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As it is the commendation of a good huntsman to find game in a wide wood, 
so it is no imputation if he hath not caught all. Plato. 






Copyright, 1888, 





Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth 




McClellan, George Brinton 



Face 79 

Macdonald, John Alexander 




Madison, James 




Marshall, John 




Monroe, James 




Morse, Samuel F. B. 




Peabody, George 




Pedro II., Dom 




Penn, William 





Adams, Charles Kendall, 

President of Cornell University. 

Agassiz, Alexander, 

Author and Professor. 

Allan, Col. William, 

Aide-de-Camp to " Stonewall '' Jackson. 
AUibone, S. Austin, 

Author " Dictionary of Authors.'" 

Amory, Thomas C, 

Author " Life of General Sullivan," etc. 

Bancroft, George, 

Author " History of the United States.' 

Bayard, Thomas F., 

Secretary of State. 
Beehler, William H., 

Lieutenant U. S. Navy. 

Bigelow, John, 

Author " Life of Franklin," etc. 

Boker, George H., 

Poet, late Minister to Russia. 

Bradley, Joseph P., 

Justice United States Supreme Court. 
Brooks, Phillips, 

Author " Sermons in English Churches." 

Browne, Junius Henri, 

Author and Journalist. 

Carter, Franklin, 

President of Williams College. 

Chandler, William E., 

Ex-Secretary of the Navy. 

Clarke, James Freeman, 

Author "Ten Great Religions," etc. 

Cooper, Miss Susan Fenimore, 

Author " Rural Hours," etc. 

Conway, Moncure D., / 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Coppee, Henry, 

Professor in Lehigh University, Pa. 
Coxe, Arthur Cleveland, 

p. E. Bishop of Western New York. 

Courtenay, William A., 

Mayor of Charleston, S. C. 

Cullum, Gen. George W., U. S. A., 

Author " Register of West Point Graduates," etc. 

Curtis, George Ticknor, 

Author " Life of James Buchanan," etc. 

Curtis, George William, 

Author and Editor. 

Custer, Mrs. Elizabeth B., 

Author " Tenting on the Plains." 

Daniel, John W., 

United States Senator from Virginia. 

De Lancey, Edward F., 

Ex-President Genealogical and Biographical Society. 
Didier, Eugene L., 

Author " Life of Edgar Allan Poe." 

Dix, Morgan, 

Rector of Trinity Church, New York. 

Doane, William C, 

p. E. Bishop of Albany. 

Drake, Samuel Adams, 

Author " Historic Personages of Boston," etc. 

Draper, Lyman C, 

Secretary of Wisconsin Historical Society. 
Dupont, Col. Henry A., 

Of Delaware, late U. S. Army. 

Eggleston, George Cary, 

Editor New York " Commercial Advertiser." 

Fiske, John, 

Author and Professor. 

Frothingham, Octavius B., 

Author "Life of George Ripley." 

Gayarre, Charles E. A., 

Author " History of Louisiana." 

Gerry, Elbridge T., 

Member of New York Bar. 

Gilman, Daniel C, 

President of Johns Hopkins University. 

Gilmore, James E,., 

Author " Rear-Guard of the Revolution," etc. 

Gleig, George Robert, 

Ex-Chaplain-General British Army. 

Goodwin, Daniel, 

Member of Illinois Bar. 

Greely, Gen. Adolphus W., TJ. S. A., 

Author " Three Years of Arctic Service." 

Green, William Mercer, 

Late P. E. Bishop of Mississippi. 

Greene, Capt. Francis Vinton, 

United States Engineer Corps. 

Hale, Edward Everett, 

Author "Franklin in France," etc. 

Hart, Charles Henry, 

Member Pennsylvania Bar. 

Hay, Col. John, 

Author " Life of Lincoln," etc. 

Henry, William Wirt, 

Of the Virginia Historical Society. 

Higginson, Col. Thomas W., 

Author " History of the United States," etc. 
Hilliard, Henry W., 

Late Minister to Brazil. 

Holmes, Dr. Oliver Wendell, 

Author and Poet. 

Hoppin, Prof. James M., 

Of Yale College. 

Howe, Mrs. Julia Ward, 

Author " Later Lyrics." etc. 

Huntington, William E.., 

Rector of Grace Church, New York. 

Jay, John, 

Late Minister to Austria. 



Johnson, Gen. Bradley T., 

Member of Maryland Bar. 

Johnson, Rossiter, 

Author " History of the War of 1812," etc. 

Johnston, William Preston, 

President of Tulane University. 
Jones, Horatio Gates, 

Vice-President of Pennsylvania Historical Society. 
Jones, John William, 

Secretary of Southei'n Historical Society. 

Jones, William Alfred, 

Author " Character and Criticism," etc. 

Lathrop, George Parsons, 

Author " A Study of Hawthorne," etc. 

Latrobe, John H. B., 

Member of Maryland Bar. 

Leach, Col. J. Granville, 

Member of the Philadelphia Bar. 

Lincoln, Robert T., 

Ex-Secretary of War. 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, 

Author "Life of Hamilton." 

Long, Col. Charles Chaille, 

Late of the Egyptian Army. 

Lowell, James Russell, 

Late Minister at Court of St. James. 

MacVeagh, Wayne, 

Ex-Attorney-General, U. S. 
Mathews, William, 

Author " Orators and Oratory," etc. 

McMaster, John Bach, 

Author •• History of the People of the United States. 

Mitchell, Donald G., 

Author •• Ileveries of a Bachelor," etc. 

Norton, Charles Eliot, 

Professor in Harvard University. 

O'Connor, Joseph, 

Editor Rochester, N. Y., '"Post-Express." 

O'Neal, Edward A., 

Governor of Alabama. 

Parker, Cortlandt, 

Member of New Jersey Bar. 

Parkman, Francis, 

Author " Frontenac," " French in Canada," etc. 

Parton, James, 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Phelan, James, M.C., 

Editor Memphis, Tenn., "Avalanche." 

Phelps, William Walter, 

Member of Congress from New Jersey. 

Pierrepont, Edwards, 

Ex-Attorney-General United States. 

Porter, David D., 

Admiral United States Navy. 

Porter, Gen. Horace, 

Late of Gen. Grant's Staff. 

Preston, Mrs. Margaret J., 

Author and Poet. 

Puron, Dr. Juan G., 

Spanish Author and Editor. 

Read, Gen. J. Meredith, 

Late Minister to Greece. 

Reid, Whitelaw,. 

Editor New York " Tribune." 
Ricord, Judge Frederick W., 

New Jersey Historical Society. 

Robinson, Ezekiel G., 

President of Brown University. 

Romero, Mattias, 

Mexican Minister to the United States. 

Scharf, Col. J. Thomas, 

Of the Confederate Army. 

Schurz, Carl, 

Ex-Secretary of the Interior. 

Sherman, William T., 

Late General of United States Army, 

Smith, Charles Emory, 

Editor Philadelphia " Press." 

Spencer, Jesse Ames, 

Author and Professor. 

Stedman, Edmund C, 

Author •' Poets of America," etc. 

Stiles, Henry R., M. D., 

Author ■■ History of Brooklyn, N. Y." 

Stoddard, Richard Henry, 

Author " Songs of Summer," etc. 

Stone, William L., 

Author " Life of Red Jacket," etc. 

Strong, William, 

Ex-Justice United States Supreme Court. 

Stryker, William S., 

Adjutant-General of New Jersey. 

Tenner, William Christian, 

Graduate of the University of Paris. 

Tucker, J. Randolph, 

Member of Congress from Yirginia. 

Waite, Morrison R., 

Chief Justice United States Supreme Court. 

Warner, Charles Dudley, 

Author and Editor. 

Washburne, Elihu B., 

Late Minister to France. 

Welling, James C, 

President of Coh;mbian University, 

Whittier, John Greenleaf, 

Author and Poet. 

Wilson, Gen. Jas. Grant, 

President Genealogical and Biographical Society. 
Winter, William, 

Poet and Theatrical Critic. 

Winthrop, Robert C, 

Ex-LTnited States Senator. 

Wright, Gen. Marcus J., 

Of the Confederate Army. 

Young, John Russell, 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

To this list other names will he added as the worh progresses. 

AmoTig the (Contributors to the fourth volume of "■ Appletom'' Cyclopcedia of American Biogra- 

' phy " are the following . 

Richard Meade Bache. 

Meade, George Gordon, and Family. 

Henry Carey Baird. 

Merchant, Charles Spencer, 
MuljjAny, James Robert Madison. 

Prof. William M. Baskervill. 

longstreet, augustus baldwin, 
McFerrin, John Berry. 

Lieut. William H. Beehler, U. S. N. 

Articles on U. S. Naval Officers. 

Prof. Henry Augustin Beers. 

Mitchell, Donald Grant. 

Marcus Benjamin, F. C. S. 
Morse, Samuel F. B., 
Penn, William. 

Samuel G. W. Benjamin, M. A. 

Articles on Painters and Sculptors. 

Arthur Elmore Bostwick, Ph. D. 

MiNUiT, Peter, 
Pemberton, John Clifford. 

Joseph P. Bradley, LL. D. 

Marshall, John. 

Junius Henri Browne. 

Perkins, James Handasyd. 

Rev. James Buckley, D. D. 

Articles on Bishops of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. 

Mrs. Isa Carrington Cabell. 

Mann, Horace, 

The Nelson Family of Virginia. 

Prof. Henry Coppee, LL. D. 

McClellan, George Brinton, and Family. 

Edward Floyd De Lancey. 

The Nicoll Family of Long Island, 
NicoLLS, Sir Richard. 

Eugene Lemoine Didier. 

Magruder, John Bankhead, 
Neal, John. 

William Henry Egle, M. D. 

Montgomery, John, 
Nead, Benjamin Matthias. 

Prof. John Fiske. 

Madison, James, 

Marion, Francis, 

Otis, James, and Family. 

Rev. Octavius Brooks Frothingham. 
Parker, Theodore. 

Elbridge Thomas Gerry. 

Noyes, William Curtis. 

Daniel Coit Gilman, LL. D. 

Monroe, James. 

James Roberts Gilmore. 
McGiLLivRAY, Alexander, 
Overton, John. 

Rev. George Robert Gleig. 

Pakenham, Sir Edward Michael. 

Rt. Rev. William Mercer Green, D. D. 

Otey, James Hervey. 

Capt. Francis Vinton Greene. 

McPherson, James Birdseye. 

Rev. William Elliot Griffis, D. D. 

Perry, Matthew Calbraith, 
Perry, Oliver Hazard. 

Reuben Aldridge Guild, LL. D. 

Manning, James. 

George J. Hagar. 

Palmer, Ray, 

Peabody, Andrew Preston. 

Jacob Henry Hager. 

Logan, John Alexander, 

The Mason and Morris Families. 

Charles Henry Hart. 

Malbone, Edward Greene, 
Neagle, John. 

Oliver Wendell Holmes, M. D. 

Motley, John Lothrop. 

Cecil H. C. Howard. 

Penhallow, Samuel, 
Phelps, John Wolcott. 

Frank Huntington. 
Lyon, Nathaniel, 
Mott, Valentine. 

Abram S. Isaacs, Ph. D. 

Articles on Hebrew Clergymen. 

Gen. Bradley T. Johnson. 


Murdock, William. 

Col. William Preston Johnston. 

Marmaduke, John Sappington, 
Maxey, Samuel Bell. 

Horatio Gates Jones, D. C. L. 

Morgan, Abel, and Family, 
Owen, Goronwy. 


William Alfred Jones. 

Mathews, Cornelius. 

Charles Penrose Keith. 

Palmer, Anthony, 

Articles on the Penn Family. 

Rev. James Ryland Kendrick, D. D. 

Articles on Baptist Clergymen. 

Rufus King. 

Articles on the Odell Family. 

Samuel Archer King. 

Articles on Aeronauts. 

Charles Lanman. 

Perinchief, Octavius. 

Col. Josiah Granville Leach. 

Articles on Noted Pennsylvanians. 

Col. Charles Chaille-Long. 

LoRiNG, William Wing, 
Mott, Tiiaddeus Phelps. 

Neil Macdonald. 

Articles on Canadian Statesmen. 

Gabriel Edward Manigault, M. D. 

Articles ox the Manigault Family. 

Frederick Gregory Mather. 

Articles on the Mather Family. 

William Mathews, LL. D. 
Paink, TIkxry W. 

Prof. Charles Eliot Norton. 
Longfellow, Henry Wads worth, 
Norton, John. 

Rev. S. E. Ochsenford. 

Articles on Lutheran Clergymen. 

Joseph O'Connor. 

McCloskey. John, 
Moore, Edward Mott, 

Mrs. Jenny Marsh Parker. 

^Iiller, William. 

Prof. Francis Parkman. 

Montcalm, ^Marqufs de. 

Frederick Eugene Pond. 

McLkllan. Isaac, 

Rev. Alfred P. Putnam, D. D. 

Articles ox the Low Family. 

Whitelaw Reid. 

Phelps, W^illiam Walter. 

Eugene Coleman Savidge. 

Page, Samuel Davis, 
Pancoast, Joseph. 

Col. J. Thomas Scharf. 

Mallory, Stephen Russell, 
Maury, Matthew Fontaine. 

Rt. Rev. Edmund de Schweinitz, D. D. 

Articles on Moravian Clergymen. 

Miss Esther Singleton. 


Paine, Robert Treat. 

Prof. T. O'Conor Sloane, Ph. D. 

O'CoNOR, Charles, 
O'Conor, Thomas. 

Rev. Jesse Ames Spencer, D. D. 

Articles on Clergymen of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. 

George Stewart, D. C. K 

Macdonald, Sir John Alexander, 
MacNab, Sir Allan Napier, Bart. 

William Leete Stone. 

McCrea, Jane- 
Markham, Jared Clark. 

William Christian Tenner. 

MuRAT, Napoleon Achille, 
Pedro II. 

William H. Walter, Mus. D. 

Articles on Organists, 

Charles Dudley Warner. 

Lowell, James Russell, 

John William Weidemeyer. 

Macready, William C'harles, 
Philip, Kixg. 

Frank Weitenkampf. 

Articles on Artists and Musicians. 

Everett P. Wheeler. 

Pepperrell, Sir William. 

Gen. Jas. Grant Wilson. 

Paulding, James Kirke, 
Payne, John Howard, 
Pea BODY, George, 

John Laird Wilson. 

Morris, Robert, 
Oglethorpe, James, 

Gen. Marcus J. Wright. 

Pecjram, John, 

Pexder, William Dorsey. 

John Russell Young. 
Mackay, John William. 





LODGrE, Giles Henry, translator, b. in Boston, 
Mass., 13 March, 1805. He was graduated at 
Harvard in 1825, and at the medical school in 
1828, and has passed his life in Boston, Mass. He 
is an enthusiastic student of the Greek language 
and art, and has published translations of Johann 
Wincklemann's " History of Ancient Art among 
the Greeks " (4 vols., Boston, 1849-73), and Baron 
von Steinberg's " Breughel Brothers " (1854). He 
is the author of several medical essays, and has in 
manuscript a " Dictionary of Aristophanes." — His 
nephew, Henry Cabot, author, b. in Boston, 
Mass., 12 May, 1850, was graduated at Harvard in 
1871, and at the law-school in 1874, and in 1875 
was given the degree of Ph. D. for his thesis on 

the "Land Law of 
Anglo-Saxons" (Bos- 
ton, 1877). He was 
university lecturer 
on American history 
in 1876-'9, edited the 
" North American 
Review " in 1873-'6, 
and the " Interna- 
tional Review " in 
1879^'81, and served 
two terms in the 
Massachusetts legis- 
lature in 1880-'l. He 
was a delegate to the 
Republican national 
conventions of 1880 
and 1884, and was 
for two years chair- 
man of the Republi- 
can state committee. 
He was unsuccessful as a candidate for congress in 
1884, but was elected in 1886. Mr. Lodge has been 
an overseer of Harvard since 1884, and is a mem- 
ber of various scientific and historical societies. 
He was vice-president of the commission that su- 
perintended the celebration of the framing of the 
U. S. constitution, in 1887. He has published " Life 
and Letters of George Cabot" (Boston, 1877); 
" Short History of English Colonies in America " 
(New York, 1881); lives of Alexander Hamilton 
(Boston, 1882) and Daniel Webster (1883) in the 
" American Statesmen " series ; and " Studies in 
History " (1884). He has edited two series of " Pop- 
ular Tales " and a volume of selected " Ballads and 
Lyrics " (Boston, 1881), and " The Works of Alex- 
ander Hamilton," including his private corre- 

VOL. IV. — 1 



spondence and many hitherto unpublished docu- 
ments, with an introduction and notes (9 vols., 
New York, 1885). 

LOEFLING, Peter, Spanish-American botanist, 
b. in Tollsforsbro, Sweden, 31 Jan., 1729: d. in the 
mission of Amaracure, South America, 22 Feb., 1756. 
He was a pupil of Linnasus. and, when the Spanish 
ambassador requested the latter to select a botanist 
for service in the American colonies, the professor 
at once named Loefling, who left Stockholm in 
1751. He remained two years in Spain, and then 
embarked with other scientists for South America 
in February, 1754. He had entire charge of the 
department of natural history, and was assisted 
by two young Spanish doctors. His premature 
death was considered a great loss to natural history, 
and especially to botany. Linnaeus believed the 
loss irreparable. The manuscripts of Loefling, 
which were found after his death, were preserved 
by his two assistants. The work that gives an 
account of his scientific labors in Spanish America 
is entitled "Iter hispanicum " (Stockholm, 1758; 
Swedish translation by LinntTUS ; German transla- 
tion by Kolpin, Berlin, 1766; English translation 
by J. G. ^ A. Forster, 1771). Linnaeus gave the 
name Loe'flingia to a plant of the caryophillaceous 
family, one species of which grows in Spain and 
the other in Spanish America. 

LOEWENSTERN, Isidore, Austrian traveller, 
b. in Vienna in 1807 ; d. in Constantinople, 6 May,, 
1856. After completing his studies in Germany, 
he travelled extensively in the United States, 
Mexico, and the West Indies, and on his return to 
Europe published " Les Etats-Unis et la Havane, 
souvenirs d'un voyageur " (Paris, 1842), and " Le 
Mexique, souvenirs d'un voyageur " (1843). 

LOEWENTHAL, Isidor, missionary, Po- 
sen, Prussian Poland, in 1826 ; d. in Peshawur. In- 
dia, 27 April, 1864. He was educated in the Jewish 
faith, and, after completing his studies in the gym- 
nasium of Posen, entered a mercantile establish- 
ment as a clerk. In consequence of a political 
poem that he published he was compelled to flee 
the country. He arrived in New York in the au- 
tumn of 1846, and attracted the attention of a 
clergyman in Wilmington, Del., through whose 
efforts he was appointed professor of German in 
Lafayette college. He quickly mastered the Eng- 
lish language, entered the senior class in the fol- 
lowing year, acting at the same time as tutor of 
French, German, and Hebrew, and was graduated 
in 1848. He then taught for four years at Mount 



Holly collegiate school, N. J., while pursuing philo- 
logical studies, which he afterward continued in 
connection with theology at Princeton seminary, 
where he obtained a scholarship in 1852. After 
graduation in 1855 he offered his services to the 
Presbyterian board of missions, was ordained an 
evangelist in New York, and departed for India in 
August, 1856, with the object of establishing a mis- 
sion among the Afghans of the Punjaub. He ac- 
quired with readiness the Pushtu or Afghan lan- 
guage, and learned to preach also in Persian, Arabic, 
and Hindustani. In the seven years of his mission- 
ary life at Peshawur he published a translation of 
the New Testament in Pushtu, and nearly com- 
pleted a dictionary of that language. He contrib- 
uted to American knd British quarterlies, collected 
a valuable library of oriental literature, and ac- 
quired such acquaintance with the life and man- 
ners and the religious and political sentiments of 
the peoples of northern India that his services were 
sometimes solicited by the Indian government. He 
was accidentally slain, in his garden at night, by 
an attendant, who mistook him for a robber. 

LO(xAN, Benjamin, pioneer, b. in Augusta 
county, Va., about 1752 ; d. in Shelby county, Ky., 
11 Dec, 1802. He was the son of Irish parents 
who had removed to Virginia from Pennsylvania. 
His father died intestate when the son was fourteen 
years old, and left the family to his care. He was 
the eldest son, and by the laws of England, which 
were then in force in Virginia, was heir to the 
entire estate ; but he divided it with his mother, 
brothers, and sisters. He then went westward, 
purchased and cultivated a farm on Holston river, 
and soon afterward married. When twenty-one 
years old he accompanied Col. Henry Bouquet as 
sergeant in his expedition against the northern 
Indians, and in 1774 he served in the Dunniore 
war. In 1775 he joined Daniel Boone and others, 
who were then on their way to Kentucky. When 
they were near their destination, Logan separated 
from the main party and began the construction 
of the stockade that was known afterward as Lo- 
gan's Fort, whither in 177G he removed his family. 
It was one mile east of Stanford, Ky., and its site 
is styled to-day St. Asaph's Spring. On 20 May, 
1777," Logan's Fort was invested by Indians in am- 
bush, and at the morning's milking the men who 
stood guard were fired upon, and one killed and 
one mortally and a third helplessly wounded. 
The others escaped with the women to Fort Harri- 
son. The third wounded man was rescued by 
Logan, who took him in his arms and bore him 
within the walls, amidst a shower of bullets. The 
garrison was thirty-five — men, women, and children 
— and the defence was now but twelve guns. The 
siege lasted for weeks, and the ammunition ran 
low. Logan selected two trusty comrades, crept 
out of the fort at nightfall, leaving but nine 
guns to defend it, and, pursuing unbeaten paths 
through the forest, reached Holston, 150 miles dis- 
tant, where he obtained supplies. At last, in 
September, a re-enforcement of 100 well - armed 
mounted men raised the siege. Afterward Logan 
repeatedly led his men in pursuit of predatory 
bands of savages in his vicinity. On one occasion 
his right arm was broken by a bullet, and he barely 
escaped with his life. Logan was second in com- 
mand under Col. John Bowman of an expedition 
against the Shawnees, and with 150 men invested 
the town of Chill icothe on one side, while Bow- 
man, with an equal number, was to attack the 
opposite side. After waiting all night for the 
signal, Logan's party assaulted the village in the 
morning ; but at this moment, when victory seemed 

assured, a messenger arrived from Col. Bowman 
with orders to retreat. Logan's men were soon 
found, and united themselves to Bowman's party, 
who, from some strange panic of their commander, 
had stood all night near the spot where Logan had 
left them. By great exertions some degree of 
order was restored and the retreat begun. The 
Indians surrounded and assailed them furiously on 
all sides. Logan and his aides formed the men in 
a large hollow square, and after several combats 
drove off the savages. A part of Chillicothe, with 
much property, was destroyed, and 160 horses 
brought away. The next important affair in 
which Gen. Logan engaged was to lead the main 
body of volunteer re-enforcements to the relief 
of Bryan's station, and the pursuit of the savages 
under Simon Girty. The haste of the advanced 
guard in not waiting for Logan's party led to the 
fatal battle of the Blue Licks. In 1788 Logan led a 
force of 600 men against the northwestern Indian 
towns, engaged in several skirmishes, and destroyed 
many houses and large fields of growing crops. 
For the remainder of his life he quietly pursued 
his favorite occupation of farming in Shelby 
county, where he had removed. He took an active 
interest in public affairs, and was a member of the 
conventions that framed the first constitution of 
1792 and that of 1799. He repeatedly held a seat 
in the legislature. Logan is described as six feet 
two or three inches in height, powerfully framed, 
of iron nerves and will, and great courage. — His 
brother, John, for years his comrade and friend, 
was a leader in the military events of his day, 
several times a legislator, and secretary of state 
of Kentucky. — Benjamin's eldest son, WiHiani, 
jurist, b. in Harrod's Fort, Ky., 8 Dec, 1776 ; d. in 
Shelby county, Ky., 8 Aug., 1822, was probably the 
first white child born in Kentucky. Gen. Logan had 
brought out his wife from Logan's Fort but a few 
months before the birth of William, and placed her 
at the safer station. He removed with his father's 
family in early life from Lincoln to Shelby county, 
where he resided until his death. At twenty-three 
he was a member of the second Constitutional con- 
vention of 1799. He was educated at the best schools 
of the country, prepared himself by a course of study 
for the practice of law, and rapidly attained emi- 
nence in the profession. He was a legislator from 
Shelby county, and twice appointed judge of the 
appellate court of Kentucky, under the powers 
conferred on the governor before the adoption of 
the present constitution in 1849. In 1820 he was 
elected to the U. S. senate, but resigned before his 
term expired to accept a nomination for governor, 
in which contest he was defeated by John Adair. 

LOGAN, CorneHus Ambrosius, dramatist, b. 
in Baltimore, Md,, 4 May, 1806 ; d. on Ohio river 
near Wheeling, Va., 23 Feb., 1853. He was of Irish 
parentage, and was educated for the priesthood at 
St. Mary's college, but entered a shipping-house, 
made several trips to Europe as supercargo, and 
subsequently assisted Paul Allen in editing the 
" Baltimor'3 Morning Chronicle." Afterward he 
became connected with William Leggett in an un- 
successful attempt to establish a penny paper in 
New York city, and then became a dramatic critic 
in Philadelphia. Soon afterward he adopted the 
stage as a profession, appearing in tragedy in Phila- 
delphia in July, 1835, but later preferred comedy, 
which he played in the first Bowery theatre. New 
York, in 1828, and, after appearing in Canada, was 
called to Philadelphia after the death of Jefferson 
to fill his place. He built here a theatre, which 
was destroyed by fire. He then removed to Cin- 
cinnati in 1840, where he became a pioneer theatri- 




cal manager, residing there until his death. He 
was a bold defender of the stage against pulpit 
attacks, and his reply to a sermon by Lyman 
Beecher was widely copied. He wrote several suc- 
cessful plays, including "Yankee Land" (1834); 
"The Wag of^Maine" (1835); "The Wool-Dealer," 
written for Dan Marble ; " Removing the Depos- 
its," " Astarte,'\ an adaptation of Shelley's " Cenci," 
"A Hundred "^^ears Hence," a burlesque, and a 
comedy entitled "Chloroform." He also wrote 
various tales and poems, one of which, " The Mis- 
sissippi," attracted favorable notice. — His daugh- 
ter, Eliza, actress, b. in Philadelphia, 18 Aug., 
1839 ; d. in New York city, 15 Jan., 1872, was edu- 
cated at Lancaster, Pa., and made her debut at 
the age of eleven in Philadelphia. In 1850 she ap- 
peared in New York as " Pauline " in " The Lady 
of Lyons." In 1859 she married George Wood, a 
theatrical manager, bought Wood's theatre, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, and, retiring from the stage, removed to 
that city. Subsequently Mr. Wood bought Wood's 
museum in New York. — His son, CorneHus Am- 
brose, physician, b. in DeerfielcJ, Mass., 6 Aug., 
1836, was educated at Auburn academy, and served 
as medical superintendent of St. John's hospital in 
Cincinnati, and subsequently as professor in the 
hospital in Leavenworth, Kan. In 1873 he was ap- 
pointed U. S. minister to Chili, and he was after- 
ward minister to Guatemala, and again to Chili in 
1881, remaining there until 1883. He was editor 
of the " Medical Herald," Leavenworth, Kan., for 
twelve years, and he has edited the works of Gen. 
John A. Logan (1886), and contributed to the Lon- 
don " Lancet." His publications are " Report on 
the Sanitary Relations of the State of Kansas" 
(Lawrence, 1866) ; " On the Climatology of the 
Missouri Valley " ; and " Physics of Infectious Dis- 
eases " (Chicago, 1878). — Another daughter, CeHa, 
journalist, b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 17 Dec, 1839, 
acted with her sister Eliza at an early age, and was 
subsequently educated in London. She became a 
correspondent of American journals and wrote for 
magazines. During the civil war of 1861-'5 she 
resided in Milan, Italy, translating the war news 
for newspapers. Afterward she settled in Wash- 
ington, where she became associate editor of " The 
Capital." She has written several dramas, includ- 
ing " An American Marriage " (1884). In 1872 
she married James F. Connelly. — Another daugh- 
ter, Oliye, actress, b. in Elmira, N. Y., 16 April, 
1841, made her debut in Philadelphia in 1854, and 
went to England in 1857, where she was graduated 
at a female college. She married Henry A. Delille 
in April, 1857, but was divorced in December, 1865. 
She reappeared in New York at Wallack's theatre 
in 1864 in "Eveleen," a play of which she was the 
author. She retired in 1868, and since then has 
been a lecturer, principally on woman's rights and 
other social topics, and has contributed largely to 
newspapers. After her retirement from the stage 
she married William Wirt Sikes in 1871, who died 
in 1883, and while he was U. S. consul at Cardiff, 
Wales, corresponded with American periodicals un- 
der her maiden name. She has written plays, lec- 
tures, and books, the latter including "Chateau 
Frissac " (New York, 1860) ; " Photographs of Par- 
is " (London, 1860) ; " Women and Theatres " (New 
York, 1869) ; and " Before the Footlights and Be- 
hind the Scenes: a Book about the Show Busi- 
ness" (Cincinnati, 1870). 

LOGtAN, George, surgeon, b. in Charleston, S. 
C, 4 Jan., 1778 ; d. in New Orleans, 13 Feb., 1861. 
He was graduated in medicine at the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1802, and for fifty years practised 
his profession in Charleston, S. C., where he was 

^C<-txi/tX^ C^f^QOKAyVt^ 

appointed surgeon in the U. S. navy, 21 April, 1810, 
and resigned, 16 June, 1829. He served as hospital 
surgeon to the navy-yard. He was the author of 
a popular work on diseases of children. 

LOGAN, James, statesman, b. in Lurgan, County 
Armagh, Ireland, 20 Oct., 1674 ; d. near (German- 
town, Pa., 31 Oct., 1751. He was of Scotch-Irish 
parentage, and descended from Logan of Restalrig, 
Scotland, whose estates were confiscated for connec- 
tion with the Gowrie conspiracy against James VI. 
Before the age of 
thirteen he had ac- 
quired Latin, Greek, 
and Hebrew, and he 
afterward studied 
mathematics and 
modern languages. 
He was sent to Lon- 
don, and apprenticed 
to a linen - draper, 
but, the campaign 
that ended in the 
battle of the Boyne 
having begun, he 
was recalled to ac- 
company his parents 
in their flight to 
Edinburgh. Subse- 
quently they settled 
in Bristol, England, 
where James resumed his studies and assisted his 
father in his school. He engaged in commerce in 
1698, and in 1699 came to this country with Will- 
iam Penn, as his secretary, arriving in Philadelphia 
in December, 1699. He resided with Penn in " the 
slate-roof house " on Second street, and continued 
there after Penn returned to England in 1701. He 
became provincial secretary, commissioner of prop- 
erty, and receiver-general, and was the business 
agent for the Penn family, and the champion of 
their interests in the colony. In 1702 he entered 
the provincial council, of which body he was a mem- 
ber until 1747. In 1704-'5 he became embroiled in 
Gov. John Evans's disputes with the assembly. In 
October, 1705, he visited the Indians at Conestoga, 
and in subsequent embassies gained their esteem 
and confidence, and as a testimony of their regard 
the chief, Logan, was named for him. On 26 Feb., 
1707, he was impeached by the assembly, which 
charged him, among other things, with illegally 
inserting in the governor's commission certain 
clauses contrary to the royal charter, and with il- 
legally holding two incompatible offices, the sur- 
veyor-generalship and the secretaryship. Logan's 
answer was filled with personal abuse, and on 25 
Nov., when he was preparing to sail for England, 
the house ordered that he should be detained in the 
county jail until he should make satisfaction for his 
reflections on sundry members ; but the sheriff re- 
fused to obey, and Logan sailed a few days after- 
ward, returning in 1712. In 1715 he was com- 
missioned a justice of the court of common pleas, 
quarter sessions, and orphan's court, and in 1723 
became presiding judge of the common pleas. In 
1723 he became mayor of Philadelphia, and at the 
close of his term went abroad again to consult with 
Hannah Penn. From 1731 till 1739 he filled the 
office of chief-justice of the supreme court, and as 
president of the council, after the death of Gov. 
Gordon in 1736, acted as governor for two years. 
The latter years of his life were spent in retire- 
ment at his country-seat " Stenton," now in Phila- 
delphia, devoted to science and literature. He cor- 
responded with many scientists, and Linnaeus gave 
the name Logan to a class of plants in his honor. 



He was one of the founders, and a member of the 
first board of trustees (1749), of the college in Phila- 
delphia, now the University of Pennsylvania. In 
1725 he became involved in a controversy with 
Gov. Keith, and, in support of his part, published 
" The Antidote " (Philadelphia, 1725) ; " A Memo- 
rial from James Logan, in Behalf of the Proprie- 
tor's Family and of Himself, Servant to the said 
Family " (1725) ; and also, in the same year, " A Dia- 
logue showing. What's therein to be Found," this 
being an answer to Rawle's " Ways and Means." In 
1735 he communicated to Peter Collinson, of Lon- 
don, an account of his experiments on maize, with 
a view of investigating the sexual doctrine. This 
was printed in '* Philosophical Transactions," and 
afterward enlarged and printed in a Latin essay 
entitled " Experimenta Meletemata de Plantarum 
Generatione" (Leyden, 1739; London, 1747). He 
was also the author of " Epistola ad Virum Clarissi- 
mum Joannem Albertum Fabricium " (Amsterdam, 
1740) ; " Demonstrationes de Radiorum Lucis in 
Superficies sphericus ab Axe incidentium a primario 
Foco Aberrationibus " (Leyden, 1741); and an an- 
notated translation of Cicero's " De Senectute," 
with notes and a preface by Dr. Benjamin Frank- 
lin (Philadelphia, 1744 ; London, 1750). The first 
edition of this was printed by Franklin, and is re- 
garded as the finest production of his press. It 
was reprinted at Glasgow in 1751 and 1758, at Lon- 
don in 1750 and 1778, and at Philadelphia in 1758 
and 1812, with Franklin's name falsely inscribed 
on the title-page of the last-mentioned edition. He 
also rendered Cato's " Distichs " into English verse, 
wrote numerous essays on ethics and philosophy, 
and left translations of Greek authors in manu- 
script. He was a member of the Society of 
Friends, and addressed a letter to that body dur- 
ing the war between Spain and Great Britain, ad- 
vising it not to procure the election of its mem- 
bers to the assembly, which letter was not allowed 
to be^ read. The following is an extract from his 
will l3equeathing to the city of Philadelphia a li- 
brary of over 2,000 volumes : " In my library, which 
I have left to the city of Philadelphia, for the ad- 
vancement and facilitating of classical learning, 
are above one hundred volumes of authors, in fo- 
lio, all in Greek, with mostly their versions ; all 
the Roman classics without exception ; all the 
Greek mathematicians, viz., Archimedes, Euclid, 
Ptolemy, both his ' Geography ' and ' Almagest,' 
which I had in Greek (with Timon's ' Commentary,' 
in folio, about seven hundred pages) from my 
learned friend Fabricius, who published fourteen 
volumes of his ' Bibliotheque Grecque,' in quarto, 
in which, after he had finished his account of 
Ptolemy, on my inquiring from him, at Hamburg, 
how I should find it, having long sought for it in 
vain in England, he sent it to me out of his own 
library, telling me it was so scarce that neither 
price nor prayers could purchase it. Besides these 
are many of the most valuable Latin authors, and 
a great number of modern and ancient mathemati- 
cians, with all the editions of Newton, Dr. Watts, 
Halley, etc." This collection was annexed in 1792 
to the library that was established by Franklin. 
It has been kept separate under the name of the 
Loganian library, and received in 1828 an acces- 
sion of 5,000 volumes by the bequest of William 
Mackenzie. See " Memoirs of Logan," by W. Ar- 
mistead. — His son, William, lawver, b. in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., 14 May, 1718 ; d. there." 28 Oct., 1776, was 
sent at the age of twelve to his uncle. Dr. William 
Logan, in Bristol, England, and on his return to 
this country became attorney for the Penn family, 
with his father, upon whose death he became owner 

of " Stenton," and devoted his life to agriculture. 
He was a councilman of Philadelphia from 1743 
till 1776, when the meetings of the corporation 
were discontinued. He received Indians at his 
house, gave the aged a settlement on his land, and 
educated the young with his own means. He took 
no active part in the Revolutionary war. With 
his brother he deeded the library property to Israel 
Pemberton, Jr., William Allen, Richard Peters, 
and Benjamin Franklin, to be with William Logan 
and his brother, James Logan, the trustees or man- 
agers ; and acted as librarian until his death. He 
added to the collection the books bequeathed to 
him by his uncle, about 1,300 volumes. — William's 
son, George, senator, b. in Stenton, Pa., 9 Sept., 
1753; d. there, 9 April, 1821, went abroad and 
studied three years at the medical school of Edin- 
burgh, where he received his degree in 1779. He 
then travelled on the continent, and on his return 
to this country in the autumn of 1780 devoted him- 
self to scientific agriculture. He served several 
terms in the legislature, and in June, 1798, went to 
France on his own responsibility for the purpose 
of averting war between that country and the 
L^nited States. He persuaded the French govern- 
ment to annul the embargo on American shipping, 
and prepared the way for a negotiation that ter- 
minated in peace. On his return he was denounced 
by the Federalists, who procured the passage in 
congress of the so-called " Logan act," making it a 
high misdemeanor for an individual citizen to take 
part in a controversy between the United States 
and a foreign power. He vindicated himself in a 
letter dated 12 Jan.. 1799. He was elected U. S. 
senator from Pennsylvania as a Democrat in place 
of Peter Muhlenberg, resigned, serving from 7 Dec, 
1801, till 3 March, 1807. In 1810 he went to Eng- 
land as a self-constituted agent to attempt a recon- 
ciliation between Great Britain and the United 
States, but was unsuccessful. Dr. Logan was a 
member of the American philosophical society. 
He was probably the only strict member of the 
Society of Friends that ever sat in the U. S. senate. 
He published " Experiments on Gypsum," and " Ro- 
tation of Crops" (1797), and was also the author of 
other pamphlets on agricultural subjects. 

LOGAN, James Tenable, clergyman, b. in 
Scott county, Ky., 11 July, 1835. After gradua- 
tion at Centre college in 1854 and at Danville the- 
ological seminary in 1860, he was called to the 
pastorate of the Presbyterian church at Harrods- 
burg, where he remained for eight years. For a 
short time afterward he edited the " Free Christian 
Commonwealth," and since then he has identified 
himself with Central university, Richmond, Ky. 
In 1873 he was elected to the chair of metaphysics, 
and m 1879 to that of ethics. The following year 
he was made president, in which office he contin- 
ues (1887) to serve. He was active in founding the 
institution, and contributed $10,000 toward it. • 

LOGAN, John, Indian chief, b. about 1725; 
killed near Lake Erie in the summer of 1780. He 
was the son of Shikellamy, chief of the Cayugas, 
and bore the Indian name of Tah-gah-jute, but 
was given an English name taken from that of 
William Penn's secretary, James Logan, who was a 
friend of the Indians. Logan was brought up on 
Shamokin creek, near the Moravian settlement, 
and lived in familiar and friendly intercourse with 
the whiles. In his early manhood he was known 
throughout the frontier of Virginia and Pennsyl- 
vania for his fine presence and his engaging quali- 
ties. He lived for many years near Reedsville, Pa., 
where he supported his family by killing wild ani- 
mals in the mountains and dressing the skins in 



the Indian fashion to be sold to the whites. He 
was there chosen by the Mingoes as their chief. 
About 1770 he removed to the banks of the Ohio, 
where he becam/e addicted to drinking. In the 
spring of 1774 his family were massacred by set- 
tlers on the Qhio while carousing in the cabin of 
a trader. Lo^an sent a declaration of war to Mi- 
chael Cresap, whom he supposed, though wrong- 
fully, to have ordered the massacre, and then at 
once instigated a war against the scattered settlers 
of the far west, and for several months fearful 
barbarities were perpetrated upon men, women, 
and children. He himself took thirty scalps in 
the course of the war, which terminated after a 
severe defeat of the Indians at the mouth of the 
Great Kanawha. He disdained to appear among 
the chiefs who subsequently sued for peace. Lord 
Dunmore, the governor of Virginia, sent John Gib- 
son as his messenger to invite the old clftef to at- 
tend the council ; but the latter took Gibson into 
the woods, and, after tearfully recounting the story 
of his wrongs, sent back the following message: 
" I appeal to any white man to say if ever he en- 
tered Logan's cabin hungry, and he gave him not 
meat ; if ever he' came cold and naked, and he 
clothed him not. During the course of the last 
long and bloody war Logan remained idle in his 
cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my love 
for the whites that my countrymen pointed as they 
passed and said : ' Logan is the friend of the white 
men.' I had even thought to have lived with you 
but for the injuries of one man. Col. Cresap, the 
last spring, in cold blood and unprovoked, mur- 
dered all the relations of Logan, not even sparing 
my women and children. There runs not a drop 
of my blood in the veins of any living creature. 
This called on me for revenge. 1 have sought it ; 
I have killed many ; I have fully glutted my ven- 
geance. For my country I rejoice at the beams of 
peace. But do not harbor a thought that mine is 
the joy of fear ; Logan never felt fear. He will 
not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is there 
to mourn for Logan? Not one." His habits of 
intemperance grew upon him after this, and while 
frenzied with liquor he felled his wife by a sudden 
blow. Thinking that he had killed her he fled, 
and while traversing the wilderness between De- 
troit and Sandusky was overtaken by a party of 
Indians. Supposing his avengers at hand, he pre- 
pared to attack them, and was killed by a nephew 
in self-defence. Logan's pathetic speech was re- 
peated by Gibson to Lord Dunmore. It was writ- 
ten down by an officer, printed in the " Virginia 
Gazette," and has been preserved by Thomas Jef- 
ferson in his " Notes on Virginia." See " Ta-gah- 
jute, or Logan, the Indian, and Captain Michael 
Cresap," by Brantz Mayer (New York, 1867). 

LOGAN, John Alexander, statesman, b. in 
Jackson county. 111., 9 Feb., 1826 ; d. in Washington, 
D. C, 26 Dec, 1886. His father, Dr. John Logan, 
oame from Ireland when a young man and set- 
tled in Maryland, but removed to Kentucky, thence 
to Missouri, and finally to Illinois. He served 
several terms in the legislature, having been 
chosen as a Democrat, and held several county offi- 
ces. The son was educated at a common school and 
under a private tutor. This instruction was sup- 
plemented, in 1840, by attendance at Shiloh col- 
lege. When war with Mexico was declared, he 
volunteered as a private, but was soon chosen a 
lieutenant in the 1st Illinois infantry. He did good 
service as a soldier, and for some time was act- 
ing quartermaster of his regiment. After his re- 
turn from Mexico he began the study of law with 
his uncle, Alexander M. Jenkins, and in 1849 was 


elected clerk of Jackson county, but resigned to 
continue the study of law. In 1851 he was gradu- 
ated at Louisville university, admitted to the bar, 
and became his uncle's partner. He soon grew 
popular, and his forcible style of oratory, pleasing 
address, and fine voice, secured his election to the 
legislature in 1852 and again in 1856. At the end 
of his first term he resumed practice with such suc- 
cess that he was 
soon chosen prose- 
cuting attorney for 
the 3d judicial dis- 
trict. In 1852 he 
removed to Benton, 
Franklin co.. 111. 
He was a presiden- 
tial elector in 1856 
on the Buchanan 
and Breckinridge 
ticket. In 1858 he 
was elected to con- 
gress from Illinois 
as a Douglas Dem- 
ocrat, and was re- 
elected in 1860. In 
the presidential 
campaign of that 
year he earnestly advocated the election of Stephen 
A. Douglas ; but, on the first intimation of coming 
trouble from the south, he declared that, in the 
event of the election of Abraham Lincoln, he 
would " shoulder his musket to have him inaugu- 
rated." In July, 1861, during the extra session of 
congress that was called by President Lincoln, he 
left his seat, overtook the troops that were march- 
ing out of Washington to meet the enemy, and 
fought in the ranks of Col. Eichardson's regiment 
in the battle of Bull Run, being among the last to 
leave the field. Returning home in the latter part 
of August, he resigned his seat in congress, organ- 
ized the 31st Illinois infantry, and was appointed 
its colonel, 13 Sept. At Belmont in November he 
led a successful bayonet-charge and a horse was 
shot under him. He led his regiment in the at- 
tack on Fort Henry, and at Fort Donelson, while 
gallantly leading the assault, received a wound 
that incapacitated him for active service for some 
time. After he had reported for duty to Gen. Grant 
at Pittsburg Landing, he was made a brigadier- 
general of volunteers, 5 March, 1862. He took an 
important part in the movement against Corinth, 
and subsequently was given the command at Jack- 
son, Tenn., with instructions to guard the railroad 
communications. In the summer of 1862 his con- 
stituents urged him to become a candidate for re- 
election to congress, but he declined, saying in his 
letter : " I have entered the field to die, if need be, 
for this government, and never expect to return to 
peaceful pursuits until the object of this war of 
preservation has become a fact established." Dur- 
ing Grant's northern Mississippi campaign Gen. 
Logan commanded the 3d division of the 17th 
army corps under Gen. McPherson, and was pro- 
moted major-general of volunteers, to date from 
26 Nov., 1862. He participated in the battles of 
Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, and Champion 
Hills. In the siege of Vicksburg he commanded 
McPherson's centre, and on 25 June made the as- 
sault after the explosion of the mine. His column 
was the first to enter the captured city, and he was 
appointed its military governor. He succeeded 
Gen. Sherman in the command of the 15th army 
corps in November,- 1863. In May, 1864, he joined 
Sherman's army, which was preparing for its 
march into Georgia, led the advance of the Army 




of the Tennessee in the fight at Resaca, repulsed 
Hardee's veterans at Dallas, and drove the enemy 
from his line of works at Kenesaw Mountain. 
Gen. Sherman says in his report of the battle of 
Atlanta, speaking of Gen. McPherson's death: 
" Gen. Logan succeeded him and commanded the 
Army of the Tennessee through this desperate bat- 
tle with the same success and ability that had 
characterized him in the command of a corps or 
division." In fact it was mainly his skill and de- 
termination that saved Sherman's army from a 
serious disaster during that engagement. After 
the fall of Atlanta, 1 Sept., 1864, he went home 
and took an active part in the presidential cam- 
paign of that year. He rejoined his troops, who 
had accompanied Gen. Sherman in his famous 
" march to the sea," at Savannah, and remained in 
active service with Sherman's army till the sur- 
render of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, 26 April, 1865. 
On 23 May he was appointed to the command of 
the Army of the Tennessee ; but, as soon as active 
service in the field was over, he resigned his com- 
mission, saying that he did not wish to draw pay 
when not on active duty. He was appointed min- 
ister to Mexico by President Johnson, but de- 
clined. In 1866 he was elected a representative 
from Illinois to the 40th congress as a Republican, 
and served as one of the managers in the impeach- 
ment trial of President Johnson. He was re- 
elected to the 41st congress, and did good service 
as chairman of the committee on military affairs 
in securing the passage of an act for the reduction 
of the army. He was re-elected to the 42d con- 
gress, but before that body convened he was chosen 
by the Illinois legislature U. S. senator for the 
term beginning 4 March, 1871. He succeeded 
Vice-President Wilson as chairman of the senate 
committee on military affairs at the beginning of 
the third session of the 42d congress, 2 Dec. 1872. 
After the expiration of his term of service, 3 March, 
1877, he resumed the practice of law in Chicago. 
He was again returned to the U. S. senate, and 
took his seat on the convening of that body in ex- 
tra session, 18 March, 1879. Both in the house 
and senate he maintained his reputation for brill- 
iancy and success. While a representative his more 
important speeches were " On Reconstruction," 12 
July, 1867 ; " On the Impeachment of President 
Johnson," 22 Feb., 1868 ; " Principles of the Demo- 
cratic Party," 16 July, 1868 ; and " Removing the 
Capitol," 22 Jan., 1870. In the senate he spoke in 
" Vindication of President Grant against the At- 
tack of Charles Sumner," 3 June, 1872 ; in reply to 
Senator Gordon on the " Ku-klux in Louisiana," 
13 Jan., 1875 ; " On the Equalization of Bounties 
of Soldiers, Sailors, and Marines of the late War 
for the Union," 2 March, 1875 ; and " On the Pow- 
er of the Government to enforce the United States 
Laws," 28 June, 1879. On 6 June, 1880, he deliv- 
ered an able speech on the Fitz-John Porter case, 
maintaining, as he always had done, that Gen. 
Porter had been justly condemned and should not 
be restored to his rank in the army. At the Re- 
publican national convention in Chicago in June, 
1884, on the first ballot for a candidate for presi- 
dent. Gen. Logan received 63^ votes against 334^ 
for James G. Blaine, 278 for Chester A. Arthur, 
and 93 for George F. Edmunds. After the subse- 
quent nomination of Mr. Blaine, Gen. Logan was 
nominated for vice-president. When Gen. Logan's 
sudden death was announced to him, James G. 
Blaine thus briefly summarized his character : 
" Gen. Logan was a man of immense force in a 
legislative body. His will was unbending, his 
courage, both moral and physical, was of the high- 

est order. I never knew a more fearless man. He 
did not quail before public opinion when he had 
once made up his mind any more than he did be- 
fore the guns of the enemy when he headed a 
charge of his enthusiastic troops. In debate he 
was aggressive and effective. ... I have had occa- 
sion to say before, and I now repeat, that, while 
there have been more illustrious military leaders in 
the United States and more illustrious leaders in 
legislative halls, there has, I think, been no man 
in this country who has combined the two careers 
in so eminent a degree as Gen. Logan." His per- 
sonal appearance was striking. He was of medium 
height, with a robust physical development, a 
broad and deep chest, massive body, and small 
hands and feet. He had fine and regular feat- 
ures, a swarthy complexion, long jet-black hair, a 
heavy moustache and dark eyes. Gen. Logan pub- 
lished " The Great Conspiracy," a large volume re- 
lating to the civil war (New York, 1886), and " The 
Volunteer Soldier of America " (Chicago, 1887). 
See " Life and Services of John A. Logan," by 
George Francis Dawson (Chicago, 1887). — His wife, 
Mary Simmerson Cunningham, daughter of 
John M. Cunningham, b. in Petersburg, Boone co.. 
Mo., 15 Aug., 1838, lived amid the hardships of 
frontier life, and was subsequently sent to the Con- 
vent of St. Vincent in Kentucky. On leaving that 
institution she assisted in preparing the papers 
that were needed by her father, who, on his re- 
turn from the Black Hawk and Mexican wars, 
had been elected sheriff and county clerk of Will- 
iamson county, and appointed register of the land 
office at Shawneetown, Gallatin co., Ill, by Presi- 
dent Pierce. Blank forms for any legal docu- 
ments were then rare, and Miss Cunningham, 
through her industry in her father's case, supplied 
the deficiency. While thus engaged she met Gen. 
Logan, who was at that time prosecuting attorney. 
She was married, 27 Nov., 1855, and was identified 
with her husband's career, becoming his best ad- 
viser in the gravest crises of political and civil life. 

LOGAN, John Henry, b. in Abbeville dis- 
trict, S. C, 5 Nov., 1822 ;' d. in Atlanta, Ga., 28 
March, 1885. He was graduated at South Carolina 
college in 1844, and at Charleston medical college 
a few years later. After practising for some time 
and teaching at Abbeville, S. C, he served as a 
surgeon in a Confederate regiment, and at its con- 
clusion removed to Talladega county, Ala. He 
subsequently became professor of chemistry in the 
Atlanta, Ga., medical college. Dr. Logan is the au- 
thor of a " History of the Upper Country of South 
Carolina " (vol. i., Charleston, 1859). only the first 
volume of which was finished, and the " Student's 
Manual of Chemico-Physics " (Atlanta, 1879). 

LOGAN, John Wesley, bishop of the Zion 
M. E. church, b. in North Carolina about 1810 ; d. 
in Syracuse, N. Y., 23 Sept., 1872. He was a slave 
until the age of twenty, when he ran away to Can- 
ada. In the anti-slavery days he was a zealous and 
active agent, with Gerrit Smith, Lewis Tappan, 
Putnam, Wright, and others, in the " Underground 
railroad." He settled in Syracuse in 1847, where 
he became a minister of the Zion Methodist Epis- 
copal church, and ultimately a bishop. 

LOGAN, Stephen Trigg, jurist, b. in Franklin 
county, Ky., 24 Feb., 1800 ; d. in Springfield, 111., 17 
July, 1880"^. He was educated at Frankfort, Ky., 
and when only thirteen years of age was employed 
as a clerk in the office of the secretary of state. 
He went to Glasgow, Ky., in 1817, studied law, and 
was admitted to the bar before he was twenty-one^ 
but did not at once engage in practice. Subse- 
quently he was appointed commonwealth's attor- 



^cl^C^je^ iT^oCcf^p' - 

ney, and followed his profession for ten years in 
Barren and the adjoining counties. Becoming pe- 
cuniarily embarrassed, he emigrated in 1832 to 
Sangammon county, 111., and in the following 
spring opened ajlaw-office in Springfield, where he 

soon won reputa- 
tion throughout 
the s.tate. In 1835 
he was elected 
judge of the 1st ju- 
dicial circuit of the 
state, and in 1842 
he was chosen to 
the legislature, and 
again in 1844 and 
1846. In 1847 he 
was a delegate to 
the convention that 
framed the Illinois 
constitution. His 
efforts, both in the 
legislature and in 
the convention, 
w^e specially directed to securing economy in the 
public expenditures, and to making adequate pro- 
vision for the payment of the state debt. For the 
next six years he devoted himself exclusively to his 
profession, and from 1841 till 1844 had as his law- 
partner Abraham Lincoln. In 1854 he was elected 
for the fourth time to the lower branch of the gen- 
eral assembly. In 1860 he was a delegate from the 
state at large to the Chicago Republican national 
convention, and early in February, 1861, he was 
appointed by the governor of Illinois one of five 
commissioners to represent the state in the National 
peace convention at Washington, in which he took 
an active part. This was Judge Logan's last ap- 
pearance on any great public occasion. He retired 
soon afterward from politics, and gradually with- 
drew from the pursuit of his profession, but main- 
tained his interest in current events. As an advo- 
cate he stood at the head of the bar in his adopted 
state. Judge David Davis has said of him : " In 
all the elements that constitute a great ' nisi prius ' 
lawyer, I have never known his equal." See " Me- 
morials of the Life and Character of Stephen T. 
Logan " (Springfield, III, 1882). 

LOGAN, Thomas Muldrup, physician, b. in 
Charleston, S. C, 31 Jan., 1808. He was graduated 
at Charleston medical college in 1828, and sub- 
sequently acted as co-editor of a work on surgery. 
Removing to the Pacific coast he turned his atten- 
tion to the meteorology and climatic conditions of 
that part of the country. In 1873 he was chosen 
president of the American medical association, and 
in 1875 he was secretary to the California board of 
health. He is the author of " The Topography of 
California," and " Climate of California " and " Me- 
teorological Observations at Sacramento " in re- 
ports of the Smithsonian institution (1855-7). He 
has also contributed largely to the " Transactions 
of the American Medical Association." 

LOGAN, Sir WiUiani Edmond, Canadian ge- 
ologist, b. in Montreal, 20 April, 1798 ; d. in Wales, 
22 June, 1875. His grandfather, James Logan, 
a native of Stirling, Scotland, settled in Montreal 
with his family in 1784. After attending a pub- 
lic school in that city, William, in 1814, attended 
the high-school of Edinburgh, and afterward Edin- 
burgh university, where he was graduated in 1817. 
In 1818 he entered the mercantile office of his 
uncle. Hart Logan, of London, and later became a 
partner in the firm. After a short visit to Canada, 
where his attention had been directed to the geo- 
logical characteristics of the country, he went to 

Swansea, South Wales, as manager of copper-smelt- 
ing and coal-mining operations, in which his uncle 
was interested. He remained in charge until 
shortly after his uncle's death in 1838. During 
the seven years that he spent in South Wales he 
devoted himself to the study of the coal-fields of 
that' region, and his minute and accurate maps and 
sections were adopted by the ordnance geological 
survey,, and published by the government. He 
was the first to demonstrate that the stratum of 
clay that underlies coal-beds was the soil in which 
the' coal vegetation grew, and thereby refuted the 
drift theory of the origin of coal. In 1841 he 
visited the coal-fields of Pennsylvania and Nova 
Scotia, and communicated several valuable memoirs 
on the subject to the Geological society of London. 
At this time he began the examination of the older 
palaeozoic rocks of Canada, and in 1842 he was 
soon placed at the head of the geological survey of 
Canada, after refusing a highly advantageous offer 
of a similar place in India. In the course of his 
investigations upon the rocks of the eastern town- 
ships of Lower Canada, which are a continuation 
of those of New England, Sir William showed that, 
instead of being primitive azoic rocks, as had been 
supposed, they are altered and crystallized palaeozoic 
strata. This fact, which is the key to the geology 
of northeastern America, had been before sus- 
pected, but had not been demonstrated. The 
rocks that form the Laurentian and Adirondack 
mountains, previously regarded as unstratified, 
he found to be disturbed and altered sedimen- 
tary deposits of vast thickness. In 1851 Sir 
William represented Canada in the great exhibi- 
tion in London, and had charge of the geological 
collection that had been made by himself, or under 
his immediate direction. He was also a commis- 
sioner from Canada at the industrial exhibition in 
Paris in 1855, when he received from the imperial 
commission the grand gold medal of honor, and 
was created a knight of the Legion of honor. 
After the accession of the maritime provinces to 
the Dominion of Canada, he made an elaborate 
study of the coal-fields of Pictou, Nova Scotia. 
The results of his labors will be found in the re- 
ports of the geological survey of Canada, and in 
a very complete map of northeastern America, 
prepared by him with the aid of Prof. James 
Hall. He was knighted in 1856, and in the same 
year received from the London geological socie- 
ty the Wollaston palladium medal. He afterward 
received the Copley medal from the Royal so- 
ciety of London, of which and of many other 
learned societies he was long a member. Sir 
William was also for many years one of the cor- 
poration of the University of McGill college in 
Montreal, from which he received the degree of 
LL. D., and in which he had endowed the chair of 
geology. He communicated numerous articles to 
the Geological society of London and to the 
" American Journal of Science and Arts." His 
works are found in his " Annual Reports of the 
Progress of the Canadian Survey," in the " Pro- 
ceedings of the British Association," and in those 
of the Geological society. He also contributed to 
the Geological survey of Great Britain. 

LOHER, Franz von, German author, b. in 
Paderborn, Westphalia, 15 Oct., 1818. He studied 
law, history, natural science, and art at Halle, Mu- 
nich, Freiburg, and Berlin, and travelled exten- 
sively in Europe, Canada, and the United States in 
1846-7. On his return he took an active part in 
the political uprising in Germany in 1848. He 
founded the " Westphalische Zeitung," and was 
imprisoned by the government for political agita- 




tion, but was shortly afterward acquitted after a 
trial. In 1849 he became assessor of the court of 
appeal in Paderborn, and was afterward professor 
in the universities of Munich and Gottingen. 
Among his works are " Geschichte der Deutschen 
in Amerika" (1848) and "Land und Leute in der 
alten und neuen Welt " (3 vols., 1857-'8). 

LOMAX, John Tayloe, jurist, b. in Port To- 
bago, Caroline co., Va., in January, 1781 ; d. in 
Fredericksburg. Va., 10 Oct., 1862. He was gradu- 
ated at St. eTohn's college, Annapolis, in 1797, 
studied law, and began practice at Port Royal, 
Va. He removed to Fredericksburg in 1805, and 
in 1809 to Menokin, Richmond co., Va., where he 
remained nine years. In 1818 he returned to 
Fredericksburg, and in 1826 was appointed pro- 
fessor of the school of law in the University of 
Virginia. He resigned that office in 1830 to accept 
a seat on the bench of the general court of the 
state as associate justice, to which he was unani- 
mously elected by the legislature. Under the con- 
stitution of 1851 he was again chosen for a term 
of eight years by vote of the people of the cir- 
cuit. The convention that framed this constitu- 
tion had adopted a clause disqualifying any person 
over seventy years of age from holding the office 
of judge; but at the request of members of the 
bar this provision was cancelled so as not to ex- 
clude Judge Lomax. He continued on the bench 
until 1857, when he retired to private life. He 
received the degree of LL. D. from Harvard in 
1847. He is the author of a " Digest of the Laws 
respecting Real Property generally Adopted and 
in Use in the United States "' (3 vols., Philadelphia, 
1839; 2d ed., revised and enlarged, Richmond, 
1856), and a " Treatise on the Law of Executors 
and Administrators generallv in Use in the United 
States " (2 vols., 1841 ; 2d ed"!, Richmond, 1856). 

LOMBARD, French missionary, d. after 1744. 
He was a Jesuit, and the most successful of all the 
missionaries in converting the Indians of French 
Guiana. He came to that country in 1705, and 
was still engaged in missionary work in 1744. 
In 1730 he founded a Christian village that con- 
tained over 600 Indians, at the mouth of Kuru 
river, and in 1744 he established another at Sina- 
mary. Condamino mentions in his " Relation 
abregee " that on setting out for Surinam he was 
furnished by the missionary with several Indian 
canoers. His works on two " Relations," which are 
dated at Kuru, 23 Feb., 1730, and 11 April, 1733, 
and published in the " Lettres edifiantes " (Paris, 
1843). They contain an interesting account of the 
Kuru, Ouyapoc, and Galabi tribes. There is also 
another narrative addressed to his brother from 
Kuru, and dated 1723, which is inserted in the 
" Voyage de chevalier de Marchais " of Labat, 
where it fills sixty-four pages (Paris, 1730). He 
also wrote a grammar and dictionary of the lan- 
guage of the Galabis, on which he was engaged 
for more than thirtv years. 

LOMBARDINI, Manuel Maria (lom-bar-de - 
ne), Mexican soldier, b. in the city of Mexico in 
1802 ; d. there, 22 Dec, 1853. He received his early 
education in his native city, and in 1814 entered 
the bureau of artillery as an apprentice. When the 
plan de Iguala was proclaimed in 1821, he joined 
the revolutionary forces as a cadet, but during the 
reign of Iturbide he retired into private life. The 
party strife between the Yorkist and Scotch fac- 
tions in 1826 brought him again to the front, and 
he joined the former party. In 1830 he was a lieu- 
tenant, and in April, 1832, pronounced in Lermafor 
the plan of Vera Cruz. At the end of that year he 
was promoted to captain, and was taken under the 

protection of his relative, Gen. Valencia, on whose 
recommendation in 1841 Santa-Anna made him a 
brigadier. He took part in the war against the 
United States in 1846-'7, and was wounded in the 
battle of Angostura. After Santa- Anna's banish- 
ment he continued to sympathize with that gen- 
eral, and took part in several pronunciamentos 
against the government. He favored the plan de 
Jalisco, and was banished, 2 Jan., 1858, by Presi- 
dent Arista, but soon returned at the head of a 
revolutionary force, and was appointed by the 
president of the supreme court, Ceballos, com- 
mander-in-chief of the forces in the capital. When 
Ceballos resigned the executive, Lombardini was 
chosen by the commanders of the three divisions of 
the revolutionary troops provisional president, 8 
Feb., 1853. Though a clear-headed and well-mean- 
ing man, he had no ability as a statesman, and 
when Santa-Anna, who had been recalled by con- 
gress, arrived in Mexico, Lombardini gladly de- 
livered the executive to him on 20 April. Santa- 
Anna appointed him commander-in-chief of the 
forces in the capital, but he died in a few months. 

LONG, Arniistead Lindsay, soldier, b. in Camp- 
bell county, Va., 3 Sept., 1827. He was graduated 
at the U. S. military academy, 1 July, 1850, assigned 
to the 2d artillery, and promoted 1st lieutenant, 1 
July, 1854. He resigned, 10 June, 1861, and the 
following month was appointed major in the Con- 
federate army. He was promoted colonel and 
military secretary to Gen. Robert E. Lee in April, 
1862, and brigadier- general of artillery in Septem- 
ber, 1863, taking part in all of Gen. Lee's cam- 
paigns. Gen. Long is the author of " Memoirs of 
Gen. Robert E. Lee" (New York, 1886). 

LONG, Charles Chaille, soldier, b. in Prin- 
cess Anne, Somerset co,, Md., 2 July, 1842. He 
was educated at Washington academy, Md., and 
in 1862 he enlisted in the 1st Maryland infantry 
in the National service, and at the close of the 
civil war had attained the rank of captain. He 
was appointed a lieutenant-colonel in the Egyptian 
army in the autumn of 1869, was first assigned to 
duty as professor of French in the military acade- 
my at Abbassick, and later as chief of staff to the 
genoral-in-chief of the army. Early in 1872 he 
was transferred to Gen. Loring's corps at Alexan- 
dria.. On 20 Feb., 1874, he was assigned to duty as 
chief of staff to Gen. Charles George Gordon, then 
lieutenant -colonel in the British army, who had 
been appointed by the khedive governor-general of 
the equatorial provinces of Egypt. On 24 April he 
set out toward the equator on a secret diplomatic 
and geographical mission inspired by Ismail Pacha, 
the khedive. He was accompanied only by two 
soldiers and his servants, and arrived at the capi- 
tal of Nyanda on 20 June, 1874, being the only 
white man save Capt. Speke that had ever visited 
that place, and secured a treaty by which King 
M'Tse acknowledged himself a vassal of Egypt. 
He then turned north to trace the unknown part 
of the Nile that still left the question of its source 
in doubt. In descending the river at M'roole he 
was attacked by the king of Unyoro Kaba-Rega 
with a party of warriors in boats and a numerous 
force on shore, Chaille-Long, with his two soldiers, 
armed with breech-loading rifles and explosive 
shells, sustained the attack for several hours, and 
finally beat off the savages. He was promoted to 
the full rank of colonel and bey, and decorated 
with the cross of the commander of the Medjidieh. 
In January, 1875, he fitted out and led an expe- 
dition sou'thwestward of the Nile into the Niam- 
Niam country, subjected it to the authority of the 
Egyptian government, and dispersed the slave- 




trading bands. On his return in March, 1875, he 
was ordered to go to Cairo, where, with orders from 
the khedive, he organized an expedition ostensibly 
to open an equatorial road from the Indian ocean 
along Juba river to the central African lakes. The 
expedition saile^ from Sury on 19 Sept., 1875, took 
possession of Me coast and several fortified towns, 
and occupied, and fortified Comf, on Juba river. 
On 1 Sept., 1877, Chaille-Long resigned his com- 
mission in the 'Egyptian army, on account of fail- 
ing health, returning to New York, where he stud- 
ied law at Columbia. . He was graduated and ad- 
mitted to practice, and in 1882 returned to Egypt 
to practise in the international courts. The insur- 
rection of Arabi culminated in the terrible mas- 
sacre at Alexandria of 11 June, 1882, the U. S. con- 
sul-general remained away from his post at this 
juncture, and the U. S. consular agents fled from 
Egypt. Chaille-Long assisted the refugees, hun- 
dreds of whom were placed on board of the Ameri- 
can ships, and after the burning of the city, he re- 
established the American consulate, and, aided 'by 
160 American sailors and marines, restored order, 
and arrested the fire. Col. Chaille-Long removed 
to Paris in October, 1882, and opened an office for 
the practice of international law. In March, 1887, 
he was appointed U. S. consul-general and secre- 
tary of legation in Corea. He has published " Cen- 
tral Africa : Naked Truths of Naked People " (New 
York, 1877) and ^'The Three Prophets— Chinese 
Gordon, the Mahdi, and Arabi Pacha" (1884). 

LONG, Clement, theologian, b. in Hopkinton, 
N. H., 1 Dec, 1806 ; d. in Hanover, N. H., 14 Oct., 
1861. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1828, 
studied at Andover seminary in 1831-3, and was 
ordained to the Presbyterian ministry in Ohio in 
1836. He was professor of philosophy in Western 
Reserve college from 1834 till 1844, and of the- 
ology from the latter year till 1852. He was then 
called to the chair of theology at Auburn theologi- 
cal seminary, where he remained until 1854. He 
was also lecturer on intellectual philosophy and 
political economy at Dartmouth in 1851-'2, and 
was professor of the same from 1854 until his 
death, also lecturing on moral and mental philoso- 
phy at Western Reserve in 1860-61. He received 
the degree of D. D. from Dartmouth in 1849, and 
that of LL. D. from Western Reserve in 1860. 
He was a contributor to the " Bibliotheca Sacra." 

LONG, Crawford W., physician, b. in Daniels- 
ville, Madison co., Ga., 1 Nov., 1815 ; d. in Ath- 
ens, Ga., 16 June, 1878. He was graduated at 
Franklin college, Pa., in 1835, and at the medical 
department of the University of Pennsylvania in 
1839. He then practised in Jefferson, Jackson 
CO., Ga., until 1851, when he removed to Athens, 
Ga. He claimed that he performed on 30 March, 
1842, the first surgical operation with the patient 
in a state of anaesthesia from the inhalation of 
ether. In his history of the discovery of anassthe- 
sia, Dr. J. Marion Sims says that Dr. Long was the 
first " to intentionally produce anaesthesia for sur- 
gical operations," and that this was done with sul- 
phuric ether ; that he did not by accident " hit 
upon it, but that he reasoned it out in a philosophi- 
cal and logical manner " ; that " Horace Wells, 
without any knowledge of Dr. Long's labors, de- 
monstrated in the same philosophic way (in his own 
person) the great principle of anaesthesia by the use 
of nitrous-oxide gas in December, 1844, thus giving 
Long the priority over Wells by two years and 
eight months, and over Morton, who followed 
Wells in 1846." He was named, with William T. 
G. Morton, Charles T. Jackson, and Wells, in a 
bill before the U. S. senate in 1854 to reward the 

probable discoverers of practical anaesthesia. Dr. 
Long's contributions to medical literature relate 
chiefly to his discovery. 

LONG, Edward, English author, b. in Cornwall, 
England, in 1734 ; d. in 1813. He became a bar- 
rister, and in 1757 emigrated to Jamaica, where 
he was appointed a judge of the vice-admiralty 
court. After his return to England in 1769, he 
published, among other works, a " History of Ja- 
maica " (3 vols., London, 1774); "Letters on the 
Colonies" (1775) ; and "The Sugar Trade" (1782). 

LONG, Eli, soldier, b. in Woodford county, Ky., 
16 June, 1837. He was graduated at the Frank- 
fort, Ky., military school in 1855, and in 1856 ap- 
pointed 2d lieutenant in the 1st U. S. cavalry. 
Prior to 1861, when he was promoted 1st lieuten- 
ant and captain, he served with his regiment main- 
ly against hostile Indians. Throughout the civil 
war he was actively engaged in the west at Tul- 
lahoma, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, and in the 
Atlanta campaign, as colonel of the 4th Ohio cav- 
alry, and subsequently in command of a brigade of 
cavalry. He was bre vetted major, lieutenant - 
colonel, and colonel for " gallant and meritorious 
services " at Farmington and Knoxville, Tenn., 
and Lovejoy's Station, Ga., respectively. On 13 
March, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general of 
volunteers for gallantry at Selma, Ala., where he 
led his division in a charge upon the intrench- 
ments that resulted in the capture of that place. 
Pie was severely wounded in the head in the action. 
For his services during the war he was also bre- 
vetted major-general in the regular army and ma- 
jor-general of volunteers, and having been mus- 
tered out of the volunteer service, 15 Jan., 1866, he 
was retired with the rank of major-general in Au- 
gust, but was reduced to brigadier-general through 
the operation of the act of 3 March, 1875. 

LONG, Gabriel, soldier, b. in 1751 ; d. in Cul- 
peper county, Va,, 3 Feb., 1827. He was an officer 
in the Revolutionary army, fought at Hampton 
and Norfolk in 1775, served as captain in Morgan's 
rifle regiment in 1776, and ultimately rose to the 
rank of major. He led the advance at Saratoga 
and began the battle. He was also present at 
Yorktown, and took part in eighteen engagements. 

LONG, John Collins, naval officer, b. in Ports- 
mouth, N. H., in 1795 ; d. in North Conway, N. H., 
2 Sept., 1865. He entered the navy as midshipman, 
18 June, 1812, and served in the " Constitution " in 
her action with the " Java." He was promoted 
lieutenant, 5 March, 1817, commander, 25 Feb., 
1838, captain, 2 March, 1849, and commodore on 
the retired list, 16 July, 1862. He was assigned 
the duty of bringing Louis Kossuth to this coun- 
try, but would not allow him to deliver revolu- 
tionary harangues at Marseilles, which so an- 
noyed the Hungarian patriot that he left the ship 
at Gibraltar. Commodore Long was fifty-three 
years in the service. 

LONG, Jolin Davis, legislator, b. in Buckfield, 
Oxford CO., Me., 27 Oct., 1838. He was graduated 
at Harvard in 1857, taught until 1859, studied law, 
was admitted to the bar in 1861, practised in Buck- 
field, and settled in Boston in 1862. In 1869 he 
removed to Hingham, but retained his office in 
Boston. He was a member of the Massachusetts 
house of representatives in 1875-8, and served the 
last three years as its speaker. In 1879 he was 
lieutenant-governor, and governor in 1880-'2. He 
was elected as a Republican to the 48th congress, 
and re-elected to the 49th, serving from 3 Dec, 
1883, till 4 March, 1887. He was again elected to 
the 50th congress. Gov. Long has published a 
translation of Virgil's " ^neid " (Boston, 1879). 




LONG, Pierse, legislator, b. in Portsmouth, 
N. H., in 1739 ; d. there, 3 April, 1789. He was 
the son of Pierse Long, who was born in Limerick, 
Ireland, but came to this country and engaged in 
the shipping business in Portsmouth. The son 
entered his father's counting-room and was taken 
into partnership. He was a member of the Provin- 
cial congress of his native state in 1775, and served 
in the Revolutionary army as colonel of the 1st 
New Hampshire regiment. In the retreat from 
Ticonderoga his command was overtaken by the 
9th British foot, which he turned upon and de- 
feated. He was a volunteer at the battle of Sara- 
toga, a delegate to the Continental congress in 
1784-'6, a state councillor in 1786-9, a member of 
the Constitutional convention in 1788, and was ap- 
pointed by President Washington collector of cus- 
toms at iPortsmouth in January, 1789. He dis- 
charged the duties of the office until the following 
April, when he died. 

LONGr, Robert Carey, architect, b. about 
1819 ; d. in New York city in July, 1849. He 
studied architecture, and practised his profession 
for several years in Baltimore. While in that city 
he was intrusted with designing and building the 
Athena3um, occupied by the Maryland historical 
society and the Baltimore library company. He 
removed to New York city in 1848, and was rapid- 
ly acquiring a reputation when his career was cut 
short by cholera. He contributed a series of arti- 
cles entitled " Architectonics " to the " New York 
Literary World," and read a paper before the New 
York historical society on " Aztec Architecture," 
which was printed in its " Transactions." He was 
also the author of " Ancient Architecture of 
America " (New York. 1849). 

LON(t, Stephen Harriman, engineer, b. in 
Hopkinton, N. H., 80 Dec, 1784; d. in Alton, 111., 
4 Sept., 1864. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 
1809, and after teaching for some time entered the 
U. S. array in December, 1814, as a lieutenant in 
the corps of engineers. After discharging the 
duties of assistant professor of mathematics at the 
U. S. military academy until April, 1816, he was 
transferred to the topographical engineers, with the 
brevet rank of major. From 1818 till 1823 he had 
charge of explorations between Mississippi river 
and the Rocky mountains, and of the sources of 
the Mississippi in 1823-4, receiving the brevet of 
lieutenant-colonel. The highest summit of the 
Rocky mountains was named Long's peak in his 
honor. He was engaged in surveying the Balti- 
more and Ohio railroad from 1827 till 1830, and 
from 1837 till 1840 was engineer-in-chief of the 
Western and Atlantic railroad in Georgia, in which 
capacity he introduced a system of curves in the 
location of the road and a new kind of truss bridge, 
which was called by his name, and has been gener- 
ally adopted in the United States. On the organi- 
zation of the topographical engineers as a separate 
corps in 1838, he became major in that body, and 
in 1861 chief of topographical engineers, with the 
rank of colonel. An account of his first expedition 
to the Rocky mountains in 1819-20 from the notes 
of Maj. Long and others, by Edwin James, was 
published in Philadelphia in 1823, and in 1824 
appeared " Long's Expedition to the Source of St. 
Peter's River, Lake of the Woods, etc.," by Will- 
iam K. Keating (2 vols., Philadelphia). Col. Long 
was retired from active service in June, 1863, but 
continued, charged with important duties, until 
his death. He was a member of the American 
philosophical society, and the author of a " Rail- 
road Manual " (1829), which was the first original 
treatise of the kind published in this country. 

LONGACRE, James Barton, engraver, b. in 
Delaware county, Pa., 11 Aug., 1794; d. in Phila- 
delphia, 1 Jan., 1869. He was descended from an 
early Swedish colonist on the Delaware, whose 
name was originally Longker. He served his ap- 
prenticeship as an engraver in Philadelphia, and 
from 1819 till 1831 illustrated some of the best 
works that were published in this country. With 
James Herring, of New York, and afterward alone, 
he issued the " National Portrait Gallery of Dis- 
tinguished Americans," in which many of the en- 
gravings were from sketches by his own hand 
(3 vols.. New York, 1834-'9). From 1844 till his 
death he was engraver to the U. S. mint, and de- 
signed all the new coins that were struck during 
this time, including the double-eagle, the three- 
dollar piece, and the gold dollar. He was after- 
ward employed by the Chilian government to re- 
model the entire coinage of that country, and had 
completed the work shortly before his death. 

LONGFELLOW, Stephen, lawyer, b. in Gor- 
ham. Me., 23 June, 1775 ; d. in Portland, Me., 2 
Aug., 1849. He was of the fourth generation in 
lineal descent from William Longfellow, who had 
emigrated from Yorkshire to Massachusetts and 
settled in Newbury about 1675, and in 1676 mar- 
ried a sister of Judge Samuel Sewall. Stephen 
was graduated at Harvard in 1798, admitted to 
the bar in 1801, and practised successfully in 
Portland. He was a delegate to the Hartford 
convention in 1814, and was subsequently elect- 
ed to the 18th congress as a Federalist, serving 
from 1 Dec, 1823, till 3 March, 1825. In 1834 
he was president of the Maine historical society, 
having previously been its recording secretary. In 
1828 he received the degree of LL. D. from Bow- 
doin. He compiled sixteen volumes of Massachu- 
setts and twelve volumes of Maine " Reports." 
He married the daughter of Gen. Peleg Wads- 
worth, an officer in the Revolution. — Their son, 
Henry Wadsworth, poet, b. in Portland, Me.. 27 
Feb., 1807; d. in 
Cambridge, Mass., 
24 March, 1882, 
was the second son 
in a family that 
included foursons 
and four daugh- 
ters. His birth- 
place, on Fore 
street, is shown in 
the engraving on 
page 11. He was 
named fora broth- 
er of his moth- 
er, who, a youth 
of nineteen, late- 
ly commissioned 
lieutenant in the 
U. S. navy, and 
serving before 
Tripoli under Com. Preble, had perished in the 
fire-ship '' Intrepid," which was blown up in the 
night of 4 Sept., 1804. The boyhood of the poet 
was happy. A sweeter, simpler, more essentially 
human society has seldom existed than that of New 
England in the first quarter of this century, and 
the conditions of life in Portland were in some 
respects especially pleasant and propitious. The 
beautiful and wholesome situation of the town on 
the sea-shore ; the fine and picturesque harbor that 
afforded shelter to the vessels by which a mod- 
erate commerce with remote regions was carried on, 
giving vivacity to the port and widening the scope 
of the interests of the inhabitants; the general 

!)<I.VY1 Q>^ ^>^«^^^yLft-a.*^ 




diffusion of comfort and intelligence ; the tradi- 
tional purity and simplicity of life; the absence of 
class distinctions ; the democratic kindliness of 
spirit ; the. pervading temper of hopefulness and 
content — all maqle Portland a good place in which 
to be born and /grow up. Like the rest of New 
England it was provincial, it had little part in the 
larger historic, concerns of the world, it possessed 
no deep wells 0t experience or of culture, and no 
memorials of a distant past by which the imagina- 
tion might be quickened and nurtured ; it was a 
comparatively new place in a comparatively new 
country. The sweetness of Longfellow's disposi- 
tion showed itself in his earliest years. He was a 
gentle, docile, cheerful, intelligent, attractive child ; 
" one of the best boys in school " was his teacher's 
report of him at six years old. He was fond of 
l^ooks, and his father's library supplied him with 
the best in English. He was sensitive to the charm 
of style in literature, and a characteristic glimpse 
of his taste, and of the inJfiuences that were shap- 
ing him, is afforded by what he said in later life in 
speaking of Irving : " Every boy has his first book ; 
1 mean to say, one book among all others which in 
early youth first fascinates his imagination, and at 
once excites and satisfies the desires of his mind. 
To me this first book was the ' Sketch-Book ' of 
Washington Irving. I was a school-boy when it 
was published [in 1819], and read each succeeding 
number with ever-increasing wonder and delight, 
spell-bound by its pleasant humor, its melancholy 
tenderness, its atmosphere of reverie. . . . The 
charm remains unbroken, and whenever I open the 
pages of the ' Sketch-Book,' I open also that mys- 
terious door which leads back into the haunted 
chambers of youth." Already, when he was thir- 
teen years old, he had begun to write verses, some 
of which found place in the poet's corner of the 
local newspaper. In 1821 he passed the entrance 
examinations for Bowdoin, but it was not until 
1822 that Longfellow left home to reside at the 
college. Among his classmates was Nathaniel 
Hawthorne, with whom he speedily formed an 
acquaintance that was to ripen into a life-long 
friendship. His letters to his mother and father 
during his years at college throw a pleasant light 
upon his pursuits and his disposition ; they display 
the early maturity of his character ; the traits 
that distinguished him in later years are already 
clearly defined ; the amiability, the affectionate- 
ness, the candor, and the cheerful spirit of the 
youth are forecasts of the distinguishing qualities 
of the man. His taste for literary pursuits, and 
his strong moral sentiment and purpose, are already 
developed. A few sentences from his letters will 
serve to exhibit him as he was at this time. " I 
am in favor of letting each one think for himself, 
and I am very much pleased with Gray's poems, 
Dr. Johnson to the contrary notwithstanding." 
" I have very resolutely concluded to enjoy myself 
heartily wherever I am." " Leisure is to me one of 
the sweetest things in the world." " I care but little 
about politics or anything of the kind." " I ad- 
mire Horace very much indeed." " I conceive that 
if religion is ever to benefit us, it must be incor- 

§ orated with our feelings and become in every 
egree identified with our happiness." " What- 
ever I study I ought to be engaged in with all my 
soul, for 1 will be eminent in something." " I am 
afraid you begin to think me rather chimerical 
in many of my ideas, and that I am ambitious of 
becoming a vara avis in terris. But you must ac- 
knowledge the usefulness of aiming high at some- 
thing which it is impossible to overshoot, perhaps 
to reach." He was writing much, both verse and 

prose, and his pieces had merit enough to secure 
publication, not only in the Portland paper, but 
in more than one of the magazines, and especially 
in the " United States Literary Gazette," published 
in Boston, in which no fewer than sixteen poems by 
him appeared in the course of the year 1824-'5. 
Very few of these were thought by their author 
worth reprinting in later years, and though they 
all show facile versification and refined taste, none 
of them exhibit such original power as to give 
assurance of his future fame. Several of them dis- 
play the influence 
of Bryant both in 
form and thought. 
Long afterward, in 
writing to Bryant, 
Longfellow said : 
" Let me acknowl- 
edge how much I 
owe to you, not only 
of delight but of 
culture. When I 
look back upon my 
earlier verses, I can- 
not but smile to see 
how much in them 
is really yours." He 

owed much also to others, and in these youthful 
compositions one may find traces of his favorite 
poets from Gray to Byron. 

As the time for leaving college drew near, it be- 
came necessary for him to decide on a profession, 
He was averse to the ministry, to medicine, and, in 
spite of his father's and grandfather's example, to 
the law. In 1824 he writes to his father : " I am 
altogether in favor of the farmer's life." But a 
few months later he says : " The fact is, I most 
eagerly aspire after future eminence in literature. 
My whole soul burns most ardently for it, and 
every earthly thought centres in it."^ . . . Surely 
there never was a better opportunity offered for 
the exertion of literary talent in our own country 
than is now offered. . . . Nature has given me a 
very strong predilection for literary pursuits, and 
I am almost confident in believing that, if I can 
ever rise in the world, it must be by the exercise of 
my talent in the wide field of literature." In reply 
to these ardent aspirations his father wisely urged 
that, though a literary life might be very pleasant 
to one who had the means of support, it did not 
offer secure promise of a livelihood, and that it was 
necessary for his son to adopt a profession that 
should afford him subsistence as well as reputa- 
tion ; but he gave his consent readily to his son's 
passing a year in Cambridge, after leaving college, 
in literary studies previous to entering on the study 
of a profession. 

Before the time for this arrived a new prospect 
opened, full of hope for the young scholar. He 
had distinguished himself in college by his studi- 
ous disposition, his excellent conduct, and his ca- 
pacity as a writer, and when their rank was as- 
signed to the members of his class at graduation, 
he stood upon the list as the fourth in general 
scholarship in a class of thirty-eight. Just at this 
time the trustees of the college determined to es- 
tablish a professorship of modern languages, and, 
not having the means to obtain the services of any 
one that was already eminent in this department, 
they determined to offer the post conditionally to 
the young graduate of their own college, who had 
already given proof of character and abilities that 
would enable him after proper preparation to fill 
the place satisfactorily. The proposal was accord- 
ingly made to him that he should go to Europe for 




the purpose of fitting himself for this chair, with 
the understanding that on his return he should re- 
ceive the appointment of professor. It was a re- 
markable testimony to the impression that Long- 
fellow had made and to the confidence he had in- 
spired. Nothing could have been more delightful 
to him than the prospect it opened. It settled the 
question of his career in accordance with the de- 
sire of his heart, and his father gladly approved. 

After passing the autumn and winter of 1825-'6 
in preparatory studies at home in Portland, Long- 
fellow sailed for Havre in May, 1826. The dis- 
tance of Europe from America, measured by 
time, was far greater then than now. Communi- 
cation was comparatively infrequent and irregular ; 
the interval of news was often months long ; the 
novelty of such an experience as that on which 
Longfellow entered was great. " Madam," said a 
friend to his mother, " you must have great confi- 
dence in your son." " It is true, Henry," she 
wrote, " your parents have great confidence in your 
uprightness and in that purity of mind which will 
instantly take alarm on coming in contact with any- 
thing vicious or unworthy. We have confidence ; but 
you must be careful and watchful." Sixty years 
ago Europe promised more to the young American 
of poetic temperament than it does to-day, and 
kept its promise better. Longfellow's character 
^\aN .ilie.uh «;() matuie, hi-^ cultiiie ^o ad\anc(d, 
and lii^ temjH lament M) h<ii)])\. Ill, U no oiu tould 

be b(^ttei littul iliiii \u lo j)i()iit b\ ,i \ i^-it to tlic^ 
Old Woild. A \o\aue to Eiii(){)C is olien a \o\<ige 
of discovery of himself to the young American ; he 
learns that he possesses imagination and sensibili- 
ties that have not been evoked in his own land and 
for which Europe alone can provide the proper 
nurture. So it was with Longfellow, tie passed 
eight months in Paris and its neighborhood, steadi- 
ly at work in mastering the language, and in study- 
ing the literature and life of Prance. In the spring 
of 1827 he went from France to Spain, and here he 
spent a like period in similar occupations. It was 
a period of great enjoyment for him. At Madrid 
he had the good fortune to make acquaintance 
with Irving, who was then engaged in writing his 
" Life of Columbus," of Alexander Everett, thelJ. S. 
minister, and of Lieut. Alexander Slidell. U. S. navy 
(afterward honorably known as Com. Slidell-Mac- 
kenzie), who in his '' Year in Spain " pleasantly 
mentions and gives a characteristic description of 
the young traveller. In December, 1827, Loni^fel- 
low left Spain for Italy, where he remained through 
a year that was crowded with delightful expei'i- 
ence and was well employed in gaining a rich 
store of knowledge. His studies were constant 
and faithful, and his genius for language was such 
that when he went to Germany at the end of 1828 
he had a command of French, Spanish, and Italian 
such as is seldom gained by a foreigner. He estab- 

lished himself at Gottingen in February, 1829, and 
was pursuing his studies there when he was called 
home by letters that required his return. He reached 
the United States in August, and in September, 
having received the appointment of professor of 
modern languages at Bowdoin college, with a sala- 
ry of $800, he took up his residence at Brunswick. 
He was now twenty-two years old, and probably, 
with the exception of Mr. George Ticknor, was the 
most accomplished scholar in this country of the 
languages and literatures of modern Europe. He 
devoted himself zealously to teaching, to editing 
for his classes several excellent text-books, and to 
writing a series of lectures on the literatures of 
France, Spain, and Italy. The infiuence of such a 
nature and such tastes and learning as his was of 
the highest value in a country college remote from 
the deeper sources of culture. "His intercourse 
with the students," wrote one of his pupils, " was 
perfectly simple, frank, and manly. They always 
left him not only with admiration, but guided, 
helped, and inspired." In addition to his duties as 
professor he performed those of librarian of the 
college, and in April. 1831, he published in the 
'' North American Review " the first of a series of 
articles, which were continued at irregular inter- 
vals for several years, upon topics that were con- 
nected with his studies. His prose style was al- 
ready formed, and was stamped with the purity 
and charm that were the expression of his whole 
nature, intellectual and moral. Poetry he had for 
the time given up. Of those little poetic attempts 
dating from his college years he wrote, that he had 
long ceased to attach any value to them. " I am 
all prudence now, since 1 can form a more accurate 
judgment of the merit of poetry. If I ever pub- 
lish a volume, it will be many years first." 

In September, 1881, he married Miss Mary Potter, 
of Portland. It was a happy marriage. About the 
same time he began to publish in the " New Eng- 
land Magazine " the sketches of travel that after- 
ward were collected, and, with the addition of some 
others, published under the title of " Outre Mer ; 
a Pilgrimage beyond the Sea" (New York, 1835). 
This was his earliest independent contribution to 
American literature, and in its pleasant mingling 
of the record of personal experience, with essays 
on literature, translations, and romantic stories, 
and in the ease and grace of its style, it is a worthy 
prelude and introduction to his later more impor- 
tant work. The narrowness of the opportunities 
that were afforded at Bowdoin for literary culture 
and conversation prevented the situation there 
from being altogether congenial to him, and it v/as 
with satisfaction that he received in December, 
1834, an invitation to succeed Mr. George Ticknor 
in the Smith professorship of modern languages at 
Harvard, with the suggestion that, before entering 
on its duties, he should spend a year or eighteen 
months in Europe for study in Germany. He ac- 
cordingly resigned the professorship at Bowdoin, 
which he had held for five years and a half, and in 
April, 1835, he set sail with his wife for England. 
In June he went to Denmark, and, after passing 
the summer at Copenhagen and Stockholm study- 
ing the Danish. Swedish, and Finnish languages, 
he went in October to Holland on his way to Grer- 
many. At Amsterdam and Rotterdam he was de- 
tained by the serious illness of Mrs. Longfellow, 
and employed his enforced leisure in acquiring the 
Dutch language. Near the end of November his 
wife died "at Rotterdam. The blow fell heavily 
upon him ; but his strong religious faith afforded 
him support, and he was not overmastered by vain 
grief. He soon proceeded to Heidelberg, and 




sought in serious and constant study a relief from 
suffering, bereavement, and dejection. For a time 
he was cheered by the companionship of Bryant, 
whom he met here for the first time. In the spring 
he made some excursions in the beautiful regions 
in the neighborhood of the Rhine, and he spent 
the summer rrh Switzerland and the Tyrol. In 
September he, was at Paris, and in October he 
returned home.\ 

In December, 1836, he established himself at 
Cambridge, and entered upon his duties as pro- 
fessor. For the remainder of his life Cambridge 
was to be his home. Lowell, in his delightful es- 
say, " Cambridge Thirty Years Ago," has preserved 
the image of the village much as it was at this 
period. The little town was not yet suburbanized ; 
it was dominated by the college, whose professors, 
many of them men of note, formed a cultivated and 
agreeable society. Limited as were its intellectual 
resources as compared with those that it has since 
acquired, its was the chief centre in New England 
of literary activity and cultivated intelligence. 
Longfellow soon found friends, who speedily be- 
came closely attached to him, both in Boston and 
Cambridge, alike of the elder and younger genera- 
tion of scholars, chief among whom were George 
Ticknor, William H. Prescott, Andrews Norton, 
John G. Palfrey, Cornelius C. Felton, Charles Sum- 
ner, George S. Hillard, and Henry R. Cleveland. 
His delightful qualities of heart and mind, his so- 
cial charm, his wide and elegant culture, his refine- 
ment, the sweetness of his temper, the openness of 
his nature, and his quick sympathies, made him a 
rare acquisition in any society, and secured for him 
warm regard and affection. He employed himself 
busily in instruction and the writing of lectures, 
and in 1837 he began once more to give himself 
to poetry, and wrote the poems that were to be the 
foundation of his future fame. In the autumn 
of this year he took up his residence at Craigie 
House, a fine old colonial mansion, consecrated by 
memories of Washington's stay in it, which was 
thenceforward to be his abode for life. Here, in 
1837, he wrote "The Reaper and the Flowers," 
and in June, 1838, " The Psalm of Life," which, on 
its publication in the " Knickerbocker Magazine " 
for October, instantly became popular, and made 
its author's name well known. It was the sound 
of a new voice, a most musical and moving one, in 
American poetry. In February, 1838, he was lec- 
turing on Dante ; in the summer of that year his 
course was on '' The Lives of Literary Men." He 
was writing also for the " North American Re- 
view," and during the year he began his " Hype- 
rion." It was a busy and fruitful time. " flyperion " 
was published in New York in 1839. It was a ro- 
mance based upon personal experience. The scene 
was laid among the sites he had lately visited in 
Europe ; the characters were drawn in part from 
life. He put into his story the pain, the passion, 
and the ideals of his heart. It was a book to touch 
the soul of fervent youth. It had much beauty of 
fancy, and it showed how deeply the imagination 
of the young American had been stirred by the 
poetic associations of Europe, and enriched by the 
abundant sources of foreign culture. It was hardly 
out of press before it was followed by the publica- 
tion, in the late autumn, of his first volume of 
poems, " Voices of the Night." This contained, in 
addition to his recent poems, a selection of seven 
of his early poems — all that he wished to preserve 
— and numerous translations from the Spanish, 
Italian, and German. The little volume of 144 
pages contained poems that were stamped with 
the impress of an original genius whose voice 

was of a tone unheard before. " The Psalm of 
Life," " The Reaper and the Flowers," " The Foot- 
steps of Angels,'^ " The Beleaguered City," speed- 
ily became popular, and have remained familiar to 
English readers from that day to this. " Nothing 
equal to some of them was ever written in this 
world — this western world, I mean," wrote his 
friend Hawthorne. Before a year was out the vol- 
ume had come to a third edition. From this time 
Longfellow's fame grew rapidly. Success and repu- 
tation were to him but stimulants to new exertions. 
Essentially modest and simple, praise or flattery 
could do him no harm. His genial and sound na- 
ture turned all experience to good. 

During the next two or three years, while his 
laborious duties as instructor were faithfully and 
successfully discharged, he still found time for 
study, and his vein of poetry was in full flow. In 
1841 his second volume of poems was published ; it 
was entitled " Ballads and other Poems," and con- 
tained, among other well-known pieces, " The Wreck 
of the Hesperus," " The Village Blacksmith," and 
" Excelsior." It confirmed the impression that had 
been made by the " Voices of the Night," and hence- 
forth Longfellow stood confessedly as the most 
widely read and the best beloved of American poets. 
In the spring of 1842, his health having been for 
some time in an unsatisfactory state, he received 
leave of absence for six months from the college, 
and went abroad. After a short stay in Paris he 
made a journey, abounding in interest and poetic 
suggestions, through Belgium, visiting Bruges, 
Ghent, Antwerp, and Brussels, and proceeded to 
Marienberg-on-the Rhine, where he spent a quiet 
but pleasant summer at a water-cure establishment. 
Here he made acquaintance with the German poet 
Freiligrath, and the cordial friendship then formed 
with him was maintained by letters until Freili- 
grath's death, more than thirty years afterward. 
In October he passed some delightful days in Lon- 
don, as the guest of Charles Dickens, with whom 
he had come into very cordial relations in America 
early in the same year, and in November he was 
again at home engaged in his familiar pursuits. 
On the return voyage he wrote "" Poems on Shi- 
very," which were published in a thin pamphlet be- 
fore the end of the year. They were the expression 
not so much of poetic emotion as of moral feeling. 
They attracted much attention, as the testimony 
of a'poet, by nature disinclined to censure, against 
the great national crime of which the worst evil 
was its corrupting influence upon the public con- 
science. It was to that conscience that these poems 
appealed, and they were received on the one hand 
with warm approval, on the other with still warmer 
condemnation. In June, 1843, he married Frances 
Appleton, daughter of the Hon. Nathan Appleton. 
of Boston. He had been attached to her since their 
first meeting in Switzerland in 1836, and something 
of his feeling toward her had been revealed in his 
delineation of the character of Mary Ashburton in 
" Hyperion." She was a woman whose high and 
rare qualities of character found harmonious ex- 
pression in beauty of person and nobility of pres- 
ence. Seldom has there been a happier marriage. 
From this time forward for many years Longfellow's 
life flowed on as peacefully and with as much joy 
as ever falls to man. His fortunes were prosperous. 
His books were beginning to bring him in a con- 
siderable income; his wife's dowry was such as to 
secure to him pecuniary ease ; Craigie House, with 
the pleasant fields in front of it reaching to the 
river Charles, was now his own, and his means en- 
abled him to gratify his taste for a refined hospi- 
tality no less than to satisfy the generous impulses 




of his liberal disposition, and to meet the multitude 
of appeals for help that came to him from the poor 
and suffering, who, though they might be remote 
and unknown to him, felt confident of his sym- 
pathy. The general character of these years and 
of their influence on him is reflected in his work. 
His genius found in them the moment of its fullest 
expansion and happiest inspiration. In the year 
of his marriage "The 
Spanish Student" was 
published in a volume. 
It had been mainly writ- 
ten three years before, 
and was first printed in 
" Graham's Magazine " 
in 1842. In 1846 " The 
Belfry of Bruges and 
other Poems" appeared; 
among* the " other Po- 
ems " were " The Old 
Clock on the Stairs" 
and " The Arsenal at 
Springfield." This was 
followed by " Evange- 
line" (1847), of which 
Hawthorne wrote to 
him : " I have read it 
with more pleasure than 
it would be decorous to 
express," and which 
thousands upon thou- 
sands have read, and 
will read, with hearts 
touched and improved by its serene and pathetic 
beauty. Then appeared "Kavanagli," a tale in 
prose (1849) ; " The Seaside and the Fireside," con- 
taining " The Building of the Ship," " Resigna- 
tion," " The Fire of Driftwood," and twenty other 
poems (1850) : and " The Golden Legend " (1851). 

During all these years he had continued to dis- 
charge the active duties of his professorship, but 
they had gradually become irksome to him, and 
in 1854, after nearly eighteen years of service at 
Harvard, he resigned the place. " I want to try, 
he wrote to Freiligrath, '' the effect of change on 
my mind, and of freedom from routine. House- 
hold occupations, children, relatives, friends, stran- 
gers, and college lectures so completely fill up my 
days that I have no time for poetry ; and, conse- 
quently, the last two years have been very unpro- 
ductive with me. I am not, however, very sure or 
sanguine about the result." But he was hardly 
free from the daily duties of instruction before he 
was at work upon " Hiawatha," and in the course 
of the year he wrote many shorter pieces, among 
his best, such as " The Rope-Walk," " My Lost 
Youth," and "The Two Angels." "Hiawatha" 
was published in 1855, and in 1858 appeared " The 
Courtship of Miles Standish," with about tw^enty 
minor poems. 

But the days of joyful inspiration and success 
were drawing to their close. In July, 1861, an in- 
expressible calamity, by which all his later life was 
shadowed, fell upon him, in the sudden and most 
distressing death of his wife by fire. His recovery 
from its immediate, shattering effect was assisted 
by the soundness of his nature, the strength of his 
principles, and the confidence of his religious 
faith, but it was long before he could resume his 
usual occupations, or find interest in them. After 
several months, for the sake of a regular pursuit 
that might have power more or less to engage his 
thought, he took up the translation of the " Divine 
Comedy." He found the daily task wholesome, 
and gradually he became interested in it. For the 

next three or four years the translation, the revis- 
ion of it for the press, and the compilation of the 
notes that were to accompany it, occupied much of 
his time. The work was published in 1867, and 
took rank at once as the best translation in English 
of Dante's poem. The accomplishment of this 
task had not only been a wholesome restorative 
of intellectual calm, but had been the means of 
bringing about in a natural and simple way the 
renewal of social pleasures and domestic hospitali- 
ties. In the revision of the work, Longfellow had 
called to his aid his friends, James Russell Lowell 
and the present writer; and the "Dante Club" 
thus formed met regularly at Craigie House one 
evening every week for two or three winters. 
Other friends often joined the circle, and the even- 
ings ended with a cheerful supper. Thus, by de- 
grees, with the passing of time, the current of life 
began once more to run on in a tranquil course, 
and though without a ray of the old sunlight, 
equally without a shadow of gloom. At the end 
of 1803 he published " Tales of a Wayside Inn," 
a volume in which there was no lowering of 
tone, no utterance of sorrow, but full vigor and 
life in such poems as " Paul Revere's Ride," " The 
Birds of Killingworth," " The Children's Hour," 
and others. The printing of the translation of the 
" Divine Comedy " w^as begun about the same time, 
and the text of the " Inferno " was completed in 
season to send to Florence the volume, not yet 
published, as an offering in honor of Dante, on oc- 
casion of the celebration in that city of the sixth 
centenary of the poet's birth in May, 1865. The 
whole translation, with its comment, was finally 
published in 1867. In the same year appeared a 
little volume of original poems, entitled " Flower 
de Luce," and in succeeding years, at irregular 
intervals, he wrote and published " The New Eng- 
land Tragedies " (1868) ; " The Divine Tragedy " 
(1871); "Three Books of Song" (1872); "After- 
math " (1874) ; " The Masque of Pandora " (1875) ; 
" Keramos " (1878) ; and " Ultima Thule " (1880). 
A little volume containing his last poems was pub- 
lished in 1882, after the poet's death, with the title 
of " In the Harbor." 

These years had been marked by few striking 
events in his external life. They had been spent 
for the most part at Cambridge, with a summer 
residence each year at Nahant. His interests were 
chiefly domestic and social ; his pursuits were the 
labors and the pleasures of a poet and a man of 
letters. His hospitality was large and gracious, 
cordial to old friends, and genial to new acquaint- 
ances. His constantly growing fame burdened him 
with a crowd of visitors and a multitude of letters 
from " entire strangers." They broke in upon his 
time, and made a vast tax upon his good nature. 
He was often wearied by the incessant demands, 
but he regarded them as largely a claim of human- 
ity upon his charity, and his charity never failed. 
He had a kind word for all, and with ready sacri- 
fice of himself he dispensed pleasure to thousands. 
In 1868 and 1869, accompanied by his daughters, 
he visited Europe for the last time, and enjoyed a 
delightful stay in England, in Paris, and especially 
in Italy. Fame and the affection that his poems 
had awakened for him, though personally un- 
known, in the hearts of many in the Old World 
not less than in the New, made his visit to Europe 
a series of honors and of pleasures. But he re- 
turned home glad to enjoy once more its compara- 
tive tranquillity, and to renew the accustomed 
course of the day. His last years were the fitting 
close of such a life. In 1875 he read at Bruns- 
wick, on the fiftieth anniversary of his graduation, 




the beautiful poem " Morituri Salutamus." It 
ended with the characteristic verse — 
" J^'or age is opportunity no less 
Than youth itself, though in another dress, 
And as the evening twilight fades away, 
The sky is filled with stars, invisible by day." 
. On his seventy-fourtli birthday, 27 Feb., 1881, 
he wrote in his diary : " I am surrounded by roses 
and lilies. Flo\^ers everywhere — 

' And that which should accompany old age, 
As honor, love, obedience, troops of friends.' " 
But he had had already warnings of declining 
health, and in the course of this year he suffered 
greatly from vertigo, followed by nervous pain 
and depression. The serenity of his spirit was un- 
affected. On the 18th he suffered a chill, and be- 
came seriously ill. On the 24th he sank quietly in 
death. The lines given in fac-simile were the last 
written by the poet, 15 March, 1882, and are from 
the closing stanza of the " Bells of San Bias." 

No poet was ever more beloved than he ; none was 
ever more worthy of love. The expressions of the 
feeling toward him after death were deep, affect- 
ing, and innumerable. One of the most striking 
was the placing of his bust in the Poet's Corner in 
Westminster Abbey in March, 1884. It was the 

passing through various hands, it was purchased 
on 1 Jan., 1793, by Andrew Craigie, who built the 
west wing. Mr. Craigie had made a fortune as 
apothecary-general to the Continental army, and 
he entertained in the house with lavish hospitality. 
After his death his widow, whose income had be- 
come reduced, let rooms to various occupants, 
among whom were Jared Sparks and Edward 
Everett. Finally the house passed into Longfel- 
low's hands, as is related above. It is now (1887) 
occupied by his eldest daughter. His study remains 
unaltered as he left it. Mr. Longfellow had two 
sons and three daughters, by his second wife. His 
eldest son, Charles, entered the National service 
in 1861, and was badly wounded at Mine Run. 
His daughters, as children, were the subjects of a 
celebrated portrait group by Thomas Buchanan 
Read. — Henry Wadsworth's brother, Samuel, cler- 
gyman, b. in Portland, Me., 18 June, 1819, was grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1839 and at the divinity-school 
there in 1846. He first accepted a call to a church 
at Fall River in 1848, but in 1853 became the pastor 
of a Unitarian congregation in Brooklyn, N. Y. In 
1860 he resigned his charge and went abroad. On 
his return he resided at Cambridge, Mass., continu- 
ing to preach, but having no pastoral charge till in 

first instance of such an honor being paid to an 
American poet. His bust stands near the tomb of 
Chaucer, between the memorials to Cowley and 
Dryden. (See illustration on page 14.) On this 
occasion Mr. Lowell, then U. S. minister in Eng- 
land, said : " Never was a private character more 
answerable to public performance than that of 
Longfellow. Never have I known a more beauti- 
ful character." A bronze statue of Longfellow, by 
Franklin Simmons, was erected in Portland in 
September, 1888. His "Life" has been written 
by his brother Samuel, in three volumes (Boston, 
1886-7). This work, mainly compiled from the 
poet's diaries and letters, is a full and satisfactory 
picture of the man. In this life there is a bib- 
liography of his works. The meadow, across the 
street, in front of the poet's home, stretching down 
to the river Charles, so often commemorated in 
his verse, was given by his children shortly after 
his death to the Longfellow memorial association, 
on condition that it should be kept open for- 
ever, and properly laid out for public enjoyment. 
The view over the river, of the hills of Brigh- 
ton and Brookline, as seen from the windows of 
Longfellow's study, will thus be kept open, and 
associated with his memory. 

The vignette on page 10 is from a portrait made 
in 1856 by Samuel Laurence ; the frontispiece on 
steel is a copy of one of the latest photographs of 
the poet. The illustration on page 12 represents 
Longfellow's home, Craigie House. It was built 
% Col. John Vassall in 1759, and on his flight to 
England, at the beginning of the Revolution, was 
confiscated. It served as Washington's headquar- 
ters till the evacuation of Boston, and then, after 

1878 he became the minister of a church in Ger- 
mantown, Pa. In 1882 he again returned to Cam- 
bridge. In addition to writing several essays that 
appeared in the " Radical " (1866-'71), and many 
hymns that have a place in other collections than 
his own, he compiled, in association with Rev. Sam- 
uel Johnson, " A Book of Hymns " (Boston, 1846 ; 
revised ed., entitled " Hymns of the Spirit," 1864). 
He published " A Book of Hymns and Tunes," for 
congregational use (1859), and a small volume for 
the vesper service that he had instituted. He is 
also the editor, in connection with Thomas W. Hig- 
ginson, of " Thalatta, a Book for the Seaside," a col- 
lection of poetry, partly original (1853). His latest 
publications are the "Life of Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow " (2 vols., 1886), and " Final Memorials 
of Henry W. Longfellow " (1887).— Henry Wads- 
worth's son, Ernest Wadsworth, artist, b. in 
Cambridge, Mass., in 1845, was a pupil of Couture 
at Paris in 1865, and painted in Italy in 1868. 
His studio w^as at first in Cambridge, but is now 
(1887) in New York. He paints with a firm hand 
and brilliant but harmonious scheme of color, and 
is favorably known for such effective landscapes 
and compositions as "Old Mill at Manchester, 
Mass."; "Italian Pines" (1880) ; "Love Me, Love 
my Dog " ; " Misty Morning " ; and " John and 
Priscilla," one of his most popular works. 

LONGINGS, Jos6 (lon-ge'-nos), Spanish natu- 
ralist, b. in Logroiio, Spain, about 1750; d. in 
Campeche, Mexico, in 1803. In 1787 King Charles 
III. sent a botanical expedition to explore Mexico 
and Central America, and Longinos was appointed 
its chief. He explored Mexico and California, then 
travelled through Central America, and during his 




sojourn in the capital gave public lessons in botany 
and founded a museum of natural history. He was 
an excellent taxidermist, and formed a large col- 
lection of specimens, of which he sent many boxes 
to the Royal museum in Madrid, and the rest was 
delivered after his death to his executor, Dr. Saenz 
de Alfaro, in Mexico. From Guatemala he went 
to explore Yucatan, where he died. Besides manu- 
script catalogues of his collections, he wrote " Res- 
puesta a Don Vicente Cervantes sobre la Goma El- 
astica 6 Arbol del Hule " (Mexico, 1799). 

LONGNECKER, Henry Clay, lawyer, b. in 
Allen, Cumberland co., Pa., 17 April, 1820; d. in 
Allentown, Lehigh co.. Pa., 16 Sept., 1871. He 
was educated at the Norwich military academy, 
Vt., and entered Lafayette college in 1841, but 
was not graduated. He was admitted to the bar 
in January, 1843, and practised in Northampton 
and Lehigh counties. He served in the Mexican 
war in 1847-8 as 1st lieutenant and adjutant of 
voltigeurs, being wounded at Chapultepec, and in 
1848 was chosen district attorney of Lehigh county. 
He was a member of state Democratic conventions 
in 1851 and 1854, but in 185G became a Republi- 
can, and in 1859-'61 was a member of congress, 
where he served on the committee on military 
affairs. He became colonel of the 9th Pennsyl- 
vania regiment in 1861, led a brigade in western 
Virginia at the beginning of the civil war, and com- 
manded a brigade of militia at Antietam. In 1867 
he became an associate judge of Lehigh county. 

LONGSTREET, James, soldier, b. in Edge- 
field district, S. C, 8 Jan., 1821. He removed with 
his mother to Alabama in 1881, and was appointed 
from that state to the U. S. military academy, 
where he was graduated in 1842, and assigned to 
the 4th infantry. He 
served at Jefferson Bar- 
racks, Mo., in 1842-'4, 
on frontier duty at Nat- 
chitoches, La., in 1844- 
'5, in the military occu- 
pation of Texas in 1845- 
'6, and in the war with 
Mexico, being engaged 
in the battles of Palo 
Alto, Resaca de la Pal- 
ma, Monterey, the siege 
of Vera Cruz, Cerro Gor- 
do, San Antonio, Churu- 
Idusco, and Moleno del 
Rev. For gallant and 
meritorious conduct in 
the two latter battles he 
was brevetted captain and major, and he had pre- 
viously been promoted 1st lieutenant, 23 Feb., 1847. 
At the storming of Chapultepec, 8 Sept., 1847, he 
was severely wounded in the assault on the fortified 
convent. He served as adjutant, 8th infantrv, 
from 8 June, 1847, till 1 July, 1849, and on frontier 
and garrison duty, chiefly in Texas, till 1858, being 
made captain, 7 Dec, 1852. He became paymaster, 
19 July, 1858, and resigned, 1 June, 1861. He was 
commissioned brigadier-general in the Confederate 
service, and at the first battle of Bull Run com- 
manded a brigade on the right of the Confederate 
line, where he held a large force of the National 
army from operating in support of McDowell's 
flank attack. On Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's re- 
treat before McClellan at Yorktown, Longstreet 
commanded the rear-guard, having been ma'de a 
major-general. On 5 May, 1862, he made a stand 
at Williamsburg, and was at once attacked by 
Heintzelman, Hooker, and Kearny. He held his 
ground until his opponents were re-enforced by 

Hancock, when he was driven back into his works. 
He took part in the seven days' battles around 
Richmond, and at the second battle of Bull Run, 
when in command of the 1st corps of the Army of 
Northern Virginia, came to the relief of Jackson, 
when he was hard pressed by Pope's army, and by 
a determined charge in flank decided the fortunes 
of the day. At Fredericksburg he held the Con- 
federate left. In 1863 he was detached with two 
of his divisions for service south of James river. 
On Hooker's movement, which led to the battle of 
Chancellorsville, Longstreet was ordered to rejoin 
the army of Lee, but did not arrive in time to par- 
ticipate in the battle. He commanded the right 
wing of the Army of Northern Virginia at the 
battle of Gettysburg, and tried to dissuade Lee 
from ordering the disastrous charge on the third 
day. When Lee retreated to Virginia, Longstreet, 
with five brigades, was transferred to the Army of 
Tennessee under Bragg, and at the battle of 
Chickamauga held the left wing of the Confeder- 
ate army. He was then detached to capture 
Knoxville, but found it too strongly fortified to be 
taken by assault. Early in 1864 he rejoined Lee, 
and was wounded by the fire of his own troops in 
the battle of the Wilderness. He commanded the 
1st corps of the Army of Northern Virginia in all 
the operations in 1864, and was included in the 
surrender at Appomattox, 9 April, 1865. He was 
known in the army as " Old Pete," and was con- 
sidered the hardest fighter in the Confederate ser- 
vice. He had the unbounded confidence of his 
troops, who were devoted to him, and the whole 
army felt better when in the presence of the 
enemy it was passed along the line that " Old 
Pete was up." After the war Gen. Longstreet es- 
tablished his residence in New Orleans, where he 
engaged in commercial business in the firm of 
Longstreet, Owens and Company. He was ap- 
pointed surveyor of customs of the port of New 
Orleans by President Grant, supervisor of internal 
revenue in Louisiana, postmaster at New Orleans, 
and minister from the United States to Turkey by 
President Hayes, and U. S. marshal for the ' dis- 
trict of Georgia by President Garfield. 

LONGSTREET, William, inventor, b. in New 
Jersey about 1760; d. in Georgia in 1814. He re- 
moved in boyhood to Augusta, Ga. As early as 26 
Sept., 1790, he addressed a letter to Thomas Telfair, 
then gcvernor of Georgia, asking his assistance, or 
that of the legislature, in raising funds to enable 
him to construct a boat to be propelled by the new 
power. This was three years before Fulton's let- 
ter to the Earl of Stanhope announcing his theory 
" respecting the moving of ships by the means of 
steam." Failing to obtain public aid at that time, 
Longstreet's invention remained for several years 
in abeyance until, at last securing funds from pri- 
vate sources, he was enabled to launch a boat on 
Savannah river, which moved against the current 
at the rate of five miles an hour. This was in 
1807, a few days after Fulton had made a similarly 
successful experiment on the Hudson. Besides 
this invention, Longstreet patented a valuable 
improvement in cotton-gins, called the " breast 
roller," moved by horse power, which entirely su- 
perseded the old method. He set up two of his 
gins in Augusta, which were propelled by steam 
and worked admirably; but they were destroyed 
by fire within a week. He next erected a set of 
steam mills near St. Mary's, Ga., which were de- 
stroyed by the British in 1812. These disasters 
exhausttid his resources and discouraged his enter- 
prise, though he was confident that steam would 
soon supersede all other motive powers. — His son, 




Augustus Baldwin, author, b. in Augusta, Ga., 
23 Sept., 1790; d. in Oxford, Miss., 9 Sept., 1870, 
was graduated at Yale in 1813, studied in the law- 
school at Litchfield, Conn., and was admitted to 
the bar in Richmond county, Ga., in 1815, but re- 
moved to Greensljjoro, Ga., where he soon rose to 
eminence in his profession. He represented Greene 
county in the legislature in 1831, and in 1833 be- 
came judge of the Ocmulgee judicial district, which 
office he held fot, several years, and then declined 
re-election. He then resumed the practice of the 
law, becoming well known for his success in crimi- 
nal cases, and, removing to Augusta, he established 
there the " Augusta Sentinel," which was consoli- 
dated in 1838 with the " Chronicle," continuing, 
meanwhile, the practice of the law. In 1838 he 
became a minister in the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and was stationed at Augusta. During 
this period of his ministry the town was visited 
with yellow fever, but he remained at his post, 
ministering to the sick and dying. In 1839 he was 
elected president of Emory college, Oxford, Ga., 
where he served nine years, after which he became 
president of Centenary college, La. Shortly after- 
ward he became president of the University of 
Mississippi, at Oxford, Miss., which post he held 
for six years, resigning at that time to devote him- 
self to agricultural pursuits. But in 1857 he was 
elected to the presidency of South Carolina col- 
lege, Columbia, S. C, where he remained till just 
before the civil war, when he returned to the presi- 
dency of the University of Mississippi. In 1844 
he was a member of the general conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, and was conspicuous 
in the discussions that led to a rupture of the 
church, siding throughout with his own section. 
In politics he belonged to the Jefi'ersonian school 
of strict construction and state rights. At an early 
age he began to write for the press, and he made 
speeches on all occasions through his life. •' I have 
heard him," writes one who knew him, " respond 
to a serenade, preach a funeral sermon, deliver a 
college commencement address, and make a ha- 
rangue over the pyrotechnic glorifications of seced- 
ing states. He could never he scared up without 

a, speech." His pen was never idle. His chief 
periodical contributions are to be found in " The 
Methodist Quarterly," " The Southern Literary 
Messenger," •' The Southern Field and Fireside," 
*' The Magnolia," and " The Orion," and include 
" Letters to Clergymen of the Northern Methodist 
Church " and " Letters from Georgia to Massa- 
chusetts." tlis best-known work is a series of 
newspaper sketches of humble life in the south, 
■" Georgia Scenes, Characters, Incidents, etc., in 
the First Half Century of the Republic, by a Na- 
tive Georgian," which were collected into a book 
that appeared first at the south and then in New 
York (1840). A second edition was issued in 1867, 
and though it purported to be revised, he would, it 
is said, have nothing to do with it. It is said that 
he sent men through the country to collect and 
destroy all copies of the first edition. This book 
is full of genuine humor, broad, but irresistible, 
and by many these sketches are considered the 
raciest, most natural, and most original that ap- 
peared at the south before the civil war. He also 
published " Master William Mitten," a story (Ma- 
con, Ga., 1864). Many unpublished manuscripts 
were destroyed with his library during the war. 

LONGSTRETH, Miers Fisher, astronomer, 

b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 15 March, 1819. He was 
educated in the schools of the Society of Friends, 
and was graduated at the medical department of 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1856. During 

VOL. IV. — 2 

the early part of his life he was a merchant, but 
devoted his leisure to the study of astronomy, 
having charge of the Friends' observatory in Phila- 
delphia till 1856. He then removed to Sharon 
Hill, Pa., where he has since practised medicine. 
Dr. Longstreth has devoted most of his life to 
study, and his contributions to astronomy have 
been valuable. They have appeared in the " Trans- 
actions of the American Philosophical Society," of 
which he has been a member since 1848, and he 
was' also one of the original members of the 
National academy of science. He has always de- 
clined public office, although for more than forty 
years he has been a member of private and public 
educational boards. 

LONGWORTH, Nicolas, horticulturist, b. in 
Newark, N. J., 16 Jan., 1783; d. in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, 10 Feb., 1863. The large property of his 
father, who was a Tory, was confiscated during the 
Revolution, and the son passed his youth in com- 
parative poverty. He was a clerk in his elder 
brother's store in South Carolina in his youth, and 
in 1803 removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, whore he 
studied law, and purchased large tracts of land. 
After twenty-five years' practice he retired from 
law in order to devote himself to the cultivation 
of the grape with a view to manufacturing wine ; 
but, using foreign vines exclusively, was unsuc- * 
cessful until 1838, when he introduced native 
vines or their seedlings and produced, from the 
Catawba and the Isabella grape, wine of a high 
marketable value. He had 300 acres of vineyards, 
and a large wine-house in the vicinity of Cincin- 
nati, and was also favorably known by his experi- 
ments on the strawberry. He was kindly but 
eccentric, and gave much money to those that he 
called the " Devil's poor." At his death his 
property was estimated at from $10,000,000 to 
$15,000,000. He published "Buchanan's Treatise 
on the Grape, with an Appendix on Strawberry 
Culture " (Cincinnati, 1856). 

LONGWORTHY, John, Canadian statesman, 
b. in Charlottetown, Prince Edward island, 19 
Sept., 1814; d. there, 11 April, 1885. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1838, and entered the provin- 
cial assembly in 1846. Subsequently he was solici- 
tor-general and a member of successive admin- 
istrations, and drafter of the " No terms reso- 
lution " that was adopted by the assembly in con- 
nection with the confederation of the provinces. 
In 1883 he was appointed prothonotary of the 
supreme court of Prince Edward island. He was 
a lieutenant-colonel of militia, and at his death 
was president of the Bank of Prince Edward island. 

LONGYEAR, John Wesley, jurist, b. in Shan- 
daken, Ulster co., N. Y., 33 Oct., 1830 ; d. in De- 
troit, Mich., 10 March, 1875. He was educated 
at Lima, N. Y., and, removing in 1844 to Michi- 
gan, was admitted to the bar in 1846, settling the 
next year in Lansing, where he acquired an ex- 
tensive practice. He was elected to congress as a 
Republican in 1863, served till 1867, and during 
both terms was chairman of the committee on ex- 
penditures on the public buildings. He was a 
delegate to the Loyalists' convention in Philadel- 
phia in 1866, a member of the Michigan constitu- 
tional convention in 1867, and in 1870 became 
U. S. judge of the southern district of the state. 
His decisions, especially those in admiralty and 
bankruptcy cases, were extensively quoted. 

LOOMIS, Alfred Lebbeiis, physician, b. in 
Bennington, Vt., 10 June, 1831. He was gradu- 
ated at Union college in 1851, and studied medi- 
cine under Dr. Willard Parker in New York, 
receiving his doctorate at the College of phy- 




sicians and surgeons in 1853. He then became 
assistant physician to the hospitals on Ward's and 
Blackwell's islands, but after two years established 
himself in general practice in New York city, 
giving special attention to the treatment of pul- 
monary diseases, in which branch of medical 
science he has acquired a national reputation. He 
became visiting physician to Bellevue hospital in 
1860, and in 1874 to the Mount Sinai hospital, 
which appointments he still (1887) retains, and he 
was also consulting physician to the Charity hos- 
pital on Blackwell's island in I860-' 75. Dr. 
Loomis was lecturer on physical diagnosis in the 
College of physicians and surgeons in 1862-5, and 
was then made adjunct professor of theory and 
practice of medicine in the University of New 
York. In 1867 he became professor of pathology 
and practice of medicine in the same institution, 
which chair he still holds. An unknown friend 
of the university gave through Dr. Loomis in 1886- 
the sum of $100,000 to the medical department, to 
build and equip the Loomis laboratory, which it is 
intended to make the finest of its kind in the 
United States. He is a member of medical 
societies both in the United States and Europe, 
and has been president of the New York patho- 
logical society, also of the New York state medical 
society. Besides occasional contributions to cur- 
rent literature, he has published " Lessons in Physi- 
cal Diagnosis " (New York, 1868) ; " Diseases of the 
Bespiratory Organs, Heart, and Kidneys " (1876) ; 
"Lectures on Fevers" (1882): "Diseases of Old 
Age" (1882); and "A Text-Book of Practical 
Medicine " (1884). 

LOOMIS, Arph.ixed, lawver, b. in Winchester. 
Conn., 9 April, 1798 ; d. in Little Falls, N. Y., 15 
Sept.. 1885. Early in life he accompanied his 
family to Herkimer county, N. Y., and worked on 
the home farm till he was fourteen years old. when 
his father liired him out as teacher of a district 
school. After teaching and studying law in 
Watertown and Sackett's Harbor, he was admitted 
to the bar, and practised in the latter place till 
1827, when he removed to Little Falls, N. Y. He 
was countv judge and surrogate from 1827 till 
1837, first judge in 1835-'40, aiid in 1837-'9 sat in 
congress, having been chosen as a Democrat. He 
was a member of the New York assembly in 1841, 
and of the State constitutional convention in 1846. 
and a commissioner to revise the code of practice 
in 1847 with Nicholas Hill and David (rraham. 
Mr. Hill shortly afterward resigned and was re- 
placed by David Dudley Field. TJie committee 
reported a code of procedure, which went into op- 
eration in 1848. hi 1842, as chairman of the as- 
sembly judiciary committee, Judge Loomis had 
prepared a "bill to improve the administration of 
justice," and his interest in law reform continued 
from this time. Judge Loomis was an able public 
speaker and wrote much for the press on political 
subjects. He published in pamphlet-form a " His- 
toric Sketch of the New York System of Law Be- 
form " (Little Falls, N. Y., 1879).' 

LOOMIS, Dwig-ht, lawyer, b. in Columbia, 
Conn., 27 July, 1821. He studied law in New 
Haven, and was admitted to the bar in 1847. Set- 
tling in Rockville, Conn., he followed his profes- 
sion there until 1851, when he was elected to the 
Connecticut legislature. In 1856 he served as a 
delegate at the People's convention held in Phila- 
delphia, and in 1857 was sent to the state senate. 
He was elected as a Republican to the United 
States house of representatives, and served from 
5 Dec, 1859, till 3 March, 1863. In 1864 he was 
appointed a judge of the superior court of Connec- 

ticut, and in 1875 was advanced to the supreme 
court, where he has since remained. 

LOOMIS, EHas, physicist, b. in Willington, 
Conn., 7 Aug., 1811 ; d. in New Haven, Conn., 15 
Aug., 1889. He was graduated at Yale in 1830,. 
where in 1833-6 he held the office of tutor. In No- 
vember, 1834, for two weeks, from 4 to 6 a. m., with 
Alexander C. Twining, of West Point, he made ob- 
servations for de- 
termining tlie alti- 
tude of shooting- 
stars. These are be- 
lieved to have been 
the first concerted 
observations of this 
kind made in the 
United States. For 
fourteen months, in 
1834- '5. he made 
hourly observations 
from 5 or 6 A. m. 
till 10 p. M. of the 
declination of the 
magnetic needle. 
He was the first 
person in this coun- 
try to discover Hal- 
ley's comet on its 

return to perihelion in 1835, and he computed the 
elements of its orbit from his own observations. 
In 1836-7 he spent a year in Paris attending 
the lectures of Arago. Biot, Dulong, Poisson, 
Pouillet, and others. On his return he became 
professor of mathematics and natural philosophy 
in Western Reserve college, Ohio, where he re- 
mained until 1844, making diligent use of the 
philosophical and meteorological instruments that 
he had purchased in Europe. Prof, Ijoomis ob- 
served during these years 260 moon culminations 
for longitude. 69 culminations of Polaris for lati- 
tude, 16 occultations of stars, and made a series of 
observations upon five comets, sufficiently extend- 
ed to determine their orbits. He also observed the 
dip of the magnetic needle at over 70 stations, 
spread over 13 states, extending from the Atlantic 
to the Mississippi river. In 1844 he became pro- 
fessor of natural philosophy in the University of 
the city of New York, which chair he continued to 
fill until 1860. During this period lie prepared a 
series of text-books embracing the entire range of 
mathematical subjects that are taught in high- 
schools and colleges, and they were subsequently 
extended to embrace natural philosophy, astrono- 
my, and meteorology. This series attained an 
aggregate circulation of more than 500.000 copies ; 
his treatise on astronomy has been used as a text- 
book in England ; that on analytical geometry and 
calculus translated into Chinese ; and his " Meteor- 
ology " into Arabic. A part of his time between 
1846 and 1849 was employed in telegraphic com- 
parisons for longitude with Sears C. Walker. The 
difference in longitude between New York and 
Washington was determined in 1847, that between 
New York and Cambridge, Mass., in 1848, and the 
difference between Philadelphia and the observa- 
tory in Hudson, Ohio, in 1849. In the two former 
comparisons Prof. Loomis had charge of the obser- 
vations in New York, and in the latter comparison 
he had charge of those in Hudson. The first 
observations by which the velocity of the electric 
fluid on telegraph-wires was determined were made 
on 23 Jan., 1849, between Washington, Philadel- 
phia, New York, and Cambridge, under the 
direction of Sears C. Walker, a clock in Phila- 
delphia being employed to break the electric cir- 




ciiit. In these comparisons Prof. Loomis had 
charge of the observations in New York. In 1860 
he became professor of natural philosophy and 
astronomy in Yale, and afterward devoted a large 
part of his time tol original researches, the most im- 
portant of which^'Were a series of articles published 
in the " American Journal of Science," under the 
title of " Contributions to Meteorology." He was 
engaged in revising these papers, and arranging the 
different topics in systematic order, at the same 
time subjecting each principle to more rigid inves- 
tigation by comparison with the numerous obser- 
vations which have recently been published in the 
United States or abroad. These revised contri- 
butions, when completed, will present a very full 
discussion of the principles of dynamic meteor- 
ology. The titles of his scientific papers exceed 
100 in number, and they have appeared both in 
this country and abroad in journals and in transac- 
tions of societies of which he was a member. In 
1854 he received the degree of LL. D. from the 
University of the city of New York. Prof. Loomis 
was a member of scientific societies in the United 
States and in Europe, and in 1873 was elected 
to the National academy of sciences. Besides 
"On Certain Storms in Europe and America" 
(Washington, 1860), forming part of one of the 
Smithsonian contributions, he published " Plane 
and Spherical Trigonometry " (New York, 1848) ; 
"Progress of Astronomy " (1850 Vnd 1856) ; " Ana- 
lytical Geometry and Calculus " and " Elements of 
Algebra " (1851) : " Elements of Geometry and Con- 
ic Sections " (1851 and 1871) ; " Tables of Loga- 
rithms " (1855) ; " Natural Philosophy " (1858) ; 
"Practical Astronomy" (1855 and 1865); "Ele- 
ments of Arithmetic " (1863) ; " Treatise on Meteor- 
ology " (1868) ; " Elements of Astronomy " (1869) ; 
and "The Descendants of Joseph Loomis " (1870). 

LOOMIS, Gustaviis, soldier, b, in Thetford, Vt., 
23 Sept., 1789; d. in Stratford, Conn., 6 March, 
1873. He was graduated at the U. S. military 
academy in 1811, and assigned to the artillery. 
For two years he served on garrison duty in New 
York harbor, and then he was sent to the northern 
frontier, where he was at the capture of Fort 
George in May, 1813, and was taken prisoner at 
the surprise of Fort Niagara in December of that 
year. Meanwhile he had been made assistant depu- 
ty quartermaster-general, with the rank of captain, 
and he subsequently served in various garrisons. 
On the reorganization of the army in 1821 he was 
made captain in the 1st infantry,' and in 1838 re- 
ceived his commission as major, after serving in 
the campaigns against the Indians in Florida and 
Texas. In 1840 he was promoted lieutenant-colonel 
of the 6th infantry, and, after garrison duty on the 
frontier, served in that rank during the Mexican 
war and until 1851, when he was made colonel of 
the 5th infantry, and given various commands in 
the Indian territory. Col. Loomis participated in 
the Florida campaigns of 1856-8 against the Semi- 
nole Indians, and had charge of that department 
in 1857-'8. During the civil war he was engaged 
at first on mustering duty, but later was put at the 
head of the general recruiting service at Fort Co- 
lumbus, N. Y. He was retired from active service 
on 1 June, 1863, but continued to be occupied on 
court-martial duty. In 1865 he received the brevet 
of brigadier-general for long and faithful service 
in the army. 

LOOMIS, Justin Badolph, educator, b. in Ben- 
nington, N. Y., 10 Aug., 1810. He was graduated 
at Brown in 1835, and in 1836 became professor of 
natural sciences in Colby university. This chair 
he held until 1853, when he was called to fill a simi- 

lar professorship in the University of Lewisburg, 
Pa. In 1858 he was made president of that uni- 
versity, and held the office until 1878. He received 
the degree of Ph. D. from the University of Lewis- 
burg in 1854, and that of LL. D. from the Uni- 
versity of Rochester in 1858. Prof. Loomis is the 
author of " Elements of Geology " (Boston, 1853) 
and of " Elements of Anatomy and Physiology " 
(Philadelphia, 1853). 

LOOMIS, Silas Laurence, physician, b. in Cov- 
entry, Conn., 33 May, 1833. He was graduated at 
Wesleyan in 1844, after teaching mathematics and 
natural sciences in Holliston academy, Mass. Af- 
ter his graduation he returned to teaching, becom- 
ing in 1855 principal of the Western academy in 
Washington, D. C, and meanwhile was graduated 
from the medical department of Georgetown col- 
lege in 1856, and was professor of physiology in 
that department in 1859-60. He held the office of 
astronomer to the U. S. coast survey in 1857, and 
in 1860 was special instructor in mathematics to 
the U. S. naval cadets while on a cruise. In 1861-7 
he was professor of chemistry and toxicology in 
Georgetown college, also surgeon on Gen. George 
B. McClellan's staff in 1863-3, and acting assistant 
surgeon on the steamer " State of Maine," and in 
Patent office, Finley, and Mount Pleasant hos- 
pitals in 1863-5. He became professor of practice 
of medicine in the medical department of Howard 
university in 1867, later dean and professor of 
chemistry and toxicology in that institution until 
1873. In 1873 he returned to the practice of his 
profession, and in 1877 was called to the presidency 
of the Swede iron and coal company, which he held 
until 1881. He invented a process for producing a 
textile fabric from palmetto in 1878, and in 1879 
discovered a method by which ores of chromium, 
which were formerly condemned, have become val- 
uable. Dr. Loomis has also made improvements 
in various instruments of precision. He has held 
the offices of president of the Washington scien- 
tific association in 1862, and president of the Ameri- 
can union academy of literature, science, and art 
in 1872. Besides various magazine articles and 
college addresses he has published " Normal Arith- 
metic " (Philadelphia, 1859); "Analytical Arith- 
metic " (1860) ; and " Key to the Normal Course " 
(1867).— His brother, Lafiiyette Charles, educator, 
b. in Coventry, Conn., 7 July. 1824, was graduated 
at Wesleyan in 1844, and then taught, becoming in 
1853 principal of the Irving institute in Tarrytown, 
N. Y. A year later he was appointed professor of 
natural sciences in Wesleyan female college, Wil- 
mington, Del, and became its president in 1857-'8. 
He was principal of the Lafayette institute, Wash- 
ington, D, C, during 1859-63, and, after being 
graduated at the medical department of Georgetown 
university in 1865, was acting assistant surgeon in 
the Army of the Potomac. Dr. Loomis then held 
the presidency of the Wheeling female seminary in 
West Virginia during 1865, and three years later 
was appointed professor of physiology in Howard 
university, Washington, D. C. Subsequently he 
spent several years in travel and study in Europe, 
and he has also lectured on art. In addition to 
magazine articles he has published " Mizpah. Prayer 
and Friendship " (Philadelphia, 1858) ; " Mental and 
Social Culture " (New York, 1867) ; and " Hand- 
book of Art and Travel in Europe " (1882). 

LOOP, Henry Augustus, artist, b. in Hillsdale, 
Columbia co., N. Y., 9 Sept., 1831. He was edu- 
cated at Great Barrington, Mass., settled in New 
York city in 1850, studied art for a year with Henry 
P. Gray, and in 1857 with Thomas Couture at Paris. 
He was elected a National academician in 1861, 




and most of his life work has been given to por- 
traiture. His studio is in New York. Among his 
works are portraits of Worthington Whittredge, of 
Joseph P. Thomson, and Prof. Elias Loomis (1882) ; 
also "Undine" (1861); "Aphrodite" (1876); 
"Echo" (1877): " Hermione and Helena" (1877); 
" GEnone " (1878) ; " At the Spring " (1879) ; " Idyl 
of the Lake" (1881); "Love's Crown" (1882); 
"Summer Moon" (1884); and "The Dreamer" 
(1885).— His wife, Jeniiette Shepherd (Harrison), 
artist, b. in New Haven, Conn., 5 March, 1840, has 
her studio with her husband. She was a pupil of 
Louis Bail in New Haven, subsequently of her 
husband, and in 1867 studied in Paris, Venice, and 
Rome. She was elected an associate of the Nation- 
al academy in 1875. Her style is unpretentious, 
but natunil and vigorous. Among her works are 
numerous portraits, "A Banquet for Mamma," 
" Little Runaway," and " Baby Belle." 

LOOS, Charles Louis, educator, b. in Woerth- 
sur-Sauer, Lower Alsace, 22 Dec, 1823. His par- 
ents, who were Protestants, removed to this coun- 
try in 1824, and settled at New Franklin, Stark co., 
Oiiio, where his father died a few days after their 
arrival. The son studied in the town school, and at 
the age of sixteen began teaching. He was grad- 
uated at Bethany college in 1846, and was a teacher 
there for three years, after which he removed to 
Wellsburg, Va., to take pastoral charge of the 
Christian church there. After holding pastorates 
in Somerset, Pa., and Cincinnati, Ohio, he was 
called to tlie presidency of Eureka college. 111., and 
in 1858-"8() held the chair of ancient languages in 
Bethany college. He was then elected to the presi- 
dency of Kentucky university at Lexington. For 
several years Mr. Loos was associate editor of the 
" Disciple," a monthly, and of the " Sower," a re- 
ligious weekly in Pennsylvania, and of the " Chris- 
tian Age," the chief weekly organ of his church at 
Cincinnati. Afterward, for seven vears, he was co- 
editor with Prof, W. K, Pendleton of the " Millen- 
nial Harbinger," and at present is contributing 
editor of the " Christian Standard," of Cincinnati. 

LOOT, Gerard ran (lote), Dutch naturalist, b. 
in Muyden in 1705; d, in Breda in 1761. He ob- 
tained employment in the Indian company, and re- 
sided most of his life in Java and Dutch Guiana, 
retiring in 1758 and settling in Breda. He pub- 
lished " Anweisung wie man die Breite und Lange 
der Fliisse aus gemeinen Landkarten erforschen 
konne " (2 vols., Breda, 1754) ; " Guiana geognostisch 
und geologisch dargestellt " (1755) ; " Grundlehren 
der Anatomic und Physiologic der amerikanischen 
Pflanzen " (1757); " Naturen Bloeme " (1757); 
" Historia generalis plantarum guianarum in quffi 
familia^ per tabulas disponuntur" (2 vols,, 1758); 
" Die Natui'geschichte von Amerika " (1760) ; 
"Handbuch fiir den Kaufmann in Guiana" (1760); 
and several other works. 

LOOTENS, Louis, R. C. bishop, b. in Bruges, 
Belgium, in 1825. He was ordained to the Roman 
Catholic priesthood in 1851, and was sent to Cali- 
fornia on a mission about seven years afterward ; 
successively officiating in Sonora, Petaluma, and 
San Rafael, where he erected a church and greatly 
enlarged the school-buildings. In March, 1868, he 
was consecrated bishop of Castabala, in partibus, 
but resigned in 1876 on account of failing health. 

LOPES, Caetano (lo-pes), Brazilian historian, b. 
in Bahia in October, 1780; d, in Paris, 22 Dec, 
1860. He was a mulatto, and, being the son of 
wealthy parents, received a good education in the 
college of Bahia, finishing his studies in Paris, 
where he was graduated in medicine, and entered 
the French army in 1808 as assistant surgeon. He 

served during the reign of Napoleon, but resigned 
in 1815, and practised his profession in Brazil for 
several years, but settled in Paris in 1822, and en- 
gaged in literary work. He devoted his time prin- 
cipally to the study of Brazil and Brazilian authors, 
whose works he wished to popularize in Europe. 
Lopes became corresponding member of the Paris 
academy of inscriptions and belles-lettres. In 1843 
he was presented with a gold medal by the histori- 
cal institute of Rio Janeiro for his historical 
works, and he also received many proofs of esteem 
from the emperor Pedro. He wrote under the pen- 
name of Caetano L. de Moura. His works, which 
are numerous and noted for purity of language 
and brightness of style, include " Diccionario geo- 
graphico historico e descriptivo do imperio do Bra- 
zil, obra collegida e composta per Milliet de Saint 
Adolphe, e traduzida em portuguez do mesmo manu- 
scripto inedito frances, com numerosas observagoes 
e addi^oes" (2 vols., Paris, 1839); "Arte de se cu- 
rar a si mesmo nas doengas venereas " (1845) ; " His- 
toria de Napoleao Bonaparte," which was written by 
order of Pedro I, for the primary schools of Brazil 
(2 vols., 1846) ; " Diccionario bibliographico Brasi- 
liense " (6 vols., 1847-'52) ; " Diccionario estatistico 
geographico do imperio do Brazil V (3 vols., 1853) ; 
and " Historia geral do imperio do Brazil" (3 vols., 
1854). He was also the author of surgical works. 

LOPEZ, Carlos Antouio (lo'-peth), president 
of Paraguay, b, in Asuncion, 4 Nov., 1790, died 
there, Sept. 10, 1862. He was educated in the 
seminary of Asuncion, and escaped the persecution 
of Dr. Francia, the dictator, by hiding for many 
years in a remote village. After Francia's death 
in September, 1840, Lopez returned to Asuncion, 
and became the secretary of the military junta 
that was then in control there. Seeing that the 
government could be seized by any one that was 
cunning and strong enough to grasp it, he resolved 
to do so, and caused the junta to call a congress, 
which, under his direction, appointed a triumvi- 
rate, 23 Jan., 1841, He then induced one of the 
triumvirs. Gen, Mariano Roque Alonso, to dissolve 
the triumvirate on 27 Feb., and a new congress of 
his own creation appointed Alonso and Lopez con- 
suls for three years. In 1844 the same fai'ce was 
enacted, and congress abolished the consulate, ap- 
pointing Lopez president for ten years. In 1854 he 
was re-elected for three years, and again in 1857 
for ten years, with power to appoint his temporary 
successor by will. He governed arbitrarily, but in 
general without oppression or cruelty. He gradu- 
ally opened Paraguay to foreign trade and immi- 
gration, made treaties, laid the foundations of a 
formidable army, with fortifications, arsenal, and 
flotilla, constructed a railway, and provided for 
the education of many youths in European me- 
chanical and scientific schools. His jealousy of all 
interference with the independence of Paraguay 
brought him into conflict with the dictator Rosas 
of Buenos Ayres, and his dislike of foreigners in- 
volved him in diplomatic disputes with England, 
France, and Brazil, which in each case were carried 
to the verge of hostilities, from which he escaped 
by shrewd diplomacy. On account of his treat- 
ment of the \j. S. consul, and an attack on the ex- 
ploring steamer " Water Witch," in 1855, a large 
squadron was sent by the U. S. government to 
enforce a demand for reparation, which was prom- 
ised by treaty, but ultimately evaded. His long 
administration greatly advanced the material wel- 
fare of Paraguay, and the security of life and prop- 
erty was unlimited except by laws of his own enact- 
ment, — His son, Francisco Solano, president of 
Paraguay, b. near Asuncion, 24 July, 1827 ; killed 




in battle, 1 March, 1870, was said to be a natural 
son of Carlos, but was afterward adopted by his 
father, and intended as his successor. In 1845 he 
was named commander-in-chief of the Paraguayan 
army, and spent s^me time on the frontier of Cor- 
rientes, nominally but not actually engaged in 
warfare with ther dictator Rosas of Buenos Ayres. 
In 1854 he wak^ sent to exchange treaty ratifica- 
tions with seve^l European powers, and passed 
eighteen months in Europe. While there he met 
an Irish lady, who called herself Mrs. Lynch, and 
who lived apart from her husband, a French 
officer. She followed Lopez to Paraguay, and be- 
came his mistress, a position not deemed discred- 
itable in that country, where marriage had been 
almost abolished by Francia. By her talents she 
acquired popularity, and exercised a controlling 
influence over Lopez until near the close of his life. 
On his return he became minister of war, and used 
his influence in the government chiefly for putting 
the country on a war footing. In 1862 Gen. Lopez 
became president by his father's will, and congress 
chose him president for ten years from 16 Oct. He 
now devoted himself actively to preparations for 
war, and for two years he was constantly but 
secretly receiving arms from Europe. In 1864 
Brazil ' intervened in a Uruguayan civil war. and 
Lopez, declaring himself the protector of the 
" equilibrium " of the Plata river, demanded that 
the Brazilian forces should retire. This summons 
remaining unheeded, he began hostilities in No- 
vember. 1864, by seizing a Brazilian mail-steamer ; 
and in December he occupied the Brazilian prov- 
ince of Matto Grosso, on the upper waters of 
Paraguay river. Early in 1865 he sent 8,000 troops 
across Argentine territory into the Brazilian prov- 
ince of Rio Grande do Sul, and, when the Argen- 
tine government protested against this violation of 
its territory, he declared war on that republic. A 
hastily summoned congress ratified these acts, 
conferred the grade of marshal upon Lopez, gave 
him extraordinary powers, and formally declared 
war against Brazil and the Argentine Republic. 
Before this declaration was known in Buenos 
Ayres, Lopez seized two Argentine men-of-war 
that lay at anchor in Corrientes, and overran that 
province with his forces. Brazil, the Argentine 
Republic, and Uruguay concluded a secret treaty 
on 1 May, 1865, forming an offensive and defensive 
alliance against Paraguay, and before the end of 
this year recovered the provinces that had been 
occupied by Lopez. The allies invaded Paraguay 
early in 1866, and during the succeeding four 
years a war of greater proportions than had hitherto 
been known in South America was waged with 
varying fortunes on the soil of that state. Lopez 
impressed into service all the able-bodied males 
between the ages of twelve and seventy, and several 
lines of defence were maintained, but in February, 
1868, the Brazilian squadron forced its way above 
the fortresses, and bombarded Asuncion, which 
had been evacuated by the government and all its 
inhabitants. Lopez now^ suspected the vice-presi- 
dent and his cabinet ministers of disloyalty, and 
they were imprisoned and removed to army head- 
quarters, where they were tried before an improvised 
court consisting of three priests. After being put 
to the torture, the prisoners confessed themselves 
guilty and implicated others, who were quickly 
seized and subjected to the same process. In the 
course of a few weeks confessions had been ex- 
torted that finally implicated all the civil em- 
ployes in Asuncion, most of the foreign diplomatic 
and consular officers, and all the foreigners en- 
gaged in commerce, in sweeping charges of con- 

spiracy against the rule or even the life of Lopez. 
It is estimated that more than 500 persons were 
either executed or died by torture in the encamp- 
ment of Lopez during the latter half of 1868. 
Among those that were executed were Lopez's 
brother, Benigno, his sister, and her husband, 
Barrios, and the bishop of Asuncion ; and Lopez's 
mother was exiled for asking for the pardon of her 
children. The U. S. legation was involved in the 
charges, and, although the minister, Charles A. 
Washburn, escaped in September through the 
opportune arrival of the U. S. war vessel " Wasp," 
two attaches were seized and tortured. Their 
lives were spared, however, and they were surren- 
dered to an American squadron in December. 
Early in January, 1869, after the capture of Hu- 
maita, Villeta, and Angostura, Asuncion was oc- 
cupied by the allied forces, and Lopez retired to 
Birabibi. By successive defeats during 1869, not- 
withstanding an obstinate resistance, aided even 
by a corps of Amazons under Mrs. Lynch, Lopez 
was gradually driven to the extreme northern 
boundary of Paraguay. When he was about to 
cross the river Aquidaban, he was surprised by a 
detachment of Brazilian cavalry. The Brazilian 
general, Camara, in vain summoned him to sur- 
render ; but his strength gave way as he was 
swimming to the opposite bank, and while bleed- 
ing from his wounds he was killed by two Brazilian 
soldiers, his last words being : '• I die for my coun- 
try." Mrs. Lynch was overtaken in her flight. 
The eldest son, Pancho, in the uniform of a colonel, 
fired upon the Brazilian chief lieutenant, Martinez, 
who thereupon killed him, and he was buried by 
the side of his father. Mrs. Lynch went to Eng- 
land. The forces of Lopez, reduced to about 1,500, 
at once laid down their arms. See " Seven Event- 
ful Years in Paraguay," by George F. Masterman 
(London, 1869). and '^ History of Paraguay," by 
Charles A. Washburn (2 vols., Boston, 1870). 

LOPEZ, EstanisLao, Argentine soldier, b. in 
Santa Fe, 22 Nov., 1786; d. there, 15 June, 1838. 
He entered the Argentine army during the war of 
independence, and was present in several battles 
under Gen. Belgrano. In 1818 he had become 
colonel and military commander of the province 
of Santa Fe, and on 28 July of the same year was 
appointed its first governor, being promoted gen- 
eral in August. He took part in the civil war that 
began in that year, and was defeated by the forces 
of the Argentine government under Gen. Balcarce 
on 27 Nov. in Paso de Aguirre, and on 18-19 Feb., 

1819, at Herradura, but on 10 March at Barrancas 
he was victorious. After two years of civil war 
Lopez arrived before Buenos Ayres, and the gov- 
ernor, Rodriguez, recognized the federal govern- 
ment on 23 Feb., 1820. When Balcarce was elect- 
ed governor, Rodriguez, aided by Lopez, revolted 
against him, and was reinstated on 23 March. 
Dorrego defeated Lopez in the battle of Pavon on 

12 Aug. ; but on 2 Sept. the latter defeated Dor- 
rego in Gamonal, province of Santa Fe, and the 
war between the provinces of Buenos Ayres and 
Santa Fe was ended by a treaty of peace on*24 Nov., 

1820. In 1821 he declared war against the prov- 
ince of Entre Rios, and on 26 May conquered its 
governor, Ramirez, in the battle of Coronda. On 

13 May, 1826, he signed a treaty of alliance be- 
tween the provinces of La Plata against Brazil, and 
on 21 April, 1828, at the head of a strong army, he 
marched on the territory of Misiones. The Argen- 
tine national convention appointed him director 
and general-in-chief of all the national forces on 
26 Feb., 1829, and on 26 April. 1829, he defeated 
Gen. Lavalle in the battle of Puente de Marquez, 




near Buenos Ayres. He resigned the oflEice of 
general-in-chief, 30 Jan., 1832. In 1857 his statue 
was erected in Santa Fe. 

LOPEZ, Juan Francisco, Mexican clergyman, 
b. in Guarena de Caracas in April, 1699 ; d. in 
Italy in 1778. He was taken prisoner with his 
father by the English and brought to Jamaica. 
On his release in 1710 he went to Vera Cruz, 
where he entered the Society of Jesus in 1715. He 
taught literature in S. Luis Potosi and Vera Cruz, 
philosophy in Zacatecas and Mexico, and theology 
in Merida de Yucatan. He was appointed pro- 
curator to Rome and Madrid, and instructed to 
ask the pope to place North America under the 
protection of the Blessed Virgin of Guadalupe. On 
his return to Mexico the governor made him rector 
of the colleges of Mexico and Puebla. He was 
forced to leave Mexico in 1767, after the decree of 
Charles III. suppressing the Jesuit order, and went 
to Italy. He wrote a great many works, including 
"Vida del P. Jose Maria Genovesi, Jesuita Sicilia- 
no, Misionero de Topia y Californias" (Mexico, 
1758) ; " Supplex Libellus SS. Papre Benedicto XIV. 
oblatus de miraculosa Dei Parentis imagine Mexi- 
cea Guadalupensi " (Rome, 1754); " Tabla Topo- 
grafica de todas las Casas regulares y seculares y 
Misiones de la Provincia Jesuitica de la Nueva 
Espaiia" (Rome); and "Manual de Parrocos ajus- 
tado al Ritual Ronuino," Which was reprinted in 
1803, and the 4th Mexican council ordered it to be 
used by all priests. The life of Lopez was written 
by Juan Maneiro (Bologna, 1792). 

LOPEZ, Martin, Spanish sailor. He lived in 
the 16th century, but, thougli his name is often 
cited in the history of the conquest of Mexico, 
there is no record of his birthplace or the dates 
of his birth and death. He was a carpenter by 
profession, made several voyages to Cuba, and ac- 
companied Francisco Hernandez de Cordova in 
1517, Juan de Grijalva in 1518, and Cortes in 1519, 
to Mexico always as chief carpenter of the expedi- 
tion. After the defeat of Cortes in Mexico and 
his retreat to Tlascala in July, 1520, he formed a 
plan to attack Mexico by land and water, and 
Lopez offered to build proper vessels. He l)egan 
to cut wood in the mountains of Tlascala, and the 
native chief Chichemecatecuhtli furnished men to 
carry the wood to the city. At the end of Decem- 
ber, 1520, the timbers for the vessels were finished. 
They were then carried, with tlie iron- work, rig- 
ging, and sails that had been saved from the ves- 
sels that were burned in Vera Cruz, to the borders 
of the Lake of Texcoco. On 28 April, 1521, twelve 
brigantines were launched amidst festivities in the 
Lake of Texcoco. These vessels rendered good 
service in the siege and final capture of the city, 
on 13 Aug., and Lopez was rewarded by the con- 
queror with great honors and riches. He after- 
ward resided in the city of Mexico, where he died. 

LOPEZ, Narciso, Spanish-American soldier, b. 
in Caracas, Venezuela, in 1799 ; d. in Havana, Cuba, 
1 Sept., 1851. He belonged to a rich family of mer- 
chants, and at the beginning of the war for inde- 
pendence in the colony took the popular side, but 
soon afterward entered the Spanish army, and at 
the close of the war was rewarded with the rank of 
colonel, although he was only twenty-one years old. 
The royal army having evacuated Venezuela, Lopez 
went to Cuba and afterward to Spain, where he 
served in the first Carlist war, and was called " the 
first lancer in the army." In 1836 he was made 
brigadier, and in 1839 major-general and appointed 
governor of Valencia. In 1841 Gen. Valdes was ap- 
pointed governor-general of Cuba, and took with 
him Lopez, who was intrusted with several impor- 

tant posts ; but when, in 1843, Gen. O'Donnell went 
to Cuba to succeed Valdes, Lopez was deprived of 
all his commands, and in consequence retired to pri- 
vate life, where he engaged in commercial pursuits 
and undertook the management of copper-mines. 
In 1848 the revolutionary party in the island won 
him to their cause, and he took part in a conspira- 
cy against the government, on the discovery of 
which he fled in 1849 to New York. There he or- 
ganized a military expedition for the invasion of 
Cuba, which was frustrated by proclamation of 
President Taylor in August, 1849. In the follow- 
ing year he organized another expedition, and 
landed in the town of Cardenas, 19 May, 1850, at 
the head of about 600 men. He took possession of 
the town, but was compelled to evacuate it after a 
few hours, and returned to New Orleans to prepare 
a new expedition, with which he landed, 12 Aug., 
1851, near Bahia Honda, on the northern coast of 
the island, west of Havana. He left 130 men, un- 
der Col. Crittenden, at the landing-place, and with 
323 followers marched on Las Pozas. He was at- 
tacked on the following day by a body of 500 
Spanish troops, which were afterward re-enforced 
by 800 under the command of Gen. Enna, and 
completely routed them with great loss, Gen. Enna 
being killed ; but on the 16th, dreading a fresh 
attack, he retreated to the interior. The country 
population did not answer to Lopez's appeal for a 
general rising, and after several skirmishes his fol- 
lowers scattered through the mountains. They 
were attacked by the Spaniards, and Lopez, having 
i fallen into the hands of the enemy, was brought to 
Plavana, tried for high treason, and executed by 
the garrote, while many of his soldiers were con- 
demned to hard labor. Some days before Col. 
Crittenden was captured at sea while trying to 
reach New Orleans, and was shot at Havana, to- 
gether with fifty of his companions. Lopez was 
the leader of the party in Cuba that favored an- 
nexation to the United States, 

Count of Niova. viceroy of Peru, b. in Valladolid 
in 1510; d. in Lima. Peru, 20 Feb., 1564. He was 
appointed viceroy of Peru in 1561, taking charge 
of the government on 17 April. On 14 Dec. of 
the same year he ordered Gomez de Tordoya to ex- 
plore the river Tono, and on 24 Dec. commissioned 
Juan Nieto to conquer the territory of Camana. 
In 1562 he introduced several reforms in the capi- 
tal, and in the same year the city of Santiago del 
Estero (now in the Argentine Republic) was found- 
ed by his direction. In 1563 the audiencia of Quito 
was installed. Lopez founded the city of Saiia, or 
Santiago de Miraflores, and Diego Pineda the town 
of Chancay, formerly called Arnedo, to which the 
viceroy intended to remove the University of San 
Marcos for the purpose of separating the students 
from the noise of the capital. Toward the end of 
that year he commissioned Cristobal de Valverde 
to found a town, which was named San Geronimo 
de lea. Lopez also directed the division of the 
diocese of Chili from that of Peru. He organized 
and improved schools for the sons of Indian ca- 
ciques, favored the monasteries, founded parishes, 
and was the first to establish in Peru the ceremo- 
nial and customs of a viceregal court. During 
his term of office he ordered and finished the con- 
struction of an aqueduct to supply the city with 
potable water, passed laws for the improvement of 
his government, and sent to the royal treasury 
651,000 ducats. He was murdered in the street of 
Trapitos in a feud caused bv a love-affair. 

LOPEZ Y PLANES, Vicente, Argentine poet, 
b. in Buenos Ayres in 1784 ; d. there in 1856. He 




studied law and served as a volunteer during the 
English invasion of 1806-'7. In 1810 he was sec- 
retary to Col. Ortiz de Ocampo, with whom he 
marched to Chuquisaca, and in September, 1811, 
he was chosen secretary of the 1st triumvirate of 
€hiclana, Sarrate^, and Passo. He was successive- 
ly deputy to thje constituent general assembly, sec- 
» retary of the Ndirector Puyrredon, prefect and 
founder of the ^assic department when the uni- 
versity was established, founder of its topographi- 
■cal department, member of congress in the years 
1819 and 1825, founder of the statistical register, 
provisional president of the republic from 5 July 
to 1.3 Aug., 1837, minister of the treasury in 1828, 
and president of the supreme court of justice till 
the fall of Rosas in 1852. Gen. Urquiza charged 
him with the provisional government, and after- 
ward he was appointed governor of the province 
■of Buenos Ayres. He wrote the "Argentine Na- 
tional Hymn " and other poetical works. 

LOQUILLO, or LUQUILLO (lo-keel-yo). West 
Indian cacique, b. about 1478 ; d. about 1525. He 
took a principal part in the first insurrection of the 
natives against the Spanish conquerors of Porto Ri- 
co as one of Agueinaba's lieutenants, and, after this 
chief was routed and killed in 1511, withdrew with 
some followers to the wildest part of the country, 
whence he constantly harassed his foes. In 1515 
he planned with the caciques Humacao and Dagu- 
ao another general rebellion, which soon met with 
disaster. Humacao and Daguao submitted to the 
<jonqueror, but their companion refused to do so, 
And retired with the natives that followed him to 
the highest mountain of the island, which still 
bears his name. There he established his strong- 
hold, and frequently fell upon the Spaniards, kill- 
ing them, burning their farms, and taking their 
■cattle. He died a free man, while most of his 
oountrymen were either dead or slaves. 

LORAIN, Lorenzo, soldier, b. in Philipsburg, 
€entre co.. Pa., 3 Aug., 1831 ; d. in Baltimore, Md., 
6 March, 1882. He had early showed much me- 
chanical skill, and had declined the superintendency 
of large machine- works to follow civil engineering, 
when he was appointed to the U. S. military acad- 
emy. After his graduation in 1856 he was on the 
frontier till the civil war, in the early part of which 
he was disabled by a wound at Blackburn's ford, 
and saw no further active service. He was pro- 
moted to a captaincy on 28 Feb., 1862, and served 
as assistant professor of chemistry, mineralogy, and 
geology at West Point till 1870. He was then on gar- 
rison duty, with the exception of a year in 1871-'2, 
when he held the chair of physics at Lehigh uni- 
versity till 1875, at which time he became instructor 
of engineering in the artillery-school for practice 
at Fort Monroe. Here he placed his department 
■on a practical footing, obtaining new instruments, 
introducing field reconnoissances, and establishing 
a photographic department. He heid this post till 
his promotion to major in 1881. He invented the 
"" Lorain telescopic sight " for large rifled guns, and 
left a " range-finder " that he had not perfected at 
the time of his death. 

LORANGrER, Thomas Jean Jacques, Cana- 
dian jurist, b. in Sainte Anne d'Yamachiche, Que- 
bec, 2 Feb., 1823 ; d. on the Island of Orleans, 18 
Aug., 1885. He was educated at Nicolet college 
and admitted to the bar in 1844. In 1854 he be- 
■came queen's counsel, and in that year was elected 
to parliament for Laprairie, which he represented 
till his appointment as puisne judge of the su- 
preme court of Quebec in 1863. In 1855 he argued 
the seigniorial cause before the court that was es- 
tablished for that purpose, and was the first colo- 

nial lawyer that was admitted to argue a case be- 
fore the judicial committee of the privy council in 
London. Mr. Loranger held ofiice in the Mac- 
donald-Cartier government from November, 1857, 
till July, 1858, and until the latter date served as a 
commissioner for consolidating the statutes. In 
1877 he was appointed professor of law in Laval 
university, and was created by the pope a com- 
mander of the order of Pius IX. In 1883 he re- 
tired from the bench, and subsequently was en- 
gaged in consolidating the statutes of Quebec. At 
the semi-centenary of St. Jean Baptist association 
in 1884 he was chosen its president. He was chief 
editor of " La Themis," wrote a work on the civil 
code, and several pamphlets on legal and constitu- 
tional subjects. — His brother, Louis Onesime, 
Canadian jurist, b. in Sainte Anne d'Yamachiche, 
Quebec, 10 April, 1837, was educated at Montreal 
and admitted to the bar of Lower Canada in 1858. 
He was president of the special committee to super- 
intend the national demonstration of the St. Jean 
Baptist society in 1875, was elected to the parlia- 
ment of Quebec in that year, was re-elected, and 
became a member of the executive council in 1879. 
He was appointed puisne judge of the superior 
court of the province o€ Quebec in 1882, and revis- 
ing-officer in 1885. 

LORAS, Mathias, E. C. bishop, b. in Lyons, 
France, in 1792 ; d. in Dubuque, Iowa, 19 Feb., 
1858. He was descended from a noble family, and 
his father perished on the scafl'old during the reign 
of terror. He studied for the priesthood, was or- 
dained about 1817, and soon afterward appointed 
superior of the ecclesiastical seminary of Largen- 
tiere. In 1830 he accompanied Bishop Portier, who 
was seeking priests in France for his diocese of 
Mobile, Ala., to the United States. Father Loras 
was appointed vicar-general on his arrival, and 
made president of the College of Spring PI ill, near 
Mobile. In 1837 the diocese of Dubuque was creat- 
ed, comprising Iowa and Minnesota, and Father 
Loras became its bishop. After a visit to France 
to obtain missionaries he went to his diocese in 
April, 1839, and in June following he made his 
first visitation, also founding missions at Fort 
Snelling and Prairie du Chien. On 15 Aug. of the 
same year he consecrated the cathedral of Dubuque, 
and shortly afterward built a church in Davenport. 
He also established missions among the Sioux, 
Foxes, and Winnebagoes, built churches and schools 
in every part of his diocese, and expended large 
sums of money in employing teachers, as well as 
boarding and educating many poor children at his 
own expense. He introduced the Sisters of Charity 
into his diocese, established a seminary at Mount 
St. Bernard, and founded a convent of Trappist 
monks and another of visitation nuns. In 1851 
Minnesota was erected into a separate see. He 
built a hospital in 1857, and during the same year 
was compelled to apply for a coadjutor, owing to 
failing health. Bishop Loras paid much attention 
to the question of emigration, and under his en- 
couragement and guidance Roman Catholic settlers 
came to Iowa in large numbers after 1850. 

LORD, Benjamin, clergyman, b. in Saybrook, 
Conn., 31 May. 1694; d. in Norwich, Conn., 31 
March, 1784. He was graduated at Yale in 1714, 
was tutor there the next year, and in 1717 was or- 
dained pastor of the Congregational church in Nor- 
wich, in which charge he continued until his death. 
He was a trustee of Yale in 1742-'72, and received 
the degree of D. D. from that college in 1774. His 
numerous sermons include " The Faithful and Ap- 
proved Minister, a very Blessed Man " (New Lon- 
don, 1727); " Two Sermons on the Necessity of Re- 




generation" (Boston, 1738); "God Glorified in his 
Works" (1743); "Believers in Christ" (1748); and 
" A Christian's Hope at the Close of Life " (Nor- 
wich, 1774). — His great-grandson, Daniel Minor, 
clergyman, b. in Lyme, Conn., 9 April, 1800 ; d. on 
Shelter island, N. Y., 26 Aug., 1861, was graduated 
at Amherst in 1830, studied at Princeton theologi- 
cal seminary, and in 1834 was licensed to preach. 
He was subsequently pastor of the Boston mariner's 
church, and from 1848 till his death was pastor of 
the 1st Presbyterian church on Shelter island, N. Y., 
and agent of the American seaman's friend society. 
He published various articles on the moral claims 
of seamen. — Another great-grandson of Benjamin, 
WiUis, clergyman, b. in Bridgeport, Conn., 15 Sept., 
1809, was graduated at Williams in 1833, studied 
theology at Princeton, was ordained in 1834, and 
was successively pastor of Presbyterian churches in 
New Hartford, 'Conn., Providence, R. I., Philadel- 
phia, Pa., and Cincinnati, Ohio. He was professor 
of biblical literature and pastoral theology in Lane 
seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1850-4, pastor of 
the 2d Presbyterian church in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 
1855-9, professor of ecclesiastical and biblical his- 
tory, and of didactic and polemic theology in the 
Seminary of the northwest in Chicago, from the 
latter date till 1870, and then became president of 
Wooster university, Ohio, Failure of health com- 
pelled his resignation of this office in 1874. _He was 
pastor of the Ist Presbyterian church in Chicago in 
1878-'9, and now (1887) resides in Colorado Springs, 
Col., where he is engaged in literary work. He has 
published, besides sermons and reviews, " Christian 
Theology for the People" (Chicago, 1874). 

LORD, Daniel, lawyer, b. in Stonington, Conn., 
2 Sept., 1795 ; d. in New York city, 4 March, 1868. 
He was graduated at Yale in 1814, studied law un- 
der George Griffin, of New York, and at the Litch- 
field, Conn., law-school, and in 1817 was admitted 
-to the bar, settling in New York city. He gradu- 
ally attained the 
highest rank in his 
profession, to which 
he devoted himself 
exclusively, steadily 
refusing all public 
office, and for forty 
years previous to his 
death there were 
few great civil cases 
before the United 
States or New York 
state courts in which 
he was not retained. 
His most noted cases 
include the Dutch 
Ref orined and Meth- 
odist church cases, 
the " fire cases " 
growing out of 
the conflagration of 
1835, the American 
life and trust cases, the Leake and Watts charity 
case, the Mason and Phelps will case, the foreign 
cases growing out of the financial crisis of 1837, 
the insurance cases that brought up the question 
of general average, and the argument before the 
U. S. supreme court of the '"Hiawatha" prize 
cause in which the doctrines of war as bearing 
upon the public laws of prize and blockade were 
discussed. Yale gave him the degree of LL. D. in 
1846. — His son, James Coiiper, philanthropist, b. 
in New York city, 11 March, 1825; d. there, 9 Feb., 
1869, after receiving an academic education entered 
mercantile life, subsequently becoming associated 

cC/ (i^^^L-otx/ "^^l^^i^y^^^ 

in the ownership of the Boonton, N. J., iron-works. 
Mr. Lord took great interest in the improvement of 
the condition of his workmen, erecting two churches, 
and founding a library and a free reading-room for 
their use. He also founded in New York city in 
1860 the " First Ward Industrial School," and for 
several years almost entirely supported that charity. 
LORD, Eleazar, financier, b. in Franklin, Conn., 
9 Sept., 1788; d. in Piermont, N. Y., 3 June, 1871. 
He was educated in the district schools of his na- 
tive town, studied four years at Andover theologi- 
cal seminary and one at Princeton, but was forced 
by the failure of his eyesight to abandon a pro- 
fessional life. He went to New York in 1815, where 
he engaged in commercial pursuits, and subsequent- 
ly in banking, founded the Manhattan insurance 
company in 1821, was its president twelve years, 
and introduced important changes in the system 
of insurance. He was a founder of the New York 
and Erie railroad, and its president for many years, 
an advocate of the " free banking system," which 
was adopted in New York in 1838, and induced 
Henry Clay to declare himself in opposition to free- 
trade. Mr. Lord was an accomplished scholar, and 
a successful projector of schemes for the public 
good. He was a founder of the American Sunday- 
school union in 1815, its corresponding secretary 
in 1818-'26, and its president from the latter date 
till 1836. Pie was a founder in 1820, and subse- 
quently secretary and president, of the National 
institution for the promotion of industry, at the 
same time editing its organ, the " Patron of Indus- 
try " ; and he assisted in establishing the Home and 
foreign missionary society, the theological semi- 
naries at Auburn, N. Y., and East Windsor, Conn., 
and the University of New York, of which he was 
a trustee for many years. His pamphlet on the 
subject led to the establishment of the American 
and other educational societies. He removed to 
Piermont, N. Y., in 1836, and was principally en- 
gaged during the remainder of his life in philan- 
thropic work and the composition of religious 
books and pamphlets. In 1861 he originated and 
drew in his own handwriting what he claims to be 
the draft of the first greenback that was ever issued 
in the United States. He founded, edited, and was 
a contributor to the " Theological and Literary 
Journal." The University of New York gave him 
the degree of LL. D. in 1861. His publications in- 
clude an edition of Lempriere's " Biographical Dic- 
tionary," to which he contributed 800 original ar- 
ticles (New York, 1825) ; " Credit, Currency, and 
Banking" (1828): "The Epoch of the Creation" 
(1838); "Geological and Scriptural Cosmogony'^ 
(1843): "The Mediatorial Work of Christ" (1844); 
"The Messiah in Moses and the Prophets" (1852); 
" Symbolic Prophecy " (1854) ; " Hints to Orthodox 
Millenarians " (1854) ; " An Historical Review of 
the New York and Erie Railroad" (1855); "The 
Plenary Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures " (1855) ; 
" A Lavman's Letters to the Pastoral Union of 
Connecticut" (1856); "The Prophetic Office of 
Christ " (1858) ; "Inspiration not Guidance nor In- 
tuition " (1858) ; " Reviews of Authors on Inspira- 
tion " (1859); "The Psalter readjusted in its Re- 
lation to the Temple Services " (1860) ; " Analysis 
of the Book of Isaiah" (1861); " A Letter on Na- 
tional Currency " (1861); and " Six Letters on the 
Necessity and Practicality of a National Currency "^ 
(1862).— His brother, David Nevins, author, b. in 
Franklin. Conn., 4 March, 1792; d. in New York 
city, 14 July, 1880, was graduated at Yale in 1807, 
and studied theology, but was prevented by delicate 
health from entering the ministry. He settled in 
New York in 1823, for many years was a successful 




importer of dry-goods, and was concerned in the 
early management of the New York and Erie rail- 
road company. From early manhood he gave much 
study to theological siibjects, especially on the ful- 
filment of prophecjy, and the true methods of in- 
terpretation of sjhibolism. In 1848-61 he edited 
a quarterly entitled the " Theological and Literary 
Journal,'' and w^s its principal contributor. His 

{)ublications include " Exposition of the Apoca- 
ypse " (New York, 1847) ; " Characteristics of Figu- 
rative Language " (1854) : " Louis Napoleon — is he 
to be the Imperial Chief of the Ten Kingdoms?" 
(1866): and "Visions of Paradise," an epic (1867). 

LORD, John Chase, clergyman, b. in Buffalo, 
N. Y., 9 Aug., 1805 ; d. in Buffalo, N. Y., 21 Jan., 
1877, was educated at Hamilton college, but was 
not graduated. Settling in Buffalo, he studied 
law, and in 1828 was admitted to the bar, but af- 
terward entered Auburn theological seminary, was 
graduated in 1833, and from 1835 until his resig- 
nation in 1873 was pastor of the Central Presby- 
terian church, which he had organized. In 1851 
he published a sermon on the fugitive-slave law, in 
which he took the ground that no citizen had a 
right to resist laws that protected slavery. This 
sermon was distributed as a campaign document, 
and was described by President Fillmore in a per- 
sonal letter to its author as " rendering the nation 
a valuable service." On the secession of the south 
Dr. Lord was an earnest Unionist. He was mod- 
erator of the general assembly of the Presbyterian 
church in 1852. His published works include, be- 
sides separate sermons and lectures, " Land of 
Ophir and other Lectures " (Buffalo, N. Y., 1851), 
and " Occasional Poems " (1869). See " Memoir of 
John C. Lord" (Buffalo, 1878). — His brother. 
Charles Bachus, jurist, b. in Thornton, Me., 13 
July, 1810 ; d. in St. Louis, Mo., 15 Nov., 1868, was 
educated at Hamilton college, practised law in 
Buffalo, N. Y., and removing to St. Louis, Mo., at- 
tained eminence in his profession. For many years 
he was judge of the land court, and subsequently 
of the circuit court of that city. — Another brother, 
William Wilberforce, clergyman, b. in Madison 
county, N. Y., 28 Oct., 1819. He was educated at 
the University of Western New York (since discon- 
tinued), studied theology at Princeton and Auburn 
theological seminaries, was tutor in mental and 
moral science at Amherst in 1847, and subsequent- 
ly took orders in the Protestant Episcopal church, 
officiating as rector in the south and southwest, 
and for many years at Vicksburg, Miss. During 
the civil war he was a chaplain in the Confederate 
army. He has published " Poems " (New York, 
1845), that were praised by Wordsworth and ridi- 
culed by Edgar A. Poe ; " Christ in Hades " (1851) ; 
and " Andre, a Tragedy " (1856). — Another broth- 
er, Scott, congressman, b. in Nelson, N. Y., 20 Dec, 
1820 ; d. in Morris Plains, N. J., 10 Sept., 1885. He 
received an academic education, studied law, and 
was admitted to the bar. He removed to Geneseo, 
N. Y., in 1822, established a large practice, and 
was county judge from 1847 till 1854, when he re- 
sumed his profession. In 1872 he removed to Utica, 
N. Y., formed a partnership with Roscoe Conkling 
and Alfred C. Cox, and became surrogate of Oneida 
county. He was elected to congress as a Demo- 
crat in 1874, but was defeated at the next elec- 
tion. During his term he was chairman of the 
Belknap impeachment committee. He removed to 
New York city in 1878, and established the law- 
firm of Lord and Lord. He was senior counsel for 
Cornelius Vanderbilt in the contest over the will 
01 Com. Vanderbilt, and was largely engaged in the 
claims arising under the Geneva award bill. 

LORD, Nathan, clergyman, b. in Berwick, Me.. 
28 Nov., 1793 ; d. in Hanover, N. H., 9 Sept., 1870. 
He- was graduated at Bowdoin in 1809, and at An- 
dover theological seminary in 1815. He was pastor 
of the Congregational church in Amherst, N. II., 
from 1816 till 1828, and at the latter date, on the 
resignation of Rev. Bennett Tyler, became presi- 
dent of Dartmouth. Under hisadministration the 
professorships of Greek literature and language, of 
astronomy and meteorology, of modern languages, 
of intellectual philosophy,* and of natural history 
were established, three new halls and a chapel were 
built, the observatory was added, the "Chandler 
scientific department " was founded by the gift of 
$50,000 from Abiel Chandler, and 1,824 students 
were graduated. He retired in 1863. Dr. Lord up- 
held the institution of slavery, and thus incurred 
the censure of most northern people ; but while he 
advocated his views in letters and sermons, Dart- 
mouth was the only college in the United States 
for many years where colored students were ad- 
mitted, and while under his care they were treated 
with uniform kindness and courtesy. He inclined 
to the old-school system of theology, and to a lit- 
eral interpretation of the prophesies. Dartmouth 
gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1864, and Bow- 
doin that of D. D. in 1828. He occasionally con- 
tributed to theological reviews, edited, with an in- 
troductory notice, the selected sermons of his son. 
Rev. John King Lord (Boston, 1850), and published 
numerous sermons, essays, and letters. Among the 
latter are " Letter to Rev. Daniel Dana, D. D., on 
Park's ' Theology of New England ' " (1852) : " An 
Essay on the Millennium," read to the General con- 
vention of New Hampshire (1854) ; and " Two 
Letters to Ministers of all Denominations on Sla- 
very " (1854^'5), in which he endeavored, by biblical 
arguments, to prove the lawfulness of that institu- 
tion. — His son, John Xing', clergyman, b. in Am- 
herst, N. IL, 22 March, 1819 ; d. in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
13 July, 1849, was graduated at Dartmouth in 1836, 
taught two and one half ^'ears, and in 1841 was 
graduated at Andover theological seminary. He 
then became pastor of the Congregational church 
in Hartford, Vt., and in 1847 of the 1st orthodox 
Congregational church of Cincinnati, Ohio. He 
possessed fine abilities, was a popular and energetic 
pastor, and his early death was greatly deplored, 
liis selected sermons were published by his father 
(Boston, 1850). — Nathan's nephew, John, lecturer, 
b. in Portsmouth, N. H., 10 Sept., 1812, was gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth in 1833, studied at Andover theo- 
logical seminary in 1837, became agent and lecturer 
on history to the American peace society, and was 
afterward pastor of Congregational churches in 
New Marlborough and Stockbridge, Mass. He 
subsequently withdrew from pastoral work and 
devoted himself to historical study and lecturing, 
spending 1843-6 in England, where he spoke on 
" The Middle Ages " in the principal cities. Re- 
turning to the United States, during a career of 
fifty years he has lectured in most of the larger 
towns and cities of the middle and New England 
states, and is supposed to be the oldest living lec- 
turer in this country. The University of New York 
gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1864, and he was 
lecturer on history at Dartmouth in 1866-76. His 
publications include " Modern History for Schools " 
(Philadelphia, 1850); "The Old Roman World" 
(1867) ; " Ancient States and Empires " (1869) ; and 
" Beacon Lights " (1883). 

LORD, Otis Phillips, jurist, b. in Ipswich, 
Mass., 11 Julv, 1812 ; d. m Salem, Mass., 13 March, 
1884. He was graduated at Amherst in 1832, and 
at the Harvard law-school in 1836, subsequently 



settling in Ipswich and afterward in Salem, where 
he practised his profession. He was a member of 
the Massachusetts legislature in 1847-54, serving 
in the latter year as speaker, was a member of the 
Constitutional convention in 1853, and from 1859 
till 1875 an associate justice of the state superior 
court. On the dissolution of the Whig party, of 
which he had been a member, he was nominated for 
congress in 1858 by an independent convention, 
and was defeated then, and again in 18(50, when he 
was the candidate of the Constitutional union par- 
ty. During the civil war he was pro-slavery in his 
politics, and in 1860 he published a series of arti- 
cles opposing the 15th constitutional amendment. 
He was elevated to the supreme bench in 1875, and 
held office till his retirement in 1882. Amherst 
gave him the degree of LL. I), in 1869. 

LORENCEZ, Charles Ferdinand Latrille, 
Count de (lo-ron-sav), French soldier, b. in Paris, 
23 :Mav. 1814. He entered the military school of 
Saint Cyr in 1830, and was graduated two years 
later as 3d lieutenant. He served in Algiers, 
had become a colonel in 1852, and won the com- 
mission of major-general in 1855, during the Cri- 
mean war, at the capture of the Malakoff. In 
.lanuary, 1862, he was sent to Mexico with re-en- 
forceinonts for the expedition that had landed 
tiiorc in Deeeniber, 1861. He arrived at Vera Cruz 
on 5 March, and was made lieutenant-general on 
the 2()th. lie left the camp of Chiquihuite on 19 
April, and on the following morning entered 
Orizaba, having defeated the Mexican forces in 
a cavalry engagement. On the 23d he was 
joined by the Mexican Gen. Galvez with a 
strong force of volunteers, and on the 27th as- 
sumed command of the French forces in Mexico. 
He defeated the patriots at Acultzingo on 28 April, 
cntei'cd Amozoc on 4 May, and on the following 
day attacked the fortified hills of Ouadelupe and 
Loi-eto. opposite Puebla. Owing to the lack of 
proper artillery, he was unable to capture these 
posts, and reti'eated toward Orizaba. He passed 
the Cunibres heights on the 16th, and on the fol- 
lowing morning was joined at Tecomolucan by 
the insurgent chief Manpiez and 500 cavalry. 
Zaraii'oza was beaten after a sharp action at 
Acultzingo on 18 3Iay, and on the 20th Lorencez 
arrived at Orizaba, which he fortified, as he had 
resolveil to await the arrival of re-enforcements 
in that city. On 17 June he defeated Zaragoza 
again, but the French forces suffered heavily from 
yellow fever and want of jjrovisions. When Na- 
j)oleon 111. sent a larger army to Mexico, he ap- 
pointed Lorencez second in connnand under Glen. 
Forey ; Init the foi-mer asked to be recalled, and 
l(^ft Vera- Cruz on 17 Dec, 1862. Gen. Lorencez 
would have been created a senator but for his op- 
j)osition to the sending of re-enforcements to 
.Mexico, urging the emi)eror to recall his troops, 
and predicting that the issue would be disastrous. 
He fought duruig the Franco-German war of 
1870-1. but a disease contracted in Mexico com- 
|)elled him to retire from active service in 1872. 
lie has since be(>n occupied with a history of the 
Fi-ench exi)edition to Mexico. 

tonio (lo-ren-thair-nah). S})anish archbishop, b. in 
Leon. Si)ain, 22 Sept., 1722: d. in Rome, Italy, 17 
April, 1,S()4. He was at first canon of Toledo," and 
in 1765 became bishop of Placencia, but in 1766 
was transferred to tiie archl)ishoi)ric of Mexico. 
He remained in that country six years, after which 
he was made archbishop of Toledo, Spain. He 
was nominated cardinal in 1789, resigning his arch- 
bishopric in 1800, and went to live at Rome. Of his 


numerous works the most notable are " Coleccion 
de Cartas Pastorales y Edictos" (Mexico, 1770); 
"Memorial de 16s Mendigos de Mexico" (1769); 
and " Cartas Originales de Hernan Cortes a Carlos 
V. con Notas y Estampas utiles para la Historia de 
la N. E." (1770). . ^^ 

LOKILLARD, Jacob, merchant, b. m New 
York city, 22 May, 1774; d. there, 20 Sept., 1838. 
He was of French descent on his father's and Ger- 
man on his mother's side. His early education was 
meagre, but he supplied the deficiency by night 
study. He was apprenticed when a boy to a leather 
merchant, and for many years was engaged in the 
leather business, yet in later life he devoted his 
energies mainly to the interests of the Mechanics' 
bank, which, while its president, he twice delivered 
from serious embarrassment. He invested the 
profits of his business largely in real estate in New 
York city. Mr. Lorillard was unostentatiously lib- 
eral to the poor, often assisted struggling traders 
with credit, and once mortgaged his property to 
save a friend from financial ruin. He was presi- 
dent of the German society, a trusti^e of the Gen- 
eral theological seminary of the Protestant Epis- 
copal church, alderman, member of the assembly, 
and an officer in many associations. — His nephew, 
Pierre, b. in New York city, provided, jointly 
with the French government, the means for archae- 
ological explorations by Desire Charnay in Central 
America, which resulted in the discovery of the 
ruins of Toltec cities. Pie also founded Tuxedo 
Park, a suburban retreat in Orange county, N. Y., 
combining the advantages of landscape-gardening 
with facilities for country sports. 

LORIMER, Ueorge Claud, clergyman, b. in 
Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1838. He removed to the 
United States in 1856, was educated at Georgetown 
college, Ky., and ordained to the Baptist ministry 
in 1856. He was successively pastor of churches 
in Ilarrodsburg, Paducah, and Louisville, Ky., 
Albany, N. Y., and Boston, Mass., where he of- 
ficiated for several years in Tremont Temple. 
Since 1881 he has held charges in Chicago, 111. 
He edited " The Watchman " in 1876. Georgetown 
college gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1885, and 
he is a member of the Victoria institute, London. 
His publications include '"Under the Evergreens" 
(Boston, 1872); "The Great Confiict" (1876); 
"Isms" (Chicago, 1882); "Jesus the World's Sav- 
iour " (1884) ; and " Studies in Social Life " (1886). 

LORIMIER, Mary -Thomas Chevalier de, 
lawyer, b. in Montreal in 1805 ; d. there, 15 Feb., 
1839. He was educated for the law, and took a 
jirominent part in the struggle between the Cana- 
dian and the British government. He was princi- 
pally instrumental in procuring the election of 
Tracey for the west quarter of Montreal, and still 
more active, in the general election of 1834, in 
favor of the candidate that supported " the ninety- 
two resolutions." He was secretary of almost all 
the assemblies that preceded the insurrection, and 
of the central committee charged with watching 
over the formation of the county committees. In 
the conflict between the Doric club and the Sons 
of Liberty he was seriously w^ounded. When war- 
rants of arrest were issued, he set out for the 
county of Deux-Montagnes in 1837, and placed 
himself under the revolutionary chief, Chenier. 
He took part in the affair at Saint-Eustache on 
14 Sept. ; but afterward, seeing that resistance 
was useless, advised Chenier to lay down his arms. 
As the latter refused, Lorimier crossed into the 
United States. He was one of the leaders of the 
expedition of 28 Feb.. 1838, and after its failure 
returned to Plattsburg, and devoted his energies to 




the organization of the insurrectionary movement 
of November, 1838. He took part in the capture of 
the " Brougham," at Beauharnois, on 3 Nov., and 
passed several days in Camp Baker, where the 
Canadian patriots received orders to concentrate 
in Napierville. ' After the defeat of Nelson at Odell- 
town, he set oiit for the United States, but lost his 
way when near the frontier, and was arrested, with 
seven of his coippanions, on 12 Nov. Pie was taken 
to Montreal, tried by court-martial, found guilty 
of high treason, and hanged. Money was raised 
for his wife and children, in Canada, in 1883. 

LORING, Charles Greeley, lawyer, b. in Bos- 
ton, Mass., 2 May, 1794; d. in Beverly, Mass., 8 
Oct., 1868. He was graduated at Harvard in 1812, 
studied law in Boston, and for many years was a 
well-known member of the Boston bar. He was 
actuary of the Massachusetts hospital life-insur- 
ance company from 1857 until his death, and in 
1862 he served in the state senate. He was a 
member of the American academy of arts and 
sciences, and of the Massachusetts historical so- 
ciety. Mr. Loring was an eloquent and effective 
speaker. His numerous addresses include one that 
he delivered, 4 July, 1821, before the town authori- 
ties of Boston, Mass., that before the Boston mer- 
cantile library association in 1845, at the Republi- 
can mass-meeting in Faneuil hall in 1862, an ora- 
tion on the death of Edward Everett, whom he 
succeeded as president of the Boston union club, 
and an address at the meeting of Boston citizens 
after the assassination of President Lincoln. Har- 
vard gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1850. Be- 
sides addresses, he published " Neutral Relations 
between the United States and England " (Boston, 
1863), and "Life of William Sturgis" (1864). 

LORING, Ellis Gray, lawver, b. in Boston, 
Mass., in 1803 ; d. there, 24 May, 1858. He entered 
Harvard college in 1819, but was not graduated 
with his class, afterward studied law, was admitted 
to the Suffolk bar, and became eminent. He was 
one of the twelve that formed the first anti-slavery 
society in Boston in 1833. He distinguished him- 
self chiefly in the defence of the slave-child "' Med " 
in the Massachusetts supreme court, where he suc- 
ceeded in obtaining the decision that every slave 
brought on Massachusetts soil by the owner was 
legally free ; a case precisely analogous to the 
celebrated " Somerset " case in England. By this 
argument he achieved the unusual success of con- 
vincing the opposing counsel, Benjamin R. Curtis, 
afterward justice of the U. S. supreme court, who 
shook hands with him after the trial, saying: 
"Your argument has entirely converted me to 
your side, Mr. Loring." He also attracted some 
attention as the author of a " Petition in behalf of 
Abner Kneeland," which was headed by the name 
of Rev. Dr. William E. Channing. Abner Knee- 
land (g. V.) was a professed atheist who was indict- 
ed for blasphemy, and Mr. Loring's petition was a 
strong plea in behalf of freedom of speech. Sev- 
eral of Mr. Loring's arguments and addresses were 
published at different times, including " An Ad- 
dress before the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery So- 
ciety " (Boston, 1838). At the New England anti- 
slavery convention, 27 May, 1858, two days after 
his death, Wendell Phillips said : " The great merit 
of Mr. Loring's anti-slavery life was, he laid on the 
altar of the slave's needs all his peculiar tastes. 
Refined, domestic, retiring, contemplative, loving 
literature, art, and culture, he saw there was no 
one else to §peak, therefore he was found in the 
van. It was the uttermost instance of self-sacri- 
fice — more than money, more than reputation, 
though he gave both." 

LORINGi Frederick Wadsworth, journalist, 
b. in Boston, Mass., 12 Dec, 1848 ; d. near Wick- 
enburg, Arizona, 5 Nov., 1871. He was graduated 
at Harvard in 1870, and during the brief period 
between that event and his death gave unusual 
promise of success as a writer, being connected 
with several newspapers and a contributor to the 
" Atlantic Monthly," " Appletons' Journal," "Old 
and New," the "Independent," and "Every Sat- 
urday." In the spring of 1871 he went as cor- 
respondent of "Appletons' Journal" on the U. S. 
exploring expedition to Arizona that was in com- 
mand of Lieut. George M. Wheeler. To that jour- 
nal he wrote from San Francisco a lively sketch of 
his Chinese experiences, entitled "Je Horge," 
and during his wanderings in the wilderness " A 
Council of War," "A Glimpse of Mormonism," 
" Silver Mining in Nevada," " The Valley of 
Death," and several poems. The party suffered 
great privations, and in August, 1871, Loring 
wrote to his employers, from the " Valley of 
Death," a canon in California and Nevada, three 
hundred feet below the level of the sea, which all 
former expeditions had avoided, or from which 
they had never returned : " I am bootless, coatless, 
everything but lifeless. I have had a fortnight of 
horrors. This morning an Indian fight capped 
the climax. However, I am well and cheerful." 
He escaped from the valley, but when he was on 
his way home a band of Apaches attacked the 
stage-coach in its passage from Wickenburg to La 
Paz, Arizona, killing the driver and Loring, with 
four other passengers. A short time before Lor- 
ing's death, Charles Reade, the novelist, said that 
he seemed to him the most promising of all the 
young American authors. His collecfed writings 
include " Cotton Cultivation in the South," with 
Charles F. Atkinson (Boston, 1869) ; " The Boston 
Dip, and other Verses " (1871) ; and " Two College 
Friends," a novel (1871). 

LORING, George Bailey, agriculturist, b. in 
North Andover, Mass., 8 Nov., 1817. He was grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1838, and at the medical de- 
partment in 1842. Pie was surgeon to the marine 
hospital, Chelsea, Mass., in 1843-'50, a commis- 
sioner to revise the U. S. marine hospital sys- 
tem in 1849, and postmaster at Salem, Mass., in 
1853-'7. He subsequently devoted himself for 
many years to practical and scientific agriculture, 
and to the preparation and delivery of addresses on 
that and kindred topics. He has been president 
of the New England agricultural society since 1864, 
was a delegate to the National Republican conven- 
tions in 1868, 1872, and 1876, chairman of the 
Massachusetts Republican committee in 1869-'76, 
U. S. centennial commissioner in 1872-6, and 
president of the state senate in 1873-'7. He was 
elected to congress as a Republican in 1876, and 
served till 1881, when he became commissioner of 
agriculture, holding office till 1885. Among his 
numerous addresses are " Relation of Agriculture 
to the State in Time of War" (Concord, Mass., 
1862) ; " Classical Culture " (Amherst, 1866) ; " Eu- 
logy on Louis Agassiz " (1873) ; " The^ Cobden 
Club and the American Farmer" (Worcester, 
1880); address at the cotton convention in At- 
lanta, Ga. (1881) ; and " The Farm- Yard Club of Jo- 
tham," a sketch of New England life and farming 
(Boston, 1876). 

LORING, Israel, clergvman, b. in Hull, Mass., 
15 April, 1682; d. in Sudbury, Mass., 9 March, 
1772. He was graduated at Harvard in 1701, and 
in 1706 became pastor of the Congregational church 
in Sudbury, Mass., continuing in this charge for 
sixty-six years. Mr. Loring was one of the readi- 


est writers of his day. was an ardent temperance re- 
former, and was often called on to speak on special 
occasions. In 1737 he delivered the annual elec- 
tion sermon, in the presence of Gov. Jonathan 
Belcher, in which he urged that " the infamy may 
be taken from the memory and names of those who 
had suffered from the witchcraft delusion, and rep- 
aration made to their children for the injuries done 
them " He also opposed the system of revivals 
as conducted by Whitefield, and wrote a paper on 
the subject, entitled " Testimony against the Rev. 
George Whitefield and his Conduct." He left a 
manuscript journal of thirty volumes, biographi- 
cal and historical, most of which has been lost. 

LORING, James Spear, author, b. in Boston, 
Mass.. « Aug., 1799; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 13 
April 1884. His father, James, was for fifty-five 
years' a Boston printer and bookseller, edited the 
" Christian Watchman," and published the " Mas- 
sachusetts State Register" in 1800-'48. The son 
was for thirty years a bookseller in Boston, and a 
contributor of historical and biographical articles 
to the " New England Historical and Genealogical 
Register." He afterward removed to Brooklyn, 
X. Y. He WHS the author of " A Hundred Boston 
Orators" (Boston, 1852). 

LORING, Joshua, naval officer, b. in Boston, 
Mass., in ITK); d. in Highgate, England, in 1781. 
He was a ca})tain in the royal navy in 1757, com- 
niMuded in the operations on Lake George and 
Lake Champlain in 1759, and on Lake Ontario the 
next vear, aeeoini)anying Gen. Jcfl'rey Amherst to 
]M()ntreal. He was "subsequently proscribed and 
banished, the committee on confiscated estates ad- 
vertising for sale his "large mansion-house, to- 
gether with about sixty -five acres of mowing- 
land." in Roxbury, and "his house and garden in 
P>i)st()ii, "next to the South writing-school adjoin- 
ing I he coniinoii." He went to England, and in a 
con temporary record of his death is described as 
"one of the "oldest captains of the royal navy, and 
late coiuniodore of the hdces of North America." 

LORIN(i, Joshua, commissary of prisoners, b. 
in llinghain. ?*Iass., in December, i7o7: d. in Edge- 
field. England, in August, 1789. He was high 
shcrilf of ^lassachusctts in 17(58, suV)sequently 
nuiyor of liingham. and one of those who signed 
an address to (iov. Hutchinson in 1774, and to 
Gov. Gage in 1775, approving their course. One 
of (iage"s last ofiicial acts was the appointment of 
Loriiig. in June. 1775, as "'sole vendue-master and 
auctioneer." He went to Halifax with the royal 
army the next year, and early in 1777 was appoint- 
ed l)y Sir William Howe commissary of prisoners, 
to^val•d whom he was accused of excessive cruelty, 
(ten. Ethan Allen said of him tliat " he murdered 
precipitately, in cold l)loo(l. near or quite two thou- 
sand helpless ])i-isoners in New York." But Gen. 
Gold Selleck Sillinian. in his letters to his wile. 
(lesei-il)es Loring as having treated him with 
'■ kindness, complaisance, and friendship." Other 
authorities agree that Loring starved prisoners so 
that ;)()(» died Ix'fore an exchange could be effected. 
His wife, .^liss Lloyd, of Dorchester, Mass., was a 
l)rilliant and un])rincij)led woman, noted for her 
extravagance and love of ])lay, at which she occa- 
sionally lost as much as IJOO guineas at a sitting. 
Loring owed his fq)i)ointment of commissary of 
prisoners to her influence with Howe. 

LORING, William Wins?, soldier, b. in Wil- 
mington, N. C., 4 Dec., 1818 ; d. in New York city, 
:i() Dec, 18,s(;. When he was aV)out thirteen years 
old he enlisted in a company of volunteers to "fight 
the Seminole Indians in Florida, participated in 
several battles, and was promoted to a 2d lieu- 



tenancy, 16 June, 1837. He was sent to school at 
Alexandria, Va., and subsequently at Georgetown, 
D C was graduated in the law in 1842, and, re- 
turning to Florida, was elected to the legislature. 
Early in 1846 he was made senior captain of a new 
regiment of mounted riflemen, and on 16 Feb., 
1847 was placed in command, with the rank of ma- 
jor. ' In the assault on the Mexican intrenched 
camp at Contreras, Loring's regiment was tempo- 
rarily, detached for special service, which resulted 
in its being first in 
the main works of 
the Mexicans, and 
leading in the pur- 
suit of the enemy 
as far as San An- 
gel. But at this 
moment counter 
orders were re- 
ceived. Loring 
and his regiment 
were the first to 
enter the Mexican 
batteries at Cha- 
pultepec on the 
side next the capi- 
tal, and, though 
without orders, he 
led the fighting on 
the causeway from 
that point to the Belen Gate, where he received a 
wound that necessitated the amputation of his 
left arm. For " gallant and meritorious conduct " 
at Contreras and Churubusco he received the bre- 
vet of lieutenant-colonel, and for Chapultepec and 
Garita de Belen that of colonel. He was pro- 
moted lieutenant-colonel, 5 March, 1848. The citi- 
zens of Appalachicola, Fla., presented him with 
a sword on which were engraved the words that 
Gen. Scott had addressed to the Rifles on the field 
of Chapultepec: "Brave Rifles, you have gone 
through fire and blood, and come out steel." In 
April, 1849, he successfully marched across the 
continent to Oregon as escort to a party of gold- 
seekers, and on 3 Oct. he was assigned to the com- 
mand of the 11th military department. Some time 
afterward he was ordered to Texas, where he re- 
mained till August, 1856, and was promoted to the 
rank of colonel on 30 Dec. Till 8 April, 1858, he 
was engaged against hostile Indians in New Mexi- 
co, and he afterward took part in the Utah ex- 
pedition of 1858. In 1859 he received leave of 
absence to visit Europe. Egypt, and the Holy Land, 
and on his return he commanded the Department 
of New Mexico until 13 May, 1861, when he re- 
signed and was appointed brigadier-general in the 
Confederate army. Pie served in the Army of 
Northern Virginia, on 15 Feb., 1862, was pro- 
moted to major-general, and led a division till the 
end of the civil w^ar, frequently commanding a 
corps. In the spring of 1863, when Gen. Grant was 
operating for the investment of Vicksburg, Loring 
was sent to Fort Pemberton, wdiere he mounted 
two heavy siege-guns that silenced the fire of the 
U. S. gun-boat " Chillicothe." His exclamation, 
" Give her a blizzard, boys ! " on this occasion, was 
the origin of the name of "Old Blizzard," by 
which he was afterward known. Gen. Loring ac- 
cepted service in the army of the khedive of Egypt 
in December, 1869, as a liwa pacha, or general of 
brigade. Shortly after his arrival in Cairo he was 
assigned to the command of Alexandria and its de- 
fences extending along the coast to the Rosetta 
mouth of the Nile. On 10 Dec, 1875, he w^as or- 
dered to accompany, as chief of staff and military 




[adviser, the general-in-chief of the Egyptian army, 
fRatib Pacha, who was ordered to the command of 
an expedition to Abyssinia. Ratib refused to fol- 
low the counsel of Gen. Loring and his staff of 
American officers, and the Egyptian army was al- 
most annihilated by the Abyssinians at the battle 
of Kaya-Khor: Gen. Loring, shortly after his re- 
turn to Egypt, was decorated by the khedive with 
the imperial order of the Osmariah and promoted 
to ferik, or general of division. In 1879, with the 
American officers, he was mustered out of the 
Egyptian service and returned to the United States. 
Gen. Loring published " A Confederate Soldier in 
Egypt " (New York, 1883). 

LORNE, John George Edward Henry Doug- 
las Sutherland Campbell, Marquis of, gov- 
ernor-general of Canada, b. in Stafford House, Lon- 
don, England, 6 Aug., 1845. He is the eldest son 
of the eighth Duke of Argyll and Lady Elizabeth 
Georgiana Sutherland Levison-Gower, eldest daugh- 
ter of the second Duke of Sutherland. He was 
educated at Eton, the University of St. Andrews, 
and Trinity college, Cambridge. In 1866 he trav- 
elled in the West Indies, the United States, and 
Canada, the same year was appointed captain of 
the London Scottish volunteers, and in 1868 com- 
missioned lieutenant-colonel of the Argyll and 
Bul^ volunteer artillery brigade. In February, 
1868, he was elected a member of parliament for 
Argyllshire in the Liberal interest, and in Decem- 
ber of that year he became private secretary to his 
father at the India office. He was re-elected by ac- 
clamation in two subsequent general elections, 1869 
and 1874. On 21 March, 1871, he married Princess 
Louise Caroline Alberta, the sixth child and fourth 
daughter of Queen Victoria, b. 1848. The mar- 
riage took place at St. George's chapel, Windsor, 
and on that occasion the marquis was created a 
knight of the thistle. 
On 14 Oct., 1878, he 
was appointed govern- 
or-general of Canada, in 
succession to Lord Duf- 
ferin, and soon after- 
ward he was created 
knight of the grand 
cross of St. Michael and 
St. George. Accom- 
panied by the Princess 
Lt)uise, he went to Can- 
ada in November, 1878, 
where they received an 
enthusiastic welcome, 
and during the summer 
of 1879 they visited the 
principal cities. The 
chief political incident 
of his term of office was 
his refusal to dismiss 
the lieutenant-govern- 
or of Quebec, Luc Le- 
tellier de Saint Just, 
from office, at the request of the administration, 
referring the question instead to the home gov- 
ernment, which ordered him to take the advice 
of his ministers. The marquis and marchioness 
were popular with all classes of people, and among 
the French Canadians they were probably more 
highly esteemed than any of their predecessors. 
His term of office expired in 1883. At the general 
election in 1885 the Marquis of Lome contested 
Hampstead as a Liberal, but was defeated by a 
large majority. He has written for the magazines, 
■and is the author of " A Trip to the Tropics and 
Home through America " (London, 1867) ; " Guido 

and Lita : a Tale of the Riviera," a poem (1875) ; 
and " The Psalms literally rendered in Verse " 
(1877). The Marchioness ihas gained some repute 
as an artist and musician. The illustrations in her 
husband's poem, " Guidb and Lita," are by her hand. 

LORQUET, Louis Michael Polemon, Hay- 
tian soldier, b. in Hayti, 5 Dec, 1825 ; d. there in 
April, 1876. His father was a colonel in the army. 
After leaving school, Lorquet entered the ranks of 
the regiment, and soon afterward became secretary 
to Gen. Inginac. After the revolution of 1843, 
when President Boyer fled to Jamaica, young Lor- 
quet attended him, and remained with him till 
1845, when he returned to Hayti. He was ap- 
pointed chief clerk in the custom-house, but was 
removed by Gen. Faustin Soulouque, and went to 
reside at Gonaives. In 1849, when Soulouque was 
proclaimed emperor, under the title of Faustin I., 
through the influence of the Duke de Saint-Louis 
du Sud, Lorquet was appointed judge at Gonaives, 
and on 28 March, 1854, he was commissioned pub- 
lic prosecutor for that place. In December. 1858, 
when Gen. Fabre Geffrard became president, he 
appointed Lorquet chief justice, minister of in- 
struction, and temporary commander of the re- 
publican forces. On 11 Nov., 1865, he was made 
general of the army, and on the overthrow of Gef- 
frard shared his exile, but returned on 8 May, 1868, 
and took part in the revolution of that year. On 
13 May, 1871, he was appointed commander of the 
city of Port au Prince by President Nissage Saget, 
which post he filled for several years. 

LORRAINE, Narcisse Zeplirin, Canadian R. 
C. bishop, b. in St. Martin, Lower Canada, 13 June, 
1842. He was educated at the Seminary of Sainte 
Therese, and at Laval university, where he was 
graduated in 1864 as bachelor of sciences. He was 
ordained priest on 4 Aug., 1867, and appointed as- 
sistant director of the Seminary of Sainte Therese, 
which office he held till 15 Aug., 1869, when he be- 
came pastor of the congregation at Redford, Clin- 
ton CO., N. Y. On 3 Aug., 1880, he was appointed 
vicar-general of the diocese of Montreal, and on 21 
Sept., 1882, he was consecrated titular bishop of 
Cythera, and vicar-apostolic of Pontiac, with resi- 
dence at Pembroke. In 1884 Bishop Lorraine, 
while on a mission tour, visited the Temiscamingue 
region and the country around Hudson bay, and 
travelled about 1,500 miles in a bark canoe. In 
1887 he made a pastoral visit to the Indian mis- 
sions on the upper Ottawa, Rupert's Land, and 
the upper St. Maurice. During the five years he 
has been in Pembroke, Bishop Lorraine has paid 
off a large debt that had encumbered the church, 
built a fine episcopal residence, and purchased sites 
for several charitable institutions. 

LOSABA, Diego de (lo-sah'-dah), Spanish ad- 
venturer, b. in San Lucar de Barrameda in 1519; 
d. in Tocuyo, Venezuela, in 1569. Of his early life 
little is known. He probably served under Pedro 
de Heredia {q. v.) in Carthagena, and he certainly 
participated in the expedition that was sent under 
Felipe de Urre for the discovery of the fabulous 
El Dorado in 1541-5. He continued to serve 
under the different governors of Venezuela, and in 
1566 was intrusted by Pedro Ponce de Leon with 
the conquest of the country of the Caracas In- 
dians, which had been partially settled by Fajardo 
in 1560, but afterward abandoned. The valley of 
the Caracas was said to be very rich, and densely 
populated by nearly 150,000 Indians ; but Losada 
left the city of Mariana in January, 1567, with 
only 150 soldiers, 18 of whom were mounted. 
After fighting against the warlike Arbaces and 
Teques, he arrived in April in the valley of Cara- 




cas, and, after routing part of the Indian forces, 
founded at the foot of a high mountain a city 
which he named Santiago de Leon de Caracas. 
The Indians soon rallied and attacked Losada, 
cutting off his supplies; but as the tribes were 
under command of many different caciques, Losada 
caused dissension among them, and gained over a 
chief named Guaipata, through whom he obtained 
the necessary supplies. Incensed at the treachery, 
the other tribes formed a league, and, under com- 
mand of the cacique Guaicapuro, fell with a 
numerous army upon Guaipata, who demanded 
succor from Losada. The latter, after a protracted 
war, defeated the allies, and was appointed by 
Ponce de Leon governor of the newly founded 
colony. He began to reward his followers witli 
rich grants of land and Indian commanderies, but 
caused dissatisfaction by the distribution ; and 
those who thought themselves unjustly dealt with 
allied themselves with the Indians, and there was 
an insurrection. Losada applied to Ponce de Leon 
for help ; but, in order to restore peace, the latter 
divested him of his command in 1569, transferring 
the seat of the general government to Caracas. 
Losada retired to Tocuyo, where he died of grief 
after vain endeavors to obtain justice. 

LOSADA, or LOZADA, Manuel (lo-thah'-dah), 
jMexiean bandit. 1). in Santa Teresa, canton Tepic, 
about 182.-) ; d. in Tepic, 19 July, 1873. He was of 
mixed while, negro, and Indian race, but was born 
and bred among the Indians. He passed his youth 
as a t'arni-laboi'er, Al)out 1805 he abducted the 
daughter of a rich Indian of Mojarres, who had 
been i-efused in marriage to him, and fled to the 
neigliboring mountains of Xayarit or Alica, Soon 
he became a cattle-thief, and in one of his descents 
to the ])lains was cai)ture(l. together with his wife. 
])nt l»ot h managed sliortly to escape. On returning 
to his iiiDuntain haunts he became a highwayman 
out <»f a (lesii'e for i-eveiige. which was increased by 
the bai-l)ar(ius flogging of his mother, from whose 
hut he had just escaptMJ, l)y the government officer 
who pursued liim. He soon gatJiered a large band 
of Imliaus. and tlie farmers on the [)lains were in 
such fear of him tliat they did not dare to assist 
the -■overnmeiit ti'oops against him, while he levied 
from them coiu riliut ions of ai-ms, horses, and pi'o- 
visious. Owinu- to intei'ual strife, the aullioi'ilies 
wei-e too weak to sufipress bri^'andage. so that Lo- 
sada <oou became a tei-ror to the inlial)itaiits of the 
plains, antl exacted ti-ibiite from cvei-v ])ack-train 
between thr seaport of San IJlas and "tlu^ town of 
Tepic. and fi-om all llu^ ]>roprietors of farms 
WIlmi he captured the olhcer that had flogged his 
mother, he killed him and his command with cruel 
torture^, and followed these with othei- barl)arities. 
which ,^^•^vc him the name of -ilie ti-vr of Alica."' 
Durin- the sti'ife bctwe<'ii the Liln^ral and Con- 
servative parties. Losada joined the latter, and 
s(H)n he hccame the autocrat of the mountains. 
dividm^r i!,,. ])(,p(dation into dislricis, and exacting 
froui every village a, tribute and a certain Tuiml)er 
ol wai-i-ior-. wiiom he armed with American guns, 
aixl whoolicyed him even under the most outrage- 
ous oppression. At last. Kamon Corona, a miner 
Irom Acaponeta. who had Imvii persecuted l)v Lo- 
sada for his Liberal ideas, attacked the bri"-and in 
18.)S, first with a force of i)artisans and afterward 
with Liberal trooi)s, l)ut was unsuccessful, and 
Losada remained nndis|)uted master of the depart- 
ment of Tr\nr. The government of Miramon flat- 
tered and decorated him, and after the fall of that 
leader in iSfK) the returning Liberal government 
busy with internal strife, left him undisturbed! 
After the French invasion the authorities recog- 

nized his grade of general-in-chief and commander 
of the Department of Alica, and the bishop of 
Guadalajara came to bless him. Maximilian sent 
a commission to deliver to the Indian bandit gen- 
eral a costly sword and the emperor's picture in a 
frame adorned with diamonds. The commission, 
on arrival at the village of San Luis, found " his 
excellency " clad in coarse cotton garb and raw- 
hide sandals behind the plough. After the fall of 
the empire, Juarez failed to punish the bandit for his 
breach of faith in disregarding the neutrality that 
he had promised in 1862. Until 1872 Losada 
reigned supreme in the mountains of Alica. In 
that year he sent messengers to the Mayas of Yuca- 
tan, the Tarascos of Michoacan, and the Yaquis of 
Sonora, asking them to rise at the same time 
against the Liberal government, as he intended to 
establish an Indian empire. At the beginning of 
1873 he had gathered at San Luis an army of about 
20,000 Indians, which he divided into three bodies, 
sending one against Zacatecas and another against 
Sinaloa, and he marched at the head of 10,000 men 
on 17 Jan. toward the centre of Jalisco, proclaim- 
ing to his followers that they were to take their 
pay from the captured towns. His former antago- 
nist. Gen. Corona, was military commander of Ja- 
lisco, and marched with scarcely 1,600 men to de- 
fend the city of Guadalajara from plunder. The 
two forces met, 28 Jan., 1873, at Mojonera, near 
Guadalajara, and, after a desperate battle. Losada 
was totally routed, and, with a loss of nearly 3,000, 
fled to the mountains, wounded in the arm. The 
government troops lost fewer than 400. Gen. Ce- 
ballos. with a large force, was sent in pursuit of 
Losada, and after defeating him in several encoun- 
ters, in which he was gradually abandoned by his 
followers, Col. Kosales at last captured him. Lo- 
sada was taken to Tepic, quickly tried by a mili- 
tary court, and executed near that town. 

iiOSKIEL, Greorge Henry, Moravian bishop, b. 
in Anii-ermuende, Courland, Russia, 7 Nov., 1740 : 
d. in Bethlehem, Pa., 23 Feb., 1814. He was edu- 
cated at the jMoravian college and theological semi- 
nary of Germany. In 1802 he was consecrated to 
the episcopacy, and appointed presiding bishop of 
the northern district of the American province of 
the Moravian church, and he filled the office, with 
general acceptance, until 1811, when his health 
failed. In the following year he was elected to the 
chief executive boaifl of his church at Berthels- 
doi'f. Saxony; but the condition of his health pre- 
vented him from leaving this country. Loskiel 
was an eloquent [U'eacher and a good writer. Two 
of his works are especially important : " Etwas furs 
Ilerz," meditations for ' every day in the year, 
which has passed through more than eight editions 
and_ still enjoys high repute (Basle, 1806), and the 
'• History of the Moravian Mission among the North 
Anun-ican Indians," translated into English bv 
Chai'les J. Latrobe (London, 1794). 

LOSS, Lewis Homri, clergvman, b. in Augusta, 
N. Y., 1 July. 1803 ; d. 10 Jul v," 1865. He was grad- 
uated at Hamilton college in 1828, ordained to the 
ministry of the Presbyterian church in 1820, and 
held various pastorates in the states of New York, 
( )hio. Illinois, and Iowa. He erected many churches 
m the west, and was active in the establishment of 
Kockford female seminary and Beloit college. 

LOS SANTOS, Thomas de, clergvman. b. in 
Cordova, Argentine Eepublic, in 1826'; d. in Bue- 
nos Ay res in 1868. He was educated in Buenos 
Ayres. and in 1840 entered the Dominican order in 
the convent of Cordova, where he gave such evi- 
dences of superior intelligence that he was appoint- 
ed professor of theology and philosophy at the age 




of twenty. He was ordained priest in 1850, and 
appointed successively regent of studies, sub-prior, 
and master of novices in his convent. In 1860 he 
was ordered to Mendoza to organize the studies in 
the convent of t^at city. While he was lecturing 
before his brethren there was an earthquake, de- 
stroying the cpnvent as well as the whole city, and 
burying the greater part of the monks under the 
ruins. He m^e heroic efforts during the catastro- 
phe, and saved several lives. In 1860 he was sum- 
moned to Buenos Ayres; but, as he insisted on 
making the journey on foot, it took him two years 
to reach the capital. Travelling across the pam- 
pas, he acted as missionary on the way, converting 
several Indian tribes. He was elected prior of the 
convent of Buenos Ayres in 1862, and in 1867 was 
appointed provincial of his order in the Argentine 
Republic. Shortly after his appointment there 
was an outbreak of cholera, and he devoted himself 
entirely to the service of the sick, until he himself 
became a victim. He wrote several works, the 
principal of which are " El Tercero Instruido " and 
" Metodo Spiritual." 

LOSSING, Benson John, author, b. in Beek- 
man, Dutchess co., N. Y., 12 Feb., 1813. His 
father, a farmer, died when the son was an infant. 
After attending school, Benson was apprenticed 
to a watchmaker in Poughkeepsie, who, when he 
had served nearly seven years, took him into 
partnership. Two years later he became joint pro- 
prietor and editor of the Poughkeepsie " Tele- 
graph," and in 1836 he began with his partner the 
publication of a literary journal called the " Pough- 
keepsie Casket." Mr. Lossing placed himself un- 
der the instruction of a wood-engraver in New 
York, became an engraver on wood, and was en- 
gaged in 1838 by the publisher of the " Family 
Magazine " to become its editor and illustrator. 
He performed this service for the last two of the 
eight volumes of this the earliest fully illustrated 
American magazine. In 1839 he established him- 
self in New York as a professional wood-engraver, 
a craft that had then but three practitioners be- 
sides himself in the city, and two years later he 
severed his business connection with the Pough- 
keepsie publications. In 1848 he matured the 
plan of his principal work, the " Pictorial Field- 
Book of the Hevolution," which was published 
in thirty illustrated numbers (New York, 1850-'2). 
For twenty years Mr. Lossing was a frequent con- 
tributor of illustrated papers to Harper's " Maga- 
zine." For the London " Art Journal " he pre- 
pared a series of articles descriptive of the scenery, 
history, and legends of the Hudson river, which were 
published, with illustrations from his sketches, in 
that monthly in 18G0-'l, and afterward in a volume 
entitled " The Hudson, from the Wilderness to the 
Sea " (New York, 1866). From the papers, letters, 
and orderly books of Gen. Philip Schuyler he pre- 
pared " The Life and Times of Philip" Schuyler " 
(2 vols.. New York, 1860; new ed., 1880). Early 
in 1862 he began the compilation of a " Picto- 
rial Field-Book of the Civil War in the United 
States," which was issued in three illustrated vol- 
umes (vol. i,, Philadelphia, 1866 ; vols. ii. and iii., 
Hartford, 1869). On its completion he prepared a 
" Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812 " (New 
York, 1868). Since 1868 Mr. Lossing has resided 
on a farm near Dover Plains, Duchess co., N. Y. In 
1873 he received from Michigan university the de- 
gree of LL. D. In 1872-5 he edited the " Amer- 
ican Historical Record and Repository of Notes and 
Queries," published in Philadelphia. Besides the 
works already mentioned he is the author of " Out- 
line History of the Fine Arts " (New York, 1841) ; 

"Lives of the Presidents of the United States" 
(1847) ; " Seventeen Hundred and Seventy-Six, or 
the War for Independence " (1847) ; " Life of Gen. 
Zachary Taylor " (1847) ; " Life of Gen. Winfield 

Scott " (1847) ; " The New World " (1847) ; " Lives 
of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence " 
(1848); an illustrated "History of the United 
States for Schools " (1854), which was followed by 
the other volumes of a graded series ; " Biographies 
of Eminent Americans " (1855) ; " Mount Vernon 
and its Associations " (1859) ; " Life of Washing- 
ton," illustrated (1860); "Vassar College and its 
Founder " (1867) ; " Pictorial Description of Ohio " 
(1869) ; " Memorial of Lieut. John Trout Greble " 
(printed privately, 1870) ; an illustrated " Memoir 
of Dr. Alexander Anderson," the first engraver on 
wood in America, published by the New York 
historical society (1870) ; a " History of England " 
for schools (1871) ; a large history of the United 
States entitled " Our Country," with 500 illustra- 
tions by Felix 0. C. Darley (3 vols., 1873) ; an illus- 
trated work on the progress of industries in the 
United States between 1776 and 1876, entitled 
" The American Centenary " (Philadelphia, 1876) ; 
" Story of the United States Navy for Boys " (New 
York, 1880) ; " Cyclopasdia of United States His- 
tory," with over 1,000 illustrations (1881) ; " Bi- 
ography of James A. Garfield" (1881) ; an illustrated 
" History of New York City " (1884) ; " Mary and 
Martha Washington " (1886); " Two Spies : Nathan 
Hale and John Andre " (1886) ; and " The Empire 
State, a Compendious History of the Commonwealth 
of New York " (1887). Mr. Lossing annotated 
Francis Hopkinson's " Pretty Story," with a bi- 
ography of the author of the allegory, which was 
published under the title of " The Old Farm and 
the New Farm " (New York, 1857). With Edwin 
Williams he compiled the '• Statesman's Manual " 
(4 vols., 1858) and the "National Historv of the 
United States " (2 vols., 1858). He also edited and 
annotated the " Diaries of Washington " (1859). 
and the "Recollections and Private Memoirs of 
Washington," by George W. P. Custis (1860). edit- 
ed the " Poems " of VVilliam Wilson, with an ac- 
companying biography (Poughkeepsie, 1869), and 
prepared an edition of John Trumbull's " Mc- 
Fingal," with a life (New York, 1871). 

LOTBINIERE, Michael Eustace Gaspard, 
Marquis de, Canadian soldier, b. in Canada in 
1723; d. in New York in 1799. He embraced the 
military profession, became one of the ablest en- 
gineers of his time, and was appointed engineer to 
the French colony in 1753. Soon after the defeat 
of Baron Dieskau in 1755 he built Fort Carillon 
(Ticonderoga), with the object of preventing the 
English from entering Canada. In 1758 he con- 
tributed more than any other person to the defeat 
of the English at Carillon, which Montcalm occu- 
pied reluctantly at his earnest advice. For this 
and other services he was made chevalier of St. 
Louis in 1760, and shortly afterward a marquis. 
He was deprived of some of his domains by the 
English government, and on his return from 
England, where he had gone to demand the res- 
toration of his property, he met his death from 
yellow fever in the city of New York. The Mar- 
quis de la Lotbiniere was a member of the Insti- 
tute of France, and other learned societies in 
Europe.— His eldest son, Eustace Gaspard Mi- 
chael Chartier de, Canadian statesman, b. in 
Canada; d. there in 1821, inherited his father's 
title, but did not use it. He aided in defending 
Fort St. Jean against the English colonists in 
1775, several years afterward was elected to the 
chamber of assembly, and in 1793 unanimously 



named orator. An effort that the English party 
made to abolish the use of the French language in 
the legislature was defeated by his efforts. By his 
conciliatory attitude he gained the esteem of all 
parties, and his influence with the governor, Sir 
George Prevost, was successfully used to obtain 
for the French Canadians a larger share in the ad- 
ministration of affairs. 

LOTHROP, Charles Henry, surgeon, b. in 
Taunton, Mass., 3 Sept., 1831. He was educated 
at Brown, and graduated in medicine at the Uni- 
versity of New York in 1859, and established him- 
self in practice at Lyons, Iowa. He has success- 
fullv performed many difficult surgical operations, 
and' is the inventor of an apparatus for treating 
fractures of the leg, and of a rubber appliance for 
clul)-foot. lie served during the civil war as sur- 
geon of the 1st Iowa cavalry, and has been an ex- 
amining surgeon for pensions since 1808. In 1876 
he edited the "Southern I\Iedieal Record." 

LOTH HOP. (leorge Van Ness, lawyer, b. in 
Easton. Bristol co., Mass., 8 Aug., 1817. He was 
graduated at Tirown in 1838, and entered the Har- 
vard law-scliool, but on account of ill health joined 
his lirother in 1839 on a farm near Schoolcraft, 
^lich. In ]\Iarch, 1843, he went to Detroit, com- 
I)lt'te(l his preparation for the bar, and began prac- 
tice in tlie following spring. He was attorney- 
general of ^Mieliigan' in 1S48-'51, recorder of the 
citv in t8.")l-'3, an unsuccessful candidate for con- 
gress in 18.")0 and 18(50, and in 1800 a delegate to 
the Demoei-atic national convention in Charleston, 
.S. ('.. wliere he su})])orte(l tiie nomination of Ste- 
phen A. Douglas. Uo was also nominated three 
times ])y the Democratie party for U. S. senator, 
and was a delegate to tlie State constitutional con- 
vent ii>n in 1807. From 1854 till 1880, when he re- 
signed, ho was general counsel for the Micliigan 
Ci'utral raili'oa<l (•()inj)any. In May, 1885, he was 
appointed C. S. minister to Russia. 

LOTHROP. Harriett Mulford, author, b. in 
New Haven. Conn., 22 June. 1844. Her nuiiden 
name was Stnne. She was educated at seminaries 
near her home, travelled extensively in the United 
States, and early began to jiractise literary compo- 
sition, but pul)lishe(l nothing l)eforc aljout 1877, 
when she' began to contribute stories and sketches 
to the magazines. Before her third work was 
issued in l).)i>k-fonn she married Daniel Lothrop, 
a i)ublislH'r of iJoston. All her wi'itings have ap- 
peared under Ihe pen-name of '• ^Margaret Sidney." 
Mrs. Lothi'tip's summer residence is at Concord, 
Mass.. in Nalhainel Hawthorne's old home, which 
he calU'd "'I'he Wavside." Her published works 
are "So as by Kire " (P.oston, 1881); " Five Little 
I'eppers. and How they (irew." (1882), a juvenile 
story, which ilrst aiijjeared in the" Wide Awake" 
magazine: "Half Year at Bronckton " (1882); 
"The Pettil)one Name," a novel of New England 
life (1SS3); "What tiie Seven Did " (1883) ; "Who 
told it to Me" (ISSI); " Ballad of the Lost Hare" 
(1SS4): "The (Joldeii W.'^l •• (1S85); "How they 
Went to Eurojx'" (l'SS5); " Hester, and otlier New 
England Stories" (ISS(i); -The Minute-Man " 
(iss(i): -Two Min]v\-u Eittle Princes," (1887) ; and 
" Dillv an<l the Captain " (1SS7). 

LOTHROP. Sanmel Kirkland, clergvman. 1). 
in I liea. N. Y., 13 Oct., 1S04: d. in lioston, Mass., 
12 June. lHS(i. He was graduated at Harvard in 
1>!25. and at the divinity-school there in 1828. In 
1S29 he was ordained ))astor of the Unitarian 
church in Dover. N. H., and on 17 Juiu;, 1834, took 
charge of the P.rattle s(piare church in Boston, 
31ass. The degree of D, D. was conferred on him 
by Harvard in 1852. He was a delegate to tlie 


State constitutional convention of 1853. His so- 
ciety removed to a new building in 1873, but dis- 
solved in 1876, when Dr. Lothrop resigned the pas- 
torate. He was a member of the Boston school 
committee for thirty years, and chairman of its 
committee on the English high-school for twenty- 
six. Among his literary works are a life of his 
grandfather, Samuel Kirkland, included in Sparks's 
" American Biography," and a " History of Brat- 
tle Square Church." 

LOTHROP, Thomas, soldier, b. in England; 
d. near Bloody Brook, Deerfield township, Mass., 
29 Sept., 1075. He resided for many years in Sa- 
lem, of which town he became a freeman in or be- 
fore 1034. He was a representative in the general 
court in 1047, 1053, and 1604. Subsequently he 
removed to Beverly, and with others organized a 
church there, and represented the town for four 
years in the general court. In the beginning of 
King Philip's war he was chosen captain of militia. 
He iiad a severe battle with the Indians near Ilad- 
ley in August, 1675, and after the burning of Deer- 
field, while guarding the road to Iladley, was killed, 
with eighty-nine of his men, onlv eight escaping. 

LOTT, John A., jurist, b. in"l805; d. in Flat- 
bush, L. L, 20 July, 1878. He was graduated at 
Union in 1823, studied law, and began practice in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1835. In 1838 he was elected 
county judge of Kings county, which office he held 
for four years. In 1841 he was a member of the 
state assend)ly, and in 1842-'6 a state senator. He 
was justice of the supreme court in 1857-05, and 
judge of the court of appeals in 1809. He was also 
a member of the commission of appeals from 1870 
until it completed its labors in 1875. In the latter 
year he was appointed on a commission to draft a 
uniform law for the government of cities in the 
state. Until a short time before his death he was 
president of the Flatbush and Coney Island rail- 
road. He received the degree of LL. D. from 
Union college in 1859. 

^ LOTTENSCHIOLI), Mathias (lot'-ten-ske-old), 
German explorer, b. in Greifenberg, Pomerania, 
in 1729: d. in Arolsen, Waldeck. in 1782. He was 
a Jesuit, and was employed for fifteen years in the 
missions of L^ruguay and Paraguay, where he had 
special charge of the manufacturing that was done 
by the Indians for the company. After the expul- 
sion of the order in 1707, he remained in the coun- 
try as a teacher, and severed his connection with 
his former colleagues, becoming converted to Prot- 
estantism toward the close of his career. As he 
was in comfortable circumstances, he devoted sev- 
eral years to the exploration of South America be- 
fore returning home, visited Peru, Chili, and Cen- 
tral America in 1770-4, and published " Metallur- 
gische Reisen durch Amerika" (2 vols., Leipsic, 
1770); " Geognostische Bemerkungen liber die ba- 
salt ischen Gelbilde der Cordilleren von Peru " (Dres- 
den, 1779); " Reise aiif dem La Plata- und Para- 
guay-Flusse" (2 vols., Leipsic, 1780); " Umgebun- 
gen von Rio de Janeiro " (1780) ; " Geschichte der 
Entdeckung von Paraguay" (1781); "Geschichte 
und Zustande der Indianer in Sild-Amerika " (2 
vols., 1782): and several less important works. 

LOTTER, Frederic Augnst, German botanist, 
b. in Kleinaupe. Moravia, in 1741 ; d. in Gotha in 
1800. He studied in Prague, and in 1789 was at- 
tached as botanist to the expedition that was sent 
by the Spanish government around the world un- 
der coinmand of Capt. Malaspina. Lotter being 
taken sick in Concepcion, Chili, was unable to 
accompany the expedition. He rejoined it at 
Aeapulco in 1791, but soon left it again and ex- 
plored the interior of Mexico as far as Lower Call- 




fornia. Afterward he visited Peru, Chili, and the 
Argentine provinces, returning in 1795 to Europe, 
where he became professor of natural history at 
the College of Gotha. He published " De Usu et 
ratione experimejntorum in perficiendi historia na- 
turali " (Praguci 1787 ; revised and enlarged ed., 
•Gotha, 1796) : " Vermium fluvialura Americana- 
rum, sive anins^alium infusorium helminthorum et 
testaceorum historia" (Gotha, 1796) ; " Flora Mexi- 
<3ana " (2 vols., 1798) ; " Flora Peruana " (3 vols., 
1800) ; " Reisen durch Mexico und Siid-Amerika " 
(2 vols., 1801) ; " Compendium plantarum sponte 
crescentium circa Conceptium in quo familiae per 
tabulas disponuntur " (2 vols., 1802) ; " Icones 
plantai-um Americanarum rarium " (2 vols., 1803) ; 
and several less important works. 

LOUBOIS, Chevalier de, b. in France in the 
latter part of the 17th century. He was mayor of 
New Orleans in 1730, when he was sent at the head 
of an expedition against the Natchez, who held 
several French prisoners, and attacked the Indians 
who were intrenched in two forts on the Bay of the 
Tonicas (now Bayou Sainte Catherine). The Nat- 
chez made a vigorous resistance for several days, 
And Loubois, dreading treachery on the part of 
his savage allies, the Choctaws, allowed them to 
retire on condition of giving up their prisoners. 
He then returned to New Orleans, and set out again 
in 1731 at the head of sixty men to the relief of 
Juchereau, Sieur de St. Denys {q. v.), who was be- 
sieged by the Natchez at Fort Natchitoches. But, 
after advancing six leagues up Red river, he was 
informed by a messenger from Juchereau that 
the Indians were defeated. Loubois was engaged 
in various expeditions, and his valor and experi- 
ence are highly praised by Charlevoix and other 
historians of New France. 

LOUD, Marguerite St. Leon, poet, b. in Wy- 
sox, Bradford co., Pa., about 1800. Her maiden name 
was Barstow. After her marriage in 1824 she lived 
in Philadelphia, except during a brief residence in 
the south, and contributed poetry to the " United 
States Gazette" and to the monthly magazines of 
that city. A volume entitled " Wayside Flowers " 
was published (Boston, 1851). Some of her poems 
are reprinted in Griswold's " Female Poets of Amer- 
ica " and in the similar collections of Thomas Bu- 
chanan Read and Caroline Mav. 

LOUDOUN, John Campbell, Earl of, British 
;soldier, b. in Scotland in 1705 ; d. there, 27 April, 
1782. He succeeded to the estate and title in 1731. 

He was a friend of 
Lord Halifax, and 
when the board of 
trade determined to 
unite the colonies 
under military rule 
and force them to 
support a perma- 
nent army was cho- 
sen to carry out 
this policy. He was 
appointed to suc- 
ceed the p6pular 
William Shirley as 
of the British forces 
in North America, 
and given the addi- 
tional dignity of 
governor of Vir- 
ginia, although Rob- 
ert Dinwiddie continued to administer the prov- 
ince. Loudoun arrived in Virginia in July, 1756. 
Although devoted to the idea of colonial sub- 

VOL. IV. — 3 


ordination, he was an incapable and irresolute 
officer. After collecting a force sufficient to crush 
the French, he disbanded the provincials and sent 
the regulars into winter-quarters, illegally billet- 
ing the officers on the citizens of New York and 
Philadelphia. He further incensed the Americans 
by imposing an embargo on commerce, and on 20 
June, 1757, after impressing 400 men in New 
York and committing other arbitrary acts, sailed 
for Halifax, Nova Scotia. He had there an army 
of 10,000 troops and a fleet of sixteen sail be- 
sides frigates, and, after wasting time in foolish 
parades, embarked the soldiers to attack Louis- 
burg; but, on hearing that the French had one 
ship more than the English, revoked the order and 
returned to New York. Although the English 
had been driven from the lake region and the val- 
ley of the St. Lawrence, Fort William Henry had 
fallen and the province of New York was threat- 
ened, yet Lord Loudoun encamped his forces on 
Long Island and remained inactive. When Will- 
iam Pitt became prime minister toward the close 
of 1757, he resolved on a vigorous campaign to 
save the English colonies from the French, who 
encircled them and were already in possession of 
three quarters of the continent. The British min- 
ister declared that he never heard from the com- 
mander-in-chief in America and could not tell 
what he was doing, and, in spite of the protests of 
Loudoun's many friends, recalled him and ap- 
pointed Lord Amherst in his place. 

LOUGHBOROUGH, James Moore (luff -bur- 
ro), lawyer, b. near Shelbyville, Kv., 2 Nov., 1833; 
d. in Little Rock, Ark., 31 July, 1876. He left col- 
lege at the age of nineteen, to become a clerk under 
his father, who was the land-agent for Illinois 
and Missouri. He served throughout the civil war 
as a colonel on the staff of the Confederate Gen. 
Sterling Price, and was for some time a prisoner. 
After the war he practised law in St. Louis, Mo., 
superintended the land-sales of the Iron Mountain 
railway, removing to Little Rock, and was a mem- 
ber in 1874-'5 of the Arkansas legislature, where 
he introduced a bill for the conversion of depre- 
ciated certificates into a funded debt, which did 
much to restore the financial credit of the state. — 
His wife, Mary Webster, author, b. in New York 
city, 27 Aug., 1836 ; d. in Little Rock, Ark., 27 
Aug., 1887, was taken to St. Louis, Mo., in her 
infancy, graduated at Monticello seminary, God- 
frey, 111., in 1853, and in 1857 was married. She 
accompanied her husband during the civil war, 
and kept a diary of the siege of Vicksburg, from 
which she prepared her first book, entitled '" My 
Cave Life in Vicksburg" (New York, 1864). She 
afterward contributed stones relating to the early 
history of St. Louis to " The Land We Love." In 
1871 she removed with her husband to Little Rock. 
She wrote for various newspapers, and in 1883 es- 
tablished the "Southern Ladies' Journal," which 
she edited till her death. In it she published a se- 
rial entitled " For Better, for Worse." Mrs. Lough- 
borough established also a Woman's exchange in 
Little Rock with the object of opening a wider 
range of remunerative employment for her sex. 

LOUGHLIN, John, R. C.'bishop, b. in County 
Down, Ireland, in 1816. He emigrated to the 
United States in early vouth, settling in Albany, 
N. Y., was educated at 'Mount St. Mary's college, ' 
Emmettsburg, Md., taught there several years, and 
in 1842 was ordained priest in the Roman Catholic 
church. He was assistant priest in St. Patrick's 
cathedral. New York city, in 1841-'4, at the latter 
date became rector, and, on the formation of the 
diocese of Brooklyn, was consecrated its first bishop 



in November, 1853. He introduced the Sisters of 
St. Joseph and Sisters of Mercy in 1855, established 
churches throughout Long Island, and in 1868 be- 
gan the erection of the Brooklyn cathedral. He 
has been a member of two plenary councils, and 
has held a diocesan synod for the purpose of estab- 
lishing the decrees of the councils. 

LOUVIGNY, Louis de la Porte, Sieur de, 
French soldier, b. in France about 1054; d. at sea, 
27 Aug., 1725. He came to Canada in 1087. and 
in 1690 was sent to the west at the head of a great 
convov, accompanied by Nicholas Perrot {q. v.), 
whom' he was directed to obey on the route. At 
Les Chats he was attacked by the Iroquois, but de- 
feated them and put them to flight. He was com- 
mandant at Mackinaw from 1090 till 1094, when 
he returned from tlie west with a convoy of furs. 
In the winter of 1096 he was sent at the head of 
800 jucked men to attack the Iroquois in their 
huntinir-grounds between the St. Lawrence and 
the Ottawa. He marched through snow eight feet 
in (h'i»th to within fifteen miles of Fort Frontenac, 
and defeated a ])ai'ty of Iroquois, but, owing to 
want of i)rovisions, returned to Montreal, which 
lie reached after gi'cat hardships. He was pade 
adjutant-general of Three Rivers in 1700, and 
of Montreal in 1703. In 1705 he went to Macki- 
naw to prevent the Ottawas from making war on 
the Iroquois, and succeeded in his mission, though 
with great difiieulty. In 1708 he was created a 
chevalier of St. Loiiis, In 1712 he was sent to 
restore Fort Mackinaw, which liad been destroyed 
by the Fuirlish. He was appointed king's lieuten- 
ant at Quebec in 1716. and led an expedition of 
800 Canadians and Indians from Quebec, on 14 
March, to attack the Foxes, who took refuge in a 
stockade. Louvigny conii)elled them to surrender, 
but spared tiu>ir lives on their promising to become 
allies of the French and to pay the expenses of the 
war with furs. He returned on 12 Oct., taking the 
sons of the Indian chiefs as hostages. He was 
shortly afterward sent as commandant to Upper 
Canada, and remained there till 1724, when he was 
api)ointe(l governor of Three Rivers. He was on 
the ship. " Chameau," when it was wrecked on its 
wav to Quebec, and all on board perished. 

LOVK, (i(M)ru-o 3IaUhy, soldier, b. in Buffalo, 
X. v.. 1 Jan., ls:U; d. 'tliere, 19 March, 1887. 
In llie beginning of the civil war he entered the 
army as a three months' volunteer, and served as 
sergeant and sergeant-major. On his discharge he 
re-enlisted, and was couiuiissioned 1st lieutenant 
in the 44th X. V. infantry. He was promoted cap- 
tain on 2 Jan., 1S()2. and participated in the siege 
of Vorktown and the battles of Hanover Court- 
House and Malvern Hill, After his second term 
of service had exj)ired he was appointed major of 
the IKith X. V. volunteers on 5 Sept., 1862,' com- 
manded the rei,Miuent in the Department of the 
(Julf, and was severely wounded in the assault on 
Port Hudson. He was pi-ouioted colonel on 16 
July. l.S(i:5. and engaged at Cox's Plantation, at the 
battles of Sabine Cross-roads and Pleasant Hill. 
an<l the skirmishes at Cane River Crossing and 
Mansura. He afterward conuuaiided a brigade in 
the l!)th corps for eight ecu mout hs, serving through 
the Shenandoah canii>aign. He was engaged at 
Winchester and Fisher's Hill, and for i^allantrv at 
Cedar Creek received the brevet of brigadier-gen- 
eral and a l)ronze medal of hoiioi-. He was mus- 
tered oulon 8 J inu', iSd,-). On 7 March, 1.S67, he 
was appointed a 2d lieutenant in the regular army, 
and received four l)revets for services in the war. 
He was i)romoted 1st lieutenant on 1 .Alarch, 1875, 
and engaged in garrison and frontier service until 


he was retired on 15 March, 1883, for disability in- 
curred in the line of duty. , . -r . 

LOVE, Smoloff Palace, soldier, b. m Lincoln 
county, Ky., 10 May, 1826. He was educated at 
Columbia academy. Mo., and at the age of twenty 
enlisted in Col. Doniphan's 1st Missouri volun- 
teers and went on the expedition to Santa Fe, 
participating in the battles of Bracito and Sacra- 
mento. He was mustered out of service in 1847. 
returned to Muhlenburg county, Ky.. and engaged 
in teaching from 1849 till 1857. At the beginning 
of the civil war he aided in raising the 11th Ken- 
tucky infantry for the National army, became its 
lieutenant-colonel, and fought with it at Shiloh, 
Corinth, Perryville, Stone River, and Bowling- 
Green. He was promoted colonel, joined Burnside 
in east Tennessee, and was with Sherman in the 
engagements around Atlanta. At the close of the 
war he settled at Greenville, Ky., qualified for 
the bar, and began practice in 1865. From 186(> 
till 1874 he was presiding judge of Muhlenburg 
count V. and in 1872 was a presidential elector. 

LOVEJOY, Elijah Parish, abolitionist, b. in 
Albion, Me., 9 Nov., 1802; d. in Alton, 111., 7 Nov., 
1837. He was the son of a Presbyterian clergy- 
man, was graduated at Waterville college in 1826, 
and in 1827 went 
to St. Louis, Mo,, 
and established a 
school. He con- 
tributed prose and 
verse to the news- 
papers, was know^n 
as a vigorous writ- 
er, and in 1829 be- 
came editor of a 
political paper, in 
which he advocat- 
ed the claims of 
Henry Clay as a 
candidate for the 
presidency. In 

1832, in conse- 
quence of a change 
in his religious 
views, he decided 

to become a minister, and, after a course of theo- 
logical studv at Princeton, was licensed to preach 
by the Philadelphia presbytery on 18 April. 1833. 
On his return to St. Louis he established a religious 
paper called the "Observer," in which he repro- 
bated slavery. Repeated threats of mob violence 
impelled liirn to remove his paper in July, 1836, to 
Alton, 111. His press was destroyed by mobs three 
times within a year ; yet he procured a fourth one, 
and was engaged in' setting it up, when a mob, 
composed mostly of Missourians, again attacked 
the office. With his friends he defended the 
building, and one of his assailants was killed. 
After the attacking party had apparently with- 
dra\vn, Mr. Lovejoy opened the door, w^hen he was 
instantly pierced by five bullets and died in a few- 
minutes. His " Memoir " w^as published by his 
brothers, Joseph C. and Owen, with an introduc- 
tion by John Q. Adams (New York. 1838). See. 
also, " Narrative of Riots at Alton, in Connection 
with the Death of Lovejoy," by Edward Beecher 
(Alton, 1838), and " The j\Iartyrdom of Lovejoy," 
by Henry Tanner (Chicago, 1881).— His brother, 
Owen, abolitionist, b. in Albion, Me., 6 Jan., 1811 ; 
d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 25 March, 1864, worked on 
his father's farm till he was eighteen years old, 
and then entered Bowdoin, but left before gradua- 
tion, emigrated to Alton, 111., and studied theology. 
He was present when his brother was murdered, 




and was moved by that event to devote himself to 
the overthrow of slavery. He became pastor of a 
Congregational church at Princeton, 111., in 1838. 
Although anti-slavery meetings were forbidden by 
the laws of Illinois, he openly held them in all 
parts of the stat©i announcing at each one the time 
and place for the next meeting. This course sub- 
jected him to frequent fines and to violence and in- 
timidation ; but by his eloquence and persistency 
he won many adherents, and eventually the re- 
pressive laws were repealed. He resigned his pas- 
toral charge in 1854 on being elected a member of 
the legislature. In 1856 he was sent to congress, 
and was continued there by re-election until his 
death. At the beginning of the civil war he de- 
livered in the house of representatives a remark- 
able speech against slavery, in which he recounted 
the circumstances of his brother's death. 

LOVELACE, Francis, colonial governor, b. in 
England about 1630. He was the second son of 
Baron Lovelace, of Hurley, Berks co., England, a 
member of parliament, and a colonel in the British 
army. He succeeded Richard Nicolls, as governor 
of New York in May, 1667, and developed more 
fully the extortionate and arbitrary system of gov- 
ernment that he found in practice there. When 
the Swedish settlers of Delaware were provoked to 
resistance, he decreed an arbitrary tax, asserting 
that " the method of keeping the people in order 
is severity, and laying such taxes as may give them 
liberty for no thought but how to discharge them." 
In New York a tax for purposes of defence was 
ordained, and, when the towns of Long Island 
refused to pay it unless they received the right of 
representation, the governor ordered their protests 
to be burned. The people were on the verge of 
rebellion when the war began between England and 
Holland. New Jersey and Delaware surrendered 
willingly to Admiral Bvertsen when he appeared 
with a small fleet in July, 1673, and New York 
capitulated within four hours after the Dutch 
squadron had cast anchor off Manhattan island. 
Lovelace departed on 30 July. He had interested 
himself in the settlement of Ulster county, where 
he laid out the town of Hurley. A volume of his 
" Speeches " was published (London, 1660). — His 
grandson. Lord Lovelace, succeeded Lord Corn- 
bury as governor of New York in 1709. The as- 
sembly met in April soon after his arrival, and 
insisted on voting supplies annually and by specific 
appropriations. He died on 12 May, 1709, leaving 
the contest to be waged by his successor. 

LOVELL, Charles Swain, soldier, b. in Hull, 
Mass., 13 Feb., 1811 ; d. in Louisville, Ky., 3 Jan., 
1871. He enlisted as a private in the 2d U. S. ar- 
tillery in January, 1831, and served in various gar- 
risons, rising to quartermaster-sergeant, sergeant- 
major, and, in October, 1837, to 2d lieutenant. He 
was promoted 1st lieutenant in July, 1838, captain, 
18 June, 1846, and took part in the battles of 
Churubusco, Molino del Rey, Chapultepec, and the 
city of Mexico. He then served in the territories 
till the civil war, and after promotion to major, on 
14 May, 1861, commanded a brigade at Gaines's 
Mills, Malvern Hill, the second battle of Bull Run, 
Antietam, and Fredericksburg. From 1863 till 
1865 he was on provost-marshal duty in Wisconsin, 
and he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, 21 Jan., 
1863, and colonel of the 14th infantry, 16 Feb., 
1865. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for gal- 
lantry at Gaines's Mills, colonel for Malvern Hill, 
and brigadier-general, U. S. army, for Antietam. 
After the war he commanded his regiment at Fort 
Yuma, Cal., and on 15 Dec, 1870, was retired from 
active service. 

LOVELL, Frederick Solon, lawyer, b. in 

Charlestown, N. H., 1 Nov., 1814 ; d. in Kenosha, 
Wis., 14 May, 1878. He was graduated at Geneva 
(now Hobart) college, N. Y., in 1835, studied law, 
and after admission to the bar in New York settled, 
in 1837, in Southport (now Kenosha), Wis. He 
served for three sessions in the territorial council, 
and took part in the constitutional conventions of 
1846 and 1847. In 1857 he sat in the legislature, 
and was a commissioner to revise the state statutes, 
and in 1858 he was speaker of the assembly. He 
entered the National army in August, 1862, as lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the 33d Wisconsin infantry, and 
served later as colonel of the 43d regiment in the 
southwest. In January, 1865, he was commissioned 
colonel of the 46th regiment, and on 27 Sept. of 
that year was mustered out, and resumed the prac- 
tice of law at Kenosha. 

LOVELL, John, educator, b. in Boston, Mass., 
16 June, 1710; d. in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1778. 
He was graduated at Harvard in 1728, succeeded 
Jeremy Gridley as assistant master of the Boston 
Latin-school in the following year, and from the 
death of Dr. Nathaniel Williams in 1738 till the 
Revolution was its head master. In 1743 he deliv- 
ered the first address in Faneuil hall, on the occa- 
sion of the death of its founder. He was a good 
scholar and, though a stern disciplinarian, a genial 
and witty companion. Master Lovell taught the 
men in Boston that were leaders in the struggle 
for independence, yet he adhered to the loyalist 
cause, and went with the British troops to Halifax 
on 14 March, 1776. His portrait, by John Smi- 
bert, hangs in the Harvard gallery of paintings. 
Besides his funeral oration on Peter Faneuil, he 
published several political and theological pam- 
phlets, and contributed articles in English and 
Latin to the " Pietas et Gratulatio " (Cambridge, 
1761). — His son, James, patriot, b. in Boston, 
Mass., 31 Oct., 1737 ; d. in Windham, Me., 14 July, 
1814, was graduated at Harvard in 1756, and was 
his father's assistant in the South grammar- or 
Latin-school till it was dispersed on 19 April, 1775, 
on account of the siege. He was also master of 
the North grammar-school, afterward called the 
Eliot school. He delivered, 2 April, 1771, the first 
anniversary oration on the Boston massacre. In 
the Revolution he took the side of the Whigs, and 
was imprisoned after the battle of Bunker Hill, 
carried to Halifax with the British army, and kept 
in close confinement, while his father was there as 
a Tory refugee, until, in November, 1776, he was 
exchanged for Col. Philip Skene. On his return 
to Boston he was elected a member of the Con- 
tinental congress, and served from December, 1776, 
till 1782. During the quarrel between Gen. Horatio 
Gates and Gen. Philip Schuyler, early in 1777, Lovell 
was a correspondent and confidant of the former, 
and the recipient of his plan of campaign. He 
encouraged Gates in dealing directly with con- 
gress, over the head of Gen. Washington, and was 
one of the malcontents that sought to make Gates 
commander-in-chief, threatening Washington, in a 
letter dated 11 Oct., 1777, with a "torrent of 
public clamor and vengeance," and in another 
describing him as a general that collected men to 
wear out shoes and breeches, and that had " Fabi- 
used matters into a very disagreeable posture." 
Lovell was a diligent member of the committee on 
foreign correspondence. Some of his letters were 
printed in Richard H. Lee's life of his brother 
Arthur. He was receiver of taxes at Boston from 
1784 till 1788, then collector of the port till 1790, 
and after that naval officer till his death. He 
published several tracts, and a Latin oration on 



the death of Henry Flint Q 760).- James s son, 
James, soldier, b. in Boston, Mass., 9 July, 17o» . 
d. in St. Matthews, S. C, 10 July, 1850, was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1776. He joined the Revolu- 
tionary army as adjutant of Henry Jackson s 
Massachusetts regiment in the begmning ot 1/77, 
fought in many battles, and was severely wounded. 
In 1779-82 he served as adjutant of Gen. Henry 
Lee's southern legion, with the rank of ma3or.— 
The second James's son, Joseph, physician, b m 
Boston, Mass., 22 Dec, 1788; d. in Washington, 
I). C, 17 Oct., 1836, was graduated at Harvard m 
1807,'studied medicine, and on 15 May, 1812, was 
appointed surgeon of the 9th U. S. infantry. He 
served on the Niagara frontier, and on 30 June, 
1814, was appointed a hospital surgeon there. On 
18 April, 1818, he became surgeon-general of the 
U s iirmv.— Joseph's son, Mansfield, soldier, b. 
in Washington, I). C, 20 Oct., 1822; d. in New 
York cilv. 1 June, 1884, was graduated at theU. S. 
military academy in 1842, appointed a lieutenant 
of artillcrv, and served in the occupation of Texas 
in lS4.")-'(;". and in the war with Mexico was aide 
to Gen. John A. Quitman and assistant adjutant- 
general of his division, l)eing promoted 1st lieu- 
tenant on 10 Feb., 1847. He was wounded at 
Montt'i-ey. brevetted captain for bravery at Chapul- 
tepec. and severely wounded at the Belen Gate. 
After the war he served on the Kansas frontier for 
two years. On 18 Dec. 1854, he and his classmate, 
Guslavus A. Smith, resigned in order to take high 
commands in Gen. Quitman's projected Cuban 
exi)e(lition. After the failure of the project they 
found employment in connection with Cooper and 
Hewitt's iron-works at Trenton, N.J. In April, 
1S58, Lovell was a})[)ointed superintendent of 
street improvements in New York city, and in 
Novemher of tliat year deputy street-commissioner 
under his friend Smith. At the beginning of the 
civil war he went to the south with Gen. Smith, 
was conimissioned as a brigadier-general in the 
Confederate service, and on 9 Oct., 1861, was 
made a major-genei-al and |)laced iu-command at 
New Oi-Jeans. relieving (Jen. Da-vid E. Twiggs. 
When the forts were ca^jfured by the National 
forces he withdrew his ti'oops, and, on the com- 
])laint of the mayor that he liad left the citizens 
without niilitai\v protection, ex})lained that it was 
for the j)ui'p()>e of saving the town from a bom- 
bardment, otTering to return if the citizens desired 
to continue the defence. After the surrender of 
New Oi'leans to Farragut. 26 April, 1862, he joined 
(ien. jjcaureuai-d in noilhern .Alississippi, and com- 
manded one of the divisions that were routed by 
Gen. William S. Rosecrans at Coi-inth, 4 Oct.. 1862. 
At the l)attle of llalchie his division constituted 
the rear-guai'd of the retreating army. He com- 
manded the Coid'ederale forces at the battle of 
CdllVeville. When (ien. Leoiiidas Polk was killed. 
14 .luiie, 1S(;4. Lovell sueeeede<l to the command of 
the coi-ps, and on 27 .June repelled Gen. Sherman's 
attack on his int renchments at Kenesaw. When 
the war was ended he I'etired to a rice-plautation 
near Savannah, (ia.. but not long afterward went 
to New York city, and was enga.u'ed as an assistant 
en,<rineer under (ien. .lohn Newton in removing 

the l*'.ast river olistruc 

m removing 

-tionsat ]lell--ate. 

LOVKRINd, Joseph, physicist, b. in Charles- 
town (new a pai-t of ?>oslon),"Mass.. 2.") Dec, 1813. 
lie was ^n-aduated at Harvard in is;}:}. and after 
teaching: for a year in Charlestown spent two years 
in Ilarvard divinity-school. In 1S36 he was ap- 
poinled tutor in mathematics and ])hvsics in Har- 
vard, and two years later was made Ilollis profes- 
sor of mathematics and natural philosophv, which 


chair he still (1887) retains, becoming also in 
1884 director of the Jefferson physical laboratory. 
In addition to his college work, he has given nine 
courses, each of twelve lectures, on astronomy or 
physics before the Lowell institute of Boston. 
Five of these courses were repeated, on the days 
following those of their first delivery, to another 
audience, according to the original practice of 
that institution. He has delivered shorter courses 
of lectures at the Smithsonian institution, the 
Peabody institute of Baltimore, and the Charitable 
mechanics' institution of Boston, and one or more 
lectures in many towns and cities of New England. 
During 1867-76 he was connected with the U. S. 
coast survey, and had charge of the computations 
for determining trans-Atlantic longitudes from tele- 
graphic observations on cable lines. Prof. Lover- 
ing received the degree of LL. D. from Harvard 
in 1879, and was regent of that college in 1853-'4 
and in 1857-'70, an office now merged into that of 
dean. He is a member of the American philo- 
sophical society and of the National academy of 
sciences. During 1854-73 he was permanent secre- 
tary of the American association for the advance- 
ment of science, and edited fifteen volumes of its 
proceedings,becoming in 1873 its president. In 1839 
he was elected a member of the American academy 
of arts and sciences, and he was its corresponding 
secretary in 1869-'73, its vice-president in 1873-'80, 
and president in 1880-7. Prof. Lovering has 
been an indefatigable contributor of scientific arti- 
cles to contemporary literature, and, inaddition to 
special memoirs on the aurora, terrestrial magnet- 
ism, and the determination of trans- Atlantic longi- 
tude, which were published by the American acad- 
emy, he has prepared a volume on the " Aurora 
Borealis " (Boston, 1873), and edited a new edition 
of Farrar's " Electricity and Magnetism " (1842). 

LOYEWELL, Johii, centenarian, b. in Eng- 
land, about 1634; d. in Dunstable, Mass., about 
1754. lie w^as an ensign in Oliver Cromwell's army 
about 1653, afterward emigrated to New England, 
settled in Weymouth, Mass., and was with Capt. 
Benjamin Church during King Philip's war and in 
the Narragansett Swamp fight of 19 Dec, 1675. He 
removed to Dunstable, where he was still constant 
in attendance at church at the age of 110, and 
when 117 years old used to chase boys out of his 
orchard with a cane. — His son, John, Indian 
fighter, b. in the border part of Dunstable, Mass., 
which subsequentlv fell within what is now Nashua, 
N. IL, 14 Oct., imi ; d. in the Pigw^acket wilder- 
ness, near Ossipee lake, 8 May, 1725, was, like his 
father, a man of remarkable courage and physical 
vigor, and fond of adventurous enterprises ; and 
in time of war engaged in exploring the wilderness 
to find the lurking-places of the Indians. At the 
head of a company of thirty men. attracted by a 
bounty of £100 that had been offered for every 
Indian scalp, he marched to the north of Winni- 
piseogee lake on 19 Dec, 1724, and returned with 
one scalp and a boy prisoner. With forty men he 
surprised ten Indians near Tamw^orth, N. H., on 
20 Feb., 1725, and marched into Dover with their 
scalps exhibited on poles. In his third and last 
expedition he led forty-six men to attack the In- 
dian town of Pigwacket, the village of the Ossipee 
or Pigwacket tribe. After leaving tw^elve men in 
a fort that he built near Ossipee lake, he marched 
to the north of the lake with his command, re- 
duced to thirty-four. While at morning prayers 
the company were alarmed by the report of a gun 
and the discovery of an Indian. They left their 
packs, and advanced, seeking the enemy in front ; 
, but the Indians had gained their rear, and took 




possession of their carap. The savages outnum- 
bered the English two to one, and were commanded 
by their able chief, Paugus. They were met in a 
sparsely wooded > place, and at the first fire Capt. 
Lovewell fell, mortally wounded. His men with- 
drew in good OTder to the lake to escape being sur- 
rounded, and me fight continued from 10 a. m. till 
nightfall, wheuvthe Indians, having lost their chief, 
retired from the field. Only nine of Capt. Love- 
well's company escaped unhurt. The survivors and 
the widows and children of the slain received a 
grant of Lovewell's town or Suncook (now Pem- 
broke), N. H. A long ballad, entitled " Lovewell's 
Fight," was composed at the time. Rev. Thomas 
Symmes published " Historical Memoirs of the 
Fight of Pigwacket," with a sermon on Lovewell's 
death (1725). This was republished, with notes by 
Nathaniel Bouton (Boston, 1801). See also " Expe- 
ditions of Capt. Lovewell," edited by Frederick 
Kidder (1865).— His brother, Zaccheus, soldier, b. 
in Dunstable, Mass., 22 July, 1701;- d. there, 12 
April, 1772, served in the French war, succeeding 
Joseph Blanchard as colonel of the regiment of 
New Hampshire volunteers in April, 1758, and was 
ordered to join Gen. Prideaux at Niagara on 29 
July, 1759. — Another brother, Jonathan, b. in 
Dunstable, Mass., 14 May, 1713 ; d. in 1792, was a 
preacher, and in later life was appointed a judge. 

LOW, Abiel Abbot, merchant, b. in Salem, 
Mass., 7 Feb., 1811. He was educated in the pub- 
lic schools, early became a clerk in a mercantile 
house, and subsequently for several years was with 
his father, who was an importer of drugs and 
India goods in New York city, and had resided in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., since 1829. In 1833 he sailed for 
Canton, China, where he became a partner in an 
American mercantile house in 1837. Three years 
later he returned home and engaged in the China 
tea and silk trade. As his business increased he 
built many of his own ships. He was made a mem- 
ber of the New York chamber of commerce in 
1846, and in 1863 was elected its president, holding 
the office until the close of 1866, when he resigned. 
He was frequently called upon to address the cham- 
ber and other bodies, or to consult with the gov- 
ernment at Washington in relation to commercial 
or financial interests, and his voice and influence 
were always decided and powerful in support of 
the plighted faith of the nation. During the war 
he was treasurer of the Union defence committee of 
New York, a member of the war fnnd committee 
of Brooklyn, and president of the general commit- 
tee of citizens in Brooklyn that was appointed in 
aid of the sanitary service. Mr. Low has been for 
many years president of the board of trustees of 
•the Packer institute. He has contributed gifts to 
the Brooklyn library, the City hospital, and many 
other educational, benevolent, and religious enter- 
prises. — His son, Seth, merchant, b. in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., 18 Jan., 1850, was graduated at Columbia in 
1870, became a clerk in his father's mercantile 
house, and in 1875 was admitted as a partner. He 
was elected a member of the New York chamber 
of commerce, and made addresses on the carrying 
trade and related subjects, which commanded at- 
tention. Mr. Low was a founder of the Brooklyn 
bureau of charities and its first president, and at 
the same time he began to take part in political 
reform. He was nominated for the mayoralty in 
1881 as a reform candidate, and, being elected by a 
decisive majority, gained much praise by his ad- 
ministration of the city government. He was the 
first mayor in the state to introduce the system of 
competitive examination for appointments to mu- 
nicipal offices. He was re-elected in 1883, and 

served for another term of two years. Shortly after 
his retirement from office he went abroad, and in 
1890 became president of Columbia college. 

LOW, Edward, English buccaneer, b. in West- 
minster, London ; d. in Martinique in 1724. He 
was entirely uneducated and manifested vicious in- 
clinations from his childhood. After making 
several voyages with his brother, he went alone 
to Boston, where he embarked on a vessel that was 
bound for the Gulf of Honduras. Here he quar- 
relled with the captain, and, putting to sea in the 
long-boat with several companions, captured a 
small ship, on which they raised the black flag, 
and became pirates. By 1722 he had several ves- 
sels under his command with which he ravaged 
the coasts of New England and the Antilles. His 
crews were constantly increased by sailors that 
deserted their ships or were forced to join him. 
In the roadstead of St. Michael he took several 
ships, and, being in want of water and provisions, 
he had the boldness to demand them of the gov- 
ernor of St. Michael, promising to surrender the 
captures he had just made, and threatening to 
burn them if his demands were not complied with. 
The governor did what the pirates asked, and Low 
kept his word. On returning to the Antilles, he 
committed horrible cruelties on those who fell into 
his power, especially on those who concealed their 
money or threw it into the sea. In an engage- 
ment with a ship-of-war, in June, 1723, one of 
Low's vessels was so badly damaged that he left it 
to its fate and fled. Tliis ship was taken and 
brought to Rhode Island, where two thirds of the 
crew were hanged. After this the career of Low 
w^as marked by greater atrocities. Plis fleet in- 
creased, for he often manned the vessels that he 
took, giving the command to one of his subordi- 
nates. Not only New England, Cape . Breton, 
Newfoundland, and the Antilles sufl'ered from his 
ravages, but they extended as far as the coasts of 
Guinea. Cruelty had become so familiar to him 
that he took an eager pleasure in torturing and 
murdering his prisoners. Toward the end of July, 
1723, he captured a large vessel, of which he took 
command, with the title of admiral, and hoisted 
on the main-mast a black flag with a death's-head 
in red. When he was in the Caribbean sea in 
January, 1724, a quarrel arose between him and 
his crew. The officer next in command showed 
himself violently opposed to an enterprise on 
which Low was bent, and the latter avenged him- 
self by murdering his subordinate in his sleep. 
The crew seized their leader and two or three 
of his partisans, lowered them into a boat, and 
abandoned them without provisions. A ship from 
Martinique met them and brought them to the 
island, where they were recognized and executed. 
See " History of the English Pirates," by Charles 
Johnson (London, 1734). 

LOW, Frederick Ferdinand, governor of Cali- 
fornia, b. in Frankfort, Me., 30 June, 1828. He was 
trained for mercantile life in Boston, Mass., went 
to California in 1849, and. after spending some time 
in the mines, established himself in business in 
San Francisco, and in 1854 removed to Marysville, 
where he became a banker. He was elected as a 
Republican to congress in 1860, and, after the ex- 
piration of his term in 1863, was appointed collector 
of the port of San Francisco. He was elected gov- 
ernor the same year, and served for the four-years' 
term beginning 1 Jan., 1864. From 1869 till 1874 
he was U. S. minister to China. In February, 1871, 
he was empowered to negotiate with Corea for the 
protection of shipwrecked seamen and for a treaty 
of commerce and navigation. 



LOW, Isaac, merchant, b. near New Brunswick, 
N J., about 1735; d. in England in 1791. He ac- 
niiired a fortune by trade in New York city, and in 
the early part of the Revolutionary conflict was an 
active Whig. He made public speeches in favor 
of resistance to taxation without representation, 
thou<^h opposed to the demand for independence, 
was Chairman of the first committee of fifty that 
was appointed to correspond with the other colo- 
nies and continued as chairman of the new com- 
mittee He was also elected, with John Jay and 
other conservatives, to the 1st Continental con- 
gress, took part in its deliberations, and was a mem- 
ber of the Provincial congress of New York m l/7o. 
He was tlie first feigner of the association on 29 
April ITT"), and on that occasion delivered a vio- 
lent speech against the king and parliament ; yet, 
while his colleagues in congress embraced the re- 
publican cause, he sought safety by adhering to the 
crown. In 177(3 he was arrested on the charge of 
holding treasonable correspondence with the enemy. 
IIo renuiincd in the city during the British occu- 
pation, and was one of the persons named in an act 
of attainder that was passed by the New York as- 
seml)ly on 22 Oct., 1779. Mr. Low was appointed 
by Sir Guy Carloton, previously to the evacuation, 
oiie of a board of commissioners to enforce.the pay- 
ment of debts that were due to the departing loyal- 
ists. He went to F.ngland. and his property, includ- 
ing a tract of land in TiTon county, was confiscated. 
— n is wife, who was a daughter of the mayor of Al- 
bany and a sister of Sir Cornelius Cuyler, was noted 
for "her l)eautv of person and gentle manners. She 
died in Londcm in 1820, at the age of eighty.— Their 
only son, Isaac, bceanie a commissary-general in 
thcBritish army.— The first Isaac's brother, Nicho- 
las, merchant," b. near New Brunswick, N. J., 30 
March, 1739; d. in "New York city, 15 Nov., 1826, 
became a prominent merchant in New Y^ork city 
Ix'fore the Ilevolution, espoused the cause of in- 
dependence, and was elected a member of the as- 
senitilv, and of the convention that adopted the 
Uniteil States constitution. He l)eeamc, in 1796, 
part proprietor of a large tract in Jefferson and 
Lewis counties, N. Y., built a hotel and a cotton- 
factory in Ballston, N. Y., about 1810, and after- 
\vai-<l devoted himself to the settlement of his land, 
whicli included the sites of Adams, Watertown, 
and Lowville. 

LOW, Samuel, poet, b. 12 Dec, 1765; date of 
death unknown. He i»iil)lishe(l liis " Poems" in two 
volumes (New York, 1800). The first piece is an 
ode on theclcath of Washington, which was recited 
ity .John llodgkinson in the New York theatre on 
M Jan., 1800. The collcetion contains also sonnets 
on many subjects, humoi-ous j)oems, i)atriotic odes 
on the fourth of July and the adoption of the con- 
stitution, and a long descriptive poem on "Winter 
Displaved." which was first published in 1784. 

LOW, Will Hii'ok, artist, b. in Albany, N. Y., 
31 May. 1N53. Ih^ su])i)orted himself in New York 
city in l87()-"3 by nud<ing illustrations for periodi- 
cals, and in 1873-7 was a pu})il of Gerome and Caro- 
lus-l)m-au in Paris. After completing his studies, 
he returned to the United States and o])ened a 
studio in New York. He was one of the founders 
of the Society of Amei-ican artists. Among his 
woi-ks are - Nine of tlu' First Empire," exhibited 
at the Paris salon (1876); "Portrait of Mile. Al- 
l)ani," "Calling Home the Cows" (1880): "Skipper 
Ireson" (1881); "Arcades" (1882); and "Telling 
the P.ees" (1884). He has illustrated two volumes 
of Keats's poems — the " Lamia" (18S5) and " Odes 
and SoiHiets " (1887)— and has done some good work 
in stained-glass and house decoration. 


LOWE, David Pearly, jurist, b. in Oneida 
countv, N. Y., 22 Aug., 1823. He was graduated 
at the law department of Cincinnati college in 1851, 
practised in that city for ten years, and then re- 
moved to Kansas, and took up his residence at 
Mound City. He declined the nomination of the 
Union party in 1862 for attorney-general of the 
state, but was elected a member of the state senate, 
and served two years. During the raid of Gen. 
Sterling Price into Kansas he performed military 
service as a lieutenant-colonel on Gov. Thomas 
Carney's staff. He was defeated as a candidate 
for chief justice in 1866, was a district judge in 
1867-71, and was twice elected to congress as a 
Republican, serving from 4 March, 1871, till 3 
March, 1875. He was appointed a commissioner of 
pensions, and declined, but accepted the chief jus- 
ticeship of Utah territory, and subsequently re- 
sumed practice in Fort Scott, Kan. 

LOWE, John, poet, b. near New Galloway, Scot- 
land, in 1750; d. in Culpeper county, V^a., in De- 
cember, 1798. He was a son of the gardener of 
Ken mure castle, and was apprenticed to a weaver, 
but found means to pursue the academical course 
at Edinburgh, and studied theology while teaching 
in the family of a gentleman named McGhie, with 
whose daughter he exchanged vows of affection. 
He wrote verses descriptive of the scenery of the 
River Dee and Loch Ken, and was inspired by the 
death at sea of the lover of a sister of his betrothed 
to compose a melodious and affecting ballad called 
" Mary's Dream," by which his fame as a poet has 
been preserved. Not obtaining a charge in Scot- 
land, he emigrated to this country in 1773, to be- 
come a tutor in the family of George Washington's 
elder brother. He subsequently conducted a board- 
ing-school at Fredericksburg, Va., which was at 
first successful, but eventually failed. _ Amid new 
scenes he forgot the lady to whom his faith was 
pledged, and married an American, but the union 
w^as not happy and he died at the house of a friend, 
having, it is suspected, taken a dose of laudanum. 
His poetical compositions were printed in Richard 
H. Cromek's " Remains of Nithesdale and Gallo- 
way Song," with a memoir by Rev. Mr. Gillespie. 
See also James Grant Wilson's " Poets and Poetry 
of Scotland " (New York, 1876). 

LOWE, John Williamson, soldier, b. in New 
Brunswick, N. J., 9 Nov., 1809; d. in Nicholas 
county, Va., 10 Sept., 1861. He learned the print- 
er's trade in New York city, settled in Batavia, 
Clermont co., Ohio, in 1833, studied law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and practised in Dayton, and 
subsecjuently in Xenia, Ohio. He was a captain in 
the 2d Ohio volunteers during the Mexican war, 
and in the beginning of the civil war joined the 
National army as captain of the first company that 
was raised in Greene county, and was elected colo- 
nel of the 12th Ohio infantry, which formed part 
of Gen. Jacob D. Cox's brigade that operated in 
western Virginia, and cleared the Kanawha valley 
of the enemy. Col. Lowe on 17 July, 1861, at- 
tacked the enemy's position on Scary creek, but re- 
tired when his ammunition was nearly exhausted. 
He took part in the occupation of Charleston, Va., 
and at Carnifex Ferry fell while leading his regi- 
ment in a charge against a strongly posted battery. 

LOWE, Martha Ann, poet, b. in Keene, N. H., 
21 Nov., 1829. Her maiden name was Perry. She 
was educated at Keene academy and at Elizabeth 
Sedgwick's school in Lenox, ]\Iass., and married 
in 1857 Rev. Charles Lowe, of Exeter, N. H. She 
accompanied her husband to Europe in 1871, and 
during two years' residence there corresponded 
with the "Liberal Christian." Her published 




works are "The Olive and the Pine" (Boston, 
1859) ; " Love in Spain, and other Poems " (1867) ; 
" The Storv of Chief Joseph " (1881) ; and " Memoir 
of Charles'Lowe " (1883). 

LOWE, Thad^eus S. C, aeronaut, b. in Jeffer- 
son, N. H., 20 ^^g., 1832. He made his earliest 
voyages about 1858, and during one of them rose 
to a height of 23,000 feet. On 20 April, 1861, he 
rose from Cincinnati, Ohio, at 4 a. m., in a bal- 
loon, and drifted first westward, but afterward to 
the southeast, attaining an altitude of 18,000 feet. 
He descended in Union county, S. C, after being 
in the air eight hours and traversing 350 miles in 
a straight line. He next announced his intention 
of crossing the Atlantic ocean by means of a bal- 
loon, and for this purpose constructed one of 
oiled cotton with a capacity of 725,000 cubic feet ; 
but after several unsuccessful attempts to inflate 
it, he abandoned the attempt. Soon after the be- 
ginning of the civil war he visited Washington 
for the purpose of recommending to the govern- 
ment the desirability of using balloons for observ- 
ing the movements of the enemy. He made several 
captive ascensions (those in which the balloon is 
held to the earth, and finally drawn down, by 
a long rope) from the grounds of the Smithsonian 
institution, and was then made chief aeronautic 
•engineer of the army. Several balloons, in the 
hands of his assistant, made ascensions; but as 
they were independent of any branch of the ser- 
vice, their efficiency was greatly impaired. Mr. 
Lowe was the first to make experiments in sending 
messages by the electric telegraph from a balloon 
to the ground ; but, although he was successful, his 
device does not appear to have been put to any 
satisfactory employment. He invented and put 
into practical use a portable apparatus for gener- 
ating hydrogen gas for war balloons. These he 
had constructed from the closest woven and strong- 
est pongee silk, varying in capacity from IS'OOO 
to 20,000 cubic feet. During Mr. Lowe's connec- 
tion with the Army of the Potomac, Gen. Fitz- 
John Porter, Gen. George Stoneman, and others 
made ascensions; but Mr. Lowe's relations with 
the military authorities became strained, on ac- 
count of his independent appointments, and many 
of his bills remained unaudited, owing to the feel- 
ing between him and the engineer officers, so that 
he severed his connection with the army long be- 
fore the close of the war. Subsequently he made 
•captive ascensions from Philadelphia and New 
York ; but these proving financially unsuccessful, 
he retired from aeronautic pursuits after dis- 
posing of his apparatus to the Brazilian govern- 
ment. Mr. Lowe then turned his attention to in- 
venting, and obtained patents on various mechan- 
ical devices, one of the first of which was an ice- 
making machine. Later he invented a machine 
for making water-gas by the addition of crude 
petroleum, which has resulted in the production of 
an illuminant equal to that obtained from coal, and 
at a much less cost. One of his more recent in- 
ventions is light produced by means of a coil of 
wire heated to incandescence by a jet of non- 
luminous water-gas under heavy pressure. Mr. 
Lowe is now (1888) engaged in perfecting a system 
for the use of water-gas as a fuel for cities, and in 
the production of appliances for cooking and heat- 
ing, adapted to the use of water-gas. 

LOWE, WiUiam Warren, soldier, b. in Indi- 
ana, 12 Oct., 1831. He was graduated at the U. S. 
military academy in 1853, commissioned as a lieu- 
tenant of dragoons on 22 Oct., 1854, and was en- 
gaged in scouting and on frontier duty till the be- 
ginning of the civil war. He was made a captain 

of cavalry on 9 May, 1861, served through the 
Manassas campaign, and during the following 
winter organized the 5th regiment of Iowa volun- 
teer cavalry, of which he was made colonel on 1 
Jan.. 1862. In February he participated in the 
Tennessee campaign, and was engaged in the cap- 
ture of Fort Donelson, of which he was comman- 
dant till March, 1863, repelling various attacks. He 
subsequently commanded a brigade or a division 
in cavalry operations in middle Tennessee, north- 
ern Alabama, and Georgia, receiving the brevet of 
major for gallantry in an engagement near Chicka- 
mauga, Ga., and that of lieutenant-colonel for a 
cavalry action near Huntsville, Ala. In the ad- 
vance from Chattanooga he commanded the 3d 
cavalry division until relieved by Gen. Judson Kil- 
patrick, and again after that officer was wounded. 
From July, 1864, till January, 1865, he was em- 
ployed in remounting cavalry at Nashville, being 
mustered out of the volunteer service on 24 Jan., 
1865. He subsequently served as chief mustering 
and disbursing officer for Kansas, Nebraska, Da- 
kota, and Colorado. He was brevetted colonel and 
brigadier-general for services in the war, and pro- 
moted major on 31 July, 1866. He left the army 
on 23 June, 1869, organized smeltmg and refining 
works in Omaha, Neb,, engaged in mining in Utah, 
constructed a railroad, built on the Salmon river 
the first smelting-works in Idaho, and more recent- 
ly prospected for petroleum in Wyoming territory, 
and discovered a well of lubricating-oil on the 
Little Popoagie river. 

LOWELL, James Russell, poet and essayist, 
b. in Cambridge, Mass., 22 Feb., 1819. He is a son 
of the Rev. Charles Lowell (q. v.), and in genius 
and character is the hereditary representative of 
the heart and brains 
that founded New 
England. He was the 
youngest of five chil- 
dren. From both par- 
ents were transmit- 
ted high intelligence, 
sound principles, and 
right ideals, but the 
poetic and imagina- 
tive f acul ty came from 
the mother. His birth- 
place was the old Tory 
mansion now called 
" Elmwood," a large, 
three - story, square, 
wooden house in the 
early colonial style, 
situated in spacious 
grounds, surrounded 
by magnificent elms 
and pines planted by his father, with an outlook 
on Charles river. (See view on page 40.) Lowell 
was fitted for college by William Wells (who was 
the senior of the firm to whom we owe the series 
of Wells and Lilly classics), entered Harvard 
in his sixteenth year, and was graduated in 1838. 
His first-pubjished literary production, unless pos- 
sibly some poems for " Harvardiana," which he 
edited in 1837- '8, was his notable class poem, com- 
posed under peculiar circumstances. At the time 
of writing it the collegiate senior was undergoing 
a brief period of rustication at Concord, in conse- 
quence of inattention to his text-books. His forced 
sojourn in this Arcadia of scholarship and reform 
brought him into relationship with the transcen- 
dentalists, who at that day were m the habit of 
gathering at the home of Emerson, with whom 
then began that friendship which, despite the play- 



ful sallies of the younger poet in his earlier writ- 
ings, only terminated with the death of the elder. 
The young satirist saw the humorous side ot tlie 
social movements of the day, and the class-poem, 
scintillating with wit, attacked the abo itionists, 
Carlyle, Emerson, and the transcendentalists. in 
the law-school of Harvard, Lowell received the de- 
gree of LL. B., and was admitted to the bar in 1840. 
The only record of the practice of his profession 
is found in a story entitled "My lirst Client, 
published in the "Boston Miscellany. Hence- 
forth he gave himself entirely to literature. Ln 
1841 a volume of poems, written under the influ- 
ence of affection for a woman of genius who be- 
came his wife, was published under the title ol 
"A Year's Life." The kev-note of the poems, 
buoyant with youth and love, is in the closing 

" The poet now his guide hath found. 
And fijjlows in the steps of Love." 
The volume was never re-published, and of the 
seventv poems only a small part have been deemed 
wortiiv of re-i)rinting bv the author. Ills marriage 
to the" woman who inspired these poems took place 
in 1844. Maria Wiiite was an ardent abolitionist, 
and no (loul)t her influence assisted in turning his 
thouglits to the serious side of that cause to which 
he rendered immortal service. To understand 
LowelFs career, it is necessary to remember that 
he was not only a poet, a scholar, and a humorist, 
but ahvavs a c'onservative and a critic. No man 
was more thoroughly imbued than he with the 
fundamental principfes of American democracy — 
a democracy witiiout demagogism — no man more 
jealous than he of the untarnished reputation of 
America in politics and literature, no man more 
(piick to see any departure from the high ideal of 
tiie repultlic, and his flaming pen was turned to 
attack whatever assailed this^ ideal— at one time 
slavery, at anotiier time vicious political methods 
threatening the purity of democratic society. His 
radicalism was always conservative, his criticism 
always const I'uctive. Lowell and his wife were 
reguhircontril)utors to the" Lil)erty Bell," and his 
naiueappeai-s in 1848 in "The Anti-Slavery Stand- 
ard "" as coi-i-esponding editor. In this i)aper, from 
184;i to 1840. his poems dui'ing that period mostly 
aj)peared. Later the "Boston Courier" was the 
veiiicle of his [)roductions, and in its columns the 
first series of the *' Biglow Paj)ers " was given to the 
{)uljlic, beginning in the issue for June, 1840, and 
ending in 1848. Tiiis satire was an event of the 
first importance in the history of the world's litera- 
ture. In wit, scholarship, and penetrating knowl- 
edge ot human nature, it took the place, which it 
has ever sin(;e maintained, of a masterpiece. Age 
has onlv increased its ivputation, and it is a recog- 
Lngland and America. The 
liversalitv is the constant 
)th sides" of the Atlantic, 
lazing. It consisted of a 
in the Yankee dialect, ostensibly 
>iglow, and edited, with an intro- 
lossarv, index, and " notices of an 
"ss," bv "Homer Wilbur, A. M., 



It on 

nized classic l)ot 
test of its |)()\vc 
quotation from 
Locally its elfec 
scries of |»oeins 
by Mr. ilosea 1 
duction. notes, u 
independent pi'^ 

pastor of tile first church in Jaalam, and pro- 
spective meinbei- of many literary, learned, and 
scientific s()ci(;ties."' In the main it was ;i satire on 
slavery and the ^Mexican war, but there was 
scarcely any cant, hypocrisy, or meanness in ])oli- 
tics. the pulpit, and' the press that was not hit bv 
it. The hitherto desjiised abolitionists, the sul)ject 
of umIm's and satire, found a champion who turned 
file l)at teries of t he scholar, in uneciualled wit, merri- 
ment, and ridicule, upon their enemies and the ene- 


mies of the free republic, exposing to the laughter 
of the world the sneaking attitude of compromis- 
ing politicians and of those who wore the livery of 
heaven in the cause of human slavery. Thereafter 
the fight took on a very different character; it 
was respectable to be on the side of freedom. The 
" Biglow Papers " will no doubt preserve the 
Yankee dialect, and cause it to be studied ages 
hence in order to the comprehension of the effect 
upon our national life of one of the most oppor- 
tune allies that freedom ever had. 

His interest in the anti-slavery contest did not 
prevent Lowell from purely literary labors. In 
1843 he undertook the editing of " The Pioneer, a 
Literary and Critical Magazine," in joint editor- 
ship with Robert Carter {g. v.); and Poe, Haw- 
thorne, Neal, Dwight, Jones Very, Parsons, Eliza- 
beth Barrett (Mrs. Browning), Whittier, and Will- 
iam W. Story were contributors. Only three num- 
bers were published, the venture failing through 
financial disaster to the publishers. In this maga- 
zine was begun a series of essays on the poets and 
dramatists, which afterward formed the material 
for " Conversations with Some of the Old Poets " 
(Cambridge, 1845). In 1844 came a volume of verse, 
containing " A Legend of Brittany," with thirty- 
three miscellaneous poems and thirty-seven son- 

nets (among them sonnets to Wendell Phillips and 
Joshua 11. Giddings), written in a vein that fore- 
shadowed and even announced the poet's position 
in the great anti-slavery revolution. These were 
followed in 1845 by " The Vision of Sir Launfal," 
one of the most exquisite productions of his genius, 
a poem founded on the legend of the Holy Grail, 
which is said to ha^'e been composed in a sort of 
frenzy in about forty-eight hours, during which 
the poet scarcely ate or slept. The " Conversations 
on the Poets " was Lowell's first work in literary 
criticism, and was the basis of his lectures before 
the Lowell institute, 1854-'5, and of his lectures in 
Hai-vard university during his professorship of 
modern languages knd belles-lettres. A third vol- 
ume of poems, containing many new anti-slavery 
])ieces, was published in 1848, and the same year 
was brought out anonymously the " Fable for 
Critics," a youthfully daring but amusing and 
racy skit at the American poets, in which the 
laughing author did not spare himself. In 1849 a 
collected edition of his poems in two volumes was 
published, the "Biglow Papers" and "A Y'ears 
Life " being omittecl. In the mean time Lowell 
had been a contributor to the " Dial," the " Demo- 
cratic Review," the " Massachusetts Quarterly Re- 
view." in which he reviewed Thoreau's first volume 
in 1849. and to "Putnam's Monthlv" in 1853 
and several years later. In 1851 the poet and his 
wife travelled in Europe, visiting England, France, 
and Switzerland, and residing for some time in 
Italy. The chief fruits of this journey were the 




essays on Italian art and literature and his emi- 
nence as a student and interpreter of Dante. In 
the autumn of 1852 he was again in America, and in 
October, 1853, he sustained the greatest sorrow of 
his life in the d^ath of his wife, who had long 
been an invalid. ' In January, 1855, on Mr, Long- 
fellow's resignation, Lowell was appointed his 
successor as professor of modern languages and 
belles-lettres in \^Iarvard university, and after two 
years' study abroad, during which 'time he greatly 
extended his knowledge of Italian, French, and 
Spanish, and became one of the first authorities in 
old French and Proven9al poetry, he assumed the 
duties of his professorship. From 1857 till 1863 he 
wrote many essays, not since re-published, for the 
" Atlantic Monthly," and in 1863 he became, with 
Prof. Charles Eliot Norton, joint editor of the 
" North American Review," a connection which he 
maintained till 1872, The "Atlantic Monthly," 
founded in 1857, of which Lowell was the first 
editor, was set on foot by Holmes, Longfellow, 
Emerson, and Lowell, and Emerson's study was the 
scene of the gathering of the great literary lights 
of Boston, when the enterprise was discussed and 
the character of the magazine settled upon. 

The Kansas struggle, 1856-'8, enlisted Lowell's 
sympathies ; he was in accord with the leading anti- 
slavery men, and at one time, says Frank B, San- 
born, contemplated transferring his Hosea Biglow 
to Kansas to report in the vernacular the doings 
there, but "the flighty purpose never was o'ertook." 
The outbreak of the civil war caused a revival of 
the dramatis personce of the "Biglow Papers," 
in which the disunionists at home and their sym- 
pathizers in England were equally brought under 
the lash of his stinging satire. It went straight to 
the American heart. This second series of " Biglow 
Papers " first appeared in the " Atlantic," and was 
published in a volume in 1867. The "Fireside 
Travels,'' containing the pleasant gossip about 
"Cambridge Thirty Years Ago," the delightful 
" Moosehead Journal," and notes of travel on the 
Mediterranean and in Italy, had appeared in the 
mean time. The " Atlantic " for January, 1867, con- 
tained " Fitz Adam's Story," a poem intended to 
form part of a longer one, " The Nooning," which 
has been announced as about to be published as 
far back as 1851, but has never been completed. 
It was omitted from " Under the Willows, and other 
Poems" (Boston, 1869), with the following ex- 
planation : " ' Fitz Adam's Story,' which some 
good friends will miss, is also left to stand over, 
because it belongs to a connected series, which it 
is hoped may be completed if the days should be 
propitious." The volumes of prose, " Among my 
Books" and " My Study Windows," issued in 1870, 
comprising the choicest of Lowell's literary essays, 
seemed to mark the close of his greatest literary ac- 
tivity ; but the appearance recently of such a paper 
as that on the poet Grey shows that only oppor- 
tunity is needed for the gathering of the maturest 
fruits of his critical genius. In 1872 he made 
another visit to Europe, and on his return the 
" Centennial " period called out his efforts in the 
production of three patriotic odes, the first at Con- 
cord, 19 April, 1875, the second under the Wash- 
ington elm. 3 July of the same year, and the 
third for 4 July, 1876. He was a presidential elec- 
tor in 1876. 

In 1877 Mr. Lowell was appointed by President 
Hayes to the Spanish mission, from which he 
was transferred in 1880 to the court of St. James. 
His diplomatic career closed with his recall by 
President Cleveland in 1885. In Madrid, in an at- 
mosphere congenial to him as a student, he sus- 

tained the honor of the American name, and re- 
ceived the confidence and admiration that had 
been formerly extended to Washington Irving. 
His residence in London, although clouded and 
saddened by the long illness and by the death in 
February, 1885, of his second wife. Miss Frances 
Dunlap, of Portland, Me., whom he had married in 
September, 1857, was as honorable to him as to the 
country he represented, an unbroken series of suc- 
cesses in the world of society and the world of let- 
ters. Called upon to settle no serious international 
differences, he bore himself with the tact and dig- 
nity that was to be desired in our representative to 
a great and friendly power, mindful always that his 
mission was to maintain cordial amity instead of 
seeking causes of alienation. And no man in our 
generattion has done more than Lowell to raise 
American institutions and American character in 
the estimation of our English kin. His graceful 
and natural oratory was in demand on scores of 
public occasions. The most noteworthy of his pub- 
lic addresses was that on Coleridge, delivered at the 
unveiling of the bust of the poet in Westminster 
Abbey in May, 1885. The volume entitled " Democ- 
racy and other Addresses " (Boston, 1887) includes 
the foreign speeches, and those spoken at the dedi- 
cation of the public library of Chelsea and at the 
Harvard anniversary. Mr, Lowell's political life is 
confined within the eight years of his terms of office 
at Madrid and London, His recall brought out 
expressions of deep regret in the English press, 
and he returned to the United States to receive the 
plaudits of his countrymen. Temporary political 
criticisms there were, but they were such as a man 
can afford to leave to the judgment of time, which 
will not fail to compare his own ideal of what the 
republic should be with the notions of his critics. 
Since his return to private life Mr. Lowell's home 
has been with his only child, the wife of Ed- 
ward Burnett, at Soutliboro, Mass. He resumed 
his lectures at Cambridge, and in the winter of 
1887 gave a course on the English dramatists be- 
fore the Lowell institute. The same winter he 
read a paper before the Union league club of 
Chicago on the authorship of Richard III. In the 
summer of 1887 he again visited England, receiv- 
ing everywhere the highest honors that could be 
paid to a private citizen. The degree of D. C. L. 
was conferred upon him by the University of Ox- 
ford in 1873, and that of LL. D. by the University 
of Cambridge, England, in 1874. During his resi- 
dence in England as minister he was elected rector 
of the University of St, Andrews, 

The following is a list of his works and their 
various editions: "Class Poem" (Boston, 1838); 
"A Year's Life" (1841); "Poems" (Cambridge, 
1844); "The Vision of Sir Launfal" (Boston, 
1845 ; 2d ed,, 1848, and included in " Vest-Pocket 
Series ") ; " Conversations on Some of the Old 
Poets" (1845); "Poems" (1848); "The Biglow 
Papers" (1848); "A Fable for Critics" (1848); 
" Poems " (2 vols., 1849) ; " Life of Keats," pref- 
acing an edition of his w-rks (1854) ; " Poems " 
(2 vols., 1854) ; " Poetical Works " (2 vols., 1858) : 
" Mason and Slidell, a Yankee Idyl " (1862) : " Fire- 
side Travels" (1864); "The President's Policy'* 
(1864) ; " Ode recited at the Commemoration of the 
Living and Dead Soldiers of Harvard University," 
21 July. 1865; "The Biglow Papers," 2d series 
(1867) : " Under the Willows, and other Poems " 
(1869); "Among my Books" (1870); "The 
Courtin' " ( 1874 ) ; " Three Memorial Poems " 
(1876): "Among my Books," 2d series (1876); 
and "Democracy, and other Addresses" (1887). 
" The Literary World " (Boston) of 27 June, 1885, 



is a Lowell number, containing estimates of Mr. 
Lowell's literary and personal qualities, with testi- 
monies from prominent writers, and a bib logra- 
phy Francis H. Underwood published in 1»»^ a 
biographical sketch; and Stedman's "American 
Poets '^ a volume called " Homes and Haunts ot 
our Elder Poets," and Haweis's " American Humor- 
ists," contain essays upon Mr. Lowell.— James Rus- 
sell's wife, Maria White, poet, b. in Watertown^ 
Mass., 8 July, 1821; d. in Cambridge, Mass., 2/ 
Oct., 1853, married Mr. Lowell in 1844. She pos- 
sessed great beauty of person and character, and 
was an accomplished linguist. Her death, which 
took place the same night that one of Mr. Long- 
fellow's children was born, called forth from Long- 
fellow his poem beginning, 

" Two angols, one of life and one of death, 
Passed o'er our village, as the morning broke." 
A volume of her poems, which are characterized by 
tenderness and delicacy of feeling, was printed pri- 
vate v after her death (Cambridge, 1855). The best 
known of tliem are "The Alpine Shepherd" and 
" The :\ronung-Glory." 

LOWELL, Jolm, statesman, b. in :Newbury- 
poi-t. :\Iass.. 17 June, 1748; d. in Koxbury, Mass., 
() ^lay, 1802. His ancestor, Pereival, a merchant, 
came from Bristol, England, to Newbury, Mass., in 
1GI30, and his father, 
John, was the first min- 
ister of Newburyport, 
Avliere lie ofHeiated in 
172()- 07. The son was 
graduated at Harvard 
in 17(j(), and in 1762 ad- 
mitted to the bar, where 
he soon gained a high 
reputation. He repre- 
sented Newburyport in 
the provincial assembly 
in 1776, and was an 
officer of militia; but 
he removed to Boston 
in 1777, and served in 
Iho legislature from 
tiiat city in 1778. He 
was a delegate in 1780 
to the convention that 
framed the constitution of .Alassaehusetts, took an 
active part in its proceedings, and served on the 
committee tiiat was appointed to draft the consti- 
tution. He secured the insertion of the clause 
i hat declares t hat " all men are born free and equal," 
avowing his l)elief that slavery would thus be abol- 
ished iu the state. ^Ir. Lowell's position was de- 
cided to be legal by the state supreme court in 
17!~<;». and slavery was thus abolished in ^Massachu- 
setts through his agency. He was a member of 
tlu' Continental congress in 17<s2-'3. and in the 
former year was appointe(l l)y that body one of 
thi'ee judges for the trial of appeals from courts of 
adinifait y. He was appointed in 1784 on the com- 
mission to decide boundary dis))utes between Massa- 
chusetts and New Yorlz. In 178!) he 1)ecame U. S. 
judge for the district of Massachusetts, and in 
ISOl he was appointed chief justice of the 1st cir- 
cuit, including Maine, New Ham{)shire, Massa- 
chusetts, and Rhode Island. Judge Lowell was 
l)resident of the Massachusetts agricultural society 
for years, and contril)ute(l towaivl the establisli- 
nu'Ut of the l)otanic garden at ('ambridge. Har- 
vard gave him the degree of LL, T). in 1792. He 
was for (Mghteen years a meml)er of its corpora- 
tion and one of the founders of the American 
academy of arts and .sciences, l)efore which he de- 
livered, on 20 Jan., 1795, an oration on the death 

(^cpCo-t^ -^^^tJ^ ' 


of the elder James Bowdoin. This is prefixed to 
vol ii. of the academy's " Memoirs.' He was also 
the author, shortly after his graduation at Har- 
vard of an English poem in the " Pietas et Gratu- 
latio'" (1761).— His son, John, political writer, b. 
in Newburyport, 6 Oct., 1769 ; d. in Boston, 12 
March, 1840, was graduated at Harvard in 1786, 
studied law, and, after his admission to the bar in 
1789 practised with success till 1803, when he vis- 
ited Europe. After his return in 1806 he devoted 
himself to literature, writing on politics, agricul- 
ture, theology, and other topics, under various sig- 
natures, such as " Citizen of Massachusetts," " Mas- 
sachusetts Lawyer," "Layman," and "Yankee 
Farmer." He attacked the supporters of the war of 
1812 with great severity in his writings, in which 
he showed both skill and vigor, and was of emi- 
nent service to the Federal party. From 1810 till 
1828 he was a member of the corporation of Har- 
vard, which gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1814. 
He was for many years president of the State 
agricultural society, inherited his father's love 
for horticulture, and has been called the "Colu- 
mella of the New England States." He died sud- 
denly of apoplexy. Edward Everett said of him: 
"He possessed colloquial powers of the highest 
order and a flow of unstudied eloquence never 
surpassed, and rarely, as with him, united with 
the command of an accurate, elegant, and logical 
pen." Among his political pamphlets, of which he 
published about twenty-five, are "Peace without 
Dishonor— War without Hope, an Inquiry into the 
Subject of the 'Chesapeake'" (Boston, 1807); 
" Candid Comparison of the Washington and Jef- 
ferson Administrations " (1810) ; " Diplomatick 
Policy of Mr. Madison Unveiled " (1810) ; and " Mr. 
Madison's War; a Dispassionate Inquiry into the 
Reasons alleged by Madison for declaring an Of- 
fensive and Ruinous War against Great Britain " 
(1812). His theological writings include " Are you 
a Christian or a Calvinistf" (1815). His funeral 
sermon was delivered bv the Rev. Francis W. P. 
Greenwood (1840).— Another son, Francis jCabot, 
merchant, b. in Newburyport, 7 April, 1775; d. in 
Boston, 10 Aug., 1817, was graduated at Harvard 
in 1793. He visited England in 1810, and on his 
return in 1813 became convinced that it was prac- 
ticable to introduce cotton-manufacture into the 
United States. He proposed to his brother-in- 
law, Patrick T. Jackson (g. r.), to make the ex- 
periment, and the result was the establishment 
of factories at Waltham, Mass., and finally, after 
his death, the foundation of the city of Lowell, 
which was named in his honor. Mr. Lowell vis- 
ited Washington in 1816, and, by his personal 
influence with John C. Calhoun and other mem- 
bers of congress, did much to introduce into the 
tariff act of that year the clause that imposed a 
duty on cotton fabrics. — Another son, Charles, 
clergyman, b. in Boston, 15 Aug., 1782 ; d. in Cam- 
bridge. Mass., 20 Jan., 1861, was graduated at Har 
vard in 1800, and began to study law, but aban- 
doned it for theology. BLe spent the years 1802-'5 
abroad, studying two years in Edinburgh and after- 
ward travelling on the continent, and after his re- 
turn he was settled, on 1 Jan., 1806, as pastor of 
the West Unitarian church in Boston, where he re- 
mained until his death. In 1837, on account of his 
feeble health, Dr. Cyrus A. Bartol was ordained as 
his colleague, and from that year till 1840 he trav- 
elled extensively in Europe and the east. During the 
latter part of his life Dr. Lowell officiated only occa- 
sionally in his church. He was much beloved by his 
congregation, a graceful and forcible orator, and a 
zealous opponent of slavery. Harvard gave him 




the degree of D. D. in 1823. He was a fellow of its 
corporation from 1818 till 1838, and a member of 
literary societies in this country and abroad. He 
contributed largely to periodical literature and 
published many Separate discourses, a volume of 
" Occasional Serrtions," and one of " Practical Ser- 
mons " (Boston,^ 1855) ; " Meditations for the Af- 
flicted, Sick, m^d Djijig " ; and " Devotional Ex- 
ercises for Comtaunicants." The " Proceedings " 
of a parish meeting that was held in his mem- 
ory were published (1861). He married Harriet, 
daughter of Robert T. Spence, of Portsmouth, 
N. H., an officer in the U. S. navy. — Francis Ca- 
bot's son, John, philanthropist, b. in Boston, 11 
. May, 1799 ; d. in Bombay, India, 4 March, 1836, 
studied in the high-school of Edinburgh, Scotland, 
and entered Harvard in 1813, but left in 1815 on 
account of impaired health, and in 1816-'17 made 
two voyages to India. He then engaged in com- 
merce for a few years ; but in 1830-'l his wife and 
his two daughters, his only children, died within a 
few months, and the remainder of his life was 
spent in travel in the United States, Europe, Asia 
Minor, Egypt, Arabia, and Hindostan. Mr. Low- 
ell was a fine scholar and possessed a valuable pri- 
vate library. He bequeathed $250,000 for the 
maintenance in Boston of annual courses of free 
public lectures on religion, science, and the arts. 
This establishment, the Lowell institute, went into 
operation in the winter of 1839-'40, and has been 
continued since that time with eminent success. 
Mr. Lowell's will was made while he was in Egypt, 
at the ruins of Thebes, and Edward Everett said 
of it, in an introduction to the first course of insti- 
tute lectures, 31 Dec, 1839 : " The few sentences, 
penned with a tired hand by our fellow-citizen on 
the top of a palace of the Pharaohs, will do more 
for human improvement than, for aught that ap- 
pears, was done by all of that gloomy dynasty that 
ever reigned." See " Memoir of John Lowell, Jr.," 
by Edward Everett (Boston, 1840). — Charles's son, 
Robert TraiU Spence, clergyman, b. in Boston, 
Mass., 8 Oct., 1816, was at Round Hill school, 
Northampton, Mass., in 1823-8, under Joseph Gr. 
Cogswell and George Bancroft, and was graduated 
at Harvard in 1833. He then took a full course at 
Harvard medical school, and engaged in mercantile 
pursuits for a time. In 1839 he began the study of 
theology under advice of Dr. Alonzo Potter (after- 
ward bishop of Pennsylvania), and prepared for or- 
ders. He was invited by Bishop Spencer, of New- 
foundland, to go to Bermuda, where he was made 
deacon in December, 1842, and priest in March, 
1843, and was also appointed domestic chaplain to 
the bishop and inspector of schools in the colony. 
He went to Newfoundland in 1843, and was ap- 
pointed to the charge of Bay Roberts (" Peterport " 
in his novel, " The New Priest "). While he was oc- 
cupied in duty here, a severe famine came upon the 
people (1846), during which Mr. Lowell's medical 
training proved to be especially serviceable. He 
was chairman of the relief committee of the dis- 
trict, and earned the thanks and gratitude of the 
government and people. His health and strength 
gave way, and he found it necessary to return to 
the United States in 1847. He next began mission 
work among the poorer people in Newark, N. J., 
gathered a congregation called Christ church, and 
built a stone church in 1849-50, which was open 
and free to all, with daily services. In 1859 he ac- 
cepted a call to Christ church, Duanesburg, N. Y., 
which post he held for ten years. Thence he went 
to Southborough, Mass., where for four years he 
was head master of St. Mark's school. In 1873 he 
became professor of the Latin language and litera- 

ture in Union college, Schenectady, N. Y., and dis- 
charged the duties of that department for six 
years. Dr. Lowell's publications are " The New 
Priest in Conception Bay " (Boston, 1858 ; new ed., 
illustrated by F. 0. C. Darley, 1863); "Fresh 
Hearts that failed Three Thousand Years Ago, 
and other Poems" (1860); "Antony Brade, a 
Story of School-Boy Life" (1874); " Burgoyne's 
March," the poem at the Saratoga county cen- 
tennial celebration at Bemis Heights (1877) ; 
and "A Story or Two from a Dutch Town" 
(1878). He has also been during a large part of 
his life a frequent contributor in both verse and 
prose to reviews, magazines, and literary journals. 
One of his most striking productions, " A Raft that 
no Man Made," is an imaginative story, which a 
year or two after its publication was almost exactly 
paralleled by the actual experience of a portion of 
the crew of the "Polaris." (See Hall, Charles 
Francis.) — Anna Cabot, author, b. in Boston, 
Mass., in 1819 ; d. in Cambridge, Mass., 7 Jan., 
1874, was the wife of Charles Russell, anoth- 
er son of Charles. Her maiden-name was Jack- 
son. She published " Theory of Teaching " (Bos- 
ton, 1841) ; " Edward's First Lessons in Grammar " 
(1843) ; " Gleanings from the Poets, for Home and 
School " (1843) ; " Edward's First Lessons in Geom- 
etry " (1844) ; " Olympic Games " (1845) ; " Outlines 
of Astronomy, or the World as it Appears " (1850) ; 
"Letters to Madame Pulksky, by an American 
Lady" (1852); "Thoughts on the Education of 
Girls " (1853) ; " Seed-Grain for Thought and Dis- 
cussion " (1856) ; and " Posies for Children, a Book 
of Verses" (1870). — Her son, Charles Russell, 
soldier, b. in Boston, 2 Jan., 1835 ; d. near Middle- 
town, Va., 20 Oct., 1864, was graduated at Harvard 
in 1854, with the first honors, and after several 
years of European travel was employed, for some 
time in steel and iron works, and on the Burling- 
ton and Missouri River railroad. In the spring of 
1861, while superintending iron-works in Cumber- 
land valley, Md., he offered his services to the gov- 
ernment, and on 14 May he was commissioned cap- 
tain in the 6th cavalry. He served on Gen. Mc- 
Clellan's staff till November, 1862, when he organ- 
ized the 2d Massachusetts cavalry, and on 15 April, 
1863, was made its colonel. He commanded a bri- 
gade of cavalry in Virginia, was actively engaged 
in the pursuit of Mosby's guerillas, and afterward 
under Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley, and was 
made brigadier-general of volunteers, to date from 
19 Oct., 1864, on recommendation of Gen. Sheri- 
dan, for his services in the latter campaign. In his 
three years of service twelve horses had been shot 
under' him, yet he escaped without injury till the 
battle of Cedar Creek, where he was wounded while 
in the advance of Gen. Getty's division, but refused 
to leave his command. In the moment of victory 
he received additional wounds, which caused his 
death on the following day.— His wife, Josephine 
Shaw, philanthropist, b. in West Roxbury, Mass., 
16 Dec, 1843, is a daughter of Francis George Shaw. 
She was educated in schools in Europe, Boston, and 
New York city, and travelled in central Europe, 
Italy, and Great Britain from 1851 until 1855. She 
was married on Staten island in October, 1863. 
From 1876 until the present time (1887) Mrs. Low- 
ell has officiated as oHe of the three commissioners 
of the State board of charities of New York. She 
is also one of the council of the Charity organiza- 
tion society of New York city, and favorably known 
for her efficiency in the cause of public charities, 
and for her private benevolence and untiring efforts 
to elevate the condition of the needy and deserv- 
ing. Besides numerous reports and several pam- 



phlets, she has published " Public Relief and Pri- 
vate Charity " (New York, 1884).— Charles Russell s 
younger brother, James Jackson, was graduated 
at Harvard in 1858, entered the National service, 
and was mortally wounded at Glendale, 30 June, 
1862. See " The Purchase by Blood," a tribute to 
his niemorv, by Rev. Cyrus A. Bartol, D. D. (Boston, 
1804), and an address at his funeral by George Put- 
nam (Cambridge, 18G4).— The second John's grand- 
son, John, jurist, b. in Boston, Mass., 18 Oct., 
1824, was graduated at Harvard in 1843, studied 
law, was admitted to the bar in 1846, and practised 
in Boston till 11 March, 1865, when he was ap- 
pointed U. S. judge for the district of Massachu- 
setts. On 18 Dec, 1878, he was appointed judge 
of the U. S. circuit court, and held that office till 
1 ]\rav, 1884, when he resigned. His decisions have 
been 'published in two volumes (Boston, 1872-7), 
and he has written especially on the subject of 
bankrui)tcv.— Francis Cabot's grandson, Edward 
Jackson, imthor, b. in Boston, Mass., 18 Oct., 1845, 
w;is uraduatcd at Harvard in 1867, and then spent 
several years abroad. He practised law for some 
time in "Boston, but of late years has devoted him- 
self exehisively to literary pursuits. He is the 
author of " Th"c Hessians and the other German 
Auxiliaries of Great Britain in the Revolutionary 
War'' (New York, 1884), which has taken rank as 
an exhaustive authority on the subject of which 
it treats. He has also contributed many articles 
to reviews and magazines, and is the author of the 
cha{)ter in Winsors "Narrative and Critical His- 
tory of America" (Boston, 1884) on " The Diploma- 
cv Jind Finance of the Revolution." 
'LOWENTHAL, John Jacob, chess-plaver, b. 
in Buda-Postlu Hungary, in July, 1810. About 
1841 he became known as one of the best analytical 
chess-i)layers in Eurojie. In 1849 he left Hungary 
for political reasons and came to the United States, 
arriving in New York city on 29 Dec. There he 
remained until the following March, when he went 
to Lexington, Ky. During his sojourn in New 
York he met all the strongest players of the city, 
and won a large majority of the games that he 
played from all except Charles H. Stanley, with 
whom he made even games. While in Lexington 
he iMicountrred Mr. Dudley, the strongest western 
player of the day. and defeated him in three set 
tiiatehes. On lo" A))ril, 1850, he left Lexington 
for Cincinnati, stopping on the way at Frankfort 
and Louisville, at })()th of which places he met and 
defeated the chief {)]avers. He arrived at Cincin- 
nati on 16 April, and left on 10 May for New 
Oi'ieans. On 27 May he met Paul Morphy, who 
was then not yet thirteen years of age, and of this 
meeting ^Ir. Lowenthal himself says: "I do not 
remember whether we played in all two or three 
games: one was drawn, the other or others I lost." 
In June, Lowenthal returned to Cincinnati, and, 
with the assistance of fi-iends, established a chess 
divan in connection with the chess club there. 
Karly in ls,-)l he left Cincinnati to take part in the 
chess tournament in London, intending to return, 
but never revisited this countiy. He was after- 
ward editoi- of the chess department of several Lon- 
don journals, conducted the '' Chess-Players' Maga- 
zine "in ]S(m-"7. and wrote several books on the 
subject. In ls,-)2 he was elected secretary of the 
St. George's, and inlS57 i)resident of the St. James's, 
cliess club. In 1867-9 he published "Transactions 
of the lirilish Chess Association," and while in the 
Cnited States he contril)uted to the "Book of the 
First American Chess Coni-ress" (New York, 1859). 
LOWNDES, Charles, naval oflicer. b. in Marv- 
land in 1798; d. in Easton. :\Id., 14 Dec, 1885. 


He* entered the U. S. navy as midshipman in 
March, 1815, was promoted lieutenant, 13 Jan., 
1825, commander, 8 Sept., 1841, captain, 14 Sept., 
1855, and was placed on the retired list, 21 Dec, 

1861, being commissioned commodore, 16 July, 

1862. In 1860-'l he was in command of the steam- 
sloop " Hartford," and he served as a prize com- 
missioner in 1864-'5. He was a brother-in-law of 
Franklin Buchanan, and was suspected of sympa- 
thizing with the Confederates, which may explain 
his being placed on the retired list at the compara- 
tively earlv age of sixty-three. 

LOWNDES, RawHns, statesman, b. in the 
British West Indies in 1722 ; d. in Charleston, S. C, 
24 Aug., 1800. His parents having removed to 
Charleston w^hen he w^as very young, he was edu- 
cated there, studied law, and took a high rank in 
his profession. In 1766 he was appointed by the 
crown associate judge. Within the succeeding 
three months he delivered the opinion of the ma- 
jority of the court, which was contrary to that of 
the chief justice, in favor of the legality of public 
proceedings without the employment of stamped 
paper, waiving all consideration of the stamp-act 
as a constitutional measure, and only arguing from 
the common law with reference to the necessities 
of the case. In 1768 he moved a resolution, which 
was passed in the South Carolina assembly, for the 
erection in Charleston of a statue of William Pitt, 
in acknowledgment of that statesman's services to 
the colonies and the British constitution. In 1775 
he was elected a member of the council of safety 
and of the committee that was appointed under it. 
In 1776 he was one of a committee of eleven in- 
structed to draft a constitution for the province, 
and subsequently a member of the legislative coun- 
cil created by the constitution. In 1778 he was 
chosen president of the province, and gave his offi- 
cial assent to the new constitution. Savannah was 
soon captured by the British forces, Georgia suc- 
cumbed, and South Carolina was threatened. Mr. 
Lowndes made a vigorous resistance, but, having 
fewer than 10,000 men in the field, he was unable 
to oppose overwhelming forces by sea and land. 
Charleston shared the fate of Savannah, and 
Lowndes was captured. He was subsequently a 
member of the South Carolina assembly when the 
U. S. constitution was submitted to the states for 
adoption. He strenuously opposed it, objecting to 
the restrictions it placed on the slave-trade, Which 
he declared to be the great source of the strength 
and prosperity of the south ; to the clause giving 
power to congress to regulate commerce; and to 
the centralization of power in the Federal govern- 
ment, protesting that it would reduce the states to 
the condition of mere corporations and give a dan- 
gerous superiority to the north. The earnestness 
of his antagonism may be inferred from the closing 
sentence of one of his speeches : " I wish for no 
other epitaph than this : ' Here lies one who op- 
posed the Federal constitution, holding it to be 
fatal to the liberties of his country.' " — His son, 
Thomas, merchant, b. in Charleston, S. C, in 
1765; d. there, 8 July, 1843, received an academi- 
cal education, engaged in commercial pursuits, and 
became one of the chief merchants of his native 
city. He was chosen a member of the 7th and 8th 
congresses, and served from 7 Dec, 1801, till 3 
March, 1805. — Another son, WiUiani Jones,. 
statesman, b. in Charleston, S. C, 7 Feb., 1782; d. 
at sea, 22 Nov., 1822, was taken to England when 
j he was seven years of age, and sent for three years 
I to an English grammar-school. On his return to 
Charleston he was graduated at Charleston college, 
I studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1804, 





but he soon abandoned his profession to attend 
to his plantation. While still a young man he 
travelled in Europe for mental improvement. It 
is related that while in London he happened to be 
left alone at his jhotel, which was frequented by 
none but men of rank and distinction, with Will- 
iam Roscoe, author of 
the " Life of Leo X.," 
who was much his se- 
nior. The two fell 
into conversation, and 
the elder gentleman, 
leaving the room after 
a time, met the Duke 
of Argyll in the street. 
" I have been spending 
a most agreeable hour," 
he said to the duke, 
" with a young Ameri- 
can gentleman, who is 
the tallest, wisest, and 
best bred young man I 
have ever met." " It 
must have been Mr. 
Lowndes, of South Car- 
olina," replied the duke. 
■" He is such a man. I know him, and I know no 
other like him. Return and make his acquaint- 
ance." In 1806 Mr. Lowndes was elected to the 
lower house of the general assembly of South Caro- 
lina, retaining his seat until 1810, when he was 
chosen a member of congress as a Democrat, and 
re-elected five times successively, serving from 4 
Nov., 1811, till 8 May, 1822, when failing health 
compelled his resignation. He was an earnest 
supporter of the war of 1812-15, and spoke fre- 
quently on matters pertaining to the army, the 
navy, the finances, the national bank, the Missouri 
compromise, the Spanish treaty, and the tarifl". 
His friends regarded him as a suitable candidate 
for the presidency, and he was nominated by the 
legislature of South Carolina. His health having 
been benefited by a visit to England in 1819, he 
•decided to return to that country, and had em- 
barked with his family from Philadelphia, but did 
not live to complete the voyage. As a debater he 
occupied the front rank, in spite of a weakness of 
voice caused by diseased lungs, while his memory 
was remarkably retentive. It is said that Henry 
€lay expressed the opinion that Mr. Lowndes was 
*' the wispst man he had ever known in congress." 
The only portrait of Mr. Lowndes was by Morse, 
and is in the Corcoran gallery, Washington. See 
illustration above. 

LOWREY, George, Cherokee chief, b. on Ten- 
nessee river about 1770 ; d. 20 Oct., 1852. He was 
one of the delegates that visited Washington in 
1791, was present at the signing of the treaty of 
1817, a member of the convention that framed the 
constitution of the Cherokee nation in 1827, and 
was chosen assistant principal-chief. He filled 
various local offices, and was regarded as an honest 
man and a patriot. He wrote a tract on temper- 
ance in the Cherokee tongue, and assisted in trans- 
lating the Scriptures into that language. 

LOWRIE, Walter, senator, b. in Edinburgh, 
Scotland, 10 Dec, 1784 ; d. in New York city, 14 
Dec, 1868. He was brought to the United States 
when eight years of age by his parents, who settled 
in Huntingdon county. Pa., but subsequently re- 
moved to Butler county. Young Lowrie received 
a good education, but prosecuted his studies amid 
many diflficulties. At the age of eighteen, he began 
a course of study with a view to entering the rnin- 
istry, but was led to change his purpose. He was 

subsequently a member of the legislature for sev- 
eral years, and was afterward elected U. S. senator 
from Pennsylvania, and served from 6 Dec, 1819, 
till 3 March, 1825. On the expiration of his term 
he was elected secretary of the U. S. senate, an 
office he held for twelve years. While in the lat- 
ter body he made his influence felt as a decided 
and earnest religious man. He was a founder of 
the Congressional prayer-meeting and the Con- 
gressional temperance society, and for many years 
served as a member of the executive committee of 
the American colonization society. In 1836 he be- 
came corresponding secretary of the Western for- 
eign missionary society, afterward the Presbyterian 
board of foreign missions. He continued in the 
charge of his various duties until he was disabled 
by old age in 1868. — His son, John Cameron, 
clergyman, b. in Butler, Pa., 16 Dec, 1808, was 
graduated at Jefferson college in 1829,' prepared 
for the ministry at the .Western and Princeton 
theological seminaries, and was licensed to preach, 
21 June, 1832. On 23 May, 1833, he was ordained 
a missionary and was sent out by the Western for- 
eign missionary society to northern India, but his 
health failed, and he returned in 1836. In 1838 
Dr. Lowrie w^as made assistant secretary of the 
board of foreign missions, his father being secre- 
tary. In 1845 he was called to take charge of the 
42d street Presbyterian church in New York city, 
a connection he continued to maintain until 1850, 
when he was elected one of the corresponding sec- 
retaries of the board of foreign missions. In 1865 
he was chosen moderator of the general assembly 
of his church. He is the author of "Travels in 
North India, etc." (Philadelphiaf, 1841 ; same work 
issued in New York, 1850, under title of " Two 
Years in Upper India ") ; " A Manual of the For- 
eign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States of America "' (New York. 1855 ; 3d 
ed., 1868) ; and " Missionary Papers " (1882), besides 
many reports, sermons, and articles in the '' Pi'ince- 
ton Review." — Another son, Walter Macon, mis- 
sionary, b. in Butler, Pa., 18 Feb., 1819; d. 19 
Aug., 1847, was graduated at Jefferson in 1837, 
studied at Princeton theological seminary, and 
was ordained in November, 1841. On 19 Jan., 
1842, he sailed for China to join the Presbyterian 
mission there. After laboring about two years in 
Macao, he removed to Ningpo in 1845. Having 
occasion to attend a conference of missionaries at 
Shanghai, he visited that city during the summer 
of 1847, and on the voyage back to Ningpo his ves- 
sel was attacked by pirates, and he was thrown into 
the sea. He was the author of " The Land of 
Sinim, or an Exposition of Isaiah xlix, 12 " (Phila- 
delphia, 1850), and " Sermons Preached in China " 
(New York, 1851). See " Memoir of W. M. Lowrie " 
(New York, 1849; Philadelphia, 1854-'5 and 1880), 
edited by his father. — Another son, Jonathan 
Roberts, lawyer, b. in Butler, Pa., 16 March, 1823 ; 
d. in Warrior's Mark, Pa., 10 Dec, 1885, was gradu- 
ated at Jefferson college in 1842, and studied law 
with his cousin. Judge Walter II. Lowrie. lie at 
first settled in Hollidaysburg, Blair co., Pa., but 
soon removed to Warrior's Mark, Huntingdon c6., 
where he passed the remainder of his life. There 
he became the legal adviser of a firm owning one 
of the 'largest estates in central Pennsylvania. He 
spent much time in the study of the natural sci- 
ences, especially botany, and converted the grounds 
attached to his residence into an arboretum, made 
large collections of the rarer plants, and discovered 
one new species, Prunus Alleghaniensis, and several 
others that had not previously been found in the 
state.— Another son, Renben, missionary, b. in 



Butler, Pa., 24 Nov., 1827 ; d. in Shanghai, China, 
26 April, 1860. was graduated at the University ol 
the city of New York in 1846, served there one 
year as tutor, and studied theology at Princeton, 
being graduated from the seminary in 1849. He 
was licensed to preach by the Luzerne, Pa., pres- 
bytery in 1851, at which time he was engaged m 
missionary work among the Choctaw Indians. He 
was ordained as a missionary in 1853, and sailed for 
Shanghai, where he applied himself to the study 
of Chinese, and translated the "Shorter Cate- 
chism " and a " Catechism on the Old Testament 
History" into that language. He devoted much 
time to the completion of a "Dictionary of the 
Four Books," that had been begun by his brother 
Walter, and had also nearly finished a " Commen- 
tary on the Gospel of Matthew " in Chinese when 
he died.— Walter's nephew, Walter Hoge, jurist, 
son of Mathew B., b. in Armstrong county, Pa., 3 
March, 1807 ; d. in Meadville, Pa., 14 Nov., 1876, 
was graduated at the Western university of Penn- 
svlvania in 1826, studied law, and was admitted to 
the bar, 4 Aug., 1829. In August, 1846, he was ap- 
pointed to the judgeship of the district court of 
Alleghany county. Pa., and occupied that office 
until he was elected to the supreme court of Penn- 
sylvania in 1851. He remained upon the bench 
twelve years, officiating during the last six years 
as chief 'justice. He then practised law for a few 
years in Pittsburg, and subsequently was chosen 
president judge of a judicial district in western 
Pennsylvania, where he remained until his death. 
JudgeLowrie was a contributor to the Princeton 
" Kq)ertory " and other periodicals. Several of his 
})a[)ers tliat he read before the American philosophi- 
cal society have been printed, including those on the 
" Origin of the Tides " and " Cosmical Motion." — 
Another nephew, John Marshall, clergyman, son 
of Mathew B., b. in Pittsburg, Pa., 16 July, 1817; 
(1. in Fort Wayne, Ind., 26 Sept., 1867, was gradu- 
ated at Ijafayette in 1840. He studied theology at 
Princeton, was ordained, and in 1843 installed pas- 
tor of the churches of Blairstown and Knowlton, 
N. J. He was subsequently settled at Wellsville 
and Lancaster, Ohio, and at Fort Wayne, Ind. In 
addition to frequent contributions, both poetical 
and prose, to the periodical press. Dr. Lowrie pub- 
lisiied "Adam and his Times" and "Esther and 
lier Times" (Phihidelplua, 1862); "The Hebrew 
Lawgiver " and " A Week with Jesus " (1866) ; " The 
Transhited Prophet" (1868); and "The Prophet 
Elijah ■' and •' Life of David " (1869). He is also the 
author of a tract entitled " Christian in the Church " 
(1879).— A grand-nephew, Samuel Thompson, 
clei-gyniaii, son of Walter II. , 1). in Pittsburg, Pa,, 
8 Feb., 1S;>">, was educated at the Western univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania and at Miami university, where 
he was graduated in 1852, after which he studied 
theology at the Presbyterian seminary in Alleghany 
City in l852-"6, and in Heidelberg,^ Germany, in 
lS.-)7. On his retuiTi to the United States he was 
called to the Presbyterian church in Alexandria, 
Pa., where he remained until 18()3. and sul)sequent- 
ly held pastorates in Philadelphia in 1865-9; in 
Abington, Pa., in 1869-74; and in Ewing, N. J., 
in lS79-*85 ; also occupying the professorship of 
New Testament literature and exegesis in the West- 
ern theological seminarv in Alleghanv Citv daring 
lS74-'8. Prof. Lowrie 'now (1887) holds the office 
of chaplain to the Presliyterian hospital in Phila- 
(lel{)hia. He was associated in the translation of 
the volumes on " Isaiah" (1879) and "Numbers" 
(1880), of •• Lange's Commentaries" (New York), 
wrote " Explanation of He1)rews " (1884), and trans- 
lated Cremer's " Beyond the Grave" (1885). 


LOWRY, Robert, clergyman, b. in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., 12 March, 1826. He was graduated at 
Lewisburg university. Pa., in 1854, studied theol- 
ogy, entered the Baptist ministry, and has had 
charge of churches in New York city and Brook- 
Ivn, N. Y., West Chester and Lewisburg, Pa., and 
Pla'infield, N. J. W^hile at Lewisburg he acted as 
professor of literature in the university. From 
1880 till 1886 he was president of the New Jersey 
Baptist Sunday-school union. He took part in the 
Robert Raikes centennial in London in 1880. He 
received the degree of D. D. from Lewisburg uni- 
versity in 1875. Dr. Lowry is a composer of music 
and a hvmn- writer. He has edited " Chapel Melo- 
dies " (New York, 1868) : " Bright Jewels " (1869) ; 
" Pure Gold " and " Hvmn Service " (1871) ; " Royal 
Diadem " and " Temple Anthems " (1873) ; " Tidal 
Wave" (1874); "Brightest and Best" (1875); 
"Welcome Tidings" and "Fountain of Song" 
(1877); "Chautauqua Carols" (1878); "Gospel 
Hymn- and Tune-Book " (1879) ; " Good as Gold " 
(1880) ; " Our Glad Hosanna " (1882) ; " Joyful Lays " 
(1884) ; and " Glad Refrains " (1886). He has also 
written many Christmas and Easter services, and 
single songs. More than 3,000,000 copies of his 
compositions have been issued. 

LOWTHER, (jeorge, English buccaneer, b. in 
England ; d. on Blanco island, off the coast of 
Venezuela, in 1722. He was an officer on one of 
the ships belonging to the Royal company of Africa, 
and in 1721, while stationed at the mouth of the 
Gambia, seized the vessel with the aid of Capt. 
Massey, an officer of infantry. Lowther harangued 
his followers, showing them that it would be mad- 
ness to return to England, and that it was better 
to seek their fortunes on the high seas than expose 
themselves to certain death. The crew applauded, 
and a covenant was signed by them with their 
leader and sworn to on the Bible. They sailed for 
the Antilles, where they made several captures. A 
quarrel then took place between Lowther and Mas- 
sey, who wished to attack the French colonies, and 
the latter was allowed to take charge of a captured 
sloop, with ten men. He sailed for Jamaica, where 
the governor treated him kindly and gave him 
money to go to London. He confessed his mis- 
deeds to the African company, and was tried and 
executed in July, 1723. Meanwhile Lowther seized 
many ships, but afterward, when he had put into 
Porto Mayo to rest and refit, vfas attacked by the 
inhabitants, and forced to retreat with loss. After 
this Lowther was for some time very successful, 
but afterward he attacked a vessel that beat him 
ofE and pursued him, and he was forced to run his 
vessel aground in order to escape by land with his 
crew. He lost so many men in this action that he 
was obliged to retire to a small island, where he 
passed the winter of 1722. On the return of spring 
he sailed for Newfoundland. The pirates stopped / 
on the M^ay at Blanco island, off the coast of Vene- 
zuela, where Capt. Walter Moore, who commanded 
a vessel belonging to the South sea company, at- 
tacked them and took many prisoners, but Lowther 
and some others escaped to land. Moore sailed to 
Cumana, and afterward to St. Kitt's, with his pris- 
soners, most of whom were hanged. The Spanish 
governor of Cumana sent a detachment of soldiers 
to Blanco island, where Lowther was discovered 
dead, having probably committed suicide. 

LOY, Matthias, theologian, b. in Cumberland 
county, Pa., 17 March, 1828. He is the son of 
Matthias and Christina Loy. He received his clas- 
sical education at Harrisburg academy, was grad- 
uated at the Theological seminary, Columbus, Ohio, 
in 1849, and, entering the Lutheran ministry in 




that year, became pastor at Delaware, Ohio. In 
1865 he resigned to become professor in the Theo- 
logical seminary and Capital university, Colum- 
bus, Ohio, and in 1881 he was elected president of 
Capital university. In 1887 Muhlenberg college 
gave him the degree of D. D. Prof. Loy has been 
editor of the "(Lutheran Standard " since 1864, and 
in 1881 he began the publication of the '• Columbus 
Theological Magazine," of which he is still (1887) 
editor-in-chief. He has published " The Doctrine 
of Justification " (Columbus, 1862) ; " Life of Lu- 
ther," translated (1869) ; and " Essay on the Minis- 
terial Office" (1870). He edited a translation of 
"Luther's House Postil" (3 vols., 1874-'84). 

LOYAUTE, Anne Philippe Dieudonn^ de 
(lo-yo-tay), French soldier, b. in Metz in 1750 ; d. 
in La Fleche in 1830. He enlisted in the army 
when scarcely eleven years old, and served in Ger- 
many in 1761-'3. He was commissioned lieuten- 
ant in 1764, and captain in '1776, when he came to 
this country with 50 cannon and 10,000 muskets 
from the French government. He served during 
the whole of the war for independence as inspec- 
tor-general of the artillery of the army and forti- 
fications of Virginia, and was rewarded by Louis 
XVI. with the cross of Saint Louis in 1784. He 
emigrated in 1790, and served in the army of Con- 
de. In an attempt to capture Strasburg, 15 Nov., 

1791, he fell a prisoner, but escaped to England in 

1792, and in 1796 was appointed by the British 

fovernment commander of the artillery in Santo 
►omingo, and a few months later general inspector 
of the British army in the island. He afforded 
valuable aid to the invaders, and but for him it is 
hardly probable that the English could have main- 
tained their hold in the colony. After 1798 he re- 
mained in Santo Domingo as a private citizen, re- 
turning to France in 1802. He served during the 
Russian campaign in 1812-13, and in 1825 became 
director of the military school of La Fleche. He 

Fublished "Memoires pour servir a I'histoire de 
occupation Anglaise de I'ile de Saint Domingue " 
(2 vols., Paris, 1824). 

LOYOLA, Martin Garcia Onez de (lo-yo'-lah), 
Spanish soldier, b. in Biscay in 1553 ; d. in Chili, 
22 Nov., 1598. In 1569 he came to Peru with the 
viceroy Francisco de Toledo. By the capture in 
the Andes, in 1572, of the last inca of Peru, Tupac 
Amaru, he obtained the hand of the Princess Clara 
Beatriz de Coya, the only daughter and heiress of 
the inca Sayri Tupac. In 1579 he was appointed 
governor of Potosi, and in 1591 governor-general of 
Chili, arriving at Valparaiso with an army in Sep- 
tember, 1592. Soon afterward he began operations 
against the Araucanians, which were continued with 
varying fortunes. In 1594 he founded near Angol 
the city of Coya, in honor of the princess, his wife, 
and established there colleges, churches, convents, 
and other public buildings, and two forts for the 
protection of the city and the mines of R^lacoyan. 
In 1595-'6 he fought several battles against the 
Araucanian toqui Caillamachu. In 1597 he founded 
a colony in the province of Cuyo (now in the Ar- 
gentine Republic), with the name of San Luis de 
Loyola. In the same year he had several encoun- 
ters with Caillamachu, who 'forced him to retire 
from Angol to Imperial. He- was returning to the 
seat of war near the Bio-Bio, accompanied by forty 
officers and invalids and three clergymen, when 
Caillamachu, who had followed his steps, surprised 
him in the valley of Curalaba and attacked him 

during the night, killing him, with all his party. 
LO/A, Jose Manuel (lo'-thah), Bolivian lawyer, 

b. in Copacabana in 1799 ; d. in La Paz in 1862. 

He studied in the universities of La Plata and La 

Paz of Ayacucho, and was graduated as doctor 
in canonical and civil law and literature, becom- 
ing teacher of philosophy, and successively vice- 
rector and rector of the College of La Paz. In 
1845 he was vice-chancellor of the University of 
San Andres of La Paz, and in the years 1849 and 
1861 was its chancellor. He was honorary minis- 
ter of the supreme court of Lima in 1837, attorney- 
general of the judicial court of Cochabamba m 
1839, president of the superior court of La Paz in 
1848, a member of the commission that compiled 
the mercantile code of Santa Cruz, and general 
auditor of the army of the confederation in 1834-'5. 
He was also secretary to the Bolivian legation 
that signed the treaty of Fiquina in 1831, and to 
the Bolivian commission that examined in Sucre 
the treaty with France, and negotiated the treaty 
of intervention in Peruvian territory, under the 
form of a political convention, between Bolivia and 
Peru. At different times he has been deputy to 
congress and senator, diplomatic agent in Peru and 
Chili, and minister of public instruction and pub- 
lic works. He has published " Oda en verso latino 
y Castellano a la Concepcion immaculada," which 
was awarded a prize in the University of Rome, 
" El libro del pueblo," " La inviolabilidad de la vida 
humana," " Memorias biograficas de Bolivar," and 
" La mujer en sus relaciones domesticas y sociales," 
which has been translated into French and Italian. 

LOZANO, Francisco Ruiz (lo-thah'-no), Peru- 
vian astronomer, b. in Lima in 1607 ; d. there in 
1677. He studied mathematics and astronomy with 
the Jesuits in Lima and Mexico, and returning to 
Lima in 1655 with the viceroy. Count Alba de 
Aliste, was appointed by him captain of Spanish 
infantry, and afterward commander of the South 
sea. As the principal cosmographer of that coast, 
Lozano was the first director of the nautical school 
that was founded in Lima, in 1657, at the Hospital 
of Espiritu Santo. Soon after establishing his 
school he gave greater security tp- navigation in 
the Pacific by publishing sailing directions. In 
1660 he observed the comet of that year, and this 
astronomical work was the first that was done in 
South America, being published in the same year, 
before it was observed in Europe by Hebel. Lo- 
zano served for several years as director of the 
Hospital of Espiritu Santo, improving its building 
and the condition of its treasury. 

LOZANO, Pedro, Spanish missionary, b. in 
Spain toward the end of the 17th century; d., 
probably, in South America, tie entered the Jesuit 
order at an early age, and as soon as his studies 
were finished was sent as a missionary to South 
America. Immediately after his arrival he was 
appointed professor in the College of Cordova in 
Tucuman. His works are "Descripcion corogra- 
fica de terreno, rios, arboles y animales de las 
dilatadisimas provincias del Gran Chaco Gualamba, 
y de los ritos y costumbres de las innumerables 
naciones barbaras e infieles que le habitan, con un 
mapa del Chaco," copies of which, accompanied by 
the map, which was engraved by J. Petroschi in 
1733, are very rare (Cordova, 1733); " Ilistoria de 
la compania de Jesus en la provincia del Paraguay," 
whose value is impaired by the diffuseness of the 
style and the author's credulity, and which was 
bitterly attacked on its appearance on account of 
its exposures of the cruelties of the conquerors 
toward the natives (2 vols., Madrid, 1753); and 
" Diario de un viaje a la costa de la mar Magal- 
lanica en 1745," which is translated by Charlevoix 
in his " Histoire du Paraguay," is also found in the 
" Histoire generale des voyages " of the Abbe Pre- 
vost, and forms part of the first volume of the 



the banks of the Pilcomayo. It is dat 

1747, and is published in the " Lettres et 

LOZIER, Clemence Sophia, physic 

Plainfield. N. J.. 11 Dec, lbl3; d. m . 

« Coleccion de obras y documentos" published by 
De Angelis (Buenos Ayres, 1836). The same vol- 
ume contains a letter of Lozano to Father Juan de 
Alzola on the mysterious city of the Caesars writ- 
ten in 1746, which would seem to justify the 
charge of credulity that was made against the 
author bv Spanish writers. Lozano also wrote a 
narrative" that gives a very vivid and interesting 
account of the death of the Jesuit Castaiiares, who 
was assassinated bv the Mataguayos Indians on 
the banks of the Pilcomayo. It is dated 1 May, 

- - "^ ' " Bs edifiantes._ 

v^sician, b. in 
New York 
city 2(5 April, 1888. She was the youngest daugh- 
ter of David Ilarned, and in 1829 married Abraham 
W. Lozier. of New York, but soon afterward, her 
husband's health failing, she opened a select school 
and taught for eleven vears. During this time she 

was associated with 
Mrs. Margaret Pry- 
or in visiting the 
poor and aban- 
doned, under the 
auspices of the Mo- 
ral reform society. 
After her husband's 
death she deter- 
mined to study 
medicine, attended 
her first lectures at 
Kochester eclectic 
medical college in 
1849. and was grad- 
uated at the Syra- 
cuse medical college 
in 1858. Dr. Lqzier 
at once began prac- 
tice as a homnoopathist in New York, where she 
continued to i'('si(l(\ and in the surgery required 
by tile discast's of luT own sex displayed peculiar 
l)(*rfonning many' capital operations in the 
In ISOO slie began a course of 

ski I 

rfino\ _,., .... ..,;_, ^^...... . 

lectures oil medical subjects m her own jiarlors, 
wliicli ill ISO:} resulted in the fouiuling of the New 
medical college and hos[)ital for women, 
she was clinical ])rofessor of diseases of 
•men and children, and also dean of the faculty, 
•■ than twenty years. This institution was 
the tirst distinctively woniairs medical college to 
be esta))lisjied ill New York state. Dr. Lozier 
took an active intei'est in all that pertains to the 
elevation of her sex. for thirteen veai 
dent of the New York city 
cict V. and for four vears of t 


for uior 

was ])resi- 
oiiian suffrage so- 
e National woman 
ociety. She also held oflice in other 
>pic and reform associations, and was an 
contributor to medical journals. — Her 
n-law. Charlotte Irene, i)hvsician, 1). 
n. X. .1.. 1.-) :\Iarch, 1S44; d. in New 
. '.] .fail.. ISTO. was the daughter of Jacob 
n. and was graduated in 1807 at the 
New Y(u-k medical collei,^' and lios})ital forwomen. 
In 1S(>S she was called io fill tht> chair of i)]iysiol- 
ogy and hvgi<'iie in that institut ion. which, relat" 
she held until her death. Dr. Lozier tool 

suffrage ^ 
in Mill.ui 
York citv 
S. Deiiiii;] 

in ac- 
tive part ill the struggle to secure for female stu- 
dents the privilege of attending the clinics of 
■ liospital. leading them herself to the 
nd oiieraling-rooins. Siie was an aljle Icc- 
)riginal investigator in anatomy and 
a slvilful practitioner, and an enei'getic 
worker in all movements for the elevation of her 
sex. In ISCC, slie married Dr. Abraham \V. Lozier. 




turer. ai 

>f Dr. ('lenience S. Lozier. 


LUACES, Joaquin Lorenzo (loo-ah'-thes), 
Cuban author, b. in Havana, 21 July, 1826; d. 
there, 17 Nov., 1867. After finishing his education 
in Havana he devoted his time exclusively to 
literary pursuits, and published a volume of 
poems (Havana, 1857) which won for him a wide 
recognition and placed him at once among the best 
lyrical poets in the Spanish language. In 1865 
his historical drama, " El mendigo rojo," was per- 
formed in Havana with great success. In the 
following year he published his classical tragedy 
" Aristodemo," which was favorably received. 
Among the other productions of Luaces are his 
comedies " Los dos amigos," " El becerro de oro," 
and " El fantasmon de Caravaca," and his drama 
" Arturo de Osberg." 

LUARD, Richard George Amherst, British 
soldier, b. in England in 1829. He was the eldest 
son of Lieut.-Col. John Luard, a peninsular and 
Waterloo officer ; and was educated at the Royal 
mihtary college, Sandhurst, from which he ob- 
tained his commission in 1845, without purchase. 
He served in India, the Crimea, and China, was 
stationed at Halifax, N. S., 1873-5, as assistant 
military secretary to Sir William 0. G. Haly, and 
became major-general, 1 Oct., 1877. He was ap- 
pointed to the command of the militia of Canada, 
with the rank of major-general, on 5 Aug., 1880. 
His rigorous application of the discipline and regu- 
lations of the regular army rendered him unpopu- 
lar with some of the officers and men of that service. 

LUBBOCK, Francis Richard, governor of 
Texas, b. in Beaufort, S. C, 16 Oct.. 1815. He 
was educated chiefly in Beaufort and Charleston, 
S. C, engaged in mercantile pursuits, in 1834 re- 
moved to New Orleans, and in 1836 to Texas. He 
settled in 1837 in Houston, Tex., building the 
third house in that place, was clerk of the Texas 
house of representatives in 1838, then appointed 
comptroller by President Houston, and while serv- 
ing in this office was made adjutant of the force 
for the protection of the frontier. Pie returned to 
Houston in 1839, was comptroller again in 1841, 
and clerk of Harris county in 1843-56. He was 
chosen lieutenant-governor in 1857, and governor 
in 1861, but declined a renomination in 1863, and 
at the expiration of his term entered the Confeder- 
ate army as lieutenant-colonel. He was appointed 
on the staff: of Jefferson Davis in 1864, with the 
rank of colonel, was with Mr. Davis when he was 
cai)tured, and was confined in Fort Delaware till 
December, 1865. He resumed business in Houston 
in 1866, and removed in 1867 to Galveston, where 
he served three terms as city treasurer. Mr. Lub- 
bock was chosen state treasurer of Texas in 1878. 
and was re-elected in 1882, 1884, and 1886. In this 
office he has broken up the custom of speculating 
with comptrollers warrants, and has thus im- 
p]-oved the financial standing of the state. 

LUCAS, Daniel Bedinger, lawyer, b. in 
Charlestown. Va. (now W.-Va.), 16 March, 1836. 
His father, William, w^as a member of congress 
from Yirginia in 1839-41 and 1843-5, and his 
uncle, Edward, in 1833-7. When the son was an 
'. infant his negro nurse let him fall from her arms, 
causing a permanent spinal injury. He was gradu- 
ated at the University of Virginia in 1855, and in 
law at Washington college, Va., in 1858, and began 
to practise in Charlestown, Va., but in 1860 re- 
moved to Richmond. He served on the staff of 
Gen. Henry A. Wise in the Kanawha valley in the 
I civil war, and in 1867 resumed the practice of his 
I profession in Charlestown, W. Va., where he has 
since resided. He was a presidential elector on the 
I Democratic ticket in 1872, 1876, and 1884, chosen 






to the legislature in 1884-'(), and in 1887 was ap- 
pointed to the U. S. senate by the governor. The 
legislature subsequently elected Charles J. Faulk- 
ner, and the senate gave the seat to the latter. Mr. 
Lucas received t)he degree of LL. D. from the 

University of West 
Virginia in 1833. 
He has obtained a 
reputation as a pub- 
lic Speaker. He has 
published "Memoir 
of John Yates Bell " 
(Montreal, 1865) ; 
"The Wreath of Eg- 
lantine and Other 
Poems," including 
several by his sister 
(Baltimore, 1869); 
" The Maid of Nor- 
thumberland " (New 
York, 1879) ; and 
" Ballads and Madri- 
gals" (1884). His 
poem " The Land where we were Dreaming," writ- 
ten in 1865, attracted much attention at the south. 
LUCAS, George Washington, musician, b. in 
Glastonbury, Conn., 13 April, 1800 ; d. in Hamp- 
shire county, Mass., about 1880. He studied 
music for two years under Thomas Hastings in 
Albany, N. Y., and lectured and taught on this 
subject throughout the United States and Canada. 
He delivered more than 1,000 public lectures, 
taught more than 50,000 people to sing, and ar- 
ranged and conducted the music on more than 
1,000 public occasions. He was president of the 
National musical convention in Boston in 1843. 
He published much music, including an " Ordina- 
tion Anthem." 

LUCAS, John Baptiste Charles, jurist, b. 
in Normandy, France, in 1762; d. in St. Louis, 
Mo., 17 Aug., 1843. He studied law in the Univer- 
sity of Caen, where he was graduated as D. C. L. 
in 1783, and after practising his profession in his 
native land came to the United States in 1784 
and settled on a farm near Pittsburg, Pa. He 
served in the Pennsylvania legislature in 1793-'8, 
was made a judge of the court of common pleas in 
1794, and in 1803 was elected to congress as a 
Democrat. He was re-elected in 1804, but resigned 
before taking his seat, and removed to St. Louis, 
as he had been appointed judge of the U. S. court 
for the northern district of Louisiana. He was 
also a member of the commission for the adjust- 
ment of land-titles in that territory from 1805 till 
the dissolution of the commission in 1813. After 
his retirement from the bench, Judge Lucas resid- 
ed on a farm near St. Louis till his death. 

LUCAS, Robert, statesman, b. in Shepherds- 
town, Va., 1 April, 1781 ; d. in Iowa City, Iowa, 
7 Feb., 1853. His father was a descendant of 
William Penn, and a captain in the Revolutionary 
army. The son removed to Ohio in 1800, and rose 
to the rank of major-general of militia. He was 
commissioned captain in the 19th U. S. infantry, 
14 March, 1813, and lieutenant-colonel, 30 Feb., 
1813, but resigned on 31 June, and served as briga- 
dier-general of Ohio militia in defence of the 
frontier from 35 July till 19 Sept. of that year 
He was a member of the Ohio legislature in 1814, 
and in 1833 presided over the Democratic national 
convention that nominated Andrew Jackson for a 
second term. Gen. Lucas was governor of Ohio in 
1833-6, and in 1838-'41 was first territorial gov- 
ernor of Iowa. He was an active Freemason and 
a man of strong impulses, but of strict integrity. 

LUCAS, Thomas John, soldier, b. in Lawrence- 
burg, Ind., 9 Sept.. 1836. His father, Frederick, a 
native of llennes, France, and a soldier of Napo- 
leon's later campaigns, came to this country after 
the battle of Waterloo and settled in Baltimore, 
Md., where he learned the trade of a watchmaker. 
He afterward removed successively to Marietta 
and Cincinnati, Ohio, and Lawrenceburg, Ind., 
where he married and passed the rest of his life. 
The son learned his father's trade, but enlisted for 
the Mexican war as a drummer-boy in the 4th In- 
diana volunteers, and rose to be lieutenant and ad- 
jutant. At the close of the war he resumed his 
former occupation, which he continued till 1861. 
He then raised a company, was chosen its captain, 
and joined the 16th Indiana regiment, of which he 
was commissioned lieutenant-colonel. After the 
battle of Ball's Bluff he covered the retreat of the 
National forces, crossing the Potomac in the last 
boat, and was promoted colonel. He opposed 
Kirby Smith's advance at Richmond, Ky., and 
then took part in all the operations around Vicks- 
burg, where he was wounded three times. After- 
ward he was ordered to New Orleans and placed 
at the head of a cavalj^y brigade, with which he did 
good service in the Red river expedition, first in 
the advance, next in covering the retreat of Banks's 
army to Alexandria, and then in the advance again 
to the Mississippi. He was promoted brigadier- 
general of volunteers, 10 Nov., 1864, and com- 
manded a division of cavalry in the operations 
around Mobile, investing Fort Blakely, defeating 
the Confederates at Claiborne, and leading raids 
into western Florida, southern Georgia, and Ala- 
bama. He was brevetted major-general of volun- 
teers on 36 March, 1865, and after his command 
was mustered out he was ordered to New Orleans, 
by request of Gen. Sheridan, to await the issue of 
the threatened complications with the French in 
Mexico. He left the service on 15 Jan., 1866, and 
returned to his home. He was employed in the 
U. S. revenue service in 1875-'81, and from the 
latter year till 31 Dec, 1885, was postmaster of his 
native town. In 1886 he was an unsuccessful Re- 
publican candidate for congress. 

LUCE, Stephen Bleecker, naval officer, b. in 
Albany, N. Y., 35 March, 1837. He entered the 
navy as midshipman in 1847, and was commis- 
sioned lieutenant in 1855, lieutenant-commander in 

1863, commander in 1866, captain in 1873, com- 
modore in 1881, and rear-admiral in 1885. In 
1863 he served on the frigate " Wabash," which 
was attached to the blockading squadron on the 
coast of South Carolina, participating in the bat- 
tles of Hatteras Inlet and Port Royal ; and he com- 
manded a howitzer launch during a reconnoissance 
in force and engagement with the Confederates at 
Port Royal ferry, S. C. He commanded the moni- 
tor "Nantucket," of the North Atlantic squad- 
ron, in October, 1863, engaged Fort Moultrie and 
Fort Sumter several times, and from 1 Sept., 

1864, till 9 June, 1865, commanded the " Pontiac," 
of the North Atlantic squadron. In January, 

1865, he reported to Gen. William T. Sherman at 
Savannah, Ga., for duty in connection with the 
army. With difficulty he got tlie " Pontiac " up 
Savannah river as far as Sisters' ferry, about forty 
miles from the city, and protected the pontoon 
bridge from the Confederate gun-boats while Gen. 
Henry W. Slocum's command passed into South 
Carolina. He was on the steam-sloop " Juniata," of 
the European squadron, in 1869-'70, was president 
of the U. S. naval war college in 1884-'6, and 
since June, 1886. has been in command of the 
North Atlantic station. In July, 1887, he issued a 



^y W Mexico in 
(if piedical sci- 
isijted Europe, 
him director 
he remained 
osy, and pub- 
" La Elefan- 
San Ijazaro " 
#ed|the School of 
1847 he was 
)f medical yiTW^^idence and 

circular to American fishermen in regard to the 
restrictions that were imposed upon foreign fishing- 
vessels by Canadian laws. Admiral Luce was a 
founder of the U. S. naval war college, and was 
instrumental in the establishment of the U. S. 
naval training system. He is now (1887) at the 
head of the list of rear-admirals on the active list. 
He has published "Seamanship" (New York, 
1863), and edited " Naval Songs " (1883). 

LUCIO, Rafael (loo'-the-o), Mexican physician, 
b. in Jalapa, 2 Sept., 1819 ; d. in the city of Mexico. 
30 May, 1886. He received his primary education 
in his native city, and continued his studies at San 
Luis Potosi, but before they were completed his 
father died, and his motlier became the wife of Dr. 
Manuel Salas, under whom Lucio beiiaB the study 
of medicine. He remo, 
183J), was graduated 
ence in 1842, and i 
In 1843 the gove 
of tlie Hospital d 
eighteen rears, in; 
lished, with Dr. 
ciasis de los (iri 
(Mexico. 1851). In 1 __ 

medicine as assi{s^(fl|;;_])rofessor 
api)<)int('(l ])ro[ 

the praetice of surgery. In 1851 he obtained the 
chair of })ractice of medicine, which he filled till a 
short time before his deat h. He was also appointed 
director of tlie school, but declined. In 1864 Dr. 
Lucio revived tlie Academia de medicina, and in 
bSdil. ISSO. and 1881 he was its president. 

LTCKKNIJACH, Ahraliam, missionary, b. in 
Lehigh county. Pa., 5 May, 1777; d. in Bethlehem, 
]^i.. 8 :\Iarch,'l854. He was educated at Nazareth 
Hall, Pa., taught there in 1797, and in 1800 became 
a missionary of the Moravian church among the 
Delaware Indians, laboring till 1843, when he re- 
tired to Bethlehem. He edited the second edition 
of David Zeisherger's "Delaware Hymn-Book" 
(1847), and jjublished in the Delaware language 
"Select Narratives Ironi the Old Testament." 

LrC'KEV, Samuel, clergyman, b. in Rensse- 
laerviilc, Albanv co., N. Y., 4 April, 1791; d. in 
liochcster, N. Y., 11 Oct., 1869. He entered the 
ministry of the .Alethodist Episcopal church in 1811 
at Ottawa, Canada, and was pastor of churches in 
western New York from 1812 till 1821. He was 
I)i'incipal of the Genesee Wesleyan seminary in 
]822-"6, and for the next ten years officiated suc- 
cessively ill cIiui'cIk^s ill New Haven, Conn., and 
lirooklyn and Alhaiiy. N. Y., and as presiding elder 
of the \ew Haven district. He became editor of 
tlie •• Christian Advocate and Journar' in 1836, 
was also senior editor of the ^lethodist publishing 
society, and, returning to the ministry after four 
years, was from 1842 till his death a presiding elder 
in the Kochester, X. Y., circuit, and for nine years 
chaplain of the ^Monroe countv penitentiary. 
Union gave him the degrees of M.*A. and D. D. i'n 
1H21, and in 1S47 he was appointed a regent of the 
I'niversity of New York, lie imblished a " Trea- 
tise on the Sacrament" (New^ York, 1859). 

LI I)J)I:N. Patrick Anthony, R. C. bishop, b. 
near Castlebar, County Mavo, Ireland, in 1838. 
After studying for some tinie in St. Jarlath's col- 
lege, Tuain, he came to the United States at the 
ai,^e of eighteen, afterward entered the Grand Semi- 
Tiiiire, Montreal. Canada, and was ordained priest bv 
BislKjp P,()nr<r,.t in 1864. His first mission was as 
assistant at the Immaculate Conceiition cathedral, 
Albany, and he was then Bishop McCloskey's sec- 
retary and chancellor, and afterward pastor of 
Malone, Franklin co., N. Y. In 1877 he was ap- 


pointed rector of the Albany cathedral and vicar- 
general of the diocese, and in May, 1880, he be- 
came pastor of St. Peter's church, Troy. He was 
particularly interested in education, and built large 
schools in" his parish. He was consecrated first 
bishop of Syracuse, 1 May, 1887, in the city of 
Syracuse, where he held his first diocesan synod on 
4'Oct. following. Bishop Ludden was present at 
the oecumenical council at Rome in 1869, and was 
theologian to the bishop of Albany at the last 
plenary council of Baltimore. He is an eloquent 
preacher, very austere in his habits, but popular 
among his clergy. He has published a work on 
" Church Property " (Albany, 1882). 

LUDEWKt, Hermann Ernst, author, b. in 
Dresden, Saxony, 14 Oct., 1809; d. in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., 12 Dec, 1856. He was educated at the 
universities of Leipsic and Gottingen, studied law, 
and engaged in its practice, and during his leisure 
devoted much time to bibliographical studies and 
to books of travels. He removed to the United 
States in 1844, and, after spending nearly two years 
in travel, became naturalized and settled in New 
York city in the practice of his profession. Pre- 
vious to his removal to the United States he had 
published two valuable catalogues of European 
libraries, " Le Livret des Ana" (Dresden, 1837) 
and " Zur Bibliothekekonomie " (1840), and in 1846 
he contributed to the Leipsic " Serapeum " articles 
on American libraries and bibliography that were 
considered as pioneer sketches on these topics. In 
1854 he communicated to the Societe de geographie 
of Paris an article entitled " De I'histoire des abo- 
rigenes du Mexique," which was printed in the 9th 
volume of its bulletins. His other works include 
" Literature of American Local History " (printed 
privatelv. New York, 1846) ; " Supplement relating 
to Local History of New York " (1848) : and " Lit- 
erature of American Aboriginal Linguistics," edited 
by Nicolaus Triibner, with additions by William 
W. Turner (London, 1858), which is the first vol- 
ume of Triibner's " Bibliotheca-Glottica." 

LUDLOW, Fitz Hii^Ii, author, b. in New York 
citv, 11 Sept., 1836 ; d. in Geneva, Switzerland, 12 
Sept., 1870. His father. Rev. Henry G. Ludlow, 
was a minister of the Presbyterian church for 
forty - five years. 
The son was grad- 
uated at Union in 
1856. His literary 
life began the same 
year, when he pub- 
lished the " Apoca- 
lypse of H asheesh " 
in " Putnam's 

Monthly." This 
was soon followed 
by the " Hasheesh 
Eater " (New York, 
1857). From that 
time until 1861 his 
publications were 
chiefly stories con- 
tributed to maga- 
zines. While in 
college he wrote 
some of the best 
American student 
songs. He was an editor of "Vanity Fair" in 
1858-'60, at the same time studied law under Will- 
iam Curtis Noyes, and supported himself by writ- 
ing. He was admitted to the bar in 1869, but 
abandoned it for a purely literarv career, was con- 
nected in 1860-'61 with the " New York World " 
I and the " Commercial Advertiser," and for the lat- 







ter wrote a series of letters from Florida, entitled 
" Due South," that greatly added to his reputation. 
He was for a time dramatic, art, and musical critic 
of the *' Evening Post," and long a contributor to 
it, occupied a sinbilar place on the " Home Jour- 
nal" in 1862, anjl in 1863 made a journey across 
the plains to Oalifornia and Oregon, the results of 
which appeared in a succession of articles, one 
of which, " Through Tickets to San Francisco, A 
Prophecy," projected a course for the Pacific rail- 
road that was identical in its principal particulars 
with that which was finally adopted. Upon the 
establishment of the " Northern Lights " magazine 
in Boston, he became a contributor, and wrote for 
it his two most popular stories, "Little Briggs 
and I " and " Fleeing to Tarshish." He dramatized 
" Cinderella," and trained the amateur company of 
children that acted it, for the benefit of the New 
York sanitary fair in 1864. His subsequent writ- 
ings included a wide range of subjects, and in 1867 
he published a magazine article called " What shall 
they do to be Saved ? " which was a scientific state- 
ment of the nature of the opium-habit, a warning 
of its dangers, and suggestions for its treatment, 
which he enlarged and published in book-form, 
'' The Opium-Habit " (New York, 1868). He went 
to Europe in June, 1870, for relief from pulmonary 
disease, but died in a few months. His numerous 
poems have not been collected. His "Hymn of 
Forbearance " was widely copied. His " Bessie's 
School " is included in " Whittier's Poems of Child 
Life," and that on Thomas Starr King in the me- 
morial volume to that clergyman. His other 
works include " Little Brother, and Other Genre 
Pictures " (Boston, 1867), and " The Heart of the 
Continent " (New York and London, 1870). 

LUDLOW, George Duncan, jurist, b. on Long 
Island, N. Y., in 1734 ; d. in Fredericton, N. B., 13 
Nov., 1808. He was an apothecary in early life, 
but studied law, and, notwithstanding a serious im- 
pediment of speech, became eminent as an advo- 
cate. Previous to the Revolution he exercised 
much influence in the colony, and was councillor 
and a judge of the supreme court in 1769 ; and to 
compensate him for the loss of the office of chief 
justice, to which he was entitled by the law of 
succession, public opinion induced Lieut.-Gov. An- 
drew Elliott in 1778 to appoint him master of the 
rolls and superintendent of police on Long Island, 
" with powers and principles of equity to hear and 
to determine controversies until civil government 
can be declared." Ludlow was a strong loyalist, 
and the previous year his house at Hempstead had 
been plundered, and it is said that he escaped im- 
prisonment by climbing on the roof through the 
tscuttle and hiding behind the chimney. The 
Whigs had organized a government as early as 
1777, but Ludlow was sustained in office by the 
loyalists until the peace, when he was compelled 
to leave the country, and his seat at Hyde Park 
^nd his other property were confiscated. After a 
visit to England he settled in New Brunswick, 
where he was a member of the first colonial coun- 
cil, administered the government as senior coun- 
cillor, and in 1784 became the first chief justice 
of the supreme court. — His brother, Gabriel G., 
b. in New York city, 16 April, 1736 ; d. in Carle- 
ton, N. B., 12 Feb., 1808, entered the military ser- 
vice of the crown at the beginning of the Revo- 
lution, and was colonel and commandant of De 
Lancey's 3d battalion in 1782. At the close of the 
war his estate of 140 acres in Hyde Park was con- 
fiscated, and he was banished. After a short resi- 
dence in England, he removed to New Brunswick 
with his brother, Judge Ludlow, and drew three 

lots at Carleton. He was a member of the first 
council of St. John, its first mayor, and on the or- 
ganization of the court of vice-admiralty in 1787, 
although not a member of the bar, was appointed 
judge. In 1803, on the embarkation of Gov. 
Thomas Carleton for England, Ludlow, being sen- 
ior councillor, became president and commander- 
in-chief. His residence in Carleton is still standing, 
and is known as the " old government house." — His 
great-nephew, John, clergyman, b. in Acquacka- 
nonck, N. J., 13 Dec, 1793 ; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 
8 Sept., 1857, was the grandson of Richard, who 
adhered to the patriot cause during the Revolution. 
John was graduated at Union college in 1814, at 
New Brunswick theological seminary in 1817, and 
on his ordination Ipecame pastor of the Reformed 
Dutch churc'h there. He was professor of biblical 
literature and ecclesiastical, history in New Bruns- 
wick seminary in 1819-23, and at the latter date 
accepted the -charge of- the 1st Reformed Dutch 
church of Albany, N. Y. H6 ^as provost of the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1834, delivered sev- 
eral courses of lectures" before the Smithsonian 
institution and other^sci^jiific and literary bodies, 
and in 1854 returned to* New Brunswick theologi- 
cal seminary, ..^^s professor of, ecclesiastical history 
and church -government. Union college gave him 
the degree of D. D. in 1827, and subsequently 
that of LL. D. — John's son, James Reily, jurist, 
b. in Albany, N. Y., 3 May, 1825 ; d. in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., 20 Sept., 1886, was graduated in 1843 at 
the University of Pennsylvania, which in 1870 
conferred on him the degree of LL. D. In 1846 
he was admitted to the Philadelphia bar, and in 
1857 he was chosen judge of the court of common 
pleas in that city. He filled this office until 1875, 
when, under the new constitution of the state, he 
was transferred to the president judgeship of the 
court of common pleas, which place he held at the 
time of his death. Although he was a Democrat 
of well-known partisan conviction, on two occa- 
sions he was elected to the office by the votes of 
all parties. He was a member of the American 
philosophical society and of the Historical society 
of Pennsylvania, and for a long period of time one 
of the trustees of Jefferson medical college. With 
John M. Collins he edited an American edition of 
"Adams on Equity" (Philadelphia, 1852). 

LUDLOW, Noah Miller, actor, b. in New York 
city, 4 July, 1795 ; d. in St. Louis, Mo., 9 Jan., 1886. 
He began" his theatrical career in the melodrama 
of " The Two Thieves," shortly afterward joining, 
at Albany, N. Y., under Alexander Drake, the first 
company that undertook a tour of the western 
states. Their first performance was at Clean, 
N. Y., where they acted by candle-light in a barn, 
and afterward, descending the Alleghany in a flat- 
boat, they played in the small settlements on the 
bank of "Mississippi river as far as New Orleans, 
where they arrived in 1817. He took the first 
regular dramatic company to St. Louis in 1819, 
and, merging a rival company into his own the 
next year, presented a series of standard dramas. 
He associated himself with Sol Smith and the 
Field brothers in 1834, and after a partnership of 
twenty years retired, appearing subsequently only 
in benefit performances. He published his me- 
moirs under the title of " Dramatic Life as I found 
It " (St. Louis, 1880). 

LUDLOW, Roger, statesman, b. in Dorchester, 
England, about 1590; d. in Virginia about 1665. 
He was a lawyer of good family, and, on his ap- 
pointment as assistant by the general court of 
Massachusetts in 1630, removed to Boston, and oc- 
cupied that office for four years. He became 




deputy governor in 1634, but, having been defeat- 
ed by 'John Haynes in his contest for the governor- 
ship, he removed with a Massachusetts colony to 
Windsor, Conn., where for many years he held 
public offices, and was probably the first lawyer 
that practised in the state. In January, 1639, he 
was a member of the Connecticut constitutional 
convention, and is believed to have drafted that 
document. In August of this year he was sent 
by the general court as an adviser of the Connecti- 
cut forces in the second expedition of the Pequot 
war, accompanying John Mason's command. Since 
April of this year he had been deputy governor of 
Connecticut, but on the election as governor of 
his old adversary, John Haynes, whom he described 
as his " evil genius," he left Windsor and founded 
the town of Fairfield. Here he occupied each im- 
j)ortant public office, was several times a commis- 
sioner to tlie New England congress, and in 1646 
was appointed by the general court to prepare a 
revision of the law of Connecticut, which was af- 
terward published (Camliridge, 1672). The situa- 
tion of Fairfield particularly interested Ijudlow in 
the prott'ctiou of the frontier against the Dutch 
and Indians, and with otlier New England com- 
missioners, in eonse(iuence of an alleged plot of 
the Dutch, he voted in 1653 to make war against 
thfiu. hut Massachusetts refused to concur. The 
^lanhailoes also threatened Fairfield, and the citi- 
zens then declared war, appointing Ludlow com- 
mander-in-chief: but the general court of New 
Haven discountenanced the project, and punished 
his officci's for attempting an insurrection and foi- 
raising volunteei-s. Ijudlow, in consequence of 
this rcdectionon his patriotism, became incensed 
against the government, declared that he would no 
longer live under its jurisdiction, and in April, 
l(i.")4. enibai'ked with his family for Virginia, carry- 
ing all the town-records with him. The retnainder 
of his life was j)assed in (jl)scurity, and the place 
and time of his death are unknown. He was the 
brother-in-law f)f J(jlin Endicott. Ludlow, al- 
though ambitious and of a morl)id and suspi- 
cious teuiper. was one of the most learned and 
gifted of the eai'ly colonists, and rendered to Con- 
necticut important i)ul)li(' service. 

LrnWICK. Christopher, i)liilanthropist.b. in 
(Jermany in 1720: d. in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1801. 
He was a baker l)y trade, but in early life enlisted 
in th(> Austrian army and served in the war against 
the Turks. He endured the hardships of the seven- 
teen weeks" siege in J*rague, and, on its capture l)y 
the French and Uavarians in 1741, he entered the 
Prussian army. When jH'ace was declared he be- 
came a sailor, and between 1745 and 1752 he made 
many voyages. In 1753 he sailed for Philadelphia, 
takin-with him t*25 worth of clothing. :\laking 
l'(iO !)>• this venture, he returned t(j London, but in 
the following yearl)ecaniea gingta'bread-baker and 
confectioner in Philadelphia. In this occu])ation 
he amassed a foi'tune. and at the l)eginning of the 
Revolution he gave his nioiu-y J'rei'ly to aid the 
l)atriot cause. On one occasioii. when it had been 
l)roposed by Cen. Thomas .AlilTlin to purchase fire- 
arms by pj'ivate subscrii)t ion, whicli caused dissent, 
Ludwick silenced opposition l)y saying. "Let the 
l»oor gingerbread-baker l>e |)ut down for t'20() I "' 
In the summer of 1776 he enlisted as a volunteer, 
and was of no little service in ])ei-suading his Hes- 
sian fellow-countrynu'ii to desei't from the British 
'"'"I'^t" '""^ become residents of Philadeli)hia. In | 
1777 he was appointed l)y congress baker-general 
to the American army. It Avas stipulated that he 
should return one j)()und of l)read for every pound ' 
of Hour delivered to him, but he at once "replied, \ 

" Not so ; I must not be enriched by the war. 1 
shall return one hundred and thirty-five pounds of 
bread for every one hundred pounds of flour." He 
was often invited to dine at Washington's large 
dinner-parties, and frequently consulted with him 
in relation to the bread-supplies of the army. The 
commander-in-chief usually addressed him in com- 
pany as " My honest friend," and in 1785 gave him 
a certificate of good conduct in his own handwrit- 
ing. He delighted to discover objects of charity 
and relieve their wants. During the yellow-fever 
epidemic in Philadelphia in 1793, he' worked at 
bread-baking gratuitously to aid in relieving the 
wants of the destitute. At his death he divided 
his fortune among charities, and left a special fund 
for the education of poor children. 

LUERS, John Henry, R. C. bishop, b. near 
Miinster, Westphalia, 29 'Sept., 1819 ; d. in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, 29 June, 1871. His childhood was spent 
in great poverty, to escape which he came with his 
parents to the United States in 1833. His family 
settled on a farm at Piqua, Ohio, and John became 
clerk in a store. He showed a tendency to lead a 
wild life, and became neglectful of religion for a 
time, but in 1835 he experienced a complete change. 
An accidental meeting with Archbishop Purcell 
decided him to become a priest, and, after study- 
ing by himself and in the Seminary of St. Francis 
Xavier, Ohio, he was ordained on 11 Nov., 1846, and 
a]ipointed pastor of St. Joseph's church, Cincinnati, 
lie com])leted the church, freed the parish from 
debt, and built several schools. In 1857 the dio- 
cese of Fort Wayne was created, comprising the 
northern part of Indiana, and Father Luers was 
selected as its first bishop, and consecrated by Arch- 
bishop Purcell, 10 Jan., 1858. The new diocese 
comi)rised about 20.000 lioman Catholics and four- 
teen priests. There were twenty churches which 
were not at)le to accommodate half their congre- 
gations, while many places had neither churches 
nor priests.- Bishop Luers, under these circum- 
stances, endeavored to make up by his own minis- 
try for the want of priests. In two years he had 
ordained eight and had also eight ecclesiastical 
students in various seminaries, built the present 
cathedral at Fort Wayne and many churches, and 
in 1863 he held a synod at the University of Notre 
Dame, at which statutes were enacted that resulted 
in the abolition of the system of lay trustees. He 
visited Eome in 1864, where he obtained power to 
separate the Sisters of the Holy Cross in the United 
States from the mother-house in France, and tO' 
draw up a new constitution and order for the 
American branch. On his return he founded the 
Academy f)f St. Ignatius at Fort Lafayette, and 
introduced the above-named sisterhood, who have 
charge of St. Mary's home in Jay county. In 1865 
he purchased land in the suburbs of Fort Wayne, 
and afterward at Rensselaer, and in 1868 erected 
there an asylum for soldiers' orphans. He also es- 
tablished the Catholic clerical benevolent associa- 
tion for pensioning aged priests. . Bishop Luers 
attended the ])rovincial councils of Cincinnati, and 
was present at the plenary council of Baltimore in 
1866. At his death there were sixty-nine priests, 
ninety-one churches, and six religious institutions 
in his diocese, besides a hospital, a college, and an 
orphan asylum, while the Roman Catholic popula- 
tion exceeded 50,000. 

LUGO, Bernardo de (loo-go), Spanish mission- 
ary, b. in Lugo, Spain, late in the 16th century ; 
d. in Santa Fe, New Mexico. He became a Do- 
ininican monk, was sent by his superiors to Span- 
ish America, and devoted"^ his life to missionary 
work among the Indians. He learned the Ian- 




gnage of the natives of New Grenada, and pub- 
lished a grammar of it under the title " Gra- 
matica de la lengua general del nuevo reyno de 
Granada, llamada Mosca" (Madrid, 1629). This 
work is very rar^e. Toward the close of his life he 
withdrew into^a convent in Santa Fe, New Mexico. 
Pinelo in hisC " Bibliotheca" attributes to him a 
work on " Concession " in the Mosca dialect. 

LUGO, Francisco de, Spanish missionary, b. in 
Madrid in 1580; d. in Valladolid, 17 Dec, 1652. 
He was graduated in law at Salamanca in 1600, be- 
came a Jesuit two years later, and was professor of 
theology in Mexico from 1616 till 1632, and after- 
ward in Santa Fe de Bogota, New Granada. To 
avoid ecclesiastical honors that were tendered him 
he left for Europe in 1638, but was captured by 
the Dutch fleet off Havana, and lost most of his 
manuscripts. After a long captivity he was set at 
liberty, and arrived in Spain in 1645, and in the 
next year was sent by the Jesuit province of Cas- 
tile to Rome as representative in the eighth gen- 
eral congregation of the order. He was there ap- 
pointed censor of theological works, and theologian 
of the general of the Jesuits, and when appointed 
by the pope to a higher dignity declined, and re- 
tired to the College of Valladolid, of which he 
was rector at his death. He published " Discursus 
praevius ad theologicam moralem " (2 vols., Mexico, 
1631 ; 1 vol., Madrid, 1645) ; " Questiones morales 
de Sacramentis " (2 vols., Granada, 1644 ; revised 
ed., Madrid and Mexico, 3 vols., 1649) ; " Historia 
de la Conquista de Nueva Espana " (5 vols., Valla- 
dolid, 1650) ; and several other theological works. 
He left also in manuscript a " Relatio de Christiani- 
tate in America, et de rebus gestis patrum Socie- 
tatis Jesu in provincia Novae Hispaniae," which was 
afterward published in the " Bibliotheca Scripto- 
rum Societatis Jesu." 

LUKENS, Henry Clay, journalist, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 18 Aug., 1838. He was educated 
at the public schools of his native city, and as early 
as 1855 contributed to daily and weekly news- 
papers. In 1858 he was part owner and editor of 
an illustrated monthly called "■ The School Jour- 
nal." During the civil war he saw active service. 
From 1877 till 1884 he was an associate editor of 
the " New York Daily News," and he is now (1888) 
managing editor and one of the publishers of " The 
Journalist," New York. He has written under the 
pen-name of " Erratic Enrique," which he first 
signed to letters from Uruguay in 1874—'5. He has 
published " The Marine Circus at Cherbourg, and 
Other Poems " (New York, 1865) ; " Lean Nora," 
a travestv of Burger's " Lenore " (Philadelphia, 
1870) ; " Story of the Types " (New Haven, 1881) ; 
and " Jets and Flashes " (New York, 1883). He is 
now (1888) compiling " Records of the New York 
Press Club." 

LULL, Edward Phelps, naval officer, b. in 
Windsor, Vt., 20 Feb., 1836 ; d. in Pensacola, Fla., 
5 March, 1887. His mother was left a widow in 
straitened circumstances with a large family of 
children, and removed to Wisconsin, from which 
state her son was appointed acting midshipman in 
the navy, 7 Oct., 1851. He was promoted midship- 
man in 1855, passed midshipman and master in 
1858, and lieutenant in 1860. On his return from 
his second cruise in the latter year he became as- 
sistant professor of ethics at the Naval academy, 
and teacher of fencing. In May, 1861, he was 
ordered to the " Roanoke," and thus took part in 
the engagement between that frigate and the Con- 
federate forts at Hatteras inlet in the following 
July. In September he was sent back to the 
academy, where he remained until, in 1863, he be- 

came commandant of midshipmen and executive 
officer of that institution. In July, 1862, he had 
been promoted lieutenant-commander, and in De- 
cember, 1863, he was ordered to active service, par- 
ticipating in the battle of Mobile Bay and subse- 
quent engagements. He was successively in com- 
mand of the captured Confederate "Tennessee," 
at the bombardment of Fort Morgan in August, 
1864, the 3d division of the Mississippi squadron, 
the " Seminole " in the blockade of Galveston, and 
the iron-clad " Lafayette." After the war he was 
again at the naval "academy in 1867-9, had com- 
mand of the Nicaragua survey expedition in 
1872-3, was a member of the interoceanic ship- 
canal commission in 1873-4, and the following 
year had charge of a special survey of the Panama 
canal route. From 1875 till 1880 he was hydro- 
graphic inspector of coast survey, and in 1881 he 
was made captain, having reached the grade of 
commander in 1870. Capt. Lull was a member of 
several learned societies. He received the degree 
of A. M. from Princeton in 1868. 

LUMPKIN, Wilson, statesman, b. in Pittsyl- 
vania county, Va., 14 Jan., 1783 ; d. in Athens, Ga., 
28 Dec, 1870. He removed to Oglethorpe county, 
Ga., with his father, in 1784, and, the latter having 
been appointed in 1797 clerk of the superior court 
there, the son became an assistant in his office, 
studied law, was admitted to the bar, and practised 
at Athens, Ga. * When about twenty-one years of 
age he was elected to the legislature, and was sub- 
sequently re-elected several times. In 1823 he was 
appointed by President Monroe to mark out the 
boundary-line between Georgia and Florida, and 
he was afterward one of the first commissioners 
under the Cherokee treaty of 1835. He served in 
congress from 1815 till' 1817, and from 1827 till 
1831 : and in the U. S. senate, to which he was 
elected in place of John P. King, resigned, from 
13 Dec, 1837, till 3 March, 1841. He was elected 
governor of Georgia in 1831 and 1833, and was one 
of the original members of the board of public 
works that was created by the legislature. — His 
brother, Joseph Henry, jurist, b. in Oglethorpe 
county, Ga., 23 Dec, 1799 ; d. in Athens, Ga., 4 
June, 1867, was educated at the University of 
Georgia, and at 
Princeton, where 
he was graduated 
in 1819. In 1820 
he was admitted 
to the bar, and 
began practice at 
Lexington, where 
he soon gained 
eminence in his 
profession. In 
1844 he retired 
from the bar in 
consequence of ill 
health, and short- 
ly afterward vis- 
ited Europe. In 
1845, during his 
absence, the su- 
preme court of Georgia was reorganized, and he 
was elected justice, and afterward became chief jus- 
tice, which office he held until his death. Judge 
Lumpkin was elected professor of rhetoric and 
oratory in the University of Georgia in 1846, but 
declined ; and subsequently was elected professor 
of law in the institution attached to the univer- 
sity, which was named Lumpkin law-school in his 
honor. He discharged the duties of his professor- 
ship successfully until the civil war disbanded 



the institution, and, afterward resuming his chair, 
retained it till his death. In 1855 President Pierce 
tendered him a seat on the bench of the court 
of claims, which he declined, as he did also the 
chancellorship of the University of Georgia, to 
which he was elected in 1860. He was an advo- 
cate of the cause of temperance, and for many 
years a trustee of the State university, lie held 
a high place as a judge and as an advocate at 
the bar in criminal cases, and his appeals to the 
sympathv of jurors have been rarely equalled, lie 
was one* of the compilers of the penal code ol 
Georgia in 18:]:3.— Wilson's son, John Henry, 
lurisr, b. in Oglethorpe county, Ga., 18 June, 1812: 
d. in Rome, Ga., G June, 18G0, was educated at 
Franklin and Yale colleges, studied law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in March, 1834, and began prac- 
tice at Rome, Ga. lie was a member of the state 
house of representatives in 1835, and was solicitor- 
general of the Gherokee circuit in 1838. He was 
elected to congress, serving by successive elections 
from 4 Dec, 1843, till 3 March, 1849, and from 3 
Dec, 1855. till 3 March, 1857, and was for several 
years a judge of the state supreme court. 

LI NA Y ARELLANO, Tristan rte (loo -nah), 
Spanish explorer, b. in Borobia, Aragon, in 1519; 
d. in Yucatan in 1571. He came about 1550 to 
^Mexico, and in 1559 was appointed by the viceroy, 
Luis de Velasco, commander of a fleet of thirteen 
sliips, which he sent to conquer and colonize 
Florida. His landing force consisted of about 
1.500 infanti-y and nearly 200 cavalry, and with 
some Dominican friars, among them Domingo de 
la Anunciacion. Pedro de Feria, and Domingo de 
Salazar, he sailed from V^era Cruz in July, 1559. 
The fleet arrived on 15 Aug. in a bay which, by a 
former explorer, Guido de Labezares {q. v.), had 
been called Filii)ina, but was named, by Luna, Santa 
Maria, on account of his arrival on the feast of the 
Virgin. On 21 Aug. a violent hurricane destroyed 
all the vessels at anchor except one, which was 
driven ashore by the waves. Notwithstai:ffling this 
misha{), Luna l)egan the exploration of the interior 
and reached Ninicai)ua, a large abandoned Indian 
town, which he named Santa Cruz. In 15G0 he 
discovered the river Olibahali, and a province 
called Coza l)y th(i natives: but the difficulties of 
the territory, tin; hostility of the Indians, and the 
want of provisi(jns impelled many of the adven- 
turei's to i'(!tuni to the coast, whence they went to 
Ciil)a to ask lor help. Others, under the leader- 
ship of Juan Ceroii. rose in a nnitiny, which Luna 
hail much troultle to (piell. In 15()1 re-enforce- 
ments i'roin Cuba arrived, and explorations were 
continued as far as the point of Santa Flena: but, 
seeing that success was douljtful, some of the 
captains called a (council of war and returned to 
Cuba. Luna, with some faithful followers, con- 
tinued his explorations till in l)ec;ember, 15G2, he 
was recalled l)y the viceroy to Mexico. In 1503 he 
was appointed i,^<)vernor of the province of Yuca- 
tan, which place lie held till his death. 

Ll'NDY, Henjiiinin, philanthn)|)ist. 1). in Hard- 
wick, Warren co.. X. J., 4 Jan., 17.S9: d. in Ijowell, 
' La Salle co.. 111., 22 Aug.. 1839. His ])arents were 
members of the S()c.i(;ty of Friends. When he was 
ai)out nineteen years of age he removed to Wheel- 
ing, Va„ where he remained for four years, work- 
ing the first eighteen months as an ai)prenticc to a 
saddler. While there his attention was first di- 
rected to the evils of slavery, and determined his 
future course as an Abolitionist. On leaving Wheel- 
ing he went to ]Mt. Pleasant, Ohio, and then to 
St. Clairsville in that state, where, in 1815. he origi- 
nated an anti- slavery association, called the 


'* Union humane society," and wrote an appeal on 
the subject of slavery. ' Soon afterward he became 
a contributor of anti-slavery articles to the " Phi- 
lanthropist" newspaper, published at Mt. Pleas- 
ant. In the autumn of 1819 he removed to St. 
Louis, Mo., at the 
time that the Mis- 
souri question was 
attracting universal 
attention, and de- 
voted himself to an 
exposition of the evils 
of slavery in the 
newspapers of that 
state and Illinois. 
Returning to Mt. 
Pleasant, he began in 
January, 1812, the 
publication of the 
"Genius of Univer- 
sal Emancipation," a 
monthly, the office of 
which was soon re- 
moved to Jonesbor- 
ough, Tenn.. and 
thence to Baltimore in 1824, when it became a week- 
ly. In the latter part of 1825 Mr. Lundy visited 
Hayti to make arrangements with the government 
of that island for the settlement of such freed slaves 
as might be sent thither. In 1828 he visited the 
eastern states, where he lectured and formed the 
acquaintance of William Lloyd Garrison, with 
whom he afterward became associated in editing 
his journal. In the winter of 1828-'9 he was as- 
saulted for. an alleged libel and nearly killed in 
Baltimore by a slave-dealer named Austin Wool- 
folk. Lundy was indirectly censured by the court 
and compelled to remove his paper to Washington, 
and finally to Philadelphia, where he gave it the 
name of "" The National Inquirer," and finally it 
merged into " The Pennsylvania Freeman." In 
1829 he went a second time to Hayti, and took 
witli him several slaves that had been emancipated 
for that purpose. In the winter of 1830 he visited 
the W^ilberforce colony of fugitive slaves in Canada, 
and then went1:o Texas to provide a similar asylum 
under the Mexican flag, renewing his visit in 1833, 
but was baffled by the events that led to the an- 
nexation of Texas. In 1838 his property was 
burned by the pro-slavery mob that fired Pennsyl- 
vania Hail, Philadelphia. In the winter of 1838-'9 
he removed to Lowell, La Salle co.. 111., with the 
intention of publishing the " Genius " there, but 
his design was frustrated by his death. He was 
the first to establish anti-slavery periodicals and 
to deliver anti-slavery lectures, and probably the 
first to induce the formation of societies for the 
encouragement of the produce of free labor. See 
" The Life, Travels, and Opinions of Benjamin 
Lundy." by Thomas Earl (Philadelphia, 1847). 

LUNDY, Jolin Patterson, clergyman, b. in 
Danville, Pa., 3 Feb., 1823. He was graduated at 
Princeton in 1846, and after pursuing the theo- 
logical course in the seminary was ordained as a 
Presbyterian minister on 13 Feb., 1849. Two 
years later, after holding a pastorate at Sing Sing, 
N. Y., he entered the Protestant Episcopal church. 
was ordained deacon, in St. Paul's church. Sing 
Sing, N. Y., 25 Oct., 1854, by Bishop Upfold, and 
priest, in All Saints' church,"^ Philadelphia, 28 Oct., 
1855, by Bishop Alonzo Potter. During his diaco- 
nate he was in charge of Briar Cliff chapel, and 
was also chaplain of the state-prison in Sing Sing. 
In 1855 he became rector of All Saints' church, 
Philadelphia, and two years later of Emmanuel 




church, Holmesburg, Pa. In 1869 he became rec- 
tor of the Church of the Holy Apostles, New York 
city, but in 1875 he was compelled to resign on ac- 
count of failure of health. Dr. Lundy's chief pub- 
lication is entitlJed " Monumental Christianity, or 
the Art and Sypabolism of the Primitive Christian 
Church " (Ne^ York, 1876). He also printed a 
volume on " Forestry " (1880). and is now (1888) 
preparing a work on " Prehistoric Worship." 

LUNOREN, Samuel Smith, physician, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 22 Aug., 1827. He was gradu- 
ated at Jefferson medical college in 1850, and at the 
Homoeopathic medical college of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, in 1852. Subsequently he settled in 
Toledo, Ohio, where he has practised medicine and 
surgery, making a specially of the diseases of 
women. His greatest success has been with the 
Capsarean section, which he has performed with 
favorable issue on three occasions, and but twelve 
operations of that nature have ever been performed 
in Ohio. His most celebrated case is one in which 
the section was performed originally in 1875, and 
again on the same person in 1880. The woman 
and her two children are now (1887) living and in 
good health. Dr. Lungren has contributed numer- 
ous articles to the medical press, and is the author 
of <&, memoir on the " Caesarean Section " (Toledo, 
1881). — His son, Charles Marshall, inventor, b. 
in Hagerstown, Md., 13 Dec, 1853, was graduated 
at the University of Michigan in 1874 as a civil 
engineer. He first turned his attention to journal- 
istic work, and for some time was a member of 
the staff of the " Popular Science Monthly." Mr. 
Lungren has studied the problems connected with 
artificial illumination, and has invented several 
appliances that have come into extended use, nota- 
bly a regenerative gas-lamp. He is a member of 
scientific societies, and, besides writing magazine 
articles, has edited the American edition of Al- 
glave and Boulard's " Electric Light " (New York, 
1^3). — Another son. Ferdinand Harvey, artist, 
b. in Toledo, Ohio, 13 Nov., 1857, studied at the 
University of Michigan, but came to New York be- 
fore his graduation, in order to follow art. He has 
made many illustrations, principally for the "Cen- 
tury " and " Wide Awake," and his paintings in- 
clude " Shadows on the Snow." 

LUNT, George, author, b. in Newburyport, 
Mass., 31 Dec, 1803 ; d. in Boston, 17 May,' 1885. 
He was graduated at Harvard in 1824 with special 
distinction in Greek, studied law, and began prac- 
tice in Newburyport in 1827. He was elected suc- 
cessively representative for Newburyport and sena- 
tor from Essex coun- 
ty in the legislature, 
was an active mem- 
ber of the conven- 
tion that nominated 
Gen. Zachary Taylor 
for the presidency, 
and was appointed 
U. S. district attor- 
ney under Taylor's 
administration. He 
eventually resumed 
the private practice 
of his profession, de- 
voting his leisure 
to literary pursuits. 
Prior to and during 
the civil war he was 
editor of the Boston 
"Courier" in conjunction with George S. Hillard. 
Again returning to the practice of his profession, 
he appeared frequently in the state courts, and was 

counsel before congressional committees in refer- 
ence to French claims, preparing a bill and efficient- 
ly pressing it for the action of congress. Mr. Lunt's 
later years were marked by labors in behalf of har- 
bors of refuge, notably at Scituate, on the south 
shore of Boston bay. By persevering effort he suc- 
ceeded in securing very considerable appropriations 
from congress to this end, and the harbor at Scitu- 
ate will, when completed, be a fitting monument to 
his intelligence, energy, and zeal. In earlier life 
Mr. Lunt was an active member of the Whig party, 
and in its interests was distinguished as a public 
speaker. On the dissolution of that party he be- 
came a Democrat. He was a man of firm convic- 
tions in both political and religious matters, and 
fearless and manly in their expression. As a writer 
his style was marked by strength, dignity, and 
grace. Besides orations and addresses, he published 
" Poems " (New York, 1839) ; " The Age of Gold " 
(Boston, 1843) ; « The Dove and the Eagle " (1851) ; 
"Lyric Poems" (1854); "Julia" (1855); "Eastford, 
or Household Sketches" (1855); "Three Eras of 
New England" (1857); "Radicalism in Religion, 
Philosophy, and Social Life " (1858) ; " The Union, 
a Poem " (I860) ; " Origin of the Late War " (New 
York, 1866); "Old New England Traits" (1873); 
and " Miscellanies, Poems, etc." (1884). 

LUNT, William Parsons, clergyman, b. in 
Newburyport, Mass., 21 April, 1805 ; d. in Akabah, 
Arabia Petraea, 20 March, 1857. He was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1823, taught for a year at Plym- 
outh, and studied law for a short time at Boston. 
He entered Cambridge divinity-school in 1825, and 
was pastor of the 2d Unitarian church of New York 
city in 1828-'33. On 3 June, 1835. he became as- 
sociate pastor of the Unitarian church in Quincy, 
Mass., in which connection he continued till his 
death. His writings display a singularly pure taste 
and classic refinement, and have been much ad- 
mired. He was the author of " Discourse at the In- 
terment of John Quincy Adams " (Boston, 1846) ; 
" Union of the Human Race " (1850) ; " Sermon on 
Daniel Webster" (1852); and " Gleanings," edited 
by his daughter and published by his son (1874). 
Pie also compiled "The Christian Psalter." 

LUPTON, Nathaniel Thomas, chemist, b. in 
Frederick county, Va., 19 Dec, 1830. He was 
graduated at Dickinson college in 1849, spent two 
winters in Heidelberg, studying chemistry under 
Bunsen, and was professor of chemistry and geolo- 
gy in Randolph Macon college in 1857-'8 and in 
the Southern university, Greensborough, Ala., in 
1858-'7L In 1871 he was called to the presidency 
of the University of Alabama, with the chair of 
chemistry, and three years later was made professor 
of chemistry in Vanderbilt university, becoming 
also dean of the faculty of pharmacy. For eleven 
years he continued in these offices, devoting con- 
siderable time to the improvement of the sanitary 
and other economic conditions of life in Nashville 
and in Tennessee. In 1885 he was appointed state 
chemist of Alabama, and professor of chemistry in 
the Agricultural college of Alabama, in Auburn. 
He received the honorary degree of ]M. D. from 
Vanderbilt university and that of LL. D. from the 
University of Alabama in 1875. Prof. Lupton is a 
member of scientific societies, was vice-president of 
the American chemical society in 1880, chairman of 
the section on chemistry of the American associa- 
tion for the advancement of science in 1877, and 
vice-president of that association in 1880. In 1874 
he attended the congress of Orientalists in London. 
Besides his minor contributions to technical liter- 
ature he has published " The Elementary Princi- 
ples of Scientific Agriculture" (New York, 1880). 




LUQUE, Fernando de (loo'-kay), Spanish cler- 
.-gyman, b. in Olvera, Andalusia, in 1484; d. in 
Panama in 1531. He left San Lucar, Spain, 14 
July, 1514, and arrived on 20 June in the colony of 
Tierra Firme, with the bishop of Santa Maria de 
la Antigua and the governor, Pedro Arias Davila. 
After the discovery of the Pacific and the removal 
of the capital to Panama, he was appointed canon 
professor of divinity of the cathedral in that city. 
When Pizarro and Almagro undertook the dis- 
covery of the large and fertile territories in South 
America, they associated themselves with Luque, 
who, as a person of great influence and ample 
means, was the best partner for the accomplish- 
ment of their enterprise. To win the good-will 
of the governor, Pedro Arias. Luque and his two 
companions lent him money for the expedition to 
concjuer Xicaragua, and thus obtained i)ermission 
for Pizarro to leave Panama for the exploration of 
Peru. On 10 March, 1520, Luque, Pizarro, and 
Almagro foi-med a contract of partnership. Luque 
advanced .$20,000 in gold bars, and they agreed 
to take each one third of everything they could 
nc(|uire, and also to enjoy equally all the honors 
that the sovereign might bestow upon them. Luque 
was tlie agent of tlie two adventurers and their 
adviser in tlie difficulties that arose from their 
undertaking. He counselled Pizarro to stay on the 
island of Gallo, when the latter was ordered to re- 
turn to Panama. In the spring of 1528 he gave 
to Pizarro .|1,500 in gold for a visit to Spain to 
)l)tain a royal charter. In 1529 Luque was ap- 
)ointed provisor and ecclesiastical governor of 
Jarien. and after the interview between Pizarro 
and the queen he was nominated bishop of Tum- 
bez, and a})i)ointed universal protector of the Pe- 
ruvian Indians. On Aug., 1531, Luque declared 
that the money he had advanced for the conquest 
of Peru belonged to Gaspar Espinosa {q. v.), and 
that the latter might claim his third. He died 
before his (•(•nfirm;ition arrived from Pome. 

LrSKiNAN, Jean Baptiste Alphoiise, Cana- 
dian lawyer, b. in St. Denis, St. Hyacinthe co., 
Quebec, 27 Sept., 1843. He was educated at St. 
iiyacinthe college and at Laval university, Quebec, 
studied divinity for three years, and suljsecpiently 
law, and was admitted to the bar of Lower Canada in 
December, 18G8. He became assistant editor of the 
•' Triljune "' and of the " .lournal de St. Hyacinthe " 
in 18(53, in 1805 assistant editor of '* L'Union na- 
tionale," and the same year editor-in-chief of " Le 
Pays," the chief French iiewsj)aperof the Liberals 
of Montreal. In 1874 he became private secretary 
to Sir Antoine Aime Dorion, and afterward acted 
in a similar capacity for the minister of inland 
revenue. He was crcnvn pi'osecutor at Aylmer, 
Quebec, in 187S, |)resident of L'Institut Canadian 
Franyais of Ottawa in 1881, and founded, in the 
spring of 1885, the St. Lawrence fishing company. 
He was elected a member of the Royal society of 
Canada in May, 1885, and was appoiiited secretary 
of the Fren(^li section. He has })ublislied "La 
confederation, couroiniement de dix annees de 
mauvaise administration " (Montreal, 1807) ; a 
continuation to Judge Ramsay's "Digest of Re- 
l)oi t (m1 Cases " in Lower Canada'(1872) ; and " Coups 
d'ceil et coups de [)lume" (Ottawa, 1884). 

LUSK, Jolni, soldier, b. on Staten island, N. Y., 
5 Nov., 1734; d. near McMinnville, Tenn., 8 June, 
1838. He Ix'gan his military career, when he was 
about twenty years old, at the conquest of Acadia. 
He was present at the siege of Quebec, saw Gen. 
Wolfe fall^ on the plains of Abraham, and served 
in Arnold's expedition to Canada. He was en- 
gaged in the erection of Fort Edward, and was 


wounded there ; was at the battle of Saratoga, the 
surrender of Burgoyne, and also that of Cornwal- 
lis, and subsequently served under Wayne in the 
campaign against the Indians. 

LUSK, WiUiam Thompson, physician, b. in 
Norwich, Conn., 23 May, 1838. He was for a time 
at Yale, in 1858-'61 studied medicine in Heidel- 
berg and Berlin, and on his return to the United 
States he served in the U. S. volunteer army in 
1861-3, and rose 'from the ranks to be assistant 
adjutant-general. Pie was graduated at Bellevue 
hospital medical college in 1864, afterward spent a 
year and a half in study in Edinburgh, Paris, 
Vienna, and Prague, and in 1865 began practice 
in New York. He was professor of physiologv in 
Long Island college hospital from 1868 till 1871, 
in 1870-'l lecturer on physiology in Harvard medi- 
cal school, and became professor of obstetrics in 
Bellevue hospital medical college in 1871, and in 
the latter year editor of the " New York Medical 
Journal." He is a member of various British and 
American medical societies, has contributed to cur- 
rent professional literature, and is the author of 
" The Science and Art of Midwifery " (New York, 
1881 ; enlarged ed., 1885), which has been trans- 
lated into several European languages. 

LUSSAN, Rayeneau de, French buccaneer* b. 
in Paris in 1663 ; d. in France. He belonged to a 
noble but impoverished family, and embraced a 
military career at the age of fourteen. In 1679 he 
embarked for Santo Domingo in search of fortune, 
but was unsuccessful, and joined the buccaneers 
under Cornelius Laurent (q. v.), sailing from Petit- 
Goave, 22 Nov., 1684. He soon left Laurent at the 
head of a band of his own, and in 1685 pillaged 
the town of Realejo in Guatemala. In 1686 his 
band took part in the capture of Grenada, and, not 
finding the booty they expected, set fire to the city. 
After this Lussan separated from the English pi- 
rates, but he joined them again for the purpose of 
attacking Guayaquil, which they took witli much 
booty. Lussan and a part of his followers then 
sailed for Tehuantepec, which they captured, and 
went as far north as Acapulco. They returned to 
Ma,])ala, a port north of Realejo, and deliberated 
on the route they should take to reach the An- 
tilles. It was agreed to march to Nueva Segovia, 
a town situated on the Yara or Cape river, which 
empties into the Atlantic. Of this expedition Vol- 
taire said : " The retreat of the ten thousand will 
always be more celebrated, but is not to be com- 
pared to it." Lussan formed four companies, of 
seventy men each, and made them swear to observe 
the severest discipline. On 2 Jan., 1688, after pray- 
ing together, and sinking their boats for fear they 
might fall into the power of the Spaniards, they 
began their march, and in ten days, during which 
they were almost constantly engaged in fighting 
sui)erior numbers, they reached Nueva Segovia. 
One evening, in a defile surrounded by rocks of 
great height on which the Spaniards had intrenched 
themselves, the buccaneers sought hopelessly for a 
way of escape. Lussan proposed that, leaving 
eighty men to guard the sick, they should get in 
the rear of the mountains and then surprise the 
enemy. His advice was at first rejected, but was 
adopted when their case became desperate. They 
found a path which led behind the mountains, and, 
favored by a thick fog, they forced the intrench- 
ments of the Spaniards and put them to flight. 
After this victory they chanted a Te Deum. They 
then descended the Yara on the wretched boats of 

, the country, and came in sight of Cape Gracias-a- 
Dios on 9 Feb. Lussan embarked on an English 

I lugger on 14 Feb., and reached Santo Domingo on 




6 April. He had marched nearly 1,000 miles, con- 
stantly harassed by the Spaniards, although the 
distance from the point where he started to that 
which he wished to reach was but 240 miles in 
a straight line. I Lussan published " Journal du 
voyage fait a la^iner du Sud avec les flibustiers de 
I'Amerique " (faris, 1688, 1690, 1705). It was dedi- 
cated to the minister of the navy, who, in common 
with most Frenchmen of the time, appeared to con- 
sider the exploits of Lussan worthy of approval. 
Although the work is confused, it contains curious 
and interesting details on the productions and 
manners of the natives of the countries he visited. 

LUTZ, Nicholas, soldier, b. in the Palatinate, 
Germany, 20 Feb., 1740; d. in Reading, Pa., 28 
Nov., 1807. He was captain of a battery at the 
battle of Long Island, where he was taken prison- 
er, but was exchanged in 1779. He was a delegate 
to the Pennsylvania convention to ratify the Fed- 
eral constitution in 1787, a member of the Penn- 
sylvania house of representatives in 1783-'94, and 
was appointed assistant justice of Berks county 
courts on 6 Feb., 1795. 

LUZ-CABALLERO, Jos6 de la (looth\ Cuban 
educator, b. in Havana, Cuba, 11 July, 1800; d. 
there, 22 June, 1862. He studied in' his native 
city, began in 1827 a tour through the United 
States and Europe, and in his travels came in con- 
tact with the chief scientific and literary celebrities 
of the time, including the German philosopher 
Krause, who paid a public tribute to Luz's scien- 
tific and philosophical views. With Humboldt he 
arranged to establish in Cuba a magnetic observa- 
tory in correspondence with like institutions in 
Germany. In 1831 he returned to Cuba, and de- 
voted all his time and energies to the cause of edu- 
cation, assuming the direction of a college from 
1834 till 1839. In 1848 he founded the College el 
Salvador, where many that have attained reputa- 
tion in Cuba in literature, science, or politics have 
been educated. La Luz is by general consent the 
man who has done most for public education in 
Cuba. There is a movement to erect a monument 
to his memory in Havana. Among his works are 
a translation of Volney's " Travels in Egypt and 
Syria," with notes and additions (Paris, 1829) ; Sieg- 
ling's " Public Prisons and their Reforms," from 
the German (1837) ; and numerous memoirs and 
pamphlets on educational, scientific, and philo- 
sophical subjects. There are several biographies 
of La Luz, the best being that in Spanish by Jose 
Ignacio Rodriguez (New York, 1874). 

LUZENBERG, Charles Aloysius, physician, 
b. in Verona, Italy, 31 July, 1805 ; d. in Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, 15 July, 1848. He was educated at 
Landau, and at Weissenburg college, Alsace, and 
in 1819 accompanied his father, who had been 
commissary in the Austrian army, to Philadel- 
phia. He attended lectures at Jefferson medical 
college in 1825, removed to New Orleans in 1829, 
and became surgeon to the Charity hospital. He 
soon became well known in his profession, estab- 
lished the New Orleans medical school, of which 
he was the first dean, and founded the Society of 
natural history in 1839, and in 1843 the Louisiana 
medico-chirurgical society, being of both first 
president. In 1832-'4 he visited Europe, and was 
made a corresponding member of the Academy of 
Paris. He performed successfully many of the 
most difficult surgical operations, such as the ex- 
tirpation of the parotid gland, the excision of six 
inches of ilium, and the tying of the primitive 
iliac artery. Dr. Luzenberg is also credited with 
being the first physician on this continent to pre- 
vent pitting in small-pox by exclusion of light. 

LUZURIAGA, Toribio (lu-thu-re-ah'-gah), Ar- 
gentine soldier, b. in Juaraz, Peru, in 1770 ; d. in 
Buenos Ayres in 1837. He took part in all the 
battles against the English army in 1806-'7 in 
Buenos Ayres and Montevideo, made the cam- 
paign of upper Peru during 1810, under Gen. 
Balcarce, and was present at the famous retreat of 
the patriot army, under Castelli, in Desaguadero. 
In 1816 he joined the army of the Andes, where he 
rendered important service to the cause of Span- 
ish-American independence. He was elected gov- 
ernor of the province of Cuyo in 1816, and went to 
Chili in 1820, and afterward joined the Peruvian 
army, serving in these two countries as a general, 
and being elected marshal of Chili. He was com- 
missioned by San Martin to the congress that was 
about to be established in the United Provinces of 
the River Plate, and afterward continued to serve 
his country till his death. 

LYALL, James, inventor, b. in Perthshire, 
Scotland, 13 Sept., 1836. He came to the United 
States when he was three years old, and, after a 
school education, worked in his father's shop, mak- 
ing and mounting Jacquard machines for weaving. 
At the beginning of the civil war he served with 
the 12th New York infantry in the defences of 
Washington. In 1863 he invented a simple mix- 
ture for enamelling cloth, which was approved by 
the U. S. government, and led to his receiving large 
contracts for the manufacture of knapsacks and 
haversacks. He and his brother William employed 
upward of 4,000 men in filling the orders that they 
received. In 1868 he invented the Lyall positive- 
motion loom, which has since been adopted by the 
largest mills in the United States, and also in Eu- 
rope, China, and Japan. Its advantages are the 
abolition of the picking sticks ; a positive motion 
to the shuttle from any point in its course ; the 
great width of the fabric that may be woven ; the 
variety of fabrics that may be produced, from the 
finest silk to the heaviest carpet ; the almost total 
absence of wear, and the very small amount of 
power required to operate the looms. There has 
been no corresponding advance in weaving since 
the application of power to the loom, and it is 
claimed that no invention in any field has exceeded 
this in importance and value to humanity. Mr. 
Lyall received the gold medal of honor in 1869 
from the American institute of New York, which 
was the first award of this prize. He founded with 
his brother William in 1861 the firm of J. and W. 
Lyall, which still carries on the manufacture of 
looms and machines. Later he established the 
Brighton mills to weave figured cotton goods, and 
the Chelsea mills for jute goods. These enterprises 
are in New York city, and are now (1887) under 
his direct management. 

LYBRAND, Joseph, clergyman, b. in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., 3 Oct., 1793 ; d. there, 24 April, 1845. 
His parents were Lutherans, but he became a 
Methodist when about ten years of age, and, after 
receiving a good education, was admitted in 1811 
as a candidate on probation for the ministry. 
From that time until 1842 he labored as an itiner- 
ant Methodist preacher, exclusively within the ju- 
risdiction of the Philadelphia conference. As a 
pulpit orator Mr. Lybrand took high rank. " Of 
the many sermons I have heard him preach," said 
one who knew him over twenty years, " I do not 
remember one that was deficient in logical struc- 
ture, impassioned appeal, or chaste and beautiful 
illustration. His voice possessed great compass, 
and was round, full, and susceptible of the most 
tender modulations." So strong was his convic- 
tion that it was his duty to engage in no other 



work than that of preaching, that he declined to 
accept some of the most important oflBces in the 
gift of his denomination. 

LYDIUS, Johannes, clergyman, b. in Holland; 
d. in Schenectady, N. Y., 1 March, 1709. He had 
held the pastorate of a Reformed church in Ant- 
werp, Belgium, but came to this country in 1700, 
and was settled at Albany. He also labored in 
Schenectady after 1705, and from 1702 till his death 
did missionary work among the Indians. Robert 
Livingston, the Indian agent, had promised the 
Mohawks in 1700 that he would engage Lydius to 
learn their language and preach the gospel to 
them, and that he hoped soon to have the Bible 
translated for their benefit. In 1702 the " praying 
Indians" represented to the agent that Lydius 
" had exhorted them to live as Christians," and 
that his teachings had so wrought on their spirits 
that " they were all now united and friends." They 
returned hearty thanks for the pains that he had 
taken with them, which they acknowledged with a 
belt of wampum, and when Lydius died they pre- 
sented four l)eaver-skins to the agent as an expres- 
sion of condolence. Lydius ministered among the 
tribes of the Five Nations, and received from the 
governor and council suitable compensation for 
his services. About thirty Indian communicants 
were connected with his church when Lydius died. 
The latter is represented by Thomas Barclay, his 
contemporary, and a clergyman of the Church of 
England, as "a good, pious man," who "lived in 
entire friendship" with him, and "sent his own 
children to be catechized."— Ilis son, John Henry, 
Indian trader, b. in Antwerp, Belgium, in 1698 ; 
d. near London, England, in 1791, became an In- 
dian trader in the province of New York, and un- 
derstood several native dialects, among them Cher- 
okee, Choctaw, and Catawba, besides speaking 
Dutch, French, and English fluently. He was a 
counsellor of Sir William Johnson, and for several 
years governor at Fort Edward. An English 
writer is responsible for the statement that the 
Lydius family were possessed of considerable land- 
ed property in the province under an original grant 
from James I., and that the Indians, grateful for 
the services of the father as a missionary, added to 
these domains a large tract of country in central 
New York. Lydius is said to have gone to Eng- 
land in 1770 to solicit arrears for services that he 
had rendered the government and money that he 
had ex[)en(le(l, and to visit Holland. P)efore leav- 
ing New Y(n-k he gave homesteads to many fami- 
lies, and urged his children to pursue the same 
policy. He never returned to this country, but 
resi(l(Ml in Kensington, London, until his death. 

LVKLL, Sir Charles, bart., English geologist, b. 
in Kinnordv, Forfarshii-e, 1-4 Nov.. 1797 : d. in Lon- 
don, 22 Feb., 1875. He was the eldest son of 
Charles Lvell. of Kinnordv, and was graduated at 
Oxford in 1819. He then studied law, and was 
admitted to the l)ar, l^it abandoned the profession 
and gave himself to his favorite study of geology. 
He made extensive geological tours in Europe in 
1824, and again in 1828-'80, giving the results of 
his ol)servations in the " Transactions of the Geo- 
lot^ical Society " and elsewhere. In 18.80 appeared 
tlie first volume of his great work. *' The Princi- 
ples of Geology," which in scientific circles at- 
tracted much attention. The second volume ap- 
peai-ed in 1882, and the third in 1888. ^Meantime 
he was named professor of geology at King's col- 
lege, London, but he filled the office only for a 
short time. Another remarkable work fi'omhis pen 
appeared in 1888, entitled " The Elements of Ge- 
ology." These works, which effected a revolution 


in geological science, went counter to the univer- 
sally accepted Huttonian theory, that the former 
changes of the earth and its inhabitants were due 
to causes differing in kind and intensity from 
those now in operation, and taught that the true 
key to the interpretation of the geological move- 
ments was to be found in a correct knowledge of 
the changes now going on. Sir Charles visited 
this continent on two occasions, and made exten- 
sive explorations in the United States, Canada, and 
Nova Scotia. His " Travels in North America " 
appeared in 1841, and his "Second Visit to the 
United States," in which he treats of the social as 
well as geological characteristics of the New World, 
was published in 1845. Sir Charles was president 
of the Geological society in 1836 and 1850, and 
in 1864 of the British association. In 1848 he 
was honored with knighthood, and in 1864 he was 
made a baronet. In 1855 his own university con- 
ferred upon him the title of D. C. L., and from 
Cambridge he received the degree of LL. D. His 
latest work was " The Geological Evidences of the 
Antiquity of Man, with Remarks on Theories of 
the Origin of Species by Variation " (1863). 

LYELL, Thomas, clergyman, b. in Richmond 
county, Va., 13 May, 1775; d. in New York city, 
4 March, 1848. His parents were members of the 
Protestant Episcopal church, but, as there were no 
clergyman of that denomination in the neighbor- 
hood, young Ijyell was early thrown with the 
Methodists. When only fifteen years old he be- 
gan to exhort, and after teaching for two years 
he saved enough money to purchase a horse, and 
in 1792, after examination, was admitted to preach 
on trial as an itinerant. He labored on the Fred- 
erick circuit in Virginia, and subsequently in 
Providence, R. I., and was chaplain to congress 
during the closing years of the administration of 
John Adams and the early part of that of Thomas 
Jefferson, He often spoke of the shock he experi- 
enced at the first official dinner that was given by 
the latter on finding the usual blessing omitted, 
although both congressional chaplains were pres- 
ent. Subsequently Mr. Lyell received orders in 
the Protestant Episcopal church from Bishop 
Claggett in 1804, and at the close of that year he 
became rector of Christ church, New York city, 
where he remained for over forty years. He was 
given the degree of A. M. by Brown in 1803 and 
that of D. D, by Columbia in 1822. He was sec- 
retary of the convention of the diocese from 181 1 
until he declined re-election in 1816, a member of 
the diocesan standing committee from 1813 until 
his death, a deputy to the general convention from 
1818 until 1844, a trustee of the General theological 
seminary from 1822, and an active member of 
nearly all the institutions of his diocese. 

LYLE, John, clergvman, b. in Rockbridge 
county, Va., 20 Oct., 1769; d. in Paris, Ky., 22 
July, 1825. He was graduated at Liberty Hall in 
1794, and after teaching, studied theology, and was 
licensed to preach as a Presbyterian in 1797. He 
was ordained two years later, and in 1800 took 
charge of the churches of Salem and Sugar Ridge, 
in Clark county, where he remained several years 
and opened a school. In May, 1807, he removed to 
Paris, Ky., where he established an academy, at 
the same time preaching to the churches of Cane 
Ridge and Concord. About 1810 he withdrew 
from the academy, as well as from the churches, 
and soon after began preaching near Cynthiana, 
Harrison co. He subsequently gave up pastor- 
al work and devoted the rest of his life to mis- 
sionary labors. Mr. Lyle was a thorough scholar 
and did much for the cause of education in the 




west. He was the first to establish schools exclu- 
sively for the education of young women, and also 
the first to suggest the circulation of the scrip- 
tures by means of colporteurs. During the relig- 
ious excitement t^at began in the southwest in 
1800, accompanied by violent physical manifesta- 
tions, he did sd\m his power to curb the extrava- 
gances of the revival. 

LYLE, William, poet, b. in Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, 17 Nov., 1822. He was taken at the age of 
twelve to Glasgow, where he was subsequently ap- 

Erenticed to a potter. He continued to study by 
imself and in night-schools, made rapid progress, 
and on completing his apprenticeship soon obtained 
work as a journeyman. In 1862 he was offered a 
place in England, and while there he published 
various poems in the Scottish dialect. Among 
these was one entitled " The Grave of Three Hun- 
dred," having reference to the Barnsley mine dis- 
aster. It was issued in book-form and had an ex- 
tensive sale. Mr. Lyle subsequently came to the 
United States, and became manager in a manufac- 
turing business at Rochester, N. Y., where he has 
since resided. His poems are well known to Scot- 
tish residents both in this country and in Canada. 
Besides writing in the Scottish dialect, Mr. Lyle is 
the author of several English poems, including his 
" Diotima." He has also published " The Martyr 
Queen and other Poems " (New York, 1888). 

LYMAN, Benjamin Smith, mining engineer, 
b. in Northampton, Mass., 11 Dec, 1835. He was 
graduated at Harvard in 1855, after which he was 
assistant on the lowa^ state geological survey, and 
'then studied at the Ecole des mines in Paris in 
1859-'61, and at the Freiberg mining-school in 
1861-2, after which he resumed the practice of his 
profession in the United States and British Ameri- 
ca. In 1870 he made a survey of the oil lands in 
the Punjaub for the government of India. In 
1873-5 he was chief geologist and mining engineer 
of the geological survey of Hokkaido in Japan, and 
m 1876-'7 of the oil lands of Japan, finally filling 
a similar office on the geological survey of Japan 
in 1878-9. It is said of him that " he has surveyed 
and described in printed reports a large part of the 
Japanese empire, and knows more about it than 
any other living white man." At the end of 1880 
he left Japan, and went to live in Northampton, 
Mass., where he has since held several offices in the 
local government. In 1887 he joined the corps of 
the geological survey of Pennsylvania, with head- 
quarters in Philadelphia, Pa. Mr. Lyman has intro- 
duced several improved forms of surveying instru- 
ments — such as the topographer's transit, level rod 
notation, mine stadia, solar transit, and the use 
of equidistant curves, or contour-lines, for map- 
ping the structure of rock-beds. He is a mem- 
ber of scientific societies, and has published about 
one hundred professional papers. Among them 
the more important are " General Report on the 
Punjaub Oil Lands " (Lahore, 1878) ; " Preliminary 
Report on the First Season's Work of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Yesso " (Tokio, 1874) ; " A Geo- 
logical Trip through and around Yesso in 1874, 
and Four other Reports " (1875) ; " Report of Prog- 
ress of the Yesso Geological Surveys for 1875, and 
Seven Coal Survey Reports " (1877) ; " A General 
Report on the Geology of Yesso " (1877) ; " A Re- 
port of Progress for the First Year of the Oil Sur- 
veys " (1877) ; " Report on the Second Year's Prog- 
ress of the Survey of the Oil Lands of Japan " 
(1878) ; " Geological Survey of Japan ; Reports of 
Progress for 1878 and 1879 " (1879) ; also sixteen 
maps of surveys in Japan, and "Logarithms of 
Numbers, Sines, and Cosines " (Northampton, 1885). 

LYMAN, Chester Smith, educatori b. in Man- 
chester, Conn., 13 Jan., 1814. He early showed a 
fondness for astronomy and acquired a knowledge 
of that and kindred sciences without a teacher, con- 
structing, while yet a boy, various astronomical and 
optical apparatus. In 1829 he computed almanacs 
for the two following years, and also the eclipses 
of the next fifteen years. He was graduated at 
Yale in 1837, after which he was head teacher of 
the school in Ellington, Conn., and then studied at 
Union theological seminary in New York and at 
Yale theological seminary during 1839-'42. In 
1843-5 he was settled as pastor over the 1st Con- 
gregational church in New Britain, Conn., but fail- 
ing health compelled him to relinquish this charge, 
and he spent several years in travel. In 1846-'7 
he visited the Hawaiian islands, where for a time 
he had charge of the Royal school at Honolulu, 
and explored the volcano Kilauea. He then spent 
three years in California as a surveyor, being one 
of the first to send to the eastern states authentic 
accounts of the discovery of gold on the Pacific 
coast. He then returned to New Haven, where he 
at first was occupied in the revision of Webster's 
Dictionary, having charge of the scientific terms in 
the edition of 1864. In 1858 he became associated 
in the development of the scientific department of 
Yale (now the Sheffield scientific school), and was 
assigned to the chair of industrial mechanics and 
physics, which he held till 1871. He then was 
made professor of astronomy and physics, and so 
continued until 1884, and has since had charge of 
astronomy only. His special work has included 
the invention oi the combined zenith telescope and 
transit for latitude, longitude, and time, which was 
designed and mainly constructed in 1852, and in 
1867 he invented and patented an apparatus for 
illustrating the dynamics of ocean waves. About 
1871 he constructed an apparatus for describing 
acoustic curves, also making improvements in 
clock escapement, compensating pendulums, and 
similar apparatus. Prof. Lyman was the first to 
observe the planet Venus as a delicate luminous 
ring when seen in close proximity to the sun near 
inferior conjunction. He is a member of various 
scientific societies, was president of the Connecti- 
cut academy of arts and sciences during 1857-'77, 
and is also an honorary member of the British asso- 
ciation for the advancement of science. His writ- 
ings have been confined to scientific papers, which 
have appeared principally in the " American Jour- 
nal of Science " and in " The New Englander." 

LYMAN, Daniel Wanton, philanthropist, b. in 
Providence, R. I., 24 Jan., 1844 ; d. there, 19 Dec, 
1886. He was a lineal descendant of Gov. Wan- 
ton, of Rhode Island. He was for a time a mem- 
ber of the class of 1864 in Brown university, but 
was not graduated. For several terms he repre- 
sented the town of North Providence in the gen- 
eral assembly. In addition to |50,000 that he be- 
queathed to Brown university, Mr. Lyman left by 
his will $60,000 to the Society for the prevention 
of cruelty to children, $25,000 to the Providence 
lying-in hospital, $5,000 to the Providence nursery, 
$10,000 to the city of Providence for a monument 
to his grandfather, Elisha Dyer, $5,000 to the town 
of North Providence for a soldier's monument, and 
many other legacies. 

LYMAN, David Belden, missionary, b. in New 
Hartford, Conn., 28 July, 1803 ; d. in Hilo, Hawaiian 
islands, 4 Oct., 1884. He was graduated at Williams 
in 1828. studied theology at Andover, and was or- 
dained in Hanover, N. H.— On 3 Nov., 1831, he 
married Sarah Joiner, of Royalton, Vt., b. there, 
29 Nov., 1805 ; d. in Hilo, 6 Dec, 1885, and the next 



day they joined at Boston a party of nineteen 
missionaries that were about to sail for the Hawai- 
ian islands. Arriving there in May of the following 
year, Mr. and Mrs. Lvman were assigned to the sta- 
tion at Hilo, then one of the remotest of the group, 
but now a beautiful and thriving town. Even be- 
fore Mr. Lyman had entirely mastered the language 
he was placed in charge of the Hilo church and 
of its outlving dependencies. Here he preached, 
taught, and travelled incessantly, and with the 
most promising results. Tn 1836 two co-laborers, 
Titus and Fidelia Coan {q. v.), arrived, and the 
growing pastoral work was assigned to the former, 
while Mr. Lvman established an academy for young 
men, in which he was aided by his wife. A farm 
was cultivated under Mr. Lyman's supervision, and 
the pupils were thus supplied with food mainly 
through their own labor. Mr. Lyman continued 
his work until failing strength compelled him in 
1878 to give up the charge of the school to younger 
hands. His entire career as a missionary covered a 
period of fifty-two years, unbroken by any vaca- 
tion or by any absence from his field of labor 
other than that required by attendance at mission- 
ary meetings at Honolulu. — His son, Henry Miin- 
son, physician, b. in Hilo, Hawaiian islands, 26 
Nov., 1885, was graduated at Williams in 1858, 
and at the New York college of physicians and 
surgeons in 1861. He was house-surgeon in Belle- 
vue hospital, New York city, in 1861-2. During 
the latter year he volunteered in the National army 
as acting "assistant surgeon, serving as such in the 
military hospitals at Nashville, Tenn., and in 1868 
resigned and began practice in Chicago, where he 
has since resided, paying especial attention to dis- 
eases of the nervous system. From 1870 till 1875 
he was professor of chemistry in Rush medical 
college, Chicago, and since 1875 has been professor 
of j)hysiology and of nervous diseases in the same 
institution. During the latter period he has also 
occupied the chair of the theory and practice of 
medicine in the Chicago women's medical college. 
Dr. Lyman is a member of various professional 
associations, and has published " AucEsthesia and 
Anaesthetics" (New York, 1881) and " Lisomnia 
and (Jther Disorders of Sleep" (Chicago, 1885). 

LYMAN, Henry, missionary, b. in Northamp- 
ton, .Mass., 28 Nov., 1809; d. in the island of Su- 
matra, 28 June, 1884. He was graduated at Am- 
herst in 1829, and at Andover theological seminary 
in 1882, ordained, 11 Oct., 1882, and sailed the 
following spring for Sumatra, being one of the 
first missionaries that were sent to the East Lidian 
archipelago by the American board of commission- 
ers for foreign missions. He had scarcely begun 
his work when, with his companion, Rev. Samuel 
Munson, he was murdered by the savage Battahs 
among whom he was laboring. Mr. Lyman com- 
piled a tract entitled '^Condition and Character of 
Females in Pagan and Mohammedan Countries" 
(Boston, 1882; reprinted by the American tract 
society, 1884). See "Memoir of Henry Lyman," 
by his sister (New York, 1857). — His sister, Han- 
nah >Villard, educator, b. in Northampton, Mass., 
in 1816; d. in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 21 Feb., 1871, 
received a thorough education, began life early as 
a teacher, and soon attained a high reputation. 
Prior to 1865 she had been for many years known 
as a successful and thorough educator 'in Montreal, 
Canada. She left that city six years before her 
death to become vice-principal of Vassar college, 
and to assist in its organization. She remained at 
her post till her health gave way shortly before her 
death. Miss Lyman published a memoir of her 
brother, which is mentioned above. 


LYMAN, Joseph, clergyman, b. in Lebanon, 
Conn., 14 April. 1749; d. in Hatfield, Mass., 27 
March, 1828. He was graduated at Yale in 1767, 
served as tutor there in 1770-1, studied the- 
ology, and on 4 March, 1772, was ordained pastor 
of the Congregational church in Hatfield, Mass., 
where he remained until his death. He received 
the degree of D. D. from Williams in 1801. Dr. 
Lyman was one of the earliest patrons of the 
Hampshire missionary society, and in 1812 was 
chosen its president. He 'was also, from the be- 
ginning, a member of the American board of com- 
missioners for foreign missions, its vice-president 
in 1819, and its president in 1823. He was out- 
spoken in his earnest patriotism during the Revo- 
lutionary war, and offended many of his congre- 
gation by this course. Tn 1826 he was given an 
assistant. Dr. Lyman published seventeen occa- 
sional sermons (1774-1821). 

LYMAN, Josepli, artist, b. in Ravenna, Ohio, 
26 July, 1848. He studied under John H. Dolph 
and Samuel Col man, exhibited first at the National 
academy in 1876, and was elected an associate in 
1886. He visited Europe in 1866, 1870, and 1883. 
His more important works are " Summer Night " ; 
"Evening" (1880); "Perce Rock, Gulf of St. 
Lawrence " (1881) ; " Moonlight at Sunset on the 
Maine Coast" (1882); "Waiting for the Tide" 
(1883) ; " Street in St. Augustine, Florida " (1884) ; 
and " Under her own Fig-Tree " (1885). 

LYMAN, Joseph Bard well, agriculturist, b. 
in Chester, Mass., 6 Oct., 1829; d. in Richmond 
Hill, L. I., 28 Jan., 1872. He was graduated at 
Yale in 1850, taught three years, and studied law. 
He was graduated from the law-school of the Uni- 
versity of Louisiana in 1856, practised his profes- 
sion in New Orleans until 1861, and then removed 
to Stamford, Conn. There he engaged in hor- 
ticulture, also writing for the "Agriculturist" 
and other journals. Subsequently he removed to 
New York city, and in 1867 became agricultural 
editor of the " World." In 1868 he was manag- 
ing editor of " Hearth and Home," and a few 
months later joined the editorial staff of the " Trib- 
une," on which he served until his death. He 
was an active member of the Farmers' and Rural 
clubs, one of the managers of the American in- 
stitute, and connected in an honorary capacity 
with numerous horticultural and agricultural as- 
sociations. Mr. Lyman had a thorough acquaint- 
ance with the improved agriculture of New Eng- 
land, the more extensive tillage of the west, and 
the less diversified system of the south. He was 
an easy and forcible speaker. During his resi- 
dence at Stamford he wrote, with his wife, " The 
Philosophy of Housekeeping" (Hartford, 1867). 
He also published " Resources of the Pacific 
States " (Hartford, 1865) : " Women of the War " 
(1866) ; and " Cotton Culture " (New York, 1867) ; 
and left several unfinished works on agriculture. — 
His wife. Laura Elizabeth Baker, journalist, b. 
in Kent's Hill, Kennebec co.. Me., 2 April, 1831, 
was graduated at the Wesleyan academy, Wilbra- 
ham, Mass., in 1849. She married Mr. Lyman on 14 
July, 1858, and in 1870 became known by a series 
of articles that were published in " Hearth and 
Home " under the pen-name of " Kate Hunnibee." 
In 1875 she was president of the Woman's physi- 
ological society of Brooklyn, N. Y. She edited the 
"Home Interest" department in the New York 
"Tribune" in 1869-'87, and the " Dining-Room 
Magazine," in 1876-'7. 

LYMAN, Phineas, soldier, b. in Durham, Conn., 
in 1716: d. near Natchez, Miss., 10 Sept., 1774. 
He was bred to the trade of a weaver, but subse- 




quently prepared for college, and was graduated 
from Yale in 1738, remaining there three years as 
tutor, and also studying law. After his admission 
to the bar he settled in Suffield, then a part of 
Massachusetts, an(^ at once took high rank in his 
profession. Through his exertions Suffield was in 
1749 added to, Connecticut. He was for seven 
years elected toxthe upper house of the legislature, 
and during thar\ period was repeatedly charged 
with important civil trusts. In March, 1755, he 
was appointed major-general and commander-in- 
chief of the Connecticut forces, 1,000 in number, 
that were sent against Crown Point, and in accept- 
ing he gave up the largest law practice in the col- 
ony. In the following summer a fort was built 
under his direction on the east bank of the Hud- 
son, and was at first called Fort Lyman in his 
honor, although the name was afterward changed 
to Fort Edward. In the important battle that 
was fought at the head of Lake George, 8 Sept., 
1755, the command devolved on Gen. Lyman al- 
most at the beginning of the action. Sir William 
Johnson, his superior officer, having been wounded 
and compelled to retire. Although Lyman fought 
gallantly for five hours and a half, frequently 
showing himself in front of the defences to en- 
courage his men, he received no credit, his name 
not appearing in Gen. Johnson's official report. 
In 1756 he was again placed in command of the 
Connecticut contingent, this time composed of 
2,500 men, to operate against Crown Point, but 
the plan was finally abandoned. In the campaign 
of 1757 he was for a time in command at Fort 
Edward, and in 1758, at the head of 5,000 Connec- 
ticut troops, he shared in Gen. Abercrombie's re- 
pulse, and was with Lord Howe when he fell. In 
1759 he was again commissioned major-general, 
and, at the head of 4,000 Connecticut troops, aided 
Gen. Amherst in taking possession of Ticonder- 
oga and Crown Point. He was also present at the 
reduction of Fort Louis at Oswego and the cap- 
ture of Montreal. In 1761 he was ordered to Can- 
ada, and in 1762 he was sent with 2,300 men to as- 
sist in the capture of Havana, and subsequently 
placed in command of the entire provincial force 
during that unlucky expedition. At its close he 
was deputed by the surviving officers and soldiers 
to proceed to England and receive the part of the 
prize money that remained due. A company of 
" Military Adventurers " had also been formed by 
his exertions, chiefly composed of those who had 
served in the late wars, whose object was to obtain 
from the British government a tract of land on 
the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Soon after his 
arrival in England in 1763 a change of ministry 
took place, and so many obstacles appeared in the 
way of accomplishing his design that he remained 
abroad until 1772, unwilling to return home and 
admit failure. He was at last taken back by his 
son, the wreck of his former self, but not until he 
had obtained permission from the crown to settle 
on a tract of land twenty miles square east of the 
Mississippi and south of the Yazoo. The "Mili- 
tary Adventurers " having been reorganized, Gen. 
Lyman began, in December, 1773, with a few com- 
panions, to make a preliminary survey. The party 
settled near Natchez, but Lyman soon died. 

LYMAN, Theodore, philanthropist, b. in Bos- 
ton, Mass., 20 Feb., 1792; d. in Brookline, Mass., 
18 July, 1849. His father was also Theodore Ly- 
man, and the son is geherally called Theodore Ly- 
man, Jr. He was graduated at Harvard in 1810, 
after which he spent two years in literary pursuits 
at the University of Edinburgh, and then passed 
a few months on the continent of Europe. In 

/n.t-O-C'U^jt. /Ly2-<*-< 

1817 he again visited Europe and spent two years 
travelling with Edward Everett through Greece, 
Turkey, and Bulgaria. On his return he studied 
law. after which for the three years following he 
held the office of aide-de-camp to the governor of 
Massachusetts, and in 1823 had command of the 
Boston brigade with the rank of brigadier-general. 
Under his strict dis- 
cipline this organ- 
ization became a 
creditable body of 
troops. He also at 
this time participat- 
ed in public affairs, 
and in 1820 became 
a member of the 
lower branch of the 
state legislature, 
where he continued 
until 1825, except 
in 1824, when he 
was in the state sen- 
ate. In 1834, and 
again in 1835, he 
was elected mayor 
of Boston. His ad- 
ministration was 
marked by the de- 
struction of the Ursuline convent in Boston and 
by the adoption of his recommendation that a 
sinking fund for the payment of city debt should 
be established. In 1835 "he rescued William Lloyd 
Garrison from an infuriated mob at the risk of his 
own life. On the completion of his second term he 
retired entirely from public life. He was president 
of the Boston farm-school, to which he bequeathed 
110,000, and an active member of the State horticul- 
tural society, to which organization he left a simi- 
lar sum. The object of his greatest benevolence 
was the State reform-school in Westborough which 
he founded and to which he gave $22,500 during 
his lifetime and $50,000 at his death. His works 
include " Three Weeks in Paris " (Boston, 1814) ; 
"The Political State of Italy " (1820): "Account 
of the Hartford Convention " (1823) ; " The Diplo- 
macy of the United States with Foreign Nations " 
(2 vols., 1828).— His son. Theodore, third of the 
name, naturalist, b. in Waltham, Mass.. 23 Aug., 
1833, was graduated at Harvard in 1855, and at 
the Lawrence scientific school of that university in 
1858. after which he continued his scientific studies 
in Europe until 1863. Soon after his return he 
entered the military service, and was made aide- 
de-camp on Gen. George G. Meade's staff, with the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel, on 2 Sept., 1863, in 
which capacity he served until 20 April, 1865, be- 
ing present at the movements on Centerville and 
Mine Run, the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsyl- 
vania Court-House, and Cold Harbor, the invest- 
ment of Petersburg, the pursuit of the Army of 
Northern Virginia, and its capture at Appomattox 
Court-House. From 1865 till 1882 he was fish 
commissioner of Massachusetts, making the first 
scientific experiments that were undertaken for 
the cultivation and preservation of food fishes by 
any state in the Union. The annual " Reports of 
the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries of Massa- 
chusetts" during his adnunistration were wholly 
or in part written by him. In 1883 he was elected 
to congress as an Independent on the issue of re- 
form in the civil service, and served until 3 March, 
1885. He has been active in the interests of Har- 
vard, being an overseer of that university from 
1868 till 1880, and from 1881 till 1887, and he has 
also been interested in the administration of chari- 



ties, is president of the Boston farm-school, and a 
trustee of the National Peabody education fund 
and of the Peabody museum of archaeology. Mr. 
Lyman is a member of scientific societies both at 
home and abroad, and in 1872 was elected to the 
National academy of sciences. He has worked 
chiefly on radiated animals at the Museuia of coni- 
parative zoology in Cambridge, where since 1800 
he has been assistant in zoology. In that connec- 
tion he has published "Illustrated Catalogue of 
the OphiuridaB and Astrophytida? in the Muse- 
um of Comparative Zoology" (Cambridge, 1865); 
" Supplement " (1871) ; " Report on Ophiurida) and 
Astrophytid;x3 dredged by Louis F. de Pourtales " 
(1809) ; " Old and New Ophiurid® and Astrophy- 
tid* " (1874) ; " Ophiurida? and Astrophytidtc of 
the Hassler Expedition " (1875) ; " Dredging Opera- 
tions of the U. S. Steamer 'Blake'; Opliiurans" 
(1875) ; " Prodrome of the Ophiurid;i! and Astro- 
phvtidie of the ' Challenger ' Expedition '" (part i., 
18t8; part ii., 1879); and "Report on the Ophiu- 
rida> dredged by II. M. S. ' Challenger' during the 
Years 1878-'0 ""(London, 1882 ) ; also various minor 
articles contributed to scientific journals, and 
"Pap(M-s i-eiating to tlio Garrison Mob" (1870). 

LYMAN, Theodore Benedict, P. E. bishop, 
b. in Brighton, Mass., 27 Nov., 1815. He was 
graduated at Hamilton college in 1837, and at the 
General tlieological seminary, New York city, in 

1840, was ordained deacon in Christ church, Balti- 
more, :M(1., 20 Sept., 1840. by Bishop Whittingham, 
and priest in St. John's church, Ilagerstown, Md., 
19 Dec, 1841, by tlie same bishop. He entered 
upon tlie charge of St. John's church, Hagerstown, 
in October, 1840, became rector of the parish in 

1841, and occupied tliat post for ten years. In 
1850 he accepted the rectorship of Trinity church, 
Pittsburg, Pa. In 1800 he removed to Europe, 
and was instrumental in establishing the Ameri- 
can church in Florence and the American chapel, 
now St. Paul's churcli, in Rome. During his resi- 
dence abroad he was elected dean of the General 
theological scMiiinary, l)ut declined. Ten years later 
he I'etui-ned to tlie United States, became rector of 
Trinity churcli, San Francisco, Cal., and held that 
office for three years. He was elected assistant 
bisho)) of North Carolina in 1878, and was conse- 
crated in Christ church, Raleigh, N. C, 11 Dec. 
187:]. On the death of Bishop Atkinson, in 1881^ 
he became bishop of the diocese. With his con- 
sent the eastern part of the state was set off as a 
se|)arale diocese in 1883. He received the degree 
of I). I), from St. Jfimes's college, Md., in 1850,"and 
by appointment of the presiding bishop, in 1880, 
took charge of the American Episcopal churches 
in ]^]uroi)e. Bishop Lyman has published a few 
occasional sermons and addresses. 

LYMAN, >Yniiani. legislator, b. in North- 
ampton. .Mass., in 1753; d. in London, England, 
in J)c(()ber, 1811. He was graduated at Yale in 
177(), in 1785) was a member of the Massachusetts 
senate, and was then elected to congress, serving 
from 2 Dec, 1793, till 3 March, 1797. He was ap"- 
I)ointed consul at London in 1805, and held the 
olllce for six vears until his death. 

LYMUrRNER, Adam, (^anadian merchant, b. 
in Kilmarnock, Ayrshire. Scotland, in 1740; d. in 
London in 1830. Ho came to Canada, established 
himself in Quebec as a merchant, and served for 
several years in the executive council of the prov- 
ince. In 1779 the English-speaking population 
employed ]\Ir. Lymburner to visit London as their 
agent and urge upon the home government a re- 
vision of the colonial system on a constitutional 
basis. His mission resulted in the transmission to 


the governor of a draft bill that provided for the 
establishment of representative government in 
Canada. The bill was not satisfactory to the colo- 
nists in all its provisions, and was opposed by Mr. 
Lymburner at the bar of the house of commons. 

"LYNCH, Charles, soldier, b. in Virginia; d. 
near Staunton, Campbell co., Va., about 1785. He 
was the colonel of a regiment of riflemen that 
behaved with gallantry at Guilford. The term 
" lynch law " is said to have been derived from his 
practice of executing without trial the members of 
a band of Tory marauders that infested the newly 
settled country. Another account derives the term 
from the summary methods taken by a planter 
named John Lynch to rid the region of outlaws 
and escaped slaves who took refuge in the Dismal 
Swamp. This may have been Col. Charles's broth- 
er John, who founded the town of Lynchburg. 
Ya., and who is said by some authorities to have 
been the original "Judge Lynch"; while others 
trace the phrase back to one Lynch who was sent 
to America to punish pirates about 1087, or to the 
mayor of Galway, Ireland, who in 1493 executed 
his own son for murder. A tradition of the Drake 
family of North Carolina ascribes the phrase to 
the precipitate hanging, to prevent a rescue, of a 
Tory named Maj. Beard on Lynch creek in Frank- 
lin county, N. C. When it was found that the 
Tories were not in pursuit, the captors went 
through the forms of a court-martial, and hanged 
the lifeless body in execution of its decree. — His 
son, Charles, b. in Virginia; d. near Natchez, 
Miss., 10 Feb.. 1853, was "governor of Mississippi 
from 1835 till 1837. 

LYNCH, Isidore de, French soldier, b. in Lon- 
don, 7 June, 1755 ; d, in France, 4 Aug., 1841, He 
was sent for his education to the College of Louis- 
le-Grand, Paris. During the war of 1770 in India 
he was taken to that country by one of his uncles, 
who commanded a regiment of the Irish brigade, 
and after serving in the campaigns of 1770 and 
1771 he returned to France. He then volunteered 
to aid the American colonists, and served first un- 
der the orders of Count d'Estaing. At the most 
critical moment of the siege of Savannah, Ga., 
D'Estaing, who was at the head of the right of one 
column, commanded Lynch to carry an urgent 
order to the third column on the left. These col- 
umns were within grape-shot range of the intrench- 
ments of the English, and a tremendous firing was 
kept up on both sides. Instead of passing through 
the centre or in the rear of the column. Lynch rode 
through the front. In vain D'Estaing and those 
who surrounded him shouted to him to take an- 
other direction. He went on, executed his order, 
and returned by the same way. Being asked by 
D'Estaing why he took a path in which he was al- 
most certain to be killed, he replied: "Because it 
was the shortest," and then joined the part of the 
troops that were most ardently engaged in mount- 
ing to the assault. He was afterward employed in 
the army of Rochambeau, and continued to do good 
service up to the surrender of Cornwallis. After 
seeing some fighting in Mexico he returned to 
France in 1783, was named colonel of the 2d regi- 
ment in the Irish brigade, and received the cross 
of St. Louis. Although all his relatives in France 
were devoted to the Bourbons, he took service un- 
der the French republic, and commanded the in- 
fantry at the first battle of Valmy in 1792. 

LYNCH, James Daniel, author, b. in Mecklen- 
l)urg county, Va., Jan.. 1830. He was educated 
at the University of North Carolina, taught in Co- 
lumbus and in West Point, Miss., in 1859-'02, and 
in the latter year joined the Confederate army. 




He raised a company of cavalry under Gen. Polk, 
was chosen captain, and was wounded at Lafayette, 
Ga. A f ter the war he began the practice of law in 
West Point, Miss., but abandoned it for literary 
pursuits. His b^st known poems are " The Clock 
of Destiny," "Tl^e Star of Texas," and the "Siege 
of the Alamo.T He has also published " Kemper 
County Vindicated" (New York, 1878); "Bench 
and Bar of Mississippi " (1881) ; and " Bench and 
Bar of Texas " (1885) ; and has in press (1887) " An 
Industrial History of Texas." 

LYNCH, John Joseph, Canadian R. C. arch- 
bishop, b. near Clones, Ireland, 6 Feb., 1816; d. in To- 
ronto, 12 May, 1888. He began his classical studies 
in Lucan, County Kildare, and finished them in 
Castleknock, Dublin. In 1837 he was sent to the 
Seminary of St. Lazarus in Paris, and shortly af- 
terward became a 
member of the 
Lazarist order. In 
1843 he returned 
to Ireland and was 
ordained priest by 
Archbishop Mur- 
ray, of Dublin. He 
was professor in 
the College of Cas- 
tleknock till 1846, 
and then, meeting 
Bishop Odin, who 
was in search of 
priests for his vica- 
riate of Texas, he 
consented to ac- 
company him to 
the United States. 
He arrived in New 
Orleans, 29 June, 
1847, sailed for 
Galveston, and finally reached Houston, which be- 
came the centre of his missionary labors. There 
were about 10,000 Roman Catholics scattered over 
Texas, and Father Lynch's labors were most ex- 
hausting. He was treated with great kindness by 
people of all creeds, and Gov. Houston offered to 
raise funds to build him a church if he would consent 
to reside permanently in Houston. In his travels 
through Texas he frequently lost his way, at one 
time stumbling on an Indian camp, where he was 
received with kindness and allowed to baptize the 
children of the tribe. He returned to Houston in 
the autumn of 1847, after going north as far as 
Indian territory and exploring the country be- 
tween Brazos, Colorado, and Trinity rivers. He 
was stricken down by a malignant fever shortly 
after reaching Houston, and, after visiting New 
Orleans, was obliged, in March, 1848, to go to the 
north. He visited the Lazarist college of St. Mary 
the Barrens, Mo., and became president of that in- 
stitution in September following. He remodelled 
the system of discipline on the plan of the Bene- 
dictine monasteries of the middle ages, abolishing 
all espionage, with entire success. In 1849 he was 
elected deputy by the Lazarists of America to the 
general assembly of the order in Paris. On his re- 
turn to St. Mary's, while performing the duties of 
president, he gave missions throughout the sur- 
rounding country. In one of his long journeys 
imprudent exposure and over-fatigue resulted in 
paralysis of the right side, but he recovered and was 
elected deputy to the general assembly of his order 
in 1854. He founded the Seminary of our Lady of 
Angels near Niagara Falls, and devoted the next 
three years of his life to placing this institution on 
a firm footing. He was nominated coadjutor to 

the bishop of Toronto in September, 1859, with 
right of succession, and was consecrated on 20 
Nov. following. In April, 1860, he became bishop 
on the resignation of Bishop de Charbonnel. He 
at once set about visiting every part of his diocese, 
and in 1863 held his first synod, in which he framed 
a complete code of ecclesiastical jurisprudence. In 
1862 he visited Rome to attend the canonization 
of the Japanese martyrs. In 1869 he went again 
to Rome to attend the Vatican council, and was 
then made archbishop of Toronto and metropoli- 
tan of Ontario. He presided over his first provin- 
cial council in 1873, and in 1879 made his decen- 
nial visit to Rome, also visiting Ireland. In an 
interview with the Duke of Marlborough, then 
lord-lieutenant, and Sir Stafford Northcote, he en- 
deavored to persuade those statesmen of the ad- 
vantage of conceding home rule to Ireland. He 
was received formally on his return to London by 
Sir Alexander T. Gait, the Canadian high commis- 
sioner, who requested him to be presented at court. 
After some hesitation he consented, by the advice 
of Cardinal Manning, and was the first Roman 
Catholic bishop since the reign of James II. to at#- 
tend a royal levee. On his return to Toronto he 
delivered a series of lectures on the Vatican coun- 
cil in his cathedral before large audiences, the ma- 
i'ority of whom were not Roman Catholics. Dr. 
jynch was a vigorous and eloquent writer, and his 
pastorals, which embrace all questions of a social 
and religious character, had much influence on 
public life in Canada. His jubilee was celebrated 
on 10 Dec, 1884, with great magnificence, the civil 
authorities of the province taking an active part 
in it. During Archbishop Lynch's episcopate the 
Roman Catholic church in Ontario made rapid 
strides. When he became bishop of Toronto there 
were about thirty priests and forty-two churches. 
At present (1888) there are seventy-one churches 
and about eighty priests. Under his guidance 
charitable and educational institutions sprung up 
in every part of Ontario. He founded the Con- 
vent of the Precious Blood in 1874 and Magdalen 
asylum in 1875, and established convents of St. 
Joseph in St. Catharines, Thorold, Barrie, and 
Oshawa. Forty parish churches and thirty pres- 
byteries were erected and seventy priests ordained 
for the diocese between 1859 and 1884. 

LYNCH, John Roy, member of congress, b. in 
Concordia parish, La., 10 Sept., 1847. He is a mu- 
latto, and was not born a slave, but after his fa- 
ther's death the administrator of the estate held 
his mother in bondage. When, a child he was car- 
ried with his mother to Natchez, Miss., where he 
continued to reside after he obtained his freedom 
on the occupation of the city by the National 
troops. He had received no previous training, but, 
by attending a night-school for a few months, and 
afterward studying privately, he obtained a good 
English education. He engaged in the business of 
photography until 1869, when he was appointed a 
justice of the peace. He was elected to the legis- 
lature in the same year, and re-elected and chosen 
speaker in 1871. lii 1872 he was sent to congress, 
and re-elected for the following term. In 1876 he 
was again a candidate, and his friends claimed that 
he was elected, but James R. Chalmers obtained 
the seat. In 1878 he defeated Gen. Chalmers, and 
in 1880 was defeated by the Democratic candidate. 
He was temporary chairman of the Republican 
national convention of 1884. 

LYNCH, Patricio, Chilian naval officer, b. in 
Valparaiso, 18 Oct., 1825; d. at sea in May, 1886. 
His father was of Irish extraction. The son studied 
at the naval academy, and served as a cadet in the 



naval campaign of 1838 against the Peru-Bolivian 
confederation. In 1840 he entered the British navy 
by the orders of his government, and took part in 
the war against China in 1841-'2. He became a 
lieutenant and was decorated with two medals. In 
1847 he returned to his native country, re-entered 
the navy as a lieutenant, and in 1854 was retired 
with the rank of frigate-captain. In 1805 he re- 
turned to the service, and during the campaign 
against Spain was governor of Valparaiso, organ- 
ized the National guard, and commanded a Chilian 
vessel. After the war he was promoted to post- 
captain, and till the year 1878 was several times 
maritime prefect of Valparaiso. In 1879 he was 
the first Chilian governor of the Peruvian territory 
of Tarapaca, having been before general commander 
of transportation. In this same year he was chief 
of the expedition that was sent to the north of Peru, 
destroying pro{)erty to the amount of $15,000,000. 
On 19 Nov., 1880, he landed at Pisco with his di- 
vision of 8,500 men, and made a bold march of 
more than one hundred and seven miles to Cura- 
yaco, overcoming great diiliculties. He was obliged 
tp carry jjotable water for his troops, but was so 
fortunate as to lose but four soldiers. On 13 Jan., 
1881, in the battle of Chorrillos, he encountered 
such stubborn resistance that he lost 192 ofReers 
and 1,879 soldiers, the greater number in the at- 
tack of " jMorro Solar." He also was present at 
the final battle of Miraflores on 15 Jan. Some 
months afterward congress promoted him to the 
rank of rear-admiral, and appointed him com- 
mander of the Chilian army, which post he held 
till October, 1883. Although it is said that he had 
not been over-scrupulous in the previous campaign 
regarding plunder, he sternly repressed the sack- 
ing of Lima by his own soldiers and the marauders 
that infested the city, ordering the immediate exe- 
cution of every man caught in the act of robbing, 
and he court-martialed several Chilian officers for 
extortion, lie su})pressed the Calderon govern- 
ment, and sent the i)rovisional president a prisoner 
to Chili, notwithstanding the protest of the Ameri- 
can minister. In 1883 he planned the campaign 
in which Caceres was defeated at lluamachuco 
in July, invested Iglesias with the presidency in 
Octol)er, withdrew the Chilian garrison to Chor- 
rillos. and conducted the evacuation of the country 
after the ratification of peace. In recompense tor 
his services he was })romoted by congress to the 
highest rank of the Chilian navy, that of vice- 
admiral, and in 1885 was sent as minister to Spain. 
In the following year he was recalled by his gov- 
ernment to take charge of the Chilian legation at 
Lima, and died on his ptassage homeward when near 
the Canary islands. Ilis remains were landed in 
Tenerilfe. and afterward transported by the iron- 
clad " iilanco Lncalada" to Chili, arriving in San- 
tiago on 14 Mi\\, 1S(S7, where they received mag- 
nificent funci'al honors. 

LYNCH, Tatriek Niesen, P. C. bishop, b. in 
Clones, Ireland, 10 March, 1817; d. in Charleston, 
S. C., 20 Feb., 1S82. In 1819 his parents emigrated 
to the United States, and were among the first 
settlers of Clieraw, S. C. After studving at 
Bishoi) Lngland's seminary of St. John the Bap- 
tist in Charleston, the son was sent to the College 
of the Pn)paganda, Pome, and became one of its 
most brilliant students. Ho was ordained priest, 
and, after winning the degree of doctor of divinity 
by a i)ul)lic thesis in 1840, returned to Charleston, 
and was aj)f)ointed assistant pastor at the cathe- 
dral. Here he remained until the death of Bishop 
England in 1844. During the eleven followinu; 
years he was pastor of St. Mary's church, being 


also part of the time principal of the Collegiate 
institute and vicar-general of the diocese. In 
1855, on the death of Bishop Reynolds, he was ap- 
pointed administrator, and governed the see until 
he was nominated bishop. He was consecrated, 14 
March, 1858. When South Carolina seceded. Bishop 
Lynch became an ardent supporter of the Con- 
federacy. In the first year of the civil war a fire 
broke out in Charleston, destroying the new cathe- 
dral, the bishop's house, and other church prop- 
erty, and his flock was entirely scattered by the 
subsequent siege and bombardment. Then came 
Sherman's march to the sea, with the burning of 
Columbia and its church, college, and convent. 
For the purpose of counteracting the effect of 
Archbishop Hughes's mission to Europe, the Con- 
federate authorities sent Bishop Lynch on a special 
mission to France, and with a letter from Jefferson 
Davis to the pope. On his return he found his 
diocese nearly ruined. In addition to losses in 
church property, he owed over $100,000 to poor 
people, who had intrusted him with their savings, 
and the rebuilding of such churches and institu- 
tions as were absolutely necessary would cost at 
least $150,000 more. He had no resources in his 
diocese, and the rest of his life was a struggle with 
these obligations. He spent a great part of the 
time in other states collecting money, and at his 
death all the debt was paid except $17,000. The 
exertion affected his naturally vigorous constitu- 
tion, and led to a premature end. The life of 
Bishop Lynch was marked by acts of heroic charity 
and great literary activity. In 1848 he took charge 
of a hospital during an epidemic of yellow fever, 
nursing the sick even after he had contracted the 
disease ; and on the outbreak of the disease in 
1871 he returned in great haste to his diocese, so as 
not to be away from his flock in time of peril. He 
was a classical scholar and a theologian, as well as 
a devoted student of applied science. He wrote 
several articles for reviews and periodicals, and 
edited Deharbe's " Series of Catechisms." His 
articles on the " Vatican Council " in the " Catholic 
World," and those on " The Blood of St. Janua- 
rius," were afterward published in book-form. 

LYNCH, Thomas, patriot, b. in South Carolina 
about 1720; d. there in 1776. His father, Thomas, 
was the first to cultivate rice on the alluvial lands 
that are periodically overflowed by the tides. The 
son inherited a large estate on North and South 
Santee rivers, became a man of great influence, who 
took a prominent part in the proceedings of the 
provincial assembly, and was an early and zealous 
advocate of colonial resistance to the encroach- 
ments of the crown and parliament. He was a 
delegate to the Colonial congress of 1765, and, with 
his colleagues, Christopher Gadsden and John Rut- 
ledge, arrived first at the place of meeting. In the 
debates he denied the power of parliament over the 
colonies, and opposed sending a petition. With the 
same colleagues he was sent to the 1st Continental 
congress, and continued a member of that body 
until he was compelled by failing health to resign, 
and was succeeded by his son. — His son, Thomas, 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. in 
Prince George parish, S. C, 5 Aug., 1749; d. at sea 
in 1779, was sent at the age of twelve to England, 
where he was educated at Eton college and Cam- 
bridge university, and studied law in the Temple, 
London, but returned home in 1772 before com- 
j pleting his course, having a distaste for the legal 
! profession. He devoted himself to cultivating a 
; plantation on North Santee river, which his father 
conveyed to him, and took part in the public dis- 
1 cussions of colonial grievances. On the organiza- 






tion of the first regiment of South Carolina pro- 
vincials in 1775 he was commissioned as captain, 
and while raising his company in North Carolina 
contracted swamp fever. When his father was 
stricken with paralysis he was nnable to obtain 
from Col. Chri^tbpher Gadsden leave of absence, 

but his connec- 
tion with the reg- 
iment was sev- 
ered soon after- 
ward by his unan- 
imous election by 
the provincial as- 
sembly to be his 
father's successor 
in the Continen- 
tal congress. On 
his arrival in 
Philadelphia he 
took his seat in 
the congress of 
1776, and, not- 
withstanding the 
weak state of his 
own health, im- 
pressed that body 
with his earnestness and eloquence. One of his 
last public acts was to affix his signature to the 
Declaration of Independence. In the autumn of 
1776 the ailments that he had incurred during his 
military service compelled him to return to South 
Carolina. His health continued to decline, and, as 
a last hope, he embarked about the close of 1779 
for St. Eustatius, where he expected to take pass- 
age in some neutral ship for the south of France. 
The vessel in which he sailed was seen for the last 
time when a few days out at sea, and was probably 
lost in a tempest. 

LYNCH, WiHiam Francis, naval officer, b. in 
Norfolk, Va., in April, 1801 ; d. in Baltimore, Md., 
17 Oct., 1865. He entered the U. S. navy as mid- 
shipman in 1819, and was promoted lieutenant in 
1828. The expedition to explore the course of the 
Jordan and the Dead sea was planned by him in 
1847, and, after receiving the sanction of the gov- 
ernment, was carried out by him with success. He 
sailed for Smyrna in the storeship " Supply," and 
thence made an overland journey on camels to 
Constantinople, where he obtained the requisite 
authority and protection from the Turkish govern- 
ment to pass through Palestine. In March, 1848, 
he landed in the Bay of Acre, and in April began 
the work of navigating the Jordan from Lake 
Tiberias to the Dead sea, performing the journey 
in two metallic life-boats. By the establishment 
of a series of levels, the Dead sea was shown to be 
1,312 feet below the Mediterranean, corroborating 
an earlier survey made under the direction of the 
British navy. Subsequently he planned an ex- 
ploration of western Africa, but it failed of ap- 
proval. He was advanced to the rank of com- 
mander in 1849, and in 1856 was made captain, 
which rank he held until 1861, when he resigned to 
join the Confederate navy. In June, 1861, he re- 
ceived the commisson of flag-officer, and was as- 
signed to the command of the defences of North 
Carolina. He had charge of the naval force that 
unsuccessfully resisted Flag-Officer Louis M. Golds- 
borough's attack on Roanoke island in February, 
1862, and he subsequently commanded the remain- 
der of the fleet which was surprised by part of 
Com. Stephen C. Rowan's forces and driven up Al- 
bemarle sound to Elizabeth City. Later he com- 
manded Smith ville during Admiral David D. Por- 
ter's attack on Fort Fisher, and after its surrender 

he dismantled the Smithville defences and retired 
with his marines to Wilmington. He published 
" Narrative of the United States Expedition to the 
River Jordan and the Dead Sea " (Philadelphia, 
1849), and " Naval Life, or Observations Afloat and 
on Shore " (New York. 1851). 

LYNCH, WiUiam Warren, Canadian journal- 
ist, b. in Bedford, Quebec, 30 Sept., 1845. He was 
educated at Stanbridge academy, and at Vermont 
and McGill universities, and was graduated at the 
latter in 1868. He was admitted to the bar of 
Lower Canada in June, 1868, and was appointed 
queen's counsel, 11 Oct., 1880. He has been mayor 
of the township of Brome, warden of the county 
of that name, and editor of the Cowansville " Ob- 
server," and has twice been president of the pro- 
vincial association of Protestant teachers of Que- 
bec. He was elected to the legislative assembly 
by acclamation in 1871, re-elected by acclamation 
five times between that year and 1886. He became 
solicitor-general, 30 Oct., 1879, and on the abolition 
of that office, 31 July, 1882, was appointed com- 
missioner of crown lands, which post he resigned^ 
20 Jan., 1887. He held the same portfolio in the 
Taillon administration from 25 Jan., 1887, until 
it resigned, 27 Jan., 1887. In June, 1883, he re- 
ceived the degree of D. C. L. from the University 
of Bishop's college, Lennoxville. He has been a 
delegate to the provincial synod of the Church of 
England, and also a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the diocese of Montreal. 

LYNDE, Benjamin, jurist, b. in Salem, Mass.. 
22 Sept., 1666; d. there, 28 Jan., 1745. He was 
graduated at flarvard in 1686, studied law in the 
Temple, London, practised in Massachusetts, and 
was appointed a judge in 1712, and chief justice of 
the colony in 1729. He was a member of the coun- 
cil from 1723 till 1737.— His son, Benjamin, jurist, 
b. in Salem, Mass., 4 Oct., 1700 ; d. there, 9 Oct., 
1781, was graduated at Harvard in 1718, studied 
law, and practised in Massachusetts. He was 
chosen a member of the council in 1737, and con- 
tinued in that body for many years, serving also as 
a representative, and for some time as naval officer 
of the port. He became judge of sessions and com- 
mon pleas, and in 1745 succeeded his father as 
judge of the supreme court. He presided at the 
trial of Capt. Preston in 1770 for ordering the Bos- 
ton massacre, and was accused of packing the jury 
with the corrupt object of disposing of unsalable 
products of his manufacturing business to the 
government. In 1772 he resigned the chief jus- 
ticeship, and in 1774 

he was one of 
signers of the 


lem address to Gen. 
Thomas Gage. To- 
ward the close of his 
life he was judge of 

Pitt, member of con- 
gress, Sherburne, 
N. Y., 16Dec., 1817; Milwaukee, Wis., 
18 Dec, 1885. He 
was graduated at 
Yale in 1838, studied 
law in the law-school 
at Harvard, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 
New York citv in 
1841, and established himself in practice in Mil- 
waukee, Wis., and gained a high professional repu- 
tation, especially in the departments of commercial 





and admiralty law. He was appointed attorney- 
general of Wisconsin territory in 1844, and in the 
following year U. S. district attorney, which office 
he held till the admission of the state into the 
Union, when he was elected to congress as a Demo- 
crat, and took his seat on 5 June, 1848. He was 
a candidate for re-election, but was defeated by 
Charles Durkee on the Free-soil issue, which they 
debated in a joint canvass. His term ended on 3 
March, 1849, and in that year he was a Democratic 
candidate for the supreme court bench, but was 
not elected. He was mayor of Milwaukee in 1800, 
a member of the legislature in 1866, and of the 
state senate in 1868-9. In 1874 he was again sent 
to congress, and in 1876 was re-elected. 

LYNDON, Josiali, governor of Khode Island, 
b. in Newport, K. I., 10 March, 1704: d. in War- 
ren, R. 1., 30 March, 1778. He received a good 
education, and in 1730 became clerk of the lower 
house of the legislature and of the superior court 
of Newport county, which offices he held for many 
years. In 1768-9* he was governor of the colony, 
declining to serve longer than one term. He then 
returned to his clerkship, which he held until his 
death. His administration was marked by signs 
of growing hostility to the British government, 
and especially by a correspondence between the 
governor and the Earl of Hillsborough, in which 
the former protested against the arbitrary acts of 
tlie home, government. This, with a similar letter 
to the king, expressing the sentiments of the gen- 
eral a>;sembly and signed by Gov. Lyndon, is in 
John R. Bartlett's '' Records of the Colony of 
Rhode Island" (10 vols.. Providence, 1856-65). 

LYNN, Benjaiuin, pioneer, lived in the latter 
half of the 18th century. He was a wandering 
hunter in Green river valley, Ky.. before its settle- 
ment, and as soon as stockades began to be built 
along Nolin (No-Lynn) river, to which he had 
given his name, he formed in 1782 a Separtlte Bap- 
tist congregation there and became its pastor. He 
afterward lield other charges, and his name is con- 
nected with the traditions and early records of the 
oldest churches in southern Kentucky. He is 
called the "hunter-preacher" and the "Daniel 
Boone of southern Kentucky." 

LYON, Asa, clergyman, b. in Pomfret, Conn., 31 
Dec, 1763; d. in South Ilero, Grand Isle co., Vt., 
4 April, 1841. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 
1790, studied divinity with Rev. Charles Backus, 
liud was ordained pastor at Sutherland, Mass., 24 
Oct., 1792. He remained there till the following 
year, and from 1802 till 1840 was pastor at South 
Hero. He was chief judge of Grand Isle county in 
1805-'14. and was a representative in the legisla- 
ture in 1«00. 1802, 1805-'6, 1808, and 1810-'14, and 
a member of the executive council in 1808. He 
was elected to congress as a Federalist, and served 
from 4 Dec, 1815, till 3 March, 1817. Mr. Lyon is 
said to have been a cousin of Robert Burns. He 
was an imi)i'essive i)reacher, distinguished for his 
knowleilge of literature. He published sermons 
and patriotic addresses. 

LYON, Caleb, congressman, b. in Lyonsdale, 
X. Y., 7 Dec, 1822 ; d. near Rossville, Staten island, 
N. Y., 8 Sept., 1875. He was graduated at Nor- 
wieh university, Vt.. in 1841, travelled in Europe 
for several years, and in 1847 was appointed consul 
to Shanghai, China. On his return he travelled 
through Central and South America, arrived in 
California in 1849. and was secretary of the con- 
vention that was called to frame a state constitu- 
tion. While there he designed the state coat of 
arms. After another journey in Europe and the 
East he returned to liis native state, and was elected 

to the assembly in 1850, but resigned on the ques- 
tion of enlarging the Erie canal, of which he was 
an advocate, and was in the same year elected to 
the state senate. At the close of his term he again 
went abroad, and as a friend of Capt. Duncan N. 
Ingraham (q. v.) was concerned in the rescue of 
Martin Koszta from an Austrian brig in the port 
of Smyrna. When he returned he was elected as 
an Independent to congress, and served from 5 
Dec, 1853, till 3 March, 1855. After the burning 
of the family mansion at Lyonsdale he removed to 
Staten island, and occupied and restored the coun- 
try-seat known as Ross castle. In 1864 he was ap- 
pointed by President Lincoln governor of Idaho, 
which post he held till December, 1866. He was a 
ready orator, whose memory and knowledge of 
statistics rendered him formidable in debate. As 
a connoisseur of the fine arts, his opinion was es- 
teemed. He published poems, which have never 
been collected, and lectured on his travels. Norwich 
university gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1851. 

LYONJ Georg-e Francis^ English traveller, b. in 
Chichester, England, in 1795 ; d. at sea in October, 
1832. He entered the British naval service in 
1809, was present at the attack on Algiers by Lord 
Exmouth in 1816, and in 1818 was commissioned 
to accompany Joseph Ritchie on his tour of explo- 
ration into central Africa. RitcJ;iie died in Fezzan, 
and Lyon returned to England, after encountering 
many dangers and privations, which he described 
in his " Narrative of Travels in Northern Africa " 
(London, 1821). In 1821, in command of the 
" Hecla," he accompanied Capt. William E. Parry 
on his arctic expedition, publishing on his return 
" The Private Journal of Capt. G. F. Lyon " (1824). 
In 1824 he sailed in command of the " Griper " 
with the mission of exploring Melville peninsula, 
and following its western shore as far as Turn- 
again, he found, after three months' searching, a 
passage through the group of islets called South- 
ampton island, but was unable to enter Repulse 
bay through Sir Thomas Rowe's Welcome. On 13 
Sept., a violent tempest compelled him to return 
to England. The story of the voyage was told in 
" A Brief Narrative of an Unsuccessful Attempt" 
(1825). He subsequently passed several years in 
Mexico, and died on his return from a second visit 
to America. His remaining works are " The Sketch- 
Book of Capt. G. F. Lyon during Eighteen Months' 
Residence in Mexico] No. 1 " (London. 1827), and 
"Journal of a Residence and Tour in Mexico in 
1828 " (2 vols., 1828). 

LYON, John Christian, clergyman, b. in Le- 
onsberg, Wiirtemberg, Germanv, 11 Feb., 1802; d. 
in Catonville, Md., 21 May, 1868. His parents 
were Ijutherans. The son came to this country 
in 1817, united with the Methodist Episcopal 
church in 1826, and soon afterward entered its 
ministry, in which he served until he was super- 
annuated in 1862. He preached generally in Ger- 
man and did much to bring his countrymen into 
his denomination. He has been called the founder 
of the German Methodist church in the United 
States. He was the author and translator of sev- 
eral theological works. 

LYON, Lncins, senator, b. in Shelburn, Vt., 26 
Feb., 1800; d. in Detroit, Mich., 24 Sept., 185L 
He received a public-school education, and, settling 
in Detroit in 1822, was elected a territorial dele- 
gate to congress as a Democrat, serving from 2 
Dec, 1833, till 3 March, 1835. In the latter year 
he was a member of the State constitutional con- 
vention, and he also served in that of 1850. He 
was a U. S. senator from 26 Jan., 1837, till 3 March, 
1839, and a representative from 4 Dec, 1843, till 3 




March, 1845. From 1837 till 1839 he was a regent 
of the University of Michigan. His last public 
office was that of surveyor-general of the states 
of Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana. 

LYON, Mary, 1 educator, b. in Buckland, Mass., 
28 Feb., 1797; d. in South Hadley, Mass., 5 March, 
1849. Her earl/education was received at district- 
schools, and in\l814 she began to teach at Shel- 
burne Falls. At the age of twenty she became a 
pupil at the Sanderson academy in Ashfield, where 
she studied twenty hours each day, and in three 
days committed to memory Adams's Latin gram- 
mar. In 1821 she entered the school of the Rev. 
Joseph Emerson at Byfield, near Newburyport, and 
in 1824 studied at Amherst, under Prof. Eaton, to 
become qualified for giving experimental instruc- 
tion in chemistry. From 1824 till 1828 she assisted 
Mrs. Grant in the Adams's female seminary in 
Londonderry, N. H. During the winter, when 
this school was closed, owing to the severity of the 
climate, she taught in Ashfield and Buckland, and 
subsequently at Ipswich. Her great work was the 
founding of Mount Holyoke seminary, at South 
Hadley, Mass., on 8 Nov., 1837, and from that date 
until her death she served as its principal. One 
feature of her system, to which there was much 
opposition, was that the entire domestic labor of 
the institution was performed by the pupils and 
teachers, in order to promote interest in these 
tasks. In the course of her life Miss Lyon in- 
structed more than 3,000 pupils, many of whom 
became missionaries. She published a pamphlet 
entitled " Tendencies of the Principles embraced 
and the System adopted in the Mount Holyoke 
Seminary " (1840), and also the " Missionary Offer- 
ing " (Boston, 1843). See " Power of Christian 
Benevolence, illustrated in the Life and Labors of 
Mary Lyon," by Edward Hitchcock (Northamp- 
ton, Mass., 1851), and " Recollections of Mary 
Lyon," by Fidelia Fiske (Boston, 1866). 

LYON, Matthew, politician, b. in County Wick- 
low, Ireland, in 1746; d. in Spadra Bluff,' Ark., 1 
Aug., 1822. Pie emigrated at the age of thirteen 
to New York, and, as he was unable to pay for his 
passage, the captain of the ship, in accordance 
with the custom of the time, assigned him for a 
sum of money to a farmer in Litchfield county, 
Conn., in whose service he remained for several 
years. He then became a citizen of Vermont, and 
in July, 1776, was commissioned as lieutenant in 
a company of " Green Mountain Boys." In the 
latter part of the same year he was cashiered for 
deserting a post on Onion river, but subsequently 
served as commissary-general, and eventually be- 
came colonel of militia. He was made deputy 
secretary in 1778, and subsequently clerk of the 
court of confiscation. After the war he settled in 
Vermont and was elected to the state legislature, 
where he served for four successive years. He 
founded the town of Fair Haven, Vt, in 1783, 
built saw-mills and grist-mills, established an iron- 
foundry, manufactured paper from bass-wood, and 
issued a Democratic newspaper entitled '• The 
Scourge of Aristocracy, and Repository of Impor- 
tant Political Truth," of which the types and pa- 
per were manufactured by himself. He represented 
Fair Haven in the legislature for ten years, and in 
1786 was assistant judge of Rutland county court. 
He married a daughter of Gov. Thomas Chitten- 
den, became an active political leader, and was 
elected to congress by the anti-Federal party, serv- 
ing from 15 May, 1797, till 3 March, 1801. In Oc- 
tober, 1798, he was indicted in Vermont for writing 
for publication a letter calculated " to stir up sedi- 
tion and to bring the president and the government 

of the United States into contempt." He was con- 
victed, confined for four months in the Vergennes 
jail, and fined $1,000, which was paid by his friends. 
Mr. Lyon is said to have revenged his wrongs by 
giving the decisive vote for Jefferson. While in 
prison he was re-elected to congress, and after the 
expiration of his term removed to Kentucky, where 
he established the first printing-office, transporting 
the type on horseback across the mountains. He 
served two years in the Kentucky legislature, and 
was elected to congress from that state, serving 
from 17 Oct., 1803, till 3 March, 1811. After his 
final retirement from congress the speaker of the 
house presented his petition to have the fine re- 
funded to him that he had paid in Vermont, and 
on 4 July, 1840, an act was passed paying the sum 
to his heirs with interest. He was employed to 
build a fleet of gun-boats for service in the war of 
1812, but was made bankrupt by his attempt. In 
1820 he was appointed a United States factor among 
the Cherokee Indians in Arkansas, removed to that 
territory, and was elected its first delegate to con- 
gress, but did not live to take his seat. A sketch 
of his life was published by Pliny H. White, of 
Vermont, in 1858. — His son, Chittenden, con- 
gressman, b. in Vermont in 1786 ; d. in Caldwell 
county, Ky., 8 Nov., 1842, received a public-school 
education, and removed with his father to Ken- 
tucky in 1801. He was a member of both houses of 
the Kentucky legislature, and afterward elected 
a representative from Kentucky to congress as a 
Jackson Democrat, serving from 3 Dec, 1827, till 
3 March, 1835. He was defeated as a candidate 
for presidential elector on the Van Buren ticket in 
1836. Lyon county, Ky., was named in his honor. 
He inherited the impetuous Irish temper of the 
father, and was a man of gigantic stature, strength, 
and prowess, being fully six and a half feet in 
height, and weighing 350 pounds. He was more 
than a match for any antagonist, and bore the repu- 
tation of " champion " among the border people. 

LYON, Nathaniel, soldier, b. in Ashford, Conn., 
14 July, 1818 ; d. near Wilson's Creek, Mo., 10 Aug., 
1861. " He was graduated at the U. S. military 
academy in 1841, assigned to the 2d infantry, and 
served in Florida during the latter part of the 
Seminole war. He was engaged at the siege of 
Vera Cruz, promoted 1st lieutenant while on the 
march to the city of Mexico, and commanded his 
company through- 
out the subsequent 
campaign, receiv- 
ing the brevet of 
captain for gal- 
lantry at Contreras 
and Churubusco. 
In the assault on 
the city of Mexico 
he was wounded at 
the Belen Gate. 
At the close of the 
war he was ordered 
to California, and 
in 1850 he con- 
ducted a success- 
ful expedition 
against the Indians 
of Clear lake and 
■Russian river in 
northern Califor- 
nia, receiving the praise of Gen. Persifer F. Smith 
for the rapidity and secrecy of his marches, and 
his skilful dispositions on the ground. He was 
promoted captain on 11 June, 1851, and in 1853 
returned with his regiment to the east. While 




listening to the debates in congress over the Kan- 
sas-Nebraska bill, his sympathies were engaged 
in behalf of the negro, although he had been 
hitherto an earnest Democrat. In 1854 he was 
sent to Fort Riley, and during the height of the 
contest for the possession of Kansas manifested 
his sympathy with the Free -state party, and 
gave it his aid and support. In 1856, when the 
troops were ordered to enforce the laws against the 
Abolitionists, Lyon seriously contemplated resign- 
ing his commission, that he might not be employed 
" as a tool in the hands of evil rulers for the ac- 
complishment of evil ends"; but he was saved 
from the necessity of doing so by being ordered to 
the Dakota frontier. He was on duty again in 
Kansas in 1859, and was with Gen. William S. Har- 
ney in December, 18G0, when the governor of Mis- 
souri sent a brigade of militia to co-operate with 
the National troops in arresting James Montgomery. 
He was left by Harney at Fort Scott, but wished to 
be nearer the scene of the impending conflict, in 
which, he wrote on 27 Jan., 1861, '' I certainly ex- 
pect to expose, and very likely shall lose, my life." 
In the beginning of February he was ordered to 
St. Louis. There he contested with Maj. Peter V. 
Hagner, wlioin he suspected of southern sympa- 
thies, the command of the arsenal; but his appeal 
to Gen. Harney, and then to President Buchanan, 
was unavailing. He was soon in close accord with 
Francis P. Blair, Jr., and the other Unionist lead- 
ers, and at once began to drill and organize the 
Home-guai-ds. A few days before President Ijin- 
coln's inauguration Blair went to Washington to 
persuade Gen. Scott and the president of the neces- 
sity of giving the command of the arsenal to Lyon, 
Ijut without success. xVn attempt of the secession- 
ist minute-men to provoke a conflict on inaugura- 
tion-day decided the new administration to place 
Lyon in command of the trooi)s on 18 March, 1861 ; 
yet the order was qualified by instructions from 
Gen. Harney still leaving in charge of Maj. Hagner 
the arms and materials of war which Lyon intended 
in the event of a collision to distribute among the 
Home-guards. While Gov. Claiborne F. Jackson 
was promoting the organization of secessionist 
militia, and after he had placed the police of St. 
Louis under the control of Basil W. Duke, the 
leader of the minute-men, and after the municipal 
election of 1 April, 1861, had transferred the city 
government int(^ the hands of secessionists. Gen. 
Harney revoked liis recent order and gave Lyon 
entire chai'ge of tlie arsenal, arms, and stores. Be- 
fore the bombardment of Fort Sumter, Lyon had 
strengthened the fortifications and mounted heavy 
siege-guns and mortars that commanded the city, 
and its river appi-oaches. On the president's call 
for tro(^ps Gov. Jackson prepared to plant batteries 
on the hills overlooking the arsenal. Lyon at once 
communicated with Gov. Richard Yates, who, by 
the president's orders, sent three regiments of the 
Illinois quota to support the garrison in St. Louis. 
Lyon was at the same time commanded, according 
to his own suggestion, to turn over 10,000 stand of 
arms to the Illinois state authorities. Blair had 
^)roc•ul•ed in Washington another order authorizing 
Capt. Lyon to issue 5,000 stand of arms for arming 
loyal citizens. Harney interfered to prevent the 
armi!ig of volunteers, and ordered Lyon, who had 
placed guai'ds in the streets in violation of the city 
ordinances, to withdraw his men within the arsenal, 
but for this was removed from the command of the 
department on 21 April. On the same day Capt. 
Lyon was ordered to muster into the service the 
four regiments, constituting ^lissouri's quota, which 
the governor had refused to furnish. W^ithout re- 


gard to seniority he assumed command on the de- 
parture of Harney, and from that time was rec- 
ognized by the government as commanding the 
department. On the night of 26 April he secretly 
sent away to Illinois all the munitions of war that 
were not needed for the four regiments, which were 
speedily organized and equipped. Although the 
removal of the arms from the arsenal frustrated 
the governor's object in ordering the militia into 
camp at St. Louis, it was decided to hold the en- 
campment nevertheless. Daniel M. Frost's brigade, 
numbering now, after all the Union men had with- 
drawn, about 700 men, went into camp on 6 May 
in a grove in the western part of the city, which 
they called Camp Jackson. Having been author- 
ized by a despatch from the secretary of war, Lyon 
in May mustered in five regiments, called the Home- 
guards or U. S. reserve corps, in addition to five 
regiments of Missouri volunteers that had been or- 
ganized in April. The volunteers were recruited 
almost entirely from the German population, as the 
native-born and the Irish were secessionists. On 
10 May he surrounded Camp Jackson, and made 
prisoners of war of the enti]-e corps of militia. In 
the camp were siege-guns that Jefferson Davis had 
sent from New Orleans at the request of Gov. Jack- 
son. When Gen. Harney resumed command he 
approved the capture of Camp Jackson, but refused 
to carry out Lyon's plan for immediate operations 
against the hostile forces that the governor was 
organizing in pursuance of an act of the legisla- 
ture. On 31 May, in accordance with an order that 
Blair had obtained from the president, Lyon, who 
had been commissioned as brigadier-general of 
volunteers on 17 May, and appointed to the com- 
mand of the brigade of German recruits, relieved 
Gen. Harney of the command of the Department 
of the W^est.' The governor and Gen. Sterling Price, 
in an interview with Gen. Lyon, sought to obtain 
from him a renewal of the agreement Gen. Harney 
had made to respect the neutrality of the state ; but 
Lyon insisted on the right of the L"". S. government 
to enlist men in Missouri, and to move its troops 
within or across the state. Open hostilities fol- 
lowed. Lyon sent troops to the southwestern part 
of the state in order to meet an apprehended ad- 
vance of Confederate troops from Arkansas, and 
cut off the retreat of the governor and the state 
troops, while with another force he advanced on 
Jefferson City, of which he took possession on 15 
June, the state forces having evacuated it two days 
before, and then on the enemy's new headquar- 
ters at Booneville, where he routed Col. John S. 
Marmaduke's force on 17 June. PI is sudden move- 
ment placed him in command of the entire state 
except the southwestern corner. On 8 July he left 
Booneville to continue the pursuit of Price, but 
when he learned that the Missourians had defeated 
Sigel at Carthage, and effected a junction with the 
Confederate troops under Gen. Ben McCulloch, he 
halted at Springfield to await re-enforcements. On 
learning that the Confederates were marching on 
his position, he advanced to meet them, although 
he supposed that they outnumbered his force four 
to one, but, after a skirmish at Dug Spring, re- 
treated to Springfield again when he found that 
their three columns had joined. On 9 Aug., con- 
sidering a retreat more hazardous than a battle, he 
decided to surprise the Confederates in their camp 
on Wilson's Creek at daybreak the next morning. 
He turned their position and attacked their rear, 
while Gen. Franz Sigel, at the head of another col- 
umn, assailed their right flank. Sigel, after driving 
back the enemy, was defeated through mistaking 
one of their regiments for Iowa troops. Lyon, per- 



ceiving new troops coming to the support of Price, 
brought all his men to the front for a final effort. 
His horse was killed, and he was wounded in the 
head and leg, but, mounting another horse, he 
dashed to the froint to rally his wavering line, and 
was shot through the breast. Maj. Samuel D. 
Sturgis, who W(d;S left in command, after continuing 
the battle thr^ hours, ordered a retreat. Of the 
5,000 National tkpops 1,317 were killed, wounded, or 
taken prisoners, while of the Confederates, who were 
10,000 strong, 1,230 were killed or wounded. The 
National forces fell back on Springfield in good 
order, and retreated thence to Rolla, while Gen. 
McCulloch, the Confederate commander, refused to 
pursue. Lyon's movement, though resulting in 
defeat, had enabled the Union men in Missouri to 
organize a government and array the power of the 
state on the National side. Gen. Lyon bequeathed 
$30,000, constituting nearly his entire property, to 
the government, to aid in the preservation of the 
Union. A series of articles, written while he was 
on duty in Kansas in advocacy of the election of 
Abraham Lincoln, and printed in a local news- 
paper, were collected into a volume with a memoir, 
and published under the title of " The Last Politi- 
cal Writings of Gen. Nathaniel Lyon " (New York, 
1863). See also a memoir by Dr. Ashbel Wood- 
ward (Hartford, 1862) ; James Peckham's " Life of 
Lyon " (New York, 1866) ; R. I. Holcombe's " Ac- 
count of the Battle of Wilson's Creek " ; and 
"The Fight for Missouri," by Thomas L. Snead 
(New York, 1886). 

LYON, Richard, poet, lived in the 17th cen- 
tury. He entered the ministry, came to this coun- 
try from England early in life, and in 1644-'7 was 
private tutor to a young English student in Cam- 
bridge, Mass. He lived in the family of President 
Henry Dunster, and with him was appointed to re- 
vise John Eliot's " Bay Psalms." In the revision, 
many hymns taken from other parts of the Bible 
are inserted under the name of " Spiritual Songs 
of the Old and New Testament" (20th ed., 1722). 

LYONS, Albert Brown, chemist, b. in Wai- 
mea, Hawaiian islands, 1 April, 1841. He was 
graduated at Williams in 1865, and at the medical 
department of the University of Michigan three 
years later. He filled the chair of chemistry in 
Detroit medical college from 1868 till 1881. when 
he was called to be consulting chemist to the drug 
house of Parke, Davis and Co. In this capacity he 
became well known throughout the United States 
by his frequent contributions to medical and phar- 
maceutical journals on adulterations and frauds 
in drugs. Besides his editorial connection with 
various medical journals in Detroit, he became in 
1887 editor of "The Pharmaceutical Era." Dr. 
Lyons is a member of scientific societies, and sec- 
retary of the Detroit academy of medicine. In ad- 
dition to his many papers, he has published a 
" Manual of Practical Assaying " (Detroit, 1886). 

LYONS, James Oilborne, poet, b. in England; 
d. in Haverford, Pa., 2 Jan., 1868. He entered the 
ministry of the Church of England, and in 1844 
came to this country, and was rector of St. Mary's 
church, Burlington,' N. J. In 1846 he removed'to 
Philadelphia, where he taught, and later he became 
principal of a classical school in Haverford, near 
that city, remaining there until his death. He 
published " Christian Songs, Translations, and 
other Poems " (Philadelphia, 1861). 

LYONS, Richard Bickerton Pemell, Vis- 
count, b. in Lymington, England, 26 April, 1817 ; 
d. in London, 5 Dec, 1887. He was the only son of 
the first Lord Lyons, and succeeded to the barony 
in 1858. He was educated at Oxford, and after 


filling various diplomatic appointments was Brit- 
ish minister to the United States from December, 
1858, till February, 1865, when he returned on ac- 
count of impaired health. He was appointed am- 
bassador to Turkey in August of that year, and 
from 1867 until November, 1887, was ambassador 
to France. He became a member of the privy 
council in 1865, was given the degree of D. C. L. 
by Oxford in the same year, in 1881 was made a 
viscount, and in 1887 was advanced to an earldom. 

LYTLE, William Haines, soldier, b. in Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, 2 Nov., 1826; killed in the battle of 
Chickamauga, 20 Sept., 1863. His great-grand- 
father, William, fought in the old French war, and 
his grandfather, of 
the same name, was 
an early pioneer in 
Ohio, and active in 
border warfare. His 
father, Robert T. 
Lytle, was a mem- 
ber of congress in 
1833-'5, and survey- 
or of public lands 
in Ohio in 1835-'8. 
William Haines was 
graduated at Cin- 
cinnati college, stud- 
ied law, and began 
practice, but at the 
beginning of the 
Mexican war vol- 
unteered, and was 
chosen captain of a 
company in the 2d Ohio regiment. He served 
through the war, resumed practice at its close, was 
elected to the Ohio legislature, and in 1857 was 
the unsuccessful candidate of the Democratic party 
for lieutenant-governor. Soon afterward he be- 
came major-general of Ohio militia, and at the 
beginning of the civil war he was commissioned 
colonel of the 10th Ohio regiment, which he led in 
West Virginia in 1861. At Carnifex Ferry, 10 
Sept., 1861, he commanded a brigade and was se- 
verely wounded. When he had recovered he had 
charge of the Bardstown camp of instruction, and 
then of a brigade in Gen. Ormsby M. Mitchell's 
operations along the Memphis and Chattanooga 
railroad. He was again wounded and taken pris- 
oner at Perryville, Ky., 8 Oct., 1862, but was soon 
exchanged, and on 29 Nov. promoted to brigadier- 
general of volunteers. Thereafter he served ac- 
tively in the west under Rosecrans till he was 
killed while leading a charge of his brigade at the 
battle of Chickamauga. Gen. Lytle was a poet of 
much merit, but no collection of his verses has 
appeared in book-form. His best-known poem is 
that written in 1857, beginning 

"I am dying, Egypt, dying; 
Ebbs the crimson life-tide fast." 

LYTTLETON, William Henry (Baron West- 
cote), governor of South Carolina, b. in England 
about 1720; d. 14 Sept., 1808. He was a younger 
son of Sir Thomas Lyttleton, bart. In 1755 he 
was appointed governor of South Carolina, and held 
the post till 1760, when he was transferred to Ja- 
maica. He was British minister to Portugal in 
1766. On 31 July, 1776, he was raised to the Irish 
peerage, as Baron Westcote of Ballymore, and in 
1779, on the death of his nephew!^ Thomas, the 
baronetage reverted to him. In 1794 he was 
created a peer of Great Britain, with the title of 
Lord Lyttleton, Baron of Frankley, which had 
been bestowed already on his brother. Sir George, 
the poet, but had expired with his nephew. 





MABERY, Charles Frederic, chemist, b. in 
North Gorham, Me., 13 Jan., 1850. He was gradu- 
ated at the Lawrence scientific school of Harvard 
in 1876, and received his doctorate in course in 
1881. Meanwhile he held the place of assistant in 
chemistrv from 1875 until 1883, when he was called 
to the chair of chemistry in the Case school of 
applied science in Cleveland. He has published 
in the " American Chemical Journal " numerous 
papers giving the results of original researches, 
with Charles L. Jackson, Henry B. Hill, Rachel 
Llovd, and others, in the laboratory at Cambridge. 
After he removed to Cleveland he became asso- 
ciated in the recent development of the electric 
production of aluminium, having been engaged in 
the early experimental work and in the perform- 
ance of other chemical investigations for the com- 
pany controlling the patents. In this connection 
he lias invented a new method for the preparation 
of anhydi'ous aluminium chloride. Prof. Mabery 
is a member of the American academy of arts and 
sciences and of the German chemical society, and 
was elected secretary of the chemical section of 
the Amei-iean association for the advancement of 
science in 1SS7. l^ut did not serve. 

MAIJLY. (ilabriol IJoniiot de, French author, 
b. in Grenoble. 14 March, 170!) ; d. in Paris. 23 
April. 1785. He was educated in the Jesuit college 
at Lyons, and lived chiefly in retirement, devot- 
ing liimself to literature. He published numerous 
works on history and law, and ''Observations sur 
le gduvernement et les lois des Etats-Unis d'Ame- 
ri([U('.'" embodying his views on the preparation of 
the constitution, V)y request of congress (1784). 
This work contains many sentiments adverse to 
civil lilxM-ty and religious toleration. 

M A('A1)A>I, John Loudoun, Scottish engineer, 
b. in Ayr, Scotland, 21 Sept., 175G; d, in 3Ioffat, 
Dumfriesshire, 26 Nov., 1836. On the death of his 
father he was sent to his uncle, William Macadam, 
who had settled as a merchant in New York city. 
'J'he iiei)he\v was placed in a counting-house, be- 
came a successful merchant, and, espousing the 
royal cause in 1775, was agent for the sale of prizes 
at the poi't of New York. In 1783 he was cora- 
{tellcd to return to Scotlaiul, and purchased an 
estate in Ayrshire. He began in 1810 to experi- 
ment on tlie construction of roads, and, in spite of 
great opposition, succeeded in carrying into effect 
the system that is known ])y his name. This sys- 
tem depends on Mr. Macadam's discovery tliat 
small angular fragments of stone will coalesce or 
bind into a coint)act mass under pressure, and his 
principle that the elTicicncy of a road is in propor- 
tion to the thoi'oughness with which water is ex- 
cluded from the soil on which it rests. Mr. Mac- 
adam gave his services and advice without charge 
on all occasions, and declined many offers of re- 
munenitive ollices abroad. In 1825 he was voted 
tO.OOO by parliament toward re])aying the expenses 
that he had incurred in introducing his system, 
and lie declined the honor of knighthood, which 
was subse(piently bestowed on his son James. Mr. 
Macadam married Margaret Nicoll, of Islip, L. I., 
during his stay in New York, and after hei death 
in 1S27 took for his second wife Charlotte, sister 
of P)ishop de Lancey. He published "Practical 
Essay on the Scientific Repair and Preservation of 
Public Roads" (London, 1819): '-Remarks on the 
Present State of Roadmaking" (1820); and " Ob- 
servations on Roads" (1822). 

McADOO, William Gibbs, jurist, b. near 
Knoxville, Tenn., 4 April, 1820. He was gradu- 
ated at East Tennessee university, Knoxville, in 
1845, and in 1845-6 sat in the legislature. After 
serving in the Mexican war in 1847 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and was attorney-general of 
Knoxville judicial district in 1851-60. He re- 
moved to Georgia in 1862, served as a captain in 
the Confederate army, and in 1871 became judge 
of the 20th judicial district of the state. He has 
published various addresses, and, with Prof. H. C. 
White. " Elementary Geology of Tennessee." — His 
wife, Mary Faith Floyd, b. in Tennessee, 8 Sept., 
1832, is a granddaughter of Gen. John Floyd, who 
commanded against the Creek Indians in l'813-'14. 
She was early left an orphan, and married Ran- 
dolph McDonald, of Georgia, who died in 1854, and 
in 1858 she married Mr. McAdoo. She has been a 
frequent contributor to periodicals, both in prose 
j and in verse, and has published " The Nereid," a 
romance, and '• Antethusia." 

McAFEE, Robert Breckinridge, lawyer, b. in 
Mercer county, Ky., in February, 1784; d. there, 
12 March, 1849. His ancestors left Sinking Creek, 
Botetourt co., Va,, 1 June, 1773, and settled in 
Kentucky, where they were conspicuous in the In- 
dian warfare of the time. Robert was educated at 
various schools and at Transylvania seminary, 
studied law, and began jn-actise in Mercer county. 
He was one of the first Kentuckians to join the 
northwestern army at the opening of the war of 
1812, and became successively sergeant, ensign, 
and 2d lieutenant. He was quartermaster in Col. 
Richard M. Johnson's regiment when it relieved 
j Fort Wayne from a threatened Indian attack. In 
{ 1813 he became captain in this regiment, and was 
' actively employed on the frontier. At the close of 
the war he retired to his farm in Mercer county, 
! and in 1819 was elected to the legislature. From 
1820 till 1824 he was lieutenant-governor of Ken- 
tucky. He presided over the senate during the bit- 
ter and exciting contest known as the new and old 
court conti'oversy. which virtually involved the 
! question of the repudiation of a debt of doubtful 
I legality by the state, and which was decided by the 
maintenance of all its obligations, though they had 
j been obtained by fraud. He declined an election 
1 to congress in 1829, and served again in the legis- 
I lature in 1831-'2. Mr. McAfee was a member of 
the Baltimore convention of 1832 which nominated 
I Gen. Jackson for president. From 1833 till 1837 he 
I resided at Bogota. Columbia, as U. S. charge d'af- 
1 faires. In 1841 he again served in the state senate, 
and in 1845 he retired from public life. He was a 
member of the Royal antiquarian society of Den- 
1 mark, and an honorary member of the Kentucky 
I historical society. He wrote a " History of the 
War of 1812 " (Lexington, 1816), and was the au- 
I thor of a private journal containing much infor- 
mation i-elative to the early historv of Kentuckv. 
, MACALESTER, Charles, merchant, b.' in 
j Campbelltown, Argvleshire, Scotland, 5 April, 
1765; d. near Philadelphia, Pa., 29 Aug., 1832. 
He came to this country in 1786, was naturalized 
as an American citizen, and settled in Philadel- 
phia. From 1786 till 1804 he commanded vessels, 
generally acting as supercargo, and soon became 
an owner of the ships in which he sailed. One of 
j these, the " George Barclay," he navigated with 
! great success against the pirates. At the begin- 
I ning of the 19th century he built a ship called the 




" Fanny," which was the fastest sailing merchant- 
man of her time, accomplishing her first voyage 
from Philadelphia to the Isle of Wight in seven- 
teen days, the most rapid passage then on record. 
In London he w^s engaged to make a voyage in 
this ship to Bata,via. In 1804 he relinquished his 
sea-voyages and devoted himself to mercantile 
pursuits in Philadelphia, building many fine ves- 
sels, which sailed to London, Amsterdam, China, 
and the East Indies. In 1825 he retired with a 
competency, and, becoming president of the Insur- 
ance company of Philadelphia, redeemed its for- 
tunes, and served efficiently until his death. He 
was also a director of the Bank of North America. 
Mr. Macalester was an ardent Presbyterian, a 
founder of the Mariner's church, treasurer of the 
Marine Bible society of Philadelphia, and vice- 
president of St. Andrew's society. — His son, 
Charles, merchant, b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 17 
Feb., 1798 ; d. there, 9 Dec, 1873, was educated at 
the University of Pennsylvania, which he left in 
1812 to command a company of forty boys, who 
worked for two days to assist in making the forti- 
fications on' the west side of the Schuylkill. Early 
in life Jie engaged in mercantile pursuits, and re- 
sided in Cincinnati in 1821-'7. after which he re- 
turned to Philadelphia, and retired in 1849. He 
was president of the Orthopedic hospital, and of 
the St. Andrew's society. In 1873 he gave a valu- 
able property, consisting of a large building with 
extensive grounds, for the establishment of a col- 
lege in Minneapolis, which has been called by the 
trustees " Macalester college." He has frequently 
presided at large mass meetings in Philadelphia. 

McALESTER, Miles Daniel, soldier, b. in New 
York, 21 March, 1833 ; d. in Buffalo, N. Y., 23 April, 
1869. He was graduated at the U. S. military acad- 
emy in 1856, and assigned to the engineer corps, 
becoming 1st lieutenant, 2 May, 1861, and captain, 
3 March, 1863. He served in the construction and 
repair of fortifications on the Atlantic coast from 
Florida to New York, superintending the defences 
of the Narrows in 1859-61 and Fort Mifflin, Pa., 
in 1861. During the civil war he was engaged in 
constructing the defences in Washington, and also 
served as chief engineer of the 3d corps in the 
Army of the Potomac till October, 1862, being in 
all the important battles of that army, and win- 
ning the brevets of major and lieutenant-colonel. 
From October, 1862, till April, 1863, he served as 
chief engineer of the Department of the Ohio, for- 
tified Cincinnati and its vicinity, and constructed 
bridge-trains for the western armies. During the 
siege of Vicksburg he was detached under the or- 
ders of Gen. Grant, and subsequently became as- 
sistant professor of engineering at West Point. On 
15 July, 1864, he was appointed chief engineer of 
the military division of west Mississippi, and en- 
gaged in the reduction of the Confederate defences 
in Mobile bay and in the Mobile campaign, receiv- 
ing the brevets of colonel, 23 April, 1864, foi' his 
services as chief engineer of the military division 
of west Mississippi, and especially as supervising 
engineer of the siege of Forts Gaines and Morgan, 
and brigadier-general, 9 April, 1865, for services at 
the siege of Mobile. He was then engaged in con- 
structing defences at Mobile and New Orleans, 
and in the improvements of the Mississippi river. 
He was commissioned major of the engineer corps 
on 7 March, 1867, and appointed engineer of the 
8th light-house district, 22 May, 1867. 

MacALISTER, James, educator, b. in Glas- 
gow, Scotland, 26 April, 1840. After studying at 
Glasgow university, he came to this country and 
entered Brown, but was not graduated. He then 

studied law at Albany law-school, where he re- 
ceived his degree in 1864. In 1873 he was super- 
intendent of public schools in Milwaukee, Wis., 
and in 1878 he became regent of normal schools in 
Wisconsin, holding these offices until 1883. He 
was then appointed first superintendent of public 
schools in Philadelphia, which post he now (1887) 
holds. In 1885 he was elected a member of the 
board of trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, 
and in 1886 a member of the American philosophi- 
cal society. He advocates educational reforms, 
especially the kindergarten and the introduction 
of industrial or manual training mto the public 
schools. He has published educational and literary 
addresses, reports, and "Manual of Primarv In- 
struction" (Philadelphia, 1884); "Manual o*f In- 
struction in United States History and Civil Gov- 
ernment " (1887) ; and " Catalogue of Pedagogical 
Library, with Bibliographical Notes " (1887). 

McAllister, Matthew Hall, jurist, b. in 
Savannah, Ga., 26 Nov., 1800; d. in San Francisco, 
Cal., 19 Dec, 1865. After receiving his education 
at Princeton he studied law, was admitted to the 
bar about 1820, and practised in his native city. 
In 1827 he was appointed U. S. district attorney, 
which post had been held by his father under Gen. 
Washington's administration. In 1832 he was ac- 
tive in opposition to nullification, and became a po- 
litical leader during the discussions of that period. 
He was several times elected to both branches of 
the legislature, in which he obtained the establish- 
ment of the court for the correction of errors, and 
in 1845 was defeated by a small vote as Democratic 
candidate for governor of Georgia. For several 
years he was mayor of Savannah, and was noted as 
a protector of the colored people. In 1848 he was 
a delegate to the National Democratic convention 
that nominated Gen. Lewis Cass for the presidency. 
He removed to California in 1850 with his family, 
entered upon the practice of law in San Francisco, 
and in 1855 was appointed the first U. S. circuit 
judge of California, rendering eminent service by 
his wise decisions upon land-titles, which were then 
in the utmost confusion. He was also well known 
for his energetic action in suppressing the vigilance 
committee by an appeal to the naval authority. 
Judge McAllister resigned his office in 1862, owing 
to impaired health. In 1860 Columbia gave him 
the degree of LL. D. He was the author of a " Eu- 
logy on President Jackson " and also of a volume 
of legal opinions, which was published by his son. 
— His son, Julian, soldier, b. in New York citv, 28 
Oct., 1823 ; d. on Governor's island, N. Y., 3 Jan., 
1887, was graduated at the U. S. military academy 
in 1847, assigned to the 2d artillery, and served in 
the war with Mexico in 1847-8. He was trans- 
ferred to the ordnance corps on 13 April, 1848, and 
was at various arsenals till the civil war, during 
which he was chief of ordnance of the Department 
of the Pacific. He received all the brevets up to 
colonel at the close of the war, and in 1866 became 
major and a member of the board to determine the 
armament of the Pacific coast fortifications. Pie 
was made lieutenant-colonel on 23 June. 1874, and 
in 1886 was transferred to the command of the 
New York arsenal on Governor's island, where he 
also served as president of the board for testing 
rifled cannon. — Matthew Hall's grandson. Ward, 
jurist, b. in Newport, R. I., 27 July, 1855, was' edu- 
cated at Princeton and graduated at Harvard law- 
school in 1880. He was assistant district attorney 
for California in 1882-5, resigned, and then became 
judge of the U. S. court for the territoiy of Alaska. 

McALPINE, William Jarvis, civirengineer, b. 
in New York city in 1812. He received his educa- 




tion in his native city, and in 1827 became a civil 
engineer, engaging chiefly on the construction of 
canals and other hydraulic works. Subsequently 
he was engineer of the eastern division of the Erie 
canal enlargement until June, 1846, when he be- 
came chief engineer of the construction of the dry 
dock of the U. S. navy-yard in Brooklyn. He was 
elected state engnieer of New York in 1852, and 
in 1854-'6 was state railroad commissioner. Later 
he was for two years acting president and engi- 
neer of the Erie railroad, after which he was chief 
engineer of roads in the west. The original water- 
works in Albany, N. Y., and in Chicago, 111., were 
designed and constructed under his supervision, 
and he was associated in the building of other 
similar works. In 1870, at the request of the Aus- 
trian government, he presented plans for the im- 
provement of the cataracts of the Danube river. 
Since that time his advice has been largely sought 
on important engineering projects throughout the 
United States. Pie has published valuable reports 
and was president of the American society of civil 
engineers in 1808-'!). 

McANALLY, David Rice, clergyman, b. in 
Granger county, Tenn., 17 Feb., 1810. He was 
educated by private teachers, and at the age of 
nineteen entered the conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal church at Abingdon, Va., as an itinerant 
preacher. He travelled for twelve years in the 
circuits and districts of Virginia, North Carolina, 
and Tennessee, was for three years the editor of a 
secular })a,per in North Carolina, and in 1843 be- 
came president of the East Tennessee female insti- 
tute. Knoxville. He conducted this school for 
eigiit years, during four of vvhicli he edited a re- 
ligious joui-nal. In 1851 he became editor of the 
"Christian xVdvocate " in St. Louis, Mo., and su- 
l)crinten(lent of the Methodist book concern there. 
Besides sermons and addresses, he has published 
ti'ac'ts on educational and controversial subjects, 
and was long associated with Horace Mann in 
elforts to improve the common-school system. He 
is also tile autiior of "Life of 3lartha Laurens 
Kanisav"" (St. Louis, 1852); "Life and Times of 
Kev. William Patton " (185G) ; " Life and Times of 
Kev. Dr. Sanniel Patton" (1857); "Life and La- 
bors of IJishop Marvine " (1878) ; and " History of 
Methodism in Missouri" (1881). 

MacARTHUll, Arthur, jurist, b. in Grlasgow, 
Scotland. 2() Jan., 1815. He came to this country 
when a child with his parents, spent a year in Wes- 
leyan university. Conn., studied law in New York, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1841. He began 
{)raetice in Springfield. ^Nlass., and in 1843 was ap- 
pointed public administrator for the county of 
Hanijxlen, and judge-advocate for the western di- 
vision of the militia. In 1849 he removed to Mil- 
waukee, Wis., and in 1851 was elected city attorney 
of that city, in which office he served one term. In 
1855 he was elected lieutenant-governor of the 
state and seived a jtart of his time as governor 
during a vacancy that was created by the resigna- 
tion of Gov. l)arstow. In 1857 he was elected 
judge of the 2d judicial circuit, and he was re- 
elected in 18(13. He was appointed a U. S. com- 
missioner to the Paris exposition of 1807. In 1870 
he was appointed associate justice of the supreme 
court of the District of Columbia, which place 
he resigned on 1 April, 1887, under the act of 
congress permitting Federal judges to retire on 
full pay after reaching the age'of seventy. He has 
been for many years president of the Washington 
humane society, and occupies a similar post in the 
associated charities for the district. He is also | 
president of the board of regents of the National | 

university at Washington. Judge MacArthur has 
published four volumes of reports containing the 
more important decisions of his court (Washington, 
1875 et seq.), and is the author of " Education in 
its Relation to Manual Industry " (New York, 1884). 
He has now (1888) nearly ready for publication a 
work called the " Biography of the English Lan- 
guage." He has for many years delivered lectures 
on historical and literary subjects which will prob- 
ably be gathered into a volume soon. 

Mac ARTHUR, Charles Lafayette, journal- 
ist, b. in Claremont, N. H., 7 Jan., 1824. He was 
educated in Watertown, N. Y., learned there the 
printer's trade, became editor and proprietor of the 
" Carthaginian," printed in Carthage, N. Y., and 
was afterward a reporter for the Detroit " Free 
Press." About 1842 he removed to Milwaukee, and 
became the first editor of the " Sentinel." In 
184G-'7 he was city editor of the New York " Sun." 
He next joined John M. Francis in the purchase 
of the Troy " Budget," for which he wrote letters 
from Europe in 1851, and from the southern states 
in 1856, that attracted much attention. In 1859 
he established the Troy " Daily Arena," which he 
sold in the spring of 1861 in order to go to the 
war, in which he served first as lieutenant and 
quartermaster of the 2^ New York volunteers, and 
afterward as captain and assistant quartermaster in 
the regular army. In the autumn of 1864 he estab- 
lished the Troy " News," one of the earliest Sun- 
day newspapers except those published in New 
York city. In 1866 he sold the " News," having be- 
come one of the editors and proprietors of the Troy 
" Daily Whig," and in March. 1869, he revived, as 
a Sunday newspaper, the Troy " Northern Budget." 
For some years prior to 1886 he was the proprietor 
of the Troy " Daily Telegram." In 1881-3 he was 
a meml)er of the New York state senate. 

McARTHUR, Duncan, soldier, b. in Dutchess 
county. N. Y.. 14 June, 1772 ; d. near Chillicothe, 
Ohio, 28 April, 1839. His family removed to the 
western frontier of Pennsylvania when he was 
eight years old, 

and at the age of _ 

eighteen he volun- 
teered in Gen. Jo- 
siahllarmar's ex- 
pedition against 
the Miami In- 
dians. He parti- 
cipated as a ran- 
ger or scout in the 
warfare with the 
Indians of Ken- 
tucky and Ohio 
until Gen. Antho- 
ny Wayne's vic- 
tory over them in 
1794. Soon after- 
ward he settled 
as a surveyor near 
Chillicothe, and 
acquired large 
wealth in land. He was a member of the Oliio 
legislature in 1805,and in 1808 became major-gen- 
eral of the territorial militia. In the beginning of 
the war with Great Britain he was commissioned 
colonel of the 1st Ohio volunteers, 7 May, 1812, 
and was second in command at Detroit when Gen. 
William Hull surrendered. After the Americans 
had established themselves on the Canadian side 
of Detroit river he led a foraging-party that cap- 
tured provisions from the set^tlements on the 
Thames, and in a reconnoissance tow^ard Fort Mai- 
den narrowly escaped being cut ofl: by Tecumseh's 





Indians. When Hull was temporarily absent from 
the army for a time McArthur determined to at- 
tack the fort at Amherstburg. which would have 
fallen without a blow a few days earlier, but was 
now protected by a ^un-boat and a strong battery. 
Col. McArthur a^d Col. Lewis Cass were absent at 
the time of ther capitulation, having been sent to 
the river Raisin to escort Capt. Brush and his re- 
lieving force t^ Detroit. They were included in 
the surrender, ahd when a British officer came from 
the fort with the articles of capitulation McArthur 
tore off his epaulettes and broke his sword in an 
outburst of indignation. He was commissioned as 
brigadier-general on 12 March, 1813, and when 
Gen. Harrison resigned, 31 May, 1814, succeeded 
to the chief command of the western army. He 
projected a plan for the conquest of Canada, and 
on 26 Oct., 1814, crossed St. Clair river with 750 
men and five field-pieces, passed through the 
Scotch and Moravian settlements, reached Oxford 
on 4 Nov., and drove the militia before him, until 
he reached Brantford, where he found a large force 
of Indians and militia posted on the opposite bank 
of Grand river, and heard that the road to Burling- 
ton was defended by British regulars and cannon. 
He accordingly turned southward, destroying pub- 
lic property and defeating a force of militia. On 
reaching Dover he learned that Gen. George Izard 
had withdrawn his troops from Canadian soil, and 
that a strong force of regulars was coming against 
him. Turning westward, he hastened back to De- 
troit by way of St. Thomas, discharging his force at 
Sandwich on 17 Nov, He had been elected by the 
Democrats a member of congress from Ohio in 1813, 
but declined to leave the army. After he was mus- 
tered out, 15 June, 1815, he was returned to the 
legislature. In 1816-17 he served as a commis- 
sioner to negotiate treaties with the Indians, which 
were ratified in 1818, and by which the Indians con- 
veyed to the government their lands in Ohio, In 
1817-19 he was again a member of the state house 
of representatives, and was chosen speaker. In 
1822 he was elected to congress as a Clay Demo- 
crat, and served from 1 Dec, 1823, till 3 March, 
1825. In 1830-'2 he was governor of Ohio, and in 
1832 he was again a candidate for congress, but 
lost the election by a single ballot. While gov- 
ernor he sufi:ered severe physical injuries through 
an accident, from which he never recovered. 

MacARTHUR, John, architect, b. in Blade- 
nock, Wigtonshire, Scotland, 13 May, 1823. He 
came to the United States at the age of ten, stud- 
ied architectural drawing, and served as a foreman 
under his uncle in the construction of the Penn- 
sylvania hospital. In 1848 he was appointed by 
the city of Philadelphia architect and superintend- 
ent of the new house of refuge. During the civil 
war he was architect in charge of the hospitals and 
other government buildings in the Philadelphia 
district. In 1869 he was selected by competition to 
design and construct the new city hall in Phila- 
delphia, on which he is still (1887) engaged, having 
given up his private business in order to devote 
his entire time to this structure. In 1871 he was 
appointed by the United States architect of the 
new post-office in Philadelphia, which was built 
and furnished entirely under his direction. In the 
same year he was appointed superintendent of re- 
pairs, having charge of all government buildings 
in Philadelphia. In 1874 he was twice offered the 
post of supervising architect of the U. S. treasury, 
but declined. In 1875 he was commissioned by 
the government to examine and report on the con- 
struction of the custom-house building in Chicago. 
In 1885 he was appointed by the city of Boston to 

select plans for the new court-house. Among the 
buildings designed and built by him are the naval 
hospitals at Philadelphia, Pa., Annapolis, Md., and 
Mare island, Cal. ; the state hospitals for the in- 
sane at Danville and Warren, Pa. ; Lafayette col- 
lege, Easton, Pa.: the Continental, Girard, and 
Lafayette hotels, Philadelphia; and the "Public 
Ledger" building, Philadelphia, and the town and 
country residences of George W. Childs. 

McARTHUR, John, soldier, b. in Erskine, 
Scotland, 17 Nov., 1826. He is the son of a black- 
smith, and worked at that trade till he was twenty- 
three years of age, when he came to the United 
States and settled in Chicago, 111., where he was 
employed as foreman of boiler-making in a foun- 
dry, and was subsequently at the head of an es- 
tablishment of his own. When the civil war began 
he joined the 12th Illinois volunteers, with a com- 
pany of which he was captain, and was chosen 
lieutenant-colonel. He soon afterward became 
colonel of the regiment, commanded a brigade at 
the assault on Fort Donelson, and for his gallantry 
was promoted brigadier-general, 21 March, 1862. 
At Shiloh he received a wound in the foot in the 
beginning of the first day's battle, but returned 
after it was dressed to his brigade, and succeeded 
to the command of the 2d division, when Gen. 
William H. L. Wallace was mortally wounded. In 
the operations against Vicksburg he commanded a 
division in Gen, McPherson's corps. He took a 
conspicuous part in the battle of Nashville, where 
he was at the head of a division under Gen. An- 
drew J. Smith, which carried the salient point of 
the enemy's line, and for gallantry in this action 
he was brevetted major-general. He was postmas- 
ter at Chicago in 1873-7. 

MACAULAY, Sir James Buchanan, Canadian 
jurist, b. in Niagara, 3 Dec, 1793; d. in Toronto, 
26 Nov., 1859. His father. Dr. James Macaulay, a 
native of Glasgow, Scotland, came with his regi- 
ment, the Queen's rangers, to Canada in 1792, and 
was afterward deputy inspector-general of hospi- 
tals. James was educated in Cornwall, and after- 
ward entered the 98tli regiment as ensign. In 1812 
he joined the Glengarry fencibles as a lieutenant, 
and fought at Ogdensburg, Oswego, Lundy's Lane, 
and at the siege of Fort Erie. At the close of the 
war his corps was disbanded, and after engaging 
in the study of law he was admitted to the bar in 
1822. He rose rapidly in his profession, was an 
executive councillor during the administration of 
Sir Peregrine Maitland, and in 1829 became a judge 
of the court of Queen's bench. When the court of 
common pleas was constituted in December, 1849, 
he was transferred to it as chief justice, and con- 
tinued on the bench until his resignation in 1856. 
A short time before his death he accepted the 
appointment of judge of the court of error and ap- 
peal. In 1859 the honor of knighthood was con- 
ferred upon him by the Queen. He was chairman 
of the commission that was intrusted with the 
consolidation of the statutes of Upper Canada, and 
this work was completed in 1858 largely by the aid 
of Sir James. — His brother, John Simcoe, served 
as colonel of engineers, and afterward was a mem- 
ber of the legislative council of Upper Canada. 

McAULEY, Jeremiah, missionarv, b. in Ire- 
land in 1839 : d. in New York city, 18 Sept., 1884. 
At the age of thirteen he was sent to a married 
sister in New York city, and assisted her husband 
in his business, but, forming vicious associations, 
left them soon, and lived in Water street, where 
he became a thief and a prize-fighter. At the age 
of nineteen he was arrested for highway robbery, 
and, although innocent of the charge, was convict- 





ed and sentenced to fifteen years' imprisonment. 
When he had been about five years in prison he 
became religious, but after he was pardoned, in 
March, 1864, he returned to his evil practices. 
When reduced to poverty, he found a friend in a 
missionary, who aided him to find work, and re- 
awakened his religious convictions. After repeated 
relapses, he entered the Methodist church, and in 
October, 1872, opened a mission called the " Help- 
ing Hand " in Water street. He was very success- 
ful in arousing religious feelings in the degraded, 
assisted by his wife, Maria, who had been his com- 
panion in vice. In 1882 they opened the " Cre- 
morne Mission," and in June, 1883, he began the 
publication of a weekly called "Jerry McAuley's 
Newspaper." See " Jerry McAuley, his Life and 
Work," an autobiographv, edited by the Rev. Rob- 
ert :M. Offord (New York, 1885). 

MACBRIDE, James, botanist, b. in Williams- 
burg county, S. C, in 1784; d. in Charleston, 
S. C.. in 1817. He was graduated at Yale in 1805, 
and then studied medicine. Settling in Pineville, 
S. C. he practised his profession for many years, 
but later removed to Charleston, where he died of 
yellow fever. Dr. Macbride was an ardent devotee 
of botany, and contributed papers on that science 
to the '• Transactions of the Linna3an Society " and 
elsewhere. His name was given by Dr. Stephen 
Elliott to the Macbridea pulcra, a genus found 
in St. John's, Berkeley, S. C, of which but two 
species are known to exist. This same authority 
dedicated the second volume of his "Sketch of the 
Botaiiv of South (Carolina and Georgia" (Charles- 
ton, 1824) to Dr. .Alacbridc. 

3IcHKIl)E, James Henry, soldier, b. in Ken- 
tucky about 1815; d. in Pocahontas, Ark., in the 
autumn of 18G2. He studied law, and practised in 
the courts of Missouri, whither he removed in 1845. 
When the civil war began he joined Gen. Sterling 
l^rice in raising the state guard of Missouri, re- 
cruited a brigade, and was afterward commissioned 
as l)riga(lier-general in the Confederate service. In 
the counter-attack on Gen. Lyon's force at Wilson's 
Creek he led the infantry on" the Confederate left. 

McCABE, James Dtibiiey, clergyman, b. in 
Richmond, Va., 15 April, 1808; d. in Baltimore, 
Md., 1 Aug., 1875. He entered the Methodist min- 
istry at the age of twenty-one, but afterward con- 
nected himself with the Protestant Episcopal 
ciuirch. and in 185(j became associate rector of 
St. Paul's church in Baltimore. He afterward was 
rector of other parishes in Maryland, and twice de- 
clined a bishopric. He edited the " Olive Branch," 
and also the " Odd-Fellows' ^lagazine," and pub- 
lished a " Masonic Text-Book."— His l)rother, John 
CoHins, clergvman, b. in Richmond, Va., 12 Nov., 
1810: d. in Chambersburg, Pa., 20 Feb., 1875, left 
school early, and became a clerk in a l)ank. He 
contributed a poem to the first number of the 
"Southern Literary .Alessenger," formed a friend- 
ship with its editor, Edgar A. Poe, and wrote con- 
stantly for it and othcn- magazines poems, essavs, 
and pa[)ers on colonial liistorv. In 1845 he entered 
the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal church, 
and after l)eing rector at Smithfield, Va.. for five 
years, tf)ok chai-ge of a parish in Hampton, and 
while tliere prosecuted researches among parish 
registers and family archives into the early history 
of his church in Virginia, and published papers oil 
the subject, but, on the announcement of Bishop 
Wilham ^leade's work, handed over his materials 
to Dr. :\Ieade. At this time he received from the 
college of William and Mary the degree of D. D. 
In 1.S55 he was chairman of the state vellow fever 
connnittee. He was rector of a church in Balti- 

more, Md., in 1856-9, and then in Anne Arundel 
county, Md., till 1861, when he became chaplain of 
a Virginia regiment of Confederate troops. From 
1862 till the close of the war he was chaplain of 
Libby prison in Richmond. In 1865-7 he had 
charge of a church in Bladensburg, Md., then went 
to Middleburg, Del., and left that parish in 1873 
to become rector of a church in Chambersburg. 
Dr. McCabe lectured frequently on literary topics, 
and delivered memorial addresses and poems, many 
of which were published. A volume of his early 
poems was printed under the title of " Scraps " 
(Richmond, 1835). — James Dabney's son, James 
Dabney, author, b. in Richmond, Va., 80 July, 
1842 ; d. in Germantown, Pa., 27 Jan., 1883, was 
educated at the Virginia military institute. Dur- 
ing the secession crisis he published a pamphlet en- 
titled " Fanaticism and its Results," by " A South- 
erner" (Richmond, 1860). A war-story entitled 
" The Aide-de-Camp," was issued in book-form in 
1863, and three plays of martial tenor were per- 
formed at the Richmond theatre in 1862-3. In 
the winter of 1863 he published " The Bohemian," 
a Christmas book, to which his wife and Charles P. 
Dimitry also contributed, and in 1863-'4 he edited 
the " Magnolia Weekly." His " Sword of Harry 
Lee " and other war-poems were very popular. He 
published a " Life of Gen. Thomas J. Jackson," by 
"An Ex-Cadet " (Richmond. 1863 ; enlarged ed., 
1864) ; " Memoir of Gen. Albert S. Johnston " (1866) ; 
and " Life and Campaigns of Gen. Robert E. Lee " 
(New York, 1867), in which he disparages Jefferson 
Davis, and ascribes the loss of the southern cause 
to his blunders. He also made a compilation of the 
romance and humor of the war entitled " The Gray- 
Jackets" (1867). He was the author of several 
hundred short stories, essays, poems, and transla- 
tions. His works include " Planting the Wilder- 
ness" (Boston, 1869); "History of the Late War 
between Germany and France" (1871); "Lights 
and Shadows of New York Life" (New York, 
1872) ; " The Great Republic " (1872) ; and a " His- 
tory of the Grange Movement," which, with some 
of "his subsequent works, was published under the 
pen-name of " Edward Winslow Martin " (Chicago, 
1874). His later publications are " Paris by Sun- 
light and Gaslight" (Philadelphia, 1875); ""Cen- 
tennial Historv of the United States " (Philadel- 
phia, 1875) ; " Pathways of the Holy Land " (1877) ; 
"Historv of the Turko-Russian War" (1879); 
"Our Young Folks Abroad" (Philadelphia, 1881); 
and "Our Young Folks in Africa" (1882).— A son 
of John C, William Gordon, educator, b. near 
Richmond, Va., 4 Aug., 1841. He was graduated 
at the University of V^irginia in 1861, and immedi- 
ately enlisted in the Confederate army, and served 
throughout the civil war, for the first year as a 
private, and afterward as a captain of artillery. 
After the war was ended he established the univer- 
sity school at Petersburg, Va., of which he is still 
(1888) head-master. While in the army he con- 
tributed many poems to southern magazines, and 
after returning to civil life published essays, re- 
views, sketches, and translations from medic'eval 
Latin poetry. He translated and revised " Aids to 
Latin Orthography," from the German of Wilhelm 
Brambach (New York, 1872), edited " Ballads of 
Battle and Bravery" (1873), and is the author of 
" The Defence of Petersburg, Campaign of 1864-'5 " 
(Richmond, 1876). He has also published a " Latin 
Grammar" (Philadelphia, 1883), edited "Cssar" 
(Philadelphia, 1886), and is engaged (1888) in pre- 
paring an edition of " Horace's Works." 

McCaffrey, Jolm, clergvman, b. in Em- 
mettsburg, Md., 6 Sept., 1806 ; d. there, 25 Sept., 




1882. He studied theology in Eramettsburg and 
Baltimore, was ordained priest in 1838, and imme- 
diately afterward appointed president of Mount St. 
Mary's college, where he made many improvements. 
Among others, he began the erection of a fine 
church. He twice declined a bishopric. Dr. Mc- 
Caffrey was a (man of wide erudition and much 
literary ability. \ His principal publications were a 
course of lectures on literary and philosophical 
subjects delivered before the Philoinathean society 
of Mount St. Mary's, a series of lectures before the 
Catholic association of Baltimore, several addresses, 
among which one on the "Landing of the Pil- 
grims " attracted great attention, and funeral ora- 
tions on Bishop Dubois and Bishop Brute, which 
have been considered models of their kind. He was 
also the author of a series of catechisms (New York). 

McCAGrG, Ezra Butler, lawyer, b. in Kinder- 
hook, N. Y., 22 Nov., 1825. He studied law in 
Hudson and settled in 1847 in Chicago, where he 
has taken a high rank in his profession, having 
refused a nomination by both parties for judge of 
the Illinois supreme court. Mr. McCagg was a 
member of the IJ. S. sanitary commission, and presi- 
dent of the Northwestern sanitary commission and 
of the board of trustees of the Illinois eastern hos- 
pital for the insane, and first president of the Lin- 
coln park trustees. His library and art collection, 
one of the best in the west, was destroyed by the 
fire of 1871. He has since then collected another 
large library and many choice works of art. Among 
them is the historical picture by G. P. A. Healy rep- 
resenting the conference between Lincoln, Grant, 
Sherman, and Porter, on board " The Queen," 28 
March, 1865, at City Point, which is represented in 
the article Sherman, William Tecumseh. Mr. 
McCagg has delivered many lectures, and pub- 
lished numerous pamphlets. 

McCAINE, Alexander, clergyman, b. in Tip- 
perary, Ireland, about 1775; d.'in Montgomery, 
Ala., 1 June, 1856._ He was educated in England, 
and was intended for the Anglican ministry ; but, 
after emigrating to the United States in 1791, he 
accepted the Methodist doctrines, was admitted in- 
to the conference in 1797, and ordained an elder in 
1801. He was for many years a travelling com- 
panion of Bishop Francis Asbury, filled important 
pulpits, and located in 1821. He became interested 
in the question of lay representation in the councils 
of his church, and after the adverse decision of the 
general conference of 1824 published a treatise in 
support of his views, called " History and Mystery 
of Methodist Episcopacy " (Baltimore, 1829), which 
called forth a reply from Bishop John Emory, en- 
titled " Defence of our Fathers." He was a leader 
in the organization of the Methodist Protestant 
church in 1830, and one of the most eloquent and 
influential ministers in that denomination. 

McCALL, Edward R., naval officer, b. in 
Charleston, S. C, 5 Aug., 1790 ; d. in Bordentown, 
N. J., 31 July, 1853. He entered the navy as mid- 
shipman, 1 Jan., 1808, and was promoted to a lieu- 
tenancy, 11 March, 1813, at which time he was on 
duty on board the brig "Enterprise," fourteen 
guns, then under the command of Lieut. Johnston 
Blakeley, who was shortly afterward succeeded by 
Lieut. William Burrows (q. v.). The " Enterprise " 
left Portsmouth, N. H., for a cruise, 1 Sept., 1813, 
and on the 4th, at 20 minutes past 3 p. m., she 
brought to action the British brig " Boxer," fourteen 
guns. Lieut. Burrows being mortally wounded 
early in the engagement, though he refused to 
leave his post, the command devolved on Lieut. 
McCall, who carried the ship gallantly through the 
action, the enemy surrendering at 4 p. m. By reso- 

lution, approved 6 Jan., 1814, congress caused to be 
presented to the nearest male relative of Lieut. 
Burrows, and to Lieut. McCall, gold medals " in 
testimony of the high sense entertained of their 
gallantry and good conduct in the conflict with 
the British sloop ' Boxer.' " Lieut. McCall was 
promoted to the rank of master-commandant, 3 
March, 1825, and to that of captain, 3 March, 1835. 

McCALL, Creor^e Archibald, soldier, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 16 March, 1802 ; d. in West 
Chester, Pa., 26 Feb., 1868. He was the son of 
Archibald McCall, merchant of Philadelphia. He 
was graduated at the U. S. military academy in 1822, 
and, after serving as aide to Gen. Edmund P. 
Gaines in 1831-'6, was commissioned captain in 1836 
and major in 1847, and served in the Florida and 
Mexican wars, receiving the brevets of major and 
lieutenant-colonel " for gallant and distinguished 
services in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de 
la Palma." On his return from the Mexican war 
he was given a sword by the citizens of Phila- 
delphia. In 1850 he was appointed inspector- 
general of the army, with the rank of colonel, 
which place he resigned, 22 Aug., 1853, and settled 
in Chester county, Pa. At the beginning of the 
civil war he tendered his services to Gov. Andrew 
D. Curtin, who made him major-general of militia, 
with the task of organizing the Pennsylvania re- 
serves. He was commissioned brigadier-general of 
volunteers on 17 May, 1861. He commanded the 
reserves, which formed a division of three brigades, 
until J une, 1862, planning the successful movement 
against Dranesville, 20 Dec, 1861, and command- 
ing all the National troops at the battle of Me- 
chanicsville, 26 June, 1862, where he repelled a 
greatly superior force. He was at Gaines's Hill 
and Charles City Cross-roads, but was taken pris- 
oner at New Market Cross-roads, on 30 June, and 
confined in Libby prison for several weeks, after 
which he was on sick-leave, and resigned from the 
army, 31 March, 1863. In August, 1862, he re- 
ceived a sword from the citizens of Chester county, 
Pa., and in the autumn of that year he was Demo- 
cratic candidate for congress from Pennsylvania. 
He was the author of " Letters from the Frontier," 
a posthumous work (Philadelphia, 1868). — His 
cousin, Peter, lawyer, b. in Trenton, N. J., 31 
Aug., 1809 ; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 30 Oct., 1880, 
was graduated at Princeton in 1826, studied law 
with Joseph R. Ingersoll in 1830, was admitted 
to the bar in Philadelphia, and until within a few 
months of his death continued in the practice of 
his profession, in which he became eminent in all 
its departments. He served in the councils of the 
city, and in 1844-'5 was its mayor. He was for 
thirty years one of the vice-provosts of the Law 
academy of Philadelphia, and for many years pro- 
fessor of pleading and practice in the law depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania, of which 
institution he was a trustee from 1861 till his death. 
Among his published addresses are " Progress and 
Influence of the Society of Friends in Philadel- 
phia," delivered before the Historical society of 
Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1832); "Rise and 
Progress of Civil Society " (1836) ; and " History 
of Pennsylvania Law and Equity" (1838).— An- 
other cousin, John Cadwalader, poet, b. in Phila- 
delphia, 24 Dec, 1793 ; d. there, 3 Oct., 1846, stud- 
ied law, and was admitted to the bar of his native 
city in 1815. He published " The Troubadour, and 
other Poems " (Philadelphia, 1822), and " Fleurette, 
and other Rhymes " (1828). 

McCALL, Hugh, soldier, b. in South Carolina 
in 1767 ; d. in Savannah, Ga., 9 July, 1824. He be- 
came ensign of the 3d sub-legion, 12 May, 1794, 



1st lieutenant in May, 1798, deputy paymaster- 
general, 31 Jan., 1800, and captain in August ot 
that year. On the reorganization of the army in 
1802 he was retained in the 2d infantry, brevetted 
major, 10 July, 1812, and mustered out, 15 July, 
1815. He was made military storekeeper at Savan- 
nah Ga., 31 March, 1818. and at Charleston, S. C, 
in Mav, 1821. Major McCall published a " History 
of Georgia " (2 vols., Savannah, 1811-16), a work 
that, as Jared Sparks said, had " its merits but 
the author labored under disadvantages, and his 
materials were scanty." . 

McCALLA, Daniel, clergyman, b. m ^eshain- 
inv. Pa., in 1748 ; d. in Wappetaw, S. C, April 
180!). He was graduated at Princeton in 1766, and 
then taught in Philadelphia, at the same time 
studving theology. He was licensed to preach as a 
Presbvterian in 1772, and two years later ordained 
pastor of the churches at New Providence and 
Charleston, Pa., where he preached till the Revo- 
lution. He was then appointed a chaplain in the 
Continental armv, and served in Canada till the 
battle of Trois Rivieres in 1776, where he was cap- 
tured. After confinement in a prison-ship he was 
released on parole in tlie latter part of the year, 
and returned to his congregation, but was accused 
of violating his parole by liis patriotic prayers, and 
forced to flee to Virginia, where he was soon after- 
ward exchanged. He there established a school in 
Hanover county, Ya., l)ut in 1788 went to Wappe- 
taw, S. C, where he was pastor of the Congrega- 
tional church till his death. South Carolina col- 
lege gave him the degree of D. D. Dr. McCalla 
possessed much learning and eloquence. His '^ Ser- 
mons and Essavs " were edited with a memoir by 
William Hollingslioad (2 vols., 1810). 

McCALLA, WiUijim Latta, clergyman, b. near 
Lexington, Ky., 25 Nov., 1788; d. in Louisiana, 12 
Oct., 1859. lie was graduated at Transylvania 
university, studied theology privately, was licensed 
to preach in 1816, and was a chaplain in the U. S. 
army in 1816-18. He was settled over Presbyte- 
rian" churches in Augusta, Ky., in 1819, and in 
Philadelphia, Pa., much of tlie" time from 1823 to 
1854. During part of this period he was in Texas 
on account of failing health, serving as an itinerant 
missionary, and also as an army chaplain. He af- 
terward preached in St. Louis, was connected with 
a seminary at St. Charles. Mo., and in tlie year of 
his death removed to Louisiana. He also engaged 
in missionary work among the boatmen of St. 
Louis and the slaves of the south. Mr. McCalla 
was a fine linguist and a notable pulpit orator. 
He was an active and foi'cible controversialist, and 
held many pul)lic del)ates including discussions 
with Alexander Campbell on Baptism, with Abner 
Kneeland on Universalism. and with Joseph Barker 
on Infidelity. His self-control and polite manner 
of saying cutting things led to the remark that 
"he was smooth as oil, but it was the oil of vit- 
riol."' He published many sermons and essays, 
"The Doctorate of Divinity"; *' Adventures in 
Texas, chiefly in 1840"' (Philadelphia); and a col- 
lection of {)salins and hynnis in French. 

McCALJjU3I, Daniel Craig, engineer, b, in 
Johnston, Renfrewshire, Scotland. 21 Jan., 1815 ; 
d. in Brooklyn, X. Y., 27 Dec, 1878. He came to 
Rochester, X. Y., with his ])arents in his youth, 
became an architect and builder, and in 1855-6 
was general superintendent of the Erie railway. 
On 11 Feb., 1862, he was appointed director of all 
the military railroads in the United States, with 
the staff rank of colonel, and to him was due much 
of the efficiency of the railroad service during the 
civil war. He was brevetted brigadier-general of 


volunteers " for faithful and meritorious services," 
24 Sept., 1864, and major-general, 13 March, 1865, 
and on 31 July, 1866, was mustered out of the ser- 
vice. In the same year he published a valuable 
report on the military railroads during the war. 

McCALLUM, Lachlan, Canadian member of 
parliament, b. in Tiree, Argyleshire, Scotland, 15 
March, 1823. He came to Canada in 1842 and set- 
tled in Haldimand county, where he engaged ex- 
tensively in contracting and ship-building. During 
the Fenian raid in June, 1866, he commanded the 
Dunnville naval company at Fort Erie. He was 
an unsuccessful candidate for Haldimand in the 
Canada assembly in 1863, first elected to the Do- 
minion parliament in 1867, and was a member till 
his defeat in 1872. He was a member of the legis- 
lative assembly of Ontario from 1871 till 1872, 
when he resigned in consequence of the act abol- 
ishing dual representation. He was re-elected to 
the Dominion parliament in 1874, unseated on pe- 
tition in May, 1875, re-elected in June, 1875, in 
1878, and in 1882, and sat until the dissolution of 
parliament in 1887. On 5 Feb. of that year he be- 
came a Dominion senator. 

McCALMONT, Alfred Brunsen, soldier, b. in 
Franklin. Yenango co.. Pa., 28 April, 1825 : d. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 7 May, 1874. He was admitted to 
the bar and practised in Franklin, and afterward 
in Pittsburg, where he became city solicitor in 
1853. He was assistant attorney-general of the 
Cnited States during Buchanan's administration, 
and afterward returned to his native town. He was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 142d Penn- 
sylvania regiment in September, 1862, and in 1864 
became coronet of the 208th Pennsylvania, taking 
part in the battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville, Gettysburg, and others. He was brevetted 
brigadier-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865, 
and after the war resumed his profession. 

McCANDLESS, Wilson, jurist, b. in Pitts- 
burg, Pa., 19 June, 1810; d. there, 30 June, 1882. 
He was graduated at the Western university of 
Pennsylvania, studied law, and admitted to the bar 
in 1831. After practising successfully for more 
than twenty-five years, he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Buchanan U.S. judge for the western dis- 
trict of Pennsylvania. 

McCANN, William Penn, naval officer, b. in 
Paris, Ky., 4 May, 1830. He was appointed mid- 
shipman in the U. S. navy, 1 Nov., 1848. and, hav- 
ing been promoted through, the various grades, 
became lieutenant-commander, 16 July, 1862. He 
was stationed at Yera Cruz on the first hostile 
demonstrations at Pensacola, Fla., and re-en- 
forced Fort Pickens with sailors and marines on 
14 and 15 April, 1861. Ho remained off the fort 
127 days, and in June assisted in landing addi- 
tional re-enforcements under Col. Harvey Browm. 
In 1862 he operated on York, Pamunkey, and James 
rivers in co-operation with the Army of the Poto- 
mac, and captured, on 4 July of that year, the 
Confederate gun-boat " Teazer," with plans of bat- 
teries, torpedoes, and defences of Richmond. 
Having been ordered to the command of the 
'• Hunchback " in the following October, he was 
present at X"ew Berne, 14 March, 1863, w^hen the 
Confederate forces, with eighteen guns and several 
thousand infantry, attacked that vessel and Camp 
Anderson. After an action of an hour and a half 
he silenced the enemy's guns and compelled him to 
withdraw. After further service on the North 
Carolina coast, McCann was ordered to the " Ken- 
nebec," and had thirteen months' active blockade 
service before Mobile, participating in several en- 
gagements with the batteries and Fort Morgan 




while attacking stranded blockade-runners. He 
captured at sea three of the latter loaded with cot- 
ton, together with forty-five of the officers and 
crew. The vessels and cargoes were subsequently 
sold for half a million dollars. During the battle 
of Mobile Bay.J' Aug., 1864, the " Kennebec " was 
lashed to the "f Monongahela," fifth in line of bat- 
tle. McCann ^s relieved from the " Kennebec " 
in December, 1864, and was engaged in various 
routine duties until 8 Dec, 1867, when he was 
commissioned commander. He was promoted 
captain, 21 Sept., 1876, and commodore, 26 Jan., 
1887, and is now (1888) commandant of the Bos- 
ton navy-yard. 

McCARROLL, James, journalist, b. in Lanes- 
boro, County Longford, Ireland, 3 Aug., 1814. He 
came with his father's family to Canada in 1831, 
and soon afterward contributed prose and verse to 
the newspapers. In 1845 he became proprietor and 
editor of " Peterborough Chronicle," and in 1847 
removed to Cobourg, where he taught music in 
addition to his journalistic work. He became con- 
nected with the customs department in 1849. in 
1851 was appointed collector at Niagara Falls, and 
about 1854 out-door surveyor of Toronto, which 
place he retained until the office was abolished. 
While in Toronto he edited several newspapers. 
In 1866 he removed to Buffalo, N. Y,, and after a 
few years to New York, where he has been since 
engaged as a musical and dramatic critic, and as a 
writer of general literature. He is the author of 
various inventions, the last of which increases the 
light and flame in the chimney of an Argand gas- 
burner, or of any other burner, to double their vol- 
ume by retarding the escape of unconsumed car- 
bon through the chimney. He is well known as a 
poet, and has published in book-form his humorous 
letters, under the pen-name of Terry Finnegan, to 
Thomas D'Arcy McGee (Toronto, 1864) ; " The New 
Gauger" (1864); "The Adventures of a Night" 
(1865) ; and " The New Life-Boat " (1866). 

McCARTEE, Robert, clergyman, b. in New 
York city, 30 Sept., 1791 ; d. in Yonkers, N. Y., 12 
March, 1865. He was graduated at Columbia in 
1808, studied law, and was admitted to the New 
York bar, but after a few years of practice en- 
tered the theological seminary of the Associate 
Reformed church in the city of New York. He 
was licensed to preach in April, 1816, and ac- 
cepted a call from the Old Scots church in Phila- 
delphia. He resigned this charge on 21 April, 
1821, and became in 1822 pastor of the Irish 
Presbyterian church in New York. The church 
was at that time composed of only about thirty 
members, mostly emigrants from Ireland. Dr. Mc- 
Cartee built a new edifice and increased the at- 
tendance to one thousand communicants. He was 
not only pastor, but also the adviser, the legal 
counsellor, and informally the magistrate of his 
congregation. In 1836 failing health compelled 
him to abandon this post, and he was successively 
pastor of churches in Port Carbon, Pa., and Goshen 
and Newburg, N. Y., till 1856, when he became 
pastor of an Associate Reformed church in New 
York city. He retired from pastoral duties in 
1862, and removed to Yonkers. He received the 
degree of S. T. D. from Columbia in 1831.— His 
wife, Jessie Grahani, poet, b. in New York citv 
in October, 1796 ; d. in Newburg, N. Y., 17 Feb', 
1855, was a sister of Rev. George W. Bethune. 
She was the author of various poems, chiefly of a 
religious character, some of which were print- 
ed in various periodicals during her lifetime. 
— Their son, Divie Bethune, missionary, b. in 
New York city, 13 Jan., 1820, was educated at 

Columbia and at the University of Pennsylvania, 
and sailed for China in 1843. Besides mastering 
the Chinese language and practising as a physi- 
cian, he acted frequently as U. S. consul at Ning- 
po, and sat as judge in the mixed court at Shang- 
hai. In May, 1861, at the request of U. S. Flag- 
Officer Stribling, he entered Nanking, through the 
lines of the Tai-Ping rebels, and obtained from the 
'' Heavenly King " a sealed document granting 
non-molestation, not only to Americans in China, 
but to all Chinese in their employ. By this meas- 
ure large numbers of native Christians and their 
friends were rescued when the rebels entered 
Ningpo. In 1872, when the coolies of the Peru- 
vian ship " Maria Luz " were freed by the Japanese 
government upon his suggestion, a commission was 
appointed from Peking to proceed to Tokio to 
bring home the freedmen, and Dr. McCartee was 
nominated secretary and interpreter, receiving for 
his services a gold medal and complimentary let- 
ters. Remaining in Japan, he was from October, 
1872, until April, 1877, a professor in the Imperial 
university of Tokio, and he also acted as secretary 
of the Chinese legation in that city, but returned 
to the United States in 1880, and in 1882 visited 
Hawaii on business connected with Chinese immi- 
gration. In 1885 he acted as American secretary 
of the legation of Japan in Washington. In 1887 
he returned to China and Japan. Dr. McCartee's 
writings on Asiatic history, linguistics, natural 
science, medicine, and politics, in the publications 
of the American geographical society, the Ameri- 
can oriental society, and other associations, have 
been numerous and valuable. His religious writ- 
ings in Chinese are still widely circulated and 
read. " Audi Alteram Partem " (Yokohama, 1879) 
treats of the conflicting claims of China and Japan 
concerning the Loochoo islands. 

McCarthy, Justin, Irish author, b. in Cork, 
Ireland, 22 Nov., 1830. Pie was liberally educated 
in his native city, and from 1846 till 1853 he was 
connected with the Cork "Examiner." He then 
joined the staff of the " Northern Times " at 
Liverpool. In 1860 he was a reporter in the house 
of commons for the London " Morning Star," of 
which he was subsequently foreign editor, and in 
1864 chief editor. In 1868 he resigned, in order to 
visit the United States, where he remained for 
nearly three years, lecturing and travelling. Be- 
fore his return to England he was employed for 
a time on the editorial staff of the New York 
" Tribune," and also on that of the New York " In- 
dependent." In 1879 he was elected to parliament 
for Longford, Ireland, and re-elected in 1880, in 
both instances without a contest. At the general 
election in 1885 he contested Derry, and was de- 
feated by a majority of twenty-nine, but was im- 
mediately chosen for Longford by an overwhelm- 
ing majority. In 1886 he was returned from the 
latter town"^ unopposed. He afterward again vis- 
ited this country on a lecturing tour. Mr. McCar- 
thy has contributed to English and American peri- 
odicals and served as political-leader writer for the 
London press. Besides many novels, he has pub- 
lished " Con Amore," a collection of critical essays 
(London, 1868); "Prohibitory Legislation in the 
United States," an account of a study of such leg- 
islation and its workings in Maine, Massachusetts, 
Michigan, Iowa, etc. ; " Modern Leaders." a series 
of articles on living celebrities (1872); "A History 
of Our Own Times " (1878-'80) ; and " The Epoch 
of Reform " (1882). Mr. McCarthy's most impor- 
tant work is his " History of Our Own Times." He 
has also published the fi'rst volume of a " History 
of the Four Georges " (1884). 



MacCARTNEY, Washington, educator, b. m 
Westmoreland county, Pa., 24 Aug., 1813; d. in 
Philadelphia in July, 1856. He was graduated at 
Jefferson college. Pa., in 1834, and was professor 
of mathematics and moral philosophy in Lafayette, 
Pa., in 1835, and again in 1837, 1843-'4, and 1846. 
In 1836 he filled the chair of modern languages in 
Jefferson college. In the latter institution he was 
also professor of mental and moral philosophy for 
several years subsequent to 1849. He had previ- 
ously studied law and was admitted to the bar of 
Northampton county, Pa., in 1838. In 1846-8 he 
served the county as deputy attorney-general, and 
was elected president judge of the 3d judicial dis- 
trict of Pennsylvania in 1851, which office he filled 
until his death. In 1846 he established a law-school 
at Easton, Pa., which in 1854 was incorporated as 
the '' Union Law-School." It was in successful op- 
eration at the time of his decease. Prof. McCart- 
nev had received the degree of LL. D. 

McCAKTY, William Monroe, jurist, b. in 
Brookville, Franklin co., Ind., 18 May, 1816. He 
studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1834, and 
began to practise in his native town at the age of 
twenty. He removed in 1840 to Cincinnati, where 
he became widely known by prosecuting persons 
who had usurped tlie corporate name and privi- 
leges of a defunct bank for the purpose of defraud- 
ing the public. Finding that the climate of Cin- 
cinnati did not agree with his health, he returned 
to Franklin county. Ind.. and a call for troops being 
made soon afterward to re-enforce the army in 
Mexico, Mr. ^McCarty raised a regiment, of which he 
was elected lieutenant-colonel. He served through 
the war, and his regiment was highly complimentetl 
for its conduct at the battle of Buena Vista. On 
his return, he was elected to the state senate. In 
1848 lie was placed on the Cass electoral ticket, and 
took })art in the canvass. He was president-judge 
of the 13th circuit in 1850-5, and in 1861 was 
chosen U. S. senator, but failed to obtain his seat. 

McCAUL, Jolin, Canadian educator, b. in Dub- 
lin, Ireland, in 1807. He was educated at Trinity 
college, I)ul)lin, where he became classical tutor 
and examiner. In November, 1838, he was ap- 
pointed princi})al of Upper Canada college, in 1842 
vice-president of King's college, and professor of 
logic, rlietoric, and classics. He was elected presi- 
dent of the University of Toronto in 1840 and in 
1853. He has been editor of a Canadian month- 
ly, the " Mai)le Leaf," published several volumes 
of essays and treatises on classical subjects, edited 
l)oili()ns of Horace, Longinus, Lucian, and Thucy- 
(lides, as college text-books, and gave special atten- 
tion to Latin inscriptions. His works include 
•' Britanno-Koinan Inscriptions " (1863) and " Chris- 
tian Epitaphs of the First Six Centuries." 

McCAULEV, Charles Adam Hoke, soldier, b. 
m Middletown. 3Id.. 13 July, 1847. He was gradu- 
ated at tlie U. S. military academy in 1870 and en- 
tei-ed the 3d artillery as 2d lieuten'ant. After serv- 
ing variously until 1878, he was transferred to the 
3d cavalry, and on 5 3Iay, 1879, was i)romoted 1st 
lieuteiuint. Meanwhile he had devoted his atten- 
tion to natural science, and in 1876 accompanied 
tlie lied river exploring exfiedition into the Indian 
territory and Texas as ornithologist. Subsequent- 
ly he served in connection with Indian affairs un- 
til 5 Feb., 1881, when he was made assistant quar- 
termaster with the rank of captain. Since that 
time he has been stationed at various posts in the 
western states, becoming in October disbursing 
quartermaster at Chicago, 111. Capt. McCaulev 
invented in 1871 the military system of signalling 
by means of mirrors. He "^is a corresponding or 


active member of various scientific societies. His 
publications, issued by the National government, 
include "Ornithology of the Red River Region 
of Texas " (Washing^ton, 1877) ; " The San Juan 
Reconnoissance in Colorado and New Mexico" 
(1877) ; " Reports on the White River Indian 
Agency, Colorado, and the Uinta Indian Agency " 
(1879); and " Pagasa Springs, Colorado; its Ge- 
ology and Botany " (1879). 

McCAULEY, Charles Stewart, naval officer, 
b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 3 Feb., 1793 ; d. in Wash- 
ington, D. C, 21 May, 1869. He was a nephew of 
Admiral Charles Stewart, and became a midship- 
man in the navy, 16 Jan., 1809, rising to the rank 
of lieutenant, 9 Dec, 1814, commander, 3 March, 
1831, and captain, 9 Dec, 1839. He served on the 
" Constellation " in 1813, and took part in the gun- 
boat attack on the British frigate " Narcissus " in 
Hampton Roads, and in the defence of Craney 
island. He served as acting lieutenant of the 
"Jefferson " in 1814 on Lake Ontario. In 1823 he 
obtained leave of absence, and for two yeai's com- 
manded a vessel in the merchant marine. Refus- 
ing an offer of $10,000 a year from a shipping 
firm, he then returned to duty, and served four 
years in the " Boston." in the South Atlantic 
squadron. In April, 1855, McCauley was placed 
in command of the home squadron, and directed 
by the secretary of the navy to go to the island of 
Cuba and protect American interests. For his suc- 
cess in this he was publicly complimented on his 
return in June by President Pierce at a dinner at 
the White House. In 1860 he was ordered to the 
command of the Gosport navy-yard, and in 1861 
he destroyed a large amount of property there, to 
prevent its falling" into the hands of the Confed- 
erates. He was placed on the retired list, 21 Dec, 
1861, and promoted commodore. 4 April, 1867. — 
His nephew, Edward Yorke, naval officer, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 2 Nov., 1826, was appointed mid- 
shipman in the navy, 9 Sept., 1841, and promoted 
lieutenant, 14 Sept., 1855. He resigned, 19 Aug., 
1859, but entered the service again as acting lieu- 
tenant, 11 May, 1861. He was made lieutenant- 
commander, 16 July, 1862 ; commander, 27 Sept., 
1866; captain, 3 Sept., 1872; commodore, 7 Aug., 
1881 ; and rear-admiral, 2 March, 1885. He was 
present in the " Powhatan " at the attack on pirates 
in the China seas in 1855, took part in the " Ni- 
agara " in laying the Atlantic cable in 1857-'8, and 
served in the " Flag" in the South Atlantic block- 
ading squadron in 1861-'2. He commanded the 
steamer " Fort Henry," of the Eastern Gulf block- 
ading squadron in 1862-'3, and in 1863-'4, when in 
command of the " Tioga," took part in the boat 
attack on Bayport, Fla. In 1864-'5 he had charge 
of the gun-boat " Benton," of the Mississippi squad- 
ron. In 1886 Admiral McCauley commanded the 
Pacific station, and in February, 1887, he was re- 
tired. He has published " The Egyptian Manual 
and Dictionary " (Philadelphia, 1883-4). 

McCAW, James Brown, surgeon, b. in Vir- 
ginia in 1772 ; d. in Richmond. Ya., in 1846. He 
was graduated in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1792, 
and engaged in medical practice with his uncle. 
Dr. McClurg, taking rank as the leading surgeon 
of eastern Virginia for over thirty years. He was 
one of the first to tie the external carotid artery, 
an operation he performed in 1807, He was pos- 
sessed of great physical strength, and at the burn- 
ing of the Richmond theatre in 1811 he saved the 
lives of twenty-one women. 

McCAWLEY, Charles Grrymes, officer of ma- 
rines, b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 29 Jan., 1827. He 
was appointed from Louisiana 2d lieutenant in the 





marine corps on 3 March, 1847 ; became 1st lieu- 
tenant, 3 Jan., 1855 ; captain, 26 July, 1861 ; major, 
10 June. 1864 ; and lieutenant-colonel, 5 Dec, 1867. 
He served with the army in Mexico, being present 
at the storming of Chapultepec and the capture of 
the city of Mexic^y^ for gallantry in which actions 
he was bre vetted 1st lieutenant, 13 Sept., 1847. In 
May, 1862, he -v^s sent to reoccupy the Norfolk 
navy-yard with a j^orce of 200 men, and hoisted the 
National flag on behalf of the navy. In July, 1863, 
he was ordered to join a battalion of marines for 
service in the South Atlantic squadron, and was 
present on Morris island during the bombardment 
ancl destruction of Fort Sumter and the capture of 
Forts Wagner and Gregg. In the boat attack on 
Fort Sumter, 8 Sept., 1863, he led a detachment of 
100 men and officers, and received a brevet as major 
for his bravery on that occasion. Since 1876 he 
has been in command of the marine corps with 
rank of colonel, and headquarters at Washington. 

McCLEERY, James, soldier, b. in Ohio about 
1840 : d. in New York city, 5 Nov., 1871. He was 
commissioned 2d lieutenant in the 41st Ohio in- 
fantry on 21 Aug., 1861, and made 1st lieutenant, 
9 Jan., 1862 ; captain, 9 Oct., 1862 ; and major, 23 
Nov., 1865. He lost his right arm at Shiloh, and 
was wounded at Stone River, 31 Dec, 1862. On 28 
July, 1866, he entered the regular army as captain 
of the 45th infantry, and was retired, 15 Dec, 1870. 
He had received the brevets of major, 2 March, 
1867, for gallantry at Mission Ridge, and brigadier- 
general of volunteers, 13 March, 1865. After his re- 
tirement he settled in St. Mary's parish, La., where 
he purchased a plantation, practised law, and was 
connected with the Freedmen's bureau. He was 
elected to congress as a Republican in 1870, but 
was unable to serve, owing to impaired health. 

McCLELAN, Abner Reid, Canadian senator, 
b. in Hopewell, New Brunswick, 4 Jan., 1831. He 
was educated at Mount Allison academy, afterward 
engaged in business, and became a merchant. He 
has been one of the governors of Mount Allison 
Wesleyan college, Sackville, N. B., commissioner 
of the civil court and auditor of the municipality 
of Albert, and represented that town in the New 
Brunswick assembly from 1854 till the union. He 
was chief commissioner of public works from April, 
1866, till 1867, and became a member of the Do- 
minion senate in May, 1867. 

McCLELLAN, Oeorg-e Brinton, soldier, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 3 Dec, 1826 ; d. in Orange, N. J., 
29 Oct., 1885. His father was Dr. George McClel- 
lan {q. v.\ who married Miss Elizabeth Brinton, 
and George was their second son. The three noble 
elms to be seen at Woodstock, Conn,, were planted 
by Mrs. McClellan, the general's great-grandmoth- 
er, in honor and remembrance of her husband, 
Capt. McClellan, on hearing he had passed safely 
through the battle of Bunker Hill. The general 
saw them for the first time in the summer of 1884. 
He was educated by private tutors, and spent two 
years, 1840-'2, in the University of Pennsylvania, 
where he acquired a love of polite literature, which 
was never lost in his later life. He was always an 
industrious student, and shared the first honors of 
his class in the university. At the age of fifteen 
years and six months (the minimum age being six- 
teen, and the exceptions rare) he entered the U. S. 
military academy 1 July, 1842. In his class were 
" Stonewall " Jackson, Jesse L.Reno, and others 
who subsequently became distinguished. He led 
his class in mathematics. He was graduated 1 
July, 1846, appointed brevet 2d lieutenant in the 
corps of engineers, and assigned to a company of 
engineer troops (the only one then in service) 

raised for the Mexican war. With it he was at 
Malan, Camargo, Tampicp, and Vera Cruz. After 
the fall of Vera Cruz they took an active part in 
the battle of Cerro Gordo, 17 and 18 April, 1847, 
and McClellan led the unsuccessful attack on the 
left against the triple batteries that swept the 
road. A second attack was rendered unnecessary 
by the fall of the Cerro de Telegrafe. He was 
promoted to a 2d lieutenancy on 24 April, and 
afterward took part in the battles of Contreras 
and Churubusco, 18 and 19 Aug., in the former of 
which his horse was shot. After the rupture of 
the armistice by the Mexicans in September, he 
was engaged with his company in constructing bat- 
teries against Chapultepec, and shared in the as- 
sault and capture of the city of Mexico, 13 and 14 
Sept., 1847. He received the brevet of 1st lieuten- 
ant " for gallant and meritorious conduct at Con- 
treras and Churubusco," and that of captain for 
his part in the assault of Chapultepec. In 1848, 
after the war was ended, he served at West Point 
as assistant instructor of practical engineering. 
In 1852 he was with Capt. Marcy (later his father- 
in-law) on an exploration of the upper Red river, 
between Texas and the Indian territory; and 
afterward he was engineer-in-charge of explora- 
tions and surveys in Texas. In 1853 he was on 
engineer duty in Oregon and Washington terri- 
tories, and later was employed as engineer on the 
western division of the Northern Pacific railroad. 
On 3 March, 1855, he was appointed a captain in 
the 1st cavalry, and in the same year was sent to 
Europe, as a member of a military commission, to 
report on the condition of the armies of Europe, 
and to observe the operations of both sides in the 
Crimean war. His colleagues were Col. Richard 
Delafield, of the engineers, and Major Alfred Mor- 
decai, of the ordnance. The commission received 
facilities from the British government, but not 
from the French and Russian. The separate re- 
ports of these ofiicers were published by congress. 
Capt. McClellan's was a model of fullness, accu- 
racy, and system, and was republished in 1861, with 
the title " The Armies of Europe." The details of 
the organization and equipment of European armies 
he put to good use in organizing the Army of the 
Potomac, soon after the beginning of the civil war. 
On 16 Jan., 1857, Capt. McClellan resigned his 
commission to accept the place of chief engineer 
of the Illinois Central railroad. He became its 
vice-president in 1858, and in 1859 was elected 
president of the eastern division of the Ohio and 
Mississippi railroad, residing in Cincinnati. In 
1860 he was made president of the St. Louis, Mis- 
souri, and Cincinnati railroad, which office he held 
until the beginning of the civil war in 1861. While 
engaged in railroad work, he was able to help 
his classmate, Ambrose E. Burnside, who, having 
resigned from the service, M^as in need of assist- 
ance. On 23 April, 1861, McClellan was appointed 
major-general of Ohio volunteers, and placed in 
command of the Department of the Ohio, includ- 
ing the states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, with 
portions of Virginia and Pennsylvania. In a 
month he was in the field, and on 26 May he 
crossed the Ohio into Virginia, and occupied Par- 
kersburg. This advance into West Virginia, he 
says, was made " without orders, and entirely of 
his own volition." The plain bordering the Ohio 
was occupied by McClellan's forces ; the moun- 
tains by the Confederates under Gen. Garnett, who 
looked down upon the plain and the Great Kana- 
wha river from two spurs separating the Monon- 
gahela from Tygart Valley river and Cheat river. 
The southern portion was called Rich mountain. 




and the northern Laurel hill: and behind them 
both runs the great Virginia turnpike through 
Beverly and Leedsville. To cover this turnpike, 
Garnett had posted Pegram at Rich mountain with 
2,000 men, while he held Laurel hill with 3,000. 
McClellan, who had five brigades, posted Gen. 
Jacob D. Cox's command on the Lower Kanawha, 
Gen. Hill's to guard the communications between 
western Virginia and the upper Potomac, and 
went in person with the remainder, divided into 
two columns. The first was to make a demonstra- 
tion against Garnett at Philippi; the second to 
capture Pegram at Rich mountain, and cut off the 
enemy's retreat. Advancing with Gens. Schleich 
and Rosecrans, who commanded these columns, to 
Buckhannon, on 10 July he was in front of Pe- 
gram, and sent Rosecrans to the right to gain his 
rear. By some miscalculation there was a delay, 
and Pegram evacuated Rich mountain, but many 
of his 'scattered force were captured by McClel- 
lan near Beverly. Garnett abandoned Laurel hill 
to join Pegram, but 
found himself inter- 
cepted. He then tried 
by devious paths to 
escape to the Cheat 
river. He was over- 
taken at Carrick's 
ford, but succeeded 
in crossing with the 
loss of all his mate- 
rial, and was killed 
on the farther bank, 
and his force was 
scattered. In this 
eight days' campaign 
McClellan had driv- 
en the enemy from 
the great Kanawha, 
and captured 1,000 
prisoners, and he 
wrote to Washing- 
ton that " he had 
completely annihi- 
ated the enemy in western Virginia." Lee fared 
no l)etter when he succeeded Garnett and at- 
tempted to dislodge the force of Rosecrans, under 
Reynolds, at Cheat mountain. In a convention 
held at Wheeling, 11 June, 1801, at which 40 coun- 
ties were represented, this portion of the state had 
disapproved secession and adiiered to the Union, 
which it was now free to enter as a separate state, 
as it did. l)y act of congress, 81 Dec, 1862. 

On 14 ^lay McClellan had l)een appointed a major- 
general in the U. S. army. INleantime preparations 
liad been pushed forward at Washington for a di- 
rect movement toward Richmond, the command 
of the force being given to Gen. Irwin McDowell 
iq. v.). Immediately after the l)attle of Bull Run, 
McClellan was called to Washington, and on 27 
July he was assigned to the command of the De- 
partment of Washington and Xortheastern Vir- 
ginia. While reorganizing the Army of the Po- 
tomac he was. on 20 Aug., invested with its com- 
mand, and, on the retirement of Gen. Scott, 1 Xov., 
he was made conunander of all the armies of the 
United States, to the great satisfaction of the 
whole country, who hoped more from him than it 
was in the power of man to accomplish. What he 
had done so sagaciously, intelligently, and prompt- 
ly in West Virginia placed him before his country- 
men as the incarnation of perfect military genius. 
In his report he declared that, on his arrival at 
Washington, he had " found no army to command 
— a mere collection of regiments cowering on the 

banks of the Potomac, some perfectly raw, others 
dispirited by recent defeat, some going home. 
There were no defensive works on the southern ap- 
proaches to the capital. Washington was crowded 
with straggling officers and men absent from their 
stations without authority." He had to bring or- 
der out of this chaos, to create an army, and to de- 
fend the city. If he was slow in doing this, he did 
it well. He declared that the true place to defend 
Washington was on the James river. After the 
discussion of his plan, a compromise was made in 
favor of a movement by the York and Pamunkey 
rivers. Growing out of his reputed tardiness and 
the conflicting opinions as to the best plan of cam- 
paign, McClellan was now looked upon by the gov- 
ernment with suspicion. Mr. Stanton, who had 
succeeded Simon Cameron as secretary of war, and 
who was at first McClellan's friend, soon took issue 
with him on vital points, and embarrassed the gen- 
eral and the army greatly. In spite of McClellan's 
remonstrances the secretary was constantly urging 
a forward movement, and prevailed on Mr. Lin- 
coln to issue an order — impossible to be carried 
out — that a combined movement by land and water 
should be made on 22 Feb., 1862. 'The serious ill- 
ness of McClellan in December retarded the organ- 
ization, and it was not until 10 March, 1862, that 
he put the army in motion for a demonstration 
upon Manassas fan unnecessary and unfortunate 
movement, because, in expectation of it, the Con- 
federates had evacuated the position the day be- 
fore. One good was accomplished, however, the 
gigantic machine had been put in successful mo- 
tion, and active operations were fairly begun. 
Various plans of campaign were considered. The 
general purpose was to embark at Annapolis, pro- 
ceed to either the Rappahannock, the York, or the 
James, and thence move upon Richmond. One 
proposition was to land at Fort Monroe, which 
would be a base of operations, and proceed by 
James river to Richmond. Another was to pro- 
ceed by York river with the co-operation of the 
navy. This last plan of campaign having been 
reluctantly accepted by the president, McClellan 
moved the Army of the Potomac via Alexandria 
from 17 March "to 6 April by water to Hampton 
Roads, and, landing at Old Point Comfort, en- 
tered upon the peninsular campaign. As soon as 
he was gone from Washington his opponents de- 
clared he had left the capital undefended. The 
course of the government was shaped in a great 
degree by the views of the opposition, and his plan 
of campaign was altered. He had been assured 
of the co-operation of McDowell's corps. 40,000 
men, marching southward to join him and to form 
his right before Richmond ; but such were the 
fears as to the .security of Washington that Blenk- 
er's division of Sumner's corps, twelve regiments 
and eighteen guns, was detached on 31 March, and 
McDowell's corps was diverted from him on 4 
April. On 3 April an order was issued to discon- 
tinue all recruiting for volunteers, upon which 
McClellan depended to supply his losses, and the 
recruiting-offices were closed. As soon as he left 
Washington he was relieved from the command- 
in-chief by a published order that had not been 
communicated to him before, and became simply 
commander of the Army of the Potomac. 

Thus thwarted, whether right or wrong, he made 
it clear on what conditions he was fighting, and 
then went on. His first objective point was York- 
town, which he besieged from 5 April until 4 May. 
Without venturing an opinion whether Yorktown 
could have been taken earlier by a vigorous as- 
sault, it is known that the enemy held it until the 




National batteries were ready to open, and their 
general, Magruder, expressed his surprise that 
they were not stormed without all this engineering 
work. • He said tl^at with 5,000 men he held 100,- 
000 in check, refusing to obey orders to leave the 
place until the batteries were ready to open. On 
10 April Norfolk was occupied by Gen. Wool. On 
the other hand;^ it may be said that McClellan's 
caution was not Without its peculiar logic. It was 
the first engagement since the battle of Bull Run. 
McClellan could afford to wait rather than to risk 
much ; but criticism, in the light of later events, 
warrants the opinion that his habits as an engi- 
neer and his lack of experience, combined with a 
systematic character of mind, in which delibera- 
tion was a strong factor, caused him to be un- 
necessarily slow in this early portion of the cam- 
paign. Pie was deceived by the enemy as to the 
numbers in his front, and was misled by false maps 
of the terrain, in which the directions of streams 
and the localities of roads were wrong. Accord- 
ing to the returns on 1 April, 1862, the army 
was divided into four corps, those of McDowell, 
Sumner, Heintzelman, and Keyes, with a division 
of regular infantry and cavalry and a reserve ar- 
tillery, numbering in grand aggregate on the rolls 
of 1 April, 1862, 119,965 men. This does not 
include McDowell's corps, which was soon de- 
tached and did not participate in the peninsular 
campaign, llichmond was the objective point. 
The southern portion of the peninsula is flat and 
marshy, with a salt tide on York river as far as 
West Point and on the James beyond City Point. 
Northeast of Richmond flows the Pamunkey, join- 
ing the Mattapony to form York river. Between 
the Pamunkey and the upper James, flowing north 
of Richmond, is the Chickahominy, which, passing 
through wooded swamps and flowing south into 
the James, proved during the rainy periods a 
much more difficult obstacle than had been antici- 
pated. There are thickets of white oak inter- 
spersed with pool-like extensions. Thus, while in 
dry seasons it was a brook, in wet ones it was a 
broad river with swampy banks. After the evacu- 
ation of Yorktown, the occupation of Williams- 
burg was contested on 5 and 6 May. The appor- 
tionment of troops to the attack was not wisely 
calculated. Hooker complained that for nine 
hours his division of thirteen regiments bore the 
brunt of the enemy's attacks without support, al- 
though there were 30,000 men in sight unengaged. 
Williamsburg was abandoned by the enemy and 
the forward movement was resumed. The dis- 
tance to Richmond is about flfty miles. As the 
Confederates fell back to cover their capital, fight- 
ing in retreat, the National army advanced, meet- 
ing with no strong resistance until it was estab- 
lished on the Chickahominy. Had McClellan then 
made his change of base, the James river be- 
ing opened, he would doubtless have been success- 
ful. The Confederate iron-clads ran up as far as 
Drewry's Bluff on 15 May, and on the 18th Mc- 
Clellan had reached the Chickahominy. The near- 
est part of this river is only five miles from Rich- 
mond ; but there are large swamps intervening, 
which in rainy seasons form a decided military ob- 
stacle. McClellan's advance was well in position 
by 23 May. Franklin's division had now ascended 
York river, and the base of operations for the army 
was the White House on the York River railroad 
where it crosses the Pamunkey, twenty-four miles 
east of Richmond. In expectation of the junction 
with McDowell, Gen. Fitz-John Porter had ad- 
vanced to Hanover Court-House, north of Rich- 
mond, where on 24 May he defeated a Confederate 

force. As McDowell did not come, and it became 
known that he would not. Porter was returned to 
his original camp. The river now divided the 
Army of the Potomac, and the communications 
were precarious. The army advanced upon Rich- 
mond along the Chickahominy, now greatly swol- 
len — the left wing in four divisions along the York 
River railroad, south of the Chickahominy, and the 
right wing, consisting of five divisions, by the op- 
posite bank, the swollen stream rushing between, 
and no bridge being a sure communication except 
Bottom's bridge, below the railroad crossing. On 
the night of 30 May the Confederates, taking ad- 
vantage of a deluge of rain, moved out under Gen. 
Joseph E. Johnston to attack the National left, 
which it would be difficult to support from the 
north. Early the next day Longstreet and Hill 
attacked, and there was fought the battle of Fair 
Oaks, called by the Confederates Seven Pines. 
Casey's division was driven back, and Couch and 
Heintzelman coming to his support were about to 
succumb. The enemy audaciously attempted to 
pass between the left wing and the river and to 
seize Bottom's bridge, when McClellan, sick in 
bed, ordered Sumner to attempt the crossing of 
the tottering bridge in his front. Sumner already 
had his corps prepared to move at a word, and 
Sedgwick's division rushed across, planted a bat- 
tery of twenty-four Napoleon guns so as to flank 
the Confederate advance, and hurled the attacking 
force back upon Fair Oaks station. Had the en- 
tire army crossed, the capture of Richmond might 
soon have followed. When the Confederates re- 
newed their attack on 1 June, it was without 
proper concert, and they were repelled with a loss 
of 4,233 men. The Federal loss was 5,739. Soon 
afterward the National army recovered its posts at 
Fair Oaks, but made no further attempts to cap- 
ture Richmond. Gen. J. E. Johnston had been 
severely wounded, and his place was taken by Gen. 
G. W. Smith, while Gen. Robert E. Lee was in 
chief command in the city. 

Two events now occurred to embarrass McClel- 
lan's further movement : the first was a demonstra- 
tion that had been made by "Stonewall" Jackson 
upon Washington, and the other a raid of Gen. J. 
E. B. Stuart, on 12 and 13 June, with 1,500 cavalry, 
around the right flank of the National army, de- 
stroying stores and capturing provisions. The 
course taken by McClellan, whatever may be the 
opinion whether a retreat was necessary, was bold, 
and skilfully carried out. McDowell withheld, and 
Jackson again in line before Richmond, he deter- 
mined to fall back to reorganize and plan anew, 
and, preparatory to this, he would make a change 
of base. White House could no longer be safely 
held ; the James river was open ; transports had 
already reached City Point. Thus the new base 
was correct for a new movement upon Kichmond. 
He determined upon a flank movement to the 
James by substantially a single road, open on his 
flank to many roads, of which he would have to 
contest every foot of the way. The divisions north 
of the Chickahominy were to be carefully and se- 
cretly withdrawn, tlie bridges utilized for trains. 
Large detachments thrown out toward Richmond 
were to resist the enemy's assaults and cover the 
movement. To divert the attention of the enemy, 
McClellan sent Gen. Stoneman with cavalry to 
make a raid in their rear on 23 June, but they were 
not entirely deceived. Ignorant at first of McClel- 
lan's purpose, they swarmed upon him, and then 
occurred that contest called the Seven days' bat- 
tles, from 25 June to 1 July. 

On 25 June Hooker had been advanced beyond 




Fair Oaks toward Richmond, and after an action 
at Oak Grove had held his ground, and it seemed 
that there might yet be a rapid march upon Rich- 
mond ; but the news of " Stonewall " Jackson's re- 
turn had caused McClellan to decide at once, and 
Hooker was recalled. On 26 June Gen. D. H. Hill 
attacked Fitz-John Porter at Mechanicsville. Por- 
ter fought valiantly as he fell back, and, from 
want of concert on the part of the enemy, he re- 
pelled every attack with enormous loss to them. 
On the 27th was fought the severe battle of Gaines's 
Mills, to cover the National right, in which Porter 
was confronted by Jackson and D. H. Hill, while 
the bridges were' threatened by A. P. Hill and 
Longstreet. Trains and parts of heavy guns had 
been taken across the river, and the troops clus- 
tered around the bridges on the north side, waiting 
to cross. This passage in presence of the enemy 
was a delicate and dangerous task. Falling back 
from Mechanicsville, they had reached Gaines's 
Mills opposite the New bridge. The troops were 
to defend the aj)proaches during the day and to 
cross in the evening, destroying the bridges behind 
them. Porter's force formed an arc of an extend- 
ed circle on an elevated plateau. He was first at- 
tacked about noon by A. P. flill, whom he repelled ; 
but tlie enemy returned with such vigor to the at- 
tack that I^orter used all his reserves and asked 
urgently for re-enforcements. Slocum's division 
came and made a diversion in his favor, but was 
soon overpowered and outflanked by Jackson and 
f]well. The defeat would have been a fatal rout 
but for the timely appearance of new re-enforce- 
ments under French and Meagher, and the Con- 
fetlerates were arrested while on the verge of a 
great victory. Porter crossed that night and de- 
stroyed the bridges behind him. The National loss 
was about 9,000 men. At the close of this battle 
^leC'lellan, in an assembly of his generals, pro- 
j)os('(l, even at that moment, to make a rush upon 
Kichmond; but this was opposed by his lieuten- 
ants and abandoned. The Confederates, now sure 
that MeClellan was cut off from his base, expected 
to destroy and capture his whole army. It was 
only at this juncture that their eyes were fully 
opened ; but they soon found that White House 
had been evacuated and a new base secured, which 
was already defended by the National flotilla. In 
announcing the results thus far, on 28 June, to the 
secretary of war, McClellan asserted that, if the 
government had sustained him, he could, with 
10.000 additional troops, have captured Richmond 
the next day, and he closed the despatch to Sec. 
Stanton with the bold assertion: "If I save this 
army now, I tell you [)lainly that I owe no thanks 
to you, or to any other persons in Washington. 
You have done your best to sacrifice this arniy." 
On the third day, Saturday, 28 June, the move- 
ment was conducted rapidly but in good order. 
Immediately after the battle of Gaines's Mills, 
MeClellan had been inclined to cross the Chicka- 
hoininy and i)ersevere in his efforts to hold his po- 
sition; but, after a consultation with his corps 
conimanders, he decided upon the change of 
base, and proceeded promptly to its execution. The 
gi-aiid retrograde movement was now to be made 
through the swamp formed by the White Oak 
creek, a branch of the Chickahominy, and then by 
the Quaker road principally to Malvern Hill, the 
point beyond which they would be secure from at- 
tack, both by the strength of the position and the 
flank fire of the fleet. Diverging from Richmond 
and rumiing to intersect at different intervals, the 
route of McClellan were, counting from the north, 
the Williamsburg turnpike, the Charles City road, 

the Derby or Central road, and the New Market 
road, from which the Varina road diverges to the 
south. Along these roads, upon the flank of the 
National army, the columns of Lee were launched — 
Magruder on the Williamsburg road, Huger on the 
Charles City, A. P. Hill on the Central, while Jack- 
son, crossing the Grapevine bridge, moved upon 
their rear. The situation was grave in the extreme ; 
but a bold rear-guard checked Jackson from time 
to time, while strong detachments protected the 
right flank, fought the battles, and proved the 
mettle of the excellent but exhausted troops. 

On the morning of 29 June was fought the bat- 
tle of Savage's Station, in which the fighting was 
severe. Magruder, marching upon Fair Oaks and 
finding it abandoned, had hurried on to the station, 
which was held by Sumner and Heintzelman, who 
were to hold it till nightfall. Unfortunately 
Heintzelman, through a misunderstanding, retired 
too soon, and the brunt of Magruder's attack by 
the Williamsburg road fell upon Sumner, who held 
his post so well that he was able to retire at night- 
fall, though leaving his wounded behind him. The 
fifth day of battle was 30 June, and the fighting 
was at Frazier's farm, where the Central road 
joins the Quaker road. Longstreet and A. P. Hill, 
who had crossed the Chickahominy at New bridge, 
marched to and then followed the Central road, 
McClellan's line was now eight miles long — Jack- 
son upon its rear, Magruder, who had made a de- 
tour, moving parallel by the New Market road, 
and Longstreet and Hill advancing upon Frazier's 
farm. The destruction of the National army 
seemed sure. The Confederate attack was vigor- 
ous, but Magruder and Huger did not come up 
as expected ; the troops from Fort Darling were 
driven back by shells from the National gun-boats ; 
Jackson, who had been delayed by the destruction 
of the White Oak bridge, found himself obliged to 
reconstruct it, and was further checked by Frank- 
lin. McClellan's army fell back after dark to 
Malvern Hill, where the last of the trains and all 
the reserve artillery had arrived in the afternoon, 
and where the last great battle of the peninsula 
w^as to be fought. Malvern is an elevated plain, 
in some degree fortified by ravines radiating to- 
ward the front and on the northwest. It is about 
a mile and a half long by three fourths of a mile 
deep, and not far behind it, defended by the gun- 
boats from Turkey Point to Haxall's and Harri- 
son's Landing, is James river. In front it is envel- 
oped by a small stream and thick underwood. Both 
flanks of the National army touched the river here 
during the night. Sykes, with the regulars, 
guarded the road from Richmond to Haxall's, then 
came the rest of Porter's corps, Heintzelman in the 
center, then Sumner, Franklin, and Keyes. The 
approaches were defended by heavy guns, while 
the lighter batteries were disposed for use accord- 
ing to circumstances. The only roads by which 
the Confederates could approach were that from 
Richmond to Haxall's and the Quaker road. Their 
first movement was upon the National left. The 
position seemed impregnable ; the outer line bris- 
tled with guns, and, could that be taken, there re- 
mained the inner and still more difficult defences, 
but Gen. Lee ordered an attack along the whole 
line. Under the best circumstances, success seemed 
impossible. The movement was dependent upon 
a signal, which was mistaken, and this gave rise to 
some confusion. The Confederates attacked furi- 
ously, and, being hurled back, returned again and 
again. At a signal the final attack was made by 
Magruder and D. H. Hill, whose troops melted 
away before the National fire, and the defeat of 




the Confederates was assured. As soon as the 
conflict was ended, the Army of the Potomac re- 
sumed its retreat upon Harrison's Landing, which 
it reached by noon on 2 July, and was then secure 
from any further attack. The boldest and most 
impulsive spiri|:g in the army were of opinion that, 
had a vigorous ^dvance been ordered as a riposte 
after the attackV on Malvern, such were the con- 
fusion and disorder in the Confederate ranks, that 
Richmond could have been captured without fur- 
ther delay. But the condition of the men rendered 
this almost impossible. 

When, on 7 July, President Lincoln visited the 
army, he found more than 80,000 men there, al- 
though Gen. McClellan had reported a smaller 
number by reason of confused returns. He asked 
for more troops and another trial ; but he had lost 
the confidence of the President and his advisers, 
and neither his request nor his advice was lis- 
tened to. On 8 July Gen. Burnside brought up re- 
enforcements from Roanoke island, and some days 
later Lee's army began to withdraw for a north- 
ern campaign. On the 11th Gen. Halleck was 
made general-in-chief, and on 3 Aug. McClellan was 
ordered to evacuate the peninsula. He was di- 
rected also to repair in person first to Fort Mon- 
roe and then to Alexandria, and was relieved of 
his command, and ordered to send every available 
soldier to the new army of Virginia under Gen. 
John Pope, an army that had been formed by con- 
solidation of the forces under Gens. Fremont, 
Banks, and McDowell. These three organizations 
were now known as the 1st, 2d, and 3d corps re- 
spectively. (See Pope, John.) The second battle 
of Bull Run, 30 Aug., 1862, was even more disas- 
trous than the first, and on 2 Sept. Pope resigned 
the command. In this emergency the government 
looked to McClellan as the only man who could 
inspire confidence and bring order out of chaos. 
He himself says that, pending the time when a 
general could be selected, he had only a verbal 
order or request to assume control ; that in point 
of fact he never was fully in command, and that 
thus, without a warrant to show, not only his repu- 
tation, but his life depended upon some measure of 
success in a situation that seemed almost hopeless. 
Before setting out to meet the Confederate army 
in Maryland, he left his card with a P. P. C. for 
the President, and departed without an official 
word from the secretary of war or the general-in- 
chief. He had been in virtual command, from 2 
to 7 Sept., in charge of the defences of the city. 
Flushed with his recent victories, Lee was march- 
ing into Maryland, and must be met and checked 
by the remnants of Pope's army and the Army of 
the Potomac. It is touching to read of the men's 
joy and renewed confidence when they knew that 
" Little Mac " was again in command. The mag- 
netism was like that ascribed to Napoleon. Or- 
ganizing as he proceeded, he marched into Mary- 
land parallel with Lee, who had advanced as far as 
Frederick. Lee was disappointed by the coolness 
of his reception, and on the approach of McClellan 
fell back to Turner's and Crampton's gaps in the 
South mountain, where he was defeated and driven 
from the former by Reno's corps, and from the lat- 
ter by Franklin on 13 and 14 Sept. McClellan was 
now to encounter the full force of the enemy on 
Antietam creek, a small tributary of the Potomac, 
which it joins about seven miles north of Harper's 
Ferry. By the failure of Gen. Miles to fortify 
Maryland heights, and in spite of the entreaties of 
McClellan that Harper's Ferry should be aban- 
doned and its garrison added to his army, Jackson 
captured the post on 13 Sept. and took 11,500 pris- 

oners. He was thus enabled to join forces with 
Lee at Antietam. On the 16th Lee had only two 
divisions across the Potomac, but the National 
army did not come into position till the 17th. Mc- 
Clellan placed tlooker and Mansfield on the right, 
next came Sumner, with Franklin as a support, 
Burnside was on the left, and Porter in the centre. 
Lee had placed his army in the acute angle in- 
closed by the Potomac and the Antietam ; on the 
heights between the two streams, to the right and 
left of the Boonsboro road, he had posted Long- 
street and Hill, with Hood on the left. In the 
centre of the position was the Dunker church, 
which seemed an objective point for both armies. 
Three stone bridges cross the Antietam, and there 
are also several fords. The bridge on the left was 
in front of Burnside, the central one in front of 
Porter, and the right opposite Hooker and Mans- 
field. McClellan's plan was for Hooker to cross and 
attack the enemy's left, supported if necessary by 
Sumner and Franklin, and upon the apparent suc- 
cess of that attack Burnside was to cross the bridge 
in his front, press the enemy's right, passing if 
possible to the south and rear of Sharpsburg. At 
daylight on the morning of the 17th Hooker, fol- 
lowed by Mansfield, having crossed the stream, 
made so furious an attack upon Hood and Jackson 
that they were driven back beyond the Dunker 
church. Re-enforced by D. H. Hill, the Confed- 
erates returned the attack, and drove Hooker back 
in turn. Then Sumner came up, moved forward, 
was driven back, and again, with Franklin's aid, 
forced them beyond the Dunker church. Sumner 
even attempted to move, with a portion of his 
corps, to the left upon Sharpsburg, but he could 
only hold his ground. But the movements on the 
left were less fortunate. Burnside had been or- 
dered at 8 A. M. to take the stone bridge, and aid 
the general movements by occupying the heights 
beyond. The approach to the bridge being swept 
by the guns of the enemy, the order to take it was 
not obeyed until 1 o'clock, when the Confederates 
had so strengthened their position beyond it that 
it was impossible to dislodge them. Thus it hap- 
pened that the principal fighting was on the right, 
where Mansfield was killed, and Hooker wounded. 
The desperate attempts of the enemy to pierce the 
National line on the right and centre were foiled. 
In spite of repeated orders, the failure of Burn- 
side's corps to take the lower stone bridge invali- 
dated McClellan's combinations, and to some ex- 
tent neutralized his success. Had it been carried 
early in the day, Lee might have been driven pell- 
mell into the Potomac. As it was, when we con- 
sider all the circumstances, the forcing back of the 
Confederate line, and their inability to make any 
effect upon the National line, the engagement at 
Antietam, so often regarded as only a drawn bat- 
tle, must be looked upon as a decided success. 
About 13,000 men fell on each side, but McClellan 
retained the field when the enemy, his plans entire- 
ly foiled, sullenly withdrew. As an offset to the 
disaster of Harper's Ferry, McClellan had, in this 
brief campaign, taken 13 guns, 39 colors, upward 
of 15,000 stand of arms, and more than 6.000 pris- 
oners, while he had not lost a gun or a color. No 
swift pursuit was attempted, and Lee crossed the 
Potomac at his leisure on the 19th. McClellan then 
followed, advancing his army between Longstreet's 
corps and the main body under Lee, and halted at 
Warrenton to recruit, while the powers at Wash- 
ington, withholding all praise for what he and his 
army had achieved, were scolding him for his de- 
lay. He needed supplies of all kinds, and with re- 
gard to the arrival of these there has since been a 




long controversy. He believed that what time was 
lost in immediate pursuit of the enemy would be 
more than compensated by the concentration, 
freshness, equipments, good spirits, and recovered 
morale of his army. Urgent orders were sent him 
to move on, and irritating insinuations were hurled 
upon him. At last an order from the President 
came on 7 No\^., relieving McClellan of the com- 
mand, and conferring it upon Gen. Burnside, who 
then (as he had before) declared his unfitness for it 
and his indisposition to accept it. McClellan was 
directed to await orders at Trenton, N. J., and 
afterward at New York. 

Though he was set aside by the government, his 
hold upon the people of the country was never re- 
laxed. The army idolized him, and his popularity 
followed him. In 1863 he visited Boston, where he 
was received enthusiastically, and in 1864 he was 
chosen to deliver the oration at West Point on the 
occasion of the unveiling of the monument erected 
to the memory of the officers and soldiers of the 
regular army.^ He took no further part in the 
war, but in' his enforced inactivity prepared his 
" Report on the Organization and Campaigns of 
the Army of the Potomac," which was published 
by the government. He also published an edition 
himself, with a preliminary account of the cam- 
paign in western Virginia. The most substantial 
proof of his popularity was his nomination at Chi- 
cago by the Democratic party as their candidate 
for the presidency of the United States in August, 
1864. But the time was ill chosen. Mr. Lincoln's 
popularity had been continually growing, and the 
conviction of many, among whom were warm 
friends of McClellan, was that a change of adminis- 
tration would at best, in that emergency, be but a 
doubtful policy. McClellan's defeat was a foregone 
conclusion. He received but 21 electoral votes 
against 212; but the popular vote made a better 
record— he had 1,800,000 against 2,200,000. As he 
had not sought the nomination, he was not dis- 
aj)p()inted in the result. He had resigned his com- 
mission in the army on 8 Sept., 1864, and imme- 
diately after the election he went to Europe, where 
he remained until 1868. 

On his return he took up his residence in New 
York city. In 1868-'9 he was employed to com- 
plete the Stevens iron-clad floating battery for har- 
bor defence. This was a visionary caprice of the 
inventor and owner, for which McClellan was in 
no wise res{)onsible : it had been long in process of 
construction, and unforeseen difficulties presented 
themselves, which led to its abandonment. He de- 
clined the presidency of the University of Califor- 
nia in 1868, and that of Union college in 1869. In 
1870 he was made engineer-in-chief of the depart- 
ment of (locks of the city of New York, which post 
h(! left in 1872, having,' in 1871, declined an ap- 
pointment as city comptroller. He was also invited 
to become superintendent of construction of the 
railroad bridge across the Hudson at Poughkeep- 
sie. In 1881 he was appointed by congress a mem- 
ber of the board of managers of the National home 
for disabled soldiers, which office he held until his 
death. During these latter years his principal 
residence was in Orange, N. J.,' but in the winters 
he resided in New York or Washington. He was 
elected governor of New^ Jersey in 1877, served for 
one term with credit, and declined a renomination. 
He made several tours in Europe, visiting the East, 
and i)ublished his observations in magazine articles. 
In the series of military papers, appearing in the 
current issues, he wrote' several monographs illus- 
trating his campaigns, and vindicating his reputa- 
tion. While he was in the enjoyment of good 

health, with a long life apparently before him, 
heart disease was developed, and he died suddenly 
at his country residence. In 1886 appeared a vol- 
ume entitled " McClellan's Own Story," with a 
short biographical introduction by the editor, W^ill- 
iam C. Prime. It contains his own views, in his 
own words, with extracts from his private corre- 
spondence with his wife. 

McClellan was about 5 feet 8 inches in height, 
firmly built, with broad shoulders. He was very 
solid and muscular, and an excellent horseman. 
Modest and retiring, he had withal a great self- 
respect, a gracious dignity. His personal magnet- 
ism has no parallel in military history, except in 
that of the first Napoleon ; he was literally the 
idol of his officers and men. They would obey him 
when all other control had failed. In the opinion 
of many, he was unduly careful of his troops, so 
that his power to organize was neutralized by his 
caution in the field. He was a clear writer and an 
effective speaker. As a student of military history, 
he had no superior in his systematic knowledge of 
wars, battles, and tactics. He was also an accom- 
plished engineer. His plans of campaign were just, 
clear, and timely; but any interference with them 
threw him back upon his natural caution, and 
caused him to take more time to reorganize and re- 
east than the exigencies of the war and the rapid 
movements of the enemy would permit. He be- 
lieved himself the personal butt of the administra- 
tion, and that it did not wish him to succeed. He 
was constantly engaged in controversies, and his 
despatches, reports, and later papers are always in 
the tone of one vindicating himself from real or 
fancied injustice. He was a man of irreproachable 
character, a model Christian gentleman in every 
situation of life. He devised the McClellan saddle, 
which has proved useful and popular, in 1856. 
His writings include " A Manual of Bayonet Exer- 
cise," adapted from the French (1852); "Govern- 
ment Reports of Pacific Railroad Surveys " (1854) ; 
" Report on the Organization and Campaigns of 
the Army of the Potomac " (1864) ; papers in " Har- 
per's Magazine," 1874-'7, and in " Scribner's " on 
Egypt and the Nile. 

McCLELLAN, Samuel, soldier, b. in Worces- 
ter, Mass., 4 Jan., 1730; d. in Woodstock, Conn., 
17 Oct., 1807. His parents emigrated to America 
early in the 18th century and settled on a farm 
near Worcester. The family came from Kirkcud- 
bright, on the Frith of Solway, Scotland, where in 
earlier times they had taken part in Scottish wars as 
stanch upholders of the cause of the Stuarts, Samuel 
was brought up as a farmer, but joined the army, 
and served as a lieutenant in the French and Indian 
war. The experience thus gained, and the example 
of the British officers with whom he served, proved 
of great advantage to him in the Revolutionary 
war. In 1773 a troop of horse was raised in Wood- 
stock and neighboring towns, of which he was 
made captain. On the news of the battle of Lex- 
ington the company immediately marched to Bos- 
ton. Subsequently he was commissioned major, 
lieutenant-colonel, and colonel of the 12th regi- 
ment of militia, and on 10 June, 1779, brigadier of 
the 5th brigade of militia. His commissions are 
preserved in the family residence at Woodstock, 
Conn., all signed by Gov. John Trumbull. One 
reads by authority of George III., and another by 
authority of the Continental congress. After the 
invasion of New London and the massacre at Fort 
Groton he was placed in charge of those posts, and 
continued in that capacity until the close of the 
war. When only a majorin the militia he was in- 
vited by Gen. Washington to join the Continental 




army, with the promise of a colonelcy, but he de- 
clined. When peace was declared he returned to 
Woodstock and was several times elected to the 
state assembly. — His grandson, George, surgeon, 
b. in Woodstock, jConn., 23 Dec, 1796 ; d. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 9 May, 1847, was graduated at Yale in 
1816. A fondness for natural science, developed 
under the influence of the elder Silliman, led him 
to adopt medicit^e as his profession, and he began 
his studies in New Haven under Dr. Thomas Hub- 
bard, but was graduated at the medical department 
of theUniversity of Pennsylvania in 1819. Even be- 
fore he obtained his degree he was elected resident 
physician to the hospital of the Philadelphia alms- 
house. During his first year of practice he per- 
formed the most important operations in surgery, 
such as lithotomy, extraction of the lens for cata- 
ract, and extirpation of the lower jaw. He opened 
a dissecting-room, and gave private courses of 
lectures, bSih on anatomy and surgery, and his 
class soon became so numerous as to require a 
larger room for their accommodation. His success 
was so great that he conceived the idea of found- 
ing a medical college, and with others he obtained 
from the legislature of Pennsylvania, in 1825, a 
charter for Jefferson medical college. In 1826 he 
began his public lectures as professor of surgery 
in the new college, which, notwithstanding the op- 
position of the profession and difficulty in obtain- 
ing a faculty, grew so rapidly that in ten years the 
students numbered 360. In 1838 the faculty was 
reorganized, but without Dr. McClellan's name, and 
this action led to his immediately procuring the 
incorporation of the medical department of Penn- 
sylvania college. His lectures in connection with 
the new institution began in November, 1839, and 
continued until the spring of 1843. He was the 
originator of the extended system of medical edu- 
cation as it now exists in this country, and the 
clinical instruction of the college was originated by 
him. He acquired one of the largest practices 
known in the United States, and his reputation ex- 
tended to Europe, while he attracted patients from 
all parts of this country, the West Indies, and 
South America. As a surgeon he performed almost 
every capital operation known, together with many 
others that were original with himself. He was 
especially eminent in ophthalmic surgery and his 
operations for cataract and other diseases of the 
eye, and he was among the first to extract the lens. 
Other operations, now quite common, were not used 
in the United States till performed by him, and he 
shares with Valentine Mott, of New York, and 
Jonn C. Warren, of Boston, the credit of establish- 
ing many procedures new in this country. He did 
more than any other surgeon by the number and 
success of his operations to establish completely, as 
safe and feasible, the removal of the parotid gland. 
In earlier years he was a contributor of original 
papers to medical periodicals, ^nd was one of the 
conductors of the " American Medical Review and 
Journal." Dr. McClellan edited Eberle's " Theory 
and Practice of Physic " (Philadelphia, 1840), and 
left in manuscript " The Principles and Practice of 
Surgery," (1847). It has been said of him that, " like 
Bowditch, he infused his spirit into his pupils. 
There are now hundreds of them scattered over the 
country who manifest it in their bold and efficient 
surgery, and who will welcome the publication of 
these prniciples which they once heard from his 
eloquent lips, and on which their success in prac- 
tice has so much depended." See " Memoir " by 
his son in Gross's " Lives of Eminent Physicians 
and Surgeons " (Philadelphia, 1861).— His brother, 
Samuel, physician, b. in Woodstock, Conn., 21 

Sept., 1800 ; d. in Philadelphia. Pa., 4 Jan., 1853, 
was graduated at the medical department of Yale 
in 1823, and then entered the office of George Mc- 
Clellan in Philadelphia. After a few years he set- 
tled in Bristol, Pa., but soon returned to Philadel- 
phia, where he renewed his association with his 
brother, particularly :n ophthalmic surgery. He 
was likewise identified with the founding of Jeffer- 
son medical college, in which he was demonstra- 
tor and afterward professor of anatomy. This 
chair he relinquished to accept that of obstetrics. 
Subsequently he was elected professor of that 
branch in the medical department of Pennsylvania 
college, but soon resigned to follow his private 
practice, in which he continued until his death. — 
George's son, John Hill Brinton, physician, b. 
in Philadelphia, Pa., 13 Aug., 1823 ; d. in Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, 20 July, 1874, was graduated at 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1841, and at its 
medical department in 1844. In 1855 he was elected 
professor of anatomy in the medical department of 
Pennsylvania college, but held that appointment 
for a short time only. He was surgeon at St. 
Joseph's hospital froni 1850 till 1862, and also at 
Will's eye hospital for many years. During the 
civil war he was connected. with the South street 
hospital, and afterward was acting assistant sur- 
geon at Mower's hospital, where he performed some 
notable operations, accounts of which are given in 
" The Medical and Surgical History of the War of 
the Rebellion " (Washington, 1870). Dr. McClellan 
had an extensive practice, both in surgery and in 
medicine, and was frequently called on to' operate 
in different parts of the state. Among the opera- 
tions credited to him are the removal of the entire 
parotid gland, reported in his father's " Surgery," 
and the first and only removal of the entire upper 
extremity for disease, including the shoulder-blade 
and collar-bone. He inherited much of his father's 
quickness, and his diagnosis of disease seemed al- 
most intuitive, while his extreme delicacy of feel- 
ing and genial nature made him a welcome visitor 
in the sick-room. Dr. McClellan edited " Princi- 
ples and Practice of Surgery " (Philadelphia, 1848), 
left in manuscript by his father. His son (Jeorge 
was graduated at the Jefferson medical college in 
1870, and now practises in Philadelphia. — The 
second Samuel's son, Carswell, civil engineer, b. 
in Philadelphia, Pa., 3 Dec, 1835, was graduated 
at Williams, Mass., in 1855, and on 6 May, 1862, 
entered the 32d New York regiment, was wounded 
at Malvern Hill, and on 3 July became topographi- 
cal assistant on the staff of Gen. Andrew A. Hum- 
phreys. He was present at Fredericksburg, Chan- 
cellorsville, and Gettysburg where he was wounded 
again, and at the headquarters of the Army of the 
Potomac until April, 1864. He was taken prisoner 
in the fight for the Weldon railroad on 19 Aug., 
1864, but was paroled, 16 Nov., 1864, and resigned 
on that date. He was engineer in charge of loca- 
tion and construction works upon the St. Louis, 
Vandalia and Terra Haute, Northern Pacific, St. 
Paul and Pacific, and other western railroads, from 
1867 till 1881, when he became U. S. civil assistant 
engineer, which post he now (1887) holds. He is 
the author of the " Personal Memoirs and jNIilitary 
History of Ulysses S. Grant vs. the Record of the 
Army of the Potomac " (Boston, 1887).— Carswell's 
brother, Henry Brainerd, soldier, b. in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., 17 Oct., 1840, was graduated at Williams 
in 1858. In 1862-3 he was adjutant of the 3d 
Virginia cavalry, and from 1863 till the end of the 
war served as assistant adjutant-general of the 
cavalry corps of the Army of Northern Virginia. 
He was chief of staff to Gens. James E. B. Stuart 




and Wade Hampton, and served by assignment on 
the staff of Gen. Robert E. Lee from 14 May till 
11 Aug., 1863. Since 1870 he has been princi- 
pal of Sayre female institute, in Lexington, Ky. 
He is the author of " Life and Campaigns of Major- 
General J. E. B. Stuart, Commander of the Cavalry 
of the Army of Northern Virginia " (Boston, 1885). 

McClelland, Alexander, clergyman, b. in 
Schenectadv, N. Y., in 1796 ; d. in New Brunswick, 
N. J., 19 Dec, 1864. He was graduated at Union 
in" 1809, and at the age of nineteen was licensed 
by the Associate Reformed presbytery of New 
York, and elected pastor of Rutgers street Pres- 
byterian church, where he remained for seven 
years. He was professor of rhetoric, logic, and 
metaphysics in Dickinson college. Pa., in 1822-'9, 
of languages at Rutgers in 1829-32, of oriental 
literature and languages there from 1833 till 1840, 
and of oriental languages and literature and bib- 
lical criticism in the theological seminary of the 
Reformed church from 1840 till 1851. After his 
resignation he travelled in Europe, and then re- 
sided in New Brunswick until his death. He re- 
ceived the degree of D. D. from Princeton in 1818, 
and from Union and Dickinson in 1830. His pub- 
lications consist of occasional sermons, pamphlets, 
and " ^lanual of Sacred Interpretation " (New 
York, 1842; 2d ed., entitled "Canon and Interpre- 
tation of Scripture," 1860). His sermons were 
edited, with a memoir, and published by Rev. 
Ricliard W. Dickinson (New York, 1867). 

McCLELLANl), James Henderson, surgeon, 
b. in Pittsburg, Pa., 20 May, 1845. His father, 
of the same name, came to this country from Ire- 
land in 1816, took an active part in anti-slavery 
movements, and was the architect of many build- 
ings in Pittsburg. The son was graduated at the 
Hahnemann medical college of Philadelphia in 
1867, and on his return to Pittsburg was appointed 
to the surgical staff of the newly established Homoi- 
opathic medical and surgical hospital, which post 
he has since held. He organized the Anatomical 
society of Alleghany county, and was for several 
years its demonstrator and president. He became 
professor of surgery in the Hahnemann college, 
Philadelphia, in 1876. In 1885 he was appointed 
a member of the State board of health, and he has 
been reappointed for a term of six years. He has 
contributed much to various medical journals, in- 
cluding papers on "Hip -joint Amputations," 
" Bone Diseases," and " Excision of the Kidney," 
and wrote the article on " Diseases of the Kidneys" 
in the " System of Medicine " edited by Dr. Henry 

Arndt (Philadelphia, 1886). 
McCLELLANl), Milo 

Adams, physician, b. in 
Sharon, Beaver co., Pa., 28 Jan., 1837. His ances- 
tors were among the early settlers of Pennsylvania. 
He was graduated at the Bellevue hospital medical 
college, New York, in 1867, and settled in Canton. 
111., l)ut removed to Knoxville, where he now (1888) 
l)ractises his profession. For eight years he was 
county physician of Knox county. He has con- 
tributed jnipers to various medical journals and to 
his local society. His "Report on Malpractice" 
(1873) was enlarged and issued under the title of 
"Civil .^laljjractiee, a Treatise on Surgical Juris- 
[)riuk'n('e" (Boston, 1877). 

McCLELLANl), Robert, statesman, b. in 
Greencastle, Pa., 1 Aug., 1807 ; d. in Detroit, Mich., 
27 Aug., 1880. His father, John McClelland, was 
a physician of Philadelphia. The son was gradu- 
ated at Dickinson in 1829, studied law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1831, and practised in Pitts- 
burg for a year. In 1833 he removed to Monroe, 
Mich., and in 1835 was a member of the State con- 


stitutional convention. He was a member of the 
legislature from 1838 till 1843, serving in the latter 
year as speaker, and was then elected to congress 
as a Democrat, serving from 4 Dec, 1843, till 3 
March, 1849. He was one of the eighteen Demo- 
crats that joined, with David Wilmot, of Pennsyl- 
vania, in passing the Wilmot proviso, which 
abridged the further extension of slavery into the 
territories of the United States. Pie was a delegate 
to the National Democratic conventions of 1848, 
1852, and 1868, and a member of the Constitutional 
conventions of Michigan of 1850 and 1867. He 
took an active part in the canvass that resulted in 
the election of Gen. Pierce to the presidency. Mr. 
McClelland acted as provisional governor of Michi- 
gan in 1851, and was re-elected in 1852 for a term 
of four years, but resigned in 1853 to accept the 
post of secretary of the interior, which he held 
during President Pierce's administration. 

McCLENACHAN, Charles Thomson, lawyer, 
b. in Washington, D. C, 13 April, 1829. He was 
graduated at Germantown college, went to New 
York in 1844, and was instructor in the Institute 
of the blind from 1845 till 1850. From 1850 till 
1861 he was clerk of the board of councilmen of 
New York city, and during the civil war he was 
quartermaster of the 7th New York regiment. 
Subsequently he studied law, and was admitted 
to the New York bar in 1867. He was general 
accountant in the street department, and after- 
ward in the department of public works, for 
twentv-six vears. He has published " The Laws 
of the Fire Department " (New York, 1855) ; " Com- 
pilation of the Opinions of Counsels to the Cor- 
porations " (1859) ; " New York Ferry Leases and 
Railroad Grants from 1750 to 1860 " (I860) ; " The 
Atlantic Telegraph Cable of 1858 " (1863) ; " The 
Book of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of 
Freemasonry" (1867); and an addendum to Dr. 
xVlbert G. Mackey's " Masonic Encyclopa3dia " 
(Philadelphia, 1884). He is now (1888) engaged, 
by appointment of the grand lodge, on the " History 
of Freemasonry in the State of New York." 

McCLERNAND, John Alexander, lawyer, b. 
in Breckenridge county, Ky., 30 May, 1812. On 
the death of his father in 1816, his mother removed 
to Shawneetown, 111., where the son subsequently 
w^orked on a farm. In 1829 he began the study of 
law, and in 1832 was admitted to the bar. In the 
same year he volunteered in the war against the 
Sacs and Foxes, and on his return was engaged 
for a time in trade. In 1835 he established the 
Shawneetown " Democrat," and also resumed the 
practice of his profession. In 1836-40 and 1842 
he w^as elected to the legislature, and in 1843 
was sent to represent his state as a Democrat in 
congress, where he served till 1851. His first 
speech was upon the bill to remit the fine that had 
been imposed on Gen. Andrew Jackson by Judge 
Plall, of Louisiana. He was the chairman of the 
committee on resolutions of the Illinois Democratic 
convention of 1858, and in that year was re-elected 
to congress, serving from 5 Dec, 1859, until the 
beginning of the civil war. He then resigned, re- 
turned home, and, with John A. Logan and Philip 
B. Fouke, raised the McClernand brigade, the 
president appointing him brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers. He accompanied Gen. Grant to Belmont, 
did good service himself at Fort Donelson, where 
he commanded the right of the National line, and 
was made major-general of volunteers, 21 March, 

1862. The following month he commanded a divis- 
ion at the battle of Shiloh, Tenn. In January, 

1863, he relieved Gen. Sherman in command of the 
expedition for the capture of Vicksburg. He 





afterward led the force that stormed and captured 
Arkansas Post, and was at Port Gibson, Champion 
Hills, Big Black River, and Vicksburg. He led 
the 13th army corps until he was relieved in July, 
18G3, and resigne(^ from the army on 30 Nov., 1864. 

McCLINTOCK, Sir Francis Leopold, British 
explorer, b. in Pundalk, Ireland, in 1819. He en- 
tered the navj^at the age of twelve, and for his 
conduct in recoVering the " Gorgon," when it was 
stranded near Montevideo, was promoted to a 
lieutenancy in 1845. He accompanied Sir James 
Ross in one of the three arctic expeditions sent out 
in search of Sir John Franklin in the spring of 1848, 
and early in the following year joined another ex- 
pedition under Capt. Austin. It was his fortune, 
in August, 1850, to see at Cape Riley the first 
traces of the missing mariners. In April, 1851, 
while the ships were fast in the ice in Crozier chan- 
nel, he began a sledge journey of eighty days along 
the north shore of Parry sound, travelling 760 miles, 
and reaching the most westerly point that had yet 
been attained from the east in the arctic regions. 
The comparative perfection to which sledge-trav- 
elling has since been carried is due in great part to 
the improvements which he effected. The squadron 
returned to England in the autumn of the same 
year, and Lieut. McClintock was at once promoted 
to the rank of commander. The following spring 
saw him in charge of the " Intrepid," one of the 
five vessels sent out to the polar regions under Sir 
Edward Belcher. In accordance with instructions 
from the admiralty, he sailed, in company with 
Capt. Kellett, toward Melville island in search of 
McClure, whom he rescued from a three years' im- 
prisonment in the ice; but he was subsequently 
compelled to abandon his own ship with three 
others of Belcher's fleet, the whole expedition 
reaching home in September, 1854. McClintock's 
services were recognized by his promotion to the 
rank of captain, but he did not obtain active em- 
ployment until Lady Franklin offered him in 1857 
the command of the expedition that was fitted out 
by her, which resulted in solving the mystery of 
Sir John Franklin's fate. On his return in 1859 
from this important voyage. Captain McClintock 
was received with great enthusiasm. The British 
universities conferred on him their highest de- 
grees, the corporation of London voted him the 
freedom of the city, the queen granted him the 
full pay of captain in the navy for the two years 
he was absent, and Lady Franklin presented to 
him the vessel in which he had made his voyage. 
He was knighted, 23 Feb., 1860, and in the spring 
of the same year appointed by the government to 
survey a deep-sea route for a proposed North At- 
lantic telegraph. He was made a rear-admiral in 
the fleet in October, 1871, and vice-admiral in 1877. 
From 1879 till 1882 he served as commander-in- 
chief of the North American and West Indian 
station. In 1884 he became full admiral. He is 
the author of " The Voyage of the ' Fox ' in the 
Arctic Seas " (London, 1860), which has passed 
through five editions. 

McCLINTOCK, John, educator, b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 27 Oct., 1814 ; d. in Madison, Morris 
CO., N. J., 4 March, 1870. He was graduated at 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1835. Before 
his graduation he had begun to preach in the New 
Jersey conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. In 1836 he was appointed professor of 
mathematics in Dickinson college, Carlisle, Pa., 
where he remained twelve years, exchanging the 
mathematical chair in 1840 for that of Greek and 
Latin. In 1846 he began, in connection with 
George R. Crooks, a series of text-books of those 

languages, in which the method of " imitation and 
repetition," now generally used, was first intro- 
duced. In 1848 he was elected b^ the general con- 
ference editor of the "Methodist Quarterly Re- 
view," and this place he filled for eight years, dur- 
ing which time he gave that periodical a high 
literary and scholarly character. While in his 
hands the " Review " rendered especial service by 
its examination of the positive philosophy of 
Comte, and the detection of its errors. These es- 
says attracted the attention of the French philoso- 
pher, and led to correspondence between him and 
their author. In 1856 Dr. McClintock was ap- 
pointed, with Bishop Simpson, a delegate to the 
Wesleyan Methodist conference of England, and 
was also present in a similar capacity at the Berlin 
meeting of the Evangelical alliance the same year. 
Returning to the United States, he became pastor 
of St. Paul's church. New York city, in 1857, where 
he soon became known as one of the eloquent 
preachers of the metropolis. His charge of the 
church expiring by limitation in 1860, he sailed for 
Europe in June to become pastor of the American 
chapel in Paris, under the auspices of the Ameri- 
can and foreign Christian union. Here he re- 
mained during the civil war, and did good service 
in diffusing information regarding the merits of 
the struggle. In these efforts he secured the aid 
of the Comte de Gasparin in France and the Rev. 
William Arthur in England. He also kept his 
countrymen informed of the fluctuations of Euro- 
pean opinion by letters to the New York •* Meth- 
odist." After his return in 1864 he was again as- 
signed to the pastorate of St. Paul's church, but, 
owing to failing health, he was compelled to resign 
at the end of a year. In 1866 he was made chair- 
man of the central centenary committee having in 
charge the centennial commemoration of the ori- 
gin and history of American Methodism. Daniel 
Drew, of New York, signified his intention of 
founding, in connection with that event, a biblical 
and theological school, and Dr. McClintock was 
chosen its first president. This institution, at 
Madison, N. J., known as Drew theological semi- 
nary, was opened in 1867. Dr. McClintock's style 
as a writer was characterized by clearness, direct- 
ness, and precision. He received the degree of 
D. D. from the University of Pennsvlvania in 1848, 
and that of LL. D. from Rutgers in 1866. His 
chief literary work, to which a great part of the 
last twenty years of his life was devoted, is the 
" Cyclopjcdia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesi- 
astical Literature " (12 vols., New York). It was 
begun by him in 1853, in conjunction with James 
Strong, but the first volume did not appear until 
1867, and the fourth was only partially prepared at 
the time of his death. He also published a transla- 
tion of Neander's " Life of Christ," in connection 
with Prof. Carolus E. Blumenthal (New York, 
1847) ; " An Analysis of ' Watson's Theological In- 
stitutes ' " (1850) ; " Sketches of Eminent Methodist 
Ministers " (1852) ; " The Temporal Power of the 
Pope" (1853); and a translation of Bungener's 
" Plistory of the Council of Trent " (1855). Since 
his death have been issued " Living Words," a vol- 
ume of his sermons (1870), and " Lectures on The- 
ological Encyclopaedia and Methodology" (1873). 
See his "Life and Letters" by Rev. George R. 
Crooks. D. D. (New York, 1876). 

MACCLINTOCK, Samnel, clergyman, b. in 
Medford, Mass., 1 Mav, 1732; d. in Greenland, 
N. H., 27 April, 1804. He was graduated at Prince- 
ton in 1751, and in 1756 was ordained pastor of a 
Congregational church at Greenland, N. H., where 
he spent the remainder of his life, except the period 



during which he officiated as chaplain in the French 
war and for the New Hampshire troops in 1775. 
He was present at the battle of Bunker Plill, and 
figures prominently in Trumbull's picture of that 
event as the clergyman in bands. PI is sermons 
were characterized by soundness of thought and 
purity of style. He was given the degree of M. A. 
bv Harvard in 1761, and received that of D. D. 
from Yale in 1791. He published "A Sermon 
on the Justice of God in the Mortality of Man " 
(1759); "The Artifices of Deceivers Detected" 
(1770); " Herodias, or Cruelty and Revenge the 
Effects of Unlawful Pleasure'' (1772); "An Epis- 
tolary Correspondence with Rev. John C. Ogden " 
on apostolic succession (1791); "The Choice," a 
sermon (1798); and "An Oration Commemorative 
of Washington " (1800). 

McCLOSKEY, John, cardinal, b. in Brook- 
Ivn, N. Y., 20 March, 1810, of Irish parentage ; d. 
in New York city, 10 Oct., 1885. When a boy he 
had a delicate constitution, and an accident, in 
which a log rolled over him, weakened his lungs, 

so that he was never 
robust. He was 
sent to Mount St. 
Mary's college, Em- 
mettsburg, Md., and 
after a seven years' 
preparatory and col- 
legiate course, en- 
tered the theological 
department of the 
institution to pre- 
pare for the priest- 
hood. After com- 
pleting a seminary 
course of five years 
he was ordained a 
priest by Bishop 
Dubois, 12 Jan., 
1834, in the old 
cathedral in Now 
York, being the 
eighteenth priest that was ordained in the diocese. 
He was sent to Rome to continue his studies, with 
the design of placing him at the head of a proposed 
college and seminary. Early in 1885 he entered the 
Gregorian college, where he spent two years, and 
on his return he visited the various countries of 
Europe. He was appointed, 1 Nov., 1837, pastor of 
St. Joseph's church, New York city. On 24 June, 
1841, Bishop Hughes opened St. John's college, 
Fordham, and appointed him president; but he 
held the post only a year, and then returned to 
his parish work. On 10 March, 1844, he was con- 
secrated bishop of Axieren in partibus, and made 
coadjutor of the diocese of New York, with the 
right of succession. In 1847 the new sees of 
Albany and Buffalo were created, and he was 
transferred to the former, 21 May, 1847. During 
the seventeen years of his administration the 
growth of the church in the new diocese was very 
I'apid. He intnHlueed various religious organiza- 
tions, including Ladies of the Sacred Heart, Sisters 
of Ch.irity, Sisters of Mercy, Sisters of St. Joseph, 
those of the third order of St. Francis, and Hospital- 
ers, Jesuits, Oblates, Augustinians. Franciscans, 
and Capuchins, and he built the cathedral of the 
Immaculate Conception and founded the theologi- 
cal seminary at Troy. In 1850, while on his way 
toattend a provincial council in New York, he was 
injured in a railroad collision near Tarrytown, his 
right foot being badly crushed. In 185l'he visited 
Rome, where he was received with favor. On the 
death of Archbishop Hughes he was made arch- 

bishop of New York, 6 May, 1864, and installed on 
21 Aug. of that year. The province then included 
New England, New York, and New Jersey. Dur- 
ing his administration communities of various re- 
ligious orders were introduced, many fine churches 
were built, and the Foundling asylum, the Institute 
for deaf-mutes at Fordham, homes for destitute 
boys and girls in connection with St. Stephen's and 
St. Ann's churches, homes for aged men and 
women, and orphan asylums without the city were 
established. He was especially active in the erec- 
tion of the Catholic protectory in Westchester, and 
in the building of the new cathedral, the corner- 
stone of which Archbishop Hughes had lairl on 15 
Aug., 1858. He attended the Vatican council in 
1869, and served on the committee on discipline, 
also visiting Rome in 1874. On 15 March, 1875, 
the pope appointed him a cardinal priest, with the 
title of Sancta Maria supra Minervam, and on 27 
April of the same year the ceremony of investiture 
took place in the old cathedral. In 1878 he was- 
summoned to Rome to take part in the conclave 
that was called to elect a successor to Pius IX. 
On 25 May, 1879, he dedicated the new cathedral. 
On 12 Jan., 1884, there was a celebration of the 
golden jubilee of his ordination as a priest, and the 
address presented to him by the clergy said : 
" Fifty years ago there were in this city but six 
churches ; now there are sixty. There were then 
but twenty priests in the diocese ; now there are 
380. At that time there were in the whole United 
States only nine bishops ; now there are fifty-nine. 
Then there was but one archbishop ; now there are 
eleven, one of whom has been raised to the great 
senate of the universal church." During the last 
ten years of his life his strength failed gradually, 
and as early as 1 Oct., 1880, Archbishop Corrigan was 
made coadjutor at his request. Cardinal McClos- 
key was tall and slender, but of erect and elastic 
bearing. His forehead was broad and his features 
pleasant, his eyes being bright blue and deeply set^ 
and his mouth mobile. His manner was quiet, but 
impressive. He was a profound scholar and an 
effective preacher. It has been said that the his- 
tory of his life is the history of the progress of the 
Roman Catholic church in New York, but it 
would be a mistake to attribute that progress alto- 
gether to him, or even to him more than to any 
other man. He was fortunate in succeeding Arch- 
bishop Hughes, for he was enabled to enter into 
the results of that prelate's controversies without 
inheriting any of the animosities that they engen- 
dered, and his episcopate was like a calm after a. 
storm.. Plis remains were deposited, 15 Oct., 1885, 
in the vault under the sanctuary of St. Patrick's 
cathedral, New York. 

McCLOSKEY, John, clergyman, b. in Carlow, 
Ireland, in 1817; d. in Emmettsburg, Md., 24 Dec.» 
1880. He came to this country at an early age, 
and entering St. Mary's college, Emmettsburg, Md., 
in 1830, was graduated there and at the seminary. 
He was ordained by Bishop Hughes, of New York, 
in 1840, who, at the solicitation of the college 
authorities, allowed him to attach himself to the 
faculty of St. Mary's. He was elected vice-presi- 
dent and treasurer in 1844, and became president 
in 1871. He resigned in 1877, bvit was again 
called to the presidency in 1879, which office he 
held until his death. He was unflagging in his 
zeal for the welfare of the college, and devoted 
himself to its interests throughout his life. — His 
brother, William George, R. C. bishop, b. in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., 10 Nov., 1823, also pursued his 
classical and theological studies at St. Mary's, and 
was ordained by Archbishop Hughes in New York 



in 1852. After spending one year on the mission 
in New York as assistant to his brother John, he 
was appointed to a chair at St. Mary's college, and 
became professor of moral theology and sacred 
scripture in 1857.1 In December, 1859, Pope Pius 
IX. made him the first president of the American 
college in Rome,'^ which had just been founded by 
that pontiff. B^ere he presided with great success 
for several years^ until he was appointed to the see 
of Louisville, Ky., in 1868. He has given much 
attention to the advancement of education in his 
diocese, and has been instrumental in establishing 
various convents and parochial schools. 

McCLUNEY, William J., naval officer, b. about 
1796 ; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 11 Feb., 1864. He was 
appointed midshipman in the U. S. navy, 1 Jan., 
1812, and was in the action between the " Wasp " 
and the " Frolic " on 18 Oct. of that year. He was 
commissioned lieutenant, 1 April, 1818, command- 
er, 9 Dec, 1839, and captain, 13 Oct., 1851, and 
placed on the retired list, 21 Dec, 1861. He took 
part in the Mexican war, and in 1853 was ordered 
to command the " Powhatan," of Com. Perry's Ja- 
pan expedition. He returned to the United States 
m February, 1856, and after a brief respite was or- 
dered to New York on duty as general supervisor 
of the construction of the Stevens battery. In 
1858 he was placed in command of the Atlantic 
squadron, which office he held until May, 1860. 
He was commissioned commodore, 16 July, 1862. 

McCLUNGr, John Alexander, clergyman, b. in 
Washington, Mason co., Ky., 25 Sept., 1804 ; d. in 
Niagara river, 7 Aug., 1859. He was a son of 
Judge William McClung, and a nephew of Chief- 
Justice Marshall. In 1823 he entered Prince- 
ton theological seminary, where he remained be- 
tween one and two years. He was licensed to 
preach in 1828, but he abandoned the pulpit, stud- 
ied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1835, prac- 
tising until 1849. He was again licensed to preach 
in 1851, and was pastor of a Presbyterian church in 
Indianapolis in 1851-7, and then of one in Mays- 
ville, Ky., until his death by drowning. During his 
career at the bar he frequently contributed to the 
press, and wrote "Sketches of Western Adventures " 
(Philadelphia, 1832). See " Additional Sketches of 
Adventure, Compiled by the Publishers, and a Bi- 
ography of McClung, by Henry Waller " (Coving- 
ton, Ky., 1872). — His brother, Alexander K., law- 
yer, b. in Mason county, Ky., about 1812; d. in 
Jackson, Miss., 23 March, 1855, enlisted in the 
navy as midshipman, 1 April, 1828, but resigned, 29 
Aug., 1829. He then studied law, was admitted to 
the bar, and practised in Mississippi. He subse- 
quently served as a volunteer in the army during 
the Mexican war, attaining the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, and being dangerously wounded at Monte- 
rey. He was appointed charge d'affaires in Bolivia 
by President Taylor, but resigned about two years 
before his death. Col. McClung left behind him a 
brilliant reputation as an orator, but none of his 
addresses were published save a eulogy on Henry 
Clay, delivered at Jackson, Miss., in 1852. 

McCLURE, Alexander Kelly, journalist, b. 
in Sherman's Valley, Perry co.. Pa., 9 Jan., 1828. 
In the earlier years of his life he divided his time 
between his father's farm and the village school, 
and at the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to 
the tanner's trade. In 1846, on the urgent advice 
of his friend, the editor of the " Perry Freeman,'* 
to whose paper he had contributed, he began the 
publication of a Whig journal, the " Sentinel," at 
Mifflin, Pa. At the close of the first year he set 
up the type, and did the press- work, besides editing 
the paper, with the aid of a single apprentice. He 

sold the *' Sentinel " in 1850, purchased an interest 
in the " Chambersburg Repository," became its 
editor, and made it one of the most noted anti- 
slavery journals in the state. In 1853 he was the 
Whig candidate for auditor-general, being the 
youngest man ever nominated for a state office in 
Pennsylvania. In 1855 he was a member of the 
convention that met at Pittsburg, Pa., and organ- 
ized the Republican party, and in the following 
year was a delegate to the National convention that 
nominated Fremont for the presidency. In 1856 
he sold the " Repository," quitted journalism, and 
shortly thereafter was admitted to the bar. In 
1857-8 he was chosen to the legislature, and in 
1859 to the senate of Pennsylvania, over a Demo- 
cratic opponent from a strong Democratic district. 
He was a delegate to the National Republican con- 
ventions of 1860 and 1864, and in the former played 
a conspicuous part in inducing the delegation from 
his state to disregard their instructions for Simon 
Cameron and vote for Abraham Lincoln. He was 
chosen chairman of the Republican state committee, 
and organized and led his party in the canvass of 
that year. In 1862 he repurchased the " Cham- 
bersburg Repository." but in the burning of Cham- 
bersburg, in 1864, almost his entire property was 
destroyed. In 1868 he settled in Philadelphia, 
where he resumed the practice of the law. In 1872 
he was chairman of the Pennsylvania delegation 
to the National convention that nominated Horace 
Greeley for the presidency, was chosen chairman 
of the state committee that supported his election, 
and was elected as an Independent Republican to 
the state senate. In the following year he was an 
independent candidate for the mayoralty of Phila- 
delphia, and came within nine hundred votes of 
being elected. During this year, with Frank Mc- 
Laughlin, he established the " Times," a daily 
newspaper, and since its foundation he has been 
its editor-in-chief. He has opposed machine power 
in party management and official incompetency 
and dishonesty in Philadelphia. 

McCLURE, Alexander Wilson, clergyman, b. 
in Boston, Mass., 8 May, 1808 ; d. in Canonsburg, 
Pa., 20 Sept.. 1865. He was graduated at Amherst 
in 1827, and at Andover theological seminary in 
1830, and after preaching at Maiden, Mass., two 
years, he was ordained there in 1832. He subse- 
quently was stationed at St. Augustine, Fla., where 
he labored successfully among the soldiers that 
were on duty there. In 1846 he returned to Bos- 
ton, and soon after began the publication of the 
"Christian Observatory," which he edited more 
than three years. He also assisted Dr. Parsons 
Cooke in conducting the " Puritan Recorder." In 
1855 he became secretary of the American and for- 
eign Christian union, and labored for some time 
abroad. In 1859 he was disabled by illness. Dr. 
McClure was a prolific writer for the religious 
press, and published, among other works, a tract 
called the " Life-Boat," which had a wide circula- 
tion ; another entitled " Four Lectures on Ultra 
Universalism " ; " A Series of Letters upon the Bible 
in the Public Schools," written in controversy with 
a Roman Catholic priest in Jersey City ; two vol- 
umes of the " Lives of the Chief Fathers of New 
England,'* in the series published by the Massa- 
chiisetts Sunday-school society : and " Translators 
Reviewed," giving a biographical sketch of each 
translator concerned in King James's version (New 
York, 1853). This has been adopted by the board 
of publication of the Reformed Dutch church. 

McCLURE, David, clergvman, b. in Newport^ 
R. I., 18 Nov., 1748; d. in East Windsor, Conn., 
25 June, 1820. He was graduated at Yale in 1769, 




and, after some time spent in teachini?, was or- 
dained at Dartmouth college, 20 May, 1772, and 
spent sixteen months as a missionary to the Dela- 
ware Indians, near Pittsburg, Pa. On 13 Nov., 
1776, he was installed pastor of the Congregational 
church at North Hampton, N. H., where he re- 
mained until August, 1785, when he was dismissed 
at his own request. The following year he was 
called to the church at East Windsor, Conn., and 
continued in that relation until his death, a period 
of thirty-four years. He was trustee of Dartmouth 
college 'from 1777 till 1800, and received the de- 
gree of D. D. from the same institution in 1803. 
Dr. McClure published, in addition to eleven occa- 
sional discourses, an " Oration at the Opening of 
Exeter Phillips Academy" (1783); "Sermons on 
the Moral Law " (1795 ; new ed. in 1818) ; " Ora- 
tion on the Death of Gen. Washington " (1800) ; 
and, in connection with Rev. Dr. Parish, "Me- 
moirs of the Rev. Eleazer Wheelock, D. D." (1810). 

McCLURE, George, soldier, b. near London- 
derry, Ireland, in 1771 ; d. in Elgin, 111., 10 Aug., 
1851. He emigrated to Baltimore in 1791, and 
subsequently settled in Bath, N. Y., where he 
studied law, and was successively a member of the 
legislature, sheriff, surrogate, and judge of Steuben 
county. lie volunteered in the war of 1812, and 
in 1813 commanded a brigade on the Buffalo fron- 
tier, being brought prominently into notice by or- 
dering the l)urning of Newark (afterward Niaga- 
ra), Canada West. When he had determined early 
in December to abandon Fort George, after endeav- 
oring to destroy the former work by blowing it 
up while its garrison was crossing the river to 
Fort Niagara, he set fire to the neighboring village 
of Newark. The weather was intensely cold, and 
the inhabitants, who had only been given a few 
hours' notice, including a large number of women 
and children, were driven from their homes into 
the deep snow, with but little food and clothing. 
Only one dwelling out of one hundred and fifty 
was'left standing. When the British took posses- 
sion of the abandoned fortification they decided on 
swift retaliation, and soon six villages, and many 
isolated houses on the American bank of the Niaga- 
ra river, together with several vessels, were set on 
fire, and scores of innocent persons lost their lives. 

McCLURE, John, patriot, b. in Chester district, 
S. C\, about 1730; d. in Charlotte, N. C, 18 Aug.. 
1780. After tlie full of Charleston, S. C, 12 May, 
1780, the South Carolina patriots were greatly dis- 
heartened, and in the following month Sir Henry 
Clinton wrote to the British ministry: "I may 
venture to assert that there are few men in South 
Carolina wlio are not either our prisoners, or in 
arms witli us." Many patriots had fbund refuge 
in North Cai-olina, while others had gone up to 
the mountains and were gathering their country- 
men into bands to avenge the insults of their 
oppressors. Early in July, Gen. Thomas Sumter 
returned to South Carolina witli a few followers. 
He found that the Whigs, led by John McClure, 
Richard Winn, and others, had 'already attacked 
the enemy at different points. To crush these 
patriots, nnd bind the loyalists together, the Brit- 
ish authorities sent out marauding parties, chiefly 
Tories. At Mcbley's meeting-house, on the banks 
of Little river. Fairfield district, Capt. McClure 
and Capt. Bratton fell upon a party of loyalists 
and (lisi)ersed tliem. This disaster, following closely 
upon that at Beckamville, where McClure, at the 
head of thirty-three men, had routed a party of 
Tories and British soldiers the previous month, 
caused the commander at Rocky ^Mount, Chester 
CO., to send out Capt. Christian Huch with 400 

cavalry and a body of well -mounted loyalists. 
After Huch had committed various depredations, 
he encamped in a lane on the plantation of James 
Williamson, now Brattonville, where he passed the 
night of 11 July. Early on the following morn- 
ing they were surprised by McClure and Bratton, 
whose forces, only 133 in number, entered each 
end of the lane. After a fierce struggle, lasting an 
hour, Huch and Col. Ferguson, of the Tory militia, 
were killed and the forces under them were dis- 
persed, Capt. McClure leading the pursuit. On 6 
Aug. that officer was present at the battle of 
Hanging Rock, and fell at the first fire pierced by 
two bullets. When his friends came to his aid he 
urged them to leave him and pursue the enemy. 
After the battle he was taken to Waxhaw church, 
and thence to Charlotte, N. C, where he died in 
Liberty hall. Gen. William R. Davie said of him : 
" Of the many brave men with whom it was my 
fortune to become acquainted in the army, John 
McClure was one of the bravest." 

McCLURE, Sir Robert John Le Mesiirier, 
British arctic explorer, b. in Wexford, Ireland, 28 
Jan., 1807 ; d. in London, England, 14 Oct., 1873. 
He was the posthumous child of a British officer 
that was killed at the battle of Aboukir. He was 
adopted by Gen. Le Mesurier, and through his in- 
fluence educated at Eton and Sandhurst, but, being 
averse to a military career, obtained an appoint- 
ment as midshipman in the navy. After serving 
for ten years on various stations, he accompanied 
Sir George Bach to the arctic regions as mate of 
the " Terror," and for his services was rewarded 
with a lieutenancy. In 1848 he joined the Frank- 
lin search expedition of Sir John Ross, and was 
promoted commander. In 1850 he began the voy- 
age which secured him lasting fame as the dis- 
coverer of the Northwest passage. He left Plym- 
outh in command of the " Investigator," which was 
provisioned for three years and had a crew of sixty- 
six men, under orders to pass through Bering 
straits, and thence, if practicable, to proceed to Mel- 
ville island, an achievement which had not then 
been accomplished by any vessel. Capt. McClure 
entered a strait, which he named the Prince of 
Wales strait, and, after his ship was frozen fast, 
he continued the exploration by sledges until he 
reached Melville, or Barrow's, straits in the winter 
of 1850-'l. This was called the first discovery of 
the Northwest passage. The next season he "dis- 
covered a second route on the north side of Baring 
island. In 1853 he was extricated from a perilous 
situation by Capt. Kellett. who arrived at Melville 
island from the east. McClure remained in the arc- 
tic regions until 1854, and his whole party reached 
England on 28 September of that year. McClure 
received the £5,000 that had been offered for the 
discovery of the Northwest passage, and a similar 
sum was distributed among his officers and crew. 
He was also knighted and subsequently made vice- 
admiral. From his journals Capt. Sherard Osborn 
published " The Discovery of the Northwest Pas- 
sage " (London, 1856). 

McCLURG, Alexander Caldwell, publisher, 
b. in Philadelphia, Pa., about 1835. Pie was gradu- 
ated at Miami university, Oxford, Ohio, in 1853. 
He left the house of S. "C. Griggs and Co., book- 
sellers of Chicago, to enter the National army as a 
private, 15 Aug., 1862, and was subsequently com- 
missioned captain in the 88th Illinois volunteers. 
He was promoted to lieutenant-colonel in the 
adjutant-general's department, and chief of staff 
of the 14th army corps, and brevetted colonel and 
brigadier-general. He served to the end of the 
war in the Army of the Cumberland, and accom- 




panied Gen. Sherman in his march to the sea. 
After the war he returned to the book business 
in Chicago, becoming a partner in the firm of Jan- 
sen, McClurg and Co., and the house is now widely 
known under the i^ame of A. C. McClurg and Co., 
booksellers and publishers. Gen. McClurg has been 
a frequent contributor to periodical literature. 

McCLURGr, J^ames, physician, b. in Hampton, 
Va., in 1747; d. in Richmond, Va., 9 July, 1825. 
He was a fellow-student with Thomas Jefferson at 
William and Mary college, at which institution he 
was graduated in 1762. He took his degree in 
medicine at Edinburgh in 1770, and subsequently 
pursued his studies in London and Paris. On re- 
turning to this country in 1773 he settled in Will- 
iamsburg, Va., where he soon took high rank as a 
physician, but in 1783 he removed to Richmond. 
jHe sat for many years in the Virginia council, and 
was a member of the convention that framed the 
constitution of the United States. During his resi- 
dence abroad he published an " Essay on the Human 
Bile " (London), which was translated into several 
languages. He is also the author of a paper on 
" Reasoning in Medicine " in the Philadelphia 
" Journal of the Medical Physical Sciences." He 
had considerable skill as a writer of vers de societe, 
and his "Belles of Williamsburg" (1777), a few 
stanzas of which were written by Judge St. George 
Tucker, is published in John Esten Cooke's " Vir- 
ginia Comedians " (New York, 1854). 

McCLURGr, Joseph Washington, legislator, 
b. in St. Louis county. Mo., 22 Feb., 1818. He was 
educated at Oxford college, Ohio, and taught in 
Louisiana and Mississippi in 1835-'6. He then 
went to Texas, where he studied law, was admitted 
to the bar, and made clerk of the circuit court in 
1840. In 1844 he returned to Missouri and en- 
gaged in mercantile pursuits. In 1861 he suffered 
from Confederate depredations on his property, 
became colonel of the Osage regiment, and subse- 
quently of a regiment of National cavalry. He 
was a member of the state conventions of Missouri 
in 1861-'2-'3, and was elected and re-elected to 
congress while residing in Linn Creek, Camden co., 
first as an Emancipation and afterward as a Re- 
publican candidate, serving from 7 Dec, 1863, till 
1868, when he resigned. In the latter year he was 
elected governor and served the full term. 

MacCOLL, Evan, Canadian poet, b. in Kenmore, 
Argyleshire, Scotland, 21 Sept., 1808. Pie received 
a good education, and in 1837 became a contributor 
to the " Gaelic Magazine " published in Glasgow. 
In 1831 MacColl's family emigrated to Canada, but 
he remained behind, and in 1837 was appointed a 
clerk in the Liverpool custom-house. In 1850 he 
removed to Canada, and soon afterward obtained 
a situation in the Kingston custom-house, where 
he remained till he was retired in 1880. During 
his residence in Canada he has written numerous 
poems, chiefly of a lyrical character, the most noted 
of which is " My Rowan Tree." He has been for 
many years the bard of the St Andrew's society of 
Kingston. He has published in book-form " Clar- 
sach Nan Beann, or Poems and Songs in Gaelic " 
(Glasgow, 1837; new edition, 1886), and "The 
Mountain Minstrel, or Poems and Songs in Eng- 
lish " ; third Canadian edition of his works (Toron- 
to, 1887). See Wilson's " Poets and Poetry of Scot- 
land" (New York, 1876).— His daughter, Mary 
Jemima, b. in Liverpool, England, 7 May, 1847, 
was educated in Kingston, Ont., taught for several 
years, and in 1881 married Prof. Otto Plenry 
Schulte, of Hasbrouck institute, Jersey City, N. J. 
She is the author of " Bide a Wee, and other 
Poems " (Buffalo, 1879 ; 4th ed., Toronto). 

McCOLLESTRE, Sullivan Holman, clergy- 
man, b. in Marlborough, N. H., 18 Dec, 1826. He 
was graduated at Norwich, Vt., university in 1851, 
and studied theology at Cambridge divinity-school. 
He began preaching to a Universalist congregation 
at Swanzey, N. H., in 1853, and subsequently held 
a pastorate at Westmoreland. He was then chosen 
president of the State board of commissioners, and 
after teaching and preaching in Westbrook (now 
Deering), Me., he obtained in 1864, from the Maine 
legislature, a charter for a female college. In 
1872-'6 he was president of Buchtel college, Akron, 
Ohio, and he has since established churches at Bel- 
lows Falls, Vt., and Dover, N. H., from which last 
pastorate he resigned in 1885. He received the de- 
gree of D. D. from St. Lawrence university in 1874. 
Besides being a frequent contributor to religious 
and educational journals, he has published "After- 
Thoughts of Foreign Travel " (Boston, 1880). 

McCONAUGHY, David, clergyman, b. in Men- 
alien, York CO. (now Adams), Pa., 29 Sept., 1775; 
d. in Washington, Pa., 29 Jan., 1852. Pie was 
graduated at Dickinson in 1795, and after studying 
theology was licensed to preach as a Presbyterian 
in 1797. In 1800 he accepted a call from the United 
Christians of Upper Marsh creek and Conewago, re- 
maining there until 1832. From 1832 till 1849 he 
was president of Washington college. Pie received 
the degree of D. D. from Jefferson in 1833, and 
that of LL. D. from Washington in 1849. Dr. 
McConaughy published sermons and addresses, 
tracts on the "Doctrine of the Trinity" and on 
" Infant Baptism," " A Brief Summary and Out- 
line of Moral Science" (1838), and "Discourses, 
chiefly Biographical, of Persons Eminent in Sacred 
History " (Washington, Pa., 1850). 

McCONNEL, John Ludlum, author, b. in Jack- 
sonville, III, 11 Nov., 1826; d. there, 17 Jan., 1862. 
His father, Murray McConnel, fought in the Black 
Hawk war, was in both branches of the legislature, 
and in 1855-9 was 
fifth auditor of the 
treasury. The son 
studied law under 
his father, and was 
graduated at the 
law-school of Tran- 
sylvania university, 
Lexington, Ky. In 
1846 he enlisted as 
a private for the 
Mexican war, be- 
came 1st lieutenant 
of his company, and 
was promoted to 
captain after the 
battle of Buena Vis- 
ta, where he was 
twice wounded. Af- 
ter the war he re- 
turned to Jackson- 
ville and practised 
law there till his death, which was caused by an 
illness that he had contracted in Mexico. Plis 
books, which illustrate western life and character, 
include " Talbot and Vernon " (New York, 1850) ; 
" Grahame, or Youth and Manhood " (1850) ; " The 
Glenns" (1851); and "Western Characters, or 
Types of Border Life" (Boston, 1853). At the 
time of his death he was engaged in a work to be 
entitled " History of Early P]xplorations in Amer- 
ica," with special reference to the labors of the 
early Roman Catholic missionaries. 

McCOOK, Daniel, soldier, b. in Canonsburg, 
Pa., 20 June, 1798; d. near Bufiington's island, 




Ohio, 21 July, 1863. He was the son of George 
MoCook, an Irishman of Scotch descent, who was 
concerned in movements of the " United Irish- 
men " about 1780, and on their failure fled to the 
United States. Daniel was educated at Jeiferson 
college and removed to New Lisbon, and then to 
CarroUton, Ohio. At the beginning of the civil 
war, although sixty-three years of age, he offered 
his services to the government, was commissioned 
major, and fell mortally wounded while leading an 
advance party to oppose and intercept Gen. John 
Morgan in his raid. His wife. Martha Latimer, 
b. in Washington, Pa., 8 March, 1802 : d. in New 
Lisbon, Ohio, 10 Nov., 1879, was married in 1818. 
Her courage and intelligence greatly influenced 
their ten sons who were in the National army. — 
Daniers brother, John, physician, b. in Canons- 
burg, Pa., 21 Feb., 1806: d.'in Washington, D. C, 
11 Oct., 1865, was educated at Jefl'erson college 
and graduated in the Medical school of Cincinnati. 
He practised medicine for many years in New Lis- 
bon, and afterward in Steubenville, Ohio, and dur- 
ing the civil war served for a time as a volunteer 
surgeon. He died at the headquarters of his son. 
Gen. Anson G. McCook, in Washington, D, C, dur- 
ing: a visit. His wife, Catherine Julia Sheldon, 
b.^in Hartford, Conn., 21 JMay, 1807; d. in Steu- 
benville, Ohio, 11 March, I860, was noted for her 
gift of song. His five sons enlisted in the Na- 
tional army. These two families have been called 
the " fighting McCooks," and are familiarly dis- 
tinguished as the •' tribe of Dan " and tlic " tribe 
of John." — Daniel's son, Georg'e Wytlie, law- 
yer, b. in Canonsburg, Pa., 21 Nov., 1821 ; d. in 
Steubenville, Ohio, 28 Dec, 1877, was graduated 
at Ohio university, studied law with Edwin M. 
Stanton, and afterward became his partner. He 
served as an ofiicer in the 3d Ohio regiment 
throughout the Mexican war, and returned as its 
commander. He was one of the first four briga- 
dier-generals selected by the governor of Ohio to 
command the troops from that state in the civil 
war, but, owing to impaired health from his Mexi- 
can service, was prevented from accepting that 
post. He organized and commanded for short pe- 
riods several Ohio regiments. In 1871 he was the 
Democratic candidate for governor of the state. 
He was at one time attorney-general of the state 
and edited the first volume of "Ohio State Re- 
ports." — Another son, Robert Latimer, soldier, 
b. in New Lisbon, Ohio, 28 Dec, 1827; d. near Sa- 
lem, Ala., 6 Aug., 1862, studied law and removed 
to Cincinnati, where he secured a large ])raetice. 
He organized the 9th Ohio regiment in 1861, be- 
came its colonel, and commanded a brigade in the 
West Virginia campaign under McClellan. His 
brigade was then transferred to the Army of the 
Ohio, and took an active part in the battle of Mill 
Spring, Ky., 19 Jan., 1862, where he was severely 
wounded. The Confederate forces were driven 
from their lines by a bayonet charge of ]McCook's 
brigade, and so closely pursued that their organi- 
zation was destroyed. He was promoted bViga- 
dier-general of volunteers, 21 March, 1862, rejoined 
his command before his wound had healed, and 
was shot by Confederate guerillas while lying help- 
less in an ambulance. — Another son, Alexander 
McDowell, soldier, b. in Columbiana count v. Ohio, 
22 April, 1831, was graduated at the U.S. inilitary 
academy in 1852, and assigned to the 3d infantry. 
After a brief service in garrison he was engaged 
against the Apaches in New Mexico until 1857, 
and from 12 Feb., 1858. till 24 April, 1861, was as- 
sistant instructor of infantry tactics at West Point. 
On 6 Dec, 1858, he became 1st lieutenant. xVt the 

beginning of the civil war he was appointed colo- 
nel of the 1st Ohio regiment, and in April, 1861, 
he was mustering and disbursing officer at Colum- 
bus, Ohio. He commanded his regiment at the 
first battle of Bull 
Run. and for his _ 

services there was 
brevetted major. 
He was appointed 
of volunteers on 3 
Sept., 1861, and 
commanded a di- 
vision of the Army 
of the Ohio in 
the Tennessee and 
Mississippi cam- 
paign. He was 
brevetted lieuten- 
ant-colonel at the 
capture of Nash- 
ville, 3 March, 
1862, and colonel 

on 7 April, 1862, for services at Shiloh. On 17 
July, 1862, he became major-general of volunteers 
and" was placed in command of the 20th army 
corps, with which he served during the campaigns 
of Perryville, Stone River, Tullahoma, and Chicka- 
mauga." He engaged in the defence of Washing- 
ton on 11 and 12 July, 1864, was in the middle 
military division from November, 1864, till Febru- 
ary, 1865, and in command of eastern Arkansas from 
February till May of the latter year. He received 
tlie brevet of brigadier-general, U. S. army, on 13 
March, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services 
at Perrysville, Ky.. and also on the same date that 
of major-general, V. S. army, for services in the 
field during the war. He investigated Indian af- 
fairs with a joint committee of congress from May 
till October, 1865, and at the close of the war was 
made lieutenant-colonel of the 26th infantry. On 
15 Dec, 1880, he became colonel of the 6th infant- 
ry, and he is now (1888) stationed at Fort Leav- 
enworth, Kan., as commandant of the school of 
instruction for infantry and cavalry. — Another 
son, Daniel, soldier, b. in CarroUton, Ohio, 22 
July, 1834; d. near Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., 21 
Jidy, 1864, was graduated at Alabama university, 
Florence, Ala., in 1858, studied law in Steuben- 
ville, Ohio, and, after admission to the bar, re- 
moved to Leavenworth. Kan., where he formed a 
partnership with William T. Sherman and Thomas 
Ewing. When the civil war began the office was 
closed, and all of the partners soon became gen- 
eral officers, Mr, McCook was captain of a local 
company, with which he volunteered, and as part 
of the 1st Kansas regiment served under Gen. 
Nathaniel Lyon at Wilson's Creek. Subsequently 
he was chief of staff of the 1st division of the 
Army of the Ohio in the Shiloh campaign, and 
became colonel of the 52d Ohio infantry in the 
summer of 1862. He was at once assigned to the 
command of a brigade under Gen. William T. 
Sherman, and continued to serve with the Army 
of the Cumberland. He was selected by Gen. 
Sherman to lead the assault that was made on 
Kenesaw Mountain in July, 1864, and took his bri- 
gade directly up to the Confederate works. Just 
before the assault he calmly recited to his men the 
stanza from Macaulay's poem of " Horatius" begin- 
ning " Then how may man die better than facing 
fearful oddsT' He had reached the top of the 
enemy's works, and was encouraging his men to 
follow him, when he was fatally wounded. For the 
courage that he displayed in this assault he was. 




promoted to the full rank of brigadier-general, to 
date from 16 July, 1864, but survived only a few 
days. — Another son, Edwin Stanton, soldier, b. 
in"Carrollton, O^io, 26 March, 1837; d. in Yank- 
ton, Dak., 11 Sept., 1873, was educated at the U.S. 
naval academy, but when the civil war began 
raised a company for the 31st Illinois regiment, of 
which his frieikl John A. Logan was colonel. He 
served with this regiment at Fort Henry and Fort 
Donelson, where he was severely wounded. In 
his promotion he succeeded Gren. Logan and fol- 
lowed him in the command of his regiment, bri- 
gade, and division, throughout the Vicksburg and 
other campaigns under Grant, and in the Chatta- 
nooga and Atlanta campaigns, and the march to 
the sea under Sherman. He was brevetted briga- 
dier-general and major-general of volunteers on 
13 March, 1865, for his services in these campaigns. 
Gen. McCook was three times severely wounded, 
but survived the war. While acting governor of 
Dakota and presiding over a public meeting, he 
was shot and killed by a man in the audience. — 
Another son, Charles Morris, b. in Carrollton, 
Ohio, 13 Nov., 1843 ; d. in Virginia, 21 July, 1861, 
was a member of the freshman class at Kenyon 
college when the war began, and volunteered as a 
private in the 2d Ohio regiment. He was killed 
at the battle of Bull Run, in sight of his father, 
who had volunteered as a nurse. — Another son, 
John James, soldier, b. in Carrollton, Ohio, 22 May, 
1845, was also a student at Kenyon when the war 
began, and after completing his freshman year en- 
listed in the 6th Ohio cavalry. He served through 
the war, attaining the rank of captain and aide-de- 
camp in September, 1863. He was brevetted ma- 
jor for gallant and meritorious services in action 
at Shady Grove, Va., where he was dangerously 
wounded, and lieutenant-colonel and colonel for 
his services during the war. Col. McCook is now 
(1887) practising law in New York city. — John's 
son, Edward Moody, soldier, b. in Steuben ville, 
Ohio, 15 June, 1833, received a common-school 
education, and was one of the earliest settlers in 
the Pike's Peak region, where he went to practise 
law. He represented that district in the legisla- 
ture of Kansas before the division of the terri- 
tories. Mr. McCook was temporarily in Washing- 
ton just before the civil war, and, by a daring feat 
as a volunteer secret agent for the government, 
won such approbation that he was appointed in 
the regular army as 2d lieutenant of the 1st cav- 
alry, 8 May, 1861. He became 1st lieutenant, 17 
July, 1862. His brevets in the regular army were 
1st lieutenant, 7 April, 1862, for Shiloh, Tenn. ; 
captain, 8 Oct., 1862, for Perrysville, Ky. ; major, 
20 Sept., 1863, for Chickamauga, Ga. ; lieutenant- 
colonel, 27 Jan., 1864, for service during the cav- 
alry operations in east Tennessee ; colonel, 13 
March, 1865, for the capture of Selma, Ala., and 
also on that date brigadier-general for gallant and 
meritorious service in the field. He also was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers on 27 
April, 1864, and brevetted major-general, 13 March, 
1865. Gen. McCook's most difficult and danger- 
ous service was in penetrating the enemy's lines by 
way of diversion previous to Sherman's march to 
the sea. He resigned his commission in 1866 to ac- 
cept the appointment of U. S. minister to the Sand- 
wich islands, which he held until 1869. He was 
twice appointed governor of Colorado territory by 
President Grant. — Another son of the first John, 
Anson George, soldier, b. in Steubenville, Ohio, 10 
Oct., 1835, received a common-school education at 
New Lisbon, Ohio, and went while still a youth to 
California in an overland train. He remained on 

the Pacific coast several years, returned, and stud- 
ied law at Steubenville in the office of Stanton and 
McCook, and had just been admitted to the bar at 
the beginning of the civil war. On the first call 
for troops he entered the service as captain in the 
2d Ohio infantry, and as such served in the first 
battle of Bull Run. At the reorganization of his 
regiment for three years, he was made major, and he 
subsequently became its lieutenant - colonel and 
colonel, serving in the Army of the Cumberland 
under Buell, Rosecrans, and Thomas. He was also 
with Sherman in the Atlanta campaign, command- 
ing a brigade part of the time, especially at the 
battle of Peach Tree Creek near Atlanta. When 
the regiment was mustered out at the expiration 
of its service he was made colonel of the 194th 
Ohio, ordered to the valley of Virginia, and as- 
signed to command a brigade. At the close of the 
war he was brevetted brigadier-general of volun- 
teers for gallant and meritorious services. From 
1865 till 1873 he resided in Steubenville, Ohio, as 
U. S. assessor of internal revenue, and then re- 
moved to New York city. He was elected to con- 
gress from New York as a Republican, holding his 
seat from 1877 till 1883, and serving on the mili- 
tary committee. He is now (1888) secretary of the 
U. S. senate. — Another son of John, Henry 
Christopher, clergyman, b. in New Lisbon, Ohio, 
3 July, 1837, after learning the printer's trade, and 
teaching for several years, was graduated at Jeffer- 
son college. Pa., in 1859. He studied theology 
privately and in Western theological seminary at 
Alleghany, Pa., and after serving for nine months 
as 1st lieutenant and chaplain in the army, held 
pastorates at Clinton, 111., and St. Louis, Mo. Dur- 
ing this period he was active as a leader in Sun- 
day-school movements. In 1869 he became pastor 
of the Seventh Presbyterian church of Philadel- 
phia, now known as the Tabernacle Presbyterian 
church. Dr. McCook is vice-president of the Ameri- 
can entomological society, and of the Academy of 
natural sciences in Philadelphia, in whose proceed- 
ings he has published numerous papers upon the 
habits and industry of American ants and spiders. 
The degree of D. D. was conferred on him by La- 
fayette in 1880. He is the author of " Object and 
Outline Teaching" (St. Louis, 1871); "The Last 
Year of Christ's Ministry" (Philadelphia, 1871); 
" The Last Davs of Jesus'" (1872) ; " The Tercente- 
nary Book," edited (1873) ; " The Mound-Making 
Ants of the Alleghanies " (1877) : " Historic Eccle- 
siastical Emblems of Pan-Presbyterianism " (1880) ; 
" The Natural History of the Agricultural Ant of 
Texas " (1880) ; " Honey and Occident Ants " (1882) ; 
" Tenants of an Old Farm " (New York, 1884) ; 
" The Women Friends of Jesus " (1884) ; " The Gos- 
pel in Nature " (Philadelphia, 1887) ; and " Amer- 
ican Spiders and their Spinning- Work " (1888). — 
Another son, Roderick Sheldon, naval officer, b. 
in New Lisbon, Ohio, 10 March, 1839 ; d. in Vine- 
land, N. J., 13 Feb., 1886. was graduated at the 
U. S. naval academy in 1859. He was appointed 
lieutenant, 31 Aug., 1861, lieutenant-commander, 
25 Dec, 1865, and commander, 25 Sept., 1873. 
During the civil war he took part in various en- 
gagements on the James river, in the sounds of 
North Carolina, and in both Fort Fisher fights, 
and commanded a battery of naval howitzers at 
New Berne, 14 March, 1862, where he was highly 
commended in the official despatches. In this 
conflict he received the surrender of a Confederate 
regiment of infantry, probably the only surrender 
of this character that occurred in the civil war. 
During his service on the monitors at Fort Fisher 
he seriously injured his health. His last service 




was in light-house' duty on Ohio river. Failing in 
health, he was retired from active service, 23 Feb., 
1885. — Another son, John James, clergyman, b. 
in New Lisbon, Ohio, 2 Feb., 1843, was graduated 
at Trinity college, Hartford, Conn., in 1863. He 
began the study of medicine, but abandoned it 
to enter the Protestant Episcopal ministry. He 
served during a short campaign in West Virginia 
as lieutenant in the 1st Virginia volunteers, a regi- 
ment recruited almost exclusively from Ohio. He 
has held pastorates in Detroit, Mich., and East 
Hartford, Conn., and since 1883 has been professor 
of modern languages in Trinity college. He was 
editor of the " Church Weekly," is a frequent con- 
tributor to periodicals, and is the author of " Pat 
and the Council " (New York, 1870). 

McCORD, David James, lawyer, b. in Fort 
Motte, S. C, in January, 1797; d. in Columbia, 
S. C, 12 May, 1855. He was graduated at South 
Carolina college in 1816, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1818. From 1825 till 1827 he 
was state reporter, and in 1825 he was made in- 
tendant, or mayor, of Columbia, S. C. Between 
1828 and 1830 he travelled in Europe, and wit- 
nessed the revolution in Paris. He returned to 
Carolina during the nullification excitement, en- 
tered the legislature, and was active as an advocate 
of extreme state rights. For many years Mr. Mc- 
Cord was chairman of the important committee on 
Federal relations, and exerted himself efficiently 
for the improvement of the judiciary system. As 
a trustee of South Carolina college, he became in- 
timate with Dr. Thomas Cooper, of whom he left 
interesting reminiscences. In 1836 he retired from 
the bar, became president of the state bank in Co- 
lumbia, and aided in establishing the " South Caro- 
lina Law Journal," which was not long continued. 
In 1839 he was appointed compiler and editor of 
the " Statutes at Large of South Carolina," a 
work which had been begun by Dr. Thomas Cooper. 
After 1840 he devoted himself to agriculture as a 
cotton-planter, and contributed many papers upon 
political economy to the " Southern Review " and 
to '• De Bow's Review." He published " Reports 
of Cases determined in the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of South Carolina" (4 vols., 1821-8), and 
" Chancery Cases in the Court of Appeals of South 
Carolina "'(2 vols., Philadelphia, 1827-'9).— His wife, 
Louisa Susannah, poet, b. in Columbia, S. C, 3 
Dec, 1810 ; d. in Charleston, S. C, 27 Nov., 1880, 
was the daughter of Langdon Cheves, and was 
educated "in Philadelphia. In 1840 she married 
Mr. McCord, and settled on " Langsyne " planta- 
tion at Fort Motte, on Congaree river. She con- 
ducted the hospital on her plantation, attending 
to the negroes, and once set a fractured arm. Her 
publications are " Sophisms of the Protective 
Policy," a translation from the French of F. Bas- 
tiat (New York, 1848) ; a volume of poems en- 
titled '' My Dreams " (Philadelphia, 1848) ; " Caius 
Gracchus," a tragedy (New York, 1851) ; and nu- 
merous contributions to current literature. 

McCORD, (xeor^e Herbert, artist, b. in New 
York city, 1 Aug., 1848. He was a pupil of Moses 
Morse in 1866, and first exhibited in the Academy 
of design in 1868. In 1880 he was elected an asso- 
ciate, and in 1883 he received a silver medal at the 
Massachusetts charitable mechanics' institute ex- 
hibition, and in 1884 a bronze medal and diploma 
at the World's fair, New Orleans. During 1875-'8 
he travelled in New England, Canada, Florida, and 
the west, where he made many sketches. Mr. Mc- 
Cord is a memljer of the American water-color so- 
ciety, the Salmagundi club, and the Artists' fund 
society, of which last he was secretary during 1878- 

'80. His principal works are " Sunnyside, Home of 
Washington Irving " (1876) ; " Cave of the Winds, 
Niagara," and "Wintry Night, Fifth Avenue" 
(1878) ; " Near Biddeford, Maine," and " Napanock 
Mills " (1879) ; " Hunting Days " (1880) ; " Winter 
Evening on the Hudson " (1881) ; " Market Place, 
Montreal" (1882); "Vesper Hour" and "Where 
Swallows Skim " (1883) ; " Memory of June," " Ice 
Harvest," and " Cross-Road Bridge " (1884) ; " Old 
Mill-Race on Whippany River, New Jersey " (1885) ; 
and " Long Pond, New Hampshire " (188*6). 

McCORD, Jolin, Canadian pioneer, b. in Ar- 
magh, Ireland, in 1711 ; d. in Montreal, Canada, in 
1793. He was of Scotch-Irish descent, and among 
the first settlers in New France after the conquest. 
He was a strong advocate of the rights of the peo- 
ple, and was one of the leaders in the movement 
in 1773 to claim from Great Britain the fulfil- 
ment of its promise, made ten years before, to es- 
tablish in the province of Quebec a legislature 
similar to those in the other British colonies. He 
was chairman of the first meeting that was called 
for this purpose in Quebec. Mr. McCord opposed 
the measures that resulted in the Quebec act of 
1774, which gave much offence to the British colo- 
nies in America, and which was an important factor 
in the causes of the Revolution. — His grandson, 
John Samuel, Canadian jurist, b. near Dublin, Ire- 
land, 18 June, 1801 ; d. in Montreal, 28 June, 1865, 
came to Canada in 1806, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1823. He engaged in practice 
until the rebellion in 1837, when he entered the 
volunteer service, raised a cavalry corps, com- 
manded a brigade, and was for a time in command 
of the whole military force of Montreal. After 
the restoration of peace he was appointed com- 
missioner of public works, and also a commis- 
sioner for the abolition of the feudal system in 
Canada. On the reorganization of the courts by 
the special council, he became a district judge and 
judge of the court of requests, and afterward 
judge of the circuit court. On the reorganization 
of the judiciary in 1857 he was appointed a judge 
of the superior court. He was an ardent student 
of natural history and meteorology, wrote impor- 
tant articles on the latter science, and was one of 
the founders of the Montreal natural history so- 
ciety and of the Art association of that city. He 
was successively vice-chancellor and chancellor of 
the University of Bishop's college, Lennoxville, 
and aided in introducing synods into the Church 
of England in Canada. 

McCORKLE, Samuel Eusebius, clergyman, b. 
near Harris's Ferry, Lancaster co.. Pa., 23 Aug., 
1746; d. in North Carolina, 21 Jan., 1811. In 
1756 his family removed to Thyatira, N. C, and 
settled on the lands of the Earl of Granville. 
Samuel assisted his father in clearing and culti- 
vating the farm, and was afterward graduated at 
Princeton in 1772. He studied theology, was 
licensed by the presbytery of New York in 1774, 
and, after spending two years in Virginia, accepted 
a call from Thyatira, N. C. About 1785 he opened 
a classical school, which he called Zion-Parnassus, 
and which continued for ten or twelve years. In 
1792 he received the degree of D. D. from Dickin- 
son. Dr. McCorkle published sermons, "Dis- 
courses on the Terms of Christian Communion," 
and " Discourses on the great First Principles of 

I Deism and Revelation contrasted" (1797). 

! McCORMICK, Cyrus Hall, inventor, b. in 

j Walnut Grove, Va., 1*5 Feb., 1809 ; d. in Chicago, 
111., 13 May, 1884. He was educated at common 
schools, and then worked for his father on the 

I farm and in workshops. At the age of twenty- 




CH^ llx't^r-rnJo^ 

one he invented two new and valuable ploughs, but 
his chief invention was in 1831, when with his own 
hands he built the first practical reaping-machine 
that was ever made. As early as 1816 his father 
» ' had attempted to 

construct a reaper, 
but it was a total 
failure. The son 
worked in an entire- 
ly different chan- 
nel. He patented 
his reaper in 1834, 
and improvements 
on it in 1845-'7 and 
1858. In 1847 he 
removed to Chica- 
go, where he built 
large works for the 
construction of his 
inventions. Mr.Mc- 
Cormick was award- 
ed numerous prizes 
and medals for his 
reaper, and in 1878 
received for the third time, for his reaping and 
self-binding machine, a grand prize of the French 
exposition, and the rank of officer of the Legion of 
honor was conferred upon him. He was also, at 
that time, elected a corresponding member of the 
French academy of sciences, " as having done more 
for the cause of agriculture than any other living 
man." Reverdy Johnson said, in 1859 : " The Mc- 
Cormick reaper has already contributed an annual 
income to the whole country of $55,000,000 at least, 
which must increase through all time." About 
this time William H. Seward said : " Owing to Mr. 
McCormick's invention, the line of civilization 
moves westward thirty miles each year." In 1859 
Mr. McCormick gave |100,000 to found the Pres- 
byterian seminary of the northwest in Chicago, 
and he also endowed a professorship in Washing- 
ton and Lee university, Virginia. See " Memoir " 
(printed privately, Boston, 1884). 

McCORMICK, Richard Cunningham, author, 
b. in New York city, 23 May, 1832. He received a 
classical education and became a broker in 1850. 
In 1858-9 he edited the " Young Men's Magazine," 
and in 1860 entered the editorial department of 
the New York "Evening Post." He was a war- 
correspondent of several New York newspapers, 
and became chief clerk of the U. S. department of 
agriculture in 1862. He was secretary of Arizona 
territory in 1863-'6, and governor in 1866-'9, was 
elected a delegate to congress from that terri- 
tory for three consecutive terms, and served in 
1869-75. He established "The Arizona Miner" 
in 1864, and " The Arizona Citizen " in 1870, and 
was a delegate to the National Republican conven- 
tions of 1872, 1876, and 1880. He was a commis- 
sioner to the Centennial exhibition in 1871-'6, as- 
sistant secretary of the treasury in 1877-8, and 
commissioner-general to the Paris exposition in the 
latter year, was made a commander of the Legion 
of honor by the French government, and was tend- 
ered the mission to Mexico on his return, which 
he declined. He published a "Visit to the Camp 
before Sebastopol " (New York, 1855) ; " St. Paul's 
to St. Sophia" (1860); and "Arizona, its Re- 
sources " (1865). The reports of the U. S. commis- 
sioners to the Paris exposition (5 vols.) were pre- 
pared and published under his direction. 

McCOSH, James, educator, b. in Carskeoch, 
Ayrshire, Scotland, 1 April, 1811. He studied at 
the University of Glasgow from 1824 till 1829, and 
at that of Edinburgh from 1829 till 1834. In the 

latter institution he was a pupil of Dr. Thomas 
Chalmers. Having written an essay on the Stoic 
philosophy, the honorary degree of A.M. was con- 
ferred upon him on motion of Sir William Hamil- 
ton. He was ordained a minister of the Church of 
Scotland at Arbroath in 1835, but removed in 1839 
to Brechin, where he ministered to 1,400 commu- 
nicants. In 1843 he took an active part in the 
organization of the Free church of Scotland. 
While pastor at Brechin he published a work enti- 
tled " Method of the Divine Government, Physical 
and Moral" (Edinburgh, 1850; 5th ed., revised, 
London, 1856), in which he endeavors to interro- 
gate nature by the inductive method, inquiring 
what is the method of the divine government, 
primarily in the physical world, and secondarily in 
providence as related to the character of man and 
tending to his restoration. This work discusses 
the laws of substance and phenomenon and of 
cause and effect in physical nature and in the hu- 
man mind. He subsequently continued the argu- 
ment in "The Supernatural in Relation to the 
Natural " (Belfast, 1862), which was intended as the 
first part of a work cm " The Method of the Divine 
Government, Supernatural and Spiritual." The 
publication of the " Method " attracted public at- 
tention to its author both in Great Britain and the 
United States. Some one having sent a copy of it 
to Earl Clarendon, then lord-lieutenant of Ire- 
land, that nobleman began to read it before divine 
service on a Sabbath morning, and became so in- 
terested in it that he forgot to attend church. He 
immediately afterward appointed Mr. McCosh pro- 
fessor of logic and metaphysics in Queen's college, 
Belfast. Here he remained for sixteen years, draw- 
ing to the institution a large body of students, and 
taking a deep interest in defending the national 
system of education in Ireland. While there he 
wrote his " Intuitions of the Mind Inductively In- 
vestigated " (London, 1860), which established his 
reputation as a meta- 
physical writer. It ^,. ^ 
explains what intui- 
tions properly are, 
which of them are 
moral convictions, 
and how they are 
related to the sci- 
ences, particularly 
to metaphysics and 
theology. In 1868 
he removed to the 
United States, hav- 
ing been elected 
president of the Col- 
lege of New Jersey, 
at Princeton, where 
his administration ^ 
has been remarkably /, /. ^f /f 
successful. The staff JCinnUA VlArX^LjJn^ 
of professors has 

been increased from seventeen to forty-one, and 
the average attendance of students from 264 to 
603. Having been thus successful in his adminis- 
tration, and desiring to be relieved on account of 
advancing years. Dr. McCosh offered his resigna- 
tion in November, 1887, which took effect in June, 
1888. He was voted a salary as president emeri- 
tus, and retained the chair of philosophy. He re- 
ceived the degree of IjL. D. from Aberdeen in 
1850, and from Harvard in 1868, while Queen's 
university, Ireland, has given him that of D. Lit. 
Dr. McCosh has been a voluminous writer, and be- 
sides the works already mentioned, and many im- 
portant addresses and contributions to various pe- 




riodicals, he has published " Typical Forms and 
Special Ends in Creation," with Dr. George Dickie 
(Edinburgh, 1855) ; "Examination of Mill's Philoso- 
phy, being a Defence of Fundamental Truth " (New 
York, 1866) ; " Laws of Discursive Thought, being 
a Treatise on Formal Logic " (New York, 1869) ; 
" Christianity and Positivism " (1871) ; " The Scot- 
tish Philosophy, Biographical, Expository, Critical, 
from Hutcheson to Hamilton " (1874) ; "A Reply 
to Prof. Tyndall's Belfast Address " (1875) ; " The 
Development Hypothesis " (1876) ; and " The Emo- 
tions " (1880). He completed in 1886 the " Philo- 
sophical Series " which he had begun in 1882, and 
which includes " Criteria of Divers Kinds of Truth 
as opposed to Agnosticism " (1882) ; " Energy, Effi- 
cient and Final Cause," " Development : What it 
Can Do and What it Cannot Do," and " Certitude, 
Providence, and Prayer " (1883) ; '• Locke's Theory 
of Knowledge, with Notice of Berkeley," " Agnos- 
ticism of Hume and Huxley, with Notice of the 
Scottish School," and " Criticism of the Critical 
Philosopliy" (1884); "Herbert Spencers Philoso- 
phy as Culminating in his Ethics " and " The New 
Departure in College Education " (1885) ; and " Psy- 
chology, the Cognitive Powers" (1886). In 1887 
Dr. McCosh combined the philosophic series in 
•' Realistic Philosophy " (2 vols.) and " Psychology 
of the Motive Powers," his aim being to formulate 
an American philosophy of realism. 

McCOSKRY, Samuel Allen, P. E. bishop, b. 
in Carlisle, Pa., 9 Nov., 1804: d. in New York city, 
1 Aug., 1886. lie entered the U. S. military acade- 
my in 1820, but after two years resigned and en- 
tered Dickinson college, where he was graduated 
in 1825. He then studied law, was admitted to 
the bar, and practised for six years in his native 
place. In 1831 he began the study of theology 
preparatory to orders in the Protestant Episcopal 
church. He was ordained deacon in Christ 
church, Reading, Pa., 28 March, 1833, by Bishop 
Heiu-y V. Onderdonk, and priest, in the same 
church, 13 Dec, 1833, by the same bishop. A 
year later he accepted the rectorship of St. Paul's 
church, Phihidelphia, where he remained for two 
years. He was tlien elected to be the first bishop 
of Michigan, and was consecrated in St. Paul's 
church, Philadelphia, 7 July, 1836. He took up his 
residence in Detroit, Mich., became rector of St. 
Paul's church in that city, and held the post for 
twenty-seven years. He received the degree of D. D. 
from Columbia and from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1837, and the degree of D. C. L. from the 
University of Oxford, England, in 1852. Bishop 
McCoskry resigned his jurisdiction in March, 1878, 
on the plea of feeble health and the infirmities of 
age, and asked the bishops to release him. Soon 
afterward grave allegations touching his moral 
chai'acter became public ; whereupon he abandoned 
his diocese and left the United States, thus pre- 
venting any investigation of the charges against 
him. The house of bishops, under the circum- 
stances, acting as a court, at a meeting held in 
New York city, 3 Dec, 1878, deeming his course 
an acknowledgment of his guilt, formally deposed 
him from the sacred ministry and all the functions 
thereof. See " Journal of Greneral Convention of 
the Pn^testant Episcopal Church for 1880." 

McCOWN, John Porter, soldier, b. in Tennes- 
see about 1820. He was graduated at the U. S. 
military academy in 1840, and appointed 2d lieu- 
tenant in the 4th artillery. He became 1st lieu- 
tenant, 30 Sept., 1843, was regimental quarter- 
master in 1847-'8, and was brevetted captain for 
bravery at Cerro Gordo, 18 April, 1847. He re- 
signed" from the U. S. army, 17 May, 1861, and, 

entering the Confederate service, became a briga- 
dier-general. He commanded at New Madrid, 
Mo., in March, 1862, but evacuated that town af- 
ter its investment by Gen. Pope. 

McCOY, Isaac, clergyman, b. in Fayette county, 
Pa., 13 June, 1784 ; d. in Louisville, Ky., 21 June, 
1846. In 1790 he removed with his father to 
Shelby county, Ky., and received a limited educa- 
tion. He went to Vincennes, Ind., in 1804, in 
1805 to Clark county in that state, and in that 
year was licensed to preach as a Baptist. On 13 
Oct., 1810, he was ordained pastor of the church at 
Maria Creek, Clark co., Ind., where he remained 
eight years, making, meantime, occasional mis- 
sionary tours in the surrounding country. In 1817 
he was appointed a missionary, and labored in the 
western states and territories. In 1842 he became 
the first corresponding secretary and general agent 
of the American Indian mission association at 
Louisville, Ky, He published " History of Baptist 
Indian Missions " (Washington, D. C, 1840). 

McCRAE, William, Canadian senator, b. in 
Burritt's Rapids, Ontario, 10 Nov., 1810. He stud- 
ied law and became a barrister in 1850, was mayor 
of Chatham, Ontario, in 1859, member of the legis- 
lative council in 1862, and Dominion senator in 
1867. He was appointed district judge of Algoma 
in 1870, and revising-officer in 1885. 

McCRARY, George Wasliington, statesman, 
b. in Evansville, Ind., 29 Aug., 1835. In 1836 he 
was taken by his parents to that part of Wisconsin 
territory that afterward became the state of Iowa. 
He was educated in a public school and in an 
academy, and studied law in Keokuk, Iowa, where 
he was admitted to the bar in 1856. He was elect- 
ed to the legislature in 1857, and served in the state 
senate from 1861 till 1865, being chairman of the 
committee on military affairs. In 1868 he was 
elected to congress as a Republican, and served by 
successive re-elections until 3 March. 1877. On 7 
Dec, 1876, Mr. McCrary introduced into congress 
the bill that was the first step in the legislation for 
creating the electoral commission. He was one of 
the first to support the Republican position in the 
Florida case, and spoke before the commission 
against the right of congress to go behind the re- 
turns. When President Hayes formed his cabinet, 
Mr. MeCrary was chosen secretary of war, 12 
March, 1877, but resigned in order to accept a 
judgeship of the U. S. circuit court, to which he 
was appointed in December, 1879. He also re- 
signed this office in March, 1884, and removed 
from Keokuk, Iowa, to Kansas City, Mo., where he 
has since practised law, and is general consulting 
counsel of the Atchison, Topela, and Santa Fe 
railroad company. He is the author of " The 
American Law of Elections " (Chicago, 1875). 

McCREA, Jane, b. in Bedminster (now Lam- 
ington), N. J., in 1753 ; d. near Fort Edward, N. Y., 
27 July, 1777. She was the second daughter of 
Rev. James McCrea, a Presbyterian clergyman of 
Scotch descent, whose father, William, was an elder 
in White Clay Creek church, near Newark, Del. 
After his death she made her home with a brother 
at Fort Edward. No event, either in ancient or 
modern warfare, has received more versions than 
that of her death. It has been commemorated in 
story and in song, and narrated in grave histories 
in as many different ways as there have been writ- 
ers on the subject. The facts appear to be as fol- 
lows : David Jones, her lover, an officer in Bur- 
goyne's army, then lying four miles from Fort Ed- 
ward, sent a party of Indians under Duluth, a half- 
breed, to escort his betrothed to the British camp, 
where they were to be at once married by Chaplain 




Brndenell, Lady Harriet and Madame Riedesel 
having good-naturedly consented to grace the nup- 
tials by their presence. Duluth, having arrived 
within a. quarter of a mile of the house of a Mrs, 
McNeil (where J^ne was waiting), halted in the 
woods until he sh6uld be joined by her by precon- 
certed arrangement. Meanwhile another body of 
Indians from the English camp, under Le Loup, a 
fierce Wyandotte^ chief, returning from a maraud- 
ing expedition, drove in a scout of Americans, and 
stopping on their return at Mrs. McNeil's, took her 
and Jane captive, with the intention of bringing 
them into the British camp. On their way back 
they encountered Duluth's party, when the half- 
breed claimed Jane as being under his protection. 
Le Loup being unwilling to deliver his prisoner — 
wishing the honor of being her escort — high words 
ensued between the two leaders, when Le Loup, en- 
raged at being opposed, in a fit of violent passion 
shot her through the heart. Then, having scalped 
his victim, he carried the reeking scalp into the 
British camp, where it was immediately recognized 
by its long and beautiful hair by Mrs. McNeil, 
who, having been separated from Jane before the 
catastrophe, had arrived at Burgoyne's head- 
quarters a little in advance. The next day her 
mangled body was conveyed by her brother. Col. 
John McCrea, to the camp-ground of the fort, and 
there buried. On 23 April, 1822, the remains were 
removed to the burial-ground at the lower end of 
the village of Fort Edward, and in 1852 they were 
Again removed to the Union cemetery, between 
Fort Edward and Sandy Hill, where they now lie. 
Miss McCrea is described by those who knew her 
personally as a young woman of rare accomplish- 
ments, great personal attractions, and remarkable 
sweetness of disposition. She was of medium 
stature, finely formed, and of a delicate blonde com- 
plexion. Her hair was of a golden-brown and 
silken lustre, and, when unbound, trailed upon the 
ground. Her father was devoted to literary pur- 
suits, and she had acquired a taste for reading un- 
usual in one of her age in those early times. Her 
tragic death was to the people of New York what 
the battle of Lexington was to the New England 
colonies. In each case the effect was to consolidate 
the inhabitants more firmly against the invaders. 
The blood of the unfortunate maiden was not shed 
in vain. As has been justly said, her name was 
passed as a note of alarm along the banks of the 
Hudson, and was a rallying-cry among the Green 
mountains of Vermont. It thus contributed in 
no slight degree to Burgoyne's defeat, which be- 
came a precursor and principal cause of American 
independence. Descendants of the McCrea family 
are still living at Ballston and in other parts of 
the state of New York. 

McCREERY, Thomas Clay, senator, b. in Ken- 
tucky in 1817 ; d. in Owensboro', 10 July, 1890. He 
studied law, was a presidential elector iii 1852 and a 
visitor of the U. S. military academy in 1858, and 
in 1868 was elected a U. S. senator in the place of 
James Guthrie, who had resigned, and served from 
27 Feb., 18G8, till 3 March, 1871. He was again 
elected in the place of Willis B. Machen, and served 
from 4 March, 1873, till 3 March, 1879. 

McCULLAGH, John, missionary, b. in Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, in 1811. When a member of the 
church of Rev. Thomas Chalmers, in Glasgow, he 
organized Sunday-schools among the fishermen 
and coal-miners of Scotland, and subsequently 
among the Roman Catholics of Connaught, Ire- 
land. In 1834 he emigrated to the United States, 
connected himself with the American Sunday- 
school union as a volunteer, and labored at first 

<^C^ hv^^uL-e^^yo-^c.^ 

among the so-called "bark-peelers" of Sullivan 
county, New York, then in southern Illinois, and 
after 1839 in Henderson, Ky. In 1840 he entered 
regularly into the service of the Sunday-school 
union, and during the next twelve years he organ- 
ized schools in seventy-five counties of Kentucky. 
In 1852 he was relieved of active missionary work, 
and made superintendent of missions in the south, 
which post he resigned in 1884. 

McCULLOCH, Ben, soldier, b. in Rutherford 
county, Tenn., 11 Nov., 1811; d. near Pea Ridge, 
Ark., 7 March, 1862. He was a son of Lieut. Alex- 
ander McCuUoch, who fought under Gen. Andrew 
Jackson in the 
Creek war. His ed- 
ucation was slight, 
but travel and ex- 
tensive reading 
supplied the lack 
of early study. 
Leaving' school at 
the age of four- 
teen, he became an 
expert hunter and 
boatman. In 1835, 
when about to join 
a party of trappers 
on a trip to the 
Rocky mountains, 
he heard of the ex- 
pedition of his 
neighbor, David 
Crockett, and other friends, in aid of the Texan 
revolutionists, and hastened to unite witli them, 
but arrived too late at Nacogdoches, the place of 
meeting, and started alone for Brazos river, where 
he was taken ill, and did not recover until after 
the fall of the Alamo. When health returned, he 
joined Gen. Samuel Houston's army, and did good 
service at San Jacinto, in command of a gun. 
After the army was disbanded he settled in Gon- 
zales, where he engaged in surveying and locating 
lands on the frontier, and was elected to the con- 
gress of Texas in 1839. In 1840-1 he was engaged 
in repelling Indian raids, notably at the sanguinary 
fight at Plum creek. He subsequently had many 
encounters with Comanches and other Indian 
tribes, and with Mexican raiders. When Texas 
was admitted to the Union, 29 Dec, 1845, he w^as 
elected to the first legislature, and w^as appointed 
major-general of the state militia for the western 
district, comprising the entire region west of the 
Colorado river. At the beginning of the Mexican 
war he raised a picked company of Texas rangers, 
who provided their own horses and arms. His ser- 
vices as a scout were highly valued by Gen. Zach- 
ary Taylor, and at Monterey his company, which 
was sent forward to feel the strength and position 
of the Mexican forces, opened the fight. He was 
made quartermaster, with the rank of major, 16 
July, 1846, led his scouts on a daring reconnois- 
sance at Buena Vista, and fought with bravery 
throughout the day. He was afterward attached 
to the army of Gen. Winfield Scott, resigned his 
staff appointment on 6 Sept., 1847, and with his 
company of spies performed useful services at the 
taking of the city of Mexico. In 1849 he went 
to California, settled at Sacramento, and was 
elected sheriff of the county. He returned to 
Texas in 1852, and in the following year was ap- 
pointed by President Pierce U. S. marshal, in which 
office he 'was continued by President Buchanan. 
He spent much tinae in Washington, where he in- 
terested himself iif studying improvements in ord- 
nance and small arms. In 1857 he was appointed. 




with Lazarus W. Powell, a commissioner to adjust 
difficulties with the Mormons of Utah, and, after 
the despatch of troops to that country, was com- 
missioned to report on the condition of Arizona. 
In 1861 he was in Washington, engaged on his 
final reports, and when he had concluded his busi- 
ness with the government he hastened back to 
Texas, and was appointed to raise a temporary 
force to take possession of the U. S. arsenal at 
San Antonio and other posts. After declining the 
command of a regiment, he was commissioned 
brigadier-general in the Confederate service on 14 
May, 1861, and ordered to take command of In- 
dian territory. lie reached Port Smith, Ark., 
about the end of May, organized an army in haste, 
and marched to the succor of Gov. Claiborne Jack- 
son, of Missouri. Forming a junction with Gen. 
Sterling Price's Missouri state guards, he encoun- 
tered the troops of Gens. Nathaniel Lyon and 
Franz Sigel in the battle of Wilson's Creek, other- 
wise called Oak Hills. After the defeat of the Na- 
tional forces, McCuUoch, having no orders to en- 
ter Missouri, refused to pursue them, and surren- 
dered the command to Gen. Price. He took part 
in Gen. Earl Van Dorn's ineffectual attempt to sur- 
round Gen. Sigcl's force at Bentonville. At the 
battle of Pea Ridge, or Elkhorn, he commanded a 
corps of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas troops, 
and, while riding forward to reconnoitre, was killed 
by the bullet of a sharp-shooter. Gen. James Mc- 
intosh, the second in command, fell almost simul- 
taneously, and the Confederates, left without a 
leader, soon fled in disorder. See " Scouting Ex- 
l)editions of McCulloch's Rangers," by Samuel C. 
Reid (Philadelphia, 1850), and " Life and Ser- 
vices of Gen. Bon ^IcCuUoch," by Victor M. Rose. 
McCULLOCH, Hui^h, secretary of the treasury, 
b. in Kennebunk, ]Me., 7 Dec, 1808. He entered 
Bowdoin in 1824, but leaving, on account of ill- 
ness, in 1826, taught until 1829, and then studied 
law in Kennebunk and Boston. In 1883 he went 

to the west, and 
settled in Fort 
Wayne, Ind. In 
1835 he was elect- 
ed cashier and 
manager of the 
branch at Fort 
Wayne of the 
State bank of In- 
diana, and at the 
expiration of its 
charter in 185G 
he became the 
president of the 
Bank of the state 
of Indiana, which 
post he held un- 
til ]\Iay, 1863. 
He then resigned 
to accept the office of comptroller of the currency, 
which was tendered to him by Sec. Salmon P. Chase! 
undertaking the organization of the newlv created 
bureau and the putting into ojK'mtion of tlic^ nation- 
al banking system. His own reputation for conserv- 
atism influenced the managers of the large state 
banks, and promoted the conversion of the leading 
ci-edit institutions of the commercial cities into na- 
tional banks. In :\larch, 1865, on the resignation of 
William P. Fessenden, Mr. McCuUoch was appoint- 
ed l)y President Lincoln secretary of the treasury, 
at which time the government was in great finan- 
cial emljarrassment. It was still incurring enor- 
mous expenses, and heavy demands were pressing 
upon a nearly empty treasury. His first and most 

important duty, therefore, was to raise by further 
loans what was needed to pay the large amount 
due to 500,000 soldiers and sailors, whose services 
the government was in a condition to dispense 
with, and meet other demands. This was success- 
fully accomplished, and in less than six months 
from the time of his appointment all the matured 
obligations of the government were paid, and the 
reduction of the debt was begun. The next most 
important work was the conversion of more than 
$1,000,000,000 of short-time obligations into a 
funded debt. This was quietly effected, and in a 
little more than two years the whole debt of the 
country was put into a satisfactory shape. In his 
annual reports he advocated a steady reduction of 
the national debt, the retirement of the legal-tend- 
er notes, and a speedy return to specie payments, 
urging that a permanent public debt might be 
dangerous to Republican institutions. He believed, 
also, that it was not the business of the govern- 
ment to furnish the people with a paper currency, 
that it had no power under the constitution to 
make its own notes lawful money, and that the 
paper currency of the country should be fur- 
nished by the banks. His views upon the sub- 
ject of the debt were sustained by congress, as 
were also for a short time those in regard to the 
legal-tender notes. Sec. McCuUoch held office till 
4 March, 1869. Prom 1871 till 1878 he was en- 
gaged in banking in London. In October, 1884, 
on the resignation of Walter Q. Gresham, he was 
again appointed secretary of the treasury, and 
continued in office until the expiration of Presi- 
dent Arthur's term, 4 March, 1885, being the only 
man that has held that office twice. SinCe his re- 
tirement he has resided in Washington, D. C, and 
on his farm in Maryland. Mr. McCuUoch has con- 
tributed articles on financial and economical ques- 
tions to the magazines and public journals. A 
series of letters written by him in London for the 
New York " Tribune " in 1875 were extensively 
copied, and were used by the Republicans in Ohio 
in 1875 for political purposes. 

McCULLOH, James Haines, author, b. in 
Maryland about 1793. He was educated as a phy- 
sician, receiving his degree from the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1814, but devoted himself mainly 
to archaeological studies, after serving as garrison 
surgeon until the close of the war of 1812-'15. He 
became curator of the Maryland academy of science 
and vice-president of the Baltimore apprentices' 
library in 1822. In 1836 he succeeded his father, 
James II. McCuUoh, as collector of the port of Bal- 
timore. He was also president of the National bank 
of Baltimore, but declined a re-election in 1853. 
He published " Researches on America, being an 
Attempt to settle some Points relative to the 
Aborigines of America" (Baltimore, 1816); "Re- 
searches, Philosophical and Antiquarian, concern- 
ing the Aboriginal History of America" (1829); 
"Analytical Investigations concerning the Credi- 
bility of the Scriptures and of the Religious Sys- 
tem Inculcated in them, together with aHistorical 
Exhibition of Human Conduct during the several 
Dispensations under which Mankind have been 
placed by their Creator " (1852) ; " An Important 
Exposition of the Evidences and Doctrines of the 
Christian Religion, addressed to the Better Edu- 
cated Classes of Society " (1856) ; and " On the 
Credibility of the Scriptures, a Recast and En- 
larged View of a Former Work on the Subject, 
together with a Copious Analysis of the Systems 
promulgated during the Patriarchal, Jewish, and 
Christian Dispensations, and of Human Develop- 
ments under them " (1867). 




McCULLOUGH, John Edward, actor, b. in 
Coleraine, Ireland, 2 Nov., 1837 ; d. in Philadelphia, 
Pa., 8 Nov., 1885. His parents, who were small 
farmers, brought him to this country in 1853 and 
settled in Philadelphia, where the lad was appren- 
ticed to learn th^xrade of a chair-maker. In 1855 
McCullough md^e his first appearance in a minor 
character in " Trie Belle's Stratagem," at the Arch 
street theatre in Philadelphia, and soon afterward 
chose the stage as a regular profession. For several 
years he acted in small parts in Boston, Philadel- 
phia, and other cities. From 1866 until 1868 Mc- 
Cullough travelled with Edwin Forrest, filling the 
second parts in the latter's plays. In 1869, and for 
some years afterward, in connection with Lawrence 
Barrett, he managed the Bush street theatre in San 
Francisco, where his forcible, robust style of acting 
had many admirers. In 1872, when Forrest died, 
that actor left his manuscript plays in McCuUough's 
possession, looking upon him as his legitimate suc- 
cessor. From 1873 until 1883 the tragedian played, 
■with more or less success, throughout the United 
States, in the heroic roles of John Howard Payne's 
" Brutus," " Jack Cade," ^' The Gladiator," " Vir- 
ginius," and " Damon and Pythias," with occasion- 
al performances of " Othello," " Coriolanus," and 
" King Lear."' In 1884 he became prostrated, both 
mentally and physically, but rallied for a time 
and filled an engagement in Milwaukee. Thence 
he went to Chicago, where his managers induced 
him to play in " The Gladiator," but he broke down, 
and was led from the stage in the midst of his per- 
formance. He ended his days in a lunatic asylum. 
In 1881 McCullough appeared in London in a round 
of his favorite parts, but made no marked im- 
pression on English audiences. His shortcomings 
were a lack of originality and deficiency in liter- 
ary culture. He was inferior to his model, Forrest, 
in natural endowments, and when he appeared in 
the parts that distinguished his master he dis- 
played all his defects, and too closely rendered the 
faulty readings that were based on the Judgment 
of his predecessor. Unlike him, however, he en- 
riched the stage with no new dramas, and created 
no original characters. 

McCULLY, Jonathan, Canadian jurist, b. in 
Amherst, Nova Scotia, 28 July, 1809 : d. in Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, 2 Jan., 1877. He was admitted to the 
bar in 1837, established himself in practice at Hali- 
fax in 1849, and in 1860 wa§ appointed solicitor- 
general of the province. Pie was a frequent writer 
in the press of Halifax and an earnest advocate of 
colonial union, and was a delegate to the confer- 
ences on the Intercolonial railroad and the con- 
federation of the provinces at Quebec in 1861 and 
1862. He was an active member of the legislative 
council from 1847 till 1867, and served as chairman 
of the board of railways. In 1867 he entered the 
Dominion senate, but "resigned in 1870, being ap- 
pointed judge of the supreme court of Nova Scotia. 

McCURDY, Charles Johnson, jurist, b. in 
Lyme, Conn., 7 Dec, 1797. He was graduated at 
Yale in 1817, studied law with Zephaniah Swift, 
became eminent as a counsellor, and was for many 
years a member of either the upper or lower house 
of the legislature, and for three sessions speaker. 
He was lieutenant-governor in 1847-'8, and origi- 
nated the law allowing parties to testify in their 
own suits. He was charge d'affaires at Vienna from 
1850 till 1852. He was appointed a judge of the 
superior court of Connecticut in 1856, and was sub- 
sequently a judge on the supreme court bench un- 
til his retirement in 1867. Judge McCurdy was an 
active member of the peace congress in 1861. He 
was given the degree of LL. D. by Yale in 1868. 

McCURDY, James Frederick, orientalist, b. 
in Chatham, New Brunswick, 18 Feb., 1847. He 
was graduated at the University of New Brunswick 
in 1866, and in 1871 at Princeton theological semi- 
nary, where he was instructor in oriental languages 
in 1873-'82. After studying in Gottingen and Leip- 
sic in 1882-'4, he lectured on the Stone foundation 
in Princeton in 1885-'6, and in the latter year be- 
came professor of oriental languages in University 
college, Toronto, Canada. In the Lange-Schaff 
commentary on the Bible he translated and edited 
the Psalms, part ii., and the Book of Hosea, and 
wrote the commentary on Haggai (New York, 
1872-3), and he has published " Aryo-Semitic 
Speech " (Andover and London, 1881) ; and a paper 
on " The Semitic Prefect in Assyria " in the " Trans- 
actions of the Congress of Orientalists" (Leyden, 
1883) ; and is preparing for publication (1887) his 
Princeton lectures on " The Assyrian Inscriptions 
and the Old Testament." 

McBANIEL, Edward Davies, physician, b. in 
Chester district, S. C, 7 July, 1822. He was gradu- 
ated at Erskine college, S. C., in 1844, and began 
the study of medicine, but relinquished it to be- 
come principal of the academy at Pine Grove, S. C, 
in 1845. After teaching for ten years, he was 
graduated in 1857 at the Medical college of South 
Carolina, and settled at Camden, Ala. In 1887 
he became professor of materia medica and thera- 
peutics in the Medical college of Alabama at Mo- 
bile. He was chosen president of the Alabama 
state medical society in 1876. Dr. McDaniel is the 
inventor of a new method of artificial respiration, 
and has advanced the theory that urinification and 
digestion are dependent on respiration. He is the 
author of a report on haemorrhagic malarial fever in 
Alabama (1874) and of various professional papers. 

McDANIEL, Henry Dickerson, governor of 
Georgia, b. in Monroe, Walton co., Ga., 4 Sept., 
1837. He was graduated at Mercer university, 
where his father, Ira 0., was a professor, in 1856, 
studied law, and practised in Monroe. He was the 
youngest member of the Georgia secession conven- 
tion in. 1861, and at first opposed disunion, but 
finally voted for the measure. He joined the Con- 
federate army as a lieutenant, rose to the rank of 
major in 1862. commanded a brigade at Gettysburg, , 
was severely wounded at Hagerstown in the retreat 
from Gettysburg, and was in the hospital at Ches- 
ter, Pa., and subsequently a prisoner at Johnson's 
island, Ohio, until the close of hostilities. He re- 
sumed practice at Monroe, Ga., in 1865, and was a 
member of the State constitutional convention in 
that year. On the removal of his civil disabilities 
in 1872 he was elected to the legislature, and, as 
chairman of the finance committee of the house, 
proposed a law for the taxation of railroads that 
has been followed in other states. After the adop- 
tion of the constitution of 1877, as chairman of the 
judiciary committee, he had charge of the legisla- 
tion that was made necessary by constitutional 
changes. On the death of Gov. Alexander H. 
Stephens he was elected governor, 24 April, 1883, 
for the unexpired term, and in 1884 was re-elected 
without opposition for the succeeding term, which 
ended in November, 1886. 

McDILL, Alexander Stuart, physician, b. in 
Crawford county, Pa., 18 March, 1822; d. near 
Madison, Wis., 12 Nov., 1875. He was educated 
at Alleghany college and Cleveland medical col- 
lege, where he was graduated in 1848, and engaged 
in general practice in Pennsylvania till 1856, when 
he removed to Plover, Portage co.. Wis. He was 
elected to the state house of representatives in 
1861, and to the senate in 1863, was a presidential 




elector in 1864, and a member of the board of 
managers of the State hospital for the insane from 
1862 till 1868, when he was chosen medical super- 
intendent of that institution. When elected as a 
Republican to congress he resigned that post, and 
took his seat on 1 Dec, 1873. He was defeated at 
the next election by an Independent Reform can- 
didate, and when his term ended, 4 March, 1875, 
resumed charge of the Madison insane hospital. 

McDILL, James Wilson, senator, b. in Monroe, 
Butler CO., Ohio, 4 March, 1834. His father. Rev. 
John McDill, was a clergyman, of Scottish extrac- 
tion. The son was brought up in Indiana and 
Ohio, graduated at Miami university in 1855, and 
admitted to the bar^in Columbus, Ohio, in 1856. 
In that year he removed to Burlington, Iowa, and 
in 1857 to Alton, Union co., where he practised 
his profession. He was chosen judge of Union 
county in 1860, and in 1861-5 was a clerk in the 
treasury department at Washington. He became 
a circuit judge in lov/a in 1868, a district judge in 
1870, and in 1872 was elected to congress as a Re- 
publican, serving till 1877. He was appointed one 
of the first board of railroad commissioners of 
Iowa in 1878, and served till 1881, when he was 
appointed to the U. S. senate, on the resignation of 
Samuel J. Kirkwood to become secretary of the 
interior. The succeeding legislature elected him 
to the seat, and he served till 1883. In 1884 he 
was again api)ointcd railroad commissioner. 

McDONAlil), Alexander, senator, b. in Clinton 
county. Pa., 10 April, 1832. He was educated at 
Levvisburg university, and emigrated to Kansas in 
1857, where lie engaged in mercantile pursuits. 
During the civil war he took an active part in rais- 
ing troops for the National army, and for a time 
su})ported three regiments. He settled in Arkansas 
as a merchant in 1863. established and became 
president of a national bank at Fort Smith, and 
was also president of the Merchants' national bank 
of Little Rock. On the readmission of Arkansas 
into the Union, he was elected U. S. senator as a 
Republican, serving from 23 June, 1868, till 3 
March. 1871. He was a delegate to the Chicago 
Repu))li('jin C(^nvention in 1868. 

MACDONALl), Andrew Archibald, Canadian 
statesman, b. in Three Rivers, Prince Edward isl- 
and, 14 Feb., 1829. His grandfather, Andrew, emi- 
grated from Scotland with his retainers in 1806, and 
settled at Three Rivers. The grandson was edu- 
cated privately and at the county grammar-school. 
He was consular agent for the United States at 
Three Rivers from 1849 till 1870, and represented 
Georgetown in the house of assembly from 1854 
till 1870. When the legislative council became 
elective in 1863, Mr. Macdonald was elected to it 
for the 2d district of King's county, re-elected 
in 1867, and remained a member of that body till 
June, 1873, when he was ap{)ointed postmaster- 
general of the province. He was a delegate to the 
Charlottetown conference on the union of the 
lower provinces in 1864, and in September of that 
year to the Quebec union conference, which ar- 
ranged the basis of the union of all the British 
North American colonies, and he was also a dele- 
gate to the International convention at Portland, 
Me., in 1868. He was a member of the executive 
council from 1867 till 1872, and again from 18 
April, 1872, until confederation, and" was leader of 
the government party in the legislative council for 
several years. He was first elected as a Liberal, 
but when the Conservative section of the party 
joined the Liberal branch of the Conservative 
party he united with them in perfecting the free 
education, land-purchase, railway, and confedera- 

tion acts. He was appointed lieutenant-governor 
of Prince Edward island, 1 Aug., 1884, which 
office he now (1888) fills. 

McDonald, Charles James, jurist, b. in 
Charleston, S. C, 9 July, 1793; d. in Marietta, 
Ga., 16 Dec, 1860. He was brought up in Hancock 
county, Ga., was graduated at the College of South 
Carolina in 1816, admitted to the bar in 1817, and, 
settling in Milledgeville, was solicitor-general in 
1822, and a judge of the circuit court in 1825. He 
was in the legislature in 1834, a member of the 
state senate in 1837, and was elected governor of 
Georgia in 1839, and re-elected in 1841. The be- 
ginning of his administration found the govern- 
ment in a state of much financial embarrassment, 
owing to the panic of 1837, and to the legislative 
act of that year authorizing the counties to retain 
the general tax to be applied by the inferior courts 
to county purposes. He recommended a resump- 
tion of the entire amount of state taxes, vetoed 
the bill that had passed the legislature reducing 
the taxes one per cent., and on his own authority' 
suspended all payments from the treasury, except 
upon appropriations actually made and warrants 
legally drawn thereon. This extreme measure 
enabled him to pay the ordinary expenses of the 
government and the interest on the public debt. 
He was defeated as Democratic candidate for gov- 
ernor by Howell Cobb in 1850, and the same year 
was a member of the Nashville convention, as a 
representative of the extreme state-rights party. 
From 1857 until his death he was a judge of the 
supreme court of Georgia. Gov. McDonald was a 
man of great probity and influence. 

McDonald, Daniel, Canadian clergyman, b. 
in St. Andrew's, Prince Edward island, 19 Feb., 
1822 ; d. in Charlottetown, 4 Jan., 1885. He entered 
St. Andrew's college in 1841, and after a three 
years' course of study went to Rome, where he 
spent the succeeding seven years in the study of 
rhetoric, philosophy, history, canon law, and the- 
ology. He received the degree of D. D., was or- 
dained at Rome in 1851, and in 1857 returned to 
Prince Edward island. In 1861 Dr. McDonald was 
appointed vicar-general and senior priest of St. 
Dunstan's cathedral. In 1878 he became a pro- 
fessor in St. Dunstan's college, and subsequent- 
ly engaged in missionary labor. He was widely 
known for his abilitv as a public speaker. 

MACDONALD, Donald, loyalist, b. in Scotland 
in 1712; d. in London after 1784. He raised a 
body of loyal Scots and Regulators in January, 
1776, was commissioned as their general by Gov. 
Josiah Martin, and marched upon Wilmington. 
The militia were called out in haste, and routed 
the loyalists at Moore's Creek. Gen. Macdonald 
was among the prisoners captured, and was con- 
fined in Flalifax jail, and afterward in Philadel- 
phia, until he was exchanged. 

McDonald, Donald, Canadian senator, b. in 
Caledonia, N. Y., in 1816 ; d. in Toronto, Canada, 
21 Jan., 1879. His father, Alexander McDonald, 
a native of Inverness-shire, Scotland, early in the 
19th century settled in New York state, whence he 
removed to Canada with his family in 1823. His 
son received his education chiefly in Upper Canada 
college, and afterward followed for many years the 
profession of a surveyor and civil engineer, in 
which capacity he identified himself with the de- 
velopment of the western part of Upper Canada. 
Many of the early standard maps of the Huron and 
neighboring districts were drawn by him or under 
his supervision. Mr. McDonald was elected by the 
Liberal party to the legislative council of Canada 
in 1858, and held that post till the confederation 




of the provinces in 1867. In May of that year he 
was called to the senate of the Dominion. While 
in the legislative council he had been interested in 
the formation of " the separate school system." He 
was for several ye^rsa trustee of Queen's university. 
McDONALDy Flora, Scottish heroine, b. in 
Milton, island (of South Uist, Hebrides, in 1720; d. 
there, 4 Marchi 1790. She was the daughter of 
Ronald McDonald, of Milton who belonged to 

the McDonalds of 
Clanranald. Her 
father died when 
she was an infant, 
and, her moth- 
er having mar- 
ried McDonald of 
Armadale, Skye, 
Flora was re- 
moved to that 
island. In June, 
1746, while on a 
visit to South 
Uist, she met Capt. 
O'Neil, one of the 
companions of 
Charles Edward 
Stuart, then on 
his wanderings 
after his defeat 
^''?>^ C^ Ca^ at Culloden, and 

c/U^^^^ i^ KZ^o-rtut:^ O'Neil proposed 

that Flora should 
take Charles with her to Skye, disguised as a woman. 
She refused, but, after an interview with the prince, 
entered warmly into the scheme. After encounter- 
ing serious dangers. Flora, the prince, and an at- 
tendant reached Skye, where they were assisted by 
Lady McDonald, who consigned the prince to the 
care of her husband's factor. Soon after his ar- 
rival in Skye, the prince bade farewell to Flora at 
Portree, and sailed for France. The part she 
had taken soon became known, and she was im- 

frisoned until the act of indemnity, in 1747. 
n 1750 she married Allan McDoaald the young- 
er, of Kingsburgh, and emigrating with him and 
their family to North Carolina, in 1774, they set- 
tled in Fayetteville. They had been preceded by 
many of their countrymen, after the battle of 
Culloden, to this region, where at one time Gaelic 
was spoken in six counties of the state. After- 
ward they removed to Cameron hill, and again 
to a different part of the state. On 3 July, 1775, 
her husband, who, though aged, was a man of 
energy and influence, met Martin, and concerted 
with him a rising of the Highlanders. He served 
with the loyalists as captain, and was captured at 
Moore's Creek, and confined at Halifax. She then 
obtained a passport from a Whig oflflcer, and, at the 
request of her husband, sailed from Charleston to 
her native land in a British sloop-of-war. On the 
voyage home they were attacked by a French frig- 
ate of superior force, and, when capture seemed in- 
evitable, Flora left her cabin, and stimulated the 
crew to renewed exertion by her acts and courage. 
Her arm was broken during the conflict. She 
landed safely in Scotland, and never again left 
that country. On her death-bed she requested that 
her body should be wrapped in one of the sheets in 
which the prince had slept at the house of Kings- 
burgh in 1746. She was remarkable for her beauty, 
for tne ease and dignity of her manner, and her 
loyalty to " Prince Charlie " has been the theme of 
scores of Scottish poets. " Flora McDonald's La- 
ment " is one of the Ettrick Shepherd's finest and 
most popular productions. Her husband survived 

her a few years. Five of their sons served their 
king in a military capacity. The accompanying 
picture is from a portrait that was in the possession 
of her last surviving son, Lieut.-Col. John McDon- 
ald, of the British army. 

MacDONALD, Hugh, Canadian jurist, b. in 
Antigonish, Nova Scotia, 4 May, 1827. He was 
educated at his native place, studied law, and was 
admitted to the bar of Nova Scotia in 1855, and 
became Queen's counsel in 1872. He was defeated 
when first a candidate for the provincial parlia- 
ment, but was elected for Inverness in 1859, and 
represented it till 1862, in which year he declined 
the solicitor-generalship. In 1866 he was a mem- 
ber of a delegation that went to London to oppose 
the confederation of the British North American 
provinces, and in 1867 was elected to the Dominion 
parliament for Antigonish, and represented that 
constituency till November, 1873. Mr. MacDonald 
became a member of the privy council, 14 June, 
1873, and was president of that body until 1 July, 
when he was appointed minister of militia and de- 
fence. On 5 Nov., 1873, he was appointed for life 
a judge of the superior court of Nova Scotia. 

McDonald, James, physician, b. in White 
Plains, N. Y., 18 July, 1803 ; d. in Flushing, L. I., 
5 May, 1849. He was graduated at the New York 
college of physicians and surgeons in 1825, and ap- 
pointed the same year resident physician of the 
Bloomingdale insane asylum. In 1831 he was sent 
by the governors of the New York hospital to visit 
the insane asylums of Europe, with the under- 
standing that on his return he should have entire 
charge of the Bloomingdale asylum for five years. 
He became a visiting physician to the New York 
hospital in 1837, and in 1841 opened a private in- 
sane asylum at Murray hill, which he afterward re- 
moved to Flushing, L. I. He began a course of 
lectures on mental diseases, at the New York col- 
lege of physicians and surgeons in 1842, that were 
probably the first of that character that were ever 
delivered in the United States. He published 
" Construction and Management of Insane Hospi- 
tals," " A Review of Ferrers on Insanity," " Puer- 
peral Insanity," '" Reports on the Condition of 
Blackwell Island Asylum," and contributed to the 
" American Journal of Insanity." 

McDonald, James, 'Canadian jurist, b. in 
East River, Pictou, Nova Scotia, 1 July, 1828. His 
ancestors came from Scotland, and settled in Pic- 
tou in the 18th century. He was educated at New 
Glasgow, admitted to the bar of Nova Scotia in 
1857, and created Queen's counsel in 1867. He rep- 
resented Pictou in the legislature of Nova Scotia 
from 1859 till 1867, and from 1871 till July, 1872, 
when he resigned. He was an unsuccessful candi- 
date for the same constituency in the Canadian 
parliament in 1867, was elected in 1874, and served 
until May, 1881. Mr. McDonald was chief rail- 
way commissioner for Nova Scotia from June. 
1863, till December, 1864, when he was appointed 
financial secretary, and held that office till the 
union. He was a member of the commission that 
was appointed to opeh trade relations between the 
West Indies, Mexico, and Brazil, and the British- 
American provinces (1865-6). In October, 1878, 
he was appointed minister of justice, and on 20 
May, 1881, chief justice of Nova Scotia. 

MacDONALD, James Madison, clergyman, b. 
in Limerick, Me., 22 ]\Iay, 1812 ; d. in Princeton, 
N. J., 19 April, 1876. His father, John, was a ma- 
jor-general of militia, and served in the war of 
1812. The son was graduated at Union college in 
1832, and at Yale theological seminary in 1835, and 
was ordained pastor of the 3d Congregational 




church of Berlin, Conn., the same year. He was 
successively pastor of churches in New London, 
Conn., Jamaica, N. Y., New York city, and Prince- 
ton, N. J., continuing in the latter charge from 
1853 until his death. He delivered a course of 
lectures on homiletics in Boston university in 
1874. Dr. MacDonald was a constant writer for 
the religious press, and contributed an able defence 
of the historian Gibbon to the "Bibliotheca Sa- 
cra." His other publications include "Credulity 
as illustrated by Successful Impostures in Science, 
Superstition, and Fanaticism " (New York, 1848) ; 
" A Key to the Book of Revelation " (1846) ; " His- 
tory of the Presbyterian Church of Jamaica, Long 
Island " (1847) ; " My Father's House, or the Heaven 
of the Bible " (1855) ; " Book of Ecclesiastes Ex- 
plained " (185G) ; and " The Life and Writings of 
St. John," published after his death (1879).— His 
brother, Moses, congressman, b. in Limerick, Me., 
8 April, 1814 ; d. in Saco, Me.. 18 Oct., 1809, was 
educated at Bowdoin, studied law, and in 1837 was 
admitted to the bar. He was in the Maine legisla- 
ture in 1841-5, was speaker the latter year, and in 
1847-9 state treasurer. He was elected to con- 
gress as a Democrat in 1850, served till 1855, was 
collector of customs at Portland in 1857-61, and 
after the latter date returned to his profession, 
which he continued to practise until his death. 

MacDONALD, James Wilson Alexander, 
sculptor, b. in Steubenville, Ohio, 25 Aug., 1824. 
In 1840 he saw for the first time a plaster bust of 
Washington, wliich, together with his natural apti- 
tude for drawing, decided him to study sculpture. 
He went to St. Louis in 1844, where he was em- 
ployed in a business-house during the day, and at 
night studied art. His earliest production in mar- 
ble was a bust of Thomas H. Benton (1854), the 
first of the kind produced west of the Mississippi. 
Later he made his earliest ideal work, a bust of 
Joan of Arc, which he followed by a full-length 
figure called "Italia." Mr. MacDonald settled in 
New York in 1865. He has executed a colossal 
head of Washington for Prospect park, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. ; a cokxssal bronze statue of Edward Bates 
for Forest park, St. Louis, Mo. ; a statue of Fitz- 
Greene Halleck for Central park. New York ; and a 
colossal equestrian statue of Gen. Nathaniel Lyon. 
His other works include busts of Charles O'Conor, 
James T. Brady, William Cullen Bryant, Peter 
Cooper, Thurlow Weed, and John Van Buren. He 
has painted portraits and landscapes in oil, lec- 
tured on art and science, and written analytical 
criticisms on American artists. 

MACDONALD, John, Canadian member of 
parliament, b. in Saratoga, N. Y., 10 Feb., 1787 ; 
d. in Ganan()(pio, Ontario, 20 Sept., 1860. His fa- 
ther, John, came to Saratoga from Perthshire, Scot- 
land, a few days before the birth of his son. The 
latter attended school at Glenn's Falls, and, after en- 
gaging in business in Troy, N. Y., removed to Gana- 
noque, Canada, and became a partner of his brother 
Charles, who had established himself in that place 
in 1810. In 1838 he was appointed a member of 
the legislative council of Upper Canada, and at the 
time of the union of Upper and Lower Canada in 
1840 he was called to the legislative council of the 
united provinces, of which he was a member until 
the removal of the seat of government from Kings- 
ton to Montreal. He was for some time a colonel of 
the Leeds militia, held local offices in Gananoque, 
and, together with his brother Charles, paid for 
the building of the first church that was erected in 
that town. — His son, Herbert Stone, Canadian 
jurist, b. in Gananoque, 23 Feb., 1842, was edu- 
cated at Gananoque grammar-school and at Queen's 

university, where he was graduated in 1859. He 
then studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1863, 
and engaged in practice in Brockville. In 1867 
Mr. Macdonald was appointed deputy judge of the 
counties of Leeds and Grenville, which appoint- 
ment was revoked in 1869. At the general election 
of 1871 he was sent in the Conservative interest 
to the legislative assembly of Ontario, but resigned 
in autumn, 1873, on being appointed a junior judge. 
In 1878 he was appointed a senior judge, and in 
October, 1885, he became revising-officer for sev- 
eral electoral districts. In 1873 he had charge of 
the Orange incorporation bills, which passed the 
legislature, but were reversed by the lieutenant- 
governor and never became law. and the same year 
went on a lecturing tour through Ireland. 

MACDONALD, John, Canadian merchant, b. 
in Perth, Scotland, 27 Dec, 1824. When a mere 
youth he came to Canada, and was educated first 
at Dalhousie college, Halifax, and then in Toronto. 
He served mercantile houses in Canada and in Ja- 
maica, W. I., and in 1849 engaged in business on 
his own account in Toronto, becoming one of the 
wealthiest merchants in the country. He entered 
public life as a member for west Toronto in the 
legislative assembly of Canada, was re-elected in 
18()5, and served till 1867, when he was defeated as 
a candidate for the Dominion parliament. In 1875 
he was elected for centre Toronto by acclamation, 
but was defeated in 1878. Mr. Macdonald has 
been an independent Liberal in politics. He op- 
posed the coalition of 1864, and voted against con- 
federation. He is a director in several business 
companies, chairman of the hospital board, a mem- 
ber of the senate of the Provincial university, To- 
ronto, and a visitor of Victoria university, Cobourg. 
He has long been a member of the general confer- 
ence of the Methodist Episcopal church, and has 
been actively connected with the Evangelical alli- 
ance, the Bible society, and the Young men's Chris- 
tian association. In November, 1887, he became a 
member of the Dominion senate, and about the same 
time gave $40,000 to found a hospital in Toronto. 
He has published a pamphlet " Business Success." 

MACDONALD, Sir John Alexander, Canadian 
statesman, b. in (rlasgow, Scotland, 11 Jan., 1815. 
His father, flugh Macdonald, emigrated from 
Sutherlandshire to Canada and settled in Kings- 
ton, Ontario, in 1820. Young Macdonald was edu- 
cated at the Boyal grammar-school, Kingston, 
adopted the law as his profession, and was called 
to the bar of Upper Canada in 1836. Ten years 
later he was appointed Queen's counsel, and after- 
ward became a bencher, ex officio, of the Law 
society of Ontario. As counsel he achieved dis- 
tinction by his memorable defence of Von Schultz, 
who raided Canada in 1836 at the head of a small 
band of marauders. Btit it is as a politician and 
statesman that he has won his place in Canadian 
history. He entered public life in 1844 as the rep- 
resentative of the city of Kingston in the house of 
assembly, and continued to sit for this constitu- 
ency until the union of 1867, when he was elected 
to the house of commons of Canada by the same 
electorate until 1878, when he was defeated. Mar- 
quette in Manitoba, and Victoi'ia, British Colum- 
bia, afterward returned him, and in 1882 Lennox 
and Carleton counties chose him as their member. 
He sat in parliament for the former county, and at 
the general election of 1887 Carleton and Kings- 
ton both elected him. In May, 1847, he was first 
appointed to office, becoming receiver-general and 
subsequently commissioner of crown lands in the 
Draper ministry. Early in the following year the 
government was defeated by the Reformers, and 

'^^^^^~^!^/-i^^t ^^ 

^^ ^ y?^ 

'l^t ^^^^^ 





[acdonald and his colleagues remained in opposi- 
tion until 1854. During the interim he developed 
powers of assiduity and tact, familiarized himself 
with all the great questions of the day, and ac- 
quired a knowl^ge of procedure and practice 
which served hijh well in after-life. He took a first 
place at once ^mong the debaters of the time, and 
his speeches oh the rebellion losses bill and the 
secularization qf tiie clergy reserves attracted 
marked attention. The former measure he op- 
posed with vigor and energy. In September, 1854, 
the latter question proved the issue before the peo- 
ple, and Macdonald entered the coalition cabinet 
of MacNab-Morin, pledged to settle the vexed 
problem at once and forever. He accepted an office 
for which his training well fitted him — that of 
attorney-general — and during the sway of the coali- 
tion the clergy reserves were secularized on a fair 
and equitable basis. Seignorial tenure in Lower 
Canada was also abolished. In 1856 the nominal 
leader of the Conservatives, Sir Allan MacNab, suc- 
cumbed to gout, and, much to his chagrin, his 
young and active lieutenant, Macdonald, was chosen 
to succeed him as chief of the party. This post 
he has held ever since, and in office and out of it 
he has exercised a degree of personal influence 
over his followers that has never been equalled 
in the case of any other public man in Canada. In 
1858 the government was defeated on the seat of 
government question. Macdonald resigned, and 
George Brown was called on to form a new admin- 
istration. He succeeded in the task, but, being 
defeated on the first vote in the house of assembly, 
he made way for Macdonald, who again resumed 
power, taking the office of postmaster - general, 
which he resigned the next day in order to assume 
his more congenial office of attorney-general. His 
ministers also changed offices, and this incident in 
Canadian politics is known as the " double shuffle." 
Macdonald held the attorney - generalship until 
1863, when his government was defeated on the 
militia bill. With Sir George Etienne Cartier he 
led the opposition until March, 1864, when, on the 
fall of the Sandfield Macdonald-Dorion ministry, 
he formed a new government, with Sir Etienne P. 
Tache leading the Lower Canadian contingent. He 
resumed the attorney-generalship, but it was found, 
however, impossible to carry on affairs with com- 
fort. The government, owing to frequent dead- 
locks, was quite unable to command the confidence 
of parliament, and the proposition to federalize 
Upper and Lower Canada and the maritime prov- 
inces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince 
Edward island was received with enthusiasm as a 
way out of the difficulty. A conference took 
place between the leaders on both sides, and the 
question was very fully discussed. In 1864 Mac- 
donald attended as a delegate the conference 
that had been called at Charlottetown, Prince 
Edward island, where the smaller confederation of 
the seaboard provinces was under consideration. 
Macdonald and his associates turned the tide, and 
succeeded in convincing most of the gentlemen 
present that the larger union of all the British' 
North American provinces was much the more 
desirable scheme of the two. Another convention 
was held a few months afterward in the city of 
Quebec, delegates from all the provinces being 
present, and at this meeting the plan of union was 
lormed. In bringing about confederation, Mac- 
donald took an active part, and in 1866-'7 he was 
chairman of the London colonial conference, when 
the British North America act was passed by the 
Imperial parliament. In 1865 Sir Etienne P. 
Tache died, and his colleague was asked to talie 

the premiership ; but he declined in favor of Sir 
Narcisse F. Belleau. Macdonald held the office of 
minister of militia jointly with that of attorney- 
general from January to May, 1862, and from 
August, 1865, until the union. On 1 July, 1867, 
the new constitution came into force in Canada, 
and Macdonald was sworn as a privy councillor 
and appointed minister of justice and attorney- 
general. In recognition of his services, he was 
created a knight commander of the bath (civil) by 
the Queen, and in 1884 he received the grand cross 
of the same order. He remained prime minister 
until 1873, when his government resigned on the 
Canadian Pacific charges. Alexander Mackenzie 
accepted the responsibilities of office, and Sir John 
was leader of the opposition for nearly five years, 
and as such gave the administration ' the benefit 
of his ability and long experience in perfecting, 
among other measures of importance, the insolvent 
act and the act that constituted the supreme court 
of the Dominion. In September, 1878, the Liberal 
party was defeated at the polls on the cry of pro- 
tection to native industries, and Sir John was sent 
for by the Governor-general, and invited to form a 
government. He accepted the charge, and, true to 
his promises, a high tariff on imported goods at 
once became the fiscal policy of the country. The 
new tariff discriminated in favor of no nation, the 
products of all, not even excepting Great Britain, 
being placed on the same footing. Sir John took 
the portfolio of the interior, and subsequently be- 
came president of the privy council and superin- 
tendent of Indian affairs. In 1882 and 1887 he 
was alike successful at the polls, though in the lat- 
ter year, owing to defections from his party on the 
Riel rebellion question, his majority in the house 
of commons was considerably reduced. Sir John 
has been charged at various times with the execu- 
tion of delicate diplomatic missions. He has been 
a delegate to England and to other countries on 
public business very frequently. In 1871 he was 
appointed one of her majesty's joint high commis- 
sioners with Earl de Grey, Sir Stafford Northcote, 
Sir Edward Thornton, and the Right Hon. Mon- 
tague Bernard, to settle the Alabama claims ques- 
tion, then pending between Great Britain and the 
United States. The treaty of Washington, signed 
May, 1871, was the outcome of this conference with 
the American commissioners. For this service Sir 
John was called to the privy council of Great 
Britain (July, 1872), an honor seldom conferred 
on a colonial statesman. In 1865 the Univer- 
sity of Oxford conferred on him the degree of 
D. C. L., and later Queen's university, Kingston, 
and McGill university, Montreal, that of LL. D., 
and Trinity college, Toronto, made him D. C. L. 
During his long political career Sir John has car- 
ried to a successful issue very many measures of 
the highest importance, besides those that have 
been briefly referred to here. Chief among them 
are the improvement of the criminal laws of Can- 
ada ; the consolidation of the statutes : the exten- 
sion of the municipal system ; military organiza- 
tion ; the establishment of direct steam mail com- 
munication with Europe; the inspection of re- 
formatories, prisons, penitentiaries, and asylums; 
the reorganization of the civil service on a perma- 
nent basis ; the construction of the Intercolonial 
and the Canadian Pacific railways; the enlarge- 
ment of the canals ; the enactment of a stringent 
election law ; the extension of the franchise ; the 
ratification of the Washington treaty ; and the ex- 
tension and consolidation of the Dominion. At 
the time of the Riel outbreaks in the northwest 
territories of Canada, Sir John was at the head of 



affairs, and under his direction the insuipnts were 
crushed and punished the operations being con- 
ducted with spirit and determination, feir donn 
has natural abilities of the highest order is an au- 
thority on constitutional law, and ranks high as a 
public speaker and parliamentary debater He has 
klwavs devoted himself to the public interest, as 
he hks understood it, and his bitterest opponents 
cannot charge him with being governed by avarice 
or personal ambition in his conduct of public at- 
fai^.-His wife, Susan Agnes, whom he married 
in 18G7, is a daughter of Tnomas J. Bernard, mem- 
ber of the Queen's privy council, Jamaica, W. i., 
and is known as a writer for periodicals. 

MACDONALD, John Sandfleld, Canadian 
statesman, b. in St. Raphaels, Glengarry, 12 Dec, 

1812 : d. in Corn- 



c/^S ^U-^^'^'^^-^^^^-^^^-'^^T^ 

^_g,^ wall, 1 June, 1872. 

^g^^^^ His grandfather 

Mf '^\^ came from Scot- 

/"j^ ^ land in 1786 with 

one of those High- 
land migrations 
bywhich the coun- 
ty of Glengarry 
was almost exclu- 
sively colonized. 
His "mother died 
when he was a 
boy, and, being 
dissatisfied with 
the career that was 
intended for him, 
he ran away from 
home and served 
as a merchant's clerk for about two years, when he 
determined to abandon commerce for law. His 
education having been much neglected, in Novem- 
ber, is;>2. lie entered Cornwall grammar-school, and, 
tliough th(! usual course was three years, at the end 
(if two years he was declared "dux" of the school. 
In is:).") Mr. ]Maedon^ild passed his preliminary ex- 
amination l)ef(>re the Law society, and in June, 
1840, was admitted to tlie bar, and began practice 
in Cornwall. He achieved an immediate success, 
and established a lucrative practice, which he re- 
tained and increased even after his attention had 
been diverted from his professional duties by his 
I)olitieal associations. In 1841 he was elected nomi- 
nally as a Conservative to the parliament of the re- 
cently unittMl provinees of Upper and Lower Cana- 
da for (ih'ngany. In the first session of this parlia- 
ment the resolutions that established responsible 
government were ])assed, but Sir Charles Metcalf 
November, 1848, to subvert 
^lacdonald separated from 
•nier political associates, and thenceforward 
IS an independent reformer. Though Glen- 
was a Conservative constituency, Mr. Mac- 
l"s (iaelie and Knglish harangues secured his 
tion. and produced a c()ni])lete change in its 
s. In 1H48, 1852, and 18.")4 he was re-elected 
without opposition. He succeeded William Hume 
lilake as solicitor-general in the Baldwin-Lafon- 
taine govei'unient in Deceml)er, 1849, and held 
this portfolio till his resignation in 1851. He was 
speaker of parliament in 1852-4. and in 1858 was 
attorney-general in tlie Hrown-Dorion, or "two- 
days" "■ ministry. \\\ 1857 he was elected for Corn- 
wall, and in isf;2 was called upon by Lord Monk 
to fi.rin a ,u-overnment after the defeat of the Car- 
uer-Macdonald administration. This he did, and 
reniiuned its premier until he resigned in 1804. In 
18()7 he became i.remier of the province of Ontario, 
and the leader of a coalition government, but after 

ills f. 


g attempted, in 
princi[)les. Mr. 


the elections of 1871, finding himself in a minority, 
he resigned the leadership, though he remained a 
member of parliament till his death. Mr. Mac- 
donald, though regarded as a reformer during the 
greater part of his public life, never claimed politi- 
cal consistency, nor permitted his allegiance to party 
to influence his judgment or determine his actions. 
He opposed the confederation of the provinces, rep- 
resentation by population, and, although a Roman 
Catholic, was not an advocate of separate schools. 
He possessed great administrative powers, and was 
personally popular, but too independent to be a good 
party-leader, and was regarded even by his political 
opponents as being above the suspicion of public or 
private wrong-doing. He married a daughter of 
George A. Waggaman, U. S. senator. — His brother, 
Donald Alexander, statesman, b. in St. Raphaels, 
Glengarry, Ontario, 17 Feb., 1817, was educated at 
St. Raphaels college. He was a contractor on the 
Grand Trunk railway for some time, for several 
years warden of the counties of Stormont, Dundas, 
and Glengarry, and in 1857 was elected to the Can- 
ada assembly for Glengarry. He represented this 
constituency till the union of 1867, when he was re- 
elected for it to the Dominion parliament. In 1871 
he was offered the treasurership of Ontario, which 
he refused. He was elected for Glengarry again in 
1872, and on his appointment as postmaster-general 
in the Mackenzie administration, 7 Nov., 1873, was 
re-elected by acclamation, as well as afterward in 
1874. He remained postmaster-general until he 
was appointed lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 18 
May, 1875, retired from the latter office in 1880, 
and has since been out of public life. Mr. Mac- 
donald is lieutenant-colonel commanding the Glen- 
garry reserve militia, and president of the Mon- 
treal and Ottawa junction railway. 

McDonald, Joseph Ewinig, senator, b. in 
Butler county, Ohio, 29 Aug., 1819. His father 
died while the son was an infant, and the latter 
was educated by his mother until his thirteenth 
year, when he was apprenticed to a saddler. He 
entered Wabash college, Crawfordsville, Ind., at 
eighteen years of age, supporting himself by work- 
ing at his trade at odd hours and between terms, 
was at Asbury university in 1840-'2, and alter leav- 
ing college studied law. He was admitted to the 
bar in 1844, and, removing to Crawfordsville in 
1845, established a practice. He was elected attor- 
ney-general in 1856, and three years later removed 
to Indianapolis, where he has' since followed his 
profession. He was 
elected to congress 
as a Democrat in 
1848, and served in 
1849-'51, but was 
defeated in the next 
canvass, and also 
in 1864 as Demo- 
cratic candidate for 
governor against 
Oliver P. Morton. 
He was chairman 
of the state Demo- 
cratic committee in 
1872, reorganized 
the party, and se- 
cured the election 
of a Democratic le- 
gislature by which 
he was sent to the 
U. S. senate in 1875, serving till 1881. While in 
that body he took a conspicuous part in debates on 
finance, and was in favor of hard money and a pro- 
tective tariff. 






McDonald, Ronald, Canadian R. C. bishop, 
b. in Antigonish county, Nova Scotia, in 1835. He 
began his classical studies in Cape George, and fin- 
ished his theological course in St. Francis Xavier's 
college, where he was ordained priest, 2 Oct., 1859. 
He was then appointed professor in the college, 
where he reniained for three years. In 1862 he was 
sent to take charge of the Roman Catholic mission 
in Pictou. D\iring his ministry he erected five 
churches, including a fine one at Pictou, and in 
1880 he built a lay convent and extensive schools 
in that place. He established schools among the 
Micmac Indians, in which all the Indian children 
of school age are at present (1888) receiving an edu- 
cation. His congregation, which numbered about 
one hundred when he was first appointed pastor, 
was considerably over 1,000 in 1881. Dr. McDonald 
was consecrated bishop of Harbor Grace in the 
church of Pictou, 21 Aug., 1881. The Roman 
Catholic church has made considerable progress in 
his diocese under his administration. 

MACDONELL, Alexander, Canadian R. C. 
bishop, b. in Glen Urquhart, in the Glengarry 
Highlands, Scotland, in 1762; d. in Dumfries, 
Scotland, 14 Jan., 1840. He was sent at an early 
age to the Scotch college at Valladolid, Spain, 
where he studied for ' the priesthood, and, after his 
ordination in 1787, returned to Scotland and did 
missionary duty in Lochaber. At this period the 
rise in the price of wool and meat, owing to the 
development of manufactures in the Lowlands, de- 
cided several of the Highland chiefs to substitute 
large sheep-farms for small holdings on their prop- 
erty. In 1792 Father Macdonell, who was then 
laboring on the borders between Inverness and 
Perth, endeavored to secure employment in the 
Lowlands for the evicted Plighlanders who were too 
poor to emigrate. He persuaded Glasgow manu- 
facturers to take 600 of them into their employ; 
but the stagnation of trade, caused by the French 
revolution, threw them out of work. Then the 
missionary convened a meeting of representative 
Roman Catholics at Fort Augustus in 1794, and 
the services of the Clan Macdonell were tend- 
ered to the king. They offered to serve in any 
part of his majesty's dominions under their chief- 
tain, Macdonell of Glengarry. The offer was ac- 
cepted, the 1st Glengarry fencible regiment was 
organized, and Father Macdonell was appointed 
chaplain, although such an appointment was con- 
trary to law. They served with other Highland 
regiments in the Irish rebellion of 1798, and tra- 
ditions of the forbearance and humanity of these 
Scotch regiments still linger among the Irish peas- 
antry. The regiment was disbanded in 1803, and 
Father Macdonell appealed to the English govern- 
ment to assign its members a tract of land in Can- 
ada. The English ministry was at this time doubt- 
ful as to whether they could keep Canada, and 
offered to settle the Highlanders in Trinidad in- 
stead, but in 1804 a grant of 160,000 acres was made 
in what is now Glengarry county, Canada. Father 
Macdonell accompanied his clan, and after their ar- 
rival the whole work, not only of founding churches 
and schools, but of organizing the settlement, fell 
on his shoulders. In 1812 he raised again a regi- 
ment of Glengarry fencibles and hastened to the 
defence of St. Lawrence river. His services were 
duly acknowledged by the government, from which 
he received a pension of £400, and afterward £600 
a year, and he was also formally thanked by the 
prince regent. Father Macdonell was made vicar 
apostolic of Upper Canada on 12 Jan., 1819, and 
received episcopal consecration in Quebec in De- 
cember, 1820, under the title of Bishop of Regiopo- 

X -'^^^Z^ ^'C^^^^.^^rT.^.e^^ 

lis in parfihus. He then returned to Upper Can- 
ada and fixed his episcopal residence at Kingston. 
With the exception of Kingston, the only towns that 
had Roman Catholic churches were Charlottenburg 
and Toronto. The Roman Catholic population in 
his whole vicariate 
hardly amounted 
to 30,000, of whom 
more than half 
were Indians, and 
to minister to them 
he had only two 
priests. IJnder 
however, the num- 
ber of Roman Cath- 
olics grew rapidly, 
and it was soon 
found necessary to 
change the vicari- 
ate into a regular 
see. The city 
of Kingston was 
therefore erected 
into a titular bish- 
opric, 18 Jan., 1826, 
by Pope Leo XII. 

in favor of Dr. Macdonell, to whom Cardinal Weld 
was assigned as coadjutor, but the latter declined to 
go to "Canada. The rest of his episcopate was spent 
in founding new parishes, erecting churches and 
schools, and forming new missions in the depths 
of the solitary forests of his immense diocese. He 
founded the Highland society, afterward destined 
to have no inconsiderable influence in Canada, and 
in 1837 he took steps to establish a Roman Catholic 
seminary for Upper Canada to be called Regiopolis 
college. To procure funds for this purpose and 
to stimulate emigration among the Ilighlanders, 
he visited Europe in 1839. He spent some time in 
London conferring with the English ministry, and 
then went to Inverness, where he entered upon the 
work for which he had come to Scotland. He went 
to Ireland in October to attend a meeting of the 
Irish bishops, and was prostrated by sickness there, 
but returned to Scotland, intending to go to Lon- 
don for the purpose of arranging with the English 
ministry an emigration of Highlanders to Canada 
on an extensive scale. Bishop JMacdoncU was a 
man of liberal views and unbounded charity. Dur- 
ing his episcopate he built fortv-eight churches. 

MACDONELL, Allan, Canadian explorer, b. in 
York (now Toronto), 5 Nov., 1808. His father, 
Alexander, a native of Inverness-shire, Scotland, 
was for many years a member of the legislature, 
and legislative council of Upper Canada. The son 
studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1832, and 
in the following year entered into partnership with 
Sir Allan N. MacNab. A short time previous to 
the rebellion of 1837 he was appointed sheriff of 
the Gore district, and at the beginning of the re- 
volt raised a troop of cavalry armed and equipi)ed 
at his own expense. After holding the Gore shriev- 
altv for five years he resigned, and in the winter of 
1846 obtained from the government a license for 
exploring the shores of Lake Superior for mines. 
Though opposed by the Hudson bay com])any, he 
was successful, and'as a result the Quebec coinpany 
was formed, and mining operations were carried on 
successfully for several years. The government, in 
overlooking the claims of the Indians for compen- 
sation, in selling the lands occupied by the Quebec 
company, made trouble between the aborigines and 
the miners. Mr. Macdonell twice accompanied 
deputations of chief's to urge their claims upon the 



irovernraent. Commissioners were appomted by 
the latter to arrange the difficulty, but, owing to 
their incompetence, no understandmg was arrived 
at and finally the Indians regained possession ot 
their property by force, in which they were sup- 
ported by Mr. Macdonell. Soon afterward a mili- 
tarv expedition was sent to the mines, and he and 
two Indian chiefs were arrested and taken to io- 
ronto but were released on a writ of habeas corpus. 
The question of the Indian title to the land was 
finally settled in 1850, when by treaty the Indians 
received pavment. In 1850 Mr. Macdonell pro- 
jocted the construction of a canal around the Sault 
Ste. Marie on the Canadian side; but the govern- 
ment refusing to grant a charter, the scheme proved 
abortive. In his explorations of the country west 
of Lake Sui)erior he had acquired a good knowledge 
of the country and its capabilities, and at an early 
date had published a series of articles in the To- 
ronto iunvsi)apers advocating the scheme of a Pacific 
railway. He apjilied to parliament for a charter 
for its" construction, the road to extend from the 
head <tf Lake SujuM'ior to the Pacific ocean, but 
was relused on the gnmnd that such an under- 
taking was premature. He continued to interest 
himstlf in lli(> work of opening communication 
with the northwest, and in 1858 secured from par- 
liament tlie charter for tlie Northwest transit com- 
pany, of which Sir Allan N. MacXab was afterward 
l)resi(lent. and Sir John Beverley Robinson secre- 
tary. Mr. ^lacdonell afterw^ard removed to To- 
ronto, where he now (1887) resides. 

3IA('I)()N'KLL, Miles, governor of Assiniboia, 
J), in Invei-uess. Scotland, in 1767; d. at Point 
Forttuie. on Ottawa river, in 1828. His father. 
Col. .lohn Macdonell, of Scothouse. Inverness-shire, 
at the invitation of Sir William Johnson, came to 
this counti'v in 177o, with several of his friends, 
and settled at Caughnawaga, on Mohawk river, in 
New York. At t he beginning of the Revolutionary 
wai-. Col. Macdonell migrated with his family to 
Canada, and took up his residence at St. Andrews, 
near ("ornwall, where he died in 1810. The son 
Miles, who showed military tendencies at an early 
age, was appointed ensign in the king's royal regi- 
ment of New York in 1792, lieutenant' in the 
royal Canadian volunteer's in 1794, and captain in 
thesiiine corps in 17i)(). At the request of Lord 
Selkii-k he visited London in 1808, and was in- 
duced by that nobleman to assume the post of gov- 
ernor of his |)rojected colony on Red river. North- 
west Icrritoi-y. \\v arrived there with the first 
body of colonists, composed princijiaily of evicted 
Scottish lli^-hlanders from the Sutherland estates, 
in ispi. and was at once; met with op[)osition from 
the agents of the \oii Invest company, whose head- 
quarters w.Mv at Montreal. On 11 June, 1815, the 
North wot ronq.any's servants attacked and fired 
upon the colonists, and demanded the surrender of 
<iov. Macdonell. who, to save th(> effusion of blood, 
gav.. himself up vluntarily. lie was taken to 
Ab.nt nsd as a i-i'isoner. and cliarges preferred 
a-ain^t hun by his enemies, but his case was not 
trii'd. DnruiLT his ten or twelve years' connection 
with Lord Selkirk's Red river settlement he was 
IN leadm- spirit and took an active and decided 
I''"-' "1 til., lends of the lln.lscm bav and North- 
west trading companies. His latter years were 
si-eiit at his larin at Osnaburg, Upper Canada, but 

M.V( 1>0NN KLL. Daniel James. Canadian cler- 

?i'i''"''i • '!' ''■•'"''"■■^^- ^'^'^'^^' linmswick, 15 Jan., 

s. ., 1 ,s lather the R,>v. George .Macdonnell, a 

!. i-'!. Tm "'*V^^^'^ for many years been pas- 
tor ot the Church of Scotland congregation at 


Bathurst, but in 1850 resigned his charge and re- 
turned with his family to Scotland, where the son 
received his preparatory education. He was gradu- 
ated at Queen's college, Kingston, Canada, at fif- 
teen years of age, and studied theology at Glas- 
gow, Heidelberg, and Edinburgh, where he was 
graduated in .divinity in 1865, and ordained by 
the presbytery in 1866. He then returned to Can- 
ada and was minister of St. Andrew's church, 
Peterborough, until 1870, when he was appointed 
pastor of St. Andrew's church, Toronto, where 
one of the finest churches in the city was built for 
him. He had expressed doubts as to the correct- 
ness of some of the doctrines of his church, and 
was prosecuted for heresy, but the case was finally 
dismissed upon his promise not to introduce his 
doubts into the pulpit. He was one of the most 
active promoters of the union of the various 
branches of the Presbyterian church in Canada, 
which was consummated in 1875. He was ap- 
pointed by the Ontario government as one of its 
representatives in the senate of Toronto univer- 
sity, and is one of the most eloquent and learned 
of Canadian clergymen. 

McDONOGH, John, philanthropist, b. in Balti- 
more, Md., 29 Dec, 1779; d. in McDonogh, La., 
26 Oct., 1850. His father, John, was in the Brad- 
dock expedition in 1755, and afterward served in 
the Revolution. The son received an academic 
education, and at seventeen entered mercantile life 
in Baltimore, but removed in 1800 to New Orleans, 
where he rapidly accumulated wealth in the com- 
mission and shipping business. During the war 
of 1812 he participated in the battle of New Or- 
leans. In 1818 he was an unsuccessful candidate 
for the U. S. senate, and about this time founded 
the town of jMcDonoghville. In 1822 he prepared 
to liberate his slaves, but, disapproving of manumis- 
sion, required each one to buy himself at a moder- 
ate sum. To enable him to accumulate this, Mr. 
McDonogh paid each slave for his services at fair 
rates, gave an education to those that desired it, 
and, when freedom had been purchased, sent ship- 
loads of his negroes to Africa at his own expense 
for a period of seventeen years. He became a vice- 
president of the American colonization society in 
1880, and contributed largely to its support. At 
his death he left the bulk of his fortune, which 
was estimated at more than |2,000,000, to the cities 
of New Orleans and Baltimore, for the purpose of 
establishing free schools. After many years of liti- 
gation and much loss of value by the civil war, an 
estate of 800 acres w'as purchased on the Western 
Maryland railroad near Baltimore in 1873, and the 
McDonogh labor-schools were established, at which 
seventy boys annually are received to learn practical 
and scientific farming, and the rudiments of an 
English education. In New Orleans the principal 
of the fund is invested in the McDonogh schools, 
which are conducted in connection with the pub- 
lic schools of that city. He also left bequests to 
the American colonization society and to the New 
Orleans boys' orphan asylum. See " Life and 
Work of John McDonogh," by William Allan 
(Baltimore, 1886). 

MACDONOUGH, Thomas, naval officer, b. in 
New Castle county, Del., 23 Dec, 1783 ; d. at sea, 
16 Nov., 1825. He entered the navy as a midship- 
man in 1800, and in 1803 was attached to the frig- 
ate " Philadelphia," which was one of the squad- 
ron employed against Tripoli, under the command 
of Com. Edward H. Preble. On 26 Aug., 1803, 
the " Philadelphia " captured the Moorish frigate 
" Meshboa," of the Cape de Gatte, on the Spanish 
coast, and Macdonough escaped the captivity that 




subsequently befell the other officers and crew by 
bein^ left at Gibraltar with her prize. He after- 
ward served in the schooner " Enterprise," under 
Com. Stephen Decatur, participating in the vari- 
ous attacks that were made in 1804 upon the city 

and batteries of 
Tripoli, and was 
one of the party 
under Decatur 
that recaptured 
and destroyed 
the "Philadel- 
phia " on the 
night of 16 Feb., 
1804. He was 
promoted lieu- 
tenant in 1807, 
and master com- 
mander in 1813. 
a British army 
of about 12,- 
000, under Sir 
George Provost, 
advanced along 
the western 
shore of Lake 
Champlain to Plattsburg, which was held by Gen. 
Alexander Macomb, with about 1,500 men. The 
British squadron, under Capt. George Downie, con- 
sisted of 10 vessels, carrying 95 guns and about 1,000 
men. The American naval force, which was under 
Commander Macdonough, was anchored in Platts- 
burg bay, and consisted of 14 vessels of all classes, 
carrying 86 guns and about 850 men. At sunrise 
on 11 Sept. the British came in sight, and by eight 
o'clock approached the American fleet. Fire was 
opened by the Americans, who, as a matter of course, 
were anchored with springs. But, in addition to 
this arrangement, Macdonough had laid a kedge 
broad off on each bow of the " Saratoga," and 
brought their hawsers in, upon the two quarters, 
letting them hang in bights under water. By 
this timely precaution the victory is said to have 
been gained. The attack was not returned by the 
British until the " Confiance " had anchored about 
300 yards from the American line. Her first 
broadside killed or wounded forty men on the 
"Saratoga," nearly a fifth of her entire force, and 
more than a third of the American force during 
the action. The engagement then became general. 
In an hour the whole starboard battery of the 
"Saratoga" was disabled. She was then winded 
about by means of the kedges that had been laid 
on her bows, and was brought to bear on the 
" Confiance," which had also suffered severely and 
lost her captain, George Downie. After attempt- 
ing to perform the same evolution without suc- 
cess, and fighting about two hours and a half, the 
"Confiance" was forced to strike her flag. The 
remainder of the British fleet were either taken or 
put to flight. The enemy's loss was about 200, ex- 
clusive of prisoners. That of the Americans in 
killed and wounded was 112. The British lost all 
but 20 of the 95 guns they had brought into ac- 
tion. By Macdonough's precaution of throwing out 
kedges from the bows of the " Saratoga," her 26 
guns were practically twice as many, since she 
could be turned around and so present a fresh 
broadside to the enemy. During most of the ac- 
tion Macdonough pointed a favorite gun, and was 
twice knocked senseless by shots that cut the 
spanker boom, letting the spar fall on his back. 
For his services on this occasion he was made cap- 
tain, received a gold medal from congress, numer- 

ous civic honors from cities and towns, and was 
presented by the legislature of Vermont with an 
estate upon Cumberland head, which overlooks the 
scene of the engagement. The Mediterranean 
squadron was his last command, and he died on 
board a trading brig that had been sent by the 
U. S. government to bring him home. 

MacBOUALL, Robert, British soldier, b. in 
Stranraer, Scotland, about 1780 ; d. there, 15 Nov., 
1848. Pie entered the army in August, 1796, and 
became lieutenant in November, 1797, captain in 
October, 1804, major in June, 1813, lieutenant- 
colonel in 1813, dolonel in 1830, and major-general, 
23 Nov., 1841. He served in this country during 
the war of 1812, and, while in command of Fort 
Mackinaw, successfully defended it when it was 
attacked by a superior force, 4 Aug., 1814. 

McDOLGAL, CHnton Du^ald, soldier, b. in 
Scotland, 14 June, 1839. He removed with his 
parents to the United States in 1842, received an 
academic education, studied law, and in 1856-'69 
was engaged in banking. He raised a company for 
the 75th New York regiment in 1861, accompanied 
it to Florida, and became lieutenant-colonel of the 
111th New York volunteers in August, 1862, and 
colonel in January, 1863, commanding it at Centre- 
ville, Va. He led a brigade in the Army of the Poto- 
mac at Gettysburg and in its subsequent campaigns 
until the close of the war, and in 1864 was brevet- 
ted brigadier-general of volunteers. He became 
postmaster at Auburn in 1869, and was elected to 
congress as a Republican in 1872, serving till 1877, 
and declining in June, 1876, the office of IJ. S. treas- 
urer, and in July that of commissioner of internal 
revenue. In 1877 he was appointed U. S. marshal 
for the western judicial district of New York. 

McDOUGAL, David, naval officer, b. in Ohio, 
27 Sept., 1809 ; d. in San Francisco, Cal., 7 Aug., 
1882. He was appointed midshipman in 1828, 
passed midshipman in 1834, lieutenant in 1841, 
commander in 1857, captain in 1864, and commo- 
dore in 1869. Com. McDougal commanded the 
" Wyoming," of the Asiatic squadron, in 1861-4, 
engaged six batteries and three vessels of war at 
Simonoseki, Japan, 16 July, 1863, and had charge 
of the navy-yard at Mare island, California, in 
1865-'6. He commanded the steam-sloop " Pow- 
hatan " in 1868-'9, and the south squadron of the 
Pacific fleet in 1870. He became a rear-admiral 
on the retired list in 1873. 

MACDOUGALL, Alexander, soldier, b. in the 
island of Islay, Scotland, in 1731 ; d. in New York 
city 8 June, 1786. His father, Ronald Macdougall, 
emigrated to the 
province of New 
York in 1755, and 
purchased a farm 
in the upper part 
of Manhattan isl- 
and. Alexander at 
first followed the 
sea, and took part 
in the war of 1756 
as commander of 
the two privateers 
"Barrington" and 
" Tiger." He sub- 
sequently became 
a successful mer- 
chant in New 
York city, and 
devoted himself 
ardentlv to the 
cause of the colonies. When the assembly, fal- 
tering in its opposition to the usurpations of the 




crown, rejected a proposition that authorized yot- 
^nVb; billot, and favorably considered a bill of 
mipplies for troops that were quartered in the city 
io m-erawe its inhabitants, he issued an address 
entitled " A Son of Liberty to the Betrayed Inhabi- 
tants of the Colony," which was voted by the as- 
sembly to be "an infamous and seditious libel, 
imd for which its author was arrested and impris- 
oned for twcntv-three weeks in what is now the 
re-Mster's onice." thus becoming the first martyr m 
the patriot cause. On being set at liberty, he cor- 
rest)()n(U'd with the leading spirits in all parts ot 
the c.iintrv. and presided, on July, 17v4, at the 
meetiu'^ -in the fields" that was held preparatory 
to the election of delegates to the 1st Continental 
oon"-r(><s. He was api)ointed colonel of the 1st 
\.'\v York re-riment. 80 June. 1770, brigadier-gen- 
eral on the i»th of the following August, and ma- 
ior-'^-neral 20 ( )ct.. 1777. He was actively engaged 
at (liatterton's Hill, near White Plains, X. Y., and 
in various j>laces in New Jersey, and was in com- 
mand at Peekskill in 1777, but was compelled to 
retreat before a superior British force that had 
been sent up tlie river by Gen. Howe. He took 
part in I lie l)atllesof White Marsh and of German- 
town. His inilitarv career was interrupted by his 
l.eini: srnt as a delegate to the Continental con- 
LTi-cs-. where he took his seat in September, 1780, 
and again in February. 17.S4. He was elected min- 
i-li'r of mai-iiie l)y t)ody, but, preferring active 
>rrvire. he resigiied to take the field again. After 
the close of the war he was elected to the Xew 
\i>yk senate, of which body he was a member at 
the time of his death. He was also the first })resi- 
(leiit of the New York state society of the Cincin- 
nati.— His daughter. Eliza lu'tli,' married John 
Laui-aiice. who presided as judgo-advocate-geiieral 
at the trial of Maj. Andre: his son. Joiix, died in 
the Canada c.\]>c(lition at the head of Lake Cham- 
plain in 177-"): an<l his cousin. Jonx, the son of John 
.Macllouu^•lll. was t»lown uj) in the frigate " Raii- 
dolph." :!'-2 guns, in its engagement with the British 
(H-LTun fi-mate "^'ai'mouth" on 7 .Alarch, 1778. 

MacDOriiALL. Charles, surgeon, b. in Chil- 
licothc. ()hi<.. 'Jl Sept.. 1S()4: (1. Ill Fairfield, Clark 
CO.. \'a.. "J.") July. Ins."). He studied medicine, re- 
moved to Imliaiia, and was appointed assistant sur- 
irc'in in the F.S. army. 1:5 July. 1832. He was pro- 
mo; ed major and surgeon. 7 July. ls:]S. and brevet 
colon, .1. 2!> \(.v.. I.s(i4. He was with the ?nounted 
rangers in the lilack Hawk war in lS;!;i served in 
the Civ.'k ami Seminole wars in 18:5S-"4I, and was 
at the I". S. military academy from 1S4() till 1848. 
when he was >ciit we^i and" remained there until 
the lieu-iuninu- of the civil war. lie 
■• the Annv of the Ti 


to S.'ptember. jsc-i. wlien he w; 
N'oi-k citv. where h." lilh'd a 
.March, jso:,. )„. ua> brevet 
••lor tailhfiil and UH'ritorio 

was medical 
inessec from April 
dered to Xew^ 
ilar office. On lo 
vice during the 

He wa> promoted lieutenant-colonel ami as 
'ii'''l"-;il I'urvevor. --is July. iSfK). and ' " 


M-taiil 1 

on •.'•.' Feb.. IS(il). 

MclMM (;ALL, Ja 

ill neildehem. AlKaiiy 
iu Albaiiv. \. Y. :! S, 
at All.aiiV -t 

tied ill i'i'kee 

,i:''ii.'ral of Il|i,„,i>' ill 

l^n. He then eiiua 

1^1!' ;.ri^inated and acc<mipaiiie(l an exploring 

•'N"'''"""' '" lvi'> del Norte. (Jila. and Colorado 

meis. ami H,bM.,,uent ly setth..lin San Francisco 


anies Alexander, senator, b. 

ly <•<».. X. Y.. 1!) Nov., 1817; d. 

. '■> Sept.. ISC,:. He was educated 

luar-school. St lulled law. and set- 

11 y. 111., in ls:{r. He was attornev- 

'■> 111 1S42. and was re-elected in 

n engiiu'cring, and in 



1 '.* >ei , ,, . , ^,, ,,,,,, ^ J <ulcl^eo 

l'i-actic<. (,i law. He was elected attornev- 
"1 ( ahtornia in is.-jO^ served several terms 


in the legislature, and in 1853 was chosen to con- 
gress as a Democrat, but declined a renomination 
in 1858. He was elected U. S. senator in 1860, 
served till 1867, and was chairman of the commit- 
tee on the Pacific railroad. Mr. McDougall was a 
War Democrat, and was a delegate to the Chicago 
convention that nominated Gen. George B. McClel- 
lan for president. On the expiration of his sena- 
torial term he retired to Albany, X^. Y. He was 
an eloquent and effective speaker. 

MACDOUGrALL, John Lorn, Canadian official, 
b. in Renfrew, Ontario, 6 Nov., 1838. His father, 
of the same name, a native of Scotland, was in the 
Hudson bay company's service, and represented 
Renfrew county in the Canadian assembly. The 
son was educated at the High-school, Montreal, 
and at Toronto university, where he was gradu- 
ated in 1859. After serving for a time as warden 
of Renfrew county, he was elected to the Ontario 
assembly for South Renfrew in 1867, served till 
1871, and also represented that constituency in the 
Dominion parliament from September, 1869, till 

1873. when he was defeated. He was again elected 
in 1873, and unseated on petition in September, 

1874, but was re-elected in February, 1875. He re- 
signed from his place in parliament on being ap- 
pointed auditor-general of Canada, 2 Aug., 1878, 
which office he still holds (1888). 

MacDOUGALL, Sir Patrick Leonard, British 
soldier, b. in Scotland in 1819. He entered the 
British army in 1836, and was employed on special 
service in the Crimea, and on the quartermaster- 
general's staff in the Kertch expedition. He was 
appointed general officer commanding the im- 
perial forces in Canada, 21 Aug., 1878, and acted 
as administrator of the Dominion government of 
Canada from 19 Oct., 1878, wdien Lord Dufferin 
departed for England, till the arrival of the new 
governor-general, the Marquis of Lome. He again 
was administrator during the absence of the Mar- 
quis of Lome in England, from November, 1881, 
till January, 1882, and also during his visit to the 
United States, from 18 Dec, 1882, till January, 
1883. Gen. MacDougall is the author of " The 
Theory of War " (London, 1856) ; '• Campaigns of 
Hannibal " (1858) ; and *' Modem Warfare as in- 
fluenced bv Modern Artillery " (1864). 

MACDOUGALL, WiUiam, Canadian states- 
man, b. ill Toronto, 25 Jan., 1822. His grand- 
father, John Macdougall, a native of Scotland and 
a United empire loyalist, served in the British com- 
missariat during the American Revolution. Will- 
iam was educated at Toronto and at Victoria col- 
lege, Cobourg, studied law, and was admitted to the 
bar of Upper Canada as an attorney in 1847. Shortly 
afterward he engaged in journalism, establishing 
in 1848 the " Canada Farmer," and subsequently 
merging it in the " Canadian Agriculturist," 
which he continued to publish and edit until 1858. 
Ill 1850 he founded the " X^'orth American," a re- 
form newspaper, of which he was managing editor 
until its absorption in the Toronto " Daily Globe " 
in 1857, and he was the leading political writer on 
the latter paper from 1857 till 1859. He repre- 
sented Xorth Oxford in the Canadian assembly 
from 1858 till 1863 ; Xorth Ontario from 1863 till 
July, 1864; and X^orth Lanark from November, 
1864, till the union of 1867, when he was re-elected 
for the latter constituency to the Dominion par- 
liament, and represented it till 1872, when he was 
defeated. He represented Halton county in the 
Dominion parliament from 1878 until the general 
election of 1882. He was elected for South Simcoe 
to the Ontario assembly in May, 1875, and repre- 
sented it till his resignation in September, 1878. 




He was a member of the executive council, and 
commissioner of crown lands in the Sandfield 
Macdonald-Dorion administration from May, 1862, 
till March, 1864 ; and provincial secretary in the 
Macdonald-Tache Jadministration from June, 1864, 
until 1867. Mr.^Macdougall was appointed acting 
minister of malrine in July, 1866, with charge of 
the eight provincial gun-boats on the lakes, which, 
with the aid of V ice-Admiral Sir James Hope, he 
had speedily fitted out for service against the Fen- 
ians. He was appointed, 1 July, 1867, minister of 
public works in the first Dominion government, 
and retained the office till he was commissioned 
lieutenant-governor of Rupert's Land and the 
Northwest territories in October, 1869. He was 
met at the boundary-line of the Red river settle- 
ment by an armed force, acting on behalf of the 
provisional government of Louis Riel, which com- 
pelled him to retreat to Pembina, Minn., and he 
did not enter on the duties of his office. He rep- 
resented Canada at the New York exhibition in 
1853, was a delegate to the Charlottetown union 
conference in 1864, to that at Quebec the same 
year, and to the colonial conference in London to 
complete the terms of union of the British North 
American colonies in 1866-7. He was also a dele- 
gate to Great Britain, with Sir George Etienne 
Cartier, to confer with the imperial authorities on 
the subject of the defences of the Dominion, and 
for the acquisition of the Northwest territory in 
1868-'9. Mr. Macdougall was sent to Great Brit- 
ain by the Canadian government in 1873 as a spe- 
cial commissioner to confer with the home govern- 
ment on the subject of the fisheries, and to make 
arrangements in Scandinavia and the Baltic 
provinces for the promotion of emigration to Can- 
ada. He was created a companion of the bath 
(civil list) in 1867, appointed Queen's counsel in 
August, 1881, and subsequently a puisne judge in 
the province of Quebec. At the beginning of his 
political career he was a Reformer, but afterward 
was independent, and did not pledge himself to 
support any party. He has introduced and carried 
through successfully some of the most important 
acts of the Canadian parliament. He is a fluent 
and powerful speaker and an eloquent and logical 
advocate, but his cold and unsympathetic manner 
has rendered him less popular and successful than 
he would be were his sympathies broader and his 
humor less cj^ustic. — His son, Joseph Eastoii, 
Canadian jurist, b. in Toronto, 25 March, 1846, was 
graduated at Upper Canada college in 1864. He 
studied law and became a barrister in 1870. He 
was lecturer on criminal law for the Law society 
of Ontario from 1878 till 1883, junior judge of the 
•county court of York and the city of Toronto from 
1883 till 1885, and since that time he has been 
senior judge of the county court. On 18 Sept., 
1885, he was also appointed judge o^ the Maritime 
-court of Ontario, which place he still (1888) retains. 
He became a Queen's counsel in 1883, and is one 
■of the commissioners appointed in 1886 for re- 
vising the public statutes of Ontario. He was 
secretary to the Canadian commission that was 
appointed to visit the West Indies and British 
Guiana, to improve the trade relations between 
these colonies and Canada, in 1865-6. Judge Mac- 
dougall is the author of " Lectures on Criminal 
Law and Torts " (Toronto, 1882). 

Mcdowell, Charles, soldier, b. in Winches- 
ter, Va., in 1743; d. in Burke county, N. C, 21 
March, 1815. His father, Joseph, emigrated from 
Ireland to the United States about 1730, and after 
a residence of several years in Pennsylvania set- 
tled first in Winchester, Va., and subsequently at 

Quaker Meadows, on Catawba river, N. C. His 
family is distinguished from that of his cousin 
John by the name of the " Quaker Meadow Mc- 
Dowells." Charles was an ardent patriot, and at 
the beginning of the Revolution was placed in 
command of an extensive district m western North 
Carolina. On the British invasion in 1780 he or- 
ganized troops, fortified posts, and in June of this 
year attacked the enemy at their works on Pacolet 
river, compelled their surrender, subsequently 
gained victories at Musgrove Mill and Cave Creek, 
but, after the reverses of the colonists at Savannah, 
Charleston, and Fishing Creek, his army was dis- 
banded, and he resigned his command previous to 
the battle of King's Mountain. He was state sen- 
ator in 1782-8, and a member of the lower house 
in 1809-11.— His wife, tJrace drreenlee, was 
noted among the women of the Revolution for her 
prudence as well as her daring. Her first hus- 
band. Capt. Bowman, of the patriot army, was 
killed at the battle of Ramsom's Mill. After her 
marriage with McDowell, she aided him in all 
his patriotic schemes, and while he was secretly 
manufacturing in a cave the powder that was after- 
ward used at King's Mountain, she made the 
charcoal in small quantities in her fireplace, carry- 
ing it to him at night to prevent detection. After 
this battle she visited the field, and nursed and 
tended the soldiers. A party of marauders having 
plundered her house in the absence of her husband, 
she collected a few of her neighbors, pursued, and 
captured them, and at the muzzle of the musket 
compelled them to return her property. She was 
the mother of a large family. — Charles's brother, 
Joseph, soldier, b. in Winchester, Va., in 1756; d. 
in Burke county, N. C, was familiarly known as 
"Quaker Meadows Joe," to distinguish him from 
his cousin of the same name, with whom he is 
frequently confounded. He served in the cam- 
paigns against the frontier Indians previous to the 
Revolution, and under his brother Charles in all 
the battles in western North Carolina before that 
of King's Mountain. In that engagement he com- 
manded the North Carolina militia, with the rank 
of major. He was in the state house of commons 
in 1787-92, was a member of the North Carolina 
constitutional convention in 1788, and largely in- 
strumental in its rejection of the U. S. constitu- 
tion. He was elected to congress in 1792, served 
till 1799, and was active in opposition to the Fed- 
eral party. He was boundary commissioner in 
1797 for running the line between Tennessee and 
North Carolina, a general of militia, and the recog- 
nized leader of the Republican party in the western 
counties. A county is named in his honor. — Jo- 
seph's son, Joseph J., congressman, b. in Burke 
county, N. C, 13 Nov., 1800; d. in Hillsborougii, 
Ohio, 17 Jan., 1877, was engaged in agi'iculture 
during his early life, and removed first to Virginia 
and subsequently to Ohio. He served in the Ohio 
legislature in 1832, in 1834 became state senator 
and general of militia, and the next year was ad- 
mitted to the bar. He was elected to congress as 
a Democrat in 1844, aiul served till 1847. 

McDowell, Irvin, soldier, b. in Columbus, 
Ohio, 15 Oct., 1818 : d. in San Francisco, Cal., 4 
May, 1885. He received his early education at the 
College of Troyes, in France, and was graduated 
at the U. S. military academy in 1838, becoming 
2d lieutenant in the' 1st artillery. His first serv- 
ice was on the northern frontier during the Cana- 
da border disturbances, in Iloulton, Me., pending 
the disputed territory controversy. He returned 
to the academy in 1841, and was assistant instructor 
of infantry tactics and adjutant until 1845. He 



was then appointed aide-de-camp to Gen. John E. 
Wool and became the acting adjutant-general of 
that officer's column on its march to Chihuahua, 
and participated in the battle of Buena \ is a, 
where for his services he was brevetted captain, 
and on 13 May, 1847, received that rank in the 
adiutant-general's department. Subsequently he 
continued with the army of occupation and was 

engaged in mus- 
tering out and dis- 
charging troops 
until 1848. He 
then filled the 
office of assistant 
adjutant - general 
in the war depart- 
ment in Washing- 
ton, in New York, 
and elsewhere, at- 
taining the rank 
of major on 81 
March. 1856. The 
year l8o8-'9 he 
spent on leave in 
Europe.and there- 
after, until the be- 
ginning of the 
civil war. lie was engaged in the duties of the 
adjutant-generars dej^artinent in Washington and 
fis' aide-de-camp on Gen. Scott's staff, serving as 
inspector of troops. During the early part of 
ISdl lie was occui)ied in organizing and mus- 
tering volunteers into service at the capital: but 
on being made brigadier-general. 14 3Iay, 18(51, 
lie wMs assitjned to tiie command of the Depart- 
ment of X(M'thea-^tern Virginia and of the de- 
fences of Washington south of the Potomac. On 
•2!l May. ISOI. lie was given command of the 
Army iif the Poti-mac. which consisted of about 
:!().(i(i(» men. who. witli the exception of TOO or 
SdO regular-^, were almost entirely raw recruits. 
Wiih tliese troops, in response to the public de- 
mand for some immediate action, he was ordered, 
on Ki July, to march against the Confederate 
army, posted at Manassas Junction under Gen. 
I'.raiirru'anl. His plan of campaign had been 
cai-efully studied out, and its {)rincipal feature 
was to turn the enemy's left flank while threaten- 
in>,Mlic front, which was well pt»sted liehind Bull 
Klin on an elevation that commanded the entire 
plateau. A preliminarv action, withont the au- 
thority of (ieii. McDowell, took ])lace at Black- 
1-urn"- Vnvd on the isth. and developed tlie fact 
the ("onfi'dei-ates were strongly intrenched, 
il troops, unalile to carry the masked 
';nieiie>. iril back to Cent ivville, wlierc t hcv rcstcd 
lurim: the two following days. On the n'lorning 
'f the 'Jlst the National army crossed the run and 

'■■■' '■' '' "g the enemy's left into such 

ire>eiice of Gens. Beauregard 

']] was necessarv to rallv their trooi)S, 

who then re-formed in line on the crest of the bill 

1 ensued, an.. _ 
!uid alMHit three 

The Natl. 


11 throw 
'iinfu-inii that t 
ind John 

A -ev.a-e stnig-le for this position ensued, and it 
wa< jo-t ami won three times, and alMnit three 
oel.„-k in the afternoon it remained in the control 
ol the National forces. I>,ut so.m after that hour 
tre-li ("onlrderate re - enforcements arrived and 
•"inpletely turned the tide of battle. .MeDowell's 
lueii. who had been on their feet since two o'clock 
ill the moriiiiii:. who had marched twelve miles to 
the held and lieen engaged in lieavv fiirhting since 
t.Mi o'clock, were now exhausted ■bv'^fati<'-ue and 
want ot fou<l and water. Cnable to "withstand the 
lerce atla<-k of fre^h troops, tliev broke and re- 
tnv.l m confusion down tiie hillside and made a 


disorderly retreat to Washington. Thus the first 
great battle of the civil war was fought and lost. 
According to Gen. Sherman, " it was one of the 
best-planned battles, but one of the worst fought." 
Heavy losses pf artillery and other war-supplies 
were experienced as the soldiers fell back on the 
capital. Both armies were fairly defeated, and 
whichever had stood fast the other would have 
run. Gen. Johnston says : " The Confederate army 
was more disorganized by victory than that of the 
United States by defeat." W^hile the plan was ex- 
cellent and had 'received the approval of the com- 
manding general, still much difficulty was expe- 
rienced from the fact that the time of many of the 
regiments had expired and the men refused posi- 
tively to serve any longer. Indeed, 4,000 men 
marched to the rear to the sound of the enemy's 
guns, and the defeat of the National troops was 
due to Confederate re-enforcements arriving under 
Gen. E. Kirby Smith, who were supposed to be 
held in check by a force under Gen. Robert Patter- 
son in the Shenandoah valley. 

Gen. McDowell was then given charge of the 1st 
corps. Army of the Potomac, having been super- 
seded in tlie chief command by Gen. McClellan. 
This corps under his command was soon afterward 
detached from the main army and designated as 
the Army of the Rappahannock. Meanwhile he 
was made major-general of volunteers on 14 March, 
18G2. In the summer of 1862 there were four in- 
dependent commands in Virginia, and in ciuick 
succession they were attacked with such force that 
concentration became necessary, and the Army of 
Virginia was formed under Gen. John Pope and 
the "command of the 3d corps was given to Gen. 
McDowell. The campaign of northern Virginia 
followed, and with his command he participated 
in the battle of Cedar Mountain, the action of 
Rappahannock Station, and the second battle of 
3[anassas. In the latter engagement Gen. McDow- 
ell tenaciously held his old position on Henry Hill 
until forced "to retire. The campaign ended at 
this point, and. beginning with the retreat from 
Cedar Mountain on 9 Aug., with scarcely a half 
day's intermission. McDowell's corps was either 
making forced marches, many times through the 
night and many times without food, or was en- 
gaged in battle.* Though worn out with fasting, 
nuirching. and fighting, his men were neither de- 
moralized iKn- disorganized, but preserved their 
discipline to the last." Public opinion persisted in 
holding him responsible for the defeat at Bull 
Run, and in consequence no further field-command 
was intrusted to him during the civil war. He 
was retired from duty in the field on 6 Sept., 1862, 
and. regarding this as a reflection upon him as a 
soldier.'he asked for a court of inquiry, which re- 
ported "tliat the interests of the public service do 
not requii-e any further investigation into the con- 
duct of Major-General McDowell." During part 
of 1863 he was president of the court for investi- 
gating alleged cotton -frauds, and later he was 
jiresident of the board for retiring disabled officers. 
On 1 July. 1864, he was placed in command of the 
Departinent of the Pacific, with headquarters in 
San Francisco, and held that office until 27 July, 
186."). after which he had command of the Depart- 
ment of California until 31 March. 1868. Mean- 
while he was brevetted major-general in the U. S. 
armv and mustered out of the volunteer service on 
1 Sept., 1866. In July, 1868, he was assigned to 
the command of the Department of the East, and 
on 25 Nov., 1872. was promoted to major-general. 
Soon after this he succeeded Gen. George G. Meade 
i as commander of the Division of the South, and re- 




mained until 30 June, 1876, after which he re- 
turned to San Francisco in charge of the Division 
of the Pacific until his retirement on 15 Oct., 1882. 
Gen. McDowell had great fondness for landscape 
gardening, and du^-ing the last years of his life was 
one of the park coinmissioners of San Francisco, in 
which capacity rhe constructed a park out of the 
neglected Presidio reservation and laid out drives 
that command fii^e views of the Golden Gate. 

McDowell, James, statesman, b. in Rock- 
bridge county, Va., 12 Oct., 1796 ; d. near Lexing- 
ton, Va., 24 Aug., 1851. His father, James, was 
descended from Ephraim McDowell, an early set- 
tler in Rockbridge county. His mother, Sarah 
Preston, was the sister of Gen. Francis Preston, 
whose daughter the 'younger James McDowell 
subsequently married. He was graduated at 
Princeton in 1817, and engaged in planting till 
1831, when he was in the Virginia legislature and 
took high rank as an orator. During this session 
he advocated the gradual manumission of slaves, 
and also supported in a series of brilliant speeches 
measures for internal improvement and the public- 
school system by extra legislative appropriation. 
He was governor in 1842-'4, received the degree of 
LL. D. from Princeton in 1846, and in the latter 
year was elected to congress as a Democrat, serving 
till 1851. Although an advocate of state rights, 
he vehemently opposed slavery, and is said to have 
done more to impress upon the south the superior 
economy as well as philanthropy of abolition 
than any other from Jefferson till his own day. 
When the extremists demanded that California 
should not be admitted as a free state without an 
equivalent in the extension of slave territory, he 
addressed the house in a speech on that subject, on 
3 Sept., 1850, that was unanimously described by 
those present, of whatever party, as one of the 
most eloquent efforts that had been heard in con- 
gress. A contemporary writer says : " His tall 
form, graceful gestures, and commanding voice 
revived the expectations formed of his fame. His 
sustained and splendid appeal confirmed them. 
The house repeatedly broke into involuntary ap- 
plause. At thie conclusion of his hour it shouted 
' Go on ! ' a proceeding hitherto unknown in the his- 
tory of congress. At the conclusion all business 
was suspended, and the house adjourned almost in 
silence." See " History of the Anti-Slavery Meas- 
ures of the 37th and 38th Congresses," by Henrv 
Wilson (New York, 1864). 

McDowell, John, clergvman, b. in Bedmin- 
ster, N. J., 10 Sept., 1780; d. "in Philadelphia, Pa., 
in February, 1863. He was graduated at Princeton 
in 1801, and ordained in 1804 pastor of the Pres- 
byterian church in Elizabethtown, N. J., where he 
remained till 1833. He then was in charge of the 
Central church of Philadelphia till 1846, and in 
May of that year established the Spring Garden 
church, of which he was pastor till his death. He 
was a trustee of Princeton for more than fifty 
years, and of the theological seminary there 
from its foundation, and as agent of both institu- 
tions he collected sums for their endowment. 
Union and the University of South Carolina gave 
him the degree of D. D. in 1818. The first Sunday- 
school in Elizabethtowil was established during his 
pastorate there in 1814, and he wrote for its use 
the first Bible-class questions that were ever pub- 
lished (Elizabethtown, 1814). His other works are 
" A Bible-Class Manual " (1819) and " A Svstem of 
Theology" (1826). See " Memoir," by William B. 
Sprague (New York, 1864). 

McDowell, Katherine Sherwood, author, 
b. in Holly Springs, Miss., 26 Feb., 1849 ; d. there. 

22 July, 1884. She was educated in seminaries in 
Mississippi and Alabama, as her family moved 
from place to place in advance of the National 
•forces. She married Edward McDowell at Holly 
Springs in 1870, and in 1872 removed to Boston, 
where for several years she was private secretary 
to Henry W. Longfellow, who predicted for her 
success in literature. Her first contribution to the 
press that attracted attention was a poem entitled 
"The Radical Club." The club, which she de- 
scribed as the " den of the unknowable " and the 
" cave of the unintelligible," is said to have been 
killed by the poem. In 1878 she returned to Hol- 
ly Springs, in the midst of the yellow-fever epi- 
demic, to nurse her father and brother. Her pub- 
lications, which appeared under the pen-name of 
" Sherwood Bonner," include " Like unto Like " 
(Boston, 1881) and " Dialect Tales " (1884). 

McDowell, Samuel, jurist, b. in Pennsyl- 
vania, 27 Oct., 1735 ; d. near Danville, Ky., 25 
Oct., 1817. He took an active part in the move- 
ment that brought about the war of independence, 
which is proved by letters addressed to him by 
Peyton Randolph, Richard Henry Lee, Patrick 
Henry, George Washington, and others. He served 
in Capt. Lewis's company at Braddock's defeat, and 
with his eldest son, who like himself was an offi- 
cer in the Continental line, witnessed Cornwallis's 
surrender. For many years he was a member of 
the Virginia legislature, which in 1782 appointed 
him a commissioner to settle the land-claims of 
Kentucky. He settled in Danville in 1783, served 
in the Kentucky legislature for several years, and 
was a circuit judge, organizing the first court in 
Danville, which was held in a log cabin near Dan- 
ville, and was the first court formed in the terri- 
tory. He was also president of the first State con- 
stitutional convention of Kentucky, held in Dan- 
ville, 19 April, 1792. He remained upon the bench 
until within a few years of his death. — His son, 
Ephraim, surgeon, b. in Rockbridge coimtv, Va., 
11 Nov., 1771 ; d. in Danville, Ky., 20 June", 1830, 
attended classical schools in Georgetown and Bards- 
town, Ky., and studied medicine in Staunton, Va., 
completing his medical education in Edinburgh 
in 1793-'4. He be- 
gan to practise in 
Danville. Ky., in 
1785, and for years 
was the foremost 
practitioner in the 
southwest. In 1817 
he was made a mem- 
ber of the Medical 
society of Philadel- 
phia. He received 
the degree of M. D. 
from the University 
of Marvland in 1825. 
In 1809 he success- 
fully performed the 
operation for extir- 
pation of the ovary, 
the first on record, 
and acquired in con- 
sequence European 

celebrity. A description of this, with other cases, 
he published in the Philadelphia *' Eclectic Re- 
pertory and Analytic Review" in 1817. He also 
acquired fame as a lithotomist. Dr. McDowell's 
account of his operations on the ovaries were 
received with incredulity in many places, espe- 
cially abroad, but at this time his title to the 
name of the " father of ovariotomy " is generally 
recognized. He was a man of culture and liberal 





views, and, had he lived in a less primitive com- 
munity, might have attained wealth and world- 
wide celebrity in his lifetime. In person he was 
stout, nearly six feet in height, with a florid com- 
plexion and black eyes. He was one of the found- 
ers and an original trustee of Centre college, Dan- 
ville, and a few months before his final illness 
began to build a large mansion near that town. 
On 14 May, 1879, a granite monument with a 
medallion of Dr. McDowell was erected to his 
memorv, the memorial address being made by Dr. 
8amuoi D. Gross, of Philadelphia, before the Ken- 
tuckv medical society. This is located near the 
centre of Danville, in a public square known as 
McDowell park.— His grandson, William Adair, 
phvsician, b. near Danville, Ky., 21 March, 1795 : 
d. *in Ijouisville, Ky., 10 Dec, 1853, was educated 
at Washington college, Va., which he left to serve 
in the war of 1812. He studied medicine with his 
uncle Ej^hraim, with whom he practised after re- 
ceiving his degree from the medical department 
of the University of Pennsylvania in 1818. He 
devoted much time to the* study of pulmonary 
consumption, and the result of his clinical observa- 
tions w;is pul)lishod in a monograph entitled " A 
Demonstration of the Curability of Pulmonary 
C(»nsuini)tion " (Louisville, 184o). 

McDowell, Sllas, author, b. in York dis- 
trict. S. C., Hi May, 1795; d. in Macon county, 
N. ('.. 14 July. 1879. He was left an orphan at an 
early age, and his life was one of hardship. For a 
short time he was a student at the Xewton acade- 
my. Buncombe co., S. C, working to pay for his 
tuition, and he subsequently apprenticed himself 
to a tailor. He worked at this trade for ten years 
in Xortli (^ai'olina, l)ut in 1830 removed to a farm 
in Macon county and served as clerk in the supe- 
rior court for sixteen years, and as clerk and mas- 
ter in e(piity for five years. He was a devoted 
student of nature.-giving much time to geology, 
mineralogy, and botany. His sketch, " Above the 
Clouds," was extensively copied in journals in 1829, 
and was followed by others that described North 
Carolina mountain scenery. He also wrote articles 
upon pomology, horticulture, shee})-husbandry, and 
cheese-making, and a paper upon the "Theory of 
the Thermal Zone," ])rinte(l in the "General Agri- 
cultural Repoi'ts" (Washington, 1861). 

McDrFFIE, (icorge, governor of South Caro- 
lina. It. in Colunil)ia countv, Ga., alwut 1788; d. in 
Sumler district, S. C., 11 March, 1851. He was of 
huml»le jtarentage, and began life as a clerk in a mer- 
cantile estal)lishnient in Augusta, Ga. His talents 
attracted the attention of William Calhoun, who 
sent him to Dr. Moses Waddell's school in Wil- 
mington, X. C. and subsequently to. South Caro- 
lina college, whei-e he was graduated with first 
lionors in 1813. lie then studied law, was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1814, and began to practise in 
Edgefield, S. C. In 1818 he was sent to the South 
Carolina legislature, where he proved himself an 
able wi-iler. A political controversv with Col. Will- 
iam Cuniming, of Georgia (^7. f.), about this time, 
led to several duels, in one of which McDuffie 
received wounds from which he never fully re- 
covered. Ill his earlier writings he advocated 
consolidation doctrines in opi)ositi(m to the state- 
rights views that he subsequentlv espoused. His 
various pajters on this subject were collected in 
a series of ytamphlets entitled "The Crisis." In 
1S21 he was elected to congress as a Democrat, 
servmo- from 1S21 till 1834, when he resiijned. In 
IJecemljer. 1823, he advocated the expediencv of 
changing the constitution so as to establish 'uni- 
formity in the mode of electing the members of the 

f^ .^^r ^^^^ 

house of representatives, and also in the mode of 
choosing presidential electors, and as chairman of 
this committee he made an elaborate report in 
January, 1825. He opposed congressional appro- 
priations for internal improvements, and also 
argued against the 
proposed congress 
of Panama, a fa- 
vorite measure of 
President John 
Quincy Adams. As 
chairman of the 
committee of ways 
and means he en- 
deavored to main- 
tain the Bank of 
the United States, 
was a frequent as- 
sailant of the pro- 
tective tariff, and 
engaged in impor- 
tant debates. In 
December, 1830, he 
opened the im- 
peachment trial of 
Judge James H. 
Peck, for the prosecution, in a speech of great 
])ower. He had been originally a supporter of 
President Jackson, but opposed him on the state- 
rights issue, and was one of the most ardent and 
eloquent champions of nullification, which he re- 
garded not as a constitutional but as a justifiable 
revolutionary measure. He was the author of the 
address to the people of the United States that 
was issued by the South Carolina convention of 
1832. In 1834 he left congress, after making a 
vehement speech against the administration, and 
in the same year he was elected governor of South 
Carolina, which office he held until 1836. He then 
retired to private life, but in 1842 was elected to 
the U. S. senate in place of William C. Preston, 
who had resigned, and served until 1846, when he 
relinquished his place, owing to impaired health. 
In congress few men have treated with more abil- 
ity such a variety of difficult subjects. He was 
one of the most successful planters in the state, 
and delivered an oration before the State agricul- 
tural society. For many years he was commonly 
called Gen. McDulfie, as he had been a major-gen- 
eral in the state militia. He published a " Eulogy 
on Robert Y. Ilayne " (Charleston, 1840), and was 
the author of numerous addresses. 

MACE, Frances Parker Laii^htoii, poet, b. in 
Orono, Me., 15 Jan., 1836. Her maiden name was 
Laughton. She w^as graduated at the high-school 
of Bangor in 1852, and in 1855 married Benjamin 
H. Mace, a lawyer of that city. In 1885 she re- 
moved to San Jose, Cal. One of her poems, " Only 
Waiting," suggested by the reply of an old man 
who was asked what he was doing, first published 
in the Waterville, Me., "Mail," in 1854, became 
very popular. She has published " Legends, Lyrics, 
and Sonnets" (Boston, 1883), and poems entitled 
"Under Pine and Palm" (1887), besides contribu- 
tions to magazines, which include " Israfil," " Easter 
Morning." and " The Kingdom of the Child." 

MacEACHEJlN, Bernard Ang-ns, Canadian 
R. C. bishop, b. in Scotland about 1780; d. in 
Charlottetown, Prince Edward island, in 1835. 
He was for a long time engaged on the mission of 
Prince Edward island, and was consecrated vicar 
apostolic of that province and Xew Brunswick, in 
Quebec, 17 June, 1821. The population of his dio- 
cese was large, and the number of priests inconsid- 
erable, and to insure an increase in the latter he 




made arrangements for having ecclesiastical stu- 
dents educated in the College of the propaganda, 
Rome, and in the Seminary of Quebec. After he 
had labored zealously for several years, his vicariate 
was erected into k titular bishopric, and the new- 
see was placed Jn Charlottetown, the capital of 
Prince Edward^lsland, 11 Aug., 1829. 

MACEDO, J6aquim Manoel de (mah-shay'-do), 
Brazilian poet, b\in San Joao d'ltaborahi, 24 June, 
1820. He studied medicine in Rio Janeiro, and 
was graduated there, but never practised his pro- 
fession, and was appointed in 1850 professor of 
national history in the college of the city. He en- 
tered politics in 1854, and was elected deputy by 
the city of Rio Janeiro several times. Macedo has 
acquired a great reputation as a lyric poet, but 
he has also written novels, and composed several 
dramas and comedies, which have been repre- 
sented with great success in the principal cities of 
South America. Macedo is highly esteemed by the 
Brazilians, who consider him the most elegant of 
their national poets. His works include " More- 
ninha," a novel (Rio Janeiro, 1844 ; 5th ed., revised, 
1877) ; " Mogo loura," a novel of the early stages 
•of the Portuguese conquest (1845) ; " Forasteiro," 
a novel (1855); "A Nebulosa," a poem (1857); 
r' Cotie," a drama, " Fantasma Branco," a comedy 
<1856); " Luxo-e-Vaidade," a comedy (1859); and 
*• Corographia do Brazil " (1873). 

MACEDO, Sergio Texeira de, Brazilian jour- 
nalist, b. in Rio Janeiro in September, 1809 ; d. in 
Lisbon, Portugal, in 1865. He was graduated in 
law in Olinda in 1831, and immediately began his 
■career as journalist, publishing the paper '' Olin- 
■dense." In 1832 he published in Rio Janeiro the 
^'Verdade" and the "Aurora Fluminense." In 
1833 he was appointed secretary of the Brazilian 
legation in France, and in 1834 became special en- 
voy to Lisbon. In 1838 he was sent to Rome to 
settle some difficulties between Brazil and the pope, 
and by his good offices the independence of Chili 
was recognized. Macedo was also minister to 
Turin in 1842, to France in 1843. and to Austria in 
1847. In 1853 he was called by the government to 
Brazil to consult on its financial difficulties, and, 
although not a specialist, he settled the question 
satisfactorily, and restored the credit of the nation. 
In 1854 he began to agitate against the slave-trade, 
and the same year was appointed minister to Lon- 
don, where he gave valuable hints to the abolition- 
ists in regard to preventing the trade from Africa. 
In 1855 he was appointed minister to the United 
States, but declined and retired to Brazil, where 
he published valuable papers in the " Journal do 
€ommercio." He was elected representative in 
1856 and senator in 1857, from 1859 till 1861 was 
minister of state, and in 1865 he went to Europe in 
•quest of health, but died there. 

McELLIOOTT, James Napoleon, educator, b. 
in Richmond, Va., 3 Oct., 1812 ; d. in New York 
■city, 22 Oct., 1866. He came to New York at an 
■early age, attended a private school, and studied in 
the New York university, but left before receiving 
a degree. In 1837 he became a candidate for or- 
ders in the Protestant Episcopal church, but was 
not ordained, and devoted his subsequent life to 
teaching and to the preparation of text-books. In 
1845 he was principal of the school of the General 
■society of mechanics and tradesmen in New York. 
In 1849 he opened a private school, which he con- 
tinued until his death. He labored actively among 
the poor, and was interested in Epiphany mission 
■church, raising a fund for its future support. He 
was president of the State teachers' association. 
In 1849 he received the degree of M. A. from Yale, 

VOL. IV. — 8 

and in 1852 that of LL. D. from Harrodsburg Fe- 
male college, Ky. In 1848 he was editor of " The 
Teachers' Advocate," a journal devoted to science 
and literature. In addition to Greek and Hebrew 
text-books, he published a "Manual, Analytical 
and Synthetical, of Orthography and Definition " 
(New York, 1845) ; " The Young Analyzer " (1849) ; 
"The Humorous Speaker" (1853); and "The 
American Debater " (1855). He also wrote Sunday- 
school hymns, and an unfinished Latin grammar. 

McELRATH, Thomas, lawyer, b. in Williams- 
port, Pa., 1 May, 1807; d. in New York city, 6 
June, 1888. He became a printer early in life, but 
subsequently began the study of law. Removing 
later to New York city, he was engaged as proof- 
reader and then as head salesman in the Methodist 
book concern, and in 1825 he formed a partnership 
with Lemuel Bangs in the publication of school and 
religious books. On its dissolution he resumed his 
legal studies, was admitted to the bar, and began 
the practice of law in New Y^'ork. In 1838 he was 
elected to the legislature, was placed on its judi- 
ciary committee, and chosen to write a report on 
petitions praying for the abolition of capital pun- 
ishment. He early allied himself with the Whig 
party, and was an earnest supporter of Henry Clay. 
In 1840 he was appointed a master in chancery, 
but in 1841, relinquishing the law, he entered into 
partnership with Horace Greeley in the conduct of 
the " New York Tribune " under the firm-name of 
Greeley and McElrath. It is conceded that the 
establishment and success of the " Tribune " were 
assured only after Mr. McElrath joined in its pub- 
lication. In 1857 he was elected corresponding sec- 
retary of the American institute, editing the state 
annual reports of the institute until 1861, when he 
resigned. In 1861 he was appointed appraiser-gen- 
eral for the New York district, but he resigned in 
1864 to resume the publication of the " Tribune." 
In 1866 he was appointed chief appraiser of foreign 
merchandise at the port of New York. He was one 
of the commissioners to the Paris exposition in 
1867, and to the Vienna exhibition of 1873, and, with 
John Jay, special commissioner to adjust and su- 
perintend the American department in the latter 
exhibition. In 1876 he was secretary of the New 
York state commission at the Centennial exhibi- 
tion. At his death he was a banker in New York. 
He published " Dictionary of Words and Phrases 
used in Commerce" (New Y^ork, 1872). 

McELROY, John, clergyman, b. in Brookebor- 
ough, County. Fermanagh, Ireland, 11 May, 1782 ; 
d. in Frederick, Md., 12 Sept., 1877. Owing to the 
penal laws, he received a very limited education in 
his native country, and about the beginning of this 
century he emigrated to the United States and 
settled at Georgetown, D. C, where he engaged in 
mercantile business. He afterward became book- 
keeper at Georgetown college, and, wishing to im- 
prove himself, employed his leisure hours in the 
study of Latin, assisted by one of the students of 
the college. In 1806 he entered the Society of Je- 
sus as a lay brother, but after a brief experience in 
that capacity he was recommended to the general 
of the order as a suitable person for the priesthood 
by one of his superiors, who had heard him ex- 
plain very logically a lesson in catechism. He was 
ordained" in May, 1817, by Archbishop Neale, pf 
Baltimore, and for several years stationed at 
Trinity church, Georgetown, but in 1822, at the 
request of Roger B. Taney, was transferred to 
Frederick, Md. Here he began to display that 
practical ability that made him ever afterward one 
of the most useful members of the Society of Jesus 
in the United States. He built St. John's church, 



a college, an academy, an orphan asylum, and the 
first free school in Frederick. After twenty-three 
years of work there he was transferred to Trinity 
church, Georgetown, but the following year. Presi- 
dent Polk having requested the council of bishops 
in Baltimore to select chaplains for the Roman 
Catholic soldiers in the Mexican war, Father McEl- 
roy was one of the two priests that were chosen for 
that duty. Notwithstanding his advanced age, he 
accepted the office, and was so faithful in the dis- 
charge of liis duties that he was frequently men- 
tioned in the highest terms in the despatches from 
the seat of war. At the close of hostilities he was 
made pastor of St. Mary's church, Boston, Mass., 
where he paid special attention to the subject of 
education, building Boston college and the Church 
of the immaculate conception. Father McElroy 
continued in the active performance of his priestly 
duties until he was past eighty years old. When 
fourscore and ten he became blind, and retired to 
Frederick. ^Nld., in his last years. When he died 
he was the oldest Jesuit in the world. 

Mcelroy. Mary 

Washington co., X. Y 


in 1842. 


b. in Greenwich, 
She is the young- 
est child of the 
Rev. William Ar- 
thur {q. V.) and the 
sister of Chester 
A.Arthur. Hered- 
ucation was com- 
pleted in Troy, at 
the seminary of 
which Mrs. Em ma 
Willard was prin- 
cipal. In 18G1 she 
married John E. 
McElroy, of Al- 
bany, and since 
that event she has 
resided in that 
city. During the 
administration of 
her bi'other she 
made her home 
in Washington in 
!ind dispensed the hospitalities 
with rare social tact, the place^ wi.c n;i »iinii she was peculiarly fitted by 
her j)ersonal character and previous associations. 

McENTEE, Jervis, artist, b. in Rondout, N. Y., 
14 .luly. 1S2S ; d. there, 27 Jan., 18!)1. He studied 
with Frederic K. Church in New York, hut later 
engaged in business in Rondout. This he relin- 
quished after three years, and. openiui,^ a studio in 
New N'ork. devoted "himself thenceforth wholly to 
art. lie first exhibited at the Academy of design 
in IS.-);}, and was eUn-ted an associate in 18G0, and 
acadeniieian one year later. In 18G9 he visited 
Europe, sketching in Italy and Switzerland, and 
studying in the princijial" galleries on the conti- 
nent. .^Ir. McEntee usually delineated Xature in 
her UKire sombre aspects, and there is in his paint- 
u\'j:> a latent sentiment not often found among 
landsea{)e-painters. He was especially successful in 
autumnal scenes. His more im))ortant works are 
-The Melancholy Days have come" (1800); "In- 
dian Summer" (18G1); "Late Autumn"' (1863); 
•• October Snow " (1870) ; " Sea from Shore " (1873) ; 
•• ( 'ai)e Ann " (1874) ; " A Song of Summer " (1876) ; 
••\\ niter in the ^Mountains" (1878): "Clouds" 
(lS7!b; -The Edge of a Wood" (1880); " Kaats- 
kil biver" (18S1): -Autumn Memory" (1883); 
"Miadows of Autumn" and "The Kaatskills in 
Winter" (1884); "Christmas E 
" Shadows of Autumn " (1886). 

the winter season 
of the White Hon 
being one for which 

ve" (1885); and 


McFADDEN, Obadiah B., jurist, b. in Wash- 
ington county. Pa., in 1817 ; d. in Olympia, Wash- 
ington territory, 25 June, 1875. He was elected 
to the legislature of Pennsylvania in 1843, and was 
prothonotary of Washington county, Pa., in 1845. 
In 1853 he was appointed associate justice of the 
supreme court of Oregon territory, and in 1854 to 
the same office in Washington territory. In 1858 
he became chief justice of Washington territory, 
which office he held until the autumn of 1861. He 
represented his district in the legislative council, 
and was also elected a delegate from Washington 
territory to congress as a Democrat, to serve from 
1 Dec, 1873, till 3 March, 1877. 

McFARLAND, Amanda R., missionary, b. in 
Brooke county, Va., about 1837. She was educated 
at Steubenville female seminary, and in 1857 mar- 
ried Rev. David F. McFarland, a Presbyterian 
clergyman. From 1862 till 1866 her husband held 
charge of Mattoon female seminary, 111., and in 
1867 removed to Santa Fe to engage in mission 
work in New Mexico. Here Mrs. McFarland or- 
ganized and conducted a successful mission-school 
among Mexican children. In 1873 they removed 
to California and established an academy at San 
Diego, and in 1875 they conducted missions among 
the Nez Perces Indians. After Mr. McFarland's 
death in 1876 his wife removed to Portland, Ore- 
gon, and in 1877 took charge of a school at Fort 
Wrangell, Alaska. Here she acted as clergyman, 
physician, and lawyer for the Indians, who brought 
their difficulties for her solution. She was called 
to preside over a native constitutional convention, 
and chiefs came long distances to enter the school 
of "the woman who loved their people," and to 
plead that teachers should be sent to their tribes. 
Her efforts resulted in the establishment of a 
training-school for Alaskan girls which is called 
" The McFarland Home," of which institution she 
now (1888) has charge. 

McFARLAND, Francis Patrick, R. C. bishop, 
b. in Franklin, Pa., 16 April, 1819 ; d. in Hartford, 
Conn., 12 Oct., 1874. He was educated for the 
priesthood at Mount St. Mary's college, ordained 
in New York city on 18 May, 1845, and after act- 
ing for a year as professor at St. John's college, 
Fordham, and for several months as assistant priest 
in New York city, was appointed to the mission of 
Watertowm, N. Y., and in 1851 made pastor of St. 
John's church, Utica. On 14 March, 1858, he was 
consecrated bishop of the see of Hartford, and, like 
the two first bishops, made Providence his resi- 
dence. In 1872, when the Roman Catholic popu- 
lation of the diocese had grown to more than 
200,000, the new see of Providence was erected, 
and Bishop McFarland removed to Plartford and 
there engaged in the erection of a cathedral, with 
an episcopal palace and a convent, continuing the 
work until his health failed. 

MACFARLANE, Alexander, lawyer, b. in 
Wallace, Nova Scotia, 17 June, 1818. After re- 
ceiving an education from private tutors he studied 
law, was called to the bar of Nova Scotia in 1844, 
and acquired a large practice. He was in the Nova 
Scotia legislature from 1856 until the union of 
1867. In 1865 he became a member of the execu- 
tive council of the province, and holds rank and 
precedence as such by patent from the queen. He 
was one of the delegates from Nova Scotia to the 
colonial conference in London to complete the 
terms of union in 1866-7, and in the latter year 
was appointed queen's counsel. On 10 Oct., 1870, 
he was called to the senate. In politics he is a 
Conservative, and his speeches in the senate have 
been marked by dignity and breadth of view. 




MACFARLANE, Robert, editor, b. in Ruther- 
glen, near Glasgow, Scotland, 23 April, 1815 ; d. in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., 21 Dec, 1883. His early educa- 
tion was limited, and, after learning his father's 
trade, that of a dybr, he emigrated to the United 
States in 1836 ^d settled in Albany, N. Y., in 
1840, where he became editor of a paper in the in- 
terests of the working classes. In 1848 he was ap- 
pointed editor of^he " Scientific American," which 
post he held for seventeen years, but, being threat- 
ened with failing eyesight, he relinquished literary 
work in 1865, returned to Albany, and engaged in 
dyeing. In 1874 he retired, and thenceforward re- 
sided chiefly in Brooklyn. He revisited his native 
land twice and wrote sketches of his travels, also 
devoting himself to Scottish antiquities and to the 
history of Scottish emigration to this country. He 
was the author of " Propellers and Steam Naviga- 
tion" (New York, 1851; new ed., Philadelphia, 
1854), and edited Love's " Treatise on the Art of 
Dyeing " (Philadelphia, 1868). 

MACFEELY, Robert, soldier, b. about 1828. 
He was graduated at the U. S. military academy 
in 1850, served as lieutenant of infantry in scout- 
ing against the Snake Indians, in the Yakima 
expedition of 1855, and against the Oregon In- 
dians. He was made a captain on the staff on 11 
May, 1861, and was commissary for the state of 
Indiana, and afterward chief of the commissa- 
riat of the Army of the Ohio, and then of the 
Army of the Tennessee during the Vicksburg cam- 
paign and the subsequent operations until the 
close of the Atlanta campaign, after being com- 
missioned as major on 9 Feb., 1863. He received 
two brevets on 15 March, 1865, for faithful services 
during the war. After serving as chief of com- 
missariat at Cincinnati, Detroit, and Chicago, he 
was appointed commissary-general of subsistence, 
with the rank of brigadier-general, on 14 April, 
1875, which office he still (1888) holds. 

McFERRAN, John Courts, soldier, b. in Ken- 
tucky in 1831 ; d. in Louisville, Ky., 25 April, 
1872. He was graduated at the U. S. military 
academy in 1843 and assigned to the infantry. He 
served in the military occupation of Texas and the 
war with Mexico, being engaged at Palo Alto and 
Resaca de la Palma. He was with his regiment 
on the frontiers of Texas and New Mexico until he 
entered the quartermaster's department and was 
made a captain on the staff on 20 Aug., 1855. Be- 
fore and during the civil war he was on duty in 
New Mexico, being promoted major and appointed 
chief quartermaster of that department on 30 Nov., 
1863. In 1864-'5 he was Gen. James H. Carleton's 
chief of staff, and at the close of the war was bre- 
vetted brigadier-general. He was promoted lieu- 
tenant-colonel on 29 July, 1866, and served subse- 
quently as chief quartermaster of the Department 
of Washington and of the Division of the South. 

McFERRIN, James, clergyman, b. in Washing- 
ton county, Va., 25 March, 1784; d. in Tipton 
county, Tenn., 4 Sept., 1840. He was of Irish Pres- 
byterian extraction, was brought up as a farmer, 
and, after marrying at the age of twenty, settled in 
Rutherford county, Tenn., where he was often en- 
gaged in combats with the Indians. After the 
declaration of war with England he was chosen 
captain of a company of volunteers, and marched 
under Gen. Andrew Jackson against the Creeks, 
was present at Talladega, and suffered great priva- 
tions during the campaign. Capt. McPerrin was 
elected colonel on his return, and for several years 
took pride in leading the best-trained regiment of 
the state troops. At the age of thirty-six he united 
with the Methodist Episcopal church, and on 25 

Nov., 1823, was received into the Tennessee con- 
ference as an itinerant preacher. His ministry, 
which was in Alabama after 1828, and in western 
Tennessee after 1834, was attended with great suc- 
cess.— His eldest son, John Berry, clergyman, b. 
in Rutherford county, Tenn., 15 June, 1807 ; d. in 
Nashville, 10 May, 1887, was appointed a class- 
leader in 1823, licensed to exhort in 1824 and to 
preach in 1825, and joined the Tennessee confer- 
ence the same year. The next three years he spent 
on circuits in Tennessee and Alabama, and he was 
then missionary to the Cherokee nation for two 
years, six years in stations, three years presiding 
elder, and in 1840 elected editor of the " Christian 
Advocate." In this post he was continued till 
May, 1858, when he was elected book-agent. This 
office, with the further appointment of missionary 
to the Army of Tennessee, he held eight years. In 
1866 he was elected secretary to the board of mis- 
sions, which office he filled till 1878. In that year 
he was again elected book-agent, and he continued 
in this office till his death. Randolph-Macon col- 
lege gave him the degree of D. D. in 1851. He 
represented American Methodism in the oecumeni- 
cal conference in London, England, in 1881, and he 
was at the centennial conference in Baltimore in 
1884. His chief work was a " History of Method- 
ism in Tennessee " (3 vols., Nashville,' 1870-2). A 
memorial volume, edited by Rev. 0. P. Fitzgerald, 
is now (1888) in preparation. — Another son, Ander- 
sen Purdy, clergyman, b. in Rutherford county, 
Tenn., 25 Feb., 1818, entered the Methodist minis- 
try in 1854, and has published " Sermons for the 
Times " (Nashville, 1884), and " Heavenly Shadows 
and Hymns" (1887). 

MacGAHAN, Januarius Aloysins, journalist, 
b. near New Lexington, Perry co., Ohio, 12 June, 
1844; d. in Constantinople, Turkey, 9 June, 1878. 
His father died when the son was seven years old, 
leaving a farm on which the latter worked till the 
age of sixteen, attending school during the winter 
months. He went to Huntington, 111., in 1860, 
taught for two terms, then became a book-keeper, 
and, removing to St. Louis in 1864, followed the 
same calling after first passing through the course 
of instruction in a 
business college. He 
also wrote news-let- 
ters to the Hunt- 
ington " Democrat," 
gave public readings 
from Charles Dick- 
ens's works, and dur- 
ing his spare hours 
read law, which he 
intended to make his 
profession. In Janu- 
ary, 1869, he went to 
Europe, visited Lon- 
don, Paris, and oth- 
er places, and then 
spent many months 
in Brussels, where he 
devoted himself to 
the study of civil and international law, and per- 
fected his knowledge of French and German. When 
about to embark for home he was engaged in the 
autumn of 1870 as special correspondent of the 
New York " Herald." Ho overtook the retreating 
army of Gen. Charles D. S. Bourbaki, and then 
went to Lyons and next to Bordeaux, whence he de- 
spatched a series of interviews with the leaders of 
the Republican and the Monarchical and Clerical 
parties that attracted much attention, and on the 
removal of the seat of the National government to 




Versailles hastened to Paris, and remained there 
from the beginning to the end of the Commune, 
describing the events of the period in graphic 
letters He was the onlv correspondent in the citv, 
and established an intimacy with Dombrovsky and 
other connnunist leaders that was the cause of his 
arrest bv the National troops, from whose custody 
he was delivered through the intercession of the 
U. S. minister, Elihu B. Washburne. His published 
conversations with Leon Gambetta, Archbishop 
Dupanloup, and others introduced into Europe the 
practice of newspaper interviewing. After the 
Commune he visited Bucharest, Odessa, and then 
Yalta, wliere he formed many friendships with 
members of the czar's household and officers of the 
guards. Accompanying the court to St. Peters- 
bur"-, lie was appointed regular correspondent of 
the'''" Herald" in that capital, and through his 
exceptional social relations with high officials was 
able to obtain interesting political news. He ac- 
comjiaiiied Gen. William T. Sherman to the Cau- 
casus in 1872, then reported the proceedings of the 
" Alal)ama " conference in Geneva, gathered news 
in London, Paris, T;yoiis, and other places, and 
after marrving, in January, 1878, a Russian lady 
whose actn'iaintance he had first made at Yalta, 
was unexpcctedlv ordered to join the expedition 
against Kliivji. "xVfter vainly seeking permission 
for the journey from the Russian government, he 
set out alone on his adventurous trip, riding un- 
hindered through the desert, and overtaking the 
Russian column l)efore Khiva just as the bombard- 
ment l)egan. While he was there a close intimacy 
si)rang u|) between him and Col. Skobeleff. 

On his return to Europe he published his 
'•Cami)aigning on the Oxus, and the Fall of 
Kliiva" (London, 1874), which has passed through 
many editions. In July, 1874, he w^ent to the 
Pyrenees to report the Oarlist war, and renuuned 
with Don Carlos for the next ten months, acquiring 
in a short time a })erfect command of the Spanish 
tongue. During the campaign he lived in the 
saddle and was frequently under fire. In his 
letters to the "Herald" he tried to gain for the 
Caiiisis the sympathies of the civilized world. In 
.luiie, 1S75, he sailed from Southampton on the 
"Pandora" for the Polar seas. This voyage he 
described in newsjjaper letters, and in a volume 
entitled "Under the Xorthern Lights" (London, 
187()). Ill .lune, 1870, he received a special com- 
mission from the editor of the London "Daily 
News" to investigate the truth of despatches de- 
scril)ing Turkish barl)arities in Bulgaria, which 
had been called in (piestion by the premier, Ben- 
jamin Disraeli, in the House of commons. Accom- 
panied by Eugene Schuyler, who had been com- 
missioned by tile U. S. government to prosecute a 
similar iiuiuiry, MacGahan went over the desolated 
districts, ([uestioned the people in Russian, of 
which language he had gained a limited knowledge, 
and presented in l)rilliant descriptive style a mass 
of detailed evidence of the realitv of the "Bulgarian 
horrors that enlisted on l)ehalf of the Christians of 
Turkey the sympatliies of the liritish public, and 
removed the hindrances to the armed intervention 
1 lis letters were reprinted in a pamphlet 
Turkish Atrocities in liulgaria " (London, 
.-..y. In the following winter he reported the 
confi'i-ence of the ambassadors in Constantinople, 
then went to St. Petersburg to watch the war prep- 
arations. Notwithstanding a painful accident, he 
iiccoinpanied the Russian army, was present at the 
first battle with the Turks, anil witnessed the pas- 
sage of the advanced guard over the Danube. 
Though crijipled by a broken leg and bruised in 




the fall of an ammunition-cart, he accompanied 
Gen. Gourko's column, and was with Gen. Skobeleff 
at the front, where he often went without food, 
and four times lay ill in the trenches with malarial 
fever. His letters described the course of opera- 
tions and vividly pictured the scenes of battle from 
the fight at Shipka Pass to the fall of Plevna. 
While the negotiations of San Stefano were pro- 
ceeding he remained at Pera during an epidemic 
of spotted typhus, and at last fell a victim to the 
disease. MacGahan combined in a remarkable 
degree descriptive powers and facility of composi- 
tion, acute military and political perceptions, and 
physical energy and decisiveness in action. His 
fearlessness in exposing himself to fire enabled him 
to describe battles with great fidelity. He had 
planned a work on the eastern question, but left 
it in no form for publication. 

McGARVEY, John William, theologian, b. in 
Hopkinsville, Ky., 1 March, 1829. He was gradu- 
ated at Bethany college, Va., in 1850, became a min- 
ister of the Christian denomination, and preached 
at Fayette, Mo., in 1851-'3, then at Dover, Mo., till 
1862, 'and from 1862 till 1881 at Lexington, Ky. 
Since 1865 he has been professor of sacred history 
in the College of the Bible, Kentucky university. 
From 1869 till 1876 he edited the "Apostolic 
Times." Pie is the author of a " Commentary on 
the Acts of the Apostles " (Cincinnati, 1863) ; " Com- 
mentary on the Gospels of Matthew and Mark" 
(1876) ; " Lands of the Bible " (Philadelphia, 1880) ; 
and " The Text and the Canon," consisting of the 
first two parts of a work on the evidences of Chris- 
tianity (Cincinnati, 1886). 

Mc(tEE, Thomas D'Arcy, statesman, b. in Car- 
lingford, Ireland, 13 April, 1825; d. in Ottawa, 
Canada, 7 April, 1868. He was educated at Wex- 
ford, where his father was employed in the cus- 
tom-house, emigrated to this country in 1842, 
and settled in Boston, where he wrote for the 
" Pilot," a Roman Catholic newspaper, and soon 
became its editor. On his return to Ireland soon 
afterward he became parliamentary correspondent 
of the Dublin " Freeman's Journal," and, identify- 
ing himself with the Young Ireland party, joined 
the staff of " The Nation " newspaper. In 1847 he 
made himself conspicuous by summoning a meet- 
ing to the Rotunda, Dublin, his object being to ex- 
pose the later policy of Daniel O'Connell. Toward 
the end of 1848, having become compromised by 
the part he had taken in the Young Ireland move- 
ment, he made good his escape to the United States ; 
and ill New York he established a newspaper called 
" The American Celt," and afterward " The Nation," 
advocating the claims of Ireland to independent 
nationality. During the " Know-Nothing " excite- 
ment of 1854-'6 his views underwent a radical 
change, and he became an ardent royalist. He 
then removed to Canada, w^here he was gladly wel- 
comed, established a paper called " The New Era," 
and in 1857 was elected to the Canadian parliament 
as one of the members for Montreal. In 1864 he 
was made president of the executive council, which 
office he continued to hold till 1867. He took an 
active part in the movement that resulted in the 
confederation of the British North American colo- 
nies, framing the draft of the plan of union that was 
substantially adopted. He was re-elected after the 
union and sent to the parliament of Ottawa. 
McGee had rendered himself obnoxious to the 
members of the Fenian secret society, and on the 
evening of 7 April, 1868, when returning from a 
night session of parliament, he w^as assassinated at 
the door of his hotel. He was a man of more than 
ordinary culture, which was fully recognized. At 




the Paris exhibition in 1855, and at the Dublin ex- 
hibition in 1864, he represented Canada in the ca- 
pacity of chief commissioner. His contributions 
to literature werci " Historical Sketches of O'Con- 
nell and his Friei^s " (Dublin. 1845) ; " Irish Writ- 
ers of the Seventeenth Century " (1846) ; " Memoir 
of the Life andVConquests of MacMurrough, King 
of Leinster" (1§47) ;" Irish Letters" (New York, 
1852) ; " Life of Edward McGinn, Coadjutor Bishop 
of Derry " (Montreal, 1857) ; " Canadian Ballads " 
(1858) ; " Popular History of Ireland " (New York, 
1862) ; and " Speeches and Addresses on the Brit- 
ish American Union " (London, 1865). A volume 
of his poems, with an introduction by Mrs. D. J. 
Sadlier, appeared after his death (New York, 1870). 

McGEE, W J [he has no Christian name], geolo- 
gist, b. in Dubuque county, Iowa, 17 April, 1853. 
He was self-educated, and in early life invented 
and patented several improvements on agricultural 
implements, subsequently he turned his attention 
to geology, and made important investigations in 
that direction, including researches on the loess 
of the Mississippi valley, the examination of the 
great quaternary lakes of Nevada and California, 
and the study of a recent fault-movement of great 
scientific interest in the middle Atlantic slope. In 
1881 he received the appointment of geologist on 
the U. S. geological survey, and in that capacity he 
visited in 1886 the city of Charleston for the pur- 
pose of studying the earthquake disturbances in 
its vicinity. He is a member of many scientific 
societies in the LTnited States, and has published 
nearly fifty scientific papers in the proceedings 
of the societies of which he is a member, and in 
technical journals. 

MACGEORGE, Robert Jackson, Canadian 
clergyman, b. in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1811. His 
father, Andrew, was a well-known solicitor in Glas- 
gow. Hobert was educated at the Universities of 
Grlasgow and Edinburgh, in 1839 was ordained a 
minister of the Episcopal church of Scotland, and 
in 1841 he removed to Canada, where he was ap- 
pointed incumbent of Trinity church, Streetsville. 
During his connection with this congregation he 
did much missionary work at adjoining stations. 
While in Canada he edited the " Church," a weekly 
newspaper, and the " Anglo-American Magazine." 
In 1858 he returned to Scotland, and was placed in 
charge of the Episcopal church in Oban. Mr. 
Macgeorge was for some time synod clerk, and in 
1872 was appointed dean of Argyll and the Isles. 
In 1881 he resigned his charge, as well as his office 
of dean and canon of the cathedral. He has written 
numerous songs which have been set to music, 
and is also the autlK)r of a volume of " Tales, Ly- 
rics, and Sketches " (Toronto, 1858). 

McGILL, Alexander Taggart, clergyman, b. in 
Cannonsburgh, Pa.* 24 Jan., 1807 ; d. in Princeton, 
N. J., 13 Jan., 1889. He was graduated at Jefferson 
college, was a tutor, and then removed to Georgia, 
where he studied law, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1830. He was appointed by the legislature to 
survey and map the northwest corner of the state, 
and after this work was completed in 1831 he re- 
turned to Cannonsburgh for the purpose of fitting 
himself for the ministry. After studying in the 
Associate Presbyterian seminary, where he was 

fraduated in 1835, he was ordained at Carlisle, 
'a., and was pastor of three small churches in 
Cumberland, Perry, and York counties till 1838, 
when he connected himself with the old-school 
Presbyterian church. Soon afterward he became 
pastor of the 2d Presbyterian church of Carlisle, 
and in 1842 professor of church history in West- 
ern theological seminary, Alleghany, Pa. In 1848 

he was moderator of the general assembly, which 
met in Baltimore. In the winter of 1852 he 
filled a professorship in the Presbyterian seminary 
at Columbia, S. C, and in 1853 returned to his 
former chair in Allegheny. In 1854 he was trans- 
ferred to the professorship of ecclesiastical, homi- 
letic, and pastoral theology at Princeton theologi- 
cal seminary, and in 1883 he was retired as emeri- 
tus professor. He received the degree of D. D. 
from Marshall college, Mercersburg, Pa., in 1842, 
and that of LL. D. from Princeton in 1868. Many 
of his sermons and speeches have been printed. 
He was a frequent contributor to reviews, and, 
besides assisting in the composition of other works, 
was the author of a volume on " Church Govern- 
ment," and two on '• Church Ordinances," which 
he prepared for the press. His son, George Mc- 
Cnlloch, surgeon, b. at Hannah Furnace, Centre 
CO., Pa., 20 April, 1838 ; d. near Fort Lyon, Col- 
orado, 20 July, 1867, was graduated at Princeton 
in 1858 and at the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1861. He was com- 
missioned assistant surgeon in the U. S. army to 
date from 16 April, 1861, in June, 1863, was made 
medical inspector, and in May, 1864, was acting 
medical director of the cavalry corps of the Army 
of the Potomac. For gallantry at Meadow Brook 
he received the brevet of captain. In June, 1864, 
he was made acting medical inspector of the Army 
of the Potomaf., and served as such until January, 
1865. At the close of the war he was brevetted 
major. During the cholera year of 1866 he at- 
tended the victims of the epidemic on Hart's and 
David's islands, New York harbor, receiving the 
brevet of lieutenant-colonel. He was then ordered 
to the west, and while he was on the march from 
Fort Harker, Kansas, to Fort Lyon, the cholera 
broke out. Incessant labor then, which earned for 
him the brevet of colonel, with grief at the death 
of his wife, was the cause of his death. — Another 
son, Alexander Taggart, jurist, b. in Allegheny 
City, Pa., 20 Oct., 1843, was graduated at Prince- 
ton in 1864, studied law, was admitted to the bar, 
and practised in Jersey City, N. J. He was elected 
to the legislature in 1874, re-elected the following 
year, and was prosecutor of the pleas of Hudson 
county in 1878-83 and then president of the county 
courts till May, 1887, when he was chosen chan- 
cellor of the state of New Jersey. 

McGILL, James, Canadian philanthropist, b. 
in Glasgow, Scotland, 6 Oct., 1744; d. in Montreal, 
Canada, 19 Dec, 1813. He received his early edu- 
cation in his native place, and came to Canada be- 
fore the American Revolution. For some time 
after his arrival he engaged in the northwest fur- 
trade, but afterward settled in Montreal, and, in 
partnership with his brother, Andrew jNIcGill, be- 
came one of the chief merchants in that town. He 
was for many years a member of the Lower Cana- 
dian pai-liament for West Montreal, and after- 
ward a member of the legishitive and executive 
councils. He was lieutenant-colonel and subse- 
quently colonel of the Montreal city militia, and 
at the beginning of the war of 1812 became briga- 
dier-general, and was prepared in that cai)acity to 
take the field. In addition to many other benefits 
that he conferred upon IMontreal, he was mainly 
instrumental in founding the ujiiversity that bears 
his name, and bequeathed to it property that was 
valued at £30,000 and £10.000 in cash. Owing to 
the growth of the city, the land has increased 
greatly in value, and, in consequence of this fact 
and other bequests and donations that have been 
received, it is now the most richly endowed uni- 
versity of the Dominion. 



McGILL, John, Canadian statesman, b. m Auch- 
land Wifftonshire, Scotland, in March, 1752 ; d. in 
Toronto, 31 Dec. 1834. After receiving his pre- 
paratory education, he was apprenticed to a mer- 
chant at Avr. In 1773 he emigrated to Virginia 
adhered to 'the i^oyal cause in the Revolution, and 
in 1777 was a lieutenant in the Loyal Virginians. 
In 1782 he was a captain in the Queen's rangers, 
and in 1783, at the close of the war, went to bt. 
John New Brunswick, where he remained seven 
years' In the winter of 1792 Mr. McGill removed 
to Upper Canada, where he became a member ot 
the executive council in 1796, and in 1797 of the 
legislative council, in which body he remained till 
his death. He was also inspector-general of ac- 
counts, to which office he was appointed in 1801. 

Ilig nephew, Peter, Canadian merchant, b. in 

Cree Bridge, Wigtonshire, Scotland, in August, 
1789 ; d. in ^Montreal, 28 Sept., 18G0, was named 
McCutclieon, but he afterward changed that sur- 
name to :\IcGill at the request of his uncle, whose 
heir he became. Peter emigrated to Canada in 
1809. and, settling in Montreal, became a merchant. 
From June, 1834. till June, 1800, he was president 
of the Bank of Montreal. He became a legislative 
councillor in 1841, was also for a time an executive 
councillor, and in 1847 was appointed speaker of 
the lot?islative council, which office he held till his 
resii,niat ion in the following year. Mr. McGill was 
the first chairman of the St. Lawrence and Cham- 
plain railroad company, the first that was estab- 
lislied in Canada, from its beginning in 1834 until 
the road was completed in 1838. He was mayor 
of :Montrcal from 1840 till 1842, a governor of the 
University of McGill college, governor of Montreal 
general hospital, and president of various associ- 
ations. He was noted for his liberality, and prob- 
ably no other citizen of jMontreal did so much to 
advance its interests. 

Mc(aLL, John, R. C bishop, b. in Philadel- 
phia, Pa.. 4 Nov., 1809; d. in Kichmond, Va., 14 
Jan., 1ST2. His parents, who had come from Ire- 
land when they were children, settled in Philadel- 
phia before their marriage, but removed to Bards- 
town. Ky., in 1818. John was graduated at the 
College of St. Joseph in 1828, studied law, and 
practised with success, but afterward abandoned 
liis j)rofession and entered the seminary of Bards- 
town as a candidate for the priesthood. Here he 
sj)ent two years, and was then sent to St. Mary's, 
lialtimore, for the completion of his theological 
studies. He returned to Bardstown in 1835 and 
was oi'dained priest by Bishop David on 13 June. 
H(,' was placed in charge of the congregation of 
St. Peter's church, Lexington, and toward the end 
of is:5(i a[)pointed assistant pastor of the Church 
of St. Louis, Louisville. In the summer of 1838 
he was despatched to Europe on a special mission 
hy P)ishoj) Chabrat. On his return to Louisville 
in Octolier. in addition to his ministerial work 
he eilitcd tli(! "Catholic Advocate," in which his 
ai-ticlcs in defence of the dogmas of his church 
madejiis name known to all Koman Catholics in 
the United States. He also gave a series of lec- 
tures on the same subjects, which were listened to 
by ineniljers of every denomination. In 1848 he 
was appointed vicar-general by Bishop Spalding, 
and HI (h-toher, 1850, he was nominated for the 
see of Ifichmond. and consecrated bishop on 10 
Nov. Ik- devoted himself zealously to the admin- 
1-1 rat ion of his diocese. There \vere but ten 
churches and eight priests in it, with two orphan 
asvlunis. P,ishoi) IMcGill built churches in Nor- 
folk, iMn-tress .Monroe, Richmond, Fredericksburg, 
W arrenton, and Fairfax Station. He visited Rome 


in 1853 in order to take part in the definition of 
the immaculate conception, and in 1869 to join in 
the deliberations of the Vatican council. His dio- 
cese suffered severely during the civil war. and 
several of his churches were destroyed, but he 
gave himself up to the care of the wounded, and 
established an infirmary in Richmond for their 
benefit. After the war he built the convent of 
.Monte Maria, and introduced various sisterhoods, 
who established academies. He also established 
fourteen parochial schools for a Roman Catholic 
population of about 17,000. His health failed in 
1871. While bishop of Richmond, Dr. McGill 
published a series of letters on controversial sub- 
jects addressed to Robert Ridgway, besides two 
compendiums of Catholic doctrine, entitled " The 
True Church " and " Faith the Victory." He was 
also author of a work criticising Macaulay's "His- 
tory of England," and translated Audin's " Life of 
John Calvin " (Louisville, 1847). 

McGILLIVRAY, Alexander, Indian chief, b. 
in the Creek nation in 1740; d. in Pensacola, Fla., 
17 Feb., 1793. His father was Lachland McGilli- 
vray, of Dunmaglas, Scotland, his mother a half- 
breed Creek princess of the influential Wind fam- 
ily, whose father had been a French officer of 
Spanish descent. He had thus in his veins the 
blood of four nations, and in his character were 
some of the traits of them all. He possessed the 
polished urbanity of the Frenchman, the duplicity 
of the Spaniard, the cool sagacity of the Scotch- 
man, and the silent subtlety, and inveterate hate 
of the North American Indian. He received a 
classical education from his father's brother, a 
Scotch-Presbyterian clergyman of Charleston, but 
on reaching manhood returned to his mother's 
people, among whom he was at once given the po- 
sition to which he was entitled by his talents and 
the influence of his family. He assumed a kind 
of semi-barbai'ic pomp, being constantly attended 
by a numerous retinue, from whom he exacted all 
the deference due to royalty. He had several 
wives, w^hom he lodged in as many different " pal- 
aces," at which he entertained, his guests in rude 
magnificence. PI is influence was always great 
among his nation, but it was at first overshadowed 
by that of the Cherokee king, Oconostota. On the 
deposition of the latter, he became the autocrat of 
the Creeks, and their allies the Seminoles and 
Chickamaugas. Thus he could bring into the field 
not less than 10,000 warriors. He sided with the 
British in the Revolutionary war, and in retalia- 
tion Georgia confiscated such of his lands as lay 
within her limits. This excited his bitter enmity, 
and led a long war against the western settlers. 
The treaty of peace of 1783 was no sooner signed 
than he proposed to Arthur O'Neil, the Spanish 
governor of Pensacola, the treacherous policy by 
which Spain sought for twelve years to sever the 
trans-Alleghany region from the Union. Failing 
to bring the other southern tribes into a coalition 
against John Sevier on Holston and Watauga 
rivers, he made constant raids upon Gen. James 
Robertson, along Cumberland river, and the latter, 
with unexampled heroism, as constantly beat him 
back, at one time with but seventy men, and with 
never so many as a thousand. The U. S. govern- 
ment made him repeated overtures for peace, but 
he seriously listened to none till he was invited to 
New York' in 1790, to hold a personal conference 
with Washington. Seeing in this an opportunity 
for display, he went, attended by twenty-eight of 
his principal chiefs and warriors ; but he was care- 
ful before setting out to write to the Spanish gov- 
ernor at New Orleans that, although he should 




conclude a treaty of peace with the U. S. govern- 
ment, he would ever remain faithful to his old 
friends, the Spaniards. He was received with 
great ceremony by the United States officials, 
who concluded wiijh him a treaty by which they 
restored to the Qrfeeks a large territory, paid Mc- 
Gillivray $100,0^0 for his confiscated property, and 
gave him the commission of major-general in the 
LI. S. army. HeVeturned home, and at once in- 
stigated a fresh raid upon the heroic Robertson. 
He pursued this treacherous policy till his death. 
McGillivray was a curious compound of the wild 
savage and the educated white man. He indulged 
in a plurality of wives, and had a barbarian's de- 
light in tinsel splendor; yet he had scholarly- 
tastes, and an intellect so keen as to be a match 
in diplomacy for the ablest statesman. He was a 
skilful speculator, a shrewd merchant, an astute 
politician, and an able writer of state papers. At 
the same time he was a British colonel, and a Span- 
ish and an American general, and he played these 
•different nationalities so skilfully against each 
other as always to secure his own interest and that 
of his nation. He is chiefly remembered for his 
savage delight in blood, his treacherous diplomacy, 
and the duplicity by which he hid the most fiendish 
<iesigns under the guise of fraternal kindness. He 
was an instance of a powerful intellect absolutely 
divorced from moral principle. Said Robertson, 
who knew him well: "The Spaniards are devils, 
and the biggest devil among them is the half 
Spaniard, half Frenchman, half Scotchman, and 
altogether Creek scoundrel, McGillivray." 

McGrlLVERY, Freeman, soldier, b. in Pros- 
pect, Me., 27 Oct., 1823 ; d. in Virginia, 2 Sept., 
1864. He was born in humble circumstances, be- 
•came a sailor, and before he had completed his 
twenty-first year was master of a vessel. On 
hearing of the beginning of the civil war, while he 
was in Rio Janeiro, he returned, after completing 
his business, to his native state, and raised a bat- 
tery of artillery, which was first brought into ac- 
tion at Cedar Mountain, 9 Aug., 1862, where he 
was instrumental in preserving the left flank of 
the National army. He was subsequently engaged 
At Sulphur Springs, the second battle of Bull Run, 
Chantilly, and Antietam. He was promoted major 
■5 Feb., 1863, and assigned to the command of the 
1st brigade of the volunteer artillery reserve of 
the Army of the Potomac. On 23 June, 1863, he 
was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, and at Get- 
tysburg, by the rapid and destructive fire of his 
.guns, repelled three infantry charges on Gen. 
Daniel E. Sickles's position, which would otherwise 
have broken the National line. In the third as- 
sault he was driven from his position after the in- 
fantry had retreated ; but by sacrificing one bat- 
tery he was able to form a new line that, without 
infantry supports, filled a gap of 800 yards, 
through which the Confederates would otherwise 
have passed, cutting the National army in twain. 
He was promoted colonel of the Maine mounted 
■artillery on 1 Sept., 1863, and in June, 1864, com- 
manded the reserve artillery before Petersburg. In 
August he was appointed chief of artillery of the 
10th army corps, and while serving in that capaci- 
ty in the operations at Deep Bottom was shot 
in the finger. The urgency of his duties caused 
him to neglect the wound until an operation be- 
came neces'^ary, and, while undergoing it, he died 
from the effects of chloroform. 

McCxINNIS, (xeorge Francis, soldier, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 19 March, 1826. He was educated 
in the common schools of Maine and Ohio, served 
during the Mexican war as captain of Ohio volun- 

teers, and in the civil war as lieutenant-colonel and 
colonel of the 11th Indiana infantry, was engaged 
at Fort Donelson, and promoted brigadier-general 
of volunteers on 29 Nov., 1862. He served with 
that rank during the remainder of the war, and 
was mustered out on 24 Aug., 1865. After the 
war he settled in Indianapolis, Ind., became audi- 
tor of Marion county in 1867, and held thai 
office till 1871. 

McGIRTH, Daniel, scout, b. in Kershaw dis- 
trict, S. C. ; d. in Sumter district, S. C, about 
1789. He was a hunter and trapper, whose famil- 
iarity with the woods of South Carolina and Geor- 
gia made him a useful scout for the Americans, 
with whom he sided in the early part of the Revo- 
lution. While at St. Ilia, Georgia, an American 
officer, who coveted the valuable mare that he rode, 
provoked McGirth to an angry act, for which he 
was sentenced to be flogged. Making his escape, 
he joined the Tories, and, to satisfy his vindict- 
ive feelings, committed many barbarities. When 
the patriots regained possession of South Carolina 
he retreated into Georgia, and thence into Florida, 
where he was arrested by the Spaniards after the 
war, and confined in the castle of St. Augustine. 
He was not liberated until the expiration of five 
years. The hardships of prison-life so undermined 
his health that he soon died. 

McCjtLYNN, Edward, clergyman, b. in New 
York city, 27 Sept., 1837. He was educated at 
public schools in New York, and in 1851-60 studied 
theology at the College of the propaganda in Rome, 
where he received 
his doctorate after 
public examina- 
tion. In 1860 he 
was ordained to the 
priesthood, and on 
his return to the 
United States he 
was made an assist- 
ant pastor, and also 
became a hospital 
chaplain. On the 
death of Father 
Cummings, in 1866, 
he was appointed 
to succeed him as 
pastor of St. Ste- 
phen's church in 
New York city, and 
there, by his elo- 
quence, heartiness, and quick sympathy with his 
people, won their warmest affection. Dr. McGlynn's 
unwillingness to establish a parochial school in 
connection with his church, and his claim that the 
public schools were safe for the children of Roman 
Catholics, brought him into disfavor with the 
authorities of the church. He supported Henry 
George (g. v.) during the mayoralty canvass of 1886, 
and his remarks in favor of Mr. George's land theo- 
ries on public platforms resulted in his being cen- 
sured by the archbishop of the diocese. He per- 
sisted, and the matter was referred to Rome for 
action. The archbishop meanwhile removed hira 
from the charge of St. Stephen's, and he was sum- 
moned to appear at the Vatican ; but ignoring the 
papal demands, he was excommunicated. Many of 
his parishioners shared his views, and in conse- 
quence the sentiment in his favor was very strong. 
During the spring of 1887 Dr. McGlynn helped to 
found, and became president of, the Anti-poverty 
society, and was conspicuous by his Sunday even- 
ing lectures before that body "in the Academy of 
music in New York city. In behalf of the eco- 

t c^,^. /tu 




nomic opinions that he holds, he has lectured in 
many cities of the United States, and has pub- 
lished articles in support of the principles that 
he eloquently advocates. 

McGRAW, John, merchant, b. in Dryden, N. \ ., 
22 May, 1815 ; d. in Ithaca, N. Y., 4 May, 1877, 
He began in humble circumstances, but was very 
successful in business, being extensively engaged 
in the lumber trade in Wisconsin, Iowa, and Michi- 
gan, and the head of a firm that possessed large 
mills at Saginaw. He made Ithaca his residence 
in 1801, having lived for the previous eleven years 
in New York city. He was one of the original 
trustees of Cornell university, and erected at his 
own expense, at a cost of $150,000, the McGraw 
building, for the accommodation of the library 
and museum of the university.— His only daugh- 
ter. Jennie, married Prof. Daniel Willard Fiske 
((/ v) and at her death bequeathed to Cornell 
Univorsitv a library fund of nearly $1,000,000. 

McGREADY, James, clergyman, b. in western 
Pennsvlvania about 1758; d. in Henderson, Ky., 
in February, 1817. While he was a child his 
familv removed to Guilford county, N. C. He was 
educated at the school of Rev. Dr.' John McMillan, 
Caunonsburgh, Pa.., and licensed to preach on 13 
Aug., 1788. After spending some time with Rev. 
Dr. John B. Smith at Hampden Sidney college, 
Va., he ]ireached in Orange county, N. C, and was 
settled as a pastor, where his eloquence influenced 
many young men to follow the Christian ministry. 
lu nOCt he removed to Kentucky, and was settled 
over the Gas[)ar river. Red river, and Muddy river 
churches, in Logan county. He was the originator 
and director of the great revival of 1800, in the 
Cumberhuul country, which forms a spiritual 
epoch iu the history of the states west of the 
Alleghany mountains. In July, 1800, he organ- 
ized an eucaiupnient, and thus originated the re- 
ligii)us canq)-mei'ling. The employment as preach- 
ers and evangelists of young men not regularly 
educated for the ministry excited opposition in 
the church, and led to the organization in 1810 of 
the Cumberland Presbyterians. Two years after- 
ward he withdrew from the new body and re- 
turned to ills former presbytery. He wrote many 
forcible sermons, which were collected and pub- 
lished l)v the Rev. James Smith (vol. i., Louisville, 
18:!1 : vol. ii., Nashville, 1838). 

Mac()rRK(i!G()R, James, clergyman, b. in Ire- 
land in 1(177; d. iu Loiidonderry,'X. H., 5 March, 
17'2!». He received a t borough classical and theo- 
logical education, and had charge of a Presby- 
terian church in the north of Ireland. The op- 
pressi(jiis to whi(;h Presbyterians were at that 
time sul)jected induced him to emigrate with 
al)out 100 fairnlies. They landed at Boston on 14 
Oct., 17is,and establishe(l near Haverhill the town 
of Londondei-ry, where they organized the first 
Presl)yterian church in New England, of which he 
assumed the {)astoral charge without the ceremony 
of nistallation.— His son, David, b. in Ireland, 6 
^Ji^j' ^*^'**- '^- i'l Hoiidonderry, X. II., ;30 May, 
1777. studied theology with his 'father's successor, 
and was ordained pastor of a new parish in the 
western part of Londonderrv in 1787. He took 
an active part in the great awakening that began 
m 1 <41. In 1755 he declined a call to the Presby- 
terian chuivh in New York citv. His discourses 
nu-lude •• Pi-ofessors warned of their Danger" 
(Boston, 1741): "The Spirits of the Dav Tried" 
(1 <4:2) : and •• The Believers all Secured "\l747). 

3IaeGRKG()R, John, liritish political econo- 
inist, h. m Drynie, near Stornowav. Ross-shire, Scot- 
land, m li<J7; d. ni Boulogne, France, 23 April, 

1857. He was the eldest son of David MacGregor, 
of Drynie, Ross-shire. When quite young, John 
was sent to Canada and placed in a commercial 
house on Prince Edward island. He soon became 
prominent in the colony, and finally obtained a 
seat in the colonial legislature. After a lengthened 
colonial experience he returned to the mother- 
country, and was employed on various commercial 
missions. He was made secretary of the board of 
trade in 1840, and held the office until 1847, when 
he was elected by the citizens of Glasgow as one 
of their representatives in parliament. He took an 
active part in the free-trade controversy, and with 
Joseph Hume and others was instrumental in in- 
ducing the house of commons to appoint a select 
committee on the import duties. Plis published 
works are numerous. Among them are "Histori- 
cal and Descriptive Sketches of the Maritime Colo- 
nies of British North America " (1828) ; " Emigra- 
tion to British America "(1829) : " My Note-Book " 
(1835) ; " Commercial and Financial Legislation of 
Europe and America " (1841) ; " American Discov- 
ery from the Times of Columbus " (1846) ; " Ger- 
many and her Resources " (1848) ; and an uncom- 
pleted " History of the British Empire from the- 
Accession of James I." (1852). 

McGROARTY, Stephen Joseph, soldier, b. in 
Mount Charles countv, Donegal, Ireland, in 1830 ; 
d. in College Hill, Ohio, 2 Jan., 1870. He was 
brought to the United States when three years of 
age. His parents settled in Cincinnati, Ohio, where 
he was educated in St. Francis Xavier college. 
After graduation he engaged in the dry-goods busi- 
ness in partnership with an uncle, but left it at 
the end of five years to study law. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar and began practice in Toledo, 
but subsequently returned to Cincinnati, where he 
achieved a reputation as a criminal lawyer. When 
the civil war began he raised a company of Irish- 
Americans for three months, with which he re-en- 
listed for three years. At Carnifex Ferry he re- 
ceived a gunshot wound through the right lung. 
As soon as he had recovered he returned to the 
field as colonel of the 50th Ohio infantry, which 
was afterward merged in the Gist, and he com- 
manded the latter till the end of the war. At 
Peach Tree Creek his left arm was shattered at the 
elbow in the beginning of the engagement, yet he 
remained with his men through the fight. He was 
accustomed to expose his life with the utmost 
hardihood, and during the war received twenty- 
three wounds. He was brevetted brigadier-general 
of volunteers on 1 May, 1805. He was for two years 
collector of internal revenue, and just before his- 
death, which resulted from injuries received in bat- 
tle, was elected clerk of the Hamilton county courts. 

McGUFFEY, WiUiam Holmes, educator, b. in 
Washington county. Pa., 23 Sept., 1800 ; d. at the- 
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., 4 May, 
1873. He was graduated at Washington college^ 
Pa., in 1826, and immediately appointed professor 
of ancient languages in Miami university. He 
w^as licensed as a Presbyterian minister in 1829, 
and preached frequently during the remainder of 
his life. In 1832 he was transferred to the chair 
of moral philosophy. He became president of 
Cincinnati college in 1836, and in 1839 of Ohio 
university. In 1843-'5 he was a professor in Wood- 
ward college, Cincinnati. From 1845 till his death 
he occupied the chair of moral philosophy and 
political economy in the University of Virginia. 
While in Cincinnati he began the preparation of 
an " Eclectic " series of readers and spellers, which 
became popular, and have been many times re- 
vised and reissued. 




McGUIRE, Hunter Holmes, physician, b. in 
Winchester, Va., 11 Oct., 1835. He is the son of 
a physician, and was educated at Winchester 
academy, and studied medicine at the Medical col- 
lege of Virginia, ihe medical schools in Philadel- 
phia and New i^rleans, and Winchester medical 
college, from ^hich he received his diploma in 
1855. He practised first in W^inchester, holding 
the chair of anatomy in the Medical college from 
1856 till 1858, when he removed to Philadeljjhia. 
In the beginning of the civil war he enlisted in the 
Confederate army, was soon promoted to the post 
of medical director of the Army of the Shenandoah 
Valley, and was afterward medical director of the 
2d army corps. In 1865 he was elected professor 
of surgery in Virginia medical college, Richmond, 
which chair he held till 1880. In 1885 he was 
made professor emeritus in that institution. Dr. 
McGuire organized, in connection with his large 
general surgical practice, St. Luke's home for the 
sick in Richmond, with a training-school for 
nurses. He was president of the Association of 
Confederate medical officers in 1869, and of the 
Virginia medical society in 1873, vice-president of 
the International medical congress in 1876, and of 
the American medical association in 1881, and 
president of the American surgical association in 
1887. The University of North Carolina in 1887 
gave him the degree of LL. D. He has published 
in medical journals various papers, an account of 
the circumstances of the wounding and death of 
Gen. Stonewall Jackson, whom he attended. He 
has contributed to John Ashhurst's " International 
Cyclopaedia of Surgery " (1884) ; William Pepper's 
"System of Medicine" (Philadelphia, 1885-'7) ; 
and the American edition of Holmes's " Surgery." 

MACHEBCEUF, Joseph, R. C. bishop, b. in 
Riom, France, 11 Aug., 1812 ; d. in Denver, Col, 10 
July, 1889. He received his early education in the 
schools and in the College of Riom, studied philoso- 
phy and theology in the Sulpician seminary of Mont- 
ferran, and was ordained in 1836. He then spent 
three years in missionary labor in France, and in 
1839, at the request of Archbishop Purcell, came to 
the United States, Avhere he labored ten years in the 
diocese of Cincinnati, and then in New Mexico un- 
til 1860, part of the time serving as vicar-general. 
He was next sent to Colorado, where he was thrown 
from his carriage while descending a spur of the 
Rocky mountains, and lamed for life. He was 
appointed vicar-general of the territory, built the 
first church in Denver, and gradually formed par- 
ishes, erecting other churches and obtaining priests 
for them. In 1868 he had built eighteen churches 
in the territory, besides founding a convent of the 
Sisters of Loretto, and an academy and a school 
for boys in Denver. He was consecrated bishop 
of Epiphania in partihus infidelium, and vicar- 
apostolic of Colorado on 16 Aug., 1868. His vicari- 
ate embraced Colorado and Utah. The Roman 
Catholic population, which originally consisted of 
a few thousand half-civilized Mexicans and miners, 
at the date of his death exceeded 50,000. 

MAC HEN, WiUis Benson, senator, b. in Cald- 
well county, Ky., 5 April, 1810. He received a 
common-school education, became a farmer, and in 
1849 was sent to the State constitutional conven- 
tion. In 1853 he was a member of the state senate, 
and in 1856 and 1860 of the state house of repre- 
sentatives. He was sent to the 1st Confederate 
congress from Kentucky, being re-elected to the 
2d congress, and servmg from 22 Feb., 1862, till 
April, 1864. On the death of Garrett Davis he was 
appointed United States senator from Kentucky, 
and served from 2 Dec, 1872, till 3 March, 1873. 


McHENRY, James, statesman, b. in Ireland, 16 
Nov., 1753; d. in Baltimore, Md., 3 May, 1816. 
He received a classical education in Dublin, subse- 
quently, on account of delicate health, made a voy- 
age to this country, and came to Philadelphia 
about 1771. He induced his father to emigrate, 
and after following 
his studies in New- 
ark, Del., he studied 
medicine under Dr. 
Benjamin Rush in 
Philadelphia, and 
subsequently accom- 
panied Washington 
to the camp at Cam- 
bridge. He joined 
the army as assistant 
surgeon in January, 
1776, in a short time 
he was appointed 
medical director, and 
subsequently surgeon 
to the 5th Pennsyl- 
vania battalion. He 
was made prisoner at 
Fort Washington, 
and was not exchanged until the spring of 1778. 
On 15 May of that year he became secretary to 
Washington, and his relations with the latter 
continued through life to be those of a trusted 
friend and adviser. Dr. McHenry held this office 
until 1780, and then was transferred to the staff of 
Lafayette, where he remained till the close of the 
war. He was in the Maryland senate in 1781-6, 
in 1783 was appointed to congress in place of Ed- 
ward Giles, and held office until 1786, double duty 
in the state and continental legislatures being cus- 
tomary at that time. He became a member of the 
U. S. constitutional convention the next year, was 
the first of the delegates from Maryland to take 
his seat, and was a regular attendant, although he 
took little part in debate. He afterward labored 
to secure the ratification of the constitution, and 
was successful, notwithstanding the powerful op- 
position of Luther Martin and Samuel Chase. He 
was repeatedly re-elected to the Maryland legisla- 
ture until he became a member of Washington's 
cabinet as secretary of war in January, 1796, in 
place of Timothy Pickering, who was promoted to 
secretary of state, holding office throughout his 
administration and under President Adams until 
1801. After that service he retired from public 
life. Fort McHenry was named in his honor. 

McHENRY, James, physician, b. in Larne, 
County Antrim, Ireland, 20" Dec, 1785 ; d. there, 
21 July, 1845. He was the son of a cloth-mer- 
chant, who died when the son was but a lad. He 
was graduated in medicine at the college in Dub- 
lin, and also received a diploma from the college 
at Glasgow. He began practice at Larne, then re- 
moved to Belfast, where he also carried on a drug 
business until he came to the United States in 1817. 
After living in Baltimore, Md., and Pittsburg. Pa., 
he came in 1824 to Philadelphia, where he prac- 
tised medicine and carried on a mercantile busi- 
ness. From 1842 till his death he was U. S. con- 
sul at Londonderry. He was of a romantic dis- 
position, early developed considerable poetic ge- 
nius, and became noted for his rural stanzas in 
Ireland, and, on coming to this country, took 
deeper interest in literary works than in the busi- 
ness of his profession. His house in Philadelphia 
was much frequented by literary men. His ear- 
liest publication in the United States was " The 
Pleasures of Friendship " (1822), which poem, with 



others, was reprinted (Philadelphia, 1836). In 1824 
he edited at Philadelphia the " American Monthly 
Magazine," for which he wrote " O'Halloran, or 
the Insurgent, a Romance of the Irish Rebel- 
lion," afterward reprinted at Glasgow. He was 
also the author of " The Wilderness, or Brad- 
dock's Times, a Tale of the West" (2 vols., New 
York 1823) ; " A Spectre of the Forest, or Annals 
of the Ilonsatonic" (2 vols., 1823) ; " The Hearts of 
Steel, an Irish Historical Tale of the Last Cen- 
turv " (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1825) ; " The Betrothed 
of Wyoming " (2d ed., 1830) ; and " Meredith, or 
the Mystery of the Meschianza, a Tale of the 
Revolution " (1831). Among his poetical works are 
" Waltham, an American Revolutionary Tale, in 
Three Cantos " (New York, 1823) ; " The Usurper, 
an Historical Tragedy, in Five Acts,'' which was 
plaved with great success at the old Chestnut street 
theatre (Phila(lcli)hia, 1829); and "The Antedi- 
luvians, or the World Destroyed, a Narrative 
Poem in Ten Books " (1840). Dr. McHenry took 
an active interest in politics, was the personal 
friend and ardent admirer of Andrew Jackson, and 
as a tril)ute to him published " Jackson's Wreath," 
a poem (1829).— His son, James, merchant, b. in 
Lanie, Ireland, 3 May, 1817, came to this country 
in infancy, was educated in Philadelphia, where 
he engaged in mercantile pursuits, and afterward 
went to "England, where he engaged extensively in 
business at Liverpool. He is said to have been the 
first to import into England American butter 
and cheese. Mr. McHenry has been interested in 
American railway enterprises. Since 1861 he has 
resided in Kensington, London, in one of the most 
famous private houses in P]ngland — Oats Lodge — 
formerly called Little Holland House, where, for 
nearly a quarter of a century, the most noted of 
Americans visiting London have enjoyed Mr. Mc- 
Henry's hospitalities. During the civil war his 
sympathies were with the National government, 
and he contributed $500 to the equipment of the 
Corn Exchange regiment of Philadelphia, and 
presented to that city a Whit worth-gun battery, 
— The first James's daughter, Mary, b. in Phila- 
delphia, married J. Bellargee Cox, and is widely 
known for her philanthro[)ic work in that city. 
Sill! aided in founding the Church home in 1856: 
the Soldiers' reading-room in 1862, which she aided 
in maintaining until the close of the civil war ; the 
Lincoln institution in 1865; and the Educational 
home in 1S71, with all of which, except the second 
naniod. she is still (1887) connected, and has been 
active in fostering. Since 1873 she has been presi- 
dent of the board of lady visitors of the Soldiers' 
home, l*hiladel])hiii. She was appointed in 1876 
by the Centennial commission one of the thirteen 
women to rei)r(!sent the thirteen original states. 
For some years Mrs. Cox has been active in the 
movement for the education of Indian children. 

MAC HI X, Thomas, soldier, b. in Staffordshire, 
England. 20 March, 1744; d. in Charleston, Mont- 
gomery CO., N. Y., 3 April, 1816. He was educated 
as an engineer, and employed in the construction 
of the Duke of Bridgewater's canal between Man- 
chester and Worsley. In 1772 he was sent to New 
.Jersey to examine a copper-mine, and remained in 
this eonntry, settling in Boston, Mass. He em- 
braced with ardor tiie cause of independence, was 
one of the party that threw the tea overboard in 
lioston luirlx.r. and fought as an officer of artillery 
at liunker Hill, where he was wounded. He w^as 
commissioned as a lieutenant in the New^ York ar- 
tillery on 18 Jan, 1776, and during that year was 
employt'd in placing chains across the Hudson 
river at the Highlands. He was wounded at Fort 


Montgomery in October, 1777, where he held a 
commission as 1st lieutenant, and was attached to 
Col. John Lamb's artillery regiment ; he served as 
an engineer in the expedition of Col. Goosen Van 
Schaick, which destroyed the settlements of the 
Onondaga Indians in the spring of 1779, and later 
in the year accompanied Gen. James Clinton's expe- 
dition into the Genesee country. He was promoted 
captain of artillery on 21 Aug., 1780, employed on 
the siege- works at Yorktown, and in 1783 settled 
in Ulster county, N. Y. Subsequently he estab- 
lished a mill west of Newburg, N. Y., and coined 
copper pieces for some of the states prior to the 
institution of a national coinage. He obtained 
patents for a large tract of land in the northern 
part of Oneida county, N. Y., and in 1797 removed 
to Mohawk, N. Y., where he was engaged for some 
time in surveying. — His son, Thomas, soldier, b. 
in New Grange, Ulster co., N. Y., in 1796; d. in 
Albany, N. Y., in May, 1875, served as a captain 
during the war of 1812-15, and became a brigadier- 
general in the New York militia. 

M ACHRA Y, Robert, Canadian Anglican bishop, 
b. in Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1832. He is the son of 
an advocate, and was educated at King's college in 
his native city and at Cambridge, where he was 
graduated in 1851. He was ordained priest in 1856, 
became vicar of Medingley the same year, and in 
1858 was appointed dean of Sydney college, Cam- 
bridge. In 1860-'l he was university examiner, 
and in 1865 Ramsden university preacher. In 1865 
he was consecrated bishop of Rupert's Land, at 
Lambeth, by the archbishop of Canterbury, and 
the bishops of London, Ely, and Aberdeen. The 
diocese at the time of Bishop Machray's appoint- 
ment included the present province of Manitoba 
and the northwest territories. In visiting the mis- 
sion stations that wei'c scattered over this exten- 
sive tract of country, he encountered many priva- 
tions and dangers, and travelled thousands of miles 
by canoe and dog-sleigh. In 1874 his diocese was 
subdivided, and the see of Rupert's Land now com- 
prises the province of Manitoba, part of the district 
of Cumberland, and the districts of Swan River, 
Norwayhouse, and Lac La Pluie. In the same 
year Bishop Machray was appointed metropolitan 
of the whole northwest country. In 1881 he be- 
came chancellor of the L^niversity of Manitoba, and 
is now (1888) professor of ecclesiastical history in 
the theological college there. 

McILHENNEY, Charles Morgan, artist, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 4 April, 1858. He studied paint- 
ing under Frank Briscoe, and anatomy in the 
Philadelphia academy of fine arts in 1877. He 
first exhibited in New York in 1882, and has since 
continued to show pictures in the National acade- 
my and at the New York water-color society, of 
which he is a member. In 1878-'81 he was on a 
sketching-tour in the south Pacific. His studio is 
now (1888) in New York city. Among his pictures 
are " Good Bye " (1883) ; " A Gray Summer Noon " 
(1884) : " The Shadow of Twilight falls Silent and 
Grav " (1885) ; " The Old, Old Story " (1886) ; and 
'• The Passing Storm " (1887). 

McILYAINE, Joseph, senator, b. in Bristol, 
Bucks CO., Pa., in 1768; d. in Burlington, N. J., 19 
Aug., 1826. He received an academic education, 
was admitted to the Burlington, N. J,, bar in 1791, 
was clerk of the Burlington county court in 1800- 
'23, and U. S. attornev for the district of New 
Jersey in 1801-'20. lie was elected to the U. S. 
senate from New Jersey in 1823, in place of Samuel 
L. Southard, who had resigned, and served from 
December of that year till the time of his death in 
1826.— His son, Charles Pettit, P. E. bishop, b. 






in Burlington, N. J., 18 Jan., 1799 ; d. in Florence, 
Italy, 13 March, 1873, was graduated at Prince- 
ton in 1816, studied for the ministry, and was 
made deacon, 28 June, 1820, and priest, 20 March, 
1821. His first clprge was Christ church, George- 
town, D. C, wh^e he labored zealously for five 
years. In 1825 lie was appointed professor of ethics, 
and chaplain in the 
U. S. military acade- 
my. He accepted a 
call to St. Ann's 
church, Brooklyn, N. 
Y., in 1827, and in 
1831 was chosen to be 
professor of the evi- 
dences of revealed re- 
ligion and sacred an- 
tiquities in the Uni- 
versity of the city of 
New York. During 
his connection with 
the university he de- 
livered a valuable 
course of lectures, 
which were subse- 
quently published. He was next elected bishop of 
Ohio, and was consecrated in St. Paul's chapel. 
New York city, 31 Oct., 1832. On removing to his 
diocese he became president of Kenyon college, 
and also of the theological seminary, at Gambler. 
He received the degree of D. D. from Princeton 
and from Brown in 1832, that of D. C. L. from 
Oxford in 1853, and LL. D. from Cambridge in 
1858. Bishop Mcllvaine was a member of the 
sanitary commission during the civil war, and did 
good service to his native land, when on a visit 
to Europe, in setting forth right views on the 
questions at issue in the United States. He was 
present at the Pan-Anglican council in London 
in 1867. As age drew on, he yielded to the neces- 
sity of having an assistant, and Dr. Gregory T. 
Bedell was elected to that office in 1859. Infirm 
health led to his making another visit to Europe in 
1872-3, but he died before he could reach home. 
Bishop Mcllvaine was an able and voluminous 
writer. His chief publications were " Lectures on 
the Evidences of Christianity " (New York, 1832), 
which have passed through thirty editions ; " Ox- 
ford Divinity compared with that of the Roman 
and Anglican Churches, with a Special View of the 
Doctrine of Justification by Faith " (Philadelphia, 
1841) ; " The Holy Catholic Church " (1844) : " No 
Priest, no Altar, no Sacrifice, but Christ," and 
"Reasons for Refusing to Consecrate a Church 
having an Altar" (1846); "Valedictory Offering, 
Five Sermons " (London. 1853) ; " The Truth and 
the Life, Twenty-two Discourses," published at the 
request of the convention of Ohio (New York, 1855), 
together with numerous occasional sermons, ad- 
dresses, pastoral letters, etc. He also edited " Select 
Family and Parish Sermons," from English sources 
(2 vols., Philadelphia, 1839). 

McILYAINE, Joshua Hall, clergyman, b. in 
Lewis, Del., 4 March, 1815. He was graduated at 
Princeton in 1837, and at the theological seminary 
there in 1840, was pastor successively of Presby- 
terian churches at Little Falls, Utica, and Roches- 
ter, N. Y., professor of belles-lettres at Princeton 
in 1860-'70, and pastor of the High street church 
in Newark, N. J., in 1870-4. He introduced the 
name " Westminster " for churches in founding the 
church of that title in Utica. In 1859 he delivered 
a course of six lectures before the Smithsonian in- 
stitution on comparative philology in relation to 
ethnology, including an analysis of the structure of 

the Sanskrit language, and the process of decipher- 
ing cuneiform inscriptions. In 1869 he delivered 
a similar course on social science in Philadelphia 
under the auspices of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. He has been a member for many years of 
the American oriental society, and in 1854 received 
the degree of D. D. from the University of Roches- 
ter, N. Y. In 1887 he founded at Princeton, N. J., 
Evelyn college for girls. His publications include 
" The Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil " 
(New York, 1854); "Elocution, the Sources and 
Elements of its Power " (1870) ; " The Wisdom of 
Holy Scripture, with Reference to Sceptical Objec- 
tions " (1883) ; " The Wisdom of the Apocalypse " 
(1886), and religious and scientific articles. 

McILWAINE, Richard, clergyman, b. in Pe- 
tersburg, Va., 20 May, 1834. He was graduated at 
Hampden Sidney in 1853, studied at the University 
of Virginia, and received his theological education 
at the Virginia union theological seminary and at 
the college of the Free church of Scotland. He 
was licensed to preach in 1857, was pastor of the 
Presbyterian church at Amelia Court-House, Va., 
in 1857-'60, of churches in Farmville and Lynch- 
burg, Va., in 1862-'72, and at the latter date be- 
came co-ordinate secretary and treasurer of home 
and foreign missions in the southern" Presbyterian 
church. He was secretary of home missions in 
1882-3, and since June, 1883, has been president 
of Hampden Sidney college, Va. He was a dele- 
gate to the Pan-Presbyterian council that was held 
in Belfast, Ireland, in 1884. 

MacINNES, Donald, Canadian senator, b. in 
Oban, Argyleshire, Scotland, 26 May, 1824. He 
came to Canada in 1840, engaged in business in 
Dundas, and subsequently removed to Hamilton, 
and has been for years one of the foremost mer- 
chants and manufacturers of Canada. He was 
chairman of the royal commission that was ap- 
pointed 16 June, 1880, to inquire into the organi- 
zation of the civil service of Canada, and became 
a member of the Dominion senate, 24 Dec, 1881. 
Mr. Maclnnes is president of the Bank of Hamil- 
ton, of the Canada cotton company of Cornwall, 
and of the South Saskatchewan valley railway 
company. Pie is a Liberal Conservative. 

MelNNES, Thomas Robert, Canadian senator, 
b. at Lake Ainslie, Nova Scotia, 5 Nov., 1840. He 
was educated at the normal school of Truro, and 
at Harvard, became a physician, and practised for 
some time at Dresden, Ont. In 1874 he removed 
to British Columbia, and was mayor of the city 
of New Westminster in 1876-'8. In May, 1874, he 
was appointed physician and surgeon to the Royal 
Columbia hospital, and in July, 1878, medical 
superintendent of the British Columbia lunatic 
asylum. Dr. Mclnnes was elected to the Dominion 
parliament for New Westminster, and was its rep- 
resentative from 26 March, 1878, until he was ap- 
pointed to the senate, 24 Dec, 1881. He is inde- 
pendent in politics. 

McINTOSH, James McKay, naval officer, b. 
in Mcintosh county, Ga., in 1792 ; d. in Warring- 
ton, Fla., 1 Sept., 1860, entered the U. S. navy in 
1811, became lieutenant in 1818, commander in 
1838, captain in 1849, and flag-officer in 1857. He 
served with credit in the war of 1812, and partici- 
pated in the fight between the U. S. brig " Enter- 
prise " and the British " Boxer " off the coast of 
Maine in December, 1813. In 1820 he was at- 
tached to an expedition for the extermination of 
the West Indian coast pirates, was captured by 
Lafitte, their chief, and, although threatened with 
burning at the stake if he refused to be the bearer 
of an insolent message to his commander, defied 



the assembly of more than forty pirates and so 
excited their admiration by his courage that they 
released him. He commanded the U. S. frigate 
" Congress," of the Brazil squadron, in 1851-2, and 
became flag-officer of the home squadron in 1857. 
During this period, under the declared purpose of 
suppressing the slave-trade, the British fleet m the 
Gulf of Mexico boarded and searched forty Ameri- 
can vessels. Mcintosh, however, denied their right 
to do so, and for his prompt and vigorous action m 
the matter received in 1858 the thanks of congress. 
—His sister, Maria Jane, author, b. in Sunbury, 
Ga., 1803 : d. in Morristown, N. J., 25 Feb., 1878, 
was educated in the Academy of Sunluiry, removed 
to New York in 1885, and, having lost her fortune 
in the financial crisis of 1887, adopted authorship 
as a means of support. Under the pen-name of 
" Aunt Kitty " she published a Juvenile story en- 
titled " Blind Alice " that at once became popular 
(1841), and was followed by others (New York, 
1848), the wlinle series being issued in one volume 
as " Aunt Kitty's Tales " (1847). On the recom- 
mendation of the tragedian Macready, these and 
many of her subsequent tales were reprinted in 
London. Her writings are each illustrative of a 
moral sentiment, andniclude '"Conquest and Self- 
Con(iuest" (1844): '* Praise and Principle" (1845); 
" Two Lives, to Seem and to Be " (1840) ; '• Charms 
and Counter Charms" (1848); "Woman in Ameri- 
ca: Her Work and Reward" (1850); "The Lofty 
and the Lowly " (1852) ; " Evenings at Donaldson 
Manor" (1852); "Emily Herbert " (1855); "Violet, 
or the Cross and Crown" (1856); " Meta Gray" 
(1S5S); and "Two Pictures" (1868). 

MclXTOSH, Lachlaii, soldier, b. near Raits, in 
Badenoch, Scotland, 17 March, 1725; d. in Savan- 
nali, Ga., 20 Feb., 1806. His father, John "Mor" 
^Mcintosh, with 100 Highlanders, came to Georgia 
in 1786 under Gov. James E. Oglethorpe, and set- 
tled in the lower part of the state at the town that 

is now known 
, .^^ as Darien, but 

which was called 
by them Inver- 
ness. When Ogle- 
thorpe invaded 
Florida in 1740, 
John 31or fol- 
lowed him, and 
was taken pris- 
oner tjy the Span- 
iards and sent to 
Spain, where he 
was confined two 
years. He died 
of the results of 
this inqtrison- 
nient a few years 
after his return 
to this country. 
jNlor originated 
that was made l)y the colonists to the 
r trusiccs in Lngland against the introduc- 
\fi-icaii slaves into Geory-ia. The " Mor" of 
signified •' big.-' Laehlan had little earlv 

rot est 


•at ion. and at seventeen vears of age became a 
cm a eounting-house at 'Charleston, S. C, and 
I 111 1 he t'ainily of 1 lenry Laurens. After several 
s lie returned to Inverness, l)ecame a land-sur- 
'!•, and, having received much assistance in the 
y (>l iiiathematics from Oglethorpe, interested 
"'" '" '''''Ji;*'"-i"'^'''i"i»ffii"dinilitary tactics. In 
rmher. 177(i.ii<' wasappointed brigadier-general. 
< T7, 111 a duel, he niortallv wounded his political 
opi.onent, P^utton Gwinett, Avho had used his offi- 

in 1 


cial authority while governor to persecute Mcin- 
tosh and several members of his family. Mcintosh 
then accepted a command in the (Central army 
under Gen. Washington, who selected him to com- 
mand in a campaign against the western Indians 
in 1778. In a letter to the president of congress, 
dated 12 May, Washington said : " I part with this 
gentleman with much reluctance, as I esteem him 
an officer of great merit and worth. His firm dis- 
position and equal justice, his assiduity and good 
understanding, point him out as a proper person 
to go, but I know his services here are and will be 
materially wanted." Mcintosh marched with a 
force of 500 men to Fort Pitt, assumed command, 
and in a short time restored peace on the frontier 
of Pennsylvania and Virginia. He completed ar- 
rangements for an expedition against Detroit in 
the spring of 1779, but was recalled by Washing- 
ton, joined Gen. Benjamin Lincoln in Charleston, 
marched to Augusta in command of the Georgia 
troops, and then proceeded to Savannah, where he 
commanded the 1st and 5th South Carolina regi- 
ments, and, after driving the British from their 
outposts, took an active part in the siege. When 
the city surrendered he retreated to Charleston, 
was present at its surrender to Sir Henry Clinton, 
and for a long period was held a prisoner of war. 
On his return to Georgia he found his property 
wasted. and his household dispersed. He was a 
member of congress in 1784 and the next year a 
commissioner to treat with the southern Indians. 
His later life was passed in comparative poverty 
and in retirement. — His nephew, John, soldier, b. 
in Mcintosh county, Ga., in 1755 ; d. there, 12 Nov., 
1826, was an officer in the Georgia line in 1775, 
and as lieutenant -colonel defended the fort at 
Sunbury, in Liberty county, when it was besieged 
by Lieut.-Col. Eraser at the head of a considerable 
body of British troops. At the battle of Brier 
Creek, 8 March, 1779, he displayed great bravery, 
only surrendering when further resistance was im- 
possible. At the close of the war he removed to 
Florida and settled on St. John's river, but was 
suddenly arrested by a band of Spanish troops 
and imprisoned in the fortress at St. Augustine on 
suspicion of having designs against the Spanish 
government. He was finally sent to the captain- 
general of Cuba and imprisoned in Morro Castle 
at Havana. At the end of a year he was released 
and returned to Georgia, but not until he had 
aided in destroying a fort on the St. John's river 
opposite Jacksonville and done the Spanish gov- 
ernment other injuries. During the last months 
of the war of 1812-14, he served under Jackson at 
Mobile as major-general of militia, — John's son, 
James Simmons, soldier, b. in Liberty county, Ga., 
19' June, 1787; d. in the city of Mexico, 26 Sept., 
1847, entered the U. S. army as lieutenant in 1812, 
was severely wounded in the affair near Black 
Rock in 1814, and served throughout the Creek 
war. He was commissioned captain in 1817, major 
in 1836, and lieutenant-colonel in 1889, During 
the Mexican war he participated in the battles of 
Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, where he was 
dangerously wounded, and was subsequently bre- 
vetted colonel. He commanded a brigade in the 
valley of Mexico, and was mortally wounded at the 
head of his column in the assault on Molino del 
Rey,— His son, James McQueen, soldier, b. on 
Tampa bay, Fla., in 1828 ; d. near Pea Ridge, Ark., 
7 Nov., 1862, was graduated at the U. S. military 
academy in 1849, became captain of the 1st U. S, 
cavalry in 1857, and, resigning from the army in 
1860, was commissioned brigadier-general in the 
Confederate army, and killed at the battle of Pea 




Ridge, Ark. — Another son, John Baillie, soldier, 
b. on Tampa bay, Fla., 6 June, 1829; d. in New 
Brunswick, N. J., 29 June, 1888, was educated at 
Lawrenceville, N. J., and Sing Sing, N. Y., entered 
the navy in 1848, resigned in 1850, and in 1861 en- 
tered the U. S. arrp^ as 2d lieutenant of cavalry. He 
became 1st lieutfenant in 1862, served in the penin- 
sular campaign, was made colonel of the 3d Penn- 
sylvania volunteeihs in November, 1862, and com- 
manded a brigade in many important battles, 
including Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. He 
was commissioned captain in the 5th cavalry in 
1863, engaged in the Wilderness campaign, and 
the battles around Petersburg, became brigadier- 
general of volunteers in July, 1864, commanded a 
cavalry brigade at Winchester, and lost a leg at 
Opequan. He was brevetted major in the U. S. 
army for his gallantry at White Oak Swamp, lieu- 
tenant-colonel for Gettysburg, colonel for Ash- 
land, brigadier-general for Winchester, major-gen- 
eral of volunteers for distinguished gallantry and 
good management in the battle of Opequan, Va., 
and, in 1865, major-general for meritorious service 
during the war. He was commissioned lieutenant- 
colonel of the 42d infantry in 1866, and in 1870 
was retired with the rank of brigadier-general. 

Mcintosh, WiUlam, Creek chief, b. in Cowe- 
ta, Ga., in 1775 ; d. near there, 29 April, 1825. His 
father, William, was a British officer, and his mother 
was a Creek Indian. The son was carefully edu- 
cated and became a principal chief of his nation. 
During the war of 1812 he commanded the friendly 
Creeks who were in alliance with the U. S. govern- 
ment, did efficient service at the battles of Autos- 
see and Horseshoe Bend, was promoted major, and 
was in the Florida campaign. In 1825 U. S. com- 
missioners were appointed to meet Indian delega- 
tions to treat for the sale of their lands within the 
limits of the state of Georgia. Mcintosh agreed 
to sell, sustaining his position with statesmanlike 
reasons. He said : " The white man is growing. 
He wants our lands ; he will buy them now. By 
and by he will take them, and the little band of 
our people will be left to wander without homes, 
poor and despised, and be beaten like dogs. We 
will go to a new home and learn like the white 
man to till the earth, grow cattle, and depend on 
these for food and life. This knowledge makes the 
white men like leaves ; the want of it makes the 
red men few and weak. Let us learn to make 
books as the white man does, and we shall grow 
again and become again a great nation." Mcin- 
tosh's proposition was accepted by the greater part 
of the Creeks ; but Tuscahachees, headed by the 
chief Hopothlayohola, who had been his opponent 
during the war of 1812, refused to agree. Their 
hostility to Mcintosh culminated in a conspiracy 
for his assassination. Fifty warriors and Hopoth- 
layohola were selected for this purpose. One night 
they knocked at his door, but, knowing their pur- 
pose, he declared to his son that he would meet 
his doom like a warrior, and, taking his rifle, he 
opened the door, fired on them as he gave the war- 
whoop, and fell dead, pierced by twenty balls. 
_ MclNTYRE, Daniel Eugene, Canadian phy- 
sician, b. in Oban, Argyleshire, Scotland, in 1812. 
After completing his education, he was for a time 
employed in a mercantile establishment in Glas- 
gow, but he studied medicine in the universities of 
that city and Edinburgh, and was graduated in 
the former in 1834. In 1835 he removed to Canada 
and settled in Williamstown, Ont. During the re- 
bellion of 1837, while acting as surgeon of miJitia, 
he was taken prisoner by the insurgents. He re- 
mained on active military service at Lancaster till 

1843, was gazetted major of the Stormont battalion 
in 1854, and on his subsequent retirement from the 
service was granted the rank of lieutenant-colonel. 
On the suppression of the rebellion he resumed 
practice at Williamstown. In 1849 he was elected 
warden of the united counties of Stormont, Dun- 
das, and Glengarry, re-elected in 1850, and in that 
year was appointed sheriff of the united counties, 
which office he has held ever since. He was an 
ardent reformer, and the friend and ally of John 
Sandfield Macdonald. — His son, Alexander Era- 
ser, Canadian lawyer, b. in Williamstown, Ont., 25 
Dec, 1847, was educated at Cornwall grammar- 
school and McGill university. He then studied 
law, was admitted to the bar in 1872, and practised 
at Cornwall and Ottawa. From 1875 till 1878 he 
was mtrusted by the Mackenzie administration 
with the conduct of important suits against the 
government in the exchequer court. He has been 
engaged probably more than any other lawyer in 
prosecuting the claims of government contractors 
before the exchequer and supreme courts. In 1875 
he was elected to the Ontario assembly for Corn- 
wall, and in 1882 was an unsuccessful candidate 
in the Liberal interests for the Dominion parlia- 
ment. In September^ 1885, he was elected presi- 
dent of the Ontario Young Liberal association, 
and he has been president of the Liberal associa- 
tion of Ottawa. He is widely known as a success- 
ful lawyer and Liberal politician. 

MclNTYRE, Peter, Canadian R. C. bishop, b. 
in Cable Head, St. Peter's bay. Prince Edward 
island, 29 June, 1818. His father, a native of In- 
verness-shire, Scotland, emigrated to Prince Edward 
island in 1788. The son received his preparatory 
education in St. Andrew's academy. Prince Edward 
island, was afterward sent to the College of St. 
Hyacinth, and followed a theological course in the 
Seminary of Quebec. He w^as ordained priest in 
1843, and then appointed assistant at the Quebec 
parish church. After several months he was as- 
signed to the Tignish mission in Prince Edward 
island, where he continued for seventeen years, 
during which he built one of the finest churches in 
Canada. He was consecrated bishop of Charlotte- 
town in August, 1860. Under the administration 
of Bishop Mclntyre, the Koman Catholic church 
has made marked progress in his diocese. He has 
founded the College of St. Dunstan's, a convent 
on one of the Magdalen islands, and about twenty 
churches and parochial schools. He went to Eu- 
rope in 1869 to attend the General council of the 
Vatican, and travelled through a part of Europe 
and Asia. In 1878 he founded a hospital in 
Charlottetown, which is considered one of the best 
managed in the Dominion and is open to all classes 
and creeds. — His nephew, Peter Adolplius, phy- 
sician, b. in Peterville, Prince Edward island, in 
1840, was educated at St. Dunstan's college, the 
Quebec seminary, and Laval university, and gradu- 
ated as a physician at McGill university in 1867. 
He was a railway commissioner for Prince Edward 
island from May, 1872, till August. 1873, elect ed^to 
the Dominion parliament in 1874, defeated in 1878, 
re-elected in 1882, and again at general election in 
Februarv, 1887. He is a Liberal. 

MACK, John Martin, Moravian bishop, b. in 
W^iirtemberg. Germanv, 13 April, 1715; d. on the 
island of St. Thomas, W. I., 9 J une, 1784. He came 
to this country in 1735, and joined the Moravian 
colony in Georgia. Thence he went to Pennsyl- 
vania" and assisted at the founding of Bethlehem. 
Soon afterward he was appointed missionary among 
the Indians, and labored with great success for 
twenty years in New York, Pennsylvania, and New 




England. Both in New York and New England 
the Moravians were accused of being spies of the 
French, and in consequence their missionaries were 
made to sulfer. Mack was arrested and imprisoned 
at Milford, Conn., and banished from the province 
of New York. But such persecutions speedily 
came to an end when, in 1749, the parliament of 
Great Britain acknowledged the Moravians to be 
an ancient episcopal church, and invited them to 
settle in this country. Meanwhile Mack had found- 
ed Gnadenhuetten, a floui-ishing Christian Indian 
settlement in the Lehigh valley, Pa. At a later 
time he founded Nain, another Christian Indian 
town, near Bethlehem. He was in the full tide of 
successful work when he was unexpectedly called 
to the West Indies as superintendent of the mis- 
sions in the Danish islands. Although it cost him 
a hard struggle to give up his labors among the 
aborigines and leave America, he accepted the call, 
and for twenty-two years devoted himself to the 
interests of the negro slaves in St. Croix, St. Jan, 
and St. Thomas, where he resided. In 1770 he vis- 
ited Bethlehem, where he was consecrated to the 
episcopacy on 18 Oct. On returning to the West 
Indies he" continued his work, and in the midst of 
that war between England and Prance that grew 
out of the American Revolution he visited all the 
missions on the British islands, and twice narrowly 
escai)ed capture. The negroes loved and revered 
him as a father, A great throng of them, dressed 
in white, followed his remains to the grave. 

MACKALL, William Whaiin, soldier, b. in 
the District of Columbia in 1818. He was gradu- 
ated at the U. S. military academy in 1837, became 
1st lieutenant in 1888,and adjutant in 1840, assistant 
adjutant-general with the rank of captain in 184G, 
serving throughout the Mexican war, and receiving 
the brevets of captain, for gallantry at Monterey, 
and major, for Contreras and Churubusco. lie 
was wounded at Chapultepec. He was treasurer 
and secretary of the military asylum in the District 
of Columbia in 1851-";3, became assistant adjutant- 
general with the rank of major at the latter date, 
declined promotion to a lieutenant-colonelcy in 
yhiv, 18(31, and resigned to join the Confederate 
army. He served in Kentucky as assistant adju- 
tant-general to Gen. Simon Bucl^ner, with the rank 
of colonel, until after the surrender of Fort Henry 
and Fort Donelson, was subsequently appointed 
l)rigadier-general, connnanded at Island No. 10 at 
the time of its surrender, and was confined in Fort 
Warren until exchanged. 

MACK AT, Aiige Rene Armand, Baron de 
(mack-o), French naval onieer, b. in Paris, 19 Feb., 
1788; d. there, l:} .May. He belonged to an 
Irish family that had settled in France, was edu- 
cated at tlie College of Juilly with Prince Jerome 
iionai)arte, and on entering the navy was assigned 
to the same ship with the'^i)rince. His promotion 
was rapid, and was not interrupted bv the Resto- 
rat ion. In 1818 the - Golo " was placed under his 
orders, and he was directed to studv the political 
condition of Colombia and Santo Domingo, which 
mission h(! i)erformed successfullv. In 1821 he 
was made commander of the " Clorinde " and sent 
to South America to estal)]ish political and com- 
mercial relations with the Spanish colonies, which 
liad just become in(le|)endent. During the expe- 
dition hesailecl for about eighteen months along the 
coasts of Chili and Peru, and executed some im- 
iiortaut hydrographic works, [n 1823 he was com- 
mander ..f the "Circe," and instructed to open 
negotiations with Havti, with a view to its recoo-- 

?'n?.on'<\Af ?"''^' ''"'^ ^'^ demand an indemnitv ot 
lo0.000,U00 francs in favor of the French colonists 

whose property had been confiscated. He suc- 
ceeded in both objects, and was made rear-admiral 
after reaching France. In 1882 he was sent to the 
station of the Antilles and the Gulf of Mexico, and 
compelled the government of New Granada to give 
satisfaction for an outrage, and in 1885 for a re- 
newed outrage he bombarded the city of Cartha- 
gena and destroyed Fort Boca-Chica. In 1886 he 
was named governor of Martinique, but during 
his administration he was more occupied in set- 
tling differences between the United States and 
France than in attending to the wants of that 
colony. In 1840 he was appointed to the com- 
mand of a fleet of forty-two vessels, and sent to 
Buenos Ayres to exact reparation for outrages that 
had been committed by Rosas on French subjects. 
In the successful operations that ensued, which 
were more diplomatic than military, he displayed 
much ability. On the return of Mackau he was 
made vice-admiral, a peer of France, and in 1843 
minister of the navy and colonies. He published 
a report on his cruise of 1816-'18 (Paris, 1818) and 
" Rapport au Roi sur la situation veritable des 
nouveaux etats de I'Amerique du Sud, et en par- 
ticulier sur Tile de Saint Domingo " (1821). 

MACK AY, Alexander, journalist, b. in Scot- 
land in 1808 ; d. at sea in 1849. He was a member 
of the London press, and in the interest of the 
" Morning Chronicle " visited the United States in 
1846 to report the debates in congress on the Ore- 
gon question. He subsequently was sent as com- 
missioner to India by the merchants of Manchester 
to investigate the capabilities of that country for 
an increased cultivation of cotton, but died on the 
voyage home. He published " The Western World, 
or Travels through the United States in 1846-'7 '* 
(London, 1849), which the London "Spectator" 
described as the " most complete work published 
on the L^nited States," and a posthumous work 
entitled " Western India," which was edited by 
James Robertson (1853). 

MACKAY, Charles, author, b. in Perth, Scot- 
land, in 1814. He was educated in London and 
Brussels, was on the stafl! of the London " Morning 
Chronicle " in 1834-'44, and from the latter date 
till 1847 was editor of the " Glasgow Argus," after 
which he returned to London, where he has since 
resided. He lectured in the United States in 1857 
on " Songs. National, Historical, and Popular," in 
1860 established the " London Review," and in 
1862-5 was in the United States as war correspond- 
ent of the London " Times." The University of 
Glasgow gave him the title of LL. D. in 1847. 
Among his numerous works are " Songs and 
Poems " (London. 1834) ; " Legends of the Isles, 
and other Poems " (1845) ; " Town Lyrics " (1848) ; 
" Under Green Leaves " (1857) ; " Life and Liberty 
in America " (1859) ; " Under the Blue Sky " (1871) ; 
and " Gaelic JEtvmology of the English Language " 
(1878). See Wilson's " The Poets and Poetry of 
Scotland " (New York, 1876). 

McKAY, Donald, ship-builder, b. in Shelburne, 
Nova Scotia, 4 Sept., 1810; d. in Hamilton, Mass., 
20 Sept., 1880 He learned ship-building in New 
York, began business in Newburyport, Mass., and 
in 1845 established a ship-yard in East Boston, 
where he constructed many fast clippers for the 
Diamond line, and subsequently for the California 
and Australian trade. In October, 1853, he launched 
the " Great Republic," of 4,500 tons. During the 
civil war he built the light - draught monitor 
" Nauset " and the double-end gun-boat " Ashue- 
lot." Llis last work was the sloop-of-war " Adams " 
(1874). At this date he retired from ship-building 
and engaged in farming. 




McKAY, James, Canadian legislator, b. in Sas- 
katchewan, Canada, about 1815 ; d. there, 3 Dec, 
1879. He was educated at the Red River settle- 
ment, was in the employ of the Hudson bay com- 
pany for a time, and afterward became a contractor 
and supermtended the construction of part of the 
Dawson route. rWhen the province of Manitoba 
was formed Mr\McKay became a member of its 
legislative councij, and was speaker for several 
years. He was appointed a member of the first 
provincial administration in January, 1871, with 
the office of president of the executive council, 
which he held till December, 1874. Soon after- 
ward he became minister of agriculture, but re- 
signed in 1878, owing to illness. His intimate ac- 
quaintance with the Indians and half-breeds, and 
the great influence he possessed over them, enabled 
him to render the government valuable aid in con- 
nection with the various treaties by which Indian 
land-titles were extinguished. 

MACKAY, John William, capitalist, b. in Dub- 
lin, Ireland, 28 Nov., 1831. He is of Scotch-Irish 
descent, and came with his parents in 1840 to New 
York, where his father died soon after their arrival. 
Young Mackay obtained a public-school education, 
and was apprenticed to the trade of ship-building. 
On the discovery of gold in California he went with 
the crowd that was then thronging to the Pacific, 
and lived a miner's life for several years, with vary- 
ing fortunes, acquiring a perfect command of the 
technical and practical knowledge of mining. Be- 
fore he was thirty years old he had made and lost 
a small fortune. In 1860 Mackay left California 
for Nevada, where he has since made his home. 
In Nevada his fortunes slowly and steadily im- 
proved, and he became a leader of men among the 
rough spirits that formed the mining community." 
He was a man of rigidly temperate habits, which 
saved him from the misfortunes that attended so 
many in the early mining days. In 1872 he was 
among the discoverers of the Bonanza mines, on a 
ledge of rock in the Sierra Nevadas, under what is 
now Virginia City. The discovery of their vast 
deposits of silver and gold is the most noted and 
perhaps the most romantic incident in mining 
history. It changed the face of the silver markets 
of the world, and to nations like India and China 
became an important and embarrassing factor in 
modern political economy. The mines that came 
within the Bonanza designation were owned by John 
W. Mackay, James C. Flood, James G. Fair, after- 
ward senator from Nevada, and William O'Brien. 
Of this interest Mr. Mackay owned two fifths — 
double that of any of his partners. In 1873 the 
great silver vein was opened, and from one mine 
alone Mr. Mackay and Mr. Fair, the practical min- 
ing members of the Bonanza firm, took out $150,- 
000,000 in silver and gold. In 1875 the working 
of the mines was interrupted by a fire, but the own- 
ers continued to pay dividends in order that the 
share-holders, many of whom were their working- 
men, should not lose their income. During the 
active yield of the mines Mr. Mackay devoted him- 
self personally to their superintendence, working 
in the lower levels as an ordinary miner. In 1878, 
with Mr. Flood and Mr. Fair, he founded the Bank 
of Nevada, with its headquarters in San Francisco. 
Mr. Mackay has spent some time in Europe for the 
education of his children, and, although he has a 
special interest in the study of art, he has main- 
tained his active and personal interest in mining. 
His firm are understood to control the principal 
mines on the Comstock lode. In 1884 Mr. Mackay, 
in partnership with James Gordon Bennett, laid two 
cables across the Atlantic from the United States 

to England and France. These cables are under a 
system known as the Commercial cable company, 
although the private property of Mr. Mackay and 
Mr. Bennett. In 1885 Mr. Mackay was offered the 
nomination as U. S. senator from Nevada, under 
circumstances that would have made his election 
virtually unanimous, but he refused, as his private 
business rendered, in his opinion, a useful public 
life impossible. He has been liberal in his dona- 
tions to charities, and among other gifts to the 
Roman Catholic church, of which he is a member, 
has founded an orphan asylum in Nevada City. 

MACKAY, Robert, Canadian jurist, b. in Mon- 
treal in 1816 ; d. there, 23 Feb., 1888. His father 
was an army officer in the East Indian depart- 
ment. The son was called to the bar in 1837, and 
became Queen's counsel in 1867. He was appoint- 
ed a commissioner for consolidating the statutes in 
1856, and worked upon the Lower Canada and 
general statutes. He became puisne judge of the 
supreme court in 1868, was a judge of the court of 
Queen's bench from 1868 till 1883, and was presi- 
dent of the Montreal bar association and of the 
Art association of that citv. 

MACKAY-SMITH, Alexander, clergyman, b. 
in New Haven, Conn., 2 June, 1850. He is a grand- 
son of Nathan Smith, U. S. senator from Connec- 
ticut, and a younger brother of the Rev. Cornelius 
B. Smith, D. D., of St. James's church, New York 
city. He was graduated at Trinity in 1872, studied 
divinity at the General theological seminary and 
in England and Germany, and took orders in the 
Protestant Episcopal church. He was rector of 
Grace church. South Boston, Mass., in 1877-80, 
and in the latter year became assistant rector of 
St. Thomas's church, New York city. In 1886 he 
declined the post of assistanj; bishop of Kansas, and 
in 1887 he became first archdeacon of New York. 
He has taken an active part in the civil-service re- 
form movement, and has published occasional 
poems in periodicals. 

McKEAN, Joseph, clergyman, b. in Ipswich, 
Mass., 19 April, 1776; d. in Havana, Cuba, 17 
March, 1818. He was graduated at Harvard in 
1794, and taught in Ipswich and Berwick till 1797, 
when he was ordained pastor of the Congregational 
church in Milton, Mass. The failure of his health 
compelled his resignation in 1804, and he resumed 
teaching. He declined the chair of mathematics 
at Harvard in 1806, but two years afterward ac- 
cepted the Boylston professorship of rhetoric and 
oratory, succeeding John Quincy Adams, continu- 
ing in office until a few months before his death, 
which was the result of pulmonary disease. Prince- 
ton gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1818, and 
Allegheny college that of D. D. a few months later. 
He published occasional sermons, and a " Memoir 
of the Rev. John Eliot," printed in the Massachu- 
setts historical collections. 

McKEAN, Samuel, senator, b. in Huntingdon 
county. Pa., in 1790; d. in McKean county, Pa., 
23 June, 1840. He was elected to congress as a 
Democrat in 1822, served in 1823-9, and from 
March, 1833, till March, 1839, was United States 
senator from Pennsylvania. 

McKEAN, Thomas, signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, b. in New London, Chester co., 
Pa., 19 March, 1734 ; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 24 
June, 1817. His parents were both natives of Ire- 
land. The son was educated by the Rev. Francis 
Allison, who was at that time a celebrated teacher 
of New Castle, Del., and after studying law a few 
months became register of probate of New Castle 
county, Del. He was admitted to the bar before 
he was twenty-one, appointed deputy attorney- 




general of Sussex county a year later and in 
1757-'9 was clerk of the assembly. With Caesar 
Rodney he became in 1762 reviser of laws that had 
been passed previous to 1752, and in October o± 
this vear was elected to the general assembly, hold- 
ing office for seventeen 

successive years, during 

the last of which he re- 
sided in Philadelphia. 
He was a trustee of the 
loan-office of New Cas- 
tle county for twelve 
vears, and in 1765 was 
elected to the Stamp- 
act congress. Had the 
votes in this body been 
taken according to the 
population of the states 

/^MfW / that were represented, 

/ '^ '^ that of Delaware would 

have been insignificant, 
but, througli the influ- 
ence of McKean, each 
state was given an equal 
voice. He was one of 
the most influenti-il members of this congress, 
was one of the committee that drew the memo- 
rial to the lords and coinmons, and, with John 
Rut ledge and Philip Livingston, revised its pro- 
ceedings. On the last day of its session, when 
busiiiess was concluded, after Timothy Ruggles, 
the i)resident of the body, and a few other timid 
members, had refused to sign the memorial of 
rights and grievances, McKean arose, and, address- 
ing the chair, insisted that the president give his 
reasons for his refusal. After a pause Ruggles re- 
marked that " it was against his conscience." 
McKean then rung the changes on the word " con- 
science '■ so loudly and so long that a challenge was 
given and accepted between himself and Ruggles 
in the presence of the congress, but Ruggles left 
the next morning at daybreak, so that the duel did 
not take place. In July of this year McKean was 
appointed sole notary of the lower counties of 
Delaware and judge of the court of common pleas, 
and of t he oi;f)hans' court of New Castle. In the 
November term of this year he ordered that all the 
proceedings of this court be recorded on un- 
stamjx'd j)aper, and this was the first court in the 
colonics that established such a rule. He was col- 
lector of the port of New Castle in 1771, speaker of 
the house of representatives in 1772, and from 
1774 till 1783 was a member of the Continental 
congress. He was the only member that served in 
cono^ress from its opening till the peace, and while 
he represented Delaware till 1783, and was its 
president in 1781, he was chief justice of Penn- 
sylviuiia from July, 1777, till 1799, each state claim- 
ing him as its own. and until 1779 he also occupied 
a seat in the Delaware legislature. During the 
session of congress in 1776 he was one of the com- 
mittee to state the rights of tlie colonies, one of the 
secret committee to contract for the importation 
of ai-ins, ;ind of that to prepare and digest the form 
of the Articles of Confederation to be entered into 
between the colonies, which he signed on the part 
of Delaware, jind he sui)erintended the finances 
and a variety of iin])ortant measures. Althouu-h 
particularly active in i)rocuring the Declaration.'^ 
wiucli his name is subscribed in the original in- 
struiueiit, he does not. through a mistake on the 
i^irt of the printer, appear as a subscriber in the 
••"!>y published in the journal of congress. In 
•luly. 1776, he was chairman of the delegates from 
New ^ ork. New Jersey, and Pennsvlvania, and in 


the same year chairman of the Pennsylvania com- 
mittees of safety and inspection and the Phila- 
delphia committee of observation. A few days 
after signing the Declaration of Independence he 
marched at the head of a battalion to Perth Am- 
boy, N. J., to re-enforce Gen. Washington until 
the arrival of the flying camp. On his return to 
Dover he found a committee awaiting him to 
urge him to prepare the constitution of the state, 
which he drew up on the night of his arrival, and 
which was unanimously adopted by the assembly 
the next day. While acting in 1777 in the double 
capacity of president of Delaware and chief justice 
of Pennsylvania, he describes himself in a letter to 
his intimate friend, John Adams, as " hunted like a 
fox by the enemy, compelled to remove my family 
five times in three months, and at last fixed them 
in a little log-house on the banks of the Susque- 
hanna, but they were soon obliged to move again 
on account of the incursions of the Indians." He 
was president of congress in 1781, and in that ca- 
pacity received Washington's despatches announc- 
ing the surrender of Cornwallis, a member of the 
Pennsylvania constitutional convention of 1790, 
and in 1799-1808 was governor of that state. His 
policy as a leader of the Republican party paved 
the way for the accession of Thomas Jefferson to 
the presidency. He became a member of the Penn- 
sylvania Society of the Cincinnati in 1785, and was 
subsequently its vice-president. Princeton gave 
him the degree of LL. D. in 1781, Dartmouth the 
same honor the next year, and the University of 
Pennsylvania A.M. in 1763, and LL. D. in 1785. 
With Prof. John Wilson he published " Commen- 
taries on the Constitution of the United States" 
(London, 1790). — His son, Joseph Borden, jurist, 
b. in Pennsylvania, 28 July, 1764; d. in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., 3 Sept., 1826, was graduated at the L^ni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1782, studied law, and 
in 1785 was admitted to the Philadelphia bar. He 
was appointed attorney-general by his father in 
1800, and served through the latter's term as gov- 
ernor. For this appointment the elder McKean 
was bitterly assailed by his opponents, as the son 
was regarded as inferior to many other members 
of the Philadelphia bar. He was subsequently com- 
missioned associate judge of the district of Penn- 
sylvania, and at his death was president judge of 
the court. — Joseph Borden's son, William Wis- 
ter, naval officer, b. in Huntingdon county, Pa., 
19 Sept., 1800 ; d. near Binghamton. N. Y., 22 April, 
1865, entered the navy as a midshipman in 1814, 
and became lieutenant in 1825, commander in 
1841. and captain in 1855. He was retired in 1861 
and became commodore on the retired list in 1862. 
In 1823-'4 he commanded a schooner in Com. 
David D. Porter's squadron, and was active in sup- 
pressing piracy along the coast of Cuba and among 
the West Indies. He conveyed the Japanese em- 
bassy home in 1860, and in 1861 was the first com- 
mander of the Western Gulf blockading sqtiadron. 
McKEAN, Thomas Jefferson, soldier, b. in 
Burlington, Bradford co.. Pa., 21 Aug., 1810; d. in 
Marion, Iowa, 19 April, 1870. He was graduated 
at the U. S. military academy in 1831, and assigned 
to the 4th infantry, but resigned in 1834 and en- 
gaged in civil engineering. During the Florida 
war he was adjutant of the 1st regiment of Penn- 
sylvania volunteers, and, failing to obtain a com- 
mission, he served as a private of Iowa volunteers 
during the Mexican war, where he was wounded at 
Churubusco, and in June, 1848, brevetted 2d lieu- 
tenant of dragoons, ]:)ut declined and returned to 
civil engineering. He became paymaster in the 
U. S. army in June, 1861, in November of this 




year was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 
served in the Mississippi campaign in April and 
May, 1862, and participated in the battle of Cor- 
inth. He was in command of the northeast dis- 
trict of Missouri in 1863, and of the district of 
Kansas from Mp*ch to August, 1864, was chief of 
cavalry on the milf of Mexico from September till 
October, and in E^ecember was in command of the 
western district of Florida. He was brevetted 
major-general of volunteers in March, 1865, and in 
August mustered out of volunteer service. He 
then settled near Marion, Iowa, engaged in farm- 
ing, and in 1869 was appointed pension-agent for 
the eastern district of the state, but declined. In 
1868 he was a delegate to the Chicago National 
Bepublican convention. 

McKEE, George CoHn, legislator, b. in Joliet, 
111., 2 Oct., 1886; d. in Jackson, Miss., 17 Nov., 
1890. He was educated at Knox college, and ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1858. After practising law at 
Centralia, 111., he volunteered as a private in April, 
1861, in the 11th Illinois regiment, became captain 
■on its reorganization, and served throughout the 
war in various capacities. He was wounded at Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, and Vicksburg, commanding a 
picked corps during the siege of the latter town. 
When at the head of his own regiment and other 
detachments, on the second Yazoo expedition, he 
defeated the Confederate assault at Yazoo City, 5 
March, 1864, after which he was ordered, as briga- 
dier-general, to enroll and equip four regiments of 
■colored militia. He was appointed register in bank- 
ruptcy in 1867, and was a member of the Constitu- 
tional convention of Mississippi. He was elected 
to the 40th congress, but his state was refused rep- 
resentation, and, being re-elected, he served from 
23 Feb., 1870, till 4 March, 1875. After the close 
of the war he was postmaster, and practised his 
profession at Jackson, Miss. He invented a cotton- 
press, which he patented 3 Api-il, 1877. 

McKEEN, Joseph, educator, b. in London- 
derry, N. H., 15 Oct., 1757; d. in Brunswick, Me., 
15 July, 1807. He was graduated at Dartmouth 
in 1774, and during the eight years of the Revolu- 
tion engaged in teaching in his native town, ex- 
cept for a short period of service as a volunteer 
under Oen. John Sullivan. He then went to Cam- 
bridge, Mass., and after spending some time in 
studying mathematics, astronomy, and theology, 
was licensed and began to preach. In May, 1785, 
he was ordained pastor of Beverly, Mass., where he 
remained until he was elected the first president of 
Bowdoin college in 1802. In 1803 he received the 
■degree of D. D. from Dartmouth. Dr. McKeen 
possessed a strong and discriminating mind, while 
his manners were conciliatory though dignified. 
His proficiency in mathematics was once the means 
of saving a human life. A man was on trial in Es- 
•sex county, Mass., for housebreaking. The ques- 
tion to be decided was whether the crime was per- 
petrated by night or by day, and the man's life 
hung in the balance. A nice calculation by Dr. 
McKeen as to the precise moment of dawn saved 
the culprit from the gallows. Dr. McKeen's pub- 
lications consisted chiefly of papers in the " Trans- 
actions of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences " and a few occasional sermons. 

McKEEVER, Harriet Burn, educator, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 28 Aug., 1807; d. in Chester, Pa., 
7 Feb., 1886. She was educated in her native city, 
and taught there for more than thirty-six years. 
Necessity compelled her to engage in literary work 
late in life, and in thirteen years she produced 
forty volumes of Sunday-school books. She is 
also the author of " Twilight Musings, and other 

VOL. IV. — 9 

Poems " (Philadelphia, 1857), with a commendatory 
preface by Rev. William B. Stevens, D. D. 

McKEE VER, Isaac, naval officer, b. in Penn- 
sylvania in April, 1793 ; d. in Norfolk, Va., 1 
April, 1856. He entered the U. S. navy as mid- 
shipman in 1809, was made lieutenant in 1814, and 
commanded one of a flotilla of five gun-boats under 
Lieut. Thomas ap Catesby Jones, that was cap- 
tured by a British expedition on Lake Borgne, La., 
in December, 1814. The gun-boats mounted collec- 
tively 23 guns, and were manned by 182 men. 
The British expedition consisted of 42 large barges 
and other boats, manned by more than 1,000 sea- 
men and marines. The engagement, which was 
very severe, lasted three hours, and 200 of the Brit- 
ish were killed and wounded. Lieut. McKeever's 
vessel was the last one to be attacked, and he was 
severely wounded, together with most of his offi- 
cers, before he surrendered. He was commissioned 
commander in 1830, and captain in 1838, perform- 
ing much active service in both grades. In 1855 
he had charge of the navy-yard at Norfolk, Va., 
when a pestilence broke out in that city and the 
adjacent towns. He was authorized by' the navy 
department to suspend operations in the yard and 
leave for a time, should he see fit, but he decided to 
remain, that work might be given those who de- 
pended upon it for support of their families. — His 
son, Chauiicey, soldier, b. in IVIaryland, about 1828, 
was graduated at the U. S. military academy in 
1849, and assigned to the artillery. He was pro- 
moted 1st lieutenant, 24 Dec, 1853, and captain of 
staff and assistant adjutant-general, 3 Aug., 1861. 
During the civil war he took part in the battles of 
Bull Run and other engagements. After being 
promoted staff major and lieutenant-colonel, he 
was brevetted lieutenant-colonel in 1864, and colo- 
nel and brigadier-general, 13 March, 1865, for 
" diligent, faithful, and meritorious services in the 
adjutant-general's department." On 9 March, 
1875, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel and 
assistant adjutant-general, and he is now (1888) on 
duty in San Francisco, Cal. 

McKELLAR, Archibald, Canadian member of 
parliament, b. in Glenshire, Argyleshire, Scotland, 
3 Feb., 1816. His parents came to Upper Canada 
in 1817, and settled in Aldborough. Archibald 
was educated at Geneva, N. Y., and at the high- 
school in Niagara, and afterward engaged in farm- 
ing and lumbering. He had been a member of 
the Kent county council for fifteen years, when, 
in 1857, he was elected to parliament for that con- 
stituency, and he continued its representative till 
1867, when he was elected to the provincial par- 
liament for Bothwell, which he represented in 
1867-'75. During the last four years of his politi- 
cal life he was commissioner of public works, min- 
ister of agriculture and emigration, and provin- 
cial secretary. He carried through parliament the 
charters for the Southern and the Erie and Huron 
railways, and aided in establishing Ontario college 
of agriculture. In 1875 he became sheriff of Went- 
worth countv, which office he still holds. 

MACKELLAR, Thomas, tvpe-founder, b. in 
New York city, 12 Aug., 1812. His father, an offi- 
cer in the British navy, emigrated to New York and 
resided there till his death. The son at the age of 
fourteen began to learn the printer's trade, and in 
his seventeenth year became proof-reader in the 
publishing house of J. and J. Harper. In 1833 he 
went to Philadelphia, Pa., and entered the type- 
foundry of Johnson and Smith as proof-reader, 
and he has since come to be the head of the house 
which is now known as the Johnson type-foundry, 
and one of the most important establishments of 




the kind in the world. In 1856 he established the 
"Typographic Advertiser." In 1888 the Univer- 
sity of Wooster, Ohio, conferred on him the degree 
of Ph. D. He published " The American Printer " 
(186(3), the fifteenth edition of which has been is- 
sued, and in his maturer years he has become 
known for his poetical productions, of which he 
has written and published several volumes. All of 
them were revised and issued, with other of his 
writings, under the title of " Ehymes Atween 
Times " (Philadelphia, 1873). 

McKENDREE, William, M. E. bishop, b. in 
King William county, Va., 6 July, 1757: d. in 
Suinner county, Tenn., 5 March, 1835. Shortly 
after liis birth the family residence was changed to 
Greenville county. His' father was a planter, and 
the son was trained 
for the same calling. 
In 1810 the family 
removed to Sumner 
county, Tenn. At the 
beginning of the Rev- 
olution, William, then 
twenty years of age, 
joined a company of 
volunteers, was for 
some time an adjutant 
in the service, and was 
at Yorktown at the 
surrender of Corn- 
wallis. At the end of 
the war he returned 
to private life, and 
would never accept a 
pension. His opportunities for gaining an educa- 
tion were very small, yet after leaving the army he 
served for a time as a school-teacher, and in his ])ub- 
lic life, in both his preaching and writings, he dis- 
played a good understanding of the English lan- 
guage, as well as much sound learning and breadth 
of thought. Before leaving home he had become 
connected with the ^lethodist church, but it was 
not till 17.S7. when he was residing in Brunswick 
county, Va., that he became thoroughly awakened 
in the religious life. Soon after this he was li- 
censed to preach, and in 1788 Bishop Asbury ap- 
]M>inte(l hiui as junior preacher to Mecklenburg cir- 
cuit. After this he served successively for several 
years upon neighboring circuits, and' in 1793 he 
was sent to South Carolina, but returned the next 
year, and for thfee years had charge of a vast dis- 
trict that extended from Chesapeake bay to the 
Blue Ridge and Alleghany mountains, 'in 1798 
his ap])ointinent was in tht' Baltimore conference, 
and in 1S()0 he went with Pjishop Asbury and 
iiishop Whatcoat to the western conference, "which 
met that year at Bethel, Ky. He was appointed 
to superintend a district that embraced a large part 
of the partially settled territorv beyond the Alle- 
ghany mountains. In this ])ioiieer work he passed 
the next eight yeai's— a kind of evangelistic Daniel 
Boone, but without any of his savagery— with a 
yearly i)ittanee for his su])port of from 'twenty to 
less than fifty doliai-s. In the wonderful revival of 
tliose years, in all that region, out of which grew 
the ("uuiberland Presbyterian church, he wasatonce 
an mspiriug and directing spirit, and it is claimed 
that h<'. in(.re than any other man, saved that great 
\V(.rk troui (h-enerating into a wild and ruinous 
tanaticisni. Some have believed that his ministry 
<lurnig these years contributed largely to save the 
great west from falling into a condition of godless 
barbarism. He continued to j)reside over this 
work till tlie s])ri ng of 1808, when he came to 
the general conference at Baltimore, and was there 


elected and ordained bishop. His first episcopal 
tour of 1,500 miles extended through Virginia^ 
Tennessee, Missouri, and Illinois. In October he 
was at the conference in middle Tennessee, and by 
his wonderful preaching and his administrative 
ability inspired both the zeal and the confidence 
of the preachers. He continued to travel at large 
through the whole country, sometimes prostrated 
by rheumatism and fevers, but presently again in 
the saddle, pushing forward to new labors ; and at 
the general conference of 1816 he found himself 
left, by the death of Bishop Asbury, the only bish- 
op of his church. Two additional bishops were 
then chosen, and so the work proceeded, with a. 
less severe strain upon himself. He continued tO' 
labor till 1835, when his health failed utterly. He 
was never married, never received a collegiate di- 
ploma, nor left even a brief record of his eventful 
life. See his '• Life and Times," by Bishop Robert 
Paine (2 vols.. 1859). 

McKENDIlY, William, soldier, d. in Canton,. 
Mass., in 1798. He was quartermaster of Ichabod 
Alden's Massachusetts regiment, holding the rank 
of lieutenant, and w^as at Cherry Valley, but es- 
caped the massacre. He was with Gen. James- 
Clinton's force that joined Sullivan's expedition 
against the Six Nations, and his journal is pub- 
lished in the " Proceedings of the Massachusetts- 
Historical Society " (2d series, yol. ii., 1880). 

MACKENNA,' Jiian, Chilian soldier, b. in Clog- 
her, Ireland, 20 Oct., 1771 ; d. in Buenos Ayres, 21 
Nov., 1814. At the age of thirteen he left Ireland 
by order of his uncle. Count O'Reilly, who des- 
tined him for the Spanish military service, entered 
the Royal academy of mathematics in Barcelona, 
and in 1787 was appointed cadet in the corps of 
military engineers. He served dui-ing the African 
campaign in 1787-8 in the garrison of Ceuta, and 
later in the campaign of Roussillon against the 
French republic, and at first rose rapidly in rank, 
but afterward, remaining for a long time without 
promotion as V)revet lieutenant-colonel, he thought 
iiimself neglected, and determined to seek his for- 
tune in tlie New World. He obtained leave, and 
left in 1796 for Peru with warm recommendations- 
from his uncle to the Viceroy Ambrosio Oliiggins, 
an Irishman, like himself. He was favorably re- 
ceived, and in 1797 appointed civil and military 
governor of the colony of Osorno, Chili, which 
place he filled till 1808. In 1809, when an Eng- 
lish invasion was threatened, Mackenna, as the 
most experienced military officer in the country, 
was commissioned to erect fortifications along the 
coast, and take the necessary measures of defence, 
but in 1810, dissatisfied with the Spanish govern- 
ment,' he joined the revolutionists, and became an 
ardent defender of the cause of independence. 
Early in 1811 he was appointed provisional gover- 
nor of Valparaiso, and in September of the same 
year became a member of the governing junta,, 
under the auspices of Jose M. Carrera, and at the 
same time commander-in-chief of artillery and en- 
gineers, with the rank of colonel. By a mutiny 
that was headed by the brothers Carrera, he lost 
his place in the government, but retained the com- 
mand of the artillery, till, as he continued his op- 
position to Carrera, he was banished to the prov- 
ince of Rioja. In 1813 he was recalled, commis- 
sioned to make a strategical map of the republic, 
and appointed chief of stafi for the army of the 
south, to repel the invasion of Pareja. He as- 
sisted in the campaign and was promoted briga- 
dier. On his return to Santiago he was appointed 
military commander of the city, but when Jose M- 
Carrera returned to power he was arrested in his. 




bed, thrown into prison, and banished to Mendoza, 
14 July, 1814. He then went to Buenos Ayres, and, 
meetiiig Carrera's brother Luis, was killed in the 
duel that resulted from their quarrel. 

McKENNAN, Thomas McKean Thompson, 
lawyer, b. in NeW Castle county, Pa., 31 March, 
1794 : d. in ReaVling, Pa., 9 July, 1852. He was 
graduated at Washington college Pa., in 1810, 
studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1814, and 
was deputy attorney-general for the county in 
1815-'17. He soon won a place in the front rank 
of his profession, and received from Jefferson col- 
lege the degree of doctor of laws. He was elected 
as a Whig to congress, serving from 5 Dec, 1831, 
till 3 March, 1839, and again from 31 May, 1841, 
till 3 March, 1843, was a presidential elector in 
1840, president of the electoral college in 1848, 
and in 1850 was offered the secretaryship of the 
interior in the cabinet of President Fillmore. Re- 
luctantly accepting, he went to Washington, but 
soon became disgusted with official routine and the 
importunities of place-hunters, and resigned after 
scarcely a month's tenure of office. 

McKENNEY, Thomas Lorraine, author, b. in 
Hopewell, Somerset co., Md., 21 March, 1785; d. 
in New York city, 19 Feb., 1859. He was edu- 
cated at Chestertown, Md., and engaged in busi- 
ness at Georgetown, D. C. In 1816 he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of the United States trade 
with the Indian tribes. In 1824, the bureau of In- 
dian affairs having been organized in connection 
with the war department, Mr. McKenney was 
placed in charge of it. In 1826 he was made a 
special commissioner with Lewis Cass to negotiate 
an important treaty with the Chippewa Indians at 
Fond du Lac, in the territory of Michigan. In 
1823, an effort having been made by interested par- 
ties to injure his fair fame, a speech that he deliv- 
ered in his own defence before a committee of con- 
gress, greatly increased his reputation as an honest 
and capable superintendent of Indian affairs. He 
published " Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes, etc." 
(Baltimore, 1827), with many illustrations of Michi- 
gan life and scenery, and was also the author, in 
connection with James Hall, of " A History of the 
Indian Tribes," illustrated with 120 colored Indian 
portraits (3 vols., Philadelphia, 1838-'44). The 
high price of the volume ($120) has restricted it to 
the public libraries and to private collections. He 
also wrote " Essays on the Spirit of Jacksonianism 
as Exemplified in its Deadly Hostility to the Bank 
of the United States, etc." (Philadelphia, 1835), 
and " Memoirs, Official and Personal, with Sketches 
of Travels among the Northern and Southern In- 
dians, etc." (2d ed.. New York, 1846). 

MACKENZIE, Sir Alexander, explorer, b. in 
Inverness, Scotland, about 1755; d. in Dalhousie, 
Scotland, 12 March, 1820. In his youth he emi- 
grated to Canada and became a clerk of one 
of the partners in the Northwest fur company. 
His employer determined to send him on an ex- 
ploring expedition, but, before going, Mackenzie 
spent a year in England, studying astronomy and 
navigation. He then returned to Fort Chippewyan, 
on Lake Athabasca, where he had already spent 
eight years in trading with the Indians, and on 3 
June, 1789, set out on his expedition, with four 
canoes and a party of twelve persons. At the 
western end of Great Slave lake he entered a river 
to which he gave his name, and explored it until 
12 July, when he reached the Arctic ocean. Far- 
ther northward progress was stopped by ice. The 
farthest point that he reached was 69° north lati- 
tude. He then returned to the fort, where he ar- 
rived on 27 Sept. In October, 1792, he undertook 

a more hazardous expedition to the western coast 
of North America and succeeded, in July, 1793, 
in reaching Cape Menzies, on the Pacific ocean, in 
latitude 52° 21' north, and longitude 128° 12' west, 
being the first white man to cross the Rocky 
mountains and reach the Pacific ocean. He re- 
turned to England in 1801 and was knighted 
the following year. He published a detailed ac- 
count of his explorations, entitled "Voyages from 
Montreal, on the River St. Lawrence, through the 
Continent of North America to the Frozen and 
Pacific Oceans" (London, 1801). 

McKENZIE, Alexander, clergyman, b. in New 
Bedford, Mass., 14 Dec, 1830. He was graduated 
at Harvard in 1859, and at Andover theological 
seminary in 1861, and ordained pastor of a Con- 
gregational church in Augusta, Me., in the latter 
year, remaining there until 1867. Since that date 
he has had charge of the First church at Cambridge, 
Mass., and in 1886 was appointed one of the 
preachers to Harvard university. In 1882 he was 
lecturer on the theology of the New Testament in 
Andover seminary, of which institution he became 
trustee in 1876. He received the degree of D. D. 
from Amherst in 1879. He is also a lecturer in 
Harvard divinity-school, and a member and secre- 
tary of the board of overseers of Harvard, He 
has published "The Two Bovs" (Boston, 1870); 
" History of the First Church, Cambridge " (1873) ; 
and " Cambridge Sermons " (1883). 

MACKENZIE, Alexander, Canadian states- 
man, b. in Logierait, Perthshire, Scotland. 28 Jan., 
1822. He was educated at the public schools of 
Maulin, Dunkeld, and 
Perth, and, after fol- 
lowing for a time the 
trade of a mason, be- 
came, like his father, 
an architect and build- 
er. In 1842 he emi- 
grated to Kingston, 
Canada, where he 
worked as a journey- 
man, and he soon af- 
terward began business 
on his own account as 
a builder and contract- 
or at Sarnia, in western 
Canada. He had been 
a Whig in Scotland, 
and naturally, soon 
after his arrival in 
Canada, allied himself with the 
In 1852 the " Lambton Shield," a reform news- 
paper, was established, with Mr. Mackenzie as 
editor. In 1861 he was elected to parliament for 
Lambton, and represented it till 1867. He sup- 
ported John Sandfield Macdonald, favored the 
project of confederation, was opposed to the coali- 
tion of 1864, and declined a seat in the Canadian 
cabinet on the retirement of George Brown in 
1865. In 1867 he was elected for Lambton to the 
Canadian parliament, and again in 1872, 1874, and 
1878. He was chosen for East York in 1882, and 
re-elected for that place in February, 1887. In 
1867, on the defeat of George Brown, Mr. Macken- 
zie succeeded to the leadership of the Reform op- 
position in parliament, and in 1873 he was desig- 
nated as leader of the entire Liberal party in 
Canada. On 5 Nov., 1873, upon the resignation of 
Sir John A. Macdonald, Mr. Mackenzie was called 
upon by Lord Dufferin to form an administration, 
which he succeeded in doing a few days afterward, 
taking the office of minister of public works, 
which he held till he resigned with the members of 

Liberal party. 




his cabinet in October, 1878. He represented West 
Middlesex in the Ontario assembly from 1871 till 
October, 1872, when he resigned, and was a member 
of the executive council and treasurer of the prov- 
ince from 21 Dec, 1871, till the date of his retire- 
ment. His administration was productive of the 
most important legislation, and as premier he 
moulded and directed to a great extent all the 
principal measures that were enacted by the Do- 
minion government. Among these were a strin- 
gent election law, with the trial of election peti- 
tions by judges and vote by ballot; the abolition 
of the ^-eal-estate qualification for members of 
parliament; the enactment of the marine telegraph 
law, which virtually abolished the monopoly of the 
cable companv: tlie establishment of a Dominion 
militarv college; the improvement of the militia 
system"; the permanent organization of the civil 
service; tlie establishment of a supreme court for 
the Dominion; the reduction of postage to and 
from the United States ; tlie opening of direct mail 
comnninieation with tlie West Indies; the con- 
struction of a trans-continental telegraph-line; the 
adoption of a final route for the Pacific railway; 
the oi)ening of negotiations for a reciprocity treaty 
between the United States and Canada; the estab- 
lishmenr, of a territorial government for the North- 
west; and the satisfactory adjustment of the Mani- 
toba amnesty and the New Brunswick school 
questions, which at one time threatened the grav- 
est coin plications. ^Ir. Mackenzie, though pos- 
sessed of no gifts of oratory, is still an effective 
speaker, and Ins plain, honest, and earnest state- 
ments of opinion have proved often more con- 
vincing tliJin the elaborate and eloquent speeches 
of Hfhvard Blake, his successor in the leader- 
ship of the Liberals. In .June. 1872, Mr. Mac- 
kenzie visited Scotland, and while there was pre- 
sented with the freedom of Irvine, Dundee, and 
Perth, and also visited the Queen at Windsor Castle. 
In 1881, during a second visit to his native land, 
he was granted the freedom of the city of In- 
verness. .Air. Mackenzie is president of several 
important financial associations. He was thrice 
offered the honor of knighthood by the Queen, 
but declined it. He is the author of '• Life and 
Speeches of Hon. (leorge l>rown " (Toronto, 1882). 
MACKKN/IK, Alexander SHdell, naval offi- 
cer, b. in New York city, (5 xVpril, 1803 ; d. in 
Tarrytown. N. Y., 13 Sept., 1848. He was the son 
of .John Slidell, and the brother of the U. S. sena- 
tor of that name. The name of Mackenzie, that 
of his mother, was added to his own in 1887, at the 
re(piest of a maternal uncle. He entered the navy 
as luidshipinan in 181."), and in 1822 he took com- 
mand of a merchant- vessel to improve himself in 
seamanship. He was made lieutenant in 1825, and 
commander in 1841, and in both grades was in ac- 
tive duly in the Mediterranean, the West Indies, the 
[Brazilian waters, and the Pacific. He was at Bahia 
in comtnand of the " Dol])hin " during the siege of 
that place, and at its surrender, and was an eve- 
witness of many of the political events on the Rio 
de hi Plata at t hat period, an account of some of 
which he published in a pamphlet at the time, 
lie also enjoyed the intimacy of Gen. Eosas, with 
whom he subsc(|uenllv corresponded for many 
years. In 1842 he had charge of tlie brig " Som- 
ers," manned chiefly l)y naval apprentices; and on 
Ids passage from the coast of Africa, in the autumn 
of that year, the existence of a mutinous plot on 
board was discovered, the principals of which were 
nnniediately placed in close confinement. A conn- 
ed of otlicers was called, which, after a careful in- 
vestigation, recommended the immediate execu- 

tion of the three persons that were principally 
implicated. This recommendation was carried 
into effect at sea, 1 Dec, 1842. The " Somers " 
soon afterward arrived in New York, when a court 
of inquiry was immediately ordered to investigate 
the affair. The result was a full approval of the 
conduct of Mackenzie. Subsequently a court- 
martial was held upon him at his own request, and 
the trial again resulted in his acquittal. As the 
young men that had been executed were all of 
good social standing, one of them being a son of 
the secretary of war, John C. Spencer, of New 
York, the event created a great sensation, and 
Mackenzie's conduct was as severely criticised by 
soiiie as it was warmly defended by others. The 
decisions of the courts-martial did not succeed in 
quieting these differences of opinion, and the affair 
more or less endjittered the remainder of Macken- 
zie's life. In May, 1846, he was sent by President 
Polk on a private mission to Cuba, and thence 
sailed to Mexico. He was ordnance-officer at the 
siege of Vera Cruz, and commanded a detached 
division of artillery at the storming of Tabasco in 
1847. Mackenzie also attained note as an author. 
His first book was " A Year in Spain, by a Young 
American " (2 vols., Boston, 1829 ; London, 1831 ; 
enlarged ed., 3 vols.. New York, 1836), which gained 
immediate popularity both in this country and in 
England. " Here,"' wrote Washington Irving from 
London on its appearance, " it is quite the fashion- 
able book of the day, and spoken of in the highest 
terms in the highest circles." It has also been 
translated into Swedish. His other works are 
'• Popular Essays on Naval Subjects " (2 vols., 
1833); "The American in England" (2 vols., 
1835) ; " Spain Revisited " (2 vols., 1836) ; " Life of 
John Paul Jones " (2 vols., Boston, 1841) ; " Life 
of Commodore Oliver II. Perry " (2 vols., New 
York. 1841) ; and " Life of Commodore Stephen De- 
catur," bping vol. xxi. in Jared Sparks's '• Library 
of American Biography " (Boston, 1846). He also 
left in manuscript "A Journal of a Tour in Ire- 
land." See " The Case of the ' Somers ' ; Defence 
of A. S. Mackenzie " (New York, 1843). — His son, 
Ranald Slidell, soldier, b. in Westchester county, 
N. Y., 27 July, 1840 ; d. on Staten Island, N. Y., 19 
Jan., 1889, and was graduated at the U. S. military 
academy in 1862. In August he was brevetted 1st 
lieutenant for "gallant and meritorious services "at 
the battle of Manassas, where he was wounded. He 
was commissioned 1st lieutenant, 3 March, 1863, 
brevet captain for gallantry at Chancellorsville, and 
brevet major for the same cause at the battle of 
Gettysburg. He was promoted captain, 6 Nov., 
1863* brevetted lieutenant-colonel for his services 
before Petersbur-^, Va,, 18 June, 1864, and became 
colonel of the 2d Connecticut heavy artillery, 10 
June, 1864, being brevetted colonel in the regular 
army in the following October for gallantry at 
Cedar Creek, and brigadier-general of volunteers 
for meritorious services at the battles of Opequan, 
Fisher's Hill, and Middletown, Va. He was brev- 
etted brigadier-general in the regular army for 
bravery and also major-general of volunteers in 
March, 1865. Besides taking part in other engage- 
ments. Gen. Mackenzie was engaged in build- 
ing bridges, constructing rifle-trenches, repairing 
roads, erecting forts, and other engineering work 
throughout the war. He was promoted colonel, 6 
March, 1867, and brigadier-general, 26 Oct., 1882. 
On 24 March, 1884, he was placed on the retired 
list, having been disabled " in the line of duty." — 
Another son, Alexander Slidell, naval officer, b. 
in New Y'ork city, 24 Jan., 1842 ; d. in the island 
of Formosa, China, 13 June, 1867, was appointed 




acting midshipman, 29 Sept., 1855, and promoted 
midshipman, 9 June, 1859, lieutenant, 81 Aug., 
1861, and lieutenant-commander, 29 July, 1865. 
He served in the " Kineo " at the passage of Fort 
Jackson and B^or^ St. Philip in 1862, and in the 
'' Ironsides " at p^e first attack upon Fort Sumter 
in 1863. He cotnraanded the boats of the squadron 
off Charleston in the joint army and navy expedi- 
tion of 10 July ol the same year, which resulted in 
the capture of the greater part of Morris island. 
Lieut.-Commander Mackenzie lost his life while 
leading a charge against the savages in the island 
of Formosa. A tablet to his memory has b^en 
placed in the chapel of the naval academy at An- 
napolis, and his fellow-officers cordially approved 
the opinion of Rear-Admiral Bell, that " the navy 
could boast no braver spirit, no man of higher 
promise," than voung Mackenzie. 

MACKENZIE, Charles Kenneth, diplomatist, 
b. in Scotland in 1788 ; d. in New York city, 6 
July, 1862. He was given a classical education and 
received the degree of doctor in both law and medi- 
cine. He entered the army, became aide-de-camp 
to the Duke of Wellington, and in 1823 accom- 
panied the British commission to Mexico on the 
recognition of that country's independence, being 
appointed consul for Vera Cruz. In 1825 he was 
sent as consul-general to Hayti, and in 1830 he 
was commissioner of arbitration to the mixed com- 
mission at Havana. A dispute with the foreign 
office in November, 1834, ended his official connec- 
tion with the British government. He then re- 
turned to England and engaged in literature. He 
was a contributor to reviews, and to the " Encyclo- 
pasdia Britannica," and was also the leader-writer 
on a London Conservative journal. Mr. Mackenzie 
lost his life by the burning of a hotel. 

MACKENZIE, Donald, fur-trader, b. in Scot- 
land in 1783; d. in Mayville, Chautauqua co., 
N. Y., 20 Jan., 1851. He emigrated to Canada in 
1800, and, after being employed for several years 
in the service of the Northwest company, he be- 
came in 1809 a partner of John Jacob Astor in his 
project for establishing a trade in furs west of the 
Rocky mountains. He travelled across the conti- 
nent to the mouth of Columbia river, a journey 
that was then attended with considerable danger, 
and remained at Astoria until its surrender to a 
British force in 1814. He then converted as much 
of his property as possible into available funds, 
again traversed the wilderness to the Mississippi, 
and reached New York in safety. He was after- 
ward unsuccessfully employed in negotiations to 
secure to the United States the exclusive trade 
with Oregon. In March, 1821, Mr. Mackenzie en- 
tered the service of the Hudson bay company, and 
was at once commissioned one of the council and 
chief factor. In 1825, while residing at Fort Gar- 
ry, Red river settlement, he was appointed gov- 
ernor of that corporation. After amassing a for- 
tune, he returned to the United States in 1832, 
and settled in Mayville. Several of his adventures 
are recorded by Washington Irving. 

MACKENZIE, Georgre Henry, chess-player, b. 
in Bellefield, Ross-shire, Scotland, 24 March, 1837. 
He entered the British army when he was nine- 
teen years of age, and saw service during the con- 
cluding months of the Indian mutiny, but sold his 
commission in 1861, and came to the United States 
in 1863, enlisted in the National army, and before 
the end of the war had been promoted captain. 
Having been a chess-player from his youth, and 
the game steadily gaining in fascination for him, 
he determined to devote himself to it professional- 
ly. Since that time he has played in all the tour- 




naments both at home and abroad, including those 
held in Paris in 1878, Berlin in 1881, Vienna in 
1882, London in 1883, and Hamburg in 1885. In 
1887 the contest was held at Prankfort-on-the- 
Main, and proved 
the most interest- 
ing of the series. 
Twenty - one of 
the chief players 
of Europe, in- 
cluding two ex- 
champions, Zuk- 
ertort and Black- 
burne, took part. 
During the pre- 
vious meetings 
Capt. Macken- 
zie s play had 
constantly im- 
proved. In the 
Berlin tourna- 
ment he led in 
the first round, 
in the London 
event he was 
ahead in the sec- 
ond round, and in match play on both sides of the 
Atlantic he had more than held his own. and his 
scores had grown steadily better, until at Frankfort 
he attained the extraordinary result of fifteen wins 
out of twenty games, in a contest Avhere nearly every 
chess-player of mark except Stein itz was engaged. 
As a result he carried off the first prize, which 
made him the champion chess-plaver of the world. 

MACKENZIE, Hettie, actress, b. about 1810; 
d. in Nashville, Tenn., in February, 1845. She 
was a daughter of Joseph Jefferson, the second of 
that name, but was not educated by her father for 
the stage, and in 1829 married Alexander Macken- 
zie, of Pottsville, Pa. In 1831 Mr. Jefferson per- 
suaded his son-in-law to unite with him in taking 
a lease of certain theatres in Lancaster and Harris- 
burg, Pa,, and Washington, D. C. In consequence 
of this arrangement Mrs. Mackenzie made her first 
appearance in the " Mountaineers." She then 
turned her attention to the portrayal of old wom- 
en, and in Washington and Baltiniore was unusu- 
ally successful in such characters as jMrs. j\Iala- 
prop. Lady Priory, and Lady Brumbach. Being 
able to learn new parts quickly she was often called 
upon to play the Queen in " Hamlet," Ijady All- 
worth, or Lady Rachel, to accommodate the man- 
agement. On 10 Sept., 1837, Mrs. Mackenzie en- 
acted Helen in the "Hunchback" in Chicago, 
and this was the first theatrical exhibition there. 
In 1841 she played in Natchez, Vieksburg, and 
Mobile, and in 1843 in New Orleans. 

MACKENZIE, Kenneth, Canadian judge, b. in 
Ross-shire, Scotland, in 1804; d. in Toronto, 7 
Feb., 1883. He came to Canada in 1831, settled 
in Montreal, where he served as a merchant's clerk, 
and subsequently began business in Cobourg on 
his own account. He afterward studied law, was 
admitted to the bar in 1843, and became a Queen's 
counsel in 1853, and a bencher of the Law society 
in 1871. He first practised at Kingston in 1853, 
was appointed county court judge of Frontenac 
and allied counties, and in 1865 resigned and re- 
moved to Toronto. In 1866 ^Ir. Mackenzie was 
retained as counsel by the U. S. government for 
the Fenians, that were concerned in the raid at 
Fort Erie, and succeeded in securing the acquittal 
of about one half of the number that were cap- 
tured. He was employed as crown prosecutor by 
the government of Ontario, appointed judge of the 




county court of York in October, 1876, and in 1877 
judge of the Ontario maritime court. Judge Mac- 
kenzie also presided at criminal sessions, at the 
surrogate court, and the court of assessment ap- 
peals, and also conducted ten division courts. 

MACKENZIE, Robert Shelton, author, b. at 
Drew's Court, Limerick co.. Ireland, 22 June, 1809 ; 
d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 30 Nov., 1880. He was the 
second son of Capt. Kenneth Mackenzie, author of 
a volume of Gaelic poetry. After his education 
at Fermov, he studied medicine at Cork, and was 
graduated at Dublin, but never practised his pro- 
fession. After passing his medical examination 
in 1825, he opened a school in Fermoy, and in 
1829, having had experience in the mean time as a 
newspaper reporter, he became editor of a county 
journal in Staffordshire, England. In 1880-1 he 
was emploved in London in writing biograi)hies 
for a work "called "The Georgian Era," and in re- 
vising the contributions of others. Subsequently 
he acted as editor of various newspapers, among 
them the " Liverpool Journal." From 1834 till 
1851 he was the English correspondent of the 
" New York Evening Star," besides contributing 
extensively to vai'ious pci'iodicals in the United 
States. Ill 1845 lie became editor and part propri- 
etor of a railway journal in London, and in 1847 
was an active niember of Lord Brougham's Law 
amendment society. In 1852 Dr. Mackenzie came 
to the United States, and at first resided in New 
York city, where he engaged in various literary 
undertakings. In 1857 he became book and for- 
eign editor of the " Philadelphia Press," with which 
publication he was afterward identified. He re- 
ceived tiie degree of LL. D. from Glasgow univer- 
sity in 1S34, and in 1844 that of D. C. L. from Ox- 
ford, lie i)ublished in England " Lays of Pales- 
tine" (London, 1828); "Titian, a Venetian Art- 
Novel " (8 vols., 1848) ; " Life of Guizot," prefixed 
to a translation of " Democracy and its Mission " 
(184G); " Partnersiiip ^'?i Commandite," a work on 
coniniorcial law (1847) : and " Mornings at Mat- 
lock," a collection of stories (8 vols., 18o0). After 
his arri\al in this counli'v lie issuec"" " Sheil's 
Sketches of tiie Irish Bar ""(2 vols.. New York) ; 
and the " Xo('t(»s Ambrosiana^ " (5 vols., 1854); 
" De C^uincy"s ' Klosteriieim,'" and "Life of Cur- 
rati " (1S55"): "Lady 3Iorgaii's 'O'Brien's and 
O'Flahertys'" (2 vols.. 1857); "Dr. Maginn's Mis- 
cellaneous Works" (5 vols., 1855-7);'^ "Bits of 
lilarney," a collection of stories (1855) ; " Tressilian 
and his Friends" (Philadelphia), and "Memoirs 
of Kohert lloudin "" (1S5!)) : - Life of Charles Dick- 
ens" (1S7()) ; and " Sir Walter Scott: the Story of 
his Lite" (P>oston, 1871). 

MACKENZIE, Uilliam, book-collector, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 1 Aug., 1758; d. there, 23 Julv, 
1828. He received his education at the academy 
and college of Phila(h'li)hia, and then entered the 
count in--rooni of .b)hn Koss, in that city. Being 
in easy circumstances and fond of reading and re- 
tirement, altiiough for some time engaged inac- 
tive business pursuits, he withdrew from them at 
an early period in his career, and for forty vears 
devoted himself to the collection of rare" books, 
which lie be., neat lied to the Philadelphia and 
Logaiuan libraries. His collection at the time of 
lus death was considered the most valuable in 
Philadelphia in private hands. Among the works 
given to the last-named institution were copies of 
\ oragine's -(Jolden Legend," printed bv Caxton 
m 1488: the first edition of the Bible I'u'inted in 
Uome in 1471. l)eiiig the second published in Latin ; 
the first Bible printed in Venice in 1485; the first 
printed at Nuremljerg, and a copy of the first 

I edition of the New Testament printed in French- 
All of the foregoing are very valuable, the " Golden 
Legend " being to-day (1888) worth $10,000, accord- 
ing to the testimony of an expert. " Mr. Macken- 
zie." says his intimate friend. Rev. Dr. James Ab- 
ercrombie, " I believe never had an enemy ; at least, 
from the purity of his principles and the correct- 
ness of his conduct, he never deserved one." He 
left considerable amounts to various charities. 

MACKENZIE, William Lyon, Canadian jour- 
nalist, b. in Dundee, Forfarshire, Scotland, 12 
March, 1795 ; d. in Toronto, 28 Aug., 1861. He 
was educated imperfectly, owing to the death of 
his father, Daniel, when the son was an infant, 
and was obliged to work at an early age for his 
own support. When a mere lad, he entered a 
shop in Dundee, went thence into the counting- 
house of a wool-merchant, and when seventeen 
years of age engaged in business himself by open- 
ing a small general store and circulating library at 
Alyth. He was unsuccessful in business, and going 
to England in 1817 became managing clerk to a 
canal company in Wiltshire, and subsequently was 
for a short period in London. After visiting 
France, in the spring of 1820, Mr. Mackenzie emi- 
grated to Canada, where he was made superin- 
tendent of the works of the Lachine canal, and 
afterward opened a drug and book store at Little 
York (now Toronto), in partnership with John 
Lesslie. This partnership was dissolved in 1823, 
and Mackenzie removed to Queen stown, where he 
opened a store, but abandoned it soon afterward 
to enter politics. In May, 1824, he issued the first 
number of the "Colonial Advocate," which he con- 
tinued to publish until 1833. In June, 1826, the 
office of the " Advocate," which had been removed 
to Toronto, was forcibly entered, its contents de- 
stroyed, and most of the type thrown into Toronto 
bay. This act, which was doubtless prompted by 
persons that had been attacked by Mr. Mackenzie 
in his paper, made him more popular than before, 
and the large damages he received as a compensa- 
tion for the outrage enabled him to continue more 
successfully than ever his appeals for reform in 
the government, and his denunciations of the offi- 
cial classes. In 1827 he was an unsuccessful can- 
didate for the provincial parliament from York, 
and was elected in 1828 ; but, for alleged libel on 
the assembly, was expelled five times, only to be 
as often re-elected, until the government finally 
refused to issue another writ of election. In April. 
1832, he went to London to present to the home 
government a petition of grievances from the Re- 
formers of Canada, and while there secured from 
the Whig ministry the dismissal from office of the 
attorney-general, and the solicitor-general of Up- 
per Canada, and a veto of the Upper Canada bank 
bill. In March, 1834, the name of York was 
changed to Toronto, and Mr. Mackenzie was 
chosen its first mayor, thus being the first mayor 
in Upper Canada. In July, 1836, he issued "the 
first number of " The Constitution," in which he 
attacked Sir Francis Bond Head, the lieutenant- 
governor of LTpper Canada, for his arbitrary acts 
and interference with the freedom of election. In 
August, 1837. a manifesto appeared in " The Con- 
stitution," which was virtually a declaration of 
independence, and in December of that year he 
crowned his defiance of the government by instigat- 
ing rebellion. Pie and Van Egmond, a retired sol- 
dier of the first Napoleon, who had been appointed 
general of the insurgents, appeared on Yonge street, 
near Toronto, at the head of an armed force, and 
demanded of the lieutenant-governor a settlement 
of all provincial difficulties by a convention, which 




demand was not acceded to. He now determined 
to march on the city, secure a quantity of arms 
that were stored there, arrest the governor and the 
members of his cabinet, and declare Canada a re- 
public ; but the gbvernment was soon in the field 
with a superior fbrce. An encounter took place 
at Montgomery's hill, about four miles from the 
city, 7 Dec, ISir?, when, after some skirmishing, in 
which several liVes were lost, the insurgents fled, 
;and took up a position on Navy island, in Niagara 
river. Here they were re-enforced by 500 Ameri- 
<5an sympathizers, and Mackenzie established a 
provisional government, offering by proclamation, 
in the name of the new government, 300 acres of 
land and $100 to all volunteers to the army on 
Navy island, and a reward of £500 for the appre- 
hension of Sir Francis Head, the governor-general. 
Navy island was now cannonaded by a force of 
royalists, and this and the opposition of Gen. Win- 
field Scott, of the U. S. army, forced the insurgents 
to break up their camp. Mackenzie was taken 
prisoner, and sentenced to twelve months' confine- 
ment in Rochester jail. On being set at liberty, he 
found employment on the press of the United 
States, and was for five or six years a contributor 
to the " New York Tribune." During that period 
he published some political pamphlets, one of 
vrhich, " Sketches of William L. Marcy, Jacob Bar- 
ker, and Others " (1845), was compiled from papers 
that he found in the custom-house, where he held 
A clerkship for a short time. On the proclamation 
•of amnesty in 1849, he returned to Canada, and 
in 1850, as an opponent of George Brown, was 
iigain elected to parliament, where he sat till 1858. 
From his retirement almost up to the time of his 
■death he published in Toronto " Mackenzie's Mes- 
sage," a weekly journal. Toward the close of his 
life his friends raised a sum to purchase for him 
An annuity and a homestead near the city, but, not- 
withstanding their liberality, he died in compara- 
tive poverty. All the reforms for which he con- 
tended so persistently for years, and for which he 
finally headed an armed insurrection, have been 
since granted. He was the author of " Sketches of 
Canada and the United States " (London, 1833). 
See " Life of William Lyon Mackenzie," by Charles 
Lindsey (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1862). 

McKEON, John, lawyer, b. in Albany, N. Y., in 
1808 ; d. in New York city, 22 Nov., 1883. Pie 
was graduated at Columbia in 1825, studied law, 
was admitted to the bar, and began to practise in 
New York city. He was a member of the lower 
house of the legislature froiji 1832 till 1834, and 
subsequently was elected to congress as a Demo- 
•crat, serving from 7 Dec, 1835, till 3 March, 1837, 
and from 31 May, 1841, till 3 March, 1843. He 
"was appointed district attorney of the county of 
New York early in 1846, and the following year, 
the office having become elective, he was chosen 
for the full term of three years. He was resolute 
in the discharge of his duties, notably»in securing 
the conviction of the notorious malpractitioner, 
Madame Restell, and in his determined hostility 
to criminals of all classes. After serving during 
the unexpired term of Charles O'Conor as U. S. 
district attorney for the southern district of New 
York, he resumed the practice of law in 1858. 
While holding the latter office he was engaged in 
prosecuting a number of important cases. Among 
them were the attempt to enlist men to serve in 
the British army during the Crimean war ; the 
seizure of the filibustering ship " Northern Light," 
and the trial of Officer Westervelt, who had been 
captured on board the " Nightingale " by govern- 
ment cruisers, that vessel having in her hold 960 

slaves. Although well advanced in years, he was 
nominated for district attorney in the autumn of 
1881, and was elected to the same office that he 
had held more than thirty years before. 

MACKEY, John, educator, b. in Charleston, 
S. C, in 1765; d. there, 14 Dec, 1831. He was 
educated as a physician and practised many years 
in his native city. In 1812 he established there a 
morning pay)er called " The Investigator," which 
he edited until 1817, when it changed hands and 
became " The Southern Patriot and Advertiser." 
During the remainder of his life he devoted him- 
self to teaching and published " The American 
Teacher's Assistant and Self-Instructor's Guide, 
containing all the Rules of Arithmetic properly 
Explained, etc." (Charleston, 1826). This was the 
most comprehensive work on arithmetic that had 
then been published in this country. — His son, 
Albert Gallatin, writer on Freemasonry, b. in 
Charleston, S. C, 12 March, 1807; d. in Fortress 
Monroe, Va., 20 June, 1881, obtained by teaching 
the means of studying medicine, and was gradu- 
ated at the medical department of the College of 
South Carolina in 1832. He settled in Charleston, 
and was in 1838 elected demonstrator of anatomy 
in that institution, but in 1844 he abandoned the 
practice of his profession, and divided his time 
between miscellaneous writing and the study of 
Freemasonry. After being connected with several 
Charleston journals, he established in 1849 " The 
Southern and Western Masonic Miscellany," a week- 
ly magazine, which he maintained for the follow- 
ing three years almost entirely with his own con- 
tributions. In 1858-60 he conducted a " Quarter- 
ly," which he devoted to the same interests. He 
acquired the Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and continental 
languages almost unaided, and lectured frequently 
on the intellectual and moral development of the 
middle ages. Subsequently he turned his atten- 
tion exclusively to the investigation of abstruse 
symbolism, and to cabalistic and Talmudic re- 
searches. Besides contributing frequently to peri- 
odicals, he published " A Lexicon of Freemasonry " 
(New York, 1845 ; 3d ed., enlarged and improved, 
Philadelphia, 1855); "The Mystic Tie" (Charles- 
ton, 1849); "Book of the Chapter" (New York, 
1858) ; " A History of Freemasonry in South Caro- 
lina" (1861); "A Manual of the 'Lodge" (1862): 
" Cryptic Masonry " and " Masonic Ritualist " 
(1867) ; " Symbolism of Freemasonry " and " A 
Text-Book of Masonic Jurisprudence " (1869) ; and 
" Masonic Parliamentary Law " (1875). His largest 
and most important contribution to masonic litera- 
ture, however, is the " Encyclopa?dia of Freema- 
sonry " (1874), the second edition of which, pub- 
lished after his death, contains an extended bio- 
graphical sketch of the author. These works are 
considered authoritative, and the majority of them 
have passed through many editions both in this 
country and in England. 

MACKIE, John Milton, author, b. in Ware- 
ham, Plymouth co., Mass., 19 Dec, 1813. He was 
graduated at Brown in 1832, and studied at the 
University of Berlin, Germany, in 1833-4. On his 
return to this country he was tutor from 1835 till 
1838 in the former institution. Besides contribut- 
ing to the " North American," " American Whig," 
and " Christian " reviews chiefly papers relating to 
German history and literature, Mr. Mackie has pub- 
lished "Life of Godfrey William von Leibnitz" 
(Boston. 1845) ; and " Life of Samuel Gorton " in 
Sparks's " American Biography " (1848) ; " Cosas de 
Espana, or Going to Madrid via Barcelona " (New 
York, 1848); "Life of Schamyl, the Circassian 
Chief" (1856); "Life of Tai-Ping-Wang, Chief of 



the Chinese Insurrection " (1857) ; and " From Cape 
Cod to Dixie and the Tropics " (1864). 

MACKIE, Josias, clergyman, b. m County 
Donegal, Ireland : d. in Virginia in November, l7lb. 
He was one of the earliest Presbyterian mmisters 
that came to this country. The year of his ar- 
rival here is unknown, but the earliest notice that 
refers to him bears the date 23 June, 1692. His 
first charge appears to have been on Elizabeth 
river, Va., where he probably became the successor 
of Francis Mackemie, the' first regular Presby- 
terian clergyman that came to the colonies. He 
was licensed to preach in 1692, and selected three 
different places for public worship, many miles 
apart, on Elizabeth river; these were in the East- 
ern brancli, in Tanner's creek precinct, and in the 
Western branch, to which was added, in 1696, the 
Soutiiern branch. Here, with the care of a farm 
and store, he found time to preach, but of his la- 
bors no record has been preserved. 

McKlM, James MiUer, reformer, b. in Car- 
lisle, Pa., U Nov., 1810; d. in West Orange, N. J., 13 
June, 1874. He studied at Dickinson and Prince- 
ton colleges, and in 18o5 was ordained pastor of 
a Presbyterian church at Womelsdorf, Pa. A few 
years before this the perusal of a copy of Garri- 
son's -'Thouglits on Colonization" had made him 
an Abolitionist. He was a member of the conven- 
tion that formed the American anti-slavery society, 
and in October, 1836, left the pulpit to accept a 
lecturiug agency under its auspices. He delivered 
addresses throughout Pennsylvania,although often 
sul)jccte(l to obloquy, and even danger from per- 
sonal violence. In 1840 he removed to Piiiladel- 
phia, and became the publishing agent of the 
Pennsylvania anti-slavery society. His office w;is 
subsecjuently changed to that of corresponding 
secretary, in which capacity he acted for a quar- 
ter of a' century as general manager of the atfairs 
of the society, taking an active part in national 
as well as local anti-slavery work, ]\Ir. ]McKim's 
labors frequently brought him in contact with the 
operations of the "underground railroad," and he 
was often conniH'ted witii tlie slave cases that came 
before the courts, especially after the passage of 
the fugitive-shive law of 1850. In the winter of 
1862, iuHuediately after the capture of Port Royal, 
he was instruinental in calling a public meeting of 
tlie citizens of Phihulelpina to consider and pro- 
vide for tiie wants of the 10,000 slaves that had been 
suddenly libei'ated. One of the results of this 
meeting was the organization of the Philadelphia 
Port Jioyal I'elief eoininittee. He afterward be- 
came an eai-nest advocate of the enlistment of 
coloi-eil troojts, and as a member of the Union 
h'ague aided in the estal)li^;hment of Camp William 
I'enn.and the recruiting of eleven regiments. In 
Xoveniher. \Xiu], the Port Royal relief committee 
was eidarged into the Pennsylvania freedman's re- 
lief association, and ^Nlr. .Melvim was made its cor- 
responding secretary. In this capacity he travelled 
extensively, and hibored diligently to establish 
schools at the south. He was connected from 
18()5 till lS(il» with the American freedman's union 
commission, and used every effort to promote 
general and inq)artial educat"ion at the south. In 
July, 1869, the commission having accomplished 
all that seemed jjossible at the decided 
unanimously, on Mv. INIcKim's motion, to disband. 
His health liaving meantime become greatly im- 
paired, lie soon afterwai'd retired from public life. 
In isi;,-) he assisted in founding the New York " Na- 
tion."— His son. Charles FoUeii. architect, b. in 
Chester county. Pa., 24 Aug, 1847. studied at the 
scientific school of Harvard in 1866-7, and then 


spent three years in the architectural course at tho 
School of fine arts in Paris. On his return to the 
United States he settled in New York, and, in as- 
sociation with William K. Mead and Stanford 
White, formed the firm whose work has taken part 
in the recent development of architecture in this 
country. The variety of work executed by this 
firm has been very great, but their main tendency 
has been to produce buildings whose original influ- 
ence has been derived from the purest styles of 
classic architecture. Among their best produc- 
tions in country work are the cottages erected in 
Newport, Lenox, and other summer resorts, nota- 
bly the house at Mamaroneck, N. Y., that is in 
the style of a French farm-house, having points of 
resemblance to the half-timbered work oi England. 
Their houses at Newport are typical of a style that 
is peculiar to themselves. Among their city resi- 
dences the Tiffany house on Madison avenue, in New 
York city, which is Rhenish in style, with details. 

leaning toward the Italian, is pronounced by some 
critics to be the finest piece of architecture in the 
New World. The Villard block of houses on Madi- 
son avenue, behind St. Patrick's cathedral, designed 
in the spirit of classic Italian architecture of the 
16th century, is the most beautiful specimen of that 
style in New York city. Notable among their coun- 
try buildings of a public character are the casinos 
at Newport and Narragansett Pier, and the Music 
hall in Short PI ills, N. J. They have also built St. 
Paul's church in Stockbridge, Mass., and St. Peter's 
in ]Morristown, N. J., which are characterized by 
simple dignity and beauty. Their large business 
edifices include that of the American safe deposit 
company on the corner of 42d street and Fifth 
avenue, in the style of the Italian renaissance, and 
the Goelet building on the corner of 20th street 
and Broadway, New York city, which is likewise 
Italian in character; and also the two large office 
buildings of the New York life insurance company 
in Omaha and Kansas City. The Algonquin club- 
liouse of Boston and the Freundschaft club-house 
of New York are at present in course of construc- 
tion under their superintendence, and the accepted 
designs for the structure to be known as the Madi- 
son Square garden, in New York city, were fur- 
nished by them, as well as those for the Boston 
public library. The latter, shown in the above il- 
lustration, is now (1888) in course of construction. 
McKIM, Robert, philanthropist, b. in County 
Tyrone. Ireland, 24 May, 1816; d. in Madison, 
Ind., 9 May, 1887. After completing his appren- 
ticeship as a stone-mason he emigrated to the 
United States, worked for a time at^ his trade in 
Philadelphia, and removed to Madison, Ind., in 
1837. There he continued to ply his vocation un- 
til 1855, when he established himself in the coal 
business. Fortunate investments in real estate en- 
abled him to become interested in manufacturing 




enterprises, and he soon acquired wealth. Mr. 
McKim had always been a lover of astronomical 
studies, and when he grew rich he purchased for 
his own use one of the best telescopes in the 
United States, an(| mounted it in an observatory 
that he built acljoining his residence. He also 
presented to the observatory of De Pauw univer- 
sity a complete astronomical outfit at a cost of over 
$10,000, and pul^lic charities and institutions of 
learning also benefited by his bequests. 

McKINLEY, John, jurist, b. in Culpeper 
county, Va., 1 May, 1780; d. in Louisville, Ky., 19 
July, 1852. He studied law, was admitted to the 
bar, and began to practise at Louisville, Ky., but 
subsequently removed to Huntsville, Ala., where 
he was chosen a member of the state house of rep- 
resentatives. He was afterward elected U. S. sena- 
tor from Alabama as a Jackson Democrat in place 
of Henry Chambers, deceased, and served from 21 
Dec, 1826, till 3 March, 1831. Having removed 
to Florence during his senatorial term, he was, on 
its conclusion, elected from the latter place a mem- 
ber of the 23d congress, serving from 2 Dec, 1833, 
till 3 March, 1835. On 22 April, 1837, he was ap- 
pointed by President Van Buren a justice of the 
United States supreme court, which office he held 
until the time of his death. 

McKINLY, John, governor of Delaware, b. in 
Ireland, 24 Feb., 1724; d. in Wilmington, Del., 31 
Aug., 1796. He studied medicine, emigrated to 
this country, and began practice in Wilmington 
early in life, soon attaining eminence in his pro- 
fession. He filled several important offices, and in 
1777 was elected the first governor of Delaware. 
On 12 Sept., the night after the battle of the 
Brandywine, a party of British soldiers were sent 
to Wilmington to seize Gov. McKinly, and secure 
such plunder as might fall in their way. They 
took the governor from his bed, and, taking pos- 
session of a shallop that was lying in the stream 
laden with plunder, together with the public rec- 
ords of the county, plate, and jewels, returned to 
camp. The invaders were marching on Philadel- 
phia, and all lower Pennsylvania and Delaware were 
in a state of panic. In August, 1778, McKinly was 
allowed to return on parole to Wilmington, where 
he remained until the end of the war. 

McKINNEY, Mordecai, lawyer, b. near Car- 
lisle, Pa., about 1796; d. in Harrisburg, Pa., 17 
Dec, 1867. He was graduated at Dickinson col- 
lege in 1814, studied law, was admitted to the bar 
in 1817, and practised in Harrisburg. In 1821 he 
was appointed deputy attorney-general for Miami 
county, and in 1827 he became associate judge of 
Dauphin county. He afterward gave his attention 
to the compilation of works on law, and published 
" The Pennsylvania Justice of the Peace " (2 vols., 
Harrisburg, 1839) ; " The United States Constitu- 
tional Manual" (1845); "Our Government: A 
Manual for Popular Use" (Philadelphia, 1856); 
"The American Magistrate and Civil Officer" 
(1850); "Pennsylvania Tax Laws" (Harrisburg, 
1850) ; and " A Digest of the Laws of Pennsylvania 
relative to Banks and Bankers " (1854). 

McKINNON, Colin F., Canadian R. C. bishop, 
b. in Canada in 1810 ; d. in Antigonish, Nova Sco- 
tia, 26 Sept., 1879. His father, John, emigrated 
to Nova Scotia from Inverness-shire, Scotland. 
The son studied theology in the College of the 
propaganda, Rome, and after his ordination was 
engaged in missionary work in Nova Scotia. He 
was nominated bishop of Arichat, 11 Nov., 1851, 
and consecrated early in 1852. On account of age 
and ill health he resigned his see on 17 July, 1877, 
and was made archbishop of Amida in partibus \ 

injidelium.— His elder brother. John, b. in Dor- 
chester, Antigonish, N. S., 29 Nov., 1808, was agri- 
cultural commissioner, and a member of the execu- 
tive council of Nova Scotia, in 1857-60 and 1863-'7, 
and again from 11 May, 1875. till 15 Oct., 1878. 

McKlNSTRY, James Paterson, naval officer, 
b. in Spencertown, Columbia co., N. Y., 9 Feb., 
1807; d. m Detroit, Mich., 11 Feb., 1873. He en- 
tered the navy as midshipman, 1 Feb., 1826, and 
became lieutenant, 9 Feb., 1837, and commanded 
the mail-steamer "Georgia" in 1854-'5. On 14 
Sept., 1855, he was appointed commander, was 
lighthouse-inspector in 1858-9, and assigned to 
the "Dakota," of the blockading squadron, in 

1861. He was commissioned captain, 16 July, 

1862, had charge of the steam sloop " Mononga- 
hela," of the Western Gulf blockading squadron, 
and was present at Vicksburg and Port Hudson, 
where he was severely injured, being thrown with 
violence on the deck when the bridge on which 
he was standing was shot away. During the re- 
mainder of the civil war he was forced to remain 
inactive. On 25 July, 1866, he was appointed com- 
modore, and after serving as commandant of the 
naval station in Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., he was re- 
tired on 9 Feb., 1869. 

McKlNSTRY, Justus, soldier, b. in New Y^ork 
about 1821. He was graduated at the U. S. mili- 
tary academy in 1838 and assigned to the 2d in- 
fantry. He became 1st lieutenant, 18 April, 1841, 
and assistant quartermaster with the rank of cap- 
tain on 3 March, 1847, and led a company of vol- 
unteers at Contreras and Churubusco, where he 
was brevetted major for gallantry on 20 Aug., 
1847. He participated in the battle of Chapulte- 
pec, and on 12 Jan., 1848, became captain, which 
post he vacated and served on quartermaster duty 
with the commissioners that were running the 
boundary-lines between the United States and 
Mexico in 1849-50, and in California in 1850-'5. 
He became quartermaster with the rank of major 
on 3 Aug., 1861, and was stationed at St. Louis and 
attached to the staff of Gen. John C. Fremont. 
He combined the duties of provost-marshal with 
those of quartermaster of the Department of the 
West, on 2 Sept., 1861, was appointed brigadier- 
general of volunteers, and commanded a division 
on Gen. Fremont's march to Springfield. He was 
accused of dishonesty in his transactions as quar- 
termaster, and was arrested on 11 Nov., 1861, by 
Gen. Hunter, the successor of Gen. Fremont, and 
ordered to St. Louis, Mo., where he was closely 
confined in the arsenal. The rigor of his impris- 
onment was mitigated on 28 Feb., 1862, and in 
May he was released on parole, but required to re- 
main in St. Louis. In October, 1862, he was tried 
by court-martial, and on 28 Jan., 1863, dismissed 
from the army for neglect and violation of duty. 
In 1864-'7 he was a stock-broker in New Y^ork, and 
in the latter year became a land-agent in Rolla, Mo. 

MACKINTOSH, Charles Herbert, Canadian 
journalist, b. in London, Ont., in 1843. He was 
educated at Gait grammar-school and at Caradock 
academy and studied law, but left it for j(Hirnal- 
ism. In 1860, on the visit of the Prince of Wales 
to Canada, he wrote the address of welcome. He 
was afterward connected with newspapers in Lon- 
don and Hamilton, Ont., and in 1865 began pub- 
lishing the Strathroy " Dispatch," which he sold 
in 1874. Mr. Mackintosh founded the Parkhill 
"Gazette" in 1871, was managing editor of the 
Chicago " Journal of Commerce " in 1873, and in 
1874 became editor of the Ottawa " Daily Citizen." 
He was mayor of Ottawa in 1879-81, chairman of 
the Dominion exhibition in 1879, and president of 




the Agricultural association in 1881. He was an 
unsuccessful candidate for the legislature of On- 
tario in 1871, but was elected to the Dominion 
parliament for the city of Ottawa in 1882. He is 
president of the Ottawa Colonization railway, ot 
the Ottawa and Gatineau Valley railway, and of 
the "Citizen" printing and publishing company. 
He wrote "The Chicago Fire" (1871); "The Fi- 
nancial Panic in the United States and its Causes " 
(1873) : a prize poem for the O'Connell centennial, 
for which he was awarded a gold and silver medal 
(1875) ; and speeches in pamphlet-form, in which 
he advocates a protective tariff (1876-'8) ; and he 
edited the " Canadian Parliamentary Companion " 
(Ottawa, 1877-82). 

Mcknight, Alexander, Canadian educator, 
b. in Dalinellington, Ayrshire, Scotland, about 
1823. After taking a four years' course in the 
Universitv of Glasgow, he entered New college, 
Edinburgh, and from 1845 till 1849 studied theol- 
ogv. He was licensed to preach by the Free church 
presbytery in 1850, and in January, 1855, was ap- 
pointed, by tlie colonial committee of the church, 
teacher of* Hebrew at Halifax free college. In 1857 
^Ir. Mc'Kniglit became pastor of St. James's church, 
Dartmouth. Nova Scotia, and until 1868 acted as 
minister and professor. In the same year he be- 
came professor of exegetics in addition to Hebrew, 
in 1M71 the cliair of systematic theology was given 
to him. and in 1877 the degree of D. D. was con- 
ferred upon him. In 1878, after the union of all 
the Presbyterian churches in Canada, Dr. ^NIc- 
Kniglit was appointed principal of the Presby- 
terian college of the maritime provinces at Hali- 
fax, lie was moderator of the general assembly 
of the I'resbytoi'ian church in 1885-0. 

Mc KNIGHT, Charles, surgeon, b. in Cran- 
biay, X. .]., 10 Oct., 1750; d. in New York, 10 
Nov.. 17!)1. Ills grandfather, a Presbyterian min- 
ister, emigrated to this country in 1740 and settled 
in New -lersey. His father was also a minister, 
and by oi)posing the crown made enemies of the 
Tories, who burned his church in Middletown 
i'oiiit in 1777 and threw him in prison, where he 
(lied in 1778. The son, after graduation at Prince- 
ton in 1771, studied medicine with Dr. William 
Slii|)[)i'n. cntei-ed the Revolutionary army, and be- 
came sciiioi- surgeon of the Flying hospital of the 
middle dei)artment on 11 April, 1777. At one 
time he acted as the chief physician and surgeon- 
giMieral in command of the huts or hospital at the 
cantonments on Hudson river near New Windsor. 
After the close of the war he settled in New York 
city, married the daughter of Gen. John Morin 
Scott, and was eminent as a surgeon. From 1785 
till his death he was professor of anatomy at (Co- 
lumbia. I)i-. McKniglit published various papers 
on medical and surgical subjects. 

McKNKaiT, (ieorge, poet, b. in Sterling, Ca- 
yuga CO.. X. Y., 14 March, 1840. He was graduated 
at (HMiesee college, Lima, N. Y., in 1860, received 
the degree of :\l. I), from Buffalo medical college 
m 1X04. and since that date has practised medicine 
ill Sterhng. He is the author of " Firm Ground " 
(Sterling, 1S77). a collection of religious sonnets, 
revised and reissued with the title "Life and 
Faith" (Xew York, 1878). 

3leKNIGHT, Harvey Washington, clergv- 
mau, 1). ni Midvnightstown, Adams co., Pa., '3 
Api-d, 1H43. After serving in the civil war as 
lieutenant of Pennsylvania volunteers and then as 
adjutant of a militia regiment, he was graduated 
at Pennsylvania college, Gettysburg, in' 1865, and 
at the theological seminary there in 1867, and in 
the latter year was ordained to the ministry of 

the Lutheran church, in which he has since con- 
tinued. After holdi