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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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http://www.archive.org/details/appletonscyclop03wilsuoft 



APPLETONS' 

CYCLOPAEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY 



VOL. III. 
GRIN NELL-LOCK WOOD 



>-^Ctr-^/ 



U Appleton & Co 



APPLBTONS' 



CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN 



BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 

JAMES GRANT WILSON 

AND 

JOHN FISKE 



As it is the commendation of a good huntsman to find game in a wide wood, 
so it is no imputation if he hath not caught all. Plato. 



VOLUME III. 
GRINNELL-LOCKWOOD 




NEW YORK 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 

1, 3 and 5 BOND STREET 
1892 




Copyright, 1887, 
By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 



LIST OF PORTRAITS ON STEEL. 





ARTIST 


ENGRAVER 


PAGE 


Lincoln, Abraham 


Hester 


Ball 


Frontispiece 


Hamilton, Alexander 


Trumbull 


Ooisch 


Face 56 


Hancock, Winfield Scott 


Boyardus 


Hall 


72 


Harrison, William Henry 


Marceau 


Knight 


96 


Hayes, Rutherford Birchard 


Landy 


Hall 


134 


Irving, Washington 


Plumb 


Hollyer 


360 


Jackson, Andrew 


Longacre 


Hall 


373 


Jefferson, Thomas 


Brown 


Hall 


415 


Johnson, Andrew 


Brady 


Hall 


436 


Lee, Robert Edward 


Bradley 


Hall 


668 



SOME OF THE CHIEF CONTRIBUTORS 
TO APPLETONS' CYCLOPAEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Adams, Charles Kendall, 

President of Cornell University. 

Agassiz, Alexander, 
Author and Professor. 

Allan, Col. William, 

Aide-de-Camp to " Stonewall " Jackson. 

Allibone, S. Austin, 

Author " Dictionary of Authors." 

Amory, Thomas C, . 

Author " Life of General Sullivan," etc. 
Bancroft, George, 

Author " History of the United States." 

Barrett, Lawrence, 

Author "Life of Edwin Forrest." 

Bayard, Thomas F., 

Secretary of State. 

Bigelow, John, 

Author " Life of Franklin," etc. 

Boker, George H., 

Poet, late U. S. Minister to Russia. 

Botta, Mrs. Vincenzo, 

Author and Poet. 

Bradley, Joseph P., 

Justice United States Supreme Court. 

Brooks, Phillips, 

Author "Sermons in English Churches." 

Carter, Franklin, 

President of Williams College. 

Champlin, John Denison, 

Author "Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings." 

Chandler, William E., 

Ex-Secretary of the Navy. 

Clarke, James Freeman, 

Author "Ten Great Religions," etc. 

Cooper, Miss Susan Fenimore, 

Author "Rural Hours," etc. 

Conway, Moncure D., 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Coppee, Henry, 

Professor in Lehigh University, Pa. 

Coxe, Arthur Cleveland, 

P. E. Bishop of Western New York. 

Courtenay, William A., 

Mayor of Charleston, S. C. 

Cullum, Gen. George W., 

Author " Register of West Point Graduates," etc. 
Curry, Daniel, 

Late Author and Editor. 

Curtis, George Ticknor, 

Author " Life of James Buchanan," etc. 

Curtis, George William, 

Author and Editor. 



Custer, Mrs. Elizabeth B., 

Author " Boots and Saddles." 
Daniel, John W., 

United States Senator from Virginia. 

De Costa, Benjamin F., 

Historical Writer. 

De Lancey, Edward F., 

Ex-President Genealogical and Biographical Society. 

Didier, Eugene L., 

Author " Life of Edgar Allan Poe." 

Dix, Morgan, 

Rector of Trinity Church, New York. 

Doane, William C, 

P. E. Bishop of Albany. 

Drake, Samuel Adams, 

Author "Historic Personages of Boston," etc. 

Draper, Lyman C, 

Secretary of Wisconsin Historical Society. 

Dupont, Col. Henry A., 

Of Delaware, late U. S. Army. 

Eggleston, George Cary, 

Editor New York "Commercial Advertiser." 

Fiske, John, 

Author and Professor. 

Frothingham, Octavius B., 

Author "Life of George Ripley." 

Gayarre, C. E. A., 

Author " History of Louisiana." 

Gerry, Elbridge T., 

Member of New York Bar. 

Gilman, Daniel C.,' 

President of Johns Hopkins University. 

Goodwin, Daniel, 

Member of Illinois Bar. 

Greely, Gen. A. W., TJ. S. A., 

Author "Three Years of Arctic Service." 

Green, William Mercer, 

Late P. E. Bishop of Mississippi. 

Greene, Capt. Francis Vinton, 

United States Engineer Corps. 

Hale, Edward Everett, 

Author "Franklin in France," etc. 

Hay, Col. John, 

Author "Life of Lincoln," etc. 
Henry, William Wirt, 

Of the Virginia Historical Society. 

Higginson, Col. T. W., 

Author " History of the United States," etc. 

Hilliard, Henry W., 

Late U. S. Minister to Brazil. 

Hop pin. Professor James M., 

Of Yale College. 



vm 



SOME OF THE CHIEF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Howe, Mrs. Julia Ward, 

Author " Later Lyrics," etc. 

Huntington, William R., 

Rector of Grace Church, New York. 

Jay, John, 

Late U. S. Minister to Austria. 

Johnson, Gen. Bradley T., 

Member of Maryland Bar. 

Johnson, Rossiter, 

Author " History of the War of 1812," etc. 

Johnston, William Preston, 

President of Tulane University. 

Jones, Horatio Gates, 

Vice-President of Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

Jones, John William, 

Secretary of Southern Historical Society. 

Jones, WiUiam Alfred, 

Author " Character and Criticism," etc. 

Lathrop, George Parsons, 

Author " A Study of Hawthorne," etc 

Latrobe, John H B., 

Member of Maryland Bar. 

Lincoln, Robert T., 
Ex-Secretary of War. 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, 

Author " Life of Hamilton." 

Long, Col. Charles Chaille, 
Late of the Egyptian Army. 

Lowell, James Russell, 

Late U. S. Minister at Court of St. James. 

Mathews, William, 

Author " Orators and Oratory," etc. 

McMaster, John Bach, 

Author." History of the People of the United States." 

Mitchell, Donald G., 

Author " Reveries of a Bachelor," etc. 

Mombert, J. I., 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Norton, Charles Eliot, 

Professor in Harvard University. 

O'Connor, Joseph, 

Editor Rochester, N. Y., "Post-Express." 

O'Neal, Edward A., 
Governor of Alabama. 

Parker, Cortlandt, 

Member of New Jersey Bar. 

Parkman, Francis, 

Author " Frontenac," " French in Canada," etc. 

Partem, James, 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Phelan, James, M.C., 

Editor Memphis, Tenn., " Avalanche." 

Phelps, William Walter, 

Member of Congress from New Jersey. 

Pierrepont, Edwards, 

Ex- Attorney-General United Stetes. 

Porter, David D., 

Admiral United States Navy. 



Porter, Gen. Horace, 

Late of Gen. Grant's Staff. 

Preston, Mrs. Margaret J., 

Author and Poet. 

Puron, Dr. Juan G., 

Spanish Author and Editor. 

Bead, Gen. J. Meredith, 

Late U. S. Minister to Greece. 

Reid, Whitelaw, 

Editor New York " Tribune." 

Ricord, Judge Frederick W., 

New Jersey Historical Society. 

Robinson, Ezekiel G., 

President of Brown University. 

Romero, Mattias, 

Mexican Minister to the United States. 

Royce, Josiah, 

Professor in California University. 

Sanborn, Miss Kate, 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Schurz, Gen. Carl, 

Ex-Secretary of the Interior. 

Sherman, William T., 

Late General of United States Army. 

Smith, Charles Emory, 

Editor Philadelphia " Press." 

Spencer, Jesse Ames, 

Author and Professor. 

Stedman, Edmund C, 

Author "Poets of America," etc. 

Stiles, Henry R., M. D., 

Author " History of Brooklyn, N. Y." 

Stoddard, Richard Henry, 

Author " Songs of Summer," etc. 

Stone, William L., 

Author " Life of Red Jacket," etc. 

Strong, William, 

Ex-Justice United States Supreme Court. 

Stryker, William S., 

Adjutant-General of New Jersey. 

Tucker, J. Randolph, 

Member of Congress from Virginia. 

Waite, Morrison R., 

Chief Justice United States Supreme Court. 

Warner, Charles Dudley, 

Author and Editor. 

Washburne, Elihu B., 

Late U. S. Minister to France. 

Welling, James C, 

President of Columbian University. 

Wilson, Gen. Jas. Grant, 

President Genealogical and Biographical Society. 

Winter, William, 

Poet and Theatrical Critic. 

Winthrop, Robert C, 

Ex-United States Senator. 

Young, John Russell, 

Miscellaneous Writer. 



To this list other names will be added as the work progresses. 



Among the Contributors to the third volume of u Appletons 1 Cyclopaedia of American Biogra- 
phy " are the following : 



Col. William Allan, 

Aide-de-camp to Gen. Jackson. 
Jackson, Thomas J. (" Stonewall "). 

Marcus Benjamin, F. C. S. 
Hale, Edward Everett, 
The Livingston Family, 
and other articles. 

S. G. W. Benjamin, 

Late U. S. Minister to Persia. 
Articles on Painters and Sculptors. 

Arthur E. Bostwick, Ph. D. 
Harrison, William Henry, 
Kendall, Amos, 
and other articles. 

James C. Brogan. 
Articles on Roman Catholic Clergymen. 

Mrs. Isa Carrington Cabell. 
The Howe Family, 
The Kirkland Family, 
and other articles. 

Lieut. C. G. Calkins, V. S. N. 
Jones, John Paul, 
Lawrence, James. 

Rev. Jas. Freeman Clarke, D. D. 
Hull, William. 

Prof. Henry Coppee, 

Author. 

Hooker, Joseph. 

Gen. George W. Cullum, U. S. A. 
Halleck, Henry Wager. 

George William Curtis. 
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. 

Maturin Livingston Delaneld. 
Lewis, Francis, 
Lewis, Morgan. 

Edward F. De Lancey, 

Ex-President New York Genealogical Society. 
Heathcoate, Caleb, 
Johnson, Sir William, 
Jones, Thomas, and Family. 

George Cary Eggleston, 

Journalist, and Author of " A Rebel's Recollections.' 
Lee, Robert Edward. 

Prof. John Fiske. 

Hutchinson, Thomas, 
Jackson, Andrew, 
Lafayette, Marquis de, 
Lee, Charles, 
Lee Family, of Virginia. 

Jeannette L. Gilder. 
Kellogg, Clara Louise, 



Bev. D. A. GoodseU, D. D. 
Articles on Bishops of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. 

Gen. Adolphus W. Greely, XJ. S. A. 
Hall, Charles Francis, 
Hayes, Isaac Israel, 
Kane, Elisha Kent, 
Lockwood, James Booth. 

Jacob Henry Hager, 

Journalist and Translator. 
Hancock, Winfield Scott, 
Lee, Ann, 
and other articles. 

John R. G. Hassard, 

Author and Journalist. 
Hughes, John, Archbishop. 

Col. John Hay, 

Author and Poet. 
Lincoln, Abraham. 

Joel T. Headley, 

Author of '• Washington and his Generals." 
Knox, Henry. 

William Wirt Henry. 
Henry, Patrick. 

Henry W. Hilliard, 

Late U. S. Minister to Brazil. 
Gwin, William M., 
King, William R., 
and other articles. 

Edward Hopper. 

Hicks, Elias. 

Frank Huntington. 

Kent, James, 
Law, John. 
and other articles. 

Rev. William R. Huntington, D. D. 
Huntington, Frederick Dan. 

A. S. Isaacs, Ph. D., 

Editor "Jewish Messenger." 

Articles on Hebrew Clergymen. 

John Jay, 

Late U. S. Minister to Austria. 
Articles on the Jay Family. 

Gen. Bradley T. Johnson, 

Late of Confederate Army. 

Johnston, Joseph E., 
and other articles. 

Rossiter Johnson, 

Author of " History of the War of 1812-'15." 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 
Hunter, David, 
and other articles. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE THIRD VOLUME. 



Col. William Preston Johnston, 

President of Tulane University, New Orleans, La. 

Hampton, Wade, 
Johnston, Albert Sidney. 

Rev. John William Jones, D. D., 

Secretary of Southern Historical Society. 

Lee, Fitzhugh, 

Lee, George Washington Custis, 
and other articles. 

Rev. Asahel C. Kendrick, D. D., 
Author of "Life of Emily C. Judson." 

Adoniram Judson and Family. 

Charles R. King, M. D. 
Rufus King and Family. 

Rufus King. 
Articles on the King Family. 

Samuel A. King, 

Aeronaut. 
La Mountain, John, 
and other articles on aeronauts. 

John H. B. Latrobe. 
Kennedy, John Pendleton. 

Col. J. Granville Leach. 

Articles on Pennsylvanians. 

Henry Cabot Lodge, 

Author. 

Hamilton, Alexander. 

Neil Macdonald. 
Inglis, Charles, 
Jackson, James, of Georgia, 
and articles on Canadian statesmen. 

Donald G. Mitchell. 

Irving, Washington. 

Rev. S. E. Ochsenford, D. D. 

Articles on Lutheran Clergymen. 

Joseph O'Connor, 

Journalist. 
Kendrick, Asahel Clark, 
Kerr. Michael Crawford. 

Francis Parkman, LL. D., 

Historian. 
La Salle, Robert C. de. 

James Parton, 

Author and Essayist. 
Jefferson, Thomas. 

James Phelan, M. C, 

Editor "Memphis Avalanche." 
Houston, Samuel, 
Johnson, Andrew, 
and other articles. 

Mrs. Margaret J. Preston, 

Author and Poet. 

Hayne, Paul Hamilton. 

Gen. J. Meredith Read, 

Late U. S. Minister to Greece. 
Hudson, Henry. 



Frederick W. Ricord, 

Librarian of the New Jersey Historical Society. 
Herbert, Henry William, 
Hornblower, Joseph C, 
and other articles. 

Hermann Ritter. 

Articles on South and Central Americans. 
Col. Thomas J. Scharf, 

Late of Confederate Army. 

Hill, Ambrose Powell. 

Gen. Carl Schurz, 

Ex-Secretary of the Interior. 
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard. 

Rt. Rev. Edmund de Schweinitz, D. D. 
Articles on Bishops of the Moravian Church. 

Gen. Henry H. Sibley. 

Little Crow. 

Miss Esther Singleton. 
Kieft, Wilhelm, 
Laurens, Henry, 
and other articles. 

Rev. Jesse Ames Spencer, D. D., 

Author of " History of the United States." 
Articles on Bishops of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church. 

Henry R. Stiles, M. D., 

Author of "History of Brooklyn, N. Y." 
Harrison, Gabriel. 

William L. Stone, 

Author of " Life 6f Brant." 

Hay, John, 
Johnson, Sir John, 
and other articles. 

Rev. B. T. Tanner, D. D. 

Articles on Colored Clergymen. 

William Christian Tenner, 

Graduate of the University of Paris. 
Hugues, Victor, 
Lesseps, Ferdinand de, 
and other articles. 

Charles Dudley Warner. 
Hawley, Joseph R., 
Howells, William Dean. 

John William Weidemeyer. 
Jefferson, Joseph, 
Kemble, Charles and Frances Anne, 
and other dramatic and musical articles. 

Gen. Jas. Grant Wilson. 

Halleck, Fitz-Greene, 
Hull, Isaac, 
Kemble, Gouverneur, 
Lenox, James, 
and other articles. 

John Laird Wilson, 

Author and Journalist. 
Keene, Laura, 
Kidd, William, 
and other articles. 

John Russell Young, 

Late U. S. Minister to China. 
Jewell, Marshall. 



APPLETONS' 

CYCLOP/EDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



GRINNELL 

GRINNELL, Joseph, merchant, b. in New Bed- 
ford, Mass., 18 Jan., 1789 ; d. there, 7 Feb.. 1885. 
He came to New York, and in 1815 aided in estab- 
lishing the firm of Fish and Grinnell. His two 
younger brothers became members of the firm in 
1825, and in 1828 Joseph retired, and his place 
was taken by Robert B. Minturn. Joseph resided 
at New Bedford for fifty-six years, and was presi- 
dent of the Marine bank, the Wamsutta mills com- 
pany, and the New Bedford and Taunton railroad. 
He was a member of the governor's council in 
1839-'41, and in 1843-'51 was a representative in 
congress, having been elected as a Whig. His 
niece and adopted daughter married the poet N. P. 
Willis. — His brother Henry, merchant, b. in New 
Bedford, Mass., in 1800 ; d. in New York city, 30 
June, 1874, was graduated at New Bedford acad- 
emy in 1818, and in 
the same year be- 
came clerk in a 
commission - house 
in Pine street, New 
York. In 1825 he 
was made a member 
of the firm of Fish 
and Grinnell, after- 
ward Grinnell, Min- 
turn and Company. 
He was much inter- 
ested in geography, 
and especially in arc- 
tic exploration, and 
in 1850, at his own 
expense, fitted out an 
expedition to search 
for Sir John Frank- 
lin, from whom noth- 
ing had been heard in five years. The expedition 
sailed from New York in May, 1850, under com- 
mand of Lieut. E. J. He Haven, with Dr. E. K. 
Kane as surgeon and naturalist. It discovered 
land in lat. 75° 24' 21", which was named Grinnell 
Land, in honor of Mr. Grinnell. In 1853, in con- 
junction with George Peabody, he spent $50,000 
in the equipment of the second Franklin search 
expedition, giving it also his personal supervision. 
This expedition was placed in charge of Dr. Kane, 
and the government bore part of its expenses. 
Mr. Grinnell also contributed freely to the Hayes 
expedition of 1860, and to the u Polaris " expedi- 
tion of 1871. He retired from business in 1852, 
but in 1859 engaged in insurance. Mr. Grinnell 

VOL. III. — 1 




GRINNELL 

was throughout his life an earnest advocate of the 
interests of sailors, and was the first president of 
the American geographical society, in 1852-'3, and 
a vice-president from 1854 till 1872. — His daugh- 
ter, Sylvia, married Admiral Ruxton, of the Eng- 
lish navy, and in 1886 presented to that society 
a crayon portrait of her father, framed in wood 
taken from the ship " Resolute." (See Belcher, 
Sir Edward.) — Another brother of Joseph, Moses 
Hicks, b. in New Bedford. Mass., 3 March, 1803 ; 
d. in New York city, 24 Nov., 1877. entered a New 
York counting-house in 1818, and. after several 
voyages as supercargo, became in 1825 a member 
of* the firm of Fish and Grinnell. In 1839-41 
he was a representative in congress, having been 
elected as a Whig. He was a presidential elector 
on the Fremont ticket in 1856. and in 1869-'70 
collector of the port of New York. He became 
president of the chamber of commerce in 1843, was 
a member of the original Central park commis- 
sion, and in 1860-'5 a commissioner of charities 
and correction. He gave liberally toward Dr. 
Kane's arctic expedition of 1853, and toward the 
National cause during the civil war. He was presi- 
dent of the Union club from 4 Sept., 1867, till 5 
Nov., 1873. Mr. Grinnell was one of the merchant- 
princes of New York, and enjoyed the friendship 
of Daniel Webster and William H. Seward. 

GRINNELL, Josiah Bushnell, congressman, 
b. in New Haven, Vt., 22 Dec, 1821. He was 
graduated at Oneida institute in 1843 and at Au- 
burn theological seminary in 1847, entered the 
ministry of the Presbyterian church, and preached 
seven years in Union Village, N. Y., Washington, 
D. C, and New York city. He founded the Con- 
gregational church at Grinnell, Iowa, in 1854, and 
preached there gratuitously for several years, but 
afterward retired from the ministry and became an 
extensive wool-grower. He was a member of The 
state senate in 1856-'60, special agent of the post- 
office department in 1861-3, and in 1863-7 was a 
representative in congress, having been elected as 
a Republican. He was a special agent of the 
treasury department in 1868, and in 1884 was ap- 
pointed commissioner of the .U. S. bureau of animal 
industries. When in the Iowa senate Mr. Grinnell 
took an active part in the formation of the state 
free-school system, and was also the correspondent 
and confidant of John Brown, entertaining him 
and his company. " In my library," says Mr. 
Grinnell in a recent letter, " secretly, in the gleam 
of bayonets, and near a miniature arsenal for the 



GRISCOM 



GR1SWOLD 



protection of a score of ex-slaves, he wrote a part 
of his Virginia proclamation." Mr. Grinnell was 
active in aiding the escape of fugitive slaves, and 
at one time a reward was offered for his head. He 
has been connected with the building of six rail- 
roads, and has laid out five towns, including that 
of Grinnell, Iowa, which was named for him. He 
gave the proceeds of the sale of building-lots in 
that town to Grinnell university, now merged in 
Iowa college, and was for some time its president. 
He has published " Home of the Badgers " (Mil- 
waukee, Wis., 1845); "Cattle Industries of the 
United States " (New York, 1884) ; and numerous 
pamphlets and addresses. 

GRISCOM, John, educator, b. in Hancock's 
Bridge, Salem co., N. J., 27 Sept., 1774; d. in Bur- 
lington, N. J., 20 Feb., 1852. His education was 
acquired at the Friends' academy in Philadelphia, 
and later he was given charge of the Friends' 
monthly-meeting school, in Philadelphia, with 
which he continued for thirteen years. In 1806 he 
removed to New York, where he was actively en- 
gaged in teaching for twenty-five years. He was 
one of the first to teach chemistry, and gave public 
lectures on this subject to his classes early in 1806. 
When the medical department of Queen's (now 
Rutgers) college was established in 1812, he was 
appointed to the chair of chemistry and natural 
history, which he held until 1828. His colleague, 
Dr. John W. BVancis, said of him that "for thirty 
years Dr. Griscom was the acknowledged head of 
all teachers of chemistry among us" in New York. 
He was the projector of the New York high-school, 
an institution on the Lancaster or monitorial sys- 
tem of instruction, which had great success from 
1825 till 1831, under his supervision. For many 
years Dr. Griscom's lectures were given in the 
" New York Institution," which had been built in 
1795 for an almshouse. Halleck, in his " Fanny," 
thus alludes to the building and its occupants : 
" It remains 
To bless the hour the Corporation took it 

Into their heads to give the rich in brains 
The worn-out mansion of the poor in pocket, 

Once 'the old almshouse,' now a school of 
wisdom, 

Sacred to Scudder's shells and Dr. Griscom." 
From 1832 till 1834 he had charge of a Friends' 
boarding-school in Providence, R. I., also lecturing 
in various places on chemistry and natural philoso- 
phy. Subsequently he resided in Haverford, Pa., 
and then in Burlington, N. J., where he was town 
superintendent and trustee of public schools, and 
also was associated in the reorganization of the 
common-school system of New Jersey. During his 
residence in New York he was instrumental in or- 
ganizing the Society for the prevention of pauper- 
ism and crime, which was the parent of many im- 
portant reform movements. For many years he 
contributed abstracts of chemical papers from the 
foreign journals to Silliman's " Journal of Science." 
He' was also the author of " A Year in Europe " 
(New York, 1823), and "Monitorial Instruction" 
(1825). See a " Memoir of John Griscom," by his 
son (New York, 1859).— His son, John Raskins, 
physician, b. in New York city, 14 Aug., 1809 ; d. 
there, 28 April, 1874, was educated in the Collegi- 
ate school of Friends, and, after studying medicine 
under Dr. John D. Godman and Dr. Valentine 
Mott, was graduated at the medical department of 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1832. A year 
later he was appointed assistant physician to the 
New York dispensary, becoming physician in 1834. 
From 1836 till 1840 he was professor of chemistry 
in the New York college of pharmacy. In 1842 he 



was made city inspector, but a year later became 
visiting physician of the New York hospital, and 
continued as such until within a few years of his 
death. In 1848 he was appointed general agent of 
the commissioners of emigration, which office he 
filled until 1851. Dr. Griscom was identified with 
the management of the New York prison associa- 
tion, the Juvenile reformatory, the Home for the 
friendless, the New York sanitary association, the 
Social science association, and the New York asso- 
ciation for the advancement of science and art, of 
which he was one of the founders and first presi- 
dent. He wrote much and ably on medical, sani- 
tary, hygienic, and scientific topics, contributing 
largely to the medical journals, and was the author 
of " Animal Mechanism and Physiology " (New 
York, 1839) ; " Uses and Abuses of Air for the Venti- 
lation of Buildings " (1850) ; " An Oration before the 
Academy of Medicine " (1854) ; " Prison Hygiene " 
(Albany, 1868) ; " Use of Tobacco and the Evils 
resulting from It " (New York, 1868) ; and " Physi- 
cal Indications of Longevity " (1869). 

(JRISWOLD, Alexander Viets, P. E. bishop, 
b. in Simsbury, Conn., 22 April, 1766 ; d. in Bos- 
ton, Mass., 15 Feb., 1843. He manifested great 
precocity in childhood, and learned to read fluently 
at three years of age. It was intended that he 
should receive a collegiate training at Yale, but the 
Revolutionary war prevented. Instead of going to 
college, young Griswold took to himself a wife in 
1785. He next devoted himself to the study of 
law, at the same 
time continu- 
ing his labors 
on the farm. 
He was con- 
firmed by Bish- 
op Seabury, on 
his first visit to 
Simsbury par- 
ish, and became 
a communicant 
at the age of 
twenty. Not 
liking the law 
as a profession, 
he resolved to 
study for the 
ministry. He 
was received as 
a candidate for 
holy orders in 
the summer of 
1794, and dur- 
ing his preparatory course officiated as lay reader in 
several neighboring towns. He was ordered deacon 
by Bishop Seabury, 3 June, 1795, and ordained priest 
by the same bishop, 1 Oct., 1795. During the next 
ten years he had charge of three parishes where he 
had served as lay reader before ordination — Plym- 
outh, Harwinton, and Litchfield, Conn. He also 
taught the district school in the winter, and did not 
disdain manual labor among his parishioners. In 
1804 he accepted an urgent call to the rectorship 
of St. Michael's church, Bristol, R. I. Six years 
later he was invited to Litchfield, and was prepar- 
ing to remove thither, when he was elected to the 
episcopate over a diocese of which he was the first 
and only bishop, i. e., " The Eastern Diocese," con- 
sisting of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts, and Rhode Island. This was in May, 
1810. At first, through modesty and self-distrust, 
he positively declined the office ; but others urged 
his acceptance, and he at last yielded. He was 
consecrated in Trinity church, New York, 29 May, 




dC^.\ g ^ 



,2S 



GRISWOLD 



GRISWOLD 



1811. He received the degree of D. D. from Brown 
in 1810, from Princeton in 1811, and from Harvard 
in 1812. In addition to his episcopal duties, Bishop 
Griswold continued in charge of his parish at Bris- 
tol, R. I., but in 1830 removed to Salem, Mass., as 
it was nearer to Boston, and accepted the rector- 
ship of St. Peter's church. In 1835, however, he 
resigned this charge, and devoted himself wholly 
to his episcopal work. Suffering from the infirmi- 
ties of age and from ill health, he proposed to the 
convention, in June, 1838, the election of an assist- 
ant. An eminent presbyter was chosen, but de- 
clined. In 1842 another election was held, and the 
Rev. Dr. Eastburn, of New York, was chosen. It 
was the last ordaining act of the venerable dioce- 
san to consecrate Dr. Eastburn to his office, which 
was done in Trinity church, Boston, 29 Dec, 1842. 
On the death of Bishop White, in 1836, Bishop 
Griswold, under the canon, became the presiding 
bishop. With health much broken he continued 
to work to the last, and the end came suddenly. 
He was on his way to call on Bishop Eastburn on 
15 Feb., 1843, when, just as he reached the door, he 
fell, and died instantly of heart disease. Bishop 
Griswold's publications were various sermons and 
addresses on special occasions; "Discourses on 
the Most Important Doctrines and Duties of the 
Christian Religion" (Philadelphia, 1830); "The 
Reformation and the Apostolic Office" (Boston, 
1843) ; and " Remarks on Social Prayer Meetings " 
(1858). See " Life of Bishop Griswold," bv Rev. I. 
S. Stone, D. D. (Philadelphia, 1844.)— His grand- 
nephew, Casimir Clayton, artist, b. in Delaware, 
Ohio, in 1834, is the son of Ezra Griswold, who as- 
sisted in editing and publishing the first newspaper 
in Columbus, Ohio. Casimir studied wood-engrav- 
ing in Cincinnati, and removed to New York about 
1850. His only instruction in painting was from 
an elder brother. His first picture was exhibited 
at the National academy in 1857, and he was made 
an associate in 1866, becoming an academician in 
1867. In 1859 he was one of the original members 
of the Artists' fund society. Mr. Griswold has lived 
in Rome since 1872. Among his works are "De- 
cember" (1864) ; "Winter Morning" (1865); "The 
Last of the Ice " (1867) ; " August Dav, Newport " 
(1868) ; " Early Spring " (1869) ; " Purgatory Point, 
Newport " (1870) : " Lago de Nemi " (1874) ; " Monte 
Spinelli, Unitria"; and "Mar Albano." 

GRISWOLD, Hattie Tyng, author, b. in Bos- 
ton, Mass., 26 Jan., 1842. Her father was Rev. 
Dudley Tyng. Miss Tyng removed in early life to 
Wisconsin, and became a teacher in the high-school 
at Columbus in that state. In 1863 she married 
Eugene S. Griswold. She is the author of many 
tales and poems in periodicals, and has published 
"Apple-Blossoms," poems (Chicago, 1878), and 
" Home Life of Great Authors " (1886). One of her 
best-known pieces is " Under the Daisies." 

GRISWOLD, John Augustus, manufacturer, 
b. in Nassau, Rensselaer co., N. Y., 11 Nov., 1818; 
d. in Troy, N. Y.. 31 Oct., 1872. He went to Troy 
in 1839, and was for a time an inmate of the family 
of his uncle, Gen. Wool. He became interested in 
the Rensselaer iron company, in which he was 
afterward the principal partner. He was mayor of 
Troy in 1850, and was an active supporter of the 
National government during the civil war, aiding 
in raising three regiments of infantry, as well as 
the " Black-horse cavalry." and the 21st New York, 
or "Griswold light cavalry." In 1861, in connec- 
tion with C. S. Bushnell and John F. Winslow, he 
contracted to build Ericsson's " Monitor," and it 
was mainly due to him that the vessel was com- 
pleted in the hundred days allowed by the govern- 




^$&^AZ4SS&C 



ment for her construction. The "Monitor" was 
built at great pecuniary risk, as her price, $275,000, 
was not to be paid till it had been practically 
shown that she could withstand the enemy's fire at 
the shortest ranges. 
Mr. Griswold was 
elected to congress 
in 1862 as a war 
Democrat, but sub- 
sequently joined 
the Republicans, 
and was re-elected 
by them, serving al- 
together from 1863 
till 1869. He was 
an efficient member 
of the committee on 
naval affaire, and 
effectively defend- 
ed the policy of 
the government in 
the construction of 
monitors when it 
was attacked in 
the house. He also 

aided in building the monitor " Dictator." In 1868 
he was the Republican candidate for governor of 
New York, but was defeated, though his party 
claimed that he received a majortiy of the vote's 
actually cast. Mr. Griswold did much to advance 
the prosperity of Troy, and contributed liberally 
to its charities. He was a trustee of Rensselaer 
polytechnic institute in 1860-'72. 

GRISWOLD, Matthew, governor of Connecti- 
cut, b. in Lyme, Conn., 25 March, 1714; d. there, 
28 April, 1799. He was a representative in the 
legislature in 1751, a member of the council in 
1759, and in 1775 was one of the committee of 
safety, and an ardent patriot. He was also a judge, 
and afterward chief justice of the superior court, 
lieutenant-governor of the state, and governor in 
1784-'6. In 1788 he was president of the State con- 
vention that ratified the constitution of the Cnited 
States. Yale gave him the degree of LL. D. in 
1779. — His son, Roger, governor of Connecticut, 
b. in Lvme, Conn., 21 Mav, 1762; d. in Norwich, 
Conn., 25 Oct., 1812, was graduated at Yale in 1780, 
studied law, and began to practise in Norwich in 
1783, becoming eminent in his profession. He re- 
turned to Lyme in 1794, was elected to congress as 
a Federalist^ and served five successive terms, from 
1795 till 1805. About 1798 Mr. Griswold had a 
personal difficulty, on the floor of the house, with 
Matthew Lyon, of Vermont, for which an un- 
successful effort was made to expel the latter. He 
declined the office of secretary of war offered him 
by President Adams just before the end of his term 
in 1801, and in 1807 was made a judge of the Con- 
necticut supreme court. He was a presidential 
elector on the Pinckney and King ticket in 1809, 
lieutenant-governor of Connecticut in 1809— "11, 
and in the latter year was chosen governor, dying 
in office. He received the degree of LL. D. from 
Harvard in 1811, and from Yale in 1812. Gov. 
Griswold was an earnest Federalist, and was re- 
garded as one of the foremost men in the nation 
in talents, political knowledge, eloquence, and legal 
ability. \Vhile he was governor, he refused to fur- 
nish four companies of troops for garrison purposes 
at the president's requisition, as they were not 
wanted to "repel invasion." 

GRISWOLD, Unfits Wiluiot, editor, b. in 
Benson, Vt., 15 Feb.. 1815; d. in New York city, 
27 Aug., 1857. Much of his early hie was spent in 
travel, partly in the interior of the United States. 



GRISWOLD 



GROSE 




rfZf<^ /t^^^u^&fa 



and partly in central Europe. As a youth he was 
apprenticed to the publisher of a newspaper, where 
he acquired a knowledge of type-setting and the 
routine of a publication-office, and sometimes 
acted as assistant editor. Tiring of the press-room, 
he studied theology, and became a minister of the 
Baptist denomination. He preached with success. 
and had obtained the degree of D. D., when he sud- 
denly forsook the pulpit to become a journalist and 
book-compiler. Prom 1841 till 1843 he edited, with 

freat credit, "Graham's Magazine," published in 
'hiladelphia. Thereafter he became associate edi- 
tor of several weekly newspapers in Boston and 
New York city, among them the " New Yorker," 
" Brother Jonathan," and " New World." In 1852 
he edited the "International Magazine" in New 

York city, which 
was for a time a 
rival to Harper's, 
but was afterward 
absorbed by that 
periodical. Gris- 
wold was an indus- 
trious worker, and 
his publications 
show him to have 
been a thoughtful 
writer and a man of 
extensive reading. 
But his estimates 
of contemporary 
American writers, 
with manyof whom 
he came into liter- 
ary and personal 
rivalry, is frequent- 
ly partial and perverted. His works include " Poets 
and Poetry of America" (Philadelphia, 1842), 
which has passed through twenty editions; "Bio- 
graphical Annual " (1842) ; " Christian Ballads and 
other Poems" (1844); discourse on the "Present 
Condition of Philosophy " (1844) ; " Poets and Poet- 
ry of England in the Nineteenth Century " (1845) ; 
" Prose Writers of America" (1846); " Washington 
and the Generals of the Revolution," in connection 
with other writers (2 vols., 1847) ; " Napoleon and 
the Marshals of the Empire," with Horace B. 
Wallace (2 vols., 1847) ; " Female Poets of Amer- 
ica " (1848) ; " Sacred Poets of England and Amer- 
ica" (1849); "The Republican Court" (New York, 
1854) ; and " Scenes in the Life of the Saviour." 
He also compiled "Curiosities of American Lit- 
erature," which was attached to an American 
edition of Isaac D'Israeli's writings, and edited the 
earliest edition of Milton's prose works published 
in the United States. He was also one of the edi- 
tors of the " Works of Edgar Allan Poe " (3 vols., 
New York, 1850), and to this publication he fur- 
nished a biographical sketch, which has been much 
criticised. At the close of Griswold's career he 
was engaged in a revision of his several works on 
American literature. 

GRISWOLD, Stanley, senator, b. in Torring- 
ford, Conn.. 14 Nov., 1763; d. in Shawneetown, 111., 
21 Aug., 1815. After working on his father's farm 
and attending the district-school, he entered Yale, 
where he was graduated in 1786. He was then prin- 
cipal of a high-school for a year, studied divinity, 
and on 20 Jan., 1790, was installed as colleague 
pastor at New Milford, Conn., where his eloquence 
and social qualities made him popular. He ear- 
ly became an admirer of Thomas Jefferson, who 
was then regarded by most of the New England 
clergy as little less than an atheist, and in 17!)7 he 
was excluded from the association of ministers of 



which he was a member on account of alleged het- 
erodoxy. His congregation, however, supported 
him, and he continued to preach in New Milford 
till 1802, when he resigned. In '1801 he delivered 
a sermon at a Democratic jubilee in Wallingford, 
Conn., avowing political sentiments so unusual for 
a New England clergyman that he became widely 
known. After preaching for a short time in Green- 
field, Mass., he abandoned the pulpit, and in 1804 
edited with spirit and ability a Democratic news- 
paper at Walpole, N. H. In 1805 he was appointed 
by President Jefferson secretary of Michigan terri- 
tory, but shortly afterward resigned on account of 
some difficulty with the governor, Gen. William 
Hull, and removed to Ohio. In 1809-'10 he served 
in the IT. S. senate, having been appointed to fill a 
vacancy, and was afterward U. S. judge for the 
Northwest territory, holding this office at the time 
of his death. He published the sermon alluded to 
above, with the title " Overcome Evil with Good " 
(Hartford, 1801 ; 2d ed., New Haven, 1845). 

GROESBECK, William Slocomb, lawyer, b. 
in New York city, 24 July, 1815. He received an 
academic education, studied law, practised in Cin- 
cinnati, and was in 1851 a member of the State con- 
stitutional convention. In 1852 he was a member 
of the commission to codify the laws of Ohio. He 
was in congress from 7 Dec, 1857, till 3 March, 
1859, serving on the committee on foreign affairs, 
was a member of the peace congress in 1861, and 
in 1862 a member of the Ohio state senate. He 
was elected a delegate to the National union con- 
vention held in Philadelphia in 1866, and was one 
of the counsel for President Johnson in the im- 
peachment trial of 1868. Mr. Groesbeck was nomi- 
nated for the presidency in 1872 by a convention 
of Liberal Republicans who were dissatisfied with 
Horace Greeley, but the ticket was entirely for- 
gotten during the excitement ,of the canvass, al- 
though Mr. Groesbeck received a single electoral 
vote for the vice-presidency. He was appointed in 
1878 U. S. delegate to the International monetary 
congress held in Paris. 

GROOME, James Black, statesman, b. in Elk- 
ton, Cecil co., Bid., 4 April, 1838. He studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1861, joined the 
Democratic party, and was a member of the con- 
vention that framed the present constitution of 
Maryland, was a member of the house of dele- 
gates in 1871 and 1873, and, on the election of 
Gov. Whyte to the U. S. senate in 1874, became 
governor for the remainder of the term. He then 
returned to Elkton, and engaged in the practice of 
law until 1879, when he became U. S. senator, re- 
taining his seat until 1885. 

GROSE, William, soldier, b. in Dayton, Ohio, 
16 Dec, 1812. Both of his grandfathers served in 
the Revolution, and his father was a soldier in the 
war of 1812. The son received a common-school 
education. He was a presidential elector on the 
Pierce ticket, and an unsuccessful Democratic can- 
didate for congress in 1852, but joined the Repub- 
lican party on its formation and was elected to the 
legislature in 1856. He was chosen a judge of the 
court of common pleas in 1860, but resigned m 
August, 1861, and recruited the 36th Indiana in- 
fantry, of which he became colonel. At Shiloh his 
regiment was the only part of Buell's army that 
joined in the first day's fight, and after the engage- 
ment he commanded a brigade. He was with the 
Army of the Cumberland in all its important battles, 
served through the Atlanta campaign, and, at the 
request of Gens. Sherman and Thomas, was pro- 
moted brigadier-general of volunteers, receiving 
notice of his appointment while under fire in front 



GROSS 



GROSS 



of Atlanta. He was at Franklin and Nashville, 
and after the close of hostilities was president of a 
court-martial in Nashville till January, 1866. He was 
collector of internal revenue in 1866-'74, an unsuc- 
cessful Republican candidate for congress in 1878, 
and one of a commission to build three state hos- 
pitals for the insane, in 1884-'6. In 1887 he was 
again a member of the Indiana legislature. 

GROSS, John Daniel, clergyman, b. in Ger- 
many in 1737 ; d. in Canajoharie, N. Y., 25 May, 
1812. During the Revolution he was exposed to 
many perils as pastor of a church on the frontier. 
At its close he removed to New York city. He 
was professor of German in Columbia in 1784-'95, 
and professor of moral philosophy in 1787-'95. 
He was a regent of the University of New York 
in 1784, and a trustee of Columbia in 1787. He 
became wealthy by buying soldiers' land-warrants. 
The last ten years of his life were spent on a farm. 
The degree of S. T. D. was conferred on him by 
Columbia in 1789. He published " Natural Prin- 
ciples of Rectitude" (New York, 1795). 

GROSS, Samuel David, surgeon, b. near Eas- 
ton, Pa., 8 July, 1805 ; d. in Philadelphia, 6 May, 
1884. He studied medicine, was graduated at Jef- 
ferson medical college in 1828, and began practice 
in Philadelphia, employing his leisure in translat- 
ing medical works from the French. He settled 
in Easton in 1829, in 1833 was appointed demon- 
strator of anatomy in the Medical college of Ohio, 
at Cincinnati, and in 1835 professor of pathological 
anatomy in the same institution. Here he deliv- 
ered the first systematic course of lectures on mor- 
bid anatomy ever given in the United States. 
Five years later he became professor of surgery in 
the University of Louisville, Ky., and in 1850 suc- 
ceeded Dr. Mott in the University of New York. 
By request of his associates, he returned to Ken- 
tucky and resumed work there, after only a single 
session in New York. He was one of the" founders 

and early presidents 
of the Kentucky 
state medical socie- 
ty. While in Louis- 
ville he published 
an elaborate " Re- 
'port on Kentuckv 
Surgery" (1851), in- 
cluding a biography 
of Dr. Ephraim Mc- 
Dowell, of Danville, 
in that state, in sup- 
port of the claims 
that he was the orig- 
inator of ovarioto- 
my in 1809. In 1856 
he was chosen pro- 
fessor of surgery in 
Jefferson medical 
college, Philadel- 
phia, which post he Occupied until within two years 
of his death, when he resigned on account of ad- 
vancing years and desire for repose. He founded 
with Dr. T. G. Richardson in 1856 the " Louisville 
Medical Review," a bimonthly, of which only six 
numbers were issued. They afterward established 
in Philadelphia the "North American Medico- 
Chirurgical Review," which continued to appear 
till the civil war. Shortly after settling in Phila- 
delphia he founded, with Dr. Da Costa, the Philadel- 
phia pathological society, of which he was the first 
president. In 1862 Dr. Gross was made a member 
of the Royal medical society of Vienna. In 1867 
he was elected president of the American medical 
association, and in 1868 a member of the Royal 




c^f. *d> fa-pti. 



medieo-chirurgical society of London, and of the 
British medical association. In 1872, during his 
second visit to Europe, the University of Oxford, at 
its one thousandth commemoration, conferred on 
him the honorary degree of D. C. L. ; and that of 
LL. D. was given him by the University of Cam- 
bridge. He was a member of numerous medical and 
surgical associations at home and abroad, and was 
unanimously elected president of the International 
medical congress which met in Philadelphia in 
September, 1876. Dr. Gross made many original 
contributions to surgery. In 1833 he made experi- 
ments on rabbits, with a view to throwing light on 
manual strangulation, which are described in 
Beck's " Medical Jurisprudence." He was the first 
to suggest the suturing of divided nerves and ten- 
dons, wiring the ends of bones in certain disloca- 
tions, laparotomy in rupture of the bladder, and 
many other operations, and was the inventor of 
numerous instruments, including a tourniquet, an 
instrument for extracting foreign bodies from the 
ear or nose, and an apparatus for the transfusion 
of blood. His original investigations were varied, 
though often carried on with insufficient means 
and amid adverse surroundings. He began in 
early life to contribute to medical literature, edited 
the " American Medical Biography " (1861) ; and 
published " Diseases and Injuries of the Bones and 
Joints " (Philadelphia, 1830) ; " Elements of Patho- 
logical Anatomy" (2 vols., 1839; 3d ed., 1857); 
" Wounds of the Intestines " (1843); " Diseases, In- 
juries, and Malformations of the Urinary Organs " 
(1851 ; enlarged eds., 1855 and 1876) ; " Results of 
Surgical Operations in Malignant Diseases" (1853); 
" Foreign Bodies in the Air - Passages " (1854) ; 
" Report on the Causes which Retard the Progress 
of American Medical Literature " (1856) ; " System 
of Surgerv " (2 vols., 1859 ; 6th ed., with alterations, 
1882) ; " Manual of Military Surgery " (1861 ; Japa- 
nese translation, Tokio, 1874); "John Hunter and 
his Pupils" (1861); " History of American Medical 
Literature," two lectures (1875) ; and with others 
"Century of American Medicine" (1876). — His 
son, Samuel Weissell, surgeon, b. in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, 4 Feb., 1837; d. in Philadelphia, Pa.. 16 
April, 1889. He studied medicine in the medical 
department of the University of Louisville, and at 
Jefferson medical college, Philadelphia, where he 
graduated in 1857. He settled in Philadelphia, 
and soon delivered lectures on surgical anatomy 
and operative surgery, and subsequently on dis- 
eases of the genito-urinary organs, in the Jefferson 
medical college, and on surgical pathology in the 
College of physicians, Philadelphia. He was bri- 
gade-surgeon and major of volunteers during the 
entire civil war, and was brevetted lieutenant-col- 
onel at its termination. He was surgeon to the 
Howard hospital, the Philadelphia hospital, and 
the hospital of the Jefferson medical college, and 
in 1882 was appointed professor of the principles 
of surgery and clinical surgery in the latter insti- 
tution. He received the degree of LL. D. He was 
a member of various medical associations, and is the 
author of a " Practical Treatise on Tumors of the 
Mammary Gland " (New York, 1880), and a " Prac- 
tical Treatise on Impotence, Sterility, and Allied 
Disorders of the Male Sexual Organs " (Philadel- 
phia, 1881 ; 3d ed., 1887). He rewrote and edit- 
ed "Gross on the Urinary Organs" (1876), and 
rendered his father material assistance in the com- 
position of several editions of his " System of Sur- 
gery." He contributed many papers on surgical 
subjects to periodical medical literature, includ- 
ing several on " Tumors of the Breast." — Another 
son, Albert Haller, lawyer, b. in Louisville, 







GROSS 



GROW 



Ky., 18 March, 1844, studied at the University of 
Virginia, and in 1864 was graduated at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. He was admitted to the 
Philadelphia bar in 1867, and in 1868 appointed 
U. S. attorney for New Mexico, which office he re- 
signed on account of ill health. He was elected in 
1882 a member of the select council of Philadelphia. 
In 1885 he declined the U. S. consulship at Athens, 
Greece. He has delivered numerous public ad- 
dresses, in one of which, in 1874, he was among 
the first in the country to advocate cremation as 
the proper method of disposing of the dead, and 
has published numerous poems, and various instru- 
mental and vocal compositions, some of the latter 
in the French and German languages. He is, 
with his brother, Dr. Samuel W. Gross, editing 
the " Autobiography " of his father, and preparing 
a work on " Cremation." 

GROSS, William Hicklcy, archbishop, b. in 
Baltimore, Md., 12 June, 1837. After studying in 
St. Charles college, he entered the novitiate of the 
Redemptorist order in 1857, and was ordained 
priest in 1863. After attending wounded soldiers 
m the hospitals about Annapolis, and preaching to 
the negroes, he was assigned to missionary duty 
in various places, but was attached to St. Alphon- 
sus's church in New York city for five years, and 
then became superior at the church of his order 
in Boston. He was consecrated bishop of Savan- 
nah on 27 April, 1873, and in 1884 he became 
archbishop of Oregon. Bishop Gross has done 
much for the education of the freedmen. 

GROVER, Cuvier, soldier, b. in Bethel, Me., 
24 July, 1829 ; d. in Atlantic City, N. J., 6 June, 
1885. He was graduated at the U. S. military acad- 
emy in 1850, entered the 1st artillery, and served 
on frontier duty till 1853, and on the Northern 
Pacific railroad exploration from 14 April, 1853, till 
17 July, 1854. He was promoted to 1st lieutenant, 
3 March, 1855, and captain of the 10th infantry, 17 
Sept., 1858, and served at various western stations. 
He became brigadier-general of volunteers, 14 April, 
1862, and was transferred to the Army of the Poto- 
mac, where he took part in many battles. He was 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel on 5 May for services 
at the battle of Williamsburg, Va., and on 31 May, 
colonel, for gallantry at Pair Oaks. At the second 
battle of Bull Run his brigade fought under Gen. 
Hooker, and distinguished itself by a bayonet 
charge. Being transferred to the Department of 
the Gulf, he took command of a division of the 19th 
corps from 30 Dec, 1862, till July, 1864, was in 
command of the right wing of the army besieging 
Port Hudson, La., in May, 1863, was promoted 
major, 31 Aug., 1863, and commanded a division in 
the Shenandoah campaign from August to Decem- 
ber, 1864. He was wounded at the battle of Cedar 
Creek on 19 Oct., 1864, and brevetted major-general 
of volunteers the same day for gallantry at Win- 
chester and Fisher's Hill. On 13 March following 
he was also brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. army, 
and major-general, U. S. army. He was mustered 
out of the volunteer service, 24 Aug., 1865, and 
again returned to frontier duty until 7 Nov., 1866, 
when he was transferred to Jefferson barracks, Mo., 
until 6 Feb., 1867. He was promoted lieutenant- 
colonel of the 38th infantry, 28 July, 1866, assigned 
to the 3d cavalry in 1870, and made colonel of the 
1st cavalry, 2 Dec, 1875, which rank he held dur- 
ing the remainder of his life. 

GROVER, Lafayette, governor of Oregon, b. 
in Bethel, Oxford co., Me., in 1823. He was edu- 
cated at Bowdoin college, and afterward studied 
law in Philadelphia, where he was admitted to the 
bar in 1850. He soon after settled in Salem, Ore- 



gon. He was elected prosecuting attorney of the 
territory in 1851, and in 1853 auditor of public ac- 
counts. He also served three terms in the terri- 
torial legislature, saw some service in the Indian 
wars of Oregon, and in 1854 was appointed a com- 
missioner to adjust the claims of citizens against 
the United States. Two years later he became one 
of the commissioners to investigate claims arising 
out of the Indian war of 1855-'6. In 1857 he was 
an active member of the convention that framed 
the constitution of the state, and was elected, as a 
Democrat, its first representative in congress, tak- 
ing his seat in February, 1859. He subsequently 
resumed the practice of law, but from 1867 till 
1870 was engaged in the milling business. He 
was chairman of the state central l3emocratic com- 
mittee, was elected governor of the state in 1870, 
and re-elected in 1874 for the term ending Sep- 
tember, 1878. Gov. Grover resigned his office, 1 
Feb., 1877, having been elected to the U. S. senate 
to succeed James K. Kelly, and took his seat, 8 
March, 1877. He was succeeded in 1883 by Joseph 
N. Dolph, In 1876 Gov. Grover refused to issue a 
certificate of election as presidential elector to Dr. 
J. W. Watts, Republican, and gave it instead to E. 
A. Cronin, Democrat, who had received the next 
highest number of votes, on the ground that the 
former had held the office of postmaster when he 
was chosen. On 19 Dec. the governor published 
an elaborate argument in defence of his action, but 
it was annulled by the electoral commission, who 
decided that Watts's ineligibility merely created a 
vacancy in the electoral college, which the other 
members from Oregon were empowered to fill. 

GROW, Galusha Aaron, statesman, b. in Ash- 
ford (now Eastford), Windham co., Conn., 31 Aug., 
1824. When ten years old he removed to Susque- 
hanna county, Pa., where he attended a district- 
school and pursued a preparatory course in Frank- 
lin academy, Harford. He was graduated at 
Amherst in 1844, studied law in Montrose, and 
was admitted to the bar of Susquehanna county, 
19 April, 1847. He 
soon afterward set- 
tled in Towanda, and 
became a partner of 
David Wilmot. He 
practised law until 
the spring of 1850, 
when feeble health 
compelled him to seek 
out - door pursuits, 
and he engaged in 
farming, surveying, 
and gathering hem- 
lock bark for tanner- 
ies. In the fall of 
1850 he received and 
declined a unanimous 
nomination to the 
legishiture, tendered 
by the Democratic 
party. A few weeks 
later, David Wilmot, Free-soil, and James Lowrey, 
Pro-slavery, candidates of the Democratic party for 
congress, withdrew from the contest on an agree- 
ment that the .two branches of the party should 
unite upon Mr. Grow as a candidate. The conven- 
tions reassembled, placed Mr. Grow in nomination, 
and, after an exciting campaign of one week, he was 
elected over John C. Adams, Whig. He took his seat 
in congress in December, 1851, being its youngest 
member, and continued to represent the " Wilmot 
district " for twelve successsive years, although he 
had severed his connection with the Democratic 




GROWDON 



GRUNDY 



party on the repeal of the Missouri compromise. 
His period of service was distinguished by the legis- 
lation on the Missouri compromise, the Kansas 
troubles, and the Homestead and Pacific railroad 
bills, as well as the election of Speaker Banks and the 
presidential campaigns of Fremontand Lincoln. He 
rendered important services on the committees on 
Indian affairs, agriculture, and territories, being a 
member of the latter six years and its chairman 
four. His first speech was delivered upon the 
homestead bill, a measure which he continued to 
urge at every congress for ten years, when he had 
at last the satisfaction of signing the law as speaker. 
At the convening of the first or extra session of the 
37th congress, 4 July, 1861, he was elected speaker, 
and held the position until 4 March, 1863, when, on 
retiring, he received a unanimous vote of thanks, 
the first vote of the kind given to any speaker in 
many years. He was a delegate to the National 
Republican conventions of 1864 and 1868, and 
chairman of the Pennsylvania state committee 
during the latter campaign. In 1857 he was a 
victim of the National hotel poisoning. He spent 
the summer of 1870 in California, Oregon, and 
British Columbia, and in 1871 he settled in Hous- 
ton, Tex., as president of the International and 
Great Northern railroad of Texas, remaining there 
until 1875, when he returned to Pennsylvania and 
took an active part in the state election of that 
year and the presidential campaign of 1876. In the 
autumn of 1876 he declined the mission to Russia. 
GROWDON, Joseph, jurist, b. in England ; d. 
in Pennsylvania, 9 Dec, 1730. He was the son of 
Lawrence Growdon, of Cornwall, England, who 
was largely interested in the tin-mines. He came 
to this country shortly after Penn's arrival, and 
settled in Bucks county, Pa., where he took up 
10,000 acres. In 1684 he was chosen to the assem- 
bly of Pennsylvania, was thereafter almost continu- 
ously chosen to this body until 1722, and for eleven 
years was speaker. From 1687 till 1703 he was a 
inember of the provincial council, under the admin- 
istration of Gov. Penn and Lieutenant-Governors 
Evans and Gookin. In 1690 he was commissioned 
one of the judges of the supreme court, and held 
this office for several years. In 1707 he was ap- 

Eointed chief justice of the court, which place he 
eld until 1716. He filled the many offices of trust 
committed to him with marked ability, and but 
few men in the province in his day attained to a 
higher degree of usefulness. — His son, Joseph, 
lawyer, b. in England ; d. in Pennsylvania in 1738, 
was appointed attorney-general of Pennsylvania, 7 
March, 1726, and served in that capacity till his 
death. In 1735 he was appointed advocate for the 
crown in the vice-admiralty. — Another son. Law- 
rence, jurist, b. in Pennsylvania, 14 March 1694 ; 
d. there, 1 April, 1770, was a merchant at Bristol, 
England, in 1730. In 1734 he was chosen to the 
assembly, in which body he remained until 1738, in 
1747 became a member of the provincial council, and 
was for twelve years a justice of the supreme court 
of the province. In conjunction with Rev. Richard 
Peters, secretary of the land-office, he was appointed 
commissioner for running a "temporary boundary" 
with Maryland, Col. Gale and Mr. Chamberlayne 
being the Maryland commissioners. He was a man 
of large wealth. — His daughter, Grace, was the 
wife of Joseph Galloway, the distinguished lawyer 
and Tory.— Grace, daughter of Joseph Growdon, 
the elder, became the wife of David Lloyd, who was 
speaker of the assembly, councillor, attorney-gen- 
eral, and chief justice of Pennsylvania. 

GRUBE, Bernhard Adam, "missionary, b. in 
Germany in 1715; d. in Bethlehem, Pa., 20" March, 



1808. He studied at Jena, united with the Mora- 
vian church, and in 1746 was sent to Pennsylvania, 
where he was employed in the Indian mission and 
ministry of his church. His contributions to the 
department of American philology were a " Dela- 
ware Indian Hymn- Book" and a "Harmony of 
the Gospels " (Delaware) (Friedensthal, Pa., 1767). 

GRUND, Francis Joseph, author, b. in Bo- 
hemia in 1805 ; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 29 Sept., 
1863. He was educated at the polytechnic school 
in Vienna, and in 1825 became professor of mathe- 
matics in the militarv school at Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 
He settled in Philadelphia in 1826, and for many 
years was connected with the press. In 1854 he 
was appointed U. S. consul at Antwerp, and in 
1860 was transferred to Havre and made diplo- 
matic agent to the south German states. He was 
chosen editor of the Philadelphia " Age," a Demo- 
cratic newspaper, in April, 1863, but soon became 
a Republican and resigned the post. He pub- 
lished, besides numerous essays and addresses, 
" Exercises in Arithmetic " (Boston, 1833) ; " Ameri- 
cans in their Moral, Religious, and Social Rela- 
tions" (1837); "Aristocracy in America" (1839); 
and a German campaign life of Gen. William Henry 
Harrison (Philadelphia. 1840) ; and translated Her- 
schel's " Astronomical Problems." 

GRUNDY, Felix, statesman, b. in Berkeley 
county, Va., 11 Sept., 1777; d. in Nashville, Tenn., 
19 Dec, 1840. He was a seventh son. His father, 
an Englishman, came to this country early in life. 
In 1779 he removed to Red Stone Old Fort, near 
what is now Brownsville, Pa., and in 1780 to Ken- 
tucky. In both places the family were much ex- 
posed to Indian 
depredations, and 
three of Grundy's 
brothers were killed 
by the Indians dur- 
ing his infancy. His 
first instruction was 
received from his 
mother, who was an 
ambitious woman 
of strong character, 
and he then went to 
Dr. James Priestly's 
Bardstown acade- 
my. His mother 
wished him to enter 
the medical profes- 
sion, but his natu- 
ral tastes led him 
to the law, which 
he studied under 
George Nicholas. He was elected to the Kentucky 
constitutional convention in 1799, and from that 
year till 1806 was a member of the legislature. 
He introduced a bill to establish the circuit court 
system, which was passed over the governor's veto, 
and in 1802 had a debate with Henry Clay, then 
as little known as himself, on banks and bank- 
ing, in which was foreshadowed the future course 
of both in national politics. In 1806 Grundy was 
appointed a judge of the supreme court of errors 
and appeals, and in March, 1807, he became chief 
justice. The salary being too small to enable him 
to live comfortablv, he resigned, and in the win- 
ter of 1807-8 removed to Nashville, Tenn., to 
practise law. Here he achieved a great reputa- 
tion as a criminal lawyer. He defended 105 crim- 
inals on capital indictments, of whom but one 
was executed. In 1811 he was elected to congress 
as a war Democrat, and was re-elected in 1813, 
but resigned next year on account of the illness of 




^^ ^//"Sj^ 



8 



GRYMES 



GUAL 



his wife. During the financial depression that 
followed the war of 1812, he was in 1819 elected to 
the Tennessee legislature, where he opposed all 
relief laws, but successfully advocated the estab- 
lishment of the state bank. In 1820 he was ap- 
Sointed a commissioner to settle the boundary-line 
ispute with Kentucky. In 1829 he was elected 
to the U. S. senate for the unexpired term of John 
H. Eaton, as an avowed Jacksonian. His speech 
in 1830 on Foote's resolution was regarded by many 
in Tennessee as leaning toward nullification, but in 
the Jackson-Calhoun imbroglio Grundy criticised 
both participants. In 1832 and 1833, when he was 
a candidate for re-election, in spite of a letter from 
Jackson approving his course, he was bitterly op- 
posed by administration organs, but was finally 
successful after a long contest. In the senate he 
was chairman Of the committee on post-offices and 
of the judiciary committee. He supported and 
defended nearly all of Jackson's measures. In 
1838 he entered Van Buren's cabinet a,s attorney- 

feneral, but only served from September, 1838, to 
December, 1839, when he resigned, having been 
re-elected to the senate on 19 Nov. in place of 
Ephraim H. Foster. On 14 Dec. he resigned his 
seat on the ground of ineligibility, as he had been 
still attorney -general when chosen, but he was at 
once re-elected. In 1838, being instructed to vote 
against the sub-treasury system, he did so, though 
favoring it. He opposed all protection except that 
which is incidental to a tariff levied for revenue, 
favored the compromise bill of 1833, and suggested 
and was a member of the committee that revised 
it. He lies buried in the Nashville city cemetery, 
where a monument has been erected to his memory. 
His most finished oration was that delivered on 
the death of Jefferson and Adams. He was a man 
of commanding presence, gentle, and amiable. The 
legal literature of the southwest is filled with 
anecdotes about him. His last political act was to 
speak in Tennessee for Van Buren against Har- 
rison. During this contest Henry Clay, who was 
passing through Nashville, visited Mrs. Grundy, 
and, on being told where her husband was, said: 
" Ah, I see ! Still pleading the cause of criminals." 
GRYMES, John Randolph, soldier, b. in Vir- 
ginia about 1746; died there in 1820. In 1776 he 
{'oined the royal army under Lord Dunmore at the 
tead of a troop of horse that he had himself raised. 
In a letter to Lord George Germain, Lord Dunmore 
said that Mr. Grymes was, " from his fortune, posi- 
tion, and strict honor, a valuable acquisition to the 
royal cause." The same year he was expelled from 
his estate, and all his negroes, cattle, and personal 
property fell into the hands of the patriots. He 
joined " the rangers," a battalion of horse, in 1777, 
and at the close of 1778 resigned and went to 
England, where he was agent for prosecuting the 
claims of the loyalists in Virginia. When the in- 
vasion of Napoleon was apprehended the loyalist 
Americans in London offered, with the king's ap- 

Sroval, to form themselves into a company, and 
Er. Grymes was appointed ensign. While in Lon- 
don he married his cousin, the daughter of John 
Randolph, last royal attorney-general of Virginia, 
and niece of Peyton Randolph, president of the 
Continental congress. He afterward returned to the 
United States, settled in Orange county, Va., and 
became a wealthy slave-holder and planter. — His 
son, John Randolph, Jr., lawyer, b. in Orange 
county, Va., in 1786 ; d. in New Orleans, La., 4 Dec, 
1854, removed to Louisiana in 1808. At the battle 
of New Orleans he volunteered as aide to Gen. 
Jackson, and was complimented in the despatches 
of the commander to the war department. Mr. 



Grymes was engaged during his practice in almost 
every case of importance in the courts of New 
Orleans and the surrounding counties. He was 
one of Gen. Jackson's counsel in the U. S. bank 
case, and opposed Daniel Webster in the city of 
New Orleans against Mrs. Myra Clark Gaines. He 
held at different periods the offices of U. S. district 
attorney and attorney-general of the state, served 
in the legislature several terms, and was a member 
of the State constitutional convention. During 
his professional career he fought two duels, in one 
of which he was severely wounded. 

GrUACANA(xARI (gwa-cah-nah-gar'-e), Haytian 
cacique. He was one of the five native kings who 
ruled over Hayti at the time of the discovery of 
the island. He sent a message to Columbus in De- 
cember, 1492, begging the Tatter to come to his 
residence. He received the Spaniards with great 
courtesy, and when he heard of the shipwreck of 
one. of the vessels of Columbus he invited the dis- 
coverer to stay at his residence. In 1493 the 
neighboring caciques attacked the fortress La Na- 
vidad, which had been built by Columbus, and 
massacred the Spanish garrison. Guacanagari and 
his subjects fought in the defence of the Spaniards, 
but were routed, their leader wounded, and his 
village burned to the ground. When Columbus 
returned on his second voyage, Guacanagari sent 
his brother to greet the admiral. He refused to 
take part in the plan formed by Caonabo in 1494 
to exterminate the foreign invaders, and incurred 
thereby the hostility of his fellow-caciques. He 
informed Columbus of this secret league, and as- 
sisted him in his expedition against the Indians 
that were assembled at the Vega, in March, 1495, 
under Manicaotex. This conduct excited the ha- 
tred of all the caciques of the island, and he fled 
to the mountains, where he died in obscurity. 

GrUAL, Pedro (goo-ahl'), South American pa- 
triot, b. in Caracas, Venezuela, in 1784; d. in 
Guayaquil, Ecuador, 6 May, 1862. He was gradu- 
ated at the University of Caracas in 1809, and 
soon afterward emigrated to Trinidad, to escape 
imprisonment for having expressed revolutionary 
opinions. He returned to Caracas on hearing of 
the revolution of 1810, was elected a member of 
the legislature in 1811, and also acted as secretary 
to Gen. Miranda. After the surrender of the Re- 
publicans in 1812, Gual escaped to New York, but 
afterward returned to Cartagena. He was obliged 
to flee again to St. Thomas, but subsequently be- 
came governor of Cartagena, and then ambassador 
to the United States from Colombia. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in Washington, D. C, and began 
to practise law, when Bolivar summoned him to 
join the expedition of Montilla and Brion in 1816, 
which resulted in regaining the provinces of Car- 
tagena, Santa Marta, and Rio Hacha. These 
provinces were united in one state, of which Gual 
became governor. While member of the congress 
of Cucuta he was made minister of finance and 
foreign affairs, and afterward held the same office 
in Bogota till 1826. He was a member of the 
American assembly which met in Mexico in 1826. 
From 1828 till 1837 he lived in retirement, when 
he was sent to Europe by the government of 
Ecuador, and caused Spain to acknowledge the 
independence of that country. In 1848 he removed 
to Caracas, where he lived in retirement during 
the administration of Monagas. On 15 March, 
1858, there was a revolt against Monagas, and the 
National convention appointed Gual president of 
the provisional government. He restored order, 
and was appointed president of the council of state 
by Gen. Castro, but resigned, and was elected dep- 



GUANOALCA 



GUBERT 



9 



uty to the National convention of Valencia. In 
1859 he was elected vice-president of the republic, 
and in the next year Gual occupied the executive 
chair, acting with energy raising troops against 
the insurgents of the east. He resigned his office 
in 1861, and retired to private life in Guayaquil, 
where he remained until his death. 

GUANOALCA (goo-an-o-ahl'-ka), Araucanian 
cacique, b. in the valley of Puren in 1530 ; d. in 
Mariguenu in 1591. In his early youth he offered 
his services to the Araucanian toqui, or general-in- 
chief, Caupolican, and participated against the 
Spaniards in all the battles of the war for inde- 
pendence, which lasted from 1541 till 1600. At 
the head of his tribe, he was at the capture of Fort 
Tucapel in November, 1553, and the subsequent 
defeat and death of Valdivia in the same place in 
1554. He continued to lead his tribe in the na- 
tional strife for liberty, and used to penetrate into 
the midst of the Spanish hosts, to avoid the effect 
of the fire-arms, and engage a hand-to-hand fight, 
so that his whole body was soon covered by wounds 
and scars. In 1587, at the head of 1,000 Indians, 
he captured the fort of Puren, which was, how- 
ever, recovered two days afterward by the Span- 
iards, on the arrival of re-enforcements. In 1588, 
at the death of the toqui Cadiguala, Guanoalca was 
elected by the united tribes as commander-in-chief, 
and at their head invested again the fortress of 
Puren, which after a time was abandoned by its 
defenders for want of provisions, and destroyed 
by the Indians. He also gained in that year two 
important victories at Trinidad and Espiritu Santo, 
and made an unsuccessful attack on the fortress of 
Mariguefiu. In the two following years he con- 
tinued the warfare with varying fortunes, captur- 
ing some forts and destroying several settlements, 
and when, in 1591, he invested Mariguenu again 
with a strong force, he was, notwithstanding his 
age and numerous wounds, the first in the assault, 
but was killed by the stroke of a battle-axe. 

GUARDIA, Tonias, president of Costa Rica. b. 
in Bagaces, province of Guanacaste, 17 Dec, 1832 ; 
d. in San Jose, Costa Rica, 6 July, 1882. He en- 
tered the army in 1850, fought against William 
Walker's filibusters in 1855, and was promoted 
captain. He afterward became colonel, and in 
1866 military commander of the province of Ala- 

i'uela, but being persecuted on account of his po- 
itical opinion by the administration of Jesus 
Jimenez, he resigned in 1869, and soon put him- 
self at the head of other malcontents. On 27 
April, 1870, he took the government palace by 
surprise, and made the president prisoner. Dr. 
Bruno Carranza was appointed provisional presi- 
dent, with Guardia as commander-in-chief of the 
military. Carranza resigned on 8 Aug., and Guar- 
dia was chosen provisional president, but, as the 
national assembly continued hostile, he abdicated 
and retired to Alajuela. On 7 Oct. the garrison 
of that city pronounced in his favor, and he was 
proclaimed dictator, and subsequently chosen presi- 
dent. In 1874 and 1878 he was re-elected, and 
was in fact the irresponsible ruler of the republic, 
but notwithstanding this, and his strenuous oppo- 
sition to Central American union, his government 
did much for the country, fostering public schools, 
and protected agriculture. He began the building 
of an interoceanic railway, against the advice of en- 
gineers, and at the time of his death the republic 
was about $20,000,000 in debt, with the road still 
unfinished. He also built telegraph-lines over the 
republic and left over 400 miles established. He 
was defeated in the elections of 1882, but died a 
few weeks before the end of his term. 



GTJARDIOLA, Santos (war-de'-o-lah), president 
of Honduras, b. in Tegucigalpa in 1812 ; d. there 
in 1862. He entered the army at an early age, and 
his daring and cruelty in the civil wars of Central 
America earned for him the name of the " Tiger of 
Honduras." In an effort to overthrow the govern- 
ment of his native state in 1850, he was defeated 
and banished. In 1856 he joined the Nicaraguan 
forces as general of division, was defeated first by 
Walker, then by Munoz, and returned to Honduras, 
where, by a revolutionary movement, aided by 
Guatemala, he was elevated to the presidency. He 
crushed all revolutionary movements with an iron 
hand, and the republic enjoyed comparative peace 
under his rule ; but he made some liberal laws, and 
thereby became obnoxious to his former supporters, 
the clergy. They openly preached dissension from 
the pulpit, and in 1862 Guardiola was overthrown 
by a new insurrection and assassinated. 

GUAR10NEX (war-re-o-nex), Haytian cacique, 
d. in June, 1502. He was one of the five native 
kings who ruled over the island at the time of the 
discovery by the Spanish. He permitted Colum- 
bus in 1494 to build the fortress named " Concep- 
tion," in the midst of his territory, and submitted 
without resistance to the Spanish domination and 
the payment of a tribute. In 1496 he embraced 
the Christian faith, but relapsed into his old re- 
ligion. He afterward rose in arms against the 
Spaniards, and entered the league formed against 
them by the other caciques, and was seized and im- 
prisoned, but after some time set at liberty. In 
1498 he entered into a conspiracy with Francisco 
Roldan, the chief judge, against the adelantado 
Bartolome Columbus. The conspiracy was discov- 
ered, and Guarionex fled with his family and a 
small band of retainers to the mountain fastnesses 
of Ciguay, whence he made several descents into 
the plains, laying waste the villages of the natives 
who continued faithful to the Spaniards. The 
adelantado marched against him with a large force, 
and compelled him to retire to the wildest and 
most inaccessible parts of the mountains, where he 
was finally surprised, and brought in chains to 
Fort Concepcion in 1500. He was kept a prisoner, 
and finally sent to Spain by the new governor, 
Nicolas de Ovando, together with the ex-com- 
missioner, Bobadilla, and Roldan, and they all- 
perished in the hurricane that had been predicted 
by Christopher Columbus, in June, 1502. 
"GUBERT, Louise, singer, b. in Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; d. in Baltimore, Md., in 1882. Her paternal 
grandfather was a French officer, who had served 
under the first Napoleon, and her father was a 
Cuban. At the age of fifteen she sang the " In- 
flammatus" from Rossini's " Stabat Mater," at a 
concert in Philadelphia, and soon afterward took 
part in numerous concerts for charitable purposes. 
While she was still pursuing her education, the 
Sisters of the Visitation from Georgetown. D. C, 
established a branch of their order in Philadelphia, 
where Miss Gubert became one of their pupils, and 
determined to embrace a religious life. A few years 
after her father's death she accompanied Bishop 
Whelan to Wheeling. Va.. and in a short time en- 
tered the community of Visitation nuns established 
there, where the spiritual name of Sister Mary 
Agnes was conferred on her. Through her skill 
and energy the school acquired a wide reputation. 
Before the academy was removed to its present lo- 
cality, at Mount de Chantal, she was visited by all 
the distinguished musicians who passed through 
Wheeling. Among her best songs were " The Erl- 
King," by Schubert, and the principal arias from 
"Der Freischiitz." The last time that she sang 



10 



GUELL Y RENTE 



GUERRERO 



in the convent was on the occasion of a first com- 
munion, when, without the organ accompaniment, 
she rendered one of Father Fabcr's hvmns. 

GUELL Y RENTE, Juan (goo-ell), Cuban au- 
thor, b. in Havana in 1815 ; d. in Madrid, Spain, in 
1875. He was educated in Havana, and went to 
Spain in 1835, where he entered the army, but after 
several years returned to his native city. He was 
a member of the Spanish cortes several times. He 
published a volume of poems (1843) ; " Hojas del 
Alma," poems (1844) ; " Ultimos Cantos " (Madrid, 
(1859) ; and " Noches de Estio " (1861).— His brother, 
Jos§, author, b. in Havana in 1818 ; d. in Madrid, 
Spain, 20 Dec, 1884, went, in 1835, to Barcelona, 
Spain, where he received, in 1838, the diploma of 
LL. D. After spending several years in his native 
city he returned to Spain, and in 1848, notwithstand- 
ing great opposition from high quarters, married 
Dofia Josefa Fernanda, sister to the king consort. 
Giiell suffered many hardships on account of this 
marriage ; his wife was deprived of all the rights 
and honors belonging to her royal birth, and he 
was banished from Spain. He went to France, and 
remained there several years, taking part in many 
of the conspiracies of the Liberals against the 
Spanish government. In 1879 Giiell was elected 
senator for Havana to the Spanish cortes. He 
published " Amarguras del Corazon," a volume of 
poems (Havana, 1843) ; " Lagrimas del Corazon," 
poems (Madrid, 1846) ; " Leyendas Americanas," 
which have been translated into English, French, 
Italian, and German (1856), and other works in 
Spanish. He also wrote much in French, including 
the novels " Neludia," " Les deux folies," " Cathe- 
rine Ossuna," " Les amours d'un negre," and 
" Philippe II. et Don Carlos devant 1'histoire," an 
historical work which shows much research (1878). 
GUEMES Y HORCASITAS, Juan Francisco 
(guay'-meth), Cuban statesman, b. in Oviedo, 
Spain, in 1682; d. in 1768. He took part in the 
wars of the beginning of the 18th century, and 
from 1734 to 1746 was governor of Cuba. He or- 
ganized the judicial system of the island, founded 
hospitals, established a general post-office, caused 
the construction of several first-class men-of-war, 
fortified Havana, and in 1739 sent a successful ex- 
pedition to the relief of St. Augustine, Fla., be- 
sieged by the English. In 1742 he sent another 
expedition to South Carolina. In 1746 he was ap- 
pointed viceroy of Mexico, and there also he intro- 
duced many reforms. In 1755 he returned to 
Spain, and was brevetted captain-general, and 
created count of Re- 
villa Gigedo. — His son, 
Juan Vicente, count 
of Revilla Gigedo, vice- 
roy of Mexico, b. in 
Havana, Cuba, about 
1734; d. in Madrid, 
Spain, 2 May, 1799, was 
educated in Spain, en- 
tered the army, took 
part in the siege of 
Gibraltar from 1779 to 
1 783, was promoted 
lieutenant-general, and 
in 1789 appointed vice- 
roy of Mexico. He im- 
mediately began one 
of the most beneficial 
administrations that 
Mexico ever had under 
Spanish rule. He re- 
formed the financial management, finished the 
paving of the principal streets of the capital, had 




ffletsxzJtiti^&f ( 



the open sewers and canals filled up and subter- 
ranean sewers provided, cleaned the principal 
square, established free primary schools, and be- 

f^an a carriage-road to Vera Cruz. He also estab- 
ished the botanical garden in Mexico, and sent 
scientific expeditions to Bering strait and the 
strait of Juan de Fuca. But he was calumniated 
at court, was relieved of the government, 12 July, 
1794, and spent his Jast days in Spain. 

GUENUCALQUIN (gwe'n-noo-kal-keen'), Arau- 
canian cacique, b. in the valley of Ilicura, Arauco, 
in 1599 ; d. there in 1634. From- his early youth 
he participated in the struggle against the Spanish 
invaders of his country, and was elected cacique of 
his tribe in 1626. He attacked the Spanish army in 
the defile of Robleria in 1630, and after a protract- 
ed fight routed them with heavy loss. His gal- 
lantry and strategic ability caused him to be elected 
toqui by the united tribes of Arauco in 1631. In 
1632 Guenucalquin was advised by his chiefs to 
surprise the Spanish camp in the night, but he re- 
fused, saying that he did not wish to be accused by 
the enemy of having taken advantage of the dark- 
ness. In the battle that took place on the follow- 
ing morning the Indians were gaining the advan- 
tage, when the second chief of the Araucanian 
army, Putapichion, was killed, and in their desire 
to rescue his body the Indians became confused 
and put to flight. Alter this defeat, Guenucalquin 
collected the scattered forces again, and continued 
his inroads into Spanish territory till their army 
invaded Arauco once more, and he was killed in a 
bloody battle in his native valley. 

GUERNSEY, Alfred Hudson, editor, b. in Ver- 
mont in 1825. He was for several years editor of 
"Harper's Magazine," and from 1872 till 1876 
was an associate editor of the " American Cyclo- 
paedia," to which he contributed numerous articles. 
He has also written largely for periodicals, mainly 
on historical subjects, and is author, jointly with 
Henry M. Alden, of " Harper's Pictorial History 
of the Great Rebellion," Mr. Guernsey writing the 
eastern campaigns (2 vols., New York, 1862-'5), and 
of " The Spanish Armada" (1882). 

GUERRERO, Teodoro (ga-rayr'-ro), Cuban au- 
thor, b. in Havana, Cuba, in 1825. He went to 
Spain to be educated, returned to his native coun- 
try in 1845, and began his literary career by pub- 
lishing " Teodorelas," a volume of poems. In 1855 
his drama " La Escala del Poder was performed 
at Madrid, and his comedy " La Cabeza y el Cora- 
zon" at Havana in 1861. Guerrero has taken a 
great interest in educational matters. He has 
published " Lecciones de Mundo," which has gone 
through many editions, "Anatomia del corazon," 
" Cuentos de la Salon," " Historia intima de Seis 
Mirjeres." and novels and pieces for the theatre. 

GUERRERO, Vicente (ger-ray'-ro), president 
of Mexico, b. in Tixtla, Mexico, in 1783 ; d. in Cui- 
lapam, Mexico, 14 Feb., 1831. He distinguished 
himself in the battle of Izucar, 23 Feb., 1812, and 
after the defeat of the revolutionists at Puruaran 
went to the south of Mexico and gained several 
victories over the Spaniards. In 1816 he was de- 
feated in Canada de las Naranjos, but soon after- 
ward he defeated Zavala and Reguera in Azoyu. 
The Spanish general Apodaca then offered to par- 
don him if he would yield, but he refused. The 
death of Morelos, Matamoros, and Mina, the im- 
prisonment of Bravo and Rayon, and the par- 
don accepted by Teran, almost put an end to the 
revolution, and Guerrero was the only general 
that continued to resist the Spaniards, until the 
victory of Tamo, 15 Sept., 1818, revived the cause 
and enabled him to gain other victories. When 



GUESS 



GUIGNAS 



11 





he was convinced that Iturbide desired the inde- 
pendence of Mexico, he joined him ; but when Itur- 
bide caused himself to be proclaimed emperor, he 
opposed him and was 
defeated and wounded 
in the battle of Almo- 
longa, 23 Jan., 1823. 
Guerrero was appoint- 
ed a member of the ex- 
ecutive council when 
the Republicans were 
victorious, and exiled 
Iturbide. Afterward 
Bravo was elected head 
of the so-called Esco- 
ces party, and Guer- 
rero of the Yorkino. 
The rivals met in bat- 
tle, Bravo was defeat- 
ed, and Guerrero be- 
^4/*i7# /jS^'y came president of Mex- 

ico. But he was soon 
deposed in favor of 
Santa -Anna, fled to 
the south, and made war upon the administration 
until January, 1831, when he was inveigled on 
board an Italian ship, and delivered to his enemies. 
He was condemned by a court-martial and shot. 

GUESS, George, or SEQUOYAH, a Cherokee 
half-breed, inventor of the Cherokee alphabet, b. 
about 1770; d. in San Fernando, northern Mexi- 
co, in August, 1843. He cultivated a small farm 
in the Cherokee country of Georgia, and was known 
as an ingenious silversmith, when, in 1826, he in- 
vented a syllabic alphabet of the language of his 
nation of eighty-five characters, each representing 
a single sound. This is probably the most perfect 
alphabet ever devised for any language. He used the 
characters that he found in an English spelling-book 
as far as they went, though he knew no language but 
his own. In 1828 a newspaper called the " Phoe- 
nix " was established, part of which was printed in 
Guess's alphabet, and it was also used in printing 
a part of the New Testament. Guess was not a 
Christian, and is said to have regretted his inven- 
tion when he heard that it had been used for the 
latter purpose. He accompanied his tribe in their 
emigration beyond the Mississippi, and in 1842 
went with other Indians to Mexico. 

GUEST, John, jurist, b. in England; d. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 8 Sept., 1707. He received a 
university education in England, and probably en- 
gaged in the practice of the law before coming to 
this country. In 1701, shortly after his arrival in 
Philadelphia, he was commissioned by William 
Penn to be chief justice of the supreme court of 
Pennsylvania, and presiding judge of the courts of 
common pleas, quarter sessions, and the orphans' 
court of the city and county of Philadelphia. He 
served as chief justice in 1701, 1702, and 1705, as 
an associate justice in the same court in 1704, and 
as presiding judge of the other courts from 1701 
till 1706. He was invited by Penn to a seat in his 
council in July, 1701, and continued a member of 
this body until his death. 

GUEST, John, naval officer, b. in Missouri in 
1821 ; d. in Portsmouth, N. H., 12 Jan., 1879. He 
entered the navy as a midshipman in 1837, and in 
1843 became passed midshipman, and was attached 
to the steamer " Poinsett " in the survey of Tampa 
bay in 1844-'5. In 1850 he was made lieutenant, 
and in 1866 captain. He served in 1845-'8 on the 
frigate "Congress" in the Pacific, on the coast of 
Mexico during the Mexican war, and took part on 
shore in several sharp engagements. In 1854 he 



was second in command of the seamen and ma- 
rines of the U. S. steamer " Plymouth," boarded at 
Shanghai a Chinese man-of-war and liberated a 
pilot-boat crew, and was also in a severe and vic- 
torious fight with the Chinese rebels, who endeav- 
ored to plunder the foreign residents of the city In 
April of the same year. He was in command of 
the boats of the " Niagara," and cut out the Con- 
federate steamer " Aid," under the guns of Fort 
Morgan, in August, 1861. Capt. Guest commanded 
the "Owasco," of Admiral Porter's mortar flotilla, 
in the bombardment and passage of Fort Jackson 
and Fort St. Philip, and commanded the same ves- 
sel at the bombardment of Vicksburg in the sum- 
mer of the same year, receiving the highest praise 
from his superiors. He commanded the iron-clad 
" Lehigh " and the steamer " Itasca " at both of the 
Fort Fisher engagements. He was promoted to 
commodore in 1873. and at the time of his death 
was commandant of the Portsmouth navy-vard. 

GUIDO Y SPANO, Carlos, Argentine poet, 
b. in Salta, 8 March, 1832. He was graduated 
in law at the University of San Carlos, Buenos 
Ayres, in 1853, practised in Buenos Ayres, and 
in 1862 was elect- 
ed deputy to the 
Federal congress, 
where he became 
one of the leaders 
of the National 
party. In 1865 
he was elected 
president of the 
national congress, 
but when the war 
with Paraguay be- 
gan he resigned, 
and served as lieu- 
tenant-colonel. In 
1872 he was elect- 
ed to the national 
senate, and was 
its president for 
four years. Dur- 
ing the yellow-fe- 
ver epidemic of 1871 he was one of the members 
of the popular commission for the relief of the 
sufferers. He is now (1887) keeper of the national 
records in Buenos Ayres. He began to write 
verses while still in college, and has gained reputa- 
tion as a poet. The greater part of his poems 
have been collected in his book " Hojas al Viento " 
(Buenos Ayres, 1871). Guido is one of the most 
popular poets of the Argentine. 

GUIGNAS, Ignatius, clergyman, b. in France 
about the end of the 17th century. He was a mem- 
ber of the Society of Jesus, and founded the mis- 
sion of St. Michael the Archangel among the Sioux, 
in what is now Minnesota, in 1727. After beginning 
his mission labors, he was forced to abandon the 
work, owing to a victory of the Foxes over the 
French. Fie attempted to reach the Illinois coun- 
try in 1728, but fell into the hands of the Kicka- 
poos and Mascoutens, allies of the Foxes, by whom 
he was detained prisoner five months, and was con- 
stantly in danger of death. After a time he was 
condemned to be burned alive, but was saved by an 
old man who adopted him. He afterward received 
supplies from the Illinois missionaries, and used 
these to gain over the Indians, whom he induced 
to make peace. He was taken to the Illinois coun- 
try, and left on parole until November. 1729. when 
the Indians took him back to their canton. On 
being liberated he seems to have returned to the 
Dakota mission, where he was laboring in 1736. 




biuM; ^MjfUh 



12 



GUIGUES 



GUMILLA 



GUIGUES, Joseph Eugene Bruno, Canadian 
R. C. bishop, b. in Gap, France, 28 Aug., 1805 ; d. 
in Ottawa, Canada, 9 Feb., 1874. He decided 
early in life to devote himself to the church, and 
entered the congregation of the Oblate Fathers. 
He soon gained the highest rank in the order, was 
sent to Canada on a special mission in 1844, and 
shortly afterward appointed superior and perpetual 
visitor of the Oblates of Canada. In 1847 the see 
of Ottawa was created, and, at the request of the 
bishop of Montreal, Father Guigues was nominated 
its first bishop, and was consecrated 30 July, 1848. 
The country under his jurisdiction was at this 
time sparsely settled, and most of the population 
was of a floating character. His whole diocese 
contained only five priests and between four and 
five thousand Roman Catholics. He set to work to 
obtain priests from France and Ireland, and his 
success increased the tide of emigration, which 
was beginning to flow into the valley of the Otta- 
wa. He established a house of the Oblate Fathers 
at Notre Dame du Desert, a hundred miles from 
the city of Ottawa, which supplied him abundantly 
with missionaries. Another mission was founded 
at Temiscaming. He was instrumental in found- 
ing the College of Ottawa, opened institutions that 
were conducted by the Sisters of Charity and the 
Sisters of the Good Shepherd, and established a 
large number of schools under the care of the 
Christian Brothers. An orphanage at Ottawa, and 
houses of refuge for the infirm and old, owed their 
existence to him. He was particularly anxious to 
strengthen the French element in Upper Canada, 
and contributed much to arrest the emigration 
which had been setting eastward, while his aid and 
advice drew many French Canadians to settle in 
the valley of the Ottawa. At his death the num- 
ber of priests had increased from five to seventy- 
five. There were a hundred and fifteen churches 
in the diocese, and the number of Roman Catho- 
lics was considerably over seventy-five thousand. 

GUILD, Curtis, journalist, b. in Boston, Mass., 
13 Jan., 1827. He Was educated in the Boston 
public schools, and at sixteen years of age entered 
a merchant's office, but in 1847 became connected 
with the Boston "Daily Journal," and has since 
devoted himself to journalism. He founded in 
1859 the Boston " Commercial Bulletin," and since 
that date has been its editor-in-chief. Mr. Guild 
was president of the Boston commercial club in 
1882-'3, and has been president of the Bostonian 
society since 1882. For more than forty years he 
has contributed to almost every department of 
current literature. He is the author of " Over the 
Ocean," a series of sketches of European travel, 
first published in the " Commercial Bulletin " (Bos- 
ton, 1871) ; and " Abroad Again " (1876). 

GUILD, Reuben Aldridge, author, b. in West 
Dedham, Mass., 4 May, 1822. He was graduated 
at Brown in 1847, and in 1848 was appointed libra- 
rian of the university, which place he has held to the 
E resent time (1887). Under his charge the library 
as increased from 17,000 to 66,000 volumes. In 
1878 a fire-proof library building was completed, 
in accordance with his own wishes and sugges- 
tions. The classification of the library, the ar- 
rangement of the books, and the card catalogue, 
have been highly approved. In 1874 he received 
the honorary degree of LL. D. from Shurtleff col- 
lege. In 1877 he travelled in England and Scot- 
land, visiting the great libraries of Oxford, Cam- 
bridge, London, Edinburgh, and Glasgow. Be- 
sides current articles, including many on Free- 
masonry, he is the author of " Librarian's Manual, 
a Treatise on Bibliography, with Sketches of Pub- 



he Libraries" (New York, 1858); "Life, Times, 
and Correspondence of James Manning, and the 
Early History of Brown University (Boston, 
1864) ; " History of Brown University, with Illus- 
trative Documents " (Providence, 1867) ; " Bio- 
graphical Introduction to the Writings of Roger 
Williams" (1866); " Chaplain Smith and the Bap- 
tists " (Philadelphia, 1885) ; and has edited " Rhode 
Island in the Continental Congress, 1765-1790," 
by William R. Staples (Providence, 1870) ; " Lit- 
erary and Theological Addresses of Alva Woods," 
with a life (1868); "Letter of John Cotton, and 
Roger Williams's Reply " (1866) ; and " Queries of 
Highest Consideration," by Roger Williams (1867). 

GUINZBERG, Aaron, rabbi, b. in Prague, 
Bohemia, in 1812 ; d. in Boston, Mass., 20 July, 
1873. After a thorough rabbinical and general 
education in his native city, he was appointed rabbi 
of Libochowitz, Bohemia. In 1846 he wrote a 
spirited defence of Judaism, and demanded political 
emancipation for the Jews of Austria. His work, 
•' Dogniatisch-historisch Beleuchtung des alten 
Judenthums," was dedicated to Sir Moses Monte- 
fiore, but its tone was too liberal for the government, 
and soon after its publication he emigrated to the 
United States, where he officiated as rabbi in Balti- 
more, Rochester, and Boston. Dr. Guinzberg was 
a man of considerable erudition, which he strove 
to utilize for the moral advancement of his brethren 
and the vindication of his religion. He was favor- 
ably known as a teacher of distinction at various 
institutes of learning. He was a frequent con- 
tributor to the Jewish and general press, and his 
writings were usually of a polemic character. He 
belonged to the conservative school. 

GULDIN, John C, clergyman, b. in Bucks 
county, Pa., in 1799 ; d. in New York city in 1863. 
He studied theology under Herman, and it is sup- 
posed that he was licensed to preach in 1820. Mr. 
Guldin was known as the "Apostle to the Germans." 
From 1820 till 1842 he preached in the counties 
of Chester, Montgomery, and Franklin, Pa., re- 
moved to New York in 1842, and was pastor of a 
congregation, and general missionary to the Ger- 
mans. He superintended the German publications 
of the American tract society, and was the chief 
editor of the hymn-book that has since been 
adopted by the Presbyterian church for the use of 
its German congregations. 

GULICK, Peter Johnson, missionary, b. in 
Freehold, N. J., 12 March, 1797; d. in Kobe, Ja- 
pan, 8 Dec, 1877. He was graduated at Princeton 
in 1825, and studied for two years at the theo- 
logical seminary there. He was licensed to preach 
by the presbytery of New Brunswick in 1827, and 
was ordained by the same presbytery in October 
of that year. In November he left Boston for the 
Hawaiian islands under commission of the Ameri- 
can board of commissioners for foreign missions, 
and was stationed on various islands of the Ha- 
waiian kingdom. In 1874 he went to Japan, and 
there passed the last days of his life with a son 
who was also a missionary. 

GUMILLA, Jos6, Spanish missionary, b. in 
Barcelona, Spain, in 1690 : d. in Madrid in 1758. 
He entered the Jesuit order in 1708, and in 1714 
was sent as a missionary to South America. He 
was sent into different provinces successively, and 
while performing the duties of his ministry was a 
close observer of the manners of the inhabitants. 
He gave all the time his missionary labors allowed 
him to the study of natural history, and during 
his journeys collected plants unknown in Europe, 
formed collections of insects, and dissected the 
animals that the Indians brought him after hunt- 



GUMMERE 



GURLEY 



13 



ing or fishing. Having been appointed superior of 
the missions on the Orinoco in 1728, he sailed up 
this river and visited all the settlements, Indian as 
well as Spanish, that were situated in this prov- 
ince. He was appointed rector of the College of 
Carthagena in 1734, and of that in Madrid in 
1738. He published " El Orinoco ilustrado y de- 
fendido : historia natural, civil y geografica de las 
naciones situadas en las riberas de esto gran rio " 
(enlarged ed., 2 vols., with plates, Madrid, 1745). 
The history of the Orinoco has been often reprinted. 
The best edition is probably the one published at 
Barcelona (2 vols., 1791). It was translated into 
French by Eidous (3 vols., Paris, 1758). Unlike 
that of most Spanish writers, Gumilla's style is re- 
markable for its simplicity. The Abbe Raynal, in 
his " Histoire du commerce des Europeens dans les 
deux Indies " has borrowed some of his most effec- 
tive passages from the work of Gumilla. 

GUMMERE, John, educator, b. in Willow 
Grove, Pa., in 1784; d. in Burlington, N. J., 31 
May, 1845. For more than forty years he was a 
successful teacher in the towns of Burlington, N. J., 
Horsham, Pa., Rancocus, N. J., and Westtown, 
Pa., and conducted with his son, Samuel J., a 
boarding-school in Burlington. In 1833-'43 he 
was professor of mathematics, and part of the time 

Erincipal, of the Friends' college at Haverford. 
[e then returned to the Burlington academy, where 
he remained until his death. He became a mem- 
ber of the American philosophical society in 1814, 
and in 1825 was given the degree of M. A. by 
Princeton. A memorial of his life was printed for 

Srivate circulation by W. J. Allinson (Burlington, 
f. J., 1845). He published " A Treatise on Sur- 
veying " (New York, 1814), and " An Elementary 
Treatise on Theoretical and Practical Astronomy " 
(1822). — His brother, Samuel R., educator, b. in 
Horsham, Pa., 3 March, 1789 ; d. in Burlington, 
N. J., 13 Sept., 1866, was the principal of a board- 
ing-school for girls at Burlington from 1821 till 
1837, and was known as a successful teacher. In 
1840-'50 he was clerk of the chancery court of 
New Jersev. He published "Treatise on Geog- 
raphy " (Philadelphia, 1817); "A Revision of the 
Progressive Spelling-Book " (1831) ; and a " Com- 
pendium of Elocution " (1857). 

GUNDLACH, Juan, Cuban naturalist, b. in 
Marburg, Hesse-Cassel, in 1810. His father was 
professor of physics and mathematics of the uni- 
versity of his native city. Young Gundlach was 
graduated there as doctor of philosophy in 1837 
and in 1839 went to Cuba, where he began to make 
collections in natural history. He has continued 
this work to the present time (1887), with the ex- 
ception of a few years before 1875, when the in- 
surrection in the island compelled him to reside in 
Porto Rico. In 1867 he arranged the Cuban col- 
lections at the Paris exposition, receiving a silver 
medal for his services. His name is associated 
with over sixty species, including one of land mol- 
lusks called " Gundlachia Hjalmarsoni," and two 
called " Unio Gundlachi." At his death his large 
and valuable collections will become the property 
of the island of Cuba. Gundlach is a member of 
scientific societies in all parts of the world, and 
has published numerous papers on natural history, 
which have been reprinted in the annals of the 
" Academia de Ciencias de la Habana." 

GUNN, Donald, Canadian jurist, b. in Falkirk, 
Caithness-shire, Scotland, in September, 1797 ; d. in 
St. Andrew's, Manitoba, 30 Nov.. 1878. In 1813 he 
went to the northwest, and entered the service of 
the Hudson bay company, in which he remained 
ten years. In 1823 he settled at Red river, and 



was for about twenty years one of the judges of 
the court of session, being president of the court 
for a part of that time. When the legislative 
council was instituted in Manitoba he became a 
member, and retained his seat until that body was 
abolished in 1876. He was thoroughly versed in 
the natural history of the northwest, and contrib- 
uted many papers on this subject to the " Miscel- 
laneous Collections of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion," and other publications. He was a member 
of the board of management of Manitoba college. 

GUNN, James, senator, b. in Virginia in 1739; 
d. in Louisville, Ky., 30 July, 1801. He received 
a common-school education, studied law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and removed to Savannah, Ga., 
where he practised his profession. He was elected 
as U. S. senator to the 1st congress, and was re-elect- 
ed in 1789. Mr. Gunn was one of the members of 
congress who voted for establishing the seat of 
government at Washington. 

GUNNISON, John W., engineer, b. in New 
Hampshire in 1812 : d. near Sevier Lake. Utah, 26 
Oct., 1853. He was graduated at the U. S. mili- 
tary academy, became 2d lieutenant of topographi- 
cal engineers, 7 July, 1838 ; 1st lieutenant, 9 May, 
1846 ; and captain, 3 March, 1853. He served in 
the Florida war of 1837-'9, was engaged for near- 
ly ten years in the survey of the northwestern 
lakes and in the improvement of the harl>ors, and in 
1849-'51 was associated with Capt. Howard Stans- 
bury in making maps of the Great Salt Lake re- 
gion, drawing up an able report on his work. In 
1853 he had charge of the expeditions and survey 
of a central route for a railway from the Missis- 
sippi river to the Pacific ocean. While thus en- 
gaged he was murdered, with seven of his explor- 
ing-party, by a band of Mormons and Parvante In- 
dians, his body being pierced by seventeen arrows 
and otherwise mutilated. He is the author of a 
" History of the Mormons of Utah: Their Domes- 
tic Polity and Theology" (Philadelphia, 1852). 

GURLEY, Phineas Densmore, clergyman, b. 
in Hamilton, Madison co., N. Y., 12 Nov.,"l816; d. 
in Washington, D. C, 30 Sept., 1868. He was 
graduated at Union in 1837, with the highest hon- 
ors of his class, and at Princeton theological semi- 
nary in 1840. After holding pastorates in Indian- 
apolis, Ind., and Dayton, Ohio, he accepted in 1854 
a call from the F street church in Washington, 
D. C, which in 1859 was united with the 2d Pres- 
byterian church of the same city, and continued to 
be the pastor of both congregations until his death. 
In 1859 he was chosen chaplain of the U. S. sen- 
ate. Dr. Gurley numbered among his regular 
hearers several presidents of the United States, 
among them Mr. Lincoln, at whose death-bed he 
was present, and whose funeral sermon he deliv- 
ered. He took an active part in the negotiations 
that resulted in the union of the old-school and 
new-school branches of the Presbyterian church. 

GURLEY, Ralph Randolph,' clergyman, b. in 
Lebanon, Conn., 26 May, 1797; d. in Washington, 
D. C, 30 July. 1872. He was graduated at Yale 
in 1818, removed to Washington, D. C. and was 
licensed to preach as a Presbvterian, but was never 
ordained. From 1822 till 1872 he acted as the 
agent and secretary of the American colonization 
society, visited Africa three times in its interests, 
and was one of the founders of Liberia. He also 
went to England to solicit aid in the work of colo- 
nization. During the first ten years of his agency 
the annual income of the society increased from 
$778 to $40,000. He delivered addresses in its be- 
half in all parts of the country, edited " The Afri- 
can Repository," and, besides many reports, wrote 



14 



GURNEY 



GUSTAFSON 



the "Life of Jehudi Ashmun" (New York, 1839); 
" Mission to England for the American Coloniza- 
tion Society" (1841); and "Life and Eloquence of 
Rev. Sylvester Lamed " (New York, 1844). 

GURNEY, Francis, soldier, b. in Bucks county, 
Pa., in 1738 ; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 25 May, 1815. 
He volunteered in the provincial army in 1756, 
served under Gen. Israel Putnam, and came to be 
regarded by that officer in the light of an adopted 
son. Gurney was present at the capture of Louis- 
bourg, Cape Breton, 25 July, 1758, and at the close 
of the war joined the expedition against the French 
West India islands, and assisted in the taking of 
Guadeloupe, 27 April, 1759. On his return he en- 
gaged in commerce in Philadelphia, and at the be- 
ginning of the Revolutionary war assisted in the 
organization and drilling of troops. Although at 
first he refused to accept a commission, Mr. Gurney 
was made captain in a regiment of infantry raised 
by authority of the province. The following year 
he entered the regular army, was appointed lieuten- 
ant-colonel, and was present at the battles of Iron 
Hill, Brandywine, and Germantown, in the first of 
which he was wounded. After the war he returned 
to mercantile pursuits in Philadelphia, where he 
resided until his death. He was for several years 
warden of the port, during which period he origi- 
nated and carried out an important improvement 
in the buoys and beacons in Delaware bay. He was 
repeatedly elected to the lower branch of the legis- 
lature, and subsequently sent to the senate. He 
was also a trustee of Dickinson college, county 
commissioner, and director of various institutions. 
In the whiskey rebellion of 1794, Col. Gurney com- 
manded the 1st regiment of the Philadelphia bri- 
gade, which was composed of young men of good 
family and education. At a critical period of the 
Revolutionary war, when there was great difficulty 
in procuring supplies for the American army, Mr. 
Gurney was one of several residents of Philadel- 
phia who gave their bonds to the amount of about 
£260,000 for procuring them. The amount of his 
personal subscription was £2,000. 

GURNEY, William, soldier, b. in Flushing, 
N. Y., 21 Aug., 1821 ; d. in New York city, 3 Feb., 
1879. At the beginning of the civil war he was 
engaged in business in New York city. In April, 
1861, he entered the National service with the 7th 
regiment, of which he was a member, for the three 
months' term. At its conclusion he accepted a 
commission as captain in the 65th New York, 
known as the " Fighting Chasseurs," and served in 
that capacity through the early campaigns of the 
war. In 1862 he was appointed assistant inspect- 
or-general and examining officer on Gov. Morgan's 
staff. In July of that year he received authority 
to raise a regiment, and in thirty days he had re- 
cruited the 127th New York, at the head of which 
he returned to the field, joining the 23d army 
corps. In the following October he was assigned 
to the command of the 2d brigade of Gen. Aber- 
crombie's division. In 1864 he was ordered with 
his brigade to join Gen. Gilmore's command on 
the South Carolina coast, and in December, having 
been severely wounded in the arm in an engage- 
ment at Devoe's Neck, was sent north for treat- 
ment. Before he had been completely restored to 
health he was assigned to the command of the 
Charleston post, and while there was promoted brig- 
adier-general of volunteers for gallantry in action. 
After he was mustered out of the service in July, 
1865, he returned to Charleston and established 
himself in business. In October, 1870, he became 
treasurer of Charleston county, and held the office 
until 1876. He was a presidential elector in 1873, 



and in 1874 was appointed a centennial commis- 
sioner by President Grant, and elected a vice-presi- 
dent of the commission. 

GUROWSKI, Adam, Count, author, b. in the 
palatinate of Kalisz, Poland, 10 Sept., 1805 ; d. in 
Washington, D. C, 4 May, 1866. He was a son of 
the Count Ladislas Gurowski, who was an ardent 
admirer of Kosciusko, and who lost the greater 
part of his estates through having participated in 
the insurrection of 1794. Having been expelled in 
1818, and again in 1819, from the gymnasia of War- 
saw and Kalisz for revolutionary demonstrations, 
young Gurowski continued his studies at various 
German universities. Returning to Warsaw in 
1825, he became identified with those opposed to 
Russian influence, and was in consequence several 
times imprisoned. He was active in organizing the 
revolution of 1830, in which he afterward took part. 
On its suppression he escaped to France, where he 
lived for several years and adopted many of the 
views of Fourier. He was also a member of the na- 
tional Polish committee in Paris, and became con- 
spicuous in political and literary circles. His estates 
had meantime been confiscated and he himself con- 
demned to death ; but in 1835 he published a work 
entitled " La verite sur la Russie," in which he 
advocated a union of the different branches of the 
Slavic race. The book being favorably regarded 
by the Russian government, Gurowski was recalled, 
and, although his estates were not restored, he was 
employed in the civil service. In 1844, finding 
that he had many powerful enemies at court, he 
left secretly for Berlin and went thence to Heidel- 
berg. Here he gave himself to study, and for two 
years lectured on political economy in the Uni- 
versity of Berne, Switzerland. He then went to 
Italy, and in 1849 came to the United States, where 
he engaged in literary pursuits and became deeply 
interested in American politics. From 1861 till 
1863 he was translator in the state department at 
Washington, being acquainted with eight languages. 
Before coming to this country he had published 
" La civilisation et la Russie " (St. Petersburg, 
1840); "Pensees sur l'avenir des Polonais" (Ber- 
lin, 1841) ; " Aus meinem Gedankenbuche " (Bres- 
lau, 1843); "Eine Tour durch Belgien" (Heidel- 
berg, 1845); " Impressions et souvenirs " (Lausanne, 
1846) ; " Die letzten Ereignisse in den drei Theilen 
desalten Polen" (Munich, 1846) ; and " Le Pansla- 
visme" (Florence, 1848). During his residence in 
the United States he published " Russia as it Is" 
(New York, 1854) ; " The Turkish Question " (1854) ; 
"A Year of the War" (1855) : " America and Eu- 
rope " (1857); " Slavery in History " (1860) : and " My 
Diary," notes on the civil war (3 vols., 1862-'6). 

GUSTAFSON, Axel Carl Jolian, author, b. 
in Lund, Sweden, about 1847. His father is a 
clergyman, and Axel was educated in his native 
town. At the age of twenty-one he came to the 
United States, was naturalized, and began to write 
for the press. Becoming interested in the temper- 
ance movement, he contributed to a Boston jour- 
nal an article on the Gottenburg system of grant- 
ing licenses, which led to an investigation of the 
different licensing systems' of the world. He also 
became a contributor to several of the leading pe- 
riodicals. Soon after coming to this country he 
married Mrs. Zadel Barnes Buddington, who has 
since greatly assisted him in his literary work. 
Going to England, Mr. and Mrs. Gustafson met 
Samuel Morley, the philanthropist, who induced 
the former to change his intention of writing a 
work on the abuse of tobacco, and discuss the 
liquor question instead. " The Foundation of 
Death " (London, 1884) was the outcome of this 



GUTHEIM 



GUTHRIE 



15 



change of plan. This work discusses the use of 
liquor among the ancients, the history of the dis- 
covery of distillation, liquor adulterations, the 
effects of alcohol on the physical organs and func- 
tions, the social and moral results arising from 
the drinking habit, heredity, the use of alcohol as 
a medicine, and includes an inquiry into the meth- 
ods of reformation. It has passed through three 
editions, and been translated into Swedish, German, 
French, Spanish, Malagasy, Burmese, and Mah- 
ratta. Mr. and Mrs. Gustafson are now (1887) pre- 
paring a series of school-books, intended to incul- 
cate their views on the temperance question. — His 
wife, Zadel Barnes Buddington, author, b. in 
Middletown, Conn., about 1840, early began writ- 
ing verses, stories, and sketches. Subsequently a 
paper by her in favor of the abolition of capital 
punishment attracted general attention. For two 
years she was political editor of a Massachusetts 
journal. Of her tribute to the poet Bryant, John 
Greenleaf Whittier wrote : " I can only compai'e it 
with Milton's ' Lycidas ' ; it is worthy of any living 
poet at least." Her poem of " Little Martin Crag- 
nan," based on the true story of a boy lost in Pitt- 
ston mines through an act of heroism, became very 
popular. Mrs. Gustafson (who by her first mar- 
riage was Mrs. Buddington) has published " Can 
the Old Love?" (Boston, 1871) ; " Meg, A Pastoral, 
and other Poems " (Boston, 1879) ; and a new edi- 
tion of " Zophiel," by Maria Gowen Brooks, with a 
sketch of the author (Boston, 1879). 

GUTHEIM, James Koppel, clergyman, b. in 
•Menne, Westphalia, 15 Nov., 1817; d. in New Or- 
leans, La., 11 May, 1886. He came to the United 
States in 1843, and was called as minister of a Cin- 
cinnati synagogue in 1846. In 1850 he assumed 
charge of a synagogue in New Orleans ; but in 1863, 
refusing to take the oath of allegiance to the Union, 
he left New Orleans, and preached in Montgomery, 
Ala., and Columbus, Ga. At the close of the civil 
war he returned to New Orleans and was called to 
the New York Temple Emanuel in 1868. In 1872 
he became minister of the New Orleans Temple 
Sinai, where he preached until his death. He took 
much interest in educational and charitable work, 
and was at one time president of the New Orleans 
board of education. The state senate adjourned 
on the day of his funeral. 

GUTHERS, Karl, artist, b. in Switzerland in 
1844. He was brought to the United States by his 
parents in 1851. His father settled in Cincinnati 
and was the first to introduce terra-cotta objects 
of art into this country. The son began his pro- 
fessional career by modelling clay in his father's 
studio. He afterward studied under a portrait- 
painter in Memphis, Tenn., and in 1868 went to 
Paris, where he studied with Cabasson and Pils, 
and was a pupil at the Academie des beaux arts. 
At the beginning of the Franco-Prussian war, he 
went to Belgium, studying in Brussels and Ant- 
werp under Stalleart and Robert. He took up his 
residence in Rome in 1871, where he executed his 
first important work. He returned to Memphis in 
1873, painting portraits and figure-pieces in oil 
and water-colors. In 1874 he removed to St. Louis, 
where he was connected with the art department 
of Washington university, and was instrumental 
in the organization of the school and museum of 
fine arts in the life class in which he taught from 
1876 till 1883-4. In the latter year he wont to 
Paris, where he has since remained, studying in 
the Julian school. To the Centennial exhibition 
at Philadelphia he sent his "Ecce Homo" and his 
"Awakening of Spring," receiving for the latter 
work a medal and diploma. 



GUTHRIE, James, statesman, b. in Nelson 
county, Ky., 5 Dec, 1792; d. in Louisville, 13 
March, 1869. He was educated at Bardstown, Ky., 
and studied law under John Rowan. In 1820 he 
began practice in Louisville, and at once entered 
on a successful career at the bar. He was elected 
to the lower house of the Kentucky legislature in 
1827, and was a member of the upper house from 
1831 till 1840. In 1840 he was president of the 
convention that framed the present constitution 
of the state. He was secretary of the U. S. treas- 
ury, under the administration of Franklin Pierce 
from 1853 till 1857. In 1865 he was elected U. S. 
senator, but resigned in 1868 on account of declin- 
ing health. He was president of the Louisville 
and Nashville railroad from 1860 till 1868. 

GUTHRIE, John Julius, naval officer, b. in 
Washington, N. C, in 1814 ; d. at sea, near Cape 
Hatteras, in November, 1877. He became a mid- 
shipman in 1834, passed midshipman in 1838, and 
lieutenant in 1842. He served in the Mexican war 
and in the attack on the barrier forts in Canton 
river, China, in November, 1856, where he displayed 
gallantry. He pulled down the Chinese flag, 
which he presented to North Carolina as a trophy, 
and received the thanks of the legislature. In 
1861, at the beginning of the civil war, he resigned 
his commission and entered the Confederate ser- 
vice. He was on active duty in New Orleans, and 
also commanded the " Advance," running the 
blockade between Wilmington and the Bermudas. 
At the close of the war he removed to Portsmouth, 
Va., and in 1865 was the first officer of the regular 
service who had joined the Confederates to be 
pardoned by the president. His disabilities were 
removed by a unanimous vote of congress. He 
was appointed in 1870 superintendent of the life- 
saving stations from Cape Henry to Cape Hatteras, 
and was drowned while endeavoring to succor the 
passengers and crew of the U. S. steamship " Hu- 
ron " in a storm off Cape Hatteras. 

GUTHRIE, Samuel, chemist, b. in Brimfield, 
Mass., in 1782; d. in Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., 19 
Oct., 1848. He studied medicine, and was among 
the earliest laborers in practical chemistry in the 
United States. He invented and first manufac- 
tured percussion pills, also inventing the punch- 
lock for exploding them. This lock took the place 
of the old flint-lock in fire-arms, and was in turn 
superseded, after Dr. Guthrie's death, by the per- 
cussion-cap. In the course of his experiments he 
sustained lasting injuries and nearly lost his life 
from an accidental explosion. He also invented 
in 1830 a process for the rapid conversion of po- 
tato starch into molasses, which he published in 
Silliman's ''American Journal of Science," to 
which he contributed occasional papers on sci- 
entific subjects. Dr. Guthrie was an original dis- 
coverer of chloroform, independently of the con- 
temporaneous researches of Soubeiran, Liebig, and 
Dumas — made at the same time, but unknown to 
Guthrie. His chloroform was distributed and his 
process repeated and verified by the elder Silli- 
man at Yale college in 1831, while the publication 
of Soubeiran and Liebig's discoveries were made 
in January and March, 1832, respectively. Dr. 
Guthrie's process was by distilling together alco- 
hol and bleaching-powder and afterward purify- 
ing the distillate, thus obtaining pure chloroform. 
The exact composition of this substance, termed by 
Guthrie a "spirituous solution of chloric ether,' 
remained unknown till 1834, when Dumas pub- 
lished the results of his investigation, and named it 
chloroform. A committee of the Medieo-chirurgi- 
cal society of Edinburgh awarded to Dr. Guthrie 



16 



GUTIERREZ 



GUY 



the merit of having first published an account of 
its therapeutic effects as a diffusible stimulant in 
1832. — His son, Alfred, mechanical engineer, b. in 
Sherburne, N. Y., 1 April, 1805 ; d. in Chicago, 111., 
17 Aug., 1882, removed with his parents to Sack- 
ett's Harbor in 1817, where he studied medicine 
and chemistry with his father, being his assistant 
at the time of his discovery of chloroform. For 
ten years he practised medicine, but an aversion 
to that profession led to his engaging in other 
occupations. In 1846 he settled in Chicago, where 
he advanced the idea of supplying the summit 
level of the Illinois and Michigan canal with water 
by raising it from Lake Michigan with steam 
power. The hydraulic works of this canal in Chi- 
cago were designed by him and constructed under 
his supervision, and when completed they were 
capable of handling a larger volume of water than 
any other similar works then in existence. In 
consequence of having a capacity greater than 
was required by the canal, they were operated for 
several years in lifting the sewage of Chicago to 
the canal, which then passed on to its ultimate 
dissipation in the Gulf of Mexico. Dr. Guthrie's 
great work was his conception of the U. S. steam- 
boat inspection laws. The terrible steamboat dis- 
asters of 1851 led him, at his own expense, to 
visit the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, where he 
studied the defective building and the reckless 
management that resulted in serious loss of life 
and property. He made numerous drawings with 
explanations, which were presented to congress, 
and finally drafted the bill that was enacted in 
1852. It is estimated that prior to 1849, 45 per 
cent, of these river steamboats were lost by dis- 
aster, while in 1882, on 5,117 vessels, the loss of 
life was only one to each 1,726,827 persons. — An- 
other son, Edwin, physician, b. in Sherburne, 
N. Y., 11 Dec, 1806 ; d. at the Castle of Perote, 
Mexico, 20 July, 1847, studied medicine with his 
father, but subsequently abandoned that profes- 
sion and settled in Iowa, where he held public 
office. Soon after the beginning of the war with 
Mexico, he raised a company of Iowa volunteers, 
of which he became captain, and went to the 
seat of war. He was wounded in the knee dur- 
ing the engagement at Pass La Hoya, and, after 
suffering two amputations, died. Guthrie county, 
Iowa, is named in his honor. 

GUTIERREZ, Jos6 Nicolas (goo-te-er'-reth), 
Cuban physician, b. in Havana, Cuba, in 1800. He 
was graduated in medicine in his native city in 
1826, soon attained eminence in his profession, and 
filled the chairs of anatomy, pathology, and clinics 
in the University of Havana. He founded in 1840 
the " Repertorio Medico Habanero," the first medi- 
cal review published in Cuba, now called " Cronica 
Medico-Quirurgica de la Habana." Since 1853 it 
has borne on its title-page his likeness with the 
inscription, " Founder of the medical press in 
Cuba." With Dr. Zambrana he founded, in 1861, 
the Academy of sciences of Havana, and in 1874 a 
museum of natural history, annexed to the acade- 
my. Dr. Gutierrez is a correspondent and member 
of the Phrenological society of Paris, of the medi- 
cal academies of Madrid, Cadiz, and New Orleans, 
of the Lyceum of Rome, and other scientific socie- 
ties. He is now (1887) engaged in a project to 
erect a suitable building for the Academy of sci- 
ences. His published works include " Importancia 
de la Quimica en la Medicina " (1821) ; " Catecis- 
mo de 5ledicina physiologica " (1826) ; and " Lec- 
ciones de Anatomia " (1854). 

GUTIERREZ, Santos, South American soldier, 
b. in Cocui, Colombia, 24 Oct., 1820 ; d. in Bogota, 



6 Feb., 1872. He began his military career in 1840. 
In 1851 he fought against the Conservatives, and 
became an active member of the Liberal party. In 
1854 he overthrew the dictatorship of Melo by gain- 
ing the battles of Pamplona, Tierra-Azul, and Bo- 
gota. From 1859 till 1863 he was the recognized 
leader of the Liberals, and gained the battles of 
La Concepcion, Hormezaque, Tunja, Usaquen, Bo- 
gota, and Santa Barbara. In 1839 he was admitted 
to the bar. From 1840 he occupied many offices, 
serving the state as judge, representative, senator, 
governor of Boyaca, secretary of state, and com- 
mander-in-chief of the army. He was president of 
the republic from 1868 till 1870, and then retired 
to private life, although his successor offered him 
the place of minister to Europe. 

GUTIERREZ DE ESTRADA, Jos6 Maria, 
Mexican statesman, b. in Campeche in 1800; d. 
in the city of Mexico in 1867. He inherited a 
fortune, held office under Iturbide, and was for 
a short time secretary of foreign relations. Dis- 
heartened by the rapid changes of government, 
he resolved in 1835 to abandon his country, 
settled first in Paris, afterward lived at several 
courts, and sent to the National congress a pro- 
posal for the establishment of a monarchy in 
Mexico, which was read in the session of 20 Aug., 
1840. Through his second wife, the Countess von 
Liitzow, daughter of the Austrian minister in 
Rome, he gained access to the Austrian court, and 
in 1864 the Mexican commission arrived in Mira- 
mare to offer the imperial crown to Maximilian. 
In the suite of that prince he returned to his native 
land, but died soon afterward. 

GUTIERREZ DE LARA, Bernardo, Mexican 
patriot, b. in Guanajuato in 1778 ; d. in San An- 
tonio Bejar, 15 March, 1814. When Hidalgo and 
Allende, after the defeat of Calderon in 1811, were 
on their way to the United States to reorganize 
their forces, Gutierrez met them, early in March, 
to offer his services. He was appointed colonel, 
and sent as commissioner to Washington, where he 
arrived in August. His mission was not recog- 
nized, and he came to New Orleans, where he or- 
ganized a force of 450 men. He marched to Texas 
in February, 1812, captured the town of Nacog- 
doches and the presidio of Trinidad, and a few days 
afterward the bay of Espiritu Santo, where he 
found important stores of ammunition and pro- 
visions. The Spanish governor of New Leon 
and Texas besieged Gutierrez in Trinidad, but after 
four months the latter made a sally and broke 
through the enemy's lines. In August of the same 
year he defeated the royalists at Rosillo, capturing 
all their artillery, and shortly afterward gained 
other victories, making him the master of New 
Leon and Texas. But Alvarez de Toledo, who had 
been appointed commissioner to Washington, en- 
tered there into secret transactions with the Span- 
ish minister, and also instigated Gutierrez's forces 
to demand the execution of the governor of Leon 
and Texas. When their commander, in a moment 
of weakness, submitted, Alvarez appeared in his 
camp with accusations, and brought about a mu- 
tiny which deposed . Gutierrez and appointed 
Alvarez general-in-chief. Gutierrez was patriot 
enough not to abandon the army in the hour of 
need, as Arredondo was approaching with an over- 
whelming force to crush the patriots. The revolu- 
tionary army, disconcerted by the change of lead- 
ers, was defeated, and Gutierrez died in the battle. 

GUY, Peter, Canadian publicist, b. in Ville- 
Marie, Canada, 11 Dec, 1738; d. in Montreal in 
January, 1812. He lost his father at the age of 
eleven, and was educated in the College of Quebec 



GUY 



GUYOT 



17 



and in France. On his return to Canada in 1758 
he commanded a troop at the battle of Carillon, 
and in 1759 at that of Montmorency^ distinguish- 
ing himself in both engagements. After the capitu- 
lation of Montreal in 1760 he went to France, but 
returned to Canada in 1764. He took an active 
part in the defence of Montreal against Gen. Rich- 
ard Montgomery, and signed the capitulation of 
that city. While remaining faithful to Great Brit- 
ain, he became dissatisfied with her treatment of 
Canada, and in 1784 was elected president of the 
committee that was organized in Montreal to draw 
up and present to the government a list of griev- 
ances. He was active in the agitation for an elect- 
ive chamber, and continued it until the constitu- 
tion of 1791 was granted. He also labored for 
higher education, and succeeded in having the Col- 
lege of Saint Raphael established at Montreal. He 
also endeavored to prevent the alienation of the 

Eroperty of the Jesuits, but without effect. He 
ad been previously made a judge, and held this 
office till his death. — His sOn, Louis, b. in Mon- 
treal, 28 June, 1768 ; d. there in February, 1840, 
studied law, and received his commission as notary 
in 1801. He served in the war of 1812, and rose to 
the grade of major of the 5th battalion of Cana- 
dian militia. On the conclusion of the war he was 
appointed colonel and requested by the governor, 
Sir James Kempt, to adopt measures for reorganiz- 
ing the militia of Montreal. To this task he de- 
voted himself so energetically up to 1830 that his 
health was seriously impaired. In 1831, he was 
named a member of the council by William IV. 
This nomination was received with great favor by 
the French Canadians, who considered Mr. Guy as 
their representative. He was elected to nearly 
every public office within their gift. 

GUY, Seymour Joseph, artist, b. in Green- 
wich, England, 16 Jan., 1824. He studied under 
Ambrosini Jerome in London, and came to New 
York in 1854, where he still (1887) resides. He be- 
gan to paint portraits, and met with success, but 
afterward turned his attention to genre pictures. 
He was elected associate of the National academy 
in 1861, academician in 1865, and was one of the 
original members of the American society of 
painters in water-colors in 1866. His subjects are 
chiefly scenes and incidents drawn from child-life. 
He exhibited at the academy " The Good Sister " 
(1868); "After the Shower," "More Free than 
Welcome," and a portrait of Charles L. Elliott 
(1869); "The Little Stranger" and "Plaving on- 
the Jew's Harp " (1870) ; " The Street Fire " (1871) ; 
"Fixing for School" (1874); " The Little Orange- 
Girl "(1875); "Cash on Hand" (1877); and "See 
Saw, Margery Daw " (1884). 

GUY, William, clergyman, b. in England in 
1689; d. near Charleston, S. C, in 1751. He was* 
appointed in 1712, by the Society for the propaga- 
tion of the gospel, assistant minister in St. Philip's 
church, Charleston, and the same year was elected 
minister of St. Helena parish, Port Royal island. 
Having received only deacon's orders, he went, in 
1713, to England, where he was advanced to the 
priesthood, and was sent back by the society as 
missionary in the same parish. His field of labor 
was very large, and included the lands occupied 
by the Yamassee Indians. Mr. Guy was unwearied 
in the discharge of his duties, but when the Yamas- 
see war began, in 1715, he narrowly escaped with 
his life by taking refuge on board an English ship 
that was lying in the river, bound to Charleston. 
He was next sent as missionary to Narragansett, 
R. I., where his labors were very effective. After 
the lapse of two years— from 17*17 till 1719— find- 

VOL. III. — 2 




ing that his health was seriously affected by a 
northern climate, he was transferred, at his own 
request, to South Carolina. He became rector of 
St. Andrew's church, about thirteen miles from 
Charleston, and continued there until his death. 
Mr. Guy was highly esteemed by the society under 
whose auspices he labored, as was shown by their 
appointing him in 1725 their attorney in the prov- 
ince, to receive and recover all bequests and dona- 
tions made to them, and to give acquittances. 

GUYOT, Arnold, geographer, b. in Boudevil- 
liers, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 28 Sept., 1807; d. in 
Princeton, N. J., 8 Feb., 1884. He was educated at 
Chaux-de-Fonds, and then at the college of Neu- 
chatel, where he was the classmate of Leo Lesque- 
reux. In 1825 he 
went to Germany, 
and resided in 
Carlsruhe with the 
parents of Alex- 
ander Braun, the 
botanist, where he 
met Louis Agas- 
siz. From Carls- 
ruhe he went to 
Stuttgart, and 
there studied at 
the gymnasium, 
returning to Neu- 
chatel in 1827. He 
then determined 
to become a min- 
ister, and in 1829 
started for Berlin 
to attend lectures 
in the university. 
While pursuing his studies he also attended lec- 
tures on philosophy and natural science. His lei- 
sure was spent in collecting the shells and plants 
of the country, and he was introduced by Hum- 
boldt to the Berlin botanical garden, where op- 
portunities for examining the flora of the tropics 
was afforded him. In 1835 he received the degree 
of Ph. D. from the University of Berlin, and pub- 
lished a thesis on " The Natural Classification of 
Lakes." He was then a private tutor in Paris for 
four years, and in the summer of 1838, at Agassiz's 
request, visited the Swiss glaciers, and communir 
cated the results of his six weeks' investigation to 
the Geological society of France. The laminated 
structure of ice in the glaciers was originally 
pointed out by him in this paper, and his discovery 
was subsequently confirmed by Agassiz, Forbes, 
and others. In 1839 he returned to Neuchatel, and 
became the colleague of Agassiz, as professor of 
history and physical geography in the college there. 
The academy in Neuchatel was suspended by the 
grand revolutionary council of Geneva in 1848, and, 
being urged by Agassiz, Guyot came to this coun- 
try' in that year, and settled in Cambridge, where 
he was soon afterward invited to deliver a course 
of lectures at the Lowell institute. These, trans- 
lated by Prof. Cornelius C. Felton. were published 
under the title of " Earth and Man " (Boston, 1853), 
and gained for him a wide reputation. The Massa- 
chusetts board of education retained his services as 
lecturer on geography and methods of instruction 
to the normal schools and teachers' institutes. He 
was occupied with this work until his appointment, 
in 1854, to the chair of physical geography and 
geology at Princeton, which he retained until his 
death, being for some time senior professor. He 
was also for several years lecturer on physical 
geography in the State normal school in Trenton, 
and from 1861 till 1866 lecturer in the Prince- 



geogr 
N.J., 



18 



GUZMAN 



guzmAn 



ton theological seminary on the connection of re- 
vealed religion and physical and ethnological sci- 
ence, also giving courses in the Union theological 
seminary in New York and in Columbia college. 
At the Smithsonian institution he delivered five 
lectures in 1853 on the " Harmonies of Nature and 
History," and in 1862 six lectures on " The Unity 
of Plan in the System of Life." He founded the 
museum in Princeton, which has since become one 
of the best of its kind in the United States. Many 
of its specimens are from his own collections, or were 
gathered by his students on the exploring expedi- 
tions sent out to the Rocky mountains from Prince- 
ton. His scientific work in the United States in- 
cluded the perfection of plans for a national system 
of meteorological observations. Most of these were 
conducted under the auspices of the Smithsonian 
institution, where Joseph Henry early gained for 
him the virtual management of the meteorologi- 
cal department. In connection with this work he 
published " Meteorological and Physical Tables " 
(Washington, 1852 ; revised ed., 1884). The selec- 
tion and establishment of numerous meteorological 
stations in New York and Massachusetts were con- 
fided to him, and he also made a study of the alti- 
tudes of the Appalachian chain. This vacation 
work extended over thirty-two years, and was 
completed in 1881. Prof. Guyot was a member of 
many scientific societies, at home and abroad. He 
was one of the original members of the National 
academy of sciences. The degree of LL. D. was 
conferred on him by Union in 1873. Prof. Guyot 
was a delegate, in 1861, from the Presbyterian 
church in the United States to the convention of 
the Evangelical alliance held in Geneva, and in 
1873 he contributed a valuable paper on " Cosmog- 
ony and the Bible " to the meeting held in New 
York. Between 1866 and 1875 he prepared a series 
of geographies and a series of wall-maps, for which 
he received a medal of progress at the Vienna ex- 
hibition in 1873. He was associated with Fred- 
erick A. P. Barnard in the editorship of "John- 
son's New Universal Cyclopaedia" from 1874 till 
1877, and wrote many of the articles on physical 
geography and similar topics. His papers were 
usually read at the meetings of the American asso- 
ciation for the advancement of science or the Na- 
tional academy of sciences, and then published in 
the "American Journal of Science." He was the 
author of valuable biographical memoirs of Carl 
Ritter (1860) ; James H. Coffin (1875) ; and Louis 
Agassiz (1883) ; also " A Treatise on Phvsical Ge- 
ography " (New York, 1873) ; and " Creation, or the 
Biblical Cosmogony in the Light of Modern Sci- 
ence " (1884). See the memoir by James A. Dana 
in " Biographical Memoirs of the National Acad- 
emy of Sciences" (Washington, 1886). 

GUZMAN, A 1,-u stin, Guatemalan soldier, b. 
in Quezaltenango in the latter part of the 18th 
century; d. in Guatemala, 12 Oct., 1849. After 
the independence of Central America was estab- 
lished, Guzman joined the Federalists, and for his 
capture of the fortress of Omoa was promoted gen- 
eral in 1829. In February. 1840. he was taken 
prisoner, carried to Guatemala, and thrown into a 
dungeon. On 18 March, Gen. Morazan captured 
the city and liberated him. but the next day was 
driven out. Guzman remained in hiding in Gua- 
temala, emigrating afterward to Salvador. In 
August, 1848, Carrera's government fell, and Guz- 
man returned ; but when Carrera regained power, 
9 Aug., 1849, Guzman was again persecuted. The 
Liberal party chose him for their military leader, 
and he made a daring attempt on the city of Gua- 
temala in the night of 12 Oct., and had captured 



the main square, when a cannon-ball killed him, 
and his followers fled. 

GUZMAN, Joaquin Eufrasio, Central Ameri- 
can statesman, b. in Cartago, Costa Rica, in 1801 ; 
d. in San Miguel, Salvador, about 1875. In the 
dissensions between the Federal and Centralist par- 
ties, Guzman joined the former, and became lieu- 
tenant-colonel. He was elected vice-president of 
Salvador in 1844. with Gen. Malespin as president, 
and when, in the same year, war was declared with 
Guatemala, Guzman became acting president, while 
Malespin commanded the army in person. After- 
ward, while Malespin was making war on Nicara- 
gua, Guzman pronounced against him, 2 Feb., 
1845, and was joined by the greater part of the 
inhabitants of the capital, and a portion of Males- 
pin's little army. Malespin was deposed, and Guz- 
man assumed the executive office till the end of 
the presidential term. Malespin, with a force from 
Honduras, invaded the state, but was defeated and 
assassinated. Guzman was rewarded by the assem- 
bly with the rank of general of division, but fa- 
vored a free election, and in 1848 delivered the 
office to his successor, Aguilar. He was several 
times elected to the legislative assembly, the coun- 
cil of state, and the prefecture of the department 
where he ^resided. 

GUZMAN, Nufio Beltran de, Spanish con- 
queror, b. in Guadalajara, New Castile, in the 
latter part of the 15th century ; d. in Torrejon de 
Velasco, Spain, in 1544. He was one of the first 
judges of the island of Hispaniola, when he was 
suddenly appointed governor of the province of 
Panuco, Mexico. He took charge of his govern- 
ment on 20 May, 1528, and, not finding there the 
riches that he expected, he began to barter his In- 
dian subjects for horses and cattle from Hispani- 
ola. When Cortes retired to Texcoco, Guzman 
was nominated president of the audiencia, and 
took charge of the government of Mexico in De- 
cember, 1528. When Bishop Zumarraga opposed 
his cruelties, he resolved to set out. on a conquer- 
ing expedition to the west. Earlv in November, 
1529, he left Mexico with 500 Spaniards and 10,000 
Indian auxiliaries. He conquered the state of 
Jalisco, which he called Nueva Galicia, founded 
the city of Guadalajara on 3 Dec, 1530, and after- 
ward the towns of Lagos and Tepic, and sent an 
expedition under Cristobal de Onate to explore the 
northwestern coast, which penetrated to Culiacan 
and Magdalena in Sonora. When the new audien- 
cia under Fuenleal arrived in 1531, Guzman was 
indicted and ordered to appear in Mexico, but dis- 
obeyed, and captured Luis de Castilla, who had 
been sent with a force to subdue him. By royal 
decree of May, 1533, he was ordered to submit to 
the captain-general of Mexico, and, seeing him- 
self abandoned by the greater part of his follow- 
ers, he resolved to go to Spain. On his arrival in 
Mexico, he was well received by the new viceroy, 
Mendoza ; but a few days afterward Perez de la 
Torre, who had been commissioned by a royal de- 
cree to judge Guzman's administration, arrived 
and immediately imprisoned the latter. Guzman 
was kept in a dungeon over a year, sent to Spain 
in 1538, and confined in Torrejon de la Vega, where 
he died in poverty. He is said to have written a 
description of his conquest, under the title of " No- 
ticia y Relacion de la Conquista de Michoaean y 
Jalisco," the manuscript of which is mentioned by 
Lopez de Haro and Leon Pinelo, and was probably 
used by Mota Padilla in his " Historia de la Con- 
quista de r la Nueva Galicia." 

GUZMAN, Rui Diaz de, Spanish-American 
historian, b. in Paraguay in 1544. The date and 



guzmAn-blanco 



GWIN 



19 



place of his death are unknown. His father em- 
barked for America in 1540 in the suite of Cabeza 
de Vaca. The son served at an early age against 
the Indians, under the command of his father ; 
and, although in his writings he deplores the ex- 
termination of the natives and denounces the san- 
guinary policy of the conquerors, he showed little 
mercy toward them in the numerous conflicts in 
which he was engaged. The greater part of his 
life was passed in the province of Guayra, of 
which he became commander: but in this office 
he refused to acknowledge the supremacy of the 
governor of Paraguay, and was obliged to justify 
himself before the audience of Charcas. Aided 
by his notes and information gained from the 
conquerors, he undertook to relate the discovery 
and colonization of the Argentine provinces, un- 
der the title " Historia Argentina del descubri- 
miento poblacion y conquista de las provincias del 
Rio de la Plata." The dedication to the Duke of 
Medina bears date 25 July, 1612. In spite of its 
great merit, Guzman's work was not issued until 
De Angelis undertook the publication of the " Co- 
leccion de obras y documentos relativos a la histo- 
ria antigua y moderna de las provincias del Rio de 
la Plata, etc." (6 vols., Buenos Ayres, 1836). It 
appears in the beginning of the first volume, ac- 
companied by biographical researches of great in- 
terest. The work of Guzman has been copied by 
most historians that have written on the Argentine 
provinces.^ The narrative closes with 1575. 

GUZMAN-BLANCO, Antonio, president of 
Venezuela, b. in Caracas in 1830. His father. An- 
tonio, was a Venezuelan journalist and politician. 
The son was banished by the government of Gen. 
Castro, and accompanied Gen. Juan C. Falcon in 
his invasion of Venezuela, becoming his general 
secretary. After the final defeat of Falcon at Co- 
ple in September, 1860, Guzman accompanied his 
chief in his flight, and was sent to the West Indies 
to solicit assistance. Toward the end of 1861 he 
landed again with Falcon on the coast of Coro, and 
after numerous engagements signed on 22 May, 
1863, the treaty of Coche, by which arms were laid 
down, and a general assembly called at Victoria. 
which elected Falcon president and Guzraan-Blanco 
vice-president. The latter was at the same time 
secretary of the treasury, and went to London to 

negotiate a loan. 
On his return he 
was for a short 
time in charge 
of the executive, 
and afterward 
was elected presi- 
dent of congress. 
After the over- 
throw of Falcon 
in 1868, Guzman 
left the country, 
but headed a rev- 
olution in 1869, 
and in 1870 be- 
came provisional 
president with ex- 
traordinary pow- 
ers, ruling the 
country for years 
as a dictator. His 
successor, Gen. Alcantara, died in December, 1878, 
and there were several revolutionary uprisings, 
till Guzman assumed the government again. In 
the elections of 1883 Gen. Joaquin Crespo, one of 
his friends, was declared president, and Guzman- 
Bianco became ambassador to France, living with 




^*zUdyr->-* corL^S~&e****i>0 



great ostentation in Paris. In 1886 he again as- 
sumed the presidency. 

GWIN, William, naval officer, b. in Columbus, 
Bartholomew co., Ind., 5 Dec, 1832; i. on the 
Yazoo river. Miss., 3 Jan., 1863. He entered the 
navy as a midshipman, 7 April, 1847, and was pro- 
moted until he was commissioned lieutenant, 16 
Sept., 1855, and lieutenant-commander, 16 July, 
1862. At the beginning of the civil war he was 
assigned to the "Cambridge," doing blockading 
duty on the Atlantic coast. He was ordered in 
October, 1861, to the brig "Commodore Perry." 
and in January, 1862, to the command of the gun- 
boat " Tyler," of the western flotilla, in which he 
participated in the attacks on Fort Henry and 
Fort Donelson. He also took part in the battle of 
Shiloh, and distinguished himself in the expedi- 
tion up the Yazoo river in company with the 
" Carondelet," to meet the Confederate ram " Ar- 
kansas." After the accidental explosion on the 
" Mound City " at St. Charles, on White river, by 
which her commander, Capt. Kelly, was badly 
scalded, Lieut.-Com. Gwin took charge of the 
vessel, which he retained until he was transferred 
to the " Benton," the largest and most powerful of 
the river fleet. While in command of the latter 
vessel, and during the attack on Haines's Bluff, on 
the Yazoo river, he was mortally wounded. 

GWIN, William McKendree, senator, b. in 
Sumner countv, Tenn., 9 Oct., 1805; d. in New 
York city, 3 Sept., 1885. His father, the Rev. 
James Gwin, was a pioneer Methodist minister, 
and also served 
as a soldier 
on the frontier 
under Gen. An- 
drew Jackson. 
After receiving 
a classical edu- 
cation, the son 
studied law in 
Gallatin, Tenn., 
but abandoned it 
for medicine.and 
took his medical 
degree in 1828 
at Transylvania 
university. He 
then removed to 
Clinton, Miss., 
and obtained an •/->_ >£/ ^ 

extensive prac- t^f/^ 7 " ^S7£ -ecX-^^zW 
tice, but in 1833 

left the profession, and was appointed by President 
Jackson U. S. marshal for the district of Missis- 
sippi. In 1840 he was elected to congress as a 
Democrat, and became an adherent of John C. 
Calhoun. Declining a renomination for congress 
on account of financial embarrassment, he was ap- 
pointed, on the accession of James K. Polk to the 
presidency, to superintend the building of the new 
custom-house at New Orleans. On the election 
of Gen. Taylor he resigned and set out for Cali- 
fornia, where he arrived 4 June, 1849. His atten- 
tion had first been called to that country by Mr. 
Calhoun, who, when secretary of state, had laid his 
finger on the map where San Francisco now stands, 
saying, " There, when this bay comes into our pos- 
session, will spring up the great rival of New York." 
Dr. Gwin took an active part in favor of the for- 
mation of a state government, and was elected to 
the convention that was held in Monterey in Sep- 
tember to frame a constitution. In the ensuing 
December he was elected U. S. senator for the long 
term, with Gen. Fremont as his colleague. His 




20 



GWINNETT 



GZOWSKIE 



labors in the senate were incessant, and his success 
was remarkable. He maintained amicable relations 
with all parties, and his hospitable mansion became 
a neutral ground, where the leaders of rival factions 
met on social terms. On his return to California, 
in 1851, the legislature tendered him the thanks of 
the state for his services. In the following session 
he was a member of the finance committee and 
chairman of that on naval affairs. He secured the 
establishment of a mint in California, the survey 
of the Pacific coast, a navy-yard and station, with 
large appropriations, and carried through the sen- 
ate a bill providing for a line of steamers between 
San Francisco, China, and Japan, by way of the 
Sandwich islands. He was re-elected, and served 
till 3 March, 1861. At the beginning of the civil 
war he was arrested on accusation of disloyalty and 
imprisoned till 1863, when he went to Paris, where 
he became interested in a scheme to colonize So- 
nora with southerners. Dr. Gwin was invited to 
meet the emperor in private audiences, and in- 
terested him in the project. It is said that, on the 
invitation of the minister of foreign affairs, he 
drew up a plan for the colony, which was approved 
by Napoleon, and then submitted to Maximilian. 
The latter, who was at that time in Paris, requested 
Dr. Gwin's attendance at the Tuileries, and, after 
full inquiry, signified his approbation. Within two 
weeks after the departure of Maximilian for Mexi- 
co, Dr. Gwin also left, for that country, bearing an 
autograph letter from the emperor to Marshal Ba- 
zaine. The latter gave no encouragement to the 
colonization plan, nor did Dr. Gwin succeed in se- 
curing from Maximilian any satisfactory assurances 
of support. He returned to France in January, 
1865, and in an audience with the emperor frankly 
exposed the condition of affairs in Mexico. Napo- 
leon urged his immediate return to Mexico, with a 
peremptory order to Marshal Bazaine to supply the 
troops necessary to the full accomplishment of his 
scheme. This advice was taken, but Dr. Gwin still 
met with no success, and, demanding an escort to 
take him out of the country, which was promptly 
furnished, returned to his home in California. He 
continued to take an active part in politics, and 
engaged with energy in the canvass for the presi- 
dency in 1876 in the interest of Samuel J. Tilden. 
Dr. Gwin's personal appearance was impressive; 
he was tall, finely proportioned, with a massive 
head, and a face full of animation. 

GWINNETT, Button, signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, b. in England about 1732 ; 
d. in Georgia, 27 May, 1777. He received a good 
education, and after engaging in mercantile pur- 
suits for a time in Bristol, he emigrated to Charles- 
ton, S. C. and then removed to Savannah, Ga., where 
in 1765 he was established as a general trader. In 
1770 he purchased a plantation on St. Catherine's 
island, Ga., and gave his attention to agriculture. 
Previous to 1775 Mr. Gwinnett had not taken an 
active part in politics, but the subsequent enthusi- 
asm with which he maintained the colonial rights 
early attracted the attention of his fellow-citizens. 
At the meeting of the provincial assembly, held fn 
Savannah, 20 Jan., 1776, he was appointed a repre- 
sentative in congress, signed the Declaration of 
Independence on 4 July, and in October, 1776, was 
re-elected for the ensuing year. In February, 
1777, he was appointed a member of the state gov- 
ernment, and is said to have furnished the basis of 
the constitution that was afterward adopted. Af- 
ter the death of Mr. Bullock, president of the pro- 
vincial council, Mr. Gwinnett was appointed to 
the vacant office, 4 March, 1777, and in May. 1777, 
was an unsuccessful candidate for governor of the 




7bufurrL~ Ktvcrisii 



*> 



state. During the Revolution, Mr. Gwinnett's 
property was totally destroyed by the British. 
At the time that he 
represented Geor- 
gia in congress he 
became a candi- 
date for the com- 
mission of briga- 
dier-general of the 
continental bri- 
gade to be levied in 
Georgia, in opposi- 
tion to Gen. Lach- 
lan Mcintosh, but 
was unsuccessful. 
This so embittered 
his feelings against 
his successful op- 
ponent that he 
seems to have re- 
garded him as an 
enemy ever afterward. Various circumstances in- 
tensified his feeling of animosity, until finally Mr. 
Gwinnett challenged Gen. Mcintosh to a duel, 
which was fought on 15 May, 1777. Both contest- 
ants were wounded, the former so seriously as to 
result in his death. In 1886 a granite monument 
in commemoration of the memory of Gwinnett, 
Lyman Hall, and George Walton, the Georgia 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, was 
placed in front of the city hall, Augusta, Ga. 

GW YNNE, John Wellington, Canadian jurist, 
b. in Castle Knock, County Dublin, Ireland, 30 
March, 1814. He was educated at Trinity college, 
Dublin, and came to Canada in 1832. He studied 
law in Kingston, and was admitted to the bar of 
Upper Canada in 1837. From 1845 till 1852 he 
devoted himself to the formation and maintenance 
of a company for the construction, as part of a 
scheme of colonization, of a railway from Toronto 
to Lake Huron. He was an unsuccessful can- 
didate for the legislative assembly of Canada in 
1847, and was appointed a judge of the court of 
common pleas of Ontario in November, 1868. He 
declined appointment as one of the permanent 
judges of the court of appeal of Ontario in May, 
1874, and was appointed a justice of the supreme 
court in January, 1879. He was a member of the 
law-reform commission in 1871, and of the senate 
of the University of Toronto in 1873. 

GZOWSKIE, Casiinir Stanislaus (jov-ske), 
Canadian engineer, b. in St. Petersburg, Russia, in 
March, 1813. He is a son of a Polish noble, an officer 
of the Imperial guard. The son entered the military 
college in Kremenetz, in the province of Volhynia, 
when nine years of age, and was graduated there 
in 1830. In consequence of his connection with 
the Polish insurrection of 1830-2 he was exiled to 
the United States, arriving there in the latter year. 
He supported himself as a teacher of French and 
German in New York for a time, and subsequently 
removed to Pittsfield, Mass., where he studied law, 
and was admitted afterward to the bar of Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1841 he arrived in Toronto and became 
connected with the department of public works of 
Upper Canada. He has been identified with all 
the important engineering projects of Canada in 
railway construction, in river and railway bridge 
building, and in similar enterprises. The Inter- 
national bridge spanning the Niagara river, which 
is regarded as a fine specimen of engineering skill, 
was constructed by Col. Gzowskie and Sir David 
L. Macpherson. He has been president of the Do- 
minion rifle association, and in 1879 was appointed 
aide-de-camp to the queen. 



HABBERTON 



HABERSHAM 



21 



H 



HABBERTON, John, author, b. in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., 24 Feb., 1842. He lived in Illinois from his 
eighth till his seventeenth year, and was educated 
in the common school. He then went to New 
York, learned to set type in the establishment of 
Harper and Brothers, and subsequently entered 
their counting-room. He enlisted in the army as 
a private in 1862, rose to the rank of 1st lieutenant, 
and served through the war. He re-entered the 
employ of the Harpers in 1865, and remained there 
till 1872, when he went into business for himself, 
and in six months was bankrupt. He now became 
a contributor to periodicals, and was literarv editor 
of the "Christian Union" from 1874 till 1877, 
since which time he has been on the editorial staff 
of the New York " Herald." His first literary 
work was a series of sketches of western life. His 
"Helen's Babies" (which one publishing- house re- 
jected because it was too small for a book, another 
because it was too childish for adults to read, and 
a third on the ground that its moral tendency 
would be bad) was published in Boston in 1876, 
and has sold to the extent of more than 250,000 
copies in the United States. Eleven different 
English editions of it have appeared, besides sev- 
eral in the British colonies, and it has been trans- 
lated into French, German, and Italian. "This 
book." says the author, " grew out of an attempt 
to keep for a single day a record of the doings of 
a brace of boys of whom the author is half owner." 
Mr. Habberton's other publications are " The Bar- 
ton Experiment " (New York, 1877) ; " The Jericho 
Road" (Chicago, 1877); "The Scripture Club of 
Valley Rest " (New York, 1877) ; " Other People's 
Children" (1877); "Some Folks," a collection of 
short stories (1877) ; " The Crew of the Sam Wel- 
ler" (1878); "Canoeing in Kanuckia," in connec- 
tion with Charles L. Norton (1878) ; " The Worst 
Bov in Town" (1880); "Just One Dav" (1880); 
"Who was Paul Grayson?" (1881); "The Bow- 
sham Puzzle " (1883) : a humorous " Life of Wash- 
ington " (1883) : " One Tramp " (1884) ; and " Brue- 
ton's Bayou " (1886). He has edited selected essays 
from the " Spectator," " Tatler," " Guardian," and 
" Freeholder^' (3 vols., 1876-'8). His first drama, 
" Deacon Crankett," was produced in 1880. 

HABERSHAM, James, statesman, b. in Bev- 
erly, Yorkshire, England, in 1712 ; d. in New 
Brunswick, N. J., 28 Aug., 1775. Little is known 
of his parentage, except that it was noble. When 
he was asked by his sons the meaning of the title 
" Honorable " prefixed to his name on old letters, 
he replied that such things were worse than useless 
in a colony, as they tended to promote pride and 
unchristian feeling. In company with his friend, 
George Whitefield, the evangelist, he arrived in 
Savannah, Ga., on 7 May, 1738, and opened a school 
for orphans and destitute children at Bethesda, 
nine miles from that town, but in 1744 became a 
merchant. In 1750 he was appointed with Picker- 
ing Robinson a commissioner to advance the cul- 
ture of silk in the colony, and in 1754 became sec- 
retary of the province and one of the councillors. 
In 1767 he was one of the presidents of the upper 
house of assembly, and in 1769-'72 he officiated as 

fovernor during the absence of Sir James Wright, 
[e raised at Bethesda the first cotton in the state, 
and sent the first few bales that were exported 
thence to England. — His son, Joseph, statesman, 
b. in Savannah, Ga., 28 July, 1751 ; d. there, 17 
Nov., 1815, was one of the members of the first 







commission appointed by the friends of liberty 
in Georgia in July, 1774, and one of those who 
on 11 June, 1775, on receiving intelligence of 
the skirmish at Lexington, seized the powder in 
the royal magazine in Savannah for the use of 
the patriots. In June of that year he was ap- 
pointed a member of the council of safety, and in 
July commanded a party that captured a govern- 
ment ship with munitions of war, including 15,000 
pounds of powder. On 18 Jan., 1776, while a mem- 
ber of the assembly, he raised a body of volun- 
teers, who took Gov. 
Wright prisoner, and 
confined him to his 
house under a guard. 
Hewasappointed ma- 
jor of the 1st Georgia 
battalion, 4 Feb., 
1776, and defended 
Savannah from a 
British naval attack 
early in March. Af- 
ter Savannah was 
taken in the winter 
of 1778, he removed 
his family to Vir- 
ginia, but on the 
landing of D'Estaing 
participated in the 
disastrous attack on 
Savannah in 1779. 
At the close of the war he held the rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel. He was a member of the state as- 
sembly and its speaker in 1785 and 1790, and was 
postmaster-general of the United States from 25 
Feb., 1795, to 28 Nov., 1801. He was president of 
the branch of the U. S. bank at Savannah from 
1802 until the expiration of its charter. — Another 
son, John, soldier, b. in Savannah, Ga., in 1754: 
d. near Savannah, 19 Nov., 1799, received a good 
English education and engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits. He took an active part in the pre-Revolu- 
tionary movements, and was afterward major of 
the 1st Georgia Continental regiment. He was 
greatly trusted by the Indians, and after the Revo- 
lution Washington appointed him Indian agent. 
He was a member of the Continental congress 
from Georgia in 1785-'6, and was collector of cus- 
toms at Savannah in 1789-'99. — John's son, Joseph 
Clay, physician, b. in Savannah, Ga., 18 Nov., 
1790 ; d. there, 2 Nov., 1855. was educated at Prince- 
ton and at the University of Pennsylvania, where 
he was graduated in medicine in 1814. He began 
practice in Savannah in 1815, continuing there till 
his death. He was health officer of Savannah, 
president of the medical society of Georgia, and 
was noted for his benevolence and for his love of 
science. — James's grandson, Richard Wylly,con- 
gressman, b. in Savannah, Ga., in 1786 ; d. in Clarkes- 
ville, Ga., 2 Dec, 1842, was graduated at Princeton 
in 1805, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and 
began practice in Savannah, where he attained note 
in his profession. In 1835, becoming interested in 
the gold-mines of that region, he removed to 
Clarkesville, Habersham co. He was elected a rep- 
resentative from Georgia in congress and served 
from 1839 till his death. He was much praised for 
his resignation of the office of U. S. district attor- 
ney in 1825, when a collision between the adminis- 
tration of John Quincy Adams and Gov. George M. 
Troup was imminent. Mr. Habersham induced the 



22 



HACKETT 



HACKETT 



Georgia delegation to vote for the appropriation 
which, carried by a majority of three, enabled 
Morse to construct his first telegraph-line, from 
Washington to Baltimore. He was the author of 
the minority report on the tariff in 1842. — His son, 
Alexander Wylly, naval officer, b. in New York 
city, 24 March, 1826; d. in Baltimore, Md., 26 
March, 1883, entered the navy as midshipman in 
1841, became passed midshipman in 1847, master, 
14 Sept., 1855, and lieutenant on the following day. 
On 30 May, 1860, he resigned from the service and 
became a merchant in Japan, being the first to in- 
troduce Japanese tea into this country. He re- 
turned at the beginning of the civil war, and was 
for six months a prisoner in Fort McHenry. After 
the war he engaged in business in Baltimore, which 
he pursued until his death. Besides numerous arti- 
cles in periodicals he published " My Last Cruise," 
an account of the U. S. North Pacific exploring 
expedition (2d ed., Philadelphia, 1857). 

HACKETT, Horatio Balch, biblical scholar, 
b. in Salisbury, Mass., 27 Dec, 1808 ; d. in Roches- 
ter, N. Y., 2 Nov., 1875. He was graduated at Am- 
herst in 1830, studied theology at Andover seminary 
until 1834, and afterward at Halle and Berlin, in 
Germany. He became a tiitor in Amherst, in 1835 
professor of ancient languages in Brown univer- 
sity, and in 1839 of biblical literature in Newton 
theological institution. In 1851-2 he travelled in 
Italy, Egypt, Palestine, and other countries. In 
1858-'9 he resided several months in Athens, for 
the purpose of studying modern Greek, as auxiliary 
to the interpretation of the New Testament, and 
visited places in and near Greece possessing a bib- 
lical interest. In 1869 he resigned his professor- 
ship at Newton, and in 1870 became professor 
of New Testament Greek in Rochester theologi- 
cal seminary. In 1862 Amherst conferred on him 
the degrees of D. D. and LL. D. He published 
Plutarch's " De Sera Numinis Vindicta," with notes 
(Andover, 1844) ; translated and enlarged Winer's 
" Chaldee Grammar " (1845) ; and issued a " Hebrew 
Grammar " and " Hebrew Reader " (1847) ; a " Com- 
mentary on the Acts " (Boston, 1851 ; new ed., 
greatly extended, 1858) ; " Illustrations of Scrip- 
ture suggested by a Tour through the Holy Land " 
(1855); translation of the "Epistle to Philemon, 
with Notes " (1860) ; " Memorials of Christian Men 
in the War" (1864); translation of Van Ooster- 
zee's " Commentary on Philemon," for Schaff 's edi- 
tion of Lange's " Commentary " (1868) ; and trans- 
lation of Braune's " Commentary on Philippians," 
with additions, for Lange's " Commentary " (1870). 
He contributed to the English edition of Smith's 
" Dictionary of the Bible," and with Dr. Ezra Ab- 
bott edited the American edition. He also edited 
the American edition of Rawlinson's " Historical 
Illustrations of the Old Testament," with notes 
and appendix (1873). He was one of the Ameri- 
can revisers of the English Bible, and contributed 
much to religious periodicals. 

HACKETT, James Henry, actor, b. in New 
York city, 15 March, 1800 ; d. in Jamaica, L. I., 28 
Dec, 1871. He was educated at Union Hill acad- 
emy, Flushing, L. I., in 1815 studied a year in 
Columbia, and for a short time read law. In 1817 
he entered a counting-room, and two years after- 
ward married Katherine Lee-Sugg, an actress. He 
then removed to Utica, N. Y., to begin business 
for himself. In 1819 Hackett returned to his na- 
tive place, and engaged in commercial ventures 
that led to his financial ruin. He had always a 
predilection for the stage, as a boy had joined 
an amateur association, and in 1816 went so far 
as to appear several times, under an assumed 




name, with a strolling company in Newark, N. J. 
After his business failure, inclination and the en- 
couragement of his wife induced him to venture 
before the New York public. He began his ca- 
reer in the part of Justice Woodcock in "Love 
in a Village," and on succeeding nights per- 
formed as Sylvester Doggerwood, a part wherein 
he gave striking imitations of noted actors, sketches 
of Yankee charac- 
ters, and a capital 
representation of one 
of the Dromios in 
Shakespeare's " Com- 
edy of Errors." In 
the latter he close- 
ly copied the Jewish 
visage and peculiar 
farcical drawl of 
John Barnes, a noted 
comedian. His rep- 
resentations of Yan- 
kees, western pio- 
neers, and French- 
men assured his suc- 
cess, and on 6 April, 
1827, he sought to 
extend his reputation 
by appearing at the 
Covent Garden and Surrey theatres in London. He 
repeated the experiment of appearing before a Lon- 
don public in 1832, 1840, 1845, and 1851, but failed 
to win success. Returning in 1828, he played Rich- 
ard III., Monsieur Morbleau, in imitation of Charles 
Matthews, Rip Van Winkle, Solomon Swop, and 
Col. Nimrod Wildfire — a wide range of charac- 
ters. Hackett's " Monsieur Tonson, come again," 
spoken in the French farce, was for many years a 
common quotation, and more than once repeated 
in speeches delivered in congress. His characteri- 
zation of Rip Van Winkle was that of a genuine 
Hollander of the heavy Knickerbocker style, en- 
tirely unlike Jefferson's Germanized representation. 
Solomon Swop was the first well-drawn character 
of the conventional stage Yankee. "Col. Wild- 
fire " was an extravaganza founded on the com- 
bined characters of Col. Bowie and Daniel Boone. 
Such were the beginnings of American comedy, all 
of which must be placed to the credit of James 
Henry Hackett. In 1829, for a brief period, he be- 
came co-manager of the New York Bowery theatre, 
and for a season manager of the Chatham. Aban- 
doning management, he again made tours through- 
out the Union, winning a fair degree of success. 
He became lessee of the New York National theatre 
in 1837, and was eventually interested in the Astor 
Place opera-house. In 1840 Hackett added to his 
repertory O'Callaghan, an Irish character : Sir Perti- 
nax MacSycophant, a Scottish part ; and the Shake- 
spearian roles of Falstaff, Hamlet, and King Lear. 
Hackett's Hamlet was a pronounced failure ; Lear 
possessed many points of interest that caused much 
critical comment ; but his Falstaff, for many years, 
remained the best on the English stage. In 1854 
Hackett brought to this country the famous Italian 
singers Grisi and Mario for a tour of eight months. 
This venture yielded him a handsome return, and 
for years thereafter he led a retired life. His last 
public engagement was in 1871, as manager of the 
Howard athenaeum in Boston. Hackett was a pol- 
ished gentleman, and the intimate companion of 
Irving, Paulding, Cooper, Halleck, John Quincy 
Adams, and other notabilities of his day. He 
published " Notes and Comments on Shakspeare " 
(New York, 1863). — His wife, Katherine, actress, 
b. in England about 1797 ; d. in Jamaica, L. I., 



HACKLEY 



HADLEY 



23 



9 Dec, 1845, was the daughter of the English 
ventriloquist, Lee-Sugg, and began her theatrical 
career at the age of seven, on the London stage. 
She came to the United States from the Bir- 
mingham theatre, and in 1819 appeared at the 
New York Park, as Miss Lee-Sugg, in the part of 
Jessie Oatland, in which she displayed a well-trained 
contralto voice. In the same year she was married, 
and retired from the stage. After an intermission of 
seven years, when her husband had failed in business, 
Mrs. Hackett appeared at the Park theatre, mostly 
in operettas, and continued to play until 1832. Her 
last appearance was in 1838, at the National theatre, 
for her husband's benefit, as Susan in " Perfection." 
Mrs. Hackett's forte was comedy and operetta, 
although she sometimes performed tragic parts. 
In "The Croakers" Halleck thus mentions her: 
" There's sweet Miss Lee-Sugg — by the way, she's 

not pretty — 
She's a little too large, and has not too much 

grace, 
Yet there's something about her so witching 

and witty, 
'Tis pleasure to gaze on her good-humored 

face." 
— Their son, John Keteltas, lawyer, b. in Utica, 
N. Y., 13 Feb., 1821 ; d. in New York city, 26 Dec, 
1879, was educated at Columbia, and at the Uni- 
versity of the city of New York, where he was 
graduated in 1837. He then studied law in Utica, 
and was admitted to the bar in Albany, N. Y. In 
1850-'7 he resided in California, where he was for 
some time corporation-counsel for San Francisco. 
He was made assistant corporation-counsel of New 
York city in 1863, and in 1866 became recorder of 
the city, which office he held till his death. He 
was noted for his independence on the bench. 

HACKLEY, Charles Elihu, physician, b. in 
Unadilla, N. Y., 22 Feb., 1836. He was gradu- 
ated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1856, 
and at the medical school in 1860. He was sur- 
geon in the 2d U. S. cavalry in 1861-'4, and was 
surgeon-in-chief of the 3d cavalry division. Army 
of the Potomac He was appointed physician to 
the New York hospital in 1867, was surgeon to the 
New York eye and ear infirmary in 1865-'75, and 
clinical professor of diseases of the eye and ear in 
the Women's medical college, New York, in 1870-'6. 
He has translated Stell wag's " Diseases of the Eve" 
(1867); Niemeyer's "Practical Medicine" (1869); 
Billroth's "Surgical Pathology" (1871); and has 
written articles in Wood's " Reference Handbook 
of the Medical Sciences," and other contributions 
to medical literature. 

HACKLEY, Charles William, educator, b. in 
Herkimer county, N. Y., 9 March, 1809 ; d. in New 
York city, 10 Jan., 1861. He was graduated at the 
U. S. military academy in 1829, and was assist- 
ant professor there till 1832. He then studied law, 
and subsequently theology, and was ordained as 
a clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal church 
in 1835. He was professor of mathematics in the 
University of New York till 1838, and afterward 
president of Jefferson college, Mississippi, and 
rector of St. Peter's church in Auburn. N. Y. In 
1843 he was appointed professor of mathematics 
and astronomy in Columbia college, and in 1857 
was transferred to that of astronomy alone, which 
he held till his death. He exerted himself particu- 
larly to establish an astronomical observatory in 
New York city. Prof. Hackley contributed to daily 
and weekly journals and to scientific periodicals, 
and published a " Treatise on Algebra " (New York, 
1846) ; " Elementary Course in Geometry " (1847) ; 
and " Elements of Trigonometry " (1850). 



HACKLEMAN, Pleasant Adam, soldier, b. 
in Franklin county, Ind., 15 Nov., 1814; d. near 
Corinth, Miss., 4 Oct., 1862. His father. Major 
John Hackleman, fought in the war of 1812. After 
engaging for a number of years in farming, the son 
studied law, and was admitted to the bar in May, 
1837. He began practice in Rushville. rose rap- 
idly to distinction in his profession, and in August, 
1837, was elected judge of the probate court of 
Rush county, which office he held till 1841, when 
he was elected to the state house of representa- 
tives. After serving for several years as clerk of 
Rush county, he was, in 1847 and 1858, a candi- 
date for congress, but was defeated. In 1860 he 
was a member of the Republican national con- 
vention at Chicago, and in 1861 of the peace con- 
ference at Washington. He entered the national 
service in May, 1861, as colonel of the 16th In- 
diana regiment, and, after the first battle of Bull 
Run, served under Gen. Banks in Virginia. He 
was made a brigadier-general, 28 April," 1862, and 
in June was ordered to report to Gen. Grant in the 
southwest. He took an active part in the battle 
of Corinth, where he was killed on the second day. 

HADDEN, James Murray, soldier, b. in Eng- 
land ; d. in Harpenden. England. 28 Oct., 1817. He 
was educated at Woolwich, and served under Bur- 
goyne and Cornwallis, was appointed lieutenant of 
artillery, 7 July, 1779, promoted to a captaincy in 
March, 1784, became colonel in 1804, and major- 
general in 1811. After the Revolution he went to 
England, and was adjutant-general under Sir 
Charles Stuart during the stay of the latter in 
Portugal. His journal in this country has been 
edited bv Gen. Horatio Rogers (Albany, 1884). 

HADDOCK, Charles Brickett, author, b. in 
Franklin. N. H., 20 June, 1796 ; d. in West Leba- 
non, N. H., 15 Jan., 1861. His mother was a sis- 
ter of Daniel Webster. He was graduated at 
Dartmouth in 1816 and at Andover seminary in 
1819, when he returned to Dartmouth. He occu- 
pied the chair of rhetoric and belles-lettres there 
from 1819 till 1838, and that of intellectual phi- 
losophy and political economy from 1838 till 1854. 
He was U. S. charge d'affaires in Portugal from 
1850 till 1854. He was four years in the New 
Hampshire legislature, where he introduced and 
carried the present common-school system of the 
state, and was the first school commissioner under 
that system. He was the originator of the rail- 
road system in New Hampshire, wrote with ability 
on many subjects, and was thoroughly versed in 
public law. His anniversary orations, lectures, 
reports for fifteen years on education, sermons, 
writings on agriculture, and rhetoric are numer- 
ous. He published a volume of addresses and 
other writings, including occasional sermons (1846), 
and was a contributor to the " Bibliotheca Sacra," 
" Biblical Repertory," and other periodicals. 

HADDOCK, John A., aeronaut, b. 17 Oct., 1823. 
In companionship with John La Mountain he made 
the second of two memorable balloon journeys, for 
the purpose of testing the upper currents of the at- 
mosphere as a means of travelling. The two voy- 
agers left Watertown, N. Y.. on 22 Sept., 1859. late 
in the afternoon, and sailed almost due north to 
a point 150 miles north of Ottawa city. Canada, 
making the journey of 300 miles, the greater part 
of it after dark, in about four hours. 

HADLEY, James, philologist, b. in Fairfield, 
N. Y., 30 March, 1821 ; d. in New Haven, Conn.. 14 
Nov., 1872. He received his early instruction at 
the Fairfield academy, and also acquired some scien- 
tific knowledge from his father, who was professor 
of chemistry in the College of physicians and sur- 



24 



HADLEY 



HAGARTY 



geons of the western district of New York in Fair- 
field. Subsequently the son became an assistant in 
the academy, but afterward entered Yale as a jun- 
ior, and was graduated in 1842. After a year spent 
as a resident graduate, he entered the theological 
seminary, where he remained for two years, ex- 
cept from September, 1844, till April, 1845, when 
he was tutor in mathematics at Middlebury col- 
lege. In September, 1845, he became tutor of 
classical history in Yale, which office he held for 
three years, when he was appointed assistant pro- 
fessor of Greek. He continued as such until 
July, 1851, when he succeeded President Theodore 
D. Woolsey as full professor, and continued to 
hold the chair until his death. Prof. Hadley's 
philological studies made him known throughout 
the world. He was also well versed in civil law. 
His course of lectures on that subject was included 
in the curriculum of the Yale law-school, and was 
likewise delivered at Harvard. He was also one 
of the American committee for the revision of 
the New Testament. Prof. Hadley was one of the 
original members of the American Oriental soci- 
ety, and its president in 1870-2, an active mem- 
ber of the American philological association and 
of the National academy of sciences. He was a 
frequent contributor to reviews, and his larger 
works were " A Greek Grammar for Schools and 
Colleges " (New York, 1860) ; " A Brief History of 
the English Language," contributed as an intro- 
duction to Webster's " American Dictionary of the 
English Language " (Springfield, 1864) ; and " Ele- 
ments of the Greek Language " (New York, 1869). 
After his death there appeared, edited by Presi- 
dent Woolsey, twelve lectures on "Roman Law" 
(New York, 1873), and a series of twenty " Philo- 
logical and Critical Essays " (1873), edited by Prof. 
William D. Whitney. — His brother, Henry Ham- 
ilton, educator, b. in Fairfield, N. Y., 19 July, 
1826 ; d. in Washington, D. C, 1 Aug., 1864, was 
graduated at Yale in 1845, with the highest honors 
of his class. Subsequently he held the office of 
tutor for two years, meanwhile pursuing theologi- 
cal studies, and finally completed his course at An- 
dover in 1853. He then spent some time in New 
York studying law, but returned to New Haven, 
and there spent more than three years in theologi- 
cal pursuits, especially in a systematic study of the 
Hebrew language and the Old Testament scriptures. 
In 1858 he became instructor of sacred literature 
in Union theological seminary, New York, and ac- 
cepted the chair of Hebrew there in 1862. During 
1861 he held the professorship of Hebrew in the 
theological department of Yale. At the beginning 
of the civil war he was prevented by his friends 
from enlisting in the army, but paid for two sub- 
stitutes from his own purse. During the summer 
vacation of 1864 he offered his time for the work 
of the U. S. sanitary commission, and was sent 
to City Point, Va., where his excessive labors and 
the hot weather induced fever, from the "effects 
of which he died. His publications were confined 
to articles that he contributed to the " American 
Theological Review." — Arthur Twining, son of 
James, political economist, b. in New Haven, Conn., 
23 April, 1856, was graduated at Yale in 1876, and 
then studied in the University of Berlin. In 1879 
he became a tutor at Yale, and in 1883 was ap- 
pointed lecturer on political science, becoming 
professor of that subject in 1886. He was ap- 
pointed commissioner of labor statistics of Con- 
necticut in 1885, and in that capacity published 
reports in 1885 and 1886. Prof. Hadley has made 
a special study of railroads, and contributed much 
to periodicals on that subject. He has written an 



article on " Railway Legislation " for the " Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica " (1885), a series for Lalor's 
14 Cyclopaedia of Political Science " (1884), and 
" Railroad Transportation ; its History and its 
Laws " (New York, 1885), which has been trans- 
lated into French and Russian. 

HAENKE, Thaddeus, South American natural- 
ist, b. in Kreibitz, Bohemia, 5 Oct., 1761 ; d. in 
Cochabamba, Peru, in 1817. He studied in the 
universities of Prague and Vienna, and devoted 
himself to botany, especially under the guidance of 
Jacquin, to whose "Collectanea" he contributed 
an account of the " Flora of the Austrian Alps." 
In 1789 he entered the service of the Spanish gov- 
ernment as botanist, in order to accompany Malas- 
pina in his tour round the world. Having reached 
Spain too late, he embarked at Cadiz for Monte- 
video, and, after suffering shipwreck, finally joined 
Malaspina, in Chili, accompanying him in his voy- 
age to the north, along the American coast as far 
as Nootka sound in Vancouver island. He re- 
turned by sea to the port of Acapulco and trav- 
elled through every part of Mexico. He then em- 
barked again, and, after visiting several groups of 
islands in the South sea, landed at Concepcion, 
Chili, in 1794. He purchased land thirty miles 
from Cochabamba, Peru, and passed the rest of 
his life alternately in Cochabamba or on his estate, 
on which he opened and worked a silver-mine. He 
ascended the volcano of Arequipa, and published 
notes of his geological observations, founded a bo- 
tanic garden at Cochabamba, and enriched it 
with exotic plants collected in his travels. He 
took poison by mistake in 1817, and died from its 
effects. He bequeathed his botanic collections to 
his native country, but only a part of them reached 
their destination. They were placed in the Na- 
tional museum of Prague. Haenke did not pub- 
lish any narrative of his explorations, but left 
numerous notes on his collections and some manu- 
scripts, which other botanists have utilized. The 
" Reliquiae Haenkianae " was published after his 
death (Prague, 1825). In the beginning of this 
work there is a life of the naturalist by Count von 
Sternberg. A copy of Haenke's " Introduccion 6 
la historia natural de Cochabamba," printed in 
Lima and dated 15 Feb., 1799, fell into the hands 
of Azara, who published it in his " Travels in 
South America." A memoir addressed by Haenke 
to the governor of the province of Cochabamba, 
and dated 20 April, 1799, entitled " Memoria sobre 
los rios navegables que fluyen al Maranon, proce- 
dentes de las Cordilleras del Peru," was published 
by Jose Arenales (Buenos Ayres, 1833). 

HA(xA, Godfrey, philanthropist, b. in Isingen, 
Wurtemberg, 30 Nov., 1745; d. in Philadelphia, 
Pa., 5 Feb., 1825. After emigrating to this coun- 
try, he settled in Philadelphia, where he became a 
merchant, and was connected with the principal 
charitable and mercantile institutions of the city. 
He was a member of the Philadelphia city council 
in 1797-1800, and of the Pennsylvania legislature 
in 1800-'l. He bequeathed an estate valued at 
$350,000 to charitable purposes. 

HAGARTY, John Hawkins, Canadian jurist, 
b. in Dublin, Ireland, 17 Dec, 1816. He entered 
Trinity college, Dublin, in 1832, but two years 
afterward emigrated to Canada, and settled in 
Toronto. There he studied law, and in 1840 was 
admitted to the bar of Upper Canada. In 1850 
he was made queen's counsel, in 1856 was ap- 
pointed a judge, and in 1868 chief justice of the 
court of common pleas. He was subsequently 
transferred to the court of queen's bench, and in 
1878 became chief justice of Ontario. 



HAGEN 



HAGNER 



25 



HAGEN, Hermann August, entomologist, b. in 
KOnigsberg, Prussia, 30 May, 1817. For the last two 
htmdred and fifty years some ancestor of his has 
been connected with the University of Konigsberg. 
Young Hagen was graduated at the gymnasium 
in 1836, and received his medical degree from the 
university in his native city in 1840, also studying 
later in Berlin, Vienna, Paris, and elsewhere. 
Meanwhile he devoted considerable attention to 
entomology, and in 1834 published his first paper 
on " Prussian Odontata." In 1843 he returned to 
Konigsberg, entered on the general practice of 
medicine, and for three years was first assistant at 
the surgical hospital. From 1863 till 1867 he was 
vice-president of the city council and member of 
the school-board. While holding these offices he 
was invited by Louis Agassiz to come to Cambridge 
as assistant in entomology at the Museum of com- 
parative zoology, and in 1870 was made professor 
of that science at Harvard. In 1863 he received 
the honorary degree of Ph. D. from the University 
of Konigsberg, and he is a fellow of the American 
association for the advancement of science, besides 
being a member of other scientific societies. His 
publications include upward of four hundred arti- 
cles, of which the most important is his " Biblio- 
theca Entomologica " (Leipsic, 1862). 

HAGEN, Theodore, musician, b. in Hamburg, 
Germany, 15 April, 1823 ; d. in New York city, 27 
Dec., 1871. He studied music in his native city and 
in Paris ; in the latter city from 1841 till 1843. Soon 
after his return to Germany he became known as 
a writer on musical topics, especially as a contribu- 
tor to Schumann's " Neue Zeitschrift filr Musik " 
and as the author of a book entitled, in its English 
translation, " Civilization and Music." He came 
to New York in 1854, and assumed the editorship 
of the " Musical Gazette," which was at the end of 
about six months consolidated with another jour- 
nal under the title of the " New York Musical Re- 
view and Gazette," of which in 1862 he became 
both editor and proprietor. Besides the work men- 
tioned above he wrote "Musical Novels" (1848). 

HAGER, Albert David, geologist, b. in Ches- 
ter, Vt., 1 Nov., 1817; d. in Chicago, 111., 29 July, 
1888. He was educated in his native place, and in 
1856 was assistant naturalist of Vermont. He was 
assistant state geologist under Prof. Edward Hitch- 
cock in 1857-61. and state geologist and curator of 
the state cabinet of natural history in 1862-'70. In 
the latter year he was appointed state geologist of 
Missouri, and in 1877 he became librarian of the 
Chicago historical society. Mr. Hager was com- 
missioner from Vermont to the Paris exposition of 
1867. He published " Geology of Vermont," with 
Prof. Hitchcock (2 vols., Claremont, N. H., 1861); 
the annual reports of the Vermont fish commission 
(Montpelier, Vt., 1866-'9) ; " Economic Geology of 
Vermont " ; and a report on the geological survey 
of Missouri (1871). 

HAGER, John Sharpenstien, senator, b. in 
Morris county, N. J.. 12 March, 1818. He was 
graduated at Princeton in 1836, studied law, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1840. He settled in 
Morristown, N. J., practising his profession until 
1849, when he went to California. He served in 
the state senate in 1852- '4, and again in 1867-73. 
In 1855 he was elected state district judge for the 
district of San Francisco, and served six years. In 
1871 he became a regent of the University of Cali- 
fornia, which he had been active in establishing. 
He was elected to the U. S. senate as an anti- 
monopoly Democrat, and served from 9 Feb., 1874, 
till 3 March, 1875, filling the unexpired term of 
Eugene Casserly, resigned. He has since been a 



member of the convention that framed the present 
constitution of California, and was president of the 
convention that adopted a new charter for San 
Francisco under that constitution. He was ap- 
pointed in 1885 collector of the port of San Fran- 
cisco, which office he still (1887) holds. 

HAGERT, Henry Schell. lawver. b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 2 May, 1826 ; d. there, 18 Dec, 1885. 
He was graduated at the Central high-school, Phil- 
adelphia, in 1842, admitted to the bar, 8 May, 
1847. and soon afterward became solicitor for the 
board of guardians of the poor. After the con- 
solidation of the city in 1854 he was appointed as- 
sistant city solicitor, and as such drafted many of 
the most important city ordinances. He served as 
assistant district attorney in 1856-'7. 1868-'71, and 
1875-'8, and as district attorney in 1878-'81. He 
was especially distinguished as a nisi prius law- 
yer. In early life he contributed prose and poetry 
to periodicals; and after his death a volume of 
his poems, with a memoir by Charles A. Lagen, 
was printed privately (Philadelphia, 1886). 

HAGNER, Peter, financier, b. in Philadelphia, 
Pa., 1 Oct., 1772 ; d. in Washington, D. C, 16 July, 
1850. He was appointed a clerk in the treasury 
department by Gen. Washington in 1793, assistant 
accountant of the war department in 1797, and 
third auditor by Mr. Monroe when that office was 
created in 1817. He served under every admin- 
istration for fifty-six consecutive years, resigning 
his office in 1849. Twice by direct votes congress 
expressed its appreciation of his services in the 
settlement of large and important claims. This 
office became at one time so prominent, from the 
calls made upon its chief by congress, before the 
institution of the court of claims, that John Ran- 
dolph, of Roanoke, pausing in debate for a phrase 
to express his sense of the influence of the Emperor 
Nicholas in the affairs of Europe, styled him " the 
great third auditor of nations." — His son, Peter 
Valentine, soldier, b. in Washington, D. C, 28 
Aug., 1815, was graduated at the U. S. military 
academy in 1836, and assigned to the 1st artillery. 
He served on topographical duty, took part in the 
Florida campaign of 1836-'7 with a field battery, 
was assigned to frontier duty during the Canada 
border disturbances until July, 1838, and then 
transferred to the ordnance corps. On 22 May, 
1840, he was promoted 1st lieutenant of ordnance. 
In the war with Mexico he was attached to the 
siege-train company of ordnance of Gen. Scott's 
army, brevetted captain for " gallant and merito- 
rious conduct " at Cerro Gordo, 18 April, 1847, and 
major for Chapultepec, 13 Sept., 1847. He was 
wounded at the San Cosme gate in the assault and 
capture of the city of Mexico the day following. 
Maj. Hagner made a visit to Europe under orders 
from the secretary of war in 1848-'9, inspecting 
laboratories and manufactories of percussion-caps, 
and procuring information upon the systems of 
artillery and the armament and equipment of 
troops. He was promoted to captain of ordnance, 
10 July, 1851, and major of ordnance, 3 Aug., 
and was in command of various arsenals and in- 
spector of powder until the beginning of the civil 
war. On 25 April, 1861, he was assigned to the 
duty of ordering, inspecting, and purchasing arms 
and ordnance stores, and in March, 1862, appointed 
assistant to the commission on ordnance contracts 
and claims. He was inspector of the factories mak- 
ing small arms for the government till 25 Dec, 
1863, when he was assigned to the command of the 
Watervliet arsenal ; was made lieutenant-colonel of 
ordnance, 1 June, 1863, brevetted colonel and 
brigadier-general, U. S. army, 13 March, 1865, for 



26 



HAGOOD 



HAGUE 



his services in the ordnance department, and ad- 
vanced to the rank of colonel of ordnance, 7 March, 
1867. Pie was placed on the retired list, 1 June, 
1881, at his own request, having been in the service 
for more than fortv years. 

HAGOOD, Johnson, lawyer, b. in West Vir- 
ginia in 1771; d. in Charleston, S. C, in 1816. 
When he was four years old his father's family re- 
moved to Ninety-Six, S. C. He was on one occa- 
sion sent out in the night, when about seven years 
of age, to procure medical assistance for his father's 
family, and passed through the scene of one of the 
guerilla skirmishes so frequent at that time. Sev- 
eral corpses were, lying unburied on the field, and 
wolves were feeding on them. His nerves were 
severely tried, but he performed his errand. At 
the age of fourteen the lad determined to take 
care of himself, and walked sixty miles to Granby, 
where he succeeded in obtaining employment in a 
country store. At the end of a year he went to 
Charleston and entered a lawyer's office, having 
access to books, and attending a night-school. He 
soon began the study of law, was admitted to the 
bar in 1793 at the age of twenty-two, and imme- 
diately became a partner with his patron, who was 
elected to congress, and left to young Hagood the 
entire management of his practice. He practised 
law until 1813, and attained note in his profession. 
Mr. Hagood also devoted much attention to natu- 
ral sciences, was interested in the study of elec- 
tricity and galvanism, and procured from Europe 
extensive apparatus for his experiments. He edu- 
cated his younger brothers and sisters and several 
children of his poorer neighbors. In 1806 he pur- 
chased lands, and, gradually withdrawing from 
practice, devoted himself to their improvement. 

HAGUE, William, clergyman, b. in Pelham, 
N. Y„ 4 Jan., 1808 ; d. in Boston, Mass., 1 Aug., 
1887. He was graduated at Hamilton in 1826, and 
at the Newton theological institution in 1829. On 
20 Oct. of the latter year he became pastor of the 
2d Baptist church at Utica, N. Y., where he re- 
mained until 1831. He held pastorates in Boston, 
Providence, and New York city. He was elected 
professor of homiletics in the Baptist theological 
seminary at Chicago in 1869, and later accepted a 
pastoral charge at Orange, N. J. Dr. Hague re- 
ceived the degree of D. D. from Brown in 1849, 
and from Harvard in 1863. He was also chosen a 
trustee of the former university in 1837 and of 
Vassar college in 1861. He was the author of nu- 
merous occasional addresses and orations, includ- 
ing discourses on the life and character of John 
Quincy Adams and Adoniram Judson. He also 
published " The Baptist Church Transplanted 
from the Old World to the New" (New York, 
1846) ; " Guide to Conversation on the Gospel of 
John" (Boston); "Review of Drs. Puller and 
Wayland on Slavery " (Boston) ; " Christianity and 
Statesmanship" (New York, 1855; enlarged ed., 
Boston, 1865); "Home Life" (New York. 1855); 
" The Authority and Perpetuity of the Christian 
Sabbath" (1863); "The Self-witnessing Character 
of the New Testament Christianity" (Philadel- 
phia, 1871); "Christian Greatness in the Minis- 
ter" (Boston, 1880); and "Life Notes," an auto- 
biography (1887).— His son, James Duncan, min- 
ing engineer, b. in Boston, Mass., 24 Feb., 1836, 
was educated at Harvard, at the Freiberg min- 
ing-school, and at the University of Gottingen. 
On his return to the United States he followed 
for a time the profession of mining engineer, 
and in 1867 became first assistant geologist on 
the U. S. geological survey of the 40th parallel, 
under Clarence King, holding that place for three 



years. In this connection he prepared the volume 
on "Mining Industries" (Washington, 1870) for 
the reports of the survey. He then returned to 
his profession. Mr. Hague was sent as U. S. 
commissioner to the World's fair in Paris in 
1878, and with the assistance of George F. Becker 
wrote the report on " Mining Industries at the 
Paris Exposition of 1878" (Washington, 1880).— 
Another son, Arnold, geologist, b. in Boston, 
Mass., 3 Dec, 1840. He was graduated at the 
Sheffield scientific school of Yale in 1863, after 
which he spent three years in Germany, studying 
at the universities of Gottingen and Heidelberg, 
and at the Freiberg mining-school. In 1867 he 
returned to the United States, and was appointed 
assistant geologist on the U. S. geological explora- 
tion of the 40th parallel under Clarence King. He 
then went to California, and spent the winter of 
1867-'8 in Virginia City, Nev., studying the sur- 
face geology of the Comstock lode and the chemis- 
try of the amalgamation process as practised there, 
and known as the " Washoe process." The re- 
sults of this study were published in volume iii. 
of the report of the exploration, under the title 
of "Chemistry of the Washoe Process." He also 
contributed to the same volume a chapter on the 
geology of the White Pine mining district, in 
which there was first brought to notice the great 
development of Devonian rocks in the Great Basin 
of Utah and Nevada. In volume ii. — " Descriptive 
Geology " — of the 
report of the explo- 
ration, which is the 
joint work of Mr. 
Hague and Samuel 
F. Emmons, there is 
given the results of 
a detailed geologi- 
cal survey across the 
Cordilleras of North 
America, from the 
Great Plains to the 
Sierra Nevada range 
in California. This 
work included a geo- 
logical atlas of maps 
and sections, which 
was completed after 
a great deal of hard- 
ship, the map of the 
Great Basin being accomplished before the com- 
pletion of either the Union or Central Pacific rail- 
way. On the termination of this work in 1877 he 
received the appointment of government geolo- 
gist of Guatemala, and travelled extensively over 
the republic, visiting the principal mining regions 
and the centres of volcanic activity. In 1878 he 
was engaged by the Chinese government to exam- 
ine gold, silver, and lead mines in northern China. 
On the organization of the U. S. geological survey 
in 1879 he returned to the United States, and be- 
came one of its geologists. He was sent to Ne- 
vada, and made a report on the " Geology of the 
Eureka District." In 1883 he was made geologist 
of the Yellowstone park division, and assigned to 
the study of the geysers of that district in connec- 
tion with the extinct volcanic regions of the Rocky 
mountains. He is a member of scientific socie- 
ties both in the United States and Europe, and 
in 1885 was elected to the National academy of 
sciences. He has made numerous contributions to 
scientific journals, on lithology and geology, and 
is the principal author of the followiug memoirs : 
" The Volcanoes of California, Oregon, and Wash- 
ington Territory" (1883); "The Volcanic Rocks 




^fijZU?^^ 



HAHN 



HAINES 



27 



of the Great Basin" (1884); "On the Develop- 
ment of Crystallization in the Igneous Rocks of 
Washoe" (i885); "Nevada, with Notes on the 
Geology of the District " (1885) ; and " The Vol- 
canic Rocks of Salvador " (1886). 

HAHN, Michael, politician, b. in Bavaria, 
24 Nov., 1830 ; d. in Washington, D. C, 15 March, 
1886. While he was an infant his parents re- 
moved to New York, and a few years later to New 
Orleans. He was graduated at the high-school of 
that city, and in the law department of the Uni- 
versity of Louisiana in 1854. When twenty-two 
years of age he was elected school-director, served 
for several years, and at one time was presi- 
dent of the board. He was antagonistic to the 
Slidell wing of the Democratic party, opposed Mr. 
Buchanan for president in 1856, was a strong 
Douglas advocate, and a vehement anti-slavery 
agitator. In 1860-'l he was a member of the com- 
mittee that canvassed the state against secession, 
and he personally exerted all his influence to pre- 
vent disunion. Mr. Hahn's opponents charged 
that in 1861, with all public, state, and parish offi- 
cers, he took the oath of allegiance to the Confed- 
erate government ; but the official records show that 
he renewed his oath of office as notary, but omit- 
ted the oath of allegiance, and no public notice was 
taken of the omission. On the arrival of Admi- 
ral Farragut's fleet in New Orleans, 25 April, 1862, 
Mr. Hahn took the oath of allegiance to the United 
States, and represented the 2d congressional dis- 
trict of Louisiana in congress as a Republican, 
from 17 Feb. to 3 March, 1863. At the end of his 
term he returned to New Orleans, advocated the 
reopening of the Federal courts, and bought and 
edited the " New Orleans True Delta," in which 
he advocated emancipation. In March, 1864, he 
was inaugurated governor of Louisiana. He pos- 
sessed the full confidence of Mr. Lincoln, who 
wrote him a letter advising that the elective fran- 
chise be extended to the negro race, and granting 
him the additional powers of military governor. 
In 1865 he was chosen U. S. senator, but did not 
press his claim to his seat. In July, 1866, while 
present at the Mechanics' institute in New Orleans 
during the riot of that month, he was severely 
wounded. Mr. Hahn became the editor of the 
" New Orleans Republican " in 1867, and four 
years later removed to his sugar-plantation in St. 
Charles parish, where he built the village of Hahn- 
ville. He was a member of the legislature from 
1872 till 1876, and in 1879 was elected district 
judge, which office he resigned in 1885, on his elec- 
tion to congress, where he was the only Republi- 
can member from his state. 

HAIDT, John Valentine, artist and evan- 
gelist, b. in Dantzic, Germany, 4 Oct., 1700: d. 
in Bethlehem, Pa., 18 Jan., 1780. He was educated 
at Berlin, where his father was court-jeweller. The 
son studied painting at Venice, Rome, Paris, and 
London. When he was forty years of age he 
united with the Moravian church and devoted 
himself to painting portraits of its clergymen and 
other pictures, the majority of which represented 
scriptural incidents. In 1754 he emigrated to 
America, was ordained a deacon of the church, and 
began to preach through the middle colonies as an 
evangelist, at the same time continuing to paint. 
A gallery of his portraits and several of his other 
pictures are still preserved at Bethlehem, Pa. 
Among the latter the most remarkable is a re- 
duced copy of a large painting which he produced 
in Germany, representing the first converts of the 
various nations to whicK the Moravians brought 
the gospel, coming to the throne of Christ's glory. 



Twelve of Haidt's paintings, setting forth inci- 
dents in the life of Jesus, which formerly adorned 
the walls of the first church-edifice at Bethlehem, 
were many years ago sold to a dealer, who realized 
enormous profits from them. 

HAIGHT, Benjamin I., clergvman, b. in New 
York city, 16 Oct.. 1809; d. there, 21 Feb., 1879. 
He was graduated at Columbia in 1828. and at 
the General theological seminary of the Episcopal 
church in 1831. He was ordained deacon the same 
year, and priest in 1833. While in deacon's orders 
he was elected (1831) rector of St. Peter's church, 
New York, and in 1834 was called to St. Paul's, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1837 he was elected rector 
of All Saints', New York, and remained there until 
1846. He was chosen professor of pastoral theology 
in the General theological seminary in 1837, and 
served the interests of the church in that chair 
until 1855. In the latter year Dr. Haight was 
elected an assistant minister of Trinity church, 
New York, and during the absence of the rector in 
1874 held the office of assistant rector. He was a 
delegate from New York to the general conventions 
of 1868, 1871, and 1874. In 1873 Dr. Haight was 
elected bishop of Massachusetts, but declined on 
account of feeble health. He served as secretary of 
the Convention of New York for twenty years, and 
was a member of the standing committee of the 
diocese for ten years. He was elected a trustee of 
Columbia college in 1843, and gave much time and 
attention to the interests of that institution. Dr. 
Haight was an excellent speaker and debater, and 
exercised a wide influence in guiding the course of 
ecclesiastical affairs under anomalous and trying 
conditions. During the last two or three years of 
his life he suffered from impaired health caused by 
overtaxed energies. He published a few occasional 
sermons and addresses. — His son, Charles C, is an 
architect, and designed the new buildings of Colum- 
bia college and the General theological seminary. 

HAIGHT, Henry Huntley, lawyer, b. in 
Rochester, N. Y., 20 May, 1825'; d. in San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., 2 Sept., 1878. His father, Fletcher M. 
Haight, was U. S. judge for the district of Califor- 
nia. The son was graduated at Yale in 1844, stud- 
ied law, and was admitted to the bar at St. Louis 
in October, 1846. He afterward removed to Cali- 
fornia, where he entered on the practice of his pro- 
fession in 1850. He was appointed U. S. district 
judge by President Lincoln, and in 1867 was elected 
governor by the Democratic party, remaining in 
office until 1871, when he was renominated, but 
defeated by Newton Booth. He then returned to 
the practice of law, and was a member-elect of 
the State constitutional convention. 

HAINES, Daniel, governor of New Jersey, b. 
in New York city, 6 Jan., 1801 ; d. in Hamburg, 
Sussex co., N. J., 26 Jan., 1877. He was graduated 
at Princeton in 1820, studied law. was admitted to 
the bar in 1823, and settled at Hamburg in 1824. In 
1837 he entered public life as a member of the 
council, and was one of the board of canvassers who 
resisted the governor in giving certificates of elec- 
tion to the Whig candidates in the famous " broad- 
seal " election. In 1843 he was elected governor, 
and while in office proclaimed the new constitution. 
His efforts during his one year's term of office left 
their impress on the common-schools and on the 
state normal-school, which had been projected by 
him. In 1847 he was again elected governor, and 
served for three years. He was afterward chosen a 
judge of the supreme court, where he served until 
1861, and was during his tenure of office a member 
ex-officio of the court of error and appeals. From 
1870 till 1876 he was a member of several judicial 



28 



HAINES 



HALDEMAN 



commissions relating to state boundaries. He was 
one of the committee on the reunion of the two 
branches of the Presbyterian church, and aided 
materially in accomplishing the result. He was 
influential in establishing the insane asylum in 
Trenton, the soldiers' home in Newark, and the re- 
form-school for juveniles in Jamesburg. He went 
to Cincinnati in 1870 as a commissioner to the 
National prison reform association, and was one of 
the committee that met in London in 1872 to or- 
ganize an international congress on prison disci- 
gline. He was also president of the Sussex county 
ible society, and the oldest living trustee of 
Princeton college. — His son, Alanson Austin, 
clergyman, b. in Hamburg, N. J., 18 March, 1830, 
was graduated at Princeton in 1857, and at the 
theological seminary there in 1858. He held pas- 
torates in Berlin, Md., and Amgansett, L. I., till 
1862, when he was appointed chaplain of the 15th 
New Jersey regiment. He served till the close of 
the war, accompanying his regiment in the thirty- 
six battles in which it was engaged, and since his 
discharge in 1865 has held a pastorate in his native 
place. In 1873 he was appointed engineer of the 
Palestine exploration society, and in that capacity 
visited the Holy Land, Egypt, and Turkey, making 
maps, sketches of Oriental scenery, and transcripts 
of rock inscriptions. Mr. Haines is the author 
of a " History of the Fifteenth Regiment of New 
Jersey Volunteers " (New York, 1883), and is a 
contributor to various periodicals. — Another son, 
Thomas Ryerson, lawyer, b. in Hamburg, N. J., 
15 March, 1838 ; d* near Harrisonburg, Va., 6 
June, 1862, was graduated at Princeton in 1857, 
and in 1860, having been admitted to the bar, en- 
tered on the practice of his profession in Newark, 
N. J. On 15 Aug., 1861, he became 1st lieutenant 
in the 1st New Jersey cavalry regiment, and in 
March, 1862, was commissioned captain after de- 
clining an appointment on a general's staff. He 
had already gained credit as adjutant and regi- 
mental judge-advocate. He became the victim of 
a rash movement on the part of the colonel of his 
regiment. Five miles in advance of its supports, 
that regiment was driven into the woods near 
Harrisonburg, and was surprised and cut in pieces 
by a vastly superior force. While he was bravely 
endeavoring to rally his troops, Capt. Haines was 
mortally wounded. 

HAINES, Richard Townley, merchant, b. in 
Elizabeth, N. J., 21 May, 1795 ; d. there, 21 Aug., 
1870. He was an original member of the firm of 
Halsted, Haines and Co., dry-goods merchants in 
New York city. He was one of the founders of 
the American tract society, a member of its execu- 
tive committee from the beginning, and for forty 
years the chairman of its finance committee. He 
served as a member of its board of direction, and 
contributed largely to its funds. He was a director 
and liberal supporter of the American Bible so- 
ciety, the American board of foreign missions, and 
many other religious and benevolent institutions, 
and the first president of the board of trustees of 
the Union theological seminary in New York city. 

HAINES, Thomas Jefferson, soldier, b. in 
Portsmouth, N. H., 26 Oct., 1827; d. in Hartford, 
Conn., 14 Aug., 1883. He was graduated at the 
U. S. military academy in 1849, assigned to the 
1st artillery, and served in Fortress Monroe, Va.. 
after which he became assistant professor of mathe- 
matics at West Point. He took part in the Flori- 
da hostilities against the Seminole Indians, as act- 
ing assistant adjutant-general, and in the early 
part of the civil war held the same post in the 
Department of Virginia. He was chief commis- 



sary of the Department of the Missouri in 1861-*2, 
and then served as chief purchasing and super- 
vising commissary in the Departments of the 
Missouri, Tennessee, and the Northwest from 
1862 till 1865, holding the rank of major. He 
also held this office for the territory between the 
Mississippi and New Mexico and Utah, and was in 
charge of affairs of the subsistence department in 
Illinois and the Department of the Mississippi to 
the southern boundary of Arkansas. He was bre- 
vetted brigadier-general on 13 March, 1865, for 
faithful and meritorious services. He had general 
charge of the subsistence department throughout 
the western states and territories from 1865 till 
1868, and served as chief of the commissariat de- 
partment of the south from 1868 till 1873. He 
was then purchasing and depot commissary at Bos- 
ton till 1875, when he was made assistant to the 
commissary-general in Washington, D. C. 

HAKLUYT, Richard, English author, b. about 
1553 ; d. 23 Oct., 1616. He was educated at West- 
minster school and at Oxford university, where he 
was appointed lecturer on cosmography, and was 
the first to teach the use of globes. In 1584, when 
a master of arts and a professor of divinity, he ac- 
companied the English ambassador, Sir Edward 
Stafford, to Paris, where he remained five years. 
On his return to England he was appointed by Sir 
Walter Raleigh a member of the company of gen- 
tlemen adventurers and merchants formed for the 
purpose of colonizing Virginia. In 1605 Hakluyt 
was appointed prebendary of Westminster, having 
before been prebendary of Bristol, and he received 
afterward the rectory of Wetheringset in Suffolk. 
He was buried in Westminster abbey. His name 
is perpetuated in Hakluyt's head, a promontory on 
the northwest end of Spitzbergen, named by Henry 
Hudson in 1608 ; in Hakluyt's island in Baffin's 
bay, named by Bylot, and in the Hakluyt society, 
founded in 1846 for the republication of early voy- 
ages and travels. He wrote the following books : 
" Diuers Voyages touching the Discouerie of Amer- 
ica and Islands adjacent unto the Same" (1582; 
new ed., 1850) ; " Foure Voyages unto Florida 
(1587) ; an improved edition of Peter Martyr's 
" De Orbe Novo " (1587), which at his suggestion 
was translated into English by Michael Lok, the 
London agent of the Muscovy company, under the 
title " The Historie of the West Indies " : " The 
Principal Navigations, Voyages, and Discoveries 
made by the English Nation " (fol., London ; en- 
larged ed., 3 vols, in 2, fol., 1598-1600 ; new ed. 
with additions, 5 vols., 4to, London, 1809-'12). Be- 
sides the different voyages, this work contains 
many curious public documents, such as charters 
granted by the czar, the sultan, and other mon- 
archs to English merchants. In many copies the 
voyage to Cadiz (pp. 607-'19, vol. i., 2d ed.) is 
omitted, having been suppressed by order of 
Queen Elizabeth after the disgrace of the Earl of 
Essex. The additions to the last edition com- 
prise all the voyages and travels printed by Hak- 
luyt, or at his suggestion, which were not included 
in his collection. His unpublished manuscripts 
were used by Purchas in his " Pilgrims." An 
analysis of Hakluyt's chief works is contained in 
Oldys's " British Librarian." Hallam says that 
" the best map of the sixteenth century is one of 
uncommon rarity, which is found in a very few cop- 
ies of the first edition of Hakluyt's ' Voyages.' " 

HALDEMAN, Samuel Stehman, naturalist, 
b. in Locust Grove, Lancaster co., Pa., 12 Aug., 
1812 ; d. in Chickies, Pa., 10 Sept., 1880. He was 
educated at a classical school in Harrisburg, and 
then spent two years in Dickinson college, but 



HALDEMAN 



HALDIMAND 



29 




was not graduated. Scientific pursuits were ap- 
proved by his parents, but for a time he was 
compelled to manage a saw-mill. In 1836 Henry 
D. Rogers, having been appointed state geologist 
of New Jersey, sent for Mr. Haldeman, who had 
been his pupil at Dickinson, to assist him. A year 
later, on the reorgan- 
ization of the Penn- 
sylvania geological 
survey, Haldeman 
was transferred to his 
own state, and was 
actively engaged on 
the survey until 1842, 
preparing five an- 
nual reports, and per- 
sonally surveying the 
counties of Dauphin 
and Lancaster. In 
1840 he began the 
publication of his 
monograph on the 
" Fresh- Water Uni- 
valve Mollusca of the 
United States," in 
which he described 
the Scolithus linea- 
ris, a new genus and species of fossil plant, the 
most ancient organic remains in Pennsylvania. 
During the year 1842-'3 he gave a course of lec- 
tures on zoology at the Franklin institute, and in 
1851 became professor of natural sciences in the 
University of Pennsylvania. This chair he held 
until 1855, when he accepted a similar professor- 
ship in Delaware college. Meanwhile he also 
lectured on geology and chemistry in the State 
agricultural college of Pennsylvania, and in 1869 
became the first occupant of the chair of com- 
parative philology in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, which he held continuously until his death. 
Prof. Haldeman made numerous visits to Europe 
for purposes of research, and when studying the 
human voice in Rome determined the vocal 
repertoire of between forty and fifty varieties of 
human speech. His ear was remarkably delicate, 
and he discovered a new organ of sound in lepi- 
dopterous insects, which was described by him in 
Silliman's " American Journal of Science " in 
1848. He made extensive researches among Indian 
dialects, and also in Pennsylvania Dutch, besides 
investigations in the English, Chinese, and other 
languages. Prof. Haldeman was an earnest advocate 
of spelling reform, and was the author of several 
manuals of orthography, orthoepy, and etymology. 
In 1858 he gained the Trevelyan prize over eigh- 
teen competitors by his essay on " Analytical Or- 
thography " (Philadelphia, 1860). He was a mem- 
ber of many scientific societies, was the founder 
and president of the Philological society, and one 
of the early members of the National academy of 
sciences. During 1851-2 he edited the " Pennsyl- 
vania Farmer's Journal." He was a contributor to 
the " Iconographic Cyclopaedia" (New York, 1852), 
and furnished the articles on articulata, insecta, 
entomology, conchology, radiata, and others. His 
contributions to scientific literature have been large, 
and his papers on philology, conchology, entomolo- 
gy, geology, chemistry, and paleontology include 
over two hundred titles. He has published, besides 
works previously mentioned. " Zoological Contribu- 
tions" (Philadelphia, 1842-3); "Elements of Latin 
Pronunciation" (1851); an edition of Taylor's 
"Statistics of Coal" (2d ed., 1855); "Tours of a 
Chess Knight " (1865) ; " Affixes in their Origin and 
Application" (1865); "Rhymes of the Poets," un- 



der the pen-name of " Felix Ago " (1868) ; " Penn- 
sylvania Dutch " (1872) ; " Outlines of Etymology " 
(1877); and "Word-Building" (1881). 

HALDERMAN, John Acoming, diplomatist, 
b. in Missouri, 15 April, 1833. He spent his boy- 
hood in Kentucky, and studied law there, but emi- 
grated to Kansas in 1854. In his new home he 
opposed slavery, and was successively private sec- 
retary to the first governor, judge of the probate 
court, mayor of Leavenworth two terms, member 
of both houses of the legislature, and regent of the 
State university. He was major of the 1st Kansas 
infantry during the civil war, provost-marshal-gen- 
eral of the western army, on the staff of Gen. Na- 
thaniel Lyon, in 1861, and was mentioned in the 
official report for " gallant and meritorious con- 
duct " at the battle of Springfield. After the war 
he travelled extensively. In 1880 he was appointed 
U. S. consul at Bangkok. Siam, and subsequently 
promoted to the post of consul-general by Presi- 
dent Garfield. In 1882 he was further advanced 
to the station of minister-resident in Siam. In 
1883 Highland university conferred upon him the 
degree of LL. D. For his endeavors in behalf of 
civilization in the far east he received the thanks 
of the Universal postal union. In August, 1885, 
he resigned his office and returned to the United 
States. In recognition of his " faithful observance 
of treaty relations," and of his efforts to suppress 
a nefarious traffic in spirits under cover of the 
American flag, his majesty, the king of Siam, 
honored him with the decoration of knight com- 
mander of the most exalted order of the white ele- 
phant. King Norodom tendered the investiture of 
commander of the royal order of Cambodia in ap- / 
preciation of his efforts to introduce posts and 
telegraphs into Cambodia and Cochin China. He 
was honored by the friendship of Gen. Grant, 
who felt great interest in his mission of peace and 
justice to Siam, and to the great soldier is as- 
cribed the declaration that the " minister's career 
in southern Asia was one of the highest successes 
in American diplomacy." 

HALDIMAND, Sir Frederick, British general, 
b. in the canton of Neuchatel, Switzerland, in Oc- 
tober, 1718; d. in Yverdun, Switzerland, 5 June, 
1791. He early entered the Prussian service, but 
in 1754, with his friend Bouquet, joined the Brit- 
ish army. He was appointed lieutenant-colonel 
of the 50th Royal American regiment, 4 Jan., 1756, 
and came to America in 1757. He distinguished 
himself, 8 July, 1758, in the attack on Ticonde- 
roga, and by his gallant defence of Oswego in 
1759 against" the attack of 4,000 French and In- 
dians under Chevalier de la Come. He accom- 
panied the army under Amherst from Oswego to 
Montreal in 1760, and in 1762 was promoted to 
colonel. He was employed in Florida in 1767, 
and on his arrival at Pensacola enlarged the fort 
there, widened the streets, and otherwise improved 
the place. On 25 May, 1772, he became major- 
general in America, and in October following 
colonel of the 60th foot. He returned to England 
in August, 1775, for the purpose of giving infor- 
mation to the ministry about the condition of 
affairs in the colonies, was commissioned a general 
in America, 1 Jan., 1776, and in 1777 a lieutenant- 
general in the army. On 27 June, 1778, he suc- 
ceeded Sir Guy Carleton as governor of Canada, 
and administered that office till 15 Nov., 1784, 
when he was recalled to England. In his adminis- 
tration of the affairs of Canada he was charged 
with being severe and arbitrary, and successful ac- 
tions for false imprisonment were brought against 
him after his return to England. 



30 



HALE 



HALE 



HALE, Benjamin, educator, b. in Newburv- 
port, Mass., 23 Nov., 1797; d. there, 15 July, 1863. 
lie was graduated at Bowdoin in 1818, studied 
theology at Andover, and in 1822 was licensed to 
preach as a Congregationalist. In 1823 he became 
tutor in Bowdoin, but subsequently established the 
Gardiner lyceum, of which he became principal. 
Prom 1827" till 1835 (when his chair was abolished) 
he was professor of chemistry and mineralogy at 
Dartmouth, and aided in the foundation of its geo- 
logical and mineralogical cabinet. Meantime, he 
took orders in the Protestant Episcopal church. 
The winter of 1835-'6 he spent in St. Croix, W. I., 
for his health. In 1836. he became president of 
Hobart college, Geneva, N. Y., and held the office 
till feeble health compelled him to resign on 19 
Jan., 1858, when he returned to his native town. 
He published " Introduction to the Mechanical 
Principles of Carpentry " (Boston, 1827) and " Scrip- 
tural Illustrations of the Liturgy" (1835). 

HALE, Eugene, senator, b. in Turner, Ox- 
ford, co., Me., 9 June, 1836. He received an aca- 
demic education, studied law in Portland, was 
admitted to the bar in 1857, and began to prac- 
tise at Ellsworth, Me. He was for nine successive 
years county attorney for Hancock county, was a 
member of the legislature of Maine in 1867-'80, and 
was then elected a representative in congress from 
that state, serving from 1869 till 1879. He was 
elected to the U. S. senate as a Republican to suc- 
ceed Hannibal Hamlin, took his seat 4 March, 1881, 
and was re-elected in 1887. He was appointed 
postmaster-general in 1874, but declined, and also 
refused a cabinet appointment by President Hayes. 
He was a delegate to the Republican national con- 
ventions of 1868, 1876, and 1880. Mr. Hale has re- 
ceived the degree of LL. D. from Colby university. 

HALE, John, clergyman, b. in Charlestown, 
Mass., 3 June, 1636 ; d. 15 May, 1700. He was 
graduated at Harvard in 1657. In 1664 he went 
to Beverly as a religious teacher, and on 20 Sept., 
1667, was ordained pastor of the newly organized 
church at that place — a charge which he retained 
till his death. He was chaplain in the expedition 
to Canada in 1690, and in 1734 his services were 
rewarded by a grant of three hundred acres of 
land to his heirs by the general court. During the 
Salem witchcraft trials in 1692, Mr. Hale attended 
the examinations of the accused persons, and ap- 
proved of the judicial murders resulting from the 
charges. He afterward published " A Modest In- 
quiry into the Nature of Witchcraft " (1697), which 
indicated a change of opinion relative to the jus- 
tice of the executions. His only other publication 
was an " election sermon " of nearly two hundred 
pages (1684).— His grandson, Robert, physician, b. 
in Beverly, Mass., 12 Feb., 1703 ; d. 20 March, 1767, 
was graduated at Harvard in 1721, and subse- 
quently practised as a physician in his native 
town. He commanded a regiment under Sir Will- 
iam Pepperell at the capture of Louisburg in 1745, 
in 1747 was appointed by the legislature of Massa- 
chusetts a commissioner to New York to adopt 
measures for the general defence, and in 1755 was 
a commissioner to New Hampshire to concert an 
expedition against the French. He was appointed 
sheriff of Essex county, Mass., in 1761, and was for 
thirteen years a member of the legislature. — John's 
great-grandson, Nathan, soldier, b. in Coventry, 
Conn., 6 June, 1755 ; d. in New York city, 22 Sept., 
1776, was a feeble child, and gave little promise 
of surviving his infancy; but as he grew up he 
became fond of out-door sports, and was famous 
for his athletic feats. His attention was early 
turned to books, and his father desired him to 



study for the ministry. Accordingly, he was fit- 
ted for college by the Rev. Joseph Huntington, 
and was graduated at Yale in 1773. Dr. Eneas 
Munson, of New Haven, says of him at this time 
that " he was almost six feet in height, perfectly 
proportioned, and in figure and deportment he was 
the most manly man I have ever met. His chest 
was broad ; his muscles were firm ; his face wore a 
most benign expression ; his complexion was rose- 
ate, his eyes were light blue, and beamed with in- 
telligence ; his hair was soft and light-brown in 
color, and his speech was rather low, sweet, and 
musical. His personal beauty and grace of man- 
ner were most charming. Why, all the girls in 
New Haven fell in love with him, and wept tears 
of real sorrow when they heard of his sad fate. In 
dress he was always neat ; he was quick to lend a 
helping hand to a being in distress, brute or hu- 
man : was overflowing with good humor, and was 
the idol of all his acquaintances." At his gradua- 
tion he was engaged with William Robinson and 
Ezra Samson in a Latin syllogistic dispute followed 
by a debate on the question, " Whether the educa- 
tion of daughters be not, without any just reason, 
more neglected than that of the sons." His class- 
mate, James Hillhouse, wrote : " In this debate Hale 
was triumphant. He was the champion of ' the 
daughters,' and most ably advocated their cause." 
He then taught school first in East Haddam and 
afterward in New London. The news of Lexington 
reached the quiet village where he was teaching, 
and a town-meeting was at once held. Among 
the speakers was Hale, who urged immediate action, 
saying: "Let us march immediately, and never 
lay down our arms until we have obtained our in- 
dependence." He at once enrolled himself as a 
volunteer, and was made a lieutenant in Col. Charles 
Webb's regiment. In September, 1775, his regi- 
ment was ordered to Cambridge, where, after par- 
ticipating in the siege of Boston, he was made a 
captain in January, 1776. He then went to New 
York, where, early in September, with a few picked 
men, he captured at midnight a supply vessel that 
was anchored in the East river under the protection 
of the guns of the British man-of-war "Asia." 
The stores of provisions from the prize were dis- 
tributed among his hungry fellow-soldiers. About 
this time he was made captain of a company in the 
" Connecticut Rangers," a corps known as " Con- 
gress's Own," commanded by Thomas Knowlton. 
In response to a call from Gen. Washington, he 
volunteered to enter the British lines and procure 
intelligence. Disguising himself as a school-master 
and loyalist, he visited all of the British camps on 
Long Island and in New York, openly making 
observations, drawings, and memoranda of fortifi- 
cations. As he was about returning, he was ap- 
prehended and taken before Sir William Howe, 
who, upon the evidence found in his shoes, con- 
demned him to be executed before sunrise on the 
next morning. He was denied the attendance of 
a chaplain, and his request for a Bible was refused. 
The letters he had written to his sisters and be- 
trothed (who was his step-sister) were destroyed 
before his eyes by the provost-marshal, William 
Cunningham, so that, as he afterward said, "the 
rebels should never know that thev had a man 
who could die with such firmness.* His execu- 
tion took place in Col. Henry Rutgers's orchard, 
near the present junction of Market street and 
East Broadway. As he ascended the scaffold he 
said: "You are shedding the blood of the inno- 
cent ; if I had ten thousand lives, 1 would lay them 
down in defence of my injured, bleeding country " ; 
and his last words were : " I only regret that I have 



HALE 



HALE 



31 







but one life to lose for ray country." A little fort, 
built during the war of 1812 on Black Rock, at 
the entrance of New Haven harbor, was named 
Fort Hale in his honor, and a granite memorial 

was erected at 
Coventry in 
1846. The illus- 
tration repre- 
sents Karl Ger- 
hardt's bronze 
statue, which 
was placed in 
the capitol at 
Hartford on 14 
June, 1887. An 
address present- 
ing the statue 
to the state was 
made by Charles 
Dudley Warner, 
and responded 
to by Gov. Phi- 
neas C. Louns- 
bury. The So- 
ciety of the Sons 
of the Revo- 
lution have at 
present (1887) 
undertaken the 
raising of funds 
for the purpose 
of erecting a 
statue to Capt. 
Hale's memory in Central park. The manuscript 
of one of his college orations is preserved by the 
Linonian society at Yale. President Timothy 
Dwight, the elder, who was his tutor when at Yale, 
has commemorated his career in verse. See also 
" Life of Captain Nathan Hale, the Martyr Spy of 
the American Revolution," by Isaac W. Stuart 
(Hartford, 1856), and "The Two*Spies, Nathan Hale 
and John Andre," by Benson J. Lossing (New York, 
1886). — Nathan's nephew Nathan, journalist, b. in 
Westhampton, Mass., 16 Aug., 1784; d. in Brook- 
line, Mass., 9 Feb., 1863, was graduated at Williams 
in 1804, was two years a tutor in Phillips Exeter 
academy, and, removing to Boston, was admitted 
to the bar in 1810. For four years he followed his 
profession, and then, with Henry D. Sedgwick, be- 
came editor of the "Boston Weekly Messenger," 
the first weekly periodical devoted to literature 
and politics that was established in the United 
States. In March, 1814 he purchased the " Boston 
Daily Advertiser," the first daily in New England, 
and for many years the only one, and continued 
its chief editor until his death. In politics this 
journal was first Federalist, then Whig, and finally 
Republican, and its influence became very great. 
It opposed the Missouri bill in 1820 and the Ne- 
braska bill in 1854, and was the first paper to rec- 
ommend the free colonization of Kansas. The 
principle of editorial responsibility, as distinct 
from that of individual contributions, was estab- 
lished in its columns. Mr. Hale was editor and 
publisher of the "Monthly Chronicle" during 
1840-'2, and was one of a club that founded the 
"North American Review" in 1815, and the 
"Christian Examiner" in 1823. He was acting 
chairman of the Massachusetts board of internal 
improvements in 1828, and was an early advocate 
of railroads in New England. He was first presi- 
dent of the Boston and Worcester railroad, the 
first company in New England to use steam power, 
and continued in that capacity for nineteen years. 
In 1846 he was appointed chairman of the com- 



mission for introducing water into the city. He 
was at various times a member of the legislature, 
serving in both houses, and was a delegate to two 
Constitutional conventions. Mr. Hale was an active 
member of the American academy of arts and 
sciences, and also of the Massachusetts historical 
society. In 1816 he married Sarah Preston, sister 
of Edward Everett. He published an excellent 
map of New England (1825), and a series of stereo- 
type maps on a plan of his own invention (1830), 
being the first maps with names printed in page 
with type made by the founders, also " Journal of 
Debates and Proceedings in the Massachusetts 
Constitutional Convention" (Boston, 1821), and 
numerous pamphlets on the practicability of rail- 
roads, on canals, and other topics. — Nathan's broth- 
er, Enoch, physician, b. in W esthampton, Mass., 19 
Jan., 1790 ; d. in Boston, 12 Nov., 1848. His father, 
of the same name, was the first minister of West- 
hampton (1779-1837). The son was educated at 
Harvard, where he was graduated in medicine in 
1813, and began practice at Gardiner, Me. In 1816 
he removed to Boston, where he remained till his 
death. He was an active member of the Massachu- 
setts medical society and of the American academy 
of arts and sciences, and in addition to frequent 
essays and papers in medical journals was the au- 
thor of a dissertation on " Animal Heat and Respi- 
ration " ; " History and Description of the Spotted 
Fever," which prevailed at Gardiner, Me., in 1814 ; 
two Boylston prize essays in 1819 and 1821 ; and 
a work on " Typhoid Fever." — Another nephew of 
Nathan, David, journalist, b. in Lisbon, Conn., 
25 April, 1791 ; d. in Fredericksburg, Va., 25 Jan., 
1849, was educated at public schools and by his 
father, who was a clergyman. He settled in Boston 
in 1809, and entered mercantile pursuits, but was 
unsuccessful. In 1827 he came to New York, where 
he became the associate editor and subsequently 
joint proprietor with Gerald Hallock of the " New 
York Journal of Commerce." Under his direction 
this journal advocated free-trade, the sub-treasury, 
and other financial measures of the Democratic 
party. In 1840 he purchased the Broadway Taber- 
nacle, where an orthodox Congregational church 
was established. He contributed largely to benevo- 
lent and religious enterprises, and for many years 
supported several missionaries. See " Memoir of 
David Hale, with Selections from his Writings" 
(New York, 1849). — Nathan, son of the second 
Nathan, journalist, b. in Boston, Mass., 12 Nov., 
1818 ; d. there, 9 Jan., 1871, was graduated at Har- 
vard in 1838, and at its law-school in 1841, and 
was admitted to practice in the courts of Mas- 
sachusetts in 1841, but turned his attention to lit- 
erary pursuits. From 1841 till 1853 he was associ- 
ated with his father in the editorial management 
of the " Boston Daily Advertiser," and in 1842 also 
undertook the editorship of the " Boston Miscellany 
of Literature." In 1853, finding that this double 
duty was too severely taxing his constitution, he 
retired from editorial" work. Subsequently he was 
for a short time acting professor of mental and 
moral philosophy in Union college, and was also 
associated with his brother, Edward Everett, in con- 
ducting "Old and New."— His sister, Lucretia 
Peabody, b. in Boston, Mass., 2 Sept., 1820, was 
educated at George B. Emerson's school in Bos- 
ton. Subsequently she devoted herself to litera- 
ture, and was a member of the Boston school com- 
mittee for two years. Besides numerous stories 
contributed to periodicals and newspapers, some of 
which have been collected in book-form, she has 
published " The Lord's Supper and its Observance " 
(Boston, 1866); "The Service of Sorrow" (1867) ; 



32 



IIAIiK 



HALE 




CZoL^^S-. *&u£± 



"The Straggle for Life, a Story of Home "(1867) 
" The Wolf at the Door," No Name Series (1877) 
" The Needlework Series, including 300 Results ' 
(1879) ; " The Peterkin Papers " (1882) ; and " The 
Last of the Peterkins" (1886). — Her brother, 
Edward Everett, clergyman, b. in Boston, Mass., 
3 April, 1822, after studying at the Boston Latin- 
school, was graduated at Harvard in 1839. He 
then spent two years as an usher in the Latin- 
school, and read theology and church history with 

the Rev. Samuel K. 
Lothrop and the 
Rev. John G. Pal- 
frey. In 1842 he was 
licensed to preach 
by the Boston as- 
sociation of Con- 
gregational minis- 
ters, after which he 
spent several years 
in ministering to 
various congrega- 
tions, passing the 
winter of 1844-5 in 
Washington. His 
first regular settle- 
ment was in 1846 
as pastor of the 
Church of the Unity in Worcester, Mass., where he 
remained until 1856. In that year he was called 
to the South Congregational (Unitarian) church in 
Boston, where he still (1887) remains. Mr. Hale's in- 
fluence has been extensively felt in all philanthropic 
movements. His book " Ten Times One is Ten " 
(Boston, 1870) led to the establishment of clubs de- 
voted to charity, which are now scattered through- 
out the United States, with chapters in Europe, 
Asia, Africa, and the islands of the Pacific. These 
associations have a membership that is supposed to 
exceed 50,000 in number, and are called "Harry 
Wadsworth clubs." They have for their motto : 
"Look up and not down; look forward and not 
back; look out and not in; lend a hand." The 
"Look-up Legion," a similar organization among 
the Sunday-schools, is due to his inspiration, and 
includes upward of 5,000 members. He also has 
taken great interest in the Chautauqua literary 
and scientific circle, of which he is one of the 
counsellors, and is a frequent contributor to the 
" Chautauquan." Mr. Hale has served his college 
as a member of the board of overseers for succes- 
sive terms, and has been very active in advancing 
the interests of Harvard. He has also held the 
office of president of the * B K society, and in 
1879 received the degree of S. T.*D. from Harvard. 
As a boy he learned to set type in his father's 
printing-office, and he has served on the " Daily 
Advertiser " in every capacity from reporter up to 
editor-in-chief. Before he attained his majority 
he wrote his full share in the monthly issues of 
the " Monthly Chronicle " and the " Boston Miscel- 
lany." In later years he edited the "Christian 
Examiner," and also the " Sunday-School Gazette." 
In 1869 he founded, with the American Unitarian 
association, "Old and New," for the purpose of 
giving wider currency to liberal Christian ideas 
through the medium of a literary magazine. Six 
years afterward this journal was merged into 
"Scribner's Monthly." In 1886 he again returned 
to journalism and began the publication of " Lend 
a Hand; a Record of Progress and Journal of 
Organized Charity." As a writer of short stories 
Mr. Hale has achieved signal distinction. His 
" My Double, and How he undid Me," published in 
the "Atlantic Monthly" in 1859, at once caught 



the popular fancy. " The Man Without a Coun- 
try, published anonymously in the "Atlantic" 
during 1863, produced a deep impression on the 
public mind, and has a permanent place among 
the classic short stories of American writers. His 
"Skeleton in the Closet" also well known, was 
contributed to the " Galaxy " in 1866. He has 
been associated in several literary combinations, 
among which is " Six of One by Half a Dozen of 
the Other " (Boston, 1872), a social romance jointly 
constructed by Harriet B. Stowe, Adeline D. T. 
Whitney, Lucretia P. Hale, Frederick W. Loring, 
Frederic B. Perkins, and Mr. Hale himself, its 
projector. His historical studies began when he 
was connected with the " Advertiser, and for six 
years he was its South American editor, having 
been led to the study of Spanish and Spanish- 
American history at a time when he expected 
to be the reader and amanuensis of William H. 
Prescott, the historian. Beginning in this way, 
his studies have increased until he is regarded as 
an authority on Spanish-American affairs. He has 
contributed important articles to Justin Winsor's 
" History of Boston," to his " History of America," 
to Bryant and Gay's " Popular History of the 
United States," and frequent papers to the pro- 
ceedings of the American antiquarian society. Of 
the latter, perhaps the most important is his dis- 
covery of how California came to be so named. He 
has edited " Original Documents from the State 
Paper Office, London, and the British Museum, 
illustrating the History of Sir W. Raleigh's First 
American Colony and the Colony at Jamestown, 
with a Memoir of Sir Ralph Lane " (Boston, 1860), 
and John Lingard's " History of England " (13 
vols., Boston, 1853). Besides the foregoing he has 
published " The Rosary " (Boston, 1848) ; " Margaret 
Percival in America" (1850); "Sketches of Chris- 
tian History " (1850) ; " Letters on Irish Emigra- 
tion " (1852); "Kansas and Nebraska" (1854); 
"Ninety Days' W T orth of Europe" (1861); with the 
Rev. John Williams, " The President's Words " 
(1865); "If, Yes, and Perhaps" (1868); "Puritan 
Politics in England and New England" (1869); 
"The Ingham Papers" (1869); "How To Dolt" 
(1870) ; " His Level Best, and Other Stories " (1870); 
" Daily Bread, and Other Stories " (1870) ; " Ups 
and Downs, an Every-Day Novel " (1871) ; " Sybans, 
and Other Homes" (1871); "Christmas Eve, and 
Christmas Day" (1874); "In His Name" (1874): 
" A Summer's Vacation, Four Sermons " (1874) ; 
" Workingmen's Homes, Essays and Stories " (1874); 
" The Good Time Coming, or Our New Crusade " 
(1875); " One Hundred Years " (1875) ; " Philip No- 
lan's Friends " (New York, 1876) ; " Back to Back " 
(1877); "Gone to Texas, or the Wonderful Ad- 
ventures of a Pullman " (Boston, 1877) ; " What 
Career ? " (1878) ; " Mrs. Merriam's Scholars " 
(1878) ; " The Life in Common " (1879) ; " The Bi- 
ble and its Revision " (1879) ; " The Kingdom of 
God" (1880); "Crusoe in New York" (1880); 
"Stories of War" (1880); "June to May" (1881); 
"Stories of the Sea" (1881); "Stories of Ad- 
venture" (1881); "Stories of Discovery" (1883); 
"Seven Spanish Cities" (1883); "Fortunes of 
Rachel "(New York, 1884); "Christmas in a Pal- 
ace " (1884) ; " Christmas in Narragansett " (1884) ; 
" Stories of Invention " (Boston, 1885) ; " Easter " 
(1886); "Franklin in France" (1887); "The Life 
of Washington" (New York, 1887); and "The 
History of the United States." — Another brother, 
Charles, journalist, b. in Boston, Mass., 7 June, 
1831 ; d. there, 1 March, 1882, was graduated 
at Harvard in 1850, and entered his father's em- 
ploy as a reporter. In 1852 he began the publica- 



HALE 



HALE 



33 



tion of "To-day, a Boston Literary Journal," a 
weekly of which only two volumes were published, 
and later became junior editor of the " Daily Ad- 
vertiser." Meanwhile he also contributed to the 
" North American Review " and to the " Nautical 
Almanac." In 1855 he was chosen to the legisla- 
ture from one of the Boston districts, and continued 
to be re-elected until 1860, being speaker during 
his last term, and the youngest man ever chosen 
to that office. From 1864 till 1870 he was U. S. 
consul-general to Egypt, and it was largely 
through his efforts that John H. Surratt was ar- 
rested and sent back to the United States. In 1871 
he returned to Boston, and was elected in that 
year to the state senate. He was appointed chair- 
man of the committee on railroads, in which ca- 
pacity he drew up the general railroad act now 
in force, and was active in securing its enactment. 
In 1872-'3 he was assistant secretary of state under 
Hamilton Fish. He then returned to Boston, be- 
gan the study of law, and in 1874 was admitted 
to the bar. In the same year he was again elected 
to the legislature, and continued to serve in that 
body for four years. During the latter part of his 
life he lived in retirement, occupied in literary 
work, and was much of the time an invalid. — 
Another sister, Susan, artist, b. in Boston, Mass., 
5 Dec, 1838, was educated at the school of George 
B. Emerson, and then for many years was a suc- 
cessful teacher in Boston. Subsequently she gave 
up other instruction that she might introduce the 
more careful study of water-color painting, which 
•she had followed under English, French, and Ger- 
man masters. She exhibited in Boston and New 
York a series of pictures from the White Moun- 
tains, from North Carolina, from Spain, and other 
countries in which she had travelled. Miss Hale has 
been associated with her brother. Edward Everett 
Hale, in the publication of "A Family Flight 
through France, Germany, Norway, and Switzer- 
land," " A Family Flight over Egypt and Syria," 
" A Family Flig'ht through Spain," " A Family 
Flight around Home," "A Family Flight through 
Mexico " (Boston, 1881-'6) ; and " The Story of 
Spain" (New York, 1886); and has in preparation 
"The Story of Mexico." She also edited " Life and 
Letters of Thomas Gold Appleton " (New York, 
1885). — Edward Everett's daughter, Ellen Day, 
artist, b. in Worcester, Mass., 11 Feb., 1855, was 
educated under the supervision of her aunt, Susan 
Hale, and received her first instructions in art 
from Dr. William Rimmer, afterward studying 
under William M. Hunt and Helen M. Knowlton, 
and in Julien's art-school in Paris. Miss Hale has 
travelled in Spain and Italy, and has resided in 
Paris and in London. Her present home is in Bos- 
ton, where she is engaged in artistic work. She 
has exhibited " Un Hiver Americain " and " An 
Old Retainer " in the Paris salon, and " A New 
England Girl " in the Royal academy, London. 

HALE, John Parker, senator, b. in Rochester, 
N. H., 31 March, 1806 ; d. in Dover, N. H., 19 Nov., 
1873. He studied at Phillips Exeter academy, and 
was graduated at Bowdoin in 1827. He began his 
law studies in Rochester with Jeremiah H. Wood- 
man, and continued them with Daniel M. Chris- 
tie in Dover, where he was admitted to the bar, 
20 Aug., 1830. In March, 1832, he was elected to 
the state house of representatives as a Democrat. 
On 22 March, 1834, he was appointed U. S. district 
attorney bv President Jackson, was reappointed by 
President Van Buren, 5 April, 1838, and was re- 
moved, 17 June, 1841, by President Tyler on party 
grounds. On 8 March, 1842, he was elected to con- 
gress, and took his seat, 4 Dec, 1843. He opposed 
vol. in. — 3 




the 21st rule suppressing anti-slavery petitions, 
but supported Polk and Dallas in the presidential 
canvass of 1844, and was nominated for re-election 
on a general ticket with three associates. The 
New Hampshire 
legislature, 28 Dec, 
1844, passed reso- 
lutions instructing 
their representa- 
tives to vote for the 
annexation of Tex- 
as, and President 
Polk, in his message 
of that year, advo- 
cated annexation. 
On 7 Jan., 1845, 
Mr. Hale wrote his 
noted Texas letter, 
refusing to support 
annexation. The 
State convention of 
his party was re- 
assembled at Con- 
cord, 12 Feb., 1845, and under the lead of Frank- 
lin Pierce struck Mr. Hale's name from the ticket, 
and substituted that of John Woodbury. Mr. 
Hale was supported as an independent candidate. 
On 11 March, 1845, three Democratic members 
were elected, but there was no choice of a fourth. 
Subsequent trials, with the same result, took 
place 23 Sept. and 29 Nov., 1845, and 10 March, 
1846. During the repeated contests, Mr. Hale 
thoroughly canvassed the state. At his North 
Church meeting in Concord, 5 June, 1845. Mr. 
Pierce was called out to reply, and the debate is 
memorable in the political history of New Hamp- 
shire. At the election of 10 March, 1846. the 
Whigs and Independent Democrats also defeated a 
choice for governor, and elected a majority of the 
state legislature. On 3 June. 1846, Mr. Hale was 
elected speaker; on 5 June, the Whig candidate, 
Anthony Colby, was elected governor; and on 9 
June. Mr. Hale was elected U. S. senator for the 
term to begin 4 March. 1847. In a letter from 
John G. Whittier, dated Andover, Mass., 3d mo., 
18th, 1846, he says of Mr. Hale : " He has suc- 
ceeded, and his success has broken the spell which 
has hitherto held reluctant Democracy in the em- 
braces of slavery. The tide of anti-slavery feeling, 
long held back by the dams and dykes of party, 
has at last broken over all barriers, and is washing 
down from your northern mountains upon the 
slave-cursed south, as if Niagara stretched its 
foam and thunder along the whole length of Ma- 
son and Dixon's line. Let the first wave of that 
northern flood, as it dashes against the walls of the 
capitol, bear thither for the first time an anti- 
slavery senator." On 20 Oct., 1847, he was nomi- 
nated for president by a National liberty con- 
vention at Buffalo, with Leicester King, of Ohio, 
for vice-president, but declined, and supported Mr. 
Van Buren. who was nominated at the Buffalo con- 
vention of 9 Aug., 1848. On 6 Dec, 1847, he took 
his seat in the senate with thirty-two Democrats 
and twenty-one Whigs, and remained the only 
distinctively anti-slavery senator until joined by 
Salmon P. Chase, 3 Dec, 1849, and by Charles 
Sumner, 1 Dec, 1851. Mr. Hale began the agita- 
tion of the slavery question almost immediately 
upon his entrance into the senate, and continued 
it in frequent speeches during his sixteen years of 
service in that body. He was an orator of hand- 
some person, clear voice, and winning manners, 
and his speeches were replete with humor and pa- 
thos. His success was due to his powers of natural 



34 



II ALU 



HALE 



oratory, which, being exerted against American 
chattel - slavery, seldom failed to arouse sympa- 
thetic sentiments in his audiences. Mr. Halo op- 
posed flogging and the spirit-ration in the navy, 
and secured the abolition of the former by law of 
28 Sept., 1850, and of the latter by law of 14 July, 
1862. He served as counsel in 1851 in the important 
trials that arose out of the forcible rescue of the 
fugitive slave Shadrach from the custody of the 
U. S. marshal in Boston. In 1852 he was nomi- 
nated at Pittsburg, Pa., by the Free-soil party 
for president, with George W. Julian as vice-presi- 
dent, and they received 157,685 votes. His first 
senatorial term ended, and he was succeeded by 
Charles G. Atherton, a Democrat, on 4 March, 
1853, on which day Franklin Pierce was inaugu- 
rated president. The following winter Mr. Hale 
began practising law in New York city. But the 
repeal of the Missouri compromise measures again 
overthrew the Democrats of New Hampshire ; they 
failed duly to elect U. S. senators in the legisla- 
ture of June, 1854, and in March, 1855, they com- 
Slctely lost the state. On 13 June, 1855, James 
ell, a Whig, was elected U. S. senator for six 
years from 3 March, 1855, and Mr. Hale was 
chosen for the four years of the unexpired term of 
Mr. Atherton, deceased. On 9 June, 1858, he was 
re-elected for a full term of six years, which ended 
on 4 March, 1865. On 10 March, 1865, he was com- 
missioned minister to Spain, and went immediately 
to Madrid. Mr. Hale' was recalled in due course, 5 
April, 1869, took leave, 29 July, 1869, and returned 
home in the summer of 1870. Mr. Hale, without 
sufficient cause, attributed his recall to a quarrel 
between himself and Horatio J. Perry, his secretary 
of legation, in the course of which a charge had 
been made that Mr. Hale's privilege, as minister, 
of importing free of duty merchandize for his offi- 
cial or personal use, had been exceeded and some 
goods put upon the market and sold. Mr. Hale's 
answer was, that he had been misled by a com- 
mission-merchant, instigated by Mr. Perry. The 
latter was removed 28 June, 1869. Mr. Hale had 
been one of the victims of the " National hotel dis- 
ease," and his physical and mental faculties were 
much impaired for several years before his death. 
Immediately upon his arrival home he was pros- 
trated by paralysis, and shortly afterward received 
a fracture of one of the small bones of the leg 
when thrown down by a runaway horse. In the 
summer of 1873 his condition was further aggra- 
vated by a fall that dislocated his hip. 

HALE, Robert Safford, lawyer, b. in Chelsea, 
Vt., 24 Sept., 1822 ; d. in Elizabethtown, N. Y., 
14 Dec, 1881. He was graduated at the Univer- 
sity of Vermont in 1842, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar at Elizabethtown, Essex co., 
N. Y., in 1847. He was surrogate and county judge 
from 1856 till 1864, regent of the University of New 
York from 1859 until his death, and presidential 
elector in 1860. He served as special counsel for 
the United States from 1868 till 1870, being charged 
with the defence of the " abandoned and captured 
property claims," and was agent and counsel for 
the United States before the American and British 
mixed commission, under the treaty of Washington, 
from 1871 till 1873. He was a member of congress 
from 1865 till 1867, and again from 1873 till 1875. 
HALE, Sal in ii, historian, b. in Alstead, Cheshire 
co., N. H., 7 March, 1787 ; d. in Somerville, Mass., 
19 Nov., 1866. His father, David Hale, joined the 
American army after the battle of Lexington, and 
served throughout the Revolutionary war. Salma, 
the third of fourteen children, was apprenticed 
to a printer in Walpole, N. H. At seventeen he 



wrote an English grammar (Worcester, Mass., 
1804), which was afterward rewritten under the 
title M A New Grammar of the English Language " 
(New York, 1831). At the age of eighteen he 
became editor of " The Political Observatory," at 
Walpole, N. H. He then studied law, became clerk 
of the court of common pleas for Cheshire county, 
and removed to Keene, N. H., in 1813. In 1817-34 
he was clerk of the supreme judicial court, and in 
the latter year was admitted to the bar. In 1816 
he was elected to congress as a Republican, but 
declined a re-election. He subsequently devoted 
himself to the preparation of a '• History of the 
United States," which gained a prize of $400 and 
a gold medal that had been offered by the Ameri- 
can academy of belles-lettres of New York "for 
the best-written history of the United States, which 
shall contain a suitable exposition of the situation, 
character, and interests, absolute and relative, of 
the American republic, calculated for a class-book 
in academies and schools." This was first pub- 
lished under the title of "The History of the 
United States of America, from their First Settle- 
ment as Colonies to the Close of the War with 
Great Britain in 1815 " (1821). It was afterward 
continued to 1845, and went through many edi- 
tions. Mr. Hale was a trustee of Dartmouth in 
1816, and of the University of Vermont in 1823, 
and received honorary degrees from each. He was 
secretary to the commissioners for determining the 
northeastern boundary-line of the United States, 
was president of the New Hampshire historical 
society in 1830, a member of the New Hamp- 
shire house of representatives in 1828 and 1844, 
and of the senate in 1824 and 1845. He was a 
contributor to newspapers and periodicals, was in- 
strumental in organizing the first agricultural so- 
ciety in New Hampshire, and in promoting tem- 
perance, education, the abolition of slavery, and 
the Unitarian movement. While in congress he 
opposed the Missouri compromise. His works in- 
clude " The Administration of John Q. Adams 
and the Opposition by Algernon Sidney" (Con- 
cord, N. H., 1826) ; " Conspiracy of the Spaniards 
against Venice, translated from Abbe Real, and of 
John Lewis Fiesco against Genoa, translated from 
Cardinal De Retz " (Boston, 1828) ; " Annals of the 
Town of Keene, from its First Settlement in 1734 
to 1790 " (Concord, N. H., 1826, and a continua- 
tion to 1815, Keene, 1851); "An Oration on the 
Character of Washington " (Keene, N. H., 1832) ; 
"Address on the Connection of Chemistry and 
Agriculture," delivered before the Cheshire county 
agricultural society (Keene, 1848); and an "Ad- 
dress before the New Hampshire Historical Society 
in 1828" (Concord, 1832; Manchester, 1870).— Hi's 
son, George Silsbee, lawyer, b. in Keene, N. EL, 
24 Sept., 1825, was graduated at Harvard in 1844, 
studied at the law-school there, and taught in Rich- 
mond, Va. He was admitted to the bar in Boston 
in 1850, where he has since been engaged in the 
practice of his profession. He has been a trustee 
of various institutions and in the city government 
of Boston, is a member of the Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire historical and of the New Eng- 
land historic-genealogical societies, president of the 
American Unitarian association, and has taken ac- 
tive interest in philanthropic and charitable move- 
ments. He edited, in connection with George P. 
Sanger, and later with John Codman, the 16th, 17th, 
and 18th volumes of the " Boston Law Reporter," 
was the sole editor of the 16th, 17th, and 18th vol- 
umes of the " United States Digest," and of the 
19th with II. Farnam Smith. He has written " Me- 
moirs of Joel Parker," some time chief justice of 






HALE 



HALE 



35 




New Hampshire (Boston, 1876), and of "Theron 
Metcalf," of the Supreme judicial court of Massa- 
chusetts (Boston, 1876). The " Memorial History 
of Boston" also contains an historical sketch by 
him of the charities of that city. 

HALE, Sarah Josepha (Buell), author, b. in 
Newport, N. H., 24 Oct., 1788; d. in Philadelphia, 
30 April, 1879. She was taught by her mother, 
and her childhood's reading was derived princi- 
pally from the English poets. In 1813 she married 
David Hale, a lawyer, brother of Salma Hale, and 
was left a widow with five children in 1822. Mrs. 
Hale then resorted to the pen as a means of sup- 
port, and in 1828 removed to Boston to take charge 
of the newly established " Ladies' Magazine," which 
she conducted till 1837. In that year it was united 
with " Godey's Lady's Book," published in Phila- 
delphia, and Mrs. Hale became editor of that pe- 
riodical, but did not 
remove to Philadel- 
phia till 1841. In 
Boston she origi- 
nated the Seaman's 
aid society, the par- 
ent of many simi- 
lar organizations in 
various ports. In 
her position as edit- 
or she advocated 
the advancement of 
women, urging es- 
pecially their em- 
ployment as teach- 
ers, and the estab- 
lishment of semina- 
ries for their higher 
education. The idea 
of educating women 
for medical and missionary service in heathen lands 
was another of her thoughts, and she devoted much 
labor to securing its practical adoption. This was 
first attempted through the Ladies' medical mis- 
sionary society, which was formed in Philadelphia. 
mainly by her exertions. The object was finally 
accomplished through the Woman's union mission- 
ary society for heathen lands, formed in New York 
in 1860, with its chief branch in Philadelphia, of 
which Mrs. Hale was president for several years. 
Mrs. Hale proposed through her Boston magazine 
that the women of New England should raise $50,- 
000 to complete the Bunker Hill monument, and 
took a leading part in organizing the fair by which 
the suggestion was successfully carried out. About 
the same time she suggested that Thanksgiving- 
day should be made a national festival, and be 
held on the same day throughout the country. 
She continued to urge this for twenty years, not 
only in her magazine, but by personal correspond- 
ence with the governors of states and with presi- 
dents of the United States. President Lincoln 
adopted her suggestion in 1864, and the observ- 
ance has now become established. Mrs. Hale re- 
tired from editorial work in 1877. Her fugitive 
poems, including " The Light of Home," " Mary's 
Lamb," and " It Snows," became widely familiar. 
Her best-known work is " Woman's Record, or 
Sketches of all Distinguished Women from the 
Creation to the Present Day " (New York, 1853 ; 
3d ed., revised and enlarged, 1869). Her other 
publications are "The Genius of Oblivion and 
Other Poems" (Concord, 1823); " North wood," a 
novel (Boston. 1827; republished in London as 
"A New England Tale"; New York, 1852): 
" Sketches of American Character " (1830) ; " Traits 
of American Life " (Philadelphia, 1835) ; " Flora's 



Interpreter " (Boston, 1835 ; reprinted in London) ; 
"The Ladies' Wreath," a selection from the fe- 
male poets of England and America (1835); "The 
Way to Live Well, and to be Well while we Live " 
(1838); "Grosvenor, a Tragedv" (1838); "The 
White Veil," a bridal gift (Philadelphia, 1854); 
" Alice Ray," a romance in rhyme (Boston, 1846) ; 
" Harry Gray, the Widow's Son," a story of the 
sea (1848); "Three Hours, or the Vigil of Love" 
(Philadelphia, 1848) ; " Ladies' New Book of Cook- 
erv " New York, 1852) ; " New Household Receipt- 
Book" (1853; 2d ed., Philadelphia, 1855); "A 
Dictionary of Poetical Quotations " (1854) ; " The 
Judge, a Drama of American Life" (1854) ; "The 
Bible Reading-Book " (1854) ; " Manners, or Happy 
Homes and Good Society" (Boston, 1868); and 
" Love, or Woman's Destiny, with Other Poems " 
(Philadelphia, 1870). She also edited several an- 
nuals, including " The Opal " and " The Crocus," 
also "The Poet's Offering" (Philadelphia); " Miss 
Acton's Cookery " ; " Letters of Madame de Se- 
vigne" (1856); "Letters of Lady Mary Wort ley 
Montagu " (1856) ; and other works. — Her son, 
Horatio, ethnologist, b. in Newport, N. H., 3 
May. 1817, was graduated at Harvard in 1837, 
and was appointed in the same year philologist to 
the U. S. exploring expedition under Capt. Charles 
Wilkes. In this capacity he studied a large num- 
ber of the languages of the Pacific islands, as well 
as of North and South America, Australia, and 
Africa, and also investigated the history, tradi- 
tions, and customs of the tribes speaking those lan- 
guages. The results of his inquiries are given in 
his " Ethnography and Philology " (Philadelphia, 
1846), which forms the seventh volume of the ex- 
pedition reports. Dr. Robert G. Latham, the Eng- 
lish philologist, speaks of it as comprising "the 
greatest mass of philological data ever accumulated 
by a single inquirer." On the completion of this 
work he spent some years in travel and in literary 
and scientific studies, both in Europe and in the 
United States. Subsequently he studied law, and 
was in 1855 admitted to the bar in Chicago. A 
year later he removed to Canada to take charge of 
an estate acquired by marriage. Mr. Hale took up 
his residence in the town of Clinton, Ontario, where 
he has since devoted his time in part to the prac- 
tice of his profession and in part to scientific pur- 
suits. He has published numerous memoirs on an- 
thropology and ethnology, is a member of many 
learned societies both in Europe and in America, 
and in 1886 was vice-president of the American 
association for the advancement of science, presid- 
ing over the section of anthropology. His intro- 
ductory address on " The Origin of Languages 
and the Antiquity of Speaking Man " proposed 
some novel theories which have excited much in- 
terest and discussion. His other publications in- 
clude "Indian Migrations as evidenced by Lan- 
guage" (Chicago, 1883); "The Iroquois Book of 
Rites" (Philadelphia, 1883): and a "Report on the 
Blackfoot Tribes," presented to the British asso- 
ciation for the advancement of science at its Ab- 
erdeen meeting in 1885. — Mrs. Hale's nephew, Ed- 
win Moses, physician, b. in Newport, N. H., 2 
Feb., 1829. He became a printer in early life, em- 
ploying his leisure hours in study. He was grad- 
uated at the Cleveland homoeopathic medical col- 
lege in 1859, practised his profession for twelve 
years in Jonesville, Mich., became in 1863 profes- 
sor of materia medica and therapeutics in the 
Hahnemann medical college, Chicago, and held the 
same chair in Chicago homoeopathic college from 
1880 till 1884, when he became professor emeritus. 
In 1871 he began a series of s[>ecial lectures on dis- 



36 



HALIBURTON 



HALL 



eases of the heart. In addition to his editorial con- 
nection with various journals he is the author of 
many monographs and of several treatises, among 
which are " New Remedies" (2 vols., New York, 
1867); "Pocket Manual of Domestic Practice" 
(1870) ; " Lectures on Diseases of the Heart " (1871) ; 
and " Diseases of Women " (1875). 

HALIBURTON, John, physician, b. in Rhode 
Island in 1739 ; d. in Halifax, N. S., in 1808. He 
removed to Halifax, being a loyalist, about 1776, 
and during the Revolutionary war was a surgeon in 
the British navv. At its conclusion he returned to 
practice in Halifax, held several public offices, and 
was a member of the council. He ranked high in 
his profession. His wife was a sister of Admiral 
Brenton.— His son, Sir Brenton, jurist, b. in 
Rhode Island in 1773; d. in Halifax, N. S., in 
1860, studied law and was admitted to the bar. 
Rising rapidly in his profession, he was appointed 
chief justice of Nova Scotia, and at the age of 
eighty-six received the honor of knighthood. The 
chief justice was highly esteemed as an able, pains- 
taking, conscientious judge, and a man of kindly 
disposition and great liberality of opinion. 

HALIBURTON, Thomas Chandler, author, b. 
in Windsor, Nova Scotia, in 1797 ; d. in Isleworth, 
England, 27 Aug., 1865. He was admitted to the 
bar in 1820, and afterward elected a member of 
the house of assembly. In 1829 he was appointed 
chief justice of the court of common pleas, and in 
1840 became a judge of the supreme court. Two 
years later he resigned that office and removed to 
England, where he afterward resided. In 1859 he 
was returned to parliament for Launceston as a 
Conservative, holding the seat until the dissolution 
in July, 1865. Owing to infirm health, he did not 
offer himself for re-election. In 1858 he received 
the degree of D. C. L. from the University of Ox- 
ford. In 1835 he wrote a series of newspaper 
sketches satirizing the New England character, 
which were subsequently collected and published 
under the title of " The Clockmaker, or the Sayings 
and Doings of Samuel Slick, of Slickville " (1837). 
These were followed by a second series, which ap- 
peared in 1838, and a third in 1840. Of Judge 
Haliburton's success in portraying the typical New 
Englander, President Cornelius C. Felton says: 
" We can distinguish the real from the counterfeit 
Yankee at the first sound of the voice, and by the 
turn of a single sentence ; and we have no hesita- 
tion in declaring that Sam Slick is not what he 
pretends to be ; that there is no organic life in him ; 
that he is an impostor, an impossibility, a non- 
entity." On the other hand, the " London Athe- 
naeum " asserts that " he [Sam Slick] deserves to 
be entered on our list of friends, containing the 
names of Tristram Shandy, the shepherd of the 
1 Noctes Ambrosiana?,' and other rhapsodical dis- 
courses on time and change, who, besides the de- 
lights of their discourse, possess also the charm of 
individuality." He afterward wrote " The Attache, 
or Sam Slick in England " (1843 ; 2d series, 2 vols., 
1844 ; new ed., 4 vols., 1846), in which British so- 
ciety is amusingly depicted. Judge Haliburton is 
also the author of " An Historical and Statistical 
Account of Nova Scotia " (1828-'39) ; " Bubbles of 
Canada," " The Old Judge, or Life in a Colony," 
and "Letter- Bag of the Great Western" (1839); 
" Rule and Misrule of the English in America " 
(2 vols., 1851); "Yankee Stories " and " Traits of 
American Humor " (3 vols., 1852) ; " Nature and 
Human Nature " (1855-'8) ; " Letters to Lord Dur- 
ham," and " Wise Saws and Modern Instances." He 
also edited several works, including one on the 
"Settlement of New England." 



HALKETT, Sir Peter, bart., soldier, of Pit- 
firrane, Pifeshire, Scotland ; d. near Pittsburg, Pa., 
9 July, 1755. He was the son of Sir Peter Wedder- 
burn, of Gosport, who assumed his wife's name. 
The son entered the army, and represented Dun- 
fermline in parliament in 1734. In 1745 he was 
lieutenant-colonel of Lee's regiment (the 44th) at 
the battle of Preston- Pans, was taken prisoner by 
the troops of the Pretender, and released on parole. 
Subsequently he was one of the five officers who, 
in February, 1746, refused to rejoin their regiment 
on the command of the Duke of Cumberland, and 
the threat that in the event of non-compliance 
their commissions would be forfeited. Their reply, 
" that his royal highness was master of their com- 
missions, but not of their honor," was approved 
by the government, and Sir Peter embarked for 
America in command of his regiment in 1754. He 
was killed, with his youngest son, James, in the 
battle of the Monongahela, when Braddock was de- 
feated. — His nephew, John, author, b. in London, 
England, in 1768; d. in Brighton, England, in 
November, 1852, was appointed governor of the 
Bahamas, 5 Dec, 1801, and of Tobago, 27 Oct., 
1803. From 1814 till 1819 he was chairman of the 
board of commissioners of West India accounts. 
In 1821 or 1822 he visited the United States, and 
on his return to England (1823) published " His- 
torical Notes respecting the Indians of North 
America." He was also the author of a "State- 
ment," respecting the attempt of his uncle, the 
Earl of Selkirk, to form a settlement on the Red 
river, regarding which there are many contradic- 
tory accounts (London, 1817). 

HALL, Andrew Douglass, physician, b. in St. 
George's parish, Hempstead, Queens co., N. Y., 2 
July, 1833. He was graduated at the University 
of Pennsylvania in 1851, and at Jefferson medical 
college in 1854. After serving as resident physi- 
cian in the Episcopal and Pennsylvania hospitals 
in Philadelphia, he entered on general practice in 
that city in 1858. In 1863 he was elected attend- 
ing surgeon to the Wills hospital, and in 1867 
surgeon to St. Mary's hospital, which latter office 
he resigned after five years' service. His specialty 
is diseases of the eye. He is a member of several 
medical associations, and, as one of the original 
members of the Pathological society, has con- 
tributed numerous papers to its first volume of 
"Transactions." Articles from his pen on sub- 
jects connected with ophthalmology have frequent- 
ly appeared in professional journals. 

HALL, Arethusa, educator, b. in Norwich (now 
Huntington), Hampshire co.. Mass., 13 Oct., 1802. 
She had limited opportunities for obtaining an 
education, but subsequently made up for early 
deficiencies by private study. At the age of 
nine she became a member of the family of Rev. 
Sylvester Judd, of Westhampton, Mass. She was 
principal of the Greenland, N. H., academy in 
1826, and afterward of that at Haverhill, Mass., 
where she was the teacher of the poet Whittier. 
She continued to teach in New England schools 
until 1849, and in that year came to the Brooklyn 
female academy (now Packer institute), and after 
two years' service was associated with Prof. Alonzo 
Gray in the Brooklyn Heights seminary for young 
ladies, where she remained as associate principal 
until 1860. Failing health soon afterward com- 
pelled her to retire. She published " Thoughts of 
Blaise Pascal" (Andover, 1846); "A Manual of 
Morals" (1849); "The Literary Reader" (Boston, 
1850) ; " Life of the Rev. Sylvester Judd " (Boston, 
1854) ; and " Memorabilia of Sylvester Judd, Sr." 
(printed privately, Northampton, 1882). 






HALL 



HALL 



37 



HALL, Asaph, astronomer, b. in Goshen, Conn., 
15 Oct., 1829. fie was educated in a common 
school, and then worked on a farm till he was 
sixteen years old, after which he followed the trade 
of a carpenter. In 1853 he began the study of 
geometry and algebra in Norfolk academy, and 
afterward went to Wisconsin, where he taught 
school for several years. He then studied at the 
University of Michigan for a single term, and 
after teaching for a year at Shalersville, Ohio, en- 
tered the observatory of Harvard college as a 
student. From 1857 till 1862 he was assistant in 
the observatory, and in August of the latter year 
was appointed aide in the U. S. naval observatory 
in Washington. In May, 1863, he was made pro- 
fessor of mathematics, with the relative rank of 
captain. He has been connected with all the im- 
portant astronomical expeditions sent out under 
the auspices of the U. S. government, including 
those sent to observe solar eclipses from the Ber- 
ing sea in 1869, and in Sicily, in 1870. During 
the transit of Venus in 1874 he had charge of the 
American party at Vladisvostok, in Siberia, and 
at the later transit in 1882 was chief astrono- 
mer of the party stationed in San Antonio, Texas. 
Prof. Hall has won great distinction by his dis- 
covery of the moons of Mars. On the night of 11 
Aug., 1877, he noticed a small star near the disk of 
Mars, which, from subsequent examination, he was 
persuaded was a satellite of that planet. A week 
later he discovered a second satellite interior to the 
first, and of somewhat superior brightness. These 
discoveries were at once communicated to Joseph 
Henry, secretary of the Smithsonian institution, by 
whom they were announced to the principal astron- 
omers both in Europe and America. Exact calcu- 
lations were made of their orbits, and Prof. Hall 
gave to them the names of Deimos and Phobos 
(Terror and Fear), from the passage in Homer's 
" Iliad," where these two divinities are mentioned 
as the attendants of the god of war. His subse- 
quent work has included important observations 
of double stars in 1880, and determinations of the 
orbits of the satellites of Saturn. In 1879 he was 
awarded the gold medal of the Royal astronomical 
society of London for his discoveries, and received 
the degrees of Ph. D. from Hamilton in 1878, and 
LL. D. from Yale in 1879, and from Harvard in 
1886. Prof. Hall is a member of numerous scien- 
tific societies, both in the United States and Eu- 
rope, and was chosen vice-president of the Ameri- 
can association for the advancement of science in 
1880. In 1875 he was elected a member of the Na- 
tional academy of sciences, and in 1883 was ap- 
pointed to the office of home secretary in that 
body. His publications have been confined to his 
specialty, and have appeared in astronomical jour- 
nals on both continents, and also in the annual 
volumes of the U. S. naval observatory. 

HALL, Basil, author, b. in Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, 31 Dec., 1788 ; d. in Portsmouth. England, 
11 Sept., 1844. He was the son of Sir James Hall 
of Dunglass, a writer on architecture and geology ; 
his mother was the daughter of the fourth Earl of 
Selkirk. He entered the navy in 1802, and in 
1816 commanded the brig " Lyra," which accom- 
panied Lord Amherst to China. He was made 
post-captain in 1817, and from 1820 till 1822 was 
stationed on the Pacific coast of America. In 
1827-8 he travelled in the United States and Can- 
ada, and afterward visited various parts of Europe, 
In the latter part of his life his mind became im- 
paired, and he died insane. Besides contributions 
to scientific periodicals and to the "Encyclopaedia 
Britannica," and minor works of travel, he pub- 



lished " A Voyage of Discovery to the Western 
Coast of Corea and the Great Loo Choo Island " 
(1818); "Extracts from a Journal written in 
1820-'22 on the Coasts of Chili, Peru, and Mexi- 
co " (2 vols., 1823-'4) ; " Travels in North Ameri- 
ca " (3 vols., 1829) ; " Fragments of Voyages and 
Travels " (9 vols., 1831-'40) ; " Schloss Hainfield, 
or A Winter in Lower Styria " (1836) ; " Spain and 
the Seat of War in Spain " (1837) ; " Voyages and 
Travels in Conjunction with Ellis and Pringle " 
(1840) ; and " Patchwork : Travels in Stories " 
(3 vols.), and '" Travels in South America " (1841). 
" Fragments " is generally considered his best 
work. His book on America aroused great indig- 
nation in this country by the partial and hostile 
character of its criticisms. 

HALL, Barnard Rust, author, b. in Phila- 
delphia in 1798 ; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 23 Jan., 
1863. He was the son of Dr. John Hall, an emi- 
nent surgeon on the staff of Gen. Washington, 
and was left at an early age heir to a large for- 
tune, but never came into its possession, owing to 
mismanagement. He was graduated at Union 
college in 1820, and at the Princeton theological 
seminary in 1823, and went to the west as a mis- 
sionary. While there he was pastor of a church 
in Bloomington, Ind., and president of the college 
in the same place from 1823 till 1831. Returning 
to the east, he had charge for seven years of a con- 
gregation at Bedford, Pa., where he was also the 
principal of an academy. From 1838 till 1846 he 
taught in Bordentown and Trenton, N. J., and 
Poughkeepsie, Newburg, and Brooklyn, N. Y. In 
1848 he received the degree of D. D. from Rutgers 
college. The last years of his life were devoted to 
preaching among the poor. He published a Latin 
grammar (1828), and was also the author of " The 
New Purchase, or Life in the Far West," which 
enjoyed a wide popularity (New York, 1843) ; 
" Something for Everybody " (1843) ; " Teaching 
a Science ; The Teacher an Artist " ; and " Frank 
Freeman's Barber-Shop " (1852). 

HALL, Charles Francis, explorer, b. in Roch- 
ester, N. H., in 1821 ; d. in the arctic regions. 8 
Nov., 1871. His early education was acquired in the 
common school and 
the local academy. 
He was blacksmith, 
journalist, station- 
er, and engraver in 
turn. In 1850, while 
living in Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, he be- 
came interested in 
the fate of Sir John 
Franklin, and for 
nine years improved 
every opportuni- 
ty to increase his 
knowledge of Arc- 
tic America, and 
especially of the 
Franklin search. 
Despite the admira- 
ble and convincing 
report in 1859 by 
Capt. Leopold Mc- 
Clintock, R. N., of the death of Franklin and the 
fate of his companions, Hall believed that some 
members of that expedition still survived and 
that they and their records could be found. His 
enthusiasm enlisted the interest of Henry Grin- 
nell and other friends of arctic research, and by 
aid of public subscriptions his journev was ren- 
dered possible. On 29 May, I860, Hall sailed from 




38 



HALL 



HALL 



New London on the whaler "George Henry," 
which, commanded by Cant. S. O. Buddington, 
was bound for Cumberland gulf. Hall returned 
to New London, 13 Sept., 1862, having been un- 
successful in his search, but he had acquired much 
knowledge of Esquimau life, speech, and habits, 
and had discovered relics of Frobisher's expedition 
of 1577-'8. The country was in the midst of a 
great civil war, and he failed, by lecturing or by 
personal appeals, to obtain sufficient means for a 
special expedition. Undismayed, he sailed again, 
1 July, 1864, sparsely fitted out bv private sub- 
scription, and in August was landed on Depot 
island, 64° N., 90° W., with boat and provisions. 
Hall became thoroughly domesticated with the 
Esquimaux, among whom he passed five years, re- 
ceiving occasional supplies from whalers. In 
May, 1869, he reached the southeastern coast of 
King William's Land, but passed only four days 
there, as his native companions would stay no 
longer. Hall gathered up many relics of the 
Franklin expedition and brought back a skele- 
ton, supposed to be that of an officer of the " Ere- 
bus." The Esquimaux informed him of their 
finding a large tent near Terror bay, with remains 
of many men, and said that one of the Franklin 
ships, after being abandoned, made the northwest 
passage by drifting. After his return in 1869 Hall 
succeeded in engaging the attention of congress, 
which authorized " An Expedition to the North 
Pole," the only one in the history of the nation ; 
$50,000 was appropriated for the expedition, and a 
vessel selected from the navy was thoroughly 
fitted out at an expense of $90,000. The "Po- 
laris " sailed from New London, 3 July, 1871, Hall 
commanding, with S. O. Buddington as sailing- 
master, Dr. Emil Bessels as chief of scientific work, 
and twenty-four others. The " Congress " accom- 
panied them as tender to Godhavn, Greenland. 
There is no doubt that Hall was uncertain as to 
his route, whether via Jones sound or Smith sound, 
but he decided on the latter. Favored by a sea 
unusually free of ice, the " Polaris " passed with- 
out difficulty through Smith sound into Kane sea, 
and thence through Kennedy and Robeson chan- 
nels to the polar sea, where heavy ice was met 
with. On 29 Aug. the " Polaris " was in latitude 
82° 11' N., the highest point at that time, ever at- 
tained by any vessel. Returning southward, she 
went into winter quarters in 81° 38' N., at Thank 
God harbor, Greenland. Hall left the ship on 10 
Oct. on a sledge journey, during which he reached 
Cape Brevoort, 82° N. Returning on 24 Oct., he 
was immediately taken sick and soon died of 
apoplexy. He was buried near by, in the most 
northern grave of that time. The death of Hall 
insured the failure of geographical work. The 
only extended sledge journey was to the south 
under Dr. Bessels. A boat journey in 1872, at- 
tempted by Mr. Chester, reached Newman bay 
only, but Meyer and Lynn on foot reached 82° 09' 
N.,. near Repulse bay, the most northerly land 
that had been attained up to that time. Capt. 
Buddington. attempting to return home, left 
Thank God harbor, 13 Aug., 1872. The " Polaris," 
beset in Kennedy channel, drifted steadily south- 
ward with the pack, and on 13 Oct. was near Lit- 
tleton island. The ship was so badly nipped dur- 
ing a gale on 15 Oct. that preparations were made 
to abandon her, and a large quantity of stores 
were thrown upon the ice, when her ice-anchor 
slipped, leaving nineteen men on the floe. The 
floe party, after drifting nearly 2,000 miles and 
subsisting largely on sea-game, were all rescued by 
the sealer " Tigress," 30 April, 1872, off the coast 



of Labrador. Capt. Buddington beached the leak- 
ing and damaged " Polaris " near Life Boat cove, 
where a comfortable house was built of the vessel 
for winter. In the spring of 1873 two boats were 
constructed. On 3 June the party set out for 
Upernavik, and after a journey of about two hun- 
dred miles were picked up near Cape York by the 
Scotch whaler " Ravenscraig." The Roquette 
medal for 1875 was awarded to Hall by the So- 
ciete de geographie of Paris. Hall's arctic work 
has stood the test of criticism and verification, and 
the incorrect, misleading charts of the " Polaris " 
expedition are not chargeable to him. The explo- 
ration of the west Greenland channel, the discov- 
ery of the frozen sea, and the extension of Green- 
land and Grinnell Land a degree and a half of 
latitude toward the pole, are results that attest 
the capacity of Hall and justify the epitaph placed 
by the British polar expedition of 1876 over his 
grave, as one " who sacrificed his life in the ad- 
vancement of science," and who had by his expe- 
perience benefited them, his followers. Hall pub- 
lished " Arctic Researches " and " Life among the 
Esquimaux " (New York, 1864). His unique expe- 
riences during his second expedition have been 
compiled, under the title of " Narrative of the Sec- 
ond Arctic Expedition " (Washington, 1879), from 
his manuscripts, purchased by congress for $15,000 
after his death. See also "Arctic Experiences," 
edited by E. V. Blake (New York, 1874). 

HALL, Charles Henry, clergyman, b. in Au- 
gusta, Ga., 7 Nov., 1820. He was graduated at 
Yale in 1842, studied theology at the General 
Protestant Episcopal theological seminary in New 
York, and was ordained deacon in 1844, and priest 
in the following year. After holding pastorates at 
Huntington, L. I., West Point, N. Y., and John's 
Island, S. C, he became rector of the Church of 
the Epiphany, Washington, D. C, in 1856, and in 
1869 was called to Holy Trinity, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
where he still remains (1887). Previous to the civil 
war and during that period Dr. Hall carefully 
avoided politics in his sermons. He has always 
been a Democrat, but took no active part in politics 
until 1884, when he made several addresses in favor 
of the election of Grover Cleveland to the presidency, 
and was chairman of the Democratic meeting held 
in Brooklyn in June of that year. Dr. Hall's theo- 
logical views are broad, and he is clear and incisive 
as a pulpit orator. He is at the head of the stand- 
ing committee of his diocese, is chaplain of the 
23d New York regiment, a director in the Brook- 
lyn historical society, and is connected with nu- 
merous ecclesiastical and charitable organizations* 
Dr. Hall was the intimate friend of Henry Ward 
Beecher, and co-worker with him in many religious 
enterprises, and was chosen by him to officiate at 
his funeral. He received the degree of D. D. from 
Hobart in 1860, and from Columbia in 1861. He 
has published "Commentaries on the Gospels" 
(Philadelphia, 1867) ; " Protestant Ritualism " (New 
York, 1871) ; and " Spina Christi " (1883). 

HALL, Charles Hershall, physician, b. in New- 
port, Ind., 5 April, 1835. He received his prelimi- 
nary education in Indiana university, and was 
graduated at the medical department of Willa- 
mette university, Ore., in 1868. The next year he 
settled in Salem, and was in the government In- 
dian service at Fort Yamhill in 1871-3, but re- 
signed in 1874 to become professor of the theory 
and practice of medicine in Willamette univer- 
sity, where he still remains (1887). He is a mem- 
ber of the Oregon medical society, and the Ameri- 
can medical association. Since 1876 he has edited 
the "Oregon Medical Journal." 



HALL 



HALL 



39 



HALL, Christopher Webber, geologist, b. in 
Wardsboroujrh, Vt, 28 Feb., 1845. He was gradu- 
ated at Middlebury college, Vt., in 1871, and then 
became principal of Glens Falls academy. In 
1873-'5 he was superintendent of city schools in 
Owatonna, Minn. He then went abroad and spent 
three years in scientific study in the University of 
Leipsic. In 1878 he was called to the chair of 
geology, mineralogy, and biology in the University 
of Minnesota, which he still retains (1887). While 
in Leipsic he performed some lithological work on 
the geological survey of Saxony, under Credner, and, 
after being called to the professorship that he now 
holds, he was appointed assistant geologist on the 

feological and natural history survey of Minnesota, 
n 1883 he became an assistant geologist on the 
U. S. geological survey, and was assigned to the 
Lake Superior division. He was given the inves- 
tigation of the crystalline rocks of central and 
southwestern Minnesota, in which work he is still 
engaged as far as his professional duties will per- 
mit. Prof. Hall is a member of scientific societies, 
and his papers have appeared chiefly as reports of 
his work contributed to surveys. 

HALL, David, printer, b. in Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, in 1714 ; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 24 Dec, 1772. 
He learned the printing business at Edinburgh, 
and afterward worked in London in a printing- 
house in which Strahan, who became law-printer 
to the king, was at that time a journeyman. He 
came to America about 1747, entered into a part- 
nership with Benjamin Franklin, which was dis- 
solved in May, 1766, and then formed another with 
William Sellers. As a member of these firms he 
was one of the printers of the " Pennsylvania Ga- 
zette." The firm of Hall and Sellers were the 
printers of the paper money issued by congress 
during the Revolutionary war. Hall also conducted 
a large book and stationery store on his own ac- 
count. He was well acquainted with the art of 
printing, a prudent and impartial conductor of the 
"Gazette," and a benevolent man. After his death, 
his sons, William and David, became the partners 
of Sellers, and afterward the business was carried 
on in the names of William and David Hall. 
William was for several years a member of the 
Pennsylvania legislature. The business was sub- 
sequently transferred to William Hall, Jr. 

HALL, Dominick Augustine, jurist, b. in 
South Carolina in 1765 ; d. in New Orleans, La., 
12 Dec, 1820. He began the practice of law in 
Charleston, S. C, was district judge of Orleans 
territory from 1809 till 1812, when Louisiana was 
admitted to the Union, and was afterward one of 
its U. S. judges. He resigned his seat on the 
bench to accept a judgeship of the state supreme 
court, but was reappointed Federal judge instead, 
and remained in the U. S. court until his death. In 
December, 1814, Judge Hall was ordered by the 
military authorities to adjourn his court for two 
months, owing to the operations of the British 
force against New Orleans. In March, 1815, while 
the city was under martial law, he granted a writ 
of habeas corpus for the release of Louis Louillier, 
a member of the state legislature, who was then 
under arrest, by order of Gen. Andrew Jackson, 
for exciting a seditious meeting among his troops. 
Gen. Jackson refused to recognize Judge Hall's 
authority, and at once ordered Louillier's rearrest 
and imprisonment, and committed Hall to jail. 
The latter was released the next morning, and 
summoned Gen. Jackson to answer for contempt 
of court in disregarding the writ of habeas corpus, 
in detaining an original paper, and in imprisoning 
a judge. The general appeared in person, and, 



after an argument by counsel, was sentenced to pay 
a fine of $ 1,000. But congress refunded him this 
sum. with interest, in 1844. 

HALL, Edwin, clergyman, b. in Granville, N. 
Y.. 11 Jan., 1802; d. in Auburn, N. Y., 8 Sept., 
1877. He was graduated at Middlebury college in 
1826. From 1831 till 1832 he was principal of an 
academy in Bloomfield, N. Y., and was pastor of the 
1st Congregational church at Norwalk, Conn., from 
1832 till 1854, when he was elected professor of 
theology in Auburn seminary. He occupied this 
chair until 1876, and was professor emeritus from 
that time till his death. He published " The Law 
of Baptism " ( N ew York, 1840) ; " The Puritans and 
their Principles " (1846) ; " Historical Records of 
Norwalk " (1847) : " Shorter Catechism with Proofs " 
(1859) ; and numerous tracts and pamphlets. — His 
son, Isaac Hollister, oriental scholar, b. in Nor- 
walk, Conn., 12 Dec, 1837, was graduated in Ham- 
ilton in 1859, was tutor there in 1861-'3, and in 
1864 removed to New York city, where he was 
graduated at Columbia law-school in 1865, and 
practised- his profession. He visited Syria in 1875, 
and was professor for two years in the Beirut 
Protestant college, but returned to the United 
States in 1877, and associated himself with the 
"Sunday-School Times," published in Philadelphia. 
In 1875 he established the column of " Biblical 
Research " in the " New York Independent." Since 
1884 he has been connected with the Metropolitan 
museum of New York city, and is lecturer on New 
Testament Greek in Johns Hopkins university. 
He was the first to read an entire inscription in 
Cypriote, and has published an important series of 
articles on that language and its inscriptions. He 
is an authority on Greek, Phoenician, Himyantie, 
and other oriental inscriptions, and in 1876 dis- 
covered in Beirut a Syriac manuscript of the Gos- 
pels, Acts, and most of the Epistles, an account of 
which, with fac-simile pages, he published in 1884. 
The date of this manuscript is between 700 and 
900 a. d. Mr. Hall is a member of various archaeo- 
logical and biblical societies in this country and 
abroad, and is the author of " A Critical Bibliog- 
raphy of the Greek New Testament, as Published 
in America" (Philadelphia. 1884). 

HALL, Fitzedward, philologist, b. in Trov, 
N. Y., 21 March. 1825. He was educated at the 
Rensselaer polytechnic institute, from which he 
received the degree of civil engineer in 1842, and 
at Harvard, where he was graduated in 1846. 
During his collegiate course he published enough 
German translations anonymously to fill three vol- 
umes. Immediately on leaving college, he sailed 
from Boston for Calcutta, where he remained near- 
ly three years, studying first Hindustani and Per- 
sian, and subsequently Bengalee and Sanskrit. He 
supported himself by contributing to local journals 
not only original matter, but translations in prose 
and verse from the French, Italian, and modern 
Greek. After residing five months at Ghazeepore, 
he removed to Benares in January, 1850, and a 
month later was appointed to a tutorship in the 
government college there. In 1853 he was pro- 
moted professor, and in July, 1855, was transferred 
to Ajmere as inspector of schools for Ajmere and 
Mairwara. to which was added the superintendency 
of the Ajmere government school. His last ap- 
pointment in India was that of school-inspector 
for the Sangor and Nerbudda territories, which 
office he retained from 1856 till 1862. During the 
Indian mutinies Prof. Hall was besieged for seven 
months in the Sangor fort. In 1860 he received 
the degree of D. C. L. from Oxford. Settling in 
London in November, 1862, he accepted the chair 



40 



HALL 



HALL 



of Sanskrit, and that of Indian jurisprudence in 
King's college, and also filled other offices. In 
1869 he removed to Marlesford, Suffolk, where he 
still (188?) resides. Prof. Hall was the first Ameri- 
can to edit (in 1852) a Sanskrit text. He has also 
discovered several interesting Sanskrit works sup- 
posed to have been lost, such as " Bharata's Naty- 
asastra," the " Harshacharita," and a complete copy 
of the valuable " Brihaddevata," of which only a 
small fragment was previously known to exist. 
The various Sanskrit inscriptions that he has de- 
ciphered and translated throw much new light on 
the history of ancient India. He is at present one 
of the editors of the new English dictionary that 
is in course of publication at Oxford under the 
supervision of James A. H. Murray. Prof. Hall's 
principal works are, Sanskrit : " The Atmabodha, 
with its Commentary, and the Tattvabodha " 
(Mirzapore, 1852) ; " The Sankhyapravachana " 
(Calcutta, 1856) ; " The Siiryasiddhanta " and " The 
Vasavadatta " (Calcutta, 1859) ; " The Sankhyasara " 
(Calcutta, 1862), and " The Dasariipa, with its Com- 
mentary, and Four Chapters of Bharata's Natya- 
sastra " (Calcutta, 1865). Hindi : " The Tarkasan- 
graha, translated into Hindi from the Sanskrit and 
English " (Allahabad, 1850) ; and " The Siddhanta- 
sangraha " (Agra, 1855). Prof. Hall has also edited 
Dr. J. R. Ballantyne's "Hindi Grammar" (Lon- 
don, 1868), and published a " Reader " (Hertford, 
1870) in that language. Besides other works of a 
similar character, he has issued " Lectures on the 
Nyaya Philosophy, Sanskrit and English " (Ben- 
ares, 1852) ; " A Rational Refutation of the Hindu 
Philosophical Systems, translated from the Hindi 
and Sanskrit " (Calcutta, 1862) ; " Recent Exempli- 
fications of False Philology" (New York, 1872); 
" Modern English " (New York and London, 1873) ; 
and " On English Adjectives in -able, with Spe- 
cial Reference to Reliable" (London, 1877). — His 
brother, Benjamin Homer, author, b. in Troy, 
N. Y„ 14 Nov., 1830. He was graduated at Har- 
vard in 1851, and in 1856 was admitted to the bar 
in Troy, N. Y. He served as city clerk in 1858-9, 
and was city chamberlain from 1874 till 1877, and 
again from 1884 till 1885. Mr. Hall has contrib- 
uted freely to the periodicals of the day, both in 
prose and verse, and is the author of articles in the 
" Harvard Book " (Cambridge, 1875), and Sylves- 
ter's " History of Rensselaer County, N. Y." (Phila- 
delphia, 1880). He has published " A Collection of 
College Words and Customs" (Cambridge, 1851; 
revised and enlarged ed., 1856) ; " History of East- 
ern Vermont, etc." (New York, 1858 ; 2 vols., Al- 
bany, 1865); and "Bibliography of the United 
States: Vermont" (New York, 1860). He has 
edited " A Tribute by the Citizens of Troy to the 
Memory of Abraham Lincoln " (Troy, 1865). 

HALL, Francis, journalist, b. in Taunton, 
Somerset, England, 12 March, 1785; d. in New 
York city, 11 Aug., 1866. He came to the United 
States when fourteen years of age, and was ap- 
prenticed to a printer. In 1811 he entered the 
office of the New York " Commercial Advertiser," 
and two years afterward became part owner and 
co-editor of that journal, with which he remained 
connected for fifty-three years. He was identified 
with most of the religious and charitable societies 
of the city, and was an officer of the Methodist 
missionary society, the Young men's Bible society, 
the American Bible society, the American tract 
society, the deaf and dumb institution, and the 
New York state colonization society. Mr. Hall 
was for thirty years recording secretary of the 
Methodist missionary society, and was deputed to 
visit the Indian missions of Upper Canada in be- 



half of that body. About 1833 he united with 
Messrs. Suckley, Innis, and others in organizing 
the first " pewed " Methodist church in New York. 
It was called the " First Wesleyan Chapel," and 
stood in Vestry street. In 1854 Mr. Hall received 
the degree of LL. D. from Wesleyan university. 

HALL, Frederick, teacher, b. in Grafton,"Vt., 
in November, 1780; d. in Peru, 111., 27 July, 1843. 
He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1803, was a 
tutor there in 1804-'5, and in Middlebury, Vt., 
from 1805 till 1806, when he was elected professor 
of mathematics and natural philosophy there. He 
remained at Middlebury until 1824, studied medi- 
cine in 1825-'6, and was graduated at the medical 
school at Castleton, Vt., in 1827. He afterward 
held the professorships of chemistry and miner- 
alogy at Trinity, was president of Mount Hope 
college near Baltimore, and at his death occupied 
the chair of chemistry in Columbian college, D. C. 
Dr. Hall gave to Dartmouth several thousand dol- 
lars and a valuable cabinet of minerals. He was 
the author of " Eulogy on Solomon M. Allan " 
(New York, 1818) ; " Statistics of Middlebury Col- 
lege," in " Massachusetts Historical Collections," 
vol. ix. (1840) ; and " Letters from the East and 
from the West " (Baltimore, 1840). 

HALL, George, first mayor of Brooklyn, b. in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., 21 Sept., 1795; d. there, 16 Sept., 
1868. He was a printer, and the greater portion 
of his life was devoted to the interests of his native 
city, of which he was a trustee at the time of its 
incorporation, and under that act became its first 
mayor. He was an earnest advocate of temper- 
ance, and did good service in the cause of that re- 
form. — His son, George B., soldier, b. in Brooklyn 
in 1826, d. there, 24 May, 1864, entered the New 
York militia as a private, and rapidly rose through 
several grades. At the beginning of the Mexican 
war he was appointed lieutenant in the first regi- 
ment of New York volunteers, and served at Vera 
Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, and Churubusco. 
In 1850 he was commissioned major of the 13th 
militia regiment, and the following year lieuten- 
ant-colonel. He was a clerk in New York at the 
beginning of the civil war, and engaged in raising 
troops. He was elected colonel of the 27th New 
York regiment, and participated in many engage- 
ments, from that of the Stafford raid of 1862 to 
the battle of Fredericksburg. 

HALL, George Henry, artist, b. in Manchester, 
N. H., 21 Sept., 1825. His father removed to Bos- 
ton when the son was four years old. In 1849 
George went to Diisseldorf, studied art one year, 
and removed to Paris, and afterward to Rome, 
where he opened a studio. In 1852 he returned to 
the United States and settled in New York city, 
where he now resides (1887). He was elected an 
associate in 1853, and in 1868 a member, of the 
National academy of design. Mr. Hall has visited 
Spain several times, and spent a year in study in 
Egypt. His specialties are still-life and figures. 
He has exhibited at the National academy " Pre- 
cious Lading," a Spanish scene (1868) ; " Thursday 
Fair at Seville " (1869) ; " A Young Lady of Se- 
ville and her Duenna " and " Lilacs " (1870) ; " The 
Four Seasons" (1871); "The Roman Fountain" 
(1874) ; " Autumn " (1877) ; and " Winter," " A Rug 
Bazaar at Cairo," " Oven at Pompeii " (1887), and 
" Pomegranates and Grapes " (1887). 

HALL, Henry Bryan, engraver, b. in London, 
England, 11 March, 1808: d. in Morrisania, N. Y., 
28 April, 1884. For many years he was employed 
by the historical engraver to the queen, and exe- 
cuted all the portrait work in the large plates of 
that engraver, among them " The Coronation of 



HALL 



HALL 



41 



Victoria." after Sir George Hayter. He removed 
to New York in 1850, and illustrated many artistic 
and literary publications. His engravings are 
chiefly of portraits, twelve of which were of Wash- 
ington, after different artists. He went into busi- 
ness in the latter part of his life with his three 
sons, but devoted his personal attention to etchings 
of historical characters of the Revolution for the 
collections of Dr. Thomas Addis Emmet and 
Francis S. Hoffman. His sons continue the busi- 
ness in New York, and have engraved many of the 
steel portraits that illustrate this work. 

HALL, Hiland, jurist, b. in Bennington, Vt., 
20 July, 1795 ; d. in Springfield, Mass., 18 Dec, 
1885. He was educated in the common schools, 
was admitted to the bar in 1819, and elected to the 
Vermont legislature in 1827. He was state attor- 
ney in 1828-'31, and served in congress from 1833 
till 1843, having been elected as a Whig. He 
was then appointed bank-commissioner, became 
judge of the state supreme court in 1846, and in 
1850 2d comptroller of the treasury, and land-com- 
missioner to California to settle disputed titles be- 
tween citizens of the United States and Mexicans. 
Judge Hall was an earnest advocate for anti-sla- 
very, and a delegate to the first National Republi- 
can convention in 1856. In 1858 he succeeded Ry- 
land Fletcher as governor of Vermont, and was 
re-elected in 1859. He was a delegate to the Peace 
congress that was held in Washington, D. C, in 
February, 1861. Gov. Hall was president of the 
Vermont historical society for twelve years, and 
for twenty-five years was vice-president of the New 
England historic-genealogical society. He is the 
author of a " History of Vermont " (Albany, 1868). 

HALL, James, clergyman, b. in Carlisle, Pa., 
22 Aug., 1744; d. in Bethany, N. C, 25 July, 1826. 
When he was eight years of age his parents re- 
moved to Rowan (now Iredell) county, N. C. He was 
graduated at Princeton in 1774. About 1775 he 
was licensed to preach by the presbytery of Orange, 
and on 8 April, 1778, he was installed pastor of the 
united congregations of Fourth Creek, Concord, 
and Bethany, N. C. In 1790 he severed his con- 
nection with all but the Bethany congregation. 
During the Revolutionary war he was an ardent 
patriot, and was instrumental in organizing a com- 
pany of cavalry, which he led on an expedition into 
South Carolina, performing the double office of 
commander and chaplain. Subsequently, when 
the troops marched into the Cherokee country, 
Georgia, to encounter the Indians, Dr. Hall ac- 
companied them as chaplain. In the autumn of 
1800, under a commission of the Presbyterian gen- 
eral assembly, he established a mission at Natchez, 
which was the first in the series of Protestant mis- 
sionary efforts in the lower valley of the Missis- 
sippi. He was for many years a commissioner to 
the general assembly of his church from the pres- 
bytery of Orange, and was moderator of that body 
in 1803. He did much to advance education, and 
opened at his house an " academy of sciences," in 
which he was the sole teacher. " He published a 
" Narrative of a Most Extraordinary Work of Re- 
ligion in North Carolina " (1802), and a " Report 
of a Missionary Tour through the Mississippi and 
the Southwestern Country." 

HALL, James, paleontologist, b. in Hingham. 
Mass., 12 Sept., 1811. He was graduated at the 
Rensselaer school (now the Troy polytechnic in- 
stitute) in 1832, and remained there as assistant 
professor of chemistry and natural sciences until 
1836, when he was made professor of geology. On 
the organization of the geological survey of New 
York in 1836, he was appointed assistant geologist 




/^r&srrv-e*/ la£*£^£> 



of the second district, and in 1837 was made state 
geologist in charge of the fourth district. He be- 
gan his explorations in the western part of the 
state during that year, and from 1838 till 1841 
published annual reports of progress. In 1843 he 
made his final report on the survey of the fourth 
geological district, which was published as " Geol- 
ogy of New York," 
Part IV. (Albany, 
1843). Retaining the 
title of state geolo- 
gist, he was placed in 
charge of the paleon- 
tological work. His 
results have been em- 
bodied in the " Pa- 
leontology of New 
York " (Albanv, 

1847-79), of which 
five volumes have at 
present been given 
to the public. In 
addition to the fore- 
going, Prof. Hall has 
prepared a complete 
revision of the palae- 
ozoic brachiopoda of 
North America, with 
fifty plates. This comprehensive study of the 
palaeozoic fauna of New York, which is to termi- 
nate with the base of the coal-formation, has de- 
manded researches beyond the limits of the state, 
and Prof. Hall has extended his investigations 
westward to the Rocky mountains. These ex- 
plorations have served as the basis of all our 
knowledge of the geology of the Mississippi basin. 
The general results of these comparative studies 
will be found in the introduction to the third 
volume of the " Paleontology." In 1855 he was 
offered the charge of the paleontology of the geo- 
logical survey of Canada, with promise of suc- 
ceeding Sir William E. Logan as director, but 
declined the offer. Subsequently he prepared a 
monograph on the " Graptolites of the Quebec 
Group" (Montreal, 1865), which was contributed 
to the Canadian survey. Prof. Hall also held the 
appointments of state geologist of Iowa in 1855, 
and of Wisconsin in 1857. For the former he pre- 
pared the geological and paleontological portions 
of the two volumes of the " Geological Survey of 
Iowa " (Albany, 1858-'9), and he wrote the chap- 
ters on physical geography, geology, and paleon- 
tology for the " Report on the Geological Survey of 
the State of Wisconsin " (Madison, 1862). The ex- 
amination and description of the specimens col- 
lected for the government frequently have been 
assigned to him, and he has written the paleonto- 
logical portions of "Fremont's Exploring Expe- 
dition ; Appendix A " (Washington, 1845) ; " Ex- 
pedition to the Great Salt Lake" (Philadelphia, 
1852); "United States and Mexican Boundary 
Survey" (Washington, 1857); and "U. S. Geologi- 
cal Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel," vol. iv. 
(1877). In 1866, on the reorganization of the New 
York state museum, he was appointed director, 
which place, in addition to that of state geologist, 
he still holds. In connection with this office he 
has made each year, in his annual reports, valu- 
able contributions to science. Prof. Hall has de- 
voted much time to crystalline stratified rocks, 
and was the first to point out the persistence 
and significance of mineralogical character as a 
guide to classification. He has also laid the foun- 
dation for a rational theory of mountains. He 
received the degree of A. M. from Union in 1842. 



42 



HALL 



HALL 



and that of LL. D. from Hamilton in 1863, and 
from McGill in 1884. Prof. Hall received the quin- 
quennial grand prize of $1,000 awarded in 1884 by 
the Boston society of natural history. In 1840 he 
was one of the founders of the American associa- 
tion of geologists and naturalists, and after its 
growth into the American association for the ad- 
vancement of science was elected president in 1856, 
delivering his retiring address, on "Contributions 
to the Geological History of the American Conti- 
nent," at the Montreal meeting in 1857. He was 
one of the original members of the National acade- 
my of sciences. In 1876 he was one of the founders 
of the International congress of geologists, and 
was one of the vice-presidents at the session held 
in Paris in 1878, also in Bologna in 1881, and in 
Berlin in 1885. He was elected one of the fifty 
foreign members of the geological society of Lon- 
don in 1848, and in 1858 was awarded its Wollaston 
medal. In 1884 he was elected correspondent of 
the Academy of sciences in Paris, and he is a mem- 
ber of many other scientific societies at home and 
abroad. Besides his larger works, most of which 
have been referred to, he is the author of nearly 
250 separate papers, of which a full list, from 1836 
till 1882, is given in the " Thirty-sixth Annual Re- 
port of the New York Museum of Natural His- 
tory " (Albany, 1884). 

HALL, John, jurist, b. in Waynesboro, Va., in 
1767 : d. in Warrenton, N. C, 29 Jan., 1833. He 
went to North Carolina at an early age. was edu- 
cated at William and Mary, settled in Warrenton 
in 1792, and became eminent as a lawyer. He was 
a judge of the superior court of North Carolina 
from 1801 till 1818, and of the supreme court from 
1818 till 1832. — His son, Edward, a distinguished 
lawyer, became a judge in 1840. 

HALL, John, clergyman, b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 
11 Aug.. 1806. He was educated at University of 
Pennsylvania, studied law, and in December, 1827, 
was admitted to the Philadelphia bar. He relin- 
quished the practice of law in 1832, was elected 
manager and subsequently secretary of the Amer- 
ican Sunday-school union, licensed to preach by 
the presbytery of Philadelphia in 1839, and or- 
dained pastor of the 1st church in Trenton, N. J., 
11 Aug., 1841. In 1852-'3 he delivered a course of 
lectures in Princeton theological seminary. He 
was editor of the " Sunday-School Journal " in 
1832-40, of the " Youth's Friend," and has been 
a frequent contributor to various religious and 
literary periodicals. He also edited for a time the 
"Morning Journal" in Philadelphia, lectured at 
the Smithsonian institution in 1850, and was anni- 
versary orator of the New Jersey society of the 
Cincinnati in 1859. He is the author of " Trans- 
mit ion of Milton's Latin Letters" (Philadelphia, 
1829) ; Gaston's " Collection of Scripture Texts on 
the Christian Faith," corrected and revised (1841) ; 
" History of the Presbyterian Church in Trenton. 
N. J." (New York, 1859); " Forty Years' Familiar 
Letters of James W. Alexander, D. D." (2 vols., 
1860) ; and various works issued by the Presbyterian 
board of publication and the Sunday-school union. 

HALL, John, clergyman, b. in County Armagh, 
Ireland, 31 July, 1829." He is of Scottish descent. 
Ho entered Belfast college at the age of thirteen, 
and, notwithstanding his extreme youth, was re- 
peatedly Hebrew prize man. He was licensed to 
preach in 1849, and at once engaged in labor as a 
missionary in the west of Ireland. In 1852 he was 
installed pastor of the 1st Presbyterian church at 
Armagh, and in 1858 was called to the church 
of Mary's Abbey (now Rutland square) in Dublin. 
He was an earnest friend of popular education, 



and received from the queen the honorary appoint- 
ment of commissioner of education for Ireland. 
In 1867 he was a delegate from the general assem- 
bly of the Presbyterian church in Ireland to the 
Presbyterian churches of the United States, and 
after his return to Ireland be received a call to the 
Fifth avenue Presbyterian church in New York, 
which he accepted, entering upon his labors on 3 
Nov., 1867. In 1875 a new church edifice was 
erected for him, at a cost of about $ 1,000,000, on 
the corner of Fifth avenue and Fifty-fifth street. 
In 1882 he was elected chancellor of the Univer- 
sity of the city of New York. He was selected to 
deliver the funeral sermon of Chief-Justice Chase, 
who belonged to a different denomination. Dr. 
Hall is the author of " Family Prayers for Four 
Weeks " (New York. 1868) ; " Papers for Home Read- 
ing" (1871) " Familiar Talk to Boys" ; " Questions 
of the Day" (1873) ; " God's Word through Preach- 
ing," Lyman Beecher lectures at Yale seminary 
(1875); '" Foundation-Stones for Young Builders" 
(Philadelphia, 1880) ; and " A Christian Home ; 
How to Make and how to Maintain it " (1883). 

HALL, Jonathan Prescott, jurist, b. in Pom- 
fret, Conn., 9 July, 1796; b. in Newport, R. I., 29 
Sept., 1862. He was graduated at Yale in 1817, 
practised law in New York, and during the admin- 
istrations of Tyler and Fillmore was district attor- 
ney for the southern district of New York, and was 
noted as a brilliant orator. He was the author of 
" Reports of Cases in the Superior Court of the City 
of New York, 1828-'9 " (2 vols., New York, 1831-'3). 

HALL, Louisa Jane Park, poet, b. in New- 
buryport, Mass., 7 Feb., 1802. Her father, James 
Park, was a physician, but abandoned his profes- 
sion and removed to Boston in 1804 to edit the 
"Repertory," a Federalist journal. In 1811 he 
opened a school for young ladies in Boston, where 
his daughter received a good education ; but in 
1831 he removed with his family to Worcester. 
She was almost blind for several years, and during 
this period her father read to her, and assisted in 
the preparation of her books. In 1840 she married 
Rev. Edward B. Hall, a Unitarian clergyman of 
Providence, R. I. Her works are " Miriam," a dra- 
matic poem, illustrative of the early conflicts of 
the Christian church, partly written in 1825 (1837); 
" Joanna of Naples," an historical tale in prose 
(Boston, 1838) ; and the " Life of Elizabeth Carter." 

HALL, Lyman, signer of the Declaration of 
Independence, b. in Connecticut in 1725; d. in 
Burke county, 
Ga., 19 Oct.. 1790. 
He was graduated 
at Yale in 1747, 
studied medicine, 
and removed to 
Georgia in 1752, 
settling in Sun- 
bury, where he 
acquired a large 
practice. He took 
an active part in 
the pre - Revolu- 
tionary move - 
ments, was a 
member of the 
conventions held 
in Savannah in 
1774 and 1775, 
and was influen- 
tial in causing 
Georgia to join 
the other colonies, 
parish of St. John to congress, and served till 1780. 




In 1775 he was elected bv the 



HALL 



HALL 



43 



When the British took possession of Georgia he re- 
moved with his family to the north, and all his 
property was confiscated by the royal government. 
In 1782 he returned to Georgia, before the evacu- 
ation of Savannah, and was governor of the state for 
one term, after which he retired from public life. 

HALL, Nathan Kelsey, statesman, b. in Mar- 
cellus, Onondaga co., N. Y., 10 March, 1810 ; d. in 
Buffalo, N. Y., 2 March, 1874. He was the son of 
a New England shoemaker, who emigrated to cen- 
tral New York in the early part of the century. 
In 1818 the family moved to Erie county, N. Y., 
where young Hall worked on a farm and occasion- 
ally at his father's trade. He was educated in the 
country district-schools, and at the age of eighteen 
became a student in the office of Millard Fillmore, 
who was then a practising attorney at Aurora, 
N. Y. In 1832 he was admitted to the bar and to 

ha copartnership with his preceptor, who in the 
mean time had removed to Buffalo. In 1836, 
Solomon G. Haven was admitted as a member of 
the firm. Mr. Hall was deputy clerk of Erie coun- 
ty in 1831-'2, clerk of the board of supervisors in 
1832-8, city attorney in 1833-'4, and alderman in 
1837. He was appointed master in chancery by 
Gov. Seward in 1839, and judge of the court of 
common pleas in 1841. In 1845 he was elected to 
the assembly, and before the expiration of his term 
was chosen a representative, in congress as a Whig, 
serving in 1847-'9. He declined a renomination, 
preferring the practice of his profession to public 
life. In 1850 Mr. Hall was appointed postmaster- 
general by President Fillmore, and in 1852 he be- 
came U. S. judge for the northern district of New 
York, which office, he filled till his death, making 
a creditable record in judicial administration. 

HALL, Nathaniel, clergyman, b. in Medford, 
Mass., 13 Aug., 1805 ; d. in Dorchester, Mass., 21 
Oct., 1875. He became clerk in a store in Boston, 
and subsequently was secretary in an insurance- 
office. He was graduated at the Harvard divinity- 
school in 1834, and in the following year was col- 
league pastor with Dr. Thaddeus Mason Harris of 
the 1st Unitarian parish, Dorchester, Mass. He 
became sole pastor in 1836, and held this post 
until his death. He was an earnest philanthropist 
and abolitionist. About forty of his sermons were 
published, including several on slavery printed be- 
tween 1850 and 1860. 

HALL, Newman, English clergyman, b. in 
Maidstone, Kent, 22 May, 1816. He was gradu- 
ated at the University of London in 1841, and re- 
ceived the degree of LL. B. there in 1855. He 
had charge of the Albion Congregational church 
in Hull from 1842 till 1854, when he removed to 
London to become pastor of Surrey chapel, Black- 
friar's road, known as Rowland Hill's chapel. In 
1850 he opposed the general cry against papal ag- 

?;ression. During the civil war he was a firm 
riend of the U. S. government, and at its close 
visited the United States in the interest of inter- 
national good - will. He opened congress with 
prayer, and delivered an oration on " International 
Relations " in the house of representatives in No- 
vember, 1867. As a memorial of this visit, Lincoln 
Tower, part of his new church-building on West- 
minster road, was built by the joint subscriptions 
of Americans and Englishmen. In 1873 he again 
visited the United States, lecturing in the principal 
cities. His publications have been widely circu- 
lated and reprinted in the United States. Among 
these are '-The Christian Philosopher" (London, 
1849); "Italy, the Land of the Forum and the 
Vatican" (1853): "Lectures in America" (New 
York, 1868); "Sermons and History of Surrev 



Chapel " (1868) ; " From Liverpool to St. Louis " 
(London, 1869) ; " Pilgrim's Songs," a volume of 
devotional poetrv (1871); "Praver; its Reasonable- 
ness and Efficacy " (1875) ; " The Lord's Prayer " 
(1883); and "Songs of Earth and Heaven " (1885). 
He delivered a lecture on the assassination of 
President Lincoln, in London, in 1865. 

HALL, Robert Bernard, clergyman, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 28 Jan., 1812 ; d. in Plymouth, Mass., 
15 April, 1868. He entered the Boston public 
Latin-school in 1822, and studied theology at New 
Haven in 1833-'4. He was ordained to the minis- 
try of the orthodox Congregational church, but 
afterward became an Episcopalian. In 1855 he 
was a member of the Massachusetts senate and 
was elected to congress in 1855 on the Know- 
Nothing ticket, and again in 1857 on the Repub- 
lican ticket. He was a delegate to the Union con- 
vention in Philadelphia in 1866. Mr. Hall was 
one of the twelve founders of the New England 
anti-slavery society in Boston in January, 1832, 
and was one of the founders of the American anti- 
slavery society in Philadelphia in December, 1833. 
The degree of LL. D. was conferred on him by 
Iowa central college in 1858. 

HALL, Robert Newton, Canadian jurist, b. in 
Laprairie. Quebec, 26 July, 1836. He was gradu- 
ated at Burlington college, Vt., in 1857, studied 
law, and was admitted to the bar of Lower Canada 
in 1861. He was appointed general batonnier of 
the bar of the province of Quebec in 1878, is dean 
of the faculty of law in Bishop's college, Lennox- 
ville, from which he received the degree of LL. D. 
in 1880, and became a queen's counsel the same 
year. He was a government director of the Cana- 
da Pacjfic railway in 1873, is president of Massa- 
wippi railway, a director of the Quebec central 
railway, and was elected as a Liberal Conservative 
to the Dominion parliament in 1879. 

HALL, Robert Pleasants, lawyer, b. in Ches- 
ter district, S. C, 23 Dec, 1825 : d."in Macon, Ga., 
4 Dec, 1854. He removed with his parents to 
Georgia in 1837, studied law with his brother 
Samuel in Knoxville, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1848. In the following year he removed to Ma- 
con, where he had a high reputation until his 
death. His leisure was devoted to literature, and 
he published a volume of " Poems by a South Caro- 
linian " (Charleston, 1848). He left numerous 
manuscript articles in prose and verse, which in- 
clude a contemplative poem on Andre Chenier ; 
" Winona," a legend of the Dacotahs ; and " The 
Cherokee," describing the scenery in upper Georgia. 

HALL, Samuel, printer, b. in Medford, Mass., 
2 Nov., 1740 ; d. in Boston, 30 Oct., 1807. He was 
apprenticed to his uncle, Daniel Fowle, of Ports- 
mouth, N. H., and subsequently went to Newport, 
R. I., where in 1761 he formed a partnership with 
Ann, the widow of James Franklin, which continued 
until 1768. In that year he published the " Es- 
sex Gazette " in Salem. In 1775 he removed to 
Cambridge and issued the " New England Chron- 
icle," and in the following year resided in Boston. 
He again published the " Salem Gazette " in 1781, 
and in 1785 the " Massachusetts Gazette." In 1789 
he went to Boston and opened a book-store, which 
he sold in 1805 to Lincoln and Edmunds. His 
journals were of much service to the patriot cause 
during the Revolution. 

HALL, Samuel, jurist, b. in Somerset county, 
Md., 1 June, 1797; d. in Princeton. Ind., about 1855. 
He removed with his family to Jefferson county, 
Ky., in 1805, and received no early education. In 
1815 he went to Princeton, Gibson co., Ind., and ob- 
tained a situation in a country store. Subsequently 



44 



HALL 



HALL 



he wrote in the office of the clerk of the circuit 
court, and devoted his leisure to the study of law. 
He was licensed in 1820, and afterward made attor- 
ney and councillor of law in the supreme court of 
Indiana and in the district court of the United 
States. He was elected to the legislature in 1829, 
and re-elected for a second term, being appointed 
chairman of the judiciary committee, in which ca- 
pacity he introduced many reforms. He was 
elected judge of the 4th judicial circuit in 1832, but 
resigned in 1834. In 1836 the state of Indiana en- 
gaged in schemes of internal improvement which 
would have cost $30,000,000. A board of public 
works was created in 1837 by the general assem- 
bly, and Judge Hall was elected one of its nine 
members. He endeavored to check the extrava- 
gant appropriations, but, failing in this purpose, 
resigned his office after seven months' service. He 
was lieutenant - governor of the state in 1840-'3, 
was appointed one of the vice-presidents of the 
Whig convention at Nashville in 1840, and of the 
Baltimore convention in 1844, and was a delegate 
to the State constitutional convention of 1850. 

HALL, Samuel Read, educator, b. in Crovdon, 
N. H., 27 Oct., 1795 ; d. in Bennington, Vt., 24 
June, 1877. He began to teach in Rumford, Me., 
in 1814, and in 1822 was principal of an academy 
in Fitchburg, Mass., being also licensed as a Con- 
gregational minister. He removed to Concord, 
Vt., in 1823, and organized the first school in the 
United States for the training of teachers, which he 
conducted until 1830. He was chosen in that year 
principal of the English department of Phillips 
Andover academy, and in 1829 he aided in found- 
ing the American institute of instruction. He 
removed to Plymouth, N. H., in 1837, and kept a 
teachers' seminary there until 1840, when he went 
to Craftsbury, Vt., and established in connection 
with the academy a teachers' department, which 
he taught until 1846. He published the " Instruc- 
tor's Manual, or Lectures on School-Keeping " 
(Boston, 1829) ; " Lectures on Education, and 
" Geography for Children." 

HALL, Sarah, author, b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 
30 Oct., 1761 ; d. there, 8 April, 1830. She was 
a daughter of the Rev. John Ewing, provost of 
the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1782 mar- 
ried John Hall, of Maryland, whose father had 
come to that state with Lord Baltimore. She re- 
moved with her husband to his home, but in about 
eight years they returned to Philadelphia, where 
Mr. Hall became secretary of the land-office and 
U. S. marshal for the district of Pennsylvania. 
They lived in Lamberton, N. J., in 1801-5, and 
then in Maryland again until 1811, when they 
settled permanently in Philadelphia. In spite of 
these changes, Mrs. Hall continued her studies 
with diligence. She was one of the chief contribu- 
tors to the "Port-Polio," established by Joseph 
Dennie in 1800, and when that magazine was edit- 
ed by her son she aided him. She was fond of 
study on religious subjects, and learned Hebrew 
for the purpose of research. Mrs. Hall published 
"Conversations on the Bible" (1818; 2d ed., 2 
vols., 1821; reprinted in London). A small vol- 
ume, containing selections from her miscellaneous 
writings and a sketch of her life, was published by 
her son, Harrison (Philadelphia, 1833).— Her eldest 
son, John Elihn, author, b. in Philadelphia, 27 
Dec, 1783 ; d. there, 11 June, 1829, was educated 
at Princeton, studied law, and in 1805 began to 
practise in Baltimore, where he was appointed pro- 
fessor of rhetoric and belles-lettres in the Univer- 
sity of Maryland. He was an active Federalist, was 
severely wounded in the Baltimore riots of 1812 



(see Hanson, Alexander C), and was one of the 
nine that were thrown into a heap as killed. He 
edited "The American Law Journal" (1808-'17), 
and removed to Philadelphia and edited the " Port- 
Folio" there from 1817 till 1827, contributing to 
it the " Memoirs of Anacreon," which attracted 
much attention. In 1827 he edited " The Phila- 
delphia Souvenir " and published original and se- 
lected " Memoirs of Eminent Persons." He also 
published " The Practice and Jurisdiction of the 
Court of Admiralty " (Baltimore, 1809) ; a " Life 
of Dr. John Shaw," prefixed to his collected poems 
(1810) ; an English edition of Emerigon's " Mari- 
time Laws," with other matter (1811) ; " Tracts on 
Constitutional Law, containing Mr. Livingston's 
Answer to Mr. Jefferson" (Philadelphia, 1813); 
and an edition of William Wirt's " British Spy," 
to which he contributed several letters. — Another 
son, Harrison, author, b. in Octorara, Cecil co., 
Md., 5 Nov., 1785 ; d. in Cincinnati, Ohio, 9 
March, 1866, published the "Port-Folio" and 
wrote a work on " Distillation " (1815 ; 2d ed., 
1818 ; reprinted in England), which was com- 
mended by Dr. Hare and other scientists. — An- 
other son, James, author, b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 
19 Aug., 1793 ; d. near Cincinnati, Ohio, 5 July, 
1868. studied law, but left it in 1812 to join the 
army as a volunteer in the Washington giiards. 
He commanded a detachment from his company 
at Chippewa in 1814. and was present at the 
battle of Lundy's Lane and at the siege of Fort 
Erie, being commended officially for his services. 
He was then made a lieutenant in the 2d artillery 
and stationed at Fort Mifflin. He went with De- 
catur in 1815 in his expedition to Algiers, serving 
on the U. S. brig " Enterprise," commanded by 
Lieut. Lawrence Kearney. Returning in the fol- 
lowing year, he was stationed at Newport, R. I., 
and at Pittsburg, Pa., on duty in the ordnance de- 
partment, during which time he completed his law 
studies and was admitted to the bar in 1818. In 
1820 he removed to Shawneetown, 111., where he 
practised his profession and edited the " Illinois 
Gazette," a weekly newspaper. He was appointed 
public prosecutor, and held this office four years, 
when he was made judge of the circuit court till 
its abolition three years later. He then became 
state treasurer and removed to Vandalia, where 
he edited the " Illinois Intelligencer " and the 
" Illinois Monthly Magazine." He removed to 
Cincinnati in 1833, became cashier of the commer- 
cial bank there in 1836, and in 1853 its president, 
which office he held until his death. He devoted 
his time to literary pursuits and edited his maga- 
zine under the title of the "Western Monthly 
Magazine." Besides numerous contributions to 
periodicals, he published " Letters from the West," 
originally printed in the " Port-Folio," and after- 
ward collected bv his brother (London. 1829) ; 
" Legends of the West " (Philadelphia, 1832) ; " The 
Soldier's Bride, and other Tales " (1832) ; " The 
Harpe's Head, a Legend of Kentucky" (1833); 
" Tales of the Border " (Philadelphia, 1835) ; 
" Sketches of the West " (2 vols., 1835) ; " Statistics 
of the West'" (1836; re-issued with additions as 
"Notes on the Western States," 1839); "Life of 
Gen. William Henry Harrison " (1836) ; " History 
of the Indian Tribes," in conjunction with Thomas 
L. McKenney (3 vols., folio, 1838-'44); "The Wil- 
derness and the War-Path " (New York, 1845) ; 
" Life of Thomas Posey, Governor of Indiana," in 
Sparks's " American Biography " (1846) ; and " Ro- 
mance of Western History " (Cincinnati, 1847). A 
uniform edition of his works has been published 
(4 vols., 1853-6). — Another son, Thomas Mifflin, 



HALL 



HALLAM 



45 



physician, b. in Philadelphia, 27 Feb., 1798, lost, at 
sea in 1828, in a South American ship-of-war, to 
which he had been appointed surgeon, contributed 
poetry and scientific articles to the " Port-Folio." 

HALL, Thomas, organ-builder, b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., in 1791 ; d. in New York city in 1874. 
He was apprenticed to Jchn Lowe, an organ- 
builder, whom he succeeded in business. Mr. Hall 
came to New York in 1813 and erected the organ 
in the old Trinity church, which had been built by 
Mr. Lowe, captured at sea by the British ship 
" Plantagenet," and ransomed by the vestry of 
Trinity parish. He also built the large organs in 
Trinity chapel, St. Thomas's church, and in the 
Temple Emmanuel of New York. 

HALL, Willard, lawyer, b. in Westford, Mass., 
24 Dec, 1780; d. in Wilmington, Del., 10 May, 
1875. He was graduated at Harvard in 1799, 
studied law with Samuel Dana, of Groton, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1803. He immediately re- 
moved to Dover, Del., and practised there for 
twenty years. He was secretary of the state of 
Delaware from 1811 till 1814, and again in 1821, 
served in congress in 1817-'21, and was a mem- 
ber of the legislature in 1822. In 1823 he was ap- 
pointed by President Monroe U. S. district judge 
for Delaware, which office he held until his resigna- 
tion in 1872. He revised the state laws, by order 
of the general assembly of Delaware in 1829, and 
in 1831 was a member of the State constitutional 
convention. Mr. Hall advocated the establishment 
of public schools, and suggested the plan that was 
adopted in 1829. He was also active in religious 
matters. He published " Laws of Delaware to 1829, 
Inclusive " (Wilmington, 1829). 

HALL, William, soldier, b. in Virginia in 1774 ; 
d. in Green Garden, Sumner co., Tenn., in October, 
1856. He served in the Indian wars, and com- 
manded a regiment of Tennessee riflemen under 
Gen. Jackson in the war of 1812. For several 
years he was a member of the state legislature, and 
was at one time speaker of the senate. He became 
governor of Tennessee in 1820 on the resignation 
of Samuel Houston. Gov. Hall was a major-gen- 
eral of militia, and served in congress from 1831 
till 1833, having been elected as a Democrat. 

HALL, William, publisher, b. in Sparta, N. Y., 
13 May, 1796 ; d. in New York city, 3 May, 1874. 
He served in the war of 1812. In his youth he 
commanded the 8th militia regiment, and was 
afterward appointed brigadier-general. In 1821 he 
engaged in the music-publishing business under 
the firm-name of Firth, Hall and Pond, in which 
he continued until his death. At the Astor place 
riots he commanded a brigade of militia, which 
was ordered out by the governor for their suppres- 
sion. By his courage and calmness he saved the 
lives of many innocent spectators in ordering his 
troops to fire high when they were assailed with 
stones by the mob. He served also in the state 
senate during the administrations of Gov. Fish and 
Gov. King. — His son, James Frederick, soldier, b. 
in New York city, 31 Jan., 1822 ; d. in Tarrytown, 
N. Y., 9 Jan., 1884. With a younger brother, 
Thomas, he was a member of the firm of William 
Hall and Sons. In 1861 he assisted the commissary- 
general of ordnance of the state to equip twenty- 
eight regiments for the field. He then set to 
work to fit out a regiment for himself. Mr. Par- 
rott, of the West Point foundry, presented to Mr. 
Hall a full battery of field-guns, which was after- 
ward permitted to act with the 1st regiment of 
engineers, organized by Mr. Hall and Col. Serrell. 
Col. Hall, at the head of these men, did good work 
at the taking of Port Royal. He constructed the 



works on Tybee island, and was present at the 
capture of Fort Pulaski. Ga., which followed. He 
received honorable mention for his gallantry on the 
field at Pocotaligo and Olustee, Fla. He was pres- 
ent at the capture of Morris island and at the two 
attacks on Fort Wagner, and co-operated with 
Sherman against Savannah and Charleston. For 
two years he acted as provost-marshal-general of 
the Department of the South. He was brevetted 
brigadier-general of volunteers on 24 Feb., 1865. 

HALL, William P., soldier, b. about 1820; d. 
in New York city, 20 Oct., 1865. He enlisted as a 
private in the regular army, and before he was of 
age was advanced to the rank of sergeant-major. 
He took part in the Mexican war, and it is said 
that he was the first to place the United States 
colors on the heights of Chapultepec. For this act 
he was commissioned captain in the regular army, 
which appointment he refused for private reasons. 
His claims were strongly urged by his comrades 
for the snuff-box that was left by Andrew Jackson 
as a legacy to the bravest soldier. The New York 
common council, who had the difficult task of 
awarding this gift, decided in favor of another on 
the ground that Lieut.-Col. Hall belonged to the 
regular army, which debarred him from the list of 
competitors. He served in the civil war, was seri- 
ously wounded on several occasions, and was taken 
prisoner by the Confederates when major of the 
9th New York, or Ira Harris cavalry. He was com- 
missioned lieutenant-colonel. 11 Jan., 1865. He con- 
tracted a disease in prison which caused his death. 
He contributed many articles to periodicals. 

HALL, William Whittv, phvsician, b. in Paris, 
Ky., in 1810 ; d. in New York city, 10 May, 1876. 
He was graduated at Centre college in 1830, and 
received his medical degree from Transylvania in 
1836. For fifteen years he practised medicine in 
the south, after which he removed to New York 
and published " Hall's Journal of Health " (1854), 
which had a large circulation. He was the author 
of a " Treatise on Cholera " (New York, 1852) ; 
"Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases" (1852; new 
ed., 1870); "Consumption" (1857); "Health and 
Disease " (1860 ; 5th ed., enlarged, 1864) ; " Sleep " 
(4th ed., 1864; new ed., 1870); "Coughs and 
Colds " (1870) ; " Guide-Board to Health " (Spring- 
field, Mass., 1870) ; " Health by Good Living " 
(New York, 1870) ; and " Fun Better than Physic, 
or Everybody's Life-Preserver " (Springfield, 1871). 

HALL, Willis, lawver, b. in Granville, N. Y., 
1 April, 1801 ; d. in New York city, 14 July, 1868. 
He was graduated at Yale in 1824, studied law in 
New York, and Litchfield, Conn., and was admitted 
to the bar in 1827. practising in Mobile, Ala., from 
1827 till 1831, and in New York from 1831 till 
1838. He was elected a member of the assembly 
in 1837, and again in 1842. In 1838 he was ap- 
pointed attorney-general of the state, and filled 
this office for one year. He was for some time a 
lecturer in the law-school of Saratoga. In 1848 he 
opposed the nomination of Gen. Taylor as the 
Whig candidate for the presidency and supported 
Henry Clay, and in the same year retired from pro- 
fessional and political life. 

HALLAM, Robert Alexander, clergyman, 
b. in New London, Conn., 30 Sept., 1807 ; d. there, 
4 Jan., 1877. He was graduated at Yale in 1827, 
and at the General theological seminary, New 
York, in 1832. He was rector of St. Andrew's 
church, Meriden, Conn., for over two years, and of 
St. James's church, New London, Conn., from 1835 
until his death. He was a delegate to the general 
convention continuously from 1850 till 1868, and 
member of the standing committee of the diocese 



46 



HALLAM 



HALLECK 



of Connecticut from 1846 till 1872. In 1853 he 
received the degree of S. T. D. from Trinity col- 
lege. Dr. Hallam was an original thinker and an 
interesting writer. His specialty in the pulpit was 
the expounding of peculiar texts. lie is the au- 
thor of " Lectures on the Morning Prayer" (Phila- 
delphia, 1850-'l) ; " Sketches of 1 ravel in Europe " 
and "Lectures on Moses" (New York, 1869); 
"Sovereigns of Judah" (1877); and "Annals of 
St. James's, New London." 

HALLAM, William, theatre-manager, b. in 
England about 1712; d. there about 1758. He 
was a brother of Admiral Hallam, of the British 
navy, and became manager of the Goodman's 
Fields theatre, London. In his competition with 
Garrick, who managed Drury Lane theatre, he be- 
came bankrupt in 1750, and in the same year or- 
ganized a dramatic company that was sent, un- 
der the direction of his brother Lewis, to the 
North American colonies and the British West 
Indies. Before the actors sailed they studied 
twenty-four plays, besides farces and medleys, 
which in suitable weather were rehearsed on ship- 
board. They also took with them costumes and 
scenery. In June, 1754, William Hallam sailed 
for the North American colonies, landing in Phila- 
delphia. He remained with the comedians about 
one year, but did not perform. Disposing of his 
half-interest to his brother Lewis, he returned to 
England in 1755, where he soon afterward died. — 
His brother, Lewis, theatre-manager, b. in Eng- 
land about 1714: d. in Jamaica, W. I., in 1756, 
had been an actor under William's management. 
On the failure of the London establishment, he 
took charge of the American enterprise, and, on 
joint account with William, conducted the actors 
across the ocean. They arrived at Yorktown. Va., 
and began their performances in Williamsburg, 
then the capital of the colony. Here they hired 
a large wooden structure, which was roughly al- 
tered to suit their purposes. It was so near the 
forest that the players were able to shoot wild- 
fowl from the windows of the building. Their 
opening performance was " The Merchant of Ven- 
ice." The orchestra was supplied by a single 
player on the harpsichord. Prom Williamsburg 
the troupe travelled to Annapolis and Philadel- 
phia. In 1754 they performed in New York city, 
under the sole management of Lewis Hallam, and 
in 1756 went to the British West Indies, where 
Hallam died. — His wife, b. in London : d. in Phila- 
delphia. Pa., in 1773, was an actress at the Good- 
man's Fields theatre, and in 1752 came to this 
country with her husband. After the death of 
Hallam she married his successor in the manage- 
ment, David Douglas, and retired from the stage 
in 1769.— Their son, Lewis, b. in England in 1738; 
d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 1 Nov., 1808, was edu- 
cated at the grammar-school in Cambridge, to fol- 
low a profession, under the patronage of his 
uncle, the admiral. At the age of fourteen he 
came with his parents to this country, and made 
his first appearance on any stage at the theatre in 
Williamsburg, in a subordinate part. After the 
death of his father he followed the fortunes of his 
step-father, Douglas, the new manager. They faced 
the yellow fever, the Revolution, and the intoler- 
ance of New England. In Newport, R. I., the 
company was permitted only to recite so-called 
"Moral Dialogues." One of these was Shake- 
speare's "Othello." The play-bills read: "Mr. 
Douglas will represent Othello, a noble and mag- 
nanimous Moor, who loves a young lady named 
Desdemona, and after he has married her, har- 
bors (as in too many cases) the dreadful passion 



of jealousy." " Mr. nallam will delineate Cassio, 
a young and thoughtful officer, who is traduced 
by Mr. Allen (Iago), and, getting drunk, loses his 
situation and his friends." As an actor Hallam 
never rose to eminence ; but in the negro char- 
acter of Mungo, in the play of the " Padlock," 
he was seen to advantage. It is laid to his charge 
that he too frequently indulged in the habit of 
interpolating profanity to emphasize his language. 
After the retirement of Douglas. Hal lain united 
with John Henry in the management of the 
"American company," and continued playing, 
with varying success. During their management 
it was the custom to set aside benefit-nights for 
popular actors. On such occasions the public was 
invited to purchase tickets of admission at the 
lodgings of the beneficiaries. This was deemed a 
gala occasion by young gallants for personal in- 
terviews with popular actresses. Favored patrons 
were also allowed to visit the performers behind 
the scenes during the action of the play. At about 
the same time the " citizens " were requested " to 
send their servants to the theatre on the opening 
of the doors, at 4 o'clock, to keep the places they 
had secured for the evening's performance." In 
1797 Hallam sold out his half-interest in the man- 
agement to William Dunlap. Mr. and Mrs. Hal- 
lam then became salaried actors. Hallam made 
his final appearance in New York city on 6 June, 
1806. He married his first wife in the West In- 
dies. She lived but a short time. After her death 
Hallam married Miss Tuke in 1791. In her best 
days the second Mrs. Hallam was a comely woman 
and a good comedy actress. 

HALLECK, Fitz-Greene, poet, b. in Guil- 
ford. Conn., 8 July, 1790 ; d. there, 19 Novem- 
ber, 1867. His ancestors were among the earliest 
of the Pilgrim fathers. Some literary admixture 
was in his blood 
from both his 
paternal and ma- 
ternal ancestry, 
he beingdescend- 
ed from Peter 
Halleck, or Hal- 
lock, who landed 
at New Haven in 
1640, and with 
eleven other 

heads of families 
settled at South- 
hold, on the east- 
ern shore of Long 
Island, and on 
his mother's side 
from the Rev. 
John Eliot, the 
pious " Apostle 
to the Indians." 
who arrived in Boston in 1631. The future poet 
was sent to school when he was six years of age ; and 
when he was seven he took part in one of the public 
exhibitions, or " quarter-days." as they were called 
in Connecticut — an honor not usually accorded to 
lads of his tender years. Said a venerable lady 
who was present : " He was the brightest and sweet- 
est-looking lad I ever saw, and so intelligent and 
gentle in his manner that every one loved him." 
He was no sooner taught to write than he took to 
rhyming. As one of his school companions re- 
marked, " He couldn't help it." In an old writing- 
book, dated 1802, on a page opposite to some 
juvenile verses, appears the following title, show- 
ing that the schoolboy indulged in dreams of lit- 
erary distinction, "The Poetical Works of Fitz- 




HALLECK 



HALLECK 



47 







Greene Hallock." Two years later, when fourteen 
years of age, he changed the spelling of his name 
from Hallock to Halleck, and, having completed 
his studies by passing through the four depart- 
ments which then existed in New England schools, 
he in 1805 entered the store of his kinsman, An- 
drew Eliot, of 
Guilford, with 
whom he re- 
mained as a clerk 
for six years, re- 
siding in his fam- 
ily, in accord- 
ance with the 
custom of that 
day. Here he 
learned to keep 
accounts by dou- 
ble - entry, and 
soon took entire 
charge of the 
books. They 

were kept in a correct and business-like manner, 
were well written, for even at that early date Hal- 
leck wrote a neat and dainty hand ; and it is re- 
lated that the only mistake ever discovered in the 
young clerk's book-keeping at Andrew Eliot's was 
in opening duplicate accounts in the ledger with 
the same person. 

In the spring of 1808 Halleck made his first 
visit to New York, being sent on business by Mr. 
Eliot. During his three days' sojourn he attended 
the Park theatre, where he saw young Oliff. the 
actor, afterward introduced by him in two of the 
" Croakers," and also had pointed out by his com- 

S anion the young banker Jacob Barker and John 
acob Astor, little thinking at the time that nearly 
all the business portion of his life would be associ- 
ated with these prominent men. During the sum- 
mer of the same year Halleck joined the militia, 
and was soon made a sergeant, filling the position 
to the satisfaction of his associates. His expe- 
riences in the Connecticut militia, as well as his 
later campaign with 

" Swartwout's gallant corps, the Iron Grays," 
was a never-failing source of fun with him, both 
in his conversation and in his correspondence. 
During the following winter he opened an evening- 
school for instruction in arithmetic, writing, and 
book-keeping, and by thus adding to his limited 
income was enabled to indulge his passion for the 
purchase of books. Among his earliest and most 
prized possessions of this character were Campbell's 
poems, a copy of Burns, and Addison's "Specta- 
tor." In May, 1811, Halleck left his native town 
to seek after fame and fortune in New York, 
and in June entered the counting - room of 
Jacob Barker, in whose service he remained for 
twenty years. In the spring of 1813 he became 
acquainted with Joseph Rodman Drake. The 
young men immediately became attached friends, 
ever after maintaining an intimacy severed only 
by death, an event that was mourned by the sur- 
vivor in those tender and touching lines, so uni- 
versally admired, beginning : 

" Green be the turf above thee." 
In 1819 they formed a literary partnership, and 
produced the humorous series of " Croaker " pa- 

Sers. Of this satirical and quaint chronicle of 
few York life, Halleck in 1866 said that " they 
were good-natured verses, contributed anonymous- 
ly to the columns of the New York ' Evening 
Post,' from March to June. 1819, and occasionally 
afterward." The writers continued, like the au- 
thors of Junius, the sole depositories of their own 



secret, and apparently wished, with the minstrel in 
Leyden's " Scenes of Infancy," to 

" Save others' names, but leave their own 
unsung." 

In the latter part of 1819 Halleck wrote his 
longest poem of " Fanny," an amusing satire on 
the fashion, follies, and public characters of the 
day, which was the perpetual delight of John 
Randolph. The edition was soon exhausted, and 
a second, enlarged by the addition of fifty stan- 
zas, appeared early in 1821. The following year 
he visited Europe, and in 1827 published anony- 
mously an edition of his poems, two of the finest 
in the collection, " Alnwick Castle " and " Burns," 
having been suggested by scenes and incidents of 
foreign travel. This volume also included his 
spirited lyric of " Marco Bozzaris." In 1832 Hal- 
leck entered the office of John Jacob Astor, with 
whom he remained until 1849, when, the mil- 
lionaire having died and made him rich with an 
annuity of " forty pounds a year," the poet retired 
to his native town, and took up his residence with 
his unmarried sister in an ancient house built in 
1786 on ground formerly belonging to the Shel- 
leys, ancestors of Percy Bysshe Shelley. In this 
fine old mansion (see illustration), where Halleck 
lived for so many years, he wrote the admirable 
poem "Connecticut," "Lines to Louis Gaylord 
Clark," and his latest poetical composition of 
"Young America," published in 1864. These, 
with a few translations from the French, German, 
and Italian, are the only fruits of his pen after 
his retirement to Guilford. When in 1866 a 
wealthy admirer wrote to the poet for a view of his 
country-seat, to be engraved for a privately printed 
edition of " Fanny," Halleck, whose limited means 
did not permit him to possess the mansion men- 
tioned in this notice, being merely a tenant, and 
who had too much manliness of character to al- 
low any glorification of his poverty, replied : " I am 
gratefully sensible of the compliment your propo- 
sition as to the sketch pays 
me : but you must pardon me 
for begging that it may not 
be carried into effect, for, al- 
though born here in Connec- 
ticut where, as Lord Byron 
says of England, 'men are 
proud to be,' I shall never 
cease to ' hail,' as the sailors 
say, from your good city of 
New York, of which a resi- 
dence of nearly fifty years 
made me a citizen. There I 
always considered myself at 
home, and elsewhere but a 
visitor. If, therefore, you 
wish to embellish my poem 
with a view of my country- 
seat (it was literally mine for 
every summer Sunday for 
years), let it be taken from 
the top of Weehawk Hill, 
overlooking New York, to 

whose scenes and associations the poem is almost 
exclusively devoted." 

In October, 1867, Halleck visited New York for 
the last time. He remained a week, but was too 
unwell to accept any invitations, which were al- 
ways numerous on his semi-annual excursions to 
the city, and only left his hotel twice, to call upon 
his physician and for a short stroll on a sunny 
afternoon with the writer, to whom on parting he 
said with prophetic words: "If we never meet 
again, come and see me laid under the sod of my 




48 



HALLECK 



HALLECK 



native village." lie lingered for a few weeks, and 

Sassed away, with his attached sister by his side, 
uring the following month. Three days later he 
was laid by the side of his father's grave in the 
Guilford cemetery. On the eightieth anniversary 
of I I.i Heck's birth, the ceremonies took place in his 
native town which dedicated the imposing granite 
obelisk erected in his honor by Bryant, Longfel- 
low, Sumner, Whittier, and many others of the 
most eminent men of the country— the first pub- 
lic monument raised to an American poet. (See 
illustration on page 47.) A portion of the pro- 
gramme was an appreciative address by Bayard 
Taylor and a lyric written for the occasion by Oli- 
ver Wendell Holmes : 

" He sleeps ; he cannot die ! 
As evening's long-drawn sigh, 
Lifting the rose-leaves on his peaceful mound, 

Spreads all their sweets around, 
So, laden with his song, the breezes blow 
From where the rustling sedge 
Frets our rude ocean's edge, 
To the smooth sea beyond the peaks of snow, 
His soul the air enshrines, and leaves but dust 

below ! " 
Another honor was paid to Halleck's memory by 
the erection in the Central park, New York, of a 
full-length bronze statue, the first set up in the 
New World to a poet. (See illustration.) It was 
unveiled in May, 1877, by the president of the 
United States, who with his cabinet, the general 
of the army, and many eminent citizens, includ- 
ing the poets Bryant, Bo- 
ker, and Bayard Taylor, 
were escorted from the 
residence of Halleck's bi- 
ographer to the Central 
park by the 7th regi- 
ment. Appropriate ad- 
dresses were delivered by 
the venerable Bryant and 
William Allen Butler, and 
a spirited poem read, writ- 
ten by John G. Whittier. 
The following year a 
sumptuously printed "Me- 
morial of Fitz-Greene Hal- 
leck " was issued, contain- 
ing the addresses and 
poems delivered at the monument and statue cele- 
brations, together with numerous portraits of the 
poet and other illustrations. 

Of Halleck's poetical writings it has been well 
said that brilliancy of thought, quaintness of fan- 
cy, and polished energy of diction have given them 
a rank in American literature from which they 
will not soon be displaced even by the many ad- 
mirable productions of a later date. In spicy 
pungency of satire, and a certain eloquence and 
grace of manner, without an approach to stiff- 
ness or formality, they have few parallels in mod- 
ern poetry. Their tone is that of a man of the 
world, handling a pen caustic and tender by 
turns, with inimitable ease, leaving no trace of the 
midnight oil, though often elaborated with ex- 
quisite skill, and entirely free from both the rust 
and the pretension of recluse scholarship. Mr. 
Halleck was a man of a singularly social turn of 
mind, delighting in gay and cordial fellowship, 
brimming over with anecdote and whimsical con- 
ceits, with remarkable power of narration, un- 
feignedly fond of discussion and argument, and 
frequently carrying his ingenuity to the extreme 
verge of paradox. His personal bearing was in a 
high degree impressive and winning. His pres- 




ence had a wonderful charm for almost all classes 
of persons. His wit, while keen and biting at 
times, was never ill-natured, and only severe when 
directed against ignorant and pompous preten- 
sion. The statements that have been frequently 
made since the poet's death in reference to his 
having become a convert to the Roman Catholic 
faith are erroneous. He was born, lived, and 
died in the Protestant Episcopal church, of which 
he was a member, having been confirmed in his 
youth, and he was buried from Grace (Episcopal) 
church, Guilford. "What men," says Humboldt, 
" believe or disbelieve is usually made a subject of 
discussion only after their death — after one has 
been officially buried, and a funeral sermon has 
been read over one." So it was with Fitz-Greene 
Halleck. Halleck's portrait was painted by Jar- 
vis, Morse, Inman, Waldo, Elliott, and Hicks. He 
published "Fanny" (New York, 1819; 2d ed., 
enlarged, 1821); "Alnwick Castle, with other Po- 
ems " (1827 ; 2d ed., enlarged, 1836 ; 3d ed., en- 
larged, 1845) ; "Fanny and other Poems " (1839) ; 
" The Poetical Works of Fitz-Greene Halleck, now 
first Collected," illustrated with steel engravings 
(8vo, 1847) ; " The Poetical Works of Fitz-Greene 
Halleck " (12mo, 1852 ; new ed., 12mo and 24mo, 
1858); "The Croakers," by Halleck and Drake, 
No. 16, Bradford club series (1860); "Young 
America, a Poem" (1865). After his death ap- 
peared " The Poetical Writings of Fitz-Greene 
Halleck, with Extracts from those of Joseph Rod- 
man Drake," edited by James Grant Wilson (three 
editions, 18mo, 12mo, and 8vo, 1869). Halleck 
edited " The Works of Lord Byron in Verse and 
Prose, including his Letters, Journals, etc., with a 
Sketch of his Life " (1834) ; and " Selections from 
the British Poets " (1840). See articles and addresses 
by Frederick S. Cozzens, Evert A. Duyckinck, 
Henry T. Tuckerman, and William Cullen Brvant 
(1868-9) ; " The Life and Letters of Fitz-Greene 
Halleck," by James Grant Wilson (two editions, 
12mo and 8vo, 1869) ; " Fitz-Greene Halleck," by 
Bayard Taylor (" North American Review," July- 
August, 1877) ; and Wilson's " Bryant and his 
Friends " (1886). — His sister, Maria Halleck, b. 
in Guilford, 19 July, 1788 ; d. there, 21 April, 1870. 
She was the poet's only sister, and the last of her 
family. There is nothing more beautiful in lit- 
erary biography than the devoted attachment that 
existed between Halleck and his sister — an attach- 
ment and devotion not surpassed by that existing 
between Charles and Mary Lamb. They were con- 
stant correspondents during the poet's career in 
New York, and when he left the great city in 
1849 it was to return to his native place, and to 
reside with his accomplished sister until they were 
separated by death. She now sleeps by his side in 
Alderbrook cemetery, with ivy brought from Ab- 
botsford growing on her grave. One of the inscrip- 
tions on the monument, seen in the illustration on 
a previous page, records her name and the year 
of her birth and death. Miss Halleck possessed 
those rare conversational powers that characterized 
the poet, and very strongly resembled him in dis- 
position as well as in personal appearance. 

HALLECK, Henry Wager, soldier, b. in West- 
ernville, Oneida co., N. Y., 16 Jan., 1815 ; d. in 
Louisville, Ky., 9 Jan., 1872. He received a com- 
mon-school education at Hudson academy, N. Y„ 
passed through a part of the course at Union, and 
was graduated at the U. S. military academy in 1839, 
standing third in a class of thirty-one. Among 
his classmates were Gen. James B. Ricketts, Gen. 
Edward O. C. Ord, and Gen. Edward R. S. Can- 
by. He was made a 2d lieutenant of engineers in 



HALLECK 



HALLECK 



49 




1839. In 1845 he was on a tour of examination of 
public works in Europe, and during his absence 
was promoted to a 1st lieutenancy. On his return 
to the United States, the committee of the Lowell 
institute, Boston. Mass., attracted by Halleck's 
able report on " Coast Defence " (published by con- 
gress), invited him to deliver twelve lectures on the 
science of war. These he published in a volume, 
with an introductory chapter on the justifiableness 
of war, under the title of " Elements of Military 
Art and Science " (New York, 1846 ; 2d ed., with 
the addition of much valuable matter, including 
notes on the Mexican and Crimean wars, 1861). 
This popular compendium, then the best in our 
language, was much used by students of the mili- 
tary profession, 
and during the 
civil war became 
a manual for 
officers of the 
army, particu- 
larly for volun- 
teers. At the 
beginning of the 
Mexican war 
Lieut. Halleck 
was detailed as 
engineer for 
military opera- 
tions on the Pa- 
\a^-» c ifi c coast, and 

^7^7 ^z->^ ^ sailed with Capt. 

//V^y / Xr-&<^-*^ Tompkins's ar- 

tillery command 
in the transport " Lexington," which, after a seven- 
months' voyage around Cape Horn, reached her 
destination at Monterey, Cal. During this long and 
tedious passage he undertook a translation from the 
French of Baron Jomini's "Vie politique et rnili- 
taire de Napoleon," which, with the aid of a friend, 
he revised and published with an atlas (4 vols., 8vo, 
New York, 1864). After partially fortifying Mon- 
terey as a port of refuge for our Pacific fleet and a 
base for incursions into California, Lieut. Halleck 
took an active part in affairs both civil and military. 
As secretary of state under the military govern- 
ments of Gen. Richard B. Mason and Gen. James W. 
Riley, he displayed great energy and high admin- 
istrative qualities. As a military engineer he ac- 
companied several expeditions, particularly that of 
Col. Burton, into Lower Calif ornia, and participated 
in several actions. Besides his engineer duties, he 

Serformed those of aide-de-camp to Com. Shubriek 
uring the naval and military operations on the 
Pacific coast, including the capture of Mazatlan, of 
which for a time Halleck was lieutenant-governor. 
For these services he was brevetted captain, to 
date from 1 May, 1847. After the termination of 
hostilities and the acquisition of California by the 
United States, a substantial government became 
necessary. Gen. Riley, in military command of 
the territory, called a convention to meet at Mon- 
terey, 1 Sept., 1849, to frame a state constitution. 
This convention, after six weeks' consideration, 
agreed upon a constitution, which was adopted by 
the people ; and by act of congress, 9 Sept., 1850, 
California was admitted to the Union. In all of 
these transactions Halleck was the central figure, 
on whose brow " deliberation sat and public care." 
As the real head of Riley's military government. 
he initiated the movement of state organization, 
pressed it with vigor, and was a member of the 
committee that drafted the constitution, of which 
instrument he was substantially the author. He 
remained as aide-de-camp on the staff of Gen. Riley, 



and from 21 Dec.. 1852, was inspector and engineer 
of light-houses, and from 11 April, 1853, a mem- 
ber of the board of engineers for fortifications on 
the. Pacific coast, being promoted captain of engi- 
neers, 1 July, 1853. All these places he held till 
his resignation from the military service, 1 Aug., 
1854. After leaving the army, Halleck devoted 
himself to the practice of law in a firm of which 
for some time he had been a member, and continued 
as director-general of the New Almaden quicksilver 
mine, an office he had held since 1850. Notwith- 
standing all these duties, he found time for study 
and to prepare several works, including " A Collec- 
tion of Mining Laws of Spain and Mexico " (1859) ; 
a translation of " De Fooz on the Law of Mines, 
with Introductory Remarks " (1860) ; and a treatise 
on "International Law, or Rules regulating the 
Intercourse of States in Peace and War " (1861). 
The last-named work he subsequently condensed to 
adapt it for the use of schools and colleges (Phila- 
delphia, 1866). He was also, in 1855, president of 
the Pacific and Atlantic railroad from San Fran- 
cisco to San Jose, Cal., and major-general of Cali- 
fornia militia in 1860-'l. Union college gave him 
the degree of A. M. in 1843, and that of LL. D. in 
1862. In 1848 he was appointed professor of en- 
gineering in the Lawrence scientific school of Har- 
vard university, but declined the honor. At the 
beginning of the civil war he was at the head of 
the most prominent law firm in San Francisco, 
with large interests and much valuable proper- 
ty in California, and living in affluence; but he 
at once tendered his services in defence of the 
Union. Gen. Winfield Scott, knowing his worth, 
immediately and strongly urged upon President 
Lincoln his being commissioned with the highest 
grade in the regular army, and accordingly he 
was appointed a major-general, to date from 19 
Aug., 1861. He went without delay to Washing- 
ton, was ordered to St. Louis, and on 18 Nov., 1861, 
took command of the Department of the Missouri, 
embracing the states of Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, 
Illinois, Arkansas, and western Kentucky. Around 
him was a chaos of insubordination, inefficiency, 
and peculation, requiring the prompt, energetic, 
and ceaseless exercise of his iron will, military 
knowledge, and administrative powers. The scat- 
tered forces of his command were a medley of 
almost every nationality. Missouri and Kentucky 
were practically but a border screen to cover the 
operations of the seceding south ; and even his 
headquarters at St. Louis, fortified at exorbitant 
cost and in violation of all true engineering prin- 
ciples, neither protected the city from insurrection 
within nor from besiegers without. Hardly had 
Halleck assumed command when he began to crush 
out abuses. Fraudulent contracts were annulled : 
useless stipendiaries were dismissed ; a colossal 
staff hierarchy, with more titles than brains, was 
disbanded ; composite organizations were pruned 
to simple uniformity ; the construction of fantastic 
fortifications was suspended : and in a few weeks 
order reigned in Missouri. With like vigor he dealt 
blow after blow upon all who, under the mask of 
citizens, abetted secession. But while from head- 
quarters thus energetically dealing with the seces- 
sionists at home, he did not neglect those in arms, 
over whom, by his admirable strategic combina- 
tions, he quickly secured success after success, till, 
in less than six weeks, a clean sweep had been made 
of the entire country between the Missouri and 
Osage rivers ; and Gen. Sterling Price, cut off from 
all supplies and recruits from northern Missouri, to 
which he had been moving, was in full retreat for 
Arkansas. Halleck now turned his attention to 



50 



HALLECK 



HALLECK 




the opening of the Mississippi river. Gen. Scott 
had intended unbarring it by a flotilla and an army 
descending it in force ; but Halleck was satisfied 
that this plan would only scotch the serpent of 
secession. He held that the Confederacy must be 
rent in twain by an armed wedge driven in be- 
tween this great stream and the mountains on the 
east. On 27 Jan., 1862, the president had ordered 
a general advance of all the land and naval forces 
of the United States to be made simultaneously 
against the insurgents on the 22d of the coming 
onth. In anticipation of his part of the grand 
vement, early in February Halleck sent his chief 
taflt to Cairo to direct in his name, when neces- 
a Eftpp erations auxiliary to the armies about 
ke<Mkfield on the Mississippi, Tennessee, and 
befraiaji rivers,- which their respective com- 
fhders doon set in motion. The Confederate first 
e of defence was screened behind Kentucky's 
^quasi neutrality, with its flanks strongly protected 
by the fortifications of Columbus and Bowling 
Green ; but its centre was only feebly secured by 
Forts Henry and Donelson. The second line of de- 
fence followed the railroad from Memphis on the 
Mississippi to Chattanooga — a most important posi- 
tion in the mountains, threatening both South 
Carolina and Virginia by its railroad connections 
with Charleston and Richmond. Still a third line, 
with almost continuous communication by rail, 
extended from Vicksburg through Meridian, Selma, 
and Montgomery to Atlanta, with railroad branches 
reaching to the principal ports on the Gulf and 
the South Atlantic. In a little more than three 
months of Halleck's sway in the west, Gen. Ulysses 
S. Grant, aided by Com. Andrew H. Foote's gun- 
boats, captured Forts Henry and Donelson ; the 
strategically turned flanks of the enemy's line, 
protected by the powerful works of Bowling Green 
and Columbus, were deserted ; and Nashville, the 
objective of the campaign, was in the possession of 
the National forces. In the mean time Gen. Samuel 
R. Curtis had been sent to drive the Confederates 
out of Missouri, and early in March gained the 
decisive battle of Pea Ridge, in Arkansas, the ene- 
my flying before him to the protection of White 
river ; and Gen. John Pope, despatched to New 
Madrid, after taking that place, confronted the 
fugitives from Columbus at Island No. 10, which, 
by the happy device of Hamilton's cut-off canal, 
was taken in reverse, and this strong barrier of the 
Mississippi removed by the joint action of the 
army and navy. By these operations the Confed- 
erate first line, from Kansas to the Alleghany 
mountains, being swept away, and the strongholds 
captured or evacuated, the National forces moved 
triumphantly southward, pressing back the insur- 
gents to their second line of defence, which ex- 
tended from Memphis to Chattanooga. On 11 
March, 1862, to give greater unity to military 
operations in the west, the departments of Kansas 
and Ohio were merged into Halleck's command, 
the whole constituting the Department of the Mis- 
sissippi, which included the vast territory between 
the Alleghany and Rocky mountains. Gen. Don 
Carlos Buell, marching from Nashville, was direct- 
ed, on the withdrawal of the enemy from Murf rees- 
boro, to unite with Gen. Grant, proceeding to Pitts- 
burg Landing by the Tennessee, and their union 
secured the great victory of Shiloh. Then Halleck 
took the field, and, after reorganizing and recruit- 
ing his forces, moved on Corinth, where the enemy 
was strongly intrenched on the important strategic 
position at the junction of the railroads connecting 
the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi river with 
the Atlantic ocean. By striking a vigorous blow 



here on the enemy's left centre, Halleck proposed 
to repeat the strategy that had so admirably accom- 
plished its purpose against the Confederate first 
line ; but success was indispensable, and hence he 
made every step of his progress so secure that no 
disaster should entail the loss of what he had al- 
ready gained. With the National army much shat- 
tered by the rude shock of Shiloh, he cautiously 
advanced upon his objective point through a hos- 
tile, rough, marshy, and densely wooded region, 
where all the roads and bridges were destroyed, 
and rain fell in torrents. On 30 May he was in 
possession of Corinth's fifteen miles of heavy in- 
trenchments, strengthened by powerful batteries or 
redoubts at every assailable point, the whole being 
covered to the boggy stream in front by a dense 
abatis, through which no artillery or cavalry, nor 
even infantry skirmishers, could have passed under 
fire. When Halleck communicated this success to 
the war department, the secretary replied : " Your 
"glorious despatch has just been received, and I have 
sent it into every state. The whole land will soon 
ring with applause at the achievement of your gal- 
lant army and its able and victorious commander." 
Immediately Gen. Pope was sent in hot pursuit of 
the retreating enemy ; soon afterward Gen. Buell 
was despatched toward Chattanooga to restore the 
railroad connections ; Gen. Sherman was put in 
march for Memphis, but the navy had captured 
the place when he reached Grand Junction ; with- 
out delay, batteries were constructed on the south- 
ern approaches of the place to guard against a 
sudden return of the enemy ; and, with prodigious 
energy, the destroyed railroad to Columbus was re- 
built to maintain communications with the Missis- 
sippi and Ohio, in jeopardy by the sudden fall of 
the Tennessee, by which supplies had been received. 
It was now more than six months since Halleck 
assumed command at St. Louis, and from within 
the limits of his department the enemy had been 
driven from Missouri, the northern half of Arkan- 
sas, Kentucky, and most of Tennessee, while strong 
lodgments were made in Mississippi and Alabama. 
Sec. Stanton, always chary of praise, had said that 
Halleck's " energy and ability received the strong- 
est commendations of the war department," and 
added, " You have my perfect confidence, and you 
may rely upon my utmost support in your under- 
takings." Such, in fact, was the very high appre- 
ciation of Halleck's merits by both the president 
and the secretary of war that during the general's 
occupation of Corinth, while he was organizing for 
new movements against the enemy's third line of 
defence, two assistant secretaries of war and a sena- 
tor were sent there to urge upon Halleck the ac- 
ceptance of the post of general-in-chief; but he 
declined the honor, and did not go to Washing- 
ton till positive orders compelled him to do so. 
Reluctantly leaving Corinth, to which he hoped 
to return and enter upon the great work of open- 
ing the Mississippi and crushing the Confederacy 
in the southwest, Halleck reached Washington, 23 
July, 1862, and at once assumed command as gen- 
eral-in-chief of all the armies of the United States. 
The first problem presented was, how safely to 
unite the two eastern armies in the field so as to 
cover the capital and make common head against 
the enemy, then interposed between them and 
ready to be thrown at will on either, and able gen- 
erals held different opinions as to the best meas- 
ures to be adopted to accomplish the desired end. 
The general-in-chief entered upon the duties of his 
high office with heart and soul devoted to the 
preservation of the Union. Often compelled to 
assume responsibilities that belonged to others, 



HALLETT 



HALLOCK 



51 



constantly having to thwart the purposes of selfish 
schemers, and always constrained to be reticent 
upon public affairs, which many desired to have 
divulged, Halleck, like all men in high station in 
times of trial, became a target for the shafts of the 
envious, the disloyal, and the disappointed. Doubt- 
less, with scant time for the most mature reflec- 
tion, he made errors ; but, says Turenne, the great 
marshal of an age of warriors, "Show me the 
commander who has never made mistakes, and 
you will show me one who has never made war." 
Congress, in recognition of Gen. Grant's glorious 
campaigns of Vicksburg and Chattanooga, revived 
the grade of lieutenant-general. Though a desire 
was manifested in high places in some way to re- 
tain Halleck in the performance of his functions, 
he at once insisted that compliance should be made 
with the obvious intentions of the law, and that, 
being senior in rank, Grant must necessarily be the 
general-in-chief. Halleck, however, remained at 
Washington from 12 March, 1864, till 19 April, 
1865, as chief-of-staff of the army, under the or- 
ders of the secretary of war and the general-in- 
chief, performing much of the same duties that 
had before devolved upon him ; and from 22 April 
till 1 July, 1865, was in command of the military 
division of the James, with headquarters at Rich- 
mond. On the termination of hostilities, and the 
disbandment of the volunteer forces, Halleck was 
ordered to the military division of the Pacific, of 
which he took command 30 Aug., 1865, and on 16 
March, 1869, was transferred to that of the south, 
which he retained while he lived. Since his death, 
when he can no longer defend himself, much un- 
just criticism has assailed his reputation. The 
chief charge was " Halleck's injustice to Grant," 
which Gen. James B. Fry, by a forcible article in 
the " Magazine of American History," has proved 
to be nothing more than "misunderstandings" be- 
tween these distinguished soldiers. A more serious 
charge, almost of treason, was made by Gen. Lew 
Wallace, but has been triumphantly refuted by 
official documents. Halleck, with few advantages 
in early life, and hardly the rudiments of a classi- 
cal education, overcame all obstacles by the power 
of mind and character. He took at once a promi- 
nent place at the United States military academy, 
was a conspicuous officer of engineers, became a 
youthful statesman in the creation of a state, rose 
to the direction of various public trusts, established 
an enviable reputation for authorship, and held 
command of great armies in the tremendous strug- 
gle for a nation's existence. 

HALLETT, Benjamin, ship-master, b. in Barn- 
stable, Mass., 18 Jan., 1760; d. there, 31 Dec, 1849. 
As a young man he served by sea and land in the 
Revolutionary war. He established the coasting 
trade between Boston and Albany in 1788. and in 
1808 had built the sloop " Ten Sisters," which was 
long the favorite packet sailing between New York 
and Boston. On her decks the sailors' meetings 
were held, which resulted in the opening of the 
first Bethel chapel in New York, and subsequently 
in Boston. Capt. Hallett was an earnest Chris- 
tian, but found it difficult to engage the clergy in 
holding religious meetings on board of ships in 
port, Dr. Gardiner Spring, of New York, being 
*ie first to join. In Boston he experienced still 
reater difficulty. After several refusals, Capt. 
lallett found a large vessel lying near his own, the 
swner of which consented to have a meeting on her 
Seek the Sunday evening following his arrival in 
the city. With the exception of the owner of the 
vessel, there was no professing Christian present 
besides Capt. Hallett, who was obliged to lead the 



services. He also sang his " Sailor's Song," which 
he subsequently found most effective in attracting 
the attention of seafaring men. The Bethel move- 
ment did not thrive as well in Boston as in other 
cities, being discouraged by ship-owners on the 
ground that too much religion would make sailors 
idle. When Capt. Hallett retired from the sea to 
reside on his farm, he transferred his Bethel flag, 
which he had brought from New York, to the Sea- 
man's chapel, Central Wharf, Boston, from which 
it floated for many years. — His son, Benjamin 
Franklin, statesman, b. in Barnstable, Mass., 2 
Dec, 1797 ; d. in Boston, Mass., 30 Sept., 1862, was; ' ' 
graduated at Brown in 1816, studied law, and \w{B_ '. 
admitted to the bar. He then became cqnWctJff , 
with the press in Providence, R. I., but soon weac>\ 
to Boston, where, on the organization of the anu? ;/* ;. 
masonic party, he became editor-in-chief of itisV ",•'•< 
mouth-piece, " The Boston Advocate." In 1827 he ; 
transferred his services to the " Boston Daily Ad- 
vertiser," in which journal he enunciated anti-ma- 
sonic and temperance principles with great ear- 
nestness, besides setting forth the views of the 
emancipationists. His uncompromising attitude 
made him many enemies, and finally the " Adver- 
tiser" became so unpopular that he resigned the 
editorial chair in 1831. Failing to obtain from 
Henry Clay the pledges that would have given the 
latter the anti-masonic vote, he became and con- 
tinued one of the bitterest opponents of that states- 
man. After the anti-masonic excitement had sub- 
sided, Mr. Hallett joined the Democratic party, on 
which, although seldom in office, he exerted a pow- 
erful influence. He was a delegate at most of its 
national conventions, and the chairman for many 
years of its national committee. He was instru- 
mental in bringing about the nomination of Pierce 
and Buchanan, and was the author of the Cincin- 
nati platform of 1856. President Pierce appointed 
him IT. S. district attorney in 1853. 

HALLOCK, Jeremiah, clergvman, b. in Brook 
Haven, Suffolk co., N. Y., 13 March, 1758 ; d. in 
West Simsbury, Conn., 23 June, 1826. His father 
removed to Goshen, Mass., in 1766, and the son 
worked for him on a farm until he was of age. 
He afterward at tended President Timothy D wight's 
school at Northampton, Mass., and in April, 1784, 
was ordained to the ministry. In October of the 
year following he was installed as pastor over the 
Congregational church at West Simsbury, where 
he remained until his death. During that period 
his church enjoyed no less than five distinct " re- 
vivals." Although not a college graduate, Mr. 
Hallock received the degree of A. M. from Yale in 
1788. His biographer speaks of him as " a model 
Christian " and "a model pastor." See his life by 




Rev. Cyrus Hale (Hartford, 1838). — His brother, 
Moses, educator, b. in Brook Haven, Suffolk eo.. 



52 



HALLOCK 



HALLOWELL 



N. Y., 16 Feb., 1760; d. in Plainfield, Mass., 17 
July, 1837, after serving several months in the 
war of the Revolution and working on his father's 
farm, was graduated at Yale in 1788. He then 
studied theology, and was licensed to preach in 
August, 1790. In 1792 he was ordained pastor of 
the church in Plainfield, where he always remained. 
Finding his salary inadequate, he received students 
into his family, continuing to do so until 1824. (See 
illustration, page 51.) He had under his charge at 
various times 274 young men and 30 young women. 
Of the former, fifty became clergymen. One of 
his pupils was the poet Bryant, another was John 
Brown, of Osawatomie. See his life, by his son 
William (New York, 1854).— William Allen, edi- 
tor, son of Moses, b. in Plainfield, Hampshire co., 
Mass., 2 June, 1794; d. in New York city, 2 Oct., 
1880, was graduated at Williams in 1819, and at 
Andover theological seminary in 1822. During 
the latter year he became the agent of the New 
England tract society, and in 1825, when the lat- 
ter was merged into the American tract society, 
he was made the corresponding secretary of the 
new organization. He filled this office until 1870, 
when he retired from its active duties. During 
this period he carefully examined every manu- 
script, tract, and book offered for publication, 
and revised for the press such as were accepted. 
He also edited " The American Messenger for 
forty years, and " The Child's Paper " for twenty- 
five years. He received the degree of D. D. 
from Rutgers in 1850. Dr. Hallock wrote lives of 
Harlan Page (1835), Rev. Moses Hallock (1854), 
and Rev. Justin Edwards (1855). The first named 
attained to a circulation of 113,500 copies, and was 
translated into Swedish and German. He was 
also the author of several tracts, among them " The 
Mother's Last Prayer " (circulation, 380,000) ; " The 
Only Son" (370,000); and "The Mountain Miller" 
(260,000). These, with his books, were all pub- 
lished by the Tract society. See "Memorial of 
Rev. William A. Hallock, D. D.," by Mrs. H. C. 
Knight (New York, 1882).— Mary Angeline (La- 
throp), author, second wife of William Allen, b. 
in Rowe, Franklin co., Mass., 18 June, 1810, was 
married to Dr. Hallock in 1868. She had been 

Sreviously the wife of a Mr. Lathrop, and on the 
eath of her first husband, in 1854, began to write 
as a means of support for her children. She pub- 
lished "That Sweet Story of Old" (New York, 
1856); "Bethlehem and her Children" (1858); 
" Life of the Apostle Paul " (1860) ; " Life of Solo- 
mon" (1868); "Fall of Jerusalem" (1869); and 
" Life of Daniel " and " Beasts and Birds " (1870). 
— Gerard, journalist, another son of Moses, b. in 
Plainfield, Mass., 18 March, 1800; d. in New Ha- 
ven, Conn., 4 Jan., 1866, was graduated at Will- 
iams in 1819, and began his connection with the 
press in 1824 by the establishment of the " Boston 
Telegraph," a weekly, which the year following was 
merged into the " Boston Recorder." In 1827 he 
became part owner of the " New York Observer," 
and in 1828 was associated with David Hale in the 
publication of the "Journal of Commerce." In 
1828 the partners fitted out a schooner to cruise 
off Sandy Hook and intercept European vessels, 
and in 1833 they ran an express from Philadel- 
phia to New York, with eight relays of horses, and 
thus were enabled to publish the proceedings of 
congress a day in advance of their contemporaries. 
When other journals imitated their enterprise, 
they extended their relays to Washington. This 
system of news collection resulted in the establish- 
ment of the celebrated Halifax express. Mr. Hal- 
lock was an unflinching supporter of a national 




H&nVwtfoX/Avfty 



pro-slavery policy, yet he was generous in his treat- 
ment of individual slaves who made appeals to 
his charity. He purchased and liberated not less 
than one hundred 
of these, and pro- 
vided for their 
transportation to 
Liberia. He con- 
tributed largely to 
the support of the 
religious denom- 
ination to which 
he belonged, and 
spent about $119,- 
000 in the erection 
and maintenance 
for fourteen years 
of a church in New 
Haven. He was 
a founder of the 
Southern aid soci- 
ety, designed to 
take the place of 
the American home 
missionary society 
in the south, when the latter withdrew its support 
from slave-holding churches. Mr. Hallock was a 
thorough classical scholar, and early in life gave 
lessons in Hebrew to clergymen. In August, 1861, 
the " Journal of Commerce," with four other pa- 
pers, was presented by the grand jury of the U. S. 
circuit court for " encouraging rebels now in arms 
against the Federal government, by expressing 
sympathy and agreement with them, the duty 
of acceding to their demands, and dissatisfaction 
with the employment of force to overcome them." 
This was followed by the promulgation of an 
order from the post-office department at Wash- 
ington forbidding the use of the mails by the in- 
dicted papers. These measures resulted in the re- 
tirement of Mr. Hallock from journalism. He 
sold his interest in his paper, and thenceforth re- 
frained from contributing a line to the public 
press. This abrupt change of all his habits of 
life, action, and thought brought with it the seeds 
of disease, and he only survived the loss of his 
cherished occupation a little more than four years. 
See " Life of Gerard Hallock " (New York, 1869). 

HALLOWELL, Richard Price, merchant, b. 
in Philadelphia, Pa., 16 Dec, 1835. He studied 
for two years at Haverford college, in 1859 re- 
moved to West Medford, Mass., and during the 
same year began business in Boston as a wool-mer- 
chant. He was identified with the abolition move- 
ment led by Wendell Phillips and William Lloyd 
Garrison, and during the civil war was made a 
special agent by Gov. John A. Andrew, of Massa- 
chusetts, to recruit for the negro regiments. Mr. 
Hallowell is treasurer of the Free religious associa- 
tion, and vice-president of the New England woman 
suffrage association. He has contributed many 
articles to the " Index," and has published " The 
Quaker Invasion of Massachusetts (Boston, 1883) 
and " The Pioneer Quakers " (1887).— His brother, 
Edward Needles, soldier, b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 
3 Nov., 1837 ; d. at West Medford, Mass., 26 July, 
1871, became aide-de-camp to Gen. John C. Fre- 
mont soon after the beginning of the civil war, and 
in January, 1862, was made 2d lieutenant in the 
20th Massachusetts volunteers. He was engaged 
in the principal battles of the peninsular campaign, 
and at Antietam served on the staff of Gen. Ka- 
poleon J. T. Dana. In March, 1863, he was made 
captain in the 54th (colored) Massachusetts volun- 
teers, major in April, and lieutenant-colonel in 



HALPINE 



HALSEY 



53 



May. He was wounded at the assault on Fort 
Wagner, 18 July, 1863, and given command of his 
regiment, succeeding Col. Robert G. Shaw, who 
was killed in that action. At the battle of Olus- 
tee, in February, 1864, he brought his regiment 
into action at the crisis, checked the advance of a 
victorious army, and made it possible for the Na- 
tional column to retire upon Jacksonville. He was 
brevetted brigadier-general, 27 July, 1865. 

HALPINE, Charles Graham, writer, b. in 
Oldcastle, County Meath, Ireland, 20 Nov., 1829 ; 
d. in New York city, 3 Aug., 1868. His father, 
Rev. Nicholas J. Halpine, was for many years edi- 
tor of the " Evening Mail," the chief Protestant 
paper of Dublin. The son was graduated at Trin- 
ity college, Dublin, in 1846. It was his original 
intention to study medicine, but he preferred the 
law, meanwhile writing for the press. The sudden 
death of his father and his own early marriage 
compelled him to adopt journalism as a profession, 
and his versatile talents soon gained for him a repu- 
tation even in England. In 1852 he came to New 
York city with his family, secured employment on 
the " Herald," and in a few months had established 
relations with several periodicals. His remarkable 
talents made it possible for him to undertake a 
great variety of literary work, most of which was 
entirely ephemeral. He had previously resided in 
Boston, where he was assistant editor of the " Post," 
and also established with Benjamin P. Shillaber 
(Mrs. Partington) a humorous journal called the 
" Carpet Bag," which was unsuccessful. Later he 
was associate editor of the " New York Times," of 
which he had been Washington correspondent, and 
the celebrated Nicaragua correspondence at the 
time of Walker's expedition was written by him for 
that journal. He also continued his relations with 
the Boston " Post," and in 1856 became principal 
editor and part proprietor of the New York " Lead- 
er," which under his management rapidly increased 
in circulation. He also contributed poetry to the 
New York " Tribune," including his lyric 
"Tear down the flaunting lie! 
Half-mast the starry flag ! " 
which was attributed to Horace Greeley. At the 
beginning of the civil war he enlisted in the 69th 
New York infantry, in which he was soon elected 
a lieutenant and served faithfully during the three 
months for which he volunteered. When the regi- 
ment was ordered to return home, he was trans- 
ferred to Gen. David Hunter's staff as assistant 
adjutant -general, with the rank of major, and 
soon afterward accompanied that officer to Mis- 
souri to relieve Gen. Fremont. Maj. Halpine re- 
ceived the commendation of officers that had been 
educated at the (J. S. military academy as one of 
the best executive officers of his grade in the army. 
He accompanied Gen. Hunter to Hilton Head, and 
while there wrote a series of burlesque poems in the 
assumed character of an Irish private. Several of 
these were contributed to the New York " Herald " 
over the pen-name of " Miles O'Reilly," and with 
additional articles were issued as " Life and Ad- 
ventures, Songs, Services, and Speeches of Private 
Miles O'Reilly, 47th Regiment, New York Volun- 
teers" (New York, 1864), and "Baked Meats of the 
Funeral : A Collection of Essays, Poems, Speeches, 
and Banquets, by Private Miles O'Reilly, late of the 
47th Regiment, New York Volunteer Infantry, 10th 
Army Corps. Collected, Revised, and Edited, with 
the Requisite Corrections of Punctuation, Spelling, 
and Grammar, by an Ex-Colonel of the Adjutant- 
General's Department, with whom the Private for- 
merly served as Lance Corporal of Orderlies " (1866). 
He was subsequently assistant adjutant-general on 



Gen. Henry W. Halleck's staff, with the rank of 
colonel, and accompanied Gen. Hunter on his ex- 
pedition to the Shenandoah valley in the spring of 
1864. This proved unsuccessful, and he returned 
to Washington, but soon afterward resigned, re- 
ceiving the brevet of brigadier-general of volun- 
teers. He then made New York his home, and, re- 
suming his literary work, became editor and later 
proprietor of " The Citizen," a newspaper issued by 
the Citizens' association to advocate reforms in the 
civil administration of New York city. In 1867 
he was elected register of the county by a coalition 
of Republicans and Democrats. Incessant labor 
brought on insomnia with the use of opiates, and 
his death was the result of an undiluted dose of 
chloroform. Besides the books mentioned above, he 
was the author of " Lyrics by the Letter H " (New 
York, 1854) ; and after his death Robert B. Roose- 
velt collected " The Poetical Works of Charles G. 
Halpine (Miles O'Keilly)," with a biographical 
sketch and explanatory notes (New York, 1869). 

HALSALL, William Formby, artist, b. in 
Kirkdale, England, 20 March, 1844. He early set- 
tled in Boston, where he received his education. 
Subsequently he went to sea and for seven years 
followed the life of a sailor. In 1860 he began the 
study of fresco-painting with William E. Norton, 
in Boston, but at the beginning of the civil war en- 
listed in the U. S. navy, and served for two years. 
He then returned to fresco-work, but soon aban- 
doned it for marine-painting, which he has since 
followed in Boston, studying for eight years in the 
Lowell institute. Among his works are the " Chas- 
ing a Blockade-Runner in a Fog," " Rendezvous 
of the Fishermen," " The Mayflower," " Arrival of 
the Winthrop Colony," and " Niagara Falls." His 
" First Battle of the Iron-Clads " was purchased 
by the U. S. government in 1887, and is to be hung 
in the capitol at Washington. 

HALSEY. George Armstrong, manufacturer, 
b. in Springfield, N. J., 7 Dec, 1827. He was edu- 
cated in the schools of his native town, and on the 
removal of his father's family to Newark, N. J., be- 
came voluntarily apprentice to a leather-manufac- 
turer. A few years later he entered the wholesale 
clothing business. He was elected a member of the 
general assembly of New Jersey in 1860 and 1861, 
and in 1862 was appointed assessor for the 5th dis- 
trict of New Jersey, from which office President 
Johnson sought to remove him in 1866, but with- 
out success. This attack on him by the president 
resulted in his nomination for congress, and his 
election by a very large majority. As a member 
of the joint select committee on retrenchment, he 
was instrumental in securing important reforms in 
the treasury department. In 1868 he was defeated, 
but was again elected in 1870 by over 3,000 ma- 
jority. The nomination was again tendered to him 
in 1872, but declined. In connection with Gov. 
Randolph he was active in preserving Washing- 
ton's headquarters at Morristown, and is now (1887) 
president of the association formed for that pur- 
pose. In 1874 he was the unsuccessful Republican 
candidate for governor of New Jersey. Since that 
time he has been chiefly engaged in the manage- 
ment of his manufactory at Newark. N. J., but 
gives much time and attention to the affairs of the 
New Jersey historical society and to those of the 
Newark library association. 

HALSEY, Lerov Jones, clergyman, b. in 
Goochland county, Va., 28 Jan., 1812. His family 
removed to Huntsville, Ala., when he was six years 
of age. He was graduated in 1834 at Nashville 
university, where he was tutor of ancient lan- 
guages for two years. He studied theology at 



54 



HALSEY 



HALSTED 



Princeton, was licensed in 1840, and preached in 
Dallas county, Ala. He was pastor of the Pres- 
byterian church in Jackson, Miss., from 1843 till 
1848, when he removed to Louisville, Ky., and for 
ten years was pastor of the Chestnut street Pres- 
byterian church. In 1859 he was elected to the 
chair of pastoral theology, horailetics, and church 
government in the Theological seminary of the 
northwest, Chicago, 111. His published works are 
"The Literary Attractions of the Bible" (New 
York, 1859); "The Life and Pictures of the 
Bible" (Philadelphia, 1860); "The Beauty of Em- 
manuel" (1861): "The Life and Works of Philip 
Lindley" (3 vols., 1866); "Memoir of the Rev. 
Lewis W. Green, D. D." (New York, 1871) ; " Liv- 
ing Christianity " (Philadelphia, 1881) ; and " Scot- 
land's Place in Civilization " (1885). 

HALSEY, Lather, clergyman, b. in Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., 1 Jan., 1794; d. in Norristown, Pa., 
29 Oct., 1880. From 1829 till 1837 he was profes- 
sor of theology in the Western theological seminary, 
Alleghany, Pa., after which he held the chair of 
ecclesiastical history and church polity in Auburn, 
N. Y., theological seminary, resigning in 1844. 
From 1847 till 1850 he- was professor of church 
history in Union theological seminary, New York 
city. For several years previous to his death he 
lived in retirement. — His brother, Job Foster, 
clergyman, b. in Schenectady, N. Y., 12 July, 1800 ; 
d. in Norristown, Pa., 7 March, 1881, was gradu- 
ated at Union in 1819, studied theology with his 
brother, and spent the years from 1823 till 1826 at 
Princeton seminary. From 1826 till 1828 he held 
charge of the Old Tennent church in Freehold, 
N. J. He was agent for the American Bible society 
in New Jersey in 1828-'9, for the American tract 
society in Albany, N. Y., in 1829-'30, and for the 
Sunday-school union in Pittsburg in 1830-'l. 
From 1831 till 1836 he was pastor of the First 
church in Alleghany City, Pa., and in 1835-'6 a 
professor in Marion manual-labor college, Mis- 
souri. He was principal of Raritan seminary for 
young ladies in Perth Amboy, N. J., from 1836 till 
1848, pastor at West Bloomfield (now Montclair), 
N. J., from 1852 till 1856, and pastor of the 1st 
Presbyterian church in Norristown, Pa., from 1856 
till he resigned in 1881. 

HALSTEAD, M unit, journalist, b. in Paddy's 
Run, Butler co., Ohio, 2 Sept., 1829. He spent 
the summers on his father's farm and the winters 
in school until he was nineteen years old, and, after 
teaching for a few months, entered Farmer's col- 
lege, near Cincinnati, where he was graduated in 
1851. He had already contributed to the pressf 
and after leaving college became connected with 
the Cincinnati " Atlas," and then with the " En- 
quirer." He afterward established a Sunday news- 
paper in that city, and in 1852-3 worked on the 
"Columbian and Great West," a weekly. He 
began work on the " Commercial " on 8 March, 
1853, as a local reporter, and soon became news 
editor. In 1854 the " Commercial " was reorgan- 
ized, and Halstead purchased an interest in the 
paper. In 1867 its control passed into his hands. 
After pursuing for a time a course of independent 
journalism, he allied himself with the Republican 
party, which he has since supported. The Cincin- 
nati " Gazette " was consolidated with his paper in 
1883, and he became president of the company that 
publishes the combined journal under the name of 
the " Commercial Gazette." 

HALSTEAD, Schureman, philanthropist, b. 
in 1805 ; d. in Mamaroneck, N. Y., 5 Oct., 1868. 
He entered a dry-goods house at the age of fifteen, 
and by the time he had reached manhood had ac- 



quired a competence. Through all his life he de- 
voted himseli to the promotion of religious and 
benevolent enterprises. It was due to his personal 
efforts that the legislature passed the act creating 
the board of " ten governors," and, having been ap- 
pointed one of the original governors, he devoted 
much time to securing the successful working of 
the system. He was vice-president of the Ameri- 
can Bible society, president of the Westchester 
county Bible society, manager of the Parent mis- 
sionary society of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
founder, and for many years president, of the 
Broadway insurance company, and held many 
other responsible offices. 

HALSTED, Byron David, agriculturist, b. in 
Venice, N. Y., 7 June, 1852. He was graduated 
at the Michigan agricultural college in 1871, and 
subsequently studied at Harvard, where in 1878 he 
received the degree of D. Sc. In 1873-4 he was 
instructor in ' history and algebra at the Agricul- 
tural college, and in 1874-'5 instructor in botany 
in Harvard. In 1875-'9 he taught in the Chigaco 
high-school, and then became editor of the " Ameri- 
can Agriculturist," which office he held until 1884. 
He was then called to fill the chair of botany in 
the Iowa agricultural college. Dr. Halsted is a 
fellow of the American association for the ad- 
vancement of science, and a member of other so- 
cieties. He has contributed largely to all the agri- 
cultural and botanical journals in the United 
States, and published " The Vegetable Garden " 
(Chicago, 1882) ; " Farm Conveniences" (New York, 
1883) ; and " Household Conveniences " (1883). 

HALSTED, Nathaniel Norris, merchant, b. 
in Elizabeth, N. J., 13 Aug., 1816 ; d. in Newark, N. 
J., 6 May, 1884. At a very early age he was adopt- 
ed by his uncle, Caleb O. Halsted, a merchant of 
New York, who educated him in the schools of 
that city and in the Boys' seminary at Woodbridge, 
N. J. Entering the dry-goods establishment of his 
uncle, he became at the age of twenty-nine years 
a partner in the house, and so continued until 
1855, when he retired with a fortune. Soon after- 
ward he removed to Newark, N. J., having pur- 
chased stock in the New Jersey rubber company, of 
which he became a director and finally president. 
In the early part of the civil war he received an 
appointment on the staff of Gov. Olden, of New 
Jersey, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and 
when recruiting camps were established at Trenton 
he was bre vetted brigadier-general and placed in 
command. Princeton is indebted to him for the 
astronomical observatory which bears his name, 
and in the erection of which he expended $55,000. 
He had been a trustee of this institution for many 
years at the time of his death. He also gave largely 
for the establishment and successful conduct of 
the New Jersey state agricultural society, of which 
he was the first president. The New Jersey his- 
torical society, in its " Proceedings," makes mention 
of him not only as one of its benefactors, but as 
an earnest laborer in every worthy cause. 

HALSTED, Oliver Spencer, jurist, b. in Eliza- 
beth, N. J., 22 Sept., 1792; d. in Lyons Farms, 
N. J., 29 Aug., 1877. He was graduated at Prince- 
ton in 1810, studied law in the Litchfield law- 
school and in his native town, was admitted to the 
bar in 1814, and settled in Newark, N. J. In 1820 
he removed to Huntsville, Ala., and devoted two 
years and a half to the practice of law. He re- 
turned to Elizabeth in 1823, and in 1827 was elect- 
ed to the legislature. He was appointed surrogate 
of Essex county in 1828, was again elected to the 
legislature in 1834, and in 1840 became mayor of 
Newark. In 1844 he was a member of the conven- 



HAMBLIN 



HAMER 



55 



tion for the revision of the constitution of the 
state. In February, 1845, he was appointed chan- 
cellor under the new constitution, and became ex- 
officio president of the court of errors and appeals. 
His terra of office expired in February, 1852, and 
he then gave all his time to the pursuit and appli- 
cation of his life-long studies m philology. He 
published, beside several legal works, "The The- 
ologv of the Bible" (Newark, 1866): and "The 
Book called Job " (1875).— His son, Oliver Spen- 
cer, lawyer, b. in Elizabeth, N. J., in 1827 ; a. in 
Newark, N. J., 9 July, 1871, was known as " Pet " 
Halsted. He was active in politics during the war, 
and was a warm friend of Gen. Philip Kearny and 
President Lincoln. His address, persistency, and 
assurance made him potent in Washington during 
the war and for a year or two afterward in regard 
to appointments and removals, especially in New 
Jersey. — His son, George Bruce, mathematician, 
b. in "Newark. N. J., 25 Nov., 1853, was graduated 
at Princeton in 1875, held fellowships there and 
in Johns Hopkins, where he received the degree 
of Ph. D. in 1879, and then studied in Berlin, 
Germany. He became instructor in post-gradu- 
ate mathematics in Princeton, and afterward ac- 
cepted the chair of mathematics in the University 
of Texas, which he still holds (1887). He was the 
first to give the received treatment of solid angles, 
originated " Halsted's prismoidal formula," and 
has published " Metrical Geometry " (3d ed., Bos- 
ton, 1883) ; " Elements of Geometry " (New York, 
1885) ; and a " Bibliography of Hyper-Space and 
Non-Euclidean Geometry " (Baltimore), besides pa- 
pers in scientific journals. 

HAMBLIN, Joseph Eldridge, soldier, b. in 
Yarmouth, Mass., in 1828 ; d. in New York city, 3 
July, 1870. For many years prior to 1861 he was 
a member of the 7th militia regiment, and soon 
after the outbreak of the civil war became adju- 
tant of the 5th New York regiment. In Novem- 
ber, 1861, shortly after the formation of the 65th 
New York, he was transferred to that regiment. 
He rapidly rose to the command, and participated 
in Grant's campaign of 1864 from the Wilderness 
to Petersburg. In July, 1864, his regiment was 
transferred to the Shenandoah valley, to resist the 
demonstration of Breckinridge and Early against 
Washington and Maryland. Col. Hamblin par- 
ticipated in each of Sheridan's brilliant successes 
in the valley, and was severely wounded at Cedar 
Creek. For gallantry in this action he was bre- 
vetted brigadier-general, and placed in command 
of the brigade. Upon the return of the corps to 
Petersburg he was, in the spring of 1865, promoted 
to full rank, and participated in all the subsequent 
engagements of the Army of the Potomac to the 
surrender at Appomattox. For distinguished bra- 
very at Sailor's Creek, 6 April, 1865, the last en- 
gagement between the Confederates and the Army 
of the Potomac, he was brevetted major-general, 
and was mustered out with that rank at Washing- 
ton, 15 Jan., 1866. After the war he entered upon 
civil pursuits in New York. 

HAMBLIN, Thomas Sowerby, actor, b. in Pen- 
ton ville, near London, England, 14 May, 1800; d. 
in New York city, 8 Jan., 1853. His parents in- 
tended him for a business career, but he became a 
supernumerary and occasional dancer in the Adel- 
phi theatre in London. At the age of nineteen 
Hamblin joined the corps of Sadlers Wells theatre, 
and at twenty became engaged at Drury Lane. On 
the termination of his London engagement he per- 
formed as a leading tragedian in Bath, ~ 
and Dublin. At this time he marriej" 
Blanchard, and soon afterward, 




far f/#cc~«Jk^ 




came to the United States. They appeared at the 
New York Park theatre in " Hamlet," followed by 
"The Stranger," "Macbeth," and "The Honey- 
moon," and afterward visited the principal cities 
of the Union. In 1830 Hamblin, in connection 
with James H. Hackett, leased the first Bowery 
theatre, and, after brief joint management, ac- 
quired the entire control. At that time the Bow- 
ery was the largest and handsomest structure of 
the kind in this country. After a prosperous 
career it was de- 
stroyed by fire on 16 
Sept., 1836. Hamblin 
was only partly in- 
sured, and a heavy 
loser. He then visited 
London, and appeared 
as Hamlet, Othello, 
Coriolanus, Rolla.and 
Virginius, but with- 
out success. He 
leased the newly 
erected second Bow- 
ery theatre in 1837, 
and conducted it on 
the old plan with his 
former success until 
1845, when it was 
again burned. He accepted the management of 
the third Bowery theatre in 1847, and in 1848 leased 
the Park theatre, and for several months conducted 
it in connection with the Bowery. On 16 Dec. of 
the same year this house also was destroyed by fire, 
making the fourth theatre burned under his man- 
agement. His loss on this occasion amounted to 
about $17,000. Thereafter he conducted the Bow- 
ery theatre alone until the day of his death. With 
him the historic career of the New York Bowery 
theatre began and ended. Hamblin was prompt, 
liberal, and popular, and noted as a helper of 
worthy aspirants. An important feature of his 
management was the frequent representation of 
tragedies and standard dramas. The elder Booth, 
Forrest, Cooper, and himself were occasionally cast 
for characters in the same play. Sudden attacks 
of asthma rendered his performances unequal, but 
in his best days he fell little short of the popularity 
of Forrest and the elder Booth. He was tall and 
strikingly majestic, and the public knew him fa- 
miliarly as " handsome Tom Hamblin." — Ham- 
blin's fourth wife came to the United States with 
her first husband, a physician named Shaw, and 
appeared at the New York Park theatre, 28 Feb., 
1836, in " The Wife." In 1839 she became a mem- 
ber of the Bowery theatre company, and ten years 
later was married to the manager. As Mrs. Shaw 
she was one of the most beautiful actresses of her 
day. In forcible roles, like Lady Macbeth and 
Queen Katharine, she was excelled by Miss Kem- 
ble and Miss Cushman, but as Desdemona and 
Ophelia it was generally admitted that Mrs. 
Hamblin was superior to all other performers. 

HAMER, Thomas L., soldier, b. in Pennsyl- 
vania; d. in Monterey, Mexico, 2 Dec, 1846. He 
emigrated to Ohio when quite young, studied law 
and was admitted to the bar in 1821, and began 
practice at Georgetown - in that state. He served 
for several years in the Ohio house of representa- 
tives, where he was once speaker, and was elected 
to congress as a Democrat, serving from 2 Dec, 
1833, to 3 March, 1839. While he was a representa- 
tive in congress he nominated Ulysses S. Grant, 
the son of a constituent, to be a cadet at the U. S. 
military academy. He served in the Mexican war, 
olunteering as a private, and receiving the next 



56 



HAMILTON 



HAMILTON 




day, 1 July, 1846, the commission of brigadier- 
general. He distinguished himself at Monterey, 
and commanded his division after Gen. William O. 
Butler was wounded. He died shortly afterward, 
and congress, in recognition of his gallantry, pre- 
sented a sword to his nearest male relative. 

HAMILTON, Alexander, statesman, b. in the 
island of Nevis, West Indies, 11 Jan., 1757; d. in 
New York city, 12 July, 1804. A curious mystery 
and uncertainty overhang his birth and parentage, 
and even the accounts of his son and biographer 
vary with and contradict each other. The ac- 
cepted version is, that he was the son of James 
Hamilton, a Scottish 
merchant, and his 
wife, a French lady 
named Faucette, the 
divorced wife of a 
Dane named Lavine. 
According to another 
story, his mother was 
a Miss Lytton, and 
her sister came subse- 
quently to this coun- 
try, where she was 
watched over and 
supported by Hamil- 
ton and his wife. A 
similar doubt is also 
connected with his 
paternity, which now 
cannot be solved, even 
were it desirable. His 
jd , * father became bank- 

ton's own words, and 
the child was thus thrown upon the care of his 
mother's relatives. His education seems to have 
been brief and desultory, and chiefly due to the Rev. 
Hugh Knox, a Presbyterian clergyman of Nevis, 
who took a great interest in the boy and kept up an 
affectionate correspondence with him in after-days 
when his former pupil was on the way to great- 
ness. In 1777 his old tutor wrote to Hamilton that 
he must be the annalist and biographer, as well as 
the aide-de-camp, of Gen. Washington, and the 
historiographer of the American war of independ- 
ence. Before Hamilton was thirteen years of age 
it was apparently necessary that he should earn his 
living, and he was therefore placed in the office of 
Nicholas Cruger, a West Indian merchant. His pre- 
cocity was extraordinary, owing, perhaps in some 
measure, to his early isolation and self-dependence, 
and at an age when most boys are thinking of 
marbles and hockey he was writing to a friend and 
playmate of his ambition and his plans for the fu- 
ture. Most boys have day-dreams ; but there is a 
definiteness and precision about Hamilton's that 
make them seem more like the reveries of twenty 
than of thirteen. Even more remarkable was the 
business capacity that he displayed at this time. 
His business letters, many of which have been pre- 
served, would have done credit to a trained clerk 
of any age, and his employer was apparently in the 
habit of going away and leaving this mere child 
in charge of all the affairs of his counting-house. 
The boy also wrote for the local press, contribut- 
ing at one time an account of a severe hurricane 
that had devastated the islands, which was 1 so vivid 
and strong a bit of writing that it attracted gen- 
eral attention. This literary success, joined prob- 
ably to the friendly advocacy of Dr. Knox, led to 
the conviction that something ought to be done 
for a boy who was clearly fitted for a higher 



position than a West Indian counting-house. 
Funds were accordingly provided by undefined rel- 
atives and more distinct friends, and thus equipped, 
Hamilton sailed for Boston, Mass., where he ar- 
rived in October, 1772, and whence he proceeded 
to New York. Furnished by Dr. Knox with good 
letters, he speedily found friends and counsellors, 
and by their advice went to a school in Elizabeth- 
town, N. J., where he studied with energy to pre- 
pare for college, and employed his pen in much 
writing, of both prose and poetry. He entered 
King's college, New York, now Columbia, and there 
with the aid of a tutor made remarkable progress. 
While he was thus engaged, our difficulties with 
England were rapidly ripening. Hamilton's nat- 
ural inclinations were then, as always, toward the 
side of order and established government, but a 
visit to Boston in the spring of 1774, and a close 
examination of the questions in dispute, convinced 
him of the justice of the cause of the colonies. 
His opportunity soon came. A great meeting was 
held in the fields, 6 July, 1774, to force the lagging 
Tory assembly of New York into line. Hamilton 
was among the crowd, and as he listened he be- 
came more and more impressed, not by what was 
said, but by what the speakers omitted to say. 
Pushing his way to the front, he mounted the 
platform, and while the crowd cried " A collegian 1 
A collegian ! " this stripling of seventeen began to 
pour out an eloquent and fervid speech in behalf 
of colonial rights. 

Once engaged, Hamilton threw himself into the 
struggle with all the intense energy of his nature. 
He left the platform to take up the pen, and his 
two pamphlets — " A Full Vindication " and " The 
Farmer Refuted * —attracted immediate and gen- 
eral attention. Indeed, these productions were so 
remarkable, at a time when controversial writings 
of great ability abounded, that they were gener- 
ally attributed to Jay and other well-known pa- 
triots. The discovery of their authorship raised 
Hamilton to the position of a leader in New 
York. Events now moved rapidly, the war for 
which he had sighed in his first boyish letter 
came, and he of course was quick to take part in 
it. Early in 1776 he was given the command of 
a company of artillery by the New York conven- 
tion, and by his skill in organization, and his tal- 
ent for command, he soon had a body of men that 
furnished a model of appearance and discipline at 
a time when those qualities were as uncommon as 
they were needful. At Long Island and at White 
Plains the company distinguished itself, and the 
gallantry of the commander, as well as the appear- 
ance of the men, which had already attracted the 
notice of Gen. Greene, led to an offer from Wash- 
ington of a place on his staff. This offer Hamil- 
ton accepted, and thus began the long and inti- 
mate connection with Washington which suffered 
but one momentary interruption. Hamilton filled 
an important place on Washington's staff, and 
his ready pen made him almost indispensable to 
the commander-in-chief. Beside his immediate 
duties, the most important task that fell to him 
was when he was sent to obtain troops from Gen. 
Gates, after the Burgoyne campaign. This was 
a difficult and delicate business; but Hamilton 
conducted it with success, and, by a wise admix- 
ture of firmness and tact, carried his point. He 
also took such part as was possible for a staff offi- 
cer in all the battles fought by Washington, and in 
the Andre affair he was brought into close contact 
both with Andre and Mrs. Arnold, of whom he has 
left a most pathetic and picturesque description. 
On 16 Feb., 1781, Hamilton took hasty offence at. 



HAMILTON 



HAMILTON 



5? 



a reproof given him by Washington, and resigned 
from the staff, but he remained in the army, and 
at Yorktown commanded a storming party, which 
took one of the British redoubts. This dashing 
exploit practically closed Hamilton's military ser- 
vice in the Revolution, which had been highly 
creditable to him both as a staff and field officer. 

In the midst of his duties as a soldier, however, 
Hamilton had found time for much else. On his 
mission to Gates he met at Albany Miss Elizabeth 
Schuyler, whom he married on 14 Dec, 1780, and so 
became connected with a rich and powerful New 
York family, which was of marked advantage to 
him in many ways. During the Revolution, too, he 
had found leisure to study finance and government, 
and his letters on these topics to Robert Morris 
and James Duane display a remarkable grasp of 
both subjects. He showed in these letters how to 
amend the confederation and how to establish a 
national bank, and his plans thus set forth were 
not only practicable, but evince his peculiar fitness 
for the great work before him. His letters on the 
bank, indeed, so impressed Morris that when 
Hamilton left the army and was studying law, 
Morris offered him the place of continental receiver 
of taxes for New York, which he at once accepted. 
At the same time he was admitted to the bar, and he 
threw himself into the work of his profession and 
of his office with his wonted zeal. The exclusion of 
the Tories from the practice of the law gave a fine 
opening to their young rivals on the patriot side ; 
but the business of collecting taxes was a thankless 
task, which only served to bring home to Hamilton 
more than ever the fatal defects of the confedera- 
tion. From these uncongenial labors he was re- 
lieved by an election to congress, where he took his 
seat in November, 1782. The most important busi- 
ness then before congress was the ratification of 
peace ; but the radical difficulties of the situation 

(arose from the shattered finances and from the 
helplessness and imbecility of the confederation. 
Hamilton flung himself into these troubles with 
the enthusiasm of youth and genius, but all in 
vain. The ease was hopeless. He extended his 
reputation for statesmanlike ability and brilliant 
eloquence, but effected nothing, and withdrew to 
the practice of his profession in 1783, more than 
ever convinced that the worthless fabric of the con- 
federation must be swept away, and something 
better and stronger put in its place. This great 
object was never absent from his mind, and as he 
rapidly rose at the bar he watched with a keen eye 
the course of public affairs, and awaited an open- 
ing. Matters went rapidly from bad to worse. 
The states were bankrupt, and disintegration 
threatened them. Internecine commercial regula- 
tions destroyed prosperity, and riot and insurrec- 
tion menaced society. At last Virginia, in Janu- 
ary, 1786, proposed a convention at Annapolis, 
Md., to endeavor to make some common commer- 
cial regulations. Hamilton's opportunity had 
come, and, slender as it was, he seized it with a 
firm grasp. He secured the election of delegates 
from New York, and in company with Egbert Ben- 
son betook himself to Annapolis in September, 
1786. After the fashion of the time, only five 
states responded to the call ; but the meagre gath- 
ering at least furnished a stepping-stone to better 
things. The convention agreed upon an address, 
which was drawn by Hamilton, and toned down to 
suit the susceptibilities of Edmund Randolph. This 
address set forth the evil condition of public af- 
fairs, and called a new convention, with enlarged 
powers, to meet in Philadelphia, 2 May, 1787. This 
done, the next business was to make the coming 



convention a success, and Hamilton returned to 
New York to devote himself to that object. He 
obtained an election to the legislature, and there 
fought the hopeless battles of the general govern- 
ment against the Clintonian forces, and made him- 
self felt in all the legislation of the year : but he 
never lost sight of his main purpose, the appoint- 
ment of delegates to Philadelphia. This he finally 
accomplished, and was chosen with two leaders of 
the opposition, Yates and Lansing, to represent 
New York in the coming convention. Hamil- 
ton's own position despite his victory in obtaining 
delegates was trying; for in the convention the 
vote of the state, on every question, was cast 
against him by his colleagues. He, however, did 
the best that was possible. At an early day, when 
a relaxing and feeble tendency appeared in the 
convention, he introduced his own scheme of gov- 
ernment, and supported it in a speech of five 
hours. His plan was much higher in tone, and 
much stronger, than any other, since it called for 
a president and senators for life, and for the ap- 
pointment of the governors of states by the na- 
tional executive. It aimed, in fact, at the forma- 
tion of an aristocratic instead of a Democratic 
republic. Such a scheme had no chance of adop- 
tion, and of course Hamilton was well aware of 
this, but it served its purpose by clearing the at- 
mosphere and giv- 
ing the convention 
a more vigorous 
tone. After deliv- 
ering his speech, 
Hamilton with- 
drew from the 
convention, where 
his colleagues ren- 
dered him hope- 
lessly inactive, and 
only returned to- 
ward the end to 
take part in the 
closing debates, 
and to affix his 
name to the con- 
stitution. It was 
when the labors 
of the convention were completed and laid before 
the people that Hamilton's great work for the con- 
stitution really began. He conceived and started 
" The Federalist," and wrote most of those famous 
essays which rivetted the attention of the country, 
furnished the weapons of argument and exposition 
to those who "thought continentally " in all the 
states, and did more than any thing else toward 
the adoption of the constitution. In almost all the 
states the popular majority was adverse to the con- 
stitution, and in the New York ratifying conven- 
tion the vote stood at the outset two to one against 
adoption. In a brilliant contest, Hamilton, by argu- 
ments rarely equalled in the history of debate, 
either in form or eloquence, by skiiful manage- 
ment, and by wise delay, finally succeeded in con- 
verting enough votes, and carried ratification tri- 
umphantly. It was a great victory, and in the 
Federal procession in New York the Federal ship 
bore the name of "Hamilton." From the con- 
vention the struggle was transferred to the polls. 
George Clinton was strong enough to prevent the 
choice of senators, but at the election he only re- 
tained his own office by a narrow majority: his 
power was broken, and the Federalists elected four 
of the six representatives in congress. In this fight 
Hamilton led, and when the choice of senators was 
finally made he insisted, in his imperious fashion. 




58 



HAMILTON 



HAMILTON 



on the choice of Rufus King and Gen. Schuyler, 
thus ignoring the Livingstons, a political blunder 
that soon cost the Federalists control of the state 
of New York. 

In April, 1789, Washington was inaugurated, 
and when the treasury department was at last or- 
ganized, in September, he at once placed Hamilton 
at the head of it. In the five years that ensued 
Hamilton did the work that lies at the foundation 
of our system of administration, gave life and 
meaning to the constitution, and by his policy de- 
veloped two great political parties. To give in any 
detail an account of what he did would be little 
less than to write the history of the republic dur- 
ing those eventful years. On 14 Jan., 1790, he 
sent to congress the first " Report on the Public 
Credit," which is one of the great state papers of 
our history, and which marks the beginning and 
foundation of our government. In that wonderful 
document, and with a master's hand, he reduced our 
confused finances to order, provided for a funding 
system and for taxes to meet it, and displayed a plan 
for the assumption of the state debts. The finan- 
cial policy thus set forth was put into execution, 
and by it our credit was redeemed, our union ce- 
mented, and our business and commercial pros- 
perity restored. Yet outside of this great work 
and within one year Hamilton was asked to report, 
and did report fully, on the raising and collection 
of the revenue, and on a scheme for revenue cut- 
ters ; as to estimates of income and expenditure ; 
as to the temporary regulation of the currency ; as 
to navigation-laws and the coasting-trade; as to 
the post-office ; as to the purchase of West Point ; 
as to the management of the public lands, and 
upon a great mass of claims, public and private. 
Rapidly, effectively, and successfully were all these 
varied matters dealt with and settled, and then in 
the succeeding years came from the treasury a re- 
port on the establishment of a mint, with an able 
discussion of coins and coinage ; a report on a na- 
tional bank, followed by a great legal argument in 
the cabinet, which evoked the implied powers of 
the constitution ; a report on manufactures, which 
discussed with profound ability the problems of 
political economy and formed the basis of the pro- 
tective policy of the United States ; a plan for an 
excise ; numerous schemes for improved taxation ; 
and finally a last great report on the public credit, 
setting forth the best methods for managing the 
revenue and for the speedy extinction of the debt. 
In the midst of these labors Hamilton was as- 
sailed in congress by his enemies, who were stimu- 
lated by Jefferson, led by James Madison and Will- 
iam B. Giles, and in an incredibly short time, in 
a series of reports on loans, he laid bare every 
operation of the treasury for three years, and there- 
after could not get his foes, even by renewed in- 
vitations, to investigate him further. 

Outside of his own department, Hamilton was 
hardly less active, and in the difficult and troubled 
times brought on by the French revolution he took 
a leading part in the determination of our foreign 
policy. He believed in a strict neutrality, and 
had no leaning to France. He sustained the neu- 
trality proclamation in the cabinet, and defended 
it in the press under the signature of " Pacificus." 
He strenuously supported Washington in his 
course toward France, and constantly urged more 
vigorous measures toward Edmond Charles Genet 
(q. v.) than the cabinet as a whole would adopt. 
During this period, too, his quarrel with Jefferson, 
which really typified the growth of two great po- 
litical parties, came to a head. Jefferson sustained 
and abetted Freneau in his attacks upon the ad- 



ministration and the financial policy, and upon 
the secretary of the treasury most especially. 
Hamilton, too, forgetful of the dignity of his of- 
fice, took up his pen and in a series of letters to 
the newspapers lashed Jefferson until he writhed 
beneath the blows. At last Washington inter- 
fered, and a peace was patched up between the 
warring secretaries; but the relation was too 
strained to endure, and Jefferson soon resigned and 
retired to Virginia. Hamilton was contemplating 
a similar step, but postponed taking it because he 
wished to complete certain financial arrangements, 
and he also felt unwilling to leave his office until 
the troubles arising in Pennsylvania from the ex- 
cise were settled. These disturbances culminated 
in open riot and insurrection ; but Washington 
and Hamilton were fully prepared to deal with the 
emergency. A vigorous proclamation was issued, 
an overwhelming force, which Hamilton accom- 
panied, was marched into the insurgent counties, 
and the so-called rebellion faded away. 

Hamilton now felt free to withdraw from the 
cabinet, a step that he was compelled to take from 
a lack of resources sufficient to support a growing 
family, and he accordingly resigned on 31 Jan., 

1795. His neglected practice at once revived, and 
he soon stood at the head of the New York bar. 
But even his incessant professional duties could 
not keep him from public affairs. The Jay nego- 
tiation, which he had done much to set on foot, 
came to an end, and the treaty that resulted from 
it produced a fierce outburst of popular rage, 
which threatened to overwhelm Washington him- 
self. Hamilton defended the treaty with voice 
and pen, writing a famous series of essays signed 
" Camillus," which had a powerful influence in 
changing public opinion. He was also consulted 
constantly by Washington, almost as much as if 
he had continued in the cabinet, and he furnished 
drafts and suggestions for messages and speeches, 
besides taking a large share in the preparation of 
the " Farewell Address." 

Hamilton not only corresponded with and ad- 
vised the president, but maintained the same rela- 
tion with the members of the cabinet, and this 
fact was one fruitful source of the dissensions that 
arose in the Federalist party after the retirement 
of Washington. Hamilton supported John Adams 
loyally, if not very cordially, at the election of 

1796, and intended to give him an equally loyal 
support when he assumed office, but the situation 
was an impossible one. Adams was the leader of 
the party de jure, Hamilton de facto, and at least 
three members of the cabinet looked from the first 
beyond their nominal and official chief to their 
real chief in New York. If Adams had possessed 
political tact, he might have managed Hamilton ; 
but he neither could nor would attempt it, and 
Hamilton, on his side, was equally imperious and 
equally determined to have his own way. The two 
leaders agreed as to the special commission to 
France, and the commission went. They agreed 
as to the attitude to be assumed after the expo- 
sure of the " X. Y. Z." correspondence, and all 
went well. But, when it came to the provisional 
army, Adams's jealousy led him to resist Hamil- 
ton's appointment to the command, and a serious 
breach ensued. The influence of Washington pre- 
vailed, however, and Hamilton was given the post 
of inspector-general. For two years he was ab- 
sorbed in the military duties thus imposed upon 
him, and his genius for organization comes out 
strongly in his correspondence relating to the for- 
mation, distribution, and discipline of the army. In 
the mean time the affairs of the party went from 



HAMILTON 



HAMILTON 



59 



bad to worse. Mr. Adams reopened negotiations 
with France, which disgusted the war-Federalists, 
and then expelled Timothy Pickering and James 
McHenry from the cabinet, 12 May, 1800. He also 
gave loud utterance to his hatred of Hamilton, 
which speedily reached the latter's ears, and the 
Federalist party found themselves face to face 
with an election and torn by bitter quarrels. The 
Federalists were beaten by their opponents under 
the leadership of Burr in the New York elections, 
and Hamilton, smarting from defeat, proposed to 
Jay to call together the old legislature and refer 
the choice of electors to the people in districts. 
The proposition was wrong and desperate, and 
wholly unworthy of Hamilton, who seems to have 
been beside himself at the prospect of his party's 
impending ruin and the consequent triumph of 
Jefferson. He also made the fatal mistake of openly 
attacking Adams, and the famous pamphlet that 
he wrote against the president, after depicting 
Adams as wholly unfit for his high trust, lamely 
concluded by advising all the Federalists to vote 
for him. Such proceedings could have but one re- 
sult, and the Federalists were beaten. The victors, 
however, were left in serious difficulties, for Burr 

and Jefferson 
received an 
equal number 
of votes, and 
the election 
was thrown in- 
to the house 
of representa- 
tives. The Fed- 
eralists, eager 
for revenge on 
Jefferson, be- 
gan to turn to 
Burr, and now 
Hamilton, re- 
covered from 
his fit of anger, threw himself into the breach, and, 
using all his great influence, was chiefly instru- 
mental in securing the election of Jefferson, there- 
by fulfilling the popular will and excluding Burr, 
a great and high-minded service, which was a fit 
close to his public life. 

After the election of Jefferson, Hamilton re- 
sumed the practice of his profession, and withdrew 
more and more into private life. But he could 
not separate himself entirely from politics, and 
continued to write upon them, and strove to influ- 
ence and strengthen his party. As time wore on, 
and the breach widened between Jefferson and 
Burr, the latter renewed his intrigues with the 
Federalists,- but through Hamilton's influence was 
constantly thwarted, and was finally beaten for the 
governorship of New York. Burr then apparently 
determined to fix a quarrel upon his life-long 
enemy, which was no difficult matter, for Hamilton 
had used the severest language about Burr — not 
once, but a hundred times — and it was easy enough 
to bring it home to him. Hamilton had no wish 
to go out with Burr, but he was a fighting man, 
and, moreover, he was haunted by the belief that 
democracy was going to culminate in the horrors of 
the French revolution, that a strong man would be 
needed, and that society would turn to him for sal- 
vation — a work for which he would be disqualified 
by the popular prejudice if he declined to fight a 
duel. He therefore accepted the challenge, met 
Burr on 11 July, 1804, on the bank of the Hudson 
at Weehawken, and fell mortally wounded at the 
first fire. His tragic fate called forth a universal 
burst of grief, and drove Burr into exile, an out- 




cast and a conspirator. The accompanying illus- 
tration represents the tomb that marks his grave 
in Trinity churchyard, New York. The preceding 
one, on page 57, is a picture of "The Grange," 
Hamilton's country residence on the upper part 
of Manhattan island. The thirteen trees that he 
planted to symbolize the original states of the 
Union survive in majestic proportions, and the 
mansion is still standing on the bluff overlooking 
the Hudson on one side and Long Island sound on 
the other, not far from 145th Street, 

As time has gone on Hamilton's fame has grown, 
and he stands to-day as the most brilliant states- 
man we have produced. His constructive mind 
and far-reaching intellect are visible in every part 
of our system of government, which is the best 
and noblest monument of his genius. His writ- 
ings abound in ideas which there and then found 
their first expression, and which he impressed upon 
our institutions until they have become so univer- 
sally accepted and so very commonplace that their 
origin is forgotten. He was a brave and good sol- 
dier, and might well have been a great one had the 
opportunity ever come. He was the first political 
writer of his time, with an unrivalled power of 
statement and a clear, forcible style, which carried 
conviction in every line. At the time of his death 
he was second to no man at the American bar, and 
was a master in debate and in oratory. In his 
family and among his friends he was deeply be- 
loved and almost blindly followed. His errors and 
faults came from his strong, passionate nature, 
and his masterful will impatient of resistance or 
control. Yet these were the very qualities that 
carried him forward to his triumphs, and enabled 
him to perform services to the American people 
which can never be forgotten. 

There are several portraits of the statesman by 
John Trumbull, and one by Wiemar ; also a marble 
bust, modelled from life, by Ceracchi in 1794, of 
which the accompanying illustration, on page 56, 
is a copy. A full-length statue of Hamilton stands 
in the Central Park of New York. 

Hamilton was the principal author of the series 
of essays called the " Federalist," written in advo- 
cacy of a powerful and influential national govern- 
ment, which were published in a New York jour- 
nal under the signature of "Publius" in 1787-'8, 
before the adoption of the Federal constitution. 
There were eighty-five papers in all, of which 
Hamilton wrote fifty-one, James Madison four- 
teen, John Jay five, and Madison and Hamilton 
jointly three, while the authorship of the remain- 
ing twelve have been claimed by both Hamilton 
and Madison. As secretary of the treasury, he 
presented to congress an elaborate report on the 
public debt in 1789, and one on protective duties 
on imports in 1791. In the "Gazette of the 
United States," under the signature " An Ameri- 
can," he assailed Jefferson's financial views, while 
both were members of Washington's cabinet (1792); 
under that of " Pacificus," defended in print the 
policy of neutrality between France and England 
(1793) ; and in a series of essays, signed " Camillus," 
sustained the policy of ratifying Jay's treaty (1795). 
Other signatures used by him in his newspaper 
controversies were " Cato," " Lucius Crassus," " Pho- 
cion," and " Scipio." In answer to the charges of 
corruption made by Monroe, he published a pam- 
phlet, containing his correspondence with Monroe on 
the subject and the supposed incriminating letters 
on which the charges were based (1797). His "Ob- 
servations on Certain Documents" (Philadelphia, 
1797) was republished in New York in 1865. In 
1798 he defended in the newspapers the policy of 



60 



HAMILTON 



HAMILTON 



increasing the army. His "Works," comprising 
the "Federalist," his most important official re- 
ports, and other writings, were published in three 
volumes (New York, 1810). " His Official and 
other Papers," edited by Francis L. Hawks, ap- 
peared in 1842. In 1851 his son, John C, issued 
a carefully prepared edition of his " Works," com- 
prising his correspondence and his political and 
official writings, civil and military, in seven vol- 
umes. A still larger collection of his " Complete 
Works," including the "Federalist," his private 
correspondence, and many hitherto unpublished 
documents, was edited, with an introduction and 
notes, by Henry Cabot Lodge (9 vols., 1885). In 
1804 appeared a "Collection of Facts and Docu- 
ments relative to the Death of Major-General 
Alexander Hamilton," by William Coleman. The 
same year his "Life" was published in Boston 
by John Williams, under the pen-name "Anthony 
Pasquin," a reprint of which has been issued by 
the Hamilton club (New York, 1865). A "Life 
of Alexander Hamilton" (2 vols., 1834-'40) was 
published by his son, John Church, who also com- 
piled an elaborate work entitled "History of the 
Republic of the United States, as traced in the 
Writings of Alexander Hamilton and his Con- 
temporaries," the first volume of which contains 
a sketch of his father's career (1850-'8). See 
also his "Life" by Henry B. Renwick (1841); 
"Life and Times of Alexander Hamilton," by 
Samuel M. Smucker (Boston, 1856); "Hamilton 
and his Contemporaries," by Christopher J. Rieth- 
mueller (1864); "Life of Hamilton," by John 
T. Morse, Jr. (1876) ; " Hamilton, a Historical 
Study," by George Shea (New York, 1877) ; " Life 
and Epoch of Alexander Hamilton," by the same 
author (Boston, 1879); and "Life of Hamilton," 
by Henry Cabot Lodge (American statesmen se- 
ries, 1882). A list of the books written by or 
relating to Hamilton has been published under 
the title of " Bibliotheca Hamiltonia " by Paul L. 
Ford (New York, 1886). — His wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Gen. Philip Schuyler, b. in Albany, 

N. Y, 9 Aug., 1757; 
d. in Washington, 
D. C, 9 Nov., 1854. 
At the time of their 
marriage Hamilton 
was one of Gen. 
Washington's aides, 
with the rank of 
lieutenant - colonel. 
She rendered assist- 
ance to her husband 
in his labors, coun- 
selled him in his 
affairs, and kept his 
papers in order for 
aim, preserving the 
large collection of 
manuscripts, which 
was acquired by the 
U. S. government in 
1849, and has been 
utilized by the bi- 
ographers of Alexan- 
der Hamilton and by historians, who have traced 
by their light the secret and personal influences 
that decided many public events between 1775 and 
1804. The accompanying portrait of Mrs. Ham- 
ilton, painted by James Earle, represents her at 
the age of twenty - seven. — Their son, Philip, 
b. 22 Jan., 1782, was graduated at Columbia in 
1800, and died of a wound received in a duel 24 
Nov., 1801, on the same spot where his father fell 




v? \ yl/a- *n l/fa 



~<rr\— 



three years later. The young man, who showed 
much promise, became involved in a political quar- 
rel, and was challenged by his antagonist, whose 
name was Eckert. After the affair the father re- 
garded with abhorrence the practice of duelling. 
He recorded his condemnation in a paper, written 
before going to the fatal meeting with Burr. — An- 
other son, Alexander, soldier, b. in New York 
city, 16 May, 1786; d. there, 2 Aug., 1875, was 
graduated at Columbia in 1804, studied law, and 
was admitted to practice. He went abroad, and was 
with the Duke of Wellington's army in Portugal 
in 1811, but returned on hearing rumors of impend- 
ing war with Great Britain. He was appointed 
captain of U. S. infantry in August, 1813, and acted 
as aide-de-camp to Gen. Morgan Lewis in 1814. In 
1822 he was appointed IT. S. district attorney in 
Florida, and in 1823 one of the three Florida land- 
commissioners. His last years were passed in New 
Brunswick, N. J., and in New York city, where he 
engaged in real-estate speculations. — Another son, 
James Alexander, lawyer, b. in New York city, 
14 April, 1788 ; d. in Irvington, N. Y, 24 Sept., 
1878, was graduated at Columbia in 1805. He 
served in the war of 1812— '15 as brigade major and 
inspector in the New York state militia, and after- 
ward practised law. He was acting secretary of 
state under President Jackson in 1829, being* ap- 
pointed ad interim on 4 March, but surrendering 
the office on the regular appointment of Martin 
Van Buren, two days later. On 3 April he was 
nominated tj. S. district attorney for the southern 
district of New York. The degree of LL. D. was 
conferred upon him by Hamilton college. He 
published " Reminiscences of Hamilton, or Men 
and Events, at Home and Abroad, during Three 
Quarters of a Century" (New York, 1869). — An- 
other son, John Church, lawyer, b. in Philadel- 
Shia, Pa., 22 Aug., 1792 ; d. in Long Branch, 
C J., 25 July, 1882, was graduated at Columbia 
in 1809. He studied law, and practised in New 
York city. He was commissioned a lieutenant in 
the U. S. army in March, 1814, and served as aide- 
de-camp to Gen. Harrison, but resigned on 11 
June, 1814. He spent many years in preparing me- 
moirs of his father, and editing the latter's works 
(see above).— Another son, William Steven, b. 
in New York city, 4 Aug., 1797 ; d. in Sacramento, 
Cal., 7 Aug., 1850, entered the U. S. military acad- 
emy in 1814, but left before his graduation. He 
was appointed U. S. surveyor of public lands in 
Illinois, and served as a colonel of Illinois volunteers 
in the Black Hawk war, commanding a reconnoi- 
tring party under Gen. Atkinson in 1832. He held 
various offices, removed to Wisconsin, and thence 
to California. — The youngest son, Philip, jurist, b. 
in New York city, 1 June, 1802 ; d. in Poughkeep- 
sie, N. Y., 9 July, 1884, married a daughter of 
Louis McLane. He was assistant district attorney 
in New York city, and for some time judge-advo- 
cate of the naval retiring board in Brooklyn. — 
Schuyler, soldier, son of John Church, b. in New 
York city, 25 July, 1822, was graduated at the U. S. 
military academy in 1841, entered the 1st infantry, 
and was on duty on the plains and as assistant in- 
structor of tactics at West Point. He served with 
honor in the Mexican war, being brevetted for 
gallantry at Monterey, and again for his brave 
conduct in an affair at Mil Flores, where he was 
attacked by a superior force of Mexican lancers, 
and was severely wounded in a desperate hand- 
to-hand combat. From 1847 till 1854 he served 
as aide-de-camp to Gen. Winfield Scott. At the 
beginning of the civil war he volunteered as a 
private in the 7th New York regiment, and was 



HAMILTON 



HAMILTON 



61 



attached to the staff of Gen. Benjamin F. But- 
ler, and then acted as military secretary to Gen. 
Scott until the retirement of the latter. He 
next served as assistant chief of staff to Gen. 
Henry W. Halleck, at St. Louis, Mo., with the 
rank of colonel. He was commissioned brigadier- 
general of volunteers on 12 Nov., 1861, and ordered 
to command the department of St. Louis. He 
participated in the important operations of the 
armies of the Tennessee and of the Cumberland, 
was the first to suggest the cutting of a canal to 
turn the enemy's position at Island No. 10, and 
commanded a division in the operations against 
that island and New Madrid, for which he was 
made a major-general on 17 Sept., 1862. At the 
battle of Farmington he commanded the reserve. 
On 27 Feb., 1863, he was compelled by feeble 
health to resign. From 1871 till 1875 he filled the 
post of hydrographic engineer for the department 
of docks in New York city. He is the author of a 
"History of the National Flag of the United 
States " (New York, 1852), and on 14 June, 1877, 
the centennial anniversary of its adoption, deliv- 
ered an address on " Our National Flag." — Allan 
McLane, physician, son of Philip, b. in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., 6 Oct., 1848, was graduated at the College of 
physicians and surgeons in New York city in 1870, 
and practised in that city, devoting his attention 
to nervous diseases. He invented a dynamometer 
in 1874, and was one of the first to practise galvano- 
cautery in the United States, and the first to em- 
ploy monobromate of camphor in treating delirium 
tremens and nitro-glycerine in epilepsy. He had 
charge in 1872-'3 of the New York state hospital 
for diseases of the nervous system, afterward be- 
came visiting physician to the epileptic and para- 
lytic hospital on Blackwell's island, New Y T ork city, 
and lectured on nervous diseases in the Long Isl- 
and college hospital. In the trial of President 
Garfield's assassin he testified as an expert in be- 
half of the government. He edited in 1875 the 
"American Psychological Journal," is the author 
of a work on " Clinical Electro-Therapeutics" (New 
York, 1873), and also of text-books on " Nervous 
Diseases" (1878-'81), and "Medical Jurisprudence" 
(1887), and has published in professional journals 
articles on epilepsy, sensory epilepsy, ascending gen- 
eral paresis, tremors, and inco-ordination. 

HAMILTON, Andrew, lawyer, b. in Scotland 
about 1676 ; d. in Philadelphia, 4 Aug., 1741. His 

Earentage and career in the Oid World he seems to 
ave kept secret, as well as his real name. At one 
time he was called Trent, nor is it known exactly at 
what date he began to use the name of Hamilton. 
In his address to the Pennsylvania assembly in 
1739 he speaks of " liberty, the love of which as it 
first drew me to. so it constantly prevailed on 
me to reside in this Province, tho' to the manifest 
prejudice of my fortune." Probably Hamilton was 
his real name, but for private reasons he saw fit to 
discard it for a time. About 1697 he came to Ac- 
comac county, Va., where he obtained employment 
as steward of a plantation, and for a time kept 
a classical school. His marriage, while steward, 
with the widow of the owner of the estate is 
said to have brought him influential connections, 
and he began the practice of the law. Previous 
to 1716 Hamilton removed to Philadelphia, and 
in 1717 was made attorney-general of Penn- 
sylvania. In March, 1721, he was called to the 
provincial council, and accepted on condition 
that his duties should not interfere with his prac- 
tice. He resigned the office in 1724, and in 1727 
was appointed prothonotary of the supreme court 
and recorder of Philadelphia. He was elected to 




oflU$m^ 



the assembly from Bucks county in the same 
year, chosen speaker in 1729, ana re-elected an- 
nually until his retirement in 1739, with the ex- 
ception of a single year. Hamilton, in company 
with his son-in-law, Allen, purchased the ground 
now comprised within Independence square, Phila- 
delphia, whereon to erect " a suitable building " to 
be used as a legislative hall, the assembly, prior to 
1729, having met in a private residence. The 
state-house, afterward Independence Hall, was not 
completed un- 
til subsequent 
to Hamilton's 
death, the con- 
veyance to the 
province being 
madebyhisson. 
The crowning 
glory of Ham- 
ilton's profes- 
sional career 
was his defence 
of John Peter 
Zenger in 1735, 
which he un- 
dertook with- 
out fee or re- 
ward. Zenger 
was a printer 
in New York 
city, and in his 
newspaper had 
asserted that judges were arbitrarily displaced, and 
new courts erected without consent of the legisla- 
ture, by which trials by jury were taken away when 
a governor was so disposed. The attorney-general 
charged him with libel, and Zenger's lawyers, on ob- 
jecting to the legality of the judge's commissions, 
were stricken from the list of attorneys. Fearing 
that the advocate, who had subsequently been ap- 
pointed by the court, might be overawed by the 
bench, at the head of which was Chief-Justice De 
Lancey, a member of the governor's council, Ham- 
ilton voluntarily went to New York, and appeared 
in the case. He admitted the printing and publish- 
ing of the article, but advanced the doctrine, novel 
at that, time, that the truth of the facts in the alleged 
libel could be set up as a defence, and that in this 
proceeding the jury were judges of both the law 
and the facts. The offer of evidence to prove the 
truth of Zenger's statements was rejected, but 
Hamilton then appealed to the jury to say from 
the evidence that they had met with in their daily 
lives that the contents of the defendant's article were 
not false. His eloquence secured a verdict of " not 
guilty." The people of New Y T ork and the other 
colonies hailed the result with delight, since it in- 
sured free discussion of the conduct of public men. 
Gouverneur Morris referred to Hamilton as "the 
day-star of the American Revolution," and the 
common council of New York passed a resolution 
thanking him for his services, and presented him 
with the freedom of the city. His fame spread to 
England, an account of the trial passing through 
four editions there within three months. Hamil- 
ton was for many years a trustee of the general 
loan-office, the province's agency for issuing paper 
money, and in 1737 was appointed judge of the 
vice-admiralty court, the only office he held at the 
time of his death. — His son, James, governor of 
Pennsylvania, b. probablv in Accomac county, Va., 
about "1710; d. in New York city, 14 Aug., 1783, 
was made prothonotary of the supreme court of 
Pennsylvania when his father resigned that office. 
He was elected to the provincial assembly in 1734, 



62 



HAMILTON 



HAMILTON 



and re-elected five times. He was mayor of Phila- 
delphia for a year from October, 1745, and on re- 
tiring from office departed from a custom that 
compelled the entertainment of the corporation at 
a banquet. Instead of this, Mayor Hamilton gave 
£150 toward the erection of a public building. His 
example was followed by succeeding mayors, until, 
in 1775, the sum was devoted to the erection of a 
city-hall and court-house. Hamilton became a 
member of the provincial council in 1746. He was 
residing in London in 1748, when he was commis- 
sioned by the sons of William Penn as lieutenant- 
governor of the province and territories. He re- 
signed in 1754, and when the news of Indian out- 
rages reached Philadelphia in the autumn of 1755, 
entered actively on the work of defence, and re- 
ported to the assembly that a chain of garrisoned 
forts and block-houses was nearly completed from 
Delaware river to the Maryland line. Hamilton 
was again deputy-governor in 1759-'63, and on 
the departure of John Penn he administered the 
government as president of the council until the 
arrival of Richard Penn, in October, 1771. Subse- 
quently he was acting governor for the fourth 
time from 19 July till 30 Aug., 1773. He was 
made a prisoner on parole in 1777, and lived at 
Northampton during the occupation of Philadel- 
phia by the British. Gov. Hamilton took an active 
part in founding several public institutions of Phila- 
delphia. He was for several years president of the 
board of trustees of the College of Philadelphia, 
and was also at the head of the Philosophical so- 
ciety, when it united with the Society for promot- 
ing useful knowledge. At the first election for 
president of the new organization, Hamilton and 
Beniamin Franklin were placed in nomination, and 
the latter was chosen. 

HAMILTON, Andrew, governor of New Jersey, 
b. in Scotland; d. probably in Burlington, N. J., 
20 April, 1703. He was engaged in business as a 
merchant in Edinburgh, and was sent to East Jer- 
sey as a special agent for the proprietaries. Hav- 
ing discharged that mission satisfactorily, he was 
recommended as a man of intelligence and judg- 
ment to Lord Neil Campbell, who was sent to that 
province in 1686 as deputy-governor for two years. 
He was made a member of the council in conse- 
quence, and in March, 1687, became acting gov- 
ernor on the departure of Lord Neil for England, 
who was called there on business and did not 
return. In 1688, East and West Jersey having 
surrendered their patents, those provinces came 
under the control of Gov. Edmund Andros, and 
were annexed to New York and New England. 
Andros, then residing in Boston, visited New York 
and the Jerseys, continuing all officers in their 
places, and making but slight changes in the govern- 
ment. In consequence of the revolution of 1688 in 
England, Gov. Hamilton visited the mayor of New 
York as the representative of Andros, that official 
having been seized by the New-Englanders in April, 

1689. He finally sailed for England, in order to 
consult with the proprietaries, but was captured by 
the French, and did not reach London until May, 

1690. He was still residing there in March, 1692, 
when he was appointed governor of P^ast Jersey, 
and also given charge of West Jersey. Although 
he administered the affairs of the province to the 
satisfaction of both the colonists and the pro- 
prietaries, he was deposed in 1697, " much against 
the inclination " of the latter, in obedience to an act 
of parliament which provided that "no other than 
a natural-born subject of England could serve in 
any public post of trust or profit." Hamilton re- 
turned to England in 1698, but so great was the 



disorder and maladministration under his succes- 
sor, Jeremiah Basse, that he was reappointed, 19 
Aug., 1699. He could not, however, right the 
wrong that had been already done, or repair the 
abuses that had crept in. Officers were insulted 
in the discharge of their duties, and the growth of 
the province was seriously interfered with. In 1701 
he was appointed by William Penn deputy-gov- 
ernor of Pennsylvania, the latter having been 
called to England to oppose the machinations of 
those who were plotting to deprive him of his 
American possessions. On Penn s arrival in Lon- 
don everything was done to harass him, factious 
opposition being made to the confirmation of Gov. 
Hamilton, who was wrongfully charged with hav- 
ing been engaged in illicit trade. The appoint- 
ment finally received the royal sanction. In the 
session of the provincial assembly in Oct., 1702, 
the representatives of . the territories refused to 
meet those of the province, claiming the privilege 
of separation under a new charter, and expressing 
their firm determination to remain apart. Hamil- 
ton strongly urged the advantages of union, and 
used all his influence to secure this result, but 
without effect. He also made preparations for the 
defence of the colony by organizing a military 
force. He died while on a visit to his family in 
New Jersey the year following. It was to Andrew 
Hamilton that the colonies were indebted for the 
first organization of a postal service, he having 
obtained a patent from the crown for the purpose 
in 1694. — His son, John, acting governor of New 
Jersey, d. in Perth Amboy, N. J., in 1746. It is 
not known whether he was born in East Jersey or 
in Scotland. He is first heard of in public life as 
a member of Gov. Hunter's council in 1713. He 
retained his seat under Gov. Burnet, Gov. Mont- 
gomerie, and Gov. Cosby. In 1735 he was ap- 
pointed associate judge of the provincial supreme 
court, but probably did not serve, as he became 
acting governor on the death of Gov. Cosby, only 
three weeks after the latter's accession to office, 31 
March, 1736. He continued at the head of affairs 
until the summer of 1738, when Lewis Morris was 
appointed governor of New Jersey, " apart from 
New York. Hamilton again became acting gov- 
ernor on the death of the latter in 1746, but he was 
then quite infirm and died a few months afterward. 
He is usually credited with having established the 
first colonial postal service, but the weight of au- 
thority seems to favor the belief that it was his 
father who obtained the patent. 

HAMILTON, Charles, Canadian Anglican 
bishop, b. in Hawkesbury, Ont., 6 Jan., 1834. He 
was educated at University college, Toronto, and at 
Oxford, England, where he was graduated in 1856. 
He was incumbent of St. Peter's church, Quebec, 
in 1857-'64, and rector of St. Matthew's, Quebec, 
in 1868-'85. He was clerical secretary of the pro- 
vincial synod in 1861-79, prolocutor of the synod 
of the Church of England in Canada in 1879-85, 
and was consecrated bishop of Niagara on 1 Jan., 
1885. He has received the degree of D. D. from 
Bishop's college, Lennoxville. 

HAMILTON, Charles Smith, soldier, b. in 
New York, 16 Nov., 1822. He was graduated at 
the U. S. military academy in 1843. and assigned 
to the infantry. He served with honor in the war 
with Mexico, was brevetted captain for gallantry 
in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco, and 
was severely wounded at Molino del Rey. He was 
afterward on frontier duty till April, 1853, when 
he resigned and engaged in farming in Fond du 
Lac, Wisconsin. At the beginning of the civil 
war he was appointed, 11 May, 1861, colonel of 



HAMILTON 



HAMILTON 



63 



the 3d Wisconsin regiment, and was promoted to 
brigadier-general of volunteers six days later. He 
served in Virginia during the siege of Yorktown 
in May, 1862, and on 19 Sept. of that year was 
promoted to major-general of volunteers. After 
the siege of Yorktown he was transferred to ,the 
Army of the Mississippi, commanded a division at 
Corinth, and won the battle of Iuka. Afterward 
he commanded the left wing of the Army of the 
Tennessee, and the 16th corps. He resigned his 
military commission in April, 1863, and engaged 
in manufacturing at Fond du Lac, Wis., but sub- 
sequently removed to Milwaukee. Gen. Hamil- 
ton was president of the board of regents of the 
University of Wisconsin from 1866 till 1875, and 
United States marshal for the district of Wiscon- 
sin from the year 1869 till 1877. 

HAMILTON, Frank Hastings, surgeon, b. in 
Wilmington, Vt., 10 Sept., 1813 ; d. in New York 
city, 11 Aug., 1886. He was graduated at Union 
in 1830, after which he entered the office of Dr. 
John G. Morgan, and in 1831 attended a full course 
of lectures in the Western college of physicians 
and surgeons in Fairfield, N. Y. In 1833 he was 
licensed to practise by the Cayuga county medical 
censors, and two years later received his medical 
degree from the University of Pennsylvania. Soon 
afterward he began to give a course of lectures in 
anatomy and surgery in his office in Auburn, which 
he continued until 1838. In 1839 he was appoint- 
ed professor of surgery in the Western college of 
physicians and surgeons, and a year later was called 
to the medical college of Geneva. During 1843-'4 
he visited Europe, and contributed a record of his 
experiences to the " Buffalo Medical Journal." In 
1846 he became professor of surgery in the Buffalo 
medical college, subsequently becoming dean, and 
also surgeon to the Buffalo charity hospital. Two 
years later he left his chair in Geneva and removed 
to Buffalo, in order to attend to his practice, which 
was rapidly increasing. On the organization of 
the Long Island college hospital in 1859 he was 
called to fill the chair of principles and practice of 
surgery, and was also chosen surgeon-in-chief of 
the hospital. In May, 1861, he was appointed pro- 
fessor of military surgery, a chair which at that 
time existed in no other college in the United 
States. At the beginning of the civil war he ac- 
companied the 31st New York regiment to the 
front, and had charge of the general field hospital 
in Centreville during the first battle of Bull Run. 
In July, 1861, he was made brigade surgeon, and 
later medical director, and in 1862 organized the 
U. S. general hospital in Central park, New York. 
In February, 1863, he was appointed a medical in- 
spector in the U. S. army, ranking as lieutenant- 
colonel, but resigned in September and returned 
to his duties in Bellevue hospital medical college, 
where in 1861 he had been appointed professor of 
military surgery and attending surgeon to the 
hospital. In l*868-'75 he was professor of the 
principles and practice of surgery in the college, 
and remained surgeon to the hospital until his 
death. He was also consulting surgeon to other 
hospitals and to various city dispensaries, and in 
that capacity Dr. Hamilton had few equals. On 
the assassination of President Garfield he was 
called in consultation, and remained associated 
with the case until the death of the president. 
His notable operations were many, and his de- 
scriptions of improved processes are numerous. 
He invented a bone-drill and an apparatus for 
broken jaw, and invented or modified appliances 
for nearly every fracture of long bones, with vari- 
ous instruments in military and general surgery. 



He was the first to introduce the use of gutta- 
percha as a splint where irregular joint surfaces 
require support, and the closing of old ulcers by 
the transplanting of new skin has been repeatedly 
attributed to him by French and German physi- 
cians. He was a member of various medical asso- 
ciations, and was president of the New York state 
medical society in 1855, of the New York patho- 
logical society in 1866, of the New York medico- 
legal society in 1875-'6, of the American academy 
of medicine in 1878, and of the New York society 
of medical jurisprudence in 1878 and 1885. In 
1869 he received the degree of LL. D. from Union 
college. Dr. Hamilton was a large contributor to 
medical journals, and many of his special memoirs 
are accepted as authorities. His works in book- 
form include " Treatise on Strabismus " (Buffalo, 
1844); "Treatise on Fractures and Dislocations" 
(Philadelphia, 1860; 7th ed., 1884. French and Ger- 
man translations) ; " Practical Treatise on Military 
Surgerv " (New York, 1861) ; and " The Principles 
and Practice of Surgery " (1872 ; 2d ed., 1873). He 
edited a translation of Amussat on the " Use of 
Water in Surgery " (1861), and " The Surgical 
Memoirs of the War of the Rebellion," published 
under the direction of the United States sanitary 
commission (Washington, 1871). 

HAMILTON, Hamilton, artist, b. in England, 
1 April, 1847. He was brought by his parents to 
Cowlesville, N. Y., in childhood, and is practically 
self-taught in art. beginning his career as a por- 
trait-painter in 1872 at Buffalo. He visited the 
Rockv mountains in 1875. passed a vear in France 
in 1878-'9, and settled in New York in 1881. He 
was elected an associate of the National academy 
in 1886, and is a member of the American water- 
color society and the New York etching club. Mr. 
Hamilton is distinguished in landscape and genre, 
both in oil- and water-colors, and also as an etcher. 
Among his chief works are " The Sisters " (1882) ; 
" Little Sunbeam " ; and " The Messenger " (1886). 

HAMILTON, Henry, British soldier, d. in An- 
tigua, 29 Sept., 1796. During the war of the Revo- 
lution he was lieutenant-governor of Detroit, and 
in 1778 was actively engaged in urging the west- 
ern Indians to join the British. In the early part 
of January, 1779, he recaptured Vincennes, but in 
the following February was, with the entire garri- 
son, surprised by Gen. George Rogers Clarke, and 
carried prisoner to Williamsburg, Va., where he 
was imprisoned. He retired from the army in 1783, 
and on 16 Nov.. 1784. was appointed lieutenant- 
governor of Canada. He was succeeded in this of- 
fice by Henry Hope on 2 Nov., 1785, and was gov- 
ernor of Bermuda from 1790 till 1794. 

HAMILTON, James, statesman, b. in Charles- 
ton, S. C, 8 May, 1786; d. at sea near the coast of 
Texas. 15 Nov., 1857. His father. Maj. James 
Hamilton, was a favorite aide of Washington. The 
son received a liberal education, and, adopting the 
legal profession, began practice in Charleston. He 
served in the war of 1812, on the Canadian frontier, 
as a major, but resumed his practice at Charleston, 
and was for several years mayor of that city. The 
formidable negro conspiracy in 1822. led by Den- 
mark Vesey, was detected by his vigilance. He 
was often a member of the legislature, was a mem- 
ber of congress in 1822-'9, and an extreme advo- 
cate of free-trade, state rights, and direct taxation. 
He was an active supporter of Andrew Jackson, 
who, in 1828, offered him the portfolio of secretary 
of war, and the mission to Mexico, both of which 
he declined. He recommended armed resistance 
to the tariff act of 1828, and, while governor of 
South Carolina, in 1830-'2, advised the legislature 



64 



HAMILTON 



HAMILTON 



to pass the nullification act, which placed the state 
in collision with the Federal government. He was 
appointed by Gov. Hayne, his successor, to the 
command of the troops raised for the defence of 
the state under the nullification act. He subse- 
quently removed to Texas, and took an active part 
in securing the recognition of that republic by 
Great Britain and France, where he acted as its 
representative in 1841. and was also instrumental 
in securing its admission into the Union. He was 
a U. S. senator-elect from Texas at the time of his 
death, which was the result of a collision between 
the steamships " Galveston " and " Opelousas," in 
the latter of which he was a passenger. Mr. 
Hamilton could have been saved had he not yielded 
his place to a lady among the passengers. He was 
one of the founders of the " Southern Quarterly 
Review," and of the Bank of Charleston, and took 
an active part in promoting railroad enterprises, 
and in the extension of southern commerce. 

HAMILTON, James, philanthropist, b. in Car- 
lisle, Pa., 16 Oct., 1793 ; d. there, 23 Jan., 1873. He 
was graduated at Dickinson college in 1812, and, 
having studied law, was admitted to the bar in 
1816. He labored assiduously in the cause of edu- 
cation and was for many years a trustee of Dickin- 
son college. He was possessed of ample means, 
gave largely to charitable and religious organiza- 
tions, and was throughout his life a friend and 
helper of the poor. Besides several tracts and 
small books, Mr. Hamilton was the author of 
" Notes on Prophecy," which appeared anonymous- 
ly (1859), and "The Two Pilgrims" (1871). 

HAMILTON, James, artist, b. in Ireland in 
1819; d. 10 March, 1878. While he was a boy his 
parents emigrated to Philadelphia, where he be- 
came a teacher of drawing, at the same time study- 
ing painting. He went, to London in 1754, and 
after his return to Philadelphia, two years later, 
was employed in the illustration of books. He 
furnished illustrations for Dr. Kane's " Arctic Ex- 
plorations," the "Arabian Nights," Coleridge's 
" Ancient Mariner," and other popular works. His 
best pictures are "Capture of the Serapis," "Old 
Ironsides," " Wrecked Hopes," " Egyptian Sunset," 
"Morning off Atlantic City," and "Moonlight 
Scene near Venice." He was particularly success- 
ful in his marine views. 

HAMILTON, John, Canadian senator, b. in 
ijueenston, Ontario, in 1802 ; d. 10 Oct., 1882. He 
was the son of Robert Hamilton, a native of Scot- 
land, who had been active in public affairs in 
Canada. The son was educated at Queenston and 
in Edinburgh, Scotland, and at the age of eighteen 
entered a mercantile house in Montreal as a clerk. 
He afterward returned to Queenston, and became 
a builder and owner of steamboats. He owned the 
" Frontenac," the first steamer that sailed on Lake 
Ontario, and built the " Lord Sydenham." the first 
large boat that ever ran the rapids of the St. Law- 
rence. For years he made a determined resistance 
to the Grand Trunk railway in its efforts to secure 
the carrying-trade of Upper Canada. He retired 
from business in 1862. In January, 1831, he be- 
came a member of the legislative council of Canada, 
and remained in public life for over half a century 
afterward. On 29 Jan., 1881, the fiftieth anniver- 
sary of his elevation to the council, he was presented 
by his colleagues with an address, in which his 
services to Canada were referred to with apprecia- 
tion. He was chairman of the trustees of Queen's 
college from 1841 till his death. 

HAMILTON, John, Canadian merchant, b. near 
Quebec, Canada, in 1827; d. in Montreal, 3 April, 
1887. He was educated in Montreal, and became a 



member of the firm of Hamilton Brothers, lumber- 
merchants. Mr. Hamilton was warden of the 
counties of Prescott and Russell for three years. 
He represented Inkerman in the legislative* council 
of Canada from 1860 until the union, when he was 
called to the senate. 

HAMILTON, John McLure, artist, b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., in 1853. He studied in the Royal 
academy at Antwerp under Van Lerins, and in 
the Ecole des beaux-arts, Paris. He began his 
professional life in 1875 in his native city. Asso- 
ciated with others, he published in 1878 " L'acade- 
mie pour rire," founded on the French publication 
of the same title, which attracted some attention, 
being the first work of its kind issued in America. 
His most important painting is "Le rire," which 
was exhibited in the National academy in New 
York in 1877, and at the Paris exposition in 1878. 

HAMILTON, John William, clergyman, b. in 
Weston, W. Va.. 18 March, 1845. He was gradu- 
ated at Mount Union college, Ohio, in 1865, and at 
Boston university in 1871. He entered the minis- 
try of the Methodist Episcopal church, and in 1871 
founded the " People's church " in Boston. Mr. 
Hamilton is the author of " Memorial of Jesse 
Lee" (1875); "Lives of the Methodist Bishops" 
(1883); and " People's Church Pulpit" (1884). 

HAMILTON, Kate, author, b. in Schenectady, 
N. Y. She resided for a time in New Jersey, after- 
ward in Massachusetts, but was educated in Steu- 
benville, Ohio. She has written for various papers 
and magazines, often under the pen-name of 
" Fleeta," and has published many Sunday-school 
books, including "Chinks of Clannvford," "Grey- 
cliffe," "Brave Heart," "Blue Umbrella," "Old 
Brown House," " The Shadow of the Rock," 
" Norah Neil," and " Frederick Gordon." 

HAMILTON, Morgan Calvin, senator, b. near 
Huntsville, Ala., 25 Feb., 1809. He received a 
common-school education, and removed to the re- 
public of Texas in 1837, where he was a clerk in 
the war department in 1839-'45, and during the 
greater part of the last three years was acting sec- 
retary of war. He was appointed comptroller of 
the state treasury in September, 1867, was a dele- 
gate to the constitutional convention of 1868, and 
on the reconstruction of the state was elected to 
the U. S. senate as a Republican, and was re- 
elected, serving from 1870 till 1877. — His brother, 
Andrew Jackson, politician, b. in Madison county, 
Ala., 28 Jan., 1815 ; d. in Austin, Texas, 10 April, 
1875. He was educated at a common school, and 
subsequently worked for a time on his father's 
farm. He afterward engaged in business, but was 
for some years clerk of the circuit court of his na- 
tive county, and then became a lawyer. He settled 
in Texas in 1846, practised law many years in Aus- 
tin, was attorney-general of the state, and a presi- 
dential elector on the Buchanan ticket in 1856. 
He subsequently became a Republican, and was 
elected to congress, serving in 1859-'61. He op- 
posed the secession of Texas, and during the early 
part of the war lived in the north. On 14 Nov., 
1862, he was made brigadier-general of U. S. volun- 
teers, and in the same year appointed military gov- 
ernor of Texas. He was sent to command troops 
at Matamoras. President Johnson made him pro- 
visional governor in 1865, and in 1866 he became a 
justice of the supreme court. He was an independ- 
ent candidate for governor of Texas in 1869, but 
was defeated. 

HAMILTON, Paul, statesman, b. in St. Paul's 
parish. S. C, 16 Oct., 1762 ; d. in Beaufort, S. C, 
30 June, 1816. He rendered important services 
during the Revolution ; was comptroller of South 



HAMILTON 



HAMLIN 



65 



Carolina from 1799 to 1804, improving the finan- 
cial system of the state; was governor of South 
Carolina in 1804-'6, and secretary of the U. S. 
navy in 1809-13, in the first administration of 
James Madison. His policy was to keep our frig- 
ates in port to prevent their capture in the war 
of 1812-'14, and the first of our great victories, 
gained by Hull in the " Constitution," was won 
in spite of Hamilton's mandate, "to remain in 
Boston until further orders ! " 

HAMILTON, Thomas, English author, b. in 
1789 ; d. in Pisa, Italy, 7 Dec, 1842. He entered 
the English army and became captain of the 29th 
regiment, but, after serving through the peninsu- 
lar and American wars, devoted himself to litera- 
ture and became a contributor to " Blackwood's 
Magazine." Besides a few other works, he wrote 
" Men and Manners in America " (2 vols., London, 
1833 ; Boston, 1834 ; enlarged ed., London, 1843). 
This work was highly commended by English crit- 
ics for its impartiality and value as an authority, 
but it was condemned in this country for its 
"spirit of unjust depreciation." 

HAMILTON, William Tiffany, senator, b. in 
Washington county, Md., 8 Sept., 1820 ; d. in Ha- 

ferstown, Md., 26 Oct., 1888. He was educated at 
efferson college, Pa., studied law, and began to prac- 
tise in Hagerstown, Md. He was a representative 
in congress from 1849 till 1855, having been chosen 
as a Democrat, and from 1869 till 1875 was U. S. 
senator. He was governor of Maryland in 1880-'4. 
HAMLIN, Hannibal, statesman, b. in Paris, 
Oxford co., Me., 27 Aug., 1809. He was prepared 
for a collegiate education, but was compelled by 
the death of his father to take charge of the home- 
farm until he was of age. He learned printing, 
studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1833, and 
practised in Hampden, Penobscot co., until 1848. 
He was a member of 
the legislature from 
1836 till 1840, and 
again in 1847, and 
was speaker of the 
lower branch in 
1837-'9 and 1840. In 
1840 he received the 
Democratic nomina- 
tion for member of 
congress, and, dur- 
ing the exciting Har- 
rison campaign, held 
joint discussions with 
his competitor, being 
the first to introduce 
that practice into 
Maine. In 1842 he 
was elected as a Democrat to congress, and re- 
elected in 1844. He was chosen to the U. S. senate 
for four years in 1848, to fill the vacancy occasioned 
by the death of John Fairfield, and was re-elected 
in 1851, but resigned in 1857 to be inaugurated gov- 
ernor, having been elected to that office as a Re- 
Eublican. Less than a month afterward, on 20 Feb., 
e resigned the governorship, as he had again been 
chosen U. S. senator for the full term of six years. 
He served until January, 1861, when he resigned, 
having been elected vice-president on the ticket 
with Abraham Lincoln. He presided over the sen- 
ate from 4 March, 1861, till 3 March, 1865. In the 
latter year he was appointed collector of the port 
of Boston, but resigned in 1866. From 1861 till 
1865 he had also acted as regent of the Smithsoni- 
an institution, and was reappointed in 1870, con- 
tinuing to act for the following twelve years, dur- 
ing which time he became dean of the board. He 




£Cj?. /&> ^<£2-z-»-'W^-c-**_ 






was again elected and re-elected to the U. S. senate, 
serving from 4 March, 1869, till 3 March, 1881. In 
June of that year he was named minister to Spain, 
but gave up the office the year following and 
returned to this country. He received the degree 
of LL. D. from Colby university, then Waterville 
college, of which institution he was trustee for 
over twenty years. Senator Hamlin, although a 
Democrat, was an original anti-slavery man, and 
so strong were his convictions that they finally 
led to his separation from that party. Among 
the significant incidents of his long career of nearly 
fifty years may be mentioned the fact that, in the 
temporary and involuntary absence of David Wil- 
mot from the house of representatives, during the 
session of the 29th congress, at the critical moment 
when the measure, since known as " the Wilmot 
proviso," had to be presented or the opportunity 
irrevocably lost, Mr. Hamlin, while his anti-slavery 
friends were in the greatest confusion and per- 
plexity, seeing that only a second's delay would be 
fatal, offered the bill and secured its passage by a 
vote of 115 to 106. In common, however, with 
Abraham Lincoln, Mr. Hamlin strove simply to pre- 
vent the extension of slavery into new territory, 
and did not seek to secure its abolition. In a speech 
in the U. S. senate, 12 June, 1856, in which he 
gave his reasons for changing his party allegiance, 
he thus referred to the Democratic convention then 
recently held at Cincinnati : " The convention has 
actually incorporated into the platform of the 
Democratic party that doctrine which, only a few 
years ago, met with nothing but ridicule and con- 
tempt here and elsewhere, namely, that the flag of 
the Federal Union, under the constitution of the 
United States, carries slavery wherever it floats. 
If this baleful principle be true, then that national 
ode, which inspires us always as on a battle-field, 
should be re-written by Drake, and should read : 

' Forever float that standard sheet ! 

Where breathes the foe but falls before us, 

With slavery's soil beneath our feet, 

And slavery's banner streaming o'er us.'" 
When he had been elected vice-president on the 
ticket with Mr. Lincoln, he accepted an invitation 
to meet the latter at Chicago, and, calling on the 
president-elect, found him in a room alone. Mr. 
Lincoln arose, and, coming toward his guest, said 
abruptly : " Have we ever been introduced to each 
other, Mr. Hamlin ? " " No, sir, I think not," was 
the reply. " That also is my impression," con- 
tinued Mr. Lincoln ; " but I remember distinctly 
while I was in congress to have heard you make a 
speech in the senate. I was very much struck with 
that speech, senator — particularly struck with it — 
and for the reason that it was filled, chock up, with 
the very best kind of anti-slavery doctrine." " Well, 
now," replied Hamlin, laughing, " that is very sin- 
gular, for my one and first recollection of yourself 
is of having heard you make a speech in the house — 
a speech that was so full of good humor and sharp 
points that I, together with others of your audi- 
tors, was convulsed with laughter." The acquaint- 
ance, thus cordially begun, ripened into a close 
friendship, and it is affirmed that during all the 
years of trial, war, and bloodshed that followed, 
Abraham Lincoln continued to repose the utmost 
confidence in his friend and official associate. — 
Hannibal's cousin, Cyrus, educator, b. in Water- 
ford, Me., 5 Jan.. 1811, was graduated at Bowdoin 
in 1834, and at the Congregational theological semi- 
nary, Bangor, Me., in 1837. He was a missionary 
oi the American board in Turkey in 1837-'60, and 
in the latter year became president of Robert col- 
lege, Constantinople, which he succeeded in organ- 



66 



HAMLIN 



HAMMOND 



izing after a seven years' contest with the Turkish 
authorities, finally obtaining an imperial edict that 
committed the college to the United States. He 
introduced into Constantinople the making of 
bread with hop yeast, in order to give employment 
to persecuted Armenians who had been expelled 
from their guilds. At the beginning of the Cri- 
mean war there arose a great demand for this 
bread, and at its close Dr. Hamlin had made $25,- 
000, which he devoted to building churches and 
school-houses. He resigned the presidency of 
Robert college in 1876, was professor of dogmatic 
theology in Bangor seminary in 1877-80, presi- 
dent of Middlebury college in 1880-'5, and since 
then has resided in Lexington, Mass. Harvard 
gave him the degree of D. D. in 1861, and the 
University of the city of New York that of LL. D. 
in 1870. His writings, which are mostly in Arme- 
nian and published in Constantinople, include a 
translation of Upham's "Mental Philosophy," 
" Papists and Protestants " (1847) ; an " Arithmetic 
for Armenians" (1848; Turkish translation, 1870); 
and a critique on the writings of Archbishop 
Matteos (1863). He has published in English a 
letter on " Cholera and its Treatment," which was 
several times reprinted and widely circulated (Bos- 
ton, 1865), and " Among the Turks " (New York, 
1877), besides numerous articles in reviews and 
lectures on "Free-Trade and Protection." — Han- 
nibal's son, Charles, lawyer, b. in Hampden, Me., 
13 Sept., 1837, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1857, 
studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1858. 
He became major of the 18th Maine regiment in 
August, 1862, was appointed assistant adjutant- 
general of volunteers, 26 April, 1863, and served 
in the field with the Army of the Potomac from 
Chancellorsville through the Gettysburg campaign 
to that of the Wilderness, after which he was 
put on duty as inspector of artillery, and also 
served at Harper's Perry in 1864. He was bre- 
vetted brigadier-general of volunteers, 13 March, 
1865. G-en. Hamlin was city solicitor of Bangor in 
1867, has been register in bankruptcy since that year, 
and was a member of the legislature in 1883 and 
1885, serving in the latter year as speaker. He has 
published " The Insolvent Laws of Maine " (Port- 
land, Me., 1878). — Another son. Cyrus, soldier, b. 
in Hampden, Me., 26 April, 1839 ; d. in New Or- 
leans, La., 28 Aug., 1867, was educated at Hamp- 
den academy and Waterville college (now Colby 
university), but was not graduated, fie entered 
the army as captain and aide-de-camp in 1862, and 
served on the staff of Gen. Fremont, whose favor- 
able notice he attracted by his conduct at Cross 
Keys. He afterward became colonel of the 80th 
regiment of colored troops, serving in the Depart- 
ment of the Gulf, and on 3 Dec, 1864, was made 
brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded 
the military district of Port Hudson in 1864-'5, 
and on 13 March, 1865, was brevetted major-gen- 
eral of volunteers. Gen. Hamlin was among the 
first to advocate raising colored troops and the first 
that was appointed from Maine to command a col- 
ored regiment. After the war he practised law in 
New Orleans, where he took an active part in the 
movements of the reconstruction period. His death 
was caused by disease contracted in the army. — 
Hannibal's nephew, Augustus Choate, physician, 
b. in Columbia, Me., 28 Aug., 1828, was graduated 
at Bowdoin in 1851, and studied medicine in Paris 
and at Harvard, where he received his degree in 
1854. He was surgeon in the army in 1861-'5, be- 
came medical director of the 11th corps, and was 
medical inspector during the campaign at Fort 
Wagner, at Nashville, and elsewhere. In 1865 he 



removed to Bangor, Me., and engaged in general 
practice. He has contributed articles on " Ali- 
mentation," '' Transfusion," " Transmission of Dis- 
eases," " Tetanus," and other subjects to the medical 
journals, and is the author of " History of Ander- 
sonville " (Boston, 1866) ; " The Tourmaline " (1873) ; 
and " Leisure Hours Among the Gems " (1884). 

HAMLINE, Leouidas Lent, M. E. bishop, 
b. in Burlington, Conn., 10 May, 1797 ; d. in Mount 
Pleasant, Iowa, 23 March, 1865. His education 
was at first directed with a view to the Congrega- 
tional ministry, but that purpose was afterward 
abandoned, and the law was chosen instead. Hav- 
ing removed to Ohio, he was admitted to the bar 
at Lancaster, and for several years he pursued a 
successful practice. In 1828 he became a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal church, was soon after- 
ward licensed to preach, and before many months 
he was received into the travelling ministry in 
connection with the Ohio conference, and for about 
eight years he labored on circuits and stations in 
eastern Ohio and in Cincinnati, where he became 
known as a preacher of unusual eloquence and 
abilities. He became assistant editor of the " West- 
ern Christian Advocate " at Cincinnati in 1836, 
and in 1840, when the " Ladies' Repository," a 
monthly magazine, was projected, he became its 
editor. He was a delegate to the general con- 
ference in New York in May and June, 1844. at 
which began the rupture between the northern 
and southern parts of the Methodist body. He 
took a lively interest in the questions involved in 
that controversy, but less as it involved the rela- 
tions of the church to slavery than in respect to 
the rights and powers of the general conference 
over the episcopacy. A speech delivered by him 
in the course of the debates, it was believed, con- 
tributed effectually to the result that was finally 
reached. Later, during the same session, he was 
elected and ordained a bishop. He discharged 
the duties of that office with fidelity for six years, 
but in 1850 was compelled by his health to desist 
from all labor. Acting upon his declared concep- 
tion of the nature of the episcopal office — that it 
was only an allotment of service — and because he 
found himself permanently disabled, he requested 
the general conference of 1852 to release him from 
the duties of that office, and to permit him to 
take the place of a retired minister in the Cincin- 
nati conference, which request was granted. See 
" Life and Letters of Bishop Hamline," by Dr. 
Walter C. Palmer (New York, 1867). 

HAMMETT, Samuel A., author, b. in Jewett 
City, Conn., in 1816; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y, 24 
Dec, 1865. After his graduation at the University 
of the city of New York, he passed some years in 
the southwest engaged in mercantile pursuits, and 
was clerk of the district court of Montgomery 
county, Texas. In 1848 he removed to New York 
city and became a contributor to various journals. 
He published in book-form, under the pen-name 
of " Philip Paxton," " A Stray Yankee in Texas " 
(New York, 1853); "The Wonderful Adventures 
of Captain Priest " (1855), and other works. 

HAMMOND, Charles, lawyer and journalist, 
b. in Baltimore county, Md., in September, 1779 ; 
d. in Cincinnati, Ohio, 3 April, 1840. When he 
was six years of age his father removed to Ohio 
county, Va., where the son worked for a time on a 
farm. He studied law and was admitted to the 
bar in 1801, and practised in Wellsburg, Va. He 
became a frequent contributor to the newspapers, 
first obtaining a favorable notice by a series of ar- 
ticles in the " Scioto Gazette " in defence of Gen. 
St. Clair, published the " Ohio Federalist " at 



HAMMOND 



HAMMOND 



67 



St. Clairsville from August, 1813, to 1817, and in 
1822 removed to Cincinnati, where he edited the 
"Gazette" from 1825 till his death. He was a 
member of the Ohio legislature in 1816-'18 and 
1820. and was reporter of the Ohio supreme court 
in 1823-'38. He was an earnest advocate of a sys- 
tem of internal improvements, and of a thorough 
common-school system. He published " Reports 
of Cases in the Supreme Court of Ohio, 1821-39 " 
(9 vols., Cincinnati, 1833-40). 

HAMMOND, Dudley Whitlock, surgeon, b. 
in Pickens county, S. C. 12 May, 1809. He stud- 
ied medicine in Charleston, and settled first at 
Ruchersville, Elbert co., and then at Culloden, 
Monroe co., Ga., where he remained for more than 
twenty years. In 1853 he removed to Macon, 
where he still (1887) resides. Although his prac- 
tice is general, he has performed most of the capi- 
tal operations, among them that of lithotomy 
twenty-three times without the loss of a patient. 
He is the author of a paper on " An Improved 
Plan for extracting Urethral Calculi," which was 
published in the " Transactions " of the Georgia 
medical association for 1870. 

HAMMOND, Edward Payson, evangelist, b. in 
Ellington, Conn., 1 Sept., 1831. He was graduated 
at Williams in 1858, studied two years in the Union 
theological seminary, New York city, and in 1860-'l 
completed his studies in the theological seminary 
of the Free Church, Edinburgh, Scotland. He was 
ordained as an evangelist by the presbytery of New 
York, 2 Jan., 1863, and in the spring of 1864 began 
laboring in Chicago with Dwight L. Moody. In 
1866-'8 Mr. Hammond made an extended tour 
through Great Britain, France, Italy, Egypt, and 
Palestine, and in 1867 held services for six weeks 
in London, where he was instrumental in establish- 
ing the " Children's Special Service Mission." His 
labors in St. Louis in 1874 resulted in the addition 
of over 5,000 members to the different churches and 
in the organization of the " Evangelical Alliance of 
St. Louis," comprising clergymen of all denomina- 
tions, who united to prosecute evangelistic work. 
In 1874 he also made a missionary tour as far north 
as Alaska, reaching that territory before any other 
missionary. Mr. Hammond has preached with 
great success in all parts of the United States and 
in Canada, and has spent in all six and a half years 
in work in the Old World. In 1886 he conducted 
a series of meetings in London, extending over 
seven months. Mr. Hammond was the first to in- 
troduce the " service of song," and to use the kind 
of hymns that have since become popular -for 
such meetings. He is the author of about one 
hundred books and tracts, besides many hymns. 
The former include " The Conversion of Children " 
(reprinted in many countries, and in lands as far 
distant as southern India), " Gathered Lambs," 
"The Child's Guide to Heaven," "Sketches of 
Palestine," " Jesus the Lamb of God," " Little 
Ones in the Fold," and " The Better Life." One 
of Mr. Hammond's hymn-books has been trans- 
lated into Norwegian and Swedish. His history 
and methods of work are described in " Reaper 
and Harvest," by the Rev. Phineas C. Headley 
(New York, 1884). 

HAMMOND, Elisha, educator, b. in New Bed- 
ford, Mass., 10 Oct., 1774; d. in Macon, Ga., 27 
July, 1829. He was descended from Benjamin 
Hammond, who came from England to Massachu- 
setts in 1634. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 
1802, and became principal of the Mount Bethel 
academy, Newberry county, S. C, in 1803. In 
April, 1806, he was chosen professor of languages 
in South Carolina college, but resigned at the end 




kJkA.kJ*. 



&/>w»t- cr\ CC^ 



of the following year to resume his connection 
with the school at Mount Bethel. There he re- 
mained until 1815, when he removed to Columbia. 
Prof. Hammond ranked high as a teacher, and 
from his academy were graduated many well-known 
citizens. — His son, James Henry, statesman, b. 
in Newberry district, 15 Nov., 1807; d. in Beech 
Island, Aiken co., S. C., 13 Nov., 1864, was gradu- 
ated at South Carolina college in 1825, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1828. In 1830 he became 
the editor of the "Southern Times," published at 
Columbia, in which he advocated nullification. 
He was throughout 
his life a supporter 
of John C. Calhoun's 
views. During the 
nullification excite- 
ment he was on the 
staff of Gov. Ham- 
ilton, and subse- 
quently on that of 
Gov. Hayne. He 
was elected to con- 
gress, serving from 
7 Dec, 1835, till 16 
Feb., 1836, when he 
resigned, on account 
of impaired health, 
and visited Europe, 
remaining abroad 
for nearly two years. 
From 1842 till 1844 

he was governor of South Carolina. During his 
term of office he gave especial attention to the 
improvement of military education in the state, 
and established the State geological and agricul- 
tural survey. For the next thirteen years Mr. 
Hammond, who had given up the active practice 
of his profession on his marriage to a lady of large 
fortune, devoted his attention to the development 
of his estates and the reclaiming of waste land. He 
was then elected to the U. S. senate in place of An- 
drew P. Butler, and served from 7 Dec, 1857, till 11 
Nov., 1860. In March, 1858, he delivered a speech 
on the admission of Kansas, which gave much 
offence at the north, and won for him the title of 
" Mudsill Hammond." The following is the para- 
graph to which most exception was taken : " In 
all social systems there must be a class to do the 
mean duties, to perform the drudgery of life ; that 
is, a class requiring but a low order of intellect 
and but little skill. Its requisites are vigor, do- 
cility, fidelity. Such a class you must have, or you 
would not have that other class which leads prog- 
ress, refinement, and civilization. It constitutes 
the very mudsills of society and of political gov- 
ernment; and you might as well attempt to build 
a house in the air as to build either the one or the 
other except on the mudsills. Fortunately for the 
south, she found a race adapted to that purpose to 
her hand — a race inferior to herself, but eminently 
qualified in temper, in vigor, in docility, in capa- 
city to stand the climate, to answer all her pur- 
poses. We use them for the purpose and call them 
slaves. We are old-fashioned at the south yet ; it 
is a word discarded now by ears polite ; but 1 will 
not characterize that class at the north with that 
term ; but you have it ; it is there ; it is every- 
where ; it is eternal." In a recent letter the speak- 
er's son, Harry, thus explains the reference to 
" mudsills " in the foregoing extract : " It is a very 
great mistake to suppose that my father could ever 
have made a speech against the working-classes. 
... As to ' mudsills,' a totally perverted meaning 
has been fastened to the expression. My father 



68 



HAMMOND 



HAMMOND 



had built a mill, and four times it had to be taken 
down on account of trouble with the mudsills, 
which had to be placed in a sort of quicksand hard 
to control. Thus 'mudsills,' instead of meaning 
something low and insignificant, were, as I well 
remember, a matter of paramount interest and 
importance to him. It was just when he had at 
last placed his mudsills securely that he had occa- 
sion to use this expression." In the same speech 
occurs the passage : " No, sir, you dare not make 
war on cotton. No power on earth dares make 
war upon it. Cotton is king. Until lately the 
Bank of England was king, but she tried to put 
her screws as usual, the fall before last, upon the 
cotton-crop, and was utterly vanquished. The last 
power has been conquered." On the secession of 
South Carolina he retired from the senate, and 
after hostilities began returned to the superintend- 
ence of his estates, being prevented by failing 
health from active participation in the war. While 
governor he published a letter to the Free church 
of Glasgow, and two others in reply to an anti- 
slavery circular written by Thomas Clarkson, of 
England. These letters called forth severe replies 
from those to whom they were addressed, and, 
with other essays on the same subject, were issued 
in book-form under the title "The Pro-Slavery 
Argument " (Charleston, 1853). He was also the 
author of papers on agriculture, manufactures, 
banks, railroads, and literary topics, and an elabo- 
rate review of the life, character, and services of 
John C. Calhoun, contained in an address delivered 
in Charleston in November, 1850, on the invitation 
of the city council. This is considered by many 
the best effort of his life. — Another son, Marcus 
Claudius Marcellus, soldier, b. in Newberry dis- 
trict, S. C, 12 Dec, 1814 ; d. in Beech Island, Aiken 
co., S. C, 23 Jan., 1876, was graduated at the U. S. 
military academy in 1836, and assigned to the 4th 
infantry. He was made 1st lieutenant, 7 Nov., 
1839, and resigned, 31 Dec, 1842, on account of 
severe illness. From 1842 till 1846 he was a planter 
in Georgia, but at the beginning of the Mexican 
war he was appointed additional paymaster, and 
served until 15 April, 1847, when he was again 
compelled to resign on account of impaired health. 
He then retired to a plantation at Hamburg, S. C, 
whence he removed to Athens, Ga., in 1860, and to 
Beech Island, S. C, in 1863. He held various com- 
missions in the state militia between 1849 and 1853, 
and was a member of the state house of representa- 
tives in 1856-'7. He is the author of various essays 
on agricultural, political, and military subjects 
published between 1843 and 1849, and of " A Criti- 
cal History of the Mexican War," which appeared 
in the " Southern Quarterly Review " between 1849 
and 1853. — Another son, John Fox, physician, b. 
in Columbia, S. C, 7 Dec, 1821 ; d. in Poughkeep- 
sie, N. Y., 29 Sept., 1886, was graduated at the 
University of Virginia, the Medical college at Au- 
gusta, Ga., and in 1841 at the medical department of 
the University of Pennsylvania. He was appointed 
assistant surgeon in the U. S. army, 16 Feb., 1847 ; 
major and surgeon, 26 Feb., 1861 : brevet lieuten- 
ant-colonel, 13 March, 1865, " for faithful and 
meritorious service during the war"; and lieuten- 
ant-colonel, 26 June, 1876. In 1849 he had medical 
charge of troops infected with cholera on the west- 
ern frontier, and served in Florida from November, 
1852, till October, 1853, during an epidemic of 
yellow fever. In 1862 he was medical director of 
the 2d army corps of the Potomac, and was pres- 
ent at the siege of Yorktown and the principal 
battles of the peninsula. After the close of the 
war he served on various medical boards. 



HAMMOND, Jabez D., author, b. in New Bed- 
ford, Mass., 2 Aug., 1778; d. in Cherry Valley, 
N. Y., 18 Aug., 1855. With a limited education 
he taught at fifteen, studied and practised medi- 
cine in Reading, Vt., in 1799, and in 1805 was ad- 
mitted to the bar and settled at Cherry Valley, 
N. Y. He was elected to congress as a Democrat, 
serving from 4 Dec, 1815, till 3 March, 1817, was 
state senator from 1817 till 1821, and in 1822 re- 
moved to Albany, where he practised his profes- 
sion until 1830. From 1825 till 1826 he served as 
a commissioner to settle the claims of New York 
on the Federal government. In 1831 he visited 
Europe for his health, and on his return again set- 
tled in Cherry Valley. He was chosen county 
judge in 1838, and was one of the regents of the 
University of New York from 1845 until his death. 
Although he was a Democrat, he supported John 
Quincy Adams for the presidency. In 1845 Ham- 
ilton college conferred upon him the degree of 
LL. D. He is the author of " The Political His- 
tory of New York to December, 1840 " (2 vols., 
vUbany, 1843 ; vol. iii., Syracuse) ; " Life and 
Opinions of Julius Melbourn " (Syracuse, N. Y., 
1847); "Life of Silas Wright" (1848); and "Evi- 
dence, Independent of Written Revelation, of the 
Immortality of the Soul " (Albany, 1851). 

HAMMOND, Le Roy, soldier, b. in Richmond 
county, Va., about 1740; d. about 1800. In 1765 
he removed to Georgia, and thence to South Caro- 
lina, where he became a dealer in tobacco. He 
was commissioned a colonel early in the Revolu- 
tionary war, served in the " Snow " campaign, and 
in that of 1776 against the Cherokees, in which he 
distinguished himself. He was subsequently often 
employed both by congress and the state of South 
Carolina as Indian agent. In 1779 he took the 
field with his regiment and played an important 
part in the battle of Stono Ferry. After the fall of 
Charleston he adopted, like Marion and others, a des- 
ultory mode of warfare, and was constantly engaged 
in fighting the loyalists, British, and Indians. In 
1781 he was at the siege of Augusta, afterward at 
that of Ninety-Six, serving under Greene, and, 
later, under Gen. Pickens. After the battle of Eu- 
taw he was active in guerilla warfare. Col. Ham- 
mond ranked high as a partisan leader. 

HAMMOND, Samuel, soldier, b. in Richmond 
county, Va., 21 Sept., 1757; d. near Augusta, Ga., 
11 Sept., 1842. He volunteered in an expedition 
against the Indians under Gov. Dunmore, distin- 
guishing himself at the battle of the Kanawha. 
In 1775 he raised a company and took part in the 
battle of Longbridge. In 1779 he was at the bat- 
tle of Stono Ferry, S. C, under Gen. Lincoln. At 
the siege of Savannah he was made assistant quar- 
termaster, and at Blackstocks he had three horses 
shot under him and was wounded. He was a 
member of the " council of capitulation " at 
Charleston, and was present at the siege of Au- 
gusta and the battles of King's Mountain, Cow- 
pens, Eutaw, where he was again badly wounded, 
and many other engagements. On 17 Sept., 1781, 
he was commissioned colonel of cavalry, and- 
served under Gen. Greene until the end of the 
war. He then settled in Savannah, and was ap- 
pointed surveyor-general of Georgia. He was also 
elected to the legislature and fought in the Creek 
war of 1793. He was then elected to congress as 
a Democrat, serving from 17 Oct., 1803, till 3 
March, 1805. He was appointed by President 
Jefferson military and civil commandant of upper 
Louisiana, holding the office from 1805 till 1824, 
and during the latter part of the time was receiver 
of public moneys in Missouri. In the last-named 



HAMMOND 



HAMPTON 



69 




year he returned to South Carolina, and was chosen 
a member of the legislature. He was surveyor- 
general in 1825, and secretary of state from 1831 
till 1835, when he retired from public life. 

HAMMOND, William Alexander, physician, 
b. in Annapolis, Md., 28 Aug., 1828. He was 
graduated at the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of the city 
of New York, and 
entered the U. S. 
army in 1849 as 
assistant surgeon, 
with the rank of 
1st lieutenant. In 
October, 1860, he 
resigned to accept 
the professorship of 
anatomy and phy- 
siology in the Uni- 
versity of Maryland, 
but at the begin- 
ning of the civil war 
he again entered the 

r L \L^fr _/ army and was as- 

Pi ^>^^t^u^*^w£. signed t0 the or _ 

ganization of gen- 
eral hospitals in Hagerstown, Frederick, and Bal- 
timore. Afterward the U. S. sanitary commission 
urged his appointment as surgeon-general of the 
army, and in April, 1862, he received this commis- 
sion with the rank of brigadier-general. He in- 
stituted radical changes in the management of 
his office, established the army medical museum 
by special order, and suggested the plan of the 
" Medical and Surgical History of the Rebellion." 
Charges of irregularities in the award of liquor 
contracts were made against him, and he was tried 
by court-martial, and dismissed from the army in 
August, 1864. He at once removed to New York, 
where he settled in the practice of his profession, 
and made a specialty of diseases of the nervous 
system. In 1867-'73 he was professor of diseases 
of the mind and nervous system in Bellevue hos- 
pital medical college, and then was elected to a 
similar chair in the medical department of the 
University of the city of New York. He remained 
there until 1882, when he became one of the found- 
ers of the New York post-graduate medical school, 
and has since delivered lectures on his specialty in 
that institution. Dr. Hammond has also delivered 
lectures in the medical department of the Univer- 
sity of Vermont, and in 1870 became physician at 
the New York state hospital for diseases of the 
nervous system. In 1878 a bill was submitted to 
congress authorizing the president to review the 
proceedings of the court-martial, and, if justice 
demanded, to reinstate Dr. Hammond. This 
measure was passed by the house unanimously, 
and by the senate with but one dissenting vote. 
In August, 1879, it was approved by the president, 
and Dr. Hammond was restored to his place on 
the rolls of the army as surgeon-general and briga- 
dier-general on the retired list. Besides contrib- 
uting to current medical literature, he founded' 
and edited the " Maryland and Virginia Medical 
Journal," was one of the originators of the " New 
York Medical Journal," and established the " Quar- 
terly Journal of Psychological Medicine and Medi- 
cal Jurisprudence," becoming its editor. His medi- 
cal works in book -form include "Physiological 
Memoirs" (Philadelphia, 1863); "A Treatise on 
Hygiene, with Special Reference to the Military 
Service" (1863); "Lectures on Venereal Diseases" 
(1864); "On Wakefulness, with an Introductory 
Chapter on the Physiology of Sleep " (1865) ; " On 



Sleep and its Derangements" (1869); "Insanity 
and its Medico - Legal Relations " (New York, 
1866) ; " Physics and Physiology of Spiritualism " 
(1870) ; " Diseases of the Nervous Svstem," which 
has been translated into French and Italian (1871) ; 
" Insanity in its Relation to Crime " (1873) ; " Lec- 
tures on Diseases of the Nervous Svstem," edit- 
ed by T. M. B. Cross (1874) ; " Spiritualism and 
Allied Causes and Conditions of Nervous Derange- 
ment " (1876 ; reissued as " Certain Forms of Ner- 
vous Derangement," 1880) ; " Treatise on Insanity 
in its Medical Relations " (1883) ; and " On Sexual 
Impotence in the Male " (1883). He has also edited 
" Military. Medical, and Surgical Essays," prepared 
for the U. S. sanitary commission (Philadelphia, 
1864), and translated from the German, Meyer's 
" Electricity in its Relations to Practical Medicine " 
(New York, 1869 ; new ed., 1874). Dr. Hammond 
is the author of various novels, including " Robert 
Severne ; his Friend and Enemies " (Philadelphia, 
1867); "Lai" (New York, 1884); "Dr. Grattan" 
(1884) ; " Mr. Oldmixon " (1885) ; " A Strong-Mind- 
ed Woman, or Two Years After " (1886) ; and " On 
the Susquehanna " (1887). 

HAMOND, Sir Andrew Snape, British naval 
officer, b. in Blackheath, England, 17 Dec, 1738; d. 
near Lynn, Norfolk, England, 12 Oct., 1828. He 
entered the British navy in 1753, served under Lord 
Howe, and became a post -captain in 1780. At 
the beginning of the Revolutionary war he joined 
the " Roebuck," a forty-four gun ship, was pres- 
ent at the occupation of New York, and destroyed 
the " Delaware " frigate and other vessels engaged 
in obstructing the Delaware river. He took part in 
the unsuccessful attack on Mud island in October, 
1777, as also in the successful one in November of 
that year. He was knighted in 1778, acted as 
captain of the fleet at the reduction of Charles- 
ton, S. C. in 1780, and late in the year was ap- 
pointed lieutenant-governor and commander-in- 
chief of Nova Scotia. He returned to England 
in 1783, was made a baronet on 18 Dec, of that 
year, became a comptroller in the navy in 1794, 
and retired in 1806 with a pension. 

HAMPTON, Wade, soldier, b. in South Caro- 
lina in 1754 ; d. in Columbia, S. C, 4 Feb., 1835. 
He served with distinction in the Revolution un- 
der Marion and Sumter, and after the war was in 
congress in 1795-'7. He was a presidential elec- 
tor in 1801, and in 1803-5 served again in con- 
gress, having been elected as a Democrat. He was 
made a colonel in the U. S. army in 1808, placed 
in command of one of the regiments that had been 
raised in apprehension of war with England, and 
in February, 1809, was promoted to brigadier-gen- 
eral, and stationed at New Orleans. In conse- 
quence of continual disagreements with his subor- 
dinates he was superseded by Gen. James Wilkin- 
son in 1812, and during the war with England 
commanded a force on the northern frontier, hav- 
ing been given a major-general's commission on 2 
March, 1813. On 26 Oct., 1813, at Chateaugay, 
he attacked Sir George Prevost, who repelled him 
with an inferior force. He afterward frustrated 
the attempt on Montreal by his unwillingness to 
co-operate with his old rival, Gen. Wilkinson. He 
resigned his commission on 6 April, 1814, and re- 
turned to South Carolina. He acquired a large 
fortune by land speculations, and at his death was 
supposed to be the wealthiest planter in the United 
States, owning 3,000 slaves. Gen. Hampton was 
a fair example of the old-fashioned slave-holding 
oligarchs, being of a high, proud, stern, and in- 
flexible character, and ably administering his large 
estate.— His son, Wade, b. 21 April, 1791 ; d. on a 



70 



HAMPTON 



HANAFORD 




Elantation near Mississippi river, 10 Feb., 1858, 
ecame lieutenant of dragoons in 1813, and was 
acting inspector-general and aide to Gen. Jackson 
at New Orleans in January, 1815. He succeeded 
to his father's estates ; his home at Columbia, S. C, 
was famous for its beauty and elegance, and the 
grounds were improved at a cost of $60,000, a 
large sum for that time. His sisters married Gen. 
John S. Preston and Gov. Richard Manning. — 
Wade, son of the second Wade, b. in Columbia, S. 
C., in 1818, was graduated at the University of 

South Caroli- 
na, and after- 
ward studied 
law, but with- 
out the inten- 
tion of practis- 
ing. Under his 
father's train- 
ing he became 
a good horse- 
man, a fa- 
mous hunter, 
and an accom- 
plished fish- 
erman. He 
served in the 
legislature of 
South Caroli- 
na in early life, 
but his politi- 
cal views were 
those of a Democrat of a national, rather than a se- 
cession, tendency, and were not popular in his state. 
His speech against the reopening of the slave-trade 
was called by the New York " Tribune " " a mas- 
ter-piece of logic, directed by the noblest senti- 
ments of the Christian and patriot." His earlier 
life was, however, devoted to his plantation inter- 
ests in South Carolina and Mississippi, and to the 
pursuits of a man of fortune. When the civil war 
began, Hampton first enlisted as a private, but 
soon raised a command of infantry, cavalry, and 
artillery, which was known as " Hampton's Legion," 
and won distinction in the war. At Bull Run 600 
of his infantry held for some time the Warrenton 
road against Keyes's corps, and were sustaining 
Bee when Jackson came to their aid. In the pen- 
insular campaign they were again distinguished, 
and at Seven Pines lost half their number, and 
Hampton himself received a painful wound in the 
foot. Soon afterward he was made brigadier-gen- 
eral of cavalry, and assigned to Gen. J. B. B. Stu- 
art's command. He was frequently selected for de- 
tached service, in which he was uncommonly success- 
ful. In the Maryland and Pennsylvania campaigns 
of 1862-'3 Hampton was actively engaged, and he 
distinguished himself at Gettysburg, receiving 
three wounds. It is said that twenty-one out of 
twenty-three field-officers and more than half the 
men in Hampton's command were killed or 
wounded in this battle. Hampton was made a 
major-general, with rank from 3 Aug., 1863. In 
1864, after several days' fighting, he gave Sheridan 
a check at Trevillian's Station, which broke up a 
plan of campaign that included a junction with 
Hunter and the capture of Lynchburg. In twenty- 
three days he captured over 3,000 prisoners and 
much material of war, with a loss of 719 men. He 
was made commander of Lee's cavalry in August, 
with the rank of lieutenant-general, and in Septem- 
ber struck the rear of the National army at City 
Point, bringing away 400 prisoners and 2,486 beeves. 
Soon afterward, in another action, he captured 500 
prisoners. In one of these attacks he lost his son in 



battle. Hampton was then detached to take com- 
mand of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's cavalry, and did 
what he could to arrest the advance of Sherman's 
army northward from Savannah in the spring of 
1865. After the unfortunate burning of Columbia, 
S. C, on its evacuation by the Confederates, a 
sharp discussion arose between Gen. Hampton and 
Gen. Sherman, each charging the other with the 
wilful destruction of the city. After the war he 
at once engaged in cotton-planting, but was not 
successful. He accepted from the first all the 
legitimate consequences of defeat, an entire sub- 
mission to the law, and the civil and political 
equality of the negro ; but he has steadily defended 
the motives and conduct of his people and their 
leaders. In 1866, speaking of the negro, he said : 
" As a slave, he was faithful to us ; as a free man, 
let us treat him as a friend. Deal with him frank- 
ly, justly, kindly." During the reconstruction pe- 
riod Hampton's conciliatory policy found little fa- 
vor for some time, but in 1876 he was nominated for 
governor against Daniel H. Chamberlain. Each 
claimed to be elected, and two governments were 
organized, but Mr. Chamberlain finally yielded his 
claims. (See Chamberlain, Daniel H.) In 1878 
he met with an accident by which he lost a leg : 
but, while his life was despaired of, he was elected 
to the U. S. senate, where he is still serving (1887). 
In the senate his course has been that of a con- 
servative Democrat. He has advocated a sound 
currency, resisting all inflation, and has generally 
acted in concert with Thomas A. Bayard, whose 
aspirations for the presidency he has supported. 
Gen. Hampton married in early life Margaret 
Preston, youngest daughter of Gen. Francis Pres- 
ton. His second wife was the daughter of Senator 
George McDuffie, of South Carolina. 

HAMTRAMCK, John Francis, soldier, b. in 
Canada in 1757; d. in Detroit, Mich., 11 April, 
1803. He served as captain in Dubois's New York 
regiment in the Revolutionary war, was appointed 
major of infantry, 29 Sept., 1789, and lieutenant- 
colonel, commanding the 1st sub-legion, 18 Feb., 
1793. He held command of the left wing of Gen. 
Wayne's armv, and was distinguished in his victory 
on the Miami on 20 Aug., 1794. In 1802 he re- 
ceived the commission of colonel. He was an ex- 
emplary disciplinarian. A monument was erected 
to his memory and placed in the grounds of St. 
Anne's Roman Catholic church, Detroit, by the 
officers whom he had commanded. — His son, John 
Francis, soldier, b. in Fort Wayne, Ind., in 1798 ; 
d. in Shepherdstown, Va., 21 April, 1858, was a 
sergeant in Zachary Taylor's expedition up the 
Mississippi river in 1814, and, owing to his bravery 
in an action opposite the mouth of Rock river, 
Illinois, 19 July, 1814, with 700 Sac and Fox 
Indians supported by British batteries, received 
an appointment to the U. S. military academy. He 
was graduated in 1819 and assigned to the artillery, 
but resigned in 1822, and settled near St. Louis, 
Mo., where he became a planter. From 1826 till 
1831 he was Indian agent for the Osage tribe. He 
removed to Shepherdstown, Va., in 1832, where he 
engaged as a planter. In 1835 he was captain of 
the Virginia militia, and held this post until his 
death. He served in the Mexican war as colonel 
of the 1st regiment of Virginia volunteers. From 
8 March till 20 July, 1848, he was governor of 
Saltillo. From 1850 till 1854 he was mayor of 
Shepherdstown. In 1853 he was appointed justice 
of the Jefferson county court, which office he held 
until the time of his death. 

HANAFORD, Phebe Anne, author, b. in Nan- 
tucket, Mass., 6 May, 1829. Her father, Capt. 



HANCOCK 



HANCOCK 



71 



George W. Coffin, was a ship-owner and merchant. 
Phebe was educated in the schools of her native 
town, and under the Rev. Ethan Allen, rector of 
St. Paul's Episcopal church there. In 1849 she 
married Joseph H. Hanaford, a teacher. After 
teaching several years in Massachusetts, she edited 
in 1866-'8 the "Ladies' Repository" and "The 
Myrtle," and in February, 1868, began regular 
ministerial work, having been ordained the first 
woman minister in the Universalist church. Since 
that time she has been pastor of churches in Hing- 
ham and Waltham, Mass., New Haven, Conn., and 
Jersey City, N. J., and made preaching-tours 
throughout the middle states, Ohio, and Illinois. 
She is now (1887) pastor of the Church of the Holy 
Spirit, New Haven, Conn. In 1870-'2 she was at 
various times chaplain of the Connecticut legisla- 
ture. She has been grand worthy chaplain of the 
Good Templars, and represented the grand lodge in 
the right worthy lodge at Detroit in 1867. Besides 
poems, addresses, and contributions to current lit- 
erature, she has published " Lucretia the Quaker- 
ess " (Boston, 1853) ; " Leonette, or Truth sought 
and Found" (Philadelphia, 1857); "The Best of 
Books, and its History " (1857) ; " Abraham Lin- 
coln " (Boston, 1865) ; " Frank Nelson, the Run- 
away Boy" (1865); "The Soldier's Daughter" 
(1866) ; " The Captive Boy of Tierra del Fuego " 
(New York, 1867) ; " Field, Gunboat, Hospital, and 
Prison" (Boston, 1867); "The Young Captain" 
(1868): "George Peabody" (1870); "From Shore 
to Shore, and Other Poems" (1870); "Charles 
Dickens " (1870) ; " Women of the Century " (1877) ; 
and "Ordination Book" (New Haven, 1887). 

HANCOCK, George, soldier, b. in Virginia in 
1755 ; d. in Fotheringay, Va., 1 Aug., 1820. He 
was educated by private tutors. During the Revo- 
lution he served as colonel of infantry. In 1793 
he was elected to congress as a Democrat, and re- 
elected for the following term, serving until 1797. 
He was greatly beloved by his associates. 

HANCOCK, John, clergyman, b. in Cambridge, 
Mass., in 1671 ; d. in Lexington, Mass., 5 Dec, 
1752. He was graduated at Harvard in 1689, 
studied for the ministry, was called to preach as a 
candidate by the Congregational church at Lex- 
ington, Mass., in 1697, and in the following year 
was ordained its pastor. Here he continued to 
preach until his death. In 1734 his son, Ebenezer, 
was given him as an assistant, but the young man 
died suddenly in 1740, before he had completed 
his thirtieth year. Mr. Hancock was the author of 
four published sermons delivered on special occa- 
sions between 1722 and 1748. — His son, Thomas, 
merchant, b. in Lexington, Mass., in 1702 ; d. in 
Boston, Mass., 1 Aug., 1764, began life as a book- 
seller, but afterward became a successful merchant. 
Having no children, he left most of his large for- 
tune to his nephew, John. Among his bequests 
were £1,000 to Harvard college wherewith to found 
a professorship of the Hebrew and Oriental lan- 
guages, £1,000 for propagating the gospel among 
the Indians, and £600 to the town of Boston, to be 
used in the erection of an insane hospital. He was 
liberal in his religious and political sentiments, 
but inclined to take part with the royal govern- 
ment in its disputes with the colonies. He was a 
member of the house of representatives, and of the 
council of Massachusetts. — Another son, John, 
clergyman, b. in Lexington, Mass., in 1703 ; d. in 
Braintree (now Quincy), Mass., 7 May, 1744, was 
graduated at Harvard in 1719, and ordained at 
Braintree, 2 Nov., 1726, where he remained until 
his death. He possessed good talents, and was 
noted for diligence, prudence, and fidelity. He 



was the author of several sermons and letters 
printed between 1738 and 1748. — The second John's 
son, John, statesman, b. in Quincy, Mass., 12 Jan., 
1737; d. there, 8 Oct., 1793, was graduated at Har- 
vard in 1754. On the death of his father he was 
adopted by his uncle, Thomas, who took him into 
his counting-house and left him a large fortune, the 
nephew succeeding to the business. In 1766 he 
was chosen to represent Boston in the Massa- 
chusetts house of representatives with James Otis, 
Thomas Cushing, and Samuel Adams, "where," 
says Eliot, " he blazed a Whig of the first magni- 
tude." The seizure of his sloop, the " Liberty," 
for an alleged evasion of the laws of trade, caused 
a riot, the royal commissioners of customs barely 
escaping with their lives. After the affray known 
as the " Boston massacre," 5 March, 1770, he was 
a member of the committee to demand of the royal 
governor the removal of the troops from the city ; 
and at the funeral of the slain he delivered an ad- 
dress so glowing and fearless in its reprobation of 
the conduct of the soldiery and their leaders as 
greatly to offend 
the governor. In 
1774 he was elect- 
ed, with Samuel 
Adams, a mem- 
ber of the Provin- 
cial congress at 
Concord, Mass., 
and subsequently 
became its presi- 
dent. It was to 
secure the persons 
of these two pa- 
triots that the ex- 
pedition to Con- 
cord in April, 
1775, which led 
to the battle of 
Lexington, was 
undertaken by 
the authorities. It was, however, futile, as they suc- 
ceeded in making their escape. On 12 June, follow- 
ing, Gen. Gage issued a proclamation offering par- 
don to all the rebels, excepting Samuel Adams and 
John Hancock, " whose offences," it was declared, 
" are of too flagitious a nature to admit of any other 
consideration than that of condign punishment." 
Mr. Hancock was a delegate from Massachusetts 
to the Continental congress from 1775 till 1780, 
and from 1785 till 1786, serving as president of 
that body from May, 1775, till October, 1777. The 
Declaration of Independence, as first published, 
bore only his name as president. In 1776 he was 
commissioned major-general of the Massachusetts 
militia, and in August, 1778, commanded the con- 
tingent of that state in the expedition against 
Rhode Island. He was a member of the Massa- 
chusetts constitutional convention of 1780, and 
was governor of the state from the latter year till 
1785, and again from 1787 until his death, being 
re-elected annually. In the presidential election 
of 1789, Gov. Hancock received four electoral votes. 
He was a man of strong common sense and decision 
of character, of polished manners, easy address, 
affable, liberal, and charitable. In his public 
speeches he displayed a high degree of eloquence. 
As a presiding officer he was dignified, impartial, 
quick of apprehension, and always commanded 
the respect of congress. He employed his large 
fortune for useful and benevolent purposes, and 
was a liberal donor to Harvard college. When the 
best method of driving the British from Boston 
was under discussion at a patriotic club in that 




72 



HANCOCK 



HANCOCK 



town, he is said to have declared, " Burn Boston, 
and make John Hancock a beggar, if the public 
good requires it." In the autumn of 1776 congress 
gave Washington instructions to destroy Boston 
if it should be necessary to do so in order to dis- 
lodge the enemy. Mr. Hancock then wrote to that 
officer to the effect that, although probably the 
largest property-owner in the city, " he was anxious 
the thing should be done if it would benefit the 
cause." John Adams said of his character : " Nor 




were his talents or attainments inconsiderable. 
They were far superior to many who have been 
much more celebrated. He had a great deal of 
political sagacity and insight into men. He was 
by no means a contemptible scholar or orator. 
Compared with Washington, Lincoln, or Knox, he 
was learned." He received the degree of A. M. from 
Yale and Princeton in 1769, and that of LL. D. 
from Brown in 1788, and from Harvard in 1792. 
The illustration represents the Hancock house, 
which stood in Beacon street, Boston. 

HANCOCK, John, jurist, b. in Jackson county, 
Ala., 29 Oct., 1824. After two years in the Uni- 
versity of East Tennessee, Knoxville, he studied 
law in Winchester, Tenn., was admitted to the bar 
in 1846, and setted in Texas in 1847. In that year 
he held the office of state's attorney. He was ap- 
pointed judge of the district court of the state in 
1851, where he served until his resignation in 1855. 
In 1860-'l he was a member of the legislature, but 
was expelled on refusing to take the oath of alle- 
giance to the southern Confederacy. He declined 
to take arms during the civil war, and, in order to 
avoid conscription, went to Mexico in 1864, and 
subsequently to New York and Kentucky. After 
witnessing Gen. Lee's surrender, he returned to 
Texas, and took an active part in the restoration of 
order. He was a member of the State constitu- 
tional convention in 1866, and was a member of 
congress from 1872 till 1877, and again in 1881-'3, 
having been elected as a Democrat. During his 
term of service he secured the passage of acts 
changing the manner of issuing rations to Indians 
on the reservations, so that they were given every 
seventh day; prohibiting hunting-parties unless 
accompanied by U. S. troops, thus ending Indian 
raids from the reservations ; and establishing a 
military telegraph around the frontiers of Texas. 

HANCOCK, Winfleld Scott, soldier, b. in Mont- 
gomery Square, Montgomery co., Pa., 14 Feb., 
1824 ; d. on Governor's Island, New York harbor, 9 
Feb., 1886. His grandfather, Richard Hancock, of 
Scottish birth, was one of the impressed American 
seamen of the war of 1812 who were incarcerated 
in Dartmoor prison in England. His father, Ben- 
jamin Franklin Hancock, was born in Philadel- 



phia, and when quite a young man was thrown 
upon his own resources, having displeased his 
guardian by not marrying in the Society of Friends. 
He supported himself and wife by teaching while 
studying law, was admitted to the bar in 1828, and 
removed to Norristown, where he practised his pro- 
fession forty years, earning the reputation of a well- 
read, judicious, and successful lawyer. Winfield S. 
Hancock had the combined advantages of home in- 
struction and a course in the Norristown academy 
and the public high-school. He early evinced a 
taste for military exercises, and at the age of six- 
teen entered the U. S. military academy, where he 
was graduated, 1 July, 1844. He was at once 
brevetted 2d lieutenant in the 6th infantry, and 
assigned to duty at Fort Towson, Indian terri- 
tory. He received his commission as 2d lieuten- 
ant while his regiment was stationed on the fron- 
tier of Mexico, where the difficulties that resulted 
in the Mexican war had already begun. He was 
ordered to active service in the summer of 1847, 
joined the army of Gen. Scott in its advance upon 
the Mexican capital, participated in the four prin- 
cipal battles of the campaign, and was brevetted 
1st lieutenant for gallant and meritorious conduct 
in those of Contreras and Churubusco. From 1848 
till 1855 he served as regimental quartermaster and 
adjutant, being most of the time stationed at St. 
Louis. On 7 Nov., 1855, he was appointed assistant 

Quartermaster with the rank of captain, and or- 
ered to Fort Myers, Fla., where Gen. William S. 
Harney was in command of the military forces op- 
erating against the Seminoles. He served under this 
officer during the troubles in Kansas in 1857-'8, 
and afterward accompanied his expedition to Utah, 
where serious complications had arisen between 
the Gentiles and the Mormons. From 1859 till 
1861 Capt. Hancock was chief quartermaster of the 
southern district of California. At the beginning 
of the civil war in 1861 he asked to be relieved 
from duty on the Pacific coast, and was transferred 
to more active service at the seat of war. In a let- 
ter to a friend at this time he said : " My politics 
are of a practical kind — the integrity of the coun- 
try, the supremacy of the Federal government, an 
honorable peace, or none at all." He was commis- 
sioned a brigadier-general of volunteers by Presi- 
dent Lincoln, 23 Sept., 1861, and at once bent all 
his energies to aid in the organization of the Army 
of the Potomac. During the peninsular campaign 
under Gen. McClellan he was especially conspicu- 
ous at the battles of Williamsburg and Frazier's 
Farm. He took an active part in the subsequent 
campaign in Maryland, at the battles of South 
Mountain and Antietam, and was assigned to the 
command of the 1st division of the 2d army corps, 
on the battle-field, during the second day's fight at 
Antietam, 17 Sept., 1862. He was soon afterward 
made a major-general of volunteers, and com- 
manded the same division in the attempt to storm 
Marye's Heights, at the battle of Fredericksburg, 
13 Dec, 1862. In this assault Gen. Hancock led 
his men through such a fire as has rarely been en- 
countered in warfare. He commanded 5,006 men, 
and left 2,013 of them on the field. In the three 
days' fight at Chancellorsville, in May, 1863, Han- 
cock's division took a prominent part. While on 
the march through western Maryland in pursuit of 
the invading army of Gen. Lee, on 25 June, he was 
ordered by the president to assume command of 
the 2d army corps. On the 27th Gen. Hooker 
asked to be relieved from the command of the 
Army of the Potomac ; and orders from the war 
department reached his headquarters near Fred- 
erick, Md., assigning Maj.-Gen. George G. Meade 



HANCOCK 



HANCOCK 



73 



to its command. On 1 July the report reached 
Gen. Meade, who was fifteen miles distant, that 
there was fighting at Gettysburg, and that Gen. 
Reynolds had been killed. Gen. Meade, who knew 
nothing of Gettysburg, sent Gen. Hancock with 
orders to take immediate command of the forces 
and report what should be done ; whether to give 
the enemy battle there, or fall back to another pro- 
posed line. Hancock reported that he considered 
Gettysburg the place to fight the coming battle, and 
continued in command until the arrival of Meade. 
In the decisive action of 3 July he commanded on 
the left centre, which was the main point assailed 
by the Confederates, and was shot from his horse. 
Though dangerously wounded, he remained on the 
field till he saw that the enemy's assault was 
broken, when he despatched his aide-de-camp, Maj. 
W. G. Mitchell, with the following message : " Tell 
Gen. Meade that the troops under my command 
have repulsed the enemy's assault, and that we 
have gained a great victory. The enemy is now 
flying in all directions in my front." Gen. Meade 
returned this reply : " Say to Gen. Hancock that I 
regret exceedingly that he is wounded, and that I 
thank him in the name of the country and for my- 
self for the service he has rendered to-day." In a 
report to Gen. Meade, after he had been carried 
from the field, he says that, when he left the line 
of battle, " not a rebel is in sight upright, and if 
the 5th and Oth corps are pressed up, the enemy 
will be destroyed." Out of fewer than 10,000 men 
the 2d corps lost at Gettysburg about 4,000 killed 
or wounded. It captured 4,500 prisoners and 
about thirty colors. Gen. Hancock at first received 
but slight credit for the part he took in this battle, 
his name not being mentioned in the joint resolu- 
tion passed by congress, 28 Jan., 1864, which 
thanked Meade, Hooker, Howard, and the officers 
and soldiers of the Army of the Potomac generally. 
But justice was only delayed, as, on 21 April, 1866, 
congress passed a resolution thanking him for his 
services in the campaign of 1863. 

Disabled by his wound, he was not again em- 
ployed on active duty until March, 1864, being 
meanwhile engaged in recruiting the 2d army 
corps, of which he resumed command at the open- 
ing of the spring campaign of that year, and bore 
a prominent part in the battles of the Wilderness 
and Spottsylvania, where the fighting was almost 
continuous from the 5th to the 26th of May. In the 
engagement at Spottsylvania Court-House, Gen. 
Hancock, on the night of the 11th, moved to a po- 
sition within 1,200 yards of Gen. Lee's right cen- 
tre, where it formed a sharp salient since known as 
"the bloody angle," and early on the morning of 
the 12th he gave the order to advance. His heavy 
column overran the Confederate pickets without 
firing a shot, burst through the abatis, and after a 
short hand-to-hand conflict inside the intrench- 
ments, captured "nearly 4,000 prisoners, twenty 
pieces of artillery, with horses, caissons, and mate- 
rial complete, several thousand stand of small- 
arms, and upward of thirty colors." The fighting 
at this point was as fierce as any during the war, 
the battle raging furiously and incessantly along 
the whole line throughout the day and late into 
the night. Gen. Lee made five separate assaults to 
retake the works, but without success. In the sub- 
sequent operations of the army, at the crossing of 
the North Anna, the second battle of Cold Harbor, 
and the assault on the lines in front of Petersburg, 
Gen. Hancock was active and indefatigable till 17 
June, when his Gettysburg wound, breaking out 
afresh, became so dangerous that he was compelled 
to go on sick-leave, but resumed his command 



again in ten days. He was appointed a brigadier- 
general in the regular army, 12 Aug., 1864, "for 
gallant and distinguished services in the battles of 
the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, and Cold Harbor, 
and in all the operations of the army in Virginia 
under Lieut.-Gen. Grant." On 21 Aug. the 2d 
corps was brought to Petersburg by a long night 
march, and on the 25th occurred the only notable 
disaster in Hancock's career. While he was in- 
trenched at Ream's Station on the Weldon rail- 
road, which the corps had torn up. his lines were 
carried by a powerful force of the enemy, and 
many of his men captured. The troops forming 
the remnants of his corps refused to bestir them- 
selves, and even the few veterans left seemed dis- 
heartened by the slaughter they had seen and 
the fatigues they had undergone. Gen. Morgan's 
account of the battle describes the commander, 
covered with dust, begrimed with powder and 
smoke, laying his hand upon a staff -officer's shoul- 
der and saying : " Colonel, I do not care to die, but I 
pray to God 1 may never leave this field." In the 
movement against the South Side railroad, which 
began 26 October, Gen. Hancock took a leading 
part, and, although the expedition failed, his share 
in it was brilliant and successful. This was his 
last action. On 26 Nov. he was called to Washing- 
ton to organize a veteran corps of 50,000 men, and 
continued in the discharge of that duty till 26 
Feb., 1865, when he was assigned to the command 
of the Middle military division, and ordered to 
Winchester, Va., to relieve Gen. Sheridan from the 
command of the Army of the Shenandoah. The 
latter set out the next morning with a large force 
of cavalry on his expedition down the Shenandoah 
valley. Gen. Hancock now devoted himself to or- 
ganizing and equipping a force as powerful as pos- 
sible from the mass at his command ; and his suc- 
cess was acknowledged in a despatch from the 
secretary of war. After the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln, Gen. Hancock's headquarters were 
transferred to Washington, and he was placed in 
command of the defences of the capital. On 26 
July, 1866, he was appointed a major-general in 
the regular army, and on the 10th of the following 
month he was assigned to the command of the De- 
partment of the Missouri, where he conducted a suc- 
cessful warfare against the Indians on the plains, 
until relieved by Gen. Sheridan. He was trans- 
ferred to the command of the 5th military district, 
comprising Texas and Louisiana, 26 Aug., 1867, 
with headquarters at New Orleans. At this time 
he issued his " General Order No. 40," which made 
it plain that his opinion as to the duties of a mili- 
tary commander in time of peace, and as to the 
rights of the southern states, were not consistent 
with the reconstruction policy determined upon by 
congress. He was therefore relieved at his own re- 
quest, 28 March, 1868, and given the command of 
the Division of the Atlantic, with headquarters in 
New York city. After the accession of Gen. Grant 
to the presidency, he was sent, 5 March, 1869, to 
the Department of Dakota; but on the death of 
Gen. Meade, 6 Nov., 1872, he was again assigned to 
the Division of the Atlantic. Gen. Hancock's name 
was favorably mentioned in 1868 and 1872 as a 
candidate for presidential honors, and he was nom- 
inated the candidate of the Democratic party in the 
Cincinnati convention, 24 June, 1880. On the first 
ballot he received 171 votes, in a convention con- 
taining 738 members, and Senator Bayard, of Dela- 
ware, 153i. The remainder of the votes were scat- 
tered among twelve candidates. On the second bal- 
lot Gen. Hancock received 320 votes, Senator Thom- 
as F. Bayard 111, and Speaker Samuel J. RandalL 



74 



HAND 



HAND 



of the house of representatives, advanced from 6 
to 128^ votes. On the next ballot Gen. Hancock 
received 705 votes, and the nomination was made 
unanimous. The election in November resulted in 
the following popular vote : James A. Garfield, Re- 
publican, 4,454,416 ; Winfield S. Hancock, Demo- 
crat, 4,444,952 : James B. Weaver, Greenback, 308,- 
578 ; Neal Dow, Prohibition, 10,305. After the con- 
clusion of the canvass Gen. Hancock continued in 
the discharge of official duty. His last notable ap- 
pearance in public was at Gen. Grant s funeral, all 
the arrangements for which were carried out under 
his supervision. The esteem in which he was held 
as a citizen and a soldier was perhaps never greater 
than at the time of his death. He had outlived 
the political slanders to which his candidacy had 
given rise, and his achievements in the field during 
the civil war had become historic. His place as a 
general is doubtless foremost among those who 
never fought an independent campaign. He was 
not only brave himself, but he had the ability to 
inspire masses of men with courage. He was 
quick to perceive opportunities amid the dust and 
smoke of battle, and was equally quick to seize 
them ; and although impulsive, he was at the same 
time tenacious. He had the bravery that goes for- 
ward rapidly, and the bravery that gives way 
slowly. Gen. Grant says : " Hancock stands the 
most conspicuous figure of all the general officers 
who did not exercise a separate command. He 
commanded a corps longer than any other one, and 
his name was never mentioned as having committed 
in battle a blunder for which he was responsible. 
He was a man of very conspicuous personal ap- 
pearance. Tall, well-formed, and, at the time of 
which I now write, young and fresh-looking, he 
presented an appearance that would attract the at- 
tention of an army as he passed. His genial dis- 
position made him friends, and his personal cour- 
age and his presence with his command in the 
thickest of the fight won him the confidence of 
troops serving under him.'' To a reporter in 
search of adverse criticism during the presidential 
canvass of 1880, Gen. Sherman said : " If you will 
sit down and write the best thing that can be put 
in language about Gen. Hancock as an officer and 
a gentleman, I will sign it without hesitation." 
See " Life of Gen. W. S. Hancock," by Junkin and 
Norton (New York, 1880) ; " Addresses at a Meeting 
of the Military Service Institution in Memory of 
Hancock " (1886) ; Francis A. Walker's " History of 
the Second Corps " (1887) ; and " In Memoriam : 
Military Order of the Loyal Legion " (1887). 

HAND, Augustus C, jurist, b. in Stoneham, 
Vt., 4 Sept., 1803; d. in Elizabethtown, Essex 
co., N. Y., 8 March, 1878. He studied law at the 
Litchfield, Conn., school, and, removing to Eliza- 
bethtown, N. Y., was soon afterward appointed 
surrogate of Essex county. He served in congress 
in 1839-'41, having been chosen as a Democrat, 
and was a member of the state senate and chair- 
man of its judiciary committee in 1845-8. He 
was elected a justice of the state supreme court in 
1848, and on this bench and that of the court 
of appeals he sat until his defeat for the latter 
office in 1855. He then resumed the practice of 
his profession, in which he continued till his death. 
He was a delegate to the National Democratic 
convention of 1868. — His son, Samuel, jurist, b. 
in Elizabethtown, N. Y., 1 May, 1834 ; d. in Al- 
bany, N. Y., 21 May, 1886, was graduated at Union 
college in 1851, and practised law with his father 
in Elizabethtown till his removal in 1860 to Al- 
bany. He was corporation counsel for the city of 
Albany in 1863, reporter of the court of appeals in 



1869-'72, and in June, 1878, he was appointed 
judge in the supreme court to fill out the unex- 
pired term of William F. Allen, but returned to 
practice in the autumn of the same year. He de- 
clined the Democratic nomination for governor, 
and also the appointment of judge of the superior 
court in 1875, and was one of the commissioners 
for the reform of the municipal government. In 
1885 he was president of the special water commis- 
sion of Albany. Judge Hand had a large practice 
before the court of appeals of New York. He was 
senior counsel in all the elevated railroad cases, 
represented the state against the canal contractors, 
and frequently declined to be a candidate for pub- 
lic office during his latter years. He collected one 
of the most valuable libraries in the state, was 
president of the Young men's Christian associa- 
tion of Albany in 1863, and of the New York state 
bar association in 1865, and received the degree of 
LL. D. from Union in 1884. He edited " The Phi- 
lobiblon of Chancellor Debury " (Albany, 1861). 

HAND, Daniel Whilldin, surgeon, b. in Cape 
May Court-House, N. J., 18 Aug., 1834. He re- 
ceived an academic education, took a partial course 
at the University of Lewisburg, Pa., and then 
studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, 
where he was graduated in 1856. In 1857 he be- 
gan practice in his profession at St. Paul, Minn. 
In July, 1861, he was appointed assistant surgeon 
of the 1st Minnesota volunteers, and in the next 
month was commissioned brigade-surgeon with 
the rank of major. He accompanied the Army of 
the Potomac in the peninsular campaign; was 
slightly wounded at Fair Oaks ; in August, 1862, 
was placed in charge of the general hospital at 
Newport News ; and in October made medical di- 
rector of U S. forces at Suffolk, Va. While on 
duty near Suffolk, he was taken prisoner in May, 
1863, confined in Libby prison, and after his release, 
in July, 1863, was made medical director of North 
Carolina. In February, 1865, he was promoted to 
lieutenant-colonel, and in the next month to colo- 
nel. He was mustered out of service in November, 
1865, and resumed practice in St. Paul. Since 
1872 he has been president of the Minnesota board 
of health, in 1883 was appointed professor of sur- 
gery in the University of Minnesota, and is one of 
the founders of the State medical society. He has 
written largely for medical journals. 

HAND, Edward, soldier, b. in Clyduff, King's 
co., Ireland, 31 
Dec, 1744; d. in 
Rockford, Lancas- 
ter co., Pa., 3 Sept., 
1802. In 1774 he 
accompanied the 
18th Royal Irish 
regiment to this 
country as sur- 
geon's mate, but 
resigned and set- 
tled in Pennsylva- 
nia in the practice 
of medicine. At 
the beginning of 
the Revolution he 
joined Gen. Will- 
iam Thompson's 
brigade as lieuten- 
ant - colonel, and 
served at the siege 
of Boston. He was 
promoted colonel 
in 1776, engaged in the battles of Long Island 
and Trenton, and was appointed brigadier-gen- 




HANDLEY 



HANSON 



75 



eral in 1777. He succeeded Gen. John Stark in 
command at Albany in 1778, and soon afterward 
served with Gen. John Sullivan in his expedition 
against the Indians of the Six Nations in central 
New York. The command of one of the two bri- 
gades of the light-infantry corps was assigned him 
in August, 1780, and near the close of the war he 
succeeded Alexander Scammell as adjutant-general. 
He was a member of congress in 1784-'5, a signer 
of the Pennsylvania constitution of 1790, and occu- 
pied many local offices of public trust. In 1798, 
in anticipation of a war with France, Gen. Wash- 
ington recommended Gen. Hand's appointment as 
adjutant-general. He was of fine and manly appear- 
ance, and distinguished in the army for his fine 
horsemanship. Although he was of a daring dis- 
position, he won the affection of his troops by his 
amiability and gentleness. 

HANDLEY, George, governor of Georgia, b. 
near Sheffield, England, 9 Feb., 1752: d. in Rae's 
Hall, Ga., 17 Sept., 1793. He arrived in Savannah 
in May, 1775, joined the Georgia continental bat- 
tery as captain in 1776, and rose to be lieutenant- 
colonel. He was actively engaged in South Caro- 
lina and Georgia during the Revolution, and was 
captured at Augusta and sent to Charleston as a 
prisoner of war. He was afterward sheriff of Rich- 
mond county, often a member of the legislature, 
and in 1787 was inspector-general. He was elected 
governor of the state in 1788, and from August, 
1789, till his death, was collector of the port of 
Brunswick. He was also a commissioner to the 
proposed state of Frankland about 1785. 

HANDY, Alexander Hamilton, jurist, b. in 
Princess Anne, Somerset co., Md., 25 Dec, 1809; 
d. in Canton, Miss., 12 Sept., 1883. After being 
admitted to the bar, he removed to Mississippi in 
1836, and was a judge of the high court of errors 
from 1853 till 1867, when he resigned. He then 
removed to Baltimore, Md., and practised his pro- 
fession there, also holding the chair of law in the 
University of Maryland till 1871, when he returned 
to Mississippi. Judge Handy was an active advo- 
cate of secession. In 1860 he was appointed a 
commissioner to Maryland by the governor of Mis- 
sissippi, but failed to obtain a hearing from the 
legislature. On 19 Dec, 1860, in a speech in Bal- 
timore, he declared that secession was only a tem- 
porary measure, and was " not intended to break 
up the present government, but to perpetuate it." 
Judge Handy's decisions form a large part of 
volumes 26-41 of the " Mississippi Reports." He 
published a pamphlet entitled " Secession Con- 
sidered as a Right " (1862), and a " Parallel between 
the Reign of James the Second, of England, and 
that of Abraham Lincoln." 

HANGER, George (Lord Coleraine), English 
soldier, b. in 1750 : d. in London, 31 March, 1824. 
He was the younger son of a noble family, and 
was educated for the army. He served through 
the American Revolution, became a major in Tarle- 
ton's legion, and was wounded in an action with 
Maj. W. R. Davie's dragoons at Charlotte, N. C., 
where his corps was roughly handled. Hanger's 
reputation in America was that of a sensualist. 
He was a boon companion of George IV., and, on 
succeeding to his title in 1814, refused to assume 
it. He published a reply to Lieut. Roderick Mac- 
kenzie's " Strictures on Col. Banaster Tarleton's 
History of the Southern Campaigns of 1780 and 
1781 " (1789), and other tracts on military subjects, 
his own " Life, Adventures, and Opinions," with a 
portrait of himself hanging by the neck (London, 
1801) ; and " Lives, Adventures, and Sharping 
Tricks of Eminent Gamesters " (1804). 



HANNA, Robert, senator, b. in Laurens dis- 
trict, S. C, 6 April, 1786 ; d. in Indianapolis, Ind., 
19 Nov., 1858. He removed with his parents to 
Indiana, and in 1802 settled in Brookfield in that 
state. He was sheriff of the eastern district from 
1809 till the organization of a state government, a 
member of the Indiana constitutional convention of 
1816, and register of the land-office, general of 
militia, and for many years a member of the legis- 
lature. He removed to Indianapolis in 1825, was 
appointed to the U. S. senate to fill a vacancy, 
serving from 5 Dec. of that year till 3 Jan., 1832, 
and was afterward a member of the state senate. 
He was killed by a railroad-train while he was 
walking on the track at Indianapolis. 

HANNA, William Brantly, jurist, b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 23 Nov., 1835. He was graduated in 
1853 from the Central high-school of Philadelphia, 
studied law with his father and in the University 
of Pennsylvania, and was admitted to the Tsar in 
1857. He was assistant district attorney of Phila- 
delphia for several years, and from 1867 till 1874 
served in the councils of the city. In 1872 he was 
elected a member of the Constitutional convention 
of the state, in which body he served until its ad- 
journment. In 1874 he was elected one of the three 
first judges of the orphans' court of Philadelphia, 
which had been established under the new consti- 
tution, and in 1878 was commissioned to be the 
first president judge of this court. In 1884, as 
the candidate of both the Republican and Demo- 
cratic parties, he was re-elected to this office for a 
term of ten years by a practically unanimous vote. 
He is president of the corporation of the Hahne- 
mann medical college and hospital of Philadelphia, 
and was for some years president of the trustees of 
the Baptist orphanage. In June, 1885, Bucknell 
university, at Lewisburg, Pa., conferred upon him 
the degree of D. C. L. 

HANNAY, James, Canadian author, b. in Richi- 
bucto, New Brunswick, in 1842. After engaging 
in journalism for a time, he studied law, and was 
admitted to the bar of New Brunswick in 1867. 
His works include " The Captivity of John Gyles " 
(1875) ; " History of Acadia " (1879) ; and " History 
of the Queen's Rangers " (1883). 

HANNEGAN, Edward A., senator, b. in Ohio ; 
d. in St. Louis, Mo., 25 Feb., 1859. He was edu- 
cated in Kentucky, where he spent his boyhood, 
and afterward began to practise law in Covington, 
Ind. He was frequently a member of the legisla- 
ture in 1833-'7, and was a representative in con- 
gress, having been elected as a Democrat. He was 
U. S. senator from Indiana in 1843-9, and from 
22 March, 1849, till 13 Jan., 1850, was minister to 
Prussia. Mr. Hannegan was eloquent and brill- 
iant, but erratic. In 1852, while under the influ- 
ence of liquor, he killed his brother-in-law, Capt. 
Duncan. He afterward removed to St. Louis, Mo., 
where he spent the remainder of his life. 

HANSON, John, delegate to congress, b. in 
Charles county, Md., in 1715; d. in Oxen Hills, 
Prince George co., Md., 22 Nov., 1783. He re- 
ceived an English education, and was a member 
of the Maryland house of delegates nearly every 
year from 1757 till 1781. He removed to Frederick 
county in 1773, was an active patriot, and in 1775 
was treasurer of the county. About that time he 
was commissioned by the Maryland convention to 
establish a gun-lock factory at Frederick. On 9 
Oct., 1776. he was one of a committee to go to 
the camp of the Maryland troops in New Jersey, 
"with power to appoint officers and to encour- 
age the re-enlistment of the Maryland militia." 
He was a delegate to the Continental congress 



76 



HANSON 



HARBAUGH 



from 1781 till his death, served one year as its 
president, from 5 Nov. of that year, and in that 
capacity gave Washington the thanks of congress 
for the victory at Yorktown. After 1782 feeble 
health compelled him to retire from public life. — 
His son, Alexander Contee, jurist, b. 22 Oct., 
1749; d. in Annapolis, Md., in 1806, was high in 
the confidence of Washington, and resided for some 
time in his family, acting as his private secretary 
for several months. He was afterward chosen by 
Washington as one of his aides, but illness pre- 
vented his acceptance. He was the first judge of 
the general court of Maryland under the constitu- 
tion of 1776, and prepared a compilation of the 
laws of the state. He was a delegate to the con- 
vention that ratified the National constitution in 
1788, declined a U. S. judgeship, and from 1789 
till his death was chancellor of the state. In 1789, 
at the request of the legislature, he prepared a 
"Digest of a Testamentary System." He wrote 
forcibly on most of the political questions of the 
day, and some of his articles have been preserved 
by the Maryland historical society under the name 
of the " Hanson Pamphlets." — Alexander Contee's 
son, Alexander Contee, senator, b. in Maryland, 
27 Feb., 1786; d. in Belmont, Md., 23 April, 1819, 
was educated at St. John's college, Annapolis. He 
afterward edited the " Federal Republican " at Bal- 
timore, bitterly denouncing the administration. 
On 22 June, 1812, the populace of the city, irritated 
by one of his articles, attacked and destroyed his 
printing-office. The journal, after a temporary 
suspension, was re-issued simultaneously in Balti- 
more and Georgetown, D. C, on 27 July. This led 
to another attack on 28 July, but the house had 
been garrisoned with thirty armed men, among 
whom were Gen. Henry Lee and Gen. James M. 
Lingan, and they fired on the mob, killing one 
and wounding others. The rioters then brought 
a piece of cannon to bear on the house, and the mi- 
litia was called out, but an arrangement was finally 
made, much against Mr. Hanson's will, by which 
he and his friends were to be placed in jail by the 
authorities, while their persons and property were 
to be protected. Notwithstanding this, the mob 
broke into the jail, assisted by officials within, and 
after barbarously treating those that did not escape, 
left Mr. Hanson and others for dead in front of 
the building, inflicted on Gen. Lee wounds from 
which he never fully recovered, and killed Gen. 
Lingan outright. The mob now withdrew to break 
into the post-office, where the issue of Hanson's 
paper awaited mailing, and the editor was secretly 
removed by his friends. He afterward continued 
the publication of his journal at Georgetown. The 
leaders of the mob were afterward arrested, but 
were acquitted, and the attorney-general sympa- 
thized with them so far as to wish that every de- 
fender of the house had been killed. These out- 
rages contributed to the political revolution that 
shortly afterward gave the state to the Federalists. 
Hanson was elected to congress, serving from 24 
May, 1813, till 2 Jan., 1817, and then took his seat 
in the U. S. senate in place of Robert G. Harper, 
resigned, and served till his death. 

HANSON, John Wesley, author, b. in Boston, 
Mass., 12 May, 1823. After attending the Lowell 
high-school, he entered a counting-room in that 
city, where he remained seven years, still continu- 
ing his studies. He was ordained to the ministry 
of the Universalist church in Wentworth, N. H., 
in 1845, held pastorates in Danvers, Mass., in 
1846-'8, and Gardiner, Me., in 1850-'4, and in 1848 
edited the " Massachusetts Era," the first Republi- 
can paper in Lowell. He edited the " Gospel Ban- 



ner " in Augusta, Me., in 1854-'60, and was pastor 
in Haverhill, Mass., till 1865, serving also in 1863-'4 
as chaplain of the 6th Massachusetts regiment and 
army correspondent of the Boston "Journal" and 
the New York "Tribune." He was pastor in 
Dubuque, Iowa, in 1866-'9, and then had charge of 
the " New Covenant " in Chicago, 111., till 1884. 
Buchtel college, Ohio, gave him the degree of D. D. 
in 1876. He has published histories of Danvers, 
Mass. (Danvers, 1847), Norridgewock, Me. (Nor- 
ridgewock, 1849), and Gardiner, Me. (Gardiner, 
1852) ; " Bible Threatenings Explained " (Chicago, 
1847) ; " Witnesses to the Truth," a collection of 
quotations from the poets (Boston, 1850 ; enlarged 
as " Cloud of Witnesses," 1883) ; " Aion-Aionios " 
(Chicago, 1876) ; " Bible Proofs of Universal Salva- 
tion " (1877) ; " Twelve Sermons on the Lord's 
Prayer " (1883) ; " The New Covenant," a transla- 
tion of the New Testament " (2 vols., 1883-'5) ; and 
" Voices of the Faith " (1884).— His wife, Eliza 
Rice (Holbrook), b. in Norridgewock, Me., 11 
April, 1825 ; d. in Blue Island, 111., 16 Sept., 1865, 
married Dr. Hanson on 30 May, 1846. She pub- 
lished " Women Workers," a popular book. 

HARADEN, Jonathan, naval officer, b. in 
Gloucester, Mass., in 1745 ; d. in Salem, Mass., 26 
Nov., 1803. When the war of independence be- 
gan, he joined the " Tyrannicide " as 1st lieutenant, 
and shortly afterward was promoted captain, and 
appointed to the command of the " Pickering." In 
a night assault in the Bay of Biscay he captured a 
British privateer of 60 men and 22 guns, beat off a 
London privateer with 42 guns and 140 men, and 
on another occasion came upon three armed vessels 
in a line, and captured one after the other, with no 
loss of life on his own vessel. He is said to have 
taken nearly 1,000 cannon from the British during 
the war. At the close of 1781, with all his vessels 
and prizes, he was captured by the royal com- 
mander, Rodney, at St. Eustatius, West Indies. 
The " Julius Caesar " was his last command. 

HARASZTHY, Agostin, viticulturist, b. in 
Hungary in 1812 ; d. near Leon, Nicaragua, 10 
Aug., 1869. He emigrated to the United States in 
early manhood, lived for several years in Wiscon- 
sin, Iowa, and Texas, and in 1850 settled in Cali- 
fornia as superintendent of the San Francisco 
mint. He engaged largely in grape-culture in 
1858, and was superintendent of the Buena Vista 
viticultural society's vineyard in Sonoma county. 
In 1864 he went abroad to investigate the culture 
of the grape and procure continental varieties. In 
1867 he visited Nicaragua and obtained from that 
government the right to manufacture there dis- 
tilled liquors for twenty years. While he was 
exploring the swamps near Leon', he fell into a 
stream, and was devoured by alligators. He pub- 
lished a "Treatise on Grape-Culture in Europe 
and California " (San Francisco, 1865). 

HARBAUGH, Henry, clergyman, b. near 
Waynesborough, Pa., 28 Oct., 1817 ; d. in Mercers- 
burg, Pa., 28 Dec, 1867. He taught to obtain 
means to enter college, and studied at Mercersburg, 
Pa., but was unable to finish either a classical or 
theological course. He was ordained in 1843, and 
installed as pastor of the German Reformed church 
at Lewisburg, Pa., and in 1850 accepted a call to 
the church at Lancaster, Pa., where he remained 
until his removal to Lebanon in 1860. In 1863 he 
was appointed by his synod professor of theology 
at the Mercersburg seminary. He occupied this 
chair until his death, which was occasioned by un- 
due mental exertion. In his theological views Dr. 
Harbaugh was the foremost representative of the 
school that emphasized the efficacy of the sacra- 






HARBY 



HARDENBERGH 



77 



ments and the priestly character of the ministry. 
He founded the " Guardian," and was its editor for 
seventeen years, compiled numerous church alma- 
nacs, edited " The Child's Treasury," contributed a 
great number of sketches to the German Reformed 
church " Cyclopaedia," and at the time of his death 
edited the " Mercersburg Review," and was one of 
the staff of the "Reformed Church Messenger." 
He also wrote quaint poems in the German Penn- 
sylvania dialect. He published "Heaven, or the 
Sainted Dead" (Philadelphia, 1848); "Heavenly 
Recognition" (1851); "The Heavenly Home" 
(1853); "Union with the Church" (1853); "Birds 
of the Bible " (1854) ; " Life of Rev. Richard 
Schlatter " (1857) ; " The Fathers of the German 
Reformed Church" (1858); "The True Glory of 
Woman, and a Plea for the Lord's Portion of a 
Christian's Wealth " (1860) ; " The Golden Censer " 
(1860) ; " Hvmns and Chants " (Lebanon, 1861) ; and 
" Christological Theology" (Philadelphia, 1864). 
HARBY, Isaac, dramatist, b. in Charleston, 
S. C, in 1788 ; d. in New York city, 14 Nov., 1828. 
Isaac's grandfather was a Jewish lapidary of the 
emperor of Morocco, who, under the displeasure 
of that monarch, was forced to fly from the coun- 
try. His son emigrated to South Carolina, and 
established himself in Charleston. After studying 
law Isaac taught on Edisto island, and afterward 
edited " The Quiver," " The Investigator," and the 
" Southern Patriot," and was favorably known as 
an essayist and dramatic writer and critic. The 
year before his death he removed to New York, 
and contributed to " The Evening Post " and 
other newspapers. A sketch of his life and writ- 
ings was published by Henry L. Pinckney and A. 
Moise (Charleston, 1829). He is the author of the 
dramas " Alexander Severus " (1807) ; " The Gor- 
dian Knot " (1807); " Alberti " (1819); and several 
orations in pamphlet-form. 

HARDEE, William Joseph, soldier, b. in Sa- 
vannah, Ga., about 1817; d. in Wytheville, Va., 
6 Nov., 1873. He was graduated at the U. S. 

military acad- 
emy in 1838, and 
after serving in 
Florida, in the 
2d dragoons, he 
was promoted to 
a 1st lieutenan- 
cy, 3 Dec. 1839, 
and sent by the 
secretary of war 
to the celebrated 
military school 
of St. Maur, 
France. While 
there he was at- 
tached to the 
cavalry depart- 
ment of the 
French army. 
He was stationed 
for a time on the 
western frontier, appointed captain of dragoons, 18 
Sept., 1844, and accompanied Gen. Taylor in 1846 
across the Rio Grande. His company was the first 
to engage the enemy at Curricitos, where he was 
overwhelmed by superior numbers and made pris- 
oner. He was exchanged in time to take part in the 
siege of Monterey, and was promoted to major for 

gallantry on 25 March, 1847. At the end of the war 
e was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, and a little 
later was appointed major in the 2d cavalry, of 
which Albert Sidney Johnston was colonel and Rob- 
ert E. Lee lieutenant-colonel. About this time he 




received instructions from the war department 
to prepare a system of tactics for the use of in- 
fantry. On the completion of this work, in 1856, 
he was ordered to West Point as commandant of 
cadets, with the local rank of lieutenant-colonel ; 
and there he remained, with the exception of one 
year, during which he was absent in Europe, un- 
til the end of January, 1861. He then joined the 
Confederate army with the rank of colonel, and 
was assigned to duty at Fort Morgan, Mobile. 
In June, 1861, he was made brigadier-general, 
and sent to Arkansas under Gen. Polk. He was 
soon afterward transferred to Kentucky, where 
he gained a victory over a small National force at 
Mumfordsville, 17 Dec, 1861. Events were now 
shaping for more vigorous work in the southwest. 
At Shiloh, Hardee's corps, the 3d, formed the first 
Confederate line, and made the first attack. He 
was promoted to major-general, and Beauregard, 
in his report, praised Hardee's skill and general 
ability. He commanded the left wing at Perry- 
ville, 8 Oct., 1862, and took a conspicuous part in 
all the movements at Murfreesboro. For his con- 
duct at Perryville and throughout the campaign 
he was appointed lieutenant-general, ranking after 
Longstreet. After the fall of Vicksburg, Hardee 
had charge of a camp of paroled prisoners in 
Alabama. Later in the year he was put in com- 
mand of the 2d corps under Bragg, and, after the 
battle of Chattanooga, was temporarily appointed 
his successor. In May, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston 
assumed the command, and Hardee resumed his 
subordinate position. Hardee was relieved at his 
own request in September, 1864, and appointed to 
the command of the Department of South Caro- 
lina. He finally surrendered at Durham Station, 
N. C, 26 April". 1865. At the close of the war 
Gen. Hardee retired to his plantation in Alabama. 
Hardee's Tactics, or the " U. S. Rifle and Light- 
Infantry Tactics," the work already referred to 
(New York, 1856), is eclectic rather than original, 
and is drawn mainly from French sources. 

HARDENBERGH, Jacob Rutsen, clergyman, 
b. in Rosendale, Ulster co., N. Y.. in 1738; d. in 
New Brunswick, N. J., 30 Oct., 1790. His ances- 
tor, Johannes, a Prussian by birth, emigrated to 
this country in the latter part of the 17th cen- 
tury. Jacob was educated at Kingston academy, 
studied theology under Rev. John Frelinghuysen, 
and was licensed by the American classis of the 
Reformed Dutch church in 1758, being the first 
minister of that church who was not obliged to go 
to Holland for study, examination, and licensure. 
Shortly before this he married the widow of his 
former instructor, who had died suddenly in 1757. 
and in 1758 succeeded him as pastor of five united 
congregations near Raritan, N. J., where his min- 
istry was very successful. Princeton gave him 
the degree of D. D. in 1770. During two winters 
Washington's army was encamped within the 
bounds of his parish, and the commanding gen- 
eral was often a guest at his house. He was an 
ardent patriot, and an object of special enmity to 
his Tory neighbors. The British general offered 
£100 for his arrest, and he was accustomed to 
sleep with a loaded musket by his side. On 26 
Oct., 1779, a company of the Queen's rangers, un- 
der Col. Simcoe, burned his church to the ground. 
Dr. Hardenbergh removed to Rosendale, N. Y., in 
1781, and in 1785 was elected first president of 
Queen's (now Rutgers) college, which he had been 
instrumental in establishing in 1770, but which 
had not been in active operation, owing to the 
occupation of New Brunswick by British troops. 
He also acted as pastor of the Reformed church 



78 



I1ARDEY 



HARDIN 



in that town Dr. Hardenbergh took an active 
part in the controversy that resulted in securing 
the separation of the Dutch church in this coun- 
try from that in Holland. 

HARDEY, Mary Aloysia, mother superior, 
b. in Prince George county, Md., in 1809 ; d. in 
Paris, France, 17 June, 1886. Her parents emi- 
grated to Louisiana in 1814, and some years after- 
ward she was placed in the Academy of Grand 
Coteau, conducted by sisters of the Sacred Heart. 
She was admitted to the order as a novice in 1816, 
and on the day after her reception went with her 
superior to found the convent of St. Michael's on 
the banks of the Mississippi, sixty miles from New 
Orleans. She finally became its superior, but 
during the cholera epidemic of 1832 saw nearly 
her whole community swept away. In May, 1841, 
at the request of Bishop Hughes she came to New 
York and opened the first school of the Sacred 
Heart in a small house in Houston street, which 
soon was filled to overflowing. She was obliged 
to open a larger place in Astoria ; but this also soon 
became too small, and in 1847 Mother Hardey suc- 
ceeded in purchasing the present site of the Acad- 
emy of the Sacred Heart at Manhattanville. She 
established academies in Albany, Rochester, Cin- 
cinnati, Philadelphia, Boston, Providence, Detroit, 
Halifax, and Montreal, as well as two additional 
day-academies in New York city. On 29 Sept., 
1872, she was appointed assistant-general of the 
Society of the Sacred Heart, and went to live in 
the mother house in Paris, where she resided un- 
til her death. Mother Hardey's influence was not 
confined to this country. In all matters affecting 
the general interests of the order her voice was all- 
powerful; and the increase of the schools of the 
Sacred Heart, not only in Europe but in Austra- 
lia and New Zealand, was due principally to her ad- 
ministrative ability and energy. 

HARDIE, James, teacher, b. in Scotland about 
1750; d. in New York city in 1832. He was a 
graduate of Marischal college, Aberdeen, and was 
an inmate of the family of the poet Beattie, who 
persuaded him to remove to New York. He was 
tutor in Columbia college from 1787 till 1790, but 
became poor and dissipated, finally obtaining a 
scanty support in the employ of the board of 
health. His published works are " Corderii Collo- 
quia " (New \ ork, 1805) ; " Epistolary Guide," for 
the use of schools (1817) ; "Freeman's Monitor" 
(1818); "Account of Malignant Fevers in New 
York" (1799 and 1805); "Viris Illustribus Urbis 
Romae " (1818) ; " Dictionary of the Wonders of 
Art and of Nature, especially in America " (1819) ; 
"Account of the Yellow Fever in New York" 
(1822); "Description of the City of New York" 
(1827) ; and " Biographical Dictionary " (1830). 

HARDIE, James Allen, soldier, b. in New 
York city, 5 May, 1823 ; d. in Washington, D. C, 
5 May, 1876. He was graduated at the U. S. mili- 
tary academy in 1843, and entered the artillery 
service. He was an assistant professor of geogra- 
phy, history, and ethics at West Point in 1844-'6, 
and served as company officer in garrison, frontier, 
and Indian service till 1861. During the Mexican 
war he commanded a New York regiment of vol- 
unteers, with the rank of major, and in 1857 he 
was appointed captain in the 3d artillery. He was 
transferred to the 5th artillery in 1861, with the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel and aide-de-camp, and 
served on Gen. McClellan's staff during the penin- 
sular and Maryland campaigns, and on that of 
Gen. Burnside in the battles around Fredericks- 
burg. He was made brigadier-general of volun- 
teers, 29 Nov., 1862, assistant adjutant-general in 



1863, assigned to special duty in the war depart- 
ment, and was assistant secretary to Sec. Edwin M. 
Stanton while he held office. Gen. Hardie was ap- 
pointed inspector-general in 1864, and in 1865 was 
brevetted brigadier- and major-general, U. S. army, 
for his services during the war. In 1866 he was 
senior member of the commission to inspect ord- 
nance and ordnance stores in forts and arsenals, 
and commissioner to audit the military claims of 
Kansas, Montana, Dakota, California, and Oregon. 
He edited numerous military reports. 

HARDIN, Charles Henry, governor of Mis- 
souri, b. in Trimble county, Ky., 15 July, 1820. 
His father removed to Missouri in the autumn of 
1820, and in 1821 settled in Columbia, Boone co. 
The son was graduated at Miami university, Ohio, 
in 1841, and began the practice of law in Fulton, 
Mo., in 1843. He was attorney of the 3d judicial 
district in 1848-'52, and has been several times a 
member of each branch of the legislature. In 1855 
he was one of a commission to revise and codify 
the statute laws of the state. He voted against the 
secession of the state, and in 1862 retired to his 
farm near Mexico, Mo., where, after the war, he 
resumed the practice of law. In 1874 he was 
elected governor of Missouri. Gov. Hardin en- 
dowed Hardin female college, near Mexico, Mo., 
in 1873, with property valued at over $60,000. 
He has since been president of its board of direct- 
ors, and has given much of his attention, as a 
public man, to the cause of education. 

HARDIN, John, soldier, b. in Fauquier county, 
Va., 1 Oct., 1753; d. on Ohio river in April, 1792. 
His father removed when John was twelve years of 
age to an unbroken wilderness near the Pennsyl- 
vania line, where he became so skilful a marks- 
man that he was greatly feared by the hostile In- 
dians. He was ensign in Lord Dunmore's expedi- 
tion against the Indians in 1774, and served as a 
scout. At the beginning of the Revolution he 
joined the Continental army as lieutenant in Gen. 
Daniel Morgan's rifle corps, and refused a major's 
commission, saying that he could do his country 
more good in the capacity in which he was serving. 
He removed to Kentucky in 1786, and in the same 
year volunteered under Gen. Elisha Clarke on the 
Wabash expedition, and was appointed lieuten- 
ant-colonel of militia. He was in every expedition 
against the Kentucky Indians from 1787 until his 
death, except that of Gen. Arthur St. Clair. In 
April, 1792, he was sent by Gen. James Wilkinson 
with overtures of peace to the Miami Indians, and 
while he was bearing a flag of truce near Shawnee- 
town, his fine horse and equipments attracted the 
cupidity of the chiefs, who treacherously shot him 
to obtain these spoils. The county of Hardin, 
which was formed in 1792, was named in his honor. 
— John's son, Martin D., lawyer, b. on Mononga- 
hela river, Pa., 21 June, 1780; d. in Frankfort, 
Ky., 8 Oct., 1823, was educated in the Transylva- 
nia academy, Ky., where he removed with his fa- 
ther at six years of age. He studied law, practised 
in Franklin county, served several terms in the 
legislature, and in 1812 was secretary of the state. 
When war was declared with Great Britain he joined 
the northwestern division of the army under Gen. 
Harrison, and was promoted major of the Kentucky 
regiment of volunteers. In 1816 he was elected 
to the U. S. senate as a Democrat to fill the unex- 
pired term of William T. Barry, who had resigned. 
He was distinguished for legal knowledge and 
ability, and practised his profession with marked 
success. He published " Reports of Cases in the 
Kentucky Court of Appeals " (Louisville, 1810). — 
John's nephew, Benjamin, statesman, b. in West- 



HARDING 



HARDING 



79 



moreland county, Pa., in 1784; d. in Bardstown, 
Ky., 24 Sept., 1852. He removed to Kentucky 
in childhood, received a primary education, stud- 
ied law, was admitted to the bar in 1806, and be- 
gan to practise at Bardstown. He served in the 
state house of representatives in 1810-'ll and 
1824-'5, and in 1815 took his seat in congress, hav- 
ing been elected as a Whig, and served till 1817, 
and again from 1833 till 1837. In 1844 he was ap- 
pointed secretary of state of Kentucky, held office 
till his resignation in 1847, and was a member of 
the State constitutional convention of 1849. He was 
distinguished as a debater, and his style was pun- 
gent and sarcastic. John Randolph, of Roanoke, 
described him as "a kitchen-knife, rough and 
homely, but keen and trenchant." — Martin D.'s son, 
John J., lawyer, b. in Frankfort, Ky., 6 Jan., 1810 ; 
d. in Buena Vista, Mexico, 27 Feb., 1847, was 
educated at Transylvania university, studied law, 
and removed to Jacksonville, 111., where he prac- 
tised his profession. For several years he was 
, prosecuting attorney, and a member of the legis- 
lature in 1836-'42. In 1842 he was elected to con- 
gress as a Democrat, and served one term. He 
volunteered when the Mexican war began, was ap- 
pointed colonel of the 1st Illinois regiment, and 
was killed on the second day of the battle of Buena 
Vista, while leading his men in the final charge. 

HARDING, Abner Clark, soldier, b. in East 
Hampton, Middlesex co., Conn., 10 Feb., 1807 ; d. 
in Monmouth, Warren co., 111., 19 July, 1874. He 
was educated chiefly at Hamilton, N. Y., academy, 
and after practising law in Oneida county for 
some time removed to Illinois. In that state he 
. continued to practise law for fifteen years, and to 
manage farms for twenty-five years. In 1848 he 
was a member of the convention that framed the 
constitution under which Illinois was governed 
from 1848 till 1870. He also served in the legis- 
lature in 1848-'9 and 1850. During the ten years 
preceding the civil war he was engaged in rail- 
way enterprises. In 1862 he enlisted as a private 
in the 83d Illinois infantry, and rose to the rank 
of colonel. For bravery at Fort Donelson he was 
promoted to brigadier-general, and in 1863 had 
command at Murfreesboro, Tenn. In 1864 he was 
elected a representative in congress, and was re- 
elected in 1866, serving from 4 Dec, 1865, till 3 
March, 1869. Gen. Harding early entered with 
zeal into the construction of railroads in central 
Illinois, and was one of the projectors and build- 
ers of the Peoria and Oquawka railroad, now a 
{)art of the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy. He 
eft a fortune of about $2,000,000, no small part 
of which he had amassed in railroad enterprises. 
Several years before his death he endowed a pro- 
fessorship in Monmouth college. 

HARDING, Benjamin F., senator, b. in Wyo- 
ming county, Pa., 4 Jan., 1823. He was educated 
at the public schools, studied law, and was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1847. He began practice in Illi- 
nois in 1848, and in 1849 removed to Oregon, 
where he was clerk of the territorial legislature in 
1850-'l, and a member of that body and its speaker 
in 1852. He was U. S. district attorney for Oregon 
in 1853, and secretary of the territory in 1854-'9. 
After its admission to the Union he was a member 
of the state house of representatives in 1859-'62, 
being speaker during the last two years. He was 
then elected a U. S. senator as a Republican, to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of Edward D. 
Baker, who was killed at Ball's Bluff, and served 
from 1 Dec, 1862, till 3 March, 1865. 

HARDING, Chester, artist, b. in Conway, 
Mass., 1 Sept., 1792 : d. in Boston, Mass., 1 April, 



1866. His family removed to Caledonia, N. Y., 
when he was fourteen years old, and he was early 
thrown upon his own resources for support, and 
eventually became a house-painter in Pittsburg, 
Pa. He worked at this occupation a year, when 
acquaintance with a travelling portrait-painter led 
him to attempt art. Having succeeded in produc- 
ing a crude portrait of his wife, he devoted him- 
self enthusiastically to the profession. He painted 
several other portraits at Pittsburg, and then went 
to Paris, Ky., where he finished 100 portraits in 
six months at $25 each. After receiving slight in- 
struction in Philadelphia, he established himself 
in St. Louis. In August, 1823, he went to London, 
and spent three years in studying and painting, 
when he returned to Boston, where he became very 
popular. In 1843 he went to England again, and 
afterward resided in Springfield, Mass., spending 
his winters frequently in St. Louis or in some of 
the southern cities. Among the distinguished per- 
sons who sat for him were James Madison, James 
Monroe, John Quincy Adams, John Marshall, 
Charles Carroll, William Wirt, Henry Clay, John 

C. Calhoun, Washington Allston, the Dukes of Nor- 
folk, Hamilton, and Sussex, Samuel Rogers, and 
Sir Archibald Allison. His last work was a por- 
trait of Gen. William T. Sherman. His portrait of 
Daniel Webster is now in the possession of the Bar 
association of New York, and that of John Ran- 
dolph is in the Corcoran gallery at Washington, 

D. C. He wrote " My Egotistography," which has 
been printed, but not published. 

HARDING, Jesper, publisher, b. in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., 5 Nov., 1799 ; d. there, 21 Aug., 1865. 
After acquiring a knowledge of printing under 
Enos Bronson, the publisher, he engaged in the 
business on his own account at the age of eighteen. 
In 1829 he purchased the " Pennsylvania Inquirer," 
which had been established a few months before, 
and at about the same time he began to print 
Bibles, of which he subsequently became the largest- 
publisher in the United States. The first Bible pub- 
lished by him — a quarto, bound in sheep — was sold 
for one dollar. As the first editor of the " Inquir- 
er," Mr. Harding, during the contest between Presi- 
dent Jackson and the directors of the Bank of the 
United States, attempted the difficult task of de- 
fending the latter while supporting the former ; 
but, when the government deposits were removed 
from the bank, he supported the anti-Jackson fac- 
tion of the party, and in 1836 advocated the elec- 
tion of Harrison. Finally, however, the " Inquir- 
er " espoused the cause of the Whig party, to the 
fortunes of which Mr. Harding adhered until the 
overthrow of the party in 1852. Mr. Harding was 
also largely engaged in the manufacture of paper 
at Trenton. N. J. In 1859 he retired from the 
publishing business, and was succeeded in it by his 
son, William W. At the time of his death he held 
the office of collector of internal revenue, under 
appointment by President Lincoln. — His son, 
George, lawyer, b. in Philadelphia. 26 Oct., 1827, 
was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1846. read law with Hon. John Cadwalader, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1849. He has since con- 
tinued in active practice, devoting himself to patent 
cases. When arguing the telegraph case of Samuel 
F. B. Morse against O'Reilly in the U. S. supreme 
court, he operated in the court-room miniature lines 
of telegraph representing the entire system then 
existing between New York and Washington. In 
the " hat-body " case he operated machinery so as 
to make a complete hat in the court-room. He 
was associated with Abraham Lincoln and Edwin 
M. Stanton in the McCormick reaper case, and in- 



80 



HARDY 



HARDY 



troduced a miniature grain-field to illustrate the 
process of reaping by machinery. His most suc- 
cessful effort was in the Tilghman glycerine case, 
when his argument induced the supreme court to. 
reverse its first decision on the same patent. Since 
1854 Mr. Harding has been a member of the Ameri- 
can philosophical society. — Another son, William 
White, publisher, b. in Philadelphia, 1 Nov., 
1830: d. there 15 May. 1889. He became asso- 
ciated with his father in 1855 in the publishing of 
the " Inquirer " and of Harding's edition of the 
Bible. Over two million copies of the Bible have 
been published by the Hardings. In April, 1860, 
William W. Harding changed the name of the 
newspaper to the " Philadelphia Inquirer," and its 
size from a folio to a quarto sheet. During the 
civil war he rendered important services to the 
government, in acknowledgment of which Sec. 
Stanton wrote to Mr. Harding: "Prom no one 
have I received in my official labors more disinter- 
ested and highly prized support than from your- 
self." From 1863 till 1878 Mr. Harding manufac- 
tured paper at the Inquirer paper-mills, Manayunk, 
near Philadelphia, where he introduced many new 
systems and inventions. At the Centennial in 
1876 he was awarded a medal for paper-making, 
binding, and printing, he being the only exhibitor 
at whose establishment the paper was made, 
printed, and bound into the completed book. 

HARDY, Arthur Sherburne, author, b. in An- 
dover, Mass., 13 Aug., 1847. He studied for a year 
at Amherst, and in 1865 entered the U. S. military 
academy, where he was graduated in 1869. Sub- 
sequently he became 2d lieutenant in the 3d artil- 
lery, and, after a few months' service as assistant 
instructor of artillery tactics in the academy, he 
was assigned to garrison duty in Fort Jefferson, 
Fla. In 1870 he was honorably discharged from 
the U. S. army at his own request, and until 1873 
held the professorship of civil engineering and ap- 
plied mathematics in Iowa college, Grinnell. He 
then spent one year in study at the Ecole imperiale 
des ponts et chaussees in Paris. On his return he 
was professor of civil engineering in the Chandler 
scientific school of Dartmouth until 1878, when he 
accepted the chair of mathematics in the college 
proper. In 1873 he received the degree of Ph. D. 
from Amherst, and he is a member of various 
scientific societies. Prof. Hardy has published 
"Elements of Quaternions" (Boston, 1881) ; " Im- 
aginary Quantities," translated from the French of 
Argand, with notes (New York, 1881) ; and " New 
Methods in Topographical Surveying " (1884). Be- 
sides these, he is the author of a poem entitled 
" Francesca of Rimini " (Philadelphia, 1878), and 
of the two novels, " But yet a Woman " (Boston, 
1883), and "The Wind of Destiny" (1886). 

HARD V, Arthur Sturgis, Canadian statesman, 
b. at Mount Pleasant, Brant co., Ont., 14 Dec, 1837. 
He was educated at a grammar-school and at the 
Rockwood academy, studied law, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1865. He then began practice at 
Brantford, was appointed city solicitor in 1867, 
and in 1875 elected a bencher of the Law society 
of Ontario. In 1873 he was elected to the legis- 
lature of Ontario for South Brant, re-elected for 
the same constituency in 1875, by acclamation, and 
in March, 1877, became provincial secretary and 
registrar of Ontario. Mr. Hardy has introduced 
and carried through the legislature measures con- 
solidating and amending the jurors' act, and others 
relating to the liquor-license law, the jurisdiction 
of division courts, and joint-stock companies. 

HARDY, Benjamin Franklin, physician, b. in 
Kennebunk, Me., 28 Jan., 1808 ; d. in San Fran- 



cisco, Cal., 22 Nov., 1886. He was left an orphan 
at four vears of age, was educated at Haverford 
college, Pa., and graduated in medicine in 1840 at 
the University of Pennsylvania. He subsequently 
removed to New Bedford, Mass., and after prac- 
tising there for several years accepted the appoint- 
ment of court physician and physician in charge 
of the marine hospital at the Hawaiian islands. He 
arrived there in 1856, and after remaining six years 
removed to San Francisco, Cal., where he practised 
until his death. He was the founder of the San 
Francisco lying-in hospital and foundling asylum, 
incorporated in 1868, and regarded this as his life- 
work. He was its manager, physician, and surgeon 
till within two months of his death. 

HARDY, Sir Charles, British soldier, b. about 
1705 ; d. in Spithead, England, 18 May, 1780. He 
became captain in the navy, 10 Aug., 1741, governor 
and commander-in-chief at Newfoundland in 1744, 
and as rear-admiral of the white was second in 
command at the taking of Louisburg in 1758. He 
was British administrative governor of New York 
in 1755-'7, and vice-admiral of the white in Hawke's 
victory of Belle Isle in 1759. Sir Charles was gov- 
ernor of Greenwich hospital in 1771-'80. — His 
brother, Josiah, merchant, was governor of New 
Jersey in 1761-3, but was dismissed for issuing a 
commission to judges during good behavior, in vio- 
lation of his instructions. 

HARDY, Elias, lawyer, b. in 1746 ; d. in St. 
John, New Brunswick, in 1799. He was practising 
as a lawyer in New York at the close of the Revo- 
lutionary war, and soon afterward settled in St. 
John, New Brunswick, where he was known as the 
" London lawyer." At the election of members 
for the first house of assembly, Mr. Hardy was 
elected for Northumberland county, and was chosen 
for St. John in the second house of assembly. In 
the celebrated slander case of 1790, in which Mon- 
son Hait was placed on trial charged with accusing 
Benedict Arnold with burning his warehouse in 
order to defraud the company that had insured the 
property, Mr. Hardy was counsel for the defendant, 
against whom the jury returned a verdict of two 
shillings and sixpence damages. He married a 
daughter of Dr. Peter Huggerford, surgeon in the 
New York regiment raised by Col. Beverley Robin- 
son. Several years after her husband's death Mrs. 
Hardy and her family returned to New York. 

HARDY, James Ward, educator, b. in Georgia, 
19 Jan., 1815 ; d. in Alabama, 14 Aug., 1853. He 
was graduated at Randolph-Macon college, Va., in 
1837, and in the same year was elected to the chair 
of natural science in that institution, also entering 
the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
He was for several years professor of mathematics 
in Grange college, Ala., and afterward its president. 

HARDY, Samuel, statesman, b. in Isle of Wight 
county, Va., about 1758; d. in New York city in 
October, 1785. He was a son of Richard Hardy, 
and descended from George Hardy, who repre- 
sented that county in the house of burgesses 
1642-'52. Samuel was educated at William and 
Mary college in 1776-'81, began the practice of 
law, was in the house of delegates one or two ses- 
sions, and in June, 1781, was appointed a member 
of the executive council. He was a member of the 
Continental congress from Virginia in 1783-5. On 
6 May, 1784, he voted against the resolution in 
congress restricting the salary of a foreign minis- 
ter of the United States to $8,000, and on 7 May 
opposed the motion that the salary of a U. S. sec- 
retary for foreign affairs should not exceed $3,000 
per annum. In May, 1784, he nominated Jefferson 
as minister plenipotentiary to Europe to assist 



HARE 



HARE 



81 




<#yk^ 



John Adams and Benjamin Franklin in negoti- 
ating treaties of commerce ; and in January, 1785, 
was a member of a committee that reported on let- 
ters that had been received from U. S. ministers in 
Europe relative to a foreign loan. He was for a 
time lieutenant-governor of Virginia, and a county 
in the northern part of that state was named in his 
honor. He was a friend of Alexander Hamilton, 
who wrote a poetical tribute to his memory. 

HARE, Robert, scientist, b. in Philadelphia, 
Pa., 17 Jan., 1781 ; d. there, 15 May. 1858. He was 
the son of an English emigrant who early estab- 
lished a large brewery in Philadelphia, of which 

the active manage- 
ment soon fell into 
the hands of the 
son. He followed a 
course of lectures 
on chemistry and 
physics in Philadel- 

Ehia, and before he 
ad attained the 
age of twenty was 
a member of the 
Chemical society 
of Philadelphia, to 
which he communi- 
cated in 1801 a de- 
scription of his im- 
portant discovery 
of the oxyhydrogen 
blow-pipe, which he 
called a " hydrostatic blow-pipe." The original 
paper was published with the title "Memoir on 
the Supplv and Application of the Blow-Pipe" 
(Philadelphia, 1802). The elder Silliman, who was 
engaged with him in a series of experiments with 
this instrument in 1802-'3, subsequently distin- 
guished it as the " compound blow-pipe." " This 
apparatus," says Silliman, "was the earliest and, 
perhaps, the most remarkable of his original con- 
tributions to science." He read a supplementary 
paper giving an " Account of the Fusion of Stron- 
tites and Volatilization of Platinum, and also a new 
Arrangement of Apparatus " before the American 
philosophical society in June, 1803. By means of 
this apparatus he was the first to render lime, mag- 
nesia, iridium, and platinum fusible in any consid- 
erable quantity, and the so-called Drummond and 
calcium lights are simply applications of the prin- 
ciples discovered by him. Among his other inven- 
tions is the valve-cock or gallows-screw, by means 
of which communication between cavities in sepa- 
rate pieces of apparatus is made perfectly air-tight. 
He devised improved forms of the voltaic pile with 
which the intense powers of extended series of 
Toltaic couples were used long in advance of simi- 
" ir combinations in Europe. In 1816 he invented 
the calorimotor, a form of battery by which a large 
lount of heat is produced. A modified form of 
lis apparatus, devised in 1820 and called the de- 
fiagrator, was employed in 1823 in volatilizing and 
fusing carbon. It was with these batteries that 
the first application of voltaic electricity to blast- 
' lg under water was made in 1831, and the experi- 
ments were conducted under the direction of Dr. 
Hare. He also attained a high reputation as a 
chemist, and was the author of a process for de- 
narcotizing laudanum, and also of a method for de- 
tecting minute quantities of opium in solution. In 
1818 he was called to the chair of chemistry and 
natural philosophy in William and Mary, and dur- 
ing the same year was made professor of chemistry 
in the medical department of the University of 
Pennsylvania, where he remained until 1847. His 
vol. in. — 8 



course of instruction was marked by the original- 
ity of his experiments and of the apparatus that he 
employed, which was frequently of unusual dimen- 
sions. His valuable collection of chemical and 
physical apparatus was presented to the Smithso- 
nian institution on his resignation from his pro- 
fessorship in 1847. In later years he became a 
convert to Spiritualism, and lectured in its advo- 
cacy. Dr. Hare received the honorary degree of 
M. D. from Yale in 1806, and from Harvard in 
1816. In 1839 he was the first recipient of the 
Rumford premium for his oxyhydrogen blow-pipe, 
and his improvements in galvanic apparatus. Dr. 
Hare was a member of the American academy of 
arts and sciences, of the American philosophical 
society (1803), and an honorary life-member of the 
Smithsonian institution. His contributions to sci- 
entific literature were large. In Silliman's "Amer- 
ican Journal of Science " alone he published nearly 
200 papers. Besides contributions to other scientific 
periodicals, he was the author of moral essays in 
the " Portfolio," writing frequently under the pen- 
name of Eldred Grayson, and of " Brief View of the 
Policy and Resources of the United States " (Phila- 
delphia, 1810) ; " Chemical Apparatus and Manipu- 
lations " (1836) ; " Compendium of the Course of 
Chemical Instruction in the Medical Department 
of the University of Pennsylvania " (1840) ; " Me- 
moir on the Explosiveness of Nitre " (Washing- 
ton, 1850) ; and " Spiritualism Scientifically Demon- 
strated " (New York, 1855). — His son, John I n nes 
Clark, jurist, b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 17 Oct., 
1816, was graduated at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1834, and after studying law was admitted 
to the bar in 1841. Ten years later he was elected 
associate judge of the district court of Philadel- 
phia, and in 1867 became presiding judge. In 
1875 he was made presiding judge of the court of 
common pleas in Philadelphia, which office he still 
holds. He received the degree of LL. D. in 1868 
from the University of Pennsylvania, of which he 
was a trustee in 1858-'68, and in which he was for 
some time professor of institutes of law. In con- 
junction with Horace B. Wallace he published 
" American Leading Cases in Law " (2 vols., Phila- 
delphia, 1847) : and has edited " Smith's Leading 
Cases in Law " (2 vols., 1852), " White and Tudor's 
Leading Cases in Equity " (3 vols., 1852) : and " Hare 
on Contracts" (1887); also "The New English 
Exchequer Reports." — Robert's nephew, George 
Emlen, clergyman, b. in Philadelphia. Pa., 4 Sept., 
1808, was graduated at Union in 1826. He was 
ordained deacon by Bishop White, 20 Dec, 1829, 
and before his ordination to the priesthood was 
chosen rector of St. John's church, Carlisle, Pa., 
where he remained several years. He was after- 
ward rector of Trinity church, Princeton, N. J. 
He was assistant professor of Latin and Greek at 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1844-'5, and 
subsequently had charge of the academy of the 
Protestant Episcopal church in Philadelphia, be- 
ing also rector of St. Matthew's. He undertook 
after this the instruction of the diocesan training- 
school, which soon grew into the Philadelphia di- 
vinity-school. He has continued in the faculty of 
the latter more than twenty-five years, most of the 
time as professor of biblical learning, and is now 
professor of New Testament literature. He served 
many years on the standing committee of the dio- 
cese of Pennsylvania, and has been often a dele- 
gate to the general convention. He was one of the 
American committee for the revision of the Old 
Testament translation. Columbia gave him the 
degree of S. T. D. in 1843, and the University of 
Pennsylvania that of LL. D. in 1873. — George Em- 



82 



HARGIS 



HARKINS 



len's son, William Hobart, P. E. bishop, b. in 
Princeton, N. J., 17 May. 1838, was educated in 
part at the University of Pennsylvania, but, on ac- 
count of trouble with his eyes, he left before gradu- 
ation. He was ordained deacon, 19 June, 1859, by 
Bishop Bowman, and priest, 25 May, 1862, by Bish- 
op Alonzo Potter. During his deaconate he was 
assistant minister in St. Luke's church, Philadel- 
phia. In May, 1861, he became rector of St. Paul's, 
Chestnut Hill, where he remained for two years. 
In 1863 he was in charge of St. Luke's, Philadel- 
phia, during the absence of the rector, and in 1864 
was elected rector of the Church of the Ascension 
in the same city. He next became secretary and 
general agent of the foreign committee of the 
board of missions, which office he filled for several 
years. In 1871 Dr. Hare was elected by the house 
of bishops missionary bishop of Cape Palmas and 
parts adjacent, in West Africa, but declined the 
appointment. In October, 1872, he was elected 
missionary bishop of Niobrara, and was consecrated 
in St. Luke's, Philadelphia, 9 Jan., 1873. He re- 
ceived the degree of D. D. from three colleges in 
1873. At the general convention of 1883 the 
Indian missionary jurisdiction of Niobrara was 
changed and extended. It now embraces the 
southern part of Dakota, and, by vote of the house 
of bishops, he was placed in charge, with the title 
of " Missionary Bishop of South Dakota." Bishop 
Hare deposed a missionary, Rev. S. D. Hinman, on 
charges of immorality, and, to vindicate his action, 
sent a communication to the board of missions. 
For this, Hinman sued him for libel in the New 
York courts, and obtained a verdict for $10,000, 
but after appeals the judgment was reversed. 

HARGIS, Thomas F., jurist, b. in Breathitt 
county, Ky., 24 June, 1842. He removed with his 
parents to Rowan county in 1856, and received a 
scanty education. In 1861 he entered the Confed- 
erate service as a private in the 5th Kentucky in- 
fantry. He was promoted captain in 1863, and in 
November, 1864, was captured in Luray valley and 
held a prisoner until the termination of the war. 
Returning home penniless at the age of twenty- 
three, he devoted himself to the study and mastery 
of the English branches, and to the law. He was 
licensed to practise in 1866, and in 1868 removed 
to Carlisle, Ky. The year following he was elected 
judge of Nicholas county, and he was re-elected in 
1870. He was chosen to the state senate in 1871, 
elected judge of the criminal court in 1878, and 
raised to the appellate bench of Kentucky in 1879. 
After serving as chief justice during the vacancy 
caused by the death of an associate judge, he 
served two years longer by his own succession. 
Declining a re-election, he retired from the supreme 
bench in 1884, and removed to Louisville, Ky., 
where he is now (1887) engaged in practice. 

HARGROVE, Robert Kennon, M. E. bishop, 
b. in Pickens county, Ala., 17 Sept., 1829. He was 
graduated at the University of Alabama in 1852, 
and was professor of pure mathematics there in 
1853-7. He entered the ministry of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church in the latter year, was presi- 
dent or the Centenary institute in Alabama in 
1805-7. and of Tennessee female college in 1868-73. 
In 1882 he was elected a bishop of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. He was the first to urge the 
bond-scheme that saved the publishing-house of 
the Methodist Episcopal church, south, originated 
the woman's department of church-extension for 
the securing of parsonages in the same church, and 
was a member of the commission that in 1878 es- 
tablished fraternal relations between the northern 
and southern branches of the Methodist church. 



HARING, John, patriot, b. in Tappan, Orange 
(now Rockland) co., N. Y., 28 Sept., 1739; d. in 
Blauveltville, N. Y., 1 April, 1809. His ancestors 
came from Holland. He served in the first four 
provincial congresses, and sat in the Continental 
congress in 1774-'5 and 1785-7. He was elected in 
1776 to the New York general assembly, which never 
organized, sat on the judicial bench of the county 
in 1778-'88, and in 1781-90 was state senator. He 
was a commissioner for settling the dispute be- 
tween New York and Massachusetts about western 
lands, and in 1788 was a member of the state con- 
vention that ratified the U.S. constitution, but voted 
against it. See his life by Franklin Burdge (1878). 

HARKER, Charles G., soldier, b. in Swedes- 
borough, N. J., 2 Dec, 1837: killed at the battle 
of Kenesaw Mountain, 27 June, 1864. He was 
graduated at the U. S. military academy in 1858, 
entered the 2d infantry, and became 1st lieuten- 
ant of the 15th infantry, 14 May, 1861. He was 
promoted captain, 24 Oct., 1861, became lieuten- 
ant-colonel of the 65th Ohio volunteers, and colo- 
nel on 11 Nov., 1861. He was engaged in the bat- 
tle of Shiloh and the siege of Corinth and the 
battle of Stone River, and was recommended for 
promotion, but did not receive it until he had 
still further distinguished himself at Chicka- 
mauga and Chattanooga. He was made brigadier- 
general of volunteers, to date from 20 Sept., 1863, 
commanded a brigade under Gen. Howard in 
the campaign in Georgia, and held the peak of 
Rocky Face Ridge, 7 May, 1864, against deter- 
mined efforts of the enemy to dislodge him. 

HARKER, Samuel, clergyman. He became 
pastor of a church at Black River, N. J., 31 Oct., 
1752. He published " Predestination Consistent 
with General Liberty " (1761), for which he was 
excluded, and disqualified to preach by the synods 
of New York and Philadelphia. He subsequently 
published an " Appeal from the Synod to the 
Christian World " (1763). 

HARKEY, Simeon Walcher, clergyman, b. 
in Iredell county, N. C, 3 Dec. 1811. He was 
graduated at the Gettysburg Lutheran seminary 
in 1834, and from 1850 till 1866 was professor of 
theology in the University of Illinois. He was 
president of the general synod of his church in 
1857. In 1865 he served as chaplain at Camp 
Butler, near Springfield, 111. He has been success- 
ful as an organizer and pastor of congregations, 
preaching both in English and German. Witten- 
berg college gave him the degree of D. D. in 1852. 
His publications in book -form are "Lutheran 
Sunday-School Question-Book " (1838) ; " Church's 
Best State " (1843) ; "Daily Prayer-Book " (1844); 
"Value of an Evangelical Ministry" (1853): and 
" Justification by Faith " (1875). Among his ad- 
dresses are " True Greatness," " Andrew Jack- 
son's Funeral," " Prisons for Women," and " Mis- 
sion of Lutheran Church." He is now (1887) 
writing a series of articles on his personal remi- 
niscences of Lutheranism in Illinois. 

HARKINS, Mathew, R. C. bishop, b. in Bos- 
ton, Mass., 17 Nov., 1845. He attended the Latin- 
school of his native city, and was graduated with 
a Franklin medal in 1862. He studied a year at 
the College of the Holy Cross at Worcester, Mass., 
and on leaving was sent by Bishop Fitzpatrick to 
pursue a course of theology at the English college 
of Douay and in the seminary of St. Sulpice, 
Paris. After six years' study he was ordained, 
and visited Rome before returning home. After 
serving as curate of the Church of the Immacu- 
late Conception at Salem, Mass., he was appointed 
in 1876 rector of St. Malachi's church at Arling- 









HARKNESS 

ton, his parish including Lexington and Belmont. 
Here he remained for eight years, after which he 
was transferred to St. James's in Boston. He took 
an especial interest in the Sunday-school, and 
gained great popularity as a preacher. He was 
nominated for the see of Providence in January, 
1887. The diocese over which he presides is prob- 
ably the largest in New England, with the excep- 
tion of the archdiocese of Boston. Bishop Har- 
kins was selected by Archbishop Williams as his 
theologian at the plenary council of Baltimore, 
where he was appointed one of the notaries. 

HARKNESS, Albert, educator, b. in Mendon 
(now Blackstown), Mass., 6 Oct.. 1822. He was 
graduated at Brown in 1842, at the head of his 
class, and served as master in the Providence 
high-school from 1843 till 1846, when he became 
senior master, and held this post until 1853. He 
then travelled extensively in Europe, spending 
about two years in the universities of Gottingen, 
Bonn, and Berlin. On his return in 1855 he was 
appointed professor of the Greek language and 
literature in Brown, which chair he still (1887) 
holds. He has received the degrees of Ph. D. from 
Bonn in 1854 and LL. D. from Brown in 1869. 
His publications are principally text-books, which 
are extensively used. They include " Arnold's 
First Latin Book" (New York, 1851): "Second 
Latin Book " (1853) ; " First Greek Book and In- 
troductory Greek Reader " (1860 ; revised ed., 1885) : 
"Latin Grammar" (1864; revised eds., 1874 and 
1881); "Latin Reader" (1865); "Introductory 
Latin Book" (1866): "Latin Composition" (1868)"; 
editions of "Caesar" (1870; revised ed., with a 
treatise on the military system of the Romans, 
1886), " Cicero " (1873), and' " Sallust " (1878) ; and 
"Complete Latin Course for the First Year" 
(1883). — His son, Albert Granger, b. in Provi- 
dence, R. I., 19 Nov., 1857, was graduated at Brown 
in 1879, and studied in Berlin, Leipzig, and Bonn. 
Since 1883 he has been professor of Latin and 
German in Madison university, Hamilton, N. Y. 

HARKNESS, James, clergyman, b. in Rox- 
burghshire, Scotland, 13 March, 1803 ; d. in Jersey 
City, N. J., 4 July, 1878. He was graduated at the 
University of Edinburgh, was ordained to the min- 
istry in 1832, and became pastor of the Presbyte- 
rian church in Ecclefechan, Scotland. He came to 
the United States in 1839, and held pastorates in 
New York city, Fishkill, and Rochester, N. Y. In 
1862 he was installed over the 3d Presbyterian 
church in Jersey City, where he remained until 
his death. He had studied medicine, had taken a 
medical degree, and practised among his various 
congregations. He adopted homoeopathy in 1840. 
He contributed frequently to the magazines of his 
denomination, and published " Messiah's Throne 
and Kingdom " (New York, 1855). — His son, Will- 
iam, astronomer, b. in Ecclefechan, Scotland, 17 
Dec, 1837, studied at Lafayette college, and was 
graduated in 1858 at Rochester university, where 
he also received the degree of LL. D. in 1874. He 
was graduated in medicine in 1862, was appointed 
aide at the U. S. naval observatory in August of 
that year, and also served as surgeon in the U. S. 
army at the second battle of Bull Run, and during 
the attack on Washington in July, 1864. He was 
commissioned professor of mathematics in the U. S. 
navy, with the relative rank of lieutenant-com- 
mander, in August. 1863, and stationed at the naval 
observatory in Washington, D. C. In 1865-'6, dur- 
ing a cruise on the " Monadnock." he made an ex- 
tensive series of observations on terrestrial mag- 
netism at the principal ports in South America. 
His results were published by the Smithsonian in- 



HARLAN 83 

stitution (Washington, 1872). On his return he 
was attached to the U. S. hydrographic office dur- 
ing 1867, and from 1868 till 1874 to the naval ob- 
servatory. He discovered the 1474 line of the solar 
corona at Des Moines, Iowa, during the total 
eclipse of 7 Aug., 1869. In 1871 he was appointed 
a member of the U. S. transit-of- Venus commission, 
and, after designing most of the instruments to be 
employed, he went to Hobart Town, Tasmania, as 
chief of the party that observed the transit there, 
made a voyage around the world, and returned to 
Washington in 1875. He was promoted to the rela- 
tive rank of captain in 1878, was made executive 
officer of the transit-of- Venus commission, and 
fitted out all of the expeditions in 1882. The ma- 
chine used for measuring the astronomical photo- 
graphs obtained was designed by him, and a dupli- 
cate of this machine has recently been made for the 
Lick observatory in California. Since the return 
of the transit-of- Venus parties, he has been engaged 
in reducing and discussing their observations. He 
also devised the sperometer caliper, which is the 
most accurate instrument known for measuring 
the inequalities of the pivots of astronomical in- 
struments. Prof. Harkness is a member of various 
scientific societies, and has prepared a great num- 
ber of papers and reports. 

HARLAN, James, lawver, b. in Mercer county, 
Ky., 22 June, 1800 ; d. in Frankfort, Ky., 18 Feb., 
1863. He received a public-school education, and 
engaged in mercantile pursuits from 1817 till 1822. 
He then studied law, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1823, beginning to practise in Harrodsburg. 
He was for four years prosecuting attorney for his 
circuit, and in 1834 was elected a representative in 
congress as a Whig, serving from 1835 till 1839. 
During his last session he was chairman of the 
committee for investigating defalcations. He was 
secretary of state of Kentucky in 1840-'4, a presi- 
dential elector in 1841, and a member of the legis- 
lature in 1845. In 1850 he was appointed attor- 
ney-general for Kentucky, which office he held 
until his death. — His son, John Marshall, lawyer, 
b. in Boyle county, Ky., 1 June, 1833, was graduated 
at Centre college in 1850, and at the law depart- 
ment of Transylvania university in 1853. In 1851 
he was adjutant-general of Kentucky, and in 1858 
became judge of Franklin county, Ky. He was 
afterward an unsuccessful Whig candidate for 
congress, and at the beginning of the civil war en- 
tered the Union army as colonel of the 10th Ken- 
tucky infantry. He was attorney-general of Ken- 
tucky in 1863^-'7, and was the unsuccessful Repub- 
lican candidate for governor of the state in 1871 
and 1875. He was a member of the Louisiana com- 
mission that was appointed by President Hayes, 
and on 29 Nov., 1877, became associate justice of 
the U. S. supreme court, as successor of David 
Davis. — John Marshall's son, Richard Daven- 
port, was graduated at Princeton in 1881, and is 
now (1887) in charge of the First Presbyterian 
church on Fifth avenue, in New York city. 

HARLAN, James, statesman, b. in Clarke coun- 
ty, 111., 25 Aug., 1820. He was graduated at the 
Indiana Asbury university in 1845, held the office 
of superintendent of public instruction in Iowa in 
1847, and was president of Iowa Wesleyan univer- 
sity in 1853. He was elected to the IJ. S. senate 
in 1855 as a Whig, and served as chairman of the 
committee on public lands, but his seat was de- 
clared vacant on a technicality on 12 Jan., 1857. 
On the 17th of the same month he was re-elected 
for the term ending in 1861, and in the latter year 
was a delegate to the Peace convention. He was 
re-elected to the senate for the term ending in 



84 



HARLAN 



HARNDEN 



1867, but resigned in 1865, having been appointed 
by President Lincoln secretary of the interior. 
He was again elected to the senate in 1866, and 
was a delegate to the Philadelphia loyalists' con- 
vention of that year. He was chairman of the 
committee on the District of Columbia and Indian 
affairs, and also served on those on foreign rela- 
tions, agriculture, and the Pacific railroad. In 
1869 he was appointed president of the Iowa uni- 
versity. After leaving the senate in 1873 he be- 
came editor of the " Washington Chronicle." From 
1882 till 1885 he was presiding judge of the court 
of commissioners of Alabama claims. 

HARLAN, Richard, naturalist, b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 19 Sept., 1796 ; d. in New Orleans, La., 
30 Sept., 1843. Previous to his graduation at the 
medical department of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1818, he made a voyage to Calcutta as 
surgeon of an East India ship. He practised his 
profession in Philadelphia, was elected in 1821 
professor of comparative anatomy in the Phila- 
delphia museum, was a member of the cholera 
commission in 1832, and surgeon to the Philadel- 
phia hospital. In 1839 he visted Europe a second 
time, and after his return in 1843 removed to New 
Orleans, and became in that year vice-president of 
the Louisiana state medical society. He was a 
member of many learned societies in this country 
and abroad, and published " Observations on the 
Genus Salamandra " (Philadelphia, 1824) ; " Fauna 
Americana " (1825) ; " American Herpetology " 
(1827) ; " Medical and Physical Researches" (1835) ; 
and a translation of Gannal's " History of Embalm- 
ing," with additions (1840). — His son, George Cu- 
vier, physician, b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 28 Jan., 
1835, was educated at Delaware college and in the 
medical department of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, where he was graduated in 1858. He was 
appointed resident physician of Wills eye hospital 
in 1857, of St. Joseph's hospital in 1858, and of the 
Pennsylvania hospital in 1859. For some time 
during the civil war he served as medical officer on 
the gun-boat " Union," and for three years was 
surgeon of the 11th Pennsylvania cavalry. He is 
now (1887) professor of diseases of the eye in the 
Philadelphia polyclinic, and has published numer- 
ous papers on his specialty. He is the author of 
" Diseases of the Orbit " in Wood's " Reference 
Hand-Book," and has revised parts of the Ameri- 
can edition of Holmes's " System of Surgery." 

HARLAND, Henry, author, b. in New York city, 
1 March, 1861. He received his education in the 
College of the city of New York and in Harvard, 
but was not graduated. From 1883 till 1886 he 
was employed in the office of the surrogate of New 
York. He writes under the pen-name of Sidney 
Luska, and has published " As It was Written " 
(New York, 1885): "Mrs. Peixada" (1886); "The 
Yoke of the Thorah," and "A Land of Love " (1887). 

HARM AND, Louis Gustave, French pilot, b. in 
Dieppe, France, in 1503; d. in Acapulco, New 
Spain, in 1549. He had served in the French navy, 
and in 1541 offered his services to Antonio de Men- 
doza, then viceroy of New Spain, who attached 
him to the expedition commanded by Vasquez de 
Coronado and Fray Marcos de Niza. On his re- 
turn, Mendoza appointed him chief pilot, and in 
1543 sent him to explore the coasts of California. 
He sailed in a small brig on 20 March, 1543, and 
kept always in sight of the land, making charts, 
and advancing three degrees farther than Her- 
nando de Alarcon in the Gulf of California. He 
rectified the map of Alarcon, and brought back 
proof that California is not an island, as had been 
believed. Harmand landed several times, and col- 



lected some interesting traditions current among 
the natives, which he published under the title 
" Les indigenes de la Californie " (Paris, 1547). A 
copy of the original edition, probably the only one 
now in existence, is in the National library of Paris. 
It has been reprinted by Ternaux Com pans, the 
historian of the discovery of South America, in his 
collection. Harmand's map of California is won- 
derfully exact, considering that the navigator had 
scarcely any instrument. 

HARMAR, Josiah, soldier, b. in Philadelphia, 
Pa., in 1753 ; d. there, 20 Aug., 1813. He was edu- 
cated chiefly in Robert Proud's Quaker school. In 
1776 he entered the Continental army as captain 
in the 1st Pennsylvania regiment, was made lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the following year, and served 
until the close of the war. He was in Washington's 
army in the campaigns of 1778-'80, and in Gen. 
Greene's division in the south in 1781-'2. In 1783 
he was made brevet-colonel of the 1st U. S. regi- 
ment. He took the ratification of the definitive 
treaty to France in 1784, and as Indian agent for 
the northwest territory was present when the 
treaty was made at Fort Mcintosh on 20 Jan., 
1785. He was made lieutenant-colonel of infantry 
on 12 Aug., 1784, and in 1787 was brevetted briga- 
dier-general by resolution of congress. He be- 
came general-in-chief of the army in 1789, and in 
1790 he commanded an expedition against the 
Miami Indians. He resigned his commission in 
1792, and in the following year was appointed ad- 
jutant-general of Pennsylvania, which office he 
held until 1799. During this service he was active 
in preparing and equipping the Pennsylvania 
troops for Wayne's Indian campaign of 1793-'4. 

HARMONY, David B., naval officer, b. in Eas- 
ton, Pa., 3 Sept., 1832. He entered the navy as mid- 
shipman on 7 April, 1847, passed that grade in 
1853, became lieutenant in 1855, lieutenant-com- 
mander in 1862, commander in 1866, captain in 
1875, and commodore in 1885. He served on the 
" Iroquois " at the passage of Fort Jackson and 
Fort St. Philip, and at the capture of New Or- 
leans, and took part in many severe engagements 
with the batteries at Vicksburg and Grand Gulf. 
He was executive officer of the iron-clad " Na- 
hant " in the first attack on Fort Sumter, 7 April, 
1863, and in the engagement with the ram " At- 
lanta " on 17 June, and in all the attacks on de- 
fences at Charleston, from 4 July till 7 September. 
He held a command in the Eastern gulf squadron 
in 1863, and commanded the "Saratoga in the 
Western gulf squadron in 1864-'5, taking part in 
the capture of Mobile and its defences. He com- 
manded a division of eight vessels in an expedition 
to Montgomery, Ala., in April, 1865, and in 1867 
commanded the " Frolic " in Europe, one of the 
vessels of Admiral Farragut's squadron. He was 
honorably mentioned in the reports of Com. De 
Camp, Com. Palmer, and Com. Downes. He made 
his last cruise in 1881, was a member of the exam- 
ining and retiring boards in 1883-'5, and is now 
(1887) serving as chief of the bureau of yards and 
docks, having held this office since 1885. 

HARNDEN, William Frederick, expressman, 
b. in Reading, Mass., 23 Aug., 1813 ; d. in Boston, 
Mass., 14 Jan., 1845. For five years he was con- 
ductor and passenger-clerk on the Boston and 
Worcester railroad. Early in 1839 he originated 
the express system of transportation for merchan- 
dise or parcels. On 4 March of that year, after pub- 
lic announcement in the newspapers for several 
days, he made his first trip from Boston to New 
York as an " express-package carrier." Mr. Harn- 
den proposed also to take the charge of freight and 



HARNETT 



HARNEY 



85, 



attend to its delivery, for which purpose he was to 
make four trips a week. The project recommended 
itself to business men, and was particularly ac- 
ceptable to the press, to which Mr. Harnden made 
bimself useful in the voluntary transmission of 
news in advance of the mail. In 1840 Dexter 
Brigham, Jr., his New York agent, became his part- 
ner, and soon afterward went to England, where he 
laid the foundation of Harnden and Company's 
foreign business. During the same year their line 
was extended to Philadelphia, and later to Albany. 
The business grew with great rapidity, but Mr. 
Harnden's health failed, and he soon died. For 
several years the company was continued by the 
remaining members of the firm, but in 1854 it was 
consolidated with others to form the Adams express 
company. In 1866 a monument was erected to 
Mr. Harnden's memory in Mount Auburn ceme- 
tery, near Cambridge, Mass., by the " express com- 
panies of the United States." 

HARNETT, Cornelius, statesman, b. probably 
in North Carolina, 20 April, 1723 ; d. in Wilming- 
ton, N. C, 20 April, 1781. He acquired property 
at Wilmington, N. C., and first became known in 
public affairs through his opposition to the stamp- 
act and kindred measures. He represented the 
borough of Wilmington in the provincial assembly 
in 1770-'l, and was chairman of the more impor- 
tant committees of that body. In 1772 Mr. Har- 
nett, Robert Howe, and Judge Maurice Moore were 
named by the assembly a committee to prepare a 
remonstrance against the appointment, by Gov. 
Martin, of commissioners to run the southern 
boundary-line of the province. In 1773 Josiah 
Quincy, while travelling in the south for his health, 
spent a night at the residence of Mr. Harnett, 
whom he styled "the Samuel Adams of North 
Carolina." As the Revolution approached, Har- 
nett became its master-spirit throughout the Cape 
Pear region. In December, 1773, he was placed on 
the committee of continental correspondence for 
the Wilmington district. In the Provincial con- 
gress of 1775 he represented his old constituents ; 
and when a provincial council was appointed to 
fill the vacancy caused by the abdication of Mar- 
tin, he was made its president and became the act- 
ual governor of North Carolina. He was a mem- 
ber of the Provincial congress at Halifax, N. C, in 
the spring of 1776, and, as chairman of a committee 
to consider the usurpations of the home govern- 
ment, submitted a report that empowered the North 
Carolina delegates in the Continental congress to 
use their influence in favor of a declaration of in- 
dependence. Soon afterward Sir Henry Clinton, 
with a British fleet, appeared in Cape Pear river, 
and honored Harnett and Robert Howe by except- 
ing them from his offer of a general pardon to 
those who should return to their allegiance. When, 
on 22 July, the Declaration of Independence ar- 
rived at Halifax, Harnett read it to a great con- 
course of citizens and soldiers, who took him on 
their shoulders and bore him in triumph through the 
town. In the autumn of the same year he assisted 
in drafting a state constitution and bill of rights, 
and to his liberal spirit the citizens are indebted 
for the clause securing religious liberty. Under 
the new constitution Harnett became one of the 
council, and was, in 1778, elected to fill Gov. Cas- 
well's seat in congress. His name is to be found 
signed to the " articles of confederation and per- 
petual union." When the British subsequently 
took possession of the Cape Fear region, Harnett 
was taken prisoner and died in captivity. 

HARNEY, John Hopkins, journalist, b. in 
Bourbon county, Ky., 20 Feb., 1806 ; d. in Jefferson 



county, Ky., 27 Jan., 1867. Being left by the death 
of his parents in straitened circumstances, he was 
compelled to educate himself, and developed a 
talent for mathematics. At the age of seventeen 
he successfully solved a problem in surveying that 
had been referred to him by two rivals, which 
attracted so much attention that he was soon 
made principal of the Paris, Ky., academy. The 
money thus earned he devoted to the purchase 
of a scholarship in the University of Oxford, Ohio, 
where he was graduated in 1827 in belles-lettres 
and theology. He was appointed professor of 
mathematics in the University of Indiana in 1828, 
and in 1833 accepted the corresponding chair at 
Hanover college, Ind., and began the preparation 
of his " Algebra." In 1839 he was made president 
of Louisville college. This office he retained until 
1843, when the college was closed. The year fol- 
lowing, Mr. Harney began the publication of the 
Louisville " Democrat," which he continued to 
edit until his death. He was elected trustee of the 
Louisville school-board in 1850, and afterward 
president, and established many reforms. In 1861-2 
he was elected to the legislature, and as chairman 
of the committee on Federal relations, when Ken- 
tucky was invaded by the Confederate army, he 
drafted the famous resolution, " Resolved, That 
Kentucky expects the Confederate, or Tennessee, 
troops to be withdrawn from the soil uncondition- 
ally." Mr. Harney declined a re-election and de- 
voted himself to protesting in the "Democrat" 
against the arbitrary arrest and deportation of 
citizens, opposing the grant of " another man or 
another dollar " until the liberties of the citizen 
were assured. This led to his arrest, but Gen. 
Burnside, after looking into the matter, disapproved 
the action of his subordinates, and the journalist 
was released. At the close of the war Mr. Harney 
urged the repeal of the severe laws against self- 
expatriated Confederates, and succeeded in carry- 
ing a measure of full restoration ; but in 1868 he 
opposed the nomination of such rehabilitated citi- 
zens for high office, on the ground that it would 
provoke further arbitrary arrests. His "Algebra " 
(Louisville, 1840) ranks high as a text-book for 
advanced pupils. — His son, William Wallace, 
journalist, b. in Bloomington, Ind., 20 June, 1831, 
was educated at Louisville college and at home, and 
graduated at the law department of Louisville 
university in 1855. He was principal of a ward 
school in the latter city in 1852-'6, and afterward 
became the first principal of the Louisville high- 
school. During the two years succeeding he occu- 
pied the chair of English and ancient languages in 
the State university at Lexington, Ky. He then 
became associate editor of the Louisville " Demo- 
crat," and in 1869 its editor-in-chief. In the lat- 
ter year he removed to Florida, where he planted 
an orange-grove. From September, 1883, till 
March, 1885, he edited " The Bitter Sweet " at Kis- 
simmee, Fla. Besides his labors as a journalist, 
Mr. Harney has been a frequent contributor to pe- 
riodicals, and has written several essays oh orange- 
culture. His fugitive poems and his sketches of 
southern life are popular. 

HARNEY, John Milton, poet, b. in Sussex 
county, Del., 9 March, 1789; d. in Bardstown, Ky., 
15 Jan., 1825. He was a son of Thomas Harney, 
an officer in the war of the Revolution. In 1791 
the family emigrated to Tennessee, and subse- 
quently removed to Louisiana. Young Harney 
studied medicine and settled at Bardstown, Nelson 
co., Ky. While on a visit to Europe he received a 
| naval appointment, and spent several years in 
; Buenos Ayres. On his return to the United States 



86 



HARNISCII 



HARO 



he edited a paper at Savannah, Ga., for a time, 
but, being seized with a violent fever in conse- 

Suence of his exertions at a Are, he returned to 
ardstown in broken health and died there. Be- 
fore his death he had become a Roman Catholic 
and joined the order of Dominican monks, entering 
a monastery at Bardstown. With the exception 
of " Crystalina," a fairy-tale in six cantos, pub- 
lished anonymously (1816), Mr. Harney's poems 
were not printed until after his death, and then 
appeared only in magazines. The lines " To a 
Valued Friend," " Echo and the Lover," " The 
Whippoorwill," and " The Fever Dream " have been 
the most admired. — His brother, William Selby, 
b. near Haysboro, Davidson co., Tenn., 27 Aug., 
1800 ; d. in Orlando, Fla., 9 May, 1889. He was ap- 
pointed from Louisiana 2d lieutenant 13 Feb., 1818, 
and promoted to be 1st lieutenant, 7 Jan., 1-819. 
He was commisioned captain, 14 May, 1825 ; major 
and paymaster, 1 May, 1833 ; lieutenant-colonel, 
2d dragoons, 15 Aug., 1836 ; colonel, 30 June, 
1846; and brigadier-general, 14 June, 1858. He 
took part in the Black Hawk war in 1833, and 
also in the Florida war, distinguishing himself 
in action at Fort Mellon and in the defence of a 
trading-house at Carloosahatchie, 23 July, 1839. 
He commanded several expeditions into the Ever- 
glades, and in December, 1840, was breve tted colo- 
nel "for gallant and meritorious conduct." He 
was also mentioned for his bravery at Medellin, 
Mexico, 25 March, 1847, and was breve tted briga- 
dier-general for gallantry at Cerro Gordo. On 3 
Sept., 1855, he completely defeated the Sioux In- 
dians at Sand Hills, on the north fork of the Platte 
river. In June, 1858, he was placed in command 
of the Department of Oregon, and on 9 July, 1859, 
took possession of the island of San Juan, near Van- 
couver, which was claimed by the English govern- 
ment to be included within the boundaries of British 
Columbia. A dispute with Great Britain and the 
recall of Harney followed. He was subsequently 
assigned to the command of the Department of 
the West, and in April, 1861, while on his way 
from St. Louis to Washington, was arrested by the 
Confederates at Harper's Ferry and taken to 
Richmond, Va. Here he met with many old ac- 
quaintances, who urged him to join the south. On 
meeting Gen. Lee, Harney said to him : " I am 
sorry to meet you in this way." Lee replied : " Gen. 
Harney, I had no idea of taking any part in this 
matter ; I wanted to stay at Arlington and raise 
potatoes for my family ; but my friends forced me 
into it." Gen. Harney also met Gen. Joseph E. 
Johnston, who told him that he was opposed to 
the war, but that he would be execrated by his 
relatives, all of whom lived in Virginia, if he did 
not side with the south. Harney was speedily 
released, and departed for Washington. On his 
return to St. Louis he issued several proclamations 
warning the people of Missouri of the danger of 
secession, and the evil effects that would follow 
from a dissolution of the Union. On 21 May he 
entered into an agreement with Gen. Sterling 
Price, commanding the Missouri militia, to make 
no military movement so long as peace was main- 
tained by the state authorities. He was soon after- 
ward relieved of his command, and was placed 
on the retired list, 1 Aug., 1863. On 13 March, 
1865, he was brevetted major-general " for long 
and faithful service." Gen. Harney was a famous 
Indian fighter. See " The Life and Military Ser- 
vices of Gen. William Selby Harney, by L. U. 
Reavis" (St, Louis, 1887). 

HARNISCH, Albert Ernest, sculptor, b. in 
Philadelphia, 14 Feb., 1842. He early showed a 



taste for art, and while still a lad modelled his 
first work, a "Cupid." This was followed by 
" Love in Idleness," " Wandering Psyche," " Little 
Protector," and " Little Hunter." He then studied 
under Joseph A. Bailly in the Philadelphia acade- 
my of fine arts, and in 1869 went to Italy, where 
he still resides (1887). There he has executed sev- 
eral important works, among them his " Boy in 
the Eagle's Nest." He has also made a special- 
ty of portrait-busts. To the Philadelphia exhibi- 
tion of 1876 he sent a statue, and a " Sketch for 
a Monument to the Prisoner's Friend." In 1878 
he executed a model for a proposed equestrian 
statue of Gen. Robert E. Lee, to be erected at 
Richmond, Va., which is said to be " remarkable 
in respect to its simplicity." He is also to be 
credited with the Calhoun monument at Charles- 
ton, S. C, dedicated 26 April, 1887, the Clement 
Barclay family group, and other works. 

HARO, Alonso Nunez de (ah'ro), Mexican arch- 
bishop, b. in Villagarcia, Spain, 31 Oct., 1729 ; d. in 
Mexico, 26 May, 1800. He studied philosophy and 
theology with the Dominicans of Peter Martyr, 
at the Royal university, and at the College of 
San Clemente de Espailoles at Bologna, where he 
was subsequently appointed rector and profes- 
sor of sacred literature. He was nominated arch- 
bishop of Mexico by 
Clement XIV., and 
became celebrated 
for his eloquence. 
He founded numer- 
ous charitable and 
educational institu- 
tions, the principal 
of which was the Col- 
lege of Tepotzotlan. 
Here, among other 
professorships, he es- 
tablished one of the 
Mexican language. 
He endowed the col- 
lege liberally, and be- 
stowed on it an ex- 
tensive and well-cho- 
sen library. He was 
at one time visited by 
his former school- 
mate Father O'Brien, 
pastor of St. Peter's 
church, New York, and raised $5,920 for his church. 
He also gave Father O'Brien several paintings for 
St. Peter s, among others a " Crucifixion " by Val- 
lejo, a Mexican painter. Archbishop Haro ordered 
the words " Here lies Alonso, the sinner, dust and 
nothingness," to be engraved on his tomb. 

HARO, Gonzalo Lopez de, Spanish naviga- 
tor, b. in Coruina, Spain, in 1734; d. in Acapul- 
co, or in Vera Cruz, Mexico, in 1796. He settled 
early in New Spain, acquired a reputation as a 
skilful pilot on the Pacific coast, and in 1788 was 
appointed by the viceroy, Flores, chief pilot of the 
expedition to the northwest, which left San Bias 
on 8 March, consisting of the frigate " Princesa " 
and the brig " San Carlos," under the command 
of Esteban Martinez. On 23 June they passed the 
volcano of Miranda in eruption, and after parting 
company with the other vessel, in a storm, Haro 
discovered, on 30 June, a Russian establishment 
formed by the crew of the " Tschernikoff," who 
had been shipwrecked in 1746. Bearing toward 
Trinity island, he met his convoy again, on 2 July, 
and they touched at the island of Kodiak and the 
Schumagin islands, and discovered, on 16 July, the 
Unimok volcano, landing on 3 Aug. at Ounalaska. 




HARO Y TAMARIZ 



HARPER 



87 



They sailed again on 24 Aug., and arrived in San 
Bias on 5 Dec, 1788. In February, 1789, Haro was 
sent again with the same vessels with orders to 
take possession of Nootka in the name of the king 
of Spain, and did so on 5 May. On 3 July the 
English brig " Argonaut " entered the port, with 
the intention of forming an establishment, and 
Haro confiscated the vessel and arrested the master, 
Colnet. He established a factory and trading-post 
there, but, not finding any inducement to winter, 
he sailed on 31 Oct., and entered San Bias, 6 Dec, 
1789. He wrote a description of his two voyages, 
the manuscript of which is preserved among the 
archives at Mexico. The authority of Haro's ob- 
servations was accepted in the treaty of April, 1828, 
between the United States and Russia. 

HARO Y TAMARIZ, Antonio de, Mexican 
politician, b. in San Luis Potosi in 1810 ; d. in 
Europe about 1872. He was one of the chiefs of 
the conservative party, and for some time secretary 
of the treasury under Santa-Anna. In 1854 he de- 
clared against the dictator, and put himself at the 
head of a revolution in San Luis Potosi, while Vi- 
daurri did the same in the north, and Comonfort 
and Alvarez in the south ; but Haro did not fully 
accept the liberal principles of the latter, and, while 
proclaiming the deposition of Santa-Anna, de- 
manded guarantees for the clergy and the army, 
and the convocation of a congress. After the fall 
of the dictator he refused to recognize the authority 
of the provisional president, Carrera, but declared 
in favor of the junta of Cuernavaca, and recognized 
Comonfort as president, after the resignation of 
Alvarez. But he soon joined the conservative op- 
position, and in January, 1856, was arrested and 
accused of a conspiracy to establish an empire either 
in his own favor or that of a son of Iturbide. He 
was taken to Vera Cruz, whence he was to be sent 
as an exile, but escaped, joined the clerical forces 
in Puebla, and was given the title of general-in- 
chief of the army. Puebla was soon besieged by 
the government troops, and, although Haro de- 
fended the city obstinately, democratic ideas began 
to spread in the garrison, and the soldiers opened 
the gates to the besiegers toward the end of March, 
1856. Haro was taken prisoner, carried to Mexico, 
and sent into exile, where he died. 

HARPER, James, founder of a firm of print- 
ers and publishers, originally consisting of James, 
b. 13 April, 1795, d. in New York, 27 March, 1869 ; 
John, b. 22 Jan.. 1797, d. 22 April, 1875 ; Joseph 
Wesley, b. 25 Dec, 1801, d. 14 Feb., 1870; and 
Fletcher, b. 31 Jan., 1806. d. 29 May, 1877. They 
were the sons of Joseph Harper, a farmer at 
Newtown, L. I. James and John came to New 
York, and James was apprenticed to Paul and 
Thomas, while John served Jonathan Seymour, 
printers. Having concluded their apprenticeship, 
they established themselves in business, at first 
only printing for booksellers, but soon began to 
publish on their own account. The first book that 
the firm printed was "Seneca's Morals," in 1817, 
and by a strange coincidence a new edition of this 
work appeared on the day of the death of the last 
of the four brothers. The first book that they 

Sublished on their own account was " Locke on the 
[uman Understanding,'' in 1818. The old firm of 
J. and J. Harper issued about 200 works. Wesley 
and Fletcher Harper were apprenticed to their 
elder brothers, and as they became of age were 
admitted as partners; and the style of the firm 
was about 1833 changed to "Harper and Broth- 
ers." In 1853 their establishment occupied nine 
contiguous buildings in Cliff and Pearl streets, 
filled with costly machinery and books. On 10 




Dec of that year the whole was burned to the 
ground, in consequence of a workman engaged in 
repairs having thrown a burning paper into a tank 
of benzine, which he mistook for water. Most 
of their stereotype plates were stored in vaults, and 
were saved ; but the loss in buildings, machinerv, 
and books amounted to $1,000,000, upon which 
there was only $250,000 insurance. The next day 
they hired temporary 
premises, and em- 
ployed the principal 
printers and binders 
in New York, Bos- 
ton, and Philadelphia 
in reproducing their 
books. Before the 
ruins of the fire could 
be cleared away the 
plans for their new 
edifice were prepared. 
It covers about half 
an acre of ground, 
extending from Cliff 
street to Franklin 
square in Pearl street, 
and, including cel- 
lars, the structure is 
seven stories high. It is absolutely fire-proof, and 
constitutes probably the most complete publishing 
establishment in the world, all the operations in the 
preparation and publication of a book being car- 
ried on under a single roof, and the regular num- 
ber of employes in the premises of both sexes be- 
ing about 1,000. Besides the books published, they 
issue four illustrated periodicals: "Harper's Maga- 
zine," established in 1850, a monthly, devoted to 
literature and the arts ; " Harper's Weekly," estab- 
lished in 1857, devoted to literature and topics of 
the day ; " Harper's Bazar," established in 1867, 
devoted to the fashions, literature, and social life; 
and " Harper's Young People," a children's maga- 
zine, established in 1881. James Harper was in 
1844 elected mayor of the city of New York for 
the succeeding year, and he was subsequently put 
forward for the governorship of the state; but he 
preferred to conduct the business of the firm rather 
than enter public life. In March, 1869, while driv- 
ing in Fifth avenue, his horses took fright, and he 
was thrown from his carriage ; when aid reached 
him he was insensible, and died two days afterward. 
Wesley Harper, who for many years had charge of 
the literarv department, died atter a long illness. 
John Harper died 22 April. 1875. and Fletcher 
Harper, 29 May, 1877; and the firm was reorgan- 
ized by the admission of several of the sons of the 
original partners. These, after receiving a care- 
ful education, several of them at Columbia college, 
entered the house, each serving a regular appren- 
ticeship in some branch of the business. The firm 
now (1891) consists of Joseph Weslev Harper, b. 
16 March, 1830; John Wesley, b. 6 May, 1831; 
Joseph Henry, b. 23 June, 1850; John, b. 13 Aug., 
1855 ; James'Thorne. b. 30 Aug., 1855 ; Horatio R., 
b. 17 March, 1858. Fletcher Harper. Jr.. a member 
of the firm, died 22 May, 1890. Fletcher, Jr.'s, 
wife established in 1878 a summer resort at north 
Long Branch. N. J., for the working-girls of New 
York, providing accommodations at actual cost, 
and since her death this charity has been contin- 
ued bv her daughter, Mrs. Hiram W. Sibley. 

HARPER, John M., Canadian educator, b. in 
Johnstone. Renfrewshire, Scotland, 10 Feb., 1845. 
After studying at the parish-school and the Glas- 
gow established church training-college, he went to 
Canada and was graduated at Queen's university, 



88 



HARPER 



HARRAH 



Kingston, Ontario. He subsequently received the 
degree of Ph. D. from the University of Illinois, af- 
ter finishing a three years' course in the section of 
metaphysical science. Before leaving his native 
country he had received an appointment to an acad- 
emy in New Brunswick, and, after several years' 
residence in the maritime provinces, he became the 
principal of the Victoria high-school at St. John, 
N. B. When this school was destroyed, in the great 
fire at St, John, Dr. Harper became principal of the 
Provincial normal-school at Charlottetown, Prince 
Edward island, and afterward professor in the 
Amalgamated normal-school and Prince of Wales 
college, with special supervision of the training of 
teachers. He is now inspector of superior schools 
for the province of Quebec, and editor of the 
" Educational Record " of Quebec. Dr. Harper was 
instrumental in establishing a periodical in Nova 
Scotia devoted to the cultivation of Canadian litera- 
ture, and has written much in prose and verse, in- 
cluding poems in the Scottish dialect. He has also 
prepared and published school text-books, and is the 
author of various lectures. 

HARPER, Joseph Morrill, physician, b. in 
Limerick, York co., Me., 21 June, 1787; d. in Can- 
terbury, N. H., 15 Jan., 1865. He studied medicine, 
and began to practise in 1810 at Canterbury, where 
he afterward resided. He served in the war of 1812 
as assistant surgeon in the 4th infantry. He was a 
member of the legislature in 1826-'7, and again in 
1829-'30, serving during the latter year as president 
of the senate, and ex-officio as governor from Feb- 
ruary until June, 1831, through the resignation of 
Mathew Harvey. He was then elected to congress 
as a Democrat, and served from 5 Dec, 1831, till 3 
March, 1835. From 1842 till 1856 he was president 
of the Mechanics' bank of Concord, N. H. He 
passed the latter part of his life on a farm, having 
retired from the practice of his profession. 

HARPER, Robert Goodloe, senator, b. near 
Fredericksburg, Va., in 1765 ; d. in Baltimore, Md., 
15 Jan., 1825. He was the son of poor parents, 
who, during his childhood, removed to Granville, 
N. C. At the age of 
fifteen he served, un- 
der Gen. Greene, in a 
troop of horse, com- 
posed of the youth 
of the neighborhood, 
during the closing 
scenes of the south- 
ern campaign of the 
Revolution. He was 
graduated at Prince- 
ton in 1785, studied 
law in Charleston, S. 
C, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1786. 
He soon removed to 
the interior of the 
state, where he be- 
came known through 
a series of articles on 
a proposed change in 
the constitution. He was elected to the legislature 
and subsequently sent to congress, serving from 
9 Feb., 1795, till 3 March, 1801, and warmly sup- 
porting the administrations of Washington and 
Adams. He served in the war of 1812, being pro- 
moted from the rank of colonel to that of major- 
general. Soon after the defeat of the Federal- 
ists he married the daughter of Charles Carroll, 
of Carrollton, and removed to Baltimore, Md., 
where he attained eminence at the bar. He was 
employed with Joseph Hopkinson as counsel for 




foj: 8#~tfL*-S 



Judge Samuel Chase, of the U. S. supreme court, in 
his impeachment trial. At a dinner given at George- 
town, D. C, 5 June, 1813, in honor of the recent 
Russian victories, he gave as a toast " Alexander 
the Deliverer," following it with a speech eulogiz- 
ing the Russians. On the publication of the speech, 
Robert Walsh addressed the author a letter in 
which he expressed the opinion that the oration 
underrated the military character of Napoleon, 
and failed to point out the danger of Russian as- 
cendency. To this letter Harper made an elaborate 
reply, Walsh responded, and the correspondence 
was then (1814) published in a volume. Harper was 
elected to the U. S. senate from Maryland to serve 
from 29 Jan., 1816, till 3 March, 1821, but resigned 
in the former year to become one of the Federalist 
candidates for vice-president. In 1819-'20 he visited 
Europe with his family, and after his return em- 
ployed himself chiefly in the promotion of schemes 
of internal improvements. He was an active mem- 
ber of the American colonization society, and the 
town of Harper, near Cape Palmas, Africa, was 
named in his honor. His pamphlet, entitled " Ob- 
servations on the Dispute between the United 
States and France " (1797), acquired great celebrity. 
He also printed "An Address on the British 
Treaty" (1796); "Letters on the Proceedings of 
Congress"; and "Letters to His Constituents " 
(1801). A collection of his various letters, ad- 
dresses, and pamphlets was published with the title 
" Select Works " (Baltimore, 1814). 

HARPER, William, jurist, b. in the island of 
Antigua, 17 Jan., 1790; d. in South Carolina, 10 
Oct., 1847. His father, an English Methodist, had 
been sent to Antigua as a missionary by John 
Wesley, but came to Baltimore, Md., and afterward 
removed to Columbia, S. C, where William was 
graduated at South Carolina college in 1808. He 
studied law, was admitted to the bar, and in 1818 
emigrated to Missouri. In 1819 he was elected 
chancellor, and was a member of the convention 
that adopted the state constitution of 1821. In 
1823 he resigned, and, returning to Columbia, 
S. C, was made state reporter. After performing 
the duties of the office for two years, he was ap- 
pointed U. S. senator to fill the vacancy caused by 
the death of John Gaillard, and served from 28 
March till 7 Dec, 1826. He then removed to 
Charleston, S. C, and practised his profession un- 
til 1828, when he was elected to the state house of 
representatives and chosen speaker. The same 
year he was elected chancellor, and retained the 
office until 1830, when he was made one of the 
judges of the court of appeals. On the abolition 
of that court in 1835 he was again chosen chan- 
cellor. In November, 1832, he was a member of 
the convention that passed the ordinance of nulli- 
fication, and met with the same body in March, 
1833, to rescind it. He is the author of an article on 
" Colonization " in the " Southern Review," a speech 
in congress on the " Panama Mission," a eulogy on 
Chancellor de Saussure, and several addresses in 
favor of nullification. 

HARPER, William Rainey, Hebraist, b. in 
New Concord, Ohio, 26 July, 1856. He was gradu- 
ated at Muskingum college, in his native town, in 
1870, and was professor of Hebrew in Chicago Bap- 
tist theological seminary from 1879 till 1887, when 
he became professor of the Semitic languages at 
Yale. He has published several Hebrew text- 
books, including " Elements of Hebrew " (Chicago, 
1882), and is the editor of "Hebraica" and the 
" Old Testament Student." 

HARRAH, Charles Jefferson, merchant, b. 
in Philadelphia, Pa., 1 Jan., 1817. His education 



HARRIMAN 



HARRINGTON 



89 



was embraced in three days of schooling. At the 
age of seven he went to work on a farm, where he 
remained until in his fourteenth year. He then be- 
came apprenticed to the ship-carpenter's trade, in 
which he continued until 1843, when, on account 
of failing health, he sailed for Brazil. In 1852-'7 
he was proprietor of a ship-yard at Rio Janeiro, 
and then engaged in railroad and navigation enter- 
prises, amassing a large fortune, with which he 
returned to his native city in 1874. During his 
thirty years' residence in Brazil he held confiden- 
tial relations with the imperial government. In 
1865 he was sent by the emperor to the United 
States to purchase iron-clads and armaments, bring- 
ing with him a letter of credit for £1,000,000, 
which was shortly followed by another for an equal 
amount. In 1867 he was sent on a confidential 
mission to the river Platte to investigate irregu- 
larities and abuses in the commissariat department 
of the Brazilian army. In 1869 he was president 
of the first telegraph company organized in the 
empire. In 1870, with a few other merchants, he 
established at Rio Janeiro the first public school in 
the empire, and during the same year the emperor 
made him a knight of the Imperial order da Rosa, 
and afterward a commander of the same order. 

HARRIMAN, Walter, governor of New Hamp- 
shire, b. in Warner, N. H., 8 April, 1817 ; d. in Con- 
cord, N. H., 25 July, 1884. He received an aca- 
demical education and began teaching, but be- 
came a Universalist clergyman, and in 1841 took 
charge of a society at Harvard, Mass. After a few 
years he became pastor of a new Universalist 
church in his native town. In 1851, having mean- 
time engaged in trade, he decided, against the 
earnest solicitation of friends, to abandon the min- 
istry. In 1849, and again in 1850, he had already 
been chosen representative of his town to the gen- 
eral court, and in 1853 and 1854 was elected state 
treasurer. In August, 1855, he was appointed to 
a clerkship in the pension-office at Washington, 
but resigned the following January to take part in 
the political canvass of that winter, which resulted 
in " no choice " by the people. In the spring of 
1856 he was appointed by President Pierce on a 
commission to classify and appraise the Indian 
lands of Kansas. He was again in the legislature 
in 1858, and in 1859 and 1860 was elected to the 
state senate, his Republican opponent being on 
each occasion his own brother. He made speeches 
to sustain the Know-Nothing movement in 1855-'6, 
canvassed Michigan for Buchanan in company 
with Gen. Lewis Cass, and was an earnest sup- 
porter of Stephen A. Douglas in 1860. In May, 
1861, Mr. Harriman became editor of the i4 Union 
Democrat," published at Manchester, N. H., in 
which he advocated forcible and immediate ac- 
tion against the seceding states. He became colo- 
nel of the 11th New Hampshire regiment, was 
taken prisoner at the battle of the Wilderness, 6 
May, 1864, sent to Macon, Ga., and removed thence 
to Charleston, where he was placed, with forty- 
nine other northern officers, under the fire of the 
National batteries on Morris island. There he was 
for fifty-two days, until Gen. Poster, in retaliation, 
placed fifty Confederate officers of the same rank 
under fire of the guns on Fort Sumter and Fort 
Moultrie. This led to an exchange on 4 Aug., 
1864. After returning home and engaging actively 
in the campaign of that year in favor of Lincoln 
and Johnson, Col. Harriman rejoined his regiment, 
and commanded a brigade at Petersburg. In 
March, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general. 
He was elected secretary of state of New Hamp- 
shire in 1865 and 1866, and governor in 1867 and 



1868. In the last year he made a tour in the mid- 
dle and western states, advocating the election of 
Gen. Grant. As a political speaker he had few 
superiors. He was naval officer at the port of 
Boston throughout Grant's entire administration, 
removed to Concord, N. H., in 1872, and in 1881 
was again chosen to the legislature. Gov. Harri- 
man published a " History of Warner, N. H." (1879), 
and " In the Orient," a record of a tour through 
Europe and the east in 1882 (Boston, 1883). 

HARRINGTON, Charles, Earl of, soldier, b. 
in England, 17 March, 1753; d. in Brighton, Eng- 
land, 5 Sept., 1829. He entered the foot-guards in 
1769, when he was Lord Petersham, and in Febru- 
ary, 1776, as a captain in the 29th regiment, he ar- 
rived at Quebec, and served in all the operations 
of Gen. Burgoyne until the surrender at Saratoga, 
where he was that officer's aide, and carried his 
despatches to England. He succeeded to the earl- 
dom in 1779, afterward served in the West Indies, 
and was promoted general in 1803. He was cap- 
tain, governor, and constable of Windsor castle. 

HARRINGTON, Ebenezer Burke, lawyer, 
b. near Lyons, Wayne co., N. Y., in 1813 ; d. in 
Detroit, Mich., in 1844. He was educated in New 
York city, and in 1830-'31 served as reporter of 
the senate of that state. He began the studv of 
the law in 1832, and compiled a digest of Eng- 
lish and American equity cases with the aid of 
Oliver L. Barbour (Saratoga, 1837). In June of 
the latter year he was admitted to the bar. In 
1837 he removed from Saratoga, N. Y., to Michi- 
gan, where he was employed with E. J. Roberts 
in arranging and indexing the revised statutes of 
that state. He was elected a member of the state 
senate in 1839. and acted as state reporter from 
that year until his death. He is the author of 
" Harrington's Chancerv Reports " (Detroit. 1841). 

HARRINGTON, Joseph, Jr., clergyman, b. in 
Roxbury, Mass., 21 Feb., 1813; d. in* San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., 2 Nov., 1852. He was graduated at 
Harvard in 1833, and became principal of the 
academy at East Greenwich, R. I., but at the end 
of six months took charge of the Hawes school at 
South Boston, where he remained for five years. 
While teaching he studied theology, and in the au- 
tumn of 1839 was sent as a missionary to Chicago, 
111., by the American Unitarian association. After 
his ordination as an evangelist in Boston in Sep- 
tember, 1840, Mr. Harrington returned to the 
west, and was the first to introduce the doctrines 
of his denomination in Milwaukee and other 
places. He held a pastorate in Hartford, Conn., 
from 1846 till 1852, when enfeebled health in- 
duced him to accept a call from San Francisco. 
He sailed from New York in July of that year, 
but in crossing the isthmus caught the Panama 
fever, which resulted fatally. After his death ap- 
peared a volume of his sermons, with a memoir 
bv William Whiting (Boston, 1854). 

HARRINGTON, Mark Walrod, astronomer, 
b. in Sycamore, 111., 18 Aug., 1848. He was gradu- 
ated at the University of Michigan in 1868, and 
has since lectured on astronomy in Oberlin col- 
lege and in the Louisiana state university, Baton 
Rouge. For a year he was connected with the 
Chinese foreign office in Pekin. and he also spent 
a year in Alaska. Subsequently he became pro- 
fessor of astronomy in the University of Michi- 
gan, which chair he now holds, being also di- 
rector of the observatory. He is a fellow of the 
American association for the advancement of sci- 
ence, and is a member of other societies. In 1884 
he established the " American Meteorological Jour- 
nal," of which he is now (1887) chief editor. 



90 



HARRINGTON 



HARRIS 



HARRINGTON, Samuel Maxwell, jurist, b. in 
Dover, Del., 5 Feb., 1803 : d. in Philadelphia, 28 
Nov., 1865. He was graduated at Washington col- 
lege, Charlestown, Md., in 1823, with the first honors 
of his class, studied law, and was admitted to the 
bar. He was appointed secretary of state of Dela- 
ware in 1829, and again in 1830, and in the follow- 
ing year was selected to fill a vacancy on the 
bench of the state supreme court, and became its 
chief justice, holding the office until the court 
was united with the superior court. In the latter 
he sat as associate justice until 1855, when he was 
again made chief justice. In 1857 he succeeded 
to the chancellorship, the highest judicial office in 
the state. In 1849 he had been placed at the head 
of a commission to revise and codify the laws, and 
received a vote of thanks from the legislature. 
During the civil war Judge Harrington was a 
staunch supporter of the government, and did 
much to strengthen the administration of Mr. Lin- 
coln. In 1854 he received the honorary degree of 
LL. D. He is the author of " Reports of the Su- 
preme Court of Delaware " (3 vols., Dover, 1837-'44). 
HARRINGTON, Timothy, clergyman, b. in 
Waltham, Mass., in 1715 ; d. in Lancaster, Wor- 
cester co., Mass., 18 Dec, 1795. He was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1737, studied theology, and 
settled in 1741 as pastor of a Congregational 
church in Lower Ashuelot, now Swanzey, N. H., 
whence he was driven by the Indians in 1747. 
The following year he was called to the church at 
Lancaster, where he remained until his death. It is 
related of him that having been in the habit, be- 
fore the Revolutionary war, of praying in his pul- 
Eit for the health of " our excellent King George," 
e so far forgot himself on one occasion, after the 
Declaration of Independence, as to lapse into the 
old form, but immediately added, " O Lord ! I mean 
George Washington." He was one of the most 
pure and gentle-hearted among New England pas- 
tors, a scholar of remarkable attainments, and 
Eossessed of warm affections. He was accused of 
eing a loyalist, and was undoubtedly opposed to 
the Whigs, being of opinion that separation would 
ruin the colonies. In 1777 a list of proscribed 

Eersons was posted up in town-meeting, to which 
is name had been added on motion of some one 
who disliked him. He thereupon arose, " his hairs 
touched with silver, and his benignant features 
kindling into a glow of honest indignation," and, 
baring his bosom before his people, exclaimed, 
" Strike, strike here with your daggers ! I am a 
true friend to ray country." 

HARRIOT, or HARRIOTT, Thomas, mathe- 
matician, b. in Oxford, Eng., in 1560 : d. in London, 
2 July, 1621. After studying at St. Mary's hall, Ox- 
ford, where he took his bachelor's degree in 1579, 
he became tutor to Sir Walter Raleigh, who in 1585 
appointed him geographer to the second expedition 
to Virginia with Sir Richard Grenville. He re- 
mained there about two years. On his return he 
resumed his mathematical studies, and afterward 
received a yearly pension of £120 from Henry Percy, 
Earl of Northumberland, who was distinguished 
for his patronage of men of science. Harriot's 
death was caused by a cancer in the lip, occasioned, 
it is supposed, by his habit of holding in his mouth 
instruments of brass. Prom papers discovered in 
1784, it would appear that he had either procured a 
telescope from Holland, or divined the construction 
of that instrument, and that he coincided in point 
of time with Galileo in discovering the spots on 
the sun's disk. On his return from this country 
he published " A Briefe and True Report of the 
New Found Land of Virginia, etc. (London, 



1588). It was afterward translated into Latin, 
French, and German, and is contained in volume 
iii. of Hakluyt's " Voyages." After his death his 
" Artis Analytical Praxis " was published (London, 
1631). In this he discloses the important algebra- 
ical discovery that every equation may be regarded 
as formed by the product of as many simple equa- 
tions as there are units in the number expressing its 
order. Besides this, Harriot made several changes 
in the notation of algebra. 

HARRIS, Caleb Fiske, book-collector, b. in 
Warwick, R. I., 9 March, 1818 ; d. in Moosehead 
lake. Me., 2 Oct., 1881. He was educated at the 
Academy of Kingston, R. I., and at Brown uni- 
versity, but was not graduated. He engaged in the 
commission business in New York, and after 1856 
in Providence, R. I., till the civil war, when he re- 
tired with a fortune. He subsequently developed 
a taste for the collection of the works of American 
poets and books bearing on early American history. 
Mr. Harris published an " Index to American 
Poetry and Plays in the Collection of C. Fiske 
Harris " (1874), which contained references to 4,129 
separate works. Of these, 1,000 were part of a simi- 
lar collection that had been begun by Albert G. 
Greene. William Cullen Bryant, in a letter to Mr. 
Harris, said : " Your work has amazed me by show- 
ing what multitudes of persons on our side of the 
Atlantic have wasted their time in writing verses in 
our language." Mr. Harris and his wife were 
drowned in Moosehead lake by the upsetting of a 
boat. His collection, which had increased to over 
5,000 volumes, was bought by his cousin, Henry B. 
Anthony, and was bequeathed by the latter to Brown 
university. A complete catalogue, with notes and 
sketches of Albert G. Greene, Mr. Harris, and 
Henry B. Anthony, was made by the Rev. John G. 
Stockbridge (Providence, 1886). 

HARRIS, Chapin A., dentist, b. in Pompey, 
Onondaga co., N. Y., in 1806; d. in Baltimore, 
Md., in 1860. He studied medicine, and settled in 
Ohio, but afterward removed to Baltimore, where 
he practised dentistry until his death. He founded 
Baltimore dental college (chartered in 1839), and 
was for some time its professor of dental surgery. 
He edited the " American Journal of Dental Sci- 
ence " from its establishment in 1839 till 1858, and 
was a contributor to other dental and medical 
journals. He is the author of " Principles and 
Practice of Dental Surgery" (Baltimore, 1839); 
" Characteristics of the Human Teeth " (Baltimore, 
1841) ; '■ Diseases of the Maxillary Sinus " (Phila- 
delphia, 1842) ; " Dictionary of Dental Science " 
(1849) ; and has edited " Fox's Natural History and 
Diseases of the Human Teeth," with additions 
(1846 ; 2d ed., Philadelphia, 1855). 

HARRIS, Charles, lawyer, b. in England in 
1772 ; d. in Georgia in March, 1827. He came to 
Georgia in 1788, studied law in Savannah, was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and attained high distinction in 
his profession. He was twice elected to the judge- 
ship of his circuit, but declined on both occasions, 
and on the retirement of Gov. Milledge from the 
U. S. senate in 1809 the place was tendered to him 
by both parties and was declined. Harris county, 
in Georgia, was named in his honor. 

HARRIS, David Bullock, soldier, b. at Fred- 
erick's Hall, Louisa co., Va., 28 Sept., 1814 ; d. near 
Petersburg, Va., 10 Oct., 1864. He was graduated 
at the U. S. military academy in 1833, entered the 
1st artillery, and, after serving a year, became as- 
sistant professor of engineering at West Point. He 
resigned from the army in 1835, and during several 
years thereafter was employed as a civil engineer 
on the James river and Kanawha canal and other 



HARRIS 



HARRIS 



91 



important works, but subsequently was a large ex- 
porter of tobacco and flour. When Virginia se- 
ceded from the Union in April, 1861, he became a 
captain of engineers in the state forces. He was 
the first to reconnoitre the line of Bull Run, and 
when the position at Manassas Junction was occu- 
pied in force toward the end of May, 1861, he 
planned and constructed the works for its defence. 
He was attached to the staff of Gen. Philip St. 
George Cocke at the battle of Bull Run, ac- 
companied Beauregard to the west early in 1862, 
and there planned and constructed the works at 
Island No. 10 and Fort Pillow, and the river-de- 
fences at Vicksburg. In October, 1862, he was 
transferred to Charleston, and took charge of the 
defensive engineering operations at that place. In 
1864, as colonel of engineers, he went with Gen. 
Beauregard to Virginia, and was employed on the 
defences of Petersburg. A short time before his 
death he was commissioned a brigadier-general. 

HARRIS, Elisha, physician, b. in Westminster, 
Vt., 4 March, 1824 ; d. in Albany, N. Y., 31 Jan., 
1884. He was graduated at the College of physi- 
cians and surgeons of New York in 1849, and 
entered on the practice of his profession in that 
city. In 1855 he was appointed superintendent 
and physician-in-chief of the quarantine hospital 
on Staten Island, and at that time constructed a 
floating hospital for the lower quarantine station. 
During the civil war he was instrumental in the 
organization of the U. S. sanitary commission in 
New York city, and was actively concerned in its 
work. On the organization of the Metropolitan 
board of health in 1866 he was made registrar of 
vital statistics, and also corresponding secretary, 
and in 1868 he was appointed sanitary superintend- 
ent of New York city. While holding this office 
he made a systematic inspection of tenement-houses, 
and so vigorously enforced the law providing for 
their ventilation and lighting that he secured, 
among other reforms, the putting in of nearly 
40,000 windows and about 2,000 roof-ventilators 
during the year 1869. He also organized the first 
free public vaccination service, and the system of 
house-to-house visitation. In 1873 he was again 
made registrar of vital statistics, and held that 
office until the reorganization of this bureau in 1876. 
When the New York state board of health was cre- 
ated in 1880, Dr. Harris was appointed one of its 
members, and then became its secretary, which place 
he continued to hold until his death. The railway 
ambulance that has been adopted and used by the 
Prussian army was invented by him. Dr. Harris 
was connected with many medical and sanitary as- 
sociations in the United States, was a delegate in 
1876 to the International medical congress of the 
American public health association, and in 1878 
was elected president of that association. He was 
the author of numerous articles on sanitary topics, 
and edited several valuable reports on these subjects. 

HARRIS, George, Lord, British soldier, b. 18 
March, 1746; d. at his estate of Belmont, Kent, 
England, 19 May, 1829. He was educated at 
Westminster, entered the army in 1759, became 
captain in 1771, came to this country with his regi- 
ment, and was engaged at Lexington and Bun- 
ker Hill. In the latter action he was severely 
wounded in the head, and in consequence was tre- 
panned and went home, but returned in time to 
take the field previous to the landing of the army 
on Long Island in July, 1776. Capt. Harris was 
present at the affair of Flatbush. in the skirmishes 
on the island of New York, and in the engagement 
at White Plains. At Iron Hill he was shot through 
the leg, but, notwithstanding the severity of his 



wound, he mounted a horse and went in pursuit of 
the enemy. He was afterward present in every 
action up to 3 Nov., 1778, except that of German- 
town. In the latter year he was appointed to a ma- 
jority in his regiment, and in that rank served under 
Brig.-Gen. Meadows at St. Lucie. He afterward 
served in India, and in February, 1798, was made 
governor of Madras. In December, 1798, he was 
placed at the head of the army, and captured Ser- 
mgapatam, for which service he received the thanks 
of both houses of parliament. He was promoted 
to the colonelcy of the 73d foot, 4 Feb., 1800 ; be- 
came lieutenant-general, 1 Jan., 1801 ; general, 1 
Jan., 1812, and was raised to the peerage by the 
title of Lord Harris, 11 Aug.. 1815. 

HARRIS, George Washington, humorist, b. 
in what is now Alleghenv City, Pa., 20 March, 
1814; d. near Knoxville, Tenn., 11 Dec, 1869. He 
was taken to Knoxville, Tenn., when four years 
old, was apprenticed to a jeweller, and afterward 
commanded a Tennessee - river steamboat. He 
wrote able political articles during the Harrison 
campaign, and in 1843 began to contribute humor- 
ous stories to the New York " Spirit of the Times," 
under the pen-name of "S — 1." In 1858-'61 he 
wrote for Nashville journals the " Sut Lovengood 
Papers," some of which afterward appeared in 
book -form as "Sut Lovengood's Yarns" (New 
York, 1867). Capt. Harris made several inven- 
tions, which he described in the " Scientific Ameri- 
can." He died suddenly, and it was thought by 
some that he was poisoned. 

HARRIS, Ira, jurist, b. in Charleston, Mont- 
gomery co., N. Y., 31 May, 1802 ; d. in Albany, 
N. Y., 2 Dec, 1875. He was brought up on a farm, 
was graduated at Union college in 1824, studied 
law in Albany, and was admitted to the bar in 
1828. During the succeeding seventeen years he 
attained a high rank in his profession. He was 
a member of the assembly in 1844 and 1845. having 
been chosen as a Whig, and in 1846 was state 
senator and a delegate to the Constitutional con- 
vention. In 1848 he became judge of the supreme 
court, and held that office for twelve years. In 
February, 1861, Judge Harris was elected U. S. 
senator from New York, as a Republican, serving 
from 4 July, 1861, to 3 March, 1867. In the senate 
Mr. Harris served on the committee on foreign re- 
lations and judiciary, and the select joint com- 
mittee on the southern states. Although he sup- 
ported the administration in the main, he did not 
fear to express his opposition to all measures, 
however popular at the time, that did not appear 
to him either wise or just. Judge Harris was 
for more than twenty years professor of equity, 
jurisprudence, and practice in the Albany law- 
school, and during his senatorial term delivered a 
course of lectures at the law-school of Columbian 
university, Washington, D. C. He was for many 
years president of the board of trustees of Union 
college, was one of the founders of Rochester uni- 
versity, of which he was the chancellor, and was 
president of the American Baptist missionary* union 
and other religious bodies. — His brother, Hamil- 
ton, lawyer, b. in Preble, Cortland co., N. Y.. 1 
May, 1820, was graduated at Union college in 1841, 
admitted to the Albany bar in 1845, and was soon 
distinguished as a successful advocate. He was 
elected to the legislature in 1850, and was a mem- 
ber of the Whig joint legislative committee of six 
that was appointed to frame the platform, and call 
state conventions, of what has since become the Re- 
publican party. He was district attorney in 1853, 
a member of the Republican state committee in 
1863, and from 1864 till 1870 its chairman. In 



92 



HARRIS 



HARRIS 




c^JLuuy^h^fUi 



AA4 



1868 he was a delegate to the Republican national 
convention at Chicago, also chairman of the new 
capitol commission from 1866 till his resignation 
in 1875, serving in the state senate from that date 
until 1879, when he refused to accept a renomina- 
tion. In 1876 he was nominated by the Republican 

Earty for congress, but was defeated, and continued 
is seat in the state senate. Since 1879 he has 
withdrawn from public life and devoted himself to 
the practice of his profession. His private library, 
consisting of 3,500 volumes, many of which are 
biographical works, is one of the most carefully 
selected in the state of New York. 

HARRIS, Isham Green, senator, b. near Tulla- 
homa, Tenn., 10 Feb., 1818. His father, of the same 
name, was the owner of a sterile farm and ten or 
twelve negroes, and his family grew up without 
discipline. At fourteen years of age Isham went 

to Paris, Tenn., and 
took employment as 
a shop-boy. In the 
following year he 
went to school, and 
before he was nine- 
teen years old re- 
moved to Tippah 
county, Miss., where 
he became a suc- 
cessful merchant. 
He studied law for 
two years at night, 
attending to his 
business during the 
day, and had accu- 
mulated about $7,- 
000 and also estab- 
lished a home for his 
father near Paris, 
Tenn., when, through the failure of a bank, he was 
left penniless. He resumed his business at Paris 
with a rich partner, and in two years had repaired 
his losses. His nights meanwhile had been given to 
the study of the law, and he was admitted to the bar 
in 1841. His legislative district had a small Demo- 
cratic majority. Two obstinate Democrats insisted 
on running, and the leaders in caucus nominated 
Harris as a ruse to effect the withdrawal of one or 
the other. Neither would yield. He defeated them, 
and his Whig competitor also. Harris was elected 
to congress in 1 848, and served two terms. He re- 
fused a renomination in 1853, and settled in Mem- 
phis as a lawyer. In 1856 he canvassed the state 
as presidential elector, and the success of his ticket 
was largely attributed to him. He was elected 
governor of Tennessee in 1857, re-elected in 1859, 
and again in 1861, after the civil war had actually 
begun. Until he was driven from the state by the 
success of the National arms, Gov. Harris exhibited 
ability and resource. He acted as volunteer aide 
on the staff of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, and 
was with him when mortally wounded at Shiloh. 
He continued at the headquarters of the Army of 
the West during the remainder of the war, shared 
its hardships, and took part in all its important 
battles except Perryville. When the war began 
he was worth $150,000; when it closed he had 
nothing. He evaded capture on parole, went into 
exile in Mexico, where he lived eighteen months, 
and thence to England, where he remained a year. 
In 1867 he returned, and resumed the practice of 
law in Memphis, Tenn. In 1876 he announced him- 
self as a candidate for the U. S. senate, and can- 
vassed the state, challenging all comers to meet him 
in public discussion. He was successful, took his 
seat, 5 March, 1877, and was re-elected for the term 



ending in 1889. In the senate he has been an ad- 
vocate of an honest and economical administra- 
tion of the government, and an opponent of all 
class legislation. He was a member of the commit- 
tee on claims, of the select committee on the levees 
of the Mississippi river, and chairman of the com- 
mittee on the District of Columbia, while his party 
was in power in the senate. 

HARRIS, Joel Chandler, author, b. in Eaton- 
ton, Ga., 8 Dec, 1848. He served an apprentice- 
ship at the printing trade, subsequently studied 
law, and practised at Forsyth, Ga. He is now 
(1887) one of the editors of the Atlanta, Ga., " Con- 
stitution." He has contributed, in both prose and 
verse, to current literature, and is the author of 
" Uncle Remus, His Songs and his Sayings : the 
Folk-Lore of the Old Plantation" (New York, 
1880) : " Nights with Uncle Remus " (Boston, 1883) ; 
and " Mingo and Other Sketches " (1883). 

HARRIS, John, Indian store-keeper, b. in Penn- 
sylvania in 1716 ; d. in Harrisburg, Pa., 29 July, 
1791. He was the founder of Harrisburg, and for 
many years the principal store-keeper on the fron- 
tier : and at his house two notable " council-fires " 
were held with the Indians of the Six Nations and 
other tribes. At the first, 8 June, 1756, Gov. Mor- 
ris, with his council, was present ; and at the second, 
1 April, 1757, the deputy of Sir William Johnson, 
his majesty's 
deputy of the 
affairs of the 
Six Nations, 
met the repre- 
sentatives of 
the Nations 
and many of 
their warri- 
ors. Mr. Har- 
ris had the 
confidence of 
the Indians. 
At a confer- 
ence of Gov. Hamilton with them, 23 Aug., 1762, 
they asked that " the present store-keepers may be 
removed and honest men placed in their stead," 
and selected John Harris. Said the chief, who ad- 
dressed the governor, " I think John Harris is the 
most suitable man to keep store, for he lives right 
in the road where our warriors pass, and he is very 
well known by us all in our Nation, as his father 
was before him." Harris's house, built in 1766, 
near Harrisburg, is still standing. 

HARRIS, John S., senator, b. in Truxton, Cort- 
land co., N. Y., 18 Dec, 1825. He removed to Mil- 
waukee, Wis., in 1846, and engaged in commercial 
and financial enterprises until 1863, when he went 
to Concordia parish. La., and began the cultiva- 
tion of cotton. He was elected to the Constitu- 
tional convention of the state in 1867, to the state 
senate in April. 1868, and became U. S. senator 
in July, 1868. He served from 17 July, 1868, to 3 
March, 1871, having been chosen as a Republican. 

HARRIS, John Thomas, lawyer, b. in Albe- 
marle county, Va., 8 May, 1825. He received an 
academic education, studied law, and in 1847 be- 
gan practice at Harrisonburg, Rockingham co. He 
was U. S. attorney in 1852-'9, a presidential elector 
in 1856, and was then elected a representative in 
congress, as a Democrat, serving in 1859-61. He 
was a member of the legislature of Virginia from 
1863 till 1865, and was judge of the 12th judicial 
circuit of Virginia from 1866 till 1869. He was 
then re-elected to congress, and served from 1871 
till 1881. He declined a unanimous renomination 
in 1880, and resumed the practice of his profession. 




HARRIS 



HARRIS 



93 



He was chairman of the State Democratic conven- 
tion in 1884, and a delegate to the Chicago National 
Democratic convention of that year. — His brother, 
William Anderson, educator, b. in Augusta 
county. Va., 16 July, 1827, was graduated at the 
Virginia military institute in 1851, and practised 
law for some time in Virginia. He has been presi- 
dent of Sparta institute, Ga., of Lagrange female 
college, Ga., of Martha Washington college, Va., 
and in 1866 became president of the Wesleyan 
female college, Staunton, Va., where he still remains 
(1887). In 1875 Randolph-Macon college, Va., con- 
ferred upon him the degree of D. D. 

HARRIS, John Woods, jurist, b. in Nelson 
county, Va., in 1810 ; d. in Galveston, Tex., 1 April, 
1887. On arriving at manhood he accumulated 
money sufficient to enable him to pursue a collegi- 
ate course and study law. He removed to Texas 
in 1837, and began practice in 1838. In the same 
year he was a member of the first congress of the 
republic, which met at Austin, and in 1841 pro- 
posed abolishing the Mexican laws, and engrafting 
the common law on the jurisprudence of the re- 
public. In 1846 he was appointed attorney-general 
of the new state, and was reappointed for a second 
term. In 1854 he was one of a commission to revise 
the laws of the state. He was a Democrat of the 
strictest Jeffersonian school, and was opposed to 
secession, but accepted it, and gave his support to 
the cause of the Confederacy. After the war, his 
private fortune being large, he confined his prac- 
tice chiefly to important cases in the higher courts. 

HARRIS, Miriam Coles, novelist, b. in Doso- 
ris, L. I., 7 July, 1834. Her maiden name was 
Coles. She was educated at St. Mary's hall, Bur- 
lington, N. J., and in New York city, and in 1864 
married Sidney Harris, of that city, where she has 
since resided. Her first novel, " Rutledge " (New 
York, 1860), was published anonymously. Her 
other works include " The Sutherlands " (1862) ; 
" Louie's Last Term at St. Mary's " (1863) ; " Frank 
Warrington " (1871) ; " Richard Vandermark " 
(1871); " Roundhearts, and Other Stories" (1871); 
" A Perfect Adonis " (1880) ; " Missy " (1882) ; and 
"Dear Feast of Lent" (1883). 

HARRIS, Peter, last of the Catawba Indians, 
b. in the Catawba reservation, S. C, in 1750 ; d. 
there about 1830. The Catawba Indians sustained 
friendly relations with the settlers, and were allies 
of the colonists during the Revolution, rendering 
good service against the British. Peter Harris was 
a warrior during this struggle, and his petition, 
dated in 1822, is preserved among the colonial 
records of South Carolina. He asked for an annu- 
ity in the following words : " I fought the British 
for your sake ; the British have disappeared ; you 
are free ; yet from me have the British took noth- 
ing, nor have I gained anything by their defeat. 
The deer are disappearing, and I must starve. In 
my youth I bled in battle that you might be inde- 
pendent ; let not my heart in my old age bleed for 
want of your commiseration." The legislature 
granted him an annuity of $60. 

HARRIS, Robert, Canadian artist, b. near 
Carnarvon, North Wales, 17 Sept., 1849. He 
came to Canada, was educated at Charlottetown, 
Prince Edward island, and was for some time 
a land-surveyor. He was self-educated in art till 
about 1877, after which he studied in London 
and Paris. He was elected a member of the 
Royal Canadian academy of arts in 1879, and vice- 
president of the Ontario society of artists in 
1880. He has exhibited pictures in the salon of 
Paris and the Royal academy of London. He 
painted, by order of the Canadian government, in 



1883, the large picture, now in the parliamentary 
building, Ottawa, of the meeting of delegates in 
Quebec that resulted in the formation of the Do- 
minion of Canada. Among his other pictures are 
"Meeting of School Trustees," exhibited in the 
Colonial exhibition in London in 1886, and pur- 
chased by the government of Canada for the Cana- 
dian national gallery, and numerous portraits. 

HARRIS, Samuel, apostle to Virginia, b. in 
Hanover county, Va., 12 Jan., 1724; d. there prob- 
ably in 1794. During his early manhood and in 
middle life he occupied many public offices, was 
church-warden, burgess for the county, sheriff, 
justice of the peace, colonel of militia, and com- 
missary. While riding through the country in 
full military dress, he came upon a camp-meeting 
in the woods. Two itinerant Baptist clergymen 
were haranguing the assemblage, and, on seeing 
the colonel, at once directed their discourse to 
him. So greatly was he impressed with their argu- 
ments that he was baptized, and became an ex- 
horter among the poor white settlers. In 1770 he 
was ordained, and the Baptist association to which 
he belonged invested him with the office of " apos- 
tle." He relinquished his large property, lived 
with extreme frugality, and suffered much perse- 
cution from the established church, of which he 
had formerly been a member. He exercised a 
great influence over the masses, and was distin- 
guished as an exhorter. 

HARRIS, Samuel, clergyman, b. in East Ma- 
ehias, Me., 14 June, 1814. He was graduated at 
Bowdoin in 1833, and at Andover theological semi- 
nary in 1838. After teaching till 1841, and hold- 
ing pastorates at Conway and Pittsfield, Mass., he 
was professor of systematic theology in Bangor 
seminary in 1855-'67, and then president of Bow- 
doin, and professor of mental and moral philoso- 
phy there till 1871. In that year he became pro- 
fessor of systematic theology at Yale, where he 
still (1887) remains. He received the degree of 
D. D. from Williams in 1855. He has published 
" Zaccheus ; the Scriptural Plan of Beneficence " 
(Boston, 1844) ; " Christ's Prayer for the Death of 
his Redeemed " (1863) ; " Kingdom of Christ on 
Earth " (Andover, 1874) ; and " Philosophical Basis 
of Theism " (New York, 1883). 

HARRIS, Samuel Smith, P. E. bishop, b. in 
Autauga county, Ala., 14 Sept., 1841 ; d. in London, 
Eng., 21 Aug.," 1888. He was graduated in 1859, 
and admitted to the bar in 1860. After practising 
law for several years, he became a candidate for 
holy orders, was ordained deacon, 10 Feb., 1869, 
and priest on 30 June. He held pastorates at 
Montgomery, Ala., Columbus, Ga., New Orleans, 
La., and Chicago, 111., and was a delegate to the 
general convention of 1874 from Georgia, and in 
1877 from Illinois. In 1878 he was elected to the 
bishopric of Quincy, but declined. That year, 
with the Rev. John Fulton, he founded the " Liv- 
ing Church," and was its editorial manager for six 
months. In September, 1879, he was consecrated 
bishop of Michigan. He received the degree of 
D. D. from William and Mary in 1874. and that of 
LL. D. from the University of Alabama in 1879, 
and published, besides occasional sermons and re- 
views, " Bohlen Lectures" (Ann Arbor, 1882). 

HARRIS, Thaddens Mason, clergvman, b. in 
Charlestown, Mass., 7 July, 1768; d. in Dorchester, 
Mass., 3 April, 1842. He was a descendant in the 
sixth generation of Thomas Harris, of Ottery St. 
Mary, Devonshire, England. His father was a 
Revolutionary patriot, who died during the war, 
leaving his family destitute. Thaddeus was sent 
to earn his living with a farmer in the township 



94 



HARRIS 



HARRIS 



of Stirling, Mass., and received some schooling 
with the farmer's children. He entered the school 
of Dr. Morse, a suspected Tory, who prepared him 
for college, and in 1787 he was graduated at Har- 
vard. Through the influence of friends he was in 
this year invited to become private secretary to 
Gen. Washington, but was prevented by an attack 
of small-pox. He taught at Worcester a year, 
studied theology, and in 1781 was appointed libra- 
rian at Harvard. He accepted a call in 1793 from 
the 1st Unitarian church at Dorchester, and re- 
mained its pastor till three years before his death. 
Harvard gave him the degree of D. D. in 1813. He 
published " Discourses in Favor of Freemasonry " 
(Boston, 1803) ; " Journal of a Tour of the Terri- 
tory Northwest of the Alleghany Mountains" 
(1805); "A Natural History of the Bible " (1821) ; 
" Memorials of the First Church at Dorchester " 
(1830) ; and " Biographical Memoirs of James 
Oglethorpe" (1841).— His son, Thaddeus Will- 
iam, entomologist, b. in Dorchester, Mass., 12 
Nov., 1795 ; d. in Cambridge, Mass., 16 Jan., 1856, 
was graduated at Harvard in 1815, studied medi- 
cine, and practised at Milton Hill, Mass., until 
1831, when he was appointed librarian of Harvard. 
For several years he gave instruction in botany 
and natural history, and was the originator of the 
" Harvard students' natural history society " and a 
member of the " Massachusetts horticultural socie- 
ty." He was appointed in 1837 a commissioner for 
a zoological and botanical survey of Massachusetts, 
and after much research published a catalogue of 
the insects of that state, which enumerated 2,350 
species. This, with his other extensive catalogues 
and his collection of insects, was purchased by the 
Boston society of natural history. His report on 
"Insects Injurious to Vegetation" (Boston, 1841; 
enlarged ed., 1852) was published by the legisla- 
ture, and is a contribution to science of the highest 
practical value. Mr. Harris also took a deep in- 
terest in antiquarian research, and published more 
than fifty papers on this subject. — His son, Will- 
iam Thaddeus, scholar, b. in Milton, Mass., 25 
Jan., 1826 ; d. in Cambridge, Mass., 19 Oct., 1854, 
evinced a fondness for books at an early age, and, 
in consequence of a physical infirmity, reading 
was his sole amusement. He was graduated at 
Harvard in 1846, and studied law, but was pre- 
vented from practising by delicate health. He 
edited, for the Massachusetts historical society, 
Hubbard's " History of New England," with new 
and important notes (Boston, 1848) ; the third vol- 
ume of the " Historical and Genealogical Regis- 
ter" (1849); and published "Epitaphs from the 
Old Burying-Ground at Cambridge " (1845). 

HARRIS, Thomas Cadvvalader, naval officer, 
b. in Philadelphia, 18 Nov., 1825 ; d. there, 24 Jan., 
1875. He entered the navy as midshipman in 
1841, became lieutenant in 1855, lieutenant-com- 
mander in 1862, commander in 1866, and captain 
in 1872. During the civil war he commanded the 
" Chippewa " and the " Yantic." With the " Chip- 
pewa" he participated in several attacks on Fort 
Wagner, Morris island, in July, 1863, and in De- 
cember, 1864, and January, 1865, attacked Fort 
Fisher. In 1865 he was recommended for promo- 
tion by Admiral Porter " in consideration of his 
cool performance of duty in these actions." 

HARRIS, Thomas Lake, spiritualist, b. in 
Fenny Stratford, England, 15 May, 1823. He 
came with his father to the United States, settled 
in Utica, N. Y., and began to write for the press 
before his seventeenth year, soon acquiring some 
celebrity as a poet. He renounced Calvinism in 
early manhood, and, entering the ministry of the 



Universalist church, removed to New York, becom- 
ing pastor of the 4th Universalist society. Failing 
health compelled him to resign this charge, and in 
the next year he organized an "Independent 
Christian society," to which he ministered until 
the spiritualistic movement of 1850. He then 
joined a community at Mountain Cove, Va., and 
after a few months of investigation declared him- 
self a convert to the new faith, and entered on a 
lecturing tour throughout the United States. On 
his return to New York he organized a society, 
and established a spiritualistic journal. He went 
to Great Britain in 1858, and lectured in London, 
Edinburgh, Manchester, and Glasgow, returning 
with a few enthusiasts who participated in his 
views, and retired to a farm in Dutchess county, 
N. Y. As the community increased, he purchased 
small farms near the village of Anienia, estab- 
lished a national bank, engaged in milling and 
other business, and reorganized the society, which 
was henceforth known as the " Brotherhood of the 
New Life." He went to Europe in its interests in 
1866, and the next year removed to Portland, N. Y., 
where he purchased large farms. No property was 
held in common, but members of the society were 
permitted to hold real estate, and cultivate it on 
their own account. The authority of the Scriptures 
and the marriage relations were held sacred, there 
was no written creed or form of government, and 
the system appeared to combine the doctrines of 
Plato in philosophy, Swedenborg in spiritual 
science, and Fourier in sociology. It numbered 
more than 2,000 members, some residents of the 
community, and other citizens of foreign nations. 
At one time Lady Oliphant and her son. Laurence 
Oliphant, several Japanese high in official rank, 
and two Indian princes were residents of this com- 
munity. Several years ago it was abandoned by 
Mr. Harris, who went to California, and his lands 
were purchased by Mr. Oliphant. Mr. Harris 
edited a spiritualistic journal for some time, entitled 
" The Herald of Light," and has published, among 
numerous poetical and prose works descriptive of 
his philosophy, " The Epic of the Starry Heavens " 
(New York, 1854) ; " Modern Spiritualism " (1856) ; 
"A Lyric of the Morning Land " (1854) ; "A Lyric 
of the Golden Age " (1856) ; " Truth and Life in 
Jesus " (1860) ; and " The Millennium Age " (1861). 

HARRIS, Thomas Mealey, soldier, b. in Wood 
county, Va., 17 June, 1817. He studied medicine, 
and practised at Harrisville and Glenville, Va. In 
May, 1862, he was appointed colonel of the 10th 
West Virginia infantry. He was promoted briga- 
dier-general on 29 March, 1865, sent out the de- 
tachment that silenced the last Confederate guns 
at Appomattox, and was mustered out on 30 April, 
1866. He applied himself after the war to scientific 
farming, served a term in the legislature of West 
Virginia in 1867, was adjutant-general of the state 
in 1869-70, and was pension-agent at Wheeling in 
1871-'7. He is the author of medical essays and of 
a tract entitled " Calvinism Vindicated." 

HARRIS, Townsend, merchant, b. in Sandy 
Hill, Washington co., N. Y, 5 Oct., 1803 ; d. in New 
York city, 25 Feb., 1878. At the age of fourteen 
he came to New York, entered a drug-store as 
clerk, and by perseverance and industry rose to be 
partner in a large importing and jobbing house. 
With slight opportunities of early education, he 
became a man of culture, with a warm interest 
in popular education. He was made school-trus- 
tee of the 9th ward, and later a member and 
then president of the board of education. De- 
spite long opposition, he succeeded in establish- 
ing the Free academy, now the College of the city 



HARRIS 



HARRISON 



95 



of New York. He was also one of the founders of 
the Society for the prevention of cruelty to ani- 
mals and of the Central park museum of natural 
history. In 1848 he planned and carried out a 
voyage in the South Pacific, meeting with many 
strange experiences among the islanders and can- 
nibals. He was U. S. consul at Ningpo in 1854, in 
1856 made a new treaty for the United States with 
Siam, and, on the opening of Japan by Cora. 
Matthew C. Perry, was selected as a fit person 
to follow up the work that had been begun by 
American diplomacy. He lived nearly two years 
at Kakisaki, near Shimoda, and went to Yedo to 
press his claims. His interpreter, Mr. Heusken, 
was assassinated in the street in daylight, but, with 
imperturbable faith in the Japanese, Mr. Harris 
remained in Yedo when the other diplomatists 
had removed, and secured in 1858 the first treaty 
of trade and commerce, and on 1 Jan., 1859, the 
opening of three ports to foreign residents. He 
resigned his post on the change of administration, 
and resided in New York until his death. 

HARRIS, William, educator, b. in Springfield, 
Mass., 29 April, 1765 ; d. in New York city, 18 Oct., 
1829. He was graduated at Harvard in 1786. 
Having studied theology, he was licensed as a Con- 
gregational minister, but, finding his health not 
equal to the work, he began the study of medicine 
in Salem, Mass. While he was thus occupied, a copy 
of Hooker's " Ecclesiastical Polity " was put into his 
hands. Its perusal led Mr. Harris to give up in- 
dependency, and, his health having been restored, 
he was ordained deacon in Trinity church, New 
York, by Bishop Provoost, 16 Oct., 1791, and priest 
the following Sunday by the same bishop. His 
first charge was St. Michael's church, Marblehead, 
Mass., where he also conducted the academy. He 
held both offices until 1802, when he accepted the 
rectorship of St. Mark's church, New York city. 
Here also, in the vicinity of his rectory, he estab- 
lished an excellent classical school. In 1811 he 
received the degree of D. D. both from Harvard 
and from Columbia. On Bishop Moore's resigna- 
tion of the presidency of the latter institution. Dr. 
Harris was chosen to succeed him in 1811, and for 
a few years held the office in connection with his 
church. In 1816 he resigned the rectorship of St. 
Mark's, and devoted the remainder of his life to 
his duties as president. Although suffering from 
disease in his latter years, he discharged his duties 
with faithfulness and diligence up to the close of 
his life. Dr. Harris published two sermons, one 
delivered before the convention of Massachusetts, 
the other before that of New York. He also 

Srinted his " Farewell Sermon " on leaving St. 
tark's church (1816). 

HARRIS, William Logan, M. E. bishop, b. 
near Mansfield, Ohio, 4 Nov., 1817: d. in New 
York city, 2 Sept., 1887. He attended the schools 
about his home, and pursued a course of clas- 
sical and mathematical studies at the Norwalk 
seminary, Ohio. He united with the Methodist 
Episcopal church in 1834, and in September, 1837, 
was admitted on trial to the Michigan conference, 
which then included the northwestern part of 
Ohio. Upon the readjustment of the conference 
boundaries in 1840, he became a member of the 
north Ohio conference, and by a later subdivision 
he fell into the central Ohio conference. For 
eight years he labored in pastoral work on several 
circuits and stations in the northern and cen- 
tral parts of Ohio. In 1845 he became an instruc- 
tor in the Ohio Wesleyan university. In 1846-'7 
he was stationed in Toledo, and iri 1848 at Nor- 
walk. In that year he became principal of Bald- 



win institute, at Berea, where he remained till in 
1851 he was chosen professor of chemistry and 
natural history in Ohio Wesleyan university. 
Here he continued until 1860, when he was elected 
by the general conference one of the correspond- 
ing secretaries of the missionary society of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, which office he helS 
by quadrennial re-elections till May, 1872, when 
he was elected and ordained a bishop. He was a 
delegate in the general conferences for 1856, 1860, 
1864, 1868, and 1872, and also the secretary of that 
body at each of these sessions. He received the 
degree of D. D. in 1856 and of LL. D. in 1870. 
During the years 1872-'3 he circumnavigated the 
globe, visiting the mission-stations of his church 
in Japan, China, and India, and also those in the 
various countries of Europe. He is recognized as 
an expert in Methodist church law, and has pub- 
lished a small work on " The Powers of the Gen- 
eral Conference " (1859), and conjointly with Judge 
William J. Henry, of Illinois, a treatise on " Eccle- 
siastical Law," with special reference to the gov- 
ernment of the Methodist Episcopal church (1870). 

HARRIS, William Torrey, educator, b. in 
North Killingly, Conn., 10 Sept., 1835. He was 
educated at Phillips Andover academy, and at 
Yale, where in 1869 he received the honorary de- 
gree of A. M. In 1868-'80 he was superintendent 
of public schools in St. Louis, in 1866 founded 
the philosophical society of St. Louis, and the next 
year founded and edited the "Journal of Specula- 
tive Philosophy," the first of its character ever 
published in the United States. He was president 
of the National educational association in 1875, 
and represented the U. S. bureau of education at 
the International congress of educators at Brussels 
in 1880. Since 1884 he has been president of the 
Boston school-master's club, and is an active mem- 
ber of the Concord school of philosophy. Mr. 
Harris contributes constantly to magazines on 
art, education, and philosophy, has translated ex- 
tensively from German and Italian thinkers of the 
advanced school, and published twelve " Annual 
Reports" on the St. Louis schools (St. Louis, 
1869-'81) ; and a " Statement of American Educa- 
tion " (which was used at the World's expositions 
at Vienna and Paris) ; and edits " Appletons' In- 
ternational Educational Series." 

HARRISON, Benjamin, signer of the Decla- 
ration of Independence, b. in Berkelev, Charles 
City co., Va., about 1740; d. in April, 1*791. The 
general impression that his family was descended 
from Harrison the 
regicide appears to 
be erroneous. Asa 
member of the bur- 
gesses in 1764 he 
served on the com- 
mittee that pre- 
pared the memo- 
rials to the king, 
lords, and com- 
mons ; but in 1765, 
with many other 
prominent men, 
opposed the stamp 
act resolutions of 
Henry as impoli- 
tic. He was chosen 
in 1773 one of the 
committee of cor- 
respondence which united the colonies against Great 
Britain in 1774, was appointed one of the delegates 
to congress, and was four times re-elected to a 
seat in that body. As a member of all the Vir- 




^^ 



96 



HARRISON 



HARRISON 



ginia conventions to organize resistance, he acted 
with the party led by Pendleton in favor of " general 
united opposition." On 10 June, 1776, as chair- 
man of the committee of the whole house of con- 
gress, he introduced the resolution that had been 
offered three days before by Richard Henry Lee, 
declaring the independence of the American colo- 
nies, and on 4 July he reported the Declaration of 
Independence, of which he was one of the signers. 
On his return from congress he became a member 
of the Virginia house of delegates under the new 
constitution, was chosen speaker, and filled that 
office until 1781, when he was twice elected gov- 
ernor of the commonwealth. As a delegate to the 
Virginia convention of 1788, he opposed the rati- 
fication of the Federal constitution, taking the 
ground of Patrick Henry, James Monroe, and 
others, that it was a national and not a Federal 
government, though when the instrument was 
adopted he gave it his hearty support. At the 
time of his death he was a member of the Vir- 
ginia legislature. In person Benjamin Harrison 
was large and fleshy; in spite of his suffering 
from gout, his good hUmor was unfailing. Al- 
though without conspicuous intellectual endow- 
ments, he was a man of excellent judgment and 
the highest sense of honor, with a courage and 
cheerfulness that never faltered, and a " downright 
candor " and sincerity of character which concili- 
ated the affection and respect of all who knew 
him. — His third and youngest son, William 
Henry, ninth president of the United States, b. in 
Berkeley, Charles City co., Va., 9 Feb., 1773 : d. in 
Washington, D. C, 4 April, 1841, was educated at 
Hampden Sidney college, Virginia, and began the 
study of medicine, but before he had finished it 
accounts of the Indian outrages that had been 
committed on the western frontier raised in him a 
desire to enter the army for its defence. Robert 
Morris, who had been appointed his guardian on 
the death of his father in 1791, endeavored to dis- 
suade him, but his purpose was approved by Wash- 
ington, who had been his father's friend, and he 
was commissioned ensign in the 1st infantry on 16 
Aug., 1791. He joined his regiment at Fort Wash- 
ington, Ohio, was appointed lieutenant of the 1st 
sub-legion, to rank from June, 1792, and afterward 
joined the new army under Gen. Anthony Wayne. 
He was made aide-de-camp to the commanding 
officer, took part, in December, 1793, in the expe- 
dition that erected Fort Recovery on the battle- 
field where St. Clair had been defeated two years 
before, and, with others, was thanked by name in 
general orders for his services. He participated in 
the engagements with the Indians that began on 
30 June, 1794, and on 19 Aug., at a council of war, 
submitted a plan of march, which was adopted and 
led to the victory on the Miami on the following 
day. Lieut. Harrison was specially complimented 
by Gen. Wayne, in his despatch to the secretary of 
war, for gallantry in this fight, and in May, 1797, 
was made captain, and given command of Fort 
Washington. Here he was intrusted with the duty 
of receiving and forwarding troops, arms, and pro- 
visions to the forts in the northwest that had been 
evacuated by the British in obedience to the Jay 
treaty of 1794. and was also instructed to report to 
the commanding general on all movements in the 
south, and to prevent the passage of French agents 
with military stores intended for an invasion of 
Louisiana. While in command of this fort he 
formed an attachment for Anna, daughter of John 
Cleves Symmes. Her father refused his consent 
to the match, but the young couple were married 
in his house during his temporary absence, and 



Symmes soon became reconciled to his son-in-law. 
Peace having been made with the Indians, Capt. 
Harrison resigned his commission on 1 June, 1798, 
and was immediately appointed by President John 
Adams secretary of the northwest territory, under 
Gen. Arthur St. Clair as governor, but in October, 
1799, resigned to take his seat as territorial dele- 
gate in congress. In his one year of service, though 
he was opposed by speculators, he secured the sub- 
division of the public lands into small tracts, and 
the passage of other measures for the welfare of 
the settlers. During the session, part of the north- 
west territory was formed into the territory of In- 
diana, including the present states of Indiana, Illi- 
nois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and Harrison was 
made its governor and superintendent of Indian 
affairs. Resigning his seat in congress, he entered 
on the duties of his office, which inciuded the con- 
firmation of land-grants, the defining of townships, 
and others that were equally important. Gov. 
Harrison was reappointed successively by Presi- 
dent Jefferson and President Madison. He organ- 
ized the legislature at Vincennes in 1805, and ap- 
plied himself especially to improving the condition 
of the Indians, trying to prevent the sale of intoxi- 
cating liquors among them, and to introduce in- 
oculation for the small-pox. He frequently held 
councils with them, and, although his life was some- 
times endangered, succeeded by his calmness and 
courage in averting many outbreaks. On 30 Sept., 
1809, he concluded a treaty with several tribes by 
which they sold to the United States about 3,000,000 
acres of land on Wabash and White rivers. This, 
and the former treaties of cession that had been 
made, were condemned by Tecumseh (q. v.) and 
other chiefs on the ground that the consent of all 
the tribes was necessary to a legal sale. The dis- 
content was increased by the action of speculators 
in ejecting Indians from the lands, by agents.of 
the British government, and by the preaching of 
Tecumseh's brother, the " prophet " (see Ellsk- 
watawa), and it was evident that an outbreak was 
at hand. The governor pursued a conciliatory 
course, gave to needy Indians provisions from the 
public stores, and in July, 1810, invited Tecumseh 
and his brother, the prophet, to a council at Vin- 
cennes, requesting them to bring with them not 
more than thirty men. In response, the chief, ac- 
companied by 400 fully armed warriors, arrived at 
Vincennes on 12 Aug. . The council, which was 
held under the trees in front of the governor's 
house, was nearly terminated by bloodshed on the 
first day, but Harrison, who foresaw the impor- 
tance of conciliating Tecumseh, prevented, by his 
coolness, a conflict that almost had been precipi- 
tated by the latter. The discussion was resumed 
on the next day, but with no result, the Indians 
insisting on the return of all the lands that had 
recently been acquired by treaty. On the day after 
the council Harrison visited Tecumseh at his camp, 
accompanied only by an interpreter, but without 
success. In the following spring depredations by 
the savages were frequent, and the governor sent 
word to Tecumseh that, unless they should cease, 
the Indians would be punished. The chief prom- 
ised another interview, and appeared at Vincennes 
on 27 July, 1811, with 300 followers, but, awed 
probably by the presence of 750 militia, professed 
to be friendly. Soon afterward, Harrison, con- 
vinced of the chief's insincerity, but not approv- 
ing the plan of the government to seize him as a 
hostage, proposed, instead, the establishment of a 
military post near Tippecanoe, a town that had 
been established by the prophet on the upper Wa- 
bash. The news that the government had given 




fa/^/&6^^£<^ 






HARRISON 



HARRISON 



97 



assent to this scheme was received with joy, and 
volunteers flocked to Vincennes. Harrison marched 
from that town on 26 Sept., with about 900 men, 
including 350 regular infantry, completed Fort 
Harrison, near the site of Terre Haute, Ind., on 28 
Oct., and, leaving a garrison there, pressed forward 
toward Tippecanoe. On 6 Nov., when the army 
had reached a point a mile and a half distant from 
the town, it was met by messengers demanding a 
parley. A council was proposed for the next day, 
and Harrison at once went into camp, taking, how- 
ever, every precaution against a surprise. At four 
o'clock on the following morning a fierce attack 
was made on the camp by the savages, and the 
fighting continued till daylight, when the Indians 
were driven from the field by a cavalry charge. 
During the battle, in which the American loss was 
108 killed and wounded, the governor directed the 
movements of the troops. He was highly compli- 
mented by President Madison in his message of 
18 Dec, 1811, and was also thanked by the legis- 
latures of Kentucky and Indiana. On 18 June, 
1812, war was declared between Great Britain and 
the United States. On 25 Aug., Gov. Harrison, 
although not a citizen of Kentucky, was commis- 
sioned major-general of the militia of that state, 
and given command of a detachment that was sent 
to re-enforce Gen. Hull, the news of whose surren- 
der had not yet reached Kentucky. On 2 Sept., 
while on the march, he received a brigadier-gen- 
eral's commission in the regular army, but with- 
held his acceptance till he could learn whether or 
not he was to be subordinate to Gen. James Win- 
chester, who had been appointed to the command 
of the northwestern army. After relieving Fort 
Wayne, which had been invested by the Indians, 
he turned over his force to Gen. Winchester, and 
was returning to his home in Indiana when he met 
an express with a letter from the secretary of war, 
appointing him to the chief command in the north- 
west. " You will exercise." said the letter, " your 
own discretion, and act in all cases according to 
your own judgment." No latitude as great as this 
had been given to any commander since Washing- 
ton. Harrison now prepared to concentrate his 
force on the rapids of the Maumee, and thence to 
move on Maiden and Detroit. Various difficulties, 
however, prevented him from carrying out his de- 
sign immediately. Forts were erected and sup- 
plies forwarded, but. with the exception of a few 
minor engagements with Indians, the remainder of 
the year was occupied merely in preparation for 
the coming campaign. Winchester had been or- 
dered by Harrison to advance to the Rapids, but 
the order was countermanded on receipt of infor- 
mation that Tecumseh, with a large force, was at 
the head-waters of the Wabash. Through a mis- 
understanding, however, Winchester continued, 
and on 18 Jan. captured Frenchtown (now Mon- 
roe, Mich.), but three days later met with a bloody 
repulse on the river Raisin from Col. Henry Proc- 
tor. Harrison hastened to his aid, but was too 
late. After establishing a fortified camp, which 
he named Fort Meigs, after the governor of Ohio, 
the commander visited Cincinnati to obtain sup- 
plies, and while there urged the construction of a 
fleet on Lake Erie. On 2 March, 1813, he was 
given a major-general's commission. Shortly after- 
ward, having heard that the British were preparing 
to attack Fort Meigs, he hastened thither, arriv- 
ing on 12 April. On 28 April it was ascertained 
that the enemy under Proctor was advancing in 
force, and on 1 May siege was laid to the fort. 
While a heavy fire was kept up on both sides for 
five days, re-enforcements under Gen. Green Clay 
vol. in. — 7 



were huiTied forward and came to the relief of the 
Americans in two bodies, one on each side of Mau- 
mee river. Those on the opposite side from the 
fort put the enemy to flight, but, disregarding Har- 
rison's signals, allowed themselves to be drawn into 
the woods, and were finally dispersed or captured. 
The other detachment fought their way to the fort, 
and at the same time the garrison made a sortie 
and spiked the enemy's guns. Three days later 
Proctor raised the siege. He renewed his attack in 
July with 5,000 men, but after a few days again with- 
drew. On 10 Sept. Com. Perry gained his victory 
on Lake Erie, and on 16 Sept. Harrison embarked 
his artillery and supplies for a descent on Canada. 
The troops followed between the 20th and 24th, 
and on the 27th the army landed on the enemy's 
territory. Proctor burned the fort and navy-yard 
at Maiden and retreated, and Harrison followed 
on the next day. Proctor was overtaken on 5 Oct., 
and took position with his left flanked by the 
Thames, and a swamp covering his right, which 
was still further protected by Tecumseh and his 
Indians. He had made the mistake of forming his 
men in open order, which was the plan that was 
adopted in Indian fighting, and Harrison, taking 
advantage of the error, ordered Col. Richard M. 
Johnson to lead a cavalry charge, which broke 
through the British lines, and virtually ended the 
battle. Within five minutes almost the entire 
British force was captured, and Proctor escaped 
only by abandoning his carriage and taking to the 
woods. Another band of cavalry charged the In- 
dians, who lost their leader, Tecumseh, in the be- 
ginning of the fight, and afterward made no great 
resistance. This battle, which, if mere numbers 
alone be considered, was insignificant, was most 
important in its results. Together with Perry's 
victory it gave the United States possession of the 
chain of lakes above Erie, and put an end to the 
war in uppermost Canada. Harrison's praises wore 
sung in the president's message, in congress, and in 
the legislatures of the different states. Celebrations 
in honor of his victory were held in the principal 
cities of the Union, and he was one of the heroes of 
the hour. He now sent his troops to Niagara, and 
proceeded to Washington, where he was ordered by 
the president to Cincinnati to devise means of pro- 
tection for the Indiana border. Gen. John Arm- 
strong, who was at this time secretary of war, in 
planning the campaign of 1814 assigned Harrison 
to the 8th military district, including only western 
states, where he could see no active service, and on 
25 April issued an order to Maj. Holmes, one of 
Harrison's subordinates, without consulting the 
latter. Harrison thereupon tendered his resigna- 
tion, which, President Madison being absent, was 
accepted by Armstrong. This terminated Harri- 
son's military career. In 1814, and again in 1815 
he was appointed on commissions that concluded 
satisfactory Indian treaties, and in 1816 he was 
chosen to congress to fill a vacancy, serving till 
1819. While he was in congress he was charged 
by a dissatisfied contractor with misuse of the pub- 
lic money while in command of the northwestern 
army, but was completely exonerated by an inves- 
tigating committee of the house. At this time his 
opponents succeeded, by a vote of 13 to 11 in the 
senate, in striking his name from a resolution that 
had already passed the house, directing gold med- 
als to be struck in honor of Gov. Shelby, of Ken- 
tucky, and himself, for the victory of the Thames. 
The resolution was passed unanimously two years 
later, on 24 March, 1818, and Harrison received the 
medal. Among the charges that were made against 
him was that he would not have pursued Proctor 



98 



HARRISON 



HARRISON 



at all, after the latter's abandonment of Maiden, 
had it not been for Gov. Shelby; but the latter de- 
nied this in a letter that was read before the sen- 
ate, and gave Gen. Harrison the highest praise for 
his promptitude and vigilance. While in congress, 
Harrison drew up and advocated a general militia 




bill, which was not successful, and also proposed a 
measure for the relief of soldiers, which was passed. 
In 1819 Gen. Harrison was chosen to the senate of 
Ohio, and in 1822 was a candidate for congress, but 
was defeated on account of his vote against the ad- 
mission of Missouri to the Union with the restric- 
tion that slavery was to be prohibited there. In 
1824 he was a presidential elector, voting for Henry 
Clay, and in the same year he was sent to the U. S. 
senate, where he succeeded Andrew Jackson as 
chairman of the committee on military affairs, in- 
troduced a bill to prevent desertions, and exerted 
himself to obtain pensions for old soldiers. He re- 
signed in 1828, having been appointed by Presi- 
dent John Quincy Adams U. S. minister to the 
United States of Colombia. While there he wrote 
a letter to Gen. Siihon Bolivar urging him not to 
accept dictatorial powers. He was recalled at the 
outset of Jackson's administration, as is asserted 
by some, at the demand of Gen. Bolivar, and re- 
tired to his farm at North Bend, near Cincinnati, 
Ohio, where he lived quietly, filling the offices of 
clerk of the county court and president of the 
county agricultural society. In 1835 Gen. Harri- 
son was nominated for the presidency by meetings 
in Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, and other states ; 
but the opposition to Van Buren was not united on 
him, and he received only 73 electoral votes to the 
former's 170. Four years later the National Whig 
convention, which was called at Harrisburg, Pa., 
for 4 Dec, 1839, to decide between the claims of 
several rival candidates, nominated him for the 
same office, with John Tyler, of Virginia, for vice- 
president. The Democrats renominated President 
Van Buren. The canvass that followed has been 
often called the "log-cabin and hard-cider cam- 
paign." The eastern end of Gen. Harrison's house 
at North Bend consisted of a log-cabin that had 
been built by one of the first settlers of Ohio, but 
which had long since been covered with clapboards. 
The republican simplicity of his home was extolled 
by his admirers, and a political biography of that 
time says that " his table, instead of being covered 
with exciting wines, is well supplied with the best 
cider." Log-cabins and hard cider, then, became 
the party emblems, and both were features of all 
the political demonstrations of the canvass, which 
witnessed the introduction of the enormous mass- 
meetings and processions that have since been 
common just before presidential elections. The 
result of the contest was the choice of Harrison, 
who received 234 electoral votes to Van Buren's 
60. He was inaugurated at Washington on 4 
March, 1841. and immediately sent to the senate 
his nominations for cabinet officers, which were 
confirmed. They were Daniel Webster, of Mas- 



sachusetts, secretary of state ; Thomas Ewing, of 
Ohio, secretary of the treasury ; John Bell, of Ten- 
nessee, secretary of war; George E. Badger, of 
North Carolina, secretary of the navy; Francis 
Granger, of New York, postmaster-general ; and 
John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, attorney-general. 
The senate adjourned on 15 March, and two days 
afterward the president called congress together in 
extra session to consider financial measures. On 
27 March, after several days of indisposition, he 
was prostrated by a chill, which was followed by 
bilious pneumonia, and on Sunday morning, 4 
April, he died. The end came so suddenly that 
his wife, who had remained at North Bend on ac- 
count of illness, was unable to be present at his 
death-bed. The event was a shock to the country, 
the more so that a chief magistrate had never be- 
fore died in office, and especially to the Whig 
party, who had formed high hopes of his adminis- 
tration. His body was interred in the congres- 
sional cemetery at Washington; but a few years 
later, at the request of his family, it was removed 
to North Bend, where it was placed in a tomb 
overlooking the Ohio river. This was subsequent- 
ly allowed to fall into neglect, but afterward Gen. 
Harrison's son, John Scott, deeded it and the sur- 
rounding land to the state of Ohio, on condition 
that it should be kept in repair. In 1887 the legis- 
lature of the state voted to raise money by taxa- 
tion for the purpose of erecting a monument to 
Gen. Harrison's memory. He was the author of 
a " Discourse on the Aborigines of the Valley of 
the Ohio " (Cincinnati, 1838). His life has been 
written by Moses Dawson (Cincinnati, 1834); by 
James Hall (Philadelphia, 1836) ; by Richard Hil- 
dreth (1839) ; by Samuel J. Burr (New York, 1840) ; 
by Isaac R. Jackson ; and by H. Montgomery 
(New York, 1853). — His wife, Anna, b. near Mor- 
ristown, N. J., 25 
July, 1775; d. near 
North Bend, Ohio, 

25 Feb., 1864, was a 
daughter of John 
Cleves Symmes, and 
married Gen. Har- 
rison 22 Nov., 1795. 
After her husband's 
death she lived at 
North Bend till 
1855, when she went 
to the house of her 
son, John Scott Har- 
rison, a few miles 
distant. Her fu- 
neral sermon was 
preached by Horace 
Bushnell, and her 
body lies by the side 
of her husband at 
North Bend. — Their son, John Scott, b. in Vin- 
cennes, Ind., 4 Oct., 1804; d. near North Bend, Ohio, 

26 May, 1878, received a liberal education, and was 
elected to congress as a Whig, serving from 5 Dec, 
1853, till 3 March, 1857.— A daughter, Lucy, b. in 
Richmond, Va. ; d. in Cincinnati, Ohio, 7 April, 
1826, became the wife of David K. Este, of the lat- 
ter city, and was noted for her piety and benevo- 
lence. — Benjamin, son of John Scott, senator, b. 
in North Bend, Ohio, 20 Aug., 1833, was graduated 
at Miami university, Ohio, in 1852, studied law in 
Cincinnati, and in 1854 removed to Indianapolis, 
Ind., where he has since resided. He was elected 
reporter of the state supreme court in 1860, and in 
1862 entered the army as a 2d lieutenant of Indi- 
ana volunteers. After a short service he organized 







(Ipb. "^tf^Z^-O <^" A >- 



HARRISON 



HARRISON 



99 




a company of the 70th Indiana regiment, was 
commissioned colonel on the completion of the 
regiment, and served 
through the war, re- 
ceiving the brevet of 
brigadier - general of 
volunteers on 23 Jan.. 
1865. He then re- 
turned to Indian- 
apolis, and resumed 
his office of supreme 
court reporter, to 
which he had been 
re-elected during his 
absence in 1864. In 
1876 he was the Re- 
publican candidate 
for governor of In- 
diana, but was defeat- 
ed by a small plural- 
ity. He was a mem- 
ber of the Mississippi river commission in 1879, 
and in 1880 he was elected U. S. senator, taking his 
seat on 4 March, 1881. (See Supplement.) 

HARRISON, Carter Henry, politician, b. in 
Fayette county, Ky., 15 Feb., 1825. He was gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1845, read law, engaged in farming, 
travelled for two years in foreign countries, and, 
after receiving his degree from Transylvania law- 
school, Lexington, Ky., settled in Chicago, where 
he engaged in real-estate operations. After the 
great fire of 1871 he served as county commissioner 
for three years. After returning from a second 
European journey, in 1874, he was elected to con- 
gress, as a Democrat, by so close a vote that his 
competitor, who had defeated him in the preced- 
ing election, gave notice of contest. He was re- 
elected, and when his second term was ended, in 
1879, was chosen mayor of Chicago, in which office 
he was continued for four biennial terms. 

HARRISON, Constance Cary, author, b. in 
Vaucluse, Fairfax co., Va., about 1835. She mar- 
ried Burton Harrison, a lawyer of Virginia, in 
1867, and several years later removed with him to 
New York citv, where she now (1887) resides. She 
has published "Golden Rod" (New York, 1880); 
"Helen Troy" (1881); "Woman's Handiwork in 
Modern Homes" (1881); "Old-Fashioned Fairv- 
Book" (1885); and " Bric-a-Brac Stories" (1886). 
She has written plays, chiefly adapted from the 
French, among them " The Russian Honeymoon," 
produced at Madison Square theatre in 1883. 

HARRISON, Gabriel, dramatic author, b. in 
Philadelphia, 25 March, 1825. When he was six 
years old his father, a man of classical education 
and a bank-note engraver, removed to New York, 
where his house soon became a favorite resort of 
the literary people and artists of the city. The 
son's love of dramatic art was determined by wit- 
nessing Edwin Forrest at the Park theatre in 
1832. He soon became a member of the American 
histrionic society, and in November, 1838, made 
his first public appearance at Wallack's national 
theatre, Washington, D. C, as Othello. In 1841, 
two years after Daguerre's discovery, Mr. Harrison 
produced pictures by the former's process which 
won the inventor's warmest praise, and which took 
various prize medals. They were remarkable for 
their tone, and of a size that had been previously 
untried. He became a member of the Park theatre. 
New York, in 1845, being a favorite support of 
Charles Kean in his Shakespearian revivals, and in 
1851 he organized the Brooklyn dramatic acad- 
emy, a private association. He was manager of 
the Adelphi theatre, Troy, N. Y., in 1859, and in 



1863 opened the Park theatre, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
where he successfully organized an English opera 
troupe. But his high ideal of every detail con- 
nected with the setting and production of pieces 
upon the stage was a source of financial disaster 
to him, and he finally retired from the practice of 
his profession. He was afterward for a time lessee 
and manager of the Brooklyn academy of music. 
In 1867, as corresponding secretary of the Brooklyn 
academy of design, he raised the funds to pay its 
debts, and brought its free-art schools to a state of 
great prosperity. In 1872 he was one of the chief 
organizers of the Faust club of Brooklyn, and 
to his efforts that city is largely indebted for the 
fine bronze bust of John Howard Payne that was 
placed by the club in Prospect park. Mr. Har- 
rison has done some good work as an artist, 
both in landscape and portraiture, including a 
picture of Edwin Forrest as Coriolanus. He is 
now (1887), after many years of nervous prostra- 
tion, a teacher of elocution and acting in Brook- 
lyn. He has published " The Life and Writings 
of John Howard Payne " (Albany, 1873), and vari- 
ous pieces for the stage, including a dramatization 
of Hawthorne's " Scarlet Letter" (privately print- 
ed, 1876). which was successfully put upon the 
stage in February, 1878 ; " Melanthia," a tragedy, 
written for Matilda Heron ; " The Author " ; " Dart- 
more " ; " The Thirteenth Chime " ; and " Magna," 
besides an adaptation to the English stage of 
Schiller's " Fiesco " and " Don Carlos." He is the 
author of the critical essays on Forrest's acting, in 
Alger's life of that actor, of whom he was a warm 
personal friend and admirer, and has contributed 
poetry to the public press. His latest work is the 
chapter on " The Progress of Drama. Music, and 
the Fine Arts in Brooklvn"in the "Historv of 
Kings County " (New York. 1884). 

HARRISON, Georsre Leib, philanthropist, b. 
in Philadelphia, Pa., 28 Oct., 1811 ; d. there, 9 
Sept., 1885. He entered Harvard, but owing to 
feeble health was not able to complete his course. 
He subsequently read law and was admitted to the 
Philadelphia bar. but never practised. He then 
engaged in sugar-refining, and amassed a large 
fortune, of which he gave liberally. He was a 
trustee of the Protestant Episcopal divinity-school 
of Philadelphia, and was several times a delegate 
to the general convention of his church. He was 
appointed a member of the board of state charities 
in 1869, and was for several years the president of 
that body. In 1874 he was president of the first 
general convention of the board of public charities 
held in New York, and afterward sent to the Brit- 
ish government, by request, much information on 
the subject of public charities, for which he re- 
ceived the thanks of that government. By ap- 
pointment of the governor of Pennsylvania, he 
went to England to solicit the removal of the re- 
mains of William Penn to Philadelphia, but his 
mission was unsuccessful. On his return he pub- 
lished an account of it. He also wrote " Chapters 
on Social Science as connected with the Adminis- 
tration of State Charities" (Philadelphia. 1877), 
and compiled " Legislation on Insanity," a collec- 
tion of lunacv laws (1884). 

HARRISON, Gessner, educator, b. in Harri- 
sonburg, Va., 26 June, 1807; d. near Charlottes- 
ville, Va., 7 April. 1862. In 1825 he entered the 
University of Virginia and received degrees from 
the schools of ancient languages and medicine in 
1828. He was then appointed professor of ancient 
languages on the retirement of Prof. George Long, 
and served till 1848, when he established at Bel- 
mont, Va., a classical school, which had a wide 



100 



HARRISON 



HARRISON 



influence throughout the south. He was the au- 
thor of an " Exposition of Some of the Laws of 
Latin Grammar (New York, 1852), and " On Greek 
Prepositions" (Philadelphia, 1848). 

HARRISON, Hall, clergyman, b. in Anne 
Arundel county, Md., 11 ^iov., 1837. He was 
graduated at the College of St. James, Md., in 
1854, and was an instructor there from that year till 
1863. In 1865 he was ordained to the ministry of 
the Protestant Episcopal church at Concord, N. 
H., and was appointed assistant master in St. 
Paul's school, where he remained until 1879. In 
that year he became rector of St. John's church, 
Ellicott City, Md., which charge he has since re- 
tained. He edited " Evans on the Christian Doc- 
trine of Marriage " (New York, 1870), and pub- 
lished a " Memoir of Hugh Davey Evans " (Hart- 
ford, 1870), and a life of John B. Kerfoot, first 
bishop of Pittsburg (New York, 1886). 

HARRISON, James Albert, philologist, b. in 
Pass Christian, Miss., 21 Aug., 1848. He was 
graduated at the University of Virginia in 1866, 
and went to Germany in 1871. He was professor 
of Latin and modern languages in Randolph- 
Macon college, Va., from 1871 till 1876, when he 
was appointed to the chair of English and mod- 
em languages in Washington and Lee university, 
Lexington, Va., which he now holds (1887). In 
1883 he delivered ten lectures on Anglo-Saxon po- 
etry at Johns Hopkins university. He received 
the degree of doctor of letters at the Columbia col- 
lege centennial anniversary in 1887. He is chair- 
man of the editorial committee of the Modern lan- 
guage association, a member of the American philo- 
logical association, and the originator and editor of 
the " Library of Anglo-Saxon Poetry." His publi- 
cations include " Greek Vignettes " (1875) ; " Spain 
in Profile " (1878) ; " History of Spain " (Boston, 
1881) ; " Beowulf," with Robert Sharp (Boston, 
1883; 2d ed., revised, 1886); "Exodus and Dan- 
iel," with Prof. Theodore W. Hunt (Boston, 1885) ; 
" Story of Greece " (New York, 1885) ; and a •' Han- 
dy Anglo-Saxon Dictionary," with Dr. William M. 
Baskervill (New York, 1886). 

HARRISON, James Thomas, lawyer, b. near 
Pendleton, S. C, 30 Nov., 1811 ; d. in Columbus, 
Miss., 22 May, 1879. His father, Thomas, a de- 
scendant of Benjamin Harrison, served as captain 
of a battery in the war of 1812, after which he was 
comptroller-general of the state. The son was 
graduated at the University of South Carolina in 
1829, and studied law under James L. Pettigru. 
He removed to Macon, Miss., in 1834, and in 1836 
settled permanently in Columbus. In 1861 he 
was a delegate to the convention of southern 
states in Montgomery, and served also in the Con- 
federate congress during the entire period of its 
existence. On the reconstruction of Mississippi 
he was elected to congress, but was refused admis- 
sion, and returned to his practice. 

HARRISON, John Hoffman, physician, b. in 
Washington, D. C, 30 Aug., 1808 ; d. in New Or- 
leans, l9 March, 1849. He was graduated at the 
University of Maryland in 1831, and was resident- 
surgeon of its charity hospital from 1833 till 
1836. In 1845 he established the " New Orleans 
Medical and Surgical Journal," which he edited 
four years. He published an "Essay toward a 
Correct Theory of the Nervous System " (Philadel- 
phia, 1844), and contributed important articles to 
medical journals. Dr. Drake has noted his experi- 
ments with regard to yellow fever in his " Diseases 
of the Mississippi Valley " (Philadelphia, 1850-'4). 

HARRISON, Joseph, engineer, b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 20 Sept., 1810 ; d. there, 27 March, 



1874. He had received but a partial common- 
school education, when his strong inclination for 
mechanical pursuits led his father to indenture 
him to learn steam-engineering. He began to 
build locomotives in 1834, and in 1840 designed 
for the Reading railroad an eleven-ton engine. Two 
Russian engineers, Col. Melnekoff and Col. Kraft, 
who were in this country to investigate its rail- 
way system, saw this engine, took traces of it, and 
introduced it into general use in Russia, where 
its value led to an official inquiry for its builder. 
The result was that Mr. Harrison was invited to 
Russia, and there in 1843 he, with Andrew M. East- 
wick, of Philadelphia, and Thomas Winans, of 
Baltimore, concluded a contract with the govern- 
ment to build the locomotives and rolling stock 
for the St. Petersburg and Moscow railway for 
$3,000,000. The Emperor Nicholas made the part- 
ners costly presents, and also gave Mr. Harrison 
the ribbon of the order of St. Ann, to which was 
attached a massive gold medal, at the time of the 
completion of the bridge across the Neva. After 
executing other extensive contracts with the Rus- 
sian government, Mr. Harrison returned to Phila- 
delphia in 1852, built a fine mansion, and col- 
lected in it many paintings and other works of 
art. Later he designed and patented the "Har- 
rison Safety-Boiler," and was awarded the gold 
and silver Rumford medals by the American acad- 
emy of arts and sciences. He wrote "The Iron- 
Worker and King Solomon," and published a 
folio containing this poem and some fugitive 
pieces, his autobiography, and many incidents of 
life in Russia (Philadelphia, 1869). He also wrote 
a paper on the part taken by Philadelphians in the 
invention of the locomotive, an account of the 
Neva bridge in Russia, and a paper on steam- 
boilers. He was a member of the American philo- 
sophical society, and of other learned societies. 

HARRISON, Napoleon Bonaparte, naval 
officer, b. in Virginia, 19 Feb., 1823 ; d. in Key 
West, Fla.. 27 Oct.. 1870. He entered the navy 
as midshipman on 26 Sept., 1838, served in the 
Pacific squadron in 1847-8, and was in California 
during the Mexican war, serving as a volunteer 
in the expedition that rescued Gen. Kearny's com- 
mand. In 1850 he was in the observatory in 
Washington, D. C, and in 1851-'2 was engaged .in 
the coast survey. He was made lieutenant, 6 Jan., 
1853, and appointed to the East Indian squad- 
ron. In 1862 he commanded the "Cayuga," the 
flag-ship of Captain Bailey, of the West Gulf 
blockading squadron, and led the fleet in the 
passage of Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip, for 
which action he was commended in the official re- 
ports. He became commander on 16 July, 1862, 
and had charge of the " Mahaska," of the James 
river flotilla, during the operations of Gen. Mc- 
Clellan before Richmond, and his retreat to Harri- 
son's landing. In 1862-'3 he held command of 
the flag-ship " Minnesota," of the North Atlantic 
blockading squadron, and subsequently was at- 
tached to the South Atlantic blockading squad- 
ron, taking part in the attacks on the South Caro- 
lina coast until the fall of Charleston. From 1866 
till 1868 he was stationed in the navy-yard at 
Portsmouth, N. H. He was made captain on 28 
April, 1868, and in 1868-'9 was commandant of 
cadets in the U. S. naval academy. At the time of 
his death he commanded the "Congress," of the 
North Atlantic fleet. 

HARRISON, Richard, auditor of the treasury, 
b. in 1750 ; d. in Washington, D. C, 10 July, 1841. 
He was U. S. consul at Cadiz for five years. Presi- 
dent Washington appointed him auditor on 29 Nov., 



HARRISON 



HARSHA 



101 



1791, and he was continued as first auditor through 
the successive administrations till 1 Nov., 1836. 

HARRISON, Robert Alexander, Canadian 
jurist, b. in Montreal, 4 Aug., 1833 ; d. in Toronto 
in 1878. He was educated at Upper Canada and 
Trinity colleges, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1855. He was appointed chief clerk of the 
Crown lands department in the same year, an 
office that he held for four years, represented West 
Toronto in parliament from 1867 till 1872, and be- 
came chief justice of Ontario in 1875. During his 
career in the legislature he promoted important 
legal measures, and as a lawyer was retained as 
counsel in many cases. He was editor of the 
" Upper Canada Law Journal," being at one time a 
contributor of poetry to the " Daily Colonist," of 
Toronto, and is the author of " Digest of Cases in 
the Queen's Bench, Upper Canada, from 1823 to 
1851" (1853); "Common Law Procedure Act" 
(1856) ; " Statutes of Upper Canada " to 1856 ; 
" Sketch of the Legal Profession in Upper Cana- 
da " (1857) ; " Manual of Costs in County Courts " 
(1857) ; " Rules of Practice and Pleading in the 
Courts of Upper Canada " (1858) ; and " Municipal 
Manual of Upper Canada " (1859). 

HARRISON, Robert Hanson, jurist, b. in 
Maryland in 1745 ; d. in Charles county, Md., 2 
April, 1790. He was educated for the law, suc- 
ceeded Joseph Reed as secretary to Gen. Washing- 
ton on 6 Nov., 1775, with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, and remained in the military family of 
the commanding general till the spring of 1781. 
He was appointed by congress in November, 1777, 
a member of the board of war. but declined the 
office. He became chief justice of the general 
court of Maryland on 10 March, 1781, but declined 
the appointment of judge of the United States 
supreme court in 1789. 

HARRISON, Samuel Bealy, Canadian states- 
man, b. in Manchester, England, 4 March, 1802 ; d. 
23 July, 1867. He was distinguished as a lawyer, 
represented Kingston in the 1st parliament of 
United Canada from 1 July, 1841, till 23 Sept., 1844, 
and in the 2d parliament was member for Kent 
from 12 Nov., 1843, till 3 Jan., 1845. He was a 
member of the executive council of Canada from 10 
March, 1841, till 30 Sept., 1843 ; during this period 
was provincial secretary, and from 21 Dec, 1841, 
till 3 Oct., 1844, was a member of the board of 
works. While in parliament he greatly aided Lord 
Sydenham in carrying out the union act. He was 
for many years a county and surrogate judge. 

HARRISON, Sarah, Quaker preacher, b. in 
Delaware county, Pa., about 1748 ; d. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 29 Dec, 1812. She was the daughter 
of Rowland Richards, and after her marriage to 
Thomas Harrison settled in Philadelphia. She 
first preached in the Quaker meetings during the 
Revolution, and was acknowledged a minister in 
1781. Accompanied by Mary England she at- 
tended the yearly meeting of Friends in Virginia 
in 1786, and was afterward liberated by her monthly 
meeting to attend the meetings of Friends in the 
southern states. In 1787 she attended the North 
Carolina yearly meeting, in which the question of 
slavery was discussed, and a committee appointed 
to visit slave-holders. She returned to Philadelphia 
in 1788, and in 1792 visited London and Dublin 
and travelled on the continent of Europe, where 
she was held prisoner for several days by the 
French on suspicion of being an English spy. — 
Her son, John, manufacturer, b. in Philadelphia, 
Pa., 17 Dec, 1738 ; d. there, 19 May, 1833. His 
early education was obtained in Philadelphia, after 
which he spent two years in Europe, devoting his 



attention to acquiring a knowledge of the processes 
used by chemists in manufacturing, and also in 
studying chemistry under Dr. Joseph Priestley. 
In 1793 he began in Philadelphia the manufac- 
ture of chemicals, and was the first successful 
maker of sulphuric acid in the United States. He 
had a lead chamber capable of producing 300 
carboys, and in 1807 so increased his plant that 
an annual output of 3,500 carboys was possible. 
The use of glass retorts for the concentration of 
the acid was then prevalent, and Dr. Eric Boll- 
man, who was familiar with the metallurgy of 
platinum, constructed for Mr. Harrison the first 
platinum stills that were used in the United States 
in connection with the manufacture of sulphuric 
acid. Subsequently the plant was again increased 
by the building of white-lead works, resulting in 
the production of various lead compounds and 
other chemicals. Mr. Harrison is credited with 
doing more to influence the establishment of 
chemical industries in Philadelphia than any man 
of his time. The business is now carried on bv his 
grandsons. From 1821 till 1824 he held the office 
of recorder of deeds in Philadelphia. 

HARRISON, Thomas, Canadian educator, b. 
in Sheffield, Sunbury co., New Brunswick, 24 Oct., 
1839. He was graduated at Trinity college, Dub- 
lin, in 1864, and received the degree of LL. D. from 
that institution in 1870. He became professor of 
the English language and literature and of mental 
and moral philosophy in the University of New 
Brunswick in 1870, and president of the university 
and professor of mathematics in 1885. Prof. Har- 
rison has been superintendent of the meteorological 
chief station at Fredericton, N. B„ since 1874, and 
is the author of the reports of tri-hourly observa- 
tions published in " Meteorological Observations 
of the Dominion of Canada." 

HARROD, James, pioneer, b. in Virginia in 
1746 ; d. near Harrodsburg, Kv., about 1825. He 
emigrated to Kentucky in 1774. and built the first 
log cabin on the present site of Harrodsburg. He 
was one of the most efficient of the early military 
leaders, a successful farmer, and an expert with 
the rifle. He was distinguished at the battle of 
Point Pleasant in 1774, and afterward represented 
Harrodsburg (which was named in his honor) in the 
Transylvania assembly. He was in the habit of 
making solitary excursions into the forest, and from 
one of these trips, which was undertaken at an ad- 
vanced age, he never returned, nor was any trace 
of him ever discovered. 

HARROW, William, soldier, b. in Indiana 
about 1820. He was engaged, as colonel of the 
14th Indiana infantry, at the battle of Antietam, 
where more than half of his regiment were killed 
or wounded. He was commissioned as brigadier- 
general of volunteers on 29 Nov., 1862, and re- 
signed on 20 April, 1865. 

HARSHA, 'David Addison, author, b. in 
Argyle, N. Y., 15 Sept., 1827. He received a classi- 
cal education and studied theology, but was pre- 
vented from entering the ministry by a chronic 
bronchial affection. " Mr. Harsha is a frequent con- 
tributor to the press, and has spent most of his life 
in his native town, engaged in literary pursuits. 
Among his works are " The Heavenlv Token " 
(New York, 1856); "The Star of Bethlehem" 
(Chicago, 1864) ; " Manual of Sacred Literature " 
(New York, 1866); "Lives of Charles Sumner, 
Doddridge, Baxter, Addison, and Bunyan" (1868); 
" Lives and Selected Works of Isaac Watts, George 
Whitefield, James Harvey, and Abraham Booth " 
(1869) ; " Devotional Thoughts of Eminent Di- 
vines " (1869) ; " The Golden Age of English Lit- 



102 



HARSTON 



HART 



erature" (1872) ; and " The Life and Times of Vir- 
gil," now (1887) in course of preparation. 

HARSTON, Charles Grenville, Canadian in- 
ventor, b. in Tain worth, Staffordshire, England, 
10 Aug., 1844. He served in the Royal marines un- 
til 1876, when he retired with the rank of captain 
and came to Canada. He brought with him from 
England twenty-rive young men and an Episcopal 
clergyman, and with them founded a settlement in 
Muskoka district, which he named Ilfracombe. In 
1884 he removed to Toronto and assumed the 
management of the Standard life assurance com- 
pany of Ontario. He fought during the Riel 
rebellion, and led the charge at Batoche on 12 
May, 1885. He has invented the " Harston " rifle, 
which some claim is superior to the Martini-Henry. 
He is active as a sportsman, and secretary of the 
Dominion kennel club. 

HART, Abraham, publisher, b. in Philadelphia, 
Pa., 15 Dec, 1810 ; d. in Long Branch, N. J., 22 
July, 1885. He was of Dutch parentage. When a 
mere boy he was taken into the employ of the pub- 
lishing firm of Carey, Lea and Carey. In 1829 
the firm divided its business ; a partnership was 
formed between Mr. Hart and Edward L. Carey, 
the junior member of the old firm, and the house 
of Carey and Hart became the best-known publish- 
ing house in the country. It was the first to col- 
Jsct the fugitive essays of Macaulay, Jeffrey, 
Mackintosh, Carlyle, and others and publish them 
in separate volumes. Mr. Carey died in 1845, and 
Mr. Hart continued the publishing business until 
1854, when he retired with a handsome fortune. 
Mr. Hart was a member of the Jewish community, 
and took a chief part in its worthiest projects. 

HART, Charles Henry, author, b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 4 Feb., 1847. He received a classical 
and scientific education, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar, 18 Nov., 1868. Since then, 
although in active practice, he has devoted much 
time to literature. He has paid special attention 
to historical investigation and art matters, until he 
has become recognized as an authority on the lat- 
ter subject. He is a member of numerous histori- 
cal and scientific associations, was elected corre- 
sponding secretary of the Numismatic and anti- 
quarian society of Philadelphia, in 1865, and three 
years later became its historiographer. Much of 
his literary work has been done in connection with 
this society. Mr. Hart's separate publications in- 
clude " Remarks on Tabasco, Mexico " (1865) : 
"Historical Sketch of National Medals" (1866); 
" Memoir of William Hickling Prescott " (1868) ; 
" Bibliographia Lincolniana" with notes, and an 
introduction, which was subsequently reprinted as 
" Biographical Sketch of Abraham Lincoln " (Al- 
bany, 1870) ; " Turner, the Dream Painter " (1879) ; 
" Bibliographia Websteriana '* (1883) ; and memoirs 
of William Willis (1870). George Ticknor (1871), 
Samuel S. Haldeman (1881), Lewis II. Morgan 
(1883), Lucius Q. C. Elmer (1884), and others. In 
May, 1870, he delivered a " Discourse on the Life 
and Services of Gulian C. Verplanck," which was 

Erinted. He has in preparation a "Treatise on the 
•octrine of Equitable Conversion," based on the 
English work of Leigh and Dalzell (London, 1825). 
HART, Emanuel Bernard, lawyer, b. in New 
York city in 1809. He was prepared' for Columbia 
college, but entered business in his fourteenth year. 
After taking an active part in politics as a Demo- 
crat and serving as alderman, he was elected to 
congress in 1850, and in 1856 was appointed sur- 
veyor of the port of New York by President Bu- 
chanan. In 1868 he was admitted to the bar, and 
became interested in railway practice. In 1880-'3 



Mr. Hart was an excise commissioner, and since 
then he has devoted his time to law. He was at 
one time president of Mt. Sinai hospital. 

HART, Joel T., sculptor, b. in Clark county, 
Ky., in 1810; d. in Florence, Italy, 1 March, 1877. 
He received a common-school education, and was 
apprenticed to a stone-cutter in Lexington, Ky., 
where he began to model busts in clay. In 1849 
he went to Italy for study, and there, under the 
patronage of the Ladies' Clay association, modelled 
a statue of Henry Clay, which is now in Richmond, 
Va. His next work was a colossal bronze statue of 
Mr. Clay, which is now in New Orleans, and the 
marble statue of that statesman in the Louisville 
court-house. Thirty years of his life were spent in 
Florence, during which time he finished busts and 
statues of many distinguished men. His best com- 
positions are "Charity," "Woman Triumphant," 
and "Penserosa." He invented an apparatus for 
obtaining mechanically the outline of a head from 
life. It consisted of a metallic shell, which sur- 
rounded the head, with a space between, perforated 
for a large number of pins. Each pin was pushed 
inward till it touched the head, and there fastened. 
The shell was then filled with plaster, which was 
cut away till the points of the pins were reached, 
thus forming a rough mould. 

HART, John, signer of the Declaration of In- 
dependence, b. in Hopewell township, N. J., in 
1708 ; d. there in 1780. He was the son of Ed- 
ward Hart, who commanded the New Jersey blues, 
a corps of volun- 
teers that served 
in the French- 
Canadian wars. 
John was a farm- 
er, without mili- 
tary ambition, 
and took no ac- 
tive part in the 
French wars. He 
served for several 
terms in the pro- 
vincial legisla- 
ture, and was the 
promoter of laws 
for the improve- 
ment of roads, 
the founding of 
schools, and the 
administration of 
justice. He was 
known in the community as " Honest John Hart." 
In 1765, on the passage of the stamp-act, he was 
one of the first to recognize the tyrannical charac- 
ter of that measure, and assisted in the selection 
of delegates to the congress that was held in New 
York in October of that year. He served in the 
congress of 1774 and that of 1775. and in 1776 
was elected with four others to fill the vacancies 
caused by the resignation of the New Jersey dele- 
gation, who were unwilling to assume the respon- 
sibility imposed by Lee's resolution of independ- 
ence. John Hart, the signer of the Declaration, 
has frequently been confounded with John de 
Hart, who was one of the number that resigned. 
In 1777-8 he was chairman of the New Jersey 
council of safety, and when that state was in- 
vaded by the British his stock and farm were 
destroyed by the Hessians, his family forced to 
fly, and every effort made to capture the aged 
patriot. He hid in the forest, and suffered pri- 
vation and distress, including the death of his 
wife, until the battles of Trenton and Princeton, 
in December, 1777, secured the evacuation of the 




oJfwt A%2~ 



HART 



HART 



103 



greater part of New Jersey. He then returned to 
his farm, and passed the rest of his life in agricul- 
tural pursuits. In person, Mr. Hart was tall and 
well proportioned, with very black hair and blue 
eves. His disposition was affectionate and just, 
and he was held in high esteem in the community 
in which he lived. 

HART, John Seely, author, b. in Stockbridge, 
Mass., 28 Jan., 1810 ; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 26 
March, 1877. His family removed to Pennsyl- 
vania, and settled at Wilkesbarre. John was 
graduated at Princeton in 1830, and after teach- 
ing a year in Natchez, Miss., became tutor in 
Princeton in 1832, and in 1834 adjunct professor 
of ancient languages. From 1836 till 1841 he was 
in charge of the Edgehill school. From 1842 till 
1859 he was principal of the Philadelphia high- 
school, and in 1863-'71 of the New Jersey state 
normal school at Trenton. In 1872 he became 
professor of rhetoric aud the English language 
at Princeton. In 1848 he received the degree of 
LL. D. from Miami university. Mr. Hart con- 
tributed, largely to religious and educational lit- 
erature. He edited the '* Pennsylvania Common 
School Journal " in 1844, " Sartains Magazine " 
in 1849-'51, founded the " Sundav-School Times" 
in 1859, and edited it until 1871, "and in 1860 ed- 
ited the publications of the Sunday-school union. 
He published " Reports of the Philadelphia High 
School" (Philadelphia, 1842-'59) ; "Class-Book of 
Poetry" and "Class-Book of Prose " (1844) ; "Es- 
say on the Life and Writings of Edmund Spen- 
ser " (New York and London, 1847) : the philo- 
logical volume of the reports of the Wilkes 
exploring expedition (1849—51) ; " In the School- 
Room " (Philadelphia, 1868) ; " Manual of Compo- 
sition and Rhetoric " (1870) ; " Manual of English 
Literature " (1872) ; " Manual of American Lit- 
erature " (1873) ; and " Short Course in English 
and American Literature " (1874). 

HART, or HEART, Jonathan, soldier, b. in 
Kensington, Conn., in 1748; d. on Miami river, 
Ohio, 4 Nov., 1791. His father, Ebenezer Hart, 
was one of the first settlers in Connecticut. Jona- 
than was graduated at Yale in 1768, went to 
Farmington in 1773, and engaged in business. He 
enlisted as a private soldier in the Continental 
army at the beginning of the Revolution, and 
served throughout the struggle as a member of the 
1st Connecticut regiment, attaining the rank of 
captain. When peace was established he engaged 
in surveying, and in 1785 was appointed captain of 
the 1st U. S. infantry. He was stationed on the 
western frontier, and served in the Indian cam- 
paigns under Gen. Charles Scott and Gen. Josiah 
Harmar. In 1791 he was appointed major of the 
2d infantry, and accompanied Gen. Arthur St. 
Clair's expedition against the Miami Indians. 
Maj. Hart commanded the regular troops in the 
disastrous battle of 4 Nov., 1791, near the source 
of Miami river, and while covering the retreat 
with the shattered remnant of the army, was or- 
dered to charge with the bayonet. In performing 
this dutv he and nearly all his command were 
killed. He published in the transactions of the 
American society (vol. iii.) " The Native Inhabitants 
of the Western Country," and a paper on "The 
Ancient Works of Art." 

HART, Luther, clergyman, b. in Goshen, 
Litchfield co., Conn., in July, 1783; d. in Plym- 
outh, Conn., 25 April, 1834. He was graduated 
at Yale in 1807, taught for a year in the acade- 
my at Litchfield, began the study of theology in 
1808 under Rev. Ebenezer Potter, of Washington, 
Conn., and was graduated with the first class at 



Andover seminary. In 1809 he was licensed to 
preach in Massachusetts, and in 1810 was called to 
the Congregational church at Plymouth, Conn., 
where he continued until his death. Five hundred 
persons were admitted to the membership of this 
church during his ministrations. His works in- 
clude "Christmas Sermons" (1818); "Sermons" 
(1826) ; and " Memoir of Amos Pettengill " (1834). 

HART, Nancy, Revolutionary heroine, b. in 
Elbert county, Ga., about 1755;* d. there about 
1840. She was without education or refinement, 
but a zealous patriot. Although illiterate and of 
unprepossessing appearance, she supported the 
cause with many deeds of bravery, and was well 
known to the Tories, who stood somewhat in fear 
of her. On the occasion of an excursion of the 
British from the camp at Augusta into the in- 
terior, a party of five of the enemy came to her 
cabin to pillage. While they were eating and 
drinking at her table she contrived to conceal 
their arms, and when they sprang to their feet at 
the sound of the approaching neighbors she ordered 
them to surrender or pay the forfeit with their 
lives. One man stirred, and was shot dead. Ter- 
ror of capture induced another to attempt escape, 
but he met with the same fate. When the neigh- 
bors arrived they found the woman posted in the 
doorway, two men dead on the floor, and the others 
kept at bay. Hart county, Ga., is named for her. 

HART, Oliver, clergyman, b. in Warminster, 
Bucks co., Pa., 5 July, i723; d. in Hopewell, N. 
J., 31 Dec, 1795. He was a Baptist minister of 
Charleston, S. C, from 1749 till February, 1780, 
and at the latter date settled at Hopewell. He 
was an active patriot, and was sent with William 
Tennant by the council of safety to reconcile some 
of the disaffected frontier settlers to the change in 
public affairs consequent upon the Revolution. 
He had some ability as a writer of verse, and pub- 
lished a " Discourse on the Death of William Ten- 
nant," " Dancing Exploded." " The Christian 
Temple." and " A Gospel Church Portraved." 

HART, William, artist, b. in Paisley," Scotland, 
31 March, 1823. His parents removed to Albany, 
N. Y., when he was a child, and in 1831 he was 
apprenticed to a coach-maker, for whom he 
painted panel and other carriage decorations. His 
tastes soon led him to adopt the career of an art- 
ist, and in 1848 he exhibited some of his first 
work at the National academy of design, which 
met with favorable comment. He visited Scot- 
land in 1850, spent three years in study, and on 
his return opened a studio in New York city. In 
1855 he was elected an associate of the National 
academy, and in 1858 an academician. At the or- 
ganization of the Brooklyn academy of design in 
1865, he became its president, and continued in 
that office several years. He was one of the origi- 
nal members of the American society of water- 
colorists, and its president from 1870 till 1873. 
He has exhibited at the National academy " The 
September Snow " and " Autumn in the Woods of 
Maine" (1867); "Scene on the Peabody River," in 
water-colors (1868); "Twilight on the Brook" 
(1869); "Goshen, N. H.," in water-colors, " Twi- 
light," and "A Brook Studv" (1870); "Easter 
Skv at Sunset," in water-colors (1871); "The 
Golden Hour" (1872); "Morning in the Clouds" 
(1874); "Keene Valley" (1875); "Cattle Scenes" 
(1876); "Landscape with Jersev Cattle" (1877); 
" The Ford " (1878) ; " Scene on Napanock Creek " 
(1884); "A Modern Cinderella'* (1885); and 
"After a Shower" (1886).— His brother. James 
McPougal, artist, b. in Kilmarnock, Scotland, in 
December, 1828, also served an apprenticeship to a 



104 



HARTE 



HARTLEY 



coach-maker in Albany as a decorator of carriage- 
panels. In 1851 he went to Diisseldorf and 
studied with Schirmer. He opened a studio in 
Albany, and worked for four years, but in 1857 
removed, to New York, where he was elected an 
associate of the National academy, and in 1859 an 
academician. Mr. Hart is noted for his treatment 
of cattle in landscape and his rendition of pasto- 
ral scenes. Among his works are " Cattle Going 
Home " and " Moonrise in the Adirondacks " 
(1871) ; " In the Orchard " and " A Breezy Day on 
the Road " (1874) ; " Landscape, Road and Cattle " 
(1875) : " A Misty Morning," exhibited at the Cen- 
tennial (1876) ; " In the Pasture " (1877) ; " Sum- 
mer Memory of Berkshire," and " Indian Summer," 
both exhibited at the Paris salon (1878) ; " Princess 
Lily" (1882); "Boughs for Christmas" (1884); 
" At the Watering-Trough " (1885) : " Three Little 
Maids " and " On the North Shore " (1886). 

HARTE, Francis Bret, author, b. in Albany, 
N. Y., 25 Aug., 1839. His father was a teacher in 
the Albany female seminary, a scholar of ripe cul- 
ture, who died leav- 
ing his family with 
but little means. 
After an ordinary 
school education, the 
son went in 1854 to 
California with his 
mother. Prom San 
Francisco he walked 
to Sonora, and there 
opened a school ; 
but this proved un- 
successful, and he 
turned his energies 
to mining. Fortune 
was not there, and 
he became a com- 
positor in a print- 
ing-office, beginning 
his literary career 
by composing his 
first articles in type 
while working at 
the case. During the absence of the editor he con- 
ducted the journal for a short time, but his arti- 
cles were not in sympathy with the mining popu- 
lation, and his editorial experiences terminated 
abruptly. He drifted back to San Francisco, and 
in 1857 became a compositor in the office of the 
" Golden Era." The experience of his frontier life 
had been impressive, and his literary talents soon 
put to profitable use the vivid scenes of the past 
three years. Clever sketches, contributed at first 
anonymously, attracted the attention of the editor, 
and Harte was invited to join the corps of writers. 
Soon afterward he became associated in the man- 
agement of " The Californian," a literary weekly, 
short-lived, but of interest as containing his " Con- 
densed Novels." In 1864 he was appointed secre- 
tary of the U. S. branch mint, having previously 
held several minor political appointments, and 
filled this office for six years, during which time 
he wrote for San Francisco journals " John Burns 
of Gettysburg," " The Pliocene Skull," " The So- 
ciety upon the Stanislau," and other poems, which 
were widely copied and universally admired. In 
July, 1868, the publication of " The Overland 
Monthly " was begun, with Mr. Harte as its organ- 
izer and editor. The second issue contained " The 
Luck of Roaring Camp," a story of mining life, 
which marks the beginning of his higher and more 
artistic work. It was the first of those sketches of 
American border experience of which he was the 




/Jt^£^r^~~^c — ^^^ 



pioneer writer, and in which he originated that 
peculiar pseudo-dialect of western mining life. 
The next number contained "The Outcasts of 
Poker Flat," a realistic story, considered by many 
his best production. It established his reputa- 
tion, and was followed in quick succession by 
" Miggles," " Tennessee's Partner," and " The Idyl 
of Red Gulch." The " Etc." of the early issues of 
the magazine were by him. In September, 1870, 
appeared his " Plain Language from Truthful 
James " (popularly known as " The Heathen Chi- 
nee "), a satire against the hue and cry that the 
Chinese were shiftless and weak-minded. He re- 
ceived the appointment of professor of recent lit- 
erature in the University of California in 1870, but 
in the spring of 1871 resigned that chair, and also 
his editorial appointment, and settled in New York. 
An effort was made to found a literary periodical 
under his management in Chicago, but this failed, 
and he became a regular contributor to the " At- 
lantic Monthly," and lectured on " The Argonauts 
of '49 " in various cities. In 1878 he was appointed 
IT. S. consul to Crefeld, Germany, whence he was 
transferred in 1880 to Glasgow, Scotland, and con- 
tinued in that office until the advent of a new ad- 
ministration in 1885. At present (1887) he is re- 
siding abroad, engaged in literary pursuits. His 
publications include "Condensed Novels" (New 
York, 1867; Boston, 1871); "Poems" (Boston, 
1871) ; " Luck of Roaring Camp and Other 
Sketches" (1871); "East and West Poems" (1871); 
"Poetical Works" (1871); "Mrs. Skaggs's Hus- 
bands " (1872) ; " Tales of the Argonauts and Other 
Stories" (1875); "Thankful Blossom" (1876); 
"Two Men of Sandy Bar" (1876); "Gabriel Con- 
roy" (Hartford, 1876); "The Story of a Mine" 
(Boston, 1877) ; " Echoes of the Foot Hills " (1879) ; 
" Drift from Two Shores " (1878) ; " The Twins of 
Table Mountain " (1879) ; " Flip and Found at Blaz- 
ing Star " (1882) ; " In the Carquinez Woods " (1883) ; 
" On the Frontier " (1884) ; " By Shore and Sedge " 
(1885) ; " Maruja, a Novel " (1885) ; " Snow-Bound 
at Eagle's " (1886) : " A Millionaire of Rough and 
Ready" (1887); "The Crusade of the Excelsior" 
(1887) ; also his collected " Works " (5 vols., 1882). 

HARTLEY, David, English politician, b. in 
1729 ; d. in Bath, England, 19 Dec, 1813. He was 
the son of the famous writer on metaphysics, was. 
educated at Oxford, and became a member of par- 
liament. He opposed the war with the American 
colonies, was appointed British minister to treat 
with Benjamin Franklin at Paris, and signed the 
treaty of peace on behalf of Great Britain in 1783. 
Some of his letters were published in Frank- 
lin's correspondence in 1817, and it has been sur- 
mised that he procured for Franklin the letters of 
Hutchinson and others. He was possessed of great 
scientific attainments, and made many useful in- 
ventions. He published " Letters on the American 
War" (1776), and other political pamphlets. 

HARTLEY, Jonathan Scott, sculptor, b. in 
Albany, N. Y., 23 Sept., 1845. He was educated 
at the Albany academy and began his professional 
life as a worker in marble. Subsequently he went 
to England, where he passed three years, entered 
the Royal academy, and gained a silver medal in 
1869. After residing for a year in Germany, he 
returned to the United States, and after another 
visit to Europe, when he went to Paris and Rome, 
he became a resident of New York. He is one of 
the original members of the Salmagundi sketch 
club, and was professor of anatomy in the schools 
of the Art students' league in 1878-'84, and presi- 
dent of the league in 1879-80. His works include 
"The Young Samaritan," "King Rene's Daugh- 



HARTLEY 



HARTSHORNE 



105 






ter " (1872) ; " The Whirlwind " (1878) ; a statue of 
Miles Morgan, erected at Springfield, Mass., in 
1882, and bas-reliefs on the monument at Saratoga 
that commemorates the defeat of Burgoyne. 

HARTLEY, Thomas, soldier, b. in Reading. 
Pa., 7 Sept., 1748 : d. in York. Pa., 21 Dec, 1800. 
He studied law, was admitted to the bar, and prac- 
tised in York, Pa. He served in the Revolutionary 
war, and was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of 
Irvine's regiment, 9 Jan., 1776, and was colonel of 
the 6th Pennsylvania in the same year. Col. 
Hartley commanded an expedition in October, 
1778, against the savages who had been concerned 
in the Wyoming massacre, destroyed their settle- 
ment, killed many of them, and recovered part of 
the property that they had carried away. He was 
a member of the Pennsylvania house of repre- 
sentatives in 1778, and was elected a representative 
in congress from Pennsylvania, serving by con- 
tinuous re-elections from 4 March, 1789. to 21 
Dec, 1800. He was one of the council of censors 
in 1783, and a delegate to the Pennsylvania con- 
vention that adopted the national constitution. 

HARTMAN, William Dell, naturalist, b. in 
Chester county, Pa., 24 Dec, 1817. His grand- 
father and great-grandfather were Revolutionary 
soldiers. His father was George Hartman, who 
was an officer in the war of 1812, and afterward a 
major-general of Pennsylvania militia. The son 
was graduated in medicine at the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1839, and has since practised this 
profession with success. When at school he showed 
a fondness for the natural sciences, and at the age 
of fifteen was mentioned by Dr. William Darling- 
ton in his " Flora Cestrica " as " a zealous and 
promising young botanist." He successively made 
himself acquainted with all the branches of natural 
history, but paid special attention to conchology. 
He has made a large collection of shells, which is 
especially rich in partulae and achatinella?. His 
collection of the latter excels those in the British 
museum and the Jardin des Plantes, and he has 
published bibliographic and synonymic catalogues 
of it. In connection with Dr. Ezra Michener, he 
issued an illustrated and descriptive catalogue 
of the fresh - water and land shells of Chester 
county, Pa. (1870). He has also contributed to 
scientific publications, and for years has corre- 
sponded with scientists in America and Europe. 

HARTRANFT, John Frederick, soldier, b. 
in New Hanover, Montgomery co., Pa., 16 Dec, 
1830 ; d. in Norristown, Pa., 17* Oct., 1889. He was 
graduated at Union college, Schenectady, in 1853, 
studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1859. 
At the beginning of the civil war he raised the 4th 
Pennsylvania regiment, and commanded it during 
the three months of its enlistment, which expired 
the day before the first battle of Bull Run. As his 
regiment had been ordered to Harrisburg to be 
mustered out, he asked and obtained leave to serve 
as a volunteer on Gen. William B. Franklin's staff 
in that battle. He then organized the 51st Penn- 
sylvania regiment, was commissioned its colonel, 
27 July, 1861, and with it accompanied Gen. Burn- 
side in his expedition to North Carolina in March, 
1862. He took part in all the engagements of the 
9th corps, led the charge that carried the stone 
bridge at Antietam, and commanded his regiment 
at Fredericksburg. He was then ordered to Ken- 
tucky, and was engaged in the battle of Campbell's 
Station and the successful defence of Knoxville. 
He was with the 9th corps in June, 1863, as cover- 
ing army to the troops besieging Vicksburg, and 
after the fall of that place with Gen. William T. 
Sherman in his advance to Jackson, Miss. He 



commanded a brigade in the battles of the Wilder- 
ness and Spottsylvania, was commissioned briga- 
dier-general of volunteers on 12 May. 1864, and 
took part in all the movements before' Petersburg. 
He was assigned to the command of a division in 
August, 1864, and brevetted major-general for his 
services in re-capturing Fort Steadman on 25 
March. 1865. He was elected auditor-general of 
Pennsylvania in October, 1865, and on 29 Aug., 
1866, the president offered him a colonelcy in the 
regular army, which he declined. Gen. Hartranft 
was re-elected auditor-general in 1868, and in 
1872-'8 was governor of Pennsylvania. The mili- 
tia of Pennsylvania was entirely reorganized on a 
military basis during his two "terms as governor. 
The plan of municipal reform that was suggested 
by him in 1876 was adopted in 1885, the mayor of 
Philadelphia being elected under its provisions in 
1887. Immediately after the close of his second 
term as governor he removed to Philadelphia. He 
was appointed postmaster of that city in June, 
1879, and collector of the port in August, 1880. 
He was, in 1879, appointed to the command of the 
National guard of Pennsylvania, which post he 
still held at the time of his death. 

HARTSHORNE, Joseph, physician, b. in 
Alexandria, Va., 12 Dec, 1779; d. near Wilming- 
ton, Del., 20 Aug., 1850. He was descended from 
Richard Hartshorne, a member of the Society of 
Friends, who emigrated from England in 1669 "and 
settled in New Jersey, and his father, William, 
was treasurer of the first internal improvement so- 
ciety in the country, of which George Washington 
was president. He was graduated in medicine at 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1805, and after 
two voyages in 1806 to India as surgeon and su- 
percargo, and a three months' residence in Bata- 
via, Java, he began practice in Philadelphia. He 
was surgeon of the Pennsylvania hospital in 
1815— '21, and prepared and published Boyer on 
" The Bones," with an appendix and notes (1806). 
— His son, Edward, physician, b. in Philadelphia, 
14 May, 1818; d. 22 June, 1885, was graduated at 
Princeton in 1837, and in medicine at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania in 1840. He began practice 
in Philadelphia in 1848, and was elected one of 
the surgeons in Will's eye hospital, and later in 
the Pennsylvania hospital. During the civil war 
he served as consulting surgeon in the U. S. army 
medical service ; also as member and secretary of 
the executive committee of the U. S. sanitary com- 
mission in Philadelphia. He was for a short pe- 
riod editor of the " Journal of Prison Discipline 
and Philanthropy," and was a frequent contribu- 
tor to medical periodicals. He is the author of 
"Separate System" for criminals, translated into 
several languages in Europe ; notes to Taylor's 
'• Medical Jurisprudence " (1854) ; and " Ophthal- 
mic Medicine and Surgery " (1856). — Another son, 
Henry, physician, b. in Philadelphia, 16 March, 
1823, was graduated at Haverford college in 1839, 
and in medicine at the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1845. He was elected professor of the institutes 
of medicine in the Philadelphia college of medi- 
cine in 1853, and in June, 1855, he was selected as 
one of the consulting physicians and lecturers on 
clinical medicine in Philadelphia hospital. He 
was elected professor of the practice of medicine 
in the University of Pennsylvania in 1859, became 
professor of hygiene in the same institution in 
1866, and in 1867 was given the chair of organic 
science and philosophy in Haverford college. He 
has also held professorships in the Pennsylvania 
college of dental surgery, Girard college, and the 
Woman's medical college of Pennsylvania. He 



106 



HARTSTENE 



HARTWELL 



rendered important aid to the cause of the medical 
education of women in 1867-75. He was the first 
to ascertain by experiments on himself and others, 
in 1848, the safety and effects of the internal use 
of chloroform, and also proposed and proved to 
his own satisfaction in 1876, though not to the 
satisfaction of men of science generally, a new the- 
ory of complementary color spectra. He has been 
one of the editors of the " Friends' Review " since 
1872, and is the author of " Water vs. Hydrop- 
athy" (Philadelphia, 1846); a prize essay on 
" The Arterial Circulation " (1856) ; " Essentials of 
Practical Medicine " (1869) ; the divisions of anato- 
my, physiology, and practice of medicine in " A 
Conspectus of the Medical Sciences " (1869) ; edited, 
with additions, Sir Thomas Watson's " Lectures 
on the Practice of Medicine," and has contributed 
numerous papers to medical and scientific jour- 
nals. He also wrote " Woman's Witchcraft, or 
the Curse of Coquetry," a dramatic romance, under 
the pen-name of " Corinne L'Estrange " (1854), 
and " Summer Songs," under that of " H. H. M." 
(1865). — Another son, Charles, railroad president, 
b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 2 Sept., 1829, was educated 
at Haverford college, and at the University of 
Pennsylvania, where he was graduated in 1847. 
He early embarked in railroad enterprises, and 
has continued active in them to the present time. 
In 1857 he became president of the Quakake rail- 
road company, in 1862 of the Lehigh and Maho- 
ning, in 1868 vice-president of the Lehigh valley, 
and in 1880 its president, but in 1883 resumed 
the vice-presidency. Besides his railroad enter- 
prises, he is connected with many other commer- 
cial organizations, and with numerous educational 
and charitable interests, among which .are Haver- 
ford and Bryn Mawr colleges, and the Pennsylva- 
nia hospital, of each of which he is a member of 
the board of managers. 

HARTSTENE, Henry J., naval officer, b. in 
North Carolina; d. in Paris, France, 31 March, 
1868. He entered the U. S. navy as midshipman 
in 1828, and became a lieutenant, 23 Feb., 1840. 
In 1838 he was attached to the Wilkes exploring 
expedition, but did not proceed farther with it 
than Calloa, and in 1851 he was attached to the 
coast survey, and afterward commanded the steam- 
er " Illinois." In 1855 he was made a commander, 
and was sent to the arctic regions in search of Dr. 
Kane and his party, whom he rescued and brought 
to New York, in 1856 he was ordered to convey 
to England the British exploring bark " Resolute," 
which, after having been abandoned in the arctic 
ice, had been rescued by Capt. Buddington, a New 
London whaler, and purchased by congress as a 
present to the British government. He was after- 
ward employed in taking soundings for the Atlan- 
tic telegraph-cable. At the beginning of the civil 
war he resigned, entered the Confederate navy, 
and in the summer of 1862 became insane. 

HARTSUFF, George Lucas, soldier, b. in 
Tyre, Seneca co., N. Y., 28 May, 1830 ; d. in New 
York city, 16 May, 1874. When he was a child 
his parents removed to Michigan and he entered 
the U. S. military academy from that state, being 
graduated in 1852, and assigned to the 4th artil- 
lery. He served in Texas and in Florida, where he 
was wounded, and was then appointed instructor 
in artillery and infantry tactics at the U. S. mili- 
tary academy in 1856. He became assistant adju- 
tant-general, with the rank of captain, on 22 
March, 1861, and major, 17 July, 1862. He served 
at Fort Pickens, Florida, from April till 16 July, 
1861 ; then in West Virginia under Gen. Rose- 
crans, and became a brigadier-general of volun- 



teers, 15 April, 1862, soon afterward taking charge 
of Abercrombie's brigade, which he commanded at 
Cedar Mountain and Antietam, where he was se- 
verely wounded. He was appointed major-gen- 
eral of volunteers. 29 Nov., 1862, served as a mem- 
ber of the board to revise rules and articles of war 
and to prepare a code for the government of the 
armies in the field, and on 27 April, 1863, was or- 
dered to Kentucky, where he was assigned to com- 
mand the 23d corps. He was appointed lieuten- 
ant-colonel and assistant adjutant-general, U. S. 
army, 1 June, 1864, was in command of works in 
the siege of Petersburg in March and April, 1865, 
and was brevetted brigadier-general and major- 
general, U. S. army, 13 March, 1865. After the 
war he was adjutant-general of the 5th military 
division, comprising Louisiana and Texas, in 
1867-'8, and of the division of the Missouri from 
1869 till 29 June, 1871, when he was retired for 
disability from wounds received in battle. 

HARTT, Charles Frederick, naturalist, b. in 
Fredericton, N. B., 23 Aug., 1840 ; d. in Rio Ja- 
neiro, Brazil, 18 March, 1878. He was graduated 
at Acadia college, Wolf ville, N. S., in 1860, but be- 
fore completing his course had made extensive 
geological explorations in Nova Scotia. In 1860 
he accompanied his father, Jarvis William Hartt, 
to St. John, N. B., where they established a college 
high -school. He at once began to study the geol- 
ogy of New Brunswick, and devoted special atten- 
tion to the Devonian shales, in which he discovered 
an abundance of land plants and insects. The lat- 
ter still remain the oldest known to science. His 
work met the notice of Louis Agassiz, by whose 
invitation he entered the Museum of comparative 
anatomy in Cambridge as a student. He received 
an appointment on the geological survey of New 
Brunswick in 1864, and discovered the first proof 
of primordial strata in that province. He was 
one of the geologists of the Thayer expedition to 
Brazil in 1865, and since then has been the chief 
modern investigator of South American natural 
history. He explored the neighborhood of the 
coast from Rio Janeiro to Bahia while on this 
expedition, making large zoological collections, 
and with the material collected prepared his " Ge- 
ology and Physical Geography of Brazil " (Boston, 
1870). In 1868 he was elected professor of natu- 
ral history in Vassar, but later in the same year 
he was called to the chair of geology and physical 
geography in Cornell. Two years afterward, and 
again in 1871, he made trips of exploration to the 
valley of the Amazon. At the request of the 
Brazilian minister of agriculture he visited Rio 
Janeiro in August, 1874, and submitted plans for 
the organization of a Brazilian geological commis- 
sion. He was appointed in May, 1875, chief of the 
geological surveys of the empire, and continued in 
that office till his death. His collections are dis- 
played in the National museum, of which in 1876 
he was made director, and form the most com- 
plete repository of South American geology in the 
world. Prof. Hartt was a member of various sci- 
entific societies, and in 1869 was elected general 
secretary of the American association for the ad- 
vancement of science. He contributed occasional 
articles to scientific journals, and, besides the book 
mentioned above, published " Contributions to the 
Geology and Physical Geography of the Lower 
Amazons " (Buffalo, 1874). 

HARTWELL, Alonzo, artist, b. in Littleton, 
Mass., 19 Feb., 1805; d. in Waltham. Mass., 17 
Jan., 1873. In 1822 he went to Boston, and soon 
afterward was apprenticed to a wood-engraver, 
till 1826, when he engaged in the business for 



HARTWICK 



HARVEY 



107 



himself, and continued it till 1851. In 1850 he re- 
ceived the silver medal of the Charlestown, Mass., 
mechanics' association, awarded for the best speci- 
men of the art. After 1851 he achieved a reputa- 
tion as a portrait-painter. 

HARTWICK, or HARTWIG, John Christo- 
pher, clergyman, b. in Saxa-Gotha, Germany, 
6 June, 1714; d. in Livingston Manor, N. Y., 
17 July, 1796. He is said to have studied at the 
University of Halle, and engaged in missionary 
work among the Jews, at the age of twenty-five 
years. In 1745 he was called to this country in 
order to take charge of several Lutheran congre- 
gations in Dutchess and Columbia counties. N. Y., 
and was ordained, 24 Nov.. in the German Lu- 
theran church in London. In the spring of 1746 
he arrived at Philadelphia, Pa., and, after visiting 
several of the Lutheran pastors in Pennsylvania, 
went to New York state and entered on his duties 
as pastor of congregations at Germantown, Liv- 
ingston, Wirtemberg, and Rhinebeck. Irt 1748 he 
was present in Philadelphia at the organization of 
the first Lutheran synod. He was somewhat ec- 
centric, and consequently unfortunate in his min- 
istry ; and being exceedingly restless, he moved 
from place to place. In 175i-'2 he was in Penn- 
sylvania, in 1755 in New York, in 1757 at Read- 
ing, Pa., in 1761-'2 at Trappe, in 1764 in Phila- 
delphia, then successively in Maryland, Virginia, 
Massachusetts, Maine, and in 1783 in New York, 
where he urged the Dutch Lutherans to remain 
in the city, and not follow their pastor, Hansihl, 
who, being a royalist during the Revolution, fled 
with many of his parishioners to Nova Scotia, 
after the evacuation of New York by the British 
forces. Mr. Hartwick left a large estate, which 
he had purchased from the Mohawk Indians — 
" a certain tract of land on the. south side of Mo- 
hawk river, between Schoharie and Cherry valley, 
along a certain small -creek, containing nine miles 
in length and four miles in breadth," located in 
Otsego county, and included in the present town 
of Hartwick. His sole purpose in this purchase 
was to use his property for the glory of God and 
the spreading of his kingdom ; and he made his 
bequest accordingly. In his will he directed that 
his estate should be used for the establishment of 
a college and theological seminary. For a time 
after his death the income of the estate was used 
to instruct young men privately in the classics and 
theology ; and in 1815 the contemplated institu- 
tion was opened, under the name of Hartwick 
seminarv. The present buildings are valued at 
$30,000," and the endowments at $35,000. 

HARVARD, John, philanthropist, b. in South- 
wark,. London, England, in November, 1607; d. 
in Charlestown, Mass., 24 Sept., 1638. His fa- 
ther, Robert Harvard, was a butcher. His moth- 
er, possessing some property, sent John to Em- 
manuel college, Cambridge, where he was gradu- 
ated in 1635. Subsequently he was ordained as 
a dissenting minister, and in 1637 married Ann 
Sadler, the daughter of a Sussex clergyman, and 
sailed for New England, where he was made a free- 
man of Massachusetts on 2 Nov. of that year. It 
appears on the town-records that in 1638 a tract 
of land was deeded to him in Charlestown. where 
he exercised his ministerial functions. In April, 
1638, he was appointed one of a committee "to 
consider of some things tending toward a body of 
laws." At his death his property was worth about 
£1,500, one half of which he left for the erec- 
tion of the college that bears his name. A part 
of this bequest is said to have been diverted from 
its original purpose. He also left to the college a 



library of 320 volumes, which indicated the taste of 
a scholar. The alumni erected a granite monument 
to his memory in the burial-ground of Charles- 
town, which was dedicated with an address by Ed- 
ward Everett. 26 Sept., 1828. A memorial statue 




of Harvard, the gift of Samuel James Bridge to 
the university, was unveiled, 15 Oct.. 1884, with an 
address by Rev. George Edward Ellis (Cambridge, 
1884). The illustration represents the first Harvard 
hall, which was burned, and was replaced by the 
present structure in 1766. 

HARVEY, Arthur, Canadian journalist, b. in 
Halesworth, Suffolk, England, in 1834. He was 
educated in Holland and at Trinity college, Dub- 
lin, and in 1856 emigrated to Canada, where subse- 
quently he became editorially connected with the 
Hamilton " Spectator." He was secretary of the 
commission that was appointed to negotiate a new 
treaty with the United States, and some time after- 
ward published " The Year-Book of Canada." 
Mr. Harvey suggested and rendered effective the 
insurance legislation of the Dominion, and in 1870 
assumed the management of the Provincial insur- 
ance company at Toronto. 

HARVEY^ James Madison, governor of Kan- 
sas, b. in Monroe county, Va., 21 Sept., 1833. He 
was educated in the public schools of Indiana, 
Iowa, and Illinois, and practised surveying and 
civil engineering until he removed to Kansas in 
1859, when he became a farmer. He was captain 
in the 4th and 10th regiments of Kansas infantry 
from 1861 till 1864, a member of the lower house of 
the legislature in 1865-6, and of the state senate 
in 1867-"8. In 1869-71 he was governor of Kan- 
sas, and in 1874-'7 was a U. S. senator, having been 
chosen as a Republican to fill the vacancy caused 
by the resignation of Alexander Caldwell. 

" HARVEY, Sir John, governor of Virginia. He 
was appointed to this office after Yeardley's death 
in 1627, arrived in Virginia in 1629, and met his 
first assembly of burgesses in 1630. He supported 
those who desired separate jurisdictions and grants 
of land, preferring the interest of individual pa- 
trons, especially Lord Baltimore, to the claims of 
the colony. He held a warrant to receive for him- 
self all fines arising from any sentence in the 
judicial courts, and many such were accordingly 
imposed on the colonists. In 1635 he was sus- 
pended and impeached by the assembly. He at- 
tempted to make terms with the council, which 
would yield to none of his conditions, and elected 
John \Vest in his place. He then went to England, 
his cause was investigated by the privy council, 
and he was restored by the king in 1636, and re- 
turned to Virginia in' 1637. He assembled the 
council in Elizabeth City, and published the king's 
proclamation, pardoning many who had opposed 
him. He continued in office until 1639, and is said 
to have been one of the most rapacious, tyranni- 
cal, and unpopular of the colonial governors. 



108 



HARVEY 



HARVIE 



HARVEY, Sir John, British soldier, b. in 1778; 
d. in Halifax, N. S., 22 March, 1852. He entered 
the British army as ensign in the 80th regiment 
under Lord Paget, afterward the Marquis of An- 
glesea, whose natural son he was believed to be. 
After serving in Holland, France, the Cape of Good 
Hope, Ceylon, and Egypt, he returned to England 
in 1807, and in 1808 became assistant quarter- 
master-general under Lord Chatham, at Colchester. 
From 1809 till 1812 he commanded a regiment, and 
was on the staff of the adjutant-general's depart- 
ment in Ireland. In 1812 he was appointed deputy 
adjutant-general to the army in Canada, with the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel. He led the attack at 
Stony Creek, where he captured the American gen- 
erals Chandler and Winder. He received a medal 
for gallantry at Chrysler's Farm, and took part in 
the battles of Lundy's Lane and Fort Erie, where 
he was severely wounded. He was aide-de-camp 
to Wellington during his Waterloo campaign, and 
in 1837-'41 was governor of New Brunswick. He 
then became governor and commander-in-chief of 
Newfoundland, and in 1846 was made governor of 
Nova Scotia, holding this post until his death. He 
was nominated knight commander of the Hano- 
verian Guelphic order in 1824, and a knight com- 
mander of the order of the Bath in 1838. 

HARVEY, Jonathan, congressman, b. in Mer- 
rimack county, N. H., in 1780; d. in Sutton, N. H., 
23 Aug., 1859. He served seven years in the legis- 
lature, was president of the senate from 1817 till 
1823, and state councillor in 1823-5. In the latter 
year he took his seat as a representative to con- 
gress from New Hampshire, serving until 1831. — 
His brother, Matthew, jurist, b. in Sutton, N. H., 
21 June, 1781 : d. in Concord, N. H., 7 April, 1866, 
was graduated at Dartmouth in 1806. He studied 
law under John Harris, was admitted to the bar in 
1809, and began to practise in Hopkinton, which 
town he represented in the legislature from 1814 
till 1820, holding the office of speaker during the 
last three years of his term. He was then elected 
to congress as a Democrat, and served in 1821-'5. 
He was president of the state senate in 1825-'8, 
and councillor in 1828-'30. He was then elected 

fovernor of New Hampshire, and served one year, 
n 1831 he was appointed by President Jackson 
{'udge of the IT. S. district court, which office he 
leld until his death. He received the degree of 
LL. D. from Dartmouth in 1855, and was president 
of the New Hampshire historical society. 

HARVEY, Louis Powell, governor of Wis- 
consin, b. in East Haddam, Conn., 22 Julv, 1820 ; 
d. in Savannah, Tenn., 19 April, 1862. In "1828 he 
removed with his pai'ents to Ohio, where he was 
educated in the Western Reserve college. He went 
to Kenosha, Wis., in 1840, taught there, and edited 
a Whig newspaper, but removed to Shopiere, Rock 
co., in 1850, and engaged in manufacturing. He 
was a member of the first State constitutional 
convention, and served in the state senate from 
1855 till 1857. Soon afterward he was elected 
secretary of state, and in 1861 became governor. 
He was drowned while on his way to Pittsburg 
Landing, with supplies for the relief of wounded 
soldiers, after the battle of Shiloh. 

HARVEY, Moses, author, b. near Armagh, 
Ireland, 25 March, 1820. He was graduated at 
Belfast college in 1840, studied theology in the 
Presbyterian college in that city, and was a Pres- 
byterian minister at Maryport, Cumberland, Eng- 
land, in 1843. He became minister of the Free 
Presbyterian church at St. John, Newfoundland, 
in 1852, and preached there till 1878, when he re- 
tired from active duties. Henceforth he engaged 



in literary and scientific studies, and became popu- 
lar as a lecturer. He studied the natural history, 
geology, and resources of the island, and published 
the result of his labors in British and American 
newspapers. In 1886 the council of the Royal geo- 
graphical society of England elected him a fellow 
in recognition of his services to geographical science 
in his works on Newfoundland and Labrador. He 
is the author of " Thoughts on the Poetrv and Lit- 
erature of the Bible" (St. John, N. F., 1853); 
" The Testimony of Nineveh to the Veracity of the 
Bible " (1854) ; " Lectures on the Harmony of Sci- 
ence and Revelation " (Halifax, 1856) ; " Lectures 
on Egypt and its Monuments, as Illustrative of 
Scripture" (St. John, N. F., 1857); "Lectures, 
Literary and Biographical" (Edinburgh, 1864); 
"Across Newfoundland with the Governor" (St. 
John, N. F., 1878); "Newfoundland, the Oldest 
British Colony" (London and Boston, 1883); 
"Text-Book of Newfoundland History" (Boston, 
1885); and "Where are We and Whither Tend- 
ing?" (London and Boston, 1886). He is also the 
author of the articles on " Labrador," " Newfound- 
land," and " The Seal Fisheries of the World " in 
the 9th edition of the " Encyclopaedia Britannica." 

HARVEY, Peter, merchant, b. in Barnet, Vt., 
10 July, 1810 ; d. in Boston, Mass., 27 June, 1877. 
His father, Alexander Harvey, a native of Glasgow, 
Scotland, and a graduate of Oxford, came to this 
country to purchase land and make a settlement 
for a Scottish emigration company. At the age of 
fifteen the son was apprenticed to David Russell 
and Co., of Plymouth, N. H., and subsequently he 
went to Boston, where he engaged in business un- 
der the firm of Emerson, Lamb, and Harvey. 
Later he became a member of Harvey, Page and 
Co., succeeding James Tufts and Co. He was 
treasurer of the Rutland railroad, and president of 
the Kilby bank. At the beginning of the civil 
war he was a member of the firm of Nourse, Ma- 
son and Co., on the dissolution of which he re- 
tired from active business. He was originally a 
Whig, on the dissolution of this party joined the 
Democratic, but afterward represented a Repub- 
lican district in Gov. Bullock's council. He served 
in both branches of the Massachusetts legislature, 
and in 1868 was an unsuccessful candidate for con- 
gress. He is principally known for having become 
intimately acquainted with Daniel Webster, and 
was perhaps his most trusted friend. He was a 
founder of the Marshfield club, designed to honor 
Webster's memory, and author of " Reminiscences 
and Anecdotes of Daniel Webster " (Boston, 1878). 

HARVIE, John, statesman, b. in Gargunnock, 
Scotland ; d. in Richmond, Va., 6 Feb., 1807. He 
emigrated to Virginia in early manhood, and set- 
tled in Albemarle county. lie was a lawyer of 
ability, and speedily attained a large practice, thus 
laying the basis of subsequent wealth. In 1774 he 
was appointed by the general assembly of Virginia, 
with Dr. Thomas Walker, the Kentucky explorer, 
a commissioner to treat with the western Indians, 
after their defeat at Point Pleasant on 10 Oct. of 
that year by Andrew Lavis. He represented West 
Augusta county in the Virginia conventions of 
1775 and 1776, was elected a member of congress, 
22 May, 1777, for one year, and re-elected, 29 May, 
1777, to serve for one year from 11 Aug. He was 
later a faithful and efficient purchasing agent for 
the state, with the provisional rank of colonel, and 
"was sent by the Virginia assembly on an impor- 
tant mission to the American army." He was reg- 
ister of the land-office of Virginia, which he organ- 
ized in 1780-'91, and was commissioned secretary 
of the commonwealth, 19 May, 1788, but how long 



HARWOOD 



HASCALL 



109 



he served in this capacity does not appear. He 
was an enterprising citizen of Richmond, and 
erected several buildings, that have been long fa- 
miliar to its citizens, among them the noted Gam- 
ble house, which was subsequently owned by the 
Revolutionary veteran, Maj. Robert Gamble, from 
which Gamble's Hill takes its name. Col. Harvie, 
in superintending the building of this mansion, 
met with his death by a fall from a ladder. 

HARWOOD, John Edmund, actor, b. in Eng- 
land in 1771 ; d. in Germantown, Pa., 21 Sept., 
1809. He received a liberal education, and studied 
law in England. In 1793 he came to this country, 
having joined a company of comedians that had 
been engaged for the theatre in Philadelphia. 
Later, Harwood married Miss Bache, a grand- 
daughter of Benjamin Franklin. He then retired 
from the stage, to begin business as bookseller 
and conductor of a circulating library, but after 
several years he was unsuccessful, and lost his capi- 
tal. In 1803 he went to New York city, under an 
engagement with the manager of the Park theatre. 
Dunlap says he was a man of wit and refinement, 
and highly endowed as an actor, but indolent and 
careless of study. At the close of his career he 
became too corpulent to continue some of his best 
early representations. Harwood published a vol- 
ume of " Poems " (New York, 1809). They display 
taste and scholarship, but have no especial merit. 
— His son, Andrew Allen, naval officer, b. in 
Settle, Bucks co., Pa., in 1802 ; d. in Marion, Mass., 
28 Aug., 1884, was appointed midshipman, 1 Jan.. 
1818, and from 1819 till 1821 served in the sloop- 
of-war " Hornet " in the suppression of the Afri- 
can slave-trade. He was commissioned lieutenant 
in 1827, and in the following year was appointed 
to the receiving-ship " Philadelphia." He was de- 
tached as special messenger to bring home the 
ratified treaty with Naples, and from 1835 till 
1837 served in the Mediterranean squadron. He 
was assistant inspector of ordnance in 1843-'52. 
member of a commission to visit dock-yards and 
foundries in England and France in 1844. and in 
1848 was promoted to commander. In 1851 he 
became member of a board appointed to prepare 
ordnance instructions for the navy, and to make 
investigations and experiments. He commanded 
the frigate " Cumberland," of the Mediterranean 
squadron, from 1853 till 1855, when he was ap- 

e)inted captain. He was inspector of ordnance 
om 1858 till 1861, and in the latter year was 
commissioned chief of the bureau of ordnance and 
hydrography. In the following year he became 
commodore, and was appointed commandant of 
the navy-yard at Washington, and of the Potomac 
flotilla. He was retired in 1864, but served as sec- 
retary of the light-house board, and a member of 
the examining board from 1864 till 1869, when he 
was made rear-admiral on the retired list. Dur- 
ing the civil war he prepared a work on " Summary 
Courts-Martial," and published the " Law and 
Practice of U. S. Navy Courts-Martial " (1867). 

HASBROUCK, Abraham Brnyn, lawyer, b. 
in Kingston, N. Y., in November, 1791 ; d. there, 
23 Feb., 1879. He was graduated at Yale in 1810, 
studied law at Hudson, N. Y., and Litchfield. 
Conn., and was admitted to the bar in 1813. He 
practised his profession in Kingston, and in 
1825-'7 served one term in congress. Columbia 
gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1828, and in 
1840-'50 he was president of Rutgers college, con- 
tributing much to its prosperity by his lectures on 
constitutional law. He also planted and cared for 
many of the fine trees that now adorn the college 
grounds. Mr. Hasbrouck was vice-president of 



the American Bible society in 1851, and president 
of the Ulster county historical society in 1856. 
He was dignified and scholarly, of genial manners 
and generous hospitality. 

HASCALL, Daniel, clergvman, b. in Benning- 
ton, Vt., 24 Feb., 1782 ; d. in Hamilton. N. Y„ 28 
June, 1852. He was graduated at Middlebury in 
1806, and afterward studied theology while en- 
gaged in teaching in Pittsfield, Mass. He became 
pastor of the Baptist church in Elizabethtown, 
N. Y., in 1808, and in 1813 was called to Hamilton, 
N. Y. He received pupils in theology in 1815, 
and after he had established the Baptist education 
society of New York in 1817, his school was 
merged in 1820 in the Hamilton literary and theo- 
logical institution (now Madison university), which 
was opened under his charge. In 1828 he dis- 
solved his pastorate in order to devote his time to 
this institution, which he left in 1835 to give his 
attention to the interests of an academy in Flor- 
ence, Oneida eo., N. Y. He removed to West Rut- 
land, Vt., in 1837, and in 1848 became pastor of a 
church in Lebanon, N. Y„ but in 1849 returned to 
Hamilton. He published " Elements of Theolo- 
gy," designed for family reading and Bible-classes ; 
a smaller work for Sunday-schools: "Cautions 
against False Philosophy" (1817) ; and a pamphlet 
entitled " Definition of the Greek Baptizo " (1818). 

HASCALL, Milo Smith, soldier, b. in Le Roy, 
Genesee co., N. Y., 5 Aug., 1829. He spent the 
early years of his life on his father's farm, and in 
1846 went to Goshen, Ind. He was appointed from 
Indiana to the U.S. military academy, where he 
was graduated in 1852, and assigned to the artil- 
lery. He served in garrison at Fort Adams, R. I., 
from 1852 till 1853, when he resigned. He was a 
contractor for the Indiana and Michigan southern 
railroad in 1854, and practised law in Goshen, 
Ind., from 1855 till 1861. serving as prosecuting 
attorney of Elkhart and Lagrange counties from 
1856 tiil 1858. and school-examiner and clerk of 
courts from 1859 till 1861, when he enlisted as a 
private in an Indiana regiment. He was subse- 
quently appointed captain and aide-de-camp on 
Gen. Thomas A. Morris's staff, and organized and 
drilled six regiments in Camp Morton. He became 
colonel of the 17th Indiana regiment on 21 June, 
which was engaged in the West Virginia campaign, 
and at Philippi made the first capture of a Con- 
federate flag. In December, 1861, he was ordered 
to Louisville, Ky., and placed in command of a 
brigade consisting of the 17th Indiana, 6th Ohio, 
43d Ohio, and 15th Indiana regiments, assigned to 
the division commanded by Gen. William Nelson. 
He was transferred to a brigade in Gen. Thomas J. 
Wood's division, serving during the capture of 
Nashville and in the advance on Shiloh. He was 
made brigadier-general of volunteers. 25 April, 
1862. and commanded a brigade in the Tennessee 
campaign from October, 1862, till March, 1863. 
At the battle of Stone River he commanded a divis- 
ion, and was wounded. He was then sent to In- 
dianapolis to return deserters from Ohio, Illinois, 
and Indiana, was transferred to the Army of the 
Ohio and placed in command of the district of In- 
diana. He also took part in the battles of Chicka- 
mauga and Mission Ridge, and was active in the 
defence of Knoxville. Pie was in command of the 
2d division of the 23d corps. Army of the Ohio, in 
the invasion of Georgia in 1864, being engaged in 
numerous actions on the advance to Atlanta and 
taking an active part in the siege of that city. 
He resigned his commission on 27 Oct., 1864, and 
became a proprietor of Salem's bank, in Goshen, 
Ind., in which he is now (1887) engaged. 



110 



HASELTINE 



HASKIN 



HASELTINE, James Henry, sculptor, b. in 
Philadelphia, 2 Nov., 1833. He studied in Paris 
and Rome, but came to this country in 1861 to 
enlist in the U. S. army. After the close of the 
civil war, in which he served as major of the 6th 
Pennsylvania cavalry, he went to Europe to study 
art. He has lived in Rome and Paris, and now 
(1887) resides in Nice. His works include " Happy 
Youth " (1858) ; " America Honoring her Fallen 
Brave " (owned by the Union league of Philadel- 
phia, 1865) ; " Love," and " Ingratitude " (1866) ; 
"New Wine" (1867); "Superstition," and "Relig- 
ion " (1868) ; " America Victorious " (1869) ; " Nis- 
sia, wife of King Candaules of Lydia" (1876); 
"The Ball-Player" (1871); "Ida" (1875); "Kiss- 
ing Cherubs " (1878) ; " Captivity " (1879) ; " Cleo- 
patra " (1882) ; " The Morning Star " (1883) ; " For- 
tune" (1884); "Hero" (1885); and portraits of 
Henry W. Longfellow, T. Buchanan Read, and 
Gens. Sheridan, Hartsuff, Merritt, Forsyth, and 
Duryee. — His brother, William Stanley, artist, 
b. in Philadelphia, 11 Jan., 1835, was graduated 
at Harvard in 1854, after which he studied art 
in his native city under Weber. He then went 
to Europe and studied in Diisseldorf and in Rome, 
where he now (1887) resides. He was elected a 
member of the National academy in 1861. His 
early works include " Indian Rock, Nahant," 
"Castle Rock, Nahant," and a "Calm Sea, Men- 
tone." Other pictures by his hand are " Bay of 
Naples," " Ischia," " Spezzia," " Ostia," " Pon- 
tine Marshes," and "Venice." He sent to the Cen- 
tennial exhibition of 1876 " Ruins of a Roman 
Theatre, Sicily," and " Natural Arch at Capri." 

HASKELL, Abraham, physician, b. in Lan- 
caster, Mass., 16 Nov., 1746 ; d. in Ashby, Middle- 
sex co., Mass., 13 Dec, 1834. He followed the 
trade of a shoemaker till he was of age, but was 
fitted for Harvard, studied medicine under Israel 
Atherton, of Lancaster, and began his practice in 
Lunenburg. He removed thence to Leominster in 
1810, and in 1833 joined his son, who was a physi- 
cian in Ashby. He became a member of the Mas- 
sachusetts medical society soon after its establish- 
ment, was a successful practitioner, and labored 
faithfully during the spotted- fever panic in Wor- 
cester county. He wrote chiefly for his amuse- 
ment, but read dissertations on " Croup," " Spot- 
ted Fever," and other subjects before the Massa- 
chusetts medical society, which were published in 
its " Transactions." He also printed a paper on 
"Ichthyosis," in the "New England Journal of 
Medicine and Surgery." He delivered a fourth of 
July oration at Fitchburg, which was published. 

HASKELL, Daniel, clergyman, b. in Preston, 
Conn., in 1784; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 9 Aug., 
1848. His early life was spent in laboring on his 
father's farm. He was graduated at Yale in 1802, 
taught in a public school in Norwich, and had for 
one of his scholars Lydia Huntley, afterward Mrs. 
Sigourney. He was assistant teacher in Bacon 
academy, Colchester, in 1806-'7, then studied the- 
ology, and was licensed to preach by the Litchfield 
association of ministers. He was successively pas- 
tor at Middletown, Litchfield, St. Albans, and 
Burlington, Vt., holding the latter charge from 
1810 till 1821, when he was appointed president of 
the University of Vermont. This post he held till 
he resigned in 1824. For several years he suffered 
from mental disorder and was separated from his 
family, but subsequently joined them in Brooklyn, 
where he devoted himself to literary work. The 
degree of LL. D. was given him by Olivet college, 
Mich. He published an ordination sermon (1814) ; 
a " Gazetteer of the United States," with J. Calvin 



Smith (New York, 1843); "Chronological View of 
the World " (1845) ; and edited McCulloch's " Geo- 
graphical Dictionary " (New York, 1843-'4). 

HASKELL, Daniel Noyes, journalist, b. in 
Newburyport,,Mass., 1 Jan., 1818; d. in Boston, 
Mass., 13 Nov., 1874. He was the son of a car- 
riage-trimmer, and after receiving a good educa- 
tion engaged in business. He wrote constantly 
for the press, and in 1853 became editor of the 
" Boston Transcript," which post he held until his 
death. He took an active part in politics as a 
Whig, but was indifferent to official honors. Later 
he was a supporter of the liberal branch of the 
Whig party, and afterward became a Republican. 

HASKELL, Llewellyn Solomon, merchant, 
b. near Gloucester, Me., 4 Jan., 1815 ; d. in Santa 
Barbara, Cal., 31 May, 1872. He was of Welsh 
ancestry, was educated in the Gardiner lyceum. 
Me., and began business as a druggist in Philadel- 
phia about 1834. He afterward formed a partner- 
ship with Thomas B. Merrick, and removed to 
New York city in 1841. He had resided on the 
summit of Orange mountain, N. J., for several 
years, when he became impressed with the many 
advantages offered by its southeastern slope as a 
place of residence for business men. Having spent 
two years in the purchase of land there, he began 
in 1857 to lay out Llewellyn park, and about 1859 
retired from business to give his whole time to its 
improvement. The park is now filled with fine 
residences. Mr. Haskell was a practical land- 
scape-gardener, and many of its most beautiful 
features are due to him. A bronze bust of its 
founder has been placed near the entrance in 
Orange, N. J. — His son, Llewellyn Frost, soldier, 
b. 8 Oct., 1842, went to Heidelberg, Germany, to 
study, but returned in 1861 to join the National 
army. He enlisted in the 14th New York regi- 
ment, rose to the rank of captain, served on the 
staff of Gen. Alexander S. Asboth at Pea Ridge 
and on that of Gen. Henry Prince at Cedar Moun- 
tain, where he was severely wounded, and was the 
only officer on Gen. Prince's staff that was not 
killed or mortally wounded. He became lieuten- 
ant-colonel of the 7th colored troops in October, 
1863, served in South Carolina and Virginia, and 
became colonel in November, 1864. At the close 
of the war he was brevetted brigadier-general of 
volunteers. He then became associated with his 
father in the development of Llewellyn park, but 
in 1877 removed to San Francisco, Cal., where he 
has since engaged in business. 

HASKIN, Joseph A., soldier, b. in New York 
in 1817 ; d. in Oswego, N. Y., 3 Aug., 1874. He 
was graduated at the U. S. military academy in 
1839, and entered the 1st artillery. He was on 
duty in Maine during the "disputed frontier" 
controversy, from 1840 till 1845, afterward in 
Florida and Louisiana, and during the Mexican 
war took part in all the battles under Gen. Scott, 
losing an arm at the storming of Chapultepec. 
He was subsequently in garrison and fortress- 
duty on the frontiers and elsewhere, becoming 
captain in the 1st artillery in 1851, was compelled 
to surrender Baton Rouge arsenal to a vastly su- 
perior force of Confederates in the winter of 1861, 
served during the civil war in Washington, at Key 
West, in command of the northern defences of 
Washington in 1862-'4, and as chief of artillery in 
the Department of Washington till 1866. He was- 
promoted to be major in i862, lieutenant-colonel 
of staff the same year, lieutenant-colonel, 1st artil- 
lery, in 1866, and brevet colonel and brevet briga- 
dier-general, 13 March, 1865. He was retired from 
active service in 1872. 



HASLETT 



HASSLER 



111 



HASLETT, John, soldier, b. in Ireland ; killed 
in Princeton, N. J., 3 Jan., 1777. He studied first 
theology and subsequently medicine, and practised 
successfully in Kent and Sussex counties, Del. He 
was repeatedly in the state assembly, served dur- 
ing the Revolutionary war, and was in the actions 
of Long Island and White Plains, where he sur- 
prised a picket of Roger's rangers, taking thirty- 
six prisoners, a pair of colors, and sixty muskets. 
He was killed at the battle of Princeton, and was 
colonel of the Delaware regiment at the time of 
his death. — His son, Joseph, d. in July, 1823, was 
governor of Delaware in 1811, 1814, and 1823. 

HASLETT, John, surgeon, b. in Charleston, 
S. C, in December, 1799; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
28 Sept., 1878. He was graduated at Harvard in 
1819, and in medicine at the University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1822. He entered the U. S. navy as a 
surgeon in the same year and continued in service, 
reaching the rank of fleet-surgeon, until 1841, when 
he resigned. On the establishment of the Brook- 
lyn city hospital, Dr. Haslett became its vice-presi- 
dent, and practically its head. On the death in 
1853 of its first president, Dr. Haslett succeeded 
him, and continued to discharge the duties of his 
office until shortly before his death. Dr. Haslett 
was for many years a member of the board of 
management of the Packer collegiate institute. 

HASSARD, John Rose Greene, journalist, 
b. in New York city, 4 Sept., 1836; d. there, 18 
April, 1888. He was graduated at St. John's col- 
lege. New York, in 1855, and in 1857-'63 was as- 
sistant editor of the '"New American Cyclopaedia." 
He became editor of the ''Catholic World" in 
1865, and in 1866 was attached to the New York 
" Tribune " as editorial writer. From 1867 till 
1883 he also wrote the musical criticisms for that 
journal, and on the death of George Ripley be- 
came its literary critic. In 1878 several hundred 
telegraphic despatches in cipher, relating to the 
disputed presidential election of 1876, came into 
the possession of the " Tribune,'" and after much 
curious study were translated by Mr. Ilassard and 
Col. William M. Grosvenor, of that paper. The 
publication of these telegrams, showing negotia- 
tions with the returning-boards of two states to 
purchase the electoral votes of those states for 
the Democratic candidate, caused much excite- 
ment, and the plot was investigated by a commit- 
tee of the U. S. house of representatives. Mr. 
Hassard published " Life of Archbishop Hughes " 
(New York. 1866) :" The Ring of the Xibelung" 
(1877); "Life of Pius IX." (1878); "History of the 
United States " for schools (1878) ; and " A Pick- 
wickian Pilgrimage" (Boston, 1881). 

HASSARD, Samuel, clergyman, b. in Jamaica, 
West Indies, 21 Jan., 1806; d. in Great Barring- 
ton, Mass.. 13 Jan.. 1847. He came to the United 
States in 1812. studied in the academy at Westerly, 
R. I., was graduated at Yale in 1826, and engaged 
in literary pursuits in New Haven. He was ad- 
mitted to deacon's orders by Bishop Brownell, of 
Connecticut, in 1835, ordained priest by Bishop 
Griswold, and became rector of St. Thomas s 
church, Taunton, Mass. After a' service of three 
years he resigned this charge, and in 1839 became 
rector of St. James's church, Great Barrington, 
where he continued until his death. He was large- 
ly instrumental in promoting the growth of the 
Protestant Episcopal church in New England. A 
volume of his sermons was published after his 
death, with a memoir by Henry W. Lee (Boston). 

HASSAUREK, Friedrich, journalist, b. in 
Vienna, Austria, 9 Oct., 1832 ; d. in Paris, France, 
3 Oct., 1885. He served in the student legion in 



the German revolution of 1848, and was twice 
wounded. He came to the United States in 1848, 
settled in Cincinnati, Ohio, and engaged in jour- 
nalism, politics, and the practice of law. He was 
U. S. minister to Ecuador in 1861-5, and during 
the latter year became editor of the Cincinnati 
" Volksblatt." He published " Four Years among 
the Spanish-Americans " (New York, 1868). 

HASSELQUIST, Toovay Nelsson, clergyman, 
b. in Hasslared, Sweden, 2 March, 1816. His par- 
ents were peasants. The son was graduated at the 
College of Kristianstad in 1835, studied theology 
at the University of Lund, and was ordained to the 
Lutheran ministry in 1839. After occupying the 
office of assistant pastor in various parishes he left 
his native country in 1852, and settled in Gales- 
burg, 111., where he has ever since been an active 
laborer in aid of the educational and religious in- 
terests of his countrymen. He was called in 1863 
to the presidency of the Swedish seminary at Pax- 
ton, which was removed in 1875 to Rock Island, 
111., under the title of Augustana college and theo- 
logical seminary. Under the presidency of Dr. 
Hasselquist these have become second to none of 
the Lutheran institutions in the country. He was 
one of the founders of the Scandinavian Augus- 
tana synod and its presiding officer in 1860-'70, 
and has held many offices of honor and trust in 
his own synod and in the general council. In the 
interest of Swedish immigrants Dr. Hasselquist 
travels extensively every year through (he western 
states, and in 1870 he returned to his native coun- 
try for the same purpose. In 1855 he founded at 
Chicago a religio-political periodical called " Hem- 
landet det Gamla och det Nya," of which he still 
(1887) has charge, and since 1856 he has edited a 
religious periodical, published in Rock Island, 111., 
at first under the title " Ratta Hemlandet," but 
several years ago changed to " Augustana och 
Missionaren." Muhlenberg college, Allentown, 
Pa., gave him the degree of D. D. in 1870. He 
has published various addresses and sermons. 

HASSLER, Ferdinand Rudolph, survevor, b. 
in Aarau, Switzerland, 6 Oct., 1770: d. in Phila- 
delphia. Ph., 
20 Nov., 1843. 
He received 
a scientific 
education in 
Europe, and 
was for some 
time connect- 
ed with the 
trigonometri- 
cal survey 
of Switzer- 
land. Sub- 
sequently he 
emigrated to 
the United 
States, and 
through the 
influence of 
Albert Gal- 
latin secured 
an appoint- 
ment at the 
U. S. military 
academvas acting professor of mathematics, which 
he held'in 1807-10. and in 1810-11 he served in a 
similar capacity in Union college. He was then 
selected to direct the U. S. coast survey, and sent 
on a mission to France and England to procure in- 
struments and standards of measurement. He was 
detained in England as an alien enemy till 1815, and 




^faffy^ 



112 



HASSLER 



HASTINGS 



on his return was formally appointed superintend- 
ent of the coast survey, but did not begin his field- 
work until 1817. During the following year the 
work was discontinued, and was not resumed until 
1832. After this he was the active head of the 
survey until his death. During his administration 
a base-line had been measured in the vicinity of 
New York. The triangulation had been extended 
as far east as Rhode Island and south to the head 
of Chesapeake bay. The topography had kept 
pace with the triangulation, and the hydrography 
of New York bay, of Long Island, of Delaware 
bay and river, and the off-shore soundings from 
Montauk point to the capes of the Delaware, were 
substantially completed. The triangulation cov- 
ered an area of 9,000 square miles, furnishing de- 
terminations of nearly 1,200 stations for the de- 
lineation of 1,600 miles of shore - line. Prof. 
Hassler was also for many years chief of the bureau 
of weights and measures. He was a fellow of the 
American philosophical society, and contributed 
papers to its "Transactions" pertaining to his 
work on the survey. Besides his annual reports of 
the coast survey, and as superintendent of the fab- 
rication of standard weights and measures (Wash- 
ington, 1837-'42), he published " Analytical Trigo- 
nometry " (New York, 1826) ; " Elements of Geome- 
try " (Richmond, 1828) ; " System of the Universe," 
with plates and tables (2 vols., New York, 1828); 
" Logarithmic and Trigonometric Tables " (1838) ; 
and " Elements of Arithmetic " (1843). 

HASSLER, Simon, musician, b. in Bavaria, 25 
July, 1832. He came to this country with his 
parents, and settled in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1842. 
His father, Henry Hassler, a musician of the Mo- 
zart school, gave him his first instruction in music, 
and his education was continued under Keller, 
Wolsieffer, and Waldteuffel. In 1852 he made his 
first public appearance as a violinist. At about 
the same time his father and brother Mark es- 
tablished an orchestra, of which Simon became a 
member, and for over twenty-five years has been 
the leader. He has long been active as the con- 
ductor of musical concerts, and is widely known as 
the leader of bands and orchestras during the 
summer months at various seaside resorts. He is 
the author of numerous musical productions, in- 
cluding dramas, marches, waltzes, and quadrilles. 
He has composed music for many of the plays of 
Shakespeare, and a " Festival March," which was 
played at the opening of the Permanent exhibition 
at Philadelphia in 1876. 

HASTINGS, Hugh J., journalist, b. in County 
Fermanagh, Ireland, 20 Aug., 1820; d. in Mon- 
mouth Beach, N. J., 12 Sept., 1883. He came to the 
United States in 1831, and settled with his family 
in Albany, N. Y. After having been for some 
time engaged as a clerk, he began his career as 
reporter for the Albany " Atlas " in 1840. Three 
years afterward he established the Albany " Weekly 
Switch," and in 1844 the " Knickerbocker," which 
proved a success. Mr. Hastings took an active 
part in state and national politics, devoting him- 
self to the interests of the Whig party and its suc- 
cessor, the Republican party. He was appointed 
by President Taylor collector of the port of Albany, 
but resigned the office under Fillmore. He as- 
sumed the editorship of the New York " Commer- 
cial Advertiser " in 1868, and in 1875 became its 
proprietor. He was a warm supporter of Gen. 
Grant, criticised Mr. Hayes's administration, and 
on President Arthur's accession rendered him all 
the aid in his power. His death was mainly the 
result of his being thrown from his carriage 
while driving along Broadway, Long Branch. 



HASTINGS, Rnssell, soldier, b. in Greenfield, 
Mass., 30 May, 1835. While he was a boy his par- 
ents removed to Ohio, and settled in Willoughby, 
Lake co., where he was educated in the common 
schools. Early in the civil war he enlisted as a 
private, and was soon promoted to be a lieutenant 
in the 23d Ohio regiment. During Sheridan's cam- 
paigns he acted as adjutant-general, was severely 
wounded at the battle of Opequan, and was subse- 
quently promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 28th 
Ohio regiment, after a charge in which he had dis- 
played great courage. He was brevetted brigadier- 
general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865. Gen. 
Hastings was elected a member of the Ohio legis- 
lature in 1865, and while there was appointed U. S. 
marshal for the northern district of Ohio. Owing 
to failing health, he resigned in 1874. 

HASTINGS, Serranus Clinton, jurist, b. in 
the state of New York, 14 Nov., 1814. He was 
educated at the Gouverneur academy, St. Lawrence 
county, and was principal of the Norwich academy 
for one year. He then studied law, was admitted 
to the bar, and began practice in Iowa. He was a 
member of the Iowa legislature for several years, 
president of the council during one session, and 
one of the first Iowa representatives to congress, 
serving from 29 Dec, 1846, to 3 March, 1847. In 
1848 he was appointed chief justice of the supreme 
court of the state, and served one year. He then 
removed to California, and was elected chief justice 
of that state by the unanimous vote of the legisla- 
ture. After serving two years he was elected by 
the people attorney-general of the state, and in 
1878 founded and endowed Hastings college of the 
law in the University of California. He also paid 
into the state treasury of California $100,000 in 
gold, on condition that the sum should be used for 
the legal education of students in every vocation 
of life. Judge Hastings also gave about $6,000 in 
property, and otherwise contributed to the founda- 
tion of St. Catherine academy in Benicia, Cal. He 
gave and procured funds to classify, print, and 
publish two volumes of the botany of the Pacific 
coast. For several years preceding 1887 he was 
professor of comparative jurisprudence in the Has- 
tings college of law. 

HASTINGS, Thomas, musician, b. in Wash- 
ington, Litchfield co., Conn., 15 Oct., 1784; d. in 
New York city, 15 May, 1872. In 1796 he removed 
with his parents to a farm in Clinton, N. Y. He 
attended the district-school, and began to study 
music with a sixpenny gamut-book of four small 
pages. When about eighteen he became leader of 
the village choir. His brother presented him at 
this time with an elaborate treatise on music, 
which he mastered without aid, and in 1806 he was 
invited to take charge of a singing-school. He 
soon achieved reputation in training church-choirs, 
and his services were much in demand. He went 
in 1817 to Troy, subsequently to Albany, and 
afterward took editorial charge of a religious news- 
paper in Utica entitled the " Western Recorder," 
which gave large space to church-music. He held 
this post for nine years, during which time he lec- 
tured repeatedly in Albany, New York, Philadel- 
phia, and Princeton, N. J. In 1832 he went to New 
York, where he remained till his death. He endeav- 
ored to improve the character of the church-music 
in the churches of New York. For many years 
he was choir-director in Dr. Mason's church in 
Bleecker street, and devoted his time to preparing 
collections of sacred music, the composition of 
tunes and hymns, and the editing of musical peri- 
odicals. He was a constant contributor to the re- 
ligious press, and in 1835-'7 issued the " Musical 



HASWELL 



HATCH 



113 



izine." The University of the city of New 
York gave him the degree of doctor of music in 
1858. His publications number nearly fifty sepa- 
rate volumes, and include " The Musical Reader " 
(Utica, 1818); "Dissertation on Musical Taste" 
rAlbanv, 1822 ; 2d ed., rewritten, New York, 1853) ; 
•'Spiritual Songs "(New York, 1831) ; "The Moth- 
er's Nursery Songs " (1834) ; " Anthems, Motets, 
and Set Pieces " (1836) ; " The Manhattan Collec- 
tion " (183?) ; " Elements of Vocal Music " (1839) ; 
"Sacred Songs "(1842); "Indian Melodies Har- 
monized " (1845) ; " Devotional Hvmns and Poems " 
(1850) ; " The Presbyterian Psalmodist " (Philadel- 
phia, 1852) : " The History of Forty Choirs " (New 
York. 1853); "Selah" (1856): " Hastings's Church 
Music " (1860) ; and "Introits" (1865).— His son, 
Thomas Samuel, clergyman, b. in Utica, N. Y., 
28 Aug., 1827, was graduated at Hamilton in 1848, 
and at the Union theological seminary. New York 
city, in 1851. He was pastor of Presbyterian 
churches in Mendham, N. J., in 1852-6, and in 
New York city in 1856-'82. He then became pro- 
fessor of sacred rhetoric in Union theological sem- 
inary, 6f which he was chosen president in 1888. 
He received the degree of D. D. from the Univer- 
sity of the city of New York in 1865. He edited 
"Church Melodies" with his father in 1857. 

HASWELL, Charles Haynes, civil engineer, 
b. in New York city, 22 May, 1809. He was edu- 
cated at the high-school of Jamaica, L. I., and 

in a classical school 
in New York city. 
From his boyhood 
he showed great in- 
terest in mechan- 
ics, and he entered 
in 1825 the steam- 
engine factory of 
James P. Allaire, 
where he remained 
for several years. 
In 1836 he was ap- 
pointed chief engi- 
neer in the U. S. 
navy, and was then 
the only one of 
that grade. He was 
a member of the 
board that designed 
the steam frigates 
" Missouri " and " Mississippi." An engineer corps 
having been organized in 1839, he was promoted to 
the rank of engineer-in-chief in 1844, and held that 
office until 1850, when, in consequence of failing 
health, he left the service. Subsequently he trav- 
elled in Europe, and on his return settled in New 
York, and resumed the practice of his profession. 
He designed and constructed the first practicable 
steam launch in 1837, and was the first to put zinc 
into a marine steam boiler or the hold of an iron 
steam vessel in order that the galvanic action of the 
salt water and copper might be exhausted on the 
zinc, in preference to the iron. As engineer of the 
state quarantine commission he designed and di- 
rected the completion of Hoffman island and its 
buildings in the lower bay of New York, and while 
in the employ of the New York department of 
public charities and corrections designed and built 
the crib bulkhead at Hart's island. He was a 
trustee of the New York and Brooklyn bridge in 
1877-'8, and, in addition to membership in all of 
the principal engineering societies in the United 
States, he is a member of the institutes of civil 
engineers and of naval architects in Great Britain. 
Mr. Haswell has published " Mechanic's and En- 
voi., in. — 8 




~7Zj?A.a/* yK y/(z«>u*^<L. 



gineer's Pocket-Book" (New York, 1844; 51st ed. 
1887) ; " Mechanic's Tables " (1856) ; " Mensuration 
and Practical Geometry " (1858) ; " Book-keeping " 
(1871) ; and has in manuscript (1887) a " History of 
the Steam Boiler and its Appendages" and " Remi- 
niscences of New York from 1816 to 1835." 

HATCH, Edward, soldier, b. in Bangor, Me., 
22 Dec, 1832; d. in Fort Robinson, Neb., 11 
April, 1890. In April, 1861, he joined the troops 
enlisted to defend the national capital, and subse- 
quently had charge of the camp of instruction at 
Davenport, Iowa. He was commissioned captain 
in the 2d Iowa cavalry, 12 Aug., 1861, major, 5 
Sept., and lieutenant-colonel, 11 Dec, the same 
year. He commanded his regiment at New Mad- 
rid, Island No. 10, the battle of Corinth, the raid 
on Booneville, and the battle of Iuka. He was 
promoted colonel, 13 June, 1862, and commanded 
a brigade of cavalry in Gen. Grant's Mississippi 
campaign. He was afterward placed at the head 
of the cavalry division of the Army of the Tennes- 
see, and was present at the various engagements in 
which it took part. He was disabled by wounds 
in December, 1863, and on 27 April, 1864, was 
made brigadier-general. Under Gen. A. J. Smith, 
and still in command of a cavalry division, he was 
engaged in the battles of Franklin (for bravery in 
which he was brevetted brigadier-general in* the 
regular service) and Nashville, and in the pursuit 
of Hood's Confederate army. For gallantry at 
Nashville he was, in 1864, brevetted major-general 
of volunteers, and three years later promoted to 
the same rank by brevet in the U. S. army. On 15 
Jan., 1866, he was honorably mustered out of the 
volunteer service, and on 6 July following he was 
promoted colonel of the 9th U. S. cavalry, which 
commission he held twenty-three years. After 
the war he served in Colorado, Indian and Wyo- 
ming territories, and Nebraska. 

HATCH, Frederick Winslow, physician, b. 
in Charlottesville, Ya., 2 March. 1822 ; d. in Sac- 
ramento, Cal., 10 Oct., 1885. He was gradu- 
ated at Union college in 1841, and in medicine at 
the University of New York in 1843. He re- 
moved to Kenosha, Wis., in 1846, and in 1851 to 
Sacramento, Cal., where he was professor of ma- 
teria medica, and afterward of the principles and 
practice of medicine, in the University of Califor- 
nia. Dr. Hatch was a trustee, and from 1868 un- 
til his death president, of the Medical association 
of California, permanent secretary of the State 
board of health, and in 1862-'6 president of the 
board of health of Sacramento. He wrote numer- 
ous papers on the climate of California, and the 
medical springs of that state. 

HATCH, Israel Thompson, congressman, b. 
in Owasco, Cayuga co., N. Y.. in 1808 ; d. in Buf- 
falo, N. Y., 24* Sept., 1875. He was graduated at 
Union in 1829, settled in Buffalo, N Y., and prac- 
tised law. In 1830 he was assistant secretary of 
state, was in the state senate in 1852 and in 1856, 
was elected to congress as a Democrat, serving 
from 1857 till 1859, when he was appointed post- 
master at Buffalo. During his congressional ser- 
vice he was appointed by President Buchanan to 
report on the reciprocity treaty between the United 
States and Canada that was ratified in 1854 for a 
period of ten years. Mr. Hatch was a member of 
the Constitutional convention of 1867-'8, and for 
many years previous to his death was engaged in 
banking and other enterprises in Buffalo. 

HATCH, John Porter, soldier, b. in Oswego, 
N. Y., 9 Jan., 1822. He was graduated at the 
U. S. military academy in 1845, and assigned to 
the 3d infantry. Subsequently he was transferred 



114 



HATFIELD 



HATHEWAY 



to the mounted rifles, and promoted 2d lieutenant, 
18 April, 1847. He saw service during the military 
occupation of Texas in 1845-'6, and took part in 
all the principal battles of the Mexican war, being 
brevetted 1st lieutenant, 20 Aug., 1847, for gallant 
and meritorious conduct in the battles of Contre- 
ras and Churubusco, and captain on 13 Sept., for 
gallantry at Chapultepec. After the conclusion of 
the Mexican war, he was chiefly engaged in fron- 
tier duty and on various expeditions against the 
Indians until 1861, when he was acting as chief 
of commissariat in the Department of New Mexi- 
co, after receiving a captain s commission on 13 Oct., 
1860. On 28 Sept., 1861, he was made brigadier- 
general of volunteers, and in December following 
was placed in command of a brigade of cavalry at 
Annapolis, Md., under Gen. King. He distin- 
guished himself by several daring reconnoissances 
about Gordonsville, the Rapidan, and the Rappa- 
hannock, and afterward commanded the cavalry 
of the 5th army corps, taking part in the battles 
of Winchester, Groveton, and Manassas, Va., 
where he was wounded and made brevet major for 
'• gallant and meritorious services." He was again 
severely wounded at the battle of South Mountain, 
Md., 14 Sept., 1862, and brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel. Disabled by his injuries and unable to 
report for duty until 18 Feb., 1863, he was then 
employed on courts-martial, assigned to command 
the draft rendezvous at Philadelphia, and given 
charge of the cavalry depot at St. Louis until 27 
Oct., 1863, when he was made major of the 4th 
cavalry. During the remainder of the war he was 
assigned to various commands in the Department 
of the South, being in charge of John's Island and 
Honey Hill, S. C, during the attacks on those 
places. He was also under Gen. Sherman's orders, 
co-operating with him while the latter was moving 
up the coast, and participating in several skir- 
mishes. From 26 Feb. to 26 Aug., 1865, he was in 
command of the Charleston district. Department 
of South Carolina. On 13 March of the latter year 
he was brevetted colonel and brigadier-general for 
his services during the civil war, and major-gen- 
eral of volunteers for the same cause. From the 
close of the war until 1881 he was on duty prin- 
cipally in Texas, the Indian territory, Montana, 
and Washington territory, and was promoted colo- 
nel, 2d cavalry, 26 June, 1881. Col. Hatch re- 
mained in command of his regiment until 9 Jan., 
1886, when he was retired by operation of law. 

HATFIELD, Edwin Francis, clergyman, b. 
in Elizabethtown, N. J., 9 Jan., 1807 ; d. in Sum- 
mit, N. J., 22 Sept., 1883. He was graduated at 
Middlebury college in 1829, studied theology at 
Andover seminary, and was ordained on 14 May, 
1832. He was pastor of Presbyterian churches in 
St. Louis, Mo., and New York city, until failing 
health compelled his resignation in 1863. He 
then became special agent of the Union theologi- 
cal seminary, and raised a large sum for its en- 
dowment. From 1846 till 1870 he was stated 
clerk of the new-school Presbyterian church ; at 
the union of the new and old school churches, in 
1870, he was re-elected to this office, and continued 
in it till he became moderator of the general assem- 
bly in 1883. He received the degree of D. D. from 
Marietta college in 1850. He left his library of 
more than 6,000 volumes to Union theological 
seminary. He published " Universalism as it Is" 
(New York, 1841) ; " Memoir of Elihu W. Bald- 
win" (1843); "St. Helena and the Cape of Good 
Hope " (1852) ; " History of Elizabeth, N. J." (1868) : 
"The Church Hymn-Book, with Tunes" (1872); 
" The New York Observer Year-Book " (3 vols., 



1871-'3); "Chapel Hymn-Book" (1873); and a 

S)sthumous work, edited by his son, J. B. Tavlor 
atfield. " Poets of the Church " (1884). 

HATHAWAY, Benjamin, poet, b. in Cayuga 
county, N. Y., 30 Sept., 1822. He was the eldest 
of eight children, and was taken from school and 
put to work at the age of eleven on account of 
family reverses. Although shut out from libraries 
and deprived for many years of all literary associa- 
tion, he made the most of his meagre opportunities 
for culture. His taste for poetry found congenial 
themes in the woods, fields, and flowers. Many of 
the poems afterward collected in his " Art Life " 
were first written with chalk upon barrel-heads dur- 
ing his employment as a cooper. They were com- 
posed amid the noise and clatter of the shops, and 
in the evening, often after nine o'clock, as he usual- 
ly worked until that hour, they were transcribed 
upon paper. An early developed fondness for trees 
and plants and their cultivation led Mr. Hathaway 
to add to his other enterprises the business of nur- 
seryman, which he followed in connection with the 
farm for over thirty years. It was late in life before 
he could devote much time to his favorite studies 
so as to plan or prosecute any large or consecutive 
work. For ten years, however, intellectual pursuits 
occupied much of his attention. He spent several 
winters at the University library, Ann Arbor, Mich., 
in researches for his " League of the Iroquois " 
(Chicago, 1880), and several more in Chicago, en- 
gaged upon that work and upon a collection of 
miscellaneous poems entitled " Art Life " (1876). 

HATHEWAY, Samnel Gilbert, pioneer, b. 
in Freetown, Mass., in 1780 : d. in Solon, Cort- 
land co., N. Y., 2 May, 1867. He was descended 
from the navigator. Sir Humphrey Gilbert. By 
the death of his father he became dependent on 
his own exertions at the age of nine years, worked 
on several farms, went to sea, and, having saved a 
small sum of money, set out before he was twenty 
years of age for western New York, then a wilder- 
ness, and purchased three hundred acres of un- 
cleared land in Cortland county. His wisdom, 
frugality, and industry enabled him in time- to ac- 
cumulate a comfortable property. He was elected 
justice of the peace in 1810, which office he held 
forty-three years, represented Cortland in the 
legislature in 1814 and 1818, was state senator in 
1822, and in 1832 was elected to congress as a 
Democrat, serving in 1833-'5. In 1852 he was 
a presidential elector. He was greatly interested 
in military matters, and rose through various 
grades till he was commissioned major-general of 
militia in 1823. His personal popularity enabled 
him to hold in his control almost every executive 
appointment in his district. He was the friend 
of Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren. At 
the age of eighty Mr. Hatheway attended the na- 
tional Democratic convention at Charleston, S. C. 
See a memoir of his life by Henry S. Randall 
(Cortland, N. Y., 1867).— His son, Samuel Gil- 
bert, soldier, b. in Freetown, Mass., 18 Jan., 
1810; died in Solon, N. Y., 16 April, 1864, was 
graduated at Union college in 1831, studied law, 
and in 1833 removed to Elmira, N. Y., and began 
practice. He served in the legislature in 1842-'3, 
declined a renomination in 1844, and resumed 
practice. He was a defeated candidate for con- 
gress in 1856 and in 1862, and the next year en- 
tered the army as colonel of the 14th New York 
regiment. He afterward commanded Abercrom- 
bie's division, as acting brigadier-general, but in 
1863, the exposures of camp-life having produced 
disease of the heart, he was compelled to resign, 
and died a few months afterward. 



HATHORNE 



HAUN 



115 



HATHORNE, William, colonial official, b. in 
Wiltshire, England, in 1608 ; d. in Salem, Mass., in 
1681. In 1630 he emigrated to this country and 
settled in Dorchester, from which place he removed 
to Salem in 1636, and in 1645 was, with Gov. 
Thomas Dudley and Gen. Daniel Denison, an agent 
to treat with D'Aulnay. the French agent at St. 
Croix. He was deputy from Salem to the general 
court for several years, was its first speaker in 
1644, and held that office six years. He served in 
King Philip's war, and the following war with the 
Indians, was one of the board of assistants in 
1662-'79, and commanded a regiment of militia. 
He was zealous in the cause of liberty, and was one 
of the five principal citizens whom Charles II. in 
1666 ordered to be sent to England to answer to 
the charge of refusing to submit to the authority 
of the royal commissioners. — His son, John, jurist, 
b. in Salem, Mass., in August, 1641 ; d. in Bos- 
ton, 10 May, 1717, was a representative in the 
state assembly in 1683, assistant or councillor in 
1684-1712, excepting during Sir Edmund Andros's 
administration, and was active in the witchcraft 
prosecutions. He served in the Indian and east- 
ern wars as colonel, and was commander of the 
forces in the expedition of 1696. 

HATTON, Frank, journalist, b. in Cambridge, 
Ohio, 28 April, 1846. His father, Richard, re- 
moved to Cadiz, Ohio, where he published the 
" Republican." At the age of eleven the son en- 
tered the office of this paper, where he became 
foreman, and then local editor. When the civil 
war began he enlisted in the 98th Ohio infantry, 
and in 1864 was commissioned 1st lieutenant. His 
service was with the Army of the Cumberland. 
After the war he went to Mount Pleasant, Iowa, 
edited the " Journal " there in 1869-'74, and 
then removed to Burlington, Iowa, where he pur- 
chased a controlling interest in the " Hawkeye." 
He was postmaster in Burlington for a few years 
prior to 1881. In that year President Arthur ap- 
pointed him assistant postmaster -general, and 
he served from October, 1881, till October, 1884. 
when the retirement of Judge Gresham from 
the office of postmaster - general, led to Mr. Hat- 
ton's promotion to fill the vacancy. He served 
until the close of President Arthur's administra- 
tion, and was the youngest cabinet officer that 
ever served the government, Alexander Hamilton 
alone excepted. From October, 1882, till the 
summer of 1884 Mr. Hatton was connected with 
the " National Republican " in Washington. In 
July of the latter year he removed to Chicago, and 
assisted in reorganizing the " Mail," of which he is 
now (1887) the editor-in-chief. 

HATTON, Robert, soldier, b. in Sumner coun- 
ty, Tenn., in 1827; killed at the battle of Fair 
Oaks, Va., 31 Mar, 1862. He was educated at 
Harvard, studied law, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1849. He was a member of the Tennessee 
house of representatives in 1856, and in 1858 was 
elected to congress from that state, serving one 
term. He then entered the Confederate army, was 
appointed brigadier-general, 23 May, 1862, and was 
assigned to the command of the 5th brigade, 1st 
division, 1st corps. Army of Virginia. 

HATTON, Thomas, b. in England ; d. in Mary- 
land in 1655. He was descended from Sir Christo- 
Eher Hatton, Queen Elizabeth's lord chancellor. 
te came from London to Maryland in 1648, and 
was appointed secretary of the province, and privy 
councillor, shortly after his arrival. He is said to 
have brought with him the draught of the toleration 
act from Lord Baltimore, but he was absent, on 
the day of its passage, from the assembly of 1649. 



During the brief absence of Gov. Stone from the 
province, in the same year, Thomas Green was ap- 
pointed governor, with Hatton as substitute. Hat- 
ton refused to sit in the Puritan assembly of 1654, 
and was killed at the battle of the Severn in 1655, 
in defending the government of Lord Baltimore. 

HATUEY (ah'-tway), Haytian cacique, d. in 
1512. After the conquest of Hayti by the Span- 
iards, he passed with many of his subjects to the 
eastern part of Cuba, where he established himself 
and ruled over the natives. Fearing for Cuba the 
same fate that had befallen his native country, he 
made preparations to resist the Spaniards, should 
they appear in his new dominion. Accordingly, 
when in 1512 Diego Velasquez de Cuellar under- 
took the conquest of Cuba, Hatuey opposed the 
invaders, but was routed and took refuge in the 
woods. During two months he carried on a gue- 
rilla warfare, until he was captured and condemned 
to be burned. While they were leading the ca- 
cique to the stake, a priest tried to describe to him 
the happiness and blessings he would enjoy in 
heaven. " Do white men go there too ? " asked the 
Indian chief. " Yes, provided they are good," was 
the answer. " Then," replied Hatuey, "I do not 
wish to go where I shall meet with such people." 

HAUCK, Minnie, singer, b. in New York city, 
16 Nov., 1852. Her father was a German, her 
mother an American, and she removed with them 
to New Orleans in 1855. She first appeared in 
public at a concert in that city in 1865, and at 
fifteen years of age she returned to New York 
and became leading soprano in Christ church 
choir. She appeared in New York early in 1868 
as Amina in " La Sonnambula." After a suc- 
cessful tour in this countrv she sang at Covent 
Garden. London, 26 Oct., 1868. In 1869 she was 
engaged at the Grand Opera. Vienna, and she 
sang also in Moscow, Berlin. Paris, and Brussels 
for several years. The chief episode in her artistic 
career was her creation of Carmen in Bizet's opera 
at Brussels, 2 Jan., 1878. In 1881 she married 
Ernst von Hesse- Wartegg. the traveller. 

HAUGHERY, Margaret, philanthropist, b ; in 
Baltimore, Md., early in this century ; d. in New 
Orleans, La., in 1882. Her maiden name was 
Gaffney. She came to New Orleans with her hus- 
band about 1836, and after his death became a do- 
mestic at the orphan asylum. When the Sisters 
opened a second institution she took charge of 
their large dairy. But she soon associated herself 
with all their labors, and it was principally due to 
her efforts that the asylum reached a sound finan- 
cial condition. As soon as the institution was out 
of debt she established a dairy, and entered into 
business on her own account. In 1866 she opened 
a bakery in the heart of New Orleans. She made 
money rapidly, but still drove about with her bread- 
cart, as she had done with her milk-wagon, and 
was known as "Margaret, the orphans' friend." 
All that she made was spent on the orphans. After 
her death her statue was erected in New Orleans. 
It was unveiled on 9 July, 1884. 

HAUN, Henrv P., jurist, b. in Scott countv, 
Ky., 18 Jan., 181*5; d. in Maysville, Cal., 6 May. 
1860. He was well educated, and, having studied 
law, was admitted to the bar in 1839. He removed 
to Iowa in 1845, and was a member of the con- 
vention that framed the constitution of that state 
in 1846. In 1849 he removed to Yuba county, 
Cal., and in 1851 was elected county judge. He 
was afterward Democratic candidate for governor 
of the state, and was then appointed a U. S. sena- 
tor in place of David C. Broderick, serving from 5 
Dec, 1859, till 5 March, 1860. 



116 



HAUPT 



HAVEMEYER 



HAUPT, Herman, engineer, b. in Philadel- 
phia, 26 March, 1817. He was graduated at the 
U. S. military academy in 1835, and entered the 
2d infantry, but resigned on 30 Sept. following. 
and was assistant engineer on the public works of 
Pennsylvania until 1839. He was appointed in 
1844 professor of civil engineering and mathemat- 
ics in Pennsylvania college, Gettysburg, and filled 
that chair until 1847, when he became principal 
engineer of the Philadelphia and Columbia rail- 
road, of which he was made superintendent in 
1849. From 1856 till June, 1861, he was chief en- 
gineer of the Hoosac tunnel in Massachusetts. 
During the civil war he was aide to Gen. Irwin 
McDowell, with the rank of colonel, and chief of 
the bureau of U. S. military railways, in charge of 
construction and operation. In September, 1862, 
he declined the appointment of brigadier-general 
of volunteers. In 1875 he acted as general mana- 
ger of the Piedmont air-line railway from Rich- 
mond, Va., to Atlanta, Ga. Since 1875 he has 
been chief engineer of the Tide- water pipe line 
company, and he has demonstrated the feasibility 
of transporting oil in pipes for long distances. 
He was also for several years general manager of 
the Northern Pacific railroad. Col. Haupt in- 
vented a drilling-engine, which took the highest 
prize of the Royal polytechnic society of Great 
Britain. He is the author of " Hints on Bridge- 
Building " (1840) ; " General Theory of Bridge-Con- 
struction " (New York, 1852) ; " Plan for Improve- 
ment of the Ohio River" (1855); and "Military 
Bridges" (New York, 1864). — His son, Lewis 
Muhlenberg, engineer, b. in Gettysburg, Pa., 21 
March, 1844, was educated at the Lawrence scien- 
tific school of Harvard, and at the U. S. military 
academy, where he was graduated in 1867. He 
was lieutenant of engineers in the lake surveys in 
1868, and in 1869 engineer officer of the 5th mili- 
tary district, Texas. He resigned in August of 
that year, and was appointed engineer of Fair- 
mount park, Philadelphia. In April, 1872, he be- 
came assistant examiner in the U. S. patent-office, 
and in September of that year he was chosen as- 
sistant professor of civil and mechanical engineer- 
ing in the University of Pennsylvania, and soon 
thereafter professor of civil engineering, which 
chair he still (1887) fills. Prof. Haupt, in April, 
1886, patented an automatic system for improv- 
ing rivers and harbors, and of maintaining chan- 
nels by an adjustable deflecting shield, suspended 
by buoys, floats, or barges. He is editor of the 
" American Engineering Register," and has pub- 
lished "Engineering Specifications and Con- 
tracts" (Philadelphia, 1878); "Working Draw- 
ings, and How to Make and Use Them " (Phila- 
delphia, 1881) ; and " The Topographer— his Meth- 
ods and Instruments " (Philadelphia, 1884). 

HAUPT, Paul, educator, b. in Gorlitz, Germany, 
25 Nov., 1858. He was educated at the Gorlitz 
gymnasium, at the University of Berlin, and that 
of Leipsic, where he was graduated in 1878. He 
was private tutor at the University of Gottingen in 
1880, professor of Assyriology there in 1883, and 
became professor of the Semitic languages in 
Johns Hopkins university, Baltimore, Md., in the 
latter year. He introduced the principle of the 
neo-grammarians into Semitic philology, and dis- 
covered the Sumerian dialect in 1880. He is an 
associate editor of " Hebraer," and author of " Die 
sumerischen Familiengesetze " (Leipsic, 1879); " Der 
keilinschriftliche Sintfluthbericht " (1881); " Akka- 
disehe und sumerische Keilschrifttexte" (1881-'2); 
" Die akkadische Sprache " (Berlin, 1883) ; and 
*• Das babylonische Nimrodepos " (Leipsic, 1884). 



HAVELAND, Laura Smith, philanthropist, 
b. in Ketley, Leeds co., Canada, 20 Dec, 1808. At 
the age of thirteen she was received as a birth- 
right member of the Society of Friends, and later 
was married to Charles Haveland, Jr. A few years 
afterward she united with the Wesleyan Meth- 
odist church. She has founded the River Raisin 
institute for manual labor at Adrian, Mich., and 
in 1869 established the Michigan orphan asylum. 
During the civil war she was unwearied in her 
efforts to aid the suffering in camps and hospitals. 

HAVEMEYER, William Frederick (haiv- 
my-er), manufacturer, b. in New York city, 12 Feb., 
1804; d. there, 30 Nov., 1874. His parents were 
German, and immigrated to this country in the 
latter part of the last century. The son received 
an excellent education in the best schools of the 
city, and was graduated at Columbia in 1823. He 
entered the sugar-refinery of his father, acquired a 
thorough knowledge of the business, and in 1828 
succeeded to it, having his cousin as a partner. In 
1842 he nominally retired from business with a 
handsome fortune, but retained an interest as silent 
partner for some years. From an early age he took 
a warm interest in politics and public affairs. He 
was a Democrat of the most uncompromising kind. 
His admiration and support of President Jackson 
were followed by friendly relations with President 
Van Buren, and correspondence passed between 
the two men in which Mr. Havemeyer vehemently 
urged the latter to be firm in spite of all popular 
outcry, and to imitate the example of the hero of 
New Orleans. While still a young man he became 
a director of the Merchants' exchange bank, and 
predicted the collapse of the U. S. bank years be- 
fore that event occurred, and at a time when the 
utterance of such a prophecy was considered 
proof positive that his mind was diseased. In 
1851 he was chosen president of the Bank of North 
America, and held the office for ten years, tiding 
that institution over the crisis of 1857. In 1844 
he was a presidential elector on the Polk and Dal- 
las ticket. In 1845 he was elected mayor of New 
York by a large majority, and re-elected in 1848. 
His administration was notable for the scrupulous 
care that he bestowed on all the business details of 
his office, the rigid way in which he scrutinized 
warrants to which his signature was required, and 
his earnest efforts for honesty and economy in 
public expenditure. In 1846 Mayor Havemeyer, 
together with Robert B. Minturn and Gulian C. 
Verplanck, strove to abolish the abuses practised 
on immigrants, and as a result of their efforts the 
board of emigration commissioners was established, 
of which Mr. Havemeyer was the first president. 
The present police system of the city was also 
founded during his mayoralty, night-watchmen 
before that time having been the only guardians of 
the peace. In 1859 he was again a candidate for 
mayor, but was defeated by Fernando W r ood. 
During the war he was thoroughly loyal to the 
government, and urged the abolition of slavery as 
a war measure. Though immersed in business, to 
which he had returned, he found time during the 
few years after the war to protest most earnestly 
against the corruption and frauds that were rife in 
the city. When the reform movement began in 
earnest in 1871, Mr. Havemeyer was elected vice- 
president of the committee of seventy, and proved 
one of the most active members of that body. He 
assisted in organizing reform associations in all the 
assembly districts of the city, and his long political 
experience made him especially valuable in the 
canvass that resulted in the overthrow of the 
Tweed ring. He was chosen chairman of the 



HAVEN 



HAVEN 



117 



memorable mass reform meeting held at Cooper 
institute, 4 Sept., 1871, and his speech on that oc- 
casion was one of the most fearless and outspoken 
of any in its denunciation of the official thieves. 
The meeting was composed of business and profes- 
sional men who usually took no part in politics. 
In the autumn of 1872 he was nominated for 
mayor as representing the reform movement, and 
elected by a small majority. He assumed office, 1 
Jan., 1873, and at his death had a month more to 
serve. His third term was not successful. The 
greater part of his time was spent in unseemly 
wrangles with the aldermen and other city officers ; 
several of his appointments were injudicious, and 
an application was made to the governor for his 
removal from office, a step which the executive de- 
clined to take. Still, there was no doubt of his 
integrity. — His son, Henry, b. in New York city, 
25 July, 1838; d. near Babylon, L. L, 2 June, 
1886, was the fourth of six sons. He became a 
member of the family sugar-refining firm, which 
controlled more than half the entire sugar interest 
of the country. He was also engaged in the to- 
bacco commerce. Although only forty-eight years 
of age at the time of his death, Mr. Havemeyer 
had long been a prominent Democrat and inti- 
mately associated with Samuel J. Tilden, and was 
appointed with him as a New York commissioner 
to the Centennial exhibition. He was at one time 
president of the Long Island railway, and built the 
iron pier at Rockaway. He was exceedingly popu- 
lar, and often gave eccentric banquets at Oak 
island, off the Long Island coast, which he had 

{>urchased for that special purpose. Most of the 
atter years of his life were spent abroad. 

HAVEN, Alice Bradley, author, b. in Hudson, 
N. Y, 13 Sept., 1828; d. in Mamaroneck, N. Y., 23 
Aug., 1863. Her maiden name was Emily Brad- 
ley, and while 
attending school 
she sent, under 
the pen-name of 
" Alice G. Lee," 
many sketches to 
the Philadelphia 
" Saturday Ga- 
zette." In 1846 
she married its 
editor, Joseph C. 
Neal, and at his 
request assumed 
and retained the 
name of Alice, 
and wrote under 
the pen-name of 
"Cousin Alice." On her husband's death in 1847 
she took editorial charge of the " Gazette," and 
conducted it for several years, contributing at the 
same time poems, sketches, and tales to other maga- 
zines. In 1853 she married Samuel L. Haven. Her 
books include "The Gossips of Rivertown, with 
Sketches in Prose and Verse " (1850) ; " Helen 
Morton " ; " Pictures from the Bible " ; " No Such 
Word as Fail " ; " Patient Waiting no Loss " ; 
" Contentment Better than Wealth " ; " All's not 
Gold that Glitters " ; " Out of Debt, Out of Dan- 

fer " ; '• The Coopers " ; and " The Good Report : 
lessons for Lent " (New York, 1867). Parts of her 
private diary were published under the title of 
" Cousin Alice : a Memoir of Alice B. Haven " 
(New York, 1865). 

HAYEN, Erastus Otis, M. E. bishop, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 1 Nov., 1820 ; d. in Salem, Oregon, 
in August, 1881. He was graduated at Wesleyan 
university in 1842, and afterward had charge of 




^z^L- <?3. -"4^-= 



a private academy at Sudbury, Mass., at the same 
time pursuing a course of theological and general 
study. He became principal of Amenia semi- 
nar}-, N. Y., in 1846, and in 1848 entered the Meth- 
odist ministry in the New York conference. Five 
years later he accepted the professorship of Latin 
in Michigan university, which he exchanged the 
next year for the chair of English language, lit- 
erature, and history. He resigned in 1856, and 
returned to Boston, where he was editor of " Zion's 
Herald " for seven years, during which period he 
served two terms in the state senate, and a part of 
the time was an overseer of Harvard university. In 
1863 he was called to the presidency of Michigan 
university, which place he occupied for six years. 
He then became president of Northwestern uni- 
versity, Evanston, 111., and in 1872 was chosen 
secretary of the board of education of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, which place he resigned in 1874 
to become chancellor of Syracuse university, N. Y. 
In May, 1880, he was elected and ordained a bishop. 
Bishop Haven was a man of great versatility of 
talent. As a preacher he was able and earnest — 
didactic and hortatory rather than oratorical ; he 
was judicious and successful as an administrator, 
but wearied among the details of preceptoral du- 
ties. His religious convictions were positive and 
controlling in all his life, and while ardently de- 
voted to his own denomination, he was also broadly 
and generously catholic toward all other Christian 
bodies. He was given the degree of D. D. by Union 
college in 1854, and a few years later that of LL.D. 
by Ohio Wesleyan university. He served five 
times in the general conference, and in 1879 visited 
Great Britain as delegate of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church to the parent Wesleyan body. He 
wrote largely for the periodical press, and also pub- 
lished " American Progress " ; " The Young Man 
Advised," made up from discourses delivered in 
the chapel of Michigan university (New York, 
1855) : '• Pillars of Truth," a work on the evidences 
of Christianitv (1866) ; and a treatise on " Rhetoric." 
HAYEN, Gilbert, M. E. bishop, b. in Maiden, 
Mass*., 19 Sept., 1821 ; d. there, 30 Jan., 1880. He 
united with the Methodist Episcopal church in his 
nineteenth year, became a student in Wesleyan uni- 
versity, and was graduated in 1846. Soon after- 
ward he was employed as a teacher in Amenia 
seminary, N. Y., and while there was licensed to 
preach. Two years later he was chosen principal of 
the institution as successor to his kinsman, Rev. 
E. 0. Haven. In 1851 he became a member of the 
New England conference, and entered upon the 
regular work of the ministry, and for the next nine 
years served as pastor of churches in Massachusetts. 
At the beginning of the civil war he was for part 
of the year 1861 chaplain of one of the Massachu- 
setts regiments, but the state of his health soon 
compelled him to resign. In 1862 he travelled in 
western Europe, Palestine, Egypt, and Greece. 
After his return, having partially recovered his 
health, he resumed his ministerial work in Boston, 
and in 1867 was chosen to the editorship of " Zion's 
Herald," a weekly paper. In May, 1872, at the 
general conference held in Brooklyn, he was elected 
and ordained bishop. He had his official residence 
at Atlanta, Ga., but travelled through all parts of 
the country in the discharge of his duties. He 
visited Mexico in 1873 and 1876, and Liberia 
in 1877, superintending and setting in order 
the missions in those countries. He was also 
actively interested in the educational work of his 
church, especially among the freedmen of the 
south, and Clark university, at Atlanta, was largely 
indebted for its prosperity to his wise counsels and 



118 



HAVEN 



H AVI LAND 



liberal gifts. Bishop Haven was an able writer, a 
zealous reformer, an earnest preacher, and an inde- 
fatigable laborer. He was a delegate in the gen- 
eral conference of 1868, and in that of 1872. He 
steadfastly declined all honorary collegiate de- 
grees. Besides his abundant writings in news- 
papers, magazines, and reviews, he published " The 
Pilgrim's Wallet, or Sketches of Travel in Eng- 
land, France, and Germany " ; " National Ser- 
mons " ; " Life of Father Taylor, the Sailor 
Preacher " (New York, 1871) ; and " Our Next-Door 
Neighbor, or a Winter in Mexico " (1875). 

HAVEN, Joseph, clergyman, b. in Dennis, 
Mass., 4 Jan., 1816 ; d. in Chicago, 111., 23 May, 
1874. His parents removed to Amherst, Mass., 
and he was graduated at the college in 1835. For 
two years he taught in the New York deaf and 
dumb institution, studying at the same time in 
Union theological seminary. He was graduated at 
the Andover seminary in 1839, and ordained pas- 
tor of the Congregational church in Ashland, 
Mass., where he remained until 1846. He then ac- 
cepted a call to the Harvard church, Brookline, 
Mass., and held this charge until 1850, editing at 
the same time " The Congregationalist." He was 
professor of mental and moral philosophy in Am- 
herst from 1850 till 1858, and of systematic the- 
ology in the Chicago theological seminary from 
1858 till 1870, when he resigned on account of 
failing health. He then visited Germany, Pales- 
tine, and Egypt, after which he devoted himself 
to preaching and lecturing upon ancient and mod- 
ern philosophy and the English classics. In 1873 
he became acting professor of mental and moral 
philosophy in the Chicago university, which office 
he held until his death. He was a close student, 
remarkable for the extent and thoroughness of his 
scholarship. He received the degree of D. D. from 
Marietta in 1859 and Amherst in 1862, and that 
of LL. D. from Kenyon in the latter year. He 
published "Mental Philosophy" (Boston, 1857); 
" Moral Philosophy " (1859) ; " Studies in Philoso- 
phy and Theology " (Andover, 1869) ; and a work 
on "Systematic Divinity," which was completed 
a few weeks before his death (Boston, 1875). 

HAVEN, Samuel, clergyman, b. in Framing- 
ham, Mass., 15 Aug., 1727; d. 3 March, 1806. He 
was a descendant of Richard Haven, who settled 
in Lynn, Mass., in 1636. Samuel was graduated 
at Harvard in 1749, and after studying theology 
with Rev. Ebenezer Parkman, of Westborough, 
was ordained in 1752 pastor of the 1st Congrega- 
tional church in Portsmouth, N. H., which charge 
he held until 1806. He received the degree of 
D. D. from Edinburgh in 1770, and from Dart- 
mouth in 1773. Among his printed sermons are 
on the " Death of George II. " (1761) ; on the 
"Restoration of Peace" (1763); "The Dudleian 
Lecture " (Cambridge, 1798) ; and a " Discourse " 
on the ordination of his colleague, Rev. Timothy 
Alden (1800). — His grandson, Nathaniel Apple- 
ton, lawyer and author, b. in Portsmouth, N. H., 
14 Jan., 1790; d. there, 3 June, 1826, was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1807, studied law, and settled 
in Portsmouth. From 1821 till 1825 he edited the 
" Portsmouth Journal." He delivered an oration 
at Plymouth, 4 July, 1814, a Phi Beta Kappa ora- 
tion at Dartmouth in 1816, and one at Plymouth at 
the second centennial celebration of the landing of 
the first settlers. He also wrote several poems and 
contributed to the " North American Review." A 
volume of his writings was published, with a me- 
moir, by George Ticknor (1827). — Another grand- 
son, Samuel Forster, archaeologist, b. in Dedham, 
Mass., 28 May, 1806; d. in Worcester, Mass., 5 



Sept., 1881, was graduated at Amherst in 1826. 
He studied law at the Harvard law-school, and 
practised his profession in Dedham and in Lowell. 
For many years he served as librarian of the 
American antiquarian society, Worcester, Mass., in 
whose " proceedings " he published many reports 
and papers from 1850 till 1881. He was the au- 
thor of several addresses, including a " Centennial 
Address," delivered at Dedham, 21 Sept., 1836; 
" Records of the Company of the Massachusetts 
Bay to the Embarkation of Winthrop and his As- 
sociates for New England " (1850) ; " Remarks on 
the Popham Celebration " (1865) ; and " History of 
Grants under the Great Council for New England " 
(1869). He published " Archaeology of the United 
States," printed by the Smithsonian institution 
(Washington, 1855), and a new edition of Thomas's 
" History of Printing in America " (Albany, 1874). 

HAVEN, Solomon George, lawyer, b. in Che- 
nango county, N. Y., 27 Nov., 1810 ; d. in Buffalo, 
N. Y., 24 Dec, 1861. His early life was spent in 
working on his father's farm. He obtained a good 
common -school education, studied the classics 
under a private tutor, and began a course in medi- 
cine. This was soon abandoned for the law, and at 
the age of eighteen years he entered the office of 
Gov. John Young, of Geneseo, teaching during the 
winter months to gain the necessary funds. In 
1835 Mr. Haven removed to Buffalo, and completed 
his studies in the office of Fillmore and Hall. In 
May of the same year he was admitted to practice, 
and in January, 1836, became a partner with his 
preceptors in the firm of Fillmore, Hall and Haven. 
This relation existed several years, and until each 
member of the firm had attained national reputa- 
tion. Mr. Haven filled the offices of commissioner 
of deeds, district attorney of Erie county, and 
mayor of Buffalo. He was chosen to congress as a 
Whig, and served three terms, in 1851-'7, exerting 
extended influence at an important and critical 
period of the history of the country. 

HAVENS, James, clergyman, b. in Mason 
county, Ky., 25 Dec, 1763 ; d. in Indiana in No- 
vember, 1864. He was licensed to preach in 1781, 
and in 1820 joined the itinerant ministry in the 
Ohio conference. He was one of the founders of 
Methodism in the northwest, especially in Indiana, 
where the last forty years of his life were spent. 

HAVESTAD, Bernhard, German missionary, 
b. in Cologne in 1715 ; d. in Miinster in 1778. He 
became a member of the Jesuit order, and in 1748 
was ordered as a missionary to Chili. He remained 
twenty years in the missions of Concepcion, and ex- 
plored the country in parts that were until then en- 
tirely unknown, pushing as far as lat. 49° S., and 
visiting the unsubdued tribes of Araucanians, 
Guaycurus, Huilliches, and Pehuenches. As he 
spoke fluently the Chilidugu, a dialect used by the 
traders with the Indian tribes, he had an opportu- 
nity to gather valuable information about the cus- 
toms, statistics, and natural history of the abo- 
rigines. When the expulsion of the Jesuits was 
decreed on 29 June, 1768, Havestad was arrested 
and returned to Germany, where he published 
"Chilidugu, sive res Chilenses" (2 vols., Miinster, 
1777). This work is now very rare. 

HAVILAND, John, architect, b. near Taunton, 
England, 15 Dec, 1792; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 28 
March, 1852. After studying his profession with 
James Elmes, he went to Russia in 1815 to enter 
the Imperial corps of engineers, but came to the 
United States in the following year. He settled in 
Philadelphia, where he became associated with 
Hugh Bridgport in the management of an architec- 
tural drawing-school. Among the buildings that 



HAVILAND 



HAWKINS 



119 



he planned are the hall of justice, New York ; the 
U. S. naval hospital, Norfolk, Va. ; the deaf and 
dumb asylum, Philadelphia; the state insane 
asylum, Harrisburg ; the U. S. mint at Philadel- 
phia, and the eastern penitentiary in that city. 
The latter increased his reputation greatly as a 
designer of prison-buildings, and he afterward 
planned the state penitentiaries of New Jersey, 
Missouri, and Rhode Island. He introduced the 
plan of building the cells in lines radiating from 
a common centre. He published, with Hugh Bridg- 
port, " Builders' Assistant, for the Use of Carpen- 
ters and Others " (3 vols., Baltimore, 1818). 

HAVILAND, Thomas Heath, Canadian states- 
man, b. in Charlottetown, 13 Nov., 1822. He was 
educated at Brussels, Belgium, studied law, and 
was called to the bar of Prince Edward Island in 
1846. He was a member of the executive council 
of the island from April, 1859, till November, 1862, 
for a short period in 1865, in 1866-'7, and from 
September, 1870, till April, 1872, having been co- 
lonial secretary during those periods, except in 
1865, when he was solicitor-general. After 1865 
he either held office or led the opposition in the 
provincial parliament, until he was called to the 
senate, 18 Oct., 1873. He has represented George- 
town in the provincial assembly since 1846, was 
a delegate to the Quebec union conference in 1864, 
and to Ottawa in May, 1873, to arrange the final 
terms upon which the island was admitted into 
the Dominion. On 14 July, 1879, he was appointed 
lieutenant - governor of Prince Edward Island, 
which office he retained until 1 Aug., 1884. 

HAVILAND, William, British soldier, b. in 
Ireland in 1718; d. 16 Sept., 1784. He was aide to 
Gen. Blakeney in the rebellion of 1745, and in 
1757 was lieutenant-colonel of the 27th regiment 
under Loudon in this country. He served under 
Abercrombie at Ticonderoga in 1758, under Am- 
herst in 1759-'60, and as brigadier-general com- 
manded the expedition that reduced Isle Aux Noix, 
St. Johns, and Chambly, entering Montreal with 
Amherst in September, 1760. Owing to his me- 
chanical genius, he was enabled to invent means 
for passing the rapids of the St. Lawrence, and 
contributed greatly to the success of the English 
army. He was senior brigadier-general and sec- 
ond in command at the reduction of Martinique in 
February, 1762, and commanded the 4th brigade at 
the siege of Havana. He was appointed lieutenant- 
general in 1772, and general, 19 Feb., 1783. 

HAWES, Joel, elergvman, b. in Medwav, Mass., 
22 Dec, 1789 ; d. in Gilead, Conn., 5 June, 1867. 
He was of humble parentage, and had few oppor- 
tunities for early education. He was graduated at 
Brown in 1813, studied theology at Andover, and 
on 4 March, 1818, was ordained pastor of the 1st 
Congregational church in Hartford, Conn., of which 
he was sole pastor until 1860. senior pastor until 
1864, and pastor emeritus until his death. In 1844 
he visited Europe and the east, spending several 
months in Asia Minor and Turkey, where his 
daughter was a missionary. He was a frequent 
contributor to the religious press and periodicals, 
and published "Lectures to Young Men," which 
had a large circulation in the United States and 
Great Britain (Hartford, 1828); "Tribute to the 
Memory of the Pilgrims" (1830); "Memoir of 
Normand Smith " (1839) : " Character Everything 
to the Young" (1843); "The Religion of the East" 
(1845) ; " Looking-Glass for the Ladies, or the For- 
mation and Excellence of Female Character" 
(1845); "Washington and Jay" (1850); and "An 
Offering to Home Missionaries," discourses on home 
missions, which he published at his own expense 



for distribution to the missionaries of the Ameri- 
can home missionary society (1865.) 

HAWES, Richard, lawyer, b. in Caroline 
county, Va., 6 Feb., 1797; d. in Bourbon county, 
Ky., 25 May, 1877. He emigrated to Kentucky in 
1810. After being educated at Transylvania uni- 
versity he studied law, was admitted to the bar, and 
began his practice in Winchester, Kv. He was a 
member of the legislature in 1828, 1829, and 1836, 
and in the latter year he was elected to congress as 
a Whig, serving until 1841. He subsequently be- 
came an ardent Democrat, advocated the southern 
cause during the civil war, and left Kentucky with 
Breckinridge and others in 1861. On the death of 
George W. Johnson, at Shiloh, he was elected to 
succeed him in the nominal office of " provision- 
al " or Confederate governor of Kentucky. When 
Bragg entered the state, Hawes went with him to 
Frankfort, and was installed governor. 4 Oct., 1862, 
but was compelled to retire immediately, in conse- 
quence of the advance of a division of Buell's army. 
After the -close of the war he returned to Paris, 
Ky., and in 1866 was appointed county judge, 
which office he held until his death. 

HAWES, William Post, author, b. in New 
York city, 4 Feb., 1803; d. in 1842. He was 
graduated at Columbia in 1821, studied law with 
John Anthon, and practised with success in his 
native city. He was the author of many essays, 
and also wrote upon political topics. A collection 
of his writings was published shortly after his 
death, entitled "Sporting Scenes and Sundry 
Sketches, being the Miscellaneous Writings of J. 
Cvpress, Jr.." edited, with a memoir, bv Henry 
William Herbert (1842). 

HAWKINS, Benjamin Waterhouse, educa- 
tor, b. in London. England, 8 Feb., 1807. He 
was educated at St. Aloysius college, and also 
studied art under the sculptor William Behnes. 
After 1827 he devoted himself to the study of 
natural history, and in 1852 included the subject 
of geology. During 1842-'7 he was engaged in 
making studies from living animals in Knowsley 
park for the Earl of Derby. Mr. Hawkins was 
assistant superintendent of the World's fair in 
London in 1851. In 1852 he was appointed by the 
Crystal palace company to restore the external 
forms of the extinct animals to their natural 
gigantic size, and then devoted three and a half 
years to the construction of the thirty-three life- 
size models which were placed in the Crystal 
palace park, many of which were of colossal pro- 
portions. In the interior of his model of the 
Iguanodon he carried out, on 30 Dec, 1853, his idea 
of giving a dinner to about twenty literary and sci- 
entific gentlemen, including Sir Richard Owen and 
Prof. Edward Forbes. He came to New York in 
1868, and lectured on popular science in the hall of 
the Cooper union. Later he was engaged to make 
models of extinct animals for the Central park 
museum, and for a time was occupied in making 
studies for Princeton college. He was elected a 
fellow of the Linnean society in 1847, of the Geo- 
logical society in 1854, and a member of the Society 
of arts in 1846. He has published " Popular Com- 
parative Anatomy" (London, 1840): "Elements 
of Form " (1842) ; " Comparative View of the 
Human and Animal Frame " (1860) ; " Atlas of 
Elementary Anatomy, with Prof. Thomas H. Hux- 
ley" (1865); "Artistic Anatomy of Cattle and 
Sheep " (3d ed., 1873) : and " Artistic Anatomy of 
the Horse " (5th ed., 1874). 

HAWKINS, Dexter Arnold, lawyer, b. in 
Camden, Me., 23 June, 1825 ; d. in New York city, 
24 July, 1886. He was graduated at Bowdoin in 



120 



HAWKINS 



HAWKINS 



1848, and for the next four years was lecturer on 
public instruction before the teachers' institutes 
of Maine. In 1849 he was principal of Topsham 
academy. After studying law at Harvard, and at 
the Nicole des droits at Paris, France, he travelled 
for two years, examining European methods of in- 
struction, under a commission from the governor 
of Maine. He began the practice of law in 1854 
in New York city, where he lived during the re- 
mainder of his life, and was a frequent speaker and 
writer in favor of free education, protection, hard 
money, bi-metallism, and political and municipal 
reform. The national bureau of education was es- 
tablished largely through his efforts. His reports 
on "Sectarian Appropriations of Public Moneys 
and Property," and on the " Duty of the State to 
protect the Free Common Schools by Organic 
Law" (1869 and 1871), caused the repeal of obnox- 
ious statutes in New York and the adoption of a 
constitutional amendment forbidding such legisla- 
tion. In 1875 he delivered an address before the 
Lowell institute on " The Educational Problem in 
the Cotton States." His report on the " Extrava- 
gance of the Tammany Ring" (1871) led to the ex- 
posure of its fraudulent accounts and to its down- 
fall. His pamphlet on the " Donations of Public 
Property to Private Corporations, and the Illegal 
Exemption of the Same from Taxation " (New 
York, 1873), brought about an amendment to the 
constitution of New York prohibiting such dona- 
tions. Among his other publications are " Tradi- 
tions of Overlook Mountain " (1873) ; " The Roman 
Catholic Church in New York City and the Public 
Land and Public Money" (1880); "Free -Trade 
and Protection " (1883) ; " The Redemption of the 
Trade Dollar "(1886); and " The Silver Problem," 
an address that was delivered at the request of the 
committee on coinage, etc., of the house of repre- 
sentatives (1886). — His cousin, Rush Christopher, 
soldier, b. in Pomfret, Vt., 14 Sept., 1831, left home at 
an early age and enlisted in the 2d U. S. dragoons, 
but after a brief term of service in Mexico was 
dischai'ged for disability contracted in the field. 
He settled in New York in 1851, studied law, and 
in 1856 began the practice of his profession. At 
the beginning of the civil war he raised the 9th 
regiment of New York volunteers and the Haw- 
kins zouaves, of which he was elected colonel. He 
commanded a successful expedition against Wins- 
ton, N. C, on 16 Feb., and on 19 April his brigade 
took part in the action at South Mills, where he 
was wounded. He served with his regiment in 
Virginia and elsewhere, and with it was mustered 
out of the service on 30 May, 1863. Since the war 
he has been active in movements for political re- 
form. His collection of books from the first 15th 
century presses was the most comprehensive in the 
country, and was sold at auction in New York in 
1887. Col. Hawkins has contributed to periodical 
literature and has published " The First Books and 
Printers of the 15th Century " (New York, 1884). 

HAWKINS, Ernest, author, b. in England 
about 1802. He was graduated at Oxford in 1824, 
took priest's orders in 1830, and in 1845 became 
prebend of St. Paul's, London, and secretary to 
the Society for the propagation of the gospel. Since 
1865 he has been a canon of Westminster Abbey. 
He has published " Notices of the Church of Eng- 
land's Missions to the North American Colonies 
Previous to the Independence of the United 
States" (London, 1845). This is a volume of great 
historical interest, composed of the manuscript 
letters, reports, etc., of the missionaries in New 
York, New England, and Canada, to the Society for 
the propagation of the gospel. Among his other 





K. rc<*W£ie< 



works are " Annals of the Colonial Church " (1847), 
and " Annals of the Diocese of Quebec" (1849). 

HAWKINS, Sir John, navigator, b. in Plym- 
outh, England, in 1532; d. at sea, 21 Nov., 1595. 
His father, William, began the African slave-trade 
in which England was engaged for nearly three 
hundred years. John was knighted by Queen 
Elizabeth for his success in the same enterprise. 
In January, 1565, he crossed with a cargo of cap- 
tives from Guinea to the West Indies, arrived 
at the- island of 
Dominica, and 
traded along the 
Spanish coasts 
and Florida un- 
til about the first 
of June, when he 
returned to Eng- 
land. Hawkins is 
the first English- 
man who gives 
any detailed ac- 
count of Florida. 
The struggling 
French colony of 
Landonniere was 
then in the sec- 
ond year of its 
existence. He 
showed them 
great kindness, 
and left them a vessel in which to return to France. 
In his narrative regarding Florida he mentions 
the abundance of tobacco, sorrel, maize, and grapes, 
and ascribes the failure of the French colony to 
their lack of thrift, as " in such a climate and soil, 
with marvellous store of deer, and divers other 
beasts, all men may live." On his return he was 
presented with a coat of arms, on which was graven 
the figure of a savage, bound and captive, and to 
intimate that the African slave-trade was the 
true crusade of the reign of Elizabeth, the pil- 
grims' scallop-shell in gold, between two palmers' 
staves. In 1567 he embarked on a third voyage 
with his kinsman, Francis Drake. They captured 
several hundred negroes in Guinea, crossed again 
to Dominica, and, when the Spaniards refused to 
trade with them, stormed the town of Rio de la 
Hacha, and, notwithstanding the prohibition of 
the government, exchanged negroes with the plant- 
ers for jewels and produce. They then crossed the 
Gulf of Mexico toward Florida, were forced to put 
into San Juan de Ulua for supplies, and the next 
day engaged in a naval action with the Spanish, 
in which Hawkins lost his whole fleet except two 
small ships. Returning to England, he became 
treasurer of the navy, and in 1588 was vice-admi- 
ral of the squadron that was sent against the Span- 
ish armada. In 1595 Drake prevailed upon Eliza- 
beth to send him with Hawkins on another expe- 
dition to Spanish America. They sailed from 
Plymouth with the intention of seizing Nombre de 
Dios, but the commanders quarrelled and separated. 
Porto Rico successfully resisted the English, and 
Hawkins died at sea, overcome by his reverses. 
He was an able seaman, but rude, cunning, and 
avaricious. He founded a hospital at Chatham 
for seamen. Hawkins published " A True Declara- 
tion of the Troublesome Voyage of Mr. John Haw- 
kins to the Partes of Guynea and the West Indies, 
1567-'8 " (London, 1569). 

HAWKINS, John Henry Willis, reformer, b. 
in Baltimore, Md., 23 Oct., 1799; d. in Parkers- 
burg, Pa., 26 Aug., 1858. He was a confirmed 
drunkard, when the efforts of his little daughter 



HAWKINS 



HAWKS 



121 



induced him to reform in 1840. From this time 
until his death he lectured with success in the 
temperance cause in every state in the Union ex- 
cept California, also contributing constantly to the 
temperance press. — His son, William George, 
clergyman, b. in Baltimore, 22 Oct., 1823, was 
graduated at Wesleyan university in 1848, studied 
at the Protestant Episcopal seminary in Alexan- 
dria, Va., in 1848-'51. and has since held rector- 
ships in Maryland. Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, 
New York, and Nebraska. He edited the "Na- 
tional Freedman " in 1863-'6, has been engaged in 
domestic missions, and in 1874 became chaplain of 
the inebriate asylum at Binghamton, N. Y., and in 
1885 rector of the English and classical school at 
Beatrice, Gage co., Neb. He has published " Life 
of J. H. W. Hawkins." his father (Boston, 1859) ; 
"Lumsford Lane" (1863); "History of the New 
York National Freedman 's Association" (New 
York, 1868); and has in press (1887) "Young 
America in the Northwest." 

HAWKINS, John P., soldier, b. in Indiana 
about 1830. He was graduated at the U. S. mili- 
tary academy in 1852, assigned to the infantry, 
and promoted 1st lieutenant, 12 Oct., 1857. At the 
beginning of the civil war he was brigade quarter- 
master in the defences of Washington, D. 0. He 
was appointed commissary of subsistence with the 
staff rank of captain, 3 Aug., 1861, and filled sev- 
eral posts as chief and assistant commissary of sub- 
sistence in southwest Missouri and west Tennessee, 
until 13 April, 1863, when he was made brigadier- 
general of volunteers, and from 17 Aug. of that 
year till 7 Feb., 1864, was in command of a brigade 
of colored troops in northeastern Louisiana. He 
was then promoted to the command of a division, 
and stationed at Vicksburg, Miss., from March. 
1864, till February, 1865. He afterward took part 
in the Mobile campaign, and for gallant and meri- 
torious services at the capture of that city was 
brevetted major. For his services in the war he 
was successively given the brevets of lieutenant-col- 
onel, colonel, brigadier-general, and major-general 
in the U. S. army, and also major-general of volun- 
teers. On 23 June, 1874, he was made major and 
commissary of subsistence, and in 1887 was in charge 
of the subsistence department at Omaha, Neb. 

HAWKINS, Philemon, statesman, b. in Glou- 
cester county, Va., 28 Sept., 1717; d. in Warren 
county, N. C, in 1801. He served in a cavalry 
troop at the battle of Alamance, 16 May, 1771, as 
aide to Gov. Tryon, in the same year was a 
member of the general assembly, and represented 
Bute and Granville counties for thirteen years. 
He raised the first volunteer company in Bute 
county for the Revolutionary army, and was elect- 
ed its colonel in 1776. Col. Hawkins was a mem- 
ber of the convention that ratified the National 
constitution, was the last surviving signer of the 
constitution of North Carolina, and was frequent- 
ly a member of the executive council. — His son, 
Benjamin, statesman, b. in Warren county, N. C, 
15 Aug., 1754 : d. in Hawkinsville, Ga., 6 June, 
1816, was a student in the senior class at Prince- 
ton when the Revolution began, and his proficiency 
in modern languages, especially French, caused 
Gen. Washington to appoint him interpreter be- 
tween the American and French officers of his 
staff. Hawkins served at the battle of Monmouth, 
and probably in other engagements, and in 1780 
was commissioned to procure ammunition and 
arms at home and abroad. He went to the West 
Indies and obtained and shipped supplies in ves- 
sels that belonged to a merchant of New Berne, 
John Wright Stanley. He was elected by the 



legislature to congress in 1782, in 1785 was ap- 
pointed to treat with the Cherokee and Creek In- 
dians, and concluded the treaties of Josephinton 
and Hopewell. He was re-elected to congress in 
1786, and in 1789 became one of the two first U. S. 
senators from North Carolina. At the expiration 
of his term in 1797 he was appointed agent for 
" superintending all Indians south of the Ohio." 
Although he possessed a large fortune, he removed 
to the Creek wilderness, established a settlement, 
built cabins and mills, and manufactured imple- 
ments. He tendered his resignation to each suc- 
cessive president from Washington to Madison, 
but it was always refused. The city of Hawkins- 
ville, Ga., the headquarters of his station, was 
named in his honor. His manuscripts are in the 
possession of the Georgia historical society, and 
two of them, on " Topography " and " Indian 
Character," have been privately printed. — Benja- 
min's nephew. William, statesman, b. in Warren 
county, N. C, in 1770; d. in Sparta, Ga., 17 May, 
1819, was elected member of the assembly, and its 
speaker in 1805. In 1810 he became governor, and 
took an active part in the war of 1812. — Phile- 
mon's grandson, Mieajah Thomas, congressman, 
b. in Warren county. N. C, in 1790 ; d. there, 22 
Dec, 1858, was educated at the University of 
North Carolina, served in the legislature in 1819, 
and was a member of the senate in 1823-8. From 
1831 till 1841 he was a member of congress, having 
been elected as a Democrat, and for many years 
was major-general of North Carolina militia. 

HAWKS, Francis Lister, clergyman, b. in 
New Berne. N. C, 10 June, 1798; d. in New York 
city, 26 Sept., 1866. His early training was re- 
ceived chiefly from his mother, and, as he was 
naturally of an im- 
petuous spirit, this 
discipline was all- 
important. He 
was graduated at 
the University of 
North Carolina in 
1815, with the 
highest honors of 
his class. He then 
entered upon the 
study of law, un- 
der Judge Gaston, 
in New Berne, was 
admitted to the 
bar, and practised 
his profession with 
great success in 
his native town 

and in Hillsboro, Orange co. He was appointed 
reporter of the supreme court of the state, and 
also elected to the legislature. At this early pe- 
riod he manifested rare oratorical powers and fre- 
quently drew crowds to hear him. But. although 
meeting with entire success in the practice of law, 
his heart was not really in the work. He re- 
solved to become a candidate for orders in the 
Episcopal church, studied theology under the 
Rev. William Mercer Green (afterward bishop), 
completed his course in New Berne, and was or- 
dered deacon in 1827, by Bishop Ravenscroft, and 
ordained priest by the same bishop. About 1823 
Mr. Hawks married Miss Kirby, of New Haven, 
Conn., who died four years afterward, leaving two 
children. This domestic relation and its results 
brought about an intimacy with the Rev. Dr. 
Harry Croswell, rector of Trinity church. New 
Haven, and, at the latter's solicitation, Mr. Hawks 
became Dr. Croswell's assistant, 25 April, 1829. He 




Aa-J^/. J^^^y^ 



122 



HAWKS 



HAWLEY 



soon grew popular as a preacher, and exercised 
a wide influence for good. His stay in New Ha- 
ven, however, was short, and in the summer of 
the same year he accepted an assistant minister- 
ship in St. James's, Philadelphia, of which Bishop 
White was rector. The next year he was elected 
professor of divinity in Washington (now Trinity) 
college, Hartford, Conn., and in March, 1831, be- 
came rector of St. Stephen's church, New York 
city. In December of the same year he was elect- 
ed rector of St. Thomas's, New York. In this 
office he remained until 1843, and was soon the 
most eloquent pulpit orator in the Episcopal church. 
The house of bishops, at the general convention 
of 1835, nominated Dr. Hawks missionary bish- 
op in Louisiana, and in the territories of Arkan- 
sas and Florida. The nomination was concurred 
in by the house of deputies, but Dr. Hawks de- 
clined the appointment. At the same convention 
he was appointed historiographer of the church 
and conservator of documents. He spent several 
months in England in 1836, and, from the libraries 
and public records there, obtained no less than 
eighteen large folio volumes of manuscripts relat- 
ing to the Church of England in America. He 
entered at once upon his work as historiographer 
and prepared in due season two volumes. These 
having been severely criticised, Dr. Hawks was so 
vexed that he resolved to abandon the work. Al- 
though abundant materials were at hand for 
church history in New York and other states, the 
historiographer published nothing further. In 
1837, in conjunction with Rev. Dr. Caleb S. Henry, 
he founded the " New York Review," a quarterly, 
and contributed freely to its pages. The " Review " 
did good service during its six years of existence. 
In 1839 he established St. Thomas's hall, a school 
for boys, at Flushing, L. I. For a time it was suc- 
cessful ; but financial embarrassments came upon 
it, and Dr. Hawks, through its failure, became in- 
volved in debt. This was in 1843, and led to his 
resigning the rectorship of St. Thomas's, and re- 
moving to Holly Springs, Miss., where one of his 
daughters resided. He was elected bishop by the 
convention of that diocese, but at the general con- 
vention of 1844 opposition was made to his con- 
firmation on the ground of pecuniary troubles 
connected with his unfortunate enterprise. Dr. 
Hawks made his most eloquent address in vin- 
dication of his conduct, fully clearing himself in 
relation to charges of dishonorable transactions. 
The house voted to this effect, and referred the 
whole question back to the diocese of Mississippi. 
Although the diocese unanimously expressed its 
entire confidence in Dr. Hawks, he nevertheless 
deemed it best to decline the bishopric. In 1844 
he went to New Orleans as rector of Christ church 
in that city, which office he occupied five years. 
While there the University of Louisiana was 
founded, and he was elected its first president. He 
was again urged to return to New York, which he did 
in 1849, becoming rector of Calvary church in that 
city. Wealthy friends relieved him of all outstand- 
ing obligations in connection with St. Thomas's 
hall (to the amount of $30,000), and his position 
became one of increased usefulness. In 1852 he 
was elected bishop of Rhode Island, but declined. 
In 1859 he was invited to occupy the chair of his- 
tory in the University of North Carolina, but de- 
clined that also. He received the degrees of D. D. 
and LL. D. from the same institution at the be- 
ginning of the civil war. Dr. Hawks, whose sym- 
pathies naturally were with the south, resigned his 
rectorship of Calvary and removed, in 1862, to 
Baltimore, where he became rector of Christ church. 



In 1865, however, he returned to New York, where 
a new congregation was gathered and a building 
begun in 25th street for the chapel of the Holy 
Saviour. The corner-stone was laid 4 Sept., 1866, 
and this was Dr. Hawks's last public act. His 
health being completely broken, he sank rapidly 
into the grave. He was a great as well as good 
man, a faithful minister, an orator of high rank, 
and a deserving author. His chief publications 
were " Reports of Cases adjudged in the Supreme 
Court of North Carolina " (4 vols., Raleigh, 1823-8) ; 
" Contributions to the Ecclesiastical History of the 
United States of America " — vol. i., " On the Early 
Church in Virginia" (New York, 1836); vol. ii., 
" On the Church in Maryland " (1839) ; " Commen- 
tary on the Constitution and Canons of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church in the United States " 
(1841) ; " Auricular Confession in the Protestant 
Episcopal Church" (1850); and "History of North 
Carolina " (vol. i., 1857). Dr. Hawks also translated 
Rivero and Tschudi's " Antiquities of Peru " (1854), 
and edited several valuable historical Works, among 
them the " State Papers of Gen. Alexander Hamil- 
ton " (1842) ; Perry's " Expedition to the China 
Seas and Japan " (1852-'4) ; Appletons' " Cyclo- 
paedia of Biography " (1856) ; and the " Romance 
of Biography " (12 vols.). In conjunction with Rev. 
William S. (now Bishop) Perry, he brought out 
volumes i. and ii. of the " Documentary History of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United 
States " (1863-'4). See a memorial volume, with a 
sketch of his life, by Rev. N. L. Richardson (1868). 
— His brother, Cicero Stephens, P. E. bishop, b. 
in New Berne, N. C, 26 May, 1812 ; d. in St. Louis, 
Mo., 19 April, 1868, was graduated at the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina in 1830. He studied law, 
but abandoned it for theology, which he studied 
under Bishop Freeman, and was ordered deacon, 
8 Dec, 1834, and ordained priest, 24 July, 1836, by 
Bishop B. T. Onderdonk. While in deacon's orders 
he was in charge of the church in Ulster, and, on 
being made priest, became rector of Trinity, Sau- 
gerties, N. Y. In 1837 he accepted the rectorship 
of Trinity church, Buffalo, N. Y., where he re- 
mained for six years. In 1843 he removed to Mis- 
souri and became rector of Christ church, St. 
Louis. He was appointed bishop of Missouri by 
the house of bishops, with the concurrence of the 
house of deputies, in 1844, and was consecrated, 20 
Oct., 1844. During the cholera epidemic of 1849 
in St. Louis he was untiring in his ministrations 
to the suffering. In recognition of his services 
at this time he was given a purse of $3,000 by 
Christ church, and a residence in Paul street by 
the citizens of St. Louis. He contributed to vari- 
ous journals, edited the " Boys' and Girls' Libra- 
ry," and the " Library for my Young Country- 
men," and published " Friday Christian ; or the 
First Born of Pitcairn Island. 

HAWLEY, Bostwick, clergyman, b. in Camil- 
lus, N. Y., 8 April, 1814. He was graduated at Wes- 
leyan university in 1838, taught in Cazenovia, N. 
Y., in 1838-'42, joined the Oneida conference of 
the Methodist Episcopal church in 1839, and has 
held numerous pastorates in New York state. In 
1872-'81 he was superintendent of public schools in 
Bennington, Vt. Wesleyan university, of which 
he has been a trustee since 1871, conferred on him 
the degree of D. D. in 1863. He has published, 
besides various sermons and school reports, " Close 
Communion " (New York, 1863) ; " Manual of 
Methodism " (1868) ; " Nature, Design, and General 
Rules of the Methodist Episcopal Church " (Phila- 
delphia, 1870) ; " Working and Speaking for Christ " 
(New York, 1873) ; " Ministerial Education " (1875) ; 



HAWLEY 



HAWLEY 



123 



" Dancing as an Amusement " (1877) ; " Beauties 
of the Rev. George Herbert " (1877) ; " A Plea for 
the Intemperate " (1879) ; " Culture and Christian- 
ity " (1880) ; " Prominent Doctrines and Peculiar 
Usages of the Methodist Episcopal Church Stated 
and Defended " (1879) ; " The Gospel and Scepti- 
cism " (1880) ; " The Shield of Faith " (Cincinnati, 
1880) ; and " The Lenten Season (1882). 

HAWLEY, Charles, author, b. in Catskill, N. 
Y., 19 Aug., 1819 ; d. in Auburn, N. Y., 26 Nov., 
1885. He was graduated at Williams in 1840, and 
after reading law one year studied at the Union 
theological seminary, New York city, where he was 
graduated in 1844. He was then licensed to preach, 
and was pastor of Presbyterian churches in New 
Rochelle, Lyons, and Auburn, N. Y., where he re- 
mained from 1858 until his death. In 1867 he was 
sent on a special mission to Denmark by the U. S. 
government. He was president of the Cayuga 
county historical association from its foundation 
till his death. He received the degree of D. D. 
from Hamilton in 1861, and published " History of 
the First Presbyterian Church of Auburn " (Au- 
burn, 1876) ; " Earlv Chapters of Cavuga History " 
(1879) ; " Sanitary Reforms " (1880) ;" " Early Chap- 
ters of Seneca History " (1881) ; and " Memorial 
Discourses " (1884). His " Mohewok History " is 
now in press (1887). 

HAWLEY, Gideon, missionary, b. in Bridge- 
port, Conn., 11 Nov., 1727; d. in Marshpee, Mass., 
3 Oct., 1807. He was graduated at Yale in 1749, 
and in 1752, under the supervision of Jonathan 
Edwards, at Stockbridge, Mass., taught the Mo- 
hawk, Oneida, and Tuscarora Indians. In 1753 
the commissioners of Indian affairs sent him to es- 
tablish a mission in the Iroquois country, on the 
Susquehanna river. He remained there teaching 
and preaching until 1756, when the French war 
obliged him to return to civilization. He then 
went to Boston and joined the army as chaplain of 
Col. Richard Gridley's regiment, and attempted 
after this campaign to return to the Iroquois mis- 
sion, but the enterprise proved too hazardous. In 
1757 the commissioners of the Society for propa- 

fating the gospel appointed him pastor of the In- 
ian tribes at Marshpee, Mass. He was installed, 
10 April, 1758, and passed the residue of his life, 
nearly half a century, in missionary work there. 

HAWLEY, Gideon, scholar, b. in Huntington, 
Conn., 26 Sept., 1785 ; d. in Albany, N. Y., 16 July, 
1870. He was graduated at Union college in 1809, 
and admitted to the bar at Albany, N. Y., in 1813. 
In 1814 he was appointed secretary of the regents 
of the University of New York, and performed the 
duties of that office, without a salary, for twenty- 
seven years. From the organization of the Smith- 
sonian institution, in 1846, until his death, he was 
one of its four regents-at-large. Mr. Hawley was 
a scholar of fine attainments, and familiar with the 
literature of many countries. He printed for pri- 
vate distribution "Essays in Truth and Knowl- 
edge " (Albany, 1850), which are characterized by 
metaphysical discrimination and acuteness. 

HAWLEY, Joseph, statesman, b. in Northamp- 
ton, Mass., 8 Oct., 1723 ; d. in Hampshire county, 
Mass., 10 March, 1788. He was graduated at Yale 
in 1742, and studied theology, but abandoned it 
for law, and practised many years in Hampshire 
county. He was frequently a member of the 
Massachusetts legislature, and served on most of 
its important committees. He was a member of 
the committee of correspondence in 1790, chair- 
man of the Massachusetts committee to the Provin- 
cial congress of October, 1774, and served in that 
body in 1775. When his health failed in 1776, he 




retired from public life. Throughout his official 
career he was one of the ablest and most eloquent 
advocates of American liberty. 

HAWLEY, Joseph Roswell, statesman, b. in 
Stewartsville, N. C, 31 Oct., 1826. He is of Eng- 
lish-Scotch ancestry. His father, Rev. Francis 
Hawley (descended from Samuel, who settled in 
Stratford, Conn., in 
1639), was b. in Farm- 
ington, Conn. He 
went south early and 
engaged in business, 
but afterward en- 
tered the Baptist min- 
istry. He married 
Mary McLeod, a na- 
tive of North Caro- 
lina, of Scotch parent- 
age, and the family 
went to Connecticut 
in 1837, where the 
father was an active 
anti-slavery man. The 
son prepared for col- 
lege at the Hartford 
grammar-school and 
the seminary in Caze- 
novia, N. Y., whither the family removed about 
1842. He was graduated at Hamilton in 1847, with 
a high reputation as a speaker and debater. He 
taught in the winters, studied law at Cazenovia 
and Hartford, and began practice in 1850. He im- 
mediately became chairman of the Free-soil state 
committee, wrote for the Free-soil press, and spoke 
in every canvass. He stoutly opposed the Know- 
Nothings, and devoted his energies to the union of 
all opponents of slavery. The first meeting for 
the organization of the Republican party in Con- 
necticut was held in his office, at his call, 4 Feb., 
1856. Among those present were Gideon Welles 
and John M. Niles. Mr. Hawley gave three 
months to speaking in the Fremont canvass of 
1856. In February, 1857, he abandoned law 
practice, and became editor of the Hartford 
" Evening Press," the new distinctively Republi- 
can paper. His partner was William Faxon, after- 
ward assistant secretary of the navy. He re- 
sponded to the first call for troops in 1861 by 
drawing up a form of enlistment, and, assisted 
by Drake, afterward colonel of the 10th regi- 
ment, raising rifle company A, 1st Connecticut 
volunteers, which was organized and accepted in 
twenty-four hours, Hawley having personally en- 
gaged rifles at Sharp's factory. He became the 
captain, and is said to have been the first vol- 
unteer in the state. He received special praise 
for good conduct at Bull Run from Gen. Erastus 
D. Keves, brigade commander. He directly united 
with Col. Alfred H. Terry in raising the 7th Con- 
necticut volunteers, a three years' regiment, of 
which he was lieutenant-colonel. It went south in 
the Port Royal expedition, and on the capture of the 
forts was the first sent ashore as a garrison. It was 
engaged four months in the siege of Fott Pulaski, 
and upon the surrender was selected as the garri- 
son. Hawley succeeded Terry, and commanded the 
regiment in the battles of James Island and Poco- 
taligo, and in Brannan's expedition to Florida. He 
went with his regiment to Florida, in January, 1863, 
and commanded the post of Fernandina, whence 
in April he undertook an unsuccessful expedition 
against Charleston. He also commanded a brigade 
on Morris Island in the siege of Charleston and 
the capture of Fort Wagner. In February, 1864, 
he had a brigade under Gen. Truman Seymour in 



124 



HAWLEY 



HAWTHORNE 



the battle of Olustee, Pla., where the whole National 
force lost 38 per cent. His regiment was one of 
the few that were armed with the Spencer breech- 
loading rifle. This weapon, which he procured 
in the autumn of 1863, proved very effective in 
the hands of his men. He went to Virginia in 
April, 1864, having a brigade in Terry's division, 
10th corps, Army of the James, and was in the 
battles of Drewry's Bluff, Deep Run, Derbytown 
Road, and various affairs near Bermuda Hundred 
and Deep Bottom. He commanded a division in 
the fight on the Newmarket road, and engaged 
in the siege of Petersburg. In September, 1864, 
he was made a brigadier-general, having been re- 
peatedly recommended by his immediate supe- 
riors. In November, 1864, he commanded a 
picked brigade sent to New York city to keep the 
peace during the week of the presidential election. 
He succeeded to Terry's division when Terry 
was sent to Port Fisher in January, 1865, after- 
ward rejoining him as chief of staff, 10th corps, 
and on the capture of Wilmington was detached 
by Gen. Schofield to establish a base of supplies 
there for Sherman's army, and command south- 
eastern North Carolina. In June he rejoined 
Terry as chief of staff for the Department of 
Virginia. In October he went home, was bre- 
vetted major-general, and was mustered out, 15 
Jan., 1866. In April, 1866, he was elected gov- 
ernor of Connecticut, but he was defeated in 1867, 
and then, having united the " Press " and the 
"Courant," he resumed editorial life, and more 
vigorously than ever entered the political con- 
tests following the war. He was always in de- 
mand as a speaker throughout the country. He 
was president of the National Republican conven- 
tion in 1868, secretary of the committee on reso- 
lutions in 1872, and chairman of that committee 
in 1876. He earnestly opposed paper money theo- 
ries. In November, 1872, he was elected to fill 
a vacancy in congress caused by the death of 
Julius L. Strong. He was re-elected to the 43d 
congress, defeated for the 44th and 45th, and 
re-elected to the 46th (1879-'81). He was elected 
senator in January, 1881, by the unanimous vote 
of his party, and re-elected in like manner in 
January, 1887, for the term ending 4 March, 1893. 
In the house he served on the committees on 
claims, banking and currency, military affairs, 
and appropriations; in the senate, on the com- 
mittees on coast defences, railroads, printing, and 
military affairs. He is chairman of the commit- 
tee on civil service, and vigorously promoted 
the enactment of civil-service-reform legislation. 
He was also chairman of a select committee on 
ordnance and war-ships, and submitted a long 
and valuable report, the result of careful investi- 
gation into steel production and heavy gun-mak- 
ing in England and the United States. In the 
National convention of 1884 the Connecticut dele- 
gation unanimously voted for him for president 
in every ballot. He was president of the U. S. cen- 
tennial commission from its organization in 1872 
until the close of its labors in 1877, gave two 
years exclusively to the work, was ex-officio mem- 
ber of its committees, and appointed all save the 
executive. He received the degree of LL. D. from 
Hamilton in 1875, and from Yale in 1886. Of the 
former institution he is a trustee. Ecclesiastically 
he is a Congregationalist. Gen. Hawley is an 
ardent Republican, one of the most acceptable 
extemporary orators in the republic, a believer 
in universal suffrage, the American people and 
the " American way," is a " hard-money " man, 
would adjust the tariff so as to benefit native 



industries, urges the reconstruction of our naval 
and coast defences, demands a free ballot and a 
fair count everywhere, opposes the tendency to 
federal centralization, and is a strict construction- 
ist of the constitution in favor of the rights and 
dignity of the individual states. 

HAWLEY, William Merrill, lawyer, b. in 
Delaware county, N. Y., 23 Aug., 1802 : d. in Hor- 
nellsville, N. Y., 9 Feb., 1869. His father, one of 
the earliest settlers in western New York, was a 
farmer, and unable to give his children a classical 
education. William went to the common school, 
and at the age of twenty-one removed to Almond, 
Alleghany co., where he cleared a piece of land for 
tillage. In the spring of 1824 he was elected con- 
stable, and began the study of law to assist him in 
this office. He was admitted to the bar in 1826, 
removed to Hornellsville the next year, and prac- 
tised his profession until his appointment in 1846 
as first judge of Steuben county. He served in 
the state senate, was a delegate to the Democratic 
national convention of 22 May, 1848, which met in 
Baltimore, and was identified with the " Free-soil 
radical delegation," which culminated in the Na- 
tional convention of 9 Aug., 1848, held in Buffalo, 
N. Y., in which Martin Van Buren was nominated 
for the presidency. Judge Hawley was one of the 
committee appointed to introduce the resolutions 
the essential elements of which were afterward 
adopted by the Republican party. After his re- 
tirement from the state senate he did not again 
enter public life, but, devoting himself to his pro- 
fession, acquired a large fortune, and practised 
until a short time before his death. 

HAWTHORNE, Nathaniel, author, b. in Sa- 
lem, Mass., 4 July, 1804 ; d. in Plymouth, N. H., 
18 May, 1864. The family name was spelled 
Hathorne until the 
author inserted the 
w. In 1630 his an- 
cestor, William, at 
the age of twenty- 
three, came from 
Wiltshire, Eng- 
land, with John 
Winthrop in the 
" Arbella," and set- 
tled in Dorches- 
ter, Mass. In 1636 
he went to Salem, 
which gave him 
large grants of land 
to induce him to re- 
move, holding such 
a citizen to be "a 
public benefit." He 

was a strict Separatist, a man of strong char- 
acter and great energy, and in the little village, 
which was the grimmest of all the Puritan com- 
munities, William Hathorne was as stern and al- 
most as conspicuous a figure as John Endicott. 
His descendant says that "he had all the Puri- 
tanic traits, both good and evil " ; and it is easy 
to fancy the fine, strong roots of the author's 
genius stretching backward and feeding upon that 
rank soil of early Puritanism, and transmuting its 
dark and acrid juices into the weird and exquisite 
blossoming of the tales and romances. William died 
in 1681. His son, John, like his father, was a per- 
secutor of Quakers, and he was the chief judge in 
the witch trials at Salem, in which his treatment 
of the victims was harsh and cruel. John died in 
1717. His son, Joseph, was a quiet farmer, and 
after him came what Hawthorne calls "a dreary 
and unprosperous condition of the race." The 







HAWTHORNE 



HAWTHORNE 



125 



men followed the sea. Joseph's son, Daniel, com- 
manded a privateer, and Daniel's son, Nathaniel 
(father of the author), was captain of a trading- 
vessel. He married Elizabeth Clark Manning, 
and died in Surinam in 1808. Nathaniel, the sec- 
ond of three children, was their only son. He 
was born in a plain wooden house near the wharves, 
in which his mother wholly secluded herself after 
her husband's death. From the earliest days, Sa- 
lem had been one of the most sombre of the old 
New England towns : " its long and lazy street," 
Hawthorne says, " lounging wearisomely along the 
whole extent of the peninsula, with Gallows hill 
and New Guinea at one end and a view of the 
almshouse at the other." In the beginning of 
the century it was an important port for the In- 
dia trade. But in Hawthorne's youth it began 
to decline with the other New England sea-ports, 
and in 1850 he said of the pavement around the 
custom-house, that it " has grass enough growing 
in its chinks to show that it has not, of late days, 
been worn by any multitudinous resort of busi- 
ness." Hawthorne was " a pleasant child," his 
sister said, " quite handsome, with golden curls." 
But the austere family tradition, the melancholy 
temperament of his taciturn father, the secluded 
widowhood of his mother, the decaying old sea- 
port of witch-haunted memories in which he lived, 
impressed profoundly the imagination of the soli- 
tary boy, whose " native propensities," as he said 
of himself, " were toward fairy-land." At the age 
of seven he was placed by his uncle Manning at 
the school of Dr. Joseph E. Worcester, the lexi- 
cographer, and, being severely injured while play- 
ing foot-ball, he was confined to the house for two 
years, where Dr. Worcester still taught him, and 
where he acquired the habit of reading. His 
books were the English classics. He pored over 
Spenser and " Pilgrim's Progress," Froissart's 
" Chronicles " and Clarendon's history, and he was 
fascinated by the "Newgate Calendar." In 1818 
his mother removed with her family to Raymond, 
on Sebago lake, in Maine, to a house owned by 
her brother, where Hawthorne remained for a 
year. It was a wild country, with scattered clear- 
ings, and " nine tenths of it primeval woods." 
Here he lived in perfect freedom, he says, " like 
a bird of the air. But here, also, roaming the 
woods alone or skating or " camping out," his 
habit of solitude was confirmed. In 1819 he was 
back again in Salem, fitting for college, and quite 
sure that the happiest days of his life were gone. 
Like other boys about entering college, he specu- 
lated upon his future vocation, and says in a letter 
that he would not be a minister, nor a doctor, nor 
a lawyer, and that there was nothing left but to be 
an author. There is an apocryphal diary of those 
days, which was published in the Portland " Tran- 
script " in 1871 and 1873 by the person who pro- 
fessed to own it, but which Hawthorne's son, Julian, 
dismisses very curtly as of no importance. In Au- 
gust, 1820, Hawthorne issued in Salem the first 
number of a little weekly paper called the " Spec- 
tator," which was discontinued in the middle of 
September. In 1821 he entered Bowdoin college, 
Brunswick, Me., "a plain country college." then 
only twenty-five years old. Henry W. Longfel- 
low, John S. C. Abbott, George B. Cheever, and 
Horatio Bridge were his classmates, and Franklin 
Pierce, afterward president, was in the class before 
him. Bridge and Pierce were his intimate friends, 
and in the dedication of the " Snow Image " Haw- 
thorne pleasantly lays upon Bridge the responsibil- 
ity of his literary career. 

The year that he entered college was the year 



in which a distinctive American literature be- 
gan to appear. Bryant published in that year his 
first volume of poems, Cooper his " Spy," Dana 
the " Idle Man," and Pereival his first volume of 
poems, which Edward Everett hailed as the har- 
binger of a golden day. Halleck's and Drake's 
" Croakers " were already familiar, and the next 
year Miss Sedgwick's "New England Tale" was 
published. There is no evidence that Hawthorne 
was aware of this literary avatar and promise; 
there is no trace of any influence from it upon his 
own works. In college he was distinguished only 
for his themes. He wrote indifferent verse, and 
read Scott's novels, and Godwin's, which he " liked 
next to Scott," and, without the fear of the stern 
old Puritan Hathornes before his eyes, and to the 
alarm of the college authorities, he sometimes 
played cards and showed the natural tastes of 
vigorous youth. He was graduated in 1825, re- 
turned to Salem, and became an absolute recluse, 
imprisoned, as he said, " in a lonely chamber," 
where, however, he felt afterward that his mind 
and character were formed, and in which he said 
" fame was won." He read and wrote by day and 
night, seldom going out except at twilight for long, 
lonely walks along the sea-shore and through the 
dusky streets of the town. For twelve years this 
was his life, and, although constantly writing and 
publishing, he was, in his own words, " the obscur- 
est man of letters in America." In 1826 he pub- 
lished, anonymously and at his own expense, a 
novel entitled " Fanshawe." It made no impres- 
sion, but it has traces of his characteristic power 
and his admirable literary style. Only a few hun- 
dred copies were sold, and he endeavored success- 
fully to suppress it. But it is included in the 
latest editions of his works. The failure probably 
affected him deeply, for he had the generous thirst 
for fame which belongs to genius. He was not, 
however, wholly disheartened, and a little later he 
completed a series of " Seven Tales of My Native 
Land," some relating to witchcraft and some to 
piracy and the sea. He found a publisher with 
difficulty, and there were such delays in publish- 
ing that Hawthorne withdrew the manuscript and 
burned it. But, however sobered by sharp expe- 
rience, his good genius would not suffer him to 
abandon her. Of this time he said to a friend af- 
terward : " I passed the day in writing stories, and 
the night in burning them." The solitude and 
seclusion of his life were due not only to his tem- 
perament and to disappointment by his literary 
failures, but to the social ostracism of Democrats 
in the little town, which was a stronghold of 
Federalism and the very seat of the Essex junto, 
the aulic council of the Federal party. Haw- 
thorne's father had been a Democrat, and the 
son, with no taste for politics, naturally accepted 
the paternal party connection, and had no dispo- 
sition to dispute any penalty attaching to it. In 
1830 he travelled with an uncle in the valley of 
the Connecticut. The next year he was in New 
Hampshire, and about this time he wandered as 
far as Ticonderoga and Niagara. But the excur- 
sions were brief. He was soon again in his soli- 
tary room, and, no longer attempting the publica- 
tion of a book, he was content to send short stories 
and sketches and essays to the Salem " Gazette " 
and the " New England Magazine." He sent some 
manuscripts, including several of the " Twice-told 
Tales," to Samuel G. Goodrich, the editor of the 
Boston " Token and Atlantic Souvenir," who wrote 
to him in January, 1830, that he would try to in- 
duce a publisher to undertake the work, and offered 
him $35 for the first publication of the " Gentle 



12G 



HAWTHORNE 



HAWTHORNE 



Boy" in the "Token." Hawthorne assented to 
the publication of any of the tales, and in May, 
1831, Mr. Goodrich published four of them. Al- 
though these tales and sketches, in the " Token " and 
elsewhere, were received without general acclama- 
tion, there were some sagacious readers who per- 
ceived the rare and subtle genius of the author, and 
among these were three accomplished young women 
of Salem, Miss Elizabeth P. Peabody and her sis- 
ters, who heard, to their surprise and pleasure, that 
the writer was the son of their neighbor, the widow 
Hathorne. The acquaintance of the families fol- 
lowed, and the second sister, Sophia, a woman of 
singular accomplishment, of the most poetic na- 
ture and charming character, afterward became 
Mrs. Hawthorne. 

Meanwhile, in 1836, Mr. Goodrich, who evi- 
dently recognized the promise of the young au- 
thor, engaged him at a salary of $500, of which 
he received but little, to edit the " American Maga- 
zine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge," a 
work that belonged to the Bewick publishing 
company, of which Goodrich was manager. Haw- 
thorne also compiled for the company a " Univer- 
sal History," from which sprang the famous works 
of Peter Parley, and for which he received $100. 
His gains were very small, although his modest 
and abundant labors were gradually winning ap- 
preciation. In 1835 the notices in the London 
" Athenaeum " of his tales published in the " To- 
ken " were so encouraging that he began to think 
of issuing them in a volume. His faithful friend 
Bridge warmly urged the publication, and assumed 
the pecuniary risk, and early in 1837 the first se- 
ries of " Twice-told Tales " was published by the 
American stationers' company in Boston. Haw- 
thorne sent a copy to Longfellow, whose " Outre 
Mer " had charmed him, regretting that they had 
not been more intimate in college, and Longfellow 
reviewed the book with enthusiasm in the " North 
American Review." Hawthorne afterward sug- 
gested to Longfellow the story of " Evangeline," 
and greeted the poem as the best of the poet's 
works. Longfellow was very sensible of Haw- 
thorne's generosity, and the warm friendship of the 
two authors and neighbors was never disturbed. 
Six or seven hundred copies of " Twice-told 
Tales" were sold, and the book was favorably no- 
ticed, though the quality of the author's genius 
was not perceived. It was generally treated as a 
mere pleasant talent. But those tales reveal a 
power of imagination, a spiritual insight and 
knowledge of the obscurer motives of human na- 
ture, and they are told with a felicity and repose 
of manner that have not been surpassed in our 
literature. They have often, indeed, a sombre 
tone, a fateful sense of gloom, which is half weird, 
sometimes almost uncanny, but of which the fas- 
cination is irresistible. Their publication marked 
a distinct epoch in American literature. In 1837 
Hawthorne visited his friend Bridge in Maine, and 
in 1838 he began to write for the "Democratic 
Review," which was edited by John L. O'Sullivan. 
He was now engaged to Miss Peabody, and began 
to think of a provision for marriage, and in Janu- 
ary, 1839, George Bancroft, the historian, who was 
collector of customs at Boston, appointed him a 
weigher and ganger, with a salary of $1,200. 

Two years later, when the Whigs came in, he 
was dismissed from his place. His literary work 
was suspended during his official term, and he is 
generally supposed to have been weary of its rou- 
tine. But he said that he enjoyed the society of 
sailors, who knew him and treated him only as a 
government officer, and not as an author. It re- 



leased him from self-consciousness. In 1841 the 
first part of "Grandfather's Chair" was published 
in Boston and New York. It is a series of admi- 
rable sketches for children of New England history 
which always pleased his imagination. In April 
of this year, also, he joined the company of Boston 
scholars and educated men and women who began 
at Brook Farm, an estate of two hundred acres in 
West Roxbury, the experiment of an Arcadia, in 
which every member should do his share of the 
necessary manual labor and so secure to all the de- 
sirable mental leisure. But with the " transcen- 
dental movement" from which the enterprise 
sprang Hawthorne had little sympathy, and he was 
really out of the current of characteristic life at 
the farm. The association was one of the expres- 
sions of the remarkable intellectual and moral 
renaissance of that period in New England of 
which Ralph Waldo Emerson is the most striking 
representative, and which has deeply influenced 
the national life. But to Hawthorne, as his 
"American Note-Book" shows, the sylvan poem 
was very prosaic. " I went to live in Arcady," he 
said to a friend, " and found myself up to the chin 
in a barn-yard." There was indeed no stouter 
manual worker than he. He toiled sometimes 
for sixteen hours a day, and he invested $1,000, 
his savings from the custom-house, in the enter- 
prise at Brook Farm, hoping to be married and to 
find a home there. His modesty and sincerity, and 
an indefinable manliness of nature, fascinated his 
associates. But the very genius of the place was 
social, and he always carried solitude with him. 
Like his " Miles Coverdale," he was a spectator, not 
a participant. Indeed, in all places and under all 
circumstances his native propensity toward fairy- 
land was so strong that actual life seemed to be 
spectral to him. Naturally, Brook Farm was es- 
sentially uncongenial, yet his " Blithedale Ro- 
mance " is the only permanent memorial in any 
form of art of that romantic, earnest, and humane 
endeavor for a higher form of human society. 

Hawthorne was married in July, 1842, and went 
immediately to the old manse in Concord, Mass., 
on Concord river and close by the site of the old 
bridge, of which Emerson's lines, engraved upon 
the monument, tell the story : 

" Here once the embattled farmers stood, 
And fired the shot heard round the world." 
The old manse is one of the most historic houses 
in the country. It is a gambrel-roofed structure 
of wood, erected in 1765. From the window of 
the little study at the back of the house, on the 
second floor, the Rev. William Emerson had seen 
the Revolutionary battle of which his narrative is 
the earliest and most authentic. In the same room 
his grandson, Ralph Waldo Emerson, wrote " Na- 
ture," and Hawthorne many of the tales that were 
first published in the " Democratic Review," and 
were then collected in the " Mosses from an Old 
Manse." In this home Hawthorne devoted him- 
self wholly to literature and happiness. " For, 
now being happy," he says in the delightful intro- 
duction to the '• Mosses," " I felt as if there were 
no question to be put." The contrast with his late 
life, either in the custom-house or at Brook Farm, 
was refreshing to him. The manse was separated 
from the country road by a straight avenue of 
black ash-trees, and as he entered it with his bride, 
" the wheel-track leading to the door, as well as 
the whole breadth of the avenue, was almost over- 
grown with grass," as befitted the path to Haw- 
thorne's door. He resumed his old solitary habits, 
and was seen by his neighbors only upon his daily 
walks to the village post-office, about a mile away. 



HAWTHORNE 



HAWTHORNE 



127 



Again he was a bird of the night, and after dusk he 
unmoored his boat at the foot of the garden and pad- 
dled alone about the winding stream, in a glimmer- 
ing realm that seemed this native fairy-land. Some- 
times he took a whole holiday with the poet Ellery 
Channing, almost the only neighbor whom he saw, 
and sometimes also Emerson or Henry Thoreau 
came to the manse. But their visits were few, for 
Hawthorne's reserve was invincible to both of 
them. Margaret Fuller, whose sister Ellery Chan- 
ning had married, also came ; but the sympathy 
of the visitor and the host was not complete. 
There is no doubt of the happiness of these days, 
in which Hawthorne's eldest child was born and 
" Rappaccini's Daughter " was written. His in- 
come was drawn mainly from payments for the 
stories in the '* Democratic Review " — payment in- 
deed which was not large and not always prompt. 
But housekeeping at the manse was very simple 
and frugal, and in the occasional absences of his 
wife, Hawthorne often remained entirely alone or 
with some friend as a guest, and then housekeep- 
ing became a picnic, and they cooked the dinner 
and washed the dishes together with an ease and 
glee that were natural to Brook-Farmers. Among 
the mosses gathered in 1843 were the "Celes- 
tial Railroad," " The Procession of Life," " Fire 
Worship," " Buds and Bird Voices," and " Roger 
Malvin's Burial," all of which appeared in the 
" Democratic Review." " Rappaccini's Daughter " 




was published in the " Review " in 1844, and in 
1845 the second series of " Twice-told Tales " 
was issued in Boston. This series begins with 
the four " Legends of the Province House," tales 
especially characteristic of Hawthorne's genius, 
and they instantly added another romantic glamour 
to the famous Revolutionary town of Boston. In 
the same year Hawthorne edited the " African 
Journal " of his friend Bridge, of the navy, for 

Sublication as a book, and the " Papers of an Old 
•artmoor Prisoner " for the " Democratic Review." 
The accompanying illustration represents the old 
manse occupied by the Hawthornes. 

He was now forty years old, and was recognized 
as one of the most original of American authors. 
He had made his way noiselessly by sheer force of 
genius. There had been no sudden and brilliant 
" sensation," but the public had become gradually 
aware of the presence of a new literary force, the 
full scope and character of which were not as yet 
apprehended. He was still compelled, as he wrote 
in 1844, " to work hard for small gains." But the 

Eublishers were on the scent. In October, 1845, 
e was urged by Wiley and Putnam, of New York, to 
give them a volume of tales for their " Library of 
American Books," and also a history of witch- 
craft, which had been suggested to him as a prom- 
ising subject. This work, however, he did not at- 
tempt. But in 1846 Wiley and Putnam published, 



in two volumes, as the seventeenth number of 
their pretty paper-covered series, " Mosses from an 
Old Manse." Besides the tales already mentioned 
as written in 1843, there were included in the 
volumes " The Birthmark," " Young Goodman 
Brown," " The New Adam and Eve," '• The Christ- 
mas Banquet," " Drowne's Wooden Image," " The 
Artist of the Beautiful," and other tales no less 
striking and imaginative. They are of the same 
general character as the "Twice-told Tales," but 
they have the air of larger experience, although 
Hawthorne's work is of singularly uniform excel- 
lence. His genius was early matured, and his 
sinewy, simple, lucid style was never youthful in 
the sense of crudity, rhetorical excess, or restless- 
ness. But his imagination was richer and his in- 
sight deeper. In a letter to Longfellow in 1837, 
after the publication of the "Twice-told Tales," 
he says that he lies under the disadvantage of lack 
of material from the narrow conditions of his life 
and want of experience. But the custom-house, 
Brook Farm, Concord, and marriage had brought 
him out of the old Salem routine, and he was in 
the ripeness of his power when the "Mosses" were 
published. In comparison with his larger works, 
they now seem like the rosy blossoms in his apple- 
orchard in May, compared with the rounded fruit 
on the trees in October — " another, yet the same." 

Hawthorne's income, however, was now so di- 
minished — for he had lost his venture at Brook 
Farm, and the "Democratic Review" had failed, 
largely in debt to him — that he left the old manse, 
after occupying it for nearly four years, and, re- 
turning to Salem, was appointed surveyor in the 
custom-house in 1846. Here he remained for three 
years, of which he has told the story in the in- 
troduction to "The Scarlet Letter." In this in- 
troduction he speaks of himself and others with a 
freedom that might seem to be remarkable in a man 
so shy. But happily, in writing, his genius had full 
play without the constraint arising from a sense 
of the personal presence of others. This introduc- 
tion is a delightful fragment of autobiography, 
but the candor with which he spoke of Salem and 
of his official associates was warmly resented. It 
was evidently thought to be a little parricidal in a 
son of Salem to speak so plainly of the town and 
the townspeople. But Hawthorne replied that he 
owed nothing to a town that had permitted its son 
— and he might have said one of its most illus- 
trious children — "to be deliberately lied down," 
which he felt to have been his fate at the time of 
his official removal. The three years of his Salem 
surveyorship have no record in the " American 
Note-Books." But during this time he wrote the 
first draft of " The Scarlet Letter," a longer tale 
than any of the earlier works, which proved to be 
so sombre that he thought it wiser to publish 
with it some sketches afterward issued with the 
" Snow Image." But his friend. James T. Fields, 
the publisher, on reading the manuscript, was so 
profoundly impressed by it that Hawthorne took 
heart, completed the work, and in the spring of 
1850 the romance was published. The first edition 
of 5,000 copies was sold in two weeks. But great 
as was the publisher's admiration of the work, he 
distrusted its popular success, and the type was 
distributed. It was, however, immediately reset 
and stereotyped. The book was at once reprint- 
ed in England, and its reception in both coun- 
tries was enthusiastic. The author had made the 
" ten-strike " of which, in speaking of the enthusi- 
asm of his wife and his publisher, he had humor- 
ously written to his friend Bridge, and from being 
the "obscurest of American authors he had sud- 



128 



HAWTHORNE 



HAWTHORNE 



denly become one of the most renowned. In the 
preface to the " Marble Faun " he said after- 
ward that "no author without a trial can conceive 
the difficulty of writing a romance about a coun- 
try where there is no shadow, no antiquity, no 
mystery, no picturesque and gloomy wrong, nor 
anything but a commonplace prosperity in broad 
and simple daylight." But his early works were 
a series of sketches of just such romances, and "The 
Scarlet Letter" was a romance drawn from the 
shadow and mystery and bareness of the earliest 
civilized life of that country, a tale which made 
its gloom marvellously picturesque and pathetic, 
and proved that American genius could find no 
more prolific subjects for imaginative treatment in 
literature than those that the annals of its own 
country could furnish. " The Scarlet Letter " 
interprets with profound perception and sympa- 
thetic delicacy and skill the old New England 
spirit and character and life which have powerfully 
influenced the development of American civiliza- 
tion. As a study of the solitary human soul in- 
volved in sin and struggling with its own weakness 
and sophistry, seeking in the darkness of conceal- 
ment the succor that could be found only in the 
full light of penitence, the romance is a remarkable 
addition to imaginative literature, and distinctively 
characteristic of Hawthorne's genius. 

In the summer of 1850, after the publication of 
" The Scarlet Letter," Hawthorne removed to Len- 
ox, in Berkshire co., Mass., and occupied, as he 
said, "the ugliest little old red farm-house you 
ever saw," on the bank of the pretty lake known as 
" The Stockbridge Bowl," with a southward vista 
of high hills. He was now one of the most famous 
authors of his time, but he secluded himself here 
as elsewhere, and almost his only companion was 
Herman Melville, the author of " Typee," who lived 
at Pittsfield. In the old red farm-house Hawthorne 
wrote " The House of the Seven Gables," which 
was published early in 1851, and which he preferred 
to " The Scarlet Letter," thinking it more character- 
istic of his mind and more proper and natural for 
him to write. It is certainly equally characteristic 
with " The Scarlet Letter." for it is another presen- 
tation of what Melville called the " tragic phase of 
humanity." which Hawthorne instinctively treated 
with extraordinary subtlety and power. The can- 
vas of " The House of the Seven Gables " is larger 
than that of "The Scarlet Letter." There are 
more figures, and they are more finely elaborated, 
and there is a cheerful play of humor and sun- 
shine. Phoebe, Hepzibah, Judge Pyncheon, and 
Clifford are masterly delineations, like portraits of 
Titian and Rembrandt and Raphael which do not 
fade with time. The popular success of " The 
House of the Seven Gables " was even greater than 
that of its predecessor. The sunshine of prosperi- 
ty seemed to quicken the fertility of the author's 
genius, and in the summer of 1851 he wrote " The 
Wonder Book," a charming retelling for children 
of some of the classical myths, and in the same 
year the "Snow Image and Other Twice-told 
Tales " was made ready, but it was not published un- 
til 1852. In the autumn of 1851 the roving author, 
like a Bedouin poet, struck his tent again, and re- 
moved to West Newton, near Boston, where he 
wrote " The Blithedale Romance." This tale was 
suggested by the life at Brook Farm, its mo- 
tives, and some of its characters. But, as Haw- 
thorne said, it must not be read '• as if it had any- 
thing to do with Brook Farm, which, essentially, it 
has not, but merely for its own story and charac- 
ter." It is, as Mr. Lathrop says, the story of a 
man dominated by a theory, and, by blind abandon- 



ment to it, ruining himself and those who trust 
him. But upon this simple motive the author 
plays with his familiar and marvellous skill. The 
sweet and shadowy Priscilla, the superb Zenobia, 
the intensely self-concentrated and powerful Hol- 
lingsworth, old Moodie, and the placid, solitary 
observer, Miles Coverdale, are drawn at once with 
airy delicacy and incisive force. The final scene 
of the romance was suggested by a melancholy 
incident in Concord, which deeply affected Haw- 
thorne's imagination, the suicide by drowning of a 
farmer's daughter, an interesting girl whose mind 
had grown morbid in the melancholy consciousness 
of the hopeless difference between the circumstances 
of her life and her educated tastes and refined ac- 
complishments. Her body was found at night, and 
raised by the light of torches, Hawthorne giving 
his strong arm to the painful service. The success 
of " The Blithedale Romance " was not less than 
that of the other tales. 

In the summer of 1852 Hawthorne removed to 
Concord, where he had bought a house which he 
called " The Wayside," and which he said Henry 
Thoreau told him was once occupied by a man 
who thought he should never die. This fancy was 
the motive of "Septimius Felton." In August, 

1852, he published a campaign life of Franklin 
Pierce, his old college friend, a candidate for the 
presidency. Hawthorne was very loth to under- 
take it ; but Pierce pressed him, and he could not 
refuse. Although a Democrat, Hawthorne took no 
active part in politics, and the political situation 
of the country merely irritated him. He had no 
sympathy with the anti-slavery controversy, and 
he could not affect a sympathy that he did not feel. 
The controversy, however, was so earnest and 
radical, absorbing every other public interest, dis- 
solving and reorganizing political parties, that 
Hawthorne's position deeply pained many of his 
friends. But he looked upon the contest with an 
air of remote indifference, which was characteristic 
and sincere, but none the less strange and inex- 
plicable to ardent combatants. His friend Pierce 
was elected. During the subsequent winter Haw- 
thorne wrote the " Tanglewood Tales," a second 
series of the " Wonder Book," and in the spring of 

1853, after much reluctance upon his part to take 
office, he was appointed to the consulate at Liver- 
pool, the most lucrative place in the gift of the 
president. In the summer of 1853 he sailed for 
Liverpool with his family. He lived in England 
for four years, and the record of his English life 
is found in the " English Note-Books " and " Our 
Old Home." At the end of 1857 he went to 
France, Switzerland, and Italy, returning to Eng- 
land in 1859. His " French and Italian Note- 
Books " contain the story of his travels. In Italy 
he sketched the tale of " The Marble Faun," which 
he completed in England, and it was published 
simultaneously in Boston and London in 1860, the 
English edition bearing the title " Transformation." 
It was seven years since his last publication of a 
romance, and he had now laid the scene in Italy 
and not in New England. But the genius of the 
story-teller was unchanged. There are the same 
vast, shadowy suggestion, the fascination of the 
problem of moral guilt, the interaction of the 
strongest individualities ; there are passion, sorrow, 
human feeling, a solemnity in human life, all 
wrought into a love-tale which is told with the 
power that throws upon the reader a glamour of 
enchantment. 

Hawthorne returned to the United States just as 
the fierce anti-slavery controversy was deepening 
into war. In 1857 he had written to Bridge that 



HAWTHORNE 



HAWTHORNE 



129 



he sympathized with the northern feeling, but his 
sympathy has still the air of remoteness. After 
the war began he wrote : " I approve the war as 
much as any man ; but I don't quite see what we 
are fighting for." He was still a spectator, not an 
actor. A little later he despaired of the restoration 
of the Union, and in the spring of 1862 he went to 
Washington and wrote a paper for the " Atlantic 
Monthly," called "Chiefly about War-Matters." 
The tone of this paper was half-bantering, a tone 

Eerfectly natural to the man whom the situation 
arassed and angered as much as it pained. But 
the editor felt that such a tone would jar harshly 
upon the public mind, and made excisions, which 
were described good-humoredly in foot-notes writ- 
ten as if by the editor, but by the author himself. 

Just before the visit to Washington he wrote to 
Bridge that he had begun another romance. This 
was probably " Dr. Grimshawe's Secret." He con- 
cluded some papers begun in England, and con- 
tributed to the " Atlantic Monthly," which in 1863 
were issued with others in a volume called " Our 
Old Home." This he dedicated to his friend 
Pierce ; but public feeling was so strong against 
the ex-president that his publishers begged the 
author not to imperil thus the success of the book. 
Hawthorne replied that "if the public of the 
north see fit to ostracize me for this, I can only say 
that I would gladly sacrifice a thousand or two 
dollars rather than retain the good-will of such a 
herd of dolts and mean-spirited scoundrels." This 
was said without any passion. While the matter 
was still pending, on 20 July, 1863, he wrote to a 
friend : " The dedication can hurt nobody but my 
book and myself. I know that it will do that, but 
am content to take the consequences rather than 
go back from what I deliberately judge it right to 
do." In the same letter he says that the war 
should have been avoided, and that the best settle- 
ment would be a separation " giving us the west 
bank of the Mississippi and a boundary-line afford- 
ing as much southern soil as we can hope to digest 
into freedom in another century." The dedication 
was published, and neither the book nor the author 
was ostracized. The title " Our Old Home " ex- 
presses the strong filial feeling of the genuine son 
of New England for the old England of his an- 
cestors, a feeling very natural and common among 
the truest Americans. The book is a series of 
shrewd and delightful descriptive sketches, with 
some frank criticisms upon English life, which 
were not altogether relished in England. The first 
part of " The Dolliver Romance " was published in 
the " Atlantic Monthly," in July, 1864, but the au- 
thor had died more than a month before, and some 
unrevised parts were found among his papers. The 
motive of the tale is earthly immortality, which 
was always attractive to Hawthorne. It appears 
in " Dr. Heidegger's Experiment," in " Twice-told 
Tales," and there is a hint of it in the " Virtuoso's 
Collection." The legend of an indelible bloody 
footprint he heard first in 1855, at Smithell's Hall, 
Lancashire, England. This led to the sketch of 
the " Ancestral Footstep " and to " Dr. Grimshawe's 
Secret," and the more elaborate study of " Septi- 
mius Felton." " The Dolliver Romance " was the 
ultimate form of the romance founded on the elixir 
of life. " Septimius Felton " was deciphered from 
the loose manuscripts by his eldest daughter Una, 
with the assistance of Robert Browning, and pub- 
lished in London and Boston in 1871, and "Dr. 
Grimshawe's Secret," an incomplete sketch, was 
published by his son Julian in 1882. In the spring 
of 1864 Hawthorne's health failed rapidly. He was 
deeply depressed, and felt that his work was done. 
VOL. III. — 9. 




In April he went to Philadelphia with his pub- 
lisher, William D. Ticknor, whose sudden death 
while they lingered in that city greatly shocked 
the enfeebled author. By one of the coincidences 
that always profoundly impressed Hawthorne, and 
which in his own case is very pathetic, the sudden 
death of his friend Ticknor upon a journey with 
him prefigured his own death upon a similar jour- 
ney with another friend. In May he went with 
his friend, ex-President Pierce, to the White moun- 
tains. On the 18th they reached Plymouth, N. H., 
and in the night and in his sleep Hawthorne died. 
On the 24th of May, 1864, 

" that one bright day 

In the long week of rain," 
he was buried in Sleepy Hollow cemetery, Concord. 
The graves of Emerson and Thoreau are very near 
Hawthorne's. The historic and beautiful town of 
Concord has a twofold title to renown. It was the 
scene of the first armed and orderly resistance to 
British aggression on 19 April, 1775, and it was 
the home and it is the burial-place of Emerson and 
Hawthorne. The genius of both, although very un- 
like, was among the most exquisite blossoms of the 
New England Pu- 
ritan stock. A fan- 
ciful analogy may 
be traced, perhaps, 
between the sunny 
and serene and 
lofty tone of Emer- 
son and the muse 
of the young Puri- 
tan Milton, while 
the weird imagina- 
tion of Hawthorne, 
brooding over the 
mysteries of hu- 
man life and character and bodying forth his mus- 
ings in literary form, vivid, subtle, and original, 
may recall the later strain of the poet dealing 
with fate, free-will, foreknowledge absolute. The 
three men of the same race, but in widely separate 
countries and times, and of genius so genuine but 
so dissimilar, signally illustrate the richness and 
variety of the Puritan tradition and character. 

Hawthorne, as Coleridge said of Wordsworth, 
was " a noticeable man." His face was singularly 
handsome and romantic, the outline full and 
rounded, the features symmetrical and strong, the 
brow broad and massive, and the whole refined 
head powerful and poetic. His smile was very 
sweet, and his laugh ready but not excessive. His 
manner was that of a very shy man, but it was self- 
possessed and never familiar. With others he was 
generally silent, and in conversation he talked 
quietly without effusiveness. or ardor. He lived 
habitually within himself, and seemed, as his son 
Julian said, to find no better society. His dress 
was dark and plain. He walked rapidly, but with 
no air of effort, and his frame, well-knit and 
sturdv, gave his movement an easy swing, which 
implied great endurance. The photograph known 
as the Bennoch portrait (because it was procured by 
Francis Bennoch, a friend in England) is one of 
the most satisfactory likenesses of Hawthorne. 
There are several portraits of him, and the earlier 
likenesses reveal the singular gentleness of his 
strong nature. There is one painted in 1840 by 
Charles Osgood, in the possession of his cousin, 
Richard C. Manning, of Salem. In 1850 Cephas G. 
Thompson painted a portrait which is owned by 
Julian Hawthorne. Rouse drew in crayon, after 
his return from Europe, a likeness now in the pos- 
session of Mrs. James T. Fields, and Leutze painted 



130 



HAXALL 



HAY 



his portrait in Washington in 1862. In Rome, Miss 
Landor modelled a bust of Hawthorne, which is 
now in the Concord public library, and Kuntze 
modelled his head in profile, but of a size a little 
smaller than life, and there are many excellent pho- 
tographs. The portrait on page 124 is from a photo- 
graph made in 1861, in the possession of the senior 
editor of this work. His son Julian has published 
" Nathaniel Hawthorne and his Wife," a biography 
(2 vols., Boston, 1885), which is the fullest memoir, 
and his son-in-law, George Parsons Lathrop, an ad- 
mirable '"Study of Hawthorne" (1876). Henry 
James wrote his life for the series of " English Men 
of Letters " (1880). The complete and best collection 
of his works is the Riverside edition, edited, with a 
memoir, by Mr. Lathrop (12 vols., Boston, 1883). 
There is also a cheaper Globe edition. A complete 
analytical index to his works, prepared by Evange- 
line M. O'Connor, forms a volume by itself, and is 
issued uniform with the various editions (Boston, 
1882).— His wife, Sophia Peabody, author, b. in 
Salem, Mass., in 1810 ; d. in London, England, 26 
Feb., 1871, possessed artistic talents, and made her 
husband's acquaintance while illustrating " The 
Gentle Boy" in the "Twice-told Tales* They 
were married in 1843. After Hawthorne's death 
she edited his " Note-Books," and published a vol- 
ume of her own observations entitled "Notes in 
England and Italy " (New York, 1868).— Their son, 
Julian, author, b. in Boston, Mass., 22 June, 1846, 
went to Europe with his parents in 1853, and after 
their return entered Harvard in 1863, but gave 
more attention to athletic exercises than to his 
studies. In 1868 he began the study of civil en- 
gineering in the scientific school at Cambridge, 
and was one of the university crew in the regatta. 
In October, 1868, he went to Dresden to study, but 
the Franco-German war began while he was visit- 
ing at home in the summer of 1870, and he obtained 
employment as a hydrographic engineer under 
Gen. George B. McClellan in the department of 
docks, New York. In 1871 he began to write 
stories and sketches for magazines, and in 1872 lost 
his office as engineer, and, deciding to devote him- 
self to literature, went to England, and then to 
Dresden, where he remained two years. While 
there he published his novels of " Bressant " (New 
York, 1873) and " Idolatry" (1874). In September, 
1874, he settled in London, where he remained till 
October, 1881. The following winter he passed 
near Cork, Ireland, and in March, 1882, returned 
to New York. While in England he contributed 
much to the magazines, and for two years was a 
writer on the staff of the London " Spectator." In 
1875 he published in the " Contemporary Review " 
sketches entitled " Saxon Studies," afterward issued 
in book-form (New York and London). The novel 
of " Garth " was issued in book-form in 1875, 
and was followed by novelettes and collections of 
stories entitled " The Laughing Mill," " Archibald 
Malmaison," " Ellice Quentin," " Prince Saroni's 
Wife," and the " Yellow Cap " fairy-stories. None 
of these appeared at the time in the United States, 
but " Prince Saroni's Wife " was reprinted in New 
York in 1884. " Sebastian Stroine," his next novel, 
was published in book-form in 1880, " Fortune's 
FooP in 1883, and " Dust " and " Noble Blood " in 
1884. After his return to the United States he 
edited his father's posthumous romance, " Dr. 
Grimshaw's Secret," and wrote the biography of 
his father and mother. — Nathaniel Hawthorne's 
eldest daughter, Una, died unmarried. His daugh- 
ter Rose married George Parsons Lathrop. 

HAXALL, Robert William, physician, b. in 
Petersburg, Va., 1 Aug., 1802 ; d. in Richmond, 



Va., 26 March, 1872. He was graduated at Yale 
in 1823, attended a course of medical lectures in 
the University of Pennsylvania, and received his 
medical degree from the University of Maryland 
in 1826. After studying in Europe, he settled in 
Richmond, where he had a large practice. He 
was on several occasions president of the Medical 
society of Virginia, and was one of the founders of 
the American medical association. He obtained 
two Boylston prizes for essays, and was a frequent 
contributor to the " Stethoscope." 

HAY, Charles Augustus, theologian, b. in 
York, Pa., 11 Feb., 1821. He was graduated at 
Pennsylvania college, Gettysburg, in 1839, and at 
the Lutheran theological seminary in that town in 
1841. He continued his studies in 1841-'3 at Ber- 
lin and Halle, Germany, and during these years 
travelled extensively on the continent of Europe 
and in Great Britain. After his return in 1843 he 
became pastor in 1844 of the Lutheran congrega- 
tion at Middletown, Md. From this place he was 
called to the chair of Hebrew and German i n the theo- 
logical seminary at Gettysburg, Pa., which he held 
from 1844 till 1848. He was pastor at Hanover in 
1848-'9, and at Harrisburg, Pa., in 1849-'65. In 
the latter year he was again called to the theologi- 
cal seminary as professor of Hebrew, German, bib- 
lical criticism, and pastoral theology. He has 
discharged the duties of this office for more than 
twenty years, and takes a high rank as a theolo- 
gian and educator in his church. He belongs to 
the conservative wing of the general synod, and is 
an advocate of distinctive Lutheranism. Together 
with the Rev. H. E. Jacobs, D. D., he translated 
from the German, Dr. Schmid's " Doctrinal The- 
ology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church " (1876 ; 
revised ed., 1887), and is a frequent contributor to 
the " Bibliotheca Sacra," " Evangelical Review," 
" Quarterly Review," and other periodicals. 

HAY, George, jurist, d. in Richmond, Va., 21 
Sept., 1830. He was a member of the Virginia 
legislature, was for many years U. S. attorney, and 
in that capacity was the prosecutor of Aaron Burr. 
He was subsequently a judge of the U. S. court 
for the eastern district of Virginia, and married a 
daughter of President Monroe. He gained some 
celebrity from his political writings, which were 
signed " Hortensius," and wrote a treatise against 
usury laws, a life of John Thompson, and a trea- 
tise on " Expatriation " (1814). 

HAY, John, author, b. in Salem, Ind., 8 Oct., 
1838. His ancestor, John, was a son of a Scottish 
soldier who left his own country in the beginning 
of the last century and took service in the army 
of the Elector Palatine. The son, with his family, 
emigrated to this country, and two grandsons 
served with distinction in the war of independence. 
John Hay took, while in college, high rank as a 
writer, and after graduation at Brown in 1858, 
studied law at Springfield, 111. He was admitted 
to practice in the supreme court in Illinois in 1861, 
but immediately afterward went to Washington as 
assistant secretary to President Lincoln, remain- 
ing with him, both as a secretary and a trusted 
friend, almost constantly till his death. He acted 
also as his adjutant and aide-de-camp, and served 
for several months under Gen. Hunter and Gen. 
Gillmore, with the rank of major and assistant ad- 
jutant-general. He was also brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel and colonel. He was first secretary of le- 
gation at Paris, and several times in charge in 
1865-'7, and charge de affaires at Vienna in 1867-'8, 
when he resigned and came home, but was soon 
afterward secretary of legation at Madrid, where 
j he remained more than a year. Leaving that 



HAY 



HAYDEN 



131 



post in 1870, he came to New York and became an 
editorial writer on the "Tribune," where he re- 
mained about five years. He was afterward edi- 
tor-in-chief of that paper for seven months, during 
the absence of Whitelaw Reid in Europe. He re- 
moved to Cleveland, Ohio, in 1875, and took an 
active part in the presidential canvasses of 1876, 
1880, and 1884. Under the administration of 
President Hayes he was first assistant secretary of 
state in 1879-'81. In the latter year he represent- 
ed the United States at the International sanitary 
congress of Washington, of which body he was 
elected president. He has published " Pike Coun- 
ty Ballads," one of the best known of which is 
"Jim Bludso" (Boston, 1871), "Castilian Hays" 
studies of Spanish life and character (1871), and 
has been engaged many years in writing, in col- 
laboration with John G. Nicolay, a " History of 
the Administration of Abraham Lincoln," which 
is now (1887) in course of serial publication in 
" The Century." Col. Hay is also the translator of 
Einilio Castelar's treatise on the Republican move- 
ment in Europe (New York, 1874-'5). 

HAY, Walter, physician, b. in Georgetown, 
D. C, 13 June, 1830. He was educated in private 
schools and in the Jesuit college of his native 
place. In 1847 he entered the employ of the U. S. 
coast survey, but resigned in 1852, studied medi- 
cine, and was graduated at Columbian college in 
1853. After spending four years in Charleston 
and Florida, he removed in 1857 to Chicago, 111. 
He organized St. Luke's hospital in that city in 
1864, became editor of the Chicago " Medical Jour- 
nal "in 1867, and retained this connection until 
the sale of the paper in 1875. In 1867 he assisted 
in organizing the health department of the city of 
Chicago. In 1871 he was one of the committee of 
five to receive and distribute the fire relief fund. 
In the same year he organized the department of 
mental and nervous diseases in Rush medical col- 
lege, Chicago, and in 1872 was appointed adjunct 
professor of the theory and practice of medicine in 
that institution. He assisted in organizing the 
American neurological association in 1875. and in 
1877 removed to Dubuque, Iowa. He is a frequent 
contributor to the Chicago "Medical Journal." 

HAYDEN, Ferdinand Yandeveer, geologist, 
b. in Westfield, Mass., 7 Sept., 1829: d. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 22 Dec, 1887. He settled in Ohio, was 
graduated at Ober- 
lin in 1850 and at 
Albany medical col- 
lege in 1853. Dur- 
ing the same year he 
explored the " Bad 
Lands " of Dakota 
for James Hall, state 
geologist of New 
York, and returned 
with a large and val- 
uable collection of 
fossil vertebrates. In 
1854 he again went 
west, spent two years 
in exploring the ba- 
sin of the upper Mis- 
souri, and returned 
with a large number 
of fossils, part of 
which he deposited 
in the St. Louis academy of science, and the re- 
mainder in the Philadelphia academy of natural 
sciences. These collections attracted the attention 
of the authorities of the Smithsonian institution, 
and he was appointed geologist on the staff of 




J.J.U^i^^ 



Lieut. Gouverneur K. Warren, of the topographical 
engineers, who was then making a reconnoissance 
of the northwest, after which, in May, 1859, he was 
appointed naturalist and surgeon to "the expedition 
sent out for the exploration of the Yellowstone and 
Missouri rivers under Capt. William F. Raynolds. 
He continued in this capacity until May, 1862, when 
he entered the U. S. army as assistant surgeon of 
volunteers, and was assigned to duty in the Satterlee 
hospital in Philadelphia, becoming full surgeon on 
19 Feb., 1863, when he was sent to Beaufort, S. C, 
as chief medical officer. In February, 1864, he 
became assistant medical inspector of the Depart- 
ment of Washington, and in September, 1864, he 
was sent to Winchester. Va., as chief medical offi- 
cer of the Army of the Shenandoah. This office he 
held until May, 1865. when he resigned and was 
given the brevet of lieutenant-colonel. He was 
appointed professor of mineralogy and geology in 
1865 in the University of Pennsylvania, and held 
that chair until 1872, when the increased duties of 
the survey caused his resignation. During the 
summer of 1866 he again visited the valley of the 
upper Missouri for the Philadelphia academy of 
sciences, and gathered valuable vertebrate fossils. 
In 1867 congress provided for the geological sur- 
vey of Nebraska. Dr. Hayden was directed to 
perform the work, and continued so occupied until 
1 April, 1869, when it was organized under the 
title of the Geological survev of the territories of 
the United States. From 1869 till 1872 Dr. Hay- 
den conducted a series of geological explorations 
in Dakota, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado, the 
scope of investigation including, besides geology, 
the natural history, climatology, resources, and 
ethnology of the region. It was largely in conse- 
quence of his explorations and reports that congress 
was led to set apart the Yellowstone national park 
as a perpetual reservation. In 1873 geography was 
added, and the name of the organization then 
became the Geological and geographical survey 
of the territories. Dr. Hayden continued the di- 
rection of this survey until 1879. when the then 
existing national surveys were consolidated into 
the U. S. geological survey, and Dr. Hayden was 
made geologist-in-charge of the Montana division. 
He held this office until 31 Dec, 1886, when fail- 
ing health led- to his resignation. Dr. Hayden 
was a member of scientific societies both in the 
United States and in Europe, and in 1873 was 
elected to the National academy of sciences. In 
1887 the degree of LL. D. was conferred on him 
by the University of Pennsylvania. lie wrote 
numerous scientific papers, and his government 
publications were very large. The latter include 
annual reports of his work performed from 1867 
till 1879 ; also a series of " Miscellaneous Pub- 
lications " on special subjects written by authori- 
ties in the specialties of which they treat, and a 
series of quarto volumes entitled " Report of the 
U. S. Geological Survev of the Territories." 

HAYDEN, Horace *H., dentist, b. in Windsor. 
Conn., 13 Oct., 1769; d. in Baltimore, Md., 26 Jan., 
1844. His parents were impoverished by the war 
of the Revolution, in which his father was an officer. 
The son taught school at sixteen years of age. 
studied architecture, and practised that profVs-inn 
until his majority. He then was brought in con- 
tact with Dr. Greenwood, the dentist, of Washing- 
ton, in New York. He studied dentistry, and set- 
tled in 1804 in Baltimore, where he practised with 
eminent success till his death. Dr. Hayden stud- 
ied medicine, and geology also, and was called in 
consultation by the chief "physicians of Baltimore. 
His correspondence in Europe on geology, botany. 



132 



HAYES 



HAYES 



and dental science was extensive. Dr. Hayden was 
a surgeon of Maryland troops in the battle of 
North Point in 1814. He received the honorary 
degree of M. D. from Jefferson college in 1837, 
and from Maryland medical university in 1840. 
He was the founder and incorporator, and first 
president, of Baltimore college of dental surgery, 
and its first professor of dental pathology and 
physiology from 1839 till his death. He was also 
founder and president until his death of the 
American society of dental surgery, and a founder 
and vice-president of the Maryland academy of sci- 
ence and literature. He was a member of many 
other learned societies, and published " Geological 
Essays, or an Inquiry into Geological Phenomena 
to be found in Various Parts of America " (Balti- 
more, 1820), which Benjamin Silliman said " should 
be a text-book in all our schools," and papers, in- 
cluding li New Method of preserving Anatomical 
Preparations," in the "American Medical Record " 
of 1822 ; " Notice of a Singular Ore of Cobalt and 
Manganese," in " Silliman's Journal " (1822) ; " The 
Bare Hills near Baltimore," in " Silliman's Jour- 
nal " for 1832 ; and " Silk Cocoons," in the " Jour- 
nal of the American Silk Company " (1839). 

HAYES, Augustus Allen, chemist, b. in Wind- 
sor, Vt., 28 Feb., 1806 ; d. in Brookline, Mass., 21 
June, 1882. He was graduated at Capt. Par- 
tridge's military academy at Norwich, Vt., in 1823, 
and then studied chemistry under James P. Dana. 
Subsequently he became assistant professor of 
chemistry in the New Hampshire medical college, 
but settled in Boston in 1828, where he devoted 
himself to chemical investigations, filling also suc- 
cessively the posts of director of an extensive fac- 
tory of colors and chemical products in Roxbury 
and of consulting chemist to some of the most 
important dyeing, bleaching, gas, and iron and 
copper smelting establishments in New England. 
Among his early researches is that begun in 1825 
for the purpose of determining the proximate com- 
position of various American medicinal plants, 
which resulted in his discovery of the organic alka- 
loid sanguinaria, a compound remarkable for the 
brilliant colors of its salts. Later he conducted 
an elaborate investigation upon the economical 
generation of steam and the relative value of fuels, 
which, in 1838, led to a novel arrangement of 
steam-boilers. He was the first to suggest the ap- 
plication of the oxides of iron in refining pig-iron, 
and still earlier the refining of copper was, under 
his direction, rendered much shorter and more 
certain by the introduction of scales of oxide of 
copper. Among his other original investigations 
are those in relation to the chemical decomposition 
of alcohol by chlorine and the formation of chloro- 
form, on the action of alcohol on the human sys- 
tem, on the formation, composition, and specific 
differences of the varieties of guano, and a memoir 
on the difference in the chemical constitution and 
action of sea waters on and below the surface, on 
soundings, and at the entrance of rivers, being 
part of an investigation executed under a commis- 
sion from the navy department to examine and re- 
port on the subject of copper and copper sheath- 
ing as applied in the construction of national ves- 
sels. In 1859-'60, while investigating the water 
supply of Charlestown, Mass., he found that the 
deep water of Mystic pond was far less pure than 
the surface water, and proved that a copper strip 
or wire passing vertically through two masses of 
water slightly unlike in composition would become 
polarized and exhibit electrolytic action. This 
mode of testing the exact limits of the impure 
water was applied under his direction, and a large 



number of observations on this and other masses 
of water have proved the practical value of this 
test. After the beginning of the civil war, Dr. 
Hayes called public attention to the uncertainty of 
the foreign supply of saltpetre and the necessity of 
domestic production. His efforts resulted in the 
manufacture of a very pure product for the navy 
by a novel process from sodium nitrate by the ac- 
tion of potassium hydroxide. Later he spent some 
time abroad, and on his return published a paper 
" On the Cause of the Color of Lake Leman, Ge- 
neva," and also one " On the Red Oxide of Zinc 
in New Jersey." For many years he held the of- 
fice of state assayer of Massachusetts, and in 1846 
received the honorary degree of M. D. from Dart- 
mouth. He was a member of scientific societies in 
the United States, and contributed numerous pa- 
pers of technical value to their proceedings and to 
the " American Journal of Science." 

HAYES, Catharine, vocalist, b. in Limerick, 
Ireland, in 1825; d. in Sydenham, England, 11 
Aug., 1861. She early displayed a good voice, at 
the age of sixteen was placed under the tuition of 
Signor Sapio, an eminent vocal instructor in Dub- 
lin, and during her course with him made her first 
appearance at a public concert. She studied in the 
school of Manuel Garcia in Paris in 1844-'6, and 
in the autumn of 1845 appeared at Marseilles in 
" I Puritani." In 1846 she sang at Milan with 
much success. In 1849 she appeared at the Royal 
Italian opefra, Covent Garden, London. Shortly 
afterward the success of Jenny Lind during her 
career in this country attracted attention, and Miss 
Hayes visited the United States in 1851. She 
sang in numerous concerts, oratorios, and ballad 
entertainments with success, extending her tour to 
the principal cities of the Union and British 
America. Her stay in this country lasted eighteen 
months, during which time she was married to a 
Mr. Bushnell. She then visited in succession 
South America, the Sandwich and other Polyne- 
sian islands, Australia, and the East Indies. Re- 
turning to England in 1855, she made her re-en- 
trance in Italian opera at Covent Garden theatre, 
and soon afterward closed her professional career. 
Later she and her husband quietly spent several 
years in California and returned to England with 
an ample fortune. Catharine Hayes had a remark- 
ably full, sympathetic mezzo-soprano voice, which 
she used with great effect in slow movements and 
in ballads. Her rendering of Bellini's " Casta 
Diva " and of Crouch's " Kathleen Mavourneen " 
could scarcely be excelled. 

HAYES, Isaac Israel, arctic explorer, b. in 
Chester county, Pa., 5 March, 1832 ; d. in New 
York city, 17 Dec, 1881. He was graduated in 
medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in 

1853, and sailed as surgeon of the second Grin- 
nell expedition in search of Sir John Franklin, 
better known, from its commander, as the Kane 
expedition. (See Kane, E. K.) Dr. Hayes proved 
an energetic and valuable coadjutor of Kane. In 
addition to his duties as surgeon and naturalist, 
he made a short trip on the glacier, inland from 
Van Rensselaer harbor, and assisted in laying out 
depots in the autumn of 1853. In May, 1854, he 
crossed Kane sea, and was the first civilized man 
to place foot on Grinnell Land, along the coast of 
which he travelled to Cape Frazer, about 79° 45' 
north latitude. The " Advance " was frozen in on 
9 Sept., 1853, and remained so in the summer of 

1854. Dr. Kane turned toward Beechy island by 
boat for assistance, but was obliged by the condi- 
tion of the ice to return to his old winter-quarters. 
On 28 Aug., 1854, Dr. Hayes and eight others left 



I 



HAYES 



HAYES 



133 




the " Advance," in a hazardous attempt to reach 
Upernavik. An account of this trip is to be found 
in " An Arctic Boat-Journey " (Philadelphia, 1860), 
where Dr. Hayes justifies his leaving the ship. The 
journey was taken with Dr. Kane's permission, but 
this was given only after he had advised Hayes 

to forego the pro- 
ject, and exacted a 
renunciation of all 
claims on those left 
behind. The boat 
party reached a 
point sixteen miles 
south of Cape Par- 
ry, where they were 
stopped by ice, and 
dragged out a miser- 
able existence, aided 
by the charity of 
the Etah Esqui- 
maux, until Decem- 
ber, when they re- 
turned, nearly froz- 
en and starving. In 
the summer of 1854 
the entire party un- 
der Dr. Kane by sledge and boat reached Upernavik 
safely. On 7 July, 1860, Dr. Hayes sailed in com- 
mand of the " United States," which had been 
fitted out by public subscription for exploration of 
the open polar sea. He wintered in Foulke Fiord. 
lat. 78° 18' N., near Littleton island. In May, 1861. 
he crossed Kane sea, again set foot on Grinnell 
Land, attaining on 18 May a point which he called 
Cape Lieber, and which his observations placed in 
lat. 81° 35' N., long. 70° 30' W. His various offi- 
cial observations and personal accounts are not 
entirely consistent in this respect. Competent 
explorers who have since visited Kennedy channel 
surmise that his latitudes were incorrect, and that 
his farthest point was Cape Joseph Good, about 
lat. 80° 15' N., long. 70° W. The "open polar 
sea " was doubtless the southern part of Kennedy 
channel, which opens early every year. Breaking 
out of his ship on 10 July, 1861. an unprece- 
dentedly early date for an arctic vessel, he ex- 

Slored a considerable part of the eastern shore of 
lllesmere Land, being the first known white man 
to land thereon. In 1869 Hayes again entered 
the arctic circle, visiting Greenland with the 
artist William Bradford in the "Panther." For 
his arctic work Dr. Hayes received the founder's 
medal of the Royal geographical society in 1867 
and the gold medal of the Paris society in 1869, 
and was made an honorary member of many sci- 
entific societies in the United States and Europe. 
He returned from his second expedition to find 
the civil war begun, immediately sought service, 
was commissioned surgeon of volunteers, 4 April, 
1862, and was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, 13 
March, 1865. He resigned, 3 July, 1865, and re- 
moved to New York city, where he was elected to 
the assembly, serving five years. He was possessed 
of great native vigor, and won reputation not only 
as an explorer, but as an author, lecturer, surgeon, 
and legislator. He published, besides the book 
alluded to above. " The Open Polar Sea," giving an 
account of his second expedition (Boston. 1867); 
I Cast Awav in the Cold, a Story of Arctic Ad- 
venture for Boys" (1868); and "The Land of 
Desolation," describing his third voyage (1871). 

HAYES, John Lord, lawyer, b. in South Ber- 
wick, Me., 13 April, 1812 :• d. in Cambridge, Mass., 
18 April, 1887. He was graduated at Dartmouth 
in 1831, and studied law at Harvard, being ad- 



mitted to the bar in 1835. In 1846 he organized 
the Katahdin iron- works in Maine, and soon after- 
ward was employed in Washington as counsel for 
the Canadian government on the advocacy of the 
reciprocity treaty. He had previously taken part 
in politics in his native state, and had drawn up 
the call for the first convention of Independent 
Democrats, when the party was divided on the 
issue of slavery extension. He organized and 
was secretary of the Mexican, Rio Grande, and 
Pacific railway company, and in 1854 obtained a 
charter from the Mexican government that au- 
thorized the construction of a railroad across 
Mexico. In 1861-5 he was chief clerk of the 
U. S. patent-office, and in the latter year he be- 
came secretary of the National association of wool 
manufacturers, which office he retained till his 
death. In 1860 Dartmouth college conferred upon 
him the degree of LL. D. He was a student of 
natural history, collected and mounted with taste 
and skill a complete cabinet of birds, made a 
herbarium of the flora, and studied geology in the 
library and the field. He became a member of 
the Boston society of natural history in 1845, and 
was also connected with other scientific associa- 
tions both in the United States and in Europe. 
As early as 1843 he presented before the American 
association of geologists and naturalists a paper 
on glaciers, which was regarded as the most im- 
portant contribution up to that time toward the 
history of glacial phenomena in relation to geol- 
ogy. His writings, which are mainly devoted to 
legal, political, and scientific subjects, comprise 
over sixty titles, and include " The Iron Mines of 
Nova Scotia," "Jackson's Vindication as the Dis- 
coverer of Anaesthetics," " The Hudson Bay Ques- 
tion," "The Protective Question Abroad and at 
Home." " Sheep Industry in the South," and many 
articles and pamphlets on wool-growing and wool- 
manufacturing. His pamphlet entitled " Remi- 
niscences of the Free-Soil Movement in New Hamp- 
shire " (1845) attracted much attention. 

HAYES, Joseph, soldier, b. in South Berwick, 
Me., 14 Sept., 1835. He was graduated at Harvard 
in 1855, appointed major of the 18th Massachu- 
setts regiment, 26 Julv, 1861, lieutenant-colonel, 
25 Aug., 1862, colonel, 30 Nov.. 1862, and brigadier- 
general of volunteers, 12 May, 1864. He was taken 
prisoner by the Confederates, and was for several 
months confined in Libbv prison, Richmond, Va. 
He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, 13 
March, 1865, and mustered out of service on 24 
Aug. In January, 1865, he was appointed U. S. 
commissioner of supplies in the seceded states. In 
1877 he introduced the American system of hy- 
draulic mining into the United States of Colombia. 

HAYES, Philip Cornelius, soldier, b. in 
Granby, Conn.. 3 Feb., 1833. He removed in 
infancy to La Salle county. 111., and spent many 
of his early years on a farm. He was gradu- 
ated at Oberfin in 1860, and at the Theological 
seminary in 1863. He entered the army as cap- 
tain in the 103d Ohio infantrv, and served with 
this regiment from 16 July, 1862, till 22 June. 
1865, its entire period of service, being promoted 
successively lieutenant-colonel and colonel, and 
brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers at the 
close of the war. He served in Kentucky, in West 
Tennessee in 1863, including the siege of Knox- 
ville, was in the hundred days' campaign to At- 
lanta, and was in the battles of Resaca and At- 
lanta. He took part in the engagements of Frank- 
lin and Nashville, and was with the army in its 
march from Fort Fisher to Raleigh, N. C, in the 
capture of Wilmington, and at Johnston's sur- 



134 



HAYES 



HAYES 






render. During his last year's service he was on 
the staff of Gen. John M. Schofleld. He was then 
elected a representative in congress as a Republi- 
can, and served from 4 March, 1877, till 4 March, 
1881. He has published a " History of the 103d 
Ohio Regiment " (1872). 

HAYES, Rutherford Birchard, nineteenth 
president of the United States, b. in Delaware, 
Ohio, 4 Oct., 1822. His father had died in July, 
1822, leaving his mother in modest but easy cir- 
cumstances. The boy received his first education 
in the common schools, and began early the study 
of Latin and Greek with Judge Sherman Finch, of 
Delaware. Then he was sent to an academy at 
Norwalk, Ohio, and in 1837 to Isaac Webb's school, 
at Middletown, Conn., to prepare for college. In 
the autumn of 1838 he entered Kenyon college, at 
Gambier, Ohio. He excelled in logic, mental and 
moral philosophy, and mathematics, and also made 
his mark as a debater in the literary societies. On 
his graduation in August, 1842, he was awarded 
the valedictory oration, with which he won much 
praise. Soon afterward he began to study law in the 
office of Thomas Sparrow, at Columbus, Ohio, and 
then attended a course of law lectures at Harvard 
university, entering the law-school on 22 Aug., 1843, 
and finishing his studies there in January, 1845. 
As a law student he had the advantage of friendly 
intercourse with Judge Story and Prof. Greenleaf, 
and he also attended the lectures of Longfellow on 
literature and of Agassiz on natural science, prose- 
cuting at the same time the study of French and 
German. On 10 May, 1845, after due examination, 
he was admitted to practice in the courts of Ohio 
as an attorney and counsellor at law. He estab- 
lished himself first at Lower Sandusky (now Fre- 
mont), where, in April, 1846, he formed a law part- 
nership with Ralph P. Buckland (q. v.), then a 
member of congress. In November, 1848, having 
suffered from bleeding in the throat, Mr. Hayes 
went to spend the winter in the milder climate of 
Texas, where his health was completely restored. 
Encouraged by the good opinion and advice of 
professional friends to seek a larger field of activi- 
ty, he established himself, in the winter of 1849-'50, 
in Cincinnati. His practice at first being light, 
he earnestly and systematically continued his 
studies in law and literature, also enlarging the 
circle of his acquaintance by becoming a member 
of various societies, among others the literary club 
of Cincinnati, in the social and literary entertain- 
ments of which at that time such men as Salmon 
P. Chase, Thomas Ewing, Thomas Corwin, Stanley 
Matthews, Moncure D. Conway, Manning F. Force, 
and others of note, were active participants. He 
won the respect of the profession, and attracted 
the attention of the public as attorney in several 
criminal cases which gained some celebrity, and 
gradually increased his practice. 

On 30 Dec, 1852, he married Miss Lucy W. Webb, 
daughter of Dr. James Webb, a physician of high 
standing in Chillicothe, Ohio. In January, 1854, 
he formed a law partnership with H. W. Corwine 
and William K. Rogers. In 1856 he was nomi- 
nated for the office of common pleas judge, but 
declined. In 1858 he was elected city solicitor by 
the city council of Cincinnati, to fill a vacancy 
caused by death, and in the following year he was 
elected to the same office at a popular election by 
a majority of over 2,500 votes. Although he per- 
formed his duties to the general satisfaction of the 
public, he was, in April, 1861, defeated for re-elec- 
tion as solicitor, together with the whole ticket. 
Mr. Hayes, ever since he was a voter, had acted 
with the Whig party, voting for Henry Clay in 



1844, for Gen. Taylor in 1848, and for Gen. Scott 
in 1852. Having from his youth always cherished 
anti-slavery feelings, he joined the Republican 
party as soon as it was organized, and earnestly 
advocated the election of Fremont in 1856, and of 
Abraham Lincoln in 1860. At a great mass-meet- 
ing, held in Cincinnati immediately after the ar- 
rival of the news that the flag of the United States 
had been fired upon at Fort Sumter, he was made 
chairman of a committee on resolutions to give 
voice to the feelings of the loyal people. His liter- 
ary club formed a military company, of which he 
was elected captain, and this club subsequently 
furnished to the National army more than forty 
officers, of whom several became generals. On 7 
June, 1861, the governor of Ohio appointed Mr. 
Hayes a major of the 23d regiment of Ohio volun- 
teer infantry, and in July the regiment was ordered 
into West Virginia. On 19 Sept., 1861, Maj. Hayes 
was appointed by Gen. Rosecrans judge advocate 
of the Department of Ohio, the duties of which 
office he performed for about two months. On 24 
Oct., 1861, he was promoted to the rank of lieuten- 
ant-colonel. On 14 Sept., 1862, in the battle of 
South Mountain, he distinguished himself by gal- 
lant conduct in leading a charge and in holding 
his position at the head of his men, after being 
severely wounded in his left arm, until he was car- 
ried from the field. His regiment lost nearly half 
its effective force in the action. On 24 Oct., 1862, 
he was appointed colonel of the same regiment. 
He spent some time at his home while under medi- 
cal treatment, and returned to the field as soon as 
his wound was healed. In July, 1863, while taking 
part in the operations of the National army in 
southwestern Virginia, Col. Hayes caused an ex- 
pedition of two regiments and a section of artillery, 
under his own command, to be despatched to Ohio 
for the purpose of checking the raid of the Con- 
federate Gen. John Morgan, and he aided materi- 
ally in preventing the raiders from recrossing the 
Ohio river and in compelling Morgan to surrender. 
In the spring of 1864 Col. Hayes commanded a 
brigade in Gen. Crook's expedition to cut the prin- 
cipal lines of communication between Richmond 
and the southwest. He again distinguished him- 
self by conspicuous bravery at the head of his bri- 
gade in storming a fortified position on the crest of 
Cloyd mountain. In the first battle of Winches- 
ter, 24 July, 1864, commanding a brigade in Gen. 
Crook's division, Col. Hayes was ordered, together 
with Col. James Mulligan, to charge what proved 
to be a greatly superior force. Col. Mulligan fell, 
and Col. Hayes, flanked and pressed in front by 
overwhelming numbers, conducted the retreat of 
his brigade with great intrepidity and skill, check- 
ing the pursuit as soon as he had gained a tenable 
position. He took a creditable part in the en- 
gagement at Berryville and at the second battle of 
Winchester, 19 Sept., 1864, where he performed a 
feat of extraordinary bravery. Leading an assault 
upon a battery on an eminence, he found in his 
way a morass over fifty yards wide. Being at the 
head of his brigade, he plunged in first, and, his 
horse becoming mired at once, he dismounted and 
waded across alone under the enemy's fire. Wav- 
ing his cap, he signalled to his men to come over, 
and, when about forty had joined him, he rushed 
upon the battery and took it after a hand-to-hand 
fight with the gunners, the enemy having deemed 
the battery so secure that no infantry supports had 
been placed near it. At Fisher's Hill, in pursuing 
Gen. Early, on 22 Sept., 1864, Col. Hayes, then in 
command of a division, executed a brilliant flank 
movement over mountains and through woods diffi- 




?VrrZ:r:^^.:3: 







HAYES 



HAYES 



135 



cult of access, took many pieces of artillery, and 
routed the enemy. At the battle of Cedar Creek, 
19 Oct., 1864, the conduct of Col. Hayes attracted 
so much attention that his commander, Gen. Crook, 
on the battle-field took him by the hand, saying : 
" Colonel, from this day you will be a brigadier- 
general." The commission arrived a few days af- 
terward, and on 13 March, 1865, he received the 
rank of brevet major-general " for gallant and dis- 
tinguished services during the campaign of 1864 
in West Virginia, and particularly at the battles of 
Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, Va." Of his mili- 
tary services Gen. Grant, in the second volume of 
his memoirs, says : " On more than one occasion in 
these engagements Gen. R. B. Hayes, who suc- 
ceeded me as president of the United States, bore 
a very honorable part. His conduct on the field 
was marked by conspicuous gallantry, as well as 
the display of qualities of a higher order than mere 
personal daring. Having entered the army as a 
major of volunteers at the beginning of the war, 
Gen. Hayes attained, by his meritorious service, 
the rank of brevet major-general before its close." 
While Gen. Hayes was in the field, in August, 
1864, he was nominated by a Republican district 
convention at Cincinnati, in the second district of 
Ohio, as a candidate for congress. When a friend 
suggested to him that he should take leave of ab- 
sence from the army in the field for the purpose of 
canvassing the district, he answered : " Your sugges- 
tion about getting a furlough to take the stump was 
certainly made without reflection. An officer fit 



for duty, who at this crisis would abandon his post 
to electioneer for a seat in congress, ought to be 
scalped." He was elected by a majority of 2,400. 
The Ohio soldiers in the field nominated him also 
for the governorship of his state. The accompany- 
ing illustration is a view of his home in Fremont. 
After the war Gen. Hayes returned to civil life, 
and took his seat in congress on 4 Dec, 1865. He 
was appointed chairman of the committee on the 
library. On questions connected with the recon- 
struction of the states lately in rebellion he voted 
with his party. He earnestly supported a resolu- 
tion declaring the sacredness of the public debt 
and denouncing repudiation in any form ; also a 
resolution commending President Johnson for de- 
clining to accept presents, and condemning the 
practice as demoralizing in its tendencies. He 
opposed a resolution favoring an increase of the 
pay of members. He also introduced in the Re- 
publican caucus a set of resolutions declaring that 
the only mode of obtaining from the states lately 
in rebellion irreversible guarantees was by constitu- 
tional amendment, and that an amendment basing 
representation upon voters, instead of population, 
ought to be acted upon without delay. These reso- 
lutions marked the line of action of the Republi- 
cans. In August, 1866. Gen. Hayes was renominated 
for congress by acclamation, and, after an active 




canvass, was re-elected by the same majority as be- 
fore. He supported the impeachment of Andrew 
Johnson. In the house of representatives he won 
the reputation, not of an orator, but of a working 
legislator and a man of calm, sound judgment. 
In June, 1867, the Republican convention of Ohio 
nominated him for the governorship. The Demo- 
crats had nominated Judge Allen G. Thurman. 
The question of negro suffrage was boldly pushed 
to the foreground by Gen. Hayes in an animated 
canvass, which ended in his election, and that of 
his associates on the Republican ticket. But the 
negro-suffrage amendment to the state constitution 
was defeated at the same time by 50,000 majority, 
and the Democrats carried the legislature, which 
elected Judge Thurman to the United States sen- 
ate. In his inaugural address, Gov. Hayes laid espe- 
cial stress upon the desirability of taxation in pro- 
portion to the actual value of property, the evils 
of too much legislation, the obligation to establish 
equal rights without regard to color, and the neces- 
I sity of ratifying the 14th amendment to the con- 
stitution of the United States. In his message to 
the legislature, delivered in November, 1868, he 
recommended amendments to the election laws, 
providing for the representation of minorities in 
the boards of the judges and clerks of election, and 
for the registration of all the lawful voters prior 
to an election. He also recommended a compre- 
hensive geological survey of the state, which was 
promptly begun. In his second annual message he 
warmly urged such changes in the penal laws, as 
well as in prison discipline, as would tend to pro- 
mote the moral reformation of the culprit together 
with the punishment due to his crime. 

In June, 1869, Gov. Hayes was again nominated 
by the Republican state convention for the govern- 
orship, there being no competitor for the nomi- 
nation. The Democratic candidate was George H. 
Pendleton. The platform adopted by the Demo- 
cratic state convention advocated the repudiation 
of the interest on the U. S. bonds unless they be 
subjected to taxation, and the payment of the na- 
tional debt in greenbacks. In the discussions pre- 
ceding the election. Gov. Hayes pronounced himself 
unequivocally in favor of honestly paying the na- 
tional debt and an honest money system. He was 
elected by a majority of 7,500. In his second in- 
augural address, delivered on 10 Jan., 1870, he ex- 
pressed himself earnestly against the use of public 
offices as party spoils, and suggested that the con- 
stitution of the state be so amended as to secure 
the introduction of a system making qualification, 
and not political services and influence, the chief 
test in determining appointments, and giving sub- 
ordinates in the civil service the same permanence 
of place that is enjoyed by officers of the army and 
navy. He also advocated the appointment of 
judges, by the executive, for long terms, with ade- 
quate salaries, as best calculated to "afford to the 
citizen the amplest possible security that impartial 
justice will be administered by an independent 
judiciary." In his correspondence with members 
of congress, he urged a monthly reduction of the 
national debt as more important than a reduction 
of taxation, the abolition of the franking privilege, 
and the passage of a civil-service-reform law. In 
his message addressed to the legislature on 3 Jan., 
1871, he recommended that the policy embodied in 
that provision of the state constitution which pro- 
hibited the state from creating any debt, save in a 
few exceptional cases, be extended to the creation 
of public debts by county, city, and other local au- 
thorities, and further that for the remuneration of 
public officers a system of fixed salaries, without 



136 



HAYES 



HAYES 



fees and prerequisites, be adopted. Complaint 
having been made by the state commissioner of 
railroads and telegraphs that many '' clear and pal- 
pable violations of law" had been committed by 
railroad companies, Gov. Hayes asked, in his mes- 
sage of 1872, that a commission of five citizens be 
organized, with ample power to investigate the 
management of railroad companies, and to report 
the information acquired with a recommendation 
of such measures as they might deem expedient. 
He also, believing that " publicity is a great cor- 
rector of official abuses," recommended that it be 
made the duty of the governor, on satisfactory in- 
formation that the public good required an inves- 
tigation of the affairs of any public office or the 
conduct of any public officer, whether state or 
local, to appoint one or more citizens, who should 
have ample powers to make such investigation. 
Gov. Hayes's administration of the executive office 
of his state won general approval, without distinc- 
tion of party. At the expiration of his term, when 
a senator of the United States was to be elected, 
and several Republican members of the legislature 
were disinclined to vote for John Sherman, who 
controlled a majority of the Republican votes, Gov. 
Hayes was approached with the assurance that he 
could be elected senator by the anti-Sherman Re- 
publicans with the aid of the Democratic members 
of the legislature ; but he positively declined. 

In July, 1872, Gov. Hayes was strongly urged 
by many Republicans in Cincinnati to accept a 
nomination for congress. Wishing to retire perma- 
nently from political life, he declined ; but when he 
was nominated in spite of his protests, he finally 
yielded his consent. In his speeches during the 
canvass he put forward as the principal issues an 
honest financial policy and civil-service reform. 
Several sentences on civil-service reform that he 
pronounced in a speech at Glendale, on 4 Sept., 
1872, were to appear again in his letter accepting 
the nomination for the presidency four years later. 
In 1872 the current of public sentiment in Cincin- 
nati ran against the Republican party, and Gov. 
Hayes was defeated in the election by a majority 
of 1,500. President Grant offered him the office of 
assistant treasurer of the United States at Cincin- 
nati, which he declined. In 1873 he established 
his home at Fremont, in the northern part of Ohio, 
with the firm intention of final retirement from 
public life. In 1874 he came into possession of a 
considerable estate as the heir of his uncle, Sardis 
Birchard. In 1875 the Republican state conven- 
tion again nominated him for the governorship. 
He not only had not desired that nomination, but 
whenever spoken or written to about it, uniformly 
replied that his retirement was absolute, and that 
neither his interests nor his tastes permitted him 
to accept. But the circumstances were such as to 
overcome his reluctance. In 1873 the Democratic 
candidate, William Allen (q. v.), was elected gov- 
ernor of Ohio. His administration was honest and 
economical, and he was personally popular, and his 
renomination by the Democratic party in 1875 
seemed to be a foregone conclusion. It was equal- 
ly certain that the Democratic convention would 
declare itself in favor of a circulation of irredeem- 
able paper money, and against the resumption of 
specie payments. Under such circumstances the 
Republicans felt themselves compelled to put into 
the field against him the strongest available candi- 
date they had, and a large majority of them turned 
at once to Gov. Hayes. But he had declared him- 
self in favor of Judge Taft, of Cincinnati, and 
urged the delegates from his county to vote for 
that gentleman, which they did. Notwithstanding 



this, the convention nominated Hayes on the first 
ballot by an overwhelming majority. When he, 
at Fremont, received the telegraphic announce- 
ment of his nomination, he at once wrote a letter 
declining the honor; but upon the further infor- 
mation that Judge Taft's son, withdrawing the 
name of his father, had moved in the convention 
to make the nomination unanimous, he accepted. 
Thus he became the leader of the advocates of a 
sound and stable currency in that memorable state 
canvass, the public discussions in which did so 
much to mould the sentiments of the people, 
especially in the western states, with regard to that 
important subject. The Democratic convention 
adopted a platform declaring that the volume of 
the currency (meaning the irredeemable paper cur- 
rency of the United States) should be made and kept 
equal to the wants of trade ; that the national ban 
currency should be retired, and greenbacks issued 
in its stead ; and that at least half of the customs 
duties should be made payable in the government 
paper money. The Republicans were by no means 
as united in favor of honest money as might have 
been desired, and Gov. Hayes was appealed to by 
many of his party friends not to oppose an increase 
of the paper currency ; but he resolutely declared 
his opinions in favor of honest money in a series of 
speeches, appealing to honor and sober judgment 
of the people with that warmth of patriotic feeling 
and that good sense in the statement of political 
issues which, uttered in language always temper- 
ate and kindly, gave him the ear of opponents as 
well as friends. The canvass, on account of the 
national questions involved in it, attracted atten- 
tion in all parts of the country, and Gov. Hayes 
was well supported by speakers from other states. 
Another subject had been thrust upon the people 
of Ohio by a legislative attempt to divide the 
school fund between Catholics and Protestants, 
and Hayes vigorously advocated the cause of secu- 
lar education. After an ardent struggle, he carried 
the election by a majority of 5,500. He had thus 
not only won the distinction of being elected three 
times governor of his state, but, as the successful 
leader in a campaign for an honest money system, 
he was advanced to a very prominent position 
among the public men of the country, and his 
name appeared at once among those of possible, 
candidates for the presidency. 

Whde thus spoken of and written to, he earnest- 
ly insisted upon the maintenance by his party of 
an uncompromising position concerning the money 
question. To James A. Garfield he wrote in March, 
187G : " The previous question will again be irre- 
deemable paper as a permanent policy, or a policy 
which seeks a return to coin. My opinion is de- 
cidedly against yielding a hair-breadth." On 29 
March, 1876, the Republican state convention of 
Ohio passed a resolution to present Rutherford B. 
Hayes to the National Republican convention for 
the nomination for president, and instructing the 
state delegation to support him. The National 
Republican convention met at Cincinnati on 14 
June, 1876. The principal candidates before it 
were James G. Blaine, Oliver P. Morton. Benjamin 
H. Bristow, Roscoe Conkling, Gov. Hayes, and 
John F. Hartranft. The name of Hayes was pre- 
sented to the convention by Gen. Noyes in an ex- 
ceedingly judicious and well-tempered speech, 
dwelling not only upon his high personal charac- 
ter, but upon the fact that he had no enemies and 
possessed peculiarly the qualities " calculated best 
to compromise all difficulties and to soften all an- 
tagonisms." Hayes had sixty-one votes on the first 
ballot, 378 being necessary to a choice, and his 



HAYES 



HAYES 



137 



support slowly but steadily grew until on the 
seventh ballot the opposition to Mr. Blaine, who 
had been the leading candidate, concentrated upon 
Hayes, and gave him the nomination, which, on 
nint ion of William P. Frye, of Maine, was made 
unanimous. In his letter of acceptance, dated 8 
July, 1876, Mr. Hayes laid especial stress upon 
three points, civil-service reform, the currency, and 
the pacification of the south. As to the civil ser- 
vice, he denounced the use of public offices for the 
purpose of rewarding party services, and especially 
for services rendered to party leaders, as destroy- 
ing the independence of the separate departments 
of the government, as leading directly to extrava- 
gance and official incapacity, and as a temptation 
to dishonesty. He declared that a reform, " thor- 
ough, radical, and complete," should lead us back 
to the principles and practices of the founders of 
the government, who "neither expected nor de- 
sired from the public officer any partisan service," 
who meant " that public officers should owe their 
whole service to the government and to the peo- 
ple," and that " the officer should be secure in his 
tenure as long as his personal character remained 
untarnished, and the performance of his duties 
satisfactory." As to the currency, he regarded " all 
the laws of the United States relating to the pay- 
ment of the public indebtedness, the legal-tender 
notes included, as constituting a pledge and moral 
obligation of the government, which must in good 
faith be kept." He therefore insisted upon as 
early as possible a resumption of specie payments, 
pledging himself to "approve every appropriate 
measure to accomplish the desired end," and to 
"oppose any step backward." As to the pacifica- 
tion of the south, he pointed out, as the first neces- 
sity, "an intelligent and honest administration of 
the government, which will protect all classes of 
citizens in all their political and private rights." 
He deprecated " a division of political parties rest- 
ing merely upon distinctions of race, or upon sec- 
tional lines," as always unfortunate and apt to be- 
come disastrous. He expressed the hope that with 
" a hearty and generous recognition of the rights 
of all by all," it would be " practicable to promote, 
by the influence of all legitimate agencies of the 
general government, the efforts of the people of 
those states to obtain for themselves the blessings 
of honest and capable local government." He also 
declared his " inflexible purpose," if elected, not to 
be a candidate for election to a second term. 

The Democrats nominated for the presidency 
Samuel J. Tilden, who, having, as governor of New 
York, won the reputation of a reformer, attracted 
the support of many Republicans who were dis- 
satisfied with their party. The result of the elec- 
tion became the subject of acrimonious dispute. 
Both parties claimed to have carried the states of 
Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida. Each 
charged fraud upon the other, the Republicans 
affirming that Republican voters, especially colored 
men, all over the south had been deprived of their 
rights by intimidation or actual force, and that 
ballot-boxes had been foully dealt with, and the 
Democrats insisting that their candidates in Louisi- 
ana, Florida, and South Carolina had received a 
majority of the votes actually cast, and that the 
Republican canvassing boards were preparing to 
falsify the result in making up the returns. The 
friends of both the candidates for the presidency 
sent prominent men into the states in dispute, 
for the purpose of watching the proceedings of 
the canvassing boards. The attitude maintained 
by Mr. Hayes personally was illustrated by a let- 
ter addressed to John Sherman at New Orleans, 



which was brought to light by a subsequent con- 
gressional investigation. It was dated at Colum- 
bus, Ohio, 27 Nov., 1876, and said : "lam greatly 
obliged for your letter of the 23d. You feel, I am 
sure, as I do about this whole business. A fair 
election would have given us about forty electoral 
votes at the south — at least that many. But we 
are not to allow our friends to defeat one outrage 
and fraud by another. There must be nothing 
crooked on our part. Let Mr. Tilden have the 
place by violence, intimidation, and fraud, rather 
than undertake to prevent it by means that will 
not bear the severest scrutiny." The canvassing 
boards of the states in question declared the Re- 
publican electors chosen, which gave Mr. Hayes a 
majority of one vote in the electoral college, and 
the certificates of these results were sent to Wash- 
ington by the governors of the states. But the 
Democrats persisted in charging fraud ; and other 
sets of certificates, certifying the Democratic elec- 
tors to have been elected, arrived at Washington. 
To avoid a deadlock, which might have happened 
if the canvass of the electoral votes had been left 
to the two houses of congress (the senate having a 
Republican and the house of representatives a 
Democratic majority), an act. advocated by mem- 
bers of both parties, was passed to refer all con- 
tested cases to a commission composed of five sena- 
tors, five representatives, and five judges of the 
supreme court ; the decision of this commission to 
be final, unless set aside by a concurrent vote of 
the two houses of congress. The commission, re- 
fusing to go behind the certificates of the govern- 
ors, decided in each contested case by a vote of 
eight to seven in favor of the Republican electors, 
beginning with Florida on 7 Feb.. and Rutherford 
B. Hayes was at last, on 2 March, declared duly 
elected president of the United States. Thus ended 
the long and painful suspense. The decision was 
generally acquiesced in, and the popular excite- 
ment subsided quickly. 

President Hayes was inaugurated on 5 March. 
1877. In his inaugural address he substantially 
i restated the principles and views of policy set 
forth in his letter of acceptance, adding that, 
while the president of necessity owes his election 
to the suffrage and zealous labors of a party, he 
should be always mindful that " he serves his party 
best who serves his country best," and declaring 
also, referring to the contested election, that the 
general acceptance of the settlement by the two 
great parties of a dispute, "in regard to which 
good men differ as to the facts and the law. no 
less than as to the proper course to be pursued in 
solving the question in controversy," was an " oc- 
casion for general rejoicing." The cabinet that he 
appointed consisted of William M. Evarts, secre- 
tary of state ; John Sherman, secretary of the treas- 
ury ; George W. McCrary, secretary of war ; Rich- 
ard W. Thompson, secretary of the navy; David 
M. Key, postmaster-general ; Charles Devens, at- 
torney-general ; and Carl Schurz, secretary of the 
interior. The administration began under very 
unfavorable circumstances, as general business 
stagnation and severe distress had prevailed 
throughout the country since the crash of 1873. 
As soon as the cabinet was organized, the new 
president addressed himself to the composition of 
difficulties in several southern states. He had 
given evidence of his conciliatory disposition by 
taking into his cabinet a prominent citizen of the 
south who had been an officer in the Confederate 
army and had actively opposed his election. In 
both South Carolina and Louisiana there were two 
sets of state officers and two legislatures, one Re- 



138 



HAYES 



HAYES 



publican and the other Democratic, each claiming 
to have been elected by a majority of the popular 
vote. The presence of Federal troops at or near 
the respective state-houses had so far told in favor 
of the Republican claimants, while the Democratic 
claimants had the preponderance of support from 
the citizens of substance and influence. President 
Hayes was resolved that the upholding of local gov- 
ernments in the southern states by the armed 
forces of the United States must come to an end, 
and that, therefore, the Federal troops should be 
withdrawn from the position they then occupied ; 
but he was at the same time anxious to have the 
change effected without any disturbance of the 
peace, and without imperilling the security or rights 
of any class of citizens. His plan was by concilia- 
tory measures to put an end to the lawless commo- 
tions and distracting excitements that, ever since 
the close of the war, had kept a large part of the 
south in constant turmoil, and thus to open to 
that section a new career of peace and prosperity. 
He obtained from the southern leaders in congress 
assurances that they would use their whole influ- 
ence for the maintenance of good order and the 
protection of the rights and security of all, and 
for a union of the people in a natural understand- 
ing that, as to their former antagonisms, by-gones 
should be treated as by-gones. To the same end 
he invited the rival governors of South Carolina, 
Daniel H. Chamberlain and Wade Hampton, to 
meet him in conference at Washington ; and he 
appointed a commission composed of eminent gen- 
tlemen, Democrats as well as Republicans — Gen. 
Joseph R. Hawley, of Connecticut; Charles B. 
Lawrence, of Illinois ; John M. Harlan, of Ken- 
tucky; Ex-Gov. John C. Brown, of Tennessee; 
and Wayne McVeagh, of Pennsylvania — to go to 
Louisiana and there to ascertain what were " the 
real impediments to regular, loyal, and peaceful 
procedures under the laws and constitution of 
Louisiana," and further, by conciliatory influences, 
to endeavor to remove " the obstacles to an ac- 
knowledgment of one government within the 
state," or, if that were found impracticable, at 
least " to accomplish the recognition of a single 
legislature as the depositary of the representative 
will of the people of Louisiana." The two rival 
governors — S. B. Packard, Republican, and Fran- 
cis T. Nichols, Democrat — stoutly maintained 
their respective claims; but the two legislatures 
united into one, a majority of the members of both 
houses, whose election was conceded on both sides, 
meeting and organizing under the auspices of the 
Nichols government. President Hayes, having re- 
ceived the necessary assurances of peace and good- 
will, issued instructions to withdraw the troops of 
the United States from the state-house of South 
Carolina on 10 April, 1877, and from the state- 
house of Louisiana on 20 April, 1877, whereupon 
in South Carolina the state government passed 
peaceably into the hands of Wade Hampton, and 
m Louisiana into those of Francis T. Nichols. 
The course thus pursued by President Hayes was, 
in the north as well as in the south, heartily ap- 
proved by a large majority of the people, to whom 
the many scandals springing from the interference 
of the general government in the internal affairs 
of the southern states had become very obnoxious, 
and who desired the southern states to be permit- 
ted to work out their own salvation. But this 
policy was also calculated to loosen the hold that 
the Republican party had upon the southern states, 
and was therefore severely criticised by many Re- 
publican politicians. 
President Hayes began his administration with 



earnest efforts for the reform of the civil service. 
In some of the departments competitive examina- 
tions were resumed for the appointment of clerks. 
In filling other offices, political influence found 
much less regard than had been the custom before. 
The pretension of senators and representatives 
that the "patronage" in their respective states 
and districts belonged to them was not recognized, 
although in many cases their advice was taken. 
The president's appointments were generally ap- 
proved by public opinion, but he was blamed for 
appointing persons connected with the Louisana 
returning-board. On 26 May, 1877, he addressed a 
letter to the secretary of the treasury, expressing 
the wish " that the collection of the revenues should 
be free from partisan control, and organized on a 
strictly business basis, with the same guarantees 
for efficiency and fidelity in the selection of the 
chief and subordinate officers that would be re- 
quired by a prudent merchant," and that " party 
leaders should have no more influence in appoint- 
ments than other equally respectable citizens." On 
22 June, 1877, he issued the following executive 
order : " No officer should be required or permitted 
to take part in the management of political or- 
ganizations, caucases, conventions, or election 
campaigns. Their right' to vote or to express 
their views on public questions, either orally or 
through the press, is not denied, provided it does 
not interfere with the discharge of their official 
duties. No assessment for political purposes, on 
officers or subordinates, should be allowed. ' This 
rule is applicable to every department of the civil 
service. It should be understood by every officer 
of the general government that he is expected to 
conform his conduct to its requirements." The 
policy thus indicated found much favor with the 
people generally, and not a few men in public life 
heartily approved of it. But the bulk of the pre 
fessional politicians, who saw themselves threat 
ened in their livelihood, and many members of 
congress, who looked upon government patronag 
as a part of their perquisites, and the distribution 
of offices among their adherents as the means by 
which to hold the party together and to maintain 
themselves in public office, became seriously 
alarmed and began a systematic warfare upon the 
president and his cabinet. 

The administration was from the beginning sur- 
rounded with a variety of difficulties. Congress 
had adjourned on 3 March, 1877, without making 
the necessary appropriations for the support of 
the army, so that from 30 June the army would 
remain without pay until new provision could be 
made. The president, therefore, on 5 May, 1877, 
called an extra session of congress to meet on 15 
Oct. But in the mean time a part of the army 
was needed for active service of a peculiarly try- 
ing kind. In July strikes broke out among the 
men employed upon railroads, beginning on the 
line of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad and then 
rapidly spreading over a large part of the north- 
ern states. It is estimated that at one time more 
than 100,000 men were out. Grave disorders oc- 
curred, and the president found himself appealed 
to by the governors of West Virginia, of Mary- 
land, and of Pennsylvania to aid them with the 
Federal power in suppressing domestic violence, 
which the authorities of their respective states 
were not able to master. He issued his proclama- 
tions on 18, 21, and 23 July, and sent into the 
above-mentioned states such detachments of the 
Federal army as were available. Other detach- 
ments were ordered to Chicago. Whenever the 
troops of the United States appeared, however 



HAYES 



HAYES 



139 



small the force, they succeeded in restoring order 
without bloodshed — in fact, without meeting with 
any resistance, while the state militia in many in- 
stances had bloody encounters with the rioters, 
sometimes with doubtful result. 

In his first annual message, 3 Dec, 1877, Presi- 
dent Hayes congratulated the country upon the 
results of the policy he had followed with regard 
to the south. He said : " All apprehension of dan- 
ger from remitting those states to local self-govern- 
ment is dispelled, and a most salutary change in 
the minds of the people has begun and is in prog- 
ress in every part of that section of the country 
once the theatre of unhappy civil strife ; substi- 
tuting for suspicion, distrust, and aversion, con- 
cord, friendship, and patriotic attachment to the 
Union. No unprejudiced mind will deny that the 
terrible and often fatal collisions which for several 
years have been of frequent occurrence, and have 
agitated and alarmed the public mind, have almost 
entirely ceased, and that a spirit of mutual forbear- 
ance and hearty national interest has succeeded. 
There has been a general re-establishmerit of order, 
and of the orderly administration of justice ; in- 
stances of remaining lawlessness have become of 
rare occurrence ; political turmoil and turbulence 
have disappeared ; useful industries have been re- 
sumed; public credit in the southern states has 
been greatly strengthened and the encouraging 
benefit of a revival of commerce between the sec- 
tions of country lately embroiled in civil war are 
fully enjoyed." He also strongly urged the re- 
sumption of specie payments. As to the difficul- 
ties to be met in this respect he said : " I must ad- 
here to my most earnest conviction that any 
wavering in purpose or unsteadiness in methods, so 
far from avoiding or reducing the inconvenience 
inseparable from the transition from an irredeem- 
able to a redeemable paper currency, would only 
tend to increased and prolonged disturbance in 
values, and, unless retrieved, must end in serious 
disorder, dishonor, and disaster in the financial 
affairs of the government and of the people." As 
to the restoration of silver as a legal tender, which 
was at the time being agitated, he insisted that " all 
the bonds issued since 12 Feb., 1873, when gold be- 
came the only unlimited legal-tender metallic cur- 
rency of the country, are justly payable in gold 
coin, or in coin of equal value''; and that "the 
bonds issued prior to 1873 were issued at a time 
when the gold dollar was the only coin in circula- 
tion or contemplated by either the government or 
the holders of the bonds as the coin in which they 
were to be paid." He added : " It is far better to 
pay these bonds in that coin than to seem to take 
advantage of the unforeseen fall in silver bullion to 
pay in a new issue of silver coin thus made so 
much less valuable. The power of the United 
States to coin money and to regulate the value 
thereof ought never to be exercised for the pur- 
pose of enabling the government to pay its obliga- 
tions in a coin of less value than that contemplated 
by the parties when the bonds were issued. He 
favored the coinage of silver, but only in a limited 
quantity, as a legal tender to a limited amount. 
He expressed the fear " that only mischief and mis- 
fortune would flow from a coinage of silver dollars 
with the quality of unlimited legal tender, even 
in private transactions. Any expectation of tem- 
porary ease from an issue of silver coinage to pass 
as a legal tender, at a rate materially above its com- 
mercial value, is, I am persuaded, a delusion." As 
to the reform of the civil service, he reiterated 
what he had said in his letter of acceptance and 
inaugural address, and insisted that the constitution 



imposed upon the executive the sole duty and re- 
sponsibility of the selection of Federal officers who, 
by law, are appointed, not elected ; he deprecated 
the practical confusion, in this respect, of the 
duties assigned to the several departments of the 
government, and earnestly recommended that con- 
gress make a suitable appropriation for the civil-ser- 
vice commission, to be made immediately available. 
He also recommended efficient legislation for the 
work of civilization among the Indian tribes, and 
for the prevention of the destruction of the for- 
ests on lands of the United States. 

The recommendations thus made by President 
Hayes were not heeded by congress. No appro- 
priation was made for the civil-service commission ; 
on the contrary, the dissatisfaction of Republican 
senators and representatives with the endeavors of 
the administration in the direction of civil-service 
reform found vent in various attacks upon the 
president and the heads of departments. The 
nomination of one of the foremost citizens of New 
York for the office of collector of customs at that 
port was rejected by the senate. The efforts of the 
administration to check depredations on the tim- 
ber-lands of the United States, and to prevent the 
destruction of the forests, were denounced as an 
outlandish policy. Instead of facilitating the re- 
sumption of specie payments, the house of repre- 
sentatives passed a bill substantially repealing the 
resumption act. A resolution was offered by a Re- 
publican senator, and adopted by the senate, de- 
claring that to restore the coinage of 412$ -grain 
silver dollars and to pay the government bonds, 
principal and interest, in such silver coin, was " not 
in violation of the public faith, nor in derogation 
of the rights of the public creditor." A '* silver 
bill " passed both houses providing that a silver 
dollar should be coined at the several mints of the 
United States, of the weight of 412i grains, which, 
together with all silver dollars of like weight and 
fineness coined theretofore by the United States, 
should be a full legal tender for all debts and dues, 
public and private, except where otherwise ex- 
pressly stipulated in the contract, and directing the 
secretary of the treasury to buy not less than two 
million dollars' worth of silver a month, and cause 
it to be coined into dollars as fast as purchased. 
President Hayes returned this bill with his veto, 
mainly on the ground that the commercial value of 
the silver dollar was then worth eight to ten per 
cent, less than its nominal value, and that its use 
as a legal tender for the payment of pre-existing 
debts would be an act of bad faith. He said : " As 
to all debts heretofore contracted, the silver dollar 
should be made a legal tender only at its market 
value. The standard of value should not be 
changed without the consent of both parties to the 
contract. National promises should be kept with 
unflinching fidelity. There is no power to compel 
a nation to pay its just debts. Its credit depends 
on its honor. A nation owes what it has led or 
all6wed its creditors to expect. I cannot approve 
a bill which in my judgment authorizes the viola- 
tion of sacred obligations." But the bill was 
passed over the veto in both houses by majorities 
exceeding two thirds. During the same session 
the house of representatives, which had a Demo- 
cratic majority, on motion of Clarkson N. Pot- 
ter, of New York, resolved to institute an inquiry 
into the allegations of fraud said to have been com- 
mitted in Louisiana and Florida in making the 
returns of the votes cast for presidential electors 
at the election of 1876. The Republicans charged 
that the investigation was set on foot for the pur- 
pose of ousting Mr. Hayes from the presidency and 



140 



HAYES 



HAYES 



putting in Mr. Tilden. The Democrats disclaimed 
any such intention. The result of the investiga- 
tion was an elaborate report from the Democratic 
majority of the committee, impugning the action 
of the returning boards in Louisiana and Florida 
as fraudulent, and a report from the Republican 
minority dissenting from the conclusions of the 
majority as unwarranted by the evidence, and al- 
leging that the famous " cipher despatches " sent 
to the south by friends of Mr. Tilden showed " that 
the charges of "corruption were but the slanders of 
foiled suborners of corruption." The investigation 
led to no further action; the people generally ac- 
quiescing in the decision of the electoral commis- 
sion, and the counting of the electoral vote by con- 
gress based thereon, as irreversible. 

President Hayes was again obliged to resort to 
the employment of force by the outbreak of serious 
disturbances caused by bands of desperadoes in the 
territory of New Mexico, which amounted to 
organized resistance to the enforcement of the 
laws. He issued, on 7 Oct., 1878, a proclamation 
substantially putting the disturbed portion of New 
Mexico under martial law, and directing the U. S. 
military forces stationed there to restore and main- 
tain peace and order. 

In his message of 2 Dec, 1878, President Hayes 
found himself obliged to say that in Louisiana and 
South Carolina, and in some districts outside of 
those states, " the records of the recent [congres- 
sional] elections compelled the conclusion that the 
rights of the colored voters had been overridden, 
and their participation in the elections not been 
permitted to be either general or free." He added 
that, while it would be for congress to examine 
into the validity of the claims of members to their 
seats, it became the duty of the executive and 
judicial departments of the government to inquire 
into and punish violations of the laws, and that 
every means in his power would be exerted to that 
end. At the same time he expressed his " absolute 
assurance that, while the country had not yet 
reached complete unity of feeling and confidence 
between the communities so lately and so seriously 
estranged, the tendencies were in that direction, 
and with increasing force." He deprecated all 
interference by congress with existing financial 
legislation, with the confident expectation that the 
resumption of specie payments would be " suc- 
cessfully and easily maintained," and would be 
" followed by a healthful and enduring revival of 
business prosperity." On 1 Jan., 1879, the resump- 
tion act went into operation without any difficulty. 
No preparation had been made for that event until 
the beginning of the Hayes administration. The 
secretary of the treasury, in 1877, began to accumu- 
late coin, and, notwithstanding the opposition it 
found, even among Republicans, this policy was 
firmly pursued by the administration until the 
coin reserve held against the legal-tender notes was 
sufficient to meet all probable demands. Thus the 
country was lifted out of the bog of an irredeemable 
paper currency. The operation was facilitated by 
increased exports and a general revival of business. 
Although his first nominee for the office of col- 
lector of customs in New York had been rejected 
by the senate, President Hayes made a second 
nomination for the same place, as well as for that 
of naval officer of the same port, and in a special 
message addressed to the senate on 31 Jan., 1879, 
he gave the following reasons for the suspension of 
the incumbents, Chester A. Arthur and Alonzo B. 
Cornell, who had failed to conform their conduct 
to the executive order of 22 June, 1877 : " For a 
long period of time it [the New York custom- 



house] has been used to manage and control politi- 
cal affairs. The officers suspended by me are, and 
for several years have been, engaged in the active 
personal management of the party politics of the 
city and state of New York. The duties of the 
offices held by them have been regarded as of sub- 
ordinate importance to their partisan work. Their 
offices have been conducted as part of the political 
machinery under their control. They have made 
the custom-house a centre of partisan political 
management." [For the other side of this disputed 
question, see Arthur, Chester Alan, vol. i., pp. 
100, 101.] For like reasons, President Hayes re- 
moved an influential party manager in the west, 
the postmaster of St. Louis. With the aid of 
Democratic votes in the senate, the new nomina- 
tions were confirmed. _ President Hayes then ad- 
dressed a letter to the new collector of customs at 
New York, Gen. Edwin A. Merritt, instructing 
him to conduct his office "on strictly business 
principles, and according to the rules which were 
adopted, on the recommendation of the civil-ser- 
vice commission, by the administration of Gen. 
Grant." He added: "Neither my recommenda- 
tion, nor that of the secretary of the treasury, nor 
the recommendation, of any member of congress, 
or other influential person, should be specially re- 
garded. Let appointments and removals be made 
on business principles, and by fixed rules." Thus 
the system of competitive examinations, which 
under the preceding administration had been 
abandoned upon the failure of congress to make 
appropriations for the civil-service commission, 
was, by direction of President Hayes, restored in 
the custom-house of New York. A like system 
was introduced in the New York post-office under 
the postmaster, Thomas L. James. 

Congress passed a bill " to restrict the immigra- 
tion of Chinese to the United States," requiring 
the president immediately to give notice to the 
government of China of the abrogation of certain 
articles of the treaty of 1858 between the United 
States and China, which recognized " the inherent 
and inalienable right of a man to change his home 
and allegiance," and provided that " the citizens 
of the United States visiting or residing in China 
shall enjoy the same privileges, immunities, or ex- 
emptions, in respect to travel or residence, as may 
there be enjoyed by the citizens or subjects of the 
most favored nation," and reciprocally that Chinese 
subjects should enjoy the same advantages in the 
United States. The bill further limited the num- 
ber of Chinese passengers that might be brought 
to this country by any one vessel to fifteen. Presi- 
dent Hayes, on 1 March, 1879, returned the bill to 
congress with his veto. While recognizing some of 
the difficulties created by the immigration of the 
Chinese as worthy of consideration, he objected to 
the bill mainly on the ground that it was incon- 
sistent with existing treaty relations between the 
United States and China; that a treaty could be 
abrogated or modified by the treaty-making power, 
and not, under the constitution, by act of congress ; 
and that " the abrogation of a treaty by one of the 
contracting parties is justifiable only upon reasons 
both of the highest justice and of the highest 
necessity " ; and " to do this without notice, with- 
out fixing a day in advance when the act shall take 
effect, without affording an opportunity to China 
to be heard, and without the happening of any 
grave unforeseen emergency, would be regarded by 
the enlightened judgment of mankind as the denial 
of the obligation of the national faith." 

The 45th congress adjourned on 4 March, 1879, 
without making the usual and necessary appro- 









HAYES 



HAYES 



141 



priations for the expenses of the government. The 
house, controlled by a Democratic majority, at- 
tached to the army appropriation bill a legisla- 
tive provision substantially repealing a law passed 
in 1865, under President Lincoln, which permitted 
the use of troops " to keep the peace at the polls " 
on election-days. The house also attached to the 
legislative, executive, and judicial appropriation 
bill a repeal of existing laws providing for the ap- 

nntment of supervisors of election and special 
leputy marshals to act at elections of members of 

sngress. The Republican majority of the senate 

truck out these legislative provisions, and, the two 
louses disagreeing, the appropriation bills failed. 

resident Hayes, on 4 March, 1879, called an extra 
session of congress to meet on 18 March. The 
Democrats then had a majority in the senate as 
well as in the house, and attached to the army ap- 
propriation bill the same legislative provision on 
which in the preceding congress the two houses 
Tiad disagreed. President Hayes returned the bill 
rith his veto on 29 April, 1879. He took the 
ground that there was ample legislation to prevent 
military interference at elections; that there never 
had been any such interference since the passage 
of the act of 1865, and was no danger of any ; that 
if the proposed legislation should become law, 
there would be no power vested in any officer of 
the government to protect from violence the officers 
of the United States engaged in the discharge of 
their duties ; that the states may employ both mili- 
tary and civil power to keep the peace, and to en- 
force the laws at state elections, but that it was 
now proposed to deny to the United States even the 
necessary civil authority to protect the national 
elections. He pointed out also that the tacking of 
legislative provisions to appropriation bills was a 
practice calculated to be used as a means of coer- 
cion as to the other branches of the government, 
and to make the house of representatives a despotic 
power. Congress then passed the army appropri- 
ation bill without the obnoxious clause, but con- 
taining the provision that no money appropriated 
should be paid for the subsistence, equipment, 
transportation, or compensation of any portion of 
the army of the United States " to be used as a po- 
lice force to keep the peace at the polls at any elec- 
tion held within any state." This President Hayes 
approved. The two houses then passed a separate 
bill, substantially embodying the provision ob- 
jected to by the president in the vetoed army-ap- 
propriation bill. This "act to prohibit military 
interference at elections " President Hayes returned 
with his veto. He said : " The true rule as to the 
employment of military force at the elections is 
not doubtful. No intimidation or coercion should 
be allowed to influence citizens in the exercise of 
their right to vote, whether it appears in the shape 
of combinations of evil-disposed persons, or of 
armed bodies of the militia of a state, or of the 
military force of the United States. The elec- 
tions should be free from all forcible interference, 
and, as far as practicable, from all apprehension of 
such interference. No soldiery, either of the United 
States or of the state militia, should be present at 
the polls to perform the duties of the ordinary 
civil police force. There has been and will be no 
violation of this rule under orders from me during 
this administration. That there should be no 
denial of the right of the national government to 
employ its military force on any day and at any 
place in case such employment is necessary to en- 
force the constitution and laws of the United 
States." The legislative, executive, and judicial 
appropriation bill passed by congress contained a 



legislative provision not, indeed, abolishing the 
supervisors of election, but divesting the govern- 
ment of the power to protect them, or to prevent 
interference with their duties, or to punish any 
violation of the law from which their power was 
derived. President Hayes returned this bill also 
with his veto, referring to his preceding veto mes- 
sage as to the impropriety of tacking general legis- 
lation to appropriation bills. He further pointed 
out that, in the various legal proceedings under 
the law sought to be repealed, its constitutionality 
had never been questioned ; and that the necessity 
of such a law had been amply demonstrated by 
the great election frauds in New York city in 
1868. He added : " The great body of the people 
of all parties want free and fair elections. They 
do not think that a free election means freedom 
from the wholesome restraints of law, or that the 
place of an election should be a sanctuary for law- 
lessness and crime." If any oppression, any parti- 
san partiality, had been shown in the execution of 
the existing law, he added, efficient correctives of 
the mischief should be applied ; but as no congres- 
sional election was immediately impending, the 
matter might properly be referred to the regular 
session of congress. 

In a bill " making appropriations for certain judi- 
cial expenses," passed by congress, it was attempted 
not to repeal the election laws, but to make their 
enforcement impossible by prohibiting the pay- 
ment of any salaries, fees, or expenses under or in 
virtue of them, and providing also that no con- 
tract should be made, and no liability incurred, 
under any of their provisions. President Hayes 
vetoed this bill, 23 June, 1879. on the ground that 
as no bill repealing the election laws had been 
passed over his veto, those laws were still in exist- 
ence, and the present bill, if it became a law, would 
make it impossible for the executive to perform his 
constitutional duty to see to it that the laws be 
faithfully executed. On the same ground the 
president returned with his veto a bill making ap- 
propriations to pay fees of United States marshals 
and their general deputies, in which the same at- 
tempt was made to defeat the execution of the 
election laws by withholding the necessary funds 
as well as the power to incur liabilities under them. 
All the appropriation bills were passed without the 
obnoxious provisions except the last. President 
Hayes appealed to congress in a special message 
on 30 June, 1879, the end of the fiscal year, not to 
permit the marshals and their general deputies, 
officers so necessary to the administration of jus- 
tice, to go unprovided for, but in vain. The attor- 
ney-general then admonished the marshals to con- 
tinue in the performance of their duties, and to 
rely Upon future legislation by congress, which 
would be just to them. 

In his annual message of 1 Dec, 1879, President 
Hayes found occasion to congratulate the country 
upon the successful resumption of specie payments 
and upon " a very great revival of business." He 
announced a most gratifying reduction of the in- 
terest on the public debt by refunding at lower 
rates. He strongly urged congress to authorize 
the secretary of the treasury to suspend the silver 
coinage, as the cheaper coin, if forced into circula- 
tion, would eventually become the sole standard of 
value. He also recommended the retirement of 
United States notes with the capacity of legal tend- 
er in private contracts, it being his "firm con- 
viction that the issue of legal-tender paper money 
based wholly upon the authority and credit of the 
government, except in extreme emergency, is with- 
out warrant in the constitution, and a violation of 



142 



HAYES 



HAYES 



sound financial principles." He recommended a 
vigorous enforcement of the laws against polygamy 
in the territory of Utah. He presented a strong 
argument in favor of civil-service reform, pointed 
out the successful trial of the competitive system 
in the interior department, the post-office depart- 
ment, and the post-office and the custom-house in 
New York, and once more earnestly urged that an 
appropriation be made for the civil-service com- 
mission, and that those in the public service be 
protected by law against exactions in the pay of 
party assessments. But these recommendations 
remained without effect. 

On 12 Feb., 1880, President Hayes issued a second 
proclamation — the first having been issued in 
April, 1879 — against the attempts made by lawless 

i>ersons to possess themselves for settlement of 
ands within the Indian territory, and effective 
measures were taken to expel the invaders. On 
8 March, 1880, he sent to the house of representa- 
tives a special message communicating correspond- 
ence in relation to the interoceanic canal, which 
had passed between the American and foreign gov- 
ernments, and expressing his own opinion on the 
subject as follows : " The policy of this country is 
a canal under American control. The United 
States cannot consent to the surrender of this con- 
trol to any European power, or to any combination 
of European powers. If existing treaties be- 
tween the United States and other nations, or if 
the rights of sovereignty or property of other na- 
tions, stand in the way of this policy — a contin- 
gency which is not apprehended — suitable steps 
should be taken by just and liberal negotiations to 
promote and establish the American policy on this 
subject, consistently with the rights of the nations 
to be affected by it. An interoceanic canal across 
the American isthmus will be the great ocean thor- 
oughfare between our Atlantic and our Pacific 
shores, and virtually a part of the coast-line of the 
United States. No other great power would, under 
similar circumstances, fail to assert a rightful con- 
trol over a work so closely and vitally affecting its 
interest and welfare." Congress passed a deficiency 
appropriation bill, which contained provisions ma- 
terially changing, and, by implication, repealing 
certain important parts of the election laws. Presi- 
dent Hayes, on 4 May, 1880, returned the bill with 
his veto, whereupon congress made the appropria- 
tion without re-enacting the obnoxious clauses. 

In November, 1880, was held the election that 
put James A. Garfield into the presidential chair 
and proved conclusively that the Republican party 
had gained largely in the confidence of the public 
during the Hayes administration. In his last an- 
nual message, 6 Dec, 1880, President Hayes again 
mentioned the occurrence of election disorders in a 
part of the Union, and the necessity of their re- 
pression and correction, but declared himself satis- 
fied, at the same time, that the evil was diminishing. 
Again he argued in favor of civil-service reform, 
especially competitive examinations, which had 
been conducted with great success in some of the 
executive departments and adopted by his direction 
in the larger custom-houses and post-offices. He 
reiterated his recommendation of an appropriation 
for the civil-service commission, and of a law 
against political assessments. He also, to stop the 
interference of members of congress with the civil 
service, suggested that an act be passed " de- 
fining the relations of members of congress with 
regard to appointments to office by the president," 
and that the tenure-of-office act be repealed. He 
recommended " that congress provide for the gov- 
ernment of Utah by a governor and judges, or 



commissioners, appointed by the president and 
confirmed by the senate — a government analogous 
to the provisional government established for the 
territory northwest of the Ohio, by the ordinance of 
1787," dispensing with an elected territorial legis- 
lature. He announced that on 17 Nov. two treaties 
had been signed at Peking by the commissioners 
of the United States and the plenipotentiaries of 
the emperor of China — one purely commercial, and 
the other authorizing the government of the United 
States, whenever the immigration of Chinese labor- 
ers threatened to affect the interests of the country, 
to regulate, limit, or suspend such immigration, 
but not altogether to prohibit it, said government 
at the same time promising to secure to Chinese 
permanently or temporarily residing in the United 
States the same protection and rights as to citizens 
or subjects of the most favored nation. President 
Hayes further suggested the importance of making 
provision for regular steam postal communication 
with the Central and South American states ; he 
recommended that congress, by suitable legislation 
and with proper safeguards, supplement the local 
educational funds in the several states where the 
grave duties and. responsibilities of citizenship 
have been devolved upon uneducated people, by 
devoting to the purpose grants of lands, and, if 
necessary, by appropriations from the treasury of 
the United States; he repeated his recommenda- 
tions as to the suspension of the silver coinage, and 
as to the retirement from circulation of the United 
States notes, and added one that provision be made 
by law to put Gen. Grant upon the retired list of 
the army, with rank and pay befitting the great 
services he had rendered to the country. 

On 1 Feb., 1880, he addressed a special message 
to congress in relation to the Ponca Indians, m 
which he pointed out the principles that should 
guide our Indian policy : preparation for citizen- 
ship by industrial and general education ; allot- 
ment of land in severalty, inalienable for a certain 
period ; fair compensation for Indian lands not re- 
quired for allotment; and, finally, investment of 
the Indians, so educated and provided for, with 
the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. His 
last communication to congress, 3 March, 1881, 
was a message returning with his veto a bill " to 
facilitate the refunding of the national debt," 
which contained a provision seriously impairing 
the value and tending to the destruction of the 
national banking system. On the following day 
he assisted at the inauguration of his successor. 

The administration of President Hayes, although 
much attacked by the politicians of both parties, 
was on the whole very satisfactory to the people 
large. By withdrawing the Federal troops fron 
the southern state-houses, and restoring to the 
people of those states practical self-government, it 
prepared the way for that revival of patriotism 
among those lately estranged from the Union, that 
fraternal feeling between the two sections of the 
country, and the wonderful material advancement 
of the south which we now witness. It conducted 
with wisdom and firmness the preparations for the 
resumption of specie payments, as well as the fund- 
ing of the public debt at lower rates of interest, 
and thus facilitated the development of the re- 
markable business prosperity that continued to its 
close. While in its endeavors to effect a thorough 
and permanent reform of the civil service ther 
were conspicuous lapses and inconsistencies, it 
accomplished important and lasting results. Not 
only without any appropriations of money anc 
without encouragement of any kind from congres 
but in the face of the decided hostility of a large 



HAYES 



HAYNE 



143 



majority of its members, the system of competitive 
examinations was successfully applied in some of 
the executive departments at Washington and in 
the great government offices at New York, thus 
proving its practicability and usefulness. The re- 
moval by President Hayes of some of the most 
powerful party managers from their offices, avow- 
edly on the ground that the offices had been used 
as part of the political machinery, was an act of 
high courage, and during his administration there 
was far less meddling with party politics on the 
part of officers of the government than at any 
period since Andrew Jackson's time. The success 
of the Republican party in the election of 1880 was 
largely owing to the general satisfaction among 
the people with the Hayes administration. 

On the expiration of his term, ex-President 
Hayes retired to his home at Fremont, Ohio. He 
was the recipient of various distinctions. The de- 
gree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by Kenyon 
college, Harvard university, Yale college, and 
Johns Hopkins university. He was made senior 
vice-commander of the military order of the Loyal 
legion, commander of 
the Ohio command- 
ery of the same or- 
der, the first presi- 
dent of the Society 
of the Army of West 
Virginia, and presi- 
dent of the 23d regi- 
ment Ohio volunteers 
association. Much 
of his time is devoted 
to benevolent and 
useful enterprises. 
He is president of the 
trustees of the John 
F. Slater education- 
fund,- one of the trus- 
tees of the Peabody 
education-fund, pres- 
ident of the Xational 
Srison-reform association, an active member of the 
rational conference of corrections and charities, a 
trustee of the Western Reserve university at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, of the Wesleyan university of Dela- 
ware, Ohio, of Mount Union college, at Alliance, 
Ohio, and of several other charitable and educa- 
tional institutions. On the occasion of a meeting 
of the National prison-reform association, held at 
Atlanta, Ga., in November, 1886, he was received 
with much popular enthusiasm, and greeted by an 
ex-governor of Georgia as one to whom, more than 
to any other, the people were indebted for the era 
of peace and union which they now enjoyed, and 
by the present governor, John B. Gordon, as the 
man who had " made a true and noble effort to com- 

?>lete the restoration of the Union by restoring 
raternal feeling between the estranged sections." 
See " Life, Public Services, and Select Speeches of 
Rutherford B. Hayes," by James Quay Howard 
(Cincinnati, 1876). Campaign lives were also 
written by William D. Howells (New York, 1876) 
and Russell H. Conwell (Boston, 1876).— His wife, 
Lucy Ware Webb, b. in Chillicothe, Ohio, 28 Aug., 
1831 ; d. in Fremont, Ohio, 25 June, 1889. She was 
the daughter of a physician, and married in 1852. 
Of eight children, four sons and one daughter are 
living. Mrs. Hayes was noted for her devotion to 
the wounded soldiers during the war. She refused 
to permit wine to be served on the White House 
table, and for this innovation incurred much cen- 
sure in some political circles, but received high 
praise from the advocates of total abstinence, who, 




on the expiration of her husband's term of office, 
presented her with various testimonials, including 
an album filled with autograph expressions of ap- 
proval from many prominent persons. 

HAYGOOD, Atticus Green, clergyman, b. in 
Watkinsville, Ga., 19 Nov., 1839. He was gradu- 
ated at Emory college, Ga., in 1859, and licensed 
to preach in the Methodist Episcopal church in 
the same year. In 1870-'5 he edited the Sunday- 
school publications of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, south, and in 1876 he was elected president 
of Emory college, where he remained eight years. 
He was appointed general agent of the " John F. 
Slater fund " in 1883, for the education of colored 
youth in the southern states, and has since devoted 
himself to this work and to efforts for the progress 
of the negro race. In 1872 he was elected bishop 
in the Methodist Episcopal church, south, but de- 
clined. In 1878-'82 he edited the "Wesleyan 
Christian Advocate." Emory college conferred on 
him the degree of D. D. in 1870, and the South- 
western university, Texas, that of LL. D. in ^884. 
Dr. Haygood is the author of " Go or Send, an Es- 
say on Missions" (Nashville, Tenn., 1873); "Our 
Children" (New York, 1876); "Our Brother in 
Black" (1881); "Close the Saloons" (Macon, Ga., 
1882) ; and " Speeches and Sermons " (Nashville, 
1884) ; and has edited " Sermons bv Bishop George 
Foster Peirce " (Nashville. Tenn., 1886). 

HAYMAN, Samuel Brinkle, soldier, b. in 
Chester county, Pa., 5 June, 1820. He was gradu- 
ated at the U. S. military academy in 1842, became 
1st lieutenant of infantry in 1847, captain in 1855, 
major in 1863. and lieutenant-colonel in 1867. Dur- 
ing the Mexican war he was in several important 
battles, participating in the assault and capture of 
the city of Mexico. He served throughout the 
civil war with the Army of the Potomac, and was 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel for gallantry at Chan- 
cellorsville. He was mustered out of the volunteer 
service in June, 1863, and afterward participated 
in the battles of Kelly's Ford, Mine Run. and the 
battle of the Wilderness, 6 May. 1864, where he was 
wounded and brevetted colonel. In March, 1865, 
he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers 
for gallantry at Fair Oaks. In 1865-6 he was act- 
ing assistant provost-marshal-general, and disburs- 
ing officer at Elmira, N. Y. He took command at 
Fort Dakota in 1866, and was retired in 1872. 

HAYNE, Isaac, patriot, b. in South Carolina, 
23 Sept., 1745 ; d. in Charleston, S. C, 4 Aug., 1781. 
He was a wealthy planter in the districts of Beau- 
fort and Colleton, and the proprietor of extensive 
iron-works in York district, which were afterward 
destroyed by the British. At the beginning of the 
Revolution he took the field, was a captain of 
artillery, and at the same time state senator. In 
1780, on the invasion of the state by the British, 
he served in a cavalry regiment during the final 
siege of Charleston, and, being included in the 
capitulation of that place, was paroled on con- 
dition that he would not serve against the British 
while they held possession. When in 1781 the 
fortunes of the British began to decline, he, with 
all the others who were paroled on the same 
terms, was required to join the royal army or be 
subjected to close confinement. Hayne would 
gladly have accepted imprisonment, but his wife 
and several of his children lay at the point of death 
from small-pox. He went to Charleston, and, being 
assured by the deputy British commandant, Patter- 
son, that he would not be required to bear arms 
against his country, took the oath of allegiance. 
After the successes of Gen. Greene had left the 
British nothing but Charleston, Hayne was sum- 



144 



HAYNE 



HAYNE 



moned to join the royal army immediately. This, 
being in violation of the agreement that had been 
made, consequently released him from all his obli- 
gations to the British. He went to the American 
camp, and was commissioned colonel of a militia 
company. In July, 1781, he made an incursion to 
the Quarter House, a precinct within five miles of 
Charleston, and captured Gen. Andrew Williamson, 
a former patriot, who had gone over to the British 
service. It was feared that Williamson would be 
hanged as a traitor, and the British commandant 
at Charleston, Col. Nesbit Balfour, ordered out his 
entire force in pursuit. Hayne's party was sur- 
prised and scattered ; he was captured, taken to 
Charleston, thrown into the provost's prison, and 
after a brief examination before a board of officers, 
without trial or examination of witnesses, was sen- 
tenced to be hanged by the joint orders of Col. 
Balfour and Lord Itawdon. Hayne protested 
against this summary proceeding, which was illegal 
whether he was regarded as a British subject or a 
prisoner who had broken his parole. The citizens 
of Charleston united in petitioning for his pardon, 
but the court was inexorable. A respite of forty- 
eight hours was allowed him in which to take 
leave of his orphan children, for his wife had lately 
died, and at the end of this time he was hanged. 
The conduct of Rawdon and Balfour excited the 
liveliest indignation among the Americans, and 
Gen. Greene issued a proclamation, on 26 Aug., an- 
nouncing his determination to make reprisals. The 
matter was discussed with great ability in the 
British parliament, and, while both Rawdon and 
Balfour justified it, each attempted to attribute it 
to the agency of the other. Thirty-two years after- 
ward Lord Rawdon, then the Earl of Moira, in a 
letter to Gen. Henry Lee, attempted to justify his 
conduct. His " Justification " was analyzed and 
criticised in " The Southern Review " for February, 
1828, by Hayne's great-nephew, Robert Y. Hayne. 
— His great-nephew, Arthur Peronnean, senator, 
b. in Charleston, S. C, 12 March, 1790 ; d. there, 
7 Jan., 1867, received a classical education and en- 
gaged in business. He joined the army in 1812, 
was 1st lieutenant at Sackett's Harbor, major of 
cavalry on the St. Lawrence, inspector-general in 
1814, and was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for gal- 
lant conduct at the battle of New Orleans. He 
commanded the Tennessee volunteers during the 
Florida war, and retired in 1820. He then stud- 
ied law in Pennsylvania, was admitted to the bar, 
and returning to South Carolina was a member 
of the state legislature, and a presidential elector 
on the Jackson and Calhoun ticket in 1828. He 
was U. S. naval agent for fi