1870); "Lake Nemi in Italy" (1879); "Old 
Church at Arreton, Isle of Wight" (1880); "Ram- 
apo Valley " (1881) ; " Autumn on the Hudson " 
(1882); "Wawayanda Valley" (1883); "Spring- 
time in England" (1884); "October in Ramapo 
Valley" (1885); "Autumn on Lake « George," and 
"A Showery Day" (1886). 

CROSBY, Dixi, surgeon, b. in Sandwich, N. H., 
8 Feb., 1800 ; d. there, 26 Sept., 1873. Dr. Crosby 
received a classical education, but it is not known 
that he was a graduate of any college. He studied 
in the medical school of Dartmouth, and received 
his degree in 1824. In this year he devised a new 
and ingenious mode of reducing metacarpo- 
phalangeal dislocation. After practising his pro- 
fession at Gilmanton and Laconia, N. H.. fourteen 
years, he removed to Hanover. He was the first 
to open an abscess at the hip-joint. In 1838 he 
was called to the chair of surgery in the medical 



department of Dartmouth, which he occupied un- 
til 1841, when he was promoted to the surgka] 
professorship made vacant by the removal <>t 
Prof. Mussey to the WWt To this chair was add- 
ed that of obstetrics and diseases of women and 
children, and Dr. Crosby for twenty-seven years ' 
delivered both courses of lectures. At the begin- 
ning of the civil war he served in the pi 
marshal's office by day and attended to his medi- 
cal practice at night. In 1868 he turned over the 
surgical lectures to his associate, and the college 
did not appoint a full surgical professor till 1871. 
In 1870 he found himself unable to perform even 
the divided duty to his satisfaction, and was ap- 
pointed emeritus professor of surgery, and lectured 
when he pleased. The degree of LL. D. was con- 
ferred on nim by Dartmouth in 1867. — His broth- 
er, Nathan, lawyer, b. in Sandwich, N. H., 12 
Feb.. 1798 ; d. in Lowell, Mass., 9 Feb., 1885, was 
graduated at Dartmouth in 1820, and practised his 

Erofession in Gilmanton, N. H., Salisbury, New- 
uryport, and Lowell, Mass. In 1845-'6 he pur- 
chased for the Lowell manufacturing corporations 
the great lakes of New Hampshire, which now 
form the reservoirs of water-power for that city. 
He was commissioned justice of Lowell police 
court, 19 May, 1846, and held the office till his 
death. He was the author of " First Half-Century 
of Dartmouth College," and eulogies on Tappan 
Wentworth, and Judge S. S. Wilde, of the Massa- 
chusetts supreme court, and many lectures and 
essays on historical and philanthropic subjects. 
The degree of LL. D. was conferred on him by 
Dartmouth in 1879. — Another brother. Alpheus, 
educator, b. in Sandwich, N. H., 13 Oct., 1810; d. 
in Salem, Mass., 17 April, 1874. He was graduated 
at Dartmouth in 1827, and in 1829-'31 was a tu- 
tor. He studied theology at Andover in 1831-'2, 
and in 1833-'7 was professor of Latin and Greek 
at Dartmouth, when, after a tour in Europe, dur- 
ing 1836~'7, he entered upon the professorship 
of Greek alone, occupying the chair for twenty 
years. After resigning the active duties of his 
professorship at Dartmouth, he resided chiefly 
in Hanover, N. H., and Newburyport, Mass., till 
September, 1854, when he was appointed agent of 
the Massachusetts board of education and lecturer 
in the teachers' institutes of that state. In 1857 he 
became principal of the normal school in Salem, 
Mass., where he remained until 1865. He was the 
author of various text-books, including "Greek 
Lessons," "Greek Tables," "Greek Grammar," 
" Greek Fables," and an edition of " Xenophon's 
Anabasis." He also published the " Second Ad- 
vent" (Boston, 1850), and "First Lessons in 
Geometry" (New York, 1851). — Another brother, 
Thomas Russell, b. in Gilmanton, N. H., 22 
Oct., 1816 ; d. in Hanover, N. H., 1 March, 1872, 
was also a surgeon. After graduation at the medi- 
cal department of Dartmouth in 1841, he began 
the practice of his profession. At the beginning 
of the civil war he entered the army, and was put in 
charge of the Columbian college hospital in Wash- 
ington. In 1866 he became professor of general and 
muitary surgery and hygiene in the National medi- 
cal college, where he remained until 1870. During 
1854-'64 he was professor of physics and natural 
history in Norwich, Vt., university, in 1866-'70 
professor of military surgery in the National medi- 
cal college, and from 1870 until his death profes- 
sor of animal and vegetable physiology in the New 
Hampshire agricultural college. — Dixi's son, Al- 
pheus Bennfng, surgeon, b. in Gilmanton, N. II.. 
22 Feb., 1832; d. in Hanover, X. II.. !» Aug., 1877, 
was graduated at Dartmouth in 1858, and at the 



< !;<• 



»BY 



17 



• •al department there in ! nwhile he 

had devoted one year a* an assistant surgeon in 
tin- marine hospital nt Chelsea, Mam. Returning 
t<> llaimviT, he began pnetioc, l>nt at the b. 

ning of the civil war joined tin- 1st New Hamp- 
shire volunteers as nfMB, and was afterward 
promoted i" bfiftjdt-Munoo. In I8H hi 
i <l, ami I * came associate professor of R] 

t<> his father, who was professor of surgery 

ami anatomy in Dartmouth. On his father's 

lie became his successor, and occu- 

fiid tin- chair until is??. i>r. Crosby waeeleo, in 
WW-'?'.', a professor in the I'niversil y of Vermont, 
in isii!i-'?i)a lecturer in the I'niversity of Michi- 
gan, in lHil> a professor and lecturer in Bowdofa 
college, in lS?l-'2 a professor in the I-iong Island 
college hospital, and in 1n?-^-'7 professor of an- 
atomy in Bellevue hospital tuedical college. In 
Jane, is??, he presided at the annual meeting of 
the New Hampshire medical society, and delivered 
an address upon "The Kthical Relations of Physi- 
cian and Patient." Manv of his medical lectures 
have bean published. — Nathan's son, Stephen 
Moody, b. in Salisbury, Mass., 14 Aug.. ls-j?, was 
educated in the Boston Latin-school and the 
Lowell high Bflhool. graduated at Dartmouth in 
1M!>. and at Harvard law-school in 1868. At the 
beginning of the civil war he entered the national 
ioe, was paymaster from 1862 till 1868. and 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel for meritorious ser- 
vices. He was elected representative in the state 
legislature in 1869, was state senator in 1N70-'1, 
state director of the Boston and Albany railroad 
for 1871-'2. commissioner of the Hoosac tunnel in 
1874-'5. and treasurer of the Massachusetts Trust 
company in 1 M70-'83, when he became president of 
that corporation. 

CROSBY, Eben, soldier. Of his early life 
nothing is known. He served with distinction in 
the national army throughout the civil war, losing 
an arm at Gettysburg. He received, on 28 July. 
1866, the appointment of second lieutenant of in- 
fantry in the U. S. army, and on 27 May, 1869, was 
assigned to service on the western bonier, lb- 
was killed bv Indians, near Heart river, fifteen 
miles from Fort Rice, while returning from the 
Yellowstone expedition, 3 Oct, 1872. 

CROSBY, Ebenezer, physician, b. in Brain- 
tree, Mass., 30 Sept., 1753; d. 16 July. 1788. Ib- 
was a son of Judge Joseph Crosby, and was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1777, and at the medical de- 
partment of the Cniversity of Pennsylvania in 
1780. He served through the Revolutionary war 
as surgeon of Gen. Washington's guards, and 
was one of the original members of the Society of 
the Cincinnati. At the close of the war he mar- 
ried Catharine, daughter of William Bed low. ami 
niece of Col. Henry Rutgers, of New York, and be- 
came a physician in that city. He was also pro- 
fessor of obstetrics at Columbia college, and one of 
the trustees of that institution until his death. — 
His ton, William Bedlow, philanthropist. 1>. in 
New York city. 7 Feb., 1786; d. then-. 18 March, 
1886. His parents died when he was two years old. 
ami he was adopted by Col. Henry Rutgers, his 
mother's uncle, from whotn he received a large pail 
of the old Rutgers estate, comprising most of the 
present seventh ward of New York city. He never 
engaged in business, but gave his time and atten- 
tion to the oeieof his property and to w. rk> ..f 

rolence. He was connected with man. 
ies, and spent a large part of his income in 
private charities. By virtue of his father's ser- 
in the war of the Revolution, he was made a 
member of the Society of the Cincinnati.— Will- 
vol. II. — 2 




iam Bedlow** son, Howard. »-. in New York, 17 
Feb., 1826; d. there. 29 March, 1891. vu gradu. 

ated at the Piowr-it . and became 

professor of Greek tie 

Ballad to the chair of (ir.-ek at Itutgrr*. Two 
rears later be entered the ministry of the Presby- 
terian church, am! united the duties of |ia«torof 
the first church of New Brunswick witti lliuae of 
his professorship. In 1868 he gave up In* work at 
New Brunswick to tiecorae pastor of tin Fourth 
avenue Presbyterian church in New Y'-rk. r. 
ing till his death. He a|g0 held the "flic* of 
chancellor of the Cniversr York fr>»m 

IB70 till 1*M1. and wa> for many yean a member 
of its council. In 

lH.v.i he reeeired the 

of l>. I>. from 
Harvard, ami in 1^71 
that of LL, I), from 
Columbia. He was 
chosen moderator of 
the general assembly 
of the Preslivterian 

church of the United 
States in 1M?:{, and 
was frequently ■ dele- 
gate to that ImhIv. In 
1N77 he was a delegate 
to the first Presbyte- 
rian general council at 
Edinburgh. In addi- 
tion to his work as an 
educator and clergy- 
man, Dr. Crosby ex- 
hibited a lively inter- 
est and exerted a beneficent influence in public 
affairs, particularly in advocating temperance ss 
distinguished from total abstinence. In l s ?7 he 
took the principal part in founding the Society 

for tin- Prevention of Crime, whose chief objen 
is the reduction of the number of salooaa mid 

the restriction of the liquor traffic. Through this 
society, of which he was president from it* foun- 
dation, and a|>art from it. be did much in this 
great work, influencing legislation and the mu- 
nicipal government of his own city in ro far as 
it has relation to the regulation of intemperance 
and crime. lie was also activelv interested in 
the welfare of the Indians, and in the procure- 
ment of an international copyright law. His 
published works include •• Lands of the M 
written after a tour in the east ( New York 
"GSdipus Tyrannns of BophocJea," edited with 
notes (IK.*)!)': "Scholia on the New Testament" 
(1861); "Social Hints" (1806): •• Life of Jeaaa" 
(1870); "Bible Companion •' (1830): "Healthy 
Christian" ( 1HT1 ) : M Thoughts on the Pentatt 
(1878); "Notes on Joshua" CVanmeatan 

on Nehemiah " (1876); " The Christian Preacher'* 
"The Huinanitv of Christ" <IH*h: and 

"Commentary on the New Testament" (1885) 

He also wrote largely for ["-riodieaK and was a 

member Of the American committee 

the New Testament. — Howard's nephew. John 

Schmler. soldier, b, In Albany. N. v.. 18 
lb- was educated in the New York - 
and at the Cniversitv. but Defaru graduation 
made a tour of the world. At the b 

the civil war he entered the regu lar aw ay aa wc- 

ond li.-utenant of artillery, tarred with hi* lwtten 
under MoClellan in the Army of the Potomac, and 
in the Florida campaign of 1866 W8J transferred 

to the Departmenl of the Gulf araderGen. Bank*. 

and brevetted captain after the Tec he citnit«igU 
He carried the first despatches from the Red river 



18 



CROSBY 



CROSBY 



to Farragut, for which he was brevetted major, and 
also braretted major and lieutenant-colonel in the 
regular army for his ten Io60 at Babine I mss-Roads 
ami IMeasant Hill. In August, 1H(>4, he was com- 
missioned colonel of the Tth New York heavy artil- 
lery, but declined the appointment, becoming as- 
sistant adjutant-genera] on the staff of Gen.Canby 
in the Department of the Gulf, and being after- 
ward transferred to Sheridan's staff. In 1866 he 
served in the campaigns of Sheridan and Custer 
against the Indians, lie resigned in 1872, and was 
appointed consul to Florence, Italy, in 1876. He 
became governor of Montana on 4 Aug., 1882, took 
an active part in preventing the Yellowstone park 
from falling into the hands of a cattle syndicate, 
and in November, 1884, was appointed first assistant 
post master-general, but resigned 4 March, 1886. 

CROSBY, Enoch, patriot, b. in Harwich, Mass., 
4 Jan., 1750; d. in Brewsters, N. Y., 26 June, 1835. 
He was supposed to be the original of " Harvey 
Birch " in Cooper's " Spy." In his infancy his par- 
ents removed to Southeast, Dutchess co., N. Y., and 
by a series of disasters were reduced to poverty. 
At the age of sixteen he was apprenticed to a cord- 
wainer. At the beginning of the Revolutionary 
war he joined the Continentals, and served in the 
Lake Champlain campaign for several months, 
then became ill and was sent home. On his recov- 
ery he shouldered his musket and set out on foot 
for the American camp. On his journey an inci- 
dent, of which he took advantage, revealed a deep- 
laid conspiracy, upon which he successfully studied 
and acted. The result was the prompt arrest of a 
band of tories, and his own appointment to a place 
in the Secret Service Department. He became a 
most successful worker, and by his shrewdness pre- 
vented various catastrophes to the patriot cause. 
After many hair-breadth escapes he Anally joined 
the command of Lafayette, under whom he served 
till the end of the war, when he purchased a farm 
and devoted himself to agriculture for the rest of 
his life. The story of his secret-service life, which 
was thought to be incorporated in Cooper's " Spy " 
(though Cooper had never heard of him), was 
dramatized, and Mr. Crosby was on one occasion 
present at a representation of the play in New York 
city, and, as the hero, received the plaudits of the 
multitude. His narrative, taken from his own lips 
by Capt. H. L. Barnum, was published under the 
title of "The Spy Unmasked" (New York, 1828). 

CROSBY, Peirce, naval officer, b. near Chester, 
Delaware co., Pa., 16 Jan., 1823. He was educated 
at a private school, and was appointed in 1838 mid- 
shipman from Pennsylvania. He sailed in 1842 on 
the frigate " Congress " to the Mediterranean, serv- 
ing on her six months, when he returned to the 
United States. In May, 1844, he was promoted to 
passed midshipman, and served on the coast survey 
in 1844-'6. He was six months on the " Decatur,'' 
in the gulf of Mexico during the Mexican war, par- 
ticipated in the attack and capture of Tuxpan and 
Tobasco, and then served a year on the "Petrel." 
Peace being declared in 1848, he was transferred to 
other duties, and commissioned lieutenant, 3 Sept., 
1853. At the beginning of the civil war Lieut. 
Crosby served in Chesapeake bay, keeping the com- 
munications open between Annapolis and Havre de 
Grace, was detailed, on the night prior to the battle 
of Big Bethel, to transport troops across Hampton 
creek, and also upon their return from their uusu< - 
cessful expedition. In the attack on Forts Hat- 
teras and Clark he commanded the " Fannie," a 
light-draught steamer, and superintended the land- 
ing of troops, until the surf swamped and broke his 
boats. He then took a ship's heavy launch and 



landed two more boat-loads of men ; but the sea 
became so heavy that the launch was dashed upon 
the shore and the crew hurled out. He succeeded 
in landing 300 men, but, on account of the bad 
weather, the squadron stood off seaward, leaving 
him and his companions upon shore. Lieut. Cros- 
by put out a strong picket in front of the enemy's 
batteries, thus preventing their making a recon- 
noisance and ascertaining his weakness. On the 
following day the squadron returned and captured 
the forts. In the winter of 1861-'2 he took com- 
mand of the gun-boat " Pinola," and joined the 
Gulf squadron under Farragut. On his way he 
captured the "Cora," loaded with cotton. On ar- 
riving at the mouth of the Mississippi, he co-oper- 
ated with the " Itasca " in breaking the chain bar- 
rier across the river below Forts Jackson and St. 
Philip, and participated in the capture of New Or- 
leans, and also at the passage and repassage of the 
batteries at Vicksburg, 30 June and 15 July. He 
was promoted to commander, 3 Sept., 1862, and ap- 
pointed fleet-captain of the North Atlantic squad- 
ron, and did good service in various expeditions. 
In the winter of 1863 he took command of the 
" Florida," destroyed two blockade-runners at Ma- 
sonboro inlet, was transferred to the " Keystone 
State " in 1864, and captured five blockade-runners, 
causing many others to throw overboard their car- 
goes in order to escape. In 1864-'5 he was in com- 
mand of the " Metacomet," and planned and super- 
intended the removal, by the use of drag-nets, of 
140 torpedoes which interfered with the approaches 
to Mobile, successfully clearing the track so that 
vessels passed up the river and forced the surren- 
der of the city. In 1865 he was transferred to the 
command of the " Shamokin," and sailed in her for 
the coast of Brazil, where he remained until 1868. 
On 27 May, 1868, while yet in Brazilian waters, he 
was promoted to a captaincy, and returned to the 
United States, becoming inspector of ordnance at 
Norfolk navy-yard. He was promoted to commo- 
dore,. 3 Oct., 1874, made rear-admiral, 10 March, 
1882, and assigned to the command of the Asiatic 
squadron. In 1883 he was placed on the retired 
list. He had been in active service more than forty- 
eight years, over twenty-three of which were at sea. 

CROSBY, William George, lawyer, b. in Bel- 
fast, Me., in 1806 ; d. there in 1881. He was 
graduated at Bowdoin in 1823, and studied and 
practised law in his native town. Gov. Crosby was 
one of the two whigs that held the office of gover- 
nor, Edward Kent being the other. In 1853 the 
Maine law and the pro-slavery tendencies of the 
democracy lost that party the control of both 
branches of the legislature, which elected Mr. 
Crosby governor, and he was re-elected by the legis- 
lature in 1854. After the close of his term he took 
no active part in politics. During the civil war 
his sympathies were with the Union, but at its close 
he affiliated with Andrew Johnson and was a 
democratic candidate for congress, but was defeat- 
ed. He was prominent in promoting the public- 
school system of Maine. While in college he 
published a small volume of poems. He was a 
contributor to the "Token," a Boston annual, 
edited by N. P. Willis; "The Legendary," which 
illustrated the scenes, romances, and legends of 
our own country ; and the " Bowdoin Poets," and 
was the author of "Poetical Illustrations of the 
Athenaeum Gallery." 

CROSBY, William Otis, geologist, b. in 
Decatur, Ohio, 14 Jan., 1&50. He was graduated 
at the Massachusetts institute of technology in 
is:*;, where he was an assistant in 1876-'80, in- 
structor in 1880-'3, and assistant professor of 



I B06MAH 

mill. nil. '^'v and HtholOfV lino* 1kh:1. In 

was appointed assistant in tin- Boston museum 

of natunil history. Prof. Croabf. is | ni.iul.er >.f 
miiiiiTims Boientiflc societies, mid has lectured in 
the Lowell course. II' - bat travelled i-\t.n-i\i|\ 
throughout the United States, Canada, ami the 

Indies, ami baa published mtmoiri on the 

\ uf tin- localities visited in vari.ni>- scientific 

journals. " Native Hit uinetis ami t In- Pitch Ijike 

of Trinidad " (1870) i- ooe of his moot Important 

papers, lie is the author of "Common Minerals 
ami Rooks " i Host. .11. 1881: enlarged el, I 

CKOS.M.W. (....i-«« Hampton, soldier. I., in 
Taunton, Mass.. in N"\., l?i»N; .1. in Philadelphia, 
.'. lie was graduated at the I', s. 
military academy in 1H28, assigned to the 8th In- 
fantry, ami served <.n frontier ami garrison duty. 
He was ptomoted to tirst lieutenant on :{() Aug.. 

:nl made assistant Quartermaster on 1 -"» < > « ■ t . . 

Me performed the rmtire of thiooffioe In the 
Indian oonntry during the Blaok Hawk war of 

ud in the Florida war of lNtfO-'T, and was 
jin minted to captain, 30 April, 1837. He was chief 
quartermaster in the military ooonpation of Texas 
in 1845-'tt, and distinguished himself at the storm- 
ing of Palo Alto, 8 May, 1846, receiving the brevet 
of major for his gallantry on that occasion. He 
hooame major on the staff and quartermaster. •"> 
March, 1847, deputy quartermaster-general with 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 185(1, and ami it 
ant quartermaster-general with rank of colonel in 
1888, serving during this time in charge of various 
clothing depots and arsenals. From 1864 till 1866 
he was occupied in preparing for publication a 
" Manual for the Quartermaster's Department." 
He was brevetted brigadier-general and major- 
general, U. S. army, for nis services during the civil 
war, on 13 March, 1865, and was retired from 
active service in 1866, but was on dutv again in 
Philadelphia as chief quartermaster of the Depart- 
ment of the East till 1868. — His son, Alexander 
Foster, naval officer, b. in St. Louis, M.>.. 1 1 June, 
1838 ; d. in Greytown, Nicaragua, 12 April, 1H72. was 
appointed to the U. S. naval academy from Penn- 
sylvania, and graduated in 1855. He was attached 
to the frigate "Congress," of the Mediterranean 
squadron, in 1856-'8, made master, 4 Nov., 185N, 
■erved on the Paraguay expedition of 1858-'9, and 
was promoted to lieutenant in 1M(>1. He com- 
manded the "Somerset," of the East Gulf squad- 
ron, in 1862, was made lieutenant-commander on 
16 July of that year, and served in the South 
Atlantic blockading squadron during the rest of 
the war, most of the time in the " Wabash." Ib- 
was with the naval brigade of that squadron on 
(Jen. Hatch's expedition to sever the railroad from 
Charleston to Savannah, and co-operated several 
times with the army on Stono river, engaging 
Fort Lamar once. He was honorably mentioned 
in Commander George H. Preble's official report of 
10 Jan., 18<>5. After the war he served on the " • leti* 

(ice,'* the " Onward," and at Portsmouth navy-vard. 
le was commissioned commander in 1870, ordered 
to the command of the isthmus surveying expedi- 
tion in January, 1N?2. and was drowned in the 
harbor of Greytown. At the time of his death he 
was |ire]iaring a book on seamanship, 

< ItoSS. Charles K.. soldier, b. in Massachusetts 
in 1817; d. near Fredericksburg, Va., 5 May. 1868, 
He was graduated at the C. S, military academy 
in May. 1881, standing second in a class of for'v- 
live. and was assigned to*the engineer corps. lie 
was engaged in drilling volunteers at Washington. 
I>. ( '., and as assistant engineer in constructing the 
defences of that city till March. 1888, participating 



coon 



19 



III the Utile of |t„|| H,,„ ,„, |J J„| V> lM6 , f ^ 

l«-ing promoted to first lieul 1J{ . |„ 

the \ irginia |*ciiinsular <aiii[«jirn he wan leafed 
in the siege of v..rktowii. and in the construction 

of roads, field-work*, and I the passage 

of the army and its immense train* over' White 
<>ak swamp and < hi. kahoiuinv riv.-r. II. ...in- 
mamled an engineer battalion at Antictam. and 

I the brevet of lieutenant-...) | f„ r ^J. 

lantry there, haxing previ..u»|v btssj given that of 
major fur services on the peninsula. Re was en- 
gaged in building the p.ntot.n bridge* f..r the 
advance and retreat of the anu> at IV. 
and was employed in throwing up ' 
maliing sun. -vs. and guarding bridge, m the early 
pari of l^tt, being promotsd t" oaptam of en- 
gineers on | Mar.h. Me was at the battle of 
Chan.ellorsMlle. .'1-5 May. 1H68, and was killed 
•idle assisting to thrown I. ridge aenwt tl,. 
pshannoek, in the face of the enemy. For his 
gallantry on this occasion I • u. after Ins 

d.ath. the brevet of colonel. 

CKOSS. Charles Koberl, nhjsJllol. b. in Tn>r, 
N. V.. 88 Mar. h, 1H4.M. He was graduated at the 
Massachusetts institute of techimogy in 1810, and 
bas sines bean nonnontod with the physical <i. j.»rt - 

mint of that institution as student assistant in 
lM(il»-'7l». instructor in 1870-1, assistant professor 
in 1H71-T), and as professor in l*75->7. In 
addition to holding the chair of phvsjen, he i« di- 
rector of the Rogen labor ato tr, and is sis,, at the 
head of the department of electrical engineering* 
The developing and superintending of this Utter 
course, one of the first to be Introduced in a college 
in this country, has occupied his attention M 
Several years, and its success under his administra- 
tion is his just reward. Prof. Cross isa mcmU-r of 
the Appalachian mountain club, and was its presi- 
dent in 1NH0. He was a delegate to the Interna- 
tional congress of Alpine clubs held in Geneva in 
1879, and was elected one of its vice-presidents. 
Hesid.s numerous papsn contributed t<> •• pr 
in^'s ,>f the American Academy of Sciences and 
Arts." u American Journal of Otology," h«iia«pui>- 
lisbed "Course in Elementary Physios" .Boston, 
1*7:1) and "Lecture Notes on Mechanics and 
Optics"(lSK4). 

CROSS, Harld W., lawyer, b. in Richland (now 
PulasldXOewego <■<>., N. V.. 17 Nov.. i^u. Be 

was educated at Hamilton, N. Y.. seminary mow 

Madison university), and removed in lKMi to Cleve- 
land, Ohio, where he began the study of law. Ib- 
was appointed deputy colleotor <>f the |«>rt in 1887, 
and held the office tiil 1886. He began the practice 

>f his profession in 1K4-1. was ehossn township 
clerk in 1848, and a m e mb er of the city council in 
1849. In 1H.V) he entered extensively into coal- 
mining, and continued in it till 1867. Bines then 
he has been connected with other laanortnat enter- 
pris«*s and Ihls done much f«>r the industries of 
Cleveland. Mr. Cross is an ardent sportsman, and 
was one of the tirst to plant successfully tin 
tenia trout in Ohio waters. He ha* published 
" Kiftv Years with the (inn and K<h1 " (Cleveland, 

18H0).'an.l has been for years a contributor to 
•• fan* and Stream." the "American Field," and 
the •• American Angler." 

CROSS. Edward Kph ram, soldier, b. in I*n- 
easter, N. 11.. 22 April. \^2 : d. near t. 

Be was edueal.-d at 1 Lan ca st er 
academv, and U-gan life as a journeyman printer. 
He went to Cincinnati in 1888, and in !*"•( lieosme 
an editor of the "Cincinnati Times," al-> acting a* 
corresiximlent for th. rk Herald" and 

other journals. In WV1 he canvassed the state of 



20 



CROSS 



CROSWKLL 



Ohio for the American party. He was afterward 
employed as agent of the St. Louis and Arizona 
mining company, in which he subsequently became 
a large stockholder. In 1886 he made a trip across 
the plains, taking the first steam-engine and the first 

firinting-press that ever crossed the Rocky moun- 
ains. In 1860 he held a lieutenant-colonel's com- 
mission in the Mexican army, and when the news 
of the attack on Fort Sumter readied him he was 
in command of a large garrison at El Fuerte. He 
at once resigned, and hastened to Concord, N. H., 
where he offered his services to the governor of the 
state, organized the 5th New Hampshire regiment, 
and was commissioned as its colonel. Under his 
command the regiment distinguished itself in many 
important engagements, and won an enviable 
reputation for bravery, becoming known as the 
" Fighting Fifth." He was mortally wounded at 
the battle of Gettysburg while leading the 1st bri- 
gade of the 1st division, 2d army corps. He had 
been several times wounded before, and Gen. Han- 
cock had strongly recommended his promotion to 
brigadier-general, but, though he had commanded 
a brigade for several months with conspicuous 
gallantry, it was delayed, as has been claimed, 
through political influence. Col. Cross was the 
author of numerous poems and prose sketches, 
written under the pen-name of Richard Everett. 

CROSS, George Dilwyn, jurist, b. in Westerly, 
R. I., 24 Jan., 1799 ; d. there. 1 Oct., 1872. He 
was educated at a priyate school in Lebanon, Conn., 
and entered public life in 1821. He served six 
terms in the general assembly, was state senator in 
1826-'35 and 1848-'50, chief justice of the court of 
common pleas for Washington county in 1837-'49, 
and in 1840 was one of the commissioners for fix- 
ing the boundary-line between Connecticut and 
Rhode Island. In 1842, and again in 1853, he was 
elected a member of the conventions to amend the 
state constitution. He held many offices of honor 
and trust in his native town, interesting himself 
especially in the matter of free schools. 

CROSS, Joseph, clergyman and author, b. in 
East Brent, Somersetshire, England, 4 July, 1813. 
He came to the United States in 1825, and in 1829 
entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal 
church in Genesee, N. Y. He was for some time 
professor of English literature in Transylvania 
university, Lexington, Ky., and became prominent 
in the southern branch of the church. He was a 
member of the Nashville general conference of 
1856 and its official reporter, and principal of a 
female seminary at Spartanburg, S. C. He entered 
the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal church in 
1866, and, after holding pastorates at Houston, 
Tex., Buffalo, N. Y., St. Louis, and other places, 
became in 1885 rector of the church at Las Vegas, 
New Mexico. Among his publications are " Head- 
lands of Faith " ; " Life and Sermons of Christmas 
Evans," from the Welsh ; " The Hebrew Mission- 
ary " (Nashville, Tenn„ 1855) ; " Pisgah Views of 
the Promised Inheritance," a series of dissertations 
on the unaccomplished prophecies (New York, 
1856) ; " A Year in Europe " (1859) ; " Gospel 
Workers " (Baltimore, 1861) ; " Stories and Illustra- 
tions of the Ten Commandments" (New York, 
1862) ; " Illustrations of the Shorter Catechism " 
(2 vols., Philadelphia, 1865) ; " Prelections on 
Charity"; "Edens of Italy" (New York, 1882); 
"Knight Banneret." (1882); "Coals from the 
Altar R (2 vols., 1883); '-Pauline Charity" (1883); 
and "Old Wine and New" (1884). The last 
four are collections of sermons. Dr. Cross has 
also compiled a " Church Reader for Lent" (1885). 
—His wife, Jane Tandy Chinn, author, b. in Har- 



rodsburg, Ky., in lHiT: d. In EUsabethtown, Ky., 
in Oetober. \ s ?k married Tnmwi P. Hardin, a law- 
yer, in 1835, but he died in 1N-42. leaving her with 
three children, and in 1848 she married Dr. I 
Mrs. Cross devoted more than twenty years to the 
education of young ladies, in which she was emi- 
nently successful. During a trip through Europe 
with Dr. Cross, she wrote letters to the "Christian 
Advocate," and also to the Charleston "Courier," 
and contributed largely to the NashvUle "Home 
Monthly" and other periodicals. During the civil 
war she sympathized stronglv with the south, and 
at one time sne and her two daughters were arrest- 
ed, tried by a military tribunal, and sent to jail. 
Her works, all published in Nashville, Tenn., be- 
tween 1860 and 1870, include " Heart Blossoms for 
mv Little Daughters"; "Wayside Flowerets"; 
" Bible Gleanings " ; " Drift- Wood " ; " Gonzalvo de 
Cordova," a translation from the Spanish of Flo- 
rian ; " Duncan Adair," a story of the civil war ; 
and " Azile," a story partly of southern experiences 
during the war (1868). 

CROSS, Trueman, soldier, b. in Maryland; d. 
near the present Fort Brown, Texas, 21 April, 1846. 
He entered the army as ensign in the 42d infantry, 
27 April, 1814 ; became assistant deputy quarter- 
master-general, with the rank of captain, 16 June, 
1818 ; major-quartermaster, 22 May, 1826 ; and 
assistant quartermaster-general, with the rank 
of colonel, 7 July, 1838. He was chief of the 
quartermaster's department of the army of occu- 
pation from 10 Oct., 1845, till his death, which he 
met at the hands of Mexican banditti. Col. Cross 
published " MUitary Laws of the United States " 
(Washington). — His brother, Osborne, soldier, b. 
in Maryland in 1803 ; d. in New York city, 15 July, 
1876, was graduated at the U. S. military academy 
in 1825, assigned to the infantry, and served on 
garrison, frontier, and commissary duty. He was 
made first lieutenant on 31 Dec., 1831, assistant 
quartermaster, 1 Jan., 1836, and became captain in 
the first infantry, 7 July, 1838. He was chief 
quartermaster of Wool's division in 1846-'7, and of 
the Army of Mexico in 1848, promoted to major 
on 24 July, 1847, and served until the civil war, 
during which he was chief quartermaster of 
various posts and camps. He was made deputy 
quartermaster-general, 26 Feb., 1863, and on 13 
March, 1865, was brevetted brigadier-general in 
the regular army. He was promoted to colonel, 29 
July, 1866, and on the same day was retired. 

CROSWELL, Andrew, clergyman, b. in Charles- 
town, Mass., in 1709; d. in Boston, Mass., 12 April, 
1785. He was graduated at Harvard in 1728, or- 
dained in Groton, Conn., 14 Oct., 1738, and on 6 
Oct., 1738, was installed over a society in Bos- 
ton formed by persons from other churches. He 
was active as a controversialist. Among his 
numerous publications are " Reply to a Book en- 
titled ' A Display of God's Special Grace ' " (1742) ; 
"The Apostle's Advice to the Jailor Improved; 
being a Solemn Warning against the Awful Sin of 
Soul-Murder " (1744) ; " Heaven Shut against Ar- 
minians and Antinomians" (1747) ; "Remarks on 
Bishop Warburton's Sermon before the Societ y for 
the Propagation of the Gospel " (1768) ; and " Re- 
marks on the Satirical Drollery at Cambridge, Last 
Commencement Day " (1771). 

CROSWELL, Charles M., statesman, b. In New- 
burg, N. Y., 31 Oct., 1825; d. in Adrian, Midi.. 
13 Dec, 1886. He was apprenticed to the carpen- 
ter's trade in Adrian, but in his twentieth year be- 
gan the study of law, and soon became depute 
county clerk. In 1850 he was city registrar, and 
was re-elected in 1852. Mr. Ctoswell became 



i Etoei 

mayor of Adrian in l*»',-.\ and in the autumn of 
year entered the rtats senate. Afb 

in tin* .•:i|uuii y three term-. In- was sueccs-: 
ideal of tin' Constitutional oonventiun in I 

elcctor-at -large mi i h«- ri|>u)>liiiiii ticket in 1808, 

speaker of the lower bom of tin* Isghsaturs In 
Land later secretary of the State board of chari- 
After filling the office of goreroor <>f Michi- 
gan in l*?u. In- whs re-elected in 1m; 

CROSWELL, Harry, clergyman, l>. in West 
fonl, ("tin., 16 Jane, KT*; d. in New Hasan, 
Conn., i;{ Man in. ls.vs. H. whs edooated under 
tin- sue of Eter. Dr. Perkins ami Dr. Noah Wsb- 
si.r. When iiniti- young. In- entered liis broth* 
printing-office in (atskill. N. v., and soon u>- 
atnna sditor of a paper issued there. He founded 
I rYiliTnlist newspaper oaUed the ••Balance" in 
Hudson, N. V.. in 1808, which became noted for 
the bitterness hiiiI scathing sarcasm of its editori- 
als; and Mr. Croswell became involved in many 
libel suits. The most celebrated of these was 
led by an article on Jefferson, published in the 

\\a>p," a paper controlled by Mr. Croswell. and 
Alexander Hamilton's last and one of his finest 
speeches was made in Croswell*! defence at the 
trial. Croswell afterward edited a jM>litical news- 
paper in Albany, whither he removed in 1809. 
and was again prosecuted for libel by a Mr. South- 
wick, who recovered damages. Croswell called 00 
his friends for money to make good this amount, 
and on their refusal determined to enter the min- 
istry of the Protestant Episcopal church, though 
he had been brought up a Congregational ist. II. 
was ordained deacon, 8 May, 1814, and had charge 
of Christ church, Hudson, till 1 Jan.. 1815, when 
he became rector of Trinity church, New Haven, 
Conn., then the only Episcopal church in the 
city, holding services in an old wooden building 
on Church street till the opening of the new 
church edifice, on 22 Feb., 1816. He remained in 
New Haven till his death. One who knew him 
writes: " His tall figure and manly form, clerical 
garb, and high-topped boots with knee-buckles, 
impressed every beholder as they saw him walk t lu- 
st reefs of New Haven, ne was not a gnat 
preacher, but he had an extraordinary knowledge 
of human nature, and could ingratiate himself into 
every man's heart." Trinity college gave him the 
degree of D.I), in 1831. He published ** Young 
Churchman's Guide "(4 vols.i; •• Manual of Family 
Prayers" (New Haven); "Guide to the Holy Sacra- 
ment"; and a "Memoir" of his son, Rev. William 
Croswell, D. D. (New York, 1854). He left in 
manuscript "Annals of Trinity Church" and a 
voluminous diarv. See " Letters of Waldegrave," 
l»y Ke\. <;. W.' Nichols (New York. 1880).-- His 
son, William, clergyman. 1>. in Hudson, N. V„ 7 
Nov.. 1*04 ; d. in Boston, Mass., 9 Nov.. 1851, was 
graduated at Yale in 1822, taught a select school 
in New Haven, with an elder brother, and in 1884 
was engaged with his cousin. Edwin Croswell, as 
assistant editor of the Albany "Argus." He en- 
tered the General theological seminary in New 
York in 1888. and pursued his studies with Bishop 
BrOWnelLIn Hartford, in 1887, at the same time 
editing the " Episco|wil Watchman." He wasor* 
dained in 1898, and, after holding several pastor- 
ates, became rector of the recently organised 
Church of the Advent in Boston, where he re- 
mained till his death. His manner of conducting 
the church service- 1,-d to a controversy with Dish- 
Hl En-tl>urn, by whom *he was officially censured, 
id's lift ffM one of charity and religious devotion. 
Trinity college gars him the de gree of D. D. in 

1846. He wn.te a jun e r o m ahon lyrical pesos, 



CB0WI 



U 



some of which wan published in his father's 
memoirs of him, and hi Nu-n<d •ikISsdu- 

lar." wen* edited, with n 

Cleveland Cose, D.D k. l^i.-IUm 

Croswcdl's nephew, Edwin, lournali.t. I., in Cahv 
kill N. V.. gj Hey, 1787; I m Princeton. N. J.. 
l.l June. in?i, l«came assistant editor of ah fa- 
ther - - paper, the -(atskill Reoorder," In. tlmi arti- 
ek bam* a defence and vindication of the soldiers 
drafted for the defence ol New York 
war of lsi2. After the retirement of In* father. 

in- maiiagcinisit ..f the, M Beoftrder N nttracted the 
attention of the democrats md in 1H84 

invited to Aftanj i>v Martin Vm i 
Benjamin E. Butler, and others, to ... 

" Argu-," and eJlO to bsSOSM -late print. • 
Croswell remained in Allmuy thirty wars, changed 
the •• Argus' 1 from a semi-weekly to' a daih 
mil. and made it one of the' chief democratic 
organs in the country. Al a member of U 
called "Albany Regency," a group of |>ulil 
who directed the j»arty council* in the -• 
was his duty to preserve order in the ranks tl 
the coluinns of his journal, and to hi> ta- t in j- r- 
forming this dutv may DS largely axriU-d the 
position of the democrats in New York tit that 
time. The leading articles in the "Argu-" 
Copied in the minor partv |>u|*rs throughout the 

state as embodying al] tlmt was mand of demo- 
cratic principles, and for many years it was 
regarded a- political apostasy to ipieMion the 
authority of the party organ. When the mhig* 

obtained possession of the state in into, Mr 

Well WHS succeeded in t he ofljee of -tatc printer bv 
Thurlow Weed, but held it again fn.in 1*44 till 
1K4T. Su b se qu ently he found himself pnpi 
Martin Van Buren and others of sis earn |»>liti<-al 

— OCJStes, through a spli» in the |wrtv. lb- mired 
from journalism in 1854 and engaged in business 
in New York. He published numerous addresses. 
CR0THERS, Samuel, clergvman. b. near 
Chambersburg, Pa., 88 <><!., 1788: d. in <>swego, 
III.. 80 July, 1886, He went to Lexington, hy.. 
with his father in 1787, entered the academy there 

in 1T!)N, and. after studying at tin 

theological seminary, returned to Kentucky in 

l^o". and whs UeSPSOd to preach bv the Kentucky 
presbytery. After a year of missionary work, he 
wss settled, la 1810, over the churchei of chilli- 
cothe and Greenfield, Ohio, but in i*i:t di 
hlmsnH to the latter alone. In comimny with Ml 
former teacher in New York. Dr. Mssou, I 
posed close communion, and the exclusive use of 
what has been oslled inspired |e*lrnody. Trouble 

rrowingoul of his opinions on thssssabjo 
lim. iii 1*1*. to resign his charge and as 
Winchester, Kj.\ but be returnee toGiesaaaM in 

1880, organiSSO I new church, and remained |«!» 
tor of it till his death. Dr. Crotlurs «M | 
cms and rigorous writer ami an elooiient preacher. 
Bee * Life and Writings of BsmmnCrnUam: 
\. Kitehie (Cmrinnal 
CKOWK, Frederlrk, missionary, b. in ltel- 
giuni : d. in New York US WSS 

the -on Of a British siibiect. Coining la Baluo 
about 1*1*. he established himself than as an m- 
de|«'iident mi— ionarv. lalnm-d thirteen years in 
disseminating the scriirturei in S|M»nish America. 
and wa- the author Of a valuable historn.. 
on Central America. He was c\|«-li. 
Batradi id. by the Woman Catholics, be- 

eaiis.- he circulated the Bible, and intended l 
a school in San Hsgual After lNin k ' imprisoned, 
harassed, and at lasl driven \*\ m 

l York, ami sooo died. 



I 



22 



<k<>\\ i:u. 



CRUGER 



CROWELL, William, journalist, b. in Middle- 
Odd, -Mass., in lN(Ki; d. in Flanders, X. .1.. l'.i 
Aug., 1871. After receiving an academical educa- 
tion, he entered the Baptist ministry. and was pas- 
tor for some years at Waterville, Me. He took 
charge, in 1838, of the "Christian Watchman," 
the principal Baptist pai>er in New England, to 
whicn he had previously been a large contributor, 
and conducted it with ability till its consolidation 
with the " Christian Reflector " in 1848. He then 
edited the " Western Watchman," in St. Louis, 
for several years, and during the civil war was pas- 
tor of a church in central Illinois. Rochester 
university gave him the degree of D. D. in 1857. 
Dr. Crowell was the author of " The Church-Mem- 
ber's Manual of Ecclesiastical Principles " ; " The 
Church-Member's Hand-Book" (Boston, 1850); a 
" History of Baptist Literature for Fifty Years," 
for the missionary jubilee volume, and several 
Sundav-school books. 

CROWNINSHIELD, Jacob, congressman, b. 
in Salem, Mass., 31 March, 1770; d. in Washing- 
ton, D. C, 14 April, 1808. He was educated for a 
merchant, and at one time he and three of his 
brothers were in command of vessels in the India 
trade. He was a member of the Massachusetts 
legislature in 1801, and elected to congress, serving 
from 1803 till 1805. He was appointed secretary 
of the navy by President Jefferson on 3 March, 
1805, but never entered upon his duties, owing to 
his rapid decline and death, the result of consump- 
tion.— Jacob's brother, Benjamin Williams, sec- 
retary of the navy, b. in Boston, Mass., 27 Dec, 
1772 ; d. there, 3 Feb., 1851, received an English 
education, and engaged in business in Salem, 
Mass. He was a state senator in 1811, and on 17 
Dec, 1814, appointed secretary of the navy by 
President Madison. He held the same office in 
Monroe's cabinet, and resigned in November, 
1818. He was a presidential elector in 1820, again 
a state senator in 1822-'3, and then elected to con- 
gress as a democrat from the Salem district, serv- 
ing from 1 Dec, 1823, till 3 March, 1831. He was 
a candidate for re-election in 1830, but defeated 
by Rufus Choate. — His grandson, Arrant Schuy- 
ler, naval officer, b. in New York state, 14 March, 
1843, was graduated at the U. S. naval academy in 
1863. He was attached to the steam sloop " Ti- 
conderoga," and participated in both attacks on 
Fort Fisher, being commended for his efficiency 
by Capt. Charles Steedman. He was made 
lieutenant, 10 Nov., 1866, lieutenant-commander, 
10 March, 1868, and commander, 25 March, 1880. 
He is a member of the naval advisory board in New 
York city. — Benjamin Williams's grandson, Fred- 
eric, artist, b. in Boston, Mass., 27 Nov., 1845, was 
graduated at Harvard in 1866, and began the study 
of water-color drawing in London in 1867 under 
Rowbotham, devoting himself to landscape-paint- 
ing in water-colors and in oil. He passed eleven 
consecutive years in Europe, most of the time in 
Italy, and studied his profession chiefly under 
Couture, though he was for one term in the Paris 
ecole des beaux arts, under Cabanel. At this 
time he took up fWure-painting. His first work 
exhibited in public \ was an allegorical portrait 
group sent to the Paris salon of 1878. His water- 
colors are much admired. After his return to this 
country he became, in T879, instructor in the art 
school connected with the\ Museum of fine arts in 
Boston, and remained there till 1885. He has 
lately devoted the greater jrnrt of his time to 
mural painting, and to stained glass. 

CROXTON, John Thomas, soldier, b. in Bour- 
bon county, Ky., 20 Nov., 1837; d. in La Paz, 



Bolivia, 16 April, 1874. He was graduated at 
Yale in 1857. studied law in G eor g e to wn, Kv.. was 
admitted to the bar in 1858, and began practice in 
Paris, Ky., in August, 1859. Two years later be 
was active in the movement for raising Union 
t mops, and went to the front in June, 1861, as 
lieutenant-colonel of the 4th Kentucky infantry. 
In March, 1862, he succeeded to the command of 
the regiment, and in August, 1864, was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general. Soon afterward he was 
brevetted major-general. He participated in the 
battles of Sherman's army, and at the close of the 
war was put in command of the military district 
of southwest Georgia, with headquarters at Macon. 
In December, 1865, he resigned Ins commission 
and returned to Kentucky, where he resumed the 
practice of law, residing on his farm near Paris. 
Two or three years later he was active in estab- 
lishing the "Louisville Commercial" as a repub- 
lican journal. His exposure during the war and 
subsequent overwork had greatly impaired his 
health, and in 1873 he accepted the office of U. S. 
minister to Bolivia, in the expectation of benefit 
to his health from it ; but it was too late. 

CROZER, John Price, manufacturer, b. in 
Springfield, Delaware co., Pa., 13 Jan., 1793 ; d. in 
Upland, Pa., 11 March, 1866. In the manufacture 
of cotton goods he made an ample fortune, which 
he largely devoted to philanthropic purposes. In 
1858 he erected at Upland, Pa., at a cost of $45,- 
000, a building intended for general education, 
but which he subsequently gave to the Baptists 
for a theological seminary. In honor of him as a 
founder, this institution was called the Crozer 
theological seminary. His widow and children 
have endowed it with contributions amounting to 
$275,000. Mr. Crozer made other large gifts to 
the cause of education, the American Baptist pub- 
lication societv, and humane institutions. 

CROZET, Claude, educator, b. in France ; d. 
in 1863. He was educated at the Polytechnic 
school in Paris, and became an officer of artillery 
under Napoleon I. He came to the United States 
in 1816, and on 1 Oct. was appointed assistant 
professor of engineering at the U. S. military 
academy at West Point, and on 6 March, 1817, 
professor. He resigned in 1823, and thereafter 
acted as a civil engineer. 

CRUCE, or CRUZ, Francisco de la, author, b. 
in Granada, Spain, about 1600; d. in Potosi, Peru, 
in 1660. He was a Dominican, and held offices in 
San Juan Bautista, Peru. He founded the College 
of Santo Tomas in Lima, and was its professor of 
theology. He was a voluminous writer, both on 
theological and political subjects. His works in- 
clude " Historia del Rosario a Coros" (Alcala, 1652) ; 
" Discursus pro Occidentalibus " (Lima, 1653); 
" Cursus Artiura " (Sevilla, 1655) ; and " Manifiesta 
obligacion del Vasallo" (Lima and Madrid, 1656). 

CRUET, Charles, soldier, b. in Indiana; d. in 
Terre Haute, Ind., 23 March, 1883. He was com- 
missioned an officer of volunteers from Indiana, 16 
July, 1862, and became a major-general of volun- 
teers, 5 March, 1865. He served: with credit through- 
out the war, and specially distinguished himself in 
the battles that were fought near Richmond, Ky., 
29 and 30 Aug., 1862, having command of a bri- 
gade under Gen. Mahlon D. Manson. 

CRUGER, John, colonial mayor of New York, 
b. there, 18 July, 1710; d. 27 Dec"., 1792. He early 
turned his attention to trade, and became eminent 
as a shipping merchant. Like his father, who was 
mayor from 1739 till 1744, he filled important po- 
litical offices. In 1754 he was chosen alderman of 
the dock ward, and from 1756 till 1765 was mayor. 




^^fayt? 



OBI 

He was elected to the general assembly iii 17*>1». 
ami in 1701 Mr. I s n leading member <-f 

the committee on corrc.s|M>udcuoa, and wan asso- 
ciated in the 

drafting of me- 
morials to lin- 
king, the lords, 
ami tin- ooav 
iimus." relative 
to the dangers 
which throat 
en Mm Bohmiai 

to be tu\"l 
by laws tn 
M passed in 
(ireat Britain. " 
Again in LTS8 
he was sent to 
represent New 
York city in 
the last colo- 
nial assembly, 
and was unani- 

mooely ehoaan 

speaker, which 
office he held 
until I??. - ). He 
was the first 
president of the New York chamber of oommerw 
in 1708. In 1775. with thirteen other memben 
of the assembly, he addressed a letter to Gen. 
Thomas Gage, urging "that no military force 
might land or be stationed in this province." 
During the Revolutionary war he retired to Kin- 
derhiMik. but, after peace was declared, returned 
to New York.— His brother, Henry, merchant, b. 
in 1702; d. in Bristol, England, 8 Feb., 1780, was a 
member of the assembly and council of New York, 
and settled as a merchant in Bristol, England, of 
which city he was mayor at the time of his death. — 
Henry, son of the preceding, politician, b. in New 
York in 1739; d. there, 24 April, 1827, established 
himself in trade, with his father, in Bristol, and 
succeeded him as mayor' in 1781. He was elected 
to parliament as the colleague of Burke in 1774. and 
re-elected in 1784, and advocated on all occasions a 
conciliatory course toward his countrymen. He BO 
severely retorted upon Col. Grant, who said, in par- 
liament, that the colonists would never dare to face 
an English army, that he was called to order by the 
siM-aker. After the war he became a merchant in 
New York, and was elected to the state senate while 
yet a member of parliament. — John Harris, broth- 
er of the preceding, British officer, b. in New York 
city in 17:5*; d. in London, 3 June, 1H07, succeeded 
his father as a member of the New York city council, 
was its mayor in 1704, and at the beginning of the 
Revolution was its chamlicrlain. He was a son-in- 
law of Col. De Lancey, and commanded the 1st 
battalion of his loyalist corps. In June, 17m>. he 
was captured at a" plantation in Belfast, (»a., but 
was soon exchanged for Col. John Mcintosh. In 
Septemlier he made a forced march to Augusta, to 
relieve Col. Browne, and arrived most opportunely. 
He distinguished himself at the battle of Kutaw 
Springs, when- his corps formed the British centre. 
Hi- defen c e of Ninety-Six. when attacked by Q rsene 
in .May, 17*1. won great praise. His property was 
confiscated, and he went to England after the war. 
< RUSE, Christian Frederic, clergyman, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa.. 27 .lun'e. 1794; d. in New Y«>rk 
city. 5 Oct.. 1804 He was graduated at the I'ni- 
'\ ..t Pennsylvania in 1818, and after study- 
ing theology was ordained in the riotoatsnl Epu- 
copal church by Bishop While, of Pennsylvania, in 



CRUZ 



H 



1822. He acquired a high reputation for hi* know]. 
"!;?•' of Hiiririit languages. 1 till DOS he 

was assistant profc«., r in tl 

sylvania. and ajSO f'-r a time ptofaamf [ t ,' St. Paul'* 
college, Minn. In IM7 he Iwoeme rector of Tnmtv 
church in Pishkill, N. Y.. where he remained until 
lKVt. after whuh he Uxamc librnrian in the Gen- 
eral theological seminar} in New York. Ih- tram* 
lation of husebiu* riaatksJ Hilton 

York ; reprinted in l/ondon. - - 
best English version. 

(RISK. Peter Hoffman, writer, b. in Balti- 
more. M,|.. in 1798; .1. th.re. 7S-pt.. IKf.». Hew*. 
educated at Princeton, and studied law, but sahse- 
quentlj devoted him— If entirely to I 
suits. Hi* contribution- appeared prtaoipalfy in 

the reviews, and for ten years prior t.. hi. •hath 
he edited the •• Baltimore American." I»ur 
yean 1818-1 hs was associated with John P. Ken- 
nedy in the publication of "The Bad Book* n 
fortnightly of local and hMUMOUJ IsrfsrsaL win, h 
contained much playful satin- b\ K< im.-dv, ami 
some bright poetry by Crass. He was noted as a 
brilliant conversationalist. 

CRITTENDKN, Daniel Henry, educator, b. 
in (ialway. N. Y.. 27 Feb.. lH|ii; d. in Castleton, 
N. Y.. 21 June, 1H74. He was graduated at l 
in 1K41, and bsoams principal of the Bohool of the 
Mechanics' institute m New York city. He adro- 
cated»niethiMls of roanhhlS that are now in general 
Das, lb- published nxt-books, including » 
of "Systematic Arithmetics" (New York, 1888); 
"The Philosophy of rmngnagt" (1810); and a 
■• Rhetorical Grammar (i v 

CRIZ, Juan Bautista Yalerio de la (eroothl 
cacique and captain-general of the ( Im Inn,. 
in Texcoco, Mexico, about 1517; d. in the i 
Mexico in 1572. He was a descendant of Ring 
Netzalhiialcoyotl. When the S|wniards occupied 
Mexico he was liapti/.ed. and. entering the Spanish 
militia, was appointed ensign of the royal guards 
two years afterward. Antonio de Mendoza »:n\e 
him command of *<> Spanish soidisn and 4«X» In- 
dian archers, and sent liim to enlist rolnntssn and 
conquer ths territories OOOnpisd by the (Im hime- 
0SS. When Mendoza left Mexico, in 1600, hs ai>- 
|>oiiited Cruz caciipieof all territories that he misfit 
conquer, and in looO I.ui- de Valssoo advanced him 
to the rank of oaptain-general of ths Chichimecaa. 
Cruz gave the church and convent of Tula to the 
Franciscan friars in acknowledgment of their work 
in favor of the natives, and l.inlt the bridge of that 
iiiv. Chariei v. rewarded him *nh BSW privil- 
eges, and Cruz oontinned his services during the 
test of his life. His remains VON buried in the 
convent of Santiago Tlaltelolco of Me\ 

CRIZ. Rodriiro de la (erooth). soldier, b. in 
HarbeUa, Spain. 00 Deo- 1«*I7: d. in Mexico, 28 
Bent, 171<i. Hs Pent to Central America with his 
father, who had hsSB appointed gi>venior..f Ooflta 
Kica. in 1000, and afterwanl succeeded him in that 
i. line. Be BOOOmplishcd the conquest of Talainan- 
ca. in which he spsni a large BOrOOl of hi* private 
fortune, and the kin^r of Siwin rewarded hm 
the title of Marquis de Talamanca : but he soon 
entered the order foiiiul.sl by Father BetSJBBOSjrl in 
(iiiatcmala. and snOOSSdsd him as superior, ! 

lie went to Peru, where he founded nuincr- 
oni bospitala, and obtained the inonrj>oration of 
his order. 00 Karen. m M 7. F.. r this purpose be 
went I" Koine and Madrid, when- he reman 
nine vears, and >n his return he founded new in- 
stitutions ami hospitals in Mexico and Peru 
wrote ••Const it u.iones de la BsMgjfJB Hetlendtica 
fundada in la> Indies Oecidentales" (Mexico. lT'.K 



24 



CRUZ 



CUDEQUALA 



CRUZ, Sor .In. ma In6sde in, Mextaan poet, b. 
in San Miguel do Nepantla, near the city of Max- 
ico, 12 Nov., 1651; d. in Mexico, 17 April. L698. 
At the age of five she could rend, write, and keep ac- 
counts, and at the age of eight composed a poem 
on the holy sacrament. Soon afterward she was 
sent to the citv of Mexico, learned Latin and other 
branches rapidly, and asked her parents' permission 
to disguise herself as a student so that she could 
enter the university. Not being allowed to do this, 
she continued her studies privately, and her literary 
accomplishments soon made her famous in Mexico. 
The vice-queen retained her as one of the ladies of 
the household. The viceroy, the Marquis de Man- 
cera, wishing to test her learning and intelligence 
(she being then seventeen years old), invited several 
theologians, jurists, philosophers, and poets to a 
meeting, during which she had to answer, unpre- 
pared, many questions, and explain several difficult 
points on various scientific and literary subjects. 
The manner in which she acquitted herself aston- 
ished all present, and greatly increased her repu- 
tation. She was much admired in the vice- 
royal court for her beauty, but refused several 
proposals of marriage, and entered first the con- 
vent of San Jose, and subsequently that of San 
Jeronimo, where she finally took the veil. She 
then devoted herself for twenty-seven years to her 
religious duties, as well as to her favorite studies 
of theology, interpretation of the Scriptures, logic, 
rhetoric, natural philosophy, mathematics, history, 
music, and poetry. In 1693 she gave up all studies 
and exercises unconnected with her religious du- 
ties in the convent, and sold her splendid library 
to help the poor. Two years afterward a terrible 
scourge desolated the city of Mexico, and Sister 
Juana Ines. while personally assisting other nuns 
suffering from the epidemic, became its victim and 
died. Her remains were buried with extraordinary 
ceremonies. She was generally known as "The 
Nun of Mexico," and was also called " The Tenth 
Muse." Her writings, mostly in verse, include 
"Amor es laberinto," a classical drama; "Los 
empefios de una casa," a comedy ; " Ovillejos," a 
satirical poem ; " El Neptuno alegorico," and two 
volumes entitled '* Poesias sagradas y profanas." 

CUADRA, Pedro Lucio (kwah'-drah), Chilian 
engineer, b. in the city of Santiago, 14 April, 1842. 
He studied in the university of his native city, and 
when still very young was attached to the scientific 
commission that the government appointed to make 
a geographical study of the Chilian territory, his 
personal efforts assuring the success of the commis- 
sion's work. In 1874 the owners of the newly dis- 
covered silver mines at Caracoles, Bolivia, gave 
Cuadra the general superintendence of the works, 
and in 1876 he was appointed president of the Bank 
of Valparaiso. During Pinto's administration Cu- 
adra was several times offered a portfolio in the 
cabinet, but declined it, and in 1882 he accepted 
that of finance under President Santa Maria, dis- 
tinguishing himself by important reforms. Being 
a member of the cabinet that negotiated the treaty 
of peace with Spain, he used all tys influence in 
favor of its negotiation, and King Alfonso XII. 
awarded him the Great Cross of NavaJ Merit. He 
was elected senator in 1882 for six years, and was 
president of the senate in 1886. *5 

CUAUHTEMOTZIN (kwau - tay - ino - tseen'), 
which means " Eagle's Eyesight," sometimes called 
Cuauhtemoc, Quauhtemotzin, Quauhtemoc, Guate- 
moc, Guatimoc, or Guatimocin, thirteenth and last 
Mexican king (eleventh monarch, according to other 
accounts), b. in I486 ; d. in 1594. He was the son of 
Almitzol, and married Tecuichpatzin, a daughter of 




Motecuhzoma (Moctezuma) and the widow of Cui- 
tlahuatl, his own uncle, whom he succeeded on the 
throne, Ming elected and crowned about the end <>f 
January. 1681. Cuauhtenmtzin at once began to 
strengthen the defences of the city of Mexico; but 
Cortes, after several successful butt Irs and subse- 
quent agreements with the natives, besieged the eft v 
with a large force of Indian allies and his Spanish 
troops, and final- 
ly Cuauhtemotzin 
and all his war- 
riors surrendered 
(13 Aug., 1521). 
The siege last- 
ed 75 days, and 
cost the Spaniards 
over 100 men of 
the 900 present, 
their allies losing 
several thousand, 
while many thou- 
sand Mexicans 
died fighting or 
from starvation 
and disease. Cu- 
auhtemotzin had 
on one occasion, 
with the approval 
of the senate, sac- 
rificed four Span- 
iards and 4,000 
Indians, to obtain 
favor of the gods. 
The invaders tortured him to make him tell where 
his treasures and those of the temples were hid- 
den ; and three years afterward he was executed, 
with the kings of Texcoco and Tlacopan, on sus- 
picion that they had conspired against the Spanish 
rule. The young emperor endured his torture 
calmly, and when the Texcoco chief groaned in his 
death-agony, reproved him, saying, " Do you think 
I am on a bed of roses t " A monument to Cuauhte- 
motzin, surmounted by a bronze statue, represent- 
ed in the illustration, was erected in the city of 
Mexico in January, 1887. 

CUBA, Dion isio Vires, Count of, Spanish gen- 
eral, b. in the latter part of the 18th century ; d. in 
1840. He was captain-general of Cuba in 1824, 
when all Spanish possessions on the American con- 
tinent had become independent. He had then but 
few troops under his command, but managed to 
maintain order and preserve the island of Cuba 
for Spain without troubles or any sort of violence. 
In recognition of his valuable services to the mother 
country, the government rewarded him with high 
honors, among them the title of Count of Cuba. 

CUDEQUALA (coo-da-kah'-lah), Araucanian 
warrior, b. in the Mariguena valley, Chili, about 
1555; d. near Puren, 12 Dec., 1587. While very 
young he entered the Araucanian army as a pri- 
vate, although he was a nobleman, and gradually 
won promotion to the grade of general. The gen- 
eral-in-chief, Dayaucura, gave him command of a 
strong army to attack the city of Angol, which he 
did without success, but then marched to the city 
of Arauco, besieged and entered it. Afterward he 
intended to attack Fort Trinidad, this fortress com- 
manding the passage from Biobio, but a body • •!' 
Spanish troops under Francisco Hernandez came 
out and defeated Cudequala, who lost an arm ami 
was otherwise severely wounded. This forced him 
1<> ret ire to the mountains. He was followed thither 
by the lieutenant-governor of Chili, who attempted 
an ambuscade, only to be discovered, defeated, and 
killed, with fifty of his men, 14 Nov., 1586. On 



CUDWORTH 






H 



tli.« same day Oodequala whs elected general-in- 
chief by acclamation. In the following yeai 

'I'ii I udi-h, who commanded a pr< datory 

expedition of three -hip-- against the Spanish colo- 
nies, landed at Qnlntero, but CudeqjnahVi a anion 
attacked the English and forced them tonal] 
a number <»f their men having been killed. After 
some successful oponfioM the Arnnoanian chief 

determined t«i take the city of Angol by -urpri-c, 
fur winch In' managed to liavi- the Indian Inhabi- 
tants prepared t<> set lire to the house-, of the Span* 
% iardsat an appointed time during the night, while 
he would have his troops quietly approaching the 

gate* of the plaee. This wits done, ami. while T 1 1 • - 
flames consumed many buildings, the frightened 
inmates ran about the streets only to In- horrihly 
dealt with at the hands of the Aramanians. The 
fOVaUIOr of Angol hastily gathered some troops, 
and, after doaparata fighting, Cudequala retreated 
at daybreak. But this did not discourage the In- 
dian general, who soon besieged Puren and defeated 
ft both' of Spanish troops sent by the governor to 
ra anffimn the pla<v. Then he propose* 1 to the be- 
sieged that they either surrender or enter UaoWfl 
service; but, as his proposals received no attention, 
Cude<|ualn went near the rampart of the place, lid- 
bag on a splendid horse taken by himself from the 
governor, and challenged the commander of the 
Spanish forces to come out and light penonally 
with him. The commander, (iania Kamon, imme- 
diately accepted the challenge, and on an appointed 
day the chiefs met in an open field, each being ac- 
companied by a small number of officers and men. 
The encounter was very short, for the two oppo* 
nents at once made a furious attack, riding at 
full gallop, and Cudequala fell, baring been run 
through with the Spaniard's s|K-ar. Even when 
dying the Araucanian warrior would not admit 
defeat, and tried in vain to mount his horse again. 

CUDWORTH, James, colonist, b. in England 
about 1012; d. there in 1082. He was an elder 
brother of Ralph Cudworth, famous among Cam- 
bridge IMatonists, and came to America in 10:54, 
settling in Plymouth. Later he removed to Seitu- 
ate. where for several years he was prominent in 
public affairs, and one of the council of war. He 
was a brave and prudent officer, ami commanded 
the Plymouth troops during the Indian war with 
King Philip, winning a military reputation second 
only to that of Miles standish. Be became unj>opu- 
lar on account of hisopjiosition to the severe meas- 
ures taken against the (Quakers. In 1081 he was 
made deputy governor, and during the same year 
sent to England as an agent for the colony, but 
died soon after his arrival. Some of his letters on 
public business are still extant. 

CIKLLAR, Joae" T. de (kwayl -jar), Mexican 
author, b. at San Luis Potosi. IS Aug.. 1885. He 
studied at the San Carlos academy in Mexico, and 
afterward entered the diplomatic service. He was 
attache to the Mexican legation at Washington 
from 1850 till 1858, when be returned to Mexico to 
fill a place in the foreign office. He accompanied 
President .Juarez to Paso del Norte in nil Official 
capacity, and returned to the capital with .luarez 
in 1*07. Having asked for a leave of a b s enc e, he 
retired to his native city in 1H08, and there won 
literary reputation by a novel entitled " El Pecado 
del Siglo." He was appointed secretary to the 
nan legation at Washington in 1*?<». and re- 
mained then- until 180, then In-ing recalled and 
siil>se<piently elected a representative to congress. 
1 1 is appointment as chief officer or under-seci 
of foreign affairs was made in August. 
Among Cuellar's works are these comedies and 



drama* i y aacriflcioa," ■ Aaares da ana 

■ ral y flgura," - «raar," 

"< ubnr las aparieneiaa, M •• Kcdendon," and 
viaje u Oriante." lit* norela be -*l».U 

de poll ho e| Sinfo." •• U.lina la ex-Agu- 

rante." - Lflg j,,,,,,,,,,,-. • •• Lai ■ 
and "(iabriel e| ( Vrrajer..." ||. ha* „!«.. written 
several immmiih. 

CtJENECURA 'kwav-nav-coo-rahi. Araw-anian 
soldier, b. in the provin. 
d. in Octolwr, 1009. I 

Cati ray, and officer of the Aran- milan armr under 

Cnillamaehn, be — wpmH thia ehieftatn in all 

hi-Uittl.-s against the S|«ninnU. and finally kuc- 

oaadad bin G bkeoauaMdaatty ■ M04 In loos 
he dafaated the Bpaaiali boom ftftdat tin- German 

commander, LUperger, near itaroa. <li r 

lama attaekaoa that city, and took it. Lispetgar 
having been killnl during it-, defence. Iii 1&7 
Cueiiecura routed 3,000 Spaniards newly in I 
Peru and marching in two column-, headed l>y 
ton-. Saravia ami Pineda, nnd every man of 
that army was either killed or made n |>n-»o«r by 
the Indians. The captain-general of Chili want 
with 2.000 men to attack him in 1000, but after 

a well-fought battle retreated. Caaajaaara waa 

wounded then, but directed another Iwttle In-fore 

he recovered, ami, seeing that his condition pre- 
vented him from continuing the figl/ 
banated, he took hi- own life on the Imttlo-fleld. 
He adopted the nee of artillery and other fire-arms 
taken from the Spanianls, and his Indians became 
very dexterous in handling their new weapons. 

( TKVA, Heatriz de la (kway-vah). wife of 
Pedro de Alvarado. the COUqtiarOT of Guatemala, 
b. in Spain early in the 10th century; d. in the city 
of Guatemala, il Sept., 1641. Winn Alvarado re- 
turned to Central America, after his BBCOad vovage 
to Spain in 1580, be had iiiarri.il then- Dona 
Heatriz, a si-t.-r of hil tir-t wife. l>ofln Erancinca 
' de la Cueva, who died in Vera Cruz in 1530. In 
1540 Alvarado wiis engaged in several cX|>edition» 
in Mexico, and while crossing the mountain- wan 
killed by a fall of his horse cnrlv in July, Cell. 
When this news reached Guatemala, the municij*! 
council elected Dofia Beatril to ■nmed her hus- 
band in the government ; but on the day following 
her inauguration .-he |m ri-lml. with manv other 
people, during the ternl.le earthquakes an Boodf 
thai destroyed the city. 11 S-pt.. 1541. Kvaf -m.i- 
-he has been generally ••nihil " Ifc>na Heatriz la sin 
Ventura " (Dona Heatriz. the unfortunate). 

(TKVAS 1»A\ AI.OS. Ab.n-o prel- 

ate, b.in thecitvof Me\ic,..-j:» Nov., |590;d I 
1005. Re was the first native Mexican elected to 
the archiepisoona] ate of ktaxioa He studied at 
the college of son Ildefoneo. won the doetortda- 



1 distingui-hed himself by hi- charitnlile work 
ring an epidemic in 1042-U Eight years 



greein (neology, and then filled thaehairof th.~ 
rereity of v Be waaasnt 

to P'uel.la its first oanon of the cathedral in 1085, 

and 

during an epul 

ward he was tran-lat.il ft) Um capital, and filial 

high oflices both m the cathedral ami in the uni- 

versitv.afterwhichhe was proiuote«l to tin- l.ishopne 

of OaTana. when- he suc«-.sd.sl in n-st.iring }ieace 

aaaong the revolted popaJation of Tahnaj 
the king of Spain thanking hha bi n »|«i*l de- 
oct.. 1002. Be lajajfied m June. 1554, bis 



anixiintment to the » .... whuhhei 

pied yntii hi- death, lb- had l-cun im|K*tant 
reform", but did not live to finish them, 

< I PFEE, l'aul. Indian preacher, b. in i: 
in M.-ntauk. Long Island, T March, 1811 I 
a member of the Shmnecock tnt>c of Indians on 



26 



(TFFEE 



CUITLAHUAT/.fN 



Long Island, and was the fourth missionary em- 
ployed among them by the New Fork missionary 
society, preaching there thirteen years. 

CUFFEE, l'iiiil. philanthropist, h. on one of 
the ElizaUtli isles, near New Bedford, Mass., in 
1759; d. 7 Sept., 1818. 1 1 is father was a negro, 
born in Africa, who had been a slave, and his 
mother an Indian. He followed a seafaring life, 
became owner of a vessel, which he manned en- 
tirely with negroes, and acquired a large fortune. 
He was an influential member of the Society of 
Friends. In his later years he interested himself 
in the scheme of colonizing American freedraen 
on the western coast of Africa, corresponded with 
friends of the enterprise in England and Africa, 
visited the colony in his own ship in 1811 to study 
its advantages, and in 1815 carried out thirty-eight 
colored emigrants and provided means for estab- 
lishing them in Africa. He applied to the British 
government for leave to land other companies of 
colored people in Sierra Leone, but died before the 
permission came. 

CUICUITZCATZIN (k wee-k weets-cah-tseen'), 
twelfth king of Texcoco, crowned in 1520. He was 
a brother of Cacamatzin, or Caminatzin, who, hav- 
ing determined to make war against the Spaniards, 
would not listen to the entreaties of envoys sent by 
Cortes. Subsequently the conqueror managed to 
have him dethroned by Moctezuma, and replaced 
by Cuicuitzcatzin, but this king ruled his nation 
only three or four months, as Coanacatzin suc- 
ceeded him in 1521. After serious trouble with 
the Spaniards, he was imprisoned and taken to 
Tlascala, and escaped thence to Texcoco, where his 
brother Coanacatzin ruled. But the latter, think- 
ing him to be a spy for the Spaniards, ordered his 
immediate execution. 

CUIENTUR(kwee-en'-toor), Araucanian cacique 
of the province of Nancu, Chili, b. there in 1578 ; d. 
in 1027. He entered the Araucanian army as a pri- 
vate, and was gradually raised to the rank of a gener- 
al after rendering great services to the Araucanians. 
In 1618 he succeeded Loncotegna in the command 
of their army, and one of his first operations was to 
defeat a Spanish detachment and take possession 
of their 400 horses. In the following year ne routed 
the Spaniards under the mayor of Chilian (who 
was kdled) near that city, and afterward pillaged 
the whole province. He then attacked the town of 
San Felipe de Austria, ransacked other neigboring 
towns, and finally took up a position in the Can- 
grejeras Pass, to oppose the Spanish troops. Com- 
mander Rebolledo first defeated him, but in a 
second battle was utterly routed by Cuientur. This 
Araucanian chief captured Neculguenu and killed 
every man of its garrison. He continued his op- 
erations till 1625, when, being tired of warfare, he 
resigned his command and retired to his own lands 
for the rest of his life. He used to call himself 
the eldest son of Fortune. 

CUILLAMACHU (kweel-yah-mah'-tchu), Arau- 
canian soldier, b. in the Uthanmapu valley, Chili, 
in 1534 ; d. in December, 1603. He was cacique of 
Uthanmapu, and while very young joined, with the 
warriors of his tribe, the rest of the Araucanian 
army. Having taken part in many battles against 
the Spaniards, he was given the supreme command 
in 154)3, and organized a large army at Lumaco. 
Two years later he attacked and took Fort Jesus, 
and then spread his forces about Ua districts 
near the Spanish settlements in 1594, caijsing them 
great troubles. In 1597 he took the 'important 
fortresses of Puren and Lumaco, and on 22 Nov.. 
1598, surprised in an ambuscade the governor of 
Chili, Loyola (a nephew of the founder of the 



Jesuit order), who was crossing the Curalava val- 
ley with his family, sixty officers, and three pril 
the whole party perishing after a desperate resist* 
■nee. CuiOsmacha immediately ordered that not 
onlv all the Araucanians, but the (uncos and . 
(Juilliches also, rise in arms to kill every Spaniard or 
creole found outside of the fortified cities or towns | 
and during the year he closely invented the cities 
of Osorno, Valdlvia, Yillarrica, Imperial, Caflete, 
Angol, and (ova, as well as the fortress of Arauco. 
In the mean time he crossed Biobio river, burned 
the cities of Concepcion and Chilian, pillaged p 
every populated place in those provinces, and re- 
turned to his quarters with a large booty. The 
royal troops under Gen. Quifiones had several 
undecisive encounters in 1599 with the Araucani- 
ans along the banks of the Biobio, especially at 
Yumbel, where 2,000 Indians under the cacique 
made a determined resistance against 2,000 Spanish 
soldiers. On 24 Nov., at daybreak, he crossed 
Callavalla river, at the head of 4,000 men, surprised 
the city of Valdivia, and obtained plunder valued 
at nearly two million dollars. He then set fire to 
the buildings, killed many of the people, attacked 
the ships in the harbor, and returned to his quar- 
ters, near the Biobio, with all the Spanish artillery 
and war material, and over 400 prisoners. In 1600 
a Dutch expedition tried to land at Valdivia ; but 
the cacique at once attacked and drove it away. In 
1602 the Indian chieftain took possession of the 
city of Villarrica, which had been closely besieged 
for nearly three years, and the cities of Osorno and 
Imperial also surrendered to him in 1603. Cuilla- 
machu was the most famous of the Araucanian 
generals, and the only one that succeeded in re- 
establishing independence in his country after it 
was conquered by the Spaniards. In his long ca- 
reer as a warrior he was wounded forty-four times. 
On one occasion the governor of Chili invited him 
to negotiate for peace ; but he answered that he 
would never submit to a foreign power while a 
drop of blood remained in the veins of his wasriors. 

CUILLAVILU II (kweel-vah-ve-loo'), cacique 
of the Araucanian Indians called Puelches, b. in 
the Yumbel district, Chili, in 1580; d. 3 Oct., 
1612. He was noted for his bravery, gave continual 
trouble to the Spanish authorities, and fought 
many battles against Merlo, the governor of Chili, 
and against his successor, Juan Jaraquemada. In 
1612 Cuillavilu received a letter from the king of 
Spain, Philip III., suggesting an arrangement for 
peace and establishment of the Christian religion ; 
but he paid little attention to it, thinking it was 
intended to delude him and prepare his ruin, and 
at once directed new operations, but not long after- 
ward was killed in a battle near Chilian. 

CUITLAHUATZfN, or CUITLAHIATL 
(kweet-lah-wah-tseen'), tenth Mexican or Aztec 
king (twelfth king, according to other chroniclers), 
b. in 1490 ; d. 12 Oct., 1520. Being one of the sons 
of Axayacatl, he was also the lord of Tztapalapan 
and a general of the Mexican army, when elected 
king upon the death of his brother, Moctezuma 
II. His rank of generalissimo was won in the 
battles of Atlixco, Mixtecapan, and Tehuantepec 
While ruling at Tztapalapan, he improved and en- 
larged that city by means of important public 
works. Before and after the occupation of the city 
of Mexico by the Spaniards he advocated a policy 
of resistance to the invaders, advised other native 
princes to oppose any advance made by Cortes, and 
also sent ambassadors to Tlaxcala to ask aid from 
that republic. But he was unsuccessful in this 
attempt, after having caused Cortes the defeat and 
subsequent troubles that gave rise to the events of 



CULBEBTO 

"La BOchc tristc." hii<1 died ..f small-pox, which 
had recently been introdnoed into M. 
slave of Narvaez. Cuitlahuat/.iu's rah lasted but 
three months. 

t I LBEBT80N, afatthew Simpson, clergy- 

man. i>. in Chambenborg, l'a., 18 .inn., \x\x-, d. In 

China in August. l*<i , .\ lie was graduated at the 

i s. military academy in 1880, and larved with 

the rank of MOOnd lieutenant of artillery at Rouse'l 
Point during the Canada bonier disturlmnces, ami 
as assistant pratanr of mathematics at thf mili- 
tary academy. He resigned his oonuniiaion, 18 
April. 1841, icndied theology at Princeton, and 
upon graduation in 1X44 was ordained as a mis- 
sionary tn China, and lal Hired in that country until 
his death. He was engaged for several vears iti 
preparing a reviled Chinese translation of the Bible 
lie published "Darkness in the Flowery 
Kingdom, or Religious Notions and Popular Su- 
perstitions in North China" (New York. IK*)?). 

GTLLOM. Shelby Moore, eenntor, b. in Hon* 
tieello. Wayne co., Ky.. 22 Nov.. lM'2!t. Hil father 
settled in Tazewell county, 111., in 1830, where 
he became prominent among the pioneers of tin- 
state, a member of the legislature, and a trusted 
friend of Abraham Lincoln. The son received i 
classical education, began the study of law in 
Springfield, 111., in 1853, and as soon as he was ad- 
mitted to the bar was elected city attorney. He 
practised law in Springfield, was a candidal.- for 
presidential elector on the Fillmore ticket in 
UB8, elected to the legislature in 1856 and 1800, 
chosen speaker in his second term, a mem Iter 
of the war commission that sat at Cairo In 1882, 
and a member of congress from Illinois from 
4 Dec., 1805, till 8 March, 1H71, representing the 
Springfield district, which before his election was 
democratic. During his third term he served as 
chairman of the committee on territories, con- 
ducted an investigation into the question of polyg- 
amy in Utah, and secured the passage of a bill for 
the extirpation of polygamy, which failed to come 
to a vote in the senate. In 18?2 he returned to 
the Illinois house of representatives, was elected 
speaker in 1873, and in 1874 served another term 
in the legislature. After his return from Wash- 
ington he became a banker at Springfield, He 
was a member of the Republican national conven- 
tion in 1808, and, as chairman of the Illinois dele- 
gation, placed Gen. Grant in nomination at Phila- 
delphia in 18?3 and Gen. Logan in 1884. He 
was elected governor of Illinois in 1870. and re- 
elected in 1880, serving from 8 Jan., 1877, to 5 
Fil>., 1883, when he resigned, having been chosen 
U. S. senator as a republican, to succeed David 
Davis, independent democrat, for the term expir- 
ing on fj March, 1889. Mr. Cullom has been promi- 
nently connected with the question of railroad 
regulation. As speaker of the house of representa- 
tives he appointed the committee that drafted the 
stringent railroad law of Illinois, which was one 
of the first states to take action on the subject. 
Duing hi* service of six vears as governor it be* 
came his duty to appoint the Illinois railroad com- 
missioners and to see that they secured the en- 
forcement of the law, which was sustained by the 
courts and practically put in operation during his 
administration. As senator he has been leiioni 
and petive in endeavoring to secure national li 
lation upon the BUDO subject, and in 18H5. as chair- 
man of the senate colniuitt >n interstate com- 
merce, conducted an investigation Into the ques- 
tion of the regulation of railroad corporations by 
national legislation. His report upon this subject, 
submitted to the senate, \H Jan., 1886, is an elklxv- 



( t I.l.lM 



f| 



l iew of the whole eajhjeal and ha* attracted 
attention at home and abroad. r*»ultinic in the 
passage by the senate of the bill th.. 
name, which was referred to a 
mittee of the two bouse*. 
M I I Ml. <.e„r*e Wasbinrtoa. -.Idier. b. in 
>>.. !*«♦; d. -h.-re, Hi Kalx, 
He was graduated nt th.« t . S, military 
academy i n 1888, entered the engineer corps, »o- 
pcrinteiidcd the at ion* and 

other pubik erorl nnt \ m 

Boston harbor, organised pooton-tra 
army in Mexico, was engaged b 

Ktriii"; a " Memoir on Militarv bridge* with India- 
abber Pontons," ami from im* till 1kV> was in- 
structor of practical military engine-nine at thr 
militarv academy, except two years, during which 
he travelled abroad on nVlS~ loOTQ In \<> 

oonet r noted for the IvnnsajvdspaataHsjl tlmaassa> 

office in N,w V,,rk city, after which he vu em- 
ployed for five \. arson fortifications and harN.r 
improvements at Charleston. S. ('.. ami - 
tended works at New Bedford, Newport, New IxjO- 
don, and the eastern entrance to New York harU.r. 
On 9 April, 1801. he was appointed aidc-de^-amp 
to the commander-in-chief of the army. He »«.» 
promo t ed major of engineers on •'» Ann}, 1861, 
commissioned brigadier general of volunteers on 
l Nov.. appointed chief engineer of the Iv-jiartment 

of the Missouri, was chief of staff to Qon. Hal leek 

while commanding the Departmenti of ti 
souri and the Mississippi, and getieral-in-chief of 
the armies, directed engineer oporertona on the 
western rivers, was for some time in command at 
Cairo, was engaged as chief of engineer, in the 
■lege of Corinth, and, after eeoomnefjylug Geo. 
llalleck to Washington, was employea in Ins; 
fortifications, examining engineering invention*, 
and on various engineer boards. He was also a 
member of the V. S. sanitary commiwion from 1861 
till 1804. In the autumn of l^M he »n.« employed 
in projecting fortifications for Na«h\ille. Tenn., 
which had been selected es a l«seof o| >crations and 
depot of supplier for our western armies. From 8 

Sept., 1*04, till 88 Aug, 1800, he was Hi p s tlntsnd - 
est of the U. S. military academy. He was bre- 
vetted colonel, brigadier, and major-general* for 
meritorious services during the rebellion on 13 
Manh, 1888, ami mustered out of the volunteer 

service on 1 Sept.. 1*00. He was a member of the 
hoard for improving the defences of New York, 
ami then of the Uwnl for fortifications and 
and harlior obstructions required for the national 
defence from iNi»7till 18 Jan^ 1874, when he was 
retired from active service, after which he resided 

in New York, and devoted himself to literary, 
scientific, end militarv studies. He was chosen in 
that vear vice-president of the American geo- 
graphical association, and had been president of 

Ogrephioal library society since 18NU. He 
published a "Biographical Register of th 
ears and Graduates of the united state-. Mili- 
tary Academy, from 1H >." afterwar d as> 
larged to cover the jn'riod until the arm\ 
ganisatiou of 1 >*«7. with a supplement continuing 

ister to 1H71» (New York. lx?.»i; a transla- 
t ion of Dunaroq's M Elements of Military Art and 
History" <l v 'ems of Militarv bridges" 

"Sketch of Major-ti hard Mont- 

gomery, of the Continental ArniN "Cam- 

paigns and Engineers of the NVar of 181 

"Historical Sketch of the Fortification 
Defences of Narragansett Itav abase the Koundini 
in 1038. of the Colony of Rhode Island' 
ingt- 



m-lmg. 

rWenV 



CULPKI'ER 



CULYER 



CULPEPER, John, surveyor-general ami po- 
litical leader in the Carolina*. i>. in England. He 
was a refugee trom the southern or Clarendon 
colony, and in K57H headed an insurrection in the 
northern or Albemarle colony in favor of popular 
liberty. The grievances that led to the uprising 
were the interference of the executive in elections, 
and the imposition of excessive taxes on com- 
merce. Under his lead the people deposed the 
president and deputies of the proprietaries, seized 
the public funds, appointed new magistrates and 
judges, called a parliament, and took all the func- 
tions of government into their own hands. After 
the new government was organized, Culpeper was 
sent to England to negotiate a compromise. He 
was there indicted for high treason, but was ac- 
quitted, on the ground that there existed no regu- 
lar government in Albemarle at the time of the 
rebellion. He returned to Carolina, and in 1680 
laid out Charles Town (Charleston). 

CULPEPER, or COLEPEPER, Thomas, 
Lord, colonial governor of Virginia, b. in England ; 
d. there in 1719. He was one of the royal favor- 
ites to whom, in 1673, King Charles II. granted for 

the period of 
thirty-one years 
the entire ter- 
ritory of Vir- 
ginia, depriving 
the royal colo- 
nists of the very 
titles of their 
lands. Culpep- 
er, in 1675, pur- 
chased of the 
Earl of Arling- 
ton, his co-gran- 
tee, the latter's 
rights between 
the Rappahan- 
nock and Poto- 
mac rivers. He 
was appointed 
one of the com- 
missioners for 
Jlantations in 
uly, 1675, and 
proclaimed gov- 
ernor of Virginia for life. He came to the colony 
in 1680. Under his administration was passed 
an act of indemnity for offences committed dur- 
ing the rebellion under Gov. Berkeley ; also an 
act to enable the governor to grant naturaliza- 
tion, and one to prevent the frequent meeting 
of slaves. Returning to England in 1683, in vio- 
lation of his orders, he was arrested immediately 
on his arrival ; and, as he had corruptly received 
presents from the assembly, a jury of Middlesex 
found that he had forfeited his commission. He 
was shrewd and capable, but enriched himself by 
bribery and extortion. His estates, consisting of 
lands on the Isle of Wight, manors in Kent, and 
the tract of the Northern Neck in Virginia, con- 
taining 5,700,000 acres, descended through his 
daughter, Catherine, who married Baron lairfax, 
to her son, Lord Fairfax, patron of Washington. 

CULTZHAYOTL (cooltz-ay-yot'-l), Aztec poet, 
b. in 1370; d. in 1421. He was the son of the 
Tlaxcaltec prince Xentiple. His first work was a 
long poem entitled " Zempaxochitl." The Count 
of Regla, as descendant and heir of Hernan Cortes, 
has preserved the original, a translation of which 
was made by Peredo, who calls Cultzhayotl the 
Aztec Virgil. His second work, "Huitzilopoxtli," 
; - "^sidered superior to the first. Clavijero, a 




Erofound scholar, finds in it many features resem- 
ling those of Dante's - Dirine Comedy." Cults- 

hayotl was tin- first that gave a vigorous character 
and form to tragedy in .Mexico, ami had the war- 
dances replaced by dialogues and tableaux. The 
Aztec king ami nobility attended the performance 
of bis tragedy, "Minna ; but the noblemen thought 
the play was a satire on religion, and caused the 
poet to be imprisoned and subsequently buried 
alive, to the neck, in a field near Chapultepec 
According to Netzahualcoyotl, a lady of the court 
saved him, leaving in place of the victim a Toltec 
prisoner. He wandered about until the priests of 
the Mitla temple offered him protection. While 
in retirement he wrote a powerful satire, called 
• ( uiilacochitl," against the Moctezuma dynasty 
and the corrupt nobility. Fearing that the Mitla 
priests might assassinate him, he took refuge in 
Cholula, where the people made his arrival the oc- 
casion for a magnificent display. But he soon had 
to leave Cholula also, and hid for the rest of his 
life in the Cacahuamilpa cave, a description of 
which is found in his poem, " Cacahuamitl." 

CULWER, Daniel, pioneer, b. in Maryland in 
1793; d. in California in 1857. He was the first 
American that went to upper California, and the 
first that built a house in San Francisco (on the 
same ground now occupied by the Palace Hotel). 
He was also the founder of the town of Santa Bar- 
bara. At the beginning of the Mexican war, in 
1847, Culwer went to New Orleans, organized a 
company at his own expense, and joined the expe- 
dition under Gen. Scott. When the American navy 
had bombarded Vera Cruz, Culwer advanced to- 
ward Jalapa and defeated a guerilla band; but, 
having gone farther into the country, he was cap- 
tured by the Mexican chief Father Jaranta, who 
was about to have him hanged at Plan de Barran- 
cas when Sergeant Lincoln, of the volunteer force, 
saved him. lie specially distinguished himself at 
the battle of Cerro Gordo, when he almost effected 
the capture of Gen. Santa Anna, and did take his 
richly caparisoned horse. He was dangerously 
wounded at the capture of the city of Mexico, re- 
turned to the United States, and again settled in 
California, where he resided for the rest of his 
life, and accumulated a fortune, a large part of 
which was bequeathed to charity. 

CULYER, John Yapp, civil engineer, b. in 
New York city, 18 May, 1839. He studied survey- 
ing and architecture, after which he spent three 
years in general engineering. Subsequently he be- 
came assistant engineer in Central park, New York, 
and during the civd war was assistant secretary of 
the U. S. sanitary commission. He also served for 
a time on the defences south of the Potomac. In 
1865 he returned to Central park, remaining there 
for a year, when he was appointed assistant engi- 
neer in charge of the Brooklyn parks, and from 
1872 till 1886 was chief engineer and superinten- 
dent. He has acted in the capacity of associate 
engineer to the Albany parks, to the parks and the 
riverside improvement in Chicago, and to the state 
capitol grounds in Nashville. He was a member 
of the first rapid transit commission in Brooklyn, 
and later engineer of the sixth rapid transit com- 
mission, besides being connected with a gnat va- 
riety of general railroad work and public improve- 
ment. Col. Culyer has invented implements for 
improved road construction and for the trans- 
planting of large trees. He is a member of the 
American society of civil engineers. For more 
than twenty years he has been a contributor to sci- 
eiititic. literary, and art journals, and he lias also 
edited educational and sanitary journals. 



KBBBLAVD 

CUM It I IM VM». Frederic William, 
dian architect, b. in London. England, In 18 
in Toronto. 5 Auu .. 1881. Ho wan educated at tho 
Collegiate tohooX Dublin, and subesqncntrt at 
i\ college, uondon. After oom plating hi* 

he was apprenticed t<> a civil engim 
in 18M appointee! to the aiiglnaeilng department 

of the admiralty, ami mperintended the OOnetmo- 
tion of the dry docks ami sea-walling at Chatham, 
ami assisted Sir William Dniisonand ('apt. James, 
hX lv. during 1845-T, in editing "Tho Professional 
Papers of the CORN of Koval Kn 
1*47 he arrived in I'oronto, Canada, and at once 
attained prominence as an architect and railway 
smatraofeor. In I0H ha undertook the •nperin- 

tendenee and construction of the Ontario. Efcmeoe 
and Huron railway (subsequently the Northern 
railway) to its terminus at CollmgWOOd, on the 
Georgian bay, of which road he afterward beonflM 

managing director. Baring completed tin- oon- 
struction. he resigned in 1854, and gave his atten- 
tion solely to architectural work. He designed 
the plans of St. .lames cathedral, the normal 
school, and Osgood hall, in Toronto, and that of the 
diversity of Toronto. The last named is said to 
be the finest specimen of Norman Gothic archi- 
tecture on this continent. In 1861, at the time of 
the "Trent" affair, he organized in Toronto the 
regiment now known as the Koval Grenadiers. be- 
came its first colonel, and retained the command 
until 1864, when he was appointed aide-de-camp 
to the governor-general, ceasing to be such by his 
resignation on the departure of Lord Dutferin. 
At the time of the Fenian raid in 1K66 he had 
charge of the railway service. He ropr eaented 
Ateoma district in the legislature of Ontario in 
1867, and in 1M71 in the dominion parliament. 

CUMING, Sir Alexander. British officer, b. 
about 1700. He was sent in 1730 by the English 
government on a mission to the Creeks and Chero- 
kees, the object of which was to counteract the 
designs of the French, who were endeavoring to 
win the friendship of those tribes, in pursuance of 
a scheme for the annexation of the interior regions 
in America lying between their colonies in Canada 
and those at the mouth of the Mississippi. 

(TMMING, Alexander, clergyman, b. in 
Freehold, N. J., in 1796; d. in Boston. Ma-.. 86 
Aug.. 1763. He was a nephew of Rev. Samuel 
Blair (see Blair), and received his education |mrt- 
ly under his uncle's direction. He was licensed 
to preach by the "New Side" presbytery of New- 
castle in 1746. He was the first Presbyterian min- 
ister that preached within the bounds of Tennessee. 
He was ordained in 1750 as colleague of iter. Mr. 
Pemberton in New York, and in 1753 l»oth pastors 
requested a dismission on account of troubles in 
the church in respect to matters of ecclesiastical 
order. Mr. Camming was relieved on 66 Oct., ami 
on 25 Feb.. 17<»1, was installed as colleague pastor 
with Dr. S-wall, of the Old South church. Boston, 
where he remained until his death. He published 
his installation asiJUCO (1781), and "Animadversions 
on Hev. Mr. Cnawcll's late Letter." etc. (17<>3). 

Cl'MMING. Gilbert W.. lawyer, b. in Delaware 

county, N. V.. in 1H17. He was apprenti 1 to a 

carriage-maker, but spent his spare hours in study. 
He began to study law in 1*:'.*. and became prom- 
inent in Ins profession. During the anti-rent 
troubles of 1845 he commanded a military regi- 
ment, and Micceed.-d. in restoring quiet He re- 
moved, in i**>;s. to Janesville, WW., and in 
Chicago. In Bapternber, 1861, he raised the 61el 
Illinois regiment, and was appointed its ao Jo n e l. 
He was afterward assigned to the command of a 



MING 



M 



brigade, and did pood - rvire at Island Number 
I I'lnd. and Corinth. 
< I MMI.NG. Kate, author, >>. about 1666. She 

is of s-otti-l, di-Mi'iit, and has re»id. 

Ala., since her childhood Dm 

she wa* with one of th< 

itifcr the wounded and a^-i-' 

held hospital* in the campaign* m T. nnessaeTKen- 

tm-ky. and Georgia, when tie army t u retreating. 

Kvery evening s|„. iq«-nt a few moment* over her 

diary, recording the incident* that bad taken placa 

around her, She published ** HoMpital I.ifr in the 

Armv ..f Tennessee" djouisvilla, ht.. 1H60L 

CUM MING, William, -ddier. b. 
aix.ut 17SH); d. in An-iMa. Ga.. in Pu h fsj aj j , 1868. 
Heetudledafl the litenfleld, Conn., law-icbaol, but 
Inherited a fortune and never practised. He was 
appointed major in the nth infantry on 68 
March. lM:i, and was wounded in the' Imttlr of 
Chrysler's Field, 11 Nov. He was made adjutanl- 

general, with the rank of colonel, on 16 Pah 
u -in i^ severely wounded at LundVi Ijsjm on 25 
July, and resigning 81 March, ihi.v ii. dedtead 
the appointment of quartcniuu4cr-grneral, with 
the rank of bri g a di er-goneeal, m April, jhim, and 

also that of major-general, tendered liim by Preri- 
ilent 1'olk an 3 March. 1K47. Col. dimming was 
a leader of the Union partv in the nullification 
Struggle, and his quarrel with QeOTgS McDttl 
South Carolina, on this issue was notorious. The 
two men, attended bj a long train of friend* in 
their own equipagea, ruahed fn>m one point to 
another in the attempt to find a place of tie 
and loudly ac cus ed each other of U-t raving their 
intentions to the officer! of the law. They were 
widely caricatured, and their actions »en- watched 
with interest all over the country. Thej finally 
succeeded in meeting twice, and exchanged three 
shots, by one of which McDoffia was wounded in 
the hip and lamed for life.— His brother, Alfred, 
governor of Utah, b. about 1868; <1. in Augusta. Ga.. 
'.» < »<t.. 1*7:1. was a sutler during the Mnimn war. 
He had been superinteodenl of Indian affairs on 
the upper Missouri, ami in 1H57 President Buchan- 
an ap|Miiuted him governor of I'tah territory, and 
sent him there with a force of 8j806 men to protact 
him in the discharge of hia funcUona. which aos> 
stituted the famous "I'tah Expedition" of that 
rear. <>n 87 Nov. the governor laaned apnx-lama- 
tion declaring the territory to !«• in a -; 
rebellion, and this documenl was sent to Salt I.ake 
City bya Mormon prisoner, aooomparded bj ■ 
to Brigham Young, evincing a willingness to tem- 
porise. The expedition went into winter quarter* 
at Camp Scott, on Black's Fork, and in March. 
oL Thomas L Kane arrived in the oasnp, 
having been sent bv the president a« *\»* iai 
to Brigham Young. The relations I. 
Cumming and Oen. AlUrt Sidney Johnston, com- 
mander of tt xpedition. had lieoome somewhat 

strained, and, eoon after OoL Kane'* arrival, that 

gentleman, taking off.-m -eat a fancied slight. 

a challenge to (Jen. Johnston with Gov. dimming'* 

consent During the spring difficult ie» constantly 

through a misunderstamling on Cumming * 
part as to the DOWaf he p o asessrd over the I 
On s March Judge Cradlelwiigli BUM rcquisitfon 
for soldiers to protect his court, sitting at Proro, 
during the trial of the Mormons indicted for 
compficitv in the Mountain Meadow* massacre, 

and they vara furnished bi Bun, Mnatom, wbere- 

up.u flow, dimming protested against their u»e. 
and on J7 March issued a pn* lamatioti denouncing 
the general's action. The secretary of war after- 
ward forbade Gen. Johnston to use troops for 



30 



CUMMINGS 



( TM MINGS 



such purposes. After the proclamation of par- 
don to the Mormons, in accordance with t he tem- 
porizing policy adopted by Buchanan's iidminist ra- 
tion. Gov. Camming objected to the farther 
advance of the army, but, notwithstanding his 
protest, it was marched into Salt Lake City, and did 
much to preserve order. Gov. Camming held his 
office till 1861, when he was succeeded by Stephen 
S. Harding. — Alfred's nephew, Alfred, b. in 
Augusta, Ga., 30 Jan., 1829, was graduated at the 
U. S. military academy in 1849. He was aide to 
Gen. Twiggs at New Orleans in 1851-'3, was made 
first lieutenant on 3 March, 1855, and captain in 
the 10th infantry. 20 July, 1856. He was on the 
Utah expedition of 1859-'60, and on 19 Jan., 1861, 
resigned, and was soon commissioned lieutenant- 
colonel in the Confederate army. He rose to the 
rank of brigadier-general, and served until disabled 
by wounds received at the battle of Jonesboro. Ga., 
31 Aug., 1864. After the war he became a planter 
near Rome, Ga. 

CUMMINGS, Amos Jay, journalist, b. in Conk- 
ling, N. Y., in 1842. His father edited and pub- 
lished a weekly religious paper in Irvington, and 
the youth entered the printing-office at the age of 
twelve years. After attaining manhood, he trav- 
elled and worked at the case in many states of the 
Union and in Canada. He also visited Mexico, 
Central America, and Europe. At the beginning 
of the civil war he was a compositor on the New 
York " Tribune," but soon joined a regiment of vol- 
unteers, and fought in the battles of Fredericksburg 
and Chancellorsville. Soon afterward he returned 
to work at the " Tribune " establishment, becoming 
successively night editor, city editor, and political 
editor of that paper. At present (1887) he is on 
the editorial staff of the New York " Sun." In 
1885-'6 he was president of the New York press 
club. Mr. Cummings is known as a ready extem- 
poraneous speaker. In 1886 he was elected a rep- 
resentative in congress. 

CUMMINGS, Andrew Boyd, naval officer, 
b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 22 June, 1830; d. in New 
Orleans, La., 18 March, 1863. He entered the U. S. 
navy as midshipman in April, 1847, and was suc- 
cessively advanced through the different grades 
until he became lieutenant-commander in July, 
1862. During the passage of Forts Jackson and 
St. Philip, and the capture of New Orleans, he was 
executive officer of the " Richmond." During the 
subsequent engagement with the batteries at Port 
Hudson he fell mortally wounded while cheering 
the men at their guns. He was removed to New 
Orleans, but died four days later. Admiral Porter 
said in a letter written at that time : " He was a 
gallant officer, and too good a man to lose." Ad- 
miral Farragut wrote : " Poor Cummings was a 
great loas, both to the country and to his family." 
CUMMINGS, Asa, clergyman, b. in Andover, 
Mass.. 29 Sept., 1791 ; d. at sea, 5 June, 1856. He was 
graduated at Harvard in 1817, and during 1819-20 
was a tutor at Bowdoin, meanwhile studying at 
Andover theological seminary. In February, 1821, 
he was ordained and became pastor of the Congre- 
gational church in North Yarmouth, Me., holding 
that charge until 1829. Physical infirmities com- 
pelled him to relinquish preaching, and he accepted 
the editorship of the " Christian Mirror," at that time 
the organ of the Maine missionary society. Some 
years later, owing to conflicting opinions on the 
slavery question, concerning which the Maine mis- 
sionary society was unwilling to take positive 
ground, the paper became his personal property, and 
e continued in editorial control of the "Mirror" 
until the close of 1855. A few months later he sailed 



for Aspinwall, on a visit to his daughter and for the 
benefit of his health. On the return voyage, soon 
after tearing the isthmus, he died. He published a 
•• .Memoir of Dr. Edward Payson " (Boston, 1846). 

CUMMINGS, Ebcnezer Edson, clergyman. 1>. . 
in Claremont, N. H., 9 Nov., 1800; d. in Concord, 
22 Feb., 1886. He was graduated at Watcrville 
(now Colby university) in 1828, and ordained pastor 
of the Baptist church in Salisbury, N. H., in Sep- 
tember of the same year. From 1832-'64 he was 
pastor of churches in Concord, N. H. He was 
especially active in promoting the educational 
interests of his state, having been president of the 
board of trustees of the New London institution 
from its beginning, and for some time a trustee of 
Colby university. In 1855 he received the degree of 
D. D. from Dartmouth. Dr. Cummings published 
several sermons, and left in manuscript " The Bap- 
tist Ministry of New Hampshire for the First 
Century of our History." 

CUMMINGS, Jeremiah W., clergvman, b. in 
Washington, D. C, 5 April, 1823 ; d. iri New York, 
4 Jan., 1866. He studied at the College of the 
Propaganda, Rome, where he took the highest 
honors, and in 1848 returned to the United States. 
He was first stationed at the old cathedral of St. 
Patrick, on Mott street. In 1856 he built St. 
Stephen's church, and was its pastor until his 
death. Father Cummings was an effective preacher, 
a popular lecturer, and a promoter of sacred music. 
He published " Italian Legends " (New York, 1859) : 
" Songs for Catholic Schools " (1862) ; " Spiritual 
Progress" (1865); and "The Silver Stole," and 
contributed to the " American Cyclopaedia." 

CUMMINGS, John, tanner, b. in Woburn, 
Mass., 26 Feb., 1785 ; d. there, 8 June, 1867. He 
early established himself in the tanning business, 
devoting his winter months to that occupation, 
while his summers were spent in farming. His 
hides were obtained from farmers through his own 
exertions in travelling on horseback to collect 
them, and bark was brought in from the ad- 
jacent country. About 1830 he began the manu- 
facture of high grades of leather as a special- 
ty, and gained reputation for the quality of his 
foods, supplying manufacturers throughout New 
Ingland. Subsequently, when enamelled leather 
came into use, he became one of the largest tanners 
in the state. He continued in business until late 
in life, when he was succeeded by his eldest son. 
Mr. Cummings probably taught more young men 
the business of tanning, aiding them to establish 
themselves, than any other leather manufacturer 
in Massachusetts. 

CUMMINGS, Joseph, educator, b. in Falmouth 
county, Me., 3 March, 1817. He was graduated at 
Wesleyan university in 1840, and then taught at 
Amenia, N. Y., seminary, becoming its principal in 
1843. In 1846 he joined the New England con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal church, and 
was stationed successively at Maiden, Chelsea, 
Hanover street, and Bromfield street (Boston) 
churches. He then became professor of theology 
in the Methodist general biblical institute in Con- 
cord, N. H., remaining there for the year 1853-'4, 
after which, until 1857, he was president of Genesee 
college at Lima, N. Y. From 1857 till 1875 he 
was president of Wesleyan universitv, and from 
1875 till 1877 professor of mental philosophy and 
political economy in that institution. He preached 
at Maiden during 1877-9, and at Harvard street 
church, Cambridge, during 1880-'l. In 1881 he 
became president of Northwestern university. 
Evanston, 111. He was a delegate to the general 
conference of the Methodist Episcopal church in 



1864 Bt has received the 

degrees of I). I), from Weslcyan nod from ! 
i. ami of LIa I>. from the Northwesters, uni- 
Dr. Cummings'a literary work Include! 
the editing «'f Butlera "Analogy of Religion" 
(New 178) ami Domeroua sennoua ami ad- 

dresses, a list of whiofa i- girtn in tin- •■ Alitmni 
.■•van University." 
CUMMINGS, Moses, clergyman, b. in Rarer- 
hill, Ma—., abonl 1816; <l. in New fork city, 6 
.Ian., 1867. Ha entered the ministry of thfl Chris- 
tian denomination at the age of eighteen, and 

lalxuvd f<»r many vcars in New Jersey ami New 

York. From IBM till 1862 he had editorial con- 
trol of "The Christian Messenger" ami "The Pal- 
ladium," the central organs of the sect of which 
he was a incinU-r. lie was a determined opponeul 
of slavery, and ■ friend and admirer of Horace 
Mann, whose peculiar educational views receivt<| 
his cordial rapport 

CUMMINGS, Thomas Seir, painter, h. in Kng- 
land in 1804. He came to New York in Infancy, 
entered his father's counting-room, studying art in 
his -pare hours, and afterward pursued his studies 
with Henry Inman. He worked at his profession, 
that of miniature portrait-painting, until the in- 
troduction of photography, numbering among his 
sitters many distinguished persona. He WM one 
Of the founders of the National academy in 1826, 
was an early vice-president, and its treasurer in 
1840-75. The schools of the academy owe most of 
their perfection to him, and he was the instructor 
of many who afterward became prominent artists. 
Mr. Cummings was for a long time connected with 
the militia, commanded a regiment for several 
years, and in \xi* was commissioned brigadicr- 
general by Gov. Seward. About l s '><> he retired to 
a farm in Connecticut. He published " Historic 
Annals of the National Academv from its Founda- 
tion to 18»5" (Philadelphia, 1865\ 

CUMMINS, Ehenezer Harlow, clergyman, 
b. in North Carolinaabout 1700; d. in Washington, 
D. C, 17 Jan., 1835. He received a collegiate edu- 
cation, and then studied law. For several years he 
served in the state legislature of Georgia, but suIh 
sequently entered the marine corps. loiter he 
studied theology, and after settling in Italtiinore 
became a magistrate. He published "Geography 
of Alabama' (Baltimore, 1N1H) and "History of 
the Lata War" (UttO} 

CUMMINS, Francis, clergyman, b. near Ship- 
panabwg, Pa., in 1732: d. in Greensborough, Ga., 
22 Feb.. 1832. His earlv life was spent on a farm, 
and he received a collegiate education at " Queens 
Museum." in Mecklenburg county, N. C, whither 
his family had removed in 17?"J. After graduation. 
he was a teacher in Booth Carolina and Georgia, 
numharing among his pimils many who -ub-e 
quently l>eeame famous, including Senator William 
Smith ami President Jacheoo, In 1776 be was an 
ardent patriot, was present at all of the Mecklen- 
burg whig meetings, and at the exciting BOOM 
during the reading of the celebrated Declaration 
in the Mecklenburg court-house. Meanwhile he 
studied theology under Rev. Dr. James Hall, and 
was ordained topreach by the presbytery of ( >range 
in Daoambar, 17mo. Afterward ha tilled the office 

Of pa-tor to twenty parishes in different localities 
in Georgia and the Carolinas. In 177H he was a 
■aanbar <>f the Booth Carolina convention held to 
daoada apon the constitution of the United states, 
and voted for its adoption. The University of 

Georgia con ferred npon him the dagn f D. D. 

in UML He published sermons ami jMilitical and 
scientific pamphlets. 






n 



^■JNJ I '..»ld. aajtataau p r. 

bishop, b. in Kent 

June. l*7o. ||.. w a* graduated 

lege, Carlisle, Pa., in 1H41. and eti 

di-t ministry, but Mil^-.juently took orders in the 

Protestant hpiseopol church 

i and i.riest in 1867, and I •.•coining rector of 
ehurchc- in \ iryuua. Marvlnml. mid Illinois. He 
was consecraw-d awistant biahop.f K 

1866. but «»n became dhwatisfkd with' thr 
state of things m the Kpiw-o,*! church, chiefly on 
account ..f id,- pn.-rexsof ritualism, and in 1871 
abandons! his office and took st,.i» t,',« nr ,i found- 
inga mw sect, designated \>\ ,, Reformed 

Bpiaoopal church," becoming it« first bi-diop. lb- 
was formally dcj N >*<d frt.m the Prot.-Mant fidaau- 
pal mini-try, under the camm profile d f->r 

cases, by the pn-si.iiim bishop, the lit. Ih-v. Beo- 

jamiii BoaworU Smith. 

CUMMINS, Marls Susanna, author, b. in 
Salem. Mass.. !» April. 1h-.'7; d. in Hor-hester, 1 

Oct.. ISCli. She was the daughter of .lu.lk'' 

Cummins, and Wjoa i fd her edoeatloa at Mrs. 
Charles Sedgwick's school in Lanex 

she turned her attention to literature, ami beside 
her novels contributed various articles to tl 
lantic Monthly " and other maga/m.-. II 
iHH.k. "The Lamplighter "(IWon. 1 <*), achieved 
great popularity, and upward of 40.000 ropie* 
were sole! within two months. It passed through 
several editions m this co untr y and in BngJaod, 

'and its entire sale h 4 119,000 ropfaa 

Her later publications include •• MaM Yaughan " 
(1KT>7), which is considered by many err 

J to her first book : •• Kl Furei'dis." a ston «.f Pales- 
tine and Syria (I860); and " Haunted Hearts'' 
(1W4). Miss Cummins was a writer of great 
power; her characters were drawn with skill, and 
there was always a motive in her productions aside 
from their general interest. 

CUNARI). Sir Samuel, founder of the Cunsrd 
steamship line. b. in Halifax. N. S., 16 Nm.. 17^7; 
d. in Knglaml, 2H April. lHft'». He was the son of 
a mechanic and became a Pttoc eaafn i merchant in 
several kinds of business. In 1K{H he famed the 
Canard company, and made a contract with the 
British government to carry the mails fortnightly 
for seven years between Liverpool. Halifax, and 

Mo-ton. The " Britannia." " Acadia." " Caledonia," 
and "Columbia" steamships, of 1.2110 tons register 
ami 440 ho r se powe r , wen- built for this - 
and formed the first Una of mail steamers. Mr. 
Canard waa created a baronet, 8 March. U 
Hi- eon, Sir Kdward. b, in Halifax. N 9 I 
Jan.. 1816; .1. in New York. 15 April, 1H«H». waa 
educated in his native province, and was for thirty 
yean agent of the Cunard line of steamers at New 
York. He succeeded to his father's title. 

CUNKQUF.O (COO-BO] \raucaniaii hen>- 

ine. t». in the Manguena district. Chili, in the latter 
part of the 16th century: d. ahoofl IfttL While 
verv roongahe luailiad yuc|«ilan. an Araucanian 
offtosr, ami began her career as a warrior by ae- 

oompanytng her Imaoaod, fighting by hi* side. 

against the Spanianis. She aostlOfWjanad herself 

during the long defen >f I.iben. After yuep»> 

tan htul Iteen killed, she resolved to avenj 
death: and in l'»»0 was at the head of an army 
of Pulches, with which she attacked ev.ry Span- 
ish settlement in Arauco, and pal to death all Ku- 

ropeana taken ptsMoan by her tmofw. The icot- 

amor Of Chili, with a larp» for • meet 

her army, but OOsttOjoao, bt remaining in weil- 
,ho-.ii |.o-nions ami ably dins-ting attaek* ujjon 
the S|«uiianls, fon^sl him to retreat. Then aha 



32 



CUNHA BARBOSA 



CUBANTBO 



moved toward the fortress of Puchanqui, defeated 
and killed Mnj. Aranda and part of his troops 
that had left the place to |>r»-\ cut her from advanc- 
ing. But she failed to take the fortress, and was 
obliged to go into winter quarters near the city of 
Villarrica, which her warriors kept besieged until. 
early in 1591, its governor came out with a large 
number of men. She commanded her forces dur- 
ing several attacks, and did not leave the field 
until the Spanish artillery had decimated her 
ranks. After this campaign she retired to private 
life. Cunequeo alwavs went on horseback among 
her officers, fought like the bravest of her war- 
riors, and on several occasions killed Spanish 
soldiers with her own hands. Ercilla, the author 
of " La Araucana," devoted many pages of his 
great epic to a description of her prowess. 

CUNHA BARBOSA. Januarlo da (koon'-yah 
bar-bo'-sa), Brazilian statesman, b. 10 July, 1780 ; 
d. 22 Feb., 1846. He was chaplain of John VI., 
and afterward professor of moral philosophy. On 
15 Dec, 1821, ne established, in conjunction with 
Ledo, the " Reverbero Constitucional," a political 
journal, at Rio de Janeiro, favoring Brazilian in- 
dependence. After this had been declared, Cunha 
was arrested, 7 Dec, 1822, and banished to France. 
To repair this injustice, he was appointed in 1824 
canon of the imperial chapel. In 1826 he became 
a member of the assembv. In concert with Gen. 
Cunha, he founded the Historical and geographical 
society of Rio de Janeiro. He also edited a politi- 
cal journal favorable to the government, and an' 
agricultural paper, and was imperial historiogra- 
pher and director of the national library. He left 
a small volume of poems. 

CUNHA DE AZEVEDO COUTINHO, Jos6 
Joaquim da (koon'-ya day ah-thay-vay'-do koo- 
teen'-yo), Brazilian bishop, b. in San Salvador do 
Campo dos Goitacazes, Lisbon, 8 Sept., 1743; d. in 
Rio Janeiro, 12 Sept., 1821. After studying in the 
capital of his province, he finished his education 
at Coimbra, Portugal, and returned to his country. 
In 1784 he went to Lisbon as deputy to the In- 
quisition, and was appointed bishop of Pernam- 
buco in 1794, where he at once devoted himself to 
benevolent work, specially the building of hospi- 
tals, also founding a seminary for the instruction 
of priests, for which Queen Mary of Portugal gave 
him several estates that had belonged to the Jes- 
uits. He was appointed bishop of Braganza in 
1802, archbishop of Braga in 1806, and bishop of 
Beja in 1817, and, although he declined to be re- 
moved from his diocese, he was obliged to serve 
as president of the board in charge of monastic 
affairs. He died soon after his election as dep- 
uty to the Portuguese cortes. He had distin- 
guished himself by his patriotism during the Na- 
poleonic wars, and left works highly esteemed in 
Brazil and Portugal, which have been translated 
into several languages. 

CUNHA MATTOS, Raimnndo Jos6 da (koon'- 
yah-mah'-tos), Brazilian soldier, b. in Faro, prov- 
ince of Algarve, 2 Nov., 1776 ; d. in March, 1840. 
He entered the Portuguese army in 1790, served 
three years in the south of France, and eighteen 
years in Africa, then served in Rio Janeiro, and 
was afterward acting governor of St. Thomas. In 
1817 he returned to Brazil, commanded the artil- 
lery of Pernambuco, and subsequently governed the 
province of Goyaz. He published a work on the 
interior of Brazil (1836). Removing to Rio de 
Janeiro in 1826, he was elected to the legislature, 
directed the military academy of Rio in 1832, and 
was made commander-in-chief of the Brazilian 
army. He was secretary for life of the Indust rial 



aid society, and one of the founders, and for sev- 
eral years viee-| iresident, of the Historical society 
of Kio de Janeiro. 

(TNMNGHAM, Robert, loyalist. 1>. in Ire- 
land about 1 ?:!!>; d. in Nassau, W. I., in 1818. In 
1769 he settle< 1 in the district of Ninety-Six (no* 
Abbeville), S. C, and soon became a judge, lie in- 
curred the enmity of the whigs by his disapproval 
of their action in sustaining the cause of Massa- 
chusetts and in the adoption of the non-impor- 
tation act. In 1775 he was imprisoned in Charles- 
ton, and after his release joined the British forces. 
During 1780 he was commissioned brigadier-gen- 
eral, and placed in command of a garrison in 
South Carolina. In the following year he served 
in the field against Gen. Thomas Sumter. His 
estate was confiscated in 1782. After the war he 
petitioned to be allowed to remain in South Caro- 
lina, but this request was refused, and he removed 
to the Bahamas and settled in Nassau. The 
British government made him a liberal allowance 
for his losses, and gave him an annuity. 

CUNNINGHAM, William, provost-marshal, 
b. in Dublin ; d. in London, 10 Aug., 1791. From 
his confession, published at the time of his death, 
he appears to have been the son of a trumpeter in 
the dragoons, and to have been born in tne bar- 
racks in Dublin. He arrived in New York in 
1774, and was occupied for a time in the breaking 
of horses and in giving riding-lessons. His course 
at the beginning of the Revolutionary war rendered 
him obnoxious to the whigs in New York, and he 
fled to Boston, where, continuing his opposition to 
the popular movement, he attracted the attention 
of Gen. Thomas Gage, who appointed him provost- 
marshal to the royal armv. In 1778 he had 
charge of the prisons in Philadelphia, and later of 
those in New York ; and in both places his cruel- 
ties to the prisoners became notorious. The de- 
tails of his crimes are horrible. Of the prisoners 
under his care, 2,000 were starved to death, and 
more than 250 were hanged without trial. At the 
close of the war he went to England, and settled 
in Wales. Later he resided in London, where he 
became exceedingly dissipated, and, in order to re- 
lieve his embarrassment, mortgaged his half-pay, 
and subsequently forged a draft. For this offence 
he was convicted: and executed. 

CURANTEO (coo-ran-tay'-o), Araucanian cacique 
of the Promanco tribe, b. in Puren, Chili, in 1726; 
d. there in 1785. He became famous among the 
Araucanian warriors, and they appointed him their 
generalissimo to direct the war against the Span- 
iards in 1766. He began operations by destroying 
several towns and settlements of the whites. At 
the head of 8,000 Indians, he fought a battle at 
Tucapel (1767) against the Spanish Gen. Gonzala, 
who, after a long and tenacious resistance, was 
forced to retreat to Chilian, and subsequently be- 
sieged by Curanteo. In 1768 he fought and won 
another important battle in the Arauco valley, but 
lost a leg in the struggle. In a fierce battle near 
Angol with Gen. Ponte, governor of Chili, in 1768, 
he was badly defeated. From that time until 1 772 
Curanteo had many encounters with the Span- 
iards, his principal purpose being to damage the 
settlers rather than obtain victories in the field. 
In April, 1773, he was again defeated near Qui Hero 
in one of the most terrible battles known in the 
history of Chili. In 1780 he won a lwttle against 
the Spanish army, whose commander signed a 
treaty of peace granting the Araucanian chief 
what he demanded. Curanteo retired to his na- 
tive town, and, although his body was covered with 
wounds, attained an advanced age. . 




< I RBI I . .I.nii. • i. idian statesman, 
\>. in Toronto, M Mot., 188y. He iru educated at 
Niagara, Ontario, studied law, and was admitted 
(.» the bar in 1h:>;{. id • was tpsahec "f t h«- Oute* 

issembli from 91 Da . 1871, tfll M Karon, 

. when In- resigned uiul represent ra in 

i h<- legislative oonnoi) of Canada from inh2 till 

im, 1886. in is;.-) in- introduced measures in 

tin- Ontario legislature in favor of ihiiiiIuhmI 

suffrage in boa] parliamentary elections, f.-r the 

'•lishtneiitTif ciiimilativi' voting in in urii<-ipali- 
ties, ami for tin* abolition of grand juries. 

< I KIM. Daniel, clergyman, b. near Peekskill, 
rf.Y„ 86 Nov., 1800; d. in New York city. 17 Aug.. 

Ho was graduated at Wesleyan in l'-::;. 
and in the same year beOSUM principal <'f Tr<>y 
conference academy. He was called to a profcs- 
sorsliip in the female college at Macon. <ia.. in 

IMU, and in 1K41 
entered theOeorgia 
conference of tin- 
Met liodist Kpix'o- 

palohurah, holding 

pastorates at Ath- 
ens. Savannah. and 
Columbus. When 

the church -.|>a- 
rated into ■ north- 
ern and a southern 
liranch, Mr. Curry 
joined the New 
York conference, 
and filled impor- 
tant stations in 
New Haven. Brook- 
lyn, New York, ami 
Hartford. Wesley- 
an university gave 
him the degree of 
D.D. in 1808, and from 1854 till 1857 he was presi- 
dent of Indiana Asbury university, at Qreenoastle, 
Ind. He then resumed pastoral work till 1864, 
when he was chosen to the editorship of the New 
York "Christian Advocate." retaining it till 1878. 
He edited the "National Repository " in 1N7»>-'80. 
and resumed his ministerial duties till 18H4. when 
he became chief editor of the " Methodist Review," 
baring been an associate editor since 1881. Syra- 
cuse university gave him the degree of LL. I*>. in 
1878. Besides about sixty articles in periodicals, 
Dr. Currv has published "New York: a Histori- 
cal Sketch" (New York, 1853); -Life-Story of 
Bishop D. W. Clark" (1878); "Fragments, Re- 
ligious and Theological" (1880); and "Platform 
Papers" (1880). fie has nlso edited Southev's 

"Life Of John Wesley" (1847). 

CURRY, ticorge Law, governor of Oregon, b, 

in Philadelphia, Pa.. •> June. 1890: d. in Portland, 
Oregon. 88 .Inly. 1878, His grandfather was ■ na- 
tive of Kngland. and his father. George Curry, 
commanded the Philadelphia •• Washington Bines 
as first lieutenant in the battle of BlsQCnshnrg in 
1818. Young Curry removed with his family to 
Caracas, Venezuela, in 1884, bul soon returned, re- 
siding mar Holmesburg, Pa., till hi- father's death 
in is-"). Fr..nt 1881 till 1S4(» he liv.-d with his 
uncle in Huston, where he was apprenticed to a 
jeweller. In ls:is he Was president of the Mechanic 
apprentices' library, and delivered several addresses 
ana poems before the association. He went U 
Louis in 1st:: ami connected himself with J< 
M. Field in the publication of the " HereiUe." He 
reinoyed to Oregon city. Oregon, in 1848, took 
charge of the "Oregon Spectator," the first i 
paper published on the Pacilic coast, and in 1848 

TOL. II. — 3 



entity 



:ci 



/94u*uA- G*^y 



founded the "Ore g on Prm Pram" h. «a» ,,_ 

tary of tie- tanitorj iii 1 "-VI. and. after 
rernor for »'a* ap- 

! to that office m \<A. and I.- ..| it • 
admission .-f < Oregon into the ( m..n in 
a dmini st r ation was ma raud by the rni 
uient of the territory and by several !• 

oi f which— in 1855- was the most » 

of the northwest ooast Beside*' 
triH.ps, ■bout 8JBB0 volunteers awn k. pt in the 

Held for several month-, a 

gui-he<| himself by hi- -me,- m ,. 

|N-ace. He wa- afterward thanked hi th. legtakv 

ture- of Oregon and Washingtoi 

Inimi he came within one \..te .,f an ele«-tion t.. the 

C. S. senate. In |sw he worked earnealli 

half of the Northern Pacific railroad, which he bed 

Bid adTooatad in Bt Louis in 1848. i: 

rctir.-d to hi- farm on Willamette rfn 
suliseinieiitly state land commissioner. 

( I III: \ . .I.il.c/ I ..niiar Mmiim ...r. b. 

in Lincoln county, tin., !i June. 1888 He re- 
moved with hi- father to Talladega eeSJBty, Ala.. 

in 1888, ww graduated at th. Unhren 

Qeorgia in 1*-W. and at Harvard lav*--h.«i| m 
1845. After entering OB the practice ,,f bs>MO> 
fes-ion in Talladega county, he served in tie 
ciin war as a private of TttSJ ranger- in lH4fl, Injt 
resigned on account of hi- health. He was chosen 
to the Alabama legislature in i ^ 1 7. is.vt, and 
l*.V>, and in lKT>ti was an elector <>n the democratic 
ticket. He «as then elected t<> oongresj without 

opposition, as a slate-rights democrat, and 
from 7 I>cc., 1M7. till 81 Jan.. I*«n. when be re- 
signed, having previously joined with tie 
Alabama n pre-cntatives at Washington in ndii— 
ing the immediate ■eosssion of the state. He was 
a deputy from Alabama to the provisional Confed- 
erate congress, a representative in the fir-t Con- 
federate congres s, and in isc,4-'.'i served in the 
Confederate army, under (on. Joseph K. John- 
ston, as lieutenant-colonel of cavalry. At the 
close "f the war he was ordained as I llaptist 
clergyman, was president <>f Howard college, Ala.. 
in 1866 "8, and professor of Kngli-h. phut 
and constitutional law in Richmond college, Va.. 
in 1888- , 81. He wa- president of the foreign mis- 
sion board of the southern Baptist eonvenUon in 
is; i s.-,, and of the trustees oi Richmond co U ege 
in 1888 '•*>. In 1881 '•") l»r. Currv wa- general 
agent of the Peebody educational fund, and he 
has "labored in behalf of public school edm 
higher, normal, and Industrial, for all the people 
of both races, I>r. Curry si one of the ssoal 
effective platform speakers in the country, ami ha* 
declined numerous invitation- t<- become a | 
preferring to preach occasionally. An addr.— 
made bv 'him before the K\ angelical allium-., urg- 
ing th.' complete -.(Miration of churt'h and 
was reprinted end distributed in Kngland 
di-<-tal.li-hment party. In the spring 
Curry was appointed U. 8. minister U 
in that cepeotty be has ssttied ereral im|«>riant 
(|ii.stions that have been pending f.-r year s. I t«v 
cer univer-itv. Q eor gia , pare him the degree of 
LL. I». in i si;;, and Boonseter nniTersit] I 

I). D. in 1871. He i- acontril.utor to I 

lid bm puUi-hi-d s|H-cchc- nml |m»ii>i 
Cl'KKY. Olway. jouniali»t. b. in (irtwawM, 
Ohio, 88 March. 1N<M; d. in lUmville. i: 

II, removed with hil father to Pleasant 
Vallev Ohio, in Ml, and hi- early eduoat* 
interrupted bv Hie war. He went to b inaural 

: learned the carpenter's trade, ami « 
at it in various towns till 1889. at the same time 



34 



CURTIN 



CURTIS 



Witting poetry for the newspaper* Se was then a 
fanner in Union comity till 1889, and served in t ho 
legislature in ISili-'T. He Incline one of the edi- 
tors o£ the " llesjierian," at Columbus, Ohio, in 
L888, and in ls:{)» began to study law at Marys vi lie. 
He was again in t he legislature in 1842, anil in that 
year bought the " Greene County Torchlight," pub- 
lished in Xenia, Ohio. He returned to Marysvillc 
in 184S, and practised his profession till his death, 
except in 1853-'4, when he edited the "Scioto Ga- 
zette." in Cliillieothe. He published '"Love of the 
Past." a poem (Cincinnati. 1888). See Coggeshall's 
" Poets and Poetry of the West." 

CURTIN, Andrew Gregg, governor of Penn- 
sylvania, b. in Bellefonte, Centre co., Pa., 22 April, 
1815. His father, Roland Curtin, emigrated from 
Ireland in 1793, and in 1807 established near 
Bellefonte one of the first manufactories of iron 
in that region. Andrew studied law in Dickinson 
college law-school, was admitted to the bar in 1839, 
and soon became prominent. He early entered 
politics as a whig, laboring for Harrison's election 
in 1840, and making a successful canvass of the 
state for Clay in 1844. He was a presidential 
elector in 1848, and a candidate for elector on the 
whig ticket in 1852. In 1854 Gov. Pollock ap- 
pointed him secretary of the commonwealth and 
ex-offlcio superintendent of common schools, and 
in the discharge of his duties Mr. Curtin did much 
toward reforming and perfecting the school system 

of the state. In 
his annual report 
of 1855 he recom- 
mended to the leg- 
islature the estab- 
lishment of nor- 
mal schools, and 
his suggestion was 
adopted. In 1860 
he was the re- 

Sublican candi- 
ate for governor. 
The democrats, 
though divided in 
national politics, 
were united in 
Pennsylvania, but 
Mr. Curtin was 
elected by a ma- 
jority of 32,000. 
In his inaugural 
address he advo- 
cated the forcible suppression of secession, and 
throughout the contest that followed he was one of 
the " war governors " who were most earnest in their 
support of the national government. He responded 

gromptly to the first call for troops, and when Gen. 
atterson, who was in command in Pennsylvania, 
asked for twenty-five thousand more, they were im- 
mediately furnished. Gen. Patterson's requisition 
was afterward revoked by the secretary of war, on 
the ground that the troops were not needed ; but 
Gov. Curtin, instead of disbanding thena, obtained 
authority from the legislature to equip them at the 
state's expense, and hold them subject to. the call 
of the national government. This bodyNof men 
became known as the " Pennsylvania Reserve," and 
was accepted by the authorities at Washington a 
few weeks later. Gov. Curtin was untiring in his 
efforts for the comfort of the soldiers, answering 
carefully the numerous letters sent him from the 
field, and originated a system of care and instruc- 
tion for the children of those slain in battle, mak- 
ing them wards of the state. He thus became 
known in the ranks as " the soldiers' friend." Gov. 




£S. ^Sti^i4>*+ 



Curtin's health began to fail in 1863. and he signi- 
fied his intention of accepting a foreign mission 
that had been offend him M soon as his term 
should expire, but in the mean time he was re- 
nominated, and re-elected by 15.000 majority. In 
November, 1865, he went to Cuba for his health, 
and in that year declined another offer of a foreign 
mission. In 1869 Gen. Grant appointed him min- 
ister to Russia, and in 1868 and 1872 he was promi- 
nently mentioned as a candidate f or vice-president. 
He returned home in August, 1872, supported Hor- 
ace Greeley for the presidency, and subsequently 
joined the democratic party, by which he was elect- 
ed to congress for three successive terms, serving 
from 1881 till 1887. 

CURTIN, Jeremiah, linguist, b. in Milwaukee, 
Wis., about 1835. He had little education in child- 
hood, but at the age of twenty or twenty-one pre- 
pared himself to enter Phillips Exeter academy, 
made extraordinary progress, and soon entered Har- 
vard college, where he was graduated in 1863. By 
this time he had become noted among his classmates 
and acquaintances for his wonderful facility as a 
linguist. On leaving college he had acquired a good 
knowledge of French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, 
Rumanian, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, 
Gothic, German, and Finnish, besides Greek and 
Latin. He had also made considerable progress in 
Hebrew, Persian, and Sanskrit, and was beginning 
to speak Russian. When Admiral Lissofsky's fleet 
visited this country in 1864, Curtin became ac- 
quainted with the officers and accompanied the ex- 
E edition on its return to Russia. In St. Petersburg 
e obtained employment as a translator of polyglot 
telegraphic despatches, but he was presently ap- 
pointed by Mr. Seward to the office of secretary of 
the U. S. legation, and he held this place till 1868. 
During this period he became familiar with the 
Polish, Bohemian, Lithuanian, Lettish, and Hun- 

farian languages, and made a beginning in Turkish, 
'rom 1868 till 1877 he travelled in eastern Europe 
and in Asia, apparently in the service of the Rus- 
sian government. In 1873, at the celebration at 
Prague of the 500th anniversary of the birth of 
John Huss, he delivered the oration, speaking with 
great eloquence in the Bohemian language. Dur- 
ing his travels in the Danube country he learned 
to speak Slovenian, Croatian, Servian, and Bulga- 
rian. He lived for some time in the Caucasus, 
where he learned Mingrelian, Abkasian, and Ar- 
menian. At the beginning of the Russo-Turkish war 
in 1877, he left the Russian dominions, and, after & 
year in London, returned to his native country. 
Since then he has been studying the languages of 
the American Indians, and has made valuable re- 
searches under the auspices of Maj, John W. Powell 
and the bureau of ethnology. He is said to be ac- 
quainted with more than fifty languages. 

CURTIS, Alfred A., R. C. bishop, b. in Somer- 
set county, Md., in 1833. He began his studies for 
the Protestant Episcopal church in 1854, support- 
ing himself during his course by teaching, in 
1856 he was ordained deacon and sent to St. John's 
parish, Worcester, and in 1859 was ordained prie>t . 
At the close of the year he had charge of Catoctin 
Furnace parish, Frederick co., Md. While there 
he received a call as assistant rector of St. Lukes. 
Baltimore, where he ministered until 18(54. when 
he was sent to officiate at Chestertown, Md. He 
was recalled at the close of the year and placed in 
charge of Mount Calvary church, Baltimore, where 
he remained rector until December, 1870, when he 
resigned. He went to England in 1871, was re- 
ceived into the Roman Catholic church the same 
year by Cardinal Newman, returned to Baltimore, 



< UBTIS 



« I KTIS 



m 




^r^^: 



and entered the Seminary of St. Sulpice. lie »-a> 
ordained by Archbishop Bayley In 1874 being ap* 

pointed his Beoretnrv and assistant at the cathedral, 

ami be wm created bishop of Wilmington in i vs| '. 

( I BTIS, Alva, physician, b. in Columbia, N.H., 

I. in Ohk) in lsM. ||,. Isetured in 

the Botanic medical college <>f Ohio, ami from 

was editor of the " Botanico-medi- 

cal Beoorder," also of tl Journal of Education 

and of Physiological and Medical Refonna." I>r. 
Curtis published M Medical Diaooaaiona M (in;?:!): 
tuns on Midwifery" (1888); "Theory and 
Praotioe of Medicine w (1848, repnbliahed In Eng- 
land); and •■ Medical Criticisms * (IK56). 

CURTIS, Benjamin Bobbins, jurist, b. in 
Watertown, Mass., I Nov., lS(d>: d. in Newport, 
K. I.. 1") Sept.. is? J. lie was graduated at llar- 

1 in 1888, ad- 
mitted to the liar 
in ls;W. and. after 
practising for a 
short titnein North- 
field. Mass., re- 
moved to Boston. 
The extent and 
readiness of his at- 
tainments, his ac- 
curacy, and his 
logical mind, soon 
made him promi- 
nent in his pro- 
fession. In is."»l 
IVe-idcnt Fillmore 
appointed him to 
the IT. S. supreme 
bench. In the cele- 
brated " Dred Scott" case he dissented from the 
decision of the court and made a powerful argu- 
ment in support of his conclusions. He upheld 
the right of congress to prohibit slavery, and 
declared his dissent from "that part of the 
opinion of the majority of the court in which 
it is held that a person of African descent can- 
not be a citizen of the United States." On this 
memorable occasion only one other justice of the 
seven coincided with the opinion of Judge Cur- 
tis. He resigned in 1857, and resumed practice 
in Boston, frecpuentlv appearing before the su- 
preme court at Washington in important cases. 
He was for two years a member of the Massachu- 
setts legislature, but took little part in politics, 
devoting himself with earnestness to hie niufoarion 
In the impeachment trial of President Johnson in 
1868 Judge Curtis was one of the counsel for the 
defence. The answer to the articles of impeach- 
ment was read by him. and was largely his work. 
He opened the case in a speech that occupied two 
days In delivery, and that was commanded for legal 
soundness and clearness. He was the democratic 
candidate for IT. S. senator in 1N74. He published 
• K' ports of Cases in the Circuit Courts of the 
United States" (i vols., Boston. 1854); " Dedetoni 
of the Supreme Court of the United States." with 
notes ami a digest (22 vols., Boston); and " Digest 
of the Decisions of the Supreme Court of the 
United States." from the origin of the oonrl to 
Of his -Memoir and Writings" (2 vols.. 
Boston, 1K80). the first volume contains a memoir 
by George Ticknor Curtis, and the second "Mis- 
cellaneous Writings,' 1 edited bj bis son, Benjamin 
U. Curtis.— iii^ brother, George Ticknor. I 
t). in Watertown. Mass., '2* Nov.. 1812, was gradu- 
Harvard in is;!-,'. He was admitted to the 
bar in 1886, and engaged in the practice of the law 
in Boston till 1862, when be removed to New fork 



While in Beaton, Mr. c.irti* held the office. ' 
eommiwioner. and a-, mm h. in 1*.',] to hi* 

master a fugitive slave named Thorn,, 
which act be wasaevereh denoun ft l.,|i- 

tfoaiete, He also served for two ,, r thr.-e \. 

1 anaoknaatts lofislsfnra. i>ut im« » 

politics to interfere bttl little with his i i fnssion 

and his historical invent i^atii.u.. 

a " Digsal of Kuglish and 

Decisions" (Boston, i^:;» i; rolunu - il snd 

• of the Deci ; .,tis of tin- reu- 
nion Law and Admiralty in the L'nited Matea^fll 

vols.. l840-*6); .. RjghU and Dul 
Seamen " (1K41); " American Convert 
"Law of Copyrighl Uw of p., 

(1849; lih ed., 1878); •• K M uity Precedents" 
•• Insentor's Manual." "Commentaries on tin 
prudence. Practice, snd Peculiar Jurisdiction of 

the Courts ,.f the I'lllted States • 

14 History of the Origin, Formation, and Ad 

of the Constitution of the United Stab 
1855-'8): "Life of Daniel Webster" (Nee York. 
1870); "Life of James Buchanan" <I*KI); and 
"Creation or Evolution " ( I - 

(TBTIS, Calvin, artist, b. in Stratford. Conn.. 
5 Julv, \X'2'2. He studied 1 art in the National acad- 
emy in 1841. and also under Daniel HuntingtOB. 
After painting jM.rtraits in New V..rk f.>r s,.uie 
years, he went to Bridgeport, Conn., in 18001 and 
afterward to Stratford. His works include por- 
traits of Chief-Justice Thomas B. Butler. Gem. 
W. U. Noble. Judge C. B. Bcardslcy. and Hex. Dr. 
Nathaniel Hewitt. Mr. Curtis has also given SOSM 

time to landscape-painting lb- has safarsd frosj 

a spinal disease for thirty years, and it has been 
said that "every touch of his pencil haa baSB at- 
tended with a twinge of nervous pain." 

( TKTIS. George William, author, b. in Provi- 
dence, B. I.. 84 Pebt, 1884 After sttendiaj a 
school in Jamaica Plain. Mass.. he removed : 
York with his father in ls:t!t. and for a \«ar was a 
clerk in a mercantile bouse in that oitj. lb- with 
his elder brother, in 1848, joined the community 
of Brook Farm, in West Boxburv, Mitss.. and. after 
eighteen months of study and farm labor, the 
lirothers went to 
Concord, Mass., 
where they spent 
eighteen months 
more in a farm- 
er's family, after- 
ward tilling a 
small pure of 
land on their own 
account for sj\ 
months. In 1848 
Mr. Curtis went 
abroad, living for 
some time in Italy 
andCennany.and 

afterward travel- 
ling in Kgypt and 
Syria. He re- 
turned t<» this 
country in \x~M. 
and s,M»n after- 
ward became one of the editorial staff of tl 
York -Tribune." Mr. Curtis was one of the editors 
of the first s,ries ..f •• Putnam's Morithh " flUSJ it* 

appearance In 1858 till it ceased toes 

three ream after it was establi-h.-d the BMi 
paieed* into the hands of the firm of Di\. Kdward* 

n winch Mr. Curtis waa a ■paoiaj i««rtncr. 

pecuniarily re*|>onsihle, but taking no pari 
commercial management. In the spring of 1857 




^^v* 



36 



CURTIS 



CURTIS 



the house, which had also undertaken to publish 
books, was fOQBd to be insolvent for a large 
amount, and Mr. Curtis sank his private fortune 
in the endeavor to save its creditors from loss, 
which he finally accomplished in 1878. In 1858 he 
began in " Earner's Monthly " the series of papers 
entitled the - Editor's Easy Chair," and in the same 
year entered the lecture field, meeting with great 
success. He soon gained reputation as a popular 
orator, and in the presidential canvass of 1856 
spoke in behalf of the republican candidates. 
Soon after the establishment of " Harper's Weekly," 
in 1867, he became its leading editorial writer, 
which place he still holds, and on the establishment 
of " Harper's Bazar" in 1807 he began a series of 
papers under the title of " Manners upon the Road," 
which was continued weekly until the spring of 
187:3. He was a delegate to the Republican na- 
tional conventions of 1860 and 1864, and in the 
latter year was an unsuccessful candidate for con- 
gress in the 1st New York district. In 1862 he 
dec lined the office of consul-general in Egypt, 
offered him by President Lincoln. In 1867 he was 
elected a delegate at large to the Constitutional con- 
vention of New York, in which he was chairman 
of the committee on education. In 1868 he was 
nominated a republican presidential elector, and 
in 180!) declined the republican nomination for 
secretary of state of New York. Mr. Curtis has 
always been an earnest advocate of civil-service 
reform, and in 1871 was appointed by President 
Grant one of a commission to draw up rules for the 
regulation of the civil service. He was elected 
chairman of the commission and of the advisory 
board in which it was subsequently merged, but 
resigned in March, 1873, on account of difference 
of views between him and the president in regard 
to t he enforcement of the rules. He was a delegate 
to the National republican convention of 1876 that 
nominated President Haves, and at the beginning 
of the administration he was asked to select a for- 
eign mission, which he declined, and he also de- 
clined the special offer of the mission to Germany. 
Mr. Curtis was chairman of a meeting of independ- 
ent republicans that met in New York on 16 June, 
1884, to take action against the nomination of 
James G. Blaine, made by the Chicago convention, 
and he subsequently supported the democratic can- 
didate, Grover Cleveland. Since 1864 Mr. Curtis 
has Ween one of the regents of the University of 
the state of New York, and is now (1886) its vice- 
chancellor. He has published "Nile Notes of a 
Howadji" (New York, 1851); "The Howadji in 
Syria" (1852); "Lotus-Eating," letters originally 
written to the New York " Tribune " from various 
watering-places (1852); two volumes of selections 
from his contributions to " Putnam's Magazine," 
entitled " Potiphar Papers" (1853) and " Prue 
and I" (1856); and "Trumps," a novel, which had 
appeared in " Harper's Weekly " in 1858-'9 (1862). 
— His half-brother, Joseph Kriilirhiim. soldier, 
b. in Providence, R. I., 25 Oct., 1*30; killed near 
Fredericksburg, Va., 13 Dec, 1802, was gradu- 
ated at the Lawrence scientific school of Har- 
vard in 1856. In 1857 he became a member of 
the New York Central park engineer corps, and 
in April, 1861, was appointed engineer, with the 
rank of captain, in the 9th New York volun- 
teer-. After that regiment was mustered out, 
he became, on 16 Sept., 1861, second lieutenant 
in the 4th Rhode Island volunteers, and was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant on 2 Oct. lie served with 
Burnside in North Carolina, distinguished himself 
by his coolness and daring at the capture of Roan- 
oke Island, 7 Feb., 1862, and on 9 June was ap- 



pointed assistant adjutant-general on Gen. Rod- 
man'- staff. In AugUfl he WM promoted, at (ien. 
Burnsidc's special request, to the lieutenant-colo- 
nelcy of the 4th Rhode Island regiment, joined the 
Army of the Potomac, and was with it in the -.uc- 
oession of battles between the Rappahannock and 
Washington. In the battle of Ant ict am hi 
ineiit Buffered so much that it was withdrawn from 
the field by the general's command, whereupon 
Col. Curtis took a musket and cartridge-box from 
a dead soldier and did duty as a private in a Penn- 
sylvania regiment till the close of the battle, lb- 
was killed at Fredericksburg while in command of 
his regiment, the colonel having been disabled by 
a wound. See a memoir by George William Curtis, 
in John R. Bart left's "Rhode Island in the Rebel- 
lion" (1807).— Joseph Bridgham's brother, Ed- 
ward, b. in Providence, R. I., 4 June, 1838, was 
graduated at Harvard in 1859, and received his 
medical degree from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1864. He had entered the army as medi- 
cal cadet on 6 Sept., 1861, became acting assi-t.tnt 
surgeon on 5 May, 1863, assistant surgeon in 
1864, and was brevetted captain and major oft 
13 March. 1865. He resigned from the army in 
1870, and began practice in New York city. 
During the later years of his army service he was 
in charge of the microscopical section of the medi- 
cal museum, and was especially engaged in develop- 
ing the art of photographing through the micro- 
scope. He became lecturer on histology in the 
College of physicians and surgeons in 1870, and in 
1873 was given the chair of materia medica and 
therapeutics, becoming professor emeritus in 1886. 
He was made assistant surgeon to the New York 
eye and ear infirmary in 1872, surgeon in 1874, and 
in 1876 became medical director of the Equitable 
life assurance society, retiring from active practice. 
Dr. Curtis has published a " Catalogue of the Mi- 
croscopical Section of the U. S. Armv Medical Mu- 
seum (Washington, 1867), and " Manual of Gen- 
eral Medicinal Technology" (New York, 1883). — 
Another brother, John Green, became, in 1873, 
adjunct professor of anatomy in the College of phy- 
sicians and surgeons, New York city. 

CURTIS, Harvey, clergyman, b. in Adams, 
Jefferson co., N. Y., 30 May, 1800 ; d. in Galesburg, 
111., 18 Sept., 1802. He was graduated at Middle- 
bury, in 1831, with the highest honors of his class, 
and studied for the next three years at Princeton 
theological seminary. He was licensed to preach 
by Troy presbytery, and, on 18 Feb., 1830. was 
ordained pastor of the Congregational church in 
Brandon, Vt. In 1841 he accepted an appoint- 
ment from the American home missionary society 
as their agent for Ohio and Indiana, and from 1843 
till 1858 held pastorates in Madison, Ind., and Chi- 
cago, 111. He was chosen president of Knox col- 
lege, at Galesburg, 111., in 1888. 

CURTIS, Josiah, physician, b. in "Wethersfield, 
Conn., in 1816. He was graduated at Yale in 1840, 
and soon afterward became principal of an academy 
in Salem, N. J., and later taught in Philadelphia, 
where he studied medicine, and in 1843 was gradu- 
ated at Jefferson medical college. After spending 
a year in lecturing on physiology and public heall h. 
he settled for practice in Lowell, Mass. In 1849 
he removed to Boston, and between 1850 and 1855 
twice visited Europe for the purpose of studying 
the sanitary condition of the large cities. In 1861 
he was called to Washington to superintend the 
mortality statistics of the U. S. census of 1860. 
He then'' entered the army, and remained with it 
until iso."), when he took up his residence in Knox- 
ville, Ky. In 1872 Dr. Curtis filled the place of 









CURTIS 

surgeon, mirri>sri>|ii-t, and iuit unili^t to the I 
geological survey, and in \*1'> became chief medical 
i i>f the l'. S. India 1 1 « ■ has pub- 

lished numerous articles on ventilation and Idnared 
mil is the author of a report on the " ll>- 
slasBachusetts " 11840), tad earlier re] 
to t lie Massachusetts leghuatureon tin- registration 
of births, marriages, and deaths, He. i- noted an 
the discoverer of collodion. 
< 1 IMI>. Newton Martin. soldier, b. in De 
tor, st. Lawrence <•>>.. N. y„ 21 Mar, 1885. He 
edooated at common schools, unci al Gouver- 
pour Weeleyan seminary, in 1854 '■">. He beoaine 
a promineni democrat, was |w>st master of his native 

town in i s ">^ "<>i. and den iccratio eandidabi f<>r 
assembly in i860; He enrolled a votnntoat oon> 

panv on 14 April, INfd, was commissioned captain 
in the 16th HOW York regiment on 7 May. and 

•erred in the Army of the Potomac. He beoaine 

lieutenant-colonel and then colonel of tlie 14V.M 
New York infantry, and during the Wattle of Cold 
Harbor was assigned to the command of a brigade 
whose leader had been kille<l in the action. ||. 
"was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteei 
Oct.. 1884, and for his services at the capture of 
Fort Fisher was promoted on the field to briga- 
dier-general of volunteers, and was also thanked 
by the legislature of New York. He wasbtvvetted 
major-general of volunteers. 18 March. 1N«;.">, and 
assigned to duty as chief of staff to Sen. BS. 0. C 
Ord. On 1 July, 1865, he was siren the command 
of southwestern Yirginia, with headquarters at 
Lynchburg, and was mustered out on 15 Jan., 18(56. 
He was collector of customs in the district of Os- 
wegatchie, X. Y., in 1866-' 7, special agent of the 
U. S. treasury from 1867 till his resignation in 
1SN0, and a member of the legislature in lK.s:{-',-,, 
having been elected as a republican. He was presi- 
dent of the state agricultural society in 1880. and 
has been secretary and trustee of the state agricul- 
tural station since its organization in that year. 

( TRTIS, Samuel Ryan, soldier, b. in New 
York state, 3 Feb., 180* ; d. in Council Bluffs, 
Iowa, 26 Dec., 1866. He removed when a child to 
Ohio, and was graduated at the U. S. military 
academy in 1831, but resigned from the armv in 
1832, and became a civil engineer, superintending 
the Muskingum river Improvements in 1k:{7-'!>. 
He then studied law. and practised in Ohio from 
1841 till 1846. He had become a captain of militia 
in 1888, was lieutenant-colonel in 18d7-'42, oolonel 
in 1843-'45, and in 1846 was made adjutant-geii- 
eral of Ohio for the special p ur pose of organising 
the state'i quota of volunteers for the Mexican 
war. He served in that war as colonel of the 8d 
Ohio regiment, and was commandant of (amargo, 
a large military depot, holding it on 1* Feb.. 1*17. 
against (ien. Urrea, and then pursuing the enemy 
bj forced marches through the mountains toRaim ». 
Mexico, thus opening Gen. Taylor's communica- 
tions. After tin- discharge of his regiment he 
served on Gen. Wool's staff, and as governor of 
Saltillo, Mexico, in 1K47-X He then engaged In 
engineering in the west, and in 1N.V> settled as a 
lawyer in Keokuk, Iowa. While a resident of this 
place he was elected to congress as a republican, 
and ■er re d two terms and part of a third, from 
1857 till 1861, being a menioet of the committers 
on military affairs ami the 1'acilic railroad. He 
Was also a delegate (TOO) Iowa to the peace ( - 

■ of February, 1861. He resigned from . on- 
gress in 1861 to become colonel of the 8d Iowa 

ment, and on 17 May was commissioned briga- 
dier-evneral of volunteer-, being M the tir>t li-t 
sent to the senate for confirmation. He took 






37 






f the large camp of 
Loafi m August and September - 
the southwestern di»t Missouri from 88 

l>.v.. 1861, till February, 1868, and the «noy of 

tthwest till August. 1861 
at Pea Ridge. Ark., he gained a deeMve victory 

I'm. e ,,i,d MoCllUooh. BoWMpt 
general of volunteer* on ji ' 
14 July till 29 August occupied Betas 
having marched over one thoueead mile* through 
wikiarneeses and swamps. While on lean 
noatj from IB Aug, nil .; s68. he wee 

president of the I'm j 1 1 « railroad a a 
Chicago. Ho was at the head of the Departatent 
of the Missouri fn-in Septemlier, 1862, til 
1888, and of that of Kansas from i Jan., 181 
7 Feb., 1865, oonunanding at Fort Leavenworth 
during the Pries raid of October, !*«;». and aiding 

in the defeat and pur-nit of Gen. Price's army. 

He commanded the DepartuMul of the Northwest 

from in Feb. till 86 July, 186 auuia- 

sioner to negotiate treaties with various Indian 
tribe* from August till rfllTWlUs. 1866, Bttd to 
examine the I'nion Pacific railroad till Apr. 

Cl'RTIS, Thomas, ul o ig l lua n, b, in Kngland 
about 17m<»; a. in l*x. h, nl to the United 

States in 1821*. was [mstor for *OBM years of the 
Went worth street Baptist church in ("liar 
S. ('.. ami suheequeutlv eateblishtd a young ladies' 
school al Limestone Spring. I»r. Curii*wa«aman 
of extensive knowladjn and very j«»»erful as a 

preacher. While in Kngland he »it« the pul 
of the " Fncvdopidia Jtetropolitana." He per- 
ished in a burning steamer on the Potomac rfvar. 

His -on. Thomas F„ b. in England, M 
1815; <1. in Cambridge, Hart. 978, was 

educated at a southern College, and studied the- 
ology. After holding a pastorate near Boston for 
several years, he accepted the chair of then! 
Lewisburs university. IV. but resigned in 
and in 1m<»7 removed to Cambridge, Mas* lb- 
suffered with softening of the brain for some tines 
before his death. I»r. Curtis published "Corn 
amnion: the Distinction be t wee n christian and 
Church Fellowship*'; " P r og res s of Itoi.tiM Prin- 
ciples in the last Hundred S'cars"; and, after his 
resignation. "The Human Element in the Inspira- 
tion of the8acred Scriptures,'' in which be t---k 
similar views with Bishop Colonon, but went be- 
vond him in some particulate, repndiating both 
the inspiration and authenticity Of much of the 
old Testament endued of the V 

(TKTIS. William Kdmnnd. jurist, b. in 
Litchfield. Conn., in 1884; d. i" Wetertown, 
Conn. <» July, 1880. Hewas graduated at Trinity 
in ls+i. admitted to the Ur in 1K47, and or., 
in New York city, where be lOSS rapidly in his 
profession. In 1*71 he wa* elected Judge Of the 
New York supreme court, ami at the time of his 
death was chief justice of the superior i-oiirt. lb- 
was commissioner of the Uxml of educ ation, and 
for four vean it" president, and n 
of the geographical SOCSStT. •ludc- Curtis re- 

oeived the degres of LL I>. fn-m Trudtj in 1868. 
CCBT18S, vi. b \ Mlin, i«-t. i». » IViufirt, 

Conn.. 1"> S|.t.. 1S.1). Her father. Hatnel Allm. 

«it" a ■aa-oaptain of Providanoaj B, 1. In 1858 
she nauried DuaM B, Curtis-, n I umal- 

i-.t and -H.n afterwanl rensOVed »ith him |0 a 

farm in Madison, Wis. Her flrsl 

Home t«. I»ie." apis-ansl in "Near- ' 

1848. She bat published "Home lUllwU' (Bc«- 

ton, 1880), and contributed to |«-rnaiioals ~ 

the elgnatare of •• NilU>." 



:w 



cruTiss 



crsniN(i 



CURTISS, Samuel Ives, educator, b. in 

Union, Conn., 5 Feb.. 184 L lie VU graduated at 
Amherst in 1867, and at Union theological semi- 
nary in 1870, nmnd in missionary work in New 
York, ami in 1 s 70 *•„• was connected with t lie Fifth 
avenue Presbyterian church. He travelled in 
Ireland and Scotland in 1872-'3, was ordained by 
the New York presbytery in 1H74, and in 1874-'8 
was pastor of trie American chapel at Leipsic, of 
whicn he was one of the founders. While in 
Leipsic he attended lectures at the university, 
receiving the degree of Ph. I), in 1876, and wus 
afterward made a licentiate by Berlin university. 
Iowa college gave him the degree of D. D. in 1878, 
and in the same year he became professor of bibli- 
cal literature in the Congregational theological 
seminary, Chicago. In 1879 he was transferred 
to the chair of Old Testament literature and in- 
terpretation. He is the author of "The Name 
Machabee," his doctor's thesis (Leipsic, 1876); 
a translation of Bickell's "Outlines of Hebrew 
Grammar " (1877) ; of Delitzsch's " Messianic 
Prophecies " (Edinburgh, 1880) ; and " Old-Testa- 
ment History of Redemption" (1881); "The 
Levitical Priests" (1877); "De Aaronitici sacer- 
dotii atque thorae Elohisticae origine," his licentiate 
thesis (Berlin, 1878) ; " Ingersoll and Moses " (Chi- 
cago, 1879) : and contributions in the " Current 
Discussions in Theology " (1883 et seq.). 

CURWEN, Samuel, loyalist, b. in Salem, Mass., 
28 Dec, 1815; d. there, 9 April, 1802. He was 
graduated at Harvard in 1735, and studied for the 
ministry, but became a merchant in his native 
place. In the winter of 1774-'5 he was a captain 
in Sir William Pepperell's expedition against 
Louisburg. In 1759 he became impost officer for 
Essex county, Mass., and in 1775 was judge of the 
admiralty court. From 1775 until 1784, as a loyal- 
ist, he resided abroad, returning to his native place 
in the autumn of 1784. His "Journal and Let- 
ters " (New York, 1842) contains interesting and 
valuable information concerning the lives of loyal- 
ist exiles while abroad. 

CUSACK, Mary Frances, philanthropist, 
known as the Nun of Kenmare, b. near Dublin, 
Ireland, 6 May, 1830. She spent most of her early 
life in England, and began to write when very 
young. She entered an Anglican religious sister- 
hood, soon afterward became a Roman Catholic, 
and, returning to Ireland, joined at Newry, in 
1859, a community of Franciscan nuns, known as 
the Irish Poor Clares, engaged in teaching poor 
girls. Two years later she established a convent 
of the Sisters at Kenmare, one of the most desti- 
tute parts of Ireland, and in 1884, in a personal 
interview with Pope Leo XIII., obtained permis- 
sion to leave the Poor Clares and found a new 
order, the Sisters of Peace, intended for the estab- 
lishment and care of homes for friendless girls, 
where domestic service would be taught and 
moral habits be inculcated. She opened the first 
house of the new order at Nottingham, England, 
and in 1885 a similar house in Jersev City, N. J., 
the first foundation of the Sisters of Peace in the 
United States. Her active efforts for the relief of 
the wretched peasants of Kenmare brought her 
into controversy with the Marquis of Lansdoune, 
the Earl of KenmareV and some others of the 
greater landlords of thaWegion, and with a section 
of the Catholics of England ; but she seems to 
have enjoyed from the beguiling the sympathy of 
most of the leading Catholics, lay and clerical, of 
her own country. She was in the United States 
in 1886. She has published more than fifty works, 
chief among which are a "Student's History of 



Ireland": " Woman's Work in Modern Society"; 
lives of Daniel O'Coiinell. St Patrick. St. Colum* 
ba, and St. Bridget; "The Pilgrim's Wai to 
Heaven " : " Jesus and Jerusalem " ; and " The 
Book of the Blessed Ones." 

(TSHING, Caleb, statesman, b. in Salisbury: 
17 Jan., 1800; d. in Newburyport, M 
Jan., 1879. He was graduated at Harvard in 1817, 
and for two years was a tutor in mathematics and 
natural philosophy. He then studied law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and settled in Newburyport. He 
rose rapidly in his profession, and, although busily 
engaged with his practice, found time to devote to 
literature and politics, and was a frequent contribu- 
tor to periodicals. In 1825 he was elected a repre- 
sentative to the lower house of the Massachusetts 
legislature, and in 1826 a member of the state sen- 
ate. At this time he belonged to the then repub- 
lican party. In 1829 Mr. Cushing visited Europe, 
and remained abroad two vears. In 1833 he was 
again elected a representative from Newburyport 
to the Massachusetts legislature for two years, but 
in 1834 was elected from the Essex north district 
of Massachusetts a representative to congress, and 
served for four consecutive terms, until 184:!. He 
supported the nomination of John Quincy Adams 
for the presiden- 
cy, and was a 
whig until the 
accession of John 
Tyler. When the 
break in the whig 

Sarty occurred, 
uring the ad- 
ministration of 
President Tyler, 
Mr. Cushing was 
one of the few 
northern whigs 
that continued to 
support the presi- 
dent, and became 
classed as a dem- 
ocrat. Soon af- 
terward he was 
nominated for 
secretary of the 
treasury, but the 
senate refused to 
confirm him. He was subsequently confirmed 
as commissioner to China, and made the first 
treaty between that country and the United 
States. On his return he was again elected a rep- 
resentative in the Massachusetts legislature, in 
1847 he raised a regiment for the Mexican war 
at his own expense, became its colonel, and was 
subsequently made brigadier-general. While still 
in Mexico he was nominated by the democratic 
party of his state for governor, but failed in the 
election. From 1850 till 1852 he was again a mem- 
ber of the legislature of his native state, and, at the 
expiration of his term, was appointed associate 
justice of the state supreme court. In 1853 Presi- 
dent Pierce appointea him U. S. attorney-general, 
from which office he retired in 1857. In 1857, 
1858, and 1859 he again served in the legislature 
of Massachusetts. In April, 1860, he was president 
of the Democratic national convention in Charles- 
ton, S. C, and was among the ssoedew from that 
body who met in Baltimore. At the close of 1860 
he was sent to Charleston by President Buchanan, 
as a confidential commissioner to the secessionists 
of South Carolina; but his mission effected noth- 
ing. Mr. ( ushing was frequently em gloved during 
the civil war in the departments at Washington, 




CUSHIXG 



IIINci 



m 



and in 1866 was appointed one of the thr -. »n»- 

mbM revise and oodify 1 1 •«- lawi .if oon* 

gres- 8 ha wih sent to Bogota 1 i<> ami 

diplomatic difficulty. In 1872 be wu otn- ..f the 
counsel for thfl United StuteH at the (iencva con. 
noe for tin- settlement "f the Alabama "laim*. 
tninatcd for tin- office of chief 
ju-t ii*- of the United States; but the nomination 
wa.s »ut>se<|Uently withdrawn. A Mar later he VM 
nominated and OOttfirmed a.s minister t<> Spain, 
whence he returned home in 1^77. lli> publica- 
tions Include ■ " Hietorj of the Town "f Newbury- 
jM.rt " (1888); "Tin- Practical Principles ..f politi- 
cal Boonomy n (1888); "Hiatorieal and Political 
• w >>f the Late Revolution in France "(2 rola>, 
Boston, l s ^>>: " Reminiscences of Spain "(2 vols., 
Boston. 1888); "Growth and Territorial Progress 
of th»> I'nited States" (18JHI); "Lift- of William II. 
Harrison" (Boston. 1840); and "Tin- Treaty of 
Washington n (New York. l*7:i). 

< I Ml INK, Frank Hamilton, ethnologist, b. 
in Northeast, Brie co.. Pa., 22 July* in">7. He 
manifested in early childhood a love for arehaxdog- 
ical pursuits, and at the age of eight years Dana 
to collect fossils and minimis, made a complete 
Indian costume, and lived in a l>ark hut in the 
woods. He learned from observation that wherever 
Indian encampments had bee n long established the 
soil and vegetation had undergone a change, which 
materially assisted him in his search for relics. At 
t he age of fifteen he had discovered the process of 
making arrow-heads from flint by pressure with 
bone. In 1*70 his father removed to Medina. N. 
V.. where the son's researches found new ground 
and a greater wealth of material. In the town of 
Shelbv were ancient remains of fortifications rich 
in relics, and thev, with ancient fortifications, 
burial-grounds, and camp sites in the count ie- of 
Madison and Onondaga, were carefully aearohed, a- 
well as the Hamilton group of rocks. In the spring 
of 1875 he became a student in Cornell university. 
but spent most of his time as assistant to Dr. Charles 
Kau in the preparation of the Indian collections of 
the National museum for the Centennial exposition 
at Philadelphia, and was curator of the entire col- 
lection until the close of the exhibition, when he 
was appointed curator of the ethnological depart- 
ment of the National museum. During the sum- 
mer of 1876 he gained his first knowledge of the 
Pueblo Indians, and joined Maj. J. W. Powell in 
his expedition of 1879 to New Mexico, as assist - 
ant ethnologist of the U. S. bureau of ethnology. 
of the Smithsonian institution. The expedition 
spent two months among the Zufii Indians, and 
Mr. Cushinir. at his own request, was left there. 
He adopted the costume, habits, and life of the 
race, and for three years lived strictly the life of 
an Indian among the Indian-., studying their hab- 
its, language, and history. During the second year 
of his sojourn he had so far made himself one of 
the tribe, and gained the esteem of the chiefs, that 
he was formally adopted and initiated into the 
sacred esoteric' society of priests, the " Pri esthood 
of the How." Iii L882 he visited the east with a 
party of mx Zurtis, who came for the purple of 
taking water from the Atlantic ocean, or "Ocean 
of Sunrise," as a religious ceremony, and carrying 
it to their temple in the Pueblos. Four of the 
Kollhl returned, while Mr. Cashing remained with 
the other two during the summer in Washington, 

for the purpose of writing, with their aid, his ■ 

trihution to the nureau of ethnology SO Bufli 
fetiches. In Beptember of the same year be re- 
turned to Zofii; l>ut. in the spring of 1**4. failing 
health obliged his return for two years to the east. 



II.' Imxight with him | ma to aid hire in 

the preparation of a dictionary and grammar of 
the Ball language, and translations of mvth and 

basal stones, hen, legends, songs, and ritual-. Mr. 

luiditmr* publication* , u ,d eontrilaiti 

odiml literature include -Anti. •dean* 

County" (Washington. I s . 

(18811: "The Relationship between 7m r - 

and Mythic s».i.'m»M^.., ; " The Nation of ft* 

Willow Ueaatam m Bafl " 

"Studies of Ancient I' imic Art. a 

trnliveof Zufli ColtOrS-OtOWth ".I^J,; a ,,,i 

Breadstufl 
ClSHINtJ, Jonathan IVter. sdanassf; 

Rochester. N. II.. 12 Mar. h. 1788 1 ± III Raleigh. 
18 April. lHjn. In his hnyhiaal he w a- ap- 
prentice! ; I, ut. by skilfully managing the proceeds 
of his oN.rwork, be peronased ■ portioa of Ins 
time, and immediately entered Phillip* I 
academy. Bf working a pOftiOJi Si «a<h ilav and 
by teaching, he paid his way through collegi 
graduate.! at Dartmouth ' in 1M7. His health 
failed, and he went south. U-camc a tutor m 

Hampden Sydney ooUage in the Norsmber ' 

ing his graduation, and professor of chemistry and 
natural philosophy two yean later. This chair he 
held for two years, when he became the \-i- 
of the college. Hy his exertions, the institution, 
which had 0600 sadly disorganize! and broken 
down, was built up again ; hut the laU.r and re- 

s|M)iisiiiiiity of the enterprise exhausted his strength 
and hastened hi> death. 

CUSHING, Luther Stearns, Jurist. I,, in La> 
nenburg. Mass., J-J June. IskkI; d. in Boston, 22 
June, 1868. He was the only graduate at the Har- 
vard law-school in 1M26. For some fSSJI after 
leaving college be was amoeiatsd with Charles 
Sumner and Ueorge S. Hillard in the «slit«.rshiii of 
"The American .lurist ami I>aw Magazine' in 
Boston, when in 1K12 he was made clerk of the 
house of representatives, an office which he held 
for fourteen years. In 1S44 he was chosen a mem- 
ber of the legislature, then f<>r four years was 
judge of the court of common pleas m itoaton, 
after which he became reporter of the decisions of 
the supreme court of the commonwealth, and pre- 
pared twelve volumes (.V, |,, 88 m< lu-n, i of law 
reports, extending from l*-">o t.. the time of his 

death. In 1k4* he became lecturer on Roman law 
in Harvard law-school, and tilled the chair until 
his death. His name is l.ot known in c«>ni 
with his "Manual of Parliamentary Pn. 
(Boston, 1844), which immediately Us -nine an au- 
thority for proceedings in deliU-rative assemblies. 
He also published a M Treatise oa Trastes Process" 
(1887); " Treatise oa Bemedial Lew"(lC 
lish translation of Serigny's " Recti! den I'. - 
law of possession mslatioa "f PotbJers 

-De la rente," contract of sale (1838): translation 
of Mattennaier on " Kff.vt of Drunkenness on 
Criminal Bssponeibility " (1*41>: translation of 

Domat'a "Lee toil riruei dans hav ordrs natu- 
rel" (1850); "Reports of Controvert! 

Cases in MassjMdiusetta"(188B)j " Intr>-lu. I 
the Study of Roman Civil Uw"(lH l"L*i 

Parliame'ntaria Americana." a comprehfniuA* 
on parliamentary law 

CUSHING, Nathaniel, soldier. u In Pamhrohe, 
Mass.. H April. 1758 ; d. in Marietta, OWo, m Au- 
gust. tsl4. Be joined the f..reesthat went from 
Masswhusettt in 1775. tiecame a lieuten.. 
Pr.wers regiment in Jtsjf Of that jmt, was ad- 
vaneed to a taptainev in I 

md captured forty of the D- Un.w loyal- 
fa lu -. after maiix fruitless attempU 



40 



cushing 



CUSHING 



had been made by others. He j>art icipat.-il in 
many engagements, and received in 1788 the luv- 
vet <>f major. At toe close of the war he removed 
to Belpre, Ohio. 

CUSHING, Thomas, statesman, b. in Boston, 
:n 1725; d. there in 1788. He was the son 
of a wealthy merchant, in whose counting-house 
Samuel Adams was for a short time employed. I le 
fell under the influence of Adams, and presently 
became prominent among the popular leaders who 
were preparing the way for the Revolution. In 
May, 1706, he was elected to the Massachusetts 
assembly, and immediately afterward, when James 
Otis, who had been chosen speaker, was refused by 
Gov. Bernard, Mr. Gushing was chosen speaker in 
his stead. He was speaker of the house until 1774, 
and as such occupied, in the eyes of the British, a 
prominence greater than his abilities entitled him 
to. Dr. Johnson, in one of his silly pamphlets 
about American affairs, asserted that one of the 
objects of the Revolution was to place a diadem on 
the head of Thomas Cushing. He was not fitted 
for leadership, and on several occasions showed 
himself weak-kneed. In 1772, along with Hancock, 
he opposed the formation of committees of corre- 
spondence, and afterward refused to serve on one 
to which he had been appointed. At the same 
time he is described by John Adams as possessing 
a rare faculty for procuring secret intelligence, 
which made him useful to the patriot leaders. He 
was elected in June, 1774, to the first Continental 
congress, and in February, 1775, to the second. 
He was one of those whom the king instructed 
Gage, in April, 1775, to seize and send over to Eng- 
land, to be tried for treason. In July, 1775, when 
Massachusetts formed a new government, Mr. 
Cushing was chosen a member of the council. In 
the Continental congress he opposed a declaration 
of independence, and consequently, in the third 
annual election of delegates, 19 Jan., 1776, he did 
not receive a single vote, but Elbridge Gerry was 
elected instead. In 1783 and several following 
years he was lieutenant-governor of Massachu- 
setts. He was a member of the convention, held 
in January and February, 1788, that ratified the 
Federal constitution. 

CUSHING, Thomas Humphrey, soldier, b. in 
1755 ; d. in New London, Conn., 19 Oct., 1822. He 
served during the Revolutionary war, beginning as 
a sergeant, was in Arnold's naval battle on Lake 
Champlam, and for his bravery was successively 
advanced until in July, 1812, he had reached a 
brigadier-generalship. In January, 1816, he was 
appointed collector of customs in New London. 
Some time after this he became involved in a quar- 
rel with William J. Lewis, member of congress 
from Virginia, and the ball from Mr. Lewis's 
weapon struck Gen. Cushing's watch. The differ- 
ences between the two gentlemen were amicably 
adjusted, and Lewis, stepping up to the general, 
said : " I congratulate you, general, on having a 
watch that will keep time from eternity." 

CUSHING, Thomas Parkman, merchant, b. 
in Ashburnham, Mass.. in 1787; d. in Boston, 23 
Nov., 1854. He carried on business in Boston, and 
bequeathed the bulk of his fortune, supposed to 
amount to $150,000, for the maintenance of two 
schools in his native town. 

CUSHING. William, jurist, b. in Scituate. 
Mass., 1 March, 1732 ; d. there, 13 Sept., 1810. He 
was graduated at Harvard in 1751, studied law 
with Jeremy Gridley, became attorney-general of 
Massachusetts, was appointed judge of probate of 
Lincoln county, Me., in 1768, became judge of the 
Massachusetts superior court in 1772, chief justice 



in 1777, and in 1780 was chosen the first chief 
justice of Massachusetts under the state constitu- 
tion. At the beginning of the Revolution he >t<»< «<l 
almost alone among the superior officials in rap- 
porting the cause of independence. His grand- 
father and his father (both named John) were 
judges of the superior court, and his father, whom 
he succeeded as chief justice, presided over the 
trial of British soldiers for the Boston massacre of 
r> March. l?7o. On SJ7 Sept., 1789, Judge Cushing 
was appointed an associate justice of the (J. S. su- 
preme court. President Washington nominated 
him chief justice in 1796, but he declined, lie 
was one of the founders of the American academy 
of arts and sciences in 1780. In 1788 he was vice- 
president of the Massachusetts convention that 
ratified the federal constitution. 

CUSHING, William Barker, naval officer, b. 
in Delafield, Wis., 4 Nov., 1842; d. in Washing- 
ton, D. ft, 17 Dec, 1874. He was appointed to 
the naval academy from New York in 1857, but 
resigned 23 March, 1861. In May, 1861, he vol- 
unteered, was appointed master's mate, and on the 
day of his arrival at Hampton Roads captured and 
brought into port a tobacco-schooner, the first 
prize of the war. He was attached to the north 
Atlantic blockading squadron during the war, and 
repeatedly distinguished himself by acts of bra- 
very. He was commissioned lieutenant on 16 July, 
1862. In November, 1862, he was ordered in the 
steamer " Ellis " to capture Jacksonville. Fla., in- 
tercept the Wilmington mail, and destroy the salt- 
works at New Juliet. He captured a large mail, 
took two prizes, and shelled a Confederate camp, 
but was unable to cross the bar that night, and in 
the morning ran aground. The crew transferred 
everything except the pivot-gun to one of the cap- 
tured schooners, and sailed to a place of safety, a 
mile and a half away ; but Cushing remained with 
six volunteers on board the steamer until she was 
disabled by a cross-fire from the shore, when he set 
her on fire and made his escape to the schooner in 
a row-boat. He distinguished himself the same 
year on the Blackwater and in the sounds of North 
Carolina. In 1863 he added to his reputation for 
bravery and j udg- 
ment by an ex- 
pedition up the 
Cape Fear and 
Little rivers and 
operations on the 
Nansemond. His 
most brilliant ex- 
ploit was the de- 
struction of the 
Confederate iron- 
clad ram "Albe- 
marle " on the 
night of 27 Oct., 
1864. This power- 
ful vessel had suc- 
cessfully encoun- 
tered a strong 
fleet of U. S. gun- 
boats, and fought 
them for sev- 
eral hours with- 
out sustaining 
material damage. There was nothing able to cope 
wit h her in the sounds. Cushing volunteered to de- 
stroy her. and with a steam launch and a volunteer 
crew he ascended Roanoke river, towing an armed 
cutter. The river was lined with sicken to guard 
against just such an attack as this: but Cushing's 
luck did not desert him, and he was within a few 




tf./Z^LJLr 



CUSI1M \N 



« I -UMAX 



41 



Mbemorle M before hi wandleoovi 

ng c»iT the Ixmi that was in tow, he ordered its 

i picket-pod mar by, while, with it 

full bead of ■team, he drove the launch straight 
at tin- huge balk <»f the ir«m-«-luil. who*,- 
rushed to quarters and at once opened iln>. The 
launch replied effectively with bet bowitser. \ 
rafl of heavy log! surrounded the larger vessel, 
hut tin- launch was driven over them, and !>v the 

time "in- had received her death-wound from the 
"Albemarle's" guns Clashing had oooUj swung 
the torpedo-boom under tin- great ship's overhang 

and exploded tin- charge. A large bok was blown 
in tin- Iron-dad's side, she sank at hat moorings, 
and was never raised. Telling his companions to 
l<»ik nut for themselves, Cushing left ha -"inking 

launch and swam down stream, manning tin- l>ank, 
thoroughlj exhausted, half a mile below. As soon 

aj ha rec o v e red his strength be plunged into the 

denes swamp, anil after many hours of tedious 
Wading came out upon the shore of a creek, where, 
with his usual good luck, he found a pickct-lmal, 
and at 11 I'. M. the following night reached a l'. S. 
gun-lxiat at the mouth of the river. Of the gallant 
fellows who ri-ked their lives with him. onlv one 
escaped besides himself. Two were drowned, and 
most of the others captured. Lieut. Cushing did 
not expeot to return alive from this enterprise. 
When he set out to destroy the ram, he said 
laughingly to the companions he was leaving, 
"Another stripe, or a coffin." Five times the 
secretary of the navy officially wrote him com- 
mendatory letters, and for the "Albemarle" af- 
fair he received the thanks of congress, and was 
pr om ote d lieutenant-commander, 27 Oct., 1864, 
At Fort Fisher, under a constant and heavy fire, 
he buoyed out the channel in a small skiff, and 
continued the work for six hours till he had 
completed it. At the final assault on Fort Fisher 
he led a force of sailors and marines from the 
•• Mnnticello" in an attack on the sea-front of the 
fort, and amid an unceasing fire at short range, 
which cut down his men in windrows, he crossed 
a hundred yards of sand, rallied his men. and lent 
such efficient assistance to the troops that In-fore 
midnight the fort was surrendered. After the war 
he served in the Pacific and Asiatic squadrons, be- 
ing in command of the steamer " Lancaster" in 
l888-*7, and of the " Maumec," in the Asiatic 
squadron, in lHlJH-'D. On the return of the " Mau- 
mee"to the United States, Lieut. -Com. Cushing 
was advanced to the rank of commander. 81 .Ian.. 
1872, being the youngest officer of that rank in the 
navy. He was allowed leave of absence, hut his 
health, which had been impaired by overexertion, 

failed completely, and he died of brain fever. 

(TSHMAN. Charlotte Suunders. actress, h. 
in Boston, Mass.. 88 July, 1816; d. there, is Feb.. 
1 S T'». She was a descendant in the eighth genera- 
tion from Robert Cushman. Her father rose from 
poverty to be a successful West India merchant, 
DUt lost his fortune, and died, leaving his family 
in straitened circumstances. Charlotte was a re- 
markably bright, sportive child, excelling her 
schoolmates and developing a voice of remark- 
able compass and richness, with a full contralto 

register. Two Mends of her father, one of them 

John Mackey, in a* host- piano factory Jonas Chick- 
ering was then foreman, provided her with theln^t 
musical instruction. She sane in choirs, and aided 
in the support of the family from the age of twi !ve. 
When Mrs. Joseph Wood' visited Boston in \XU. 
('apt. Mackey Introduced Miss Cushman, who sang 

with her in two of her concerts. Through Mrs. 
Wood's influence she became an articled pupil 




to .lames (,. M<»-der. that lady's musical director, 
and andet his instruction 'made h. r first ep- 
oncra in the I n-roont theatre a* 
the C o unt ess Alnwvrra in the ■ Ifnrrksn of Figa- 
ro'' with great success, and her second aa Lucy 
llcrtrain fa 
Manm-ring." She 
went with his(.,iii. 

patty to New Or- 
leans, where hSt 
voice, which had 
U-cu strained I \ 
the soprano parts 
assigned i,, |,, r 

suddenly failed. 
Seeking the ooun* 

srl of James ||. 

Caldwell, manager 
of the prindpal 
theatre of New Or- 
leans, she was ad- 
vised by him and 
by Barton, the tra- 
gedian, to In-come 
at; actress, and 

fiveli the juirt of 
,adv Macbeth t«> 
study, in which she mads her sposntnotS with 
complete success in 1885. Going to New York. 
she declined a trial at the Park theatre, to enter 
into a three years' engagement with Thomas Ham- 
hlin.of the Bowery theatre, when- shcap|<can-d for 
a s eason in leading tragic- roles. Mi- 
brought her mother, who had supported the family 
by keeping a boarding-house, t" New York; hut 
soon after this the theatre WSJ burned, and her 
wardrobe, for which she wits in debt, was destroyed. 
Miss Cushman then secured an sngagemonl in Al- 
bany, where she acted for five months, and made 
many acquaintances among politician* through her 
relative, (iov. Many, then in the V. S. senate | 
vinced that she had not ■erredaproper apprentice- 
ship in her art. she applied to the manager of the 
Park theatre for any place that might U- vacant, 
was engaged to do general utility btsamess, and 
soon made her mark as a leading actress. This 
engagement lasted from 1887 till 18401 In 1861 
she assumed the management <>f the Walnut street 
theatre in Philadelphia, which she retained till 1*4-1. 
when sin- accompanied Mr. Macready on « tour in 
the northern states, in tin- 0OUTSS of which she un- 
dertook the higher ranp- of tragic |.arts with great 
success. She was an ardent student, and rapidly 
added new characters to her list, sii-h as Klvira, 
Bianco, Helen McGregor, Kmilia. Umrti Kathenne. 
Cardinal Woohtey, Ophelia, Pauline. Viola, and 
Katharine in "Turning of the show." She was 
powerful and electric m tregadr, mestssful in the 
depicting of every passion, gnat in shaki-spearian 
character., and in her yOUttg clays was 

guished ss a performer in high ooensdf parti 

88 Oct.. 1844 Miss Cushman SSilsd for Kngland. 

In London sin- Inimoflislofj sohleved n triumph- 
ant succ-ess in the parts of I^ady Marbeth 
Mud. Mrs. Holler, maims in M Fnsk\"aod Emilia. 

She sent for her familv. and lagan h. r BStOBal sea- 
son at the Hay market as Bomeo,a |«art she had 
ehoSSU in order to brin.; out her sister as Juliet. 
The power of her impersonation i sensa- 

tion in London, and afterward in Dublin, 
her sister's gmes and U-«uty add.-d t«> the suc- 
cess. Slu- plavcd other male companion parts 
with h.r sister, achieved a great success as Julia 
in "The Hunchback," Meg Herri lies, a part that 
she had liM umtSJ—d at the Park t heat r 



42 



(TSHMAN 



CUSHMAN 



York, in 1841, Nancy Sykes, Lady Gay Spanker, 
ami otter characters, constantly added to her 
professional reputation, and made warm friends 
in the intellectual society of England. In Au- 
gust, 1849, she returned to the United States 
and played throughout the country. She Ux)k her 
farewell at the Broadway theatre, 15 May. L8BS, 
visited friends in England, and travelled on the 
continent, but began playing again in December, 
1858. Her lmuse in Mayfair became a centre of 
art ist ic and literary society, and during the dra- 
matic S6MOO she acted with undiminished popu- 
larity in London and the provinces, while part of 
her winters she passed in Rome. In 1857 she re- 
turned to the United States and performed during 
the winter and the spring of 1858, and returned to 
Koine, establishing herself in a spacious perma- 
nent winter home in January, 1859. In 1860 she 
again acted in New York, and appeared on several 
occasions for the benefit of the Sanitary commis- 
sion. During the last six years of her life Miss 
Oushman developed a remarkable ability as a dra- 
matic reader, giving scenes from Shakespeare, bal- 
lad poetry, dialect poems, and humorous pieces 
with a success not less decided than her early his- 
trionic triumphs. In 1871, after a residence in 
Europe, she resumed her career in the United 
States as a reader, besides fulfilling several dra- 
matic engagements. Her farewell appearance was 
announced at least seven times in as many differ- 
ent years. Her final performance in New York at 
Booth's theatre, where she played the part of Lady 
Macbeth, was signalized by social and literary dem- 
onstrations. Sue took a similar demonstrative 
farewell in the same character in Philadelphia and 
other cities, and her career closed in Boston, at the 
Globe theatre, on 15 May, 1875. After a reading- 
tour to Rochester, Buffalo, and Syracuse, she re- 
tired with a large fortune to her villa at Newport, 
where she was seized with her final illness, and in 
October went to Boston and placed herself under 
medical treatment. An obelisk copied from Cleo- 
patra's Needle was placed over her tomb in Mount 
Auburn cemetery in 1880. See " Charlotte Cush- 
man, her Letters and Memories of her Life," edited 
by Emma Stebbins, the sculptor, who was her inti- 
mate friend and companion at Rome for several 
years (Boston, 1878). — Her sister, Susan Webb, b. 
in Boston, Mass., 17 March, 1822 ; d. in Liverpool, 
England, 10 May, 1859, made her dibut on the 
stage in April, 1837, at the Park theatre. New York 
city, as Laura Castelli in Epes Sargent's play, " The 
Genoese," and achieved an immediate success. She 
played Desdemona to George Vandenhoff's Othel- 
lo, Grace Harkaway to her sister's Lady Gay 
Spanker, and other prominent parts in New York 
and Philadelphia, and made a remarkable success 
in " Satan in Paris." In England her impersona- 
tion of Ophelia was regarded as of the first rank, 
her Juliet ran 200 nights, and in her old and many 
new characters her acting was greatly admired for 
its grace and delicacy. In 1847 she" retired from 
the stage, and in March, 1848, married Dr. James 
Sheridan Muspratt. of Liverpool, the distinguished 
chemist and author. 

CUSHMAN, Elisha, clergyman, b. in Kingston, 
Mass., 2 May, 1788; d. in Hartford, C^nn.,26 Oct, 
1838. He abandoned the carpenter's trade to be- 
come a preacher at the age of twenty, was licensed 
by the Baptist church in Kingston after a short 
Ooone ot study, and ordained a pastor in Hartford. 
He took a prominent part in establishing the Con- 
necticut Baptist missionary society in 1814. which 
was reorganized as the Baptist convention in 1822, 
and in 1822 founded and edited a denominational 



journal called the " < 'hri-tian Secretary." In 1825 
he resigned his charge in Hartford to become pastor 

of a church in Philadelphia, bat returned to Con- 
necticut in 1899, and after preaching in Fairfield 
became pastor of the church in New Haven in ls:Jli 
In L888 lie removed to Plymouth, Mass., I nit on the 
failure of his health in 1838 returned to Hartford 
a few weeks before his death, for the purpose 
sinning the editorship of the " Christian Secretary." 
CUSHMAN, Pauline, spy, b. in New Orleans, 
La., 10 June, 1833. She was the daughter of a 
Spanish refugee, who became a tradesman in New 
Orleans, and afterward an Indian trader at Grand 
Rapids, Mich. After reaching womanhood she re- 
turned to the south as a variety actress, and at- 
tracted attention bv her beauty. When acting in 
Louisville, Ky., in March, 1863, she was offered a 
bribe if she would give a toast to Jefferson Davis 
during the performance, and, on informing the 
provost-marshal, Col. Moore, was induced to carry 
out the plot. She was afterward employed by the 
government as a detective to discover the sout hern 
sympathizers and spies in Louisville, and their 
methods of conveying information and medical 
supplies across the lines, and frequently also as a 
scout. Securing a theatrical engagement at Nash- 
ville, where she was welcomed as a secessionist, she 
Serformed valuable services for the army police in 
etecting thefts from the government stores, trade 
in contraband, and the practices of guerillas. 
Thence she was sent beyond the lines in May, 1863, 
ostensibly as a rebel sympathizer, in order to gain 
information of the strength of the Confederate 
forces and fortifications, the extent of their sup- 
plies, and their contemplated movements. She was 
captured, taken to the headquarters of Gen. Bragg, 
and sentenced by a court-martial to be hanged as 
a spy, but was left behind at the evacuation of 
Shelbyville, where she was found by the Union 
troops. The fame of her adventures extended over 
the country, and after her escape from imprison- 
ment she was given by the soldiers the title of 
major, and was accoutred as an officer. Her 
knowledge of the roads in Tennessee, Georgia, Ala- 
bama, and Mississippi was of great service to the 
Army of the Cumberland. See her " Life," by F. L. 
Sarmiento (Philadelphia, 1865). 

CUSHMAN, Robert, Plymouth pilgrim, b. in 
Kent, England, about 1580 ; d. in England in 1625. 
With John Carver he was instrumental in effecting 
the emigration of the pilgrims to Holland, where 
he joined them after they had been in Leyden sev- 
eral years. He became a leading member of the 
community in Leyden. and took a deep interest in 
the project of settling in an English colony. In 
1617 he was sent with Deacon Carver to London to 
negotiate with the Virginia companv, which had 
secured a grant from the king of all the territory 
between boundaries 200 miles north and 200 miles 
south of Point Comfort, for permission to settle on 
their lands, and to apply to King James to grant 
them liberty of conscience there. The king would 
only grant them permission to settle, and refused 
to issue a charter under his seal, though he prom- 
ised not to molest them. Cushman undertook a 
subsequent mission to England for the same object 
with Elder Brewster in 1619, when a patent was ob- 
tained in which the king granted toleration for 
their form of religion so long as they remained 
faithful subjects. The arrangement with the Lon- 
don merchant adventurers was concluded through 
his agency. He and Carver then returned to Bag- 
land to colled subscriptions, make purchases, and 
prepare for the voyage. They chartered the " May- 
flower," and, while Carver was busy with the ship 



(TS1CK 



CCBTKIt 



m 



Soothuapfeoo, Ooriunan, at the ■o M at tafl oa <>f 

1 1 1 « - adventurers, altered 1 1 1 « - ii^rtt'iiicnt on hi* own 

responsibility, abandoning tlir two days ■ «><k f<»r 
tlu'ir private affairs that had bssfl reserved to thc 

Oftltmwti in iln' original contract, Boberl Oush- 

maii. who was given the office of assistant govern- 

mbarksd with his family on the** Speedwell" 

OB "> Aug., 1620. when the two vessels began the 

gether; lint wlnn the M Mayflower sailed 

Again alone OB Sept.. with only a |>art of the OOfja. 

psny, he remained behind t" ad ae their financial 
agent in England and lend then supplies. In 1681 
be published ■ pamphlet on M Immigration to Ajneri- 
Bfging tin* advantages <>f that country for 
settlement, ami in .1 til v he Sailed for New England 

in the •'Fortuni'," taking with him hi* only eon, 
Thomas, and arriving 81 Nov. He returned to 
Bnrope to manage tin* business of the colonists 
there, l>ut left hie son in the family of Gov. Brad- 
lord. Before his departure he preached on the 
-Sin and Danger of Self-Love," '.» Dec, 1681, noted 

as the first discourse delivered in New Kngland 
that was published (London, 1688). It was re- 
printed in Huston in 1 724, in 1?H0. and. with a bio- 
graphical sketch by Judge .John Davis, in 17s:, 
(Plymouth). It is also contained in the "(ushman 
Genealogy, and was photo-lithographed from one 
of the three existing examples in INTO. On VI I >« -« -.. 
1681, he sailed for Kngland, and oontinued ae agent 
for the colonists in London. On the voyage be 
was captured and plundered by tin* French, and 
taken to France, but released after two weeks 1 de- 
tention. On his arrival in Kngland he published 
an eloquent vindication of the colonial enterprise, 
and an appeal for Christian missiona to the North 
American Indians. In 1628, with Edward Wins- 
low, he obtained from Lord Sheffield a grant of 
territory on < 'a|>e Ann, where a new band of Puri- 
tans made the Iir*t permanent settlement with- 
in the limits of the Maasarihiianttii bay colony. — 
His son. Thomas, b. in England In 1 606; <1. in 
Plymouth, Ma**., n Dee. 1888. He married Mary, 
third daughter of Isaac Allerton, alnnit 1685. lie 
was always the confidential friend of Gov. Brad- 
ford, and became ruling elder of tin* church on the 
death of Brewster in 104!>. His wife survived him, 

and was the last of the •* Mayflower " passengers, 
dying in 1099 at the age of ninety year*. A large 
granite monument to the metnorv of the first t 'ush- 
inmis was erected at Plymouth. Mass., by their de- 
scendants in 1858. 

(TSICK. Nicholas, Indian chief, b. in Oneida. 
N. Y.. in i 780 : d. in TusoaroFS village, near Niagara, 

N. V.. 88 Oct. 1S40. His Indian name was ** Kayh- 
natho." In the war of the Revolution be served <>n 

the American side five year*, and at onetime saved 

tin* life of (ien. Lafayette. Cusick belonged to 
tin* Tuscarora trilie. — His nephew. Ouvid. pub- 
lished a pamphlet with four illustrations, entitled 
M Sketches of the Ancient History of the Six Na- 
tion*" fLockport, N. V., It 

(TSTKK, G eo r ge Armstrong, soldier, b. in 
New Burnley, Harrison <".. Ohio, 5 Dec, i s :t!>: d. 
in Montana. 'J.") .lu ne. into. He was graduated at 
the l". S. military academy in June, 1*01. and re- 
ported f>>r duty' at Washington. Gen. Winfleld 
Scott ■.'ave him despstohes to carry to Qen. Irwin 

MoDowelL then in command of the Army of the 

Potomac, he was assigned to duty as lieutenant in 
the 6th cavalry, and participated, on the dav o f In* 
arrival at the front, in the first battle of Bull Bun. 
Gen. Philip Kearny selected him a* hi* tir*' aide- 
de-camp, and he afterward served 00 the >tafT of 
William F. Smith. While on this duty he 
was given charge of the balloon ascensions, to 



make reennouwancex. In May, 1868, Gen. George 

I'. M < lellan was SO impr.— • 

perseverance that he showed in wading 

hominy alone, to ascertain what would !■ a nafr 

fonl for the army to cn-w. and with hi* courage in 

reconnoitring the enemy'- ; 

other side, thai he ww' appointed aid. --de-camp, 

with tin* rank of captain. t<. date fr..m |fl 

1868. ('apt. Caster applied at on i-iadou 

to attack the psohst>BOa1 hf had ju»t di« 

aml at daylight the next morning surprised the 
enemy, drove them back, sapturing Nime prison- 
er* and the flr*t color* that w. 
Army of the Potomac After I rlian't 

retirement from command of the army. < a| 
ter was dixharpd fr<>m hi* volunteer appoint- 
ment and returned to hi* regiment a* lieutenant. 

lb* had served there but a snort time «h< 
Alfred Pkasonton, <>n i.*» May, i*o:t. made him 

aide-de-camp 00 hi* staff. For daring gallantry in 
a skirmish at Aldie and in the action at Brandy 
Station. SJ well a* in the 1+tfHg oj -rat inn* i>f the 

Bappahannock campaign, be was s p pot nt od brigs- 
d i e r - gen eral of volunteers, dating fn>m .i* Juna, 
1H(«. and as- 
signed to du- 
ty as com- 
mander of the 
Michigan bri- 
gade. At (iet- 

tysburg his 
brigade, to- 
gether with 
thoseof Gregg 
and Mcintosh, 
defeated Gen. 
Stuart- 
forts to turn 
the left Hank. 
Porthisaction 
be was brevet- 
ted major in 
the U.S. army, 

to date from 

:{ July. 1868. 
At Culpepper 

Court - House 

he was wounded by a spent Udl. which killed bis 

bone. He ti>ok part in Gen, Sheridan's cavalry 
raid towanl Biclnnoi.il. in May. lsM. and was 
brevet ted lieutenant-colonel for gallant and meri- 
torious s er r ks es in the battle of Yellow '! 
11 M.iv. In (Jen. Sheridan's second raid on 
m I the Michigan brigade made a ui«-t pl- 
iant flght at Trevillion Station; but so great was 
their |«*ril that the colors of the brigade were 
only saved from capture by Gen. Coster's tear- 
ing' them from the standard, held in the grasp of 
a dving color-sergeant, and concealing the flag 
in liis bosom. On 18 Sept.. 1*M. hs SSJSI made 
brcMtHoloncl, F. S. armv. for gallantry at the Ut- 
tle of Winchester, and on 19 Oct he was bn 
major-general of volunteer* f->r gallantn 
meritorious se n 1m s at Whsehestsr and Pnhers 
Hill. On 80 Sept. hs assumed emnmsad «>f the 
8d division "f cavalry, with which hs (ought the 

brilliant kittle of WoodstOOk OH 9 <M.. where he 

wa* eonfrouted by. hi* former essanmass at West 
Point, the Confederate tj,. n . Bossse i Bs wots 
the enemy twenty-sis mil.*, capturing even thing 
they had' on wh< one gun. At ^ c *dar 

Creel bs confronted the enemv from the flrst 

attack in the morning <»'■->■ •'••' K ' 

I division recaptured, before the day was 

over gun* and colors that hail been taken from 




44&**£z. 



44 



CUSTER 



CUSTER 



the army earlier in the fight, together with ( 'on- 
federate flags and cannon. After this brilliant 
success Gen. Custer was sent to Washington in 
charge of the captured colors, and recommended 
for promotion. In the spring of 1805, when Gen. 
Sheridan moved his cavalry toward Richmond 
again, the 3d division fought alone the battle of 
Waynesboro. The enemy s works were carried, 
and 11 guns, 200 wagons, 1,600 prisoners, and 1? 
l>at tie-flags were captured. On reaching Fred- 
riekshall Station, Gen. Custer found that Qen. 
Early had rallied from his retreat at Wavnesboro 
and was preparing for another attack. lie there- 
fore sent a regiment to meet him at once. Gen. 
Early was nearly capt ured, his command destroyed, 
and a campaign ended in which he lost his army. 
every piece of artillery, and all his trains. For 

fillant and meritorious services at the battles of 
ive Forks and Dinwiddie Court-House, Gen Cus- 
ter was brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. army, to 
date from 13 March, 1865. In a general order ad- 
dressed to his troops, dated at Appomattox Court- 
House, 9 April, 1865, Gen. Custer said: "During 
the past six months, though in most instances con- 
fronted by superior numbers, you have captured 
from the enemy in open battle 111 pieces of field 
artillery, 65 battle-flags, and upward of 10,000 
prisoners of war, including seven general officers. 
Within the past ten days, and included in the 
above, you have captured 46 field-pieces of artil- 
lery, and 37 battle-flags. You have never lost a 
gun, never lost a color, and never been defeated ; 
and, notwithstanding the numerous engagements 
in which you have borne a prominent part, includ- 
ing those memorable battles of the Shenandoah, 
you have captured every piece of artillery which 
the enemy has dared to open upon you." 

Gen. Custer received the first flag of truce from 
the Army of Northern Virginia, and was present 
at the surrender at Appomattox Court-House. He 
was brevetted major-general for his services in the 
last campaign, and appointed major-general of 
volunteers, to date from 15 April, 1865. He par- 
ticipated in all but one of the battles of the Army 
of the Potomac. After the grand review he was 
ordered to Texas, to command a division of cav- 
alry. In November, 1865, he was made chief of 
cavalry, and remained on this duty until March, 
1866, when he was mustered out of the volunteer 
service, to date from February, 1866. He then ap- 
plied to the government for permission to accept 
from President Juarez the place of chief of Mexi- 
can cavalry in the struggle against Maximilian. 
President Johnson declined to give the necessary 
leave of absence, and Gen. Custer decided to accept 
the lieutenant-colonelcy of the 7th cavalry, his ap- 
pointment dating from 28 July, 1866. He joined 
his regiment at Fort Riley, Kansas, in November, 
1866, and served on the plains until 1871. On 27 
Nov. he fought the battle of the Washita, in Indian 
territory, and inflicted such a defeat upon the In- 
dians that the entire tribe of Cheyennes were com- 
Selled to return to their reservation. He was or- 
ered, with his regiment, to Kentucky, in 1871, 
where he remained until 1873. In the spring of 
that year he was sent, with the 7th, to Fort Rice, 
Dakota, and from there accompanied an expedition 
to the Yellowstone. On 4 Aug. he fought the 
Sioux, with his regiment, on the Yellowstone, near 
the mouth of Tongue river, and on the 11th had 
another engagement three miles below the mouth 
of the Big Horn. In July, 1874, the government 
ordered an expedition, commanded by Gen. Custer, 
into the Black Hills, which resulted in a hitherto 
unexplored region being opened to miners and 



frontiersmen. On IS May. 1878, Gm Outer com- 
manded his regiment in a campaign against the 
confederated Sioux triln-s. The Indians were dis- 
covered encamped on the Little Big Horn river, in 
a region almost unknown. Eleven tribes, number-' 
ing nearly 9,000, had their villages on and in the 
vicinity of the Little Big Horn. The government 
expedition consisted of 1,100 men. 1 he strength 
of the enemy not being known, Gen. Custer was 
ordered to take his regiment and pursue a trail. 
He arrived at what was supposed to be the only 
Indian village on 25 June, and an attack was made 
by a portion of the regimenl numbering fewer t ban 
200 cavalry, while Gen. Custer, with 277 troopers, 
charged on the village from another direction. 
They were met by overwhelming numbers, and 
Gen. Custer, with his entire command, was slain. 
The officers and men were interred upon the bat- 
tle-field, and in 1879 it was made a national ceme- 
tery. A monument recording the name and rank 
of all who fell was erected by the U. S. govern- 
ment on the spot where Gen. Custer made nis last 
stand. In 1877 his remains were removed to the 
cemetery at West Point, N. Y. 

He was nearly six feet in height, broad-shoul- 
dered, lithe, and active, with a weight never above 
170 pounds. His eyes were blue, his hair and mus- 
tache of golden tint. He was a man of immense 
strength and endurance, and, as he used neither 
liquors nor tobacco, his physical condition was per- 
fect through all the hardships of his life. Eleven 
horses were shot under him in battle. At the age 
of twenty-three he was made a brigadier-general, 
at twenty-five a major-general. The close of the 
war reduced his command from thousands to hun- 
dreds ; but his enthusiastic devotion to duty was 
not diminished, and his form was seen at the head 
of his men in his Indian service just as it had 
been during the civil war. ne reverenced religion, 
he showed deference to the aged, he honored 
womankind, he was fond of children, and devoted 
to animals. His domestic life was characterized 
by a simplicity, joyous contentment, and fondness 
for home that was surprising when it is remem- 
bered that, out of the thirty-seven years of his brief 
life, fourteen were spent in active warfare. One of 
his friends wrote his history under his name in one 
sentence, " This was a man." In 1871 Gen. Custer 
began to contribute articles on frontier life to the 
" Galaxy," which were published in book -form un- 
der the title " My Life on the Plains" (New York, 
1874). He was engaged on a series of " War Me- 
moirs " for the " Galaxy " at the time of his death. 
He occasionally contributed articles on hunting 
to "Turf, Field, and Farm" and "Forest and 
Stream." His life has been written bv Frederick 
Whittaker (New York, 1878).— His wife," Elizabeth 
Bacon, whom he married in February, 1864, was 
with him at the front during the last year of the 
war, and also accompanied him in his nine years' 
service on the western frontier. She has pub- 
lished "Boots and Saddles, or Life with Gen. 
Custer in Dakota" (New York, 1885), and "Tent- 
ing on the Plains, or Gen. Custer in Kansas and 
Texas," with a sketch of his life (1888).— His 
brother, Thomas Ward, soldier, b. in New Rum- 
ley, Harrison co., Ohio, 15 March, 1845 ; d. in 
Montana. 25 June, 1876. After rep e a ted attempts, 
which failed on account of his youth, he succeeded 
in enlisting as a private in an Ohio regiment, and 
served in the west until he was made aide-de-camp 
on his brother's staff, then with the Army of the 
Potomac. His appointment as second lieutenant 
in the 6th Michigan cavalry dated tyrni 8 Nov., 
1864. His horse was often neck and neck with that 



01 

->f hi- brother in tin- famous cavalry charges, an. I 
in the fljghl at Naiiio/iii,. Church, 2 April. |8«1 

eajrtureda Ceufedeeute Bag. At Ballot 

April, he captured a second flag; but WM ih 
the standard-U-arcr and severely wo un ded in UM 
He m preparing In charge again, when 
•lopped by in- brother end told to go t<> the rear 

aii'l hare hi- wound <in--. i|. \- lie paid no at- 
tention to this request, it became necessary lot 
Ben. Cuter to order him under arre-t before i„. 
oonld check Ins ardor. He received a medal from 

congress for tin' capture of the colors at Sailor's 

k. In the spring >>f 1866 be ^wmpanlgd 

Ban. Custer to Texas ami served on the stall until 

mustered out of service ill November. II 

red the bra vote of eaptain. major, and Ueuten- 
ant-eoloncl. On 88 Feb, I860, be was appointed 

second lieutenant in the 1st infantry of the regu- 
lar army, and on 2S July was promoted to i4 tir-t 
lieutenancy in his l.rother's regiment, the Tth cav- 
alry, with which die served on frontier duty until 
he fell baaVde his l>r<»ther in the battle «>f the' Little 
B% Horn. When he was asked his opinion of his 

brother, just before 0m Anal eatnpaign, Gen. Cue- 

tBK mid: "If you want to know my opinion of 
Tom, I can onlv say that I think he should be the 
general and I the captain." 

(TSTINK, Adam Philippe (kus-teen). Count 
dc. French soldier. I>. in Met/, 4 Feb.. 1710; d. in 
Paris. 18 Am;., 1788. After Barring M a captain 
in the seven years' war. he became a colonel in 
1772. He tOOK part ill the American Revolution- 
ary war. and was quartermaster-general of the 
French forces in America in 177H-XJ. He iraa 
present at Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown, and 
on his return to France in 17Xi was made mest re- 
de-camp and governor of Toulon. In 17s«» he 
was deputed to the states-general by the nobility 
of Met/, and advocated the cause of reform. lie 
subsequently commanded the army of the north. 
received in June, 1792, the command of the army 
of the lower IJhine, and after some sn o c o SB O B again 
took command of the northern army in May. 1 7!»::. 
from which, however, he was soon recalled by the 
committee of safety and placed at the har of the 
revolutionary tribunal, and. notwithstanding a 
spirited d. 'fence, was sentenced to be guillotined. 

( ISTIS, (Jeorge Washington Parke, author. 
1). at Mount Airy. Md.. :«) April. 1781; d. at Ar- 
lington House. Fairfax co„ Via- 10 <><•(.. 1 s.~> 7. His 
father. Col. John Parke Custis, the BOD of Mr-. 
Washington by her first husband, was aide -de- 
camp to Washington at the siege of Yorktown. and 
d.5 Nov.. 17*1, aged twenty-eight The sou had 

his early home at Mount Yernon. pursued his classi- 
cal studies at St. .John's college and at Princeton, 
and remained a member of Washington's family 
until the death of Mrs. Washington in 1808, when 
he built Arlington House on an estate of 1,000 
acres near Washington, which ho had inherited 
from his tether. After the death in 1858 of his 
sister, Eleanor Parke Custis, wife of Maj. Law- 
ranee Lewis, he was the sole surviving member 
of Washington's family, and his residence was for 
many years a favorite resort, owing to the inter- 
esting relics of that family which it contained. 
Mr. Custis uiarriisd in early life Mary Let Pit* 
hugh. of Yirginia, and left a daughter, who mar. 

Sober! K. Lee. The Arlington eon- 

ted during the civil war. and is now bald ae 
national property, and is the site of a national sol- 
dier-' cemetery. The house j- repr e se nt ed in tl • 
com pan vim,' illustration. Mr. Custis was in his early 

an eloquent and effective s|H>aker. He emote 
orations and plays, and during his latter years 



CCT1I 



ia 



executed a inuuU-r of large painting* of Ravohv 
Uonan 1-attl.-. Hi- •• Kt^lbetions of Waahia* 
ton, originally contributed National In- 




telligencer," was published in U«.k-f«.nn. with a 
memoir by his daughter and l»< 

Los sfcaj j (N'eNv Fork, i^mm. 

(TTIHSII, James, chemist, b. in IYnn*v|va- 
nia; d. at West point, N. V.. |fi !>,.,. |sjg, 
oernlng his early history, very little is km •> 
cept that he taught chemistry. He WMSfmoteted 
to the army with the rank of' assistant ajN.t 1 
general in 1814, served first in Philadelphia, wa> 
afterward stt ached to the northern division of the 

army, and was chief medical officer of tl,. 
military academy and the |m>m at Wot point from 
June, 1880, till November, I88L On the n-organi- 
zation of the army he became assistant surgi^iii n ,,d 
acting professor of chemistry and minerak 
West Point, in which capacity he continued until 
his death. He was president of the Columbian 
chemical society in Philadelphia, wrote - 
pa|>crs in the earlier volumes of Silliinan's •• Ameri- 
can Journal of Sciences." and was the author of 
u Useful Cabinet Philosophi of Bxneri- 

mental Chemistry " 1 1818); and "Treatise on Pyro- 
technics" (Philadelphia, 1885). 

CUTHBEBT, Alfred, senator, b, in Savannah. 
0a„ alniiit 1781: d. near MontioeUo, <ia.. » Julv, 
IHotf. He was graduated at Princeton o.;.. 
1808, studied law. was admitted to the l«tr, and 
began to practise in Montieelta, Jasper <•".. <»a. 

He was first elected to the stale legislature, then a 
representative from (Jeorgia in the 1 .'tth mid 14th 
conu r re-ses. serving till l*.ii. when he n - 
He wis again elected to the 17th. 18th, and 18th 
congresses, serving from :i Dec, 1881, till J March, 
lb- u;ls elected I". S. senator from «•• 

in pla< f John Forsyth, who resjgued 27 June, 

1884, and eras re elected for a full term, - 
from 18 Jan.. 1*::.-). till :i March, 

< I illllKKT. James llazzard. u s Mfja u s U, h. 
in Beaufort, s. (X, 18 I'-.. 1888. Hi awe gradu- 
ated at Princeton m \s4-i. studied t h eo t oaw under 
hi- uncle. Bar. Richard Fuller. D. I>.. and b 
in 1—47 pa-tor of the Went worth street IVnptiM 
ohuroh, Cherieston, s. c. In 1888 he «as i-aJIwl to 
the pastorate of the 1st Iiaptist sJmrah, Philadel- 

phia. Pa., where he remained until the beginning 
of the civil war in 188L Bi turning to the aoutbl 

, lied for some vears in Augusta, (ia., and 

in [888 beeame \^^\<<r of the 1st Beptisl ehurrh 
m Washington, l>. c.. when- he still ss metni 
lb- ha- received the djagne of i>. i>. from 

He is the author of 
Life of Richard Fuller. I>. I 1 rk. 1*7»>. 

(I TIIHKRT. John A.. ) int. b. m Savannah. 
Mobile. Ala.. 22 
Hi- father WSJ a colonel in the Revolution- 



46 



CUTLER 



(TTLER 



ary army. He was graduated at Princeton in l s o;,. 
and in 1809 became a law student in New Fork. 
In 1810 he was elected to the legislature of Geor- 
gia, from Liberty county, which be continued to 
represent for years. During the war of 1819 In 
commanded a volunteer company to protect the 
coast. In 1818 Georgia elected her representatives 
in congress on one general ticket, and Cuthbert was 
thus chosen. At that time the Missouri question 
occupied the attention of congress, and Judge Cutli- 
bert took an active and zealous part in maintain- 
ing the southern side of it. In 1831 he became 
editor, and subsequently proprietor, of " The Fed- 
eral Union," a paper published at Milledgeville, 
Ga., and in 1837 removed to Mobile to practise his 
profession. In 1840 he was elected judge of the 
county court of Mobile, and in 1852 appointed 
judge of the circuit, court. 

CUTLER, Benjamin Clarke, clergyman, b. in 
Roxburv, Mass., 6 Feb., 1798; d. in Brooklyn, N. 
Y., 10 Feb., 1863. He was for some time a clerk in 
the mercantile house of Messrs. Andrews & Co., 
Boston. He was graduated at Brown in 1822, 
studied theology under the direction of Bishop 
Griswold, and by him was ordained deacon in No- 
vember, 1822. His first settlement was in Quincy, 
Mass., where he remained about seven years, but 
left on account of failing health, and spent the 
winter of 1830 in Savannah. He returned to New 
England on horseback, and subsequently passed a 
year as rector of the Episcopal church in Leesburg, 
Va. In the summer of 1832 he took charge of the 
first city mission of the Episcopal church in New 
York: and in April, 1833, accepted a call to St. 
Anne's church, in Brooklyn, where he spent the 
last thirty years of his life. In 1835 he received 
the degree of D. D. from Columbia. He left a vol- 
ume of sermons (Philadelphia, 1857). 

CUTLER, Elbridge Jefferson, educator, b. in 
Holliston, Middlesex co., Mass., 28 Dec, 1831 ; d. in 
Cambridge, Mass., 27 Dec, 1870. In 1865 he was 
appointed professor of modern languages at Har- 
vard, a chair which he held at the time of his 
death. He was a brilliant writer, and an able 
though generous critic His published works were 
"War Poems" (Boston, 1867) and "Stella" (1868). 
A memoir of Prof. Cutler was published by Andrew 
P. Peabodv (Cambridge, 1872). 

CUTLER, Enos, soldier, b. in Brookfield, Mass., 
1 Nov., 1781 ; d. in Salem, 14 July, 1860. He was 
graduated at Brown in 1800, and was a tutor there 
for one year. He studied law, and, being called to 
the bar, settled in Cincinnati. He joined the army, 
and was appointed lieutenant in the 7th infantry 
in 1808, rising by successive promotions to be 
colonel of the 4th infantry in 1836. He resigned 
on 30 Nov., 1839. He saw service in the war of 
1812, in the first Seminole campaign with Gen. 
Jackson, and in the Creek war. 

CUTLER, Ephraim, pioneer, b. in Edgarton, 
Martha's Vineyard, Mass., in 1767; d. in Ames- 
town, Ohio, in 1853. His early life was spent in 
Connecticut on a farm, where he acquired a knowl- 
edge of mathematics and surveying. In 1788 he 
was appointed agent of the Ohio company, and 
soon afterward engaged in mercantile business 
until 1794. Finding his ventures unprofitable, he 
removed to Ohio, where he had an interest in some 
land. His journey thither required mote than 
three months, and was delayed by privations, ad- 
venture, and sickness. On his arrival in Ohio, 
Gov. St. Clair appointed him judge of quarter 
sessions and judge of common pleas. In 1797 
Judge Cutler exchanged his possessions for an es- 
tate in the township of Ames, where he spent the 



remainder of his life. He erected a log cabin in 
the wilderness, planted a tew acres of com. and re* 
assumed the duties of his judgeship, periodically 
making his way through the wilds to Marietta to 
attend court. He says that during seven years, in 
which he served in three courts, his "dividend was 
not sufficient, but in a single instance, to pay the 
weekly board." He early interested himself in 
education, and stimulated the people of Ames 
and Dover townships to establish a public library. 
The necessary funds were obtained by the sale of 
furs procured by native hunters. This is thought 
to have been the first incorporated public library 
in the west. Toward the close of his life Judge 
Cutler wrote : " More than sixty individuals have 
grown to maturity within this circle, two have be- 
come professors in colleges, three are ministers of 
the gospel, one of them a bishop, at the head cf 
them Thomas Ewing, several judges of courts, and 
one general." His last public service was in 1839 
as a delegate to the whig convention at Harrisburg. 
He was the author of a " History of the First 
Settlement of Amestown in Athens County, Ohio," 
and " The First Settlement of Athens County," etc., 
both published in Hildreth's " Pioneer Settlers." 

CUTLER, Hannah Maria Tracy, physician, 
b. in Becket, Berkshire co., Mass., 25 Dec, 1815. 
She is a daughter of John Conant, and was edu- 
cated in the common school of Becket. In 1834 
she married the Rev. J. M. Tracy, who died in 
1843. Subsequently she prepared herself for 
teaching, and was matron of the Deaf and dumb 
asylum at Cleveland, Ohio, in 1848-'9. In July, 
1851, she visited England as a newspaper corre- 
spondent at the World's fair. She was also at the 
same time a delegate from the United States at the 

Seace congress in London, and while in England 
elivered the first lectures ever given there on the 
legal rights of women. In 1852 she married 
Samuel Cutler and removed to Illinois, where she 
labored assiduously for the reform of the laws re- 
lating to women. She was president of the West- 
ern union aid commission, Cnicago, 111., in 1862-'4. 
In 1873 she visited France, in company with her 
son, J. M. Tracy, artist, and remained there till 
1875. After her graduation as a physician at the 
Homoeopathic college in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1879, 
she settled at Cobden, 111., where she has practised 
with success. She is the author of "Woman aa 
she Was, Is, and Should be" (New York, 1846); 
" Phillipia, or a Woman's Question " (Dwight, 
III, 1886) ; and " The Fortunes of Michael Doyle, 
or Home Rule for Ireland " (Chicago, 1886). 

CUTLER, Henry Stephen, musician, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 7 Oct., 1824. He was organist and 
choir-master in Trinity church, New York, from 
1860 till 1868. He compiled "The Psalter, with 
Chants" (Boston, 1858); "Trinity Psalter" (New 
York, 1863); and "Trinity Anthems" (1868). The 
last named contains several of his own composi- 
tions. In 1864 he received the honorary degree of 
Doctor in Music from Columbia. 

CUTLER, Lizzie Petit, author, b. in Milton, 
Albemarle co., Va., in 1836. She was instructed 
until her fourteenth year at a seminary in Char- 
lottesville, Va., after which her education was con- 
tinued very irregularly. Her first novel, " Light 
and Darkness" (New York, 1855), was republished 
in London and translated into French. This was 
followed bv " Household Mysteries, a Romance of 
Southern Life " (1856). and " The Stars of the 
Crowd, or Men and Women of the Day " (1858). 
As Miss Petit (her maiden name), she gave, in 1860, 
a series of public readings. About 1858 she mar- 
ried Mr. Cutler, a New York lawyer. * 



CUTLER 






47 



(I I I I It. Lvsandcr. ->l.li.r. 1>. in Maine about 
180*t: (I. in Milwaukee, \\ iv. 80 July, 1806. He 
Offend bit - rvices to the government at 1 1 1 . - be- 
ginning of th.-civii war, ana wm itvea oonimand 
of the titli Wisconsin regiment, which !><• speedily 

brought into a state < >f discipline, ami rendered OM 
of tht' U'-t iii tlit- stTvit-e. OuhocqUQUtlj In- was in 
coiiiiiiainl of the " Iron Brigade " (originally v 
dith's), of tin- Arinv of tin' Potomac, to which his 
meni was attached, and won the promotion of 
brigadier- and afterward major-generaL He was 
wounded. 
(I III i:. >l i ii .i — «*h. clergyman, b. in Kil- 
linglv. Conn., :5 May, 1742; d. in Hamilton. Mass., 
He "wits graduated at Vale in 1780, 
after which ho engaged in the whaling business, 
and opened a store in Kdgartown. Martha's Vine- 
yard. Meanwhile he continued his studies, princi- 
iMill y legal, and was admitted to the Massachusetts 
bar in 17<i7. He conducted a few eases in the court 
of common pleas, but, finding the piufasslnil un- 
congenial, he jjave it up and removed to Dedham, 
where he studied theology under the direction of 
the Bar. Thomaf Ilulch. whose daughter he had 
married. In 1770 he was licensed and preached 
for six months as a candidate at the Hamlet parish 
(then a |«rt of Ipswich, bat since 17!»:! the town 
of Hamilton). tie was ordained pastor of the 
Congregational society in this parish on 11 Sept., 
1771, and remained associated with this organiza- 
tion until his death. Soon after the battle of 
Lexington he addressed the minute-men, then 
muttering in Ipswich, and accompanied them on 
hoi-diack to Cambridge, where be saw the British 
as they retreated into IJoston. He received a com- 
mission as chaplain in September, 177<>, and 
served under Col. Kltenczer Francis in the 11th 
Massachusetts regiment. For his gallantry in the 
action in Rhode Island, on 28 Aug., 177H, he was 
presented with a tine horse bv his commander. 
Toward the close of the war, when the physician 
of the Hamlet parish was employed in the army. 
and the people were without proper medical ad- 
vice, Mr. Cutler at once applied himself to the 
study of medicine, and soon mastered the science 
sufficiently to practise. For several years there- 
after his attention was divided between the physi- 
cal and spiritual wants of his congregation. About 
this time his mind was directed to the study of 
botany by casually meeting with an English work 
on the subject, and he was the tirst t<> examine 
the flora of New England. Over 850 species were 
inspected by him. ami classified according to the 
Linmean system. His papefl published on this 
subject are the first attempts at a scientific de- 
scription of the plants of New England. In 1 7 s l. 
with six others, lie ascended the White mountains. 
and his party is said to have l»een the tir-t to reach 
the summit. With the instruments that Dr. Cut- 
ler carried, it was computed that Mount Washing- 
ton was 10,000 feet abore the level of the S O B O 
error of alxmt 8,400 feet. Two years later he be- 
came associated with a Dumber of Revolutionary 
officers who, owing to the uncertain condition of 
affairs, had determined to settle In the west, and 

formed the Ohio company for the purpOM of hav- 
ing their Ixuinty lands located together. He was 

appointed, with Maj. Winthrop Sargent, agent of 
the company, and in this capacity visited Wash- 
ington, wlnre he contracted with the authorities 
for l.ono.noo acres of land northwest of the i 
river, obtaining also an additional giant of 000,000 
- as an allowance for bad lands and incidental 

charges. On his return I ie, an expedition was 

fitted out for the intended sett lenient. He hat! a 



large wagon bnfl t and ootatad with black ran 

which was (minted in white |. 
for Marietta on the Muskingum.' 

wen- engaged to eeenasnanf It and so a*«i.t m the 
sett lament and defence of the nee count 

left Cutler's house, their lltimtier was 

-i\i\, ami after a long journey they reached their 

destination, where, under (ten. iCuf'u- I 

7 April. 1788. the settlement of Marietta was »*- 

gun. Cutkrmade the trip in a sulky, end travelled 

in twenty-nine' days ■ distal 

ing his Ita] in the west he examined the fortiAra- 

tnd mounds in the neighborhood, whka he 

regarded a- the work of a |>eople m< 

than any existing t n>« - ..f Indian-.. Aft. r n-ii.aiti- 

mg a abort time in Marietta he de te r mi ned to w> 
turn home, and. bidding farewell to the eolom hi 
did so much toward establishing, he departed for 

New England. In 175*1 the degree of I.I.. I>. wan 

co n ferred on him by Vale, in ITM he wi 
dered ■ noiiiinisoioii sj judge of the sapramo eonrt 

of the Ohio territory, but d.-< lined it. Later he wan 
elected to the Massachusetts legislature, and thai 

was sent to oongrem at ■ federalist, serving from 
7 Deo, 1801, till :i March, iniy During ble pre- 
vious stay in Washington be drafted for Nathan 
Dane the celebrated ordinance of 17 s 7. wl, 
eluded slavery from the northwest territory. He 
declined a re-election to oongrem in lUM.ai Id 
tinned until his death t>> be pastor of theebaroh in 
Hamilton. He was elected a member "f the Amer- 
iuiu academy in 17M, and contributed the follow- 
ing papers to its "Proceedings'': "On the Tran- 
sit of Mercury over the Sun. 18 Nov., 1788 "• »Oh 
the Eclipse of the Moon, 88 March, 1788, and of 
the Sun in the following April " ; " M. t.s.n.logi- 
cal Observations, 17M i and -lb-marks 

on a Vegetable and Animal IiiM-ct." He was a 
member of the American philosophical society, end 
of other learned and scientific bodies. The chap- 
ter on trees and plants in Belknap's •• Hist 
New Hampshire" was prepared by him, SJ 
by Dr. William I>. Peck, He was also the author 
of a "Century Discourse,** delivered at Hamilton. 
27 Oct.. l h 1 4." See his H Life, Journals, and Cor- 
respondence,*' by William P. and .lulia I*. Cutler 
(8 vols.. Cincinnati. 1888k— His son. Jervtl 
mer. b. in Bdgaitown, Martha's Vineyard, Maaa.. 
Ut Sept, 1708; d. in Evansville, Ina, 88 Jane, 
1844. He was one of the pkmeers from New Kng- 
land. letl bv (Jen. Kufiis Putnam, who settled ill 
Marietta. Ohio, in 1788. He was mi off 
the militia, and also in the regular army. He ac- 
quired the art of engraving, ami for yean 
voted his time to this pursuit, in 1888 Mr. Cut- 
ler removed to Nashville, Tenn.. and in 1M1 settled 
in Evansville He published " Topogrepbieaj Dt 
BCriptionof the Western Countrv. with an Account 
.,f the Indian Tribes " (181«k 

(TTLKK. Timothy, clergyman, b. in Charl.-s- 
town. Mass.. in 1888; d. in llostoii. in August, 1785. 
He was graduated at Harvard in 17l>t. It-came 
pastor "f a Congregational soci.lv in Stratford, 
Conn., in 1710, and s-m acquired » high reputa- 
tion as a preacher. Vale college having bOCOOM 
established in New Haven. Mr. Cutler was ap- 
nointed r.-ct,.r in 1711». and entered Bpon hi* du- 
ties with zeal and .-n.-rgv. It was not long, how- 
ever, before the new motor, having read soma 
standard church works in the .-..liege library (such 
M those of Marrow. Patrick, Smth. Sh.rl.- k 
was persuaded that Presbyterian and Cngrega- 
tiona] ordination was invalid. A disoaamoa »»» 
held on this snttjed bj the college library ■ 



48 



CUTT 



CUTTER 



ber, 1722, when the rector and Mr. Johnson, of 
St nit ford, upheld the divine right of episcopacv. 
Of course, Mr. Cutler could not remain in Yale 
college, and the trustees promptly voted liis dis- 
missal. He thereupon, in company with Mr. .John- 
son and Mr. l5rownc. sailed for England, in No\em- 
lier, \1'2'2, was ordained by the bishop of Norwich, 
in March, 1728, and received the degree of D. D. 
from both Oxford and Cambridge. He was ap- 
pointed missionary by the Propagation society, re- 
turned to America, and took charge of Christ 
church. Boston, which was first opened for public 
worship on '2U Dec. Dr. Cutler continued in this 
place during his long and useful life, always a con- 
sistent churchman, yet rarely engaging in contro- 
versy. He published several single sermons, and 
was one of the most influential and learned of the 
Episcopal clergy in colonial days. 

CUTT, John, colonial governor of New Hamp- 
shire, b. in England in 1625; d. in Portsmouth, 
N. H., 27 March, 1681. He came to this country 
with his brothers, Richard and Robert, before 1645. 
Richard, b. in 1627, settled on the Isles of Shoals 
and became a fisherman, but afterward removed to 
Portsmouth. Robert, b. in 1628, became a noted 
ship-builder in Kittery, while John established 
himself in Portsmouth as a merchant, becoming 
also a farmer and a mill-owner, and acquired a large 
property. During the union with Massachusetts 
ne was sent as deputy to the general court, and was 
one of a committee from Portsmouth appointed 
under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts and against 
the claims of Capt. John Mason. He was appointed 
president of the province by Charles II. in 1679, 
and continued in that office until his death, when 
he was succeeded by Richard Waldron. The de- 
scendants of these brothers (who now spell the 
name Cutts) include all the families on both sides 
of the Piscataqua. — Charles, senator, b. in Ports- 
mouth, N. H., 81 Jan., 176!); d. in Fairfax coun- 
ty, Va., 25 Jan., 1846. He is fourth in descent 
from Gov. John Cutt's brother Robert. He was 

fraduated at Harvard in 1789, studied law with 
udge Pickering, and was admitted to the bar. In 
1804 he was elected to the New Hampshire legis- 
lature, becoming speaker of that body during the 
same year. He was elected a senator from New 
Hampshire, served from 8 Dec, 1810, till 3 March, 
1813, and subsequently was appointed senator to 
fill a vacancy during a recess of the legislature, 
holding office from 24 May till 21 June, 1813. 
Prom 1814 till 1825 he was secretary of the U. S. 
senate. — Richard, politician, b. on Cutts island, 
near Saco, Me., 22 June, 1771 ; d. in Washington, 
D. C, 7 April, 1845. He was a first cousin ot 
Charles, and was descended from Robert. He was 
graduated at Harvard in 1790, after which he 
studied law, but was diverted to business, was ex- 
tensively engaged in commerce, and spent some 
time in Europe. On his return he became a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts legislature, serving in 
1799 and in 1800. He was elected as a democrat to 
congress, and with subsequent re-elections served 
continuously through six terms, from 7 Dec, 1801, 
till 3 March, 1813, but was finally defeated by Cy- 
rus King, when a candidate for the 13th congress. 
In June, 1813, he was appointed superintendent- 
general of military supplies, an office which he 
continued to fill until it was abolished, in March, 
1817, after which he was appointed second comp- 
troller of the treasury, remaining as such until 
1829. He continued to reside in Washington in 
retirement until his death. In 1804 he married 
Anna Payne, sister of President Madison's wife. — 
His son, James Madison, b. on Cutts island, near 



Saco, Me., 29 July, 1805 : d. in Washington. D. C, 
11 May, 1863. lie was educated in Washington, 
and was destined forthelmr. but the war of 1*1:2 
swept away much of his father's property, and 
young Cutts, then a student in William Wirt's of- 
fice, was compelled to give up his studies. He was 
appointed in the treasury department, becoming 
chief clerk in the second comptroller's office, ami 
ultimately, during Buchanan's administration] seo- 
ond comptroller. This office he held until his 
death, through the administration of President 
Lincoln. His daughter Ada married, first. Senator 
Stephen A. Douglas, and, several years after his 
death. Col. Robert Williams, U. S. A. — Another 
son, Richard Duminicus, surveyor, b. in Wash- 
ington, D. C, 21 Sept., 1817; d. there, 13 Dec, 
L888. He was educated at Georgetown college, 
and entered the coast survey in 1843, remaining in 
its service for over forty years. His first efforts 
were directed toward raising the standard of topo- 
graphical work, which he accomplished with emi- 
nent success. Of late years the higher scientific 
work of the survey has occupied his attention, and 
his operations have extended to all parts of the 
country. The shores of the Chesapeake, the coasts 
of the Pacific, the plains of Texas, and the moun- 
tains of New England equally bear testimony to 
his professional ability. To him the navigators of 
the Pacific are indebted for the first surveys of 
San Francisco, San Diego, and Monterey bays, and 
some other minor harbors on the coast. In 1855 
he was appointed U. S. surveyor upon the Inter- 
national fisheries commission for the settlement of 
the limits of the fishing-grounds between the 
United States and the British dominions in North 
America. In the civil war he was on the staff of 
Gen. Henry W. Halleck, and received the brevet 
rank of brigadier-general of volunteers in Match. 
1865. In 1873 he was one of the U. S. commis- 
sioners to the Vienna international exposition, and 
in 1883 he attended the International geodesic 
conference in Rome, which was convened for the 
purpose of considering a universal prime meridian 
and the unification of time. He held at his death 
the office of first assistant superintendent of the 
coast survey, having direct charge of the office and 
topography. In 1845 he married Martha Jefferson 
Hackley, granddaughter of Thomas Mann Ran- 
dolph, of Tuckahoe, Ga. 

CUTTER, Ammi Rnhamah, physician, b. in 
North Yarmouth, Me.. 4 March, 1735 ; d. in Ports- 
mouth, N. H., 8 Dec, 1819. His father, the first 
minister of that town, was chaplain of a New Eng- 
land regiment at the siege of Louisburg in 174o. 
His son was graduated at Harvard in 1752. and 
afterward studied medicine with Dr. Clement Jack- 
son, of Portsmouth. He was surgeon of Col. Rob- 
ert Roger's rangers until they were disbanded, and 
in 1758 surgeon of the New Hampshire troops in 
the successful expedition against Louisburg. He 
was physician-general of the eastern department, 
stationed at Fishkill from April, 1777, until the 
beginning of 1778, when he resumed practice at 
Portsmouth. He was a delegate to the New Hamp- 
shire constitutional convention, a Whig, and long 
president of the New Hampshire medical society. 

CUTTER, Cabin, physician. !>. in Jaffrey, N. 
H., in 1807 ; d. in Greene. Me., 25 March. 1872. He 
was a pupil at t he New Ipswich academy, and after- 
ward taught in Wilton. N. EL, and A'shby. ffllf 
In 1829 lie studied medicine, and practised his pro- 
fession in Rochester, X. II.. front 1881 till 1888, in 
Nashua from 1834 till 1837. and in Dover from 
1888 till 1841. Between 184:2 and 1886 Dr. Cutter 
visited twenty-nine states of the Union, delivering 



CUTTU: 






IB 



in. ilicnl UotUTSS. In 1*1? In- In-u'hii tin- compilation 

of "Cutter*! Physiology,'' a text-book for i ch ooli 

nml OOJ l egSS, of which, prior t«. 1*71, eboul 600.000 
rs liml I teen sold. It Im- Ufii translated into 
several oriental languages. In 1*50 I »r. Cutter 
was chosen to convey n supply of Sharp**! rifles to 
Kansas, a hazardous task, which was successfully 
performed. Later i ri the same year he led into 
Kansas the Worcester armed company of -i\t> 
men. ami also the fon-e known aa "Jin Lanes 

army," which he commended f'»r nearlv a year. He 
was" president nf the military council in Kansas, 
anil instriiinental in tin* rapture of Col Titus. In 
1881 Dr. Cotter became surgeon of the fist Massa- 
chusetts infantry, and served in the national army 
marly three years. He was twice wounded, and 
made prisoner at Bull Eton. During most of hie 
term of tail lee be had charge of the medical depot 
<;f the !»th arniv corps as surgeon-in-chief. 

i I I TKR, Charles Annul, author. 1». 14 March. 
1887. Ho was graduated at Harvard in 1866, MM 
appointed librarian of the Boston athemeum in 
January, 1889. an office that he now (188(1) holds. 
He has prepared a new classification for libraries, 
and written " Rules for a Printed Dictionary Cata- 
logue" (Washington bureau of education, 1876); 
"Boston Athemt'um : How to get Books, with an 
Explanation of the New Way of marking Books" 
• u. 1882); and edited "Catalogue ol the Li- 
brary of the Boston Athenamm, 1807-71 " (5 vols., 
Boston, 1874-'82). Since Januarv. 1881. he has 
edited the " Library Journal " of Now York. 

CUTTER, neorge Washington, poet, b. in 
Massachusetts in 1801 ; d. in Washington. I). ('., '24 
Doc., 1805. He studied law, and followed his pro- 
fession with success in Kentucky until alwut 1845. 
During the Mexican war he raised a company of 
infantry, of which he became captain, ami which 
subsequently was included in the 2d Kentucky vol- 
unteers under Col. McKee. Later he married Mi-- 
Drake, an actress of Cincinnati, and for a time 
made his home in Covington, Ky. Afterward he 
became interested in politics, and was known fa- 
vorably as an eloquent orator. His services wen' 
rewarded with a clerkship in the treasury depart- 
ment, an office that he retained during several ad- 
ministrations. " The Song of Steam, " The Song 
of the Lightning," and "E Pluribus Cnum," are 
his best-known pieces. He published " Buena Vis- 
ta and other Poems" (Cincinnati, 1848); " Song of 
Steam and other Poems" (1857); and " Poems, Na- 
tional and Patriotic" (Philadelphia, 1857). 

CUTTING, Francis Brockholst, jurist, h. in 
New York city in 1805; d. there, M June, 1870. 
He studied at Columbia, was admitted to the bar, 
and rapidly rose to distinction in his profession. 
In 18150 he "was elected a m e mb e r of the state legis- 
lature, as a democrat. From 1840 till 185:1 he de- 
voted himself to his large and lucrative practice in 
his native city, and from 1853 till 1855 represented 
one of its districts in congress, where he was a war 
democrat. < >n the renomination of Abraham Lin- 
coln for the presidency, he aided in his re-election. 
and thereafter was active in supporting the cause 
of the Onion. After the war Mr. Cutting retired 
from politics and quietly pursued hi- profession. 

( I [TING, Hiram Adolplms. geologist, b in 
Conc.nl, \'t., M D.c. 1886. "After years s|*>nt in 
teaching the natural sciences in the Vermont 
Methodist seminary at Montpelier, and in Nor- 
wich university, he was appointed in 1*71 curator 
of the state cabinet of natural history, and in 
became state gsologJsl of Vermont. In 1886 li" 
was made secretary of the Board of agriculture. 
and in Inni fish commissioner. He has made nu- 
rou ii. — 4 



experiment! <-n the growth "f plants, the 
ind proper method! of fertilizii 

mid van. .ii- ohssn 

ti'iu« include •• Mining in Vermont " (Montpettar 

logical Tabic* ui 
Vermont " 

"Farm Pests, including lium-la, Pungt, 
ami Animalcules" (Manch. 

Building Stones, al»o on Plant (1 Montpe- 

lier. 186 ti riant-. Fertilization, In- 

-.<t-. Fbrestii, Farm Hon* 
tures on Milk,- Fertilization 
title Leotures* <inn4); "Farm [awto**" 

and also "RepOttl Of Oeologjsl and Curat 

state Cabinet* (1874 "80 ; "Biennis] K. |«>rts of 

Fish Commissioners of Vermont " (INNI J 

and "Vermont Agricultural Reports" 

Prof. Cutting has for inanv year* Isetnrsd during 

the winter months ..n "The 'Bible: it- Hi-tnryand 

Scientific Relation*"; "God in Creation." | 

(TTTINIi. Jame- kmhroae, inventor, b. in 
Massachusetts in 1N14; d. in Worcester, Mem. Ill 
July, 1807. His early years wen- *|>ent in Harer- 
hill. Mass.. when- he fired in straitened circum- 
stances. He invented a new blS hllS. a 
the patent received sufficient encouragement to 
settle in Bust i m. where he then devised several im- 

firoved processes, but deriving no bnpu t tnnt benefit 
rom them, and soon lost all his Uiup at t l . After- 
ward turning his attention to the new art of mak- 
ing daguerreotypes, he dis.ov.nd the process of 
making picture! on glass, which after li 
name he called ambrotypes. This ha at ones |*t- 
ented, and then dnsnssd of his rights, l«'th in this 
country and abroad. He established an aquarium 
in Boston, and subsequently the itipiarial gardens. 
CUTTING, Sewall SiluMrr. sdnestor, h, in 
Windsor. Vt.. lil.Ian.. 18l:l; d. in Brooklyn. N. V.. 
7 Feb, 1888. He was ^raduat.-d at the I'nivendty 
of Vermont, and in 1N.'50 was ordained pa-tor of the 
Baptist church in West Boylston, Mass., but soon 
removed to Southhridge. Mass.. when- he n-mained 
eight years as pastor of the Baptist church in that 
place. In 1845 
ne aesilinul edi- 
torial charge of 
the"Bapti>t Ad- 
vocate" in New 
York, changing 
its name to the 
"New Vork Re- 
corder." In his 
hands the pa- 
per at once rose 

m ehsraeter and 

greatly increased 
in circulation. In 
I860 he n-tin-d 
from the " Re- 
corder." and was 
for a short time 
secretary of the 
American and 
Foreign BJbls so- 
ciety. From lM'.t 
till 1861 he was 
editor of the 
"Christian Review," and from 1861 till lxiu was 

M the editorial -taff of the "Watchman and I 

(lei t..r." published in Boston. 

vear he was recalled to the edi 

\\.rk Recorder." In 1865, in 

Fdwanl Bright, he bought tl 

ti-t Register." consolidating 

crder," ami changing the name to " '1 1 




C/?4iZZZ^ 



In the la-t -named 

rshipof \\\' 

n with Dr. 

V..rk " Bnp- 

it with the ■ Re- 



60 



CUTTS 



CUYLER 



!gLt| 




amincr." In the same year he was called to the 
orshipof rhetoric and history in the Univer- 
sity of Rochester, a chair which he held until 
1868. He was the first secretary of the Baptist 
educational commission, an association formed in 
1867 " to promote education and the increase of 
the ministry in the Baptist denomination." In 
1870 the scope of this commission was enlarged by 
affixing " American " to its name and extending 
its care to the interests of higher education in 
general. Of this enlarged commission Dr. Cut t tag 
remained secretary. This organization, having ac- 
complished its aim, discontinued its agency in 
18T(i. From September, 1876, till May, 1879, Dr. 
Cutting was corresponding secretary of the Ameri- 
can Baptist home mission society. He was the 
author of " Historical Vindications " (Boston, 
"Struggles and Triumphs of Religious 
(New York, 1876); and "Ancient Bap- 
(published posthumously). Several of his 
well as many occasional discourses, were 
He received the degree of D. D. from the 
y of Vermont. 

S, Maria, sister superior, b. in Lough- 
gh, Leicester, England, in 1811 ; d. at Grand 
."oteaujn 1853. She entered the novitiate of the 
JuiiWlfof the Sacred Heart in Paris at the age of 
seventeen, and on becoming a professed nun, in 
1836, asked to be sent on the American mission. 
She was named superior of the Grand Coteau con- 
vent after her arrival, and afterward was made 
superior of all the convents of her order in the 
west of the United States. 

CUYLER, Sir Cornel ins, soldier, b. in Albany, 
N. Y., about 1740; d. at St. John's Lodge, Hert- 
fordshire, England, 8 March, 1819. In May, 1759, 
he joined the 55th regiment of foot (British) as an 
ensign, and was present at the reduction of Ticon- 
deroga in that year, and of Montreal in 1760. 
Serving through the old French war, he became 
captain in the 46th foot, 9 May, 1764, and was 
aide-de-camp to Gen. Sir William Howe from 
July, 1775, till 15 Jan., 1776, when he was pro- 
moted major of the 55th regiment. He continued 
on Gen. Howe's staff, and was at the battles of 
Long Island, Brandywine, and Germantown. He 
was promoted to lieutenant-colonel, 16 Nov., 1777, 
and commanded his regiment at the battle of Mon- 
mouth. After the conclusion of peace he was 
transferred to the West Indies, where he was 
quartermaster-general of the British forces, and 
was afterward in chief command. He attained the 
full rank of general in 1799. 

CUYLER, Cornelius C, clergyman, b. in Al- 
bany, N. Y., 15 Feb., 1783 ; d. 31 Aug., 1850. His 
ancestors were among the early Dutch settlers of 
the neighborhood, and so common was the name 
Cornelius among them that those who bore it were 
obliged to adopt distinguishing initials to prevent 
mistakes. This accounted for the middle " C." of 
Dr. Cuyler's name. In 1806 he was graduated at 
Union, and began to study theology under Drs. 
Livingstone and Bassett. In 1809 he was ordained 

Eastor of the Reformed Dutch, church in Pough- 
eepsie, N. Y.. where he remained for twenty-five 
years, strengthening and uniting a congregation 
which he found in a weak and almost divided con- 
dition. As a preacher he was exceptionally suc- 
cessful, and several revivals occurred under his 
ministry. An invitation from the 2d Presby- 
terian church of Philadelphia was accepted in 
1834, and the pastoral relation then assumed con- 
tinued during the remainder of his life. For many 
J ears he was president of the board of trustees ox 
efferson medical college. In 1838 he received the 



degree of S. T. D. from Union. Besides a large 
number of sermons, published separately, he was 
the author of " A Narrative of a Revival of Relte- 
ion in the Reformed Dutch Church, l'oiighkeepsie, 
1815," and three tracts issued by the Presbyterian 
board of publication. Their titles are " The Paxil y 
of the Ministry." " Evidences of a Gracious State, 
and * Who shall dwell in Heaven f " He also wrote 
for the religious press, notably a series of essays 
on the Atonement, published in the "Journal and 
Telegraph," of Albany, 

CUYLER, John M., surgeon, U. S. army, b. in 
Georgia, about 1810; d. in Morristown, N. J., N 
April, 1884 He entered the army as assistant 
surgeon in 1834, being among the first to paM I he 
rigid examination instituted in 1833. He was act- 
ively engaged in the Creek war of 1838, and the 
Seminole war of 1840, and served with distinction 
through the Mexican war, receiving promotion as 
major and surgeon on 16 Feb., 1847. From 1848 
till 1855 he served at West Point. As senior medi- 
cal officer at Fort Monroe, during the first years 
of the civil war, his services were invaluable in or- 
ganizing the medical department of the armies con- 
gregated there. He served afterward as medical 
inspector and acting medical inspector-general. 
He served on examining boards, and sought to 
uphold a high professional standard among army 
surgeons. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel 
and medical inspector on 11 June, 1862, brevetted 
brigadier-general on 13 March, 1865, and promoted 
to the rank of colonel on 26 June, 1876. After 
the war he was medical director of important de- 
partments until his retirement, 30 June, 1882. 

CUYLER, Theodore Ledvard, clergyman, b. 
in Aurora, N. Y., 10 Jan., 1822, of which town his 
great-grandfather, Gen. Benjamin Ledyard, was 
the founder. He was graduated at Princeton in 
1841, and at the Princeton theological seminary in 
1846. Two years afterward he was ordained into 
the Presbyterian ministry, and for a short time 
was pastor of the church in Burlington, N. J. 
Shortly afterward he was installed pastor of the 
3d Presbyterian church in Trenton, N. J., and 
remained there until 1853, when he accepted an in- 
vitation from the Market street Reformed Dutch 
church in the city of New York. During the seven 
years of his ministry to this congregation occurred 
the remarkable and wide-spread religious revival 
of 1858. In the impressive services connected 
with this awakening Dr. Cuyler took a prominent 
part. In April, 1860, he was invited by the Lafav- 
ette avenue Presbyterian church, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
to become its first pastor, and under his charge the 
church rapidly grew to be one of the largest and 
most prosperous in the denomination, and it has 
twice outgrown its spacious buildings and sent out 
" colonies." As a preacher he has been remarkably 
influential, and nearly 3,500 members have been 
borne on the rolls of his church. He is a regular 
writer for the religious press, to which he has con- 
tributed nearly 3,000 articles, many of which have 
been republished and translated into foreign lan- 
guages. He has also written a large number of 
tracts on temperance. The titles of his books are 
"Stray Arrows" (New York, 1851); "The Cedar 
Christian" (1863); "The Emptv Crib" (1868); 
"Heart Life" (1871); "Thought Hives" (1872) j 
"Pointed Papers" (1876); "From the Nile to 
Norway ' (1881); "God's Light on Dark Clouds" 
(1882) ; " Wayside Springs " (1884) ; and " Right to 
the Point " (spare-minute series, Boston, 1884). A 
large volume of miscellaneous articles on religion! 
topes has been published in Dutch^ and still an- 
other in Swedish. 



DABLON 



DA BULL 



n 



D 

imti.ov ( i.i. id.', olsrgymaa, i>. la Dieppe, 

1 il. in Canada in 1700. 1 1 •■ nrri\ «<1 

in New I-' ram c in 1656, ami was at OWM sent t<> 

ill.- Onondagaa. In 1661 be accompanied Drui- 
n his ex|MMlit ion t<> Hudson Lay. He was 
m-xt * nil Marquette on Lake Superior in I688L after 
the latter had founded the mwffrrm of Sault St. 
Marv, and was appointed superior of all I he mis- 
sions in 1670. He edited the "Relation" of t<">;i j. 

and compiled other narratives, which are still in 
manuscript. He is also the author of a deserii>- 
tion of Manpiettc's journey, published in the 
'* Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Val- 
l.\." I.v John (Jilinarv Shea (New York. 1888). 

'DABNKY, Charles William, consul, b. m Al- 
exandria, Ya., ID March, 1?!U ; d. in Faval. A/...,.-. 
12 March. 1*71. In 1N2<> he became U.S. eon-.nl at 
Fayal. and won the affections of the islanders in a 
remarkable degree by his efforts for their welfare. 
In the famines that visited the island from time t<» 
time daring Ids residence, some of which were very 

•>•, he furnished the inhabitants with food, as- j 
■leted them to replant their fields, advised and sug- 
gested the culture of new and more varied crops, 
encouraged the despondent, and restrained theover- 
sanguine. During the whole of his residence in the 
island he acted the part of a wise and judicious 
father to the people, and, wherever he went, their 
blearing* and gratitude were manifested. 

DABNKY. Richard, author, b. in Louisa coun- 
ty, Ya., in 1787; d. there in November, 1825. Hi- 
name was originally the same as that of the his- 
torian D'Aubigne\ He applied himself to the ac- 
quisition of Latin, Greek, and Italian, acquiring a 
remarkable proficiency in those languages, and was 
employed as a teacher in a school in Richmond. 
At the burning of the theatre in Decendtcr. 1811, 
he sustained severe injuries. In 1812 he published 
a volume of " Poems, Original and Translated." of 
which an improved edition was printed in Phila- 
delphia in 1815. The collection contained spirited 
ana elegant translations from Euripides, Alcaus, 
Sappho, Martial, Seneca, and Petrarch. The sec- 
ond edition was published by Matthew ( 'any, who 
employed Dabney for a few years. Carey's political 
tract, called the "Olive Branch, or Faults on Both 
Sides," is supposed to have been in great part 
written by Dabney. In a few years he returned to 
Virginia and taught a class of boys. The painful 
injuries received at a fire, together with the use of 
opium, taken to allay his sufferings, and Indulgence 
in intoxicating drinks, caused his early death. — 
His n.phew, Robert Lewis, clergyman, o. in 
Louisa count v, Ya., "> March, 1880. He studied at 
Hampden Sidney college, and was graduated at the 
University of Virginia in 1842. After teaching for 
two years, he studied at the Union theological 
seminary in Virginia, was licensed to preach in 
1848, ordained by the Lexington p re sbyte ry in 
July, 1847, and became pastor of Tinkling Spring 
church in Augusta county, Ya., where be remained 
for six years. In 185:} he accepted the professor- 
ship of church history in Union, seminary, Virginia, 
and remained until lHs:{, except daring the civil 
war, when he was actively engaged in the Confed- 
erate service as chaplain of the [8th Virginia regi- 
ment, and afterward as chief of staff to (Jen. '!'. 



J. Jackson. In iw<5 he wa« elect. ,1 to th* chair 
moral philosophy in the Univei ta. The 

'b'gn f l>. I>. wax conferred on him by Hamiiden 

Sidney college in 1H.W, a ,„i ,| m , ,,f |.|. |, u t \ w 
Southwestern Presbyterian in mi., in 

1877, and simultaneous]} by Hampden Sidney <-ol- 
lege, Besides being a roluminous i 
periodical literature, Dr. Dabney I 

" Life of Rev. l>r. I\ S. Sump^n rid. 

1864); "Life of Cm. T. J. (Stonewall) .Ul-.i," 
(London, 1864): •>... r.d Rhetoric" (Richmond, 
1866); •• Defence of Virginia and the Soutl 
York. \Ht]X) : "Sensualistie Philosophy of the Nine- 
teentfa Caatnry Considersd ]*(1876 . •• \ I 

Systematic and Polemic ThaolofTJ lia, 

1878); and "The Christian SabUth '< Philadelphia, 
lHHlj.-Charles William, son of I 
chemist, b, in Hampden-8idney, Va.. ISJai 
He was mduated at Hampden BMnsj eofiage la 

1878, and. after leaching fora year, ipenl somejj inu- 

at the University of Yire;inia. following special »tu|f- •* 

ies. principally scientific. In 1*77 he became |fff •' 
feesor of chemistry and miaenJagy in Kmut* and 
Henry college, but relinquished this chair at the 
end of a year and visited Germany, when- in 1880 
he received the degree <>f Ph. I), from the Univ. r- 
sityof GOttingen. In October, 1880, he became 
state chemist of North Carolina and director of 
the North Carolina agricultural experiment station, 
and to these offices was added, in November, 181 
that of director of the North Carolina weather 
service. He has edited numerous technical circu- 
lars giving valuable scientific information to farm- 
ers, and prepared the annual rc|K>rts from \>n*l 
till 1880. Dr. Dabney is a member of several sci- 
entific societies, and has been secretary <>f the 
American association of official agricultural cbsSJH 
isK editing in that capacity the reports <>f their 
proceedings. He has discovered Dumsruua miner- 
als in North Carolina, not preTioasly known m 
that state, such a- tin and arsenic ores, and h<- has 
published scientific investigations in the "Ameri- 
can Chemical Journal." 

DABNEY, VlrgtaJaa, author, b. at Bmlngtoa, 
Gloucester co.. Vs., 15 Feb, 1885, He **•> j:radu- 
ated at the University of Virginia in 1865, and 
practised law. But be had almndoned this profes- 
sion for literature when the ciul war began in 
1861. He became a staff officer in the Confederate 
army, and served through the war. Hs has pub- 
lished "The Story of Don Miff, as told b] hla 
Friend. John Bouchs Whacker, a Symphony "f 
Life "(Philadelphia, 1886). This book' reached its 
fourth edition in six months, 

I> VBOI.I.. Nathan, edncator, b. aU.ut 1 7M» : d. 
in Oroton, Conn.. !» March. 1*1*. He was fam 
as a teacher, and Instructed as many as LOOO |- r- 
soos in navigation. He published a treatise an 
arithmetic, entitled ths"flohoolmssteraAsrii 

(New London, 1 ?!«•), which wai for a long tune a 
standard text-book; aU. the "Practical Na\iga- 
t.>r." Ill 1 TT.'t he l*-gan the annual publication of 
the " Connect i« m Almanac."— Hi- son, Nathan, 

b. in Oroton, Conn, m 1781; d, there in 1868, was 
a member of the nsiaoulnil boassoi rvpresrnta- 
tives in 1889 ^of the senate la 1885-'6, and judge 
of probata la Bs *« joint ami., i 



• In a work like thin there Is iilvvnv* difflrultv in deridinp where to place m»ny <>f I 
general rule In. that If the asm riirinal form, it •boa Id he placed and. r the initial letter 



if the panicle ha* ronlenred with the main word, it ohould be found under I> 
here, he should look for it under another Utter. 



If the 



thai begin with I*. The 
!.<• main word : bat 

ant MMBSWS i^nw 



52 



DABOUR 



DADD 



Daboll's "New Arithmetic," and compiled the 
"New England Almanac" from his father's de.it h 
in 1818 until his own death. — David Austin, son 
of the second Nathan, 1). in (i rot on, Conn., in 1813, 
sat continuously in the state house of representa- 
tives from 1846 till 1871, and then served a term 
in the senate. He assisted his father in the prepa- 
ration of the "New Arithmetic," and since his 
father's death has continued the publication of the 
" New England Almanac." — Another son, Celadon 
Leeds, inventor, b. in Centre Groton, Conn., 18 
July, 1818 ; d. in New London, Conn., 13 Oct., 
1866, was a merchant in New London, and from 
1854 till 1861 was employed in the interior de- 
partment at Washington. He conceived the idea 
of applying the principle of the clarionet to a large 
trumpet, to serve as a fog signal for mariners. — 
Another grandson of Nathan, Charles Miner, in- 
ventor, b. in Groton, Conn., 14 Oct., 1823, was 
trained as a practical mechanic in the works of the 
Wilson manufacturing company, New London, of 
which he rose to be superintendent. He is the in- 
ventor of the cast-iron bell-bottom jack-screw bar- 
rel, now in general use throughout the world, for 
raising buildings and other massive objects, and of 
a lathe for cutting the thread of jack-screws, which 
has been in successful operation for twenty-five 
years, as has also his oval slide parallel bench-vise. 
He has invented also a breast-drill, a self-centring 
brace for bits, a mowing-machine, and the Dabofi 
bushing. He developed his cousin's suggestion of 
a steam fog-trumpet, consisting of a steel reed vi- 
brating within a horn, using a hot-air engine to 
force cold air by means of an air-pump into a 
boiler, from which it escapes into the horn through 
a valve, causing the vibrations of the reed, which 
are regulated by an automatic cam. He has held 
various local offices, and in recent years that of 
U. S. government inspector, for Connecticut and 
Rhode Island, of boilers on steam vessels. 

DABOUR, John, artist, b. in Smyrna, Asia, in 
1837. He was a pupil at the Academy of fine 
arts irf Paris, and studied also at the Art museum 
of France. Fifteen years of his professional life 
were spent in the United States, painting portraits, 
which are to be found in the principal cities of the 
country, but chiefly in Baltimore. Among the 
more prominent of those that have been sitters in 
his studio are Archbishop Spaulding, of Baltimore ; 
Archbishop Purcell, of Cincinnati ; Senator Cam- 
eron, of Pennsylvania, and his son; Senator Davis, 
of Virginia ; and Gov. Groome, of Maryland. 

DACIAN, Jakob (dah-see-an), Danish monk, b. 
in Copenhagen in 1496 ; d. in Tarecuato, Mexico, 
in 1562. He belonged to the Danish royal family, 
became a Franciscan at the age of twenty-four, and 
was appointed provincial of his order in 1529. A 
few years afterward he had to leave his country to 
escape persecution by the Lutherans, and went to 
Spain, where the emperor, Charles V., recommend- 
ed him to the civil and church authorities of New 
Spain. Dacian at once left for Mexico, and there 
filled important offices in his order, and for many 
years worked most successfully as a missionary 
among the Indians, especially in the provinces of 
Santo Evangelio, Michoacan, and Guadalajara. 
He preached to the natives in their Tarasc lan- 

?;uage, which he mastered,' as well as Spanish, 
jatin, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic. While he was 
guardian of the Tarecuato coi.f ent he founded the 
town of Arancara. Dacian left many works in 
various languages, most of which have been lost. 
The best known is his "Declamacion del pueblo 
barbaro de los Indios, que habiendo recibido el 
bautismo, desean recibir los demas sacramentos." 



DA COSTA, Jacob M., physician, b. in the inl- 
and of St, Thomas, West In. In- 7 K.I,.. 1888. His 
literary and classical education was received in 
Germany, his medical in Jefferson college, Phila- 
delphia, where he was graduated in 1852, and in 
the hospitals and schools of Paris and Vienna, 
where he passed two years. In 1854 he returned 
to Philadelphia, established himself there in pno* 
tice, and made a special study of diseases of the 
heart and lungs. In 1864 he was appointed lec- 
turer on clinical medicine in Jefferson medical col- 
lege, and in the spring of 1872 was chosen profes- 
sor of the theory and practice of medicine in the 
same institution. His contributions to medical 
literature include " Epithelial Tumors and Cancers 
of the Skin " (1852) ; " An Inquiry into the Patho- 
logical Anatomy of Acute Pneumonia" (1855); 
" The Physicians of the Last Century " (1&57) ; " On 
Serous Apoplexy" (1859); "Medical Diagnosis, 
with Special Reference to Practical Medicine" 
(1864) ; and " Inhalation in the Treatment of Dis- 
eases of the Respiratory Passages" (1867). He has 
also contributed many articles to the "Pennsyl- 
vania Hospital Reports," in the " American Journal 
of the Medical Sciences," and his clinical lectures 
have appeared in the " Medical and Surgical Re- 
porter and the " Philadelphia Medical Times." 

DACRES, James Richard, British naval offi- 
cer, b. in Lowestoft, Suffolk, England, 22 Aug., 
1788; d. at his country-seat in Hampshire, 3 Dec, 
1853. His father was Vice-Admiral Dacres, who 
in the Revolutionary war commanded the " Carle- 
ton," which engaged Gen. Arnold's flotilla on Lake 
Champlain in 1776. He entered the navy in 1796 
as a first-class volunteer on board the " Serapis," 
commanded by his father, with whom he also 
served on the " Barfleur " in 1797. He afterward 
accompanied the expedition against Ferrol, in Au- 
gust, 1800, and was present, in the " Boadicea," in 
the action with the French ship " Duguay Trouin," 
in August, 1803. He received his first commission 
15 Nov., 1804, and on 5 July, 1805, was given com- 
mand of the sloop "Elk," from which he was 
transferred, 14 Jan., 1806, to the " Bacchante." On 
14 Feb., 1807, he captured the French schooner 
" Dauphin," and after other distinguished services 
returned to England in December, 1807. On 16 
March, 1811. he was assigned to the command of 
the " Guerriere," and participated in the pursuit of 
the " Constitution," having previously had his ves- 
sel's name vauntingly printed in large letters on 
her foretopsail, and inquired of every ship he met 
for the "President," intimating that he would 
chastise her for the punishment she had given the 
" Little Belt." After the loss of the " Guerriere " 
he was transferred to the " Constitution," and was 
put on shore, on parole, at Boston, on 31 Aug., 
1812. By the court-martial that, on 6 October fol- 
lowing, assembled on board the " Africa," at Hali- 
fax, to try Capt. Dacres for surrendering his ship 
to the enemy, he was honorably acquitted of all 
blame for her loss. While in command of the 
"Tiber" he took, on 8 March, 1815, the American 
privateer "Leo." He was on duty on the New- 
foundland and Channel stations from 1833 till 
1837. He attained flag rank 28 June, 1838, and in 
1845 was appointed commander-in-chief at the 
Cape of Good Hope. See Gen. Jas. Grant Wilson's 
address on "Commodore Isaac Hull and the Frig- 
ate Constitution" (New York, 1880). 

DADD, George H., veterinary surgeon, b. 
about 1813. He was a native of England, but re- 
moved to the United States in 1839. He turned 
his attention to the diseases of the brute creation, 
and became a successful practitioner. He pub- 



DADF 



MAUI/ 



m 



Hohcd "The Modern Bom Doctor "(Nui v-.rk. 
, ; •• The Manual of Vcterinarj Scieni 
a. iiny tod Physiology of the llor>c" fBoston, 
; ana " The A r." 

DADE. Francis Langhorn. soldier, l>. in Vir- 
i\ killed by indiana near Pari King, Fl.i 
Dec, 1H35. He was appointed third lieutenant in 
the 19th infantry on 18 March, 1813, became lir>t 
lieutenant in 1816, OSPtoJn in 1*1*. ami brevet major 
in L8S8L Whan killed ho was on the march to Kort 
g with a detachment, which was nearly destroyed 
by a treacherous attack of the S«»miin»lf Indians. A 
beautiful monument was erected at Wool Point to 
Ml memory and that of his command. 

I>\<.(«, John L., eduoator, b, in Middleburg, 
Loudon co., Va., 18 Pub., 171)4; d. in Hayncsvillc, 
Ala., 11 June, 1884. He was ordained to the Bap- 
tist ministry In 1 Si 7, preached for some vears m 
Virginia, and in 1 s*J."> removed to Philadelphia, l'a., 
where he became pastor of the r>th Baptist church. 
Retiring from the j>astorate in 1833 on account of 
a diseased throat, he thenceforth devoted himCtU 
to teaching and authorship. In 1836 he took charge 
of the Alabama female athenivum in Tuscaloosa, 
and in 1844 was made president of Mercer univer- 
sity at Penfield, (ia., where he remained for twelve 
years, giving instruction in theology in addition to 
his duties as president. In 1856 he resigned the 
presidency of Mercer university. His published 
works are " Manual of Theology " ; " Treatise on 
Church Order"; "Elements of Moral Science"; 
'• Evidences of Christianity"; and several pamph- 
lets, including "The More Excellent Way ; M An 
Interpretation of John III.: 5" J "An Essay in 
Defence of Strict Communion " ; and " A Decisive 
Argument against Infant Baptism, furnished by 
One of its Own Proof-Texts." 

DACHGrETT, David, jurist, b. in Attleborough, 
Mass., 31 Dec, 1764; d. in New Haven, Conn.. 12 
April, 1851. He was graduated at Yale in 1783, 
studied and practised law in New Haven, became 
state's attorney in 1811, mayor of the city in 1828, 
and held other local offices. From 1791 till 1813 
he was a member of the Connecticut legislature, 
serving in 17U4 as speaker, and from 1797 till 1804 
and lsoii till 1813 as a member of the council or 
upper house. He voted as a presidential elector 
for Charles C. Pinckney in 1804 and 1808, and for 
DeWitt Clinton in 1812. He was elected a V. S. 
senator in the place of Chauncev Goodrich, who 
resigned, and served from 24 May, 1813, till 3 
March, 1819, when he returned to his extensive 
practice at the bar in Connecticut. From 18M 
till 1832 he was a judge of the Connecticut supreme 
court, and then chief judge till 1834, when hi 
reached the age of seventy years, and was retired 
under the statute. He became an instructor in the 
New Haven law-school in 1824, and was professor 
of jurisprudence from 1826 until he was compelled 
by the infirmities of age to resign the chair. A 
■Ketch of his life by the Bar. Samuel w. s. Dot- 
ton, 1). I)., appeared in 1851.— His son, Oliver 
Ellsworth, clergvman, b. in New Haven. Conn.. 
14 Jan., 1810; d. in Hartford, Conn.. 1 Sept.. 1880. 
was graduated at Yale in 1828. studied in the law- 
school at New Haven, and, after being admitted 
to the l»ar in 1881, spent two "years in thedivinity- 
■ehooL From 1837 till 1848 he was pastor of the 
South Ohuroh in Hartford. Conn., and of the 
Congregational church in Caiiandaigua, N. Y.. 
from 1845 till 1867. In September of the letter 
year he was chosen professor of divinitv at Vale, 
where he remained till l*To. officiating during the 

hum period as pastor of the college ohuroh. 

From 1*71 till 1877 he was minister of the Congre- 



gational ehunh in New Lond . after 

which he resided in Hartf. 

■one end magazine article*, assisted in compiling 

a booh of peihns end Iran (1M& and left • 

small volume of i inted posthumously 

DAGtiE IT, Naphtail, •■!. rgvman, b. in 
iHinuigh. Mass., 8 Sept.. 17*7; d. in N 
OMUL, 80 HOT- 1780. Hi* grandfather was the great- 
grandfather of David Daggett. He ru graduated 
at Vale in 1748, ' i lied theology, was ordained 
pastor of the Presbyterian church in Smith town, 
L. I., in 1751, and' in 1756 became pro f a—or of 
divinity at Vale, which post he retained until hi* 
death.' When President Clapp resigned in 1788, 
he was ehosen praaklantare trmporr, m which oa- 

pae'tv he otlieiated until 1777, when he was auo- 
eeeded by Dr. Ezra stil.->. w 

attacked New Haven in July. ]',','.!, Dr. Itaggett 
took |»art in the defence with a shot-gun, but was 
taken prisoner, and compelled hv the enemy to act 
as a guide, and rejicatedly pricked with bayonet* un- 
til his strength failed, and he never fully recovered. 
He published several sermons and an account of 
the famous dark dav in New Kngland <17*U>. 

DAHLOHKN. John Adolph. naval officer, b. 
in Philadelphia. Pa., || Nov., QOv; d. in Washing- 
ton, I). C., 12 July, 1N70. His father, Bernard 
Ulric Dahlgren, was Swedish OOnesJ at Philadel- 
phia till his death in 1824. The great ofcjeel sf 
the son's early ambition was to enter the narv of 
the United States, and he reooirad his Bddahh> 
man's warrant on 1 Feb., 1826, making his first 
cruise in the " Macedonian." of the Brazil squadron, 
in 1827-'9. He 
was attached to 
the sloop "Onta- 
rio," of the Medi- 
terranean squad- 
ron, in I8o0--J. 
and made passed 
midshipman in 
the latter year, 
and in 1834, ow- 
ing to his mathe- 
matical proficien- 
cy, detailed for 
duty on the coast 
survey. In this 

year he wrote a 

series of letters 
on naval tonios 
to the Philadel- 
phia " National 
Gazette," signed 
" Blue - Jacket." 
He was commissioned lieutenant in 1837. and 
in the same year his hitherto exceptionally fine 
sight became "so impaired by incessant lalx-r a« 
to threaten entire l<-s of vision, and an a bsosntS 
tied. During this period ol anlsreal 
inaction Lieut. Dahlgren resided on a farm. In 
1842 he resumed duty, and in 1*4^ went t«> the 

Meditermneen in the frigate "Oesiherinwd" re- 
turning late in 1*45 to the United Mate*, the 
oruies ha\ing been shortened by the prospa 

war with Mexico. In January, 1H47. Lieu 1 

gren was assigned t<> ordnance duty at Washing- 
ton, although he desired, and made an effort to 
obtain. active duty at sea. Then began those 
lalx>rs as an ordnance 08*001 which for si xteen 
vears demanded the most extraordinary energT* 
and which finallv made Dahlgr 
name, and gese hint the world's recognition as a 
man of tcienoe and mrentivs genius, n enwrar 
most at once the defects in gunnery then existing, 




yr*~* — . 



54 



DA II LG REX 



DAIILGREN 



and soon offered the remedy in the style of can- 
non known by his name, which for so many years 
constituted the naval armament of the United 
States. It was proposed by him in 1850, and the 
first gun according to his design was cast in May 
of that year. These guns are of iron, cast solid, 
and cooled from the exterior. They are distin- 
guished by great thickness at the breech, rapidly 
diminishing from the trunnions to the muzzle, and 
were the first practical application of results ob- 
tained by experimental determination of pressures 
at different points along the lx>re. They are chiefly 
smooth-bores of nine- and eleven-inch calibre ; but 
Dahlgren also invented a rifled cannon, and intro- 
duced boat-howitzers with iron carriages, which 
were unsurpassed for combined lightness and ac- 
curacy. Under the sole direction of Lieut. Dahl- 
gren, the ordnance department at Washington 
acquired the most extensive additions, including 
the foundry for cannon, gun-carriage shops, the 
experimental battery, and equipment of all kinds. 
He was made commander in 1855, and, in order to 
introduce innovations that completely revolution- 
ized the armament of the navy, and to remove ob- 
jections particularly to his eleven-inch gun, which 
was then considered too heavy for use at sea, he 
was permitted to equip the sloop-of-war " Plym- 
outh entirely as he wished. The experimental 
cruise of this vessel lasted from 1857 till 1859. He 
was on ordnance dutv at the Washington navy- 
yard in 1860-1, and on 22 April, 1861, after the 
resignation of Franklin Buchanan, who entered 
the Confederate service, was given command of the 
yard, which was not only of great importance on 
account of naval resources, but also as the key of 
the defences of Washington on the left. Com- 
mander Dahlgren hastened to secure the only route 
left to the capital by the Potomac river, and, when 
Alexandria was seized, he moved down the left 
wing of the column under Col. Ellsworth. He was 
appointed chief of the ordnance bureau on 18 July, 
1862, and shortly afterward promoted to be cap- 
tain, his commission being antedated to 16 July. 
On 7 Feb., 1863, he was made a rear-admiral, re- 
ceiving at the same time the thanks of congress, 
and ten years additional on the active list, which, 
however, he did not live to enjoy. In July, 1863, 
he was ordered to relieve Admiral Dupont in the 
command of the South Atlantic blockading squad- 
ron. In July, August, and September of that year 
he co-operated with the land forces under Gen. 
Gillmore in various attacks on the defences of 
Charleston, and succeeded, by silencing Fort Sum- 
ter and the batteries on Morris island, in obtaining 
for the monitors a safe anchorage inside the bar, 
thus putting a stop to blockade-running. His fail- 
ure to take Charleston provoked some hostile criti- 
cism, but his operations had the continuous ap- 
proval of the navy department. He led a successful 
expedition up St. Jonn's river in February, 1864, 
to aid in throwing a military force into Florida, 
co-operated with Sherman in the capture of Savan- 
nah, on 23 Dec, and entered Charleston with 
Gen. Schimmelpfennig on its evacuation in Febru- 
ary, 1865. In 1866 he was given command of the 
South Pacific squadron. lie was again chief of 
the ordnance bureau in 1868-'70, and 1l few months 
before his death was relieved at his own request 
and appointed to the command of the Washington 
navy-yard. His death was the result of heart-dis- 
ease. Admiral Dahlgren was a man of great per- 
sonal bravery, dignified in manner, and of exem- 
plary character. He published many scientific 
works on ordnance, which have been used as text- 
books in the navy. They include "Thirty-two- 



B Minder Practice for Rangers " (1850) : " System of 
oat-Armament in the U. S. Navy n (1888 ; French 
translation, 1855); "Naval Percussion Locks and 
Primers" (1852); "Ordnance Memoranda" (1853) j 
" Shells and Shell-Guns." explaining his own sys- 
tem (1856); and various reports on ordnance, arm- 
ored vessels, and coast defences. After his death 
appeared " Notes on Maritime and International 
Law," with a preface by his widow, indicating the 
plan of an uncompleted work (Boston, 1877). See 
" Memoir of John A. Dahlgren," by his widow 
(Boston, 1882). — His son, UlrFc, b. in Bucks county, 
Pa., in 1842 ; d. near King and Queen's Court-House, 
Va., 4 March, 1864, removed to Washington with 
his father in 1848. In the intervals of study he 
spent his time in the navy-yard, where he became 
familiar with the construction and use of artillery, 
and was taught by the sailors to swim and row. 
He began the study of civil engineering in 1858, 
and in 1860 began also to study law in Philadel- 
phia ; but, at the beginning of the civil war, he re- 
turned to Washington, and just after the first 
battle of Bull Run was sent by his father to place 
and take charge of a naval battery on Maryland 
heights. He then became aide to Gen. Sigel, and 
served through Fremont's mountain campaign 
and through Pope's campaign, acting as Sigel's 
chief of artillery at the second battle of Bull Run. 
In November, 1862, he attacked Fredericksburg at 
the head of Sigel's body-guard of 57 men, and 
held the town for three hours, returning with 81 
prisoners, and for his gallantry was detailed as 
special aide on Gen. Burnside's staff. He was after- 
ward on Gen. Hooker's staff, distinguished himself 
at Chancellorsville, and as aide to Gen. Meade per- 
formed much dangerous and important service in 
the Gettysburg campaign at the head of a hundred 
picked men. On the retreat of the enemy from 
Gettysburg he led the charge into Hagerstown, 
and was severely wounded in the foot. His leg 
was amputated, and for a time his life was in dan- 
ger ; but he recovered, was promoted to colonel for 
his gallantry, and, though obliged to walk on 
crutches, returned at once to active service. He 
lost his life in a raid planned by him, in concert 
with Gen. Kilpatrick, to release the Union prison- 
ers at Libby prison and Belle Isle. A memoir of 
him, written by his father, was revised and pub- 
lished by his stepmother (Philadelphia, 1872). — 
Admiral Dahlgren's second wife, Madeleine Vin- 
ton, b. in Gallipolis, Ohio, about 1835, is a daughter 
of Samuel F. Vinton, for over twenty years a lead- 
er of the whig party. At an early age she married 
Daniel Convers Goddard, of Zanesvdle, who died, 
leaving two children. She married Admiral Dahl- 
gren on 2 Aug., 1865, and has three children of 
this marriage. As early as 1859 she published 
sketches and poems under the pen-name of " Co- 
rinne." In 1870-'3 she actively opposed the move- 
ment for female suffrage, and drew up a petition 
to congress, which was extensively signed, asking 
that the right to vote should not be extended to 
women. The literary society of Washington, of 
which she was one of the founders, held its in. . t- 
ings in her house for six years, and she was elected 
its vice-president. She was for some time presi- 
dent of " The Ladies' Catholic Missionary Society 
of Washington," and has built the chapel of " St. 
Joseph's of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, in South 
Mountain, Md. Mrs. Dahlgren's works include 
"Idealities" (Philadelphia, 1859); "Thoughts on 
Female Suffrage" (Washington, 1871); "South 
Sea Sketches " (Boston. 1881) ; " Etiquette of Social 
Life in Washington " (Philadelphia, 1861) ; " South 
Mountain Magic" (1882); "A Washington Win- 



daii.i.i: 



DAI.K 



n 



BOinof John A. DuUgffM " IH82); 

ati-l •• 'I'lir I... -i N'.uii. " and " Lights and Shad 
of a Life " (Boston, 1hk«). She has translated from 
the l-'nii. li, Montaiembert'e •I'm-. i\" and De 
Chambrune "Executive Power" (Lancaster, 
1874), tin' prefaoa i<> tin- latter being written by 

.lain.- A. Garfield, and from the Spanish, D 

Oortes'i ■• ('atl)iilicisin. Liberalism, and Socialism," 

for wiii.li -\u- reoeiTed the thanks ..f Pim i\. 

HUII i:. Pi. lie. • Icrgvnian. b, in France in 
1649; '1. in Boston. Mass., si May. 1715. He bad 
Uvn a professor at Snumur. one of tin- four great 
Protestant schools of France. The school WSJ <\< - 

atrored by order of LooJs XIV. in 1686, ami about 

H\Hi\ Daille was Iwnishcd on account ol his Huguc- 
not faith, and was called brthe consistory ofthe 
Reformed ohoroh in New S'ork to lain.r for the 
French then-. The scattered Huguenot famflioi 
in Staten Island. Bushwick, Hackcnsack, and Har- 
lem were also under his can-. In 1680 Bar, Lan- 
rentius Vandenboaoh drew away two thirds of hi* 
country oongiagjaUilMI. and established a new 
church on Staten Island, hut he was ansponded a 
few years later, and in L6M the chur« lies were re- 
united. Daille received a ooUeejrae, Pastor Paint, 
in 1687, and from that time till 1092 he was an 
itinerant. l*p to 1688 the French congregation 
worshipped in the Dutch church in the fort, but in 
that year they put up a church of their own in 
Marketficld street, or Petticoat lane, half way l>e- 
tween Broad and Whitehall streets. In 1698 Daille 
fell under Jacob Leisler's displeasure for exhorting 
the commander to meekness, and disapproving of 
his violent measures, and both he and Peiret were 
threatened with imprisonment. Notwithstanding 
this, the pastor showed his Christian spirit by sub- 
sequently endeavoring to prevent Leisler's execu- 
tion. Pot his efforts in this matter he was cited 
before the assembly and narrowly escaped impris- 
onment as a "promoter of sedition." lie went to 
Boston in 1696, took charge of the School street 
church, and remained there till his death. The 
Boston " News- Letter " spoke of him as " a Person 
of great Piety, Charity, affable and courteous Beha- 
viour, and of an exemplary Life and Conversation." 
VAIN, Charles, French magistrate, b. in (iua- 
deloti|M\ West Indies, 20 Sept., |818; d. there in 
1873. He was graduated in law and admitted to 
the bar in Paris. Having made the acquaintance 
of the economist Consiuerant, he neglected his 
profession for communistic disputes, and Uramc a 
follower of the phalansterian doctrines, then pro- 
fessed by Fourier, Knfantin, and Marquis de Saint 
Simon. He took a prominent part in the Euro- 
pean congress that was opened in Paris in 1888 by 
the French royal historical institute, and opjiosed 
the Christian philosophers Buchez and Roux-La- 
vergne. He was a contributor to "La democratic 
pacifique," in which he denounced slavery and 
urged its abolition in the French ootonias. After 
the revolution of 1848 the slaves emancipated in 
Guadeloupe elected Dain their representative in 
the French chamber of deputies, ami soon his radi- 
cal colleagues recognized him as their leader. As 
such he denounced the conduct of President Ca- 
vaignac, and went so far as to a.sk. on the Moor of 
the legislative assembly, for the immediate arn-t 
of the i. resident and all the members of his cabi- 
net. When LovJi Napoleon was elected president 

of the republic, Dain tendered his resignation, but 

tin- assembly refused to accept it. He return 

delonpe in 1888 ss judge of titer f ill! (hf court, 
which office he held until hi 

l> V K I N . Thoina> SpciioM^icn-haltUrjL 
Orange county. N. Y., in l s /c.^«UifWD4*X&V 1: 




1 1- was the eldest of four children. 

and. until he wan seventeen vear* of m&>, worked 

-•li his father'* farm. He then walked 

enty-flve miles, t.« Sew Y.-rk. and beg 
office-boy. In 1858 he established the firm of 
ThMMS S. Dakin \ Co., eommiaaioo agents, con* 
tinning it until 1881, when he i-opigrd iii the oil 
trade, and became the head of the flrm of Dak III A 
Oulick. In 1870 In- retired from biuineaa. He 
was elected captain in the i:tth regiment Brook- 
lyn, in 1868, and served in the \ <»paigB 
as a member of the staff of i k. who then 
commanded the 5th bi ■ he be- 
came major-general of militia, and 
known as a member of tie 

He es|MH'iallv practised shooting at hag ran^r. 
and took part in the first international conti 
Oeedaoor in September, 1874. when th- 

team, under Maj. Leash, wan defeated I 
American team. In the following year the 
cans again defeated the Irish team at Doll) V 

Ireland, when tien. Dakin made the remarkable 
vore of l(k") in a pissihle 1N». He was afterward 
elected a member of the legion of honor of France. 
In the international match in l*?ii. wksn the 
Americans defeated teams from Inland. Scotland, 
Australia, and Canada, their success was mainly 
due to the instructions of (Jen. Dakin. In tkefrsl 
day's shooting he made the highest score, 20tf. He 
also took part m the Irish-American n turn match 
of the same year, when his soote was again the 
highest, row lung - >,,s . lb- was the "lily rifleman 
that sle.t in every international. contest held either 

in this country or in Europe. He »ns a director 
in the National and several other rifle association*. 
In 1876 he was the democratic DOmls 
gives man in the third congressional district, but 
was defeated bv a small majority. 

DAM HO, Frederick, phvsii ian. b. in London, 
England, in 1??<»; d. ill Charleston. S. C., 84 N-v . 
1886, His father, a distinguished officer under 

Frederick the Great, had retired to Finland for 
his health, and at his death Fre deri ck came to Bal- 
timore. Md.. at the invitation of his uncle, vko 
had remoTed t<> that place a few yean* before. 
Here he received a classical education, and then 
studied medicine, giving sjxvial attention to bot- 
any. He then entered the medical depart moM of 
the army, and was stationed at Fort Johnson, 
Charleston barter, but, in e on se qn e n ce of some 
difficulty with his brother officers, resigned fan 
1799, and practised in Charleston, when- he was 
active in establishing the botanioal garden. About 

iso: he left his praotioa and became one of the 
editors ..f the Charleston '-Courier." adaflj Fed- 
eral newspaper. Be began to be interested In theo- 
logical stuibes in 1811, was ordained deaeoa in Iks 
Proteatanl E pis copal church in ihu, and priest in 

1«1H. On 88 Feb.. 1X19, he became assistant min- 
ister of St. Michael's church. Charleston, where be 
remained until his death, A monument, erected 
t.. his niemorv bv the vestrv, stands near the s..uth 
.l.w.r of the Church. Dr. Daldio published 'The 
Kvidenceof the Divinity of Our Saviour" (Charles- 
ton. 1880); •• Historical" Account of the Protestant 
gp i soopei Chnrck in S.uth Carolina" (1880); and 
•• Vhiman Hezon," for the in- of fn-<Mnasons(l MB L, 

DALB, James Wilkinson, author, b. m Caiit- 
well's Bridge tnow Odessa! Bat, II Oot, 1818; d 
,„ Media. 1'... I'-' April, I88t He was graduated 
at the University Of Pennsylvania, in lHttl. at the 
head of his cla-ss", and began the study of law. but 
abandoned it for that of theology, which kt pur- 
sued at Andoverand Pi lie wished i»k» 
missionary, and wasappointed by the Ameri- 



56 



DALE 



DALE 



can board to a station in India; but financial em- 
barrassment prevented his depart tin-, and to fit 
himself more thoroughly for mission work he en- 
tered the medical department of the University of 
Pennsylvania, where ne received his degree in 1838. 
He had been ordained at Andover in 1837, and, 
after supplying pulpits in Philadelphia, was agent 
of the American Bible society in 1838-'45. He 
then held pastorates at Ridley, Middletown, Media, 
and Wayne, Pa., till 1876, when he retired and 
devoted himself to literature. Dr. Dale was at one 
time a leader in the temperance movement in 
Media. The University of Pennsylvania gave him 
the degree of D. D. in 1868. His principal work 
is an exhaustive "Inquiry into the Meaning of 
Bmmfa as determined by Usage," including 
"Classic Baptism" (Philadelphia, 1867) : "Judaic 
Baptism " (1869) ; " Johannic Baptism " (1871) ; and 
"Christie and Patristic Baptism" (1874). Dr. 
Dale's conclusions are adverse to the views of the 
Baptists on the subject ; but the work is consid- 
ered an authority by scholars of all other denomi- 
nations, and has received from them the highest 
praise. A memorial of Dr. Dale was written by 
the Rev. James Roberts, D. D. (Philadelphia, print- 
ed privately, 1886). 

DALE, Richard, naval officer, b. near Norfolk, 
Va., 6 Nov., 1 75(> ; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 26 Feb., 
1826. He entered the merchant service at the age 
of twelve, and at nineteen commanded a ship. In 
1776 he became a lieutenant in the Virginia navy, 

and was soon 
afterward cap- 
tured and con- 
fined in a pri- 
son - ship at 
Norfolk,where 
some royalist 
school - mates 
persuaded him 
to embark on 
an English 
cruiser against 
the vessels of 
his state. He 
was wounded 
in an engage- 
ment with an 
American flo- 
tilla,and, while 
confined to his 
bed in Norfolk, 
resolved " nev- 
er again to put 
himself in the 
way of the bullets of his own countrymen." After 
the Declaration of Independence he became a mid- 
shipman on the American brig " Lexington," which 
was captured on the coast of France by the English 
cutter "Alert" in 1777. Dale was thrown into 
Mill prison, at Plymouth, with the rest of the offi- 
cers and crew of the " Lexington," on a charge of 
high treason, but escaped, with many of his fellow- 
prisoners, in February, 1778, was recaptured, es- 
caped again, disguised as a British naval officer, and 
reached France, where he joined John Paid Jones's 
squadron as master's mate. Jones soon made him 
first lieutenant of the " Bon Homme Richard," 
and in that capacity he fought with distinction in 
the famous battle with the " Serapis," on 23 Sept., 
1779, and received a severe splinter wound. After 
the sinking of the "Bon Ilomme Richard" in 
that engagement, Dale served with Jones in the 
" Alliance. ' and afterward in the " Ariel." He re- 
turned to Philadelphia on 28 Feb., 1781, was placed 




on the list of lieutenants in the navy, and joined 
the " Trumbull," which was captured in Angus! <>f 
that year by the "Iris" and the -.Monk." Dait 
received his third wound in the engagement. He 
was exchanged in November, obtained leave of abi 
sence, and served on letters of marque and in the 
merchant service till the close of the war. He was 
appointed captain in 1794, but, with the exception 
of a short cruise in the "Ganges," during the 
troubles with France, was not in active service till 
1801, when he was given command of a squadron 
and ordered to the Mediterranean during the hos- 
tilities with Tripoli Although he was greatly 
hampered by his instructions, so that no serious 
enterprise could be attempted, he prevented the 
Tripoli tans from making any captures during his 
command. He returned to the United States in 
April, 1802, and was again ordered to the Medi- 
terranean, but, becoming dissatisfied, he resigned 
his commission on 17 Dec, and, having gained a 
competency, spent the rest of his life in retirement. 
Dale enjoved the distinction of having been praised 
by Lord Nelson, who, after critically watching the 
seamanship of the commodore's squadron, said that 
there was in the handling of those trans-Atlantic 
ships a nucleus of trouble for the navy of Great 
Britain. The prediction was soon verified. Two 
of Com. Dale's sons held commissions in the navy. 
DALE, Samuel, pioneer, b. in Rockbridge 
county, Va., in 1772; d. in Lauderdale county, 
Miss., 24 May, 1841. His parents were Pennsyl- 
vanians of Scotch-Irish extraction. Samuel went 
with them in 1775 to the forks of Clinch river, Va., 
and in 1783 to the vicinity of the present town of 
Greensborough, Ga. In both these places the. fam- 
ily lived with others in a stockade, being exposed 
to frequent attacks from Indians, and young Dale 
thus became familiar with savage warfare. After 
the death of his parents in 1791 he enlisted in 1793 
as a scout in the service of the United States, and 
soon became a famous Indian fighter, being known 
as "Big Sam." His most noted exploit was his 
"canoe fight," a struggle in a canoe with seven 
Indians, all of whom he killed. This remarkable 
contest took place on 13 Nov., 1813. at Randon's 
landing, on the Alabama river, and all its circum- 
stances were afterward verified before the Alabama 
legislature. The death of the last of the Indians, 
Tar-cha-chee, a noted wrestler and the most famous 
ball-player of his clan, is thus described by Dale : 
" He paused a moment in expectation of my attack, 
but, finding me motionless, he stepped backward 
to the bow of the canoe, shook himself, gave the 
war-whoop of his tribe, and cried out, 'Sam 
tholocco, Iana dahmaska, ia-lanestha-lipso-lipso- 
lanestha ! ' ' Big Sam. I am a man ; I am coming, 
come on ! ' As Tie said this, with a terrific yell he 
bounded over the dead body of his comrade, and 
directed a blow at my head with his rifle, which 
dislocated my left shoulder. I dashed the bayonet 
into him. It glanced around his ribs, and, the 
point hitching to his backbone, I pressed him down. 
As I pulled the weapon out, he put his hands upon 
the sides of the canoe and endeavored to rise, cry- 
ing out, ' Tar-cha-chee is a man ; he is not afraid 
to die ! ' I drove my bayonet through his heart," 
Dale commanded a battalion of Kentucky volun- 
teers against the Creeks in February, 1814, and in 
December carried despatches for Gen, Jackson from 
Georgia to New Orleans in eight days with only 
one horse. After the war he became a trader at 
Dale's Ferry, Ala., was appointed colonel of militia, 
held various local offices, and was a delegate in 
1816 to the convention that divided the territory 
ol Mississippi. He was a member of tiie first gen- 



DALE 



DALL 



m 



eral assembly <>f Alaltama territory in 1*17. ,,f the 
state legislature in 1819 -'» ind 1 d of 

that of Mississippi in 1886. In 1881 hi WH one of 
nini-^i'in to locate a public road from Tusca- 
loosa through IVnsiM-ola to Blak.lv ami Fort Clai- 
borne, and. OB tin- i-< Miiplft i«>n OX hit duty, was 
made brigSdiflMMMnl by the Alabama legislature 
and given a life-pension. In lH^Jl lie was ap- 

B fated by the secretary "f war. together; with Col. 
eorge S. Gaines, t<> remove tin- Choctaw Indians 
to thrir new bomfl 00 the Arkansas and Bed rivets, 
See "Life and Times of (Jen. Sum. Dale." from 
notes of his own OMIIWMlkHli, bv .John F. II. 
Claiborne (New York. 1860). 

DALE, Sir Thomas, colonial governor of Vir- 
ginia: d. near Bantam. East Indies, early in 1620. 
He bad been a soldier of distinction in the Low 
Countries, and had been knighted by Kin_' James 
in June, HMMi. The I^ondon company, before the 
retirement of Lord Delaware, had sent him to Vir- 
ginia with supplies, and on his arrival in the Chesa- 
peake he assumed the government. He found the 
colony, then consisting of al>out 200 men. in gnat 
des|H»ndencv over the departure of Delaware, and 
gave them new cause for sorrow by his administra- 
tion of the government, which he carried on under 
a code (chiefly compiled from the rules of war of 
the United Provinces) sent to Virginia, without 
the company's authority, by its treasurer, Thomas 
Smvthe. Notwithstanding this introduction of 
martial law, Dale has received praise for his vigor 
ami industry. Seeing the feeble state of the colony, 
be wrote at once to England for aid; and in Au- 
gust, 1611, a new fleet reached Jamestown under Sir 
Thomas Gates, who relieved Dale in the govern- 
ment. The latter continued, however, to be active 
in colonial affairs, founding the new settlement of 
Henrico, and conquering the Appomattox Indians. 
On Gates's return to England in March, 1014, the 
government was again left with Dale, and he ad- 
ministered it till 1016, when he sailed for home in 
the same vessel with Pocohontas and John Rolfe, 
who had been married during his term of office. 
Dale was in Holland in February, 1617, and in 
January, 1619. made commander of the East In- 
dian fleet, participating in an engagement with the 
Dutch near Bantam. The climate at his post 
proved fatal to him. Dale deserves special praise 
lor the important changes that he introduced in 
the colonial land-laws, under which, as established 
by him, the cultivator was given a chance of be- 
coming proprietor of the soil, which was an lmpos- 
sibilitv under the old system. 

DALE, William Johnson, physician, b. in 
Gloucester, Mass., 5 Sept., 1815. His grandfather, 
William Johnson, fought at Bunker Bill; his pa- 
ternal grandfather. Elienezer, at Lexington; and 
his father. K!>enezer. was a surgeon in the war of 
1812. He was graduated at Harvard in lKo7. at its 
medical school in 1*40. and began practice in Bos- 
ton. In June, 1861, he was commissioned surgeon- 
genera! of Massachusetts, holding the rank <>f colo- 
nel, and in Decemlterof that year was appointed 
acting assistant surgeon of the l\ S. army, which 
place he retained till the close of the war. He was 
on duty in Bo-ton. Mass.. during the civil war. and 
had general S Up erf l s i on of all. matters connected 
with the medical staff and the care and treatment 
of the sick ami wounded that were sent bona. In 

October, ikw. be was raised to the rank of saiga- 
dier-general. in connection with his appointment 

as surgon-general of Massachusetts. In M 
nltion of bil services, tl„. I'. S. authoriti- 
name to a general hospital established at Worces- 
ter. Mass.. opened in September, ik<>.». Be is a 



mcml.-rof the Mssssrhosetts medical society, and 
was ha anniversary chairman. 

KM IK. I s||. ...onri- Kamnai. Earl of, Scot- 
tish general, b. in 177M; ,|. „i K n ; 
Edinburgh, Scotland. 21 March. lv> h, ,. otem | 
the British army tut a cornet in the guard*, raianl a 
company, and Mas m.idc captain. II. wu wounded 
at Martini. pie, and aerved in Ireland, 
reliellion of 1 71*4, in the . \i-dn Hclder, 

at Bellcialcaml Minorca, ana Miner Oil Rsliili 
cromby m Egypt, attaining the rank of major- 
general in lm£. H,. ■ofasaqsjontri fought at the 

Scheldt ami at Freshing, and through the Penmen- 

lar war, distinguishing himself «t the U' 
Vittoria and the Pyrenees. In 1811 he waa raised 
to the peerage as Itaron Kauisay. In 1818 he was 
sent to Nova Scotia as couiinander-in-chief «.f the 
forces, and after the death of the Duke ol 
BOOd. in 1*1W, was ap|»ointed gQTOrnoi SBIIi 
British North America. During his admiuistra- 
tion efforts to effect a union of the proi ukt* ware 
continued, provoking the Intense, bot flltj <.f the 
French pormlation. and ceaseless disputes took 
place I K-t ween the executive and the asM-mhly re- 

s|M'ctingthe civil li»t and tl rown lauds, lb- 

left Canada in Sept emb er. 1888, and served in India 

as commander-in-chief, but returned t<> Bsotland 

with broken health in 1888, 

DALL, Charles Henry Appleton (dalulergT- 
man, b. in Baltimore. M'i.. 12 l-vi... 1818: «1. in 

Calcutta. British India. in July. 1W6. He was 
educated in the Boston public and Latin wh'«.K, 
and was graduated at Harvard in 1897, and at 
Harvard divinity-school in lK-fo. In November, 
1841, he was ordained an evangelist «.f the I'nita- 
rian church in St. I>>uis. after which he was settled 
in Baltimore, Md., Portsmouth. N. II.. N.i-dham. 
Mass., and Toronto, Canada. Failing health. fn»m 
excosive pastoral duties, with a preferei 
missionary work, induced him to take up that OB* 
cupation as his life labor. He became the first for- 
eign missionary of the Unitarian church in America, 
and in February. 1856, Bailed for Calcutta. Then- 
lie instituted the first girls' school for natives, the 
tirst school for homeless and triundhae ehfldron. sad 

the first children's teiiiiHTance«MHiei\. Mr. Dal 1 waa 
elected a member of the American oriental - 
and the Asiatic society of Bengal, and a foreign 
associate of the Hungarian Unitarian consistory. 
He was the author of many tracts, educational and 
moral, for circulation m British India, a small »ork 
on the Su./. canal, many hymns and devotional 

poems, and Dotasof travel contributed to periodkali 
m the tJnited States and India. Thenamoerofpnsa- 

pbietS written by Mr. Dall in India exceeded one 

hundred, and many of them w.re several tu 
printed in response to a demand from the natives 

for whose instruction thev wen- intended.— His 
wife. Caroline Wells, daughter of Mark I! 
b. in Boston, Mass.. 22 June, 1822, was educated 
bv private tutors and governesses, after which she 
became ■ teacher, and in 1*4<» was made Tiee- 
primipal of the celebrated "Miss English'- 
for voung ladies." in Georgetown. D. C. In Sep- 
tember, 1*44. she married Mr. Kail. and. although 
occupied thenceforth with duties incidental to 
the life of a clergyman's wife, she continued her 
Studies and literary activity, lbr early »..rk waa 
SSpSOfcUf devoted to reform topi. ..ly the 

opening of new Held* of labor to women. Mrs. 
Kail's later laln.rs have »>een chiefly litcran and 
critical. In 1*77 she received the degr> ■ I LL l>. 
from Alfred university. She has published roanjr 
SJBJOng which an- "F.ssav. and J*** 1 *** 

(Boston, 1848); "Historical Pictures Retouched. 



58 



DALLAS 



DALLAS 



a Volume of Miscellanies" (1859); ''Woman's 
Right to Labor" (18(H)); "Life of Dr. Marie Zfr 
krewska, being a Practical Illustration of ■ \N r om« 
au's Right to Labor"' (1860); " Woman's Rights 
under the Law " (1861); "Sunshine; A Name for 
a Popular Lecture on Health" (1864) ; "The Col- 
lege, the Market, and the .Court, or Woman's L'< - 
lation to Education, Employment, and Citizen- 
ship" (1867); "Egypt's Place in History" (1868); 
"Patty Gray's Journey to the Cotton Islands " 
(3 vols., 1 869-70); "Romance of the Association, 
or One Last Glimpse of Charlotte Temple and 
Eliza Wharton" (1875); "My First Holiday, or 
Letters Home from Colorado, Utah, and Califor- 
nia" (1881); and "What we Really Know about 
Shakespeare "(1885).— Their son, William Ilea lev, 
naturalist, b. in Boston, Mass., 21 Aug., 1845, was 
educated at the Boston public schools, and then 
became a special pupil in natural sciences under 
Louis Agassiz, ana in anatomy and medicine under 
Jeffries Wyraan and Daniel Brainerd. In 1865 he 
was appointed lieutenant in the International tele- 
graph expedition, and in this capacity visited 
Alaska in 1865-'8. From 1871 till 1880 he was 
assistant to the U. S. coast survey, and under its 
direction spent the years 1871 till 1874, and 1884 in 
that district. His work, beside the exploration and 
description of the geography, included the anthro- 
pology, natural history, and geology of the Alaskan 
and adjacent regions. From the field-work and 
collections have resulted maps, memoirs, coast pilot, 
and papers on these subjects or branches of tnem. 
From 1884 till 1886 he was paleontologist to the 
U. S. geological survey, and since 1869 he has been 
honorary curator of the department of mollusks in 
the U. S. national museum. In this office he has 
made studies of recent and fossil mollusks of the 
world, and especially of North America, from which 
new information has been derived concerning the 
brachiopoda, patellidae, chitonidae, and the mollusk- 
fauna of the deep sea. These studies have grown 
out of those devoted to the fauna of northwestern 
America and eastern Siberia. Mr. Dall has been 
honored with elections to nearly all of the scientific 
societies in this country, and to many abroad. In 
1882 and in 1885 he was vice-president of the 
American association for the advancement of sci- 
ence, and presided over the sections of biology and 
anthropology. His scientific papers include about 
two hundred titles. Among the separate books are 
" Alaska and its Resources " (Boston, 1870) ; " Tribes 
of the Extreme Northwest" (Washington, 1877); 
"Coast Pilot of Alaska, Appendix I., Meteorology 
and Bibliography" (1879); "The Currents and 
Temperatures of Bering Sea and the Adjacent 
Waters" (1882); " Pacific Coast Pilot, and Islands 
of Alaska, Dixon Entrance to Yakutat Bay, with 
the Inland Passage " (1883) ; " Prehistoric Ameri- 
ca," by the Marquis de Nadaillac, edited (New 
York, 1885) ; and " Report on the Mollusca Bra- 
chipoda and Pelecypoda" of the Blake dredging 
expedition in the West Indies (Cambridge, 1886). 

DALLAS, Alexander James, statesman, b. in 
the island of Jamaica, 21 June, 1759 ; d. in Tren- 
ton, N. J., 14 Jan., 1817. He was the son of a 
Scottish physician who emigrated to Jamaica about 
1750. The son was educated in Edinburgh and at 
Westminster under James Elphinston, the friend 
of Dr. Johnson, whose acquaintance and that of 
Dr. Franklin he made whnVa student. He then 
studied law in London, returned to Jamaica in 
1780, and, upon the remarriage of his mother and 
his exclusion from the inheritance of his father's 
estate, removed in April, 1783, to Philadelphia. 
He took the oath of allegiance to the common- 



wealth of Pennsylvania in June, 1783, was admit- 
ted to the bar in July. ITS."), and a few years later 
was admitted to practice in the United States 
eourts, and became eminently roc oCMfu l as a law- 
yer in Philadelphia. He wrote for periodicals. and, 
was for a time editor of the "Columbian Maga- 
zine." In January, 1791, he was appointed seen - 
tary of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and 
in December, 1793, his commission was renewed. 
While in this office he prepared an edition of the 
laws of Pennsylvania, with notes. He also com- 
piled four volumes of "Reports of Cases ruled 
and adjudged by the Courts of the United States 
and of Pennsylvania, before and since the Revolu- 
tion " (Philadelphia, 1790-1807). He accompanied 
an armed force to Pittsburg, in the capacity of 
paymaster-general, in 1794. He was again ap- 
jxilnted secretary of state in December, 1796, and 
neldthe office until Thomas Jefferson became presi- 
dent in 1801 and appointed him, as an ardent sup- 
porter of the republican party, U. S. district at- 
torney for the eastern district of Pennsylvania, 
which office he held till 1814, when he was called 
into the cabinet as secretary of the treasury by 
President Madison. When he entered upon this 
office, 6 Oct., 1814, the government was seriously 
embarrassed in its finances through the war with 
Great Britain, and the committee of ways and 
means in congress applied to Mr. Dallas for sug- 
gestions as to the best mode of raising money for 
the requirements of the government, and of sus- 
taining the public credit. In a masterly report he 
showed that the money required could not be 
raised by taxation alone, but must be obtained in 
part by loans. He proposed for the purpose of 
raising a loan the establishment of a government 
bank. The house, in committee of the whole, re- 
ported in favor of the bank on 24 Oct., 1814, and 
a bill was passed on 20 Jan., 1815, but was vetoed 
by President Madison. Having been interrogated 
as to the probable effect of a large issue of treas- 
ury-notes, Secretary Dallas made a reply that had 
much influence in restoring public confidence and 
arousing the spirit of patriotism. On 3 April, 
1816, an act to incorporate a national bank was 
passed by congress and received the signature of 
the president. Mr. Dallas's administration of the 
treasury department was able and energetic. Treas- 
ury-notes, which were scarcely current when he 
assumed office, were sold at par, with interest added, 
a few months later. The bank had the effect of 
greatly improving the credit of the government. 
After March, 1815, he discharged the duties of sec- 
retary of war in addition to the direction of the 
treasury department, and superintended the re- 
duction of the array consequent upon the restora- 
tion of peace. Having contributed, to the extent 
of his ability, to extricate the government from 
its financial difficulties, and having seen the United 
States bank firmly established, he retired from 
office in November, 1816, and returned to the prac- 
tice of law in Philadelphia, but died a few weeks 
afterward. Besides the works mentioned above 
and his treasury reports, he published " Features 
of Jay's Treaty " (Philadelphia, 1795); "Speeches 
on the Trial of Blount " ; " Address to the Society 
of Constitutional Republicans " (1805) ; and " Ex- 
position of the Causes and Character of the War 
of 1812-'15." He left unfinished a " History of 
Pennsylvania." The third edition of his " Reports 
of Cases," with notes by Thomas J. Wharton, ap- 
peared in Philadelphia in 1830. — His son, Alex- 
ander James, naval officer, b. in 1791 ; d. in Cal- 
lao bay, Peru, 3 June, 1844, was appointed a mid- 
shipman on 22 Nov., 1805, became fc lieutenant 



DALLAS 



DAI.I. Vs 



00 



..n 18 Jui 'mnmiiiltT ..n a March, 1H7. 

ami captain CO M April. 1888. He MTWd under 
rers "ii board I In* " Pre-idetit " in 1818, ami 
ward under Chauncev on Lake Ontario, and 
was with Porter in his cruise for the extermina- 
t i<>ii <>f pirates in the West Indies. — Another eon, 
I, >i i ill in. -tiit. '-man, l>. In Philadelphia, 

id .Inly. 1798; <1. there 81 Deo, 1884, 
graduated with first -class honors at Princeton in 
[810, and then studied law in his father's office, 
U-ing admitted to the Imr in 1813. The same year 
• I the appointment of private secretary to 
Albert Gel latin, ami accompanied thai gentleman 
on his mission to Russia, to negotiate a treaty of 
peace with England. <>n his return to this coun- 
try, in the following year, he assisted his father for 
some months in his duties as secretary of the 

treasury, ami then Ijegan the practii f law in 

New York city, and was solicitor of the I'.S. bank. 
In 1817 he was appointed deputy attorney-general 
for Philadelphia county. Taking an active part 
in politics, and supporting the oandidaoyof Gen. 
Jackson for the presidency in 1824 and 1828, Mr. 
Dallas was in 1820 elected mayor, and. on the 
elevation of Gen. Jackson to the presidency, in 
1888 was appointed U. S. attorney forthat district 
He retained this ofHce till 18&1, when he was 
elected to the U. S. senate in the place of Isaac 

D. Barnard, who 
had resigned. He 
took a prominent 
part in tne debates 
of that body until 
the expiration of 
his term, in 1888, 
when he declined 
a re-election, re- 
turned to the prac- 
tice of the law, and 
filled the office of 
attornev-gcncral < >f 
Pennsylvania from 
lxw till iK-tr>. in 

1837 President Van 
Bnren appointed 
him minister to 
Russia, which post 
he retained till Oc- 
tober, 1HM, when 
he was recalled, at 
his own request, and again resumed legal prac- 
tice. George M. Dallas and James Buchanan were 
for many years rival leaders of the democratic 
party in 'Pennsylvania, and aspirants for the presi- 
dency of the United States. In May. 1H44. the 
democratic convention at Baltimore nominated 
him for vice-president of the United States on the 
ticket with James K. Polk for pr esi den t The 
democratic candidates were elected by an electoral 
vote of 170 out of 275. The questions of the time 
were the tariff and the annexation of Texas. Mr. 
Polk's election caused the admission of Texas to 
the Union just l>efore the close of Mr. Tyler's 
term of office, but the subject of the tariff was left 
for the new administration. The appointment of 
his rival. Buchanan, as secretary of state, left Mr. 
Dallas without influence on the poUoy oi the ad- 
ministration; hut the tie in the senate on the free- 
trade tariff of 1846, and its adoption by his pasting 
vote, gave hJm prominence. A hill that levied 
duties on imports f,, r the purpose of revenue only, 
abandoning the protective policy, was |>as-cd by 

the boose of lepissantatlvei in 1848, bnl when it 

reached the senate that hodf was evenly divided, 
so that the decision rested with the liuu ptusidsmt 




In giving Ml vote Mr. Ifcilla* said that, though the 

bill mi« defective, he believed th., 

tarnished that a majoritj of th« 

change, to ■ great extent, in prim iplo, 

fundamentally ; hut In giving the cast 11 

a low tariff he violated pled: 

lectioiiists of Pennsylvania that had secured the 

rote of t In- Mate for his |>ar1y in the : 

election. His term expired -4 Mr. 

DaUsl Mn-ciidcd Mr. Buchanan an mirii«t«r to 

Great Britain, and continued in that post fmmt 

Feb., 1868, until the ap|N>intment hv I'n-nident 
Lincoln of Charles F. Adam-, who rrlicv.s-1 him 
on Hi May, 1861. At the \.-rv l«-gmii 
his diplomatic SMlfusfal Fnglaml he vm- called 
t<> act upon the Cent nil American question, and 
the reqin-t made hv the (Totted States to the 

British government that Sir John Crnmpton. the 
British minister t<> tin- Cnited Stat.--. shoOM l»- n- 
called. Both the-,- delicate question* were man- 
aged hv Mr. Dallas in a conciliatory spirit, fait 
without any sacrifice of national dignity, ami h.th 
tiled amiciihly. At thsdoss Of hi- diplo- 
matic career Mr. Dallas returned to private life 
and took no further |>art in public affair, excel it to 
express condemnation of secession. Many of his 
speeches were published, among them "An Beeay 

on the Expediency of erecting any Monument to 
Washington except that involved in the Preserve* 
tion of the Union " (1811); "A vTndiwetWi of 
Presiilcnt Monroe for authorising Gen. Jackson to 

pursue the Hostile Indians into Florida" (1*19): 

"Speech in the Senate on Nullification and the 
Tariff" (1881); " Eulogy on Andrew Jackson" 

(1846); "Speech <>n giving his Ca-ting Vole OO the 
Tariff of lK4ti " (1H4<»): " Vindication of th. 
President'- Ca-ting Vote in a S-rii - of Letters" 

1848 : "Speech to the Citi/en- of Pittsburg on 

the War. Slaverv. and the Tariff "(1847); "Sjwech 
to the Citizens of Philadelphia on the Necessity of 
maintaining the Union, the Constitution, ami the 
Compromise "(18681 a "Seriee of b e tt e rs from 
London." written while he wa- minister then-, m 
IMotJ-'tkt, was edited and published bv hi- daugh- 
ter Julia (Philadelphia, 1869).— The third son of 
Alexander .lames was a lawyer and judge in Pitts- 
bur-. Paw— The son of George M.. Philip Nirklln, 
h. in 18S5; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., h Man I 
was a lawyer practising hi Philadelphia, and. while 
hi- father' held the English misskin, was secretary 
of legation in London. B ooe rt Charles author, 
a brother of Alexander James, h. in Ku - 
Jamaica, in 17-">4: d. in Normandy. Frm 
is-24. was edooated under Mr. B phin st on , studied 

law in the Temple, returned to Jamaica at the 
age of twenty-one, married in Kngland three yean 
later, and returned to Jamaica to fill a hnVBttVO 
DOSl but gave it up onaCOOUnt Of hi- fife > health, 
and resided in Frame until the French n-volutmn. 
lb- then came to the United Stat.-, but was not 
pleased with the count rv. and consequently re- 
turned to Fngland. where he followed a literary 
career. He was a friend and counsellor of I>>nJ 
Byron, the poet, whose uncle, Copt Byn.n, mar- 
ried hi- Skier. Among his publications wOTO 
-Poems," "Lucreoie, a Tragedy, and Moral ha- 
am" (London, 1787); -Auhn-y.' a novel 

- Memoir- of Mane Antoinette.'' fn-m the French 
of Joseph Weber 11888); and many more transla- 
ttMM and original trad- in defence of royalty in 
France and in condemnation of the Revolution; 
•The MorlamK Tales illustrative of the Simple 
and the Surnrisit • In the > year of bis 

death he published "Rejections of the) 
l>.rd Bvn.n fnun h*W to the hml of 1H14. -!1» 



60 



DALLING 



DALTON 



son, Alexander Robert Charles, after serving 
with distinction as a British officer through the 
Peninsular war and at the battle of Waterloo 
(when his cousin Charles was wounded), entered 
the Anglican priesthood, following his cousin's ex- 
ample, and became eminent as the organizer of 
missions in the west of Ireland. He was the au- 
thor of many popular devotional books. — Another 
distinguished member of the family in Great 
Britain was Sir George, a political author, b. in 
London in 1758; d. in 1833. His principal publi- 
cation was a work entitled " Thoughts on our Pres- 
ent Situation, with Remarks on the Policy of a 
War with France " (1793). 

DALLING, Sir John, British soldier, d. in 1798. 
He served under Loudoun as major of infantry in 
1757, was engaged at Louisburg in 1758, and com- 
manded a body of light infantry under Gen. Wolfe 
at Quebec in 1759. He was made lieutenant-colo- 
nel of the 43d foot in 1760, and commanded the 
regiment at the siege of Havana in August, 1762. 
In 1767 he was appointed lieutenant-governor, and 
a few years later governor, of Jamaica. He was 
promoted major-general in 1777, conducted an ex- 
pedition against the Spanish colonies in 1780, be- 
came lieutenant-general in 1782, and was made a 
baronet in 1783. 

DALSHEIMER, Alice, poet, b. in New Or- 
leans. La., 1 Dec, 1845; d. there, 15 Jan., 1880. 
Her maiden name was Solomon. She received her 
education in the city schools, and in 1865 became 
a teacher, in her examination as to qualifications 
standing at the head of 250 applicants. She mar- 
ried, in 1867, Mr. Dalsheimer, a lawyer, and gave 
up teaching, but resumed it in 1873, when she be- 
came principal of the girls' department of a school 
under the management of the Hebrew educational 
society, where she remained until 1878. Her writ- 
ings consist of numerous sketches, short stories, 
and poems, principally the latter, all of which ap- 
peared in the daily papers of New Orleans under 
the pseudonym of " Salvia Dale," but have never 
been collected and published in book-form. Of her 

I)oems, those entitled " Motherhood " and " Twi- 
ight Shadows " are among the best. 

DALTON, John, R. C. bishop in Newfoundland, 
d. in Harbor Grace, Newfoundland, in April, 1869. 
He was nominated bishop on the creation of the 
see in 1856, and was consecrated the same year. 

DALTON, John Call, physiologist, b. in Chelms- 
ford, Mass., 2 Feb., 1825 ; d. in New York, 11 Feb., 
1889. He was graduated at Harvard in 1844. and 
at the medical department in 1847. His attention 
was directed to physiology, and in 1851 he ob- 
tained the annual prize offered by the American 
medical association by his essay on " Corpus Lu- 
teum." Subsequently his researches on the anato- 
my of the placenta, the physiology of the cere- 
bellum, intestinal digestion, and other experiment- 
al observations, embodied in his treatise on physi- 
ology, gained for him a reputation as one of the 
first of modern physiologists. He became profes- 
sor of physiology in the medical department of 
the University of Buffalo, and was the first in the 
United States to teach that subject with illustra- 
tions by experiments on animals. This chair he 
resigned in 1854, and accepted a similar professor- 
ship in the Vermont medical college in Woodstock, 
where he remained until 1856. From 1859 till 
1861 he filled the chair of physiology in the Long 
Island college hospital in Brooklyn. During the 
winter of 1854-'5 he lectured on physiology at the 
College of physicians and surgeons, New York, 
temporarily filling the place of Dr. Alonzo Clark. 
In 1855 he was elected to that professorship, which 



he continued to fill until his resignation in 1883. 
In l s *t he again succeeded Dr. Clark as president 
of the College of physicians and surgeons. Dor* 
ing the civil war he was a surgeon in the national 
•en ice, going to Washington in 1861 in that ca- 
pacity with the 7th New York regiment. Subse- 
quently he was appointed surgeon of volunteers, 
and held important offices in the medical corps 
until his resignation in March, 1864. Dr. Dalton 
had been an active member of many medical soci- 
eties, and held prominent offices in them. In 
1864 he was elected a member of the National 
academy of sciences. His contributions to the 
literature of physiology had been numerous since 
1851. He had published articles in the •• American 
Journal of the Medical Sciences," the " Transac- 
tions of the New York Academy of Sciences," the 
" American Medical Monthly," and other medical 
journals in New York ; and also many valuable 
articles in his specialties in the American and 
other cyclopaedias. He hadpublished in book-form 
" A Treatise on Human Physiology " (New York, 
1859 ; 6th ed., 1882) ; " A Treatise on Physiology 
and Hygiene for Schools, Families, and Colleges 
(1868); "The Experimental Method of Medicine" 
(1882) ; " Doctrines of the Circulation " (1884) ; and 
" Topographical Anatomy of the Brain " (1885). — 
His brother, Edward Barry, physician, b. in 
Lowell, Mass., 21 Sept., 1834 ; d. in Santa Barbara, 
Cal., 13 May, 1872, was graduated at Harvard in 
1855, and at the College of physicians and sur- 
geons, New York, in 1858. Dr. Dalton then set- 
tled in New York, and was resident physician of 
St. Luke's hospital when the civil war began. He 
at once volunteered as a surgeon, and served from 
April, 1861, till May, 1865. At first he was a 
medical officer in the navy, after which he was 
commissioned surgeon of the 36th New York vol- 
unteers, and subsequently surgeon of U. S. volun- 
teers, serving as medical inspector of the 6th 
army corps, and as medical director of the Depart- 
ment of Virginia. In March, 1864, he was trans- 
ferred to the Army of the Potomac, where he re- 
mained throughout the campaign of that year, 
from the Wilderness to City Point, having charge 
of all the wounded, and establishing and moving 
the hospitals. At City Point he was made chief 
medical officer of the depot field-hospitals, Army 
of the Potomac, till the final campaign in March 
and April, 1865, when he accompanied the troops 
as medical director of the 9th army corps. After 
his discharge he was successively appointed brevet 
lieutenant-colonel and colonel of volunteers. In 
March, 1866, he was appointed sanitary superin- 
tendent of the New York metropolitan board of 
health, in which office he remained until his resig- 
nation in January, 1869. In 1869 he originated 
the present city ambulance system for the trans- 
portation of the sick and injured. His health had 
then begun to fail, and, after trying various resorts, 
he finally visited California, where he died from 
consumption. He published papers on " The Dis- 
order known as Bronzed Skin, or Disease of the 
Supra-renal Capsules " (1860) ; " The Metropolitan 
Board of Health " (1868) ; and " Reports of the 
Sanitary Superintendent of the Metropolitan Board 
of Health " from 1866 till 1869. 

DALTON, Tristram, senator, b. in the part of 
the town of Newbury that afterward became New- 
burvnort, Mass., 2K May, 1738; d. in Boston, Mass., 
30 May, 1817. He was prepared for college in 
I )u n uner academy, Bvfield, under Samuel Moody, 
and graduated at Harvard in 1755. He then 
studied law, but engaged in mercantile pursuits 
with his father-in-law, Robert Hooper.^nd attend- 



DALY 

bit lorn estate, call.. I Spring Hill, in West 
bury. He was an ardent patriot, and • i« 

Of ttSSWttigl unty. iiiiinii^ whom 

many notanle mi»n. He was distinguished for his 

elegance uf manners and scholarly aceomplish- 

Hunts, an. I entertained VTashlTlgton. Adams, Tal- 

i iid. and other famous persons at Spring Hill. 

lie \V(i.s II iVIfltl from Massachusetts to the - 

rention of committees of the New England prov- 
ince- that met in Prorldsnos, R, I.. M !»••.. l?7n, 
speaker of the house of 1 1 prMBntltlff, and a 
MOlber Of the senate of Massachusetts, and \\a- 
chosen a senator in the 1st congress, ami drew tin- 
lot for the short term, serving from 14 April. 17 v !». 
till :i Maroh. LltL Following tin* advice of hi- 
friend. President Washington, he pold his projN-rty 
in Ifassaohusattl to invest in real estate in Wash- 
ington : but through the mismanagement of hi> 
it he lost a {Treat part of the sum thus invent- 
ed, and commercial losses that occurred at the 
same time raduosd him to Utivwlf. In 1810 In- 
obtained the post of surveyor of the port of Bos- 
ton, which he held until his death. 

DALY, Augustin, dramatist, b. in Plymouth, 
N. ('., '2(» .Inly. IKK His education was "received 
partly in Norfolk, Va.. and in the public schools of 
New York city. He began his literary career 
as dramatic editor of the "Sunday Courier," in 
New York city, in 1859, and continued as such on 
the "Sunday Courier," the New York '•Times," 
the "Sun," the '• Express," and the" Citizen," until 
18(59, when he opened the Fifth Avenue theatre on 
Twenty-fourth street. This building was destroyed 
by fire in 1873, and three weeks later he opened 
another theatre, formerly the "Globe," in Broad- 
way, under the former name. In 1879 he estab- 
lisln-d Daly's theatre in Broadway, near Thirtieth 
street. He has three times taken his entire com- 

Siny to California, twice to England, and once to 
ermany and France, where the merits of his 
management and training were warmly acknowl- 
edged. His career a* a dramatic author began in 
1862 with an adaptation from the German of Mo- 
seni hal's " Deborah," and since then he has pro- 
duced original plays — among them "Divorce." 
"Pi<pn\" "Horizon, "Under the Gaslight,' 1 and 
many adaptations from French and German au- 
thors. Most of his productions have won popu- 
lar success. Mr. Daly has also, for several seasons, 
managed the "Grand Opera House " in New York. 
His noted achievement is the organization of com- 
binations of players, complete scenic presentations, 
and elevation of dramatic purposes. He is an en- 
thusiast and a hard worker in his profession, de- 
voting all his time to the success of his theatre, a 
great reader, and a well-informed student of the 
dramatic literature of many nations. 

DALY, Charles Patrick, jurist. 1>. in New York 
city. II Oct., 1816. He received a little school- 
ing; early went to sea before the mast. SMiillg 
three years, and later became a mechanic's appren- 
tice. Afterward he studied law in his native city. 
was admitted to the bar in 1839, elected a member 
of the legislature in 1843, became justice of tin- 
court of common pleas in 1844. first judge in 1857, 
and chief justice from 1H71 to 1886, his term ex- 
piring l>y limitation of agUj when be returned to 
the practice of hi> profession. In 1800 be received 
from Columbia the degree of LL. I). Justice 
Daly has for many years been president of tin- 
American gcoajraphioal society, lectured at clum- 
bia law-school, delivered discourses before learned 
societies, and made public addresses. He has 
visited Europe on five occasions. It has l»cen said 
of Justice Daly that, as a lawyer, no large fee has 



ZKLL 



n 



[•I"*. 




nosed him mcattel his asrviosson behalf 

of an uinb-wn mg cause, He is the air 
men.us biographical, seieotttV, and legal 
most of them 

issued in |.HIli- 

phlet-form. His 

Implications cm- 
irace " Historic- 
al Sketch of t In- 
judicial Tribu- 
nals of New Yoik 
from 1628 to 
lM'i"i New Y..rk, 
" History 
of Naturaliza- 
tion and its 
Laws in Differ- 
ent ( 'ountries " 

(1800); - Are the 

Southern Pri- 

Miteersiinn Pi- 
rates J" (U 
"Origin and His- 
tory of Institu- 
tion? for the Pro- 
mot ion of Useful 
Arts bv Indus- 
trial Exhibit ions "(Albany. 1864): " When was the 
Drama introduced in America t" (1NM»; 1.1 Tola. 
of "Reports of Cases in the Court of (<-mrnon 
Pleas, Citv and County of New York " (New Y..rk. 
1H6S-V7):' "First S-tt lenient of Jews in North 
America" (1875}; "What we know of Map* and 
Man-making In-fore the Time of Mereator 

DALY, Sir Dominlrk, g o vern o r of Prises Ed- 
ward island, b. in 1 Tu* : d. in Adelaide. s,,nth 
Australia, lit Fell., 1888. \\ v was acting chief 
se creta ry in Canada for nearly twenty-six year*, 
and in 1851 was ap|»ointcd governor of the island 
of Tobago. In 1H.Y1 be was knighted, and trans- 
ferred to Prince Edward island, of which he was 

governor till 1008. In l^u be was appointed 
governor of Booth Australia 
DALZELL, James, soldier, d. mar Detroit, 

Mich.. 00 July. 1768. Of his early life nothing i* 
known. He was a co m p an ion of Israel Put rutin in 
some of the most adventurous passages of that 
rough veteran's life, and afterward an aide-de-<-ainp 
to Sen. Jeffrey Amlnrst. He led a dctachnn nt of 
900 men to the relief of the garri son of iH-tn-it, 
reaching that place at davhreak. '.»» July. 176S. 
After one day'- Net, Gent Dalzell led a BJgM sallr 
againsl the Indians, in which his command of '.M7 
men was surprisi-d 00 the banks of a rivulet, called 
Parent's creek, defeated and dispersed. Ihdiell 
fell ami was amlned while attempting to l.r 
the wounded. His heart was toni out, and with 
it the Indians wiped the faces of their pri--in-r». 
The stream received the name of M Beeowj Kun." 

bv which it is known to t ti i— dav. 

DALZKLL, Robert M.. inventor, b. near 1M- 
fa-t. Ireland, in 1793; d.in Kochester. X. Y..20JaiL. 
1H7:{. His ancestor* were S<-t< h. and his father. 
John DalaalL .» leader in the Irish rebeUioo • 
in oonasqaeoot Of which the old family mansion 
was bulled, and In- foread to put to sea in an open 

boat Ha was tenoned by a eamal. bound for n.» 

York, when- he settled ainl where his family soon 
followed him. Winn KoUrt was shoot thirtr- 

f age he removed to Boahashsa Be 

millwright, untisuallv skilful ami ingenious, 

and ninnv of the flour-mills in the city of Koehsa* 

ter were Iniilt under his supervision. He invented 

ami Introduced the -elevator system "in handling 

| and stowing grain, which is now in general use. 



62 



DA.MKN 



DAMPIER 



DAMEN, Arnold, clergyman, \>. in Holland 
about 1800. After entering the Society of .Jesus. 
he came to the United States, and the development 
of the Roman Catholic cliunli in the west is con- 
sidered to be largely his work. In 1857 he erected 
a Jesuit establishment in Chicago ; he also built 
the great Church of the Holy Trinity, and founded 
the College of St. Ignatius in the same city. His 
success as a missionary has been very great. As a 
pulpit orator he ranks very high in the religious 
body to which he belongs. 

D'AMICO, Carlos A. (da-am-e'-ko), Argentine 
statesman, b. in Buenos Ayrus in 1844. At the age 
of twenty-one he was graduated in law at the uni- 
versity of his native city, and opened an office in 
Buenos Ayres. At the same time he took an act i re 
part in politics, affiliating himself in the national 
autonomist party, of which he is still one of the 
chief supporters. In 1868, when the allied armies, 
having repelled the forces of Lopez, were about to 
invade Paraguay, D'Amico accepted a commission 
in a regiment of national guards, was present at 
all the battles of the allied armies on Paraguayan 
territory, and rose to the rank of major. lie then 
returned to his law practice, but soon was elected 
secretary of the federal senate, and in 1877 to con- 
gress as member for Buenos Ayres. In October, 
1880, he was appointed secretary of state of the 
government of the state of Buenos Ayres, which 
office he held until, in 1883, he was called to the 
federal senate as senator for Buenos Ayres. At 
the expiration of the term of Gov. Rocha, in 1884, 
D'Amico was chosen governor of the state of Buenos 
Ayres. He is, perhaps, the most popular orator of 
the Argentine republic, and in the chamber of 
deputies, as well as in the senate, uses his gifts to 
defend the interests of his native state and the 
federation in general. As minister of the state 
government, he initiated measures granting in- 
creased facilities for communications with Europe 
and the countries of both Americas, and fostering 
emigration and the public-school system. He was 
one of the originators of the railroad to Mendoza, 
destined to cross the Andes after traversing the 
immense pampas, and to put Chili in communica- 
tion with the Atlantic seaboard. During his term 
as minister he worked incessantly for the execution 
of the project to found a new capital, and, when his 
idea was accepted by Gov. Rocha, the foundations 
of the new city, La Plata, were laid in 1882. When 
he became governor he pushed the progress of this 
favorite city still more energetically, and its growth 
and embellishment made rapid strides. Under his 
administration were either begun or completed the 
palace of the government, the ministerial buildings, 
the house of congress, the progreso bank, and a 
great number of public-school buildings. His term 
as governor will expire in the latter part of 1887. 

DAMON, David, clergyman, b. in East Sudbury 
(now Wayland), Mass., 12Sept., 1788; d. in Read- 
ing, Mass., in 1843. His father was a farmer, 
barely able to support his family, so that the son 
was dependent for his education entirely upon his 
own exertions. He prepared himself for college at 
Phillips Andover academy, and was graduated at 
Harvard in 1811. He was one of the founders of 
the Harvard Lyceum, at Cambridge, in 1810— '11, 
and was the third scholar in a class of which Ed- 
ward Everett and N. L. Frothingham were the 
first and second. Ho studied theology at Andover, 
but was not graduated, was licensed to preach 22 
Nov., 1813, ordained 1 Feb., 1815, ikid installed as 
pastor of the Unitarian church rn Lunenburg, 
Mass. He occupied various parishes in New Eng- 
land until 1835, when he settled in East Cambridge, 



Mass. In January, 1841, he delivered the annual 
sermon before the legislature of Massachut 
and in May of the same year the Dudleian lecture 
at Harvard. The degree of D. D. was conferred 
upon him by his alma mater in 1843. His death was 
caused by apoplexy, wliieh attacked him while he' 
was officiating at the funeral of his friend, Edmund 
Parker. His publications consisted principally of 
sermons and addresses. 

DAMON, Howard Franklin, physician, b. in 
Scituate, Mass., in 1833; d. in Boston, 17 Sept., 
1884. He was graduated at Harvard in 1858, and 
at the medical department of that institution in 
1801. He was physician and superintendent of the 
Boston dispensary in 1862-'4, and was afterward 
admitting physician to the city hospital, and physi- 
cian to the department of skin diseases among out- 
door patients. He was a member of the American 
medical association, of the Boston society for medi- 
cal improvement, the Boston microscopical society, 
and was corresponding member of the New York 
dermatological society. He was the author of 
" Leucocythffimia," a Bovlston prize essay (Boston, 
1864) ; " Photographs of Skin Diseases 1 *' (Boston, 
1870) ; " Neuroses of the Skin " (Philadelphia, 1868) ; 
"Structural Lesions of the Skin" (Philadelphia, 
1869) ; and " Some General Remarks on the Fre- 
quency of Skin Diseases " (1870). 

DAMPIER, William, navigator, b. in East 
Coker, Somersetshire, about 1652; the place and 
date of his death are unknown. Early in life he 
was left an orphan, when he was taken from school 
and placed on board of a vessel bound for New- 
foundland, and on his return he engaged as a com- 
mon sailor on a vessel sailing for the East Indies. 
He served in the Dutch war during 1673 under Sir 
Edward Sprague, but failing health led him to 
settle in the country. In 1674 he became under- 
manager of an estate in Jamaica, but soon engaged 
in the coasting trade, and made two voyages to the 
bay of Campeachy, where he also remained for 
some time with the logwood-cutters as a common 
workman, and subsequently published an account 
of his experiences. In 1678 he returned to Ja- 
maica, and then sailed to England, but again re- 
turned to the West Indies during the following 
year, when he was persuaded to join a party of 
buccaneers, with whom he crossed the isthmus of 
Panama, and spent 1680 on the Peruvian coast, 
successfully plundering several towns. After 
another privateering voyage on the Spanish main, 
he set out on an expedition, under Capt. John 
Cook, against the Spaniards in the South sea. 
They sailed from Virginia in August, 1684, cruised 
along the coasts of Guinea, and then, doubling 
Cape Horn, entered the Pacific. Here the expe- 
dition was joined by another ship from London, 
bent on a similar errand, and, after stopping at the 
island of Juan Fernandez, they cruised together 
up the coast of South America, capturing several 
prizes. While near Cape Blanco, off the coast of 
Mexico, Capt. Cook died, and was succeeded by 
Capt. Davis. Here a vessel commanded by Capt. 
Swan joined the expedition. Unsuccessful attacks 
were made on Guayaquil, and also on a Spanish 
fleet laden with treasures from Peru, but they suc- 
ceeded in capturing several prizes. After a time 
Dampier left Davis and, joining Swan, set out for 
the East Indies across the Pacific ocean. On reach- 
ing Mindanao, the crew mutinied, and Swan, with 
others, was left on the island. Dampier continued 
cruising in East Indian waters for several years, 
until he landed at Bencoolen, where he acted as a 
gunner in the English fort. In 1691 he sailed for 
England, reaching home in September. Subse- 



DAMKnSCll 

qucntly hi entered the British navy, ami com- 
manded the " Roebuck." lie WW Milt on a 

\ and illicit t<> Brazil, ami llienoeto 
Australia. WMfl In- s|>cnt MWM time in explora- 
tion ami circumnavigated the bland, to which he 
gOVOthe BUM of New Britain. Tin- small urvhi- 
pelago ami tlic strait between I'apua ami New 
Britain wen- named f«»r him at this time. After 
other discoveries, be returned bj a new route t.. 
('cram, in the Moluccas, and in February, 1?<U, 
arrived off the island of Ascension, where his ves- 
sel sprung a leak and foundered. He reached 
England, however, during the latter part of the 
year. He had command of a ship in the Booth 
seas al*>ut 1 TO. - ), ami sailed with ('apt. Btiadling, 
whose vessel foundered at sea. Later hampier ac- 
companied Woodes HoLCefs in his voyage around 
the world during 1 708—' 1 1 in the cajwity of pilot. 
On this expedition Guayaquil was taken. He pub- 
lished "A Yovage around the World," and a 

supplement to it, describing the oountries of Ton* 

quiii, Malacca, etc.; "Two Vo ya ges to Cam- 
peachy"; "A Discourse of Trade Winds, etc., in 
the Torrid Zone" (1707); ami M A Voyage to New 
Holland" (1709). The best edition" of his col- 
lected voyages is in four volumes (London. 1729), 

DAMBObCH, Leopold, musician, l>. in Posen, 
Prussia, n Oct.. 1832; d. in New York city, 16 
Feb., 1885. At the age of nine years he began to 
study the violin, but was obliged to practise at the 
house of friends, on account of the opposition of 
his parents. Acceding to their wishes, lie entered 
the University of Berlin, was graduated with high 
honors, and received a diploma as doctor of medi- 
cine. But every 
leisure moment 
was given to mu- 
sic. He studied 
the violin under 
Hies, and thor- 
ough Itass with 
Dehn and Bohm- 
er. After his grad- 
uation. Dr. Dam- 
rosch devoted his 
time and energies 
to the study of 
music, and his 
tame ai a violin- 
ist soon reached 
the large cities of 
Germany, where 
he appeared with 
success. Shortly 
afterward he went 
to Weimar, and was cordially received by Liszt, 
who appointed him solo-violinist in the Ducal or- 
chestra, of which he was the director. Liszt dedi- 
cated one of his symphonic poems, " I*? Triomphe 
Funelire de Tasse,*' to Dr. Damrosch, an honor ex- 
tended to two others only — Wagner and Berlioz. 
Dr. Datnroseh'sfirst appearance as a conductor was 
at the Philharmonic concerts in Brcslau in 1808, 
where he was highly successful, ami conducted 
them for three years. In these concerts he gave a 
judicious mixture of popular and classic as well as 
modern pieces, and in 1862 founded a symphonic 
society in that city, with an orchestra of eighty 
performers, modelled after the (iewandhaus con- 
certs of Leipsie. The fame of this society soon 
extended throughout Germany, ami several of the 

performances were directed by Liszt. Wagner 
also accepted the invitation to conduct his own 
manuscriiit compositions in the winter of lsc.T. 
In 1H71 Or. Damrosch came to New York upon 



DA MKOSL'II 



m 




^'^^v^^i^aZ^ 



the mutation of the Arion society, ant. , 
his first appearance, on May. I „,»», 

hall, as conductor. c<>m|»o«rr. and v t. ,-t ||. 

bonded the Oratorio -■ i,m J,, 
ties that had previous!} ■ xtiued had fallal. 
various cause., and the onlv organization., of tht. 
character were the old HarmonI 
Church-Mu-ic association. The work was begun 
with enthusiasm, and in the rant of iu orjcanTse- 
lion the tirst oOMOrl »»■ gtrssj. v» itli a programme 
consisting of selection* fron •ndd, Pales* 

trina. etc. The growth ..f the loeletj »a» audi 
that in the following year the first orator, 
dels "Sjiuisi.il." was |»rformitl with full orchestra, 
and on Christmas evening of that fear tht 

siah"was given with great afloat, it pari 
Ha.iis, B ee th o v en's, BrahariL Handola, Haydn's, 
Ifendelsaohn'a Mooartla, Palsetrins's, »mi 

great works, many of which had never been given 
in the United States. In 1H77 Dr. Damr<~ h. in 
connection with a number <>f [i i r i nm interested 
in the cultivation <»f orchestral music, established 
the Symphony society. Although a M-paratr or- 
ganization, it 'has become Identmed with the ora- 
torio society by the joint perfor ma nce of - 
notable works. The co-o|>cration of | 
ties reached its climax in the gnat ••musical fes- 
tival" which was held in the armory of the 7th 

regiment in New York, from ;j till ; 
The chorus numbered 1,200, the main body being 
the Oratorio society, which was augmented by va- 
rious choral societies fp.m neighboring towi 
additional chorus of l.OtMl young laUMI from the 
Normal college and 'V+\ boys from the church 
choirs t<Kik part in the afternoon OOOOO rtS. The 
orchestra was co m posed <>f 860 pieces, and a laryr 
number of artists were selected for soloists \>\ Dr. 
Damrosch. Among the choral works performed 
were Handel's "Dettingen Te Deum"and "Mes- 
siah"; Uubinsteiii's •* Tower of Babel "(first time); 
Berlioz's "Grande Hesse des Hortee" (first time); 
and Beethoven's "Ninth Symphony." The audi- 
ence numbered from n.ooo to 10,000 at each oon« 
cert, ami the enthusiasm for the p r ojector of this 
enterprise resulted in an ovation on the last night. 
The degree of Doctor of Music was conferred npon 
him by Columbia in l**<>. In 1881 Dr. Damrosch 
travelled extensively through the sreat with his 
orchestra, meeting everywhere with great succes*. 
Italian opera, which, through its -star" system and 
small repertory, had been losing its hold open 
American audiences, received its death-blow 
when Dr. Damrosch pr op ose d German opera to the 
directors <>f the mw Metropolitan opera-house. In 

one i it h. September, 18ns, he engaged h - 

pan v. and began the most remarkable »-ries of 
operatic performances ever held in this country. 
I he company comprised some of thegraateal artists 
of the German o|>cra-houses. ami. in contrast with 
the hitherto prevailing mode, every P*rL oven the 
smallest, was carefully presented. Twelve ol the 
operas performed were comparative novelties, the 
most important of which WOTS Wagner's "Tann- 

bluser," M Lohengrin," and "Die walkflre," and 
Beethoven's - Fidelia" This proved so fa 
Damrosch's last effort. He conduct. si ■van par* 
formance except during the last weak of his Ufa, 
when he took eseveweoei,frts»whiohheai 

covered. His musical OOaanoaJtioai include ssveral 
violin (oncert.-, "Siilninith." a biblical id) I. and a 
- Festival Overture." Be had Ihorongh command 
over the modern resources of instrumentation, and 
his musical ideas are characterized by giant no- 
bility and refinement. Hi* violin «-om|-««tions 
are 'prized bj woliuist* as valuable additions to 



64 



DANA 



DAN.v 



the literature of that instrument. It was as a con- 
ductor, however, that he gained Ids neatest celeb- 
rity. He possessed strong personal magnetism, 
united with power to impart his ideas, which made 
him an ideal conductor. His aim was always to 
produce the inner meaning and spirit of a compo- 
sition. Through his gentle bearing and high cul- 
ture he gained many warm friends. Never seek- 
ing for immediate fame or personal success, he 
found that high truth which he extended in his 
art. — His son, Walter Johannes, b. in Bres- 
lau, Prussia, 80 Jan., 1862, received his musical 
education chiefly from his father, but also had 
instruction from other noted musicians. During 
the great music festival given by Dr. Damrosch in 
May, 1881, he first acted as conductor in drilling 
several sections of the large chorus, one in New 
York, and another in Newark, N. J. The latter, 
consisting chiefly of members of the Harmonic 
society, elected him to be their conductor. Un- 
der his leadership this society regained its former 
reputation, and during this time a series of con- 
certs was given, in which such works as Rubin- 
stein's " Tower of Babel," Berlioz's " Damnation 
de Faust," and Verdi's " Requiem " were performed. 
He was then only nineteen years or age, but 
showed marked ability in drilling large masses. 
During Dr. Damrosch s last illness his son was 
suddenly called upon to conduct the German 
opera, which' he did with success, and after his 
father's death was appointed to be assistant di- 
rector and conductor at the Metropolitan opera- 
house, and also to succeed him as conductor of 
the Symphony and Oratorio societies. One of his 
principal achievements was the successful per- 
formance of " Parsifal," perhaps the most difficult 
of Wagner's operas, for the first time in the 
United States, in March, 1886, by the Oratorio and 
Symphony societies. During his visit to Europe 
in the summer of 1886 he was invited by the 
Deutsche Tonkilnstler-Verein, of which Dr. Franz 
Liszt was president, to conduct some of his father's 
compositions at Sondershausen, Thuringia. Carl 
Golumark's opera " Merlin " was produced for the 
first time in tne United States under his direction, 
at the Metropolitan opera-house. 3 Jan., 1887. 

DANA, Charles Anderson, editor, b. in Hins- 
dale, N. H., 8 Aug., 1819. He is a descendant of Ja- 
cob, eldest son of Richard Dana, progenitor of most 
of those who bear the name in the United States. 
His boyhood was spent in Buffalo, N. Y., where he 
worked in a store until he was eighteen years old. 
At that age he first studied the Latin grammar, 
and prepared himself for college, entering Harvard 
in 1839, but after two years a serious trouble with 
his eyesight compelled him to leave. He received 
an honorable dismissal, and was afterward given 
his bachelor's and master's degrees. In 1842 he 
became a member of the Brook Farm association 
for agriculture and education, being associated 
with George and Sophia Ripley, George William 
Curtis, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Theodore Parker, 
William Henry Channing, John Sullivan Dwight, 
Margaret Fuller, and other philosophers more or 
less directly concerned in the remarkable attempt 
to realize at Roxbury a high ideal of social and 
intellectual life. One of the survivors of Brook 
Farm speaks of Mr. Dana as the only man of 
affairs connected with that unitarian, humanitarian, 
and socialistic experiment. His earliest news- 
paper experience was gained in tSe management 
of the " Harbinger," which was devoted to social 
reform and general literature. After about two 
years of editorial work on Elizur Wright's Boston 
" Chronotype," a daily newspaper, Mr. Dana joined 




rJA 



o<* 



the staff of the New York "Tribune" in 1847. 
The next year he spent eight months in Europe, 
and after Ins return ne l>ecaine one of the proprie- 
tors and the managing editor of the ** Tribune." a 
port which he held until 1 April, 1862. The ex- 
traordinary influence and circulation attained by 
that newspaper during the ten years preceding tin- 
civil war was in a degree due to the development 
of Mr. Dana's genius for journalism. This re- 
mark applies not only to the making of the " Trib- 
une " as a newspaper, but also to the manage- 
ment of its staff of writers, and to the steadiness 
of its policy as the 
leading organ of 
anti-slavery senti- 
ment. The great 
struggle of the 
"Tribune" under 
Greeley and Dana 
was not so much 
for the overthrow 
of slavery where 
it already existed 
as against the fur- 
ther spread of the 
institution over 
unoccupied terri- 
tory, and the ac- 
quisition of slave- 
holding countries 
outside of the 
Union. It was not 
less firm in its re- 
sistance of the designs of the slave-holding in- 
terest than wise in its attitude toward the ex- 
tremists and impracticables at the north. In 
the " Tribune's " opposition to the attempt to 
break down the Missouri compromise and to carry 
slavery into Kansas and Nebraska, and in the de- 
velopment and organization of that popular senti- 
ment which gave birth to the Republican party 
and led to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 
1860, Mr. Dana bore no unimportant part. Writ- 
ing of the political situation in 1854, Henry Wilson 
says, in his "Rise and Fall of the Slave Power": 
"At the outset, Mr. Greeley was hopeless and 
seemed disinclined to enter the contest. He told 
his associates that he would not restrain them, 
but, as for himself, he had no heart for the strife. 
They were more hopeful ; and Richard Hildreth, 
the historian, Charles A. Dana, the veteran jour- 
nalist, James S. Pike, and other able writers, 
opened and continued a powerful opposition in its 
columns, and did very much to rally and reassure 
the friends of freedom and to nerve them for the 
fight." In 1861 Mr. Dana went to Albany to ad- 
vance the cause of Mr. Greeley as a candidate for 
the U. S. senate, and nearly succeeded in nominat- 
ing him. The caucus was about equally divided 
between Mr. Greeley's friends and those of Mr. 
Evarts, while Ira Harris had a few votes which 
held the balance of power, and, at the instigation 
of Thurlow Weed, the supporters of Mr. Evarts 
went over to Judge Harris. During the first year 
of the war the ideas of Mr. Greeley and those of 
Mr. Dana in regard to the proper conduct of mili- 
tary operations were somewhat at variance; and 
this disagreement resulted in the resignation of 
Mr. Dana, after fifteen years' service on the " Trib- 
une." He was at once employed by Secretary 
Stanton in special work of importance for the war 
department, and in 1863 was appointed assistant 
secretary of war, which office he held until after 
the surrender of Lee. His duties as the repre- 
sentative of the civil authority at t£e scene of 









80 



military i brought htm Into doss per- 

sonal relations with Mr. Stunt- >n and Mr. Line. In. 
who win- iKcw-t'Minil l.» d e pe n d BOOB u|k>ii hi* 
accurate p e rception and ju-t estimates of men ami 
measures f(.r information ,,f the iu-t ual state of 
iifTair"« at the front. At the time when (ten. (irant's 
character ami prohibit- usefulness were unknown 
quantities. Mr. Dana's confidence in (J rant's mili- 
tary ability probably • 1 i< I mnoh to defenl the 
• rful effort then making to break down tin 
firing commander. Of this critical period Gen. 
Sherman remarks in his "Memoirs": "One clay 
early in April, lsW. I was up at Grant's bead- 
marten [at viohaburgl and we talked over all 
these things with absolute freedom. < hurl.— A. 
Dan a, assistant secretary <>f war, was there, ami 
Wilson, Rawlins, Frank Blair, MoPhenon, ate. 

\\ • all knew, what was notorious, that (i<n. 

McCleruand was intriguing egainri Gen. Grant, in 
hopes to regain command of the whole expedi- 

tion. and that others were raising clamor apiinst 
(Jrant in the pewa pap orsof the north. Kv.n Mr. 
Lincoln and Gen. Hallcck seemed to be shaken; 
but at no instant did we (his personal friends) 
slacken in our loyalty to him." Mr. Dane WM in 
the saddle at the front much of the time during 
t he campaigns of northern Mississippi and Vick-- 
burg, the rescue of Chattanooga, ana the marches 
and luittlesof Virginia in 1864 and 1865. After 
the war his services were sought by the proprietors 
of the Chicago " Republican." a new daily, which 
failed through causes not within the editor's con- 
trol. Returning to New York, he organized in 
1867 the stock company that now owns the '• Sun " 
newspaper, and became its editor. The first num- 
ber of the " Sun " issued by Mr. Dana ap[>eared on 
'21 Jan., 186H, and for nearly twenty years he has 
been actively and continuously engaged in the 
management of that successful journal, and solely 
responsible for its conduct. He made the "Sun" 
a democratic newspaper, independent and out- 
spoken in the expression of its opinions respecting 
the affairs of either party. His criticisms of civil 
maladministration during Gen. Grant's terms as 
president led to a notable attempt on the part of 
that administration, in.lulv, 1873, to take him from 
New York on a charge of libel, to be tried without 
a jury in a Washington police court. Applica- 
tion was made to the U. S. district court in New- 
York for a warrant of removal; but in a memo- 
rable decision Judge Blatchford, now a justice of 
the supreme court of the United States, refused 
the warrant, holding the proposed form of trial to 
be unconstitutional. Perhaps to a greater extent 
than in the case of any other conspicuous journal- 
ist, Mr. Dana's personality is identified in the 
public mind with the newspaper that he edits. He 
has recorded no theories of journalism other than 
those of common sense and human interest, lie i- 
impatient of prolixity, cant, and the conventional 
standards of news importance. Mr. Dana's first 
book was a volume of stories translated from the 
German, entitled "The Black Ant" (New York 
and Leipsic, 1848). In 1855 he planned and edited, 
with George Ripley, the u New American Cyclopa-- 
dia." The original edition was completed in l***!. 
It has since been thoroughly revised and issued in 
a BOW edition under the title of "The American 
( 'yelorwdia " (16 role, New York, ls;:{-'(}). With 
< ifi». Jamei II. Wilson he wrote a " Life of Ulysses 
s. (Irani" (Springfield. 186H). His -Household 
Hook of Poetry, a collection of the best minor 
poems of the English language,' 1 was first pub! 
B 1807, and has na*sed through many editions, 
the latest, thoroughly mind, bring that of 1884. 

VOL. IL 6 



Ho has nl«, edited, with Bosjtesj Mhhl " Kiftr 
Perfi k. 1HW8). 

DAN V. Jam.- « •inbridia, 

Mass., 1 1 M 

1811. IL wa> a neph.w of Ki.hi.rd. »mi 
descendant through Caleb, second son of Daniel. 
who was the voiiiigest son of Richard Dana. He 
was -raduated at Harvard in 1 758, and remained 
in the college as a resident graduate for several 

stodyinj theology and general literature. 
In October, 1758, he was ordained and i 
..f the Congregational church in Wniiingford. 
Conn., succeeding the Rev. Samuel .'• 
After he had accepted this ■ all. 1 1.. ■ consociation 
prohibited his ordination ; bal the . hun-h and no- 
ddy, together with Mr. Dana. penUted in their 
action. SuhMHjuciitly the . . i,- ... ml ion pronounced 

a rantanos of oomHsoaaannlon against them, and 
deolared the ministers and dsJegwi of the evdrih> 
tngooundl to be "disorderly nereone, and not fit 

t<> sit in any of our rorlfwiastiral coundb) until 
they shall char up their conduct to the Satisfaction 
Of the consociation of New Haven county." The 
controversy was essentially between the "Old* 

Light "and the " Tf <nr T light ** partial Mr. Drum 
was regarded as a partisan of the liberal sohod of 
Bosto n , and the mfnisteTs forming the.-iin-wiati-.il 
of New Haven were little dispose-.! to have 
their prominent churches committed t<> the <«rv of 
a pastor whom they considered as baring dej«arted 

so far from their own Standard Of Christian d<«-- 

trine. Mr. Dana ami the ordaining olenn than 
formed an associstJOP by themselves, which cott* 
tinued until alxuit 1772, when the controversy was 
terminated by pacific overtures made by the minis- 
ters then constituting the wmttwi a tion It 

dent that tl rdination was a departure from the 

Saybrook platform, becansa the ordaining wwmiHI 
was not limited to the c onsociati on. It was tanta- 
mount to an assertion of ind ependence of the 
church, in disregard of the platform. The mem- 
bers of the council wen- regarded as inclining to 
Arminianism. However, the prejudice a^wi: 
Dana gradually disappeared, and he made hfaneatf 
very popular by the derided stand that be took in 
favor of the American cause in the events that led 
to the Revolution. His patriotic sermons, delivered 

in New Haven while the legislators was in session, 
wen effective in winning many t<> his rapport. In 
l?s<» be became pastor of the first church in Nee 
Haven, and was installed on 89 April. Beta »•• 
came into controversy with Jonathan Kdwards and 
Samuel Austin: but. for the most part, Mi minis- 
try was peaceful though not eminently successful. 

He was succeeded ill this pastorals i>> tie 
Stuart in l s< ir>. bat his relation was -. 
only by an eonlesiaeticaJ council. This proosdura 
deeply wounded Dr. Dana, and thereafter hewor- 
ahipped In the ooUega chapel, ■Hhongh subeeojoent 
to Sir. Stuart'e departure be again annealed ■ hi* 

old church and Offloiotsd M moderator at the in- 
stallation of Dr. N. v7. Taylor in April. 1812. The 
University of Edinburgh oooferred on him thede- 

C r. f D". D. in 1768. lb- published, bsridei B0- 

morial and other sermons, •■ Kxaminatioii «'f Kd- 
wards OB the Will." anonvinous (BootOB, 177". 
and -An Bxamination of the Same Continued 
(N.w Haven, 177M).— His -on. Samuel Whittle 
sej, senator, h. in Wallingfonl. Conn.. II reb.. 
lWOj .1. in Middletown. tl -lulv. 1880, was gradu- 
ated at Yale in 177*). and Iwcamea distingin^iejl 
lawyer. He was elected to . onirress as e federal- 
ist, and, with sultseoueni re-elections, serve«l fn«m 
.1 Jan.. IT'.*:, till 1 May. 1X10. when he waa fleeted 
,tor to succeed James Hillhouse. He 



66 



DANA 



DANA 



remained in the senate until 8 March, 1821, and 
afterward made his home in Middletown, where for 
many years lie was mayor. 

DANA, James Dwight, mineralogist, b. in Uti- 
<a. N. V.. IS Fel>.. 181& He was attracted to New 
Haven by the reputation of Prof. Benjamin Silli- 
man, under whose guidance many of the subse- 
quent leaders in American science received their 
earliest training. He was graduated in 1833 and 
appointed instructor of mathematics to midship- 
men in the U. S. navy, and in this capacity visited 
the seaports of France, Italy, Greece, and Turkey 
while on the " Delaware " and the " United States. ' 
In 1836-'8 he was assistant in chemistry to Prof. 
Silliman. Meanwhile, in December, 1836, he was 
appointed mineralogist and geologist to the U. S. 
exploring expedition, then about to be sent by the 
government of the United States to the Southern 
and Pacific oceans under the command of Capt. 
Charles Wilkes. The expedition sailed in August, 
1838, and Mr. Dana was on board the " Peacock" 
until it was wrecked on a sand-bar at the mouth 
of Columbia river. In June, 1842, after an ab- 
sence of three years and ten months, Mr. Dana re- 
turned home. Besides the mineralogy and ge- 
ology, he had under his supervision the zoological 

departments, in- 
cluding the Crus- 
tacea and corals. 
During the thir- 
teen years that 
followed he was 
occupied princi- 
pally in study- 
ing the material 
that he had col- 
lected, making 
drawings, and 
preparing the re- 
ports for publica- 
tion. From 1842 
till 1844 he re- 
sided in Wash- 
ington, and then 
removed to New 
Haven, where he 
^\ / married Henriet- 

/\<\/wv**' W . &-cu4*o— ' ta Frances, third 

daughter of Prof. 
Silliman, and has 
since continued 
to reside. The results of his labors were given in 
his " Reports on Zoophytes " (4to, with an atlas 
of 61 folio plates, 1846), in which he proposed a 
new classification, and described 230 new species ; 
the " Report on the Geology of the Pacific " (4to, 
with an atlas of 21 plates, 1849) ; and the " Report 
on Crustacea" (4to, with an atlas of 96 folio plates, 
1852-'4). These were published by the government 
in Washington, and only 100 copies of each were 
issued. With few exceptions, the drawings in the 
atlases were made by Mr. Dana himself. He was 
appointed Silliman professor of natural history and 
geology at Yale in 1850, and entered on the ad- 
ministrations of the chair in 1855. The subse- 
quent delivery of the lectures on natural history by 
others led to a change in the title of the professor- 
ship, in 1864, to that of geology and mineralogy. 
Prof. Dana became, about 1850, associate editor of 
the "American Journal of Science and Arts," 
founded by the elder Silliman in 1819. Subsequent 
to the death of Prof. Silliman he became its senior 
editor, and now, in conjunction with his son, Ed- 
ward S. Dana, continues its publication. In 1872 the 
Geological society of London conferred on him its 




^~ 



Wollaston medal, and in 1877 he received the Cop- 
lev sold medal from the Royal society of London. 
He is a member of scientific socictio in the United 
States and abroad, including the Royal society of 
London, the Institute of France, the Royal acade- 
my of the Lincei of Boom, the Royal academic- c,f 
Berlin, Vienna, and St. Petersburg, and mi mm 
of the original members of the National academy 
of sciences in the United States. Prof. Dana 
was elected president of the American association 
for the advancement of science in 1854, and in 
August of the following year delivered his retir- 
ing address at the Providence meeting. In 1872, 
on the celebration of the fourth centennial of the 
University of Munich, he received the degree of 
Ph. D., and in 1886, at the Harvard celebration, the 
degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him. His 
contributions to the " American Journal of Science 
and Arts," to the " Proceedings of the American 
Academy." to the "Transactions of the Lyceum of 
Natural History of New York," and to the " Pro- 
ceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia," include hundreds of titles. His 
works in book-form are " System of Mineralogy " 
(New Haven, 1837; 5th ed., revised, New York, 
1868); "Manual of Mineralogy" (New Haven, 
1848; 4th ed., revised, New York, 1886); "Coral 
Reefs and Islands " (New York, 1853) ; " Manual of 
Geology " (Philadelphia, 1863 ; 3d ed., revised, New 
York, 1880) ; " Text-Book of Geology " (1864 ; 4th 
ed., revised, 1883); "Corals and Coral Islands" 
(New York, 1853); "The Geological Story briefly 
told " (1875).— His son, Edward Salisbury, min- 
eralogist, b. in New Haven, Conn., 16 Nov., 1849, 
was graduated at Yale in 1870, where, in 1876, he 
received the degree of Ph. D., and has also studied 
in Heidelberg and in Vienna. In 1874 he became 
tutor in mathematics at Yale, and also curator of 
the mineral cabinet in the Peabody museum. He 
was appointed assistant professor of natural phi- 
losophy and astronomy in 1879, and in 1875 be- 
came one of the editors of Silliman's " American 
Journal of Science." Dr. Dana is a member of 
many scientific societies, and in 1884 was elected a 
member of the National academy of sciences. In 
1885 he was made a trustee of the Peabody mu- 
seum of Yale. Besides memoirs on mineralogical 
and kindred subjects, contributed to scientific jour- 
nals in the United States and in Europe, he has 
published " Appendix II." (1875) and " Appendix 
III." (1883) of Dana's "System of Mineralogy"; 
"Text-Book of Mineralogy" (New York, 1877); 
and " Text-Book of Mechanics " (1881). 

DANA, J oseph, clergyman, b. in Pomfret, Conn., 
2 Nov., 1742; d. in Ipswich, Mass., 16 Nov., 1827. 
He was a grandson of Benjamin, the third son of 
Richard, the progenitor of all that bear the name 
in the United States, who, according to the family 
tradition, was the son of a French Huguenot that 
settled in England in 1629. Joseph was graduated 
at Yale in 1760, studied theology, and was ordained 
on 7 Nov., 1765, minister of the South society of 
Ipswich, over which he presided for sixty-two 
years. Many of his occasional discourses were 
published. — His grandson, Israel Thorndike, 
physician, b. in Marblehead, Mass., 6 June. 1 *■,'?. 
studied under his father, Samuel, who was minister 
of Marblehead, and in the academy of that town, 
attended medical lectures at Harvard, was gradu- 
ated M. D. in 1850, and during the three following 
years studied medicine in New York city, Dublin, 
and Paris. In 1853 he settled in Portland, and 
gave special attention to diseases of the heart and 
lungs. He was one of the founders of the Port- 
land school of medical instruction* and of the 



DANA 






07 



Maine general hoonHnli <>f irhkh In- bti hose, at- 
tending physician since its opening in 1875. In 
i i be was protenr of materia mcdica. and 
in 1861-t of the theory and pnwtii •«• <>r mtdferflf 
in the Medical school of .Maim-. connected with 
Bowdoin college. This chair In- resumed in l- 
Bi hai contributed t<> professional literatim' pa- 
iM-r> <>n the use of tlif stethosco|N> in detcrmin- 
i n VT 'lie position of the foetus in ntero, on abor- 
tion, ami <>n defective drainage and 
and has published various addresses. He tlso 
prepared the articles on •• Drop*] ami •• Inflam- 
mation of the Intestines' 1 in Wood's "Reference 

Band-Book of the Mt-dical Sciences." Si-ter- nf 

Dr. Dana married Seth Ames, Jacob Abbott, and 

William H. Lawrence. Israel Thorndike was la- 
unch.— Samuel, nephew of Joseph, clergyman. 

l>. in Cambridge (now Brighton), Mass., ii Jan.. 

I7::i»; d. in Amherst, N. 11.. 1 April, 17'.)*, was 

{graduated at Harvard in 1756, baring among 
ii- (dam mates John Adams and Tristram Dal- 
tnn. after whieh he studied theology. In 17'il 
the town of (iroton invited him to become their 
minister "with a settlement of £200, a salary of 
£'80, and firewood not to exceed thirty cords "per 
annum." He accepted this call, and was in-tailed 
on :» June as rocoassor toOalefa Tr o w b r i dge. Dur- 
ing the troubles that preceded the Revolutionary 
war, believing that resistance would lead to greater 
evils than were then endured, he used his influence 
on the side of non-resistance. This course gave 

freat offence to his parishioners, who prevented 
im from entering the meeting-house, although 
the whig committee of Groton published a card 
to the effect that .Mr. Dana had fully atoned for 
his offences. The good will of his people had be- 
come alienated, and hit dismissal soon followed. He 
continued to reside in Groton. where he cultivated 
a -mall farm, and in 1780 preached to a seiwrate 
society. On the death of John Bnlkeley, he be- 
came executor of his will. and. removing the ex- 
tensive law library to hisown residence, be studied 
for that profession. Subsequently he was admit- 
ted to the bar and practised in Amherst. X. II.. 
where in 1787 he was made judge of probate for 
Hillsborough county, and in 1798 was state sena- 
tor, — His son, Samuel, lawyer, b. in Groton, Ma-s.. 
M June, 17<i7: d. in ( harlestown, 20 tfoV, 1885. 
He studied law, and became prominent in that 
profession in Chariest own, where he and Timothy 
Bigelow were professional and political rivals, 
Mr. Dana being a Jeffersonian democrat, and Mr. 
Bigelow a federalist. In his s|>ceches at the bur be 
was smooth, gentle, and insinuating, as Mr. Bige- 
low was bold, rapid, and vehement. He filled va- 
rious local offices, was a member of the Massachu- 
sett- senate, and its president for eitrht rears, and 
served in congress from 89 Sept.. 1814, till :{ March. 
1*1.-). Subsequently he received the appointment of 
chief justice of the circuit court of common pleas. 
— James Freeman, nephew of Samuel and grand- 
son of Samuel, chemist, b. in Amherst, N\ II.. 88 
Sept, 17JW; d. in New York city. 11 April. 1887. 
He was graduated at Harvard in 1H1:{. and at the 
medical department in 1817. Se studied with Dr. 
John Gorham, and developed such ability that in 
1815 he was selected by the authorities of Harvard 
to procurator the chemical laboratory a new out- 
fit of apparatus. For this purpose he visited Lon- 
don, wliere for six month- he worked in the lal>- 
orutory of Friediich Christian Aooum. On his 
return to the United States he settled in Cam- 
bridge, where he practised medicine and was ap- 
pointed assistant to the chair in chemistry. In 
1M7 he was invited to lecture on chemistry at 



Dartmouth, ami in 1*20 became the fimt professor 
of chemi-trv and BuneiBlogj m that m-nmtion. 
He watt chosen professor of cheun-tn in the Col- 
lege of physicians and -ur. 

ml continm 
a student m Cambridge, ho rseeired the Boylston 
prise for a dissertation on the " Tests for Anwnie/* 
end again in 1817 isjooived the for an 

essay on the •* Composition of Oxymui 
lb> contributed numerous stdeniifie 
Silliman's " American Journal nl 
the •• Annals of the Nan York l,\e.-um of Natural 

History." Hi- larger works ere, with bis brother, 
"Outlines of Mineralogy and G< Hasten 

and it- Vicinity" (Boston. 1818). and " I 
Chemical I'hilosophv " (Concord. N. II.. 1888). — 
His brother. Samuel Luther. - InnnM. b. in Am- 
her-t. N. II.. ii July, 1788; d. In LowsU, Ma**, 11 
Manh, 1888. He studied al Phillips Bieteraoade- 
my, and was graduated at Bemud m 1811 

-iron- of becoming a military engineer, he applied 

for an appointment to the ('. s. military eeedeajr, 

but in-tend WM OOmmlssioned a lieutenant in the 

1st artillerv. He serred during the war b 
York and Virginia, and at it- CMOS lerigcnod from 
the army. Suboeouently he studied nfflrfnt. nn«l 
was graduated at Harvard mtdioel school in is*. 
From 1818 till 1888 he practised in Walt ham. 
Mass., where he WM brought into intimate rela- 
tion- with the early cotton manufacturer- of the 

state, and hi- fondness for physical eeienoi 

mined him to devote his attention tooheeeistn M 
applied to the manufacture ami coloring of cotton 
goods. About 1886 be established alanoratorj m 
Walt ham f<>r the manufacture of sulphurii 
and bleaching-ealts, which afterward was i 
in the Newton chemical company, and he wa* its 
chemist until i*:u. In ist:{ be visited Europe, 
and spent some time in England prosecuting chemi- 
cal investigations. <»n hi- return be removed to 
Lowell, where be became resident and consulting 
chemist to the Merrimack manufacturing company, 
and continued as such until bis death. Hi- inves- 
ligation in the bleaching of cotton led to the in- 
vention of the so-called -American system" of 
bleaching, which attracted much attention abroad 
when first published in 1888 in the "Bulletin <le la 
soeicte indu-trielle de Mulhouse." Many other im- 
portant improvements in the printing <>1 cottons 
and the chemical processes Involved in thai *<ck 
were mad." by him, and gave to the goods pi 
in Lowell a high reputation in the United State*. 
His researches on the action <>f cow-manure as a 
mordant, showing that it- fixing pn-pcrt 
.In to the sodium phosphate that it contain-, with 
the subsequent Introduction of " s u b sti tu tes, was, 
a decided advance in the art of calico-printing. 
Dr. Dana prepared for the city of Lowell a valua- 
ble re|M.rt OU the injurious influence of lead pipes 
for water used for drinking and culinary put 
His interest In this subject l<-d him mbsequsotlv 
to translate from the French n "Timlin on mm 
Disease-." He oontribnted many pant 
nioal topko to the " North amerl ■ "end 

Silliman's " American Journal of Siciicc." and. in 
conjunction with his brother. James Fret-man Dana, 
he published "Outlines of Mineralogy and Geojo- 
rj of Bostoo and it- Yicinity m (Boston, 18M 
oiher works include -chemical Changeo oaenntnf, 

in the Manufacture of Sulphuric A-id " (IKtti, and 
his investigations in chemistry applied to «. 
ture led (■• th. publication of " Mttt k Manual for 
Manures" (Lowell, 1848). for which he re- 
prize from the Massaohusetteeocietv for pn 
agriculiure. and also an " Essay on Manures 



68 



DANA 



DANA 



York, 1843). Prof. Benjamin Silliman. Jr., wrote 
of him : " In point of time, originality, and ability, 
Dr. Dana stood deservedly first among scientific 
writ ers on agriculture in the United States." — Na- 

Eoleon Jackson Tcciimsch. nephew of Samuel 
uther and Jamei Preeman, soldier, b. in Fort Sul- 
livan, Fast port. Me.. 18 April, 1888. lie was gradu- 
ated at the U, S. inilitarv academy in 1842, and. 
after l>eing appointed in the ?th infantry as second 
lieutenant, served on garrison duty in the south- 
weet. Dnrlng tin- Mexican war he served with 
distinction, and was present at many of the im- 
portant engagements, being severely wounded in 
storming the intrenchments at the battle of Cerro 
Gordo. He became captain on the staff and assist- 
ant quartermaster in March, 1848, and until 1855 
served in garrison duty, principally in Minnesota. 
Prom 1855 till 1861 he was a banker in St. Paul, 
Minn., and was brigadier-general of the militia 
from 1857 till 1861. During the civil war he ac- 
companied the 1st Minnesota infantry as colonel to 
the front, becoming brigadier-general of volun- 
teers in February, 1862, and attached to the Army 
of the Potomac. He served in the battles before 
Richmond, and at Antietam commanded a bri- 
gade in Gen. John Sedgwick's division of Gen. 
Edwin V. Sumner's corps, and was severely wound- 
ed. He was commissioned maior-general of vol- 
unteers in November, 1862, and was in command 
of the defences of Philadelphia during the inva- 
sion of Pennsylvania by the Confederate army in 
1863. Afterward he joined the Army of the Gulf, 
and commanded the expedition by sea to the Rio 
Grande, landing at Brazos Santiago, and driving the 
Confederate forces as far as Laredo, Texas. He 
then successively commanded the 13th army corps, 
the district of Vicksburg, the 16th army corps, the 
districts of west Tennessee and Vicksburg, and 
finally the Department of the Mississippi, in May, 
1865, he resigned from the army and engaged in 
mining operations in the western states. From 
1866 till 1871 he was general agent of the Ameri- 
can-Russian commercial company of San Francisco, 
in Alaska and Washington, after which he became 
superintendent of railroads in Illinois, and in 1878 
of the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy railroad. 

DANA, Judah, senator, b. in Pomfret, Conn., 25 
April, 1772 ; d. in Fryeburg. Me., 27 Dec, 1845. His 
mother was the eldest daughter of Gen. Israel Put- 
nam. His father, John Winchester, and the Rev. 
Joseph, of Ipswich, were both grandsons of Benja- 
min, the third son of Richard. He was graduated at 
Dartmouth in 1795, studied law, and began practice, 
in 1798, in Fryeburg, then in Massachusetts. He was 
government attorney for Oxford county in 1805-'ll, 
judge of probate in 1811-'22, judge of the court 
of common pleas from 1811 till 1823, judge of the 
circuit court, a delegate to the convention that 
framed the state constitution of Maine in 1819, 
and in 1833 was elected a member of the executive 
council. He was an adherent of the democratic 
party, and, on the resignation of Ether Shepley, 
was appointed U. S. senator, serving from 21 Dec, 
1836, till 3 March, 1837.— His son, John Winches- 
ter, governor of Maine, b. in Fryeburg. Me., 21 
Jan., 1808 ; d. near Rosario, New Grenada. 22 Dec, 
1867. He was for many years an active democratic 
politician in Maine, snn from 1847 till 1850 was 
governor of the state. * In 1853 he went to Bolivia 
as charge d'affaires, was commissioned minister 
resident on 29 June, 1854, and held that post till 
10 March, 1859. In 1861 he was again a candidate 
for governor of Maine, but was defeated. Soon 
afterward he went to South America, where he 
resided at the time of his death. 



DANA, Stephen Winchester, clergyman, b, in 
Canaan, N. V.. 17 Nov., 1840. He was "the son of 
a Congregational clergyman, and descended in the 
eighth generation from "Kichard. through Benjamin, 
the third son. He was graduati <\ at William* in 
1861, taught in Hinsdale. Mass., for two years, and 
then studied theology in the Union theological 
seminary. New York city, where he was graduated 
in 1866. He was pastor of a Presbyterian church 
in Belvidere, N. J., from November, 1866, till July, 
1868, when he was called to the Walnut stn.'t 
church in West Philadelphia, which has steadily 
grown under his pastoral care and earnest preach- 
ing. He has published sermons and religious tracts. 
— His cousin, William Parsons, artist, b, in Bos- 
ton, Mass., 18 Feb., 1883, was attracted to a sailor's 
life, and made several voyages, then decided to 
study art, went to Paris in 1852, became a pupil of 
Picot and Le Poitevin and a student in the School 
of arts, and spent his summers sketching in Nor- 
mandy and Brittany. He returned to the United 
States in 1862, was chosen a national academician 
in 1863, painted in New York city and Newport, 
and afterward established his studio in Paris, 
France. His first pictures were marine views, but 
subsequently he treated genre subjects with success, 
and has been happy in painting children, horses, and 
dogs. Some of nis principal works are " Chase of 
the Frigate Constitution " ; " Waiting for the Fish- 
ing-Boat " ; " Low Tide at Yport " ; " French 
Peasant-Girl " ; " Maternal Care ; " Heart's-Ease " ; 
" Emby's Admirals " ; " Land of Nod " ; " English 
Greyhound " ; and " Gathering Seaweed." 

DANA, Richard, jurist, b. in Cambridge, Mass., 
7 July, 1699; d. 17 May, 1772. He was the thin! 
son of Daniel, who was the son of Richard, who 
came from England, settled in Cambridge in 1640, 
and died there about 1695. He was graduated at 
Harvard in 1718, studied law, practised in Marble- 
head and Charlestown, and then removed to Boston 
and became one of the leaders of the bar of Massa- 
chusetts. During the critical period that preceded 
the Revolution he took a prominent part in the 
protests against the new and oppressive taxes im- 
posed by the British parliament and the appoint- 
ment of highly paid crown officials, and was a leader 
in the popular resistance to the usurpations of the 
British government. He occasionally presided over 
the Boston town-meetings between i763 and 1772, 
was chairman of the committee chosen by the town 
in 1765 to give instructions to the representatives 
in the general court with reference to the stamp- 
act and other new taxes, for the collection of which 
revenue officers had been sent over from England, 
and reported the instructions to the representatives 
of Boston on 20 Nov., 1767, and 8 May, 1770. He 
was a member of the association of the Sons of 
Liberty, and at the meeting of 17 Dec, 1769, ad- 
ministered to Andrew Oliver, secretary of the 
province, an oath binding him not to execute the 
stamp-act. After the British soldiery fired on the 
people in the night of 5 March, 1770, he was ap- 
pointed on a committee to investigate the incidents 
of the massacre and the order in which they occurred. 
He took depositions of respectable citizens who had 
heard threats from the soldiers some davs previous 
to the tragedv, and who swore that the soldiers 
under Capt. Preston attacked the citizens with 
violence; that after some of the latter had been 
struck, young men and boys returned abusive lan- 
guage, and some threw snowballs and pieces of ice 
at the soldiers; that these fired into the crowd, 
killing and mortally wounding several panon*. 
when there was no danger to themselves : and that 
therefore the firing could not ha\e been in self- 






. 



n 



defence, and was unjustifiable. (See Am 

Mr. I>ana watt at one time during the 
ilutionary crisis a repreaontativo from 

Ion in the assembly, but he generally declined office, 

ting himself exclusively t<> his prof, 
ciiii fMB the cull <>f patriotism Impelled him to 
take a public stainl in the cause of liberty. The 
letters of leading |«triots contain mention of him 
as a man of great value in the movciucnt, ami of 
his d.-ath M a serious loss to the cause. He was at 

the bead of the Boston bar, and Is mon frequently 

cited in Judge Story's work on American precedent* 
than any other pleader except Judge Trowbridge, 
whose *i*ter lie married in 17:17. — His son, Francis, 
jurist, b. in Charlcstown, Mass., IS June, 1748; d. 
in Cambridge, Ma—.. 88 April, 1811, was graduated 
at Harvard in 1768, studied law with Edmund Trow- 
bridge, then regarded a* the ablest lawyer in the 
province, was admitted to the bar in 1767, and prac- 
tised in Boston. He devoted himself early to the 

assjssof colonial rights and popsdarUbertj, joined 

the associated Sons of Liberty', in whoss discussions 
he took a leading part, and l»ecame an active whig. 
In 1769 he was counsel in the famous Leehmere 
slave case. In 1778 he was associated with John 
Adams in the prosecution in behalf of the Rhode 
Island patriots in the matter of the Rome and 
MolTatt letters. When Gov. Hutchinson sailed on 
1 June, 1774, the Boston bar sent an address to the 
retiring governor, which Dana, though one of the 
youngest of them, opposed with vigor. In Septem- 
ber, 1774, he was the delegate from Cambridge to 
the 1st provincial congress of Massachusetts. In 
the beginning of April, 177."), he sailed for England 
(where his brother Edmund was settled as a minis- 
ter at Wroxeter), bearing confidential letters on 
the critical state of colonial feeling from Josiah 
Quincy, Joseph Warren, Dr. Samuel Cooper, and 
other patriots. Through his brother, who was 
allied by marriage with the Kinnaird and Pulteney 
families, he came in contact with persons of |>oliti- 
cal influence in England, and in April, 177<>. after 
his return, he informed Washington that there was 
no reason to expect peace from Britain. While in 
England he became acquainted with Dr. Richard 
Price, and furnished him with information which 
he embodied in his work in defence of the colonies 
(London. 1776). In May, 1 776, he was chosen by t be 
Massachusetts assembly a member of the executive 
council, which united executive with legislative 
functions, and was re-elected annually until 1780. 
In Norember, 1776, he was chosen a delegate from 
Massachusetts to the continental congress, and 
took part in framing the articles of confederation, 
and was again sent to the congress of 177N, and 
made chairman of the committee ( barged with the 
reorganization of the arm v. He remained in the 
camp at Valley Forge with Joseph Reed, Gouver- 
neur Morris, and other me m bers of the committee 
from January till April. 177H, and, in consultation 
with Gen. Washington, drew up the plan of annual 
drafts that was submitted to congress, and re- 
turned to the commander-in-chief on 4 June, with 
directions that he should proceed with it, with the 
advice and assistance of Messrs. Reed and Dana, 
or either of them. Re serv e d with Qowfernenr 
Morris ami William H. Drayton on the committee 
to which Lord North's conefliatory bills were re- 
ferred in 1778, on whose rejxirt these OTertures 
were unanimously rejected, and the intended efisoi 
of the peace commission frustrated. Qovi John- 
stone, with whom he had lieeoine acquainted in 
England, was one of the commission, and wrote to 
him in the hope of securing bisoo-oparation. This 
letter, with others received by Read and Robert 



Morris, was transmit tad to congress on 18 Julr 

• Mr. I >an<» wuip|. 
the embassy of John ida*m\ who wm ap- 
poin t ed ci,uimiv.ioner BO BOB !ie»of ttrmcr 
and w»n th (treat Bi wiled with 
Mr. adamstoa II •. n the French frigate 
" Sensible." Thev landed nt Ferrol, Spain and 
nw-hwl Paris J> Feb.. 17*<i. Wh. 
sequence of a diplomatic quarrel with 
left Paris for Amsterdam on 27 .lulv. Dntm re- 
mained in Paris until tlw eOOUBission Of congress 
(to Mr. Adam*, and eventually to himself, to raise 

loans in Eurobe) reached Um <.n || s-pt. lie 

then lotned Adams in Am-l.-nlam. and r. rnained 

with him till Deessabsr. Returning to Paris, he 
received, on ir> Karen, i7>*i. i oosnarisalon from 
eongiessas minister to the court -burg, 

having bean appointed to that p"*t on 1$ 

17K0. He remained with Mr. Adam* in Holland 
from April till 7 July, when he left for St. Peters- 
burg, journeying by way of Frankfort and Berlin. 

Re resided at the Ruselanoourt two vear*. w h< re 
he ha<l frequent and friendly communications with 
Count Ostermann, the foreign minister, but was 
unable to secure the recognition of the ttM W *tnd- 
ence of the United Btaioa. Winn, even after the 
signature of the preliminaries of peace, the govern- 

meiit of the Empress Catherine still refused to 
receive him as an accredited minister of an inde- 
pendent and friendly power, he asked for his leave 
from congress, and depart. -d from St. Petersburg 
on 4 : Sept., 1788, sailing direct to Boston, w] 
arrived in December. In February. 17*t. he was 
elected by the sssentbly a delegate to the conti- 
nental congress, took his scat <>n '24 May. and wa<» 
appointed to represent Massachusetts on the com- 
mittee of the nates, which was rested with some 
of the powers of cong r ess during the recess, and 
continued In session till 11 Aug. On 18 Jan* lTHo, 
Gov, Hancock appointed him a iustioeof the su- 
preme court of Massachusetts. < »n •>'.> Aug 
he was elected a delegate to the Annapolis conven- 
tion, which fixed the time and place for tt 
eral convention of I7s7 that adopted the constitu- 
tion of the United State*. He was al*o sleeted a 
delegate to this body on i» April, 17*7. but wa* 

prevented from attending by his judicial duties 
and the state of his health, which had been im- 
paired by his residence in St. Petersburg. He was 
ohosen a member of the Massachusetts stal 
vention that met in January, 1788, t<> ratify the 
Federal constitution. In that body, on whose de- 
cision depended the fate of the Psderal constitution, 
a majority of the member* were at fir*t opjNised to 
the new form of government Judge Dana I 

ire the ratification of the constitution with 
.John Hancock. TheophilttS PatBOns, and others, 
and aided in obtaining a majority for its adoption 
on •'• fab, 1788. "it •*"•' Nov., IT'.M. after th. 

Of Judge Sargent, he was appointed chief ju«tic< 

of Massachusetts, and held that offies for fifteen 

years, during which he t'H.k DO |>nrt in |«.litic»l 
affair*. eXOSpj SS B presidential elector in 17W and 
1800. <>n ."» June. 17'.)?. Prv*ident Adams aj»- 
pointed him a social envoy to the French republic, 

with O utes wor th Pinckney and John Marshall: 
but he was oompetled, by the urooarWai state of 
his health. to dsclins the office, which wm 
given to Dbridgs Retry. Re letfaed bom the 

bench in I^m;. and wa* 'succeeded by his friend. 

Theophilus Parsona He \ 

teteen's smhafge in public speeches el < "'"b ridge , 

but BtldOSn t.«-k |>art after that in public discus- 
lb • wa* one of the founder* of the Ameri- 
can academy of arts and sciences, and interested 



70 



DANA 



DANA 



himself in enterprises for the Wnefit of the neigh- 
borhood of Boston. After his retirement he was 
frequently visited at his bottSfl by the old IsadSfl 

of the Federal party who had Itcen ins associates in 

political life, and entertained the younger literary 
society of Cambridge. Judge Dana possessed a 
large fortune, chiefly in lands. He was a typical 
representative of the Federal gentry of New Eng- 
land, who looked upon themselves as the guardians 
of the people, ana sought to preserve distinc- 
tions of birth and station. He possessed a high 
sense of honor and of public duty, was ardent 
and passionate in temperament, intolerant of 
timid or temporizing measures, of an active and 
energetic character, remarkable for his nervous 
and impressive eloquence, an acute and learned 
jurist, and an austere and dignified magistrate. 
— Richard Henry, son of Francis, b. in Cam- 
bridge, Mass.. 16 Nov., 1787; d. in Boston, 2 Feb.. 
1879, entered Harvard in the class of 1808, but 
took part in an insurrection of his class against 
the faculty, known as the "Rotten Cabbage Re- 
bellion," in 1807. The memory of this disturbance 
is still commemorated in the name of the " Rebell- 
ion tree," standing on the college grounds. As a 
consequence of his revolt, he failed to complete his 
college course, although an excellent scholar; but 
fifty-eight years later he received his degree as of 
1808. Removing to Newport, R. L, he continued 
his studies there for two years, then entered the 
law-office of his cousin, Francis Dana Channing, at 
Boston, and afterward went to Baltimore, Md., to 
familiarize himself with Maryland practice in the 
office of Robert Goodloe Harper. He was admitted 
to the Massachusetts bar in 1811, and settled in Cam- 
bridge, where he engaged in politics on the Federal 
side, and became a member of the legislature. In 
1814 he joined the Anthology club, an association 

of gentlemen in 
Cambridge and 
Boston, including 
William Tudor, 
John Quincy Ad- 
ams, and others, 
who had for some 
time conducted 
"TheMonthlyAn- 
thology," an un- 
successful maga- 
zine. They now 
projected and be- 
gan to issue " The 
North American 
Review," the first 
number of which 
appeared in May, 
1815. Mr. Dana's 
first publications 
appeared in that periodical ; among them were an 
" Essay on Old Times." and a criticism of Hazlitt's 
"Lectures on the English Poets," in which the 
writer boldly ventured to dispute the English crit- 
ic's opinions. He also gave cordial recognition to 
Wordsworth's poems, an act of temerity which, in 
the then reigning taste for Pope, brought condem- 
nation upon him. His association with Prof. E. 
T. Channing in the editorship of the "Review" 
was brought to a close in 1821. In 1821-'2 he pub- 
lished in New York, in six numbers, with the aid 
of contributions from Bryant and Allston, "The 
Idle Man," a miscellany of stories, essays, criti- 
cisms, and poems, which had marked literary merit. 
but received little encouragement from the public, 
and whs discontinued. His first poem. " Tne Dy- 

tnirt v-eii. 



old, appeared in the "New York Review." then 
edited l>y Bryant. He brought out his first \..l- 
ume of " Poems." in Boston in 1H27, which was 
well received by the critics and found a limited 
audience. Prof. John Wilson, in " Blackwood's 






6 u-6t£- — fy C/)&s*USc 



ing Raven," written when he was 



-eight years 



Magazine," said of the leading poem : " We pro- 
nounce it by far the most powerful and original of 
American noepcal compositions." In 1833 "Poems 
and Prose Writings" (Boston) was issued, containing 
additional poems and Dana's own contributions to 
"The Idle Man." A portion of this was repub- 
lished in London in 1844 as "The Buccaneer, and 
other Poems." Although his father had been a 
Unitarian, the son joined the Congregationalists in 
1826, and wrote vigorously against Dr. Channing 
in " The Spirit of the Pilgrims " during the Trini- 
tarian agitation in New England from 1825 till 
1835. Subsequently he became an Episcopalian. 
In 1850 he brought out a new edition of "Poems 
and Prose Writings " in two volumes, including his 
essavs and literary papers from the " North Ameri- 
can Jleview," forming a complete collection of his 
works. His further literary efforts were confined to 
a course of lectures on Shakespeare, which he deliv- 
ered in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, in 1839- 
'40. The larger part of his career was spent in retire- 
ment from literary work, at his country-seat on Cape 
Ann (see illustration), and in Boston. For the iirst 
fifty years of his life he was an invalid, but after 
this his health began to mend, and for a number of 
years he was not only physically well, but main- 
tained an intellectual vigor that remained unim- 
paired until within a few days of his death at the 
age of ninety-two. He had lived through the 
whole history of the United States under the con- 
stitution, and distinctly remembered the death of 
Washington. He was the last of his generation to 
achieve success in both prose and verse, and won 
high rank among the most vigorous American 
authors of the first half of the present century. He 
never became a popular writer, and his poetry is 
now little read ; but it evinced decided qualities of 
imagination, reflection, and independence, without 
any noticeable gift of melody. His prose stories. 
"Tom Thornton" and "Paul' Felton, are gloomy 
in tone, but show vivid imagination and contain 
brief passages of great excellence. His essay on 
Kean's acting, in "The Idle Man." and other of 
his critical essays, prove that he possessed a deli- 
cate, firm faculty of original criticism which, at 
the time when he wrote, was rare in the United 
States; and his place in the history of our litera- 
ture should be measured by the important service 
that a mind like his was able to render in the gen- 
eral cultivation of public taste during the forma- 
tive period. See " Homes of American Authors " 



DAN \ 



DANA 



71 



• '». ttii.l " Bnant an. I his l'ri. n.U" 
!i. Kii'hiinl ll» n i » . i.. in 

bridge, Mass., 1 Aug., 1815; d. in Boom, Italy. 
-.'. In early life, as ho assured tin- writ or. 
he bad a strong passion f«»r the sea, and, had he 
ulted his inclination only, be would hereon- 
1 tho American navy. But, influenced by I » i — 
father ami otber members of the family, he became 
idenl of Harvard university. Men- he was ex- 
posed to one of those difficulties which epilogs facul- 
ties put in tho way of students by their inismau- 
inent, and Dana, like his father, was rusticated, 
irning to Harvard, ho was compelled to sus- 
pend his studies by an affection of the eyes, finally 
graduating in 1887. In the mean time, bra remedy, 
recalling nis early love of the see, he resolved to 
:li it on a Pacific voyage as a sailor, although 
bj bad, of course, every faculty for ordinary travel. 
iccordinglv shipped l>eforo the mast as a sea- 
man on the brig "Klgrim," of Boston, for a voy- 
age round Cape Morn to the western coast of 
North America. During the cruise Dana performed 

with cheerfulness 
and spirit the du- 
ties of a common 
sailor, which he 
has charmingly de- 
scribed in his well- 
known work. "Two 
Years Before the 
Mast." The manu- 
script was sent, in 
1839, by the elder 
Dana to Bryant, 
who offered it to 
various New York 

fmblishers, and at 
ast, although he 
said it was as good 
as " Robinson Cru- 
soe," sold it to the 
Harpers for $250. 
The work was is- 
sued in the follow- 
ing year. It was immediately successlul. paeaing 
through numerous editions, being reprinted in Eng- 
land, where t he Board of admiralty adopted it for 
distrilmtion in tin- navy, and translated into asr- 
eral continental languages. This personal narra- 
tive of a sailor's life at sea is probably the most 
truthful and accurate work of its character ever 
published. " In reading it," says Mr. Whipple, 
"anybody can see it is more than an ordinary rec- 
ord of a voyage, for there runs through the simple 
and lucid narrative an element of beauty and power 
which gives it the charm of romance." The work 
was republished in lfcMJO, with an additional chapter 
giving an account of a second visit to California, 
and some of the persons and vessels mentioned in 
the original edition. Mr. Dana studied law under 
Judge Story, and was admitted to the bar of Massa- 
chusetts in 1*40, speedily attaining eminence as 

an e dr oo at e. In 1841 ha puUished a work on 
sea-usages and laws, under the title of "The So- 
man's Friend." which has been reprinted in Eng- 
land as the "Seaman's Manual." and in 1*.V.( an 
account of a vacation trip, entitled "To Cuba and 
Back " (Boston). He occasionally contributed to 
the •• North American Review," Ibe M Law Begfe- 

ter," and the "American Law Review. " and be 

I capered biographical sketches of his kinsmen, 
'rof. Edward Channing and Washington Allston. 
Daring the years |s..v.i '60 Mr. Dana made a tour 
p.uiid the world. Six years later, by reOjOesJ of 

the familv of the late Henrv Wheatoii. he an- 




1 



frolPfi %a^J{ 



gaged in the pmejilion of a now ad W\m- 

t. .n's •• International |jiv» " (Boston, 1866), I- 
tag up that etandard work from 1 

Wheat. .11 died. tO the llllini f the pilbllej,! 

revised book Tins task, which in many re ap ecte 
Mr. Dana performed nooejjAl&v, entailed upon 

him much subsequent trouble. Ins origi- 

nal annotations were regarded with particular 
fa\or. and bJSBOteCSJ the neutrality In ■ 
United States hihI (Jreat Britain fH traii-dat.. 
order of our government, to U used bj lhessjta> 
taton in Wjk In 1*«MJ Mr. Dana received 
degree of LL. D. from Harvard college, and he lec- 
tured on international law in the Cambridge law- 
Bohool in 1886-'?. lb ran against (bn. Butler in 
the BeaeX dfctrict in IN«8, and was defeated. This 
act on his jwirt also h-d to subsequent annoyance. 
In March, l*7d. (on. Dnmt iiuminat.-d Mr.' Dana 
minister to Kuglaud as successor t< ink. 

At first tfaate was BO thought of any oppooitioa, 
and it was regarded by the public with peculiar 
favor, but personal and private feelings mmhi began 
toexercise their influence. (Jreat opposition U 
confirmation arose chiefly through the exertions of 
(Jen. Butler, who had not forgotten Mr. Dana's 
canvass against him as a candidate f<>r congress, 
and of William Beteh [*wrcncet who charged that 
Mr. Dana had pirated the notes of his edition <,f 
" Wheaton's International Ijaw." It is unneces- 
sary to review the dreary details of this literary con- 
troversy. Mr. Dana complained that the charges 
against him were made ex jxirte U-fore the son- 
ate committee, while he was denied any oppor- 
tunity of defence. The nomination (Jen. (Jrant 
utterly refused to withdraw. The result was that 
it was rejected by a vote of thirty-one to seventeen. 
The controversy continued to rage even after 
the rejection, and attracted some notice abroad, 
several London journals characterizing the affair 
as "a paltry intrigue." It is sufficient to say that 
if Mr. Dana erred in the matter, be did s<» unin- 
tentionally. He undoubtedly felt the indignity as 
deeply as it would be possible for any man t" feel 
it, and if he unwittingly did Mr. Lawrence any 
wnmg. be paid the penalty. In 1*7* Mr. Dana 
went abroad for the purpose of pursuing his studies 
of international law. his intention being to publish 
an exhaustive work on that subject. Hespenl much 
time in Paris, and near the does of 1**1 visited 
Koine. He joined a merry Christmas |«arty of 
American friends, was taken ill the following day, 
and died of pneumonia, 7 Jan.. 1888. Two days 
later the beautiful American Episcopal church In 
the Via Nationale was crowded with hi* country- 
men, assembled to attend his funeral services. His 
remains were Interred in the Protestant ceineterv 
at Porte Pia. near those of the poeti Keats and 
Shelley, and a monument has since In-cii erected to 
his memory. Mr. Dana was a representative of the 
Inst culture of his native state, and had acquired a 

permanent reputation on ln.t h sides «.f the Atlantic 

He had taken |wrt in many of the most conspicu- 
ous Litigations of the last half-century, and it is 
perhaps not too much praise to place him among 

the great lawyers of the land. His death, following 
closely on that of Mr. I^awrenoo, deprived the re- 
stricted circle of American writers on international 
law of their most brilliant leaders. Asadiplomato 
he would doubtless have acquitted himsolf with as 
much success as those other nun of Massachusetts 
- Br er e tt , Abbotl I.awrcncc. Adams. Motley, and 
Lowell— who represent. si the United State* SJ the 
court to which he was ap|>ointod. Dfina net or had 
an o|i|Mirtunitv of U-ing known in the national 
councils of the country. Had he obtained a seat 



72 



DANE 



DAN FORTH 



in the senate, he would have met there few men 
who were his superiors in knowledge of public 
,i (Tairs. in comprehension of the principles of states- 
manship, or in the ability to engage in their dis- 
cussion. — Richard Henry, son of the preceding, 
b. in Cambridge, Mass., 3 Jan., 1851, was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1874, being chosen class ora- 
tor, and at Harvard law-school in 1877. In that 
year lie received from President Hayes the nom- 
ination of secretary of legation at London, but 
declined the office. He married Miss Edith Long- 
fellow, second daughter of Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow, the poet, 6 Jan., 1878. While con- 
tinuing the practice of law, he has been a regular 
contributor to the " Civil Service Record," besides 
writing occasionally for the press on questions of 

g'lit ical reform. — Another son of Richard Henry, 
(1 in n ml Trowbridge, b. in Cambridge, Mass., 2*9 
Aug., 1818 ; d. there, 18 May, 1869, was graduated 
at the University of Vermont in 1839, and at 
Cambridge law-school in 1841. Subsequently he 
practised in partnership with his brother, Richard, 
in Boston for several years, when failing health 
compelled him to reside in Europe, where he con- 
tinued his studies, devoting special attention to 
Roman civil law, and to history and philosophy in 
their bearings upon law. In 1854 he received the 
degree of J. U. D. from the University of Heidel- 
berg, and returned to the United States two years 
later. He wrote occasionally for periodicals, and 
attempted the translation of the works of Von 
Mohl and other eminent German jurists. 

DANE, Nathan, jurist, b. in Ipswich, Mass., 27 
Dec., 1752 ; d. in Beverly, Mass., 15 Feb., 1835. He 
was graduated at Harvard in 1778, and, after study- 
ing law, was admitted to its practice and settled in 
Beverly. His acquirements made him a safe and 
able counsellor, and with his large and diversified 
experience he became one of the most prominent 
lawyers of New England. He entered at once into 
political life, and from 1782 till 1785 was a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts legislature. In 1785 he 
was a delegate to the continental congress, and 
was continued as such by re-election until 1788. 
During his career in the national legislature he 
rendered much efficient service by his work on 
committees, and was the framer of the celebrated 
ordinance passed by congress in 1787 for the gov- 
ernment of the territory northwest of the Ohio. 
It was adopted without a single alteration, and 
contains the emphatic statement " that there shall 
be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the 
said territory." He also incorporated in this ordi- 
nance a prohibition against all laws impairing the 
obligation of contracts, which the convention that 
formed the constitution of the United States a few 
months afterward extended to all the states of the 
Union by making it a part of that constitution. 
In 1790 he was elected to the Massachusetts senate, 
and again elected in 1794 and 1796. He was ap- 

Eointed judge of the court of common pleas for 
Issex county in 1794, but, after taking the oath of 
office, almost immediately resigned, and in 1795 
was appointed a commissioner to revise the laws 
of the state. In 1811 he was delegated to revise 
and publish the charters that had been granted in 
Massachusetts, and in 1812 was selected to make a 
new publication of the statutes. During the same 
year he was chosen a presidential elector. He was 
a delegate to the Hartford convention in 1814, and 
also to the Massachusetts constitutional convention 
in 1820, but declined serving on account of deaf- 
ness. For fifty years he devoted his Sundays to 

tl logical studies, excepting during the hours of 

public worship, reading generally the Scriptures in 



their original languages. In 1829 he gave $10,000, 
which he increased by $5,000 in 1831, for the foun- 
dation of the Dane professorship of law in 1 lar- 
va rd law-school, requesting that his friend, Judge 
Joseph Story, should occupy the chair, which he 
did until his death. He published "A Genera 
Abridgment and Digest of American Law" (9 vols., 
Boston, 1823-'9), and « Appendix " (1830). 

I> \ MIX John Daniel, soldier, b. in Balti- 
more, Md., in 1786; d. there in 1856. He became 
a captain in the Colombian navy in 1818, and served 
the republican cause in South America as com- 
mander of a squadron, by fitting out vessels, and 
by his credit as a rich man. When the Republic 
of Colombia was established, he returned to the 
United States, and gave up his claims for money 
due for his services, for supplies provided by him 
for the Revolution of 1818, for expenses incurred 
by his three ships in the blockade of Cumana in 
1821, for the use of his three ships in the blockade 
of Puerto Cabello and in guarding La Guayra, and 
for the expenses of a journey to the United States 
to raise funds for the sloop-of-war " Bolivar." The 
executive power of Colombia gave him a vote of 
thanks, and the congress of Venezuela in 1845 de- 
creed that his name should have an honorable place 
as captain of the navy in the military list of the 
republic. — His son, Simon Bolivar Daniel Danels, 
was consul for Venezuela, stationed at Baltimore, 
Md., for many years. 

DANENHOWER, John Wilson, arctic explo- 
rer, b. in Chicago, 111., 30 Sept., 1849. He received 
his early education in the common schools of Chi- 
cago and Washington, entered the U. S. naval 
academy in 1866, was graduated in 1870, commis- 
sioned as ensign, 12 July, 1871, as master, 27 Sept., 
1873, and as lieutenant, 2 Aug., 1879. He served 
on a surveying expedition in the North Pacific in 
the "Portsmouth in 1873-4, took part in sup- 
pressing an insurrection in Honolulu, Hawaii, in 
1873, and served on board the " Vandalia " during 
Gen. Grant's visit to Egypt arid the Levant. In 
1878 he joined the arctic steamer " Jeannette " at 
Havre, France, and made the voyage to San Fran- 
cisco, and thence through Bering straits into the 
Arctic ocean. The expedition left San Francisco, 
8 July, 1879, under command of Lieut. George W. 
De Long. The vessel was beset in the ice-pack for 
twenty-two months. Lieut. Danenhower, who was 
second in command, suffered severely from ophthal- 
mia, and was confined in a dark room most of the 
time. From the place where the steamer was 
crushed the party made a retreat for ninety-five 
days over the ice, dragging the ship's boats, and 
then sailed in the three boats, but were separated 
by a gale. The boat that Lieut. Danenhower com- 
manded reached the Lena delta, where the crew 
were rescued by Tunguses. After landing, 17 
Sept., 1881, while waiting for the return of native 
messengers sent to Bulun, Danenhower made an 
ineffectual search on the delta for the crews of the 
other boats. With his crew he made the journey 
of 6,000 miles to Orenburg, leaving Engineer Mel- 
ville to continue the search for the captain and his 
party, and arrived in the United States in June, 
1882. He has published "The Narrative of the 
Jeannette " (Boston, 1882). 

DANFORTH, Charles, inventor, b. in Massa- 
chusetts about 1797; d. in Paterson, N. J., 22 
March, 1876. He was educated and spent his early 
life in New England, where he invented in 1824 a 
counter-twister, spinning-speeder, and a throstle- 
frame. These inventions ho suoeossfullv intro- 
duced, both in the United States and in England. 
Later he settled in Ramapo, N. Y., «nd there in- 



OKT11 






7:i 



.1 his cap spfoning-frame, and also a bobbin 

Mid flyer. About l s ;s<» he removed to I'atcraoii, 

re In- mdooad the ilnn nf Qodwha, Rog- 

. I>> manufacture bit spinners, ami thi- 
led to a large business, which in time embraced 
other form of machinery. Mr. Dan forth acquired 
an Interest in the firm, which Ijccamc Charles Dan- 
fort h \ ('<>., and la' h company with the 

title oi the Danforth Looooxitiveand jfsnhmeOom- 

Cmy. of wliich lie was president, lie amassed a 
rge fortune, and at the time of his death was con- 
sidered more familiar with the details of oottOU 
spinning and manufacturing machinery for that 
j>ur|M»se than anv other |K'rson in the United States. 
DANFORTH. Oeorge Franklin, jurist, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 5 July. 1810. lie was graduated at 
I'nioti in 1880, ami. after studying law, liegan prac- 
tice in [toohoster, N. Y.. where be was eminently 
essful, and soon rose to the front rank of the 

Srofession. In 1876 he was the republican candi- 
ate for indite of the court of appeals of the state 
Of New York. !>nt was defeated by Rohsjt Kiirl. 
Two years later he was again nominated for a simi- 
lar onOB, and after being elected took his seat on 
the bench. 1 Jan., 1879. 

D VN FORTH, Joshua Noble, clergyman, b. in 
Pitt -field. Mas-.. 1 April, 17!>H; ,1. in New Castle, 
Del.. U Nov., 1861. He was graduated at Williams 
in 1*1 s, and s|K?nt two years at the Princeton theo- 
logical seminary. After being ordained by the 
New Brunswick presbytery, on 30 Nov., 1888, he 
was installed pastor of the o h ttT Ch in New Castle, 
Del., where he remained untU 1828, when he ac- 
cepted a call to Washington. In 1832-'4 he was 
agent of the American colonization society, from 
IXH till 1838 pastor of the Congregational church 
in Lee, Mass., and then for fifteen vears in charge 
of the 2d Presbyterian church in Alexandria, Va. 
In 1860 he again accepted an agency for the Amer- 
ican colonization society. Dr. Danforth received 
in 1866 the degree of D. D. from Delaware college. 
Be contributed largely to the religious and secular 
preen, and wrote •• (Meanings and Groupings from 
a Pastor's Portfolio" (New York, 1852). 

DANFORTH, Moseley Isaac engraver, b. in 
Hartford, Conn.. 7 Dec., 1800; d. in New York 
city, 19 Jan.. 1862. He became a pupil of the Hart- 
ford graphic company in 1818, where he acquired 
a knowledge of bank-note engraving, and three 
years later settled in New Haven. Here he exe- 
cuted a plate after Raphael Morghen's engraving 
of the " Parce somnum rumpere," which was so 
well done that the publisher refrained from print- 
ing it for years, intending to dispose of the proofs 
as genuine Morghens. Subsequently he came to 
New York and studied drawing, meanwhile con- 
tinuing the practice of his art. He was one of the 
bonders of the New York drawing association in 
1888, and in .January, 1888, of the National acade- 
my of design. His large. full-length engraving of 

"Lafayette" was completed at this time, ami -e- 
cured him a cordial welcome \,\ the artists of Lon- 
don on his arrival in England in 1887. For ten 
years be rctidcd in London, studying in the Royal 
academy, where his drawings from the Elgin mar- 
bles were much admired, and enjoying the friend- 
■hip of Thomas Lawrence, Charles K. Leslie. Stewart 
Newton, and David Wilkic. Several of hi- lH--t - 

known engraving! were made during this period, 
including the "Sentry-Box" after Leslie, portraits 
Of Washington Irving and Sir Walter .Scott by the 
same artist, and " Don Quixote," although moat of 

hi- work while in London seem- to have been given 
to -mailer plates f ( ,r l*N>k-. On his return to New 
York he engraved vignettes for bank-notes, and 



subsequently became partner in a hank-note en- 
graving Arm, which in i*vh was merged in the 
American bank-note companv. of which <^ri>ora- 
tion he ww vice-president at the time ( 
His w., r k was character ' rnonlinary flnhth 

and exquisite delicacy of tint 

l> \ N FORTH, Thomas, colonial governor, b. „, 
Framlingham. Suffolk, England, in 1622. 
Cambridge. Mesa,, 8 Nov., 1068. B eldest 

son of Nicholas Danforth, and OHM with hi* father 
and brother, Samuel, to N. w Kimland m 1684. 
Soon after his. arrival in this countn : 
great influence in the managcim nt of public 
affair-. Banorofl ■JMlkl Oi him as the DfOCJahM 
author of the re|Mirt on natural and cnai 
ri^ht-, made by Sim<>n Ilrad-trct, faefSJSjsa M 
.John Norton, and others, in 1661. From 16 
1678 he was an assistant under the Ma-wachu-.u» 
government, becoming in 1*!7S» deputy sj O fUfor . 
In the latter vear he WUS elected president of the 
province <»f Maine, then Independent of the colony 
of Massachusetts. He o[»ened his court at York. 
and granted several parcels of land. The ossVOM 
of ih put v governor and president were held by 
him until the arrival of Sir Kduiund Am! 

Meanwhile he had also b,-<>n made a judge 
of the superior court, and in 10X1, with Daniel 
(Jookin, Klisha Ooofca, and others. op|x»ed the 
acts of trade and ■QSOTtod the charter right- of the 
country. During the witchcraft uWustrrn in 16U2 
he showed his correctness of judgment by tie- 
firmness with which he condemned the pfOfPOuhlfl 
of the court.— His brother. Samuel, clergyman, 
b. in Pramlingham, Suffolk. England, in Septem- 
ber, 1626; d. in Koxhurv. Mass., 1U Nov.. 1674. was 
graduated in 1648 at Harvard, where be was at 
once appointed a tutor and the s e co nd fellow. In 
1641 be was invited by the Rev. Thomas Welde to 
become — with the Key. John Eliot, whose numer- 
ous missionary engagements Interfered with his 
ministerial lalM.rs — colleague pastor of the church 
in Roxburv. The call was socepted, and he was 
ordained on 84 Sept, 1850, and continued *ith 
this congregation until his death. Hi- sermons 
were elaborate, judicial, and method ic al He 
showed great interest in astronomy, publis hing a 
number of almanacs, and al-o -An Asttunouueal 
Description of the Comet of ltKU." in which he 
maintained thai a comet was a heavenly body 
moving in accordance with divine laws. ,,nd thai 
the appearance was indicative of approaching 
misfortunes. His other publications arc "An 
Election Sermon" (1870) ana "The Cry of Sodom 
Inquired into, npou occasion of the Arraignment 
and Condemnation of Benjamin Qoad for hi- PlO" 
digious Yillanies" (Hi74>.— John. 3 .niiin-l. 

clergyman, b. in Roxburv. M •-. HHJO: d. 

in Dorebeater. 88 May,' 17:M». was graduated at 
Harvard in 1877, and was for some time a fellow 
in that university. On 88 Joan, 1888, be ■ 
dained sa pastor of the Ooogregatiooal so 

Dorchester, and be continued with this 

until his death, receiving ee his colleague ti 
Jonathan Bowman in i72i». Mr. Danforth was a 
man of gnat learning, possessed an uncommon ac- 
quaintance with mathematics, ami had a taste f,. r 
poetry. He published a u Sermon at the Kjiarturv 

of the Rev. Joseph Lord and his church f 
cheater, 8 I ; "The Right Christian l 

int in every Condition. 'he Iv-rd 

voudi-ated to as-i-ti to U> set forth and nws> 
mended "(1702)! " The Vile Profanation- of P 
iH-ritv bv the Degenerate among the I'eopli 

Fast Sermon at Boston" (1708); -The 
Blackness ,-f Sins sgainst Light, or Men*- offering 



74 



DAN FORTH 



DANIEL 



Violence to their Knowledge, a Sermon" (1710) • 
"A Sermon on King Hczekiah's Bitterness and 
Relief" (1710); "Judgment be gan at the Doom of 

God ami the Righteous scarcely Saved" (1716); 
u Two Sermons occasioned by the Earthquake, to 
which ii added a Poem on Peter Thatcher, of 
Milton, and Samuel Danforth,of Taunton" (1727); 
also, " Kneeling to God, at Parting with Friends ; 
or the Fraternal Intercessiory Cry of Faith and 
Love : Setting Forth and Recommending the 
Primitive Mode of taking Leave," to which were 
annexed poems to the memory of Mrs. Anne Eliot, 
and John Eliot, the apostle to the Indians (Boston, 
1697). — Samuel, another son of Samuel, clergyman, 
b. in Roxbnry, Mass., 18 Dec, 1666; d. in Taunton, 
Mlim 14 Nov., 1727. He was graduated at Har- 
vard in 1683, and subsequently became pastor of 
the Congregational church in Taunton. All of his 
contemporaries represent him as a person of great 
learning and ^as having influence among young 
people. During 1705 unusual attention to religion 
prevailed among his congregation, of which he 
gives an interesting account in three letters pub- 
lished in Prince's "Christian History." He also 
published " A Eulogy on Thomas Leonard " (1713) ; 
"An Election Sermon" (1714); and " An Essay 
concerning the Singing of Psalms" (1723). Mr. 
Danforth left a manuscript Indian dictionary, a 
part of which is now in the library of the Massa- 
chusetts historical society. It seems to have been 
formed from Eliot's Indian Bible, as there is a 
reference under every word to a passage of Scrip- 
ture. — Samuel, son of John, b. in Dorchester, 
Mass., in 1696; d. in Cambridge, Mass., in 1777. 
He was graduated at Harvard in 1715, and became 
prominent in the Massachusetts colony. For sev- 
eral vears he was president of the council, and also 
a judge of probate for Middlesex county. In 1774 
he was made a mandamus councillor. Subsequent 
to the last appointment, the county convention 
adopted the following: "Resolved, That, whereas 
the Hon. Samuel Danforth and Joseph Lee, Es- 
quires, two of the judges of the inferior court of 
common pleas for the county, have accepted com- 
missions under the new act, by being sworn mem- 
bers of his majesty's council, appointed by said 
act, we therefore look upon them as utterly in- 
capable of holding anv office whatever." Mr. Dan- 
forth was distinguished for his love of natural 
philosophy and chemistry. — Samuel, son of the 
third Samuel, physician, b. in Cambridge, Mass., 
in August, 1740; d. in Boston, Mass., 16 Nov., 
1827. He was graduated at Harvard in 1758, and 
studied medicine with Dr. Isaac Rand. At first he 
settled in Newport, but soon removed to Boston, 
where he acquired a valuable practice. During 
the Revolutionary war his professional pursuits 
were disturbed, and he was harshly treated by the 
whigs on account of his loyalty to Great Britain, 
but later he regained the confidence of his pa- 
tients. In all difficult medical cases his opinion 
was relied on as being the utmost effort of human 
skill. He practised with success until nearly eighty 
years of age, and increased his reputation by his 
chemical studies. Dr. Danforth was a member of 
the Academy of arts and sciences, and from, 1795 
till 1798 was president of the Massachusetts medi- 
cal society. — Thomas, son of thi third Samuel. 
lawyer, b. in Massachusetts about 1T42 ; d. in Lon- 
don, England, in 1825. He was graduated at 
Harvard in 1762, and was one of the addressers 
of Gov. Thomas Hutchinson. Subsequently he 
studied law, and became a councillor in Charles- 
town. He was the only lawyer in that town, as 
well as the only inhabitant, who sought protection 



from the parent country at the l>oginning of the 
Revolution. After being pwcribeo and banished, 
he departed for Halifax in l??fi. and later took up 
his residence in England. 

DANIEL, Antony, clergyman, b. in Dieppe,. 
France, in 1601 : d. in Canada in 1648. He became 
a Jesuit at the age of twenty, and was sent to 
Canada in 1633. He labored at first among the 
Indians of Cape Breton, but from July. 1684, till 
July, 1648, gave his attention exclusively to the 
Hurons. Although he made St. Josephs Ins prin- 
cipal residence, he ministered to the entire tribe. 
When celebrating mass, on 4 July, he heard a con- 
fused noise, and, as soon as he had finished the 
service, he ran to the quarter from which the cries 
proceeded. He was at once surrounded by women 
and children, and learned that the village was being 
attacked by a hostile tribe while the warriors were 
absent. Father Daniel exhorted all who could to 
escape to the woods, and endeavored to inspire 
those who were unable to do so, from sickness or 
age, with a sentiment of Christian heroism. He 
himself refused to escape, and, in order to gain time 
for his flock to reach the forest, he advanced toward 
the enemy. At first the savages recoiled, awed by 
his calmness and daring. When they recovered 
from their astonishment, they shot their arrows at 
him and he fell to the ground, and, after lingering 
some time in agony, was despatched by an Indian. 

DANIEL, John Moncure, editor, b. in Stafford 
county, Va., 24 Oct., 1825 ; d. in Richmond, Va., 30 
March, 1865. His father was the son of an emi- 
nent surgeon in the U. S. army, who married a 
daughter of Thomas Stone, of Maryland, signer 
of the Declaration of Independence. John Mon- 
cure was educated mainly bv his father, and studied 
law with Judge Lomax in Fredericksburg, Va., but 
did not complete his studies, his father's death ren- 
dering it necessary to earn a support for himself 
and aid his brothers. In 1845 he went to Rich- 
mond, where he obtained the place of librarian in 
a small public library, which, though it brought 
little money, supplied opportunity for indulging 
his passion for reading. The first exhibition of his 
prowess as a writer was on an agricultural monthly, 
" The Southern Planter," to which he attracted so 
much notice that he was invited to a place on the 
staff of a new democratic newspaper (1847), the 
" Richmond Examiner," which speedily became the 
leading paper of the south. The brilliant invective 
of the paper led to his fighting several duels. Mr. 
Daniel s " democratic " principles were of the philo- 
sophical European school, and he was enabled to 
harmonize his pro-slavery radicalism with these by 
the adoption of Carlyle s theory (in " The Nigger 
Question "), which he interpreted as meaning that 
negroes were not to be considered as men in the 
same sense as whites. He was heretical in religious 
opinions, and his columns bore witness to much 
admiration for Emerson and Theodore Parker. He 
even published Parker's famous sermon on Web- 
ster in his paper. The literary character of the 
" Examiner was very high. Mr. Daniel was a 
friend of Edgar A. Poe, whom he aided with 
money, and of whom he wrote a remarkable sketch 
in the "Southern Literary Messenger." Some of 
Poe's poems were revised for this paper. Mr. Dan- 
iel was perhaps the earliest apostle of the seces- 
sionists in Virginia. In 18553 he was appointed by 
President Buchanan minister to the court of Victor 
Emanuel, and while there he took high ground in 
demanding the same immunities for an Italian 
naturalized in the United States ami visiting Sar- 
dinia as for any other American, and was indig- 
nant that Mr. Marcy did not supporf*him in threat- 



DANIEL 



DANIEL 



98 




sjjaga rupture <>f diplomatic relations. 1 1 
some scandal by escorting t<> a royal ball at Turin 
(on oocaelnn nf t * »« - betrothal of Prince Napoleon 
■ad Plluuoss Clotildc) the Countess Marie de Solms 
(afterward Madame Ratazzi), who had BOi been 

invited. This 

matter wee t h«- 

suhject of a 

curious oorre- 
epondenee be- 
tveen Cevour 

atnl his minis- 
ter at Washing- 
ton. Qerfbaldl 
reqoeeted Dao- 

icltoannexNice 
to the Ameri- 
can republic, 
which Daniel 

declined on the 

ground that it 
wax contrary to 
f f* .q . ^f theMonroedoo- 

**-*-«-* /1 ^- • ^<*~~+-*~*L trin.-! His so- 
cial relations at 
Turin were for a time rendered unpleasant through 
the imprudent publication by a friend in Richmond 
of a private letter in which he ridiculed the Italn- 
iufs of the court, the letter having found its way 
to Turin. Nevertheless. Daniel passed more than 
seven agreeable years abroad. At the beginning 
of the civil war he hastened home, and served <>n 
the staff of Gen. A. P. Hill. His arm being shat- 
tered, he resumed editorship of the Richmond 
" Examiner." He attacked Jefferson Davis and 
Mr. Baton (Confederate treasurer) with gnat 
severity, was challenged in 1864 by the latter, and 
met him in a duel, where he was "unable to point 
his pistol on account of his wounded arm. He was 
shot in the leg in this duel. He predicted the col- 
lapse of the Confederacy, and died three days U-- 
fore it occurred. Frederick S. Daniel has printed 
privately a volume containing his brother's leading 
articles daring the war, with a memoir. 

DANIEL, John Reeves Jones, b. in Halifax 
county. N. C, about 1802 ; d. in Louisiana. He was 
graduated at the University of North Carolina in 
1821, studied law, and practised with suooese, sat 
in the legislature in 1832-'4, and was elected attor- 
ney-general in the latter year. In 1840 he was 
elected, as a democrat, to congress, and served 
continuously from 1 May. 1841, to :i March. 1853. 
He afterward removed to Louisiana. 

DANIEL, Peter Vivian, jurist, b. in Stafford 
countv, Va., 24 April 1784; d. in Richmond, Va.. 
80 June. lMtiO. His fat her, Tra vers Daniel, was ■ 
son of Peter Daniel, who married a daughter of 
Raleigh Travers, of the Virginia house of bur- 
gesses. The residence of Travers Daniel, Clow's 
Nest, near the mouth of Potomac creek, was cele- 
brated for its hospitalities, and the family l>ore an 
important part in public affairs. Peter Vivian was 
graduated at Princeton in 1800. And studied law in 
the i. Iliee of Kdmund Randolph (<>f Washington's 
cabinet), whose daughter. LllCT Nelson Randolph, 

he married in 1811. He was chosen a member of 
the privy council of Virginia in 1818, and served 
part of the time as lieutenant-governor of the slate 
until ls:{.->. in is:tr, be was appointed by President 
Van Boron to be judge of the district circuit court 
of Virginia, end was raised to the supreme court, 
! trch, 1841, to raoceed Mr. Justice Barbour. 
Jttdge Daniel was a democrat, and a personal as 
well as political friend of President Jackson. He 
was a gentleman of fine taste in literature. | 



moaioal at amHaooMOla.aad h i» judicial opinion* 

are marked l»v can nod clearness. 

DANI1 I . Kalclfrh Traver*, juri-t. b. in Suf. 
ford county, Vs., IS Oct., 1803 ; d. in Kichnv 
Aug.. 1*;;. Hi- father wan an • 
his mother a daughter of Thorns 

laration of Independence. Hi. ear 
ration Wao a o qah od from John Lowta, WOOBOpt ■ 

classical seoool in Bo oMwl nadi eoaoty, aod »»* 

perhajw the U>*\ teacher of Latin and Creek in that 
region. At the age 

oJlice of his lilK-le, Judge P. V. Dallirl (afterward 

>»f tlie C. S. supreuie court), at Richmond, and. 
after a careful training for the pTOfaOOOtt of law. 
took a high p-sition at tin- bar. In tin- early part 

of his oareat be was appoioted ooosmoaweetthii 
attorney f<>r Beariooeoantr, in which Riehmood i» 

situated, and he|«| that 00908 until 1881 Though 

belonging to a democratic family, be was the 
leader of the whig j>arty in Richmond while yet a 
young man. and was repeatedly olootod t" rej 

that city in the legislature. He was the favorite 
orator of his party in Virginia. always chairman of 
it- state committee, and DO It* electoral ticket ; and 
in the presidential OtavaOBMOf 1840 aud II 
confronted the democratic champions in e\erv part 
of the state. Such was the admiration felt for him 
bv his opponents that in 1M47 a democratic . 
blv elected h i in OM of the thne members of the 
governor's council. By seniority he became lieu- 
tenant-governor of the state, lb' was a Strong 
Union man so long as that sentiment was | 
in his state; but when the war came be considered 
service to his state the paramount duty. When 
Richmond was occupied by the national forces Mr. 
Daniel was removea by Gen. SchoAeld from the 
office of city attorney. When the autonomy of tin- 
state was restored in 1888, be devoted himself to 
the work of organizing the conservative |«rty. 
which triumphed in the election of QQbsrl 
Walker as governor. In 1H?2 he was elected at- 
torney-general of Virginia, and in this office 
showed such capacity for mastering the novel ques- 
tions and difficulties thai had fo||. .wed the confu- 
sion of affairs that at the next convention he was 
re-nominated by acclamation. He WM el ected by 
an overwhelming majority, on 11 Aug., l s 77. but 
died from a hemorrhage four da\s later. His cul- 
ture, eloquence, and social qualities are still re- 
memberea in every part of Virginia, when- no man 
of his political opinions had ever been SO p'pular. 
DANIEL, William, jurist, b. in Cumberland 
county, Va.. in l?7<»: d. in Lynchburg, Va.. 20 
Nov., 1889. He was a member of the Virginia 
house of delegates, and gained reputation as an 
orator by his defence of the •• Res.. lut ions of W." 
He became circuit judge and a-oMeic member of 
the old general court of Virginia. His judicial 
opinions are high authority, ami SOOWOf hi* sav- 
ings are proverbial in his neighborhood. — His son, 
William, jurist, b. in Winchester. Va., 2»5 Nov., 
1N(m; : .1. in I.vnchburg. Va.. '.'N March. 1n7;{. was 
educated at Hampden Sidney college and at the 
University of Virginia, ami while yet a youth was 
a lawyer of large practice ami wide reputation for 

eloquence. He was elected to the Virginia house 
of delegates before be was of age. lie was an 
elector on the Polk ticket iii 1844. He was a jn 
Of the supreme curt of appeals of Virginia from 
1847 till 1885. Hi- son, John Warwick, saaior, 
b. in Lynchburg, Va- •*> SepL, 1848, received a 
cla>..ieal~ education, and in May. 188L volunt eered 

in the Confederate army, in which he ssrvod 
throughout the war. rising t.. be major and ad- 
jutant-general <•{ Karly's division in the Ann. 



76 



DAN IK I. 



DARBY 



Northern Virginia. In 1865-'6 he studied law at 
the University of Virginia, and soon after entering 
upon practice gained a high reputation as an advo- 
cate. Be has published " Attachments" (1869) 
and "Negotiable Instruments" (1870). He was 
elected to the state house of delegates in 1860, and 
to the state senate in 1875 and 1879. In 1876 he 
was an elector-at-large on the Tilden and Hendricks 
ticket. He was nominated for governor, in 1881, 
by the debt-paying democracy, and resigned from 
t lie state senate to accept the nomination, but was 
defeated by William E. Cameron, the readjuster 
candidate. On 4 Nov., 1884, he was elected a rep- 
resentative in congress, and on 15 Dec, 1885, was 
chosen U. S. senator to succeed William Mahone, 
whose term expires 3 March, 1887. 

DANIEL, William, candidate for the vice-presi- 
dency, b. on Deal's island, Somerset co., Md., 24 
Jan., 1826. He was graduated at Dickinson college 
in 1848, and admitted to the bar in 1851. He was 
elected to the legislature in 1853, and introduced a 
bill similar to the Maine liquor law, was re-elected 
on the temperance issue by the American party, 
and on the completion of his term sent to the state 
senate in 1857 as a supporter of local option. After 
the first session he resigned, and removed to Balti- 
more. He became an earnest anti-slavery republi- 
can, and in 1864 was a member of the State consti- 
tutional convention for the emancipation of the 
slaves. He was chosen president of the Maryland 
temperance alliance on its organization in 1872, and 
continued in that post in subsequent years. Through 
the efforts of that society and the energy and elo- 
quence of its president, the Maryland option law 
was enacted, and adopted by thirteen counties of 
the twenty-three composing the state. On 14 July, 
1884, the alliance joined the national prohibition 
party. Mr. Daniel appeared at the head of the 
Maryland delegation in the prohibitionist conven- 
tion"^ Pittsburg, Pa., acted as temporary chairman 
of the convention, and was nominated, by it for 
vice-president of the United States. The St. John 
and Daniel ticket received 150,369 ballots, or 1*49 
per cent, of the total popular vote. 

DANIELS,William Haven, author, b. in Frank- 
lin, Mass., 18 May, 1836. He entered Wesleyan uni- 
versity, then travelled in Europe, became librarian 
in Northwestern university in 1866, and was pro- 
fessor of rhetoric in Illinois Wesleyan university 
in 1868-'9. He joined the Rock River conference 
of the Methodist Episcopal church in 1869, was a 
minister in Chicago, 111., in 1870-'4, then at River 
Forest, went to Europe with Dwight L. Moody, the 
revivalist, in 1875, became a supernumerary in 1876, 
and since 1881 has devoted himself to literature, 
and to the work of an evangelist, to enter upon 
which he resigned his connection with the New 
England conference in 1885. He is the author of 
" D. L. Moody and his Work " (London and Hart- 
ford, 1875) ; " That Boy : Who shall Dave Him f " 
(Cincinnati and London, 1878) ; " The Temperance 
Reform and its Great Reformers " (New York, 1878) ; 
" Moody, his Words, Work, and Workers " (1879) ; 
"The Illustrated History of Methodism in the 
United States " (1880) ; " Graduated with Honor : 
Memorials of Gilbert Haven " (Cincinnati, 1880) ; 
and "A Short History of the People called Method- 
ist " (London, 1882). 

DANIELSON, Timothy, patriot, b. in Brimfield, 
Mass., in 1733; d. there, 19 Sept., 1791. He was 
graduated at Yale in 1756, and studied theology, 
but did not preach. He was chairman of the Hamp- 
shire county convention in September, 1774, and a 
delegate to the provincial congress that met at Con- 
cord in the following month. In May, 1774, being 



a representative, he was chosen a member of the 
council, but his election was annulled by Gov. Gage. 
In February and May. 1778, he attended the pro- 
vincial congress at Cambridge and Watcrtown. He 
commanded one of the twenty-five regiments ojt 
provincial militia organized under the act of May. 
1775, but served the cause of independence chiefly 
in the legislative body, where he sat for m 
years, lie was a member of the State constitu- 
tional convention of 1779, and afterward of the 
senate and executive council. In his last years he 
was chief justice of Hampshire county. 

DANKS, Hart Pease, musician, b. in New 
Haven, Conn., in 1834. He removed with his 
parents to Saratoga Springs, N. Y., and in 1850 
went to Chicago, 111. His first musical composition 
was inserted in Bradbury's "Jubilee," under the 
name of "Lake Street," and is well known. In 
1856 his first song, arranged with piano-forte accom- 
paniment, " The Old Lane," was published in Chi- 
cago, since which time he has issued several hundred. 
Two of them, " Silver Threads among the Gold " 
and " Don't be angry with me, Darling," have at- 
tained immense popularity, each selling to the ex- 
tent of several hundred thousand copies. The pub- 
lishers paid the author thirty dollars for the copy- 
right, and realized several thousands. From 1858 
till 1861 Mr. Danks lived in Cleveland, Ohio, from 
1861 till 1864 in Chicago, and from 1864 till 1887 
in New York city. He has published books of an- 
thems that have met with favorable acceptation. 

DAOUST, Jean Baptist, Canadian politician, 
b. in St. Eustache, Quebec, 18 Jan., 1817. After hav- 
ing been magistrate, commissioner, and municipal 
officer, he was elected by acclamation in 1854, for 
Two Mountains, to the old parliament of Canada, 
in which he held his seat until the confederation of 
the provinces in 1867, when he was elected to the 
house of commons by acclamation. In 1872 he 
retired for a short time from political life. In 1876 
he was re-elected to the house of commons by ac- 
clamation, being chosen again at the general elec- 
tion in 1878, and again in 1882. He is a conservative. 

DA PONTE, Lorenzo, dramatist, b. in Venice, 
Italy, 10 March, 1749; d. in New York city, 17 
Aug., 1838. His name was an assumed one. He 
was for two years professor of rhetoric in the semi- 
nary of Porto Gruaro, and then removed to Venice. 
But, after a short stay in that city, he was exiled 
for writing a political satire. His next place of 
residence was in Vienna, where he wrote opera 
libretti and dramas for the theatres. Among his 
productions were " Don Giovanni " and " Nozze di 
Figaro," both rendered famous and enduring by 
the musical setting of Mozart. Da Ponte next 

Sassed several years in London as secretary and 
ramatist of the . Italian opera, and also kept a 
book-store. In 1805, becoming financially in- 
volved, he emigrated to the United States, and 
settled in New York city, where for many years 
he gave private lessons in the Italian language 
and literature. In 1828 he was appointed pro- 
fessor of Italian in Columbia college. Beetdee 
his many plays, he wrote sonnets and translations 
from the English into Italian, and also several 
books of elementary instruction in the Italian 
language. He published his own "Life" (3 vols.. 
New York, 1823), and "History of the Florentine 
Republic and the Medici " (2 vols., 1833). 

DARBY, John, educator, b. in North Adams, 
Mass., 3 Sept., 1804 ; d. in New York, 18 Sept., 1877. 
He was graduated at Williams in 1831, and re- 
mained there as an instructor till he accepted a pro- 
fessorship in Wesleyan female college at Macon. ( ia. 
Afterward he became professor of mathematics at 



DARBT 



DARi 



77 



Williams, in ih4.') be wm obUfad, oo aeeoaid of 

BfsheaJtl a warm climate. He was e,. li- 
ned ed a ith ti dueationaJ department* "f Georgia 

iitnl Florida, was tin- founder 01 thcCiillodcti female 

college, and afterward profaaeor of natural science 

in Auburn college, Ala. In 1N(M) he was elected 

Eldent of tfa m university of Kentucky, 

ut in 1878 reeigned, and re m oved bo New York 
II. w ac .1 regular contributor to the religious 
pro a s , and was the author of several educational 
and sdentinc works, Including " Manual of Botanj " 
ii. IH41); "The Botany of the Southern States" 
Vork, 1855); and " Chemistry " (I860). 

DARBT, William, geographer, b. in Fennayl- 
vaniain 1775: d. in Washington, I>. <'., UOct- 1864 
Ha was an officer under (Jen. Jackson in Louisiana, 
ami one of the surveyon of the boundary U-tween 
the United states ami Canada. With T h eod o ra 
Dw ight. Jr.. he edited the "United States Gazetteer" 
in 1XH>. His works include "Geographical Descrip- 
tion of Louisiana" (isiti); •• Plan of Pittaburgand 
Adjacent Country " (1817); " Emigrant's Guide to 
the Western Country" (1818); "Tour from New 
York to Detroit" (N'.w York. 1819); "Geography 
and History of Florida." with a map (1821): third 
edition of " Brooke's Universal Gazetteer" (1828); 
•• Yiew of the United States " (Philadelphia, 1828); 
•'Lectures on the Discovery of America" (1828); 
" Mnemoniea,a Register of Events from the Earli- 
er Period to 1829" (Baltimore, 1829); and "Geo- 
graphical Dictionary" (1843). 

UARCEY. John " S„ phvsician, b. in Hanover, 
Morris co., N. J., 24 Feb., 1788 ; d. in Newark. N. 
J., II I ><t., 1863. His father was a physician, and 
with him he studied and succeeded to his large 
practice. He was a member of the state legisla- 
ture in 1H19. In 1832, on the first appearance of 
Asiatic cholera in this country, he removed to 
Newark, N. J., and by his skill in the treatment 
of that disease, and his devotion to his patients 
and sympathy with their sufferings, attained a 
practice more extensive and exacting than any 
other in the state, which finally impaired his re- 
markably vigorous constitution. In 1835-'41 he 
was U. S. marshal for New Jersey. He exerted 
great influence in his party in the state, but was 
averse to holding office. On the incorporation of 
the New Jersey railroad company he waa elected 
its president, and held the office till ins death, a 
period of over thirty years. In 1849, his health 
failing, he made theoverland journey to California, 
but his health was rather injured than benefited. 

HARDEN, Miles, giant, b. in North Carolina 
in 179H; d. in Henderson county. Teiin.. '•>■'{ Jan.. 
1857. He was seven feet six inches in height, and 
at his death Weighed more than one thousand 
pounds. Until 1853 he was active, energetic, and 
able to lalx>r, but from that time was obliged to 
remain at home, or be moved aliout in a wagon. 
In 1800 it required thirteen and a half yards of 
cloth, one yard wide, to make him a coat. 11 is 
coffin was eight feet long, thirty-five inches deep, 
thirty-two inches across the breast, eighteen across 
the head, and fourteen across the feet 

DARE, Virginia, the first child of English 
parents botfl in the New World, b. at Roanoke, Va., 
in Au gu st, 1007. She was the granddaughter of 
John White, governor of the colonv sent out by- 
Sir Walter Raleigh to found an agricultural state. 
The expedition sailed from Plymouth, England, 26 

April, C> s ?. and reached the island of RaStoke, 
Yirginia, in July of the same year. The moiher 
Of UM child was the wife of one of her father's 
assistants. Yirginia was liorn aliout a month after 
the arrival of the expedition. Nine days after her 



birth Gov. White Bailed for England, and when ho 
returned, a year later, nil vtwtigt* of • 
had disappeared. An Inscription on the bnr 

inted to Ironfall, a 
long to a friendly trilw of Indians, but Cmatan 
was never found. 

DA ID. V N.Clara Victoria, pott b, near Winne* 
DOTO, S. C. about 1*40. She uas.,f French descent, 
and of a family whose wealth was lost in the down- 
fall of the Confederacy. Ibr early education wan 
very carefully conducted, and ehe »n.i eepeeslflf 
skill. -d in music. From 1852 til 
with her family in Columbia, S. C. She began 

writing ekatohaa and eongaal the age of t.n. and 

a year later produced a story that was much nd- 
mired. Her first pubUahed poem v»i, 
Thine," in the Charleston "Coiirant " in !*• 
der the pseudonym of "Claudia," Durn 
following year she wrote several stories f,, r the 
"Southern Guardian," signed " Esther Chcaney." 

In 1000 ehe edited the Uierary depaftananl of the 

'• Edgefield Advertiser," and became a contributor 

to various other periodicals. After the . 

the civil war she became a teacher in ForkriOe, 

8. C. She is the author of " Kiverlands." a story 
Of life on the Kivcr Ashley, which originally ap- 

t oared aa a prion story in the M Southern Field and 
fireside " flOOOX ana of another novel that ot> 
tained a prize and was pubUahed us a larlal 

DA KG AN. Edmund Siiann, jurist, b. in Mont- 
gomery county, N. ('.. 18 April. 1800; d. in Mobile. 
Ala., in November, 1879. Ha was the son of a 
Baptist minister of Irish descent, at whose death 
he was left without means. By his ..mm exertions 
he obtained a fair knowledge of English, Ijitin. 
and Greek, although he was at work on a farm un- 
til he was twenty-three years old. He read law, 
was admitted to the bar in \*'2U. went to Alabama. 
and taught three months in VTaahingtOU, Autauga 

co. Here he was elected a Justice of the peace, and 

filled the office for several years, meanwhile en- 
gaging in the practice of law. In lxti be ramoTad 
to Montgomery, ami in 1*41 was elected to the 
bench of the circuit court of the Mobile district. 
and removed to Mobile. He resigned the office of 
judge in 1848, and in 1x44 waa nleotod to the state 
senate. He was also mayor of Mobile the same 
year. He resigned from the senate the following 
year, and was elected to c. rving from 1 

Dee.. 1840, till :* March. 1847. <>n the queetJcsj of 
the northwestern boundary of Oregon he made an 
able speech, and offered some valuable amend- 
ments to the resolution of notion. Be was the 
first proposer of the line of adjustment finallv 
adopted on the settlement of the que stion with 

the British government. He declined a leUOUU- 
nation, and in 1847 was elected to fill a vacancy 
on the bench Of the supreme court of Alalwma. 
In July, 1840, by the resignation of Juatke Collier, 
he became chief justice, which office be resigned in 
December, 1000, and luwmsd the pnetssa of law 
in Kobfla. In i s '*d he was a del e gat e loth 
convention, and voted for the ordinance of Reces- 
sion, lie also served lot one term aa a representa- 
tive in the Confederate congress. 

DAM VN. Theodore A., physician, b. in - 
Hollow, S. ('., in 1*S1. He was of Scotch- Irish 

daaoant, and t aoa i vad his early ednoattnn in I>ar- 

lingtoii. S. C. He was graduated at tie 
Carolina medical college in 1K44 at the age of 
twenty-one, At the beginning of the civil war he 
entered the Confederal '■ •»" <l 

served until the end. In 1H.'.1» he published a. pa- 
per -«n the subject ..f "Typhoid Fever." which was 
extensively noticed- 



78 



DARKE 



dakling 



DARKE, William. soldier, b. In Philadelphia 
OOOIltj, Pa., ill l?:!ti; d. in Jefferson fount y. \';i.. 96 
Nov., 1801. When he was four years old Iris par- 
ents removed to Virginia. At the age of nineteen 
lit- joined tin' BITOT, anil was with Braddock at his 

cl.iv.it in 1755, .Utlie beginning of the Bevohv 

tionary war he was made a captain, and was taken 

Erisoner at the battle of Germaiitown. Afterward 
e was colonel commanding the Hampshire and 
Berkeley regiments at the capture of Cornwallis. 
He was often a member of the Virginia legisla- 
ture, and, in the convention of 1788, voted for the 
Federal constitution. In 1791 he was commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel in a regiment of "levies," and 
commanded the left wing of St. Clair's army at its 
defeat by the .Miami Indians on 4 Nov., 1791. He 
made two gallant and successful charges with the 
bayonet in this fight, in the second of which his 
youngest son, Cant. Joseph Darke, was killed and 
himself wounded, narrowly escaping death. He 
was afterward major-general of "Virginia militia. 

DARLEY, John, actor, b. in England in 1765; 
d. in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1853. He made his first 
appearance on the American stage in Philadelphia 
in 1794, and afterward became a lieutenant of ma- 
rines in the U. S. navy, but returned to the stage, 
and appeared at the Park theatre, New York, 20 
July, 1801. He had a manly, well-proportioned 
person, and a handsome face, and, although not 
warmly attached to his profession, possessed great 
merit as a singer, and played frenchmen and 
walking gentlemen well. — His son, Felix Octa- 
vins Carr, artist, b. in Philadelphia, 23 June, 
1822 ; d. in Claymont. Del., 27 March. 1888. He was 
placed in a mercantile house in 1836, but spent 
his leisure in drawing. Some of his sketches at- 
tracted attention, and he received from the pub- 
lisher of the " Saturday Museum " a handsome 

sum for a few 
di signs, which 
encouraged him 
to devote him- 
self to art. For 
several years he 
was employed by 
largepublishing- 
houses in Phila- 
delphia, during 
which he pro- 
duced the se- 
ries of drawings 
for the " Libra- 
ry of Humor- 
ous American 
Works," which 
became very pop- 
(— ~*^% ^-" v — **y^~/)-~r s ularinthesouth- 

'■^ ' ern and western 
states. He re- 
moved in 1848 
to New York, where he occupied himself in illustrat- 
ing Irving's humorous writings. In 1856 he pub- 
lished a series of designs in outline from Sylvester 
Judd's novel of " Margaret," which met with such 
favor that he was commissioned by the American 
art union to illustrate in similar style u Rip Van 
Winkle " and " Sleepy Hollow." His elaborate out- 
line drawings of these subjects led to his recog- 
nition, both at home and abroad, as a worthy suc- 
cessor of Retzsch and Flaxman. He declined an 
advantageous offer to settle in London, and applied 
himself assiduously to his art. In addition to il- 
lustrating James Fenimore Cooper's works, for 
which he furnished more than 500 designs, he was 
also engaged in the preparation of vignettes for 




pa 

l't 



bank-notes. Be riM Uhtstiafced Dickens's works 
and Simuis's novels, and executed the " Massacre at 
Wyoming," and various Revolutionary piece* Mr. 
Dariey was elected a member of the Academy of 
design In 1859, l>eeame a member of the Artists' 
fund society, and was one of the early members of. 
the American society of painters in water-colors. 
In 1859 appeared his drawing of the wedding pro- 
cession in Longfellow's " Courtship of Miles Stan- 
dish." After that time he executed many large 
works, among which were four ordered by Prince 
Napoleon, viz. : '• Emigrants attacked by Indians 
on the Prairie," "The Village Blacksmith," "The 
Unwilling Laborer," and "The Repose." During 
the civil war he delineated many dramatic and 
characteristic scenes, including one representing 
"Dahlgren's Charge at Fredericksburg," and an- 
other representing "Sherman's March to the Sea." 
Some of the most elaborate figures and scenes on 
the government bonds and legal-tender notes of 
the national banks were designed by him. Toward 
the close of the war he visited Europe, added many 
scores of sketches to his portfolio, studied models in 
Rome, and made a large number of drawings, many 
of which appeared in periodicals. On his return to 
the United States he published " Sketches Abroad 
with Pen and Pencil ''(New York, 1868), for which 
he furnished both letter-press and illustrations. 
His " Cavalry Charge at Fredericksburg, Va.," was 
at the Paris exposition of 1867. His " Street Scene 
in Rome," in water-color, was at the Centennial 
exhibition of 1876. In 1875 he engaged in pre- 
aring 500 drawings to illustrate a " History of the 
'nited States " by B. J. Lossing. His later work 
consists of " Outlines to the ' Scarlet Letter ' " of 
Hawthorne (1879), and twelve outline illustrations 
to the "Evangeline" of Longfellow, issued, not in 
lithograph print as heretofore, but in phototypes 
taken from the originals (1883), and " Illustrations 
to Shakespeare's Plays " (1886). 

DARLING, Henry, clergyman, b. in Reading, 
Pa., 27 Dec, 1823. He was graduated at Amherst 
in 1842, studied theology in Union seminary, New 
York, in 1842-'3, at Auburn in 1843-'5, and was 
ordained by the presbytery of Columbia, 30 Dec, 
1847. He first settled in Vernon, N. Y., then be- 
came pastor in Hudson in 1847-53, pastor of the 
Clinton street church, Philadelphia, in 1852-'62, 
and permanent clerk of the Presbyterian general 
assembly in 1854-'63. He was an invalid in 1861-'3, 
after which he removed to Albany, and became 
pastor of the 4th Presbyterian church, where he 
remained until 1881. In that year he was elected 
president of Hamilton college. He presided as 
moderator to the general assembly in 1881. The 
degree of D. D. was conferred upon him in 1860 by 
Union, and the degree of LL. D. by both Hamilton 
and Lafayette in 1881. In addition to many pam- 
phlets and articles in periodicals, he has published 
" The Closer Walk " (Philadelphia, 1862), " Slavery 
and the War" (1863), "Conformity to the W r orld'' 
(1873), " Not Doing, but Receiving " (Albany, 1875). 
DARLING, Noyes, agriculturist, b. in Wood- 
bridge, Conn., in 1782; d. in New Haven, 17 Sept., 
1846. He was graduated at Yale in 1801, and was 
a tutor there in 1804-'8, after which he engaged in 
mercantile pursuits in New York city. He was 
especially interested in horticulture, and also in 
investigating the habits of insects injurious to 
vegetation, and wrote many valuable papers on the 
subject. The latter years of his life were passed 
in New Haven, of which city he was at one time 
mayor. He had also served for a long time as 
county surveyor, and was at the time of his death 
a judge of the county court. 






Darunh 



DAB1 in<.. Millhim. phyvician, b. in Berwick- 
■hire, Scot laud, in 1815. Hi- early education wit 
nhtaintd at ■ private Nminarv, after which be 
went t.. the Univerotty of Edinburgh, v/here b< 
tainod a prize by competitive examination for hif 
proficiency in tin- elamioa 1 1 « - *tnili<-<l medicine 
in tin- College of phyelciane and onrgeone la 

Vi>rk f.>r mx year*, ami. in 1*40, was ap|>ointcd 
physician to liollcvue hospital, and also took charge 

iiu- i>f the hospitale on Ward's bland, 
degree "f m. i>. was reoeired in 1848 from the I'ni- 
ity of the city of New York, which also in a 
few weeka appointed him its prosector of surgery. 
In \*4~) In- was called to the professorship of demon- 
ntratorof anatomy, whan lie remained until 1808, 
when he Ix-came connected with the quarantine 
lios| ( ital, staten [aland. In 1888 ho eerved aeeenior 

assistant rurgeoo in the emigrants' hospital, Ward's 
island. In ls"><> he went to London, Kngland, and. 
on '-'I Nov. in that year, was admitted a member 
of the Royal college of surgeons of Kngland. lie 
rmnelnod In Bnrope ten years, most of the time In 
London, attending the lectures and nliniqnm at the 

hospitals, M well m leetWM at the College 0>f sur- 
geons, the Royal institution, (frcsham college. School 
of arts, School of mines, etc. During the same 

{period he also attended various lectures in Paris. 
Edinburgh, and Olaagow, On 14 June, istiti. shortly 
before his departure for the United States, he re- 
ceived the fellowship of the Royal college of surgeons. 
On his return to the United States he was appointed 
professor of anatomy in the University of New York. 
and in 1868 censor of the New York college of 
veterinary surgeons. In 1873 he was appointed 

f professor of anatomy in the University of \ ennont. 
Ie is a member of many medical societies, at borne 
and abroad, and OO 8 Nov., 1877, was elected corre- 
spondent of the Sx-iete d 'anthropologic of Paris. 

DARLINlt, William, Canadian merchant, b. in 
>Bdinburgb, Scotland, In 1819; d. in Montreal, l 
Nov., 1885. He arrived in Canada in 1840, and, 
taking up his residence in Montreal, established an 
iron and hardware business, which ultimately Ih-- 
came the wholesale firm of William Darling & Co. 
He actively promoted the commercial welfare of 
that city, ana was for some years president of its 
board of trade, and also vice-president of the Do- 
minion board of trade. He was largely instru- 
mental in framing the insolvent act of 1875. Dur- 
ing the Mackenzie administration be wm appointed 
arbitrator <>n the I.achiuc canal claims, an office in 
which he was continued by Sir John A. Macdon- 
ald. He was a director of the Merchant's Itank, 
and chairman of the Temporalities lioard of the 
Presbvterian church of Canada. In 1878 he was a 
candidate for a seat in the Dominion parliament, 
in the lilieral interest, but was defeated. 

DARLINGTON, William, scientist, b. in Bir- 
mingham, Pa.. 89 April. 1782; d. in West Chester. 
Pi.. M April. 1888. His parents were (Quakers, and 
his early education was received in the country 
school. He began the study of medicine at the age 
of eighteen, ami was graduated at the University 
of Pennsylvania in 1804. He studied languages 
and botany two years, and in 180(5 went to India as 
a ship's surgeon, for which (joining a military or- 
ganization) he was disowned by the Society of 
Friends. A sketch of his voyage, under the title of 
" I/etters from Calcutta." was published in the 

•• Analectic Magazine." He returned to the United 
States in lf-M>7. and for several ream practised medi- 
cine in West Chester. Hen- he entered into politics, 
wrote in defence of thcpoUoy of President Madi- 
son, and at tin- beginning of the war of 1818 aided 
in raising an armed OOrpe in his ncighl>orhood. 



D'ARI 



n 



and. nftlt the d.-M ruction ,,f Washington i> 

boeea major oi a volunt< 
ronnded an ethenemm, ami a ■ natural 

of which he became the preaid. 

he began a d.-s. nptive catalogue of plant* gi 
aroun.l Weal Chester, with the title "Florida <"«•%- 
triea" d^Jni, afterwanl enlarged M the "Flora 
Cestrica " (1X17; now eel, 1888% containing 
oleic description ami . I a- > ideation of even plant 
known in the count v. He wa* a member 'of con- 
gress from j i>. .... 1*1.-,. mi :< March, 1817, and from 
<i I), p.. IN11I, till ;{ March, l*^. In |s; 

the oofrmmmdoaee of his friend. Dr. William 

Baldwin, with a memoir, entitling the work •• K... 
liquhl Raldwiniana" In 1868 the name of b 
tin urn Califiirma was given, in his honor, t 
and remarkable variety of pitcher-plant found in 
California, in addition to which a number of ran- 
plants were named in his honor bv uaturali»l% m 
Switzerland and America. The degree >-f I.I.. I». 
was conferred on him by Vale in 1k»* ,„„! j,, |gaj 
that of Doctor of Pbyemal Seienoe, bj IMekiaaoa 
college. He was a member Of the American philo- 
sophical eooietv and of forty other loomed mea> 

ties in America and Europe. In addition to the 

works noted above, be published " Mutual Influence 

of Habits and Disease" (1NM) mid " Agricultural 
Botany" (Philadelphia. 1847), 

DAkKAH. Mrs. I.ydla, heroine. Of her birth 
and early life nothing is known, except tl 
was a Quaker. During 1777. while the British army 
held possession of Philadelphia, the adjutant -gen- 
eral rented one of h'-r chamUrs. a retired room, 
for private conferences. On '2 IVc. he went to 
her. required that the room be ready with tin- and 
candles by seven o'clock, that her family retire to 
their ImmIs, and that the utmost lilenee \»- kept r»- 
garding the visit. Them minute directiom ex- 
cited her curiosity, and. divested of her shoes, she 
crept to the door, listened at the key-hole, and 
heard an order read for all the British troops to 
march out on the evening of the 4th and attack 
Washington's army, then at White Marsh, eight 
miles distant. Returning to her room, she feigned 
sleep when called by the oilier, at the close of the 
meeting, thai be might depart. Keeping theeeeret 
from her husband, she at an early Inmr in the morn- 
ing informed the family that they were out of flour, 
and she would go to Frankfort, outside of the 
British lines, and procure some. A |wiss was read i ly 
procured from (Jen. Howe, and she was soon beyond 
the British lines, and, leaving her Iwg at the mill, 
hastened to the American army, walking in a 
snowy road for MTeral miles. She met I.ieut.- 
CoL Craig, who knew her, and. under a solemn 
pledge of secrecy regarding her agency, received 
the information that placid the American army 

on its guard. She returned to the mill, procured 

her flour, and went home. That night she watched 
the British troops departing, and when they re- 
turned she did ii'pt dare to seek any information. 
The next evening the adjutant-general ask.tl her to 

walk up t<> his room, kicked the door, ami inquired 

whether anv of the family were up when he and 
the other officer! met. She told him they hail all 
"retired at eight o'clock." He then said: "1 
rerj Strange ; I know you wen- asleep, for 1 kno» k>-d 
at voiir ohamber-door three titm-s I a- fore you heard 
me. vet i! is certain that we wen- Ixtraxd. I am 
entirely at a loss to imagine who ga>c (bn. Wash- 
ington' Information of our intended attack. 
arriving near his encampment we found his can- 
non mounted, the troopf under arms, and pn | 
at evert pothi to meet us. and we have been coin- 
paUod * march l«ek like a parcel of fools." 



80 



DASHIELL 



D.MVKAV 



DASHIELL, George, clergvman, b. in Stcpnev. 
Md., in l?si»: (1. in New York city in April. 1862. 
He was licensed us lay-reader at the age of twenty. 
tad admitted to orders by Bishop White in 1805. 
He was in charge of several parishes in Maryland. 
was distinguished for pulpit eloquence, was a dele- 
gate to the general convention, and lx;came rector of 
St. Peter's church, Baltimore. Mr. Dashiell was 
violently opposed to the election of the Rev. Dr. 
Kemp as suffragan bishop of Maryland in 1814, 
and with a small number of sympathizers began a 
schismatical movement, by which (as he said) it 
was proposed to make " the evangelical part of the 
church a distinct body, and to enlarge its bounda- 
ries by admitting faithful men to labor in the work 
of the Lord." Attempts were made to get some 
one of the bishops to consecrate Mr. Dashiell for the 
purpose, but without success, and he was degraded 
for contumacy early in 1816. Some adherents of 
his in St. Peter's church endeavored to aid him in 
keeping possession of St. Peter's, but loyal mem- 
bers of the church invoked the help of the courts 
to prevent it. As the judges disagreed, no result 
was attained. A new vestry was elected, and the 
difficulty was disposed of by choosing the Rev. Dr. 
Henshaw to be rector. Mr. Dashiell, however, as 
he could not get Episcopal orders, undertook to 
ordain ministers for what he called "The Evan- 
gelical Episcopal Church." In this he was the 
forerunner of the movement, half a century later, 
known as " The Reformed Episcopal Church," 
originated by Dr. Cummins, assistant bishop of 
Kentucky. Mr. Dashiell's movement lasted only a 
few years, and bore no fruit. He removed to a 
western state in 1826, and spent there most of the 
remainder of his life. 

DASTON, Sarah, one of the later victims of the 
witchcraft delusion in Salem, b. about 1613. In 
January, 1693, when "the jails were full, 150 pris- 
oners awaited trial, and 200 more were under ac- 
cusation," the grand jury went into session, and 
dismissed more than half the complaints. Public 
feeling was changing, but the party of superstition 
desired one conviction. The victim selected was 
Sarah Daston, a woman eighty years old. In Feb- 
ruary she was tried in Charlestown, but the common 
mind was disenthralled, and she was acquitted, 
while her persecutor, Minister Parris, was soon 
afterward driven from Salem. 

DAUCHER, Louis, musician, b. in France in 
1837; d. in Nancy, France, 16 Aug., 1878. He 
came to the United States when still a young man, 
and early embraced the musical profession. He 
was for over six years organist of St. Ann's Roman 
Catholic church in New York, where he was at one 
time the proprietor of a music-store. He was the 
author of " Daucher's Mass " and several other 
works, and received the first prize for original com- 
position at the Paris conservatory of music. 

DAUILA, Alonso de (dah-wee'-lah), Spanish 
soldier, b. in Toledo in the latter part of the 15th 
century; d. in Guatitlan, Mexico, in 1536. On 
16 Nov., 1518, he sailed from Santiago de Cuba in 
the expedition under command of Hernan Cortes 
as a lieutenant in Juan Velasquez's company. He 
assisted in the whole Mexican campaign, begin- 
ning in 1519 in Tabasco, and is said to have taken 
part in seventy battles. When Narvaez, sent by 
Diego Velasquez, jealous of Cortes, landed in Mexi- 
co and was defeated, Dauila was commissioned by 
Cortes to go to Hispaniola and ask of the audien- 
cia of that island that he might not be hampered 
in his enterprise by further interference from Ve- 
lasquez. He obtained a favorable . result of his 
mission, and returned to Mexico on the day of the 



entry of Cortes after his victory of Panueo. To 
reoompeoM Danfla for this service, and also be- 
cause ne mist rusted him on account of his friendly 
relations with Bishop Fonscca. the presidenl of the 
Indian council, Cortes, besides giving him a con- 
siderable amount of gold, appointed him military 
f:overnor of the village of Guatitlan. In LfiH 
)auila was commissioned by < 'ortes to carry to the 
emperor a tribute of 80,000ounces of gold in bars 
obtained from the treasure of Montezuma. With 
Antonio de Quinones he left Vera Cruz on this 
commission with two ships, 20 Dec., 1022, ami 
reached the Terceira islands. During their stay 
there to take stores, Quiflones was Killed in ii 
brawl. Dauila set sail for Spain, but his ships 
were captured by the French corsair "Jean Flo- 
rin." As the French demanded a heavy ransom for 
him, he was for a long time prisoner, but won the 
friendship of the officer that guarded him. ami 
was enabled to send the despatches and letter! re- 
ceived from Cortes to the emperor, who at the time 
was in Flanders. Later he escaped from prison 
and went to Spain, presenting himself at court, 
and returned to Mexico in 1526 with the appoint- 
ment of treasurer of Yucatan ; but in later years 
joined Cortes again in the capital. 

DAULAC, Adam, b. in France in 1635 ; d. in 
Long Sault, Canada, in 1660. He was trained to 
the profession of arms, and came to Canada in 1657. 
He was appointed commander of the garrison in 
Montreal soon after his arrival. As the Iroquois were 
devastating the French settlements, he adopted a 
desperate plan to repel their attacks. He persuaded 
sixteen young men of the garrison to devote them- 
selves to the safety of the colony. They took their 
way up the Ottawa in canoes, and, on reaching the 
foot of Long Sault, landed and took possession of 
an abandoned palisade fort, constructed of small 
trees, and almost defenceless. They were joined 
afterward by forty Hurons and four Algonquins, 
who asked to be allowed to share their enterprise. 
Next day the Frenchmen fired on two canoes con- 
taining Iroquois, killing several. The survivors 
rushed to the woods and informed their compan- 
ions, who, to the number of 200, attacked the fort, 
but they were repelled with great loss, and built a 
fort at some distance. In a second and third as- 
sault they fared still worse, and then sent for 500 
warriors who were on their way to join in an attack 
on Quebec. On the arrival of this re-enforcement, 
the French were deserted by all the Hurons except 
the chief. Daulac, however, still held the palisade, 
and for three days repelled every assault of the 700 
Iroquois and their Huron allies. Many of the In- 
dians were now desirous to retreat, but others in- 
sisted that a final attack should be made, led by a 
body of their bravest warriors. This assault was 
successful, a breach was made, and Daulac and his 
companions were killed after they had slain a large 
number of the enemy. 

DAUVRAY, Helen, actress, b. in San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., 14 Feb., 1859. Her true name is Gib- 
son, and she was also known as " Little Nell, the 
California diamond." During her childhood she 
resided in Virginia City, Nev., and made her first 
appearance on the stage in San Francisco, playing 
Eva in " Uncle Tom's Cabin." Afterward .she ap- 
peared as the Duke of York in "Richard III.," as 
the child in "The Scarlet Letter," with Matilda 
Heron, and in other roles. About 1869 she was 
announced as a child star, and her first tour, 
opening in the west, was made in protean plays, 
such as " Fidela," " No Name," and " Katy Did." 
She continued eastward, meeting with indifferent 
success, reached New York in June, 1870, appear- 






D.w I 



HI 






tod's museum, where she played twice a 

in •• Popsey Wopsey," niid hIs4. ;i|.|M-nrc<l in 

Blake. ** Shi* again went west, hihI lat«T 

sailed f. T Australia. Alter playing in that «-«.un- 

nif time, she returned to the United 

■ -, iiiul. withdrawing from tin- -tn: r '\ wnt t>. 
Europe, where she acquired the French language. 

old fondness for thr stage reviving, she dctcr- 
nined on an appearance abroad, rwl Perrier 
adapted fi»r her a French version of "Nan the 

l-for-nothing," which he called "Miss Mag- 

Sand "ii 1 Sept.. 1864. ahe acted at the PoUee 
raraatiqaee in Paris under the name of Mile. 
Helens Dauvray. Her engagement lasted over 
time months, atter which she returned t<> the 
I'nited States. The novel of " Mr>. I leoffrey " was 
adapted for her. under the name of " Mona." I > v 
Felix Morris, and she took the titular character in 
the Star theatre. New York. 27 April, 1866, DOl 
without - Miss Dauvray had forsaken her 

old aoubrette part-, and was ambitious of winning 
distinction in ser ious roles. She then attempted 
comed y , and Branson Howard wrote for her "One 
of OUT Girls," which was originally prcdoccd in the 
um theatre. New York, 10 Nov., 1HN5. This 
play ran for several months, and proved a great 
success. A year later, Mr. Howard prepared for 
her "Met by Chance," which was first played on 
11 Jan., ls,s7. bat was not successful. 

DAVALOS, (ill de (dah-vahdos), Spanish sol- 
dier, b. in Baeza de Cast ilia, Spain ; d. in Quito, 
Ecuador, in 1562. He went to Peru with tin 
viceroy, Antonio de Mendoza, and in 1557 found- 
ed the city of Cncnoa by order of Viceroy Andres 
Hurt ado de Mendoza, by whom he was also or- 
dered to conquer Qoijos and Macas, which be 
did. In 1550 he founded Baeza, the capital of 
Quijos; also Archidona, Avila, Logrofio, and other 
towns, and the town of Sevilla del Oro, or Ma- 
cas, capital of this district. Gil de Davalos had 
been mayor of Cuzco at the time of the disturb- 
ances at Chmpiisaca in 1553, and when the " en- 
eomenderos" were asking for the revocation of 
some instructions given by the audiencia of Lima, 
which were opposed to their interests, Davalos 
est about carrying out these instructions with such 
diligence as to destroy a bill presented to him on 
the subject by Capt. Francisco Hernandez (Jiron. 
It was believed that this act of Davalos precipi- 
tated the revolution at Cuzco at the close of that 
year. The agitators persuaded Nuno Mendiola to 
go to the mayor on some pretext and stab hi in. 
This was not done; but, at the moment of the re- 
volt, Davalos was made a prisoner and taken out 
of the city to a distance of sixty miles, where he 
was left at liberty. He went to Lima and served 
in the army of the king daring the campaign that 
end..! with the defeat and death of Giron. From 
November, 1550, till his death, Davalos was chief 

justice of Quito. 

DAY KISS, Mrs. Maria (Thompson), author, b. 
in Harrodsburg, Ky.. 81 Oct.. 1*14. Her early edu- 
cation was received in the schools of Harrodsburg. 
In l^!!t she married William Daveiss. Her [mm-iii 

I hi compliment to a bride was extensively copied. 
and was followed by "The Nun " and " A Harvest 
Ilvinn." " Soger Sherman, A Tale of "7l»." and 
44 Woman's Lorn," are her U-st-known stories she 
1 from the Kentucky state agricultural 
society a premium for an essay on the" Cultivation 
and uses of the Chinese Sugar-Cane." which she 
introduced into the state. She has bsSB an 8Xf*JO- 
ntributor to agricultural papers, and has 
published a " History of Mercer ami Boyle Conn- 
ties, Ky." (1880). 
VOL. H.— 6 



Pv\ ENPORT, Adelphas II • t 

Stamford. Con I8e9] d. in New » >rle»na, 

M Oct- is. rlv foiidncasfot th.- Slap 

infiuence<l him to become an actor, and 
lag hi-, name, which was Adolpl | M >rt 

Hoyt, he liecame known u , "Dolll DavcapOf 
Hi- lir-t ap|«arance was SJ Willie, in " Pin] P 
at the Baltimore athena'iim during 1848,afjd 
•access was sooh that he was soon intrusted wita 

the role of ChiUile Meln..tte, wlll'l, |„. phned to 

Mrs. W. 11. ItusscH's (now Mr-. John II 
line. At the solicitation of hi- parent-, bsstodiad 
law with HoiniT II. Stewart, of New York... 
after two wars' preparation, wn- admitted t«. tin- 
Init. Hut M soon reappeared on the Stags, and 
played fo Wallaak's old theatre, for the benefit of 
David S. rainier. a- Box in " liox ami OoX." Karlv 

in in.V! he a p pea r ed as Montane la "Othello," sjm 

a- Capt. Charles in " Who8psakl Fir-t |" at the old 

Broadway theatre. Hi- first ■npoaiania in Phflai 
delphia was at the old Chestnut street theatre, and 
he was a m e mber of the company during 
Su b se qu ently be was a member of the Walnut 
street theatre's company, and played there during 
the season of l*55-'o. He then drifted southward, 
and acted principally in southern cities. He was 
manager of the Mobile theatre during 1*72. and 
was connected with Bidwell't academy of music. 

I>\\ IM'tHM. Bennett Franklin, sanitary 
chemist, b. in Cambridge, ' May, 1MY He 

was graduated at Harvard in 1*07. then spent some 
time in the university In Tubingen, after which 
be was graduated at Harvard medical college in 
1*71, and also at the College of physicians ana sur- 
geons in New York in 1*71. After settling in 
Boston, be devoted his attention to sanitary chem- 
istry. In 1*7!) he became professor of chemistry 
in the Massachusetts college of pharmacy, and in 
1883 inspector of milk end vinegar to the dty of 
Boston, and also analyst to the Massachusetts state 
board of health. In these capacities be has regularly 
furnished reports to the annual documents of the 
Boston and State board of health. lie has also 
prepared the semi-annual reports on food- and 
drugs in the Boston " Medical and Surgical .Jour- 
nal." Dr. Davenport i- s member of the chemical 
societies of London. Berlin, and New York, and of 
other scientific bodies, 

DAVKNPORT. Edward Laasala, actor, b. in 
Boston. Ma--., 15 Nov., 1*14: d. in Canton. Pa, 
1 Sept.. 1*77. lie made hi- tir-t appearance on the 
stage in Providence, U. I., in 1888, as Parson Will 
in "A New Way to Pay Old Debt-." with .luniu- 
Brutus Booth as Sir Giles Overreach, a iwrt in 
which Mr. Davenport afterward became famous. 
He then appeared in New York at the Bowery 
theatre, under the management of Thosnas If. 
Hamlin, and in 1888 played lir-t in Philadelphia, 
in the Walnut street theatre, as Count Montallian 

in -The H on ey m oon." Hut be appeared chiefly 
in Boston until 1*17. when, with Mrs. Anna Cora 
Mowatt, be \i-it«-d England, appearing with her. 

on <i Dee.. 1*47. at the Mam ihester theatre, as Claude 
Melnotte to her Pauline. While in Kuglaiid he 

supported William c. Macnady for two seasons, 

including hi- farewell engagement, and U-<-ame 

vary popalar at the Hayasaraal theatre. Lpss do a. 

A dliam in " Hlack-ey.-d Su-an." lb- returned 
to the I'nited Slate- in i*54. and filled \ 

Bwerneats under the management of Mm I. H. 

Marrow. Ib-nrv ( . J arret t, Mark Smith. James W. 
Walla.k. an.l "William Wheathv. In I8M he be- 
came manager of the Howanl at 
and ten vears later undert«N.k the mauairiMtii I 

the Chestnut street theatre in Philadelphia Dur- 



82 



DAVENPORT 



DAVENPORT 



big 1873 he acted in Wood's museum, New York, 
and in l875-*6 played with great success the part 
of Brutus in a protracted engagement of "Julius 
Ct'sar" at Booth's theatre, New York. His last 
appearance in New York was also in Booth's the- 
atre, where he plaved in " Daniel Druce." Ho was 
one of the most finished actors on the American 
stage, and possessed great versatility, being equally 
successful in tragedy and comedy. — His wife, 
Fanny Elizabeth Vi'ning, b. in London, 6 July, 
1880, was the daughter of Frederick Vining, 
manager of the Haymarket theatre in Londou. 
Her professional education began with playing 
baby parts when she was but three years old. Sub- 
sequently she spent a few years at boarding-school, 
and then made her first appearance, in 1847, as 
Juliet, with G. V. Brooke as Romeo and her father 
as Mercutio. She continued to play leading juve- 
nile parts at the Haymarket and Drury Lane thea- 
tres with Charles Kean, William C. Mac-ready, and 
other distinguished actors, until her marriage with 
Mr. Davenport, on 8 Jan., 1849. Her first appear- 
ance in the United States was as Margaret Elmore, 
in " Love's Sacrifice," in the Broadway theatre. 
New York, on 11 Sept., 1854. Afterward she was 
associated with her husband in many of his star- 
ring engagements, and she has played in the princi- 
pal cities of the United States. — Their daughter, 
Fanny Lily Gipsy, b. in London, 10 April, 1850, 
was educated in the public schools of Boston, and 
made her first appearance at the Howard athenaeum 
as the child in "Metamora." In New York she 
appeared first as King of Spain in "Faint Heart 
never Won Fair Lady, on 14 Feb., 1862, at Niblo's 
Garden. Subsequently she acted at the Little Tre- 

mont theatre, Bos- 
ton, and in the 
south, where she 
played soubrette 
parts for a sea- 
son. Afterward she 
played in the Arch 
street theatre, Phil- 
adelphia, then un- 
der the manage- 
ment of Mrs. John 
Drew, where she 
attracted the at- 
tention of Augus- 
tin Daly, who in- 
troduced her in 
jf Ov,. 9TL, ^ ew York at his 

Fifth avenue thea- 
tre in 1869. There 
she played Lady 
Gay Spanker in " London Assurance " ; Rosalind 
in " As You Like It " ; Nancy Sykes in " Oliver 
Twist " ; Lady Teazle in " School for Scandal " ; 
Lu and Fanny Ten Eyck in " Divorce " ; the title- 
role in " Leah " : and Mabel Renfrew in " Pique," a 
play in which she won great success, and which 
ran for 250 nights. She has made starring tours 
throughout the United States, frequently adding 
new parts to those previously plnveu. In 1880 she 
played Olivia successfully in Philadelphia, and 
afterward brought out, in New York, Miss Anna 
Dickinson's play of " An Ameritom Girl." She 
also introduced in New York Sardcui's " Feodora," 
acting the title-role, and received lfcuch approba- 
tion for the magnificent manner m which the 
play was mounted. On 30 July, 1879, she married 
Edwin H. Price, an actor. — Another daughter, 
Blanche (Blanche Maria), b. in London, 11 July, 
1852, was educated in the public schools of Boston, 
and in the convent of Notre Dame. In 1867 she 




played at the Boston museum, where she attracted 
attention by her singing, and afterward studied 
there under M. Adavani. In 1869 she went to 
Milan to cultivate her voice, and remained abroad 
six years, studying and afterward ringing. She 
was a great favorite in Naples, as well as Milan. 
She returned to America under Maurice Strakosch 
in October, 1879, and made her lUbut in opera in 
Philadelphia. Her personation of Marguerite in 
•• Faust ' met with warm praise, both for her pure. 
clear soprano voice and her dramatic skill. She 
filled an engagement at Booth's in 1880. She ringj 
in most of the Italian operas, her favorite being 
"La Traviata." — Another daughter, Lily (Lily 
Antoinette), b. in Glasgow, Scotland, 2 Nov., 1854; 
d. in Philadelphia, 13 Jan., 1878. She made her 
first appearance in the Chestnut street theatre, 
Philadelphia, while her father was manager, and 
played juvenile parts there and elsewhere until 
1875. She married Frost Thorn in 1874.— Another 
daughter, May (Marion Caroline), b. in Boston, 21 
July, 1857, made her first appearance at the Chest- 
nut street theatre, Philadelphia, under her father's 
management, in 1872, and nas since plaved in ju- 
venile parts. In the winter of 1879 she filled an en- 
gagement at the Standard theatre, New York, play- 
ing in " My Uncle's Will." She acted at the Boston 
museum, in the winter of 1880, as Lady Gwendoline 
Loftus in Boucicault's " Daddy O'Dowd," and May 
Edwards in the " Ticket-of- Leave Man." She mar- 
ried William Seymour in 1882. — A son, Edgar 
Loom is, b. in Boston, 7 Feb., 1862, played with 
his sister Fanny in 1879 at the Grand Opera-house, 
New York, personating Thorsby Gill in " Pique." 
— Another son, Henry George Bryant, b. in New 
York city, 19 Jan., 1866, has playea at the Walnut 
street theatre, Philadelphia, as Hendrick, with Jo- 
seph Jefferson in the comedy of " Rip Van Winkle," 
and in 1879 he appeared at Wallack's theatre, New 
York, as Sir Joseph Porter in the juvenile " Pina- 
fore " troupe. 

DAVENPORT, Franklin, senator, b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; d. in Woodbury, N. J., about 1829. 
He received an academic education, and, after 
studying law, was admitted to the bar, and practised 
in Woodbury. During the Revolutionary war he 
served as captain of the artillery in Col. Newcomb's 
New Jersey brigade, and for some time was under 
Col. Samuel Smith in Fort Mifflin. He was a colo- 
nel in the New Jersey line during the whiskey in- 
surrection in 1794, and marched with the troops to 
Pittsburg. Subsequently he became the first sur- 
rogate of Gloucester county, and was appointed U. 
S. senator to fill the vacancy caused by the resig- 
nation of John Rutherford, serving from 19 Dec., 
1798, till 3 March, 1799. He was then sent to con- 

Sress, and served through the entire term from 2 
>ec, 1799, till 3 March, 1801. 
DAVENPORT, Henry Kallock, naval officer, 
b. in Savannah, Ga., 10 Dec, 1820; d. in Franzens- 
bad, Bohemia, 18 Aug., 1872. He entered the navy 
as midshipman in February, 1838, and served on 
various vessels until 1844, when he was made passed 
midshipman and attached to the coast survey. 
Later he sailed on the " Columbia," and from 1849 
till 1853 was connected with the mail-steamship 
service. After being promoted to lieutenant in 
December, 1852, he spent some time on sea duty in 
various squadrons, being present at the capture of 
the Barrier forts. Canton river, in 1856, and later 
on shore duty at the U. S. observatory in Wash- 
ington. During the civil war he was attached to 
the "Cumberland," and was present at the engage- 
ment off Hatteras Inlet. From 1861 till 1864 he 
commanded the steamer "HetzeV and was en- 



DAVENPORT 



D.WESPollT 




J^ot" 0**e*/b*v£ 



gSged in the naval light <>n James river in IWl, in 

ind, »t Newbern, and was 

•r officer in cotnmaml of the sounds of North 

nut in 1802 'I. during which time be wm In 

al battles and expeditions in t In —•• waters, 

ring the Hunks of tin- army. He liecamc com- 

mender in .lulv. 186*), and from 1864 till 

served in the rseiflc squadron, mrnimamting the 

"Lancaster " ami " I'owhatan." In lNi't* lie was 

|in»ni"t.-.i captain, and, after being engaged in 

navigation duty in Washington navy-yard during 
vils given command <>f tin- " Congress, 
of the European squadron. 

D v \ KNPOKT, John, clergyman, l». in Coven- 
try, England, in 1597; d. in Boston, Mass., 15 
March, 1070. His futhcr bad ben mavor of the 

city, Hcwasedu- 
eated at Oxford, 

and bMSsneehep- 

lain in Hilton cas- 
tle, near Durham. 
Subscqm ntly he 

Jireached in Lon- 
Ion, and later 
became minister 
of St. Stephen's 
church in Cole- 
man street. Here 
he became cele- 
brated not only 
for his high ac- 
complishments as 
a preacher, hut 
for very faithful 
discharge of his 
pastoral duties. 
In 1025 he re- 
turned to Oxford and passed his examinations for 
the B. D. ami M. A. degrees. During the following 
year, in conjunction with Drs. Richard Sibhs and 
William Gouge, the lord-mayor of London, and 
others, he devised a plan to purchase " lay impro- 
priations," from the profits of which a number of 
ministers should be maintained over destitute con- 
gregations. But Archbishop Laud regarded it as 
favorable to the cause of non-conformitv, and pro- 
cured its condemnation, with the confiscation of 
the money to the king's use. A few years later 
Davenport was summoned before the archbishop 
and subjected to considerable trouble and expense 
on account of his puritan principles. About this 
time John Cotton nad resigned his charge, with a 
view of escaping to America, and Davcii|x>rt, after 
an interview with him, became convinced of the 
desirability of withdrawing from the Established 
church. He then resigned from St. Stephen's, and 
near the end of 10S3 removed to Holland, where 
he became the colleague of Hev. John Paget, pas- 
tor of the English church in Amsterdam; but. as he 
objected to the promiscuous baptism of infants. 
he relinquished his pastoral work and conducted 

Srivate classes until 1035. when he returned to 
Ingland. Meanwhile he had been actively con- 
cerned in obtaining the patent of the Massachusetts 
colony, and had contributed l»oth money and time 
in its aid. A favorable account of the success ,,f 
the colony having reached him. he Bailed on the 
"Hector, "reaching Boston on 20 June, 1(>:17. He 
was heartily welcomed, ami was regarded as an im- 
portant aid in sustaining the interests of religion. 
During August of the same year he sat with the 
famous synod of Cambridge. In March, 1MB, 
with many of the families that had accompanied 
him from England, he sailed from Boston totjuini- 
piac, which they afterward named New Haven. 



The party reached their new home on n 
and mi the following dnv. which wm the Sn 
Mr. Daveh|H.rt preached under the i.t 

ik on -The Temptations ,,f 
neas." In June of the following year "all the 
fr.v planter*" met in a l«arn for tlie i>uqioae of 
holding a constitutional assembly. It was re- 
solved that only church imiiil«r> «hould \» bur- 
gesses, and Dav.-n|M.rt wit- bJmMbI MM of the 

pillar." to support the .-mi government 
His carefulness in regard to the admission of MMs> 
U-rs to the church ^ave him sJao the ke\, ,.f ,.,. 
litical |».wer. When the regicides. Willi'am Goftt 
and Edward Whallcy. wen- Hying in I860, he con- 
cealed them in his own house for more than a 
month, and delivered a sermon, for the purpose of 
enlisting sympathy in their U-half. from the text 
"Make thy shadow as the night in tin- ■ 
noonday, hide the outcasts, Inwrav not him that 
wandereth." He continued bj New Ha\en until 
1007. when, on the death of John WBson, he was 
invited to succeed him as pastor of the llr>t chunh 
in BoMOB. This call In- BOOSpted, and ■ 
stalled on 9 Dec.. 1688. The "half-way c.\. i.ant." 
which had bOBD adopted by the s\ m-d 'held in B~- 
ton in 1002, provided that all peoOM who had 
lieen baptised in their infancy, and who. on arriv- 
ing at years of discretion, would MO MBfasl th.ir 
covenant obligations, should be allowed to bring 
their children for baptism. This Mr. DfcTBnpon 
was unwilling to accept, and he vigorously opposed 
its execution; consequently some of the members 
withdrew from the first church, and wen* organ- 
ized into the "Old South church." The contro- 
versy continued between the two churches for 
many vears, but Mr. Davenport died of ap ople xy 
soon after it began, and was buried in the tomb of 
his friend, John Cotton. He published many ser- 
mons, theological tracts, and controversial J«ara- 
phlets, and also "Instructions to Elders of the 
English Church "(HUM): " < 'atechiMiicontainingthe 
Chief Heads of Christian Religion" (1688); and 

•*A Discourse about Civil Qovernmenl in a New 

Plantation " (1678). — His son. John, b. in England 
in 1035; d. in Boston, sXsss-81 March, 1677, ap- 
pears to have remained in England "iii care of 
kind friends" until 10.'}». when be came • 
Haven in one of the only two ships that «\er ar- 
rived at that port from England. In May. 1657, 
he was admitted a freeman in New Haven, and 
later appears to have ln-en one of the fad 
the courts of New Haven. He removed to Bos- 
ton in 100H, and was regjjstei of probata in I 
and also a merchant.— His s.,n. John, clergvman. 
b. in Boston. 88 I'el>.. 1668: d. in Stamfonl. 
Omul, B l-'eh., 17iU. was graduated si Harvard 
in 1667, and began pmsfihing in 10UO. Early in 
the following year he was invited to the church 

thampton, L I., but docHnod the nfMf, 
and in 16M wm ordained pastor of the church 

in Stamford, where he remained until his death. 
Prior to his settling in Stamfonl he MM 
have taught the BopUM grammar-school in New 
Haven, and he was a mcinUr of the OOnOMtfcM 
of Vale college from ITiiT till 17:tl.— Ilia son, 
Ahruhaili. bwjer, b. in Stamford. Conn., in 1715; 
d. th'rc. 86 Nov.. 17*1». was graduated at Yale in 
nd practised law in his native town. Dur- 
ing tlie Revolution he wiy< a staunch petrl 
served on the state committee of safety. He was a 
man of stem integrity and generous lienefleence, 
and in times of scarcity ami high prices MM the 



|H>or at less than the 

ime he was a MMnfaM 

of the executive council oft . for twenty- 



product i>f hi- farm to DM | 

current value. For some time he was a member 



84 



DAVENPORT 



DAVENPORT 



live wars he was a m emb e r "f tin' statr legislature. 
and state senator from lTUii till i?n4. Se also 
held the offloeof judge of the court of common 

Ideas. When he was a member of the council in 
Utttford, "ii the dark day in 1780. it was proposed 
to adjourn, as some thought the day of judgment 
was at hand; hut he objected, saying : "That day 
is either at hand or it is not : if it is not. there i- 
no cause of adjournment ; if it is, I choose to be 
found doing my duty. I wish, therefore, that 
candles may lie brought." — James, another son 
of John, clergyman, b. in Stamford, Conn., in 
1716; d. in Hopewell, N. J., 10 Nov., 1757, was 
graduated at Yale in 1732, and subsequently pur- 
sued his theological studies in New Haven. He is 
supposed to bare preached first in New Jersey, and 
then was called to Southold, L. I., where he was 
ordained on 26 Oct., 1738. Soon after his settle- 
ment the revival known as the " Great awakening " 
occurred, during which he was very active and 
successful. Subsequently he held services at 
Baskingridge, N. J., where likewise there was a 
revival, and in 1741 he visited Connecticut, preach- 
ing in various places, everywhere exciting great 
attention, At Stonington one hundred persons 
are said to have been converted by his first sermon. 
Thence he proceeded to Westerly, R. I., accom- 
panied by the people in solemn procession, singing 
as they moved along the road. His zeal in effect- 
ing conversions, and the methods employed, were 
not altogether to the liking of his Connecticut 
brethren, and later the assembly decided "that 
the behavior, conduct, and doctrines advanced by 
said James Davenport, do, and have a natural 
tendency to disturb and destroy the peace and or- 
der of this government. Yet it further appears 
to this Assembly that the said Davenport is under 
the influence of enthusiastic impressions and im- 
pulses, and thereby disturbed in the rational facul- 
ties of his mind, and therefore to be pitied and 
compassionated, and not to be treated as otherwise 
he might be." He was expelled from the colony, 
but shortly afterward appeared in Boston, where 
his erratic actions led to his arrest and imprison- 
ment. In the trial that followed he was declared 
" non compos mentis, and therefore not guilty." His 
relations with the Southold congregation were 
severed by a council of ministers in 1742, and a 
curious document giving the reasons for such ac- 
tion was published. In March, 1743, he went to 
New London, by request of a company of his par- 
tisans, to organize them into a church. Here he 
continued his peculiar habits, destroying by fire 
" wigs, cloaks, breeches, hoods, gowns, rings, jewels, 
necklaces, and certain books, in order " to cure 
his people of their idolatrous love of worldly 
things." He was prostrated by a serious illness, 
and influenced to publish a retraction of his errors 
in the Boston "Gazette" in July, 1744. In Sep- 
tember, 1746, he became a member of the New 
Brunswick presbytery, and two years later was 
transferred to the New York presbytery, preach- 
ing in various places. In 1750 he visited \ irginia 
for his health, where his labors proved acceptable 
and successful. On his return he was installed, in 
October, 1754, as pastor of the Newside church of 
Hopewell and Maidenhead. During the same year 
he was moderator of the New York synod, and de- 
livered the opening sermon, with the title "The 
Faithful Minister Encouraged." Mr. Davenport 
continued with this parish until his death, and lies 
buried near Pennington, X. J. Whitefield speaks 
of him as "a sweet, pious soul." — John, son of 
Abraham, lawyer, b. in Stamford, Conn.. 16 Jan., 
1752 ; d. there, 28 Nov., 1830, was graduated at 



Yale in 1770,and was atutor there during 1 1 
After studying law. he was admitted to the liar 
and practised in Stamford. During the Revolu- 
tionary war he served in the commissary depart- 
ment, and attained the rank of major. He was 
elected to congress as a federalist, and - 
continuously from 2 Dec, 17!)!), till 3 March. 1*17. 
— James, son of Abraham, lawyer, b. in Stamford, 
Conn., 12 Oct., 1758; d. there. 3 An-. 17!»T. lie was 
graduated at Yale in 1777, and served in the com- 
missary department in the war of the Revolution. 
He was a judge of the court of common pleas, and 
a representative in congress from 5 Dec. 1 ?'.»»;, till 
3 Aug., 1797. He was a member of the corpora- 
tion of Yale college from 1793 till 1797, and Presi- 
dent Dwight says of him : " Few persons have been 
more, or more deservedly, esteemed than the Hon. 
James Davenport." 

DAVENP6RT, Nicholas T., actor, b. in 1831 ; 
d. in Boston, Mass., 26 Aug., 1867. His real name 
was Deven, and his first appearance on the stage 
was in 1849, at the Chatham theatre. New York. 
In September, 1850, he made his first appearance 
in Philadelphia, at the Arch street theatre, as 
Valaire in " The Secret," but the greater portion 
of his life was spent in Boston, where he was con- 
nected with a theatre company that was organized 
in that city. He was a careful and conscientious 
actor, and maintained a good position in society 
by his talents and integrity. Mr. Davenport was 
likewise an excellent sketch-writer. 

DAVENPORT, Richard, colonist, b. in Eng- 
land in 1606; d. in Boston, Mass., 15 July. 1665. 
He came to America in the ship "Abigail" with 
John Endicott, leaving Weymouth, England, 20 
July, 1628. In November, 1636, he was elected 
ensign of Gov. Endicott's company, and at his 
command cut out the cross from the British flag. 
In memory of this circumstance he subsequently 
named a daughter Trucross. He was lieutenant 
of a Salem company in the Pequot war, and be- 
came commander of the castle in Boston harbor 
in July, 1645. He was killed by lightning. — His 
grandson, Addington, jurist, b. in Boston, Mass., 
3 Aug., 1670 ; d. there, 2 April, 1736. He was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1689, visited England, Spain, 
and the West Indies, and, on his return to Boston, 
became register of deeds for Suffolk county. He 
was one of the founders of Brattle street church in 
1698. He was afterward successively clerk of the 
house of representatives, supreme court, and court 
of common pleas, was elected a member of the 
council, served as a representative in 1711 -'3, and 
was judge of the supreme court from 1715 till the 
time of his death. — His son, Addington, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 16 May, 1701; d. in London, Eng- 
land, 8 Sept., 1746, was graduated at Harvard in 
1719, studied law, and was attorney-general from 
1828 till 1832, but turned his attention to the min- 
istry and went to England to receive orders. On 
his return he became minister of St. Andrew's 
church, Scituate, Mass., on 15 April, 1730, and re- 
mained until 15 April, 1737, when he was chosen 
assistant minister of the 1st Episcopal church in 
Boston (King's chapel). Here he remained until 
8 May, 1740, when he was elected the first rector 
of Trinitv church, Boston. < hi leaving Scituate he 
gave his house and land to the Society for propa- 
gating the gospel in foreign parts. 

DA V FN PORT, Thomas, inventor, b. in Will- 
iamstown. Vt.. !i July. 1802: d. in Salisbury. Vt- 
6 July, 1851. He was apprenticed at the age of 
fourteen to a blacksmith, and his opportunities for 
education were limited. In 1833 ne began the 
study of electro-magnetism, and iu 1835 exhibited 



H \\ KXI'nUT 



HAVIH 



88 



a rotary engine driven Wv . U-«t ri«it y. at th 

selacr institute in TlOjr, ami tin- Franklin institute 

in Philadelphia, I>i*t<' in the year be oonstrnctsd 

a small circular railway driven by an electro-mag- 
netic engine. Patents WON s.iutv.1. a coni|>aiiy 
formed, ami the manufacture of elect nvmagnetii 
engines, as ■ motive power, begun. Hut in N< -\\ 
Yi>rk city in lx:t7, by the dishonesty of its agent, 
■patty liecame eml)arrassed ami VM dis- 
banded. In tin" pronMotlon i»f his tiptriirrinti h<- 

found that a l«>lt of iron could be drawn with gnat 
force into a helix of wire whenever the liatten cur- 
retit wa>* suffered to pass through the roil. ifc im- 
mediately constructed a small engine on this j >rin- 
ci|>li'. whirh resembled a little steam-engine, the 
repeated reversal of the magnetic |«>li's producing 
a nioM'inrnt like that of a piston-roil, instead of 
the rotary motion hitherto employed. Patents 
were secured, engines manufactured, ami he began 
the publication of a newspaper, "The Flectro- 
Magnet," which was printed on a press propelled 
by one of these engines. Mi- experiments were so 
numerous and costly as to exhaust his resources, 
and in 1811 he returned with his family to his 
home in Brandon, Vt., and theme to sidishury. 
In 1846 he turned his attention to the application 
of the electric current to the strings of musical in- 
struments. As applied by him. the impulsive ami 
evanescent nature of the tone is chunged at the 
will of the player into a full, perfect and pro- 
longed vil>ration. The caveats protecting this in- 
vention were prepared for filing in the l". S. patent- 
office, when lie was stricken bv a fatal illness. 

DAYENPOBT, William, 'philanthropist, b. in 
Culpepper county. Va., 12 Oct., 1??<»: d. in Walnut 
Fountain, Caldwell co.. N. C, 19 Aug., 1859. About 
the close of the Revolutionary war he went with 
his father to what is now Mitchell county, N. C. 
He represented Burke county in the legislature in 
1800, and was state senator in 1802. Tie was also 
justice of the peace, county survevor, and a colonel 
of militia. Col. Davenport was the chief founder 
Of Davenport female college, at Lenoir, N. C. lie 
married the widow of Maj. Charles Gordon, one of 
the heroes of King's Mountain. 

DAVENPORT, William, soldier, b. in North 
Carolina; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 12 April, 1858. 
He was ap pointed captain in the 16th infantry, 88 
Sept.. 1M12, and distinguished himself at Chippewa 
and Lundy's Lane in the war with Great Britain. 
He was brevetted major on 28 Sept., 1888, •• tor ten 
years' faithful service," and made major in the 6th 
infantry, 16 Dec. 1825, lieutenant-colonel in the 1st 
infantry. 4 April. 188$ and was distinguished at 
the battle of Bad Axe, under Gen. Atkinson, in the 
Black Hawk war. He was brevetted colonel " for 
meritorious service in Florida." ? July, l^W, was 
made colonel of the 6th infantry. 14 June, 1842. 
transferred to the 1st infantry in July, 184^, and 

lesJiuul on :'>i Ian- 1800. 

DAYENPOBT, William, clergyman, b. in Ken- 
tucky in 17!»?; d. in Nebraska City, Neb.. 24 June, 
1860. He was a slave-holder in early life, but 
manumitted his slaves before 1834 and removed to 
Tazewell county. 111., where he was pastor of the 
Christian denomination for over thirty years. In 
1848, with his brother, he nstahlithol a school at 
Walnut grove, which afterward became Kureka 
college. Ho was a Union man during the civil war. 
and was taken prisoner by Gen. John iforgan'i men. 

DATED, Edward (dab-reed'), Flemish bnoca- 

neer, lived in the Utter part of the 17th century. 

He enrolled himself in early life in the Brothcr- 

f the Coast, was soon acknowledged as a 

leader, and sailed in 1081 with an expedition, con- 



sisting of the frigate " Tiger." «-f :tfl ^njn^ aIl( j lw „ 
smaller vesssla, wiih an English er*w, for I 

otfteeasst of South Amen.., f the »tnm 

• llun. The V. 
PalaU, received information. 12 ' 
David's ships hud been slanted on tns c<«*t of 

Chili, and in the Kim.''* island*, on i 
coast. David was joined b] two part i.* of French 
filibusters, who had landed in the gulf of Iterien 
and. crossing the isthmus to Panama, had ca|>- 
tured some Teasels, with which • 

tating th .ast of Mexico. With thi* n-< ■; 

limit, his squadron consisting now <<t the vi-mtU 
and a tire-ship, he attacked the Penman coast and 
vessels, and laid waste a numlx-r of fertile district* 
Of Peru and Chili. ThSTieSTO] litt.il out 
(■edition against the audacious bnosanosr, and 
after many delays the squadron, consisting of four 
powerfn] galleons and two tin-ships, MUM, 7 May. 
1080. from Callao under the command of the chief 
admiral of the Pacific .oast. Antonio Bras, to- 
gether with the viceroy's brother-in-law, Tomis 
Paravicino. Yice-Ailmiral Santiago Pont, jus, and 
a large number of the nobility of Lima. After 

landing the government treasure and silver remit- 
tances of the Lima merchants in the port of P»n- 

oos, to be transported overland t<< Porto Bsllo, he 

sailed in search of the pinttes, whom he lie 

the King's islands. On s June a spirited Itattle 

was fought, and the bueconean wen almost de» 

feated, when the want of united action among the 

Spanish leaders gave the boooaneera an op p or tn - 
nit y t<» escape. The French filibusters bow sspn- 

ratiil from David, one of their shi|»s sailing f«>r 
the coast of Mexico, and the other for Chili, in- 
tending to return to the Atlantic coast "f the con* 
tinent through the straits of Magellan. The S|«n- 
ish fleet was also in need of repairs, ami anchored 
in Paita, where, by carelessness, the admiral's ship 
took fire, and over 4<h» persons perished in the 
flames, only a son of the vice-admiral. Pontejos, 
being saved. Emboldened by this diaaafor to the 
Spanish navy. David returned to continue his 
depredations on the Peruvian coast, ami in tns 
latter part of 1088 sicked the cities of tiuaya.piil, 
Paita, Santa, and Casma, and in March. IW 
city of Sana. At Casms be ordered the priest t<> 
Ik? killed, BJ be thought be was concealing his 
treasures. At Huaura he tix.k prisoner the mayor, 
Bias de la Carrera, and. a large sum for his nin- 
som not being delivered promptly, Derid had the 
mayor*! head cat <>fT and hoisted at the yard-arm 
Of his frigate. He afterward occupied and plun- 
dered (unite. Pisco, atul. on 11 June, after a SITarS 
fight, the city of Panicas. taking prisoners the 

principal persona of the < it>. whom he released for 
a ransom of ♦24JHM). Hearing that a new and 
powerful expedition was fitting out at Callao 

against his fones. be abandoned the coast of Peru. 

sailing to the northern shores, where he continued 

his plundering expeditions sjEsinsl tns eitias along 
the coasts of Mexico ami Central America. In 
1688 be took advantage of an amnesty granted bv 
James ii. ami ret u rned t.» England, where hs in. si 

in pates to old ace. enjoying IhS riches gathered 

during his flre years' erase, 

IK MB. Jean Baptist. B. C bishnp, k near 

Nantes, France, in 17<»1 : d. in Bardstown. K\.. in 
1H41. At the age <>f fQ urt SO n he wa> M-nt I 

adnoted by Oitttorian priests, after whionhs 

entered the diocesan seminary of Nantes. He was 
ordained deacon in 17X1, joined the Sulpitians, and, 
on the completion of his theological studies in their 
OOUoge of Iss\, mar Pal i mh! to the priest- 

h.*..! in 17^.' Until i?.m» he .lis. barged the duties 



86 



DAVIDGE 



DAVIDSON 



of professor of philosophy and theology in the 
colleges of his order. During the next two years 
he was obliged to conceal himself from the terror- 
ists. He embarked for this country in 1792, and 
studied English during the voyage. Bishop ( 'arroll 
sent him to superintend some missions in the lower 
part of Maryland. He was the first American 
priest to institute spiritual retreats for the benefit 
of the laity. In 1804 he was recalled and appointed 
professor in Georgetown college, where he remained 
two years. In 1806, in compliance with the desire 
of the Sulpitians of Baltimore, he accepted a pro- 
fessorship in the theological seminary and college 
of St. Mary's. Though his health was impaired 
by his labors, he offered n is services to Bishop Flaget, 
and accompanied him to the west in 1810. He es- 
tablished the theological seminary of St. Thomas 
in Bardstown, Ky., and discharged the office of 
president, as well as attending several congrega- 
tions in other parts of the state. Father David 
also introduced the Sisters of Charity into Ken- 
tucky, founded a convent of the order, and was 
appointed their spiritual director by Bishop Flaget. 
He was nominated bishop of Philadelphia, but de- 
clined the honor. Yet when Bishop Flaget peti- 
tioned the pope, in 1817, to appoint him coadjutor 
of the diocese of Bardstown, he reluctantly ac- 
cepted the place. In 1823 he obtained a charter 
from the legislature of Kentucky, raising the col- 
lege he had founded to the rank of a university. 
Bishop David published a large number of works, 
chiefly controversial or religious, and translations 
from the French. The principal are " Vindication 
of the Catholic Doctrine concerning the Use and 
Veneration of Images," " Address to his Brethren 
of other Professions," " On the Rule of Faith," 
"True Piety, or the Day Well Spent," and a 
Catholic hymn-book. 

DAVIDUE, William Pleater, actor, b. near 
Ludgate Hill, London, England, 17 April, 1814; 
d. in Cheyenne, W. T., 7 Aug., 1888. He joined an 
amateur dramatic society, and appeared first at 
Drury Lane theatre, in the part of James in " The 
Miller's Maid." He appeared at Nottingham in 
1836, and acted in London, on 26 Sept. of that year, 
in the " Haunted Tower." After acting in Great 
Britain, he settled in Manchester, and in 1850 came 
to the United States, where he made his first ap- 
pearance in the old Broadway theatre, New York, 
as the blacksmith in " Used Up." He supported 
the popular stars of the day — Edwin Forrest, Gus- 
tavus V. Brooke, Julia Dean, Lola Montez, and 
others — and, after leaving the old Broadway theatre 
in 1855, made a tour through the country. He was 
a member of F. B. Conway's " star combination," 
and in 1863 was one of Mrs. John Wood's company 
at the Olympic theatre, where he remained two 
seasons, lie afterward took part in the Shake- 
spearean revivals at Winter Garden theatre, and, 
in August, 1867, appeared as Eccles, in " Caste," at 
the new Broadway theatre near Broome street. 
He was at Daly's Fifth avenue theatre from 1869 
till 1877, then travelled with Miss Fanny Daven- 

Bort's company, and in 1879 was the original Dick 
>eadeye, in " Pinafore," at the Standard theatre. 
In 1885 he became a member of the Madison 
square theatre company. Mr. Davidge played 
over one thousand parts during his career, and 
played them all with zeal, intelligence and humor. 
Among his best parts, besides those already men- 
tioned, were Bishopries in " Man and Wife," Old 
Hardy in the "Belles Stratagem," Hardcastle in 
" She Stoops to Conquer," and Croaker in " The 
Good-Natured Man." In Shakespeare's comedies 
he was successful as Caliban, Touchstone, Dog- 



berry, Nick Bottom, and Old Gobbo. — His son, 
William, comedian, b. in Manchester, England, 
11 March, 1847, made his first appearance in the 
French theatre, New York, in the burlesque of 
" The Lady of the Lions." 

DAVIDSON, George, astronomer, b. in Not- 
tingham, England, 9 May, 1825. He came to the 
United States in 1832, and was graduated at the 
Central high-school in Philadelphia in 1845, stand- 
ing first in his class. While a student he had 
shown interest in scientific work, and had assisted 
Alexander D. Bache in his observations of the 
magnetic elements at Girard college. On his grad- 
uation he became the secretary of Prof. Bache, who 
had been appointed superintendent of the coast- 
survey. In 1846-'50 he was occupied in geodetic 
field-work, and in astronomy, serving in the dif- 
ferent eastern states. In 1850 he went to Califor- 
nia under the auspices of the coast-survey, and 
was for several years engaged in the determination 
of the latitude and longitude of prominent capes, 
bays, etc., and of the magnetic elements of the 
Pacific coast, re- 
porting also upon 
the proper loca- 
tions for light- 
houses. His work 
included a survey 
of Washington 
and Puget sounds, 
and he had charge 
of the main tri- 
angulation of the 
coast in the region 
of San Francisco. 
From 1861 till 
1867 he was on 
the Atlantic sea- 
board, principally 
engaged in en- 
gineering work on 
coast and river de- 
fences. At one time he was in command of the 
coast-survey steamer •' Vixen," and later performed 
astronomical work along the eastern coast. In 
1866 he became chief engineer of an expedition 
for the survey of a ship-canal across the isthmus 
of Darien, and, in 1867, was appointed to make 
a special examination and report upon the geog- 
raphy and resources of Alaska, pending its pur- 
chase; and his published report and conferences 
with congressional committees influenced the pas- 
sage of the bill. He was placed in charge, during 
1867, of the work of the coast-survey on the Pa- 
cific, planned work for the land parties from 1868 
till 1875, and inspected all the fields of work. From 
1876 till 1886 he had charge of the main triangula- 
tion and astronomical work on the western coast ; 
and the records of the computing division show 
that the results of his observations stand higher 
than any ever executed in America, Europe, or In- 
dia, and they have been characterized as " unique 
in the history of geodesy." In 1881 he measured 
the Yolo base line, the "longest yet attempted in 
trigonometrical operations, and the system of tri- 
angulation directly connected therewith is called 
in his honor the "Davidson quadrilaterals." He 
founded the Davidson observatory in San Fran- 
cisco, which was the first astronomical observatory 
on the Pacific coast of North America, and in 1869 
brought the Pacific geodetic of the coast survey 
in telegraphic longitude connection with Green- 
wich. His astronomical work includes the obser- 
vation of the total solar eclipse under the 60th 
parallel, in 1869; determination "of the 19001 




DAVIDSON 



DAVIDSON 



87 



meridian in l*?:i ; charge of the U.S. transit ..f 
rpeditkm, in 1874; recov e ry of the inm- 

am station of 170H in Lower California 

tpfod by Autcroche de la Chap|M>; ohserva- 

HOBOftlM total -o] a r eclipse of 7 Jan.. 1880; and 

in l- "f the party to observe the tran- 

f Ycmis in tfltl MojJf ■ ■. 1 1 • - holds tin- BOO 
n chair of geodesy and astronomy in the Cni- 

Itv of California, and was a nx'nil of that in- 
stitution from is;? till 1884 Prof. Davidson has 
been appointed OH many im|>ortant government 
commissions, and in such capacity lias made vain 
able rf|Mirts t>> the department*. 1 1 « - is a im-m- 
ber of numerous scientific societies, and has been 
president of tin- (ieographical society of the Pacific 
states since 1881, and of the California acailemy of 
sciences from 1*71 till 1880. In 1874 he was elected 
to the National academy of sciences. His puhli- 

;is, besides numerous pjipers OMltrlbuted to 
the California academy of sciences, are principally 

:al report! contained in government ptihlica- 
tions, and the "Coast Pilot of California, Oregon, 
and Washington "(1857-'87) and the "Coast Pilotof 
Alaska" (Part I., 1808).— His brother, Thomas, 
naval constructor, b. in Nottingham, England. 2M 
Aug., 1828; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 18 Feb., 1874, 
came to the United States, at the age of four years. 
with his parents, who settled in Philadelphia. He 
early develo|>ed a talent for mechanical invention 
and construction, in consequence of which he was 
apprenticed to the trade of ship-building with Mat- 
thew Van Dusen, at the same time studying mat he- 
matics with his brother George. His capabilities 
soon attracted the attention of Join Lcnthall. then 
chief constructor of the U.S. navv. In 1850, when 
but twenty-two years old, he buflt his first vessel 
"from the stumps" on the banks of the James 
river, and soon afterward entered into business in 
Philadelphia. In 1801 he was appointed quarter- 
master over the ship-carpenters in the Philadelphia 
navy-yard, and in 1803 was promoted to assistant 
naval constructor. He attained the full grade in 
1888, with the relative rank of commander, which 
office he held until his death. At one time during 
the civil war he was conducting the repairs, at the 
Philadelphia navy-yard, of forty-two vessels, large 
and small, and also building several new ones, 
The "Tuscarora," sister ship of the " Kearsarge." 
was built under his direction in fifty-eight work- 
ing days, and the " Miami " in twenty-seven days. 
But his greatest feat was the building, in seventy 
days, of the "Juniata" (1,240 tons, 7 guns) from 
the frame of a Florida live-oak frigate that had 
been seasoned for twenty-three years. Mr. David- 
son displayed his engineering abilities in the float- 
ing of the •• Monongahela." which had been driven 
inland on the island of Santa Cruz during the earth- 
quake of 18 Nov., 1SII7. and left stranded forty feet 
high. With a body 01 skilled men selected from 
the different navv-vards. in a little over three 
months he succeeded in moving the ship sidcwNc 
to the water's edge, and thence for 2,500 feet over 

th >ral-bed to deep water. Bn h oe qna ntly he was 

ordered on duty at the bureau of construction in 
Washington, and was busy with plans for dOTelop- 
ing a navy of armored vessels, torpedo-boats, and 
fa-t cruisers, The modeb and drawing! for the 

first lam torpedo-lnrnts built in New York were 
Med by him. He was about to l>e sent to Fu- 
n>|M' for an exhaustive study of foreign navies and 
navv-vards. when his health failed. 

I> VV I DSON. James Wood, author, b. in Hew- 
iN-rry district. S. ('., i» March, 1888. He was gradu- 
ated at South Carolina college, Columbia, in 
studied languages under private tutors, in 1884V8 



was professor of Greek in Mount Zion college, 
V\ Innsboro, s. < ., and ,„ m.19 became principal of 
Carolina high-school. Columbia. In 18&-*8 he was 
adjutant of infantrv in Jaokm 
army. He left Columbin in 1*71. and lived two 
I) Washington, |). C.. at, ,-ars | n 

1 >rk city, when- he wits litcrarv .s|it.', r of th.. 
" Evening Posl " in 1*;:!. and Ann 
tpondentof the London "Standard" in ; 
lie reniov.d to Figulu... Dade <•.... Fla., in 1884, 
where he continues his litcrarv w..rk. and is en- 
gaged in fruit-culture. In 1*m5 he was a member 
of the Florida constitutional convention. Mr. 
Davidson has tiuhlished " Living Writers of the 

s.uth" (New York. 1888); " School Hid 

South Carolina" (Columbia, |088j new .-d.. 1888): 
and "The Correspondent " (New York, 1898); and 
has edited "Lyrics and Sketches." bv Willi 
Martin (1888\ and "The Kduc-atioiial Yeer-Ifciok " 
(1M7'.'). He has in preparation a " D; 
Southern Authors," and " Helen of Troy," ■ fiction 
of Homeric times. 

DAVIDSON, John Wynn. soldier, b. in Fairfax 
county. Va.. 18 Aug.. IN'-M: d. in St. Paul. .Minn.. 
20 June, 1881. He was graduated at the C. S. mili- 

tarv academy in Iftift aaahTrail to the 1st dragoon*. 

and accompanied (Jen. Kearny to California in 
1840, in charge of a howitzer battaty. During the 
Mexican war he served in the Army of th 
being present at the combats of San Pasqual, San 
Bernardo, Saa Gabriel, and Mesa. He was a scout 
in I860, and was at the action of Clear I-ake, 17 
May, and at Russian River, 17 June, under (apt. 
Nathaniel Lvoti. From this time till the civil war 
he continued on frontier and garrison duty, lb- 
fought tin' battle of Cieneguilla. New .Mi \i. ... .,ti :U) 
March, 1854, against the Apache and I'tah Indians, 
losing three fourths of his command, and. being 
himself wounded. He was promoted to captain on 
20 Jan., 1855, to major on 14 Nov., 1801. and. after 
■erring in defence of Washington, was commis- 
sioned brigadier-genenil of volunteers on •'< Feb., 
1802. In the Virginia peninsular caui|>aign of 1881 
he oommanded a brigade in Gen. Smith's division, 
and received two b r e vet s for gallant oon dn et — that 

of lieutenant-colonel for the bat tie of Gaines's Mills, 
and that of colonel for (folding's Farm, lb MM 
also engaged at lice's Mills. IfecnaniosviUe, B 
Station, ami (Jlendale. He OOmmanded the St. 
Louis district of Missouri from Aug. till b't Nov., 
1SI5-J. the Army of Sontheatl .Missouri till H F. fak, 
18IU1. and the St. Louis district again till June, 
OO-operating with (Jen. Steele in his Little Rock 
expedition and directing the movements of troon 
against Pilot Knob ami Frodetioktown, and in the 
pursuit of the enemy during Mannadukc's raid into 
Sliss,,iiri. He led a cavalry division from June till 
September, commanded in the actions at BWBjm> 
ville. BayOU Metre, and Ashley's Mills. Ark., and 
took |>ari in the capture of Little Kock. He was 
made chief of cavalry of tbi military d 
of the Mississippi on 20 June. 1*04, ami on I ■ 
led a oavabry expedition from Baton Bi 
oagoula. lie was brevet ted brigadier-general in 
the regular army on II March, lN<i5. for the capture 

of Little Book, and major-general for • 
during the war. He was made lieutenant-colonel 
of the Kith cavalry on 1 Dec.. \*M\, was acting b> 
s|«-< tor-general of the Department of the IfisaOttTI 
from November, 1888. till December, 1887, and pro * 
feasor of military essence In Kansas agricultural 
college from 1N<>H till 1*71. He then commanded 
various posts in Idaho and Texas, and. in It 
the district of Upper Braaoa, Tex «m 86 March, 
was made oosontl Of the 2d cavalry. 



88 



DAVIDSON 



DAVIDSON 




a>vtf&/a?0, 



DAVIDSON, Lucretla Maria, poet.h. in Platts- 
burg, N. Y.. 27 Sept.. 1808; d. there, 27 Aug.. 1886. 
Her father. Oliver Davidson, was a physician, ami 
her mother, Margaret Miller, was an author. A 
volume of select ions from Mrs. Davidson's writings 
was published, with a preface by Miss 0. M. Sedg- 
wick, in 1844, after the poems of her daughter had 
made them famous. Lucretia, when four years 
old, was sent to Plattsburg academy, where she 
learned to read and to form the Roman letters in 
sand. Soon afterward her mother observed that 
her writing-paper was disappearing strangely, and 

finally discov- 
ered a pile of lit- 
tle blank-books, 
containing art- 
fully sketched 
Sictures, with 
escriptions in 
poetry, all print- 
ed in Roman let- 
ters, turned and 
twisted in cu- 
rious fashion. 
The child was 
so mortified at 
the discovery of 
what she had 
been doing that 
she burned all 
her work. She 
learned to write 
in her seventh 
year, and devel- 
oped a great 
fondness for 
reading. Before she was twelve she had read 
much history, and the dramatic works of Shake- 
speare, Goldsmith, and Kotzebue, with many popu- 
lar novels and romances. She continued to write 
poetry, and, when nine years old, composed an 
"Epitaph on a Robin," which is the earliest re- 
maining specimen of her verse. She wrote poetry 
rapidly, when in the mood, but preferred to be alone 
while composing, often burning an unfinished piece 
that had been seen by others. She was fond of 
childish sports, but would often stop in the midst 
of them to write, when struck with an idea for a 
poem. When about fourteen years old she was 
allowed to attend a ball in Plattsburg, but, in the 
midst of her preparations, was found sitting in a 
corner writing verses on " What the World Calls 
Pleasure." Her mother's friends advised that pen 
and ink be kept from her, and, hearing of this, she 
voluntarily gave up her favorite pursuit for sev- 
eral months, till her mother, seeing that she grew 
melancholy, advised her to resume it. In October, 
1824, a gentleman visiting Plattsburg saw some of 
her verses, and offered to give her a better educa- 
tion than her parents could afford. She was ac- 
cordingly sent to Mrs. Willard's school in Troy, 
N. Y., Dut her studies undermined her health, and 
she returned home. After her recovery she was 
sent to Miss Gilbert's school in Albany, but re- 
mained there only about three months before she 
was taken home to die. Miss Davidson was a 
small, delicately formed brunette. 'Vshe had all 
the elements of personal beauty," wrote Mrs. Wil- 
lard, "yet she was so shy that manyla girl less 
perfectly endowed in that respect woulA be sooner 
noticed by a stranger." Her poetical writings in- 
clude, beside the numbers of pieces destroyed by 
her, 278 poems of various lengths. Among these 
are five pieces, of several cantos each. The poet 
Southey said of her : " In our own language, except 



in the cases of Chatterton and Kirke White, we can 
call to mind no instance of so early, so ardent, and 
>o fatal a pursuit of intellectual advancement." 
Her poems were collected and published, with a 
sketch by S. F. B. Morse, under the title "Amir 
Khan, and Other Poems " (New York, 1825) ; n. w 
ed., edited by her brother. M. 0. Davidson, with 
illustrations bv Darley, 1871). See a biography by 
Catharine M. Sedgwick in Sparks's " American Bi- 
ographies," vol. vii. — Her sister, Margaret Miller, 
b. in Plattsburg, N. Y., 26 March, 1823; d. in 
Saratoga, N. Y., 25 Nov., 1838, had the HUM ■ n- 
sibility and precocity, and began to write at >ix 
years of age. At ten, while visiting in New York, 
she wrote, in two days, a drama entitled the " Trag- 
edy of Alethia," and acted in it with some young 
friends, taking the principal part. Notwithstand- 
ing her sister's fate, her intellectual activity was 
not restrained. Her poems were introduced t<> the 
world by Washington Irving, and the works of the 
two sisters were afterward published together (New 
York, 1850).— Their brother, Levi P., b. in 1817; 
d. in Saratoga, N. Y., 27 June, 1842, was graduated 
at the U. S. military academy in 1837, assigned to 
the 1st dragoons, and after serving on frontier 
duty at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., and Fort Wayne, 
Indian Territory, was promoted 1st lieutenant in 
1840. He wrote verses with elegance and ease. 

DAVIDSON, Robert, educator, b. in Elkton, 
Md., in 1750 ; d. 13 Dec., 1812. He was graduated 
at the University of Pennsylvania in 1771, ap- 
pointed instructor there in 1773, and in 1774 was 
given the chair of history and belles-lettres. In the 
fatter year he was also licensed to preach, and a 
year later was ordained by the second Philadelphia 
presbytery, becoming Dr. Ewing's assistant in the 
first church. In 1775 he composed a metrical dia- 
logue, which was recited at commencement before 
the Continental congress, and in July of the same 
year, one month after the battle of Bunker Hill, 
delivered before several military companies a ser- 
mon from the text "For there fell down many 
slain, because the war was of God." In 1777 the 
occupation of Philadelphia by the British compelled 
him to retire to Delaware. In 1784 he was appoint- 
ed vice-president of the newly organized Dickin- 
son college, Carlisle, Pa., and given the chair of 
history and belles-lettres there, also acting as pas- 
tor of the Presbyterian church in Carlisle. He 
held this last office till his death, and succeeded 
by his tact in harmonizing the discordant elements 
in his congregation. In 1794 he preached twice 
before troops on their way to suppress the whiskey 
insurrection, and in 1799 delivered a eulogy of 
Washington. After Dr. Nisbet's death in 1804, Dr. 
Davidson discharged the duties of president of the 
college till 1809, when he resigned. He had a high 
reputation as a scholar, but was especially fond 
of astronomy, and invented an ingenious COMDO* 
sphere or compound globe. He was also a skilful 
draughtsman, and was the composer of several 

Eieces of sacred music. Besides numerous sermons, 
e published an " Epitome of Geography, in Verse," 
for the use of schools (1784); " The Christian's A, 
B, C," or the 119th psalm in metre, each stanza 
beginning with a different letter (1811); and a 
" New Metrical Version of the Psalms," with an- 
notations (1812).— His son. Robert, clergyman, '». 
in Carlisle, Pa., 23 Feb., 1808; d. in Philadelphia. 
Pa., 6 April, 1876, was graduated at Dickinson col- 
lege in 1828, and at Princeton theological seminary 
in 1831. He was pastor of the second Presbyterian 
church in Lexington. Ky., in 1832-'40, and in the 
latter year l>ecame president of Transylvania uni- 
versity there. After his resignation yi i842 he held 



DAVIDSON 



I'WIK 



m 



pastorates in New Unit !.. in im.: 

York city in MMO-'a, and Huntington, L I . 
in l^H-'N, n- ring U) Philadelphia in tin- last- 
named year. .Mr. Davidson was SOT ft quarter of a 
century a member of the American l»oard of oejn- 
mjseioneri f'>r fnriign ■tasiona^ was mhmmbI 

. .if the MMll assembly in 1848- .*>(», and in 
1809 was a delegate to tin- general assembly <>f tin- 
Free church <>r Scotland, in Edinburgh. 

D V I IWK)N,TfcO«M, philosopher, b. in the par- 
ish ..f Deer. Alierdecnshire, Scotland, 89 Oct.. ls-10. 
Il< was graduated at the I'niversity of AU-rdcen 
in 1n»'><». beings first graduate and Greek prizeman. 
IVoni 1880 till 1WW he was reetor of thegrammar- 
fLatta-) school of Old Aberdeen, and from imw till 
B ma>tcr in several English schools, sticud- 
ing his vacations on the r..ntinent. In lsiiti be re- 
moved tn Canada. tO occupy a hlacc in the London 
collegiate institute. In the following year he came 
to the United States, and, after sending some 
iimnths in Boston, removed to St. Louis, where, in 
addition to work on the New York " Round Table *' 
and the " Western Kdueational Monthly," he was 
classical master in the St. Louis high-school, and 
subsequently principal of one of the branch high* 
schools. In 1875 he removed to Cambridge, Mass. 
He has travelled extensively in Euro|K>. es|>ecially 
in Greece and Italy. In the former country he de- 
voted himself mainly to archaeology and modem 
Greek, in the latter" to the study < If the Catholic 
church, of scholastic philosophy, of Dante, and of 
Rosmiui. For studying the Catholic church un- 
usual opportunities were thrown open to him, 
chiefly through the Princess Carolyne of Sayn- 
Wittgenstein and Cardinal Hohenlohe, who offered 
him an apartment in his episcopal palace at Alhano. 
and also in the villa D*Ben at Tivoli. His Interest 
in Thomas Aquinas having come to the ears of the 
pope through Bishop (now Cardinal) Schialhno, he 
was invited to the Vatican, where the holy father 
suggested that he should settle in Rome and aid 
his professors in editing the new edition of St. 
Thomas. For more than a year he lived at Domo- 
dossola, in Piedmont, where the Institute of charity, 
founded by Kosmini, has its novitiate. Here he 
produced the work that first brought Rosmini to 
the notice of English-speaking Rodents: " The 
I'hilosop Ideal System of Antonio Rosmini-Serbati. 
translated, with a Sketch of the Authors Life. Bib- 
liography, Introduction, and Notes" (London, 1882). 
At the same time he wrote essays on classical sub- 
jects, mainlv archaeological, published under the 
title "The Parthenon Frieze and other Essays" 
(London. 1882). He also translated " RnamUli's 
l'-y hologv" <:{ vols., London, 1884). In Iks:? he 
OOCUpJed a villa in Capri, and there translated Ros- 
minis "Anthropology.** Mr. Davidson has been 
a frequent contributor to periodicals, and deliv- 
ered courses of lectures, baton the Lowell institute 
in Boston and elsewhere. on modern Greece, on 
Greek sculpture, etc. He was mainlv instrumental 
in founding "The Fellowship of the New Life." 
which has branches in London and New York. He 
speaks French. German, Italian, ami modern Greek. 
let the works named. Mr. Davidson lias pub- 
lished "The Fragments of Parmenides," in English 
hexameters, with Introduction and notes (St. 
Louis, lMll'b; -On the Origin of Language,* 1 from 

the German of \V. EL J. Sleek (New Sorts, I860); 

>'i..rt Account of the Niobe Group "(New York. 

I lie Place of Art in Education" (Boston, 

: "Giordano Bruno, and the Relation of his 

Philosophy to [free Thought "(Boston, 1888): and a 

"Hand-Book to Dante, from the Italian of Scar- 

taaaini, with Notes and Addition* ** (Boston, 1887). 



DATID80N, William, soldier, bin 
county, Pa., in 1746; killed at the Utile of Cow. 

with his family to Rowan count. 

and William, the TCHIIIfSJl MO, wa» educa 

Quean's mnaaam, afterward Liberty halL Charlotta, 

At the U'ginning of the Revolution hi wan ai» 
pototed major in one of the first regiment* raised 
in North Carolina, and was in th< 
Brandy wine. (Jermantown. Hl „i Monmouth. | n 
Noramber, 177!>. he wa roe the 

army of Qen, Lincoln in the south, at which time 
he commanded his regiment with the rank .if liru- 
tenant-colonel. In an engagement with a | 
loyalists, near Calson's Mill, a ball iia.ss.-d through 

his body; i>ut ba t«M.k the laid algal vaaki later. 

with the rank of brigadier-general conferred on 
him bv the state of North Carolina, and i 

hims e lf to interrupt the program of CornwaltJBi 

Detached by (Jen. Greene on :tl Jan.. 17M. to guard 
the wagon ford chosen by Cornwallis for his night 
passage of the Catawba, Gen. Davidson |«-st.-d 
himself on the bank of the river with MO men. 

The British army forced its way across. reserving 
its tire until it had reached the Iwuik, when the 
militia lied. Gen. Davidson was the last on the 
held, ami was pierced by a rifle-ball through the 

breast. Congress voted fc-'ioo for a monument to 
him, but it has never been erected. Davidson col- 
lege, N. ('.. is named in his honor, and hi* sword 
hangs in one of its halK 

DAVIE, William Richardson, soldier, b. in 
Egremont, near Whitehaven. England, 2<» June. 
I :.")<»: d. in Camden, S. C. h Nov., 1880. Be came 
t«> this country with his father in ITM, ami was 
adopted by his uncle. Rev. William R i c ha rdson, 
who lived near the Catawba, in South Carolina. 
Young Davie was graduated at Princeton, in the 
autumn of 177f>, after serving with a party of 
his fellow-studci.ts as a volunteer in the vicin- 
ity of New York during the summer of that 
rear. He then began to study law in Salisbury, 
N". ('.. but was commissioned lieutenant of a new- 
ly organized company of dragoons on •"» April. 
1779, and, succeeding to the command of the 
troop, joined Pulaski's legion ami n»so to the 
rank of major. 
At the battle of 
Stono Perry, IS 
June, 17T U , lie re- 
ceived a severe 
wound in the 
thigh, and on his 
recovery returned 
to Salisbury, re- 
sumed his studies, 
and was admitted 
to the Iwr in Bep- 
tomber, 177'.». In 
the winter of 17X0 
he raised a body 
of cavalry. s|M-nt 
in its equipment 
the last shilling 

of 'he estate In- 

qneathed to him 

M his uncle, and 

with this force 

protected the southwestern part of the state frwn 

the attacks of the British in Bottth Carolina. He 

Bought in the kittles at Hanging Ron! and Rat ky 

Mount, did good service in saving the remnant of 

thaamrj after Gateaii defeat at Cnasdan, ami on 

:> Sept.. i; s < >. **■ ap po int ed oolonal oonunaadhuj 

ilrv in North Carolina. He surprised the 







90 



DAY IKS 



DA VIES 



enemy at Wahab's plantation, and when Cornwal- 
lis entered Charlotte, N. C, he withstood three 
charges by Tarleton's legion, in the presence of the 
whole British army, and then retired in good order. 
In 17N1 OoL Davie, yielding his hopes of gaining 
additional honor in the field, accepted, at the urgent 
request of Gen. Greene, the post of commissary- 

Senoral of the southern army, and, by his zeal, h> 
uence, and local knowledge in this difficult po- 
sition, added much to the success of the military 
operations that followed. After the war he settled 
at Halifax, N. C, in the practice of his profession, 
and, by his sagacity and eloquence, soon rose to 
eminence. He served many terms in the legisla- 
ture, and was a member of the convention that 
framed the Federal constitution, favoring the equal 
representation of the states in the national senate, 
and the taking into account of the slaves in assign- 
ing representatives to the south. His name does 
not appear as a signer of the document, as he was 
called nome by illness, but he was one of its most 
earnest defenders in the North Carolina convention 
that followed. He drew up the act for establishing 
the University of North Carolina, which, after 
much opposition, was passed in 1789, and was active 
in providing for its support. The erection of its 
buildings, the choice of professors, and the arrange- 
ment of studies, received his personal attention. 
He was influential in securing the cession of the 
present state of Tennessee, was three times a com- 
missioner to settle boundary disputes between 
North and South Carolina, and in 1794 was made 
major-general of militia. He was elected governor 
of the state in 1799, but before the close of his 
term was sent by President Adams, with Oliver 
Ellsworth and William V. Murray, on a special 
embassy to the French government, the result of 
which was the convention signed 30 Sept., 1800. 
President Jefferson appointed him to treat with the 
Tuscarora Indians in 1802. In 1803 he was an un- 
successful candidate for congress, and after his de- 
feat he withdrew to his farm on the Catawba river, 
S. C, where he spent the rest of his days, declining 
a major-general's commission in the IT. S. army in 
1813 on account of failing health. He was a man 
of commanding appearance and dignified yet affa- 
ble manners. See nis life, by Fordyce M. Hubbard, 
in Sparks's " American Biographies." 

DA VIES, Charles, mathematician, b. in Wash- 
ington, Litchfield co., Conn., 22 Jan., 1798; d. in 
Fishkill Landing, N. Y., 17 Sept., 1876. When a 
boy he removed with his father to a farm in St. 
Lawrence county, N. Y., then an unsettled part of 
the state. He entered the U. S. military academy 
in December, 1813, graduating in December, 1815, 
and was assigned to the light artillery. After 
brief service in New England garrisons, he was 
transferred to the engineer corps in 1816, and 
ordered to duty at West Point, but resigned on 1 
Dec, 1816, and became principal assistant pro- 
fessor of mathematics and natural and experi- 
mental philosophy. He was made ful\ professor 
of mathematics on 1 May, 1823, and >neld the 
office till 31 May, 1837, when he was forced to re- 
sign by illness consequent upon overwork \in pre- 
paring" his mathematical text-books. A trip to 
Europe restored his health, and he accepted the 
chair of mathematics in Trinity college, Hartford, 
Conn., holding it from 1839 till 1841, when he was 
again forced to resign by threatened illness, and 
was appointed paymaster in the U. S. army, with 
the staff rank of major. He served as treasurer of 
the U. S. military academy from 1841 till 1846, 
and in 1848 became professor of mathematics and 
philosophy in the University of New York. In the 



following year he retired to Fishkill Landing, on 
the Hudson, that he might have leisure to complete 
his series of text-book-. After teaching in tlu« 
Normal school at Albany, he was made professor 
of higher mathematics in Colombia coll. 
.May, 1K57, and in June, 1866, emeritus pn 
His works, which are distinguished by plainness 
and close logical arrangement, Include an entire 
series of mathematical text-books (1837- V.; 
tending from a primary arithmetic to the higher 
mathematics, and including editions of LegenSre'i 
"Geometry" (1840) and Bourdon's "Algebra" 
(1851). Among his more advanced works are 
" Descriptive Geometry " (New York, 1826) ; u Sur- 
veying and Navigation" (1830); "Shades. Shad- 
ows, and Perspective" (1832); "Differential and 
Integral Calculus" (1836): "Logic and Utility of 
Mathematics" (1850); and a " Mathematical Dic- 
tionary," written in conjunction with his son-in-law, 
Prof. William G. Peck, of Columbia (1855). His 
last work was a treatise on " The Metric System " 
(1870).— His brother, Henry Eugene, b. in Black 
Lake, near Ogdensburg, N. Y., 8 Feb., 1805 ; d. in 
New York city, 17 Dec., 1881, spent his early years 
upon his father's farm, and. after receiving a com- 
mon-school education, began in 1819 the study of 
law with Judge Alfred Conkling, living, as "was 
then the custom, in the family of his preceptor. 
He was admitted to the bar at Utica, N. Y, in 
1826, and began to practise in Buffalo, where he 
soon became prominent in politics as a whig. He 
removed to New York in 1830, and formed a part- 
nership with Judge Samuel A. Foot, which was 
dissolved in 1848, and Mr. Davies entered into a 
new one with Judge William Kent, son of Chan- 
cellor Kent. In 1850 he was chosen corporation 
counsel, and was elected justice of the state su- 
preme court in 1855, but was obliged to establish 
nis right to the office by litigation, as no notice of 
a vacancy had been filed with the sheriff. In the 
summer "of that year he accompanied ex-President 
Fillmore to Europe, having been his confidential 
adviser during his term of office as chief magis- 
trate. In the autumn of 1859 Judge Davies was 
elected to the court of appeals, where he served 
from 1 Jan., 1860, till 1869, being the chief justice 
for several years. He then entered into partner- 
ship with Judge Noah Davis, with whom he prac- 
tised until the latter was elevated to the bench. 
After that time Judge Davies was conspicuous 
only in his practice as counsel and trustee of the 
Mutual life insurance company, receiver of the 
Erie railway, counsel for the American exchange 
bank, and member of the commission to determine 
the advisability of constructing an underground 
railroad in Broadway. The day before his last ill- 
ness he sat for manv hours listening to testimony 
on that subject. For several years before his 
death he took no part in politics, but served often 
as referee or chamber-counsel in important legal 
cases. — Another brother, Thomas Alfred, soldier, 
b. in St. Lawrence county, N. Y., in Decern bar, 
1809, was graduated at the U. S. military academy 
in 1829, and assigned to the 1st infantry. After 
serving on frontier duty, he resigned on 31 Oct., 
1831, and was employed on the Croton aqueduct as a 
civil engineer till 1833, when he became a merchant 
in New York city, but was again employed on the 
aqueduct in 1840-'l. He re-entered the national 
service on 15 May, 1861. as colonel of the 16th New 
York regiment, was at the battle of Bull Bun, 
and in the defences of Alexandria from Novem- 
ber, 1861, till 7 March, 1862, when he was made 
brigadier-general of volunteers, lie was engaged 
in the siege of Corinth in April **nd May, 1862, 



DAN 



owns 



01 



itattlo <>f Corinth on 8-4 ommanded 

district i if Colnmbna, K\.. m 1888-j8, that ..f 
i, M-... i rtli Kansas in 

1864-"5. nii'l thnt of wleoonain from April till 
June, 186& 11'' m brevet ted major-general <>f 
volu nt een «'ii 11 -Inly, IHft'i, ami shortly afterward 
rn.'.l to New York city. He has published 
- .iiy : or Mysteries of Creation." hii analy- 
sis of the natural facts stated in the Hebraic ac- 
count of uiaallmi (Nnw fork, 1858); "Adam and 

II, \:,:: |M5«); "(Jcnesia DiMlOMd N (1*60); 
•• Lnewerto Hugh Miller ami T h eoretical (Jeoio- 

ffat- • How to make Monev, and How to 

* II); ami " Appeal of a Layman to the 
Committee on tin 1 Revision Of the English Vir- 
i of the Holv Scriptures, to have Adam ami 
II i -Ailain restored to the English Gener al when 
Ifft out by foniitT Translators" (18781 HwilJ 
mc'sffXL Henry Eugene, lawyer. I>. in New 
York city, 8 July, 1886. was educated at Harvard. 
Williams, ami Columbia, where he was graduated 
in 1807. B« thru studied law, was admitted to 
the l>ar. ami Ix-gan practice. He entered the 
army in April, 1N61, as a captain in the 5th New 
I \'.lunteers, became major in the 2d New 
York cavalry in July, and subsequently its colonel. 
He was made a brigadier-general of volunteers on 
16 Sept.. 1888, and served with distinction in the 
cavalry corps of the Army of the Potomac till 
the close of the war. He was brevetted major- 
general of volunteers, 1 Oct., 1864, given his full 
commission on 4 Mav, 1865, and commanded the 
middle district of Alabama till his resignation on 
1 Jan.. lHtifi. He was public administrator of New 
York city in I M06-'». assistant district attorney of 
the southern district of New York in 1870-'2, and 
since is?:', das been engaged in law practice. 

DAVIES, Louis Henry, Canadian state-man. 
b. in ("harlot tetown, l'rince Edward island. 4 
May, 1845. He was educated at the Central acad- 
emy and Prince of Wales college, Charlottetown. 
and was admitted to the bar in 1866. He «;i> 
solicitor-general of his native province in 1869, 
and again in 1872-'8 ; was the leader of the oppo- 
sition in the legislative assembly until September, 
1876, when he became premier and attorney- 
general, which portfolios he retained till 1 *?'.». 
when his administration resigned. He was elected 
to the local legislature in 1873, and re electe d from 
time to time till 1H?!). when he was defeated. In 
1881 he was elected to represent (Queen's county. 
Prince Kdward island, in the Dominion jmrlia- 
ment. and still (lKX»i) represents that constituency. 
He was counsel for the tenantry of Prince Kdward 
island, before the land commission, pterin* en* over 
by the Right Hon. H. C. K. Childers. which sat 
in lM?5-'6, when the estates of all proprietors in 
the island were expropriated by the province. He 
was also one of the counsel representing (Jreat 
Britain before the international fishery commis- 
si, hi. which s,»t at Halifax, N. S., in 1877, under 
articles of the Washington treaty. He is a liberal 

DAVIES, Marianne, muafcaan, b. in New Eng- 
land alniut 1788; d. in Loudon in 1188. She wa- 
ttle elder of two riaten, both of whom maili' a Eu- 
ropean reputation as musicians. They were daugh- 
ters of a relative of Benjamin Franklin. Marianne 
achieved some distinction as a performer on the 
harpsichord and piano. Imt eboul 176J acquired 
much greater repute for her skill 00 the harmonica 
or musical glasses, which had then been recent 1> 

improved by Franklin. She wm en b rBqno n tlyoom- 
paued to retire from tin- ntofejeakn, owing to the 

effect on her nerves of constant playing ii|hiii the 
harmonica. This was so frequent a re-ult of Hfl 



u«e thnt it ww haaUhai fmm many continental 
towns by official prohibition. II l 

I, 1>. in 1740; d. in lioiidon 
1866, visited Eun>pe in com|ian) with Marianm-. 
with whom *h< always Ngided. \lvr flr»t 
appearance wax made at the aoocrrt-room, l>r»n 
street. Soho, London, 2H April, l ; 
OaaafbJ career in the English metro|>olbi, « 'erilia and 
Marianne left England in 1788, and rWted Paris 
and Vienna. Wliile tiny were in the lair 
Metastasio wrote, and Bmm enauoaea 1 tie 
for, an ode that was sung by Cecilia, accompanied 
iiy Marianne mi the harmonica. In • 
Hi Jan.. 1778, the pool describe- the beeattfu] tone 
of the instrument, ami the admirable manner in 
which Cecilia assimilati-d her voice to it. making it 
ditllciilt todi-lingui-h the one from the other. Fn»m 
Vienna the -i-ters went |o Milan. where the younger 
appeared with great siiccc**. in 1771. in the 

of *• Bnggiero, t>> Metaetajao and aaaae. GeefUa 
was tin- I'nvt Bngnah-apaaking woman towhoai the 

Italians accorded the rank of prima donna, U- 
stowing 00 her the sohriipiet " l'lngle-ina," and 
admitting her to be the ■nperior of an Italian 
singer of thai time, except QahrieUL Ceouia after- 
ward tang in Florence, and returned in 1778 to 
London, where she ap|warcd successfully in Italian 
opera. Her voice is rhmiiihoil as being deficient in 
I M>th (lower ami volume. Imt she poss e ssed a neat 
and facile execution. She revisited Ploranee, and 

sang there until 17*4. when the once more retained 
to England, and retired from the profession soon 
after the death of her sister. Aboal 1*17 she puln 
lished a collection of six -.n:;- by Hassc. Jomelli, 
(iiiluppi. and other*. She lingered until her 
ninety-sixth year, borne down by the accumulated 
ireighl of years, disease, and poverty. 

DAVIES, Samuel, clergyman, h. near Summit 
Ridge, Newcastle co.. Del, .1 Nov.. 1724; d. in 
Princeton, N. J., 4 Feb.. 1761. His paranta ■ 

Welsh decent. He Was educated at home and in 

Rev, Samuel Blair's seminary at Poj 

and licensed to preach by Newcastle presbytery in 
1746. He was onlained as an evangelist in 1747. 
and sent to Hanover county. Va.. which the enmity 
of the civil authorities toward disaenten made a 
very diflicult field. Throogfa the influence <>f the 

governor he obtained a license to officiate at four 
places of worship aboul Hanover, which in 174H 
was extended to three additional chiinhe-. He 
rabsequentlT engaged in a controversy with rVytoa 
Randolph, the king's attorney, a> to whetiber the 

English act of toleration extended to Virginia, 
Mr. Davie- argued his sideof the oaae befbre the 
genera] court, and afterward, when on a %i-it to 
England, brought the matter before the ■ 
council, by whom the oneation was decided in the 
affirmative. In 17-^t >ir. Daviei undertook a suc- 
cessful mi— ion to England, with (Jillx-rt Teiinent. 
to solicit funds for the CoUagS of New Jersey, and 
rived with much fa\<>r as a pn-adier. He 

returned amid the excite nt of the Ptranah and 

Indian war. and shortly after !tradd<- k- 
delirered a sermon OB that event. In a note t.» 
another pubUabed S.TI11011. delixenil in the follow- 
ing Aucu-t. In- alludes pn.phetically to "that 
heroic youth, Col. Washington, whom I 
i.ut bona Frovidenee has preferred li 

a manner for some important service to hii 
trv." The first i l-vt.ry in Virginia was estab- 
lished in 1785 through his' exertions, and in 1758 
he was ohosen to succeed Jonathan Edward* as 
pre-uieiit of Princeton. He declined the honor. 
Imt it was again urged u|h.ii him in the following 
year, ami he then accepted it. but held it only 



99 



DAY IKS 



DAVILA 



eighteen months before his death. He was a fine 
pulpit orator, and published numerous sermons, a 
collection of which appeared after his death (Lou- 
don, 1767) and passed through several editions, 
both in this country and in Great Britain, one of 
which (:{ vols.. New York, 1851) contains, an eMQ 
on the "Life! and Times of Davies" by the Rev. 
Albeit Barnes. Dr. Davies also wrote verses of 
merit, including: an elegv on his old preceptor, 
Samuel Blair. — His son, William, leaving Prince- 
ton college in 1765, entered the army, became in- 
spector-general under Steuben in 1778, and enjoyed 
tne friendship of Washington. He was afterward 
in the auditor's office, in Richmond, Va. 

DAVIES, Thomas, clergvman, b. in Kinton, 
Herefordshire, England, 21 Dec, 1736 ; d. in New 
Milford, Conn., 12 May, 1766. His grandfather, 
John Davies, emigrated from England about 1740, 
and settled at Davies Hollow, then a part of Litch- 
field, Conn., but now a part of the town of Wash- 
ington. He was the first Episcopalian in the 
town, and by his efforts the present parish of St. 
Michael's was organized in 1745. He gave it a 
tract of land, and contributed largely to the erec- 
tion of a church. There is a tablet to his memory 
in the present St. Michael's church, Litchfield. 
Thomas was graduated at Yale in 1758, and or- 
dained by the archbishop of Canterbury on 23 
Aug., 1761. He then returned to this country with 
a commission from the Society for propagating the 
gospel, as missionary to New Milford, Roxbury, 
Sharon, New Preston, New Fairfield, and Litch- 
field. Here he labored zealously, holding occa- 
sional services also in other towns. Though he 
met with many obstacles from the intolerance of 
the times, he overcame them by his prudent and 
conciliatory spirit, and to him the growth of the 
Episcopal church in that part of the state was 
largely due. The church at New Milford and sev- 
eral others were built under his care. 

DAVIESS, Joseph Hamilton, lawyer, b. in 
Bedford county, Va., 4 March, 1774; killed in the 
battle of Tippecanoe, 7 Nov., 1811. He accom- 
panied his parents in 1779 to Kentucky, where they 
settled first in Lincoln county and then near Dan- 
ville. Young Daviess received his education in an 
academy at Harrodsburg, becoming an excellent 
classical and mathematical scholar, and afterward 
pursued a wide course of reading. He served for 
six months as a volunteer in the Indian campaign 
of 1793, and then studied law. In 1795 he was 
admitted to the bar and, settling in Danville, en- 
tered on a career that made his name a household 
word in the west. Being a federalist, he was ex- 
cluded from any hope of political advancement, 
and consequently devoted himself to his profession 
and attained a high position at the bar. His ec- 
centricities made him famous. Instead of " riding 
the circuit," he used to shoulder his rifle and 
range the woods from town to town ; and he usu- 
ally appeared in court in a hunting costume. In 
1799 he acted as second to John Rowan in a duel 
in which Rowan's antagonist was killed, when both 

Brincipal and seconds fled to avoid prosecution, 
•aviess was for some time a fugitive ; but, after 
hearing that Rowan had been arrested, returned, 
appeared in court as his counsel, and secured his 
acquittal. It is said that he was the first western 
lawyer that ever argued a case in the U. S. supreme 
court. He came to Washington in a dilapidated 
hunting uniform, gained an important suit, and 
returned home in the same peculiar costurtie. 
About this time he married a sister of Chief-Jus- 
tice Marshall, and afterward became U. S. attorney 
for Kentucky, in which capacity, on 3 Nov., 1806, 



he moved for an order requiring Aaron Burr to 
ap|>ear and answer to a charge of levying war 
against a nation with which the I'nited States was 
at peace. The judge overruled the motion: but 
Burr appeared in court next day and requested 
that the motion be granted. After this was ac- 
complished. Burr, with liis counsel, Henry Clay, 
boldly courted investigation; but the witnesses 
upon whom the prosecution relied could not be 
brought into court, and it was impossible to sus- 
tain the charges. This event almost entirely de- 
stroyed the popularity of Daviess, which even tin- 
subsequent revelation of Burr's plot could not 
fullv restore. In 1811 he joined the army of Gen. 
William H. Harrison as major of Kentucky vol- 
unteer dragoons, and served in the campaign 
against the northwestern Indians. In the battle 
of Tippecanoe, seeing that an exposed angle of the 
line was likely to give way before a determined 
assault, he led a cavalry charge against the savages 
at that point. The manoeuvre was completely 
successful, but Maj. Daviess fell, shot through the 
breast. Counties in Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, 
and Missouri have been named for him. He pub- 
lished " A View of the President's Conduct con- 
cerning the Conspiracy of 1806" (1807). 

DA VILA, Gil Gonzalez (dah'-vee-lah), Spanish- 
American author, b. in Avila, Spain, in 1570: d. in 
Madrid, Spain, in 1658. He was an attendant of 
Cardinal Deza at Rome, studied there, and returned 
to Spain, where he published several works that 
met with public approval, and was appointed preb- 
endary of the cathedral of Salamanca, chronicler of 
Castile, and in 1612 chronicler of Spanish America. 
His publications include " Historia de las antlgtte- 
dades de Salamanca" (1606); "La vida de Don 
Alonso Tostado de Madrigal Obispo de Avila" 
(1611); "Teatro de las grandezas de Madrid" 
(1625); "Vida del rey de Castilla Don Enrique 
III." (1638); "Teatro de las iglesias de Esnafia" 
(1640); and "Teatro de las iglesias de las Indias 
Occidentals, sus arzobispos y obispos y cosas 
memorables" (2 vols., 1645-'9). He left unpub- 
lished works, including " La vida de Felipe III." 
He was the first to write the ecclesiastical his- 
tory of Spanish America. 

DAVILA, Nepomuceno, naturalist, b.in Castro 
Urdiales, Spain, in 1574 ; d. in the city of Mexico in 
1647. He was a monk, and arrived in Mexico about 
1600, and devoted his whole energy to the founda- 
tion of a convent for his order. In 1619 he acquired 
for $3,000, from the Count de Cortina, the title-deed 
of the ground on which afterward the convent 
of San Augustin was built, which to-day is occu- 
pied by the National library. But he did not live 
to see his work finished, as in 1640 he was thrown, 
by order of the Inquisition, into its dungeons, on a 
charge of sorcery', and died after seven years of 
incarceration and torture. Davila was a close stu- 
dent of natural history, especially the Mexican 
fauna, and wrote several treatises, of which the 
most notable one is "Afinidades entre algunas 
plantas y los mamiferos." The principal cause 
of his imprisonment was, besides his advanced 
ideas about the sensibility of plants and the in- 
telligence of certain animals, and the relations 
existing between them, the finding in his cell of 
many dried and stuffed animals, and collections of 
plants, as Davila devoted his leisure to studies of 
the animal and vegetable kingdoms. He wrote also 
the following works, which have never been pub- 
lished, but are preserved in the National library of 
Mexico : " Un afio de caza en Sierra Madre," u Los 
Anfibios del Pacifico," " Los Fosiles de la Mesa 
( entral," and " Los Paquidermos de»Araerica." 



D\\ II. A 



l>.\\ Is 



1» \ > II V. I'.ilro Franco. Spanish- American 

naturalist, l>. in < *wiiya«|iiil in l?bl:d. in 1788. 1 1 « - 

went in Paris m 1 7 I s . ami there formed an extensive 

cal'inct of natural history. In 1707 this cabinet wan 

for 800,000 real* In 1788 he went to Madrid. 

tod RM chosen jMTjx-tiial din-dor of tliiM-aliimt of 

natural history, winch, under his management, be- 
came one uf the finest in BUDIM. lie Belonged to 
the |f< .y.'ii -.m -iety Of Madrid, the Ib.yal MMfefltV of 

London, and the Royal sooietj of l^-rlin. The 

catalogue of his cabinet is beld in high estimation. 

DATILi I PADILLA, \irusti... Mexican his- 

torian. I». in the city of Mexico in IS88; <|. in 1IJ04. 

He was a Dominioan lecturer on philosophy and 

theology in the ool lc ga s of Poeblaand Mexico, and 

became an-hbishop of Santo Domingo in Biol, lie 

d Rome and Spain to represent the Dominicans 

i, and waa appointed preacher of the king, 

Philip 111. He left several works, including " 1 1 i-- 

toria do la Pnnincia «le Santiago do Mcjico de la 

/mien de I'redicadores" (Madri<l. 1. r >!M)), and " His- 

toria de las antignedades do los Indioa, ta MS, 

DA VI ON, Antony, clergyman. I>. in Isslgny, 
Normandy; d. in New Orleans in 1 7"2T. He wa> 
educated in the seminary of the Foreign missions, 
Paris, and after his ordination embarked for (Que- 
bec in 18801 Ho was appointed pastor of a church 
in Quebec, and continued a year in this place. In 
the early port of 17<M) he went to the Mississippi. 
and in .lulv reached Hiloxi. He then tailored 
•mono the ToniflO tribe, but after a time was com- 
|M-lle<i to take rofngO in a French fort.. In 1704 
the Ton icas sent deputies to Mobile, where be was 
stationed, begging him to come back to them, and 
he returned, lie was allowed to preach without 
interruption, but. finding them deaf to his appeals, 
be deotroyed their temple and quenched their sa- 
cred fires. He was at once compelled to fly from 
the village; but the Tonicas had become very 
much attached to him, and invited him to return 
again. He made few converts among them, al- 
though he persuaded the chief to be baptized in 
1716 and to wear European costume. On leaving 
the Tonicas he went to New Orleans. 

DAVIS. Andrew Jackson, spiritualist, b. in 
Orange county, N. Y., 11 Aug., \W>. His youth 
was passed in hard lat>or, and with little educa- 
tion, owing to the extreme poverty of his parents. 
In 1M43 Mr. Levington, of Foughkeepsie, is said to 
have developed in him extraordinary clairvoyant 
powers. Although quite un instructed, it was 
said that he was able to discourse fluently upon 
medical, psychological, ami general subjects. On 
7 March. 1*14, he fell into a trance, which lasted 
sixteen hours, during which time he asserts be con- 
versed with spiritual lx'in<_'s and received instruc- 
tions M to his future teaching from the Interior 
state. In November. 1846, while clairvoyant, he 
dictated to the Rev. William Pishbough, In New 
York, his first work, "The Principles of Nature, 
her Divine Revelations, and a Voice to Mankind." 
This Ixxik presents a wide range of subjects, and 
rejects any es| K ><ial authority in the teachings of 
the Bible.' Mr. Davis has been more Bttoosssful as 
a writer than as a lecturer, and has l M en princi- 
pal!* instrumental in promoting the movement of 
"Spiritualism." The philosophical and theological 
portions of his remaining works are regarded n> 
little more than repet iti ons <>f his fnM Ix.ok. inter- 
s|x-rse<l with startling assertions concerning things 
in heaven and earth which admit of no \eritica- 
tion. These works are "The Great Harmoiiia" 
•Is.. (fa» York. 1880 v,i); u Philosophy of 
Spiritual Intercourse" (1851); -The iv 
and Inner Life." a sequel (1H.VI; id ed., Boston, 



The Approaching Crisis." a rr> ion of Dr 
Bushn. II on Spiritual i- rk. 1862): -Thr 

I'enetralia '* I it.-ton. h dT"an 

autobiograpl rk. \<>~. . 

of Health Appetites and Passlnns" 

(Boston, IMS); "The World'* True Redeemer" 
(1H«W): "Princq lure" M .-1.. 1868); 

"Morning Lectures" 

: "Stellar K. n lo thi Land" 

"Arabula, or the Divine «Ju. 
•'Memoranda of P orooni Places, and 1 

"The Fountain, with N Mean- 

iug"(lH7U); and "Mental Disrasesand Disorders 
of the Brain" (New York. H 

DAVIS, Asahel, antiquary, h, in Manwchuwtta 
in 1791. He published an addn-<» on "The Dis- 
covery of America by the Northmen " (1840% and 
•' Ainient America and lb-searches of the Rest" 
(New York. 1K47>. 

DAVIS, Benjamin Franklin, soldier, h. in 
Alalwuna in 1K12; d. at Beverly Ford. \'a., !».Junc, 
1N»W. He was graduated at the l'. S. military 

academy in 1854, and distinguished himsnlf in both 

the infantrv and cavalry service in \ 
In 1HI>:> be Ix-.ame ..,],, 'nel of the *th New 
cavalry. He was instantly killed while command- 
ing a brigade at Beverly Ford. Va. 

DAVIS. Caroline l!., author, b. in Narthwood. 
N. H.. in \Xi\. Her maiden name was Kelly, mid 
under that name she first gained reputation. Bhs 
resided in Exeter, N. II.. until her marriage in 
lHfiT, when she removed to Ando\er. Mass. She 
has written a large Dumber of Ux.ks f..r Sundav- 
scbool libraries, rounded oa ber experience as 
er in a mission-school. Her worn include "The 
child's Bible stories" (4 vols.) ; M Little Sermon 

Talks"; " No Cross. No Crown": and many other 
attractive l»«>ks for children. 

DAVIS. Charles, lawyer. I>. in Mansfield. Conn.. 
1 Jan., 17* u ; d. in Vermont in \*W. II i» ances- 
tors were Puritans, who had emigrated from Kng- 
Land early in the 17th century and settled in Mane- 
field, wlnre his father resided until 1T , .»*. , . when he 
removed to Rockingham, Vt. He was graduated 
at Middlebury in 1811, studied law under Daniel 
Chipman. of Middlebury, and in 1HU waa ad- 
mitted to the bar. During his residence then- be 
became engaged in the exciting political subjects 
connected with the war of 18m '•"•.and for some 
years edited the "Vermont Mirror," which oppossd 
that war. He always advocated the duty of de- 
fending the country, however, ami often served in 
the militia. In l*i<> Judge Davis removed to liar- 
ton. Orleans co.. and in 1818 to VYatcrhurv. Conn. 
He settled in Danville in 1888, and was • 
state's attorney for the county of Caledonia, which 
office be held seven rears, and was rv -elected in 
\k\h. In 1841-8 be was V. s. district ■fttotnei of 
Vermont, and in \*4~t was elected judge of prolate 
for the district of Caledonia, and r e sls oted I 
A bill was passed in thai year for the election of 
an additional judge of the supreme court, and the 
place was offered to him. Hi* opinions m • 
hahed in the 18th and Mth volumes of th< 
inont Reports." He was ohosen to l»- s repn 
tive in the state legislature, although the majority 
of the town wen' oppOOOd to the whig jmrty. of 
which he was a memlier. 

DAT! S. Charles. A ilgUfttna. merchant, b. 
York iii 1798; d. there, 87 .Ian.. 1W.7. P< I 
rears be was m tin- iron trad.- with Sidney Bn*>kis 
imd ill a letter to Halloek, written fr-.m Athens, he 
vji\. : •• 1 d>> not know how I can go bs 
nessand pig iron in John stre»-t." Ha was well 
versed in commercial and financial affairs and 



94 



DAVIS 



DAVIS 



wrote brilliantly and intelligently upon those sub- 
jects. The " IVter Serilxr Letted ' and "Major 
Jack Downing*! Letter*" (New York, 1834), first 
published in the "Daily Advertiser," detail his 
interviews with President Jackson and the plans 
for overthrowing the U. S. bank. For many yean 
his house in New York was the resort of the poet 
Halleck and other of the Knickerbocker writers. 

DAVIS, Charles Henry Stanley, physician, b. 
in Goshen, Conn.. 4 March, 1840. lie received his 
medical education in the University of Maryland 
and at the medical-school of the New York uni- 
versity, where ho was graduated in 1865. lie 
studied afterward in the hospitals of New York 
and Boston, Paris and London, and settled in Meri- 
den, Conn. He was a member of the Connecticut 
state legislature in 1873, 1884, and 1885. He has 
travelled extensively in Europe, and has studied 
hospital practice in London and Paris. He was 
one of the founders of the American philological 
society in 1864, and was its first corresponding sec- 
retary and its vice-president. He is a member of 
numerous medical and historical societies, among 
which is la Societe d'Anthropologie of Paris, has 
contributed to many of the medical and scientific 
periodicals of this country and of Europe, and was 
the editor of the first volume of the " Boston Medi- 
cal Register," 1865. He has published a " History 
of Wallingford and Meriden " (Meriden, 1870) ; 
"The Voice as a Musical Instrument" (Boston, 
1879) : " Education and Training of Feeble-Mind- 
ed. Imbecile, and Idiot Children " (New York, 
1883) ; and an " Index to Periodical Literature " 
(American News Company, New York, 1878-'81). 

DAVIS, Cushman Kellogg, senator, b. in 
Henderson, Jefferson co., N. Y., 16 June, 1838. He 
removed with his parents, when a child, to Wau- 
kesha, Wis., attended Carroll college in that town, 
and was graduated at Michigan university in 1857. 
He then studied law, and in 1859 began prac- 
tice at Waukesha. He became a 2d lieutenant in 
the 28th Wisconsin regiment in 1861, and served 
as assistant adjutant general during most of the 
civil war on the staff of Gen. Willis A. Gorman. 
He was compelled to leave the army in 1864 by an 
attack of typhoid fever, and in 1865 went to Min- 
nesota and resumed the practice of his profession 
at St. Paul. He was elected to the Minnesota leg- 
islature in 1866, was U. S. district attorney for 
Minnesota in 1867— '71, and in 1873 was elected 
governor of the state on the Republican ticket, 
serving one term, and declining a re-nomination. 
He was an unsuccessful candidate for U. S. sena- 
tor in 1875, and again in 1881, but on 18 Jan., 
1887, was elected to the office. Michigan univer- 
sity gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1886. He 
has delivered many lectures, of which the best 
known is " Modern Feudalism " (1870), and has 
published " The Law in Shakespeare " (1884). 

DAVIS, Daniel, lawyer, b. in Barnstable, .Mass., 
8 May, 1762; d. in Cambridge, Mass., 27 Oct., 
1835. He settled in Portland ^then called Fal- 
mouth) in 1782, and held offices in Massachusetts, 
of which Maine was then a part. In 1804 he re- 
moved to Boston, and in 1832 to Cambridge. Da 
was U. S. attorney for Maine in 1796-1801, and 
solicitor-general of Massachusetts in 1800-'32. He 
was author of several legal works, the principal 
ones being " Criminal Justice " (Boston, 2d ed., 1828) 
and " Precedents of Indictments" (Boston, 1831). 
— His son, Charles Henry, naval officer, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 16 Jan., 1807; d. in Washington, 
D. C, 18 Feb., 1877. He entered the U. S. navy as 
a midshipman in 1823, and was attached to the 
frigate " United States," of the Pacific squadron, 



in 1827-8. In March, 1829, he became passed 
midshipman, and was ordered to the "Ontario," 
at t In- Mediterranean squadron, lie m-eived his 
commission as lieutenant in March, ls:M, and, 
after serving in 1837-'8 on the •' Vincennes,"of the 
Paeilic squadron, and in 1840-'l on the "Inde- 
pendence, ' of the Brazil squadron, was on special 
duty from 1842 till 1856, being engaged first on 
ordnance duty and then as assistant in the coast 
survey. During 1846-'9 he was occupied in a sur- 
vey of the waters about Nantucket, in the course 
of which he discovered the " new south shoal " and 
several smaller shoals directly in the track of vessels 
sailing between New York and Europe, and of coast- 
ing vessels from Boston. These discoveries were 
thought to account for several wrecks and accidents 
before unexplained, and called forth the special ac- 
knowledgments of insurance companies and mer- 
chants. He became commander in June, 1854, and 
was given the " St. Marys," in the Pacific squadron, 
during 1857-'9, after which he was appointed super- 
intendent of the "American Nautical Almanac" 
He had filled this place in 1849-'56, and the exist- 
ence of the "Almanac" was largely due to his 
efforts. In November, 1861, he became captain, 
and during that 
yearwasa mem- 
ber of the board 
of officers con- 
vened for the 
purpose of mak- 
ing a thorough 
investigation of 
the southern 
coast and har- 
bors, their ac- 
cess and de- 
fences. The in- 
formation thus 
acquired led to 
the organiza- 
tionof the expe- 
dition against 
Port Royal, S. 
C, in which 
Capt. Davis was 
chief of staff 

and fleet-officer. In May, 1862, he was appointed 
flag-officer of the Mississippi flotilla, succeeding 
Andrew H. Foote in that capacity. Soon after 
his arrival, the Confederate fleet lying below Fort 
Pillow, consisting of eight iron-clad steamers, 
four of which were fitted up as rams, steamed 
up for an engagement. The flotilla was quickly 
put in motion to receive them, and, after an ac- 
tion lasting about an hour, three of the Confed- 
erate gun-boats were disabled, and the fleet re- 
treated under the guns of Fort Pillow. Subse- 
quently (5 June) the fort was abandoned. Three 
days later the flotilla moved down the river near 
Memphis, and again engaged the Confederate fleet. 
A running fight ensued, in which all the Confeder- 
ate vessels were either captured or destroyed, ex- 
cept the "Van Horn." After the engagement 
Capt. Davis received the surrender of Memphis, 
then joined Admiral Farragut, and was engaged 
in operations around Vicksburg, and in expedi- 
tions up the Yazoo river. He was commissioned 
commodore in July, 1862, and became chief of 
the bureau of navigation in Washington, and was 
made rear-admiral, to date from February, 1863. 
In 1865 he was appointed superintendent of the 
naval observatory in Washington, and in 1867 
commanded the bouth Atlantic squadron. He re- 
turned to Washington in 1869, and, after being 




-<2 ^&aM, 



DAVIS 



DAVIS 



00 



made a mom I nt <>f the light-house U>ard. U^ainc 
riiiiiiiiHtiili'r of the Norfolk navy- yard. !>ut later rc- 
■Md his old place of Mi|MTiiitrinli'iir of tin- naval 

rvetory. In* was a memltcr of numerous scien- 
tific ■ootetfao, and in February, |m77, m elected ■ 
BMBbor of tln< National academy of 
Ailimral Davis, during his connection vs it h the 
coast survey, was led to investigate tin- law> of 
tiilal action, and published a "Memoir upon the 

ogloal Action of the Tidal and other Currents 
of the Ocean," in the "Memoirs of the American 

lemj " (Boston. 1848), and "The Law of De- 
posit of the KIinmI Tide; its Dynamical Action and 

■ ." being vol. iii. of the ••Smithsonian Con- 
tributions'* (Washington. 188SV Be contributed 
various translations and articles on mathematical 
astronomy and geodesy to periodicals, and was the 
author of an Knglish translation of (Jauss's •• Theria 
Mot us Oocpor u m Cudestium " (Boston, 1H.~>X). — 1 1 i- 
soti. Charles Henry, naval ofloar, l>. in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., 2" Aug. 1848, was graduated at the 
I >. naval academy in 1K»!4. and served in the Med- 
iterranean squadron till lHfii. meanwhile becoming 
en-ign and master in 186(1. From 18(57 till 1H70 
he was on the " Guerriere " in the South Atlantic 
squadron, and from 1872 till 1874 on the Pacific. He 
received Ins coinmission M lieutenant in March, 
I86e\ And beejUBO ■ lieutenant-commander in De- 
(tiiiIkt of the same year. From 1878 till 1MM5 he 
was engaged principally in astronomical work, at 
first in the naval obscrvatorv in Washington, and 
then in expeditions for the determination of longi- 
tude by means of the submarine cables from 
Europe to the Atlantic islands and the eastern 
coast of South America during 1877-"9; in India, 
China, and Japan during lK81-'2, and on the west- 
ern coasts of South and Central America daring 
1888-'4. In 1885 he was made commander and 
given the training-ship "Saratoga." His investi- 
gations have been published by the government. 
and are entitled " Chronometer Rates as affected 
by Toni|>orature and other Causes " (1877) ; with 
Lieut. -Coin. Francis M. Often, M Telegraphic Deter- 
mination of Longitudes, embracing the Meridians 
of LislMin. Madeira, Porto Grande, Para, IVrnam- 
luieo, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, and 
Buenos Ayres, with the Latitudes of the Several 
Stations" (1880); "Telegraphic Determination of 
Longitudes in India, China, and Japan" (l v 
and with Lieut. John A. Norris. "Telegraphic De- 
termination of Longitudes, in Mexico and on the 
West Coasts of Central and South America "(1885). 
DAVIS. Daniel, soldier, d. 17 Sent.. 1*14. He 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel of New York vol- 
unteers, 2U June. 1812, and brigadier-genera] in 
1814. He was killed at the head of his brigade in 
the sortie from Fort Brie. 

DAVIS, David, jurist, b. in Cecil oonntr, Md., 

I March. 1K15; d. in Bloomington, 111.. MJune, 
1888. He was graduated at Kcnyoii college, Ohio, 
in 1888, studied law in Massachusetts, and went 
through a course at the law-school of New Haven, 
removed to Illinois in 18"W, and was admitted to 
the bar, after which he settled in Blooiningfon. 
He was elected to the Mate legislature in 1K44. was 
a member of the convention that formed the state 
constitution in 1S47. elected judge of the eighth 
judicial circuit of the state in 1848, W elected 
in 1H.VS, and again in W>1. resigning in Octobe r, 
\*>>'2. He was an intimate friend of Aliraham 
Lincoln, and rode the circuit with him every year. 

II i delegate at large to the Chicago conven- 
tion that Dominated Mr. Lincoln for the prc-i- 
deoof in 1H*M», accompanied him 00 his journey to 

nington, and in October, 1868, was appoint- 




rf5h&#-*4? 



ed a justice of the supreme oourt of the I 
State*. After 1'n -id. nt Lincoln'* assess! nollnu 

Judge Davis was an administrator of hiaestate. In 

1890 Ik- held, with the minority of the supreme 

court, that the acts of congrcn* making government 

notes a legal 

tender in | 

ment of del 

were const it u- 

tional. In Pob> 

ruary. 1898, the 

National 00s> 

roatkio of the 

labor reform 
party nomi- 
nated him as 
its candidate 
for president, 
on a platform 
that declared, 
among other 
things, in fa- 
vor of a na- 
tional currency 
" Itaaed on the 
faith and re- 
sources of the 
uation,"and in- 
terchangeable with .w>-jM-r-cent. bonded U 
ernment, and demanded the establishment of an 
eight-hour law throughout the country, and the 
payment of the national debt "without mortgaging. 

the property of the people to enrich capitalists." 
Iii answer to the letter informing him of the nomi- 
nation. Judge Davis said : " Be pleased to thank the 

convention tor the unexpected honor which they 
have conferred upon DM. The chief magistracy of 
the republic should neither l»e sought nor declined 
1 iv any American • citizen." His name was also used 
before the Liberal Republican convention at Cin- 
cinnati the same year, and received W24, votes on 
the first ballot. After the regular nomination* 
had been made, be determined to retire from the 
contest, and s<, announced in a final answer to 
the labor reformers. He resigned his net on the 
supreme bench to take his place in the I". S. senate 
on 4 March. 1877, having been elected l>v the rotes: 
of independent*, and democrats to muhoI John 
A. Logan. He was rated in the senate as an inde- 
pendent, but noted more commonly with the demo- 
crats. After the death of i'n -ubtit (iartield in 
1881 Judge Davis was 000080 ['resident of the 

senate. He resigned his eeai in 1888, and retired 
to his home in Bloomington. when- he resided 
quietly till his death. The degree of LL.D.WM 
conferred on him by Williams college. B« •;. 
lege, and the Wesleyeo university at BlooodngtoB, 
DAVIS, Kdwin 'Hamilton, Moham log i et, b> m 
Ross county, Ohio, 81 Jan., 1M1 : d. in nan 
citv. 1"> May. 18B8. He was graduated nt Cincin- 
nati medical college in lKiM. He practi^-d in 
Chillicothe till 1880, when he was called t<> the 
chair of materia medico and thorapeatMl in the 
New York medical college. Dr. Davis wa- 
th odootOiaof the " American Medical Month- 
ly." He gave much attention M the lOjhjBOl of 
American antiquities, aided Charles Whittlesey in 
explorations of ancient mounds in 1888, and fn>m 

1845 till 1847. aaaiated bo Bptoata 8. Sqalor^ ha 

-urveved nearly one hundred ftOfJM of at->nginal 
earth-works, aiid o|Minsl two hundred mounds at 

hie own at^es*** lie gathered the largsot ooUeo- 

tioti of mound-relics tliat has DM made in this 
OOUntry, which now f..rm- |wirt of the collection of 
Blaekuiores iuum'inii in ^alisluiry. Knglaud. A 



96 



DAVIS 



DAVIS 



second collection of duplicates, with the results of 
subsequent collecting, is now in the possession of 
the American museum of natural history, New 
York. The results of his extensive explorations 
arc embodied in "Ancient Monuments of the 
.Mississippi Valley." which formed the first volume 
of the Smithsonian contributions to knowledge 
(1848). This work was characterized by the d&- 
tinguished Swiss archaeologist, A. Morlot, in a 
paper before the American philosophical society 
in 1862, as being "as glorious a monument of 
American science as Bunker Hill is of American 
bravery." During the spring of 1854 Dr. Davis 
delivered a course of lectures on archaeology before 
the Lowell institute in Boston, which were re- 

Seated in Brooklyn and New York. — His son, 
ohn Woodbridge, civil engineer, b. in New York 
city, 19 Aug., 1854, after some experience in con- 
nection with railroad surveying parties, was gradu- 
ated with the degree of C. E. at Columbia college 
school of mines in 1878. While an undergraduate 
he published " Formulae for the Calculation of 
Railroad Earthwork and Average Haul" (New 
York, 1876), which, within a year after its publica- 
tion, was adopted as a text-book in six engineering 
schools in the United States. During 1879 he 
published in " Van Nostrand's Engineering Maga- 
zine " a series of mathematical papers devoted to 
original solutions of engineering calculations. The 
material of these articles has since been incorpo- 
rated into the text-books on engineering, mechan- 
ics, and mathematics. His method for calculating 
land surveys has been introduced in the principal 
treatises on that subject, and is now used in lieu 
of older methods for determining areas of land. 
For several years after graduation he was profes- 
sionally occupied, and then established and be- 
came principal of the Woodbridge school in New 
York city, which has for its special purpose the 

Sreparing of students for technical schools. — 
oseph Slociim. brother of Edwin Hamilton, 
lawyer, b. in Pickaway county, Ohio, 21 Nov., 1812; 
d. in Mount Vernon, Ohio, 21 Dec., 1884. He was 
graduated at Ken yon in 1835, and, after studying 
at the Cincinnati law school, was admitted to the 
bar in 1837. Mr. Davis settled in Mount Vernon, 
and there practised his profession in connection 
with Columbus Delano. He was twice elected 
judge, and held other offices, both national and 
local. He was mayor of Mount Vernon for sev- 
eral terms, and paymaster in the U. S. army dur- 
ing 1864-'5. — Wefter Renick, another brother, 
clergyman, b. in Circleville, Ohio, 1 April, 1815, 
was educated at Kenyon college, and received the 
degree of M. D. from the College of medicine and 
surgery in Cincinnati. Subsequently he became 
a minister in the Methodist church, and entered 
the Ohio conference in 1835. He then filled vari- 
ous pastorates in West Virginia and Ohio until 
1853, when he was transferred to the Missouri 
conference and stationed at St. Louis. In 1854 he 
became professor of natural sciences in McKendree 
college, where he remained until 1858, acting as 

f resident during his last year at that institution, 
le was then elected president of Baker university, 
but afterward resigned, and for fourteen consecu- 
tive years was appointed to a presiding eldership. 
During the civil war he went to the front as chap- 
lain of the 12th Kansas infantry, and then was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel to raise and or- 
ganize the 16th Kansas cavalry in 1862, of which 
he became colonel, and continued in command of 
that regiment until the close of the war. Dr. 
Davis was a member of the first state legislature 
of Kansas, and also held the office of superintend- 



ent of public instruction in Douglas county. He 
was a member of the general conferences of 1868. 
18?2, and 1880, and a delegate to the CEonmenioa] 
Methodist oonfeiWIM in London, and to the Cen- 
tennial conference held in Baltimore, lid., in 1884. 
He edited, in is,-)!). "The Kansas Message," the 
fiiNt paper published in Baldwin City, and has 
published several sermons. 

DAVIS, Emerson, clergyman, 1>. in Ware, 
Mass., 15 July. 1 796 ; d. in Westfield, Mass., 8 June, 
1866. He was graduated at Williams in 1821. i;ml 
took charge of the academy at Westfield until the 
following year, when he became tutor at Williams. 
He returned to the academy of Westfield, remain- 
ing there until 1836, and was then installed pastor 
of the Congregational church of that town. In 
1861 he was made president of Williams college, 
which place he held until 1868. He published an 
"Historical Sketch of Westfield" (1826); "The 
Teacher Taught " (Boston. 1839); and "The Half 
Century" (Boston, 1851). a work of great labor, 
which gives, in a condensed form, facts relative to 
the intellectual, moral, physical, and mechanical 
progress and discoveries of the nineteenth century. 
Phis work had a large circulation, and was re- 
printed in Great Britain. He published essays and 
sermons, and left five manuscript volumes of bio- 
graphical writings upon the Congregational clergy- 
men of New England. 

DAVIS, Garrett, senator, b. in Mount Sterling, 
Ky., 10 Sept., 1801; d. in Paris, Ky., 22 Sept., 
1872. He received an academic education, and 
was employed as a writer in the county and circuit 
courts of his district. He studied law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1823. He was elected to 
the state legislature in 1833, and twice re-elected. 
He was a member of the State constitutional con- 
vention from 1839 till 1847, when he became a 
representative in congress from Kentucky, but de- 
clined a re-election, devoting himself to agricul- 
ture. He was elected U. S. senator for Kentucky 
in 1861 for the term ending in 1867, and served on 
the committees on foreign relations, on territories, 
claims, and pensions. In 1864 he was appointed 
a regent of the Smithsonian institution. In Janu- 
ary, 1867, he was re-elected to the senate for the 
term ending in 1873. He was of small physique, 
but endowed with wonderful endurance. His 
speeches were characterized by sarcasm and fierce 
invective, as well as laborious research. Early in 
life he became the friend of Henry Clay, possess- 
ing his confidence and high regard. — His brother, 
Amos, lawyer, b. in Mount Sterling, Ky. ; d. in 
Owingsville, Ky., 5 June, 1835, received an aca- 
demic education, and studied and practised law at 
Mount Sterling. He was a member of the Kentucky 
legislature in 1819, 1825, 1827, and 1828, and a 
representative in congress from 1833 till 1835. 

DAVIS, George Thomas, lawyer, b. in Sand- 
wich, Mass., 12 Jan., 1810; d. in Portland, Me., 17 
June, 1877. He was graduated at Harvard in 1829, 
admitted to the bar, and began to practise at 
Greenfield in 1832. In that year he established 
the " Franklin Mercury," which he conducted with 
ability until its sale in 1836. He was a member of 
the Massachusetts senate from 1839 till 1840, and 
of congress from 1851 till 1853. His conversation 
was extremely brilliant, winning admiration from 
Thackeray. His "Speeches in Congress" were 
published (Washington. 1859 >. 

DAVIS, Henry, clergyman, b. in East Hamp- 
ton, N. Y.. 15 Sept, 1 T T 1 ": d. in Clinton. X. Y„ 8 
March, 1869, His ancestors were from Kidder- 
minster, England, and parishioners of Richard 
Baxter. They settled in New Havin, Conn., and 



DAVlfl 



DAvTB 



09 



finally in Kast I Intiiptou. Hi- father wit-. a farmer. 

r, and tanner. Henry was prepared f<»r 

^c iii Clinton academy, mm was graduated at 

in 1788, when be accepted a tutorship in Will- 

i, which ho held till January, 1798, going In thai 

war to Soman, Oooil, in order to study theology 

Dr.Charlei Backus, In Jolji <>f tin- following 

year he was licensed to preach by t In- Association 

tUand county, and shortly afterward appointed 

tutor in Vale, where he remained until I8D8. In 

. he wo* called to tin- profcssonhlp of Qraah in 

Union, and, after ■pending three years there, l«- 
catne president of Middlebury, and wits ordained at 

the mme time. The degr f l>. l>. was conferred 

upon him by Union, and the Greek professorship 
again offered him. which he declined. He was ap- 
pointed president of Hamilton oollege. where he 
remained until his resignation in lsW. He was 
active in establishing the theological seminary at 
Auliiirn. ami the American board of commissioners 
for foreign mieriona. After his resignation, I>r. 
Davis published a "Narrative of the Kmbarraes- 
ments and Decline of Hamilton Cottage" (1833). 
II also published many sermons and addresses. — 
His ion, Thomas T., lawyer, b. In Biiddlebury, Vt.. 
H Log*, 1810: d. in Syracuse, N. Y.. I May. 1878, 
was graduated at Hamilton college in 18#1. Ib- 
studied law, and was admitted to the bar of Syra- 
He was counsel for the principal 
manufacturing establishments of that city, ami 
took an active interest in railroad and mining en- 
terprises. In 1802 he was elected to congress, and 
re-elected in 1884 After that date be resided in 
Syracuse, devoting himself to his law practice. 

DAVIS. Henry Winter, statesman. I., in An- 
napolis. M<1., l(t Aug., 1817; d. in Baltimore, :!•» 
Die. lsr.."i. His father. Rev. Henry Lynn Davis, of 
the l'mtestant Episcopal church, was the president 

of St. Jonn's col- 
lege, at Annapo- 
lis, and rector of 
St. Ann's parish. 
He lost both offi- 
ces on account of 
his Federal |K>li- 
tics, and removed 
to Wilmington, 
Del., leaving his 
son with Eliza- 
beth Brown Win- 
ter, an aunt, who 
possessed a noble 
character, and was 
rigid in her sys- 
tem of training 
children. The boy 
afterward went to 
Wilmington, and 
was instructed un- 
der his father's 
supervision. In 
the family returned to Maryland and settled 
In Anne Arundel county. Here Henry Winter be- 
Oame much attached to field-sports. and gave little 
promise of scholarly attainments. He roamed about 
the country, always attended by one of his father's 
slaves, with an old fowling-piece upon his shoulder, 
burning much powder and returning with a small 
amount of game. The insight into slavery that 
he thus gained affected him strongly. He mid, in 
after years: "My familiar association with tin- 
slaves, while a boy, gave me great insight into their 
feelings and views. They spoke with freedom In- 
fore a boy what they w.uild have repressed before 
a man. They were far from indifferent to their 
vol. n. — '< 




condition; they felt wronged, and sighed for free* 
dom, They were attached I r, »nd loved 

in., vet they habitually »|n,1. 

would deliver them."' Be wis. educated in 

andria, and at KauyoUOOlleg wu gradu- 

ated in 1*17. Hi s father died in that year. I- 
a few slaves to be divided l.-t we, n himself and hi- 
sister, I. ut he would not sttow them to I* sold. 

although benight have punned i di studies with 

ease and comfort. Rather than do this he ob- 
tained a tutorship, and, notwithMai 
arduous tasks, read the COUTH of law in U 

vanity of Virginia, which he enftend In 1839. 

The expanses of his legal studies «i 

with the proceed! Of •MM land that Ins nuiit hail 

sold for the purposa, He began | 

andria, Va., I.ut first attaine<| celebrity in the 

Hpi-copa! con\eiitioii of Man land by In* lltftfrHI 

<>f Dr. II. v. D. Johns against the aocuntiou "f 
Bishop Whittinghan for having rlolatad the canon 

Of the Kpiscopal ohurofa in OOfMOnting to officiate 
in the Methodist Bpfcftppa l church. In U 
removed to Baltimore, where he held a high so- 
cial and professional position. He was n promi- 
nent whig, and known as the brilliant orator and 
controversialist of the Scott canvass in |s*rj ||,. 
was elected a member of IMHlMien tor the :U\ dis- 
trict of Maryland (part of Baltimore) in lxVI, and 
re-elected in 1858, KTving 00 the cimm;" 
ways and means. After the dissolution of the whijr 
party he joined the American or Know-nothing 
party. He was re-elected to oongresi in 1868. and 
in 1M.")!( voted for Mr. Pennington, the republican 
candidate tor speaker, thus drawing upon hinealf 
much abuse and reproach. The legislature of 
Maryland " decorated him with Ha censure/* as he 
expressed it on the Boor of the house; but be de- 
clared to his constituents that, if they would not 
allow their representative to exercise hi* private 
judgment sa to what were the Inst interests of the 
state, ■• You may send a tlave tO OOngn - 

you can not send me.* 1 Alter the attack on the 
i>th Massachusetts regiment in Baltimore in 1861, 
Mr. Davis published a card announcing himself 
as an "unconditional union" candidate for con- 
gress, and conducted his canvass almost alone. 
amid a storm of reproach ami abuse, being defeat- 
ed. but receiving about 6,000 votes. When Mr. 
Lincoln was nominat.il in \HCAI, Mr. Devil was 
offend the nomination for vice- pr es id ent, but do- 
(lined it ; and when the question of his eppohlt- 
inent to the cabinet was agitated, be urged the 
selection of John A. (iiliner in his stead. He was 
again In congress in 1868-*5,and served as chair- 
man of the committee on foreign affairs. Although 

representing I slave state. Mr. Davis tM OOnspS OU- 

oiis for unswerving fidelity to the Union and ad- 

of emancipation. He heartily np poc to d 

the administration, but de pr ec at ed the assumption 

of extraordinary powen by the exeoutive, and <1<- 
nnunced con wardlv for not authorizing 

by statute what it sxptctfd that depart nani to d'>. 
rtj favored the enlistment of nagron in the 
army, and said. "The In-st deed of emancipation k 
a musket on the shoulder." In the summer of 
Isim be made a speech in Chicago in favor ol 
■Uffnge. Mr. Davis was denounced by jx.lit 

as iinpnKti.al. Heused to say thai bewhocoav 
pronuaed ■ moral principle was a nuendrai but 
that he who would not oonnconfn ■ political 

measure was a fool. Mr. Davis possessed M <m- 
usuallv fine library, and was gifted with ■ 
memory and a brilliant mind, which WM uint.il 
with many (tcrsonal advantages. Inheriting 

boJarahip from his father, he had received 



98 



DAVIS 



DAVIS 



also a share of his mother's milder qualities, which 
won many friends, although, to the public, he 
seemed stern and dictatorial. At his death con- 
gress set apart a day for the commemoration of 
his public services, an honor never before paid to 
mi t\-inember of congress. He published a book 
cut it led the " War of Ormuzd and Ahriman in the 
Nineteenth Century" (Baltimore, 1858). His col- 
lected speeches, together with a eulogy by his col- 
league, John A. J. Cresswell, were published in 
New York in 1867. 

DAVIS, Isaac, patriot, b. in 1745 ; d. in Concord, 
Mass., 19 April, if 75. He was captain of the Ac- 
ton minute-men, and led them against the British 
at Concord bridge, saying : " I have not a man that 
is afraid to go." He was killed by the first volley. 
Bancroft describes him as " stately in his person, 
a man of few words ; earnest even to solemnity." 
His body, with those of two of his company, was 
brought to his home and laid in the bedroom of 
his wife, from whom he had parted only a few 
hours before. The three men "were followed to 
the village graveyard by a concourse of the neigh- 
bors from miles around." Mrs. Davis lived to a 
great age. When she was over ninety, " the United 
States in congress bethought themselves to pay 
honors to her husband's martyrdom." 

DAVIS, Isaac, lawyer, b. in Northborough, 
Mass., 2 June, 1799; d. in Worcester, Mass., 1 
April, 1883. He was graduated at Brown in 1822, 
studied law, and began the practice of his profes- 
sion in Worcester, Mass., where he soon rose to 
eminence. He was mayor of Worcester for three 
years, and for eleven years a member of the Massa- 
chusetts senate. Mr. Davis was a zealous promoter 
of popular education. He was chosen a member 
of the board of trustees of Brown university in 
1838, and a fellow in 1851. For forty years he was 
president of the board of trustees of the Worcester 
academy, and for some time was an active member 
of the Massachusetts board of education. He has 
received the degree of LL. D. 

DAVIS, Jefferson, statesman, b. in that part of 
Christian county, Ky., which now forms Todd 
county, 3 June, 1808 ; d. in New Orleans, 6 Dec., 1889. 
His fiither, Samuel Davis, had served in the Revo- 
lution, and, when Jefferson was an infant, removed 
with his family to a place near Woodville, Wilkin- 
son co., Miss. Young Davis entered Transylvania 
college, Kentucky, but left in 1824, on his appoint- 
ment by President Monroe to the U. S. military 
academy. On his graduation, in 1828, he was as- 
signed to the 1st infantry, and served on the fron- 
tier, taking part in the Black Hawk war of 1831-'2. 
He was promoted to first lieutenant of dragoons 
on 4 March, 1833, but, after more service against 
the Indians, abruptly resigned on 30 June, 1835, 
and having married, after a romantic elopement, 
the daughter of Zachary Taylor, then a colonel in 
the army, settled near Vicksburg, Miss., and became 
a cotton-planter. Here he pursued a life of study 
and retirement till 1843, when he entered politics in 
the midst of an exciting gubernatorial canvass. He 
was chosen an elector on the Polk and Dallas ticket 
in 1844, made a reputation as a popular speaker, 
and in 1845 was sent to congress, taking his seat 
in December of that year. He at once took an ac- 
tive part in debate, sneaking on the tariff, the Ore- 
gon question, and military matters, especially with 
reference to the preparations for war with Mexico. 
On 6 Feb., 1846, in a speech on the Oregon ques- 
tion, he spoke of the " love of union in our hearts," 
and, speaking of the battles of the Revolution, 
sjiid : " They form a monument to the common 
glory of our common country." 



In June, 1846, be resigned his seat in the hou9e 
to become colonel of tin 1-t MIwImIimiI volunteer 
rifles, which had unanimously electee! him to that 
office. Having joined his regiment at New Orleans, 
he led it to re-enforce Gen. Taylor on the Rjo 
Grande. At Monterey he charged on Fort Leneril 
without bayonets, led his command through the 
streets nearly to the Grand Plaza through a sfann 
of shot, and afterward served on the eomuii-sion 
for arranging the surrender of the place. At Bona 
Vista his regiment was charged by a Mexican bri- 
gade of lancers, greatly its superior in numbers, in 
a last desperate effort to break the American lints. 
Col. Davis formed his men in the shape of a letter 
V, open toward the enemy, and thus, by exposing 
his foes to a covering fire, utterly routed them, 
though he was unsupported. He was severely 
wounded, but remained in the saddle till the close 
of the fight, and was complimented for coolness 
and gallantry in the commander-in-chief s despatch 
of 6 March, i847. His regiment was ordered home 
on the expiration of its term of enlistment, and on 
17 May, 1847, Col. Davis was appointed by Presi- 
dent Polk a brigadier-general, but declined the 
commission on the ground that a militia appoint- 
ment by the Federal executive was unconstitutional 
He was appoint- 
ed by the gov- 
ernor of Missis- 
sippi to fill a 
vacancy in the 
U. S. senate in 
August, 1847, 
and in January, 
1848, the legisla- 
ture unanimous- 
ly elected him 
senator, and re- 
elected him in 
1850 for a full 
term. He was 
made chairman 
of the senate 
committee on 
military affairs, 
and here, as in 

the house, was active in the discussions on the 
various phases of the slavery question and the im- 
portant work of the session, including the fugi- 
tive-slave law, and the other compromise measures 
of 1850. Mr. Davis proposed the extension of 
the Missouri compromise line to the Pacific, and 
continued a zealous advocate of state rights. He 
was the unsuccessful state-rights or " resistance " 
candidate for governor of his state in 1851, though 
by his personal popularity he reduced the Union 
majority from 7,500 to 999. He had resigned his 
seat in the senate to take part in the canvass, and, 
after a year of retirement, actively supported 
Franklin Pierce in the presidential contest of 1852. 
After the election of Gen. Pierce, Mr. Davis re- 
ceived the portfolio of war in his cabinet, and ad- 
ministered it with great credit. Among other 
ohangee, he proposed the use of camels in the ser- 
vice on the western plains, introduced an improved 
system of infantry tactics, iron gun-carriages, rifled 
muskets and pistols, and the use of the Minie ball. 
Four regiments were added to the army, the de- 
fences on the sea-coast and frontier were strength- 
ened, and, as a result of experiments, heavy guns 
were cast hollow, and a larger grain of powder was 
adopted. While in the senate. Mr. Davis had ad- 
vocated the construction of a Pacific railway as a 
military necessity, and a means of pi vaulting the 
Pacific coast to the Union, and he^as now put in 







DAVIS 



DAVIS 



charge uf the organization and equipment of the 
surveying jmrtit's s*-nt out to examine the various 

routes proposed. Ha also had oherweof tdie enptro- 

f>rmtioii forth* < x ten-ion of the capitol. Mr. I »n\ i- 
sfl tin- cabinet at the dose <»f Irasidant Plei 
term In i s ">r, and in the snme rear entered Um 
senate again. ll«' oppoaad the Fiench apoUatloa 

bill, advocated tin- southern routs for tin- Pacific 
railroad, and opposed lb* doctrine Of " |M>|>iilar 
reignty," often encountering Stephen A. Doug- 
las in debate on this question. A ft«r tha settle- 
ment <>f the Kansas contest by the passage of the 
Kansas conference hill, in which he had taken a 
chief part, he wrote to the jx-oplc of his state that 
it VM " tin- triumph of all for which we contended." 
Mr. I>:i\is was the recognized democratic leader in 
the .'tilth congress, lie had made a tour of the 
eastern states in 1H.">H, making s|»eechcs at Boston, 
Portland, Me,, New York, and other place*, and in 
18."jl», in reply to an invitation to attend the Webster 
hbthday festival in Boston, wrote a letter denounc- 
ing " partisans who avow the purpose of obliterat- 
ing the landmarks of our fathers, ' and containing 
strong Union sentiment*. He had bean frequently 
mentioned as a democratic candidate for the presi- 
dency, and received many votes in the convention 
of 18W), though his friends announced that he did 
not desire the nomination. Before congress met, 
in thcautumnof 1S<M>, Mr. Davis was summoned to 
Washington by members of President Buchanan's 
cabinet to suggest some modifications of the forth- 
coming message to congress. The suggest ions were 
made, and were adopted. In the ensuing session 
Mr. Davis made, on 10 Dec., 1800, a speech in which 
he carefully distinguished between independence, 
which the states had achieved at great cost, and 
the Union, which had cost " little time, little money, 
and no blood," taking his old state-rights position. 
He was ap|>ointedon the senate committee of thir- 
teen to examine and report on the condition of the 
country, an<l. although at first excused at his own 
request, finally consented to serve, accepting the 
aptH.intment in a speech in which be avowed his 
willingness to make any sacrifice to avert the im- 
pending struggle. The committee, after remain- 
ing in session several days, re{>orted, on 31 Dec, 
their inability to come to any satisfactory conclu- 
sion. On 10 Jan., 1801, Mr. Davis made another 
speech on the state of the country, asserting the 
right of secession, denying that of coercion, and 
urging the withdrawal of the garrison from Fort 
Sumter. Mississippi had seceded on !» Jan., and 
on 24 .Jan., having been otBdally informed of the 
fact, Mr. Davis withdrew from the senate and went 
to his home, having taken leave of his associates 
in a speech in which he defended the cause of the 
-out li. and, in closing, begged pardon of all whom 
he had ever otTended. 

Before he reached home he had been appointed 
by the convention commander-in-chief of the army 
of Bfiariaaippi, with the rank of major-general ; but 
on 18 Feb., 1861, he exchanged this office for that 
of president of the Confederate states, to which the 

E Divisional congress at Montgomery had elected 
ini on !• Feb. He selected for his cabinet Robert 
Toombs, of Georgia, as secretary of state; Leroy 
P. Walker, of Alabama, secretary of war; Charles 
Ifemminger, of South Carolina, secretary of the 
treasury; Stephen R. Mallory.of Florida, secretary 
of the navy; .ludah 1'. Benjamin, of Louisiana, at- 
torney-general ; and John EL Reagan, of T< 

t master-general. The last three continued in 
the cabinet as long at the Confederate L'i'vernment 
maintained its existence. Toombs, Walker, and 
Memminger were succeeded by others. In his in- 



augural address Mr. Darb asserted that "necessity. 

Hot choice." had led to the seor«*ion of • I 

states; that the true policy of the moth, an agri- 
cultural country, was peace; and that "the con- 
stituent (Hirts, but not the - 
meiit had U-cii changed. The nlt.e 
Sumter, on \> April, precipitate! the war. and Mr. 
Dan-, m In- tir-t message to tba ainTlafcmal Con- 
federate BOngrasij 0B '.Ml April, Si insr of 

event- (from the formation of the I'mt.-d States 
constitution till 1H01). which, in hi- judgment, had 
led to the contest, cointnctided thin a< t. while «v..»- 
inga desire 1. 1 prevent the shedding of bleed 

re also condemned, as illegal and aUurd. 
President Lincoln', proclamation calling for • 
and that announcing a blockade of southern port., 
and ended with the famou- word-. " All we a-k i«! 
to be let alone." followed by a promise to resist 
subjugation to the dire-t extremity. Short 

the change of tbe Confederate capital from 
gomery t.» Richmond, which ha had s tiunglj f ad- 

vi-ed. Mr. Daris rem O Ted thither, and was met on 

his way with many marks of popular favor 
railway station swarming with men, women, ami 

children, who greeted him with waring handker- 
chiefs. Soon after his arrival the fine resfci 
James A. Seddonwaa bought and put at Mr. 1 
disposal bycitisensof Richmond. Hi- first days 
in the new capital were spent in reviewing troops 
and in speech-maldng. He exhorted hi- hearen to 
re m e m be r the dignity of the contest, and "to smite 
the smiter with manly arms, as our fathers did be- 
fore us." and i|e< hired his willingness t,, l M y down 

his civil office and take command of the army, 

should the extremity of the causs ever warrant 
such action. Before his arrival in Virginia an 
army of about :><mmmi men had been raised, and as 
fast BS new troops arrived their officers wen* as- 
signed to a rank in the Confederate service, regu- 
lated by that which they had formerly held in the 
l. S. army. On 90 July, Mr. Daris sent hi- ■ 
message to the provisional congress, then in session 
at Richmond. In this message be complained of 
barbarities committed by National troojw*, and 
again asserted the impossibility of subduing the 
south. On the morning succeeding the deli* 
this mes-jure he set out for Manassas, where a eon* 
test was thought to be impending, and armed 
there in time to witness the close of the battle of 
Bull Run, reaching the field when rictorj had 
Inch assured tO the Confederal 

The battle of Bull Run wa> followed by a \» liod 
of inaction, and Mr. Davis was blamed by many 
for this polley, as well as for his •• failure to organ* 
ize the troops of the several states into brigades 

and divisions formed of the soldiers of each," as 

the law directed. In answer to these complaints, 
he has urged the length of time MOesssry to or- 
ganize •• the terrible machine, a disciplined* army," 
and protested that, as far as in him lav. he favored 
an advance and endeavored to comply with the 
legal plan of army organization. The rjnastfcfli 
<>f the treatment of Confederals prisoner- by the 
National authorities mm.ii demanded his attention. 
On IT April 1 sid, two «lays after Mr. Lincoln's <all 
for troops. Mr. Davis had issued a proclamation 
inviting applications for letters of manpie and re- 
prisal. 'I lie ••Savannah." a private WUSSlJ 
mi— ioiied in accordance v ith thi* offer, w. 

tared off Charleston, and her offiean and 
wsre tried for piracy in New York and r*nt 
to death. letter tM captain ami 0fWS of the pri- 
vateer ** Jefferson Deris" were similar!* 
in Philadelphia. Thereupon, in November, 

lered retaliatory Bjeasure*. to be taken. 



100 



DAVIS 



DAVIS 



and fourteen Union prisoners were selected by lot 
and held as hostages for the safety of the con- 
demned men. 'Die latter were ultimately ]>ut cm 
the footing of prisoners of war by Older of the 
National government, and subsequently a cartel 
was adopted for the exchange of prisoners, which 
remained in force till its suspension in lNtil, caused 
by disagreement as to the status of negro soldiers. 
In November, 1861, a presidential election was held 
in the Confederacy, and Mr. Davis was chosen presi- 
dent for six years without opposition. In his mes- 
sage to the provisional congress at its last b om i on, 
is Nov., 18(51, he briefly sketched the situation at 
the close of the first year of the war, alluding to 
the Confederate successes, t he contest for the posses- 
sion of Kentucky and Missouri, and to the "Trent" 
affair. (See Wii'kks, Charles.) He urged the con- 
struction of another railway line through the Con- 
federacy, asserted the improvement of the south in 
military means and financial condition, and the in- 
efficiency of the blockade, and said : " If it were 
indeed a rebellion in which we were engaged, we 
might find ample vindication for the course we 
have adopted in the scenes which are now being en- 
acted in the United States." The first congress under 
the permanent constitution met in Richmond, on 
18 lei)., 1862, and Mr. Davis was inaugurated on 
32 Feb, The Confederacy had just met with its 
first serious reverses in the fall of Forts Henry 
and Donelson ; but in his inaugural, after a vindi- 
cation of the right of secession, Mr. Davis indulged 
in many favorable hopes. " The final result in our 
favor," said he, " is not doubtful. Our foes must 
sink under the immense load of debt which they 
have incurred. ... In the heart of a people re- 
solved to be free, these disasters tend but to stimu- 
late to increased resistance." In his short messages 
of 25 Feb. and 15 Aug. he suggested various 
measures for the improvement of the Confederate 
forces. The result of the reverses in the early 
months of the year, to which had now been added 
the capture of New Orleans, began to show itself 
in a growing opposition to Mr. Davis's admin- 
istration, which up to this time had seemed all 
but universally popular, and this opposition in- 
creased in force up to the latest days of the war. 
One of the first acts of the congress was to pass a 
sweeping conscription law, to which Mr. Davis re- 
luctantly assented. This was stoutly resisted in 
some quarters, and led to a spirited correspondence 
between Mr. Davis and Gov. Joseph E. Brown, of 
Georgia, who disputed the constitutionality of the 
measure. Congress also authorized the suspension 
of the habeas corpus act for ten miles around 
Richmond, and the formation of a military police, 
for the alleged reason that the government was 
continually in danger from the presence in Rich- 
mond of National spies, and the consequent plots 
and intrigues. Mr. Davis was present with Gen. 
Lee at the battle of Fair Oaks on 31 Mav, and, 
after the wounding of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston 
in that engagement, assigned Lee to the command 
of the Army of Northern Virginia, having previous- 
ly, on 13 March, charged him, " under the direction 
of the president, with the conduct of military 
operations." During a visit to the army in the 
western department, in December, 1862, Mr. 
Davis, in an address to the Mississippi legislature, 
defended the conscription law and declared that 
" in all respects, the Confederacy was better pre- 
pared for war than it was a year previous." 

The proclamation of emancipation by President 
Lincoln, to take effect 1 Jan., 1863, called out from 
Mr. Davis a retaliatory proclamation, dated 23 
Dec, 1862, in which, after reciting, among other 



acts, the hanging of William B. Mumford for tear- 
ing down the United State- Ha:,' at New Orleans, 
after the city was captured by the National forces, 
(on. Benjamin F. I >u t ler wa> declared a felon, and 
it was ordered that all commissioned offioen serv- 
ing under him, as well as any found serving hi 
company with slaves, should be treated as •* sob- 
ben and criminals deserving death." These threats. 
however, were not generally executed, though sup- 
ported by the legislation of the congress. In his 
message of January, lst^J. Mr. Davis announced 
his intention of turning over National prisoners for 
prosecution in state courts, as abettors of servile 
insurrection; but this proposition was rejected by 
congress, and provision made for their trial by 
military tribunals. The two long messages sent 
by .Mr. Davis to congress in 1863 consist largely of 
discussions of the position of foreign powers, es- 
pecially Great Britain, with reference to the war. 
The one dated 7 Dec. announces the fall of Vicks- 
burg and Port Hudson, and urges " the compulsory 
reduction of the currency to the amount required 
by the business of the country," together with other 
measures for improving the finances, which had 
become hopelessly depreciated. They had never 
been on a sound basis, and the currency had de- 
clined in value till it was nearly worthless. In 
April, 1863, in compliance with a request of the 
Confederate congress, Mr. Davis had! issued an 
address to the people of the south, in which he 
drew the happiest conclusions as to the success of 
the Confederacy, from the way in which, in the face 
of obstacles, it had already organized and disci- 
plined armies. "At no previous period of the 
war," said he, " have our forces been so numerous, 
so well organized, and so thoroughly disciplined, 
armed, and equipped as at present." 

The disasters of July — at Gettysburg and Vicks- 
burg — coming in the face of this assertion, and the 
state of the currency just mentioned, emboldened 
the opposition party in all parts of the Confeder- 
acy fiercely to assail the administration. Mr. Davis 
was held responsible for the advance into Pennsyl- 
vania, and accused of partiality in appointing Pem- 
berton to command in the west. Charles G. Mem- 
minger, secretary of the treasury, resigned, and his 
place was filled by George A. Trenholm ; but the 
new secretary was unable to stop the depreciation 
of the currency. The lack of coin in the country, 
the inability of the people to bear more taxation, 
and the spirit of speculation fostered by the enor- 
mous issues of paper money, hastened the financial 
ruin of the Confederacy. Food, too, was scarce. 
Kentucky and Tennessee, whence had come most 
of the meat supplies, were lost to the Confederacy, 
and the army was on half-rations. At this time 
there was a clamor against the commissary-general, 
Col. Northrop. A committee of the Confederate 
congress investigated the matter and exonerated 
him ; but the opponents of the administration have 
continued to hold him, and Mr. Davis through him, 
responsible for the scarcity of food in the Confed- 
eracy, and therefore, indirectly, for much of the 
sufferings of Union prisoners during the war. The 
exchange of prisoners had been interrupted for 
some time by the refusal of the Confederate gov- 
ernment to recognize negroes as National soldiers, 
and after many futile attempts to come to an un- 
derstanding with the National government, " We 
offered," says Mr. Davis (" Rise and Fall of the 
Confederate Government." vol. ii., p. 601), "to the 
United States government their sick and wounded, 
without requiring any equivalents." 

The year 1864 opened with Confederate suc- 
cesses in Florida, the southwest, and North Caro- 



DAVIS 



DWls 



101 



linn: Dvria, 111 his message of 2 May, 

mid: "Theanufcn in uuttberu Virginia and I 
neasee still oppose, with ussnaken front, it formida- 
ble barrier t< . 1 1*«- progress of the invader." 

ress, however, was not long to Ik« stayed. |t\ 

iUt issued (iii 17 July. \*i>\. Mr. Daris removed 

Gen. Joseph K. Johnston from t In- <• >Miniaii<l of the 
army opposed to (Jen. Sherman in (icorgia. The 

anise 8Ad alleged injustice of thisranwral have not 
aaaad to be subjeoti for oonttoeersy, it being 
aaaBrtod by Mr. Davis's oppooanta that pataoaal 
reasons influenced him against mi ofBost with 
whom ho hml never lieen very friendly, while his 
aappoctara, denying thi-. fully justify the act The 
reasons given In Adjt. Pen. Cooper's brief despatch 

were, that (Jen. Johnston had " failed to arrest the 
advance of the enemy to the vicinity of Atlanta, 
and expressed no confidence that he could defeat Of 
rv|>cl him." In answer to which (ien. Johnston 
wrote: " I assert that Sherman's army is much 

stronger, oompared with that of Tennessee, than 

Grant's compared with that of northern Virginia. 
Vet the enemy has Uvnconi|*>lled to advance muofa 
more slowly to the vicinity of Atlanta than to that 
of Richmond and Petersburg, and penetrated much 
deeper into Virginia than into Georgia." (ien. 
John H. Hood, successor of (Jen. Johnston, was 
obliged to evacuate Atlanta on 1 Sept. Mr. Deris 
then visited Georgia and endeavored to raise t In- 
spirits of the people there, and to restore harmony 
between the Confederate and state governments. 
Gov. Brown, who had opposed the conscription 
act. continued to be hostile to the administration, 
notwithstanding an interview with Mr. Davis in 
which the latter tried to convince him that his 
complaints wen- unjust. He reviewed and ad- 
dressed Hood's army on IK Sept., and afterward, in 
speeches made in Macon. Augusta, and elsewhere, 
strove to inspire the people with the spirit of re- 
newed resistance, and to paisnade them that an 
honorable peace was impossible. As is evident 
from the tone of theseand other speeches, the peace 
jiarty in the south was daily training strength. Be- 
sides thOM who really desired peace, there were 

others who hoped that a rejected attempt to treat 
with the National government might fire the south 
with indignation. As early as :{() Dec. 1888, Got, 
Eabnlon B. Vance, Of North Carolina, had written 

to Mr. Paris urging negotiation. The hitter, in his 

answer, dated N Jan.. 1*<>4. cited previous unsuc- 
ccssful attempts to communicate with the authori- 
ties at Washington, and concluded that another 
would lie undesiraUc. In January. INIm. however, 
afteran interview with Francis P. Blair. Sr., who had 
jjone to Richmond, unofficially, in the hope of bring* 
in:: about peace. Mr. Davis agr ee d to send three 
commissioners to confer with the National govern- 
ment. The result was an unsatisfactory meeting 
on a steamer in Hampton Roads. On the return 
of the commissioners public meetings wen- held. 
at which there seemed to be a return of the enthu- 
siasm of the early days of the war. Peace with the 
Independenceof (he south was now seen to be impos- 
sible, and the horrors of subjugation by the north 

were painted in spoo ny colors by the speakers. Mr. 

Deris, always an aide and impressive speaker, made 
what has been called tin- cBOSl r.-inarknlile ipseofa 
of his life. But this outburst of enthusiasm was 
only teni|Mirarv. The evacuation of Atlanta had 

i followed by Sherman's march to the sea, and 
Hood's disastrous oempaign in Tennessee. Gen. 

•1 himself said, in iphaHng of it. when taking 
leave of hi- army in January. 1865: " I alone am 
responsilile for it> concept ion." These n-\ 
however, with Grant's steady advance OB Rich- 



mond, and. almve all, the re-election of Preeidettt 

I. inn -In, had produced a growing 

south thut defeat was n drrate 

congress that met in Sovenibei 

spoken m oppos iti on to the administration, and in 

January. \*H',. the Virgmi 
change in the aabtaat. 111*1811118 Um 
confidence in its member*. As ,. < < >uxeqaenc* of 
idoii, then secretary of war, sent 
in his resignation. 

In his last me-sHire to congress, dated i:t Man-h. 
1885, Mr. Davis, while s ck nowledging the i 

the Confi dcrai \. asserted that it had ample imtim 
of meeting the emergency. ( »n Bund 
IHoo, while seated in his pew in St. Paul'* church. 
Richmond, he was handed a telegram bus 
hie, announcing the hitter's speedy withdrawal 
from Petersburg, and the consequent BneSSSitj for 
the evacuation of the capital. That evening, ac- 
companied by his personal staff, meinUr* of the 
Cabinet, and others, he left l.v train for DwiimIIc. 
On his arrival there he issued, on ft April, a proc- 

lamation of which he afterward admitted that. 
•• viewed by the light of suhscnucril event*, it may 
fairly In- siid it WBS 0V0I 1 sailgUIIIQ " In it hi 
"Relieved from the Deoeosity of guarding | •articu- 
lar points, our army will l»- nee to dots from point 
to [M.int. to strike the en. my in detail far fnnr. hia 
li.i-i." Danville was abandoned in less than .. 
and after a conference at Greensboro, N. C, with 




(Jens. Johnston and Beauregard, in which his hopes 
of continuing the war met with little euoouraee* 

ment. In- went to Charlotte, when- he heard <»f the 
a— a— iuation of Mr. Lincoln. His wife had pre- 
ceded him with a small escort, and it was fast «fter 
he had overtaken her. while encamped near lrwin«- 
ville, (ia.. that the wh<>ie party were oeptured,ou 
10 stay, by a body of cavalry under Lieut. -Col. 
Pritchard. H<- was taken to' Port Monroe, ami 
kept in confinement for two years, 

On 81 Sept.. 1865, the IT. s. senate <-»ll*tl ou the 
president for information on the snbiei t of biatrial, 
and in respenw reporta wen- ■ubeutted from the 
secretary of war and the attofney-general, their 
substance being thai Virginia was the proper paaes 
for the trial, and that it was not yet p 
fully to hold a I". S. court in that state. ( »n 18 

Oct.. in reply to a setter from President Johnson, 
chicf-Jiistice Chase said that hewasunwflUni 

hold court in a district still under mnrtial law. < »n 
10 April. 1888, the judiciary committee of tan 
boose Of repre-cnt.it iM-s n-p.rt.Nl that th.-r. 
DO reason whv the trial should n«.t he proceeded 
with, and that it was the duty of the gov riimeiit to 
investigate, without delay, the facts connected wiUi 
Linuiln'a anaaiafnathai On 8 ' Mr. DavU 

was indicted for tr- .-nuid jurv in tl 

urt for the district of Virginia, sittim; at 

, folk under Judge P itde e weed. Use ■**»- 



102 



DAVIS 



DAVIS 



plicity in the assassination of the president baring 
beta dropped, <>u 5 .lime, at a session of the eoiirl 
held in Richmond, James T. I'.rady. one of Mr, 
Davis's counsel, urged that the trial be held with- 
out delay : hut the government declined to proceed 
mi the indictment, urging the importance of the 
trial and the necessity of preparation for it. The 
court refused to admit the prisoner to bail. <>u i:{ 
May, 1807, he was brought before the court at Rich- 
mond on a writ of habeas corpus, and admitted to 
bail in the amount of $100,000, the first name on 
his bail-bond lieing that of Horace Greeley. Mr. 
Davis's release gave much satisfaction to the south- 
ern people. The interest taken in him during his 
imprisonment, and their prevalent idea that he was 
to suffer as a representative of the south, rather 
than for sins of his own, and was " a nation's pris- 
oner." had made him more popular there than he 
had been since the first days of the war. After an 
enthusiastic reception at Richmond he went to New 
York, then to Canada, and in the summer of 1868 
visited England, a Liverpool firm having offered to 
take him as a partner, without capital. This offer, 
after investigation, was declined, and, having vis- 
ited Prance, he returned to this country. He was 
never brought to trial, a nolle prosequi being en- 
tered by the government in his case in December, 
1868, and he was also included in the general am- 
nesty of that month. After his discharge he be- 
came president of a life insurance company at 
Memphis, Tenn. In 1879 Mrs. Dorsey, of Beau- 
voir, Miss., bequeathed to him her estate, where he 
ever afterward resided, giving much of his time 
to literary pursuits. In June, 1871, in a speech at 
a public reception in Atlanta, Ga., he said that he 
stdl adhered to the principle of state sovereignty, 
was confident of its final triumph, and was "not of 
those who ' accept the situation.'" In 1876, when 
a bill was before the house of representatives to re- 
move all the political disabilities that had been im- 
Sosed on those who took part in the insurrection, 
ames G. Blaine offered an amendment excepting 
Jefferson Davis, and supported it by a speech in 
which he accused Mr. Davis of being " the author 
of t he gigantic murders and crimes at Anderson- 
ville." Senator Benjamin H. Hill, of Georgia, spoke 
in reply, defending Mr. Davis from this charge. 
Again, in 1879, Mr. Davis was specially excepted in 
a bill to pension veterans of the Mexican war, the 
adoption of an amendment to that effect being 
largely the result of a speech by Zachariah Chan- 
dler. In October, 1884, at a meeting of Frank P. 
Blair post, of the Grand Array of the Republic, in 
St. Louis, Gen. William T. Sherman asserted that 
he had seen letters and papers showing that Mr. 
Davis had abandoned his state-rights doctrines 
during the war, and had become practically a dic- 
tator in the south. Mr. Davis, in a letter to a news- 
paper, denied the charge, and Gen. Sherman then 
filed with the war department at Washington 
papers that, in his view, substantiated it. On 28 
April, 1886, Mr. Davis spoke at the dedication of a 
monument to Confederate soldiers at Montgom- 
ery, Ala., and was enthusiastically received. The 
engraving on the preceding page is a view of his 
early home in Mississippi. 

Two biographies of Mr, Davis have been written, 
both by southern authors, which illustrate the ex- 
tremes of southern opinion. That by Frank II. 
Alfriend (New York, 1868) represents those who 
are friendly to Mr. Davis, while that by Edward A. 
Pollard, with the sub-title "Secret History of the 
Confederacy " (Philadelphia, 1869), holds him re- 
sponsihle for all the disasters of the war. Mr. Pol- 
lard, who was an editor of the Richmond "Ex- 



aminer." a paper hostile to the administration, con- 
cedes that Mr. Davis was thoroughly devoted to 
the cause of the south, and had indomitable pluck, 
but accuses him of vanity. ^ r ro>s favoritism, and 
incompetencv. In addition to these works, see Dr, 
Craven's "Prison Life of Jefferson Davis" 
York. 1866). Mr. Davis himself had published 
•■ The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Govern- 
ment" (2 vols., New York, 1881).— His brother, 
Joseph Emory, lawyer, b. near Augusta, Ga., LO 
Dec., 1784; d. in Vicksburg, Miss., 18 Sept, L870, 
was the oldest of the ten children of Samuel Davis, 
and in 1796 removed with his father to Kentucky. 
He was placed in a mercantile house at an early 
age, studied law in Russellville and in Wilkinson 
county, whither he accompanied his father in 1811, 
was admitted to the bar in 1812, and practised in 
Pinckneyville, and afterward in Greenville, rising 
to high rank in the profession. He was the dele- 
gate from Jefferson county in the convention that 
organized the state government in 1817, and took 
a prominent part in framing the constitution. In 
1820 he removed to Natchez, and formed a copart- 
nership with Thomas B. Reed, then the leader of 
the Mississippi bar. In 1827 he decided to retire 
from the profession in which he had won success 
by his learning, argumentative powers, and oratori- 
cal ability, in order to become a planter. In this 
occupation he was also very successful, and at the 
beginning of the civil war he possessed one of the 
finest plantations on the Mississippi river. During 
the war he was driven from his home with his 
family, and endured many hardships. He returned 
to Vicksburg at its close, and, after a controversy 
with the officers of the Freedmen's bureau, regained 
possession of his estate, but continued to reside in 
the city of Vicksburg. Mr. Davis was noted for 
his benevolence, and many youths of both sexes 
were indebted to him for a liberal education. 

DAVIS, Jefferson C, soldier, b. in Clark coun- 
ty, Ind., 2 March, 1828 ; d. in Chicago, 111., 30 Nov., 
1879. His ancestors were noted in the Indian wars 
of Kentucky. At the age of eighteen, while pur- 
suing his studies in the Clark county, Ind., semi- 
nary, he heard of the declaration of war with 
Mexico, and enlisted in Col. Lane's Indiana regi- 
ment. For gallant conduct at Buena Vista he was 
on 17 June, 1848, made second lieutenant of the 
1st artillery. He became first lieutenant in 1868, 
took charge of the garrison in Fort Sumter, S. C, 
in 1858, and was there during the bombardment 
in April, 1861, at the beginning of the civil war. 
In May, 1861, he was promoted to a captaincy and 
given leave of absence to raise the 22d Indiana 
volunteers, of which regiment he became colonel, 
and was afterward given a brigade by Gen. Fremont, 
with whom he served in Missouri. He also com- 
manded a brigade under Gens. Hunter and Pope. 
For services rendered at Milford, Mo., on 18 Dec, 
1861, where he aided in capturing a superior force 
of the enemy, with a large quantity of military 
supplies, he was made brigadier-general of volun- 
teers. At the battle of Pea Ridge he commanded 
one of the four divisions of Gen. (urtis's army. 
He participated in the siege of Corinth, and, after 
the evacuation of that place by the Confederate 
forces, was assigned to the Army of the Tennessee. 
t tan 88 Sept., 18(52, he chanced to meet in Louisville 
lien. William Nelson, from whom he claimed to 
have received treatment unduly harsh and s< \< re. 
An altercation ensued, and in a moment of resent* 
ment he shot Nelson, ibstantly killing him. He 
was arrested, and held for a time, but no trial was 
ordered, and he was released and assigned to duty 
at Covington, Ky. He led his old division of the 



DAVIS 



DAVIS 



1(0 



20th army corps into the fight at BtOM n\.-r. and 
for hi- bravery was recommended l>> <m n. Itose- 
cran- for major-gemml. In 1864 niinamli-d 

tin- 14th corps of Sherman's army Is Um Atlanta 

campaign mill in the march through (ieorgia. In 

revel major-generalship was given him, 

nii'i Ik- wm made colonel of the 28d infantry, 28 

.Inly. 1886, He afterward went to the Pacific coast. 

ami commanded tin- V . S. troops in Ala-kit, ami in 

I, after tin- murder of Gen. Canby by the Modoc 

Indian- in northern California, took coimnaml of 

tin- forces operating against them, ami compelled 

them to surrender. 

D v I In. .loii ii. navigator, b. in Sandridga, Eng- 

liiml, alMnit I860; «l. at see. mar the coa-t of Ma- 
lacca, in Dsosfnbar, I60fi Hfl weal to sea at an ear Iv 
age, ami m 1880 WM given coniinaml <>f an cxpedi- 
BOH for the discovery of a northwest itassagc to 
India. He -ailed from Dartmouth OB 7 June, \W!i, 
with the " Sunshine, " of fifty ton-, and the " Moon- 
shine," of thirty-five, manned by twenty-three and 
seventeen men resp*-ctively. He saih-d a- far 
north as til!" 4n . entering the strait that ha- since 
borne his name, and, finding no hindrance to hi- 
progress, concluded that he had discovered the 
northwest passage, but was obliged by stress of 
weather to return, arriving at Dartmouth on .10 
Sept. On 7 May, 1886. be tailed again from Dart- 
mouth with the "Sunshine." the * Moonshine," the 
"Mermaid," of 100 tons, and the " North Star," a 
pinna, e of ten tons. At the end of July the crew of 
the " Mermaid" U'came discontented and put back 
for Kngland, after the '•Sunshine "and the pinnace 
had Uen sent to explore eastward of Greenland, 
('apt. Davi- pur-ited the voyage alone, and, after 
reaching a point not as far north as in hi* first 
voyage, but about as far west, returned to Kngland. 
arriving earlv in October. On l'.l May. 1.X7, he 
sailed again from Dartmouth with the " Kli/alM-th," 
the "Sunshine," and the " Helen." a smaller vessel. 
He took the same course as before, and was con- 
firmed in hi- battel that he had found the passage; 
but, not having provisions for a long voyage, he 
was obliged to return to England. Notwithstand- 
ing his discovery of the entrance to Ratlin bar, 
there was no new expedition in quest of the north- 
west pa— up- till that of Waymouth, fifteen year- 
later. In 1591 Davis accompanied Cavendish on 
his second and verv disastrous voyage to the South 
sea. He afterward made five voyages to the Bast 
Indies as a pilot, and in the last was killed, while 
serving umler Sir Kdinuml Michclltournc, in an 
engagement with the JajMinese in the straits of 
Malacca. He is said to have been the inventor of 
a (piadrant for taking the sun's altitude at sea, 
winch preceded Hadley's sextant. He published 
"Seaman*! Secrets." a treatise on navigation (Lon- 
don, 1864), and "The World's II ydrographieal 
Descriptions" (1868), in which the arguments of Sir 
Humphrey GilUrt, showing the probability off a 
north wot pas-age to China, are in |>art repeated. 
See "Voyages and Works of John Davis, the Navi- 
gator," l»v ('apt. Albert A. Markham, published l>v 

the Hakiuyt MOiety i London. 1M80). 

DAVIS, John, clergyman, b. in IVnncpck. Pa.. 
16 Sept.. 17'JI ; ,1. in Harford county. M.I.. in 1806. 
He wa- ordained a Bapti-t minister in 1786* went 
to Maryland the same year, and U'came pSStOf of 
Winter Hun church in Harford county, the first 
permanently nstahllshod church of his denomina- 
tion in tin- StatS. His lal*>r- extended into Balti- 
more and Frederick counties, and into the city 
of Baltimore. Notwithstanding the constitutional 
guarantees and the tradition of religious freedom 
in Maryland, hi- zeal in -preading a form of faith 



that was new in the corniniinitv .ml.j., t.-d him to 
intimidation and violence, bt ,i» <|.«th he 

had established flourishing churches in Bali 
Frederick City, and clsswEi 

I» \ \ In. .I.'Iiii. . lergMiian. 1.. in N. wca»tleeoan- 
ty. Del., in I7:G: d. in <<h; (l . 

father came from Wall - in loli.niiil vwmalrjw. 

tor of the Baptist church n welsh Trx-t, S*w. 

• a-tle co. The -.n was grailualiti at Pwflsdsl 

phia college, and. while -upplyin. 

ml after the death of the latter. attract. 

i>\ hi- eliKjuence, and WSSOSilsd to the DSSt"i 

thstd Baptist .I'hiin h in BostOI 

appointed agent of tin- Bapti-t- of t|,. 

rspessani their grievance- under the exctaatvelawi 
then in force InMssascbosetta, and took the gi 

that the charter Ranted religion, aqualil 

iigregatiotiali-m WSJ m>t UU ajJahthisd rs- 
ligion of the commonwealth. When, after • 
ing the representation- of the grievance OOBSSBattSS, 
in nil court ttassed a new ivrtificate law, re- 
ipiiring that certificates issued to Bapti-t- should 
state that they were "coiiscieiit ioii-ly "of that faith, 
the committee, of which he was the band, de. i.l.-d 
not to accept the act in that form. In 17?-' lu- 
hesitfa failed, and he re turne d in July to Ih'lawarv. 
then undertook a journey for his health down tin- 
Ohio, and died in the wilderness below the present 
site of the < -it v of Wheeling, W. Va. 

DAVIS, John, jurist, 1.. in Plymouth, Mass., 25 
Jan., 17ol ; d. in Boston, Mas-.. 1-4 Jan.. 1M7. Ha 
wits graduated at Harvard in 17*1. and for a time was 
a tutor in the family of Gen. J o seph otisat Barn- 
stable, studied law. and began practice at Plymouth 

in 17^»J. At thei ventioii oi 1786, which adopted 

the Federal constitution, be was the youngest dele- 
gate, and be survived all tin- others. He ■ 

several years a memlier of the Massachusetts legisla- 
ture, and in 1796" was elected to the state semr 
88 June <>f the same rear be entered on the oflcsof 
comptroller of the V. S. treasury, and Barred till 1 
July. 17!«». He was then appointed district attor- 
ney for Massachusetts, and in lNii r. s. district 
judge in the same state, in which office he re- 
mained to the end of bis life. He Was H ■ 
in various department- of knowlcdp-. and especial- 
ly eminent for his aopiaiutam -e with the history 
and antiquities of New Kngland. In 1818 he de- 
livered an addre-s <>n the "Landing of the Pil- 
grims" before the Massachusetts historical sodetr, 
of which be was president from Ms till \*w. He 
published an edition of Morton's "New Kngland 
Memorial," with copious ami valuable nob - 
ton. lM'jti): a "Eulogy I'll George Washington"; 
ami "An Attempt to Explain the Ins crip ti on on 
Dighton Bock." Sssa memoir by Thocnss Kinui- 
cutt in " Arclusologia Americana." 

DAVIS. John, -tate-man. I>. in Noit!d)0!0«gk 

Ma—.. 18 Jan.. 1 7>? : <l. in Worcester, Ma-. 18 

April. 1864 He wa« graduated at Vale with honor 
in 1819, studied law, was admitt.il to ths l«r in 
1818, ami practised with ineosaj In Woraastsc. Bs 
wa- elected to congress as a whig in 1*24. and n- 
aleoted for the f<>ur succeeding terms, sitting from 
December, 1886, till Jannai ad taking a 

leading part a- a protectionist ill opiioMiig Henry 
BOmpromise tariff 1 •> 1 1 Of 1*M. and in all 
transactions relating to finance and oofl 

rignsd In- seal on being el 
Massachii-ett-. At the conclusion of his u 
governor he was sent t.. the 1 - 
from 7 Deo, I***), till January, 1MI. when he re- 
-igiied to an -ept the MIS SUIUC ship • SSSOOd time. 
Ill the senate he was a Strong op|»oiient of I 
ministrations of Jackson and Van Buren. and tOfli 



104 



DAVIS 



DAVIS 




a conspicuous part in the debates as an advocate 
of protection for American industry, replying to 
the tree-trade arguments of southern statesmen in 
speeches t hat wore considered extremely clear ex- 
positions of the pro- 
tective theories. A 
declaration in one 
of his speeches, that 
James Buchanan was 
in favor of reducing 
the wages of Ameri- 
can workingraen to 
ten cents a day, was 
the origin of the epi- 
thet ''ten-cent Jim- 
my," which was ap- 
plied to that states- 
man by his political 
opponents for sev- 
eral years. A short 
speech against the 
sub-treasury, deliv- 
ered in 1840, was 
printed during the 
presidential canvass of that year as an electioneer- 
ing pamphlet, of which more than a million copies 
were distributed. He was again elected U. S. sena- 
tor, and served from 24 March, 1845, till 3 March, 
1853, but declined a re-election, and died suddenly 
at his home. He protested vigorously against the 
war with Mexico. In the controversy that followed, 
over the introduction of slavery into the U. S. ter- 
ritories, he earnestly advocated its exclusion. The 
Wilmot proviso received his support, but the com- 
promise acts of 1850 encountered his decided op- 
position. He enjoyed the respect and confidence 
of his constituents in an unusual degree, and es- 
tablished a reputation for high principles that 
gained for him the popular appellation of " hon- 
est John Davis." — His wife, who was a sister of 
George Bancroft, the historian, died in Worcester, 
Mass., 24 Jan., 1872, at the age of eighty years. — 
His son, John Chandler Bancroft, diplomatist, 
b. in Worcester, Mass., 29 Dec., 1822, was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1840, studied law, and began 
f>ractice. On 31 Aug., 1849, when Mr. Bancroft 
eft the English court, he succeeded John R. Brod- 
head as secretary of legation, and acted as charge 
d'affaires during the absence of the minister, Ab- 
bott Lawrence, for several months in that and the 
two succeeding years. He resigned on 30 Nov., 
1852, was American correspondent of the London 
" Times " from 1854 till 1861, and during that time 
practised law in New York city. In 1868 he was 
elected to the New York legislature, and on 25 
March, 1869, appointed assistant secretary of state, 
which post he resigned in 1871 to act as agent of 
the U. S. government before the Geneva court of 
arbitration on the Alabama claims. On 24 Jan., 
1873, he was reappointed assistant secretary of 
state. While in the department of state he acted 
as arbitrator in a dispute between Great Britain 
and Portugal. In 1871 he was a member, and the 
secretary, of the high commission that concluded 
the treaty of Washington. He resigned his place 
on receiving the appointment of minister to the 
German empire. After his return from Berlin, in 
1877, he was made a judge of the U. S. court of 
claims in Washington, I). C, and served from Janu- 
ary, 1878, till December, 1881. In November, 1882, 
ho was again appointed to the same post, and on 5 
Nov., 1883. became reporter of the U. S. supreme 
court. He has published " The Massachusetts 
Justice" (Worcester, 18471 ; "The Case of the 
United States laid before the Tribunal of Arbitra- 



tion at Geneva " (Washington, 1871) ; " Treaties of 
the United States, with Notes "(revised < ,i.. 1878); 
and vols. 108-118 of "United States Reports."— 
Another son, Hnshrouck, soldier, l>. in Worces- 
ter, Irfiuw, 1!) April, 1887; drowned at sea, 19 
Oct., 1870, was graduated at Williams in 1845*, 
and afterward studied in Germany. He taught 
in the Worcester high-school for a year, and was 
settled as pastor of the Unitarian society in Wa- 
tertown, Mass., in 1849. He afterward studied 
law, was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1854, 
and went to Chicago in 1855. He was mustered 
into the United States service in 1862 as lieutenant- 
colonel of the 11th Illinois cavalry. He served 
with conspicuous gallantry in Stoneman's pursuit 
of the Confederates after their retreat from York- 
town in April, 1862, and in the autumn distin- 
guished himself at Martinsburg and Harper's Petty, 
where he was in command of the Union cavalry, 
and led them, on the night of 14 Sept., 1862, through 
the enemy's lines to Greencastle, Pa., capturing an 
ammunition-train on the way. He was promoted 
colonel, 5 Jan., 1864, and at the close of the war 
was brevetted brigadier-general. After returning 
to Chicago, he was elected city attorney. He was 
lost on the steamer " Cambria " in the voyage to 
Europe. — John, son of Hasbrouck, b. in Newton, 
Mass., 16 Sept., 1851, studied in the universities of 
Heidelberg, Berlin, and Paris. After holding va- 
rious posts in the department of state and the 
diplomatic service, he was appointed clerk to the 
court of Alabama claims in 1874. He practised 
law in Washington and New York, and was assist- 
ant counsel for the United States before the Franco- 
American claims commission in 1881. On 7 July, 
1882, he became assistant secretary of state, and 
while holding that office was several times acting 
secretary. On 20 Jan., 1885, he was appointed 
judge of the U. S. court of claims. — Another son, 
Horace, manufacturer, b. in Worcester, Mass., 16 
March, 1831. He was graduated at Harvard in 
1849, and, after beginning the study of law, went to 
California in 1852, and engaged in manufacturing. 
He represented the San Francisco district in con- 
gress from 1877 to 1881. He contributed a paper 
to the American antiquarian society on the "Like- 
lihood of an Admixture of Japanese Blood on 
the Northwest," which was afterward published 
separately. He also published " Dolor Davis, a 
Sketch of his Life " (1881), and " American Consti- 
tutions," in the Johns Hopkins series (Baltimore, 
1885). — Another son, Andrew McFarland, anti- 
quarian and author, b. in Worcester, Mass., 30 Dec., 
1833. He was graduated at the Lawrence scientific 
school of Harvard university in 1854, studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1859. After practis- 
ing a short time in Massachusetts he went to Cali- 
fornia, and was for several years a partner of his 
brother in the manufacturing business. He pub- 
lished articles in the "Overland" and "Atlantic 
Monthly" magazines, presented a paper on the 
" Journey of Moncacht-Ape " to the American an- 
tiquarian society, afterward printed separately 
(Worcester, 1883), published a paper on "Indian 
Games" in the "Bulletin" of the Essex institute, 
which was also printed separately (Salem, 1886), 
and contributed to Justin Winsor's "Narrative 
and Critical History of America" the chapter on 
" Louisiana and Canada " and that on " Border 
Warfare during the Revolution." 

DAVIS, John A. G„ jurist, b. in Middlesex 
county, Va., in 1801; d. in Williamsburg, Va., 14 
Nov., 1840. He was educated at William and Mary 
college, practised law in Albemarle county, edited 
a weekly journal at Charlottesville! and in 1830 



DAVIS 



DAVIS 



100 



was chosen professor of law at the I'ni v<-r>it v of 

nia. He 'ii"l from a pistol-«ho4 woiiml at 

i refractory -linl.nt, whom he was 

avoring t" arrest ander the university laws. 

ng his publications an- a treat 

Tail, Executory Dorises, and Contingent Rirmstn- 

dsra under the Virginia statutes modifying tli«' 

Common Law"; "Treatise on Criminal Law, and 

• t.. Justioes <>f the Peace* 1 (1888); and a 

tractate "Agates! the Constitutional Bight of 

Congress to pass Laws expressly and es|H*- ially for 

taction «>f Domestic Manufacturers.* 1 

D V \ IS. .1 oli ii Lse, naval officer, h. in Carlisle, 

Sullivan m.. I n< i.. :i Sept., 1885; d. in Washington, 

12 March. l ss ''. Be entered tin- l'. S. sen ice as | 

sjitisilpmsn fin ft Tun 1841,l>ecanie passed midship- 
inan 00 1<> Aug.. 1847, and, while acting lieutenant, 

nffmmanding a boat of the " Preble." of the Bast 

India squadron, boarded a piratical Chinese junk 
otT Macao in November, 1*41', with another officer 
and sixteen men. and captured the vessel and crew. 
He was commissioned lieutenant on L"> Sept., 1*.V>, 
was attached to the (iulf squadron in 1881, and, as 
executive officer of the "Water Witch," took part 
in engagements with the Confederate nun •• Manas- 
sas" at the head of the Mississippi passes and the 
squadron near Pilot Town on the same day, 12 Oct., 
1861. He was commissioned lieutenant-commander 
on 16 July, 18<J2. and attacked Fort McAllister <»n 
1!> Nov., when his vessel was pierced by a solid 
shot below water. The leak was stopped tempo- 
rarily, and after the action the vessel was taken on 
shore and jwitched at the falling of the tide. He 
again engaged the fort on 27 .Ian. and 1 Feb., 1863, 
and on 28 Feb., when the privateer "Nashville" 
was destroyed. On 19 March he sank the blockade- 
running steamer "Georgmna" when she attempted 
to enter Charleston harbor. He was transferred 
to the command of the iron-clad "Montauk." and 
took part in the engagements with Forts Sumter. 
Gregg, Moultrie, and Batterv Bee. in the beginning 
of September, 1863, and in the attacks on Fort 
Sumter on 5, 9, and 10 Nov., and that on Fort 
Moultrie .»n 16 Nov.. 1888. In lSStVS be com- 
manded the steamer " Sassacus," of the North At- 
lantic blockading squadron, which towed the |h>w- 
derhoaJ " Louisiana" from Norfolk to Fort Fisher 
in Deccmlier, and engaged thai fort on 24 and 2."» 
Dec., 1k«u, 13 and 14 Jan., 1865; Fort Anderson, 
In Oaae Fear river, on 18 Feb: and Fort Strong 
on 20 and 21 Felt., on which last day the vessel was 
struck under the water-line, !>ut the leak was kept 
under till dark, and then effectually stopped. He 
was commissioned commander on 25 July, 1866, ( 

Emmotcd captain on 14 Feb., 1878, and was a mein- 
pr of the light-house board in 1878, and of the 
board of inspection in 1882. He was promoted 
commodore on4 Feb., 1882, commanded the Asiatic 
station in lK^i-'fi. and 0B 80 Oct.. iss.-,. received 
his commission as rear-admiral, and was in Novem- 
ber, 1*86, relieved of his command of the Asiatic 
squadron and placed on the retired list. 

DAVIS, John PT** statesman, b. m Cumberland 
county. Pa., 17 July. 17!M»: d. in Carlisle. Ind.. 22 
Au>;.. 1859. He received a classical education, 
studied medicine, and was graduated at the Balti- 
more medical college in 1881, removing in 1888 to 
Carlisle, Ind. He was for several years a member 
of the Indiana house of representatives. lieing 

shown spanker m 1M32. In 1884 he was appointed a 

cominissionerto negotiated treaty with the Indians. 
He was elected t<> congress bv the democrats, and 

Barred from ? Deo, 1888, till 8 March. i*:i7. was 

re-elected and again served from 1"0.» till 1K41. 
and from 1K43 till 1K47. During his last term 



he was speaker of the hou«< of bbbbjSjbI 

•or issiorier to China in IMM '.Vi, and f 

of Oregon ii He presided ore* the con- 

vention held at Baltimore in 1H."»2 that Dominated 
Franklin Pierce for the pr- 

D V VIS, lb Clark, journalist, b. near Sandu-kv, 
Ohio, 85 Sept, 1885. He was edooatsd in the 
common schools, a nd early turned hi« attention to 
journalism, becoming an "editorial writer for vari- 
ous Philadelphia pajpetB, In 1mi;9 he assumed the 
management of the Philadelphia" Inquirer." which 
he has held ever since. To his efforts are due the 
first passage of laws for regulating the admission 
of the insane into asyhmui m Pennsylvania, and the 

amelioration of their condition. Mr. DsTSI has 
ban a contributor to magazine literature nince 
1W7, has written manv short stories and essays 
on the dramatic art. and has al*» published "The 
Stranded Ship" (New York. lWJtf).— His wife, 
Kehecca Harding, author, l>. in Washington, 
Pa., 21 .June. is.'il, passed her early life : 
Virginia, and first attracted attention as a writer 
by her " Life in the Iron Mills/* pnhlishnil in the 
" Atlantic Monthly " in 1881. TO the BsSBS |hti- 
Odioal she OO ntri b nt ed. S few months later. "A 
Story of TinDav," published in book-form, under 
the title of "Margaret Howth" (1881). In IHW 
she was married ami went to reside in Philadel- 
phia. In lNlii) she became an <-<Iit«>rial writer on 
the stalT of the New York "Tribune." In addi- 
tion to sketches, stories, and editorial work, she 
has published "Waiting for the Verdict " (Phila- 
delphia, 1887) ; - Dallas Qalbtaith " (1888 : -John 
Andmss" (1878); "Be rry to w n " (1878); and "A 
I^aw unto Herself'' (1878). 

DAVIS, Matthew I.., author, b. in 1706: d. in 
Manhattanville, N. Y.. 21 June, 1880. lb- was by 
tnwle a printer, became a skilful writer, and at- 
tached himself to the political fortunes of Aaron 
Burr, whom be supported in his candidacy for the 
presidency. For many years be wrote letters fp'in 
the national capital to the New York "Courier 
and Enquirer " under the pen-name of "The spy 
in Washington." He also co r re spon ded with the 
London "Times,'' signing his letters "Tin 
rose Traveller." He was associated with Philip 
Freneau in the publication of the " Timepiece ami 
Literary Companion" in New York city, which 
was begun on 18 Sept., 171*7. and c eas e d on ■'>» 
Aug. of the following rear. For many yean be- 
fore Burrs death Davis was his only intimate 
friend and associate. He published "Memoirs of 
Aaron Burr, with Miscellaneous Cof IVSpondenoo " 
(New York. 1888-*7\ and edited Burr's •• Private 
Journal during his Residence in Europe "(U 

DAVIS, Nathan Smith, physsrisjLU, taQrssaa, 
Chenango «•«».. N. Y.. t» Jan.. 1M7. He wa^ gradu- 
ated at the medical college in Fairfield. N. Y.. in 

lablished bimeelf in practice at ran gh a n v 
ton, contributed notable papers on »!>•• • 

system to medical journals, and was instrumental 
in establishing the National medical association. of 
which he was president in lie removed 

to New York in 1847, asausnsd the sdllorshlu of 

\nnalist " in 1*4*. and in 1881 SJI 
Chicago. 111., to take the chair of physiology and 
pathology in the Push medical school. 1 
lie assumed charge also of the dc|«artmeiit of 
practice of medicine. He assisted in organising S> 
state and a citv medical association, and was one 
Of the principal founders of Mercy istssp H a 
conniption with the medical SOllegC eontinnsd 

until be sssiimod the editorship of the Chicago 
• Medical Examiner" in 1*60. lie also conducted 



106 



DAVIS 



DAVIS 



for more than twenty years the "Northwestern 
Journal," of which he took charge in 1868. H< 
was one of the founders of Northwestern uni- 
versity, the Chicago academy of sciences, and the 
Washingtonian home for the reformation of in- 
ebriates, of which he was chosen president. This 
office lie resigned, and also gave up the editorship 
«>f tlie '■ Medical Examiner." In 1883 he was ap- 

S fated editor of the "Journal of the American 
edical Association." In May, 1880. he was elect- 
ed president of the International medical congress. 
In the Chicago medical college, the medical depart- 
ment of the Northwestern university, he assumed 
the professorship of the principles and practice of 
medicine and of clinical medicine, and is also dean 
of the faculty. His principal published writings 
are an " Essay on the Philosophy of Medicine ' ; 
" Medical Education and Reform " ; " Remedial 
Value and Proper Use of Alcoholic Drinks": 
"History of Medical Education in the United 
States"; "An Experimental Inquiry concerning 
the Functions of Assimilation, Nutrition, and Ani- 
mal Heat"; " Clinical Lectures" (1873); the chap- 
ter on " Bronchitis " in the " American System of 
Practice of Medicine " ; " Lectures on the Princi- 
ples and Practice of Medicine" (Chicago, 1884); 
and an article on " Insanity from Acute and 
Chronic Alcoholism " in the " Hand-Book of Medi- 
cine "(New York, 188G). 

DAVIS, Nelson Henry, soldier, b. in Oxford, 
Worcester co., Mass., 20 Sept., 1821 ; d. on Govern- 
or's Island, 15 May, 1890. He was graduated at 
the U, S. military academy in 1846, and served in 
the war with Mexico, received the brevet of 1st lieu- 
tenant for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco, 
and was also at t he siege of Vera Cruz, the battle of 
Cerro Gordo, and the capture of the city of Mexi- 
co. He was promoted 1st lieutenant 8 June, 1849, 
and then served on the frontier, being engaged in 
several actions while on the Sierra Nevada expedi- 
tion of 1849-'50, and taking part in the Rogue 
river expedition of 1853. He was made captain 
on 3 March, 1855, was at the battle of Bull Run, 
and from 4 Sept. to 12 Nov., 1861, was colonel of 
the 7th Massachusetts volunteers. He then be- 
came major and assistant inspector-general, and 
served with the Army of the Potomac till the au- 
tumn of 1863, receiving the brevet of lieutenant- 
colonel for gallantry at Gettysburg. He was then 
transferred to New Mexico, was brevetted colonel 
27 June, 1865, for his services against the Apache 
Indians, and also received the brevet of brigadier- 
general for his services in the civil war. He was 
inspector-general of the district of New Mexico in 
1868, of the department of Missouri in 1868-72, 
was on a tour of inspection till 1876, and then 
became inspector-general of the division of the 
Atlantic. He was commissioned brigadier-general 
on 1 1 March, 1885, and retired on 20 Sept. 

DAVIS, Noah, jurist, b. in Haverhill, N. H., 
10 Sept., 1818. He was educated at Albion, N. Y., 
whither his parents removed in 1825, and in the 
seminary at Lima, studied law, was admitted to 
the bar in 1841, and practised in Gaines, and then 
in Buffalo. In 1844 ne formed a partnership with 
Sanford E. Church, with whom he practised in 
Albion for fourteen years, until he was appointed, 
in .March, 1857, a justice of the New York supreme 
court, to which office he was subsequently twice 
elected. After serving for two years as judge, he 
resigned in November, 1868, having been elected as 
a Republican to the National house of representa- 
tives. He served in congress from 4 March, 1869, 
till 20 July, 1870, when he resigned, having been 
appointed* by President Grant U. S. attorney for 




the southern district of New York. He resigned 
that office on 31 Dec., 1872, being elected a justice 
OJ the New York state supreme court for the term 
expiring in December; 1887. The trial of the case 
of Bd ward Stokes 
for the murder of 
Fisk. and that of 
William M.Tweed 
for malfeasance in 
office, were held be- 
fore him soon after 
he took his place 
on the bench. He 
sentenced Tweed 
to a year's impris- 
onment for each of 
the twelve counts 
of the indictment; 
but, two years lat- 
er, the court, of ap- 
peals decided that 
this cumulative 
sentence was con- 
trary to law. In 
1874 he became 

f residing justice, 
n January, 1887, he was retired from the bench, 
and resumed practice. On his retirement, he 
said: "It is my nature to form strong convic- 
tions, and sometimes I express them too strongly, 
but neither by speech nor silence have I ever de- 
signed to injure any suitor or his counsel. In 
searching the record of my iudicial life I can find 
no entry that I ever decided any cause or matter 
contrary to my then convictions of right." A com- 
mittee of lawyers presented Judge Davis's portrait 
by Daniel Huntington to the supreme court. 

DAVIS, Noah Knowles, educator, b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 15 May, 1830. He was graduated at 
Mercer university, Ga., in 1849, and then spent 
several years in Philadelphia, chiefly in the study 
of chemistry. While here he edited the " Model 
Architect " and the " Carpenter's Guide." In 1852 
he became professor of natural science in Howard 
college, Marion, Ala., and in 1859 principal of the 
Judson female institute at the same place. In 1868 
he was elected president of Bethel college, Russell- 
ville, Ky. In 1873 he was called to the chair of 
moral science in the University of Virginia. Dr. 
Davis is the author of " The Theory of Thought, a 
Treatise on Deductive Logic" (New York, 1880); 
and has contributed to various reviews. He has 
received the degree of LL. D. In religious profes- 
sion Dr. Davis is a Baptist, and is prominent and 
active in the councils of that denomination. 

DAVIS, Paulina (Wkight), reformer, b. in 
Bloomfield, N. Y., 7 Aug., 1813 ; d. in Providence, 
R. I., 24 Aug., 1876. She married Francis Wright, 
of Utica, N. Y., in 1833, and after his death became 
in 1849 the wife of Thomas Davis, of Providence, 
R. I., who was a member of congress in 1853-'5. 
For thirty-five years she labored zealously to pro- 
mote the rights of women, established " The Una," 
the first woman-suffrage paper, wrote a history of 
woman-suffrage reform, and gave lectures in the 
principal cities of the United States. 

DAVIS, Reuben, lawyer, b. in Tullahoma, 
Tenn., 18 Jan., 1813, and was educated there. He 
studied medicine, and after a few years' practice 
abandoned that profession for the study of law. 
He removed to Al)erdeen, Miss., and was prosecut- 
ing attorney for the 6th judicial district from 1835 
till 1839. He was appointed judge of the high 
court of appeals in 1*4:2. but resigned after four 
months' service. He served, in the w^r with Mexico, 



DAVIS 



dawks 



lot 






as colonel of the Id regiment of MiMsi»sippi volun- 
teers. He was a member of tin- state MM of 

n Mississippi, serving from 1h.*i7 till 
i be retired mm entered we Confederate 

annv M brigadier-general. mmifftmUng a bn. 
of Mississippi militia in Kentucky. After the 
dose of the civil war Mr. Davis reeumed his Ira 
practice. He baa publiabed M Reoolleotiona of Mis- 
sissippi and Mississippians" (Boston, 1kh1»). 

I»V\ Is. Itichurd Bingham, poet, b, in New 
York city, 21 Aug.. 1771 ; d. in Efoa Brunswick. 
N. .1.. in I7!''.». II' smo edlWted at Columbia, but 
was not graduated. He pursued ilie business of 
his father, wood-carving, until 171M5, when he be- 
came editor of the "Diary." a daily gazette pub- 
lished 111 New York, for which he wrote about one 
fear. He then engaged in mercantile business, 
n appearance he is said to have Ix-en somewhat 
like Oliver (ioldsmith— awkward in mannerand |xr- 
son, as well as in s[>eech. His poems are expres- 
sions of personal sentiment, tinned with melan- 
choly. They were collected and published DJ the 
"Cailio|H-an Sx'iety," of which he was a member 
(New York, 1807). An •' Ode to Imagination " shows 
Ins eariie-tne-s. and an "Elegy on an Old Wig, 
found in the Street," his humor. He was also a 
contriliutor to the "Drone Pa|>ers," published in 
the " New York Magazine," for which he wrote a 
well-drawn character-sketch of himself, under the 
name of " Martlctt." 

DA VIS. S> hun us, pioneer, d. in Boston in 1704. 
In .lime. 1 •'►.">'.*, he bought a tract of land of the 
Indians in Dainariscotta. Maine. He resided for 
some time at Sheepscott, was severely wounded 
while making his MOHM from Fort Arowsic, and 
captured by Indians in August, 1076. He accom- 
panied Mai. Waldron's expedition early in in 7 7, 
and resided in Falmouth, where he owned land, in 
1680. He commanded Fort Loyal, Falmouth, and 
after a five days' defence was obliged to surrender 
it to the French and Indians in May, 10SH). He 
was carried to Quebec, and exchanged four months 
later. He was a counsellor in 1691-'2. His ac- 
count of the conduct of the war is preserved in 
the Massachusetts historical collections. 

DAVIS, Thomas Frederick, clergyman, b. in 
Wilmington. N. ('., 6 Feb., 1804; d. in Camden. 
S. ('.. | Dec., 1871. He was graduated at the Fni- 
\er>ity of North Carolina, Chapel 1 1 ill. in 1898, 
studied law, and practised, but subsequently stud- 
ied theology, and was ordained deacon in Wilming- 
ton by Bishop Ives, 27 Nov.. 1KB, and priest by 
the same bishop in I'ittsl>oro\ 16 Dec., 1832. He 
officiated in Pittaboro' while in deacon's orders, be- 
came rector of St. James's church. Wilmington, 
and St. Luke's church. Salisbury, N.C. In Novem- 
ber, 1846, he removed to South Carolina, and be- 
came rector of Grace church, Camden. He was 
fleeted bishop of the diocese, and consecrated in St. 
John's chapel New York, 17 Oct.. 1N-V1. Bishop 
Davis received the degree of D. D. from Colombia 
college In 1858, and the same year from tin' Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. 

DAVIS. William Bramwell, physician, b, in 
Cincinnati. 22 July. 1n:52. His parents emigrated 
to the United States from Wales. He was gradu- 
ated at Wesl.van university in 1S">2. ami in 1806 
at Miami medical college, where since W-l he btJ 
1m en professor of therapeutics. During the civil 
war he was surgeon of the 187th regiment of Ofajo 
volunteers, and Burgeon at the West Kml military 
. in Cincinnati. He has been identified with 
many of the public offiOM of that city, as well as 
the medical and educational associations. In 1879 



he travelled in ■uofta. Some of hie principal 

publications are ** Kepor 

medical mill 

Life Insiira " i vim« man 

cinnati medical «* 

and Animal Vaccine" Intestinal 

•.miction " (I860)] -I'ro-r.ss of Therapeutic*" 

(1KH1): and "The Alcohol Uuestioi 

DAVIs. \\ Ibury, jurist, b 

2.*» Julv. 1H1M; ,|. i„ Portland. L*. Aug., 1*71. At 
an early age he removed with his parent* to Brooks, 
Waldo co.. where he was edw at. -d. lb 
law in Belfast, began to pjnotaaj his profession in 
Portland, and was elected a Jodgl 
court. In lHUi he was appointed | ->st master of 
Portland, and relinquished law practice. Judge 
Davis took an active interest in the temperance 
reform, and was instrumental in shaping the legis- 
lation of the state u|«>n that question, lb- was an 
anti-slavery man, and one of the founders of the 
republican party. He contributed many articles 
on politioaj and legal subjects to the newspapers of 
his native state, to the New York " Indein udent." 
and to various periodicals ami published •• The 
Beautiful City." a religious book (New York, 1809). 

DAWKS. Benin l.aii t tn-. MMMn, b. in 
Cuinmington, Mass., 80 Oct., l s l'». Be was gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1880, bffWHIW I teacher, and edited 
the Gr eenfield "Gazette." and suWquently the 
Adams "Transcript." He was admitted to the 
Imr in 1848, and ■erred in the legislature fn i 
till 1850, when he Ijccame a member of tl • 
senate. He was a member of the Constitutional 
convention in 1N.W, ami attorney for the ■ 
dist riit of Massachusetts, continuing until 1K"»7. 
when he was elected to congress, and served as a 
memberof the committee on Revolutionary claim*. 
He remained in congress by successive re-elec- 
tions until ih7:i. In 1886 be was a delegate to 
the Loyalists' (.invention in Philadelphia, and in 
lH7. r ) be succeeded Charles Sumner in the senate, 
and was re-elected in 1**1 and 1887. He has bat ii 
chairman of the committee on ways and means, 
has served on committee on public buildii . 
grounds, and inaugurated the measure by which 
the completion 
of the Wash- 
ington monu- 
ment was un- 
dertaken. Ib- 
is the author 
of many tariff 
measures, end 
assisted in the 
construct ioiiof 
the wool and 
woollen tarilT 
of 1H<5N, which 
was the basis 
of all wool and 
woollens from 
that time until 
\sxi. He is 

also a member 
of the commit- 
tees on appro- 
bations, civil service, fisheries. Re volutionaiyolatma. 
and Indian and naval affairs, lb was appointed 
on a sjiecial committee (.. investigate the Indian 
disturbances in the Indian territory, upon which 
he made a valuable report The entire system of 
Indian education due to legislation wa< 
bv Mr. Dawes. Among the ini|«>rtant bills of hi* 
authorship passed an • dty bill, the Sioux 

bill and the bill making Indians subject to and 




jx&*Z& 



108 



DAWES 



DAWSON 



Erotected by our criminal laws. One of his most 
nportant measures was the introduction of the 
•• Weather Hulk-tin," in 1869, at the suggestion of 
Prof. Cleveland Ahm, for the purpose of collecting 
and comparing weather reports from all parts of 
the country. — Bia daughter. Anna Laikens, is 
known as a writer on political topics. 

DAWES, James W., senator, b. in McConnels- 
ville, Ohio, 8 Jan., 1845. In 1850 he removed with 
his parents to Ncwj>ort, Wis., where he recti veil a 
common-school education. After studying law at 
Fox Lake, Wis., he was admitted to the bar in 1871. 
He was engaged in mercantile business until 1877, 
and since that time has practised his profession. 
He was a member of the Nebraska constitutional 
convention in 1875, and was chosen a U.S. senator 
from that state in 1876. He was chairman of the 
Republican state central committee of Nebraska 
from 1876 till 1882. In 1880 he was a delegate to 
the Republican national convention at Chicago, 
and was a member of the National republican com- 
mittee for Nebraska for a terra of four years. Since 
1875 he has been trustee and secretary of Doane 
college at Crete, Neb. He was elected governor of 
Nebraska in 1882, and re-elected in 1884. 

DAWES, Thomas, patriot, b. in Boston, 5 Aug., 
1731 ; d. there, 2 Jan., 1809. He was a mechanic, 
and had received a common-school education. Dur- 
ing the controversy with Great Britain he was made 
colonel of the Boston regiment in 1773, serving 
until 1778. He often presided at the town-meet- 
ings of Boston. He was a member of the house 
and of the senate, as well as state councillor, and 
also a member of the Academy of arts and sciences. 
— His son, Thomas, jurist, b. in Boston, 8 July, 
1757; d. there, 22 July, 1825, was graduated at 
Harvard in 1777. He was a member of the State 
constitutional conventions of 1780 and 1820, and 
of that which adopted the Federal constitution in 
1789. He was judge of the supreme court of Mas- 
sachusetts from 1792 till 1803, judge of the mu- 
nicipal court from 1803 till 1823, and judge of 
probate until his death. His literary productions 
were popular, and his witticisms proverbial. He 
published an "Oration" (July, 1787), an "Oration 
on the Boston Massacre," and the *• Law Given on 
Mount Sinai" (1777). He was a member of the 
Academy of arts and sciences. — His son, Rufus, 
poet, b. in Boston, 26 Jan., 1803; d. in Washington, 
D. C, 30 Nov., 1859, entered Harvard in 1820, but 
was refused a degree, owing to his supposed partici- 
pation in a breach of discipline. He resented this 
accusation, which was afterward proved to be un- 
just, by publishing a satirical poem on the faculty. 
He studied law, and was admitted to the bar, but 
never practised. He contributed poems to the 
" United States Literary Gazette," published in 
Cambridge, and conducted for a time a weekly 
paper in Baltimore, called the " Emerald." He 

gublished " The Valley of the Nashaway, and other 
oeras " (1830) ; " Geraldine," a composition resem- 
bling " Don Juan " in form and treatment (1839) ; 
" Athena of Damascus," a tragedy founded on the 
siege of Damascus by the Turks, A. D. 634 (1839) ; 
" Nix's Mate," a spirited and successful romance 
(1840); an " Ode on the Death of Walter Scott"-; 
also several songs and poems, some of which were 
sung at the laying of the corner-stone of Bunker 
Hill monument. Mr. Dawes held a government 
office in one of the departments in Washington 
during the latter years of his life. He was a Swe- 
denborgian, and frequently preached. 

DAWES, William, patriot, of Lexington. He 
was despatched to Lexington, with Paul Revere, 
on 18 April, 1775, and rode through Roxbury, Re- 



vere going by way of Charlestown. In the morning 
of 19 April the message from Warren reached 
Adams and Hancock. Revere and Dawes, joined 
by Samuel Prescott, from Concord, rode forward, 
calling the inhabitants. At Lincoln they were but* 

E rifled by a party of British officers, and both 
•awes and Revere were seized and taken to Lex- 
ington. Prescott made his escape to Concord. 

DAWSON, Benjamin Frederick, physician, 
b, in New York city, 28 June, 1847; u. there, 3 
April, 1888. He studied at Columbia, served in 
1864-'5 as assistant surgeon in the U. S. army, 
and was graduated at the College of physicians 
and surgeons in 1866. He then settled in New 
York, making a specialty of obstetrics and di 
of women and children. He invented a new gal- 
vanic battery for galvano-caustic surgery in 1876, 
the superior qualities of which have done much 
to advance that branch of surgery. In 1868 he 
founded the " American Journal of Obstetrics and 
Diseases of Women and Children," which he edited 
until 1874 Among his publications are a trans- 
lation, in conjunction with Prof. Joseph Karaerer, 
of Klob's " Pathological Anatomy of the Female 
Sexual Organs" (1868); an American edition of 
Barnes's " Obstetric Operations," with additions 
(1870) ; and several monographs entitled " The Use 
and Comparative Merits of the Bichloride of Me- 
thyline as an Anaesthetic (1874); and "Relations 
between Alimentation and the Gastro-intcstinal 
Disorders of Infants and Young Children " (1875). 
DAWSON, George, journalist, b. in Falkirk, 
Scotland. 14 March, 1813 ; d. in Albany, N. Y., 17 
Feb., 1883. Though without the advantages of 
early schooling, he obtained an education through 
his own exertions. At five years of age he was 
brought to this country by his parents, and at 
eleven was placed in a printing-office in Niagara 
county, N. Y. In 1826 he removed to Rochester 
and found employment in the office of the " Anti- 
Masonic Inquirer," edited by Thurlow Weed. In 
1830 he accompanied Mr. Weed to Albany, and be- 
came foreman in the office of the " Evening Jour- 
nal." From 1836 till 1839 he was editor of the 
Rochester daily "Democrat," and from 1839 till 
1842 of the Detroit daily "Advertiser," when he 
returned to Rochester and resumed the editorial 
charge of the " Democrat." In 1846 he became as- 
sociate editor of the Albany " Evening Journal," 
and, on Mr. Weed's retirement in 1862, assumed 
control of the paper as senior editor and proprie- 
tor, remaining m that relation until 1877. He was 
postmaster of Albany from 1861 till 1867. In 1850 
lie travelled in Europe. Though ardently devoted 
to the republican party, Mr. Dawson was far above 
the narrow partisan. He was an able and zealous 
advocate of all patriotic and philanthropic enter- 

S rises, and especially of free schools. He was a 
evout Christian, especially active in the benevolent 
works of the Baptist denomination, to which he 
belonged. He gave much time and attention to 
the subject of Sunday-school missions, in connec- 
tion with which he was teacher, superintendent, 
and lay preacher. He was the author of "The 
Pleasures of Angling " (New York, 1876). 

DAWSON, Henry Barton, historian, b. in Gos- 
herton. Lincolnshire, England, 8 June, 1821 ; d. in 
Morrisania, N. Y., 23 May, 1889. He came to Now 
York in 1834. In 1840 he contributed to the daily 
press, and in 1845-'6 undertook the editorship of 
the " Crystal Fount," a temperance newspaper. 1 1 is 
first historical composition was a " History of the 
Park" and its vicinity, which was published in the 
" Corporation Manual " (1855). In 1&58 he 
the publication, in serial form, of his "Battles 



daw 

the United State- by Bai and Land." and 

mm Involved in ■ oon tr ov ers i ooncercing t hi- 
merits of Gen. Israel Putnam. The «•■ «nt t 

was carried "ii bj OOCVMBOOMBOa in the Hurt- 
ford "Post," itml attracted mm-h attention, and 
tin- legislature <<f Connecticut took >.|MM-ial action 
on the subject. The letters wen- subsequently 

[•uNi-hed in book-form, and copii Id a- 

ligh a-'* ♦•"»<>. In 1868 .Mr. DaWBOU made a OOOfe- 

plete transcript of the receipts and disb u rs e ments 
of moneys for the municipal purposes of New 
fork during the occupation of that city by the 

British annv, l??»t to K^t, from the original 

vo uc hors, fn 1868 bo edited the M Fosdemuet," 
the distinguishing feature of hie work being toe 

restoration of the original text and the rejection 
<<f unauthorised mutilations. Its publioatiou culled 

forth an attack by John Jay ami James A. Ham- 
ilton, and a long OOntrOVefSV en-ued. which wits 
afterward reprinted in a volume entitled "Cur- 
rent Fictions tested by Fncurrent Pacta M 1 186 L. 
In 1805 he lH'camee<litorof the " Qaastte," a demo- 
cratic newspaper published in Yonkers. The flrst 
page of the paper WSJ OOSUpied bj historical and 
biuiogtaphioa] material. Judge neleocvof the U. 
ps pr a mo court, once ordered a case to 1*- re- 
argued, in order that articles bearing on it which 
had appeared in the "Gazette" after the oase had 
Ix-cii argued, might 1h- judicially admitted as au- 
thorities. In 1886 Mr. Dawson became editor of 
the " Historical Magazine," which in 1N77 he en- 
larged to double its previous size. He was a mem- 
ber of many learned societies, and read I>efore 
them a large number of papers. He published in 
book-form " Matties of the United States by Sea 
and Land" (New York. IKoSi; •• The Fu-dcralist " 
<lsi^t; :{d ed.. 1864); "Current Fictions" (1804): 
" Recollections of the Jersev Prison-Ship, by Capt. 
Thomas Dring, one of the Prisoners." edited from 
the original manuscript (1805); " Kutgers against 
Waddington "(lN»Wj); and "Westchester Count v in 
the Revolution" (1880). 

DAWSON. John, statesman, b. in Virginia in 
1702: d. in Washington, I>. c.. BO March. 1814. 
He was graduated at Harvard in 17*2. studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar. He was a presiden- 
tial elector on the Washington ticket in 1786, ■ 
niemlier of the Virginia legislature, and a repre- 
sentative of congress from Virginia for nine con- 
secutive terms, serving from 15 May. 17!»7, till 30 

March, 1814. He was b oar er of deapatohee n i 

I'tv-id.-nt Adams to France in 1801, and in tin- 
war of 1812— '5 was one of (Jen. Jackson's aides. 

DAWSON. John Littleton, lawyer, b. in 
Fniontown. I'a.. 7 Feb.. I8l6j d. there. 18 Se|.t.. 
1870. He was educated at Washington college, 
studied law, and was admitted to the bar. practic- 
ing first in Brownsville, Pa. In 1845 he was ap- 
pointed V. S. district attorney for the western 
district of Pennsylvania. He was a member of 
mes from 1851 till 1865, and was elected again 
in lsii7. He was the author of tie- Iloine-t.ad 
bill of 1854. In 1858 he was appointed governor 
of Kansas, but declined the office. He was a dele- 
to the Democratic national conventions of 
[844, 1H4M. I860, and 

DAWSON, Sir John William, Canadian geolo- 
i>. in I'lctoii. Nova Scotia, 18 Oct, 1890. His 
father came from the north of Sot land early in 
the century and settled at Piotou. The son' re- 
ceived his early training at the OoUege of Plctou, 
and, baring finished his oouree there, entered Bdin- 
burgh university, returning to Nova S-otia after 
passing a winter in studv. So early as his tenth 

he manifeated that love of eoienoe which sub- 



DAWSON 



108 




jT/fa&u**^ 



I eequeiitlv hassans hi- • hiaf characteristic, end 
while proHeeuting the n .nm of study at 

I'icton college he made exteosiTe - •;i.-etJons in 
the natural histor 
IK42 he accompanied Sir Charies 
scientific tour in Nova Seotia, mad rigi- 

Dal discoveries m paleontology, and followed up 
hi- investigations b) -tudi.- ..f the i u 

on whi.l, |,i- 
tWO iui|M.rtant panon to the Geological em 
London. In 1846 he returned to Edinburgh uni- 
versity, studying practical chemistry ami other 
subjects In I860 
he was appointed 
superintendent <»i 

education for Nova 
Scotia, an office 

which he held for ^k Stfr 

three nam He 
also aided materi- 
ally in establishing 
a normal school in 
Nova Scotia, and 
in regulating the 

■flairs of the Cni- 

ver-itv Of New 

Brunswick, as a 
member of the 
commission ap- 
pointed f,, r that 
purpose. In con- 
nection with these 

labors be published elaborate reports <>n the - 
of Nova Scotia, and a hand-book entitled 
entitle Contribution! toward the Improvesaonf of 
Agriculture." In I860 he became p rin c ip al and 
profceeor of natural history in Mctiill oollege, 
Montreal. Winn Prof. Dawson was appointed, 
the medical department of the college alone wee la 

a flourishing condition, but soon after he assumed 

the management all the other department! became 
pr o sp erous. In 1857 be secured the establishment 

of .Mctiill normal schi>ol for the training of Prot- 
estant teachers, hfamt it- principal. and lectured 
in it on natural science until 1*70. In 1 v 
established a school of civil engineering, which 
was discontinued in 1W1 by an act of the l< 
ture, but which he revived In is?l as the de|iart- 
ment of practical and applied s cienc e in oonnoc- 
tion with the college over which he presided. Dr. 
Dawson was elected a fellow of the Qeologlnal 
society of London in 1854. and <>f the Royal tot i«-t v 
in lsii2: was elected president of tte American aa- 
sodetkmsnd of the Soya] societyefCanada in 1886, 
and of the Uriti-h assneistion in 1886. Be was 
created a companion of the order of St. Michael and 
8t George in 1888, and knighted in i s ^v la 1861 

he discovered the I>> iuii rr/» tun tirmlinnum, ASM 

utsiisfii, end other fossil reptile*, and in \**'* the 
eonatieaes, the moat imiMirtant of his geo- 
logical discoveries. This f<>--i] had l«ccii before 

noticed by Sir William Logan ; but Dr. Dawson. 
to whom he submitted his specimens, was the firM 
to deinoiistrate it- foniiiiiniferous chanu ter mid 
to flcSMlHwi it- -tiuctun'. Hitherto the I^turentiati 

r.H k- had been regarded a> deroid of life, and 
were known as the a/oie. but Dr. Daw -.n now 
substituted the name sosssn. Whan lbs theory of 

evolution was piini.ii; ground among men of 

ssienoe, Dr. Dawson strongly opposed the extreme 

view, and he has always shown an avavakm to thoee 
gcientiflc hypotheees which s»t-in to threaten the 
foundatione of religious faith. In a coum 

lure- il.liver.il ll ^ in l s ?» '' he con- 

tended that the discoveries of modern science, so 



110 



DAWSON 



DAY 



far as they are facts, harmonize completely with 
the sacred record. In 1hs;{ Dr. Dawson travelled 
in Egypt and Syria. His numerous scientific 
papers include " The Formation of Gypsum." 
•• Boulder Formation," "The Renewal of Forests 
destroyed by Fire," " Mode of Accumulation of 
Coal," and "On the Triassic Red Sandstone of 
Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island." He has 
published in hook-form " Hand-Book of Geography 
and Natural History of Nova Scotia"; "Acadian 
Geology " (1855) ; " Archaia, or Studies of Creation 
in Genesis " (1859) ; " Air-Breathers of the Coal 
Period " ; " Notes on the Post-Pliocene of Canada " 
(is?.!); "The Story of the Earth and Man " (New 
York, 1873); "Science and the Bible" (1875); 
"The Dawn of Life" (1875) ; "The Origin of the 
World " (1877) ; " Fossil Men and their Modern 
Representatives" (1878); " The Change of Life in 
Geological Time " (1880) ; " Chain of Life " (1884) ; 
anil " Egypt and Syria" (1885).— His son, George 
Mercer, Canadian geologist, b. in Pictou, Nova 
Scotia, 1 Aug., 1849, was educated at McGill col- 
lege and at the Royal school of mines, London, 
gaining at the latter the Edward Forbes medal in 
paleontology and the Murchison medal in geology, 
and being graduated as R. S. M. in 1872. In 
1873-'4 he was geologist and naturalist in connec- 
tion with Her Majesty's North American boundary 
commission, and since then has been assistant 
director of the geological survey of Canada. He 
has travelled extensively in British Columbia, the 
Canadian northwest, and in Europe, in connec- 
tion with the investigation of mining industries. 
He is the author of " Geology and Resources of 
the Forty-ninth Parallel," reports in connection 
with geological survey, and numerous papers on 
geology, natural history, and ethnology. 

DAWSON, Samuel Kennedy, soldier, b. in 
Fayette county, Pa., in 1818 ; d. in Orange, N. J., 17 
April, 1889. He was graduated at the U. S. mili- 
tary academy in 1839, and assigned to the 1st artil- 
lery. He served on the frontier at Plattsburg dur- 
ing the Canada border disturbances of 1839, and 
on the Maine frontier, pending the " disputed terri- 
tory " controversy in 1840. During the war with 
Mexico he was at the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca 
de la Palma, and Cerro Gordo, and took part in the 
siege of Vera Cruz. He was promoted to be first 
lieutenant, 18 June, 1846, brevet captain, 18 April, 
1847, captain, 31 March, 1853, and major of the 19th 
infantry, 14 May, 1861. Capt. Dawson took part in 
the campaigns against the Seminoles, 1851- 6, and 
was attached to the party engaged in the pursuit of 
Cortinas's Mexican marauders in 1859. During the 
civil war he was present at the bombardment of 
Fort Pickens, in 1861, and served in the Tennessee 
campaign of 1863, being severely wounded at the 
battle of Chickamauga, for which he was promoted 
to be brevet colonel, and subsequently brevet briga- 
dier-general, for gallant and meritorious services 
during the war. He was commissioned colonel of 
the 19th infantry, 28 July, 1866. In 1865 and 1866 
he commanded a detachment of the 15th infantry 
at Mobile, and the entire regiment at Macon, Ga. 
He was retired 11 May, 1870. 

DAWSON, Simon James, civil engineer, b. in 
Scotland about 1820. He came to Canada when a 
boy. In 1851 he was appointed to plan and super- 
intend the construction of extensive works then 
contemplated on the St. Maurice, to open up the 
vast pine regions of that river and its tributaries 
(previously almost inaccessible to the lumber trade), 
which works he performed successfully. He was 
appointed in 1857 to explore the country from 
Lake Superior to the Saskatchewan, completed 



the work, and reported upon its adaptability for 
settlement. For some years afterward he carried 
on business as a timber-merchant on the St. Maur- 
ice. In 1868 he was coinniissioned to begin the 
construction of the route to Red River, now known. 
as the " Dawson route " ; and in 1870 h'j conducted 
the Red river expeditionary force under Col. (now 
Lord) Wolseley, to suppress the half-breed insur- 
rection in the northwest. In 1873 he was joint 
commissioner with the lieutenant-governor of 
Manitoba and the Indian commissioner of the 
northwest in concluding a treaty with the Saul- 
teux tribe of the Oiibway Indians. Ho resigned 
the charge of the Dawson route on becoming a 
candidate for Algoma, for which he was returned 
at the general election for Ontario in 1875. He 
resigned his seat in the local legislature, and was 
elected for Algoma for the Canadian parliament 
in 1878, and again in 1882. Mr. Dawson has done 
much to improve his constituency and to ameli- 
orate the condition of the Indians, and in parlia- 
ment has advocated the formation into a separate 
province of the great region between the 81st to 
the 95th meridian — »". e., from French river to the 
Lake of the Woods. 

DAWSON, William C, senator, b. in Greene 
county, Ga., 4 Jan., 1798; d. in Greensborough, 
Ga.. 5 May, 1856. He was graduated at Franklin 
college in 1816, and completed his law studies in 
Litchfield, Conn. In 1818 he was admitted to the 
bar, and settled in Greensborough, where he was 
successful as a jury lawyer. He was clerk of the 
house of representatives of the general assembly of 
the state for twelve years, and several times sena- 
tor and representative in the legislature. He was 
a member of congress from 1836 till 1842, being 
chairman of the military committee and of the 
committee on claims. He was appointed judge of 
the Ocmulgee circuit in 1845, and U. S. senator 
from 1849 till 1855, serving on important commit- 
tees, and speaking on many questions of national 
interest. He published " Laws of Georgia" (1831). 

DAY, George Edward, author, b. in Pittsfield, 
Mass., 19 March, 1815. He was graduated at Yale 
in 1833, and at Yale theological seminarv in 1838, 
when he became assistant instructor there until 
1840. From 1840 till 1851 he was settled as a pas- 
tor in Marlboro and Northampton, Mass. He was 
professor of biblical literature in Lane theological 
seminary from 1851 till 1866, when he was ap- 
pointed professor of the Hebrew language, litera- 
ture, and biblical theology in the theological de- 
partment of Yale. He edited the "Theological 
Eclectic " from 186$ till 1871, when it was united 
with the " Bibliotheca Sacra." He has translated 
Van Oostersee's "Titus," in Lange's "Commen- 
tary," and also Van Oostersee's " Biblical Theology 
of the New Testament." He was a contributor to 
Smith's " Bible Dictionary," and has published ar- 
ticles in periodicals and " Reports on the Instruc- 
tion of the Deaf and Dumb" (1845 and 1861). 

DAY, George Tiffany, clergvraan, b. in Concord 
(now Day), Saratoga co., N. Y., 8 Dec., 1822 ; d. in 
Providence, R. I., 21 May, 1875. At five years of 
age he was set to work in a cotton-mill in Hope, 
R. I., and for several years his time was occupied 
alternately in the cotton-mill and at school. He 
studied theology, and in 1846 was ordained and 
entered ujh)!i Ids first pastorate in Grafton. Mass., 
where he remained till 1850. While serving in 
various other places he became connected in 1849 
with the " Morning Star " as assistant editor. He 
was also one of the editorial council of the " Free- 
will Baptist Quarterlv," begun in 1853. He vi»ited 
Europe in 1857 and 1866. In December, 1866, he 



DAY 



DAY 



111 



resigned pastoral duties end became editor-in-chief 
of the •* Moral off St. i will Bsntisft weekly 

paper, pubUehed in - EL, mm afterward 

removed In this editorship be 

tinned until his death. See his " Memoiri n by the 
William II. Bowen, I». I>. (Dover, N. II.. 1878). 
i> v \. Il.intiiii.il. oldier. ».. in Vermonl 

<l. in MorrietOWn, N. .1.. 'J"> March, l^iH. Ilcwu 

the son of Dr. 8ylvester Day. He was graduated ai 

the V. s. military academy In 1888, and made sec- 
ond lieutenant IntheSd infantry. On t April, is:i2, 
he waa oommiaalooed Brat lieutenant, and in the 

same year took part in the Black Hawk cx|>edition, 
tint was not on dutv at tin- seat of war. lie also 

■ I in the Florida wan In 1888 "'.» and lH41-'2, 
ami ill t lit- war with Mexico in 1848-*?. Re was 
commissioned captain. 7 July, 1h;{h. major, 18 Feb.. 

.. lieutenant-colonel. 89 Feb., 1881, and col I, 

7 Jan., 1862. He commanded a brigade of the 5th 
corps in the Pennsylvania campaign in lK«tt, taking 
part in the battle of Qetiiabmg. Be was retired 

from active duty, "on his own application after 
forty consecutive years of service.' 1 A.1U&, ls<>:{, 
and emploved on militarv OOmmlSBJOIIS aiMIIKMIlla 
martial from '-'•"> July. 1864 On i;{ March. IniT,, he 
was brovotted brigadier-general for long service. 

D \ \ . Henry, lawyer, i>. in South Haclley, If ass. 
89 Deo, 1820. He was graduated at Vale'in lH4r>. 
He took oharge of the osandonl academy at Pair- 
Bald, Conn., until 1847, studied in the Harvard 
law-school, was admitted to the bar in the autumn 
of 1S48, ami Bottled in New York city. He was a 

Boaaber of the rVeabyterian (old school) general 

assembly that convened in St. Louis in lHli?, and 
of the assembly that met in Albany in \h(\h. He 
strongly advocated the union of the old and new 
schools, and was one of the committee that visited 
the new-school assembly, then in session in Harris- 
burg, and laid before it the views of the old-school 
assembly on the subject of union. He afterward 
drafted the articles for the basis of union, which 
were ratified in lNfi!> at Pittsburg by the joint 
meeting of the two assemblies. lie became a di- 
rector in the Princeton theological seminary in 
1885, and a trustee and director in the Union theo- 
logical seminary in 1H70. He has published "The 
Lawyer Abroad, or Observations on the Social and 
Political Condition of Various Countries" (New- 
York. 1N74): and " From the Pyrenees to the Pil- 
lars of Hercules" (1883). 

DAT, Henry Wright, Canadian physician, b. 
in the township of Kingston, 6 Sept, 1881. He 
was educated at Newburg academv, and at (Queen's 
university, Kingston, Iieing graduated M. I), in 
1808. He began practice in Trenton, and in 1888 
was elected a me mber of the council of physicians 
and surgeons of Ontario for the Quints' ami Cata- 
raxjui districts. He has also been president of the 
council of the College <>f physicians and mrgeona 
of Ontario. When the first Fenian raid occurred, 
in 1KM. he organized a battery of garrieOO artillery. 
He was the first mayor of Trenton, and has been 

f iresident of the provisional lx>ard of directors of 
he Central Ontario railway. 

DAY, Horace IL, manufacturer, b. in 1818; d. 
in Manchester, N. II.. 88 An:.. 1878. He was a 
licensee under Charles Goodvear's rubl»er patents, 
which were granted in 1848, and identified with 
the India-rubber trade from its inception. He 

Was the exclusive licensee under tile patents for 

the manufacture of shirred goods, which wen- - 

sequently found to Im> objectionable. Charles Good- 
year, owner of the patents, broughl suits against 
Mr. Day for Infringement of the woven-goods rigbl 

of the patent. Mr. Day instituted cross-suits, and 



m »»« the rwealt. The moat oale- 
nf all the suits was triad »t Trenton, n J . 
Daniel Wclmter appcarinc*- eounxrl f 
vi-ar. and RnfUS i \| r . I» N% . M, \\ . ,.... r 

left his vat in the I'. S. ejufta totff} the aaai 

I <15.000 as a retainer, and bia argument 
at the trial was regarded as one of his beat. Ha 
won the ease, and Mr. Day s ui rs u dorad hi* licenaa, 
transferred his factory and mnchim-rv to \YQlbua 
Judaon, a representative of Mr ir . nnd 

agreed ti> retire from the I, .,,„, „{ 

*:{."•( l.<NM», and OOnneet-fseS amounting to 881 ' 
ditional. all of which amounts vera Mid to him in 
)W2. Previous to this time Mr. I»ay had < •-nceired 
the idea of utilizing tin- aalai UOWSI of Niagara 
falls. Asearlvas 1K*»«1 he had disc ii**ed the »ub- 



ject in pamphlets and BBwananaCB, and had organ- 

i/e.| a company, with himself ej \ i. ••-■■residJant» 

tnaenrar, and leading dlreotur. a canal wa 



Rtrneted at gnat pos^ the estate of \Vait.-r Bmint 

alone ex|H>nding $2t«MHH». The canal began about 
half a mile above the falls, and ti-rmiunt'-d 0M 
fourth of a mile below them. It was l«M» |pj| « 

| with a depth of ten feet along its whole length. 

When Mr. Day bougfal the property the OBnal 
not finished, and the Bryant estate had I- 

hanoted in the enterprise. Mr. Day oompieted the 

canal, lioiight Grass island for a burin. r. and ii- 
ponded $700,000. Hut the work was paid out t.. 
sat isfv mortgages in 1N77. Mr. Da\- n«\t venture 
was the e-tablishinetit of a mammoth rubber sntsr* 
|irise in New Jersey, but he received S-Jo.ooo to 
withdraw from it. His later speculations wen- un- 
fortunate, his large fortune was gone, and he be- 
came comparatively |>oor. 

DAY, Jeremiah, clergyman, b. in Colchester, 
Conn.. 2«; Jan.. 17:{m: <1. iti Connecticut, 18 Sept.. 

1808. He was desce nd ed from KoUrt Day. who 

emigrated from England in 1884, and whom aaaaa 

is recorded upon a iiionuinent erected t<> the mem- 
ory of the first settlers of Hartford by the 1st 
C on gregational church of thai city. His father, 
Thomas, great-grandaon of Boberi Day, sx-t t l«-«l 
upon a farm, and, 00 discovering the boyafOnd- 
ness for study, sent him to Yale, where he was 

graduated in 1758. After leaving e pi lo gs, be 

taught in Sharon until he began his clerical a radi s s, 
in 1757, with the Iwv. Joseph Bellamy, of Bethle- 
hem. Having a valuable farm on Sharon mountain 

left to him by his brother's will, he oc cup ied it. 
and devoted his life to mathematical and ethical 
studies, aa well aa to agricultural l«l>or. In refer- 
ence to this period he afterward wrote a " Poem on 
the Pleasure- of a Country Life." After the death 

of his wife be resolved Bgahl tO devote his life to 

the ministry, ami resumed his theological Studies, 
under the direction of the Rev. DottOO Mather 

Smith. In September, 1788, he was licensed to 
preach, and ordained pa-tor of the rjongragntional 

okureh in Kew Pie-ton. Conn. He was one of the 
first missionaries from Connecticut to the new set- 
tlements in the country, making his first tour in 
17MM. At the Commencement Of Yale in IT'.M h.- 

oreacheci the "Oonaoio ad Oerusa," his snMeet 
being the eternal preazistenos of the world. Mr. 
Day pubUahed a aermoo delivered before the Litch- 
field county assot buioa on the ■ Wisdom of <i>«l u 
the P erm is sion of Sin "fl 774). There is a volume 
of his discourses entitled "Sermons Colli 

lb- also planned a longpoeSB, "The Vision 
of St. John." which was not pubUahed. He was 
one of the editors of the ••Connecticut K\ angelical 
M :„•" from its establishment until his 

n. Jeremiah, wlu< ator. U in New Preston. 
c.inu.. :» Au-. 177:«: d. in New Batrm, Coma, 22 



112 



DAY 



DAY 



Aug., 1867. He was graduated at Yale with high 
honor in 1795. When Dr. Dwight was appointed 

E resident of that college, Mr. Day was invited to 
e his successor as head-master in Greenfield school, 
where he remained one fear. The following year 
he became a tutor at Williams, where he remained 
until 1798, when he was offered a similar place at 
Yale. He began to preach as a candidate for the 
ministry, but before taking charge of any parish 
was elected to the professorship of mathematics 
and natural philosophy at Yale, in 1801, but was 
not able to enter upon these new duties until 1803. 
He was made president of Yale in 1817, which 
office he held until his resignation in 1846. Having 
previously studied theology, Dr. Day was ordained 
the same day that ho was inaugurated president. 
In 1817 he received the degree of LL. D. from 
Middlebury, in 1818 the degree of D. D. from 
Union, and the latter also from Harvard in 1831. 
His learning and talents, united with kindness of 
heart and soundness of iudgment, secured the 
respect of his pupils as well as their affection. He 
published an "Algebra" in 1814, which passed 
through numerous editions, the latest of which 
was issued in 1852, by the joint labors of himself 
and Prof. Stanley. He wrote also " Mensuration 
of Superficies and Solids" (1814); "An Examina- 
tion of President Edwards's Inquiry as to the Free- 
dom of the Will" (1814); "Plane Trigonometry" 
(1815) ; " Navigation and Surveying " (1817); " An 
Inquiry on the Self-determining Power of the Will, 
or Contingent Volition "(1838; 2d ed., 1849); and 
occasional sermons. He contributed papers to the 
"American Journal of Science and Arts, the " New 
Englander," and other periodicals. An address com- 
memorative of his life and services was delivered 
by President Woolsey (1867).— His daughter, Mar- 
tha, poet, b. in New Haven, Conn., 13 Feb., 1813 ; 
d. there, 2 Dec, 1833, attained great proficiency 
in mathematics and languages. A collection of 
her " Literary Remains, with Memorials of her 
Life and Character," was published by her friend 
and relative, Prof. Kingsley (New Haven, 1834). — 
Henry Noble, clergyman and author, nephew of 
the second Jeremiah, b. in New Preston, Conn., 4 
Aug., 1808, was graduated at Yale in 1828, and was 
tutor there from 1831 till 1834. He then travelled 
for fifteen months in Europe, and in 1836 was ap- 
pointed pastor of the 1st Congregational church in 
Waterbury, Conn., where he remained until 1840. 
He was professor of rhetoric and homiletics in 
Western reserve college, Ohio, from 1840 till 1858. 
During that time he was engaged in the manage- 
ment of the Cleveland and Pittsburg railroad, and 
for ten years, that, with three important connecting 
radroads (of two of which he was president) occu- 
pied his time. In 1858 he became president of 
Ohio female college, where he remained until his 
resignation in 1864. Prof. Day has published 
" The Art of Elocution " (New Haven, 1844 ; re- 
vised ed., Cincinnati, 1860) ; " Fundamental Phi- 
losophy from Krug " (Hudson, Ohio, 1848); "The 
Art of Rhetoric " (Hudson, 1850 ; revised under the 
name of the " Art of Discourse," New York. 1867) : 
" Rhetorical Praxis " (Cincinnati, 1860) ; " The Art 
of Book-keeping "(1861); "The Logic of Sir Will- 
iam Hamilton " (1863) ; " Elements of Logic " 
(New York, 1867); "The Art of Composition" 
(1867) ; " The American Speller " (1869) ; " Intro- 
duction to the Study of English Literature " (1869) ; 
" The Young Composer " (1870) ; " Logical Praxis " 
(New Haven, 1872); "The Science of Esthetics " 
(1872) ; " The Elements of Psychology " (New York, 
1876) ; " The Science of Ethics " (1876) ; " Outlines 
of Ontological Science, or a Philosophy of Knowl- 



edge and of Being" (1878); "The Science of 
Thought " (1886) ; and -Tin- Elements of Mental 
Science" (1886). He has received the dc:; 
I). 1). from Farmer's college. Cincinnati, and that 
of LL. D. from Ingham university of New York, 
and also from the State university of Iowa,.— 
Another son, Thomas, jurist, b. in New Preston, 
Conn., 6 July, 1777; d. in Hartford, 1 March, 1855, 
was graduated at Yale in 1797. studied law at 
Litchfield, and from September. 1798, till Septem- 
ber, 1799, was a tutor in Williams college. He 
was admitted to the bar in December, 1799, and 
began practice in Hartford. In 1809 he Wll ap- 
pointed assistant secretary of the state of Connecti- 
cut, and in 1810 secretary, an office which he re- 
tained until 1835. In May, 1815, he became asso- 
ciate judge of the county court of Hartford, acting 
in this capacity, with the exception of one year, till 
May, 1825, when he was made chief judge of that 
court, and so continued until June. 1833. He was 
a judge of the city court of Hartford from 1818 
till 1831, and one of the committee to prepare the 
statutes of 1808, and also of 1821 and 1824. He re- 
ported the decisions of the court of errors from 
1805 till 1853, which were published in twenty vol- 
umes. He also edited several English law-works, 
amounting altogether to forty volumes, in which 
he introduced notices of American decisions, and 
also of later English cases. He was an original 
member of the Connecticut historical society, of 
which he was president from 1839 until his death. 

DAY, .Mali ton. publisher, b. in Morristown, N. 
J., 27 Aug., 1790; d. at sea, 27 Sept., 1854. He 
acquired a competence as a bookseller in New York 
city, and for fifteen years before his death devoted 
his life to charitable and educational objects. He 
was a member of the Society of Friends. He was 
lost in the wreck of the steamship "Arctic" off 
Cape Race, Newfoundland. 

DAY, Samuel Stearns, missionary, b. in Leeds 
county, Canada, in 1808 ; d. in Cortlandville, N. Y., 
in October, 1871. He was graduated at the Hamil- 
ton literary and theological institution (now Madi- 
son university) in 1835, was ordained, and sailed 
for India, landing at Calcutta in February, 1836. 
He went to Vizigapatam, and in 1837 to Madras, 
in order to qualify himself for his work. He was 
appointed to the Telugus, a large and intelligent 
race of Hindoos, numbering about 14,000,000, and 
occupying the country between Orissa and Madras, 
removed to Nellore, the centre of his field, in 1840, 
and labored zealously among the Telugus for eigh- 
teen years He made a short visit to the United 
States in 1845, and returned to India. He could 
not endure the climate of the Madras coast, and 
was compelled to return to his native country in 
1863. Where he toiled alone in the east and with- 
out apparent results, several churches and schools 
are now established for the education and training 
of native missionaries. 

DAY, Thomas, English author, b. in London, 
22 June, 1748; d. 28 Sept., 1789. He studied law, 
but never practised, having inherited a large for- 
tune. He sympathized with the American patriots, 
and advocated their cause at public meetings. 
Having adopted the peculiar social views of Rous- 
seau, he selected two girls from a foundling hos- 
pital, with the intention of educating them and 
making one of them his wife, but the experiment 
did not succeed. He is the author of " The Dying 
Negro," written in conjunction with Mr. Bicknell 
(1773); "The Devoted Legions," a poem against 
the war with America (1776) ; " The Desolation of 
America," a poem (1777); "Reflections on the 
Present State of England and the Independence 



PAY AN 



DAVTnN 



113 



Mariu» w {l" 
udfordand Morton," his liest known 
book ( l . md other works. 

I>\\ V\. ( h.nli v lawyer, l». in Amsterdam, X. 
8 July, 1798: d. in bowville, N. Y 

His early life wus stx-nt <'ii a fanii. and In- 

ved a public-school education and liecaine a 

teacher. Hi' studied law, was admitted to tin- Utr, 

and pt >0t bod at LoWViUe. He was a member of 

the state senate in 1887-"8, being prsoidsnl 1 1 »• - 
ad jeer; acting Uentonant-governor in 188)0, 

end M such was president of the court of errata, 
II. was elected to congress from New York as a 
democrat, serving from 5 Dec^ 1881, till *-' March, 
Il«- ra a member of the state boon of rep* 
resentatives in ls:t">-'»;, and was <li»t rit-t attorney 
for Lewis county from 1H40 till 1845. 

I) V \ B, Stcplien, the first printer in the Knglish- 
American colonics, b. in London in 1611; d. in 
Cambridge, Mass., 22 Dec. HWSN. In connectiOB 
with the (banding of Harvard college in 1888, the 
first printing-press was established in this country. 
Through the instrumentality of the Re*. .Joseph 
(ilover, a wealthy non-oonformist minister, a press 
and material were shipped from England, accom- 

fwmied by Mr. (ilover and Thomas Dave, whom be 
md engaged n lirnfhn. Dave was supposed to 
be a descendant of John Day, one of the most emi- 
nent and wealthy of early "English typographers. 
On the passage over Mr. Glover died, bu1 Dave 
dulv entered uj»on the work, set up the press, and, 
by direction of the magistrates and elders, in Janu- 
ary, 16139, printed the " Freeman's Oath," which 
was the first issue of the colonial press. It was 
claimed that Dayc had served an apprenticeship in 
London : but his deficiencies as a compositor, indi- 
cated by errors of punctuation and spelling, by the 
division of monosyllables by a hyphen at the end 
of lines, and similar technical blunders, lead to the 
presumption that, though bred a printer, he had 
been chiefly accustomed to press-work, in which he 
was more successful. The second work printed 
was an almanac, made by William Pierce, mariner 
<K»o!*); then the Psalms. " newly turned into nut re. 
for the edification and comfort of the saints" (1640). 
He also printed a "Catechism," " Body of Liber- 
ties," containing one hundred laws of the colony 
(1641 ; 2d ed., 1648), which were ordered to be sold 
in quires at three shillings each. Dayc was sn- 
i>erseded in the management of the press, in 1649. 
be the appointment by the magistrates and elders, 
although no reason was ever given for their action. 
of Samuel Green as printer. The general court of 
Massachusetts, in October, 1641. showed a due ap- 
preciation of Dave's thirteen years' work bv grant- 
ing him 300 acres of land for " l>eing the first that 
sett upon printing." 

DAYTON. A in os Cooper, phvsician and clergy- 
man. l». in Plainfleld, N. J., 4 Sept, 1818; d. In 
Perrvi Ga., 11 June, 1865. lie was graduated at 
the Medical college of New York city in 1834, and 
soon removed to the south in search of health. He 
was at first a Presbyterian, hut l>ecame dissatisfied 
with his church relations, and in 1888, whilfl re- 
siding in Yicksburg, Miss., having adopted I'.ap- 
tist views, united with that denomination. Hence- 
forth he was distinguished for his oontrorersia] 
writings. Besides being associate editor of the 
nnessee Baptist." he was the author of two re- 
us novels, "Theodosia" and "The Infidel's 

'iter." The first had a wide circulation. 
DAYTON, Ellas, Revolutionary officer, b, in 
Blisabethtown, N. •».. m July. 1 7:57 : d. then 

1807. He began Ids military career by join- 
ing the British forces, and fought in the " J. 
VOL. IL — 8 



blues" under Wolfe at Qui I sjuently he 

commanded a company of militia, with which he 

marched on an e\pe.|u 

dlene, lb wan s member of th< 

at the beginning of the 1: 

conjunction with William Alexander. Lord - 

ling, commanded a party whioh ceptUTed I I 

tran-port ..ff rSiaabethtown (July, 1778 
appointed ookmel of the 8d battalion. Nee Jer- 

■utincntal Una. PeL, 1 7 7*1. and in the 
summer of 177* until the okas of the war had 
command of the, Jersey brigade, Deytoo sided In 
SBjppreesing the mutiny ..f the .V id,- iii 

17*1. Be was made brigadie r -gen er al a 
and was in mt i\ . iurin«: the entire war, 

taking a prominent jwirt in the battles of Brandy- 
wine, Oermantown, Monmouth, nnringfield. and 

Yorktown. He hsn thne h under him: 

one »t Oermantown, one at Crosjwiek's Bridge, 

and one at Springfield. After tin- war he 
several times in the legislature of bJi entire state, 
and was made major-general of militia, ami SJSSJ> 
bar Of the Continental congress from 17*7 ti 
Upon the formation of the New JerSO] S« -iet\ of 
the Cincinnati. (Jen. Dayton was sleeted president, 
which office he held until his death. There was a 
strong resemblance be t w ee n Biles Dayton and 

Washington. — His son, Jonathan, statesman. I>. in 
Blutabethtown, N. J.. hum.. 1 7«m» : d. there, 8 OoL 
1884, was graduated at Princeton in 177<<. studied 
law, and was admitted to tin- bar. lb- entered the 
Continental army, and Wee appointed paymaster 
of his father's regiment, 88 Aug.. 1 77»1 : was an 
aide-de-camp to Cm. Sullivan in the expedition 
against the Six Nations in 1778, and was discharged 
at the close of the war as a captain of the 1st 
inent in the New Jersey Continental line. In 1T9H 
be was made a brigadier-general in the P. S. army. 
He was for a few years a member of the New 
house of repres en ta ti ves, end its speaker in 1790. 
lie wee a delegate from New Jersey to the conven- 
tion that framed the Federal constitution in 17 H 7. 

He was elected to con gres s from New .b : 

17'.M, and re-elected for three eouseentive terms. 
being speaker during the two last congKSOi 
■erring till :$ March, 17W. He was elected U, s. 
senator from New Jersey, and •erred from I 
1788, till 8 March. 1888. He was arrested for 
alleged conspiracy with Aaron Burr, but was not 

tried. He received the degn f LL. D. from the 

College of New Jersey in 1 o ,s . 

DAYTON, William Lewis, statesman, b. in 
Baskingridge. N. J.. 17 Pebw, 1*«>7: d. in Paris, 
Prance, 1 Deo, 1864 He wee graduated at Prince- 
ton in 1888, and 
received the de- 
gree Of Id '■ D. 
from that col- 
lege in 1867. He 
studied law in 
Litchfield. Conn., 
and was admit* 
bid to tin* liar in 
isao, beginning 

his practice in 
Trenton. N. J, 
In lXf7 he was 

elected to the 

slate council (SJ 
the senate was 

then Belled), be- 
ing made chair- 
man of the ju- 
diciarv column 
the supreme OOUl of the state in 1838, and in HHJI 




He became associate judge of 



114 



DAZA 



DEAN 



was appointed to fill a vacancy in the U. S. senate. 
His appointment was confirmed by the legislature 
in 184S, and he wasaNo eleoted for the whole term. 
In the senate debates on the Oregon question, the 
tariff, annexation of Texas, and the Mexican war. 
he took the position of a free-soil whig. He was 
the friend and adviser of President Taylor, and 
opposed the fugitive-slave bill, but advocated the 
admission of California as a free state, and the abo- 
lition of slavery in the District of Columbia. In 
I860 lie was nominated by the newly formed repub- 
lican party for vice-president. In March, 1857, he 
was made attorney-general for the state of New 
Jersev, and held that office until 1861, when Presi- 
dent Lincoln appointed him minister to France, 
where he remained until his death. — His son, Will- 
iam Lewis, who was graduated at Princeton in 
1858, and practised law in Trenton, was appointed 
by President Arthur minister to the Netherlands. 

DAZA, Hilarion (dah'-thah), Bolivian states- 
man, b. at Sucre, in 1840, of humble parentage, 
partly Indian. The name of his father, a Spaniard, 
was Grosoli, but the son adopted his maternal 
family name, Daza. When eighteen years of age 
he volunteered in the army of the liberals. Subse- 
quent successful revolutions brought him into no- 
tice, and won him the patronage and confidence of 
Melgarejo. To explore the courses of the rivers 
Pilcomayo and Bcrmejo, flowing into the Para- 
guay, numerous fruitless expeditions have been or- 
ganized ; and in one of these, during the brief lull 
in political strife that marked the dictatorship of 
Melgarejo, the vear 1867 found voung Daza sec- 
ond in command, with the rank of lieutenant-colo- 
nel. He was conspicuous in January, 1871, in 
league with his colonel, Juan Granier, against his 
former friend and patron. On the deposition of 
Melgarejo, Daza, at the head of his regiment of 
cuirassiers, held in check the turbulent factions at 
La Paz, for which services he was rewarded by 
President Morales with further promotion and 
the portfolio of war. As minister and general he 
succeeded in maintaining order after the death of 
Morales in 1872, and insured the peaceful accession 
of the constitutional successor. In the same year 
he supported the candidature of Ballivian, and on 
the death of the latter became himself a candidate 
for the presidency against Salinas (the civil candi- 
date), Oblitas, and Vasquez (the representative of 
the Corral party). When the elections were over a 
dispute ensued as to the majority, and Daza, it is 
contended, seized the office as his right, and was in- 
augurated on 4 May, 1876. His government was 
popular, and troubled with as few revolutions as 
that of any of his predecessors. At the beginning 
of the war with Chili, 1 March, 1879, he set out 
at the head of his troops, leaving the government 
in charge of Sefior Guerre, minister of foreign af- 
fairs. Of Daza's part in this war Markham says : 
"The Bolivian army under his command, 4,000 
strong, arrived at Tacna, in Peru, on 30 April, but 
in the short duration of his command Daza proved 
himself as incapable as* cowardly. Two battalions 
were detached under Col. Villamil's command to 
garrison Pisagua on 25 May, and when, on 2 Nov., 
the Chilian army invaded the province of Tarapaca, 
Daza's army, according to arrangements made with 
the commander-in-chief of the allied forces, was to 
advance from Arica to take the invaders in the 
rear while they were engaged with the army of 
Tarapaca. Daza began his march from Tacna with 
3,000 men, loitered three days at Ark'a, started 
again on 11 Nov., and on the 12th marched over 
fifteen miles of sandy desert to the little river Vi- 
tor. He advanced one more march to the defile of 



the river Camaronos, but then- stopped again, and 
on 16 Nov. abandoned the work he had undertaken, 
leaving the army of Tarapaca to its fate, and re- 
turned to Tacna. his own soldiers threatening to 
shoot him as a coward." On 27 Dec., having been 
called to Arica for a consultation by Admiral Moh- 
tero, Daza received the news that during his ab- 
sence his army had rebelled and deposed him, and 
on his return voyage to La Paz he heard at Aiv- 
quipa, in January, 1880, of a revolution at the 
capital, which proclaimed Gen. Narciso Campero as 
his successor. He then went to Paris. 

DEALY, Patrick Francis, clergyman, be in 
New York, of Irish parentage, in 1836. He was 
educated in thegrammar-schoolsof New York city, 
and afterward entered St. John's college, Fordham. 
After teaching in Fordham and in the Jesuit col- 
lege of Montreal, he was sent to Europe to finish 
his theological studies. He continued his ecclesi- 
astical course in France, and afterward in Rome, 
but, owing to the danger of disturbances there in 
1859, he was sent by his superiors to the University 
of Innspruck. He returned to the United States 
in 1863, and was appointed professor of rhetoric in 
St. John's college, Fordham. He was afterward 
rector of the church of St. Francis Xavier, New 
York. During his pastorate the new church was 
completed, principally through his instrumentality. 
He was selected bv Cardinal McCloskey to take 
charge of the first pilgrimage that ever left America 
for Rome, and was treated with great distinction by 
the pope and cardinals. He founded the Xavier 
Union in 1871, and took a prominent part in the 
formation of the Catholic union, a body consisting 
of the leading Catholics of the state, which watches 
over Catholic interests. He was appointed their 
spiritual director by Cardinal McCloskey, and was 
the medium of communication between them and 
the cardinal. On his appointment as rector of 
Fordham college in 1880, tne representative Catho- 
lics of New York petitioned the general of the order 
to allow him to remain in the city, as the numerous 
societies with which he was connected would suffer 
by his absence. Thi3 was refused, but he was al- 
lowed to continue his connection with the Xavier 
and Catholic unions. Father Dealy did much for 
the development of St. John's college, Fordham. 
He founded four scholarships of the yearly value 
of $400, open to competitors without distinction of 
creed, and established a special scientific course. He 
is a member of Convocation, and has lectured before 
the historical societies of New York and Brooklyn, 
principally on the early history of New York. 

DEAN," Amos, lawyer, b. in Barnard, Vt., 16 Feb., 
1803 ; d. 26 Jan., 1868. He was graduated at Union 
in 1822, studied law, and on his admission to the 
bar formed a partnership of long continuance with 
Azor Tabor, and soon attained a high reputation 
for his legal attainments. In 1833 he projected the 
Young men's association of Albany, of which he 
was a lifelong friend and supporter, and in 1834 
delivered before it a course of lectures, subsequently 
published. He prepared numerous treatises on law 
subjects, which have been recognized as standard 
works. In 1851, on the organization of the law- 
school, he was appointed a professor, and he had 
also filled the chair of medical jurisprudence in the 
Albany medical school from its organization in 
1839. He is the author of "Lectures on Phre- 
nology" (1835); " Manual of Law " (1838); "Phi- 
losophy of Human Life " (Boston, 1839) ; " Medi- 
cal Jurisprudence " (1854) ; and " Bryant and Strat- 
ton's Commercial Law " (New York, 1861V, He left 
unfinished an elaborate work on the "History of 
Civilization " (7 vols., Albany, 1869-70). 












115 



DEAN. Gilbert, jurist, b. in Pleasant Valley. 
Dntoh— 1 « Aiiu'.. 1810; d. in Po 

keei - mdiuted at \ 

in [841. Afterward hastodisd Taw, was admit t.-d 
to thf bar in Connecticut, and in May, 1844, in 
fork. He practised iti Poughkeepsie in 1844 
hikI then removed 1* i — <>!Vi York city. 1 It- 

was chosen to congress from the districts com |M>s,d 
of Dutches and Putnam counties, and served from 
1861 till 1858; was rv-clcctc<l for a second term, 
but resigned t<> accept the office of justice of the 
supreme court of New York, to which lie was nj»- 

potnted by the goTernor, in Jane, 1854) to till the 
unexpired term of Seward Barculo, deceased, lie 
served <>n the U-nch almost eighteen months, god 
was during the last Vear (1855) one of the judges 
of the court of ap|M-aN. 

IM V.\, James, educator, !>. in Windsor, Vt., 
M Mov., L776; «1. in Burlington. Vt, 90 .Ian.. 1840. 
ile was descended from .lames Dean, of Stoning- 
ton. lie was graduated at Dartmouth in 1800, WSJ 
a tutor in the I'niversity of Vermont in l807-*9, 
and a professor of mathematics and natural phi- 
losophy then- Iron 1809 till 1814. He was sJso 
professor in Dartmouth till the supreme court .1.- 
cided in favor of the old college, and the new 
ceased to exist, when he resumed his place in the 
University of Vermont, holding it from 1821 till 
1884. He published a "(iazettc-r of Vermont" 
ilsos), and an address delivered on his induction 
as professor (1810). 

DEAN, John Ward, author, b. in Wisea>set, 
M. .. U March, lNir>. His routh was spent in Port- 
land. Me. From 1*39 till 1843 he resided in Provi- 
dence, 11. I., and since then in and near Boston. 
He has tilled for many years several offices in the 
New England genealogical society, to whose " Reg- 
ister" he has contributed valuable papers. Among 
the paper* edited by him for the society is a curi- 
ous piece of ancient writing, "A Declaration of 
Remarkable Providences in the Course of My 
Life, by John Dane, of Ipswick. 1882." In May. 
1870. Mr. Dean was chosen president of the Prince 
society, of which he was one of the founders; and 
he has also been recording secretary of the Ameri- 
can statistical association. He has accumulated an 
amount of historical knowledge such as few men 
possc>s. Ile has edited the first and a portion of 
the SBOOnd volumes of the first series, and one Dum- 
ber of the fourth volume of the second scries, of 
the "Historical Magazine." He is the author of 
"Memoir of Kev. Nathaniel Ward." with notices 
of his familv (Albany, 18(58): and M Memoir of Kev. 
Michael Wigglesworth" (Albany, 1871); has i.tib- 
lished pamphlets, and has also edited the "New 
England Historical and Genealogical Register." 

DEAN, Julia, actress, l>. in Pleasant Vallev, 
V Y.. ^ July, 1830; d. in New York city. (5 March. 
180N. She was the daughter of Julia Drake, an 
actress, who married Thomas Posdiok for her first 
husband, and later Edmund Dean, a well-known 
manager of Buffalo and Rochester theatres. Her 
education for the stage was accomplished under 
his direction. She app eared first as Lady Ellen 
in "The Lady of the Lake," during 1848, in Lools- 
ville. Ky. loiter in the same year she filled an 
engagement at the Bowery theatre. New York, and 
a p| .eared as Julia in "The Hunchback." Her suc- 
cess was flattering, and in Noveml>ei, 1K4»!, she 
played the same part at the Arch street theatre, 
Philadelphia. In 1K."> she married Dr. Arthur 
i.e. of Charleston. 8. C. In May, lK-Vi, she 
sailed for San Francisco, and after an al.senec of 
nearly two years returned to the east with the 
proceeds of a very successful tour. She was di- 



\orvcd from her Ini-Und. BBJ the ground of his 
(allure to support her. and iii Inm; ii Mrr icd James 
per, of S, w v., r k. Bar last np|- 
York was in OctoU 

juvenile tragedy and huh eoenadi p 

di v Y p. mi. Milan, i.. in Barnard, Vt ; 

d. in Fraiuinghaiii, Ma**., 1 (J In Imm 

ha was ordained neater of has Urnvsrsehel »"<*iety 

in Birr.-. Vt. He was |«aM.. r of the Hanover 
street church, Boston, Mn«.. from 1hi:| till 1H8S, 
and of the Bultin.-h street < hutch from May, 1881, 

till May, 1840. Tin- oongrasjatioa «u< known as 
" Restoration ists," and >" ixi* .hang.il it- name, 
and has since bean I'nitarian. 11. «..» afterward 

settled over a Unitarian congregation at Ka 

Mass. Ile published "Lectures OB Final Reato- 
nition " (IXJ'J). and sarmons and a-Mrewea. 

DEAN, William, misakmary, I., in Fjit..n. 
N. V.. 81 June. im<»7. He was graduated Ht lb* 
Hamilton literary and theological msdtutioi 

Madison university ) in 1888, and In the BUB 

was ordained to toe Baptist ministry, and sailed 

from Boston for Siam t<> engage in misakmary 

work with the Chinese living at Bangkok. In 
1848 he transferred his labor* to Bong-Kong, 
where he remained uiit il 1845, when h>- returned to 
spend a v.ar in this country. He nil mid his 
work in Hong-Kong in 1K47, and continued it mi- 
ni 1885, when he one- more took up his residence 
In Bangkok. He returned in 1884 to spend his 
closing days in this country. Bis long, honorable, 
and fruitful service as a miattonary has few |>nr- 
allels. He has received the degree of D. D. His 
publications, mainly translations, are all in the 
Chinese language. They embrace " The N- 
lament " (Canton, 1*4? ; follow. si by other editions, 
the first jssii,. being printed by Chinamen from 
wooden blocks): *• Revision of the Pentateuch" 
(1858); "Commentary on Matthew "(1858); "Com- 
mentary on Genesis" ii s ''> s >: "Commentary on 
Mark " (1870) ; " Commentary on Exodus" 
Stow's " Daily Manna," and smaller tra< ts. 

DRANK. Charles, author, b. in Biddeford. 
Me.. 10 Nov.. 18P1; d. at (aml.ri.lp-. Mass., 18 
Nov.. 1SSS>. He was descended from one of the 

first settlers <>f Taunton, Mass. He was educated 

at Thornton academy, Saeo. Me. When nineteen 
years of age he went t<> Boston, where for twenty- 
five years he was a merchant. Hs retired from 
business in iww. and became s residenl of Cam- 
bridge. Mr. Deane acquired a taste for the stud y 
of American history many years ago, mid fa 
lection ol books was among the most valuable in 
N.-w England relating t<> its early history. In 1856 
he received the degree of LL. 1>. from Bowdoin, 
He was a member of the Phi Beta Kap|>a society, 
and of the chief historical and kindred S 
ti.s ,,f the country. Among bis publications are 

- .in.- Notices of Samuel Gorton ' (1888); •• I 
Plymouth Patent "(1854); "BiUiographi of G 
Hutchinson's Publications'' 1 1 *<"• T > : - \N ingfiVld's 
Discourse of Virginia "(U ttaraof Phfllis 

Wheat h-v" (lso4): Smith's "True BslsHon" 

01888); "Remarks >-n Bihastian Cabotfi Kappa 

Monde" iisi;7): "Memoir .-f I rsrm oro* 

(I860); ; ,ii,l "The Forms in issuing Letters- Patent 
l.v the Crown of Kngland " BavSjnl of 

th.se land others not hen- enumerated) originally 
ap|»ar.d iii the publications of the MaSBBQM 
historical society, others in the ■ An-ha*dogia 
Vniericana." Mr. IWne had edited <?•>*. Bradf- 
•'• Histors Of Plymouth Plantation" tl*.V,| and 
Bradford's " Dialogue, <>r Third « 
tw e.n old men and \oung men il v : ^<Tal 

volumes of the Collections and Proceedings of the 



116 



DEANE 



DEANE 



M.i--;icliuMtls historical society, of which body he 
wai the recording secretary. 

DEANE, James, Indian mtafoaary, 1». in Qro- 
ton, Ootnx, 20 Aug., i?is; ,1. in Westmoreland, 
Oneida <•«>.. N. Y., 10 Sept. 1888. He was gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth in ml. In 1773-4 he was a 
missionary to the Canadian Indians, and he was 
afterward employed by congress to pacify the 
northern Indians* a work for which he was pecul- 
iarly fitted, being familiar with their language, 

having 1 ii, when twelve years of age, associated 

with the Rev. Mr. Mosely, a missionary to the Six 
Nations. During the Revolutionary war he was 
commissioned as a major, and served as an Indian 
agent and interpreter at Fort Stanwix. He was 
taken prisoner by the Indians, and would have 
been killed but for the pleadings of their women. 
At the close of the war the Oneulas granted him a 
tract of land two miles square, near Rome, Oneida 
co., which he afterward exchanged for a tract in 
Westmoreland, whither he removed in 1786. He 
was for a long time a judge in Oneida county, and 
held other offices of trust. Deansville was named 
in his honor. He wrote an essay on Indian my- 
thology, which is lost. 

DEANE, James, naturalist, b. in Coleraine, 
Mass., 14 Feb., 1801 ; d. in Greenfield, 8 June, 1858. 
He passed his early life on his father's farm, and 
in 1822 removed to Greenfield, where, after writing 
for four years in a lawyer's office, he studied medi- 
cine. He was graduated as M. D. in 1831, and 
practised from that date until his death. In the 
spring of 1835 he discovered fossil footprints in 
the red sandstone of the Connecticut valley, and, 
having called the attention of scientific men to the 
fact, his investigations were afterward extended 
by Prof. Edward Hitchcock and others. American 
geologists were soon convinced of the genuineness 
of the footprints; but those in England were 
skeptical until a box of impressions, with a com- 
munication, had been sent by Dr. Deane to Dr. G. 
A. Mantell, by whom they were placed before the 
Geological society of London. At the time of his 
death he was about publishing an illustrated 
work embodying the results of twenty-four years 
of geological study and labor, which has since been 
issued by the Smithsonian institution. He con- 
tributed frequently to Silliman's "Journal" and 
the Boston " Medical and Surgical Journal," and 
was the author of a paper on the " Hygienic Con- 
dition of the Survivors of Ovariotomy," in which 
he favored the morality of the operation. 

DEANE, John H., lawyer, b. in Canada. He 
removed to the United States at an early age. He 
entered Rochester university, but in 1862 left col- 
lege and enlisted as a private soldier in defence of 
the Union. He was captured at the battle of 
Gettysburg, and was for some time confined in a 
Confederate prison. After being exchanged, he 
entered the navy and served until the close of the 
war. He then studied law. was admitted to the 
bar, and began practice in the city of New York. 
Mr. Deane has been especially distinguished for his 
gifts to benevolent institutions under the control 
of Baptists. To Rochester university he has given 
$100,000, besides considerable sums to the Roches- 
ter theological seminary and to Vassar college. 

DEANE, Samnel, clergyman, b. in Mansfield, 
Mass., 30 March, 1784; d. !*» An-. 1884 He was 
graduated at Brown in 1805, and in 1810 lieeame 
pastor of the second church at Scituate, Mass., a 
charge which he retained for twenty-four years. 
He published "The Populous Village," a poem 
(1826); a " History of Scituate" (1831); and a num- 
ber of sermons and short poems. — His nephew, 



William Reed, antiquarv, b. in Mansfield. Mass., 
21 Aug., 1809; d. then, 16 June, 1871, waa en- 
gaged many yean In mercantile life in Boston, and 
also contributed largely to the Unitarian and the 

secular press. He wrote valuable articles f,,r the 
"New England Historical and Genealogical BeguV 
ter" and "The Historical Magazine." and was 
thoroughly acquainted with the early history of 
New England. He published genealogical his- 
tories of the Deane (in 1849), Leonard (1851k and 
Watson (1864) families, and also edited "Madam 
Knight's Journal," reprinted in "Littell's Living 
Age," 26 June, 1858. He was one of the earliest 
members of and held various offices in the New 
England historic-genealogical society. 

DEANE. Silas, diplomatist, b. in Groton, Conn., 
24 Dec, 1737; d. in Deal, England, 23 Aug.. 17801 
He was graduated at Yale in 1758, and, engaging 
in mercantile pursuits at Wethersfield, Conn., took 
a leading part in the movements that led to the 
outbreak of the Revolution. He was sent as a 
delegate from Connecticut to the Continental con- 
gress, 1774-'6. In 1776 he was ordered to France 
as a secret political and financial agent, where he 
made arrangements for securing substantial aid 
from that, country, and, with Dr. Franklin and 
Arthur Lee. negotiated treaties of amity and com- 
merce between France and the United States 
that were signed in Paris, 6 Feb., 1778. He also 
personally obtained the services of Lafayette, De 
Kalb, and other foreign officers. These contracts 
were subsequently made the basis Of charges 
against him by congress on the ground of ex- 
travagance, and he was recalled in consequence 
by resolution passed 21 Nov., 1777. Reaching 
Philadelphia in 1778, he found that manv re- 
ports had been circulated to his discredit. These 
seem to have originated with his late colleague, 
Arthur Lee, who had quarrelled with him in 
Paris, but Deane had warm friends in Jay and 
Adams, the latter having succeeded him in his 
mission to France. After a heated controversy 
with influential members of congress, and being 
required by that body to make a full statement of 
his financial transactions in France, he was com- 
pelled to return to that country to procure the 
requisite papers. There he found that the publi- 
cation of certain of his private despatches had em- 
bittered the French government against him, and 
he was thus forced to retire to Holland, whence he 
passed over to England, where he died in great 
poverty, estranged 
from his native land 
and feeling that he 
had been unjustly 
dealt with. In 1842 
congress vindicated 
his memory by de- 
ciding that a consid- 
erable sum of money 
was due him, and 
directed its payment 
to his heirs. Deane 

Sublished. in his own 
efence, " Letters to 
Hon. Robert Mor- 
ris" (New London, 
1784); "An Address 
to the Free and In- 
dependent Citizens 
of the United States 
of North America" (Hartford and London, 1784); 
and "Paris Papers, or Mr. Silas Deane's late In- 
tercepted Letters to his Brother and other Friends" 
(New York, 1781). • 




^1/ <*^%«^>^«— 



DEARBORN 



DEA1 



117 




</%&d*z^£*<x< 



DEARBORN, Beajamla, inventor, b. In Ports. 

mouth. N. II.. in IT.">"»; .1. in Boston, 88 I'M'.. I 
II. served an apprenticeship an a print «r. ami 
afterward opened an academy for bm, About 
i In- removed his school to Boston. In 1784 
under the signature of •• a Priend <>f [ndnet 

In- Wrote an article for " The Sew Ham: 

." iii which In- first suggested the employment 
«>f oonviet labor f«»r profit. Re vm the Inventor 
<>f the spring ball 

Dl IRBORN, deary, soldier, b. in North 
Hampton, N. II.. 98 Feb., 1751; d. in Roxbury, 
Mass.. t\ Jane, 1896. After ftadving medicine. 
he liegan its practice at N«>tt in^hum Sjiiaiv in 

1??'.'. Having em- 
ployed his leisure 
in the >t u«lv nf I lie 
art of war, he set 
out <>n the <lay after 

the battle of Lexmg- 

■fj %J£ A ' *°n f«»i" Cambridge. 

at the head nf sixty 
minute-iueii, reach- 
ing thai place carls 
the next i lay. <>n 
his return he vm 
appointed captain 

iii Stark's regiment, 
and subsequently 

took | tart ill the I tat- 
tle ,,f Hunker Hill, 
where he covered 
the retreat of the 
American forces. In September he accompanied 
Arnold's expedition to Canada, but was for some 
time asriously UL Be recovered in time to assist 
in the attack on Quebec, 31 Dec, where he was 
made prisoner. He was released mi parole in May, 
17?<>, and exchanged in March, 1777, when he 
was appointed major in ScamnieH's regiment He 
fought in the battles of Stillwater, Saratoga, Mon- 
mouth, and Newtown, distinguishing himself at 
Monmouth by a successful charge. In 17N1 be 
Joined Washington's staff as deputy quartermaster- 
general, with the rank of colonel, ami served lit the 
of Vorktown. In June, 17K-I. he took up his 
residence at Monmouth, Me. He was chosen briga- 
dier-general of militia in 1787, and major-gem nil 
in 1 <!>•"). In 1789 he was appointed l\ S. marshal 
for Maine. He was elected to the :id congress ^ I 
democrat, and re-elected to the 4th, serving from 
1999 till 17S>7. President J ef fe rs on appointed him 
secretary of war, which office he occupied from 
1801 tilf 1809. In the latter year President Madi- 
son gave him the collectorship of the port of Bos- 
toii. which place he filled until appointed senior 
major-general in the V. S. army, 27 .Ian.. 1812, and 
assigned to the command of the Northern Depart- 
ment. He succeeded in capturing York (now To- 
ronto) on 27 April. 1818. and Fort Qeorge on 27 
May following. <>n «i July he was recalled, on 
the ostensible ground of impaired health, but really 

in consequence of being charged with poUticaJ in- 
trigue, and placed in command of the city of New 
York. His request for a court of Inquiry was not 
Banted. Be served from 7 May, 189$ till 80 June, 
1824, as minister to Portugal, when he offered his 
resignation, which was accepted. Be then settled 
at Roxbury, Ban, where be spent the remainder 
of his life, paying annnal visits to his farm in Maine. 
In person lie was large end commanding, frank in 
his manners, ami remarkable for his integrity. He 
published an account of the battle Of Bunker Hill, 
and wrote a journal of his expedition to Canada, 
imprisonment in (Jucln-c, and other adventures. — 



Henry Alexander Srainmell, lawyer, b. 
in Exeter. N. If., :j March. 1 7*1 ; d. in I' 
19 July, 1861. lb »u- graduated at Wiih 
oUege in 1809. and studied law »ni 
BfeOfl in .Nilein, Mass., \Unrc for a »hort time ne 
practised. He ■nocseoed his father in - 
betor of the |H.rt of Boston, flilm. 

IH2U. He sU|H-rilltel|.l. 

was appointed brigadier-ge n e r al t.f militia, 
mending the defences of Huston harbor, h 

He was a ineinlxr of the State constitution 
veiition of 1890, of the state bouse <>f npreaenta- 
ti\.s m 1899, and of the state MaatS in \K'M. He 

served in rmngi— from ■*> I 1 n 2 March, 

1KW, and acted as adjutant-piieral of MaiMacliu- 

setts from 1884 till 1h4:j, when be was removed f->r 
loaning the state arms to the stj,i,- of |;|, 

laml. to in- Dead in suppressing the Iiorr rebellion. 

He also served as mayor of Roxbury, Mam., in 

1847 "ti. being re elected annually. ' lie wa« a 

strenuous advocate "f internal improvement*, the 

construction of the Qreal Western railroad 
eachnsetts and the tunnelling of Booaafl mountain 
being largely due to Ins labors. Be was Coed of 

horticulture ami landscape gardening, and the 
cemeteries of Roxbun and Mount Auburn owe 
much t't his taste, industry, and skill. II 
stantly led a busy public life, and his literary 
activity was very great, although but few of his 
works have In-en published. Anions tlies*. are 

"Memoir on the Black Sea, Turkey, and Egypt," 

with charts (8 vols.. Boston, 1819); •• Letters on the 
Internal Improvements and Commerce of the 
West" (Boston, 1889); and "History of Naviga- 
tion and Naval Architecture "(9 rols.). Bil manu- 
script remains include a " Diary": a " Life of Mai.- 
Gen. Dearborn'*; "Life <>f Com. Bainbridge ; 
"Life of Jesus Christ " ; and ** Writings on Horti- 
culture." See "Address on Henry Dearborn,'' by 
Daniel Goodwin (Chicago. 1884). 

DEARBORN. Nathaniel. engraver, b. in 1789; 
d. in South Reading, Mass.. j Nov.. 1889. Be *w 
one of the earliest engravers on wood in Boston, 
and published -The American Text-Book for Mak- 
ing Letters'' (Boston); "Boston Notions; IIM Ac- 
count of ' That Village ' from 1880 to 1847" 
•• Reminisoences of Boston, and Guide through the 
city and Environs" (1881); and "Guide through 
Mount Auburn " (1887). 

HEARING, James, soldier, b. in Campbell coun- 
ty, Va.. 98 April. 1840; d. in Lynchburg in April, 
1866. He «as a great-grandson of CoL Charles 
Lynch, of Revolutionary fame, who gave his name 
to the summary method of administering justioe 
OOW known as '"Lynch law." through his rough- 
and-rea<lv wavof treating the tories. Hcwaagradu- 
ated at Hanover, Va.. academy, and was app 
a cadet in the U. S. military academy, but r. 
in 1661, to join the Confederate army when Vir- 
ginia passed the ordinance "f ssceeffoe Be »« 
lively lieutenant of the Washington artillery 
oi Nee Orleans, captain of Latham's Isitt. n 
ami commander of Denny's artiUerv batta&svana 

colonel of a cavalry regiment from North Carolina. 
and was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general 
for gallant rv at the battle <>f Plymouth. Be i»r- 
Lieipeted in the principal engagasassjti between the 

Army Of Northern Virginia and the Army of the 

Potomac On the retreat of the Confederal 

from Petersburg to AppOSaattOX Curt-ll-usc. he 

was mortally aoundad near ParmviUs m » singular 

encounter with Hrig.-Uen. TIuxkIom Ib-ad. "f the 
National arm v. The two generals met. «»n •'» April, 
at the bead oi their forces, on opposite side* of the 

Appomattox, at High Bridge, and u duel With 



118 



DEAS 



DE BHAQl'IKKK 



pi-tols ensued. Gen. Read was shot dead, but 
&ml Dealing lingered until ■ lew days after the 
Bartender ox Lee, when he died in tin- old city 

hotel at Lynchburg, Va. 

DEAS, "Charles, painter, b. in Philadelphia in 
1818; died insane. His maternal grandfather 
was Ralph Izard, the South Carolina patriot. He 
showed an early taste for art, and studied under 
John Sanderson in his native city, and in the 
schools of the National academy of design, New 
York. In 1840 he visited the "far west" of that 
day, and spent several years at St. Louis in the 
successful practice of his profession. He was a 
man of decided ability; hut mental derangement 
cut short his career many years before his death. 
Among his more important pictures that have be- 
come widely known through engravings are " The 
Turkey Shoot," " Walking the Chalk," " Long 
Jake," " The Wounded Pawnee," " Indian Guide, 
" A Group of Sioux," " Hunters on the Prairie," 
and " The Last Shot." His " Council of the Shaw- 
nees at North Bend " portrays an incident in the 
life of Gen. George Rogers Clarke. 

DE AYOLAS, Juan. See Ayolas. 

DE BAR, Benedict, actor, b. in London, Eng- 
land, 5 Nov., 1812; d. in St. Louis, Mo., 14 Aug., 
1877. He made his debut at the Theatre Roval, 
Margate, England, in 1832, and came to the United 
States in 1834, appearing the following year at the 
St. Charles theatre. New Orleans, as Sir Benjamin 
Backbite in the " School for Scandal." In 1837 he 
opened the old National theatre in New York city, 
and in 1838 played at the old St. Louis theatre, 
afterward appearing in various cities of the west. 
In 1840 he played successively in New York and Lon- 
don, and in the same year returned to New York, 
where he played at the Bowery theatre, In 1842 he 
became stage-manager for Hamblin at the Bowery, 
in 1849 purchased the Chatham theatre, New York, 
retaining it for three years, and afterward went on a 
four years' starring tour, playing in the principal 
cities of the United States. In 1853 he became pro- 
prietor of the St. Charles theatre, New Orleans, and 
in 1855 of the St. Louis theatre, leasing it in 1873, 
when he bought a large interest in the Grand opera 
house of that city. After the death of Hackett 
the dramatic stage lacked a great Falstaff until 
Mr. De Bar undertook its representation, making a 
specialty of this character, which others had 
adopted and soon relinquished. His appearance 
in Brooklyn in this character, after his success in 
the west and south, was a dramatic event of note. 
He acquired a large fortune, being successful both 
as an actor and manager. — His wife, Florence, b. 
in Philadelphia in 1828, made her debut in 1839 as 
a danseuse at the Walnut street theatre, Philadel- 
phia. Her maiden name was Vallee. She travelled 
with Fanny Ellsler, and at the old Park theatre in 
1848 played the " French Spy." She retired from 
the stage in New Orleans in December, 1857. 

DE BEGNIS, Giuseppe, opera-singer, b. in Lu- 

fo, Italv, in 1795 ; d. in New York city in August, 
849. He began his musical studies at the age 
of seven years, and sang soprano till he was nearly 
fifteen, when his voice broke. He then studied for 
a comedian, and later resumed lessons as a baritone 
vocalist. He made his first appearance as an opera- 
tie buffo singer at Modena, in 1813, with sufficient 
success to decide his continuance as a performer on 
the lyric stage. In 1816 he married the noted 
prima-donna and famous beauty, Signorina Bond 
They sang throughout Italy with great BuooesB, and 
in 1819 made their first appearance at the Italian 
opera in Paris, remaining three seasons. In 1821 
they performed in London, and thereafter in the 



various capital cities of Europe, in concerts and 
operas. About 1845 De Begnia came to the United 
Nates, appearing frequently fa New Fork city in 
ooneerts and operas with only moderate success. 
His voice had lost its freshness, and his style seemed* 
antiquated. Be was still notable as one of the 

Eared and most natural of Italian buffo Bfagen; 
ut that kind of vocalist was not appreciated in 
this country. In the old Rossinian comic operas 
the flexibility of his voice and his rapid pronuncia- 
tion were altogether remarkable. His countenance 
was severely marked by small-pox ; but in his 
make-up for performance he gave no evidence of 
facial disfigurement. Disappointed in his recep- 
tion by the American public, he longed to return 
to the scenes of his earl v success ; but the horrors of 
sea-sickness and hazards of the voyage prevented. 
He died of cholera, not without means, but neg- 
lected and almost forgotten. 

DE BERDT, Dennis, colonial agent, b. early 
in the 18th century; d. in England, about 1771. 
He was a London merchant, with extensive com- 
mercial connections in this country. About No- 
vember, 1766, when the colonial legislature of 
Massachusetts dismissed Richard Jackson from its 
service, the house elected the honest and aged 
Dennis de Berdt as its own particular agent. From 
this time Hutchinson, who had made pretence of 
being a friend to colonial liberty, dated the revolt 
of the American colonies, and his correspondence 
and advice conformed to the opinion. •Samuel 
Adams divined the evil designs, now so near their 
execution, and instructed De Berdt to oppose the 
establishment of a military force in America, as 
needless for protection and dangerous to liberty. 
" Certainly," said he, " the test way for Great Brit- 
ain to make her colonies a real ana lasting benefit 
is to give them all consistent indulgence in trade, 
and to remove any occasion of their suspecting that 
their liberties are in danger. While any act of 
parliament is in force which has the least appear- 
ance of a design to raise a revenue out of them, 
their jealousy will be awake." The closing of the 
affairs of Mr. De Berdt's firm in England, which 
was found to be irretrievably bankrupt, was under- 
taken by Joseph Reed, a young colonial visitor to 
England, who had practised law in the New Jersey 
courts, and later had held, as his first political 
appointment, the office of deputy secretary" for the 
province of New Jersey. He had visited England 
in 1763-'o, and had met the family of Mr. De Berdt. 
In May, 1770, he married Esther de Berdt. Dr. 
Franklin was chosen to succeed Dennis de Berdt as 
colonial agent at the time of his death. 

DE BERRY, Edinnnd, politician, b. in Mount 
Gilead, N. C, 14 Aug., 1787; d. there, 12 Dec., 1859. 
He received a public-school education and engaged 
in agricultural pursuits. He was a member of the 
state legislature, with occasional intermissions, from 
1806 till 1828, and was elected to congress as a whig, 
serving from 1829 till 1831. He was defeated 
when a candidate for re-election, but was elected 
again in 1833, and for each succeeding term till 
1845, and was again in congress from 1849 till 1851. 

DE BHAQtIERE, Peter Boyle, Canadian 
statesman, b. in Dublin, 27 April, 1784 : d. in York- 
ville (now a part of Toronto), 23 Oct .. 1 861 >. He was 
the youngest son of John, Lord de Bhaj ra ieiv. < >f A rd- 
kill, county Londonderry, Ireland. He entered the 
navy when quite young, and served as a midship- 
man at the battle of Camperdown. Be lett the 
navy after a brief period of service, and in 1837 
emigrated to Canada. From 1838 till his death he 
was a member of the legislative coupcil. On the 
remodelling of Toronto university, he was appointed 



DE BOLT 



\MI* 



111) 



hanccllor, Itut sul>sequcntly resigned. Bl WU 
also a niiMiiiN-r "i thf Anglioan synod. 

1 » I BOLT.Reiln \., jurist, b. in Fairfield ooun- 
ObJO, -'<» •'mi.. IN28. Ho received a eomtnon- 
■ I education and worked on a farm till his 
nteenth year, when In- was apprenticed t«» a 
taiiix r. After swing hi* time lie followed In- 
trude for a few wars, ImiI in the mean lime studied 
law. ami was admitted to the bar in February, i s ">u. 
He removed to Trenton, Grundy <■>>., Missouri, in 
!i tin- practice of law. lie was ap- 

? dinted school commissioner of Grundy county In 
l, ami re-elected to t In- saint' office in 1H00, serv- 
ing until tin' beginning of the civil war. lie entered 

tli.- National service in 1M(11 as captain in the ttd 
Missouri infantry, was captured at the hat tie of 
Shiloh. 8 April. 1868, and held as prisoner until the 
following October. In 1863 he resigned his eom- 
mi— ion on account of impaired health, and re- 
sumed his profession. I>ut m 1M(>4 re-entered the 
army as major in the 44th Missouri infantry, and 
was "mustered out of service in August, 1885. He 
was elected judge of the circuit court for the 
11th district of Missouri in November, 1863, which 
office he held until his election as a representative 
from Missouri in the 44th congress, closing his con- 
gressional career in l^'.',. 

DE BONNE, P. A., Canadian jurist, 1>. about 
1780. He was a nephew of the French governor 
of Canada, Marquis de la Jonquiere. He was a 
member of the executive council in 17i)4, and also 
of the legislative assembly, in which he opposed 
Mr. (Jtithbert's motion to abolish slavery. He 
eventually became leader of the Canadian iMirty in 
the house, and displayed great ability as a debater ; 
but, as his expressions were objectionable to the as- 
sembly, he was dismissed from the house by a sim- 
ple vote of its members. He was also a judge in 
Lower Canada, and was the only member of the 
judiciary who held a seat in the house. 

IH IBOBBE, l'rudhomme, soldier. He was a 
French officer, who had seen thirty-five years of 
European service, and was given a commission in 
the American army about 1777. On 22 Aug. of 
that rear he commanded a brigade in Sullivan's 
attack on Stat en Island. At the battle of the 
Brandy wine, on 11 Sept., Gen. Deborre claimed 
the post of honor on the right wing of the army ; 
lnit Sullivan would not yield this to him, and when 
Deborre pertinaciously insisted on taking it, the 
former made a long and circuitous march for the 
purj)ose of outreaching him, which did not ac- 
complish its object, and in consequence of which 
his hrigade was not formed for action when the 
battle l>egan. Deborre's brigade was the first to 

five way lie fore the British attack. His insubor- 
ination was made the subject of a congressional 
inquiry, and he resigned his commission. He was 
unpopular in the army, and totally unfit to com- 
mand American troops. 

DE BOW, James Dun woody Brownson (de- 
Ix. i. statistician, b. in Charleston. S. ('., 10 July, 

1890; d. in Elisabeth, N. J.. 27 IY1... is<;7. He 
was employed in a commercial DOOM for - 

■8, was graduated at Charleston college in 1S43, 
and in the following year was admitted to the bar. 
He had a predilection for statistical science and 
literature, and In-fore adopting the legal profession 
was a contrihutor to the ■•.Southern Quarterly Be- 
view," of which he became editor in 1*44. Hll 

elaborate article on ■' • toegou and the < toegon Qm i- 

tion" attracted wide attention in the United S 
and Europe, appeared in Fivmh, and was tic 
oasion of a debate in the French chami<er of depu- 
ties. In 1840 Mr. De Bow withdrew from itseditor- 



ship and NOBOfUd \ where 

Bow's « bmmercial Rei lew " was ratal >li did \,\ him, 
and attained immediate success. In IM- 

oame professor of pontics! economy and commer- 
oial statistics in the L'nl 

Was <Mle of (hi founders of t It,- l/olliSMtin 

society, -nice merged into tin 

He left the university abonl 1890 to atSttOM ' I large 

of the census bureau of Louisiana, hold inc. 

three years, during which tune In- eoUti ted a vast 

mass of statistical matter relating to the DBJJbJb> 

tion and prodootaof the state, end the oomns 

of New Orleans. PlMldant Fierce WPTHrfated him 

superintendent of the census in I&'m, and he per- 
fonned the duties of this ..flier two years, continu- 
ing to edit his --Review." He devoted himself 
almost wholly to poUtioal economy, writing BZtl n- 
siselv on commercial statistics and finance, and 
OOntribttting articles on American lop! 
eighth edition of tin- " BuoycJopSsdia Britatmica." 
He delivered various addresses l*forc literary, agri- 
cultural, and commercial associat ions. Aj>art from 

' his literan pursuits he was one of tin- most indus- 
trious men of his time. and. notwithstanding hi- 

J delicate organization and fr e qu e n t ill health, hi- 
public lecturing and executive duties were apfiar- 
ently unahated. He was active in enterprises for 
the material and intellectual interests of the south. 
and was a memlier of every southern commercial 
convention sutiscqucnt t" that of Memphis in 
1845, and was president of the Knoxville conven- 
tion of 1M.17. During the civil war hi- I.' 
was necessarily susj»cnded, though his voice and 
pen ware employed a advocacy of the Confederacy, 
previous to which be had Uttered hitter denuncia- 
tions against the northern states and their institu- 
tions. After the overthrow of the Co nfe d e racy his 

views changed, he admitted the superiority Of the 

tr ee l abor system of the northwest to the slave- 
labor system of the south, and urged the legisla- 
ture- of the southern states to encourage immigra- 
tion. His "Review" was first riswimofl b 
York city, and subseq u ently in Nashville. T< nn. 
He was author of an "Encyclopssdia of the Trade 
ami Commerce of the United Stab .1858), 

and - The Industrial Resources and Statistics ox 
the Southwest." compiled from his "Review" <:i 
vols.. New York, 1S.V5). He collected and prewired 
for the press, in 1864,1 greater j>art of the material 

for the three volume- of the quarto edition, and 
compiled the octavo volume entitled "Statistical 
View of the United States," being a compe n dium 
of the Seventh Census, that of 1880), of which 180,- 
000 epics were ordered by iwia te aaf W aa hington , 

1*54). He was also author Of "The S.uthern 

States, their Agriculture, Commt (1856), 

and edited ■ work on mortality statist 

1>K CAMP, John, nasal officer, h, in New .I.r- 

sey in 1H12; <1. in Burlington. N. .1.. >'.*». Inn 
He was app'intcd to the navy from Florida in 0c» 
tober, 1*'.! 7, and served OB the aVwp " Yandalia," 
of the Brazil squadron, in 1- II- was pro- 

moted to passed midshipman in 1888, was in the 

India squadron till 1887, and commissioned 
lieutenant iii 1888, and served on the frigate -Con- 
stitution" along the enact of African 1864 He 
was coinmi— ioned commander in 1858, and served 
in the naw-yard. New York, as light-house m- 
s|M-ctor, and aa commander of the 0tOf» shi| 
lief." He commanded the -team sloop " I^»aU0^• , ' 
at the attack iiin.ii Ports .lackson and St. Philip, 
and the capture of New Orleans (Apri 
participated in various actions on the Miffiiwippi, 
Including Vicksburg, while in command of the 

nhickon." He was com missioned captain in 



1-20 



DKCANKSOKA 



DECATUR 



1862, and was in the South Atlantic squadron in 
L868 1. having command of the frigate "Wa- 
bash." He was promoted to the rank of commo- 
dore in 1806, commanded tin- store-ship "Poto- 
mac" at the Penaaoola navy-yard during 18M ? 
and the receiving-ship " Potomac" at Philadelphia 
daring 1868-9, and was retired in 1870 with the 
rank of rear-admiral. 

DECANKSORA, Indian orator, b. about 1640. 
Fie was a chief of the tribe of Onondagas, which 
was one of the leagued Six Nations. While at- 
tending the conference at Albany that was held 
in 1679 with the agent of Virginia, he, with other 
chiefs, presented the claims of the Indian people. 
It was said of the Indian speakers, by those who 
were present at the conference, that they all " had 
great fluency of words, and much more grace in 
manner than any man could expect among a peo- 
ple entirely ignorant of the liberal arts and sci- 
ences." And of Decanesora it was said that he 
had " a graceful elocution that would have pleased 
in anv part of the world." 

DECATUR, Stephen, naval officer, b. in New- 
port, R. I., in 1751 ; d. in Prankford, near Phila- 
delphia, 14 Nov., 1808. His father was a native of 
Rochelle, in Prance, and an officer in the French 
navy, who had emigrated to the United States at 
the repeal of the edict of Nantes, and married an 
American lady residing in Rhode Island. Stephen 
removed to Philadelphia when a very young man, 
and was there married, after which he became 
captain of a merchantman at an early age, and 
during the Revolution commanded the privateers 
"Royal Louis" and "Pair American, gaining 
distinction by the capture of English vessels. He 
was appointed post-captain in the navy on 11 May, 
1798, at the beginning of hostilities with France, 
and in the " Delaware," twenty guns, cruised on 
the American coast and in the West Indies, and 
captured the French privateers " Le Croyable" and 
" Marsuin." He commanded a squadron of thir- 
teen vessels on the Guadeloupe station in 1800, 
the frigate " Philadelphia " being his flag-ship, and 
after his discharge from the service, under the 
peace establishment of 1801. engaged in business 
in Philadelphia. — His son, Stephen, naval officer, 

b. in Sinnepux- 
ent, Md., 5 
Jan., 1779; d. 
near Bladens- 
burg, Md., 22 
March, 1820. 
He made a voy- 
age with his 
father in 1787. 
At the age of 
seventeen he 
was employed 
by Messrs. Gur- 
ney and Smith, 
of Philadel- 
phia (who were 
agents for the 
navy), and went 
to New Jersey 
to superintend 
the getting out 
of the Tceel- 

Jiieces for the 
rigate " United 
States," in which ship he was launched, and which 
he successfully commanded in the war of 1812-'5. 
Through the aid of Com. Barry, he obtained a 
warrant as midshipman, dated 30 April, 1798, and 
was placed on board the frigate " United States." 




<s?£e/b/Lts^y. 



He was at that time nineteen years of age, well in- 
formed for his age. eliivalroiis in temper, courteous 
in his deportment, and adding grace of manner to 
an attractive person. While attached to the frig- 
ate "United States" under Com. Barry, Decatur 
cruised in the West Indies, capturing several 
French privateers that were preying upon Amer- 
ican commerce. He labored hard to make him- 
self master of his profession* On one occasion 
the " United States chased the French privateer 
" L'Araour de la Patrie," of six guns, which vessel, 
in attempting to escape, received a twenty-four* 
pound shot at her water-line from the "United 
States." She at once shortened sail and surren- 
dered, and Decatur was sent in a boat to take pos- 
session. When he got alongside, " L'Amour de la 
Patrie " was sinking fast, and the crew, stripped of 
their clothing, were assembled at the side, lagging 
to be taken into the boat. As it was impossible 
to take on board sixty men, Decatur ordered the 
French captain to put his helm up and run down 
to the frigate as the only chance of saving the 
crew. This was done, and though the vessel sank 
when within fifty yards of the " United States," 
the crew was saved to a man. In a short time 
Decatur became a good officer and an excellent 
sailor. A contemporary said he was a man of an 
age, an officer of uncommon character and rare 
promise, one not equalled in a million. Just at 
the time this remark was made, the cry "Man 
overboard ! " resounded through the ship, and 
boats were called away. Without hesitation. De- 
catur sprang from the mizzen-chains, and in a 
few moments his muscular arms were holding the 
drowning man above the waves, which he contin- 
ued tUl the boats reached the spot, when he passed 
the nearly dying youth into one of them, ana then 
climbed in himself. It is of such men that heroes 
are made, and the one Decatur saved, while him- 
self gaining celebrity, lived to see his preserver 
attain a fame unsurpassed by that of any officer of 
his time in the American navy! In 1799 Decatur 
was commissioned lieutenant. He sailed again 
with Com. Barry when he conveyed the commis- 
sioners to France. On the return of the " United 
States " she was laid up for thorough repairs. De- 
catur obtained orders to the " Norfolk," of eigh- 
teen guns, Commander Thomas Calvert, but in 
September, 1800, again joined his old ship the 
" United States." When the French war was end- 
ed, and the treaty of peace between France and 
the United States had been ratified by the senate 
on 3 Feb., 1801, and promulgated by the presi- 
dent, congress passed a law directing the sale 
of the whole navy except six ships, and discharg- 
ing from the service all but nine of the twenty- 
eight captains, all of the commanders, and all 
but thirty-six of the one hundred and ten lieu- 
tenants. Stephen Decatur was one of those se- 
lected to remain in the navy. His brother James 
also remained as a midshipman, while the gal- 
lant commander (the elder Decatur) resigned his 
commission and returned to private life. The 
discharge of the officers and crews was no sooner 
effected than the pacha of Tripoli, though the 
United States paid nim yearly tribute most faith- 
fully and shamefully, felt slighted because our gov- 
ernment had presented a fine frigate to the dey 
of Algiers, ana had sent him none ; and also be- 
cause one of the ministers of the bey of Tunis had 
received $40,000 from the United States, whereas 
he (the pacha) had received but little more. <>n 
10 May, 1801. the impudent pacha declared war 
against the United States, cut down the American 
flag-staff, and began hostilities agairist the Ameri- 



DECATUK 



m*n 



191 



am merchant marine, at that I ime totally nnf>r<»- 

I. A squadron "f f<>ur vessels, under the 

command of Coin. Richard Dale, was fitted mil. 

and DwatM joined tin- " Kssex." OMOf tin- SQUadr 

being selected l>y ('ant. Befabridge to till the 
Important place of iir-t lieutenant when be lia<I 
bOM hut three years in tli \fter inform- 

ing effective service in restraining the Barhary 

rs fruiii molesting American vessels, ami oon- 
tnerioan merchantmen safely Into the At- 
lantic, tin- "Essex" aailed for New Fort <>n 17 
.Inn hlng that port on 22 July. Deoatnr 

joined there tin- frigate " New York." ('apt. James 

Barron, ami sailed again for the Mediterranean. 

Ih was transferred t<> the command uf the •• Nor- 
folk,"' of eighteen guns, and afterward t" the 
oner * Enterprise," of twelve guns, under 
Coin. Preble. The latter, bearing <>f the loss of 
the "Philadelphia" off Tripoli by striking <»n a 
reef, sailed in the frigate "Constitution " for that 
place, taking Deoaftni with him. On M Dee. Deca- 
tur captured the ketch "Mastieo" off Tri|»oli. 
which vessel was named the •• Intrepid," and after- 
ward was aaad 09 destroy the " Philadelphia," then 
moored under the guns of Tripoli, the Tripolitatis 
having succeeded in getting her afloat and taking 
her into the harbor. Decatur volunteered for this 
service, left Syracuse in midwinter, and arrived 
off Tripoli, 1<> Fell., 1N(M. and. with a picked erew 
of officers and men, stood into the harbor, boarded 
the " Philadelphia," and carried her. Then the 
order was given to set fire to her, and in ten min- 
utes she was ablaze. Decatur and his crew escaped 
to the " Intrepid," and made their wav out of the 
harbor amid the rapid firing and falling shot of 
141 guns. The "Philadelphia" was totally de- 
stroyed. Admiral Nelson pronounced this -the 
ino-t daring act of the age." In the subsequent 
attack on Tri|Mili, Decatur took charge of a divis- 
ion, and greatly distinguished himself in taking 
reogoanee on the Tripolitans for the death of his 
brother James. He received his commission as 
captain, in reward for his gallant services in de- 
stroying the " Philadelphia." on N May. 1801 He 
served at Tripoli during tbe war, and in Septem- 
ber was appointed by Preble to the command of 
the "Constitution," from which he was afterward 
transferred to the frigate "Congress." Peace be- 
tween Tripoli and the United States having been 
concluded, 8 June, 1805, Decatur returned home, 
laid up the "Congress," and was received most 
enthusiastically throughout the country. In Feb- 
ruary, lyOH, he was appointed a member of the 
court-martial that triad Coin. James Barron for 
surrendering the " Chesapeake " tothe British man- 
of-war " Leopard." Decatur was next appointed 
to command the "Chesapeake." This was during 
the time that the embargo was laid on British 
commerce. He was afterward ordered to the frig- 
ate " United States," in which ship, in 1810. be 
hoisted his broad pennanl as oommodore of the 

southern station. 'I his command was held by htm 
when war began between England and the United 
State- in 1818. Putting to BBS, he soon fell in with 
the British frigate "Macedonian," which he cap- 
tured after a short, sharp action, in which the ene- 
my's ship was completely dismasted and much cut 
to pieces. Jury-masts were rigged, and the " Mace- 
donian " brought safely into |K»rt. In the spring 
Of 1*14 Deflator took command of the frigate 
psident " and a squadron consisting Of the 
.." the " Hornet, "and the store-ship «* Tom 
Bowline." He left his squadron in New York to 
escape the British blockade : but, having grounded 
| 'ing to sea and injured his vessel, he decided 



to return to port for re|wir-. but Ml in with four 
British frigates, to which the •• President 
obliged t" Minvnder after n BJOal "1"' 
nine, in which one frigate, the 

so cut up an to !«• obliged t.. haul out (or »h« drift- 
ed out) of action. The •• Presides! " «u not BUT* 
rendered until aha was surrounded bj Um 
< >t her frigates— t In- " Majcst ic," t be " Pi in. B* 
the "TonodoB* and when nerd the ap- 

pearance of a slaughter-hoiiw. She hud t • 
Rvs killed and sixty wounded -one ipmrter of bef 
crew. While tin. war of 1812 wa(4 j n progrem, tl 

of Algiers bagaa to eaptm American men haul 

men: and, when |>eace was estatili-ln-d. the United 
States fitted out two squadron* to punt-h Algiers 
for her treachery and the violation of her treaty. 
Decatur was grrOO the command of one BfUOdlOa 
and Bainbridge of the other. < in Deflnrt arrival 
in the Mediterranean, In- captured the Algeria* 
frigate " Mashouda," forty-six goo, flag-hip of 
Admiral Pais Hainiuida, after a brave rest- 

He also oapturadL subsequently, tin- a lgrrine brir- 

of-war " Kstedio." H<- arrived off Algiers OB H 
June, 1815, where iieacc was concluded <>n term* 
very favorable to the United States. It was stipu- 
lated that the United States should DSfUr pay tril>- 
ute to the dev of Algiers, and all Christian cap- 
tives were to lie released. This treaty and the ,\,- 
mands of Decatur gave the death-blow to that 
cruel system which for centuries, to the shame of 
Christendom, had elevated the Iiarlmry powe r s into 

baneful importance. Deoatur next went to Tunis 

and demanded indemnity from the bey for violat- 
ing treat v stipulations, which demand was con- 
ceded. He then made a similar demand on the 
pacha of Tri|M)li, and for the release of Keapob- 
tan and Danish prisoners, all of which was grant- 
ed, thus ending forever the pretensions of the 
Barbery powers. For tin* Deoatur received the 
thanks of all Europe; ami. on the assembling of 
con g r e ss m December, 1815, President Madison 

began his message with a high eiilogium npOO his 
success against the Barlmry st;,t. ~. Decatur ar- 
rived in Washington in January, 1815, and was 
appointed navy commissioner with Commodores 
Kodgers and Potter, in which office h<- gave all his 
zeal, skill. and experience in building up the young 
navy of the republic. While attached to the boeru 
of navy commissioners Deoatur made some re- 
marks of a censorious nature against Com. Barron, 
which the latter 
objected to, and 
which Deoatur 
refused to re- 
tract, though he 
disclaimed any 
intention to be 
insulting. A 

long correspond- 
ence ensued, in 
which Deoatur 
did all that an 
honorable man 

could do to re- 
move unfavor- 
able impressions 
from Com. Bar- 
ron's mind, but 

nevertheless the 

latter challell-ed 

Deoatur. The 

mmtintr u oo un sd at Bladensbnrg. 23 Mnn t 
(apt. Elliott being Barron's second, end 
Bainbridge Decatur's. When the srord ■' ,lrp *!*** 
given, Barron fell, wounded m the hip. where Dece- 




l'2'J 



DE CELLES 



DE COUDRES 



tur said he would shoot him. Decatur was shot in 
t in- abdomen, and fell won after Barron. He \\as 
taken to his home, where he died that night. No 
man wai ever more regretted by the country than 
this heroic officer, to whom the highest honors wen 
accorded, and he was followed to his grave by the 
largest concourse of people — public and private — 
that had ever assembled in Washington city. — His 
younger brother, James, entered the navy as mid- 
shipman. 21 Nov., 1798, and was promoted to be 
lieutenant, 20 April, 1802. In the attack of 3 
Aug., 1804, on the Tripolitans, he commanded one 
of the American gun-boats, and was instantly 
killed by a musket-ball while attempting to board 
one of the enemy's vessels. 

DE CELLES, Alfred Hm-los. Canadian jour- 
nalist, b. in St. Laurent, near Montreal, 15 Aug., 
1844. He was educated at Quebec seminary and 
Laval university. He was editor of " Le journal 
de Quebec" from 1867 till 1872, and of " La Mi- 
nerve " from 1872 till 1880, when he was appointed 
assistant librarian of parliament. He was also con- 
nected editorially with " L'opinion publique." 

DE CHARMS, Richard, clergyman, b. in Phila- 
delphia, 17 Oct., 1796; d. 20 March, 1864. His an- 
cestors w T ere Huguenots, who took refuge in Eng- 
land in 1685 upon the revocation of the edict of 
Nantes. In early life he was a printer. In 1825 
he engaged in the study of Swedenborgian theology 
under the Rev. Thomas Worcester, of Boston, at 
the same time superintending the publication of the 
" New Jerusalem Magazine in that city, the first 
three numbers of which he set in type and printed 
with his own hands. Subsequently, by the assist- 
ance of a friend, he was enabled to enter Yale, 
where he was graduated in 1826, and, at the sug- 
gestion of the same friend, he began the study of 
theology in London, to qualify himself for the 
Swedenborgian ministry. During the two years 

fmssed in England he supported himself by his 
abor as a journeyman printer. His theological 
studies were continued in Baltimore, and his first 
sermon, on the " Paramount Importance of Spiritu- 
al Things," was published in that city in 1828, and 
was afterward reprinted in London. After a year 
of pastoral labor in Bedford, Pa., he went to 
London, and studied under the Rev. Samuel Noble. 
On returning to this country in 1832, he became 
pastor in Cincinnati, 1832-9, and conducted a pe- 
riodical called " The Precursor." He subsequently 
? reached in Philadelphia, 1839-'45, Baltimore, 
845-'50, and New York. In his later days he de- 
voted much attention to mechanical contrivances 
and inventions of his own. He rendered valuable 
service to the periodical literature of his church, 
and issued several volumes of sermons on the 
fundamental doctrines of Swedenborg. He pub- 
lished also " Freedom and Slavery in the Light of 
the New Jerusalem"; "Sermon illustrating the 
Doctrine of the Lord " (Philadelphia, 1840) ; "Series 
of Lectures delivered at Charleston, S. C." (1841) ; 
and "The New Churchman Extra" (1 vol.), a 
treatise devoted to polemics and church history in 
the United States and Europe. 

DE COSMOS, Amor, Canadian journalist, b. 
in Windsor, Nova Scotia, about 1830. He was 
educated in his native place and in Halifax. He 
went to California in 1852, and to British Colum- 
bia in 1858, in which year he founded the " British 
Colonist " newspaper, which he owned and edited 
from that date until 1863. In 1870 he founded 
the " Daily Standard," and was its editor and pro- 
prietor until 1872, when he retired. The same 
? r ear he formed an administration in British <<>- 
umbia, and held the portfolio of president of the 



executive council (without salary) from the date of 
the formation of the government until he retired 
from local politics in 1*74. in consequence of the 
operation o! the act against dual representation. 
Mr. I»e Cosmos was the first in British Columbia 
to advocate the introduction of responsible gov- 
ernment into the colony, the first to recommend 
the union of the Pacific provinces, which he ac- 
complished in 1867, and also the first to advocate 
the union of British Columbia with the Dominion, 
and was subsequently instrumental in securing the 
unanimous acceptance of the terms of union made 
with Canada. He represented Victoria in the 
Vancouver island assembly after the union of that 
island with British Columbia, and sat in the legis- 
lative council almost uninterruptedly from 1867 
till 1871. In 1871 British Columbia was united 
to Canada, and Mr. De Cosmos was elected to both 
the local assembly and the Canadian parliament. 
He was re-elected to the Dominion parliament in 
1878, and again in 1874 and 1878. 

DE COSTA, Benjamin Franklin, clergyman, 
b. in Charlestown, Slass.. 10 July, 1831. He was 
graduated at the Biblical institute, Concord, N. H., 
in 1856, and entered the Protestant Episcopal 
church. He was rector at North Adams, Mass., 
from 1857 till 1858, when he went to Newton Lower 
Falls, where he remained until 1860. During the 
civil war he was chaplain of the 5th and 18th 
Massachusetts infantry, and was in the battles of 
Bull Run and Yorktown. In 1863 he settled in 
New York and engaged in journalism. He was 
the editor of the " Christian Times " in 1863, of 
the " Episcopalian " in 1864, and of the " Magazine 
of American History" in 1882, and one of the 
founders of the Huguenot society of America. In 
1884 he organized the first branch of the " White 
Cross Society," and is its president. He was also 
one of the original promoters and organizers of 
the Church Temperance Society, of which he was 
the first secretary. He is now (i887) rector of the 
Church of St. John the Evangelist in New York 
city, and, in addition to his religious work, is ac- 
tive in social movements, and has often addressed 
the working-men upon the relations between capi- 
tal and labor. The degree of D. D. was conferred 
upon him in 1881 by the College of William and 
Mary. He is a member of various literary associ- 
ations. He has published "The Pre-Columbian 
Discovery of America by the Northmen " (Albany, 
1869) ; " Sailing Directions of Henry Hudson, pre- 
pared for his Use in 1608 " (1869) ; " The North- 
men in Maine" (1870); "The Moabite Stone" 
(New York, 1870); "The Rector of Roxburgh." 
a novel, under the nam deplume of William Hick- 
ling (1873); several monographs in regard to 
Mount Desert and Lake George; and "Cabo de 
Baxos " and " Cabo de Arenas, studies in cartol- 
ogv. He contributed to volumes iii and iv of the 
"Narrative and Critical History of America." He 
has edited White's "Memoirs of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church" (1881). 

DE COUDRES, Louis, brass-founder, b. in 
1789; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 16 Dec., 1872. He 
was apprenticed at the age of thirteen to James P. 
Allaire, who was carrying on a small brass and 
bell foundry. At this establishment the brass 
castings were made for McQueen, who had a ma- 
chine-shop, and did the work for Robert Fulton, 
in applying his steam-engine to the first paddle- 
wheel boat, the "Clermont," on the North river. 
Several years later Mr. Allaire established his 
steam-engine works in Cherry street, New York, 
which became famous for the number and charac- 
ter of the engines it supplied to th,e early steam- 



DKKMS 



UK POBVT 



l*i 



boats. Mr. Dl Coudres continued with Mr. Al 
m. .r<- than half a century. SOUS <.f ih.- time a* su- 
perintendent "f tin- Iron-foundry, ami all of the 
Ume in charp- of the brass-casting department, in 
which art hi* reputation was |.r< '-eminent. Thi* 
branch of t lit* Allaire works itossrss,-.! for mam 
yean almost a monopoly in IjalnaaHna Tin- Hot 

great fire-alarm bells put up in the City Hall park 
ast by Mr. He Coinlrea. 
ID I Ms. < ii.ui,> Force, clergyman, b. in Bal- 
timore, Mil.. 1 Deo, 1880. He was graduated at 
Dickinson college, Carlisle, I 'a., in lHliU, and en- 
ternl i he Methodist ministry in New Jersey. SoOO 
afterward ho became general agent for the Ameri- 
can Bible society in North Carolina. In 1H41 he 
accepted the professorship of logic and rhetoric in 
tin- university of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill. 
holding this office five years, after which he was 
for one vear professor of" natural sciences in Ran- 
dolph-Macon college, at Ashland. Va. Returning 
to N' «rtli Carolina, he was stationed as a Methodist 
pMlOral New Borne, and in 1N50 was a delegate to 
the general conference of the Methodist Kpiscopal 
church, south, which met in St. Ixniis. While 
there he was elected to the presidency of Greens- 
boro, N. C.. female college, and also to the presi- 
deiu v of Centenary college, at Jackson, I^a. He 
chose the former, and ssrved till 1HT>4, from which 
time he was engaged in the regular pastorate till 
1858. Afterward he was the presiding elder of t he- 
Wilmington and New Berne district* of the North 
Carolina conference. At the close of 1865 he went 
to New York, was occupied for a time in literary 
pursuits, and subsequently established the Church 
of the Strangers, of which he is still (1887) the 
pastor. He was at one time president of Rutgers 
female college. New York city. Ho bat been the 
president of the American institute of Christian 
philosophy since 1881, and is now (1887) editor of 
••Christian Thought," a monthly magazine. He 
has also edited Frank Leslie's •• Sunday Magazine." 
and five volumes of the "Southern Methodist Pul- 
it," and compiled throe volume* of "Annals of j 
uthern Methodism." Ho has received the degree 
of D. I), from Randolph-Macon college, and that 
Of Mi. D. from the University of North Carolina. 
Besides the publication of several volumes of ser- 
BWOJL and many addresses, he has been a frequent 
contributor to periodical literature, and is the au- 
thor of " Triumph of Peace and other Poems" (New 
York, 1840) ; " Life of Rev. Dr. ( larke " < 1 K4<» ; •• I >,- 
votional Melodies" (1842); "Twelve College S»r- 
mons"(l844); "The Home Altar " (I860) ; -What 
Now!" (1853); "Weights and Wings" (1*74) : •• A 
Scotch Verdict in Re-Kvolution " (1886) ; and "The 
Light of the Nations" (1868% in which the author 
does oot attempt to p r ese n t the biography of < hri*t. 
hut takes the records of the evangelists who write 
about the man Jesus, the Bond Mary, as he would 
the narratives of the classic authors, and strive* to 
represent the consciousness of Jesus without refer- 
ence to theological conclusions. He has written 
with considerable force in opposition to the doc- 
trine of evolution. 

DKKKINii. Nathaniel, author, h. 85 June, 1791; 
d. mar Portland. Me., in 1KM1. Hi* grandfather 
was Nathaniel I Jeering, to whose energy and enter- 
prise Portland owes so much of its early prosperity. 
Sir. Dsering studied at Phillips Kxeter academy, 
and was graduated at Harvard in 1810, Bs en- 
I the count ing-hotise of Asa Clapp. in Port- 
land, but soon relinquished business pursuits f< .r 
the law. and he was admitted to the liar in 1815, 

and practised In Canaan, and afterward in Unburn 
(ik.w SkowbeganX N, «- II was while Mr. I Jeering 



Bo 



was living at Canaan that Lydia Maria Child wrote 
a well-known spigram upon hm b , 

•• Wh.M \. r w.-.|* the young lawyer Bj 

Will Mir.i\ ring, 

For what must hi* |- 

When even his name i» S 
lie r.turne.1 t.. Portland in \KH). Idmsslf 

to literary pur*uits, and was for editor 

of a political jwiint, the •• Inde|»-ti.|. mt Statesman." 
While still at Mil burn he puhli*h.-«| " Carfthsssct," 
a tragedy foimde.l u|ion th hn mssssi Hi 

of Father Baal* and the Norridgewock Indian* by 
the British in 17*20. Thi* work tn.< follow 
"The Clairvoyants," a comedy, which has besn 
several time* produced ujn.ii the stage in Boston 

and Portland. His mlsnanancmiH writing* inclnds 
humorous tales of •• down-east " life. His roost 
Bnished plaj i* " BnZTaris," a tragi 

UK FOREST. John William, author and ml 
dier. b. in llumphrey*ville (now S-vm..iir.. OoMk, 

81 March. 1896. He attended no oollsge, but par- 
sued independent studies, mainly abroad, was a 
student in Latin, and liecame a fluent speaker of 
French, Italian, and Spani*h. While yet a youth, 
he [Missed four vears travelling in Europe, and 
two year* in the Levant, residing chiefly in Syria. 
Again, in I860, he visited Europe, making 
sive tours through (treat Britain. France. Italy, 
Germany. Greece, and Asia Minor. From that 
time until tin- 
civil war Itegan 
he wrote short 
stories for peri- 
odicals, having 
already I H-coiiie 
an author of 
sereral ixx.ks. 
In 1861, as cap- 
tain, he re- 
cruited a com- 
pany for the 
18th Connecti- 
cut volunteers, 
tndserred con- 
stantly in the 
Held till Janu- 
ary, 1*<m. tak- 
ing an active 
part under 

(ien*. Weitzel 
and Banks in the southwestern states, and under 
( ien. Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley, and leav- 
ing the army with the brevet of major. Graphic 
descriptions of battl e sce n es in Louisiana, and 

Of Sheridan's battles in the valley of the Shen- 
andoah, were published in "Harper's Monthly" 
during the war by Maj. De Forest, who was pres- 
ent on all the occasions thu* ment ion ed, and was 
fortunate enough, while exps H e nct M 
days und.r tire, to reoeire but one trUDng wound. 
- one of only two or three American literary 
men that laid down the pan for the sword. FTOflJ 

lsttf till inw heremainsld in the army as adjutant - 
general of the reteran reasrrs oorna, and after- 
ward a* chief of B district under the Freedmaii'* 
bureau. Since then he has resided in New H«\. ■:>. 
except when travelling in Btttopa. The honorary 

of A. M. was confound anon him I 
allege in 1868, Besides essays, • f. 

.•in*, and eboul fifty short stories, numerous mili- 
tary sketch.*, and K-.k-r. t of which 
were anotivmoit*. be, in 1*?M. contributed t<> the 
••Atlantic Monthly " a short ssrial story, entitled 
••The Ij»iis..ii Tragedy." He ha* publish. -I " The 
Bistort of the Indians of Connecticut, from the 




y^^y^tn^r-- 



124 



I »K FREES 



DE HAAS 



Earliest-known Period to 1850" (Hartford, 1853); 
" Oriental Acquaintance, *' ■ sketch of travels in 
Asia Minor (New York, 1856); " Witching Times" 
(ls.*>C)); "European Acquaintance" (1858); "Sea- 
cliff," a novel (Boston, 1859); "Miss Ravenel's 
Conversion" (New York, 186?) ; "Overland " (New 
York, 1871): "Kate Beaumont" (Boston, 1879); 
" The Wetherell Affair " (New York, 1873) ; " Hon- 
est John Vane" (New Haven, 1875); "Justine 
Vane" (New York, 1875); " Plaving the Mischief" 
(1876); " Irene Vane " (1877) ; ""Irene, the Mission- 
ary" (Boston, 1879); "The Oddest of Courtships, 
or the Bloody Chasm " (New York, 1881). 

DEFREES, John D M politician, b. in Sparta, 
Tenn., 8 Nov., 1811 ; d. in Berkeley Springs, West 
Va., 19 Oct, 1882. In 1818 he was apprenticed by 
his father to a printer in Ohio, and at the same 
time began to study law. He was admitted to the 
bar of Indiana in 1836, having removed to that 
state a few years before to establish a newspaper 
in conjunction with his brother. He was soon 
elected to the legislature, and was several times re- 
elected. In 1844 he resigned his seat in the state 
senate, and bought the " Indiana State Journal," a 
weekly paper published at Indianapolis. He re- 
moved there and made that paper a daily, which 
he edited for several years. After the Whig party 
was dissolved he united with the Republican, and 
in 1856 became the first chairman of the republi- 
can state committee, which place he occupied until 
1860. Mr. Defrees was a friend of many leading 
politicians, among whom were Clay, Crittenden, 
Webster, and Corwin, who regarded him as an 
adroit politician. President Lincoln appointed 
him to the office of government printer, which he 
filled for manv years. 

DEGOLLADO, Santos (day-gol-yah'-do), Mexi- 
can general, b. in Morelia, state of Michoacan, 
Mexico, 30 July, 1819 ; d. in June, 1861. He had 
a good education, but little is known of his life 
until he became prominent at the beginning of 
1854 by revolting against the then powerful dicta- 
tor, Santa Anna, and, together with Epitacio Huerta 
and Pueblita, headed the rising in the city of his 
birth. He organized an army about 2,000 strong, 
at the head of which he marched resolutely toward 
the city of Mexico, issuing on the way a proclama- 
tion, adopting the principles of the " Plan de 
Ayutla," issued on 11 March, by Gen. Juan Alvarez, 
whose forces he joined. After several victorious 
engagements with the troops of the dictator and 
the flight of the latter (16 Aug., 18.55), Gen. Alvarez 
was proclaimed president, and Degollado with the 
liberal army entered the capital, 15 Nov., 1855. 
Degollado belonged to the liberal party, and with 
Juarez, Lerdo de Tejada, Leon Guzman, and Eze- 
quiel Montes, devoted all his energy to the success 
of the principles proclaimed at Ayutla, and was 
one of the deputies who signed the new Federal 
constitution, 5 Feb., 1857. During the ensuing 
troubles of the reactionary or church party, headed 
by Miramon, he was in the field again in aid of the 
liberal government represented by Juarez, and 
commanded the constitutional forces at the unsuc- 
cessful battle of Tacubava, 11 April, 1859, against 
the reactionary army under Leonardo Marquez. In 
the same year he was elected governor of the state 
of Michoacan, which office he filled until 1861, 
when serious political complications called him to 
the capital of the republic. Notwithstanding the 
final defeat of Miramon's forces at the battle of 
Calpulalpam, 22 Dec., 1860, and his subsequent 
flight from the country, the church party rose 

Sjain, and forces under Zuloaga, Marquez, and 
egrete threatened the government, and Degollado 



hastened to tender his services, but in the mean- 
while he hail Ik'cII Igaill elected to congress. When 
in June, 1861. his friend, Mclchor Ocampo, was 
takn prisoner by forces under the command of 
Cajiga, and, on the road to Morelia, wag nrnnnfai 
ated at Tepeji by order of Marques, the goretn- 
ment, indignant at this new outrage, took active 
measures, and Degollado asked of congn— permis- 
sion to take the command of the forces sent against 
the rebels. Impatient of the arrival of a convoy 
commanded by Gen. O'Horan, he left the city at the 
head of 150 men, and, in the dense woods" called 
Monte de las Cruces, met the enemy under com- 
mand of Galvez and Buitron, who were in ambush. 
After a desperate fight of several hours, his ammu- 
nition was exhausted, his troops scattered, and De- 
gollado taken prisoner. He was robbed and dragged 
away on foot, when suddenly Galvez's voice was 
heard, and Degollado was assassinated bv Ins captors. 

DE GROOT, Albert, captain, b. on Staten 
Island in 1813; d. in Richfield Springs, N. V., 17 
Sept., 1887. He was taken into service by Cor- 
nelius Vanderbilt, and rose to the rank of captain, 
commanding boats on the Hudson. He erected 
the Prescott House, on Broadway, in 1857, and 
constructed the steamer "Jenny Lind." During 
the war he built the steamers " Resolute " and " Re- 
liance," which were purchased for the navy. He 
promoted the erection of the Vanderbilt bronzes, 
and presented to the printers of New York the 
statue of Benjamin Franklin, which stands in front 
of the " Times " and " Tribune " buildings. 

DE HAAS, John Philip, soldier, b. in Holland 
about 1735 ; d. in Philadelphia, 3 June, 1786. His 
ancestors were an ancient family of northern France. 
In 1750 he removed with his father to the United 
States, settling in Lancaster county, Pa. He was 
ensign in the old French war, and took part in 
Bouquet's battle with the Indians at Bushy Run, 
near Pittsburg, 5 and 6 Aug., 1763. In 1776 he 
was appointed colonel of the 1st Pennsylvania regi- 
ment. He served in Canada and at Ticonderoga, 
and after the battle of Long Island was promoted 
to brigadier-general, 21 Feb., 1777, serving until the 
close of the war. In 1779 he went to Philadelphia, 
where he spent the latter years of his life. His son 
served as ensign in his own regiment. 

DE HAAS, William Frederick, marine paint- 
er, b. in Rotterdam, Holland, in 1830 ; d. in Fayal, 
Azores, 16 July, 1880. He studied in his native 
city and at the Hague, emigrated to New York in 
1854, and devoted himself to painting coast-scenery. 
He exhibited at the National academy. New York, 
in 1867, " Sunrise on the Susquehanna " ; in 1875, 
" Fishing-Boats off Mt. Desert," " Boon Island, 
Coast of Maine," and " Midsummer Noon, Bidde- 
ford Beach " ; in 1876, " The Lower Harbor of Hali- 
fax " and " Evening at Halifax " ; in 1877, " Narra- 
gansett Pier." — His brother, Maurice Frederick 
Hendrick, b. in Rotterdam in 1832, studied at 
Rotterdam and the Hague, and went to London in 
1851, where he painted in water-colors for a year. 
He made many sketches on the English and Dutch 
coasts, and in 1857 was appointed artist t<> the 
Dutch navy. The subjects of his earlier pictures 
are chiefly from the English Channel and French 
coast. Among them are " Storm off the Isle of 
Jersey" and " After the Wreck." In ia59 he re- 
moved to New York, where he was elected an asso- 
ciate to the National academy in 1863, an academi- 
cian in 1867, and was one of the original members 
of the American society of painters in water-colors. 
Among his numerous pictures are " Farragut's Fleet 

?assing the Forts below New Orleans." '• The 
acht Dauntless off Dover," " Desefting the Burn- 



DE ii m:t 



Dfl KAY 



IT. 



Ship," "Off the Coast of Frame," -Sunset at 

" " I'hc Breaking up of a Storm at Star Island," 

"'I'lic Beach at W. -t Hampton," " Karly M<>rn- 

ff tin- C..n>t." "White Island Lighthouse," 

"Drifted Lahore in 'Long bland Bomd 

Moonlight," •'Tin- Shipwreck." " Moonriss an.l 

Sunset," "|)iiii.iic Cove, ula ofwlght," "Sniis.i 

at Cans Ann." •• A Marine View, Boarboroagh," 
an. I " I'lie Rapids above Niagara." 

M HABT. William, lawyer, b. in Blinbeth- 

t..\Mi. N. .1.. 7 !>.<■.. 171''. ; <1. in Morristown, N. .1.. |fl 

.inn-'. 1801. Il«' practised law before tin- Revolu- 
tion. He whs appointed maj..r of the 1st New .b-r- 

battaUon. 7 N«>v., 1778, and lieutenant-colonel 
in 177»>. Before tin- close <>f the war he resigned 

hie onminlilon ami rammed law-practice at M<>r- 
etatown. One of his two brothers was elsoengaged 

in the service as aide to Qen. Wayne, ami fell at 
Port Ijcc in 17H0. Oolooal Dt Hart was eminent 
as a lawyer, and possessed much wit and humor. 
He was i. resident ..f the St. Tamtnanv society in 
1780.— Hb ion, William (helwood, soldier, h. 
in New Vnrk state in 1800: d. in BUaebethtown, 
N. .1.. -,' April. 1848, was graduated at the V. S. 
military academy in 1880, and became ■ lieutenant 
of ordnance. He nrved on ordnance duty until 
.'. and was in various garrisons and courts-mar- 
tial till IKll.when he became aide-de-camp to (Jan. 
Scott. In 1838 he was made captain of the 8d ar- 
tillery, serving on the northern frontier during the 
disturbances in Canada. While on special dutv 
from l846-*7 he prepared his » observations oh 
Military Law. and the Constitution and Practice of 
Courts-Martial." In 1847 he ■erred in the war 
with Mexico under Gen. Scott, and was lieutenant- 
governor of Puebla. 

DE HAVEN, Edvrin J., arctic explorer, b. in 
Philadelphia in 1NM>: d. there. 8 Oct.. 1886. He 
was a midshipman when only ten years of age, and 
after thirty-six years of naval service was placed 
ujxin the retired list on account of his impaired 
vision. His last cruise was completed in 18.~>7, when 
he resigned. He served in Wilkes's exploring ex- 
pedition fr-.m 1839 till 1842, and commanded the 
first expedition fitted out, nt the expense of Henry 
Grinned, <>f New York, to search for Sir John 
Franklin. It consisted of two small vessels — the 
" Advance." of 140. and the " Rescue." of 80 t..ns. 
This expedition, of which Dr. Kane has written so 
graphically, left New Vork. 84 May. I860, and was 
absent over sixteen months, wintering in the Arctic 
circle. On his return. Lieut. I ».• Haven was em- 
ployed in the coast survey, and in the national ob- 
servatorv under Lieut. Maurv. 

DEMON. Theodore, P. K. bishop, b. in Boston, 
Mass.. s Dr.-.. 1771'.: d. in Charleston. S. ('.. ti Am;.. 
1X17. He was graduated at Harvard in 1786, with 
the hi gh es t honors. He studied theology under the 
Rev. Dr. Parker, rector of Trinity church, Boston. 
officiating during that time as lay reader at Cam- 
bridge and Newport. H. I. He was ordained dea- 
con by Bishoti Bass, in Ncwburyport.24 De. ■.. 17!»7. 
and early in January. 1788, entered upon the duties 
of rector of Trinitv church. Newport. He was or- 
dained pri.st. '.) Oct., 1800. In lK0'2-':{ he visited 
the -south for the licnefit of his hi alt h. ami. after 
his return home, received urgent invitations from 
tWO Churches in Charleston. S. ( '.. to remove to that 
City, Which were declined. In IMOS he was a depu- 
ty from tl astern dioCCSC to the gener a l conven- 
tion, held in Baltimore. Md. The oexl yeai 

pted the rectorship <>f St. Michael's church. 
Charleston, and in 1810 removed thither, lie was 
ejected bishop of the diocese in February. 1818, 
being consecrated on 1". o,t. He was present at 



neral convention held in Philadelphia in 
1814, and also at that held 
-17. On his return to Charleston he WW 
stricken with the yellow fever, and died tranquilly 
and hopefully. His mortal remaii 
the chancel ..f St. Michael', church. Bishop Dwhon 
published a number nf Kpi-w-opul char, 
moits. After his death a selection from I 

published, which met with ■ large sale 
(London. IHSil and lv 

DEITZLES, <Jeorre Wa«hlmrt»n. snldh-r. b. 
in Pine Gnrre, Schuylkill <<... iv. 80 " 
d. n-ar Tin-son. Arizona. 11 A| • lb- n J 

eeived a eosnamavaahool ■donation, ream 

Kansas, and M fww ap with tie 

a member of the Eansai aoaasof representative* 

in 1K*»7-'M, and again in 1868-W, and dnr 
former period was elected -pcaker. Be uu. sahsa- 
quently mayor of Ijiwrcncc. and treasurer of the 
f'niversity of Kansas. At the hegiimiui; of tin- 
war he was made colonel of the 1st regiment <-f 
Kansas volunteers. 11. was promo te d t.. be brijrn- 
d ie r - ge n erai, 89 Nov., in;^, but resigned in I 
Of the year following; In 1W4 he was commis- 
sioned major-general of Kansas militia, l: 
killed by being thrown from a oarriai 

1>E K A V. James Ellsworth, naturalist, b, in 
Lisbon, Portugal, in 1788; d. In Oyster Bay. L l .. 

'■21 Nov., 1861. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, 
and there took his degree as a physician. On his 
return to the United States he married a daughter 

of Henry Eckford, the naval arohiteot, whom he 

subsequently accompanied t.. Turkey, where the 
latter was appointed superintendenl <>f the naval 
yards at Constantinople. Or. De Kay also b 
intimate with his brother-in-law. Joseph U<«dman 
Drake, Fitz-(ireenc Halleck. William Culleii Bry- 
ant, and other men of mark in literature and 
science. He was intrusted by Mr. Bckford with 
negotiations with Brasil and other South American 
powers, relative t<> the ships <>f war thai had been 
ordered by the fatter. Upon returning to this 
country, be settled permanently at Oyster Bay. 
L. I., devoting himself to the study <>f natural his- 
tory and contributing to the New Vork press, i > TI 
the outbreak of cholera in the latter city. Dr. He 
Kay hastened to give his services to the afllicb-d, 
although the practice of his profession was repug- 
nant to him. He was subsequently a founder of 
the Lyceum of natural history, afterward merged 
into the National academy of science. In l v 
state ordered a geological survey, making it OOSSr 

prehenaive enough to .over botany and soSogy, 
and Intrusting moss departments to Dr. D 
The results of his researches are contained in flTe 
volumes of the "Survey " (1848 1> . r 

he is the author of "Travels in Turk. \ 
Vork. 1888). — Hk brother. Oeorire Coleman. na\al 
offlcer, b. in New Vork city in ISO - . 1 ; d. in Wash- 
ington, D. C. 81 Jan.. 1848. He was pnjmnsl for 
College, but ran away to sen. lb- bsoams a skilful 

navigator, and took vsssals built by Henry BoklBwJ 

to S.uth America. He volunteered in the navy of 
..ntine republic, then at war with Brazil. 

and was liven command of a brig ■ Jam, 1887. 

After taking several prizes, he accepted a captain's 
commission. n\ Inch he had declined on entering the 
service, preferring to win it by promotion. In an 

men! with the brig " Cacique," com m ande d 
by Cast Hsiisnn thai vessel was captured, though 
twice the size ..f |> md much more heavily 

an 1. When returning to Buen Jane, 

is brie;, the "Brandt/en." was dm 
shore la the river Plata by a Brazilian squadron. 

ittled the Teasel to prevent her capture. 



126 



DE KOVEN 



DE KKOYFT 



swam ashore with his crew, and on reaching Buenos 
Avn's was made oommodore. After the peace he 
delivered a corvette to the porta tor Henry Kck- 
tord. ll>' was with him in Constantinople when 
be died, K<kford at the time being superintendent 
of the Ottoman ship-yards. Returning to New 
York, De Kay married in 1833 Janet, only child of 
Joseph Rodman Drake, the poet. In 1*17 he 
took the l T . S. Mote "Macedonian" to Ireland 
with supplies for the sufferers from the famine, 
having exerted himself to secure the passage of 
an act of congress permitting a government rend 
to be so employed. See "Outline of the Life 
of Cora. George C. De Kay" by Pitz-Greene Hal- 
leck (New York, 1847).— George Coleman's son, 
Joseph Rodman Drake, soldier, b. 21 Oct., 1836; 
d. in New York city, 9 June, 1880, served with 
credit during the civil war on the staffs of Gens. 
Mansfield, Pope, and Hooker, and won the brevet 
of lieutenant-colonel for gallantry in several bat- 
tles.— Another son of George Coleman, George 
Coleman, soldier, b. 24 Aug., 1842 ; d. in New Or- 
leans, 27 June, 1862, left his studies in Dresden, 
Saxony, in 1861, returned to the United States, and 
entered the National service as lieutenant of artil- 
lery, and afterward was on the staff of Gen. Thomas 
Williams till he received a mortal wound in a 
fight with bushwhackers at Grand Gulf. — Another 
son of George Coleman, Sidney, soldier, b. 7 March, 
1845, ran away from school in the second year of 
the civil war and joined the 71st New York volun- 
teers. He was afterward made lieutenant in the 
8th Connecticut regiment, served on the staffs of 
Gens. B. F. Butler, Devens, and Terry, and re- 
ceived the brevet of major. After the war he went 
to Crete to assist the Greeks against the Turks. — 
Another son, Charles, author, b. in Washington, 
D. C, 25 July, 1848, has published "The Bohe- 
mian" (New York, 1878); "Hesperus" (1880); 
"Vision of Nimrod" (1881); "Vision of Esther" 
(1882); and "Love Poems of Louis Barnaval" 
(1883). His best known story is*" Manmatha." 

DE KOVEN, James, clergyman, b. in Middle- 
town, Conn., 19 Sept., 1831 ; d. in Racine, Wis., 19 
March, 1879. He was graduated at Columbia in 
1851, and at the General theological seminary in 
1854, was ordained priest in 1855, and became 
rector of the church of St. John Chrysostom, 
Delafield, Wis., and principal of St. John's hall, 
the preparatory department for Nashotah theolog- 
ical seminary. In 1859 this department, through 
his instrumentality, was merged in Racine college, 
Mr. De Koven becoming the warden. He was a 
leader in the high-church movement in the west, 
and inaugurated radical changes in the management 
and discipline of the college. He introduced the 
Oxford cap and gown in 1861. to be worn both by 
students and professors ; inaugurated the confer- 
ring a gold tassel to be worn by the student that 
attained the highest proficiency; invited from 
England a celebrated teacher of church-music, and 
established the first Episcopal surpliced choir 
west of New York city. He was prominent in all 
matters of church education, and a leader in the 
diocesan and general conventions. The degree of 
D. D. was conferred upon him in>1862 by Hobart. 
In 1873 he lacked but a few votes of being elected 
bishop of Massachusetts. The election turned on 
the questions at issue between the high and low 
church parties of New England, and Dr. De Koven 
was the candidate of the former, being put for- 
ward as one of the most powerful orators of the 
Episcopalian pulpit. But more general attention 
was attracted to him by an address delivered in 
the convention of 1874 The controversy between 



! the high and low church panics had then assumed 

a bitter antagonism, and threatened a serious dis- 

! sension if not a final division. The addreei in 

Question produced a profound impression, and Dr. 
»e Koven was perhaps in consequence elected ^ 
1 bishop of Illinois, but was not confirmed by the' 
diocese. In the year following, his name was 
I again proposed for a bishopric, but was subse- 
I quently withdrawn by his friends, there being no 
! hope of a confirmation. Meantime he continued 
j his work as an educator in building np the insti- 
! tution at Racine. By his efforts a commodious 
edifice was erected for the college chapel, 200 acres 
of adjoining land was purchased, and costly build- 
ings were put in as extensions and connections to 
those already standing, until the college quad- 
rangle was nearly completed. In 1878 he was 
called to be an assistant rector of Trinity church, 
New York, but declined. A short time before his 
death he was chosen rector of St. Mark's, Phila- 
delphia, but had not time to act upon it. He was 
noted for his kindly courtesy, his genial humor, 
and his brilliant conversational powers. In the 
pulpit he displayed many of the best qualities of 
the sacred orator. His death was caused by slip- 
ping on the ice in a lonely place, on his way from 
the station to the college, and breaking his leg. 
The weather was cold, and he lay for several hours 
before it was known and any help reached him. 
He was the author of several stones for boys and 
"Serinons Preached on Various Occasions, pub- 
lished since his death, with a preface by the Rev. 
Morgan Dix, D. D. (New York, 1880). 

DE KRAFFT, James Charles Philip, naval 
officer, b. in the District of Columbia, 12 Jan., 1826; 
d. there, 29 Oct., 1885. He was appointed midship- 
man from Illinois in 1841, and attached to the frig- 
ate " Congress," in the Mediterranean squadron. 
During the Mexican war he tookpart in the first 
attack on Alvarado in 1846. He was commis- 
sioned lieutenant, 15 Sept, 1855, and detailed to 
the command of the frigate " Niagara" in 1860, in 
which vessel he was present at the assault on Fort 
McCrean, one of the defences of Pensacola, the 
following year. In 1862-'3 he was on dutv in the 
navy-yard at Washington, and commanded the 
steamer "Conemaugh, Western Gulf-blockading 
squadron, in 1864-'6, during which period he as- 
sisted in the operations against Fort Powell, Mo- 
bile bay. Commissioned as commander in 1866, 
and as captain in 1872, he served subsequently as 
captain of the " Hartford," as chief of staff of the 
Asiatic station, and had charge of the Washington 
and Philadelphia navy-yards. He was promoted 
to the rank of rear-admiral in June, 1885. 

DE KROYFT, Sarah Helen, author, b. near 
Rochester, N. Y., 29 Oct., 1818. Her maiden name 
was Aldrich. She obtained a good education by 
teaching in winter and attending school in summer 
for seven years. Her attainments included French, 
Italian, and the higher mathematics. She was gradu- 
ated at Lima, N. Y., seminary, and in 1845 married 
Dr. William De Kroyft, of Rochester, who died on 
his wedding-day of injuries received in falling from 
a carriage. Within the month following she a-w< >kc 
one morning to find her sight entirely gone. She 
spent a vear or two at the New York institution for 
the blind, with the intention of becoming an organ- 
ist, and while there began to write for new-papers 
and periodicals. In 1850 she published a collection 
of letters under the title "A Place in thy Memory," 
nearly 200,000 copies of which have heeii sold. She 
has travelled extensively in the United States, 
About 1865 she added Latin to the list of her ac- 
quisitions, and a few years later entered the lect ure- 



DELAFIELD 



DELAF1I 



127 



with it disooorse "M "Darwin and M .- 
•i has U.n re|>eatedly delivered in tbi princi- 
pal cities, ami many of tin- larger rillag 

S'..rk. BermOfl successful -kit<li i» "Littll 

a true story of a blind Im.\ (New York, I 
sin- has new rsoovsred bar right. 

hi l \ I I ELD, John, merchant, b. in England, 
18 Marsh. 1748; ■!. In mi rorl city, 8 July, 1884 
Snui after coming of age be emigrated t<> fchia 
country. Tin- •hip Upon which he took passage 
bore letters of marque, ami captured ■ French ves- 
sel. Mr. Dalaflald volunteered in the action, and 
shared the prize-money to the extent of film. lb- 
landad in New York city, ."> April, 1788, ami found 
himself aWrtlfliallj welcomc<l us the U-arer of a 
manuscript copy of the text of the treaty of 
peace, which had ban bandad him at the moment 
of sailing by an offleia] In the British service. The 
conditions of peace were known, hut the text 
had not yet been made public in Fnglaml : and. 
although the official copy had been forwarded, 

the "Vigilant " had Outstripped the bearer of the 

government despatches by some daws. After sev- 
eral experiments, Mr. Delattcld established himself 
in New York M a merchant. He was exceptional- 
ly successful, retiring in 1798 one of the wealthiest 
men in the country. A twelvemonth afterward 
he was at the head of the private underwriters of 
the city. Time brought reverses, as both the 
French' and the English were striving to sweep 
American commerce from the seas. While many 
of the private underwriters were obliged to sus- 
jH-nd. Nut. Dalaflald was among those who paid 
every loss, but onlv by sacrificing his entire capital 
and mortgaging his real estate. He was a founder 
and director of the Mutual insurance company, es- 
tablished 15 June, 1787, that being the first com- 
pany organized to take risks against tire in the 
city of New York after the Revolution. On 12 
Jan., 1792, he was appointed a director of the 
branch of the F. S. hank, and was afterward elect- 
ed to the same office. He was one of forty gentle- 
men who subscribed $10,000 each, and founded (1 
Feb.. 1790) the United insurance company, also 
acting as a director, and serving as president for 
many years. His summer residence on the Fast 
river, opposite Hlackwell's island, known ss"8uns- 
wick," nuilt in 1791, was one of the largest and 
best appointed private houses near New York. 
Mr. Delafield had nine sons and four daughters. 
Two of his sons died young. — His son John, 
banker, h. in New York city. 22 Jan.. 17S«>: d. 22 
Oct., 1853, was graduated at Columbia in 1808, and 
immediately obtained employment as confidential 
clerk ami su|>ercargo. A few years later, having 
cmliurked in the shipping business, and being on 
board one of his own vessels, be was driven by 
■ of weather into the harbor of t'orunna, 
Spain, and witnessed the storming of that city by 
the French. On the night of IT Jan.. 1808,' the 
enemy having opened fire on the shipping, the 
cables were cut, and Mr. Delafield put to sea with 
a family of noble Spanish refugees in addition to 
his crew. Although short of provisions and almost 
in a sinking condition, the vessel was brought sab»- 
lv to London. There he established himself as a 
banker, 1H08-'10. During the war of 1818-'H be 

was held as a prisoner, but, through the influence 

of relatives in Fngland. he was permitted to con- 
tinue hi* business, with the privilege of travelling 
fifteen miles around I' x bridge, where he had a 

country seat, and to the city <>f L Ion. His 

large fortune was suddenly swept away in a finan- 

• risis. and it was then that his friend. Wash 

ington Irving, dedicated to him the graceful story 



entitled "The Wife." published in the "Sketch- 
Hook." In is-.'o he returned «■ 
served as cashier ami president of the ('bonis 
bank from |H30 till I8SH, when he resigned toeo- 
ccpt the presidency of the Nsa V.. r k Unking com- 
pany. Mr. DelaflaM was the tir«t mm 

rk philharmonl sniofa 1<-r wvaral 

pMI met at his house. He' aim. suggested thl 
plan, end was an original member, of 
fund eooiety. Be obtained large mbecriptioaa for, 
and jrsatly ui«lt*.i in eetablishlng. tbi 

universitv. and expended time and money in re- 
viving the New York historical *,„ lety, II 

deeply engaged in similar imiwilta or in i neinem. 

he still found leisure to devote to the embellish- 
in. lit of his country scat at 11.11 Oats, SJsJdag it 
a marvel of horticultural Uaiity. Owing to the 
n-pudiation of their obligations bl MMM of the 
western states, the New York Unking esSBpany 

was forced to eospen d , and forasseond time Mr. 
Dalaflald found himself mddenly launvsriahed. 

The remainder of his life was devoted M agrieul- 
ture, his favorite occupation. He purchased s 
large estate. "Oaklands, near Geneva, N. V.. ami 

removed there in 1848. Before many years hiiWBI 
known as the model farm of the state. He was 

among the first to urge the Im port a nce of a < bcav 
ical analysis of the soil, scientific drainage, and the 
value and uses of various kinds of manure. A de- 
scription of his farm is given in the ••Transactions ** 
of the New York state agricultural societv for 1*47, 
pp. 800-811, of which association bewasfot 
vears chosen president. BewsaaJsothsflrsI presid- 
ing officer elected by the State agricultural college. 
—Another son. Joseph, scientist, b. in New York 
city. 8fl Aug. 17!«>; d. in New York city. 18 Feb., 
ls7."», was graduated at Yale in i*<»*. etndled law, 
and was admitted to practice in 1811. He win ap- 
pointed lieutenant in the Bth regiment, New York 
state militia, in 1810, and captain of drafted militia 

in 1812. At the close of the latter year he wasCOttt- 

miarioned in the I'. S. eervioe ea a captain in Haw- 
kins's regiment, and promoted to be major of the 
46th infantry. 15 April. 1N14. hut resigned at the 
close of the war. lie wss sppointed I v . 

under the f.th and 7th articles of the treaty of 
(ihent. for setting off the northern ixmndary of 
the United States, and had command of the parties 
in the field from 1X21 till 1888. Both the prsaV 
dent and congress formally acknowledged the fideli- 
ty with which Maj. Delafield had discharged his 
duties. During his sojourn in the north, hi 
the formation of the collection of minerals that for 
many vears ranked as one of the best in private 
hands i'n the country. Maj. Delafield was a immUr 
of many scientific associations, both in the United 
States and in Europe. He served a* president of 
the New York Ivceum of natural history fn 
till 1808, when in- declined a re electio n , and wsea 
member of the ■ o a J Sty for fifty-two years. In 1888 
Maj. Delafield built at his country scat on the 
Hudson, in the southern |wrt of the town of 7os> 
k.rs. known as •• Field-ton," » lime-kiln so con- 
structed as to bum continuouslv. on a plan until 
then unknown in this country. Ft several yean 
the works yielded large profits, ami served as the 
model for 'others.— Henry ami William. 
chants, twin brother! of the preceding, b. in 

wick " fnOW a |mrt of Long Island < H 

July, 1788; llenrv .1. in New York citv. 15 Folk, 

William d. in New York city. 80 N'oi 
Thev were prepared to enter Yale, but their father 
Hewed t" their desire •» DSgin busim-ss at i 
\ few Near- later the linn of II. 8 87, IMafkld 
1 was fonnded, dealing at first with England, then 



128 



DELAFIELD 



DELAMATKK 



with China, India, and South America, and in the 
end almost exclusively with the West Indies. Both 
the l>n>thi'rs held mauy positions of trust and re- 
sponsibility in business corporations. Henry, dur- 
ing the reign of the Emperor Soulouque, acted as 
consul for Hayti. Both brothers served as volun- 
teers during the war of 1812. — Edward, physician. 
In-other of the preceding, b. in New York citv, 
17 May. 1812; d. there, 13 Feb., 1875, was grad- 
uated at Yale in 1812, and at the College of physi- 
cians and surgeons in 1815. He served as a nugeon 
in the U. S. army in 1814. In 1817 he sailed for 
London, studied under Sir Astley Cooper and Dr. 
Abernethy, and passed several months in the hos- 

Ritals of Paris. In 1820, in connection with Dr. J. 
[earny Rodgers, he founded the New York eye 
and ear infirmary, of which institution he was at- 
tending surgeon until 1850, and consulting surgeon 
until 1870. He 60on afterward entered into part- 
nership with Dr. Borrowe, and almost immediately 
found himself possessed of a large and lucrative 
practice. In 1834 he was appointed one of the at- 
tending physicians of the New York hospital, and 
in 1835 became professor of obstetrics and diseases 
of women and children in the College of physicians 
and surgeons, but resigned both offices in 1838 on 
account of his increasing private practice. In 1842 
he organized the society for the relief of widows 
and orphans of medical men, serving as its first 

S resident. He was a founder (1865) and first presi- 
ent of the New York ophthalmological society, 
and in 1858 was chosen president of the College of 
physicians and surgeons, remaining at its head 
until his death. From 1858 he was the senior con- 
sulting physician of St. Luke's hospital, and from 
its establishment in 1872 senior consulting physi- 
cian of the Woman's hospital, and president of the 
medical board. From its foundation in 1854 he 
served as president of the medical board of the 
Nursery and child's hospital. At the organization 
of the Roosevelt hospital, in 1867, he became a mem- 
ber of the board of governors, and was afterward 
chosen president, retaining the office during his 
life. — Franci.s, physician, son of Edward, b. in New 
York city, 3 Aug., 1841, was graduated at Yale in 
1860, and at the College of physicians and surgeons 
in 1863. He was attached for a time to the house 
staff* of Bellevue hospital, and studied medicine in 
Paris, Berlin, and London. He has filled the fol- 
lowing, among other, offices : surgeon in the New 
York eye and car infirmary, and physician and 
pathologist to the Roosevelt hospital (1871) ; physi- 
cian to Bellevue hospital (1874) ; adjunct professor 
(1875), and subsequently (1882) professor, of pathol- 
ogy and the practice of medicine in the New York 
college of physicians and surgeons ; consulting phv- 
sician to Bellevue hospital (1885) ; and (1886) first 
president of the Association of American physi- 
cians and pathologists. He has written : " Manual 
of Physical Diagnosis" (1878); "Hand-book of 
I '■ ist - Mortem Examinations and Morbid Anatomv " 
(1872) ; " Studies in Pathological Anatomy " (1882) ; 
an< 1 '• 1 land-book of Pathological Anatomy " (1885). 
— Richard, military engineer, son of John, senior; 
b. in New York city, 1 Sept., 1798 ; d. in Wash- 
ington, 5 Nov., 1873. He was graduated at the 
U. S. military academy in 1818 an the head of his 
class, and was immediately promoted to be 2d lieu- 
tenant of engineers, being assigned. to duty with 
the American boundary commission under the 
treaty of Ghent. In 1820 he received his commis- 
sion as 1st lieutenant, and in 1828 was made captain. 
From 1819 till 1838 he was employed in tbe con- 
struction of the defences of Hampton Roads, as 
superintending engineer on the fortifications in the 




n2»*&sfx*i 



vicinity of the KiwJ M JJ I J l i , and those on or near 
Delaware river and hay. Promoted to the rank of 
major in 1888, he was appointed superintendent of 
the U. S. military academy at West Point, where he 
remained for seven years, and subsequently held the 
office from 1856 till March, 1881, when he was re-' 
lieved. at his own request. From 1846 till 1855 he 
superintended the defences of New York harbor 
and the Hudson river Improvements, with the ex- 
ception of ten 
months,when 
he acted as 
chief engin- 
eer of the De- 
partment of 
Texas. Dur- 
ing the Cri- 
mean war 
(1855-'6) he 
was ordered 
to Europe in 
companywith 
('apt. (after- 
ward Maj.- 
Gen.) Mc- 
Clellan and 
Maj. Mor- 
decai to re- 
port on any 
changes that 
had been made in modern warfare. His elab- 
orate report was printed by congress in 1860. He 
was made lieutenant-colonel in 1861, colonel in 

1863, brigadier-general and chief of engineers in 

1864, and received the brevet rank of major- 
general, 13 May, 1865, " for faithful, meritorious, 
and distinguished services in the engineer depart- 
ment during the rebellion." He was retired 8 
Aug., 1866. his name having been borne on the 
army register for over forty-five years. He ren- 
dered valuable service to the government during 
the civil war, on the staff of Gov. Morgan, of New 
York (1861-'3), in the reorganization and equip- 
ment of the state forces. From 1864 till 1870 he 
was on duty at Washington as commander of the 
engineer corps, and in charge of the bureau of en- 
gineers of the war department, and served as in- 
spector of the military academy, as member of the 
light-house board, and of the commission for the 
improvement of Boston harbor. He was also one 
of the regents of the Smithsonian institution. 

DELAM ATER, John, physician, b. in Chatham, 
N. Y., 18 April, 1787; d. in Cleveland, Ohio, 28 
March, 1867. His family (the De la Moitres) was 
of French origin, his ancestors being Huguenot ex- 
iles, who found refuge in Holland. His father re- 
moved to Duanesburg, N. Y., then in Albany county, 
where he received a good education for those days, 
and at the age of nineteen was licensed to practise 
medicine. He entered into partnership with his 
uncle, Dr. Dorr, of Chatham, but in 1815 established 
himself in Sheffield, Mass., and during a residence 
of eight years in that place his professional ability 
began to be recognized. In 1823 he was invited 
to a professorship in the Berkshire medical insti- 
tute, Pittsfield, Mass., and when, in 1887, a new 
medical school was opened by the regents of the 
state of New York at Fairfield, Herkimer oo., Dr. 
Delamater was assigned to a leading place in its 
faculty. After residing there eight years he re- 
moved to Willoughby, Ohio, having previously 
visited Cincinnati, where he delivered a courM of 
lecture^. Saying labored in the Medical institute 
at Willoughby about six years, he removed in 1842 
to Cleveland, "where he spent the remainder of his 



DE LAN 






ISO 



life, lit- tix.k |Mirt in tba establishment of the 
eland medical college, lectured at Bowdoin, 
Dartmouth. Genera, and other college! throughout 
the country, tod at hie death left Im manuscript 
notes of over icventy different oouraai on almost 

. branch "f mtdfos 1 science. He was an b 
ami student, gifted with a clear mind, a aaver-faU* 
lag memory, and ■ remarfcabJe ^mmand <>f Ian- 

_•■, ami it is doubtful whether. u> a college lee- 
r, he has evei l>een surjiassed in this country. 
consulting physician. Ids opinions took high 
mnk. In I860 he resigned in- work in connection 
with tin 1 college, and wai made profeeeor emeritus, 
at tlif same time receiving the tifjcnt* of LL. D. 
ii. nibseqoently delivered nfty lectures, taking the 
plan '<i a member <»f the faculty oaued away on 

duties arising from the civil war. which VM lii> 
last appearance in public 

1»K LANCET, tftlenne (Stephen), merchant, 

I), in Caen, France. M Oct- 1668; d. in the city 
of New York, L8 NOV., 1711. Having bean com- 
pelled, as ■ rrofaatanf. to leave Prance on the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes (18 Oct, II 
he eseu|>ed into Holland. Deciding to become a 
British ■object and to emigrate to America, he 
crossed to Kngland and took the oath of allegiance 
to James II. He landed in New York, 7 .lime. 
168<5. His mother had given him. on his departure 
from Caen, a portion of the family jewels, lie sold 
them for i:t(M). became ■ merchant, and iminnrri 
a fortune of 6100,000. Be married Anne, aBoond 

daughter of Stephanus van Cortlandt, 96 Jan., 
1?IM). He took a prominent part in public affairs. 
representing the fourth ward of New York as al- 
derman in l(i!tl-':t, and was a member of assembly 
for twenty-four years. While sitting in the latter 
body he gars his salary, during one session, to pur- 
ehfljM th«' first town-clock erected in New York: 
and with the aid of his partner imported and pre- 
sented to the city the first fire-engine that had 
bean brought into the province. Mr. !>>• Lancey 
was buried in the family vault in Trinity church. 
New York. The three of his sons that left descend- 
ants are mentioned below. His eldest daughter 
married Sir Peter Warren. K. C. B. The He Lanoej 
house, which is now (1887) the oldest building in the 




city of New York, was erected in 17<>0 by Btienne, 
upon a piece of land given to him by his father-in- 
law. Mr. De Lancey resided there until be erected 
a larger bouse in Broadway, just above Trinity 
church, which was removed about 17M to build 
tin' citv hotel. The 'site is now occupied by the 

reel Building." The old bouse was then con- 
verted into a -tore. At Stephen de Lam 
death, in 1741, it passed to his youngest son, CoL 
Oliver de Lancey (the Brig.-Gen. De Lancey of the 

lution). Retiring from mercantile life, Oliver 
dfl Lancey s<ild it toSunual Fraunces (or Francis 
as commonly .sjiellcd), a mulatto of French origin, 
ii. — tf 



who bought it to ostahhsh ■ tavern, ai 
named the M Queen*! Head," in bono* • •» the new 
Queen Charlotte. Fire yean later Fraunccw tnm»- 

it to John J one*, who only r 
lTt;;, when Bolton and SigeJJ lanosaded an. I k.pt 
it till February, 177<>. Bolton remained alone till 
May. 177<», when Samuel Pratt] Hlack 

Sam." at he was usually ttyled) r. Miiii.-i | iiaaiun 
..f hi- property and kept it in the bari -t ■ 

some time lifter the Revolution. During all thin 

period thehonatwae the aaadonartan for nil **>- 

uid oluhs. bring used for public and i 
dinners and ■odal gatherings. Than 
the ion- room, originally Mrs. he Lanceyi draw- 

•iii. with its five windows front, that. 

Washington bade farewell to the offleen of the 

Army of the Ke\olution. Sin.. 1 ~,1<; many centen- 
nial celebration! have bean bald in the on hostel- 

ry. Originally it had tWO itorica, with a Up-TOOf, 

and raised cornice and baluatiade, the Bpnorctorica 

bring a modern addition, it j, .,f nnau Holland 

brick, with heavy tim!>ers. in the ol<l Dutch My le. 
— James, chief justice and Htn ttm a nt g nTornor of 

the province Of New York, eldest v.n of the prv- 

ceding. b. in New York city. 27 Nov.. \? 
there, 80 July, 1760. He was graduated at Cam- 
bridge, Kngland. and Bubsequentiy studied law in 

the Inner Temple, London. Having been admit- 
ted to the l>ar. he returned to New York toward 
the close of 1985, and BOOB became prominent in 
public life. He was made a member of the council 

in 1789, and in 1781 was app oi nt ed eseond judgv 
of the supreme court. The year previoui he had 
been placed at the head of a commission to frame 

a new charter for the city of New York. The in- 
strument then prepared, known ai "the M. 
cry charter,* 1 was mainly the w..rk of .In 
Lancey. who, for his M-rviccs, was pr es en ted with 
the freedom of the city, he bring the first person 

U|m>ii whom that honor was conferred. In 17:t{. 

on the removal of Chief-Justice Lewis Morris, 
Judge De Lancey was appointed in hJa rtead,aad 
ii.- retained the office during the remainder of hat 
life. In 1746 occurred a contest ••< 
Clinton and the assembly regarding the formers 

Salary. As the chief justice es|Miused the Jmijiu- 

lar side in the controversy, be gained the ill-will of 
the governor, which soon developed into active 
hostility on the occasion of the hitter's receiving a 
commission from the king bearing date 87 (,, t.. 
1747. appointing He Lancey Ueotapan t -g ovcr no r . 
Instead of delivering it to him as ordered, Clinton 
pocketed it and wrote an org) nt letter to the min- 
istry not only advising its withdrawal, bat de- 
manding He Lancey*! removal from the chief jas- 
ticeship. With neither of these requests did the 
home government comply : but ( "linton maintained 
his hostile attitude, and it was only after his own 
•npersedure, ami the death by suicide of his suc- 

ceasor, thai he fin ally d elivered the delayed 
mission (October, 1758). On 18 June, 

He Lancey convened and presided over the first 

con gre s s ever held in America, a congress of dah> 

Prom all the colonics, held by direction of 
the English government for the purpoo! ,.r 

mon ilefetice and conciiiat ing the Indiana, It wa* 
at this congress that Itcnjamin Fmnklin pnmoeed 
a plan for the union of the colonies by act OX |«r- 
liament. <>n:tl Oct, 1754,OoT. D 
the charter of King's mow Colun 

so great was the opposition of the hecbyteriana 

that he kept it in his DOasaanoU until Ka] "f the 
following year befOM delivering it to the ft 
poration. About the same time he attci 

council of the governors of the different o 



130 



DE LANCEY 



DE LANCEY 



held at Alexandria, Va., to concert DMMM with 
(Jen. Braddook ■gainst the French. In September 

of the same year {\">~>) Sir Charles Hardy arrived 
and assumed the functions of governor, the lieu- 
tenant-governor returning to the bench. Twenty- 
two months later, however, Sir Charles, who was 
an admiral in the English navy, having asked for 
active employment, sailed (2 July, 1757) from New 
York in command of an expedition against Louis- 
burg, leaving De Lancey again the ruler of the 
province, which he remained till his death, three 
years later. Gov. De Lancey was a man of great 
learning as a jurist and almost unbounded personal 
influence, and was undoubtedly one of the ablest of 
the provincial rulers of New York. Unfortunately, 
he did not escape the criticisms of his contempora- 
ries. Gov. De Lancey left three sons, two of whom 
are mentioned below. Of his four daughters, one, 
Anne, married Judge Thomas Jones, the historian. 
— James, soldier and political leader, eldest son of 
the preceding, b. in New York city in 1732; d. in 
Bath, England, in 1800. He was educated at Eton 
and Cambridge, and he entered the army on his re- 
turn to New York at the beginning of the French 
war. He served in the Niagara campaign of 1755, 
under Sir William Johnson, and commanded the 
detachment that, aided by a small re-enforcement 
under Col. Massey, defeated the French force sent 
to succor Fort Niagara, and compelled the surrender 
of that work the day following. He also served as 
aide-de-camp to Gen. Abercrombie in the expedition 
against Ticonderoga in 1758. On succeeding to his 
father's estate in 1700, and thus becoming the rich- 
est man in America, he took a prominent part in 
public affairs. He was a member of the assembly 
in 1768-'75, and assumed the leadership of the con- 
servative party, refusing a seat in the council lest 
it might hamper his freedom of action. He was 
the author of the resolution (adopted 25 March, 
1775) ordering that a petition be sent to the king, 
a memorial to the lords, and a remonstrance to the 
commons, demanding redress of the grievances of 
the colonists. These were subsequently presented 
by Edmund Burke, but contemptuously refused and 
voted down. The remonstrance to the commons 
was drafted by James de Lancey. In May, 1775, 
he sailed for England to urge the views of the as- 
sembly of New York on the home government. 
But he was unsuccessful, and, as hostilities hail 
meantime begun, he decided to remain abroad, and 
in the following year sent for his family. He never 
returned to this country. His immense estates were 
confiscated and he was banished, for voting against 
the resolutions of the congress of 1774. When, in 
1788, parliament finally passed an act partially 
compensating the loyalists for their losses. De 
Lancey was chosen by those from New York to 
act as their representative in the board of agents, 
and he became, after Sir William Pepperell, its 
most active member. Of his five children, his two 
sons (one of whom was in the British navy, the 
other in the army) died bachelors. His eldest 
daughter married Sir Jukes Granville Clifton, 
Bart. — John Peter, soldier, brother of the pre- 
ceding, b. in New York city, 15 July, 1753; d. in 
Mamaroneck, N. Y., 30 Jan., 1828. He was edu- 
cated in England, entered the British army in 
1771 as ensign, and was promoted to be captain 
of the 18th regiment of foot. During a portion of 
the Revolutionary war he served, by special per- 
mission, as major of the regiment of Pennsylvania 
loyalists, and was present at the battles of the 
Brandywine and Germantown. and at the capture 
of Pensacola. At the close of the war he ret anted 
to his regiment, and was successively stationed in 



the i-land of Jersey and at Gibraltar. Resigning 
from the army, he returned to the I'nited States 
in 1?N!». and resided until hi- death at .Mamaro- 
neck.— William Healhcote, bishop of western 
New York, son of the preceding. D> in Mamaro- 
neck, N. Y., 8 Oct.. 17U7; d. in Geneva. N. V.. .V 
April, 1865, His education, beginning at the vil- 
lage schools in Mamaroneck, and carried on at the 
academy of New Rochelle under Messrs. Waits and 
Staples, was continued at the private school of tin- 
Rev. Seth Hart, at Hempstead, L. I., and at that 
of the Rev. Dr. Lewis Ernest Eigenbrodt, at Ja- 
maica, L. I., by whom he was fitted for Yale, 
where he was graduated in 1817. He studied 
divinity under the Rt. Rev. John Henry Hobart, 
then bishop of New York, and was ordained deacon 
on 28 Dec, 1819, and priest. 6 March, 1822. As 
deacon he was chosen by the vestry of Grace 
church, N. Y., in the spring of 1820, to take tem- 
porary charge of that parish, and served till Janu- 
ary, 1821, when the Rev. Dr. Wainwright was 
elected rector. Mr. De Lancey was immediately 
chosen by the vestry of Trinity church, N. Y., for 
three months, to fili the vacancy caused by Dr. 
Wainwright's acceptance of the rectorship of Grace, 
in 1821 he was called to St. Thomass church, 
Mamaroneck, a parish he had founded while in 
Yale, with the aid of his father and Peter Jay 
Munro, and served it for ten months without salary, 
also aiding^ in securing the erection of a church 
edifice. In March, 1822, as soon as he was ordained 
priest, Mr. De Lancey went to Philadelphia, on 
the invitation of the venerable Bishop White, at 
the suggestion of Bishop Hobart, to Income the 
former's personal assistant in the three united 
churches of Christ church, St. Peter's, ami St. 
James's. Thus began that intimate friendship 
with Bishop White which was only terminated by 
the death of the latter in the summer of 1836, a 
friendship so marked that Bishop White called 
him his adopted son, and consulted with him pri- 
vately on all matters of importance. No man bad 
the confidence of that venerable prelate to so great 
an extent as he, and no man knew directly from 
the bishop so many of the details of the history of 
the inception and progress of the Protestant Epis- 
copal church from the close of the Revolutionary 
war to the year 1836 as did Mr. De Lancey. In 
March, 1823, he was unanimously elected by the 
vestry of the three united churches in Philadel- 
phia one of the assistant ministers of the parish, 
the other two being the Rev. James Abercrombie, 
D. D., and the Rev. Jackson Kemper, 1). D. In May, 
1823, he was chosen secretary of the Convention of 
the diocese of Pennsylvania, and was annually re- 
elected till 1830, when he declined further re-elec- 
tion. In the same year (1823) he was chosen secre- 
tary to the house of bishops, and re-elected by 
them to the office in 1826. In 1827 he was called 
to St. Thomas's church, New York, the wardens 
coming to Philadelphia to deliver the call in per- 
son. But he deemed it his duty to remain where 
he was. In the same year, though not quite thirty- 
years of age, Mr. De Lancey was unanimouslv 
eleoted provost of the University of Pennsylvania, 
which had somewhat declined. At the request of 
Bishop White and Horace Binney, .Mr. !><• Lancey. 
though he much preferred to continue in his 
chosen profession, accepted the office. This was 
that old "college in Philadelphia" founded by- 
Benjamin Franklin. Chief-Justice Allen, and other 
noted men of that day. He also received (in 1827) 
the degree of D. I>. from his alma mater. Wing 
the younp'st person upon whom, up to that time, 
that honor had been conferred. *He remained 



DE i.w 



l>K I 



i:u 




JAr ^>ivt XL+j&L&nsoty 



«st fire yean, ami. baring »»r<»n^lit the uni- 
. k to it |>nn»|KTou« condition (taking it 
witii 21 -in. 1. m* and tearing it with 

.1. t.. resume hi* pnfMriOO. fa l s; W he was 
..• three united churches licing separated 

in thai ram) ssnhtnnl mfnkttT of Bt c 

church. Philadel- 
phia, with the n- 
rerst on oftl 
tor-hip upon the 
death <'f Biabop 
White, who was 
continued 

of all three. Thai 
rviiit ooourred in 

m.l Dr. l>c 
Laiir.v contin- 
ued rector of Bt 

r.tirVunt il in:ii». 
when. u|miii the 
division ..f (be 
llioee*c <>f N.w 

Y.»rk, then cm- 
bracing the whole 

stat. '.In -was. •lect- 

ed biahopof weet> 
ern New Fork, 

that half of th.' state west of a north-and-south 
line just east <»f the citv of I'tica. He was con- 
lied at Auburn in the new diocese on !t May, 
' Bishop (iriswold, of Massachusetts. I icing the 
consecrator, assiste<l by Bishop George W. Doane.of 
New .Jersey, ami Bi*h<>ps Henry If. Ondcrdonk ami 
Benjamin T. On.lerdonk.of Pennsylvania and New 
York resix-ctivcly. Bishop De Lancey moored t" 
Sonera, N'. Y.. nearly lite centre of the new di o ces e, 
and tin- seat of Geneva college, where he resided 

daring his episcopate, At that date, \*'-M, there 
was not a railroad in the state of New York wesl 
of Uti.il. cxi.pt a howeline with wooden rails be- 
tween ByiUOUBe and Auburn, nor did a railroad 
reach Genera until late in 1K41. His labors, there- 
for<\ in trarelling continually OW so large a ter- 
ritory, by horse-power only, dating the earlier part 
of his term of Office, were extremely ardiioii*. 111 

1859 Bishop De Lanoeyand the biahopof Michi- 
gan were sent by the house of bishops as delegates 
t<> the celebration in London of the 150th anni- 
versary of the Society for the propagation of the 
gospel in foreign parts, in response to an invitation 
fr.nn the Archbishop of Canterbury. This was the 
fir-t timet lie American c h u r c h was e re r re p res en ted 

olli.-ially in England, and the first timethat Ameri- 
can bishops took part officially with Anglican bish- 
ops in the public services in St. Paul's cathedral 

ami Westminster Abbey. On thin oonasion the de- 
gree of I>. C I j. was conferred by the Dhirersitj <»f 
rd upon Bishop De Lancey. He had pre- 
riously spent a year (1886-*6) iii Europe, and in 
' lie again went there on account of his wife's 
health, and travelled extensively. During this visit 
he was invited by the Archbishop <>f Canterbury to 
assist as a consecrator in the consecration of an 
idi bishop for British Columbia, in Westmin- 
Vbbey, the first time an American bishop erer 
united in the consecration of an English bishop. 
Tin- legislation of the American church during the 
twenty-su years of his episcopate, and her Institu- 
tions as a whole, notably thai <>f the General theo- 
logical seminary, bear the impress of his judgment, 
his foresight, his influence, and hi* firm and <1<- 
ourteous, character. He first 

firoposed the adoption of the provincial system in 
he American church, and the change intheor- 
zation of the General theological seminary, 



which, though it did not .-cur till ncarlv I 
years after In- death, ha* i, n, , 4 

slightly different manner, in mak 
a diocesan institution. To him » 
ow.-s ti„. existent ■ mow llobart) . 

the endowment that *m\.*i it from est ii 
the re-wit of hi* |MTs«.nal influence and labor with 
tryof Trinity church, and alm> the founding 
of |>e Venus college at Niagara, ami the Training- 
school at Genera, the fonner through In* mtlu. n.,. 
with and his ftdrioe t.. his personal friend, 

.\. and the latter to bJg individual exertions 
in mising the fund*. In the grounds «.f the latter 
*tan.N a fin.- *tone church, ensti-*! after hi* d< 
friends in Philadelphia and in western Nee 
at his monument. Bewasnceiij rfxfsel high, of 
graceful mien and commanding presenc e , united 

with the most courteous manners and great riradty, 

ami wa* on.- ..f the most ag re e able of men, lie 

was a most .looiient and forcible speaker, and few 

clergymen could read the terries -> w.n and so 

impressively. In debate be WSJ ino*t skilful, and 

as a parliamentarian u neq ua lled among hi* profi *- 

-ional brethren. He mar r i e d , 9J Nov., 1840, Fran- 

"lid (laughter of Peter .lay Munro. 

maroneek, N. S'.. and left thn-c eons and one 
daughter. Besides hi* various charge*, official ser- 
mons, and addressee, and a few rrimtllan t w 
pamphlets, Bishop !>•• Lancey published no other 
works.— F.d ward Flovd. lawyer, eldest torn 
i.iiu Heathcote. b. in Mainaroneck, N. 
1891, was educated at the Unirersity <>f P e nn srt- 

ranis and at llobart college. being graduated at the 
latter institution in 1*1:5. He attended the law- 
school of Harvard in 1*44-T>. and was admitted to 
the bar in December, l*4<s. beginning t<> practise 
in the city of New Fork, where be has sues re- 
sided. He has travelled extensirelr in Buropaj 
Egypt, and Asia Minor, and also the Briti*h Ameri- 
can prorincea. Mr. Delanoer early erinoed a talent 
for historical research. He has been pieaklenl «'f 
the New York genealogical and UograpbJi 
ciety (In;:! '7i. of the Westchester county histori- 
cal society 11874 "'••). end <>f the St. Nicholas society 

(lKHO-'l)." Ill 1S?!I he Was elected dollies! 

responding s ecret ary <>f the New York historical 
society, which office he still hold*. He has edited 
Jones 8 "History of New York during the 
lutionary War" (New Y«>rk. 1879), and the " S 
Correspondence of Sir Henry Clinton " ("Magarins 
of American History." October, 1888, to August, 
1884), He i* the author of " Memoir of the Hon. 
.lam.* De Lancer, Lieutenant-Gorernor of the 
Province of New York" (AIImiiiv, |H,*»li, and m roL 

iv.. •• Documentary History "f New York '" 

"The Capture of Fort Washington the Result Of 

Treason " (New York. 1^;; i; •• Mi moirof Jans W 

Beekman" (New York. IsTlM: " Memoir of William 
Allen, chief .lust i.e of P enn ey l ranm' 1 (PhBadal- 

phia, 1879); "Origin and History "f Manors in the 
Province of N.w York" (N.w York. 1K-S4;i; and 
" History of Mamaroiieck. N. Y." (New Y rk. 1886). 

Peter, member of assembly, second son of 

Ktienne. b. iii New York city. M Aul'.. l?'»-">; d. in 

w.st Pinna, Westohsstnr eex, N. F n it «►.-!.. i?7t). 

He was a man <»f gnat wefclth ami influence, and 
*at in the New York assembly for Weatcherter 

county from 1 7"K> till 1 7i;\ w h. n he declined »■ 
election in favor of his second son. John. I! 
si\ s.,iis. sereral >-f whom are mention**! beli 

bis Are daughters, AUee osarried Balph lsard,the 

S.ioii Carolina senator, and Su*an beaaUM the 

wife of Col. Thomas BareJar, the tlr*t British 
consul appointed in New York after the |- 

st. -plien. lawyer and loyalist, son of the 



132 



DE LANCET 



DM LANCET 



Sraosding, i>. In the <ity of New York about 1740; 
. in Annapolis, Nova Scotia, in 1K01. In 1788 be 
WM commissioned clerk of the city and county of 
Albany, which latter then comprised all of the 

province weal of llmlson river and north of Ulster 
county. Later he was also recorder of the same 
city, and several times served as a commissioner 
to treat with the Indians. He was a member of 
tin- Albany oommittee of safety in 1775. On 4 
June, 1770, he was dining with the mayor and a 
number of loyalists in celebration of the king's 
birthday, when he and others were seized by the 
Revolutionary party and thrown into prison. A 
few days later they were taken to Hartford, Conn., 
where they remained in confinement, on a charge 
of "disaffection," until lil>erated, on 26 Dec. by 
order of Gov. Trumbull. De Lancey did not take 
up arms, but remained in New York until 17H:i, 
when he removed to Annapolis, Nova Scotia, where 
in 17W he was made a member of the council. — 
John, lawyer, brother of the preceding, b. in the 
city of New York about 1741 ; d. there in 1829. He 
was high sheriff of Westchester county in 1769, and 
succeeded his fat her as member of assembly for that 
borough, serving from 1768 till 1772, and being re- 
elected from 17!):5 till 1795. He was also a member 
of the general committee of one hundred (May, 
1776), and of the first provincial council for the city 
of New York in 1775-'6. He was not attainted of 
treason, nor was his property confiscated. — James, 
soldier, brother of the preceding, b. in West Farms, 
Westchester co., N. Y., about 1750; d. near Annapo- 
lis, Nova Scotia, in 1809. He succeeded his brother, 
John, as high sheriff of his native county in 1770, 
and served till 1776. He took no part in the Revo- 
lution till 1777, when Gov. Tryon commissioned 
him captain of a troop of light-horse of fifty men, 
called by that official "the elite of the county," 
and selected from the Westchester militia regiment, 
then commanded by Col. Hewlett. At their head 
be began those rapid and successful raids within 
the enemv's lines in Westchester and Connecticut 
that made him famous. He succeeded Hewlett 
as colonel of the regiment (or " Refugees," as they 
were commonly called) in 1780, after the members 
of his troop had been nearly all killed or cap- 
tured. The latter, from their seizures of cattle, 
had earned the sobriquet of " Cowboys," a desig- 
nation afterward applied to marauders who, with- 
out commissions or military organization, robbed 
friend and foe alike. Col. De Lancey never served 
outside of Westchester county and its borders, or 
held a commission in either of " De Lancey's bat- 
talions" commanded by his uncle, Oliver, as has 
been erroneously said. He was twice taken prisoner 
by stratagem, but the troop itself was never cap- 
tured. Many plans to this end were laid by Wash- 
ington and his generals; but the alertness, dash, 
and courage of its leader always served to bring 
them to naught. At the close of the war he re- 
tired to Nova Scotia, having been attainted and his 
estate confiscated by the act of 1779. After his 
arrival in Nova Scotia, he was appointed member 
of the council, in which body he sat for several 
years. By many biographical writers (notably 
Sabine) he has been confounded with his cousin. 
James, son of Lieut.-Gov. De Lancey. — Warren, 
soldier and loyalist, brother of the preceding, d. 
in Madison county, N. Y., in 1855. He was the 
VOOngesI son of Peter, ran away from home to 
join the British army, and received a commission 
as cornet of horse in reward for his gallant rv at 
the battle of White Plains, N. Y. Alter the war 
he resided in the city of New York and in Pough- 
keepsie, subsequently removing to Madison county. 



—Oliver, soldier, youngest son of Ktienne, b. in 
New Ton city. 16 Sept, 1708: d. In Beverley, 
Yorkshire. England. 27 Nov.. 1 7*5. He WBB origi- 
nally a merchant, being a member of the linn 

founded by his father. He early look an active 
part in public affairs, and was noted for his deris- 
ion of character and his personal popularity. Be 
represented the city of New York in theaaaambly 
in 175l>-*60. and served as alderman of the out-ward 
from 1751 till 1757. Be was active in military af- 
fairs during the entire French war. and. in 1755. 
obtained leave from Connecticut to raise men there 
for service in New York, for which he received the 
thanks of the assembly of his own province. In 
.March, 1758. he was appointed to the command 
of the forces then being collected for the expedi- 
tion against Crown Point, and succeeded in rais- 
ing the entire New York city regiment within tan 
days. He was placed at the head of the New York 
contingent, under Gen. Abercromhie (about 5,000 
si rongl as colonel-in-chief. In the attack on Fort 
Ticonderoga,8July, 1758, he supported Lord Howe, 
and was near that officer when he fell mortally 
wounded. In November of the same year the as- 
sembly of New York again voted him its thanks 
"for his great service and singular care of the 
troops of the colony while under his command." 
In 1760 he was appointed a member of the provin- 
cial council, retaining his seat until 1776. In 17'i:i 
he was made receiver-general, and, in 1 773, colonel- 
in-chief of the southern military district of the 
Srovince. " In June, 1776," says the historian 
ones, "he joined Gen. Howe on Staten Island; 
and, had that officer profited by his honest advice, 
the American war, 1 will be bold to say, would 
have ended in a very different manner from what 
it did." In September of that year he raised three 
regiments of loyalists, largely at his own expense, 
of 500 men each, known as " De Lancey's battal- 
ions." Of these regiments a brigade was formed, 
and Col. De Lancey was commissioned brigadier- 
general, becoming the senior brigadier-general in 
the loyalist service. He was assigned to the com- 
mand of Long Island, where he remained during 
the war. One of his battalions served in the south 
with great credit under his son-in-law, Col. John 
Harris Cruger, doing effective service in the de- 
fence of Fort Ninety-Six against Gen. Greene. In 
November, 1777, his country-seat at Bloomingdale, 
on the Hudson, was robbed and burned at night by 
a party of Americans from the water-guard at Tar- 
rytown, his wife and daughters being driven from 
the house in their night-dresses and compelled to 
spend the night in the fields, now the Central Park. 
Having been attainted, and his immense estates in 
New York and New Jersey confiscated, Gen. De 
Lancey retired to England, where he resided in 
Beverley, until his death. Of his four daughters, 
Susanna married Sir William Draper, while Char- 
lotte became the wife of Sir David Dundas, K. ( '. B., 
who succeeded the Duke of York as commander- 
in-chief of the British army. — Stephen, lawyer and 
soldier, eldest son of the preceding, b. in New York 
city about 1740; d. in Portsmouth, N. II., Dec 
1798. He was educated in England, and practised 
law in New York before the Revolutionary war. 
during which he served as lieutenant-colonel and 
colonel of the " De Lancey's" second battalion. 
After the war he was appointed chief justice of 
the Bahama islands, and subsequently was made 
governor of Tobago and its dependencies. His 
health becoming impaired while he held the latter 
office, he sailed for England to rejoin his family. 
But he grew rapidly worse on the voyage, and. at 
his own request, was transferred to an American 



hi: LAM 



DELANO 



188 



ten»c\ bound tor PoftaDooth, N. H.. whan be died 

■lid VII buried a few days after his arrival.— Sir 
\\ illi.un Hour, tidier, onh son "f the preceding, 
b. in N«w York about 17*1 ; a. in June, 1818, In oon- 
seqtiencc Of wounds received at the battle of Wa- 
terloo, lie was educated in England, and early 

red the British army. He served with great 
distinction under Wellington in Spain, and wej 
times honorably mentioned in his despatches. 

At tlie close of the war he was made a Knight of 

the Hath. When Napoleon bunded from Elba, Wel- 
lington, in forming bis staff, insisted on having Dt 

ippointed as his quartermaster-general. 

officer really entitled to the promotion was Sir 

William's brother-in-law, Sir Hudson Lowe; but, 

as Wellington had conceived a dislike fur him. he 

refused to ■ ipl that officer in that oapacitY. The 

military authorities, however, insisted on his ap- 
pointment, and it was only when Wellington made 

the promotion of De Lanoey a smm i/mi /«>/* of his 
ptance of the supreme ooramana that the for- 
mer yielded. Six Weeks before the liattle of Wa- 
terloo, Sir William married the daughter of Sir 
James Mall, of hunglass, the Scotch scientist. 
His bride accompanied him on the continent. On 
the second day of the battle Sir William was 
knocked from his horse by a spent eannon-lmll, 
and it was at first supposed that he had bean in- 
stantly killed. Thirty-six hours afterward he was 
discovered still alive and in his senses, but inca- 
pable of motion, although without any visible 
wound. Notwithstanding the skill of the sur- 
geons, and the tender oare of his wife, he suc- 
cumbed to- his injuries nine days after the battle. — 
Oliver, .Ir., soldier, brother of the preceding, b. 
in New Fork eity in 1758; d. in Edinburgh, Soot- 
land, :$ Sept., 1822. He was educated in England, 
and entered the 14th dragoons, as cornet, in 1786, 
In May, 17?:$, he was appointed captain in the 17th 
light dragoons, in which he remained for forty- 
nine years, rising through every grade, and 8UO- 
eeeding the first Duke of Newcastle as its colonel, 
10 May. 1796. In 177 4 be was sent to America 
with despatches for the commander-in-chief, and 
orders to provide accommodation and remount 
aorSQS for the regiment. Having discharged his 
commissions, he joined his comrades on their 
arrival at Boston, 24 May, 1775. and in the follow- 
ing month witnessed the engagement on Hunker 
Hill. On the landing of Howe at QravBSSnd bay 
in August, (apt. l>e Lancey, with a detachment 
of the 17th. captured an American patrol, and 
seized the pass through the Long Island hills, 
which enabled the Hritish general to turn the 
American left and win the battle of Long Island. 
On the evening Of the 88th of the same month Sir 
William Krskine. with the 17th light dragoons 
and the 71st foot, about 7(H) men in all. surprised 
and seized at Carpenter's house, Jamaica, L. I., 
Geo. Woodhull and many of his men. The gen- 
eral, who tried to escujte under (over of the night, 
lieing discovered by the sentries getting over a 
board fence, was oul down, severely wounded In the 
head and arm. and only saved from instant death 
by the interference of ('apt. De Lanoey. He, bow- 
. died of the injuries then received, in spite of 
id nursing, on the 20th of the following 
month. In an affidavit made by Lieut. Robert 

Troup, 17 Jan., 177<;. before the committee of the 

New York convention, it is declared that Wood- 
hull said he surrendered to Oliver De Lancey, and 
that after the delivery of his sword the latter 
struck him; and that other- of the party, follow- 
ing hi- example, cut and hacked him "in the man- 
ner he then was." On this sole authority rests 



the ch a rge against Ds Lanoev, flrM m»de psjhlfa 
m 1846. On the other hand. Williai 
■wore before the New York eoinm 
fourteen days after the <» 

tight-horsemen bald him that he had taken Gen. 

fl •dhull in the dark in a bsm, and that I- 
he would answer, when he spoke to the (reneral, he 
had cut him on the head and both arm-." These 
are the only Statements made under oath that refer 
to the matter, while the weight of all the other 

testimony is to the effect that he | ( hi-. 

interference, saved WoodholTs life. The two fami- 
lies wen- related, and one of 1 1 rand- 
-.ii- of the American general to the 
Christian name of he Lancey. In 17Ti 8 De 

Lanoev served with his regiment in Feunsyh 
and New Jersey, being promoted major. I Jane, 
177H. and deputy nnaftormastai genwaj in the 
Sooth CaroUna expeaitfon. 1! at at the 

of Charleston. In 1781 he was oommlssl 

lieutenant-colonel, and appointed adjutant-. 
end in America, in I7 S <>. to SQOOeed Maj. Andre. 
After the conclusion of hostilities he was made 
the head of a OommhtaJOO to settle the accounts 
of the war. In 17!M he was promoted to be li.-u- 
ti-nant-<olonel of his regiment, and snbesattetttly 

colonel. After serving a- flrpntj adjntanf son 

eral. he was appointed barrack-ma-ter-geiicral. an 
office which he held for ten year-. On ."» 
1794. he was named major-general, in 1801 licii- 
tenant-general. ami in 1812 general. He sat for 
manv years in parliament as a representative of 

Maidstone, Gen. he Lanoey never married. He 
died while on a visit to his sister, Lady Dundee. 
DELANO. Atnasa, traveller, b. jn Dnxboiy, 

M.i-.. 21 Feb., i7(i;!: d. In ini7. His father. Bam- 

11**1, was a soldier in the old French war. and an 
earnest patriot in 177'i. AmsSB enlisted in the 
army in 1777. but was compelled by his father to 
leave on account of his youth. He afterward 
served in the militia, and in 1 77!* sailed one cruise 
in the privateer " Mars" He became a sailor on a 
merchantman in 1781, and in 17 s :! "8 assisted his 
father in his trade of ship-building. His first voy- 
age as commander was in 17*<> In a vessel belt 
bog to his uncle. He afterward made many voy- 
ages to all parts of the world. In 1810 the au- 
thorities of St. Bartholomew, West Indies, tried 
to sie/.e his ship, the- Perseverance," for an all* 
violation of the revenue laws, but he put to sea 
under tire of their batteries and escaped. He pub- 
lished a work entitled *• Narrative of Voyages and 
Travels" (Hoston. 1S17). 

DELANO. Columbus, congressman, b, In Shore- 
ham, N't.. June, 1809. He lellloVed to MoUHt 

Vernon, ( *hio. in 1817, was educated at tin- common 
schools, studied law, and was admitted to the \>nr 
in 1881. He practised at Mount Vernon, and be* 

caine eminent as an advocate and criminal lawyer. 
He was a delegate in 1880 to the National republi- 
can convent ion at Chicago which Dominated Lin- 
coln and Hamlin. He served as state commissary- 
general of Ohio in 1881, and was a member of the 

ohio house <>f representatlvai m l*»*!. tad was 
elected i member of isaigioni from thai stata in 

1844, INIM. and ISlili. He was a delegate in 

to the National republican convention at Halti- 

more, which nominated Lincoln and Johnson, On 

8 March. 1869, he was appointed by President 

Grant oommiasioner of internal revenue, and while 
be held office reorganised the bnreao, thereby b> 
oreasing the receipts over ino per cent in eight 

mollths. He succeeded Jacob h. < 

of the interior in October, 1870, a portfolio thai he 
retained till 1878. Mr. Delano has for many years 



134 



DELAPLAINE 



DKLAVVARK 



been one of Qm trustees of Kenyon college, Ohio, 
which conferred on him the degree <>f LL. I)., ami 
in connect ion with which he has endowed a gram- 
mar sihonl (sailed Delano hall. 

DELAPLAINE, John Ferris, diplomatist.!). 
in New York city, 24 April, 1815: d. there. 14 Feb., 
1885, was the son of John P. Delaplaine, an old 
New York shipping-merchant, who left a large 
fortune. The son was graduated at Columbia in 
1833, Studied law, and was admitted to the bar, 
but never practised. After residing in New York 
for over twenty years he went abroad, and. when 
he had passed five years in travel, was attached to 
the American legation at Vienna. In I860 he was 
made secretary of the legation, a place that he re- 
tained until (888, when he resigned, owing to his 
offloe being abolished. While in Vienna he made 
a large and curious collection of bric-a-brac, clocks, 
pictures, and statuary. He returned to New York 
in 1884, and a commission in lunacy was soon after- 
ward appointed to take charge of his affairs, on 
account of his mental incapacity. By his will, 
made in 18(50, he left an estate worth about $ 000,- 
<MX), and a subsequent codicil provided for the en- 
dowment of a Delaplaine institute for the relief of 
the friendless. An action was brought for the 
construction of the will, and judgment declaring 
the invalidity of that trust was rendered in Feb- 
ruary. 1887.— His brother, Isaac Clason, lawyer, 
b. in New York city, 27 Oct., 1817; d. there. 17 
July, 18(56. He was graduated at Columbia in 1834, 
studied law, and was admitted to the bar. He was 
elected to congress from New York as a fusion ist. 
and served from 4 July, 1801, till 3 March, 1803. 

DELAPLAINE, Joseph, publisher, b.in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 20 Dec, 177*; d. there. 31 May, 1824. 
He early opened a bookstore in Philadelphia, and 
in 1812, with John Fanning Watson, published 
"Epitome Historian Sacrae," and in 1813 began the 
serial publication of his "Repository of the Lives 
and Portraits of Distinguished Americans," a series 
of engravings with biographical notices. Subse- 
quently he exhibited his gallery of portraits in the 
larger cities of the Union. 

DELAUNE, Jacques, educator, b. in Cotes du 
Nord, France, in 1812; d. in Paris in 1849. He 
studied theology at St. Brieux, and after his or- 
dination was appointed assistant in the cathedral 
there. In 1839 he resolved to devote himself to 
the American mission. On his arrival in Indiana 
he received charge of the missions of St. Patrick's, 
St. Peter's, and St. Mary's, in Davies county, and 
in 1842 was appointed pastor of Madison. In the 
latter town he established the order of the Sisters 
of Providence, and built an academy for them. 
He also opened a school for boys. In the summer 
of 1846 he became president of St. Mary's college, 
Louisville, Ky., which he conducted for two years. 
His success was so pronounced that he was invited 
in 1848 to take charge of a similar institution in 
Rochester, N. Y., but was compelled to abandon 
the enterprise by illness, and went to Europe. 

DELAVAN, Edward Cornelius, reformer, b. in 
Schenectady county, N. Y., in 1793 ; d. in Sche- 
nectady, 15 Jan., 1871. He was a wine-merchant, 
and acquired a fortune. At one time he owned 
much real estate in Albany, including the Dela- 
van house, which he erected. In 1828, in com- 
pany with Dr. Eliphalet Nott, he formed the 
State temperance society in Schenectady, and 
entered with zeal into the cause of temperance re- 
form, devoting his ample means to its promotion, 
speaking, lecturing, and writing on the subject, 
and employing others in all these ways to further 
the cau>e. II.' met with great opposition in this 



work. In is:r> he wrote to the Albany •• Evening 
Journal," charging an Albany brewer with usinj; 
filthy and stagnant water for malt in<.'. The brewer 
prosecuted him for libel, and the trial, which took 
place in iHjo and attracted wide attention, occu- 
pied six days, and resulted in a verdict forDelavan. 
After this, several similar suits that had 1- 
gun against him for damages aggregating $300,000, 
were abandoned. Mr. Delavan had the proceed- 
ings of this trial printed in pamphlet-form for 
distribution as a tract. He procured, about 1840, 
several drawings of the human stomach when 
diseased by 'the use of alcoholic drinks, from post- 
mortem examinations made by Prof. Sewall, of 
Washington, D. C. These he had engraved and 
printed in colors, and made very effective use of 
them. He also published for years, at his own ex- 
pense, a periodical advocating, often with illus- 
trations, the temperance cause; this was subse- 
quently merged in the "Journal of the American 
Temperance Union," to whose funds he was a 
most liberal contributor. He had trained himself to 
public speaking, and became an efficient advocate 
of the cause he had so much at heart. Mr. Delavan 
presented to Union college a collection of shells 
and minerals valued at $30,000. He lost a large 

Sortion of his property a few years before his 
eath. He published numerous articles and tracts, 
and " Temperance in Wine Countries " (1860). 
1)E LA YE(»A, (Jarcilaso. See Gaecilaso. 
DELAWARE, or DELAWARE, Thomas 
West, Lord, governor of Virginia, d. at sea, 7 
June, 1618. lie succeeded his father as third 
Lord Delawarr in 1602, and in 1009 was appoint- 
ed governor and captain-general of Virginia. He 
arrived at Jamestown, 9 June, 1010, with three 
ships, after a voyage of three months and a half. 
His coming re- 
vived the courage 
of the colonists, 
who had l>een re- 
duced almost to 
despair, owing to 
privation and inis- 
government, and 
his judicious and 
energetic man- 
agement soon re- 
stored order and 
industry. He es- 
tablished a post 
at Riquotau (now 
Hampton), at the 
mouth of James 
river, and built 
two forts, which 
he named Henry 
and Charles, in 
honor of theking's 
sons. Being ill, 
in March, 1011, he embarked for Nevis, in the 
West Indies; but, having been driven north by 
opposing winds, they entered the mouth of a huge 
river, called by the natives Chickohocki, but which 
received the name of Delaware in his honor. He 
then sailed for England ; but in April, 1618, urged 
by the colonists to return in consequence of the 
oppressive rule of Argall, he sailed again for Vir- 
ginia, but died on the voyage. He expended larire 
sums in establishing the colony of Virginia, and 
was universally regarded as a noble and philan- 
thropic man. The present Earl Delawarr, Reginald 
Windsor Sackville-West. is his lineal descendant. 
He published "A True Relation to the Council of 
Virginia" (1011 ; reprinted, 1858). • 




i»i: i 



DE LIX1EKS BKR1 



180 



|>| I I (»N. It. i\ ill < . iiml. ii. 1 1. in 

: , Carolina in 1822 : il. in Santa 

; S«*pt.. IM72. He was educated in liii 

lated in medicine at the Uni- 
ty of Pennsylvania in 1888. Hi- entered the 

i— istunt siirpi.ii mi 21 Aug., ! 

<1 in the Seminole war, ami was then stationed 

d years on the western frontier. At the 

lining of the Mexican war ho went with Gen. 

.r to the Kin (irandc. was present at most <>f 

the battles in the campaign toward Mexico, ami 

entered thai city when it surrendered. For 

these -ervices, as well as fnr gallantry in action, 

where be senral times tin.k the place <>f . oiumaml- 

.fflcers who had been killed or wounded, Dr. 

|>. I n twioe received the thanks nf congress, 

l.ut waa again assigned to fmntier ilutv in Mexico, 
on the ground of his great energy and hardihood. 
IL- was promoted !<> surgeon, with the rank of 
major, on 88 Aug., 1858, and on 19 Pen* 1861, re- 
signed his commission and was placed at the head 
of the medical department <»f the Confederate 
army. At the close "f the war he went to Mrxirn. 
but after a year's residence in that country he re- 
turned to New Mexico, when ho hail been stationed 
for many years, and owned property, continuing in 
practice until his death. He was a man of One 
literary culture, and a rigorous writer. 

IU LEST, Francois Charles (duh-lay-ne), au- 
thor. I), in St. Charles parish. La., 2* Jan., 1815; d. 
in Hay St. Louis, Miss., r,» June, 1880. His parents 

were French. He was educated in the .Medical 
Beboolof Pari-, where he went in 1889, and returned 
in 1*42. He became well known in his profession, 
ami contributed frequently to the newspapen «>f 

his city 00 practical subjects. He was city phy- 
sician in ISfe-'OO, and president of the Hoard of 
health in 1857-^8. Mis works, which are written 
in French, include •• Kssai sur la liliertc" (New 
Orleans, isjti; "Etudes sur les passions " ( 18 19 : 
"Qnelque nets sur la nativismc. ' translated Into 
English (1854); *' Fievre jauiie." a treatise on the 
epidemic of 1848 (185!»); •• Le roi coton" and 
'•( ionfeden is ct fedenux" (18(H); "Memoire sur 
rcpidemie de fievre jaune qui a regnc a la Noti- 
veile Orleans et dans les campaniles.'* a work of 
much learning and careful research (|si;s, : 
•I.Vvole du people," a one-act comedy in rem; 
- Lies ohroniques Imlienncs" (1877); and a memoir 
on u Quarantine " 1 1878), 
DEL6ADILL0, IMego (del-gah-deel -yo), Span- 

ish judge, I), in Oranada, Spain, in the latter part of 
the 1 ."it'll century: d. there in 1598. lie was gradu- 
ated as a lawyer at the university of Alcala, and in 
1587 appointed Judge of the first amlicm-ia or su- 
preme court of New Spain. He left Seville in Au- 
gust, and landed at Vera Cruz on Dec., 1596. Two 
other judges having died during the voyage, Delga- 
dillo and Ortiz de Matienzo alone founded the 
audieiu ia in the city of Mexico. He awarded him- 
self several rejiart indent os, and soon managed to 
■and home a large amount of money: be obtained 
from the municipal council a grant of land, which 
forbidden to the judges |»y the laws, and had 

his brother appointed governor of the Zepot 
province. Finally be declared himself in open en- 
mil v w ith ( lortes, and opposed t be missionaries and 
the l)isho|>s. To make himself [Mipular among the 
Spanish colonists and the natives, he founded An- 
te.piera (now Oajaca). (piellcd a dangerottl revolt 
of the Indians in that province. Imported tin mul- 
barry-tree and the -ilk-worm in 1590,being the first 
_'in their culture in the New World, and the 
olive-tree in the following year. In the mean 
while his acts of maladministration had reached 



their ut iii. —i . when i trued often 

Cruz, 18 July, 1581, and resolved to put aa 
the whole audieueia. All the {udgei 
cord, and intended t.. depose Corte* ; hut lii»hop 

Zuimirraga succeeded in checking them. I 
diciicia was called to answer heron- other 
195 suits wen begun, and DelgadiUo, like the 
other memben of the audiencia, 
lose all his repartimientos, and t«. pej 940,000 be- 
sides. He returned t-> Spam, and retired to his 
native city, where a seven illness, brought about 
by nil troubles, ended his life. 

DELG LDO. Pedro (del-gah'-do), Spanish mh> 
-ionary, l>. in Burgos, old Castile, in 1487; d. in the 
city of Mexicn in 1599. His parents beloi 
the highest Ca-tilian nobility, ami had gnat inftu- 

eiice at the oourt of Quean Isabella, low 

gado was sent to Valladolid t<> Study, but, MM 
out of health, returned Inune. BotM time after* 
ward he entered a Hominican C OU Venl at Sala- 
manca, where he studied arts and theology, and, OU 

being ordained priest, went at ••• t.. Ooa&a with 

Father Juan Hurtado. where they founded a con- 
vent and college, which is still a school f<>r Spanish 
missionaries. Father Prtantns took him I 
Spain in i">2<5. and Delgado was soon appointed 
prior of the Dominican convent in the city of 
Mexico, and provincial of his order in 1598. IL 
was the first master of novices and p r ea ch 
eral in that province, and took much int. 

tin aversion and instruction of the Indians 

whose language he learned in order to !«• able to 

preach and teach among them. He was tin- best 
friend and assistant of Father Hartnlnme dc las 
Cases, the gnat protector of the Indian-, ami gave 
him much valuable information for his *• Historia 

de Indias "' and Other writings. Charles V., hav- 
ing been informed l.y Las Casas about the learning 
ami virtues of Delgado, appointed him bishop of 
Charcas, Peru; l.ut be declined the appointment, 
preferring to continue his work in Mexico, when 
he remained for the re-t of hi- life, devoting him- 
self entirely to literary and scientific teaching and 
to charity. His remains were buried in the chap- 
ter-hall of Santo Domingo, Mexico. 

DE LIMFKS HKKMONT. Jacques Antoine 
Mario, Spanish viceroy, b. in Niort. France. t» 
Fdi.. 1755; d. in Cordoba, 96 Aug.. Inio. He en- 
tered the service of the order of Malta and after- 
ward the Spanish navy. when he soon attained the 
rank of captain, and during the war with 
Britain was sent ..n s mis-ion to South America. 
When Buenos Ayres wa- captured in June, 1809, 
by the English under Here-ford. De Link 
looted a force and marched against the oonqu cr ora, 
who capitulated 12 Aug. with a • killed, 

1,900 prisoners, TOO muskets, 90 guns, and •'! stand- 
ards. After Montevideo hail bean recaptured l.y 
the British fores under Anchmnty, 9 Feb* i v,, T. 

De Linicr- WSJ attacked by them in the vicinity of 
Buenos Ayns, driven within it- walls, anil l<e- 

sieged by an army <>f w.noo men under Qaa. 
Whitelock; l.ut he defended the <itv valiantlv. 
caused great losses t«> the British, took on 5 Jon 
l.ooo pri-oii.T-. breed them to raise the riage, and 

soon afterward, in OOnoaauenOS of the capitulation 

of ? July, to evacuate Montevideo and abandon 

the whole country within two month-. F->r tln-*> 

s er v ic es l"' waj made viceroy if Buenos 
When the fir-t demonstrations f.-r independence 
annealed toward the end <>f lstr*. Ds Link 
driven l.y the insurgents fnun Hu.no- A>res.and 
for Ins temporising poUey was sapersedea i 
tuter de Cisneros, sent out by the Junta d< 
early in 1809. Da Union »'as given the title of 



136 



DBLLET 



DE LONG 



('•unit of Hui'ikk Ayrcs. and ordered to return to 

Europe, bal retired to Mendoss. His deposition 
produced a new revolution in Buenos Ayres, and 
soon oompelled Cisnerae to abdicate; bal when 
I)e Liniers, at the head of 8^000 men, whom he 

had collected, marched upon the capital to re- 
establish the royal authority, he was defeated and 

raptured !>v the revolutionists, and shot in Cabeza 
del Tigrc, Cordoba. 

PELLET. James, OMmber of congress, i>. in Ire- 
land in 1788; d. in Claiborne, Ala., 21 Dec, 1848. 
His parents emigrated from Ireland and settled in 
South Carolina when he was a boy. He was gradu- 
ated at the college of South Carolina in 1810, 
studied law in Columbia, was admitted to the bar 
in 1813, and was for a time a commissioner in 
equity. In 1817 he removed to Alabama and set- 
tled in Claiborne, .Monroe co., where he distin- 
guished himself as a lawyer, and by speculation in 
land became wealthy. Be was appointed a judge 
of the circuit court, and frequently represented his 
county in the state legislature. He was a repre- 
sentative in congress from Alabama from 1839 till 
1841. and again from 1843 till 1845. 

DELLIUS, Godfreidus, clergyman, b. in Hol- 
land ; d. in Antwerp about 1705. In 1(583 he came 
to this country, and was settled at Albany as as- 
sistant to Gideon Schaats, pastor of the Reformed 
church there, and preached also at Schenectady. 
He continued in this service about sixteen years. 
In common with all the reform clergy, he refused 
to recognize Leisler's usurpation in 1689, and the 
latter, among other accusations, charged Dellius 
with being a principal actor in the French and 
English difficulties, and an enemy to the Prince of 
Orange, who had succeeded King James. After 
the execution of Leisler, in May, 1691, Gov. Slough- 
ter recalled Dellius, who was on the point of em- 
barking for Europe, and he soon returned to Albany. 
On the conclusion of peace between England and 
France, Dellius and Peter Schuyler were sent as 
agents, in April, 1698, to Count de Frontenac, in 
Canada, to announce the peace, and bring to an 
end the provincial hostilities. Acting under the 
authority of Bellomont, they took with them nine- 
teen French prisoners, and obtained the delivery 
of British colonists held as prisoners by the French. 
Soon after his return from this mission, two Chris- 
tian Indians declared on oath that Dellius, Peter 
Schuyler, Evert Banker, and Dirck Wessels had, in 
1696, fraudulently obtained a deed for a large tract 
of land from the Indians. This land, the deed of 
which was confirmed by Gov. Fletcher, was on the 
eastern side of the Hudson, above Albany, and was 
seventy miles in length and twelve in breadth, Del- 
lius also obtained a tract of land in the valley of 
the Mohawk, fifty miles bv four. The Indians, at 
an appointed interview, told Bellomont all the cir- 
cumstances of the conveyance of the deed, and the 
latter, in the spring of 1699, secured a bill to vacate 
the lands, and also a vote to suspend Dellius from 
ministerial duty in Albany county. The classis of 
Amsterdam complained to the bishop of London 
of Bellomont's conduct, and Albany and New 
York contributed £700 to enable Dellius to go to 
England and oppose the vacating bill before it re- 
ceived the kind's signature. The Indians who had 
sworn against him afterward took counter-oaths, 
and, just before his departure, asked Dellius to for- 
give them. But, as they were his converts, and he 
was known to have great power over them, this 
circumstance loses its apparent force. Some ac- 
counts say that he returned to this country and 
was a missionary among the Indians from the Epis- 
copal church in 1705-'io. 



DELMAR, Alexander, political economist, h. 

in New York city. !» Aug., 1886. Hi- father was a 
native of Spain. I If WSJ a writer on a New York 
journal in 1854, and became financial editor of 
"Hunt's Merchants' Magazine," and of several 
New York papers. He established the "Social Sci- 
ence Review, and was its editor in 1864 '<;. lb- 
was called upon to organise the r. s. bureau of 
statistics in 1868, was its director in 1867-*8, and 
has attained note as a mining expert, lie is the 
author of "Gold Money ami Paper Money" (New 
York. 1868); "Treatise on Taxation " : •• |\- 
Political Economy " (1865); -The National Bank- 
ing System" (1865); "Statistical Band-Book" 
(1866); "What is Free Trade!" (1868); "Letter 
on the Finances" (1868); "The Suppressed Re- 
port" (1869); "History of the Precious Metals" 
(London, 1880); and "History of Money in An- 
cient Countries" (1884). • 

DELMONTE, Felix Marin. Dominican lawyer, 
b. in Santo Domingo city, Dominican Republic, 
about 1810. He was educated in his native city, 
where he was admitted to the bar. He was a 
member of Da Trinitaria, a secret society founded 
by Duarte to free the country from Haytian rule. 
Delmonte has filled many high offices in the gov- 
ernment of the republic, and has been many times 
a member of the Dominican congress, lie has 
published " Las virgenes de Galindo," an historical 
tale in verse; "El Mendigo," a drama; "Ozama," 
a drama ; and manv lyrical poems. Several of his 
poems are included in " Poet as Contemporaneos" 
(Madrid), and also in the " Lira Quisqueya" (San- 
to Domingo). 

DELMONTE Y TEJADA, Antonio, b. in San- 
tiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo, in 1783; 
d. in 1861. He took part against the revolted 
slaves of Hayti, afterward studied law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1805 in Santo Domingo 
city, but emigrated to Cuba, where he spent the 
rest of his life. He published ." Historia ae Santo 
Domingo,*' the history of the island from the dis- 
covery until the present day (3 vols.. Havana). 

DE LONG, George Washington, explorer, b. 
in New York city, 22 Aug., 1844; d. in Siberia, 30 
Oct., 1881. His early education was obtained in 
the public schools of Brooklyn. He was appointed 
an acting midshipman at the IT. S. naval academy 
in 1861. graduated in 1865, and was promoted to 
be ensign, 1 Dec, 1866; master, 12 March, 1868; 
lieutenant, 29 March, 1869; and lieutenant-com- 
mander, 1 Nov., 1879. He served in the European 
squadron in 1865-'9and 1873-'4, in the South At- 
lantic fleet in 1870, on the North Atlantic station 
in 1874, and was executive officer of the school-ship 
" St. Mary's," off New York city, in 1875-'8. On 1 
March, 1871, he married Miss Emma J. Wotton, 
the ceremony taking place on the U. S. steamer 
"Shenandoah," in the harbor of Havre, owing to the 
impracticability of complving with French laws as 
to marriage on French soil. In 1873 he was serving 
on the "Juniata," which, commanded by Capt. I). L. 
Braine, was ordered to search for the missing arc- 
ticsteamer " Polaris"and itscrew. Supplemcntarv 
to the movements of the "Tigress" in the north 
water of Baffin's bay, Capt. Braine thought - 
along the fast ice of Melville bay important, and 
detached Lieut. De Long with the steam launch 
"Juniata." Be left LTpernivik, 2 Aug., with Lieut. 
Charles W. Chipp and seven others, crossed Mel- 
ville bay in a steam launch thirty-two feet long, 
and reached a point le>s than ten miles from Cajie 
York, but was prevented by a violent gale from 
landing or further pursuing the search. From Oc- 
tober, 1873, till 18TO, Lieut. De Long 1 serve! 



m: i 



DELVALLE 



i:«7 



geograp 



re officer on the sahool-ehip •• si 
Tin* "Jennnette" (which, as tin- •• I'liininni." had 
made two irotk voyages under sir Allan xoong) 
whs purchased by James Gordon Bennett, -Ir.. ana 
ngthened ana lit ted onJ at his expense for a 
thn »f exploration via Bering strait. 

peeial act of congress the government a>- 

samed authority, while Mr. Bennett met the ex- 
pense. The " Jeannetta" sailed from Ban Fran- 
•, under Lieut. I >*• Lima's command, x July, 
1 The equipage numbered tnirtv-three, in- 
stalling livi' officers of the navy. Touching at 
Ounalaska, St. Michael's, and St. Lawrence bay, 
De Long p roceeded toChne8erdse Kamen, Siberia, 
arch f«>r Nordenskiold, who left before hi* er- 
rival. steaming northward end taking the pack, 

the " Jeannctte " was iieset. 5 Sept., 1*75), off Herald 
Island, in about 71" 85' N„ 7V W. The vessel 
never escaped the peek, and, after drifting over «»oo 
miles to the northweet, In e deviovs course, making 

twice the distance, was crnslied liv the ice in ;; 

18 N. iv> BL, 18 Jane, 1891. Lieut-Coin. De Lone 
and his party wen thus adrift in the polar sea 1 ."»( > 
phical miles fnun the new Siberian islands, 
and over :HMI from 
the nearest point 

of the mainland 
of Asia. Da Long 

started southward 
with his party, 
and reached Men- 
net t island. 28 
July, and Thail- 
deiis island (one of 
the new Siberian 
group), 20 Aug., 
1881. The party 
had made this re- 
markable Journey 
so far alternate- 
ly by sledge and 
boat. From this 
point they pro- 
ceeded in tniats. 
under the com- 
mand respectively 
<»f l>e Long, Lieut. 
Chipp, und Chief- 
Engineer George 
W. Melville. Chipp's boat was lost, with eight 

men, in ■ gale on 18 Sept., oir the Lena delta; 

but Melville, with nine others, reached, through 
one of the eastern months of the river, a small 
village on the Lena. De Long, Dr. Ambler, and 
thirteen others reached the main mouth of the 
Lena, 17 Sept.. having travelled ftboul vJ.soO miles. 
and reached the main-land at a poinl 606 miles dis- 
tant from their lost ship. Obliged by new ice to 
abandon their boat and travel overland, they pro- 
ceeded slowly up the Lena, much embarrassed by 
sick ami helpless men and their cuml>ersome rec- 
ords. On U Oct. they could go no farther. Two 
men. s,nt forward by De Long to obtain relief. 
■arrived, bat the others purifhtfl of exposure and 

starvation within twenty-five miles of a Siberian 
settlement. I>e Long's diary, written up to the 

last day. shows that he end two others were living 

on 80 Oct. None and Nindemann,the men sent 
forward by I>e Long, fell in with natives on 88 

, and with Melville, 88 Oct, at Benin. Melville 
poshed his March, e i: boat laccess, northward t. 

• mity of the Lena delta in November, and. re- 
newing his search in March. 1KS»>. found the dead 
bodies and the records of the expedition on the 
of that month. By direction of the U, S. govern- 




ment. the remain- .,f I>,- Long and his unfortunate 

companions were bronchi to In- nat 

lh.\ were interred with distingui«hcd I 
b., 1884. The attainment of the l,,. 
tude in Asiatic aeaa, and the discover) of Jean- 
mtte. Henrietta, and Bennett islands, epjaear nt 
Bret to I..- meagre ami inadequate n-ult« from w> 
long and disastrous a voyage. Hut to the pa 
results must be add< 
fore he Long's northwesl drift the kmg-eoog h t-for 

Wrangell land shrank, from a continent s U p|xj«ad 

tend from the confines of Asm to Giwenland, 

into a small island. Itut the hydrographical Con- 
ditions of the ."((MNNI ~|iiare miles of the |«ilar 

ocean charted by De Long clearly indicate the 
character of ffl*jd08 other smmN miles of area to 
the south, where doubtless a shallow sea exists, 

with occasional small islands of no c;reat 

When \v ranged island pn.\rd tii In- an lnejonsJdef> 
able land, De Long's expedition wns doomed to 

conqwrativc failure, and Bering stniit waa closed 
as a mad to high latitudes; for without a pro:- 
ing coast no vessel can hop,- to navigate the jiolar 
schs. The valuable hydrographio, magnetic, and 
meteorologieal observations of the wipfdl tip sj still 

remain inaccessible and undiscussed (1W7). al- 
though ten times the amount necessary for their 
pro|M-r publication has Itccn devoted to inveottga* 

tions of tl xpedition, with the result fortunately 

of Illustrating Commander De Longs many ad- 
mirable qualities as an officer and a man. The 
court of inquiry, in its lindings. said officially: 
"Special commendation is due Lieut. -Commander 
De Ijong for the high qualities displayed by him in 
the conduct of the expedition.*' De Long's jour- 
nals have been edited bv his widow, under the title 
"The Voyage of the Jeannette" (Boston, It* 
and the storv of the search is to be found in Mel- 
ville's •• In the Lena Delta " (Boston, 1**4). 

DKLORMK, Louis. Canadian lawyer. l>. m 
Montreal. ■Jit Dec. 1884 He was educated at St. 

Sulpice college, Montreal, and at the College of St. 
llyacint he, studied law. and was admitted to the lair 
ot Lower Canada in 1*47. He represented St Ilya- 
cinthe in the Dominion parliament from 1810 till 
isTs, and was the Hist to propose the money-order 
s\~tein be t w e en the United States and Canada. He 
was appointed clerk of the legislative assembly of 
the province of (Quebec in Mav. 1819. 

DELYALLE or DEL TALLE, Arlslobolo 
(del-val -v.ivi. Argentine statesman, b. in Buenos 
Ayres in 1847. lie was graduated at the aniveraity 

of his native city, and began practice at the Iwr in 
1868. He Identified himself with the national 
autonomist party, was soon acknowledged as one 
of its leaden, and elected in 18M senator for the 
province of Boenos ayres. He was re sleeted far 

several terms, and distinguished himself as an ora- 
tor and defender of the autonomy of the prov- 
inces against encroachment* of the Federal powec 

In \*:~> ins party nominated him for aovenmrof 
the province, but he was defeated, Daring the 

dispute be t ween Chili and the Argentine Republic 

concerning their boundary in Knngeada, ha, »•►- 
aether with the D. s. minister, sndsttvored to 

bring idx.ut a pacitlc ■olotkm Of the question. 

and their afforta were rewarded by the boundary 

treatv signed in Buenos Oct.. 1881. In 

iHM4*he was again one of three pe raons pn>|to*ed 

by his party for the nomination for governor; bof 

D'Amico was considered a stronger candidate, and 

ed. Delralle continues one of the mast 

influential members of the Federal senate, Be baa 

published - IntnwliHfion al dvrecho admiiiistra- 
Itueiioa Ayres). 



138 



DEMAREST 



DEMINQ 



DEMAREST, David 1)., clergyman. I), in Har- 
rington, Bergen co., N. J M 80 July, 1819. He eras 
graduated at Rutgers in 1837, end at the New 
lunswiok theological seminary in 1840. end en* 
lend tin' ministry of tli«' Befonned Dutch church. 

After holding pastorates in Catskill. Flatbush 
(Ulster ro.). New Brunswick, and Hudson, lie be- 
came in 1866, urofessnr of pastoral theology and 

•acred rhetoric. In Bfow Brunswick seminary. He 

received the degree of D. I), from 1'rinceton in 
1857. Dr. Demand bat published sermons and 
addr essee, and " History and Characteristics of the 

Befonned 1'rotestant Dutch Church" (New York. 
1856); "Practical Catechetics" (1880); and '•The 

Huguenots on the Hackensaek," a paper read be- 
fore the Huguenot society of America, 18 April, 
lss.-> (New Brunswick, 1886). He was also one of 
the editing committee of the "Centennial of the 
Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church in 
America" (New York, 1885), and has contributed 
largely to the "Christian Intelligencer," and to 
other magazines and reviews. 

DEMAREST, John, clergyman, b. in New 
Bridge, N. J„ in 1 7«»:i ; d. in 1K37. When a boy, 
he was taken prisoner by B drunken Hessian trooper, 
whom lie pushed off his horse while fording a stream, 
and thus escaped. He studied under Dr. Solomon 
Froeligh. and was licensed as a minister in the Re- 
formed Dutch church in 1789. He owned the farm 
at Tappan where Maj. John Andre was buried. 
In August, 1821, the British government, at the 
request of Andre's sisters, sent a man-of-war to 
transfer the remains to England. The Duke of 
York, uncle of Queen Victoria, was on board, and 
was entertained by Mr. Dcmarest, who afterward 
received from the duke a gold-lined snuff-box, made 
from the cedar-tree whose roots had been found 
entwined about the skeleton. Andre's sisters sent 
him a silver communion service, designed for the 
use of a Roman Catholic priest, under a mistaken 
idea that such was his character. Mr. Dcmarest 
returned the service, with explanations, and it was 
replaced by a large silver cup, appropriately in- 
scribed. Mr. Demarest seceded from the Reformed 
church, with Dr. Solomon Froeligh, in 1822, and 
was suspended in 1824. — His grandson, James, b. 
in Williamsburg, L. I., 28 June, 1832. was graduated 
at Union in 1852, and at New Brunswick seminary 
in 1856. He has held pastorates in Hackensaek and 
Newark, N. J., Chicago, 111., and Kingston and 
Fort Plain, N. Y., and has published numerous 
sermons, including " Duty of the Reformed Church 
in the Future as foreshown by its Course in the 
Past" (in " Centennial Discourses," 1876). Union 
college gave him the degree of D. D. in 1877. 

DEMERS, Jerome (de-mers'), Canadian edu- 
cator, b. in St. Nicholas, near Quebec, Canada, 1 
Aug., 1774; d. in Quebec, 17 May, 1853. He was 
educated at the Seminary of Quebec, where he fin- 
ished his classical course in 1795, and his theolog- 
ical course in 1798. On 24 Aug. of the latter year 
he was ordained a priest of the Roman Catholic 
church. He became director of the Seminary of 
Quebec on 10 Aug., 1800, and was its superior in 
1815-21, 1824-'30, and 1836-'42, following the rule 
of the seminary, which permits the same person to 
hold the office only six years in succession. Father 
Demers became vicar-general in 1H25. During his 
connection with the seminary, a period of over 
fifty years, he taught, successively or at the same 
time," physics, chemistry, astronomy, architecture, 
philosophy, and theology. He was distinguished 
as an orator, and had considerable influence, doing 
much to promote a taste for natural philosophy 
and the fine arts. He published " Institutiones 



Philosophies?" (Quebec, 1835), and left manuscript 
treatises on physios, astronoany, and architectural 

DEMERS, M., K. 0. bishop, b, in Canada: d. in 
Vancouver's island in 1871. lie went to the North' 
wesl territory in 1888, and was engaged in mission- 
ary duty among the Indians till 1847, when he was 
consecrated bishop of Vancouver s island. 

DEMEINIEK. or DESMEIMER. Jean 
Nicolas (day-tnen-vay), French statesman. l>. in 
Nbzeroy, Franche-Uomti, i~> March, 1751 : d. in 
Pari-. 7 Feb., 1*14. He was deputy to the stales- 
general in 17*9. He took also a part in the delib- 
erations of the constituent assembly, which dieted 
him to serve on the legislative committee. When 
the assembly dissolved, Deineunier, foreseeing the 
reign of terror, left France in 1791. He came to 
New York, where he remained five years, and on 
hi- return was made a senator by Consul Bonaparte 
in 1802. Deineunier is the author of " Voyages de 
Vancouver" : M Ksprit des usages et dee ooutumes 
des ditlcrents peuples" (:i vols.. L778-'80); ~ K— ai 
sur les Ktats-l'nis ** (1786) ; and " I/Aiiierique in- 
dfoendante" (4 vols., Ghent, 1790). 

DE MILLE, James, Canadian author, b. in St. 
John, N. B., in August, 1837; d. in Halifax. N'. S.. 
28 Jan., 1880. He was graduated at Brown in 
1854, and while in college wrote several song- that 
are st ill sung by students. He also contributed to 
newspapers in St. John while he was very young. 
He held the chair of classics in Acadia college in 
1860-'5, and that of history and rhetoric in Dal- 
housie college, Halifax, from 1865 till his death. 
He published " Helena's Household " (New York, 
1858): "The Martvr of the Catacombs" (1858); 
"Andy O'Hara" (1860); "John Wheeler's Two 
Uncles " (1860) : " The Soldier and the Spy " (1865) ; 
"The Arkansas Ranger" (1865); "The Dodge 
Club" (1866); "Cord and Creese" (1867); "The 
American Baron " (1870) ; " The Lady of the Ice " 
(1870); "The Cryptogram" (1871); "A Comedy 
of Terrors "(1871); "An Open Question" (1878); 
and " The Living Link " (1874). He was also the 
author of l)ooks for boys, including " B. O. W. C," 
" Fire in the Woods," " Boys of Grand Pre School," 
" Lost in the Fog," " Among the Brigands," " The 
Seven Hills," "The Winged Lion," "The Young 
Dodge Club," " Picked up Adrift," and " Treasures 
of the Sea." In 1878 he finished a treatise on 
rhetoric, which was published in New York. 

DEMINO, Henry Champion, lawyer, b. in 
Middle Iladdam, Conn., in 1815: d. in Hartford, 9 
Oct., 1872. He was graduated at Yale in 1836, 
and at Harvard law-school in 1839. He then 
opened a law office in New York city, but devoted 
himself chiefly to literature, being engaged with 
Park Benjamin in editing the "New World," a 
literary monthly. He removed to Hartford in 
1847, served in the lower house of the legislature 
in 1849-'50 and 1859-"61, and in 1851 was a mem- 
ber of the state senate. He was mayor of Hartford 
in 1854-'8 and in 1860-'2, having been elected as a 
democrat. Early in the war he opposed coercion, 
even after the fall of Sumter, ana when asked to 
preside at a war-meeting on 19 April, 1861. de- 
clined in a letter in which he said that he would 
support the Federal government, but would not 
"sustain it in a war of aggression or invasion of 
the seceded states." When Washington was threat- 
ened, however, he favored the prosecution of the 
war, and on 9 Oct., 1861, was elected by acclama- 
tion speaker pro tempore of the state house of rep- 
resentatives, the republican majority thus testify- 
ing their approval of his course. In September, 
lsiii, he accepted a commission as colonel of the 
•• charter oak regiment (the 12th Connecticut), re- 



DKM 






18Q 



cruit.d aw^toially tot Gon, Batlorfi New Orleans 

expedition. After the passage <>f 1 1 •■ - f«>rt' lu» 
regiment was tin- HrM to reach New Orleans, uml 
was assig iw* I bf Qan. Butler tin' post of tumor nt 
tin- custom-bouse. CoL Darning m an detached 
clot \ . sctiug a- mayor <>f tin- « • i t >- troa Ootobar, 
till February." 1888. He then resigned, re- 
turned borne, ami in April. IMS, wn elected to 

-•publican, ami served two tiim-. 
_- a member of the committee on military af- 
aml chairman of that on expenditure*) in the 
department In I860 he whh a delegate to the 
Jists' convention in Philadelphia, ami from 
l i ill In- death was l\ S. collector of internal 
revenue for hi^ dtftril t. Mr. Doming WOJ OM <»f 
the nioM eloquent public s|>cakers in New Knglaml. 
ntleman of line culture ami of refined literary 
He published translations of Kugcm- Sues 
•• Myal eries of Paris " ami •' Wandering Jen "(1840), 
aoulogj of Abraham Lincoln, delivered by iuvita- 
tiou of the Conneotkml legislature in IMS. M Life 
of I ' .rant " (Hartford, 1808), and vari- 

ous addresses, 

UMIN6, William, the first maker of wrought - 

iron cannon. Ii. in 17:10; <l. in Mifflin, Oombanand 

I'a.. 19 DeO, 1810. lie was employed in the 

Revolutionary army, ami contrilniteil two wrought - 

iron cannon of curious construction, one of which 

aptured by the British at the battle of the 

Brandy wine, and is still preserved in the Tower 
of London. ThtM singular pie.es of ordnance 
are described as being "made of wrought-iron 
staves, booped like a barrel, with bandi <>f the same 

material, except inir that there were four layers of 
staves, breaking joints, all of which were finally 
bovnd together, and then bond and breeched like 
other cannon." The first gun was made at Middlc- 
l'a., the ssoond was began at Mount Holly 
Springs, l'a., bul SS the patriotic blacksmith could 
find m> one to assist him, on account of the heat, 
which is said to have nan so great as to have 
melted the lead buttons on his coat, it was not com- 
pleted. The British are said to have offered a large 
sum of ready money ami a stated annuity to any 
one that would instruct them in the process of 
manufacture ; but the sturdy artisan was not to l>e 
seduced from hk allegiance. Although he had 
striven to SBCTe the republic, with traditional in- 
gratitude it refused to OOmpsntSte him until near 
the dose of his long career. 

DEMPSTER, John, educator, b. in Florida, Ful- 
ton eo.. N. V.. I .Ian.. 17JM; .1. in Bvanston, 111.. 08 
Nov.. inw. His father, Ibv. .lames Dempster, was 
bred a Presbyterian, and educated at the I nivcrsity 
Of Edinburgh, but became an associate of John 
W slew and was sent by him to tins country afl I 

sessionary. Be died while John was ■ child, and 

the bof Iwcame a peddler of tin-ware, but after his 
conversion, in 1812, began to study diligently. 
He entered the itinerant ministry of the Methodist 
church in 181(1, and SOOB distinguished himself at 
a powerful preaeher. After lab. ring in western 
New York and Canada, he went as a missionary t<> 
Buenos Ay res in ls:;."i, but returned in lK-1'2. ..ml 
had charge of churches in New York citv for three 
In lsJ7 he was one of the founders of the 
Biblical institute at Concord. N. II.. DOW the 
ton university theological SOhooL He tilled the 

Ohair of tl logy there till lN."il. when he founded 

the Qarrett Biblical institute at Kvanston, HI., and 
was its smior professor from ls.V» till his death. 
Plans for establishing institutes in Omaha and 
California failed, owing to the financial crisis ,.f 
Wesieyan university, Middletown, dim.. 
gave him the degree ..f D. D. in IMS. Dr. I>. inp- 



star was very successful aa an educator of young 

in. n. He left mam manuscript 

bare been published with the litis " 1 .Ait una and 

Addresses * .< inctnnati, 181 

HI >l I'M Kit. William l(i.-hunl«.. n . musician, 
b. in Keith, Bootland, in I*<»!»: d. in I>omlon 
land. 7 March. 1871. He wax apprenticed t" s 
qnill-maksr in Aberdeen, bul -n, m left ii„. trade 

and dOTOtsd bimssli to music. ||. aajns to th. 

United States n early life, bsoams « natui 
citi/.n. ami remained several rears. \r. 

his tune was s| M nt ahOttl equally 00 either 

the Atlantic. He WW ■ ISJOOSSJUl OOfBBOSjr and 

public singer. Ins roioi being *0TJ sfh oU t S in j»r- 

lor singing, though lacking the VoltHM iinnHrr 

for a large hall. He let Temiyaoi 

to music, which became p 'pular, and afterward 

oompossd iiiusji f..r most of thasonga brtrodncod 

in Tennys..n*s longer poems, which watl hil favor- 
ites f,, r |,|s concerts. ||c was noted among his 
friends for his genial spirit ami strict morality. 

DKN.U'T. Peter (duh-iio). Canadian K.C.'bidi- 
op, b. in Montreal, 90 July. 17i:t; d. m Longneil, 
17 .Ian.. 1*»m». lie was parish priest of Longneil, 
ami vicar-general of the aiooese of Quebec, During 
the invasion of < anada by Arnold and Montgomery. 
in 1 ??."». he was zealous in preventing the Canadians 
from joining them. As be occupied the |-.-t of 
danger on the route from the t'nited States to 
Canada, the British authorities suggested his pre- 
sentation as coadjutor bishop of Quebec, but, feeling 
that his presence at Longuei] would be useful to 
them in case of another invasion from the United 
states, they persuaded him t<> reside there. Re 
was consecrated at Montreal in 1794. and in 1797 
Bishop Hultert resigned the sec of (^ueliec in his 
favor. Bishop Denaul was accused of subservieooy 
to those in power; but on s noteworthy occasion 
he showed firmness of character. As soon as he 
succeeded to the bishopric he found the aid of a 
coadjutor nec e s sa ry, tioth the people and the 
clergy wished the curt of Quebec, Joseph Octavius 
Plessis. to be appointed. The Duke of Kent, father 
of Queen Victoria, was then holding court in Que- 
bec, and at the same time carrying <>n an intrigue 
with a married woman in the neighboring v ill ag e 
of Beauport The parish priest of this town se- 
cretly favored the liaison, ami. to reward his com- 
plaisance, the young prince used every effort to 
nave him appointed coadjutor bishop. Bishop 
Denaul insisted on the choice of Plessis, who had 
been elect.il by the clergy, and declared thai they 
neither should nor would hold another election. 
In presence of this unexpected resistance, the Cana- 
dian government withdrew their candidate, and 
Bishop Denaul then retired to Longneil, where ha 
siK-nt the remainder of hi* life. 

HKNU.KK. Frank, sculptor, h, in Cincinnati. 
Ohio, in 1858. He vent abroad whOs yung. 
studied in the Munich academy of fine arts, and 
received there in 1*71 a silver medal for bis group 
the "Sleeping Iicautv." He was for a sh.-rt time 
an instructor in modelling in the Boston inu-eum 
art school, but resigned >'» '*•* •'" sooonnl of fail- 
ing h.alth. and removed ho CbringtOO, Kv., and 
afterward to Cincinnati. Among his works are 
and Melda"(1877X "" ideal head of - Ameri- 
ca." and several portrait busts. 

DKNIN, SiiHan. actress, l>. in Philadelphia, IV. 

22 March. l*o">; d. in Blufftoii. Ind.. 4 Deo, l s 7*». 
When v.rv young she and her sister Kate took the 
part of dancing fairies at the National I 
I'hiladelphia. Susan afterward Usame a ( 

in New York ami other jwrts ..f the country, and 

In l^l'.i made her first ap|Harame in London, Her 



140 



DEN In 



DENISON 



death was the result of a fall on the stage in In- 
dianapolis, lnd. She had bees married four times. 
— Her sister Kate, l>. in Philadelphia in l*:'.?. was 
also a |H)pular actress. They resembled Bach Other 
in person, manner, and ability, and for a time WON 

quite |M)|iular in melodramatic cha racters. 

DKNIO. Hiram, jurist, b. in Rom.-, X. Y., 21 
May. 1799; d. iii I'tica. N. V.. 5 Nov.. 1871. After 
a thorough education, be began to study law in his 

seventeenth year, was admitted to the i>ar in 1821, 
and began practice in Home. He was district at- 
torney in is'j.")-';{|. and in in-2<; removed to I'tica. 
He was circuit judge Tor the fifth circuit in 1K:!4-X 
and in 1830 formed a law partnership with Ward 
Hunt. In Jnne, IK)."}, he was appointed to fill 
a vacancy on the bench of the court of appeals, and 
twice afterward was elected to the same office, 
serving till 18(5(1. He had also been bank com- 
missioner and clerk of the supreme court, and from 
1835 till his death was a trustee of Hamilton col- 
lege, which afterward gave him the degree of 
LL. I). Judge Denio was a democrat, but voted 
for Abraham Lincoln, and supported the war 
measures of the government, lie was considered 
one of the ablest jurists that ever sat on the bench 
of the court of appeals. He published " Reports 
of Cases argued and determined in the Supreme 
Court and in the Court for the Correction of 
Error" (5 vols.. l846-'8), and with William Tracy 
prepared an edition of the Revised Statutes of Xew 
York (2 vols., 1852). 

DKNIS, Jean Ferdinand, French explorer, b. 
in Paris. 18 Aug., 1798; d. in 1879. He travelled 
several times through America, once for five years, 
1810 till 1821. He was appointed librarian of the 
Ste. Genevieve library in Paris in 1861, and held 
this place till nearly the time of his death. He was 
the author of many works on the institutions of 
America, the most notable of which are " L'histoire 
du Bresil" (1821); "Buenos Avres et le Paraguay" 
(2 vols.. 1823) ; " La Guyane " '(2 vols., 1823) ; " Re- 
sume de i'histoire du Bresil, suivi du resume sur 
l'histoire de la Guyane" (1825), which was trans- 
lated into Portuguese in Rio de Janeiro ;" Precis 
de l'histoire litteraire du Bresil et du Portugal " 
(1832) ; and " Le Bresil et le Portugal," published 
in the collections of " L'Univers pittoresque".(1837 
and 1846). He is also the author of several nov- 
els, as " Ysmael-ben-Kaisar, ou la decouverte du 
nouveau monde" (3 vols., 1829); and "line fete 
bresilienne celebree a Rouen en 1850." He pub- 
lished in 1854 a new and revised edition, with notes, 
of " Les voyages de Malouet dans les forets de la 
Guyane," and was a contributor to the Brazilian 
review, •' Corographia Brazilica." 

DKNIS, or DKNYS, Nicolas, French soldier, b. 
in Tours. France, about 1600. He was governor and 
proprietor of a part of Acadia and Canada. He had 
obtained a grant of the country between Cape Can- 
so and Gaspe, but was obliged, after making impor- 
tant establishments, to carry on warfare for terri- 
torial rights with his countrymen, and a fire com- 
pleted his ruin. He returned to France about 1672, 
and published "Description geographique et his- 
torique des cotes de l'Amerique septentrionale, avec 
l'histoire naturelle an pavs" (2 vols., Paris, 1672). 

DKNISON, Andrew Woods, soldier, b. in Bal- 
timore. Md.. 18 Dec., 1831 ; d. there. 24 Feb., 1877. 
In 1862 he raised the 8th Maryland regiment for 
the National army, and in August of that year 
became its colonel, serving till the close of the 
war. He commanded the Maryland brigade of 
Robinson's division at Laurel Hill, where he lost 
an arm, and was again wounded at White Oak 
Ridge, near Petersburg. He was brevetted briga- 



dier-general for gallantry in the Bret-named battle 
on ;i Aug., l^iil. and major-general for the second, 
::i March, 1865, (Sen. Denieon was appointed post- 
master of Baltimore, 19 April, 1869, and held the 

office till his death. 

DKNISON. Charles Wheeler, author, b. In 

New London. Conn., 11 Nov.. 1809; d. 14 Nov., 1881. 
Before he was of age he edited a newspaper in 
his native town, lie afterward became a clergy- 
man, edited the "Emancipator," the first anti- 
slavery journal published in New York, and took 
part in other similar publications. In 1858 he was 
IT. S. consul in British Guiana, He -pent some 
time anions I lie operatives of Lancashire, speaking 
in behalf Oi the National cause during the Ameri- 
can civil war, and in 1867 edited an American 
paper in London, being at the same time pastor of 
Grove Road chapel, Victoria park. During the 
last two vears of the war he served as post chap- 
lain in Winchester, Ya., ami as hospital chaplain 
in Washington. He published "The American 
Village and other Poems" (Boston, 1845) : "Paul 
St. Clair," a temperance story ; •• < hit at Sea," po- 
ems (London, 1867); "Antonio, the Italian Boy" 
(Boston, 1873); "The Child Hunters," relating to 
the abuses of the padrone system (Philadelphia, 
1877); and a series of biographies published dur- 
ing the war, including " The Tanner Boy " (Grant) ; 
" The Bobbin Bov " (Banks) ; and " Winfield ; the 
Lawyer's Son" (Hancock). — His wife, Mary An- 
drews, author, b. in Cambridge, Mas-.. •„'•;' May. 
1826, became connected, on her marriage with Mr. 
Denison, with the "Olive Branch," of which he 
was assistant editor. She continued to contribute 
to magazines, and, when living in British Guiana, 
wrote tropical sketches for American periodicals. 
She also contributed to English magazines while 
in London. Her books are mostly tales of home- 
life, and include "Home Pictures," a collection 
of sketches written for periodicals (New York, 
1858); "Gracie Amber" (1857); "Old Hepsey, a 
Tale of the South" (1858); "Opposite the Jail" 
(1858); "The Lovers' Trials" (Philadelphia, 1865); 
"Annie and Teely" (1869); "That Husband of 
Mine," an anonymous book, which reached a sale 
of over 200,000" copies in a few weeks (Boston, 
1874); "That Wife of Mine "(1877); "Rothmell" 
(1878); "Mr. Peter Crewett " (1878); "His Tri- 
umph "(1883); "What One Boy can Do "(1885); 
and numerous Sunday-school books. 

DKNISON, Daniel, soldier, b. in England in 
1613; d. in Ipswich, Mass., 20 Sept., 1682. He 
came to New England about 1631, removed from 
Cambridge to Ipswich in 1635. and was a military 
leader there. He was a commissioner to treat with 
the French commander D'Aulny at Penobscot, in 
1646 and 1653, and was subsequently major-gen- 
eral of the colonial forces for ten years. He rep- 
resented Ipswich several years in the general court, 
was speaker of the house in 1649 and in 1651—% 
secretary of the colony in 1<>">:>. justice of the quar- 
terly court in 1658, commissioner of the united 
colonies in 1655-"62. and assistant in 1653-'82. He 
was appointed commander-in-chief of Massachu- 
setts troops in 1675, but was prevented by illness 
from taking the field in the Indian war of that 
year. Gen. Denison's daughter married President 
Bogem, of Harvard. He published " Ire n icon, or 
Salve for New England's Sore" (1684). 

DENISON, Frederic, clergyman, b. in Ston- 
ington, Conn., 28 Sept., 1819. He was graduated 
at Brown in 1*17. iWirlui having been pa-tor of 
several Baptist churches, Mr. Dawson served dur- 
ing three years of the late war as chaplain of the 
1st Rhode Island cavalry and the 34 Rhode Island 



DEM 






141 



heavy artillcrv. Be ha* written a great number 
q| poems and article- fur pffkMJkmlf, end il Mlthor 

of tiir following worka : •• rbe Supper Institution,'' 
••'III.- Sabbath Institution,' 1 "The Evangelist, or 
Life and Labon of Bev. Jabei S. Swan" 

• I list on of the Kiwi Rhode Island 

dry"; ' Westerly hik! its Witnesses fur Two 
Hundred and Fifty Years'*; " Pictuieeqjie Narra* 
m! Shore**; "Illustrated New Bed- 
lard, Marthas Vineyard, end Nantucket**; "His- 
tory of the Third abode tsland Ilcavv Artillery 
Regiment ": tui<l "Picturesque KIukIc Island." — Hut 
brother, John l.eihanl. educator, b, In Stoning* 
Ion, Conn- 1!» .Sept., 1880. Hia education was re- 
eeivedat toe Connecticut literary institution and 
at Worcester academy, and he established the Mys- 
tic river academy. Settling in Norwich, Conn, in 

>. be became ■obeequentlr nwrntary and b 
tin-r of tbi Henry Pill puMlahing company, ami 
president of the Connecticut Baptist education 

society. He received the degree of A. at, from 
Brown in 1850. He is the author of a M Pictorial 

History of the Wars of the United States." ami 

baa edited an "Illustrated History of the New 
World," in English ami in German. 
DENISON, George Taylor, Canadian lawyer, 

l». in Toronto, 17 July, 1N10; <l. 80 -May, 1H?:{. 
He was cdiicateil at I* |»|kt Canada college, Toron- 
to, studied law, ami was admitted to the bar in 
1840. ||e ^.rved as a volunteer in the rebellion of 

;. participated in the siege of Navy Island, ami 
was one of the ollicers that obtained the informa- 
tion that led to the capture ami destruction of the 
steamer "Caroline." In 1840 he was appointed to 
the command of a cavalry troop (raised by his fa- 
ther. I.ieiit.-Col. (i. T. Uenison). now known as the 
governor-general's Unly-j^nanl, and in 1856 took 
an active jwrt in organising the militia under the 
new law passed that year, which was the founda- 
tion of the present military system of Canada. He 
orjriiiuzi.il the Toronto field battery, and in 1800, 
at the request of sir Kdmuml Head, the governor- 

Ucncral, organized the queen*! own rifles. — His 
eon, Q ew f ge Taylor, i». in Toronto. :n Aug., l^JU, 

was i-ducated at I'pjier Canada OoUogO, and is an 
1. 1.. I), of Toronto university. He was gazetted 
to the active militia in ls.V> as a cornet, was made 

a major in 1808, ami promoted to the command of 

the tfovernor-jjciierars body-guard in BOO, a com- 
mand which he still (1KN7) holds. lie was ad- 
mitted to the l»ar in 1801, and in 186H he served 
during the Fenian raid, commanding the outposts 
on the Niagara river, in the autumn of that year. 
under Co), (now Lord) Wolseley. In 1878, and 
again in l s 7:{, he was sent to (ireat Britain to rep- 
resent the Ontario government in emigration mat- 
ter-, in 1878 he oontested Aigoma f or th e house 

of commons, hut was defeated. In 1*77 he waf 
appointed police magistrate of Toronto, and in 
1885 served in the Kiel rebellion in the northwest. 

In 1888 Col. Denieon was appointed an original 

member of the English literature section of the 
il society of ( 'anada. and in 1885 was e l ected it- 
lent. He is the author of •• Manual of <>ut- 
l«.-t Duties n (Toronto, 1800); •* History of the Fe- 
nian Kaid" (1800); "Modern Cavalry " (London, 
England, 18081; and a " History of Cavalry "(Lon- 
don. is77). The two hist named have been trans- 
lated into Russian, German, and Hungarian. The 

" History of Cavalry " was awarded the fayQOO ru- 
hles otTered by the eiii|M'ror of Etoasla M a prize 
for the U-st work on that subject. Col. Denieon 
visited If u-.-i;i on the (xsessJon of receiring the 
prize, and was presented to t he Czar and < zarina. 
—Another son. Frederick Charles, loldiar, b. in 



wa« educated at I'pi. r 
(Canada college, etndied law. ami was adinitu 
the bar in 1870. He served for some month, i, 
administrative battalion at N „,„| 

the Mime year was assarted cornet In the post • 

Ueneral's body-guard, serving m tt 

the Niagara frontier during tin Fenian mid in 

lsi;«;. || 

on tin- Bed river expedition <-f 1870, end r 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 1884, when he 
■died from Quebec In i ommand of n force of Cana- 
dian royagenrs, to aid la the campaign m theSou* 

ilan for the relief of (ieii. Qonlon 

aooomnaniad Qen. Bmia'i column, and t.«>k part 
in the battle of KiHuN-an. The aarvieai anadared 

liv the Canadian bOatlBSfl van thought -> f*Js> 

able that the] received the thanks of the iiiijM-rial 
parliament, and their oflicer was made a OOOMHaV 

ion of the order of St. Michael and Bl I 
lie is a fellow of the Royal historical 

England, and is the author of the u Historical 
Becocd of the Qovernor-Oaneral*! Body-Guard/ 1 
wil h it> standing orders. 

DENNETT, John Kichard, journalist. I,, in 
Chatham, New Brun-wick. in 1*:J7: d. in West- 
borough, M.i".. •.'<; November, 1*7 1. Hi- Eamib 
removed to Wbburn, Kaaa, while I turn, 

and he was lilted for college in the Wolmrii Mgh* 
school, and graduated at Harvard in 1808. While 

in college he was editor of the '•Harvard Mapt- 

zine." His class-day poem, far aoperior to r 
such performances, was especially nctirmd by Jamai 
Russell Lowell, for its rare jKH-tic qualities, After 
graduation he went to Beaufort. S. c, to superin- 
tend a plantation, ami remained then- until after 
the civil war. when he travelled extensively through 
the southern states to study their political position 
and prospects. He contributed a series of interest 
inij letters to the New York "Nation" upon this 
subject, and on returning from his tour he became 
one of its editors. Besides writing frequently for 
the •• Nation." Mr. Dennett was assistant prof, 
of rhetoric at Harvard, and discharged tiled, 
of that office with credit until compelled to n 
on account of failing health. 

DKNNT K, Josepu, journalist, 1.. in Boston, •"«• 
An-. 17iW : d. in Philadelphia. 7 .Ian . 1818, He 
eras graduated at Harvard in 1780, and studied law 
at Charlestown, N. II.. when- he was admitted to 
the liar, hut ultimately devoted himself to litera- 
ture. In 1795 he published a serie* of essays on 
life and literature, called "The Farrago.'' and 
edited in Boston "The Tablet." a weekly journal. 
Ill three months he removed to Wal p o le, N. H., 
where he edited "The Fanners' Wecklv Museum." 
which attained much popularity under liis manage- 
ment. II. gathered around him a numUr of 
writers, each of whom contributed to a sjocial de- 
partment. Among his compositions was "The I^y 
Preacher," a series of i-sn-, which jrave their au- 
thor reputation ai a graceful and humorous writer, 
and were widely copied. In 175» s the publisher DC- 
came liankrupt. and Heiinie was Persuaded to be> 
...me a candidate for cone;r<'ss. He was defeat, d. 
and in 17!»'.i w.nt to Philadelphia to Us-, an j. rivat.- 
tary to Thomas I'lckeriny. sit-ntary of state. 
He remained here a few months, and. after editing 
the " United Si tte,** became edHor of the 

elphia in 
This wi 
lv quarto, but n the oourei of five yean it lieoame 
a monthly ootava Heiinie nontlnnod to In- itsi-dit- 

or until lii* death, under the |>eii-name of -Oliver 

Old BehooL" The atafl of aiiie writers, among 

whom were Charles Brockdeu llrown and John 



Portfolio" in Philadelphia in 1N<M. in connection 
with Aslniry Dickens. This was oriu'inalL a «•< k- 



142 



DENNIS 



DENONVILLK 



Quincy Adams (whose "Letters from Sile-ia" 
were originally published in it), maintained the 
"Portfolio's" high reputation for manv year-. It 
was said, after the death of Rrockdcu Brown, that 
Dennie was the only man in the country that hum It- 
literature a profession. His appearance was de- 
scribed by Buckingham in this manner: "He was 
rather above the average height, and of slender 
frame ; was attentive to his dress, appearing one 
Mav morning at the office in a pea-green coat, 
white vest, nankeen small-clothes, white silk stock- 
ings and pumps, fastened with silver buckles which 
covered at least half the foot from the instep to the 
toe." He wrote very rapidly, and deferred the 

g reparation of his "copy until the last moment, 
ne of the best of his lay sermons was written at 
the village tavern, where he and his friends wen- 
amusing themselves with cards. It was delivered 
by piece-meal, at four or five different times, and 
if he happened to be engaged in a game, he would 
ask some one to play his hand for him while he 
"gave the devil his due." Dennie founded in 
Philadelphia the "Tuesday Club," which included 
most of the contributors to the "Portfolio." His 
work was confined principally to periodicals, but 
two collections of his writings were published — 
"The Lay Preacher, or Short Sermons for Idle 
Readers "(Walpole, N. H.. 1796), and a volume of 
"The Lay Preacher," collected by John K. Hall 
(Philadelphia, 1817). He aimed' to unite "the 
familiarity of Franklin with the simplicity of 
Sterne " in these ingenious essays. 

DENNIS, George R., senator, b. in White Ha- 
ven, Somerset co.. Md., 8 April, 1822. He was 
graduated at the Polytechnic institute of Troy, N. 
Y., and entered the University of Virginia. He stud- 
ied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, was 
graduated there in 1842, and, after practising for 
several years, he retired and has since devoted his 
attention to agriculture. He was a delegate to the 
National convention that nominated Mllmore in 
185(5. and to the Democratic national convention 
in 1808, serving as one of the vice-presidents. He 
was elected to the Maryland state senate in 1854, 
to the house of delegates in 1867, and to the senate 
again in 1871. While filling this office he was 
elected U. S. senator from Maryland as a Democrat, 
serving until 1873. 

DENN1SON, William, war governor of Ohio, 
b. in Cincinnati, Ohio, 23 Nov., 1815; d. in Co- 
lumbus, 15 June, 
1882. His father 
was a prosperous 
business man, and 
had him prepared 
for college in the 
best schools of Cin- 
cinnati. He was 
graduated at Mia- 
mi in 1835, stud- 
ied law in Cincin- 
nati, under the 
direction of Na- 
thaniel Pendleton 
and Stephen Fales, 
and practised in 
Columbus until 
1848, in which year 
he was chosen to 
the state legisla- 
ture. About this period Mr. Dennison became in- 
terested in banking and in railroad affairs, and 
was president of the Exchange bank and presi- 
dent of the Columbus and Xenia railroad com- 
pany. In 1856 he was a delegate to the fir-t Na- 




Ul ' Jr&u*^tffte 



tional convention of the Republican partv. He 
waeol n governor ol Ohio in lwio by the Bepnb* 

Means, and delivered his first message to tl.< 
eral assembly in IStil. At hi- suggestion the legis- 
lature voted "$3,000,000 to protect the state -from 
invasion and insurrection, ' and conferred power 
upon the executive to raise troops. Gov. Denni- 
son was an anti-slavery man and an ardent admirer 
of President Lincoln. In response to his call for 
11,000 troops, he offered 30,000, sending agents to 
Washington to urge their acceptance, lie took 
possession of the telegraph lines and railroads in 
the name of the state, and seized money in tnui- 
aitu from Washington to Ohio, which he gave to 
the quartermaster-general to clothe and equip sol- 
diers. Gov. Dennison was a delegate to the Re- 
pulilican national convention in 1864, and was 
elected chairman. He was appointed bv President 
Lincoln postmaster-general in 1864, and continued 
in that office, under President Johnson, until his 
resignation in 1866. Gov. Dennison was a mem- 
ber of the National Republican convention at Chi- 
cago in 1880, and was leader of the friends of Sena- 
tor John Sherman during the struggle for the 
nomination. He was also a candidate for senator 
in that year. He contributed largely to Dennison 
college, Granville, Ohio. 

DENNY, Thomas, banker, b. in Leicester, 
Mass.. in 1804; d. in New York city, 21 Oct., 1874. 
He was graduated at Harvard, with honors, in 
1823. studied law in Boston, and was admitted to 
the bar, but soon removed to New York and en- 
gaged in mercantile pursuits. In 1852 he became 
a member of the Stock Exchange, and in 1858 
formed the banking-house of Thomas Denny & 
Co. Mr. Denny took deep interest in the promo- 
tion of education and philanthropic and Christian 
effort, ne was an active promoter of the College 
of the city of New York, and of the Free School 
for girls, in 12th street, in that city. He was 
one of the founders of the Society for improving 
the condition of the poor, a director of the New 
York juvenile asylum, trustee of the Society for 
the relief of the ruptured and crippled, and one 
of the managers of tne City mission. 

DENNY, William, deputy governor of Penn- 
sylvania, from August, 1756, till October, 1759. 
On his arrival in the colony he was warmly wel- 
comed: but his determination to obey the instruc- 
tions of the proprietors soon rendered him un- 
popular. He had frequent disagreements with the 
colonial assembly, but his need of money finally 
became such that he signed a bill taxing the pro- 
prietary interests, which action led to his recall. 

DENONVILLE, Jacques Real de Br£say, 
Marquis de, French governor of Canada. In 1685 
he succeeded De la Barre as governor of Canada, 
and retained that office for four years. He was a 
brave soldier, but his administration of the duties 
of his office was such as brought the French colony 
in Canada to the verge of ruin. Acting on the ad- 
vice of Louis XIV., lie, in 1687, sent forty-one of 
the warriors of the Five Nations across the ocean 
to be chained to the oar in the galleys of Marseilles, 
and followed up this act of cruelty with an un- 
provoked attack upon the Senecas. They and 
other Indians retaliated so successfully that, after 
the massacre of the French at Lachine, there was 
hardly a French post left between Three Rivers 
and Mackinaw. During the period of his governor- 
ship he found a most determined opponent to the 
French claims of territorial extension in Gov. 
Dongan, of New York, who, in opposing Denon- 
ville and the French, was acting contrary to the 
instructions he had received from King Charles 






i»i:vrox 






and .lames. It wu Donoimll.- who recommended 
the purchased New York b) the Preneh. 

hi \ i . i n derich I .. r, b. in Cumber- 

land, M.I.. in I7n«»; d. in Washington, I >. « 

He was trained in commercial pursuit-. 
ami became it merchant in Pittsburg ami -ul.-c- 
quentl] in St. Look, accumulated wealth, and had 
a wiil»- refutation f..r hospitality, lb- wa- tli- 
father of Mr- !it. In politios Mr. Dent 

.1 rigid ami aggressive democrat, his views co- 
imiding with the Benton-Jackson school, and be 
held theae opinions tenaciously to the last <>f his 
life. .Inlin W. Pomey, in his •• Aneodotei <>f I'ui*- 
lie Men," refers to him as a very interesting old 
gentleman, kind, humorous, ami genteel, indicating 
aii independent spirit in his views, and exhibiting 
nderfully retentive memory f«T byHgonc daja, 
Mr. Deul was a member of hi> son-in-law "s hnneo 

hold after (ien. tJrant beoemc commander of the 

National armies, ami his farm. "White Haven," 

St. Louis. beoaflM the (ieneral's pCOPWiy, — 

Hi- -on. Frederick Tracy, soldier. l>. in White 

Haven. St. Louis co.. HO, 17 Dee.. 1880, ||, 
graduated at the C. S. military academv m 
1H4:1. made brevet id lieutenant, and served on 
frontier duty and in garrison prior to the Mexi- 
can war, which he entered in 1><47. lie WM en- 
gaged in the stage of Veni Cruz, the capture of 
San Antonio, and the luittlcsof ( 'huruhusco. where 
he WSJ severely wounded, and Molino del Key. re- 

nstving for gallant and meritorious oondnoi the 

l.re\et-of l>t lieutenant ami captain. He served 
thereafter on the Pacific railroad survey, on fron- 
tier duty in Idaho, in removing the Seminole In- 
dians, and at various points in Texas, Virginia, 
and Washington territory, until he joined the 
Yakima expedition in 1806b He participated in 

the Bpofcanc expedition in Washington territory, 
l>eing engaged in the combat of " Four Lakes" in 
J, in that of Spokane Plain in the same year, 
and in the skirmish on that river. After frontier 
duty at Fort Walla Walla he became a me mber of 
the Snake river. Oregon, expedition, to rescue the 
survivors of t he massacre of Salmon Fall (1H«><>). at 
which time, 1863. he was pro moted to the rank of 
major, and was in command of a regiment in the 
Army of the Potomac in 18<>3. in New York city 
called to suppress anticipated riots, from .Septem- 
ber, 1863, till January. is»»4. serving as a member 
of the military commission for the trial of state 
pri-oiurs from'Januarv till March. 1S<>4, Incoming 
then a -tatT oAoet With Lieut. -(Jen. Grant, baring 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Aide-de-camp dur- 
ing (irant's whole time as lieutenant-general, he 
was present in the battles and military operation! 
of the Richmond Campaign, and as military eoin- 
niamler of the city of Richmond, and of the garri- 
son of Washington. I>. ('.. in 1808, and on the -talT 
of the general-in-chief at Washington after 1866, 
as colonel, aide-de-camp, and secretary to Pre-i- 
dent Grant daring his first term. For his gallant 
and meritorious BSlvioas in the field during the 

civil warhewasbesretted brigadier-general I'.s. a. 

and brigad i e r- gener a l oi volunteer-. Be was trane- 

ferred to the 14th infantry in 1866, WBB mad.- lieu- 
teiianl-colonel of the Il'Jd "infantry in 1887, OOsOnsl 
of the 1-t artillery in 1881, and at his own request. 
after forty years of service, was retired in December, 
— Hi- lin.ther. Louis, lawyer, l>. in St. Louis 
in MB; d. in Washington, I>. ('.. 89 March. 1874. 
received a liberal education in his native citv. and 
.-•d law. About I860 he went to California, 
where he engaged in business, afterward holding 
the office of judge. In 1862 he returned to St. 
Louis, and from 1861 till !*•:? was engaged in cot- 



I to n-plan ting in Hknunsnpl and hatMma^ Be 

afterward practi^-d | a w in Washington. During 
the reeonstruotion period be drifted into soul 
poiMoa, having removed lo Min-d-nippi, and in 1H69 

nominated for governor of that Mate bi 
National union republicans, s nee ; died 

on the basis or equal right*, general aim 
r- ciliation; but be (fid n«-t receive the «iip|x,rt 

of the adiiniii-t ration in the oanTasi Prior to bis 

nomination, President <iratit wrote to him : "I 

would regret to we yoa run for an oenes, and \*- 
defeated by my aet; but, at matter- now i. 

mu-t throw the Weigh! of my iiitluence iii favor of 
the party opj>o-,-d to you." ' Judge I>. til 
defending hi- party. Although the demo 

gave their vote- to Sir. Dent, he received Onll half 

I as many as Gov. Alcorn, the regular republican 
nominee. After tin- he settled in Washington. 

DKNT. tieorgc. iiiciulier of congress, l>. m Mary- 
land alx.ut I7<>0. He received a classical education. 
He was a representative in congress from Mary- 
land from 1788 till 1*01. and WSS slootftd Ic—po 
rary -(Maker during the illness of S|K<aker Davton, 
80 April. 1788. President Jefferson appointed him 
in 1801 c. s. marshal f'»r the Potomac district 

DKNT. John Charles, Canadian journalist, h. 
in Kendall, England, 8 Nov.. isji : d. in Toronto, 
Canada. 87 Sept.. \hhh. [|e went early to Canada, 
studied law. and practised a short time in Ontario, 
after which he returned to England, became a jour- 
nalist, and was on the -tatT of the London •• Tele- 
graph." He returned again to Canada, was for 
three years employed on the Boston "Globe/ 1 ami 
subsequently was on the staff of the Toronto 
"Globe." He edited the •* Canadian Portrait Gal* 
lerv " ( 1SN0), and is the author of ••Canada since 
the Union of 1«41 " (1SS1); "The Storv of the 

l*p|M-r Canada Rebellion" (1885-'6\ eta 

DENT, John Herbert, naval officer, b. in Mary- 
land in 1788; d. in St. Bartholomew's pariah, Mary- 
land. :il .Inly. 1888. He became a midshipman, i<> 
March. 17!»N. under Truxtun. in the frigate "Con- 
stellation," ami was on board when she captured 
the French frigate " insurgents," 1 Feb.. 1798. He 
was appointed a lieutenant. 11 July. 1788, and was 
in the same ship when -he took the French fri. 
"La Vengeance," 1 Feb.. 1800. He was in eons* 
mand of the schoonen •■ Nautilus " and •• Scoui] 
in Preble's squadron, during the Tripolitan war. 
and tiHik part in the attacks on the city of Tripoli 
in 1804. He wa- commissioned a matter com- 
mander. 5 Sept.. 1N04. and a captain, 86 Deo, 181 L 
DENTON, Richard, clergyman, b. in York-hire. 
England, in 1680; d. in Essex, England, in 1668. 

lie was graduated at Cambridge in 1668, and wa* 

for seven yean P res by t e rian minister of Colev 
chapel, parish <>f Halifax, in the north of Kuglami. 
The act of uniformity compelled him to n-limpii-h 
hi- charge ami to emigrate to America, where he 
arrived in 1686^ in company with .John Winthrop 
and Sir Richard SaltonatalL He t'trst want to 
Watertown, Mas-.: then in WM he U